Skip to main content

Full text of "Notes and queries"

See other formats

Index Supplement to the Tsotes and Queries, with Xo. 3, Jan. 17, 1874. 


I 1 ^V 

y ^\ 


JWe&tum of EttteiTommuntcatiott 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 3, Jan. 17, 1874. 



4- s. xii. JULY 5, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NOTES :-Our Late Editor-A Fire in St. Paul's Cathedral, 1 
Bibliography of Utopias and Imaginary Travels and His- 
tories, 2 Extract from my old MS. Note-Book, 3 William 
Charles Byron, 4 " Cary's Memoirs "Horace and Burns 
Tennyson's Natural History Edmund Burke, 5 The First, 
Murderer Epitaph Bell Inscription M. Thiers and the 
Chenier Family" Whose owe it" Attic Oath Reproduced 
Dr. Solomon Bolger, Physician in Ordinary to Charles II., 

QUERIES : Exmoor Fossils, 6 Michael Angelo Who was 
Alexander Pennecuik ? Count Boruwlaski " Crumwell's 
Injunctions "Royal Guard of Scotland Snuff-box presented 
to Bacon by Burns, 7 Coronet of the Prince of Wales 
"Fawney"=a Ring Printing and Gunpowder Alexander 
McKesson "Render unto Caesar" Liber Scholasticus 
Mansie Wauch Wigs The Rev. Comberbach Leech 
Queries from Swift's Letters Authors and Quotations 
Wanted, 8 Carolan, 9. 

REPLIES: Euthanasia, 9-Cromwell and Charles I., 10-Piers 
the Plowman "I mad the Carles Lairds," &c., 11 Ascance 
Andrew Marvell, 12 -Steel Pens Mrs. Elizabeth Porter- 
Observance of Sunday, 13 "At Bay" Richard West, 
ChanceUor of Ireland " Altamira" Council of Nicsea 
" Arya-Vartta ; or, the Abode of Noble Men of Good 
Family, 14 Paley and the Watch " Collide " Somerville 
Peerage Founders' Kin, 15 Prince Charles Edward : 
"Secretary Murray" Gaol Fever Aquila Umbrellas 
The Dove as a Symbol, 16 Gainsborough's " Blue Boy" 
" Skimmington "Laurence Claxton "To Hell a Building," 
17 " Insense " Cuningham Family "Never look a gift 
horse," &c. Widow's Freebench Madame de Genlis Heel- 
taps Uncle Mamouc "A Light Heart," &c. Sinews of 
War, 18 Piscinae : Drains in Church-floors Palindromes 
"Things in General," 19. 

2f otes on Books, &c. 


The following paragraph appeared in the Times 
on Tuesday last : 

" On the occasion of the complimentary dinner, under 
the presidency of Lord Stanhope, given to Mr. Thorns in 
November last, on his retirement from the editorship of 
Notes and Queries, a desire was expressed on the part of 
many who were unable to attend, as well as of those 
who were present, to offer him some more lasting 
testimonial of their respect. Mr. Thoms's Johnsonian 
proclivities for the 'cup that cheers but not inebriates' 
suggested the form which the testimonial should assume, 
and the zealous exertions of Sir William Tite and Mr. 
Ouvry soon secured the necessary funds. A handsome 
silver tea and coffee service and a magnificent salver, 
with a suitable inscription, were ready for presentation 
in January. Sir William Tite, from his share in the 
movement, as an old personal friend, and being President 
of the Camden Society (of which Mr. Thorns had been 
for 34 years honorary secretary when he retired shortly 
before Christmas), was obviously the fittest person to 
present it, and he consented to do so on his return from 
Torquay. In consequence, however, of his lamented 
death the idea of a public presentation was abandoned, 
and the testimonial has this week been privately handed 
to Mr. Thorns." 

With reference to the above we have been 
requested by MB. THOMS to give insertion to the 
following letter : 

" Had I not been deprived by the lamented death of 
feir William Tite, as has been announced in the Times 

and elsewhere, of the additional gratification with which I 
should have received at the hands of that old and valued 
friend, the Testimonial which his zeal and that of my 
kind friend, Mr. Ouvry, has evoked from a large body of 
distinguished men, I should on that occasion have ac- 
knowledged, in as fitting terms as I could command, my 
grateful thanks for this handsome 'token of sincere 
regard,' of which better men than myself might well be 

" Being unable otherwise to thank publicly those to 
whose kindness I am indebted for this gratifying evidence 
that, in their opinion, I have honestly, and to the best 
of my abilities, however imperfectly, played my part in 
the busy Drama of Life, will you permit me to do so in 
those columns with which I have been for so many years 
associated ] WILLIAM J. THOMS." 

Looking to the fact that MR. THOMS was the 
founder of this Journal, we may with just pride 
preserve in its columns the following extract from 
the Report of the Council of the Camden Society 
for 1873 : 

" On the 4th December, 1872, the President acquainted 
the Council that he had received a letter from Mr. Thorns 
resigning the post of Secretary to the Society. The 
Council at once directed a Resolution to be entered on 
the Minutes in the following words : 

" ' That the Council, in reluctantly accepting the re- 
signation by MR. THOMS of the office of Secretary, which 
from the commencement of the Society he has held, 
desire to place on record their sense of the invaluable 
services which during that long period he has rendered 
to the Society, and of the zeal, courtesy, and kindness 
which he has uniformly displayed in the performance of 
no light duties. The Council desire to assure MR. THOMS 
that he carries with him the cordial respect and regard 
of every one of his colleagues.' 

" The Council feel assured that the Society at large 
will cordially endorse the expressions of respect and 
esteem for MR. THOMS which they have made use of, and 
unite with them in recording their sense of the great 
benefits that have accrued to the Society from the post 
of Secretary having been held during so long a period by 
a gentleman possessing in an eminent degree every 
qualification needful for the complete performance of the 
arduous duties entrusted to him." 


Every one knows how relentless a foe fire has 
been to St. Paul's Cathedral, even from very early 
times. In a little quarto manuscript, entitled 
Croniculi S. Pauli London ad Ann. 1399, pre- 
served in the British Museum (No. 22, 142, Plut. 
175, A.), we find the following brief memoranda: 

" 1087, 7 Julii. Ecclesia S. P. L. et omnia que in ea 
erant cum magna parte Civitatis igne erant consumpta 
tempore Mauricii Episcopi London. 

1137. Combusta erat Ecclesia Sancti Pauli London 
per ignem." 

In 1444, as Dugdale records, there was a fire in 
the timber work of the steeple occasioned by 
lightning ; in 1561, on the 4th of June, the spire and 
roof were destroyed by a fire, caused either by 
lightning or by that fruitful source of ruin, the 
carelessness of a plumber (Dugdale's St. Paul's, 
edit. Sir H. Ellis, pp. 95-98) ; and in 1666 oc- 
curred the Great Fire of London. 


There was, however, another occasion, less known 
than any of the preceding, when the Cathedral 
Im.l a very narrow escape from destruction. JJug- 
dale, or rather his continuator, Sir Henry Ellis, 
thus relates the circumstances : 

"The continuator of Stow informs us that on Feb. 
27, 1698-9, a fire broke out at the west end of the North 
Aisle of the Choir, in a room prepared for the organ 
bSde?towork in when the Choir was newly finished. 
But the communication between the work room and the 
organ gallery being broken down, and proper means 
used, the fire was got under; doing no other damage 
but to two pillars and an arch with enrichments, bee 
Strype's Stow, vol. i. p. 155. Bateman's manuscript 
dates this accident in 1688-9, and says the repair of it 
cS 7101. 12s. 8Jd."-Dugdale's St. Paul's, edit. Ellis, p. 
172, note J. 

It will be observed that the two authorities 
cited differ in the date assigned to the outbreak of 
this fire, the continuator of Stow giving the date 
as 27th Feb. 1698-9, the Bateman MS. as 1688-9. 
Mr. William Longman, the Chairman of the 
Finance Committee for the completion of St. 
Paul's, in his book (published during the month 
of June, 1873), A History of the Three Cathedrals 
dedicated to St. Paul in London (a volume, by 
the way, abounding in excellent plates and wood- 
cuts), refers to this fire in a note on page 129, and 
says : 

" It seems to me that Bateman's date is preferable, for 
it is clear that the fire took place before the opening of 
the Choir for Divine Service, and this agrees with Bate- 
man's date, while the date given in Stow is after that 

By a lucky accident I am able to throw a little 
light upon the matter. A few days ago, whilst en- 
gaged in cataloguing a folio volume of miscellaneous 
tracts in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, 
I met with a broadside bound up in the volume 
(the press mark is 66, A. 2, and the broadside is 
article 9), of which I now send you a literal tran- 
script. I think that it is worth printing, not for 
the merit of the lines, which are of a sufficiently 
commonplace cast, but as a slight contribution to 
the history of the grand Cathedral of St. Paul. I 
imagine that the broadside may be somewhat scarce, 
as I have never seen another copy. If the author 
of the poem is correct, and I should think that 
he is, from his evident knowledge of the extent o: 
the damage done, then we may consider that the 
true date of this fire is 1698-9. 


On 8' Paul's being Preserved from the late Fire, that 
happened in it February the 27th, 1698-9. 
" Yes ! now 'twill rise what ere the Fates have done, 
Or can t' Obstruct what was so well begun, 
'Twill rise, and be once more as truly Great, 
As e'er before, and as before Compleat ; 
'Twill Stand, (and Universal Wonder move) 
A Heaven below or Like to that above : 
I know it will That swift devouring Foe, 
That did before it's utmost Malice show 
That laid it's Ancient Stately Towers wast, 

And all its Beauty spoil'd, is now at last 

Strangely defective grown, and well it may, 

When e'er Heaven stops its Course it must obey ; 

The place (the fatal place) it chose indeed. 

To make its Onsett, seem'd as tho decreed 

To seise the Whole, as it had done the Quire, 

That Fort must fall whose Magazine's on Fire. 

But not so here the wise all-rulemg Hand 

(That kindles Flames, and can those Flames Command,)! 

Soon interpos'd and its intended Spoil 

Prevented soon, this pleasing Sacred Pile ; 

('Tis now resolv'd, said he) must stand unmov d, 

Be even mine, and be for ever Lov'd. 

One Element shall twice the World Destroy 

\s soon as one shall twice my House Annoy. 

On this an Anthem strait within that Sphere 
Was sung to Him, for Angels still are there, 
The Organs too (amidst the Fire and Smoke) 
Tun'd up a new, and in his Praises Spoke ; 
The very Flame was pleas'd at this, and strove 
To reach 7m Altar not in Rage but Love. ^ 
And (as its custome was) from thence wou'd go, 
When Kindled by some fervent Saint below 
Wou'd go a swift Embassador to Heaven, 
For greater Favours, if such can be given : 
And then Rest there to show how Men Adore 
To expiate its Sacriledge before. 

At which the grosser Part in haste withdrew, 
It durst not, could not greater Mischief do ; 
That Sacred Place shall stand, and may defie 
A Flameing, or a more malignant Enemie, 
Shall stand, and not as now, but all Compleat, 
And be as Israel's was Jehovah's Seat ; 
Just as it Shone in all its Beauteous Dress, 
This can't be more, nor yet at last be less, 
And may without a Miracle be done 
Within some Annual Circuits of the Sun. 
Did our great Patriots cast but such a Smile, 1 
As they of late have on our Happy Isle, V 

Twou'd soon be made a perfect Glorious Pile, j 

By M. B. 

LONDON, Printed by G. Groom, at the Blew-Ball over 
against Bride-well." 

The ancient statutes of the Cathedral enjoin 

the Gustos Operis to take special precautions 

igainst fire. Amongst the rules for his conduct 

n the duties of his office, we find the following: 

" Item quod inhabitacio ipsius et famulorum suorum 

n Berefrido de cetero interdicatur, ne per ipsos, quod 

absit, tercio inflammetur," kc.Reyistrum Consuetudi- 

num et Statutorum S. Pauli, pp. 77, 78. 

To this note, I will add a query : Who is 
the author of the poem printed above I How are 
we to interpret the letters M. B. '? 


(Continued from 4 th S. xi. 521 J 

The Isle of Pines, or a Late Discovery of a Fourth 
Island in Terra Australis Incognita. By George Pine 
[Henry Nevile.] 4to. London, 1668. 

The Floating Island, or, a New Discovery relating the 
Strange Adventures on a Late Voyage from Lambethana 
to Villa Franca, alias Ramallia, to the Eastward of Terra 
del Temple, under Captain Robert Owe, much Describing 
the Inhabitants, their Religion, Laws, and Customs. 
Published by Franck Careless, one of the Discoverers. 

4 th S. XI I. JULY '>, '73 


[By Richard Head, author of The English Rogue.} 4to. 
London, 1673. 

La Terre Australe Connue, c'est-a-dire la Description 
de ce Pays Inconnu jusqu'ici, de ses Moeurs, et de ses 
Coutumes, par M. Sadeur, avec les Aventures qui le 

Conduisirent en ce Continent reduites et mises 

en Lumiere par les Soins et le Conduite de G. de F. 
12mo. Yannes, 1676. 

The author, according to Brunet, was an ex- 
cordelier, Gabriel de Foigny, and the work was 
really printed, not at Vannes, but at Geneva. 

Histoire des Sevarambes, Peuples qui Habitent une 
Partie du Troisieme Continent, ordinairement appele 
Terre Australe ; traduite de 1'Anglaise. 5 parts. 12mo. 
Paris, 1677-9. 

Keally written in French by Denis Vairasse 

Relation de 1'Ile de Borneo. 

By Bernard le Bouvier de Fontenelle. I cannot 
discover the date of any early edition. It was 
printed in the Supplement aux (Euvres de M. de 
Fontenelle, Neufchatel, 1768, and again separately, 
En Europe, Paris, 1807. 

Here follow five French works, of which I can 
discover neither the date nor authorship, and place 
them at a guess between the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. They are mentioned in a 
note to Helionde, by Sydney Whiting, 3rd ed., p. 
416. I shall be glad to learn any particulars 
respecting them. 

Relation d'un Voyage du Pole Arctique au Pole Ant- 
.arctique, par le Centre du Monde. 

Relation du Monde de Mercure. 

Lam^kis, ou les Voyages Extraordinaires d'un Egyptien 
dans la Terre Inte'rieure. 

Les Voyages de Milord Coton dans les Sept Planetes. 

Le Voyage Merveilleux du Prince Fanferedin dans la 

Relations du Royaume de Candavia, envoye'es a Ma- 
dame la Comtesse de * * * 12mo. Imprimees a. 
Jovial, chez Staket le Goguenard, Rue des Fidvres 
Chaudes, a 1'Enseigne des R^ves, se trouve a Paris, chez 
Jacques Josses. 12mo. Circa 3700. 

Interlunere ; or, a Voyage to the Moon, containing 
some considerations on the Nature of that Planet, the 
Possibility of Getting Thither, with Pleasant Conceits 
about the Inhabitants, their Manners and Customs. 
12mo. London, 1707. 

Secret Memoirs and Manners of several Persons of 
Quality of both Sexes from the New Atalantis, an Island 
in the Mediterranean. 3 vols. 8vo. London, 1709-10. 

A licentious satire upon some of the chief per- 
sonages of her time, by Mrs. Manley. I am not 
sure whether this is the first edition of the work. 
I presume the following is another edition of the 
same, under a somewhat different title: Court of 
Atalantis, containing Four Years' History of that 
famous Island, Political and Galant, intermixed 
r ivith Fables and Epistles, in Verse and Prose. 
8vo., 1714. 

Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in 
Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver, first a Surgeon, and then 

a Captain of Several Ships. 2 vols. 8vo. [By Jonathan 
Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's.] London, 1726. 

The next year, the second edition was followed 
by a continuation, which was not by Swift. To 
the French edition of 1730, translated by the 
Abbe Desfontaines, there is added 

Le Nouveau Gulliver, ou Voyage du Capitaine Gulliver, 
traduit du Manuscrit Anglais par M. L. D. F. [M. I/ Abbe 
Desfontaines, who was really its author.] Paris, 1730. 

Memoirs of Gaudentio di Lucca, taken from his Con- 
fessions before the Fathers of the Inquisition at Bologna 
in Italy, making a Discovery of an Unknown Country, 
in the Deserts of Africa. 8vo. London, 1737. 

Generally attributed to the celebrated Bishop 

Nic. Klimii Iter Subterraneum, Novam Telluris Theo- 
riam ac Historian! Quintse Monarchiae adhuc nobis 
Incognitas Exhibens. [By the Danish Poet, Ludvig, 
Baron von Holberg.] 8vo. Hafniae, 1741. 

Translated as Subterranean Travels of Niels 
Klimm. From the Latin of Lewis Holberg, 8vo. 
London, 1828. There was also an English trans- 
lation in 1742. 

A Journey from this World to the Next. By Henry 
Fielding. London, circa 1742. 

The Capacity and Extent of the Human Understanding; 
exemplified in the Extraordinary Case of Automathes, a 
Young Nobleman, who was Accidentally Left in his 
Infancy upon a Desolate Island, and continued Nineteen 
Years in that Solitary State, separated from all Human 
Society. 12mo. London, 1745. 

The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins, a Cornish 
Man, taken from his own Mouth in his Passage to Eng- 
land from off Cape Horn, in America, in the Ship Hector. 
By R. S., a Passenger in the Hector. [By Robert Paltock, 
of Clement's Inn.] 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1750. 

Histoire de Camouflet, Souverain Potentat de 1'Empire 
d'Equivopolis. A Equivopolis, 1751. 

The Voyages and Discoveries of Crusoe Richard Davis, 
the Son of a Clergyman in Cumberland, .... his Dis- 
covery of a Floating Island, where, among Various Re- 
searches, he Discovered and Caught a Wild Feathered 
Woman, with whom he lived, and taught the English 
Language, &c. 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1756. 

An Account of the First Settlement, Laws, Form of 
Government, and Police of the Cessares, a People of 
South America, in Nine Letters from Mr. Van der Neck, 
one of the Secretaries of the Nation, to his Friend in 
Holland, with Notes by the Editor. [By James Burgh.] 
London, 1760. 

A Journey lately Performed through the Air, in an 
Aerostatic Globe, commonly called an Air Balloon, from 
this Terraqueous Globe to the Newly Discovered Planet, 
Georgium JSidus. By Monsieur Vivenair. London, 1784. 

A dull and stupid satire on the court and 
government of George III. 

(To be concluded in our next.) 




i. Good for the brayne. 

to smell the sauour of Muske/ of quybyles, of camo 

to drink wyne mesurablye. 


[4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 73. 

to ete a lytle sago; to con* thy hed/ 

oft wasshing thy hands & fette/ mesurable walkyng 
and mesurable slepyng/ 

to here swete song of musyke or syngyng/ 

to ete musterd and peper/ 

to smell the redde rose/ and to wasshe the temples w l 
the water of rede roses * stylled./. 

ii. Evell for the Irayne. 

All man r brayne of beaste/ glotonye/ dronkonnes; late 

to slepe moch aft r meatte/ corrupt ayre/ hevynes/ 

to vncov r thy hedd/ 

to eatt softlye/ to moche hete/ to moche walkyng/ to 
moche colld mylke/ chese/ nutts/ 

to eate orf thou hugar/ bathing aft r meatt/ onyons/ 
garlyke/ great noyse/ 

to smell to a whytte * rose/ and moche late walkyng 

A Reivle to Jcnowe Ike dispotion (sic) of the yeare. 


A. Wynter hott'. Ver weett/ hervest J wyndye/ 
/dethe of people/ plentye of fruitts/ good heyryng/. 
fygthyng (sic) of knightts/ tidyngs of kyngs and 

prynces. deithe of cattell/. moche robbyng/. 

-r- B. PESSIM 8 /'. 

B. Comone wynter/ Ver wyndye. hervest tempestyous./ 
moche sycknesses/ losse of been (bees) I good wyne/ 
deithe of kings/ Justyng of knightts'/ soroyng of olid 



C. Wynter blacke/ Ver frosti/ hott hervest. 

deithe of wome/ plentie of fruite/ losse of shippes/ 
losse of wyne/ myche losse of bests, many been/ grett 
hurtt w* fyer/ tydyngs of kings./ 


D. Wynter hott. Ver good. Weett haruest. 

a good year, good wyne/ fell been, heys in parell. 
greatt hungarr./ tydyngs of kings/. 

E. Wyntter comen/. Wyndye Ver/. good heruest. 

fewe been/ good yeare/ many apples/ plentie of corne/ 
plentie of oylle. grett peace/ bestes sycke. greatt 
flood ds./ 


F. Wyntter colldd. Ver sliarpe/. hervest hott. 

deithe of been/, deithe of chillderne./ wheitt plentie. 
good wyne. sore eyes, earthe quakes, yren and stelle 
perish [!!] 


G. Wyntter indifferent. Ver colld. harvest vncertaine/ 
moche payne in the hedds/. a heapp year of corne. 
many chanc es shall happen, a helthfull year. 

Ver begynnythe whe the sonne entreith into Arietem. 

* To smell of a red rose is "good," but to smell of a 
white one is "evil." It is a fact that the essential oil of 
red roses is astringent and tonic, while that of white 
roses is laxative and lowering. Every chemist knows 
that the basis of several pharmaceutical preparations of 
an astringent nature is the red rose only. Probably 
compliment to the reigning family (Henry VII., a Lan- 
castrian) may have had some share in giving a bad name 
to the white rose, and a good name to the red. 

" Or " for ere, Saxon aer. Shakspeare, Macbeth, iv. 3, 
has 'dying or ere [before ever] they sicken." In this 
case " ere " is for e'er. 

I Hervest is the Anglo-Saxon herfest (autumn), whence 
herfest-wceta, the autumnal rains. 

Heyryng, i.e., hay-harvest. 

that ys the xx calendes of Aprille the xxiij daye of 
marche. And yt lastyth tyll the sonne ent r into Cancf 
the xx calendes of July, y* ys the xxij daye of June. 
Vse luse] cold & drye meatts. 

^Estas whe the sonne entreth in cancro/ and lastyth 
tyll the sonne ent r into library. Vse cold & moist 

Auttipnus begynythe xx calendes of October, and lastyth 
tyll the sonne enter into Capricornio. that ys the xx 
calendes of January the xxiij daye of december/. Vse 
hote meat & moist. 

Hiemps begynnyth the xx calendes of January. And 
lastythe tyll the sonne enter into Arietem./ hott & drye 

Notes. The word been, as the plural of " bee," is an 
interesting example of the plural in n. It is, of course, 
the Anglo-Saxon beo, plural beon ; hence the compounds 
beon-bread [bees' bread], beon-brdth [bees' broth, i.e., 
mead], beon-theof [a stealer or robber of bees], &c. 

"Wheitt," for wheat, is the Dutch weit, German, 

The constant mention of wine seems to favour the 
opinion that our island was once famous for its wines, 
although it by no means settles the doubt whether the wine 
referred to was made of grapes or only of apples, pears, 
currants, or honey. The term win-berie [wine-berry or 
grape] certainly shows that the grape was emphatically 
a wine fruit, although, without doubt, the word "mead" 
was used before the Conquest as a synonym for wine. 
Witness such compounds as medo-arn, synonymous with 
win-arn [a cellar], medo-gdl = win-gal [flushed with 
wine], medo-/u'is = win-hiis [a tavern], medo-scenc = win- 
scene [a wine-cup], &c. 

"Deith" is not a usual word, although we find in 
Early English dieth as well as death. Indeed, our verb 
die is evidently the basis of the word " dieth," although I 
do not recollect such a verb as diedian as a form of 
deddian. Halliwell, in his Archaic Dictionary, gives us 
deih [for die], and refers us to Langtoft, p. 159. He also 
gives us deie, " to put to death," which he calls Anglo- 
Saxon, but the usual verb is dydan. 

The last observation I would make is this, that the 

lint [.], which we call full stop, certainly in the MS. 
referred to at the heading of this article has not the 
force we now ascribe to it. It is often less than our 
comma, the usual form of which was a dash, thus [/], and 
the usual full stop is made thus [./] or [/.], but [.] alone 
is often used simply to separate words. 


Lavant, Chichester. 


As everything relating to the illustrious poet ? 
Byron, is fraught with interest to every one who 
cares for English literature, I send for record in 
" N. & Q." a verbatim et literatim copy of a letter 
from a so-called " nephew " of his lordship, which 
bas come into my custody recently amongst the 
papers of a well-known literary contemporary and 
friend of Byron. 
The superscription is: 

" 3) Right Hoble Lord Byron, 

P r favor: of Gen 1 St. John, 

Audley Square, 
South Audley Street, 

Enquire at 

Mr. Murry's Book seller, 
Albermarl Street." 

4 :h S. XII. JULY y, '73.] 


The post-mark is, as well as I can make out, 
" Portsmouth, MR 23," with some other initials or 
figures best known to the person who impressed 
them. There is another post-office stamp ; but it is 
quite illegible. The cost of postage marked across 
the address is eightpence. I mention these minutice 
to show readers of " N. & Q." generally, that the 
letter is primd facie genuine in its statements from 
the fact of its having been through the post ; whilst 
I am able to add that I have reason to believe it 
was duly received by the noble poet. 

The letter itself runs as follows : 


" Portsmouth, March 23rd, 1823. 
"My Lord, 

" It is with great Reluctance that I now trouble you. 
But on recievin<* your kind answer to the Letter I sent 
you whilst under confinement in Newgate, Intimating 
your Intention of sending Me a trifle I left word with 
my sister in law to call upon your Lordship with a Note 
from Me and If your Lordship was pleased to send me 
the trifle Promis'd for her to Remitt the Same to Me 
Immediately. In the course of the Week following I left 
Newgate and arrived Here, I then dispatch'd a Letter to 
my sister in law But have not reciev'd any answer there- 
fore am at a loss to Imagine whether she reciev'd the 
trifle from your Lordship or Not therefore I should take 
It as a favor If your Lordship would be Pleased to send 
me an answer to this By Return of Post. Direct for me 
On Board the Leviathan Portsmouth Harbour I remain 
with Profound Respect 

" Your Lordships nephew, 


" Gen 1 St. John will be pleas'd to accept my humble 
apology for troubling him but I hope he will transmitt 
this to his Lordship as Soon as Possible as I am Unac- 
quanited with his Place of Abode and am only Inform'd 
of his Arrival By the Public Newspapers." 

When this extraordinary letter was written 
Byron was "domesticated" with the Countess 
Guiccioli at the Villa Saluzzo, at Albano, a suburb 
of Genoa ; whither he had gone from Pisa to reside 
in the preceding September, and whence he started 
on the Greek expedition on the 14th of the follow- 
ing July dying at Missolonghi on the 19th of 
April, 1824. It is not likely, therefore, that the 
letter was ever replied to. Amongst the papers in 
my possession I can find nothing to throw any 
light on this impecunious member of the Byron 
family, if a member he was, though there is no 
doubt the letter duly reached its destination. 


Richmond, Surrey, S.W. 

" CART'S MEMOIRS." The Memoirs of Robert 
Gary, Earl of Monmouth, were first printed by the 
Earl of Corke and Orrery in 1759, and in 1808 
they were reprinted at Edinburgh under the 
editorship of Sir Walter Scott, who, in the adver- 
tisement, observes that " the original edition has 
now become very scarce." Sir Walter does not 
seem to have been aware that there were three 
editions of the Memoirs printed in 1759, namely 
two in London, in 8vo., and one in Dublin, in 12mo 

I draw attention to this because Sir Walter took 
no notice of the list of errata to the first edition of 
1759, and probably had not seen it ; for in one 
place (p. 67) he points out an important error 
made by Lord Orrery, which was corrected by his 
Lordship in the errata in the first edition, and in 
the body of the book (p. 115) in the second. 

There are several other misprints in the first 
edition, which are indicated by Lord Orrery as 
errata, and which he corrected in the second, but 
which errors are reprinted in their original form 
by Sir Walter in 1808. For example, the latter 
gives (p. 148) the date of Prince Henry's death as 
Sunday, the 12th of October, 1611, although Lord 
Orrery had in 1759 already corrected it to Friday, 
the 6th of November, 1612. There is also in 
Lord Orrery's second English edition an additional 
note (p. 167) relating to the ballad of CJievy Cliase, 
which Scott would hardly have left out had he 
known of its existence. EDWARD SOLLY. 

HORACE AND BURNS. There are some passages 
in which Burns seems to imitate Horace. I do 
not know if he had ever read a translation of the 
Latin poet's odes. 

" The flowery Spring leads sunny Summer, 

And yellow Autumn presses near, 

Then in his turn comes gloomy Winter, 

Till smiling Spring again appear." 

" Frigora mitescunt Zephyris, Ver preterit JEstas, 

Interitnra, simul 

Pomifer Autumnus fruges effuderit ; et mox 
Bruma recurrit iners." 

Horace, Book iv. ode 7. 

"And as with thee I'd wish to live, 
For thee I'd bear to die." 

" Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens." 

Horace, Book iii. ode 9. 

A verse that Mr. Longfellow has written strongly 
resembles one of Burns's : 

" Her closed eyes like weapons sheathed." 


" His eye 
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath." 


often the Laureate is at fault in his renderings of 
Nature, but his line in Maud is surely wrong : 
" The mayfly is torn by the swallow, the sparrow spear'd 
by the shrike." 

The butcher-bird does not fly at anything bigger 
than beetles and flies, I believe. I shall be 
delighted, so great is my love for the Laureate, to 
be proved wrong. PELAGIUS. 

EDMUND BURKE. On page 156 of " N. & Q.," 
4 th S. xi., I drew attention to a work by the per- 
secutor of Warren Hastings. I now wish to 



[4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 73. 

make a note about another work, which appears to 
have been improperly attributed to him : 

" Mr. Brougham takes it for granted, throughout his 
treatise, that Mr. Burke was the author of the account 
of the European settlements. We believe that the fact 
has never been ascertained, and that a contrary opinion 
has lately prevailed." Monthly Review, 1806, vol. 1. p. 18. 

THE FIRST MURDERER. During the recent 
visit of Herr and Mrs. Bandmann to Edinburgh, 
the part of the First Murderer in Macbeth was 
somewhat appropriately, if also a little irreverently, 
led to Mr. Kane. W. M. 

EPITAPH. The following hie jacet was written 
by a husband on his departed wife, who was a 
notorious shrew : 

" We lived one and twenty year 
As man and wife together ; 
I could not stay her longer here, 
She 's gone I know not whither ; 
But did I know, I do protest, 
(I speak it not to flatter) 
Of all the women in the world, 
I swear I'd ne'er come at her. 
Her body is bestowed well, 
This handsome grave doth hide her, 

And sure her soul is not in h , 

The devil could ne'er abide her : 
But I suppose she's soar'd aloft, 
For in the late great thunder, 
Methought I heard her very voice 
Rending the clouds asunder." 

Ashford, Kent. 

BELL INSCRIPTION. Latin inscription on the 
bell called the Silver Bell, in one of the towers at 
the gate of St. John's College, Cambridge : 
/'Quod facio pulsata, volens tu perfice claro 
Scilicet ut possit tempus abire sono. 

W. L. 1624." 
Translation : 

"I sound struck by clapper dent, 
Act thou of thine own will's intent ; 
Ringeth my chime, 
Departing time 

Beareth away clear tale of me ; 
Clear be its tale of thee ! " 

The inscription itself is in Old English characters. 
The translation is by the Eev. Dr. Russell, present 
Dean of the College. J. TEASDALE. 

Thiers' maternal grandmother, Madame Amic, 
was a Mdlle. Santi-Lomaca, of Greek origin,* the 
sister of Madame Chenier (or de Chenier), who had 
married in 1760 the French Consul-General at 
Constantinople, and who gave birth to Andre 
Chenier, the poet, beheaded in 1794 in Paris, and 

* General Bourbaki is also of Greek origin; his father 
was a Greek pilot who accompanied Bonaparte on his 
way back from Egypt. 

to Marie-Joseph Chenier, who died in Paris in 
1811. M. Thiers' mother was consequently first 
cousin to the Chenier brothers. 

The late President of the French Republic was 
born at Marseilles, Rue des Petits-Peres, in the 
house of his grandmother, Madame Amic, on the 
15th of April, 1797. A. A. L. 

"WHOSE OWE IT 1" This is a Northumberland 
form for Who owns it, which I have often heard 
from an old servant, and have not seen noticed in 
" K & Q." " Here is a glove, whose owe it ?" for 
instance. I suppose the meaning is to whom is it 
owing or due, but " Whose o it " may be the way 
to spell it, if there be a proper way. P. P. 

ATTIC OATH REPRODUCED. Whatever illumi- 
nation the court or the public has received from 
the evidence given in a remarkable still pending 
trial, it is noteworthy that an expression familiar 
to all who read Demosthenes, d/xoo-ai (TTIO-TIV 
7rt#etvai) /caret TratoW, is amply illustrated by 
one of the witnesses, Madame Chantillon. " I am 
so positive that I affirm it at the risk of the head 
of one of my children." CHARLES THIRIOLD. 


TO CHARLES II. The following is a copy of the 
appointment of this gentleman, which I copied 
from an entry in the Records of the now extinct 
Corporation of New Ross, co. of Wexford. I 
suppose it was sent by way of a circular to the 
several corporations in Ireland. Some of your 
correspondents may be able to confirm the sup- 
position : 

" These are to certifie that Dr. Solomon Bolger is sworn 
and admitted in the place and quality of Physician in 
Ordinary to his Mat ic . By virtue of w ch place he is to 
enioy all Rights and priviledges thereto belonging. His 
person is not to be arrested or deteyned without my 
leave first had and obteyned,but be allways to be in readi- 
nesse to attend his Mat ies Service according to his oath 
and duty. And all persons are required to forbear the 
infringing of the priviledges of his Mat ies Household as 
they will answere to the contrary at their perill. 

" Given under my hand and Scale this 4 day of June, 
1672, in the 24 year of his Mat ies Reign. 

" S' ALBAN, 
" Chamberlain of his Mat ies Household." 

Possibly Dr. Bolger may have been a member of 
the family of Bolger of Ballinabarna, in the co. of 
Kilkenny, a few miles only from New Ross. 

Y. S. M. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

EXMOOR FOSSILS. What fossils, if any, have 
been found on the higher moorlands of Exmoor 
Forest, anywhere near Exford, Dunkery Beacon, 
Cutcombe/ Winsford, or Simonsbath, and where 

4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 73.] 


can they be seen, or an account be found of them ? 
Though Sir E. I. Murchison, in his SUuria, 4th 
ed., p. 276, says 

" The species known to occur in the limestone bands 
of the middle or Ilfracombe group, stretching from Wid- 
mouth through Combe Martin, Twitchin, Simonsbath, 
Newland, Luckwell, Luxborough, Higher Broadwater, 
Huish and Nettlecombe, and thence to the Quantocks, 
are precisely the same as found at Newton Bushell, Ply- 
mouth, Ogwell, &c.," 
yet none of the specimens figured in his numerous 
plates are from the moor, but chiefly from Wales, 
Shropshire, and Scotland ; and there are none, that 
I have been able to find, either in the British 
Museum or the Geological Museum. In the paper 
" On the Physical Structure and older Deposits of 
Devonshire," in the Transactions of the Geological 
Society, 2nd s., vol. v. 633705, Sedgwick and 
Murchison do not appear distinctly to state that 
they examined the rocks near Dunkery, or searched 
for evidence of fossils in the pits on the moor ; 
although it is to be presumed they did so ; and at 
p. 670 of the above, referring, I think, to the moor, 
say, " the culm slates are without fossils." Fossils 
have been found near Lynton (Geol. Mag. ix. 240), 
at Barnslaple, and other places beyond the moor ; 
but have any yet been found at Exford, Simons- 
bath, Withypoole, Stoke Pero, or Cutconibe? 


MICHAEL ANGELO. The late publication by 
the Arundel Society of the Hieremias, from the 
Sistine Chapel series, by Michael Angelo, has re- 
called my attention to a curious old print I have 
had beside me for some time in my portfolio. The 
metal-mark of the plate (a copper) measures 16f 
inches in length by 11^ inches in breadth ; the plate 
is in the second stage, where the etching is com- 
pleted, and where only a slight dotting with the 
point has been begun to reinforce the shadows. 
The design is that published by the Arundel 
Society. On the tablet below the feet of the figure 
is inscribed 


On the plinth above is inscribed 

"NB . LOTARINGV3 . F ." 

and low in the right-hand corner of the plate 



1. 5.4.7." 

In pencil, written along the bottom of the tablet 

" 137 ... See Beatrici Bio. Die. 72. y. 1st." 
I want to know the drawer and engraver of this 
plate and what it may be worth. Who is NB Lota- 
ringus F(ecit) ? N.B. the Lothringer, or Lorrainer, 
suggests no name to my ignorance. " Ant . Lafreri . 
Sequanus"=Antoine Lafrere du Seine, or of Sens, 
is equally dark to me ; only it seems a German and 
a Frenchman were about in Rome in 1547. 

0. D. L. 

volume, lately fell into my hands. It is entitled 

A Collection of Scots Poems on several occasions. By 
the late Mr. Alexander Pennecuik, Gent, and others. 
Edinburgh : Printed for J". Wood, Bookseller, 1769." 

The "contents are a mixture of the grossest ob- 
scenity and the most devout piety, the aim of the 
work evidently being to ridicule Whiggism and 
Presbyterianism. Six of the poems, including 
" Christ's Kirk on the Green," under the name of 
"The Country Wake," are taken from Allan 
Ramsay's works, and the volume also contains 
" Hardyknute." There is an infinite amount of 
wit and cleverness in the satirical pieces, coarse 
though they be, while a number of curious epitaphs 
are calculated to delight the heart of any collector. 
Is anything known of Pennecuik, or any of the 
" others" who assisted him in compiling this 
delectable melange ? W. B. COOK. 

Kelso, Roxburghshire. 

COUNT BORUWLASKI. I desire information of 
the children of the late Count Born wlaski, the Polish 
dwarf, who died, I believe, somewhere near 
Durham, in 1828. A READER. 

" CRUMWEL'S INJUNCTIONS." Can any one in- 
form me on what ground the date of these is fixed 
in 1536, by Wilkins (Condi, iii., 815)? Canon 
Westcott fixes the date of the same two years 
later, Sept., 1538, in his Hist, of the, Eng. Bible, 
p. 99, but withqut giving his authority. Wilkins 
takes the Injunctions from the Reg. Cranmer, fol. 
99 b. The history of the English Bible is much 
affected by the change. R. W. D. 

correspondents tell me if there is any record of the 
names of officers of the Royal Guard of Scotland 
between the years 1600 and 1680 ? Also, if there 
is any record of the names of officers of the Scotch 
regiments which were at the battle of Worcester, 
or of the Duke of Hamilton's Regiment there ? 

T. F. 

Is it known what has become of this relic of Burns? 
When Bacon died in 1824, his effects were sold 
by public auction at Brownhill Inn. The snuff- 
box was well known to all those who had resided 
in Closeburn ; and, among others, to a gentleman 
who had been boarded in the house of the late Dr. 
Mundell, and had gone to India, whether in the 
civil or military service of the East India Company, 
I am unable to say. This gentleman left instruc- 
tions with Dr. Mundell that the snuff-box should 
be bought for him at any reasonable price. Ac- 
cordingly Mr. Coltart, then usher of Dr. Mundell, 
afterwards Presbyterian Minister at Deinerara, 
where he died, bought the snuff-box for this 
;entleman. My information goes no farther, as 


[4> b S. XII. JULY 5, 73. 

the parties are long dead who were engaged in the 
transaction. Is it known who is now in possession 
of this relic > C. T. EAMAGE. 

was the arched coronet of the Prince of Wales first 
introduced ? I have found it, surmounting the 
plume of three feathers, upon a church bell which 
seems to be of the fifteenth century. 

M. D. T. N. 

" FAWNEY "=A RING. I want the derivation of 
this slang word. The Gaelic word is Fainne ; is 
it from this, and how was it probably introduced, 
or are they from cognate roots 1 D. F. R. 

readers bring to light a passage in one of our old 
poets, in which there is a prophecy concerning the 
evils to be brought on the world by printing and 
by gunpmvder ? I had such a passage read to me, 
some thirty years ago, by an antiquarian friend of 
mine, since dead, and I cannot recall the name of 
the poet. L. 

ALEXANDER McK'EssoN. He was a tanner in 
London somewhere about 1757, and was the son of 
Daniel McKesson of Mullin, Newtownlimavady, 
co. Deny, who was born in 1697, and grandson of 
John McKesson of Newtownlimavady. Is any- 
thing known of Alexander or his descendants, or of 
the family ? T. DE MESCHIN. 

The Temple. 

what gallery is Rubens's picture on this subject 1 
Has it ever been engraved, and by whom ? 


" LIBER SCHOLASTICUS." What is the title of 
a book, which was published a few years ago, pro- 
fessing to give, in an improved form, the information 
contained in this work ? A. R. C. 

MANSIE WAUCH. Is there any serious meaning 
in the following, which I copy from the Bodleian 
Catalogue of 1843, vol. ii. p. 874, col. 1 : 

" The life of Mansie Wauch, tailor in Dalkeitb, written 
by himself [by James Hogg, under the name of David 
Macbeth Moir]. 8vo. Edinb. 1828." 

I never before saw Moir's title to this work 
disputed. OLPHAR HAMST. 

WIGS. In Goldsmith's Life of Beau Nash we 

As Nestor was a man of three ages, so Nash sometimes 
humorously called himself a beau of three generations 
lie had. seen flaxen loch succeeded by majors, which in 
their turn, gave way to negligents, which were at last 
totally routed by lags and rarmlees." 

Can any one describe these several articles ? 

G. R. K. 


This person's name appears in the trust deed of 
;he old Presbyterian chapel at Winterburn, in 
Graven. I suspect that he was a Puritan seceder 
Tom the Church of England, and that he was 
domestic chaplain to Sir John Middleton, of 
Bolsay Castle, Baronet, who also was one of the 
trustees of Winterburn chapel. The trust deed 
is dated Nov. 7, 1704. I am desirous of informa- 
ion respecting the above personages, as I am pre- 
paring a new and much enlarged edition of my 
Stories [and Chronicles] of the Craven Dales, and 
wish to make the history of what the deed calls 
the "chapel, oratory, and meeting place" as perfect 
as possible. STEPHEN JACKSON. 

ters, Hawkesworth's edit., 1769. In a letter to 
Pulteney, March 7, 1736, he speaks of mankind as 

a creature (taking a vast majority) that I hate 
more than a toad, a viper, a wasp, a stork, a fox, or 
any other that you will please to add." Why 

stork" among the number of noxious animals I 
To Lady Worsley, April 19, 1730, " I hope to see 
you very soon the youngest great-grandmother in 
Europe ; and fifteen years hence (which I shall 
have nothing to do with) you will be at the amuse- 
ment of ' Rise up Daughter.' " Qy. what is that I 
To Lady Suffolk, Aug. 15, 1727, " I wish I were a 
young Lord, and you were unmarried ; I should 
make you the best husband in the world, for I am 
ten times deafer than ever you were in your life, 
and instead of a pea-pein in my face, I have a good 
substantial giddiness and headache." Qy. " pea- 
pein." QUIVIS. 


" The tongues of dying men 
Enforce attention, like deep harmony." 

The above lines are quoted in an Expositor's 
Handbook, by Cox, p. 117. 

Liclifield House, Norwood. 

" This world is a good world to live in, 

To lend, or to spend, or to give in ; 

But to beg, or to borrow, or get a man's own, 

'Tis the very worst world, sir, that ever was known." 

W. D. 

[This quotation, with variorum readings, was enquired 
after unsuccessfully in our 1 st S. ii. 71, 102, 156 ; 3 rd S. 
v. 114. In Washington Irving's Tales of a Traveller, 
Bohn's edition, 1850, p. 69, the following lines are pre- 
fixed to Part II., "Buckthorne and his Friends" : 
" This world is the best that we live in, 

To lend, or to spend, or to give in; 

But to beg, or to borrow, or get a man's own, 

'Tis the very worst world, sir, that ever was known " 
" Lines from an Inn Window."] 

" Solem quis dicere falsum 
In what Latin author does the above occur 1 

A. C. B. 

4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 73.] 



" While far abroad a washing storm o'erwhelms 
Nature pitch-dark, and rides the thundering elms." 
The last fine line suggests Dryden ; but there 
were others of that old time, before the Augustan, 
who might have hit upon it. QUIVIS. 

" Grow pale, 

Lest their own judgments should become too bright, 
And their free thoughts be crimes, and earth have too 
much light." 


" The rapture of pursuing 
Is the prize the vanquished gain." 

