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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, \vith No. 239, July 27, 1872. 


tm of Intercommunication 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 239, July 27, 1872. 







4th s. IX. JAN. G, 7-2.] 




ES : - The Queen's Letter, 1 - Napoleon on Board the 
Northumberland, Ib. - A Sussex W as >aihns Son* 5- 
The Birth-place of Em.ius, Ib - Three Letters written 
bv Charles I. when Prince of Wales, on the Subject of his 
Marria-i G - How to describe a Book, 8 - The Pocket- 
dial ^Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, 1593, 9 -Other 
" Bine Bovs," 10 - Superstition in the German Array, Ib. 

The "Scales of Justice" no longer a Fable Madame 
de Genlis, &c., 11. 

QUERIES: Was Anna Boleyn born in the Castle of Car- 
rick-on-Siiir ? 13 Bargemen's Sons Charles I. s Waist- 
coat Chowbent "Light Christmas" Cromwelliau 
Era Rev. Henry Dodwell, Prebendary of Sarum and 
Archdeacon of Berks Battle of Eycsham Unpublished 
Letters of Edward Gibbon "Join Issue" Manors in 
Beds and Salop Molesworth Medal Correspondance 
de Napol6on I. Mrs. Stephens's Medicines H. Peere- 
boom _ Taaffe Tipterers Abbot of Glastonbury's 
Watch Unjust Weights " With Helmet ou his Brow" 

Browne Willis, 13. 

SEPLIES: " Goody Two Shoes " and the Nursery Litera- 
ture of the last Century, 15- William Baliol, 17 -Weepers 

Whiteacre Crest Doy;s buried at the Feet of Bishops 
" Bif'rons, custos," &c. " Kemp " Printed Matter copied 

Kidl.v-wink Change of Baptismal Name Briot Beer 
Jug Inscriptions Rudstone Monolith Etymolozy of 
" Karrowgate" Phenomenon of the Sun Antique Hearts 
in Mediaeval Seals Curious Baptismal Names " Spf-el " 
Curious Addresses on Letters" Les Snpercheries Litte- 
raires D6voilees " : Harry Lorrequer " A Carrion Crow" 

American State Nicknames Provincial Glossary 
"Cast for Death." Hearth's "Modern Midnight Con- 
versation " Printer's Errors. &c., 17. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


As Dr. Johnson wisely said, " There are higher laws 
than those of criticism ; " so England holds almost in 
higher estimation than her time-honoured constitution 
the sacred relations of Home Life. It was from thi 
feeling that the whole nation sorrowed, as with one great 
personal sorrow, with those who ministered around the 
sick bed at Sandringham ; and the heart of England 
beating in concord with those of the weeping Mothei 
and afflicted Wife, joined in their prayers for the Prince's 
recovery. England's remembrance of what she owed t< 
the Queen for the manner in which, no less by precep 
than example, she had maintained the purity of Englisl 
Domestic Life, lent fervour to the Nation's prayers ; anc 
their mutual sorrow served to strengthen the mutua 
affection which has ever existed between the Queen anc 
Her People. 

How greatly Her Majesty has been moved by this dis- 
play of public sympathy cannot be told so effectively a 
in Her own graceful and grateful Letter : 

"Windsor Castle, Dec. 26. 
" The Queen is very anxious to express her deep 
sense of the touching sympathy of the whole 
nation on the occasion of the alarming illness o 
her dear son, the Prince of Wales. The universa 
feeling shown by her people during those painful 
terrible days, and the sympathy evinced by them 

r ith herself and her beloved daughter, the Prin- 
ess of Wales, as well as the general joy at the 
mprovement in the Prince of Wales's state, have 
.iade aldeep and lasting impression on her heart 
diich can never be effaced. It was, indeed, 
othing new to her, for the Queen had met 
with the same sympathy when just ten years ago 
a similar illness removed from her side the xuain- 
tay of her life, the best, wisest, and kindest of 

"The Queen wishes to express at the same 
ime on the part of the Princess of Wales her 
feelings of heartfelt gratitude, for she has been 
as deeply touched as the Queen by the great and 
universal manifestation of loyalty and sympathy. 

" The Queen cannot conclude without express- 
ing her hope that her faithful subjects will con- 
tinue their prayers to God for the complete recovery 
of her dear son to health and strength." 

We are sure we need offer no apology to our readers 
for printing in these columns a document worthy alike 
the Illustrious Lady by whom it is written, and of the 
loyal and loving subjects to whom it is addressed. 


[We are indebted to the kindness of LORD LYTTELTOH 
for the opportunity of publishing the following interest- 
ing notes of his father, the late Lord Lyttelton, of which 
a very limited number of copies was printed for private 
circulation in 1836 under the title of Some Account of 
Napoleon Bonaparte's coming on Board H. J\f. S. tlie, 
Northumberland, August 7, 1815 ; with Notes of Two Con- 
versations held with him on that Day.~] 


"The rough notes from which the following .account 
was drawn up were taken on the evening of the 7th, 
under the correction of Lord Lowther, who witnessed 
almost all that is described, and leaving the ship at the 
same time with me, conversed with me on the subject, 
and compared his recollections with mine, till we reached 
our inn for the night, when we sat down, and committed, 
them to paper in the best manner we could. 


" Hagley, Oct. 1836." 

11 Napoleon Bonaparte came on board the North- 
umberland (74), off Torbay, at about one o'clock 
in the afternoon of the 7th of August, 1815. 

"I had the good fortune to be then in that 
vessel, as a friend of Admiral Sir George Cock- 
burn, whose flag she bore, and I was therefore at 
liberty to post myself where 1 would, in order to 
see what passed to the greatest advantage. I 
took my station on the ladder leading up to the 
poop, so as to look over the starboard bulwark, in 
which direction Bonaparte was approaching ac- 


[i' h S. IX. JAX. G, 72. 

companied by Lord Keith in the Tonnant's barge. 
He sat to the left of Lord Keith, and I had there- 
fore a clear view of his profile, which seemed to 
me to be very like the common portraits of him, 
with this difference only, that his cheek looked 
broader, I thought, than I had ever seen it repre- 
sented. I was too intent upon him to observe 
which of his officers might be with him in the 
boat 5 but Bertrand must have been there, since it 
was he \\4ho first climbed up the Northumber- 
land's side, and, standing with his hat oif ; - as 
upright as a sentinel, to the right of the gang-way, 
as he entered, announced his master. Bonaparte 
followed very speedily, and presented himself very 
well, taking off his hat instantly, and, with an 
open air and smiling countenance, said to Sir 
George Cockburn, who had advanced to receive 
him, ' Monsieur, je suis a vos ordres.' He did not 
halt an instant at the gangway, but coming for- 
ward on the quarter-deck, desired to be introduced 
to the captain of the ship (Ross), which ceremony 
took place immediately, the marines who were 
drawn up on the larboard side of the deck pre- 
senting arms as he was coming up. 

" Captain Ross not understanding a word of 
French, it was merely a mutual 'salute, and Bona- 
parte passed on towards the poop, under which 
stood Colonel Sir George Bingham (of the 53rd 
regiment, then going to St. Helena), Lord Low- 
ther, the Honourable Edmund Byng, and an 
officer of artillery, with whose name I am not 
acquainted. These persons were successively in- 
troduced to him by Sir George Cockburn. He 
asked Sir George Binrrham what regiment he 
belonged to, and where" he had served; to Lord 
Lowther and Mr. Bvng he put a question or two 
of no importance : for instance, what county they 
came from ? whether they were going on shore, 
and if so, whether to London ? and to the artil- 
lery officer he said ' Je sors inoi-meme de ce corps 
la,' or some such words. I was placed at the foot 
of the ladder farther on to the left, and being a 
little behind Bonaparte when he came up to the 
poop, was not perceived either by him or the 
admiral, and consequently was not introduced to 
him. I stood, however, so near as to see and 
hear distinctly much of what passed, and I saw 
Bonaparte perfectly in front as he advanced, and 
often afterwards in profile. During the whole 
time he maintained the same cheerful, or, perhaps 
I should rather say, gracious air, inclining him- 
self a little towards those to whom he was speak- 
ing, and smiling constantly. He had his hat off 
all the time, and I remarked that the top of his 
head was almost quite bald, and that his hair, of 
a reddish brown colour, was long, rough, and, if 
the expression may be permitted, dishevelled. As 
for the expression of his countenance, I thought 
it rather subtle than noble. His eyes had some- 
thing of a haggard look, were somewhat dimmed, 

I thought, and as though they might have been 
originally very piercing, but that time and anxiety 
had abated their fire. 

" This is all that occurred to me on this my 
first sight of Bonaparte, except that his com- 
plexion appeared to nie not only sallow, but 
sickly. After conversing for a very few minutes 
with the people to whom he was introduced upon 
the quarter-deck, finding himself near the cabin 
door, he went in, attended by Lord Keith and Sir 
George Cockburn, and passed on to the after- 
cabin, followed by some of his officers, and I lost 
sight of him for about an hour and a half. 
During this period I have no account of his be- 
haviour. Lord Keith and Sir George Cockburn 
remained with him for a few minutes, and I do 
not remember that I heard a syllable of what 
passed on that occasion, unless it were that Bona- 
parte desired that the lieutenants of the ship 
might be introduced to him, which was done 
some time afterwards, as I shall mention pre- 
sently. Bonaparte's train consisted of General 
Bertrand and his wife, Count and Countess Mon- 
tholon, Monsieur Lascases, and General Gour- 
gaud, who were to follow him to St. Helena, and 
all these officers, with the above-mentioned ladies, 
had arrived on board the Northumberland about 
the same time as their master. As soon as Bona- 
parte had disappeared, my attention was naturally 
turned towards them, and I observed them all 
pretty minutely. Bertrand, the only distinguished 
man of the four followers of the fallen emperor, 
renowned as he had been over all Europe for the 
constancy of his attachment to Napoleon, was the 
first object of my curiosity. My expectation was 
in a great measure disappointed. 

^ " To me neither his look nor his manner in- 
dicated anything great or extraordinary. In 
short, I think I should never have remarked him 
at all, if I had not known the singular history of 
the man. As to Montholou, Lascases, and Gour- 
gaud, they are not worth describing. I think r 
indeed, it would have been impossible to have 
filled the scene with more inanimate and uninter- 
esting personages. 

"Bertrand alone seemed sometimes agitated, 
and often looked haughty and angry ; but the rest 
iad no expression at all, and wanted even the 
owest tragic interest, that of simple grief. 

"They all sat round a table in the fore-cabin, 
writing ; and they were soon joined by L'Alle- 
mand * and by several other officers who came to- 
take leave of Bonaparte, and who were permitted 
to remain there as long as they chose, both before 
and after their last interview with their master. 
Of these there were but few deserving any parti- 
cular description. L'Allemand has a very dark, 

* " Savary had taken leave of Bonaparte in the Belle- 
rophon, so that I did not see him. 

4 th S. IX. JAN. 6, '72.] 


strong significant countenance ; and, I think, rather 
a noble one. But there were two Poles, one of a 
pretty advanced age, the other in the prime of 
his youth, whose air and demeanour were exceed- 
ingly striking. 

"The elder, a venerable old man, of almost 
gigantic stature, was altogether one of the most 
singular and picturesque figures I ever beheld. 
What with his martial air, the sadness but com- 
posed gravity of his aspect, and the peculiar effect 
of his Polish dress, reminding one, as it naturally 
did, of the afflicting history of his much-injured 
country, it was impossible to look without emo- 
tion on this noble veteran, thus following his 
adopted sovereign in the last extremities of his 
fortune, and enduring as it were a second exile for 
his sake. The appearance of the younger man, who 
either felt more or was less able to control the ex- 
pression of his feelings, was moving in the extreme. 
He had nothingreniarkable in his figure or features; 
but his grief and the agony he endured at being 
forced away from Bonaparte surpassed any sufter- 
ing I ever witnessed, and were irresistibly affect- 
ing. They both went up to Lord Keith, entreating 
to be allowed to go to St. Helena, the elder with 
an earnest, but with a manly and settled look ; 
the young man, openly in tears, urging his re- 
quest over and over again, long after the other 
had given up his as hopeless, and saying in the 
most piteous manner, 'Si je renonce a mon 

" He wanted to be allowed to pass as a servant, 
the number of officers permitted to accompany 
Bonaparte being complete. When he found that 
all his entreaties were in vain, he seemed to be 
plunged into a state of distraction, his eyes were 
almost overflowing with tears, he clenched his 
Polish cap convulsively in one hand, and kept 
perpetually touching his brow with the other, 
talking to himself, and running from one port- 
hole to another with such a look of wild despair, 
that I thought he would have flung himself over- 
board. His name was Pentowsky or something 
like it not Poniatowsky. 

" To my great delight, I heard soon afterwards 
that our government had given orders that this 
faithful and affectionate creature should be 
allowed to go to St. Helena with Sir Hudson 

u As for the ladies' Madame Bertrand and Ma- 
dame Montholon, never were there two people 
more completely different in look and manner. 
Madame Bertrand, who had behaved with great 
violence in the Bellerophon, seemed rather ex- 
hausted than pacified, and had a look of great 
irritation and impatience. She is a tall, thin 
woman, with an aquiline nose, very like Lord 
Dillon, to whom she is, I believe, rather nearly 
related. Madame Montholon, on the other hand, 
had all the quiet resignation that so well becomes 

her sex, and one could not help sympathizing 
with her sufferings so meekly borne. She is a 
pretty woman, of a sweet and intelligent coun- 

" With regard to the rest of the suite of Bona- 
parte who came to take leave of him on board 
the Northumberland, it consisted chiefly of very 
young men (officiers ffordonnance, I believe,) in 
gay uniforms, who did not even affect much 
sorrow, and I suppose had little reason for much 
personal attachment to their chief. The surgeon 
who refused to follow him I did not see ; he was 
not forthcoming when the others were getting 
into the boat to leave the ship, and it was sup- 
posed he had slipped away, and perhaps evaded 
an interview which must have been peculiarly 
disagreeable to him. 

" From obvious reasons of delicacy, we were 
none of us present at the parting scene, and I 
never heard a syllable relating to it. It was not 
till half an hour after it had closed, a space dur- 
ing which Bonaparte had sufficient time to collect 
his spirits if they had been agitated, that I was 
introduced into the cabin in which he was, and 
conversed with him for the first time. But the 
circumstances of this introduction ought to be 

" Every body knows that Bonaparte was re- 
ceived as an emperor by Captain Maitland, who 
gave up to him the after-cabin, where he was not 
to be intruded upon by any unbidden guest ; on 
board the Northumberland, matters were to be 
placed on a different footing, and although he was 
allowed a small cabin to himself, the great cabin 
which had been exclusively his in the Bellero- 
phon was now to be shared by the admiral and 
his friends. In this latter character, I had a right 
of admission there, and Sir George Cockburn deter- 
mined to assert the new rule by taking me, 
together with Sir George Bingham and Lord 
Lowther, into the cabin at the time he introduced 
his lieutenants, and leaving us there when that 
ceremony was over. This took place accordingly 
at the period above-mentioned. Lord Lowther, 
by the bye, was not in the way at the moment, 
and did not come in till a few minutes later. 

11 The introduction of the lieutenants was suffi- 
ciently ridiculous j there were eight of them, not 
one of whom could speak a word of French, so 
that on being drawn up in line on one side of the 
cabin, and having for about a minute gazed and 
smiled at Bonaparte, who smiled and gazed in his 
turn, they all bowed and defiled before him, or, 
in plain English, walked off. Then Cockburn 
said to Bingham and myself, ' Won't you sit 
down ? ' and left us there vis-a-vis to Bonaparte, 
who never having seen me before, and not knowing 
what to make of a man in a brown coat, who for 
aught he knew might be the admiral's servant, 
up a little and looking rather 

said, drawing 


. IX. JAN. G, 72. 

sternly at me, 'Qui etes-vous?' I answered,* 
k Monsieur le General, je m'appelle Lyttelton, je 
suis parent et ami de 1'Amiral.' Bonaparte, 'Etes- 
vous du bord ?' Lyttelton, 'Non, je ne suis pas 
marin.' B. ' Vous etes done ici par curiosite ? ' 
L. ' Om, Monsieur le General, je ne connois aucun 
objet plus digne d'exciter la curiosite que celui 
qui m'a amene ici.' B. 'De quel comte etes- 
vous?' L. 'Du comte de "Worcester.' B. ' On 
est-il ? est-il loin d'ici ? ' L. f Oui, Monsieur le 
General, au centre du royaume.' It was at this 
time, I think, that I said, ' Nous esperons de ne 
pas vous gener, Monsieur le General ' : of which 
remark he took no notice. After this, if I re- 
member right, there was a short pause, during 
which Bonaparte looked at us rather bitterly, and 
showed some signs of uneasiness at our presence. 
He then addressed himself to Sir George Biug- 
ham, and asked him some common-place ques- 
tions concerning the number of companies, &c. in 
his regiment, and how many years he had served 
in Spain, to which Bingham answered with diffi- 
culty in French. Bonaparte turned again to me, 
and asked me whether the wind was fair for sail- 
ing, and some other trifling questions about the 
anchorage in which we lay, to which I replied as 
I might. During this time Lord Lowther came 
in, and Bonaparte soon asked him the usual ques- 
tions : to what county he belonged, l Ou sont vos 
terres ? ' to which Lowther also made answers not 
fluently, so that the conversation presently re- 
turned to me. Bonaparte asked tne a great deal 
about our hunting, especially our fox hunting: 
whether we turned out all our hounds at once, or 
whether we had relays of hounds, &c. He then 
said, 'Vous parlez bien le Fran9ois.' L. { Je me 
suis un pen exerce a parler Francois, ayant beau- 
coup voyage.' B. l Avez-vous voyage en France ? ' 
L. 'Tres-peu, Monsieur le General; vous savez 
que pendant maintes annees il n'etoit pas permis 
a un Anglois de traverser la France, nous y etions 
de contrebande' with a little more not worth 
stating, since it led to nothing, for I think another 
pause occurred here, shortly before which, Ber- 
trand had come in, and having placed himself 
behind Bonaparte a little on one side, just as the 
lord in waiting stands behind the king, he looked 
ut us du haut en bas with a very significant and 
rather haughty air, of which the English seemed 
to be l What business have you here ? ' Bertrand 
then went out again, and Bonaparte turned round, 
and looked out through his spying-glass for a 
couple of minutes, during which Bingham was 
extremely uneasy, and pulling me by the sleeve, 

* " I cannot, of course, be quite sure of the very words 
I used in every instance in the following conversations, 
nor of those used by Bonaparte ; but I am quite sure 
that the substance is always faithfully given ; and the 
more prominent observations of Bonaparte are all, I be- 
lieve, quite accurately reported. 

said, in a whisper, ( For God's sake say something 
to him, if it be but about a dog or a cat.' I pro 
mised him I would, and when Bonaparte turned 
about again, I asked him if he recollected Lord 
Ebrington, a relation of Lord Grenville's ; to 
which he answered yes, and said he was a 
' brave hornme ; ' then I mentioned Vernon to 
him; he hesitated and said, ' Catholique ? ' I re- 
plied, 'No, sir, you are thinking of Silvertop,' on 
which he said yes, and laughed a good deal, but 
made no remark. Of Douglas, whom I named last 
to him, he said that he was a clever man. Fie 
then enquired whether this name of Douglas was 
not a great name; to which I assented, and told 
him briefly who the chief Douglasses were. 

"Next he asked whether there was not a Douglas 
much distinguished in Parliament, and whether 
it was the Douglas he had seen. We assured 
him (for Lord Lowther took a part here) that he 
was mistaken, and that neither Mr. Frederick 
Douglas nor any other person of that name had 
made a figure in the House of Commons.* About 
this time I think Lord Lowther informed Bona- 
parte that I was a member of Parliament, where- 
upon he desired to know whether I was ' du parti de 
1'opposition.' L. ( Ma conscience nr oblige souvent 
de donner mon suffrage contre les ministres du 
roi ; on est libre chez nous, et il faut agir selon ce 
que Ton croit etre de 1'interet de la patrie.' B. 
' Avez-vous fait des discours au Parlement ? ' 
L. 'Quelques mechantes harangues.' B. 'M. 
Whitbread n'est-il pas mort ? ' L,' Oui, Monsieur 
le General.' B. ' Quelle a ele la cause de sa mort ? ' 
L. ( II s'est donne la mort.' B. ( Comment ? ' 
L. l Je veux dire qu'il s'est tue, il etoit derange.' 
B. ' Derange d'esprit ? ' L. ' Old.' B. ' Etoit-ce 
ce que vous appeiez le spleen ? ' I told him no, 
that he exaggerated this English complaint, the 
spleen, as I knew foreigners in general did, and I 
added, t M. Whitbread etoit fou, a telles enseignes 
qu'il croyoit que tout le monde lui en vouloit, le 
regardoit d'un air de mepris, et conspiroit contre 
lui.' B. ' De quelle maniere s'est-il tue ? ' L. ' II 
s'est coupe la gorge d'un rasoir.' To this Bona- 
parte made no answer, nor gave any sign of feel- 
ing whatever about it, but very shortly after asked, 
'Qui sera son successeur au Parlement? Pon- 
sonby ? ' L. ' Non, Monsieur le General, Mr. 
Ponsonby est un homme distingue, et dont les 
talens sont du premier ordre, rnais je ne crois pas 
qu'il soit qualifie pour succeder a M. Whitbread. 
Vous savez, Monsieur le General, que ce n'est pas 
si facile de remplacer les grands hornme?.' Here 
Bonaparte seemed to me by his look slightly to 
acknowledge the compliment. 

* " Mr. Heber afterwards suggested to me that Bona- 
parte had been reading the English newspapers lately, 
and had perhaps observed that speech of Mr. Douglas in 
which he recommended the annihilation of the French 

4* S. IX. JAN. 6, 7-2.] 


After an instant's pause, I continued, and told 
him I thought Brougham the likeliest man to 
supply Whitbread's place; but that it must^be 
some time before he could win the same reputation 
or acquire in the same degree the public con- 
fidence. He then asked when, and in what 
manner, Mr. Brougham had distinguished himself, 
and I told him chiefly in the debates on the orders 
in council; on his enquiring whether then he 
were very eloquent, I attempted to describe the 
character of his eloquence. 

" Bonaparte finished by asking whether Whit- 
bread were not related to Lord Grey, and I told 
him he was, and in what degree. We talked of 
Lord Grey's eloquence, the style of which I had 
to describe, but not a word was said of his 

"In the course of this conversation (I cannot 
remember at what period) Bonaparte asked 
whether I knew Captain Usner, whom he called 
t tres-brave homme,' and Bertrand said something 
to the same effect. I told him I did, and had 
very lately seen him in the Isle of Wight. Ber- 
trand put in here that he had read in the English 
papers that Usher had been ' commissaire d'un 
bal ' at Hyde, at which they both laughed a little, 
and I said, ' Le capitain est ban pour entrer- en 
danse, cornme pour entrer en combat.' I con- 
cluded by telling him that Usher always spoke 
of him with great respect, and valued highly the 
snuff-box with his portrait on it which he had 
given him. This is, I think, nearly all that 
passed, except that he once asked us all three 
whether we were married, to which we answered 
severally according to our cases. But he made 
no observation whatever on the information he 
received, rather to our surprise, and I was obliged 
to make a bad joke or two on Lowther's bache- 
lorship, l that I suspected him to be somewhat of 
a rake/ or some such trash, in order to keep up 
the ball. When the conversation had lasted half 
an hour, I felt a scruple about staying any longer 
in the cabin, into which we had been brought for 
the purpose stated above of asserting our privi- 
lege to be there, an object which seemed then to 
be sufficiently attained. It would have been 
unmanly, I thought, to have remained any longer 
than was necessary for the purpose in question, 
since our stay was evidently distressing to the 
dethroned emperor. 

[To be continued.] 

The following song is perhaps worthy of a 
place in " N. & Q." at this season of the year, as 
it is one of a class fast falling into oblivion. I 
took it down some few years since at Hurstpier- 
point in Sussex, from the singing- of an old farmer 
who had learnt it in his youth. I have since 

heard fragments of it in different parts of Sussex, 
but the present version is the most complete I 
have yet obtained. I may add, that a copy of it 
is given in Old English Songs as now sung by the 
Peasantry of the Weald of Surrey and Sussex. 
This interesting work was privately printed in 
1843 by the Rev. Mr. Broadwood, and is now 
very rare. The tune is a jovial one in the major 
key, evidently of some antiquity. In Mr. Broad- 
wood's collection the words are given to the old 
minor carol tune, " God rest ye, merry gentle- 
men " : 

" A wassail, a wassail, a wassail, we begin, 
With sugar-plum and cinamon, and other spices in ; 
With a wassail, a wass;iil, a jolly wassail, 
And may joy come to you, and "to our wassail ! 

" Good master and good mistress, as you sit by the fire, 
Consider us poor wassailers, who travel through the 

With a wassail, fcc. 

" Good master and good mistress, if you will be but 

Come send us out your eldest son with a sixpence or a 

shilling 1 , 
With a wassail, c. 

j." Good master and good mistress, if thus it should you 

Come send us out some white loaf, likewise your 

Christmas cheese, 
With a wassail, &c. 

" Good master and good mistress, if you will so incline, 
Come send us out some roast beef, likewise your Christ- 
mas chine, 
With a wassail, &c. 

" If you've any maids within your house, as I suppose 

you've none, 
They wouldn't let us stand a- wassailing so long on this 

cold stone, 
With a wassail, &c. 

" For we've wassail'd all this day long, and nothing we 

could find, 

Except an owl in an ivy bush, and her we left behind, 
With a wassail, &c. 

" We'll cut a toast all round the loaf, and set it by the 

We'll wassail bees and apple trees, unto your heart's 

With a wassail, &c. 

" Our purses they are empty, our purses they are thin, 
They lack a little silver to line them well within, 

With a wassail, &c. 

" Hang out your silken kerchief upon your golden spear, 
We'll come no more a- wassailing until another year, 
With a wassail, &c." 


Rhudise, the birth-place of this poet (born 
B.C. 239), is interesting to the scholar who is 
travelling over the Japygian peninsula, and was 
the only object that brought me to Lecce, the 
capital of the province of Otranto. Lecce is the 
site of the ancient Lupias or Sybaris, known to 


[4"' S. IX. JAM. G. 72. 

classical scholars as the spot where Augustus 
resided for some days after his return to Italy, on 
hearino- O f the murder of Julius Cresar on the ides 
of March, B.C. 44 (Appian. Civ. Bel iii. 10), not 
venturing to advance to Brundusium till he ^ re- 
ceived fresh information from Rome.^ No ancient 
remains are now visible, nor indeed is there any- 
thing to interest a stranger except perhaps the 
church of Santa Croce and an antique column in 
the public square said to have been brought from 
Brundusium, having on its summit S. Oronzio, the 
patron saint of Lecce. Verrio, a native of Lecce, 
has adorned many of the churches with his paint- 
ings: he was employed, I believe, in England, 
where his staircases and ceilings are much ad- 
mired. Where are they found ? One of the gates 
of Lecce is called Porta di Rugge, and this was 
to me the most interesting point connected with 
Lecce, as it led to Rhudia3. Horace (Carm. iv. 8, 
20) speaks enthusiastically of the " Calabrse Pie- 
rides," and Ovid (Art. Am. iii. 409) speaks in the 
same high strain : 

" Ennius emeruit, Calabris in montibus ortus, 
Contiguus poni, Scipio magne, tibi." 

About a mile from the town there is a spot 
covered with olive-trees, called Rugye, and here it 
is believed that the celebrated poet was born. 
There are no ruins, but an inscription was found 
here speaking of "Municipes Rudini." (Orell. 
.3858.) At the same time it must be allowed that 
Ovid is at fault when he speaks of mountains, as 
there is nothing within thirty miles of Lecce that 
can be so called. This has led some to look for 
Rhudise farther north, and as the Tabula gives a 
village Rudce twelve miles W. of Rubi on the 
road to Canusium, it is not impossible that it may 
be the spot where Ennius was born. Though I 
did not get close to it, I was sufficiently near to 
say that it is situated in Puglia Pietrosa, and there- 
fore Ovid's description would be better suited to 
it than to the grove of olive-trees near Lecce. 

As I have had occasion to refer to Lecce, it 
reminds me that MR. BATES (4 th S. v. 435), in 
answering MR. J. DIXON'S query (4 th S. v. 360) 
respecting Lysiensis, states that he believes that 
Thomas Geminus was a native of Lecce, hence 
called Lysiensis. This I doubt very much, as I 
find in my notes some old Latin inscriptions copied 
at Lecce, where Lyciensis, and never Lysiensis, is 
constantly employed. This is the natural deriva- 
tive from Lycium, which was its Latin name in 
med'ceval times. Galateo speaks of the "populus 
Lupiensis," referring to the inhabitants of Lecce. 
In fact Thomas Geminus, if he had been a native 
of Lecce, would have designated himself Lupien- 
sis, as this was the Latin expression that would 
be used by an educated man when speaking of his 
native place. 

Then MR. BATES quotes from Adam Clarke to 
the effect that " the quadragesimal sermons of 

Robert Caracciolo, bishop of Lecce, was printed 
at Lecce." Is it possible that Lecce could have 
had a printing press at that early period (1490), 
only twenty years after its establishment at the 
Sorbonne in Paris ? No doubt two hundred years 
later books were printed there, as my edition of 
Galateo De Situ Japygia is dated " Lycii 1727," 
and printing is still carried on, as I have just 
procured an interesting little work dated '' Lecce, 
1870." It is 

" Studi sui Dialetti Greci della Terra d' Otranto del 
Prof. Dott. Giuseppe Morosi, preceduto da una raccolta 
di Canti, Leggende, Proverb! e Indovinelli nei dialetti 

Then I would ask whether Robert Caracciolo 
was ever bishop of Lecce ? I believe him to have 
been a native of Lecce, but bishop of Aquino, the 
birth-place of Juvenal. He was the author of 
the SpeccTiio della Fede, and on his tomb is found 
the following inscription by Hermolaus Barbaras, 
which is quoted by Battista Pacichelli in his 
work lying before me, entitled II Reyno di Xapoli 
in Prospettiva, Napoli, 1703 : 

"Maximus Ecclesiae ceu Paulus praeco Rnbor 

Quinquaginta annos Concionatus obit : 
Caracciolus fuerat Lyciensis, Press-id Aq> 
Hoc tectus tumulo, corpore, mente, polo.'' 

His contemporary, Pcntanus, says of him, 
" Nemo post Paulum Tarsensem melius Ruberto 
Lyciensi divina tractavit eloquia." 





On April 5, 1624, Charles, then Prince of Wales, 
gave a solemn promise to the two Houses of Par- 
liament, confirming it with an oath 

"That whensoever it should please God to bestow upon, 
him any lady that were Popish, she should have no further 
liberty'but for her own family, and no advantage to the 
recusants at home." (Commons' Journals, \. 756.) 

As everyone knows, this oath was broken, but, 
as far as I am aware, no one has inquired what 
evidence there is as to whether he was guilty of 
telling a deliberate falsehood to Parliament, or 
whether he merely changed his mind. 

There is, however, very strong evidence to show 
that when the words were uttered, Charles meant 
what he said. The despatches of the French 
ambassador, Tillieres, are full of references to the 
infatuation of the English Court in supposing that 
the marriage with Henrietta Maria could be had 
on these terms. When Carlisle went to join Ken- 
sington in negotiating the marriage in France, he 
carried with him instructions answering to the 
Prince's engagement, which had indeed been con- 
firmed by the king in his answer given on April 23 
to the petition of the two houses for the execution 
of the laws against the recusants : 

S. IX. JAS. 


Because," wrote James, " it can neither be honour 
nor contentment to either part that a treaty of marriage 
should be long travned on, you may resolve them att the 
lirst that the constitution of our estate cannot beare any 
generall change or alteracion in our ecclesiasticall or tem- 
porall lawes touching religion, for so much as concerns our 
owne subjects. And if it shalbe objected to you that wee 
consented to great liberties to our owne subjects in the 
articles of the treatie of marriage betwixt Spaine and us, 
you may show them that, in the first project of that treatie, 
the articles were neither demaunded by them nor consented 
to by us to any such extention, although the greatness of 
the portion might have challenged or seemed to have 
mooved us to the approoving of some extraordinary con- 
ditions. But that which indeed inlarged us in that point 
was the promises made, and the hope we conceived of the 
restitucion of the Palatinat. And we the rather inclined 
to lardger conditions for the tender respect we had not to 
make our sonne's journey thither vayn, nor to suffer him 
to returne with a scorne, if more than was convenient for 
us to do, and all that were possible might have prevented 
it. You may further represent to that king the modesty 
wee used in the time of his endeavours to reduce all those 
of the reformed religion to the condicion of his will, and 
then you may shewehim that the example of his pretend- 
ing for liberty to our Romaine Catholique subjects may 
and ought to "teach us to doe the like for the Protestants 
his subjects, and with greater reason and pretext, they 
having a kinde of legall interest in the fruition of their 
consciences and exercise of theire consciences, and exer- 
cise of theire religion .... there being noe such thing in 
the case of our Romaine Catholique subjects. Neither 
can it bee doubted, when our piety and lenity shall bee 
examined wherewith wee have treated our Romaine 
Catholique subjects ever since our coming to this Crowne, 
but that it is a just allegation that, for our owne safety, 
suerty of our state, and for the safety of the Romaine 
Catholiques our subjects, wee may not dissolve or generally 
suspend our lawes concerning 'them. For when they 
shall have the raynes losed to them, they may by abuse 
of favor and liberty constrayne us (contrary "to our 
naturall affeccions, to deale with them with more rigour 
than wee are inclined too ; soe as wee may not article for 
dispensation and liberty to our Romaine Catholique sub- 
jects, but hould the raynes of those lawes in our owne 
gratious hands. And you may assure that King and his 
ministers, that in contemplacion of that marriage, wee 
shalbe the rather inclined to use our subjects Roman 
Catholicks with all favour, soe long as they shall behave 
themselves moderately and keeping their consciences to 
themselves, shall use their conversacion without scan- 
dall." * 

As long as La Vieuville was in oilice in France, 
every elibrt was made to conciliate James. It is 
true that he was told that the French would not 
be content with a verbal engagement not to per- 
secute, but must have a written promise. But La 
Vieuville was one of those men who do not like to 
look difficulties in the face, and on June 14, Car- 
lisle wrote that 

" They do here let fall unto us that though they are 
bound to make these high demands for their own honour, 
the satisfaction of those of the Catholic party, and par- 
ticularly for the facilitating of the dispensation at Rome, 
yet it will be always in your Majesty's power to put the 
same in execution according to your own pleasure."! 

* Draft of Instructions, Harl. MS. 1584, fol. 10. 
t State Papers. France. 

By Charles, at least, the first sign that more 
would be asked than he had offered was received 
with dissatisfaction. On June 6, Tillieres wrote 
that an emissary whom he had employed to the 
Prince "1'a trouvS forte dur, et avec peu de 
dessein de satisfaire a la France aux points les 
plus essentiels."' Under these circumstances La 
Vieuville allowed Kensington to go over to Eng- 
land offering to agree to a middle course. James 
would not be asked to make a formal engage- 
ment; but let him write a letter embodying his 
intentions. To this James consented; but his 
concession was useless. La Vieuville, who, it is 
said, had taken the step of asking for the letter 
without informing his master, was turned out of 
office and succeeded by Richelieu. Richelieu was 
firm. A formal article he must have, or there 
would be no marriage at all. 

Here James was firm. A letter might convey 
his meaning in any form he pleased. An article 
was a direct breach of his son's promises. His 
arguments may fairly be taken from a later de- 
spatch of Con way's : 

" His Majestic," wrote the Secretary about the 25 th of 

September " cannot bee wonne to any more in lardge- 

nes of promise or other forme, it being apparant to all 
this kingdome what promise the Prince hath made and 
the King approved, not to enter into articles or conditions 
with an}- other Prince for the emunityes of his subjects 
Romaine Catholiques, that beeing indeede to part his 
soveraignity, and give a portion of it to another King, 
and teache his people relyance upon a forraigne Prince, 
by whose favour they enjoy freedome and liberty." * 

But James had a formidable difficulty to con- 
tend with. The new French ambassador, Effiat, 
a second Gondomar in knowledge of the world and 
in diplomatic skill, had completely won over 
Buckingham to his side, and Buckingham finally 
brought James over, reluctant as he was. 

Charles's conversion may be gradually traced in 
three letters, the originals of which are all amongst 
the French State Papers at the Record Office, 
the first of them Laving been printed incorrectly 
from a copy in the Clarendon State Papers (vol. ii. 
chap, ix.) They are all to the Earl of Carlisle. 
The first, written on August 13, was as follows : 

;< Carlile, The chanses which you (propheticlie) fore- 
towld of the Courte of France lies much astoniched us 
hi-re ; but, most of all, the French King's disavouing of 
his ministers f, w ch , for mine owen parte, hes made me a 
St. Thomas for bfliving of anie good ishew of your nego- 
tiation. If you fynd they persist in this new way that 
they have begunn in making an article for our Roman 
Jatholiq subjects, dallie no more with them, but breake 
rfe the treatie of marriage, keeping the frendshipe in as 
laire tearmes as ye can. And, belive it, ye will have as 
greate honnor with breaking upon these tearmes J, as 

* Harl. MS. 1588, fol. 2GG. 

f I. e. disavowing the offer made by La Vieuville 
;hrough Kensington. 

Charles originally wrote " with this fickle nation," 
but carefully deleted the words with his pen. In the copy 
"n the Clarendon State Paper?, they are left standing. 



S. IX. J.var. 6, 72. 

with making the alliance. Yet use what Industrie you 
can to reduce them to reason, for I respect the person of 
the ladie as being a worthie creature, iitt to bee my 
wvfe. But as ye love me, put it to a quike ishew on 
way or other, and what event soever the business shall 
have, I shall ever reraaine 

" Your constant loving friend, 


< ; Uuftbrd, the 13 of August, 1(321." 

The next letter is couched in a marvellously 
different tone. It was written on September 9, 
the French having conceded nothing, and the 
situation otherwise remaining unchanged : 

"Carlile, If the answers to your despaches com[e] 
not so fast as you desyer, or as (it may be) th[e] busi- 
ness requyres," blame me not, for the King [and] espe- 
cially ou/Committie are so slow, that if it [were] not 
for me, I thinke we should be twice as [long] on 

causes which led to Charles's resolution to break 
his promise is a story too long to tell here, Tout 
there can be no doubt that he intended to keep it 
at least up to August 13. 


sers t[hat | the least streching more breakes the stri[_ng], 
and then Spaiue will lafe at us both. So I rest 

" Your constant loving frend 


" I know ye looke for thakes for what ye have done, 
but although ye deserve it now, ye shall have none while 
all be done, and then ye shall have as much as your 
bake can beare. 

" Whythall, the 9 of Sep. 1624." 
For all this, the string bore more stretching 
without breaking. For more than a month, James 
giving way step by step in matters of detail, held 
out on the main point. Let the final result be 
told in Charles's own words. The third letter was 
written on October 19 : 

" Carlile, Your despach with Larking* gave us anuffe 
adoe to keepe all things from an unrecoverable breache, 
for my father at lirst itartled verrie much at it, and. 
would scarce heer of reason, which made me feare that 
his aversuess was built upon som hope of good overtures 
from Gondomar (who they say is to be shortlie heer, 
tho I beleeve it not), which made [me] deale plainlie 
Avith the King, telling him I could never mach with 
Spain, and so intreated him to fynd a fitt mach for me. 
Though he was a littel angrie at iirst at it, yet afterward 
he allo\ved our opinions to be reason, which befor he re- 
jected ; so that now I hope all dificulties on both sydes 
be overcum. The King cals for me, so I rest 

" Your loving constant frend, 

" Itoyston: the 19 of 8 ber , 1C24." 

It was a natural consequence of this resolution 
that Parliament, which James had promised to 
summon in November, was prorogued, and that 
accordingly there was no money to provide for 
MansfeliTs troops, who were consequently left to 
starve. Yet when Charles met his first" Parlia- 
ment next year, he had nothing to say except 
that it had drawn him into the war and must 
find him means to carry it on. What were the 

* Letter of the i;Jth by Lorkin telling of the refusal 
of the French to promise formally to make a league 
with England for the recovery of the Palatinate bv 
means of Mansfekl's troops. 


I have for some years past been annoyed, to use 
a mild term, by the excessive carelessness which 
the contributors of " N. & Q." exhibit when they 
have occasion to mention the title of a book. 
Whether for the purpose of asking the name of 
an author of an anonymous work, or citing a book 
for reference, want of accuracy is their chief cha- 
racteristic. So far as giving exact references to 
editions and pages, the Editor has pretty well 
schooled us into accuracy, but the title of a book 
is a different matter. I need not cite instances in 
support of this assertion: every number bears 
evidence of it. 

Though I have entitled this note " How to 
describe a Book," it would have perhaps been 
more accurate, but not so interesting, to have 
simply put the word " Bibliography " ; for it is 
upon several moot points regarding bibliographical 
matters that I wish to comment. 

It seems to me a pity that a science which is be- 
coming so popular and universal as the knowledge 
of books and proper manner of describing them 
should be encumbered with unwieldy words like 
bibliography, bibliographical, biographical, anony- 
mous, anonymity, pseudonymous, and others of 
equally portentous sound. The unlearned (and 
profitable) trades are blessed with words to de- 
scribe their tools and productions which are intel- 
ligible to the meanest capacity. 

The less profit the longer "words appears to be 
the rule. If we garden we use a spade, a hoe, an 
axe, a barrow, a rake ; if we row, a scull, an oar ; 
if we speculate, we have money, stock, funds ; 
even if we go to law, we have bills of costs. Ob- 
serve the simplicity of these words. Yet, if we 
study to make proper lists of books, we cannot 
get on without words of ten to fifteen letters. I 
make these remarks as they occur to me, without 
however any expectation of altering the nomen- 
clature, though such a thing has not unfrequently 
been done, and everybody will recollect the storm 
in a tea-cup that was aroused by the shortening 
of the words telegraphic despatch to telegram. 
How to describe a book is so simple a matter that 
most people go wrong, quite unconsciously of 
course. Everybody thinks he understands a thing 
so simple, just as nearly everybody and at all 
events all literary men think they know all about 
cataloguing and libraries because they are literary 
men. Ample evidence will be found, in support 
of this assertion in the blue book or* the library 
of the British Museum. The fact is, unless a 

4 th S. IX. JAN. 6, '72.] 



man has taken the trouble to study bibliography a 
little, he is never sure that he is giving such a 
description of a book as will enable another per- 
son to identify it. 

Professor De Morgan, in his evidence before the 
commission on the British Museum (1850, 5729), 
gays : 

" I know very few mathematicians indeed that T would 
trust to Hve me an accurate account of a mathematical 
book. Unless they have paid special attention to biblio- 
graphy as bibliography, the3 T are very likely indeed to 
give erroneous accounts of books." 

The learned mathematician spoke of mathema- 
ticians because he was so learned that he was 
prevented from using generalities when of his 
own knowledge he could only speak as to mathe- 
maticians, but what he says applies to all. Mr. 
Bolton Corney, in his excellent pamphlet On the 
Neiv General Biographical Dictionary (London : 
Shoberl, 1839, 8vo), pointed out the prevalence of 
this fault. 

It is generally admitted, I believe, at least it is 
laid dowu^Dy a gentleman whom I may consider 
nn authority (Art of making Catalogues, $c. [by 
Dr. Crestadoro]) that five things at least are 
necessary to describe a book with a tolerable 
amount of certainty title, name of author, place, 
date, and size. This is for a catalogue of a library ; 
but catalogues of libraries, when done at all (and I 
believe no large library in the world has yet got 
a complete catalogue), are with few exceptions 
done badly, and upon a low bibliographical standard. 
To the five things above-mentioned I should add, 
as not the least important, the publisher's name. 

It is so manifest that all these six things are 
essential to the proper description of a book, that 
I shall not give one word of argument in their 
support. But for a bibliographical description it 
may be necessary to add the number of pages, the 
price, where printed, and any peculiarity. It is 
not sufficient, however, to give these particulars 
alone, they must be given in the order in which 
they occur on the title-page, and (here is where 
nearly everybody sins the most) nothing what- 
ever must be interpolated between the first word 
of the title and the last. It is bad bibliography to 
put <' 8vo " before the date, as " 8vo, 1871." It 
is difficult to explain this part of my subject 
without an illustration. Let us suppose the'fol- 
lowing information sent, and the manner of it is 
no exaggeration : 

" Sir, Seeing that you are collecting, with a 
view to publication, names of authors of the nine- 
teenth century, I beg to say that I was well ac- 
quainted with Miss Seaman, who died .about the 
year 1830, a notice of whom you will find in the 
Hyde papers. She wrote Some Observations on 
Girls' Schools and Boarding Schools, but whether 
with her name or not I forget. Also, about 1822 

was published by Smith of London an interesting 
religious tale called Lily, and in IGmo, 1825, a 
capital little work on the choice of books, with 
advice about Miss Edgeworth's novels." 

It will be evident to any one that the whole of 
the above requires verification a labour of hours, 
perhaps days, which might have been saved by 
a little knowledge on the part of our informant. 

On investigation it appears, then, that our in- 
formant has scarcely given a single date or title 
correctly 1. Miss Seaman died in 1829, not 1830 ; 
2. The reference to the Hyde papers is useless, as 
too wide for verification and inaccessible ; 3. The 
title of each of her works is given from recollec- 
tion, or rather from no recollection, and they are 
all incorrect ; 4. The titles are made up ; 5. 
Words not in the title-pages are interpolated 
without notice ; 6. The size of the book is placed 
before the date i. e. it is interpolated, and in fact 
everything is reversed. But I shall best be able 
to show what is wanted and how it should be 
done by giving the above information correctly, 
which I must reserve for another note. 



In Mr. Bruce's elaborate paper on this curious 
article- read before the Society of Antiquaries 
on the 4th of May, 1865, and published with a 
plate in the Archaologia (vol. xl. part ii. p. 344 
et seq.}, it is stated that the history of the dial- 
clock or watch after the earl's death is unknown. 
It appears from Jardine's Criminal Trials (vol. c. 
pp. 371-2, 12mo, 1832) that the three divines who 
attended the Earl of Essex in prison were Thomas 
Montford, William Barlow, and Abdie Ashton, 
the last-named being the earl's favourite chap- 
lain, and one who acconipanied'him to the scaffold. 
William Barlow is clearly the individual stated 
by Mr. Bruce to be a clergyman, son of Bishop 
Barlow of Chichester, and the learned author of 
a scientific book on the mariner's compass, called 
The Navigator's Supply (4to, Lond. 1597), which 
he dedicated to the Earl of Essex. Abdie Ashton 
(for whom see " N. & Q." 2 nd S. viii. 1859), Fel- 
low of St. John's College, Cambridge (omitted 
by the Coopers), was the second of the seven sons 
>f the Rev. John Ashton, Rector of Middleton, 
Lancashire, and is named in the Journal of Nicholas 
AsJieton of Uownham, Esq., in 1617, edited by 
me for the Chetharn Society in 1848. In an 
abstract of his will, which is dated Middleton, 
August 27, 1633, the following interesting legacy 
occurs, and is printed in a note in Assheton's 
Journal; and there can be little doubt that it 
refers to the identical pocket-dial made by Kyn- 
win, described with so much accuracy by Mr. 



[4"> S. IX. JAX. 6, 72. 

Bruce, and which formerly belonged to the Earl 
of Essex : 

" I give to my Cosen and Pntron, Raphe Assheton of 
Middleton, Esq.," my best Jewell, my Watch, or Pocket 
Clocke, given unto me by my most honourable Lorde, my 
Lorde of Essexe, the morning before his death." 

F. R. R. 

Milnrow Vicarage, Rochdale. 


It is so common to call the portrait of any boy 
in a blue dress a " Blue Boy," that unless each 
case is closely investigated it is much easier to be 
misled, as Jackson may have been about Buttall's 
"Blue Boy," and as Fulcher was about Ford's 
" Blue-coat Boy," than to obtain the right de- 
scription, as we have experienced. Sketches also 
pass as " Blue Boys," no matter what size; and 
photographs, engravings, and chromos of the 
Grosvenor "Blue Boy" are now rather a nume- 
rous family. 

The sketch which formerly belonged to the 
Bishop of Ely was sold at Christie's in 1864, and 
if we are rightly informed, it was afterwards re- 
stored to resemble the Grosvenor " Blue Boy " as 
much as possible, and then sold to Lord Elcho 
when its originality was gone. Whether this 
sketch subsequently entered the Grosvenor Gal- 
lery as an original one by Gainsborough or not 
we do not know, but among the pictures lent from 
that gallery for the conversazione of the Civil 
Engineers in 1867 there was a " Finished sketch 
of 'The Blue Boy.' T. Gainsborough, R.A.,-" 
which had quite a newly restored look about it. 
Mr. Hogarth has a clever sketch of the Grosvenor 
" Blue Boy " by Fanny Corbeaux. Lord Morning- 
ton, we believe, purchased the sketch of the 
" Blue Boy " at Maclise's sale in 1870, and which 
Mr. Hogarth thought to be more after the least- 
known " Blue Boy " than the rival one. 

By far the finest and largest full-length sketch 
or copy of the " Blue Boy " we have yet seen, 
excepting, of course, the two big " Blue Boys," 
belongs to Chas. Jas. Freake, Esq., Cromwell 
House, South Kensington. It was bought at 
Brighton a few years ago, in a damaged condition, 
for ten, pounds, but by whom or when painted is 
not known. It has since been lined and restored 
after the Grosvenor "Blue Boy," so that here 
also whatever originality it possessed is gone, but 
still it is a fine bright picture canvas about 
three feet in height by two feet in width, or 
about half the height, 'and less than half the 
width of the least-known " Blue Boy," which is 
nearly aix feet in height by four feet two inches 
in width. 

Of " Blue Boys " in other than Vandyke cos- 
tumes we may refer to the portrait of Lieut. 

Col. Maclauchlan when a boy, as described in 
" N. & Q." 4 th S. iv. 41 ; v. 37* 

Another one, reported as in North "Wales, was 
traced to Glasgow, and is thus described l\v the 
lady who possesses it 

"The 'Blue Boy' by Gainsborough was given to me 
by Miss Griffiths some" year? ago. I heard it was pre- 
sented bv Gainsborough when staying in \Y;\It> to a 
friend of "Miss Griffiths', who left it to her. It is not a 
full-length portrait, and the dress is .1 light-fitting pl;nn 
blue jacket with a loose white handkerchief underneath 
the jacket." 

Even the blue-clad in the Bailey family in the 
National Gallery has been stoutly maintained to 
be " The Blue Boy by Gainsborough in the 
National Collection." 

J. SEWELL, Assoc. List. C. E. 

The Lombard. E.G. 

The soldiers of Germany now pass for the best 
educated and most intelligent soldiers in the 
world. This is no doubt true of those who do not 
come out of the lowest classes of society ; but 1 
doubt the superior intelligence of those who do 
belong to the lowest classes. At all events, super- 
stition seems to be rife among them, and super- 
stition is not generally regarded as a mark of 
intelligence. The following charm was taken from 
a German soldier during the late war, and brought 
over to England by an English surgeon, whose 
name I have forgotten. In a lecture which he 
delivered at Cambridge, he said that the charm 
was worn and firmly believed in by a large num- 
ber of German soldiers. The words, which I copy 
from a photograph* of the original, run as fol- 
lows : 

" Hans- und Schutzbrief. 

" Im Namen des Vaters und des Sohnes und des heili- 
gen Geistes. Amen. L. T. L. K. H. B. K. N. K. 

" Im Namen Gottes. des Vaters, des Sohnes und des 
heiligeu Geistes. So wie Cristis (sic) im Oehlgarten still- 
stand, so soil alles Geschiitz stille stehn. Wer diesen 
Brief bei sich tragt, den wird nichts treffen von des 
Feindes Geschiitz, und er wird von Diehen und Mb'rden 
(sic) gesichert sein. Er darf sich nicht fiirchten vor 
Degen, Gewehren, Pistolen, den so wie man auf ilm 
anschlagt,f mttssen, durch den Tod und Befehl Jesu 
Christu (*tc), atte Geschiitze stille stehn, ob Sichtbar oder 
unsichbar Alles durch den Befehl des Engels Michaelis, im 
Namen Gottes, des Vaters, des Sohnes, und des heiligen 

* The photograph bears on the back the name of 
Maltby & Co., Barnsbury Hall, Islington, London, N. I 
have copied verbatim, literatim, and puncluatim (if 1 may 
coin the word), and therefore neither I nor the printer must 
be held responsible for the very numerous misspellings, 
grammatical and other inaccuracies, which are to be 
found in it. I have marked a few of the most glaring 
with sic. The charm is written, not printed; but we 
learn incidentally that it may be used printed. 

f Here there seems to be a word of two or three letters 
which, owing to a. fold in the original, has been indis- 
tinctly photographed. 

4 th S. IX. JAN. C, 72.] 



Geistes. Gott sei mit uns. Wer diesen Segen bei sich 
tragt, der wird fur (sic) feindlichen Kugeln geschiitzt 
bleiben. Wer dieses nicht glauben will, der schreibe ihn 
ab, hange ihn einem Hunde um des (*vc) Hals und 
schiesse auf ihn, so wird ehr sehen, dass der Hund nicht 
getroffen, und dass es war ist, auch wird derjenige, der 
an ihn glaupt nicht von dem Feinde gefangen genomraen 
werden. So wahr ist es, das Jesus Christus auf Erden 
gewandelt hat, und jen Himmel gefahrn ist, so war ist es, 
das Jeder der an disen Brief glaubt, vor alien Gewehren 
und Waffen im Namen des lebendigen Gottes, des Vaters, 
des Sohnes und des heiligen Geistes unbeschiidigt bleiben 
soil. Ich bitte im Namen unsers Herrn Jesu Christi Blut, 
das mich keine Kugel trefFen mb'ge, sie sei von Gold, 
Silber oder Blei. Gott im Himmel halte mich. von alien 
frei. Im Namen Gottes des Vaters des Sohnes und des 
heiligen Geistes, dieser Brief ist vom Himmel gesandt und 
im Jahre 1724 (?) in Holstein gefunden worden und 
schwebt tiber die Taufe Magdalenas, wie man ihn aber 
angreifen wollte wich er zurlick bis zum Jahre 1791 bis 
sich Jemand mit dem Gedanken nahrte,ihn abzuschreiben. 
Ferner gebietet er, das derjenige, welcher am Sontage 
Arbeitet^ von Gott verdammt ist. ich gebe euch sechs 
Tage, cure Arbeit fortzusetzen und am Sontage friih in 
die Kirche zu gehn, die heilige Predigt und Gottes (sz'c) 
xu hohren, werdet ihr das nicht thun so werde ich euch 
strafen. Ich gebiete euch, dass ihr des Sontags friih in die 
(sic) Kirche mit Jedermann Jung und Alt andachtig fur 
cure Siinden betet, damit sie euch vergeben werden, 
Schwb'ret nicht boshaft bei meinem Namen, begehrt nicht 
Silber oder Gold, und sehet nicht auf fleischliche Liiste 
tind Begierden den sobald ich euch erschaffen habe, so- 
bald kann ich euch wieder vernichten. Einer soil den 
andern nicht tb'dten mit der Zunge. und solltet nicht 
falsch gegen Euren Nachsten hinterm Riicken sein. 
Freuet euch cure (sic) Giiter und cures Reichthums nicht. 
Ehret Vater und Mutter, redet nicht falsch Zeugnisch (sz'c) 
wieder den Nachsten, so gebe ich euch Gesundheit und 
Segen. Wer aber diesen Brief nicht glaubt und sich 
nicht darnach richtet. Der wird kein Gliick und Segen 
haben. Diesen Brief soil einer dem andern Gedrukt oder 
geschrieben zukommen lassen und wenn ihr so viel Siin- 
lien gethan hattet, als Sand am Meere und Laub auf den 
B&umen und Sterne am Himmel sind sollen sie euch ver- 
geben werden. Wenn ihr glaubt und thut, was dieser 
Brief euch lehrt und saget wer aber dass nicht glaubt, 
der soil sterben. Bekehrt euch oder ihr werdet gepeinigt 
werden, und ich werde euch fragen am jiingsten Tage 
dann werdet ihr mir Antwort gebben miissen wegen euren 
vielen Siinden, Wer diesen Brief in seinem Hause hat, 
oder bei sich tragt dem wird kein Donnerwetter schaden 
und ihr sollt von Feuer Wasser und alle Gewallt des 
Feindes behutet werden. In Schleswig Hollstein hatte 
ein Graf einen Diener, welcher sich fur seinen Vater 
B. G. H. das Haupt abschlageu lassen wollte. Als nun 
solches geschehen sollte, da versagte der(szc) Scharf- 
richters Schwert, und er konnte ihm das Haupt nicht 
abschlagen. Als der Graf dieses sah, fragt er den Diener 
wie es zuginge, dass das Schwert ihm keiuen Schaden 
zufiigte, worauf der Diener ihm diesen Brief mit den 
Buchstaben LTLKHBKNK zeigte. Als der Graf 
dieses sah, befahl er dass ein Jeder diesen Brief bei sich 
tragen sollte. 

" Dieser Brief ist besser den Gold." 

For the benefit of those readers of "N. & Q." 
^ho are not familiar with German, 1 subjoin a 
brief account and summary of the above : 

The charm came down from God in 1724, and 
hovered about some representation of the baptism 
of Mary Magdalene in Holstein, refusing to be 

caught, until 1791, when some one had the happy 
thought to copy it as it hovered. The essence of 
the charm seems to consist in the letters L T L 
K H B K N K, pronounced in the name of the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Whoever wears 
the charm need have no fear of thieves or mur- 
derers, swords or firearms of any sort, neither will 
he receive injury from storm, fire, water, or any 
assault of the evil one, nor will he be taken 
prisoner. No bullet will strike him, be it of gold, 
of silver, or of lead. Whoever doubts this may hang 
the charm round a dog's neck, and shoot at him : 
he will find that he cannot hit him. The greater 
part of the charm, however, consists of pious ex- 
hortations couched in -biblical language, threats 
of evil to those who disbelieve in it, and promises 
of reward to those who believe in it and do what 
it enjoins. It concludes with a tale bearing wit- 
ness to its efficacy, and well calculated to inspire 
confidence into a superstitious soldier. A certain 
count in Schleswig Holstein had a servant, who 
had given himself up in his father's stead to have 
his head cut off. The executioner stood up to 
perform his office, when, lo and behold, his sword 
was powerless in his hands! The count seeing 
this, asked the servant how it was that the sword 
did him no harm, and the servant showed him 
the charm with its mystical letters. Whereupon 
the count gave orders that everyone should wear 
this charm about him. 

Is there an English soldier would wear such a 
charm and believe in it? I hope and believe 
there is not. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

On Monday, Dec. 4, at the Warrington Borough 
Court, before the mayor (Joseph Davies, Esq.), 
H. Bleckly, Esq., and C. Broadbent, Esq., Patrick 
Flanaghan was charged with having had an 
unjust half-pound weight in his possession. The 
mayor requested the clerk (Mr. H. Brown White) 
to see how many quill pens would be required to 
balance the scales when the just and unjust 
weights had been placed at either end. They 
would fine the defendant one shilling for each 
one. Mr. White: "Nine will make the scales 
balance." The Mayor : " Then we will fine the 
defendant one shilling for each one." I owe it to 
Warrington, which is a Lancashire town, to say 
that all the three justices named above are 
Cheshire men. M. D. 

MADAME DE GENLIS. Among the interesting 
letters I lately mentioned as being addressed to 
Madame de Genlis is one of Prince Talleyrand, 
who, you will see, attached, like J. W. Croker, 
great value to her correspondence. Although 
written on Sept. 4, 1805, nine months after the 
coronation of Napoleon (in Notre-Dame by Pope 



[4 tl > S. IX. JAN. 6, 72. 

Pius VII.), Talleyrand, from old habit, continued 
to use the Republican calendar. Bouillet, in his 
Dictionnaireunivcrscl d'Histoire,sa\s that Madame 
de Genlis published in 1817 part -of Dangeau's 
Memoirs, but Talleyrand alludes to this publica- 
tion in 1805 already. Who may well be "ma 
petite fille, avec une robe blanche " he speaks of ? 
Here is a copy of the letter in his well-known 
pattes de mouches : 

" Deptiis deux jours j'ai ties chevaux mis pour aller 
vous voir, et ma petite fille est avec une robe blanche et 
son chapeau de paille me pressant de lui faire voir Madame 
de Silieri et voulant etre soumise a son jugement. Mais 
il n'y a pas moyen ; il faut que je parte ce soir pour Stras- 
bourg. Vous me faites un sensible plaisir quand vous 
promettes de m'ecrire ; je vous en remercie de tout mon 
coeur. Envoyes vos lettres aux relations exterieures, 
mettes stir 1'adresse affaires personnelles. Je vous in- 
dique cette precaution pour etre bien stir qu'tine ligne 
de vous ne sera pas perdue. J'ai vu a Boulogne chez 
1'Empereur les Memoir es de Dangeau, mais il partoit et 
n'a pas pu me lespreter peut-etre les aura-t-il emportes 
h Strasbourg, alors j'aurai deux oti trois bonnes soirees. 


" 4 Vend, an 14." 

At the top, in Madame de Genlis's equally well- 
known hand. " de M. de Talleyrand." 

P. A. L. 


"The Chicago Post has issued the following ukase: 
' Hereafter every reporter in this office shall be personally 
decapitated and shall lose his situation, who shall be 
guilty of the use of any of the following barbarisms of 
language: " Postmortemed, for dissected; suicided, in- 
fanticided, &c. ; accidentated ; indignated, for got mad ; 
disremembered, disrecollect* disforgot, &c. ; abluted for 

* washed himself,' herself or itself, as the case may be ; 
sporn, for spared ; spondulix, for ducats ; catastrophed ; 
scrumptious; receptecl ; planted or funeraled, for buried. 
And any editor, reporter, correspondent, scribe or dead 
beat, shall, as an additional penalty, be put on half- pay 
who shall write 'on last evening,' 'on this morning,' 

* on yesterday,' or ' on ten o'clock in the forenoon.' " 




I trust you will admit that the following rather 
well-written article, which appeared in a late 
number of the Limerick Reporter and Tipper anj 
Vindicator, is worthy of a place in the columns of 
"N. & Q." in reference to a late notice to Cor- 
respondents in " N. & Q." in which my name 
was introduced. 


" Happening to be in Carrick-on-Suir, the Castle at- 
tracted my attention. In an architectural point of view, 
it is on a "par with the celebrated halls of Hatfield, Hard- 
wick, and Haclden ; indeed in some respects it is finer 
than any of them, but they are praised and protected 
with the greatest care, and" while Carrick is only pre- 

served from becoming a total ruin by the almost inde- 
structible nature of its materials. And to add a charm 
to the architectural beauties, it is not wanting in tradi- 
tions of the past. One of them rather startled me, ' that 
there those eyes first saw light,' of which 'twas said that 
* Gospel light first dawned from Bullen's eyes.' I have 
tried to ascertain what foundation there is for this tradi- 
tion, and now give the result of ray rather superficial 
researches. The Castle of Carrick belongs to the noble 
family of Butler, who trace their descent to Rollo, Duke 
of Xormandy, ancestor of William the Conqueror. Theo- 
bold, nephew of St. Thomas A'Becket of Canterbury, 
came to Ireland with Strongbow, and received extensive 
grants of land and other favours from Henry the Second, 
to show his apparent condemnation of the murder of 
St. Thomas. Theobold's son, also ' Tobv ' (the more 
usual name) married the daughter of John Marries or 
De Marisco (the descendant of'Geoffry de Marisco, who 
also came over with Strongbow, and whose estate the 
Butlers inherited) and their son Theobold III. was Lord 
of Carrick. Edmund Butler was created Earl of Carrick 
in 1315, two years before the title of Earl of Kildare was 
conferred on the rival house of Fitzgerald. Edmund, 
son of Sir Richard Butler, built 'the Castle of the 
Bridge of Carrick,' probably the southern or oldest part 
of the present building : he died in 1464. Thomas, Earl 
of Carrick and Ormond, who died in 1515, had two 
daughters, Margaret and Anne ; one married Sir William 
Boleyn, a London merchant, and was mother of Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, father of Anna ; and the other was 
married to Sir George St. Leger. As Anna Avas four- 
teen or fifteen years of age at the time of the death of 
her great grandfather, it is quite possible that she was 
born at his residence, Carrick Castle, to which her father, 
Sir Thomas, claimed to be heir, as next of kin, and after- 
wards received the title of Earl of Ormond and Carrick 
from Henry VIII., when Anna was in high favour. Sir 
Peirs Butler, the next male heir, being induced to sur- 
render his claim to the title on being created Earl of 
Ossory, but he again became Earl of Ormond on the 
death of Sir Thomas Boleyn, without male heir?, as his 
only son, Lord Rochfort, was executed about the same 
time as his sister, Anna Boleyn. Sir Peirs, who thus 
became Earl of Ormond and Carrick, was a pious, good 
man. It is recorded of him that he spent the last fort- 
night of every Lent towards the end of his life in a 
chamber near St. Canice's Cathedral, engaged! in prayer 
and good works. His son, James, was the first of the 
Irish chiefs who signed the declaration ' to oppose the 
usurpations of the Bishop of Rome,' which was the half- 
way house between Catholicity and Protestantism, so 
that the Lord James Butler of the pi-esent day has here- 
ditary claim to the leading part he takes in the reor- 
ganization of the disestablished church. James, who was 
poisoned in London, was succeeded by his son Thomas, 
then only fourteen years old ; he was, reared in the Eng- 
lish court, and greatly distinguished himself during the 
reign of Elizabeth against the Earl of Desmond and other 
Irish chiefs, by whom he was known as Black Thomas, 
and the Virgin Queen sometimes called him her Black 
Husband. lie repaired and beautified the castle of Kil- 
kenny and his house of Carrick, where he resided and 
died in 1614. Very probably Lord Thomas not only re- 
paired and beautified, but built the north-east and "West 
sides of the castle, which contain the principal apart- 
ments. As before stated, it appears to be quite possible 
that Anna Boleyn was born in Carriok Castle during the 
lifetime of her 'great grandfather, but let us see is there 
any record of her birthplace. I can find none. Indeed 
there is a tradition very generally believed in the locality 
that she was born at Blickling Hall, in Norfolk ; but the 
honor is also claimed by two other places, Rochefort Hall 

S. IX. JAX. 6,'72.J 



and Hever Castle. The very uncertainty as to where 
she was born goes far to prove that it took place in Ire- 
land, particularly as at the time her father was naturally 
anxious to be with his grandfather, the old Earl, then 
residing at Carrick, and Avhom he desired to succeed in 
his titles and estates. So that the probability is very 
great that the old tradition above referred to, that Anna 
first saw the light on the banks of the Suir, is well 
founded, and the old castle is worthy of the tradition. It 
is a large quadrilateral pile enclosing a central court. 
The more ancient front, being the castle proper, faces the 
Waterlbrd mountains to the south, close to the reedy 
banks of the Suir, which can be seen from the battle- 
ments for miles through the lovely vale between Clonmel 
and Waterford. This part of "the building is of the 
ordinary castle type, but the other three sides, probably 
built by Black Thomas, are of domestic Tudor architec- 
ture, and must originally have been a very beautiful 
specimen of the style. The principal entrance is in the 
north front, by a comparatively small door, to a narrow 
passage, having the portraits of Queen Bess and Black 
Tom Butler on either side. The passage leads by an 
abrupt turn to a noble staircase, the steps and wainscot 
being of dark oak, and the ceiling and upper part of the 
walls richly pannelled in stucco. The stairs lead to a 
grand hall, at the east side, finished in the same manner, 
with a large oriel at the dais end which communicates 
with the older part of the building. The stairs also lead 
to a fine gallery facing the north, decorated in the same 
style as the hall and stairs, with oak wainscot and stucco 
pannelling, charged with heraldic devices. The chimney 
pieces are elaborately carved, and the large windows 
deeply recessed. Beyond the gallery to the west side 
are the drawing room and other apartments, one tra- 
ditionally named after Queen Elizabeth, but more likely 
after one of Black Tom's Countesses of that name, as he 
had two. The stairs, hall, and gallery, if restored to 
their pristine beauty, Avould excel in ai-chitectural effect, 
as they do in dimensions, the far-famed hall of Hatiield, 
of which the Marquis of Salisbury is so justly proud; 
and is it not to be deplored that the most noble inheritor 
should allow the first residence of his family in this 
country to remain neglected and uncared for, and gradu- 
ally to crumble into dust ? It is worthy of a better fate, 
and as a work of bygone art, it deserves to be preserved, 
for ' a thing of beauty is a joy for ever,' as a historical 
monument (of which 'we have, alas ! too few except in 
ruins). It should be maintained as a sacred trust for 
posterity in. the spirit with which Earl Thomas be- 
queathed to Sir Thomas Boleyn and his heirs for ever 
the ' white horn drinking cup banded with gold and 
silver,' which was supposed to have been used by St. 
Thomas A'Becket." 

"M. M." 

[We believe that there does not exist any evidence to 
prove where Anne Boleyn was born. Tradition points 
very strongly to Blickling Hall, Norfolk, as the place of 
her birth ; but Hever Castle, in Kent, and Rochford 
Hall, in Essex, also claims this distinction. In the 
absence of direct evidence to the contrary, it is possible 
that there may be some foundation for the suggestion in 
the foregoing paper ; and a search among the records of 
Ireland may be destined to settle the question, Where 
was Anne Boleyn born ? ] 

BARGEMEN'S SOXG. Can any of your readers 
inform rue of the true locality to which the fol- 
lowing mournful ditty belongs ? When a boy I 
heard it frequently sung by the bargemen on the 
river Calder, and one night at Cambridge I heard 

the same chanted by a bargeman on the Cam. 

He might possibly 'have been a Norths-country 

man : 

" Our captain calls all hands on board to-morrow, 
Leaving my dearest girl in grief and sorrow ; 
Dry up those briny tears and leave off weeping, 
How happy shall us be at our next meeting ! 

" ' Why would'st thee go abroad fighting for strangers ? 
I'd have thee stay at home free from all dangers ; 
I'd hug thee in my arms, my dearest jewel ! 
Come, stay at home with me don't thee be cruel. 

" ' When I had gold in store thee did'st invite me, 
But now I's low and poor thee seem'st to slight me : 
There's no believing man not your own brother 
So, maids, if ye must love, love one another.' 

" Down on the ground she laid like one a-dying, 
Wringing her hands abroad, sighing, and crying 
* He courted me awhile just to deceive me, 
And now my poor heart he's got he's agoing to leave 

" ' Farewell my dearest dears, father and mother, 
Don't weep for your dear child though you've no 

other ; 

Don't weep for me, I pray, for I's a-going 
To everlasting joys where fountains is flowing.' " 


Possibly there may be some omission in the 
foregoing stanzas : I quote from memory. When 
chanted on u the still waters" at night by a good 
voice, in the Northern dialect, these quaint stanzas 
had a pathetic and touching effect. K. S. E. 


CHARLES I.'s WAISTCOAT. Have any of your 
readers met with a piece of the waistcoat worn by 
Charles I. on Jan. 30, 1649? I have in my pos- 
session a piece of rich red striped silk, brocaded 
with silver and yellow silk, said to have been 
worn by him at his execution ; and shall be glad 
to know if any one else possesses a portion of the 
same, and can give an authentic account of its 
history. W. P. 

CHOWBEXT. What is the derivation of the 
name Chowbent ? This village is situated about 
five miles from Bolton, Lancashire, and from this 
I argue that the name is of Keltic origin. In this 
language there is a word bent, which means 
thick coarse grass, and choiu, meaning covey ; so 
that the whole word means a covey of coarse 
grass. Can any one tell me whether I am right in 
my conj ectures, or what is the true derivation ? 


Whinney Field, Halifax. 

" LIGHT CHRISTMAS." I have heard the fol- 
lowing saying referred to the neighbourhood of 
Ledbury, Herefordshire: "A light Christmas,, a 
lisiit harvest." Is it known elsewhere ? 

T. W. W T EBB. 

CROMWELLIAN" ERA. I have a MS. poem of 
this period, and I should like to know if it has 
ever been published 5 and if so, to whom it is 



attributed. It contains 20 lines, is without title, 

and commences 

* The daye is broke, Melpomine begone, 
Hag of 1113- fancy let me now alone ; 
Nightmare my soul no more, go take thy flight 
Where traytors' ghosts hoop au eternal night." 

In the body of the poem the protectorate of 
Richard Cromwell is alluded to thus : 

" Richard the fourthe juste peeping out of Squire, 
No fault so much as th 1 Old one was his Sire ; 
For men believ'd, tho' all Avent in his name, 
He'd be but tenant 'till the Landlord came." 

The Ballot Box of Harrington's Oceana is thus 
glanced at : 

"But giddy Harrington a whimsey found 
To make her head like to her braine goe rounde " ; 

and it concludes 

"George (Monk) made him (Lambert) and his cut 

throats of our lives 
Swallow theyr swords as Juglers doe theyr knives." 

It is prefaced by the epitaph of Charles I. 
usually found in the EikonBasilike (see "N.&Q." 
2 nd S. v. 393), but with the lines reversed, and 
one word different, thus 

"Hie jacet intus, 
Non Carolus quintus 
Nee Carolus Magnus 
Sed Carolus Agnus." 

Castle Bromwich. 

born, educated, and buried ? Any particulars most 
gladly received by RANA E PALUDIBUS. 

[It was the Rev. William, (not Henry) Dodwell who 
was prebendary of Surum and archdeacon of Berks. He 
was the youngest son of the learned Henry Dodwell, 
Camden Professor at Oxford, and subsequently non- 
juror. William was born at Shottesbrook, Berks, June 
17, 1609, and educated at Trinity College, Oxford. He 
was a learned divine and celebrated preacher, which ob- 
tained for him several considerable preferments in the 
church. He died Oct. 23, 1785, in his seventy-fifth year. A 
list of his numerous works is given in Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, ii. 438. Consult also Kippis, Biographia Bri- 
' tannica, v. 327, and the biographical dictionaries of 
Chalmers and Rose.] 

BATTLE OF EVESHAIL Where can I find the 
old lay or lament about the battle of Evesham, 

" Or est occiste le fieur de pris 
Qui tant savoit le guerre" ? 

I am told part of it was printed many years 
ago in the Quarterly Review, but I cannot find 
the passage. THOS. E. WINNINGTON. 

[This ballad is in the Harleian MS. 2253, art. 24, and 
was made after the battle of Evesham, A.D. 1265, when 
Simon de Montfort was slain, and the rebellious barons 
were utterly defeated. It commences 
" Chaunter mestoit | mon euer le voit | en un dure Ian- 

Tut en ploraunt j fus fet le chaunt | de nostre duz 

Qe pur la pees | si loynz apres | se lesserent de trere, 
Lur cors trencher | e demembrer | pur salver Engle- 

Ore est ocys | la flur de pris | qu taunt savoit de 

Ly queus Mountfort | saduremort j molt en plorra 

la terre." 

The poet looks upon Mountfort as a martyr, and regrets 
the loss of Henry his son, Hugh le Dispenser, Justice of 
England, and others who then lost their live* 1 . This 
ballad was privately printed (together with three others 
from the same MS.) by Sir Francis Palgrave (then Fr. 
Cohen, Esq.), 1818, 4to. The article on Simon de Montfort 
appeared in the Quarterly Review, cxix. 26.] 

Can any of your readers tell me where (except in 
the libraries of the Earl of Sheffield and the Due 
de Broglie) there are any unpublished letters of 
Gibbon the historian ? W. A. G. 


[Seven letters from Edward Gibbon to Edward first 
Lord Eliot are at Port Eliot, Cornwall, the seat of the 
Earl of St. Germans, which throw considerable light on 
his parliamentary career a subject barely touched in his 
Autobiography. The same library contains four letters 
from his father to Edward Eliot. *The dates of them are 
given in the First Report of the Royal Commission on 
Historical Manuscripts, 1870, p. 41.] 

" JOIN ISSUE." In one of Burns's letters to 
Mr. Thomson ( Works, ed. 1800, iv. 13), he says, 
"I will cordially join issue with you in the 
furtherance of the work." Burns wrote very good 
English. Is this an accidental slip, or is there 
any other instance of the phrase being so used ? 
I need not say it is the opposite sense to the usual 
one, which too has an express derivation in the 
technical description of a legal process. 


who was the lord of the following manors in 
6 Henry V. : " Manor of Wildene, in the co. 
Bedford; manor of Appeley in the co. Salop." 
Who was Sir Adam Peshall, Knight, who lived 
at Appeley in the year above-mentioned, also 
" Roger Willeley"? I have preserved the ori- 
ginal spelling in these proper names. S. 

MOLESWORTH MEDAL. I wish for information 
respecting a fine medal with a profile of a man in 
a helmet, and the inscription round the margin 
" Ricardus Molesworth. Britann. Trib. Miles.' 
On the reverse a figure of Victory leading by the 
hand a warrior, trampling on broken artillery, 
with motto, " Per Ardua." I conjecture that it 
relates to Ilichard Molesworth, the third Viscount 
Molesworth, who saved the life of the Duke of 
Marlborough at Ramillies or Blenheim, and who 
subsequently became a field marshal, &c. Can 
you inform me under what circumstances the 
medal was struck, by whom executed (it is a fine 
work of art and a large), and whether there exist 
specimens in silver as well as bronze ? X. 

4'* S. IX. JAN. G, 72.] 



anglaise n'a-t-elle pas publie des parties supprimees 
dans 1'edition officielle ? Quel est le titre de cette 
revue et le n du niois ? UN PARISLEN. 

Family Herbal, p. 254, this passage occurs : 

" Great good has been done by those medicines which 
the Parliament purchased of Mrs. Stephens." 

Where can one get any account of these medi- 
cines ? What was the amount paid to her, and 
why was she singled out to have her remedies 
purchased ? C. A. W. 

May fair, W. 

H. PEEREBOOM. I have an oil-painting on oak 
(23 in. high by 30 in. wide) bearing the above 
signature. It is a work of considerable merit. 
Subject: Exterior of Flemish or Dutch tavern; 
travellers refreshing themselves at the door: 
woman drawing water from a well for their horses, 
&c. &c. What is known of this artist? He is 
not, I believe, mentioned by either Waagen, Siret, 
Bryan, Ottley, or Hobbes. G. M. T. 

TAAFFE. Sir John Taaffe of Smarmor had by 
his wife Anna, daughter of \ 7 iscount Dillon, be- 
sides other sons, Charles described in the pedigree 
compiled by Sir W. Betham as " Abbot of the 
Cistercian Abbey of Boyle." If this be correct, 
who then was Charles Taafe (married to a Lady 

Susanna ) living in 1GG9, and who held a 

lease under Theobald, Earl of Carlingford ? 

Charles and the Lady Susanna Taaffe are 
entirely ignored in Sir W. Betham's pedigree, 
and yet it is clear from extant records that they 
held an important position in the Taatfe family. 


TIPTERERS. The mummers in Hampshire are 
called, spelling phonetically, " tipterers " ; the se- 
cond syllable is long, tipterers. What is the deri- 
vation or meaning of the name ? A. D. 

sale of the clocks and watches of H. E. Ii. the 
Duke of Sussex was sold the watch of the last 
abbot of Glastonbury, which is figured and men- 
tioned in Warner's Antiquities of Glastonbury. It 
is described in the sale catalogue as 

" A highly interesting and curious hexagonal watch, 
the property of the last abbot of Glastonbury. It bears 
the maker's name, Isaac Symmes. A MS. note traces it 
back to the time of the dissolution of the abbey ; also 
the abbot's seal." 

It was sold for QL Qs. } and the purchaser's name 
was Thorpe. Can any one tell where this watch 

UN JUST WEIGHTS. Were the owners of de- 
fective weights or balances ever punished by the 
loss of their ears, which were subsequently nailed 
to the doors of a prison ? If so, where shall I find 
a record of such a punishment ? M. D. 

tune, which is also called " The Old Woman of 
Romford," English ? I ask the question because 
very recently it has become an exceedingly popular 
air on the Continent, and particularly in French 
Switzerland. I suspect that it has been intro- 
duced into some opera. Who wrote the words to 
u With Helmet on his Brow," and whose name 
is affixed as the composer of the music ? If the 
tune be English, it is as well to claim it at once. 
Now-a-days we stand a chance of having some 
of our- best national tunes prigged! "Robin 
Ad air " figures in concert bills with the name of 
Boieldieu, u The last Rose" is given to Flotow, and 
" Home, sweet Home " is claimed for Donizetti. 
I trust that some one learned in musical notes 
may be induced to answer this " note." 


BROWNE WILLIS. Where is Willis's MS. re- 
ferring to church matters in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century to be found ? Is it in the 
Bodleian Library? M. H. 



(4 th S. viii. 510.) 

Most cordially do I agree with G. T. S. " that 
the writer of Goody Tivo Shoes had a keen insight 
into the mind of a child, and a wonderful appre- 
ciation of the sort of story to please the ' spelling' 
public," but I cannot agree with W. M. as to who 
that writer was. In the MS. of Goldsmithiana now 
preparing for the press, I had already fully taken 
notice of, and disproved, the tradition, theory, or 
assertion, unsupported as it is by a single proof, 
of the " chapter and verse " of W. M. With all 
good feeling to him, whoever he be, I should not 
have noticed it, however, till the publication of 
my new work; but on seeing the important and 
eloquent article in " N. & Q." (4 th S. viii. 510), 
I felt I must give to its readers a little of the 
many " chapters and verses " I have read in New- 
bery's " renowned " little volumes, and not allow 
my pen to rest while " poor Goldie " was in the 
slightest danger of being deprived of the credit of 
one of the twenty little works I shall introduce to 
the literary and antiquarian world as the " unac- 
knowledged offspring," but nevertheless authentic 
writings for children, &c. by Oliver Goldsmith. 

I cannot possibly bring forward, in an article 
like the present, all the results of my reading and 
research and coincident comparisons, but I will 
here mention only a few of the items I have col- 
lected on this, to me, interesting, and I may say, 
for some years past, pet subject in connection with 
" Bewick " and engraved wood block collecting. 



[4 th S. IX. JAN. (5, 72. 

Of these I have gathered nearly seven thousand 
from, various parts of Great Britain, amongst which 
I have several sets and specimens of cuts used to 
illustrate editions of Good)/ Two Shoes, Tommy 
Trip, &c. A selection of these I shall be happy 
to send to the Editor of "N. & Q," if he thinks : 
them worthy of introduction to its pages. In 
alluding to Tommy Trip, I proved that to be from 
the poet's pen. In my preface tQ my reprint of it j 
in 1867.1 alluded to the following from Washing- 
ton Irving's Biography of Oliver Goldsmith : 

"Being now known in the publishing world, Goldsmith 
began to find casual employment in various quarters ; 
among others he wrote occasionally for the Literary 
Magazine, a production set on foot by Mr. John Newbery, 
bookseller, St. Paul's Churchyard, renowned in nursery 
literature throughout the latter half of the last century 
for his picture-books for children. Xewbeiy was a 
worthy, intelligent, kind-hearted man, and a seasonable, 
though cautious friend to authors, relieving them with 
small loans when in pecuniary difficulties, though always 
taking care to be well repaid" by the labour of their pens. 
Goldsmith introduces him in "a humorous yet friendly 
manner in his novel of the Vicar of Wakefield : ' This 
person was no other than the philanthropic bookseller in 
St. Paul's Churchyard, Avho has written so many little 
books for children ; he called himself their friend; but he 
was the friend of all mankind. He was no sooner alighted 
but he was in haste to be gone ; for he was ever on busi- 
ness of importance, and was at that time actually com- 
?iling materials for the history of one Mr. Thomas Trip. 
immediately recollected this good-natured man's red- 
pimpled face.' " 

Here Goldsmith himself speaks of Tommy Trip, 
and among the numerous favourable reviews which 
appeared not one dissented from my views and 
arguments ; and Tommy Trip'is now duly entered in 
the General Catalogue of the British Museum under 
the poet's works. Since that time I have ascer- 
tained that it (Tommy Trip) was the subject of a 
conversation between Dr. Johnson and Boswell, in 
which the former called it a " great book " though 
a little one. I also find the first part of Tommy 
Trip and Giant Woglog (I will also show who he 
was in my preface to a reprint of the first edition 
(Newbery's) of Goody Two Shoes now at press) 
appears in the Lilliputian Magazine (another work 
I will prove Goldsmith wrote), published circa 
1758 by Newbery. Giant Woglog is also men- 
tioned in Fables in Verse by Abraham sEsop, 
Newbery (also by O. G.), and in the British Fair- 
ing, or Golden Toy, in which 

" You may see all the Fun of the Fair, 
And at Home be as happy as if you were there." 

This also is from Goldsmith's pen, and in one 
part of it may be found an interesting description 
of other curious sights to be seen in the Hay- 
market, Vauxhall Gardens, &c. Copious extracts 
from these and many others will be given in 
Goldsmithiana. I am much pressed for time at 
present, but if it would be considered interesting 
I will select all about " Woglog the great giant ' 

from the various Lilliputian volumes in mine and 
another very complete collection I have free access 
to ; and so form a slight contribution on " Woglog " 
for " N. & Q." If I am not taking up too much 
space for this small but to me great subject, I 
would quote what Washington Irving says about 
Goody Two Shoes and its writer, also introduced 
in my preface to Tommy Trip, 1867 : 

" This constant drainage of the purse therefore obliged 
him to undertake all jobs proposed by the booksellers, 
and to keep up a kind^of running account with Mr. New- 
bery ; who was his banker on all occasions, sometimes for 
pounds, sometimes for shillings ; but who was a rigid 
accountant, and took care to be amply repaid in manu- 
script. Many effusions, hastily penned in these moments 
of exigency, were published anonymously, and never 
claimed. Some of them have but recently been traced to 
his pen ; while of many the true authorship will pro- 
bably never be discovered. Among others, it is suggested, 
and with great probability, that he wrote for Mr. New- 
bery the famous nursery story of Goody Two Shoes, 
which appeared in 17G5,"at a moment when Goldsmith 
was scribbling for Newbery, and much pressed for funds. 
Several quaint little tales introduced in his Essays show 
that he had a turn for this species of mock history ; and 
the advertisement and title-page bear the stamp of his 
sly and playful humour. 

"" We are" desired to give notice that 'there is in the 
press, and speedily will be published, either by subscrip- 
tion or otherwise, as the public shall please to determine, 
the History of Little Goody Two Shoes, otherwise Mrs. 
Margery Two Shoes; with the means by which she ac- 
quired learning and wisdom, and, in consequence thereof, 
her estate ; set forth at large for the benefit of those 

' Who, from a state of rags and care, 
And having shoes but half a pair, 
Their fortune and their fame should fix, 
And gallop in a coach and six.' 

The world is probably not aware of the ingenuity, 
humour, good sense, and sly satire contained in many of 
the old English nursery tales. They have evidently been 
the sportive productions of able writers, who would not 
trust their names to productions that might be con- 
sidered beneath their dignity. The ponderous works on 
which they relied for immortality have perhaps sunk 
into oblivion, and carried their names down with them ; 
while their unacknowledged offspring. Jack the Giant 
Killer, Giles Gingerbread, and Tom Thumb, nourish in 
wide-spreading and never-ceasing popularity." 

Wm. Godwin, the author of Caleb Williams, 
himself a publisher of children's books, frequently 
asserted that Goldsmith was the writer. Nume- 
rous other authorities of name and weight I will 
give anon ; but I will conclude with the tradi- 
tion conveyed to me in conversations with the 
Misses Bewick, whose father engraved the frontis- 
piece for the Newcastle edition (St. Nicholas's 
steeple in the background) of Goody Two Shoes 
published by Saint, the contemporary of, and 
Newbery of the Nortli a copy of which (24mo, 
1 28 pages, 1796) sold at Puttick and Simpson's 
Jan. 17, 1871, for 31. 7s.; and the next day 
changed hands for a much higher sum thus 
exemplifying G. T. S.'s " clean copies. &c., would 
fetch their weight in gold" that Goldsmith was 

4 th S. IX. JAN. G, '72.] 



the author of both Goody Two Shoes and Tommy 
Trip, for both of which works Thomas Bewick 
engraved sets of cuts, and Bewick told John Bell 
that the Tommy Trip led to the publication of 
his British Quadrupeds in 1790. Bewick had an 
interview with Goldsmith in Newcastle, when 
the latter was on his way to the metropolis from 
Edinburgh. On the wrapper of my Angler's Gar- 
land for 1870, I announced as preparing for the 
press, among others : 

" The true History of Little GOODY Two SHOES, and 
who wrote it, embellished with several series of the 
original woodcuts, fac-simile autographs, steel engrav- 
ings," &c. 

But it afterwards became incorporated in the MS. 
of Goldsmithiana. But seeing the interest raised 
on the subject, the world shall not remain long 
without an unabridged copy printed faithfully 
from the first three Newbery editions, with all 
the poems, characteristic phrases, and appendix 
to the printer, in which Michael Angelo is told 
to " brush up the cuts (from the Vatican ?) that 
they may give good impressions." A genuine 
edition of the book, I can safely say, has not been 
reprinted for fifty years at least. I myself have 
access to, and in my own collection, above twenty 
different editions published by Newbery, Osborne, 
Barton, Mozley, Saint, and others all over the 
kingdom. None are right but the early ones, 
published by the Newberys or Carnan. I asked 
Mr. Winter Jones myself in the Reading Room of 
the British Museum if I could see a copy of Goody 
Two Shoes. They had not got one ! And I have 
not the slightest reason to believe, from my brief 
interview, that Mr. Winter Jones or his ances- 
tor ever thought of having any claim to the 
authorship of GoodyTwo Shoes. In 1867 1 remember 
speaking to W. B., one of the oldest correspond- 
ents of "N. & Q.," of one of my arguments in 
favour of Goldsmith's being the author of Goody 
Two Shoes the allusion to Dr. James's powder 
on the death of Goody's parent. This seems to 
have been mentioned to Mr. Forster in conversa- 
tion, for I see he refers to it in his glorious work 
on Oliver Goldsmith (last edition, 2 vols., 1871) ; 
but I have volumes of " chapter and verse," if 
required, coincident and full of " confirmation 
strong." Apologising for thus far trespassing on 
your valuable columns. EmviN PEARSON. 

P.S. I may mention that in my " Lilliputian 
Library"' are very many of the original little 
books mentioned in the list (including a copy of 
The Museum, from which I will shortly send the 
extract relating to " Wo^log " to " N. & Q."), 
with numerous others not included there, of which 
I will send a further list to " N. & Q." ; and shall 
be glad to hear of any (through its columns) not 
contained in either list. 

(4 th S. vii. passim ; viii. 53, 487.) 

I, an " Anglo-Scotus," am much obliged to your 
correspondent rej oicing in a similar nom de plume 
for his information under the above heading ; but 
as he is, I think, wrong in one or two particulars, 
I shall be obliged by his giving proofs for his 
statements : 

1. I think that the charter granted by Sir John 
Graham to the monks of Melrose could hardly 
have been signed as witnesses by Alexander and 
William Baliol in 1325, as William at all events 
was dead in 1315. 

2. I am very doubtful of any proof existing 
that the Baliols (by that name) held the barony of 
Cavers for nearly fifty years after 1325. I have 
never in my researches found the name of Baliol 
in history or documents, genealogical or otherwise, 
after the overthrow of Edward Baliol, the son of 
John Baliol, in the attempts of the former to 
regain the crown of Scotland say about 1330 
and I do not think it is to be found. 

ANGLO-SCOTUS asks for my authority in stating 
that William Baliol was brother to Alexander, 
the chamberlain of Scotland. In the Public Re- 
cord Office, under date of " March 21, 1292," is an 
acquittance from Robert Heron, the associate of 
the chamberlain of Scotland, for a part of his 
wages, wherein the following appears, and to my 
mind is conclusive : 

" Recepisse de domino AlexandrodeBalliolo Camerario 
Scotia per manus Willelmi de Balliolo, fmtris sui, 
clerici in parte soltitionis vadiorum meorum," &c. 

William Baliol throughout the deeds relating 
to the chamberlainship of Scotland is mentioned 
frequently as acting for Alexander Baliol. 

The arms of Scott of Scotts Hall are un- 
doubtedly derivative of those of Baliol, as those of 
Scott of Great Barr are derivasive of the De Larn- 
bertons or Lindsays, with whom the Baliols were 
associated and connected by ties of relationship ; 
but this is a matter of heraldry better suited to 
the pens of ME. S. W. ELLIS or MR. M. A. LOWER 
than mine. 

Lastly. There appears to have been but one 
William Baliol, who died about 1311-15, and was 
buried at the same monastery (the Grey Friars of 
Canterbury), likewise the place of sepulture of his 
brother's wife, Elizabeth of Chilham, wife of 
Alexander, Chamberlain of Scotland and Lord of 
Chilham ; and it is from this William Baliol that 
the Scotts of Brabourne, near Chilham and Can- 
terbury, claim their descent. J. R. S. 

WEEPERS (4 th S. vii. 257 ; viii. 378, 443.) - 
Funeral hatbands are called "Jamie Duffs" in 
Edinburgh, after a noted character who lived there 
about the middle of last century. This "natural," 
as idiots were called in Scotland, had a passion 



S. IX. JAN. 6, 72. 

for attending funerals, which he always did in full 
mourning costume. Many amusing anecdotes are 
related of this eccentric in that scarce and enter- 
taining work, Kay's Original Portraits, i. 7, and 
ii. 9, 17, 95. ARCH. WATSON. 


WHITEACRE CREST (4 th S. viii. 454.) The 
following arms will be found in vol. iii. Kobaou's 
British Herald : 

" Whitacre [Warwick]. Sable, 3 mascles or. 

Whitacre [Warwick and Althorne, Yorks]. Sable, 3 
ynascles argent. Crest A cubit arm, erect, brandishing a 
sword, all proper. 

Whitacre [Westbury, Wilts, granted 16 March, 1560]. 
The same, with a label of 3 points or. Crest A horse 
passant or. 

Whitacre [Henthorne, Yorks]. Sable, a chevron be- 
tween 3 mascles argent. 

Whitacre. Argent, a chevron between 3 mascles 

Whitacre. Gules, 3 lozenges argent. 

Whitaker [Lysson House, Hereford]. Sable, a fess 
between 3 mascles argent. Crest A horse passant argent. 

Whitaker. Same arms. Crest A tent gules, gar- 
nished or, pennon azure. 

Whiteacre [Lanes, and Warwick]. Or, 3 mascles 

Whiteacre. Sable, 3 lozenges argent. 

Whiteacre. Argent, on a chevron sable, 3 garbs or. 

Whittaker [Barsning Place, near Maidstone, Kent]. 
Sable, a fess between 3 mascles argent. Crest A horsa 
passant or. 

Whittaker. Azure, a cross wavy argent between 4 
seagulls swimming proper. Crest A. seagull, wings 
expanded proper." 

Notices of the family will be found as under : 

Whitacre of Whitacre Superior. Dugdale's Warwick. 
vol. ii. p. 1039. 

\Vhitacre of Woodhouse, Yorks, and Whitakers of 
Broadclough, of Symonstone, of the Holme in Lancashire, 
and of Newcastle Court, Radnor. Burke's Landed Gentry, 
(second, third, or fourth edition). 

Whitaker of Holme, Lancashire. See also Hoare's 
Wilts, Westbury Hundred, p. 43. 

Whitaker of Leeds. Whitaker's Wlialley, p. 336. 

Whitaker of Motcomb. Hutchins's Dorset, vol. iii. 
p. 207. 



viii. 222, 290, 378,422, 537.) I am not disposed I 
to contend with dishonourable quibbling, and will ! 
only say that when I said "married ladies," | 
whereas I had before spoken of " ladies " only, I j 
never dreamed of introducing an "amended read- i 
ing." Everybody knows, iu quoque, that the ! 
ladies represented in effigy on monuments are ! 
generally, if not always, married ladies ; and every j 
unbiassed reader would see my meaning when I I 
explained the do^s at their feet as emblems of ! 
their fidelity as wives. F. C. H. 

Wallace, in his Account of the Islands of Ork- 
ney, 1700, p. 57, states that iu The Links of 
Tranabie, in Westra, the remains of dogs have 
been found in human graves. G. M. T. 

xs, CTJSTOS," ETC. (4 th S. viii. 478.) 
The following occurs in the very interesting col- 
lection entitled Walpoliana* : 

" Mr. Gostling, a clergyman of Canterbury, was, I am 
told, the writer of an admirable parody on the noted 
grammatical line : 

' Bifrons, atque Gustos, Bos, Fur, Sus, atque Sacerdos. 1 " 
It runs thus : 

" Bifrons ever when be preaches ; 
Gustos of what in his reach is. 
Bos among his neighbours' wives ; 
Fur in gathering of his tithes. 
Sus at every parish feast ; 
On Sunday, Sacerdos, a priest." 

Vol. i. p. 115, No. cxxxnr. 

I cannot tell who was the Sacerdos thus sa- 
tirised, or whether indeed any particular person 
was alluded to. I need not say that the scan- 
sion of the line is faulty. It occurs, of course, 
in the " Propria quce maribus " of the Eton Latin 
Grammar, and there reads " Ut bifrons: cus- 
tos," &c. It is marvellous that Walpole should 
commit such an error, even in writing from me- 
mory. In my copy of Walpoliana it is stated that 
the collection was made by Isaac Disraeli. ^ Is 
there any reason to suppose that this attribution 
is correct? It was printed by Bensley for Sir 
Richard Phillips, and forms one of a series with 
Addisoniana, Brookiana, Swiftiana y and perhaps 
others ; each in 2 vols. small 8vo. 



Vide Walpoliana, Xo. 138, vol. i. p. 118, edit. 
2nd, Bentley ; and The Archaeological Mine, p. 61, 
by A. J. Dunkin, published 1856. The Sacerdos 
was the Rev. Mr. Taylor of Bifrons. 


" KEMP " (4 th S. viii. 204, 357, 444.) Here is 
an illustration of hemp and hemping from the 
other side of the Atlantic, apparently carried 
thither from the north of the Tweed. The Times 
of Ottawa (Dominion of Canada), Nov. 10, 1871, 
under the head "Gleanings," has the following: 

" Mr. M'Cormiek lost $750,000 in Chicago, and is 
ready to admit that, no doubt, the great fire is the 
champion reaper " 

J. CK. R. 

In the ancient ballad of "King Estmere," as 
given in Percy's Reliques (vol.i. ed. 1868, Nimmo), 
this word appears both singular and plural, as 
well as the adjective derived from it ; e. g. : 

" But in did come the King of Spayne, 
With kempes many a one. 

Down then came the kemperye man. 

'And how now, kcmpe,' said the King of Spayne." 
A note in Latin to the glossary gives a number of 
modifications of kempe. 

* Vide Sharpe's edition, p. 134 ; 1819 edition. 

4* S. IX. JAX. 6, '72. ] 


About four miles south of Belfast, in Dun- 
donald parish, and townland of Greene/raves, there 
is a very fine cromlech called by the country 
people "the kempe stone." "VV. II. P. 


Jamieson, in his Scottish Dictionary ', has " To 
Kemp, v. n. to strive." This phrase is always 
applied to shearers in the harvest field, in the 
southern counties of Scotland. It has been noticed 
by no less than seven contributors to " N. & Q.," 
and derivations given, but not one of them seems 
to have been aware of the humorous manner Allan 
Ramsay makes use of it in his inimitable poem, 
" Christ's Kirk on the Green." It being probable 
that many of the present generation, south of the 
Tweed, are unacquainted with this poem the 
first canto of which was composed by James I., 
King of Scotland they are herewith presented 
with a stanza towards the close of the second 
canto, in which it is said, " They kempit with 
their teeth " : 

" TVa times aught bannocks in a heap, 

An' twa guidj unts o' beef, 
Wi' hind an' fore spaul o' a sheep,' 
Drew whittles frae ilka sheath : 
Wi' gravey a' their beards did dreep, 

They kempit wi' their teeth ; 
A kebbuck syne that niaist cou'd creep 
Its lane, pat on the sheaf 

In stems that dav." 


This surname or word is derived, according to 
Blomefield the Norfolk historian, " from the Saxon 
word to kemp, or combat, which in Norfolk is 
retained to this day, a foot- ball match being called 
'camping ' or < kemping '; and thus in Saxon a 
kemper signifies a combatant, a champion, or a 
man of arms. This family hath been of long 
continuance in this county " of Norfolk. (See 
Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. i. under " Gissing.") 

Gotfred Kemp, of Norfolk, Esq., had a daugh- 
ter Ann, who was married to Jevan Bladvvell of 
Great Thurlow, Suffolk, anno 1154. 

I was not aware till I saw MR. THOMAS DOB- 
SON'S query that the word kemp was used in the 
sense of severe harvest-field work. . 

Sparham, Xorwich. 

PRINTED MATTER COPIED (4 th S. viii. 480.) 
The paper alluded to may be obtained of Weigle 
(not Wergler, apothecary, Nuremberg, at six 
kreutzers a sheet, or one florin thirty-six kreut- 
zers per book. Any foreign bookseller would, 
doubtless, undertake the commission. He also 
supplies a peculiar form of rubber, for giving the 
necessary pressure, at the price of nine kreutzers. 
Full details of the process are to be found in the 
Bayerisches Industrie und Geicerbeblatt, 1870, 
p. 210 ; 1871, p. 217. Would a translation be of 
any interest? R, B. P. 

KIDLT-WINK (4 th S. viii. 486.) This is surely 
the same as kiddle-a-ivink a word which adver- 
tisements and placards made sufficiently familiar 
to the public eye just before the appearance of 
Beeton's Christmas Annual for 1803. It was used 
as the general title of a collection of stories sup- 
posed to be told by some persons snowed up in a 
Cornish ale-house or kiddle-a-wink. The author 
of the tales, Francis Derrick, offers the following 
etymology : 

" In Cornwall, every ale-hou=e licensed to sell beer only 
is called a kiddle-a-wink. The name is said to have 
arisen thus : About thirty years ago, when I believe an 
Act of Parliament had just been passed establishing the 
new licence, some miners entered one of the first of the 
new-fashioned beer-houses and demanded some toddy. 
' I am not licensed to sell spirits,' answered the poor 
woman who kept the place, looking hard at the men ; 
' but I can boil the keddle (kettle) for e', and ef ye mind 
to wink when I pouar out tha hot waatur, maybe you'll 
find it's draawed out of an uncommon good well.' The 
miners did as the}' were told, and as they stirred and 
drank the hot water, one of them said, ' So the gran' folks 
up to Lunnun church-town that make tha laas cael this a 
beer-houe, they do. Aw ! my dear, I should cael et a 
keddle-an'-wink. An ef thee stick to thic name, Un 
(Aunt) Tamson, thee'st do a pewer stem of trade ; but ef 
thee kips to tha name they give et oop to Lunnun church- 
town, thee waient fnng (earn) much cobshans (savings) 
fer thee ould age. What do e say, soas (friends) ? I reckon 
I'm right. Give me a drap more hot water out of the 
kiddle-a-wink, do e now, co'. (This last is a coaxing 
term generally added to every entreaty by the Cornish.) 
Thus, without the aid of parliament or of lexicon, a word 
was coined, that instantaneously and like a flash was 
conveyed throughout the county and adopted by every 
possessor of the new licence; and although beer-houses 
doubtless sell nothing but beer, they nevertheless remain 
kiddle- a-winks to this day." Beeton's Christmas A nnual 
for 1863, p. 39, note. 


CHANGE OF BAPTISMAL NAME (4 th S. viii. 66, 
153, 443.) That a baptismal name can be changed 
at confirmation appears to have been recognised 
at the close of the last century. The following 
passage opens a popular address by Mr. Walter in 
the first number of The Times, Jan. 1, 1788, in 
which he explains his reasons for changing the 
name of his newspaper from that of the Universal 
Register to the shorter one The Times: 

" The Universal Register has been a name as injurious 
to the logographic newspaper as Tristram was to Mr. 
Shandy's "son ; but old Shandy forgot he might have 
rectified by confirmation the mistake of the parson at 
baptism, and with the touch of a bishop changed Tristram 
into Trismegistus." Grant's Neu-spaper Press, 1871, 
vol. i. p. 425. 

H. P. D. 

BRIOT (4 th S. viii. 351, 424.) This word, as 
applied to a dish, doubtless means an example of 
the famous works by Fran 9013 Briot, a French 
sculptor or engraver in relief, who flourished in 
the sixteenth century during the reign of Henri II. 
It is not unlikely that the highly finished works 
of Francois Briot were produced in both gold and 



S. IX. JAX. G, 72. 

silver, and, owing to the great cost of those 
metals, replicated or cast by the artist in pewter 
(etain). Good examples may be seen in the South 
Kensington Museum, but I am not aware of any 
known ones in either of the precious metals. (See 
Labarte, Hist, des Arts indtistrieh an Moyen Age, 
vol. ii. p. 173.) W. MATCHWICX. 

BEER-JUG INSCRIPTIONS (4 th S. viii. 303, 387, 
427, 460.) I have a jug, in centre inscribed 
"William Gab, 1776," while on one side is a 
plough, with " God speed the plough " ; on the 
other, a wheatsheaf with (i Success to the grain 
returned." W. M. M. 

RUDSTONE MONOLITH (4 th S. viii. 368, 462.) 
It is possible that this remarkable monument is 
not a bauta stone, but a British menhir, dedicated 
to the sun under his title The Red. 

In Ruthwell churchyard (Red's Well), Dum- 
friesshire, are the broken fragments of a similar 
monolith, twenty feet high, exclusive of cap and 
pedestal. The pillar was thus broken by order of 
the General Assembly, 1644 (superstitionis causa). 

Rudstone probably was an ancient object of 
worship. The word is to be found in many coun- 
tries. Rohan and Rouen recall our rowan and 
its red berries, efficacious against witchcraft. The 
Val de Barrousse in the Pyrenees, Rossel in Serk, 
Rousillon in the south of France, Ross in Scotland, 
are instances of Ross or Roux.* RossGrani is the 
Norwegian name for the old sun deity, degraded 
to an ogre, otherwise Redgrain, the same as Dido's 
Grynseus Apollo, the Grian of the Irish. 

Rotomagus, Rutupium, the Rhodanus, are 
further instances of the word being known to the 
Latins, probably through the form rwtilans, or the 
Greek rhodon. Red and yellow were colours 
sacred to the sun. The red poppy is coquelicot 
in French, and Cock (Welsh cock, red) was one 
of the sun's many titles. E. R. P. 

ETYMOLOGY or "HARROWGATE" (4 th S. viii 
179, 312, 406, 460.) The worship of Aur or Ar, 
"the morning," by the British (Aurigny is the 
"fire of Aur" in France) seems to be preserved 
to us in such names as Harrow. Harrow (Aur's 
Hoe), Harlow, Arbory Low in Derbyshire, are all 
the same word differently formed. Harborough 
and Warborough are the same, as the Oarstone, 
Harstone, Warstone are various spellings of the 
monolith or menhir of Aur existing in different 
localities. Harrogate is the " path of Aur." 
The Warrie Glen is a haunted spot near Dum- 
Wane - E. R. P. 

* The " Cadet Roussel " of the French nursery is 
probably a myth of the pagan sun -god, Roux Sel. ' 

Rodmarton is probably the enclosure of Rodmar the 
great Red One. 

Hrothgar, Rodbert, Roderic, Rodiger, are proofs of the 
use of this title in Gothic surnames. Rouena is another. 

There is a hill near Harrowgate called Harlow 
Hill, or sometimes Harlow Car. Can Harrow- 
gate have been originally Harlowgate, as from it 
there is a road to Harlow ? M. B. 

PHENOMENON or THE SUN (4 th S. viii. 183, 293, 
387, 460.) To your learned correspondent's quo- 
tation from old Horace allow me to add another 
from the same source, which has likewise its 
worth " Est modus in rebus "j and to plead, as 
an excuse for the obscurity of the note he so 
justly criticises, the fear I am always in of abus- 
ing your space, which made me strike out, in 
transcribing my note for " N. & Q.," the extract 
I had at first made from the Magazinpittoresque; 
which showed clearly that it was not Mr. Bot- 
tineau who was " in the clouds," but that it was 
he who, in 1810, at the Isle of France, first saw 
by reflection in the clouds the three English men- 
of-war that appeared the next day at Port Louis. 

And now, sir, as confession, we are taught, is 
the first step towards forgiveness and I fully 
acknowledge my fault so I trust to your indul- 
gence and MR. TEW'S to forgive me. P. A. L. 

vii. 493 ; viii. 12.) Perhaps the most interesting 
of all examples of the use of classical gems, during 
the mediaeval period, is that brought to light by 
Mr. Smirke at Wardour Castle. I allude to the 
representation of the Laocoon on a seal attached to 
a document in the possession of Lord Arundel of 
Wardour. Mr. Smirke has noticed the intaglio 
in Dr. Oliver's Monasticon (additional supplement, 
p. 5) ; and Mr. C. W. King has written a very in- 
teresting paper on the subject in the Archaological 
Journal (No. 93, 1867). The latter points out 
that when Goethe had an opportunity of study- 
ing a collection of antique gems, he believed 

" that here it was also undeniable that copies of great 
important ancient works, for ever lost to us, are pre- 
served, like so many jewels, within these narrow limits; 
hardly any branch of art wanted a representative amongst 
them ; in'scarcely any class of subjects was a deficiency 
to be observed." " 

Mr. King, in his Handbook of Engraved Gems 
(p. 45), has described gems which are the only 
things preserving the memory of the masterpieces 
of Canachus. Apelles, and others. 

This intaglio of the Laocoon formed the private 
seal of Thomas Colyns, prior of Tywardreth from 
1507 to 1539. Mr. King thinks it 

" possesses even r characteristic warranting its ascription 
to the best period of Greek art in this particular branch, 
viz. the two centuries commencing with the era of Lysip- 
pus and Pyrgoteles." 

As the Laocoon was found in 1512, there is a 
possibility that Colyns got a gem-copy of the 
sculpture. But a fact appears which renders such 
a supposition very improbable, to say the least. 
In the seal the father, with his right arm bent. 

S. IX. JAN. G, 72.] 



is trying to tear away the head of the serpent 
from his throat ; while in the marble, as it now 
appears, the arm is extended at full length, merely 
forcing away a fold of the serpent's body. It 
seems, however, that when the sculpture was dis- 
covered the part in question was wanting, and 
Michael Angelo restored it ; and it is wonderful 
that he should have so mistaken the meaning 1 of 
the original. I refer your readers interested in 
the subject to Mr. King's valuable paper for his 
ascription of a Grecian origin to the gem-copy of 
the Laocoon. JOHN PIGGOT, Jux., F.S.A. 

136, 334, 464.) The female name of Anne was 
borne by one of the Pawlett family in the last 
century, for some time M.P. for this borough. 
Also by Sir Frederic Anne Hervey, second 
baronet, who took the name of Bathurst. The 
former was so called after his royal godmother. 

S. H. A. H. 


Burke's Peerage gives us George Augustus 
Henry Anne Parkyns, the latejmd last Baron 
Kancliffe j born 1785, died 1850. JOHN PIKE. 

" Florence is certainly a female name," but not 
until it had been for many centuries a male one. 
We have a whole line of Counts of Plolland, chiefly 
bearing the name of Floris, Florens, or Florence. 
The earliest instance of the use of Florence as a 
female name which I have met with, is in the 
case of Florence, daughter of Hugh de Courtenay 
of Devon, and Margaret Carrnmo. Her father 
was killed at Tewkesbury, May 4, 1471. In the 
next generation stands Florence Hastings, Lady 
Grey de Wilton, living 1511; and later still, 
Florence d'Albini, Countess of Bath, who died 
before 1548. HERMENTRUEE. 

SPEEL " (4 th S. viii. 205, 293, 462.) Notwith- 
standing the many replies provoked by JAYDEE'S 
inquiry, his siirrffle question has not yet received 
the simple reply it so clearly demands. I may 
be allowed, therefore, to say that the word speel 
is used in the sense of a splinter of wood in many 
parts of Scotland, where the local patois gives 
that sound to what is more commonly pronounced 
spate. Thus Janiieson, sub voce, has spate, spail, 
speal, for a splinter or chip ; and among the ex- 
amples of its use are found the Scotch proverbs : 
"He that hews above his head, may have the 
speed fall in his eye "; and again, " He is not the 
best wright that hews maist speeds" as it is 
given by Ferguson, both equivalent to speel 

On the Border two words of very similar sound 
are in every-day use : (1) spale or speed, as above, 
the small splinters used to kindle fires ; and (2) 
speel, v. n. to climb, as a tree, a hill. In using 
these the Lowlander says, spale and speel; the 
Highlander, speal and speele, the one sound the 

broad vernacular, the other sharp, according to 
the practice of the Anglified Gaelic speech. 

W. E. 

This word is used by the boys here in the sig- 
nification " to climb." They speel a pole, a tree, 
or the mast of a ship. JAYCEE. 


I recorded in your pages two years ago (4 th S. 
iv. 546) a provincial use of this word. I have 
heard a boy in the grammar school here say he 
had got a speel in his finger, meaning a small 
splinter from the form. W. D. SWEETING. 


5, 163, passim, 468.) Am I not right in thinking 
that, some fifty years ago, this Scotch firm at 
Liverpool was, not Mac Arthur, but " Mac Iver, 
Mac Vicar, and Mac Corquodale"? And some 
one, not knowing exactly how to write it, ad- 
dressed them simply, " The three Macs of Liver- 
pool " and the letter came duly to hand. 

P. A. L. 

HARRY LORREQUER (4 th S. viii. 412, 489.) I 
believe the surmise to be perfectly correct. At 
all events, if MR. OLPHAR HAMST will turn to the 
Dublin University Magazine for May 1847, the 
first article will be found to be a very severe 
diatribe upon the character and manners of the 
Germans, entitled "A Chapter of Continental 
Gossip : a German Grand Ducal City, by Harry 
Lorrequer." I have always considered this to be 
by Charles Lever himself, and hardly think that 
another would thus have been allowed to identify 
himself with him. I may perhaps be excused if, 
only on the ex pede principle, I transcribe the 
following amusing lines : 


" Away with all jesting, sit procttl ! ye scorners, 

I sing the Land of Tobacco about ! 
Of Gniidige Frauen and Hoch Wohlgebornen, 

Of Hamels Cotelettcn, and eke sauer Kraut. 
Where even the language can interdict joking, 

Nor gleam of bright fancy can ever arouse 
The brains that are torpid by hourly smoking, 

Or inventing flat phrases to flatter fat Fraus. 
Where men have no higher enjoyment than spitting, 

Or lounging in gardens to sip sour wine ; 
And lady-like pastimes are centered in knitting, 

Or cooking fat messes adapted for swine. 
Where age is like childhood, and childhood old- 
fashion'd ; 

Where prosing and twaddle are taken for sense; 
Where even young manhood is never impassion'd, 

And the semblance of pleasantry deemed an offence. 
The fancy-struck maiden I hope I shan't kill her, 

By letting sueh treason escape from my hand ; 
But such is the country of Goethe and Schiller, 

And such are the types of the Aimed Fatherland. 




[4 th S. IX. JAN. 6, 72. 