W. T. M. 
Shinfield Grove. 

" Such soul subduing sounds so strangely soothing 
She seems some saintly spirit sorrow smoothing." 

J. P. 

These lines are found in IIPOrYMNASMATA, 
Passages in Prose and Verse from English Authors, 
/or Translation into Greek, and Latin, by the Rev. 
Henry Alford, M.A., at p. 72 : 

" When time shall turn those amber locks to gray, 
IVIy verse again shall gild and make them gay, 
And trick them up in knotted curls anew, 
And to thy autumn give a summer's hue ; 
That sacred pow'r that in my ink remains 
Shall put fresh blood into thy wither'd veins, 
And on thy red decay'd, thy whiteness dead, 
Shall set a white more white, a red more red." 

F. R. S. 

" Quid juvat errores mersa jam puppe fateri, 
Quid lachrymse delicta juvant commissa secutae 1 " 

" Musica somnum conciliat dormire volentibus ; mentes 
occupationibus defatigatas recreat; moerores afflictis 
dissipat; auget voluptates in laetitiam intentis; utpote 
non minus sit digna quse epulis adsit, quam qui ad 
mensam consistunt." 


CAROLAN. Lady Morgan left a sum of money, 
wherewith to raise a bas-relief monument in one 
of the Dublin churches, to the above Irish bard 
and minstrel. John Hogan is executing the work 
in Italy. It promises to be of first-rate quality. 
What was the real name of him who is poetically 
known to us under the pseudonym of Carolan ? 

S. I. J. 


(4 th S. xi. 276, 352.) 

In a certain island, conjectured to be Cea, now 

Zia, one of the Cyclades, a law or custom, existed 

in ancient times, that under specified circumstances 

of age or misery, the induction of death by his own 

agency was permitted to the patient. Menander, 

the Greek comic poet, lauds this : 

KoAov TO 

O ,r 

s ov 

and Strabo (lib. x. p. 335), alludes to it, and adds 
that suicide, by drinking the juice of the hemlock, 
was obligatory on those who outlived the age of 
sixty, in order that they might not consume the 
produce necessary for the support of younger and 
more valuable lives. See also the Varice Histories of 
^Elian(lib.iii.cap. xxxvii.), who speaking of the same 
custom, says that the old folks, "qui senio plane con- 
fecti sunt," assembled together privately, or on the 
occasion of some solemn sacrifice, and there quaffed 
in state the poisoned bowl, as conscious that they 
were serving the state by ridding it of useless 
incumbrances. Heraclides also (De Politicis, p. m. 
20) confirms this ; but we are left in doubt as to 
how far the alleged law or custom was binding, 
and the age at which it became operative. A very 
interesting story to the point is given by Valerius 
Maximus, which is the more valuable, as he was 
an eye-witness of all the circumstances which he 
describes. Travelling with Sextus Pompeius, on 
his way to Asia, he arrived by chance at the city 
Julis, at the moment when a lady of high rank 
and advanced age was preparing to take poison, 
in accordance with the decision of which, and the 
motives which induced it, she had already given 
due notice to her fellow citizens. She hailed the 
arrival of Pompey as an opportune event, and in- 
vited him to grace the lugubrious ceremony with 
his presence. He did so, and in vain attempted to 
persuade the venerable lady to abandon her design. 
She took the fatal cup in hand, exhorted her 
two daughters and seven grandsons to live in 
unity, distributed their patrimony among them, 
delegated the care of her household, and the 
worship of the domestic deities to her eldest 
daughter, and finally, pouring a libation to Mercury, 
and invoking his guidance on her journey to the 
land of spirits, she swallowed the draught. Here, 
too, her fortitude still supported her ; she continued 
to converse, pointing out the action of the poison, 
and how from the lower limbs its effects ascended 
to the nobler parts of the body ; and when she felt 
that it was about to invade the entrails and the 
heart, she calmly summoned her daughters to per- 
form the supreme duty of closing her eyes. " We 
spectators," says the narrator, "were, in a manner, 
stupified ; and departed from the scene with tear- 
ful eyes." De Extern. Instit., cap. vi. 8._ 

We learn from the same author the existence of 
a singular custom at Marseilles. In that city, 
when any one, from ill or good fortune, illness, or 
any cause whatever, was desirous of quitting the 
world, he or she addressed a memorial to the Sex- 
centi, setting forth the reasons which led them to 
consider it expedient to abandon life. These were 
duly considered, and if found cogent, a sufficient 
portion of a certain poison kept by the magistrates 
in stock pro re natd, was handed to the postulant ; 
but if, on the other hand, it was considered that he 
ought still to put up with life, his petition was dis- 



[4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 73. 

missed, and he would have to make the best of the 
circumstances in which he was placed. See also, 
for an allusion to these customs, the very curious 
Hermippus Redivivus ; or, the Sage's Triumph over 
Old Age and the Grave, of Cohausen, translated by 
Dr. Campbell, 3rd ed., 1771, 8vo. p. 20. 

The whole question of the expediency and pro- 
priety of suicide, in case of old age or illness, is 
exhaustively argued by Seneca, more Stoicorum: 

"Non relinquam senectutem, si me totum mihi re- 
servabit : totum autem ab ilia parte meliore ; at, si 
coeperit concutere mentem, si partes ejus convellere, si 
mihi non vitam reliquerit, sed animam ; prosiliam ex 
sedificio putrido ac ruenti. Morbum morte non fugiam, 
durntaxat sanabilem, nee officientem animo : non afferam 
mihi manus propter dolorem ; sic mori vinci est. Hunc 
tamen si sciero perpetuo mihi ease patiendum, exibo, 
non propter ipsum, sed quia impedimento mihi futurus 
est ad omne propter quod vivitur. Imbecillus est et 
ignavus, qui propter dolorem moritur; stultus, qui 
doloris causa vivit." Epist. Iviii. 

The subject is pursued in a subsequent letter 
(Epist. Ixx.), where it is argued that suicide, even 
by one under sentence of death, is contemptible, 
as doing by proxy the cruel work of another, and 
seeming to show envy of one's own executioner. 
This is illustrated by the example of Socrates, 
who, though he might have starved himself to 
death, remained thirty days in prison, at once to 
show his respect for the laws, and instruct his 
friends as long as he could. Here, too, is related 
the strange story of the German captive, who, on 
his way to the Indus bestiariorum, in order to 
avoid being 

"Butcher'd to make a Roman holiday," 
managed to commit suicide, though in a way of 
which Seneca judiciously writes, " Hoc fuit morti 
contumeliam facere ita prorsus parum munde et 
parum decenter!" It is not, one often regrets to 
perceive, in ancient times only that the aesthetics 
of suicide are set at nought after a very similar 

The principle advocated by my friend, Mr. S. 
1). Williams, in his essay, might have been adduced 
to justify the alleged poisoning, by the orders of 
Buonaparte, of his wounded and sick soldiers in 
the campaign of Egypt. Not that I believe that 
he ever gave such orders, or that, if he had done 
so, he could have found an army-surgeon to carrv 
them out. He is made, on very questionable 
authority, to say : 

"II y avait une centaine d'hommes attaques de la 
peste, et qui n'en pouvaient revenir; oblige de les 
abandonner, ils allaient etre massacres par les Turcs : je 
demandais au docteur Desgenettes si on ne pourrait pas 
leur administrer de 1'opium pour abreger leurs souffrances ; 
il me repondit qu'il n'^tait charge que de les guerir ; la 
chose en resta la. Ils furent en effet massacres peu 
d'heures apres par 1'ennemi." Maximes et Pensces du 
Prisonnier de Sainte Helene, 1820, 8vo. No. cxciii. 

The same incident is told in humorous 
doggerel : 

" Another great thing Boney now did, 
With sick the hospitals were crowded, 
He therefore planned, nor planned in vain, 
To put the wretches out of pain ; 
He an apothecary found 
For a physician, since renowned, 
The butchering task with scorn declined, 
Th' apothecary, tho' was kind. 
It seems that Romeo met with such a one, 
This is a mournful theme to touch upon, 
Opium was put in pleasant food, 
The wretched victims thought it good ; 
But, in a few hours, as they say, 
Almost six hundred breathless lay." 

The Life of Napoleon, a Hudibrastic Poem,. 
by Doctor Syntax, London, 1817, 8vo. p. 92. 

To these lines there is a capital illustration by 
George Cruikshank, showing " Boney " gorgeously 
clad, giving instructions to a miserable pestle- 
grinder. The scene is an ill-appointed dispensary ; 
and the knowing look of the latter, as the former 
points to the " hospital " of the plague-stricken 
inmates, of which we catch a glimpse through the 
curtained aperture, sufficiently indicates the nature 
of the confabulation. WILLIAM BATES. 


CROMWELL AND CHARLES I. (4 th S. xi. 238^ 
291, 348.) The pictures of Cromwell viewing the 
dead body of the king in his coffin were founded 
on the story of Lord Southampton's statement,, 
which is printed at the end of the seventh section 
of Spence's Anecdotes : 

" The night after King Charles the First was beheaded, 
my Lord Southampton and a friend of his got leave to 
sit up with the body, in the banquetting house at White- 
hall. As they were sitting very melancholy there, about 
two o'clock in the morning, they heard the tread of 
somebody coming very slowly up stairs. By-and-by the 
door opened, and a man entered, very much muffled up 
in his cloak, and his face quite hid in it. He approached 
the body, considered it, very attentively, for some time, 
and then shook his head and sighed out the word, ' Cruel 
necessity ! ' He then departed in the same slow and con- 
cealed manner as he had come in. Lord Southampton 
used to say, that he could not distinguish anything of his 
face ; but that by his voice and gait, he took him to be 
Oliver Cromwell." 

That Cromwell came to see the body of the 
king is stated by others, though in a different and,, 
I think, far more improbable manner. Dr. Bates, 
in his Elenchus Motuum, 1685, says, p. 158: 

" Cromwell that he might to the full glut his trai- 
terous eyes with that Spectacle having opened the Coffin 
wherein the Body was carried from the scaffold into the 
Palace, curiously viewed it, and with his fingers severed 
the head from the shoulders," 

and Dr. Perinchief, who repeats this statement 
[Life of Ch. I., p. 222, 1693], adds that Cromwell 
did it "to assure himself that the king was quite 
dead." Clarendon [Hist., 1704, iii. p. 199] says 
that the king's body was opened, and that " some 
of the murtherers were present with great cariosity.* 
Sir Thomas Herbert, who received the body from 
the scaffold and went with it to the back stairs to 

4 th S. XII. JULYS, 73.] 



have it embalmed, does not in any way refer to 
this report ; though he mentions [Memoir of K. C., 
1702, p. 136] that he and Bishop Juxon met 
Cromwell in the gallery, who told them that they 
should have orders for the king's funeral speedily. 
Herbert does not say anything about the night- 
watching by Lord Southampton, or any one else ; 
but he mentions that "the chirurgeon reported 
that at the Body's laying into the Coffin, there came 
several to see the King, and would have given him 
any money for locks of his Hair, which he refused." 
Probably the four lords who attended the funeral 
were amongst these. 

Eight days after the execution, when the coffin 
had been sent down to Windsor, as the four lords 
who were to be present had not been allowed to 
ride behind the hearse, a doubt was expressed 
whether the coffin really contained the body of the 
king, and at the request of the Duke of Richmond 
the coffin was opened by a plumber, and those 
present saw the face of the dead king [Echard ii. 
649, and Herbert, 150]. EDWARD SOLLY. 

" PIERS THE PLOWMAN" (4 th S.xi. 500.) The ex- 
planation suggested by MR. PURTON is nothing 
new. Mr. Wright's Glossary to Piers the Plowman 
says: "Sheep, A.S. 1, a sheep, or a shepherd." 
However humorous it may be, I still doubt the 
correctness of it, as I have always doubted it ; and 
I still think the explanation shepherd, suggested 
more definitely by Dr. Morris in 1867, is the right 
one. I am unable at this moment to give more 
references for sheep in this sense, but I certainly 
understood from Dr. Morris that there are several 
instances of it in English of the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries. The poet distinctly says in so 
many words that he dressed himself like an unholy 
hermit, which is a very different thing from an 
(apparently) holy monk. Besides, we must observe 
what is said in other passages of the poem. Thus, 
at the beginning of Passus viii., he says: 

" Thus yrobed in russet, I romed aboute." 
Now a homely russet dress was just what a her- 
mit would wear, and rather different from the finer 
clothing of a monk, with his sleeves trimmed with 
the finest fur, and his hood fastened with a pin of 
gold, as Chaucer describes him. The curious 
reader will find a good deal about hermits, with 
several illustrations from Piers the Plowman, in 
Cutts's Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages, 
pp. 93-119; a work wherein the differences between 
a monk and a hermit are shown distinctly enough. 
However, the explanation sheep may be accepted 
as an alternative one, though the certainty of it is 
far slighter than may at first sight be apparent. 
But when MR. PURTON goes on to suggest that the 
transcribers who wrote shepherd must all have been 
Avrong together, he at once shows how very little 
he is acquainted with the MSS., and with the poem 
which he is annotating. I have shown that the 

MSS. may be ranked in three classes, representing 
the poem in three different forms, at three different 
dates, viz., A.D. 1362, 1377, and 1392. These texts 
I have called the A-text, B-text, and C-text. Now 
the reading shepherd is one of the distinctive marks 
of a C-text MS., though it is as well to add that 
the word shroudes is also, in the same set, altered 
to shrobbes. The variations between the B-text 
and C-text are of the highest interest, but the ex- 
traordinary skill with which the poet took a part of 
his poem all to pieces and reconstructed it, will not 
be apparent till my edition of the C-text is issued, 
which will, I hope, be some time this year. I do 
not wish to appear ungracious for the suggestion 
which your correspondent has made, for all sugges- 
tions are of considerable value and use to me ; I 
only wish he could have expressed himself a little 
less dogmatically : for even now the difficulty is 
not so entirely removed as he supposes it to be. 

AND MISTRESS (4 th S. xi. 156, 201, 351, 413.) 
I do not enter into the question of the legal status, 
of clergymen's wives in Elizabeth's reign, but her 
words do not necessarily or in themselves bear out 
the popular view as quoted by MR. STREET, and 
both of MR. STREET'S definitions are incorrect. 
Mistress was applied to unmarried women of gentle 
birth or otherwise, but was also the ordinary title 
of citizens' wives, and the like. Pages of " N. & Q." 
might be filled with proofs, but Falstaff's would-be 
treasures, Mistress Page and Mistress Ford, will 
suffice. Madam, again, "the title or style of a 
lady " (Cotgrave and Minshew), so far from being 
the title of a married woman, could not be applied 
to any under the rank of " Lady," and was applied 
to them whether married or unmarried. The exact 
rule I am a little uncertain about, but it was given, 
I think, to all who by right or courtesy were called 
My, or The Lady. Donne addresses Countesses as 
" Madam." In Every Man Out of his Humour 
an unmarried lady at court, the Lady Saviolina, is 
called Madam ; and in Cynthia's Bevels (written 
to be played before the Queen), the Mother of the 
Maids, and the Maids themselves, are called, and 
call one another Madam, but whether by right of 
birth, or by virtue of their office as ladies-attendant, 
I do not know (Cyn. R, Act ii., &c.). In Brome's 
Northern Lasse, "Mistress Fitchow, the City 
Widdow," makes her marriage to Paul Squelch 
conditional on his purchase of a knightship. He 
does so, and she rehearses the time when she will 
be My Lady, her Worship, and Madam. She gives 
an order to her servant Howdee : 
" How. I will forsooth, Mistriss. 

Fitch. I bade you learn to call me Madam. 

How. I shall forsooth, Ma-dam. 

Fitch. 'You shall forsooth, Madam.' 'Tis but a day 
to 't, and I hope one may be a Ladie a day before her 



[4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 73. 

And when after this schooling he calls her 
indifferently Ladyship or Madam, she throws in, 
"Now thou say'st well," "Well said again," &c. 
In Eastward Hoe, by Marston, Chapman and Jon- 
son, Gertrude and her mother, Mistress Touch- 
stone, the goldsmith's wife r are even more puffed 
up at the former's engagement and marriage to 
Sir Petronel Flash, another " four hundred pound 
knight": " 0, sister Mildred, though my father be 
n low-capt tradesman, yet I must be a la die ; and 
I praise God my mother must call me Madam." 
And of her father: "He must call me daughter 
no more now [a statement that he also makes], but 
Madam, and please you, Madam, and [an] please 
your worship, Madam, indeed." And so after 
marriage she is called by her mother " Madam," 
and "child Madam," and is be-ladied and be- 
madamed by all, but she calls her mother, mother 
iind dame ; and when Mildred has married the 
'prentice she marks the difference by, God give 
you joy, Mistress : what lack you ? Among un- 
married ladies, also, Madam Silvia, the duke's 
niece, should be noted eight times called madam, 
and four times lady and ladyship in one scene 
(Two Gent, of Verona, Act i. scene 1). I incline 
to believe that Elizabeth's quick and shrewd wit, 
knowing all were waiting to hear how she would 
reconcile her opinions with courtesy to her hosts, 
showed itself in leaving out names, and choosing 
words that conveyed what you will. 


ASCANCE (4 th S. xi. 251, 346, 471.)-- The con- 
troversy about " ascance " is at this moment in a 
most absurd fix. MR. FURNIVALL, finding that 
Mdtzner gives up both the etymology and meaning 
of the word, turns to Wedgwood (second edition), 
and seeing there " 0. Fr. a scanche, de travers, en 
lorgnant. Palsg. 831," tells us that MR. WEDGWOOD 
" rightly " derives the word as aforesaid, a judg- 
ment which is confirmed subsequently by MR. 
ADDIS. In this curious little game of follow-my- 
leader we are compelled to charge MR. WEDGWOOD 
with misleading. There is no such " 0. Fr." as 
n scanche, nor does Palsgrave say that there is. 
This so-called " 0. Fr." word he gives as English 
in the same column as "a, syde," " a newe," &c., 
and liis a scanche, therefore, is simply ascance, and 
we are exactly where we were before MR. WEDG- 
WOOD set us on our dance. It is rather amusing 
to call this etymology. 

My theory is this :Ascant is for Old Fr. escant 
(as assay for essai}, meaning, literally, out of the 
corner, out of the square; therefore, on one side, 
aside, askeiv, awry. The word, if I am right, is 
connected with 0. Fr. eschantel, which is from 
cantel, a diminutive of cant, a corner. We have 
in English a cantle, or corner of a thing. The 
only difficulty is that escant is not to be found 
though eschantel is. MR. FURNIVALL has, I have 

no doubt, caught the primitive meaning ; nor 
lave I the slightest doubt that the word has 
no connexion whatever with the Swedish quan- 
ww, unless this = cantsivise, cornerwise, which, 
perhaps, it does. As to derivation, however, I do not 
understand the fashion of finding Swedish, Polish, 
r Kamschatcan origins for English words, unless it 
be shown when, how, and where English, Swedish, 
&c., actually met each other. Every foreign word 
mported into our language has a definite history, 
incl came in a lawful way. Show me when and 
low a Swedish word jumped into English, and I 
oelieve in the phenomenon, not otherwise. 

4, Kildare Gardens. 

MR. FURNIV ALL'S objection to the identification 
of ascance or ascanccs with the Swedish quansivis, is 
:hat the latter is not used with a preposition, and 
that it wants the initial s. The first of these objec- 
tions is a mistake, as the Sw. term is used with the 
preposition pa,, on; pa quansivis [on scancis]. Rietz. 
The addition of the initial s might be paralleled by 
such cases as squash and smash, compared with 
quash and mash ; squat and II quatto ; squeak and 
G. quicken ; squeamish, in Devon ivcamish, &c. It 
was probably from the Dutch that the expression 
was imported into English, in the same way that 
the O.E. expletive bedene was adopted from the 
Dutch bij dien, with that. H. WEDGWOOD. 

ANDREW MARVELL (4 th S. xi. 344, 374, 394, 
409, 511.) The Rev. A. B. Grosart, as having 
edited the Poems of Andrew Marvell (being vol. i. 
of his complete works in prose and verse, 4 vols., 
in Fuller Worthies' Library), may be permitted to 
notice MR. SOLLY'S list of " various readings " in 
Last Instructions to a Painter, from the 1689 
edition of the State or Political Poems. That 
1689 edition (as all were) Mr. Grosart had before 
him, and as a result he adopted a few of its read- 
ings while rejecting others, these others being 
inferior and in some cases meaningless. The 
whole list given by MR. SOLLY may be thus 
briefly noticed (Last Instructions to a Painter): 
1. 38, " and treat " for " and cheat " takes away 
the point of the satire ; 1. 77, " hated " is Mr. 
Grosart's reading; 1. 109, "trick- track" is just 
"tick-tack" (see note in loco, p. 293); 1. 158, 
" But knew " is again Mr. Grosart's reading ; 
1. 200, " Sotts " is out of the question the satirist 
intended here, as elsewhere, to hit the "Scots"; 
1. 214, " Left " for " Led" makes nonsense ; 1. 221, 
"were" for "was" is ungrammatical ; 1. 239, 
" loose" for " close" is unintelligible ; 1. 254, "and, 
to new edge their angry . ..." is once more Mr. 
Grosart's reading (and see relative note) ; so, too, 
1. 278, " trickled"; 1. 276, "chafing" for " chasing" 
reverses the meaning ; 1. 280 is Mr. Grosart's 
text ; 1. 287, "think" for "thing" is nonsense ; so 
1. 418, "well foreseen" for "men foreseen" is at 

4 th S. XII. JULY 5,73. J 



least inferior ; 1. 468, King or Queen is Mr. Grosart's 
reading ; 1. 500, " that's at interest" for " cheats at 
interest " is nonsense ; 1. 622, " distraught " is Mr. 
Grosart's reading ; 1. 669, " Furr" for "fir" is im- 
probable ; 1. 827, " palate " is Mr. Grosart's text 
(and see relative note) ; 1. 895, " adieu " is also 
Mr. Grosart's text. Mr. Grosart is disposed, on 
re-consideration, to accept, in 1. 153, "young" for 
"your wives/' albeit "your" gives as quite good 
sense and perhaps more satire ; 1. 181, "coife" for 
"wife," though it is just possible the satirist 
pointed to some domestic broil, while the " coife " 
is scarcely a symbol of the " awe " of justice ; 1. 223, 
" feather-men " for " feather-man " but the entire 
passage is confused and corrupt (see relative note) ; 
and 1. 699, " sad change " for " sad chance," not- 
withstanding that chance is a likely author's 
variant. MR. SOLLY will find that in his correction 
of 1. 271 

"Believes himself an army ; their 's one man," 
Mr. Grosart anticipated him by reading " their 's " 
for " there 's." Every lover of Marvell must feel 
grateful to MR. SOLLY, and other correspondents 
of " N. & Q.," for their Marvell notes. His poetry 
and prose will richly reward prolonged study. Mr. 
Grosart's reproduction of The Rehearsal Transpros'd 
(both parts) is nearly completed at press, and may 
be counted on speedily ; and next, the Marvell 
Letters, with very considerable additions and cor- 
rections from the originals. 
St. George's, Blackburn, Lancashire. 

STEEL PENS (4 th S. xi. 440.) When I resided 
in Trinity College, Dublin, about forty years ago, 
I first used a steel pen. I had seen one a few 
years before. Mine was a barrel pen, with a bone 
handle, and there was a brass sheath, which pre- 
served the pen when not in use. I forget the 
price, probably sixpence or a shilling, but to me it 
was a valuable prize. It saved me the trouble of 
mending, and was always ready for use. After six 
or eight months' wear it began to grow rusty, and 
I seriously thought of getting it mended. Shortly 
after this we had Perryan pens. These were nibs, 
on a card. The improvement by Perry was a small 
equilateral triangle half way down the slit, which 
gave great elasticity to the steel. Then came rha- 
diographic pens (easy writers) ; they had three slits, 
one at each hip besides the regular slit. "We then 
had them of all kinds of fanciful shapes, some 
attached to the handle as a bayonet is to a musket, 
and some broad in the middle, for the purpose of 
holding a large quantity of ink. 

At first Perryan pens were all the fashion, and I 
used them constantly ; but Mr. Perry put adver- 
tisements into the newspapers, saying that the 
world must use Perryan paper and Perryan ink. 
To follow this up he pointed his pens so that 
common ink would not run in them. I went to 
buy pens at that time at Gardiner's, in Westmore- 

land Street, and I asked for pens, saying, " Bo not 
give me Perryan pens, for I cannot write with 
them." The stationer said, " Perry has lost a for- 
tune by his own avarice ; every one used his pens, 
and we v could not get them fast enough, but now 
the world will not be satisfied to discard the old- 
fashioned ink, and, like yourself, every one says, 
I will not have Perryan pens." Thus he killed the 
goose that laid the golden egg. Steel pens are a 
wonderful improvement. Some of the old-fashioned 
writers of "copper-plate pieces" probably prefer 
a fine quill, but for ordinary writers the steel pen 
is a much better instrument. I have long ex- 
perience in country schools, and I find handwriting 
greatly improved. I believe this is owing to the 
introduction of steel pens. 

I once read in Household Words, or some other 
popular periodical, that all the geese in England, 
Ireland, and Scotland would not now be sufficient 
for the supply of pens for London alone. H. 

Dublin Library. 

MRS. ELIZABETH PORTER (4 th S. xi. 484.) This 
lady could hardly be the one who married Dr. 
Johnson in 1735, as she had then a son and 
daughter living, both grown up, and the latter 
nearly as old as Johnson was himself. This 
daughter, Miss, or Mrs. Porter, as she would then 
be styled, might perhaps be the lady referred to. 
Johnson's wife must have married her first husband, 
Henry Porter, nearly twenty years before the date 
of confirmation, 21st July, 1731. 


OBSERVANCE OF SUNDAY (4 th S. xi. 423.) One of 
the earliest statutes on this subject is 27 Henry VI., 
c. 5 (A.D. 1449), by which fairs and markets were 
prohibited on feast days and Sundays (the four 
Sundays in harvest excepted !). 29 Car. II., c. 7 
(1678), is an important statute on this subject. See 
also 6 & 7 Will. IV., c. 37 (1836), as to baking 
bread, &c., and the article " Lord's Day" in Burn's 
Justice of the Peace. By 34 & 35 Viet., c. 87 (1871), 
the law was amended with respect to prosecutions 
for offences against the Act of Charles II. above 
mentioned. By the Statute 1 Car. I., c. 1 (1625), 
persons were prohibited from assembling out of 
their own parishes for any sport whatsoever on 
Sunday, or in their parishes for bull or bear baiting, 
interludes, plays, or other unlawful exercises or 
pastimes. WM. A. CLARKE. 

If A. W. T. will consult Sabbath Laws and 
Sabbath Duties, by Kobert Cox, Maclachlan & 
Stewart, Edinburgh, and Simpkin & Marshall, 
London, 1 vol. 8vo., 1863, that gentleman will find 
all the parliamentary information he can desire, 
Mr. Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question, in 
two volumes, thoroughly exhausts the literary treat- 
ment of the subject. SHERRARDS. 

Les date.? des Actes relatifs an repos duDimanche 



^ s. xn. JULY 5, 73. 

sont L'an 1 Charles I., c. i. ; 3 Charles I., c. i. 
16 Charles I., c. iv. ; 29 Charles II., c. vii. 

I Guillaume et Marie, I. c. xviii. ; 10 & 11 
Guillaume III., c. xxiv. ; 2 George III., c. xv. 
21 George III., c. xlix. ; 34 George III., c. Ixi, 
9 George IV., c. xxiv. ; 3 & 4 Guillaume IV. 
c. xxxi. ; 5 & 6 Guillaume IV., c. Ixxvi. 

II & 12 Victoria, c. xlix. ; 18 & 19 Victoria, 
c. cxviii. 

Les titres se trouveront dans les livres des Actes 
de Parlement. Voyez. Raithby's Index to the 
Mntt'tes, 1814, sous le titre "Sunday." P. 

"AT BAY "(4 th S. xi. 507.) MR. HENSLEIGH 
WEDGWOOD corrects me thus : 

" I am distressed at the heresy into which you 
have fallen in the last " N. & Q." with respect to 
' at bay.' The resemblance to aux abois is- merely 
accidental. The accent on abois is on the first 
syllable, and aux abois never could have produced 
at bay. To stand at bay, to keep at bay, are the 
It. stare a bada, tenere a bada, from badare, to be 
intent upon, the d of which is lost in Fr. bayer, 
beer. Moreover, the meaning is different. Aux 
abois is at the last extremities ; at bay is when the 
weaker party faces his pursuers and keeps them off." 

F. J. F. 

(4 th S. xi. 462.) The statement that Chancellor 
West was related to the poet and divine, Gilbert 
West, appears to rest upon very slender evidence. 
Mr. O'Flanagan does not seem aware that the 
Chancellor left a son, also named Richard, who 
was a poet, and who, had he lived, would certainly 
have taken a high rank amongst our men of 
genius ; he is now only remembered as the early 
friend of Horace Walpole and Thomas Gray. They 
were schoolfellows together at Eton, and intimate 
friends subsequently; and one of Gray's best odes 
is that addressed to West under the playful and 
familiar name of " Favonium Zephyrinum." In a 
letter from Gray to West, dated 16th July, 1740, 
the former speaks of Gilbert West as " a name- 
sake of yours," an expression he would hardly have 
used had they been relations. 

Archbishop Boulter mentions the Chancellor as 
an old friend ; it is probable that they were at 
college together, for in the list of graduates at 
Magdalen College, Oxon, for 1693, there are the 
names, as M.A., of 

West, Richard, Feb. 14th. 

Boulter, Hugh, May 12th. 

Mr. O'Flanagan only speaks of West as a writer 
of pamphlets, and takes no notice of his parlia- 
mentary and legal career. He was returned Member 
for Bodmin in 1722, and a note in the Historical 
Register for that year shows that he was also a 
member of the preceding Parliament. 

In March, 1725, it was proposed to appoint Sir 
William Thompson, the Recorder of London, Chan- 

cellor for Ireland, and make West Recorder of 
London. He was then a K.C. The king desired 
to appoint the Irish Chief Baron Hales Chancellor, 
but instead of this, he was made Baron of the 
English Exchequer, and West was appointed Chan- 
cellor. (Archbishop Nicholson's Letters, Lond., 8vo., 
1809, vol. ii.) West took a very active part in 
the proceedings against Lord Chancellor Maccles- 
field, was one of the managers at his trial, and on 
the conclusion of the evidence against the earl, 
Mr. West summed up in a masterly speech. (Trial 
at Large, 10th May, 1725.) Lord Macclesfield 
was found guilty on the 25th of May, and West 
was appointed Chancellor for Ireland on the 1st 
of June. Mr. West married Elizabeth, second 
daughter of Bishop Burnet, in April, 1714, and 
had with her a portion of 1,500/., as appears by the 
codicil to the bishop's will. (Mackay's Memoirs, 
8vo., 1732.) 

The correspondence of the poet Gray with Richard 
West, the Chancellor's son, is highly interesting ; 
the latter, writing on the 5th of June, 1740, to 
Gray, says (Mason's Memoir of Gray, Lond., 4to., 

" They tell me my Father was a lawyer, and, as you 
know, eminent in the Profession, and such a circumstance 
must be an advantage to me; my Uncle, too, makes some 
figure in Westminster Hall." (Sir Thomas Burnet, Justice 
of the Common Pleas, 1741-53.) 

He had no inclination for the law ; as he writes 
to his friend Gray, he was sick of it; and his living 
in chambers in the Temple did not signify a pinch 
of snuff. He died in 1742, and was buried at Hat- 
field, Herts, his tomb bearing this inscription: 

" Here lieth the body of Richard West, Esq., only son 
of the Right Honourable Richard West, Esq., late Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland, who died the 1st of June, 1742, in 
the 26th year of his age." 


" ALTAMIRA " (4 th S. xi. 509.) The Biographic 
Dramatica notes two plays, namely, Altamira. 
Trag., by Benj. Victor, published 1776, but written 
fifty years earlier. 

Altemira, Trag., in rhyme, by Roger Boyle, 
Earl of Orrery. He left it unfinished, and it was 
completed by his grandson. It was acted in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1702, and published in 
1739. JOHN ADDIS. 

COUNCIL OF NIOZEA (4 th S. xi. 524.) The 
statement by Baron Holrnfeld as to the number 
at the Council of Nicsea is taken from the Arabic 
accounts, which speak of (not 2,178, but) 2,348. 
This, if we include all the Presbyters and atten- 
dants, may be true. But the number of Bishops, 
who alone took part in the discussions, was 318. 
See Lectures on the Eastern Church, p. 94. 

A. P. S. 

MEN OF GOOD FAMILY" (4 th S. xi. 259.) The 



usual and only meaning, applicable as the generic 
term for a race of people, given in Wilson's Sanskrit 
Dictionary, 1819, for the word Ari, from which the 
compounds Arya-Vartta and Arya-Bhumi, or, 
Land of the Aryas, are formed, is enemy, synony- 
mous with heretic ; and it is only by considering 
Manu to have been an Aryan, that his exceptional 
use of the word Ari as honourable, can be accepted 
as fully conveying the meaning of the writer. 

The Semitic, or Eastern stock of languages to 
which the Arabic and Persian belong, are written, 
with the exception of the numerals in both, from 
right to left ; and the Japhetic, or Western stock, 
including the Sanskrit and its various cognate 
dialects known as the Aryan, vice versa, from left 
to right, the same as European languages generally; 
and their existence in India cannot possibly be ac- 
counted for otherwise than as evidence of conquests 
effected by Aryan heretics after being expelled 
from Eome in the fourth century. 

Is the Hebrew language with exception of the 
numerals, written from right to left, like the Arabic 
and Persian ; and can the period be ascertained 
when the very remarkable system of writing the 
numerals, and ordinary letters, from opposite sides 
of the page, the former from the left, and the latter 
from the right, was first adopted by the Semitic 
nations ; was it before, or, after the Aryan con- 
quests 1 R. R. W. ELLIS. 

Star Cross, near Exeter. 

PALEY AND THE WATCH (4 th S. xi. 354, 452.) 
On looking over my commonplace-book I find the 
following extract from Fenelon : " Si on trouvoit 
une montre dans les sables d'Afrique, on n'oseroit 
dire serieusement que le hazard Ta forme"e dans 
ces lieux deserts." De I' Existence de Dieu, 
l re Partie. Fe"nelon (born 1651) and Nieuwentyt 
(born 1654) were contemporary writers, and which 
of the two took the idea from the other I am not 
able to say ; but Paley himself, in all probability, 
took it from Fenelon, whose writings must have 
been more familiar to him than those of an obscure 
Dutch physician. 

Nieuwentyt is not mentioned by Hallam, and 
his works appear to have been written exclusively 
in Latin. One of them, however, The Religious 
Philosopher, has been translated into English by 
Chamberlayne. C. C. B. 

" COLLIDE" (4 th S. ix. 403.) This word, though 
now unfrequently used except on the other side of 
the Atlantic, is not without authority in English 

Burton (1621) uses it in his Anatomy of Melan- 
choly, Partn. I. sec. i. mem. 2, subsec. 6 " The 
outward being struck or collided by a solid body, 
still strikes the next ayre." 

Sir T. Browne (1646), in his Vulgar Errours, 
p. 52, has " The inflammable eftiuencies dis- 
charged from the bodies collided." 

Dryden (1717), Ovid's Metamorphoses, b. xv. 

" The flints that hide 
The seeds of fire, thus tossed in air collide." 

R. James (1746), Mo/et's Health's Improvement, 
Introduction, p. 9 "The blood collides against 
the sides of the Aorta." 

A. Tucker (1765),' Light of Nature, vol. i. p. 345 
" Particles detached from the colliding bodies." 

And, in the present century, 

G. Grote (1846), History of Greece, ch. xiii., 
vol. i. p. 342 "The Symphgades, or colliding 

Carlyle (1857), French Revolution, vol. i. p. 56 
" Clashing and colliding." 

Sir F. Palgrave (1864), Normandy and England, 
vol. iv. p. 326 " Would he not collide against the 

W. E. H. Lecky, Rationalism in Europe, vol. ii. 
p. 386 " The action of colliding passions." 


St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

SOMERVILLE PEERAGE (4 th S. XL 157, 201, 257, 

325, 427, 493.) I am not so arrogant as to claim 
to speak in the name of the genealogical brother- 
hood of which I am one of the most insignificant 
members, but on the principle that a cat, no less 
than a lion, may feel an affront offered to the genus 
felis, I beg to be allowed a protest against W. M.'s 
assertion that " different views may be taken as to 
who is the representative of a family," and that 
" in a noble family, such as Somerville, he should 
consider the holder of the dignity the representa- 
tive; in which case the observation of ANGLO- 
SCOT us that a particular person ' has surely a 
better claim' to the representation than others, 
disposes of the whole question of the peerage." 

Can there be more than two real representatives 
of any family the heir male and the heir general? 
And does not W. M.'s method of settling the 
matter " dispose of the whole question" of right? 
If the holder of the dignity has obtained it by 
fraud or ignorance, in what possible sense can he 
be a true representative ? HERMENTRUDE. 

My attention has been directed to W. M.'s 
curious remark, " In a noble family .... I would 
consider the holder of the dignity the representa- 
tive." How, then, about Sir E. Seymour, who 
proudly regarded the Duke of Somerset as a branch 
of his family ? (although, perhaps, not precisely an 
argument to suit W. M.) What of Melville, Zetland, 
and Dundas of Dundas ? W. M. perhaps meant 
to say, " The actual holder of an ancient dignity 
I would consider the representative of the original 
nobleman to whom it was granted." S. 

FOUNDERS' KIN (4 th S. vii. 389; xi. 504.) In 
part answer to MR. FYNMORE'S inquiry, I may 
state that I have examined and made abstracts of 
all the Founders' Kin papers now remaining in our 



[4 th S. XII. JULY 

muniment room. Although their number is small, 
they relate to a great variety of families. There are 
the papers of claimants of at least fifty different sur- 
names. Most of the pedigrees are, to all appearance, 
authentic ; some, however, contain errors ; and one 
is probably false, though admitted to be correct in 
1686. The longest and fullest pedigree is that of 
Whitwick, of Whit-wick, co. Stafford, which begins 
with Osbert de Whitwick, anno 31st Edw. I.; of 
this there are two copies, which vary more or less 
awkwardly in the earlier generations. The abstracts 
would fill about fifty printed pages, large 8vo. 

Pembroke College, Oxford. 

RAY" (4 th S. xi. 414, 491, 531.) ANGLO-SCOTUS 
will find a full account of " John Murray, of 
Broughton," in the following work, Ascanius ; or, 
the Young Adventurer. A True History. Trans- 
lated from a Manuscript privately handed about 
at the Court of Versailles. London. Printed, 
T. Johnston, in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, 
1746." If ANGLO-SCOTUS cannot meet with a 
copy, I shall be most happy, if he will write to me, 
to lend him the book. John Murray is nowhere 
called " Sir John," and there is no 'hint that he 
received any such honour at the hands of H.E.H. 
Prince Charles. 

It is stated that his father was "Sir David 
Murray, Bart., whose second Lady (the Secretary's 
mother) was the daughter of Sir William Scot, of 
Ancrum." It is elsewhere stated that " his estate, 
he being but a younger brother, exceeded not 400 
pounds a year." 

I have no idea what trust is to be placed in this 
book. There are also characters of Miss McDonald, 
Mrs. Jenny Cameron, the Duke of Perth, the Earl 
of Kilmarnock, Mr. Sheridan, and Mr. Sullivan. 

Albert College, Framlingham, Suffolk. 

GAOL FEVER (4 th S. xi. 443, 470, 488.) The 
Black Assize of Devon forms the subject of the 
first entry in the Diary of Philip Wyot, Town 
Clerk of Barnstaple. The old copy, as given in 
Chanter's Literary History of Barnstaple, runs in 
this wise: 

" 1586. By the infection of the prisoners that were 
arrayned at the assizes at Exon before Easter last, amon- 
others, died of the Gaoll sickness-died to wit one of the 
Justices of Assize, Mr. Flowerdewe, Sir Barnard Drak 
Mr. Welrond, Mr. Gary of Clovelly, Mr. Gary [Carew] of 
Hackome, Mr. Fortescue, Mr. Rysdon, Justices of the 
Peace, Sir John Chichester, Kt." 

It will be noticed that Wyot's account differs 
from Hoker's in including the names of Walrond, 
Carew, and Fortescue, amongst the Justices who 
died. Both writers probably include cases in 
which the fever was not immediately fatal. Thus, 
in the Domestic State Papers, Eliz. 1581-90, we 
find that on the 22nd of May, 1585, one H. 

Morgan was examined before Edward Flowerdew, 
Baron of the Exchequer, and again on the 17th of 
Feb., 1586, Judge Francis Wyndhaui and Baron 
Edward Flowerdew address the Council from 
Chancery Lane. I have lately examined the altar 
tomb of Sir Arthur Basse tt in Atherington Church, 
North Devon. It seems to show that he died on 
the 2nd of April, 1586 ; but as the stone is sadly 
mutilated, I will not speak with certainty as to 
this. Of Sir Bernard Drake, we are informed by 
Prince, in his Worthies of Devon, that 

" He had strength enough to recover home to his house 
at Ash [about 25 miles from Exeter], but not enough to 
overcome the disease, for he died thereof soon after, and 
was buried in his church of Musbury, an. 1585." 



AQUILA (4 th S. xi. 237, 509.) In 1761 there 
was a case in Chancery, D'Aquila v. Lambert, to 
which is appended the signature of a D'Israeli, 
ancestor or collateral relation, no doubt, to the late 
Premier. Mr. D'Aquila was a merchant at Leg- 
horn, trading to England, and Mr. D'Israeli was 
his agent. The Aquila family were, no doubt, 
refugees from religious persecution, and probably 
came from the south of France, and, before settling 
there, were probably of Italy or Spain. The name 
of course betrays its Latin origin, and the De seems 
French. A family who have given many officers 
to the army are in all probability of this stock, 
but for some years have spelt their name Daguilar. 
I expect their advent in England may be traced to 
Canterbury, where the first notices of the Le Greys 
and other French refugee families are found. 



P.S. If J. E.-F. A. has taken the memorial 
inscription he speaks of " of Aquila Browne," a 
copy would much oblige ; also, I should like to 
know the precise locality of the tomb. 

UMBRELLAS (" N. & Q." passim.} I send you 
an early allusion to umbrellas, showing a peculiar 
orthography of the word, and its application in a 
very different sense to that in which it is now used. 
It is from the New Atalantis (2nd ed. 1709), i. 33: 
" The weather violently hot, the umbrelloes were 
let down from behind the windows, the sashes 
open," &c. T. 

THE DOVE AS A SYMBOL (4 th S. xi. 176, 260, 
514.) I do not understand the meaning of the 
expression of "worship of the dove in the 
Christian Church." The dove was regarded as the 
symbol of the Holy Spirit (S. Matt iii. 16, and 
Gen. yiii. 11), who came in the eventide of days, 
bringing safety and peace to the ark of Christ, 
and a world rescued from wreck, and to whom 
Christians should be conformed in innocency 
(S. Matt. x. 16). A dove was suspended over the 
altar, as Amphilochius says of S. Basil that he 

4' h S. XII. JOLY 



broke the Holy Bread, and placed one third part 
in the pendent golden dove over the altar (Op., 
p. 176). The Council of Constantinople charged a 
heretic with robbing the gold and silver doves that 
hung above the fonts and altars (Labbe, v. 160). 
The dove was also the symbol of our Blessed Lord, 
as we learn from Prudentius, and an expression of 
Tertullian, "the Dove's house" applied to a church 
possibly in allusion to Coloss. i. 20. The dove for 
reservation, whether for communion of infants in 
the baptistery, or of the sick under a ciborium, was 
suspended by a chain. One is preserved in the 
Church of S. Nazarius, at Milan, and a solitary 
mention of another in England is contained in an 
inventory of Salisbury. In Italy, at an early date, 
the dove was set upon a tower for reservation ; 
and the two are noticed together in gifts of 
S. Hilary, Constantine, and Pope Innocent. We 
also find, in early works of devotional art, the dove 
represented as flooding a cross with streams of 
living water. There is a famous example in the 
Lateran, symbolical of holy baptism. A holy 
lamb and a dove are placed on the canopy of the 
baptistery of Saragossa. Bossi (Subterranea Roma) 
has some interesting observations on the dove, 
II. lib. vi. ; and V. c. ix. 