"A CARRION CROW" (4 th S. viii. 296, 377.) 
The following is the first verse of this song, as 
sung in this country : 

" As I walked out one morning in the spring, 

Fiddy, iddy, iddy, iddy, i-dough ! 
As I walked out one morning in the spring, 
In hopes to hear the little birds sing, 
To my heigh-ho ! the carrion crow 
Cries "caw! caw ! 
Fiddy, iddy, iddy, iddy, i-dough ! " 

Two of the lines in another verse are sung 
thus : 

" O wife ! bring down some physic in a spoon, 

For the old sow's fallen in a tarry-able swoon." 
The tune is very lively and agreeable. 



379.) In this article there are two errors. Pen- 
awites (one of the nicknames of the Pennsylva- 
nians) should be Pennawites. This name was 
given by the Connecticut settlers of northern 
Pennsylvania during the controversy between 
Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Beadies (the 
nickname of the Virginians) should be Beagles. 

M. E. 


PROVINCIAL GLOSSARY (4 th S. v. vi. passim ; viii. 
381, 441.) The difficulty of accounting for the 
pansy, or "love in idleness," being corrupted, as 
your correspondent observes, into " loving idols," 
will be lessened in a great measure if he will 
recollect that an old form of the word idleness 
was "idlesse " (vide Spenser). No doubt the old 
name. of the flower was "love in idlesse," from 
which the corruption into "loving idols," or, as I 
used to hear it pronounced in Wiltshire as a boy, 
" loving idles," is natural. 

I perfectly well recollect in Somersetshire the 
common use of the word empt for " empty." 


8, Chesham Place, Brighton. 

" CAST FOR DEATH " (4 th S. viii. 398, 458.) 
My father has in his possession a penny which, 
like the halfpenny mentioned by MR. SWEETING^ 
is perfectly smooth. On one side is scratched 
" Geor. Hall cast for death at Newgate the 7 of 
December 1827 " on the other are figures of a 
woman and little child, with the legend " Char- 
lotte Monday and her mother." My father's ex- 
planation is, that coins of this description were 
supposed to be scratched by condemned culprits 
at Newgate, and disposed of for them by their 
friends or relations in exchange for the means of 
purchasing little comforts otherwise unattainable. 
He has an impression that he has somewhere 
read an account of these coins, in which this ex- 
planation is given, but cannot recall the reference. 
The scratching was, he believes, really done out- 
side the prison by persons who made a trade of 

the proceeding; and, judging from the morbid 
fondness which is exhibited for relics of criminals, 
the suggestion seems likely enough. The coins 
referred to by your other correspondents do not 
seem to me to point to any explanation of the 
words " cast for death," or the dates. If the 
above be correct, the first date on MR. SWEET- 
ING'S coin would be that of the sentence, and the 
second that of her execution. A reference to the 
Newgate Calendar, or some similar work, might 
throw further light upon the matter. 

British Museum. 

TION " (4 th S. viii. 268, 424.) Since my note at 
the first reference I have been assured that the 
painting at Lausanne is perfectly genuine, and 
that its purchase is under consideration by the 
direction of our National Gallery. An English 
gentleman now in Lausanne is acquainted with 
the history of the picture, and says that it ouyht 
to be in our National Gallery. Thanks to MR. 
HAIG, but as I am travelling abroad I cannot 
accept his kind invitation. 


PRINTERS' ERRORS (4 th S. viii. 51, passim, 440.) 
DR. CHANCE quotes the scrap of Latin found 
among the papers of the Rev. J. S. Watson, and 
says, "the meaning is of course quite plain." 
This ia true of the first sentence, but if he will 
make the second intelligible in English he will 
really oblige a good many of your readers. In one 
of the daily papers it was translated" It has 
often pained one who loved formerly to try to- 
love always." The meaning of this is evident, 
but it is obtained by introducing the words to try* 
for which there is no sanction in the original. 

L. W. 

There is an interesting article on " Misprints " 
in Household Words, xi. 232. 


SIR PHILIP FITZWARYN (4 th S. viii. 210, 337.) 
HERMENTRTJDE will find that I correctly stated the 
parentage of Sir Philip Fitzwaryn of Bratton (4 th 
S. viii. 210 *). The Philip she supposes may be 
the same is a "different person altogether," and 
moreover mentioned in the will of his grand- 
mother " Elanor Guaryn," given in my reply to 
one of her own queries (4 th S. iii. 230). I may 
add that I did not write without some knowledge 
of the difficulties of the Fitzwaryn pedigree, occa- 
sioned chiefly by genealogists who have not been 
sufficiently careful to discriminate between the 
various Fulks, Williams, Philips. 


" FINIS CORONAT OPUS " (4 th S. viii. 67, 175.) 
Apropos to MR. TIEDEMAN'S remarks on this old 

* Erratum. For two great concessions read too. 

4' h S. IX. JAN. C, 72.] 



saying (p. 175 of the previous volume), I may men- 
tion that there is carved in stone over the doorway 
of an addition to the old castle of Dalquharan, 
Ayrshire, " Ut scriptura sonat, Finis non pugna 
coronat." Dalquharan is the seat of the Kennedys 
of Dunure, and the new portion of the building on 
which the legend appears bears the date 1679, 
about which time it was a pious fashion in Scot- 
land to quote the Bible over the threshold of 
houses then building. I have been in hopes of 
identifying the chapter and verse of the scripture 
MR. TIEDEMAN takes so much interest in, but 
have as yet failed to do so. The mottoes in ques- 
tion were not always exactly in the words of the 
Bible as, for instance, that found in Glasgow over 
the entrance to the house supposed to have been 
the residence of Zachary Boyd, who wrote the 
Floicers of Zion, and left his money to the univer- 
sity. The motto in question is this " God's pro- 
vidence is mine inheritance." W. B. SCOTT. 

265.) This gentleman has been for several 
years past the rector of a Protestant Episcopal 
church in York, the county town of York County, 
Pennsylvania. The volume entitled The Phantom 
Barge and other Poems contains three poems 
written in a dramatic form namely, "Albertine, a 
Dramatic Sketch " ; " lanthe, a Dramatic Scene " ; 
and "The Sisters, a Descriptive Sketch/' The 
two other volumes mentioned contain no pieces of 
this kind. UNEDA. 


STAITH (4 th S. viii. 395, 489.) This word, fre- 
quently spelt statthe, is in common use in Nor- 
wich and throughout the districts drained by the 
navigable rivers Wensum, Yare, and Bure. It 
signifies a quay or landing-place for goods. The 
word is found in old records and deeds as well as 
in those of modern date. In the local newspapers 
and their advertisements the word is in current 
use. P. LE NEVE FOSTER (a Norfolk man.) 

(4 th S. viii. 391.) For notices of the Cope family 
I would refer MR. ROBINSON to an easily got 
book viz. the modern reprint of Sir Anthony 
Cope's Godly Meditation vpon XX Psalrnes, 1547, 
with its full biographic introduction. Probably 
the present Sir W. II. Cope, Bart., may be able 
to shed light on the poetic gift of Lady Elizabeth 
Cope. With reference to the initials G. W., 
they are plainly those of George Wither, the 
Paraphrase upon the Creed and Lord's Prayer 
being a well-known production of his, not pub- 
lished however until 1688. The Spenser Society 
ought to see this MS. The last piece printed in 
MR. ROBINSON'S interesting communication will 
be found appended to Tuke's Breaden God (1625), 
which indeed is very much an expansion of the 
lines, as half owned by Tuke himself in a curious 

note (see my reprint of Tuke in Fuller Worthies 1 
Library Miscellanies, vol. iii.) The other " copies 
of verses " seem familiar to me, but I cannot at 
present "note" where I have met with them. 
The MS. I find also contains Sir Thomas Browne's 
vivid little poem known to everybody. 

St. George's, Blackburn, Lancashire. 

OF YOUNG GENTLEMEN " (3 rd S. xii. 130, 219.) 
In your number for August 17, 1887, you inserted 
a fquery of mine as to the author of these two 
little volumes. I asserted too confidently that the 
author of the one was the author of the other, 
and hazarded a guess that he was the author of 
Pickivick. A correspondent answered me about a 
month afterwards (p. 219) that Charles Dickens 
was certainly not, for that another gentleman was, 
the author of the Sketches of Young Ladies. Mr. 
Forster in his Life of Dickens now tells us 
(p. 128) that the Sketches of Young Gentlemen 
was the work of Charles Dickens, and that another 
volume about tl Young Couples " proceeded from 
his pen. The latter I have never seen nor heard 
of till now. C. T. B. 

283, 488.) As one of the humble but not labori- 
ous students to whom VIATOR alludes in " N. & Q. v 
(4 th S. viii. 475), I take the liberty of informing 
EGARthat there is alist of eighty-one foreign names 
that occurs in the register of Sandtoft Chapel in 
a small History of Thorne, printed and published 
by S. Whaley, Thome, 1829. The name^ of 
Amory (suggesting "JohnBuncle") appears twice. 


"GREAT GRIEFS ARE SILENT" (4 th S. viii. 166, 
195, 254, 291, 382, 491.) There is a beautiful 
expression in Metastasio (Giro, atto primo, scena 
seconda), which is confirmatory of this saying : 
" Basta cosi t' intendo ; 
Gih, ti spiegasti a pieno, 
E mi diresti meno, 
Se mi dicessi piii." 


FINDERNE'S FLOWERS (4 th S. viii. 92, 155, 236, 
464.) In " N. & Q." (p. 92) appeared a note from 
me signifying that, after a careful search, Fin- 
derne's flowers were found to be Narcissus poeticus. 
MR. BRITTEN, for whose botanical judgment I 
have the sinceresfr esteem, has (p. 464) objected 
to my inferred conclusion that Narcissus poeticus 
is a native of Palestine. I therefore feel bound to 
give the data from which I draw my conclusion. 
Miss Rogers, the observant and truthful author 
of Domestic Life in Palestine, who lived in that 
country five years, and journeyed (we may say) 
"from Dan to Beersheba," and from " the shores 
of the great sea " to the city of Damascus, makes 



S. IX. JAN. 6, 72. 

frequent mention of the flora of that country ; 
and, in a letter that I received from her in June 
last, she says that " Narcissus poeticus grows in 
Palestine by never-failing streams." 

I am aware that Loudon gives Narcissus poeticus 
as a native of "south of Europe" only; so also 
Nerium oleander, which nevertheless grows abun- 
dantly on the banks of the Jordan j nor indeed 
are the olive, the myrtle, auemonies, cyclamens, 
irises, and many others of which I possess dried 
specimens brought from the Holy Land recog- 
nised by him as native in Palestine : from which 
we may infer that the flora of that country is 
but partially known. Therefore, confiding in my 
friend Miss Rogers' authority, I still incline to 
believe that Narcissus poeticus is a native of the 
Holy Land, and the flower which the good Sir 
Geoffrey planted in his garden at Finderne, and 
which has, by its pefsistent growth, perpetuated 
the memory of a lost family and his own " gentle 
knighthood." ANNA HARRISON. 


NINE ORDERS OF ANGELS (4 th S. viii. 2G4, . 4 >o7, 
421, 491.) The orders of angels were first re- 
duced to nine by the pseudo Dionysius. The 
most perfect representation which we have of 
them is in a series in the windows of New Col- 
lege Chapel, Oxford, an account of which, with 
illustrations, is given in Parker's Calendar of the 
Anglican Church illustrated. The orders are (1) 
Angels, (2) Archangels, (3) Virtues, (4) Powers, 
(5) Dominations, (6) Principalities, (7) Thrones, 
(8) Seraphim, (9) Cherubim. The interme- 
diate orders (3, 4, &c.) are frequently alluded to 
by St. Paul e. g. Rom. viii. 38; Eph. i. 21; 
Col. i. 16; and by St. Peter, 1, iii. 22. 


Springthorpe Rectory. 

"Dip " IN MENDIP (4 th S. viii. 144, 275, 386.) 
Does not the Men in Mendip (if dip is the Welsh 
dil), fall, or depth) indicate the worship of the 
moon, as in the Menai (moon- water) Straits, Mon- 
mouth and the Monnow ? Mancunium and Man- 
duessidum are Romanised forms of the Northern 
mam, the moon; akin to Noivwjvfa (mensis), and 
the Hebrew manah, numbered, divided. Min- 
erva and Sul are classed as the same goddess in 
inscriptions on altars now extant in the Bath 
Museum. E. R. P. 

THE SHAPWICK MONSTER (4 th S. viii. 334, 480.) 
"Your correspondent MR. JOHN CROSS has put a 
poser to me. I do not believe that any one has 
the_ slightest idea of the date of the occurrence, 
which rests entirely on oral tradition ; and may, 
so far as I know, extend back to the glacial age. 

W. S. 

STOCK AND FLUTE (4 th S. viii. 419, 487.) This, 
when rightly quoted, "stock and fluke," is sea 
slang, and means totality = a whole anchor. 

U. 0-N. 

This (corrupted) expression, though possibly 
obsolete, is no bagman's slang-. My father was a 
merchant and shipowner, and I constantly heard 
something like it both at his table and in his 
office when a boy. It was used for " entirely," 
" totally." Any one over-head-and-ears in debt 
was said to be ruined " stock and flue " (not flute), 
sometimes "pea and flue." A total wreck was 
described in tbe same form of words. But there 
was a stronger form of the saying which shows 
its origin. A youth desperately smitten with the 
tender passion, for instance, was declared to be 
11 pea, flue, and anchor-stock " in love the nau- 
tical corruption of peak, finite, and stock, those 
parts of a well-held ship's anchor which are forced 
into (the first two being often quite buried in) 
the bed of the sea. SHERRARDS. 

THE UNBAPTISED CHILD (4 th S. viii. 500.) 
In MR. CUTHBERT BEDE'S paper, "Traditionary 
Stories of Argyllshire," occurs the following pas'- 
sage : 

" It is believed by many in Cantire if a child dies 
before it has been baptised, it is neither taken to heaven 
nor cast into hell, and that its soul is neither lost nor 
saved, but is left upon the earth and made a syreachan 
raidhlic, 'a shrieker of a burying-place.' " 

Does not this Scottish tradition throw some 
light on the meaning of a passage in Macbeth. 
Act I. Sc. 7 ? 

" And pity, like a naked new born babe 
Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubin, hors'd 
Upon the sightless couriers of the air, 
Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye, 
That tears shall drown the wind." 

Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 

At Looe and Polperro, in southeast Cornwall, 
unbaptized children were formerly believed to 
become fairies, or, in the language of the district, 
pi&ies. WM. PENGELLY. 


PIG-KILLING (4 th S. viii. 505.) This supersti- 
tion is, I believe, widely spread. In A Journey 
to the Western Islands, <?., Dr. Johnson says of 
the people there : 

" They expect better crops of grain by sowing their 
peed in the moon's increase. The moon" has great in- 
fluence in vulgar philosophy-. In my memory it was a 
precept annually given in one of the English almanacks, 
to kill hogs when the moon was increasing, and the 
bacon would prove the better in boiling." Johnson's 
Works, London, 1796, viii. 342. 

Did Vox Stellarum condescend to utter such 
uncelestial injunctions? ST. SWITHIN. 

The superstition mentioned by MR. FALKNER 
seems to have been very prevalent formerly. See 
"Moon, Superstitions respecting the," Penny Cy- 
clopadia, vol. xv. p. 378. WM. PENGELLY. 

FOLK LORE: ROBINS (4 tb S. viii. 505.) The 
superstition about robins is known in parts of 

4*S. IX. JAN. (i, Ti'. J 



Derbyshire, where the catching or killing of a 
robin, or taking the eggs from a robin's nest, is 
certain to be followed by misfortune of some sort, 
such as the death of cattle or the blight of corn. 
The folks say : 

" Robins and wrens 
Are God's best cocks and hens. 
Martins and swallows 
Are God's best, scholars." 

And these birds are for the most part held in 
veneration. But I know of places where the de- 
light of rough men and youths, in spare time on 
Sundays, was (and perhaps is) "jeuty hunting": 
that is, hunting to death with sticks and stones 
any unfortunate wren they could find. 


"MANURE " (4 th S. viii. 399, 470.) It does not 
appear that this word is ever found as manure 
when used as a verb, but only when a substantive. 
So that Cowper, in the Garden, has preserved for 
us a trace of a distinction which we should other- 
wise probably have overlooked ; namely, that there 
was at one time a different pronunciation for the 
verbal and the substantival uses of this word. We 
are familiar with the manner of distinction in a 
rebel and to rebel ; a record, and to record. These 
distinctions are not very old, as appears in the 
latter case from the fact that the lawyers still 
speak of records substantively. Also we find in 
Spenser the substantive record 

"But bv record of antique times I finde/' 

F. Q. in. 2. 2. 

The pronunciation manure is therefore merely 
an example of natural effort to mark by pronun- 
ciation the difference between the verbal and sub- 
stantival uses of the same word. There are many 
other cases besides the above, and of a different 
sort. Compare the difference of pronunciation 
between a house and to house ; between a use and 
to use ; an advice and to advise ; a prophecy and to 
prophesy. It was new to me that the word manure. 
had ever been subjected to this sort of modifica- 
tion, and a very interesting observation it is. 


GTJIDMAN (4 th S. viii. 479.) The passage re- 
quired from Sir George Mackenzie seems to be 
the following one, which occurs in chap. ii. of his 
Science of Herauldry (Edinburgh, 1680) 

"This remembers me of a custom in Scotland, which is 
but gone lately in dissuetude, and that is, that such as did 
hold their lands of the prince were called lairds ; but such 
as held their lands of a subject, though they were large 
and their superiour very noble, were only called good-men, 
from the old French Avord bonne homine, which was the 
title of the master of the family." 


RUMMAGE (4 th S. viii. 453.) Is not this word 
rather of Anglo-Saxon derivation, from Rum and 
agan : to obtain or make room, which appears to 

be its correct meaning, used commercially at the 
present day. " To rummage up " in a warehouse 
means the restowing of goods to make room for 
more. Hence " rummage sale goods," which 
means those goods are offered for sale found on 
such a restowing or rummaging. Likewise the 
"rummaging a ship" is the clearing away the 
rernanets of an inward cargo preparatory to the 
taking in of the outward cargo. 


GARRET AND GERALD (4 th S. viii. 479.) We 
find in Jacob's Law Dictionary, under title " Mis- 
| noiner," "Peter and Piers have been adjudged 
| one and the same name, and Garrett and Gerald 
j are but one name." " But," adds Lower, " Garrett 
I is a hamlet in Surrey, famous for its mock mayor." 
No doubt Garret might corrupt from Gerald 
(Gerold, Gerhold, Jerrold, Garrold, Jarrold), like 
! Garbutt from Gerbold ; but Garrett (Garett, 
j Garratt) is more probably from Gerard (Garrard, 
Jarravd), and still more so from Garrad (Garrod, 
I Garrood, Garrud), the inverse of Roger, Rodger. 

Gray's Inn. 

P.S. The first syllable of the name Rodger is 
from the 0. G. rat, consilium, consiliarius ; the 
last from ger, telum, missile, bellum, cupidus, 
cupide (gar, telum, totus, paratus, valde). 

Miss Yonge, in her History of Christian Names, 
tells us that Gerhold, a Saxon, migrated to Ireland, 
took the cowl, ^founded a monastery at Tenipul 
Gerald, did other saintly deeds, and died A.D. 732. 
The Irish call St. Gerhold " Garalt, and have con- 
fused his name with the Keltic Gareth, one of the 
Knights of the Round Table, so that Garrett and 
Gerald are regarded as identical." 


The derivation of Gerald (synonyms Girald, 
Gerard, Girard, Giraud, &c., and probably also 
| Garret, Jarrett, &c.), is possibly from the Welsh 
Geirydd, a speaker j or, as some think, the Gaelic 
(and allied forms) geier, ger, an eagle (preserved 
in ger-falcon, &c.) The name of Giraldus Cam- 
breusio, a Welshman, was written in French 
Gerald or Girard Barri, or du Barri. His patro- 
nymic did not, probably, contain the /, which ap- 
peared first in the Latinised form. This trans- 
mutation of liquids is illustrated in many other 
words, such as Bretwalda for Bret-?cwY/#. 

The above may not establish the identity of 
I Garret and Gerald, but it shows their close sirni- 
| larity, and perhaps points to their common origin. 


DOVERCOURT (4 th S. viii. 479.) Baxter accounts 
for too much in deriving the first part of this 
name from dwr isc. The place was named from 
its situation near water, from the British dwr, 



S. IX. JAN. 6, '72. 

divfr. Hence Dover, Kent, named from a stream 
called the Dore. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's lun. 

QUEEN MARY (4 th S. viii. 433.) DR. ROGERS 
quotes the register in the Canongate church, Edin- 
burgh, as to a record of the murder of David 
Rizzio, and of the Queen's marriage. The register 
of Rizzio's death is obviously wrong. The mar- 
riage of Mary and Darnley took place in July 
1565 ; Rizzio was assassinated in March 1566 ; 
Darnley was murdered in Feb. 1567. See Cham- 
bers' Book of Days, vol. i. j also Froude's Elizabeth, 
vol. viii. J. W. 

WILD BEASTS FOR SALE (4 th S. viii. 514.) I 
may mention (not by way of advertisement) that 
on page 990 of the Post Office London Directory 
for 1871 the name of '' Jamrach, Chas., naturalist 
and importer of foreign shells, birds, and animal?," 
is to be found. A. 

IRISH BULLS (4 th S. viii. 515.) Mr. W. Steuart 
Trench, in his Realities of Irish Life (second edi- 
tion, page 189), has these words: "The house 
where the trial took place was a large barn "; 
and I heard them quoted by an Irish peer (Lord 
Clancarty), without any suggestion that there was 
anything paradoxical about them, in the great 
debate upon the Irish Church in the House of 
Lords in 1869. A. 

Bow BEARER (4 th S, viii. 414.) Baines's Lan- 
cashire, iii. 305, tells us as regards Bow land For- 
rest, one of the principal officers was the bow- 
bearer and chief steward, called, in a patent of 
Henry IV. to Sir James Harrington, the forrester. 
In after times Baines says he was called the 
parker, and this feudal oifice was held for three 
centuries by the family of Parker of Browesholnie 
as hereditary bow-bearers of Bowland Forest. 


-THE VERB " PROGRESS" (4 th S. viii. 369.) So 
far as I understand, the Americanism is not the 
invention of a new verb, but the un grammatical 
alteration of the irregular verb " progress " into 
the spurious regular verb " progress." 

In the lines of Shakspeare and Ford cited, the 
rhythm requires a false pronunciation a poetical 
licence made use of by Byron in his " Spoils of 
Trafalgar," and by Shakspeare himself in the fol- 
lowing instance : after " Birnani Wood shall 
march to Dunsinane" (which is correct), we have 
" high Dunsz/zane hill." Here the accent is on 
sin to suit the rhythm. S. 

COIN (4 th S. viii. 516.) The medal or counter 
described by F. B. seems to be an earlier variety 
of another which is now very common. On the 
obverse is the Queen's head to the left, with 
"H. M. G. M. (Her Most Gracious Majesty) 
Queen Victoria, 1867." On the reverse is a 
horseman in a hussar's dress, with drawn sword, ! 

but wearing a crown, galloping to the right ; at 
his side a two-headed forked-tongued dragon, 
with wings and forked tail. "To Hanover," 
above, and " 1837 " in the exergue. This date of 
course refers to the accession of the Duke of 
Cumberland to the crown of Hanover when her 
Majesty became Queen of Great Britain, and was 
by the operation of the Salic law precluded from 
reigning in Hanover. The reverse was no doubt 
struck at the time it bears date. The obverse is 
of a later period. They are both of wretched 
workmanship. Those I have seen are gilt ; and 
though they also, as stated in the editorial note, 
" are often used as whist-markers," that is, by 
the virtuous, their principal employment is by 
sharpers, who _ will display a handful of them to 
an intended victim, inducing him to believe that 
they are sovereigns. 311. 

^ DIABETES MELLITUS (4 th S. viii. 517.) This 
disease is mentioned by Celsus and Galen, and 
also by the eminent physician Aretams, who gives 
a very good account of it. Your correspondent 
M. would do well to consult Etienne's erjcravpos ; 
Aretaeus,* Uept omi/, &c. &c. Lugd. Bat. 1735, 
fol. ; and Kuehn (C. G.), Med. Grcccorum Opera 
qua extant, Lips., 1821-30, 8vo. The late Dr. 
Golding Bird told me he had invented a better 
term than diabetes. If I remember rightly it was 
a compound of fieAi and peo>. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

CURE FOR RHEUMATISM (4 th S. viii. 505.) Of 
course any one can try for himself the cure for 
cramp noted by A. L., but I suspect that, the 
result granted, imagination is the only solution. 
Thus as to the remedy of the raw potato in rheu- 
matism I can vouch for the following : Some few 
years ago a negro from the United States, wishing 
to deliver a lecture on the Civil War in America 
then just concluded, called on a clergyman in 
Oxfordshire, and observing him writhe frequently 
during the interview, asked him if he were suf- 
fering from rheumatism. This being admitted by 
the vicar, the negro confidently recommended a 
raw potato carried in the pocket. a Ah," said 
the vicar, "that requires faith, which I have 
not." " I don't want faith, but a potato," was 
the rejoinder; and the experiment was tried, the 
potato, strange to say, being carried in the hind 
pocket of a loose surtout. The cure was effected. 
Now to show that imagination may have exercised 
mysterious influence on body through mind, let 
me give a sequel to the above. I was once telling 
the story at a dinner-table in London, when one 
of the guests broke out with: "Oh, I know all 
about that cure, only I never heard of the potato. 
One friend of mine was accosted by another, and 

* Aretreus defines 

ffupicocv KCU 

S. IX. JAN. G, 72.] 



warmly thanked for having removed his rheumatic 
pains. ' And,' said he, ' I still carry your ad- 
mirable remedy here is the nutmeg.' i Bless me,' 
said the other, astonished; ' I recollect giving; you 
the advice ; but I never mentioned a nutmeg : I 
recommended you a magnet? " \V. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

NAME "THEASTER" (4 th S. viii. 517.) This 
may be a surname which has been used as a bap- 
tismal name or a corruption of Theresa, or of 
some other high-sounding title, which the parents 
adopted without being able to pronounce. The 
mother of a cottage girl, Beatrice, to whom I was 
introduced, spoke of her as He-trice, thinking, I 
suppose, that as p, e } a, spells /*?[], S, e, a must 
spell be. I had to ask for the name twice before 
I could find out what Be- trice meant. 


The name Theaster would seem to be derived 
from e&y and 'AO-T^J meaning God's star. C. S. 

Surely Theaster is a mistake, a concoction. I 
have both married and buried many with such 
concocted names since I became a clergyman, but 
took good care not so to christen any. In my 
parish not long since was a male called " Mince." 


Recollections of Past Life. By Sir Henry Holland, Bart., 
M.D., F.R.S., D.C.L., &c., President of the Royal In- 
stitution of Great Britain, Physician in Ordinary to 
the Queen. (Longmans.) 

A physician, a metaphysician, a scholar, a man of 
science, a man of the world, of genial and generous tem- 
perament, and who gratefully acknowledges that his long 
life has been happy and prosperous Sir Henry Holland's 
Recollections take their tone 'and colour 'from these 
characteristics, to which much that is recorded in this 
charming book owes its origin. Recorded originally and 
put to press for the amusement of the writer's immediate 
friends, those friends have only shown a just appreciation 
of the merits of the volume in urging upon Sir Henry 
Holland the propriety of giving to the world at large his 
very striking Reminiscences and his intelligent comments 
on the scenes, events, and remarkable personages that 
have, during his long and useful life, come under his 
observation. There may be, according to the peculiar 
taste of the reader, some difference as to which part of 
the volume is the more valuable. Sir Henry's Recollec- 
tions of London at the commencement of the present 
century are peculiarly interesting. His account of his 
preparation for a course of professional life is full of in- 
struction for those who are about to enter on the career 
which he has so successfully pursued. His sketches of 
various excursions to the Continent, to the United States, 
and elsewhere during his autumnal vacations for more 
than half a century, are as graphic as they are instructive; 
while his notices of the various remarkable and eminent 
personages with whom it has been his good fortune to 
associate, will probably obtain the greatest number of ad- 
mirers. We much doubt whether the present season will 
produce a volume which shall at all approach in deserved 
popularity the Reminiscences of Past Life. 

Cambridge in the Seventeenth Century. Part 111. Life 
of Bishop Bedell by his Son. Noiv first edited by John 
E. B. Mayor, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. (Printed for the Editor, and sold by Mac- 
millan & Co.) 

This was originally intended to have been accom- 
panied by a larger life by the son-in-law of Bishop 
Bedell, with the addition of inedited letters and illustra- 
tive notes ; but the editor, being unwilling to delay any 
help he could render to the disendowed Church of Ire- 
land, determined to issue this part at once, " the gross 
proceeds of which, after deducting the booksellers' com- 
mission, will be given to further the education of orphans 
of Irish clergymen. Churchmen who acknowledge the 
political justice of disestablishment seem of all men 
most bound to lighten the difficulties which beset the 
church under the altered conditions of her life." 

A Mirror for Monks. Written by Lewis Blosius, Abbot 
of St. Beliefs Order. Edited with a Preface by Sir 
John Duke Coleridge, Her Majest3''s Attorney-General, 
M.P. for Exeter, and late Fellow of Queen's College, 
Oxford. (C. J. Stewart.) 

This is a reprint (with the orthography slightly 
modernised and made uniform) of an English trans- 
lation published in Paris in 1676, of a very popular 
Book of Devotion written by Ludovicus Franciscus 
Blosius (Louis Francois de Blois), who after being edu- 
cated in the Court of Charles V., was, on account of the 
beauty of his character and holiness of his life, elected 
Abbot of the monastery of Liessies in Hainault, when, 
only twenty -four years of age ; which office he continued 
to hold till his death, having refused the Abbacy of 
Tournay and the Archbishopric of Cambray. Sir John 
Coleridge has done wisely in neither changing the title 
nor altering a sentence here and there, with which readers 
belonging to the English Church may not agree ; for few 
readers of a truly Christian spirit but will gladly recog- 
nise in this little book " how pure, how simple, hoV 
Scriptural, how devout, how intensely and essentially 
Christian," is the religion here taught by a Roman 
Catholic Abbot of the sixteenth century. 

Captain Cox, his Ballads and Book ; or Robert Laneham's 
Letter. Wherein Part of the Entertainment to the 
Queen's Majesty at Killingworth Castle in Warwick 
Sheer, in this Summer Progress, 1573, is signified; 
from afreend Officer in the Court to his freend a Citizen 
and Merchaunt of London. Re-edited, with Forewords 
describing all the accessible Books, Tales, and Ballads 
in Captain Cox's List and Tlie Complaynt of Scotland, 
1548-9 A.D. By Frederick J. Furnivall, M.A., Camb. 
(Printed for the Ballad Society.) 

We heartily wish for the sake of the Ballad Society, 
and of the important and praiseworthy objects for which 
that Society has been instituted, that it had been possible 
to have brought worthy Captain Cox to the front, and 
have made this the first book issued by the Society. How 
the lovers of old Ballads would have enlisted under his 
banner, ready to march through Coventry or anywhere 
else with him ! But better late than never ; and many, 
we doubt not, will be led by this new volume to enrol 
themselves on the list of members. For the book is one 
of great interest, and full of curious information ; and 
although at first sight the reader, when he turns over 
the nearly two hundred pages of " Forewords," may be 
inclined to complain with Prince Hal " that there is 
an intolerable deal of sack to but one halfpenny worth of 
bread " yet, when he comes to look closer into it, he will 
be well pleased that it is so. For the halfpenny worth 
j of bread, that is " Laneham's Letter," is somewhat stale, 
having been before reprinted ; whereas Mr. Furnivall's 



[4* S. IX. JAN. G, ; 72. 

sack (being his illustrations of the Folk Books and Bal- 
lads recorded by Captain Cox, and in " The Complaynt of 
Scotland," and elsewhere) they will find racy and 'full of 
flavour, and much to their taste*. A good Index adds to the 
value of a book which well deserves the attention of all 
students of Old English Literature. 

YORKSHIRE ALMANACKS. Students of our local dia- 
lects, and admirers of provincial humour, may be glad to 
know that the following almanacks have been issued for 
the use of our Yorkshire friends : Tommy's Annual for 
1872, noli written an published by Hissen (Leeds) ; 
T'Bairnsla Foaks Annual for 1872, and all be Tom Tred- 
dlehoyle, Esq., by authority a t'man i t'moon (Leeds) ; 
The Original Illuminated Clock Almanack, 1872, in the 
Yorkshire Dialect, by John Hartley (Halifax) ; and 
lastly, The Dewsbre Back at Mooin Olmenac an T' West 
Ridin Historical Calendar for T'Year 1872. Put to- 
gether bi Mungo Shoddy, Esq., B.M.A. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. The last addition to the most 
useful Class-Catalogue of Manuscripts in the British Mu- 
seum consists of three volumes of Chronicles and His- 
tories, arranged according to countries, and in order of 
time. It is, as inspection has satisfied us, says The 
Athcnaium, an admirable piece of work, and has been 
done by Mr. E. Maunde Thompson, one of the officers of 
the Manuscript Department. 

LETTERS OF JUNIUS. It is announced by the Pall 
Mall Gazette that the Lord Chief Justice of England has 
undertaken to sum up, in a series of critical articles in 
The Academy, the whole of the circumstantial evidence 
respecting the authorship of the "Letters of Junius," 
including that of handwriting, as lately brought forward 
by the Hon. E. Twisleton and Mr. Chabot. The first 
article of the series will be published on January 15. 

LIVINGSTONE EXPEDITION. It is understood that the 
Government have decided to give no aid to the Geogra- 
phical Society in their pi*oposed Livingstone expedition. 
Under these circumstances the society has undertaken the 
expedition on its own account, and we are sure the sym- 
pathy and support of the public will not be wanting. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are gi ven for that purpose : 
Mo ion NO POST. March 3,1858. 
BEVERLEY EXPRESS, August 29, 1857. 

Wanted by E. J. " Notes & Queries' " Office, 43, Wellington Street, 


8vo, c. 1750. 
DUUANDUS ox SYMBOLISM, translated by Neale and Webb. 8vo. 

Wanted by Capt. F. 31. Smith, Alnmouth, Bilton, Northumberland. 

WAVRRLEY NOVELS, 48-vols. edition oFl831. Vols. V. and VI. (THE 
ANTIQUARY) in tolerably good condition. 
Wanted by Mr. ,/. Bouchier, 2, Stanley Villas, Bexley Heath, S.E. 


cations from gentlemen willing to assist in this good work 
should be addressed to the Hon. Sec. of The Chaucer 
Society, A. G.*Snelgrove, Esq., London Hospital. 

OUR CORRESPONDENTS will, we trust, excuse our sug- 
gesting to them, both for their sakes as well as our own 

I. That they should write clearly and distinctly and on 
one side of the paper only more especially proper names 
and words and phrases of ivhich an explanation may be 

required. We cannot undertake to puzzle out what a Cor- 
respondent does not think worth the trouble of ivritiny 

II. That to all communications should be affixed the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, 
but as a guarantee of good faith. 

III. That Quotations should be verified by precise rv- 
ferences to edition, chapter, and page ; and references to 
" N. & Q." by series, volume, and page. 

IV. Correspondents who reply to Queries would add to 
their obligation by precise reference to volume and page 
where such queries are to be found. The omission to do 
this saves the writer very little trouble, but entails much to 
supply such omissions. 

J. H. (Stirling.) We shall always be glad to hear from 
you, but on the present occasion cannot insert your note, 
as the lines in question were not icritten as you suppose. 

M. A. We have not inserted the quotation, thinking 
that your object was served by MR. SKKAT'S subsequent 
note, which appeared in our last number, having reached us 
before your letter. 

KYMBY. Thanks for your contributions. Want of 
space compels us, however, only to make a selection. We 
cannot too often remind our correspondents that brevity has 
great merit in our eyes. 

Jus. The origin of the quotation is not known. The 
Indexes o/"N. & Q." should be consulted. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications 
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NOTES : Napoleon on Board the Northumberland, 29 

English Gilds: Early Printing: Parchment Paper, 31 
Chaucer lie-stored, ;V2 The Durham MS. of Earle's " Mi- 
crocosmographie," 33 The Gates of Somnauth Doctor 
Nash Parsley-bed Health Enquiries " Better to 
rt-ijrn in Hell than serve in Heaven" Unrecorded Saying : 
"Like the Walsall Man's Goose" Longevity Folk 
Lore : Christmas Decorations and the Upper Room 
VJIZPII Bernard Lens and his Sons Boyhood of Charles 
Dickens, 34. 

QUERIES : " The Lexington Papers," 36 American 
Queries Cheap Bookcases Bows in Bonnets Robert 
Butts, D.D., Bishop of Ely, 1738-48 " Carpathian 
Wizard's Hook" Commercial Queries Coutts Family 

Henri Deux Ware Heraldic Hedgehog " Mary 
Anne " Poyntz Family Prober Q.uotatiou wanted 
Capture of Richard I. Royal Heads on Bells Arms of 
Prince Rupert George Sandys Three Leaves eaten for 
the Holy Sacrament Sir Topas Watton Castle, 36. ' 

EE PLIES: Gainsborough as a Musician, 39 An Ameri- 
can Centenarian, 40 The Latin Language, &c., 41 
Public Tenchers, 42 Longfellow Campshead Cer- 
vantes and his Translators Archery versus Musketry 
" Prise " Funeral of Queen Caroline Washing Hands 

David: Davit Bonnets Heron, or Herne "Black 
Barnsley " Camb-Pencil Genealogical Hint Stereo- 
scopy "The Mistletoe Bough" Marriages of English 
Princesses Gybbon Spilsbury Battle of Harlavr 
Orphanage " He made the Desert smile " Christen- 
ing Bit, 43. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


" I therefore quitted the cabin, an ^ went to the 
admiral, to whom I stated my reasons for wish- 
ing to retire, and he agreed with me; upon 
which I returned and whispered to Lord Lowther 
and Sir G. Bingham what had passed between me 
and the admiral. After which I said, ' Monsieur 
le General, j'ai 1'hoimeur de vous saluer.' He 
made a slight return to my bow, and I quitted 
him. My companions, however, probably not un- 
derstanding what I had said to them, remained, 
and in about five minutes I returned into the 
cabin by the admiral's direction, and brought 
them away. Lord Lowther told me that during 
my absence Bonaparte had laid hold rather 
eagerly of Sir G. Bingham's ribbon at his button- 
hole, and asked him what it meant. Bingham 
told him it was for service in Spain. B. ' For 
Salamanca ? ' Sir G. ' It means four medals for 
four general actions.' Bonaparte did not bid him 
enumerate them, but only said < So you have seen 
a good deal of service,' or some such words. I 
now thought it was all over, as we were to go on 
shore immediately as soon as the despatches were 
ready, of which Lord Lowther was to be the 
bearer ; so we got some cold meat in the fore-cabin, 

Continued from p. 5. 

and as we were at table behold the door opened, and 
Bonaparte, followed by Bertrand, made his appear- 
ance. On seeing me, who fronted him, he smiled, 
and said, ( Allez-vous a terre ? ' L. ' Oui, Monsieur 
le General, nous mangeons un morceau avant de 
partir.' He passed on, and went out upon deck. 
We then made extreme haste to finish our 
luncheon, and in a couple of minutes Lowther 
was after him, and Fin a minute after that. Look- 
ing through the window in the mean time I saw 
Bonaparte walking briskly up and down and look- 
ing at the rigging, then stopping, and bending 
down courteously to speak to Madame Bertrand 
and Madame Month olon, who were sitting in 
chairs under the bulwark. When I came upon 
deck I went on to the mainmast, and, turning 
round, saw Bonaparte standing close to the poop, 
talking to Lord Lowther, who had his hat off. 
Shortly afterwards they advanced, and then Low- 
ther put on his hat, rather slowly and hesitatingly. 
On coming up to me Bonaparte spoke to me, and 
nade me face about with him, and on arriving 
within a yard or two of the poop halted there, and 
entered into the folio wing conversation with me : 
B. (looking round at the bulwark, which wanted 
painting in several places) ' Ce vaisseau paroit 
avoir ete equipe a la hate.' L. * Monsieur le Ge- 
neral, il est vrai, mais en revanche, c'est un de nos 
meilleurs vaisseaux, il est surtout tres-bon voilier.' 
B. ' On auroit pii envoyer d'autres vaisseaux qui 
sont en meilleur etat ; il y avoit a Plymouth le 
Chatham par exemple, ou bien le Tonnant.' To 
this I answered that I did not know precisely in 
what condition those ships were, but that they 
might be in very good condition to float in Ply- 
mouth harbour or to cruise in the Channel, and 
yet not fit for foreign service. Here some officers 
on the poop, whom he had not seen before, caught 
his eye, and he asked Bingham abruptly what 
those" epaulettes were. Bingham answered, the 
light infantry division of his regiment. I then 
inquired of him whether there were marines in 
the French navy ; to which he replied in the affir- 
mative. Shortly afterwards I took up the subject 
of his accommodation in the Northumberland, and 
said I hoped it was tolerably good ; that it would 
have been better if the ship had not been so hastily 
fitted out, and added that I was sure the admiral and 
his officers were desirous of doing all they could 
to make his voyage pleasant, or some such words. 
On this he took occasion to break out into com- 
plaints against the conduct of our government in 
confining him at all. B. ' Vous avez souille le 
pavilion et 1'honneur national en m'emprisonnant 
comme vous faites.' L. l On n'a viole aucun en- 
gagement avec vous, et 1'interet de la nation 
demande que vous soyez mis hors d'etat de rentier 
en France; vous iretes sujet a aucun degre decon- 
trainte qui ne soit necessaire a 1'accomplissement 
de cet objet.' B. ( Peut-etre done ce que vous 



S. IX. JAN. 13. '72. 

faites est prudent, mais ce n'est pas genereux.' 
L. ' De particulier a particulier la generosite est 
de saison, mais Monsieur le General, 1'interet na- 
tional doit determiner la conduite de nos Ministres, 
qui sont comptables a la nation, et la nation exige 
d'eux de vous mettre en lieu sur/ B. ' Vous 
agissez (or vous raisonnez) comme une petite 
puissance aristocratique, et non comme un granc 
etat libre ! Je suis venu m'asseoir sur votre sol, j 
voulois vivre en simple citoyen del' Angleterre. " Oi 
this I told him that every account from Franc 
proved that his party was exceedingly powerful 
that affairs might take such a turn there that h 
should again be recalled to the throne, and (t 
put the argument in the least offensive way t 
him) he might think himself in honour bound t 
obey the call. B. ' Non, non, ma carriere est ter 
minee.' I reminded him of his having used th 
same words a year ago in Elba, on which he ex 
claimed with great animation : ' J'etois Souverain 
alors, j'avois le droit de faire la guerre, le roi de 
France ne m'a pas tenu parole ; ' and then, quite 
exultingly, laughing and shaking his head signifi- 
cantly, ' J'ai fait la guerre au roi de France. avec 
six cents hommes ! ' Here we all laughed ; * we 
could not help it, his manner was so remarkably 
dramatic, and the thing said so pointed. After a 
minute's laughing I said, thinking to get some- 
thing out of him about Italy, that many people 
in England wondered, at the moment of his re- 
appearance in France, that he had not rathei 
disembarked in Upper Italy. B. 'J'ai ete assez 
fcien recu en France, n'est-ce pas ? ' and then he 
went on describing his reception : how he ad- 
vanced without a guard, and how he could have 
raised four millions of peasants. I said I did not 
doubt his popularity in France ; that, however, 
thought it extraordinary the conscription should 
not make him unpopular with the peasants. B. 
'Ce sont vos prejuges, la France n'est pas epuisee.' 
L. l La loi de la conscription etoit pourtant tres- 
rigoureuse, vous preniez jusqu'a 1'unique fils.' 
B. 'Ah, non ! ce sont vos prejuges, des chimeres.' 
He then repeated his charges against the English 
government, and said if he had not expected far 
different usage, he would not have given himself 
up to us ; that- he had many resources left that 
he might have surrendered to the Emperor of 
Russia, or to the Emperor of Austria. L. 'Pour 
1'Autriche, passe mais pour le projet de vous 
rendre a TEmperem- Alexandre, vous me permet- 
trez d'en douter.' (I knew that he had said the 
day before, with a shrug, when Lord Keith told 
him he might have been delivered up to the Rus- 
sians, t Dieu m'en garde ! ') He defended himself 
but' faintly on this, and only said, to the best of 

* " When I say we, I mean Lord Lowther and Bing- 
ham, besides myself. Mr. E. Byng had put himself into 
the Tonnant just after Bonaparte came on board the 

rny recollection, that the Emperor Alexander 
loved France and Frenchmen, or some such words. 
Then he asserted that he could have joined the 
army of the Loire, and should presently have 
been at the head of 100,000 men. I observed 
that the Prussians or perhaps the Duke of Wel- 
lington might have intercepted him. He answered 
that the garrison of Rochefort was devoted to 
him, and offered nay, came and besought him, 
with tears in their eyes, to be allowed to escort 
him to Bordeaux, where he should have found 
more troops, and might, easily have effected his 
purpose. This I did not dispute, but said it would 
have been a hazardous step, since after all the 
allies would probably have, been too strong for 
him. He admitted "that, but alleged that ' il y 
auroit eu de quoi capitular ' an opinion I was 
not inclined to controvert, and so that rested 
there ; and he renewed his declamation against us 
for confining him, saying it would increase the irri- 
tation in France, and disgrace us in the eyes of all 
Europe. I repeated the arguments I had used at 
first in vindication of our conduct, which pro- 
voked him to say, after some repetition of his wish 
to have lived in retirement on his estates like his 
brother, ' Vous ne connoissez pas mon caractere, 
vous auriez dii vous fier a ma parole d'honneur/ 
L. ' Oserais-je vous dire (or permettez que je vous 
dise) la verite nette ? ' B. ' Dites.' L. ' II faut 
done que je vous dise, que depuis le moment de 
1'invasion de 1'Espagne il n'y a guere de particu- 
lier en Angleterre qui ne se soit defie de vos 
engagemens.' B. ' J'ai ete appele en Espagne par 
Charles IV, pour 1'aider centre son fils.' L. ' Mais 
pas, a ce que je crois, pour placer le roi Joseph 
sur le trone.' B. ( J'avois un grand systeme poli- 
tique, il etoit necessaire d'etablir un contre-poids 
a votre enorme puissance sur mer, et d'ailleurs ce 
n'est que ce qu'ont fait les Bourbons/ or some 
such words. L. ' Mais il faut avouer, Monsieur 
le General, que la France sous votre sceptre etoit 
beaucoup plus a craindre que la France telle 
fu'elle etoit pendant les dernieres annees du regne 
^e Louis XIV, d'ailleurs elle s'etoit agrandie.' B. 
L' Angleterre de son cote etoit devenu bien plus 
missante,' and he instanced in our colonies, and 
n our Indian acquisitions. L. ' Beaucoup de gens 
iclaires sont d'avis que 1' Angleterre perd plus 
[u'elle ne gagne a la possession de cette puissance 
lemesuree et lointaine.' B. ' Je voulois rajeunir 
'Espagne, faire beaucoup de ce que les Cortes ont 
ente de faire depuis.' I then recalled him to the 
nain question, and reminded him of the character 
f the transaction by which he had obtained pos- 
ession of Spain ; to which he made no answer, but 
ook another line of argument on the subject of 
tis detention, and said at last, 'Eh bien, je me 
uis trompe, replacez-moi a Rochefort,' or some- 
bing to that effect. I cannot recollect at what 
recise period of the discussion Bonaparte said 

4* S. IX. JAX. 13, 72.] 



these words : e Je voulois,' or ' je pensois, preparer 
au Prince Regent 1'epoque la plus glorieuse de 
son regne,' but the very words I remember dis- 
tinctly. I am in the same uncertainty as to the 
moment when he said, ' Si vous n'aviez d'autre 
dessein que d'agir selon les regies de la prudence 
(or some such words), pourquoi done ne pas me 
tuer ? c'eut ete le plus stir.' Pie once interrupted 
me. I was going to say our conduct was regulated 
by a necessary policy, but when I had uttered the 
words ' une politique' he cut me short, and put 
in 'etroite.' He filled up the interval of this 
little debate with repeated assertions that the 
English government and nation were disgracing 
themselves. Such expressions as these : ( Non, 
vous avez fletri le pavilion, ce n'est pas en user 
noblement avec rnoi, la posterite vous jugera,' 
were, if one may so say, the burden of his song. 
There are many other remarkable passages of this 
conversation which I must set down loosely as 
they occur to niy recollection. I could hardly 
place them in anything like the real order of 
their succession, and it is not worth while to 
attempt it, since nothing would be gained by the 
arrangement. I asked him his opinion of Mr. 
Fox ; he said, f J'ai connu M. Fox, je Fai vu aux 
Tuileries, il n'avoit pas vos prejuges.' L. ' M. Fox, 
Monsieur le General, etoit zele citoyen de sa pro- 
pre patrie ; de plus, citoyen du monde.' B. f II 
etoit sincere, il vouloit la paix sincerement, et 
moi je la voulois aussi, sa rnort empecha que la 
paix ne fut faite; les autres n'etoient pas sin- 
ceres.' He said abruptly, some time after we had 
quitted the subject of the Emperor Alexander, 
4 So you have no great opinion in England of this 
Emperor Alexander/ or something to that effect. 
I answered, we had not: that he was, indeed, 
soft-spoken (doucereux], and had flattered some 
women, but that Englishmen in general thought 
but meanly of him; that for my part I did not 
see how one could admire a prince who, with all 
his boasted magnanimity, had yet possessed him- 
self so unworthily of Finland and Poland. I did 
not clearly make out his answer to this. Shortly 
.after he inquired whether I had been at Peters- 
burg, and when? I told him yes, the winter 
before last. On which he asked whether I had 
been at Moscow, and finding I had not he paused, 
but soon said, with an abruptness and eagerness 
.rather remarkable, < An reste, ce n'est pas moi qui 
ai briile Moscou.' L. ' I never thought you had 
committed such an act of folly as to set fire to 
your own winter quarters.' I then returned to 
the subject of Petersburg, and told him that when 
I was there I found several people who spoke 
well of him better indeed than I, as an English- 
man, liked. He answered, ' Eh ! pourquoi me 
hairoient-ils? Je leur ai fait la guerre, voilatout!' 
To this I replied, that the war was somewhat un- 
provoked, I thought, or something to that effect. 

He said, ' Je voulois retablir la Pologne.' I let that 
pass, and took occasion to tell him how much attach- 
ment the two Polish officers had shown him. He 
did not affect much feeling on this, and only said 
It is a brave nation.' I told him I had heard 
great praise of Prince Poniatowski. Bonaparte said 
of him that he was ' Chevalier, celui-la c'etoit le vrai 
roi de Pologne.' * * * being mentioned, he 
said, he was a traitor. L. 'Vous voulez dire, por- 
teur des deux epaules ? ' He did not at first un- 
derstand the meaning of the phrase, which I 
suppose is not a good French one, but soon eluci- 
dated his own meaning thus : ' C'est-a-dire, du 
parti russe, c'est ce que nous appelons traitres 
nous autres polonois.' Lowther told him. I had 
made a speech about Saxony ; I acknowledged it, 
and said I would not disguise my sentiments on 
the subject from him. That I had witnessed the 
attachment of the Saxons to their king, and 
thought they were cruelly used by the Allies, 
especially since, if I was not mistaken, the battle 
of Leipzic was decided by the Saxon troops. 
This he assented to, and told us that on a sudden 
25,000 men and 60 or 80 pieces of cannon were 
turned against him; that, though this was not 
fatal to him at the moment, he found the day s 
after that it had put out all his calculations, and 
he was obliged to retreat. I do not remember 
whether he said anything else about Saxony. 
Soon after he said that there was an end of 
Bavaria, the States of the Rhine, &c., and that 
now l L'Autriche et la Prusse ecrasent tout.' To 
this I replied that it might be so, or something 
like it ; but that our interest required rather the 
aggrandisement of those powers, and the reduc- 
tion of the others, since France would find it 
easier to maintain an influence among those petty 
states than at Vienna or Berlin. He readily 
admitted that we ought to keep down the French 
interest, and said several times in the course of 
the conversation that it was our business to try 
to reduce the power of France. If my memory 
does not deceive me, he used some expression like 
this : f You should keep your eye upon France.' 
[To be concluded in our next.] 



The late Mr. Toulmin Smith, in his very valu- 
able work on English Gilds published by the 
Early English Text Society, 1870, mentions two 
most interesting discoveries which he supposes he 
had made e. g. In a note (p. 175)' he draws 
attention to a roll then bearing the Record Office 
register mark cccx. 206 (now English Gilds, 
No. 252), which he says it is impossible to look 
at without the suggestion arising that it is not 
written, but impressed with letter stamps ; and he 
supports this conclusion chiefly upon the supposi- 



[4 t! ' S. IX. JAN. 13, 72. 

tion that where the ink has disappeared the forms 
of the letters remain deeply impressed upon the 
vellum, so deeply that they can be felt blindfold 
with the 'finger/alleging that " the ink has not j 
eaten away the vellum and made it transparent " ; ! 
and further, that the initial letters, which at the : 
beginning of each paragraph it was intended to ] 
illuminate, are not finished. 

With the highest respect for the learning and 
sagacity of Mr. Smith, after having carefully exa- 
mined the document to which he refers, I am ! 
constrained to differ from him in these couclu- ! 
sions. In the first place, there could not have 
been any object in printing a document of which 
one copy only was required. . It is true there is 
much regularity in the writing, but not more than 
may be observed in many other ancient records. 
It is not so much marked" in this respect as many 
of our Saxon charters ; but apart from this, and 
the question of contractions, to come to the tests 
which Mr. Smith has himself suggested, they do 
not, in my opinion, bear out his theory. 

Mr. Smith very much relies upon what he 
considers the deep impressions of the letters, and j 
the absence of transparency. With respect to the j 
last I may observe, that the vellum is very thick, 
and although I have no doubt whatever that what 
he considers the impression of the dies arises from 
the vellum having been eaten away by the corro- 
sive character of the ink used when subjected to 
damp, the indentations are not sufficiently deep | 
to produce transparencv. Moreover they are not ; 
so deep as Mr. Smith's words would lead one to 
conclude ; at least his sense of touch must have 
been much keener than mine if it enabled him to 
discern the forms of the letters by the finger 
blindfold. The indentations are, however, very 
well defined, and the edges particularly sharp, 
far more sharp than they would have been had 
they been the result of pressure. It seems evi- 
dent that the substance of the vellum has been 
removed; for the back of the document is quite 
smooth, and shows no indication of pressure 
having been applied to the other side. As to ; 
the characters, the same letters in many instances 
vary considerably in form. Some of the 's, for 
example, have the connecting, or cross stroke, 
sloped upwards; in some it is quite horizontal, 
and in others it slopes downwards, whilst in other 
instances the letter is altogether of a different 
form. Again, a line is ruled on the margin as a 
guide to the scribe to keep the edges straight, 
and this line is perforated with little holes at 
equal distances to enable him to maintain the 
same distance between the lines of writing, pre- 
cisely as is now done in every law stationer's | 
office. It is true the initial letters are not com- i 
pleted, but 1 cannot conceive that this circum- 
stance is any evidence that the document is 
printed. It was usual to finish the ornamental 

letters last ; perhaps they were generally executed 
by a more skilful hand ; certainly those who are 
accustomed to ancient MSS. must often have 
noticed them unfinished in this respect. The 
reason assigned by Mr. Smith would apply equally 
to a written or a printed document. 

Parchment Paper. I am also obliged to differ 
from Mr. Smith's conclusions as to what he calls 
" parchment paper," which he considers he has 
discovered in these records (see note, pp. 1-32, 133). 
I have carefully examined the documents alluded 
to, and have no doubt they are simply of vellum. 
Mr. Smith admits that they are of " the colour 
and stoutness, and have the general appearance of 
parchment, but," he says, ' the wire marks of the 
linen fabric that forms its basis are plainly to be 
seen on a close examination." It seems to me 
quite clear, upon a " close examination " of the 
material, that it is none other than parchment or 
vellum. The apparent wire marks noticed bv 
Mr. Smith, and which formed the foundation of 
his too hasty belief that he had found a " material 
hitherto unknown," are, in my opinion, nothing 
more than the marks on sheets of "laid '' paper, 
between which the vellum has been pressed when 
much damped for the purpose of being flattened, 
and in this conclusion I am supported by the 
Record authorities. 

Some of these documents may be found in a 
bundle described as "Writs for Returns," espe- 
cially numbers 12, 17, and 19 ; and, considering 
the high character of Mr. Smith, and the great 
interest of his discoveries (if well founded), I 
should be very glad if some other gentleman 
would inspect the documents, and favour " X. & Q.' r 
with his opinion. JOHN MACLEAN. 



I once commenced a paper under the somewhat 
ambitious title of " Chaucer Restored." In now 
recasting it, I may state that my object is to 
question the validity of certain arguments for 
excluding from the collection known as Chac 
Works some half-dozen or so of minor poems, for 
which no MS. authority has been found, ascrib- 
ing them to Chaucer. 

' T .ver, in his Confessio Amantis, writes thui- 
of Chaucer : 

4i In the flower of his youth 

In sundry wise, as he well coutlte, 

Of ditties and of songes glade, 

The which lie for my sake made, 

The land fulfilled is'over all ; 

Whereof to him in especiall. 

Above all other, I am most [be]hold[en]." 

These words are placed in the mouth of Veniis ? 
who, further, calls Chaucer 

" My disciple and my poet." 
Nothing can exceed the friendship and ingenu- 

S. IX. JAN. 13, '72.] 



ousness of this valuable tribute from a contejn- 

The two points of interest are, that Chaucer 
wrote in "the flower of his youth," i. e. when 
very young ; and that there were many songs of 
love "for my sake," Venus loq. 

Now, Mr. Furnivall (see Atheucciwi, No. 2279, 
July 1) identifies nothing of much importance as 
certainly Chaucer's before the "Death of Blanche," 
1369, when he would be about thirty years of ap;e. 
I say "nothing of much importance," because the 
" A. B. C./' and the " Complaint to Pity," are 
very poor results for " the flower of his youth." 

We have, therefore, to face the following 
difficulties : 

1. Would Gower call a man of thirty still in 
the " flower of his youth " ? 

2. How could Gower call the land " full-filled," 
with such a paucity ? 

3. How can tiiese three pieces be ascribed to 
Venus "for my sake," when her name does not 
appear in either one of them ? 

I pause here to note that it is quite clear to my 
mind that the Canterbury Tales were not known, 
as a whole, when Gower wrote. 

What are the pieces in which Venus's name 
does appear ? 

After the "Romance of the Rose," that part- 
translation ascribed to Chaucer, and the " Testa- 
ment of Love," which may be called a pseudo- 
autobiography of Chaucer, we have 

1. "The Court of Love." 

2. " The Complaint of the Black Knight." 
Then follow 

" Chaucer's Dream," an allegory of the God oi 
Love; "The Cuckoo and the Nightingale," also 
called "The Book of Cupid, God of Love." 

These four pieces are especially erotic ; and the 
writer, be he whom he may, is just the poet whom 
Venus may truly call 

" My owne clerke." 

The " Flower and the Leaf " completes the list 
of important compositions which Mr. Furnival 
seeks to withdraw from Chaucer seven in all. 

Tyrwhitt accepted all the above. 

I shall not pause to discuss the " Testament o 
Love," obviously composed on a hint from Gower 

" That lie upon his latter age, 
To set an end of all his work, 

Do make his Testament of Love.'' 

The "Romance of the Rose," also, I will pas, 
for the present. Who wrote the remaining five 
poems, if Chaucer did not ? Mr. Furnivall think 
the " Flower and the Leaf " is in a style late: 
than Chaucer s era ; the remaining four we ma] 
assume to be admittedly contemporaneous. Wh< 
was this unknown writer, who could ape Chaucer' 
style so well ? 

The rhyme-test, I contend, should not be final, 
or there are obvious reasons to disregard it in 
ssimied early productions; and I will endeavour 
o show that these five pieces are linked together 
vitk Chaucer's undoubted writings, in a manner 
hat cannot possibly be accidental. A. HALL. 
(To be continued.) 


44. A Contemplatiue Man. MS. 46. For " Braine 
,raueK" read " Braines trauell "; for " Man," "Men"; 

or "him this," "them trulyer at his"; for 

' distance in," &c., read " distance. In his Infirmities 
and poorenesse he scorneth"; for "partaker," " specta- 
tour " ; for " and variety. Hee," "and he " ; for " but," 
"and" ; before " excellent," insert" most " ; for "yawn- 
ing," read " young"; for " mysterious," " mysteriall " ; 
for " Ladder," &c., " Ladder on them to climbe vp to 
God " ; omit " heere." 

45. An Aturney. MS. 8. For "nested," read "nestled"; 
for " Paper set," " Paper setts him vp and thus he sitts in 
hisseate," &c. ; omit "can" and "very"; for " rnain- 
tain'd," &c., read " maintained. In his libells his stile 
is very constant, for it keepes allwayes the stile afore- 
saide, and yet it seemes he is much troubled in it, for he 
is alwayes humbly complaining. Your poore oratour " ; 
for " smatch," '* snatch." Before "contrary" insert 
"quite"; next line omit "poore"; for "He . . . %. 
soundly," " When he hath rack't them first soundly " ; 
for "and then," "then he"; for "looks," " bookes"; 
omit " as fiercely " ; for " wrangling," " babling " ; for 
" there is law," " shall be law " ; " when the . . . going 
out," not in MS. 

46. A Scepticke in Religion. Not in MS. 

47. A Partial! Man. MS. 33. Omit ' l one that 
is "; for " in,"," by "; for " swayes. His," " swayes his "; 
for " you shall," "'one shall "; next line, for " and," " he 
considers"; for " giddily," "quiddity"; for "because 
.... friends," "because brought vp their, and the best 
Scholler there, is one of his Colledge. The Puritane is 
most guilty of this humour ; for he takes the opinion of 
one Dutch Commentatour before a Legion of Fathers ; 
and which is worse, his owne before them both;'' for 
"indifferent in" &c., "indifferent. In nothing but 
Conscience men esteeme him, for this he is a zealous af- 
fectionate, but they might mistake him many times,- for 
he doeth but to be esteemed so of all men. He is," &c.; 
for " cosen'd," " cooseued." 

48. A Trumpeter. MS. 34. A Trumpetter. For " not 
.... insolence," read " none of the worthyest " ; for 
"and (which .... dearer," "and which is worse he 
differs from a fidler only in this, his impudencie is 
dearer "; for." Drinke," " liquor " ; for " Storme," " sea"; 
for " noyse," "nose"; for " as euer," "howsoeuer"; for 
" wheresoeuer," " wheresoere" ; for " alwaies," "ordina- 
rily"; for "No man .... himselfe," "In short 
he'is"; after "bubble," insert "and his life a blast"; 
for " Bankrupt," " Bankrout." 

49. A Vulgar Spirited Man. Not in MS. 

50. A Herald. MS. 40. An Herauld. " He giues, 
armes himselfe though he be no Gentleman, and therefor 
hath good reason to dispence with others. His trade and 
profession is honour, and doth that which few noble can 
doe, thriue by the Title. You would thinke he had the 
Indian mines, for he tells of the fesse of gold and siluer, 

* Concluded from 4 th S. viii. 508. 



S. IX. JAN. 13, 72. 

but belieue him not, for they are but deuises to get 
money. He seemes only to deale with Gentry, but his 
chiefest purchases are on them that are none, whose 
bounty he conceales, yet blazons. His bribes are like 
those of a corrupt iudge, for they are the prizes of blood. 
His traffiques are like children's gewgawes, pendants, 
and scutchions and little daggars, and his penniworths 
are extraordinary deare, ffor he holds three Boai-es heads 
higher then three Brawnes in the market. He was some- 
time the coate of Mars, but is now for more merciful 
battailes in the tilt yard, where whosoeuer is victorious 
the spoyles are his. "He is an art in England, but riatiue 
in Wales, where they are borne with Herauldry in their 
mouthes, and each name is a pedigree. 

51. A Plodding Student. MS. 44. For "mettle," read 
"mettall"; for "His .... Midnight," " His Study 
Consists much in the sitting up while Midnight"; omit 
"some"; for "till," read "that"; for "industry," "en- 
deavour" ; after "ability," insert "at length"; for 
*' politer," read "wittier"; for "accounts," "holds"; 
for " is as iust as," " no more then ".'; for " discomforter 
of," " discomfort to " ; for " trauell," " howers " ; for 
44 Apothegms," "Apophthegmes" ; for "will go," "will 
stalke goe"; omit "whole"; for "sets forth," "setts 
out " ; for " Saturday shall," " Sattyday may." 

52. PauVs Walke. MS. 43. A Paule's Walk. For 
" perfect'st," read "properest"; for " vast," "strange"'; 
for "Thenoyse," "Their noyse"; for"orbuzze mixt," 
" and buz " ; for " here " " their " ; after " afoot," insert 
" It hath its tempests like the Sea, and as violent, and 
men are shipwrack't vpon pillars like great rocks " ; for 
' need," read " may"; omit " co} r n'd and " ; after " Tem- 
ple," omit " in it" ; for " the Croud," read " a Croud " ; 
after " Oathes," omit " left "; for " ytch," read " heate " ; 
last line, " after " walke," insert " their "; add "ffinally, 
it is vsed for a church of these two only, sharkes and cut- 
purses, the one comes thither to fast, the other to prey." 

.53. A Vniuersitie Dunne. MS. 42. A Dun. Omit 
"ha's"; omit "contracted .... drinke "; for "to .... 
Suite," read " too little to bee put in a bond " ; for " Hee 
. vpbrayder," read " He is a fierce besieger of Chambers, 
And assaults them with furious knocks sometimes, but 
.'inds strong resistance commonly, and is kept out. He 
is the best witnesse of a Scholler's loytering, for he is 
sure neuer to finde him within : some choose their cham- 
ber on purpose to auo}'de his surprisall, and thinkes the 
best commodity in them is his prospect " ; for " brayne," 
" witts " ; " Some choose .... prospect " transferred ut 
supra; for " reiected acquaintance, hunts," read "for- 
lorne suitor, haunting, haunting" (sic) ; for " The sole," 
"There is no"; for "is," "in but" ; omit "grieuous"; 
for " hee is one much," read " no man is." 

54. A stayed Man. Not in MS. 

None of the " Additional Characters " printed bv Mr. 
Arber are in the MS. 

J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

THE GATES OF SOMNAUTII. The comments on 
the death of the Earl of Ellenborough have natu- 
rally caused reference to be made to the gates of 
Somnauth the great point of his celebrated pro- 
clamation after the Cabul war. As, however, the 
truth regarding these noted trophies does not 
seem to be generally known, I send you the fol- 
lowing extract from the Daily News of Decem- 
ber 25, 1871, on the subject. The writer, Mr. 
William Simpson, thus relates how he became 
acquainted with the gates : 

" In I860 they were in the Dewan-i-Awm, or Hall of 
Audience, in the fort of Agra. I made a very careful 
sketch of them, including details of the ornament. As I 
sketched, it struck me as strange that the art contained 
nothing Hindoo in its design. It was all purely Mahome- 
dan. Out of the thirty-two million of Hindoo gods there 
was not one of them visible. This was so strange that I 
began making inquiries as to whether they really were 
the veritable gates of Somnath. The answer always 
was that there could be no doubt of it, and Lord Ellen- 
borough's proclamation was in every case referred to. 
To an artist historical evidence, or even proclamation by 
a Governor-General, goes for little when there is a style 
of art opposed to them, so my doubts clung to me. 
Before leaving India I had the opportunity of putting 
the question to Lord Canning, a man far from indifferent 
to questions of this sort, but even with him Lord Ellen- 
borough's proclamation was the infallible guide. It Avas 
only on my return to England, and in conversation with 
Mr. Fergusson, that I got confirmation of what I sus- 
pected. He agreed with me that the ornament was suf- 
ficient evidence that they could not possibly be the gates 
of Somnath ; but he added what I had not the oppor- 
tunity of learning in India that the gates in the Dewan- 
i-Awm at Agra had been inspected with a microscope, 
and they are of Deodar pine,' and not of sandal wood. 
This fact, in spite of the proclamation, would command a 
verdict against them from any jury. 

" Puttun Somnath, in Gujerat, contained one of the 
most celebrated temples of the Brahmins. Mahmoud of 
Ghuznee, shortly after he came to the throne, in A.D.877, 
made a raid into India for the double purpose of destroy- 
ing idolatry and looting in that well-to-do country. The 
wealth of Somnath led this Mahomedan hero m that 
direction, and, after a desperate resistance, he took the 
place. Amongst the plunder, he carried back to Cabool 
the gates of the temple. They were of sandal wood, and 
of great celebrity from their elaborate ornament. After 
Mahmoud's death these gates were put on his tomb, and 
were treasured as evidences of Mahomedan conquest. 
The probability would seem to be that the original gates 
were destroyed by fire, and when the tomb was repaired, 
a new set of gates were made of Deodar. These gates 
are not new, for they bear many evident marks of age. 
Panels are smashed, and much of the ornament destroyed ; 
rude repairs are done with scraps of wood and iron ;"and, 
curious link between East and West, there are a number 
of horse-shoes nailed upon these old portals. As they 
were brought from Mahmoud's tomb at Ghuznee by our 
conquering army, they were an evidence to the Hindoo 
population of India that our power had no rival in the 
East. So far Lord Ellenborough's proclamation is cor-' 
rect enough ; but now, as their political signification has 
ceased to be, it ought to be known, for historical and 
archaeological reasons, that they are not the gates of 


Parliament Street. 

DOCTOR NASH. The penurious disposition of 
the historian of Worcestershire was no secret 
among his contemporaries. It forms the point of 
an epigram which I have many times heard my 
father repeat in days long gone by. I am not sure 
whether it may not be too generally known to 
merit admission into " N. & Q."; but if it should 
find a place, perhaps some correspondent will be 
able to complete the first line, of which one word 
has escaped me. I am not sure whether it was 

. IX. JAN. 13, '72.] 


"genius," or " weakness," or something equiva- 
lent : 

" The Muse thy well divines, 

And will not ask for cash ; 
But gratis round thy brow she twines 
The laurel, Dr. Nash." 

The following anecdote, from the same fertile 
source, is probably less known. I recite it as well 
as a very old recollection enables me: The 
Doctor was once invited to Kyre, a mansion in a 
remote part of Worcestershire. He travelled 
thither, I think, on horseback, as was the more 
usual custom of those days ; but had some diffi- 
culty in finding the way, and was glad to obtain 
the assistance of some workman (a thatcher, I 
believe), whom he took from his employment. 
When past danger of losing the road, he inquired 
of his guide whether he was paid by the piece (or 
job) or by the day ; and expressed his satisfaction 
on finding that it was the former, as in that case 
his time was his own. Having then ascertained 
what he would get by his day's work, and calcu- 
lated the exact time which had been lost by 
leaving it, he remunerated him accordingly more, 
it seems, to his own satisfaction than that of the 
poor man, for he related the story himself for the 
amusement of the company at dinner. One of 
the guests, however, was not only of a different 
opinion, but did not hesitate to express it. " You 
did wrong, Dr. Nash, very wrong ! " " Why, 
what do you mean?" "Because every man de- 
serves to be paid for his knowledge." " My dear 
sir, what knowledge could that poor man have 
had to be paid for?" "He knew the way to 
Kyre, which you did not." T. W. WEBB. 

PARSLEY-BED. Inquisitive children with us are 
usually told that babies are dug up from the 
" parsley-bed," and sometimes it is vexatiously 
added that the boys are dug up from beneath a 
"gooseberry-bush." I had always looked upon 
this as a more or less nursery fiction, but it must 
be of more general diffusion than our English 
nurseries, if Napoleon I. (see "N. & Q." 4 th S. 
viii. 393) could sing by his camp-fire 
" There's a maiden of fifteen, Jean, 

As innocent as may be ; 
'Mongst the parsley she was seen, Jean, 
Searching for a baby ! " 

M. D. 

HEALTH ENQUIRIES. In a notice in a late 
number of The Atlienceum of the Literary Life of 
the Rev. Win. Harness, I observed the following 
passage : 

" A bachelor, he lived with a spinster sister. One 
household rule he gently and successfully enforced, that 
neither should ever enquire after the other's health. Such 
enquiries, he thought, suggested ailments that otherwise 
would never exist." Athen. Oct. 28, 1871. 

1 greatly admire this household rule, and think 
it worthy of the wisdom of Solomon. In similar 

circumstances I should certainly adopt it, though: 
of course it was never meant to apply to grave 
and decided attacks of illness. It would be a 
wise regulation in the ordinary track of life, and 
put an end to much empty formality, while it 
effectually checked nervousness and hypochon- 
driacism. Some people like to be asked after 
their health, and could hardly bear to be thought 
well ; and to such Mr. Harness's opinion is directly 
applicable, that such inquiries suggest ailments 
that otherwise would never exist. 

A sensible person rather feels annoyed at these 
daily enquiries, and would gladly escape them. 
Above all, be careful how you ask an old woman 
after her health ; for she is, pretty sure to come 
out with a fearful enumeration of real or sup- 
posed maladies. She has got the rheumatics, has 
frequent stoppages, meaning spasms, has been 
troubled with the diarera, or, as one once told 
me, she has got cartruts in her eyes. Well I 
remember only one instance where I was agreeably 
disappointed. I ventured to enquire after one old 
woman's health, and to my surprise she answered 
quite briskly, " O thank you, sir, I'm quite well." 
" Sic me servavit Apollo.' 1 '' F. C. H. 

IN HEAVEN" (Milton, Paradise Lost}. In niy 
last Sunday reading I met with the following 
remark from Jeremy Taylor, which concludes his 
admirable treatise on Obedience, in his Life of 

" And to encourage this duty [obedience] I shall use 
no other words than those of Achilles in Homer : ' They 
that obey in this world are better than they that com- 
mand in hell.' " 

How far was our immortal epic poet indebted 
to this Homeric speech for the bold blasphemy 
with which his "not less than archangel ruined " 
hurls an impious defiance in the face of the 
Almiohtv ? J. A. 



MAN'S GOOSE." One of the popular dishes of the 
Christmas season goose reminds me of a local 
saying that has not (I believe) yet been noted in 
these pages. It is this : " Too much for one and 
not enough for two, like the Walsall man's goose," 
The presumed foundation for this saying is, that 
an inhabitant of Walsall, Staffordshire, when 
asked if he and his wife were going to have a 
goose for their Christmas dinner, replied in the 
negative, adding that the goose was a very foolish 
bird ; it was " too much for one and not enough 
for two." CTJTHBERT BEDE, 

* " The Great Exemplar, with introductory essay by the 
Rev. H. Stebbing, M.A." Virtue, Hall & Virtue, n. ck 
but the essay is dated 1835. 


IX. JAX. 13, 72. 

LONGEVITY. About the year 18401 was staying 
with a connection of mine, then the incumbent of 
Little Saling, Essex. When the Bishop of Lon- 
don (Blomfield) was visiting his diocese, my friend 
the Rev. Richard Vickris Pryor, attended the 
visitation at Dunmow, and dined afterwards, as 
is very usual, with the bishop. On his return he 
told me that the bishop, in his after-dinner speech 
had mentioned a remarkable fact, viz. that it was 
" on record, in the diocese of London and county 
of Essex, that an incumbent had held his living 
ninety years." If on record then, it is on record 
still, and any one of your readers who may obtain 
access to the registry of the diocese will 'be able 
to verify the statement. 


THE ^ UPPER ROOM. In the past Christmas I was 
helping in some decorations for a village church 
in Rutland, and was at work upon them in a first- 
floor room of a house. I was told that it was a 
very unlucky thing to make in an upper room 
anything that was intended for a church. My 
informant was unable to give any explanation of 
this bit of folk-lore, but said that she had heard 
it since her childhood, and that it was a common 
belief in Rutland. Perhaps this connection be- 
tween an upper room and "bad luck", may be 
founded on Luke xxii. 12. CTJTHBERT BEDE. 

FAZEN. I heard a native of Sandwich lately 
make use of the expression, "fazen eels/' and he 
informed me it was generally used in the Isle of 
Tbanet to signify the brown kind of eels. The 
word is pronounced similarly to brazen. 



In 1851 Mr. Murray published a volume entitled 
The Lexington Papers, being extracts from the 
correspondence of Robert Sutton, Lord Lexington 
of Aram. The book was edited bv the Hon! H. 
Manners Sutton, the preface is dated Berghapton 
Cottage, and the originals had then been recently 
found at Kelham (formerly the residence of the 
last Lord Lexington), then the property of his 
grandson Lord George Manners Sutton, whose 
great-grandson, John Henry Manners Sutton, M.P. 
for Newark, held it in 1850. 

I beg leave to ask, first, the editor's name :* 
secondly, to inquire if the " miscellaneous paper? " 
found at the same time, as mentioned in the pre- 
face, _ are still preserved? If so, is there any 
mention of any gift by Lord Lexington to the 
incorporators of the town of Lexington in Mas-a- 
chusetts, March 20, 1712-13 ? 

This question has some interest to us here, 
because thus far it has been impossible for us to 
understand the reason why this name was adopted. 
There is no village of the name in England, Lex- 
ngton being the old form of the place now called 
Laxtpn in Notts. Very possibly the name Laxton 
was in common use before 1700, as Lord Lexinjr- 
":on seems to have chosen his title as a revival 
f a barony formerly in his family. It would 
seem almost as clear a case of the selection of the 

the family portraits of B. Lens have come to 
light. It may be well to notice that his son 
Petter (i.e. Peter Paul Lens, pictor, as at the back 
of his portrait, when young) turned out a very 
good miniature painter, his signature beino- an 
mutation of his father's, the long L with two 's 
across it in gold. J. C. J 

call attention to the fact that a number of letters, 
&c., on this subject are now appearing in the 
^amden Town Gazette, a local paper, published at 
80 High Street, Camden Town, about one hun- 
dred yards from Bayham Street, where the elder 
-Dickens is said to have resided. Amono-st the 
correspondents is the son of one of the masters of 
the school which young Dickens attended. 

R. B. P. 

[Unsuccessful applications have been alreadv made 
for the papers containing these letters. The numbers 
asked for were out of print.] 

name ^ of some individual as the ordinary one of 
choosing Washington, Lafayette, Barre, or Adams 
as sponsor for a%ew town. * 

Yet I cannot find a reason for the selection of 
Lord Lexington. He indeed was a diplomatist 
holding several consecutive appointments, and 
from 1699 to 1705 he was a member of the Coun- 
cil ^ of Trade and Plantations. But he lived in 
retirement during the early part of Queen Anne's 
reign, being restored to favour in 1712, and made 
ambassador extraordinary to Madrid. I fail to see, 
however, that in 1712 or 1713 he occupied so 
prominent a place in political life that a little 
township in Massachusetts should have selected 
his name for its own. 

It seems worth while, however, to ask if among 
the papers of Lord Lexington anything has been 
found showing either that he was aware of this 
naming, or that he had any interest iii any way 
in affairs in New England at that time. As all 
of the acts of our provincial legislature came 
before the privy council, of which Lord Lexington 
was a member from 1692, he may be presumed to 
have known of the incorporating. 

W. II. WirmioRE. 
Boston, U. S. A. 

[* See above.] 

4 th S. IX. JAN. 13, '72.] 



AMERICAN QUERIES. 1. It would be interesting 
to note the first appearance of the long, thin, 
straight-haired Yankee of the caricaturists. The 
figure was evidently based upon the old Puritan 
of the Civil War tracts, and the first illustrator 
of Hiutibras, but does not appear to have been 
common at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tionary War, The Boston mobs of the Political 
Register do not differ from the English mobs drawn 
by the same hand. In the London Magazine of 
1778 there is a singularly unfortunate a emble- 
matical plate," published according to the fashion 
of the times, after Keppel's engagement oft' Brest. 
Neptune is consoling Britannia and deriding 
America. The British fleet is riding triumphant 
in the background. The revolted colonies are 
typified by a man in old-fashioned costume with 
long lank hair, who is waving the flag of the thir- 
teen provinces, and has the Gallic cock upon his 
shoulder. The personal characteristics of the early 
Revolutionists had probably also something to do 
with the creation of the popular American. In 
the caricatures of the Remarks upon the Jacobin-tad, 
published some years later, we find 

" As lank Honeslus with bis lanthorn jaws," 

which was probably intended for Austin or Jef- 

2. In the Monthly Review for March 1764 there 
is a very interesting letter from Boston a kind of 
defence of Puritanism, in reply to some remarks 
upon the New England provinces which appeared 
in an earlier number. The writer defends the so- 
called " religious laws " which he thinks "most 
of the sober-thinking people of our mother country 
-would be glad to see revived among thenV The 
letter is signed A. N. Who was the writer ? 

3. Who wns the author of the Adventures of 
Jonathan Corncob, London, 1787 ? and did any 
sequel ever appear. C. ELLIOT BROWNE. 

CHEAP BOOKCASES. Where can bookshelves of 
cheap construction on iron frames be obtained ? 
They have been advertised, but I made no note of 
it. Such information may be valuable to other 
sufferers from biblio-plethora. 



[Probably tbe makers of cheap and portable iron wine 
bins would be also the makers of bookcases on similar 
construction. The manufacturers advertise at man}' of 
the railway stations, so that our correspondent will "find 
no difficulty in ascertaining their addresses.] 

Bows IN BONNETS. I am told by a lady that 
in her youth, some thirty years ago, it was the 
practice for ladies, according to their state as mar- 
ried or single, to wear the bows in their bonnets 
on a different side of the face. She does not 
remember whether the married ladies wore theirs 
on the right side, and the unmarried on the left 
side, or vice versa. Perhaps some of your corre- 

i spondents could enlighten us as to this, and tell 
! us when the custom originated ? II. B. W. 

[The bow on the bonnet was worn on the right side by 
married ladies, and on the left by those in single blessed- 

ROBERT BUTTS, D.D., Bisnor OF ELY, 1738-48. 
Some years ago I inserted a query with a view of 
eliciting information respecting this bishop. It 
provoked an almost useless genealogical discus- 
sion. I regret to say that nearly all who entered 
into it are dead ; and, unfortunately, one, I believe, 
of them was one of the bishop's descendants. Can 
any correspondent give me information respecting 
him ? I have all I can get from local sources, 
Cole's MSS., &c. If any one has happened to 
have read anything about him, or knows aught 
of him and his descendants, please to let me 

\ v. 872.) I should be glad to have this allusion 
; explained. MAKROCHE'IR. 

[" The Carpathian wizard " is Proteus, the prophetic 
j old man of the sea, who had a cave at Carpathos, between 
i Crete and Rhodes (Georg. iv. 387), and was a wizard or 
! prophet, and also Neptune's shepherd, who as such bore a 
| hook. See also Ovid, Met. xi. 249.] 

COMMERCIAL QUERIES. 1. Bdudkin. Can any 

of your readers tell me whence this rich stuff 

j obtained its name ? It was composed of silk iuter- 

! woven with threads of gold, and was introduced 

i into England in the thirteenth century. We read 

I of " cloth of bawdkyn," " qjiangeable bawdkyn/' 

"gold bawdkyn," "Luks bawdkyn/' as well as 

red, green, and blue bawdkyn. 

2. Tinsin Satin. Is any one able to define the 
difference between "tinsin satin/' "satin of 
Bruges," and ordinary satin? 

3. Changeable Silk and Ta/etas.Was taffetas 
called changeable silk ? If so, why ? Changeable 
silk is often mentioned during the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and in Taylor's Workes (A.D. 1G30), ii. 40, 
we read 

" No taffaty more changeable then they 

In nothing constant but no debts to pay." 
Palsgrave says that sarsenet and taffetas were 
two names for the same thin kind of silk. What 
was " dornyx taffa " ? 

4. Tuke. What was this material, of which 
vestments for priests were occasionally made ? 

5. Branched Damask. What was the peculiar 
pattern or texture of u branched " stuffs ? We 
read of " white damask branched," and of " white 
cruel branched with tawney silk." 

G. Russell Worsted. - Whence did this black 
stuff derive its name ? It has been in use for four 
or five centuries. W. A. S. R. 

[* To avoid reiteration, the previous articles on Bishop 
Butts should be first consulted : see " N. & Q." 2 nd S. i. 
34 ; ii. 17, 478 ; family, iii. If), 74, 137; iv. 35, 257; viii* 
435; ix. 61, 149, 185 f x. 106. ED.] 



[4th S. IX. JAN. 13, 72. 

COTJTTS FAMILY. I am much obliged by your 
notice of my inquiry as to the father of Mr. Coutts 
the banker, and the time of his decease. Mr. 
Coutts, the banker, died in February, 1822, aged 
eighty-seven according to some accounts, and 
ninety-one according to another account ; and it 
is obvious, therefore, that James Coutts, M.P. for 
Edinburgh, who died in 1778, could not have 
been his father. He was in fact his brother. In 
the Gent. Mag. for 1822, p. 195, the father's name 
is given as John Coutts, a merchant in Edinburgh, 
but the period of his decease is not given. 

There was a Thomas Coutts, a merchant in 
London in 1723, and who, I believe, was living 
in 1732. Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." 
give me any account of this Thomas Coutts, and 
say when he died ? T. P. 


[On farther research it is clear we have confounded 
the brother with the father of Thomas Coutts (see p. 522 
of the last volume). John Coutts, Lord Provost of Edin- 
burgh, 1742, and the father of Thomas, the famed London 
banker, died at Nola, near Naples, on March 23, 1750, at 
the age of fifty-one. Perhaps the best account of the 
Coutts family will be found in the Memoirs of a Banking 
House, by the late Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, 1860, 
8vo, and Bourne's English Merchants, ii. 123-147.] 

HENRI DETJX WARE. I have in my possession 
a teapot of what I suppose to be Henri Deux ware. 
Could you tell me if it is so, from the following 
description ? It is of a whitey-brown colour, dia- 
mond shape, Grecian patterfc; dragon on lid (half 
of which is missing^; 4^ in. in height, 4^- in. 
in length ; and it is extremely light in weight. 

Could you also tell me its probable value, and 
the best means of disposing of it ? A. J. H. 

[We have submitted your query to a friend who is 
learned in Ceramics, and have received from him the 
following information : 

" The Henri II. ware is so distinct in appearance from 
all others that it cannot be mistaken. Only fifty to sixty 
pieces are known to exist. They are of great value, the 
authorities at South Kensington having given as much 
as 640/. for a candlestick at an auction. Their judgment 
was criticised in giving so large a price, but a wealthy 
collector offered to relieve the public collection by an 
advance of more than 100/. on that cost. Pieces are 
generally ornamented in the Renaissance st3'le of decora- 
tion. They have chiefly come from the neighbourhood 
of Touraine in France, where the ware was made from 
1520 to 1550. Modern copies are made, always dis- 
tinguishable as reproductions. 

" The teapot would appear to be early Staffordshire, 
very likely to have been made by Ralph Wovel of Burs- 
lem, as we have seen specimens'of his make with which 
this account seems to correspond. No one could give 
an estimate of the value without seeing it. The damage 
that you mention would be a great detraction even if 

HERALDIC HEDGEHOG. In a recent number of 
the Itoss Gazette was an interesting letter about 
the monuments, &c. in its famous church, in 
which appeared the following quotation : 

" The hedgehog erst in prickly ball 

Now stands of Kyrle the crest ; 
And thrice on shield of Abrahall 
The urchin's form 's impressed ! " 

In Dr. Strong's Heraldry of Herefordshire the 
shields of Kyrle and Abrahall are beautifully 
blazoned; but neither in it nor in the erudite 
Handbook to Iloss is rendered any explanation, nor 
is any origin assigned for the heraldic hedgehog 
named in the preceding quaint old verse. Can 
you or your readers inform me of the authorship 
of the above four lines ? and also the when, where, 
and why the said symbol was first introduced in 
the armorial bearings of the two families ? P. 

{l MART ANNE." Can any of your readers in- 
form me what a party of Republicans mean by 
drinking to the health of " Mary Anne " ? This is 
frequently referred to in Lothair. HEDDWCH. 

POYNTZ FAMILY. Where can I find some ac- 
count of the death of' the two sons of Mr. Poyntz, 
at one time M.P. for Midhurst, and married to 
the heiress of Cowdrey ? They were drowned by 
the capsizing of a boat, off Bognor, about the year 
1812; but I can find no mention of the accident 
in the Annual Register. C. L. W. C. 

PROBER. Can you tell me when a London 
clockmaker of the name of Prober lived ? 

J. O. H. 

QUOTATION WANTED. Who is the author of 
the line 

" Parent of sweetest sounds, now mute for ever " ? 

Is the original allusion to the codfish, or whose 
is the humorous application ? R. F. S. 

CAPTURE OF RICHARD I. Can any of your 
correspondents inform me if there be any detailed 
narrative of the departure of Richard I. from the 
Holy Land, and of his capture by the Archduke 
of Austria ? All the historians of the time that 
I have read are very brief on this subject. 

T. W. R. 

ROYAL HEADS ON BELLS. Will some readers 
of " N. & Q." who have a taste for such matters 
hunt for the heads of royalty on any bells in their 
locality or elsewhere, if they have an opportunity ? 
I may say, there are none such ancients in Somer- 
set, Cornwall, or Devon, excepting one at St. 
James's, Devonport, which was brought from a 
destroyed church in Worcester. 

I think only three types of heads are known to 
campanists ; those are supposed to be of Edward I. 
and Eleanor, Edward III. and Philippa, Henry VI. 
and Margaret, and the young Prince Edward. 


Rectory, Clyst St. George, Devon. 

acquainted with foreign heraldry say if it is 

4* S. IX. JAX. 13, 72.] 



likely that P. Heylin should have made a inistak 
about the arms of Prince Rupert P 

He gives them as quarterly, the 1st and 4th ; 
lion rainp. or, crowned gules ; 2nd and 3rd, pal; 
bendy, ar. and az., and all usual books follow thi 
description. But on a very elaborately and beau 
tifully carved boxwood tobacco-box top, under 
neath a very finely executed royal arms, with 
G. R. at the top, is a coat looking like Prince 
.Rupert's ; but not as Heylin has put it. 2nd am 
3rd being- a bend engrailed. 

The connection with Charles I., and there being 
no English coat, as far as I know, like it, make 
me have little doubt that the arms on the boj 
are Prince Rupert's, though varying from Heylin'i 
description. He was by no means always cor- 
rect. Is there any seal or contemporary embla- 
zonment of Prince Rupert's arms in the British 
Museum or other public place ? J. C. J. 

GEORGE SANDYS. Having just completed a 
new edition of George Sandys's Poems for Mr 
Russell Smith, I should be much obliged if any 
of your correspondents could give me any hitherto 
unedited notitia relative to so good and great a 
man. Communications may be sent to Mr. J. R 
Smith, 3G, Soho Square, or published in " N. & Q.' 


MENT. In reading Mr. Ludlow's Popular Epics 
of the Middle Ayes, I made a note of *the fol- 
lowing : 

" Three leaves he takes from the grass between his 
feet, and receives them in place of the body of God." 

This occurs in Garin the Lorraincr (p. 85), an 
epic of the twelfth century ; and in Raoul of Cam- 
bray, which was probably written about the same 
period, at p. 135, I read that 

" Many a gentle knight takes the sacrament -with 
three bits of grass, for other priest is none." 

Is anything known concerning this piece of 
mediaeval superstition ? H. FISHWICK. 

SIR TOPAS. The nickname of " Sir Topas " 
applied to Sir Charles Dilke by the Army and 
Navy Gazette of Nov. 25 last is said to be drawn 
from Dryden's works. From which of them ? 

G. T. M. 

[The knight-errant of the " Rime of Sir Thopas," one of 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, is thus alluded to in one of 
Prior's poems : 

'" Bad as Sir Topas, or Squire Quarles,' 
Matthew did for the nonce reply, 
' At emblem or device am I.'"] 
WATTON CASTLE. Can any one enlighten me 
respecting the history of a ruined castle situated 
on a hill near this place, and called here Watton 
Castle ? There appears to be a variety of opinions 
in the neighbourhood respecting its antiquity, but 
I am unable to get any trustworthy history/ Any 
information will greatly oblige. W. M. 


(4 th S. viii. 450, 555.) 

This great painter was not only an enthusiastic 
lover of music, but a respectable performer on the 
harpsichord. I have frequently heard my father 
speak of his performance on this instrument in terms 
of great praise. Stephen Francis Rimbault, to 
whom I allude, was born in 1768 and died in 1837. 
He was intended for an artist, and learnt the rudi- 
ments of the profession under Philip Reinagle, 
the landscape painter. After a few years of study 
he abandoned the limner's art and turned his at- 
tention to music, a profession which he followed 
for the rest of his life. His love of art threw him 
a great deal amongst artists, particularly painters 
in water-colours, of whose works he formed a 
large collection, which was disposed of after his 
death by Messrs. Christie & Manson (Wednesday,. 
Dec. 13", 1837, and two following days.) I per- 
fectly well remember, when a boy, seeing Dayes,. 
Howitt, Westall, S. Pether, Turner, Rowlandson, 
and many other celebrated artists of the time, at 
my father's house, No. 9, Denmark Street, Soho. 

But to return to the subject of my notice. 
Gainsborough knew a little of almost every musical 
instrument (such as were used for solo playing) r 
but his chief forte consisted in modulating upon 
the harpsichord. He was too capricious to study 
music scientifically, but his ear was so good, and: 
his natural taste so refined, that these important 
adjuncts led him far beyond the mechanical skill 
of the mere performer who relies only upon tech- 
nical knowledge. 

The late Henry Angelo (the son of the well- 
known riding-master) gives some amusing anec- 
dotes of Gainsborough, in connection with his 
love of music, in his Reminiscences, 1828, vol. L 
184 et seq. He quotes Jackson's ill-natured 
remarks, thus commenting upon them : 

" This sprightly sketch of the musical eccentricities of 
the painter, with all due respect to the memory of Mr. 
Jackson, is somewhat of a caricature ; for Gainsborough 
not only did know his notes, but could accompany a slow 
movement of the harpsichord, both on the fiddle and the 
flute, with taste and feeling" 

Abel (who jointly with J. C. Bach founded the 
Bach and Abel concerts) was a great lover of the 
arts. He laid an impost upon the talents of 
Grainsborough, and exchanged with him notes on 
:he viol-di-gamba for drawings. Angelo speaks 
>f seeing the walls of Abel's apartments literally 
overed with the genius of the painter. When 
Abel died (June 20, 1788) this collection was sold 
t Langford's auction-room in the Piazza, Covent 
jarden. These works of Gainsborough were 
hiefly drawings in chalks. My father was a large 
urchaser, but what became of them afterwards I 
ave no means of ascertaining. 



S. IX. JAX. 13, 72. 

And now comes the question, What was the 
cause of Jackson's animosity to the great painter ? 
MR. SEWELL thinks that the expression in Gains- 
borough's letter to the Duke of Bedford, that 
Jackson was " no fiddler/' was the sore point ; but 
in this he is surely mistaken. Gainsborough as- 
sures the duke that Jackson was no fiddler, but 
something much better a man of science and let- 
ters. " As ignorant as a fiddler " is a proverbial 
saying, and to this day, I am sorry to say, it 
holds good. It means that a man who makes 
music his sole study is fit for little else. Gains- 
borough's words were intended to imply Jackson's 
superiority over many of his fellow musicians, 
ordinary fiddlers, and as such I recognise in them 
the greatest compliment he could possibly pay to 
a man in Jackson's position. With due deference 
to MB. SEWELL, this is, I think, the right inter- 
pretation of the passage in the letter. If so, we 
must look elsewhere for the cause of Jackson's 
ill feeling towards the painter. If I might be 
allowed to give my own idea, I should point to 
the following passage in Angelo's Reminiscences as 
suggestive : 

"Had Gainsborough outlived the witty musician, he 
might, perhaps, with equal truth have given the world as 
satirical, not to say as unfriendly, a posthumous descrip- 
tion of Jackson's "attempts witli the pallet and painting 

^ From this it appears that Jackson was a painter ! 
Now may not Gainsborough have been free in his 
remarks upon the amateur artist, and so have 
caused the bitter feeling in return ? 



(4 th S. viii. 281.) 

^ I have to explain that my statement in. was 
simply a correction of my own clerical error in 
No. ii. I have omitted the initial A., which occurs 
after the name Edward. I wrote at the time to the 
town clerk, and received the following reply: 
" Marblehead, April 4th, 1868. 

"Dear Sir, The birth registered Aug. 1, 1728. is 
Edward A. Holyoke. It is very seldom I find the 
middle name in full, although sometimes it is entered. 
But in this case nothing but Edward A. Holyoke. 


There can be no doubt that the child whose 
birth was recorded in 1728 was named Edward 
Augustus. I think I may add there is equally 
no doubt that he lived more than a hundred years. 

The Memoir of Dr. 'Holyoke which I have cited 
is full of details of his life, and your readers may 
be assured that the case is not one of vague tradi- 
tion, but one which was thoroughly examined 
during the lifetime of its subject. The little 
volume of eighty pages might well be reprinted to 
furnish arguments against those who deny the 
possibility of centenarianism. 

I have said that Dr. Holyoke was the son of 
Rev. Edward (rv.) II., who was President of 
Harvard College. The latter was son of Elizur 
(in.) H., and grandson of Elizur (n.) Holyoke, 
one of the early colonists here. This Elizur (n. ), 
senr., was undoubtedly born in England, and 
settled here with his father, Edward (i.) Holyoke, 
about 1636. Edward and Prudence, his wife, 
were from Tamworth, co. Stafford, as appears by 
the Salem records at the date of the marriage of 
their daughter in 1643. Elizur (ni.) Holyoke, 
jun., died at Boston in 1711, and used on his will a 
seal of arms, viz. a chevron cotised between three 
crescents ; crest, a crescent. Prudence, the wife 
of Edward (i.), is said to have been the daughter 
of Rev. John Stockton of Kinholt, and their 
marriage is recorded /uiie 18, 1612. Can any of 
your correspondents trace the pedigree of the 
family further ? 


I now proceed to my second case of cente- 
narianism. Hon. Timothy Farrar, born at Lin- 
coln, Mass., June 28, 1747, died at Hollis, N. II., 
Feb. 21, 1849, aged 101 years, 7 months, and 12 
days. Such is the statement made, which I will 
proceed to verify as far as possible. I must pre- 
mise that Mr. Farrar was not in an obscure 
position. He was a judge in the courts of New 
Hampshire from 1775 to 1816, and justice of the 
Superior Court there from 1701. There is no 
question that he believed himself to be a cente- 
narian, since he was present at the delivery of a 
discourse on the Sunday following his centennial 
anniversary, a copy of which is sent herewith to 
the Editor of " N. & Q." It is entitled 

" A Discourse occasioned by the Centennial Anniversary 
of Hon. Timothy Farrar, LL.D. Delivered at Hollis. 
N. II., July llth, 1847, by Timothy Farrar Clary. 
Printed by request. Andover, 18 i/." 

So much for the belief of Mr. Farrar and his 
nearest friends. As to the date of his birth : he 
was the son of Samuel and Lydia (Barrett) Farrar 
of Concord, Mass. (I may here mention that 
Lincoln is part of the old town of Concord, incor- 
porated as a distinct town in 1754.) Their children 
were Lydia, born Sept. 2, 1735, married Wil- 
liam Bond ; Samuel, born Feb. 14, 1737 : Ste- 
phen, born Sept. 8, 1738 ; James, born July 24, 
1741 ; Rebecca, born Aug. 13, 1743, married Dr. 
John Preston ; Lucy, born April 27, 1745, mar- 
ried Humphrey Earrar ; Timothy, born June 28, 
1747; Mary, born July o, 1754, died Sept. 2, 
1756. Of these eight children, all but the last are 
recorded at Concord, and I have before me a copy 
of the record signed by George He} r wood, town 
clerk, dated Oct. 24, 18'71. The last child, Mary, 
I enter on the authority of the town clerk of 
Lincoln, Henry C. Chapin, who says that this is 
the only child of Samuel and Lydia Farrar on the 
records of that town. I have explained that this 

4 th S. IX. JAN. li 



is a continuation of the Concord records for such 
inhabitants as lived in the part thus set off fxjr a 
new town. 

Lastly, and before proceeding to the other cases^ 
I wish to call special attention to the evidence 
furnished by the record at Harvard College. In 
this college the class is the unit. All students, 
as a rule, are admitted at one examination in each 
year, and are known collectively as the class of 
the year four years later, when they are graduated. 
To cite an instance of a familiar name, Charles 
Francis Adams was of the class of 1825, the 
year of his graduating. In each class the mem- 
bers are acquainted, and throughout life the 
friendships are firmly maintained. Every year, 
at the annual festival of the college, the members 
meet together, march in procession under the 
class banner, and in most instances have reunions 
of the survivors. For many years annual and tri- 
ennial catalogues have been issued, and since 1845 
great attention has been given to procuring the 
vital statistics of each graduate. It will be seen 
that there can be no question as to the identity of 
any noted graduate, and it may be added, no pro- 
bability of a mistake as to age, where the chain of 
evidence is so continuous. Each class remembers 
in a degree its predecessors ; and though the con- 
temporaries of Holyoke and Farrar died before 
them, there were venerable witnesses of succeed- 
ing classes to form a continuous chain. 

I submit therefore that their claims as aged, 
very aged, aad most aged men were yearly care- 
fully examined by the alumni of Harvard, a most 
suitable body for such an investigation. I subjoin 
a letter on this subject from the present librarian 
of the college, a gentleman who has every facility 
for knowing the facts, and who has for years pre- 
pared the triennial catalogues : 

" Harvard University, Cambridge, Dec. 8, 1871. 
" Dear Sir, At your request I have personally ex- 
amined the cotemporary faculty records, and they con- 
firm my previous statements that Dr. Edward Augustus 
Holyoke of Cambridge, of the class which graduated at 
Harvard College in i?4G, was born August 1. 1728, and 
was fourteen years old when he entered college; that 
Samson Salter Blowers from Boston, of the class of 1763, 
born March 22, 1742, entered at the age of seventeen and 
a quarter; and that Dr. Ezra Green from Maiden, of the 
class of 1765, with whom I was personally acquainted, 
and on whose hundredth anniversary the *Rev. Samuel 
K. Lothrop preached a sermon, which was printed, was 
born June 17, 1746. 

" In the class of 1767 were Timothy Farrar and Joseph 
Farrar, both from Lincoln, the first of whom, according 
to the records, was born July 11, 1744, and entered at 
the age of nineteen; the other, born July 8. 1747, entered 
at the age of sixteen ; the dates of birth being transposed, 
a fact easily accounted for by the circumstance that in 
those days a student was never named by his Christian 
name or its initial, but only by his surname, " first " and 
" second " being added to it. 

" The dates of birth and the ages were taken when the 
students were examined for admission ; a few months 
after which, as soon as the familv rank of the fathers 

was determined, these were copied into the permanent 
records, wherein the names of the students were entered 
in the order determined upon. 

" My minutes are from these continuous records. 
" Respectfully yours, 
" JOHN LA.N<?DON SIBLEY, Librarian." 

This testimony seems to be of the highest value 
as^ fixing the ages of the boys at a time when the 
mistake of a year is almost impossible. 

I propose hereafter to take the cases of Blowers 
and Green. W. II. WHITMORE. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

(4 th S. viii. 465.) 

The New Testament referred to by HERMEN- 
TRTJDE is a Romansch one (not " Romaunt") : for 
the language of the Engadine or, more properly 
to speak, of a part of it is different to what is 
known as the Romaunt or Troubadour tongue. 
The Romansch is confined to the great valley of 
the Engadine, and to some small lateral ones. 
This language may be said to commence at Sa- 
maden, and to terminate at Tarasp Schuls, near 
the Austro-Tyroi frontier. There are two dialects 
of the Romausch : in the High Engadine we have 
the Romansch, properly so called; in the Low 
Engadine we have the Ladine (not "Latin"). 
The Bible is printed in both dialects at Celerina, 
and the Bible Society pay a portion of the expense. 
The New Testament of Menni is, I believe, not 
an authorised version, but the private effort of a 
learned man. The church, which uses in its ser- 
vices the Romausch and Ladine languages, is not 
called " the Swiss church." It is a church per- 
fectly independent of any other one, and was 
founded by Bishop Vergerio, the Italian reformer. 
It differs in ritual and doctrine from the Lutheran 
and Calvinistic churches of Switzerland. The 
worship is Liturgical. The Romansch Prayer- 
book is printed at Coire, and is entitled 

' Liturgia ner Uratiums 'ad Agendas par las basel- 
giadas Rumonschas Evangelicas en 1'Aulta lihazia." 

The Vergerionian church extends into German 
and Italian districts; and hence, though it has 
only forty congregations, three synods are re- 
quired, viz. Romansch, German, and Italian ones. 
The moderators have the title of " Monsignor," 
probably from compliment to Vergerio. The only 
spot beyond the Orisons where the Vergerionians 
have a congregation is Florence, where they 
have a Romansch service in the Swiss church. 

There are two Grisons newspapers in the pure 
Romansch. I would advise HERMENTRTJDE, if , 
she is in search of Ladine or Romansch works, to 
nquire of the Bible Society, or at the Swiss 
church in Endell Street, London, or of some foreign 
jookseller. Probably DR. RIMBATJLT, who is a 
gentleman of Swiss descent, could give some in- 
brmation. But the most likely way of obtaining 



I th S. IX. JAN. 13, '72. 

such works would be to address the publishers 
at Coire, and obtain their catalogue. The appli- 
cation should be in Romansch or German. 

I will take this occasion to remark that the 
Romande, or ancient language of French or 
" Romande Switzerland,"* has no affinity with 
the Romansch or Ladine, with which it is often 

A dictionary of Romande is published at Lau- 
sanne; and connected with Le Conteur Vaudois, 
a little periodical published weekly at Lausanne 
(ten centimes a number), are several witty wags, 
who contribute tales, poems, and jokes, all written 
in the choicest Romande quite a treat for the 
philologist, perhaps a puzzle too ! 


May I be permitted to correct a misprint in my 
former paper on this subject? The printer has 
placed periods at the ends of the words nouv and 
tradiit, as if they were abbreviated ; this is not 
the case. I may at the same time ask leave to 
add, in order to prevent any misapprehension, that 
the British and Foreign Bible Society has pub- 
lished a translation of the New Testament into the 
dialect of the Lower Engadine, which is not by 
any means the same thing with the language of 
the Upper Engadine, but is a later and more cor- 
rupted patois. The two may be compared with 
interest, but no one possessing the former volume 
only must suppose that he has in it a specimen of 
the pure Romaunt. HERHEXTRTJDE. 

(4 th S. viii. 413, 556.) 

MR. WALTER THORNBURY, in what is hardly 
"N. & Q.'Msh language, stigmatises me as "ar- 
rogant " and " malicious " ; but makes up for it 
by suggesting that I must be either a " Parsi " or 
a " parson " characters which it is one of my 
peculiarities to regard as about the most to be 
looked up to of any in their respective countries. 

plead guilty to tne same par- 
ticular kind of irrelevance which made King 
Jamie exclaim "0 Geordie, Jingling Geordie, it 
was grand to hear Baby Charles laying down 
the guilt of dissimulation, and Steenie lecturing 
on the turpitude of incontinence." MR. THORN- 
BURY is what is called an " agreeable writer," and 
these " pretty Fannies " of the press may without 
any harm be permitted to have their own way to 
a certain extent, and in their own particular 
channels; but when they begin to write to 

* In all legal and Swiss documents the term " French 
Switzerland" is never used. It is always " Suisse Ro- 

" N. & Q.," giving as original / finds what they 
have discovered in a bookseller's catalogue of the 
preceding -week (see last vol. p. 240), and then 
proceed to brand a great original writer such as 
Mr. Carlyle with misquotation, and a critic like 
John Wilson Croker with puzzleheadedness and 
blundering, nothing surely can be less "irrele- 
vant v than for somebody to step in and point out 
the peculiar qualifications possessed by this dar- 
ing assailant. Such I believe to be the extent of 
my crime ; and if anything were wanted to justify 
it, it would be supplied by MR. THORXBURY'S 
singularly unfortunate rejoinder. He commences 
by throwing on the printers the whole blame of a 
string of blunders which, from the very nature of 
nearly all, must have existed in the MS. from 
which they worked, and the list of which could 
be quadrupled with the greatest ease from the 
same volumes, and extended not a little from 
other works by the same writer ; and he carefully 
abstains from mentioning that the volumes from 
which I quoted were themselves a reprint from 
All the Year Round, and that in this double pro- 
cess such bloated blunders as these could only 
have escaped by their author not recognising 
them to be blunders at all ! He then winds up 
by saying, " If CHITTELDROOG can correct my cor- 
rections of these two great writers, why does he 
not do so ? " Be it so. I had made no assertion 
whatever on this point, but had simply left your 
readers to form their own conclusion as to what 
was likely to be the value of such a writer's criti- 
cism ; but being now challenged, I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that, at p. 533 of vol. vii., and at 
p. 369 and p. 371 of your last volume, MR. THORN- 
BURY has attacked both Mr. Croker and Mr. Car- 
lyle on insufficient grounds. 

In the first of these communications (" X. & Q.," 
4 th S. vii. 532) MR. THORNBURY writes : 

" There is an error in Boswell, which neither Croker 
nor any later commentator has, I think, detected. The 
dates of the various epochs of the career of the great 
conversational gladiator of the last century are the very 
vertebra of his life. Now one of the chief of these dates 
Boswell has evidently set down incorrectly. At p. 30 of 
the 1860 edition, Boswell, in his list of Johnson's London 
residences, writes ' Staple Inn, 1758,' whereas at p. 118 
he inserts a letter of Johnson's to Mrs. Lucy Porter, dated 

March 23, 1759 In 1760 he had chambers at 

No. 1, Inner Temple Lane, and in 1777 he went to Bolt 

Croker did not detect the " error in Boswell," 
because Bosivell had made no error to detect. The 
date MR. THORNBTIRY might have seen was in- 
serted in brackets [1758] ; and had he read the notes 
at the foot of the page, he would have found it 
specially stated that these dates were Croker's. 
He would also have been saved the trouble of copy- 
ing'out the two passages from Rasselas, and describ- 
ing the emotions with which he " always " reads 
them, as he would have discovered that the same 
passages had been copied out, and the same feel- 

4* S. IX. JAN. 13, '72.] 



ings experienced, many years before he was born, 
by Malone and by Boswell. It is instructive also 
to note that ME. THORNBURY, while correcting 
the error of 1758 for 1759, goes on himself to 
perpetrate another dislocation of the " great con- 
versational gladiator's vertebrae " by stating that 
he "went to Bolt Court in 1777," "whereas, had 
he turned to p. 524, he would have seen that 
Johnson wrote to Boswell from that court in No- 
vember of the preceding year ! But if correction 
No. 1 is not altogether creditable to MR. THORN- 
BURY'S accuracy what shall I say to correction 
No. 2 ? v 

In this case he says : 

" Croker, when he liked, could be very puzzle-headed, 
and his notes are often rather blundering. In vol. vii. 
p. 329 of the 1835 edition, he is much exercised at Bos- 
well's (in 1780) calling Akermann, the keeper of New- 
gate, his ' esteemed friend '; he conjectures that it arose 
from Boswell's constant desire to make the acquaintance 
of everybody eminent, remarkable, or even notorious, 
and talks of a strange propensity (ivhich Bozzy never 
showed) of witnessing executions, which had perhaps 
brought him into intercourse with the benevolent keeper. 
If Croker had compared a few dates, and looked closer, 
he might have found an easier explanation of the 
phrase," &c. &c. 

But what are Mr. Croker' s words ? 

" Why Mr. Boswell should call the keeper of Newgate 

his < esteemed friend,' has puzzled many readers ; but 

besides," &c. &c. [And here follow the reasons as given 


Here it will be seen that Mr. Croker himself 
was neither "puzzle-headed," nor "exercised, "nor 
"blundering." He merely states what "many 
readers " had thought, and proceeds to give the 
true explanation : for, in spite of MR. THORN - 
BURY'S positive assertion to the contrary, Boswell 
had & passion for attending executions. Besides 
this case of Hackman, which MR. THORNBTJRY 
has discovered " where the Highlander found the 
tongs," we know that on one occasion he came 
fresh to Johnson from the execution of six men at 
Tyburn ; and that, on another, he dragged Sir Joshua 
to witness the execution of five malefactors at 
Newgate. So strong and so well known, indeed, 
was this propensity of Boswell's, that he was 
attacked about it in the newspapers, and in his 
printed vindication describes it as a " natural and 
irresistible impulse " ! With regard moreover to 
the date of 1780, on which MR. THORNBTJRY'S 
whole triumph hinges, had he himself done what 
he accuses Mr. Croker of neglecting to do, viz. 
"compared a few dates and locked closer," he 
would have found that Boswdl's Johnson was a 
biography not a diary; and that if the epithet 
" esteemed " reflected the feeling of the hour, it 
was the feeling of 1790, when that portion of the 
Life was written, not of 1780, when the Gordon 
riots took place ; and he would also have found 
that in this very 1790 Boswell was in close in- 
tercourse with Mr. Akermann. I think I have 

thus established that, in this second case, MR. 
THORNBTTRY has contrived to make as many mis- 
takes as it was possible to compress into so small 
a compass. Pie has accused Mr. Croker wrong- 
fully; he has contradicted him ignorantly ; and 
he has based his own small argument on a false 
assumption. So much for the charges against 
Mr. Croker. That against Mr. Carlyle may be 
more briefly dismissed. 

" Mr. Carlyle, in his too eulogistic life of that great 
robber Frederick the Great, rails at the smaller robber 
Trenck, and twice misquotes his extraordinary adven- 

Now, in the first place, I have been unable to 
discover that Mr. Carlyle makes any regular quo- 
tation from the Pandour. He speaks of him and 
his autobiography with scorn, ridicule, and con- 
tempt ; but does not seem to go beyond borrowing 
a few " touches," and perhaps expressions, from 
his narrative. I hardly like to express a suspicion 
that MR. THORNBTJRY has been misled by the 
great historian's free use of inverted commas, 
which are employed page after page as marks of 
quotation from that very convenient invention, an 
alter ego. Be this as it may, I am quite content 
to rest my reprehension of MR. THORNBURY on 
the fact admitted by himself, that he has never 
seen the original of the book he accuses Mr. 
Carlyle of misquoting ; and is so doubtful of the 
accuracy of the translation) that he appeals to 
the readers of "N. & Q." to inform him whether 
an important passage is correctly rendered. 


LONGFELLOW (4 th S. viii. 435.) An English 
paper has come to me to-day in which there is a 
brief abstract from a note by MR. J. H. DIXON in 
your journal on a paper I wrote just before our 
fire, entitled " A Nook in the North." Will you 
let me say I felt sorry, as I was writing the paper 
in question, that I had not copied the line about 
tne Longfellows exactly as it stands in the vene- 
rable register, together with the letter Mr. Snow- 
don read me from the American gentleman who 
was digging for the roots of this notable family 
tree. . I was to read a lecture to the Ilkley folk 
directly after, was then in a great hurry, wanted 
to see as much as possible of the registers down 
to the middle of the last century, and did not like 
to trench too far on the good vicar's time. But I 
believe MR. Dixox is a Wharfedale man. He 
must therefore now and then visit that jewel of 
the dale, the town of Ilkley ; when he does so 
he can easily see the parchment and copy the 
entry for himself; or if that cannot be done, I am 
sure a note, addressed Rev. John Snowdon, will 
bring a copy of the entry and whatever beside he 
may need to verify my statement. I hope he will 
do this for the sake of the truth. 