GAINSBOROUGH'S " BLUE BOY " (4 th S. iii. 576 ; 
iv. 23, 41, 80, 204, 237 ; v. 17, 35 ; vii. 237, 
366, 391, 394 ; viii. 419, 483 ; ix. 10 ; xi. 485, 
505.) The paper just concluded is most satis- 
factory, and a great contribution to the pedigree 
of one of the finest works of art extant. If all 
those articles were collected into one pamphlet and 

CMished, it would be hailed by all as a very great 
n to creation. As there exist two Blue Boys, 
both of which are attributed to Gainsborough, 
it would at least stamp with the seal of lawful 
paternity one of those works, and on the other 
hand it would not place " the baton sinister " on its 
relative, for it has not been proved beyond cavil or 
doubt that Gainsborough did not paint a duplicate 
of it. It proceeds, at least, from the easel of a master 
artist. BELISARIUS. 

" SKIMMINGTON " (4 th S. xi. 156, 225, 331, 455.) 
This seems to be nothing more than the Welsh 
Cefyl pren, or wooden horse, occasionally heard of 
in the Principality down to the present day a 
ceremony which had its forms of proceeding pre- 
scribed by the ancient laws of Wales, done away 
with by the Welsh Judicature Act of Henry VIII., 
only repealed about 1830, the effect of which repeal 
does not yet appear to have attracted much atten- 
tion. J\ 

LAURENCE CLAXTON (4 th S. xi. 278, 350, 487.) 
I can supplement MR. CROSSLEY'S very interest- 
ing notice of this person, derived from his own 
confessions in The Lost Sheep Found (1660), by 

a notice of his end, which appears in Lodowicke 
Muggleton's (posthumous) Acts of the Witnesses 
of the Spirit (1699). It appears that Claxton, 
having become in February, 1658, a convert to the 
doctrines of Pteeve and Muggleton, had applied to 
Muggleton, a short time after the death of Reeve, 
in July, 1658, for " leave to write in the vindica- 
tion and justification of this Commission of the 
Spirit." Muggleton gave his consent, and Claxton 
accordingly successively produced five small 
treatises, of which The Lost Sheep Found is the 
fifth and last. Muggleton took umbrage on read- 
ing this production : 

" He bad proudly exalted himself into John Reeve's 
Chair, exalting John Reeve and himself, but quite ex- 
cluded me in all the Book Whereupon I put him 

down, for ever writing any more, and I wrote to the 
Beleivers (sic) in Cambridgesbier, and elsewhere, that 
he was put down for his Pride and Covetousness, forever 
writing any more upon that account. And the Beleivers 
did obey my Voice everywhere. He continued thus, four 
years after John Reeve dyed, until the year 1661. and 
in a while after Laurance Claxton bumbled himself to me, 
and acknowledged his Fault, and I forgave him, and took 
him into rny Favour, but, ty'd him not to write anymore. 
So he continued several years afterwards, justifying his 
Faith and Confidence, in this Commission of the Spirit. 
But it came to pass, when the Fire destroyed the Citty of 
London, he, to get a Livelyhood, did ingage to help 
Persons of Quality to borrow Mony, to build their 
Houses again. But the Persons that had the Mony did 
run away, and left Claxton in the Lurch ; the debt was 
one hundred pounds. So he only was Arrested, and put 
in Ludgate Goal, for this Mony : He lay there a whole 
year, and dyed there. But he gave a very good Testimony 
of his Faith in the true God, and in this Commission of 
the Spirit, and of that full assurance of eternal Happi- 
ness he should enjoy, to eternity after his Death. Inso- 
much that all the Prisoners marvelled, and were sorry 
they had opposed him so when he was alive." 


" To HELL A BUILDING " (4 th S. xi. 305, 392, 
467.) In my former reply I neglected to mention 
that near St. Andrews is a hill called the Haly- 
hill ; and that there was discovered a group ^ of 
twenty cists, containing unburnt bones, along with 
flint flakes, a broken celt, &c. (Proc. of Soc. of 
Ant., vi. 58). Although not mentioned, these cists 
would have, like those at Haily, Largs, the covering 
cairn or barrow ; and so the probability is con- 
siderable that the place-names of Haily have an 
origin in the Ang.-Sax. hclan, to cover. 

It was mooted by one that the Scots at Largs, 
in 1263, might have combated the Norwegians 
under the protection of Saint Margaret, and hence, 
possibly, the origin of the name Margarefs-Law, 
given to the large cairn near Haily House, given 
evidently in comparatively modern times, and that 
by a local population, under a mistaken belief, 
which yet continues, that the Norwegian dead 
(those who fell through the agency of St. Mar- 
garet) -were interred within it. (New Stat. Ac- 
count v. Largs; and Dillon's paper, Arch. Scot. 



[4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 

vol. ii. 383, 384). Some authority for such an idea 
is to be found in the Scoti Chronicon of Fordun, 
or rather in some additions to Fordun's portion of 
that work, of which the title to chap. 15 of Book 
x. is thus " De Bello de Largis, et victoria per S. 
Margaretam Reginam Scotie " (GoodalPs ed., vol. 
ii., chap. xv. and xvi). Professor Munch is ap- 
parently a believer in the story ; for, in his History 
of the Norwegians (a work of six volumes), he 
relates the fact (vol. iv. chap. 44, et infra), stating 
that King Haco, on account of the great vehemence 
nnd continuance of the storm, and believing he 
was bewitched, was rowed to the adjacent island 
of Cumbray, as it is believed, along with his priests 
and clergy, and there celebrated mass ; while the 
Scots, on their part, as Munch also adds, " paid 
homage to their guardian angel, the saintly Mar- 
garet " (translation, chap. iv. p. 42 ; "Glasgow, 
1862). ESPEDARE. 

Mr. Walter White, in his All Round the, Wrekin, 
mentions that a young lady at Burton-on- Trent 
asking for a book in a bookseller's shop, said, " Let 
me have one with a red hillin" i. e., red cover. The 
'same word liillin may still be heard in common 
speech at Birmingham. X. P. D. 

"lNSENSE"(4 th S. xi. 384,466.) Lord Brougham' 
when at the bar, and addressing a jury in the 
Assize Court at Lancaster, was thus interrupted : 
" My Lord, let me insense the jury, that man knows 
naught about it." ,^-^T. F. 

CUNINGHAM FAMILY (4 th S. xi. 16, 78, 264, 
488.) I have pleasure in informing DR. RAMAGE 
that he is perfectly accurate in his supposition as 
to the relationship between the heir and ancestor 
in the Glencairn Retour to which he refers. But 
I must add that there cannot be a shadow of a 
doubt that the heir, James, Earl of Glencairn, was 
alive on 29th April, 1630. The date is very dis- 
tinct, and the volume of the Register in which the 
Retour is to be found does not begin until 1629. 

W. M. 


" NEVER LOOK A GIFT HORSE," &c. (4 th S. xi- 
154, 453.) The Italian proverb wanted by DR- 
RAMAGE is: "Cavallo donato non si guarda in 
bocca." H. K. 


WIDOW'S FREE-BENCH (4 th S. xi. 423, 509.) 
The following clipping from an article in the Bath 
Express and County Herald of June 22nd, 1872 
on the death of the Rev. T. R. Jolliffe, may interest 
MR. UDAL, as giving the practice a local habita- 
tion : 

" The family of the Jollifies have held for several 
generations the Manor of Kilmerodon, connected with 
which, we may add, was a very singular kind of female 
tenant-ri^ht. According to ancient custom the widow of a 
tenant was entitled to all her husband's copyhold lands for 

life, which she forfeited if she re-married or proved incon- 
tinent ; but in the latter case, if she came into the next 
Court after the transgression, riding astride upon a ram, 
and made an open acknowledgment, in a certain form of 
words, before the lord of the manor or his steward, she 
was re-admitted to her lands without further fine or cere- 



MADAME DE GENLIS (4 th S. xi. 383, 433, 450.) 
The account of this lady and her Latin charm 
will be found in Victor Hugo's Les Miserables (livre 
sixieme, chap, vi., " Le Petit Couvent "). He men- 
tions incidentally that in the last century the 
Vicomte de Gestas " avait pretentions a descendre 
du mauvais larron," a joke which has been utilized 
in more countries than one. EDWARD KING. 

HEEL-TAPS (4 th S. xi. 504.) I find in an old slang- 
dictionary the following explanation of heel- 
tap : 

" A peg in the heel of a shoe, taken out when it is 
finished. A person leaving any liquor in his glass is 
frequently called upon by the toast-master to take off his 


P.S. J. N. B. does not seem to be aware that 
the customary phrase is, " and no heel-taps." 

" UNCLE MAMOUC " (2 nd S. x. 190 ; 4 th S. xi. 
407.) The story of Donizetti's opera, UElisir 
d'Amore, so much resembles this one that it may 
have originated from it. SARAH. 

BREECHES" (4 th S. xi. 238, 308, 514.) DR. RIM- 
BAULT quotes the Vocal Miscellany, 1734, as being 
the earliest collection known to him in which the 
above song appears. I have a reprint (by William 
Phorson, Berwick, 1793) of Allan Ramsay's Tea 
Table Miscellany (without the music), in which the 
song is given under the title of " The Sailors Rant." 
Now, as Allan Ramsay dates hie dedication 1724, 
it makes the song at least ten years older than the 
date quoted by DR. RIMBAULT, and I am under 
the impression that it will be found in earlier col- 
lections. C. A. MCDONALD. 

DR. RIMBAULT, quoting the Vocal Magazine, 
says this song Avas sung in Theobald's Perseus and 
Andromeda, but in a copy of that pantomime 
before him he does not find it. My copy is a small 
4to.,1731, "The fifth edition; to which is added 
the Sailor's Ballad," exactly as given by MR. 
CHAPPELL in " N. & Q." A. G. 

SINEWS OF WAR (4 th S. xi. 324, 348, 472.) 
" I would wish that everything I touched might turne 
to gold : this is the sineices of war, and the sweetnesse of 
peace." John Lyly's Mydas, Act i. scene 1. 


4 h S. XII. JULY 5, '73.] 


xi. 482, 512.) The drains near the altar were 
convenient not only at times of washing the altar 
itself with wine on Maundy Thursday, or of the 
pavement ordinarily, but also for the reception of 
the ashes of the following ornaments when worn 
out and burned : vestments or palls of the altar ; 
the chair in which a priest, vested in his sacred 
habit, sat ; the chandelier ; and the veil or curtain 
hanging over an altar. " Cineres vel in Baptisterio, 
vel in pariete [a drain in a wall], aut in fossis 
pavimentorum ubi non sit transitus jactentur" 
(Durand., lib. I. c. iii. fo. xv. b). " Ne introeuntium 
pedibus conculcentur (Lyndw., lib. I. tit. 6, p. 34, 
gl. b.). MACKENZIE E. 0. WALCOTT. 

PALINDROMES (4 th S.xi. 33,&c.,472.) The Welsh 
palindrome (p. 472) ought to be " Lladd davad 
ddall." R. & M. 

Some of your correspondents may not be aware 
of the palindrome epigram on the Pope, which 
runs as follows : 

"1846. Pro NONO. 

" Pauperibus sua dat gratis, nee munera curat 

Curia papalis, quo modo perspicimus. 
Laus tua, non tua sors, virtus non copia rerum 

Scandere te fecit culmen ad eximium. 
Condicio tua sit stabilis nee vivere parvo 
Tempore te faciat hie deus omnipotens." 

Thus in 1846 there was no doubt as to the 
opinion and hopes of the epigrammatist. In 1861, 
however, a change may be supposed to have come 
over the scene, and the epigram is reversed. Read 
backwards from the last word of the epigram to 
the first ; and although each couplet still forms hex- 
ameter and pentameter, the meaning is exactly the 
contrary. Praise is no longer accorded. No ! No ! 

Although not, perhaps, strictly a palindrome, so 
far as each word is concerned, yet the epigram, 
as a whole, may be classed under the head of such. 

Lancaster Gate, W. 

" THINGS IN GENERAL " (4 th S. xi. 156, 510.) 
Looking upon Laurence Langshanks's book as a real 
autobiography, I was not prepared to identify my 
native of Monymusk, and satirical student of King's 
College, Aberdeen, with Rob. Mudie, born at 
Dundee, entirely self-taught, and known to the 
world at large only as a popular utilitarian in- 
structor. But reaching me down TJie Caledonian, 
a Quarterly Journal, vol. i., Dundee, 1821, known 
to have been conducted by Mudie (little expecting 
that a work for years at my elbow would shed any 
light upon the matter), when lo, and behold, the 
book opened at p. 443, displaying a small wood- 
cut, caricature portrait on the page over which I 
read, " Here follow the effigies of my father Saunders 
Langshanks !" At the head of the chapter of which 
it formed a part stands : 

" Intellectual Gazetteer of Scotland. De Moribus co- 

torum, being an attempt to depict the minds, manners, 
and tastes of men and women, with their various phases 
and modifications in the several shires, cities, and burghs, 
royal, regal, and baronial, within the antient realm of 
Caledon, or Scotland. The result of many wanderings, 
and Ion? painful experiences. By Laurence Langshanks, 
umquhill I. P. at large, and latterly R. M. and portioner 
at Laurence Kirk." 

Here follows " The Preface," in which Mony- 
musk, King's College, &c., occur, showing it to be 
the germ of Things in General, correctly ascribed 
by OLPHAR HAMST, by an independent process, to 
be the work of Robert Mudie. A. G. 


The Tongue not Essential to Speech. By the Hon. 

Edward Twisleton. (Murray.) 

Tins work does not lay claim to originality either from 
a scientific point of view or from the very object, as the 
author expresses it, for which it is published, namely, to 
deny that there was anything miraculous in the fact that 
the African Catholics, whose tongues were cut off by 
order of the Arian Vandal, Huneric, in the fifth century, 
could speak intelligibly, and even preach eloquently, 
after they had been subjected to that barbarous kind of 
mutilation. This subject has already, and more than 
once, been referred to in the medical lecture-room, by 
surgeons of great experience, who have frequently ob- 
served that the powers of speech have not been com- 
pletely destroyed in patients from whom they have 
removed the whole tongue, a complicated operation 
which the Vandal executioners would hardly have taken 
the trouble to perform, even had they understood any- 
thing like modern surgery. It must be understood, 
however, that Mr. Twisleton's work contains an in- 
teresting resume of all the facts bearing on the subject 
in question, which well repays perusal, and can hardly 
fail to interest the intelligent public. The author gains 
his object in showing the perfectly explicable nature 
of the so-called miracles mentioned above, but the title 
he has chosen is questionable. By " speech," we 
understand at least pronunciation as perfect as the 
speaker's education will permit him to use. This 
necessitates the presence of a tongue in his mouth, as in 
all modern cases where it has been removed, more or less 
impediment in the pronunciation of certain letters has 
been observed. Although, the African martyrs are 
said to have spoken "without any impediment," the 
value of this assertion is very slight when we remember 
that it was made by the co-religionists and sympathisers 
with the Catholic sufferers men whose object was to 
strain their utmost to make out another set of miracles. 
In short, although a man can manage to speak well 
enough to be understood after he has lost his tongue, 
that member must always be reckoned essential to speech, 
in the correct acceptation of the term. 
Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great 
Britain and Ireland. Edited, after Spelman and 
Wilkins, by Arthur West Haddan, B.D., Honorary 
Canon of Worcester, and William Stubbs, M.A., Regius 
Professor of Modern History, Oxford. Vol. II. Part I. 
(Clarendon Press.) 

IT will be in the recollection of our readers that, through, 
the illness and ultimately the lamented death of Mr. 
Haddan, the continuity of this very important work was 
broken, Vol. iii., containing documents relating to the 
English Church, during the Anglo-Saxon Period, having 
immediately succeeded Vol. i. The present Part is the 


[4 th S. XII. JULY 5, 73. 

first instalment for the repair of this breach, and is in no 
way inferior to its most complete predecessors, either in 
the importance or interest of the documents it contains. 
In deference to the wishes of some of the most eminent 
Scottish antiquaries, this first half is sent forth as having 
a completeness of its own, and the remainder is promised 
as soon as possible. The volume before us relates to the 
Church of Cumbria or Strathclyde, A.I). 600-1188. British 
Churches abroad (1) in Armorica, A.D. 387-818 ; (2) See 
of Bretona in Gallicia, A.D. 569-830. Church of Scotland 
durinw the Celtic Period, and until declared independent 
of the See of York, A. P. 400-1188. In the Appendix are 
Visitation of the Sick (fragment) from Book of Deer. 
Verses of Simeon of Hy., A.D. 1107x1114. Dunkeld 
Keledean Litany. 

Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry VII. 
From Original Documents preserved in the Record 
Office. Edited by Rev. Wm. Campbell, M.A., one of 
Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools. (Longmans; also 
Triibner; Parker: and Macmillan.) 
MR. CAMPBELL is too modest in somewhat underrating 
the importance and the interest of this first of probably 
three volumes, which will illustrate the reign of the 
founder of the brilliant line of Tudor as it has never 
been done before. The editor has a brief introduction 
and an exhaustive index, two admirable things, in their 
way. In the former, he shows how Henry, having 
triumphed by might, sought to be accepted as (and to 
make it appear that he really was) King by right. 
" There lay," he says, " in a remote castle in Yorkshire, 
the two most formidable obstacles to the establishment 
of his right in the heart of a still important and 
independent section of the English people, the Lady 
Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward IV., and Edward 
Plantagenet, heir to George, Duke of Clarence, that 
king's brother. His resolution with regard to them was 
taken before his breathing time after the battle was 
ended." Henry, before entering London, despatched 
Sir R. Willoughby to Sheriff Hutston, to take possession, 
on Henry's own warrant, of the persons of these two 
royal prisoners, to convey them to London before him, 
and to lodge the latter in the Tower, there to await the 
exigencies of his probable policy: "Which act of the 
King's " (says Bacon) " proceeded upon a settled disposi- 
tion to suppress all eminent persons of the line of York." 
Henry Tudor married the lady and murdered the boy. 
Mr. Campbell promises that the future volumes will be 
still more interesting than the first. Every page of the 
first, however, bristles, so to speak, with facts which 
show what a scramble there was for rewards to anybody 
who had aided the Earl of Richmond, during the reign 
of Richard, "late, indeed, but not in right, King of 

THE sale of the property of the late William Charles 
Macready, consisting of his books, pictures, objects in 
marble and bronze, ornamental furniture, and other 
articles, will take place at Christie's, on Tuesday and 
Wednesday, the 8th and 9th July. Among the books are 
many presentation copies, with autographs ; and copies 
of plays marked for the stage by Mr. Macready. 

THOMAS PARR HKNNING, Esq., has just published 
(Nichols & Sons, Westminster) two Pedigrees, clearly 
arranged, of the ancient and honourable Catholic House 
of the Welds of Chidcock House, co. Dorset, and of Lul 
worth Castle. These genealogical trees will form valuable 
additions to the Dorsetshire Royal Descents. 

ENGLISH DIALECTS. Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte 
has long been honourably known among philologists for 
his persevering investigations into the Basque and the 
English dialects. His inquiries have been always mad 

,nd checked by himself on the spot ; and for the English 
tialects the Prince has also availed himself oi the help 
yf all the best local authorities in England, arid has 
mnted their several versions of the Song of Solomon. 
The Philological Society, having lately elected the Prince 
one of its Honorary Members, persuaded him to state, 
at their last two meetings, the results of his dialectal 

HARLKIAN SOCIETY. The Harleian Society announce 
he publication of Le Neve's Catalogue of Knights as 
heir volume for the present year. A fund is being 
aised for illustrating with woodcuts of arms, seals, &c., 
he Visitation of London in 1633-5, to be edited by 
J J Howard, 'Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., and Col. Joseph 
Lemuel Chester. Several of the City companies have 
given donations, and the Corporation of the City of 
London have promised 25 guineas. In addition to the 
amount already subscribed, about 1251. is required to 
complete the illustration, and the Council at their last 
meeting appealed for further aid towards raising this 
sum. Subscriptions to be paid to J. J. Howard, Esq., 
3 Dartmouth Row, Blackheath; or to the Hon. Sec., 
Hanley Court, Tenbury, Worcestershire. 


BATIGNOLLES. As far as we know, M. Michael 
Ohevallier never wrote any look on the subject. But in 

e of the numbers of the Revue des Deux Mondes, of the 
year 1870, there was a paper by that gentleman, in which 
ie expressed his regret that France had not followed the 
example of Prussia in abstaining from attacking merchant 
vessels of the hostile country, at sea. M. Ctievallier also 
expressed his disapproval of persecution and banishment by 
force of German workmen o.nd proprietors who had long 
found a home in France. To that publication BATIG- 
NOLLES will find easy access. 

DOUBTER. The following, from Lloyd's Evening Post, 
November 15, 1762, will (at least, should) satisfy our cor- 
respondent ; " Yesterday, Lord Kinsale, Baron Courcy, 
was introduced to his Majesty at St. ^James's, where he 
appeared covered, according to an ancient grant allowed 
to that family." And it is said that George III., ac- 
knowledging the Baron's right to be covered before the King, 
hinted that he had no privilege to remain so in the presence 
of ladies. 

S. des F. is referred to the Illustrated News, where such 
queries are satisfactorily answered. 

LILLIPUT. Declined, with thanks. 

H. T. C. suggests, on the subject of" Gipsy Language," 
that Dr. Smart's paper on the Dialect of the English 
Gipsies (Philological Society's Transactions, 1863J, should 
be added to the works mentioned by Mr. Childers. It con- 
tains a grammar and copious vocabulary. 

J. 'B.Hazlitt, of course, called Milton a writer of 
"centos," not "cantos," as printed in the extract, p. 529. 

W. S. Consult Index to vol. xi., which will shortly 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

xii. JULY 12, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES :~The Prosody of Shakspeare in its National Aspect, 21 
Bibliography of Utopias and Imaginary Travels and His- 
tories, 22-The Parish Church of Cullen, Banffshire, 23 
Historical Stumbling-Blocks, 24 Shelley's Poem of "The 
Sensitive Plant " Wycherley and Burns The Servitors, 25 
House and Mansion Epitaph Bad Writing in the last 
Century Mirobolant Actors who have Died on the Stage 
Local Etymology, 26. 

QUERIES : William Phiswicke, or Fishwick, Benefactor of 
Cambridge Heraldic Sterne's "Sentimental Journey"- 
"Bride of Lammermoor" Painter Wanted Empress Eliza- 
beth II. of Russia " Religion : Religious," 27 Family of 
Pratt, Devonshire Erasmus Quellyn, Flemish Painter, 
1607/78-Tyndal's New Testament-Old Songs "The County 
Magistrate " Brant Broughton Church Title of Book 
Wanted Indian Newspapers, 28 The Places of the Death 
and Burial of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, K.G., 

REPLIES: "Embossed, 29 Orpheus and Moses, 31 "Bis 
dat qui cito dat " : " Tempora mutantur," &c., 32 Junius, 
33 Farrer Family A Parenthesis in Eternity Marie de 
Fleury Family of De la Lynde, 34" To-day ""Practical 
Wisdom "Will. Crouch Sir Francis Drake Bulchyn 
Jehan Petit Authors and Quotations Wanted, 35 Hogarth's 
"Soxithwark Fair" "A Dictionary of Relics "" Whose 
owe it?" Bondmen in England, 36 The Colon Early Pro- 
vincial Newspapers, 37 Hanging in Chains Cater Cousins 
Velteres Women in Church Parallel Passages, 38 
Royal Scottish Archers Impropriation of Tithes " A 
Whistling Wife," 39. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



There is one point I would wish to call attention 
to in the prosody of Shakspeare that it is a con- 
tinuation of Anglo-Saxon traditions and forms. 
Its great principle is alliteration ; and although 
some of the canons of the Skalds are not adopted, 
yet in the main the structure is Anglo-Saxon in 
Shakspeare as it is in the continuous series of 
English poetry to our own day. There is generally 
a double alternate head rhyme or alliteration by 
consonant or vowel. This is very strongly seen 
even in the rhymed songs, as 

" Full fathom five thy father lies, 
Of his bones are coral made; 
These are pearls th&t were his eyes, 

Noting of him that doth fade." 
Here / and th play the chief parts. Again, the 
song in Twelfth, Night: 

" Come away, come a^vay, death, 

And in sad cypress let me be Zaid. 
Fly away, fly away, breath, 

I am slain by a /air cruel maid." 

" Take, oh ! take those lips away, 

That so sweetly were forsworn." 
The system may be illustrated by a popular 

rendering of one of our earliest poets, Csedmon, 
who died in 680, and wrote twelve hundred years 
ago : 

"Now shall we sing 
x who sways the skies above 

The J/akers might, 

his mmds high thought. 
How fielder of this wondrous 

world and man, 
He the Lord the Everlasting 
laid the new beginning." 

The scanning by alliteration of Shakspeare's 
lines would tend to account for some errors and 
to correct errors. It would in many cases be a 
kind of masoretic check en the text. 

The same principle is applicable in some instances 
to our folk-lore, and modern interpolations may be 
sometimes denned. 

When the steed is stolen stopple the stable door. 

Look before you leap. 

Ladybird ! ladybird ! fly away home. 

Busy, busy burny bee, 

Tell me when your wedding be. 

With this ring I thee wed, 

With my body I thee worship, 

With all my worldly wealth 1 thee endow. 

I take thee to be 

my wedded wife ; 

To have and to hold 

fro this day froward, 

for better, for worse, 

for richer, for poorer, 

in sickness, in health, 

to love and to cherish 

Till death do us part [sever]; 

And thereto do I plight thee my troth. 

In some parts of the translation of the Bible 
this compliance with national tradition has tempted 
the writer to phrases which strike the ear. In 
Ecclesiastes : 

" To everything there is a season, 
And a time to every purpose under heaven; 
A time to be born, and a time to die ; 
A time to kill, and a time to heal ; 
A time to break down, and a time to build up." 

Again, in the Song of Solomon, the Hebrew is 
thereby the better rendered : 
" I am the rose of Sharon and the Lily of the -Valleys. 

As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the 
daughters ; 

As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, 

So is my beloved among the sons. 

I sat down under his shadow with great delight, 

And his fruit was sweet to my taste. 

His left hand is under my head, 

And his right hand doth embrace me." 

While the forms of alliteration are at the bottom 
of all popular poetry, whether one line of a saw 
which cannot have an end rhyme, or in a long 
epic, they are the very life-blood of blank verse. 

The whole system can be traced for a thousand 
years to Shakspeare, and we know that before that 
it was acknowledged in the North ; so was Shak- 
speare cradled in it, and unassisted by Latin 
rules, and unprovided with any artificial grammar., 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. xn. JCLT 12, 78. 

he wrote, us all poets did, in that popular way, 
which has remained popular, even when his mean- 
ing has become obscure or perverted. The strong 
wish of scholars was to write in hexameters and 
pentameters : the course of English thought, how- 
ever, turned our poetry in one current. The nature 
of these influences is well worthy of the care of 
students of Shakspeare and of the English language. 

St. George's Square, S.W. 


(Concluded from p. %.) 

Voyages Imaginaires, Songes, Visions, et Romans 
Cabalistiques (Recuilles par Gamier). 39vols.8vo. Paris. 

Can any correspondent famish a table of the 
contents of this collection ? 

Gulliver Revived ; or, the Singular Travels, Campaigns, 
Voyages, and Adventures, of Baron Munikhousen, com- 
monly called Munckhausen. 3rd ed. 12mo. London, 

The authorship of this very popular extravagance 
has not yet been satisfactorily ascertained ; but it 
appears to be ascribed with most probability of 
truth to Eudolph Eric Kaspe, Professor of Archae- 
ology at Cassel, and editor of Leibnitz. It has 
been considered to be intended as a satire upon 
the Memoirs of the Baron de Tott. Its authorship, 
and the sources of the stories contained in it, have 
been discussed in " N. & Q." 1 st S. ii., iii., xi., xii. 

Sequel to the Adventures of Baron Munckhausen; 
liumbly dedicated to Mr. Bruce, the Traveller. 12mo. 
London, 1792. 

Lilliput: being a New Journey to that Celebrated 
Island, by Lemuel Gulliver, Junior. 12mo. London, 

Travels in Andamothia. London, 1799. 

The Empire of the Nairs, or the Rights of Women, 
an Utopian Romance in Twelve Books. By James 
Lawrence. 4 vols. London, 1813. 
. Armata ; a Fragment. Two Parts. Svo. [By Thomas 
Lord Erskine.] London, 1817. 

Apocrypha Napoleon 1812-1832, ou Histoire de la 
Conquete du Monde et de la Monarchic Universelle. 
2nd ed. 12mo. [By Louis Geoffroy.] Paris, 1841. 

Voyage en Icarie. Par M. Cabet. Paris, 1848. 

Kaloolah; an Autobiography of Jonathan Romer. Svo. 
By W. S. Mayo, M.D. (English reprint.) London, 1849. 

Helionde, or Adventures in the Sun. Svo. By Sydney 
Whiting. London, 1854. 

The last four or five years have been remarkably 
fruitful in works of a Utopian character, forming a 
large proportion of the whole list. No doubt this 
is due to the stimulus derived from two circum- 
stun cos : first, the increasing attention paid of late 
years to the study of social science ; and, secondly, 
to the new political influences resulting from the 
late Franco-German war. To proceed : 

Realmah. By the Author of "Friends in Council" 
[Sir Arthur Helps]. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1868. [Ori- 
ginally published in MacmMarit Magazine. 

Kennaquhair; a Narrative of Utopian Travel. By 
Theophilus McCrib [apparently a pseudonym]. London, 

Anno Domini, 2071. Translated from the Dutch 
Original, with Preface and additional Explanatory Notes. 
By Alexander V. W. Bikkers. London, 1871. 

The Gorilla Origin of Man; or, the Darwin Theory of 
Development confirmed from Recent Travels in the New 
World called Myn-me-ae-nia or Gossipland. By H. R. H. 
Mammoth Martinet, alias Moho-yoho-me-oo-oo. London, 

The Battle of Dorking : Reminiscences of a Volunteer. 
Blackwood's Mag., May, 1871. 

The Travels and Adventures of a Philosopher in the 
famous Empire of Hulee. From an old MS. Fraser's 
Mag., June, 1871. 

Der Ruhm; or, the Wreck of German Unity. The 
Narrative of a Brandenburger Hauptmann. Macmillan's 
Mag., July, 1871. 

After the Battle of Dorking; or, what became of the 
Invaders. Taxpayer, July, 1871. 

The Battle of Dorking a Myth, England Impregnable : 
or, the Events that occurred in A.D. 1871, 1921, 1971, and 
2000. Exeter, 1871. 

The Other Side at the Battle of Dorking ; or, the Re- 
miniscences of an Invader. By Maximilian Moltruhn, 
late Obenhauptmann 1st Thuringian Jagers. Translated 
from the German by an Autumn Campaigner, Aug., 
1921. London, 1871. 

The Coming Race. [By Lord Lyttou.] London, 1871. 

The Next Generation. By John Francis Maguire, M. P. 
3 vols. London, 1871. 

Erewhon ; or, Over the Range. London, 1872. 

Baron Grimbosh, Doctor of Philosophy, and sometime 
Governor of Barataria. A Record of His Experience, 
written by Himself in Exile, and published by Authority. 
Svo. London, 1872. 

A Voyage to the Sun. [By Richard A. Procter.] 
CornUll Mag., March, 1872. 

A Voyage to the Ringed Planet. [By the same.] 
CornKill Mag., Sept., 1872. 

If I were Dictator. St. Paul's Mag., Nov., 1872. 

Another World ; or, Fragments from the Star City of 
Montalluyah. By Hermes. London, 1873. 

Colymbia. London, 1873. 

Franklin Bacon's Republic : Diary of an Inventor. 
Cornkill Mag., May, 1873. 

By and By : an Historical Romance of the Future. 
By Edward Maitland. 3 vols. 1873. 

Here I bring my catalogue to a close, fearing 
that it will be found somewhat incomplete, but 
hoping that some more experienced bibliographers 
than myself will supplement it, either by way of 
addition, correction, or annotation. I would sug- 
gest to those who have leisure for the purpose, a 
search in our magazine literature for the last 
hundred years, where I think many such bizar- 
reries would be found embedded. 

Only one book in my list conies from across the 
Atlantic ; but surely there must be many other 
such, the growth of American modes of thought. 
Our Transatlantic cousins have decided tendencies 
to set up " communities " of various forms and 
differing degrees of extravagance upon their soil, 
and we should, therefore, expect to find them as 
facile in imagining them upon paper. As an 
example in point, I remember reading, some II 
dozen years ago or more, in Harper's Magazine, a 

4- s. xii. JULY 12, 73.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 


spirited description of a renovated condition of 
society in the remote future, long after kings had 
reigned in the United States, when all nations 
would form a universal confederation (into which 
South Carolina was the last to enter), the magnifi- 
cent metropolis of which was placed in the island 
of Borneo ; but I cannot recall the title or the 
date thereof. 

In conclusion, I believe that (except when they 
are otherwise described) I have cited the first 
editions of the works named ; at least, it has been 
my intention and endeavour to do so. 


Cheltenham Library. 


In the Proceedings of the Scottish Antiquaries 
(vol. ix. pp. 274-83) lately issued to the Fellows, 
a paper appears, by Mr. Andrew Jervise of 
Brechin, in which that gentleman gives an in- 
teresting notice of this church, and certain inscrip- 
tions regarding the foundation of a chaplainry 
within it to St. Ann, which he says are contem- 
porary, apparently, with the south aisle (or chapel). 
Mr. Jervise does not give any precise statement 
as to the age of this portion of the church, but 
says, though " it [the church] has been frequently 
added to and altered," it existed "long before 
Robert the Bruce was born." Mr. Jervise then 
gives two inscriptions regarding the foundation 
of the chaplainry which appear to be somewhat 
irreconcilable with each other. The first of these is 
said to be " from the arch of a recess tomb on 
the west side of the aisle " [chapel]. It is given 
in Roman capitals, thus : 


Accompanied by the mason's mark, thus "+7 

thrice repeated. 

The meaning of this appears to be that John 
Hay, " Lord of the Forest of Boyne, Enzie, and. 
Tilibole," the grandfather of Elen Hay, who built 
the chapel, endowed a chaplainry. 

The inscription, of course, was not set up by 
John Hay, but possibly by his granddaughter. 
Still, the construction leaves it doubtful whether 
he or his granddaughter built the chapel. How- 
ever, he could scarcely endow it before it was 
built. From a charter cited by Mr. Jervise, it 
would appear that John Hay acquired the above 
lands in 1362 by royal grant. 

The next inscription is said to present the 
" name of the chaplainry," " the extent of the 
gift," &c., and the "names of the founder," the 

" persons to be prayed for," and " those in whom 
the patronage of the living was to be vested after 
the decease of the heirs of the donor. It is carved 
round the arch of the large window of the south 
aisle, in "the same style as the former" : 

" SANT . ANIS . CHAPLAN . HEIR . DOTAT . Y* . 35 (?) . ACRE . 
BARNIS . HIS . FYIV . DORS . AT . GIFT . OF . ION . DVF . & . 

The words " PER . HELENA . HAY " are " carved 
on the lower side of one of the stones of the arch 
of the south window." And upon the " west side 
of the arch is this notice of the building of the 
aisle " : 



These various inscriptions seem to leave the 
question very much in the dark, whether John 
Hay, Elen Hay, or John Duff was the real founder of 
this chaplainry. Mr. Jervise says that " the two 
inscriptions last quoted prove an early marriage 
between the Hays and the Duffs " ; and also, 
" shew that Elen -Hay was the mother of John 
Duff of Maldavit, who died in 1404," to whom, 
till 1792, there was a recumbent effigy in the recess 
tomb, in the south aisle at Cullen ; also, an in-- 
scribed slab with a rudely engraved figure in 
armour. " These monuments " (it is added) " are 
now within the mausoleum of the Earls Fife, near 

I should have been inclined to attribute the 
"recumbent effigy in the recess tomb" to John 
Hay, Lord of Forest of Boyne, who is com- 
memorated in its arch, rather than to John Duff, 
to whom the " rudely engraved figure in armour " 
and inscribed slab may be assigned. It would be 
strange to find a deceased person in the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century commemorated by tw^> 
separate sculptures in the same chapel 1 However, 
as the asserted representatives of the Thanes 
of Fife have carried off the effigies, they may 
retain the belief that both represent Duff of Mal- 
davit. Mr. Jervise does not say anything about 
the character of the lettering, which might guide 
inquirers to the probable date of the inscriptions, 
and thus we are left to our own resources and the 
internal evidence of the words themselves. 

As Elen Hay, in the last inscription, is said to 
be the mother of John Duff, it may be presumed 
that it was he who gave orders for the various in- 
scriptions above recited at all events that they are 
not earlier than his day, if they all are, as Mr. 
Jervise says, "contemporary." John Duff, it is 
said, died in 1404, and was the great-grandson 
of John Hay. As the latter had a charter from 
the Crown only in 1362, forty-two years is a very 
brief period within which to compress three genera- 



& xn. 

tions of his descendants, ending with his great- 
grandson, who must have been of age, at least, in 
1404, when he had a " recumbent effigy " and a 
" rude figure in armour " to commemorate him. It 
is, therefore, highly probable that the inscriptions 
are of considerably later date than this John Duff's 
time, or that he himself lived much later in that 
century. But much depends on the lettering 
whether it is uncial, or plain, or otherwise, and 
some one who knows the church will perhaps en- 
lighten us on these points, if Mr. Jervise does not 
happen to see these remarks. It is also a rare, 
perhaps unique, instance of a foundation being so 
carefully recorded in stone on the walls of a church 
at so early a date. The expression " croft land " is 
not, it is thought, so old as the year 1404, at least 
Jameson cites no such early instance of the term. 
Nor were Arabic numerals in use at that date. 
Mr. Jervise adds the name of the builder of the 


with his craftsman's mark, thus T 


And, invites information as to who this person 
was. So, I hope the Architectural Institute, who 
are asked to do so, may throw some light on his 
history, and, at the same time, on the authenticity 
and antiquity claimed for this and the other in- 
scriptions. And Mr. Jervise, who has invited 
inquiry, will forgive my desire to see the curious 
inscriptions to which he has called attention, 
verified beyond doubt. ANGLO-SCOTUS. 


One heavy blow and great discouragement to 
which historical inquirers are subjected, arises not 
from the wilful perversion of truth, but from the care- 
lessness and want of accuracy with which statements 
are made by those who, in making them, desire 
only to speak the truth. 

It may sound strange to speak of the Roman 
Procurator of Judaea and the great English min- 
ister as beaux esprits, and apply to them the well- 
known proverb "Les beaux esprits se rencontrent"; 
yet how closely do they jump when the jesting 
Pilate, speaking of truth in the abstract, inquired 
"What is Truth?" and Sir Robert Walpole, 
speaking of truth in detail, exclaimed "Anything 
but history, for history must be false." 

What a curious Imaginary Dialogue between 
these remarkable doubters might Landor have 
given us ! 

And this difficulty in ascertaining with exacti- 
tude the truth does not apply only to past times, 
when, owing to the loss of documents, the death of 
witnesses, and other obvious causes, the chain 
of evidence is broken, and many of its links 
missing, but to matters passing, as it were, under 
our very eyes. 

Let me give a recent instance, which appears to 
me so curious and instructive as to deserve to be 

On Thursday, the 26th of June, the Dean of 
Westminster read before the Society of Antiquaries 
a very interesting paper on the tomb of Richard II., 
and the ghastly associations of the legends of that 
monarch with the legends of Westminster Abbey. 

The reading of the paper, which was listened to 
with great attention, was followed by an animated 
discussion on the historic doubts in which the 
death of Richard is involved. 

As I listened to the remarks of the learned 
gentlemen who took part in it, I felt how hopeless 
was the chance that those doubts should ever be 
solved, and I was, perhaps, the more deeply im- 
pressed with this conviction, because I had just 
been disappointed in ascertaining with exactitude 
an incident which had taken place not four 
centuries and a half ago, not in the secret dungeon 
of a castle in a distant county, but here in London, 
on the Monday preceding in the full light of day, 
in the Court of Queen's Bench, at the trial of the 

On Tuesday morning I had read in the Times 
the following observations of the Lord Chief 
Justice, which struck me as having a strong 
bearing upon the case : 

" The Lord Chief Justice observed, with much em- 
phasis, that he had never known two handwritings more 
characteristic than the letters of Roger Tichborne prior 
to and after the appearance of the Defendant. Having 
seen all the letters prior to the embarkation on board the 
' Bella,' he could truly say it was the most characteristic 
writing he had ever known. There were peculiar circum- 
stances which distinguished it from any other writing he 
had ever seen." Times, 24th June, p. 11, col. 1. 

Upon mentioning these remarks to a friend, I 
was startled to find that he doubted the accuracy 
of my report, and justified his doubt by producing 
the version of the Chief Justice's words as given 
by the Standard, where they appear in the fol- 
lowing terms, which, although two handwritings 
are mentioned, will certainly bear the interpretation 
that he was speaking of but one : 

"The Lord Chief Justice. I do not think I ever saw 
in two handwritings those of Roger Tichborne's before 
the disappearance of the 'Bella' and afterwards so 
many peculiar characteristics in the writing during the 
whole course of my long experience." Standard, 24th 

Finding that two learned doctors of the daily 
press differed so widely, I called in a third, and on 
referring to the Daily News found another version, 
corresponding textually very closely with that in 
the Standard, but with the important addition 
after "Bella" of the words "and of the De- 

" The Lord Chief Justice. I do not think I ever saw 
in two handwritings those of Roger Tichborne before 
the disappearance of the ' Bella,' and of the Defendant, 

4- s. xii. JULY 12, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

so many peculiarities in the writing during the whole 
course of my long experience." Daily News, 24th June. 

I then sought for further light, from the pages of 
the Daily Telegraph; but, though in that useful 
summary of each day's proceedings with which the 
report opens, the peculiarities of Eoger's writing 
are referred to, the remark of the Lord Chief 
Justice to which I hare alluded is not given. 

I have not the slightest doubt that the learned 
Judge's remark referred not to the identity 
but to the dissimilitude of the two handwritings, 
more especially since his Lordship, on the following 
day, see Pall Mall Gazette of that evening (24th), 
speaking of the peculiarity in Roger's handwriting, 
said distinctly, " that it was a remarkable kind of 
little prefix to every word which ran through all 
his letters. He had never seen it in any other 
writing before, and in the defendant's letters no such 
thing occurred." 

Now, when we see such discrepancies as I have 
;shown in reports made honestly with a sincere de- 
sire to furnish reliable information to the public, one 
cannot but feel what stumbling-blocks these unin- 
tentional inaccuracies become in the way of those 
who seek to arrive at the truth in all cases of 
iiistoric doubt. WILLIAM J. THOMS. 

For more than thirty years a copy of the original 
edition of the volume, in which this very charac- 
teristic poem first appeared, has been in my 
possession. It is valuable from the fact of its 
containing several marginal emendations in what I 
have always regarded as the poet's handwriting, all 
of which emendations, save one, appear in Mr. 
Bossetti's edition of Shelley's Poems. The 
emendation not adopted by Mr. Rossetti is one 
opposite to the first line of the seventeenth stanza 
of Part III. of the Sensitive Plant. As printed, 
the stanza reads thus : 

" Their moss rotted off them, flake by flake, 

Till the thick stalk stuck like a murderer's stake, 
Where rags of loose flesh yet tremble on high, 
Infecting the winds that wander by." 

The manuscript emendation substitutes mass for 
moss, and it seems to me that a careful perusal of 
the stanza will convince most readers that the 
.substituted word is a manifest improvement. 

Another curious point connected with this 
identical stanza is that it is entirely omitted from 
the edition of Shelley's Poems in four volumes, 
published in 1839, as also from the single volume 
edition of 1839-40, although Mrs. Shelley, who 
edited both issues, in the concluding paragraph of 
her postscript to the latter edition, emphatically 
states that she presents it " as a complete collection 
of her husband's poetical works, and does not fore- 
see that she can hereafter add to or take away a 
single line." Was this singular omission acci- 
dental or intended 1 

While on the subject of Shelley's Poems, may I 
ask if notice has ever been taken of the unusual 
occurrence, after the final imprint at the end of 
the 1821 reprint of Queen Mob, "Printed and 
published by W. Clark, 201, Strand," of the letters 
T. M. ? These were the initials of Shelley's friend 
Thomas Medwin. Shelley tried but failed to 
prevent the publication of this surreptitious issue 
of his juvenile poem, which, be it observed, is 
quite an edition de luxe, and such a one as a man 
of taste would like to have upon his shelves. 
Would it be treason to hint that Shelley himself 
may not have been altogether unwilling to see his 
favourite theories placed before the public in a 
handsome form, notwithstanding his protest in the 
papers, which really operated as an advertisement, 
as he must have well known that he could not 
prevent its publication ? 


WYCHERLEY AND BURNS. A very remarkable 
anticipation of Burns's For a' that and a' that is to 
be found in the following passage of William 
Wycherley's The Plain Dealer (1676), act 1.: 

" Manly. A Lord! What, art thou one of those who 
esteem Men only by the Marks and Value Fortune has 
set upon 'em, and never consider intrinsick Worth ; but 
counterfeit Honour will not be current with me: I weigh the 
Man, not his Title; 'tis not the King's Stamp can make 
the Metal better or heavier. Your Lord is a Leaden 
Shilling, which you bend every way, and debases the 
Stamp he bears, instead of being rais'd by it." 

Compare this, especially in the italicized portions, 
with Burns's 

" The rank is but the guinea stamp, 
The man 's the gowd for a' that. 

The honest man, though e'er sae poor, 
T ~ 7 --' o' men for a' that. 

Ye see yon birkie, ca'd a lord, 

Wha struts, and stares, and a' that ; 
Though hundreds worship at his word, 

He 's but a coof for a' that ; 
For a' that, and a' that, 

His riband, star, and a' that ; 
The man of independent mind, 

He looks and laughs at a' that. 

Their dignities and a' that, 
The pith o' sense, and pride o 1 worth, 
Are higher ranks than a' that." 


THE SERVITORS. The Servitour : a Poem, by 
a Servitour of the University of Oxford, 1709. I 
saw a tract so advertised last year, but was too late 
to secure it. Its pictures of the then University 
life, from the poor scholar's point of view, would be 

It was about twenty years later than the above 
date, that at Christ Church (so Charles Wesley, then 
a Christ Church Commoner, records in a letter home), 
the Communion was administered to the Servitors 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [*" s. XIL J,L Y 12, 73. 

the day after the rest of the Society had received 
it ! (Moore's Life of J. Wesley, vol. i.) 


HOUSE AND MANSION. I once asked a house- 
agent what distinction he, and house-agents gene- 
rally, drew between a house and a mansion, for I 
had noticed that they did make a distinction. 
" Oh," he replied, " a mansion has a back stair- 
case." How many of us have been living in man- 
sions without having the least idea of it ! 

Sydenham Hill. 

EPITAPH. In the process of putting into order 
a village churchyard near Bristol, a most curious 
old stone was turned 6Ver, upon which was found 
the following inscription, worthy a place, I think, 
in"N. &Q.": 

*' In Sacred Writ, one pious Sarah 's found, 
But here lies two as pious in tbis ground, 
Pious as primitive saints in the first times 
Chaste, beautiful ! both died in their primes." 

S. V. H. 

knew the use of bad writing until I came across 
the following note to one of Lord Malmesbury's 
despatches from France, during his negotiations 
there, made by the present Earl, who edited the 
work : 

" In consequence of some circumstances having trans- 
pired, a resolution was passed to oblige the Members of 
the Cabinet to secrecy on the subject of Lord Malmes- 
bury's negociations. Mr. Canning and Mr. Hammond 
were, alone, to open the Dispatches and answer them ; 
and, as the latter wrote an abominable hand, his copies 
only were to be shewn to the minor Members of the 
Cabinet, who, it was hoped, would not take the trouble to 
decipher them." Lord Malmesfairy's Despatches, 3rd vol., 
p. 416. 

N. H. R. 

MIROBOLANT. According to the papers of June 
26, one of the witnesses in the Tichborne case is 
reported to have said, in 1852, that this word had 
then but recently been introduced into the French 
language, whilst Roger Tichborne is reported to 
have answered that it was not new, but in common 
use. Roger was right. According to Littre", the 
word was used in a botanical sense as far back as 
the sixteenth century, and he defines it in this 
sense as the " nom de plusieurs fruits desseche's 
venant des deux Indes et ayant la forme d'une 
prune." As these fruits were used in medicine, 
Hauteroche, a French comic writer of the seven- 
teenth century, probably thinking, or choosing to 
think, that the word had something to do with 
wwre=doctor, and bolus,* gave the name in one of 
his plays (Scapin Medecin) to a doctor who cured 
every disease by the means of pills. This seemed 

* This is not in Littre, but Bescherelle, although he 
prefers the spelling myrobolant, derives the word from 
wuVe=doctor in 0. Fr. (see Burgay), and lolus=pill. 

very wonderful; and so the people seized upon the 
word and used it in the sense of " merveilleux, 
emerveillant." , 

Littre derives the word from pvpov, perfume, 
and /3aAavos, gland ; and writes the word myro- 
bolan,* but as he allows that a fern, myrobolante 
is in use, and this could not come from myrobvlan, 
it seems better to make the masculine end in t, as 
is done by the French Academy and by Bescherelle. 
The common spelling, however, is with an i, as in 
the heading. 

But though the word when = astonishing is taken 
from a comedy of Hauteroche, this does not tell us 
when the word was first used in this meaning, 
find it in the Dictionary of the Academy, published 
in 1845, and a French lady, born in 1838, tells me 
that she cannot remember when she did not know 
the word. Littre" quotes no examples in this sense. 
Can any one give instances earlier than this 1 


Sydenham Hill. 

the notes on actors who have been recorded 
(" N. & Q." 4 th S. xi. 14, 63, 126) as dying on the 
stage, allow me to add the following fatal case 
resulting from the hissing of an actress at Caen, in 
Normandy. In the Standard of December 14, 
1861, it is thus recorded : 

"A melancholy event took place three nights ago 
during the representation of the Diamaiis de la Couronne 
at the theatre of Caen. Madame Faugeras, who had 
been engaged to perform the part of the Duenna, took 
on herself to play also that allotted to Mdlle. Soria, who 
had been taken suddenly ill, and she acquitted herself of 
the task, if not with striking talent, at least in a satis- 
factory manner. In one passage, in which she was even 
applauded, a single hiss was heard, at which the audience 
immediately expressed their disapprobation. Whether 
the unpleasant sound had reached the ears of Madame 
Faugeras or not, cannot be positively stated, but she 
suddenly fell forward in a fainting state from the chair 
on which she was seated at the time. The curtain fell, 
and prompt medical assistance was rendered, but all 
human skill proved unavailing, as she expired in a short 
time after she had been conveyed to her own residence. 
Madame Faugeras was only thirty-eight years of age, 
and has left a son, aged fifteen, now in Paris, and for 
whose benefit a representation at that theatre has been 

Mrs. Pope was seized with an apoplectic fit 
during her performance of Desdemona, at Drury 
Lane Theatre, June 10, 1803, and died on the 18th 
of the same month. JAMES H. FENNELL. 

LOCAL ETYMOLOGY. Lancaster, from Lang; 
Kester, i.e., Long Christopher, who used to carry 
people over the Lune before there were bridges. 
Informant, a native of the town, had never heard 
the legend of St. Christopher. H. T. C. 

It ought, strictly speaking, to be myrobalan ; and so 
the Academy in their Dictionary of 1845 spell it when 
used in the botanical sense, though they allow this has 
become corrupted into myrobolan with two o'. In the 
other sense they spell it myrobolant. 

4*s. xii. juw 12, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

FACTOR OF CAMBRIDGE. In the fourteenth cen- 
tury he bestowed his house on the University. 
Will not some Cantab, for the sake of this old 
worthy and his Alma Mater, give the particulars 
in regard to him and his donation? Dyer says 
this gift " obtained particular distinction" ; Acker- 
man, that it was a " sort of holy colony to the 
numerous youths" of Gonville Hall; while from 
Dyer we again learn that it, with two other great 
gifts, originated Trinity College. Was there, and 
is there still, a family of this name in Cambridge- 
shire ? Is there such a locality as Fishwick in or 
near the county ? I am aware there is a place in 
Staffordshire called Fisherwick, one in Berwick- 
shire called Fishwick, and another in co. Lancaster 
named Fishwick. Of these three, the only one, 
apparently, from which a family has taken a sur- 
name is the one in Lancaster. Now I should like 
to know whether the above-mentioned William 
was probably descended from this family, or from 
another residing at some fishing place. In regard 
to the family of Fishwick of co. Lancaster, I beg 
to be informed whether they bore the name of that 
manor from the mere fact of living there, or 
whether it implied in addition descent or kinship 
with its tenants in chief or otherwise. 

The lordship of this manor, called in Doomsday 
Book Fiscuic, was held in capite by Tosti, Earl of 
Northumberland, at the time of the Conquest. 
Later it passed to the Gernet or Heysham family. 
But who held under these great lords? The 
Gernets bore, gu. a lion ramp. arg. Was this 
their family coat, or did it pertain to the manor of 
Fishwick, being borne by them as its lords? 
Possibly a comparison of the seals used by the 
^Lancaster family with those of others of the name 
in Cambridge and other counties might afford 
hints, at least, in regard to their common or 
different origin. W. X. W. 

HERALDIC. Can any reader of " N. & Q." give 
the coat of arms of the following families, viz., 
Clieveland of Birkenhead, about 1720 ; Sachevill 
of Thorpe Sachevill, co. Leicester, thirteenth or 
fourteenth century ; D'Anvers of Frowlesworth, co. 
Leicester, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ; 
Geffery de Courcy, whose daughter and heir married 
John de Staresmore of Staresmore, in the co. of 
Stafford, in the fourteenth century ; Partriche of 
Norfolk, fifteenth century. C. A. S. P. 

of the first edition of this book, on large paper, 

formerly belonging to Mr. Bolton Corney, has the 
following on a separate leaf : 

" Advertisement. 

" The author begs leave to acknowledge to his Sub- 
scriber* that they have a further claim upon him for two 
volumes more than those delivered to them now, and 
which nothing but ill health could have prevented him 
from having ready along with these. The work will be 
completed and delivered to the subscribers early the next 

I have never seen this advertisement in any 
other copy of the first edition. Is it generally 
known that Sterne intended to continue the story ? 

" BRIDE OF LAMMERMOOR." When Caleb Bal- 
derstone is enumerating the imaginary dishes 
which had been ruined by the thunder, in order to 
save the credit of the house in the eyes of Sir 
William Ashton and his daughter, he twice speaks 
of " bacon with reverence." What is the meaning 
of this? Is it the name of a Scottish dish, or does 
the " with reverence" refer to something else? 

PAINTER WANTED. What is the subject, and 
who is the painter, of a picture the size of West's 
Death of Wolfe, and supposed to be its pendant, 
representing the death of a naval officer on the 
deck of a ship, supported on one side by an officer 
of Marines and the other by a sailor ? It has been 
called The Death of Nelson, but the dying man is 
tall, young, and handsome, and the uniforms are of 
anterior date to this century. Y. K. 

were the descendants of the Empress Elizabeth II. 
of Russia and her husband, Alexis Razomufsky ? 
One son was killed in making some chemical 
experiments j of the other I know nothing ; the 
daughter, the Princess Tarrakanoft, was ensnared 
and cruelly incarcerated by Catherine II. until 
the late Admiral Greig was repairing the fortress, 
when she escaped disguised as a labourer's boy. 
Could the agent sent by the Rt. Hon. Charles Fox 
to Russia have had anything to do with her 
escape? I remember hearing that the principal 
person who effected it had been an English Ambas- 
sador. E. A. FEGAN. 

""RELIGION": "RELIGIOUS." In chapter ii. of 
Trench's Study of Words I find a paragraph on 
the words " religion" and "religious," which seems 
to me can only be correct as far as its negations 
are concerned, on the supposition that when those 
words assumed their technical sense of "monk" 
they then lost their original and wider meaning, 
as we have it now. But did not the two meanings 
exist at the same time ? As far as my investiga- 
tion has gone I get the following result : (a.) If 
the Archbishop's allusion is to the Latin, they 
certainly do seem to have co-existed (see Imitatio 



s. xii. JUIY 12, TS. 

Christi (passim) and Erasmus's Colloquia. (/?.) If 
to the vernaculars of Europe, as far as English is 
concerned, I find (1) That the words do not occur 
in Chaucer's Parson's Tale ; (2) But Wicliff has 
them in the general meaning in Acts xxvi. 5, and 
in James i. 26, 27, though later Bibles (as 
Tyndale's, Cranmer's, Geneva, &c.) have here 
" devotion" and " devout." 

Can you tell me when the word " religion " was 
introduced into English, and whether at the time 
it had chiefly the technical sense 1 or did both 
meanings co-exist from the beginning ? 

A. C. W. 

thing known respecting the ancestry of Eichard 
Pratt who alienated the above property in conse- 
quence of his losses during the Great Rebellion ? 
The family had been settled at Kerswell from the 
time of Elizabeth. His grandson, John, was Lord 
Chief Justice in the reign of George I. I am 
anxious to know the names of Richard Pratt's 
brothers and their wives, the date of the family's 
departure from Kerswell Priory, and of their first 
possession of it. The only means whereby I can- 
receive an answer through " N. & Q." will be a 
communication by letter. According to Dugdale's 
Monasticon, Kerswell* (I give the modern spell- 
ing) is one of four cells, each of which contained 
two brethren of the Cluniac Priory of Montacute 
in Somersetshire. It was granted in the thirty- 
eighth year of Henry VIII. as parcel of the posses- 
sions of Montacute to John Etherege. Can I trace 
the successive alienations whereby it came into 
and went out of the possession of the Pratt family ? 
The fuller the information the greater will be the 
obligation conferred on W. B. P. 

Where shall I find reliable information with 
reference to portraits painted in England by this 
artist ? Are any of his works known to exist in 
this country? I have reasons for thinking that 
this artist painted many portraits of notable 
Englishmen of the time of James I. for the Spanish 
Ambassador, Count Gondomar. 


Queen's Gate, S.W. 

are there of Tyndale's New Testaments, and where 
do copies exist 1 I explained (4 th S. xi. 175) that 
I was engaged in making a catalogue and descrip- 
tion of all the editions of the New Testament 
(Tyndale's version), and requested librarians and 
others having copies to assist me by informing me 
of the editions they possess. In reply I have 
received some courteous letters. I beg leave again 

* Old etymology, "Carswell.' 

to call attention to the object I have in view, and 
hope I may receive many communications. There 
are various editions' of which I do not know where 
a copy exists. FRANCIS FRY. 

Gotham, Bristol. 

OLD SONGS. I have a small closely printed 
volume (minus the title-page), containing 570 old 
songs, alphabetically arranged, but without names 
to the songs. I imagine the volume was printed 
about 1700/20. Can any of your contributors 
assist me to the title-page? In Dr. Dixon's 
Ballads and Songs of the Peasantry of England, 
edited by R. Bell, at p. 146, there is a note to the 
song of " The Farmer's Son," in which allusion is 
made to The Vocal Miscellany, 1729, a collection 
of about 400 celebrated songs. Is mine the same ? 

" THE COUNTY MAGISTRATE." Some years ago 
I had this anonymous 3 vol. novel lent me, which 
was said to be by Lord Brougham. Is anything 
known for certain about its authorship ? The 
subject is the misery caused to a poor woman by a 
bad husband, and the urgent need that such inno- 
cent sufferers should be protected. The right of 
divorce being within the reach of poor as well as- 
rich is enforced. L. C. R. 

book in existence containing an account of seven, 
churches in Lincolnshire, Brant Broughton among 
the number, with engravings, &c. Can any one 
give information respecting it 1 A copy is believed 
to be in the British Museum. But anybody pos- 
sessing one, and giving any information concerning 
it speedily, would greatly oblige. SLEAFORD. 

TITLE OF BOOK WANTED. Some years ago 
fifteen, perhaps I saw in a second-hand book 
catalogue a novel advertised, of which I have for- 
gotten the title. Attached to the notice was a state- 
ment that the book was by the Right Hon. Charles 
Tennison D'Eyncourt, M.P., of Bayons Manor., 
Lincolnshire, and that it had been rigidly sup- 
pressed. What is the title of this book, and was 
the account then given of its authorship correct ? 


INDIAN NEWSPAPERS. The files of some of 
these in the Indian Office Library commence as. 
follows : 

Name. Day of Issue. Date. Vol. No. 

Madras Courier... Thursday ...22 Sept, 1791... 7... 311 
Madras Gazette ...Saturday ...18 Jany., 1800... 6... 264r 
Bombay Courier... Saturday ... 5 Jany., 1793... 2... 14 
Bombay Gazette ...Wednesday 7 April, 1813. ..24.. .1192 

I want to know the day of issue of the first 
number of each of the above, whether they began 
by being issued weekly or bi-weekly, and if the 
latter, when they discontinued being so issued; 
also, where I can consult the missing numbers. 

The Broad Arrow of the 15th June, 1872, 

4* s . xii. JULY 12, >73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


p. 784, states that " Hicky's Gazette first appearec 
at Calcutta in 1780, and was the first Indian news 
paper." What authority is there for this state 
ment, and, if correct, where can a complete file o 
it be consulted ; if incorrect, which was the firsi 
English newspaper published in India, and where 
can it be seen in a complete series ? 

3, Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park, W. 

I would solicit inquiry into the precise situation o: 
the unmarked grave, in St. Alban's Abbey, of one 
who, with all his faults, stands prominently for 
ward in history as the last Eegent of France, anc 
as the first and most faithful and gallant leader 
unto the death, of the Lancastrian cause. We are 
told (Beattie) that after the battle, no one daring 
to pay decent regard to the remains of the defeated 
nobles, Abbot John solicited the Duke of York to 
suffer some honours to be paid to the deceased 
whom he frankly designated as " not enemies, but 
your relations by blood your fellow patriots/ 
Permission being given, the Abbot caused some oi 
the brethren to go forth and take up the deceased, 
the Duke of Somerset, Henry Percy, Earl oi 
Northumberland, and Thomas Clifford, Lord Clif- 
ford. The bodies were laid out in decent order in 
the church, and then interred in the Chapel of the 
Blessed Virgin, " Lineali ordine, juxta statum, 
gradum, et honorem dignitatis." I apprehend, 
therefore, that Somerset lies before the altar with 
Percy on his right, and Clifford on his left. Have 
we any farther evidence by which the situation of 
these graves may be certainly determined, with 
view to their being inscribed 1 Is the site of the 
" Crown," beneath the fatal sign of which the Duke 
died, fighting valiantly, ascertainable ? I once 
discovered a modern " Crown " at the end of a very- 
ancient street, but the Crown probably did not 
stand here, as the Duke appears to have fallen in 
the upper and most defensible part of the town, in 
or near St. Peter's Street, where he had barricaded 
all the avenues towards the Yorkist position in the 
Key Field, and where the slain lay thickest. 



(4 th S. si. 210, 321, 349, 391, 507.) 
With respect to this word I admit, on reflection, 
that the old derivation adopted by MR. FURNIVALL 
from bosse (a lump ; in secondary sense, a bubble) 
is the more probable one. His interpretation of 
two passages, however, I cannot accept ; 1st. Of 
the passage in All's Well, iii. 6 : "We have almost 
embossed him ; you shall see his fall to-night." MR. 
FURNIVALL says, embossed is here emfioiste, shut up as 

within a box ; and he proceeds, " this is clear from 
the next speech : " First Lord. We ; 11 make you 
some sport with the fox, ere we case him." From this 
I suppose that MR. FURNIVALL derives case from 
encaisser ; but why should we reject the common in- 
terpretation adopted by Mr. Dyce, viz., skin?* The 
word, as a substantive, is found often enough in the 
sense of " skin" ; and the words which follow prove, 
in my mind, that this is the true meaning in this 
passage ; they are, " He was first smoked by the old 
lord Lafeu ; when his disguise and he is parted, you 
shall see what a sprat he is." It must be observed, 
that the two lords by no means preserve a uniformity 
of simile in their allusions to Parolles, as, immediately 
after, the Second Lord says, " I must go look my 
twigs ; he shall be caught," thereby comparing 
Parolles to a bird. In his first speech I conceive 
that he compares him to a stag, and that embossed 
has here the same meaning, as in the Antony and 
Cleopatra and Taming of the Shrew passages, viz., 
foaming at the mouth, at his last gasp. 

2ndly. As to the Chaucer passage, which is as 
follows : 

" And I heard going both up and down, 
Men, horse and houndes and other thing ; 
And all men speak of hunting : 
How they wolde slee the herte with strength 
And how the hert had upon length 
So much embosed : I not know what." 

Boke of the Duchesse, 1. 353, Aldine edit. 
On this MR. FURNIVALL says, " Chaucer no doubt 
refers to the future hunt in the forest." Now it seems 
to me certain, that Chaucer refers to a past hunt. In 
the first palace, how could the hunters know that 
the stag in the coming hunt would be "so much 
embosed " 1 It might escape before it was " embosed" 
at all. 2ndly. Though the words "wolde slee" 
might refer to the future, they may also refer to 
the past ; and surely the words " had embosed " 
must refer to the past and the past only. My idea 
is, that while the hunters were assembling, those 
already assembled whiled away the time by dis- 
cussing a past hunt ; and that the word embosed 
has here the same meaning as embossed in the 
passages already cited. .One difference there 
certainly is, that in those passages the auxiliary 
" was " is used, whereas here Chaucer, less correctly, 
uses the auxiliary "had."t 

Of the word emboss I will give two more in- 

Richardson tells us " case " is here used for " uncase." 
In this I suppose he is right, as nothing ia more common 
;han the dropping the negative prefix : so, indeed, to 
" skin " must originally have been to "unskin." 

t If I might venture to derive the word enlose from en 
and the German Mse, bad, spiteful, that would give a 
sense still more suited to the context ; the hunters were 
about to slay the stag, but he became so spiteful and 
r urious from desperation, that . Mr. Abbott, in his 
Shakspearian Grammar, has collected several instances of 
such hybrid words; but as there is no other instance, to 
my knowledge, in which the word is used in this sense, I 
do not attempt to maintain it. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [*" s. xn. JCLY 12/73. 

stances, which confirm MR. FURNIVALL'S deriva- 
tion from bosse : 
" Why are ye thus discomfited, like hinds that have no 


Who, wearied -with a long-run field, are instantly embost, 

Stand still, and in their beastly breasts is all their 

courage lost ? " Chapman, Iliad, iv. 

" But they (the hounds) shul not opene (bark) neither 
njuestye (go in quest), while that he is among the chaunge 
(in the state of changing or shedding his antlers), for 
i'ear to enboife and do amysse." MS. Bodl. 546, cited in 
flalliwell's Glossary. 

As to questye, alter en quete d'un cerf, said of 
hounds, means, as far as I can make out from the 
Trench dictionaries, to separate a stag from the 
'herd ; the meaning of the whole passage therefore 
-will be, that while a stag is shedding his antlers 
(at which time, I am told, he is very weak), the 
hounds are not to single him out as an object of 
the chase, lest they should bring him to a foaming 
state (i. e., to extremities) at once, and so spoil the 
hunter's sport. I may add that my interpretation 
of this enigmatical passage is merely conjectural, 
and I only put it forward here> in the hope that it 
may receive corrections from others, or what would 
be still better, that Mr. Halliwell will give us 
enough of the context to render it intelligible. 

I now come to MR. PROWETT'S suggestion 
(" N & Q." 4 th S. xi. 349), that the word embossed, 
applied to Parolles and Falstaffe, is derived from 
boscum, and " in a hunter's mouth would naturally 
come to mean the position of a quarry that had taken 
covert, and so enabled the chase to come up with 
him ; and if not to surround him, at all events to 
make pretty sure of their game." I confess that I 
am practically unacquainted with the art of hunting, 
hut I always thought that if a hunted animal took 
covert, it was in a better position than before, 
having more opportunities of escaping from the 
hounds than in open ground. In any case a stag 
that had taken covert would not necessarily be in 
the state of extreme distress which is always im- 
plied in the word embossed. MR. PROWETT, in 
support of his suggestion, cites a passage from the 
concluding chorus of the Samson Agonistes. The 
Chorus, after describing Samson's final exploit, pro- 
ceed as follows : 

" So Virtue, given for lost, 
Depressed and overthrown, as seem'd, 
Like that Arabian bird 
In the Arabian woods imbost 
That no second knows nor third, 
And lay erewhile a holocaust, 
From out her ashy womb now teem'd, 
Revives, reflourishes, now vigorous most, 
When most inactive deem'd." 

I find that all the dictionaries, like MR. PROWETT 
derive this word imbost from boscum or bois ; still 
I am inclined to think that imbost may here, as in 
the other passages, be derived from bosse. 
course a bird cannot be said literally to foam a. 
the mouth, but the secondary sense of embossed 

' at his last gasp," or something of the sort, would 
)e quite suitable to the context. It also occurs to 
ne that such tautology as " in wooded in the woods" 
s not in Milton's manner. I must confess, how- 
jver, that my acquaintance with Milton has of late 
ears been of the slightest, so that I cannot speak 
with certainty on this point. Again, I should 
-hink that when a word was perfectly familiar to 
everybody in one sense,* a writer would hesitate 
jefore using it once and once only, in an entirely 
different sense, it being, indeed, derived from, a 
different source, a proceeding which would only 
)uzzle the reader. In conclusion, my contention 
low is that emboss, in all the passages in which it 
s found, is derived from bosse, and in no case from 
"oisorboite. F.J. V. 

So much ingenuity has been shown by MR. 
?URNIVALL and MR. JESSE in the explanation of 
:his word, that the subject has become interesting. 
[ will therefore venture to point out that the 
embossed, derived from bosse, differs little from our 
uodern embossed, excepting that it appears to have 
jeen then also used as the French now use bosse 
when speaking, not only of a surface, a part of 
which is raised by being bulged out from the back, 
Dut also of casts of entire heads. Thus they say, 
' Dessiner d'apres la bosse " ; and, in ridicule, 
' Quelle bosse !" what a head ! 

The derivation of embossed from emboister is, 
aowever, not so evident. Its use in All's Well 
seems rather a play upon the similarity of sound 
in imbost and embossed; yet while looking at it 
from that point of view, MR. FURNIVALL'S opinion 
might possibly be enforced by finding a play upon 
the word case. In Old French casse was a long 
box, in which the compartments were called cases ; 
but case meant also a house or cell. Now, unless 
my memory fails me, we meet with the expression 
" break an animal," meaning to tear or cut it in 
pieces, and a reference to one of the old French 
books on " Venery " in the British Museum would 
show if casser was formerly used as our break, to 
signify tear or cut in pieces. The word case may, 
however, have been a misprint for cage, owing to 
the use of the long s. 

The embossed or imbost, derived from bois, will 
admit of further elucidation. The expression 
" aux abois " was apparently simply a contraction 
of " aux aboyements," and alluded to the barking 
of the dogs when an animal was at bay. We must 
also remember that the French say, when speaking 
of the horns of a stag, " un bois de cerf " ; and that 
a man-of-war used to show "its teeth" to the 
enemy as a stag at bay did its horns to the dogs ; 
moreover, that as the French sailors say embosser, so 
ours "she headed to the wind." Another play 

* MR. ADDIS has collected many instances of embossed 
in the sense of "worn out" ("N. & Q.," 4 th S. i. 454; xi. 
321), and there are yet several others. 



upon the word embosser may possibly have been 
found in boiter, to limp, halt in the gait. 

Ashford, Kent. 


(4* S. xi. 521.) 

MR. TEW does not give his authority for the 
Orphic fragment upon which he grounds his start- 
ling conclusion given under the above heading, 
where he says : u That vSpoytvvjS points to Moses, 
I think there can be no reasonable ground for 
doubt ..... AiTrAaKo, may refer both to the 
twofold nature of the Law duty to God and man 
as taught in the Ten Commandments, and to 
the tablets on which they were inscribed, which 
may have been made to fold together." ( !) 

With regard to vSpoyevr)?, he says : " It is not 
noticed by Scapula, Hederick, or Liddell and 
Scott. This is strange, because although probably 
an archaic, it is none the less a classical word." 

It is nothing of the sort, or the above-named 
lexicographers would have "noticed" it. It is 
merely a modern scientific compound in the term 
hydrogen, which, like cyanogen, oxygen, &c., has 
been adopted by chemistry. 

But that is not all. The word does not occur 
in the original, at any rate, as given by Mullachius 
(Fragm. Philos. Grcecorum, " Orphica," vol. i. 
p. 167. Paris, 1860), Hymn II., subfinem. Here 
the word is uAoyevr)s, "silvarum alumnus," or 
" wood-born," which is classical, and " noticed " 
by Maltby ; and it turns out that MR. TEW'S 
*' discovery " is not original ; for Mullachius con- 
ceived the same extravagant fancy long ago, add- 
ing in a note on the word " vhoyevys videtur 
appellari Moses." ( !) 

But even this is not original. It is suggested 
in the Gesner-Hamberger edition of the Orphics 
(Argonautica, Hymni, &c., Lipsise, 1764) as fol- 
lows : " rov vX.oyevTJ esse Adamum ex informi 
gleba formatum diceres ; nisi legas legis duarum 
tabularurn mentio nimis aperte signaret Mosen, qui 
in vA,?;, ilia, sc. silva papyri stirpium, in eo, quod 
4'A.os, alias vocatur, expositus fuerat, &c." Frag- 

The last line of MR. TEW'S quotation appears to 
be a clumsy interpolation, although SiTrAag may 
mean simply " ample," as given by Maltby ; and 
the annotators before quoted remark thereon as 
follows : "AiVAa/ca Homericam vocem (IL, F 126, 
t Mf 243) pulchre hue non tarn transtulit quani in 
iomicilium suum TeVoc&vit.quisquisversiculi auctor 

Thus, between MR. TEW'S "water-born" and 
Mifllachius's " wood-born," the origin of Moses fares 
badly-, and can scarcely be made to tally with the 
Scriptural account, which merely refers to his having 
been " drawn out of the water." (Exod. ii. 10.) 

MR. TEW'S translation of the fragment is merely 
a fanciful paraphrase, designed to suit his notion 
about Orpheus and Moses. Compare MR. TEW'S 
words : 

v " so, too, that sage, 

Who, water-born, yet heaven-inspired, proclaim'd 
That twofold law, on dyptic tablets gray'd," 

with Mullachius's rendering : 
" Sic antiquorum effatum, sic silvarum alumnus statuit 
Divinitus animo duplici lege intellecta." 

So much for MR. TEW. There is certainly some 
obscurity in the two lines in question ; but as the 
passage obviously refers to the attributes of the 
Creator, the former seems to be an allusion to Pan, 
" Strong, past'ral Pan, whom rural haunts 
delight." As T. Taylor observes, Pan was " the 
primary exemplar of the Universe as the name 

It is only thus that Siere^ev can make sense ; 
for it does not mean " proclaimed," as MR. TEW 
has it, but statuit, " arranged," " ordained," " ap- 
pointed," " regulated." 

MR. TEW will find the word in numerous 
Scriptural passages, as referred to by Parkhurst, 
1 Cor. xi. 34 ; Matt. xi. 1 ; Luke, iii. 13 ; Acts, 
xviii. 2 ; et al. 

In Cory's Ancient Fragments MR. TEW will find 
many striking passages in the vein he has in view ; 
for instance, a fragment quoted from Malala, end- 
ing with the following words : " And man was 
formed by this God out of the earth, and endued 
with a reasonable soul, in like manner as Moses 
has revealed." 

And I may add that even at the present day, 
among the practices of Hindoo worship, obviously 
relating to very remote and primitive notions, a 
certain image is formed of clay, and Shiva is 
invoked to breathe into it the breath of life ! 

MR. TEW thinks he can show that " the Hebrew 
Scriptures were very much better known to the 
learned among the heathen than is commonly 
believed or allowed," and offers confirmation of his 
conviction. It is to be hoped that his other in- 
stances are better founded than the one we have 
disposed of. The ancient Fathers were too well 
informed to come to any such conclusion, from the 
similarities and coincidences existing between 
passages in the respective writings ; and so, one of 
them Jerome, I think settled the difficulty by 
saying that the Devil inspired the heathen writers 
with the passages in question, in order that doubts 
might be subsequently cast upon the genuineness 
of Christianity ! I cannot give the exact words ; 
but I remember meeting with them some thirty 
years ago in " The Three Conversions," &c. of the 
old Jesiiit Father Parsons, who quoted them with 
solemn emphasis. I may be permitted to qualify 
such investigations ' L as mere " vain searches "not 
at all conducive to the interests of true Keligion, 
and I completely endorse the following original and 



s. xn. JULY 12, TS.B 

striking remark of Mr. Spurgeon, in his memorable 
sermon of last Easter Sunday : " I question 
whether Butler or Paley have not both of them 
created more infidels than they ever cured, and 
whether most of the defences of the Gospel are not 
sheer ^ impertinences. . . ." I may add, that all 
" coincidences " of the kind only attest the broad 
basis of Christianity, and account for its enduring 
hold on mankind, its essential characteristics being 
now sufficiently distinct from the types of primitive 
physical worship, and, indeed, obliterated by their 
purely spiritual and supernal aspirations. 




(1 st and 3 rd S. passim.} 

Time was when I was a constant reader of " N. 
& Q.," and although I have long been deprived of 
the immediate pleasure I consequently derived, my 
memories of it supply me with no ungrateful suc- 
cedaneum. A copy of Dr. Kamage's Beautiful 
Thoughts from Latin Authors has lately con- 
tributed very interestingly to this gratification, and 
suggested to me that one or two of the notes I have 
made with respect to certain quotations in that 
book might prove of sufficient consequence for a 
nook in the grove of that literary favourite. Hence 
I send you my uninvited greeting from this little 
understood Southern metropolis. 

In the Index Dr. E. refers the common quotation, 
"Bis dat qui cito dat," to page 465, and there 
gives, not that phrase, but " Inopi beneficium bis 
dat qui dat celeriter," from Pubiius Syrus. The 
idea is, indeed, the same in the two sentences, but 
the latter does not satisfy inquirers after the pre- 
cise origin of the former as a quotation. This I 
have traced to two sources of nearly contemporary 
existence. One of these is a little book, the title 
of which, surrounded with a decidedly Dionysian 
vignette, reads thus : " Joannis Given Oxoniensis 
Angli fipigrammatum Editio ~ Postrcma. Am- 
stelodami. Apud Joanne Janssonium. Ao. 
MDCXXXII." Here it is given, on page 148, as 
the title or heading of an epigram : 

" Mvnera des laetus, corrumpunt taedia donum : 
In quo censendum'est, quid nisi dantis amor?" 

The other is a work entitled 

" Manipulus Sacer, Concionum Moralium, Collectus ex 
Volummibus R. P. Hieremise Drexelii Societ. lesu, In 
omnes anrii Dominicos, Festos, et Quadragesimales dies 
romuhs quatuor discinctus, Methodo Theologis, Parochis 
Concionatoribus, Catechistis, peraccomcda. Per R P' 
F. Petru De Vos, S. TL. Eremitam Augustinianum! 
Antverpiaj, Sumptibus et Prelo Viduje et Hzeredum 
Joannes Cnobbari. Ao. 1644." 

At page 313 of this book the " argument" of the 
Concio there commenced is given in these words : 
" Qui cito dat, bis dat, cur ergo ingens Eedemp- 

tionis beneficium dilatum?" In the "prosecutio" 
of the Concio the words are given in the usually 
quoted order: " Sed nunquid bis dat, qui cito 
dat?" And the idea is fortified from Solomon, 
" Nee dicas, ait, amico tuo ; vade et revertere, et 
eras dabo tibi, cum statim possis dare." 

Now Owen is believed to have been born about 
1560, and to have died about 1622 ; Drexel was 
born in 1581, and died in 1638. I have not access 
to the original works of Drexel, and therefore can- 
not ascertain whether he originally used the phrase, 
or whether his compiler or epitomizer is responsible 
for it. But the inference I should draw would 
certainly be that Drexel himself used it. And 
that it was used before Owen I should feel justified 
in inferring from the fact that the section of 
Owen's book from which I take the quotation is 
entitled Monosticha qucedam Ethica et Politico, 
Veterum Sapientum. Was it Drexel who furnished 
Owen with his text ? Or did they both draw from 
a common source ? Or did they independently 
originate the form of the phrase ? If my con- 
jectures are right, the first of these inquiries may 
be disregarded. If they drew it from a common 
source, where is it found' before them ? I do not 
find it in the Flores Poetarum de Virtutibus et 
Vitiis, published at Cologne in 1 504, " per Mar- 
tinum de Werdena": although I do, in the forty- 
seventh chapter of the second book, find quoted 
from Tobias : 

" Da cito : da gratis gratum : ne gratia fiat 
Venalis : grato munere gratus eris 
Gratius est jamjamque datur : meritique noverca 
Esse solet dantis desidiosa manus." 

Erasmus dates his Colloquia in 1526; and the 
quotation does not appear in them. As far as I 
can recall, it does not occur in the Adagia, some 
time previously published. Nor have I met it in 
any previous work; and I think myself justified in 
therefore claiming to have pointed out the pious 
Jesuit, Drexel, as its author. 

Before dismissing this quotation I will note that 
the word discinctus on the engraved title-page of 
the Manipulus is elsewhere printed distinctus, and 
that the genitive of the printer's name is elsewhere 
used in the form Cnobbarti. In the former case 
although some one has marked discinctus for 
correction by substituting t for c the title- 
page is almost certainly correct. In the case of the 
name, I am unable to verify the correct form. 
Neither Timperley nor any other authority I have 
now at command mentions this printer. 

Well known as the learned Welshman, Owen, 
or Audoenus, is, it is rather curious that this quo- 
tation should not have been traced to him. Put 
still more curious is it that the quotation, " Tem- 
pera mutantur nos et," &c., should not have been 
discovered to be traceable to him. Yet so it is. 
At page 225 of my edition of his work is tiis epi- 
gram : 

4s.xn.juLYi2,73.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"0 temporal 

Tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in illis : 
Quomodo? sit semper tempore pejor homo." 

And what is even yet more curious, at page 1 
of the same book is the subjoined epigram upon 
Borbonius, whom I presume to have been the sam 
to whom " N. & Q." long ago, DR. EAMAGE sc 
lately, and readers in general to the present time 
have credited the hexameter: 

" In Borbonii Poetae nugas 
Quas tu dixisti nugas, non esse putasti 
Non dico uugas esse ; sed esse puto." 

This would seem to dispose of Borbonius's 
" Omnia mutantur." But there remains a collatera 
question which may as well at once also be dis- 
posed of. Sir Edward Coke was contemporary 
with Owen, and in Hawke's Grounds of the Laws 
of England, London, 1657, Coke is quoted, 1. 6 
f. 78, as using it in the form " et nos." In which- 
ever form he really used it, there is good grounc 
for contending that he borrowed from Owen, nol 
Owen from him. He could not do less than com- 
pliment Owen for a very flattering epigram, which 
I find at page 183 of the latter^ work, addressed 
" Ad Edoardum Coke equitem, lurisprudentiss. 
ludicem," &c. Nor, on the other hand, could 
Owen have done less in acknowledgment of Sir 
Edward's friendly flattery in quoting the sugges- 
tive and now celebrated words. 

I cannot dismiss this morceau without adding 
a little fact in connexion with it which has afforded 
me a little amusement, and may, perhaps, do 
the same for others. Having occasion some time 
ago to examine a small Latin grammar just pub- 
lished in Boston, I there found, among illustrations 
of the force and beauty of caesura, the lengthened 
tur of my old acquaintance in the form, " Tempora 
mutantur, et nos," &c. 0! those irrepressible 
"maggots" of the grammaticasters and book- 
makers ! 

For the present, at least, Valeto quam optime. 

New Orleans. 

[The fourth section of Acliones Misericordice, vide 
Opera omnia, Reverendi Patris Hieremice Drexelii e 
Socie. Jesu, 1680, commences thus : " Misericordise est 
cito dare. Ingratum est beneficium, quod diu inter 
maims dantis haesit. Gratissima sunt beneficia parata, 
facilia, occurrentia, ubi nulla est mora. Verissime bis 
dedit, qui cito dedit. Quod Publius eleganter dixit. 
Bis inopi beneficium dat, qui celeriter dat, et minus 
decipitur, cui negatur celeriter. Hoc ipsum Salomon 
inculcans : Nee dicas, ait," &c.j 


(4* S. xi. 130, 178, 202, 243, 387, 425, 465, 512.) 
I agree with JEAN LE TROUVEUR that the obser- 
vations of MR. C. Eoss in his last Junian paper in 
" N. & Q." tell in favour of the Franciscan theory, 
and not, as he fancies, against it. The arrogance 

and violence of Francis, the tone and temper in 
which he dealt with all persons and all subjects, 
appear to me, as they did to Lord Macaulay, to be 
just what one would expect from Junius ; for proof 
of which I refer any inquirer, not only to his 
speeches and pamphlets, but, and especially, to his 
letters and fragments, in the Memoirs. 

MR. Eoss thinks the tone of Junius towards the 
king and Lord Mansfield incompatible with the 
authorship of " an obscure clerk in the War Office." 
The phrase does not convey an accurate idea of 
the position of young Francis, who was "first 
clerk," doing important and confidential work, 
drafting most of his chief's despatches, &c., the 
position of an under-secretary, or assistant under- 
secretary of our day ; and this he had obtained at 
the age of twenty-two, having been secretary to 
General Bligh at eighteen, and secretary to Lord 
KinnouPs Lisbon Mission at twenty. He was 
indeed a remarkably precocious youth, and never 
seems to have felt any deference for anybody. 
These facts, coupled with the absolute secrecy in 
which the Letters were composed, would suffice to 
remove the particular objection now raised by MR. 
Eoss against the authorship of Francis. But I add 
a few references to the Memoirs, which might be 
easily increased, in illustration of what I have said. 

In a letter to Calcraft, of 1st of December, 1770, 
Francis speaks thus of Lord Mansfield : 

" If, however, you are determined at all events to bring 
this question forward, I must make the presence and 
hearty co-operation of Lord Camden a sine qu& non. 
Besides the double terror upon Lord Mansfield, there is a 
juirk and subtility in legal arguments which lawyers are 
best qualified to unravel. It is not that I question tha 
ability of that great man (Lord Chatham), . . . but I think 
that when this wretch is attacked on one side on great 
constitutional principles, he should be cut off, on the 
other, from his usual retreat to the labyrinths of his pro- 
fession." (Vol. i., 396.) 

In the Fragment of Autobiography, written 
n 1774 or 5 (see vol. i., pp. 368-9), and all of it 
fery important for this inquiry, Francis thus dis- 
poses of his former chief, Lord Kinnoul : " The 
execution of it must have been disgraced by so 
"eeble an instrument as Lord Kinnoul." 

In a fragment on the Kings of England, Francis 
reats George III. with savage contempt ; and these 
houghts, though written in his latest years, are 
ividently echoes of the past: 

" George III. was little better than an idiot from his 
lirth, .... with some of the cunning and all the malignity 
hat usually accompany the derangement of a shallow 
mind. I never did hear of his having a valuable quality 
though he appeared to partake of the odious, mawkish 
;ood humour of a fool), much less of any word or deed of 
lis that indicates generosity or feeling." (Vol. ii. p. 524.) 

"A life protracted in affliction, coercion, insanity, and 
orrection, with such a wife, and such a progeny, is all 
he reward he derives from his success in plotting, and 
ffecting the ruin of this country. From these personal 
ribulations a seasonable fever might have saved him long 
go. I believe that he was reserved for an example of 


retribution on earth according to his works 

This is a dead language now, and as little understood in 
England as that of the Druids. " (p. 526.) 

C. P. F. 

FARRER FAMILY (4 th S. xi. 176, 244.) The 
mention of this family calls to mind a problem 
connected with the accounts already in print. In 
Burke's Landed Gentry there is a pedigree of the 
Farrers of Ingleborough, co. York, descended from 
Henry Farrer, of Ewood Hall, who married Mary 
Barcroft about A.D. 1553. Reference is made in 
that article to Thoresby's Ducatus Leodensis, where 
some account of the family is also given. The 
combined statements are that Henry Farrer, the 
first in the pedigree, had sons Henry (who was a 
justice of the peace in 1590 and s. p.) and John. 
This John had Henry (who sold Ewood to his 
brother, and went to Lincolnshire), John of Ewood, 
.and Humphrey, a divine. Burke traces the line of 
Henry of Lincoln, Thoresby gives that of John of 
Ewood, which in Whitaker's edition is traced in 
1743, and has since become extinct in the male 
line. Now I have in my possession a number of 
extracts from the parish register of Halifax, York- 
shire, and from the wills at York Registry, in 
regard to the name of Farrer or Ferrer, made by 
the late H. G. Somerby, Esq. I cannot make 
these wills agree with the pedigree, and I desire 
the aid of your correspondents. Thus in 1610 I 
have the abstract of the will of Henry Farrer, of 
Ewood Hall, in Midgely, Esq., wounded. It men- 
tions brothers John and Hugh, sisters Margaret 
Wilkinson and Mary Horsfall. Again, in 1623, 
the will of Ellen Ferrar, late wife of Henry Ferrar, 
-of Thewood, deceased. It mentions brother Hugh 
Ferrar, and she desires to be buried in the church 
of Colne, Lane., near her father and mother. 