[4 th S. IX. JAN. l[ 

The story about Thomas Ileber is to be found 
in the volume of the Surtees Society, entitled 
Depositions taken at York Castle. There is no 
copy that I know of within a thousand miles of 
my desk. I copied it and had it inserted in my 
dear old Whittaker's Cracun, with many other 
precious things about the dale, but they all went 
up in the fire. It will be easily found in London. 
In the same volume will be found a curious ac- 
count of the way this Tom Heber caught certain 
popish emissaries at Skiptoii on their way to the 
house of the Tempests at Broughton. 

Chicago, Dec. 23, 1871. ROBERT COLLYER. 

CAMPSHEAD (4 th S. viii. 371-439.) A great 
deal of erudition has been wasted in this case, 
because the querist did not in the first instance 
find out the true ward of which he wished to 
ascertain the derivation and meaning. The true 
word is campsheathing, and it is of common use 
in engineering contracts. It means a wooden 
sheathing used to protect the face of a bank, whe- 
ther of a river, or of a dock, or of a cutting of any 
kind. When the purpose is effected by a work in 
brick or stone, it is called a retaining wall. The 
word u sheathing," or as North-country people 
call it, " shethmg," corrupted to "shedding," is 
well known in ship-building, and conveys the same 
idea of a covering or protection. Piles in certain 
positions and of a certain scantling are for the same 
reason called sheathing piles. As to the first 
syllable, I am inclined to think, but I cannot now 
verify my conjecture, that it should be " camb," 
and that it refers to the curved or u cambered " 
form, of the sheathing or of the piles or ribs form- 
ing the support of the sheathing; which term, 
strictly speaking, applies more particularly to the 
flat timbers. Formerly campsheathings were of 
more common use in large works than they are 
now, masonry and ironwork having superseded 
them ; and as they are only used now in compara- 
tively small works, where so great resistance to 
pressure is not needed, they are rarely seen in a 
curved form. A. F. B. 

This word is spelt also campsheaihing, and 
(more commonly) campsiding; and though MR. 
SKEATS' explanation of the former part of the 
word is plainly correct, I venture to suggest a 
doubt whether the verb shed has any part in the 
latter half. The campsiding is a planking with 
which the sloping sides of a canal or the like are 
lined ; and it seems rather forced to suppose it to 
divide the sides, either from the water or from 
one another. 

Is it not rather the siding or sheathing of the 
camb, verge or brink of the canal ? Another name 
for the same thing is campslead, which I suppose 
implies the propping up or retaining of the said 
camb. HENRY H. GIBBS. 

St. Dunstans, Regents Park. 

392, 450.) I have heard it reported that a new 
English translation of Don Qiiijote is in prepara- 
tion, and probably the great Spanish wit will 
be more faithfully rendered than in any extant 
translation. So far as the Spanish text is concerned, 
late editions will give an English translator all 
the assistance that careful and loving editorship 
can command. It is the generally accepted tradi- 
tion that Shelton used an Italian translation, and 
this seems probable, as Brunet gives 1616 as the 
date of the first French one (by Oudin). It seems 
hardly probable, looking at the immense popu- 
larity of the Spanish work, that eleven years 
would elapse before a French translation appeared 
(Oudin published his translation of Spanish pro- 
verbs in 1609). I merely mention th- 
hoping to elicit some particulars with reference to 
the earliest Quichotte in French. Brunet notes : 

" Le meurtre de la fidelite et la defense de 1'hon 
oil est racontee la tri.ste et pitoyable avanture da b 
Philidon et les raisons de la belle ct cliasfc Mar 
accusee de-sa mort. Paris, Jean Richer, HJOD. Ep: 
tire de la premiere partie du D. Quietiotte." 

Brunet cites 1621 as the date of the first It: 
translation he met with, but says one must ! 
appeared prior to 1612, as Shelton used the Italian 
work for his edition, 1612. I am inclined to tl 
that there must have been a French transl.. 
prior to 1616, and that Shelton used it. 

F. W. C. 

ARCHERY versus MUSKETRY (4 th S. viii. 371, 
447, 485.) I have to thank MR. W. H. 
for his interesting endorsement to my note. If I 
remember my old French informant rightly. 
Russian bowmen at Austerlitz were CulnmclvS,, 
and not Cossacks; but the smoke of modem 
battles often confuses even military observers. 


5, Furnival's Inn, Holborn, E.G. 

" PRISE" (4 th S. viii. 305, 376, 487.) MR. 
SKEAT taunts me with a specimen of what he 
chooses to call "guessing etymology." I < 
sidered, and still consider, the word prise as a 
contraction of upraise ; and see no reason why I 
am to derive it from a French word. The French 
wordp-we signifies a seizing or holding fast ; but 
our mechanics' term " prise " means something 
more raising up, or upraising^ A man may .- 
and hold fast, without intending to raise, or force 
up. F. C. II. 

281, 333, 403.) I see by your correspondent's 
note (p. 463) that there was no foundation for 
the generally received opinion, at the time, that 
Sir Robert 'Wilson lost his commission in the 
army where he had rendered such distinguished 
services in consequence of having taken an active 
part in the demonstration at the Queen's funeral. 

4 th S. IX. JAN. 13, 72.] 



ME. RANDOLPH, writing the Life of this gallant 
soldier, no doubt has the best authority for his 
contradiction ; and I stand corrected when he 
affirms that Sir Robert " was. simply following as 
a mourner," on horseback, " but not in uniform"; 
and " the only reason for his presence at all 
being the fact of his eldest sou having been 
equerry to the late queen." But then what could 
be the causa causans of Sir Robert Wilson's being, 
"by an arbitrary and unjust fiat of a servile and 
hostile government, absolutely deprived of his 
commission and all the fruits of his long and 
arduous services " ? This history we shall learn 
in the third volume of his Life, which I shall 
read with interest. ME. RANDOLPH again says: 
" His restoration was owing more to the personal 
favour of the king than to any intervention "; and 
yet, according to his own showing and Sir Robert's 
notes, "Lord Hertford told him that the Duke 
of Clarence asked his opinion as to what he 
should do on becoming king, and that he (the 
Marquis of Hertford) recommended him to restore 
Sir Robert Wilson." Mr. Peel, too, told him 
" that he had taken the first step for his restora- 
tion"; and "Sir Henry Hardinge told him that 
the Duke of Wellington had said, t The time is 
come for Wilson's reinstatement.' " t Surely these 
interventions or recommendations, whatever you 
please to call them, coining from such advisers, 
must have had great weight on the old and at 
the same time new king. In fact, we learn that 
Lord Hill had, on July 21, directions from Wil- 
liam IV. for the restoration to the army of the 
noble Sir Robert Wilson with the rank of lieut.- 
general, and that he was accordingly gazetted on 
the 23rd. 

One of Sir Robert Wilson's sons, he told me, 
went out to South America, and became aide-de- 
camp to the liberator Bolivar. Was it the eldest? 

P. A. L. 

WASHING HANDS (4 th S. viii. 505.) The same 
fanc} r as to the necessity for the sign of the cross 
being made over water, to prevent a quarrel with 
the person who has already washed in it, prevails 
in this part of the W T est Hiding. G. T. D. 

This making "the sign of the cross over the 
water" was common in the village where I was 
born, and we practised it at school. I add another 
bit in connection with hand- washing : If you 
wipe your hands on the same towel, and at the 
same time with another person, you and that 
person will, at some time in life, go a-begging 
together. THOS. RATCLLFEE. 

DAVID : DAVIT (4 th S. viii. 329, 402.) K C. II. 
sa} r s " the Welsh name is Dewy or Dewid." In 
"An Elegy" to Nest, the daughter of Howel, 
by Einion, the son of Gwalchuiai, about the year 

1240 *, the name occurs as Dewi, of course equi- 
valent to Dewy. The name of a famous Welsh 
bard, who flourished A. D. 1400, is Griffydd 
Llwyd-ap-Z)/7/flY/-ap Einion Llygliw.t In the 
" Brut y TywTSOgioa," the name is variously spelt, 
viz. Dyued, JUyfed, Lavyd, Davycl, Dauid. 

Cler.kenwell, E*.C. J- JEREMIAH. 

BONNETS (4 th S. viii. 516.) W. M. M. will find 
much curious and amusing information concerning 
women's head dresses in a paper by J. A. Repton 
in The Archaoloyia, vol. xxvii. pp. 29-76. Among 
other documents quoted there is the provision 
accounts on " The Marriage of the Daughters of 
Sir J. Nevil, temp. Henry VIII." 

The prices of ladies' bonnets seem to have been 
high, but these were no doubt of a costly kind : 
" Item, 3 black velvet bonnits for women. Every s. d. 

bonnit 17 8 51 

Item, a frontlet of blue velvet . . . .76 
Item, a millen bonnit, dressed with agletts . 110 
Item, a boimit of black velvet . . . .150 
Item, a frontlet of the same bounit. . . 12 0.' ? 
(P. 37.) 

The writer also quotes Hall (I suppose the 
chronicler, but he does not say so, or give any 
reference to assist in verification), who speaks of 
ten ladies who had " on their heades square bon- 
nettes of damaske gold with lose golde that did 
hang doime at their backes." 


HERON, OR HERNE (4 th S. viii. 517.) A highly 
educated lady, a native of the south of England, 
once told me that she could tell, if she had not 
already known, that I was a native of Lancashire 
from the fact that I pronounced the word Heron 
as it is spelt, and not Herne, as I ought to do. 


" BLACK BARNSLEY " (4 th S. viii. 451.) I am 
well acquainted with " lilake Barnsley," and have 
no hesitation in declaring that Blake the dialect 
form used as an adjunct to the town means bleak 
and not black. In the dialect of Lancashire, Wake 
certainly means black. Thus " Blakebiiru," = 
jB/ac&burn, is the black burn or rivulet. But the 
meaning of Wake, in the language of Tom Treddle- 
hoyle, is different to its signification in that of 
Tim Bobbin. VIATOR (1.) 

GAME-PENCIL (4 th S. viii. 512.) A shale of 
this description is common in Derbyshire, and is 
used b} r school-boys when they find pieces long 
enough to write with. They call it " dog-pencil ' ? ; 
why so, I have often wondered. 


GENEALOGICAL HINT (4 th S. viii. 513.) The 
suggestion of MR. BARRINGTON, that a child should 

* Evans's Specimens of Ancient Welsh Poetry, Llanid 
's, reprinted from Dodsley's edition of 1764, p. 28. 

loes, reprinted 
f Evans, p. 14. 



[4'iS. IX. JAN. 13,72. 

bear his mother's as well as his own Christian 
siame and his fathers surname, has been a fa- 
vourite argument of mine for several years. It 
would have many advantages beyond those named. 
It would not only distinguish the child from all 
others bearing a favourite family name, but would 
permanently record the mother's maiden name as 
well. It would connect families between which 
only a vague and doubtful link exists. A recent 
example occurred only to-day in reading of the 
Walters who founded The Times. "Mr. John 
Walter, Jun.," is mentioned, and the writer has 
to pause to explain that this is the second of the 
three who have borne the name of " John Wal- 
ter," and who have all been associated with The 
Times. The only possible objection is, that names 
would become too long; but practically double 
names are so common (merely to distinguish) 
that such an objection has little weight. One 
odd difference in the fashion of names has often 
struck me. In England, and especially lately, we 
give the second name in full G. Washington 
Moon, &c. ; while in the United States the cus- 
tom is generally reversed, and George W. Moon 
would be the common form. ESTE. 

STEREOSCOPY (4 th S. viii. 512.) Your corre- 
spondent will find that he can obtain the effect 
produced by a picture in a stereoscope in the fol- 
lowing manner: Let him hold the slide before 
him at a proper distance to enable him to see 
both pictures distinctly. He should then, with- 
out altering the distance of the slide, look as it 
were through it, as if the slide were of glass. He 
will then become aware of four pictures, of which 
the two innermost will gradually merge into one ; 
when this is accomplished, he will see only three, 
and the middle one will stand out with the usual 
stereoscopic effect. Care should be taken to hold 
the slide perfectly horizontally; and when the 
two innermost pictures begin to merge, the ob- 
server must look further or nearer through the 
slide, until both become one. I never require the 
aid of a box when looking at a slide. 


Junior Athenasum Club, Piccadilly, W. 

Not many ladies, I should think, would care to 
l)e subjected to such an ordeal as that suggested 
by your correspondent. At all events, I doubt if 
science would be the thought uppermost in the 
minds of persons so situated. Give me leave to 
recommend the proposed alternative, viz. to "per- 
form it alone by flattening one's nose against a 
looking-glass," in preference to the other method, 
which seems to inculcate an exceptional morality. 


" THE MISLETOE BOUGH " (4 th S. viii. 8, 313, 
554.) Miss Mitford in 1829 (Life, ii. 281) says 
this story belongs to Bramshill, Sir John Cope's 
house in Hampshire. But she adds, " This story 

is common to old houses : it was told me of the 
great house at Malsanger." This last house is 
near Basingstoke, and, at nearly the same date, is 
said to have been unoccupied. " (Gary's Patcrson's 
Roads, 1828.) LYTTELTON. 

Hagley Hall, Stourbridge. 

vii. passim ; viii. 57, 152, 253, 315, 492.) MR. 
T. S. NORGATE'S contribution may be an interest- 
ing scrap to himself, and ma} r , alas ! for human 
nature, be particularly interesting to the reverend 
descendant of the Lady Alianore, but it is alto- 
gether beside the point at issue. The names of 
princesses registered in " N. & Q." under the 
above title were daughters or sisters of the sove- 
reign ; and if your correspondent did not, he 
ought to have known this. Perhaps he will allow 
me to tell him that the Lady Alianore had four 
sisters, all of whom married subjects of the reign- 
ing sovereign ; and her brother (the first Duke of 
Lancaster), the father of " Blanche," also married 
a subject; but they were great-grandchildren of 
one king and great-nieces and nephew of another, 
and were themselves children of the third Earl of 
Lancaster, whose wife " Chaworth " was not of 
royal blood. The Lady Eleanor's husband, the 
Earl of Arundel, was, by the way, her second 
husband. JTJNII NEPOS. 

GYBBON SPILSBURY (4 th S. viii. 528.) By a 
singular coincidence I was occupied the very 
morning I received " N. & Q." in endeavouring to 
find out this name in the Court Guide, London 
Directory, &c., in which I was unsuccessful. 

I kave for many years been trying to find out 
the inventor or patentee of a paint called kalso- 
mine, which I believe was first invented by Miss 
Fanny Corbaux the artist, and by her used pro- 
fessionally. Subsequently, with some modifica- 
tions, it was introduced into house-painting, and 
was used by one of the first house-painters in 
London. In his hands, however, it was not suc- 
cessful, as it did not prove remunerative, and he 
discontinued the use of it, and it is now only 
employed by one house, who will not give the 

I have recently and accidentally come into pos- 
session of the Third Report of the Commissioners 
on the Fine Arts in 1844 (a parliamentary paper), 
and the appendix contains an account of this 
paint signed li Gybbon Spilsbury, Patentee." I 
am therefore, though for another 'cause, interested 
in M. D.'s inquiry, and should much like to know 
if Mr. Spilsbury is still alive and still in posses- 
sion of the patent ; or if not, who the patent now 
rests with. II. M. SUSSEX. 

BATTLE OF HARLAW (4 th S. viii. 527.) I beg 
to recommend to your correspondent the account 
of this battle in Mr. Arthur Hill Burton's History 
of Scotland as being both graphic and accurate. 


s. IX. JAN. 13, '72.] 



ORPHANAGE (4 th S. viii. 518.) 1 cannot help 
to determine when this word " orphanage " was 
first diverted from its proper original meaning- of 
"state of an orphan" to that which it usually 
bears at present; but this use of the termination 
age need not surprise anyone who considers its 
local force in " hermitage," " steerage," " vicar- 
age/' &c., or its collective force in " baggage," 
"coinage," "verbiage," &c. As " orphan " is 
from the Greek, a purist would object to such a 
word as " orphanhood," as a hybrid ; but happily 
there is no such word. J. H. I. OAKLEY. 


518.) I was familiar with the noble mansion of 
Alton Towers in the days of its glory, and well 
knew the figure and inscription alluded to by 
ELLA. It is a bust, however, not a statue, which 
surmounts the pedestal. The first time I visited 
that fairy land was in the time of the excellent 
Earl John; and going with him over the inde- 
scribably beautiful gardens, we came to this pe- 
destal and bust. I had no idea whom the bust 
represented ; and not being very near it. it struck 
me as so like O'Connell, that I said very un- 
guardedly to Lord Shrewsbury, {t That, I sup- 
pose, is O'Connell." Had I been near enough to 
read the inscription, or had I reflected for a mo- 
ment on the antagonism between O'Connell and 
the noble earl, I should never have uttered words 
> so rash and offensive. Lord S. immediately 
answered in a tone of surprise, as well he might : 
" no, that's my uncle." It was in fact the bust 
of Charles, Earl of Shrewsbury, who built Alton 
Towers, and laid out the magnificent gardens, 
where before there had been little better than a 
desert. The line below is very happily chosen. 
I am not sure, however, if it is a quotation. It 
sounds like one from Pope ; but I have not found 
it in his poems. F. C. H. 

This line is engraved on the pedestal of the 
bust of the Earl of Shrewsbury, who built Alton 
Towers. I never took it for a quotation, but it 
refers to the fact that he converted what was once 
a rabbit warren into these beautiful though fan- 
tastic gardens. W. J. BERNHARD SMITH. 

CHRISTENING BIT (4 th S. viii. 506.) I have 
frequently witnessed, at Looe, in south-east Corn- 
wall, the custom described by H. A. The gift, 
however, was generally a small cake made for the 
purpose, and was called the "christening crib" 
a crib of bread or cake being a provincialism for a 
bit of bread, &c. According to the late Mr. Couch* 
the same custom was formerly observed at Pol- 
perro, about three miles from Looe, at weddings 
as well as christenings. The gift, there termed 
the kimlly, was also made to the person who 
brought the first news of a birth to those interested 
in the new arrival. WM. PENGELLY. 

* History ofPolperro, pp. 129-30 (1871). 


Sound the World in 1870 : an Account of a brief Tour 
made through India, China, Japan, California, and 
' South America. By A. D. Carlisle, B.A., Trin. Coll. 
Cam. (King & Co.) 

An unpretending, pleasantly written narative, of a 
thirteen months' run round the world, five of which 
were spent on board the steamers. It is for the most 
part a transcript from the author's journal, and claims 
to be nothing more than an easy, truthful, and, as the 
writer modestly hopes, not uninteresting account of the 
men, manners, and objects of interest, natural and arti- 
ficial, seen in the different countries visited by him. In 
I one respect Mr. Carlisle shows marked good sense, for 
; feeling very properly that his opportunity of forming a 
judgment upon many of the vexed questions connected 
with the various places visited by him were too few and 
too brief, he very wisely abstains from dogmatising on? 
such difficult topics ; and we sincerely hope that any one 
with 1500Z. to spare, and two years "on hand, who" may 
be disposed to employ th>m in a similar trip, will, if he 
publishes an account of his travels, follow in this respect 
the excellent example set by Mr. Carlisle. 

Count Robert of Paris. By Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 

(A. & C. Black.) 
The Siirgeon's Daughter and Castle Dangerous. By Sir 

Walter Scott, Bart. (A. & C. Black.) 

With these two' volumes, the 24th and 25th, " The 
Centenary Edition " of The Waverley Novels is brought 
to a close. Its success has been very great ; and it is a 
good sign that there is such a demand" for these admirable 
and healthy fictions, for we were assured the other day 
by a London retail bookseller that he had himself sold 
upwards of four thousand volumes of this cheap and 
popular issue of them. 

Pliny's Letters. By the Rev. Alfred Church, M.A., Head 
Master of the Royal Grammar School, Henley-on- 
Thames, and the Rev. W. J. Brodribb, M.A., late Fel- 
low of St. John's College, Cambridge. (Blackwood.) 
This new volume of Messrs. Blackwood's "Ancient 
Classics for English Readers " will, we think, prove to be 
one of the most popular of the Series. I the first place, from 
the introductory notice of the Younger Pliny, and of the 
important period at which he lived that period of tran- 
sition in the history of mankind which began with the 
origin and rise of the Christian Church ; and next, from 
the great interest both in the matter and style of his- 
letters. In the work before us many of the translations 
are borrowed from those of Lord O"rrery and Melmoth, 
some few are derived from Dean Merivale, and the rest 
are by the editors. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Debatable Land between this- 
World and the Next. With Illustrative Narratives. By 
Robert Dale Owen. (TrUbner & Co.) We have neither 
time nor space to enter into an examination of our 
author's views on Spiritualism, and must therefore con- 
tent ourselves with calling the attention of our readers 
interested in the subject to Mr. Owen's book. Johnnie 
Gibb of Gushetneuk, in the Parish of Pyketillim. With 
Glimpses of the Parish Politics about A.D. 1843. (Walker, 
Aberdeen.; An amusing sketch of Aberdeen rural life, 
exhibiting the characteristics of the Aberdeen Dialect, 
which will amuse readers generally and Aberdeen folk es- 
pecially. Water not Convex : the Earth not a Globe. De- 
monstrated by William Carpenter. (Printed for the Author, 
Lewisham.) We do not profess to treat questions of 



[4> S. IX. JAN. 13, 72. 

science in these columns, and therefore leave Mr. Car- 
penter's theory to the examination of our more scientific 
contemporaries. White's Substantive Seniority Army 
List, First Issue. Majors and Captains. (H. S. King 
& Co.) In the uncertainty which still obtains with 
respect to the future organisation of the army, onr mili- 
tary readers mav be pleased to learn the existence of an 
Army List like'this, which exhibits the "Seniority" 
which is destined to be " tempered by selection and 

THE new edition of Mr. Watford's "County Families" 
(which is dedicated, by special permission, to H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales) will be published by Mr. Hardwicke 
very shortly. It will contain 2UO additional families, 
without, however, adding to the bulk or the cost of the 
work. Henceforth it will be published annually, toge- 
ther with the Peerages. 

AGRIPPA D'AUBIGNE. The Athenceum announces that 
M. Re'aume, Professor at the Lycee Condorcet, in Paris, and 
M. de Caussade, are preparing a complete edition of the 
works of Agrippa D'Aubigne'. They have been able to 
avail themselves of the valuable MS. collections belong- 
ing to the late Col. Tronchin of Geneva. The works will 
be classified as follows : 1. Memoirs Correspondance 
(entirely in/Jdite), with a portrait of the author. 2. A ven- 
tures du Baron du Fceneste Confession de Sancy 
Traite de la Douceur dans les Afflictions (Euvres di- 
verses en Prose. 3. Les Tragiques Poeme sur la Crea- 
tion (inedit). 4. Poeme du Printemps et Poesies diverses 
(inedits). 5. Memoirs on the Life and Writings of 
D'Aubigne' Bibliographical Essay Various Readings 
Commentary Table of Proper Names Glossary. 6-10. 
Histoire Umverselle. The lirst volume is in the press. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

MEMOIRS OF J. T. SEiiiiws THK PAINTER, with Portrait. 8vo. 1836. 

Wanted by \YiHiani J. Thom.% Esq., 40, St. George's Square, 

Belgrave Koacl, S.W. 


MII-:I:<U l'- 
Fine Bindings. 

Illuminated or Early English MSS. 
Early Engraving*. 

Wanted by Rev. J. C. Jackson , 13, Manor Terrace, Amhurst Road, 
Hackney, N.E. 

THE BIRDS OF ARISTOPHANES, translated by the late Mr. Hamilton 
' All copies were returned to the author [translator ?JbyMr. Murra 
ill 1854." 

Wanted by Jl/r. Mortimer Collins, Knowl Hill, Berkshire. 


Wanted by Alpha, United University Club, Pall Mall East, S.W. 


Wanted by Jfr. W. A. /,'. Coolidrje, Exeter College, Oxford. 





RAPHAEL'S TIIOPIIHTJC MESSENGER. 1863 and 1*?64. (Or any Works 

on Astrology, i 


Wanted by Mr. r/i'>n/* Millurd, "'.), St. Paul's Churchyard, London. 

ST. IHVYNE; on, THE KosicRcci AN, by P. B. Shelley. 

IN DEJIARARA, by Dr. Shier. 



Wanted by J//-. John Wilson, S3, Great Russell Street, W.C. 


THE IXDKX to our fast Volume, will be read// for deli- 
very with " N. & Q." of Saturday next. 

W. F. B. The subjects on rvhich you hare written arc. 
real/;/ exhausted; it is, therefore, with regret t/tat ice are 
compelled to withhold your communications. For the same 
reason ice mast appeal to our readers generally to bear with 
us when we express a rather decided op'nvon that the close 
of last year sfwtld wit ness the termination of many old dis- 

CIIITTELDROOG. Your P.S. arrived too late for this 

J. E. F. A. (Whitehall.) Have you referred to pp. 292 
and 479 ? Perhaps one of these is the article referred to ; 
if not, repeat the query. 

J. M. (Xewark.) We do not remember having received 
any paper from you on the Talmud. 

F. B. " Ccc./is exploratis," the words on the late Sir- 
John HerscheVs gravestone, is the motto on the family 

CUTHBEUT BEDK. To prevent all possibility of mistake, 
will you be good enough to re-write, at the proper time, 
ijour paper as you -wish it to appear in " X. & Q." ? 

H. J. II. (Ipswich.) The Twelve Golden Rules attri- 
buted to Charles I. are printed in t; X. & Q." 3 rd S. iii. 107, 
215. We are inclined, however, to think they were agreed 
to by Ben Jnnson and his fellow poets, and called by 

tJiem " Table Observations." For some account of 

Bowles, the engraver, see " N. & Q." 3 rd S. ii. 145, 254. 

T. P. F. -Cat ice is a term for ice from which the water 
has receded. The phrase, is explained in " X. & O." 3 rd S. 
i. 429. 

NlTMtSMATOLOGTST. Both queries ir!H be answered pri- 
vately on application to Mr. Robert Ready at the British 

M.I). The notice of Francis Walkingame appeared in 
"X. & Q." '2 Ild S. iv. >!>.>. 

J. VV. (Junior Carlton Club.) The Penny Magazine 
commenced on April\, 1832, and the Saturday Magazine 
on July 7, 1832. 

LIEUT.-COT,. W. Pt. WALLACE. Prose by a Poet, 2 
rols. 1824, is by the late James Montgomery, of Sheffield. 
See Holland a/id Everett's Memoirs of htm, iv. 39. 

X. Edward Perronet (oft. Jan. 1792) was the author 
of the, hymn "AH hail the power of Jesus name.' 1 (Mil- 
ler's Singers and Songs of the Church, ed. 1869, p. 247.) 

MACKROCHKIR. T/ie cottage-building humorist, and 
writer ofOiKifita, or Nutshells, by Jose Mac Packe, a 
bricklayer's labourer, 1785, is James Peacock, architect, 
author" of Filtration by Ascent, 1793; anil "Instruments 
for Perspective JJrawing,'' Philos. Transactions, 1785. 

H. FI.SIHVK K. The. passage, in question runs "Itaque 
quoquo pacto emigrant miser/, riri, jttidieres, mariti" Sec. 


We beg leave to state that we dec-line to return communications 
which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor at the Office, 
3, Wellington Street, W.C. 

To all communications should be affixed 'the name and address of 
the sender, not necessarily for publication, but Ma guarantee of good 

4 lh S. IX. JAN. 20, Y2.~] 





NOTES: Ballad upon Sir William Davenant's " Cruelty 
of the Spaniards in Peru," 49 Napoleon on Board the 
Northumberland, 50 Sir William Clerke, Chaplain of 
Kanff 1547 : Clerk of Pennycuick, 51 Mural Decorations : 
Trcvalga Church, 52 Bell Inscriptions Lucifer Matches 

Babies: Folk Lore Tinker's Cry Four Children at 
a Birth An old Sons in praise of Beef George III.'s 
Visit to Portsmouth, 1773 Longevity : Mrs. Lenfesty 
A remarkable Centenarian Martin Guerre, or Arnauld 
du Thil New Year's Eve Custom, 53. 

Ql r KRIES : Ebony Portrait of Louis XVI., 54 Thomas 
Bird Jacob Bosanquet Brass Knockers Barou Bun- 
s,-n Dr. Fowkc Galileo Gibson Family An English 
Idiom Kesch Family Females with Wigs Knarr : 
Wryde "The Ladies' Library " Napoleon at Elba 
Nelson's Punctuality Poems Quotations wanted Sir 
Walter Scott Scottish Iron Money The Size of a Book 

Claws of Shell-Fish Sussex Queries : The Devil's Nut- 
ting Day " Sworo by no Bugs " Tumuli Duke of 
Wellington, 55. 

REPLIES: Richard Harrison Black, LL.D. (and James 
Black), 58 Sternhold and Hopkins, Ib. Homer and 
his Translators. 59 Cokcsey : Throckmorton, &c., 60 
Snatches of Old Tunes, 62-Piiblic Teachers Blue Speed- 
well Old Enigmatical Puzzle Population of London in 
^(W> G-cii. .John Desborongh Rev. John Bryan Water 
;is a Turnspit "Leave me not" Dr. Young's Step- 
daughter "The, Beggar's Daughter of Bednall Green " 
rocket-Handkerchiefs Death's Head Buttons Robert 
Alonhm Wise-man of Barbadoes An Old Song Mon- 
talt Barons Orphanage Lettice Knollys Provincial 
Glossary, &c., (52. 

Notes ou Books, &c. 

My friend ME. HUSK'S notice of Davenant's 
first dramatic attempts to amuse the public during 
the period of the Commonwealth (4 th S. viii. 495) 
reminds me of a ballad which I possess, in a con- 
temporary MS., illustrating his second essay 
The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru. According 
to the title-page of the first edition, 4to, 1658, it 
was " exprest by Instrumental and Vocal Musick, 
and by the Art of Perspective in Scenes, &c., re- 
presented daily at the Cock-pit in Driiry-lane, at 
three in the afternoon punctually." At the end 
of the book is this advertisement : 

" Notwithstanding the . great expense necessary to 
scenes and other ornaments in this entertainment, there 
is a good provision made of places for a shilling, and i 
shall begin certainly at three in the afternoon." 

John Evelyn thus speaks of this piece in his 
Diary : 

"5 May, 1659. I went to visit my brother in London 
and next day to see a new opera after the Italian way in 
recitative musiq. and sceanes, much inferior to the Italian 
composure and magnificence : but it was prodigious 
that, in a time of such publique consternation, such i 
vanity should be kept up or permitted. I being engaged 
with company, could not decently resist the going to se 
it, though my heart smote me for it." 

The consternation here alluded to was, of course 
th% recent death of Cromwell. We get a good 
idea of the sensational effects of this spectacl 

rom a scene which is thus described in the stage 
erections : 

"A doleful pavin, is played to prepare the change of 
he scene, which represents a dark prison at a great dis- 
ance ; and farther to the view, are discerned racks and 
>ther engines of torture, with which the Spaniards are 
ormenting the natives and English mariners, who ma}* 
>e supposed to be lately landed there to discover the 
ioast. Two Spaniards are likewise discovered sitting in 
heir cloaks, and appearing more solemn in rufTs, vviili 
apiers and daggers by their sides; the one turning a 
pit,- while the other is" basting an Indian prince, w!m is 
oasted at an artificial fire." 

I may add that the following ballad is probably 
copied from a printed broadside, and a version of 
t is given, with some slight variations, in the 1 bird 
volume of A Select Collection of Poems, with Nates, 
1780, p. 203: 


" Now Heaven preserve our realm, 

And him that sits at th' helm : 
I will tell yon of a new story 
Of Sir William and his apes, 
With full many merry japes, 
Much after the rate of John Doric. 
" This sight is to be seen 

Near the street that is call'd the Queen, 
And the people have call'd the Opera : 
But the devil take my wife 
If all the days in my life 
I did ever see such a foppery. 
" Where first one begins 

With a trip and a cringe, 
And a face set in starch to accost 'em ; 
Aye, and with a speech to boot 
That had neither head nor foot 
Might have serv'd for a Charterhouse rostrum. 
" Oh, he look'd so like a Jew, 

Would have made a man spew, 
When he told them here was this, here was that : 
Just like him that shews the tombs, 
For when the sum total comes 
'Tis two hours of I know not what. 
"'Neither must I here forget 
The music, how it was set, 
Dice two ayres and a half, and a Jove [sic] : 
And the rest was such a gig 
Like the squeaking of a pig, 
Or cats when they're making their love. 
" The next thing was the scene, 

And that, as it was lain, 
But no man knows where, in Peru; 
With a story for the nonce 
Of raw headland bloody bones, 
But the devil a word that was true. 
" There might you have seen an ape 

With his fellow for to gape, 
Now dancing and turning o'er and o'er. 
What cannot poets do ? 
They can find out in Peru 
Things no man ever saw before. 
" Then presently the Spaniard 

Struts with his winyard, 
Now heaven of thy mercy how grim ! 

Who'd have thought that Christian men 
Would have eat up children, 
Had he not seen them do it limb by limb ? 



[4h s. IX. JAN. 20, 72. 

" Oh, greater cruelty yet ! 

Like a pig upon a spit, 
Here lies one. there another boiFd to a jelly ; 

Just so the people stare 

At an ox in the fair 

Roasted whole, with a pudding in's belly. 
" I durst have laid my head 

That the King there had been dead, 
When I saw how they basted and carved him ; 

Had he not come up again 

Upon the stage, there to complain 
How scurvily the rogues had serv'd him. 
"A little further in 

Hung a third by the chin, 
And a fourth cut out all in quarters ; 

Oh, that Fox had now been living, 

They had been sure of heaven, 
Or at the least been some of his martyr-. 
" But, which was strange again. 

The Indians that they had slain 
Came dancing all in a troop ; 

But, oh, give me the last, 

For as oflen as he pass'd, 
He still tumbled like a dog in a hoop. 
"And now, my Signior Struggr, 

In good faith you may go jugge, 
For Sir William w'ill have something to brag on ; 

Oh, the English boys are come 

With their fife and their drum, 
And still the Knight must conquer the Dragon. 
" And so now my story is done, 

Asid I'll end as I begun, 
With a word, and I care not who know it ; 

Heaven keep us, great and small, 

And bless us some and all, 
From every such pitiful poet ! " 



tl He would not give any opinion whatever of 
Mr. Pitt : ' He had never known him.' I returned 
to the charge, saying I meant what did he think 
of his political principles ? but he would not utter 
a word on the subject. I think he repeated, 'I 
never was acquainted with him.' On iny men- 
tioning Mr. Windham, he inquired whether I 
meant him who had been minister of war ? and 
on my answering in the affirmative, he described 
him as a man of great talents, but who had been 
very much his enemy, or nearly these words. I 
said Mr. Windham was a white, to which he 
assented, and so we dropped the subject. The 
flotilla, he said, had been only a feint. He did 
intend to have attempted an "invasion with his 
great ships, his Escadres from Brest and Ferrol. 
I forget when it was that he said, shaking his 
head and swaggering a little, ' Je ne dis pas que 
ce ne me soit pas passe par la tete de conspirer la 
perte de 1'Angleterre. Eh ! pendant vingt annees 
de guerre ! ' Then, suddenly checking himself 
as if he had spoken his mind too freely, ( C'est- 

* Concluded from p. 31, 

a-dire, ^votre perte, non ! mais votre abaisse- 
ment ; je voulois YOUS forcer a etre justes, ou du 
moins, moins injustes.' He defended his conti- 
nental system, as though it had been provoked by 
our orders in council. I reminded him that the 
Berlin and Milan decrees were antecedent to 
those orders. He said, ' But Lord Grey's blockade 
of the Elbe and .Weser had preceded them.' I 
was preparing an answer, I believe, to this, when 
he gave the discussion another turn by saying 
'that, however, it was all our fault for not having 
made peace when Lord Lauderdale was at Paris. 
That was prior to the battle of Jena, to which 
the Berlin and Milan decrees were unquestion- 
ably subsequent. Had we made peace then there 
would have been no war with Prussia, &c. I 
asked him what he thought of the Russian 
admiral Tchitchagoff? He replied that he was a 
clever fellow, but not a good general. L. ' But 
;tt the passage of the Beresina he had not a suffi- 
cient force to stop you ; 24,000 men, of whom 
8,000 were cavalry, and useless in such a position.' 
He began upon this to describe his operations 
rather technically, which I not understanding, I 
took the opportunity of preventing his going on 
in that strain, and observed to him that Kutusoff 
had undoubtedly not sent sufficient force to that 
point, since Tchitchagoff might have been over- 
whelmed by Schwartzenberg's army alone if, for 
reasons best known to himself, Schwartzenberg 
had not thought fit to abstain from attacking him. 
B. l Ah ! ' shaking his head and smiling signifi- 
cantly, l ils s'entendoient deja.' Speaking of Bel- 
gium, he admitted that it was our policy to fortify 
it, &c. ; and when I told him I thought we might 
perhaps have allowed France the possession of 
Belgium if we could have prevented Antwerp 
from falling into her hands, he said that Antwerp 
was the port which most threatened England. 
He considered our present position as a very com- 
manding one. It had, however, its disadvantages 
if we were ' dans la premiere ligne de guerre,' 
and entitled to take a leading part in whatever 
was doing in Europe. On the other hand, not a 
shot could be fired anywhere that might not give 
us cause of war, and involve us in a quarrel. It 
was, I think, in one part of his argument against 
us for our present treatment of him that I intro- 
duced cautiously, and with as much delicacy as 
I could, the battle of Waterloo, of which I said 
the issue was (as it might truly be stated without 
offence to him) three or four times doubtful. I 
then asked him what he thought of the British 
infantry? B. (looking more grave and serious 
than usual) ' L'infanterie angloise est tres-bonne.' 
L. (in a subdued tone) ' Relativement a la 
fran9oise ? ' B. ' L'infanterie francoise est aussi 
bonne.' L. " A la baionnette ?' B. ' L'infanterie 
fran9oise est aussi bonne a la baionnette. Beau- 
coup depend de la conduite.' L. ' Le corps de 

4> s. ix. JAN. 20, 72.] 



genie ? I'artillerie ? ' B. ( Tout cela est bon, 
tres-bon ! ' L. ' C'est a vous, Monsieur le General, 
que nous devons nos progres dans 1'art de la 
guerre.' B. * Eh ! 011 ne peut faire la guerre sans 
deveuir soldat, 1'histoire de tons les pays prouve 
cela.' Early in the conversation I had said I 
hoped he was satisfied with the permission given 
to so many officers to accompany him to St. 
Helena. He replied, with a slight shrug, ' Three | 
or four of them.' St. Helena he called ' une ile 
de fer, d'ou il ne seroit pas possible de s'evader; ' 
and complained of its climate as unwholesome. I 
denied the unwholesomeness of the climate, and 
assured him I knew the contrary, not only from 
books, but from the report of several people who 
had been in the island. When first he mentioned 
St. Helena there was a great noise upon deck, 
and I heard him indistinctly, and thought he was 
speaking of England. This occasioned my saying, 
' Sir, you must recollect that many of your officers 
have effected their escape (se sont evades) ; for 
instance, Lefevre Desnouettes,' but when I found 
my mistake I pursued that subject no further, 
and apologised, I think, for having introduced it. 
"The state of France, he said, was such as might 
be expected in a country in which you were at- 
tempting ( imposer un roi par une force etrangere.' 
The Bourbons, in his opinion, would hardly 
attempt to revive the slave trade. It was im- 
politic, and besides, * chose tres-inhuniaine.' I 
asked him if he had read Sismondi's Essay ? to 
which I could not collect his answer. His ge- 
neral reasons against the slave trade as a measure 
of policy were that, supposing it were advisable 
to import negroes into the colonies (which, how- 
ever, he denied), it could only be done at a great 
expence, and that the moment war broke out we 
should probably take the French islands, and that 
French capital was more wanted now in the in- 
terior of the kingdom, where it was on all accounts 
better to employ it. We finished by talking of 
chemistry, to which we were led by his asserting 
that France was flourishing not only in agricul- 
ture (which was admitted) but in manufactures 
(from which I dissented, and instanced Lyons, 
without, however, obtaining any concession from 
him) ; and, finally, although her commerce had 
undoubtedly suffered, her internal resources sufficed, 
and that chemical discoveries had supplied many 
things that foreign commerce used to furnish: 
as, for instance, sugar from beet-root, which he 
said was very good, and sold for fifteen pence a 
pound much cheaper than the foreign, on which 
he laid a heavy tax that would in time of peace 
yield a tolerable resource, as the rich would after 
all prefer the true sugar, and he should in the 
mean time be encouraging his home manufac- 

"He talked eagerly on this subject : said they 
were making indigo from woad (pastel], and that 

there was an old law of Henry the IVth forbid- 
ding the importation of indigo, which he either 
had or intended to revive. In England, he said, 
we had as much chemistry, { a la tete de 1'In- 
stitut,' but that it was not so popularly diffused 
or so practically useful as in France. Sir H. 
Davy he remembered, but gave no opinion of him. 
All the time that we were thus conversing he 
remained standing on the spot where he had first 
halted with me, near the poop, and facing it. It 
is obvious that it was his wish to continue the 
conversation, since there were people enough upon 
deck, among others people of his own train, to 
whom he might have turned aside if he had 
chosen it. He quitted us at last with great 
abruptness, looking suddenly up to the sky, and 
saying, ' II me semble qu'il fait un pen frais,' after 
which he tripped straight off into the cabin on 
tip-toe, with a mincing step and a slight shrug. 
We stared, and had some difficulty in refraining 
from laughter. 

"During the whole of these conversations, 
which lasted altogether not less than two hours, 
Bonaparte never appeared for a moment to los<> 
his temper or to be in any degree indecently if at 
all agitated. His expressions were often strong, but 
were calmly uttered ; his voice was scarcely ever 
elevated ; his countenance composed, and he ges- 
ticulated very little indeed, much less than French- 
men or Italians generally do. In short, there 
was nothing in his manner that indicated passion 
or dejection. He seemed to be perfectly collected, 
and talked as freely upon trifles as upon the 
greater questions of politics connected with his 
history, or the points that peculiarly related to 
his present condition. Nay, more, his style was 
remarkably lively; he always made very plea- 
sant play, and I should imagine it impossible not 
to admire his quickness, adroitness, and originality, 
and the excellent command of temper that accom- 
panied these spirited and agreeable qualities. 
He was, as I suppose I have already sufficiently 
shown, by no means coarse or uncivil, but, on 
the other hand, neither did he use much form or 
ceremony ; and I observed that he never once 
said Monsieur to me, or Milord to Lord Lowther. 
He gave us no appellation of courtesy whatever." 


There existed in the royal burgh of Banff, dur- 
ing tlfp fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a gram- 
mar school or schools of considerable importance, 
and as the town was inhabited by persons of rank 
and wealth, it may reasonably be supposed that 
the teachers were carefully "selected, and fully 
qualified for their situations. 

On March 6, 1547, the important office was 
held by an ecclesiastic of the name of Clerke or 



[4* S. IX. JAN. 20, '72. 

Clerk, whose salary was then fixed at five marks 
by the provost and magistrates, payable half- 
yearly at Whitsunday and Martinmas. The 
liferent grant was to the " venerable " man, Sir 
William Clerke, Chaplain of Banff "Pro erigen- 
dis et docendis per eum scolis gramaticalibus con- 
tinue in dicta urbe de Banff." The deed was 
witnessed, amongst others, by Patrick Grantully, 
Hector of Glass, a neighbouring parish ; Andrew 
Anderson, Curate of Banff, and the Members of 
the town council. Its due execution is certified 
by Thomas Walters, " Presbyter Aberdoniensis 
diocesis, publicus papalis, imperialis, et regius 

The name of Clerke or Clerk frequently occurs 
among the Banff muniments. From one of them 
it appears that John Clerk, a burgess of the royal 
burgh, was owner of certain tenements there, 
which he sold to Patrick Duncan, a fellow-bur- 
gess. These subjects were bounded on the north 
by the lands of Eobert Berclai (Berkeley), those of 
William Strach (Strachan) on the south, the lands 
of Alexander Abercrombie on the east, and from 
thence ascending " usque ad le Corsgate " on the 
west. This was evidently the Crossgate. 

Clerk mentions in the testing clause that, not 
having a (i proper" seal of his own, Archibald 
Lyddale and James Bard, baillies of Banff* ap- 
pended their seals for him. The tag only remains 
of the seal of the former, but the seal of Bard or 
Baird is entire and well preserved. There is no 
date to this deed, but, judging from the caligra- 
phy, it was written before 1500. Baird was a 
vassal in the lands of Ordenhuffis, in the county 
of Banff, held then of the Gordons of Huntly. 

Various writings prove that Sir William Clerke 
was a man of substance. In several title-deeds 
reference is made to his tenements as bound- 
aries. John Clerke, who sold his possessions to 
Duncan, was perhaps his father or grandfather. It 
would be interesting to know something more 
about the venerable schoolmaster of Banff, to 
whose supervision the education of the youth of 
the district had been entrusted. The Clerks of 
Penny cuick, in the county of Midlothian, are sup- 
posed to hfl,ve come from Forfarshire. May they 
not have had some connection with the shire of 
Banff? They were originally traders in Montrose, 
and settled in Edinburgh during the perilous days 
of Charles I., when one of them, a burgess of 
Edinburgh, acquired the estate of Pennycuick 
from the ancient family of that name. 

One of the family, conjectured to have been 
William, the third son of the first baronet who 
got the title from Charles II. in 1678-9, was in 
1662 a member of the Faculty of Advocates, and 
the author of a comedy entitled Marciano, which 
possesses great merit. One of the songs intro- 
duced in it might be accepted as the production of 
Carew or Herrick. It was acted before the Lord 

High Commissioner Middleton by a party of private 
gentlemen: this at least is stated on the title of 
the play, which was published in Edinburgh, and, 
with the exception of TarugJs Wiles (by St. Serfe or 
Sidserfe), is the only drama written by a Scotsman 
during the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
Crawford's two comedies properly belonging to the 
| beginning of the succeeding one. . J. M. 


A few weeks ago I visited the ancient church of 
Trevalga in the deanery of Trigg Minor, Corn- 
wall. On the north side of the chancel is a small 
chapel, 11 ft. by 10 ft, of the first pointed period. 
It is now in a sad condition of repair, though un- 
touched materially since the date of its erection. 
It is lighted by an elegant double lancet in the 
east, and by a single lancet in the north wall. 
In the angle on the south side is a small round- 
headed piscina, and at the angle of the splay of 
the eastern window is a large bracket, on which 
formerly stood the image of the saint to whom 
the church is dedicated. There remains also what 
appears to be a fragment of a ledge in the 
window sill, which would lead one to suppose it 
was a portion of the altar slab, except that an 
examination on the outside shows that the win- 
dow has been walled up about a foot above its 
original base. 

My present design, however, is to call attention 
to another object in this interesting chapel, which 
is perhaps unique, at least in Cornwall. Observ- 
ing that a small part of the whitewash on the 
walls had been peeled away, showing colouring 
underneath, the rector, the Rev. W. P. Roberts, 
courteously gave me permission to examine it 
further ; and finding that the whitewash of ages 
was easily separated from the walls in large thick 
flakes, with the aid of a long screwdriver I soon 
stripped off sufficient to disclose the whole design 
of the ornamentation. It is, I consider, coeval 
with the building, and the colours are as bright 
as when laid on some six hundred years ago. the 
design is executed in fresco, and is very simple 
and effective. The arches of the windows are 
painted in masonry, in indian red and bright 
orange, the divisions being white, jointed with 
black lines. This ornamentation of the arches is 
supported by columns, painted at the angles in 
red lines, with an orange capital foliated with 
black lines. The eastern window is further en- 
riched by a foliated coronal in red. The walls 
are ornamented throughout their whole surface in 
masonry with red lines the horizontal lines being 
single, and the perpendicular double ; whilst the 
divisions are enriched, alternately, by red scroll- 
work and black cinquefoils. The head of the 
east window is decorated with a quatrefoil within 
a striped border of black, white, and orange. The 

4 th S. IX. JAN. 20, '72.] 



whole surface of the walls is of a pale grey colour. 
Tho church, which is in a very dilapidated con- 
dition, is about to be restored as soon as funds 
for the purpose can be obtained, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. St. Aubyn, the architect ; and it is to 
be hoped that careful tracings will be made of 
this ancient and interesting 1 work of art, with a 
view to its being replaced in the restored chapel. 


BELL INSCRIPTIONS. The following inscriptions 
are to be found on five good bells at Passenham, 
co. Northampton : 

1. " Sancta Maria ora pro nobia" (in Old Eng- 
lish letters). 

2. " Richard Chandler made me, 1711." 

3. "Bartholomew Alton made me, B. H. 1624." 

4. " A + TRVSTY + FRENDE + TS + HARDE + TO + 
FYNDE + 1585." 

5. The tenor is very large and good : 

" This Bell, the gift of S r Robert Banistre in 1635, was 
recast at the expense of Charles Viscount Maynard and 
the Parishioners, 1817. Rev. Loraine Smith, rector; 
John Clare, John Clark, C. W. John Briant, Hertford, 
fecit. Gloria Deo in excel: ;i . ' 

D. C. E. 

South Bersted. 

LUCIFER MATCHES. As the following news- 
paper cutting relates to a most useful modern 
invention, I send it to you. Pray give it a corner 
in " N. & Q. What would the civilised world 
do (not forgetting the readers of your valuable 
paper, these dark mornings and still darker even- 
ings), if lucifer matches, and how to make them, 
were quite forgotten ? 

of lucifer matches was due, it seems, to the devotion of a 
young chemist to his studies. Mr. Isaac Holden, in his 
evidence before the Patent Committee in England, says 
that he had to rise at four in the morning to begin study, 
and that he found it very tedious and troublesome to 
obtain a light by the then ordinary method with tinder, 
flint, and steel. Hfl tells us that he, like other chemists, 
knew the explosive material that was necessary in order 
to produce instantaneous light ; but it was very difficult 
to communicate light from that explosive material to 
wood. In a fortunate moment, the idea occurred to him 
of placing sulphur next to the wood. This he did, and 
showed the process in the lectures which he was deliver- 
ing at the time before a large academy. Among the 
audience was the son of a London chemist, who wrote to 
his father about it ; and within a short time afterward 
lucifer matches became known to the world at large." 

11. W. H. N. 

BABIES : FOLK LORE. On a nurse taking out a 
baby for the first time to show it to different 
friends, the one upcto whom the first call is made 
should give it a little flour and a little salt, each 
wrapped in paper ; an egg, and a sixpence, or any 
other coin : so that the child, in its future career, 

nay never want money or food or its necessary 
seasoning. G. T. 1). 


TINKER'S GET. Would the following, which I 
lave heard from my father many years ago, be of 
sufficient interest for the readers of " N. & Q."? 
" Work for the tinker, [or all ?] good wives ! 

For we are men of metal ; 
T'were well if you could mend your lives, 
As we can mend a kettle." 

T. W. WBDD. 

a tombstone in the churchyard at Seaton, Devon- 
shire : 

' Here tyeth ye Bodys of John, and Rich- 1 , and Edward, 
sons of John Roberts "and Elix th his wife, together with 
a D r of the same Parsons, borne at one Berth. They 
died y e 9 Day of September, and was buryed y 8 17 day 
of September, Anno Dom. 1694." 


Seaton, Axminster. 

to hear a lady repeat the following lines lately, 
which she said she liad committed to memory 
over sixty years ago. I asked her to write them 
out for me, as I thought they were worth a corner 
in " N. & Q." She kindly complied with my 
request, but could tell me nothing- a s to their 
authorship, &c. : 
" Queen Bess once fed three men for a year, 

On different kinds of food, 
To see which might the best appear, 

To do a Briton good. 

" The first was fed upon veal, sir ; 

The second was fed upon mutton ; 
The third was fed upon good roast beef, 
And gormandised like a glutton. 

" When brought to answer the queen's appeal, 

On what they'd been licensed to guttle, 
The first replied, ' Mem, I've dined upon veal,' 
T'other, ' Mutth, sir, -muffle, sir, inutile? 

" Savsthe queen, 'These for soldiers of Britain won't d->, 

For 1 swear by my majesty's word, 
The first would make, good men-milliners, 

The second tailors, good lord.' 

"The third he came to be questioned in kind. 

When as loud as he could bawl, 
When asked by the mayor on what he had dined, 

Ci'ied ' Beef," and be damned to you all.' 
" Queen Bess she gave him her fist with a smile, 

And swore it was her belief, 
The devil himself could not conquer this isle 
While Britons were fed upon beef." 

R. W. H. NASH, B.A. 

The following extract from a newspaper of the 
time of George III.'s visit to Portsmouth, nearly 
ono hundred years since, is worthy of preserva- 
tion. His majesty's admiration of the Isle of 
Wight is\ not surprising, as his ! granddaughter 
was equally struck with its beauties ; so much so, 



[4th g. IX. JAN. 20, 72. 

that she has made it one of her most favoured 

His majesty's preference of taking his dinner in 
his pocket to dining on board the Barfleur, rather 
than not sail round the island, is an amusing 
instance of the king's homely habits. There does 
not seem any reasonable doubt of the anecdote 
being quite authentic : 

"Extract of a Letter from Portsmouth, June 24, 1773. 

" On Tuesday his majesty went on board the Barfleur 
at three o'clock, dined, and sailed round the fleet in the 
afternoon, when he was saluted with twenty-one fires 
from each of the ships ; he returned to dock in the 
Augusta yacht about eight in the evening. Part of the 
company in town went to the theatre. The next day, at 
two, his majesty went on board the Barfleur again, when 
five of the ships were dressed in the colours of all nations. 
His majesty sailed along-side the Isle of Wight shore a 
considerable way up ; at nine the Augusta dropped her 
anchor off the Castle of South Sea, and the king returned 
to the dock in a barge. The sea from the harbour's 
mouth was covered with an infinite number of ships and 
sailing-boats. The firing has an admirable effect when 
looked at from shore. They say the Duke d'Aguillon 
(the French Prime Minister), the Duke de Lausun, and 
Count Guignes are here. This morning his majesty has 
been to Weovil to see the brewhouse; he has held his 
levee at the governor's house, and if the rain subsides, 
will go round the walls on foot to view the fortifications ; 
he does not return to London till to-morrow evening. 

"The king, while he viewed the dockyard of Ports- 
mouth on Thursday morning, declared he never spent 
two such happy days in his life as Tuesday and Wed- 
nesday. He was so struck with the beautiful appear- 
ance of the Isle of Wight, that he asked one of the 
admirals present at the review of the invalids on Thursday 
morning, if he could not go round it that day ? On re- 
ceiving for answer, ' that it would be impossible if he 
dined on board the Barfleur,' he replied, ne would take 
his dinner in his pocket sooner than not see the whole 
coast of so fertile an island." 

J. M. 

LONGEVITY : MRS. LENFESTY. On referring to 
"N. & Q." (4 th S. vii. 358), an account will be 
found of two centenarians, aunt and niece, of the 
same name. It; may not be uninteresting to those 
who feel a curiosity on the subject of longevity to 
know that the latter of the two, Mrs. Lenfesty, 
nte De Beaucamp, died at four o'clock P.M. Thurs- 
day, Dec. 14, 1871. She was born on Novem- 
ber 29, 1770; and had, consequently, reached the 
advanced age of one hundred and one years and 
fifteen days. On her last birthday she was in per- 
fect health, and in possession of all her faculties. 
The proximate cause of her death seems to have 
been the extreme cold which prevailed about the 
beginning of December. 



his recently published Recollections of past Life, 
Sir Henry Holland says, in talking of Sir George 
Lewis's views on longevity, " I have myself since 
seen a person, still living, who numbers 106 years 

well attested by documentary proofs." It would 
be interesting if the facts of this remarkable case, 
vouched for by so high an authority, were pub- 
lished in " N. & Q." and properly authenticated. 


[We have reason to know that this is the case of the 
so-called Captain Lahrbush. Sir Henry Holland has ob- 
viously never seen the exposure of this case in The 
Standard of April 11, 1870. See also " N. & Q." 4 th S. 
viii. 367.] 

think this French case is stranger than that men- 
tioned by MR. KING (4 th S. viii. 515), and is to 
be seen in the Varietes historiques et litteraires, par 
Edouard Fournier, tome viii. Paris, 1857. (Vide 
Histoire admirable dun faux et suppose Mari, ad- 
venue en Lanyuedof Van 1560. J. MAcDoNALD. 

NEW YEAR'S EVE CUSTOM. At Chichester, 
shortly before midnight on New Year's Eve, a 
band of musicians assembles in the South Street 
to perform religious music, and as the clock strikes 
twelve the musicians playing loyal airs, and a long 
following of the citizens, inarch three times in 
procession round the City Cross, the younger folk 
often dancing to the livelier tunes. 



I have in my possession a piece of ebony about 
two inches high. It is shaped somewhat like an 
urn, and has been apparently turned in a lathe. 
On holding it to. the light and looking along it, a 
profile is seen which is said to be a correct like- 
ness of Louis XVI. It was given me by the late 
Dean of Limerick, whose father, the celebrated 
preacher, Dean Kirwan, brought it from France, 
where he had been educated at St. Omers for the 
Roman Catholic church. It was said that during 
the " Terror," after the murder of the king, the 
royalists had these made, and carried them about 
them. The republican party could not tell what 
they were, and they served as a symbol of recog- 
nition to the friends of royalty. Are many of 
these things known to be in existence at present ? 
I never saw but this one. 

Dean Kirwan, who was of an old Galway 
family, one of the "Tribes," on his return from 
France became a clergyman of the Protestant 
church, and was celebrated as a preacher, par- 
ticularly of charity sermons. His eloquence was 
so irresistible that persons who went to hear him, 
leaving their purses at home, were seen to place 
their watches, rings, &c., on the plate when the 
collection was being taken. 'Ehere is a portrait of 
him, life-size I think, in the hall of the Royal 
Dublin Society. It was painted by Hamilton at 
the expense of the governors of St. Peter's Orphan- 

4* S. IX. JAN. 20, 72.]I 



age, Dublin. He is represented preaching. His 
figure and those of the orphans behind him were 
paid for by the governors. The audience are all 
portraits also ; each gentleman and lady paid for 
their own, with the wretched taste of the day. 
The picture represents an imaginary building, and 
the preacher was represented standing on some 
steps in an attitude borrowed from " Paul preach- 
ing at Athens." Some of the " unco gui<J," how- 
ever, objected to this as being too like a priest 
preaching from the steps of an altar, so the artist 
was obliged to paint a sort of pulpit, or rather 
circular tub, round the lower part of the figure, 
which is still further ornamented by a cloth partly 
white, partly red, thrown over it. It is said the 
dean was much annoyed by the " improvement," 
and used to say he " looked like a man begging 
some one to take him out of a tub." When last 
I saw this picture it had been a good deal injured, 
apparently by persons who drove the handles of 
their brooms through it when sweeping. Now, 
as the figures are all portraits of the gentry and 
nobility who resided in Dublin in its palmiest 
days when it was a metropolis, it is disgraceful 
that such a picture, even though, a work of no 
great artistic merit, should be allowed to go to 
destruction. I do not know if there is a "key " 
to the portraits existing; but there are persons 
still living who could furnish one, no doubt. The 
family of the dean, some of whom must exist in 
either the first or second generation, should see to 
this, if the Royal Dublin Society do not care to 
preserve a national monument committed to their 
charge. CTWKM. 

Porth-yr-Aur, Carnarvon. 

THOMAS BIRD. In the collection of books, &c. 
belonging to the late Sir C. Young, offered for 
sale by Messrs. Sotheby & Co., Dec. 18, there was 
a manuscript by " The late famous antiquarie, 
Tho. Bird, Esquier," comprising three treatises of 
Nobilitie, Knighthood, and Gentlemen, two of 
which have been published. Can any of your 
readers give me any information respecting him 
the date and place of his birth and death, and 
any other particulars ? B. 

[There is another copy of this manuscript in the 
Lansdowne collection, No/866, which formerly belonged 
to Mr. Le Neve, at whose auction it was bought by 
Nicholas Harding, Esq. There are also four other copies 
among Dr. Rawlinson's MSS. in the Bodleian. About 
one half of it has been printed in the following work : 
TJie Magazine of Honour ; or a Treatise of the Severatl 
Degrees of the Nobility of this Kingdome, uith their Rights 
and Priviledges, Sfc. Collected by 'Master Bird. London, 
1642, 8vo. Watt, Lowndes, and others attribute this 
work to William Bird, but the Lansdowne MS. states it 
to be " By the famous antiquarie Thomas Bird, Esquire." 
In 1657 it was reprinted with the name of Sir John Dod- 
dridge, and entitled Honovrs Pedigree. He was probably 
a member of the Bird family of Littlebury in Essex.] 

JACOB BOSANQTJET. Will any one inform me 
if there is any London directory extant giving 
the house of residence in London of Jacob Bosan- 
quet, Turkey merchant, and the dates of birth or 
christening of his children,^ 1748 to 1766 ? The 
house of business was probably in South wark. 

L. C. M. 

BRASS KNOCKERS. Can any one tell me the 
origin of the term " brass knockers " for r-echavffe 
dishes? It has been in use for some time. 


St. Stephen's Club. 

BARON BTJNSEN. Sir William Hamilton, Bart., 
was created by the University of Leyden, in or 
about the year 1840, a Doctor of Divinity 
" And the professor ever after jocularly maintained that 
he was perhaps the only layman in Europe that could 
pretend to the title of" Reverend." Memoir, by Job. 
Veitch, p. 264. 

Was not his contemporary the late C. C. J. 
Bunsen, who was also a layman, a Doctor of 
Divinity ? K. P. D. E. 

DR. FOWKE. I some time since inquired where 
an account could be found of the murder, in Cork, 
of a Dr. Fowke (? 1689), the grandfather of 
Joseph Fowke of the East India Company's ser- 
vice. W. B. (4 th S. iv. 574) obligingly stated 
that a brief account of Dr. Fowke would be found 
in Original Letters, edited by Rebecca Warner of 
Beech Cottage, near Bath, 1817. I have but 
recently had access to this work, and find in it 
some account of Joseph Fowke and of Dr. John- 
son's correspondence with him, and with his son 
Francis, but no mention of Dr. Fowke. Will you, 
therefore, permit ine to renew my query ? and to 
state that any particulars relating to Joseph 
Fowke's parentage, or to the family of Fowke in 
any of its branches, will at all times be thankfully 
received, if addressed to 


Science and Art Department, 
* South Kensington. 

GALILEO. In Mrs. Gordon's interesting Life of 
Sir David Brewster (p. 281) 1 find the inscription 
on the house of Galileo at Arcetri given thus : 

'' Qui ove abitb Galileo 
Novi solegno pregarsti, allcr 
Potenza del genio la maesta 
di Ferdinando II. dei Medici." 
What is the true reading of the second line ? 
As it stands above, there is not an Italian word 
in it; nor can I guess what is intended, except 
that the last word doubtless should be " alia." 

W. P. P. 

GIBSON FAMILY. Requested, information con- 
cerning the family, pedigree, armorial bearings, 
&c., of Ann Gastine, who was the first wife of 
Edmund Gibson, rector of Bishop's Stortford, 
Herts, who died in 1798. He was the grandson 



. JAN. 20, 72. 

of Edmund Gibson, Bishop of London about 1730 
She was an heiress, and came of a family which 
was formerly a foreign one. Also concerning the 
family of the wife of the above-mentioned Ed 
mund Gibson, Lord Bishop of London a Mis. 
Jones, a coheiress. Also the name of the mothe: 
of the said Bishop Gibson, and any particulars o 
the family of Gibson prior to the year 1700.* 

J. C. D. 

AN ENGLISH IDIOM. Has any one explainer 
how the verb li to help," in addition to its ori- 
ginal meaning of to assist, has the contradictory 
meaning of to preccnt, as "I could not help letting 
tlju plate fall"? TYR 


FESCH FAMILY. Wanted, the arms of the family 
of Fesch, or of Cardinal Fcsch, or of his brothel 
Colonel Fesch. ALPHA. 

FEMALES WITH WIGS. When travelling in 
Austrian Poland I noticed that the generality of 
the young women had all their hair shaven close, 
and wore wigs. I was given to understand that 
they did this to escape some disease of the hair 
which is common in that country. Can any of 
your readers tell me if such is the case, and what 
is the name and speciality of the disease ? 


1, Hare Court, Inner Temple. 

KNARR: WRYDE. Can any one give me the 
meaning and derivation of Knarr and Wryde't 
They are applied to districts or water-courses in 
the Isle of Ely. Wryde is a small station be- 
tween Wisbech and Peterborough. GYRVI. 

" THE LADIES' LIBRARY." There was printed 
at London "for Jacob Tonson, at Shakespear's 
Head over against Catherine Street in the Strand, 
1714," a work in three volumes, small 8vo, called 
The Ladies' Library, " written by a Lady, and 
published by Mr. Steele." Is it known who the 
lady was ? 

Prefixed to each volume is a beautifurfrontis- 
piece. The first has a lady perusing a large folio 
volume ; she is seated on a chair, leaning her head 
on one hand, whilst the other is holding the 
lower part of the huge tome she is devouring ; 
cards, books, and two Cupids playing on the 
ground. The first dedication is to the Countess 
of Burlington. May this not be a portrait of her 
ladyship ? 

The second volume is dedicated to Mrs. Bovey, 
the perverse widow of Sir Koger de Coverley, 
and the frontispiece is supposed to be her portrait. 
She is sitting at a table, a skull beside her ; at 
an open door behind, three of her suitors stand 
watching her. 

[* Some notices of Bishop Gibson's family will be 
found in "N. & Q." 2"* S. vi. 28; ix. 163, 418 ; 4* S. 
i. 49; vii. 76. ED.! 

The third volume, dedicated to his wife, upon 
whose virtues Steele dwells with delight. The 
frontispiece represents a lady en deshabille sitting 
in her bed-chamber with her children, one of 
whom she is in the act of caressing. Behind is a 
servant holding a baby. Can this be intended 
for a representation of Steele's lady and her 
family ? 

The copy before me is in old red morocco, thick 
paper, with the'autograph of Eliza Steele, and looks 
very much as if it had been either a presentation 
one or the writer's own copy. 

As the book itself is one of considerable merit, 
it would be desirable to ascertain who the author 
really was. Can the " lady " be as unreal a per- 
sonage as the fabulous Lady Macbeth of Shake- 
speare? From the excellence of the language, 
the valuable and instructive advice given, and 
the judicious observations it contains, Steele 
might easily be taken for author, instead of 
publisher. If written by a lady, may his wife 
not have been the authoress, and her husband 
the reviser of the text? Or may not the Eliza 
Steele, whose name is written in a bold but neat 
female hand on the fiy-leaf of each volume of the 
thick paper and beautifully bound copy previously 
referred to, have been the " veiled lady " whose 
literary labours Steele thought so highly of as to 
be induced, as editor, to give them to the world ? 

Who Eliza Steele was the writer has been un- 
able to ascertain, but the existence of such an 
individual is established by the autographs re- 
ferred to. J. M. 

NAPOLEON AT ELBA. Lord Brougham, in his 
Autobiography (vol. ii. chap. xi. pp. Ill, 112), 

says : 

' The allied sovereigns would have better secured their 
captive if they had sent him anywhere rather than to Elba, 
for that island combined qualities unusually favourable to 
intrigue or evasion. Close to Italy, at that time hating 
Lhe tyranny of her old masters; easy of communication 
with France through Italy and Switzerland ; too far from 
the coast of France to be easily watched, but too near to 
make a landing there improbable or even difficult ; and 
accordingly, in less than twelve months namely, on the 
1st of March, 1815 Napoleon did land at Cannes in Pro- 
vence, not far from where I am now writing ; so that if 
;he world had been searched to lind the residence the 
most dangerous to France, the most far-seeing men would 
iave fixed upon Elba." 

Should we not conclude that this expression, 
' the most far-seeing men," was a slip of the pen 
for "the least far-seeing men"? His lordship 
evidently meant that the position of Elba was so 
obviously dangerous to France, that persons en- 
dowed with the least foresight would have per- 
ceived it. BAR-POINT. 

NELSON'S PUNCTUALITY. I have heard it said 
hat Lord Nelson made a practice of being a 

4*S. IX. JAN. 20, '72. ] 


quarter of an hour in advance of any appointment, 
and that to this he ascribed many of his victories. 
Has it any foundation in reality ? M. 1). 

POEMS. I shall be obliged to any one who can . 
tell me where to find either of these three poems : 

1. A clever semi -translation of "Beatus ille 
qui procul negotiis," of which I only remember 
the iirst verse : 

" Happy the man from busy hum, 
Ut prisca gens mortalium, 
Who whistles his oxen o'er the lea, 
Solutus oinni foenerc." 

2. A version of "If I had a donkey what 
wouldn't go," adapted to the drawing-room. I 
think it was by Thackeray, and it began : 

" Had I an ass averse to speed." 

3. A punning Latin poem on " nihil," of which 
I recollect one line 

" Durius est saxo nihil ; est preciosius auro." 

Bitton Vicarage, Gloucestershire. 

QUOTATIONS WANTED. Reference wanted to 

" She was all my fond wishes could ask, 

She was all the kind gods could impart, 
She was nature's most beautiful task, 
The despair and the envy of art." 


"My thoughts are racked in striving not to think." 

RinrAiiD RABSON, 13. A. 
"The gay to-morrow of the mind 
That never comes.'' 

J. R. T. 

Xew York. 


" Yonder is the heart of Scotland [Edinburgh] ; and 
each ill rob which she gives is felt from the edge of Sol- 
way to Duncan's Bay Head." 

So says Scott in the The Abbot. Can any of 
the readers of " N. & Q." inform me whether this 
is the original of this much hackneyed expres- 
sion, or whether there is an earlier instance of it ? 

H. W. 


SCOTTISH IKON MONEY. In the Registrum 
Monasterii de Pasxekt (printed for the Maitlaud 
Club, 1833) is u charter granted by Walterus 
Hose de Cragyn to this monastery of the kirk of 
Cragyn, and a carucate of land besides part of 
the lands of Cragyn in Kyle, Ayrshire, now called 
Craigie. The charter is undated ; but, consider- 
ing the attesting witnesses, must have been granted 
prior (some years possibly) to 1177. At this time 
the granter's brother, John Hose, was" parson of 
Cragyn kirk, and enjoyed a life interest in it and 
the carucate; and regarding him, who must 
have been a party-consenter to the grant, is this 
clause : 

" In recognitione vero hujus elemosine, predictus Joan- 
nes dabit annuatirn prefatis monachis trcs numinatax 
fcrri : Hiis testibus," etc. 

Will, then, any of your numismatic or other cor- 
respondents kindly say* in what sense " tres 
nummatas fern " ought here to .be regarded ? 
Whether as three pennies of iron, or as iron of 
the value of three pennies. Or, supposing neither 
to be the proper interpretation, what that is? 
We would likewise inquire, whether there is 
evidence other than inferential of an iron cur- 
rency having prevailed in Scotland during the 
twelfth or any preceding century ? Also how, or 
on what ground iron, and not some coin or other 
commodity, should have been made the medium 
of this payment in recognition ? ESPEDARE. 

THE SIZE or A BOOK. As to describing a book, 
your correspondent OLPIIAR HAMST being so able 
a bibliographer, I hope he will give your readers 
more information, and therefore ask him, or any 
other reader, to explain Jiow the size of a book is 
to be known so as to describe it that the reader 
shall know the size by the description ? Some 
folios are the same size as some quartos. How 
can you describe an 8vo from a 16mo of a sheet 
twice the size, or any size. How is a 12mo to 
be known and described, and how is it folded ? 
Then again it would be very instructive to the 
unenlightened to be informed what is the meaning 
of the word so often used "edition"? The 
critical meaning is not wanted, but what is to be 
understood as conveyed to the unlearned or the 
public by the use of the word as applied to one 
book or many. So that the object your corres- 
pondent has in view may be obtained by the de- 
scription having a definite meaning, and words be 
always used by bibliographers in one sense. 

X. Y. Z. 

CLAWS or SHELL-FISH. Is it true or untrue 
that the claws of shell-fish grow again after being 
broken off? I have always understood that tht\y 
do grow again, but to my surprise I read in Cas- 
sell'e Technical Educator, ii. 302, the following 
passage in a biographical sketch of De Reaumur : 

" Reaumur was the Iirst who dissipated the old popular 
error, that when crawfish, crabs, or lobsters lost a claw 
nature produced another in its stead?' 

I still do not feel convinced, and should be glad 
to hear something on this matter from any of 
your readers who are well acquainted with natural 

When a boy, and living in East Sussex, I remem- 
ber that on' a particular day iu the autumn no one 
would go out nutting, or indeed, if possible, pass 
along the lanes of the village, fearing to meet his 
Satanic majesty. I have frequently, in different 
parts of Sussex in late years, mentioned this; 
but the devil's nutting day now seems to be en- 
tirely forgotten. Last week, however, a Sussex 
rector told me he remembered that a school- 
master always went nutting on September 21, St. 



S. IX. JAN. 20, 72. 

Matthew's Day; and lie had some idea it migh 
be connected with the query I ask If any o 
your readers know of this old superstition ? 

H. W. D. 

" SWORE BY NO BUGS." Was this a common 
expression temp. Elizabeth ? I find it in Gosson's 
Sckoole of Abuse (1579), where, speaking of Cali- 
gula and his horse, he says, "and swore by no 
bugs, that hee would make him a consul." 

C. B. T. 

TUMULI. In a large field facing Mary Place, 
Stockbridge, Edinburgh, there are two tumuli, 
the more westerly of which is conspicuous. What 
<!<) these commemorate? They are not natural 
Novations, and one of them is so large as to at- 
tract the notice of a*y one walking along the 
i- *ad to Craigleith. S. 

DUKE OF WELLINGTON. Can any of your 
readers kindly direct me to any old paper or 
periodical which contains the Duke of Welling- 
ton's correspondence with Sir John Burgoyne on 
tne defence of England in 1847 ? E. A. II. 

[The Duke's Letter to Sir John Burgoyne was published 
in the Morning Chronicle of January 4/1848.] 


(4 th S. viii. 397, 468.) 

In 1825-6 I was a member of the committee 
of the London Mechanics' Institute. We had 
recently taken possession of the premises in 
Southampton Buildings; and among the classes 
opened to the members there were a French class 
at the head of which was James Black and, I 
think, a Latin class, which was taught by Dr. 
I'.lack, the brother of James. Of the French class 
I speak positively : as, although a pretty good 
French scholar already, I joined it pour encourager 
/<> (intre$, and I have now before me a copy of 
the book which I. used in the class : 

" The Paidophilean System of Education, applied to 
the French Language, by J. Black." 2 vols. Longman, 

At the end of the second volume are four pages 
of advertisement headed 

" The following Works, connected with Education, have lately published by R. Harrison Black, LL.D. : 

" ' The Student's Manual, being an Etymological and 
Explanatory Vocabulary of Words derived from the 

'"A Sequel to the Student's Manual, being an Ety- 
mological and Explanatory Vocabulary of Words de- 
rived from the Latin.' 

" ' The Parent's Latin Grammar. To 

T. B. ("iilchri^t, LL.D.' 

In confirmation of OLPHAR HAMST'S opinion 
that the last on the list was Dr. Black's first work, 
I may mention that his brother says, in the pre- 
face to the Paidophilean System, when speaking of 
what he calls " the system of teaching practised 
by Mr. Hamilton, at present so much vaunted in 
the newspapers '' : 

"The Pharmaceutical Guide and the Parent's Latin 
Grammar were published long before Mr. Hamilton's 
arrival in this country." 

From 1824 to 1827 inclusive I saw a good deal 
of the Blacks. I was then a banker's clerk, and 
in 1825 it occurred to me that an institution 
somewhat similar to the " Mechanics " was much 
wanted for the class to which I belonged. Ac- 
cordingly I applied to Mr. Grote, and my idea 
being warmly approved by him, I communicated 
with the Blacks and Dr. Gilchrist (a vice-pre- 
sident of the Mechanics' Institute) on the subject. 
The former then resided or had chambers in 
Dorset Street, Salisbury Square, where were held 
the early meetings of the promoters of the " City 
of London Library and Scientific Institution," 
which was established on June 3, 1825, and of 
which I was the recognised founder, my subscrip- 
tion-card being always numbered "1." Of this 
nstitution the two ^Blacks were elected vice- 
presidents on February 27, 1826 ; and I find, from 
a prospectus dated July 15, 1826, that among the 
courses of lectures which " have been delivered to 
;he members " was one u On Language, by Mr. 
Tames Black ; " as also, that " an extended course 
f instruction in the French language has been 
>iven " by him. That Dr. Black taught Latin at 
he Mechanics' Institute, 
mt, although I possess 

r Mtin Grammar, I do not think he taught it at 
he City of London Institution, or that he took 
< ny very active part in the affairs there. I find, 
indeed, that at the election of officers which took 
place on March 5, 1827, both the Blacks ceased 
to be vice-presidents of the institution; and so 
also ceased all knowledge on my part of Dr. Black 
and his brother James, except that, many years 
afterwards, I found, for a considerable period, a 
James Black, Esq., of Brighton, among the sub- 
scribers to ray Courrier de V Europe. 


G, The Green, Stratford, E. 

I have said, I believe ; 
a copy of his Parent's 


(4 th S. viii. .373, 466.) 

I think there is now no doubt but that William 
Kethe, who is known to have composed versions 
of a number of the Psalms, was the author. I 
have, with the assistance of a friend, collated the 

' '4. 0( l' ani " a t() tlie Parent's Latin Grammar,' and ! following editions of Steruhold and Hopkins, and 
1 he Pharmaceutical Guide.- Second Edition" ann 

annex particulars of the initials prefixed to the 

4h g. ix. JAN. 20, 72.] 



"Old Hundredth" in the different editions: 
1565, W. Ke.; 1583, no initials; 1595, W. Ke. j 
1611, J. H. ; 1615, no initials; 1623, 1624, 1629, 
1630, all J. H.; 1625, 1626, 1633, no initials: 
1633, Scotch edition, W. K. ; 1638, 1639, 1646 ; 
1649, 1661, J. H. 

The whole subject, however, is gone into very 
elaborately by the Rev. Neil Livingston in his 

" Scottish Metrical Psalter of A.D. 1635. Reprinted 
in full from the original Work. The additional matter 
and various Headings found in the edition of 1565, &c., 
being appended, and the whole illustrated by Disserta- 
tions, Notes, and Facsimiles." Glasgow, 1864. 

Mr. Livingston gives very satisfactory reasons 
for his opinion that Kethe was the author, and 
says that one edition of 1561, and the complete 
Scottish one of 1564, ascribe it to Kethe. Kethe 
was one of the exiles at Geneva in 1556; and in 
my copy of a very rare book by Goodman, How 
Superior Powers ought to be obeyed, published in 
1558, there occurs a poetical address to the reader 
by Kethe, and consisting of nineteen stanzas of 
four lines each. The popular impression has been 
that John Hopkins was the author of this version ; 
and this, no doubt, has arisen from the fact that 
to the later editions his initials u J. H." have been 
appended no amount of authority, however, 
attaches to this fact. The earliest editions assign 
it to Kethe, and we know that afterwards the 
initials were attached by the printers, and often 
erroneously, for there are variations in nearly all 
the editions. I may observe that, in the Censura 
Literaria, Kethe is distinctly stated to be the 

As regards the proper tune to which this psalm 
was composed, I must refer your correspondent to 
Mr. Livingston's folio volume. The tune there 
given is written on a staff of five lines, and the 
notes are square-shaped and open. G. W. N. 
Alderley Edge. 

In reply to MR. COLLETT'S question, whether 
any of your readers can verify the statement that 
in many of the older copies of this version of the 
Psalms, the initials of J. Hopkins are not to be 
found attached to the " Old Hundredth,'' I may 
state that, in an edition of the 

" Book of Common Order ; or Knox's Liturgy, printed 
in the year 1587 ; containing the 150 Psalms of David 
in Meter for the use of the Kirk of Scotland," 

and which is now lying before me, the initials 
placed at the commencement of the " Old Hun- 
dredth Psalm " are " W. Ke.," viz. William Kethe. 
Mr. David Laing, one of the best authorities on 
the subject, gives the authorship, or rather trans- 
lator of this psalm, to Kethe and not to Hopkins. 
The edition of the Psalms mentioned above is 
printed at London by Thomas Vantrollier, dwell- 
ing in the Black Friars, 1587. J. A. B. 

(4 th S. viii. 102, 173, 536.) 

You have now had several learned notes con- 
tributed on this subject. The first one, that of 
BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM., was extremely in- 
teresting, but it left the point as to which way 
the bottle was passed among the ancients quite 
uncertain. The learned friend of B. CHATHAM. 
in his postscript says, "using the right hand it 
is easier to pass any object to the left than in the 
contrary direction," and considers that Homer 
meant to describe Vulcan as holding the great cup 
in his right hand moving leftward, so waiting 
on the company. This I imagine to be altogether 
a misconception. First of all I take it as a thing 
almost certain that in the best arranged triclinia 
the right-hand couch or wing faced the east, and 
that where the arrangement of the house ren- 
dered this inconvenient, it was still in theory or 
fiction supposed to look eastward. " The right," 
"the good-omened," and "the east" are almost 

Zeus Se ff(pi KpoviSrjs ez>5eicc arj/xara tyaivcav, 

II. ix. 236. 

"Gave prosperous signs from the right hand," 
i. e. ab oriente, says Dammius. 
Again, //. ii. 353 : 

' ACTT paTTTiav 7ri5e'|i', evalffL/j-a a"f)/j.a.Ta (jtaivwv, 

which Cowper translates " by his right hand 

thunders," or his lightning in the east. Ab ori- 


At the word e'7n5eios Dammius says 
"In qua dextra triclinii magni parte stabat et 6 
ex quo vinum nlinistrabatur : quod boni ominis 

erat, ingredientibus els avSpcova eV 8en Kelirflcu rbv 


Hence the position of the mixing-bowl was on 
the right of the triclinium. Liddell and Scott 
(v. Kpariip) say it stood upon a tripod in the great 
hall on the left of the entrance, and refer to Od. 
xxii. 341 : 

u <p6p/uii'yya y\a<pvpr)V 

KprjTTJpos t5e 6p6vov apyvpo-f]\ov. 
" He placed on the ground the hollowed cithern 
Midway between the bowl and silver- nailed throne." 

The ground is now cleared for explaining the 
whole difficulty. Take first Iliad, i. 597. Vulcan 
pours out <?/5e|m from his own left toward his 
*ight hand, beginning with the guest seated most 
to the east, and who was consequently placed 
nearest to the Kpar^p, which stood on that guest's 
right hand ; and so he, Vulcan, went round the 
;able or dais, southward, as the sun travels, until 
le reached the deity seated westernmost, and if 
nstead of speaking of Vulcan you speak of the 
direction in which the wine came to each of the 
gods seated as Vulcan moved from left to right, 



IX. JAN. 20, '72. 

so the cup must visit them from right to left. 
Again, Od. xxi. 141 

" Companions arise, everyone in turn 
From left to right, as the wine pourer pours out wine." 

If Antinous had said merely eVtSf'lta, the suitor 
seated on the west or left-hand side would have 
moved first ; but he immediately adds, " as the 
cup-bearer moves." On the above passage in the 
Iliad the scholiast says eV5e<a avrl TOV, curb T&V 
8ti>v fj.ep>v apla^ecos. On the passage from the 

he Says fla-iovTwv fls rbv avbp&va. eV 5e|ia 

rbv Kparrjpa. From these two passages I 
infer that the scholiast, like most commentators, 
did a great deal more to confuse the text than to 
clear up any real difficulties. 

When Toland says that the aboriginal Italians 
worshipped turning to the right hand, i. c. from 
west to east, he exactly reverses the truth. The 
east was called the right hand, and the Roman 
augur began his rites facing the east, and conse- 
quently, following the sun, he moved from left to 
right like the cup-bearer, as a servant serving his 
gods, and the left hancf of the augur " was amongst 
the Romans reputed the right in augury," that is 
to say, it was turned to the east, or to the right. 
I doubt if the Gauls or any other people ever 
turned to the left, contrary to the Roman custom, 
though Pliny affirms it. One thing is certain for 
all wine-drinkers, that the true course of the 
bottle runs with the course of the great god 
Apollo, the grape-maker, from right to left, 
southing, or westering, as we sit at modern tables 
passing the wine for ourselves, or with our clumsy 
lacqueys pouring it over our shoulders. But 
eVtSelm, from left to right, if our attendants stood 
in the centre of the tables, us in the old triclinia, 
serving us, or as the Roman augur waited on 1ho 
gods, from left to right. C. A. AV. 

May fair. 

That there is an entire difference of opinion 
among scholars as to the way in which the words 
fv$ei-ia, e-jnSt^ia, are to be translated, may be shown 
by a comparison between the article in Smith's 
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, . v. 
"Symposium," and Liddell & Scott's Lexicon, 
s. v. e'7n5e|(os. The former authority states that 
" the cups were always carried round from right 
to left (eVl 5et<), and the same order was observed 
in the conversation, and in everything that took 
place." The latter gives eVi5eia as = " right about, 
from left to right, towards the right." And this 
would seem necessarily to be the primitive sig- 
nification. But the words " towards the right " 
are in themselves ambiguous, and may be inter- 
preted in accordance with the apparent motion of 
the sun or not, the meaning being decided by the 
point in the circle of drinkers whence the cup 
starts. It is needless to remark on the vagueness 
of our common expression u from right to left," as 

applied to any circular motion. In ordinary speech 
the words " during the upper half of the revolu- 
tion " must always be considered as understood. 
Everyone must have felt the need of some more 
exact expression when instructing a little child in 
which direction to turn a key or a handle. 

If you say to a grown-up person, " Turn the key 
to the left," it is always understood at once that 
the upper part (the nobler part) of the key is to 
be turned in that direction ; but the child, to 
whom custom has not yet explained this purely 
arbitrary elliptical form, is invariably perplexed 
in its first essays. 

So in heraldry the bend sinister springs from 
the sinister side of the nobler portion of the 
shield, though there is nothing inherent in its 
description to prevent its coming down towards 
the sinister base. 

Similar illustrations are to be found in me- 
chanics. A right-handed thread is one which is 
drawn 'on a rod placed horizontally from the left 
downwards towards the right ; and such a thread 
will cause the screw to enter its work when turned 
" the way of the sun." That both ways of cir- 
culating the cup were in vogue appears evident 
from a passage in Athenians (1. xi. c. 10). I quote 
from Yonge's version : 

" And we may add to all this, that different cities have 
peculiar fashions of drinking and pledging one another ; 
as Critias mentions, in his Constitution of the L<ict:d:- 
monians, where he says, ' The Chian and the Thasian 
drink out of large cups, passing them on towards the 
right hand ; and (he Athenian also passes the wine to- 
wards the right, but drinks out of small cups. But the 
Thessalian uses large cups, pledging whoever he pleases 
without reference to where he may be ; but among the 
Lacedaemonians, every one drinks out of his own cup, 
and a .slave acting as cup-bearer fills up again the cup 
when each has drained it." 

And Anaxandrides also mentions the fashion of 
passing the cup round towards the right hand in 
his Countrymen, speaking as follows : 

" A. In what way are 3 r ou now prepared to drink ? 
Tell me 1 pray. 

B. In what way are we now 

Prepared to drink ? Why any way you please. 

A. Shall we then now, my father* tell the guests 
To push the wine to the r'ujht ? 

B. VVhat, to the right ? 
That would be just as though this were a funeral." 


^Yest Derby, Liverpool. 


(4 th S. viii. 73, passim, 538.) 

I merely wish to correct an error in my last note. 
I should have said " L6rd Thomas Berkeley of 
Coberley." I may, however, take the opportunity 
of farther explaining that this baron's wife Joan 

4tn s. IX. JAN. 20, '72.] 



succeeded as sole heiress to her father, Geoffrey 
lo Archer, of Stoke Archer, Cleeve, Gloucester- 

Lettice, -wife of Robert le Archer, had some 
generations paid four marks for having her 
dowry near Cleeve. This Lettice I take to be 
" Selida filia et heer. Roger! de Hulehall," and 
wife of " Robertus Archer (or le Archer) de Tan- 
worth, in com. Warr." I believe that the descent 
from Robert to Geoffrey le Archer is pretty clear. 
And I understand that the dowry of Lettice is 
now called Stoke Orchard, a corruption of Stoke 

-If my memory does not deceive me, Banks 
mentions the Berkeley-Archer alliance. 

Although Joan was the father's heiress, I have 
little doubt that there were many veritable cousins 
on the father's side scattered about the county, 
and in humble life. The fashion of pretending 
that the greatest line of a family is the last, is being 
exploded ; and moreover is very stupid, as the 
perpetuation of a family in various spheres of life 
is honoured by the doctrine of " selection," and is 
a good sign of its original healthiness. And this 
reminds me that, apart from the legal proofs of 
descent, what has been said of the Cokeseys' 
vitality is probably true, although not capable of 
proof. Sr. 

The readers of "N. & Q." must by this time be 
getting heartily tired of the discussion between SP. 
and myself; and as I feel sure that no new facts 
will be elicited by continuing the controversy, I 
think SP. and I had better " agree to differ." 

I propose, in this my last communication on the 
subject, to notice as briefly as possible his two 
last letters at pp. 445 and 538. 

In the first-named letter he regrets that I should 
"so often" misunderstand him. He never (he 
says) expressed a high opinion of Berry's Encyclo- 
pedia, nor did he attribute to Cooksey the coat of 

I never said he did ; and if he will refer to my 
note at p. 333, he will perceive (I should think) 
that the latter portion of it was in reply to another 
correspondent, as BOREAS (p. 538) has already 
pointed out. So have I disposed of one "mis- 
understanding." What are the others ? 

I certainly understood him to say very plainly, 
very clearly, and very distinctly, at p. 246, that 
he had seen many pedigrees of Throckmorton, 
and in none of them was any match with Olney 
named;* and in equally plain language he con- 
veyed his belief that such a person as William 
Bosom never existed. 

* The only pedigree I have seen in which the match 
with Olney is not named is that in Dugdale's Warwick- 

Now, he says he was " not ignorant of Bosom " ! 
And I suppose he also knew that there was a 
place called Olney in Buckinghamshire as well as 
in Warwickshire. 

I gave SP. credit for having some authority for 
his statement at p. 333, that " both charges belong- 
to the Throckmorton family "; but I can only in- 
fer from his remarks at p. 538 that such state- 
ment rests upon no solid foundation. 

I have adduced some evidence in support of 

language), " misled by partial resemblances and 
coincidences," he insists that, because Archer 
bore three arrows, and Throckmorton quartered 
three arrows, therefore Throckmorton quartered 

Why, I might just as well say that Throck- 
morton quartered Hales (for the Warwickshire 
family of that name also bore three arrows), and 
call upon SP. to prove a negative ! 

" I imputed to Dugdale (says SP.) a doubt as 
to such a right" (. e. to quarter Archer). So he 
did ; but what possible grounds had he for such an 
"imputation"? Where, I ask, does Dugdale any- 
where even hint such a doubt ? I am sorry that 
I cannot tell SP. to what family the coat of " a 
chevron between three arrows " belongs ; but if 
he will refer to Nash's Worcestershire (i. 452) he 
will find that such a coat is impaled by Olney at 
Fladbury; only Nash (I hope SP. will forgive 
him) is so obtuse as to call it " a chevron be- 
tween three 6o/fe." 

As the coat was impaled by Olney, I would 
suggest a reference to the Olney pedigree in Lips- 
comb's Bucks. This would probably enable SP. 
to answer his own query. 

Permit me to say, in conclusion, that if SP. 
would favour the readers of "N. & Q." with a 
correct blazon of the usual atchievement of Throck- 
morton (as at Coughton and elsewhere), and name 
and account for every quartering, he would be 
doing good service, for it presents some difficul- 
ties; but I am sure I should be occupying the 
valuable space of N. & Q." to no good or useful 
purpose, were I to prolong this discussion by fur- 
nishing him (as he asks me) with "more infor- 
mation tending to show that Throckmorton did 
not quarter Archer." II. S. G. 

P.S. I should perhaps mention, with reference 
to SP.'S charge against me of misunderstanding 
him, that my note at p. 333 was really two 
separate and distinct articles : the latter portion, 
which has reference solely to the Cooksey ques- 
tion, having been (to the best of my recollection) 
written and forwarded to " N. & Q." on a different 



[4th s. IX. JAN. 20, 72. 

(4 th S. viii. 350, 457.) 

The Irish laudation of Castle Hyde referred to 
by E. L. S. is, I believe, unpublished. It formed 
the model for Milliken's famous "Groves of 
Blarney/ 1 a few lines of which E. L. S. quotes. 

The original was writtten by a weaver named 
Barrett about 1790, and has been repeated as 
follows (from memory) a few months since by a 
peasant girl who lives on the green banks of the 
Blackwater, where Castle Hyde stands : 

" As I roved out one summer morning 

Down the banks of Blackwater's side, 
To view the groves and meadows charming, 
And the pleasant gardens of Castle Hyde. 

" 'Tis there you'd hear the thrushes warbling, 

The dove and partridge I now descried, 
The lambkins sporting every morning 
All to adorn sweet Castle Hyde. 

" It's here you'd see the roses blooming} 

With sweet carnations all in their pride 
'Tis their vocation with grace and beauty 
To deck the gardens of Castle Hyde. 

" The great improvements they would amaze 3-011 : 

The trees are drooping with fruit of all kind, 
The bees perfuming the fields with music 
That yield more beauty to Castle Hyde. 

" There are fine walks in those pleasant gardens, 

And seats most charming in shad} 7 bowers, 
And a gladiator both bold and daring 

Stands night and morning to watch the flowers. 

"The richest groves throughout the kingdom, 
And fine plantations you would see there ; 
There is no valley throughout the nation 
With it for beauty can compare. 

" There's a church for service in this fine station, 

Where nobles often in coaches ride 
To view the groves and meadows charming 
That front the gardens of Castle Hyde. 

"The buck and doe, the fox and eagle, 

There skip and play by the river's side ; 
The trout and salmon play at backgammon 
In the clear streams of Castle Hyde, 

"There are fine horses and stall-fed oxes, 

A den for foxes to play and hide ; 
Fine mares for breeding, with foreign sheep in 
Snowy fleeces on every side. 

" The wholesome air of this habitation 

Would recreate your heart with pride ; 
There is no valley throughout the nation 
For beauty equal to Castle Hyde. 

'If noble princes from foreign places 

Should chance to sail to the Irish shore, 
'Tis in this valley they would be feasted, 
As heroes often were before. 

" There's a lofty mill in this fine arbour, 

Built by our noble Colonel Hyde, 
Where servants and special tradesmen 
By their kind master are employed. 
" He buys good corn from every farmer, 
The Dublin markets he has supplied. 
Oh ! long may he live ! brave, noble Arthur, 
The chief commander of Castle Hyde. 

" I've roved from Blarney to Castle Barnard, 

From Thomastown to sweet Doneraile ; 
From Kilshannock, that joins Rathcormack, 
Besides Killarney and Abbeyfale ; 

" The rapid Boyne and the flowing Nore, 

The river Shannon and the pleasant Bride ; 
But in all my ranging and serenading, 
I saw none equal to Castle Hyde. 

" God bless the Colonel, likewise the Major, 
For they are an ancient grand family ; 
They are kind and civil to all their neighbours, 
And they beta- the sway of the country. 

" Long life and peace to these noble heroes, 

And may they daily in coaches ride ; 
For there's not a statesman throughout the nation 
Can be compared with brave Arthur Hyde." 

1, Belsize Park Gardens. 

PUBLIC TEACHERS (4 th S. viii. 413, 556 ; ix. 42.) 

In my remarks on the first correction of Boswell 

I ought to have mentioned that the date [of 1758] 

is evidently a slip of Croker's pen, as is proved by 

a subsequent note on the very page where MR. 

CHORNBURY found the letter to Lucy Porter. In 

his note Croker distinctly states that Lady Bay, 

.759, was the date on which Johnson " broke up 

lis establishment in Gough Square, where he had 

resided for ten years, and retired to chambers in 

Staple Inn " (BoswelVs Johnson, ed. 1860, p. 118, 

note 4 and text). CHITTELDROOG. 

BLUE SPEEDWELL (4 th S. viii. 549.) A German 
relative was with us when I opened " N. & Q." 
? or Dec. 30, 1871 ; he says that Mannertreu is 
:he proper name for a little blue ilower which 
from his description must be Veronica chamcedri/s, 
in England known as blue speedwell, or bird's 
eye. THUS. 

OLD ENIGMATICAL PUZZLE (3 rd S. ix. 78, 182, 
267, 334.) The explanations of these conceits, 
of which A. A.'s list forms only a small part, are 
given in 

" The Old Lady and her Xiece, the Fair Incognita, de- 
tected and brought to Justice. In which are laid open 
the many strange expedients, sly artifices, and various 
uncommon and ridiculous disguises they made use to 
conceal themselves. To which is prefix'd a serious at- 
tempt to vindicate their innocence, and apologize for 
their odd humours. London, 1752." 8vo, pp. 31. 

As the solutions only, without the original 
questions, are here given, I suppose the latter ap- 
peared in a previous pamphlet. W. C. B. 

POPULATION OP LONDON IN 1666 (4 th S. viii. 
549.) This very often debated question, that of 
the probable population of London about the 
time of the Fire of 1666, has been raised again in 
your pages. Those familiar with the subject are 
aware that the only approximation of any value 
which can be arrived at is that afforded by the 
number of deaths in the bills of mortality, with 

. 4th s. ix. JAN. 20, 72.] 



an estimate of the probable percentage of death 
to the whole number of living. But I will men 
tion to you another piece of evidence, which I 
find relied on in a curious book entitled The 
Happy Future State of England, 1688 (anony- 
mous). The writer says that the total number 
returned in " the bishop's survey for the pro- 
vince of Canterbury (in 1676) of all persuasions 
of religion above the age of sixteen in the whole 
diocese of London/' was 286,347. "Doubling this 
number for those under the age of sixteen " makes 
~> 7:2,694 ; add, for the survey, metropolitan parishes 
in the diocese of Winchester, about 80,000 in hir 
opinion; deduct for rural parishes and peculiars 
The calculation is but a rough one ; but on the 
whole it supports the common conjectural result 
(530,000 in 1685, according to King, cited by 
Macaulay). My chief object in writing to you 
is, however, to ascertain, through your corre- 
spondents, particulars of " the bishop's survey " 
here quoted, and whether it is of value as a sta- 
tistical authority. JEAN LE TROUVEUE. 

GEN. JOHN DESBOROUGH (4 th S. viii. 527.) 
Mr. Cole has given some little account of the 
Desboroughs which may be of service to J. D. 
(See Add. MS. 5810, fol. 72.) An inscription 
from a tomb in Elsworth church is given in this 
MS., viz. 

"Here lyeth the Body of Samuel Disbrow, Esquire, 
late Lord of this Manour, aged 75. He dyed the 30 of 
December, in the year of our Lord 1690." 

He was Keeper of the Seals, or Chancellor, of 
Scotland, during the usurpation, and brother to 
Major-General Desborough. He was Lord of the 
Cinque Ports, and married Oliver Cromwell's 
sister. Anthony Wood calls this John " a yeo- 
man and a great lubberly clown." The wife of 
Samuel Desborough was named "Hose," ob. March 
4, 1698. Dr. Lunne married a descendant of Gen. 
Desborough, and lived at Hackney. 

Waltham Abbey. 

J. D. will find a full and interesting account 
of the Disbrowes of Eltisley in Mark Noble's 
Cromwell Memoirs, second edit. vol. ii. pp. 274- 
99. G. M. T. 

REV. JOHN BRYAN, 1661 (4 th S. viii. 526.) 
CLERICUS will find an account of him in the 
Worthies of Warwickshire, recently published by 
the Rev. T. Leigh Colville, in which are many 
particulars of his three sons and himself. 


WATER AS A TURNSPIT (4 th S. viii. 528.) 
Wollarshill is the seat of Mr. Hanford Flood, 
the present high sheriff of Worcestershire. He 
married the heiress of the Hanford family, who 
since 1536 have resided there. The spit, turned 
by a stream of water from Bredon Hill, remained 

till recently, and has been superseded by modern 
improvements. I have not heard of a similar ap- 
plication elsewhere. T. E. WINNINGTON. 

I have seen this in one of the hotels at Mat- 
lock, Derbyshire. A natural spring of water 
falling on a wheel turned the spit. The machinery 
was of course kept carefully oiled. 



When the Duke of Norfolk's house at "The 
Farm " in the suburbs of Sheffield was rebuilt 
about forty years ago, I noticed the insertion of a 
copper water-wheel about three feet in diameter 
inside the chimney breast, with connecting gear for 
turning the spit. It was erected by Mr. Shaw 
of Worksop, well known as a bell-hanger through- 
out and beyond the " dukeries." He was a most 
ingenious man, and appeared to me to watch and 
direct the interior arrangements of a new building 
as if the accommodation of his bells ought to be 
the main consideration of the architect. J. H. 

" LEAVE ME NOT " (4 th S. viii. 528.) These 
lines are in Shelley's Adonais, stanza 25. Your 
correspondent slightly misquotes them. They are 
as follows : 

"Leave me not wild and drear and comfortless, 
As silent lightning leaves the starless night." 


DR. YOUNG'S STEP-DAUGHTER (4 th S. viii. 484.) 
I enclose an exact transcript from that part of a 
Lee pedigree relating to Dr. Edward Young, 
which may serve to supplement the information 
afforded by W. E. The pedigree in question was 
formally attested as true by Robert Lee, fourth 
Earl of Litchfield, on June 6, 1774, in the pre- 
sence of Isaac Heard, Lancaster. 


Elizabeth [Lee], 

died about 

buried at Welwyn, 
January 29, 1731, 
[qy. 1741?] 

Edward Young, D.D., rector of 
Welwyn, in co. Hertford, author 
of the Universal Passion and 
many other curious works. Mar- 
ried May 27, 1731 ; ob. April 5, 
1765. Will in last volume of 
his works. 

Frederick Young, Esq., 
only son, of Welwyn 
Hertford. Born June 
1732 ; baptized at the 
New Church, Strand. 

Elizabeth Thornton Keysham, 
dau. of Giles Thornton, H. of 
Stagenhoe Cottam ; married 
October 5, 17G5, at St. Paul's, 
Walden, co. Herts. 


, only child, born Oct. 18, 1767. 

GREEN " (4 th S. viii. 516.) Your correspondent 
A.LICE THACHER, who writes with reference to a 
single stanza quoted in Gilfillan's edition of The 
ercy Reliques, from an apparently unknown ver- 
ion of this ballad, may be interested by my men- 



IX. JAN. 20, '72. 

tinning 1 the following circumstance. Many years 
ago I possessed, but it has long since been lost, a 
iine mezzotint engraving, large folio size, called the 
"Blind Beggar of Bednall Green"; but so long a 
period has elapsed, that both the name of the 
painter and engraver have faded -away from my 
recollection. On the margin underneath were in- 
scribed those pretty lines which she has quoted, 
but no more. Until my attention was drawn by 
her to the mention of them as part of a ballad, I 
had imagined that they had been composed for, ! 
and inscribed underneath it, merely as an illustra- 
tion of the subject of the engraving. 

llungate Street, Pickering. 

POCKET-HANDKERCHIEFS (4 th S. viii. '514.) 
The following note might be added to those 
quoted. The famous Connaught chieftainess Grana- 
Uile, or Grace O'Mally, after defying Queen Eliza- 
beth for a while, found it expedient to proceed to 
London to make her peace with that sovereign. 
In the Anthologia Hilernica for July, 1793, it is 
stated that 

" The queen, surrounded by her ladies, received her in 
great state. Grana was introduced in the dress of her 
country : a long mantle covered her head and body ; her 
hair was gathered on her crown, and fastened with a 
bodkin ; her breast was bare, and she had a yellow bod- 
dice and petticoat. The court stared with surprise at so 
strange a figure ; when one of the ladies perceived that 
Grana wanted a pocket-handkerchief, which was instantly 
handed to her. After she had used it, she threw it into 
the lire. Another was given her, and she was told by an 
interpreter that it was to be put in her pocket. Grana 
felt indignant at this intimation ; and, applying it to her 
nose, threw it also into the fire, declaring that in her 
country they were much cleanlier than to pocket what 
came from their nostrils." 

Grana was the daughter of Owen O'Mally, 
and married, first, O'Flagherty, and secondly Sir 
Rickard Bourke, styled Mac William Eighter, 
who died in 1585. Mr. Wakeman notes, in his 
LOKI//I Erne (Dublin, 1870), that Grana was a 
direct ancestress of the present GnvTnor-r} 
of India, Lord Mayo. W. II. P. 

DKATH'S II HAD. BUTTONS (4 th S. viii. 527.) 
Referring to this query, was not the origin of the 
use of such buttons the same as that of rings, on 
which it was common to have such a "posy/' 
from, it was thought, an affectation of piety? 
See .T. Webster's Northward Ho! (Act IV. Sc. 1). 

1G9, Richmond Road, Hackney. 

ROBERT MORDEN (4 th S. viii. 538.) I have 
noticed elsewhere that Morden's County Maps are 
given " no date." Perhaps it may be worth while 
to record in your pages that they belong to Dr. 
( ;ih ion's edition of Camden (published 1C95). 


WISEMAN OF BARBADOES (4 th S. viii. 549.) 
I can scarcely call the following a reply direct : 

but the query in question gives me an opportunity 
of presenting to TEWARS a few names, from the 
much and undeservedly neglected historic local 
records of Barbadoes, which may possibly afford 
him clues. These names occur in the parish 
registers and wills, between 1640 and 1690 : 

Hoadley, Bancroft, Atterbury, Cornish, Oates, Danger- 
field, Hutchinson, Vane, Bourchier, Fauconbridge, Titus, 
Fleetwoocl, Ireton, Wade, [Sheldon, Vaughan, Tomlinson. 
Cullum, Baxter, May, Johnson, Gaunt, Bedloe, Coleman, 
Pole, Saxby, Syndercombe, Penderell, Pinkerton, Perrot, 
Matthews, Mathew, Ayloffe, Prideaux, Taaffe, 
Hacker, Brewster, Kirke, Lisle, Ginkell, Sarsiield, Rooke, 
Byron, Miohelbourne, Brewster, Vere, Dallas, Quentin, 
Quintayne, Rumbold, Venner, Shirley, Blake, Hnlkett, 
Straughan, Evelyn, Sydney, Spenser, Claypole, Walton, 
Trerece, Levelis* Rhodes, Malet, Breakspeare, Hume, 
Cochrane, W r alcot, Holmes, Thornhill, Turville, Ellis- 
son, <\ 

I 'think it will be admitted that many of the 
above names are eminently suggestive. Trerece, 
Levelis, and Mathew or Matthews, would by their 
wills elucidate Cornish genealogy in the seven- 
teenth century. Cornish, Oates, Dangerfield, and 
"Walcot, might throw side-lights on celebrated 
conspiracies. But I need say no more. I have 
for many years been making efforts, but fruit- 
lessly, to draw attention to these colonial records, 
and spent a great deal of time in compiling a 
volume connected with the subject; but such 
publishers as I have applied to, to bring it out, 
have evidently run away with the idea that 
nothing but rum, sugar, and molasses could come 
from such places, and that the public would be 
disgusted with a work on "Planters." 

J. II. L. A. 

AN OLD SONG (4 th S. viii. 546.) I remember 
hearing this song, at least one version of it, in 
childhood, and have no doubt of its bein 
genuine English ditty of the good old times. In 
the song I used to hear and sing, however, the 
culprit was not Charley, but Georgy. I regret 
that, never having heard or thought of this ; 
for so many years, I can now recal only th> 
merest fragment. Instead of steeds, my hero stole 
dci'r much more likely. I give all I can re- 
member : 

" O saddle me my milk-white steed, 

And bridle him so rarely, 
That I may ride with . . . and speed, 

To beg for the life of Georgy. 

" He never robbed on the king's highway, 

Nor has he murdered any ; 
But he stole sixteen of the king's fat deer. 
And sold them to bold Raleigh. 

" I wish I was on yonder hill, 

Where of times I've been many ; 

With sword and pistol by my side, 

I'd tight for the life of Georgy." 

The rest has drifted down the dark stream of 
Lethe, I fear past dragging for. F. C. H. 

4 th S. IX. JAN. 20, '72.] 



MONTALT IURONS (4 th S. viii. 27, 93, 172, 230 
296, 374, 490.) I cannot think with W. F. (2. 
that the fact of the same person being called "D 
Monte Alto " and " Mowat " in two charters 
separated'only by a period of five years, is agains 
my view of the derivation of the latter name. ] 
conceive that it rather strengthens it; unless 
indeed, we can believe that " De Montealto," o: 
"Montealt" (which latter form I cannot find ii 
Scottish record) became corrupted into Mowat in 
that short space of time. The great Northern- 
Scottish name of " Cheyne " generally appears ir 
the form of " Le Chen " (Chien) even in Latin 
charters ; but in some contemporary ones is Latin- 
ised into "Cam's," showing that our charter- 
scribes varied their practice at times. I must stil 
opine that there is a missing link between the 
Latinised name of "De Monte Alto" and the 
Scottish Mowat, and that that is probably Mont- 
fa aut or Monhaut, allied to the former in signi- 
fication, and to the latter in spelling, merely 
dropping the letter n. 

W. A. S. R. some time ago indicated some of 
the names which led me to form the opinion I 
have expressed on that of Mowat. Another and 
less well-known example is the Scottish name 
"Mushat" or " Muschet," which is known to be 
a corruption of " Montfichet," which again is 
found in the charters Latinised into " De Monte- 
fixo." A good many particulars, charters, &c., 
. connected with the northern Mowats, are to be 
found in the four quarto volumes published by 
the Spalding Club of Aberdeen (now, alas ! no 
more) on The Antiquities of the Shires of Aber- 
deen and Banff, to which, I may add, an index is 
attached. C. E. D. 

OKPHANAGE (4 th S. viii. 518; ix. 47) is a very 
incorrect expression for an orphan-home. Fancy 
a "girlage " for a girl's home. " Orphanry," like 
pheasantry, diary, aviary, is the proper word, 
though I believe it is in no dictionary. "Orphano- 
trophy " is enough to send one off in atrophy a 
word fearful and amazing. " Orphanhood " is a 
good word, and expresses the state of being an 
orphan. That the root of the word is Greek, and 
the affix English, is, I think, immaterial, because 
the word " orphan " is so thoroughly Anglicised 
that we are never thinking of opQavbs when we 
use it. ANON. 

LETTICE KNOLLYS (4 th S. viii. 480.) The 
answer here given is not a correct one. Lettice 
Knollys was a cousin of Queen Elizabeth's, and 
a celebrated beauty at her court. She was the 
daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, and married 
three times, first, Walter Devereux Viscount 
Hereford, created in 1572 Earl of Essex, by whom 
she had two sons, the elder being Robert Earl of 
Essex, the favourite of Queen Elizabeth, who was 
executed in 1601; secondly, in 1578, Robert 

Dudley, Earl of Leicester, a marriage the queen 
never forgave; and thirdly, Sir Christopher 
Blount, who was executed in 1601 for participa- 
tion in the rebellion of her son the Earl of Essex. 

Lady Blount (more generally known as Lady 
Leicester) died on Christmas Day, 1634, at the 
age of ninety -four. 

It is a curious coincidence that the Lettice 
Knollys mentioned on page 480 should also have 
had three husbands. E. W. R. 

PROVINCIAL GLOSSARY (4 tu S. passim ; viii. 381, 
441.) Surely the reference to " Way land Smith's 
Cave," at p. 442, should be to Kenihvorth, not 
Ivanhoc. J. S. UDAL. 

EARLY RECOLLECTIONS (4 th S. viii. passim.) 
In answer to TVs request, I^can say that I too can 
remember an incident which took place when t 
was two years and two months old, and another 
when four years old. F. H. 


Letters from Lord BrotiqJiam to William Forsyth, J''a(j., 
Q.C.,' LL.D., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cain- 
bridge. (Not published.) 

All who enjoyed the privilege of numbering the lain 
Lord Brougham among their friends will be pleased with 
this little volume, in which Mr. Forsyth has printed a 
selection from the letters received by him from Lord 
Brougham during the last ten years of his life, and l>e 
especially gratilied by the Introduction, in which the 
biographer of Cicero sketches the character of his distin- 
guished correspondent. The letters are not very remark- 
able in themselves for of course Mr. Forsyth has not 
printed the more confidential of them but are very 
characteristic of the diversity of attainments, untiring 
activity of mind, and kindliness of heart for which Lord 
Brougham was distinguished. Some fac-similes are given, 
and are not exaggerated specimens of the extraordinary 
hand which Lord Brougham ordinarily wrote. We had 
some familiarity with his usual " epistolary " handwrit- 
'ng, and venture to supply a few words which Mr. Forsyth 
las given up as hopUfeMfy illegible. In a letter in which 
Lord Brougham has written "My only Cicero here ir, 
Eruesti," the words that follow are " and he does not 
a word about the Fragments. 1 would fain hear 
your thoughts on the subject, and [here two words ille- 
gible . . . . .] discussing their authenticity." 

e.H.Krs and Papers of John Shillinyford, Mayor of 

Exeter, 1447-50. Edited by Stuart A. Moore, Esq. 

(Printed for the Camden Society.) 

This is the second of the New Series of Publications of 
he Camden Society, which the council, acting in our 
opinion with great judgment, commenced on the 1st of 
Way last. The volume differs in character from any of 
ts predecessors, and consists of a number of documents 
ind letters which were rescued from imminent destruc- 
ion bv the editor when engaged in arranging the very 
aluable and voluminous collection of archives of the 
Jity of Exeter. They relate to suits between the Cor- 
oration and the Dean and Chapter, arising out of a 
latter of great consequence in those days, namely, the 
espective Jurisdictions of the Mayor and Corporation, and 
I' (lie Church a dispute which had grown up through a 



[4't-S. IX. JAN. 2n, 72. 

long course of rears, and which it is not doing much in- 
justice to Shillingford to say he contrived to bring to an 
issue. Much curious light is thrown, in the course of 
the various articles, allegations, &c., on the municipal 
and capitular bodies, their respective condition, privileges, 
&c. But the most important part of the book is un- 
questionably that in which we have the letters of the 
zealous mayor, John Shillingford, written from London to 
inform his fellows of the progress of the suit. These letters 
are among the earliest specimens of English private cor- 
respondence that exist, and may fairly be considered as 
amongst the most remarkable. " The peculiarly minute 
manner," says the editor, " in which Shillingford de- 
scribes all his proceedings, giving the ipsissima verba of 
his conversations, and noting all the small incidents of 
the interviews at which he was present, are sufficient 
alone to recommend them to students." We go further 
than Mr. Moore, and say, to recommend them to all 
intelligent readers. The book is indeed one well calcu- 
lated to induce all, who take an interest in the " good old 
times," to join the Camden Society, for whose members 
alone it has been printed. 

Elementary Treatise on Natural Philosophy by A. Privat- 
Deschanel, formerly Professor of Physics in the Lycee 
Louis-le- Grand, Inspector of the Academy of Paris. 
Translated and edited, with extensive Additions, by 
J. D. Everett, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in the Queen's College, Belfast. In Four Parts. Part 
III. Electricity and Magnetism. Illustrated by 241 
Engravings on Wood, and one coloured Plate. (Blackie 
and Son.) 

We have already done justice to the importance of this 
Introduction to Natural Philosophy in our notice of the 
two preceding parts. We may, therefore, limit ourselves 
to pointing out the advantage" which Professor Everett's 
translation has over his original, in consequence of his 
having so recast it as to introduce into it many of the 
results of Faraday's and Sir Wm. Thomson's researches 
in electricity and magnetism, which are still but imper- 
fectly appreciated by French writers. 