Who were this Henry and Ellen Farrer of 
Ewood ? Henry, of Lincoln, was alive in 1623, 
according to Burke. 

I have several Henrys and Hughs in Midgely at 
this time, but I cannot make them into a pedigree 
so long as I have also to account for this Ewood 
family as laid down by Thoresby. Can any one 
establish the fact that the sons of John Farrer of 
Ewood were Henry, John, and Humphrey 1 

What is known of the family of Robert Farrer, the 
bishop who suffered under Queen Mary? What 
authority had Thoresby or Wood for saying that 
he gave lands within four miles of Halifax to his 
near relations ? Is his will known ? 


Boston, U.S.A. 

"A PARENTHESIS IN ETERNITY " (4 th S. xi. 504., 
MR. MANUEL will find that Sir Thomas Browne 
has the expression he is in quest of. The passage 
in which it occurs reads thus (Browne's Wor 
Bonn's edition, vol. iii., p. 143) : 

" Think not thy time short in this world, since the 

world itself is not long. The created world is but a small 
>arenthesis in eternity, and a short interposition, for a 
ime, between such a state of duration as was before it 

and may be after it." 

There is in The Female Rebellion (a tragi-comedy, 

supposed to have been written about 1682, and 

)rinted from MS. for private circulation in 1872) 

passage containing a similar idea to the one just 

quoted from Browne's Works, thus : 

"The loss of future years will be no more 
Than not to have been born so long before ; 
Those broken drops of Time, hid in th' Abyss 
Of vast eternity, we never miss." (p. 61.) 

fe. . 

In Dr. Donne's Book of Devotions (published 
1624), Meditation 14, we read, " Eternity is not an 
everlasting flux of time, but time is as a short 
parenthesis in a long period." J. W. W. 

MARIE DE FLEURY (4 th S. xi. 510.) The dis- 
dainful reference by K to Marie de Fleury's lines 

rather amusing. She appears to have been a 
single woman, living in 1791 with her father and 
brother at 31, Jewin Street, and was well known 
as the writer of several poems, odes, hymns, and 
essays, all more or less tinged with a religious 
or devotional spirit, written, in so far as they pre- 
sent any distinctive features, from a Calvinistic 
point of view. 

The first line of the poem, " Thou soft-flowing 
Kedron," was an imitation, perhaps, of Garrick's 
song, but the worthy lady probably considered that, 
instead of lowering the sentiment of Garrick's 
effusion, she had raised it. Her effort, undoubtedly, 
is not noticeable as a work of art, but its religious 
feeling is as genuine as that of loftier strains, and 
should have protected it from contempt. Why it 
should be supposed to be particularly appropriate 
to Antinomian congregations is inexplicable, as no 
poem was ever more free from sectarian bias. 
Oddly enough, the writer was author of an essay 
called Antinomianism Unmasked and Refuted, so 
that N.'s fling is a particularly bad shot. She also 
took part in the controversy of the day against the 
Rev. William Huntington, S.S. J. B. D. 

I have before me a volume of this lady's pro- 
ductions, where the parody is found in Divine 
Poems, 1791, and entitled simply " A Hymn," 
which your correspondent says may still be sung 
in some of the Antinomian chapels. It was cer- 
tainly not composed for their use, for the lady, 
whose forte was polemics, is now only remembered 
for her attacks upon their leader, the famous 
William Huntington, and my tracts show how 
courageously Marie whipped the coalheaver and 
S.S. for his " pride and arrogance." A. G. 

FAMILY OF DE LA LYNDE (4 th S. xi. 504.) 
There was more than one connexion between 
the families of De la Lynde and Husey. If Visi- 


tation-Books and pedigrees speak truth, Delalynde 
Husey's grandmother was Mary, daughter of 
Thomas Baskett of Dewlish, who married Mary 
Larder, co-heiress of the families of Larder and 
Storke, and whose great-grandmother was Eleanor, 
daughter of John de la Lynde of Winterborne- 
Clenston, living 16th Edw. IV. This Mary 
Basket, Delalynde Husey's grandmother, seems to 
have been a grand-daughter of Alice Storke, nee 
Bingham, a daughter of Robert Bingham of Bing- 
ham's Malcombe, by Joan, daughter of John 
Delalynde of Winterbourne Clenston. See 
Hutchins's 4th Edition, Pedigrees of Baskett, 
Bingham, and Hussey. C. W. BINGHAM. 

"TO-DAY" (4 th S. xi. 521.) It does not appear 
to me that there is anything objectionable in saying 
" the men of to-day," " the fashions of to-day " ; 
to-day, to-night, means this day, this night, hence 
it is exactly equivalent to hodie, hoc die. But as 
PROF. ATTWELL does not produce any sentences 
showing the objectionable use of the word, one 
can hardly go into the matter effectually. " To- 
day is ours, to-morrow mocks at property, and to 
many now alive will never come " ; surely here, 
" this day is ours " would be a very feeble sub- 
stitute. C. A. W. 


" PRACTICAL WISDOM," &c. (4 th S. xi. 503.) 
Under this title there may be more books than 
one. I have a volume entitled, Triumphs of 
Genius and Perseverance, Exemplified in the His- 
tories of Persons who from the lowest state of 
poverty and early ignorance have risen to the 
highest eminence in the Arts and Sciences. By 
Eliz. Strutt, Author of Practical Wisdom,&c., 12mo., 
1827, with medallion portraits facing title ; both 
subject and date would point to this being the 
P. W. and Editor inquired for. A. G. 

WILL. CROUCH (4 th S. xi. 504.) In Bromley's 
Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits, among 
the " Phenomena Convicts, Monsters," occurs the 
portrait of William Crouch ; but nothing more 
than that already got. W. P. RUSSELL. 


SIR FRANCIS DRAKE (4 th S. xi. 464, 514.) In 
Carter's Analysis of Honor, 1673, among the arms 
given are " Arg. a wivern, ,his wings displayed, 
and tail nowed Gules, by the name of Drake." 
And, in another part of the book, " Sable a fesse 
wavy Argent, between two stars of the second, 
given to that honourable person Sir Francis Duke, 
by Queen Elizabeth for his service at sea." 

Duke appears to be a misprint for Drake. The 
crest is not given, nor anything said about the 
w?vern. R. N. J. 

BULCHYN (4 th S. xi. 422, 511.) Has this word 
any connexion with the now obsolete word tulchan ? 

In McCrie's Sketches of Church History we have 
the following (vol. i. pp. 95-96) : 

" It served the design of Morton, which was, that 
these bishops should be nominally put in possession of 
the wholevbenefices, but should rest satisfied with, a small 
portion to themselves, and enter into a private bargain 
to deliver up the rest to him and otter noblemen who 
acted with him. The ministers who were so mean as to 
accept of bishoprics under this disgraceful and simoniacal 
system, exposed themselves to general contempt, and 
were called, by way of derision, tulchan bishops & tul- 
chan being a calf's skin stuffed with straw, which the 
county people set up beside the cow, to induce her to- 
give her milk more freely. The bishop, it was said, had 
the title, but my lord had the milk." 

The double diminutive ending in chyn: thus 
we have man ; diminutive mannie ; double 
diminutive mannifcm. JAMES HOGG. 


JEHAN PETIT (4 th S. xi. 463.) Jehan or Jean 
Petit was a celebrated printer and bookseller at 
Paris from 1498 to 1541. He employed fifteen 
presses in general with Gothic type, and printed a 
larger number of works in this type than any 
other French printer. He appears at one time to 
have been in partnership with Jodocus Badius 
Ascensius, and several impressions bear their joint 
names. Notices of Jean Petit will be found in 
Didot's Essai sur la Typographic (p. 745), and La 
Caille's Histoire de I'Imprimerie (p. 71). The 
three books respecting which SOUTHERNWOOD in- 
quires, so far from being, as he suggests, unique,, 
are, like all the Latin translations of Greek authors 
printed by Petit, of common occurrence and of no 
value. The only one of the three mentioned by 
Brunet is the Dionysius de situ orbis, which he 
says has " tres peu de valeur." They are all 
described by Panzer (ii. 328, and viii. 211), and 
by Hoffman, Lexicon Eibliographicum (ii. 66, 75 
and 106). The latter refers to the Diogenes as 
" editionem rarissimam," but on what grounds I 
am at a loss to conceive. R. C. CHRISTIE. 



"And men grow pale," &c. 

Byron, Childe Harold, canto iv. stanza 93. 

" The tongues of dying men," &c. 

King Richard II., Act ii. sc. 1, 
Kensington Crescent, W. 

: Solem quis,"&c. 

Georgics, Book i. 463. 


Egham Vicarage. 

' Quid juvat errorem," &c. 

Claudian, in Eutropiuin, ii. 23. 

The reading of the second line is somewhat dis- 
puted, but that given in the query is quite wrong, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. n* s. xn. JULY 12, 73. 

though it is the way in which the passage is usually 
cnioted.. >5' LEE. 

524.) This picture was at the Manchester Art 
Treasures Exhibition, 1857. I well remember 
seeing it there ; and in the catalogue it is entered, 
under "Paintings by Modern Masters," as " No. 31. 
The property of the Duke of Newcastle," with this 
historical note appended: 

" Painted 1733. Formerly at Valentine's, in Essex : 
afterwards the property of Johnes of Hafod, .... from 
whom it passed, with the Hafod estate, to the father of 
the present possessor." 

This is decisive that it was not destroyed in the 
re at Hafod. What became of it in the debacle of 
the Newcastle property, perhaps some other corre- 
spondent can say. JAMES THORNE. 

This picture " still exists," and may be seen at 
Clumber, the seat of the Duke of Newcastle. 
Along with many other fine pictures, it was re- 
moved from Carlton Terrace, the late town house 
of the Duke, and is only temporarily hung, not 
being generally shown to the public. "It was 
.acquired by Henry Pelham. fourth Duke of New- 
castle, when he purchased the Hafod estate. 



"A DICTIONARY OF RELICS" (4 th S. xi. 525.) 
Your correspondent is hardly likely to hear of 
this book in the Row. The best account with 
which I am acquainted is the Dictionnaire Critique 
des Reliques et des Images Miraculeuses, by 
J. A. S. Collin de Plancy. Paris, 1821. 3 vols. 8vo. 
In it are reprinted Calvin's " Trait6 des Reliques," 
and a reply published in 1719. 


West Derby. 

"WHOSE OWE IT ?" (4 th S. xii. 6.) P. P. cannot 
have read Shakspeare carefully, or he would know 
that to owe = own : 

" There is no mortal business, nor no sound 
That the earth owes." Tempest, Act i. sc. 2. 

" never any, 

With so full soul, but some defect in her 
Did quarrel with the noblest grace she ow'd 
And put it to the foil." Ib. } Act iii. sc. 1. 

Collier, in his Glossarial Index to Shakspeare, 
.gives sixteen references to the word so used. See 
also Halliwell's Archaic Dictionary for references to 
other authors. CLARRT. 

BONDMEN IN ENGLAND (4 th S. xi. 297, 367, 404.) 
MR. FURNIVALL attributes to Sir Thomas Smith 
a statement " that there were no bondmen in Eng- 
land when he wrote his De Mepublica Anglorum," 
in 1583 ; does he refer to cap. x. Lib. 3, " De 
Servitute et servis "? The passage is as follows: 

"Post absolutum de omnibus liberorum hominum 
generibus tractatum, superest ut de servis aliquid 

adjiciamus, quorum in Digestis et Codice Justiniani 
plurima fit mentio. Duplex fuit servorum apud 
Romanes species, alii si quidem servi dicebantur sere re- 
dempti, in bello capti, testamento relicti aliis denique 
rationibus acquisiti, ut vernas et ancillis nostris nati. hi 
omnes, mancipia ad personam hasredesque suos im- 
mediate pertineritia dicuntur : alii adscriptilii glelce aut 
agri censiti qui non personae verum praedio annexi erant, 
nodieq : apud nos tanquam haaredii aut praedii paries 
censentur. de utroque genere quotquot sunt, numerum 
nullum constituunt et in primo genere novi neminem, in 
altero perpaucos, ut de iis sermonem ampliorem insti- 
Duere, vix sit opere pretium, tametsi leges nostrae 
utrumque genus agnoscant. 

" Servi plurimis rationibus apud nos iisque longe 
Facilioribus manu mittuntur, quam quee legibus civilibus 
praescribuntur : et libertate donatus, non libertus manu- 
tnittentis sed liber homo evadit. Caeterum, ex quo fidem 
Christianam amplexi sumus quse per Christum omnes 
nos fratres efficit et coram Deo Christoque conserves, 
religio hominum animos invasit, ne quos fratres agnoscere 
et Christianos oportet, id est, per Christum sempiterna 
salute gavisuros, praedura servitute opprimeremus. Hinc 
effectum est, ut sancti patres, Monachi, fratresque in 
arcanis illis conscientias colloquiis, et instante potissimum 
mortis periculo, confitentes impulerint ut statu liberos et 
ingenuos ex servis redderent ; quum interim illi patres 
nihil tale praestarent; sed depraedandis diripiendisque 
Ecclesiis suis intenti mancipia ecclesiastica non libe- 
rarent, seiaros suos in servitute retinerent, quorum 
exemplis Episcopi insistentes, ab ista crudelitate, nisi 
precio conduct! aut calumniis impetiti sero deterreri 
potuerunt. Dein aequatis solo monasteriis et in manus 
laicorum recidentibus, libertatem omnes adepti sunt." 

The edition I quote from is " Thomse Smith! 
Angli, De Republica Anglorum Libri Tres. Lug. 
Batavorum Ex officina Elzeviriana. clo loc xxv. 
Cum Privilegio," page 161. Sir Thomas's state- 
ment that on the dissolution of the monasteries all 
the bondmen acquired their freedom, is evidently 
to be understood as admitting exceptions ; for, 
after dividing slaves into the two classes, mancipia 
and adscriptitii glebce, while of the first class he 
merely says he knew of none existing in England, 
of the second he says he knew of " very few " 
perpaucos. They were so few that it was not 
worth his while to say any more about them ; yet 
still perpaucos is a very different expression 
from omnino nullos which Sir Thomas would 
in all likelihood have used, if he had desired to 
make the statement which MR. FURNIVALL as- 
cribes to him. Again, in the sentence immediately 
preceding, he says, that however many there are 
of both kinds of bondmen, yet they do not con- 
stitute a class ; and surely this is quite a different 
thing from saying that none exists at all. Lastly, 
he mentions that the law still recognized both 
kinds. Sir Thomas's assertion with reference to 
the conduct of the clergy must, in my opinion, be 
applied to those who in that age were endeavouring 
to make all they could out of the church plunder 
that had fallen to their lot, or out of the church 
lands of which they had obtained the management. 
Sir Thomas seems generally to speak from personal 
knowledge, and he could have had little knowledge 


of any but post-Reformation clergy. If as a clas 
the pre-Reformation clergy had not manumittec 
their bondmen, there would have been a class o 
bondmen in the country, and Sir Thomas wouh 
have had to alter his description of its condition. 

H. L. L. G. 

I am desirous of making my little contribution 
of material by pointing out that among th< 
Coldinghani documents, preserved in the treasury 
at Durham, and printed by Mr. Raine in his His 
tory of North Durham, are several charters 
recording the sale of serfs (Nos. cccxxx., et seq.) 
and the prices paid, in one case, Renaldus the 
" piepositus " was sold, with all his family and 
chattels, " tarn niobilibus quam immobilibus," for 
twenty marks sterling, Turkil Hog and his sons 
and daughters for three, and Roger, the son o: 
Walter, with all his issue, for two. The purchasers 
in each case were the monks of Coldingham, and 
the prices may have been below the market prices, 
as the vendors in some of the deeds recite that the 
sums of money had been received "in magna 
necessitate mea." All these deeds are of the 
thirteenth century. It is obvious that the prices 
are very low even for that period, if we are to 
suppose that custom permitted that the owner 
should consider the serfs property and person as 
absolutely at his disposal. Such doubtless was 
not the case, but I have never seen any notices of 
the actual state of facts. Probably an unwritten 
custom and the public opinion of the neighbour- 
hood afforded a not inefficient protection to the 
serf ; when the lord was exacting he was doubtless 
liable to be made the subject of the songs of the 
local satirist, like the Norfolk squire of whom it 
is recorded 

" Erat Norfolcise vir quidam strenuus 
Qui suos rusticos oppressit anxius. " 


The Compleat Clerk, containing the best Forms 
of all sorts of Presidents, fourth edition, 1677, 
4to., contains a form for the manumission of a 
bondman, p. 659. It would be interesting to 
know when the word serf, meaning a bondman* was 
introduced into our language. I have not seen it 
in any book earlier than Hume's time. 

Bottesford Manor. 

Will of Matthew Smith, of Long Ashton, 
Somerset, Esq., June 1st, 1583 : 

"I do give John Kinge, my Bondman, to Sir William 
Winter Kt., and to John Popham, Esq., Attorney General 
to Her Majesty, to the intent that within one year after 
my decease, they manumise and make free the said John 
Kinge." Proved Oct. 36, 1583. 


THE COLON (4* S. xi. 343, 409, 431.) It 
appears that as early as the fourth century, Jerome, 

in his translation of the Sacked Scriptures, made 
use of signs which he called commata and cola. 

If the author of the Handy Boole, who merely 
quotes Timperley, p. 310, had referred to the same 
author, p. 210, he would have found an earlier 
notice of the colon than that contained in Bale's 
Actes of English Votaries (not Notaries), namely, 
in a work entitled Ascensins declynsons with 
the Plain Expositor (ascribed to Wynkyn de 
Worde, about 1509), containing an amusing notice 
"Of the Crafte of Poynting," wherein, after 
speaking of the virgil (a stroke, which at first 
did duty for the comma), he says, "A come is 
with tway titils thiswyse :" that is, bearing the 
form of the colon, and with its due rest. It 
should appear that the virgil, the colon, and the 
period, were the only stops used for the first 
sixty years of the " new art." In the Printer's 
Grammar (Lond., 1787), it is asserted that "the 
colon is a point prior both to comma and semi- 
colon." Haydn, Diet. Dates, says the colon was in- 
troduced in 1486 ; but under the article " Colon " 
(after stating that according to Suidas it was 
adopted by Thrasymachus about 373 B.C., and 
known to Aristotle), he says, " the colon was first 
used in British literature in the sixteenth century." 
Elsewhere I have seen it stated that " the earliest 
appearance of the colon is believed to be in a work 
published by Jenson, entitled De Accentibus, &c., 
1511 " (but Jenson's last work was printed in the 
year of his death, 1481). 

I fear these conflicting statements will not go 
far towards gratifying MEDWEIG'S desire for ac- 
curacy in this small matter. HARRY SANDARS. 


357, 451.) Amongst my Kentish collections I 
lave a great number of Kentish Gazettes of 1780, 
L, 2, 3. Many of them have marginal minutes 
in a handwriting of the period. I have before me 
now No. 1529, which I have taken up by chance : 
t is from " Wednesday, February 12, to Saturday, 
February 15, 1783." It contains, amongst other 

Government is to take into their hands the turnpikes, 
granting tontines to the persons who have advanced on 
he credit of the tolls." 

An advertisement, headed 

" Margate's Ostend Passage Boats, on neutral bottoms,' ' 
'all of which are fitted out in an elegant, neat, and suit- 
.ble manner, proper for the nobility, ladies and gentle- 
men ; and being determined to pursue with spirit the 
uccess he has hitherto been honoured with, his Neutral 
Joats will certainly be, at all Times, ready to sail every 
)ay or every Tide, if necessary, to or from Margate 
nd Ostend, protected from the Depredations of Priva- 
;eers, &c." 

Amongst the paragraphs is the following, which, 
)ecause it shows the state of the suburbs, is here 
riven : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. xn. JULY 12, 73. 

"A scheme is in agitation for guarding the roads 
within ten miles of the metropolis, by a military force, 
and it is said that the marines will be allotted for that 



HANGING IN CHAINS (4 th S. x. passim; xi. 22, 83, 
124, 354, 413, 475.) Any one who has taken the 
trouble to look up the subject in the Statutes at Large, 
or Blackstone's Commentaries, will know that gib- 
beting alive was never a legal punishment. But the 
following quotation from a tract, entitled Hanging 
not Punishment enough, 1701, may be of interest 
to those who still cling fondly to the gibbeting 
alive superstition, as it shows that hanging was 
considered punishment enough by the law: 

" So that I must beg leave to say, that they who shew 
no mercy should find none ; and if Hanging will not 
restrain them, Hanging them in Chains, and Starving 
them, or (if Murtherers and Robbers at the same time, 
or Night incendiaries) breaking them on the Wheel, or 
Whipping them to Death, a Roman punishment should." 


CATER-COUSINS (4 th S. ix.; x. passim; xi. 493.) 
The word "cater" seems to have come to us 
from various sources. Although now nearly obso- 
lete, I have heard, forty years ago, old persons, 
who did not know French, say, " cinq cater," for 
" five and four," when playing at backgammon. 
The same persons have said, " You shall cater for 
us," meaning, " provide dinner for us"; and when 
a square piece of any stuff was cut straight across 
from corner to corner, that it was " cut cater," or 
" caterwise"; moreover, if when one half was placed 
on the other they were not equal, "they don't 
cater." To these expressions we must add " cater- 
cousins." In the first use " cater " came from 
"quatre"; in the second from "queter," to seek, 
provide. In the third, perliaps, from the old 
French verb, " quarter," which had much the same 
meaning as our " quarter," when coachmen used 
to talk of " quartering the road".: that was, devi- 
ating from the usual straight line to avoid the ruts, 
As regards the last, I have heard the expression, 
" half cousin," for " second cousin." A " quarter/ 
or, "cater-cousin," would be some person more 
remote rather a friend than a relation. But th< 
term may come from the French " quarter." Th< 
examples so carefully collected by Mr. Gibb 
appear to lead to that conclusion ; yet it is verj 
possible we may both be wrong. The mendican 
friars, freres queteurs, were often seen two together 
and the term, "cater-cousins," may have comr 
directly from the two French verbs, " queter " an< 
' l cousiner " and may have been a nickname. 


Ashford, Kent. 

There seems a terrible confusion amongst you 
correspondents as to what this compound wori 
means. I am vain enough to think I could sugges 

n explanation ; but, first of all, would beg to ask 
lem, or any of them, what is the meaning of 
Faire le diable a quatre." W. (1). 

VELTERES (4 th S. xi. 236, 311, 468.) This 
would be, I think, some kind of dog used in hunt- 
ng. I have the following extract : 

" On 7 June 1213 The King sent to the Sheriff of Hants 
t Andover, Robert de Kerely with 2 servants and their 
orses, 2 Berneriis and 3 vultraries, 28 hounds, de mota 
'rom the mews, or meuse de chiens), and 16 greyhounds. 
Asides Robert he sent William Croc and Peter de 
'imil, with 2 servants and their horses, 2 Bernerii, 4 
^ultrarii (mongrells between an hound and mastiff, Cot- 
rave), 62 hounds & 12 greyhounds. The Sheriff was 
rdered to supply for men, horses, and dogs all things 
liey might require." 

The Croc family were for several generations the 
cing's huntsmen in Hampshire. Easton (now Crux 
fasten) takes its adjunct from them; they were 
he owners of the manor in Domesday ; there are 
everal entries accounting for sums for the Forest 
)f Andover, but oftener described the Brills of 

The foregoing extract seems to show that Vel- 

es or Vultrarii were not greyhounds. Perhaps 
Jotgrave is right. SAM. SHAW. 


WOMEN IN CHURCH (4 th S. xi. 363, 466.) The 
old custom in S. Sophia's, in Constantinople, was 
'or women to occupy the galleries, which are very 
extensive, the men the floor. In modern Greek 
churches women occupy the sides of the nave, the 
men the middle, being separated by a wooden 
screen. In southern Spain the women occupy the 
nave, sitting or standing on the marble floor (there 
are no seats), the men stand in the aisles. In 
Armenian churches the women occupy a gallery 
at the west end, latticed; in Constantinople the 
women are veiled, and dress like Turkish women. 
The only occasion I ever saw them in the nave was- 
on Good Friday ; few or no men were there. In 
England, in most old churches where the custom 
has been kept up, or w r here it has been revived?, 
the men sit on the south side, the women on the 
north. The reason is this : the south side of the 
nave and choir, as far as the altar-rails, is the side 
of honour, being the right-hand side on entering 
the church. The bishop's throne is on this side, 
also the dean's stall (therefore called Decani] ; the 
priest, in communicating the people, begins at the 
south side. E. L. BLENKINSOPP. 

Springthorpe Rectory. 

MR. TEW will find, in Durandus on Symbolism, 
authority for restricting women to the north side 
of the church. S. WARD. 

PARALLEL PASSAGES (4 th S. x. passim ; xi. 206, 
455.) The same train of thought must have been 
in the minds of two of the greatest novelists in the 
following passages : 

4 th S. XII. JCLY 12, 73.] 



1. Thackeray, in The Neivcomes, the death of 
Colonel Newcome 

" At the usual evening hour the chapel bell began to 
toll, and Thomas Newcorae's hands outside the bed feebly 
beat a tune, and, just as the last bell struck, a peculiar 
sweet smile shone over his face, and he lifted up his head 
a little and quickly said, ' Adsum !' and fell back. It was 
the word we used at school, when names were called, and, 
lo, he, whose heart was as that of a little child, had 
answered to his name, and stood in the presence of the 

2. Fenimore Cooper, in The Prairie, the death 
of the Trapper 

"The old man had remained nearly motionless for an 
hour. His eyes alone had occasionally opened and shut. 
.... Suddenly, while musing on the remarkable position 
in which he was placed, Middleton felt the hand which 
he held grasp his own with incredible power, and the old 
man, supported on either side by his friends, rose upright 
to his feet. For a moment he looked around him as if to 
invite all in presence to listen (the lingering remnant of 
human i rail ty), and then, with a fine military elevation 
of the head," and with a voice that might be heard in 
every part of that numerous assembly, he pronounced the 
word ' Here.' " 


Great Russell Street. 

ROYAL SCOTTISH ARCHERS (4 th S. xi. 464, 508.) 
The only public body connected with Scotland who 
may be described under the above title is the Royal 
Company of Archers the Queen's Body-Guard for 
Scotland. In 1792, the Company consisted of one 
thousand members ; they met weekly, exercising 
.themselves in the Edinburgh meadows by shooting 
at butts or rovers. The latter name denoted a 
game which consisted in the marks being placed at 
a distance of 185 yards. The prizes belonging to 
the Company are, a silver arroAv, presented by the 
Corporation of Musselburgh, and shot for so early 
as 1603 ; a silver arrow, presented by the town of 
Peebles in 1626 ; a silver arrow, presented by the 
city of Edinburgh in 1709 : a silver punchbowl, 
made of native silver, in 1720 ; and a piece of 
plate, value twenty pounds, called the King's Prize, 
presented in 1627. The prizes are held by the 
winners for a year, when they are restored to the 
Company. The principal office-bearers at present 
are the Duke of Buccleuch, Capt. -General ; the 
Earl of Wemyss, the Duke of Roxburgh, Marquis 
of Tweedale, and Viscount Melvill, Lieut.- 
. Generals. CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 

Snowdown Villa, Lewisham, S.E. 

IMPROPRIATION OF TITHES (4 th S. xi. 305, 374, 
405, 448, 487.) The excellent and learned replies 
to this query, showing the antiquity and abuse of 
impropriation, have so far been highly satisfactory. 
It would appear the system of impropriations, which 
began with William the Conqueror in England, 
grew so rapidly, from the great influx of foreign 
clergy, that, in the course of three centuries, more 
than a third part of the benefices came under this 
rule, and at the time of the Reformation it assumed 

;he large proportion of two-thirds.* We, however, 
.earn that until the time of Henry VIII., no lay 
mpropriatorship was known in this realm. It was 
to this last point that my inquiry was directed. As 
one of your correspondents, whose opinion I greatly 
respect, appears to think I am in error, permit me 
Briefly to re-state the case. I give the current 
version, as expressed by old residents in the parish, 
as were their fathers before them. The present 
\ay impropriator of a large parish, near the city of 
Worcester, is a baronet, who has only recently come 
of age, the tithes yielding a revenue, it is said, of 
1,500L a year, which were purchased, upwards of 
seventy years ago, from an Oxford College, by his 
grandfather or great-grandfather, then an attorney, 
for a very moderate sum. J. B. P. 

" A WHISTLING WIFE," &c. (4 th S. xi. 282, 353, 
394, 475.) It is a fact well known to poultry- 
keepers, that when a hen crows she has en- 
tirely given up her own proper duties, and will no 
longer lay eggs or rear chickens. The comb be- 
comes larger, as in the cock, and her general 
appearance changes. It is her uselessness, that in 
these days is the reason for her being killed. Pro- 
bably that has always been the reason, and not 
any superstition, for our ancestors had as good an 
eye to profit as their descendants. 



The History of the Burgh of Dumfries. By William 

M'Dowell. (Edinburgh, A. & C. Black.) 
THIS is a second edition of one of the best of books of 
Scottish Ideal and personal history. We say local and 
personal, because it is not only an exhaustive history of 
Dundee, but it contains a full and interesting biography 
of Burns, including the doings and sayings of the famous 
centenary anniversary. This last event reminds us to 
make a note of the fact that the Rev. Dr. Alexander, 
from a Scottish pulpit, denounced the idolatry of genius 
which was involved in that celebration. Dr. Alexander 
described the poet as a man whose life was one long 
offence against the first principles of morality, and then 
enumerated all the sins of the man whose genius his 
country was about to sinfully worship. 
Nixon's Cheshire Prophecies. (Manchester, Heywood & 


THIS edition is said to be "reprinted from the best 
sources." The introductory essay on popular prophecies 
is well put together. A good deal of the material is 
from "N. & Q." The little volume is worth perusal for 
its sublime nonsense. Born in the reign of Edward IV., 
Nixon, the far-seeing ploughboy, is said to have been 
starved to death in the reign of James I. What are 
juvenile centenarians to such a venerable sage as this ? 
But prophets are very clever people. We are told here 
of a French prophet, Martin, who, "in 1816, had an in- 
terview with Louis X VII.," to whom he communicated 
many secrets, among others, one which is no secret now, 

* Sketch of the Reformation in England, by the Rev. 
I. J. Blunt, fourteenth edition, p. 63 ; also Kenneth, pp. 
25 and 405. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. V* & xn. J TOT 12, 73. 

namely, "the late war," and " the destruction of several 
French towns." How Martin managed the interview, 
we cannot say ; but we know that in 1816 Louis XVII. 
had been dead one and twenty years, and needed no in- 
formation as to futurity from any mortal soothsayer. 
Catalogue of the Shakespeare Memorial Library, Birming- 
ham. By J. D. Mullins. First Part, Second Section. 
English Editions of the separate Plays, and of the 

As far as it goes, this Catalogue of the Library founded 
on the Shakspeare Tercentenary is perfect. More need 
not be said, except that some of the entries are very 
amusing. For example, " Macbeth ; a tragedy, written 
by Wm. Shakespear. With notes and emendations (!) by 
Harry Rowe, Trumpet Major to the High Sheriffs of 
Yorkshire, and Master of a Puppet Show. York, 1799." 
A note says that " the real editor was Dr. Andrew 
Hunter, of York, who published it for the purpose of as- 
sisting Harry Rowe in his long sickness and poverty." 
A more amusing entry still refers to Love Betray'd, a 
comedy (1703), which the writer, C. Barnsby, states is 
partly taken from Shakspeare's Twelfth Night. He 
kindly adds, " The lines that are Shakspeare's I have 
mark'd with Inverted Comma's to distinguish 'em from 
what are mine. I endeavour'd where I had occasion to 
introduce any of 'em, to make 'em look as little like 
Strangers as possible." (!!) 

Macmillan's Magazine. July. From the current num- 
ber, we make a note on the original of Sterne's Uncle Toby, 
which is of great interest to all who care for that ex- 
cellent, and, as it would seem, not at all imaginary in- 
dividual. In an article on Sterne and Bunyan, the 
writer refers to the idea of Mr. Fitzgerald that Sterne's 
father, the Ensign, was the original of Uncle Toby. 
Some of the Ensign's characteristics may be found in 
the older soldier, but the writer shows that Sterne him- 
self told Lord Dacre of the Hoo, Herts, that the veteran 
Captain Hinde, of Preston Castle, in the same county, 
was the original. The writer gives as his authority his 
father, who had it from an aged man, Pilgrim, whose 
uncle told him that he, the uncle, had heard Sterne say 
to Lord Dacre that Captain Hinde sat for Toby's portrait. 
"Eccentric, full of military habits and recollections, 
simple-hearted, benevolent, and tenderly kind to the 
dumb creatures of the earth and air, Captain Hinde was 
a veritable Uncle Toby. He gave the embattled front to 
his house, the labourers on his land were called from 
the harvest field by notes on the bugle, and a battery was 
placed at the end of his garden. The animated old 
soldier, who delighted to talk of battles and sieges, was 
full of the most extraordinary love for all living things. 
Finding that a bullfinch had built her nest in the garden 
hedge, close to his battery, he especially ordered his men 
not to fire the guns until the little birds had flown," &c. 
They who annotate their Tristram Shandy, will be glad 
to make a note as to the identity of Captain Hinde and 
" my uncle. " 

THE late Dr. Leeson, F.R.S., possessed a library which 
was remarkably rich in scarce and valuable books on the 
occult philosophy of the Middle Ages. This valuable 
collection, which well deserves the notice of our readers, 
will be disposed of by auction, on Thursday, the 7th of 
August. Among the works to which we have alluded, 
are :Gebri Alchemia, woodcuts, vellum, Nureinb., 1545 ; 
the Ars Transmutationis Metallicce, woodcuts, Brescia, 
1572; Lullii (R.) Arbor Scientice Veneralilis, &c., wood- 
cuts, Lugd., 1515; Conringii (H.) Hermetis JEgyptiorum 
et Chemtcorum Sapientia, Hafnia;, 1674; and Tractatus 
deExpositioneMisse, black letter, curious early woodcuts. 
There are also some curious works on Freemasonry, and 
several manuscripts of equal value and rarity. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 


Wanted by C. IF. Swon,Free Library, Manchester. 

Wanted by J. Manuel, Newcastle -on-Tyne. 



SCOTT'S SWIFT. First Edition. Vol. I. 
NOTES AND QUERIES. Vols. VIII. to XII. Second Series. 
Wanted by W. B. Kelly, S, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

and V. 


M. N. The creation of an order of knighthood, or 
honour, by the Shah, to be conferred on Christians, is not 
an innovation. His oriental order, for Christian ladies, 
is a novelty. The Sublime Porte, as the Government of 
the Sultan of Turkey used to be called, led the way as to 
the former. The Shah, Futteh Ali, followed, ly creating 
the Order of the Sun, on purpose to distinguish General 
Gardanne, Ambassador from Napoleon 1. The English, 
Envoy, Sir Harford Jones, and also General Malcolm, de- 
clined to accept this order. The Shah, hotoever, desirous 
to confer distinction on his earliest English friends, in- 
stituted the existing order of the Lion and the Sun (the 
ancient arms of Persia) , of which the above Englishmen, 
were the first members. 

J. P. F.The word asked for is supplied in the follow- 
ing quotation from Potter's JSschylus, vol. i. Ed. 1799 : 
" Then shall the bird of Jove, 
The ravening Eagle, lured with scent of blood, 
Mangle thy body, and each day returning, 
An uninvited guest, plunge his full beak, 
And feast, and riot on thy black'ning liver." 
EOTHEN will find " Calcat jacentem vulgus " in the 
Octavia, attributed to Seneca, Act ii., 456. 

R. N. J. We shall be glad to receive the contributions 
referred to. 

RAVBNSBOURNE. For notices of the Memoirs of 
Jacques Casanova, consult " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. ix. 245 4 th 
S. vii. 326, 480 ; viii. 70, 129, 169, 271, 335. 

H. A. St. Botolph's Day is June 17 : he is considered 
the especial patron of mariners. See " N. & Q.," 1 st S. v. 
475, 566 ; vii. 84, 193 ; 2 nd S. xi. 90. 

D. J. D. Tlie cabinet of Beaufoy tokens is in the 
London Corporation Library, Guildhall. 

0. T. D. Let us have the "Elizabeth Shilling" query, 
CKOWDOWN. Next week. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

E dit( m{a Communications should be addressed to "The 
.Lditor Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher -at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 

4 < s. xii. JULY 19, 73.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 




NOTES: Bibliography of Utopias, 41 Non-Combatant 
Soldiers, 42 Censorship of the Press in Ireland Shak- 
speariana, Moonshine, 43 Folk Lore Clas, 44 Parable, 
Fable, Allegory, Metaphor, Simile Battle of Waterloo The 
Macaulay Parson, 45" Siegwart," 46. 

QUERIES : Rubbings of Sepulchral Brasses by the late E. J. 
Carlos, 46 Dr. Bossy Chateaubriand "By the Elevens" 
Mary Window Election Squib Dr. Fuller Derby China- 
Heraldic, 47 The Ranger's House, Blackheath Honest 
Ghost Philip Quarll Cricket " The Asylum for Fugitive 
Pieces "- St. Aubyn Family ; Sir Edward St. Aubyn, Bart. 

The Druids W. Martin, the Natural Philosopher 
Rivarol, 48. 

REPLIES : Historical Stumbling-Blocks, 49 Quarles and the 
origin of his "Emblems," 51 Andrew Marvell, 52 
Alexander Pennecuik Thomas Longley, 53 Fiacre 
"Kenelm Chillingly," 54 Hamilton Family Blakeberyed 

Imaginary Travels Sir John Honywood Tennyson's 
Natural History, 55 Snuff-box presented to Bacon by 
Burns Epitaph Edmund Burke Death of King Oswald 
Carolan, 56 Numismatic Sir Thos. Phillipps, Bart. Steel 
Pens The De Quincis, Earls of Winton, 57 Ntyov 
avoju?7/iara "Altamira" Lord James Russell, 1709 
" Nice" The Gipsy Advertisement Bibliography of Thom- 
son's "Seasons," 58 T. Cromwel's Injunctions Cock-a- 
hoop, 59. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


I cannot help thinking that if MR. PRESLEY 
(4 th S. xi. 519 ; xii. 2, 22) had consulted the works 
of those who have previously written on the subject 
of which he treats, he might have made his cata- 
logue more complete. Louis Reybaud, Robert von 
Mohl, and Sir G. C. Lewis have all given catalogues 
of Utopias to the world. 

As MR. PRESLEY includes Plato's Republic in 
his list, why not also Bodin's Republic (published 
in French in 1577, and translated into English by 
Knowles in 1606), and Nevile's Plato JRedivivus? 
Andrese's Christianopolis, published in 1619, is 
also omitted from the list, as is, I think, Man- 
deville's Fable of Bees. What has become of 
Le Grand's Scydromedia, 1680; of Konigreich's 
Ophir, 1699 ; of De Levraisson's Sethos, 1722; and 
ofDimocala, 1756] Has not even Telemaque as 
much right to be included as many that are in the 
list ? Where is Brandt's Ship of Fools ? Some of 
these works are ethical romances ; some are 
political romances ; some, like the Ship of Fools, 
mere satires, but then some of those in MR. 
PRESLEY'S list are mere satires. Even the well- 
known Utopia, Civitas Solis, and Mundus alter et 
idem, were not ideal schemes for perfect states, but 
skits at the vices of the times, or modes of propos- 

ing for discussion reforms which the authors dared 
not broach more openly. Such was, I take it, 
even Telemaque, published without Fenelon's con- 
sent in 1699. It was, in truth, the cause of the 
author's* banishment from court. There is little 
reason for classing that exquisitely graceful frag- 
ment, Bacon's New Atlantis, among political 
romances. If it have any purpose, that can only 
be the foundation of a national academy of sciences 
on the plan of Solomon's house. Even Barclay's 
Argenis is only "a book with a purpose." It 
is hard to know where to draw the line in such a 
list. For instance, MR. PRESLEY has included 
Harrington's Oceana. If so, why not include 
Hume's " idea of a perfect commonwealth," which 
much resembles it ? It does not come within MR. 
PRESLEY'S definition, but MR. PRESLEY'S definition 
is a very arbitrary one. Moreover, if Harrington 
is to be included, it is hard to see why all the 
other biblical-political writers of the seventeenth 
century should be left out. If the Oceana, why not 
the Leviathan ? There is plenty of " allegory" in 
them all. So there is in Swedenborg's New 
Jerusalem, for the matter of that. Morelly's 
Basiliade (1753), a book written to prove the moral 
perfectibility of mankind, ought, I think, to have a 
place. I do not press the claims of such works as 
Marchamont Nedham's Excellencie of a Free State, 
because in them there is not, to use MR. PRESLEY'S 
words, " satire, allegory, anticipation, extravagance 
of incident, or description" ; and of the following 
works, also omitted, I know nothing : Felicia 
(1794) ; A Voyage to the Fortunate Isles (London, 
1855); and La Decouverte Australe, by R6tif de la 
Bretonne (1780). Is not the following a distinct 
work from the tract by Fontenelle, mentioned by 
MR. PRESLEY "La Republique des Philosophes ; 
ou, Histoire des Ajaoiens, ouvrage posthume de 
M. de Fontenelle. A Geneve, 1768" 1 


I can add the following to MR. PRESLEY'S 
list : 

" A true and faithful Account of the Island of Veritas ; 
together with the Forms of Divine Service, and a full 
Relation of the Religious Opinions of the Veritasians, as 
delivered in several Sermons just published in Veritas. 
Printed for N. Freeman, 8vo." 

No place, no date, but apparently printed early 
in this century. The writer is supposed to have 
sailed from Boston, in America, upon the voyage 
which led to his discovery of the island of Veritas. 
I fancy it is an American book. The " religious 
opinions " are strongly Unitarian. 


Randolph Gardens, W. 

An American gentleman in search of information 
about the " States," observed in the catalogue of 
the Royal Library at the Hague, this entry : " His- 
tory of J\ferryland." On procuring the book, it 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4 th s. xn. JUL* 19, 78. 

turned out to be an obscene work, and not in any 
way connected with Maryland. The learned 
librarian, Dr. Holtrop, related this anecdote to me, 
and was much amused by the mistake. 


Sixteen hundred years ago, in the reign of 
Maxiinin, the famous Theban Legion, composed of 
Christian soldiers, refused, in one of the great perse- 
cutions, to attack their Christian brethren. Neither 
would the Legion sacrifice to the gods. They pre- 
ferred submitting to martyrdom, and Maurice, 
their leader, has been canonized. 

Only a few years have elapsed since a singular sect 
of Christian sailors was found to exist in Her Ma- 
jesty's Navy. They entered the service voluntarily, 
did all easy duty with the alacrity of men who are 
not put out of their way, and they consumed their 
rations with appetite ; but they declined to carry 
weapons or learn the use of them, on the ground of 
religious scruples. They considered war to be a 
mortal sin ; but sailing about in a man-of-war, and 
in pleasant latitudes, was a virtuous exercise, to 
which they made no objection whatever ! 

They were called after their founder; but his 
name, like the sect, seems to be forgotten. Most 
of the members of the sect were laughed and 
chaffed out of their principles, and those who stuck 
to the latter were quietly got rid of. Martyrdom 
was not their guerdon, and oblivion enwraps them 
and their founder together. 

Not to do these men the slightest shadow of 
injustice, it is but fair to record that they professed 
to be ready to fight in defence of their country, but 
would never handle a cutlass or send thunder from 
a gun in attacking other nations. 

Of course, if every army and navy could be 
brought to act according to these principles, uni- 
versal peace would reign over the earth. These 
men protested that they were the harbingers 
of that desired consummation. Meanwhile, how- 
ever, it is a pity that they declined to learn how 
to point a gun, handle a cutlass, or thrust a mar- 
lin-spike (whatever that may be) against the 
possible enemy that might take a fancy to fire into 
our ships or invade our shores. 

The sect has died out, from the Royal Navy, at 
least ; but it has re-appeared where one would least 
expect to find it in the French army. It 'first 
appeared in the Departments of the Drome and the 
Ardeche. The members are called Derbistes, from 
their founder. The first disciples were a few young 
men of unblemished character, who met togethei 
of an evening for conversation, reading, and dis- 
cussion. They came to the very sensible conclusioi 
that war is an accursed thing, totally abhorrent in 
the eyes of civilized men, and especially of those 

vho would follow the Gospel of Christ in both 
etter and spirit. 

Just as the little sect had come to this conclusion, 
me of the members, Combier, was drawn for niili- 
ary service, and was ordered to report himself at 
i certain head-quarter. Before leaving, Combier 
declared to one of his old masters that nothing 
hould induce him to learn the use of arms, as it 
yas contrary to his religious principles. The 
master spoke to him kindly, of his mother, his 
mothers and sisters, and the grief it would be to 
hem to hear that he was in prison, and about to 
be tried by a court-martial. No suggestions of 
his kind could move him. The master, at length, 
ecornmended him to learn the usual exercises, and 
luggested that, if he were ever in actual warfare, he 
night fire in the air, and then he would have no 
nan's blood on his conscience. 

" I should have on my conscience," said Com- 
)ier, " that I had betrayed my officers. I prefer 
telling them that I will perform no bloody service 
it all." 

"You will, most assuredly, be shot," said the 

" I have heard," replied Combier, calmly, " that 
;here are three million martyrs ; I shall only be 
one more." 

At head-quarters, Combier quite as calmly de- 
clined, on religious grounds, to learn the art of 
killing his fellows. The military authorities acted 
with a compassionate delicacy. They commissioned 
M. Collin, the principal medical man of Val de 
Grace, to make a report on Combier's mental 
capacity ; and the latter, as if he would facilitate 
the doctor's task, addressed to him the following 
letter : 

" Monsieur le Principal, 

" Le motif pour lequel je me trouve dans cette position, 
le voici : 

" Je crois a la revelation de Dieu, par la sainte Bible ; 
c'est le livre de ma doctrine, parce que je crois que c'est 
la parole du Dieu des cieux. Malheureux sera 1'homme 
qui aura meprise la parole de Dieu, car c'est lui qui fait 
vivre et qui fait mourir ! 

" Soit pour obeir a la parole du Fils de Dieu, soit pour 
realiser les principes qu'il a laisses lui-meme, il m'est 
impossible de devenir un membre de la societe guerriere. 
Les hommes se souciant fort peu de ce que Dieu a dit, il 
est probable qu'ils ne me. comprennent pas ; mais Dieu 
me comprend, et c'est assez. 

" Dieu sait que je ne fais point cela pour desobeir aux 
lois, car le chretien doit etre soumis aux autorites. 


The above letter is not only modest in ex- 
pression, it is also uncommonly logical in its argu- 
ment. The writer was equally so in his answers 
to the kindly disposed captain of his regiment, as 
will be seen by the Demande and Rcponsc which 
took place between them : 

" D. Vous avez refuse de recevoir vos armes, comme 
tous vos camarades? 
"K. Oui. 

4* S. XII. JULY 19, '73.] 



" D. Pourquoi avez-vous pris cette determination? 

" R. Par obeissance a 1'Evangile de Jesus-Christ, fils 
de Dieu. 

" D. Ou avez-vous puise ces principes de religion qui 
vous defendent de prendre des armes ? 

" R. Dans 1'Evangile. 

" D. Par votre desobe'issance, vous vous etes mis sous 
le coup d'une punition severe, vous ne 1'ignorez pas 1 

" R. Je ne 1' ignore pas. La loi suivra son cours ; si je 
merite la mort, je suis tout resigne a 1'attendre." 

Modesty and logic could not avail Combier. 
The doctor declared him responsible for his acts ; 
the captain brought him before a council of war, 
and the "Derbiste" is now undergoing the year's 
imprisonment, which is the mild sentence passed 
upon poor Combier. His judges respect so good a 
man ; but they are obliged to oppose principles 
which, universally accepted, would make of human 
life an ante-past of Paradise ! ED. 


In a copy of the Dublin edition of Rowe's trans- 
lation of Lu can's Pharsalia, recently purchased, 
I find that a careful former owner, probably its 
first possessor, has inserted a cutting from a news- 
paper of the year in which the volume was issued : 

" Dublin, Nov. 3. On Friday last James Carson, and 
Joseph Leathley were brought to the Ban- of the House 
of Lords for presuming to Print the Archbishop of 
Dublin's Name among the Subscribers for Lucan's Phar- 
salia without his Grace's leave ; as also for their presuming 
to add the Stile of lievernd to the Presbiterian Teachers 
Names in the said List of Subscribers; putting them 
upon a Level with the Clergy of the Establish'd Church, 
for both which Crimes they received a Reprimand, tho' 
they both declared at the Bar of the House, that the said 
List of Subscribers was sent to the Printers by the 
Revernd Mr. John Maxwell who is one of the Under- 
takers for Publishing the said Book." 

The Archbishop of Dublin here indicated was 
the somewhat celebrated Dr. William King (not 
the wit of Christ Church, Oxford), whose " zealous 
opposition to the measures of the Roman Catholic 
party, in the reign of James II., insured his pre- 
ferment after the expulsion of that prince." If, as 
is not unlikely, the Archbishop himself was the 
prime mover of these harsh proceedings against a 
couple of unlucky printers and publishers, his 
orthodoxy was of a most unaccommodating 
character, for he evidently could tolerate neither 
Papists nor Presbyterians. Perhaps with regard to 
the latter, he held with Charles II., when he said, 
" Let Presbytery go, for it was not a religion for 
gentlemen !" If, however, Dr. King deserves no 
great esteem for his intolerance, he merits remem- 
brance for his famous witticism, when, disappointed 
of the primacy of Ireland on the death of Dr. 
Lindsey, having been, as was alleged, passed over 
on account of his years, he apologized for retaining 
his seat on receiving a visit from the new Primate, 
by saying, " My lord, I am sure your grace will 
forgive me, because, you know, I am too old to 

ise!" The above extract is given verbatim et 
literatim, except a's to the italics, for which I am 
responsible. There must be other instances of 
similar visitations for similar crimes, posterior to 
the Revolution of 1688. 



PROCESSION OF JAMES I. A few years ago 
Mr. Halliwell made the interesting discovery that 
Shakspeare and his fellows of the King's Players 
took an official part in the procession which 
escorted James upon his entry into London, and 
received an allowance of scarlet cloth for robes. 
There is a passage in the Return from Parnassus, 
1606, which probably refers to this or some similar 
event. The words are placed m the mouth of 
Studioso, who is complaining of the esteem in 
which actors were now beginning to be held: 
" Vile world, that lifts them up to high degree, 

And treads us downe in groveling misery ; 

England affords those glorious vagabonds, 

That carried erst their fardles on^ their backs, 

Coursers to ride on through the gazing streets, 

Sweeping it in their glaring satin suits, 

And pages to attend their masterships, 

With mouthing words that better wits have framed; 

They purchase lands, and now esquires are made." 

Act v. scene 3. 

The last line evidently refers to Shakspeare. 


" Then make your garden rich in gilly flowers." 
Winter's Tale, iv. 3. 

There is a page of annotation upon this passage in 
the variorum edition, but, after all, the editor is 
obliged to confess that " there is some farther 
conceit relative to gilly flowers than has yet been 
discovered." Allusions to the gilly flower in an 
exotic sense are common enough in the old 
dramatists, and any one who is acquainted with 
the popular herb-lore of the Midland Counties can 
scarcely fail to understand the meaning. This 
plant has a sexual resemblance, or "signature," 
like some of the Orchideffi 

"That liberal shepherds give a grosser name." 

Readers who wish to investigate the subject 
may consult Crooke's Description of the Bodij of 
Man, p. 235, ed. 1631, which in the seventeenth 
century was the popular treasury of what we now 
call " physiology/' This book, of which the first 
edition was published in 1615, is very useful for 
illustrations of Shakspeare's science. 


MOONSHINE. Nares says of " I'll make a sop o 7 
the moonshine of you" (Shaks., Lear, ii. 2), "pro- 
bably alluding to some dish so called. There was* 
a way of dressing eggs called ' eggs in moonshine,' " 

The italics are mine. 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. [4- s. xii. JULY 19. 73. 

and he then proceeds to quote a lengthy receipt 
from tin old cookery book. It is evident from 
these remarks that Nares was not aware that the 
dish had survived in some parts of England to his 
own times, and yet this is the fact, and indeed the 
dish is still to be met with, and I myself often have 
it for breakfast. 

I first met with the dish at Cambridge some four 
or five years ago. It was introduced into my house 
by a cook, who came to me from the Lodge of 
Christ's College, and had learned this mode of 
dressing eggs in the college kitchen. Her receipt 
runs as follows : 

" Moonshine. Mix two eggs with a piece of butter as 
big as a walnut, over a fire with a fork till it (sic) be- 
comes rocky. To be put on buttered toast." * 

Culinary traditions would be nowhere more 
likely to survive than in a college kitchen, and it 
is therefore probable that this receipt, though it is 
extremely simple as compared with that given by 
Nares, is an old one, or at all events a modified 
descendant of an old one. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 


a, story called A Woman's Vengeance, which ap- 
peared in Ghambers's Journal, may be found (Part 
ciii. p. 436) the following passage, of which I wish 
to make a note in the pages of " N. & Q.": 

" The man who believes in nothing else believes in 
Luck, and endeavours to propitiate her with devices at 
whose childishness the African adorers of Mumbo Jumbo 
might laugh. I have seen a minister of state turn his 
chair round at a whist-table in order to avert her dis- 
pleasure ; I have seen a warrior to whom the safety of 
an army has been confided, and not in vain, lodge an 
ivory fish upon a candlestick to secure her good graces; 
I have seen the most prudent of attorneys call for fresh 
cards, and pay for them, in the full confidence that she 
would be gratified by that extravagant proceeding; I 
have known a venerable divine to lay his finger with in- 
<j^ cent haste upon the two of clubs, because ' whoever first 
touches the two of clubs (as he was good enough to explain 
to me) secures a good hand for himself,' directly after the 
cards are dealt. 

" Under one's own roof, it has been said by one of the 
priesthood of the cult, luck changes." 

Now, if our darling superstitions are to be 
laughed at in this way, they may die of the sneer ; 
let us therefore be careful to secure them remem- 
brance by placing their present existence on record 
in " N. & Q." Far distant be the day when the 
dealer at whist who turns up the two of spades or 
of clubs, may not be consoled by the saying, 

* The eggs are first boiled nearly hard, but in the 
receipt given by Nares they are not boiled, but merely 
stirred about in a dish or pan over the fire, a little butter 
or oil being added to prevent their sticking to the pan. 
And this, a French lady tells me, is what is done in 
France in making des ceufs lattus, a dish which, she says, 
much resembles the moonshine described above. 

" There is luck under the black deuce " ; when 
compensation for a bad hand does not come in 
prophetic form, " Unlucky at cards, lucky in love" ; 
or when you cannot damp the spirits of a fortunate 
adversary, by predicting just the contrary. At 
certain whist-tables, too, at certain times, it is not 
unpleasant to be reminded that when ace, deuce, 
trey and four compose the trick, somebody, pro- 
bably the winner of the trick, is entitled to kiss 
the dealer. ST. SWITHIN. 

Early this spring a farmer in this county, when 
walking round his fields, saw the first daisy of the 
year. He immediately went down on his face and 
bit it off, carefully preserving his mouthful. Can 
you tell me what was meant, supposing that there 
is some superstition connected with the act 1 


Bromsgrove Street, Birmingham. 

[This query should have been addressed to the farmer, 
and then sent, with the reply, to " N. & Q."] 

lately told me that the first of the contracting 
parties at a wedding who knelt down at the altar 
always died first. What is the meaning of the 
expression " a spurring," used in this county as an 
equivalent for "a calling of the, .banns "? 


GRANTHAM CUSTOM. A lady told me the other 
day that when she was a girl, say forty years ago, 
she and other girls used to go and peep into the 
scawp-house (sic) = scalp -house = skull -house = 
charnel-house, or crypt, belonging to Grantham 
church; and that every time they did so they 
threw therein a pin. The reason why, however, 
she could not give, except that it was to prevent 
bad luck. But as there may have been a similar 
custom elsewhere, it is possible that some other 
contributor may be able to assign the reason there 
prevalent. J. BEALE. 


" In Shinoste, a town in the province of Chikuzen, ten 
days ago, during the performance of theatricals, in the 
course of which a combat with swords is represented, 
a yaconin stepped from amongst the audience upon the 
stage, and asked one of the performers what he meant by 
such proceedings. The actor, in trepidation, answered 
' nothing.' This answer the yaconin pooh-poohed, saying 
he did not believe it, suddenly drew his sword, and at 
one blow took off the head of the actor. This caused 
great consternation amongst those present, who left the 
place precipitately. The murderer was secured by other 
yaconins, and turns out to be insane. Different members 
of his family, for three generations back, have gone 
insane, it is said, in consequence of one of their ancestors 
having injured a fox." Nagasaki Express, April 19. 

CLAS. Clas, as a tract of land, became appro- 
priated chiefly to church or abbey-land ; clas-dir, 
glebe-land. The English generally used the de- 



rivative glas instead of das; hence so many names 
of places in England, Glassie, Glasson, Glans- 
worth, &c. A bard in the thirteenth century has 
these words, " Woe be to him that infringes upon 
the das," the cloistered or enclosed land of the 
church. In Wales we have Oks-ar-Wy, or Glas- 
bury, in Radnorshire ; Glas Garmon, the patri- 
mony of St. Germanus (the St. Harmon Clas), a 
lordship belonging to the Bishop of St. David's. 
This derivation of the term supports the old 
tradition which asserts that a considerable portion 
of the parish (Llangurig in the manor of Clas) 
once belonged to Strata Florida. Collections of the 
Powys-land Club, Part V., 227, note. 


SIMILE. I was asked, not long since, to point out 
the differences between these words. My answer 
is given below. It may serve as a midwife of 
thought, and, better still, may elicit suggestions 
whereby the exact points of difference may become 

PARABLE. An every-day incident or event, with 
every-day actors, acting as they usually do, made to 
illustrate some religious truth : 

Illustration: "The Sower "is a parable, because the 
Sower is doing his ordinary work in his ordinary way ; and 
the incident illustrates a religious truth. 

FABLE or APOLOGUE. A purely imaginary in- 
cident or event, with actors not acting in their 
usual way, made to illustrate some moral or 
political truth : 

Illustration : " The Trees choosing a King " is a fable, 
because the incident is purely imaginative, and the actors 
<lo not act in their ordinary way, but trees are made to 
act like human beings. The whole illustrates a moral 
and political lesson. 

^ ALLEGORY. Abstract ideas expressed by sen- 
sible objects. The picture of the mind is trans- 
posed into a picture addressed to the eye. It is 
not essential that any lesson be taught : 

Illustration : " Angels blowing " allegorize wind ; <( an 
angel hushing infants to sleep " 'allegorizes evening; "a 
girl strewing flowers " allegorizes spring; "Hagar and 
Abraham" allegorize the Church in bondage. 

In all these cases abstract ideas are expressed 
by pictures addressed to the senses. No moral or 
inference is drawn or implied, but simply a fact 

METAPHOR. The mere substitution of a concrete 
word or phrase for an abstract one : 

Illustration : " Go and tell that fox . . . ." Here 
Herod is termed a fox. The abstract idea of craft is ex- 
pressed by the concrete word/o^r. Again, "Men should 
bridle their anger." Here the abstract verb restrain is 
changed to "bridle," and anger, like a horse, is to be 
curbed by bit and bridle. 

SIMILE. A direct parallel between two essentially 
different sets of actors, either drawn out in words 
or suggested to the imagination : 

Illustration : A busy city compared to a beehive is a 
simile. The two sets of actors are essentially different, 
but there is a direct parallel between them. In the city, 
as in the hive, we have the busy work, the hum, the 
bustle, the work assigned to each, and so on. 

If the word " city " was simply changed into 
hive of men, it would be only a metaphor, for in 
that case " city " would represent only an abstract 
idea of work and industry ; but if the two sets of 
actors are set distinctly before us, it is a simile. 

Lavant, Chichester. 

BATTLE or WATERLOO. Some years since you 
allowed me to explain in " N. & Q." how the in- 
telligence of the Battle of Waterloo reached London. 
I had the account from the gentleman's own lips 
who brought it to England ; but I had then for- 
gotten his name, although I knew when he had 
resided in Gravesend, and had called upon him in 
his office in Adam Street, Adelphi ; and I knew, 
too, that he had designed Hungerford Market and 
many other structures. 

It was well known by Government that a great 
battle had been fought in Belgium ; but who was 
the victor or who the vanquished no one could 
imagine. The first certain knowledge that reached 
London, was communicated to the Earl Harrowby 
by a stranger, who said that he had landed from the 
Continent in an open boat, and his intelligence was 
that the French were utterly routed. As the ante- 
cedents of this gentleman were unknown, the 
Government would not act upon his revelations ; 
but upon the second or third day, however, the 
ministers resolved to send an account to the 
journals embodying his report. Whilst they were 
drawing it up, Major Percy arrived with the dis- 
patches, which confirmed the statement they were 
engaged in discussing. 

By accident, I was engaged on a Review of the 
Memoirs of Trevithick, the Civil Engineer, and 
wanting to obtain a date, I referred to Cruden's 
History of Gravesend, and there, unexpectedly, in a 
foot-note of three lines, I recovered the clue : 

" A.D. 1818. Charles Fowler,* architect, ordered by 
the Corporation of Gravesend to proceed with the im- 
provements in the market, &c." 



THE MACAULAY PARSON. The following notes 
are from the Journals of John Wesley, who cannot 
be justly accused of irreverence to " The Church " 
or its Ministers, in spite of themselves : 

" 1743. Thursday (April) 7. Having settled all things 
according to my desire, I cheerfully took leave of my 
friends at Newcastle, and rode that day to Sandbutton. 
At our Inn I found a good-natured man sitting and 

* " An eminent architect of London, who designed the 
New Hungerford Market in the Strand, and obtained the 
highest premium for a design for New London Bridge, 
which, however, was not executed." p. 490. 



drinking in the Chimney-corner, with whom I began a 
discourse, suspecting nothing less than that he was the 
Minister of the Parish. Before we parted, I spoke ex- 
ceeding plain : and he received it in love, begging he 
might see me when I came that way again. But before 
I came, he was gone into Eternity." 

And on Tuesday, the 19th following : 
" While I was speaking " (at Sheffield), ' a Gentleman 
rode up very drunk ; and, after many unseemly and 
bitter words, laboured much to ride over some of the 
People. I was surprised to hear he was a neighbouring 
Clergyman. And this too is a man zealous for the Church ! 
Ah, poor Church, if it stood in need of auch Defenders ! " 


"SIEGWART." Miss Lsetitia-Matilda Hawkins 
published a translation of a heavy German romance, 
the title of which is " Siegwart, a monastic tale, 
translated from the German of J. M. Miller by 
Lsetitia-Matilda Hawkins, in three volumes. Lon- 
don, printed for J. Carpenter, Old Bond Street, 
1806, 12." This work the British Museum appears 
only to have acquired in 1868, from the " extra- 
ordinary " (as the auctioneers justly term it) collec- 
tion of the late Kev. F. J. Stainforth. 

I have not been able to find any review of this 
work in the magazines of the time, which, con- 
sidering the amount of literary connexion Miss 
Hawkins had, seems strange. In the Introduction 
she says : 

" It is fit the reader should be apprized that this is not 
the first attempt made to translate Siegwart. Two very 
small volumes, containing the outline of the story, and 
that very much mutilated, were printed at Chelsea in 
1799, for G. Polidore (sic), with no other designation of 
the writer than the initials H. L. It would, however, be 
uncandid to omit saying that what is done is not ill done. 
In comparing passages the present translator has been 
forced to feel, that what has been gained in close adher- 
ence to the original, has been lost in ease of expression. 
Of the difficulty of the undertaking, trifling as it appears, 
none can judge but those who have made the experiment 
of rendering the colloquial German of the middle rank of 
society into such English as polished taste can approve." 

Fortunately the vast stores of the British 
Museum enable me also to give the title of the 
book Miss Hawkins refers to, which was only 
acquired in 1863. I mention this date, first, be- 
cause that date points to about the time when the 
book was catalogued ; and, secondly, to show that 
before that year I could not have concerned myself 
with this inquiry, simply because I could not have 
seen these two common books in the National 
Library. I copy the following title from the 
British Museum Catalogue without alteration: 
" Siegvart, a tale translated from the German [of 
F. Bernritter], By H. L. [or rather L. H., i.e., 
Laetitia Hawkins?]. 2 vol. Chelsea 1799:12." 
I may, by the way, observe that Sigevart is the 
spelling on the title-page and throughout the 1799 
edition ; also on the curious fact of the above title 
appearing in the British Museum Catalogue exactly 
underneath a German edition of Sigevart, also 
attributed to Bernritter ; and that although Miss 

Hawkins especially mentions Miller's name in her 
edition of 1806, the above is attributed to Bern- 
ritter, thus implying that she had translated two 
tales of the same title, by different authors. 

Now, curious as is the use of the initials "H. L.," 
there does not seem to me to be any ground for 
attributing the first translation to Miss Hawkins ; 
on the contrary, the quotation I have given above 
seems to me to confirm my idea that it was not 
hers. If it was, the paragraph quoted would be 
most disingenuous, although I must admit that 
the other construction is possible, so indefinite is 
the wording. The 1799 translation is totally dif- 
ferent to the 1806. Of the two I prefer the first, 
as being more homely and readable than that of 
Miss Hawkins, who appears to have striven _ so 
much after fine writing, that instead of following 
the story, one is obliged to halt every now and 
then to consider whether the English is such " as 
polished taste can approve." The 1799 edition is 
evidently the work of a novice, to whom paragraphs 
were unknown, a hundred pages being about the 
intervals at which they occur throughout the 
work. It does not appear to have been known to 
Watt, who, in the title of Miss Hawkins's transla- 
tion, spells "Miller," "Muller," the former no 
doubt appearing too English. Perhaps, with the 
aid of readers, German and English, we may yet 
find out the correct facts as to this publication. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

LATE E. J. CARLOS. This gentleman was very 
diligent in making rubbings from sepulchral 
brasses from thirty to forty years ago ; but I fear 
that his collection was dispersed after his death. 
I shall feel obliged by any information regarding 
it, and more particularly regarding those in the 
churches of Surrey. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society have visited 
the church of Carshalton to-day (July 9), where 
Mr. J. G. Waller has favoured them with a very 
interesting paper on the sepulchral brasses which 
are now there remaining, unfortunately in a much 
injured condition. 

Mr. Waller has pointed out that the tomb of 
Nicholas Gaynesford and Margaret his wife, stand- 
ing next the north wall of the chancel, was clearly 
intended for the annual erection of the Holy 
Sepulchre. It is remarkable for enamelled brasses, 
which are rare. These brasses are engraved in 
Lysons's Environs of London, but Avithout any 
notice that the figures were represented praying 
to a figure of the Holy Trinity, now removed. 

4's.xn.juLYi9,73.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The lady wears a butterfly head-dress of extra 
ordinary dimensions, and the livery collar of Rose- 
and Suns. She was a gentlewoman to the queen 
of Edward IV. and Henry VII., and her husband 
knight for the body to both those kings. The 
deaths of both husband and wife are left blank in 
the inscription, showing that the tomb was erectec 
whilst both were alive ; but their wills, preserved 
in H.M. Court of Probate, will furnish the dates 
of their decease. 

On the floor of the chancel, near at hand, is the 
gravestone of Thomas Ellynbridge, gentleman 
usher to Cardinal Morton (ob. 1497), and his wife, 
who was a Gaynesford. These figures are gone, 
with those of their children, but a beautiful canopy 
remains, surmounted by Pieta, or Lady of Pity, 
This is uncommon upon sepulchral brasses, as Mr. 
Waller knows of only one other, at Allhallows 
Barking, in London. 

Both these memorials are believed to have suf- 
fered during the last repairs of the church, when, 
as is so often the case, the workmen took the 
opportunity of pilfering portions of them. 

It is on this account that I beg to inquire 

for the rubbings previously made by Mr. Carlos, 

or any made by other antiquaries that may supply 

some of the deficiencies which we now deplore. 


DR. BOSSY. Could you give me an account of 
Dr. Bossy who he was 1 I have a small print 
published by W. Richardson, No. 2, Castle Street, 
Leicester Square ; engraved by A. Van Assen. 

D. J. D. 

Coper's Cope Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

CHATEAUBRIAND. What was the maiden name 
of Chateaubriand's mother, and what was the 
maiden name of his mother's mother 1 Though I 
have not the book before me at this present 
writing, I think information on these two points is 
not given in his Memoires d'Outre-iombe. 


" BY THE ELEVENS." What is the meaning of 
the oath "By the Elevens?"* Meursius, in his 
Denarius Pythagoricus, points out the antiquity of 
the numerus infaustus of eleven at a banquet, pp. 
15, 112. On the Pythagorean verses : 

Numero Deus impari gaudet ; 
" Omnibus ex nihilo ducendis sufficit unum." 

See Encyd. Metropol, i. 392, 424 : " The number 
11 being the first which transgresses the decad 
denotes the wicked who transgress the Decalogue, 
whilst 12, the number of the Apostles, is the proper 
symbol of the good and just." The writer here 
refers to Bungi Numerorum Mysteria, 1618. 
<l Hincmar," observes Buckle, " wrote his cinquante 
huitieme opuscule sur des mysticites tirees des 
nombres." Denarius, writes Hincmar, " in De- 

* Perhaps it refers to the legends of Undecimilla. 

calogo perfectus est numerus, continens in se mys- 
terium quadriga Evangelical Coniputa enim ab 
uno per ordinem usque ad quatuor et invenies 
decem." , Vol. ii. 827. Cfr. " N. & Q." 1 st S. in. 


MARY WINDOW. What is the exact meaning 
of a " Mary Window," and in what English churches 
(if any) are instances to be found ? H. W. 

ELECTION SQUIB. Can any of your readers 
supply the remaining lines of an election squib, of 
which I can only recollect the following : 
" Sutton my coz at Lambeth lives, 
My tutor Sparke at Ely. 

He answered them, 

And fairly enough I ween, 
Shall then your Grace two Bishops make, 

And shan't we choose Adeane ?" 

It was written on the occasion of an election for the 
county of Cambridge more than fifty years ago, 
when Mr. Adeane was first brought forward to 
contest the county against the then Duke of 
Rutland's almost overpowering interest. Q. 

DR. FULLER. In Nympha Libethris ; or, tlw 
Cotswold Muse, 1651, by Clement Barksdale, are 
some verses inscribed to " Dr. Fuller" (pt. iv.). I 
shall be glad if any one who possesses this book 
will say whether the verses contain any personal 
references tending to show who this individual was.* 
Particulars also wanted of Dr. Fuller, who was 
President of Sion College, 1636*; and of Mr. Dr. 
Fuller, to whom, Apr. 19th, 1643, the Lords gave a 
pass to carry his wife to Salisbury and back again 
(Lords' Journals). Neither of these names could 
be that of Dr. Thomas Fuller, the author of The 
Worthies, who received his degree in 1660. 


DERBY CHINA. I have an old Derby china 
igure in biscuit, ten inches in height. It represents 
a female standing. With her left hand she holds 
a dove against her bosom ; round her right arm, 
which is extended a little distance from the body, 
entwined a snake, and at her feet lies a lamb. 
Uan any one inform me whom this statuette repre- 
sents, or if it is simply a figure with the symbols, 
say of meekness, wisdom, and innocence 1 It is well 
modelled, and, like most all Derby figures, grace- 
ully posed. A REGULAR READER. 


HERALDIC. The eldest son and possessor of an 
.ntailed estate dies, leaving only daughters, his co- 
heiresses, who marry and have issue. Their father's 

* [The verses are clearly inscribed to the author of 
The Worthies: 

Nor Holy War, nor yet thy Holy State, 
Our Helluo's appetite can satiate ; 
But we expect (not vainly) after all, 
Thy History Ecclesiastical," &c.J 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. xn. JULY 19, T. 

estate, of course, passes to his younger brother, and 
his representatives. Have the issue of the eldest 
son's daughters, and their descendants, a right to 
quarter the family arms, or do they exclusively 
distinguish the male line ? ANCEPS. 

was this house built, and who was the architect ? 
Who were its principal occupants up to the time 
of H.R.H. Prince Arthur taking up his residence 
there I W. WRIGHT. 

HONEST GHOST. In Nares, sub voce cock-on- 
hoop, I find a reference to the Honest Ghost. Who 
is the author of this poem, and where is it to be 
found ] F. J. V. 

[Honest Ghost; or, a Voice from the Vault, an Age for 
Apes, Lond., 1658, 12mo., is by Richard Brathwait, 
author of 'Barnabee's Journal. ] 

PHILIP QUARLL. The Hermit; or, the un- 
parallel'd Sufferings and surprising Adventures of 
Mr. Philip Quarll, an Englishman. I purposely 
stop here, as the full title would occupy half a 
column, and it is not necessary for the purpose of 
my query. I should much like to know all about 
this work, its author and bibliography. Perhaps 
MR. W. BATES can oblige OLPHAR HAMST. 

CRICKET. The first mention I find of this game 
is in Pope : , 

" The judge to dance his brother-serjeant call, 

The senator at cric&et urge the ball." 
Can any one teH. me of an earlier mention of it ? 
.Also as to the derivation of the word. Richardson 
gives A.S. cricce, the staff with which the ball is 
struck, but this does not seem satisfactory. 

F. J. V. 

[Consult " N. & Q." 2"" S. ii. 410; iii. 39 ; vi. 133, 178, 
217; x. 512; 3 r " S. iv. 186 ; and Capt. Crawley's work 
Cricket: its Theory and Practice, 1866.] 

published by Debrett in 1785. Were any volumes 
subsequently published 1 A. F. 

BART. Where shall I find a genealogy of the 
St. Aubyns of Cornwall, and descent of the late 
Sir Edward St. Aubyn of S. Michael's Mount, 
Cornwall, Bart.? He was born 1799, created a 
baronet, 1866, and died 1872 : the St. Aubyn 
pedigree is not given in Burke's Peerage and 
Baronetage. There was a previous baronetcy in 
the family which became extinct, 1839. 


[Consult John Burke's Oenealoyical and Heraldic 
UiMory of tlie Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of 
England &c., p. 603. Lond., 1844 ; and " N. & Q.," 1 
fc>. xi. z08.J 

THE DRUIDS. During a recent ramble in 
Brittany, I found in the churchyard of Plouagat, a 

village near Guingamp, in the Department of the 
Cotes du Nord, a Druidical menhir or peulvan, 
rising vertically, or nearly so, from the ground. 
Some characters were traced upon one side of it y 
which I could not exactly make out. If I re- 
member rightly, one of them was a very rudely 
carved serpent. Can any reader of " N. & Q." tell 
me if such remnants of Druidism are to be found 
in any other churchyard, either in Brittany or at 
home, and is it at all probable that the early Chris- 
tians reared their places of worship upon these 
pre-historic sites, using the monuments of the 
ancient aborigines in their construction ? 


have an old coloured engraving about which I 
crave some information. 

The subject is a Negro, lying extended upon the 
ground, and upon him is preying a tiger : the tiger, 
in its turn, is being attacked by a huge lion. In 
one corner of the foreground a cock and a snake 
are fighting, and in the other corner there is a hen 
with two chickens. Other accessories make up the 
picture. Underneath, in two lines, is the follow- 
ing inscription in Italian text : 

" A Seen (sic) in the Wilds of Africa Drawn and En- 
graved by W. Martin the Natural Philosopher upon The 
Principal of that long sought for the Hidden Mystrie of 
Nature the true Perpetual Motion by W. M." 

Who was W. Martin, what is the date of the 
picture, and is it common 1 My copy is from the 
collection of the late Francis Goodwin, author of 
Rural Architecture, and was given to me by his 
son. ' J. P. MORRIS. 

17, Sutton Street, Tue Brook, Liverpool. 

[Probably the William Martin, the naturalist, born in, 
1767 at Marsfield, in Nottinghamshire, and died in 1810. 
In 1793 he published the first number of Figures and 
Descriptions of Petrifactions in Derbyshire, and other 
works. He is noticed in most modern biographical 
dictionaries.] % 

EIVAROL. Les bibliographes, entre autres 
Que"rard, dans "La France Litteraire," indiquent 
une brochure publiee par Antoine de Rivarol a 
Bruxelles, en 1792, sous le titre de Dialogue entre 
M. de Limon et un homme de gout, in 8. Get 
ecrit n'a pas ete reproduit dans "edition des ceuvres 
pretendues completes de Rivarol (Paris, 1808). 
Peut-on indiquer une bibliotheque, publique ou 
particuliere, ou se trouverait cette brochure ? 
Rivarol etait en correspondance avec Burke. Une 
lettre de Burke, suivie de la reponse de Rivarol, 
sur les affaires de France et des Pays-Bas a ete 
publiee a Paris en 1792, chez Denne, in 8. A-t-on 
imprime d'autres lettres de ce genre a part ou dans 
des recueils] Que sont devenus les papiers de 
Burke ? A. w. T. 

Waterford Road, Fulham, S.W. 

4* a xii. jm. 19, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(4 th S. xii. 24.) 

MR. THOMS'S strictures on the passage in the 
reports of the Tichborne case only show that there 
are other obstructions in the way of historic inquiry 
than inaccuracy of narration, and that one of them 
is want of clearness in perception. The Times 
report is in substance quite correct; that of the 
Standard, though not so full, entirely confirms it. 
There is no difficulty at all ; and any one, by the 
light of these reports, might see plainly enough that 
the report in the Daily News, though not so ac- 
curate, yet, so far as it goes, also confirms it ; so 
that there is not the slightest shadow of doubt or 
difficulty except what is of MR. THOMS'S own 
creation. The Lord Chief Justice desired to con- 
vey that he thought the question of handwriting of 
great importance, as Roger's was so characteristic; 
in which all who knew it will concur. But it was 
necessary to express this so as not to prejudice the 
Defendant. The Lord Chief Justice therefore said, 
as I understood, " he had never known two hand- 
writings more characteristic than the letters of 
Roger Tichborne before and after the appearance of 
the Defendant." This mode of expression avoided 
any implication that the Defendant was not Tich- 
borne, for Eoger's writing might have altered 
materially in fifteen years. All that the Lord 
Chief Justice says is, that the two handwritings 
were " characteristic," or, as I understood and 
meant to report, different; for if two hand- 
writings are the same, or similar, they can hardly 
both of them be characteristic. Then, to make this 
clearer, the Lord Chief Justice goes on to say: 
" Having seen all the letters prior to the em- 
barkation on board the Bella, he could say that it 
(i. e., Roger's before that) was the most characteristic 
writing he had ever known. There were even 
peculiar characteristics which distinguished it from 
any other writing he had ever seen"; including, of 
course, that of the Defendant, who, however, by 
this phraseology, is not mentioned as different from 
Roger, though his writing is spoken of as quite 
different from the former writing of Roger. 

I really cannot see any reason for the " slightest 
doubt" that, as MR. THOMS says, "the learned 
Judge's remarks referred, not to the identity, but 
to the dissimilitude of the two handwritings." 
Where is there a word to indicate that the Lord 
Chief Justice thought the two writings " identical"? 
Every word implies the contrary. The Standard 
report, though not so full, entirely accords, speak- 
ing of the characteristics of the two handwritings, 
before and after the Bella ; and the Daily News 
dso, although still shorter, and not quite so accu- 
rate, confirms the others ; for it speaks of the two 
hand\vritings those of Roger before the Bella, and 
of " the Defendant" ; the inaccuracy being in the 

introduction of that latter word no doubt to make 
the meaning clearer but which the Lord Chief 
Justice carefully avoided using, as it would have 
implied^ that the Defendant was a different person 
from Roger ; whereas all that he meant to convey 
was the manifest fact that his writing, since his 
appearance, was very different indeed from that of 
Roger before he went on board the Bella. MR. 
THOMS, therefore, on these reports, in saying that 
he has not the slightest doubt "the Judge's remarks 
referred, not to the identity, but to the dissimili- 
tude of the two handwritings," seems to condemn 
his own doubts as to the reports ; for they all as 
I read them concur in conveying this meaning. 

I would not think of offering an opinion in 
opposition to that of MR. THOMS, were it not that 
I entertain an overwhelming conviction he has- 
fallen into error. I see no real discrepancy in the 
remark of the Lord Chief Justice regarding hand- 
writing in the Tichborne case, as reported in the 
Times, the Standard, and the Daily Neivs respec- 
tively. As these reports present themselves to my 
mind, they are identical in meaning. 

MR. THOMS seems to be under the impression 
that the Lord Chief Justice, in speaking of letters 
in " two handwritings," referred to letters written 
by the hands of two distinct and different indivi- 
duals. But a moment's reflection must, I think, 
convince him that this could not be the meaning 
of what his Lordship said. The question whether 
these letters are in the handwriting of one person 
or of two is, in substance, the question which the 
jury are brought together to try, and it would 
have been ultra vires and incompetent for the Lord 
Chief Justice thus summarily to dispose of it. 
Such a meaning being, therefore, excluded, " two 
handwritings " must be taken to mean two writings 
which appear to be different in kind or character^ 
and it follows of necessity that it was dissimili- 
tude, and not identity, upon which his Lordship 
remarked. In this sense, two handwritings may, 
or may not, be written by one and the same person. 

Of the letters to which the Lord Chief Justice 
alluded, those written prior to the loss of the 
Bella and " the appearance of the Defendant " 
are admittedly in the handwriting of Roger 
Tichborne, and those written subsequent thereto 
are admittedly in the handwriting of the Defen- 
dant. The whole letters are ex facie the letters of 
Roger Tichborne, and the presumption (which of 
course may be overcome) upon which the Lord 
Chief Justice proceeded, and was bound at that 
stage to proceed, was, that the whole letters were 
what they purported to be the letters of Roger 
Tichborne. He did not say whether the Defendant 
was Roger Tichborne or not, but he spoke (on the 
principle I have mentioned) of letters written by 
;he Defendant as being, as ex facie they were, the 



letters of Roger Tichborne. According to the 
..Times, he spoke of 

" Handwritings . . (of) the letters of Roger Tichborne 
prior to and after the appearance of the Defendant "; 

according to the Standard, of 

" Those (the handwritings) of Roger Tichborne's be- 
fore the disappearance of the Bella and afterwards " ; 

and according to the Daily News, of 

" Those (the handwritings) of Roger Tichborne before 
the disappearance of the Bella, and of the Defendant." 

In my view, the words " and of the Defendant " in 
the last quotation are not in any way inconsistent 
with the other two reports, but are in strict ac- 
cordance therewith. 

Upon the whole I must ask for an acquittal of 
the reporters from the charge of inaccuracy which 
MR. THOMS brings forward. W. M. 


Far be it from me to disparage the aptness of 
the illustration, which MR. THOMS has produced, 
of " the carelessness and want of accuracy with 
which statements are made by those who, in making 
-them, desire only to speak the truth." But I 
should like to draw his attention to the fact that 
.he has also produced an illustration of the ease 
with which these historical nuts may sometimes 
be cracked, though I must admit that the case is 
seldom so simple as in the present instance. 

He has printed three reports, entirely differing 
from one another, of something said by the Lord 
Chief Justice at the trial of the Claimant. If MR. 
THOMS will look at these three reports again, he 
will see that the one from the Daily News is the 
only one meriting a moment's attention, and that 
a future historian would be quite justified in 
throwing the others overboard without the slightest 

The first of these others makes the Chief Justice 
say " that he had never known two handwritings 
more characteristic than the letters of Eoger Tich- 
borne prior to and after the appearance of the 
Defendant." Now, if this means anything at all, 
which I rather doubt, it means that there were 
letters of Roger Tichborne in existence written 
after the appearance of the Defendant, and, there- 
fore, represents the Chief Justice as expressing his 
belief either that Roger Tichborne, not being the 
Defendant, had written letters of late years, of 
which no one has ever heard, or else that Roger 
Tichborne and the Defendant were identical, thus 
begging the question at issue before the jury, which 
supposition is absurd, as old Euclid would say. 

And the same absurdity applies to the second 
quotation, except that it is even more completely 
unintelligible than the other. 

The report of the Daily News, therefore, " I do 
not think I ever saw in two handwritings those 
of Roger Tichborne before the disappearance of the 
Bella, and of the Defendant so many peculiarities 

in the writing during the whole course of my long 
experience," may be accepted as the only report 
before us. The Chief Justice may not have used 
these exact words, but we may be quite sure he 
did not use the words attributed to him in the 
other quotations given by MR. THOMS. 


I would supplement the judicious remarks of 
MR. THOMS with the following. 

In the Daily Telegraph of Friday, June 27, p. 5, 
it states in the Summary of the Tichborne Trial 
that Mrs. Townley admitted 

" That she had as many bets on the late trial as she 
could possibly get her friends to take : that she had 
'netted' one bet of 501., and three others; that Mr. 
Guildford Onslow had declined to ' pay up.' " 

And yet in the same page, two columns further 
on, it states in what is supposed to be a verbatim 
report of the trial : 

"Re-examined by Serjeant Parry. 'I have bet with 
Mr. Guildford Onslow. / haven't paid him yet.' 

How many " sensation leaders " are written on 
blunders quite as great ; and what little relief is 
allowed to those who suffer from attacks written 
on " cut down flimsey " or erroneous summaries ! 

It is not every one that will take the pains like 
MR. THOMS to analyze and compare evidence ; 
and because a statement appears in a paper it is 
accepted as a fact, and the editor's remarks as 
gospel. It does not require much discernment 
now-a-days to discover the source of most ordinary 
conversation, and to find that one person speaks 
Times, another Standard, another Telegraph, and 
so on ; and if you remark that another paper says 
the opposite, the reply is " ! I never read that 

How many of the startling announcements that 
appear in the placards of the evening papers are 
confirmed in the morning ? 

" What is truth 1 " indeed, may be asked. When I 
first travelled on the railway, it was customary to see 
travellers reading a book, now you may travel 
hundreds of miles, and never see anything but a 
penny paper. Perhaps the public mind may be 
better instructed and controlled by the hastily ac- 
cumulated intelligence dispensed morning, noon, 
and night ; but I cannot bring myself to think so 
when I consider the number of inaccuracies that 
are constantly presenting themselves. CLARRY. 

I believe the Lord Chief Justice some time ago 
complimented the reporters' accuracy. It would 
be satisfactory, therefore, to ascertain whether the 
variations pointed out by MR. THOMS were by 
persons using the same system of shorthand. 





(4 th S. xi. 137, 184, 473.) It is amusing to com 
pare the various opinions which have been expressec 
tis to the relative merits of the plates and th 
poetry in the volumes of this quaint old writer 
Pope stuck him in the Dunciad : 

" where the pictures for the page atone, 

And Quarles is sav'd by Beauties not his own." 

Book I., 140. 

while he is compared with Wither in a note, 
"Quarles was as dull a writer, but a honester man. 
Southey if to him is correctly attributed the 
article from which I quote expresses a directlj 
opposite opinion : 

" These Emblems have had a singular fate : they are 
fine poems upon some of the most ridiculous prints tha 
-ever excited merriment ; yet the poems are neglected, 
while the prints have been repeatedly republished with 
new illustrations. In the early part of last century, a 
clergyman restored them to Hugo, their original owner 
iind printed with them a dull translation of Hugo's dul 
verses. They next fell into the hands of some methodist 
who berhymed them in the very spirit of Sternhold 
and this is the book which is now generally known by the 
name of Quarles," &c. Critical Review, Sept., 1801, p. 45 
The "clergyman" alluded to is Edmund Arwaker, 
M.A., whose Pia Desideria ; or, Divine Addresses. 
in Three Books, with forty-seven fine copper-plates 
by Sturt, was published in 1686, 8vo. ; 2nd ed., 
1690 ; 3rd ed., 1703 ; 4th ed., 1712, with the 
plates, by that time, quite done for. 

The " methodist " is supposed, I do not know on 
what authority, to have been no other than the 
Eev. Isaac Watts, D.D. His edition, with rough 
woodcuts, of the Emblems, is entitled, "Francis 
Quarle's Emblems and Hieroglyphics of the Life of 
Man, Modernized. In Four Books, Embellished 
with near an 100 beautiful and emblematical Cuts. 
London, Printed for I. Cooke, at the Shakespeafs 
Head, in Pater-Noster Row, MDCCLXVI., 12mo." 
It must not, however, be understood that the worthy 
editor confined his labours to the mere moderniza- 
tion of the language : 

" I once designed," says he, " to have done this, and 
given it a Turn suited to the present Taste; but soon 
fouud, that such an attempt would give me as much 
Trouble as to write a new Book ; I therefore chose the 
latter, and the rather, that by this Means I should have 
an Opportunity of illustrating every Subject with such 
Reflections and Observations as would set every Emblem 
in a new Light." 