DEATH OF AFZELIUS. Intelligence has only just 
reached this country of the death in September last, at 
the ripe age of eighty-six, of Arvid Augustus Afzelius, 
the learned Swedish Archaeologist, known to many Eng- 
lish readers by the Collection of Popular Songs, Svenska 
Folkvisor, in three volumes with the music, which he 
published in conjunction with Geyer ; and by his Collec- 
tion of Swedish Historical Legends, Svenska Folkets 
Sagohaefder, which he commenced as long since as 1839, 
and completed in 1870, the last part relating to Charles 
XII. since which period genuine popular legends may 
be said to have ceased to exist. ' 

THE LATE REV. WILLIAM SCOTT. We regret to an- 
nounce the death of this eminent and learned London 
clergyman. The Rev. William Scott, vicar of St. Olave, 
Jewry, died onThursda}' the llth. Mr. Scott was for up- 
wards of twenty years from 1839 to 1860 perpetual 
curate of Christ Church, Hoxton. He vacated this incum- 
bency on being nominated by Lord Chancellor Campbell 
to the vicarage of St. Olave, j'ewry. He was distinguished 
not only for zealous discharge of his clerical functions, 
but for numerous contributions to theological and general 
periodical literature. For many years he was the editor 
of the Christian Remembrancer, but he was perhaps even 
better known in recent years for his connection with one 
of our contemporaries. Mr. Scott, who was born in 1811, 
and graduated at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1835, was 
a moderate High Churchman. 

UNDER the title of " Dramatists of the Restoration," 
Mr. Maidment and Mr. Logan propose to issue, for pri- 

vate circulation only, in post 8vo, to range with Picker- 
ing's editions of Webster, Peele, Marlow, &c., a series of 
those Dramatists, for the most part writers of Comedy, 
who flourished after the extinction of the Commonwealth. 
There will be six volumes issued annually, at intervals 
of two months. The several plaj's will noV be presented 
in an unmutilated form, and will be carefully collated 
with the earliest and the best editions. Biographical 
Notices and brief Notes will accompany the works of each 
author. The series will commence with the dramatic 
works of Sir William Davenant, whose excellence 
known chiefly through the medium of a solitary play 
preserved in Dodsley's collection is at the present date 
unrecognised, the cumbrous size of the volume containing 
his writings making it a sealed book to all but poetic 
and dramatic antiquaries. These will be followed by 
the works of John Crowne, the author of Sir Courtly 
Nice, and eventually by those of Killegrew, Shadwell, 
Charles Johnson, Wilson, Etherege, Centlivre, Wycher- 
ley, Sedley, Lacy, Congreve, Farquhar, and others, several 
of which have never before appeared in a collected form. 
The publishers are Messrs. Sotheran, Baer & Co. 

IT is proposed to place a stained window in Berkeley 
parish church in memory of Dr. Edward Jenner, the 
discoverer of vaccination, who was born at Berkeley, lived 
and died there, and was buried in the chancel of the parish 

AMONG the Fellows elected into the Society of Anti- 
quaries on Thursday week was Mr. Shirley Brooks. On 
the announcement of the ballot an old F.S.A. and friend 
of the new Fellow was heard to chuckle to himself Fal- 
staff 's exclamation : " Such Brooks are welcome to us." 

IN accordance with an invitation, addressed through 
Dr. Schaff of New York by the committees appointed for 
the revision of the Old and New Testaments, several 
Professors of Biblical Literature in America have been 
formed into two companies for the purpose of co-operating 
with those engaged in this work at Westminster. 

IT may interest some of the contributors to theCowper 
memorial window in Berkhampstead Church to hear that 
the following lines, by the author of the Afterglow, have 
been inscribed on a marble tablet and affixed to the wall 
in the rectory gardens : 

" The shy perennial fountain here the ivy-tods among, 
Fit emblem of his modesty and pure undying song, 
With daily crystal draught refreshed our Poet's fragile 

Amid the precious opening buds of Genius, Grace, and 

'Ere spectral wrath had clouded in despair the noble 


Self-loathing yet so loving, still so boon to all man- 

Oh stranger ! in your heart of hearts let tender rever- 
ence dwell, 

And love of loves revived to-dav at Gentle Cowper's 



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TaSoo^o? CHRISTMAS published about 1836, illustrated with nu- 
merous Engravings by Seymour. 

Dido, an Engraving by Sir Robert Straiige. 

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Early Astronomical MSS. 
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Wanted by Rev. W. J. Loftie, F.S.A., 6, Upper Berkeley Street, \V. 


In our Notes on Books last week, Mr. Carlisle's Round 
the World and Captain White's Substantive Seniority 
Army List, should have been described as published by 
Henry S. King & Co. 

K. W. H. N. (Dublin.) Be good enough to say where 
the account of Buddhist Htee may be seen, as tve can only 
find room for the reference. 

R. H. S. S. (S. K. M.) Have yon read the papers that 
appeared on Briot in 4 th S. viii. 424 ; ix. 19 ? If not, 
perhaps you ivill be good enough to do so, and supplement 
them if necessary. 

X. (Manchester.) Where will a letter Jind you ? 

II. E. WILKINSON (Penge). The. lines "Earth walks 
on earth like glittering gold," with variations, have done 
duty in Melrose Abbey and in several churchyards. They 
have been adapted from a quaint old poem, entitled Five 
Wounds of Christ, by William Billyngs, a poet of the 
fourteenth century, whose work was published at Manches- 
ter in 1814, 4to. " N. & Q. 3** S. i. 389 ; ii. 55. 

JUNII NEPOS. All the heraldic dictionaries endorse our 
description of the Cornish arms, as given at p. 562 of our 
last volume. The number of bezants may vary in the 
shields of the different Earls of Cornwall. 

J. R. H. (Hyde Park Gate.) The word Syze on the 
title-page of one of the works of the Tinclarian Doctor 
seems to be either a coined ivord or a misprint. In the col- 
lected edition of his works, 17 12, the passage reads "being 
Essays of Divinity," 8fc. See " N. & Q." 3 rd S. v. 359. 

* W. A. B. COOLIDGB (Exeter College). Consult The 
Ethnology of the British Islands, by R. G. Latham, M.D., 
1853. " N. & Q." 1" S. vii. 120, 135, 246. 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. The copy of your article reached 
us in an imperfect state folio two was missing. Will you 
be good enough to supply us with the Habits of the Royal 
Heads on bells, and to repeat your kind offer ? 

ERRATUM. 4 th ix. p. 38, col. i. line 10 from bottom, 
for Wovel" read " Wood." 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications 
which,for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor at the Office 
3. Wellington Street, W.C. 

To all communications should be affixed :the name and address of 
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" Itis experience as a writer has been considerable, and his knowledge 
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" We venture, therefore, to prophesy that these two goodly volumes 
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Notes and Queries. 


FITZGERALD, Author of " The Life of David Garrick," &c. 

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CONTENTS. N> 213. 

NOTES: Origin of Tichborne, 69 Lord Brougham and 
Literature, Ib. Chaucer Restored, 70 Usages at a 
Dumfriesshire Funeral a Hundred Years Ago, 71 Let- 
ters of .Junius " Dame Europa " and " Rattle of Dork- 
ing" A propos de Bottes Mural Decorations Chinese 
Monumental Inscriptions Singular Bequest Ottava 
llin) a An apt Quotation Abernethy's " Heavenly 
Treatise," 102(5 "Spit for lack of Matter" "Mother 
Goose " and her Melodies, 71. 

QUERIES: A Print Query, 73 Aristophanes Artifi- 
cial Fly Fishing Ballot at Rome- Bishops Ethelnoth, 
Stigand, and Ethehnar Bonaparte's Dictum The Lord 
Boqurki Caricature Cromwell Relies " The Entomb- 
ment," by Federigo Barroccio The Council of Ephcsns 
Charles Sandoe Gilbert Henry Inch " Marriage with 
a Deceased Wife's Sister " Military Medals Numis- 
maticOxford Canoes Dr. Parkins Les Pretres de- 
portes Royal Heads on Bells Sansomcs Dr. William 
Strode The Seven Towns of Holland, 74. 

REPLIES: - "By Hook or by Crook," 77- Dr. E. A. 
Holyokc, 78 Funeral of Queen Caroline, Ib. Jacobite 
Ciphers Burnsiana Clerical Knights " Bulbaceous " 

Relies of Oliver Cromwell Cleopatra and Octavia 
ladies on Horseback Deesido " Might makes Right" 

" Quid jaeet in torrS, non habet undo cadat " Ancient 
Enigma Maugham "Long Preston Peggy" Gay= 
wanton James Roddiu and John Reddie Scales and 
Weights Origin of " Liverpool " Watch Papers The 
Waistcoat Pocket a Sniili'-box Seven Dials Odd 
Changes of Meaning Old Bags Lady Grizele Bailie 

" Light Christmas" Moloworlh Medal Mrs. Stephens's 
nies, &c., 71). 

Notes on Books, &c. 


The interest at present attaching to this name 
will, I presume, be sufficient apology for some 
remarks upon it. It is plainly of the topographical 
type. The fundamental principle of such names 
I take to be that they consist of a statement of 
certain natural landmarks by which the spot re- 
ferred to might be recognised. The stream implied 
in Tichborne, properly Titchborue, flows from be- 
hind a ridge which would formerly be called a 
height. One of the dialectal forms of this word 
was "hitch," which, like " height" itself, pro- 
perly highth from high-eth, was formed from the 
old third person singular of "high" treated as a 
verb. Although the letter g is now quiescent, 
" high " was in some dialects pronounced gut- 
turally as " hig'h," traces of which are still to be 
met with. Thus Iligham Ferrers is pronounced 
Hig-ham F., and in the Peak district we have 
Iligger (higher) Tor, so called to distinguish it 
from Mam Tor. Taking then "high " as " hig," 
we should from " higgeth " get " hitch," justas 
what a man " diggeth " makes " ditch." " Hitch 
often occurs' in names of places. We have two 
Hitchams literal^, and another slightly disguisec 
in Heacham, hot far from Sandringham. Hitch- 
endon is the alternative name of Ilughendon 
(Hoogh-ing-don). Again, Hitchin, Herts, readily 
occurs as another instance. If then the name 

nder review were Hitchborne, or, as the name of 
he stream is actually written, Itchenbourne, it 
would be perfectly natural and intelligible, mean- 
ng simply Hillbrook. But the initial letter of 
Hitchborne is indicative of some foreign element, 
md has still to be accounted for. Now it was 
not unusual to designate localities by means of 
Depositions prefixed to certain landmarks adja- 
,ent. In this way <l up," " to " and " at " were 
roquently employed. We find places called Up- 
lill literally, and many more compounded with 
his name disguised as Apple, as in Appleton, 
>therwise Apperton near Harrow, Appleby and 
\ppledore, not forgetting Apeldoorn near De- 
enter, Belgium. Appen, near the latter, and our 
wn Epping, may stand for Up-han (height), but 
iiore probably they represent "upping" as in 
Uppingham and Oppenheirn, Under the head of 
;he " ups '' is, I conceive, to be placed the famous 
-Trinobantes, so preposterously perverted into 
Troynovante, Now Troy. I analyse it into Trin- 
Db-hant, that is, Treeu-up-the-height, and so 
nake it equivalent to Epping (upping) Forest, 
:l treen " being the old plural of " tree." Further, 
we have names compounded with " to,"asTothele 
(Tothill), and Tothan (Tote-han) as in Totten- 
ham. Lastly, we also find " at " similarly em- 
ployed, as in Athelhampstone, Attlebridge, &c. 
In several instances, as if to guide us to the true 
origin and meaning of such names, we find the 
words expressed in full, as in the old names 
Hare we atte Hull, Havering atte Bower, and in 
the still used names Button at Hone (height), and 
Cliff at Hoo (height). In not a few instances, 
on the other hand, these prepositions coalesce 
with the nouns to which they are prefixed, so as 
to form one word with them, leaving no trace of 
themselves but their final letter, after the manner 
of other words. Thus " John a-noke " stands for 
" John atten (at an) oak " (Wright's Chaucer, 
Gloss, s. v. i( Nale "), sterling for easterling, and 
Strother (Reeve's Tale} for Hant's-Rother 
(Heights'-marsh). In this way I hold that Toot- 
ing means At-hooghting, Tonbridge At-hone- 
bridge and, as will .have been anticipated, Titch- 
borne At-hitchborne. Synonymous with Titch- 
borne, and almost parallel in form, is Tilbrook, 
Beds. W. B. R. L. 


It is impossible, on reading the Memoirs just 
published, not to be struck with the little Lord 
Brougham has to say about his performances in 
literature, by no means the least of his achieve- 
ments. The last volume, comprising the period 
when he wrote most, has even less than the others. 
I have refrained from publishing my Bibliogram 
on Brougham till the publication of the Memoirs, 

* Continued from 4 th S. viii. 523. 



[4th g. IX . J AX . 27, 72. 

in the expectation that probably much of my 
ground would have been gone over : unfortunately 
Lord Brougham has scarcely touched upon it. 
In this his lordship has followed his predecessors, 
for if we take the autobiographies or memoirs or 
lives of literary men men who have devoted 
their whole lives to literature it is difficult, if not 
impossible, to mention a single one who has given 
;i catalogue raisonnc of his works. Take such 
lives as Lockhart's Scott or Boswell's Johnson. 
Can anything be more defective than the bibli- 
ography of either 1 J Or again, Jordan or Charles 
Knight, or John Banim, or worse than any, John 

Gait. All these works being most interesting, 

but from a bibliographical point of view most 

I want information as to authors, &c. of the 

following pamphlets. The -first is signed " Angli- 

cus," and is entitled 
(7.) A letter to H. B., Esq., M.P. for the County of 

York, on the present state of English representation. 

Loud. Ridgway, 1830. 
(8.) The expediency of a property-tax considered 

in relation to the objections of Earl Grey and Lord 

Brougham. Lond. F. C. Westley, 165, Strand, 1831. 


The following has been attributed to Lord 
Brougham. See Blackivootfs Mag. for August, 
18-31, for a most virulently abusive article ; also 
Edin. Rev. liii. : 

(9.) Friendly advice, most respectfully submitted to 
the House of Lords, on the Reform Bill. 3rd edit. 
Lond. Ridgway, 1831. 

This anonymous pamphlet elicited another, en- 

Observations on a pamphlet falsely attributed to a 
great person, Ac. Lond. J. Murray, 1831. (Also anony- 

(10.) Jury trial in Scotland, improved by being ex- 
tended. A letter to the Lord Chancellor, by a mcmbi-r 
of the Scottish Bar. Edin., Laing & Forbes, 1832. j 

The following pamphlet is signed "Junius" 
at the end : 

(11.) A letter to, &c. on the subject of the Magistracy 
of England, <fcc. Lond., &c., for the author, &c. Caw- 
thorn, 1832. 

I have somewhere seen the following (No. 12) 
attributed to Archbishop Whately, but of course 
a reference to his life by his daughter does not 
enlighten _one, as the bibliography in that is just 
as bad as in most works of the kind : 

(12.) A letter to, &c., containing observations on the 
Measure of Reform now under consideration of Parlia- 
ment ; in so far as it respects the executive government 
of this Country. Lond., Ridgway, 1832. (Anon.) 

(13.) Selections from the Speeches, &c.. with a brief 
Memoir of his Lordship's Life. Lond., Ri'dgwav, 1832 

The advertisement is dated from Cambridge. 
I should like to have had a list of works dedi- 

cated to Lord Brougham. The only one I know 


(14.) The Village poor house. By a country curate. 
[in verse.] Lond. 1832 

the dedication to which mentions Lord Brougham 
as " first in talents, first in honour, and first in 
the opinion of his contemporaries." 




1. It is alleged that the Court of Love was not 
written by Chaucer. Let the intelligent reader 
compare the following parallels : 


" The blossoms fresh of Tullius' garden sote, 
Poems of Virgil take/i here no root." 

Court of Love. 

" When that April with his show'res sole, 
The drought of March hath pierced to the root." 

Pruloyuc C. T. 

Identical in rhyme and metre. 

"Of false /Eneas, and the waimenting." 

Court of Love. 

" That ever heard such waimenting." 
"The great clamour and the waimenting." 

Knight's Tale. 

" They were arrayed, and did their sacrilice 
Unto the god and goddess in their guise." 

Court of Love. 

" The homes full of mead, as was the guise 
There lacked nought to do their sacrifice. 1 ' 

KniyhC* Tale. 

" And pleasantly with heartcs obeisance, 
So must they lowly do their observance." 

Court of Love. 

'' Doth so his ceremonies and obeisance, 
And keepeth in semblant all his observance." 

Squire's Tale. 
" And did also his other observances." 

Truilus and C. 

" Why .sleep*:/* ye ? it i.s no nightcrtale." 
"To matins went the lusty nightingale." 
" He might not sleep in all the nightertale." 

Court of Lore. 

" So hot he loved that by nightertale 
He slept no more than doth the nightingale." 

Prologue C. T. 

" She smote nu^hrough the very heart as Mite 
And Venus yet I thank I am alive." 

Court of Love. 

"They were full glad to excuse?! them full blive 
Of thing, the which they never a-guilt [in] their 

Prol. Wife of Bath. 

" Bet-[ter~] than Virgil, while he was on live 
Or buntfe] also. Kuw let us ride[n] btive." 

Friar's Tale. 

4' h S. IX. JAN. 27, 72.] 




"These words said, she caught me by the lappeft]." 

Court of Love. 
" And Troilus he brought in by the lappe[t]." 

Troilus and C. 
'^My goddess bright, my fortune and my ure." 

Court of Love, 
" On his fortune and on ure also." 

Complaint of the Black Knight. 

2. It seems to me that the ring of the metal 
sounds alike through all these passages; but, 
further, there is in the Court of Love a palpable 
allusion to the Complaint to Pity viz. in stanza 
100, commencing 

" A shrine surmounting all in stones rich, 
Of which the force was pleasance to mine eye 
With diamond or sapphire, never like 
I have none seen, ne wrought so wonderly." 

" a tender creature 
Is shrined there, and PITY is her name." 

This plainly refers to the "Death of Pity," and 
would be written subsequently to the Complaint. 
Who but the author of the latter would dare 
thus to refer to another's work ? 

If so be we have no MS. authority for ascrib- 
ing the Court of Love * to Chaucer, the want of 
it is the mere proof of a negative. There being no 
rival claimant in the field, I hope that my country- 
men will unanimously book the claim for Chaucer, 
if only to clear his fame from a possible charge of 
the grossest plagiarism. A. HALL. 

Will you allow me to say, before MR. HALL 
goes any further with his " Chaucer Restored," 
that neither he nor any one else may assume from 
any statement of mine that "The Court of Love," 
"The Black Knight," "Chaucer's Dream/' "The 
Cuckoo and Nightingale," are " admittedly contem- 
poraneous " with Chaucer's youth that is, 1358- 
6/5 A. D. ? Any one who, considering the pre- 
sent state of knowledge of Early English, admits 
the " Yle of Ladies " or/' Chaucer's Dream," espe- 
cially to be of the date of 1358-65, only pro- 
claims thereby that he ought to enter himself at 
King's College School for a course of Early Eng- 

" The Cuckow and the Nightingale " is evi- 
dently by an inferior hand to Chaucer's, no doubt 
that of some admirer and successor of his, who 
starts his poem by quoting two of his master's 
lines in the " Knightes Tale," 11. 1785-6 

" The god of love, ah ! benedicite, 
How myghty and how grete a lorde is he ! " 

just as one of Tennyson's admirers might write a 

* Those inclined to investigate the matter turther will 
find the whole question, as regards the Court of Love, very 
ably argued by Mr. Waring in The Academy for Novem- 
ber, 1870. 

| poem, after his death, on the theme of two of his 

i teacher's lines. Echoes of Chaucer will be found 

in many poems written after his time, as in the 

"Flour and the Leaf." F. J. FURNIVALL. 


MR. ATKINSON (4 th S. vii. 298), describing the 
customs at funerals in Cleveland, reminds me of a 
statement which I found in the MS. notes of the 
late Mr. W.F. Hunter Arundell of Barjarg Towar, 
to which I have already referred (4 th S. vii. 491) 
in regard to the customs at funerals in Dumfries- 
shire some hundred years ago. It is pleasant to 
know that such scenes, as must have sometimes 
occurred on such solemn occasions, have long been 
a matter of the past, and are unknown in the 
present times. The services of wine and spirits 
at funerals have been put down, I believe, in 
every parish in the South of Scotland; not so 
much owing to the prevalence of the principles of 
total abstainers, as because it was felt by the 
respectable classes of the community that such 
expenses were an unfair and improper tax on the 
poor, at a time when they were least able to bear 
it. The attempt to discontinue such services, it 
was known, could only be successful if the example 
were set by the higher classes, and in no instance 
did they refuse to join in the praiseworthy object. 
The following is the paper to which I refer : 

" 13 th July, 1775. Copy of the expenses of Laird- 
holme's funeral paid by Edw. Irving of \Viseby : 

2 doz. Lisbon 
1 doz. Port 
li doz. Port 
1 doz. Tenerifle 
1 doz. Malaga 
20 pints of Rum at 3/0 

. 1 16 

. 1 7 
. I 7 
. is 
. IS 
. 3 10 
. <) 1 





1 Ib. Souchonne . 
1 Ib. Bohea 

. 7 
. 3 


15 Ib. lump sugar 

. 10 
. 2 

1 Ib. small twist . 
2 Ib. common twist 
1 Ib. snuff .... 

. 1 
. 2 
. 1 



2 screws .... 
4 flint glasses 2|, 2 single . 

. 2 
. 2 


11 9 8 

I may add, that the property of Lairdholme is 
in the parish of Tundergarth, in Annandale, and 
belonged one hundred years ago to a branch of 
the great Border family of Johnstones. 


LETTEES OF JTJNIFS. May I hope that the 
Lord Chief Justice of England, before he sums 
up in The Academy, will look at a brochure of my 



IX. JAN-. 27, 72. 

deceased friend Mr. Jelinger Symons, which to 
my mind conclusively shows that William Burke 
wag Jimius ? MAKROCHEIR. 

In making up my Annual Catalogue of Books 
published in 1871, I am desirous to include the 
titles of all the pamphlets and brochures springing 
from the Dame Europa tract and the Battle of 
Dorking article. Perhaps some of your subscribers 
can help one for the benefit of the " coming man." 
I have about forty titles of the former, and twelve 
of the latter. 

188, Fleet Street, London. 

[Replies to be forwarded direct]. 

A PROPOS HE BOTTES. The following note is 
evidence of the march of civilization ; at all events 
there is something fresh on foot in Southern 
Europe, doubtless to the intense disgust of the 
lovers of the picturesque. In his Report on the 
Trade and Commerce of Geneva, Consul Brown 
remarks upon the curious feature in the leather 
trade, in the fall of ox-hides as compared to cow- 
hides, consequent upon the cessation of the de- 
mand for the heavy leather which was so 
extensively used in the Levant, Greece, and 
Southern Italy for buskins, the semi-barbarous 
natives having continued until quite recently to 
use bits of tough leather roughly sewn to fit their 
feet ; whereas, as they are becoming more civilized, 
they are taking to shoes of the ordinary European 
type. (See Consular Reports, No. 2, 1871.) 


34, Parliament Street. 

MURAL DECORATIONS. In the fine old church 
of Kirkby Malhamdale, in Craven, are two mural 
paintings for they do not deserve the name of 
" decorations." One is a skeleton, with the legend, 
"Remember Death"; the other is Time, with 
scythe, hour-glass, &c., and the legend, "Make 
use of Time." The church has had many a good 
coat of whitewash ; but the above figures have 
always been spared, which is more than can be 
said for General Lambert's monument in the same 

The Flatts, Malham Moor. 

subject of epitaphs has for some time been popu- 
lar, perhaps a literal translation of one on a tomb 
at Kowloon, S. China, may be interesting from its 
being a type of the Chinese style. The present is 
a plain record of facts, and does not tax the credu- 
lity of the friends of the deceased. The transla- 
tion was made by an interpreter at Hong Kong, 
and I cannot therefore explain, here and the*e, 
an obscure allusion : 

" Monument of the old gentleman Hoo Quong Sang, 
who lived in the present Tsing Dynasty, and was buried 
on the 22nd day of the 4th month, in the 18th year of 

in this flourishing piece of ground called Ngou 
Lokling, situate on the [geometrical or local ?] rh;n 
Ting-Tse, facing Kap-ut. In the 28th year of Tow- 
Kwong, the proprietor of this land declined in fortune 
and destiny [?], for a portion of it wns encroached on by 
some farmers." 


" It [?] resembled the beard of the Dragon, and yet, 
notwithstanding the tomb having been duly repaired, 
the posterity of the deceased has failed " [in prosperity ?] 


" This piece of ground has been compared to a green 
crab ejecting water. It was of the best description, but 
these farmers maliciously damaged it." 

" * * Erected by Hoo Tin Cheong, grandson of the 

On the usual adjoining structure, shaped like 
an arm-chair, is a tablet with this inscription: 
The Spiritual Seat of the Hoo Family." 


SINGULAR BEQUEST. The following cutting 
from the Evening Standard of Jan. 2, 1872, wrll 
interest many readers of " N. & Q." How many 
records of old customs would, but for its existence, 
have been for ever lost to us, who can tell ? And 
to its pages we turn to find anything, from " pre- 
destination to slea-silk," and with the feeling that 
we shall not be disappointed : 

" Yesterday afternoon a sermon was preached in the 
parish church of St. Magnus-the-Martyr, London In 
by the Kev. A. J. M'Caul, M.A., the rector, in conformity 
With the will of Mr. Henry Cloker, a late member of the 
Grocers' Company. The will is dated 1573, and contains 
some singular clauses ; one of which is that the master, 
the wardens, and court of assistants of the Coopers' Com- 
pany shall attend divine service and a sermon preached 
on New Year's-day in the afternoon for ever. The pro- 
perty consists of two small estates, the proceeds of which 
are divided amongst the clergyman and the officers of the 
company, and for other purposes. One of the most sin- 
gular points in the will is that, in the event of the Coopers' 
Company failing to carry out the various bequests with- 
out showing sufficient reason, the property shall be for- 
feited to the Grocers' Company. At the conclusion of 
the sermon the clerk to the Coopers' Company read the 
will, after which the curiously antiquated proceedings 


Hungate Street, Pickering. 

OTTAVA RIMA. It has been asserted in some 
recent reviews of the works of J. H. Frere 
(Whistlecraft Brothers), that Mr. F. wa=> the in- 
troducer amongst the English of thejltalian ottava 
rima. This is not correct. Fairfax's Tasso, 
Harrington's Orlando, Fanshaw's Lusiad, are all 
in the stanza; and numerous other examples 
might be quoted. N. 

Ax APT QUOTATION. At a recent meeting in 
Liverpool, one of the speakers, complimenting the 
chairman, the Earl of Derby, quoted the words 
from Marmioii, " On, Stanley, on ! " 

* The date of the above is June 15, 1814. An Kmperor 
of China receives another name after death. 

4* S. IX. JAN. 27, 72.] 



Many years ago, at a public breakfast or dinne 
in the same town, where the Bishop of Cheste: 
(Simmer) and the late Earl of Derby, then Lord 
Stanley, were present, the Rev. Hugh M'Neile 
now Dean of Ilipon, still more felicitously, ant 
in ^his case with undoubted originality, ex- 
claimed, in the course of his speech,. turning 1 first 
to the Bishop and then to Lord Stanley, " Charge 
Chester, charge ! on, Stanley, on ! " 

Those who have ever heard Doctor M'Neile 
speak in public will appreciate the exquisite grace 
and point with which the quotation was delivered 

J. W. W. 


Upon the title-page of A Christian's Heavenly 
Treatise containing Physic for the Soul, written by 
Abernethy, Bishop of Caithness, and published in 
London, 1626, small quarto, there is written "Li- 
ber Joannis Bettison, Pretium 2" 4 d , 29 th Marche 
1626." As this is evidently the price of the 
volume at the period it was given to the world 
the- notandum is not without value as contem- 
porary evidence of the price of .a volume of up- 
wards of four hundred pages at that date. 

The bishop's production has prefixed many 
commendatory verses in Latin and English. Of 
the former there is one by " Patricius Sandseus," 
Principal of the Edinburgh University at the 
time ; and of the latter, a poem by no less a per- 
son than Sir William Alexander, subsequently 
known as Viscount of Canada and Earl of Stirling, 
a celebrated statesman, but who is now best 
known for his Recreations with the Muses a work 
in which will be found many beautiful lines. 
Some of the passages in his monarchic tragedies 
are truly admirable. 

Abernethy was one of the bishops deposed at 
the well-known Glasgow Assembly of 1630, of 
which a most amusing description will be found 
in the amusing volume of Scotish Pasquils, of 
which a second and enlarged edition was printed 
at Edinburgh, 1868 5 Paterson,74, Princes Street. 

The bishop's excellent work is thus referred to 
in the volume just mentioned : 

" Both soule and bodey Cathncs cures, then none but 

onlie he 
Treu pastor and phisitian may only termed be." 

This is complimentary enough, more especially 
as the other bishops are somewhat differently re- 
presented in the same poetical translation from 
the original Latin verses. J. M. 


Like It, Act IV. Sc. 1, Rosalind says 

"Nay, you were better speak first; and when you 
were gravelled for lack of matter, you might take occa- 
sion to kiss. Very good orators, when fchey are out, they 
will spit ; and for lovers, lacking (God warn us !) matter, 
the cleanliest shift is to kiss." 

Shakespeare here alludes to the following pas- 
sage in the Euphues of Lyly : 

" Without doubt, Euphues, thou dost me great wrong, 
seeking a skar in a smooth skin, thinking to stop a vain 
wher none is opened, and to cast love in my teeth, which 
I have already spit ovt of my mouth, which I must needs 
think proceedeth rather for lacke of matter then any good 
meaning, els wouldest' thou never harp on yat string 
which is burst in my hart, and yet ever sounding in thy 


story of William TelPs shooting the apple off his 
son's head has been recently denied, and it has 
even been stoutly affirmed that William Tell 
never existed. As some slight compensation for 
this loss, it is gratifying to know that " Mother 
Goose " was a real personage. This fact is learned 
from an elegant and expensive quarto edition of 
her "Melodies " published in New York in 1869, 
an edition embellished with admirable comic 

The family of Vergoos, Verdegoos, or Goose 
existed in Boston, Massachusetts. Thomas Field, 
a native of the parish of Whitchurch, Shrop- 
shire, England, married Elizabeth, the daughter 
of Isaac and Elizabeth Vergoos. Field, before 
coming to America, was a printer in Bristol. He 
gave offence to the mob by displaying a halter 
whilst a procession in honour of Dr. Sacheverell 
was passing his printing-office. For this he was 
compelled to leave Bristol, but after a short stay 
in London, ventured back to Bristol, where find- 
ing himself still unpopular, he concluded to come 
to America. He collected the nursery songs sung 
by his mother-in-law to his eldest child, and 
published them under the name of Mother Goose's 
Melodies. Her descendants are still in Boston. 



I have long held an opinion opposed to that of 
the printsellers and collectors, that those very 
dark and often fine impressions of the early 
engravers, which just now fetch such high prices, 
ire not always the early impressions. In par- 
ticular I would mention Albert Diirer's " Tem- 
j>erance " or " Great Fortune," and more espe- 
cially Lucas van Leyden's " Mahomet killing the 
nonk Sergius." This beautiful print is dated 
1508, and is certainly very fine in every way, and 
was executed when the artist was fourteen years 

ISow I have a peculiarly delicate impression of 
his, as perfect as the day it was printed. All 
he background is so light as almost to require a 
uagnifying glass to see it perfectly, but still most 
xisp, and without any suspicion of wear of the 



[4"- S. IX. JAN. 27, 

plate. Is not this just what we should expect of 
the print of a boy of fourteen, at a time when en- 
graving was quite in its infancy ? But, as a fact, 
the much darker and more brilliant impressions 
are generally considered the earliest and best. 

Against this I have always held the probability 
of the lighter work being the original, done when 
the young artist had exquisite delicacy and taste, 
but less power ; and the fact that in my copy at 
least the mark of the coast line is continued 
through part of the trunk of the great tree, which 
was not so in the darker and, as I think, the 
later impressions. This has been denied by con- 
noisseurs, who have alleged that this continuation 
had at some time been put in carefully in pen and 
ink ; but last week a somewhat dilapidated copy 
was sold at Sotheby's with the same mark through 
the great tree. 

Would those of your subscribers who possess 
this fine print either in a light state or in its 
richest examine this particula'r point, and let us 
know their opinion about my theory ? 

I believe that in both these prints, and in fact 
several others, the respective artists retouched 
their weaker and more delicate plates in after life. 

J. C. J. 


" The possibility of producing an adequate translation 
of an entire play never would have entered into his (Mr. 
J. Hookhara Frere's) mind, but from the example of his 
friend Mr. W. Hamilton, who had himself completed a 
translation of almost the whole of Aristophanes." Me- 
moir of John Hookham Frere, p. cclxiv. note 1, Works, 
vol. i. Pickering, 1872. 

What is known of Mr. Hamilton's version be- 
yond this ? Where is it ? What is it ? Prose or 
verse ? Q. 

[The only published translations of William Richard 
Hamilton, Esq. F.R.S. (obit. July 11, 1859) known to us 
are the following : (1.) Essay" on the Birds of Aris- 
tophanes, by J. W. Silvern, translated by W. R. Hamil- 
ton. Lond. 1835, 8vo. (2.) Two Essays on the Clouds 
and on The Trjpa.s of Aristophanes, by J. W. Silvern, 
translated by W. R. Hamilton, Lond. 1836. Both pub- 
lished by John Murray of Albemarle Street.] 

who was the first to systematise this art, died in 
1687. Leaving out of the question the many 
" Complete Anglers," " Perfect Anglers," &c., who 
were the chief writers on fly-fishing after him, 
such as Bowlker (who wrote in 1746) and Bain- 
bridge (in 1816), to Jesse, Sir H. Davy, and the 
numerous authors of late years?. Also, where 
can I meet with an exhaustive catalogue of works 
on fishing ? I know the Bibliotheca Piscatoria 
added to the Piscatorial Reminiscences published 
by Pickering in 1835. PELAGIUS. 

[Certainly the best catalogue is by our valued corre- 
spondent, MK. THOMAS WESTWOOD, entitled A New 

Bibliotheca Piscatoria ; or, General Catalogue of Angling 
and Fishing Literature, with Bibliographical Notes and 
Data. Lond. : The Field Office, 346', Strand, 1861.] 

BALLOT AT ROME. Was the ballot used in the 
introduction of Christianity into Rome, as is fre- 
quently asserted by reliable authority ? 

A. S. H. 

MAR. Can any one inform me whether the three 
following bishops were related ; and if so, how ? 
I have in different books found each of them 
described as the son of the ^Elderuian or Earl 
of Cornwall: Athelnoth, or Agelnot, Bishop of 
Canterbury, 1020 ; Stigand, Bishop of Elmham 
and Dunwich, 1034; of Winchester, 1047; and 
of Canterbury, 1052 [1043 ?] ; and Ailmar, Ethel- 
mar, or Egelmar, Bishop of Elmham, 1047. 

J. A. 

BONAPARTE'S DICTUM. Can any kind reader 
give me the exact original, or tell me where to 
find it, of Napoleon's dictum that, " in war, the 
moral force is to the physical force as three to 
one," or some such proportion ? E. A. H. 

THE LORD BOQUEKI. My father taking me as 
a boy to Battle on a market day, I was presented 
by one of the farmers with aii eighteen-penny- 
piece the bank tokens then in general circula- 
tion with the observation, "You look as neat 
and smart as my Lord Boqueki." And on 
various occasions in my early days I heard the 
expression as applied to anything new and fresh. 
The last time, some five or six years since, wait- 
ing at the Newhaven station, a farm labourer 
brought a portion of a plough to the station 
freshly painted with bright red and blue, when he 
was accosted with " Well, I should think that 
is made for my Lord Boqueki, it do look so tar- 
nation new." I asked him who his lordship was, 
and he told me: "All things that be vired 
(fired ?) new we calls his, down in these parts." 

Whence the origin of the application and 
name ? the spelling of which may be incorrect, 
but I have given it as pronounced. H. W. D. 

CARICATURE. I picked up an old engraving 
lately, and would be glad to know the meaning 
of it and the name of the person satirised. It is 
entitled " A Candidate ! ! ! Generalissimo of the 
Janisaries." H.B. del* et sculpt. A very stout 
well-dressed gentleman, in the costume of a cen- 
tury ago, sits in an arm chair, with both his legs 
up to the knees in pails marked " Buttermilk " ; 
his right hand grasps a flint musket with fixed 
bayonet, on which is impaled a cap of liberty, very 
much torn ; his left hand rests on a book in- 
scribed " P e Accounts," under which is a 
scroll bearing " Report of the Committee," t{ Deep 
Peculation," " Clothing, &c.," " Arms, Accoutre- 
ments, &c." On the gentleman's forehead are 

4* S. IX. JAN. 27, 72.] 



the initials " M. T." ; his two watch chains have 
letters strung on them, making up the words 
11 Knavery and Dishonour." A sheaf of muskets 
in one corner is labelled " For Muster day." Some 
bags of money are marked "For private use," 
" Plunder/' &c. The wall at the back of the 
iigure is adorned with a portrait entitled tf Buck- 
ingham," also a Sue and Cry, in which the fol- 
lowing words are legible: "Reward Votes 
Day Money Robbeiy In William Street 
Murder Lost." A bunch of tallies labelled " sure 
votes " hangs upon a nail. I have made the above 
description as accurate as I could in the hope that 
some part of it may give a clue to the name of 
the individual. , W. H. P. 

CROMWELL RELICS. Could your contributor 
DR. RIMBAULT kindly inform me where the relics 
of Oliver Cromwell, mentioned in " N. & Q." 
4 th S. viii. 550, are to be inspected P A relative 
has a portrait supposed to be that of the Pro- 
tector, and I should be greatly gratified if I were 
enabled to verifv the assertion. E. J. 

51, Nelson Square, S.E. 

ROGCIO. Among the pictures belonging to the 
Marquis of Westminster at the South Kensington 
Museum there is an Entombment ascribed to 
Federigo Barroccio. On the first screen on the 
left-hand side of the Dyce Collection there is 
also an Entombment ascribed to Federigo Bar- 
roccio. This latter is an engraving by ./Egidius 
Sadeler (who died in 1629, seventeen years after 
Barroccio), but it is from an altogether different 
design and picture. Did Barroccio paint two 
of the same subjects, and with none but the 
most distant relationship ? The question is in- 
teresting on several accounts, but specially so to 
me, because I have a picture on copper which 
agrees wholly with that engraved by Sadeler, 
except that the top of mine is square and that of 
the engraving semicircular. There is no doubt of 
the age of my little picture, which, if not an original 
of this valued master, represents an original which 
ought to be found. B. H. COWPER. 

THE COUNCIL or EPHESUS. It is remarkable 
that at this council the Nicene creed, as originally 
drawn up and published by the Council of Nice 
was alone recited and appealed to as the sole 
standard of orthodoxy, the important alterations 
made in that creed both by omission and addi- 
tion by the Second (Ecumenical Council being 
thus entirely ignored. This is the more remark- 
able, because at the Council of Chalcedon both th 
Nicene and the Constantinopolitan creeds were 
recited, and both referred to as the joint standards 
of orthodoxy. The additions, too, made to the 
Nicene creed by the Council of Constantinople 
were confirmed. Can any of your correspondents 
ex j lain this circumstance and account for it, o: 

;hrow any light upon it from the Fathers and 
n hurch historians? G. D. W. O. 

record of the death of Mr.- Gilbert, who wrote 
An Historical Survey of the County of Cornwall, 
1817-20, 2 vols. royal 4to. The only notice re- 
cording his decease that I have been able to find ' 
is in the Rev. John Wallis's Cornwall Register, 
p. 312, where it says, in speaking of him : " He 
died I believe in London. The last time I saw 
him was in a small house at the end of the Strand 
church." Worth, in his History of Devonport, 
says he died in 1831, but gives no authority for 
the statement. By the kind permission of the 
incumbents of St. Mary-le-Strand and St. Cle- 
men-t Danes I have had the burial registers of 
these parishes searched without finding any entry. 
Mr. Gilbert's History is no doubt the best ever 
published about Cornwall. It is now a compara- 
tively scarce book, and even when met with seldom 
possesses a complete set of the engravings. 


HENRY INCH. What authority is there for 
stating that Henry Inch was the inventor and 
designer of the casemated galleries at Gibraltar ? 
Mr. Inch was born at Ludgvan in Cornwall, and 
died in the year 1809. GEORGE C. BOASE. 

Will one of your numerous readers inform me 
where I shall find a full report of the debate which 
took place last session on the " Marriage with a 
deceased Wife's Sister" Bill, and the names of 
the various members who voted for and against 
the bill on the same being thrown out? Also, 
what works, if any, have been published on the 
subject, and where I should be able to obtain 
copies ? R. G. 

[The Bill was read a second time in the House of 
Commons on February 15, the motion being carried by 
125 to 41. The House went into Committee on March 8 
(Ayes 149, Noes 84) ; again on the 9th (Ayes 133, 
Noes 98) ; and the Bill was read a third time on March 10. 
The Bill was read a second time in the House of Lords on 
March 27, and rejected by a majority of 26 ; the numbers 
for the rejection being 97 against 71 in favour of the Bui. 
The debates will be found in The Times of the days fol- 
lowing on those on which they took place ; but the list 
of members voting is sometimes unavoidably delayed 
until the second day after a division. The Marriage Law 
Amendment Society, 21, Parliament Street, Westminster, 
has we believe published some tracts in favour of Mar- 
riage with a Deceased Wife's Sister ; and the Scriptural 
Argument against it will be found in the pamphlet by 
the late Rev. John Keble, published by Parker of the 
Strand. Other recent works on the Marriage with a De- 
ceased Wife's Sister are by J. F. Denham, 1847; Dr. E. B. 
Pusey, 1849 ; Dr. J. A. Hessey, 1855, Rivingtons ; and 
F. N." Rogers, 1855, Rivingtons.] 

MILITARY MEDALS. Will you or any of the 
numerous readers of " N. & Q." kindly inform me 
where I can see engravings or drawings of the 
following ? 



S. IX. JAN. 27, 72. 

1. Gold medal from the King of Prussia to 
Mr. William Murphy, a private gentleman of 
the troop of Guards of his Majesty the King of 
Great Britain." April, 1721. 

2. Gold medal from the Queen of Spain to each 
of the officers of the Irish Brigade " for their high 

. sense of honour during the attack on the city of 
Fontarabia in 1792." 

3. Gold medal to Subadar Ibraharn Cawn, 1st 
battalion, 3rd regiment, Bombay Infantry, "for 
his gallant and soldier-like ' attack of a pagoda 
near Carwar." Bombay, Aug. 1800. 

4. Gold medal to Mustapha Beg, 1st battalion, 
1st Native Infantry, " for giving the only intima- 
tion which was received of the projected mutiny 
at Vellore." Madras, Aug. 1806. 

5. Gold medal from the Highland Society to 
Corporal Mackay, 71st regiment, " for his dignified 
disinterestedness towards General Bernier, whose 
life he saved at the battle of Vimiera in 1809." 

6. Silver medals to Jemadar Shieck Hoosein, 
2nd battalion, Gth regiment, Native Infantry ; and 
sepoy Hurry Bhoy, 1st battalion, 7th regiment, 
Native Infantry, "for exemplary conduct at the 
battle of Gunnesh Candy." Bombay, Nov. 1817. 

7. Silver medals to Corporal McLaughlan and 
four other soldiers of the 73rd regiment, "for dis- 
play of heroism and generous feeling on march 
from Passera to Badulla during the Kandian war." 
Ceylon, 1818. J, W. FLEMING. 

113, Marine Parade, Brighton. 

NUMISMATIC. Will any of your readers tell 
me whether I have been correctly informed that 
two coins or tokens which I have are an Irish 
halfpenny and farthing struck by Prince Charles 
Edward? The coins I mention are of copper, 
and bear on the obverse a profile turned to the 
right, with an inscription, " Voce Populi " ; on the 
reverse a harp, with "Hibernia," and the date 
" 1760 " under the harp. What is the history of 
these coins ? F. 


[Pinkerton, in his Essay on Medals (ii. 127), remarks: 
" In 1760 there was a great scarcity of copper coin in 
Ireland, upon which a society of Irish gentlemen 
applied for leave, upon proper conditions, to coin half- 
pence ; which being granted, those appeared with a very 
bad portrait of George II., and VOCE roruM around it. 
The bust bears a much greater resemblance to the Pre- 
tender ; but whether this was a piece of waggery in the 
engraver, or only arose from his ignorance in drawing, 
must be left to doubt." In Lindsay's Coinage of Ireland. 
1839, the coin is engraved in the fifth supplementary 
plate, No. 16, and in the advertisement, p. 139, the fol- 
lowing remarks on it: "This curious variety of the 
' voce populi ' halfpence exhibits a P before the face, and 
illustrates Pinkerton's remark that the portrait on these 
coins seems intended for that of the Pretender : it is a 
very neat coin, perhaps a pattern."] 

OXFORD CANOES. Canoes were introduced on 
the river at Oxford rather more than twenty years 
since, and were considered to be novelties. They 

had, however, been popular in a previous genera- 
tion, for in a most diverting work entitled The 
Youiif/ Travellers; or, a Visit to Oxford, by a Lady, 
author of Victims of Pleasure, &c. (1818), I find 
the following passage : 

" Mr. Hartley took the children into the churchyard of 

St. Aldate's, just opposite great Tom 'How true 

it is,' said he, ' that in the midst of life we are in death. 
We can scarcely ever enter a churchyard without wit- 
nessing the records of sudden and accidental death. 
Yonder is one, pointing to the gravestone of a young 
man who was drowned just below Folly Bridge by the 
over-ebbing of a dangerous kind of boat called a canoe, 
much used for pleasure till forbidden by the governor of 
the university." P. 50. 

I should be glad to know if there is such a 
tombstone still to be seen in St. Aldate's ; and if 
so, to be favoured with a copy of the inscription. 
I should also be glad to know if the contemplated 
"appendix" to the book from which I have 
quoted was ever published. It was to contain 
twenty-nine "correct likenesses of curious charac- 
ters here referred to, with some biographical or 
other accounts of them." (See " advertisement " 
to The Young Travellers.') One of these plates, 
" Mother Goose " tho flower-seller, is iriven as a 
specimen of the engravings in question. It is 
finely engraved and is signed " I. W. Oxon." 
Who was he ? CUTHRERT BEDE. 

DR. PARKINS. Mr. Millard, the London book- 
seller, advertises a valuable manuscript 011 magic 
by this author, who resided near Grantham, I 
believe, and died many years since. Who was he, 
and when did he die ? I understand that he sold 
love charms, and believed in magical powers, &c. 
Was it so ? CHR. COOKE. 

[Dr. Parkins resided at "Our Public Office, Temple of 
Wisdom, Little Gonerby, near Grantham, Lincolnshire." 
Among his numerous works we find he is the author of 
The Cabinet of Wealth ; Kay to the Wisemans Crown, or, 
the Way to Wealth, 1815; Young Mans Best Companion; 
Complete Herbal and Family Physician; and The. Uni- 
rensul. Fortune Teller, 1823.]' 

LES PRETRES DEI?ORTES. Where can I learn 
anything about the French Pasteurs, or Pretres 
deportes, in the first French Revolution, beyond 
what is told in Un Pretre deporte, and Moreau's 
Pretres frangais aux Etais-Uni*? 

Also, what information have we as to the fate 
of the " enfans trouves" and other young persons 
dependent on charitable institutions at the same 
time ? 


ROYAL HEADS ON BELLS. Will some readers 
of " N. & Q." who have a taste for such matters 
hunt for the heads of royalty on any bells in their 
locality or elsewhere, if they have an opportunity ? 
I may say there are none such ancients in Somer- 
set, Devon, or Cornwall, excepting on a bell at 

4* S. IX. JAN. 27, 72.] 



St. James's, Devonport, which was brought from 
a decayed church in Worcester. 

I think only three types of heads are known to 
camp&nidts; those are supposed to be of Edward I. 
and Eleanor, Edward III. and Philippe, Henry VI. 
and Margaret, and the young Prince Edward. 

The habitats of the 'first, with the same initial 
cross, are at Winstone, Huntley, Coberley (two), 
Dyrham, Upper Slaughter, all in Gloucester; 
the same at Elmley Castle, co. Worcester. 

The second, with diverse initial crosses and in 
diilerent type, are at Stoneleigh, Warwick; 
Christ Church, Hants, king's head, only ; Cherry 
Hinton, Cambridge, the queen only, with the 
same cross and letters as at Christ Church, West 
Lynn; Bottisham, Cambridge; Gowts, Lincoln; 
Chippenham, Wimsbotsham, Northampton, also 
at Ampton, Suffolk king only ; at Chaddesdon, 
Derby, evidently from much worn stamps, and 
dated " 1742 : by Thomas Hedderley Founder," 
in ancient type. He was a Nottingham founder. 

I have engravings of all the above, and shall 
be willing to supply copies to any bell archaeolo- 
gist who will write to ine, enclosing stamps to 

cover postage. 


Rectory, Clyst St. George, Devon. 

SANSOMES. In the parish of Ashwell, co. Herts, 
is a field called Sansomes, which, previous to>the 
time of the dissolution of religious houses, was 
church property. In one corner the foundations 
of an extensive building still remain beneath the 
surface. The stones are squared, and, judging 
from the thickness of the walls, the building must 
have been of considerable importance. At Wor- 
cester there is a piece of ground which formerly 
belonged to the cathedral (and perhaps still does), 
also called San somes ; and I am told that adjacent 
to the cathedral of Ely or Lincoln, my informant 
forgets which, there is some land known by the 
same name. I am desirous of knowing the origin 
of the word, and also whether there are other 
church lands in England called Sansomes. 


DR. WM. STRODE. Could you tell me which 
is correct " vain" or " vein" in the fifth line of 
the following epigram? The Contemporary Review 
(July, 1870), quoting it, has " vain " : 
" My love and I for kisses played : 

"She would keep stakes : l' was content ; 
But when I won, she would be paid ; 

This made me ask her what she meant. 
'Pray, since I see ' (quoth she) < your Avrangling [vein] 

Take your own kisses; give me mine atf.'iin.' 

S.H. W. 

[These playful lines by Dr. William Strode appeared 
in the Gent. May. for July, 1820, where we read "wrang- 
ling vaync," and in"N/& Q." 1 st S. i. 302, "wrangle 
in vaine." When are the scattered lyrics of this eminent 
Caroline poet, orator, and divine, to be collected and 

edited ? See N. & Q." 1* S. i. 146, 302, 490 ; I""' S. x. 

Leake, Leverton, Uenington, Bathwick, Ffeiston, 
and Fishtoft. I should like to know why tluv<; 
towns are so called ? Tuos. K,ATCLII<TE. 

(4 th S. viii. 64, 133, 190, 464.) 

In my opinion this proverbial or trite expression 
did not owe its familiar use to any of the in- 
genious conjectures to which your correspondent s 
have ascribed it, viz. to two Irish places of de- 
barcation at Waterford; to two land-surveyors 
supposed to have been employed in adjudicating 
on the claims of the inhabitants of London after 
the Great Fire ; to two imaginary judges named 
Hook and Crook, in the reign of Charles I. men- 
tioned in some other provincial glossaries, &c. 

The use of the expression, u by hook or by 
crook," is traceable to an earlier and more humble 
and commonplace origin, and is founded on tin; 
old practice of nledircval conveyancers, when they 
had to frame grants intended to convey or re- 
serve a limited easement or grant of dead wood 
for fuel or other like purposes, over a tract of 
woodland, which might be available without ma- 
terially interfering with the more substantial u^e 
and profits of the timber for the general pur]- 
of the landowner. 

On such occasions it was often well worth the 
while of an adjacent tenant or neighbour to have 
or reserve a precarious authority to carry away 
any refuse, dead, or damaged portions of the trees, 
provided they could be readily removed without 
material detriment to the owner of the wood, by 
simple means, falling far short of the more effec- 
tive axe, bill, or saws incidental to the felling of 
timber for general purposes. 

Among these simple modes of removal are tliu 
hooked poles, or crooks, by which dry or dend 
bits of wood can be detached and pulled down 
from the upper branches of a tree. The ordinary 
local glossaries supply instances of this kind, stub 
as.Halliwell's, Naves', and Grose's; in the latter of 
which the " crook-lug, for pulling down dead 
branches," is mentioned as a familiar term in 
Gloucestershire. So we have, in the old French 
custunials, a right to take ''brancas siccas cum 
crocco ligneo sive ferreo " in royal forests (Du- 
mnge, tit. "Branca"), with other authorities in 
Miohelet's Origines du Droit francais, edition 
Bruxelles, 1838, pp. Ill, 112. 

A later instance, and one near at hand, and 
familiar to me, will be found in a small book 
printed some years ago, for a copy of which I am 
indebted to the late Mr. John "Wallis, the re- 



[4*S. IX. JAN. 27, '72. 

spected vicar of Bodmin in Cornwall. He found 
among the records of the Corporation a document 
claiming for the burgesses of the town a right 
under the concession of the prior of Bodmin " to 
bear and carry away on their backs, and in no 
other way, the lop, crop, hook, crook, and bag- 
wood in the prior's wood of Dunnieer." Another 
part of this record calls this right " a right, with 
hook and crook, to lop, crop, and carry away 
fuel," c., in the same wood. The date of the 
petition in which this easement is claimed is the 
year 1525. 

I could without much difficulty supply other 
instances of the use of this expression in its like 
real, bo?idjide, and practical sense of removal by 
(he simple process of a pot-hook, or bill-hook, or 
hanger. Such is, no doubt, the origin of this cant 
phrase applied to the very different purpose of 
effecting an object by one of two alternative 
means. E. SMIRKE. 

(4 th S. viii. 280 ; ix. 40.) 

The following are copied from Letters to a 
Young Physician just entering upon Practice, by 
James Jackson, M.D., LL.D., London and Boston, 

" I will not give you a list of the worthy successors of 
Hippocrates. It would be a long list, though I should 
select those only whose claims would not be disputed. I 
might find some such in our own land, who have finished 
their career in the present century. I will indulge my- 
self in naming one only; one whom I had the happiness 
to know intimately. He was my first teacher ; and I 
have been accustomed, with some others of his pupils, to 
call him old master. 1 refer to the late Edward Augustus 
Holyoke, M.D., of Salem. He, like Hippocrates, lived 
more than a hundred years, retaining his faculties men- 
tal and bodily, to the end of his century, in unusual per- 
fection. But it is not for his longevity that 1 mention 
him as entitled to a high rank in the profession .... 

" Dr. Holyoke ranked among our first men in his general 
scientific attainments. But the great object of his life, 
industriously and faithfully pursued, was the practice of 
medicine in its various branches. He observed, closely 
and critically, the phenomena of disease and the methods 
of treating it. His conceptions were clear and his memory 
strong ; though, like other old men, he lamented its decay 
in the latter part of his life. He had not lost it, however, 
as was shown on the day which completed his hundred 
years, and when he began on a new century. On that 
day a case was presented to him of an unusual character, 
on which, after examining it, he remarked that he did 
not recall an}' like it, unless that of a patient whom he 
named. This patient was one whom he had seen once 
only, forty years before 

" Dr. Holyoke was in his seventieth year when I went 
into his study. He had had a very extensive practice, 
but he had then contracted it, so that he attended to his 
business on foot. After a short time, he allowed me to 
walk with him and see his patients a privilege for which 
I have ever felt most thankful. My intercourse with 
him was high!}' instructive ; it was also most agreeable. 
He was extremely affable, and had the simplicity of 
manner which belongs to the true gentleman. Withal 

he had a playful humour and a most hearty laugh ; but 
he never wounded any man's reputation. From iny 
very imperfect delineation of his character, you may 
judge how much I must have venerated and loved him; 
and I hope that this delineation may not seem to have 
occupied too much space." 


(4 th S. viii. passim ; ix. 44.) 

I have the "best authority," Sir Robert Wil- 
son's own in his own handwriting, for my state- 
ment of facts respecting this affair. But P. A. L. 
somewhat misunderstands me. I meant to deny 
the accuracy of the assertion that he was only 
"put upon the retired list and half-pay," and to 
assert the truth, that he was absolutely and arbi- 
trarily dismissed the service. Of course, this was 
in consequence of the affair at Cumberland Gate. 
The causa causans was political enmity on the 
part of the government, and personal displeasure 
on the part of the king the latter produced or 
strengthened by falsehood and misrepresentation. 
I may somewhat modify my statement, that his 
"restoration was owing more to the personal 
favour of the king," &c. That favour was very 
strong, and very warmly expressed; but I send 
nn extract from Sir R. Wilson's journal, which 
shows that the king was anxious not to take to 
himself more credit than was his due : 

" July 28, 1830. 

" Went to levee. The king took me by the hand, 
and asked me how I did. When I expressed my acknow- 
ledgments, the king said, holding my hand all the time : 
' I tell you the truth. It was the recommendation of my 
cabinet that I should restore you. And God forbid I 
should ever stand in the way of any act of favour to a 
gallant officer. I feel quite confident that, in replacing 
you in my army, T shall always be able to command the 
sword of a brave general and a loyal subject.' " 

Another object was to refute the unqualified 
statement, that "the Duke of Wellington induced 
the king to reinstate Sir R, Wilson." In the 
same journal is the following entry : 
" July 21st. 

" Saw the Duke of Wellington this morning. He said, 
' I shall only think of your services when I refer to the 
past.' And "he gave me his hand in token of perfect 

The difference had arisen from Sir R. Wilson's 
efforts to save Marshal Ney under the terms of 
the Capitulation of Paris. 

Again : 

" Lord Aberdeen said all that a sincere friend could 
say, and throughout has acted like one. Indeed to him, 
Sir R. Peel, and Sir H. Hardinge, 1 am must indebted" 

I ought to have added, that the whole of Sir 
Robert's half-pay from his dismissal was granted 
to him in full on his restoration the best evi- 
dence of the opinion then held of the injustice of 
his deprivation. 

IX. JAN. 27, 72.] 


Sir Robert's eldest son, Henry,* died some years 
before this time. His second son, Borville,t was 
in the Brazilian navy. His third son, Belford 
Hinton, was in Columbia, aide-de-camp to the 
Liberator, and colonel in that service. He was 
afterwards successively H.B.M.'s consul at Lima, 
and charge d'affaires 'to Venezuela. In 1854 he 
was irresistibly compelled, by the breaking down 
of his health, to resign the appointments, when 
he received the K.C.B. for his diplomatic services, 
and he died in London in 1859. By his means 
the Guano Islands were secured to Peru, in a 
treaty which he negotiated. 

The next works of Sir Robert Wilson's which 
J shall publish, are a minute history of his ser- 
vices as a " Partisan " in Portugal and Spain in 
1808-9, and of the formation of Canning's ad- 
ministration, in which he bore the principal part 
as negotiator. These are nearly ready. I. shall 
then hope to continue the Life. 



JACOBITE CIPHERS (4 th S. viii. 415, 559.) I beg 
to offer my very grateful acknowledgments to 
MR. PETTET and T. W. G. They are perfectly 
correct in their suggestions with respect to the 
letter F. In the key to the cipher (which I may 
as well say was among the papers of Col. James 
Grahme, some time Privy Purse to James II.), 
that letter was formed like an italic double j t 
after a common fashion then prevailing; of the 
use of which, we still retain the vestiges in such 
names as ffunlkes. ffolliot, ffaryngton, fyc. Appar- 
ently for the purpose of mystifying a document, 
which it was unsafe to keep and unwise to de- 
stroy, Col. Grahme who wrote a coarse bad hand 
transformed the ff into II ; and followed the 
same course with another letter, of which he made 
an R : but this he has done so effectually, that 
the original of the palimpsest (so to call it) 
defies me. 

In the letter from " 10 " (that is, Lord Middle- 
ton), to which I referred in my first letter to 
"N. & Q.," the following passage occurs: "My 
service to the Grand Master of the Jerkers." Is 
any reader of "N. & Q." sufficiently versed in the 
perpetually changing Jacobite titles to help me to 
the real name of this dignitary ? 


Elford Rectory, Tarn worth. 

BTJRNSIANA (4 th S. vii. viii. passim.'} The con- 
troversy about the meaning of pin in the address 

* Henry was in the British army. He died in 1827 of 
liver disease contracted in India. 

f "Borville John," second son of Sir Robert, was a 
lieutenant on board the "Northumberland" when she 
took out Napoleon to St. Helena. He resigned his com- 
mission on his father's dismissal; but returned to the 
English service on his restoration. He died at Hong 
Kong in 1854. 

to a haggis is curious to one who has often seen 
this dish placed on an Ayrshire farmer's table 
before a lot of hungry ploughmen. The descrip- 
tion of it by Burns is perfect even to the pin. 

I suspect that the ABERDONIAN'S new reading 
arises from the peculiar pronunciation he is accus- 
tomed to give to this word. No doubt he would 
pronounce pin peen, and peen may Aberdeen-awa 
mean juice. The second verse of the address in 
which the line occurs describes merely the out- 
ward appearance of the haggis, and the only refer- 
ence to juice there is 

" While thro' your pores the dews distil, 
Like amber bead." 

One can hardly imagine such an exaggerated 
hyperbole as that these drops would help in time 
of need to turn a mill. 

But SCOTOPHILTJS suggests that peen may refer 
to a " pent-up stream of liquor inside the haggis." 
If such really existed, Burns, with his usual happy 
accuracy in the use of figurative language, would, 
I think, have let out this pent-up stream in the 
third verse, when " rustic labour," after "dightin" 
his knife, trenched open the entrails. I suspect 
rustic labour would be terribly disgusted and dis- 
appointed if the result of his cutting was to let 
out a stream of liquor instead of showing the 
" Gushing entrails bright, warm, reekin', rich." 

To paraphrase slightly the concluding lines of 
the poem 

" And Labour wants nae skinking ware 

Thatjaups in higgles. 
But if ye wish his gratefu' prayer, 

Gie him a haggis." 

It is pretty evident that a pent-up stream sud- 
denly let out would "jaup " terribly on a 'Mog- 
gie," and that the very last idea that was in 
Burns's mind was to suggest that a haggis was H 
lot of " skinking ware." No : it was good, genuine, 
solid , haggis. Besides, it is not the fact that a 
haggis, such as Burns describes, has any con- 
cealed store of liquor about it at all, and far less 
such a quantity as would help to turn a mill in 
" time o' need." 

So SCOTOPHILUS will interpret Burns's idea cor- 
rectly if he reverts to the opinion he had on first 
reading the poem, and believes that nothing more 
is meant than the wooden pin that is employed to 
secure the mouth of the haggis. 


CLERICAL KNIGHTS (4 th S. viii. 477.) I have 
found another instance of a clerical knight in the 
person of the Rev. Sir Robert Teat, D.D., who 
received the royal licence to wear his order, as 
recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine (1804), 
Ixxiv. p. 973 : 

" Whitehall, Oct. 2, 1804. 

" Robert Teat, D.D., Rector of Ashley-cum-Solverley 
and Vicar of Kirtling, co. Cambridge, permitted to accept 
and wear, in his own country, the ensigns of fche Order 



[4 th S. IX. JAN. 2i 

of St. Slani.slaus, conferred upon him Nov. 21, 1700 (by 
his then description of Ilobert Teat, Esq.), by Stanislaus 
Augustus, late King of Poland." 

In the trial, Feb. 20, 1808, in the Court of 
King's Bench, the King ivrw.s William Dearsley for 
-saiilt, it was objected that in the indictment 
the prosecutor was called .Sir Robert Teat, Knight, 
whereas it appeared he was not a knight of this 
country, and that the defendant was therefore 
entitled to his acquittal. Lord Elleuborough 
overruled the objection, observing 

" That the order of knighthood having been confirmed, 
by patent * from the King of England, no doubt what- 
ever could be entertained respecting its validity. The 
king is the fountain of honour ; and no one ever doubted 
the knighthood of Sir Sydney Smith, with many others, 
whose rank had been confirmed by the king. Had it 
been written baronet, the objection would then have been 
fatal." p 

Rev. Sir Robert Teat, D.D., died April 20, 1887 
(Gent. May. 1837, iii. 209, 662). A further ac- 
count of him is given in the History and Antiqui- 
of Brentford, Ealiny, and Chiswick, by Thomas 
Faulkner (8vo, 1845, pp. 69-70), from which it 
appears that he was Prior or Prelate of the sixth 
language of the Sovereign Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem as well as Senior Knight Grand Cross 
of Stanislaus of Poland. The sixth, or English 
language above-mentioned of the most ancient of 
all the orders of knighthood, has been revived in 
this country, and is a corporation with the other 
seven nations or languages. Perhaps some of 
your correspondents can furnish a list of the clergy 
who hold this order of knighthood. L. L. H. 

" BULBACEOUS " (4 th S. viii. 464.) I admit that 
bulbaceous is not often met with in botanical de- 
scriptions, although it appears to me to be equally 
as expressive and quite as euphonic as bulbous. I 
cannot see why it should not be used as well as 
the word herbaceous, which enters so frequently 
in the descriptions ot herbs. I would remark that 
the merit of coining a new word, or the audacity 
of using an improper one, is much mitigated by 
the fact that all the authorities 1 have consulted 
on the matter, including the recent dictionary 
published by Messrs. Chambers, give the word 
b/dbucp.ous with the same signification as I used 
it in "Finderne Flowers" (4 th S. viii, 236.) 

In return for the above, would MR. BRITTEN 
give his authority for "the fact" that the Nar- 
r/,s";/(s poeticm is not a Palestine plant? 

If my memory serves me, Tyas, in his Flowers 
from the Holy Land, gives the Narcissus poeticus 
as being a native of that country. 



* The late Sir Charles Young in his copy of this trial 
erases the word palent, and substitutes licence (which 
licence I have quoted above). See A. Short Statement of 
the late Trial in the Court of King's Bench, the King 
^versus Dearsley, 8vo, 1809, p. 9. 

RELICS OP OLIVER CROMWELL (4 th S. viii. 550.) 
It may interest your correspondent Dii. lliar- 
BAULT to inform him that the identical sword 
worn by Oliver Cromwell at the decisive battle 
of Xaseby Field, in the county of Northampton, is 
preserved in the library at Dinton Hall, near 
Avlesbury, the seat and property of my old friend 
the Rev. James Joseph Goodall, M.A. The sword 
has a long straight blade, is encased in a leathern 
sheath, has a basket hilt, and very much resembles 
those worn at the present day by officers in the 
Highland regiments. Like that of Sir Hudibras, 
a luncheon might easily be carried in the hilt. 
Cromwell is recorded to have slept at Dinton 
Hall on his return from Naseby Fight in 1645, and 
to have left behind him this sword as a property, 
not to any particular family, but to the mansion 
of Dinton for ever. 

Cromwell most probably came to Dinton, which 
lies between Aylesbury and Thame, in order to 
visit his friend Simon Mayne, at that time the 
owner of the Hall, and who subsequently signed 
the warrant for the decapitation of King Charles I. 
In the same parish his connection Sir Richard 
Ingoldsby also had an estate called Waldri 
who had married Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir 
Oliver Cromwell of Hinchinbrooke, in the county 
of Huntingdon, a cousin of the future Protector. 
Concerning Riohard, the second son of the above- 
mentioned Sir Richard Ingoldsby, the very in- 
credible story is narrated that Cromwell guided 
his hand, and forced him to sign the death-war- 
rant of the unfortunate King, smearing after- 
wards his face with the pen. Was that occasion 
a subject for jesting, or was Cromwell the man to 
make a jest of it ? may well be asked. Ingoldsby 
afterwards, seeing coining events casting their 
shadows before, wisely busied himself in time in 
furthering the Restoration, received a free pardon, 
was created a Knight of the Bath at the corona- 
tion of Charles II., and died in 1685. 

An anecdote infceference to a portrait of Oliver 
Lord Protector of England may be worth record- 
ing and preserving in the pages of "N. Q.," as 
interesting to those who hold in honour the 
memory of one of England's greatest sons. Many 
years ago, when being examined for Deacon's 
orders at Cambridge, a young man, a Pensioner 
of Sidney Sussex Colleg'e, told me the following 
story : When Dr. Chafy was Master of that Col- 
lege, one morning an anonymous letter was re- 
ceived by him stating that, if he would cause the 
dining-room in the Master's Lodge to be left un- 
occupied on a certain day and hour, a fine portrait 
of Cromwell would be placed there. At first, 
Dr. Chafy was inclined to treat the matter as a 
jest j but on second thoughts, acted as his anony- 
mous correspondent desired, and to his great sur- 
Erise found, after the prescribed time of absence 
.cm the room had elapsed, a fine portrait of the 

1 th S. IX. JAN. 27, '72. J 



Protector deposited ; which is still there, a con- 
spicuous ornament of the room. Cromwell, as is 
well known, received a portion of his education 
within the walls of Sidney Sussex College, and is 
one of her distinguished alumni, u I tell the tale 
as told to me," without in any way vouching for 
its truth or accuracy. The narrator has long since 
passed away, dying the death of the hero and 
the soldier at the Relief of Lucknow, in the Indian 

Hungatc Street, Pickering. 

CLEOPATRA AND OCTAVIA (4 th S. viii. 452.) Is 
it possible that the dialogue about which OB- 
LIVIOSUS inquires, and respecting which an edito- 
rial note is given, is the following ? 
" Oct You have been his ruin. 

Who made him cheap at Rome, but Cleopatra ? 

Who made him scorned abroad, but Cleopatra ? 

At Actium, who betrayed him ? Cleopatra. 

Who made his children orphans, and poor me 

A wretched widow V Why Cleopatra. 

Clco. Yet she who loves him best is Cleopatra. 

If you have suffered, I have suffered more. 

You bear the specious title of a wife 

To gild your cause and draw the pitying world 

To favour it ; the world contemns pool' me, 

For 1 have lost my honour, lost my fame, 

And stain'd the glory of my royal house, 

And all to bear the branded name of mistress." 

These lines are given as a heading to one of 
the sections (chap. xxi. sec. 7) of a school edition 
of Pinnock's Goldsmith' 1 s History of Home, by 
W. C. Taylor, M.A., T.C.D., published in 1832 
(perhaps also in other editions.) 

The remarkable part of the matter is, that the 
lines are, in this place, assigned to Dryden ;. but 
after a somewhat hurried search through Sir W. 
Scott's edition, I have been unable to find this, or 
indeed any, passage in Dryden's works relating to 
Cleopatra or her history. 

Can it be that the " dialogue " was an inven- 
tion for the occasion, like the "Old Play "head- 
ings in the Waverley novels, and as I suspect to 
be the case with one or two other scraps in the 
same volume signed " Anon." ? If so, the only 
question is, who was the author Dr. tinnock, or 
the sub-editor, Mr. Taylor ? 

It is to be observed in the above passage that 
Octavia is made to complain that Cleopatra has 
made her (the speaker) a widow. But according 
to the received history (fabulous as it may be in 
many particulars), there was very little probable 
opportunity, after the death of Antony, for any 
meeting between Cleopatra and Octavia. It may 
perhaps be said in answer (supposing the passage 
to be really part of the drama), that to the play- 
wright all situations are possible. But judging 
from probabilities, it seems unlikely that a master 
like Dryden would so far depart from traditional 
rendering as to put the expression "wretched 
widow " into the mouth of Octavia, or to make 

the superb sovereign of Egypt use the language 
of humiliation and self-abasement. J. B. I). 

[We have since discovered that the lines quoted by 
J. T>. 1). an; to be found in Dryden's All for Love, or (he 
World well lost, towards the close of the third act.] 

LADIES OK HORSEBACK (4 th S. viii. 8, passim, 
465.) In Camden's Remains, edit. 1674, p. 255: 

" And Queen Anne, wife to King Richard the Second, 
who first taught English women to ride on side-saddles, 
when as heretofore they rid astride, brought in high head 
attire piked with horns, and long trained gowns for 

D. C. E. 

South Bcrsted. 

DEESIDE (4 th S. viii. 527.) In 1831 Mr. Lewis 
Smith, Aberdeen, published a Guide to the High- 
lands of Deeside, by James Brown. The real 
author was Dr. Joseph Robertson, who in his 
early days amused himself with writing the little 
book (the greater part in the schoolmaster's house 
at Ballater) from the information, and in the quaint 
manner, of Brown, then driver of a car on Deeside, 
and afterwards keeper of the Greyfriars' church- 
yard, Edinburgh. The Guide has gone through 
many editions, the new matter, rendered necessary 
by the great changes in travelling during the last 
forty years, scarcely harmonising with the pleasant 
humour of the original writer. See Mr. Smith's 
preface to the edition of 1868, and' more particu- 
larly the interesting sketch of Robertson's life by 
his old and intimate friend Dr. George Grub, in 
his Spalding Club Preface to the late anti- 
quary's Collections for a History of the. Shires of 
Aberdeen and Banff, &c., 1869. * I never heard of 
any Guide earlier than the above, such as JAYCEE 
mentions, and believe that in the last century, and 
during the first quarter of the present, Deeside 
was an undiscovered region to tourists. 



" MIGHT MAKES RIGHT " (4 th S. viii. 527.) 
This proverbial sentiment may be found both in 
Greek and Roman writers, but more frequently, I 
believe, in the latter. Indeed I have not observed 
it anywhere in Greek poets, and should be obliged 
to your learned correspondents if they will point 
out a few such passages that may have been noted 
by them. The earliest trace of the idea which I 
have found is in Thucyclides (iv. 86) : 

yap i>irpTre? af<r%iov TO?J y 
P'ia fu(f>ai'i ' TI> /jLev yap 

XV ftwJfWj eTrepx^TO!, rb 5e yvw/j.fis aSiVou CTH- 

" For it is more disgraceful for men in high office to 
mprove their private fortune by specious fraud than by 
open violence. Might makes right in the one case, while 
in the other man throws over his proceedings the cloak 
of despicable cunning." 

In Roman writers it often occurs ; thus in Plautus. 



IX. JAN. 27, 72. 

born about B.C. 254, we have (Trucul. iv 
the following expression : 

Plus potest, qui plus valet ;" 
and still more clearly in Lucan (i. 175) : 

"Mensuraque juris 
Vis erat ; " 
and in Seneca (Her. Fur. 291) : 

" Jus est in armis, oppriinit leges timor." 
Some of your readers will recollect the a 
ation of the idea by Schiller in his Wal 
Camp, vi. 144 : 

" Es ist hier wie in den alten Zeiten 
Wo die Klinge noch alles that bedeuten. 
C. T. 

3, 30) 



(1 st S. xii. 204.) Inquiry has already been made ! 
respecting the origin of this proverbial expression, ' 
but I do not think that a satisfactory answer has 
yet appeared. It has been traced to Alanus de 
fnsulis (1654). This, however, is not sufficient ; 
for the question arises, where did he find it ? I 
have copies of the works of many of these col- 
lectors of proverbs, but they all fail in giving pre- 
cise references to the original author, if the} r knew 
it, so that it is often impossible to decide whether 
the proverb be of their own coining or a Latin 
translation of some proverb floating in the mouths 
of the people. As an example of what I mean, 
I may quote the following proverb, well known to 
many of your readers : 

" Gutta cavat lapidcrn, non vi, sed srcpe cadendo." 

1 have often been asked if this be an hexameter 
from some ancient classic ; and it is only lately 
that I discovered that it was a line formed by 
Schonheim (Proverbta ittustrata et applicata in 
nnum Juventutis, &c. Leipsic, 1728.) He tells us 
so himself, and that it was a translation of a pro- 
verb given by Galen, which after some trouble I 
found to be 

KOiXaivfi pavls vSaros 

This will be found torn. viii. p. 27, in the edition 
of Galen by D. Carolus Gottlob Kiihn, Prof. Un. 
Leips. 1821. It is translated by Kiihn thus : 

" Gutta cavat lapidem saepe cadentis aquae." 
I ask, therefore, whether the proverb " Qui jacet," 
&c., is a line formed by Alanus de Insulis, and if 
so, where did he find the original ? 


ANCIENT ENIGMA (4 th S. vii. 513 ; viii. 56, 92, 
195.) This enigma the solution of which is 
given by the proposer as a Lot's wife " seems to 
be simply another form of an epitaph to Niobe, by 
Ausonius (Epitaph. 29) : 

" Habet sepulcrum non id intus mortuum, 
Habet nee ipse mortuus bustum super : 
Sibi sed est ipse hie sepulcrum et mortuus." 

The following version (sometimes attributed to 

Agathias) appears among the' 

(No. 613) in Bruuck's and Jacobs's collections : 

Els NIO/STJ*'. 

'O TW/ujSos OUTOS evfiov OVK HX.CL VZKVV' 
o i/e/cpbs OVTOS e/crbs OVK. ex^t rdcpov' 
dAA' avrbs avrov veitpos etrrt Kal rdfyos. 

J. B. SHAW. 

MANGHAM (4 th S. viii. 323, 487.) MR. CHAR- 
NOCK answers my query at p. 323 by an assertion 
for which no authority is cited. The late Rev. W. 
Carr, B.D., a most learned man and acute anti- 
quary, had a very different derivative for the above 
name, to the yuess of MR. CHARNOCK, for really 
it is nothing more. Until a more satisfactory reply, 
and one more to the point, is given to my note, I 
shall consider that Mr. Carr's story probably may 
have been founded on fact. I am acquainted with 
Manninyham, and never heard it contracted to 

" LONG PUESTON PEGGY" (4 th S. viii. 500.) 
With those who have studied ballad literature 
there can be only one opinion as to Mr. Har land's 
supplemental verses. Mr. Peter Whittle, F.S.A., 
was famous for cobblering and tinkering old bal- 
lads and MSS., and if his talent had been equal 
to his industry, he might have ranked with Sur- 
tees himself. He printed an edition of the Christ- 
mas play of " St. George and the Dragon," and 
also produced a broadside sheet of " The Blessed 
Conscience" both of them "makes-up'" from 
beginning, to end. I think that the verse " For 
in brave deeds of arms/' &c. may be genuine. It 
has a better ring than the coinage of the late Mr. 
Peter Whittle. I would insert it as it is given 
by MR. T. T. WILKINSON. The tune, which is 
well known, requires eight lines, if the verse is 
arranged in the short method given by MR. W. 
But I should prefer to print in four long lines, 
as the verses are given in my book, Ballads, Sfc. 
of the Peasantry. Mr. Whittle has been rather 
cureless about his metre. His second verse is so 
constructed that no fiddler could manage it with- 
out a change of tune. 

I am obliged to MR. WILKINSON for his attempt 
to recover the missing verses, but am compelled 
to join issue with him in rejecting as spurious the 
doggerel of the late Preston F.S.A. 


GAY = WANTON (4 th S. viii. 548.) The term 
gay is appropriated by ladies of a certain class, 
whose appearance in police courts is not an unfre- 
quent occurrence. "When questioned by the ma- 
gistrate as to their occupation, the answer is 
u gay," But this may be considered as confined 
to the " superior " class the frequenters of Cre- 
morne and the Argyll Rooms. A woman of a 
lower grade more modestly calls herself " unfor- 
tunate " a term invented, it is said, by a former 
Bow Street magistrate. 311. 

4th s. IX. JAN. 27, 72.] 



548.) Of James Keddie (the father), who died 
April 5, 1852, a very full memoir is given in The 
Law Revieiv (1852), xvii. 63, 69. He is noticed 
in Lord Brougham's Life, i. 16, 240-243 ; Memoirs 
of Francis Homer, i. 21, 222-225 ; Life of Francis 
Jeffrey, i. 138, 139 ; Steven's Hist, of High School 
of Edinburgh (12mo, 1849), Appendix, p. 218. 

John Reddie (the son) was Chief Judge of the 
Small Debts Court at Calcutta, and died Nov. 28, 
1851. (Gent. Mag. (1852), xxxvii. 208; The Law 
7?mew(1852),xv.444; xvii. 68-69; Hist, of Specu- 
lative Soc. of Edinburgh, p. 307. L. L. H. 

SCALES AND WEIGHTS (4 th S. viii. 372, 462.) 
I have a somewhat similar box to these, with a 
date upon one of the weights. They are seven in 
number: First, one with 21-s. and 5.9. (as I read 
it) stamped on both sides. This, I believe, was 
the weight of the standard guinea up to a certain 
period. Secondly, one with 5.8 " Westwood " 
and an anchor stamped on the one side, and the 
words "coined since 1771" upon the other. 
Thirdly, one with 10s. Qd. and 2.16^ (as I read it) 
on each side. The other three are very small, of 
different sizes, without letters or figures, but with 
a different [number of stars punched upon each, 
and I presume are make-weights to show the de- 
ficiency in any light coin weighed. These scales 
and weights were (as I have been informed by an 
aged relative, who once used them) simply to 
test the old guineas and half-guineas they had 
any doubts about. C. CHATTOCK. 

Haye House, Castle Bromwich. 

OEIGIN OP " LIVERPOOL" (4 th S. viii. passim.') 
At p. 536 of the last volume of N. & Q." your 
correspondent derives the name of Liverpool from 
the pool of the liver, a sort of heron or crane once 
known there. The liver is the plant which, if not 
so still, used to be preserved and eaten. On the 
old Liverpool halfpence is the bird, a crane or 
heron, with a sprig of the plant in its bill. Motto, 
" Deus nobis ha3c otia fecit." I cannot say that I 
think the plant good to the palate. W. (1.) 

WATCH PAPERS (4 th S. viii. 451, 539.) 
William Teanby, schoolmaster and tax-collector 
at Winterton in 1 Lincolnshire, used to write 
manuscript watch-papers with a crowquill. One 
at least of these is in existence. It contains the 
Lord's Prayer, written in a space the size of a 
shilling, in horizontal lines, and round it, in a spiral 
line beginning outside, the Apostles' Creed ; round 
this again in a circle " William Teanby whim 
written by him in the 87th year of his age. 1802." 

Among the unpublished engravings of the late 
William Fowler of Winterton is a miniature 
silhouette of George III. enclosed in a wreath of 
olive branches, roses, and palm branches, outside 
which, in a circle, are the words " May he live ' 
longer than I have time to tell his years, ever 

belov'd and loving may his rule be, and 
old Time shall lead him to his end, Goodness and 
i he fill up one monument." And outside this, in 
another circle, the collect " O God, whose never- 
failing providence," &c., in allusion to the coni- 
! mon belief that the king had repeated this when 
he escaped assassination. These were printed 
and coloured on white satin, and often given by 
I my grandfather to his friends to keep in their 
watches. Queen Charlotte and the Princesses 
i Elizabeth, Augusta, and Mary were so pleased 
; with them that they told him they would insert 
i them in their Prayer Books, " that 'they might 
always see them at their devotions." J. T. F. 
Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

The excellent verses on a watch-case printed 
in your last volume (p. 539), and beginning with 
the words 
" Could but our tempers move like this machine," &c., 

were writen by Mr. (commonly called Dr.) Byrom, 
and are printed in p. 341, vol. i. of his poems.* 
Though certainly no poet in its higher sense, 
some of his smaller pieces are very good. 

W. (1.) 

The following lines came under my notice when 
a schoolboy, about 1835 ; and so struck my fancy 
that, by frequently reading them, I committed 
them to memory. There were indeed in the 
watch-case several papers, but I remember only 
the contents of this one : 

" Onward, perpetually moving, 
These faithful hands are ever proving 
How quick the hours steal by. 

This momentary pulse-like beating 
Is constantly, methinks, repeating 
' Swift, swift, the moments fly ! ' 

Ready, be ready ! for perchance before 
These hands have formed one revolution more, 
Life's spring is snapt you die ! " 

A. K. 

This inscription is kept down by a piece of 
crimson satin, in the old shagreen case of a family 
watch. The verses are from Milman's Poems; 
but are so appropriate for the purpose that, if not 
curious from antiquity, I transcribe them : 

t( It matters little at what hour o' the day 
The righteous fall asleep ; death cannot come 
To him imtimely who is fit to die. 
The less of this cold world, the more of heav'n ; 
The briefer life, the earlier immortality." 


viii. 370, 461, 557.) The late Joshua Brookes, 
F.R.S., the king of dissectors in days, or rather 
nights, when subjects were snatched, and therefore 

* Manchester, 2 vols. 12mo, 1773. (See some notices 
of his life in Drake's Essays, iii. 215.) 



[4th S. IX. JAN. 27, '72. 

always ktale, copiously used his left-hand waist- 
coat pocket (lined with leather) as a snuff-box. 


SEVEN DIALS (4 th S. viii. 454, 554.) Gay, in 
his Trivia ; or, the Art of Walking the Streets of 
London, book ii. (1st edit., n. d., p. 26), thiis 
alludes to this well-known locality : 

" Where fam'd Saint Giles's ancient Limits spread, 
An inrail'd Column rears its loftv Head ; 
Here to sev'n Streets sev'n Dials" count the Day, 
And from each other catch the circling Ray." 

The column and dials were removed in June, 
1773, and remained in the hands of a stone- 
mason for many years. My great-grandfather, 
who was a clockinaker in Great St. Andrew's 
Street in the " Dials," traded largely with Hol- 
land, and made what were then called "Twelve- 
tuned Dutchmen" viz. clocks which played 
twelve tunes, with moving figures variously oc- 
cupied, having- scenery painted behind them. One 
of these clocks had a representation of Neale's 
column with its sun-dials. I have seen it, but 
unfortunately do nut possess a specimen. 

In 1822 the column was purchased by the local 
authorities of Weybridge in Surrey, and, after 
having been surmounted with a ducal coronet, 
was set up on Weybridge Green as a memorial to 
the Duchess of York, who died at Oatlands in 
1820. There, I believe, it still remains. The 
Dial, when I saw it (some ten years since), formed 
a stepping-stone at the adjoining Ship Inn. 


[See Murray's Handbook of Surrey, where it is stated 
that, for some unknown purpose, the column was re- 
moved from the " Seven Dials " to Sayes Court, a house 
not far distant from Weybridge, where it lay neglected 
for some years, till made to serve the present purpose. 
The stone belonging to it, that gave directions as to the 
localities of the " Seven Dial?," may still be"seen on the 
green, close to the public-house. ED.] 

ODD CHANGES OP MEANING (4 th S. viii. 525.) 
As a pendant to the trwo quotations let me add 
the following : Spending this Christmas in " our 
village," I was told that ihe vicar's daughter, who 
was very proud of her Bible-class, inquired of one 
of her pupils in a srnockfrock how Queen Sheba 
came to Solomon ? He replied, " By the railway, 
Miss." On asking for an explanation she received 
answer, ft Because, Miss, the Bible says she came 
to Jerusalem with a very great train." 


OLD BAGS (4 th S. viii. 164, 234, 288, 381, 445, 551.} 
If the peg upon which so many versions of this 
jeu ff esprit have been hung is not quite worn out 
may I be allowed to hang yet one more from a 
memory which, although perhaps older than that 
of most of your contributors, is not yet entirely 
exhausted. I would premise by an expression 
belief that the original underwent many altera- 
tions before the real and final text was settled. I 

also believe that the following is the matured 
form in which it was recorded : 
" Mr. Leach made a speech 

Angry, neat, and wrong ; * 
Mr. Hart, on the other part, 

Was learned, dull, and long ; 
Mr. Trower spoke for an hour, 

And then sat down quite hot ; f 
Mr. Bell \ spoke very well, 

But nobody knew about what : 
Mr. Parker made the case darker, 

Which was dark enough without ; 
Mr. Cooke cited a book, 
And the Chancellor said ' I doubt.' " 


LADY GRIZELE BAILLE (4 th S. viii. 451.) In 
the year 1822 there was issued 

; Memoirs of the Lives and Characters of the Eight 
Honourable George Baillie of Jerviswood, and of Lady 
Gristle Baillie. By their Daughter, Lady Murr.iy of 

It was edited, with a preface and an appendix 
of documents, by Thomas Thomson, advocate. It 
was printed for presents, but republished for sale 
in 1824. T. G. S. 


" LIGHT CHRISTMAS" (4 th S. ix. 13.) In Bonn's 
Handbook of Proverbs (London, I860, p. 4) there 
is " A light Christmas, a heavy sheaf." 



MOLESWORTH MEDAL (4 th S. ix. 14.) The in- 
cident commemorated by this medal occurred at 
the battle of Ramilies, May 23, 170G, and is nar- 
rated at p. 413 of Coxe's Memoirs of the Duke of 
Marlborouyh, 1847. J. W. F. 

MRS. STEPHENS'^ MEDICINES (4 th S. ix. 15.) 
C. A. W. will find some account of Mrs. Ste- 
phens and her medicines in the late Dr. Paris's 
Pharmacologia (9th ed. 1843) at pp. 90 and 345. 

Mrs. Joanna Stephens was granted 5000/. by 
Parliament " for her discovery of certain medicines 
for the cure of the stone," as notified in the Lon- 
don Gazette for June 1739. 

Her "once celebrated nostrum consisted of 
lime, obtained by the calcination of the shells of 
eggs and snails, and made into pills with soap. 
A decoction was also administered consisting of 
chamomile, fennel, parsley, and burdock, together 
with a portion of Alicant soap." 

Dr. Paris (p. 90) gives the following MS an 
instance of the cases in which effects from natural 
causes have been erroneously attributed to those 
of art : 

"Upon Mrs. Stephens offering her remedy for the 
stone to Parliament, a committee of professional men was 

* These lines are perfectly photographic ; they describe 
exactly Mr. Leach's character as a pleader. 

f Mr. Trower was stout, and fteispiml when he spoke. 

j No report of a chancery suit of the period in question 
would bo pomploto unless Mi\ Bell's name appeared in it. 

4* S. IX. JAN. 27, 72.] 



nominated to ascertain its efficacy ; a patient with sto 
was selected, and he took the remedy; his sufferings we 
soon relieved, and, upon examining the bladder in t 
usual way, no stone could be felt: it was, thereto 
agreed that the patient had been cured, and that t 
.stone had been dissolved. Some time afterwards th 
patient died, and, on being opened, a large stone w 
found in a pouch formed by a part of the bladder, am 
which communicated with it." 

T. D. H 

CIIOWBENT (4 th S. ix. 13.) This name ca 
scarcely be of Keltic origin. According to Bain 
(Hist. Lane,) it means "the bent or common o 
Chow or Chew " ; but the first part of the nan 
may refer to the chough, "Bent, a coarse kind o 
grass growing on hilly ground" (Lightfoot) ; " th 
open field, the plain " (S. Douglas) ; "Bintz, Un 
is a rush, j^mcus, scirpus " (Jamieson). 

Gray's Inn. 

260.) It will be interesting to TEWAKS to know 
that this document appeared in a newspaper a 
well as in the parish register of Hampreston 
My copy gives the date the excommunication wa 
issued viz. " The 10th day of August in the yea 
of our Lord Christ 1758." J. JEREMIAH. 

TIPTERERS (4 th S. ix. 15.) The letters c and 
s 1 and t, and sometimes even d and b being inter 
changeable, it is possible that the word tipterei 
might corrupt from .the Gaelic cidhisear, one in a 
mask, a guiser. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

<< THE WIDOW GREGORY " (4 th S. viii. 502.) 
This imitation of one of Beranger's songs was 
written many years ago ; so long, indeed, that J 
cannot call to mind where it appeared. I have 
made a revise which is more literal, and conse- 
quently less paraphrastic. The following are 
changes that I have made, and a list of errata 
that are in the printed version. In the first verse 

" The widow Gregory, famed in rhyme," 
Second verse, read 

" She spake of her husband tenderly, 
And tears fell big as the drops of dew." 

Third verse, read " exceeding smart." The 
metre requires this substitution. ; 
Fourth verse, for "warrant" read "mandate." 
Fifth verse, read 

" We settled the time for our wedding day, 
The price of the inn, and its stock in trade ; 
We plannM a nice love-trip far awav, 
And all our schemes for the future laid." 

Sixth verse. There should be a semicolon after 
the word " month " ; and none after the word 
" call " a comma only. JAMES HENRY DIXON. 

NOVELISTS' FLOWERS (4 th S. viii. 549.) The 
marsh marigold, CaHha pah/Mris, is probably the 

first-named flower. Lychnidea is the correct Eng- 
lish name for the phlox, strange as the assertion 
sounds, and was in common parlance as such per- 
haps thirty years ago. Perhaps the name came 
from America with the plant. As to the field 
bulrush and the mezereon that a child was lifted 
up to on a gate, I recommend a direct application 
to the author. P. P. 

DORSETSHIRE EAMMILK (4 th S. viii. 415, 485.) 
The word rammilk is only used in districts where 
Anglo-Saxon lingers, hence a strong inference that 
it is derived from Anglo-Saxon. If the deriva- 
tion were raw milk, the word would be used and 
known in other counties. liaio materials is a 
modern expression, and it is in the highest degree 
improbable that the archaic word contains the 
modern idea. 

JSlue-vined is simply blue-veined. The epithet 
is also applied to &, person out of humour <f not 
i' the vein." C. G. J. REKYK. 

480.) There was issued in 1814 

The Valuation Book, or Roll of the County of Mid- 
lothian for the year 1726, compared with the Rolls for 
1702 and 1738, together with the Rectified Valuation for 
:he year 1814. Drawn up by William Macfarlane, W.S. 
Large folio. ' Not printed for sale.' " 
The Roll for 1736 I have never seen. 

T. G. S. 



4 th S. viii. 528), was by Archdeacon (afterwards 
>ishop) Blomtield. See his Memoir, 2nd edit. 
1864, p. 62. J. F. S. 

ELWES THE MISER (4 th S. viii. 548.) Your 
correspondent HARDRIC MORPIIYN mentions that 

the father of Elwes the miser was Robert Meg- 
gott," and that the former was at one time member 
'or Abingdon, and resided at Marcham. It is 

uite true that he did the latter, and that the 
Juftield family, through a marriage with a Miss 
lwes, the daughter of the miser's eldest son, 
nherited this place from the Elwes or Meggott 
imily ; but of the former it is not true. He (the 
niser) was never member for Abingdon that I am 
ware of. He was member for the county of 
Berkshire for about thirteen years, from 1774 to 
787. His grandfather, Sir George Meggot, was 
i ember for South wark according to Ed. Topham, 
(Life of the late John Elwes, Esq., eye., by 

dward Topham, Esq., 6th edit. 1790.) 


South Bersted. 

ArECHiLD, ESSEX ? (4 th S. viii. 549.) I think, 
? WALTHBOF looks at Morant's Essex (ii. 84) and 
)ugdale's Baronage (i. 184), he will find the 
ace mentioned. I came across this name in a 
tter of Queen Margaret of Anjou, and after- 



[4"' S. IX. JAN. 27, 72. 

wards had a note from the Rev. James Hutchin- 
son of Fleshy, from which I enclose an extract: 

" Apechild Park is now, doubtless, Absol Park. You 
will find it in the Ordnance Map. It lies on the right- 
hand side of the road from Chelmsford to Dtinmow, about 
three or four miles from the latter place. The park is 
gone the farm (I think) belongs to Guy's Hospital. 
The present house is modern. The ancient mansion was 
surrounded by a moat, which still exists." 


Hadley, N. 

WEIRLEIGH, KENT? (4 th S. viii. 549.) To this 
query I suspect the only answer that can be given 
is, that it is the home of the well-known artist 
Harrison William Weir, who has called the land 
after his own name. C. H. W. 

(4 th S. viii. 415, 488.) Education is making ter- 
rible havoc with our dialects; but what strikes 
me as a noteworthy symptom of the progress of 
the age is the way the country-people enjoy the 
burlesquing of their own dialect, instead of being 
affronted at it. In Lancashire what are called 
" penny readings " are a very popular entertain- 
ment, though there is too much music introduced 
to make " readings " quite a descriptive name. 
The papular pieces, instead of being those of a 
better and higher class of literature, such as the 
clergy read, are comic stories told in the broadest 
Lancashire : and the man who can do this the 
best, and raise most laughter, is generally the 
pet reader of the evening. P. P. 

ix. 38.) The correct reading of the line inquired 
for is 

" Parent of sweetest sounds, yet mute for ever." 
It is the last line of Macaulay's celebrated enigma, 
which is as follows : 

" Cut off my head, and singular I am, 
Cut off my tail, and plural I appear ; 
Cut off my head and tail, and, wondrous fact, 
Although my middle's left, there's nothing there ! 
" What is my head cut off ? A sounding sea ; 
What is my tail cut off? A rushing river ; 
And in their mingling depths I fearless play, 
Parent of sweetest sounds, yet mute for ever." 

F. C. H. 

CHANGEABLE SILK (4 th S. ix. 37) can be nothing 
else than what now goes by the name of " shot 
silk," which consists of two colours woven toge- 
ther, and shows one or other of these colours 
according as the light falls on the material. 


[A correspondent suggests that W. A. S. R. should refer 
to Halliwell's Archaic Diet., 2 vols. Lond. 1868.] 

COLONEL (4 th S. viii. 434, 519.) Wedgwood 
appears to be right in this, as he so often is. 
Coronal is first captain. Our present pronuncia- 
tion, kur-nel, could hardly be derived from colonel. 
Cornel, on the contrary, yields it easily ; and as 

in English we generally take the less open sounds, 
the o would soon be converted into u. What 
Brantdme says of colonels being crowned by the 
king, is probably a fancy created for accommoda- 
tion's sake. If any such thing existed, it would 
be more likely that the chief captain would have 
a crown embroidered upon his accoutrements for 
the sake of distinction. It would be interesting 
to know how the Italian colonnello came about. 
It looks to me as if it must be a word improperly 
adopted by the Italians from the Spaniards. For 
to call the head of the column the column, or 
colonnello "little column," is like calling the 
capital the pillar or pilaster. A coronal is head 
of his troop, whether in column or as a battalion 
in fighting line. C. A. W. 

Mayfair, W. 

DEKER (4 th S. viii. 328, 424, 540.) The pecu- 
liar numeration quoted by MR. BLENKINSOPP, as 
used by shepherds on the Stanhope moors, is 
Welsh, slightly corrupted. U. O N. 

Respecting the curious numeration in use among 
the Westmorland shepherds, mentiened by MR. 
BLENKINSOPP, may it not be a lingering trace of 
the old Cymric occupation of the country, which 
once formed part of the kingdom of the Strath- 
clyde Britons ? This view would seem to be sup- 
ported by the great resemblance between certain 
of these numerals and the Welsh. For instance : 
yan = W T . un = 1 ; fip = W. pump = 5 ; dick = 
W. deg = 10 ; yan-a-dick = W. un-ar-deg = one 
upon ten = 11 ; bumford = W. bumtheg = 15 ; 
jiggot = W. ugain = 20. CYMRO. 


J. HOLWORTHY (4 th S. viii. 417, 489.) There 
was an inaccuracy or two in the note at p. 489, 
which it will be well to correct. J. Holworthy 
married Anne Wright, daughter of Dr. Richard 
Wright, and niece to Wright of Derby. For some 
time they resided at Green Hill, Derby, Mrs. 
Holworthy's sister Hannah Wright residing with 
them. In 1823-4 he purchased the Brookfield estate 
near Hathersage, Derbyshire, and afterwards pur- 
chased other adjoining properties. The hall was 
built by Mr. Holworthy in 1826. Mr. Holworthy 
was an artist of considerable merit, a great art 
student, and was intimately associated with the 
artists and connoisseurs of his day ; and I believe 
was a member of the Old Water-colour Society. 
J. W. M. Turner, who was on intimate terms 
with Mr. Holworthy, on presenting him with a 
drawing, remarked, " And here's another for your 
wife ; for I suppose you must each have one." 
These drawings were sold by auction, March 19, 
1868 one, a coast scene, sunrise, with auto- 
graph letter, for 340/. ; the other, a mountainous 
scene, with sheep and goats, for 200/. ; both mea- 
suring thirteen inches by nine. 

Mr. Holworthy died in London. June 1841, 

4* S. IX. JAN. 27, '72.] 



$nd was interred at the Kensal Green Cemetery 
June 1841. Mrs. Holworthy, who was also ar 
artist of some merit, died November 28, 1842, anc 
was "buried in St. Alkmunds, Derby. 


SCOTTISH KETOURS (4 th S. viii. 453, 555.) I 
feel much obliged to your correspondent ESPE- 
DAKE for his clear and satisfactory reply to my 
query on the above. Having no additional in- 
formation on the subject I cannot settle the diffi- 
culty whether the charter of 1490 was feudalised 
or not, and therefore agree with ESPEDARE in 
thinking it more probable that William K of 
1547 was the son rather than the great-grandson 
of James of 1490. C. S. K. 

St. Peter's Square, Hammersmith, W. 

CUSTOM (4 th S. viii. 547.) Being intimately ac- 
quainted with West Somersetshire and parts of 
I )evonshire, I venture to correct a portion of 
KBLLETT - TULLY'S statement with respect to 
ashen faggots. The strands are not formed of 
" straw, hay, or some such material," but of stout 
withies, Avhich after a time " 'give " with a loud 
report. These bands are placed as close together 
as possible, and the custom, as far as I have 
noticed it, is for the farmer to give his labourers 
a quart of cider as each strand bursts from the 
action of the tire. Should, however, two or more 
explode simultaneously, only a single quart is 
given. To counteract this unhappy result con- 
siderable ingenuity is exercised by the labourers 
in using withies of different degrees of size and 
strength. The ashen faggot is far superior to the 
yule log, and though to see it in perfection an 
open hearth is requisite, still its size can easily be 
accommodated to the modern grate. Ash is the 
only wood that burns well when green, and the 
fresher it is cut the more sprightly the flame. I 
do not think that any one who has once seen the 
joyous lianie of the ashen faggot will be likely to 
allow this old custom to die out, thouo-h the cider 
part of it may, with advantage, be omitted. 

Hazelwood, Belper. 

viii. 264, 338, 446, 534.) Beckford was only ten 
years old when his father died (June 21, 1770). 
Is the story of the gratuitous insult offered to his 
lather and himself likely to be true, and did Dr. 
Johnson, in Taxation no Tyranny, 1775, only re- 
peat in print an old sarcasm when he wrote, "If 
slavery be thus fatally contagious, how is it that 
we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the 
drivers of negroes ? " This is quoted by Boswell 
in the same paragraph with the question, "Where 
did Bockford and Trecothick learn English ? " Or 
did Beckford junior brood over this till he ima- 
gined the story of the insult ? W. G. 


The Gospel according to St. Mark, in Anglo- Saxon and 
Northumbrian Versions synoptically arranged, with 
Collations exhibiting all the Readings of all ih>>. MSS. 
Edited for the Syndics of the University Press l/ 
the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A., Assistant Tutor and 
late Fellow of Christ College, and Author of a Mceso- 
Gothic Glossary. (Rivingtons.) 

Students of Anglo-Saxon will remember that some 
years since the Syndics of the Cambridge University 
Preys determined on publishing an exhaustive edition of 
the Gospels as transmitted to us in the leading dialt.ris 
of ancient England as planned by Mr. Keniblc, and 
entrusted thefirst portion of it, the Gospel of St. Matthew, 
to that accomplished scholar. Mr. Kemble's labours 
were interrupted by various causes, and at his death in 
1<S57 the completion of the work was undertaken by Mr. 
Hardwick. The work before us forms the second portion 
of the same important undertaking ; and as the circum- 
stances attending the publication of St. Matthew's Gospel 
did not afford a favourable opportunity for discussing 
the peculiarities of the MSS., or even of explaining the 
general design by which their readings are synoptically 
exhibited, the Editor of the present portion supplies the 
necessary information ; and his preface, his description 
of the MSS., of the printed editions, and his explanation 
of the manner in which the present text, readings, &c. 
have been arranged, prove that in selecting Mr. Skeat 
for the work before us the Syndics have shown excellent 
judgment, and secured an edition of the Anglo-Saxon 
Gospels which will be prized by scholars and a credit to 
the University. 

Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana. The Old Hook Collec- 
tor's Miscellany, Part V. Containing the History of 
Prince Rudapanthus, and Title-pages, to complete Vol. I. 
(Reeves & Turner.) 

Tlie same, Part VI., containing The Life of Long Meg 
of Westminster ; A True and Certain Relation of a 
Strange Birth ; Murther ! Murther ! ; The Character 
of a Town Gallant; Poor Robin's True Character of a 
Scold. (Reeves & Turner.) 

If readers of the present day are not familiar with the 
once popular writings of our forefathers, it is not the 
fault of enterprising publishers ready to apply their 
capital, and intelligent editors ready to devote their time 
and knowledge, to the effective reproduction of such 
works. Some time since we called attention to the 
Second Part of The Old Book Collector's Miscellany, 
which contained a reprint of The Trimming of Thomas 
Nash. We have now to bring under the notice of our 
readers the Fifth and Sixth Parts, the appearance of 
which may be taken as evidence that Mr. Hindley's 
ilan of a Series of Reprints of the more popular Tracts 
jf the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries has met with 
;he approval of a large number of subscribers. We doubt 
lie propriety of reprinting Mr. Adey Repton's pretended 
)lack-letter History of Prince Rudapanthus; but the 
>pening number of the new volume makes ample amends. 
The Life of Long Meg of Westminster is a picture of the 
social condition of the metropolis, curiously illustrative 
>f popular manners and customs at the close of the six- 
eenth century, well worth the half-crown which is the 
>rice of the whole: such Part containing, in addition, a 
urious notice of the birth of two boys at Plymouth, 
nined together much after the fashion of the Siamese 
^wins, and three other tracts. 



I' 4 th S. IX. JAX. 27, 72. 

Scholasticufi. Sons and Daughters. A Guide to 

Parents in the C/ioice of Educational Institutions, fyc. 

by K. Kemp Philp. (Virtue & Co.) 

The above title sufficiently indicates the purpose of the 
compiler, and the information given seems most full on 
all points. Inasmuch as Eton by-the-by Dr. Goodford 
is Provost, not Principal and Harrow, amongst others 
too numerous to name, have supplied the desired in- 
formation, we camiot.doubt:, but that similar institutions, 
now conspicuous by their absence, will put in an ^ appear- 
ance- in any future "editions of the Index Sckalutfau. 
The History and Antiquities of the Col/cyiate Church of 

Tamivortli. By C. F. li. Palmer. (Simpkin, Marshall, 


This result of twenty years' labour can hardly fail to 
commend itself to those to whom it is more particularly 
addressed the inhabitants of Tamwortb as in it are 
tr.-iced the annals of their church (one of the finest in the 
county and formerly collegiate) from its earliest founda- 
tion. A view is given of a singular double staircase in 
the youth-west turret of the tower. 

IT may lie some satisfaction to those interested in the 
subject to know that a praiseworthy effort is now being 
made to furnish St. Paul's Cathedral with altar-plate 
worthy of the church, and in place of that which, readers 
of Dean Mil man's Annuls will remember, was carried oil 
by thieves in the early part of the present century. 
Members of the Cathedral stall' amongst them our cor- 
iv^pondrni (lidlKV. \Y. SrAKKO\v SIMPSON arc included 
in the body of contributors of the plate, which has been 
exhibited during the past week at the establishment of 
the manufacturers, Messrs. Lias & Son, Salisbury Court, 
Fleet Street. The alms dish, 2 ft. 3 in. in diameter, 
presented by Mr. J.AY. Butterworth, F.S.A., is par- 
ticularlv worthy of remark, as having for its centre sub- 
ject KaOaelle's cartoon, St. Paul preaching at Athens, 
splendidly reproduced. 

THK Birminr/ham Gazette states that at the next meet- 
ing of the Kidderminster Town Council, a motion will be 
made proposing that some memorial be erected to the 
memory of Richard Baxter. 

THE annual editions of those useful publications, De- 
brett's Peerage and Baronetage, works well and favour- 
ably known before George III. was king, will be issued 
in the course of a few davs. 


Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the jrciitlcmcn by whom they are required, whose names aiid addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

Wanted by Jfr. II'. If. James Wialc, Ter Bailie, Bruges, Belgium. 


UKUJXXixo OF THIS C'EVrUKY. Published by Elfin-ham Wilson. 

Wanted by Messrs. ll< iiniiiuhrtiii <*> 7/o/7/x,G, Mount Street, 

Grosvcnor Square, London. 


Wanted by Rev. J. C. Jackson, 13, Manor Terrace, Ainhurst Iload, 
Hackney, E. 


LAXCASHIRK. The old ballad, " Farewell Manchester" 
bus alrcudi/ Ix'c.ii inquired after in " X. it (>." o rd S. ii. 
468 ; 4"' S. i. MO, 2_'n, <12o, 547. Mr. Chajijicll, a, y,tnd 
mithiii////, ln'licrc.s it tt> be " irrt'corerubty lost." Xcc 
Popular Musk- of the (H.lcn Time, ii. 

N. 11. Gil FAi:i> (Stivatham). On forms fur a liliraiy 
catalogue consult " X. & Q." 3 >d S. viii. 3'Jo, 540 ; ix. 69. 

II. WEED (Hackney.) Our best tlianlts. T/tc svny has 
been forwarded to our correspondent, 

E. II. (PiOxborongh Moy.) The French son;/ Mal- 
brouck " has been attributed to Madann' ilc, AVr////^;. See 
" N. & Q." 1 S. ix. 56 ; 3 1 '' 1 S. vii. 128. 

H. E. B. (Louth.) By the canons published at the com- 
mencement of the. reign, of James /., 1003, it was ordered 
"that the Ten Commandments be set up on the east end of 
every church and chapel" Canon Ixxxii. 

F. K. (Ash ford.) The nuotation n-ill be found in Ten- 
nyson, In Mcmotiam, xxvii. 

C. W. Mr. Jjiniis Doxat. fonnerlii connected iritli The 
Morning Chronich: and The Observer, dial at his re- 
sidence, l.', (^tn-eii's Crvscfiit, Jlaverstndt Hill, un March 
4, 1871, nifcil ninety-eight. We had nolici'il thai lite papers 
durinij tin' i> ist /ci'c/{ hail confounded hint, irit/i ttnotlu-r Mr. 
Lewis Dn.i'at, a city incrc/iant, tclio died at 8U, Harii y 
Street, on the 17th inst. a(jed eight//- four. 

ERRATUM. 4 th S.ix. p. 52, col. ii. line 22, /V "church " 
read " chapel." 


We be- leave to state that we decline to return comnni'i. 
which, 1br any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no 

All Communications should be addressed to tiio Kditor at thv > 
43, Wellington Street, \V.C. 

To all communications shonhl be affixed the name and add 
lor, not necessarily for publication, but as a ^uaraivtee oi 

"Like all {rrand concei'tions, tlie process is renni impli- 

city." This was said I 

tin- !: ( u:ii)les ladies 

and gentlemen to sen, excliange, or buy every de 
witli, security, and without making their names public. Specimen 

cpy, containing full directions, post free, for two penny stamps 

. Wellington Street, Strand, London. 

the finest imported, free from acidity or heat, and much supe- 
rior to low-priced Sherry (r/oV J)r. Druitt on t'/<'/' /!'/'/<*>. One 
Guinea per dozen. Selected dry Tarragona, !.*. ix-r dozen. Terms 
cash. Three dozen rail paid. W. 1).' WATSON, Wine Merchant, 
373, Oxford Street (entrance in Berwick Street), London, W. Esta- 
blished 18-11. Full Price Lists post free on application. 


f\ and 3t;,s. per Dozen, to be tasted, and price list had of all other 
Wines, Spirits, and Liqueurs, at 

DOTES JO'S Depot, 19, Swallow Street, Piccadilly. Succ, 
Kw. 1 , UT & Co., Wine Merchants to Her Majesty. 


TNVITE attention to the following WINES and 


Good Sherry, Pale or Gold 20s. 24s. 305. 3Gs. 42. 1 --. per doz. 

Very Choice Sherry 48. :,\s. r.n.i. 72*. per doz. 

Port of various Ajrcs 2i.s. 30,i. . pcrdox. 

Good Claret li. 14s. 18.v. 20x. 2ix. per do/. 

Choice Dessert Clarets :;o.i. ;.,-. .per doz. 

Sparkling Champagne . i vr doz. 

Hock and Moselle 21*. 3(),i. 

Old Pale Brandy . jicrdoz. 

Fine Old Irish and Scotch Whisky . ;-cr doz. 

Wines in Wood. Gallon. Octave, 
s. (/. ' s. (I. 

PaleSherry 9 6 6 :> o 

Good Sherry 11 6 800 

Choice Sherry 17 6 11 10 o 

OldSherry 23 .0 It i:> 

GoodPort 11 K 815 

Fine Port 14 G 10 5 

Old Port 2) 6 13 If) 

Qtr. Cask. 1 i 
.-. d. 

12 23 10 

15 10 30 10 

l-i 10 44 10 

17 . 

20 00 3 

27 03 

Old Pale Brandy 21? . 24s. 30*-. 30s. i>er imperial gallon. 

On receipt of a Post Office Order, or reference, any Quantity will be 
orwarded immediately by 



liri-hi Koad. 

(Originally Established A.D. 1667.) 

4* S . ix. FKB. 3, '72.] 





NOTES : Gourmand : Gourmet, 89 " Chambers's Ency- 
clopaedia" : Mr. Solomon Lowe, Ib. Milton's Use of the 
Superlative : Children's Language, 90 Letter of Frederick 
the Great, 91 Man a Microcosm Fictitious Names of 
Authors Burns's 'Prentice Han' First Newspaper 
Report by Electric Telegraph Boustrapa Lord Bacon's 
Adaptation of Shakespeare Tennyson's "Death of the 
Old Year " Inscriptions Mary Lamb, 91. 

QUERIES: "The Father's own Son," 92 "Board" 
Anne Boleyn's Mother: F. Nanciaat Clare's Remains : 
Old Ballads Rev. Anthony Davidson, M.A. Lady Alice 
Egertou Engravings The First Englishwoman ever in 
Pekin Governor : Viceroy Heralds' College at Copen- 
hagen Horneck and Jessamy La Fontaine Manx 
Quotations Old Maps of London Mary Queen of Scots 

Mauther Dr. T. R. Nash Numismatic Blunders 
Psalm cix. Quotations wanted Sandal- wood "The 
Saresons Grounde " Toruiater The " Victory " Writ 
of Henry III. to John of Monmouth Miss Ward Samuel 
Webbe, Sen., 93. 

REPLIES : - Brederode Family, 96 Umbrellas, 97 The 
Doctrine of Celticism, Ib. Burials in Gardens, !S 
Derby or Darby, 99 "With Helmet on his Brow," Ib. 

Jervis : Jar vis Staithe Change of Baptismal Names 

Punishment of Mutiny Battle of Flodden Field 
Blue-vinid Cheese The Duke of Wellington and the 
Bishop of London Battle of Harlaw Miss Edgewortu 

Taaffe Family Rudston Monolith Bosweil " A 
pretty Kettle of Fish " Walpoliana Harleian Society 

" Speel " " Not lost, but gone before " " Great Griefs 
are silent " " Progress " : " Trafalgar " : " Dunsinane " 
Council of Ephesus, &.C., 100. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


A short time ago, amongst a small circle of 
friends, the question was propounded as to the 
exact meaning of the above words. Nine out of 
ten considered that, radically, they conveyed the 
same idea : gourmand meaning a glutton, a vora- 
cious eater; and gourmet, an epicure of more 
delicate taste. On reference to authorities, it ap- 
peared that the idea of gourmand was correct, but 
that gourmet has nothing to do with eating at all ; 
being, according to Tarver, "a judge, connoisseur 
of wine." It is difficult to get rid of the idea 
that the latter syllable of gourmet is connected 
with mets, a dish or mess. 

The actual history of these two words is very 
curious. They have really no connection what- 
ever with each other, the resemblance in sound 
being purely accidental. 

Gourmand, yourmandize, are found in Ben Jon- 
son, Spenser, and other English writers of the six- 
teenth century, in the sense of eating voraciously. 
The spelling is indifferently yormand or gour- 
mand. There is reason to believe that the word 
came to us from the French, as it can be traced in 
that language much farther back. In a letter 
dated 1392 A.D., quoted by Ducange, occurs the 
following passage: "Le jour devant que icellui 
prestre trespassast, il avoit beu et yormande par 
tout le jour." 

The word is really Celtic, and is found in the 
Baa-Breton and Welsh in the form of yonnont, 
from gorm, fulness, cramming. 

The history of gourmet is more singular. The 
word yuma, in all the Teutonic tongues, meant 
originally "a man." In English this very early 
became yrum or groom, probably from being con- 
founded with the Cymric gwr, having the same 
signification. It then came to signify a serving- 
man, especially one attending to horses, equiva- 
lent to Ger. Mareskalk (marshal). In the latter 
part of the fourteenth century, during the wars 
in France under Edward III., the word became 
current in French, in the same way that jockey, 
boulinyrin (bowling-green), and boule-doyue (bull- 
dog), have been adopted in more modern times. 
It is found under the forms of gromet, groumet, 
diminutive yrometet ; and is Latinised into gromes, 
yromu;*, gromettus. By a very common metathesis, 
yroumct became gourmet, in the same way that 
girn and grin, gers and grass, bird and brid, are 
interchangeable. In a French letter of A.D. 1392, 
given by Ducange, we read: " Duquel Jaque le 
Coq 1'exposant estoit serviteur et gromet" In a 
MS. poern of the fifteenth century we find : 

" A ceste gent sont compaignon, 
Mauvais grammes, mauvais garchon ; 
Des boines gens, boivent le vin 
Que il carient au quemin." 

The last quotation indicates the special applica- 
tion which the word assumed as a name for the 
drivers of wine carts. We read again : " Un 
gronmet nornme Fagot, qui conduisoit iceulx vins." 
In 1402 the word had begun to apply to a " Com- 
missionaire, Facteur des Vins" : " Guiot dit Rolot 
harnicheur at gourmet de vins, demourant aBruieres 
en Laonnais." took the sense 
given in Carpentier's supplement to Ducange: 
" Voiturier ou garde des vins et marchaudises 
pendant qu'ils sont en route." In modern French 
it has come to signify a judge connoisseur in 
wine. It has not yet found its way into Eng- 
lish dictionaries; but it is frequently employed, 
and often in a wrong sense. 

The existence of two words side by side, so 
nearly allied in sound, and so different in origin 
and meaning, is a singular phenomenon and worthy 
of " making a note of." J. A. PICTOK. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertrec. 


Although such immense sums were spent on 
the later encyclopaadias (4 th S. viii. 284, note), 
Chambers's original work seems, like many other 
commencements of all kinds, to have been largely 
a labour of love. Amongst unpaid contributors 
we may probably reckon Mr. Solomon Lowe, 
whose name is almost forgotten now in our litera- 



S. IX. FEE. 

ture, but who was a tolerably well known writer 
one hundred and fifty years ago. Mr. Lowe taught 
and kept a well-known academy at Brook Green 
near Hammersmith, and some notice of him 
lately appeared in the Hammersmith Xeics. 

Shortly after Mr. Lowe's decease, his* widow 
wrote in" March 1751-2 to Dr. Ward of Gresham 
College, a friend of her late husband, enclosing a 
copy of an advertisement which she had addressed 
to Mr. Meres, one of the newspaper publishers of 
the time (Brit. Mus.. Add. MS. 6210), and com- 
plained that she could not get it fairly inserted 
owing to a feeling on the part of the publishing 
trade in general. The advertisement ran mostly 
as follows, a few contractions and omissions being 
made for the purpose of a desirable brevity : 

** Shortly will be published by subscription, for the 
benefit of "those who have Mr. "Chambers' Dictionary, 
which teas done by himself, an entire supplement to that 
("c) by the late Mr. Solomon Lowe; how capable he was 
of doing it, may be seen from the underwritten extracts 
from Mr. Chambers' letters in 1733 : 

* I know of nobody who is so well acquainted with the 
flaws and defects of the work as yourself (Mr. Lowe) ; 
you have favoured me with many remarks of this kind 
f Mr. Chambers must have been" slightly ironical here, 
E. C.~. I have sent you the 24 sheets of my Dictionary, 
that were wrought off before the last variation of mea- 
sures took place, I should not have been forward for 
producing the sheets before yon, who are too good a 
Judge of their Defects, but as you had a desire to see 
them I have overcome all the Reluctance. To have dis- 
charged solid benefits by an idle letter of complements 
(/) where had been the propriety. ... I know of 
no person, among a great number from whom I have had 
communications on the same occasion, that has entered 
so far into the spirit of the work, and appears so thorough 
a master of the design, as yourself. Your instructions, I 
speak without anv complement (sic'), are all pertinent 
and useful,' " &c. " 

Mrs. Lowe adds 

** that, when Mr. Chambers was too ill to carry his work 
on any farther, he sent for Mr. Lowe and gave him his 
Dictionary in order to carry it on." 

Of course Mrs. Lowe had very caughty ideas 
about the publishers, whose offer of one h'undred 
and fifty guineas for the supplement she says that 
she refused, and attempted a separate publication. 
Mr. Ward appears to have been chary of advice : 
but we may judge from her rejoinder that he told 
her that publishers had interests which she was 
bound to consider, and they might naturally object 
to an advertisement which said so much, con- 
fidentially or perhaps sarcastically, about the 
defects of a publication in which they were in- 

Although Mr. Lowe would probably not have 
been reckoned as a " man of the time," and his 
name is not found in Chalmers, Rose, Haydn. 
Phillips, Jones, and Allibone. 

Mr. Lowe was asked to help Dr. Birch in his 
Life of Sir Richard Steele. He wrote a work on 
4< Mnemonicks," which has been reprinted not very 

long ago with Grey's Memoria Technica. He died 
poor, which was possibly the punishment for 
writing so much and so we'll gratuitously. 



An apt illustration of the well-known lines in 
book iv. of Paradise Lost 

" So hand in hand they pass'd, the loveliest pair 
That ever since in love's embraces met ; 
Adam the goodliest man of men since born 
His sons, the fairest of her daughters Ev . 

was furnished me a short time ago involuntarily 
by a girl of thirteen, who said to her mother in 
my hearing : " You're the youngest of your sis- 
ters-in-law, mamma ! " And it was no slip of 
the tongue; for, though the girl has more than 
average intelligence, and has been as well edu- 
cated as most girls of her age, I could not make 
her understand that what she had said was gram- 
matically wrong, and that she ought to have said 
"younger than," instead of "youngest of."* 

It would seem, therefore, that Milton, in his 
beautiful irregularity, unconsciously adopted the 
simple speech of childhood. I say unconsciously, 
because there can be little doubt "that the poet 'if 
appealed to, would have charged himself rather 
with over-refinement, and have allowed that the 
elaboration of these lines had cost him some time 
and thought : unless indeed, which is not impro- 
bable, he had met with and admired such a use 
of the superlative elsewhere. I find a similar in- 
stance t quoted in Matzner's -";?. Gram. (iii. 2 
from Robert of Gloucester i i. 157) " Ygerne, Gor- 
loys wyf, was fairest of echon" (i. e., each one); 
though Matzner gives it among a number of quo- 
tations which are perfectly regular, and does not 
appear to have remarked any irregularity about 
it. In Shakespeare again, we have (2 Henry VI. 
i. 3), " York is most unmeet of any man,'' where 
the superlative is really equally irregular, though 
it scarcely strikes one as being so. 

* The language of children has, I think, had too little 
attention paid to it. A child begins life as a savage, and 
gradually becomes civilised. Its speech, in its onward 
and upw'ard course, reflects this gradual change, and fre- 
quently illustrates the idioms of other languages besides 
its own. I have noticed that the errors of s}*ntax, <tc., 
which an English child commits in learning English are 
frequently no such errors, but the normal mode of ex- 
pression, 'in some other language ; and, when this is so, 
much light is thrown upon the syntax, &c., of this other 
language, A child does not copy all its mistakes ; it 
makes up plenty for itself, and it is to these only (and the 
one I have given above is an example) that I wish to 
call attention. A collection of such mistakes would be 
very instructive, and might be begun in " N. & Q." 

t Similar, at least, as far as the superlative is concerned. 

S. IX. FEB. 3, '72.] 



A scarcely less successful sacrifice of grammar 
to sound is found in Byron's known lines (C. II., 
book iv.) : 

" I stood in Venice, on the Bridge of Sighs; 
A palace and a prison on each hand." 

Sydenham Hill. 

On the death, recently, of a relative of mine at a very 
advanced age, I found among her papers a collection of 
autographs of distinguished persons, nearly all of them 
accompanied by some statement in proof of their authen- 
ticity. Among them, but without any such proof attached, 
is the letter of which I enclose a copy, and which pur- 
ports to be written by the hand of Frederick the Great. 
By the appearance of the ink and paper it certainly was 
written at the time. The hand is a bold round one. I 
have preserved the inaccuracies of spelling, &c. Could 
any of your readers give me any information as to the 
circumstance to which it refers, or any fac-simile of 
Frederick's handwriting with which I could compare 
this ? 

Mad., J'ay re^u. la lettre que vous aves voulu 
me faire le 19 de ce mois et c'est avec bien du De- 
plaisir que j'ay appris les mauvais proces d'un des 
directeurs de la Compagnie Assiatique D'Embden, 
envers vous, dont vous vous etes vue oblige de 
vous plaindre. Je feroy examiner vos griefs etje 
viens de donner mes ordres en consequence a mon 
president de la Chanibre d'Estfriselentz, et vous 
pouvez etre tres assurez que Ton ne manquera 
pas de vous administrer bonne justice autant que 
les Circonstances le permettront, sur ce je prie 
Dieu qu'il vous ait en sa sainte garde. 

"A Potsdam le 26 Fevrier 1756. 


" A Mad. Goodwin a Bruxelles." 

2, Warwick Terrace, Dublin. 

| assertion that thus the human head, being like 
j all the other gods round, is in fact a microcosm. 

One singular example of humour occurs in the 
i course of his account. He says that the Demiur- 
i gus formed the nails not because the man wanted 
; them, but because he foresaw that wild beasts and 
; women would. It is many years since I read the 
\ Tim&us, and I have it not by me now to refer to ; 
I but this is a correct statement : that " the head of 
| man," and not man himself in his full form, " is a 
microcosm," in Plato's phrase. 

There is another phrase and idea, the " music 
of the spheres/'' explained in the same treatise. 
If a paper involving some arithmetical and astro- 
nomical calculations comes witbin your scope I 
will send it. This phrase also is very little under- 
stood, though often in men's moutbs.* 


number of '' N. & Q." OLPHAR HAMST speaks of 
the trouble he once had in cataloguing a book 
under three different names, which ultimately 
turned out to be but disguises of the same book. 

In the same part he also speaks of his Hand- 
book of Fictitious Names. May I be allowed to 
point out that future editions of this most useful 
and interesting work will be enriched by the un- 
pleasant circumstance above named ? for we have 
now two or three "fictitious names" the more a 
small example of the "soul of good in things 

MAX A MICROCOSM. This expression is in 
common use, but the idea involved in it is little 
understood. In fact the phrase itself is varied 
from Plato's original. In his philosophy all deity 
is round or globular; the universe, xfofios, the fixed 
. and the planets are gods. Man was made 
by the Demiurgus himself created by the supreme 
God as a model for all living creatures, and man 
is a sort of demigod : but the divine part in man 
is his head, the residence of reason, which, like the 
rxls, IB round; the other parts of man, the body 
and the members, are mere accidents post-created 
simply for the convenience of the head. In the 
strange and curious anatomical account which 
Plato wives in the Tim&us of the formation, uses. 
and reasons of the formation of these parts, he 
expands his notion fully, and concludes with the 


" Auld Nature swears, the lovely dears 

Her noblest work she classes, O ! 

Her 'prentice ban' she tried on man, 

And then she made the lasses, O ! 

Green grow," &c. 

"Knight .... and since we were made before yee 
shouldwe not love and admire ye as the last and there- 
fore p%rfect'st work of nature"? Man was made when 
nature was but an apprentice, but woman when she was 
a skilfull mistresse of her arte.'' 

Cupid's Whirligig, 1607 (ed. 1611, C. 4 vers.) 

I know nothing more of the history of this 
saying, but from the close resemblance between 
I these passages it would seem either that Burns 
; had read the Whirligig or a scrap borrowed from 
: it, or that the saying was or had become prover- 
I bial. B. NICHOLSON. 


! GRAPH. As a director of the Electric Telegraph 

I Company so early as 1S47, the late Mr. George 

Wilson '(of the Anti-Corn-Law League) urged 

forward the laying down a line of electric wires 

from Manchester to Leeds. At the nomination of 

Mr. Cobden for the West Riding in that year the 

[* Consult "N.&Q."l t 165 ; 4 t! S. ii. 561 ; Hi. 19, 
j 70.-ED.] 



. IX. FEB. 3, 72. 

line had not been completed, but Mr. Wilson had 
several miles of -wire carried on temporarily as 
far as Wakefield ; and from that town the pro- 
ceedings attendant on the nomination and election 
of Mr. Cobden'were transmitted to Manchester, 
and appeared in a second edition of a Manchester 
paper about two o'clock that day, being the first 
newspaper report by electric telegraph on record. 


BOTJSTRAPA. It is not perhaps generally known 
that, among the Parisian workmen during the 
period of terrorism which was initiated by the 
coup d'etat, Napoleon III. was familiarly desig- 
nated "Boustrapa" a name made of the initial 
syllables of .Ztow-logne, tftfra-sbourg, and Pa-ris, 
the scenes of his three chief exploits up to that 
time. Subsequently two of his sobriquets, as you 
know, were "Badinguet" and " L'Homme de 
Sedan." PHILIP S. KING. 

In an article on Shakespeare in the Quarterly 
(Xo. 261) it is pointed out that Bacon, with a 
profound contempt for poetry, nevertheless con- 
descended to adopt Shakespeare's sentiments. 
One or two examples are given. I have met with 
the following, which was not, I think, alluded to 
by the reviewer. In the " Essay on Travel," 
amongst the hints -to enable " $ young man to 
put his travel into a little room," is "let him 
sequester himself from the company of his coun- 
trymen." This reads like an echo'of Rosalind's 
words (As You Like It, iv. 1) 

" Farewell, monsieur traveller ; look, you lisp, and 
wear strange suits ; disable all the benefits of your own 
country, be out of love with your nativity," &c. 


Collectors of Tennysoniana may, perhaps, like to 
make a note of the following paragraph, -staken 
from The. Lincoln, Rutland, and Stamford Mercury 
for January 12 : 

" CAISTOR. Of all times in the year that our cam- 
panologians could have chosen to go 'on strike,' it seemed 
most annoying to all lovers of old customs that the}' 
should choose New Year's eve. They might, it is allowed, 
have ample cause for dissatisfaction with the lack of con- 
sideration shown for their comfort in the belfry, and with 
the degree of encouragement given them in boxes,' but 
they adopted a shabby method of showing it. Such an 
omission as theirs, it is said, has never occurred within 
living memory: certainly not since Tennyson (' Our 
poet,' as we Caistorians proudly call the Poet Laui-eate) 
was a denizen of this quaint "old town, and wrote his 
poem on the ' Death of the Old Year ' (collection pub- 
lished 1832) within hearing of the church bells." 


INSCRIPTIONS. Having lately met with the 
following inscriptions, I "made a note of" them, 
thinking you might deem them worthy of being 
transcribed into the pages of " N. & Q." I know 

not where, when, or by whom they have been 
severally written. 
On a sun-dial : 

" Once at a potent leader's voice it stay'd ; 
Once it went back when a good monarch pray'd ; 
Mortals! howe'er ye grieve, howe'er deplore, 
The flying shadow' shall return no more." 

Under an hour-glass in a grotto near the 
water : 
" This babbling stream not uninstructive flows, 

Xor idly loiters to its destined main : 
Earh flower it feeds that on its margin grows, 

Now bids thee blush, whose days are spent in vain. 

" Xor void of moral, though unheeded glides 

Time's current, stealing on with silent haste ; 
For lo ! each falling sand his folly chides, 

Who lets one precious moment run to waste." 

Found in an old watch that had been given by 
a gentleman to a young lady about eighty years 
since : 

" Deign, lady fair, this watch to wear 

To mark how moments fly ; 
For none a moment have to spare, 
Who in a moment die ! " 

R. W. II. NASH, B.A. 
Florinda Place, Dublin. 

MARY LAME. In giving evidence on the ques- 
tion of insanity at the trial of the Rev. J. S. 
Watson, as reported in The Globe (12 Jan.), 
Dr. Maudslay said : 

" The case of Charles Lamb's sister is a well-known 
one ; it was one of homicidal tendency, and Miss Lamb 
had killed her father." . . . . -"In Miss Lamb's case, 
she used to warn people, but not until after the murder 
of her father, which took place suddenly." 

As Dr. Maudslay calls this a well-known in- 
stance, it may not be amiss to mention that Miss 
Lamb did not murder her father, but her mother. 
The reference is no doubt equally applicable, but 
the mistake is worth correcting. 



In 18GO Mr. Halliwell printed thirty copies of 
the Doctors of I)uU-Juad College, being a droll 
formed out of the lost play of the Father's Own 
Son, from the second part" of the Witt, or Sport 
upon Sport, 8vo, 1672, published by Kirkman, and 
which is the last piece in the volume. He has 
also given Kirkman 's preface, which is a very 
curious and interesting production, for which he 
deserves the hearty thanks of all those who are 
interested in the earh* history of the drama. 

It so happens, however, that the same droll 
forms the last article in the 

" Wits, or Sport upon Sport, in select pieces of Drollery 
digested into Scenes by way of Dialogue. Together 
with a variety of Humors of several Xations, fitted for 

. IX. FEB. 3, '72.] 



the pleasure and content of all persons, either in Court, 
City, Countrey, or Camp. The like never before pub- 
lished. Part I. London : Printed for Henry Marsh, at 
the Sign of the Princes Arms in Chancery Lane, 1662." 

This book, of which I am not aware there was 
any second part, was printed by Marsh, who signs 
the preface one altogether different from Kirk- 
man's production and adds a catalogue of books 
sold by him, with these lines prefixed 

" Who for your pleasure hath produced his store, 
And as you like, will furnish you with more." 

There is prefixed a curious engraving of the 
stage in 1662, which I believe has subsequently 
been re-engraved, and in which we have Sir John 
Falstaff in the costume in which he used to 

Kirkman must therefore have, without acknow- 
ledgment, reprinted Marsh's collection, omitting 
his preface and long list of books for sale, and given 
the preface which Mr. Halliwell has reprinted. 
Whether the engraving was prefixed to Kirkman's 
edition, the writer has no means of knowing. 

In the year 1673 Kirkman printed 

" The Wits, or Sport upon Sport, being a curious Collec- 
tion of several Drolls and Farces presented and shown for 
the merriment and delight of wise men and the ignorant : 
as they have been sundry times acted in publique and 
private, in London at Bartholomew, in the Countrey at 
other Faires ; in Halls and Taverns, on several 'Mounte 
bank Stages at Charing Cross, Lincolns- Inn-Fields, and 
other places, by several stroleing Players, Fools and 
Fidlers, and the Mountebanks Zanies, with loud laughter 
and great applause. Written I know not when, by 
several persons I know not who, but now newly collected 
by our old friend to please you. FRANCIS KIRKMAN." 

To this work, which is quite distinct from the 
collection by Marsh, is prefixed the preface by 
Kirkman, reprinted by Mr. Halliwell. The copy 
before me is perfect until it reaches p. 32, but at 
the foot of the page from the catchword it appears 
that the next droll is called " Oenone." Then 
comes another fragment commencing with " The 
merry conceited humours of Bottom the Weaver." 
The pagination begins at page 29, finishing with 
" Bottom " at page 37, and concluding with the 
tl Cheater Cheated," which terminates at page 80 
with the word Finis. 

Can any of your contributors inform me if the 
two pieces are fragments of separate works, or 
belong to the same volume? Were any other 
editions of the Drolls printed than those noticed 
above ? J. M. 

"BoARD." Can any correspondent throw light 
upon this sentence in George Herbert's Country 
Parson, chapter x., " An old good servant boards 
a child " ? T. W. WEBB. 

[Either the word as has dropped out, that is, '"boards 
as a child," or it may mean in the same state as a child. 
Hence the old saying, " Set him a clear board in the 
world," that is, put him in a good position.] 

There is a picture representing a woman's head 
at Stanford Court, supposed to be the mother of 
Queen Anne Boleyn. It was purchased more 
than a century past of Francis Nanciaat, who 
said it was an original of Holbein. Anne Boleyn's 
mother was sister of the Duke of Norfolk/ A 
note-book of my great-grandfather states the fact. 
The picture is in good preservation, with the lady 
in a dark dress, white plain cap, and ruff round 
the neck. Are there any known pictures of this 
lady whereby I might verify the likeness? and who 
was Francis Nanciaat ? 


Stanford Court, Worcester. 

Taylor & Son of Northampton have invited me 
to edit the poetical remains of John Clare, and 
have supplied me for that purpose with a mass 
of documents, including seven or eight hundred 
hitherto unpublished poems, more than a thousand 
letters addressed to Clare by his friends and con-r 
temporaries, a diary, and several pocket-books in 
which the poet jotted down passing fancies, and 
noted subjects which interested him. Among 
these last-named memoranda is a small collection 
of ballads, which Clare says ho wrote down on 
hearing his father or mother sing them on the 
long winter evenings. Several of these might 
with propriety be included in the <( Remains," 
and in making the selection it would assist me 
to know whether any had already appeared in 
print or not. Will some ample-leisured and cour- 
teous reader of "N. & Q." compassionate a man of 
many engagements, and assist me in the search ? 
The following are the first lines of the ballads: 
"Where have you been to, John [or Lord] Randall, my 

son." ; 

" The week before Easter, the days long and clear." 
"A faithless shepherd courted me." 

" silly love ! O cunning love." 

" On Martinmas Eve the dogs did bark." 

" Here's a sad good bye for thee, my love." 

" My love is tall and handsome." 

" Cffar is fled the winter wind." 

" Dream not of love to think it like." 

" Of all the swains that meet at eve." 

" A false knight wooed a maiden poor." 

" Unriddle this riddle, my own Jenny love." 

" Twas on the banks of Ivory, 'neath the hawthorn's 

scented shade." 

8, Grove Terrace, Havelock Place, Hanley. 

REV. ANTHONY DAVIDSON, M.A., 8, native ' of 
Scotland, was about the end of last century curate 
of Milton in Hampshire, and master of an academy 
at Lymington. He wrote some plays, which are 
mentioned in the Bio^rapJtia Dramatica. Three 
of these were performed at provincial theatres. 
He is also author of Poems of Ossian in Blank- 
verse, Salisbury (no date) ; and Sermons in Blank- 
verse, Romsey (no date). These two works I 



S. IX. FEB. 3, 72. 

have seen; the Sermons were published in or about 
the year 1815. Can any reader of "N. & Q." 
inform me whether Mr. Davidson published any- 
thing subsequently to the year 1815 or 1817? 
What is the date of his death ? Were any of his 
dramas printed ? R. INGLIS. 

LADY ALICE EGERTON. Is there any portrait 
existing of the Lady Alice Egerton who acted the 
part of " The Lady" in Milton's Masque of Comus 
when it was first produced, and is there any 
engraving of the same to be had anywhere ? 

W. H. W. 

ENGRAVINGS. I have two old engravings from 
which the edges have been so completely re- 
moved that no part of the lettering remains. I 
annex the following description of them, in the 
hope that some other collector who has perfect 
copies may be able to supply me with the names 
of artists and engravers, and date of publication. 
The titles I have " from tradition" : 

No. 1. " Howard visiting a debtor's prison." Plate 
2*2 in. x 16 in. A sick gentleman, in military undress, 
supported bv a lady, who receives a well-filled purse from 
Howard. Three children surround the group, one of 
whom kisses Howard's left hand. A fetter connects the 
prisoner's right wrist with his left ankle. A turnkey 
stands in the doorway. 

No. 2." Loss of the Halswell." Plate 23 in. x 17 in. 
The deck, saloon, or round-house of a large vessel in a 
sinking state ; the floor covered with water, in which 
some drowning persons are floating. In the centre a 
man (the captain ?) stands with several very graceful 
female figures clinging to him. The waves seem bursting 
in from all sides. 

Where could I find an account of the loss of 
the Halswell ? W. H. P. 

[No. 2. The Halswell East Indiaman, outward 
bound, was wrecked off Seacombe, in the isle of Purbeck, 
on Jan. 6, 1786, when Captain Pierce, the commander, 
perished along with many others. (Gent. Mag. Jan. 
1796, p. 75, and " N. & Q." 3 r * S. iii. 9, 34, 80, 159.) It 
was painted by Robert Smirke, engraved by Robert Pol- 
lard, and published by R. Pollard, engraver, No. 15, 
Baynes Row, Spa Fields, March 17, 1787.1 

Was she not the worthy housekeeper of the 
British Embassy there, in 1861 ? S. 

GOVERNOR: VICEROY. What is the difference 
between a viceroy and a governor, as applied to 
Her Majesty's representative in a British colony 
or other possession? I am induced to ask 
"N. & Q." for this information from frequently 
seeing in colonial newspapers the expressions 
"the viceregal speech," " the viceregal banquet," 
&c. Some forty years ago (if I recollect rightly) 
none were called viceroys excepting the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, and, I believe, the Governor- 
General of India. J. N. 


one inform me if there is any college in Copen- 

hagen which answers to our Heralds' College in 
London or the Lyon Office in Edinburgh ? I 
there is I should be glad to know how I should 
address it by letter. H. H. R. 

71, High Street, Oxford. 

January 5, 1872, mention is made of Miss Mary 
Horneck as being Goldsmith's "Jessamy Bride." 
Will any one kindly explain why she is thus 
called, and whether Goldsmith himself gave her 
the name ? 

In a letter to Mrs. Thrale, July 6, 1775, written 
at Ashbourne, apparently at Dr. Taylor's, John- 
son says he is glad that she has seen the Hornecks ; 
and Mrs. Thrale, writing to him a few days later, 
and mentioning Dr. Taylor, says : 

" To whom make in the meantime our best compli- 
ments, with love to his Jigg and his Jessamy" 

What is the allusion here ? JOHN W. BONE. 
26, Bedford Place, W,C. 

LA FONTAINE. Seeing the following anecdote 
lately in a Dublin newspaper, relating to La Fon- 
taine, 1 was tempted to cut it out and send it to 
you. Some of your readers, who are skilled in 
psychology, will perhaps be able to say whether 
such a story is probable or possible : 

" Some friends visited La Fontaine one evening and 
found him asleep. While talking with his wife, La Fon- 
taine entered in his nightcap, without shoes or stockings, 
just as he had risen ffrom his bed. His eyes were half 
open, but he evidently saw no object; he crossed the 
dining room where the party were sitting, went into a 
little closet or cabinet that served him as a study, and 
shut himself up in the dark. Some time after, he came 
out, rubbing his hands, and testifying much satisfaction, 
but still asleep ; he then went through the dining-room, 
quite unconscious of the presence of any one, and retired 
to bed. His wife and friends were very curious to know 
what he had been about in the dark. They all went 
into his stud}', and found there a fable newly written, the 
ink being still wet, which brought conviction that he had 
written and composed it during his dream. The ad- 
mirers of this most original author may wish to know 
which fable was composed under these extraordinary 
circumstances. It is one that is replete with the most 
natural and touching language it is that which unites 
the utmost grace of expression language is capable of 
in a word, it is the celebrated fable of The Two Pigeons. 
We are sure that many writers of our day write when 
thev are asleep." 

E. W. H. N. 


MANX QUOTATIONS. In Cregeen's Monks Die- 
tionary, under the word " Scriptyr," is the fol- 
lowing : 

"Te coontit tushey ooasle dy hoiggal leighyn as 
cliaghtaghyn y cheer ta dooinney cummal ayn. Agh ere 
woad s'ooasle'eh dy hoiggal slattyssyn niaii as leighyn 
beaynid dy bragh iarraghtyn ta ain ayns ny scriptyryn 

And I should be glad if some Manx reader 
would oblige by stating whence the quotation, 

4 th S. IX. FEB. 3, 72.] 


its received interpretation, and, if any, special ap- 

In the same dictionary, under the word Quaal- 
tagh, are the correct Manks words, but not the 
translation, of the communication in " N. & Q." 
(4 th S. iii. 424), which it may now be advisable 
to note. J. BEALE. 

OLD MAPS OP LONDON. In Cunningham's 
Handbook of London (ed. 1850, p. 189) mention 
is made of a map of London by Augustine Ryther, 
1604, in which the situation of the Fortune 
Theatre is said to be " distinctly marked." I have 
inquired for this map without success, and it 
would confer a great favour if any of your readers 
would inform me where a copy is to be found, or 
tell me the localities of any other really old and 
little known maps of London. 


MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. The following verses 
are said to have been written by this unfortunate 
queen : 

" 1 sigh and lament me in vain, 

And these walls can but echo my moan : 
Alas ! it increases my pain/ 

When I think on the days that are gone. 
*' False woman ! For ages to come 

Thy malice detested shall be ; 
For when we are cold in the tomb, 

There'll be hearts that will sorrow for nve. 
" The owls from the battlements cry, 

Hollow winds seem to murmur around, 
' Mary, prepare thee to die ! ' 
My blood runs cold at the sound." 

The verses and the tune were at one time 
many years ago very popular among the popula- 
tion for miles round Derby. The tune, which I 
have never heard, was one of the chimes on the 
bells at the church of All Saints in that town, 
and was only played on the market-day, Friday. 
I am told that it was one of the chimes at Lincoln 
Cathedral. Have the "many pleasing verses" 
written by this queen ever been published P 


MATJTHER. This word is used in Norfolk as 
the homely name for a young girl. Nares, Hal- 
liwell, and Wright give it in their glossaries, but 
the derivation is not furnished. Can any of your 
readers give it to me ? CORNUB. 

DR. T. E, NASH. Where is the best memoir of 
Nash, the Worcestershire historian, to be found ? 

H. S. S. 

fThe best account of the Rev. Treadway Russell Nash, 
D.D. is in Chambers's Biographical Illustrations of Wor- 
cestershire, p. 459. Consult also Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, passim ; Gent. May. Feb. 1811, p. 190 ; Rose's 
Biographical Dictionary, and " N. & Q." 2 nd S. vii. 173, 
325 ; 3 rd S. viii. 174.] 

NUMISMATIC BLUNDERS. At the meeting of 
the Liverpool Numismatic Society held on De- 

cember 19, 1870, there was exhibited a crown 
piece of William III. which bore on the obverse, 
instead of the legend DEI GRA. the blunder KI 
GRA. The coin had been in circulation, and was 
slightly larger than other crown pieces of the 
same reign. Has this typical blunder been de- 
tected before, or has it hitherto escaped the numis- 
matist's eye ? A MEMBER. 

[Two of these inaccurate pieces (1C9G) turned up ;;t 
the sale of silver coins and medals of G. Marshall, I/ q, 
(second portion) on July 1, 1852, lot 116, and were pur- 
chased for the British Museum for sixteen shillings.] 

PSALM cix. Can any of your readers explain 
to me the heading of Psalm cix. in the Prayer- 
Book ? The Vulgate has " Deus laudem meam 
ne tacueris," &c., but all the Prayer-Books I have 
been able to inspect give "Deus laudum." Is 
this a very early misprint continually repeated ? 

C. P. 

[The Rev. E. H. MacLachlan writes to The Guardian : 
" 1 should like to remark that the reading ' Deus laudutn ' 
seems the more correct of the two. At least it approaches 
nearest to the Hebrew, which, literally rendered, stands 
thus : ' Oh, God of my praise, be not silent ! ' So, too-, 
the Syriac, ' Oh, God of my praise (or glory), be not 
still ! ' Our Bible and Prayer-Book versions agree with 
the Hebrew and Syriac. The heading in question is, per- 
haps, incomplete, and, had it been fully expressed, it 
would have been ' Deus laudum mearum, ne sileas.' "~| 

QUOTATIONS WANTED. Many years ago I copied 
the lines enclosed. I found them scratched on a 
pane of glass in a little back room of an inn at 
Pangbourne. The last time I visited the inn they 
were gone. Some raciness as well as marks of a 
practised hand leads me to ask if any of your 
readers know aught of them ? The date, June 
1777, was also scratched on the glass. 
" In search of Wisdom far from Wit I fly 

Wit is a harlot beauteous to the eye, 

In whose bewitching charms our early time we spend, 

And vigour of our youthful prime 

But when reflection comes with riper years, 

And manhood Avith a serious brow appears, 

We cast the wanton off, to take a wife, 

And wed to Wisdom, lead a happy life. 

"June 1777." 

W. R. 

" Oh ! never was there chieftain so dauntless as Dundee, 
He has sworn to chase the Hollander back to the Zuy- 

der Zee." 

The lines are by the Hon. George Sidney 
Smythe. In what volume are they to be found P 

[In Smythe's Historic Fancies, 1844, p. 99.] 

SANDAL-WOOD. The Santalum, a species of 
sandal worts, produces an odoriferous kind of wood 
which, being pulverized, is burned as incense. 
What confirmation have we of the use of this 
same wood for building ? A. H. 

"THE SARESONS GROUNDS." What would this 
term probably mean as applied to land in the 



* S. IX. FEB. 3, 72. 

town of Birmingham in the sixteenth century? 
In " N. & Q." (1 st S. xi. 229, 494 j 3 rd S. vi. 4o(>, 
523) and in other works, it states that the name 
"Sarsen" was given by the early Christian Saxons 
to the stones in and about the various barrows of 
the island ; i. e. Saracen or heathen stones. Sara- 
cen and Sarsen seem to me entirely different 
words ? I cannot find the word Saracen in the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (see even the Record of 
the Crusades of 1096 and 1128), or in Kemble's 
Codex Diplomaticus SCLV. In the latter work the 
genuine A.-S. words Haefien-byrigels are used in 
no less than forty-three charters. (See Index, vi.) 
In Kees's Cydopcedia it states that Saracen is a 
word of " unascertained origin." I do not recol- 
lect it in A.-S. The old word sarcenet (see Troihis 
and Cressida, Act V. Sc. 1, and Milton's Prose, Bohn, 
1848, ii. 416) is descriptive of the texture of a 
certain kind of fine thin woven silk ; and I should 
think that the term " sarsen stone " means a stone 
of a small fine grit, in contradistinction to a coarse 
one. If so, this would not apply to Birmingham, 
as the subsoil of the old town is free from all 
stone but pebbles. It does not, I think, apply to 
silk manufacture, notwithstanding the proximity 
to Coventry. There is a family named Sarson in 
the town, 'but I cannot trace the name further 
back than a hundred years. Is it not more likely 
to be descriptive of some unoccupied ground con- 
nected with a sieve manufactory, from the old 
word sarse, a fine sieve, the wire for which would 
probably be manufactured upon the spot where 
the sieves were made ? C. CHATTOCK. 

Castle Bromwich. 

TORXISTER. Wanted the derivation or origin 
of the German word Tornister, a soldier's knap- 
sack. Hilpert says, "Probably from the Italian 
canestro, a bread-basket " ; but though that- may 
be, how did it come into Germany, and whence 
its present form ? GREYSTEIL. 

THE " VICTORY." Who christened the " .Vic- 
tory," Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar ? She was 
launched at Chatham on May 7, 1705. 


A correspondent lately sent a copy of this writ 
(dated 1219) respecting salmon-poaching to Land 
and Water. He stated that it was obtained "from 
the late Mr. Wakeman," but he did not know 
whence he had it, nor could he find it in Rymer. 
Is the writ genuine ; and if so, where may it be 
found ? PELAGIUS. 

Miss WARD. There is a volume entitled The 
Buried Bride and other Poems (Anon.), no date, 
but published in 1839 or 1840. The author was 
Miss Ward, a lady of Southampton, who died 
about twenty years ago. Can any of your readers 
give me the date of Miss Ward's death, or any 
further information about her ? R. INGLIS. 

SAMUEL WEBBE, SEX., a glee-writer of great 
celebrity, and who flourished during the last cen- 
tury, published at different periods a collection, 
consisting altogether of nine numbers of glees, 
beginning somewhere about the year 1764. Can 
any of your readers give a copy of the title of the 
first number published? The second is entitled 
A Second Collection of Canons, CatcJics, and Glees; 

I but the first number is said to have been entitled 
The Ladies' Catch-book ; being a Collection of 

1 Catches, Canons, and Glees, $c. by S. Webbe. Is 
this so ? If not. what may the title of the first 
number be ? W. T. P. 


(4 th S. viii. 203.) 

Some eighteen months or two years ago I 
bought of Bachelier Deflorennes a curious MS. 
volume purporting to contain not only the gene- 
alogy of this family but also its various intermar- 
riages. It is written chiefly on parchment; the 
first part in Dutch, the later parts in French. It 
contains about two hundred coats of arms of the 
Brederodes and the families with whom they 
were allied, and two or three beautiful miniatures, 
and one fine portrait on vellum of Adam de Brede- 
rode. I cannot, writing from here, give a more 
detailed description of this MS., because it is now, 
along with many others, on its way to America 
to await my return. I may add, that a much 
esteemed English authority inspected it on one 
occasion in Paris, after it came into my possession, 
and spoke of it as not only exceedingly interest- 
ing, but also remarkable for presenting so many 
internal and contemporaneous proofs of its au- 

According to this genealogy the last of the 
Brederodes died some two hundred years ago, 
though as to the date I am very far from certain, 
as I had no occasion to fix that point in my me- 
mory. But the fact, that this was the last male 
of the family, and that there were no descendants 
in female lines carrying the blood and the right to 
quarter the arms, was distinctly stated; and "as a 
consequence thereof, when this noble and gallant 
youth was buried, his arms, his spurs, his sword, 
and other weapons were interred with him, and 
his shield (escutcheon ?) reversed according to the 
ancient and honorable custom of all knightly and 
noble families." 

I do not remember the name of the parish 
church where he was buried, but when once more 
amongst my books will give a copy of this obi- 
tuary" notice. The first few pages of the MS. 
set forth that, although all men are derived from 
a common ancestor, yet the differences in charac- 
ter gave ascendancy to some, so that individuals 
became dominant and transmitted their power to 

4' h S. IX. FEB. 



tlieir families ; in fact, a defence of caste or nobi- 
lity, with a short exposition of the origin of 
armorial bearings, at last gliding into the history 
of the first known or reputed ancestor of " this 
princely house of Brederode." The MS., or rather 
collection for it is the work of several different 
hands, though forming a continuous narrative if 
edited by some one who understood heraldry and 
genealogy, would make, I think, a valuable addi- 
tion to the family histories of the Low Countries. 

I beg leave to ask a question in this connection. 
Did there exist generally such a custom as that of 
reversing the escutcheons over the tomb of the 
last of a race ? The only instance which I have 
noticed is in the Engydion church at Nuremberg 
of a Freiherr von Tetzel, who died in 1736. The 
shields go back to the early part of the twelfth 
century, and the family, so says the inscription, 
died out with him. The shield is painted correctly, 
but fastened upside down. Tnos. BALCH. 


(4 th S. viii. 128, 271, 338, 423, 492.) 

The umbrella mentioned by your learned cor- 
respondent F. C. H. was probably a curiosity 
many years ago, but a lady I know has one 
which was given her some few years since very 
similar to the one described. The difference is in 
the handle, which is made of light iron tubes, 
and opens and shuts like a telescope. It hangs 
to the waistband by a ring at the top, and is very 
useful at flower shows and such like, in sunshine 
and shower?. Juxn NKPOS. 

As an appendix to F..C. H.'s note I send the 
following, an extract from a recent number of 
Le Contour Vaudois of Lausanne : 

"Les innombrables parapluies qui se croisent dans les 
rues donneront quelque a propos aux lignes suivantes. 
II y a quelques mois, nous avons deja dit un mot des 
premiers parapluies dont on tit usage en Suisse. Void 
maintenant comment ils furent accueillis en Angleterve : 

"Ce n'etait pas une chose ordinaire, a Londres, qu'un 
parapluie au commencement du siecle passe. Quelques 
dandys seulement se hasardaient a deplorer cet instru- 
ment que les homines ne purent pendant longtemps 
porter sans encourir le reproche d'une delicatesse effe- 
minee, et qni fut gene'ralementconsidere comme 1'attribut 
essentiel d'une classe d'homme cordialement deteste'e de 
la populace anglaise, c'est-a-dire de la gent fran9aise 
trottemenu. On commenga par adopter le parapluie dans 
les cafes, ou il etait tenu en reserve pour les grandes 
occasions, comme pour une pluie d'orage, par exemple. 
Aldrs on le pretait, a defaut de voiture ou de chaise a 
porteur, au consommateur ; encore celui-ci ne voulait-il 
pas s'en charger. Un homme portant un parapluie pas- 
sait aux yeux de tout le monde pour une veritable petite- 
maitresse. Encore en 1778, un certain John Macdon aid, 
valet de pied, qui a ecrit ses me'moires, raconte que 
lorsqu'il lui arrivait de prendre avec lui un fort beau 
parapluie de soie qu'il avait rapporte d'Espagne, il ne 
pouvait s'en servir a sa commodite, le peuple lui criait de 

suite : ' He' ! monsieur le Francais, pourquoi ne prenez- 
vous pas une voiture ? ' Le fait est que les cochers de 
fiacre et les porteurs de chaises, reuuis par 1'esprit de 
corps, formaient une coalition tapageuse et formidable 
contre cette concurrence. Le meme ecrivain de 1778 
nous dit : ' A cette e'poque on ne portait point de para- 
pluies a Londres ; seulement dans les maisons nobles ou 
.riches, on en voyait un de grande dimension, suspendu 
dans le vestibule et destine a abriter, en cas de pluie, les 
dames ou les messieurs dans le trajet de la porte a leur 
e'quipage.' Sa soeur rut force'e un jour de quitter son 
bras pour se soustraire au torrent d'injures populaires que 
son parapluie lui avait attire. Mais il ajoute qu'il per- 
sista pendant trois niois, et qu'au bout de ce temps on ne 
fit plus d'attention a cette nouveaute'. Les e'trangers 
commencerent a. se servir de leurs parapluies et les An- 
glais suivirent 1'exemple; et aujourd'hui c'est un objet de 
grand commerce a Londres. Ce valet, s'il ne s'en fait 
pas trop accroire, fut done le premier qui se distingua 
dans cette capitale par 1'usage d'un parapluie de soie. 
En ce cas, il est le fondateur d'uue ecole fort nombreuse. 
Aujourd'hui un recensement de parapluies serait en meme 
temps uu recensement de population." 


The accounts of the churchwardens of Cran- 
brook, Kent, afford another instance of the pur- 
chase of a parish umbrella " 1783, paid for an 
umbrella 12s." This purchase is of six years 
later date than that at Sculcoates, and the price 
paid at Cranbrook is only sixpence more than 
half the price paid at Sculcoates. W. A. S. R. 


(4 th S. vii., viii., passim.) 

With your usual courtesy and fairness, I feel 
assured you will give me leave to say that tc 
ridicule what as a reason appeared to rne some- 
what grotesque not misrepresentation was rny 
intention in suggesting a comparison between 
H. R.'s statement of the views of Pro lessor Huxley 
and the narrative of Mark Twain. That I cited 
the reason first given by H. R., and not the entire 
passage, was simply to avoid unnecessary ver- 
biage, not deeming his remarks worthy of serious 
refutation. It is idle to complain of my way of 
dealing with the "argument" of an adversary, 
for argument there is none. I presume it is not 
pretended that Professor Huxley has discovered 
anv contemporary record ; if not, what amount of 
hypothetical evidence in the view of H. R. would 
be sufficient to overturn an historic fact ? Pro- 
fessor Huxley himself, so far as it appears, infers 
the Celticism of the early inhabitants of the 
British Isles from the testimony of existing rnonu- 
ments, and which I have already met by the plain 
statement of fact that wherever it has been pos- 
sible to bring these to the test of competent 
scholarship, such have invariably proved to be 
Gothic or Teutonic. It is surprising to find this 
peculiar dogma asserting itself even with men of 
acknowledged scholarship and ability. Mr. W. 



IX. FEB. 3, 72. 

F. Skene, in his preface to Fordun's Chronica 
Gentis Scotorum, just issued from the press, is 
clearly unable to curb his strong Celtic predilec- 
tions. " What Bower does in his account of these 
coronations," Mr. Skene says, "is to throw the 
more ancient and Celtic element into the back- 
ground," &c. : the fact being that there is not a 
tittle of evidence to show that such an element 
ever existed. Walter Bower, as is well known, 
was the continuator of Fordun's narrative. Good- 
all, who in 1744 issued proposals for printing the 
Scoto-chronicon, with Bower's continuation, says 
of the latter that he 

" Inserted a great number of historical passages very 
proper to be recorded and known, which, though omitted 
by Forduo, are of equal authority with his own work, for 
Bower had diligently consulted both records and other 
authentic monuments." 

All this Mr. Skene relates in his preface still, 
however, regarding it as " unfortunate " that the 
statements of Bower, rather than those of Fordun, 
should have been adopted as the basis of Scottish 
history. Mr. Skene considers it essential that 
Fordun's narrative should be distinguished from 
the "interpolations of his continuators, and re- 
produced freed from the manipulation it has under- 
gone at their hands ; " that is, that as the state- 
ments of Bower, and possibly those contained in 
certain supposed interpolations which may not be 
Bower's, do not fit with the " Doctrine of Cel- 
ticism," these must henceforward be discounted 
from the materials of authentic history. If the 
ethnological views of a section of archaeologists 
will not fit the record, the record must be altered 
to fit their hypotheses, and this probably furnishes 
the key to the whole undertaking. We find 
Mr. Cosmo Innes in like manner tampering with 
the text of Bede. How the circumstance that 
Bower lived a generation later than the originator 
of the narrative, whose work, with equal advan- 
tages of scholarship and access to the then existing 
records of events, he carried forward to its com- 
pletion, should render his testimony unworthy of 
credit, I fail to perceive. On the contrary, living 
nearer to ourselves in the order of time, and of 
consequence more remote from the events he 
describes, he must, on the showing of H. R., have 
had "access to some information and discussion 
that were not accessible to that eminent writer." 

W. B. ' 

[This discussion must now close.] 

forty years ago, I and a schoolfellow occasionally 
visited at the house of a Mr. Oxiey, a surgeoo 
there, in whose garden was a grave and tomb- 
stone, but to whose memory it was erected I 
cannot now remember. 

Again : a Mr. Jonathan Dent of Winterton, co. 
Lincoln, a very eccentric and wealthy man, was 
buried in his garden some thirty years ago ; and 
his old housekeeper, who was equally as eccentric 
though not so wealthy as her master, was a few 
years afterwards buried in her garden at Sturton, 
co. Lincoln. 

At Epworth, co. Lincoln, I believe there are 
several instances of burials in gardens. Last year 
a friend of mine purchased a medical practice at 
Epworth, and part of the arrangement was that 
he should occupy the house and premises of his 
predecessor. In looking over the agreement as to 
the occupation, I found a clause reserving to the 
landlord the right of access to the garden for the 
purpose of "burying the dead of his family." On 
inquiry I found the fact to be that the family burial- 
ground of the landlord was actually in my friend's 
garden in front of the house, and within five or six 
feet of the dining-room window; that the landlord's 
father was buried there some five or six years 
ago ; that another member of the family (an old 
lady) would in all human probability be buried 
there at no very distant date ; and that the land- 
lord himself would follow suit when his time 
arrived. The funeral of the landlord's father took 
place one evening when it so happened that the 
medical gentleman who then occupied the house 
chanced to have an evening party, and the pro- 
ceedings at the funeral, which were of a very 
simple character, were witnessed by the assembled 
guests from the dining-room window. No graves 
are visible, but below the grass-plot (and croquet- 
ground !) there is a very capacious vault, in which 
repose the remains of several members of this very 
curious family. 

My friend, the present occupant, watches with 
some degree of curiosity the health of the old 
lady who is to be the next occupant of the vault, 
but, being a hard-headed Scotch Highlander, he 
feels no interest in the matter beyond curiosity. I. 
suppose his profession has hardened him, for he 
says he fears no- living man, and he is sure the 
dead cannot harm him. W. E. HOWLETT. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

(4 th S. viii. 434, 539.) 

I know of several instances of burials in a 
garden, and the custom, as I shall shortly show, I 
is not even yet extinct in this county of Lincoln, j 
When a boy at Crowle (co. Lincoln), more than | 

This used to be a frequent practice in the West 
Indies amongst the earlier English families there. 

Apropos, perhaps it may interest P. A. L. to 
know that at much personal inconvenience, and 
with my own hands, I succeeded in removing the 
dense mass of creeping plants which literally 
covered, as with a green mantle, the whole of the 
tombs, near Kingston, Jamaica, of the unfortunate 
French refugees from St. Domingo; and have 

4 S. IX. FEB. 3, 72.] 


preserved copies of the epitaphs that now form a 
portion of the large collection of similar records 
of our earlier colonists, which I have not been 
able to publish owing to a variety of causes. 


In the register of deaths kept by the Society of 
Friends (now at Somerset House) is recorded the 
decease of Edward Champion at Murlinch, Somer- 
set, October 30, 1680, with the note" Buried in 
his garden." U. N. 

(4 th S. viii. passim.} 

On this subject it is at least incorrect to ask, 
whether the letter e was formerly pronounced a? 
(p. 381). The vowel letters e and a have each at 
present, in our language, three distinct full vocal 
sounds. The sounds of e occur in we, west, and 
there. Those of a are found in ware, has, and was. 
The e in there, and the a in ware, are practically, 
if not quite, the same. E and a occasionally stand 
for five of the seven principal vowel sounds, of 
which a scale has appeared ("N. & Q.," 4 th S. 
vi. 523). 

The question which continually crops up like 
Banquo's ghost, in the midst of our intellectual 
banquet in " N. & Q.," seems to be whether the 
name of the important midland town or shire, or 
other district, and the title derived from one or 
any of them, should be pronounced as if spelt with 
e or with a Derby or Darby. According to Glover 
(Derby, 1831) the Romans called a place near it 
" Derventio." In the reign of Athelstan (925-41) 
a coin struck at Derby has DEORABY marked on 
it. Domesday Book calls the shire u Dereberie " j 
and in Rymer's Fcedera, under date 1199, John I., 
" Dereby " occurs. But a still earlier mention 
appears to be that relating to the Phoenicians, 
who were principally interested in the district 
from its smelting works, originally carried on near 
the u Tors " or stony hill tops. 

The vowel sound now employed to pronounce 
Derby seems to be one which did not occur in 
the Roman alphabet, or at least there was no 
apparent provision made for it by a distinct vowel 
letter. The Roman e, like the Greek epsilon, was 
probably the English e in there, or, as some edi- 
tions of Walker have it, in desist. The Romans 
probably pronounced Dervmtio, Ddyrventio, or per- 
haps Dirventio or Durventio, which approached 
Darventio. There is a village on the river Der- 
went, near Derby, at present called Darley. In 
America, to which emigrating colonies transported 
the names of our towns, there are more "Darbys" 
than u Derby s" amongst the designations of places. 
Many names and words appear to have pos- 
sessed a double original, as if it had required two 
parental sources to produce vigorous verbal off- 

spring. If the Phoenicians regarded Derby as the 
depot of their smelting works amongst the "Tors" 
in the upper valley of the Derwent, they may 
have given it the broad sound afterwards pre- 
served on the Saxon coin marked DEORABY, and 
probably pronounced Dyorby. The river Derwent 
may have either had originally, or have come to 
bear a less broad initial syllable, and the town 
may have had its name modified as the dwelling 
on the Derwent. As for the title of the Stan- 
| ley family, even if it was given from a district 
still called " Darby," it is quite natural that at 
court the name should be refined into its present 
usual sound, especially if the great midland town 
was so called. JOHAN. 

Leland's Itinerary speaks of " Darby, a market- 
town in Darbyshire." A map of the county has 
the following title : " Comitatus Darbiensis. Valk 
and Shenk, Amsterdam, 1680"; and another, 
undated one, is inscribed " Darbiensis Comitatus, 
vernaculi Darbieshire." In many of the parish 
registers of the seventeenth century, and in several 
old deeds of that date also, I find the name pho- 
netically spelt. J. CHARLES Cox. 

Hazehvood, Belper. 

In the year 1833 I was a passenger by the mail 
coach (occupying the box-seat) from Manchester 
to London, leaving Manchester 9 A.M. At Derby 
we dined, and changed our coachman. Resuming 
my place on the box, I recognised in our new 
coachman a former whip of a Norfolk coach 'run- 
ning through Cambridge. After some conversa- 
tion of old times, I put the question (on his telling 
me that he had driven the Manchester mail out 
of Derby for the last six months) : " Then you 
must be some authority as to the pronunciation of 
the name of the town. Is it Derby or Darby ? " 
"Well, sir," replied my friend, "you see it is 
called Drby ; as if it was spelt with a h in- 
stead of a he ! " Surely this must be conclusive. 

R. S. E. 


[This discussion must now close.] 

(4 th S. ix. 15.) 

MR. STEPHEN JACKSON asks for information 
about two or three old songs and tunes, to which 
I respond with pleasure. The song " With 
Helmet on his Brow " was written to a French 
melody, of no great antiquity, entitled " Le petit 
Tambour." It was very popular in France about 
forty years ago, and perhaps originally belonged 
to some vaudeville. The composer is not known 
to me, nor am I acquainted with the author of the 
English words. 

" Robin Adair " is an ancient Irish air known 



S. IX. FKB. 3, '72. 

as Eileen Aroon, and by other names. It was 
revived, to the words of "Robin Adair," by 
Brahani in 1811, who sang it at his benefit at 
the Lyceum on December 17 in that year. The 
words and music were then published, the latter 
arranged by William .Reeve, the leader of the 
orchestra at the Lyceum. Boieldieu introduced 
the air in his opera of La Dame Blanche, but it 
must have been composed a couple of centuries 
before he was born. 

" The Last Rose of Summer " is a melody of 
far less antiquity than that just mentioned. It is 
also known as " The Groves of Blarney," and was 
brought into popularity about 1798, through 
MUliken's well-known song being written to its 
strains. The old name appears to have been 
"Lady Jeffries' Delight." Flotow introduced it 
in his opera of Martha (1847) : hence he is some- 
times ignorantly supposed to have been its 

" Home, sweet Home," is really the composition 
of Sir Henry Bishop, who inserted it in his 
National Melodies as a "Sicilian" air, but after- 
wards confessed to its being his own composition. 
He introduced the melody to the words of " Home, 
sweet Home," in Howard Payne's opera of Clari 
(1823), from which time its popularity com- 
menced. I have frequently talked with the late 
Sir Henry about his dramatic productions, when 
this was mentioned ; and our meetings were not 
^infrequent, as I had the pleasure to assist him in 
the compilation of his Lectures delivered at 
Oxford and elsewhere. Donizetti introduced the 
air (with some alterations) in his opera of Anna 
Bolena (1828), but he never dreamt of claiming 
its composition. The idea was to give character 
to an old English story by introducing a popular 
English melody. It was" suggested to the com- 
poser by Madame Pasta, who performed the 
heroine. I may add that I have seen two collec- 
tions of songs, one printed at Milan, the other at 
Naples, in both of which the air of " Home, 
sweet Home," appears with the name of Doni- 
zetti as the composer thus giving currency to 
the popular error. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

I have known this air for the last forty years as 
that of a French or perhaps Swiss song, com- 
mencing f{ Je suis le petit tambour." The rest of 
the song I have forgotten, if I ever knew it. My 
belief is that our version is an adaptation, but I 
can give no authority for this opinion. C. S. 

England has no claim to the air of this song, 
which is that of the well-known French chanson 
" Je suis le petit tambour." My copy of the song 
(a manuscript one) states the air to be " French, 
adapted by G. W. Reeve," but does not name the 
author of the words, which are not, I think, de- 
void of merit. H. A. KENNEDY. 

Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 

JERVIS : JARVIS (4 th S. viii. 530.) I think I 
can adduce a very good reason for Jervis not being 
pronounced, as it too frequently is by persons not 
of the family, as Jarvis. The ancestor of the 
Staffordshire Jervis family, of whom Viscount St. 
Vincent is a junior branch, descends from Ger- 
vasius de Standon ; whose grandson, Robert 
Gervays de Chatculme (18 Edward III.), had 
Anglicised the name, and in 149G it becomes 
James Jervys of Chatkyll. Gervasius is the Chris- 
tian name, derived from the martyr St. Gervaae 
(or St. Gervais), who is commemorated with St. 
Protase en June 19 in Spain, and on the following- 
day in France. The name of Gervase, as a Chris- 
tian name, may be found in the Markham family, 
and I doubt not in many others. THUS. 

_ STATTHE (4 th S. viii. 395, 489; ix. 23) is de- 
rived from the A.-S. stcieft, or sta'6, a shore or 


In Cumberland this name is applied to a depot 
for coals, &c. At Brampton, for instance, the 
coals from the Earl of Carlisle's pits are brought 
by rail, and deposited near the outskirts of the 
town, at a place which has always been known as 
the Coal-staith. J. MACQ.UEEN. 

passim ; ix. 19.) The daughters of the celebrated 
Maria-Theresa of Austria had two baptismal 
names : the first was their mother's. (This custom 
still obtains now-a-days in Catholic countries. I 
know a lady whose name is also Marie-Therese, 
and whose daughters are called Marie-Josephine, 
Marie-Sophie, and Marie Carola). 

One of the daughters of the great empress of 
Austria was the lovely and ill-fated Marie-Antoi- 
nette. Her sister, likewise a queen, was christened 
Marie-Charlotte. She was called by the latter 
name in her family, and always signed Charlotte, 
but in Italy she was ycleped Caroline, and by 
that name is she known in history. 

The eldest sister of Napoleon, the wife of Felix 
Bacciochi, who afterwards became Duchess of 
Lucca and Piombino, under the name of Eliza, 
had been christened Marie- Anne, and in 1792 she 
signed Marianne. (See La Revue retrospective, 
on Bibliotheque hixtorique, No. xii. Sept. 1834.) 
In her Acte de Naissance she is mentioned as being 
born on Jan. 3, 1777, " Fille du tres-illustre M. 
Charles de Buonaparte, Noble du Royaume, et de 
la tres-illustre Dame Marie Lsetitia son epouse." 
The coat of arms of the family is likewise there 
given. P. A. L. 

PUNISHMENT OF MUTINY (4 th S. viii. 549.) 
It was that grand sailor Captain Pellew, after- 
wards Lord Exmouth, who uttered the threat 
alluded to by M.D. I have not his Life by me, 
but I can trust my memory. A supposed incor- 
rigible character had been transferred to his ship 

S. IX. FEB. 3, 72.] 



from another. Captain Pellew greeted the new- 
comer: "I know all about you, and what your 
character is, my man. I'll give you a fair start, 
and let all that is past be past ; but if you take to 
playing at mutiny on board my ship, by God, I'll 
have you headed up in a cask and cast you loose 
at sea ! " The threat, or rather the character and 
system of the man who uttered it, answered its 
object fully. Whether it would have been acted 
on may, of course, be questioned. E. A. H. 

[A. R. G. has since sent another version of this story, 
quoted from Lord Collingwood's Life and Memoir.] 

BATTLE OF FLODDEN FIELD (4 th S. viii. 549.) 
MR. JACKSON will find a list of the Scottish noble- 

Thos. Pegg & Co., 1859, and published originally 
in The Archceologia (Eliana, vol. iii., new series. 
This is the best account of the battle I have met 
with. There is also another by the Rev. Robert 
Jones, vicar of Branxton, 12rno, Black wood & Sons, 
18(34, containing a number of interesting details. 
The English lost very few officers, and these are 
well known. But a list of those who distinguished 
themselves, and received the honour of knight- 
hood from the Earl of Surrey in consequence, will 
be found in "A Contemporary Account of the 
Battle " printed by Mr. David Laing in the seventh 
volume of the Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland, p. 151. W. E. 

BLUE-VINID CHEESE (4 th S. viii. 486, 556.) 
In Richardson's Dictionary it is stated that vinny 
or vinewed is derived from fynig : the past parti- 
ciple of &'ff-ean, to spoil, corrupt, decay : 

" Many of Chaucer's words are become, as it were, 
vinew'd or hoarie with over long lying." Beaumont, 
" Letter to Speght," (Chaucer, IGO-')- 
Richardson adds : 

" Lye remarks, that the Devonshire people call bread, 
cheese, &c., vinny, when spoilt by mould or must." 

Shakespeare has the word 

" Speak, then, you vineivedst leaven." 

Tro'dus and Cressida, ii. 1. 

So the later editions. The quarto has "vnsalted," 
and the folio " whinidst." Johnson suggests that 
Shakespeare altered vnsalted, remembering that 
want of salt was no fault in leaven. 

Another form of the word is fenowed. The 
Scripture " is a panary of wholesome food against 
fenoiued traditions " (Translator's Preface to Auth. 
Version.) From the same A.-S. word we get fen, 
' formerly applied to any corrupt matter, but now 
only to stagnant water or marsh. Thomson 
speaks of " the putrid fens." 

The above extracts will show why the term 
vinny is given to a particular sort of cheese, which 
is not ripe until it is rather "gone"; they will 
also explain the application of the word to a 
spoiled child. T. LEWIS 0. DAVIES. 

OF LONDON (4 th S. viii. 433, 554.) I related the 
anecdote referred to as the duke himself related 
it in the hearing of twenty persons, and I affirm 
that my version is word for word, with very slight 
variations, the duke's own. The most improbable, 
if not impossible, fiction of the "breeches" is 
self-evidently grafted upon it by some humorist. 

I say " word for word," but make an exception, 
because it is possible that the duke may have 
said < beeches " instead of ''trees"; but his ex- 
planation of his own interpretation, that "the 
Bishop of London possessed an estate near Har- 
row," c., sets aside this absurd caricature of the 
incident. It is not possible that two such mis- 
takes should have occurred. 


Eingmore, Ivybridge. 

I have heard this story as told by your two 
correspondents in " N. & Q." of Dec. 30 : but as 
MR. RANDOLPH says nothing about the breeches 
part of it, and he heard the duke tell it himself, 
I am afraid we must reluctantly give up this part. 
I say reluctantly, because the story as your other 
correspondents tell it, and as I heard it many 
years ago, is a capital one ; but, like many capital 
stories, too good to be true. One can hardly 
imagine a more farcical incident than the Bishop 
of London's receiving a note from the Duke of 
Wellington offering to show him as many pairs 
of breeches as the bishop wished to see. 

Apropos of breeches, may I tell you that a friend 
bf mine once asked me if a Breeches Bible was so 
called because it was meant to be put in the 
breeches pocket ! JONATHAN BOTJCHIEK. 

BATTLE OF HARLAW (4 th S. viii. 527 ; ix. 46.) ' 
For a prose account of this battle I would refer 
W. A. to Boeee's Chronicles of Scotland, trans- 
lated by Bellenden, ed. 1821, ii.*485 ; Scott's Prose 
Works, ed. 1870, xxii. 256 ; and Ty tier's History 
of Scotland, ed. 1841, iii. 149. Tytler's account is 
the longest, but they do not seem to differ ma- 
terially. ARCH. WATSON. 


Miss EDGEWORTH (4 th S. viii. 451, 557.) I beg 
to inform THUS that a very interesting work in 
three volumes was printed some years ago, for 
private circulation only, under the title Recollec- 
tions of Miss Edgeivorth. It was reviewed in the 
Edinburgh for October, 1867. A friend of mine, 
who is intimately acquainted with the Edgeworth 
family, kindly lent me his copy ; and I cannot help 
expressing my deep regret that so truly valuable 
a contribution to the history of contemporary 
society, both in England and abroad, should be 
withheld from general circulation. 

Harrow-on-the-Hill. GUSTAVE MASSON. 

There is an interesting autobiography of Miss 
Maria Edgeworth's -father, entitled, Richard Lovell 



[4h S. IX. FKB. 3, 

Edgeworth's Memoirs, begun by himself, and con- 
cluded by his Daughter, Maria Edgeworth. A third 
edition was published in London, 1844, 8vo. 

C. S. K. 
St. Peter's Square, Hammersmith, W. 

TAAFFE FAMILY (4 th S. ix. 15.) Is not the 
Taaffe mentioned by S. probably Christopher, not 
Charles? This Christopher was the son of John 
Taaffe of Ballybragan, co. Louth, by Mary the 
daughter of his uncle, Sir William Taaffe of Smar- 
more, the father of Sir John, the first Viscount 
Taaffe, and ancestor of the Earls of Carlington. 
Christopher married Lady Susanna Plunket, 
daughter of the Earl of Fingall, and was the an- 
cestor of the Mayo branch of the family. He was 
engaged in the rebellion of 1641, and his estates 
were forfeited, and after the restoration appear to 
have been granted to his cousin Theobald, the first 
Earl of Carlington, from whom he is very likely 
to have had a lease. See the Memoirs of the 
Taaffe Family, privately printed at Vienna in 
1856. J. R M. 

RUDSTON MONOLITH (4 th S. viii. passim; ix. 
20.) More than forty years ago I carefully ex- 
amined this remarkable monument, and ascer- 
tained that it was formed of a rock derived from 
the same tertiary formation as most of the pillars 
of Stonehenge and other monuments of the same 
kind in that part of England,, which Professor 
Buckland, from its extensive use in such works, 
at one time named " Druid-sandstone." I com- 
municated my observations to him at the time, 
and sent a drawing and specimens of the stone to 
the Geological Society. W. C. TREVELYAN. 


BOSWELL (4 th S. viii. 433, 557.) WALTHEOF 
has, I think, misunderstood Gray's remarks on 
Boswell, so far at least as they refer to his being 
bora two thousand years after his time. Gray 
does not say this of Boswell, so far at least as I 
understand him, but of Paoli. If WALTHEOF will 
refer to my note and read my quotation from Gray 
again, I think he will see that the phrase is applied 
to Paoli. With regard to Gray's implication that 
Boswell was a fool, and Macaulay's estimate of 
him, that he was t( one of the smallest men that 
ever lived," I can only say that I think they are 
both right. He was, indeed, the greatest of bio- 
graphers, but his character (his admiration of 
Johnson and Paoli excepted) seems to me con- 
temptible. Macaulay calls him " a dunce, a para- 
site, and a coxcomb," and still harder names. His 
hero-worshipping tendency, however, undoubtedly 
saved him from utter degradation. His motto 
seemed to be " Meliora probo, deteriora sequor." 
I do not know that we should be justified in say- 
ing that Boswell devoted himself to men like 
Johnson and Paali merely because they were 
famous; he evidently had a genuine love for no- 

bility of character and loftiness of intellect in 
others, although he had so little of either himself. 
I must not, however, write an essay on Boswell, 
so I will say no more. JONATHAN BOTJCHIER. 

" A PRETTY KETTLE OF FISH" (4 th S. viii. 549) 
is said to take its origin from a particular kind of 
fetechampetre, where salmon was the principal dish. 
The party, providing themselves with a large 
caldron, selected a place near a salmon river. The 
salmon, after being well boiled in brine, was par- 
taken of by the company in gipsy fashion. The 
discomfort of such a .pic-nic, especially in bad 
weather, is thought by some writers to have given 
rise to the phrase " a pretty kettle of fish." 

" Kittle of fish " is another saying, signifying a 
pretty muddle, the term being derived from the 
kittle of fish or apparatus of pulleys employed in 
dragging the flukes of the anchor towards the 
bow after it had been hoisted to the cat-head. If 
the pulleys in question got out of order they 
were not inaptly termed " a pretty kittle of fish." 
Whether the sea or land term is the correct ex- 

Slanation, I will not pretend to say. Sir W. 
cott, in St.. Ronan's- Well, refers to the practice 
of the pic-nic at the river's side. J. A. S. L. 

WALPOLIANA (4 th S. ix. 18.) Lowndes states 
these ana to have been collected by John Pinker- 
ton. While mentioning this book, it is well to 
note the following remarks of Miss Berry : 

" Talking of works, don't let me forget to answer your 
question about the Walpoliana. If you had seen, 3 r ou 
would not doubt what we must think about it that it i* 
infamous thus to make a dead man speak, and conse- 
quently say whatever his editor pleases, which is noto- 
riously the case in many instances in the Walpoliana^ 
besides repeating private and idle conversation, of which, 
of all other things, poor Lord Orford bad the greatest 
dread. I was at first almost sorry to find that the man 
had spoken civilly of us, for fear anybody might suppose 
we countenanced such a work ; but I am told, which I 
own I did not expect, that it has not at all succeeded t 
that it is generally decried, known not to have our sanc- 
tion, and that the bookseller has lost money by it, which 
last one must be glad to hear, as otherwise the editor 
might, and I daresay would, have made other two, or 
other six, such volumes, whenever he pleased." Journal 
and Correspondence, ii. 108, ed. 1865. 

S. W T . T. 

HARLEIAN SOCIETY (4 th S. viii. 434, 520.) 
With all respect to MR. MARSHALL, I must con- 
tend that his note of explanation respecting the 
volume which he has recently edited for the Har- 
leian Society fully bears out my complaint. The 
society promised by its prospectus a copy of the 
Visitations of Notts of 1569 and 1614, and I cannot 
think that this promise has been fulfilled by a 
"faithful transcript of Harl. MS. 1555 collated 
with Harl. MS. 1400," inasmuch as these MSS. 
jumble together, more or less accurately, the pedi- 
grees in both Visitations with " enlargements " 
and other pedigrees by an anonymous compiler. 

4 t! S. IX. FEB. 3, '72.] 



I do not doubt that the editor has faithfully re- 
produced the MSS., but it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish in this volume whether any particular 
pedigree depends on the authority of the Visita- 
tion of 1569 or that of 1614, or upon any authority 
at all. The volume, therefore, is worthless for 
historical purposes. It may be said that the 
society had not access to the original Visitations 
>f Notts ; but they were surely not obliged to print 
these particular Visitations at all. The British 
Museum contains Visitations of other counties, 
which are either originals or copies by well-known 
heralds ; and moreover, there are many genealo- 
gical MSS. such as Le Neve's Knights, which are 
as interesting as any Visitation. Such MSS. 
should surely be exhausted first. The Haiieian 
Society has taken up an important position, and 
its subscribers have a right to protest against its 
funds being wasted on printing MSS. which can- 
not promote the true interests of genealogy and 
history. TEWARS. 

" SPEEL" (4 th S. viii passim: ix. 21.) I copy 
from niy fragmentary MS. before alluded to in 
these pages (the work of Boucher, Barker, & 
Hunter), the following notes on spail: 

" Spail. Chips, splinters ; any small pieces of wood of 
which no use can be made. (See Grose's Prov. Dic- 
tionary; the Tour to the Caves, and Gloss, to Exmoor 
Scolding.) Skinner has it in his Etymologicon, and says 
he took it from Higgins. It is common in all the Eng- 
lish northern counties. 

" Too late I knew, Quha hewis to hie, 
The spoil sail fall into his eie.' 

Cherry and Slae, at. 14. 

See the same in Fergusson's Proverbs, No. 323, p. 13 

' He is not the best wright that hews maist spails.' 

Fergusson, Proverbs, No. 343. 

' Quhil the spalls and the sparkis spedely out sprarng.' 

Pinkerton's S. P. vol. iii. p. 94. 

Ibid. 108. Kendal Addresses, p. 32 ; Learmont, p. 23. 
Holland, in his translation of Pliny, vol. ii. v p. 44, spells 
the word spils, and spels at p. 149. In this word we are 
supposed to be indebted to the German spalten, to cleave, 
split (itself a derivative from the same theme), or shave 
off. The word spalt, a more obvious, because more im- 
mediate derivative of spalten) has also still a provincial 
existence among us. See it in the list of Suffolk words 
in the Hist, of Hawsted, p. 173, Bibl. Topogr. vol. v., and 
also in Grose's Provincial Diet, spelled spolt. He says 
it is a Norfolk term, and signifies wood grown brittle 
through dryness. But the definition would have been 
closer to the sense of the original, and not less faithful, 
had it been said that it was such wood as would easily 
split, or was apt to split, whether from dryness or any 
other cause. In Sweden alone they have formed a noun 
from this Teutonic spalten, resembling the Northern spail, 
viz. Spjal, segmentum, lamina; and a small portion of a 
field, such as we might call a slipe, is there also called a 
spjal. Analogous to this spail, and of the same family, 
is spelk, a thin limber piece of wood. ... In many 
parts of Scotland split pease are on the same principle 
called spittings." 


West Derby, Liverpool. 


passim ; viii. 34, 99, 426.) If the discussion of 
this passage is not quite exhausted, I think I may 
add a testimony to the use of the phrase prior to 
Keble's Christian Year, from an epitaph upon a 
tablet on the walls of the nave of the church in 
this village. 

The inscription runs as follows: 

" Near this place lieth the body of 


Who departed th?s life May 12th, 1803, 
Aged 42 Years. 

" In perfect health I went from home. 
Not thinking that my glass was run. 
The earth is nothing, heaven in all, 
Death has not hurt "me by my fall. 
Dear friends, pray weep for me no more, 
I am not lost, but gone before. 
All flowers grow, but fade away, 
More sudden death does life decay." 

R. H. A. B. 
Sutton-under-Brailes Rectory. 

" GREAT GRIEFS ARE SILENT " (4 th S. viii. 
passim ; ix.23.) I recollect reading the following 
lines in a lady's album some fifty years ago. 
Some of your readers may know whence they 
came : 

" Passions are likened best to floods and streams 
The shallow murmur, but the deep are dumb." 

Balfour, Markinch, N T .B. 

[Sir Walter Raleigh, "The Silent Lover."] 
For a modern example of this sentiment, vide 
11 The Garden of Florence " by John Hamilton 
Reynolds : 

" Sternest sorrow ruffles not the mind." 


(4 th S. viii. 369; ix. 26.) I ask to be allowed a 
word with your correspondent S., who, in com- 
menting on the verb progress, introduces the proper 
names Trafalgar and Dunsinane. As to the former 
of these two, it is nearly twenty years since I ven- 
tilated its accentuation in your columns (1 st S. vi. 
362) ; and about six years ago (3 rd S. ix. 297) the 
subject was again mooted, apparently in ignorance 
of its having been already discussed. To the in- 
formation thus collected in your pages I must 
briefly refer S., who will. see that Byron, in his 
" spoils of Trafalgar," neither fell into " a false 
pronunciation," nor used u a poetical license." I 
would especially call his attention to the con- 
cluding paragraph of MR. C. II. COOPER'S con- 
tribution at 1 st S. vi. 438. 

Nor is S. more happy in his allusion to Shake- 
speare's Dunsinane. He says, " after ' Birnam 
Wood shall march to Dunsinane ' (which is cor- 
rect), we have ' high Dunsinane hill.' " Now here 
are two errors : (1.) to be accurate, "Dunsinane 
hill " occurs in Act IV. Sc. 1, and co 

not after, all the other 

comes before, 
passages (in Act V.) 



[4 th S. IX. FI-B. 3. 72. 

where the name is found. This is a small matter, 
but (2) the accent on the final syllable is not, as 
he says, correct, if we are to take the local pro- 
nunciation and on what else can we rely ? we 
must place the accent on the penultimate. -In 
fact Shakspeare was right in his first guess as to 
the quantity. 

I know the place well, and hardly a week passes 
without my directing a letter thither, which I do 
to Daratfmute, as the name, to prevent blunders, 
is now always spelt. If S. have occasion to hire 
a vehicle at the Perth station for conveyance to 
the classic spot, he had better surrender his view 
of what is correct, and adopt mine, or he may 
meet with difficulty. W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

COUNCIL OF EPHESUS (4 th S. ix. 75.) In 
answer to G. D. W. O. see Lectures on ilie Eastern 
Church (Lecture IV.), and an article on the 
" Council of Constantinople " in the Quarterly 
Review about five years ago. A. P. S. 

"ONCE IN THE SILENCE," ETC. (4 th S. viii. 528.) 
These lines are undoubtedly the opening verse of 
a hymn, to be found in several collections, e. g. 
in Montgomery's Christian Psalmist, p. 62. They 
are not identical, doubtless of the same hymn. 
The hymn begins / 

" In Israel's fane by silent night." 

S. S. S. 

Words similar to, though not identical with, 
th^se will be found at the beginning of No. xxxii. 
of Easy Hymns for National Schools, published by 
the Christian Knowledge Society. T. W. WEBB. 

ROSEMARY (4 th S. viii. 553.) There must be 
some mistake in the article 'signed THUS. The 
rosemary is not the Rosa spinosissima a rose that 
has been fully discussed in "N. & Q." The rose- 
mary has nothing to do with the rose, or, as some 
think, with the Virgin Mary. The Latin name 
is Ros marinus, i. e. sea dew ; and it is so called 
because the under part of the leaves is white, as 
if splashed with the spray of the ocean. 


SIR ADAM PESHALL (4 th S. ix. 14) was great- 
grandson and heir, it is presumed, of Sir Adam 
Peshall, who was sheriff (an officer in those days 
of great authority) of Staffordshire 15 Edw. Ill, 
and who made a great accession to his estate by 
marriage with two heiresses, the daughters of 
John Weston, Lord of Weston Lizard, co. Salop, 
' and John de Caverswall of Bishop's OfHey, same 
county. In Eyton's Antiquities of Shropshire the 
name frequently occurs, and some account of Sir 
Adam is given in Erdeswick's Surrey of Stafford- 
sMre by Hafwood, p. 164 et seq. His pedigree 
will be found in Burke's Extinct and Dormant 
Baronetcies, p. 406. II. M. VANE. 

Eaton Place, S.W. 

ix. 35.) That " a goose is a very silly bird, too 
much for one but not enough for two," is scan 
a local saying. I have heard it in several widely 
separated parts of England. Nor is the credit of 
it always given to Walsall. Tewkesbury, at least, 
has a claim on it. WM. PENGELLY. 

THE LEXINGTON PAPERS (4 th S. ix. 36.) The 
following is from Sharpens Peerage, published by 
John Sharpe, London, 1830 : 

" Robert, first Baron Lexington, descended from the 
Lords of Lexington, eo. Notts, barons by tenure, temp. 
K. John, was distinguished f '<>r his loyalty to K. Char! 
and for his services AV.-IS created, ir>4o, Baron Lexington, 
of Aram, co. Notts. He died 1G68. 

" Robert, second Baron Lexington, son and heir, was 
eminent as a diplomatist at the Courts of Vienna and 
Madrid, and at the Treaty of Ryswick. He flic <' 


CHEAP BOOKCASES (4 th S. ix. 37.) Iron fra 
for bookcases can be purchased at the Eagle 
Foundry, Oxford ; but I should hesitate to rev 
mend them at all events for private libraries. 


TERTIARIES (4 th S. viii. 167, 215, 428, 488.) I 
am sorry that F. C. H. should be hurt at the : 
of my reply, but I submit that his answer to 
PELAGIUS'S query was by no means correct. His 
further assertion that the third Order of 
Francis "is hardly known and rarely spoke) \ 
as the Order of Penance, is certainly quite incor- 
rect ; for that is the designation used, not only in 
the form of admission of persons, in to the order. 
but also in every document and work thereto 
relating from the time of its institution down to 
this present date at least that I have ever come 
across. Here and in France the order is always_ 
entitled " 1'Ordre de la Penitence ''; and in all the 
English works I possess, commencing- with Father 
William Staney's Treatise of the Third Order of 
Saint Francis, commordi c'llled the Order of Penance, 
published at Do way in 1617, and ending with The 
M'tnnal, published by Messrs. Burns & Lambert 
in 1857, it is called the Order of Penance. I wish 
also to add here that Alban Butler's statement, 
that St. Francis left the order only a confra- 
ternity, and not a religious order, is a mere as- 
sertion, the exactness of which is by no im- 
proved. W. H. JAMES WEALE. . 


PALESTRTKA,(4 th S. viii. 402, 518.) The plain 
chant in the Graduale, Vesperale, and Diurnale, 
published by Hauicq at Mechlin, differs consider- 
ably from that in the mediaeval manuscripts for- 
merly, and even now, in use in some churches in 
the Low Countries and in Germany. The altera- 
tions were adopted from manuscripts copied in 
Rome by, or rather for, the late Cardinal Sterckx, 
and said to be by Palestrina, and to embody that 
musician's ideas for the reformation of the plain 

4 th S. IX. FEB. 3, '72.] 



chant; but, I believe, the editors went even fur- 
ther than the manuscript. Their theory was, that 
the chant had become corrupted in the course of 
time by additions, and, I believe, they claim to 
have brought it back to its original purity. The 
result, in my humble opinion, is, that they have 
produced chants, in the hymns especially, which 
lack the go and spirit of those in the older manu- 
scripts. This modern Mechlin use has not been 
adopted in any other diocese in 'Belgium. 
Bruges. W. H. JAMES WEALE. 

A GENEALOGICAL HINT (4 th S. viii. 5.13 j ix. 45.) 
Your correspondent is late with his suggestion as 
to the adoption of the mother's maiden name 
before that of the father. This was made by 
E. G. R. fifteen years ago in your columns (2 nd 
S. ii. 197), and approved by the late M. A. LOWER 
in 2 nd S. ii. 2D9, where that great authority 
pointed it out as already made by himself years 
before that in his English Surnames ; and there it 
will be found in a note, vol. i. p. 172 ; 3rd edition. 

Shinfield Grove. W. T. M. 

BAUDKIN (4 th S. ix. 37.) In the Glossary of 
Ecclesiastical Terms, lately edited by the IJev. 
Orby Shipley, the name of the stuff called 
" Baudkin " is said to have come from its having 
been originally manufactured at Baldeck or Baby- 
lon, It is otherwise called " Baldequin " and 
" Baudekin," and from its being used for the 
covering of the canopy carried over the Blessed 
Sacrament in processions, the canopy itself came 
to be called "Baldechiimm," as found in all books 
of ritual and ceremonial. F. C. H. 

[HORATTUS writes that a note on this subject will be 
found in the first volume of Col. Yule's Marco Polo.~\ 

CAPTURE or KICHARD I. (4 th S. ix. 38.) A 
detailed narrative may be found in C. Knight's 
Popular History of England, published by Brad- 
bury and Evans, 1856, i. pp. 319, 320. Some 
interesting particulars are also given in C. Selby's 
Events to be remembered in the History of England, 
published. by Darton and Co., pp. 65, 66. 


POYNTZ FAMILY (4 th S. ix. 38.) C. L. W. C. 
will find in a foot-note of Croker's edition (1853) 
of BosivelVs Life of Dr. Johnson, viii. p. 145, a 
short account of the burning of Cowdray, and the 
drowning of the two sons of Mr. Poyntz, which 
event is stated to have occurred on July 7, 1815. 

P. K. 

"ALL-TO" (4 th S. viii. passim.) A* much 
earlier example than any given by your corre- 
spondents occurs in the inscription of the dial at 
Ivirkdale church, Yorkshire, which informs us that 
in the Confessor's days Orm rebuilt the church : 


" When it was all tobroken & tofallen." 
This seems very much to the purpose in refer- 

ence to MR. SKEAT'S undoubtedly correct view as 
to the origin of the phrase. J. T. F. 


A Dictionary of English Etymology. By Hensleigh 
Wedgwood, M.A., late Fellow of Chr. Coll., Cam. 
Second Edition, thoroughly revised and corrected by the 
Author, and extended to the Classical Roots of the 
I^mguage. With an Introduction on the Formation of 
Language. Parts 1. and II. (Trilbner & Co.) 
In the ten or twelve years which have elapsed since 
the first appearance of this important contribution to our 
knowledge of English etymology, not only has that 
branch of study made considerable progress, but the pub- 
lication of the earlier monuments of our language has 
been carried on to a remarkable extent. Besides this, 
the dictionary itself has been made the subject of special 
annotation and criticism, as by Mr. George P. Marsh in 
the American edition of the first volume, and by E. Miil- 
ler in his Etymological Dictionary (Kb'then, 1865-7), and 
by various writers in numerous periodicals. In preparing 
this new edition, Mr. Wedgwood has availed himself of 
these various aids ; and wherever he has seen reason to 
alter the etymology of a word from that originally given, 
such word is marked with an asterisk. While in addi- 
tion, in deference to the judgment of respected friends, 
the etymology of words of classic derivation, generally 
omitted in the first edition, has been concisely inserted in 
the present work. The book is beautifully printed in 
double columns, and will be completed in five parts, 
which will form a hand-some volume ; arid as the whole 
of the copy is ready for the press, the book will be com- 
pleted by April of the present year. We shall look with 
great interest for such completion and for the Introduc- 
tion, which is to contain the author's views on the 
formation of language. 

Pictures by Daniel Maclise, with Descriptions and a 
Biographical Sketch of the Painter by James Daffome. 
(Virtue & Co.) 

We some time since called attention to a handsome 
volume published by Messrs. Virtue, containing a series 
of engravings from' the best pictures by Charles Leslie. 
The work before us is a companion, and a very fit- 
ting one, containing as it does eleven engravings from 
the following pictures by Daniel Maclise Salvator 
Rosa and the Picture-Dealer ; A Scene from Midas ; 
Gil Bias at Pennaflor ; A Scene from Twelfth Night ; 
The Play Scene in Hamlet ; The Origin of the Harp ; 
The Nymph of the Waterfall ; Undine ; Orlando about 
to Wrestle with Charles, the Duke's Wrestler ; The 
Ballad Singer ; and lastly, the Warrior's Cradle. The 
engravings are introduced by a biographical sketch of the 
artist's life, and accompanied by critical and illustrative 
descriptions from the pen of Mr. Dafforne ; the whole 
forming a handsome volume which cannot be otherwise 
than welcome to the numerous admirers of Daniel 

Alphabetical Dictionary of Coats of Arms belonging to 
Families in Great Britain and Ireland, forming an 
extensive. Ordinary of British Armorials upon an en- 
tirely New Plan. By the late John W. Papworth, 
F.R.I.B.A., &c. Edited, from p. 696, by Alfred W. 
Morant, Esq., F.S.A., &c. Part XV. 
Not only the original subscribers to this important 
heraldic work, but all Students of Heraldry and British 
Family History, will rejoice to see that the labours of 



S. IX. FEB. 3, 72. 

the late Mr. Papworth are not to be left in an imperfect 
and consequently unsatisfactory state, but that, with the 
assistance of Mr. Morant, the book is to be completed, 
(the whole of the MS. having been prepared for press), as 
early as possible with due regard to careful revision. 
For'the benefit of such of our readers as may be desirous 
of getting prospectuses and information respecting it, we 
may state that communications with regard to these should 
be addressed to Mr. Wyatt Papworth, 13, Hart Street, 
Bloomsbury Square. 

Debrett's Illustrated Peerage and Titles of Courtesy of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; to 
which is added much Information respecting the imme- 
diate Family Connections of the Peers. Under direct 
Personal Revision and Correction. (Dean & Son.) 
Debretfs Illustrated Baronetage, with the Knightage of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ; to 
which is added much information respecting the imme- 
diate Family Connections of the Baronets. Under 
direct Personal Revision and Correction. (Dean & 

Debrett, for which its editor claims the merit of being 
"par excellence the cheapest and most popular book of 
its class," has certainly the additional one of being 
very compact and very complete. The difficulties with 
which the editors of publications of this nature have to 
contend in their endeavours to record the facts of family 
history are curiously illustrated in the Baronetage before 
us, in the shape of a letter threatening the editor with 
an action at law in case he does not omit a certain fact, 
which we believe is still subjudice. 

COL. YULE'S "MARCO POLO." A statement, copied 
from the Civil Service Gazette, has appeared in several 
papers, that the article in the last Quarterly Review on 
Col. Yule's Marco Polo was written by Sir Henry Raw- 
linson, K.C.B., whereas it is from the pen of Mr. R. H. 
Major, F.S.A., Keeper of the Maps and Charts in the 
British Museum. 

THE literary brotherhood will be glad to learn that the 
Eleventh Annual Supplement to the Catalogue of the 
Library of the Corporation of London has just been issued. 



Particulars of Price, &c.. of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

Vol. LV. Knickerbocker's New York. 
Vol. LXIV. Davenport's History of the Bastile. 
Vols. LXXIV., LXXV. Davenport's Narrative, 2 vols. 
Wanted by Messrs. H. Sotheran, J. Baer, tf Co., 136, Strand, W.C. 

THE COMPLETE SERVANT: being a Practical Guide to the peculiar 

Duties and Business of all Descriptions of Servants, by Samuel aud 

Xarah Adams. London, 1S25. 

D'URFEY's SONGS: containing " A Lovely Lass to a Friar Came." 
Wanted by Meisrs. Dalton $ Lucy, 28, Cockspur Street, S.W. 

Wanted by Surgeon-Major Fleming, 113, Marine Parade, Brighton. 
MARMION. Original Quarto Edition, published in 1808. 

Wanted by Rev. John Pickford, M.A., Hungate Street, Pickering, 

DUBLIN REVIEW. New and Old Series. Complete or odd parts. 
BROWNSON s QUARTERLY REVIEW. Complete or odd parts. 
Wanted by Jfr. W. E. Ktlly, Graftou Street, Dublin. 




CAM DEN'S BRITANNIA. Gough's Edition, 4 Vols. 

Wanted by Mr. George CMoiv, 8", Caversham Road, X. W. 


Owing to the number of Replies waiting for insertion, 
we are compelled to curtail our Notes on Books, 8fC. 

FOLK LORE includes Popular Superstition, Ballads, 
Legends, and generally, as the name implies, the Lore of 
the People. It will be seen from this that we cannot pos- 
sibly give a list of books upon the subject. England, 
France, and Germany may each boast of as many as would 
fill a small library. 

C. C. An inquiry after those worthies The Three 
Tailors of Tooley Street," has been twice made in " N. & Q." 
3 rd S. x. 269 ; 4 tl S. iv. 255, but without eliciting any 

INQUIRER (Edinburgh.) The remark of Uncle Toby 
at his visit to a sick brother officer, "Before the wheel could 
turn at the cistern," appears to be an allusion to Eccle- 
siastes, xii. 6. 

THOMAS RATCLIFFE. The custom of throwing the hood 
has been noticed in "N. & Q." 2 nd S. iv. 486 ; v. 94, 137. 

MAKROCHEIR. For the maxims of the School of 
Salerno consult the Penny Cyclopaedia, xx. 346, and 
" N. & Q." 3 rd S. i. 53. Sir Alex. Croke edited an edition 
of the Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, Oxford, 1830. 

QUONDAM. For the well-known nursery tale of " The 
Three Wise Men of Gotham " we must refer our corre- 
spondent to Mr. HalliweWs edition of The Merrv Tales of 
the Wise Men of Gotham (Lond. 1840), arffo"N. & Q." 
1" S. ii. 476, 520. 

HERBERT RANDOLPH. The passage occurs in Shake- 
speare, All's Well that Ends Well, Act I. Sc. 3, where the 
Clown says : " Though honesty be no puritan, yet it will 
do no hurt ; it will wear the surplice of humility over the 
black gown of a big heart." 

JOHN PICKFORD. Eques Auratus is a knight bachelor, 
called auratus, or gilt, because anciently none but knights 
might gild or beautify their armour with gold. In law this 
term is seldom used ; but instead of it miles, and sometimes 

B. C. Consult the article "Carew" in Prince's Worthies 
of Devon, edit. 1810, 4to, the articles "Carew" in The 
Imperial Dictionarv of Universal Biography, Edinburgh, 
vol. i., and " N. & Q." 2 nd S. vi. 395, 439. 

THUS. There is a portrait of poor Henry Carey, musi- 
cian and poet, painted by Worsdale. (the celebrated 
Jemmy!}, and engraved by Faber in 1729, which has 
become rare. 

NESCIO. J. T. Smith's promised Anecdotic History of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, was never published. 

ANTIQUARIAN. Your first query had come to hand, but 
the one since received will be substituted for it. Our 
readers generally must not suppose that their papers are 
overlooked simply because they do not make an immediate 
appearance in the columns of " N. & Q." 

ERRATA. 4 th S. ix. p. 78, col. ii. line 3 from bottom, for 
" on " read "after"; p. 79, col. i. line 2, and in note, for 
"Borville" read " Bosville" ; line 9, for " appointments " 
read " appointment " ; p. 79, col. ii. line 8 from bottom, 
and throughout the article, for "Teat " read " Peat " ; 
and p. 80, col. i. line 21, for " Gent. Mag. 1837, iii." read 
" Gent. Mag. 1837, viii." 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications 
which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor at the Office, 
43, Wellington Street, W.C. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and address of 
the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee 

4> S. IX. FEB. 10, 72.] 





NOTES : Lonsrtvity Gossip, Ac., 107 Chaucer R-stirwl t 
109 Lord Brougham ami Literature, 111 The Order 
of 1lu> Black Eajdf, It). The of Switzerland, 112 
Scotch TMonoy New Bells at Ashti>n-under-Lym> Wool- 
\vii--h Dockyard Epitaph in Great Wiibraham Church 
First Actor of " Hamlet " Y.vse's " Arithmetic," 115. 

QUERIES: Spal.s of Oliver Cromwell, 116 The Arnolds 

Dr. R. H. Black and James Black James Hay, Earl of 
Carlisle Cherries and the Holy Family Clan Tartan 
Sir Francis Drake Deer used in Sacrifice Sir Philip 
Francis "God in the Generation of the Righteous" 
Hatton's "New View of London" Holy Bible Hali- 
well Priory Illurntnatinsc Langnedoc Linguistic 
Ciiildre.n Lunrly Island, " Herculis Insula" Mrs. A. 
Manson Rev. Mv. Moultrie Persecution of the Heathen 

"To Play Hell and Tommy" Provincialisms Pnt- 
tock Sir James Stansfield As straight as a, Die" 
Song Unicorns Major John Wade, circa Ifiol, 116. 

REPLIES : Ebony Portrait of Louis XVI. : Walter Blake 
Kirwan, 120 Etymology of (" Harrowsate," 121 The 
Size of a Book. 122 Translations of the Talmud, !?:> 
Napoleon on Board th^ Northumberland, Ib, White 
Bird Featherlcss, &c., 125 Width of Cliurch Naves 
Four Children at a Birth Queen Mary Printed Matter 
(? >pi< d Cure for Rheumatism Hnro A n Old Son,'? in 
praise of Beef RomaM Villa at Northlei^h Shake* 
snenriana Arms of Prince Rupert "The Mistletoe 
Bouirh " " Join Issue " " Blaok " or " Bleak Bnrnslo.v " 

The Marquis de .U<niU> l:n Heron or Her no Gybbon 
Spilsbnry Cagots J;MM-, Christian: a Manx Eve 
Christening Bit : the Bairn's Piece, &c., 126. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



Only those who know the amount of ill-natured 
comment and good-natured quizzing to which I 
have been subjected for daring to exercise a little 
common sense on the subject of Human Longevity 
can estimate the gratification with which I have 
just seen from Fr user's Magazine of February 
that the opinions which I have so long main- 
tained are shared by no less eminent an authority 
than Professor Owen. 

How _ much the truth for which I have been 
contending will be advanced by the advocacy of 
this eminent man of science it is needless to sug- 

The terms in which Professor Owen's kindness 
leads him to speak of my small investigations of 
cases of alleged centenarianism makes it difficult 
for me to refer to his article in Fmser, but so 
important do I consider it that the opinions of this 
eminent physiologist on the question of the 
Duration of Human Life should be known, that, 
at all risks of the sarcasm to which I may lay 
myself open, I entreat all who desire to know the 
truth to study his article on Longevity. The 
Professor's paper owes its origin to a passage in 
The Speaker's Commentary, written by the Bishop 
of Ely, who says in a note on the fifth chapter of 

Genesis: "As to the extreme longevity of the 
patriarchs, it is observable that some eminent 
physiologists have thought this not impossible." 

The article in Fraser is a strong protest against 
the accuracy of this statement. The theologian 
and physiologist are altogether at issue. With the 
main point in dispute I need not trouble your 
readers ; but I do desire to bring before them 
some of the important opinions expressed by Pro- 
fessor Owen on the subject " of the term of life to 
which mankind would attain if not cut off by 
injury or disease." 

Now, I beg the reader's special attention to 
what Professor Owen says on this point : 

"The conclusions of Professor Flourens ' that, in the 
absence of all causes of disease, and under all conditions 
favourable to health and life, man might survive as Ionic 
after the procreative period ending, say at seventy, in 
the male as he had lived to acquire maturity and com- 
pletion of ossification, say thirty years, are not un physio- 
logical.' Only, under the circumstances under which the 
battle of life is fought, the possible term of one hundred 
3 r ears inferred by Flourens, as by Buffon, is a rare excep- 

After this declaration, that " the possible term 
of one hundred years is a rare exception," the 
reader will not be surprised to learn that Professor 
Owen treats as utterly unworthy of credit the ages 
ascribed to the Countess of Desmond, Henry 
Jenkins, and Old Parr. 

And here I must be permitted to refer to a 
letter which I wrote to The Times last September, 
in which I contended that Flourens and others 
who maintained that the 152 years of Thomas 
Parr were accredited by the testimony of Harvey 
were not justified in so interpreting Harvey's 
statement ; for that Harvey does not bear testimony 
to Parr's age, but simply records what he was 
told about it. This daring scepticism shocked 
some of my friends. But what says Professor 
Owen ? 

" Old Parr's 152 years are more confidently adduced 
by lovers of the marvellous, charing at the restraint of 
scientific laws, on the authority of the truly eminent 
physiologist who dissected him. " 

"But Harvey merely gives the age reported to him 
by the friends or exhibitors who brought the ' old man 

marvellous ' to London In this I concur with Mr. 


And he is good enough to add that he agrees in 
my estimate of the notes cited by Haller from his 
Adversaria of the thousand cases of longaeval in- 
dividuals between 100 and 150. 

There are other parts of the Professor's paper 
to which I would gladly refer, such as his caution 
against too hastily jumping to the conclusion that 
the first Richard Roe met with in a parish re- 
gister is the.Eichard Roe of which the inquirer 
is in search ; and especially to the very complete 
yet very simple explanation of that curious phe- 
nomenon often brought forward as a proof of 
great age the cutting a third set of teeth ; but I 



[4' h S. IX. FEU. in, 72. 

have already laid it under very heavy contribu- 
tion, and this almost without touching- upon its 
most important part I mean the physiological. 

Questions of longevity may be treated in two 
ways physiologically and historically. To the 
extent of my small powers I have for some time 
busied myself in considering- it in its historical 

Professor Owen has in the paper to which I 
have referred brought his great knowledge and 
long experience to the physiology of the question, 
and I earnestly entreat all who desire to know 
the truth to read this delightful and instructive 
essay on Longevity. 

In marked contrast to the paper to which 1 
have been referring is a little book which pro- 
fesses, inter alia, to be an answer to Sir Cornewall 
Lewis. It is a new edition of the Life of TJiomas 
Geeran, in which all the absurd statements of a 
gross impostor, which I proved in The Times of 
November last, from official documents, to be 
utterly false, are repeated, my second letter being 
omitted. In the same way, a charge made by Dr. 
Massy against the authorities of Chelsea Hospital 
is reiterated, although a portion of General Hutt's 
letter, pointing out that Dr. Massy had been mis- 
informed, is inserted ; and the precious farrago 
concludes with a hope that sufficient funds may 
be raised by its sale to enable the publisher u to 
erect a stone over the grave of the worthy old 
soldier" The good sense of the incumbent of the 
parish where Geerau is buried will, I trust, prevent 
the erection of this monument to the credulity of 
his dupes. 

I am indebted to this ill-judged publication, 
however, for calling my attention to a criticism 
printed somewhere between November and the 
present time in The Wilts and Gloucester Standard, 
on my scepticism as to the case of Richard Purser. 

Richard Purser's is a very typical case. I have 
a portrait of the old fellow "taken by " J. Ellis, 
5, St. Philip's Terrace, Cheltenham," and on the 
back of which is written " Richard Purser, age 
108, 14 July, 18G4,' ? whether written by the old 
man himself I cannot say. I mention the artist's 
name in case any reader may desire to procure a 

If the man who sate for that portrait was much 
above four score, he was indeed a very remark- 
able man ! He lived four years after being pho- 
tographed ; and dying on October 12, 1868 not 
" a few months ago/' as my critic says the good 
people of Cheltenham, who seem to* be as easily 

* If the reader would compare the photograph of a 
genuine with that of a spurious centenarian, Jet him 
procure the v'ffnttte portrait of Mr. Lulling, taken a month 
after he complete^ his century by Mr. Buchanan Smith, of 
Blackheath Park, and I will undertake to say that: sm-Ii a 
comparison rail show that neither (jeeran nor Purser had 
the slightest claim to be considered a centenarian. 

duped as the good people of Brighton, buried him 
with this inscription on his" collin : " RICHARD 
PURSER, DIED 12'm OCTOBER, 1808, AGED 112 

But what evidence is there of all this ? and 
remember, it is the duty of those who bring for- 
ward cases of abnormal longevity to prove them, 
and not call upon the doubters to disprove them ; 
and moreover, remember that in proportion as the 
age is exceptional, the proof ought to be excep- 
tionally clear and distinct, and free from possibility 
of error. 

Now old Purser's assumed ago is not supported 
by one scrap of documentary evidence. It rests 
partly on his own assertion that he recollected 
his mother taking him to see the illuminations 
for the coronation of George III., and that he 
was working in the Dockyard at Sheerness in 
1782, when the Royal George was sunk; and 
partly on the recollections of a former rector of 
Redmarley, the Rev. James Commeline, who 
died (nearly thirty-five years ago) in 1837, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age not seventy-six, 
as my critic states. These recollections are given 
on the authority of his daughters still living; but 
with every confidence in the truthfulness and in- 
tegrity of these ladies, memory is very treacherous, 
and such testimony is not sufficient, in the absence 
of all contemporary and documentary evidence, to 
establish such an exceptional case of longevity as 
112 vears. 

The accounts of Purser vary in several points, 
but all agree that he was born at Redmarley 
d'Abitot. His name is not, however, to be found 
in the register of baptisms some say because he 
was illegitimate. But I doubt this. The entries 
'' baseborn," " bastard," &c. are so frequent in 
registers, that I doubt if "illegitimacy" ever 
deprived children of the privilege of baptism. 
Others say because the register is imperfect and 
so it is ; there is no register of baptisms for 1783- 
1789. To my mind it is much more probable 
that Purser's name would be found in the missing- 
leaf which contained these baptisms, than that he 
lived to be 112. 

Exception has been taken to my statement in 
my letter to The Times of November 24, that, 
judging from his photograph, ''Purser looked 
much nearer eighty, as I believe he was " ; but, 
turning to my memoranda about Purser, I find 
that in the letter from Cheltenham dated Oct. 19. 
1868, which recorded his death in The Times, the 
writer anticipates this opinion of mine ; nay, even 
goes beyond it, for he says the portrait u exhibits 
a peaceful happy expression in his face, not looking* 
more than seventy or eighty years of age." 

I could bring forward many points in Purser's 
history which call for explanation, and I wish 
some of the believers in his great age would ascer- 
tain from his son said to bo him?olf sixty-three in 

4 th S. IX. FEB. 10, '72.] 



1868 when and where his father was married, 
for the register might state his age. 

Had I not already overtaxed the courtesy of 
the Rev. Charles Longfield by my inquiries, I 
should like to know also whether the Kedmarley 
register of marriages contains an entry of the mar- 
riage of the possible father and mother of the old 
man somewhere about the year 1780. 

But as my critic mistakes the time of Purser's 
death "a few months ago" (it was October 1868), 
his reputed age, which was 112 and not 111 
Mr. Commeline's age, which was seventy-four, 
not seventv-six says "that Purser and that gen- 
tleman must have been about the same age ; for 
two young men of twenty-three could not sup- 
pose one another to be of the same age"; whereas 
Purser is said to have been born in 1756, and 
Mr. Commeline was born in 1763 (not 1766), 
seven years after; and moreover admits " that it 
is impossible to say what Purser's right age was, 
but it must have been within one or two, say five 
years at the outside," of his reputed age he will, 
I trust, forgive me if I continue in my unbelief. 

I am open to conviction ; but it must be upon 
evidence, and nothing worthy of being so called 
has yet been brought forward. 

The more cases of centenarianism which I ex- 
amine, the more I am convinced of the caution 
with which statements of abnormal longevity 
must be received. 

Within the last few weeks I have ascertained 
beyond question that one old fellow, said to be 
certainly 110, but believed to be much older, and 
this by people of education and intelligence, is 
really between eighty and ninety ; that another, 
supposed to have'died at 105, wanted more than 
fifteen years of that age; that a third, also re- 
puted 105, was ninety-five ; and that a veteran, 
who in his old age became a preacher, and used 
to startle his hearers by describing the dreadful 
scenes he had witnessed at Bunker's Hill, did not 
enlist into the army until after that battle had 
been fought. On the other hand I have got most 
satisfactory evidence of the age of a lady now 
living who will on Sunday (Feb. 11) complete 
her 101st year. 

All this I will prove in due season. But 
enough for the present. While writing these 
notes, two or three fresh cases of centenarianism 
have been brought under my notice. 

Mr. Richard Burton, of Broom Hill, near Dy- 
mock, died on Jan. 4 at the reputed age of 105. 
Can any reader who lives in the neighbourhood 
say on what this supposition is founded ? 

Mrs. Purr, of Chippenham, died in Janunry, 
aged ninety-eight. It was ninety-six years since 
she was baptized, and she walked to church for 
the ceremony, being, she believes, between five or 
six years old ! ! Will any resident at Chippen- 
ham investigate this case ; and kindly inform me 

if the old lady was ever photographed, and where 
her photograph may be purchased ? 

Let me add, that I am very anxious to procure 
photographs of reputed centenarians, and shall feel 
personally obliged to any correspondent who will 
put me in the way of adding to the small collec- 
tion which I have already formed. 


40, St. George's Square, S.W. 


1. I claim the "Black Knight " for Chaucer on 
the ground of manifest resemblance in title and 

All in the following list are admitted by MB, 

f to Pity, 
I of Mars, 
| of Venus, 
[to his empty purse. 

It is cruel to separate blood relations, so I pro- 
pose to add to this list also " The Complaint of 
the Black Knight." 

It is a regular feature in some of these miner 
poems to have an envoi, or special personal address 
appended. Thus, in the " Complaint to Venus," 
we find 

" Princes, received this complaining in gree" 

In the "Ballad of the Village without paint- 
ing," the envoi commences 

" Princes, I pray yep, of your gentleness 
Let not this man and me thus cry and plain" ; 

and in the " Complaint of the Black Knight " we 
have this very similar formula 

" Princess, pleased it to your benignity 
This little ditty to have in mind." 

This remarkable family likeness is a strong- 
point of resemblance that could not be imitated 
without gross plagiarism, so I claim the "'Black 
Knight" for Chaucer. 

2.*" Another feature in this family of "Coin- 
plaints " is this, that the plaintiff prepares a " bill 
of complaint," which is " filed " or presented as a 
petition all in due clerkly form. Thus, in the 
seventh stanza of the "Complaint to Pity," he 

writes ij'll 

" A complaint bad I wnttend m my hand, 

To have put to Pity as a bill." 
In Chaucer's " Dream," lines 928-9, we read 
"And to this Lord anon, present 
A Ml, wherein whole her intent 
Was written." 

Also in line 966 

" And a full answer of your bill." n'mn-y^, 

3. While the piece called " Chaucer's Dree 1 
is found to be connected with the ackno\vle> 
" Complaint to Pity," by this incident of 
quasi bill in Chancery (from biilhi), an authenti- 
cated document given under hand and seal, it is 



[i"> 8. IX. FKB. 10, 7-2. 

fdso connected with the "Flower and the Leaf" 
by the following- passage : 

"I you requite my boistousness." 

Chaucer's Dream, 1. G4. 


- rude language, full bcisfously unfold." 

Flower and the Leaf. 

SeS the opening 

' ; When Flora the Queen of pleasance," 
and compare it with 

" In May, -when Flora the fresh lusty queen." 

Complaint of the Black Kniglit. 

Again : 

" When that Phoebus his chair of gold so high 
Had whirled up the starry sky aloft, 
Aud in the Bull was entered certainly." 

Floioer and the Leaf. 

" the younge sun 

Hath in the Ram his halfe course y'run." 

Prologue C. T. 

" And Phoebus 'gan to shed his streamed sheen 
Amid the Bull, with all the beamed bright." 

Complaint of the Black Knight. 

N.B. "And in the Bull," "Amid the Bull," 
"Hath in the Ram," identical in thought and 

In stanza 30 occurs this line 

" Chaplets fresh of oakes cerrial." 

Flower and the Leaf. 
" A crown of green oak cerrial." 

Knight's Tale, 1. 2292. 

"The Flower and the Leaf," thus closely con- 
nected with the " Black Knight " and the Can- 
terbury Tales, must certainly have been written 
by Chaucer, for it is plainly alluded to in the 
""Legend of Good Women," 188-194; playfully, 
indeed, and as a matter to which he was' quite 

"Butnatheless ne were not that I make 
In praising of the flower against the leaf. 7 ' 

4. With the "Flower and the Leaf" is some- 
times found appended a semi-detached envoi, but 
it is also found appended to the Death of Blanche. 
This is remarkable, because the " Death " is an 
undoubted work of Chaucer's, and the scribe who 
appended it to the "Flower and the Leaf" must 
clearly have identified Chaucer with the latter 
piece 'also. 

ME. FURXIVALL makes merry with the follow- 
ing line : 

" Suspiries which I effunde in silence." 

I consider this a very lewd joke. It is in point 
of fact a pun on " suspiro de profundis." No one 
need be startled at this who remembers the base 
Latinity of ancient Pistol, or the incongruousness 
of "I did impeticos thy gratility," in Twelfth 
Xight; but we need not go so far a-field, for it is 
<:|uite in keeping with the Bird's Matins. 


It is pleasant to see a good joke or two in 
"N. & Q." The best in the number for Jan. 23 i.s 
no doubt that of the Queen of Sheba having come 
to visit Solomon by railway, because she came 
with a very great train ; and the second best is 
certainly MR. HALL'S notion of supposing that 
Chaucer (who died in 1400) could be open to a 
charge of gross plagiarism, because, in about 1-'570 
A.D., he imitated a plainly fifteenth century poem 
like "The Court of Love." MR. HALL'S other 
position, that no one would dare to refer to Chau- 
cer's work but Chaucer himself, is almost as 
jocose. For if, after Wordsworth's death, any one 
imitated him, or rather worked up in a new poem 
some of his master's characters and stanzas, who 
would think this proof that Wordsworth wrote 
the new poem ? 

No doubt "'The Court of Love" refers t? 
Chaucer's "Pity," and frames some of its stanza? 
on the " Pity's " model. Take these : 

Chaucer's " Pity.''' 

" Bounte parfyt | wel armed & richely 
And fresshe beaute | lust and iolyte 
Assured maner | youthe and honeste 
Wisdome estaat fdrede and governaunce 
Confedred both by bonde | and Alliaunce." 

Court of Love. 

" In bownte, favor, porte and semlynesse, 
Plesaunt of figure, myrroure of delite 
Gracious to sene, and rote of, 
With angell visage, lustj' rede white ; 
There was not lak, sauf danger had a lite 
This godely fressh * in rule & governaunce." 

Chaucer's " Pity." 

" My peyne is this j that what so I desire, 
That haue I not | ne no thing lyke therto ; 
And euer setteth desire | myn hert on tire. 
P3ke on that other syde | where-so I goo, 
What maner thinge that may encrese my woo, 
That haue I redy | vnsoghte | etiery where. 
Me lakketh but my deth | and than my 

Court of Love. 

" But that I like, that may I not come by ; 
Of that I playn, that have I haboundaunce 
Sorowe and thought, they sit me wonder nye ; 
Me is withhold, that myght be my plesaunce : 
Yet turne agayn, my worldly suffisaunce. 
O lady bright"! and" sauf your teilhfull true, 
And ar I dve, yit ones vpon me rewe." 

The birds' matins at the end of " The Court of 
Love " were also of course suggested by Chan 
" Parlament of Foules." The very followin 
Chaucer by "The Court of Love" shows that 
that poem was not Chaucer's. It is by a pupil, 
not the master. Its rhythm has not his sweet 
flow ; its special turns and words are most of them 
not his. Fancy Chaucer writing two such 

* Imitated from Chaucer's" semely awete," but clearly 
not Chaucer. 

4 th S. IX. FEB. 10,72.] 



Knprint my speche in youre mcmoriall 
Sadly, my princesse, salve of all my sore ! " 


^ " Ilir lawc is for religiosite," &c. 

The ring 1 of " The Court of Love " is fifteenth 
century, at earliest,* all through. There is no 
MS. evidence for the poem being Chaucer's. It 
does not observe the laws of his ryme. The best 
modern judges, like Prof, ten Brink, Mr. Bradshaw, 
Mr. Skeat, <fcc., have declined to allow it to be 
Chaucer's. It plainly imitates Chaucer's poems, 
and almost quotes him, his Canterbury Talcs as 
well as his early poems. 

Clerk's Talc and Merchant's. 

" And let hem care and weps, & cryng & wayle. 
Wepyng & wailyng, care & other sorowe." 

Court of Love. 

" For weile and wepe, and crye, and speke and preye." 
It is clearly after Chaucer's time, and was un- 
doubtedly written by some admirer of his. What 
are MR. HALL'S arguments, if so they can be called, 
for the genuineness of " The Court of Love " ^ 
1. "There are resemblances between this poem" 
(which we admit and explain) " and Chaucer's 
works ; therefore Chaucer wrote it as well as his 
proved works." 2. "If Chaucer did not write ' The 
Court of Love,' who did ? You can't say : there- 
fore, again, Chaucer wrote it." This reasoning is 
evidently grounded on the assumption that all 
readers of " N. & Q." are fools ; and against it I, 
as one of such readers, protest." 


_ I find a notice of Lord Brougham in the Geor- 
gian Era. Who were the authors of this work ? J 
Sir William A'Beckett wrote some part; his 
father T. T. A'Beckett wrote, I believe, an anony- 
mous pamphlet addressed to Lord Brougham 

On the Law of debtor and creditor .... addressed 
to the Lord High Chancellor, &c. Cochrane, 1833. 2nd 
edit. 1840. 

As to the pamphlet entitled 

The Reform Ministry and the reformed parliament. 
Ridgway, 1833, 4th edition, same year 
the Quarterly Review, vol. 1. p. 218, says : 

"The great head of the law, dissatisfied with the little 
notice that he had lately received, is understood to have 
done the chapter on Legal Reform with his own hand, or 
with one of the many hands which, by dint of patronage, 
he has made his own and indeed, it" has been shrewdlv 
suspected that the whole pamphlet was got up for the 
sake of this chapter, just as we remember to have heard 
that an ingenious gentleman published an entire Peerage 

* When did " yede my way," line G92, come in ? 
t Continued from 4 tb S. ix. 70. 

ft We have somewhere seen the editorship attributed 
to William Clark.] 

for the sake of introducing his own claims to a dormant 

I presume the " ingenious gentleman " to be Sir 
Egerton Brydges. 

About the same time a pseudonymous pamphlet 
was published : 

Lord Brougham's Local Courts bill examined. By 
H. B. Denton. Loud. W. Crofts, 1833, 8vo. 