There is a later attempt to " properly modernize," 
as the Preface has it, this ill-treated poet. Headley, 
who elegantly says, " we find in Quarles original 
imagery, striking sentiment, fertility of expression, 
and happy combinations ; together with a com- 
pression of style that merits the observation of 
writers of verse," adds, with regard to this latter 
attempt to "adapt" our author to supposed modern 
taste, that " such an exhibition of Quarles is chain- 
ing Columbus to an oar, or making John, Duke 
of Marlborough, a train-band corporal." (Select 
Beauties of Ancient English Poetry, 1810, p. Ixi.) 

The assertion of Phillips, that the poems of 
Quarles "have ever been, and still are, in wonderful 
veneration among the vulgar," is illustrated by the 
fact, that when the Rev. C. De Coetlogon published 
his elegant edition, with its mellow cuts on copper 
(London, 1777, 2 vols. 8vo.), he could state in his 
preface that "the publication is now become so 
scarce as with difficulty to be purchased at all." 
Since this date there have been many editions, 
among which may be mentioned the neat and low 
priced issues of Mr. Tegg, to bring this " some- 
times darling of our plebeian judgments," as Wood 
has it, within the reach of all admirers of our early 
religious poetry. The Rev. R. Wilson has given 
us a valuable edition, with glossarial notes, and 
portrait after the rare print by Marshall (1824, 
2 vols. 8vo.); and I must not omit to mention the 
more sumptuous modern reprint, with its exquisite 
woodcut illustrations from altogether different de- 
signs, by Charles Bennett and W. Harry Rogers 
(London, Nisbet & Co., 1871, sq. 8vo. or 4to.). A 
few classic readers may regret the omission of the 
rare Latin poein by Edward Benlowes (which 
occupies ten leaves, and is sometimes found with 
the first edition), which might have been followed 
by the fine Alcaics on the death of Quarles by the 
learned James Duport, some time Professor of Greek 
in Magdalen College, Cambridge, and Dean of Peter- 
borough, for which latter curious readers must be 
referred to his Musce Subsecivw, seu Poetica Stro- 
mata. Auctore I. I). Cantab., 1676, 8vo., p. 477. 
With the Emblems of Wither, whom Ritson 
dubbed the "English Bavius," and D'Israeli 
styled "a prosing satirist," Charles Lamb com- 
pares those of Quarles, to which he gives the 
preference. In a letter to Southey, Oct. 18, 1798, 
tie tells the poet that he has " picked up " (he 'd 
ind it a more difficult matter now-a-days !) a copy 
of Wither, "that old book and quaint," and 
says of it, " The Emblems are far inferior to old 
Quarles. I once told you otherwise, but I had not 
;hen read old Q. with attention. I have picked 
ip, too, another copy of Quarles for ninepence ! ! ! 
tempora ! lectores !" 

Good Charles was generally constant in his 
)0ok-likes, but he had changed his opinion in less 
han a month. Writing to the same friend, under 
date of Nov. 8, he says : 

"Quarles is a wittier writer, but Wither lays more 
old of the heart. Quarles thinks of his audience when 
ic lectures ; Wither soliloquizes in company with a full 
icart. What wretched stuff are the Divine Fancies of 
iuarles ! Religion appears to him no longer valuable 
han it furnishes matter for quibbles and riddles : he 
urns God's grace into wantonness. Wither is like an 
Id friend, whose warm-heartedness and estimable 
ualities make us wish h possessed more genius, but at 
lie same time make us willing to dispense with that 
want. I always love W. and sometimes admire Q. Still 
liat portrait poem is a fine one ; and the extract from 
^hepherds' Hunting places him in a starry height above 
[uarles." Letters, p. 69. 



XIL JULT 19, 73. 

There are papers on the poetry of Quarles in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, for Nov., 1835, p. 493, 
and the Retrospective Review, vol. ix. p. 128. 
Arwaker, in the Preface to his version of Hugo, 
says, " Mr. Quarles only borrowed his Emblems " ; 
and Chalmers, following him, affirms " the ac- 
companying verses are entirely Quarles's." They 
are both wrong ; as Quarles has in numerous in- 
stances translated literally, or paraphrased, not 
only lines, but entire passages from his exemplar, 
who, in his turn, had levied contributions from 
Alciatus. There is another work of Quarles, which 
Avould alone have given him a permanent place in 
literature. This is his Enchiridion (1658), of 
which an elegant critic says, that had it been 
written at Athens or at Eome, its author would 
have been classed with the wise men of his country. 
A selection of these fine aphorisms, translated into 
Latin verse, forms the twelfth book of the " Epi- 
grammata" of Constantius Hugenius, at the end 
of his Momenta Desultoria (Hagse Comitum, 
1655, 8vo.); and the entire volume has been ex- 
quisitely reprinted by Charles Baldwyn, in 1822, 
small square octavo, on drawing paper, with "ample 
room and verge enough " of margin to gloat the 
eye of the most luxurious bibliomaniac. 



The title-page of my copy of Hugo is as fol- 
lows : 

" Pia Desideria. Auctore R. P. Hermanno Hugone 
Societ. lesu. Editio quarta, correctior et elegantior. 
Colcniae. Sumptibus Viduse, et Hseredum loaimis 
Antonii Kinchii, Anno 1682." 

The frontispiece is a copper-plate representing a 
man kneeling on the world, holding two flaming 
hearts, between four medallions, the two above 
setting forth the Tribunal ultimum and ^Eterna 
beatorum (jaudia; the two below, Lessus mortualis 
and sEterna inferorum supplicia. There is no 
mark to any of the plates. SENNACHERIB. 

ANDREW MARVELL (4 th S. xi. 344, 374, 394, 409, 
511; xii. 12.) With much respect for the EEV. 
MR. GROSART, and acknowledgment of his in- 
dustry, I beg leave to differ from his opinion of the 
value of the Marvell various readings communicated 
by MR. SOLLY (p. 511), which appear to me mostly 
correct and unquestionable ; a few are obviously 
misprints. MR. GROSART accepts, or " is disposed 
to accept on reconsideration," four of them. One 
of these four is quite insignificant ; in each of the 
other three cases he makes a reserve which, he will 
excuse me for saying, does not hold water. 

1. Line 153, "young" for "your"; "albeit," 
says MR. GROSART, "'your' gives quite as good 
sense, and perhaps more satire." The lines, with 
MR. SOLLY'S emendation, are 

" In loyal haste they left young wives in bed, 
And Denham these with one consent did head." 

They left your wives (as MR. GROSART would have 
it) is very bad grammar. Young gives all the point, 
and well applies to Denham (Sir John), who had 
a second young wife, with whom the Duke of York 

2. L. 181, "coife" for "wife"; "though," says- 
MR. GROSART, "it is just possible the satirist 
pointed to some domestic broil, while the ' coife' is 
scarcely a symbol of the ' awe' of justice." And 
how could the wife be ? Serjeant Chaiiton was a 
Welsh judge. Coife is good sense ; wife seems- 
nonsense. What has a domestic broil to do with 
the matter ] It is Charlton's looks that give law, 
not his wife's : 

'* Charlton advances next (whose coife does awe 
The mitred troop) and with his looks gives law." 

3. L. 223, "feather-men" for "feather-man"; 
MR. GROSART adopts feather-men, but why, or what 
feather-men or feather-man means he cannot tell, 
and he is justified in saying that the whole passage 
is obscure. 

4. " Sad change" for " sad chance," " notwith- 
standing," says MR. GROSART, " that chance is a 
likely author's variant." It is much more likely a 
careless printer's variant. Change is the obviously 
fit word, chance inappropriate : 

" Sad change, since first that happy pair was wed." 
MR. GROSART ought not only to accept three of 
the above four heartily and without reserve, but he 
ought unquestionably to welcome more. 

1. L. 38, " treat" for " cheat." MR. GROSART 
thinks treat takes away the point of the satire. 
What is satire ? To call a man a cheat is not satire, 
but scurrility. Lord St. Albans was accredited 
Ambassador to the King of France in 1667. Treat 
is the proper word, and satirical enough. He is 
thought fit to play cards and treat, quiet occu- 
pations : 

" But age, allaying now that youthful heat, 
Fits him in France to play at cards, and treat" 

2. L. 109, " trick-track" is correct, though " tick- 
tack" may mean the same thing, which MR. GROSART 
says it does; trick-trade is, anyhow, the original 
word, straight from the French. 

3. L. 214, "left" for "led," says MR. GROSART, 
" makes nonsense." I think there is more sense 
in left than led : 

" Last then but one, Powel, that could not ride, 

Left the French standard weltering in his stride." 
To leave the standard weltering is very intelligible. 

4. L. 239, "loose" for "close," says MR. GROSART, 
" is unintelligible." I should say the same of close 
(MR. GROSART'S reading) for loose. The opposition 
force in Parliament is described as scattered ; how 
could this be if they were in close quarters ? 

' For t' other side all in loose quarters lay, 
Without intelligence, command or pay 
A scattered body." 

5. L. 276, " ' chafing ' for ' chasing' reverses the 

4* s. xii. JULY 19, >73.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


meaning," says MR. GROSART. Certainly ; but puts 

the matter straight : 

" But strength at last still under number bows, 
And the faint sweat trickled down Temple's brows, 
Even iron Strangeway chafing yet gave back." 

6. L. 418, "'well foreseen' for 'men foreseen,' 
is at least inferior," says MR. GROSART. Very 
superior, I venture to say : 

" But wiser men, and well foreseen in chance." 
I can here only oppose opinion to opinion. 

7. L. 669, " Fur" for "Fir" is rejected by MR. 
GROSART. But compare fur with all the other 
imports mentioned, and it seems the right word : 

"Fur from the North, and silver from the West, 
From the South perfumes, spices from the East, 
From Gambo gold, and from the Ganges gems." 

I add these seven corrections presented by MR. 
SOLLY'S list, in addition to the three equally 
good which MR. GROSART reluctantly accepts. 
MR. SOLLY'S readings were not suggested in cor- 
rection of MR. GROSART'S, whose book he does not 
seem to know, but simply compared, as matter of fact, 
with those of a cheap edition of Marvell's Poems 
lately printed by A. Murray, of Queen's Square. 

If MR. SOLLY'S edition of 1689 contains other 
poems of Marvell, he would probably be able to 
supply more improvements of MR. GROSART'S text. 

ALEXANDER PENNECUIK (4 th S. xii. 7.) There 
were two of these Alexander Pennecuiks, uncle 
and nephew, according to Mr. Chalmers, the senior ; 
the respectable Dr. A. P. of Newhall, whose works, 
containing A Description of the Shire of Tweedale, 
and Miscellaneous Poems, were published in 8vo., 
at Edin., 1715, and reprinted at Leith, 1815 ; the 
poems, alone, under the title of A Collection of 
Curious Scots Poems, were printed at Edin., 1762, 
sm. 4to. 

The junior A. P., usually styled Gent., or Bur- 
gess of Edin., was the reputed compiler of Mr. 
Cook's book, which was often printed. These are 
before me Edin., Reid, 1756 ; Edin., Wood, 1769 ; 
and Glasgow, Buchanan, 1787, and were, with some 
suppressions and additions, derived from A Com- 
pleat Collection of all the Poems wrote by that 
famous and learned Poet, A. P., to which is an- 
nexed some. Curious Poems by other worthy hands, 
published in 6 parts by Drummond, at Edin., with- 
out date. On page 1 these are headed, " Enter- 
tainments for the Curious," and are the facetice 
of the, likely defunct, Poet Pennecuik, collected 
from his own penny merriments, in which he 
panders to the depraved tastes of the democrats of 
Auld Reekie, with the addition of some things 
from Ramsay, Drummond, and the older collection 
of Watson. Another such character was James 
Wilson, alias Claudero, whose Miscellanies bear a 
strong resemblance, and who seems to have suc- 
ceeded him as the town laureat. In his struggles 

for existence this latter lets out at once, in the 
following lines, the fate of his predecessor, and his 
own condition, and resolution thereupon : 
v To shun the fate of Pennecuik, 

Who starving died in turnpike-nuick, 
Tho' sweet he sang with wit and sense, 
He like poor Claud was short of pence ; 
I '11 change my manners with the clime, 
And never more be heard in rhyme." 

Pennecuik wrote much more than is found in this 
collection, and is better known as the author of 
The Blue Blanket, 12mo., Edin., 1722, reprinted 
as lately as 1826, a prose book in honour and glory 
of the deeds of the Edinburgh Craftsmen under 
their exciting banner. His Streams from Helicon, 
12mo., London (but Edin.), 1720, isamore ambitious 
production, in verse. The first part, under the 
title of Beauty in Distress, is a very free rendering 
of the story of Susanna ; the second a more de- 
corous version of The Song of Songs; and the 
third A Morning Walk to Arthur's Seat; the 
whole dedicated to the Earl of Haddington, who, 
he says, " recovered poetry from its lapsed state, 
asserted its superlative worth, and rendered it 
bright and attractive"; i.e., if I mistake not, 
wrote things in verse unfit for the public eye ! 
Some rills from the Heliconian Streams are not 
much better, and viewing the loose notions of 
propriety entertained by Pennecuik, the reader is 
startled by an advertisement at the end, intimating 

" The Author of this Book of Poems hath a laudable 
and generous Design to oblige the world with a noble 
System of Divinity, to be published in folio, by Subscrip- 
tion, under the title of The Labours of the Learned 
Epitomizd; or, a Perfect Guide to Glory, which will 
contain the marrow of practical Christianity," &c. 

For this, which was to be the only book 
Christians would need except the Bible, the 
countenance of the Church of Scotland would 
be expected. If not a piece of impudence, this 
reads very like a satire upon the Undertaker, 
as he styles himself. Mr. Chalmers ascribed to 
A. P., Gent., a scurrilous poem, entitled A Pilfor 
Porlc-Eaters, i. e., Englishmen ; but, although it 
is found in Part ii. of Drummond's edition of the 
Collection, it does not appear in subsequent ones. 
This, with his Britannia Triumphans ; or, Eulo- 
gistic Poems on the Eoyal Family, 1718, may 
exonerate him from this charge, and with these 
additional items I conclude my long note : A 
Pastoral Poem to the Memory of Lord Basil 
Hamilton, 4to., 1701. Cory don and Cochrania, a 
Pastoral on the Nuptials of the Duke of Hamilton, 
by A. P., Gent., 4to., 1723. J. 0. 

THOMAS LONGLEY, 1437 (4 th S. xi. 55.) In 
Lord Campbell's Lives of the Lord Chancellors, 
Thomas Longley is stated to have been the son 
of a yeoman, who lived at Longley, in the county of 
York. In Boutell's Heraldry, " Thomas Langley, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. n* s. xn. JULY 19, TS. 

Bishop of Durham (A.D. 1406-1437), differences 
his paternal arms paly of six, argent and vert, 
with a mullet (official seal)." In Wotton's 
Baronetage, 1741, under Langley, Bart., of 
Higham-Gobion, Bedfordshire, it is stated : 

" This family is descended from William Langley, of 
Langley, in the Bishoprick of Durham, who by Alice his 
wife had issue Thomas Langley, father of two sons. 

1. Henry of Dalton, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

2. Thomas, Lord Chancellor of England, Bishop of 
Durham, and a Cardinal, 1417. Henry, the eldest son, 
married the daughter of Kaye, of Woodsome, co. York, 
and had two sons 

1. Thomas Langley, of Rathorp Hall in Dalton, co, 

2. Robert Langley, of Langley, from whom descended 
the Langleys of Higham-Gobion, Beds., Baronets, creation 
May 29, 1641, and which title seems to have become 
extinct at the death of Sir Henry, the sixth Baronet, 
circa 1825. 

Arms of the Langleys, Baronets. Paly of six, argent 
and vert, sometimes quartering argent, a cockatrice with 
wings raised, sable becked and membered ; gules. 

Crest out of a ducal crown, or, a plume of five ostrjch 
feathers; three argent and two verfc." 

1. Is the name properly Longley or Langley ? 
It is spelled in both ways even by members of the 
same family. 2. What has become of the family 
of Thomas, of Eathorp Hall, in Dalton, Yorkshire, 
elder brother of Kobert of Langley, from whom 
the extinct Baronets were descended. Is it also 
supposed to be extinct 1 3. Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." give any reliable information respecting 
the family of Longley, or has any one in his 
possession a pedigree of the family, of which he 
would be willing to give me a copy, of course at 
my expense ? GEORGE C. LONGLEY. 

Maitland, Ontario, Canada. 

FIACRE (4 th S. xi. 521.) Littre says that St. 
Fiacre was a monk of Ireland in the sixth century, 
and the patron saint of gardeners. The story 
about the monastery at Meaux, and the pilgrimages 
thither in hackney coaches, seems to be based upon 
some indistinct recollection of what was related by 
Le P. Labat the Jesuit, who died 1738. These 
public vehicles were established in Paris in 1650. 
His account is as follows : 

" Je me souviens d'avoir vu le premier carrosse de 
louage qu'il y ait eu a Paris. On 1'appelait le carrosse a, 
cinq sous, parcequ'on ne payait que cinq sous par heure. 

II logeait & 1'image Saint Fiacre (Rue St. Martin, 

dans une maison qui avait pour enseigne 1'image de St. 
Fiacre) d'ou il prit son nom en peu de temps, nom qu'il a 
ensuite communique a tous ceux qui 1'ont suivi." 

Sauvage was the name of the Frenchman who 
first started these coaches in Paris. This Fiacre 
is called the son of King Eugene IV. of Scotland 
in Webster's Dictionary. He died in France a 
hermit. Webster does not say whence he gets the 
historical fact. They have a proverb " rencontrer 
quatre princes dans un fiacre." Possibly, King 
Eugene reckons as IV. C. A. W 


A far more probable derivation, given by 
Tarver, s. v. : 

" These carriages were instituted in Paris under Louis 
XIV. The first were at the Hotel S. Fiacre, thence 
their name and their patron saint." 

The saint may have been popular among a certain 
section of the population of Paris at the time re- 
ferred to, but they would hardly form a desirable 
clientelle for the proprietors of the hackney 

Not only does S. Fiacre fill the role of Priapus, 
the patron saint of gardeners, but he is also the 
special protector " des lepreux, galeux, rogneux, 
teigneux," &c. There was shown at Meaux, up to 
the time of the Eevolution, a stone seat exactly 
shaped for supporting the body in the most com- 
fortable way, which was said to have moulded 
itself to the contour of the saint in order to con- 
vince some sceptics of his power and virtues. 

The Cathedral of Meaux possessed at one time 
the body of S. Fiacre preserved in a silver-gilt 
shrine, presented by Louis XI. Scotland claims 
this hermit as her own. I do not know what right 
Ireland may be able to show to this honour. 


"KENELM CHILLINGLY" (4 th S. xi. 525.) 
DENKMAL will find, on referring to Jean Paul 
Richter's works, that the character of " Walt," the 
prototype of Kenelm Chillingly, is introduced into 
that author's Flegeljahre. He will be able to form 
some conception of the peculiar features of Walt's 
character after perusing the following paragraph 
from The Life of Jean Paul F. Richter (London, 
1849). Speaking of Flegeljahre, the author says: 

" It is the most personal of all the author's works. In 
it he has represented his own double nature in the per- 
sonal relations of Walt and Vult, twin brothers nourished 
by the same mother's bosom, and ' united in such a manner 
that they cannot live apart and yet cannot look into each 
other's eyes, or embrace each other. They are opposite 
magnets, that are continually drawn to each other, but 
meeting are thrust asunder as by positive and negative 
electricity.' Walt, the earnest, sentimental, ideal enthu- 
siast, is represented as anticipating a paradise in every-day 
life, surrounding the simplest scenes in nature, and the 
most common people, with a halo of poetic glory : from 
his simple and absent nature, knowing nothing, and 
believing nothing, of craft, or cunning, or vice : extract- 
ing delight from every flower, even from every weed in 
his path is twin brother to Vult, an eccentric humourist, 
a musician, ventriloquist, an exquisite mimic, who can 
take all forms, and in the inequalities of life looks with 
penetrating eyes only on the meanest side : knowing too 
well and despising the vices of hypocrisy, he dissects and 
tears to shreds every emotion, delighting only in the 
wildest sport, and allaying the thirsting emptiness of the 
heart with satire, wit, and humour. Each seeks to gain 
an ascendancy over the other. Walt, by the seducing 
and vanquishing power of pure disinterested love : Vult, 
by the imposing ascendancy of knowledge of society and 
extensive worldly experience." 


Walt is one of the twin heroes of Richter's 
beautiful and pathetic story, Walt und Vult 

S. XII. JULY 19, 73.] 



(" Gottwalt" and " Quern Deus vult"). An English 
translation of it was published by Monroe, Boston 
(U. S. A.), in 1846. R. C. CHRISTIE. 


S. xi. 522.) According to the Imperial Dictionary 
of Universal Biography, Miss Elizabeth Hamilton 
was born at Belfast, 25th July, 1758, and died at 
Harrowgate on the 23rd July, 1816. These dates 
are also given in other accounts of her life, and 
are the same as those given by OLPHAR HAMST, so 
that she must have been in her 58th year at the 
time of her death, and not in her 60th or 68th. 
The following is a list of Miss Hamilton's works : 

" Letters of a Hindoo Rajah," 2 vote, 1796. 

" Memoirs of Modern Philosophers," 3 vote, 1800. 

" Letters on the Elementary Principles of Education," 
2 vote, 1801-2. 

"Life of Agrippina," a classical novel, 3 vole., 1803 
(Imp. Diet, of Univ. Biog.), or 1804 (National Ency- 
clopaedia) . 

" Letters on the Formation of the Religious and Moral 
Principle," 2 vote, 1806. 

" The Cottagers of Glenburnie," 1808. 

'' Exercises in Religious Knowledge," 1809. 

" Popular Essays on the Elementary Principles of the 
Human Mind," 2 vols., 1813. 

" Hints to the Patrons and Directors of Public Schools." 


" BLAKEBERYED " (4 th S. x. 222.) Another in- 
stance of the verb " go " with a word in -ed is 
found in the Wife of Bath's Preamble thus in 
the Six Texts of the Chaucer Society : 

I., II. To she we hir skyn/ and goon a Caterwawec?. 

III. To schewe hire skyn and gon a catirwawirf. 

IV. To schewe hire skyn and go a caterwrawec?. 
V. To shewe her skyn and go a caterwawed. 

VI. To schewe his scynn and go a Caterwaweote. 
If to goon a Caterwawed = to "go a cater waw- 
ing," as Sir. Thomas More also calls caterwauling, 
goon a blakcberyed must surely mean, as MR. 
SKEAT says, go a-blackberrying. 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

IMAGINARY TRAVELS (4 th S. xii. 3.) The 
particulars required by MR. PRESLEY may so 
easily be obtained, that I wonder how he, in his 
researches, did not meet the rather common 
collection in 32 vols. 8vo., called Collection de 
Voyages Imaginaires. I mentioned it to my friend, 
Mr. S. Whiting, at the time he was composing 

SIR JOHN HONYWOOD (4 th S. xi. 484.) He suc- 
ceeded his father, Sir William, in 1748. He was 
Sheriff of Kent in 1752, and, upon the death of 
his kinsman, Fragee Honywood, Esq., of London, 
banker, in 1754, succeeded under that gentleman's 
will to the seats of Mailing Abbey, in Kent, and 
at Hampstead, Middlesex. Sir John married, 

first, Annabella, daughter of William Goodenough, 
Esq., of Hingford, in Berks, by whom he had two 
sons and three daughters. Sir John's second wife 
was Dorothy, daughter of Sir Edward Filnier> 
Bart., by whom he had two sons and one daughter. 
Sir John died in 1781, and was succeeded by 
his grandson, John. Josiah Burchett married 
Thomasine, second daughter of Sir William Hony- 
wood. It is more than likely that the ^George 
Ann Burchett mentioned by E. K. W. was a de- 
scendant. E. EDE. 

The Laureate is right as usual in his observation 
of the shrike. Let me give an unimpeachable 
authority. Yarrell, British Birds, vol. i. 151,. 
says, "The grey shrike feeds on mice, shrews, 
small birds, frogs, lizards, and large insects." 
Speaking of one that was caged, he says, " When 
a bird was given it, it invariably broke the skull, 
and generally ate the head first " ; " it would often, 
eat three small birds in a day." 

Of the red-backed shrike, " the food is probably 
shrews, small birds, and various insects " ; " it ha& 
been seen to kill a bird as large as a finch, and is 
recorded in the Linnean Transactions as having, 
been seen in pursuit of a blackbird." 


Let me assure PELAGIUS that the Laureate is 
right in singing 

" The mayfly is torn by the swallow, the sparrow speared 
by the shrike." 

The chief food of the red-backed shrike (Lanius 
colluris) consists of insects, which it literally 
" spears " on thorns before it proceeds to despatch 
them ; but it also preys on small birds, young 
frogs, and even young pheasants. There is another 
species of shrike, the great grey or sentinel shrike 
(L. excubitor), but as this is a rare bird in Britain, 
the Laureate probably refers to the red-backed 
species, which is more common in the south of 
England only. H. B. PURTON. 

Weobley. ' 

According to Professor Macgillivray, all three of 
our British shrikes do at times impale and devour 
small birds and even quadrupeds, vide Manual of 
British Birds ; and I think other evidence as to 
the fact might easily be produced if needful. The 
Laureate's knowledge of ornithology is, however, 
much more at fault when, in Locksley Hall, he 
tells us that 

In the Spring a fuller crimson comes upon the Robin's 



If PELAGIUS refers to Willughby, he will find 
that the butcher-bird kills little birds and also 
thrushes. The butcher bird was formerly re- 
claimed for the sport of hawking and flown at 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4 th s. xn. JULY 19, 73. 

small birds. Bewick states it will even venture to 
attack partridges and young hares. In defence of 
its nest the shrike will valiantly do battle against 
any bird, however powerful. GEORGE R. JESSE. 

(4 th S. xii. 7.) This snuff-box was sold with 
Bacon's furniture " and other effects " on May 22, 
1825. An Ollerton gentleman, present at the sale, 
whose name I cannot furnish, wrote thus to the 
Gainsborough News of Sept. 28, 1867: 

"Amongst the other articles, Mr. Bacon's snuff-box 
was put up for sale, and an individual bid a shilling for 
it. There was a general exclamation in the room that 
it was not worth two-pence, and the auctioneer seemed 
about to knock down the article, when he looked on the 
lid and read from an inscription upon it, with a tremen- 
dous voice, 'Robert Burns, officer of the Excise.' Scarcely 
had he uttered the words of the inscription when shilling 
after shilling was rapidly and confusedly offered for this 
relic of Scotland's bard ; the greatest anxiety prevailed 
while the biddings proceeded, and it was finally knocked 
down for five pounds. The box is made of the tip of a horn 
neatly turned round at the point ; its lid is plainly mounted 
with silver, on which is engraven the above inscription. 
I was present at the sale, and, amongst the other indi- 
viduals there assembled, partook from Burns's box of a 
pinch of snuff, which I thought was the most pleasant I 
ever had. Mr. Munnell, of Closburn, was the fortunate 
purchaser and [is the ?] present possessor of the box, and 
will doubtless retain it as long as he lives, in honour of 
him whose name and fame will never die." 

The Ollerton gentleman whom I quote says Mr. 
Munnell bought the snuff-box. Doubtless it is a 
printer's error. THOMAS RATCLIFFE. 

YEAR," &c. (4 th S. xii. 6.) These lines are slightly 
misquoted from the song of The Joyful Widower, 
by Burns. W. M. 


[MR. BULK writes : " I found the epitaph in Camden's 
Remains, edit. 1870, published by J. R. Smith, Soho 

EDMUND BURKE (4 th S. xii. 5.) The following 
extract answers OLPHAR HAMST'S query regarding 
the authorship of An Account of the European 
Settlements in America, 2 vols. 8vo. London, R. 
and J. Dodsley. 1757: 

"Alas! I read almost nothing. I am, however, just 
ending the European Settlements in America for the first 
time : it is an admirable compendium. Burke said to me, 
' I did not write it ; I do not deny that a friend did, and 
I revised it v ' Malone tells me that it was written by 
Will. Burke, the cousin of Edmund, when they were in 
Wales ; but it is everywhere evident that Burke himself 
has contributed a great deal to it." Boswell to Temple, 
28 Nov., 1789, Letters, p. 318. 

My copy of the work is dated 1757, as above. I 
see by Lowndes that there were two subsequent 
editions, in 1765 and 1770. Will some possessor 
of them inform " N. & Q." whether they contain 
additional matter, or are simple reprints ? If there 
are additions, it would be worth while to note 
whether they indicate any modification of the views 

originally expressed. The interval between 1757 
and 1770 was big with events in which the " Euro- 
pean Settlements in America " were concerned. 


DEATH OF KING OSWALD (4 th S. xi. 397.) It 
is not to be expected that we Oswestrians will 
lightly give up a belief our forefathers have enjoyed 
for centuries. The communication by the late MR. 
COCKAYNE was transcribed from " N. & Q." to the 
" Bye-gones " column of the Oswestry Advertiser, 
and has elicited the following reply: 

' ' The communication of MR. COCKAYNE from " N. & Q.'' 
is interesting, and may be admitted to confer a certain 
amount of probability on the theory that St. Oswald 
perished at Winwic. Still, as the statement stands at 
present, it seems insufficient to place the matter finally 
beyond dispute. It may be asked, Who was ^Elfric, and 
when did he write his life of St. Oswald; also, what 
means is he known to have possessed for arriving at an 
accurate knowledge of the facts? Winwic is said by 
Alban Butler to have been the residence of the king, not 
the scene of his death; and Oswestry, as well as Ashton, 
has its Macerfeld, or spot similarly commemorative of a 
battle. Would the poet have written of Winwic valde 
placuit, i.e., that it was a spot extremely agreeable to 
Oswald, if connected solely with the melancholy remi- 
niscence of his slaughter in the neighbourhood 1 Again, 
the account of Penda's proceedings is somewhat incon- 
sistent with the facts; for the account states that he 
carried his bloody trophies into the midst of Mercia, 
whereas Oswestry lay on its Welsh border, not ten miles 
from its boundary, Offa's dyke, where it is still visible at 
Chirk. Or why should Oswestry have been specially 
selected by Penda for the exhibition of these trophies, if 
not in some special manner connected with the manner 
and scene of Oswald's death ? Moreover, the foundation 
of a large church and monastery on the spot is more 
readily accounted for on the latter hypothesis than on 
that which is based on the mere exhibition of the muti- 
lated limbs on a tree from which, after the lapse of a year 
only, they were removed to other, and already con- 
secrated spots. H. W. L." 

A. R. 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

CAROLAN (4 th S. xii. 9.) This name need not 
necessarily be a pseudonym. In the Annals of the 
Four Masters, M'Dermott adds in a note : " The 
O'Carolans of the Clanna Rory were chiefs of 
Clann Diarmada, now the parish of Clandermot or 
Grlendermot in Derry, on the borders of Tyrone. 
Many of this clan have changed their name to 
Carleton." The Erse form of the name is found 
written O'Cearbhallain, O'Cairrellain, O'Cairellain. 
The Erse word cearbhall is = carnage, massacre. 

Gray's Inn. 

Turlough Carolan, a celebrated Irish harper, the 
son of a farmer in the village of Hobber, co. West- 
meath, was born 1670. He was deprived of his 
eyesight early in life by taking small-pox. He 
married Miss Mary Maguire, and resided many 
years at a farm near Mosshill, co. Leitrim. He 
lost his wife in 1733, and it is said that this event 
greatly affected his spirits. He died in 1738, while 



staying at Mrs. M'Dermott's, of Alderford, co. 

Dundrum, co. Down. 

[See The Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography 
(Mackenzie): Beeton's British Biography; "N.&Q."^ 1 ' 
S. vi. 300, 324, 377, 392, 507, 548, 549 ; vii. 80. Gent. 
Mag. Ixxxiv. (pt. ii.), 29, 131. Life of Turlough O'Carolan 
in Joseph C. Walker's Historical Memoirs of the Irish 
Bards, London, 1786, 4to., Appendix, p. 67.] 

NUMISMATIC (4 th S. xi. 524.) Long after the 
Republic had been destroyed, till 1810, 1 think, 
Napoleon I. retained the " Republique Franchise " 
on the reverse of his coins. He thought this trick 
would help to reconcile men's minds insensibly to 
his despotism. J. H. I. OAKLEY. 

SIR THOMAS PHILLIPPS, BART. (4 th S. xi. 502.) 
The following extract is from Debrett's Peerage 
and Baronetage for 1872 : 

" Sir Thomas Phillipps, F.R.S., 1st Baronet, son of the 
late Thomas Phillipps, Esq., of Middle-Hill, Broadway, 
Worcestershire, by Hannah, da. of James Walton, Esq., 

of Warley-in-Sowerby, near Halifax This family 

is a branch of the Picton Castle family before the crea- 
tion of the Baronetcy of Picton Castle, and is believed 
to be descended from the Pentipark line." 

Where Avere Mr. Thomas Phillipps and Miss 
Hannah Walton married ? and where are proofs to 
be found of the above-mentioned descent ? 


STEEL PENS (4 th S. xi. 440 ; xii. 13.) I bought 
my first steel pen of Bramah, in Piccadilly, in 
1825. The price was eighteenpence. It was a 
nib, thick and hard, with little elasticity, but in 
a pleader's chambers I found it a great comfort in 
-drawing, or any sort of writing which I did not 
care to preserve. I had a few more, and, on the 
average, they lasted about a month, and became 
useless, rather from corrosion than wear. In 1829, 
I read, advertised in the Times, " steel pens with 
holder, 3s. the dozen," at Kendal's in Holborn ; 
and surprised at the cheapness, made all haste to 
buy some. They were hand-made, much easier to 
write with than Bramah's, and suffering more from 
corrosion than work. Soon after that prices fell, 
and steel pens became common. 

Doughty, in the Strand, made Ruby pens at 
21. 12s. Qd. each, which he afterwards reduced to 
21. 2s. I have two, the first bought in 1824. 
He did not take out a patent, and said, "any 
man may make them if he can." About 1832, 
Mordan found a workman who could, and he 
sold them for II. Is. I have one which I value for 
its fineness in interlineation. A jeweller, who has 
examined it, says the work is very good, but not 
equal to Doughty's. Doughty made also a 
Rhodium pen, at 15s. " durable, but not per- 
pttual." I have one, but never liked its action 
well enough to test its durability. All these are 
set in flexible gold. About 1830, Hawkins suc- 
ceeded in tipping gold pens with irridium, and 

afterwards with an alloy of irridium and osmium. 
He sold the nibs at l'. Is. Their flexibility was 
equal to the quill. I used one for the greater part 
of my writing for about three years, and still carry 
it in my pocket. Examined with a microscope, it- 
shows no more sign of wear than another which I 
have scarcely used at all, not liking its action so 
well. My favourite has been put out of order 
twice by falls, but any watchmaker can put it 
right again, and the setting is not injured. The 
objection to gold pens is the small quantity of ink 
they take up. In Doughty's and Mordan's rubies 
this is remedied by a ledge. I have one pen by 
Hawkins, the body of which is palladium instead 
of gold. I do not perceive much difference in use. 
I do not know whether he made more. I have 
heard of, but never tried, brass and copper pens. 
The following will show that the latter were used 
in France two centuries ago : 

" Bien n'est trop minutieux quand il s'agit d'enseigner 
1'enfance ; et je glisserai encore ici ce petit perfectionne- 
ment pratique qui concerne I'ccrilure. On doit a Port- 
Royal 1'usage des plumes de metal qui ont fait gagner 
bien de temps aux Sieves et leur ont epargne bien des 
petites miseres. Fontaine ecrivait a la soeur Elisabeth- 
Agnes de Feron, le 8 Septembre, 1691 : ' Si je ne 
craignois d'etre importun, je vous demanderois si on 
taille encore des plumes de cuivre chez vous, et en ce cas 
je prierois nostre Reverende Mere de me donner 
quelques-unes ; ce seroit une grande charite pour un 
petit peuple de la campagne oti nous sommes, dont on 
veut bien prendre quelque soin.' Et dans la lettre 
suivante il fait remercier la Mere de les lui avoir en- 
voyees. Get usage des plumes de cuivre devait remonter 
au temps des Petites Ecoles." Sainte-Beuve. Port- 
Royal, T. iii. p. 513. Paris, 1867. 

From the introduction of steel pens to the 
present time I have sought with more or less 
success for a good one ; but neither in gold nor 
iron have I found anything so pleasant to write 
with as a good or even a middling goose-quill. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

I remember perfectly a steel pen I carried about 
with me in 1832 : a barrel pen like the one 
described by H., and I think they were not at all 
uncommon in 1831. Perry an pens are still made 
and sold, and are very superior ; they will write 
on any paper that ordinary pens will write on. 
Mordan made a very nice pen, shaped like the 
head of a goose, and the lower part in a diagonal 
line from the holder. ELLCEE. 


passim ; xi. 45, &c., 445, 494.) May I respectfully 
suggest to F. that the documents which he quotes 
do not disprove the marriage of David, King of 
Scots, with Maud de St. Liz, as they refer to a 
different King David 1 The king there mentioned 
is David Bruce, i. e., David II ; but the husband of 
Maud de St. Liz is David I. K. 



s. xn. JULY 19, 73. 

MR. SMITH is speaking of the Queen of David 
I., and the extract given by N. refers to the Queen 
of David II. of Scotland. HERMENTRUDE. 

F. has not exercised due caution in his question 
(p. 494) as to whether I am not " in error in stating 
that Maud, the widow of Simon de St. Liz, was 
the wife of David, King of Scotland ?" This fact 
rests on a broader basis than any mere statement 
of mine, and has been authenticated beyond the 
reach of historical controversy. 

The error of F. is, that he speaks vaguely of 
" David King of Scotland," while I speak speci- 
fically of " David I." His facts are interesting 
enough in their place, and the better secured for 
general purposes by their record in " N. & Q.," the 
intrinsic nature and value of such a periodical 
being to elicit sometimes, even from the mistakes 
of correspondents, elements which contribute to 
the authentication of history. But F., without 
being careful enough to say so, is referring in 
reality to the period of David II., i. e., 1329 to 
1371, while I have been discussing previous facts 
separated by a gap of two centuries at least ! 

th S. xi. 198, 288, 313, 410, 
495.) Many thanks to W. C. B. Will he or some 
other correspondent give me the dates of the 
several inscriptions ? Are they of pre-reformation 
or post-reformation date? Is the reading ever 
dvofji^fjia, not dvofji-^fjiara, ? To me these are im- 
portant questions. May I beg for answers 1 

M. R. 

" ALTAMIRA " (4 th S. xi. 509 ; xii. 14.) The 
prologue to Lord Orrery's tragedy was written by 
Lord Bolingbroke. EDWARD SOLLY. 

LORD JAMES RUSSELL, 1709 (4 th S. xi. 484' 
533.) This note refers to the famous patriot be- 
headed in 1683 as " Lord William Russell." This 
is a very common mistake. He was the second 
son of the first Duke of Bedford, but the dukedom 
was not conferred until 1694. His elder brother 
died in 1679, and he then succeeded to the courtesy 
title of " Lord Russell," as an earl's eldest son, 
and was so known at the time of his execution. 


" NICE " (4 th S. xi. 425, 492, 533.) MR. R. N 
JAMES is quite wrong in saying that nice was " in 
French a diminutive of niais." The old French 
nice comes direct from the Latin nescius : see 
Burguy, Littre, &c. The Early English and pro- 
vincial nesh, is the Anglo-Saxon hnesce, Gothic 
hnasquS) soft, tender (Stratmann). If this nesh 
has been confused with the French nice, in our 
English nice, we want a series of quotations to 
establish the supposition. F. J. FURNIVALL. 

There is surely no difficulty in imagining hou 
" nice," from " squeamish " or " fastidious," came 

;o mean " agreeable to eat." Nothing is commoner 
n language than this p t assage from the subjective 
,o the objective, or the reverse. Thus we speak of 
i " dainty " person, and of a " dainty " dish, of a 
' delicate " (or discriminating) palate or taste, and 
)f a " delicate" morsel (likely to please such palate 
or taste). Compare also the various meanings of 
fastidious" (in Latin, Italian, and English), and 
of such words as " suspicious," " curious," &c. 


THE GIPSY ADVERTISEMENT (4 th S. xi. 462, 494.) 
Assuming a Prakrit base for English- Gipsy, 
MR. R. DRENNAN'S rendering of this specimen 
cannot be very wide of the mark. His conjecture 
that divio means mad is doubtless correct ; the 
common term in many of the vernaculars being 
diwdna, Aryan root dev, whence Gr. Zeus, Lat. 
Deus, Kelt, dia, &c. The expression tuti dad 'I 
jal divio would run in pure Hindi, tera dada 
dewana hojaega, where it may be remarked that 
dada now properly means grandfather, the usual 
terms for father being bap, pita, pidar, bawd, &c. 
Kom also may very well have the force of sake, as 
I identify it with Hindi Kdm, meaning originally 
affair, business, matter, and with post-positions 
susceptible of a great variety of meanings. In the 
phrase for rnidu-vel's kom, I take the proper post- 
position Ke to have been supplanted by the English 
for ; and midu-vel's, with the English possessive, to 
be a cant term for paramesivar, khuda, or any 
other of the numerous names for the deity current 
in the Peninsula. On this assumption the ex- 
pression may be thus restored : Khuda Ke Kom= 
Khuda Ke Kdm=Khuda Ke Khdtir, for God's 
sake, where it will be noticed that Kom occupies 
its proper position according to the Hindi arrange- 
ment of the words in such compound forms. Several 
other words and expressions in the specimen are 
obviously Indian. Thus, maindi=:main=I ; jins 
=janta = know (janna) ; bitcha = bhejo:=send 
(bhejna) ; ki tu shan=Ki tu jahan (kalian) where 
thou (art) ; Opray=upar=:upon ; tuti di' zee= 
teri dad! ke jl= : thy mother's heart ; Sor=sara= 
all, &c. A. H. KEANE. 

Hartley Institution, Southampton. 

I am obliged to MR. WOTHERSPOON for the first 
and pertinent half of his reply, but must take 
exception to the second. As the advertisement in 
question had no names attached to it, my giving a 
translation for the purpose of ascertaining if I had 
rightly understood the original could hardly be 
objected to. Believing that the lines emanated 
from a Gipsy, who, as such, naturally employed 
Romanes rather than English, I cannot admit that 
this preference necessarily implies an obvious desire 
for privacy. W. R. DRENNAN. 

S. xi. 419, 530.) I repeat that in the subscription 

4*s. -xii. JULY 19, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


quarto of 1730 Summer has 1206 lines, not 1205; 
nnd Autumn has 1269 lines, not 1275. ME. COOK'S 
discovery that my enumeration was right, and the 
printer's enumeration was wrong, in the case of 
Winter, ought surely to have led him to suspect 
that there might have been similar blundering in 
the other Seasons. In the case of Summer, let him 
turn to pp. 96-97, and he will find that there are 
two lines, each numbered 725 ; and in the case of 
Autumn he will discover, at p. 129, that there are 
only five lines instead of ten between the printer's 
70 and 80 ; and at p. 185, that there are only four 
lines instead of five between the printer's 1190 
and 1195. Before writing to " N. & Q.," I was 
careful to count, several 'times over, the lines in 
every one of the thirty-six editions I possess, and 
on purchasing Mr. Bolton Corney's copies, I need 
hardly say, I found that he had done the same. 
For the published enumerations to be correct is the 
exception, not the rule ; and if I remember right, 
there are two cases in which they have become so 
in the end, only by blundering back into accuracy! 
This is not the kind of mistake into which printers 
generally fall, and it would be safe to say that the 
-author was to blame more than the compositors, 
even if we did not know on the best authority that 
the " printers were tired to death " by his emenda- 
tions. F. CUNNINGHAM. 

T. CROMWEL'S INJUNCTIONS (4 th S. xii. 7.) 
Two separate sets of injunctions were issued by 
Thomas Cromwel under Henry VIII.'s orders. 
Both are printed entire in Fox's Martyrs and 
Burnet's History of the Reformation, as taken from 
Cranmer's Registers. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, 
in his History of Henry VIII., gives 20th of July, 
1536, as the date of the first ; and, according to 
Holinshed, they were issued over the country in 
September, 1536; and the same authority states 
that the second injunctions were issued in Sep- 
tember, 1538. EDWARD SOLLY. 