The author of this was Edgar Taylor, who dis- 
tinguished himself alike in literature and law, his 
fairy tales still being popular, and the news- 
papers have not long since had to record the 

! melancholy and premature end of the head of the 

| firm he founded E. W. Field. 

I This is scarcely the place for a suggestion, but 
I observe that a testimonial is being got up to 
Mr. E. W. Field ; and in my opinion the best 
testimonial to this accomplished lawyer and artist 
would be some account of his life. 

A number of other pamphlets were published 
on the rejected Local Courts Bill, whose titles 
I need not enumerate here ; sufficient to say that 
most of the authors are unknown to me. I may, 
however, notice an article, as I have noticed one 
before in JBlackwood's Magazine, most violently 
abusive of Lord Brougham, which appeared 
originally in the number for April 1834, entitled 
li Lords Brougham, Lyndhurst, and local courts." 
The very greatest interest was excited by all 
Lord Brougham's plans for reform, and numerous 
pamphlets were the consequence ; but perhaps 
those which caused most controversy were the 
" Aristocracy " pamphlets. I have touched a little 
upon these in the Handbook of Fictitious Names. 

Thoughts upon the aristocracy of England by Isaac 
Tomkius, gent. Lond. Hooper, 1835, 

eleven editions appeared the same year : the 
Edin. Rev. for April 1835 quoted nearly the whole 
of it, without once mentioning Lord Brougham's 
name ; the article being also attributed to his 
lordship by his enemies ; and John Richards, Esq. 
M.P. lost his temper over the matter and became 
so impertinent that it is wonderful he did not 
receive some castigation either from his lordship's 
hands or tongue. The " Memoirs " are silent on 
the point, and leave it still a matter of doubt 
whether these were from Lord Brougham's pen. 

0, Henry Road, New Barnet, 

The recent admission of His Royal Highness 
the Prince Arthur to this order may give some 
interest to the following extract from the Me- 
moircs historiques, politiques, critiques, et lit- 
teraircs of Amelot de la Houssaie, printed at 
Amsterdam in 2 vols. 12mo, 1722 (vol. ii. 303, 
304) : 



[1 th S. IX. F-;B. : 

"En 1700 1'Einpereur Leopold, I e'rigea la Prusse Du- 
cale en Royaume, en faveur de 1'Electeur Fede'ric-Guil- 
laume II, malgre toutes les oppositions faites durant 
ciuq ans, au nom de 1'Ordre Teutonique, par le Prince 
Francois-Loui's de Neuborg, son Grand-Maitre, & le 15 
de Janvier 1701, cet Electeur se fit proclamer Roi a 
Konigsberg en Prusse, que nous apellons (sic) en Francois, 
Royaumont ; & le 18 suivant, il fut sacre & couronne 
avec sa femme dans la Chapells du Chateau. Le meme 
jour, il institua une Chevalerie, qu'il a nominee COrdre 
de VAiyle noire, dont la marque est une Croix emaillee de 
bleu celeste, faite comme celle de Malte avec des Aigles 
noires entre les Angles, & lie'e d'un ruban orange qui passe 
de 1'e'paule gauche au-dessous du bras Adroit. 11 crea ce 
jour-la 20 Chevaliers, savoir, le Prince Electoral, son fils, 
ses trois freres, le.Duc de Curlande, le Comte de Warten- 
berg, Grand-Chambellan ; le Sieur de Feld, Grand- 
Marechal ; les trois Corates de Dhona, le Comte de 
Lotheren, Grand-Marshal de la Cour ; les quatre Regens 
de Prusse, le Commissaire-General, le Sieur Bulavv, 
Grand-Mai tre de la Maison de la Reine Electrice ; le 
Grand-Maitre de I'Artillerie ; le Sieur Brandt, Lieu- 
tenant- General, & le Sieur Tettau, Major-Gene'ral. 

" Nt,ta que le Duche de Prusse porte pour ecusson, 
d'argent, a 1'Aigle de Sable, acolle d'une couronne d'or ; 
& que c'est la raison, pourquoi, le nouveau Roi de Prusse 
a donne a cet Ordre le noni de 1'Aigle noire. II en tint 
le premier Chapitre le 18 de Janvier 1703, jour anniver- 
saire de son Conronnement, & fit la cdremonie de donner 
le Collier & le Manteau de 1'Ordre au Prince d'Anhalt, 
issu de la Maison de Brandebourg, &, au Grand-Marechal 
de Prusse. 

*' Les Chevaliers de 1'Aigle noire en portent une cousue 
sur 1'e'paule gauche de leurs manteaux avec ce mot en 
guise de de% r ise, suum culque, a chacun le sieu ; pour 
isignifier qu'ils font vosu de proteger & deffendre les 
Veuves et les pupilles." 

As an appropriate pendant to the above the 
annexed cutting from the Daily Telegraph of 
Friday, January 19, 1872, may be worthy of 
insertion : 

"Berlin, Jan. 18. 

" To-daj- took place the grand celebration of the an- 
niversary of the Black Eagle Order the decoration most 
coveted by Prussian subjects, and rarely conferred even 
on the most distinguished foreigners. The ceremony had, 
indeed, a peculiar interest for Englishmen, from the fact 
that Prince Arthur was solemnly invested with the in- 
signia of the order. Among those who figured in the as- 
semblage were some whose names recall the great efforts 
by which Prussia has made herself a prominent Power 
in Europe such men as Von Falckenstein, Herwarth 
von Bittenfield, who led up the valley of the Elbe in 1866 
the right column of the Prussian army; Van Thile, the 
assiduous assistant of Bismarck at the Chancellery of 
Foreign Affairs ; and last, but not least, Count Berns- 
torff, who has represented the Government of Berlin in 
London for so many years. 

" The ceremony of installation took place at half- past 
one in the afternoon. Prince Arthur drove to the scene, 
along with the Crown Prince and Prince Louis of Hesse, 
in a state carriage, wearing the full robes of the order. 
The assemblage in the Castle Chapter Room was most 
brilliant, and altogether such a spectacle was presented as 
has seldom been witnessed. After the investiture the 
Chapter was dissolved, and a grand banquet took place 
in the great hall of the Emperor's Palace, nearly 1,200 
guests being present. These all being persons "of dis- 
tinction who have been invested with various orders for 
-crvict' ; to the state, their decorations and militarv uni- 

forms presented an exceedingly fine appearance. A second 
ceremony of an impressive nature now took pfcace, his 
majesty embracing each of the new made knights as they 
were presented to him by the youngest ritters, while the 
oldest members of the order acted as godfathers to those 
, who had just been installed. 

" I am sorry to say that Prince Louis of Hesse returns 
home immediately on account of the indisposition of 
Princess Alice. 

" A grand banquet was given this evening, in connec- 
tion with the meeting of the Chapter of the Order of the 
Black Eagle, which was held to-day, the 18th January, 
in conformity with the statutes of the order. 

' His Majesty the Emperor-King rose to propose a toast, 
and spoke as follows : 

"'We celebrate to-day a double anniversary of the 
most important events of Prussian history. On this day 
171 years ago the first king of Prussia was crowned ; 
this day last year my acceptance of the imperial German 
Crown, unanimously offered me by all the Princes and 
Free Towns of Germany, was proclaimed. Conscious <>t 
the obligations I have assumed, I, on the anniversary <>f 
this great event, again express to the illustrious pre- 
senters of my new position, in presence of their repre- 
sentatives, my deeply felt thanks, hoping that by our 
united efforts we shall succeed in fulfilling the just 'hopt-s 
of Germany.' 

"The Bavarian Minister then, in the name of the :' 
of Bavaria and the illustrious Federate Allies in the Em- 
pire, proposed 'The health of the German Emperor, 
William the Victorious/' 


Kildrought House, Celbriilge. 


A correspondent of "X. & Q." in a very com- 
plimentary notice of my version of Petit-Seun's * 
Trois verres de vin, remarked that the joyous song- of 
the venerable bard was different to the generality 
of Swiss songs, which were of a more plaintive 
kind. I am tolerably acquainted with Swiss 
ditties, and, though some of them are certainly 
pathetic and plaintive, the best and most popular 
are decidedly those that come under a different 
category. At this joyous season I shall put a 
the serious and plaintive, and give specimens of 
two or three that belong to another class. The 
first that I shall present in an English dress is 
"The Flower of the Canton de Vaud " by Francis 
Oyez de la Fontaine, one of the professors in the 
Academy of Lausanne. The poet, a venerable 
and aged gentleman, wrote the song about forty 
years ago. Such has been its popularity that it 
is now classed amongst the national lyrics of Hel- 
vetia. Oyez de la Fontaine is, however, not a 
mere song- writer ; he is a poet of a high order. 
His songs are bagatelles pleasantries that great 
minds throw off in moments of joyous relaxation. 
I can say in giving the following what I cannot 

* A most elegant edition of Petit-Senn's poem has 
just been issued at Geneva in three volumes, Elzevir si/", 
and on toned paper. The typography is an honour to 
Swiss taste and skill. 

4"- S. IX. FEB. 10, '72.] 



always assert it is stamped with the approval of 
the learned and distinguished author, from whom 
I have received a very laudatory note. \ 'awl is 
pronounced vo 

" How I love ray dear country, the fairest on earth ! 
The mountains, the chalet, the place of my birth ; 
For James or for Francis I wield spade or hoe,* 
And I'm Peter ' the Flower of the Canton de Vaud ' ! 

" To Derigout's damsel they point for a wife. 
But it's not in that quarter I'll alter my life : 
The girl is not prettv she's only so-so, 
She's no match for 'the Flower of the Canton de 
Vaud ' ! 

' Once a year I'm a soldier, all ready to fight, 
And I sing and snap angers from morning till night; 
And our "captain say?, ' There's the best warrior I 

Here's health to the Flower of the Canton de Vaud ! ' 

" I'm a patriot a real independence is mine, 
I vo ne'er sold my vote for a chopine of wine; 
I'd sooner drink cider as sour as a sloe, 
You can't bribe ' the Flower of Canton de Vaud ' ! 

" I've two arms that are strong, both for forest and 

field ; 
And I've got an old aunt, but her purse-strings won't 

yield ; 

When she dies all her cash to the parish will go 
She's no love for ' the Flower of the Canton de Vaud ' 1 

" They say I look olJ, and my hair's getting white. 
Well ! if some of these days I should wish you ' good 


Let a tombstone of wood name the slumberer below 
' Honest Peter, late Flower of the Canton de Vaud ' ! " 

It is, however, not in modern French that we 
must search for the real songs of Switzerland. 
We must study the Romande, that old and beau- 
tiful patois or tongue that lingers amongst the 
green bills and pastoral valleys of the Jorat and 
Jura, It is a much finer and more expressive 
language than the French either of "Paris" or 
" Stratford-atte-Bowe." It is soft and musical, 
and abounds in vowel terminations. The follow- 
ing is a very old ditty. It is known as " Oun 
choundzou " i. e. " a Dream." I give the first 
verse of the original with a literal rendering : 
' Por vo diverti no vollin tzanta 
For your diversion we icill sing 
Ouna tzansonnetta plena de vreta ; 
A little song full of truth ; 
Le teria d'oun choundzou que ma mia ha fa 
The theme of a dream that my loved one has had 
Oun lonne sar, versa contre la para. 
One Monday eve, reclining against the fence.'' 

It will be observed that in the first two stanzas 
the narrator or singer speaks ; there is then a 
change of person, and the " dream " is told as if 
it were related by the dairy-maid. In the last 
verse the narrator again appears 

* '-He works for Jacques or Francois" is a Swiss pro- 
verb ; it means he works for anybody. A fellow not 
very choice in his company is said to be " all right with 
Jacques or Frangois." 

" To afford yon diversion, I'll something relate, 
And remember it's true what I'm going to state : 
'Tis a dream when lat Monday my love made her bed 
In a nook of the garden, the hedge* overhead. 

" The story is real, for it's known in good sooth 
She's not an inventor, but sticks to the truth. 
When I've finished the ditty }~ou can, if you please, 
Give me two or three eggs or a morsel of cheese. 

" ' I stood on the mountain, the cows were hard by, 
When my lovers around me 1 chanced to espy; 
They were all decent lads, but the number so'great 
You would say that I fibb'd if I ventured to state. 

"'One called me "my darling!" one called me "my 

dear ! " 

If I pushed one away, why another came near : 
So I said " Of you all I can not be the bride ; 
So do, I beseech, give me time to decide. 

" ' Don't suppose that to wed I'm in any great haste : 
I'm a pretty young girl, and to any one's taste ; 
My purse is not empty, I've silver and gold 
That would stock a Wall grange with its pig-house 
and fold. 

" ' I can manage a dairy, can milk cow or goat, 
I can make a new shift, or can mend an old cont ; 
I'm a downright good sempstress, I spin with my 

wheel ; 
I can darn and foot stockings or put a new heel.* 

" 'And should I have children, I'll nurse them with care, 
Their food shall be wholesome, and plenty to spare; 
I'll rock them, I'll take them to school and to church, 
And Avhen they are naughty I won't spare the birch.' 

"But now came the end of her notions and views. 
For her mistress' shrill voice shouted out 'Parcs- 

seuze ! f 

Jfou hussi/ ! get up and look after your cream.' 
Such ivas the close of my dairy-maid's dream" 

My next specimen is also from the Romande. 
It is called " Tzansonnetta de Paizan." I have 
rendered it almost word for word ; graces of poetry 
or paraphrastic attempts would be out of charac- 
ter. I leave the " uncouth rhymes " to tell the 
story, and in the same stanza as the original. 
The " Ahie ! cho ! cho ! " is spoken, and is what 
the driver says to his team. I do not attempt to 
translate it. " Chateau, Motley (or spotted), Lion, 
and Bear " are the names of the four oxen. In 
the original the hero is a paizan (Fr. pay sari), but 
I use for it our word farmer. A Swiss pnizan 
is one who lives on his own estate, and works it 
in person ; while a fermier is one who farms or 
holds from another. What we call a peasant is 
in Switzerland an agriculteur orlabourew. In the 
fourth verse we are introduced to the bovairon 
(Fr. bouvier'), or the cowherd, who is also the 
driver or leader of the team. He is an important 
personage on a Swiss farm, and it is he who looks 

* In the original the phrase is " 1'an mettre de capette,'' 
z. e. "can put capettes" which are coverings to the heels 
made of washleather or some strong material a sort of 
half-socks used in winter over the stockings, for the 
double purpose of saving the stockings and preventing 
frost-bites. In the countiy songs of all countries we often 
find a list of the hero or heroine's accomplishments, as in 
the verse above. 

f Idle girl 



S. IX. FEB. ! 

after the beasts when they are in their mountain 
pastures or in the winter folds. The song is tra- 
ditional, and is not found in print ; at least I have 
not met with it. It (as well as " The Dream " ) 
was communicated by Mons. Henri Bussy, a 
Jorat farmer or paizan. If Harry Fox, our " war- 
bling waggoner," heard Mons. Bussy sin^Romande 
ditties he would bs jealous, and particularly so 
if "Bijou" (noblest of Spilzes!) joined in the 
chorus : 

' ; Listen, friends, while I chant my lay, } ^-,, 
A homely song iu our country way. j 
Though no great scholar, I'll tell you true 
Of a farmer, and what he's got to'do. 
(Spoken) Ahie ! cho ! cho ! 

Chateau! Motley! Lion! Boar! ) , ... 
We shall have a rare time this year, j IS ' 
" When the farmer sits down to dine 
He e v , r.d drinks good wine. 

With v.Vil-'l.'sii'd ribs lie can get <.' 
Though the furrows are deep and the soil is strong. 

:en arc f;;ir to see, 

But Lion (the black) is the one for me ; 
('[I:;'L '.'iu ami Lion ! yes, you're the best, 
80 you've the honour to lead the rest. 
' My driver's a right good boy, I wot, 
Xeecls but his voice to make tht-m trot ; 
That's the old fellow ! you see him now 
At Lion's right ear he turns the plough.* 
' For my farm I can always go 
And get good hands to weed and hoe ; 
Hut tue women-folk oh ! I let them be 
They work too hard with their tongues for me. 
v> My poor beasts, when their labour's o'er, 
Soon get fat as they were before ; 
NVheri the yokes are taken away, 
And they're a-fk-ld, content are they.f 
' At the cabaret never a one 
Sin;,: liUf- me when my sowing's done, 
And this is the burden of my rhyme 
' Pledsc Heaven to send good harvest time.' 


; au ! Motley ! Lion ! Bear ! 
I'm sure we'll have a good time this year.'' 
Sinn;; I obtained the above Honiande song's 
i JLons. Bussy, I have heard them sunti 1 by 
different pay sans and others, and I arn convinced 
that they are very old traditional rhymes, and 
not the effusions of any modern hand. " My stock 
of Roruunde ditties is not exhausted, but at pre- 
sent I conclude with a street and public-house 
ditty of the Canton de Soleure or Solothurn. The 

* " Le bovairon es bon vauld," i. e. literally a good 
boy ; not a bon enfant, or good fellow. The' bovairon 
may Le a very old man, but, like many of our dependents, 
he is never out of his professional boyhood. 

following is the original text of this verse. I 
give it LO show how closely I have followed the Ro- 
le : 

' Quan les baaou en b'n travailli, 
On tzertze a le's bin egrassir ; 
Les pourre be'tc-s sant benetze?, 
De remair lo dzau de sus las tetes.' 
The other verses are rendered in the same literal manner. 

original is in German patois a Swiss dialect 
wherein the Tiomande of the .Torat and Jura is 
mixed with Old German, and forms a not very 
melodious melange. The song is "Diirsli 

und Babeli " : 

"She is a peasant's daughter, so lovely to \; 

And Biibeli's long and flowing lod-.s culohine the yel- 
low gold, 

And Diirsli fain would have her, but her aged sire has 

' You must wait a little while, boy ! she is too young 
to wed.' 

"Then Diirsli sought her mother, and did his stcrv 


' May I marry Babeli, for I love !i .-}] ? ' 

The mother took him by the hainl, and gave her 

kindest smile. 
' Yes, you may marry Babeli, but you must wait 


" He turned away right angry, he turned away in v 
And to the town of Solothurn his hurried fo" 
And there he met the sergeant, and thus to him spake 

he : 

' I hear you're wanting soldiers, and all for the Low 

" The sergeant drew his leathern purse that was so strong 

and stout, 

And on the gnst-haus table three thaler.s cor 
'Here, take thou that, brave Diirsli ! it is my master's 


And now thou art a soldier to tight in the Low Conn- 

' Then straightway to his village his I 'Wly 


And to the cot of Babeli right mournfully he went : 
4 I may not marry Babeli behold these rhalers three ! 
You see I am enlisted, and bound for the Low ( 


" She rush'd into the garden, she rush'd into the plain, 
She wept beneath the lindens as if her heart w 

snap in twain. 
' do not crv, inv Babeli, for Heaven will guard mv 

In a year I shall be back again, and take thee for my 


"And if I cannot then return a letter I'll indite, 
And of my truth ;ui;l constancy I tenderly will write ; 
But if the sky were paper and a scribe each star above, 
And every scribe had seven hands, they could not write 
all my love.' " 

For the original of the above song (which re- 
sembles our " Summer's Morning ") I am indebted 
to Dr. Zeipfler of Soleure and Berne. The con- 
cluding lines will recall " The Idiot's Lines " 
which were given in an early number of '-X.&Q.'' 
The Idiot must have been a very learned man, for 
in the Koran we read : " If all the trees of the 
earth were quills, and the sea could be inflated 
to seven seas of ink, the word of God could never 
be exhausted/'* 

[* There is a sweet simplicity in a version of those oft - 
quoted lines as given in a small volume of MS. Poems, 
circa 1603, in Addit. MS. 22,601, p. 60, in the British 
Museum : 

4"' S. IX. FKR. 10, 72.] 



In Calderon we find 

el mar fnora do tint a, 
Y la tierra do papel, 
No pudiera explicate, 
Mi tinissimo carel " [carifio.] 

There is also a passage in the Talmud, from 

which that in the Koran seems plagiarised. A 

learned Italian priest assures me that our " Idiot's 

Lines" are translated from an old Italian version. 


SCOTCH MONEY. In an almanac of some pre- 
tension, professing to contain " information for 
v"rybndy," we hnve the following : 

" Scotch money is onlv one-twelfth of the value of 
:7i<>Mov sterling, and is divided in the same manner. In 
:il or money transactions relating to Scotland, if it 
i-e do*m'd that the amount should be understood as in 
England, it is requisite to insert or mention the word 
xterlhif) to show that English value or amount is in- 

Please observe that the almanac is not one for 
1072, Lut Jl>r 1872 ! Let no Soi>thron merchant 
overlook this precious piece of " information," lest, 
when lie has sold to some wide-awake townsman 
if mine a bale of soft goods at twenty shillings 
a-yard, he should find himself fully paid with 
twenty pence! Hitherto we have supposed that, 
by the law of Scotland, sterling money is always 
presumed. NORYAL CLYNE. 


Bishop of Manchester dedicated a peal of bells, 
which have been presented to St. Peter's church, 
Ashton-under-Lyne, on Dec. 27, 1871; and as it 
may be of interest to some readers of " N. & Q." 
I give you the inscriptions on the bells : 
J. " My gentle note shall lead the cheerful sound 
Peace to this parish, may goodwill abound." 

2. " Our voices tell when joy or grief betide ; 

Mourn with the mo timer, "" welcome home the 

3. May all in truth and harmony rejoice, 

To honour Church and Queen with heart and 


-1. " Prosperity attend Old England's shore ; 
Let Ashton flourish now and evermore." 
5. " With loving voice I call to church and prayer, 
And bid the living for the, grave prepare." 
or mercies undeserved this peal is raised, 
IM> may Thy name, O God, through Christ, be 


7. " Grateful for all and every blessing here, 
We look on high in faith and without fear ; 
The goodness of aur God we do proclaim ; 
Let priest and people praise his holy name." 

" If all the earthe were paper white 

And all the sea were incke, 
'Twere not enough for me to write 
As my poore harte doth thinke." 

Eleven articles on these lines appeared in our First 
Series. See the General Index, p. 110, col. L] 

(/;) the eighth bell is inscribed 

"This peal of eight bells (tenor 20 cwL) was given to 
St. Peter's Church, Ashton, 1871, by George Il^ginbot- 
tom, Esq., J.P., Mayor of the borough in the yeavs ISS.'J, 
1854, and 1855, to the honour and glory of God." 


WOOLWICH DOCKYARD. It is worth noting 
that after an existence of some three hundred 
years, Woolwich Dockyard was closed on Friday, 
September 17, 180!). PHILIP S. XING. 


Bishop Berkeley was not the only person to whom 
was attributed " every virtue under heaven." 
May I submit, for preservation in the pn<res of 
" N. & Q." an epitaph which a lady reeling' in 
Cambridgeshire has kindly copied for me from a 
monument in Great Wilbraham church, in that 
county. I say " preservation," for in these days, 
when " improvement " is everywhere untied '' to 
fight against the Churches" (the doom of five 
was announced in The Times last week), the 
sooner epitaphs of interest are confided to t} r po- 
graphy the better for posterity. 

" May this Monument be Sustained 
To the End of Time ! 

" Sacred 
To the Memory and Virtues of 


The Darling of her Friends; 

The Admiration of Strangers ; 

And real Blessing of her Family. 

Her Per?cn 
Was Tall and Gracefull : 

Her Features 
Handsome and Regular : 

But her Mind, 

Pious, Modest, Delicate and Amiable, 
Beyond the credit of description. 

Parents of Children, 
And Inhabitants of her Niitive Village, 

Drop a Tear 

To this Sweet Short-lived Flower ; 

Who having just added a Compleat Education 

To her Natural Excellences, 


Uncommonly Perfect and Lamented, 
On the 30 th Jan 1 '?, 

Aged 15 Years 6 Months." 


FIRST ACTOR OF "HAMLET." Writing of Shake- 
speare, Mr. Harness said : 

" With a knowledge of the art which rendered him fit 
to be the teacher of the first actors of his day, and to 
instruct Joseph Taylor in the character of Hamlet," &c. 
Literary Lift; of Rev. ll'm. Harness, p. .V). 

Burbage was the first performer of Hamlet. 
He was probably succeeded in the part by Taylor, 
and there is no reason to doubt that much of the 
author's conception of the part has descended by 
tradition. (See " N. & Q." 2'' d S. iii. 408, 490.) 




S. IX. FEU. 10, '72. 

VYSE'S "ARITHMETIC." Professor De Morgan 
in his Catalogue of Arithmetical Books, p. 81, desig- 
nates Vyse as (l the poet of arithmeticians/' and 
assigns to him the well-known lines 
'' \Yhen first the marriage knot was tied 

Between my wife and me, 
My age did hers as far exceed 
As three times three dues three," e. 

Bat these lines will be found in the Ladles' 
Diary of 1708, sixty-three years before the ap- 
pearance of the first edition' of Vyse's Arithmetic 
(1771), and a verified solution, by a lady, appears 
in the Diary of 1709, which I here append : 
" When first the solemn knot was ty'd 

Your wife was just fifteen; 
You by proportion forty-five, 

Which is as three to 'nine. 
But when your hoary head arriv'd 

To ten and half ten more, 
Your youthful bride saw thirty years, 

And you could tell threescore.' 
Thus have I told without ik-lay 
What was vour age o' th' marriage-day." 



I should feel much obliged if any readers who 
are well conversant with old documents would 
kindly give me the names and reference numbers 
of any deeds to which are appended seals of 
Oliver Cromwell. I give a brief list of all the 
Cromwell seals with which I am acquainted, and 
I shall be glad to know where examples of any of 
them are preserved. 


For England. Obverse : OLIVAEIVS . DEI . 




Diameter 5-8 inches. Both sides are engraved in 
George Vertue's Works of Thomas Simon (4to, 
London, 1753), plates xvii. xviii. 

For Scotland. Obverse : OLIVARIVS . DEI . 


SCOTIJE . 1656. Diameter, 49 inches. Both sides 
engraved by Vertue. plate xix. The obverse en- 
graved in A. Collas's Great Seals of England (fol. 
London, 1837), plate xxii. 

For Ireland. Obverse: OLIVARIVS . DEI . GRA . 


BERXOE . 1655. Diameter, 5-4 inches. Both sides 
engraved by A. Collas, plate xxiii. 

[Qy. Are there any different dates of these 
Great Seals than those given here ?] 

The Protector Richard's Great Seal for Eng- 
land. Obverse : RICHARDVS . DEI . GRA . REIPVB- 



Diameter, 5'5 inches. The obverse engraved by 
Vertue, plate xxiii., and both sides by A. Collas, 
plate xxiv. 

Seal of Oliver Cromwell before made Protector. 
Shield with four quarterings, helmet, and mant- 
ling [as afiixed to the warrant for beheading 
Charles I] 

Oliver Cromwell's Family Seal. Shield with 
six quarterings, helmet, crest, and mantling. Oval, 
size 1'G by 1'4 inches. Engraved by Vertue, plate 

Privy Seal of the Lord Protector Oliver. Arm?, 
royal crest, helmet, supporters, and motto, as upon 
the Great Seals. Inscription: OLIVAII . DEI . GRA . 


PROTECTOR. Circular. Diameter, '2-6 inches. En- 
graved by Vertue (plate xxxviii.) from t!. 
steel die then in the possession of Mr. Th > 
Freeman of Chelmsford. 

The Council's Seal, as affixed to an order sent 
to Guernsey by Oliver Cromwell. Arms of 
Protectorate, with Cromwell's paternal arms up' n 
an escutcheon of pretence. The whole surrounded 
by a laurel wreath, with the inscription S.GIL; 
COXSILII. Engraved by Vertue, plate xxv. Cir- 
cular. Diameter, 1-9 inches. 

The Cinque Port of Dover Seal. Oliver on 
horseback, a view of Dover Castle below. Inscrip- 

lar. Diameter, 3-2 inches. Engraved by Vertue, 
plate xxv. [Qy. Are there similar seals of any 
others of the Cinque Ports ?] 

Seal of Henry Cromwell as Deputy of Ireland. 
Arms impaled, with helmet, crest, and mantling: 


TATI. Circular. Diameter, 1'4 inches. Engraved 
by Vertue, plate xxxi. 

* Descriptions are only required of seals of the 
Cromwell family, and of the Protectorate, with 
the amis of Cromwell, a lion rampant upon an 
escutcheon of pretence. 

1.5, Eaton Place, Brighton. 

THE ARNOLDS. Where is the fcuriul- place of 
the old family of Arnold of Llanfihanyel Court, 
in the county of Monmouth ? Rusiicrs. 

your correspondent MR. THOMAS or any other 
contributor inform your readers of the origin of 
these two gentlemen P * It is a curious fact that 
the name of Black is common in Scotland, parti- 
cularly on the north-eastern and south-western 
coasts, but occurs very seldom in England or Ire- 

[* See our last volume, pp. 397, 468.] 

S. IX. FKB. In. 72.] 



land, except in the north of the latter kingdom, 
where many Scotch families have settled. 

On the other hand, the name Blake (which I 
take to be another form of Black), although com- 
mon in England and Ireland, is very uncommon 
in Scotland. Can any one explain this ? 


any funeral sermon preached when James Hay, 
first Earl of Carlisle, was buried ; and if so, by 
whom, and if published ? I know of the sermon 
preached at his marriage, and also of the one 
preached at the funeral of his son the second earl. 

I find in Smyth's Obituary, published by the 
GamdenjSoeietjv 1848, p. 12 

"1636. Sir James Haies, Earle of Carlisle, died 25 
April, and his funerall May 6 th ." 

And in Anecdotes and Traditions, by W. J. Thorns 
(Camden Society, 1839), p. 11 

"The Earl of Carlisle died on the 25th April, 1836, and 
was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral." 

Is there any account of the funeral in print ? 
J3y whom was the full-length portrait of this 
earl in the vestibule of the hall of Christ Church 
College, Oxford, painted ? G. J. II. 

" Table Talk " of The Guardian for Dec. 27, 1871, 
the writer gives the words of an old carol, of 
which the following is a portion : 

" Pluck me a berry, Joseph, 

Said Mary meek and myld. 
Pluck me a cherry, Joseph, 
And a berry for the Child. 

" then bespoke Joseph, 
It is a work too wild ; 
How can I reach the berries, 
Or cherries for the Child ? 

" O then bespoke Joseph, 

With words full of scorn, 

Let Him reach thee cherries 

That is but newly born. 

" Then out and spake the Child 

Upon his mother's knee, 
Bow down unto my Mother, 
Bow down thou cherry tree ! 

" Then bowed down the tallest tree 

Unto its Lord's command. 
spouse, behold and see 

I have cherries to my hand." 

The writer says that the story of this old carol 
"is often depicted on tapestry and in illumina- 
tions." Did this story give the motive to the 
picture of the " Holy Family," by Adrian Vander 
Werf, in the Electoral Gallery of Manheim ? I 
have a beautiful engraving of this picture by A. 
Cardon, published by Colnaghi in 1795. Joseph 
is represented as dangling a spray of cherries, at 
which the Infant Saviour is playfully grasping. 
I know no more beautiful representation of the 
Holy Family. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

CLAN TARTAN. An English gentleman whose 
pedigree can be lineally traced, through " Sir Hugh 
Hastyngs, Kn e , of Elsing, Norf., who died 32 d 
Henry VIII., 1540, up to Syr Henrye Hastyngs, 
Kn*, "who died 53 d Henry III., 1268, peer and 
baron of y e realm, and his wife Jane, doughter to 
Willy in Canteliope and grand-daughter to Sir 
William Bruse, Kn l " ; also up to " Sir Henry de 
Hastyngs, Krit., who died 34 th Henry III., 1250, 
and his wife A(d)da, 3 rd doughter to David, erle 
of Derby and Himtyngton, grandson to David I st 
Kyng of Skots " wishes to know to what clan 
tartan he is entitled, if to any. To the readers of 
"N. & Q." the inquirer addresses this query under 
the impression of its being of interest to many 
other persons besides himself. T. S. N." 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE. Can any reader inform 
me where the original portrait of Sir Francis 
Drake is, from which the engraving was taken, 
size 12 in. x 15 in., with superscription " Franciscus 
Draeck, nobilissimus eques Angliae An set. sue 
43." The description at the bottom, " Habes 
Lector Candide, fortiss : ac invictiss : Ducis 
Draeck ad vivum imaginem, &c." ? A copy was 
among the engravings of portraits at South Ken- 
sington some time since. I think it is said to have 
been retouched by Vertue. 

The History of Plymouth, lately published, 
quotes a passage from Canon Kingsley, descrip- 
tive of a meeting at the time of the Armada, 
saying " There is John Drake, Sir Francis's 
brother, ancestor of the present stock of Drakes, 
and there is George his nephew." Where did 
the Canon obtain his information? It may be 
correct, and that Sir Francis had two brothers 
John euch double name did exist in the Ash 
family branch. One John we know was killed in 
an early voyage, and left a widow, who after 
married' Cotton. Another John Drake won the 
chain of gold promised by Sir Francis to the first 
who should sight the Cacafuego. Was this John 
a brother ? A statement in the College of Arms 
gives John as the name of Sir Francis's father. 
Elsewhere he is styled Edmund and Robert. We 
know that Sir Francis had an uncle called John. 
On what good authority is the college statement 
founded ? Answers to these several queries will 
oblige a very humble I!ED DRAGON. 

DEER USED IN SACRIFICE. Can any one inform 
me whether the deer was ever used in sacrifice ? 
I have the head of one whose horns have been 
removed by a saw, and which was found in the 
cliffs at Felixstow, near Ipswich, about eight feet 
from the surface. About one foot below this 
head was found a curious key of very early date. 

H. J. H. 

SIR PHILIP FRANCIS. I am anxious to learn 
any facts which may lead to the recognition of an 
evidently very learned correspondent of Sir Philip 



[I th S. IX. I-'KIS. l', '72. 

Francis, who dated from " Brighton, Xov. 5th, 
1802." He was scarcely less accurately acquainted 
with astronomy, ancient and modern, than with 
the classics ; but, unfortunately, his name is not 
attached to the document which leads to this 
inquiry. J. T. X. 

Some time ago one of your correspondents sent 
you some extracts, from a little book with the 
above title, relative to the family of Baird. I 
have tried to procure the book at the publishers', 
Messrs. Xisbet, and by advertising in U X. & Q.," 
and The Bookseller, but all in vain. Can any one 
kindly help me to lind a copy, or tell me where 
it is to be procured ? F. M. S. 


Alexander Chalmers annotated a copy of this 

work with the idea of a new edition. Thorpe 

once possessed it. Is its whereabouts now known? 


[There is a copy of Ilatton's New View of London, 
1708, copiously annotated, in the lieading lloom of the 
British Museum, 2065 a. On comparison we tind the 
neat hand-writing resembles that of Alexander Chalmers, 
the editor of the General Biographical Dictionary. ,] 

HOLY BIBLE. Can any one inform me if a 
Bible in what -is known as "double pica" type 
has ever been printed ? Parts of the Bible in it 
have been printed, and also in other varieties of 
large type, for the use of near-sighted persons ; 
but after considerable time spent in inquiry I have 
failed to find a complete Bible or even an Old 
Testament. W. J. LOFTIE, F.S.A. 

HALIWELL PRIORY. In what archaeological 
journal can I find a paper by Mr. Hugo on the 
ancient Priorv of Haliwell in Shoreditch ? 

J. 0. II. 

[We have been favoured with the following communi- 
cation from the REV. T. Hu<;o, M.A., F.S.A,, F.K.S.L., in 
reply to our correspondent's inquiry : "I have written a 
History of Haliwell Priory for the London and Middlesex 
Archaeological Society. Although oftentimes asked for, 
the memoir has not been printed, from a desire on my 
part to make it still more complete. For any new and 
unpublished matter I should be thankful. 

; ' The Rectory, West Hackney, Stoke Xewington, X."] 

ILLUMINATING. Will any of your readers who 
practise the art of illumination inform me if tin- 
foil can be used as a substitute for silver, which 
tarnishes so rapidly as to spoil any work in which 
it is emplo} T ed? I have in vain tried to procure 
aluminium foil at the artists' 'colourmen. Tin- 
foil ought to do well, for it has a brilliant surface, 
but there may be objections to it. Where can I 
procure it pure ? F. M. S. 

LANGUEDOC. I should be glad of any informa- 
tion enabling me to see a roll of the receipts of 
Philip VI., from taxation, amercements, and fines 
in Languedoc, in or about A.D. 1330. 


LINGUISTIC CHILDREN. How do children be- 
tween four and twelve years of age contrive, when 
left among foreigners, to speak their language in 
five or six months as freely and correctly as their 
models, and that without the assistance of an 
interpreter? Has anyone published an exposi- 
tion of this process? KING. 

stated in Polwhele's Supplement to Whitaker's 
Cornwall that Lundy Island was known to the 
Greeks and he names Ptolemy as having called 
it ''Herculislnsula" (Herakleia ?) I can find no 
such reference, and should be very glad if any of 
your readers could tell me if Lundy is actually 
mentioned by any ancient author. I may perhaps 
be allowed to add that any information, references, 
&c., connected with the island, sent personally to 
me, would be most .welcome. 

E. T. GIBBONS, Ex. Coll. Oxon. 
Werrington Vicarage, Ye olm bridge, Launceston. 

[Several references to works containing notices of the 
Isle of Lundy will be found in "X. & Q." 3 r ' 1 S. i. 171.J 

MRS. A. MANSON. Can any of your literary 
corresponJents in Nottingham favour me with 
any biographical particulars regarding Mrs. Man- 
son, wife of A. Manson, M.D., of Nottingham ? 
She was authoress, I think, of The Eve of St. 
Hyppolito, a play in five acts, 1821 (anon.) It is 
likely that she also wrote Philo, a play printed at 
Nottingham, 1836 (anon.) Has Mrs. Manson 
written any other works, poetic or dramatic ? 


PtEV. MR. MOULTRIE. In the Biofjraplna Dra- 
matica the Rev. Mr. Moultrie is named as author 
of False and True ; or, the Irishman in Italy, a 
dramatic piece produced in August, 1798, and 
performed with success. Can you give me any 
information regarding the author? In the obituary 
of the Gent. Mag. I find that the Rev. George 
Moultrie, vicar of Cleobury-Mortimer, Salop, 
died May 12, 1845, aged seventy-three. Pie was 
presented to the living in 1800. As the name of 
Moultrie is not a very common one, perhaps this 
gentleman may be the" author of the drama I have 
named. R. INGLIS. 

dence have we of tie alleged persecution of the 
heathen b} r Christians after the establishment of 
the church of Constantine ? I think more than 
one treatise has been written on the subject, and 
divers tales and poems. CORNUB. 

" To PLAY HELL AND TOMMY." What is the 
origin of this common expression ? Is it a corrup- 
tion of {l to play Hal and Tommy," and if so, 
whence is the latter phrase derived ? Has it any- 
thing to do with Henry II. and Thomas a- 
Becket ? J. A. J. II. 

S. IX. I-';;u. 1( . 72.] 



PROVINCIALISMS. There are many provincial 
expressions and curious words still lingering 
among the inhabitants of the northern counties of 
Ulster, which well deserve to be collected. Thus 
the word campe or kempe, which was discussed 
in " N.*& Q." (4 th S. viii. 264, 357, 444), recorded 
as surviving still in Norfolkshire, is common in 
the county of Londonderry. " To have a campe " 
with a person is to have a race or contest of 
rivalry with him. Also, there is the expression 
" Joy'be with him and a bottle of bloss," said of 
one we are glad to be rid of. Can any one explain 
or illustrate this ? There is also the expression 
"Tibb's Eve '' (common, I believe, in Scotland), 
which corresponds to "the Greek Calends." I 
can find no explanation of this in Hone's Every- 
''(!>/ Bool-, or in Chanibers's Book of Days, though 
in the latter there is a certain St. Tibba men- 
tioned, whose anniversary is March 6. Can any 
one assist me here ? * I should also like to 
know the derivation of the word " common," or, 
as it is here pronounced and I suppose spelt, 
u cmmon," in the sense of a game, the same as 
hockey. Is it called from the place where it is 
often played ? I should also like to know the 
derivation of the words " skelp " (a blow) and 
tc byre." I do not know whether they are common 
in England or not. Where is the origin of the 
expression, " With one shoe off and one on, as if 
you were going to beg law/' to be found ? Let 
me ask some account of this expression, which I 
heard from a man here to-day. He said, " it 
rained from Delfollan to bed-time." Hone and 
Chambers are silent concerning it. 

.Beechill, LondoncleriT. 

PUTTOCK. What ia a pnttock ? It is described 
in Maunder as a bird, or buzzard ; in another dic- 
tionary it is described ai a bustard. What is the 
etymology of the word '. J GEO. B. PUTTOCIC. 


[According to Dr. Johnson, a kite, from 
L;vt. buteo = buzzard. Steever.s, however, tells us that 
" a puttock is a mean degenerate species of hawk, too 
worthless to deserve training."] 

SIR JAMES STANSFIELD. Readers of "N.& Q." 
may remember that I called attention to the story 
of the murder of Sir James Stansfield by his own 
son Philip, at Newmilns near Haddington in 1087 
(3 rd S. xii. 27). The case is one of the most 
curious in the State Trials. My object was to 
discover who Lady Stansfield was, but as yet I 
have obtained no clue to her parentage. On read- 
ing, however, the other day the virulent attack on 
the Stair family in Mr. Maidment's curious Book 
of Scottish Pasquils (Edin. 1827) I observe that 
the writer says in a note that John, first Earl of 
Stair, was a cousin of Philip Stansfield the pnr- 

[* See "X. & Q." 

. xi. 2G9.] 

ricide ; and from my former note it appears that 
Sir James Stansfield* made a will in favour of 
Mr. Hugh Dalrymple, brother of John the first 
earl. Now, as the earl was son of James Dal- 
rymple of Stair by Margaret, daughter of James 
Ross of Bulneil in Galloway, it follows that Lady 
Stansfield must have been a Dalrymple or a Ross. 
That she was " a Scotch lady " we know from 
the preface to the folio edition of the trial. Thus 
the issue is narrowed very much. Can any 
reader of "N. & Q." k^idly inform me who the 
other daughters of Ross of Balneil married, for I 
incline to the belief that Lady Stans field was of 
the latter family ? Had she been a Dalrymple 
the writer of the lampoon would not have failed 
to make the most of it. I think I have seen 
some genealogical particulars in print about these 
Rosses, but where I cannot now remember. 

F. M. S. 

"As STRAIGHT AS A DIE.' ? Could any of the 
readers of "N. & Q." oblige me by letting ine 
know any particulars about the above phrase ? 
The person I heard it from treated it as of every- 
day occurrence, and was quite surprised when I 
asked about it. Can it have any reference to the 
perfect and symmetrical way in which a die, fixed 
in a stamping machine, makes its impressions 
time after time without the slightest variation ? 

W. K. 

SONG. Where can I procure the song entitled 
" Oh ! wilt thou be my bride, Kathleen F " 


[The words of this song- are by Mark Lemon, and the 
music by Frank Homer. It is printed in J. K. Carpen- 
ter's Booh of Modern Songs, 1858, p. 114 (Routledge), 
and the words with the music may probably be obtained 
at Hutchins & Romer, Conduit Street, Regent Street.] 

UNICORNS. In a note of Mr. Roscoe's to his 
translation of the Memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini, 
1822 (i. 240), he says an unicorn's head was at 
that date being shown in London. Is there any 
other uotice^of this, or of anything similar at any 
other time ? LYTTELTOX. 

MAJOR JOHN WADE, circa 165 1. I observed 
in "N. & Q." (4 th S. ix. 64), under the head of 
(i Wiseman of Barbadoes," that, amongst the list 
of names given by J. H. L. A. as being taken 
from the parish registers and wills of Barbadoes, 
between 1640 and 1690, that of Wade appears. 
Judging from the dates, I am inclined to think it 
must be that of Major John Wade, who defended 
the city of Gloucester against the Royalists in 
1651, and who is mentioned in the Thurfow State 
Papers and Washbo nine's Bibliotheca Glouces- 
trcnsis in the years 1655 and 1656. I am most 
anxious to discover more of him, but have hitherto 
failed to trace him any later than the last date, 
and I strongly suspect he emigrated. I shall be 
glad if your correspondent J. H. L. A. can give 



[4'i> S. IX. FKB. 10,72. 

me any information concerning him, or can put 
me in the right track to obtain it ; and also if he 
will enlighten me on the following points, viz. 
where the records of, or information relating to, 
Barhadoes can be seen or obtained ? and whether 
the wills he mentions are there or in England ? 
Major Wade was the father of Colonel (or more 
commonly Major) Nathaniel Wade, barrister-at- 
law, of Mouniouth rebellion notoriety, and who, 
in his confessions made after the battle of Sedge- 
moor, mentions many of the names given by your 
correspondent. He was f*own clerk of Bristol in 
1687, and died there in 1717. ANTIQUAIUAN. 


(4 th S. ix. 54.) 

CYWRM in "N. & Q." has an interesting refer- 
ence to an ebony portrait of Louis XVI., for- 
merly belonging to Walter Blake Kirwan, Dean 
of Killala, and father of the late Dean Kirwan of 
Limerick, from whom your correspondent got it ; 
and he at the same time makes reference to 
Walter Blake Kirwan himself, and to his own 
portrait, which was exhibited in Dublin, as well 
as I remember, at the National Exhibition in 1853, 
having been sent there by his son the Anglican Dean 
of Limerick, in whose possession it always had been 
up to the period of his unexpected death in 1868. 
If I am right, CYWRM is mistaken in some par- 
ticulars as to Kirwan's portrait. In that portrait 
.Kirwan is represented preaching in aid of an 
orphan society. The attitude is exceedingly for- 
cible, impressive, and persuasive, and around the 
pulpit (a rather awkward-looking one indeed) are 
ranged a number of female orphans in the old- 
fashioned caps and dresses of a day long ante- 
cedent to that in which Kirwan pleaded on their 
behalf in, I believe, St. Nicholas's or St. Michan's 
church in Dublin. 

The Rev. Samuel O'Sullivan, D.D., in his 
Remains (ii. 190, &c.*) gives a long, curious, and 
able sketch of the life and career of the Dean of 
Killala "a name identified," he says, " with 
some of the proudest and holiest of national recol- 
lections." But Dr. Samuel O'Sullivan entertained 
strong prejudices of a certain kind, and there were 
particulars regarding Walter Blake Kirwan which 
he, either knowing them, omitted in his admirably 
written sketch, or of which he was ignorant. The 
Kirwan s are certainly of an ancient Gal way 
family, genuinely Irish. They may be traced as 
far back as Ilerimon, the second son of Milesius. 
Walter Blake Kirwan's maternal ancestor was a 
Blake, a descendant of the Menlo family of that 

* Remains of Rev. Samuel O' Sullivan, D.D., 3 vols. 
Dublin, 1853. 

name. The Blakes, though ijmg Hibcrnis Hilerm- 
orcs, are of British origin. Dr. O'Sullivan relates 
an extraordinary anecdote regarding the intensity 
of sympathy, and the fascinating and irresistible 
eloquence of Walter Blake Kir wan when yet a 
youth, and when about to quit his country -for the 
West Indies, where a relative of his father had 
large possessions. 

Seeing a hardened culprit in the midst of a 
guard of soldiers dragged literally to the place of 
execution in Galway, the enthusiastic boy leaped 
from his horse, rushed impetuously through the 
file of infantry, 

" and before his friends could recover from their amaze- 
ment he was beside the murderer upon the scaffold, who 
looked upon him with a strange bewilderment, and 
seemed to regard as a messenger from the other world 
the apparition by whom he was accosted, and who, in 
words and tones which made themselves be heard, warned 
him of judgment to come. ' Idiot ! madman ! ' he ex- 
claimed, seizing the astounded convict by the ears, 
'Hear! the God of heaven is merciful. Covered as you 
are with guilt, He would yet snatch you as a brand from 
the burning ! Your Saviour liveth to make interce->inti 
for you, as He did upon the cross for the penitent male- 
factor! See there,' said he, pointing to heaven, towards 
which the eyes of the fascinated convict mechanically 
followed his directing hand, and he then gave utterance 
to the first burst of that burning eloquence which in after 
years wrought such miracles upon his hearers ; but 
never a greater one than at that moment when it pene- 
trated the stony heart of the blaspheming murderer, 
whose prayers a"nd tears and convulsive sobs evinced the 
effect which had been produced upon him, and who met 
his death confessing his misdeeds, and looking for for- 
giveness, with trembling hope, to the merits and suffer- 
ings of the Redeemer." 

It was in consequence of this wonderful incident 
that the then Koman Catholic Archbishop of Ar- 
magh and Primate of all Ireland, the Most Kev. 
Dr. Anthony Blake, who was maternal uncle of 
young Kirwan's, advised him to repair to the 
University of Louvaine, where he prepared for 
and took holy orders in the College of St. Anthony 
of Padua in that university as a friar minor of 
the Order of St. Francis under the name of Father 
Francis Kirwan. At the sale of the late Dean of 
Limerick's library a small Svo book came into my 
possession, which, connected as it is with the 
Dean of Killala, deserves particular notice. This 
volume contains three tracts in Latin, the first of 
which is 

"'Theses Sacnu, et Chronologies, in Evangeiia, totum 
tempus a nato Christo, usque ad ultimum excidium lero- 
solimorum comprehendentes ; cum questionibus scrip- 
turisticis inter famosissimos Chronologos agitatis, neciion 
toto tractatu de Jure et Justicia, Re.stitutione et Con- 
tractibus.' Ad mentem Doctoris Subtilis, quas preside 
F. Thoma Johnston, Ordinis FF. Minorum Recollecto- 
rum S. Scripturas Lectore. Defendet F. Franciscus 
Kirwan * ejusdem Ordinis, Lovanii, in Coll. S. Antonii 

* In the handwriting of Walter Blake Kirwan, at the 
foot of the title-page, is the following note:" * Francis 
was my name in the above society. It is usual to receive 
on entrance a particular Christian name." 

4 h S. IX. FEJI. 1.V72.J 



De Padua FF. Minort. Hib. Die 26 Octob. Hora 9 ante et 
medio 3 post meridiem. Lovanii, Typis Martini Van 
Overbeke prope Academiam." 

The above is the title of the first tract, which 
contains sixteen pages. The second tract is 

"' Theses Theologies de decem Decalogi prreceptis cum 
principiis Moralitatis qua? in antecessum ad eorum 
Jntelligentiam requiruntur. Quas praeside F. Patr. 
Browne Ordinis Fratrum Min. Kecoll. Sacra? Theologian 
Lectore. Defendet, bora tertia post meridiem. F. Fran- 
ciscus Kirwan. Ejusdem Ordinis. Lovanii in Collegio 
S. Antonii de Padua FF. Min. Recollectorum Hiberno- 
rum die 2 a Maij 1776.' Lovanii Typis Joannis Francisci 
Van Overbeke, sub siguo Lampadis* Aureae." 

The above tract contains sixteen pages. The 
third tract is 

" Philosophia quam, preside F. Daniele Gaffey Ordinis 
FF. Minor. Recollect. Philosophic Lectore. "Defendet 
F. Franciscus Kirwan, ejusdem ordinis, Lovanii in Coll. 
S. Antonii de Padua FF. Minor. Hib. Die 17 August! 
1775, Hora 9 ante et 3 post meridiem. Lovanii Typis 
Martini Van Overbeke prope Academiam." 

The above tract contains sixteen pages also, in- 
clusive of " a miscellaneous appendix " ; and on 
the back of the title-page is an engraving of the 
archiepiscopal arms of the see of Armagh sur- 
rounded in a border with this legend " * Ant* 
BLAKE . Archiep 8 Armac . et TOI S Hib Primas." 

The day of the month in the three title-pages 
is in manuscript. The volume is well bound in 
marbled calf, and is altogether an exceedingly 
interesting relic of one of the most eloquent Irish- 
men of the last century, the contemporary and 
friend of Grattan, Burke, Yelverton, La Touche, 
&c. c. 

Kirwan became a Protestant and married, and 
got the deanery of Killala. He never uttered a 
word by way of reproach against his first faith. 
Of him I believe it is said that, when about to 
preach his first sermon after his "recantation " in 
Dublin, he blessed himself in the pulpit, to the 
evident dismay of his congregation ; and, instead 
of fulminating agains-t his ancestral belief, he 
electrified his audience with a discourse which 
produced a wonderful effect. That he was a dili- 
gent and successful student at Louvaine there is 
no doubt. It is proved, if we had no other proof, 
in the production of the above tracts, which are 
ably written, and which might be forgotten for 
ever were it not for the accident which threw 
them into my bands, and enabled me to place 
them on record in ' N. & Q." As to the portrait 
about which CYRWM is anxious, I am sure it is 
in the possession of the widow of the late Dean 
of Limerick, who inherited much of his more dis- 
tinguished father's powerful eloquence, who was 
in addition an amiable and worthy gentleman, an 
excellent writer, a large contributor to periodical 
literature, and, I have heard, a contributor of some 
(t thunder " to The Times newspaper of London. 
I knew him well, and I always found him tolerant 

and liberal in public life, and courteous and friendly 
in his private relations. 

I have reason to know that Walter Blake 
Kirwan studied oratory from some of the ancient 
and most approved Christian models. A beautiful 
copy of St. John Chrysostom's Sermons or Homi- 
lies^ in 3 vols. quarto, translated into French, is 
now before me j it was in the library of the late 
Dean Kirwan : it contains the autograph of his 
father, and it is quite apparent that it was a 
favourite book of this famous preacher when he 
was preparing for some of his best pulpit efforts. 

(4 th S. viii. passim ; ix. 20.) 

Concurring in the objections of J. CK. R. to 
the A.-S. hearge, I am sorry to object also to the 
Gothic liar. Temple and enclosure are inadmis- 
sible on the ground that the basis of ancient 
names is some natural landmark. But this fact 
tells in favour of ard. So striking a landmark as 
Harrow Hill could not of moral necessity have 
escaped receiving its proper title. From the hun- 
dreds of examples of its application we know that 
that title would be ard. If the hill was named 
from hearge, a church, whence did Hergest Ridge, 
near Kington, get its name, on which there is not, 
nor ever was, a church ? As evidence that Her- 
gest Ridge and Herges, Harrow, are cognate, and 
as corroborative of my own view, let me point 
out that the stream which flows from the Hergest 
district is called the " Arrow River." 

My objection to liar is chiefly that it would not 
corrupt into harrow. It requires two consonants 
to produce a spurious syllable. Monosyllables 
like el, ivor, and har would so remain ; but let us 
take elm, world, Aird, and we shall hear them 
popularly pronounced as elhim, worruld, Herod. 
Har occurs often enough ; but for one har we 
shall find ten ards. The latter is Celtic, har a 
Gothic loan-word from the Celtic. It is used in 
names of later date and by the Northmen, whereas 
ard belongs to the earliest nomenclature. We 
have examples of each in Harlow and Audley 
(Ardley) End, Essex. Another consideration is, 
that ard, like ken, generally forms the central 
name of a group. Ard in Harrowgate accounts 
for Knaresborough, Arkendale, and Hartswith, 
and in Harrow for Pinner, as previously shown, 
which har w r ould not do. There can be no doubt 
that Kinner in Kinnerton, &c., as suggested by 
L. R., p. 407, is identical with Pinner. Some 
tribes, as the Irish, used k, and said mac and cean 
where the Cornish used p and said map find pen. 

DR. CHARLOCK'S valuable extract I consider 
further to support my view. Werhardus, or 
Warherdus, as Lysons gives it, was the proprietor 



[4'h S. IX. 

/>ro tern, of Harro . -iit, therefore, accord- 

ing to custom, to derive his name from the pro- 
perty or the castle upon it. Now wer = a fort, 
and I believe that at a spot so favourable as Har- 
row churchyard is, it is morally certain that one 
would be constructed. Hard is of course ard, 
and the whole name = Ardfort. If liar had been 
used, the name ought to be Harold, i. e. Har-Jiold. 
Compare Alderman Ulfketiel, Chron. Florence 
Wore. s. A.D. 1004. I conceive that Eclgware, 
anciently Eggeswere, on the same range of heights, 
means the same as Werhard. I hold that it re- 
fers to a known British fort at Sullonicce (Cold- 
hill-waters) on Brockley Hill. Headstone, Har- 
row, was anciently Hegestou. I consider JSyges 
and Heyes corruptions of hearye, and this of ard. 

Further, in hereg-ethel (herg-at-hill) I discover 
another Harewe atte Hull, and all but a demon- 
stration of my view. Mersaham and Wassingwella 
I identify with Mereworth and Wateringbury, 
Kent. Wassing Wateiing exactly, while wcUa 
may refer to what is now Pifsingwell (Up-heves- 
ingwell). Compare Evesham. ' On the north " 
of these places is a very high ridge answering to 
hereg-flCkel-tdnd, upon which w r e now find the 
name Hern Place. Assumed the antiquity of this 
name, it must mean the same as hereg; philology, 
moreover, not negativing their identity. What 
then is Hern? It is a fact that among other 
strange shapes which ard assumes is that of am 
or hcrne. This form occurs in Arranmore, Arun- 
del, Arucliffe, Arnheim, Gelderlaud, Harnham, 
Hernhill, Arne, and Heine. The fair inference is, 
that hern, being a recognised variation of ard, it 
is ard which is represented under hereg and herga. 
I have identified Ghetneninya, with an existing 
name, and lidding with a well-known alluvial 
tract under a different name, but they do not bear 
upon the present sul ' W. B. 

Nottiii'* Hill. 

(4 th S. ix. 57.) 

Books are printed in sheets, the sizes of which are 
named according to the number and size of the 
pages in each sheet. Folio is the largest size, 
which contains on one form, or side of the sheet, 
2 pages. The next size is Quarto, containing 
4 pages on one side of the sheet. Then follow 
Octavo, or Svo, with 8 pages in the same space ; 
Duodecimo, 12 mo, or Ticell-cs, with 12 pages; and 
so on IGmo, or Sixtecns, ISmo, 24mo, 32mo, &c.. 
which contain on one form 16, 18, 24, and 32 
pages respectively ; but as all the sheets are printed 
on both sides, these numbers must be doubled to 
give the actual number of pages in each sheet. 
Any of these sizes may be distinguished by notic- 
ing certain printer's marks, which are placed at 
the bottom of the first page of every sheet. They 

are so placed for the convenience of the printer, 
the folder, and the binder ; their chief use L 
for the sake of convenient reference on the part of 
the reader. These marks consist of the letters of 
the alphabet: the fiVst sheet is generally marked 
B (A being reserved for the title, contents, &c., 
which are usually printed last) ; the second sheet 
is marked C, and so on throughout the letters of 
the old Roman alphabet, which did not contain 
the letters J, V, and W these are, therefore, 
omitted. When this alphabet is exhausted, the 
twenty-third sheet is signed AA, or 2 A ; the 
twenty-fourth BB, or 2 B; and so on to the end. 
The third alphabet is printed AAA, or 3 A, and 
so on. 

In some cases, especially in books printed in 
France or Germany, numbers instead of letters 
are used for the signatures. If tho work be in 
two or more volumes, the number of the volume 
is added to each sheet: thus, Vol. if. B would be 
the signature of the first sheet of the second 
volume. In foreign books this signature would 
be simply n. 1. In both cases the number of the 
volume is inserted at the left-hand bottom corner, 
.and the letter or numeral near the right-hand 
bottom corner. 

The size of the book, whether folio, quarto, 
octavo, &c., may be learned by counting thw num- 
ber of pages from one signature to the n 

Each of these sizes also admits of many varie- 
ties : thus an octavo, although always consisting 
of 16 pages, may be Royal Svo, Demy 8vo, Post 
8vo, Crown 8vo, &c., which leads to verv great 
complication. To distinguish these compound 
terms, a reference must be made to the size of a 
sheet of the paper upon which the book is printed. 
The sizes of printing papers vary with the manu- 
facturer ; but the difference is so trifling, that the 
rule pertaining to one establishment may be ac- 
cepted as that of another. The measurement of 
a sheet of the various kinds of printing paper is 
as follows : Large News, 32 x 22 inches ; Small 
News, 28 + 21; Royal, 25x20,- Medium', 23 x 
18f ; Demy, 22^ + 18; Post, 19 x 15); Copy, 
204 x 16$; *OWfl, 20 x 15; Foolscap, 104 x 13|; 
Pott, 15 x 12. 

Hoic is a I2mo folded? To answer this ques- 
tion, I must say a few words about the printing 
of a 12mo sheet. The arrangement of the pages 
of one side of a sheet or of a form, in their proper 
order, and the wedging them up in an iron frame 
called a, preparatory to their being printed, 
is called imposing a sheet. In imposing a sheet of 
twelves, or duodecimo, eight pages in each form 
are arranged together in the manner of a small 
Svo sheet. Above these eight pages, with a wider 
space between, four pages are arranged in each 
form, forming what is called the offcvt. In fold- 
ing the sheet, these four pages are first cut off, 
and the remaining eight folded like a sheet of 

S. IX. 



oct<avo. The offcut is then folded down the 
middle twice, and inserted within the fold of the 
sixteen pages, thus forming altogether the re- 
quired number twenty-four. 

In a sheet of this kind the signatures are car- 
ried to B 0, B o being the iirst page of the offcut ; 
and however numerous the pages may be in a 
sheet with one signature, if they are all inserted, 
they are continued to the last odd page before 
the middle of the sheet, but they are never car- 
ried beyond the middle. In strictness it is not 
necessary to insert more than the iirst two to in- 
dicate the iirst- fold of the paper, and the first of 
the offcut. The others only disfigure the pages, 
and are not of much use to the folder, who has 
only to keep the signatures on the outside, and 
the pages must be folded correctly. In French 
books the first page of the offcut is often indicated 
by some small mark printed at the bottom, such 

The meaning of the word edition, as applied to 
one book or many, I understand to be the number 
of copies of a book printed at a time. 



(4 th S. viii. 438.) 

Allow me space in your columns to add to the 
list of translations of the Talmud a work that 
your learned correspondent MR. J. T. BUCKTON 
informed me, just before his recent decease, was 
unknown to him. He had given much attention 
to this subject, and in 18G3 gave in "N. & Q." 
a scheme for an English translation. As this 
work had escaped his attention, it may be new to 
some of your readers who are interested in this 
subject. I mean 

"Talmud Babli, Tractat Bcrachoth, mit deutscber 
Uebersetzun^ und den Commeutaren Kaschi und Jo- 
sephoth, &c." Yon Dr. E. M. Pinner, Berlin, 1812 
a magnificent folio, giving the Mishna and the 
Gemara and the notes of Raschi and Josephoth, 
with various readings, all in Hebrew and German. 
There is also a valuable introduction in German. 
Unfortunately this work, which was dedicated to 
the Emperor of Russia, and was subscribed for by 
princes and scholars in all parts of the civilized 
world, does not extend beyond Berachoth, i. e. 
benedictions, the first of the sixty-two books of 
the Talmud. But so far as it goes it leaves 
nothing to be desired. It is a fact interesting to 
the student that the same ground is traversed by 
Le Talmud de Babylone traduit enLanguefranqaise, 
&c., par L'Abbe L. Clnarini, 2 vols. Leipzic, 
1831 ; but Chiarini does not give the original 
Hebrew. His work, however, is of great value, 
and he gives a useful introduction. He had 
travelled to several European cities to inform 
himself upon Talraudic literature and to find the 

purest text. The names of De Sola and Raphall 
have been mentioned in your columns, but with- 
out particulars. Their work is entitled Eighteen 
Treatises from the Mithaa, translated ly Rev. I}. 
A. de Sola and Rev. M. J. Raphall. Second Edi- 
tion, 1845, London. At a public discussion of 
the members of the Svnagoo-ue on the subject of 
revising the Liturgy and improving public wor- 
ship, some who took part in the discussion were 
taunted with giving partial extracts made by 
Christian writers. Hence the appointment of the 
above-named translators. They give only eighteen 
of the sixty- two chapters, and only the Mishna, 
none of the Gemara and Commentaries. They 
have 'given u such parts of the Mishna as more 
immediately relate to Israel in their present dis- 
persion." In The Ethics of 'the Fathers translated, 
&c., Edinburgh, 1852, believed to be by the 
oriental scholar Robert Young, there is a brief 
but useful introduction to the Talmud. The 
" Hebrew Catalogue" at the British Museum has 
valuable texts, &c. under the heading " Talmud." 
If any of your readers are translating any part of 
the Talmud into English, may I ask to hear from 
them without occupying your crowded pages. 

18, South Parade, Newark. 

P.S. The following work has just appeared : 
" Traite dos Berakhoth du Talmud de Jerusalem et du 
Talmud de Babylone, traduit ponr la premiere fois en 
fraiKjais par Moise Schwab. Paris: Alaisonneuve.'' 

M. Schwab purposes translating the other trea- 
tises of the Talmud. His title seems to have been 
made in forgetfuluess of Chiarinrs previous trans- 


(4 th S. ix. 50.) 

I was formerly well acquainted with the Rus- 
sian admiral Tchitchagoff, whom Napoleon, when 
on board the Northumberland, described as " a 
clever fellow, but not a good general." I first 
knew him at Brighton in 1843, and for several 
years maintained a "constant intercourse with him. 
Our acquaintance was not begun, indeed, ^but 
matured and fostered, by chess. The admiral, 
although no great proficient, took much pleasure 
in the game; particularly in the examination of 
difficult positions and problems, in solving which 
he displayed no small quickness and ingenuity. 
He was certainly "a clever fellow/' speaking 
English like a native; and his conversation 
abounded in anecdote and reminiscence of the 
stirring events of which Europe was the theatre 
during the end of the last and the beginning of 
the present century. 

Admiral Tchitchagoff, as is well known, com- 
manded a division of the Russian army in the 



L4'" S. IX. FKIJ. 10,72. 

Moscow campaign, and, at the head of 30,000 
men, held the opposite bank of theBeresina, with 
the object of barring the transit of the French 
army. Impressed with the belief that Napoleon's 
intention was to attempt the passage at Chabach- 
wiezi, where his force was posted, Tchitchagoff 
persisted in remaining there, even after he had 
been warned of his mistake. The emperor's real 
design, however, was to cross at Studieuka, which 
he succeeded in doing with the most serviceable 
part of the remnant of his multitudinous array. 
I never heard the admiral allude to the affair of 
the Beresina but once, and that was one evening 
after I had been dining alone with him. We had 
been talking about chess; and the conversation 
then turning on the Russian campaign, I inad- 
vertently made a depreciatory remark on Kutosoif, 
who had allowed Napoleon, before reaching the 
Beresina, to pass his formidable force without an 
attempt to impede him. The good admiral, sip- 
ping his glass of wine, remarked with a smile : 
"Ay ! and they said he checkmated me too after- 

The substance of the above is taken from a 
little book of mine on chess matters, published 
some time ago.* * H. A. KENNEDY. 

Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 

In the first volume of the Memorial de Saint e- 
Helene (p. 177) I find the following: 

" Ayant eu une audience particuliere de 1'Empereur 
Francois, dans le voyage qu'il a fait en Italie en 1816, il 
y fut question de Na'poleon. L'Empereur d'Autriche n'en 
parla jaraais que dans les meilleurs termes. On cut pu 
penser, me disait le narrateur, qu'il le croyait encore 
regnant en France, et qu'il ignorait qu'il fut a Sainte- 
Helene : il ne lui donna jamais d'autre qualification que 
celle de TEmpereur Napoleon" 

Now, it has always been to me a matter of 
great astonishment and regret, for England's sake, 
that in this particular instance she showed such 
a vindictive spirit, quite beneath her dignity. 
"Fair play is a jewel," says the old adage; and 
the English from boyhood are wont to put it into 
practice, and never to strike an antagonist when 
he is down much less such an adversary as the 
great Napoleon. In reading the late Lord Lyttel- 
ton's interesting notes, it is impossible not to feel 
sore at the total want of common courtesy on the 
part of all government officials, high or low, in 
addressing and treating a fallen enemy, who for a 
length of time had been ruler over great part of 
the world. It was evidently from a mot tfordre, 
which subsequently came from high quarters, for 
at first it was not so. Indeed, Lord Lyttelton 
tells us : 

" Everybody knows that Bonaparte was received as an 
emperor by Captain Maitland [on board the Bellerophon], 
who gave up to him the after-cabin, where he was not to 
be intruded upon by any unbidden guest." 

* Waifs and Strays, chiefly from the Chess- Board. 
L. Booth, London, 1862, 

knowing full well that such are "often welccmest 
when they are gone." But then again we are told : 
"On board the Northumberland, matters were to 
be placed on a different footing." Why? and 
wherefore that ill-natured and unbecoming affec- 
tation, to call such a man as Napoleon simply 
"Buonaparte " or " Monsieur le General" which, 
by the bye, to French ears sounds about as ludi- 
crous as if, speaking to an English officer of high 
rank, you were to say " Mister the General ! " 
Who in England, now-a-days, would ever think 
of calling " Monsieur le General " Napoleon III., 
who, in all your public press, is ycleped " The 
Emperor " and " His Majesty "? Well might the 
first Napoleon exclaim with indignation: " Q,u'ils 
m'appellent comme ils voudront, ils ne m'empe- 
cheront pas d'etre Moi." But Sir George Cock- 
burn was determined to assert the new rule by 
taking Lord Lyttelton, Sir George Bingham, 
and Lord Lowther into the cabin ; and saying, 
"'Won't you sit down?' left us there vix-a-vi* 
to Bonaparte," without even presenting them ; 
which, methinks, was of very questionable taste. 

Napoleon had expressed the wish to be allowed 
to reside in England, and to have an interview 
with the Regent ; but Lord Keith objected to this, 
saying, like an old tar: "Before they'd have been 
half- an -hour together, they would be as thick as 
two thieves." 

As regards the Empfror Alexanders sentiments 
towards Napoleon: When these two powerful 
potentates met at Erfurt, on one of the French 
actors at the play saying " L'amitie d'un grand 
honnne est un bienfait des dietix," Alexander 
suddenly turned towards Napoleon and put out his 
hand to him, which was loudly cheered by the 
whole house. 

"I remarked," says Lord Lyttelton, "that his 
hair, of a reddish brown colour, waslong, rough, and, 
if the expression may be permitted, dishevelled." 
I have some of Napoleon's hair, and have seen 
much more of it : I think I may positively assert 
that there was not a particle of red about it. 
Whilst on the quarter-deck with his hat off, and 
by an August sunshine, it very likely acquired 
momentarily a warm or golden tone, but not red; 
nor was his hair habitually what could be called 
long (his vieux grognards used to say " le petit 
tondu"); but if Napoleon's hair had become 
scarce, it had never been rough, but, on the con- 
trary, very silken, and by the sea-breeze would of 
course get somewhat " dishevelled." Here is a 
copy of a letter written on board the Bellerophon 
on August 16, 1815, and addressed to his duchess 
by Savary, Duke of Rovigo, who, to his great 
sorrow, was not allowed to share the fate of 
" Cresar and his fortune," or rather misfortune: 

" Enfin chere amie le sort en est jete', on m'emmene ce 
soire (sic), je ne scais oil, j'aurais donne ma vie pour te 
voire un moment, mais je ne puis meme te dire ou tu 

4 th S. IX. FKB. 10, ? 72.J 



devras et comment tu pourras m'e'crire, je n'ai pas besoin 
cle te dire a ouelles angoisses mon cceur est livre ; le tien 
te montrera le chemin pour m'en sortire. Je te renvois 
le plus fidel et le plus respectable des serviteurs, je desire 
qu'il reste pros de toi exclusivement a qui que ce soit, tu 
auras plaisir a parler avec quelqu'un qui in 'a vu. Je prie 
S . . . de t'aider et de te dormer du courage ; tu en trou- 
veras en envisageant nos enfants. Embrasse-les bien 
pour moi. Je n'ai que le temps de te serrer coutre mon 
t'oaur et de te dire, si c'est pour la derniere fois, que 
jusqu'a ma derniere heure je ne cesserai de te che'rire. 
Je dois a Jean les mois de Juin, Juillet et Aout, et lui 
r^incts quatre mille six cents francs pour toi. 

" Adieu, c'hcre et tendre amie. 

Je t'embrasse. 
" Bellerophon,'le 16 Aout." 

The good Duchesse de Rovigo, in sending me 
this letter in 1836, said : " Voici la lettre de mon 
mari que je vous ai promise; m'etant adressee 
elle ne pouvait etre signee, mais je certifie qu'elle 
est de sou ecriture." It is an interesting docu- 
ment. P." A. L. 


(1 st S. xi. 225, 274, 313.) 


(4 th S. vii. 409, 484.) 

Your lamented correspondent 'AA^L-S (DR. 
FISHER, of Trinity College, Dublin), whose com- 
munications were always looked into with*in- 
terest, desired to be referred to the source from 
which Kircher obtained the Greek verses printed 
ut supra, p. .'513, as he suspected they are not free 
frotn corruption. This information will perhaps 
be acceptable to others, and I have much pleasure 
in laying before them the following extract from 
Jacobi Lydii Sermones Conviviales ap. Poematia 
a Caspare Barlceo et Cornelia Boyo. Dordraci, 
1643, where the first verse is thus corrected: 

'AirTepov es Ssi>fipov TTTTJVOI' TTOT &(pv\\oi> VeTTTT/ 

Lydius subjoins " Ant si Latina magis capis: 

" Xon habuit pennas volucris, tamen ipsa volavit 
Desuper in quercus, exutas frondibus altis. 
Ore carens aliquis, de ccetu (ut credo) Gigantum, 
Venit, et hanc consumpsit avem, licet ore careret. 

"Philistor. Latina ejusmodi verba mihi aeque cum 
Grsecis obscura sunt. Quid dicam nescio, herbam do. 
Tu modo interpretare. 

" ArchaBologus. Doctissimi Joacbimi Camerarii (Deum 
immortalem ! qua doctrina viri) griphus est. Autorem 
enim silentio prudens prreteribam, ne, ut antea, istboc 
pacto te ad sensum ejus indagandum forte manuducerem. 
Signiticatur autem a Sole consumpta et liquefacta nix, 
quag in arborem deciderat; quippe cum nix cadit, arbores 
foliorum honore sunt orbataj." 

In my turn I beg to ask what work of Came- 
rarius is here referred to ? I have looked through 
his Symbolorum et Emblematum Centurice IV. 
Francofurti, 1661. 

" Griphus (ypityus}, in its primary Greek signification, 
means a net ; hence it was applied to a kind of enigma 
(quo irretiri solent, as the lexicographers tell us ; see 
also Hesychius and Simla?, ad v. e/cATJflr? 5' airo rwv 
a\ifVTiKui' 7p/0&jj/ ,+ Jul. Pollux, vi. 19), of which Athe- 
naeus (x. 15, Gas. 69, Schw. K.T.A.) has left a very full, 
though in parts somewhat obscure account, and in the 
explication of which Casaubon and Schweighaeuser have 
expended a profusion of learning." Encycl. Metropol. 

We learn from Clearchus in Athenoeus, lib. x. 
17, that the griphi were enigmatical and obscure 
forms of speech which the Greeks proposed for 
solution at their symposiacs, mingling thus the 
feast of reason and the flow of soul, the nets of 
Plato and Anacreon's bowl. 

Clearchus wrote a Treatise on Proverbs, in which 
he remarks that the investigation of griphi, 
though sportive and jocose, is not alien from phi- 
losophy, and that the ancients showed their learn- 
ing in them. On this point see also J. C. Scaliger, 
Poeticcs, iii. 83. There are seven species of them : 
one of them resembles what with us is called 
u capping verses." 

I must refer the inquirer to the Encyclopedia 
Metropolitans for a copious article on this subject, 
subjoining authorities and books of reference not 
there mentioned. 

Aristophanes, Vespce, v. 20. Comp. Becker, 
Chartcles, i. 473 (Smith's Diet, of Gr. and Rom. 

Plato, Symposium. This and the (supposed) 
Conmmwn of Xenophori (see Jowett, i. 488) are 
adduced to show the Greek custom inter pocula 
philosophandi. Cf. Plutarch us, Macrobius (Satur- 
nalia, lib. vii. c. 3). Stuckii Antiquitates Con- 
viviales, lib. iii. cap. 18 : 

" An, et quatenus de rebus seriis, et gravibus et philo- 
sophicis sit inter pocula disserendum: de sermonibus, 
problematibus, et parabolis convivialibus Cliristi : de 
lectunculis cum sacris turn profanis et olim et hodie inter 
epulas, postque adhiberi solids." (Potter, ut infra.) 

Plutarchus, Septem Sapientum Convivium. 
(Moralia, Wyttenbach, i. 404 syq.) 

Apuleius, Florida, Delph. p. 779. lie wrote a 
work entitled Liber Ludicrorum et Qriphorutn, 
which is lost. 

Diogenes Laertius, Menage, i. 89, p. 55 ; ii. p. 52, 
de Cleobulo et Cleobulina. 

" Since in this apophegmatic and concise style of speak- 
ing the object was not to express the meaning in a clear 
and intelligible manner, it was only one step further 
altogether to conceal it. Hence the griphus or riddle was 
invented by the Dorians, and, as well as the epigram, 
was much improved by Cleobulus the Rhodian, and his 
daughter Cleobulina." Miiller's Hist, and Antiq. of the 
Doric Race, ii. 399. 

Eustathius in Odysseam, p. 1926; J. J. Hoff- 
manni Lexicon Universale; Zedler, "Universal 

* Cf. Scirpus. 



Lexicon ; Gyraldi ^niifnutta (Opp. t. ii. p. G13) ; 
Bulenger, Conviv. iii. Mo (referred to by Zedler) ; 
Stuckii Antiqmtaies Conviviales; Vossii Lexicon 
Etymologicum ; Coelius Rhodiginus, Antiq. Lect. 
xxviii. 4 ; Potter's Archceoloyia Grceca, book iv. 
ch. xx. ad finem. 

"In the time of Plutarch they rarely dwcoiir.s.d upon 
any serious argument at public entertainments, 
a discourse being begun at Nicostratua'a house, concern- 
ing a subject which was to be discussed in the popular 
Assembly at Athens, som3 of the company, who had never j 
heard of the ancient Greek custom, affirmed that it was 
an imitation of the Persians (Sijmpos. lib. vii. qurcst. 9). 
And this question is propounded in the same author 
( Sympos. principio), whether it were allowable to discourse 
philosophy over their cups ? Some delighted to tell stories 
and to repeat ancient fables on these occasions : others 
chose to read some diverting discourse, faffiv cure?;', or to 
hear a poem repeated, which was very common among 
men of letters. But no diversion was more usual than 
that of propounding and answering ditfieult questions. 
Such of these as were wholly designed for amusement 
were termed cu.viyf.LXT a. : but those which farther con- 
tained something serious and instructive were called 

Pliny, which furnishes an 
eggs as an article of food : 

to a query about 

Grotius, Annotations in Jndic. xiv. 1:2-14. 
There were various presents and lines among the 
Greeks. The usual line imposed upon the party 
who was beaten in the contest of griphi was a 
cup of salt and water, to be swallowed at a single 
draught, as we learn at the close of the tenth book 
of Athenseus; cf. Julius Pollux. 

I shall close these references with an extract 
from Plato : 

" All agreed that drinking was not to be the order of 
the day. Then, said Eryximachus, as you arc all agreed 
that drinking is to be voluntary, and that there is to be 
no compulsion, I move, in the next place, that the flute- 
girl, who has just made her appearance, be told to go 
away; she ma'y play to herself, or, if she has a mind, to 
the women who are within. ]jut on this dav let us have 
conversation instead ; and if you will allow me, I will 
tell you what sort of conversation. . . . Many sophists, 
as for example the excellent Prodicus, have descanted in 
prose on the virtues of Heracles and other heroes ; and, 
what is still more extraordinary, I have met with a phi- 
losophical work in which the utility of salt* has b."-n 
made the theme of an eloquent discourse, and man)- like 
things have had a like honour bestowed upon them." 
Jowett, i. 494. 

There are numerous examples commented on in 
Casaubon's Ex erciiationes, and in Gvraldi Symbola. 

There are other ingenious riddles given by 
Lydius besides the one above quoted. 

" Ne tamen Indus jocusquc suus, eui cum honestate 
conveniat, clesit hisce genialibus epulis. agite, griphi et 
asnigmata bellariis nostris gratiam ac venustatem, nobis 
vero voluptatem concilient. Etenim non contemncndi 
au tores in eis ingenii vires exercuerunt. Quorum rlorem 
decerpere utile ac jucundum fuerit." 

One of these is illustrated by a passage from 

* See" N. & Q." 2^ S. x. 10, 198 ; Lilii Greg. Gvraldi 
PythagortE Symbola. (Opp. t. ii. 480,) 

" Plinium audi : Xullus, inquit, e.>t alius cibus qni in 
ajgritudine magis alat, neque oeftrei 
ac cibi habeat." [Lib. xxix. c. II.] 

He cites also on the same subject Ileraclides 
Tarentinus in Athena-US, lib. ii. cap. 50, &c. 

In the 'Aj>8o\o-)io, II. Steplia :ii, 1560, ad finem, 
there are six 'CarOfKWwwa "/pic&wS;?. Dr. Gilly, in 
Viyilantius and Jti-i Tin;; s Ausonius not 

to have been a sincere Christian from his trifling 
on the subject of the Trinity in his Griphus Tcr- 
narii Numeri. 

I should be much obliged if you or one of your 
numerous correspondents would kindly inform me 
where there is to be for. :nt of a cere- 

mony mentioned bv Dr. Dee : 

" In that College (Trinity } i iy advice an 

my endeavours divers waves us^l wi'th all th<i other 
leges was their Christinas Magistrate first named and 
confirmed an Emperor. The first was o:;e Mr. Thomas 
Dun, a very goodly man of person, -luture, and com- 
plexion, and well learned also." 

There is a humorous description of Academical, 
Saturnalia in . ms Prince, 

as it was exhibited in iltc Uniuers&y of Oxford in 
the year 1607: 

"Gaudium laetum canimu-. 
Hoc idem semper, nee 
Jam licet, la-tw feriie hie aguntur 

See Miscellanea Antiqua Anylicana, 1816, 4to. 

These academical titles appear to have been 
borrowed from the Greek Bao-tAeus, &c., and tho 
Latin Ilex, Alodimperator, &c. the King, whose 
business it was to determine the laws of good 
fellowship, and to observe whether every man 
drank his proportion, whence he was also called 
, Oculus, the Eye. 


WIDTH OF CnuRcn NAVES. In " N . & Q.'' 
for Oct. 28 is a letter of enquiry as to the breadth 
of church naves; and in tl: r '.). 

another communication, givinp- a .short list of di- 
mensions. To this list 1 beg to a.dd that of St. 
Michael's, Coventry, which (measured from centre 
of piers') is 40 ft. (J in., or about :fc feet clear, in 
breadth : this will. I think, give it a claim to be 
placed among the widest cf our English naves. 
The entire length of the church (internally) is 
240 ft,; its greatest breadth (inclusive of the i 
and side chapels) is 119 ft. o in. The absence of 
a chancel arch, added to its groat loftiness and 
lightness, renders this church one of the most 
imposing of all our parish cburebe.s. Only one, I 
believe, which is that of St. Nicholas, Great Yar- 
mouth, exceeds it in area. W. G. FHJ:TTON. 

88, Little Park Street, Coventry. 

-1"' S. IX. Fi:u. 10, 7-.'.] 



FOUR CHILDREN AT A BIRTH (4 th S. ix. 53.) 
I remember seeing four girls who were born at 
the same time, between fifty and sixty years ago. 
They were the children of a poor couple, in Wor- 
cestershire, and all lived several years. When I 
saw them they were about ten years old : they 
were all out in the garden of a small cottage by 
the side of the road from Birmingham to Brorns- 
grove. They were all dressed alike, and their 
features were all cast in the same mould. They 
were all four well, lively, and intelligent. Can 
any information be given as to how long these 
children lived, or at what dates respectively they 
died ? I heard of their being alive some years 
afterwards, but then lost sight of them. As they 
caused a great sensation at the time in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bromsgrove, many persons must be 
living who could relate their subsequent history. 

F. 0. H. 

QUEEN MAEY (4 th S. viii. 433 ; ix. 26.) Your 
correspondent J. "W. and not the Canongate re- 
gister is at fault with respect to the date of 
Uizzio's death. The register bears that Queen 
Mary's marriage to Darnley took place in ' July 
.," Rizzio's death on "Oth March, 1565," and 
Darnley's murder on " 10th February, 1566." In 
Scotland, prior to 1600, the historical year ended, 
not on December 81, but on March 24 ; March 25 
being the first day of the year. Accordingly, in 
the case of the dates assigned in the register to 
the murders of Rizzio and Darnley, 1566 and 
1567 must be substituted for 1565 and 1566 re- 
spectively, to make them harmonise with the 
modern mode of computation, which was not for- 
mally enforced by statute till 1752. E/N. 

PRINTED MATTER COPIED (4 th S. viii. 480 ; ix. 19.) 
This paper is made by llerr Weigle, Paradies- 
Apothek, Winkler Strass, Niirnberg. The only 
difficulty is that the carriage and cost of sending 
him the few shillings required are rather large in 
proportion. His letter to me cost Qd. ; then there 
would be paying a banker to transmit it 3s. or 4s., 
and then the question of conveyance arises. I 
should be very glad to join any one in getting 
some of the paper. T\vo months ago I might 
have fetched it, in going to or returning from 
Ober-Ammergau. C. F. BLACKBURX. 

11. B. P. should be thanked for his communica- 
tion. There must be many readers of "N. &Q." 
who will perhaps thank me too if I ask in their 
name that he will further oblige us by translating 
from the ayerisc&e Industrie the details of the 


CURE FOR RHEUMATISM (4 th S. viii. 505; ix. 26.) 
The carrying of a potato in the pocket as a cure 
for rheumatism is still practised amongst the Nor- 

folk peasantry, and I was told by a clergyman 
about two years ago that a labourer in his parish 
took one from his pocket and asked him if he 
could tell what it was. It was so shrivelled up 
that the rector could not imagine what it could 
be, and he was then told it was a potato, which 
he had long carried about with him to cure the 
rheumatics. GEORGE RAYSON. 

Gooclwyn House, Pul' 

HAHO (4 th S. viii. 21, passim, 550.) Does MR. 
CHAP.NOCK attach no importance whatever to his- 
toric truth ? The original name of the conqueror 
of Normandy was the Norse Ilrolfr, " Hrolf the 
ganger"; afterwards changed to Rolf, or Rolph, 
and Rolio. Under any conceivable explanation 
of the term haro, what possible connection can 
this have with the name Radolph corrupted to 
Randolph, if indeed the latter could be a corrup- 
tion of the former ? ED. CONSTANTINE. 

53.) The song quoted by MR. 11. W. H. NASH 
is by my grandfather, Charles Dibdin, Jun. I 
find it on p. 69 of a little volume entitled 

" The Song Smith, or Rigmarole Repository : con- 
taining Popular Songs, Comic and Serious. . ." . The 
whole written by C. Dibdin, Jun. . . . London : 
Printed fur the Author by W. Glendinning, Hatton 
Garden. . . . 1801." 

The song is titled, " Iloyr.l Reasons for Roast 
Beef" (tune, "When Arthur first at Court 
began"). [In the author's pantomime of Harle- 
quin Bcnedick.~] 

I cannot ascertain the date of Harlequin Bene- 
dicJJs production. 

As printed hi u N. Q." the song agrees very 
closely with the original. There are a few varia- 
tions, "but none of any note. 



This song has called up some lines which my 
mother learnt about sixty years ago. I think 
11 N. & Q." will not object to preserve them : 

" Brave Betty was a maiden queen, 

Bold and clever ! bold and clever ! 
King Philip, then a Spaniard king, 
To court her did endeavour. 
Queen Bess she frowned and stroked her ruff, 
And gave the might}'' Don a hurt': 
For which he swore her ears he'd cuff, 
AH with his grand Armada. 

' Says Royal Be?s, ' I'll vengeance take ! ' 

Blessings on her ! blessings on her ! 
' But first I'll eat a nice beefsteak, 
All with my maids of' honour.' 
Then to her admirals she went, 
Drake, Efiingham, and Howard sent, 
Who soon dished Philip's armament, 
And banged his grand Armada." 

I think the lines were originally published in 
the Independent Whiy. TH.OS. RATCLIFJFE. 



[4 th S. IX. FEB. 10, '72. 

545.) Reading the notice of this villa, it ap- 
peared to me that the writer was not aware of 
the " Account of the Roman Villa discovered . . . 
1813, 14, 15, and 16," which was printed, with 
some illustrations, in Skelton's History of the 
Antiquities of Oxfordshire. The description was 
written by the architect, Henry Hakewill, and it 
was reprinted as a quarto pamphlet, with some 
additional plates, by him in 1826. He remarks 
that he had intended more accurately examining 
" the west side of the quadrangle, and some parts 
of the adjoining ground," but was prevented by 
circumstances which, occurred. W. P. 

SHAKESPEARIANA (4 th S. viii. 220, 384, 504.) 
King John (Act III. Sc. 1.) Justly and fairly I 
claim to state that mam&y, as well as inanity, 
suggested itself to me. But, as one word, there 
appears to be no Shakespearian authority for either, 
nor any lexicographical establishment of inamity, 
while inanity is so established ; and, remarkably 
enough, as antithetic to " grappling vigour " = 
hot closeness of active enmity, "cold inaniti/"= 
cold avoidance, is somewhat synonymous with 
"cold inamity "= passive unfriendliness of spe- 
cious peace. Still I find, in Smart's Supplement 
to the Index of Common Terminations, under 
" -amour," " en-(a)mity, un-mrfness," which may 
be placed in juxtaposition with the assumed 
inamity of Dr. Johnson, as adduced -by CROW- 
DOWN j and henceforth one or the other may be- 
come lexicographically established. I am much 
pleased, however, to have given occasion for the 
remarks of F. R. and CROWDOWN, and have no 
desire but for the adoption of the proper word as 
intended by Shakespeare. J. BEALE. 

ARMS OF PRINCE RUPERT (4 th S. ix. 38.) 
The arms of Prince Rupert are surely the same 
as those of his father, Pfalzgraf and King of Bohe- 
mia, being Der Pfalz am Rhein (sable, a lion 
rampant, or; turned to the left; crowned gules), 
quartering Der Hertzogthuni von Bayern (paly 
bendy, azure and argent). These are the arms 
found on the contemporary Palatinate coins, gene- 
rally in separate shields, and having under them 
on a third shield the emblem of the imperial arch- 
sewership, hereditary cup-bearer to the German 
emperor (?) (Erztruchsessenwiirde), which is, gules, 
the imperial orb or. In 384 Medals of England 
(4to, London, 1831), at plate 14 will be found an 
oval medal enclosed in a chased border having on 
its obverse a bust of Prince Rupert, partly turned 
to the left, bareheaded, in armour, and holding a 
baton. On its reverse are the three shields men- 
tioned above, supported by two lions, and hav- 
ing the Rhine-Palatine crest (a lion sitting be- 
tween two horns, the lion as in the first shield, 
the horns tinctured as in the second) : his crest 
divides the initials R. P. 

As Rupert was a third son, I should much like 
i to know if he had any right to the Reichsapfcl, 
which, I should imagine, could only be borne by 
the Prince Palatine of the time being : also, I 
should like to know how it was that the golden 
Palatinate lion (which now in Bavarian coins faces 
to the right) always at that time faced inwards, 
even in the crest. 

In addition to the above three shields, the 
Prince Palatine of the Rhine bore the following 
quarterings : 

Julich. Or, a lion sable. 

Cleve. Gules, eight lilies or, in cross and saltire 
springing out of a small shield argent.* 

Berg. Argent, a lion gules crowned azure. 

Veldenz. Argent, a lion azure crowned of the 

Mark. Barry of six, gules and argent. 

Ravensberg, Argent, three chevronels gules. 

Mors. Or, a fess sable. 

And five crests Pfalz, Jiilich, Bayern, Cleve 
and Mark, and Berg. 


" THE MISLETOE BOUGH " (4 th S. viii. passim ; 
ix. 46.) " GENEVRA," the short poem in Rogers's 
Italy, is no doubt a pure fiction. The scene is laid 
in Modena, not in Florence ; and Rogers himself 
says in a note : 

" This stor3' is, I believe, founded on fact, though the 
time and place are uncertain. Many old houses in Eng- 
land lay claim to it." 



" JOIN ISSUE " (4 th S. ix. 14.) In Russell's 
Life of Moore it is recorded that Lord Castle- 
reagh who, considering his education and public 
position, was less to be excused than Burns 
constantly used "join issue " in the sense of agree, 
whereas the meaning of this purely legal phrase is 
to agree on wliat to disagree. W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

Burns is, I believe, correct in his use of the 
phrase "join issue," though that use of it seems 
now to be obsolete. If LORD LYTTELTON will 
turn to the Correspondence of the Right Hon. IVm. 
Wickham (1870, ii. 86), he will find Lord Malmes- 
bury writing to Mr. Wickham : 

" I join issue with you, my dear sir, most perfectly 
with regard to the no confidence to be placed in Conti- 
nental Courts." 



"BLACK" OR "BLEAK BARNSLEY" (4 th S. viii. 
451 ; ix. 45.) In Jackson's History of Barnsley, 
published in 1858 (chap. v. p. 46j, occurs the 
following sentence : 

" In the last century it (Barnsley) was called Black 
Barnsley, or Bleak Barnsley, either from the smoke of its 

* Is this not an escarbuncle ? 

S. IX. FKB. 10, '72.] 



forges, its lofty situation, or from its proximity to the 
neighbouring moors, which, like Blackheath, have a sooty 

The late Mr. William White, of Sheffield, the 
well-known publisher of county histories and 
directories, says in his West Hiding History, under 
the head of <: *Barnsley," that 
" it was anciently called ' Bleak' Barn.sley from the ex- 
posed situation of Old Barnsley, which is now a small 
village on the summit of the hill, nearly a mile N.W. of 
the town. 

If, as is generally believed, the hamlet of Old 
Town, or Old Barnsley, was the original ville 
of the manor of Barnsley, I am inclined to think 
that the designation must have been Bleak Barns- 
ley ; for it would be difficult to find a town in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire occupying a more 
bleak exposed situation. Though it is in the 
centre of the South Yorkshire coal field, and is 
the seat of linen and other soot-creating indus- 
tries, Barnsley is, even in the present day, by no 
means so black as many other towns which might 
be named in Yorkshire. Both terms are used, 
the one being evidently a corruption of the other, 
and the circumstances seem to indicate that the 
transition has been from Bleak to Black. 



THE MARQUIS DE MONTCALJI (4 th S. viii. 397.) 
I am sorry that no one has come forward to vin- 
dicate the reputation of Montcalm, as my very 
limited acquaintance with Choiseul's writings does 
not entitle me to compare his literary merits with 
those of the hero of Ticonderoga. In any case 
the information on which the prophecy of Ameri- 
can Independence is founded must have been 
derived from some person in Canada or New 
England. Does L. M. imply that Montcalm was 
a party to the fraud ? for, since the letters were 
published between 1757 and 1759, that is, during 
the last two years of Montcalm's life, he must 
have heard of them and of their being attributed 

HERON OR HERNE (4 th S. viii. 517; ix. 45.) 
At any rate J. P. will agree with me in thinking 
that if heron is to be pronounced Herne it would 
be impossible to read rhythmically Sir Walter 
Scott's finest poem, Marmion. Who would recog- 

" Sir Hugh the Heron bold, 
Baron of Twizell and of Ford, 
And Captain of the Hold ; " 

or his wife, " the lovely lady Heron," when styled 
Hcrne ? The few heronries remaining in England 
would, I should say, be still called so, not hernries. 

Hungate Street, Pickering. 

GYBBON SPILSBFRY (4 th S. viii. 528; ix. 4G.) 
Mr. Spilsbury obtained three patents for improve- 

ments in the manufacture of paints and pigments 
the first in conjunction with M. F. C. D. Corbaux 
and A. S. Byrne, dated October 7, 1839, No. 8234 ; 
the second in his own name alone, dated Nov. 2, 
1848, No. 12,314; and the third as joint pa- 
tentee with F. W. Emerson, dated September 12, 
1855, No. 2063. As all the patents have expired 
the inventions are public property. Printed 
copies of the specifications can be inspected, free 
of charge, in the public library at this office ; or 
they can be purchased in the sale department at a 
cost of sixpence for the first specification, and four- 
pence each for the second arid third. 

Patent Office. 

CAGOTS (" Notices to Correspondents," 4 th S. 
viii. 522.) If H. E. A. S. will write to me at 
Hardwick Vicarage, Hay, South Wales, I may 
perhaps be able to give him some information on 
this curious subject. T. W. WEBB. 

23.) I have recently come across a few more par- 
ticulars respecting this lady. The Manx Sun, in 
the early part of June, 1871, reports the inquest 
which was held upon the body of " Elijah Chris- 
tian, the woman of the wilderness." Jane Chris- 
tian had occupied with her two sisters Laburnum 
Cottage, Douglass, for seven or eight years. It 
appears there have been two " Elijah Christians," 
Jane being Elijah the second, she having taken 
the name, and in a measure continued the pursuits 
of an elder sister. The elder sister, whose death 
took place some time before, had for many years 
assumed the name of " Elijah," and published a 
religious periodical, which was headed with vari- 
ous titles, and was in its way quite a curiosity. 
Latterly she and the deceased (Jane) had been 
their own compositors. Upon the death of the 
first " Elijah " Jane took the name, and continued 
the publication of the periodical at uncertain in- 
tervals, but not with the same spirit and success. 
It appears that it was the first " Elijah " who set 
up the new " Garden of Eden " with the man 
named Garrett, at the foot of SnaiTell. 


viii. 506; ix. 47.) The custom of presenting a 
bit of shortbread, or other kind of cake, to the first 
person who meets a child on its way to the church 
for baptism, is still kept up in Fife and in other 
parts of Scotland. Formerly it was universally 
observed, and young folks, knowing when a child 
was to be taken to church, sometimes laid them- 
selves in the way to obtain the piece. In conse- 
quence, however, of the practice of private bap- 
tism becoming prevalent in the beginning of the 
present century the custom gradually became 
rarer; but since the publication of II. A.'s notice 
I have met with more than one individual who 



[4'h S. IX. FKU. 10, 72. 

have recently had '-'the bairn's piece" presented 
to them. Whatever may have been the origin of 
the custom, though, perhaps, like the bread dis- 
tributed in pre-reformation times, at funerals and 
obits, it may have been to obtain the prayers of 
the recipient for the well-being of the child. Be 
this as it may, the custom tended to beget a kindly 
interest in the child, and is certainly preferable to 
the cold isolation which is too much the tendency 
of modern life. It was customary also (and per- 
haps still is so) to pin a bit of shortbread on the 
child's frock before being taken to church, and to 
remain during the ceremony. This piece was 
eagerly coveted by young maidens as a dreaming 
piece, certain to ensure happy dreams of their 
lovers. A. L. 

WILLIAM BALIOL (4 th S. vii., viii., passim,- ix. 
17.) In reply to J. 11. S. I would say, 1st, that 
the date 1325 is assigned to the charter granted 
by Sir John of Graham to the monks of Melrose, 
by Mr. W.Fraser of Edinburgh, who reported on 
the Montrose charters. The grauter and witnesses 
being persons of note, it is easy to approximate to 
a date in such a case. 2nd. In 1368 l( Thomas i 
de Balliol/' who appears to have been the brother ' 
or brother-in-law of Thomas, Earl of Mar, re- ; 
signed into the hands of his overlord, William, ; 
Earl of Douglas, all his right or title to various ! 
lands forming part of the barony of Cavers (Lib. \ 
de Metros, p. 43G). According to George Crau- 
furd, this Thomas was the grandson of the Cham- 
berlain and Isabel de Chilham, and having no 
issue, this branch ended with him. The informa- i 
tion given by J. E. S. from the Public Record ; 
Office is conclusive on the point that the chamber- 
lain had a brother William alive in 1292. But ! 
the word "clericus" attached to his name is 
equally conclusive evidence that he was a church- j 
man, and therefore was a different person from 
the knight who witnessed the Melrose charter. ' 
Therefore, if the elder William be the person 
buried at Canterbury, it is clear that he could 
leave no legitimate descendants, and this perhaps ; 
may account for the change of surname by the 
latter to Scot. These remarks are not made in 
any disparaging spirit to my esteemed fellow con- 
tributor, but follow as a natural inference from 
the curious information he has brought out. 


" AILEEN AROON " (4 th S. viii. 548.) If MR. 
CLIFFORD bestows a leisure hour on the Indices 
so providently appended to " N. & Q.," he will be 
well coached in the history and music of this 
Elizabethan ballad; in the "transfer (circa 1757) | 
of its name and metre to " Robin Adair "; and in ] 
my endeavour (1810) to reinstate its old Irish 
melody. He will note likewise the common con- ! 
sequence of imitations in the drunken doggrel ! 
which " welcomed Johnny Adair to Puckstown : " ! 

i but the Kilruddery trash which he will meet in 
j the next page, being composed in a different 
i measure, has no kindred with the Puckstown 
! poetics. There is a curious similarity between 
i the Irish " Aileen Aroon " and the Scottish 
i " Lochinvar : " to which of the twain belongs the 
i pre-andquity, I leave with the Jonathan Old- 
bucks of either nation. 


OLD BIGS (4 th S. viii. passim; ix. 84.) In 
Mr. Tinibs's very auiu<ing and entertaining work, 
A Century of Anecdote, are given many good 
stories of Lord Eldon and other remarkable men 
from 1760 to I860. As the following anecdote of 
Lord Eldon is so short, perhaps I may be excused 
for giving it, especially as it is as true of book- 
borrowers now as it was in his lordship's time : 

' Lord Eldoa lent two large volumes of precedents to a 
friend, and could not recollect to whom. In allusion to 
such borrowers he observed, that ' though backward in 
accounting, the}' seemed to be practised in book-heepmq.' 1 " 

R. W. II. NASH, B.A. 

(4 th S. ix.. 56.) The disease which causes the 
Polish women to wear wigs is the " Plica Polo- 
nica," a disease of the hair peculiar to Poland, 
but sometimes found elsewhere. A short account 
will be found in Chanibers's Cyclopeedia.* 


[* M. D. writes " See Copland's Diet, of Practical 
Medicine, s. r. ' Hair,' for a description of the di 
and its bibliography; " and HERMIT, communicating di- 
rect with Mit. BANKES, says " When I was travelling in 
Poland I observed that a great many Jewish women had 
their heads shaved and wore wigs. Upon inquiry I was 
told that when girls belonging to the orthodox Jewish 
persuasion (in contradistinction to the reformed Jews) 
get married, they have their heads shaved and wear wigs 
ever afterwards. Whether this h.-is any bearing v 
your query I leave to you to decide."] 


Lord Byron : a Biograplty. With a Critical Flssay on liis 
Place, hi Literature by Karl Elze. Translated with th? 
Author's Sanction, and Edited with Notes. With // 
Portrait and Facsimile. (Murray.) 

The name of the author of this new biography of Byron 
must be familiar to many of our readers, not onlv from his 
" Critical Edition of Hamlet," but from the fact that ht- 
has been selected as editor of the " Year-Book of the Ger- 
man Shakespeare Society " ; while among his own coun- 
trymen he is distinguished for his deep and extensive 
acquaintance with the language and literature of England. 
Our author, though an ardent admirer of the genius and 
character of Byron, is by no means a blind worship- 
per of the idol" which he has set up. But if he does 
not unfairly extenuate the failings of his hero, he vindi- 

4- h S. IX. Fiiii. 10/72.] 



catea him nobly and fearlessly from the foul calumnies 
which the last two or three years have seen heaped upon 
his memory. Karl Elze does not claim to bring forward 
new facts or to have obtained new materials, but he has 
nsed wisely and judiciously the vast amount of materials 
illustrative of Byron, which were open to him as to all 
the world ; and the skilful and artistic use which he 
has made of them gives a charm to the narrative which 
is clear, compact, and well arranged. Not the least in- 
teresting part of the book to many readers will be the 
last two chapters, in which the author treats of Byron's 
"Characteristics" and his "Place in Literature," re- 
kiag which the translator remarks very justly in 
the former " he has endeavoured to seize and fix the 
rich and varied traits of his character in an analysis as 
elaborate as it is perhaps unsparing; and in his last 
chapter he seeks to assign to Byron the place which is 
lus due, not merely in tho literature of England, but in 
the literature of Europe." It will be seen from this that 
the book is one which all the admirers of Byron must 

The Secret of Long Life. (El. S. King & Co.) 

A pleasant, rambling, but not very closely connected 

ossny, dedicated to Lord St. Leonards as "one of the fore- 

of the Illustrious Brotherhood who possess the 

Secret of Long Life." The author writes an infinite deal of 

: hing, in language which is ofttimes new and strange; 

.so that his secret, like the recipe for the elixir vita;, is 

not very clearly expressed. It is but, as the reviewer 

<f a novel says at the winding up, "for this we must 

:ir readers to the book itself." 
The Hilton/ of Leicester in the Eighteenth Century. By 

James Thompson. (Leicester : Crossley & Clarke. 

London : Hamilton.) 

Mr. Thompson is favourably known as the writer of a 
v/ork that traced the history of Leicester from its earliest 
times to the } r ear 1700. The pivsent volume is therefore 
a continuation, and in its compilation the town records 
and the file of the Leicester Journal, which commenced 
^*s issue in 1753, have been laid under willing contribu- 

Thua/didis I. Wit!-. Collation of the. tico Cambridge MSS. 
'(', Aldins and Juntine Editions. By Richard 
Shilleto, M.A., Fellow of Peterhovne, Cambridge. (Cam- 
bridge: Deighton; London: Bell & Daldy.) 

The thanks of all classical ivadors are due to Mr. 
to for having given them this first instalment of his 
ion of Thucydides, and we can only hope that the 
learned editor's life and health may be spared to enable 
him to complete a work that gives promise of being able 
to hold its own with the various other editions that have 
preceded it in the present century. A promised excursus 
<n a passage in chanter two is deferred for the present, 
: nt ?.Ir. Shilleto, while confessing that " the longer one 
lives and reads the more one is conscious of one's igno- 
rance, and shrinks from dogmatism," still expresses a 
belief that he will be able to defend the text. 

Guide Book to the Marine Aquarium of the Crystal 
Palace Aquarium Company. By W. A. Lloyd, Super- 
intendent of the Aquarium. 

If, as we cannot doubt, the Marine Aquarium is des- 
tined to form one of the great attractions of the Crystal 
Palace during the coming season, the interest felt "in it 
v/ill be greatly promoted by this little handbook, in 
which Mr. Lloyd, who has probably greater knowledge 
and more experience in such matters than any other 
man, plays the part of guide, philosopher, and friend to 
those who desire to turn to good account their visit to 
this instructive exhibition. 

Jean Jarousseau, the Pastor of the Desert. By Eugene 

Pelletan. Translated from the French by Lieut.-Col. 

E. P. De Hoste. (II. S. King & Co.) 

There will be few readers of this little tale who, while 

they share the admiration of it which induced Colonel 

De Hoste to translate it, will not thank the translator for 

introducing them to this charming specimen of Eugene 

Pelletan's tender grace, humour, and high-toned morality. 

Longevity : The Life of Thomas Geeran. (Moon, 


For reasons, which our readers will understand, we 
confine ourselves to acknowledging the receipt of this 
pamphlet, and protesting against the republicat.ion as 
truths of statements which have been proved to be 
utterly without foundation. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. We hare on our table a number 
of small books to which we desire to call the attention of 
our readers, though we can scarcely do more than tran- 
scribe their titles. Foremost among these is Poetry for 
Children by Charles and, Mary Lamb, of which Pickerine: 
has just issued an edition under the superintendence of 
Mr. Richard Herne Shepherd. Are we better than our 
Fathers? (Parker). The four lectures lately delivered 
bv Canon Gregory in St. Paul's with so much effect. 
Thoughts, Philosophical and Medical, selected from the 
Works of I' rands Bacon, with an Essay on his Health 
and Medical Writings, by John Dowson, M.D. (Lewis). 
Songs by Lord Byron (Virtue & Co.) Paradise trans- 
planted and restored a fac-simile reprint of an account 
of a curious exhibition in Shoe Lane in 16C1 ; and The 
Angler's Garland and Fisher's Delight for 1871, with 
some cuts by Bewick, both published "by Bickers. 
Brinhiey's Astronomy, revised and partly re-written, with 
additional Chapters, by William Stubbs, D.D., and Francis 
Brunow, Ph. D., Astronomer Royal of Ireland (Hodges & 
Co., Dublin). A Complete Course of Problems in Practical 
Plane Geometry, by J. W. Pallister (Simpkin Mar- 
shall). Bygones reldting to Wales and the Border Coun- 
ties (Caxton Works, Oawestry). The Popular Science 
lieview, edited by Henry Lawson, M.D., iYo. 42. (Harcl- 
wicke), containing, inter alia, a paper on " Psychic Force 
and Psychic Media," by Mr. Earwaker. Dramatic 
Almanac for 1872, by J. W. Anson, containing a curious 
medley of useful and out-of-the-way information con- 
nected with theatres and actors old and new. 

with deep regret that we have to announce the death, on 
Tuesday last (the 6th) at Thirlstane House, Cheltenham, 
of SIR "THOMAS PHILLTITS, Bart., of Middle Hill, Wor- 
cestershire. This accomplished gentleman, one of the 
oldest Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries, enjoyed an 
European reputation for the extent and value of his col- 
lection of MSS., to which he was perpetually making 
large and valuable additions. He had for many 3 7 ears a. 

Erivate printing press at Middle Hill, from which there 
as issued a large number of heraldic, historical, and 
antiquarian books. Sir Thomas, who was educated at 
Rugby, and afterwards at University College, Oxford, 
was in his 80th year. 

DEATH OF YORK HERALD. The College of Arms has 
lost one of its oldest members, Thomas William King, 
Esq., F.S.A., York Herald. All who, like ourselves, have 
experienced the courtesy and readiness with which Mr. 
King placed his curious stores of information at the ser- 
vice of his literary friends, will share the regret with 
which we announce his death. Mr. King, whose health 
had long been failing, died on the 4th, in the seventy- 
second year of his age. 

MESSRS. LONGMAN & Co. have in the press Traditions 
and Customs of Cathedrals, by Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, 



S. IX. FEB. 10,72. 

B.D., containing an historical sketch of their changes at 
the Reformation ; their ravages during the Rebellion and 
the Georgian era; ecclesiastical "Uses," customs past 
and present, anecdotic legends, &c. 

" CHAUCER'S tomb in Westminster Abbey, which was 
put up to his memorv by Nicholas Brigham in 1556, has 
been carefully examined lately by Mr. M. H. Bloxam. 
He is positive that the tomb is'neither of Chaucer's date, 
1400, nor Brigham's, but is late fifteenth-century work, 
say about 1480. Mr. Bloxam suggests that Brigham 
bo'ught the tomb from among ' alle the goodly stone- 
worke ' in ' Powles Church,' that was plucked down in 
1552, or from the Grey Friar's Church, Newgate Street, 
in September, 1547, when all its ' grett stones and 
anteres ' were ' pullyd up.' Mr. Bloxham has no doubt 
that the tomb 'is a second-hand monument.'" Athe- 
nceum, Jan. 20, 1872. On reference to our l l S. ii. 142, 
there will be found the following, extracted from the 
Athenaeum of that period : "One of the objections for- 
merly urged against taking steps to restore the perishing 
memorial of the Father of English poetry in Poet's Corner 
was, that it was not really his tomb, but a monument 
erected to do honour to his memory a century and a half 
after his death. An examination, however, of the tomb 
itself by competent authorities has proved this objection 
to be unfounded, inasmuch as there can exist no doubt, 
we hear, from the difference of workmanship, material, 
&c., that the altar tomb is the original tomb of Geoffrey 
Chaucer, and that instead of Nicholas Brigham having 
erected an entirely new monument, he only added to 
that which then existed the overhanging canopy, c. 
So that the sympathy of Chaucer's admirers is now in- 
vited to the restoration of what till now was really not 
known to exist the original tomb of the Poet as well as 
to the additions made to it by the affectionate remem- 
brance of Nicholas Brigham." 



Particulars of Price, &c.. of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names aiid addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

JUNIUS' LETTERS, Edited by Heron. 2nd Edition. 2 Vols. 8vo. 1801. 
THB LIFE OF PHCEBE HAS.SELL,. With Portrait. 8vo. 

Wanted by William J. Thorns, E*r/., 40, St. George's Square, 
Belgrave Road, S.W. 

SHAKESPEARE in Three Volumes, large 8vo. Illustrated by Kenny 

Meadows, published about 1815. 

The Battle of the Boyne." A Large Engraving from the Painting by 


Wanted by Rev. John Pick ford, .V.A., Hungate Street, Pickering, 


TOUR. 3 Vols. 


Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookseller, 15, Conduit Street, 
Bond Street, London, \V. 


T. R Yes. Next week. 

H. A. K. The case of 103 is doubtless that of Mrs. 
Strike, communicated by Sir G. C. Lewis to "N. <fc Q." 3 rd 
S. i. 282 ; the other is that of Lieutenant Lahrbush, for 
which see our last volume, p. 367. 

We find an increasing disposition among our Correspond- 
ents to deluge UK with corrections of errors and sup- 
posed errors in recently published books and periodicals, 
"N. & Q." was never intended to act as the Censor of its 
contemporaries ; and, after a happy and successful exist- 

ence of two-and-twenty years, sees no reason to alter its 

H. R. 77* letter is printed in The Memoirs of the 
Last Two Years of the Reign of King Charles I., ly Sir 
Thomas Herbert, edit, 1813, p. 217. 

SPAL. We have a letter for this Correspondent. Where 
shall we send it ? 

H. Charles Seymour, eleventh Duke of Somerset, suc- 
ceeded his brother in 1678, and died in 1748, having en- 
joyed the title just seventy years. 

Miss MACLAGAX (Edinburgh.} The lines on "The 
Succession of the Kings of England " are by John Co/I ins, 
and will be found in his Scripscrapologia ; or, Collins's 
Doggrel Dish of all Sorts, 1804, and are printed in 
" N. & Q." 1" S. xi. 450. 

S. S. (Hyde Park.) The portion of the work relating to 
Cambridgeshire is taken from England Illustrated, or, a 
Compendium of the Topography, &c.. of England and 
Wales, in two vols. Land. 17 CA, 4to. 

N. The Olney Hymns, in Three Booh*, tccre first pub- 
lished ittl2mo. Lond. 1779. The contributions by Coicper 
were indicated by a C. prefixed to t/ie title of the hymn. 
The two noticed by our correspondent have the initial C. 

0. II. (Arts' Club.) The quotation is from the Rev. 
- George Crabb, The Borough, Letter A". 

AN OLD COLLECTOR (Glasgow.) Communications will 
be most welcome to J, W . F. of Brighton. 

tlte phrase, "He's a brick," a iolh/ good fellow, consult 

liar saying, " The tune the old cow died of" that is, the 
music is insufferably bad, see " N. & Q." 2 llli S. i. 375, 500 ; 
ii. 39, 157. 

been suggested by a Correspondent that these worthies first 
figured in a leading article, nearly forty years ago, in the 
John Bull newspaper and that in the. merry days of Wil- 
liam Upcott it was a standing joke. 

T. VV. D. A Short Account of the Early Manufacture 
of Gunpowder in Enaland, by Win. Henry Hart, was. 
published by W. H. Etkins, 47, Lombard Street, in 1855. 
The promised documents, we believe, have not been printed. 

H. FISHWICK. The first edition (1541, fol.) of the 
Latin Bible edited by John Benedict or Benoit, is fully 
described by Mr. Pettigrew, Bibliotheca Sussexiana, vol. i. 
part 2, p. 404. John Benedict was born in 1483 at Ver- 
neuil in France. He was a Doctor in T/ieology, and rector 
of St. Innocent's at Paris, where he died In 1573. His 
Bible has been several times printed, and all the editions 
have been inserted in the Index Libror. Expurg. 

TOM STEWART (Newcastle). The Wellington statue 
weighed nearly sixty tons, and was removed from Wyatfs- 
studio to its present position by twenty-nine powerful dray 
horses belonging to Messrs. Coding's brewery. 

T. Q. C. The Atalanta Fugiens, 1618, 4to, of Michael 
Maier, is the most rare and curious of his works. This 
celebrated German alchymist (6orn 1568, died 1622) 
sacrificed his health, fortune, and time to those ruinous 

ERRATUM. 4> S. ix. p. 58, col. ii. line 23, for 
" Library " read " Literary." 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return communication* 
which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor at the Office, 
43, Wellington Street, W.C. 

To all communications should be affixed the name an -I address of 
the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a u'"'-i"antee of ^ood 

4th S . IX. FEB. 17, 72.] 





NOTES : Journeys from the South of Ireland to England 
and Back in 1778, 1784, 1791, 1794, 133 Miscellaneous 
Folk Lore, 13-i Polyeuctes and Lords Gleugall and 
Thynne, 135 Nelson's celebrated Signal Round Church 
Towers in Norfolk and Suffolk " Hereditary Hangmen " 

Mrs. Bovey jjind the Meetings of the Three Choirs, 136. 

QUERIES : Anne Boleyn's Book of Devotions, 137 " Are 
you there with your Bears? " Berkeley or Barkley 
Holy Bible, 1691 Black Rain Booth Family Deriva- 
tion of Countries, &c. The Erl King Frescoes at 
Fetcluvn Park, Leatherhead Scott Hamilton Heraldic 

Charles Leigh Thomas M owbray Myfanwy Non- 
such Palace Norman Poetry, Mysteries, &c. Notices 
affixed to Church Doors Pictures Quotations ;Ru- 
bens' *' Susannah and the Elders " Russell Family Arms 

Saulies: Gumpheoa Men "The Com play nt of Scot- 
land " (15i9, A.D.) Time Immemorial Visitation of Lon- 
don, 1633-4 Washington, 137. 

REPLIES : - Verrio, the Painter, 140 Charles Sandoe 
Gilbert, 141-Damian, Ib. " The Mistletoe Bough," 142 
Origin of Tichborne, Ib. Milton's Use of the Superlative, 
143 Italian Etymological Dictionary "Nam nihil est 
gernmis" Gibson Family Burnsiana Scottish Iron 
Money Knarr: Wryde W ickhams of Abingdon 
Seven Dials A propos de, Bottes " First in Talents," 
&c. Henry Inch Death's Head Buttons The Seven 
Towns of Holland Dr. Win. Strode Les pretres de- 
portes Cooksty: Throckmorton, &c. Brayded : Braydes 

Invasion of Switzerland by the English Help = Pre- 
vent Piontowski, Buonaparte's faithful Polish Adherent 

Baron Bunsen Lettice Knollys Hobbedehoy Henri 
Deux Ware, &c., 141. 

Notes on Books, &c. 

ENGLAND AND BACK IN 1778, 1784, 1791, 1794. 

The little MS. journal from which the follow- 
ing particulars are taken I lately found amongst 
a trunk full of old family papers that were en- 
trusted to my care. The remarks are interesting 
as well from the description given of the different 
places the writer passed through, and the occa- 
sional notice of the inns he put up at ; as from his 
account of certain objects and persons he met 
with, From a list of the London distillers, &c., 
at the time, which are written in the commence- 
ment of the book, and from the fact that Mr. 
Bonwell subsequently became a banker in Cork, 
we may infer that those trips were made with a 
Tiew to establish a connection in England. The 
Bonwells resided at Curryglass, in the county of 
Waterford, where their property was situated. 
Merino, from whence he set sail May 20, 1791, is 
a beautiful demesne, now the residence of Mr. 
French, on the north side of the river Lee, be- 
tween Cork and Queenstown. The Irish part of 
the first j ourney is missing. ' ^g^l b R; C - 


" Tuesday morning, Sept. 15, 1778, left St. Clare^ at 
half-past sfx, and came post to Carmarthen, ten miles 
from thence to Llandilo, being fifteen miles of the finest 
country I ever saw ; one seat particularly, belonging to 
Colonel Price, splendid beyond description. Oh ! how 
my dear wife would enjoy this neighbourhood, as we got 
nuts on every hedge as we went the road, and when we 

stopped at the inn we got more than we wished to load 
the chaise with for twopence. At half-past one arrived 
at Llandovery, thirteen miles farther on, where the houses 
are all covered with a gritty stone instead of slates ; the 
good woman of the house was brewing she lets her 
keeve stand four and half hours, mashes very thick, boils 
her worths but an hour and a quarter, cools in brass pans, 
and barms in the keeve, so that her drink can never be 
bvicked. From thence we came to Trecastle, nine miles 
further on towards Bristol, and dined. Plenty of black 
game, as well as grouse, on the adjacent mountains. 
Next stage we made was Brecon, where we stayed all 
night ; ' tis an old town, but a very fine river runs through 
it. A few miles at this side is a large oak-grove, every 
tree as tall and straight as a full-grown fir. Sep. 16, 
breakfasted at Abergavenny, where a loaf of bread was 
brought to table four feet and a half in circumference, 
and ten inches deep from the upper to the lower crust, 
deliciously sweet and well baked. Next stage Reglen, a 
very poor place. Next a very pretty little place called 
Chepstow, sixteen miles from our last stage. We dined 
there ; 'tis a very pleasant little seaport, a part of the 
Severn passing under its bridge, which is covered with 
straight planks, with one pier in the centre, tho' very 
wide. Three miles from thence is the ferry, called ' Old 
Passage '; where we took boat and crossed the Severn to 
the ferry-house, near a league over. Observe, we were in 
England when we passed the wooden bridge, and a d d 
rotten old affair it appears to be. From the ferry-house to 
Bristol is twelve miles, where we arrived at one in the 
morning, and stay'd there till Saturday at 12 o'cl., and 
then went forward towards Bath. At half after two came 
to Bath, village beyond description fine. Sunday, Sep. 20, 
left Bath, at 9 A.M. breakfasted at Devises ; thence to 
Marlborough, Hungerford, Newberr}-, Reading, and Maid- 
enhead, where we spent that night. Sep. 21. at 5'30, 
left Maidenhead, next stage Hounslow, Hyde Park Cor- 
ner at 10, and from thence to the Swan with Two Necks, 
Lud-lane, where we arrived at 9 o'clock. Sep. 22, re- 
moved from the Swan to No. 8, Caples Court, and dined 
with Mr. Jeffryes. 24, 25, and 26, confined by an erup- 
tion on my face and hands. Sep. 27, dined at Richmond. 
28th took physic, and wrote a long letter to my wife. 
From Sep. 28 to Oct. 4, chiefly spent in walking and 
inspecting every thing I thought necessary or curious. 
Oct. 4, left London at 10 A.M. for Holyhead,' in company 
with Mr. Godet ; passed through several small towns, 
but of little note ; slept at Northampton, a very large 
and handsome place ; from thence to Markctarborrow, 
where a tree grows against the wall called Pericanthus 
(sic). Further on, we breakfasted at Leicester, a most 
excellent house, J. P. Allamajid keeps it, 'tis called Three 
Cranes Inn. We dined at Derby at the George, most 
notorious extortioners ; from thence we came to Mat- 
lock and slept, a most romantic place and very pleasant ; 
there is a bath, rather cold, tho' called a hot bath ; every 
thing very reasonable Lovet's House. Next we canie 
to Tiswell^ a b g d place, and took post to Buxton and 
dined. A very hot bath here and good inns ; we set up 
at the ' Hall,' in Avhich the bath is kept ; slept at Max- 
field. Wednesday 7th, came through Knntsford. Northwick, 
and thence to Chester, where we -breakfasted about . . . 
having rode thirty-six miles this morning, from thence to 
St. Asaph thirty miles, where we slept. Tuesday, Oct. 8, * 
arrived at night at Holyhead, sixty-six miles from the 
place we slept. 9th, at 12, set sail in the Qaremount 
packet, Captain Taylor ; at 3 we cleared the head, and 
arrived at the Hlll^f Howth, the entrance of the har- 
bour, at 12 at night; at one in the morning anchored 
inside the harbour, where we staid till 9, then took boat 
and arrived at Apins (?) Quay. 10th, arrived in Dublin, 
and stopped at Sheridan's Hotel, Fowns Street. 



[4> S. IX. FEB. 17, '72. 

Thursday, Dec. 9, 1784, left Curryglass House, and 
took the following articles with me to Dublin : 13 shirts 
and 12 stocks ; 1 pair of silk breeches, and waistcoat ; 
1 red and 2 diaper nightcaps ; 2 cambric and 6 laun 
handkerchiefs ; 3 white, and 2 pair of black silk stock- 
ings ; 4 pair of thread do. ; 4 pair of yarn do. ; 2 pair of 
gauze do. ; 3 pair of nankeen breeches ; 3 white waist- 
coats ; 1 pair drawers ; 1 beaver hood. Slept at Clonmel, 
met Cfcsar Calclough and a Mr. Devereux there, and 
supped together. About four or five miles from Cappo- 
quin, on the right-hand side of the road, in a lonely part 
of the mountains, but a tolerable improvement in itself, 
lives a Colonel Blakeney, who admits no woman under 
his roof, tho' a man of very good constitution and a great 
sportsman. 10th, left Clonmel about half past nine, and 
breakfasted at the nine mile house, a most rascally place, 
and the worst of things. Callan seems to be a smart 
place ; between it and Kilkenny, Lord Desart's on the 
left, a noble house and elegant improvements; on the 
right is Counsellor Fred k Flood's, by no means so respec- 
table in its appearance. Lord Desart is a man about forty 
years old ; never will marr}', for reasons best known to 
himself. Slept at the ' Sheaf,' a very large and good inn, 
and helped by very genteel people ; about three miles on 
there is a very fine improvement, Mr. Cuff lives there. 
At the Royal Oak there is a tolerable inn. Between 
Leighlin Bridge and Castle Dermot, on the right-hand 
side, lives Sir Chas. Burton of Pollards-town, next him 
Burton of Burton Hall, and on the opposite side of the 
road is Painstown, the seat of Mr. Cooke ; remarkably 
fine sheep-walks near the road belonging to those gentle- 
men. Castle Dermot seems to be a wretched hole, but 
one tolerable inn ; here you pass by a noble improvement 
of the Earl of Alborough, called Bailin. Sam 1 Yates 
lived at Timolin where I slept at the ' Globe,' kept by 
Haly no great things. Dec. 11, left Timolin at 6 A.M., 
and arrived at Naas at 8-35. I could make no remark 
on the country, as I was shut up in my chair and not even 
daylight to see. Left N?as at 11 A"M., and arrived in 
Dublin at 2 same day. 

" Set sail for England on Friday, May 20, 1791, at 
9 A.M. from Marino, opposite Passage (Cork), on board 
the Sally of Mary Port, Cap 1 Asbridge, in company with 
Mr. West ray, Mr. Courtney, my daughter, and her maid 
Johanna Walsh ; arrived at Swansey on Saturday even- 
ing, and slept at Lake's, the Macworth Arms, a very 
spacious inn and well kept. A great pottery and very 
extensive copper works up the river Tawy, and vast coal 
mines, particularly Bary Smith's colliery, who lives near 
and has a very beautiful demesne. At Aberthaw may be 
had a limestone, nearly of the same quality of Tarras 
when burned. Our first stage, called Neath, you would 
mistake for inland did you not see ships in the fields near 
the shabby old bridge, partly covered with planks and 
paved over. Sir Harbert Mackworth lives in a spacious 
house on a fine wooded hill commanding the town ; he 
has a bank at Swansey, and another at Neath God 
knows, he may as well have one in Ballypooreen. Next 
stage, Pyle, met nothing remarkable; Cowbridge, eleven 
miles on, a neat inland town a large and elegant kitchen 
and clean house at the Bear. Cardiff, Lord Cardiff's 
castle, a large fortified Gothic building, greatly spoken of 
in Wales, tho' no great beauty. A remarkably fine steeple 
of Gothic construction. Four miles to the left from Cardiff 
to Newport is a very spacious improvement and house, 
belonging to Sir Christopher Tent of London ; the house 
has 365 windows. Mr. Morgan has another house at Luke- 
peny, and a most superb improvement near Newport ; at 
least one thousand brace of deer near the road, they are 
quite familiar even as sheep. The water is hard at New- 
port ; to wash clothes in summer they burn ferns, make 
balls of the ashes, about the size of a hand-ball, wetted 

with water; and when they use them to soften the 
water, they calcine them and put about twelve or thir- 
teen in a large tub of boiling water, which softens it and 
saves a great deal of soap. We slept here; the tide 
rises thirty-six feet perpendicular, and over a nasty muddy 
river there is an old rotten wooden bridge, shocking to look 
at and dangerous to pass over ; the boards on all laid loose, 
and no covering on the whole, 'tis a nasty old town. 
Eleven miles from last stage is Newferry ; the Severn is 
here three miles over ; you then come to the feny-house. 
Company at Bath : Lord Westmeath, old but smart ; 
Duke of "Newcastle ; Lord Hoath and Lady, and old but 
strong ; Lord Charlemont, bending down ; Lady Spencer, 
a smart one, and mother to Lady Duncannon ; Dutches* 
of Devonshire ; Lord and Lady Duncannon ; Bishop of 
Lincoln and his wife Mrs. Prettyman ; Bishop of Norwich. 
Left Cork for Dublin and London, Nov. 21, 1794; went 
by way of Limerick. Sailed for England Dec. 6, 1794 ; 
got to London 9 A.M. Dec. 10, 1794. Lay that night at 
the Swan in Lad Lane. Dec. 11, came to lodge at 35 ? 
Norfolk Street, Strand, at Mr. Smith's ; at night went 
to Drury Lane Theatre. 12th, all day executing my 
friend's commissions. 13th, waited on Mr. Bainbridge ; 
at night went to Covent Garden Theatre. Sunday 14th, 
dined at Mr. May's, Baker Street, Portman Square. 15th, 
waited all the morning for Mr. Peacock ; between that 
and dinner, went to the Admiralty a most amazing fog 
all the afternoon. 16th, wrote to Dr. Willis, Tenterden 
Street, Hanover Square, to fix an hour to consult respect- 
ing my wife's illness ; last night, or rather early this 
morning, dreamed of high tempestuous seas, &c. 17th, 
for my wife waited on Dr. Willis, gave him five guineas ; 
he recommended electricity, plentiful diet, and cocoa in 
lieu of tea and coffee ; for her eyes gentle flashes of elec- 
tricity from a wooden point towards the eye ; powdered 
gum 'guiacum by way of physic ; left a card at Lord 
Donoughmore's. 19th, got a 'note from Lord Donough- 
more saying that he would breakfast with me tomorrow ; 
bought Mrs. Croker's chain for 12/. ; dined at a chop- 
house in the Strand. A hard frost this day, the ice a full 
inch thick. 22nd, a thaw ; dined at Cotters, New Ex- 
change. 23rd, waited on Sam. Smith, Sons, & Co., Lom- 
bard Street, and, finally, fixed a correspondence ; dined 
at the Golden Cross, Charing Cross, with B. Dobel and 
J. Woodley ; took seat in the coach for Chester, to leave 
London at four tomorrow evening. 24th, left London, 
and went in a coach from the Golden Cross, Charing X, 
in company with Capt. Godfrey ; came through Coven- 
try, Birmingham, &c. ; arrived at Chester at 6 P.M. on 
Friday 26th, where we slept till 12 ; at one went into 
the mail coach, and arrived at Holyhead 6 on Saturday 
evening the 27th, where we slept that night. Sunday 
28th, breakfasted and dined at the Head ; the wind quite 
fair at E, yet the packet waits for Lord Milton, secretary 
to Lord Fitzwilliam, who is expected in a few days to 
sail for Ireland as Lord-Lieutenant, in the room of Lord 
Harcourt. 29th, Monday morning at 2 set sail in the 
Clermont, Capt. Taylor, and arrived at 11 in Dublin 30th, 
and dined with Mr. Shaw. 31st, at 10-30 P.M., went 
into the mail coach, and arrived in Cork on Friday morn- 
ing Jan. 2, 1795, and that day opened the bank." 


DEVON FOLK LORE : MICE. If these creatures 
run over a bed at night, they portend death. 1 
was lately visiting a dying woman in a Devon 
almshouse, who spoke in great fear of the many 
mice with which her room abounded ; and (added 

s. IX. FEB. 17, 72.] 



the simple soul) " I prays God at a night when 
I hears 'em running- about to keep 'em down." 


tomary in Dorsetshire for the boys to go "about 
at Shrovetide with potsherds to throw at people's 
doors. These are tolerated, but they are not 
allowed to throw stones. As they call at the 
various houses, they sing this doggrel : 
" I'm come a shroveing, 
For a piece of pancake, 
Or a piece of bacon, 
Or a little truckle cheese, 
Of your own making. 
Give me some, or give me none, 
Or else your door shall have a stone." 

F. C. H. 

FOLK LORE : BABIES (4 th S. ix. 53.) Old 
ladies mothers of families say that if babies 
have strength to live seven days they will most 
likely live seven weeks, and if they live over seven 
weeks, they will live seven months ; and unless 
something particularly bad happens to them, they 
w^ll reach the age of seven years, providing the 
seven months are safely got over. My grand- 
mother, who brought up eleven children out of 
twelve, never would allow her babies to go out 
of her personal care until they were fourteen 
(twice seven) months old till they had " stiffened 
in their limbs," as she said. It is an old belief in 
Derbyshire, that if a child cries loudly at its birth, 
and lifts up an open hand, it is bom to command; 
but if it " clutches " with its thumb tucked in, 
it will be of a cringing, slavish disposition, and 
probably will be very unhealthy all its life. 


KERRY. It is said that, in consequence of the 
great wickedness of the people of Kerry, St. 
Patrick could not enter the county to bless it, 
but stood upon a hill overlooking that part of the 
country, and said, " I bless county Kerry in the 
distance." To tell this story to a Kerry ite is well 
calculated to disturb his equanimity. I have learnt 
this piece of lore from an Irishman not born in 
Kerry, and have often tried its marvellous effects 
upon the unblessed but withal good-natured people 
from Kerry. J. JEREMIAH. 

SIGNS OF SUMMER. A few days ago, in Berk- 
shire, I saw a bat flying at midday, and was told 
that "A bat at noon shows an early summer." 
And to-day, January 19, I heard the smallest 
uncrested willow- wren, or chiffchaff, utter its two 
sharp notes a bird which Gilbert White men- 
tioned as usually first heard about March 20. 


FAIRIES. At Scarborough a woman has lately 
been charged with obtaining money under false 

pretences from a fellow-servant by professing to 
3ure her of an illness produced by a hostile spell, 
by her interest with " Lord Fell, the King of the 
Fairies," with whom the prisoner had great in- 
terest. Can anyone give a history of this mountain 
lord ? is he the Brown Man of the Muirs ? (Notes 
to Lady of the Lake.} W. G. 

toms which I endeavour to describe below have, 
I believe, pretty nearly died out. They were 
common enough fifty or sixty years ago in Derby- 
shire. Burns, in his Tarn Glen, mentions the 
first of them. 

Valentine Dealing. Each young woman in the 
house would procure several slips of paper, and 
write upon them the names of the young men 
they knew, or those they had a preference for. 
The slips when ready were then put into a boot 
or a shoe (a man's), or else into a handy hat, and 
then shaken up. Then each lassie put in her 
hand and drew a slip, which she read and retained 
until everyone had drawn. The slips were then 
put back, and the drawing done over again. This 
was done three times. If a girl drew the same 
slip thrice, she was sure to be married in a short 
time, and to a person of the same name as that 
which was written upon the thrice-drawn slip. 

Looking through the Keyhole. In the early morn 
of Saint Valentine, young women would look 
through the keyhole of the house door. If they 
saw only a single object or person, they certainly 
would go alone all that year. If they saw two 
or more objects or persons, they would be sure to 
have a sweetheart, and that right soon ; but if 
fortune so favoured them that by chance they saw 
a cock and a hen, they might be quite certain of 
being married before the year was out. 

Siveeping the Girls was another real old Derby- 
shire custom. If a girl did not have a kiss, or if 
her sweetheart did not come to see her early on 
this morning, it was because she was dusty ; and 
therefore it was needful that she should be well 
swept with a broom, and then equally well kissed 
by the young men of the house, and those living 
near, who used to go round to their intimate 
friends' houses to perform this custom. 




Many years ago I was bound by train for 
Brighton, and having nothing to read on my 
journey, I went into a bookseller's shop in King 
William Street (City) and bought a 12mo volume 
of an edition of Demosthenes, then in course of 
publication at Leipsic, by Tauchnitz. In the first 
few miles I read the 41st Oration, npby Swovtiiav 
virep irpoti<6s, of which this is the hypothesis : 



S. IX. FEB. 17, 72. 

Polyeuctes, an Athenian, had two daughters. 
The younger he first betrothed to Leocrates; and 
afterwards, upon some difference with him, to 
Speudias. The elder he gave to the plaintiff in 
the cause. Polyeuctes died, and left his property 
to his daughters, share and share alike. The 
plaintiff pleads that Polyeuctes had promised him 
forty minae as dowry, but that he had only re- 
ceived thirty; that Polyeuctes in his lifetime 
acknowledged the debt, and when near death 
separated a house from, the rest of his property 
and gave it in release. Leocrates claimed this 
house as part of the property to be divided. And 
this is the main issue. Besides this, the plaintiff 
charges Speudias with unlawfully keeping back 
from the common property certain indebted moneys 
of Polyeuctes and the elder daughter. Speudias 
pleading in answer that he also had only received 
thirty minfe, the plaintiff replies : 1st. That, if 
so, if was within the lawful power of Polyeuctes 
to give a larger dowry to one daughter than to 
the other. 2nd. That Speudias asserts a falsehood : 
the truth being that he (Speudias) had received 
thirty minss in current coin, but the ten in 
clothes and jewels worth more than ten minse. 

When I had read to the end, a gentleman 
opposite to me, who had been reading The Times, 
handed it to me, saying : " Have you read this 
extraordinary suit between Lord 'Glengall and 
Lord Edward Thynne?" I had not seen it, 
thanked him, and began to read. To my amaze- 
ment I found the case, incident for incident, iden- 
tical with that pleaded in the Athenian court two 
thousand years before. Of course there were 
some trifling points of difference, and the amount 
in dispute was immeasurably larger, but the iden- 
tity almost exact ; and the coincidence between my 
accidental purchase and the publication in Lon- 
don I think so remarkable as to be worthy of 
record in " N. & Q." HERBERT RANDOLPH. 


heard my brother-in-law Sir Provo William 
Parry Wallis, " Vice-Admiral of the United 
Kingdom," who was second lieutenant on board 
the " Shannon " in her famous action, and took 
the ship into Halifax when the captain was dis- 
abled and the first lieutenant killed, condemn the 
misquotation of Nelson's celebrated signal. In 
order to place upon the pages of <( N. & Q." a 
record with authority of the true form, I have 
obtained his written statement. It' is as follows : 

" With' respect to Nelson's signal off Trafalgar, his 
flag lieutenant (the late Captain Pasco) told me the 
words were, England expects every man to do his 
duty,' not ' will do ' ; but, strange to say, the Admiralty 
perpetuate the error by having the latter words inscribed 
upon a shield which f have seen." 


SUFFOLK. Can any readers of " N. & Q." give 
me some information respecting the round towers 
which belong to some of the smaller of the old 
churches in this part of England ? In an old copy 
of JBlomefield's Norfolk now before me I find 
among the copious notes of a most careful com- 
mentator the following (apropos to Letheringset 
church), " Round towers denote a river at hand." 
This remark, however, does not, I find, invariably 
hold good. Some of the towers to which I refer 
are round for the most part, but octagonal in the 
upper portion, as, for example, in the church of 
Gisleham, Suffolk. F. J. N. IND. 

Bayfield Hall, Norfolk. 


" Menenius. When you speak best unto the purpose, 
it is not worth the wagging of your beards ; and your 
beards deserve not so honourable a grave as to stuff a 
botcher's cushion, or to be entombed in an ass's pack- 
saddle. Yet you must be saying, Marcius is proud ; who, 
in a cheap estimation, is worth all your predecessors 
since Deucalion, though peradventure" some of the best 
of 'em were hereditar\ r hangmen." Coriolanus, Act I. 
So. 1. 

Shakespeare here speaks of hereditary hang- 
men, and in the manor of Stoneley, in his native 
county of Warwick, there were anciently four 
bondmen, whereof each held one messuage and 
one quartron of land, by the service of making the 
gallows and hanging the thieves. Each of which 
bondmen was to wear a red clout betwixt his 
shoulders, upon his upper garment; to plow, reap, 
make the lord's malt, and do other servile work." 
Reg. de Stoneley Monast. Blount iii. 

Coke says, in his Commentary on the 117th sec- 
tion of Littleton's Tenures : 

" The worst tenure that I have read of, of this kind, 
(socage) is to hold lauds to be ultor sceleratorum 
demnatorum, ut altos suspendio, altos membrorum detrun- 
catione, vel aliis modisjuxtaquantitatemperpetrati sceleris 
puniat, (that is) to be a hangman or executioner. It 
seemeth in ancient times such officers were not volunta- 
ries; nor for lucre to be hired, unless they were beund 
thereunto by tenure." Co. Litt. 86 a. 



THREE CHOIRS. The Rev. Peter Senhouse's 
sermon on The Use of Music?*, preached at Glou- 
cester in 1728, is dedicated "to Mrs. Popa," with 
an acknowledgment of "how much is owing" in 
respect to the meetings of the Three Choirs 

" To the wisdom and goodness of your late excellent 
friend, and our kind and memorable patroness Mrs. Bovey. 
who laid the foundation of the good work, and, during 
her life, liberally contributed to the support of it." 

It appears to have escaped the notice of the 
Rev. D. Lysons, that this munificent lady was 
the actual founder of the " Meetings of the Three 
Choirs." Her name does not even occur in his 
account of that institution. 


4* S. IX. FEB. 17, 72.] 




Does any reader of " N. & Q." know what has 
become of the little volume described in the fol- 
lowing extract from the notes to George Wyat's 
Life of Anne Boleyn (London, 1817, privately 
printed) ? 

" To every one of these (her ladies) she (Anne Boleyn) 
gave a little book of devotions neatly written on vellum, 
and bound in covers of solid gold enamelled, with a ring 
to each cover to hang it at their girdles, for their con- 
stant use and meditation. 

" One of these little volumes, traditionally said to have 
been given by the Queen when on the scaffold to her 
attendant, one of the Wyat family, and preserved by 
them throiuvh several generations, is described by Vertue 
as being seen by him in the possession of Mr. Wyat of 
Charterhouse Square in 1721. See Walpole's Miscel- 
laneous Antiquities, printed at Strawberry Hill, 1772, 
No. n. p. 13. 

" This small volume, bound in gold richly chased, 
1| in. long by 1J broad, is now in the editor's possession : 
its contents are a metrical version of 13 psalms, or parts 
of psalms, of which the following specimen may not be 
unacceptable : 

' Lord holde tin' hand 

yn thy great rage 
Stryke me not after 

my desert 
Nor yn thy wrathe 

lay to my charge 
The faults founde 

yn my synfull hert. 

' Haue mercy lorde 

vppon the weake 
My bodie feeble 

and lowe brought 
I tremble as 

my bones would breake 
When thy stroke cumeth 

yn my thought.' 

" The volume consists of 104 leaves of vellum, on each 
of which is one verse divided into eight lines : a blank 
of one leaf is between each psalm." 

It appears from a note to S. W. Singer's edi- 
tion of Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, 1825 (ii. 206), 
that in 1817 the little gold-bound volume was in 
the possession of Mr. Triphook, who was there- 
fore presumably the editor of the privately printed 
Life of Anne Boleyn. He was wrong, however, 
in thinking that his little book was the one seen 
by Vertue and described by Horace Walpole; 
for this, which now belongs to the Earl of Rom- 
ney, has never been out of the Wyatt and Mar- 
sham families, and differs in many details from 
the one above described. 

Mr. Triphook's little book, though not the 
volume traditionally said to have been given by 
Anne Bolevn on the scaffold to the Wyat lady, 
may in all probability have been presented by 
her to another of her attendants. 

It would be very interesting, if it could be 

found, to compare it with the Wyat book in Lord 
Romney's possession. R. MAESHAM. 

5, Chesterfield Street, Mayfair. 

[Consult a note on Anne Boleyn's little " Book of De- 
votions" in Miss Strickland's Lives of the Queens of 
England, edit. 1854, ii. 698. ED.] 


What is the origin of this proverbial question ? 

W. P. P. 

BERKELEY OR BARZLEY. I was once (when 
travelling in the Cotswold) shown some very good 
MS. poems, written by a person of the "above 
name, and who was said to be a valet or upper 
servant in the family of a Gloucestershire clergy- 
man. Is anything known of the author, and are 
any of his productions in print ? Perhaps some 
one resident in the " bright city " can answer my 
query. VIATOR (1.) 

HOLY BIBLE, 1691. In my note book, under 
the year 1691, 24mo ; I find a Bible named as by 
"Parker, London/' Can you or your readers 
give me any information respecting it ? I suspect 
it to be a misprint for " Barker," or else to refer 
to one of the numerous Bibles printed by the 
Oxford University press, "at the Theater" for 
Peter Parker, Guy, Ann Leake, and others. 


[The only Bible of 1691 to be found in Lea Wilson's 
List or the Catalogues of the British Museum is the one 
with the following imprint : " Printed at the Theater in 
Oxford, and are to be sold by Thomas Guy, at the Oxford 
Arms in Lombard-street, near Popes-head-alley, London, 
1691." It is famf-'d for a mistranslation in Acts vi. 3, 
" Whom ye may appoint."] 

BLACK RAIN. Some time in the past autumn 
a shower of black rain .fell in the Midland Coun- 
ties. I did not witness it myself, but several of 
the other members of a field club informed me 
that they undoubtedly did. Strange as it may 
appear, none of them took any steps to ascertain 
its nature. Trusting to- some others having been 
more alive to the interests of science than these 
gentlemen, I beg through your pages to ask for 
information concerning this singular phenomenon, 
which cannot but prove interesting to every 
reader. T. P. F. 

BOOTH FAMILY. About 1670 or 1680 the an- 
cestor of the present Sir Montague Cholmley, of 
Euston, married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
Booth, alderman of London said to be descended 
from a cadet branch of the family of Booth, Earls 
of Warrington. I should be glad of any clue to 
the ancestors or descendants of the said Richard 
Booth, or any other information about him. 

E. F. D. C. 

any book, article, or any thing printed whatsoever, 
where I can find the derivations of the principal 
countries of Europe and their provinces. 



IX . FEB. 17, 72. 

2. Can you tell me the title of tlie best history 
of the Vaudois ? 

3. Where do the following lines occur, and 
what is the word left blank ? 

" Henry VIII. pulled down .... and cells : Henry IX 
shall pull" down Bishops and bells." 


THE ERL KING. In a translation of Gothe's bal- 
lad by the late Kev. F. W. Robertson, of Brighton, 
he renders it, both in the title and throughout his 
version, as the "Elfin King." In our German 
dictionaries there is no such word as Erl. Hilpert 

" Erlkonig, F.rhnkonig, a fabulous being in the ancient 
German mythology and popular superstitions, the erl- 

But this gives us no information as to his mytho- 
logical character and position. Gothe makes him 
anything but the King of the Fairies, which seems 
to have been Mr. Robertson's impression. His 
position in the ballad is rather as the minister or 
herald of death. Can any of our many German 
friends enlighten me ? W. M. T. 

At Fetcham, near Leatherhead in Surrey, is a large 
mansion belonging to Mr. G. B. Hankey, called 
Fetcham Park. According to Manningham and 
Bray the houswas partly built by one of the 
Vincent family, of whom it was purchased by 
Arthur Moore, a commissioner of trade and plan- 
tations, and a director of the South Sea Company 
in the reign of Queen Anne. This gentleman 
enlarged and planted the park about the year 
1718, and probably added to the house at the 
same time, as there are indications that altera- 
tions have been made to the existing structure. 
The walls and ceiling of the hall and the ceiling 
of the principal room on the upper floor are painted 
in fresco with mythological subjects, very fairly 
executed, apparently by a foreign artist, some of 
the figures being evidently portraits. Is anything 
known as to the authorship of these works ? I 
have consulted all the likely authorities, but can 
find no information concerning them. 


SCOTT HAMILTON is author of Garibaldi, a 
drama, 1864 (Belfast : Jas. Johnston, 24, High 
Street, printer). In the title-page Mr. S. Hamil- 
ton is said to be author of Almourah, Sacred 
Dramas, &c. What are the titles of the sacred 
dramas, and when were they published ? Is Mr. 
S. Hamilton a resident in Belfast ? R. INGLIS. 

HERALDIC. Can any of your readers inform 
me to whom these arms belong ? 

On an oval shield parted per fesse or and azure, 
1st three roses in azure; 2ndly, three roses in 
or, two in chief, one in base (the roses have four 
leaflets only). 

These arms occur in a picture in my possession 
by Bonifazio Veneziano, born 1491, died 1553. 
The picture is an allegorical one, representing 
numerous figures on their way to the Temple of 
Fame. The picture is divided into three circles 
with three separate entrances. The arms are 
placed in the centre of the architrave, which rests 
on marble columns forming the first entrance, and 
is surmounted by a golden statue of the poetical 
deity Fame. 

I suspect they are the arms of some Venetian 
ecclesiastic. ft Escutcheons, particularly of Italian 
ecclesiastics, are generally oval." (See Pornv's 
Heraldry.} H. M. D. 

CHARLES LEIGH, author of The Natural His- 
tory of Lancashire and Cheshire, was educated at 
Oxford, where he took a degree in 1683. He 
was elected a member of the Royal Society in 
1685, and is supposed to have died about 1701. 
He is said to have practised as a surgeon or a 
physician in London. I am anxious to know 
when and where he died. H. FISHWICK. 

Carr Hill, Rochdale. 

THOMAS MOWBRAY. Can any of^ your corre- 
spondents inform me where I could see a portrait 
of the notorious Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Nor- 
folk, who died 1399? Any sort of portrait I 
should be glad to have access to, but one about 
the size and style of those in Strutt's Reyal Anti- 
quities, would best suit my purpose. It' is stated 
by Planche, in his British Costume, that Thomas 
Mowbray wore by right of his descent from 
Edward I. or by favour of Richard II. the 
three plumes known now as Prince of Wales's 
plumes. Is he anywhere so represented in a pic- 
ture ? Do any portraits exist of his father John 
Lord Mowbray, or of his mother Elizabeth 
Segrave, the daughter of Margaret Plantagenet, 
Duchess of Norfolk ? T. E. S. 

[Xo such portrait is in the British Museum, or in the 
Sutherland Collection at Oxford ; nor is there any men- 
tion of one in the catalogues printed of in manuscript.] 

MYFANWY. What is the origin of the Welsh 
name Myfanwy ? MAKROCHEIR. 

NONSUCH PALACE. We are told in history that 
Henry VIII. frequently lived at a place called 
Nonsuch Palace. I shall be much obliged if any 
of your readers will tell me where Nonsuch Palace 
was situated, and why it was so called ? M. A. 

[Nonsuch Palace was in the neighboui'hood of Cheam 
and Ewell in Surrey. Of the origin of the name Leland, 
as Camden informs us, thus sings : 

"Hanc quia non habent similem, laudare Britanni 
Ssepe solent, NULLI^MC PAREM cognomine dicunt." 
(This, because it has no equal, Britons are accustomed to 
praise, and call by name the Matchless, or Nonsuch.) 
The works were not completed at the death of Henrv 
VIII. in January, 1547. Queen Mary granted this pala- 
tial building to Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel ; but it 
was purchased back by Queen Elizabeth from his son-in- 

4> S. IX. FEE. 17, 72.] 



law, Lord Lumley. It was subsequently settled respec- 
tively on Anne of Denmark and Henrietta Maria , and 
during the Commonwealth was divided between Gen. 
Lambert and Col. Pride, the latter of whom died here in 
1658. It was finally granted to Lady Castlemaine 
(Duchess of Cleveland), who pulled it down, sold the 
materials, and divided the park into farms. For further 
particulars of this famed palace, consult JBrayley's Sur- 
r.'y, iv. 406 ; Gentleman's Magazine for August, 1837, 
p. 135 ; and Murray's Handbook of Surrey, &c., ed. 1865, 
p. 69.] 

Gent. Mag. (June?), 1836, there is an article on 
Early Norman and French Poetry, Mysteries, &c., 
with translation of part of an old mystery j and 
in the Gent. Mag., July, 1837 (being 1 No. 5 of 
11 Retrospective Review 5? ) there is another essay on 
Miracle Plays of the fifteenth century. Can any 
of your readers inform rne who wrote these 
essays ? R. INGLIS. 

be glad of any information as to the old custom 
of affixing notices to the church doors, relating to 
the parish or neighbourhood, but having no refer- 
ence to matters ecclesiastical. I do not, of course, 
refer to notices that were ordered to be placed 
there by various Acts of Parliament. The follow- 
ing notice as to lost property I discovered, some 
years ago, amongst a lot of rubbish in a chest 
under the tower of the parish church of Luccombe, 
Somerset. The document is about twelve inches 
by two, and tolerably legible : 

" If there bee any one that can give newes of Thirteene 
weather sheep which Strayed out of the forest of Ex- 
moore the neare Eare an Evill and a Square having 
upon and the farther Eare Stubd upon The signs is 
Black Strate over the mouthe and a black pat over each 
Shoulder if any can give any notice of them then leet 
them bring them unto William Thomas of Exfoord and 
hee shall bee well paid for his labor." 

On the reverse is written, as well as I can make 

" The Clarke (?) to putt this upon the Church Doore, 
November 1635."* 

The word " evill," which is most plainly written, 
puzzled me not a little ; but I find, on reference 
to Ilalliwell's Dictionary : "EviL. A fork, as a 
hay-fork, &c., West." J. CHAREL Cox. 

Hazelwood, Belper. 

PICTURES. What are the sizes, and where are 
the following pictures? 1. "Death on the Pale 
Horse," and " The Death of Nelson," so familiar 
by engravings, by West. 2. A young man in the 
water in sight of his parents, and the same young 
man restored to life, by R. Smirke, engraved by 
R. Pollard. 3. By whose orders was the Orleans 
collection sold in 1795, and how was it allowed 
to leave Paris ? DON. 

[* For church-door proclamations see " X. Q." 3 rd 
S. xii. 285, 359. ED.] 

QUOTATIONS. Can any of your readers inform 
me where I can find, in Bishop Bentley's [Berke- 
ley ?] Works, the following query ? 

" Whether the prejudices in favour of gold and silver 
be not strong ; nevertheless, whether they be not pre- 
judices ? " 

R. W. 

" Even as the mists 
Of the grey morn before the rising sun, 
That pass away and perish." 

" The man of resolute and unchanging will ; 
Whom, nor the plaudits of a servile crowd, 
Nor the vile joys of tainting luxury, 
Can, bribe to yield his elevated soul 
To tyranny or falsehood, though they wield 
With blood-red hand the sceptre of the world." 

H. L, 

" One day the sea with mountain billows roll'd, 
What time His Majesty's good ship the Ocean 
Was driving with accelerated motion ; 
Yawing see-sawing by the tempest tost : 
' To prayers, G d ye, for we all are lost ! ' 
Cry'd Bo'son, ' four feet water in the hold ! ' " 

The next stanza is a description of the tars 
falling on their knees ; and how one of them 
prayed to the Virgin, and vowed to place before 
her " a taper tall and straight as the mainmast," 
which being overheard by one beside him, he was 
asked " Where will ye get the taper, Jack ? " 
who naively replied : 

" D'ye think the Queen of Heaven would condescend 
To dun Jack Bo'sprit for a candle's end ? " 

Who is the author, and where is the poem to 
be found ? PAX. 

Whence the phrase " History repeats itself? " 

W. T. M. 
" In the mid silence of the voiceless night, 

When chased by airy dreams the slumbers flee, 
W^hom in the darkness doth my spirit seek, 
OGod, butthee!" 


Whence comes the following ? It is quoted in 
Mr. H. K. Digby's Lover's Seat, ii. 283 : 

" She hath no scorn of common things, 

And though she seem of other birth, 
Round us her heart entwines and clings, 
And patiently she folds her wings 

To tread the humble paths of earth." 


it known where this masterpiece of Peter Paul 
Rubens is now preserved ? or if not now known 
to exist, where was it last seen ? G. G. 

RUSSELL FAMILY ARMS. Information respect- 
ing the family and the arms of Armelah Russell 
of Dunswater, Herefordshire, an heiress of con- 
siderable property in that county, is particularly 
asked for. She married in 1769 or 1770 Samuel 
Collet, Esq., of Worcester, and died 1772. He 



S. IX. I KB. 17, 72. 

afterwards married a Lady Gresley. Any infor- 
mation respecting this gentleman would oblige 


SATJLIES: GUMPHEON MEX. In reference to 
Enjrlish funeral ceremonies, I met the other _day 
with two words which puzzled me, viz. " Saulies ' 
and " Gumpheon men." Can you inform me 
what these terms imply ? H. G. ADAMS. 

Four copies of this interesting book are known to 
have come down to modern times. Harley's two 
are in the British Museum (C. 24 a, and Gren- 
ville 5438). George Paton's copy is in the 
Library of the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh; 
but where is the fourth ? At George Chalmers's 
sale in Nov. 1842, it (No. 127) was bought by 
Rodd for 51. os., and went to Mr. Bright, at whose 
sale it was again bought by Rodd for 4 Can | 
any " N. & Q." reader tell me where it is ? I ask 
for our E. E. T. Society editor, Mr. James A. H. j 
Murray, whose re-edition of the book for us is 
promised in April, and is indeed nearly ready 
now. F. J. FURNIVALL. 

TIME IMMEMORIAL. I noticed a statement in 
print the other day that "time immemorial" re- 
ferred back to the reign of Eichard I. Can any 
one give me the authority for such a statement ? 

J. S. UDAL. 

VISITATION OF LONDON, 1G33-4. I am pre- 
paring for publication by the Harleian Society j 
the Heraldic Visitation of London made in the | 
years 1633 and 1634. I should feel much obliged | 
for information as to the present representatives 
of families whose pedigrees were entered in that 
Visitation. J. J. HOWARD. 

Dartmouth Row, Blackheath. 

WASHINGTON. Had the family from _ which 
sprung the great American, -George Washington, 
any 'connection with Kent ? W. A. S. R. 

[Not according to the Washington pedigree printed in 
the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 
1852, vi. 384. The first recorded ancestor of the Ame- 
rican Washingtons was John Washington of tVhitefield 
in Lancashire.] 


(4 th S. ix. 6.) 

For ample biographical and artistic details of 
this foreigner, who, in the dearth of native talent, 
reaped so rich a harvest in this country, I beg to 
refer DR. RAMAGE to the well-known works of 
Domenici, Walpole, and Dr. Waagen; to the 
Dictionary of Bryan, to the Hand-Book of P. 
Cunningham, and to the Penny Magazine, xxvi. 
272. In these works, which are probably better 
known to DR. RAMAGE than myself, will be found 

indications of the various castles, s ,'us, &c., de- 
corated by this artist and his assiputnts, for his 
English patrons, and where still, as in the days of 
Pope if you feel in the mood, ami have leave 
and permission duly granted 

" On painted ceilings you devoutly st,, 
Where sprawl the sa'ints of Verrio an<! Laguerre." 

Perhaps none of his works are bet ... known or 
more esteemed than those executed for the Earl of 
Exeter at Burghley House. Full particulars of 
these will be found in a volume enti;K-d 

"A, History or Description, General ain; Circumstan- 
tial, of Burghley House, the Seat of the Ui-ht Honor- 
able the Earl of Exeter. Shrewsbury, 1797." 8vo. 

In this volume, reference should be especially 
made to sect. xi. p. 97, " Of Sign- a- Verrio, and 
some of his Works " ; and sect. xii. p. 105, "Fur- 
ther Anecdotes of Verrio, and som thing of La 

There is a later work : 

"Guide to Burghley House, Xorthanr ionshire, the 
Seat of the Marquis of Exeter, containing a Catalogue of 
the Paintings, Antiquities, *to. Stamford, 1 ^ 16." 8vo. 
But in this volume the curious particulars of the 
two artists are greatly abridged. 

Another patron of Verrio was Lord Lonsdale, 
who employed him to decorate his seat, Lowther 
Hall, Westmorland. To this nob! > man Tickell 
addressed his " Oxford : a Poem," mal-. ;.ng allusion 
to the artist in the following lines : 
" Such arts as this adorn'd your Lowth< j r 

Where feasting gods carouse upon the \ 

The nectar, which creating paint supp : 

Intoxicates each pleas'd spectator',- 

Who view amaz'd the figures, heav'nh 

And think they Breathe the true L 

With strokes s'o bold great Verrio's hand has drawn 

The gods in dwellings brighter than their own." 
But these no longer exist ; hall and paintings 
having alike been destroyed by fire. 

Much curious matter relating to Verrio will be 
found in the work of W. B. Sarsfield Taylor, The 
Origin, Progress, and Present Condition of the Fine 
Arts in Great Britain and Ireland (Lond. Whit- 
taker & Co.), 1841, 2 vols. 8vo. From this it 
appears (i. 354) that for painting executed at 
Windsor Castle, where it still exists (with another 
job or two) he received in five years a bout 7000/. ; 
for painting the inside of Wolsey's tomb-house at 
Windsor he pocketed another 1000/. from James 
II.; at Barghley he was engaged twelve years, at 
loOO/. a-year ; he was employed by William III. 
to decorate Hampton Court; and here, in 1707, a 
pensioner upon Queen Anne, who allowed him out 
of charity for the Neapolitan had spent his earn- 
ing.? with more than regal munificence4p-200/. per 
annum, he closed his career, thus missing the em- 
ployment, which it seems had been intended for 
him, of painting the battles of the Duke of Marl- 
borough upon the walls of Blenheim. 


4'hS.IX. FEB. 17, '7-2. J 



(4 th S. ix. 75.) 

I am glad to be able to answer MR. BOASE'S 
inquiry respecting' the latter part of the life of 
Mr. C. S. Gilbert. It is rather a sad story, 
and deserves, I think, a record in the pages of 
" N. & Q." After Mr. Gilbert's failure in busi- 
ness as a chemist and druggist at Plymouth Dock 
(Devonport), occasioned chiefly, I believe, from 
his having devoted too much of his time and at- 
tention to his History of Cornwall, he removed to 
London, and opened a shop in the same business 
in the Strand. It was here Mr. Wallis saw him, 
and it was here he was visited by an old associate 
in his literary labours, Mr. H. P. Parker. At 
the period at which Mr. Parker was connected 
with Mr. Gilbert with respect to the History, the 
former was but a youth. He made for Mr. Gil- 
bert many of the drawings engraved for his work, 
and has since become an artist of considerable 
repute.* Mr. Parker says in a letter I had the 
pleasure of receiving from him, relative to Mr. 
Gilbert, a few years ago, that, on his visits to 
London (he was then resident at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne) for his professional improvement, he re- 
newed his personal communication with Mr. Gil- 
bert, and had the opportunity of enjoying much 
confidential conversation with him. He learned 
that, irrespective of the time devoted by Mr. Gil- 
bert to the work, the expenses of the publication, 
of his History nearly doubled his estimate; but 
that he regarded the completion of an undertak- 
ing which he had had at heart from his youth, as 
an equivalent for all the trials, and deprivations 
which he had suffered in its accomplishment. 

Mr. Gilbert's house in the Strand afforded, 
from the back bedroom windows, a view over the 
churchyard of the Savoy. Often, Mr. Parker says, 
he would admire, when they were alone, the quiet 
venerable church, which reminded them of similar 
fabrics they had visited together in the villages 
of Cornwall, and very often expressed a desire 
that the graveyard of the Savoy might be his last 
resting place. From being at first expressed as a 
slight wish, the desire grew upon him, and at 
length assumed the form of a request, and, on his 
death, his remains were there interred accord- 
ingly. Mr. Parker is still alive ; but I do not think 
I shall be committing any breach of confidence if I 
add the sequel in his own words : 

^ It is with some degree of melancholy pleasure, and 
with sincere and affectionate regard for every association 
connected with his memory, that I purchased the adjoin- 
ing piece of ground as a depository for my own remains ; 
since which my eldest son, having died "in London, was 
interred therein, close heside one so de* to my recollec- 
tion. The gravestones of both may be seen at the pre- 

* MR. BOASE may be glad to know that Mr. Parker 
is a native of Devonport. See Worth's History of that 
town, p. 79. 

sent day ; and although time has swept away all Mr. 
Gilbert's friends, to prevent as far as possible so eminent 
and worth}' a man being lost in obscurity in so humble a 
place of sepulture, when one head-stone requires refresh- 
ing, I cheerfully bear the expense of doing the other 
also, to perpetuate Mr. Gilbert's memory as well as that 
of my poor son." 

Mr. Gilbert left his shop in the Strand, and 
removed to another in Newcastle Street (after- 
wards occupied by Dr. Ptichards, who had been 
one of his apprentices) ; and having retired to rest 
on May 29, 1831, apparently in good health, was 
found the next morning dead in his bed, as sup- 
posed from apoplexy. 

The inscription on the gravestone is 
" In Memory 


of Kenwyn, in Cornwall, 

obiit Maii 30 th , 1831. 
.Author of Gilbert's ' Historical Survey 

of the County of Cornwall.' " 

I have many more particulars relative to Mr. 

Gilbert, which I may publish at a future time ; 

but I have already too far trespassed upon the 

courtesy of the very obliging Editor of " N. & Q." 


A short account of the family of Mr. Gilbert 
is given in the History of Cornwall (ii. 335-6), 
published by Mr. Hotten .of Piccadilly. It is 
there stated that "he is supposed to have died 
somewhere in London." L. L. H. 

(!* S, x. 165.) 

In last October, on a broker's stall near the 
Cathedral at Abbeville, I found a book which 
enables me to answer a query of long standing. 
The title-page, I think, is curious enough to be 
given at length : 

"Lu Yivu Mortu. Effetu di lu piccatu di la carni 
causatu da lu vanu e bruttu amori di li Donni causa prin- 
cipali d'ogni dannu. Storia Morali cumposta da D. 
Antuninu Damianu, Carinesi, pri divirtimentu, e profittu 
di li giuvinotti, ch' accumenzanu a pratticare stu fallaci 
Munnu. In Palermu, 1736, 12., pp. 283." 
" Na Rigina Elizabetta 

Chi lassau Birtagna 'infetta 

Di fitusi, e logdi esempii 

D' azioni e fatti scempii, 

Ch' allurdau curuna, e manta, 

Come fama scrivi, e canta ; 

Di sta donna la natura 

Cussi data a la sciagura 

Nun si leji la paraggia 

Avia tanta fera raggia 

A sfugari li soi fomiti 

Cussi brutti, cussi 'ndomiti, 

Ch'ardia peju d'una furia 

Tutta focu di lussuria 

Ca mbistia cu tutti genti, 

Cu straneri, e cu parent! 



[4'i S. IX. VI.K. 17, 72. 

E cu riobili, e cu gnobili 

Ma cu amuri tantu mobili, 

Tantu indignu, e tant' orribili, 

Che vi pari, ch' e incredibili 

Corau chista si sfugava, 

Ca lu senzu saziava 

Cu tirannicu verdeddu, 

Noi facia crudu maceddu ; 

Doppu tanti amati vezzi 

Li facia tagghiari a pezzi 

E abbruciari a luminaria. 

Poi la cruda lupanaria 

Tutti dd' ossa calcinati 

Vulia misi, e situati 

Cu disegnu ed urdinanza 

Ntra la sua segreta stanza 

Cu lu nnomu e lu cugnomu, 

E la patria di dd' omu; 

Cumpunenduci un scartafiu, 

Un pulitica epitafio 

Tuttu fintu, e addattata 

A materia di statu, 

Ch' alludia lu giusto sdegnu 

A Ribelli di lu Regnu ; 

E gaudia stu zimiteriu, 

Stu crudili vituperiu, 

Di li sporchi soi deliquii 

Comu pezzi di reliquii." pp. 27, 28. 

Garrick Club. 

(4 th S. viii. 8, 116, 17,7, 195, 313, 554 j ix. 46.) 

When I proposed the inquiry relative to the 
original circumstances on which this ballad was 
founded, it did not occur to me to quote the 
words, as I might have done, in order to help in 
clearing up the mysterious part of the story. As 
it seems to me some reference to them may facili- 
tate the arrival at a conclusion, I here select a 
few verses from Haynes Bayly's once popular 
composition, asking you to permit them to be here 
reproduced :* 

" The mistletoe hung in the castle hall, 
The holly-branch shone on the old oak wall ; 
And the baron's retainers were blithe and gav, 
And keeping their Christmas holyday. 
The baron beheld with a father's pride 
His beautiful child, young Lovell's bride, 
While she with her bright eves seem'd to be 
The star of the goodly company. 

Oh, the mistletoe bough ! 

Oh, the mistletoe bough ! 
' I'm weary of dancing now,' she cried, 
Here tarry a moment I'll hide, I'll hide ; 
And Lovell be sure thou'rt the first to trace 
The clue to my secret lurking-place.' 
Away she ran, and her friends began 
Each tower to search, and each nook to scan ; 
And young Lovell cried, ' Oh ! where dost thou hide ? 
I'm lonesome without thee, my own dear bride ! ' 

" At length an oak chest that had long lain hid 
Was found in the castle they rais'd the lid : 
And a skeleton form lay mouldering there 
In the bridal wreath of the lady fair ! 

Oh ! sad was her fate ! in sportive jest, 
She hid from her lord in the old oak chest. 
It closed with a spring, and her bridal bloom 
Lay withering there in a living tomb. 

Oh ! the mistletoe bough," c. 

It will be seen, I think, from these lines that 
the incidents from which the song-writer drew 
the materials of his story did not happen in Italy, 
where the mistletoe and the holly branch would 
be unfamiliar objects in a ll baron's hall," but in 
England, where the u baron's retainers " would 
keep "their Christmas holiday." The supposi- 
tion that the song had its origin in any legend 
connected with an Italian castello may, therefore,, 
be presumed to be improbable. Again : while it 
may be supposed the " young Lovell " was an 
invention of the poet, it is equally probable he 
had in his eye the member of some English 
family, concerning whom the tradition was written 
or related. Hence I infer the ballad was derived 
from some well-known family legend. The old 
oak chest or coffer was in former times an article 
of furniture in every mansion, and its inviting 
readiness to be made a hiding-place may have 
been the cause of more than one tragedy, in con- 
sequence of the thoughtlessness of young people 
in regard to the consequences of concealment in 
it when the lid was allowed to close over its 
temporary occupant. I can well believe that we 
may say of this as of other old world tales, 
"mutato nomine de tefabula narrator," and there- 
fore do not doubt the truth of Miss Mitford's- 
statement quoted by LORD LYTTELTON in regard to 
Bramshill and Malsanger. In fact, since the query 
was first inserted in <l N. & Q,," it has been stated 
that at some date later than that in which the 
story was laid in my note to the Editor, a similar 
sad circumstance happened in a Leicestershire 
house, the mansion of the Hartopps. But the 
song speaks of the "baron's hall," and this would 
apply to Exton, which, castellated in outline, wa> 
the residence of Noel, Earl of Gainsborough, in 
the reign of Queen Anne, where the scene was 
enacted as described to me by one now no more, 
between whom and the eye-witness there was 
only one link of connection. I must admit, how- 
ever, there are minor discrepancies between the 
ballad and the tradition which militate against 
my conjecture "of the burden of the song having 
originated in the melancholy end of the Christ- 
mas festivities at Exton. JAYTEE. 

(4 th S. ix. 69.) 

There are two corrections which I wish to 
make. Hughendon should have been Hughen- 
den, according to current orthography. The vari- 
ation seems trivial, but it makes an important 
difference in the meaning. The termination don 

4 th S. IX. FEB. 17, '72.] 



would refer to the ridge on which Hughenden 
manorhouse and church stand, while den refers to 
the adjacent valley. It is frequently written dean, 
as if intended to sound dane, which I think the 
correct one. I hold den to be identical with dim 
in the name of the river Jordan. 

Next, I have found, in the course of research, 
that it is not necessary to include any prefix in 
order to account for the foreign letters in Strother. 
The root-word is the Celtic roth, a variation of 
loth, mud, rather signifying a mud-tract. To roth 
the Northmen after their manner prefixed s, thus 
making it sroth, which became corrupted into 
stroth. Under this form, with the substitution of 
d for th, we find it in Strood on the estuary of the 
Medway, and in Stroud, Gloucestershire. Ad- 
joining the latter is Rodborough, where rod = 
roth. W. B. R. L. 

I apprehend Tichborne is not from Hitch, but 
from the river Itchin, near which is the estate. 
Roger Tichborne is Roger de Itchinborne. 


42, Portland Place. 

W. B. R. L. has some curious remarks in sup- 
port of his explanation of Tichborne. He seems 
to derive ditch from diggeth ; he mistakes a-noke, 
atten oak = at ]>en (demonstrative accusative) =at 
the for at an, and he actually writes "Trino- 
bantes .... I analyse it into Trin-ob-hant, that 
is, Treen-up-the-height, and so make it equivalent 
to Epping (upping) Forest, ' treen ' being the old 
plural of < tree.' " Fancy this fate for Trinobantes, 
Caesar's form of the name of the British subjects 
of Cassivellaunus ! Does W. B. R. L. really believe 
that the Trinobantes, B.C. 54, were Englishmen 
and talked English ? Why should English phi- 
lology be so constantly made ridiculous ? 

0. W. T. 

(4 th S. ix. 90.) 

ME. CHANCE'S note does not appear to me clear. 
Indeed he seems to have fallen into some degree 
of confusion in all his remarks. . Milton did not 
" adopt the simple speech of childhood," but the 
ungrammatical Greek use of the superlative (see 
Newton's note on Paradise Lost, iv. 323). Nireus 
is said (II. ii. 673) to be the handsomest of the 

other Grecians t>s KCAATTOS avrjp vnb *l\ioi> i'j\Qe 

TU>V a\\fav &ava>v. Horace calls a freed woman 
(Sat. i. 100) "fortissima Tyndaridarum," not that 
she was one of the Tyndaridse, but braver than 
they. Bentley says, " I'll not believe this distich 
to be Milton's." He adds, that in strict construc- 
tion it implies Adam to be one of his own sons, . 
and Eve one of her own daughters. Probably, 
had this greatest of English critics remembered 

at the instant that it was classical Greek, he would 
have spoken less plainly, but he is certainly right, 
although he lets "the loveliest pair" off, not ob- 
serving that it is equally faulty. In viii. 558 

" Greatness of mind and nobleness their seat 
Build in her loveliest." 

" In her loveliest," says Bentley : " pray what r* or 
is it in her being loveliest ? Either way equally 
absurd." . . . . " This is a shameful misprint " ; 
and he suggests " forehead," because Greek and 
Latin poets place nobleness in the forehead. Here 
he is over-critical and unpoetical ; for, though the 
order is highly inverted, Milton is correct. 
" Greatness of mind and nobleness build their love- 
liest seat in her." It looks as if Bentley wrote his 
notes on Milton in a hurry the evening before 
taking a journey, sent them to press without cor- 
rection, and found them published irrevocably 

mankind, York is the most unfit. Byron's lines 
are not ungrammatical ; they are untrue. A 
palace and a prison might have been on each hand. 
The fact was that a palace was on one hand and 
a prison on the other. Had he said a palace or a 
prison he would have saved the fact, but in a 
confused way now he transgresses fact. 

Lastly, MR. CHANCE seems to miss the point in 
respect of which the girl of thirteen erred, and 
that is why she refused to see her error. Had he 
said "Your mamma is not one of her sisters-in-law, 
and so cannot be the youngest of them," she would 
have known at once that she was wrong. The 
statement is against fact, not grammar; for it 
would have been correct to have said " You are 
the youngest of your family, mamma." Milton 
did not err from simplicity, but from classicalisin ; 
and, in the second instance when Bentley con- 
demns, Milton is right. Shakespere is right: 
Byron and the young lady are wrong as to fact, 
not grammar; and MR. CHANCE is wrong alto- 
gether. Never mind, he will find abundant errors 
in his corrector if he will only wait long enough. 

C. A. W, 

* apprehend this well-known passage of Milton 
had nothing to do with children's language, and 
assuredly it was not unconscious in any sense. 

Milton's fondness for close imitation of the 
classics, especially the Greeks, is well known ;. 
and this case in question is a familiar Grecism. It 
occurs in the first sentence of Thucydides, TTO\^^OV 
a^ioXoyurarov TWV irpoyeyevn/ui.ei'&v, ill Homer (/'. 11^ 
673-4), Ntpei/y KaAAiOTos TUV &\\(av kavauv, and 

elsewhere. LYTTELTON.. 



IX. FEB. 17, 72. 

ITALIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY (4 th S. viii. j of later 'date. John Gybson, "pictur maker," 
108.) Will you allow me to again ask if any of 
your learnecf correspondents can recommend me 
an Italian Etymological Dictionary ? 

I feel sure that in England, where Italian is so | 
much studied, and where you have such excellent ! 
translations of and commentaries on Dante, that I I 
shall not seek for such a work in vain. 


" NAM NIHIL EST GEMMIS " (4 th S._ix. 57.) 
This line is not quoted quite correctly. It should 

" Nam nihil est gemmis nihil est pretiosius auro," 
which is the ninth line of a poem by J. PasseA- 
atius, addressed to E. Mernmius. It may be seen 
at p. 196 of Johnson's Lives of the Poets, ed. Cun- 
ningham, vol. i. Lond. 1854. ED. MARSHALL. 

GIBSON' FAMILY (4 th S. ix. 55.) A younger 
branch of the Gibsons, of Gunmore Park and 
Myerscough House in Lancashire, settled in Cum- 
berland about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. In the early part of the present century 
the representative of this family was Robert Gib- 
son, Esq., whose eldest son was then of Gray's 
Inn, who took the name of Atherley in addition 
to ihat of his own family. They bore arms 
Azure, three storks rising proper. This family 
bears two crests A stork rising proper, in his beak 
an olive branch, vert ; and a lion rampant grasping 
a club. 

There was also a Thomas Gibson, M.D., who 
was born at High Knipe in the parish of Bamp- 
ton. He gave the sum of two hundred pounds 
to this parish church, whereby to procure an aug- 
mentation by the governors of Queen Anne's 
bounty, which was laid out in a purchase of lands 
at Rossel- Bridge, in the parish of Kendal. Dr. 
T. Gibson was fellow of the College of Physi- 
cians, and physician-general in the army. 'He 
was author of the book entitled Gibsons Ana- 
tomy. He married (second wife) a daughter of 
Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver. The celebrated 
Dr. Edmund Gibson, Bishop of London, was of 
the Cumberlandshire branch. In the year 1723 
he was translated from the see of Lincoln to that 
of London, and died in the year 1748. I may 
also add, that he was a native of High Knipe, and 
nephew to Dr. Thomas Gibson supra. The bishop 
rebuilt at his own expense the vicarage-house at 
Banipton, and also caused a monument to be 
erected in the parish church here to the memory 
of his father and mother, with this inscription : 

" Memoriae Sacrum Edmundi et Janas Gibson, Charis- 
simorum Parentum, Monumentum hoc posuit Edmundus 
Episcopus Londinejasis, Anno Domini MDCCXHII." 

In the charters relating to Elslack, co. York, 
occurs the name " Wi&o Gibson de Lancaster," 
dated Dec. 17, 2 Henry Y. 1414. His name is 
mentioned in other charters relating to this place 

occurs in the registers of St. Dunstan's-in-the- 
West, London, as early as 1605, 1607, and 1613. 
Hugh Gibson" and Maria his wife occur in the 
charters of Marrick Priory, co. York, temp. 
Henry VI. W. WINTERS. 

Waltham Abbey. 

BIJRNSIANA (4 th S. vii. viii. passim; ix. 79.) 
The question between the readings of pin and 
mend, peen and turn, in the " Haggis" contro- 
versy, must be finally determined by the MS. or 
the authoritative editions of Burns himself. But 
may a Southerner, historically connected by name 
with Scotland, and personally by residence and 
duty for a few years at Melrose, offer a contribu- 
tion on one point in favour of the latter reading ? 

First of all, is a skewer the invariable accom- 
paniment of the " haggis "? If not, the argument 
for pin is much weakened. 

Next, is there such a thing as a pin in a mill 
otherwise than as a loltf If not, there seems no 
special reason for the introduction of a " mill " 
more than any other machinery. 

But above all, I always understood in Scotland 
that the virtue of the " haggis " was, that, upon 
the insertion of the knife at the summit, which 
was always the preliminary ceremony by the 
master of the feast, the force of the imprisoned 
stearn should spurt the juice to the ceiling. 
Taking all the circumstances the perspiring 
tf amber," the accompanying terms of description, 
and the humour of the poet does it not seem 
probable that this bursting stream was the peen, 
that might help to "turn" a mill, in his lively 
and excited imagination ? 



The controversy about the meaning of pin in 
the address "To 'a Haggis" seems to me much 
ado about nothing. It means exactly what 
MR. DRENNAN says, the wooden pin or skewer 
used to secure the mouth of the haggis, and can 
have no other meaning. Burns's expression 
" Your pin wad help to mend a mill 

In time o' need," 

is obviously a metaphorical allusion, suggesting 
the quantity of wood contained in a pin of such, 
dimensions. I do not think peen, in the Aber- 
deenshire dialect, means juice j nor am I aware 
that it is a Scotch word. 


SCOTTISH IRON MONEY (4 th S. ix. 57.) I sus- 
pect that ESPEDARE has misquoted the final clause 
of the charter to which he refers, and that the 
real words are " tres nummatas terrse " (not " ferri.") 
A "nummata terrse" is supposed to have con- 
tained an acre (vide Cowell, voce " Nummata "), 
where he will find quoted a charter with these 
words. A. J. K. 

4> S. IX. FEB. 17, 72.] 



KNARR: WRYDE (4 th S. ix. 56.) The words 
Knarr and Wryde are apparently, in common with 
several names in the same district, of Celtic ex- 
traction, and would be derived and mean as fol- 
lows : Knarr, from regnar, " a small expanse," 
the district so called having once been a fen lake. 
Wryde, which is the name of an ancient drain, 
means "the water course," from Qwy-rhid, "a 
water drain." Gwyhirn, close by, is to be trans- 
lated as " the river meadow," from " Gwy-hyrn ;" 
and the " Wash," called Whittlesea Wash, at the 
same place, is from the Celtic word Gwas, a low 
place. . K. K. 


In Coleridge's Gloss., index, knarr is rendered 
tf rock ? Dan. knort, a knur or knob ; O.-N. 
gnupe, mons, prominens." Wryde may be from 
the Welsh rhyd, a course, ford. 


Gray's Inn. 

WICKHAMS OF ABINGDON (4 th S. viii. 548.) 
The controversy respecting the relationship of the 
families who bore this name, and resided at Ab- 
ingdon and Swalcliffe, is examined in Nichols's 
Collectanea. The will of Richard Wickham of 
Swalcliffe, dated May 22, 1635, has 

" I, Richard Wickham of Swalcliffe in the countie of 
Oxon, Esq., aged eightie yeares and upwards, doe by these 
presents testiae, publish, "and declare that William* Wick- 
ham of Abingdon in the countie of Berks, sonne of John 
Wickham of Rotherfield in the countie of Sussex, is my 
kinsman in bloode, and descended from the house of 
Wickhams of Swalcliffe." 

This appeared in The Banbury Guardian as an 
extract from the Collectanea on Dec. 28. 


SEVEN DIALS (4 th S. viii. passim ; ix. 84.) In 
1850 Mr. Albert Smith edited a monthly maga- 
zine called The Town and Country Miscellany, in 
which the writers (including myself) were ano- 
nymous. I remember his speaking to me of the 
article in that magazine " Some News of a famous 
old Fellow" (pp. 118-121), and, if I remember 
rightly, it proceeded from his pen. It is a descrip- 
tion of the column and dial removed from St. 
Giles's to Wey bridge Green,, and it is illustrated 
with three woodcuts one of the column as it now 
appears, and two of the stone on which the dials 
were engraved or fixed. " The old poet, however, 
was wrong when he spoke of its seven faces. It is 
hexagonal in its shape ; this is accounted for by 
the fact that two of the streets opened into one 
angle." The three woodcuts referred to are the 
only ones in the six numbers to which the issue 
of the magazine was limited. Albert Sniith was 
very fond of making such researches as are indi- 
cated in the article on the " famous old Fellow." 


[Did you see our Notice to Correspondents on the loth 
of January respecting Blore's Rutland? ED.] 

A PROPOS DE BOTTES (4 th S. ix. 72.) This 
expression reminds one of a curious verse in Victor 
Hugo's Contemplations, vol. ii. p. 94. Some friends 
upbraiding him at that time already, as they do 
justly now-a-days, for being a renegade and de- 
serter of sound doctrines, the poet, nothing 
daunted, retorted in six pages of Alexandrines, 
that he cannot conceive such a reproach. Every 
one, he says, is a deserter of something or other 
here below at a given time ; thus ' 

" Qu'est-ce qu'un papillon ? Le de'serteur du ver. 

Falstaffse range ? ill est 1'apostat des ribottes. 

Mes pieds sont renegats quand ils quittent mes 
bottes ! " 

There's poetry for you. P. A. L. 

The reference is to Consul Brown's Report on 
the Trade of Genoa, not Geneva. 


" FIRST IN TALENTS," ETC. (4 th S. ix. 70.) 
The dedication here mentioned is evidently imi- 
tated from that under portraits of George Wash- 
ington, and also under a clock with a bronze 
statue of him, I once saw in America " First in 
in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his 
countrymen." P. A. L. 

HENRY INCH (4 th S. ix. 75.) The information 
required is given at pp. 13-29, vol. i. of Conolly's 
History of the Royal Sappers and Miners, 1855. 

J. W. F. 

DEATH'S HEAD BUTTONS (4 th S. viii. 527 ; ix. 
64.) I have often seen rings with a skull and 
cross-bones, with the motto " Memento niori." 
Pascal, quoting Epictetus, says u Ayez tons les 
jours devant les yeux la mort et les maux qui 
semblent les plus insupportables, et jamais vous 
ne penserez rien de bas et ne desirerez rien avec 
exces." People have always been fond of what 
the French call " des armes parlantes." The cele- 
brated Jacques Cuer had for his a heart with the 
adage, " A vaillant cceur rien impossible." 

77.) The following note may answer the inquiry 


Lincolnshire is divided into the " parts of Lind- 
sey, Kesteven, arid Holland." "Holland," or . 
"The parts of Holland," is the smallest division 
containing about 308,443 acres. Holland is again 
divided into three Wapentakes, of which Sturbeck 
Wapentake is one ; and in this W T apentake are 
the towns or villages named East Holland Towns. 
Holland, or Haut Huntre, Fen, contained 
22,000 acres, of which some 7000 or 8000 were 
allotted to the East Holland towns of Boston E., 
Skirbeck, Fishtoft, Frieston, Butterwick, Bening- 
ton, Leverton, and Leak. J. N. POCKLJNGTON. 

S. Michael's Rectory, Huline, Manchester. 



[4 th S. IX. FEB. 17,72. 

DR. WM. STRODE (4 th S. ix. 77.) The epigram 
given under this heading occurs also in the fourth 
part of Miscellany Poems, Src., published by Mr. 
Dryden, p. 131 (London, Tonson, 1716), and is 
there entitled " Kisses, with an Addition." This 
addition consists of three verses in excess of the 
one here quoted (infra), the style of the original 
being closely followed. The epigram reads thus : 
" My love and I for kisses play'd ; 

She wou'd hold stakes, I was content ; 
But when I won, she wou'd be paid ; 

With that, I ask'd her what she meant. 
Nay then (says she) I see, I see, you wrangle in vain ; 
Here, take your kiss, and give me mine again.'' 


LES PRKTRES DEPORTES (4 th S. ix. 76.) Your 
correspondent should consult the 

"Journal historique de 1'Emigration et Deportation du 
Clerge de France en Angleterre, par 1'Abbe de Lubersac, 
Vicaire-Ge'ne'ral de Narbonne. London, 1802, 8vo." 

The book was published under the patronage 
of George III., to whom it is dedicated. 


passim; ix. 60.) I quite agree with H. S. G. 
that the Throckinorton coat " presents some dif- 
ficulties," and I am fully prepared to wait sine die 
for their solution. H. S. G. now explains that it 
is not the coat with the three arrows 2 and 1, but 
that with " a chevron between three bolts," which 
was conveyed . from Bosom to Throckmorton, 
through Olney; and I am further to understand, 
in the meantime, that there are no arrows amongst 
the quarterings in question "only birdbolts." 
The word dictum referred to was not used by me 
with reference to engravings but to the text, 
where my inference seems fair enough. 

Not only Hales, but Littlehailes and other 
families bear arrows, but I am not quite sure 
(even apart from the tinctures), that they are pre- 
cisely similar to those of Archer of Tamworth. 
This is another question. 

In conclusion, I may be pardoned for having 
raised what, after all, appears to have been a 
reasonable doubt, for the original question still 
remains in statu quo. I acknowledge the patience, 
research, and ingenuity of H. S. G., and like him 
all the better for having used his quarter-staff so 
well. I am satisfied, until something should turn 
up to blunt the arrows, or sharpen the birdbolts, 
and so decide the question. Sr. 

In the Visitation of Oxfordshire, 1574, and just 
edited by my friend Mr. W. H. Turner for the 
Harleian Society, I think H. S. G. and SP. will 
find the blazonng of the arms of the Throckmorton 
family, with their various quarterings, as dis- 
played in their mansion-house at Chastleton in 
Oxfordshire at the above date. 



BRAYDED : BIIAYDES (4 th S. viii. 398, 487.) 
Perhaps the following lines will throw some light 
on the meaning of the word brayded: 

" A dolefulle syghte the knyghte gane see 
Of his wyfe and his childir three 

That fro the fire were flede, 
Alle as nakede als they were borne, 
Stode togedir under a thorne, 

Braydcde owte of thaire bedd." 
The lines are taken from the English romance 
of Sir Isumbras, and are quoted in Wright's 
Domestic Manners. 

The word Iraydede seems here to mean '' driven 
out," and in part bears out N.'s suggestion thai- 
it means " dodged." 

Marlboroagh, Wilts. 

(4 th S. vii. 36.) In 1375, Enguerrand de Coucy, 
Count of Soissons, was at war with the dukes 
Albert and Leopold of Austria concerning the 
marriage portion of Catharina his mother, the 
eldest daughter of Leopold. He united with 
Edward III., whose wife was another daughter 
of the same duke. Edward raised an army in his 
dominions, and with it and Enguerrand's men in- 
vaded Alsatia, threatened Basel, penetrated into 
Switzerland, which they lay waste until the peo- 
ple of the mountains having rallied, fell upon 
these foreign adventurers, defeated them at all 
points, and drove them back to France. The Eng- 
lish numbered 6000 men, and formed the great 
majority of Enguerrand's army. They ravaged 
the whole country between the Canton of Zurich 
and the burgh of Neufchatel, which they left un- 
touched on account of the firm attitude taken by 
the warlike Countess Isabella and her people ; 
but revenged themselves for this by pillaging and 
destroying a small abbey (Fons Andrese), two miles 
north-east of Neufchatel. This event was chroni- 
cled in the following manner on the inside cover 
of the martyrology of the convent. (See my 
Monuments de Ihistoire de Neuchdtcl, 2 vols. fol. 
1844) : 

" Xotum sit omnibus pra?sens scriptum inspecturis quod 
suo anno MCCCLXX quinto, die nativitatis Domini nos- 
tri Jesu Christi abbatia ista fuit penitus destructa per 
Britones de Britania, qui hue fuerunt conduct! per domi- 
num de Cussi, contra ducem Austrie, tempore regiminis 
fratris Guillelmi de Yalle Transversa, abbatis hujus eccle- 
sie Fontis Andree." 

The tradition of that invasion is still living in 
several parts of Switzerland, where some places 
of defeat are still called English hills, fertres 
angfais" &c. 

I think the fable of William Tell (William the 
Tall) originated in the times of that invasion, 
and in the recital of some of the English legends, 
which contain the chief marble block out of which 
the poetical imagination of the Swiss has cut a 
hero. GEO. A. M. 

Patent Office, Washington, D.C. 

4 th S. IX. FEE. 17, '72.] 



HELP = PREVENT (4 th S. ix. 56.) To help is to 
assist. Then we have, as the dictionaries show, 
to help out, up, oi-e)', off. Then in Shakespere to 
help of t in the sense of to cure : " To help him of 
his blindness/' Then comes the sense of to prevent 
or hinder, and. also to forbear and avoid. Ellipsis 
I believe to be the only principle upon which 
this seeming contradiction can be reconciled. " I 
could not help letting the plate fall," becomes, if 
we fill up what custom and brevity have elided, 
" I could not help [myself from] letting the plate 
fall." The verb thus becomes reflective : to help 
oneself from any thing or action is to escape from 
such thing, or from performing such an action. 
" I could not escape, prevent, forbear, avoid let- 
ting the plate fall." Swift says, "Those few 
who reside among us only because they cannot 
help it " ; i. e. because they cannot escape or help 
themselves from so residing. Help or assistance 
implies the giving of aid to some one ; to save him 
from some inconvenience is to hinder the approach 
of the objectionable thing. If, then, in Meu of 
helping another you help yourself from the com- 
mission of an act, you prevent the act from taking 
place. When a man helps himself against some- 
thing external to him, he hinders or prevents that 
thing, so that the ellipsis explains all. A work 
on English elliptical phrases would be extremely 
valuable if done by a man like Home Tooke ; but 
cloudy-pated men like Crabbe of the synonyms 
should be warned off. We had better wait till 
some merciful German shall help us. C. A. W. 

ADHERENT (4 th S. ix. 3.) The following details 
of this attached follower of the fallen emperor may 
not be thought unworthy of transcription by the 
readers of Lord Lyttelton's very interesting notes 
of his conversations with Xapoleon on board the 
Northumberland : 

" Captain Piontowski, an officer in the Polish troops 
attached to Buonaparte's person, who had accompanied 
him to Elba, and had a command in the little army that 
landed in France, formed one of the suite which accom- 
panied the ex-emperor to England. He was, however, 
refused to attend the exile of his fallen master. The dis- 
appointment he suffered on the occasion was extreme, 
and he still continued to persevere in his application to 
follow that fortune to which a sense of the most ardent 
and affectionate duty impelled him. Notwithstanding a 
lady from France, to whom he had been betrothed, joined 
him at Plymouth and married him, he still most zeal- 
ouslv adhered to his original object ; and having at length 
obtained the sanction of government, he took his passage 
in a store-ship for St. Helena. The arrival of this faith- 
ful follower was not expected : Napoleon, however, could 
not but be sensible of his attachment, and received him 
with kindness. But neither his situation nor his man- j 
ners were such as to associate him with the suite, nor did j 
his modesty appear to expect it. An apartment was 
assigned him by the generals; and Mr. O'Meara, the j 
surgeon, thinking he was neglected, with that goodness 
of heart and generous nature which distinguishes his i 
character, made him welcome to his table. Such were the ; 

! amiable and unassuming manners of this romantic Pole, 
! that the distant treatment of him was a subject of general 
animadversion, and a want of generous feeling was attri- 
buted to Napoleon for inattention to such an evident 
example of fidelity. But this afterwards appeared to be a 
! groundless suspicion. The Captain occupied his garret 
j during the night, and occasionally amused himself with 
! his gun during the day ; happy in the enthusiastic .satis- 
faction of sharing the fate of the great object of his 
idolatry. It happened, however, in one of his sporting 
excursions, that his piece accidentally went off in the act 
of loading it, and very severely wounded his right hand. 
With this mischance Napoleon became acquainted, and 
expressed a desire to see and console him ; but previous 
to the execution of this kind intention, a female servant 
of General Montholon was removed from one of the very 
comfortable rooms at Longwood, and Piontowski was con- 
veyed thither. The following day Napoleon paid him 
the projected visit, but without suspecting he had been 
in any other apartment, and amply repaid his devoted 
Pole for the wound in his hand, by giving such a warm 
delight to his honest and faithful heart." Letters written 
on board his Majesty's Ship the Northumberland and at 
St. Helena, Sfc. By William Warden, Surgeon on board 
the Northumberland, 2nd ed. London. 1816, 8vo, p. 204. 

BARON BUNSEX (4 th S. ix. 55.) At p. 311 of 
the Memoir j by the Baroness Bunsen (vol. ii., 
1868), it is stated that the late King of Prussia 
addressed the Baron as " Doctor Theologiee," and 
that the latter wrote a long letter in answer 
signed Dixit ex cathedra, Doctor Theologiae." 

H. F. T. 

LETTICE KNOLLTS (4 th S. yiii. 480 ; ix. 65.) 
A lengthy and very interesting account of this 
lady and her family occupies a large portion of 
vol. i. of Craik's Romance of the Peerage. For 
another biography of this ladyj see Gentleman's 
Magazine, March 1846. 

Lot 815 in Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's Cata- 
logue of the MSS., Autographs, &c., of Robert 
Cole, Esq. (sold July 29, 1861, &c.) is 

" Deed of sale to Thomas Hill of Honeley, co. War- 
wick, by Sir Christopher Blounte, and of the Lady Let- 
tice, Countess of Leicester his wife, of all their right in 
the manors of Honeley and Blacknells, for 5007., with their 
signatures." These, it is added, are " extremely rare." 

The Gentleman's Magazine, May 1849, p. 522, 

" Inventories of the personal properties of Countess 
Lettice, and of the Dowager Countess of Leicester, at 
Essex House, taken January and February, 1635. Com- 
municated from the original roll, with notes by J. O. 
Halliwell, Esq., to the Archaeological Association, and by 
them to the Society of Antiquaries." 

S. M. S. 

HOBBEDEHOT (4 th S. viii. 451.) The word is 
used also in the forms " hobbledehoy " and " hob- 
bardehoy/' A short time ago ST. SWITHIX sug- 
gested that the term " hobbedehoy " owes its 
origin to the "hobilles," or short jackets which 
boys until recently wore. I wish to propose 
another derivation for the word. Tusser, in his 



[1 th S. IX. FEB. 17, 72. 

Five Hundred Pointes of good Husbandrie (p. 105, 
ed. 1604), gives a poem of twelve lines containing 
directions for the various employment of the 
twelve " ages " of human life, each age compris- 
ing a period of "seven" years. The first four 
lines run thus : 

"The first seaven yeeres bring up as a child, 

The next to learning, for waxing too wild ; 

The next keep under, Sir Hobbard de Hoy, 

The next a man no longer a boy." 

The derivation suggested by the third line 
which deals with the youth between fourteen and 
twenty-one seems much more plausible than 
that of ST. SWITHIN. Who Sir Hobbard de Hoy 
was I have been unable to find out; perhaps 
some of your readers can throw light on the sub- 
ject. II. B. F. 

HENRI DETJX WARE (4 th S. ix. 38.) In Part i. 
of the Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Works 
of Art, 8fc., on Loan to the South Kensington Mu- 
seum, 1862, is an excellent article by 3. C. Robin- 
son on this subject. Added to this is a list of all 
the pieces then (July, 1862) known to be extant, 
with descriptions of those exhibited at that time. 

S. M. S. 

" WHYCHCOTTE OF ST. JOHN'S,'"' vol. iii. 302 
(4 th S. viii. 542.) May I ask if any key has ever 
been published ? If not, who was " the mayor of 
Liverpool" referred to in vol. ii. p. 134, the "for- 
tunate youth " (same page), and (l Robinson the 
cracksman, and in the royal cortege" at the ac- 
cession of Louis Philippe ? S. 0. 

DEESIDE : JAMES BROWN (4 th S. viii. 527 ; ix. 
81.) On the title-page of a book in my posses- 
sion, Epitaphs and Monumental Inscriptions in 
Grey friars Churchyard, ' 12mo, Edinburgh, 1867, 
the collector of them, James Brown, keeper of 
the grounds, is expressly called " Author of the 
Deeside Guide" Yet it is very probable that a 
man once in so humble a position as that of a 
car-driver, as MR. CLYNE mentions him to have 
filled, was indebted to others for much of the 
varied information given in the works published 
under his name. In fact he mentions his obliga- 
tions to several men of learning with reference to 
his Book of Epitaphs in Greyfriars Churchyard, 
in the preface. It is a book very well edited, 
and will be the means of rescuing many valuable 
monumental inscriptions from oblivion, when the 
originals have been effaced by the tooth of tempus 

At p. 238 et seq. of the Book of Epitaphs, Mr. 
Brown quotes a Latin epitaph on the celebrated 
criminal lawyer, Sir George Mackenzie, the king's 
advocate, and the prosecutor of the Covenanters 
in the reigns of Charles II. and James II., " from 
an extra leaf added to some copies of Monteith's 
Theatre of Mortality, published in 1704." On the 
mausoleum itself, the most conspicuous monu- 

ment in the Greyfriars, there is no inscription, 
though beneath it rest the " bluidy advocate 
Mackenzie," his son-in-law Lord Roystoun, and 
Sir George Lockhart of Lee, who was murdered 
by John Chiesley of Dairy a circumstance al- 
luded to by Sir Walter Scott in the Bride of 
Lammermoor* The place where the epitaphs on 
these eminent lawyers was originally inscribed is 
not mentioned. JOHN PICEFORD, M.A. 

Hungate Street, Pickering. 

ix. 56.) Eliza (or Elizabeth) Steele was the 
daughter of John Baron Trevor of Bromham, in 
the county of Bedford, and was the wife of Sir 
Richard Steele, the author of the Christian Hero, 
and the co- editor with Addison of The Spectator. 
Her grandfather, Sir Thomas Trevor, an eminent 
lawyer, and Chief Justice of the Common Plea?, 
the first Baron Trevor of Bromham, was one of 
the twelve peers created by Queen Anne in one 
day. In a small library over the south porch of 
Bromham church there was a copy of The >S; 
tor, on the title-page of which was written, just 
as J. M. describes, " in a bold but neat female 
hand, ' Eliza : Trevor.' " My impression is, that 
Lady Steele had only one child, a daughter, who 
died young ; but this point could be easily ascer- 
tained. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Hungate Street, Pickering. 

NOVELISTS' FLOWERS (4 th S. viii. 549 ; ix. 85.) 
I am not acquainted with the work quoted by 
MR. BRITTEN, and therefore cannot say whether 
it. botanical statements are of much value. But 
I find nothing to carp at in the few sentences 
quoted by MR. BRITTEN. It is difficult even to 
guess what is meant by " marsh lilies," as the 
term is applicable to so many varieties of Lilium, 
found in marshy or ill-drained meadows. The 
wild tulips may be meant; or it may be the 
Lilium bulbiforum, or the Narcissi = wild daffodils. 

By the "tall white lychnid-eas" is probably 
meant the Lychnis flos cucidi, the cuckoo flower 
of our children and our peasants ; and also of 
Shakespeare, in his charming song 

" When daisies pied, and violets blue." 
The French name is lychnide ; the German name 
lycMnelke; 'and we sometimes find a Latin 
form, lychnidea. The word lyclinideas of the 
novelist seems an English plural to lychnidea. 

I do not find anything extraordinary, or that 
merits a !, in "bulrushes growing in a field." 
Wherever there is moisture, plants of the juncus 
tribe will have a home and flourish a fact 

* Blind Alice alludes to his murder by Chiesley to Sir 
"William Ashton, who replies that Chiesley's punishment 
must have acted as a warning to others. A note by the 
author adds that Chieslfy had "pistolled" (sic) Sir 
George Lockhart on his return from church, and that he 
was executed. 

4 th S. IX. FEB. 17,72.] 



that an accomplished botanist, like MR. JAMES 
BRITTEN, need not be reminded of. 

The most common German name of the little 
blue speedwell is EkrenpreiS) i. e. " honour's prize " 
or " reward." But it is also, called Macnner treue, 
i. e. "man's faith," " fidelity," or " constancy " j 
and it may be from the legend related by the 
novelist. This name appears to be more local 
than general. 

The bulrush calls to remembrance a Craven 
anecdote, which is worthy of record. Some forty 
years or so, the dales district had a professional 
" ratten an' mowdwarp " catcher, called Moses. 
It was his Christian name, and I presume that he 
had another one ; but he was always known as 
Moses. He was an eccentric character, and had 
no dislike to ll a glass o' rum an' waiter " an 
amiable failing to which " varmint" killers are 
generally addicted. He was always saying " that 
reminds me," &c. In fact, his discourse was 
always full of similitudes and reminiscences. On 
one occasion, when wading through Linton Beck, 
he slipped and lay prostrate amongst some water- 
weeds. Some countrymen, who were highly 
amused at the disaster, called out " What does 
that remind you of?" "Why/' said tho rat- 
catcher, "of Moses among the bulrushes!" a 
bit of ready wit that proved he was no great fool 
after all. STEPHEN JACKSON (Murithian). 

MR. BRITTEN'S queries respecting the flowers 
of Clemency Franklin have been forwarded to the 
authpr, who is at Cannes? As regards the last, I 
would, in the mean time, refer him to the follow- 
ing quotation from Goethe's description of one of 
Albert Diirer's portraits of himself, as translated 
in Mrs. Charles Heaton's Life, p. 50. He has in his 
hand " a piece of the significant blue flower called 
in Germany ' man's-faith ' (-Manns-treue)." 


FINDERNE FLOWERS (4 th S. viii. passim ; ix. 23, 
80.) My authority for the statement that the 
Narcissus poeticus is not a native of Palestine, is, 
that none of the botanical authors whom I have 
consulted (and they are many) give it as such. 
Mr. J. G. Baker, the most recent authority on the 
subject, says of N. poeticus, in his " review " of the 
genus (Journal of Botany, viii. 114, 1870-1), that 
it extends "as a wild plant all through the south 
of Europe, from France to Greece." MB. PEAR- 
SON is in error in supposing that Tyas (scarcely a 
high authority in such matters) "gives N. poeticus 
as being a native of that country." He refers (op. 
cit, p. 129) to "the great jonquil (N. calathimts)" 
as " found in Palestine and'Syria" a name regard- 
ing which there is probably some mistake, as, 
according to Mr. Baker, neither of the plants to 
which it is applied occurs in the Holy Land. The 
only species native to Palestine appears to be 
N. serotinus. JAMES BRITTEN, F.L.S. 

"BOARD " (4 th S. ix. 93.)" To make a board, is 
making a stretch on any tack when a ship is work- 
ing to windward." (Hamilton Moore's Navigation.} 
To " make a good board" is to get on well in a 
stretch to windward. This seems the same idea 
as that involved in the quotations at p. 93 to get 
on in spite of adverse influences. W. G. 

There is, I think, little doubt that the meaning 
is that an old good servant saves what is equiva- 
lent to the "board" of a child. I have often 
heard the expression with reference to some piece 
of extravagance, " Why, it's the board of a ser- 
vant." F. G. 

In the phrase, " an old good servant boards a 
child," the word boards is not well spelt. It 
should rather be bords i. e. approaches, from Fr. 
aborder, to approach. It is common in Shake- 
speare and Spenser in the sense of accost, to 
which word it is a close equivalent. For aborder 
means to come to the edge of, and accost is to 
come to the side of. In the phrases to bord *. e. 
approach a ship, and to go on board of a ship, the 
two words bord and board have become hopelessly 
confused. "Accost is, front her, boord her, woo 
her, assail her " (Twelfth Night, i. 3); "I'm sure 
he is in the fleet, I would he had boorded me " 
(Much Ado, ii. 1.) The spelling boord is that of 
the First Folio. ' WALTER W. SKEAT. 

1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. 

HORNECK AND JESSAMY (4 th S. ix. 94.) MR. 

BONE has been rather sparing with data whereon 
to construct a reply to his, query. However, I 
think it can be done. About a century ago 
" jessamy " was a vulgar contraction for jessamine; 
and at that period "jessamine sprig," in the Mid- 
lands, was an equivalent term for dandy or fop, 
originating, no doubt, from the custom of wearing 
that flower, as we now observe the youth of our 
age trudging "to office," with paper collar on 
neck, dinner in pocket, and moss rose in button- 

The term, then, " his Jigg and his Jessamy " 
would doubtless mean his giggling daughter and 
frivolous son. C. CHATTOCK. 

Castle Bromwich. 

" I SIGH AND LAMENT ME," ETC. (4 th S. ix. 95.) 

I have before me The Bouquet, composed of Three- 
>d-Ticenty Neio Songs. (Derby : Printed for the 
Travelling Stationers, 1793.) Song twenty-one 
is entitled " Queen Mary's Lamentation," and as 
it varies in some particulars from the verses 
quoted by MR. RATCLIFFE, and also supplies 
three additional stanzas, I venture to give it ver- 
batim : 

I sigh and lament me in vain, 

These walls can but echo rny moan ; 
Alas ! it increases my pain, 

When I think on the days that are gone. 



[4th S. IX. FEB> 17j7 . 2 . 

" Thro' the grate of my prison I see 

The birds as they wanton in air ; 
My heart how it pants to be free, 

My looks they are wild with despair. 
"' Above tho' oppress'd by my fate, 

I burn with contempt of my foes ; 
Though Fortune has altered my state, 

She ne'er can subdue me to those. 
" False woman, in ages to come 

Thy malice detested shall be ; 
And when we are cold in the tomb. 

Some heart still will sorrow for me. 
' Ye roofs where cold damps and dismay 

With silence and solitude dwell ; 
How comfortless passes the day, 

How sad tolls the evening bell. 
" The owls from the battlements cry, 

Hollow winds seem to murmur around, 
' Mary prepare thee TO DIE ! ' 

My blood it runs cold at the souud." 

Hazelwood, Belper. 

These verses cannot possibly be by Mary Stuart. 
Their structure indicates that they are eighteenth 
or early nineteenth century work. I think I saw 
them set to music about thirty years ago. 


These verses have nothing to do with the 
unhappy queen, beyond the title. They were 
written about a hundred years ago, and sung at 
one of the public places of amusement. I have a 
contemporary broadside printed with the music. 
The air is very poor, destitute of character, and 
full of what is called the " Scotch snap." ^ The 
song is alsc printed (with the same music) in 
Calliope, or the Musical Miscellany, 1788, -8vo, 
p. 110. Both copies contain three stanzas more 
than are given by your correspondent. The two 
following come after the first : 

" Thro' the grate of my prison I see 
The birds as they wanton in air ; 
My heart how it pants to be free, 
My looks they are wild with despair. 

" Above tho' opprest by my fate, 

I burn with contempt for my foes; 
Tho' fortune has alter'd my state 
She ne'er can subdue me to those." 

The remaining one precedes the last : 
" Ye roofs where cold damps and dismay, 

With silence and solitude dwell ; 
How comfortless passes the day, 
How sad tolls the evening bell." 

MR. RATCLIFBE is welcome to a copy of the 
music, if he desires to possess it. 

There is a Latin elegy, said to have been written 
by Mary in prison, which is given in Seward' 
Anecdotes with an English paraphrase, and i 

Plaintive air composed by Dr. Harrington of Bath 
t begins 

" O Domine Deus ! speravi in te." 
The English version 

" In the last solemn and tremendous hour." 

"With regard to the "many pleasing verses" 
f this queen, I am afraid that they are few and 
ar between. All that is known about them may 
ie seen in Walpole's Royal and Nolle Authors, 
dit. Park, v. 32. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

LADY ALICE EGERTON (4 th S. ix. 94.) The 
ady in Milton's Comus was painted by Wright of 
Derby, and formed one of a collection of twenty- 
ive ^of his own works exhibited by him at Mr. 
ilobins's Rooms, No. 9, under the Great Piazza, 
Oovent Garden, in 1785. It is thus described in 
he catalogue, but is not marked for sale : 

No. 1. 

The Lady in Milton's Comus, verse 221. 
Was I deceiv'd, or did a sable cloud 
Turn forth her silver lining on the night ? 
I did not err, there does a sable cloud 
Turn forth her silver lining on the night, 
And casts a gleam over this tufted grove." 

A fine mezzotint engraving of this picture 
(now very scarce), measuring 2H in. by 17 in., 
was published by J. R. Smith, 31, King Street, 
'ovent Garden, Feb. 30, 1789. The lady is re- 
presented seated on the ground in a thick grove 
of trees. The moon, just breaking through the 
clouds, throws a gleam of silvery light on the 
lady's features and some portions of her dress, and 
reveals the trunks of the surrounding trees, with 
a distant landscape shrouded in gloom. 

There is an engraved portrait of the Hon. 
Thomas Egerton (in 4to by Evans), one of the 
performers in Milton's Cotmis, at Ludlow Castle. 


POYNTZ FAMILY (4 th S. ix. 105.) I am greatly 
obliged to P. K. for his .communication, and his 
reference to Mr. Croker's interesting note respect- 
ing Cowdray and its " fatal inheritance," but I 
should be glad if he could give me any informa- 
tion respecting the " older stories " it alludes to, 
in addition to the " curse of fire and water " that 
had fallen on the family of Montagu as holders of 
a large amount of church property, for they pos- 
sessed the spoils of no less than six former monas- 
teries. C. L. W. C. 


Saint Chrysostom, his Life and Times. A Sketch of the 
Church and the Empire in the Fourth Century. By the 
Rev. W. R. W. Stephens, M.A., Balliol Coll. Oxon, 
and Yicar of Mid-Lavant, Sussex. With a Portrait. 

The writer well observes that there are many names in 
history familiar to us from our very childhood, while of 
the personal character and actual life of those who bore 
them we are utterly ignorant. We know their talent?, 
their energy, the influence for good or ill which they 
exercised over their fellow men yet of their personal 

4 th S. IX. FEB. 17, '72.] 



life, their individuality, their share in our common 
nature, we know comparatively nothing. St. Chrysostom 
is one of these historic influences. His voice is still heard 
among us, yet of the man himself few possess more than 
the scantiest knowledge. He is one of many who played 
a great part in the drama of his time, but his individuality 
is lost in the busy crowd of no less important actors by 
whom he is surrounded. It is Mr. Stephens' object to 
place him for a while alone before us, and in making us 
acquainted with the story of his life, his studies, his 
labours, he makes him no longer what he has been a 
name but a reality ; and this, too, not by withdrawing 
him from the work in which he was engaged, but by 
showing us how he influenced it, and the share he took 
in it. The result is what the author intended not only 
a Life of St. Chrysostom, but a review of the state of 
the Church and of the Empire at the period when St. 
Chrysostom lived. 
Echoes of a Famous Year. By Harriet Parr, Author of 

the " Life and Times of Jeanne d'Arc,'' c. (H. S. 

King & Co.) 

Written for the amusement of her god-daughters, the 
authoress of the work before us has produced a sketch of 
the history of the eventful year which opened with 
Napoleon's wanton and improvident declaration of war, 
and ended with the occupation of France by the Germans, 
and the loss of Lorraine and Alsace in which the chief in- 
cidents are touched off in a vigorous and attractive form, 
calculated to make the book acceptable to a wider class 
of readers than those for whom it was originally intended. 

Les Beautes de la Foesie Anghiise. Par Le Chevalier 
Chatelain. Vol. V. (Rolandi.) 

No one can dispute the claims of Le Chevalier Chate- 
laiu to the pen of a ready translator. Though this is but 
the fifth volume of Les Beautes, it is about the thirtieth 
volume of translations from the English Poets since the 
Chevalier commenced his labour of love with Les Fables 
de Gay in 1852. In the volume before us we have some 
two hundi-ed poems, translated from some seventy or 
eighty English and American authors of all ages and of 
all styles all translated apparently with equal facility. 
We ought not to pass over entirely without notice some 
dozen portraits of the poets with which the volume is 

Debretfs Illustrated House of Commons and the Judicial 
Bench (1872 > Compiled and edited by Robert Henry 
Mair. Personally revised by the Members of Parlia- 
ment and the Judges. (Dean & Son.) 

This third volume of the Debrett Series is not the least 
valuable. It contains much Parliamentary information 
not found in other books of a similar character, while the 
section relating to the Judicial Bench is an exclusive 
feature ; in which we find biographical notices not only 
of the Judges of the Superior Courts of Great Britain and 
Ireland, but of the Judges of the County Courts, and 
Recorders of England. 

The Chronology of History, Art, Literature, and Progress, 
from the Creation of the World to the Conclusion of the 
Franco- German War. The Continuation ly W. Douglas 
Hamilton, F.S.A. (Lockwood.) 

A handy little volume ; for the necessary accuracy on 
which its value depends, the name of Mr. Douglas Hamil- 
ton, of the Public Record Office, may be taken as a 
guarantee. Will that gentleman forgive our hinting 
that its value would be doubled, and its size not incon- 
veniently increased, by a well considered Index ? 

CORRECTORS OF THE PRESS. We have been requested 
to give insertion to the following remarks on the useful 

labours of printers' readers : It is a fact that ought to 
be familiar .to the reading public that they are indebted 
to this class of workers for much valuable work apart 
from their own subordinate sphere. It was as a reader 
that Alexander Cruden acquired that exact accuracy 
which has rendered his Concordance the standard work 
of its kind. Samuel Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, and a 
host of others were correctors of the press in the last 
century; in fact the reading-closet was the usual refuge 
of the impecunious literarj' men of that day. Some of 
the best of the sub-editors whom modern newspapers have 
called into existence received their training as readers ; 
and more than one editor-in-chief has risen from the same 
degree. Out of about 140 members of the London Asso- 
ciation of Correctors of the Press, we understand that 2 
are editors, 6 sub-editors, 4 authors (one dramatic), 1 an 
accountant, 1 a scientific lecturer, and 10 regular con- 
tributors to the press. Beside? these 24, many others arc- 
occasional writers. Here is a mass of literary activity 
from a source not commonly suspected, and it is to us ;; 
marvel how these men, after fifty or sixt}' hours' ex- 
hausting headwork in a week, can find time or energy for 
anything extra. Perhaps their appetite for work grows 
by what it feeds on. Perhaps they rejoice in putting 
other readers to the tortures they themselves have en- 
dured ! We had almost forgotten to mention that a 
painstaking member of this fraternity is preparing a 
new blessing for the British public (at least for those 
who read old English) in the shape of a Concordance to 
the poems of Edmund Spenser. The work has been pro- 
gressing steadily during the leisure of three years, and in 
about twelve months it will be ready for publication. 

The Guardian announces that " Lady Walmsley, of 
Hume Towers, Bournemouth, carrying out the wishes of 
the late Sir Joshua Walmsley, had decided upon pre- 
senting to the nation the celebrated portrait-gallery of 
her husband, which comprises portraits of the following 
eminent statesmen, taken from life, and considered 
the finest extant : Gladstone, Cobden, Bright, Disraeli, 
and Hume. Also the celebrated portrait of George 
Stephenson, for which the late Sir Joshua was offered 
several thousand pounds ; and portraits of Cromwell,. 
Nelson, and Garibaldi. An excellent portrait of the late 
Sir Joshua will also be included in the gift." 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 


},&c. Vols. I. III. to 

DE QUINCEY'S WORKS. Author's Edition,: 
VIII. and X. to XII. 

Wanted by Rev. D. J. Drakeford, 4. Coper's Cope Road, 
New Beckenham, Kent. 


Wanted by Messrs. Stecle $ Jones, 4, Spring Gardens, S.\V. 

WILLIAMSON'S EUCLID (two volumes). Vol.1., Oxford, 1781. Vol. II., 
London, 1788. 

Wanted by J/>. Mortimer CoUins, Knowl Hill, Berkshire. 

HISTORY OF RENFREWSHIRE, by Hamilton of Wishaw. 169S. 



BUTLER'S HUDIBRAS. 1st Edit. 1st Part. Ditto 1st and 2nd Partb'. 

Ditto the 3 Parts. 


or 1692. 


Wanted by Messrs. Kcrr $ Kif.-harJson, 89, Queen Street, Glasgow. 



[ 4 th S. IX. FEB. 17, '72. 


Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookseller, 15, Conduit Street, 
Bond Street, London, W. 



LIFE OF SETHOS. 2 Vols. 8vo. 1732. 
NOBILITY OP LIFE, by Valentine. 4to. 1869. 

Wanted by Mr. John Wilson, 93, Great Russell Street, W.C. 


H. B. S. The line "How much the half is better than 
the whole," occurs in Cooke's translation of Hesiod, Works 
and Days, book i. line 60. 

U. O N. The custom of going a Souling has been 
noticed in our 1 st S. iv. 381, 506 ; 3 rd S. xii. 479. Consult 
also Brand's Popular Antiquities, edit. 1848, i. 393. 

J. BEALE. Miller (Singers and Songs of the Churchy 
p . 23) says that the hymn " Guide me, O thou great Jehovah," 1 
is from the Welsh of William Williams. The translation 
has been sometimes attributed to a Wm. Evans. 

P. The curious calculation respecting the French In- 
demnity appeared in The People's Magazine for Nov. 1871, 
p. 301. 

STEPHEN JACKSON. The clocks you mention are well 
known, being exhibited in very many of the London shops. 

J. E. H. ( West Derby. ) TAe translation has been asked 
for. See p. 127. 

F. R. FOWKE. Thanks for the lines, but they have 
already appeared. See " X. & Q." 3 rd S. v. 358. 

J. S. UDAL. " The Attorney of the Olden Time " is 
from Bishop Earle's Microcosmography, edit. 1811, p. 105. 

J. J. GOOD ALL. Consult The Rose Book, a Practical 
Treatise on the Culture of the Rose, by Shirley Hibberd, 
1864 {Groombridye), and A Book about Roses, by S. 
Reynolds Hole, 1870 (Blachwood). 

R. J. G. (Dublin.) The desired information as to iron 
bookcases will be found on p. 104 of the present volume. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications 
which,for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor at the Office, 
43, Wellington Street, W.C. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and address of 
the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good, 





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S: Birthplace of Plautus and Temple of Jupiter 
Apenninus, 153 John Howard Payne aud " Home, sweet 
Home," 15 li Renfrewshire Folk Lore: an Adder St^one, 
153 Chaucer Restored, Ib. Sir William Mure of Row- 
'.e, 137 Shylock Odd Changes of Meaning A 
Rutland Weather Saying Two remarkable Inscriptions 

Attorney of the olden time Bums and Keble " The 
Throwing of the Hood " Byron and Horace Parodies. 
&c., 157 

QUERIES : American Genealogy Baldursbra, a Flower 

: .e Thomas Bateman, M.P. Bribery and Kissing 

"Call us not Weeds," &c. Hardwick and Worksop 

Hi raldic Book-Plates Hutchinson's Collection for Hunts 

.v-lc-bone Mr. Matthews Oratorio Plaster of 

Tarras Count Bertrand Hi mbault Scissors Scores 

Senlao Sinaitic Inscriptions " Supar !" George 
Watson Taylor, Esq., of Erlstoke, M.P. Thornton Abbey 

Velvet Willy, 159. 

REPLIES: -Gourmand: Gourmet, 162 Relics of Oliver 
Cromwell : the Sidney Portrait. Ib. Marriage with a De- 
fer, 163 Poems by Mary Queen of Scots, 
Four Children at a Birth, 165 The Meeting of the 
'0 Choirs Roman Villa at Northleigh The Loss of 
" HalseweH " Scales and Weights Ashen Fu^ot 
. Wood "If I had a D9nkey," &c. The 'bevii's 
Nutting PUT " Gutta cavat lapidem," &c. Lady Grizell 
" My Thewgbts are racked '' Watch Papers 
Tanll\i Family " With Helmet on his Brow " 
.alt Barons " Happy the Man," &c. The Lord 
ki Puttock Chance of Baptismal Names 
s of Old Tunes Miss Ward Burns's " 'Prentice 
Han'," &c., 165. 

Notes ou Books. &c. 


Having lately (antd, p. 5) given a short account 
of the birthplace of the poet Ennius (born B.C. 239), 
I have been reminded of another Roman writer, 
Plautus, his contemporary (born E.G. 254), whose 
birthplace, Sarsina, in a far different part of Italy, 
I once visited; and as it is rarely that such a 
Deluded nook is reached by the English traveller, 
it may be not without interest to your classical 
readers to have a description of its present appear- 
ance. I have before, in speaking of the " Tomb 
of Hasdrubal " (4 th S. i. 69), remarked that this 
part of the Apennines is distinguished for little 
sequestered valleys, apparently cut off from the 
whole world. I approached these valleys from the 
direction of Gubbio, crossing a high ridge by a 
mountain path, which brought me "to the neigh- 
bourhood of the village Schieggia ; so interesting 
for the ruins of what is believed to have been the 
temple, of Jupiter' Apenninus, to which the con- 
federated tribes of Umbria repaired to sacrifice as 
the Latins did to the Alban Mount. At Valle di 
Holla ed Ajale, about half a mile from Schieggia, 
on the hill called La Serra, you find the ground 
covered with ruins ; and if the earth were cleared 
away, I do not doubt that the foundations of the 
temple would be clearly traced. Some pieces of 
mosaic I saw at Pietra Grossa, and on the hill La 

Serra was found the following monumental in- 
scription of Roman times : 
c . MESIO 

C . P . LEM 






It is a high mountainous region, inhabited prin- 
cipally by shepherds and their flocks, as it was in 
the time of Claudian (about A.D. 400), who speaks 
of it : 

" Exsuperat delubra Jovis, saxoque minantes 
Apenninigenis cultas pastoribus aras." 

I threaded my way by Urbino, San Marino, 
San Leo by cross paths to the sources of the river 
Sapis,.now Savio; on the banks of which I found 
the village Sarsina, of about three thousand in- 
habitants, retaining the name which it had two 
thousand years ago, and situated in a secluded 
valley surrounded on all sides by lofty ridges of 
the Apennines. The ancient city extended up 
the hill at some distance from its modern repre- 
sentative, and here many remains have been found, 
though I do not believe that it could at any time 
have been of great extent. The following imper- 
fect sepulchral inscription was the only memorial 
of Roman times which I saw near the * site of the 
ancient city : 





I could see that its territory contained extensive 
mountain pastures, and is still as rich in milk 
dives lactis, as Silius Italicus (viii. 462) says ; nor 
are its forests on the declivities of the mountains 
extinct, .though I cannot say that I heard of the 
dormice being still there, as they were in ancient 
times when prized by the Romans (Martial, iii. 
58, 35). I found, however, the baths of which 
Martial (ix. 58) speaks : 

" Sic montana tuos semper colat Umbria fontes, 
Nee tua Bajanas Sarsina malit aquas." 

They are now known as the Bagni di S. Agnese, 
and at some distance I heard that there were 
baths called Bagni di Kegina, still used by inva- 
I lids ; while the baths of Bake have long ceased 
to exist At the cathedral there are numerous 
mutilated columns of all kinds ; also marble slabs 
with ancient sepulchral inscriptions. Many in- 
scriptions are also found at the Palazzo del Com- 
mune. I was much interested by my visit to the 
j birthplace of Plautus, and could not doubt that I 
I saw everything much as it was when the poet 
; lived. There were the everlasting hills clothed 
with woods, the springs still supplied baths for 
the recovery of invalids, and the dormice, no 



S . IX. FEB. 24, 72. 

doubt, still chirped iii the woods, though no 
longer caught for the luxurious Roman. I may 
state that the scenery, as you cross this lofty 
ridge of the Apennines towards Florence, is highly 
picturesque, though the ascent can only be made 
on mule-back. You come down on the valley of 
the Arno, not far from the celebrated Camaldoli ; 
and if you be energetic, you may climb the highest 
point of the ridge, / Scali, mentioned by Ariosto 
on account of the extensive view it affords : 

" Scuopre il mar Schiavo e il Tosco 
Dal giogo onde a Camaldoli si viene." 

I had seen both seas from a hill of the Sila in 

Calabria (4 th S. vii. 529); but the breadth of 

Italy is there only some thirty miles, while here 

it cannot be much less than one hundred and fifty. 



I send you enclosed an article which I furnished 
to a local paper (the Troy Times, N. Y.) con- 
taining a letter from Mr. Perry to my uncle, the 
Hon. W. B. Maclay. As this letter is conclusive 
proof of the true origin of " Home, sweet Home," 
concerning which some of the London papers seem 
at fault (Times and Athenaeum, &c.), it may be 
useful for insertion in " N. & Q." 

Ordnance Office, Watervliet Arsenal, 

West Troy, N. Y. 
"Some Interesting Historical Facts respecting the Author 

of* Home, sweet Home? 
[Special Correspondence of the Troy Daily Times.'} 

" West Troy, Jan. 23, 1872. A paragraph has recently 
gone the round of the New York city newspapers, in 
which a doubt is expressed whether John Howard Payne 
was the author of the popular song commonly attributed 
to him. We therefore take the greater pleasure in call- 
ing the attention of the reader to a letter upon this sub- 
ject, which we have been kindly allowed to publish, and 
which would seem to place the authorship of ' Home, 
sweet Home ' beyond the possibility of any cavil. We may 
mention that the writer of the letter, Mr. Perry, was on 
a temporary visit to London from Tangiers, of which port 
he was United States consul, a position which Mr. Payne 
himself once filled. The John Miller referred to in the 
letter was in early life a publisher in London, and was 
the predecessor of Murray in the publication of the Sketch 
Book, the author, however, taking upon himself the ex- 
pense of paper, printing, advertisements, and the risk of 
sale. 'I wish,' says Irving, 'you would make interest, 
through James Renwick, to get the college to employ 
John Miller, bookseller, Fleet Street, as a literary agent 
in London. He is a most deserving and meritorious little 
man, indefatigable in the discharge of any commission 
entrusted to him, and moderate and conscientious in his 
charges.' Without further preface we give the letter of 
Mr. Perry, which, as will be seen, is addressed to Hon. 
W. B. Maclay, formerly a representative in Congress 
from the city of NBAV York : 

19, 1865. Hon. W. B. Maclay, No. 2, Nassau Street, 

New York. My Dear Mr. Maclay : I have called into 
this office to pay my respets to our venerable Dispatch 
agent, John Mifier, Esq., who has held this responsible 
post, now some forty-five years, to the satisfaction of the 
government, and awakening the gratitude of those officers 
of our service who are made dependent upon his fidelity 
and promptitude in forwarding their communications. 

'"Mr. Miller has had the kindness to show me the 
first printed copy of " Sweet Home." It is interwoven 
with a play entitled Clari. An opera, in three acts, as 
first performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, on 
Thursday, May 8th, 1823, by John Howard Payne, Esq. 
The overture and music (with the exception of the na- 
tional air), by Henry R. Bishop, Esq. London : John 
1 Miller, 69, Fleet Street, 1823. (Price two shillings and 

" ' I wrote with the copy before me, and Mr. Miller 
sitting at his desk near by. In reply to my remark that 
the authorship of "Sweet Home" had been called in ques- 
tion, Mr. Miller stated that there was not the least room 
for doubt upon the point. 

" ' Mr. Miller said that he gave Mr. Payne 507. for the 
copyright of Clari, and that he (Mr. Payne) revised the 
proof. This play was exceedingly popular at the time, 
and drew very crowded houses to witness its represen- 

" The air of " Sweet Home " was at that period a 
popular national air of Switzerland. The original has 
lovely instead of " lowly thatched cottage." Mr. Miller 
informed me that this was an oversight of Mr. Payne in 
correcting the proof. Mr. Payne was introduced to Mr. 
Miller by Washington Irving, who was a mutual friend 
of these gentlemen, serving them both in many ways and 
on many occasions. Very truly yours. 


" The purchase of the opera of Clari proved a very 
good speculation. ' The profits arising from it,' says the 
author of the life and letters of Washington Irving, 
' realized by the manager and not by Payne, are stated 
to have amounted to two thousand guineas in two years.' 
None of the parties seem to hav.e paid much attention to 
the song of ' Home, sweet Home,' which was afterwards 
one of the chief attractions of the opera, and was first 
sung by Miss M. Tree, the eldest sister of Ellen Tree, 
who married Charles Kean. All cotemporary accounts 
unite in representing her to have been as distinguished as 
a vocalist as her sister was as an actress. An epigram 
by Tuthill has been preserved in the ' Table-talk ' of 
' On this Tree when a nightingale settles and sings, 

The Tree will return her as good as she brings.' 

"At the time Miss M. Tree was warbling at Covent 
Garden, another sister was a danseuse at Drury Lane. 
Both seem to have awakened the admiration of a poetical 
spectator, who thus anonymously, but it must be confessed 
'mpartially, celebrates the merits of the two sisters : 

' Of all the Trees that I have known, 

Pippin, nonpareil, or warden, 
Give me the Tree so sweetly blown, 
The vocal Tree of Covent Garden. 
' But would I choose a tender form, 
That dances with the elfin train, 
I'd shelter from life's angry storm, 

And seek the Tree of Drury Lane.' 

" We may be glad that ' the vocal Tree of Covent Gar- 
den ' was not wanting, but it was not needed to make 
1 Home, sweet Home ' immediately popular. It belongs 
;o that class of compositions where the language, the 
vehicle of the sentiments, is level to the meanest capacity, 

4* S. IX. FEB. 24, '72.] 



and where the sentiments themselves, striking a kindred 
cord in our common nature, finds an echo in every bosom. 
Payne had left his native country for one year, and was 
absent from it twenty. With poverty as a companion, 
he had often wandered ' mid pleasures and palaces ' in 
foreign lands, an exile and a stranger. In a propitious 
hour the vision of home fell upon him, steeped in^colours 
caught from Heaven, and radiant with a w dawn of light, 
such as 

' Fancy never could have drawn 

And never could restore.' 

" All the thoughts proper to a condition only rendered 
more lonely by contrasted splendours, streamed into his 
heart until, subdued and melted, it poured out of its sad 
experiences this immortal song, which has filled the 
whole earth with its melody. ALADDIN." 


It may be twenty-five or thirty years ago that a 

child of a farmer in the parish of L h was bit 

or stung by an adder on the back of the foot, 
which, as well as the leg and thigh, in conse- 
quence became very much inflamed and swollen. 
The child's life was considered in danger; and 
various means of cure were resorted to by the 
parents on the advice of their friends and neigh- 
bours. Among others, a pigeon was procured, 
killed, cut open, and immediately, while warm, 
applied to the wounded foot. The flesh of the 
pigeon, it is said, became very dark or black; but 
yet having, as it was believed, no good, or at 
least very immediate effect, this other cure was 
had recourse to. In the same parish a family of 

the name of C g resided. They had been 

proprietors of the land they occupied for several 
generations, and in possession of a so-called adder- 
stone and four Druidical beads, some of which, 
or all conjunctively, had been efficacious in curing- 
various complaints, but more particularly those in 
cattle. At the solicitation of an intimate friend, 
these were obtained (although never before al- 
lowed to go out of the custody of .some of the 
family), and used according to instructions re- 
ceived, of this import that a small quantity of 
milk, some two or three gills, should be taken 
from a cow, and that while warm, the stone and 
beads, which were arranged on a string, should be 
put into it, and then thoroughly washed with the 
milk. A slough, or some slimy matter, it was 
said, would be developed on the stone, which 
behoved to be cleaned off by and mixed with the 
milk, and that the latter then should be applied 
in bathing the wounded part and all the limb, 
which was afterwards to be swathed. This was 
d6ne accordingly, yet after an interval of two or 
three days from the time the sting was received ; 
and it is reported by those alive and witnessing 
the application, that, even by the following morn- 
ing, there was a visibly favourable change, and 
one which resulted in a complete cure. The 

child arrived at manhood, got married, and is 
yet alive. 

This adder-stone is of a light dun or yellowish 
colour, and circular, about an'inch and a quarter in 
diameter, a little less than half an inch in thickness 
at the centre where it is most thick, and has a hole 
there, circular, smooth, and about half an inch in 
diameter. It is not unlike, in form and size, to 
the whorls which, in conjunction with the distaff, 
were, only a century or two ago, in general use in 
spinning yarns. The beads are all of different 
forms, sizes, and colours, yet all are perforated in 
the centre, so as to allow them to be strung. The 
stone and beads are still extant and in good pre- 

As the parents of the child were afterwards 
advised, the same good result would have ensued 
if only the head of the adder (which was found 
and killed) had been cut off, and the wound well 
rubbed with it. 

This being a well authenticated case of a cure 
being effected (as the belief is) by charmed stones, 
the particulars, it is . hoped, may be worthy of 
preservation in " N. & Q." ESPEDAEE. 


1. " The Parliament of Birds, "an acknowledged 
production of Chaucer's, authenticates the ", Cuckoo 
and the Nightingale " j thus line 275 of the latter 
piece runs 

"And therefore we will have a parliament." 
It follows that the Parliament accepted by MR. 
FURNIVALL has most probably been written in 
furtherance of this implied promise. 
The sequence runs thus : 

(i.) " The Court of Love " is found to close thus 
(11. 1 to 1351) 

My Sovereign [i. e. Venus] .... 

.... said 

. . . . abide, ye shall dwell still with me, 
Till season come of May, for then truly, 
The King of Love and all his company 
Shall hold his feast." 

(ii.) Then follows " The Cuckoo and the Night- 
ingale," called also " The Book of Cupid, God of 
Love," the scene of which is laid in May ; and it 
ends with the promise of "a parliament," on "the 
morrow after St. Valentine's day." Accordingly 
we turn to 

(iii.) The " Parliament " itself, stanza 45, and 

" For this was on St. Valentine's day." 

a follows the " Bird's Matins " appended to 
" Court of Love " ; to this, as I fancy, the 
misplaced envoi properly belongs, the lewd song 
being obviously the " Bird's Matins," with its 
"Domine labia," Venite," " Cceli enarrant," 
" jube Doinino " : a scrap of Latin in almost every 




verse." This envoi is a sort of apology for it, and 
quite in keeping. 

This pre-arranged order cannot be accidental ; 
it shows design, and argues unity of authorship. 
hus these three pieces, inextricably linked to- 
gether, must be accepted or rejected in company. 

2. It is still a moot point when Chaucer was 
born ; it could not have been earlier than 1328, nor 
later than 1340. Suppose we accept MR. FUKSI- 
VALT/S compromise of 1340; this would make 
Chaucer nineteen when, in modern parlance, he 
first entered the army in 1359. lie was then a 
prisoner in France for about twelve months. 
During this period, I assume, he may have solaced 
his enforced leisure by translating in part " The 
Romance of tho Kose." He would return to 
England, and we have his " Black Knight," which 
I assume to ref<>r to the Black Prince, who mar- 
ried Joane Plautagenet in 1361, the latter having 
been left widow in 1360, on the death of Thomas 
Holland, Earl of Kent. 

3. Among these restored poems are some touches 
from a master-hand, -ex. (jr. the opening of the 
" Court of Love " 

" With timorous heart, and trembling: hand of dread, 
Of cunning naked, bare of eloquence, 
Unto the flower of port in womanhood 
I write, as he tliat none intelligence 
Of metres hath.'' 

In the "Black Knight," stanzas 32 to 34 are 
very fine 

" The thought oppressed with inward sighes sore, 
The painful life, the body languishing)' 

" Now hot as fire, now cold as ashes dead, 
Now hot for cold, now cold for heat again, 
Now cold as ici ; , now as coales red." 
Compare -this with Troilus and Crcssida 
" For heat of cold, for cold of heat I die." 

Bk. i. I. 420, 
obviously from Petrarca's 

" E tremo a mezza state, ardendo il verno." 

4. Another peculiarity, not to be overlooked, is 
found in certain personal allusions. We have " the 
Lordes son of Windsor " (Romance of the Rose), 
which, I take it, refers to Edward the Black Prince. 

The term " fair white," used for Blanche Duchess 
of Lancaster, in the Death ; also, in the same book, 
the reference to King Edward III. as the Emperor 

The term Philo-genet, cf. Plantagenet, used in 
the " Court of Love." 

The Parliament at Woodstock, where the court 
had resided, used in the " Cuckoo and the Night- 

There is a certain amount of assured familiarity 
in this mode of procedure ; is it possible there 
could have beeh tiuo in the same position, at the 
same time : Chaucer so well identified, the other 



MR. HALL continues his amusing pleasantries, 
and now wants us to believe that (l The Black 
Knight " is Chaucer's. What would " N. & 
say to a suggestion that Kyd's Cornelia or 
Spanish Tragedy was Shakspere's, because it, 
Lear, Hamlet, or any or all of Shakspere's plays 
had a dozen or a hundred words in common ? 
" Cornelia," " Cordelia " : li this remarkable fa- 
mily likeness is a strong point of resemblance 
that could not be imitated without gross pla- 
giarism, so I claim the (' Cornelia ') for (Shak- 
spere) ! " 

..That would be restoring Shakspere with a ven- 
geance, would it not? And yet this is just the 
process that MR. HALL is putting Chaucer 
through. MS. evidence is nothing to him; facts 
are of no consequence : a critical ear and per- 
ception are mere delusions. Any one can sit down 
and settle what is genuine Chaucer and what 
is not. The same alphabet is used in two dif- 
ferent poems, therefore the same author wrote 
them both ! 

This " Black Knight " is known to be one of 
Lydgate's poems ; it is assigned to him by a MS. in 
the hand of his contemporary Shirley, who copied 
scores of Lydgate's poems, as well as many of 
Chaucer's ; and the very verse itself proclaims to 
any man with an ear that it is not Chaucer's. 
Just take a couple of stanzas picked out at random, 
and ask yourself if it is possible tlrat Chaucer, one 
of the most melodious poets that ever lived, could 
have written them : 

" And, as I wrote, me thoght I saw aferre, 

Fer in the west(e) lustely appere 
Esperus, the goodly bryght(e) sterre, 

So glad, so feire, so persaunt eke of chere, 
I niene Venus with her bemys clere, 
That hew hertis only to releve 
Is wont of custom for to shewe at eve. 


" And when that she was goon unto her rest, 

I rose anon, and home to bed(de) went, 
For very wery, me thoght hit for the best, 

Preyng thus in al my best entent, 
That al(le) trew that be with Daunger shent, 
With mercie may, in roles of her peyn, 
Kecured be, er May come eft ageyn." 

How is it possible to mistake this poor stuf: 
Chaucer's writing ? Surely a moderate amount of 
training in his lines must convince a man that 
these stanzas are none of his. How, then, did 
they ever come to be attributed to him ? u The 
Black Knight " is mainly imitated from Chaucer's 
" Dethe of Blaunche the Duchesse," with recollec- 
tions of the "Legende," "Pity," "Mars," "Knight's 
Tale," &c. : and is called in a late Scotch MS. at 
the end " The Maying and Disport of Chaucer," 
as if Lydgate had perhaps meant the Black 
Knight for Chaucer. But this colophon is not in 

4 th S. IX. FKK. 24, 72.] 



Shirley's authentic copy. Walter Chapman may 
have seen this or another Scotch copy of the 
poem, and he accordingly printed it in ] 508, as- 
suming that it was Chaucer's own work. Thynne 
included 'it in his edition of Chaucer's works in 
1532, and other editors have followed suit. That 
poem is Lydgate's there can Ibe no reasonable 
doubt ;' and among his poems, and not Chaucer's, 
will it, I trust, hereafter be found. 

MR. HALL'S remarks on the envoi are so childish 
that my only wonder is they have found admit- 
tance to "N. & Q." To claim a poem for Chau- 
cer because it has an envoy addressed to a princess, 
is like claiming a play for any special dramatist 
because it has an epilogue addressed to its hearers. 
Were not MR. HALL'S ignorance so genuine, the 
attempt to impose it on " N. & Q." readers for 
knowledge would be insulting. 

The " Flower and the Leaf " tells us itself that 
it was written by a lady in line 462, where the 
writer makes a lady call her, the writer, " My 
doughter." Its language shows it to be from fifty 
to eighty years after Chaucer's time, though it 
was manifestly suggested by his "Legende," and 
copies some expressions in his " Knight's Tale," as 
line 34, "That sprongen out ay en the sonne sliene " ; 
from "K. T.," line 1509, "And loude he song 
t''jn/n the sonne shene" &c. It does not observe 
the laws of Chaucer's ryme, and, though gene- 
rally beautiful, it has lines too weak for Chaucer. 
Tor instance, lines 313-15 

" The savour eke rejoice would any wight, 
That had be sic'ke or melancolius, 
It was so very good and vertuous." 

No MS. of it is known, though one was once 
in Lord Bath's late volume, Mr. Bradshaw says : 
it was not put into any edition of Chaucer's works 
till ISpeght added it and " Chaucer's Dream," &c. 
These old editors, when they found a pretty 
poem and sometimes an awfully bad one evi- 
dently said " This ought to be printed. Let's call 
it Chaucer's, and then we can put it into his 
works and so get it in type ; nobody '11 know the 
difference till "we're dead and gone." Not a bad 
course of proceeding to preserve poems, only we 
must use our senses now, and not be bound by the 
old editors' attributions of authorship. 

As to " Chaucer's Dream," I can only repeat 
what I have said before, that a man who pretends 
to have studied CHAUCER and yet holds this late 
poem to be his. should go through* a course of 
Early English. The first four lines are enough 
to settle the question 

" When Flora the Queene of Plesaunce 

Had whole achieved thobeysaunce 

Of the fresh and new season 

Thorow out every region." 

You might as well say that Chaucer wrote 
'' John Gilpin," as these dot-and-go-one lines. 



On looking over The Historic and Descent of the 
House of Rowallane (Glas. 1825) I notice that the 
editor, the Rev. W. Muir, announces his intention 
(not carried out) of publishing " The Poetical Re- 
mains" of the knight, with the following con- 
temporary testimony to his " excellent vaine in 
poesie ": 

" Thou kno's, brave gallant, that our Scottish braines 
Have ay bein England's equal ewery way ; 

Quhair als rair muse and martiall myndis remames, 
With als renoun'd records to this day, 
Tho 1 we be not enrol'd so rich as they, 

Zit have we wits of worth enriched more rair ; 

Cum, I have found our Westerne feeldes als fair, 
Go thou to work, and I schall be thy guyde, 

And schew thee of a sueitar subject thair 

Borne Beuties wonder, on the banks of Clyd. 

" Sprang thou from Maxwell and Montgomerie's muse, 
To let our poets perisch in the West ! 

No, no, brave youth, continow in thy kynd, 
No sueitar subject sail thy muses fynd." 

The editor seems to have found these " Lines to 
Sir W. Mure, by A. G. 1614," when looking up 
the poet's MSS. at Rowallan ; and, in casting about 
for a name to fit his eulogist's initials, it has oc- 
curred to me that he can be no other than the 
author of 

"A Garden of Grave and Godlie Flowers, Sonets, 
Elegies, and Epitaphes, Planted, Polished, and Perfected 
by Mr. Alexander Gardyne. Edin. 1609." 

As I know of no work of Mure's so early as 
1614, which might have prompted this clap on 
the back from the Aberdeen to the Ayrshire bard, 
we must have lost the earlier productions of the 
latter; nor do we find that the "sueitar " subject 
here recommended, " the beuties of the Clyd," 
ever engaged the attention of Mure, whose pieces 
are all of a religious cast. We see by Gardyne's 
Repentance for wryting Poesies prophane that 
we have also lost some of his worldly strains 
among others, a work entitled The Scottish Worthies, 
in which he may have claimed the " equality " 
spoken of for his countrymen. And, upon the 
whole, seeing that we know but little of the 
i author, it behoves me, I think, to claim this waif 
for the Garden of mv namesake. A. G. 

SHYLOCK. In the Lee/ends of the Holy Rood, 
just published by the E. E. T. S., there is a poem 
entitled " How pe Hali Cros was fienden be Seint 
Elaine," which, if written as early as the fifteenth 
century, must surely have furnished the materials 
from which Shakspeare drew his character of the 
Jew of Venice. Let me refer your readers your 
readers of Shakspeare especially to the passage 
included between lines 71 and 114. 




S. IX. FKB. 24, '72. 

ODD CHANGES OF MEANING. A friend of mine 
about twenty years ago was instructing some 
Lincolnshire peasants' children in Scripture his- 
tory. Among other questions she asked a little 
girl " What was the Temple ? " The reply she 
got was, U A doctor's shop, ma'am." On being 
examined as to the reason for her answer, she 
quoted Luke ii. 46. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

ending January 27 was characterised by an un- 
usual rainfall, high winds, and a rise in tempera- 
ture. I was talking with a Rutland labourer on 
that fruitful subject, the weather, when he said, 
"The birds began to whistle this morning. We 
shall have a frost next week." He said that this 
was a common saying, but I think it is new to 
these pages. CTTTHBERT BEDE. 


" Der, der den, der den, den 15 ten Marz hier gesetzten 
Warnungspfahl, das niemand etwas in das Wasser werfen 
ollte, selbst in das Wasser geworfen hat, anzeigt, erhiilt 
celia Thaler Belohnung." 

"Whoever, him, who, on the 15 th of March the here 
placed warning-post, that nobod} 7 should throw anything 
into the water, has thrown the post itself into the water 
denounces, receives a reward of 10 Thaler." 

"0 du Dido, die du da den, der den, den du liebst 
liebt, lieb' o liebste des Freundes, den Freund des Freundes, 
des Freundes wegen." 

" O you Dido, you who, him, who him whom you love, 
luves, love, love* dearest of the friend, the friend's 
friend, for the friends sake." 

S. H. 

ATTORNEY or THE OLDEN TIME. The following 
humorously quaint description of an attorney of 
the olden time I copied out a few years ago, 
though from what source I cannot remember.* 

"An Attorney. His ancient beginning was a bluecoat. 
since a livery, and his hatching under a lawyer; whencye 
though but "pen-feathered hee hath now nested for him- 
self, and with his hoarded pence purchased an office. 
Two desks and a quire of paper sat him up, where he now 
;-it.s in state for all commers. Wee can call him no great 
author, yet he writes very much, and with the infamy 
>f the Court is maintained in his libels. He has some 
.snatch of a scholler, and yet uses Latin very hardly, and 
lest it should accuse him, cuts it off in the midst, and 
will not let it speak out. He is, contrary to great men, 
maintained by his followers, that is, his poo re country 
clients, that worship him more than their landlord, and 
Ue they never such churles, he lookes for their courtesie. 
He first rackes them roundly himself, and then delivers 
them to the lawyer (barrister) for execution. His looks 
are very solicitous, importing much haste and dispatch. 
He is never without his hands full of business, that is, of 
paper. His skin becomes at last as dry as parchment, 
and his face as ii.tricate as the most winding course. He 
talks statutes as fiercely as if he had mooted seven yeares 
in the Inns of Court, when all his skill is stuck 'in his 
girdle, or n his office window. Strife and wrangling 
have made him rich, and he is thankful to his benefactor 

It is from Bishop Earle's Microcosmographie, 1628.] 

and nourishes it. If he live in a country village he makes 
all his neighbours good subjects, for there shall be nothing 
done but what there is law for. His businesse gives him 
not leave to think of his conscience, and when the time or 
terme of his life is going out, for doomes-day hee is secure, 
for hee hopes he hath a tricke to reverse judgment." 

It is curious to note how forcibly the remark 
made by William Combe in his Dance of Death 
applies to the solicitors of the present day : 

" And thus the most opprobrious fame 
Attends upon the attorney's name. 
Nay, these professors seem ashamed 
To have their legal title named : 
Unless my observation errs, 
They're all become solicitors." 

J. S". UDAL. 
Junior Athenaeum Club. 

AND KEBLE. In Robert Burns' song 

" Contentit wi' little, and cantie wi' mair," 
are the lines 

" When at the blythe end o' our journey at last, 
Wha the deil ever thinks o' the road he has passed ? " 

Compare this with Keble's lines (for " St. John's 

" When the shore is won at last, 
Who will count the billows past ? " 

Had the same thought been expressed by any 
writer before Burns P NORYAL CLYNE. 


custom took place at Haxey, Lincolnshire, on 
Saturday, Jan. 6, 1872. I extract the following 
particulars from the Gaimburgh Neivs of the 
13th : At two o'clock in the afternoon the cere- 
mony was commenced by a man called " the fool," 
who read, standing in a cart, a " riot act " ; after 
which he and the crowd ran into the fields, and 
the game began. The fool's face is painted in 
colours, and his clothes are hung about with 
various coloured rags. Men called " boggans " are 
the masters of the ceremonies. These men all 
wear red jackets, and one of their number is called 
'the captain of all the boggans." The captain 
throws a hood (one of a bundle which he carries) 
into the air. This is caught by one of the crowd, 
who calls out "My hood!" and then attempts to 
run off with it 

He ran with it as far as he could, and then gave it a 
throw towards Haxey ; it was caught by three or four 
more, who would not let go consequently, a regular 
scuffle took place, but in a good-humoured manner. The 
crowd pushed to fro, some trying for Haxey, some for 
Westwodside, some for Burnham," &c. 

If the hood can be touched by one of the u bog- 
?ans " during the struggle for possession, it is at 
once given up to him, taken back to the starting 
Doint, and again thrown up by the captain. The 
same, I suppose, the whole of the hoods. A 
man caught a hood which he brought to 

. IX. FEB. 24,72.] 



Haxey, to the Duke William inn, where he re- 
ceived for it half-a-gallon of ale for which the 
" boggans " pay. Another reached Burnham, and 
received a similar refresher. Some innkeepers will 
give ten shillings for a hood, it being considered 
%< a great deed to get clear away with a hood." 
There are thirteen " boggans," but only seven were 
present on this occasion. 

Are the origin and meaning of this singular cus- 
tom known to any readers of "N. & Q."? 

[See "N. & Q." 2* S. iv. 486. ED.] 

BYRON AND HORACE. I am not aware if a pal- 
pable misquotation of Horace by Lord Byron has 
ever been publicly noticed. I allude to one in 
the first canto, stanza 212, of Don Juan, quoted 
thus : 

" Non ego hoc ferrem calida juventa, 

Consule Planco." Carmen, 14, 1. 3. 

The erratum is calida for calidus. " Calida 
juventa," u in my hot youth," is correct; but such 
\? not the way the words of Horace can be trans- 
lated they are, "calidus juventa," "warm with 
youth"; and Byron himself gives the metrical 
rendering of the lines by Francis thus : 
" Such treatment Horace would not bear, 

When warm with youth Avhen Tullus tilled the chair." 

The error seems to be a lapsus pennec of the 
noble poet, of whom certainly it cannot be said 
that he had 

" Just enough of learning to misquote." 

F. R. 

PARODIES, ETC. Inquiries have, I believe, been 
made from time to time in "N. & Q." for parodies, 
&c. The following seems to be worthy of a corner 
to secure it from oblivion. 

In the year 1847 a penny paper entitled Pasquin 
appeared, but had a run of eight numbers only. 
In one of these was the 

" Carmina Carminum Latino, JEthiopica. 

"Alabama* natus sum, heri nomen Beale,f 

Puellam flavam J habuit, cui nomen erat Neale. 

Decrevit ut me venderit, quod furem me ptitavit ; 

Sic fatum, me miserrimum, crudeliter tractavit ! 

O ! mea dulcis Neale, carior luce Neale ; 

Si mecum hie accumberis, quam felix essem, Neale. 

" Epistolam accepi, nigra signatum cera. 

Eheu ! puellam nitidam abstulerat mors fera. 

Notcc a Doctissimo Dunderhead scripts. 

* Alabama. Eegio notissima Transatlantics. Incolae 
sane mirabiles sunt. JEs alienum grande conflant, sed 
solvere semper nolunt. Libertatis gloriosi, servitutem 
sanctissime colunt. 

f Quis fuerit Bfelius incertum est. Non dubito quin 
repudiator fuit, ut Alabamiensis. 

J Cave, lector, ne in errorem facilem incidas ; non 
capilli, sed cutis colorem, poeta describit. 

Luce. Verbum ambiguum hoc est. Consule doctis- 
simum Prout literarum et roris Hibernici peritissimum. 

Nunc vitam ago miseram, et cito moriturus ; 
Sed semper te meminero, ut Hadibus futurus. 
O ! mea dulcis Neale, carior luce Neale ; 
Si mecum hie accumberis, quam felix essem, Neale. ' 
(Hiatus baud deflectus.) 


seum there is a work called 

" Memorials of the Descendants of William Shattuok, 
the Progenitor of the Families in America that hav 
borne his name. By Lemuel Shattuck, Member of the 
Mass. Historical Society, and of the American Anti- 
quarian Society, &c. &c. Boston : Printed by Dntton 
and Went worth for the Family, 1855." 

On pages 57 and 58, it states that 

" he was born in old England in 1621, and died at Water- 
ton, Mass., 1672," and that " his exact origin and early 
history are involved in obscurity. The first lot of land 
granted to him is described upon the records as follows, 
1640 : William Chattuck, an Homstall,' " &c. &c. 

The work is written to ascertain the English 
origin of the family, and contains a perfect pedigree 
of the descendants of this William Chattuck down 
to 1855. If the " legal personal representative " will 
write me as below, he "may hear of something 
to his advantage," and that, too, not merely in a 
genealogical point of view. C. CHATTOCK. 

Castle Bromwich, Warwickshire. 


" Purer than snow in its purity, 
White as the foam-crested waves of the sea, 
Bloometh alone in the twilight gray, 
A flower, the gods call ' Baldursbra.' " 

Can MR. BRITTEN, or any reader of " N. & Q." 
tell me what flower is meant? 


THOMAS BATEMAN, M.D. Who was the author 
(J. R.) of a Life of Thomas Bateman, M.D,, F.L.S, 
(of Whitby), published by Longmans in 1826 ? 




"A New Geographical and Historical Grammar, &e. 
By Mr. Salmon. London : Printed for William John- 
stone in Ludgate Street. MDCCLVIII." 

"The ladies may think it a hardship that they are 
neither allowed a place in the Senate or a voice in the 
choice of what is called the representative of the nation. 
However, their influence appears to be such in many 
instances that they have no reason to complain. In 
boroughs the candidates are so wise as to apply chiefly to 
the wife. A certain candidate for a Norfolk borough 
kissed the voters' wives with guineas in his mouth, for 
which he was expelled the house ; and for this reason 
others, I suppose, will be more private in their addresses 
to the ladies." Page 241. 

Can any of your readers inform me who 



S. IX. FEB. i 

pleasant gentleman was, and what was the name 
of the faTOured borough ? 



" CALL TJS NOT WEEDS, " ETC. Where is this 
common quotation, prefixed to all books on sea- 
weeds, to be found ? R. J. G-. 

[In The Mother's Fables, by E. L. Aveline, author of 
Simple Ballads, fyc., p. 157, new edit. 1861.] 

HARDWICK AND WORKSOP. Can any reader of 
"N. & Q." inform me where a piece of poetry 

" Hardwick for bigness, Worksop for height,'' 
can be found ? ROBERT WHITE. 


HERALDIC BOOK-PLATES. I observe with re- 
gret the death of Mr. George Barclay of Green 
Street, Leicester Square, whose taste in designing 
heraldic book-plates was unsurpassed. Is there a 
collection of examples executed by him in exist- 
ence anywhere ? I should much like to be re- 
ferred to any collection of woodcut book-plates. 

F. M. S. 

the Gentleman's Magazine for Nov. 1814 (p. 245) 
is the following : 

" We have authority for stating that John Symmonds, 
Esq., of Paddington House, in addition to the purchase 
he sometime since made of Hutchinson's Collection for 
Hunts, all ready for the press, after a labour of thirty 
years, has recently purchased the further heraldic ones 
for the said county." 

Where are, these MSS. at the present moment ? 

T. P. F. 

[In 1824 Hutchinson's MSS. were in the possession of 
Sir K. C. Hoare, Bart. "N. & Q." 3 r <i S. vi. 19.] 

MARY-LE-BONE. Is Mary-le-bone = (1) Marie 
le bone (the le being a Picard idiom, according to 
which le was both masculine and feminine) ; or 
(2) Marie (of) the bourne, or boundary, Fr! borne 
being anciently and correctly written bone or bonne, 
from Low Latin bonna ; or (3) Mary [(of) the 
bourn, or stream, from A.-S. burna, brune; or is 
there any other more plausible explanation ? 


Kildare Gardens, W. 

[Thomas Smith, in his Account of St. 3Iary-le-bone, 
1833, p. 3, informs us that " the parish of St. Mary-le- 
bone derives its name from the ancient village of Ty- 
borne or Ty-bourne, which was situated on the eastern 
hank of a brook or rivulet (bourn being the Saxon word 
for a brook), which passed, under different denomina- 
tions, from Hampstead into the Thames. When the site 
of the church, which was originally dedicated to St. John 
the Evangelist, and subsequently to the Blessed Virgin 
Marj-, was removed to another spot near the same brook, 
it was called St. Mary at the Bourne, afterwards cor- 
rupted to Marybourne, Maiybone, Mary-la-bonne, and 
now styled in the preambles of its various local legisla- 

e enactments St. Mary-le-bor.e.'' Hence the seal of 
:msh bears a figure of St. Mary, with a stream 

running beneath her feet. She holds in her arms the 
Infant Saviour; and lilies, emblems of purity, are grow- 
ing by her side.] 

MR. MATTHEWS. In the Letters of the Fir4 
Earl ofMalmesbwy I find (i. 454) that Mr. Harris 
desires 'his "grateful thanks to that able scholar, 
Mr. Matthews, for his valuable publications." 
What were these publications r . VIATOR. 

ORATORIO. There is an oratorio, the libretto 
of which is taken from the Rev: W. L. Bowles's 
poem St. John, in Patinos. Can any of your 
readers acquainted with musical literature inform 
me whether Mr. Bowles himself selected and 
arranged the words of this oratoria from his 
poem ? Who composed the music, and what was 

the date of performance ? 


PLASTER OF TARRAS, " to make cisterns to hold 
water," is mentioned in the Common* Journals for 
July 30, 1659 (vol. vii. p. 741). What sort of 
plaster was it, and whence th'e name ? 

A. 0. V. P. 

[Tarras, written also Trass, is a volcanic earth or sand- 
rock resembling puzzolana, used as a cement ; or a coarse 
sort of plaster and mortar, durable in water, and used to 
line cisterns and other reservoirs of water. The Dutch 
tarras is made of a soft rock stone, found near Collen, on 
the lower part of the Rhine. It is burned like lime, and 
reduced to powder in mills. It is of a grayish colour.] 

cutting from a magazine, perhaps a century old, 
which gives the following passage on a subject of 
(to me) some interest. I should be glad of a 
reference to the magazine in which it is found ; 
or, what would be still better, to the source from 
whence it has been obtained : 

"The following" narrative, taken from the records of 
Languedoc, will evince the magnificence, folly, and bar- 
barity habitual to the nobility of the early age.^. In 1171 
Henry II. of France called together the seigneurs of Lan- 
guedoc, in order to mediate a peace between the Count of 
Toulouse and the King of Arragon. As Henry, however, 
did not attend, the nobles had nothing to do but emulate 
each other in wild magnificence, extended to insanity. 
Among other instances, the Countess Urgel sent to the 
meeting a diadem worth 4000 modern pounds, to lie placed 
on the head of a wretched buffoon. The Count of Toulouse 
sent a donation of 4000/. to a favourite knight, who dis- 
tributed that sum among all the poorer knights that at- 
tended the meeting. The seigneur Gtiillaume Gros de 
Martel gave an immense dinner, the viands being all 
cooked bv the flame of wax tapers. But the singular 
rational magnificence of Count Bertrand Rimlault at- 
tracted the loudest applause : for he set the peasants 
about Beaucaire to plough up the soil ; and then he 
proudly and openly sowed therein small pieces of money, 
to the amount of fifteen hundred English guineas." 

The story is evidently not complete, but here 
my extract ends. I should be glad of any in- 
formation concerning my exceedingly foolish an- 
cestor, i Cl) WARD F. RlMBATJLT. 

SCISSORS. When dM the very well-known 
article, a pair of scissor-, first make its appear- 

. IX. FEB. 24, 72.] 



ance in England ? Perhaps some one in Hallam- 
shire has investigated the matter, and could give 
the information. It would be necessary to dis- 
tinguish between scissors proper and what I take 
to be the much earlier type of implement the 
spring- shears now represented by " sheep shears" 
and the much smaller implement of precisely the 
same pattern used by weavers (of linen). 

On the sepulchral slabs of the middle ages in 
England, Ireland, lona, &c., the spring shears 
are frequently found sculptured, and from the 
mode iu which this emblem occurs, it is evidently 
used to indicate the female sex, in the same way 
that the sword, on other slabs belonging to the 
same age and localities, indicates the male ; the 
shears being adopted as a symbol of the domestic 
occupations of the lady, while the sword was her 
husband's familiar implement. Had what we 
know as scissors been known in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, they would probably 
have been sculptured on these cross-slabs, and not 
the shears. W. H. P. 

SCORES. At Lowestoft the lanes or alleys 
leading from the High Street to the Denes are 
termed "Scores." Is this a local name? and is 
it derived from these lanes having originally been 
clefts or fissures in the cliff on which that part of 
the town is built ? One of them is called " Rant 
Score." Is this so named from a former inhabitant 
of the town or neighbourhood ? If so, who and 
what was he ? T. B. 

SENLAC. The French chroniclers describe by 
this name the battle which the English call the 
Battle of Hastings. Whence comes " Senlac " ? 
Is it a corruption of any genuine Saxon word ? 

J . 

[Senlac is commonly considered a corruption of Sangue- 
lac, the Lake of Blood; but Mr. Lower (Chronicle of 
Battel Abbey, p. 7) spells the word Santlache, from the 
redness of the water here, as caused by the oxidization 
of the iron which abounds in the soil of the Weald of 
Sussex. Mr. Freeman, in his recent work on the Norman 
Conquest, iii. 745, says, " The name of Senlac for the hill 
on which Harold encamped rests, as far as I know, 
solely on the authority of Orderic. I do not profess to 
know the etymology of the name, and Orderic's form 
may possibly be corrupt. But he cannot have invented 
the word, which evidently survives in Santlaches, Saint- 
lake, &c., in various spellings, ' the Lake,' ' Battle Lake,' 
and so forth. Sanglac, or Sanguelac, I take to be simply 
a French pun on the name."] 

SINAITIC INSCRIPTIONS. Many years ago the 
Kev. C. Forster attempted to prove that these 
were the work of the Israelites, and many persons 
are still of that opinion. For instance, the Rev. 
H. Shepheard in a recently published work, Tra- 
ditions of Eden, 1871, fully endorses it. I am 
aware, however, that Oriental scholars entirely 
dissent from this opinion, and consider the in- 
scriptions to be of comparatively modern date. 

In any case the existence of such inscriptions 
is remarkable : in what work, therefore, could I 
find their real origin and character simply and 
correctly stated ? A gentleman wrote recently to 
The Times to say that a valuable inscribed stone, 
bearing the name of Moses, had been discovered in 
the land of Moab, which, however, he subse- 
quently ascertained to be a Nabathsean inscription 
of the same class, and of no value. Now could 
any one state whether the inscription really bears 
the interpretation he assigned to it; and if so, 
with what object is it conceived that inscriptions 
of the sort were graven ? A. B. L. 

[Has the attention of our correspondent been directed 
to the articles on the subject in The Times of January 
26 and 27- last, and in The Atheneeum of February 3 ?] 

"SUGAR!" Could any of your readers who 
are versed in parliamentary anecdote give the 
name of the orator who began his speech by ut- 
tering the single word " Sugar," and the date of 
the delivery of the speech, which, from the pecu- 
liarity of its commencement, excited .considerable 
attention and amusement at the time ? J. L. 0. 

f We have heard of a venerable clergyman who invari- 
ably commenced his sermon with the word " Surely."] 

M.P., was author of Pieces of Poetry with two 
Dramas, Chiswick, 1830. One of these dramas, 
The Profligate, was privately printed in or about 
1821; the other, England Preserved, had been 
published in 1795. In the Biographia Dramatica 
Mr. Watson is said to have held some legal ap- 
pointment in India. Is this statement correct ? 
What is the date of Mr. Watson Taylor's death, 
and where can I find any biographic notice of 
him ? He printed a few copies of Equanimity in 
Death, a poem, 1813. Is this poem reprinted in 
the volume which appeared at Chiswick in 1830 ? 


THORNTON ABBEY. In the ruins of Thornton 
Abbey, Lincolnshire, there is a winding descent of 
fourteen steps to a vaulted prison or " dungeon " 
(ten feet six inches long, and seven feet wide), to 
which, when the door was shut, the only admis- 
sion of light and air was by a fine ascending to an 
aperture, nine inches by two, in the sill of a blank 
window inside the chapter-house. This slope 
widens to one foot six inches in one end of the 
dungeon, and is said to have been for the con- 
veyance of food to the imprisoned ; but, the 
opening being above the stalls and about eleven 
feet from the original floor, a ladder or steps of 
some kind would be required to reach it. Can 
any reader of U N. & Q." oblige by an explana- 
tion of this connection with the chapter-house, 
and naming, if such there be, any other like 
arrangement ? J. F. 




IX. FEB. 24, 72. 

VELVET. I have in my possession a piece of 
very ancient crimson silk* velvet or plush, gore- 
shaped. Four such would cover a skull-cap. It 
was bequeathed to me by the late Benson Earle 
Hill, with a memorandum that it is a portion of 
that which had covered the helmet of Charle- 
magne, once in the private museum of Napoleon, 
and now, I think, preserved in the Rotunda at 
Woolwich. When was velvet or plush first 
made? U. O-N. 

[Velvet, formerly called vellet, is mentioned by Join- 
ville, A.D. 1272, and in the will of Richard II. in 1399. 
Strutt names many varieties of the stuff in use in the 
reign of Edward IV. For a long time the manufacture 
of this fabric was confined to Italy, where, particularly 
in Genoa, Florence, Milan, Lucca, and Venice, it was 
carried on to a. great extent. It was subsequently intro- 
duced into France, and brought to great perfection. On 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 this branch 
of weaving was begun in England by the refugees.] 

WILLY. I am told (never having visited the 
place) that Wilton in Wiltshire is on the river 
Willy. Can any of your numerous readers (some 
of whom seem to be enthusiastic Celtic scholars) 
give me the derivation of the name Witty ? It is 
probably Celtic, like so much of English river 
nomenclature. I can find no attempt at a solu- 
tion, although I have searched several topo- 
graphical works, and should be thankful for an 
early explanation, as a somewhat interesting eth- 
nological question is involved in the derivation. 

W. R. M. 

(4 th S. ix. 89.) 

The note by ME. PICTON introduces a confu- 
sion as to the meaning of these words. He says 
that, on reference to authorities, gourmand was 
found to stand for a voracious eater, and that 
gourmet has nothing to do with eating at all. 
First let the present French use of the word be 
settled. In Noel and Chapsal's Dictionary we 

" Gourmand, qui mange avidement et avec exces." 
" Gourmet, amateur et connaisseur en vins et en bonne 

Bescherelle gives 

" Gourmet, celui qui sait bien connaitre et gouter le 
vin, les mets." 

Hence, in the French language of this day, it is 
to be admitted that gourmet stands for a critical 
taster, no matter whether in fluids or solids. He 
is no more a drinker of wine than an eater of 
meat; he is a judge of both. There were tasters 
in Rome, whose office was to determine whether 
certain fish were caught at the mouth of the 
Tiber or further out, and whether the geese were 
fed on fresh or dried figs. 

" Ces gourmets ctaknt rcgardi's par les gourmands 
comme des hommes absolument essentials dans 1'Etat." 
Espr. de TEncyd. 

In this apposite passage we have both the 
words ; the gourmet leads the gourmand. Brachat 
gives the origin of gourmand as uncertain. Littre 
points the primary meaning to be eating greedily, 
the secondary to reprimand severely. Richardson 
throws out as a hint goust manger, to eat with 
taste ; but this is a fancy. The French seem to 
be as much in the dark as we are. There is 
a word gourd, swollen by cold "les mains 
gourdes ; " at this word Littre gives the Provencal 
" gord gras," the Burgundian, gdles; and Picard, 
gourmes, "les mains gourmes" I think that this 
is the real root of the word, for Rabelais (liv, i. 
chap, xxxiv.) writes : 

" Car jamais hommc nc scent mietilx prandre, larder, 
roustir, et aprester, voyre par dicu dcmembrer, et gonr- 
mander poulle que moy." 

In the glossary they give this as equivalent to 
larding a fowl. I take this to be the primary 
meaning. To render gourd, by stuffing or swell- 
ing out, gourmes is one of the existing dialectical 
forms of the word. Gonrmer is found in Rouchi 
" to taste wine," and Wedgwood says it must have 
meant "to eat greedily/' and I think so too. 
Gorge, gorgo, gorgolio, gurgeo, G. gurgel our gul- 
let, the swallow of waters. Terror mis, in the North, 
"to smear with fat": gourmander, as Rabelais 
has it. The cormorant is only a gormorant. Gorma 
is its northern name (vide Halliwell, Diet. Arch.). 
Gorrell is a fat person. GorbeUy is a fat stomach. 
Gorble is in some counties used for gobble. Gor- 
croiv is carrion-crow. .Tunius says that nor is an 
intensive particle in Welsh. Lye gives gior for 
voracious, in Icelandic. Our word jaw clearly is 
connected, and chaw, now a cliawman or gorman, 
would not be far from gourmand. Gore is still 
a Norfolk word for mud and dirt. Gorre meant 
sow, in the Romance tongue (see Roquefort). The 
throat is made large, gor or gros, in swallowing, 
and so gorge and gullet are formed. Dirt is the 
trituration of matter by the " tooth of time and 
razure of oblivion," the chawed thing becoming 
gore or ^frt. Reinaud gives goule as the Persian 
for bourse, a purse, being the throat that swallows 
money : and thus analogy leads on from gore to 
clot, glot, plotted, gclleted, gullet, the swallow-pipe 
for the trituration of the jaw ; but I think enough 
has been said on the meaning of gourmand and its 
origin. C. A. W. 



(4 th S. viii. 550 ; ix. 75, 80.) 

MR. PICKFORD, at the above reference, has 
reproduced the ridiculous story, " as told to him," 

. IX. FEB. 24, '72.] 



of the manner in which the well-known Sidney 
portrait of Cromwell was presented to that col- 
lege. Who first originated this story it is in vain 
to inquire ; but, as far as I have been able to 
ascertain, it first found a " local habitation " in 
the Cambridge Portfolio (p. 397), edited by the 
Rev. J. J. Smith in 1840 j from this it was shortly 
after copied into Le Keux's Memorials of Cam- 
bridge and MR. C. H. COOPER, with less than 
his usual cautious investigation, continued it in 
his new edition. of that work. But in these works 
there is this variation from MR. PICKFORD'S ver- 
sion, that the master of the college was to stand 
at the top of the staircase, so as not to be seen by 
the bearers of the portrait, and to say " I have it." 
MR. PJCKFORD'S young friend fixed the date of the 
occurrence during the mastership of Dr. Chafy, 
which was from 1813 to 1843 j whereas the por- 
trait was presented in 1766, and although sent 
anonymously, it has been known for a century 
that the donor was Thomas Hollis. See Memoirs 
of Hollis (2 vols. 4to, London. 1780), i. 298 ; 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, iii. 64. 

The surest way of once for all putting an extin- 
guisher upon this silly story is to show it up in 
"N. & Q." as a pure fiction. This I am enabled 
to do on the very best authority. The present 
courteous master of Sidney College, Dr. Phelps, 
has kindly allowed me to examine the documents 
connected with the presentation (which are very 
carefully preserved in the lodge), and to make a 
copv of the two letters of the donor for insertion 
in " N. & Q." The following is the first letter : 

" An Englishman, an assertor of liberty, citizen of the 
world, is desirous of having the honor to present an 
original portrait in crayons of the head of O. Cromwell, 
Protector, drawn by Cooper, to Sydney Sussex College 
in Cambridge. 

" London, Jan. 15, 1766. 

" I freely declare it, I am for old Xoll. 
Though his government did a tyrant resemble, 
He made England great, and her enemies tremble. 

" It is requested that the portrait should be placed so 
as to receive the light from left to right, and be free from 
sunshine. Also that the favor of a line may be written 
on the arrival of it, directed to * Pierce Delver, at Mr. 
Shore's, Bookbinder in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, 

" To the Master and Fellows of Sydney Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge." 

The second letter is as follows : 

" A small case was sent yesterday by the Cambridge, 
waggon from the Green Dragon, Bishopsgate Street, 
directed To D 1 ' Elliston, Master of Sydney Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge. Free of carriage.' 
, " It contains a portrait which the master and fellows 
of that college are requested to accept. 

"London, Jan. 18, 1766." 

These were the only communications received 
by the college from the donor. How and when 
his name was discovered there is no record to 
show, nor any tradition ; but the letters were so 
characteristic, that it could not long remain a 

secret ; and we learn from the Memoirs of Thomas 
Hollis that it was known in 1780. He died in 
1774, when it was probably revealed, if not be- 
fore. Nichols (Literary Anecdotes) gives the date 
of presentation as 1764, whilst the Cambridge 
Portfolio and the Memorials of Cambridge make it 
1765 ; both, we know from the letters, are in error. 
The two latter authorities also make the more 
important mistake of ascribing the gift to Brand- 
Hollis, to whom Hollis bequeathed his estates, 
and who thereupon assumed his name. 

The portrait is the size of nature, and is a 
beautiful work of art, in coloured crayons, and in 
an excellent state of preservation. The dhief ex- 
pression, as characteristic of the man, appears to me 
to be in the closely compressed lips, which convey 
the idea of great resolution and firmness. It has 
been engraved by P. S. Lambourne, J. Bretherton, 
and P. Drevet, sen. There is also a very fair 
etching of it in the Cambridge Portfolio, except 
that the upper lip is too large and has too much 

Cromwell, as is well known, was an under- 
graduate of Sidney College, and his name is duly 
recorded in the admission book, April 23, 1616. 
Beneath this entry is written the following illus- 
tration of his character : 

" Hie fuit grandis ille impostor, carnifex perditissimus, 
qui, pientissimo rege Carolo I. nefaria caade sublato, 
ipsum usurpavit thronum, et tria regna per quinque 
ferme annorum spatium, sub Protectoris nomine, in- 
domita tyrannide vexavit ! " 

Without going into detail, many of these are 
to be seen at Newburgh Park and Farnley Hall, 
Yorkshire. See Murray's Handbook for York- 
shire, pp. 218, 362, where full particulars are 


H. F. T. 


(4 th S. ix. 75.) 

Perhaps the following contribution, imperfect 
as it is, to the bibliography of this subject may 
not be unwelcome to the correspondent who is 
interested in it : 

"A Serious Inquiry into the Weighty Case of Con- 
science, whether a Man may lawfully marry his Deceased 
Wife's Sister." By John Quick, Minister of the Gospel. 
1703. sm. 4to. 

" The Case of Marriages between near kindred parti- 
cularly considered, with respect to the Doctrine of Scrip- 
ture, the Law of Nature, and the Laws of England.' 
London, 1756, 8vo. 

" The Legal Degrees of Marriage stated and considered, 
in a Series of Letters to a Friend. With an Appendix 
containing Letters from several Divines and others." By 
John Alleyne, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 3rd ed. London, 
1810, 8vo. 

" Observations on the Prohibition of Marriage in Cer- 



S. IX. | 

tain Cases of Relationship bv Affinity." London : Seeley, 


2-.-- A Dispassionate Appeal to the Judg- 
ment of the Clergy of the Church of England on a Pro- 
posed Alteration" "of the Law of Marriage." London, 

I umage with a Deceased Wife's Sister. A Reply to 
the Article upon the Subject in the Quarterly Review for 
June, 1849 ; together with a short Statement of the . 
bearing upon the Question.'' By Edward Prichard. 

nan, 1849, 8vo. 

Marriage with the Sister of a Deceased Wife injurious 
to Morals, and unauthorized by Holy Scripture/' By the 
reorge Croly, LL.D. London*: J. Kendrick, 1849, 

La Examination of the Rev. John Keble's Tract 
-t Profane Dealing with Holy Matrimony, in r 

.::! his Wife'^s Sister." *By an English Church- 
London : Houlston, 1849, 8vo. 

" On Marriage with the Sister of a Deceased Wife. A 

a Preached in Booking Church, on Sunday, March 

By Henry Carrington, M.A., Dean and Rector, 

-::d ed." London: Longmans, 1850, 8vo. 

''Speech of William Pane Wood, Esq., against the 

nd Reading of the BilTfor altering the Law of Mar- 

-30." London : Rivingtons, 1850, 8vo. 
'Reasons for Legalising Marriage with a D 
-Sister." Bv Lord Denman. ^London : Hatch 

" Law of Marriage. The Speech of his Grace the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in the House of Lords, Feb. '25, 
. n the Marriag'es in Affinity Bill, examined by the 
Word of God and Common Sense. By W. A. Atkins, 
in. a Letter to his Grace, with an Appendix containing 
-alford : W. F. Jackson, 1851, 8vo. 
"Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister. Letters 
irom the Right Rev. Bishop Mcllvaine of Ohio, and other 
eminent Persons in the United States of America in 
favour of," &c. Printed for the Marriage Law Reform 
Association, 26, Parliament Street, .London : J. Madden. 


4i The Men of Glasgow and the Women of Scotland. 
Reasons for differing from the Rev. Dr. Symington's 
View of the Levitical Marriage Law," &c. BvT.Binney. 

London : .Ward & Co., 8vo, 1850. ' 
** An Argument in relation to the Levitical Marriage 
Law, particularly as affecting the Question of the Mar- 
riage of a Widower with his Deceased Wife's Sister. By 
T. Binney. 4th ed. With a preliminary Statement of 
certain Degrees of Physical and Spiritual Affinity, pro- 
hibited by the Greek Church and the Papal Apostacv." 
London : Ward & Co., 8vo. 

[The same work as the foregoing.] 
rhe Validity of Marriage with a Wife's Sister cele- 
brated Abroad." By Edmund Beckett Denison, of Lin- 
coln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. London : J. W. Parker 

,-ument against permitting Marriage 
i'ter." By the Rev. Dr. J. A. H>. 
Head Master of Merchant 'Taylors' School, and Preacher 
of Gray's Inn. Lonfton : Rivingtons, 1855, 8vo. 

'* The Ancient Interpretation'of Leviticus xviii. 18, as 

Ived in the Church for more than 1500 Years, a suffi- 

'_'v for holding that, according to the Word of 

. Miirriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister is Lawful. 

^ Letter to the Rev. W. H. Lyall. M.A., Rector of St. 

Jnckchurch, from the *Rev. A. McCaul, D.D., 

Rector of St. Magnus," &c. London : Wertheim, 1859, 


-A Vindication of the Law prohibiting Marriage 
a Deceased wife's Sister. I. On Social Prir. 

II. On Scripture Principles. In Two Letters addressed 
to the Dean of Westminster. Chairman of the Marriage 
Law Defence Association/' By Vice-Chancellor Sir Wm. 
Vood. London: Rivingtons, 1861. 8vo. 
::ts and Opinions tending to show the Scriptural 
Lawfulness of Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister, 
and the consequent necessity for its Legalization in Eng- 
land, in accordance with the Laws and Practice of other 
Christian Nations." London : M. L. R. Association 
1864. - 

c- Present and the Proposed State of the Marriage 
Law, Theologicallv, Morally, Socially, and Legally con- 
By a Graduate in Classical and Mathematical 
Honours, Cambridge, of B. D. standing. London : 

:-.;mi & Co., 1864, sm. 8vo. 

On Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister. May a 
Tarry his Wife's Sister ? " By Mrs. Colin Mackenzie. 
X is bet, 1865, sm. 8vo. 

I do not give the title of Dr. Pusey's pamphlet, 
which appears to be missing from my collection, 
\ irious publications of the Marriage 
Law Reform Association, some score of which 
are advertised upon the wrappers of the separate 
-. and may probably still be obtained by ap- 
plication at the office of the society, 21, Parlia- 
ment Street, S.AV. WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 

A well-written article (extending to 18 pages) 
on tin? subject appeared in the first number of 
JfaNMR. Political, Philosophical, and 
rry (8vo, Dublin, May ^1863), which the 
r states to be " an impartial summary of the 
various arguments employed in the very numer- 
ous pamphlets, letters, speeches, law reports, and 
works of authority (on the subject) which we 
have consulted."' H. J. FENNELL. 

..velock Square, East, Dublin. 

(4 th S. ix. 95.) 

Though C^ueen Mary is reported to have written 
verses in both Latin and the modern languages, 
very few specimens of her poetry are extant. I 
believe my list to be complete when I mention 
the lines on the death of Francis II., preserved by 
Brantome : the sonnet to Elizabeth in the Cotton 
Library ; a French sonnet to her son Prince James, 
in the' State Paper Office ; her Meditations sug- 
gested by a devotional work of the Bishop of 
>.l the verses supposed to have been 
written by the queen to the Earl of Bothwell 
previous to her marriage with that nobleman. 

The latter composition is probably a forgery. 
It has been attributed to Buchanan, who is said 
to have composed it with the intention of afford- 
ing further corroboration to Mary's supposed let- 
, Hume and Robertson, on the contrary, are 
of opinion that* it is the work of the queen. 
The opening lines will give an idea of the charac- 
ter of the poem : 

S. IX. FEB. 24, 72.] 



Dieux, ayez de D 
Et n'enaeignez 

Je puis donner, 

*n amour, et ferine ai'ection. 
! n'est-il pas ja er. 

Du corps, du coeur, qui ne refuse paine, 
. -:;onneur, en la vie incertaine, 

parentz, ni pire affliction ? 
Pour luy, tous mes amis c'estime moins que rien, 

bavarde pour luy et nom et concience : 
. eux pour luy au monde renoncer. 
Je veux inourir pour luy avancer," &c. 

The more recently discovered of Mary's effusions 
is a poem entitled 

I ions faite par la Royne d'Ecoce, Dovairiere 
<le France, recueillie d'un livre des consolations divine?, 
composez par 1'Evesque de K 

In a letter writter. s ley, dated 

from Sheffield Castle, A ""_', and signed, 

in the Latin translation by v. - known to 

Tibi ainicissiiua Domina Maria R.." she ac- 
knowledges having received his book of Medita- 
says that she sends him some verses 
by the perusal of bis work, which had 
_reat consolation to her afflicted mind. 
When, in 1574, the bishop published this volume 
with a dedication to his royal patron, he also 
annexed a copy of the poem, together with a 
Latin translation; which Adam Blackwood, the 
worthy Professor of Law in the University of 
Poictiers, afterwards appropriated tmd published 
in a collected edition of his own works. The 
same production, under the title of " Meditations 
sur ITnconstance et Vanite du Monde, composee 
par la Feue serenissme Royne d'Escosse," is con- 
tained in a rare volume entitled Lettres et Traifcz 
. by " David Home en Dumbar," printed 
at Bergerac, 1613. It may now be read in the 
Bannatyne Miscellany t having bean lost sight of 
until the year 1827, when the club reprinted it in 
its present form. It commence.- : 

' : Lors qu'il conuient a chacun repose^ 
Et pour un temps tout soucy deposer, 
L n^ r souvenir de mon amere vie 
Me vient oster de tout dormir Tenuie, 
Eepresentant a mes yeux vivement, 
De bien en mal un soudain changeinent, 
Qui distiller me fait lors sur la face 
La triste humeur, qui tout plaisir efface," etc. 

Bishop Lesley's work also contains a sonnet by 
Mary, never since republished except in the Mis- 
f-ellany of the Bannatyne Club. It opens with 

<; L'Ire de Dieu par le sang ne s'appaise 
De boufs, ny boucs, espandu sur Fautel, 
Xv par encens, ou Sacrifice 
Le Souverain ne recoit aucun aise." 

A production of this queen, which is entirely 
lost, is the book of Frei: . on the "'Insti- 

tution of a Prince,'* alluded to in Bishop Mon- 
tague's preface to the works of King James I. A 
Sanderson, mentions having seen 
this volume in : ablv the same 

work as that enumerated in the catalogue of 
books presented to the College of Edinburgh in 

by Drummond of Hawthornden under the 
title of Marie Queene of Scots: Tetrasticha ou 


i'alace Gardens Terrace, W. 

I do not imagine that Queen Mary was anything 
of a poetess. The love sonnets which were* found 
with the famous casket letters, and which, I be- 
lieve, were undoubtedly written by her, overflow- 
ing as they do with the burning passion she felt 
for Bothwell, taken as literary compositions, must 
be pronounced tame and altogether destitute of 
poetic fire. To my thinking there is more poetry 
in the letters themselves than in these sonnets. 

The French chronicler Brantome wrote favour- 
ably of Mary's poetry ; but, considering his inti- 
mate connection with her maternal relatives, the 
Guises, and those by marriage, Charles IX. and 
Henry III. of France, his opinion can hardly be 
reckoned an unbiassed one. Brantome gives* the 
stanzas of an elegy made by Mary on the death 
of her husband Francis II., which are quoted by 
Dr. Hugh Campbell in his Love Letters of Mary 
Queen of Scots, p. OS. These verses appear to me 
to possess no merit whatever. I transcribe the 
concluding one as a specimen of the others : 
is chanson ici fin 

A si triste complainte, 

Dont sera le refrin, 

' Amour vraye, et non feinte, 

Pour la separation 

X'aura diminution." "' 

\Vaterloo Lodge, Reading. 

FOUR CHILDREN AT A BIRTH (4 th S. ix. 127.) 
I am enabled, through the courtesy of a medical 
gentleman now residing at Broinsgrove, to give 
F. C. H. an accurate if brief account of this 
multiparous birth, which did take place, and on 
March 23, 1819. The children were named Maria, 
Mary, Sarah, and Eliza. Maria died of " white 
swelling of the elbow" when seventeen years of 
age. Up to that time they had enjoyed very good 
health. They were all very much alike, good- 
looking, inclined to be stout, and they were all 
of the same height, about 5 ft. 4 in. Mary (mar- 
ried) had two children (not at one birth), a son 
and daughter, and died of fever when thi: 
years of age. Eliza had a fall down stairs, and 
an abscess formed in her side, from which she 
died about a y Sarah is married: she is 

in good health, and has had one son. Charles 
(my informant's informant), a brother, and two 
other children, were born (at single births) pre- 
vious to the four at one birth : and there were 
two single births after, a boy and a girl. The 
father died from injury to hi? I :.ry years 



[ 4'* S. IX. FEB. 24, 72. 

of age. The mother died of old age, at eighty- 
three. The family name is Richardson. 



ix. 136.) I am glad to see the sentence from the 
Rev. P. Senhouse's music-sermon at Gloucester, 
1728, reproduced and preserved in your imperish- 
able journal. I beg leave, however, to remind 
your learned correspondent, DR. RIMBATTLT, that so 
long ago as 1859 1 directed attention to this passage, 
and to the testimony which it contained of the 
true origin of that long-lived institution, and of 
the name of the efficient founder of it ; and that 
these were unknown to the Rev. D. Lysons when 
he published his History of the Meeting of the 
Three CJioirs of Gloucester, Worcester, and Here- 
ford, 1812, 8vo. 

I was so happy as to do this in the very words 
now used by your learned correspondent, with 
one most important difference, that he has much 
increased their force by giving his own eminent 
name instead of that of THOMAS KERSLAKE. 


ROMAN VILLA AT NORTHLEIGH (4 th S. viii. 545; 
ix. 128.) I have to thank H. P. for calling my 
attention to Hakewill's description of this villa, j 
with which, however, I was thoroughly well ac- | 
quainted before. The account which appeared in 
" N. & Q." for December 30 was slightly condensed 
from an account which had appeared elsewhere, 
and in which his name was properly mentioned as 
the original discoverer of the remains in question. 
Since then, I have been favoured by Mr. Hemy 
Hakewill, his son, with all the original drawings, 
&c., which his father had made at the time, and 
which are extremely valuable and useful to me. 

J. P. E. 

Merton College, Oxford. 

THE Loss OF THE "HALSEWELL" (4 th S. ix. 
94.) A detailed narrative will be found under 
the head of " Old Stories Re-told " in No. 415 of 
All the Year Mound to? April 6, 1867. In abound 
copy the reference would be vol. xvii. p. -347. 

C. W. M. 

SCALES AND WEIGHTS (4 th S. viii. 372, 462 ; 
ix. 83.) The box in possession of MR. CHATTOCK 
is fairly explained, as far as it goes, to have been 
intended to test the weight of guineas and half- 
guineas. But the contents of my box are more 
ample, as will be seen by reference to my^ former 
communication. I .have just been trying my 
weights with a guinea and a seven shilling piece, 
which I keep as curiosities ; and I find that the 
largest of my four weights, with the head of 
George III. on one side, and Dwts. and Grs. on 
the other, is marked 5 dwts. 8 grs., and just 
balances a spade guinea. Unfortunately I do not 
possess a half guinea; but I presume* that the 

weight marked 2 dwts. 1C grs. would be the 
weight of one. I tried the smallest of the four, 
marked 2 dwts. 14 grs., and found it just balanced 
the seven shilling piece, mine having been coined 
in 1803. I have no way of accounting for the 
fourth weight, which is marked 5 dwts. 6 grs., 
unless by supposing that later coined guineas 
were only of that weight. 

There can be no doubt that MR. CHATTOCK'S 
weights, and the four of mine specified, were for 
weighing the gold coin; but my box contains 
elcvwi i, :>re weights, all marked with sums in 
shillings and pence, and ranging from 4s. Qd. up to 
3/. 12s. The use of these, I have been told, was 
for goldsmiths to ascertain at once the value of 
any piece of gold ; but I should be glad of a more 
detailed explanation. F. C. H. 

ASHEN FAGGOT (4 th S. viii. 547 ; ix. 87.) Ash 
is here asserted to be the only wood that burns 
well when green ; but laurel wood will burn 
equally well when fresh cut and green. 

F. C. H. 

SANDAL WOOD (4 th S. ix. 95.) Lord Ellen- 
borough's celebrated proclamation about the gates 
of Somnath. S. 

"!F I HAD A DOXKEV/' ETC. (4 th S. ix. 57). 
1. The drawing-room version which I came a 
some years agjo is as follow? : 

" If I had an animal averse to speed, 
Do you think I'd chastise him 1 No, indeed '. 
But I'd give him some oats, and say' Proceed, 
Go on, Edward ! ' " 

Is this the version for which MR. ELLACOMBE asks? 


2. The drawing-room version of " If I had a 
Donkey " first appeared in Punch for Feb. 17, 
1844 (vol. vi. p. 85), under the heading of "A 
Polished Poem." A similar version of " Giles 
Scrog^ins "was given in the number for April 13 
followihg (p. 106.) C. T. B. 

THE DEVIL'S NUTTING DAY (4 th S. ix. 57.) 
I was talking with a very old man in Bury St. 
Edmunds, Suffolk, some years ago, who told me 
that when he used to go nutting he never did so 
on Holy Cross Day (Sept. 14), for fear he should 
meet the devil. M. H. 


From fifty to a hundred years ago there was a 
superstitious avoidance of September 14 among 
the juvenile "nutters" of Kent. A capital story 
in reference to this is told still in Maidstone and 
its neighbourhood. A regiment quartered there 
had in its band an immense negro drummer. This 
worthy happened to take a ramble into the neigh- 
bouring woods on September 14, and stumbled 
over a large bag of nuts, which had been secreted 
at the foot of a tree. Sambo, guessing that it was 
the hoard of some trespasser, divested himself of 

4* S. IX. FEB. 24, 72.] 



his garments, and lighting a short pipe which h 
kad with him, sat down on the sack of nuts with 
his elbows on his knees, and enjoyed his tobacco 
On the "free nutters" coming to the tree fo: 
their spoil, the sable possessor treated them to a 
wild howl Haro-a-ra-wa-ratl and the resul 
may be imagined, his sable majesty being left in 
possession, and the nutters scampering home a 
fast as their legs would carry them. W. D. 


" GUTTA CAVAT LAPIDEM," ETC. (4 th S. ix. 82.) 
This proverb was known long before the time o 
Galen. It is quoted as a common saying even by 
Bion, who flourished about A.C. 280. In his 
Aetyava he says, 

'E flctjuti'Tjs padd/Aiy/os, OKUS \6yos, a*\v loiaas, 

Xa \tdos s' KoiXaivfrai, 


No doubt my friend DR. EAMAGE is well aware 
that the first part of this hexameter, three words, 

" Gutta cavat lapidem, non vi, sed saspe cadendo," 
is to be found' in Ovid, Ex Pont., iv. x. line 5 : 

" Gutta cavat lapidem ; consumitur annulus usu ; 
Et teritur pressa vomer aduncus humo." 

It is in my memory, but very faintly, that some 
ancient scholar, on lecturing his boys, was inter- 
rupted at lapidem by a clever urchin, who com- 
pleted the verse without multiplying his instances. 

The epistles Ex Ponto are, I hear, coming into 
reading again at our universities. Bohn gives the 
citation, but without close reference. The Gradus 
ad Parnassum of the old Jesuit Fathers contains 
the verse inquired for by DR. EAMAGE, simply as 
an example without reference. It was, no doubt, 
a mediaeval proverb. HALTST FRISWELL. 

LADY GRIZELL BAiLLiE < (4 th S. viii. 451 ; ix. 84.) 
A long and interesting account of this excellent 
lady may be found at pp. 546-587 of The Ladies of 
the Covenant, by Eev. James Anderson, 1851, 
Blackie and Son. It appears to be taken from 
the book mentioned by T. G. S., with additions 
from various sources. Probably the earliest ac- 
count of her is that given in Wodrow's History of 
the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland, iv. 505- 
511. 1831.* See also Burke's Anecdotes of the 
Aristoracy, i. 397 n., and Jesse, Court of England, 
1688-1760, ii. 399. ' S. M. S. 

u ]yj T THOUGHTS ARE RACKED " (4 th S. ix. 57.) 
This quotation I about five years ago met with in 
about twelve or sixteen very powerful decasyl- 
labic verses, sent to me in a tract upon "Midnight 

* The Wodrow Correspondence, ii. 606-608, issued in 
1843 by the Wodrow Society, Edinburgh, gives Mr. 
Wodrow's letter to the husband of this Iad3 r , sent with the 
portion of the historv which related to her father. We 
may therefore believe "it to be accredited by the family. 

Meetings, or the Redemption of the Fallen." As 
a helluo librorum I, like other readers of "N. & Q.," 
read much that comes in my way, and I was par- 
ticularly struck with the power and harmony of 
the lines. They purported to be the epitaph of a 
poor girl dying of that which strong-minded 
women are just now too loudly talking about, a 
contagious disease, and reflecting in her last mo- 
ments upon her sin and misery. I did not for an 
instant believe them to be genuine; and read 
them out, with the remark to a gentleman by my 
side that the pen employed in that tract was a 
strong one. But though I read, I am wicked 
enough to own I do not preserve tracts, and I regret 
very much that I did not copy the lines to be of 
service to your querist. They so strongly re- 
minded me of Churchill, both in power and in 
ring, that I instinctively turned to the Conference 
by that poet, where, at lines 219-236, 1 expected 
to find the original : 

" Look back ! a thought which borders on despair, 
Which human nature must, yet cannot bear." 

And so on, until 

" The dread handwriting on the wall 
Bids late remorse awake at reason's call ; 
Arm'd at all points, bids scorpion-vengeance pass, 
And to the mind holds up reflection's glass 
The mind which, starting, heaves the heartfelt groan, 
And hates the form she knows to be her own." 

Neither, however, in Churchill's Author nor in 
the Conference is the line in question ; but per- 
haps some "omnivorous" reader will rescue from 
the tract I allude to the powerful line cited. 


WATCH PAPERS (4 th S. viii. 451, 539 ; ix. 83.) 
A. E, will find the lines beginning " Onward, per- 
petually moving," correctly quoted by me (2 nd S. 
xi. 451). Of course "momentary" should be 
:t monitory." I strongly -recommend the General 
[ndex to (l N. & Q." for constant use. 

U. N. 

MAUTHER(4 th S. ix. 95.) This word is common 
throughout the Eastern Counties " Mauther " 
when speaking of, t( Maur " when speaking to, 
the girl and only among the unlearned classes 
who have preserved so much of the A.-S. lan- 
guage which their more educated betters have 
either lost or discarded as vulgar. " Here, rnaur, 
take yeow this here gotch, an' goo an' buy a 
mnner o' yist." Or, " Tell that there mauther 
;o goo," &c. The derivation is pretty fully dis- 
;ussed in Hall's Dialect and tyovincialisms of 
East Anglia, at pp. 600-1 of his " Chapters on the 
2ast Anglian Coast." It may be added that 
3os worth (Cotnp. A.-S. Diet.), gives " Meawle, 
meowle. an unmarried woman, maiden, damsel." 

S. W. Rix. 

" Sir Henry Spelman . . . assures us that . . . noble 
irgins who were selected to sing the praises of heroes 



[4> S. IX. Ficr,. i 

' . . . were called scald-mners, q. d. singing mauthers 
"... He complains that the old word nioer had been 
corrupted t . with a very dif- 

ferent v.-oni. V -a very effectually by 

pronunciation, a: I w actually come very 

near to the original word in the abbreviated form we use 
in addressing a mauther. We commonly call her mau'r, 
Dan. moer, Belg. modde, innupta puella." Forby's 
Vocabulary of East Anriliu, vol. ii. p. 211, Lond. 1830." 


St. Xeot's. 

[ W. T. M. refers CORXUB. to 1 st S. ii. 217, 365, 411, for 
full references on this word. ED.] 

TAAFFE FAMILY (4 th S. ix. 15, 102.) In the 
Memoirs of this family, to which J. E. M. alludes, 
the sources whence Sir W. Betham derived his 
information in tabulating the pedigree are not fully 
given. I might at once have adopted your corre- 
spondent's suggestion, considering that I have only 
seen a copy of the records in which the name 
" Charles " is said to occur, but for the seeming 
difficulties of identification, which I shall now 
point out, as J. R. M. may have better oppor- 
tunities than myself of consulting- the original 

1. The lands of Mansfield, co. Louth, were 
granted in lease for ninety-nine years, July 15, 
1669, by Theobald Earl of Carlingford, to "Charles 
Taaffe and his wife, the Lady Susanna.*' 

2. In connection with this transaction the lands 
of Stephenstown and Ballyclare, co. Louth, are 
subsequently mentioned. 

3. Charles Taaffe, on Nov. 14, 1683, mortgaged 
the lease to James Tindall. 

4. On the other hand, Christopher Taaffe, hus- 
band of Lady Susanna Plunket (according to the 
Betham pedigree), was attainted in 1641 j and is 
described as of Bally bragan, and afterwards of 
Ballyneglegli, co. Sligo. 

5. But the widow of Christopher Taaffe, at- 
tainted in 1689, was named Sarah Kerdiffe j and 
on marrying secondly Arthur Donelly, she claimed 
her jointure, as relict of her former husband Chris- 
topher Taaffe, from the lands of Ballyclare and 
Stephenstown. This jointure she sold to George 
Blythe, from whom it was purchased by Nicholas, 
son of the said Christopher. 

6. This Christopher had, besides Nicholas, an- 
other son named Patrick ; whereas, according to 
Sir W. Betham's pedigree, Christopher and the 
Lady Susanna had only one son, viz. John Tnaffe 
of ""jMandevillestown in Uriel, et Ballyneglagh in 
Sligo . . . rapta 1641." 

In the transactions relative to forfeited estates, 
references will be found to the above, vide deeds 
dated May 26, 1675, April 1 and June 27, 1697, 
and May 15, 1699. S. 

" WITH HELMET ON HIS BROW " (4 th S. ix. 15, 
99.) I know nothing of any " Old Woman of 
Romford," but the music to " With Helmet on 
his Brow ' n was composed by Joseph Mayseder, 

the once popular violinist of Vienna, whose ex- 

hilarant productions were frequentlv played with 
I great gusto by the late N. Mori, grea jlish 

solo players. On p. 47 of The Harmoni 
I it is called " Mayseder's popular ron; 
! favourite air of < Le petit Tambour.' ? ' The v 

were, I think, by G. W. Reeve. 


I am obliged to DR. RIMBATLT for his courteous 
and satisfactory reply; but I woul- 
question : Is the air really French ? There seems 
to me to be something peculiarly English -about 
its construction. And may it not be an old country 
tune, as I have been told, composed for the vul- 
gar slang song called " The Old Woman of Rom- 
ford"? The English song is much older than 
forty years, and a barrel organ may have intro- 
duced its melody into France. Many of our 
English tunes have been introduced abroad by 
the oryues dc. Hatfiane.. I have witnessed Itr 
peasants dancing to the " College Hornpipe,'" 
snapping their lingers and beating time to the 
"Grand Conversation under the R< 

Foreigners are very fond of asserting 
have no music ; and yet I find that their c 
posers are constantly prigging our tunes. I wit- 
nessed a ballet at the Pagliano at Florence, in 
which the " College Hornpipe " was introduced, 
and danced by ..ilorsj and yet the play- 

bill stated that the music was by' Ferrari, 
composer of the opera of Pipele. I shall not f. > 
that ballet : for, in one of the scenes which repre- 
sented the bottom of the sea, some red lobsters 
were crawling about ! However, in justice to 
audience, I must state that the Italians laughed* 
heartily at such a ludicrous exhibition: ail'!. 
a second representation, the yules gave plac 
sable. STEPHEN , 

The author of the words of this song is the 
well-known writer and dramatist J. R. Plan 
Esq., and the melody is adapted by G. W. R- 
to the popular air, ' Je suis le petit Tambour." 

F. R. 

MONTALT BARONS (4 th S. viii. passim ; ix. 
One last word on this subject. I have just lighted, 
by accident, on a quotation from Stow (his>S>' 
of London, I presume, though that is not sta: 
which I beg for space to record. 

It appears that there was, perhaps still " 
parish in the city of London called St. Mary 
Mounthaw. Speaking of it Stow write.? : 

' ; On the west side of Old Fish Street Hill is I 

of Hereford's Inn or Losing, which some time bel 

1 to the Mounthaute-i (-V) iu Norfolk. liadulph:: 

Maydenstone bought it of the Mounthautes Next 

I adjoining is the parish church of St. Mary de Monte 
j Alto, or Mounthault (sic'), a very small church, built at 
the first to be a chapel to the said house." 

Then he speaks of "Edward Fox. who 
' buried in St. Marv Mounthaw." 

4* S. IX. FJ-;I:. 21, 72.] 



Here we liave the connecting link which in my 
first note I suggested was wanting a form of the 
name signifying High Mount or Hill, of which 
De Monte Alto was merely the translation ; and 
thus we have Monhaut, Mounthault, Mounthaute, 
Mohaut, Mouat, and Mowat, but 4i Montalt " no- 
where discoverable. C. E. D. 

"HAPPY THE MAN/' ETC. (4 th S. ix. 57.) The 
translation is by Dr. Maginn, and will be found 
in the Autobiography of William Jerdan, iii. 05. 
London : Arthur Hall, Virtue, & Co.. 1853. 

C. T. B. 

THE LOED BOQUEKI (4 th S. ix. 74.) Who his 
lordship was is more than I can answer, but I 
presume that he was a relative of Peter Bokanki, 
of whom we used to say " Like Peter Bokanki, 
who buttoned his coat 'behind to keep his belly 
warm." At the Skipton Grammar School, when 
a scholar complained of cold weather, we always 
advised him to follow the example of " Peter 
Bokanki, who," &c. I have heard the same saying 
at Durham. 

The above is the only reply that I can give to 
H. W T . D., in whose phraseology I conclude my 
note : " The spelling may be incorrect, but I have 
given it as pronounced." STEPHEN JACKSON. 

PUTTOCK (4 th S. ix. 119.) That the puttock 
was synonymous with the kite is proved by the 
following stanza from the Faerie Qucene (book T. 
canto 5) : 

[" Like as a puttocke having spyde in sight 
A gentle faulcon sitting on a "hill, 
Whose other wing, now made unnieete for flight, 
Was lately broken by some fortune ill ; 
The foolish kyte, led with licentious will, 
Doth beat upon the gentle bird in vaine, 
With many idle stoups her troubling still : 
Even so did Radjgund with bootlesse paine 
Annoy this noble knight, and sorely him constraine.'' 

In Ilalliwell's Dictionary, sub voce, is the fol- 
lowing extract from Marriage of Witt and Wis- 
dbtwe, 1579 : 

" I am a greate travelir. 

I lite on the dunghill like a puttock ! 
Nay, take me with a lye, 

And cut out the brane of my but: 

Both the kite and the buzzard were reckoned 
among the ignoble birds of prey. From the con- 
formation of their wings rapid flight is rendered 
impossible, and almost every bird, when in sound 
condition, could easily escape from their pursuit. 
Hence they chiefly live on accidental carnag . 
are especially pitiless with wounded birds, no 
matter of what species. On the confines of Ex- 
nioor the kite is still the terror of poultry-keepers. 


Hazelwood, Bslper. 

Puttock was certainly used for the kite by 
Shakespeare : 

" War. Who finds the partridge in the/?/// 
But may imagine how the bird was dead, 
Although the kite soar with unbloodied beak? 
Even so suspicious is this tragedy. 
Q. Mar. Are you the butcher, Suffolk ? where's your 

knife ? 

i Is][Beaufort termed a kite ? where arc his talons ? '' 
2 Hen. VL, Act III. Sc. 2. 

The words "kite" and "buzzard" were, how- 
I ever, often used indiscriminately. 

r Harrow. 

i passim ; ix. 19, 100.) In France the change of 
1 baptismal names is not so uncommon as we might 
suppose. P. A. L. has given an instance of this. 
I would add two that are well known. "Paul " 
Delaroche was not baptized Paul, but Hippolyte-; 
Achille de St. Arnaud, the Crimean French mar- 
shal, was not baptized Achille. But that such 
changes of baptismal names were made in Eng- 
land during the seventeenth century does not as 
yet seem to be proved. With respect to the asser- 
tion in Macfarlane's History of England (xii. 197), 
referred to by MR. BUCKTON (4 th . S. viii. 381), we 
know that the names there cited as fictitious, and 
as the invention of one clergyman, were nothing 
of the kind. They were all real names and belong 
J to the first twenty years of the seventeenth cen- 
i tury. "Accepted " was the name of Archbishop 
! Frewen, who must have been born early in that 
; century; "Redeemed" is found as a Christian 
1 name in the parish register of Chiddingly, Sussex ; 
i " Faint-not " is a name in the same register, and 
I likewise in the registers of Maresfield, Sussex. 
\ <; Makepeace " has survived unto our own times, 
! having been borne by Thackeray as one of his 
Christian names. 

In the parish accounts of Milton-next-Sitting- 
bourne the names "Sylence" and "Repentance" 
occur. In 1653 " Sylence Coale " was paid ten 
shillings "for 3 daies work by his man and a 
labourer at the rnarkett-kouse," and in 1691 occurs 
the entry "Item, paid Repentance Stonehouse 
for a hedgehogg 00. 00. 02." 

In the Sitting-bourne register we find the burial 
of " Increased " Collins. His tombstone states that 
lie was a near relative of Archbishop Parker, and 
that he died in 1665, aged sixty-two. The writer 
of his epitaph was puzzled as to how to render in 
Latin this name " Increased," so he got over the 
difficulty by placing upon the stone the initial 

In the registers of Borden, Kent, I find the 
Christian names " Godly " and " Attained." 
Godly Philpott, widow, was buried on Oct. 26, 
1619 ; and a son of Thomas and Susannah Ware 
was baptized Attained on May 22, 1726. In the 
same register occur the curious female names 
" Petronella," 1598 ; "Nem,"1560; " Nothaniy," 



S. IX. FEB. 24, 72. 

1602; "Gillian," 1616; " Hephzibah," 1778; 
"Bathsheba," 1788 ; " Levia," 1780, and " Sedu- 
lia," 1792. W. A. S. R. 

SNATCHES or OLD TUNES (4 th S. viii. 350, 457 ; 
ix. 62.) E. L. S. and H. B. HYDE, JUN., are very 
much mistaken if they suppose that the Irish 
song; of " Castle Hyde*" has only existed in MS. 
until MR. H. B. HYDE, JUN., printed a version in 
"N. & Q." It has long been a common street 
song in all parts of Great Britain and Ireland; 
and I have a slip copy that was given to me by 
Crofton Croker. It is at least forty years old. 
I have heard it sung in the Durham market-place 
over and over again ; and I know that it has long 
been a standard ballad of the Seven Dials. So much 
for this rare ballad. With respect to the motto 
appended to MR. HYDE'S version in " N. & Q.," I 
will take this opportunity of saying that I have 
always considered we should read runes instead 
of " tunes." Ophelia (a Dane) chanted portions 
of old ballads, which in Scandinavia would be 
old runes. "Tunes" seems to me a printer's 

Miss WARD (4 th S. ix. 96.) Anna Jane Ward, 
the author of Ihe Buried Bride and other Poems, 
and also the translator of Memorie Acerbe ed 
Quorate, from the Italian of the Marchese Dome- 
nico Nicolai, died at Southampton April 1846. 


1 BURNS'S " TRENTICE HAN' " (4 th S. ix. 91.) In 
the Decameron, the sixth tale of the sixth day is 

" Pruova Michele Scalza a certi giovani come i Baronci 
sono i piu gentili uoniini del mondo o di maremma, e 
viuce una cena," 

The assertion is made 

" i Baronci furon fatti da Domeneddio al tempo che egli 
aveva comminciato d' apparare a dipignere ; ma gli altri 
uomiiii furon fatti poscia che Domeneddio seppe dipi- 

And the well-known uncomeliness of the Baronci, 
stated to be " si come sogliono essere i visi che 
fanno da prima i fanciulli che apparano a dise- 
gnere," is allowed in proof. Is not a translation of 
some of the tales more likely to have fallen into 
Burns's hand than the IVhirligig ? Did not Mar- 
tinelli's edition, published in London in 1766J 
give some impulse to the spread of the knowledge 
of the Decameron that may have extended to 
Ayrshire ? . C. 

SATURNALIA (4 th S. ix. 126.) From a work en- 
titled College Life in the Time of James /., as 
illustrated by a Diary of Sir Symonds D'Eives, 1851, 
it appears that the Christmas entertainments at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, were under the 
superintendence of an official personage whose 
authority extended over the whole festivity of 

twelve days ; and also that, down to the present 
time, one of the fellows of that college is usually 
elected to preside over the Christmas hospitalities 
in the Combination room. It is also suggested 
that we may recognise in this officer the " once- 
important Master of the Bevels the Abbot or 
Lord of Misrule." As a classical appellation Dr. 
Dee's would not be inappropriate. C. G. 

BEER-JUG INSCRIPTIONS (4 th S. viii. passim; 
ix. 20.) Lately I came across a pair of jugs with 
the following " toast " inscribed on each : 
" Here's to the wind that blows, 
And the ship that goes, 

And the boy that fears no danger, 
A ship in full" sail, 
And a fine pleasent (sic) gale, 
And a girl that loves a sailor." 


STERNHOLD AND HOPKINS (4 th S. viii. 373, 466 ; 
ix. 58.) It would seem from the communication 
of G. W. N. as if the earliest edition of the Old 
Version of the Psalms, which assigns the author- 
ship of the " Old Hundredth " to Hopkins, bears 
date 1611. Such, however, is not the case, as I 
possess a copy dated 1587 (" London : Printed by 
H.-Denham, for the Assignes of Richard Day"), 
in which the initials prefixed to that psalm are 
"J.H." A. R.L. 

Miss EDGEWORTH (4 th S. viii. 451, 557; ix. 101.) 
See various references to Mr. and Miss Maria Edge- 
worth, &c., in the Leadbeater Papers. Also, see 
the Index to Lockhart's Life of Sir Walter Scott. 
The Athenceum, Jan. 18, 1862, ft 85, gives some 
particulars of " the old Mansion Tempo, co. Fer- 
managh," evidently the scene of Castle Rackrent, 
which about that time was taken down and re- 
built. S. M. S. 

CLARE'S REMAINS (4 th S. ix. 93.) It is to be 
presumed there is good authority for believing 
that Clare did realty hear his father and mother 
sing the ballads which he "wrote down," and 
which Mr. Cherry purposes to print. But is the 
interesting editor aware that the Northampton- 
shire poet was a fabricator of quasi-old poetry ? 
On this subject vide letters from him on pp. 96 
and 175, vol. iv. of Memoirs of James Montgomery. 

J. H. 

" where have ye been, Lord Randal, my son ? " 

is the first line of the ballad of " Lord Randal," 
printed in The Legendary Ballads of England and 
Scotland, edited by John S. Roberts, London, 
F. Warne & Co., 1868. G. P. C. 

" Lord Randall" is well known, and I should 
leave it out. With the others I am not acquainted. 
Though we can no more form an opinion of a song 
or ballad by a "first line" than we can of a 
house by the exhibition of a brick (vide Hierocles), 
there is something that smatters of good in the 

4* s. IX. FEB. 24, 72.] 



" false knight " and other bits, and I shall buy 


BABBLING STREAM " (4 th S. ix. 92.) The former 
inscription is by William Hamilton of Bangour. 
See Chalmers' Poets, vol. xv. p. 620. The latter is 
by Richard Graves. See his Euphrosyne; or, 
Amusements on the Road of Life, 1783, vol. i. 
p. 301. H. P. D. 

GAY= WANTON (4 th S. viii. 548; ix. 82.) The 
English and French euphuisms of gay ladies and 
filles de joie are curiously correlative, but not 
without precedent : Shakspere applied their im- 
pudicities to the Grecian "daughters of the 
game ; " and our nocturnal revellers, unconsciously 
it may be, adopt the Latin designation of their 
Haymarket Messalina while discussing her merry 
tricks. E. L. S. 

LECTS (4 th S. viii. passim; ix. 86.) P. P. is 
advised to read the preface to " Slaadburn Faar " 
4 tb S. viii. 362) for some remarks on this sub- 
ject. I agree with P. P. as to the general cha- 
racter of "Penny Readings" in the North of 
England. The <( readers " in many cases seem to 
have no better source than Enfield's Speaker, 
Hodgson's Pleasing Instructor, and similar anti- 
quated works. From a provincial paper I find 
that in a certain town, amongst the " Penny Read- 
ings" were "Parson and Dumplings/' "The 
Three Black Crows,]' &c. At the same intellec- 
tual treat a "chorister of the cathedral" sang 
11 Never eat Tripe on a Friday/' which " elicited 
roars of laughter." From my knowledge of penny 
readings I must say that the dialect pieces ob- 
jected to by P. P. are often the best, and the gems 
of the evening. I should be sorry to see them 
wholly cast aside, but let us have them blended 
with modern literature of the " best and highest 
class/' and hear no more of " dumplings," " crows," 
or " tripe." N. 

93.) I knew this worthy man well for many 
years. He taught me to write, and to make arti- 
ficial flies, he being a master of the piscatorial 
art, and wisely following the Horatian maxim 
miscuit utile dulci. Of his literary productions I 
can say but little, simply that I remember he 
published by subscription the Poems of Ossian, 
" done into blank verse," a copy of which I possess, 
and which I verily believe was the last effort of 
his ill-requited muse. He was for five-and-twenty 
years curate in sole charge of the parishes of 
Pamerham and Martin, Wilts, and ended his days 
at the former village, where he was also buried, 
on Jan. o, 1833, greatly respected, yet an over- 
worked, underpaid, and neglected man, cetatis suce 
seventy-nine. W. S. 

PSALM cix. (4 th S. ix. 95.) The heading of 
Psalm cix. is no doubt owing to the ignorance of 
a printer in the first instance. All the headings 
are from the Vulgate, and it ought to be " Deus 
laudem"; but the would-be learned printer or 
reviser, looking to the English only " God of 
my praise" took upon himself to substitute 
" laudwm." The Septuagint has " rty alveaiv ^ov 
W fficoTr-fjffris," and this rendering (pace Mr. Mac 
Lachlan), I believe, accurately represents the He- 
brew sense. The Psalmist appeals to the Al- 
mighty to vindicate him by proclaiming the truth 
concerning him against the slanders of the wicked : 
Speak Thou the truth concerning me, because the 
ungodly speak falsehood. 

There is a misprint in the article in p. 95. It 
should be " tacemis," not " tacweris."* 


P.S. It is strange that the Oxford and Cam- 
bridge doctors should have permitted the error. 


The Old Cheque Book, or Book of Remembrance of the 
Chapel Royal, from 1561 to 1744. Edited from the 
Original MS. preserved among the Muniments of the 
Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, by Edward Rim- 
bault, LL.D., &c. (Printed for the Camden Society.) 
The interesting volume here printed, which is the 
third of the New Series of the Publications of the Cam- 
den Society, contains a curious history of the Chapel 
Royal, St. James's for nearly two centuries, as recorded 
in the book kept by the Clerk of the Cheque for the time 
being. It was the duty of this officer to keep an account 
of the attendance, and to note the absence of the priests 
and gentlemen, in order to lay the same before the Dean 
or Subdean, and to record all rules and regulations made 
by the Dean and Chapter for the government of the 
chapel. But the book before us, which seems from the 
irregularity with which the entries are inserted more like 
a common-place book than an official record, contains 
many curious and minute particulars of Royal Ceremo- 
nies, Funerals, Coronations, Churchings, Baptisms, Royal 
and Noble Marriages, &c. ; many of these entries being 
of great historical value. While many of them, as may 
well be imagined, throw great light on the changes in- 
troduced from time to time in the performance of divine 
service in the Chapel Royal, they are also especially 
rich in biographical notices of eminent musicians and 
poets, often supplying new and valuable dates ; and Dr. 
Rimbault, who has long paid special attention to this 
subject, has been very successful in turning this portion 
of the work to good account, and illustrating it with his 
notes of which it indeed may be said, generally, they are 
all pertinent and instructive. From the irregularity of the 
entries, to which we have already alluded, Dr. Rimbanlt 
has had to recast his materials ; and nothing will better 
show the amount of curious information which inquirers 
into such matters will find in the book before us than an 
enumeration of the heads into which the editor has 
u ivided them. They are I. Appointments and Obituary 
Notices of the Sub- Deans, Priests, Organists, and Gentle- 

[* This is no misprint ; the Vulgate has tacueris. ED.] 



S. IX. FEB. 24, 72. 

men; II. Farther Notices of the same; III. Duperal of 
Pav-iieuts due to deceased Gentlemen ; IV. Records of 
Suits for Additional Pay ; V. Orders, Decrees, and Re- 
ids referring to Gentlemen ; VI. Copies of Royal 
raits and Privy Seals; VII. Resignations, Dismis- 
sal-, and Petitions ; VIII. Oaths of Subdean, Gentlemen, 
IX. Benevolence to the Gentlemen ; X. Records of 
the Chapel Feast ; XI. Appointments of the Deans ; XII. 
The Names of the Sub -deans, Priests, and Gentlemen at 
various Coronations ; XIII. Notices appertaining to the 
Serjeants, Yeomen, Grooms, and other Officers; XIV. 
Further Notices of the same ; XV. Royal Ceremonies ; 
XVI. Royal and Noble Marriages ; XVII. Royal and 
Noble Baptisms, Churchings, Confirmations, &c. ; and 
lastly, XVIII. Forms of Prayer, &c. The Camden So- 
are greatly indebted to Lord Sydney and the 
Bishop of London, who have permitted them to print 
this curious record, and to Dr. Rimbault for the admirable 
manner in which he has edited it. 
Miscellanies. Collected and Edited by Earl Stanhope. 

Second Series. (Murray.) 

If it be true of most scholars and men of letters that 
they frequently come across historical memoranda and 
literary illustrations too valuable to be laid aside, yet 
too small to form a volume, it is especially true of one 
who, like the noble lord whose work is now before us, 
enjoys the advantage of high social position, and an inti- 
macy with the most distinguished men of the day. Like 
his former volume, which derived some of its interest 
from his friendship with the Duke of Wellington and Sir 
Robert Peel, it is chiefly valuable for its illustration of 
history, as the names of Mr. Pitt, Mr. Canning, Prince 
Metternich, and Louis Napoleon will serve to prove ; 
while the curious illustrations of Lady Wortley Mon- 
tague's detention in Brescia, and of the sad story of 
Major Andre, and the names of Lord Macaulay and Mr. 
Hallam illustrate 'its literary value. 

GUILDHALL, LIBRARY. The erection of the new 
library having made considerable progress, it has become 
- : ary, in order to construct the corridor with the 
hnent Rooms beneath for the preservation of the 
-ds of the Corporation, to pull down the present 
building. -It has therefore been determined by the Com- 
mittee to close the library on and after the 1st of March 
next for a period of about three months, which will enable 
.ibrarian and bis assistants to re-arrange the whole 



r ars of Price, &c.. of the following books to be sent direct to 
nen by whom they are re<iuired, whose named and addresses 
. for that purpose : 
MAUMIOX. Original Quarto Edition, published in 

Wanted by Rev. John /','</. /;,,v/, .!/..!., Hungate Street, Pickering, 


\ QUARTERLY REVIEW. Nos. 12, 13, lf>, arfd 16. 
Wanted by .U;-. Thomas Eyre, Hayfield, near Stockport. 


LII William*. 


.-.!/"/<;/ l-'kin in'i, 113, Marine Parade, Brighton. 


Bishop Blornfield, Rev. Dr. Whewell, Rev. Dr. Newman and others. 
Wanted by 3// , ', Grenville Street, Brunswick Square, W.C. 

' :'s SnitoPSHiRK. Tart I. 

Wanted by I On. Doiniina <?' C'o., Birmingham. 

Bicbop of North Carolina. Vol.11. Published by "the Xew York 

.1 Press " (.about 1830) in two vol.s. 
Wanted by /I". (/. Dickinson, L's'/., Roseraount, I-Iamp-lead. X.W. 

W. II. HART OX Till'. EARLY MA .-!> Iv 

x:.. Elkins: Lombard Stref. 

'. : iimouth. Northumberland. 


We are compelled to postpone until next week some of 
our Notes on Books, *e. 

M. M. L. "Aired 1 ' is not a Scotticism. In Worcester's 
Dictionary, s. v. " Air," our Correspondent will find this 
definition : " To expose to the air," as " to air beds or gar- 

T. W. M. (West Troy, U. S.) Can our Correspondent 
procure for us a carte of Lieut. Lahrbush ? 

H. S. S. The portraits of most, if not all, of the gentle- 
men inquired after have been engraved, and may be obtained 
at low ])rices. Apply to J. Stenson, 15, Kino's PI act. 
King's Road, Chelsea, and A. Nicholls, 5, Green Street. 
Leicester Square. 

T. E. S. For early lists of members of the legal p. 
sion consult "N. & Q." 2 ud S. xi. 515 f xii. 51 1 ; : 
iii. 126. The law library of Lincoln's Inn is the best in 

BENEDICT. T/co instances of the ancient Scottish custom 
of taking a roife on trial will be found in " N. it Q." 1 st S. 

G. J. II. The case of Margaret de Camoys, who, with 
her chattels and goods,' was sold by Tier husband, may be 
found in GrimaldVs Origines Genealogies, Lond. 1828, 
pp. 22, 23 ; and in " N. & Q." 1" S. vii. 602. 

T. E. The verses on the fly-leaf of a Bible, erroneously 
attributed to Lord Byron, are by Sir Walter Scott, Monas- 
tery, chap. xii. They are spoken by the White Lady of 

W. A. S. It. Nine articles on the pronunciation of 
' ; Cnwper '" appeared in vols. iv. to viii. of our First .' 
and two on that of" Cucumber" in the 3 rd S. ii. 

FRANCIS M. JACKSON (Manchester). The verse will 
be found in Oliver Goldsmith's poem " Edwin, and Anqc- 


C. YV. PEXSY (Wellington College). Muriel, as a 
Christian name, has been discussed in " N. it Q." 3 rd S. vi. 
168, 200, 239, 278, 404, 444, 518 ; vii. 82. 

FELIX ARXHEIM. In the Oxford Bible, 1717, the. 
tvord vinegar is printed instead of vineyard in the running 
head-line of Luke xxii. See " N. & Q." 2 nd S. iv. 291, 33o. 

M. II. COTTOX (Ramsgate). The article on the Mar- 
quis of Mo?itrose appeared in tht. Quarter! v Review, vol. 
Ixxix'. pp. 1 to 60, Dec. 1846. 

A. S. The hard porcelain, found at Rue de Popincourt, 
Paris, in 1780, by Le Maire, tvas bought in 1783 by JVast, 
who marked it with his name. 

E. T. (Patching.) Your paper shall appear. 

\Y. B. R. L. (Netting Hill.) You had better defer your 
answer altogether till other replies have appeared. ' 

Ax OLD COLLECTOR (Glasgow). Send address to 
J. NV. F. at Brighton. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications 
which,for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make uo 

All communications should be addressed to the Editor at the Office, 
43, Wellington Street, W.C. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and address of 
ier.not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good 

4 th S. IX. MAKCH 2, 72.] 





NOTES : Colonel Archibald Strachan, 173 Folk Lore. 
174 _ Geeran the aliened Centenarian, 175 John Heywood 
and Geoffrey Chaucer. 177 "Airy Shell": "Comus," 
lino 281 Defcndo English Physicians in Switzerland 
Play the Boar " Out in the Cold " Oysters for Aistres 

Stamp used instead of the Sign Manual of Henry VIII. 

QUERIES : Holyrood Pictures, 179 "Ballad Archbishop 
Black Imrue Canada Dauforth Domestic Chapels 
Sir John Eliot Heraldic Hotch Pot Inquisitiones 
Post Mortem Jews-harp " Legambilis " " Nee bene 
fecit, nee male fecit, sed interfecit" Nevison the High- 
wayman Panado or Pa vado Quotations Plurals 
Revolution of 1688 Society of Ancient Deists : Spiritual- 
ism in 1780 "Tavole Moderne di Geografia " Tudor 
House at Wimbledon Ulva latissima "Wooden Nut- 
megs," 179. 

BEPLIES: O'Dohnrty's Maxims, 182 -Wicked: Mediant, 
Jb. " Old Baps," 18i> Austrian Polish Women wearing 
Wigs Longevity Bell Inscriptions Bows in Bonnets 
Rev. Mr. Moultrie " To play Hell and Tommy " The 
Hundreds of Folborough, Wye, &c. Nelson's Punctuality 

Seals of Oliver Cromwell Deer used in Sacrifice 
Black Rain The Princess -Elizabeth Illuminating 
" As straight as a Die " Dorsetshire Rammilk Round 
Towers of Norfolk "Whether the Prejudices in favour 
of Gold," &c. Saulies Linguistic Children Inscrip- 
tions in Old Books The Erf King Persecution of the 
Heathens Heraldic Myfamvy Rubens's " Susannah 
and the Elders" Time Immemorial " Progress," &c. 
Miss Edgeworth Invasion of Switzerland by the English 

"England expects every Man," &c., 183. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


" It is singular," says Mr. Hill Burton in his History 
of Scotland, " that of this man, who. seemed for a few 
months to have the destinies of the country in his keep- 
ing, so little should be known. His name is not to be 
found in any biographical dictionary. He went just a 
step beyond the place assigned for "Scots worthies, and 
so was neither commemorated as friend or enemy." 
Vol. vii. p. 293. 

lie was a native of the ancient burgh of Mus- 
selburgh, near Edinburgh, where his family have 
flourished for many generations, as the local re- 
cords testify. Lament, in his Diary (p. 27), calls 
him a " Musselbrou^h man borne." By all account, 
his early life was wild and dissolute ; but having 
amended "his once very low life," says Baillie 
(Letters, iii. 112-3), "he 'inclined much in opinion 
towards the Sectaries, and having joined Cromwell 
at Preston . . . continued with them to the king's 

On November 17, 1643, he appears in the 
parish register of Inveresk as a witness to the 
baptism of Archibald, son of Thomas Smith, por- 
tioner of Inveresk, and Isabel Strachan his sister. 
He is described as " Archibald Strauchane, Captain 
in the Parliament's army." He is next heard of 
as an able soldier and servant of the Scottish 
Parliament. On Montrose's landing in the North 
in 1650, Strachan, described by Malcolm Laing 
as " a distinguished Sectary, who had defeated 

Middleton's late insurrection " (iii. 417), was seht 
against him with three hundred horse, David 
Leslie following with four thousand men. The 
result of the unfortunate skirmish at Corbie's 
Dale is well known. Sir Jas. Balfour (iv. 9) 
describes it graphically enough : 

" L l Colonell Strachan persewed them into the woode, 
and at the first charge made them all to rune .... 
did executione one them for 5 or 6 myles, euen until! 
sunne sett. He receiued a shotte vpon his belley, bot 
lighting vpone the double of his belte & buffe coate, did 
not pierce." 

At p. 70 of the same volume, it is recorded that 
the Parliament-, on July 3, 1650, gave him and 
Lieut.-Col. Ptobert Hacket "from the housse 
hartie thankes." 

Only four weeks later, viz. on July 31, Crom- 
well's troops lying near his native village, Mussel- 
burgh, Balfour tells us that 

" Gen.-Maior Rob. Montgomery & Colonell Straqu- 
hane led out a pairtey against the enimey of 2000 horsse 
<fe 500 foote, & beate'him souncllie ; & if he [qu. they?] 
had had 1000 more, they had routed his quhole armey. 
The killed to him 5 Colonells and L.-Colonells, mortiy 
woundit L.-Gen. Lambert and aboue 500 souldiers, and 
returned with no grate losse." Vol. iv. p. 87. 

Lambert was not mortally wounded; he re- 
covered, and lived for many years afterwards. 

Strachan's mind appears, like those of too many 
of the leading men of that stormy period, to have 
been warped and twisted with all sorts of wild 
ideas on religious matters. " At this time," says 
Baillie (loc. cit.\ "many of his old doubts revive 
in him." He was, as we have seen, "an awak- 
ened sinner; one of those whose early life was 
burdened with such a weight of sin that they 
feel as if all the world ought to do penance for 
it" (Hill Burton, loc. citS). He kept aloof now 
from king and Cromwell alike, and soon after 
took command of the considerable army raised by 
the "Remonstrants'' or "Protesters," otherwise 
" the wild Westland Whigs," then lying at Dum- 
fries. These men objected to the "young man 
Charles Stuart " on the score of his not being a 
sound Covenanter. There is no evidence to show 
that Strachan wished to play into his old leader 
Cromwell's hands; though it is most likely, at 
least if we are to believe Wodrow, that Cromwell 
was most anxious to secure him, and made him 
the most flattering offers. Some of his followers 
had a skirmish with a part of Cromwell's army 
at Hamilton ; yet soon after the Estates, with the 
king at their head, instituted a prosecution against 
him as an abettor of the enemy. (See " Summons 
against Col. Archibald Strachan, Walter Dundar 
of that Ilk, and others," Scotch Ads, vi. 548). 
Worse and worse they never did things by 
halves in those days on January 12, 1651, the 
day on which Lieut.-General Middleton was re- 
laxed from his penance, in sackcloth, in Dunda 



[4 th S. IX. MARCH 2, 72. 

" Colonell Archbald Straquhan was excommunicat and 
deliuered to the deiuall in the churche of Perthe by M" 
Alexander Rollocke." Balfour, op. cit. 

Wodrow (Analecta, ii. 86) says that this " sin- 
gular Christian's heart was much broken witt 
that sentence, and that he sickened and died 
within a while." He says further, on the authority 
of Strachan's brother-in-law Thomas Warner, or 
Vernor, minister of Balmaclellan a famous 
Covenanting hero that, so far from being an 
abettor of Cromwell, Strachan had refused the 
most tempting offers ; one of which was the com- 
mand of all the Parliament forces in Scotland, 
which Cromwell made to him. 

In the Burgh Court Book of Musselburgh, under 
date May 7, 1655, is a discharge : 

" Issobel Strachane, with consent of Thomas Smyth, 
portioner of Inneresk, her spouse, Jonet, Bessie, Helene, 
& Margaret Strachanes, all lawful sisters, and appeirand 
executrices to umq le Collonell Archibald Strachane, in 
favour of Robert Strachane, baillie, their brother, of all 
that they could claim of goods, money, etc., in terms of 
the Testament of the said umq le Collonell Archibald 

Thomas Smith was one of the leading inhabit- 
ants of Inveresk, and was appointed a justice of 
the peace under a commission of the Parliament 
in 1656. By his wife Isobel Strachan he had ten 
sons and four daughters all of whose births are 
recorded in the parish register. Isobel Strachan 
died at the birth of her thirteenth child in 1653 ; 
and Thomas Smith married for his second wife 
Margaret Watsone. (See an imperfect sketch, 
"The Smiths in Inveresk," N. & Q." 4 th S. iii. 
166, which I hope some day to be able to expand.) 

Which of the above-named sisters, if it was one 
of them, married Thomas Warner, I have not 
ascertained. Thomas Warner's brother Patrick, 
who was minister of Irvine, purchased the pro- 
perty of Ardeer, and was the founder of the 
family which now flourishes. His only daughter, 
Margaret, was the wife of Robert Wodrow the 

From the fact of Thomas Warner having been 
generally known in his parish and in contem- 
porary history as Vernor. and from his connection 
with the Strachans, it appears highly probable 
that these Warners, or Vernors, were descended 
from the old family of that name which has long 
flourished in Inveresk and its neighbourhood. 

F, M. S. 


ACHE. Go to a churchyard and bite a tooth out 
of the skull of a woman, and you will never be 
troubled with toothache. A gentleman of middle 
age residing in North Devon vividly remembers 
being taken as a child by his nurse into a church- 
yard where a grave was being dug, and his horror 

on her procuring a skull which was turned up 
and bidding him try to bite a tooth out of it. 


IN THE WEATHER. My clerk informed me while 
leaving church on a recent Sunday that the 
weather was going to change : gl the pigs were 
tossing up straw in the yard, the turnip-sheep 
rushing about, and the beasts (Anglic^ bullocks) 
fighting with each other." Of course the weather 
did not change, but I thought of the same belief 
in Virgil's time ; for fine weather, he tells us 

" non ore solutos 

Immundi meminere sues jactare maniplos," 
and in imminent bad weather the pecudes are 
fates. (Georgics, i. 399, 423.) PELAGIUS. 

Stamford Mercury for Feb. 2, under the heading 
" Melton Mowbray/! is an account of an annual 
dinner on Jan. 17, "the only public dinner given 
in the town, and towards which much interest is 
manifested." It was presided over by the vicar 
of the parish. The newspaper in question gives 
the following account of the origin of this dinner : 

" The dinner originated from the will of Mr. Hudson, 
founder of the Bede House, who bequeathed the sum of 
20*. for the preaching of a sermon on the first Sunday 
after the 17th of January, and 20s. for the refreshing of the 
vicar, churchwardens, and their friends." 

This custom appears worthy of a notice in these 

scribe the following from a curious old book : 

"Anno 1666. Magna calamitas, Saturno per Horo- 
scopum transeunte, eius quadrato per decimam. 

Anno 1691. Magna Reipublicse turbatio, corde Scorpij 
transeunte per decimam. 

Anno 1705. Adversa omnia, quia planetae transeunt 
per suas oppositiones. 

Annus 1756 minatur maximum excidium quia Horo- 
scopus peruenit ad corpus Saturni, et fit transitus & signo 
ae'reo in terreum sibi contrarium. 

Circa ann. 1884. Maxima aduersitas, quia tune mun- 
dus peruenit ad gradum septimum Scorpij, quadratum 
Anglise." Astrologies Nova Methodus Francisci Allan 
Arabis Christiani. Anno M.DC.LIIII. p. 62. 

The " magna calamitas " for 1666 was a great 

ait, as this proved to be the year pf the Fire ; the 

;hree following shots are rather wide of the mark. 

We have yet to see what 1884 has in store for us. 



SINGULAR CUSTOM. In the island of Telos, 
one of the Sporades group, there exists a local 
custom which prevents most of the younger girls 
rom marrying. The dowry of the mother is given 
;o the eldest daughter, and that of the father to 
he eldest son, whom the second daughter is also 
>bliged to serve during all her lifetime. If there 
are other daughters they are left to a miserable 
"ate, as, having no money or property, they can- 

4 th S. IX. MARCH 2, '72.] 



not tind husbands. Under these circumstances it 
\6 scarcely to be wondered at that the population 
of the island is not on the increase. (See Consular 
Reports, No. 1. of 1871. Vice-Consul Biliotti on 
the " Trade and Commerce of the Sporades.") 


Parliament Street. 

WHALES' " RIBS." It appears to be among 
" things not generally known," that these are 
jaw bones, which in whales are about one-third 
the length of the entire body. They show the 
aperture for the maxillary artery, vein, and nerve, 
but no teeth ; the place of these being supplied 
by the huge fringes of " whalebone " that entangle 
the small marine creatures on which the whales 
subsist. J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

FINGER CAKES. In the ancient town of Llan- 
twit Major a custom prevails of making at Christ- 
mas finger cakes, that is cakes made in the form 
of a hand, on the back of which is a little bird. 
What is the origin of this custom, -and does it 
prevail in any other part of the kingdom.? 

R. & M. 

hung, he is said to be stabbed with a Bridport 
dagger. The saying originated from the quantity 
of flax grown there. People who are unneigh- 
bourly are said to be as far apart as Lewsdon Hill 
from Pillesdon (or Pilsdon) Pen j the latter is an 
old Roman encampment. These two hills are 
known to seamen as the " Cow and Calf. 2 ' 



Since the publication in " N. & Q." of Feb. 10 
(ante, p. 108) of my notice of Thomas Geeran, 
the alleged centenarian of Brighton, I have had 
handed to rne the results of an inquiry into his 
case. It is so exhaustive and complete a demo- 
lition of the series of falsehoods by which Geeran 
imposed upon the benevolent, that I think it de- 
serves publication without alteration or abridg- 

40, St. George's Square, S.W. 


Remarks on the statements contained in a book called 
" Longevity : The Life of Thomas Geeran, late of the 
71st Highlanders." 

Determined, if possible, to fathom the mystery 
of this old man's reputed services in the 71st, I 
went to the Public Record Office, and obtained 
access to the original muster rolls, pay sheets, and 
description roll of this regiment, for a period ex- 
tending from 1780 to 1830, which period more 
than covered the time of his alleged service. 

From this search I extracted the following in- 
formation : 

In 1796, the year of his alleged enlistment, 
there was no such man on the pay-sheets of the 
71st, nor was there any name at all like it. 

In 1799, the year alleged in which he was pre- 
sent with the 71st in India, there was no such 
man or name on the pay-lists of the regiment. 

In 1801, the year when he alleged he was in 
Egypt, there was no such name on the rolls. 

In 1809, the year Corunna was fought, at which 
battle he alleged he was present, there was no 
such name on the rolls. 

In 1815, the year Waterloo was fought, at 
which battle he alleged he was present, there was 
no such name on the rolls. 

In 1819, the year in which he alleged he was 
discharged, there was no such name on the rolls. 

It may fairly be asked then, is it' possible that 
he could have served as he alleged, and yet not 
have his name on these rolls ? The pay-lists are 
the originals forwarded quarterly by the pay- 
master, and containing the name of every member 
of the regiment drawing pay, and therefore fully 
to be relied upon. 

Where, then, could this old man have picked 
up all his wonderful anecdotes and asserted re- 
miniscences of the exploits of the 71st ? The fol- 
lowing information will, I think, go a long way 
to prove who this man really was, and why he 
should have picked out such a regiment as the 
one he did. 

It appears from the pay-sheets of the 71st Foot 
in 1813, that there was a man of the name of 
Michael Gearyn or Gayran, then serving. 

From the description roll it appears that he 
enlisted March 3, 1813, and deserted on April 10, 

He was born at Turlee (sic) in the county of 
Kerry, Ireland, and was by trade a tailor. The 
following is a comparative description of Thomas 
Geeran and Michael Gearyn, by which it will be 
seen that in appearance, &c. there must have been 
so great a resemblance between these two men 
as almost to establish their identity : 

Thomas Geeran*, born at Tulla, Killaloe, Clare ; 
height on enlisting, 5 feet lOf ; hair, white in 
1870 ; eyes blue ; complexion fresh. 

Michael Gearyn, born at Turlee (?), co. Kerry ; 
height on enlisting 5 feet 9| j hair brown ; eyes 
blue : complexion fresh. 

Thomas Geeran, when asked the name of the 
officers of the regiment, could only recollect two, 
Col. Denis Packe and Lt. Anderson the adj utant. 

Col. Denis Packe commanded the regiment for 
a great many years, and his name would therefore 
be well known in it. 

Lt. Anderson the adjutant did not' enter the 

* Thomas Geeran stated his father's name was Michael. 
This account of his personal appearance is taken from his 
answers to a form sent to him from Chelsea Hospital in 



[4> S. IX. MARCH 2, 72. 

service until 1808; was adjutant from 1811 unti 
after 1813, and therefore was the adjutant when 
Michael Geary n was in the regiment. 

Michael Gearyn stated his age at enlistmen 
into the 71st Foot in 1813 as 25. If Michael anc 
Thomas were one and the same person, his age at 
death, Oct. 28, 1871, would be about 83, not 105. 
The following .extracts are intended to show 
the numerous contradictions that are in the book 
entitled Longevity : The Life of Thomas Geeran 
late of the 7 1st Highlanders. 

We give, first, statements made by the man 
himself, or by some one acting on his behalf, and 
then the extracts from the same work contradict- 
ing these statements. 

Appended. to these are also extracts from the 
various letters and papers sent up to Chelsea 
Hospital from time to time in support of his peti- 
tion for a pension for his services in the 71st 
regiment ; and also evidence as regards the stations 
of that regiment during the period Geeran stated 
he served in it; its foreign service and history; 
nearly the whole of which tend to show that the 
71st was not at the places at the time stated 
by Geeran, and that he could not possibly have 
served with it, and yet have performed the service 
he'stated he did. 

This latter evidence is extracted from the His- 
torical Records of the 71st Highland Light In- 
fantry, published by command of H. M. William 
IV. Compiled from official records ly R. Cannon, 
JEsq., Principal Clerk of the Adjutant General's 

The extracts from the book Longevity are 
printed in roman type, each extract being fol- 
lowed by its contradictory statement, in Italics, 
some of these being from the book Longevity, and 
some from official records. 

Pages 37 and 59. " Tom's father was a farmer. 
Tom assisted him. After his father's death he 
held the appointment of clerk in the office of a 
wealthy firm in Waterford, and was raised to an 
advanced post as agent to the branch house in 
America. Before starting he got drunk and 

Page 56. (C Bred a sawyer, lie continued to work 
fit hi* trnrle till the year 1796. when he enlisted into 
the list Foot." 

Page 39. "Sailed to join the 71st or Glasgow 
regiment in 1797." 

" In June 1808, H. M. George III. was pleased 
to approve of the 7lst bearing the title of Glasgow 
regiment:'' (Vide Historical Records.} 

Page 39. "In 1797 they landed at Madras, 
where the recruits