COCK-A-HOOP (4 th S. xi. 211, 321, 474.) C. A: W. 
is very likely right in the view he takes of the 
derivation of this expression, but unfortunately he 
has been anticipated in it. If he will consult 
Mahn's Webster, s. v. cod, he will find, " cock-a- 
hoop, or cocJc-on-the-hoop [Fr. huppe, a crest on the 
head of birds, hence coq a huppe, crested cock, 
proud fellow], triumphant, exulting." 

Cock-a-hoop would thus be the original expression, 
and cocJc-on-tne-hoop a later form, adopted when the 
original meaning of hoop had ceased to be recognized. 

The only questions are, when did cock-a-hoop 
first come into use,* and were the French at that 
time in the habit of using the expression coq a 
huppe ? It is an expression which I think they 
must have dropped early, for Littre gives the adj. 

* Cotgrave (17th cent.) has it, but he says no more 
than "to set cock-a-hoope, se qoguer" ; and this phrase 
occurs in Shakspeare, Rom. and Jul , i. 5. 

houppe as in use in the thirteenth century, and 
huppe in the fourteenth, and once these adjectives 
in use, the circumlocution a huppe would scarcely 
find favour. We do, however, find Riquet a la 
houppe (Riquet with the tuft) in one o/ Perrault's 
fairy tales, and he lived in the seventeenth century ; 
but there it is a nick-name, so that the adj. houppe 
would scarcely have been suitable. 

F. G. V.'s suggestion that the hoop is the Germ. 
Haufe, Dut. hoop our heap, is, I think, an im- 
possible one. Our word heap has come to us from the 
Anglo-Saxon, so why, having the word heap, should 
we go and borrow the same word in a different form 
from the Germ, or the Dutch? F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 


Memoriale Fratris Walteri de Coventria. The Historical 

Collections of Walter of Coventry. Edited by William 

Stubbs, M.A. Vol. II. 
Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense. The Register of 

Richard de Kellawe, Lord Palatine and Bishop of 

Durham. Edited by Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy, D.C.L. 

Vol. I. 
Historical Papers and Letters from the Northern Registers. 

Edited by .James Raine, M.A. (Longmans & Co.) 
MR. STUBBS has brought to a close the historical collec- 
tions of Walter of Coventry. The last incident is of the 
year 1226, the departure of the legate Otho, in much 
ruffled mood at not having subjected Henry III. to the 
humiliation intended for him. Sir Thomas Hardy has 
commenced editing another historical chronicle, that of 
the Bishop of Durham (Kellawe), 1311-1316. The most 
remarkable circumstance in the Preface to this volume 
is the very unceremonious way in which Sir Thomas 
shows that St. Cuthbert was not so much of a saint as 
zealots have supposed. Mr. Raine's Papers and Letters 
from Northern Registers is complete in one volume, from its 
excellent introduction to its perfect index. The earliest 
document, dated 1265, authorizes the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells (Walter Giffard, afterwards Archbishop of York 
and Chancellor of England) to take the profits of the 
Castle of Oxford, with its mills and meadows, to arm and 
provision the same. The last document (1415) furnishes 
a singular account of the execution of Richard, Earl of 
Cambridge, Lord Scrope, and Sir Thomas Grey, at 
Southampton, and the seizure of Scrope's property in the 
North. There is also a list of things belonging to the 
Duchess of York (Euerwyk) found on board a vessel land- 
ing at St. Leonard's. The plate alone seems enough to 
have freighted a whole ship. There were also stately 
beds and adjuncts, including " un paire de fustians blan- 
kettes." The historical details in the Preface and in the 
text are of rare interest; and the whole volume is a 
valuable addition to this already most valuable collection. 
Pandurang Hurl ; or, Memoirs of a Hindoo. With an 

Introductory Preface by Sir H. BartleE. Frere. 2 vols. 

(Henry S. King & Co.) 

THE columns of "N. & Q." have been open to corre- 
spondents who have thrown as much light on the life of 
Mr. Hockley, the author of Pandurang Han, as it re- 
quires or will well bear. That work, which was first pub- 
lished at the end of 1825, just after the glorious old 
Company had set their erring servant beyond the reach 
of poverty, was the first which had conveyed to the 
public, in this form, any idea of the Hindoo character. 
" Anastasius " had previously, and more brilliantly, pour- 



[4 th S. XII. JULY 19, '73. 

trayed Greek and Turkish life ; " Hajji Baba" and " The 
Kuzilbash " have, more dramatically, placed before us 
Persian and other Asiatic characters. The merits of 
Pandurang are, however, very great. It is to " Anas- 
tasius " what Salvator Rosa is to Claude. It is sombre, 
sometimes repulsive, but the hand of a master is there. 
The book, ojace so popular, deserves to renew its old 
favour with the public. It is as a panorama of Hindoo 
life, and there is no such portraiture of it to be had else- 
where. The sort of life has nearly altogether passed 
away, as he has who has described it; but this renders it 
only the more interesting. The interest never flags, from 
the time Pandurang is picked up from among the horses' 
hoofs, till the Brahmins bind the hands of himself and 
his bride with grass, and the happy pair, making their 
oblations to fire, with other ceremonies, become man and 
wife, with pleasant prospects before them. 
Persia during the Famine. By W. Brittlebank. (Pick- 

THIS little, partly pleasant, partly painful, narrative, is 
just what might be expected from a young . man who 
chose to go about the world for knowledge rather than 
to the University. What Mr. Brittlebank learns he im- 
parts in a frank, unpretentious manner. If he does not 
tell us all we should like to know, his communications are 
satisfactory as far as they go. Meagre, indeed, some of 
them are as to matter. Persia, a few years ago, lost two 
millions out of her six millions of subjects, one life in 
every three perished, and the kingdom has not recovered. 
The course and results of such a visitation are described 
briefly, but even in its brevity the tale is most startling 
and horrible. The country has never steadied itself 
from this staggering blow. However well we may wish 
the ancient kingdom, it is to be hoped that forethought 
will be exercised by all persons who may be invited to 
set Persia on her legs by help of English investments. 

regret that we have to record the death of one of the 
earliest and most valued contributors to "N. & Q." The 
Kev. John Wilson, D.D., formerly President of Trinity 
College, died at his residence, Wood Perry House, near 
Oxford, on Thursday, the 10th inst. Dr. Wilson took a 
first-class in Classics in 1809 (the late Dean Gaisford being 
one of his examiners), the year after Sir Robert Peel had 
obtained a double-first. Mr. Keble took his degree in the 
subsequent year. Dr. Wilson was appointed President of 
his College in 1850, but resigned the office in 1866. From 
the first volume of our first series, to the last number 
issued, the contributions of this accomplished scholar 
and excellent man were rarely, if ever, absent. 

THE Candidates for the Secretaryship of the Royal 
Academy exceeded one hundred in number. The election 
went in favour of Mr. Eaton, one of the last to come 
forward. Mr. Critchett was second on the poll. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

Junior, 49, Paternoster Row, MDCCCXXXVIII. 

W. Taylor, at the *hip in Paternoster Row, &c., by Arthur Collins. 


Wanted by Dudley Gary Elwes, Esq., 5, The Crescent, Bedford. 

DIBDIN'S SONGS. Original Edition. 

Wanted by Mr. T. Beet, 15, Conduit Street, Bond Street, W. 


The Index for Vol. XI. will be issued with our next 

CRUACH. Doir Inis=0alc Island. Tory Island teas 
anciently called Toir Inis Tower Island. Murray's 
Handbook for Ireland describes it as a desolate island, 
some miles off the coast of Donegal. Sixty-one years ago, 
however, Deviar, in his Observations on the Character, 
&c., of the Irish, gave this curious description of the now 
deserted place : " In the island of Tory the inhabitants 
are still unacquainted with any other law than that of the 
Brehon Code. They choose tkeir chief magistrate from 
among themselves ; and to his mandate, issued from his 
throne of turf, the people yield a ready and cheerful 
obedience. They are perfectly simple in their manners, 
and live as their fathers had done three centuries ago." 

HISTRIO. Gait wrote a tragedy called Lady Macbeth; 
one of five composed, as he says, for his pastime. Walter 
Scott said they^ were the worst dramas that ever were 
written. The lines to which you refer conclude, Macbeth's 
speech over the dead body of his wife : 

' ' Pull down the royal standard from the tower, 
And in its stead unfurl the funeral pall, 
The ensign of my cause. To all, adieu ! 
Dull, guestless mansion of my love, farewell ! 
I go to meet her, tho' it be in hell ! " 

X. L. Menjaud was the real name of the once light 
comedian of the Theatre Franqais. He was not the 
brother of the bishop of Bourges, who bore the same family 
name. He lived 1795-1864. His graceful fellow actor of 
the same company, about whom you also inquire, Firmin, 
used that appellation only as a stage-name, his real one 
being Becquerel. He was born 1787, and died 1859. 

B. TAe old-fashioned " anperasan," for &, at the close 
of the alphabet, was the corrupted form of pronunciation 
for " and, per se, and." 

CIDH. Send your query to the periodical in which the 
poem appeared. 

J. B. We shall be glad to receive the contributions 

H. S. (Edinburgh.) The delay has been unavoidable. 

PHIIO-LANDOR. In our next number. 

W. F. F. Your communications will be very acceptable 

REV. E. TEW. Next iceeJc. 

OLPHAR, HAMST. The Bibliographical list has not been, 

AQUILA (4 th S. xi. 237,509; xii. 16.) CAPTAIN NEW- 
SOME writes: " Le Grey (p. 16) should be Lefroy. At 
p. 17 of Snow's Universal Register, occurs the marriage of 
John Ewart with Miss D'Aquilla, but the dale is not 
given. The book referred to was published in London, 

R. G. M. J. May not an inference be drawn from the 
fact that " Their Excellencies" is the term in common use 
in Ireland at the present time I 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixfed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

4 th S. XII. JULY 26, 73.] 





NOTES: -The Visitations of Oxfordshire, 61 " A Seasonable 
Apology for Father Dominick, Chaplain to Prince Pretty- 
man the Catholic," &c., 1723 New Versions of Old Jokes 
and Stories, 62 Ultra-Centenarianism, 63 The " Trevelyan 
Papers" Episcopal Titles The Original "Blue Boy" 
Fly-leaf Scribblings, 64" Catalogue of the Printed Books 
in the Library of the Society of Writers to H. M. Signet in 
Scotland" Cheshire Words -Wiltshire Ballad, 65 Parallel 
Passages Sterne and Burns, 66. 

QUERIES : "Curious Myths of the Middle Ages," 66 Who 
isB , Press-Licenser? " Hard Lines "Authors and Quota- 
tions Wanted Nash Point Estella Leaden Casts Crabbe, 
the Poet Peerage of Hereford Widenham, Castle Widen- 
ham Madness in the Dog, 67 Anwood the Pirate : Thos. 
Pearcifield A Battle of Wild Beasts -Prison Discipline in 
France The Music set to Buchanan's Latin Psalms, 1624 
Ladies of Edinburgh : Song : Sir Walter Scott, 68 Old 
Entries Beardsley, Newman, Royce, Tudor Medal Query, 

REPLIES: Junius, 69 Oliver Cromwell, Jun., 70 The 
Peacock as a Christian Symbol Jackson Family, 71 Lost 
Books, 72 Orpheus and Moses Queries from Swift's Letters, 
73 "Fawney"=a Ring Michael Angelo Count Boruw- 
laski Christmas Gifts in Monasteries Coronet of the Prince 
of Wales " Render unto Ctesar," &c. Latin MS. Auto- 
biography of Dr. King, Abp. of Dublin Heraldic, 74 
Moving without Touching Burns : " Guid- Willie Waught " 
"The Tongue not essential to Speech" Council of Nicaea, 
75 Somerville Peerage Form of reconciling a Convert in 
the Roman Church, 76 " Callipsedia "Goblin Position 
of the Pulpit, 77 "SosKistur" Bronze, Tin, Amber, &c., 

Notes on Books, &c. 


The Harleian Society published, for 1871, The 
Visitations of the County of Oxford, of the years 
1566, 1574, and 1634, together with Richard Lee's 
Gatherings, made in 1574. I have a few remarks 
to make upon this valuable publication, and do 
not know where else to make them with so much 
advantage as in " N. & Q." I am myself one of 
the earliest members of the Society, and make my 
criticisms in the most friendly spirit. 

1. The letter of inscriptions is of itself an indi- 
cation of date. It is said in the Preface that, " In 
every instance Lee's notes have been printed in 
black letter." But the consequence of this is to 
raise a question as to the duration of black, or 
printed, or Gothic, letter, whichever it may be 
called, on monuments ; and, in fact, to decide the 
question contrary to better knowledge and facts. 
Thus, for instance, at p. 281, under Marston, is a 
Note " which contains the inscription on a brass 
plate to Anne Croke, who died June 10, 1670. It 
is given in black letter on p. 281. I have lying 
before me a rubbing which I made from that brass 
many years ago. The whole inscription, except 
the dates, is in Roman capitals, and there is no 
black letter. 

Another detail which ought to be attended to is, 

the lines into which an inscription is divided. This 
inscription of Anne Croke's brass is broken into 
seven lines ; on the brass it is in ten. So that a 
person looking at p. 281 would get a very false 
impression of what is seen at Marston. The same 
unfaithful way of transcribing is seen in the copy 
of the brass of Sir John Clerk, at Thame, on p. 
21. I have my own rubbing before me. There 
are five lines only. On p. 21 these are made into 
eight. There are also these mistakes : The real 
name is Clerk ; it is printed Clark. The words 
" Jorney of Borny by Terouane " are printed 
"Torney of Borney by Terovany." Sir John 
Clerk took the Duke of Orleans (spelt " duk," not 
duke, on the brass) at the battle of the Spurs, near 
Therouenne. This was the Jorney (Journde) of 
Bonny. I asked in " N. & Q.," Jan. 22, 1870, p. 
94, for any information about Bonny, not then 
having a rubbing before me, and giving the true 
name. It is undoubtedly engraved on the brass, 
in error, Bomy. I have since found an account of 
it in the Dictionnaire Geographique . . . des Gaules 
et de la France, of Expilly, Paris, 1762, vol. i. He 

says, " Bonny en Artois, Diocese de Boulogne 

Cette paroisse est a 2 1. et deux tiers de Therou- 
enne." This I take to be the place of the famous 
encounter. The blazon of Sir John Clerk's coat, 
augmented for his service in it, follows on the same 
page, 21, in the printed Visitation : " Arms. Arg. 
on a bend between three ogresses Gu., three swans 
of the field, on a canton sinister az., three fleurs- 
de-lys or, a bendlet arg." Of course the word 
" Gu " is misplaced, and ought to stand after 
" bend." But what is to be said for the blazon of 
the canton 1 The chief honorary significance of 
this monument and Sir John Clerk's coat is in 
this canton. Guillim says, p. 260, " In memory 
of which service the coat armour of the Duke was 
given to him marshalled on a canton sinister in 
this manner." And the " manner " is given by 
Guillim, thus : " a canton sinister azure, thereupon 
a demy-Ramme mounting argent, armed or, be- 
tweene two Flowres de lices in chiefe of the last, 
ouer all a Batune dexter-waies argent." All this 
is seen on the brass. At p. 69 we read, " Mary 
Maudlyn church without buckards in Oxford." 
This is the church outside the North Gate, or 
Bokardo, a word beyond the intelligence of Lee. 
At p. 100 he spells Sir Richard Hankford, " hauck- 
ford." At. p. 196, in the Bustard Pedigree, he 
spells Netherex, " Metherex " ; and at p. 319 he 
says, in the Archer Pedigree, " Sir Symon archer 
of Tamworth, Kt., now living." He was sure to 
make this mistake, for the place is Tanworth. 

P. 78, xxxvi., " France (ancient), viz., three 
fleurs-de-lys untinctured." P. 107, xxiii., "Senate 
of fleurs-de-lys (untinctured)" [modern France]. 
P. 120, Throgmorton, "arms .... 1. Gules on a 
chevron argent, three bars sable." P. 98, "Uni- 
versitey coledge. In the haull." Az. a cross 


NOTES AND QUERIES. l** a XH. JULY 26, 73. 

fleurie between four martlets or [Edward the Con- 
fessor]." The arms attributed to St. Edward I 
will not decide how truly show Jive martlets. 
P. 229, " Stoke Priory in com. Worcest." is the 
village or parish of Stoke Prior. I think we ought 
not to let such things go out without remark. It 
is, of course, the aim of the Society to produce works 
to which antiquaries and all inquirers may refer 
with safety. D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

MAN THE CATHOLIC," &c., 1723. 
I send you a list of books, which may be de- 
signated a Utopian or Imaginary Bibliography, 
which is appended to a curious and little known 
pamphlet, entitled as above. Some of these 
"Books just published" have no obscure allusion 
to persons then living, but I shall leave them to be 
elucidated by one more conversant with English 
literature, the first excepted, which is referred to in 
the preceding pamphlet. 


1. The Arians unmask'd, distress'd, and defeated: 
being an Epick Poem in 12 Books in Folio. By Sir 
R[ichard] B[]ackmorel. 

" O Blackmore ! Lend, valorous and voluminous 
Knight, lend thy potent and poetical Hand, and mow 
down with thy keen faulcion, with thy rapturous and 
sounding sabre, this uncircumcis'd Reason, this daring 
and darling Oath of the Philistines, and of Free-thinkers ! 
Why sleepest thou over dry History]* Why loiterest 
thou in cold Narration, which yet thou dost animate and 
adorn with all the verdure of the Bays, with all the 
sublimity of the Delphian God ! When lo ! here is a 
Subject worthy thy poetical prowess ; a Subject fit only 
for a Poet ; a fight for thy Imagination, and a bloodless 
Field ! 

Evae ! recenti mens trepidat metu, 

Plenoq; Bacchi pectore turbidum 

Laetatur : Evae ! parce liber ; 

Parce, gravi metuende Thyrso." 

2. The whole Art of addressing to Princes ; with a 
sample of the said Art. By Sir R. S. 

3. An Ode upon the next Preferment. By Mr. T 1, 


4. Ditto, on the next great dead Man. By El h 
Se le. 

5. Several Sermons; upon reasoning, candor, steddi- 
ness in principle ; and against bitterness and temporizing. 
By two Reverend D ns. N.B. The said Authors have 
by them Sermons in answer to the said Sermons, ready 
to be preach'd and publish'd upon the next Change at 

6. Speeches in Parliament. By the late Mr. Secretary 

7. The Modern Machiavel : Or, A Trap for catching 
naughty Kites and Polecats. By Cato. Together with 
his Satire upon Soureness, and his Exhortation to Peace 
and Quietness, and Submission to Governors. 

* Sir R. B. was author of Just Prejudices against the 
Arian Hypothesis, 1721, and of Modern Arians Un- 
masJced, 1721. 

8. A Project for increasing the Revenue and Respect 
of the Clergy. By the independent Whig. As also his 
earnest Exhortation for pulling out hollow Teeth. 

9. A Persuasive to frequent Communion. By J n 

T d, Esq., to which is added, The Art of Compliance 

with Superiors. 

10. A Dissertation upon Grace and good Cheer ; and 
against Unchastity and Sabbath-breaking. By Mr. 
G rd n. 

11. A Satire against Pensioners. By the late D. of 
B m. 

12. The Necessity and Pattern of Christian Union and 
Brotherly Tenderness by the Presbyterian Ministers. 

13. The Method of Translating from an unknown, 
Tongue. By an Eminent Poet. 

14. Essays upon the Gift of Persuasion ; and of using 
one's Joints, and picking one's Teeth. By Sir J. B 1. 

15. An Argument to prove that a Man may forfeit all, 
and yet have as much left. By Sir J. B 1. 

16. The senselessness of Sense, and the unreasonable- 
ness of Reason. By a Noble Person, and a Club of 
learned Divines. To which is added, The Dissent and 
Assent of Mr. Wh n. 

17. A discourse of Sincerity and Bowing, and of the 
antient Canons. By a Most Reverend . 

18. A treatise of Ale and History. By Lawr. E rd, 

19. A Sermon against Rebellion, when it is over. By 
the Reverend D n of . 

20. A political Dialogue between Mr. T 1, Esq., and 

a Milliner, about cutting Papers for Watches. By the 
said Mr. T 1, Esq. 

21. A loyal Address from the University of O- 
against the late Conspiracy, and asserting the indis- 
pensable duty of Allegiance and Submission to the Powers, 
that le. 

22. The accomplish'd Ambassador. By John, Bishop 
of Lapland. 

23. Proposals by the Royal Society for the Advance- 
ment of useful Learning, &c. 


Perhaps to "Bibliographies of Utopias" the 
Adventures of an Atom (J. Almon, 1769), by 
Smollett, a satire on the Government of the time, 
under guise of the history of an imaginary grotesque 
Empire of Japan, may be added to this list ; as 
also, I think, the Monnikins, a forgotten romance 
of Fenimore Cooper. KD. HILL SANDYS. 

Chancery Lane. 

It is amusing to find so many modern versions 
of old jokes, &c. Hierocles helps to increase the 
pages of Joe Miller and Wit and Wisdom. The 
Athenian house proprietor, who exhibited a brick as 
a specimen of his property on sale, has been changed 
into an English speculator in bricks and mortar ! 
The man who, having heard that a crow lived for 
two centuries, bought one to try the experiment. 
The Athenian who sold asses' heads and " had only 
one left." The man who, wishing to see how he 
looked when asleep, shut his eyes and stood before 
a glass, &c. All these, and many more, stolen from 
Hierocles, figure, with change of locality, in modern 
jest-books. These remarks are induced by the 

4'"S. XII. JULY 26, 73.] 



following, cut from the Worcestershire Chronicle, 
the editor of which evidently wishes not to be held 
responsible : 

a GIE TH' GUVNOR THE KETTLE. The Court Journal 
is responsible for the following : Some time ago the 
Bishop of Lichfield had been at a church in the Black 
Country, and he walked the distance between the church 
and the place to which he was going. On the way he 
met a number of men 'squatting' on the ground, in 
miner-like fashion, and he suggested to the gentleman 
who was accompanying him, that they should say a few 
words to those men. Going, therefore, to the men, a 
conversation, somewhat to the following effect, is alleged 
to have ensued : ' Well, my good men, what are you 
doing 1 ?' asked his lordship. 'We bin a loyin',' replied 
one of the number. ' You are lying,' responded the bishop ; 
' what do you mean 1 ' ' Why, yer see,' was the explanation 
vouchsafed, * one of us has fun a kettle, and we bin a 
tryin' who can tell the biggest lie to have it.' ' Trying 
to tell the biggest lie ! ' exclaimed the astonished bishop ; 
' what a shocking thing ' ; and then his lordship proceeded 
to inform the men that he had always been brought up 
with the greatest horror of lying ; he had been taught 
that one of the greatest sins was to tell a lie. The men 
listened patiently to this, but presently one of them, who 
had been looking intently at the bishop, suddenly ex- 
claimed, on hearing his lordship say that he had never in 
iiis life told a lie, ' Gie th' guvnor the kettle ; gie th' 
guvnor the kettle.' " 

It is too much to ask his lordship whether the 
above paragraph is true, for in some magazine 
memoir of Dr. Porteus, Bishop of London (pub- 
lished many years ago), is given a story which 
seems to be the origin of the Black Country 
anecdote. I " noted" it at the time, but I have 
since met with it in different publications. Bishop 
Porteus was travelling through Essex in the days 
when railways were unknown. On stopping for 
change of horses at an hotel at Coggleshall, he 
observed a crowd in the street, and so putting his 
head out of the carriage window, he demanded 
what was to do ? A countryman said, " It 's the 
day we give the whetstone to the biggest liar !" 
" A most extraordinary ceremony ! " said the 
Bishop; "I hate lies; I never tell a lie!" The 
remark was communicated to the judges or umpires, 
and they determined that the Bishop had gained 
the whetstone, which was forthwith thrust in at 
his carriage window. The narrative stated that 
Dr. Porteus, being a good-natured man, and not 
easily offended, relished the joke, and not only 
accepted the present, but had it suspended in his 
library at Fulham, with a MS. appended, which 
stated how and when it was obtained. 

There are a good many tales about the old Essex 
custom of lying for the whetstone or hone. The 
ceremony is said to be practised in some parts of 
America an emigrant introduction, of course. 
I believe that the county of Essex is not the only 
place in England where, at village feasts, they lie 
for the whetstone. Perhaps some correspondent 
can name localities and give particulars as to the 
mode of the proceedings. STEPHEN JACKSON. 


I am about to ask the assistance of the readers 
of " N. & Q." in arriving at the truth in a few 
cases of supposed abnormal longevity. How hard 
it is to Ascertain the truth in such matters few 
would believe who have not made the attempt. 
What a vast amount of skill, time, and money are 
now being expended at this moment in the endea- 
vour to ascertain whether the heir to a baronetcy, 
who was certainly living twenty years ago, was 
or was not tattooed. That is as plain and sim- 
ple a fact as is the real age of any person ; yet 
few wells are deeper than those in which the real 
truth as to the age of many so-called centenarians 
lies hidden. 

But before proceeding to my proposed inquiries, 
I hope I may be permitted to make a few remarks 
on a word the misuse of which has led to a good 
deal of confusion and misapprehension. 

Anti-Centenarianism is a capital word. No- 
thing can be better when applied in the sense in 
which it was originally used. That was, I believe, 
in the Times, as a heading to a letter which I had 
addressed to that journal, exposing some cases of 
pseudo-centenarians. For my more wordy and 
descriptive title, the editor substituted the concise 
and more expressive definition, Anti-Centenarianism. 
Similar articles under the same heading have been 
from time to time inserted in the same journal ; 
and the word has crept into frequent use. But in 
so doing it has come to be used in a new and alto- 
gether different sense, and in consequence of such 
perverted use, those who, like myself, contend that 
cases of exceptional longevity ought to be accepted 
only in proportion as they are established by clear 
and indisputable evidence, are misrepresented as 
denying the possibility of any human being attain- 
ing the age of one hundred years. 

Applied originally to the investigation of cases 
of assumed abnormal longevity, it is now too often 
used as expressive of the doctrine that human life 
never reaches a century. 

My attention was called to this unfortunate mis- 
use of a very expressive word some time since by 
an intelligent friend, who suggested that anti-cen- 
tenarianism ought at once to give place to ultra- 
centenarianism ; and the propriety of the suggestion 
has been clearly shown by many of the criticisms 
on my recently published volume on Human Lon- 

I must indeed be hard to please if I were not 
well satisfied with the manner in which the work 
has been received. Yet it is clear that in spite of 
what is stated in the book itself, in the face of the 
cases of wZfa-a-centenarianisni which I have recorded 
in it, two of which, those of Mrs. Duncomb Shafto 
and Mr. Plank, were investigated and established 
by myself, a feeling exists that I am opposed to 
the belief in the possible existence of centenarians, 
and that, having taken up that idea, I am scarcely 


NOTES AND QUERIES. l* h s. XIL JULY 26, 73. 

in a position to examine such questions impar- 
tially, because as it has been said, with more of 
force than poetry 

"Truth is not seen by judgments prepossessed, 
No more than Light by eyes with rheum oppressed." 
I hope, should a second edition of my book be 
called for, to give further proof that my judgment 
is not prepossessed, by inserting satisfactory evi- 
dence that Lady Smith, to whom, on the completion 
of her hundredth year, the Queen very kindly sent 
a copy of Her Majesty's book, was really of that 
age ; and not only that, but a few other cases of 
genuine ultra-centenarians which I have now be- 
fore me, in various stages of completeness. 

In the meanwhile, I am very anxious to clear 
away the doubts which still envelope some very 
interesting cases of alleged centenarianism, the 
first of which I propose to submit to your readers 
in my next communicatioD. 


THE "TREVELYAN PAPERS." The writer of 
the interesting article on the " Trevelyan Papers " 
in the last number of the Edinburgh Review, says 
that " the venerable Stamm-schloss of the race " 
had been " repurchased " by the present repre- 
sentatives. This he corrects in an erratum' by 
saying, that it had not been " repurchased." The 
fact is, that the estate of Trevelyan has never 
ceased to belong to the family. For a long time 
it was leased on lives so long, that when notice 
was at last given of the intention to terminate the 
lease, the holders claimed to possess it on a more 
permanent tenure. The matter was referred to 
arbitration, and while the old manor house and the 
bulk of the property were awarded to Sir John 
Trevelyan, a few fields, known as " Lower Trevel- 
yan," were assigned in fee to the leaseholder. This 
separated portion was lately purchased by Sir 
Walter Trevelyan, whence, no doubt, the mistake. 

The Eeviewer (p. 22) says, that George Trevel- 
yan was assessed at 1,OOOZ. for the part he took in 
the civil war. This was a " military contribution," 
assessed by the Somersetshire Committee, after 
which he was admitted by Parliament, to " com- 
position " on payment of a fine of 1,560Z., so that 
the total mulct was 2,560/. : see pages 252-3, and 
316, of the third volume of the " Papers." 

Your readers will be glad to hear that John 
Trevelyan of Kingsbury, who threatened to "hang 
the Roundheads for twopence a dozen," had not to 
pine in prison for twenty " years" Notwithstanding 
the provocation, the Roundheads, kinder than the 
recent transcriber or compositor, set him free at 
the end of twenty weeks. 


EPISCOPAL TITLES. I was taught in my young 
days that Bishops were addressed as " my Lord," 
because William the Conqueror made them tem- 

poral Barons. If this be the case, how is it that 
we now hear the title applied to a great many 
whom neither William the Conqueror nor any one 
else has made temporal Barons 1 We are informed 
that the Lord Bishop of Moray and Ross will 
preach at St. So-and-So's ; that the Lord Bishop 
of Rupert's Land is about to visit England ; and 
that the Lord Bishop of Gibraltar will hold a con- 
firmation. Nay, as if to show the absurdity in a 
still more marked manner, our false nomenclature 
stretches beyond the pale of the national Church 
altogether, to the Lord Bishop of Salford and His 
Grace the Archbishop of Westminster ! This is a 
legal and heraldic question, not a religious one ; 
and neither Dr. Manning nor Dr. Trower has any 
more right to the titles of Grace and Lordship 
than you and I, Mr. Editor, have to style ourselves 
respectively, His Grace the Duke of St. Paul's, 
and the Most Noble the Marchioness of Islington. 
And, surely, to address a man by a title which 
does not belong to him is mockery rather than 
courtesy. HERMENTRUDE. 

THE ORIGINAL " BLUE BOY." I wish to make- 
note of a fact referring to Gainsborough's Blue 
Soy. I was at Grosvenor House on Saturday, 
July 19th. There, by permission of the Marquis 
of Westminster, and for the benefit of poor children 
in East London, Mrs. Scott Siddons read, as she 
always reads, like a refined and intellectual gentle- 
woman ; Miss Edith Wynne sang, as she always 
sings, like a true English artist ; and the gentle- 
men of the Orpheus Glee Union left nothing 
whatever to desire. When the entertainment was 
at an end, the company retired, all the more slowly 
as a heavy shower was falling and carriages did 
not come quickly up. I profited by the op- 
portunity to inspect the marvellous pictorial 
treasures in the rooms, and knowing the Blue Boy 
to be there, I selected it for inspection, and stood 
before it subdued by its beauty. I no more doubt 
its originality than I do its unparalleled beauty. So 
far, my note on the circumstance, which is, in some 
measure, a reply to what has been said (" N. & Q.," 
passim) on Gainsborough's masterpiece. I will ap- 
pend to both a query, which I especially address to 
Mr. Scharf. Will he tell us what he knows (and 
he is sure to know everything) about the Blue Boy 
in Grosvenor House 1 EGOMET. 

FLY-LEAF SCRIBBLIXGS. In my copy of the 
Ed. Princeps of Josephus (Basileoe, Froben, 1544), 
are the following MS. notes : 

Emptus Basilese duobus unceis calendis Aprilis anno 
1550 copipactus ac legi coaptus Lutetiae Parisiorum yij 
Junii anno eodem. 

i\tr]ffov 'ijfiag, <J jcypie, ZwvraffTe Kai 3dvovra^. 
Quominus est certe meritis indebita nostris, 
Magna tamen spes est, in bonitate Dei, 
Hieronymus Wolfius, 

' ^Etingensis. 
The Greek sentence and the name occur at both 

s. xii. JULY 26, 73.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 


ends of the volume, which is in the original bright 
calf binding, panelled with gold fleurs-de-lys, 
attesting its French origin. These sentences have 
a particular interest, indited, as they doubtless 
were, during one of the periods of deep depression 
which clouded the life of the writer. Jerome Wolf 
(1516-1551) possessed one of those nervous and 
fretful temperaments which not unfrequently 
accompany genius ; often embroiled with other 
learned men, and often quarrelling with his friends, 
he seems to have passed a feverish and unsatisfied 
life ; but his erudition and honourable character 
appear to have been unquestioned. 

SIGNET IN SCOTLAND. Part First, A.-L., Edin., 
printed for the Society, 1871," 4to. 

It has always been the misfortune of catalogue 
literature that it has been so little subject to 
criticism, and it is, I suppose, to this that I must 
attribute the production of such a slovenly work 
as the above. 

It is a huge catalogue, with huge mistakes, of 
the most amateurish kind, from beginning to end. 
Whoever is responsible for it has added another to 
the long list we already possess of catalogues that 
are the laughing-stock of foreign bibliographers. 

If such an ill-digested, crude, and unsystematic 
performance had been printed by the authorities of 
one of the London law libraries (Lincoln's Inn al- 
ways excepted), it would have been no matter for 
wonder ; but this from Scotchmen, and the writers 
to the Signet to boot ! 

Fully aware of the vast amount of ill-judged 
labour that has been wasted on this catalogue, it is 
with great regret that I make these remarks ; but 
really it is time that some stand were made against 
the promiscuous printing of catalogues apparently 
without preparation, and if now and then they, 
like other works, are made the subject of examin- 
ation and criticism, a marked improvement will 
take place. It is an injustice to those who really 
have studied the art of cataloguing and do their 
work scientifically, that the bad should rank with 
the good. Such productions as the Catalogue of 
the Manchester Free Libraries and the Catalogue 
of the Advocates' Library, for example, do honour 
to English bibliographical learning, and show that 
we are quite capable of producing good catalogues. 

I have been led to these remarks by a perusal of 
the first volume above named, and, finding that it 
is utterly unreliable, I will simply note one or two 
works relating more particularly to my special study, 
in which errors or omissions occur. 

P. 18. The American in England. A reference 
to the " London Catalogue " would have enabled 
the compilers to add that this book is by Lieut. 

P. 41. Attic Fragments, &c., by the Author of 

Modern Athens and Babylon the Great. Surely, to 
such a well-known work as this, we might expect 
to see the name of the compiler's countryman, 
Robert Mudie, in square brackets. If it and the 
work on p. 47, Babylon the Great : a Dissection and 
Demonstration of Men and Things in the British 
Capital [by Robert Mudie], were properly cata- 
logued, this would have been at once apparent; but 
the important words, " by the Author of the Modern 
Athens," which come after " British Capital,'. 5 have 
been omitted by the cataloguer, thus leading us 
into fresh error, the book being catalogued as anony- 
mous, whereas it is pseudonymous. The pseudonym 
being important as giving at once a clue to the 
author's name, supposing it not to be well known, 
as in this instance it is. 

P. 42. Adventures of an Attorney in Search of 
Practice is improperly ascribed to Samuel Warren, 
instead of Sir George Stephen, who was once an 

P. 53. A Residence on the Shores of the Baltic 
is by Miss Rigby, not Rugby. This is, no doubt, a 
clerical error, but then, why is not the student in- 
formed that this lady was afterwards Lady East- 

I stop not for want of matter, but fear lest space 
be denied me. OLPHAR HAMST. 

CHESHIRE WORDS. I have some time since 
completed a new Glossary of Cheshire words (an 
amplification of that published some years since 
by Roger Wilbraham), but I do not wish to publish 
till I have, as far as I can, exhausted every possible 
source from which I may hope for any addition. I 
therefore appeal to your many subscribers, who 
may have the power and have also the will to help 
me. Of course I do not want any word mentioned 
in Wilbraham (whose Glossary, us, I believe, the 
only one of Cheshire). I want any words used 
colloquially in Cheshire, any words to be found in 
old manuscripts, church accounts, old deeds ; any 
anecdote that exemplifies a Cheshire word ; any 
Cheshire custom, folk lore, or proverb (exclusive 
of my own paper on Cheshire proverbs) ; any 
peculiar name for bird, insect, or flower, of which 
I have already a large collection ; and I should wish 
any communications on the subject to be directed 
to me at Jodrell Hall, Holmes Chapel, after the 
present session is over; and to 7, Eaton Place, 
S.W., previous to that time. EGERTON LEIGH. 

WILTSHIRE BALLAD. This ancient ballad is, I 
believe, a genuine labouring man's song. I have 
often heard it sung as such in a Wiltshire village. 


" Long time I've travelled in the North Countree 
A-seeking for good companie ; 
Good companie I always could find, 
But none that wur suited to my mind. 
Now sing whack-fal-the-raJ, 
I in my pocket have got monie. 



I saddled my horse and away I did ride, 
Till I came to an alehouse down by the roadside, 
I asked for a pot of good ale, that was brown, 
And by the roadside I set myself down. 
Now sing whack-fal-the-ral, 
I in my pocket had ne'er a pennie. 


Oh ! there I saw three noble knights, 
As thai wur a-playing o' dice. 
As thai wur at plai, an' I looking on, 
Thai took me vor a noble-man. 
Now sing, &c. 


Thai asked me if I 'ould plai, 
I asked them what bets thai 'ould lai. 
Then one zes 'a guinea,' another vive pound. 
The bets thai wur mead, but the money not down. 
Now sing, &c. 


I took up the dice and drew them in. 
'Twas my good fortune for to win. 
If thai had a- won, and I had a-lost, 
I must ha' pulled out my empty purse, 
And sung whack-fal-the-ral, 
I in my pocket have ne'er a pennie. 


Wur there ever a mortal man so glad, 

As I wur wi' the money I had. 

I 'm a hearty good fellow, and that you shall vind, 

I '11 make you all drunk, bwoys, drinking o' wine. 
Now zing whack-fal-the-ral, 
Ral-the-diddle dee, 
I in my pocket ha' got monie. 


I staid there all night, an' half the next dai, 
Until it wur time to be jogging awai. 
I asked the young landlady what was to pai : 
Oh, only one kiss, my love ; go your wai. 
Now zing whack-fal-the-ral, 
I in my pocket ha' got monie." 

G. HILL, B.A., Oxon. 


witness who, believing the Claimant to be Arthur 
Orton, significantly added, " But there's one thing 
I don't believe I don't believe he knows it him- 
self. He've forgot his own identity," is reported to 
have astonished the Court. To me he appears to 
have an eminently philosophic mind. As you were 
good enough to insert a former note bearing on 
this trial, I venture to send you the following illus- 
trations of Mr. Angell's evidence. They are simply 
given in the sense of parallel passages, and are not 
intended as in any way referring to the important 
trial, sub judicibus. 

" Mox, ut in magnis mendaciis, interfuisse se quidam et 
vidisse adfirmabant, credula fama inter gaudentes et 
incuriosos." Tacit. Hist. i. 34. 

" Vario super exitu ejus rumore eoque pluribus vivere 
eum fingentibus credentibusque." Ibid. ii. 8. 

" Nay himself with long and continual counterfeiting 
and with oft telling a lie, was turned by habit almost into 

the thing he seemed to be ; and from a iiar to a believer." 
Bacon, Hist. Henry VII., vol. vi. p. 143, ed. Spedding. 
" And as it is so observed of some, that by long using 
to report an untruth, at last forgetting themselves to be 
the Authors thereof, beleeve it in earnest; so these 
honours making our Peter * to bury in utter oblivion hia 
birth's obscuritie, hee seemed to be perswaded, that he 
was indeed the selfe partie, whom hee did so exactly 
personate." Speed, Hist. p. 750, 3rd ed., 1650. 
" Who having into truth, by telling of it, 
Made such a sinner of his memory, 
To credit his own lie, he did believe 
He was indeed the duke." 

Shakes. Tempest, Act i. Sc. 2, 100-103. 

" Sed veluti pueris absinthia taetra medentes 
Cum dare conantur, prius oras pocula circum 
Contingunt mellis dulci flavoque liquore, 
Ut puerorum aetas improvida ludificetur 
Labrorum tenus, interea perpotet amarum 
Absinthi laticem deceptaque non capiatur, 
Sed potius tali paoto recreata valescat, 
Sic ego nunc, quoniam haec ratio plerumque videtur 
Tristior esse quibus non est tractata, retroque 
Volgus abhorret ab hac, volui tibi suaviloquenti 
Carmine Pierio rationem exponere nostram 
Et quasi Musaeo dulci contingere melle." 

Lucretius, De Herum Natura, Lib. 1, 936-947. 

" Sai, che 1& corre il mpndo ove piu versi 
Di sue dolcezze il lusinghier Parnaso 
E cl.e '1 vero condito in molli versi 
I piu schivi allettando ha persuaso. 
Cosi all" egro fanciul porgiamo aspersi 
Di soave licor gli orli del vaso : 
Succhi amari ingannato intanto ei beve, 
E dalT inganno suo vita receve." 
Tasso, Gerusalemme Liberata, Canto 1, 1. 17-24. 
A. H. B. 

STERNE AND BURNS. That is a very curious 
observation on p. 25 of your last, on the similarity 
of the passage in the Plain-dealer with Burns's 
well-known lines. Permit me to add another illus- 
tration from the dedication of the ninth volume of 
Tristram Shandy: 

" Honours, like impressions upon coin, may give an 
ideal and local value to a bit of base metal ; but gold 
and silver will pass all the world over, without any other 
recommendation than their own weight." 

H. J. H. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

Mr. Baring-Gould's Myths of the Middle Ages 
(1st Series) occurs the following passage (pp. 157, 

* The same Perkin Warbeck of whom Bacon above is 
speaking. Speed's first edition was published some years 
before Bacon's Hist., but as he had before him Sir Fr. 
Bacon, Frag. MS., p. 740 and elsewhere, the conceit 
seems to be Bacon's rather than Speed's. 

4 th S. XII. JULY 23, '73.] 



158), in a brief sketch of the doctrine of Antichrist 
as held by the early and mediaeval Church : 

" In the time of Antichrist .... the Church will be 
in a condition of the utmost spiritual degradation, but 
enjoyinc the highest State patronage. The religion in 
favour will be one of morality, but not of dogma ; and 
the Man of Sin will be able to promulgate his doctrine, 
according to S. Anselm, through his great eloquence 
and wisdom, his vast learning and mightiness m the Holy 
Scriptures, which he will wrest to the overthrowing of 

What is the authority for these statements ? 


WHO is B., PRESS-LICENSER ? Andrew Mar- 
veil, in his Rehearsal Transprosed (near the begin- 
ning of Part the First), has a hit at two press- 
licensers, B. and L. "Public tooth - drawers," 
he calls them. L. is, it is to be presumed, 
L'Estrange. Who is B. ? Can it be Sir John 
Birkenhead ? Or is it Bachiler, the Presbyterian 
licenser of the time of the Civil War, of whom see 
Dr. Masson's new volume, 3, of Life of Milton, 
p. 432? C. 

" HARD LINES." Can any one give the deriva- 
tion and meaning of this curious phrase 1 I find 
it in a letter of that great master of the vernacular, 
Cobbett, defending his " observations " under the 
name of Peter Porcupine, on " the Emigration of 
Dr. Joseph Priestley" (1799). He says in reply to 
certain strictures of his critics, " These are rather 
hard lines, gentlemen. I do not know what I 
have done, thus to draw down your vengeance on 

the author of the following lines, which I find 
quoted in a letter dated 1818 ? 

" Bleak mountains and desolate rocks 

Are the wretched result of our pains ; 

The swains greater brutes than their flocks, 

The nymphs as polite as their swains." 


Who is the author of the words of Orlando 
Gibbons's madrigal beginning 
" The silver swan that living had no note, 

When death approached unlocked her liquid throat " ? 

H. C. B. 


Where is io be found the fine line 

" And ere we dream of manhood age is nigh " ? 

P. H. 

"It is a maxim of all men's approving, in intellectu 
nihil est quod non priusfuit in sensu." 

The above is quoted in a note on p. 533 of the 
May number of Fraser's Magazine, from a letter of 
Sir Thomas Bodley to Sir Francis Bacon. Who 
v r as the author of the maxim ? A.O.V.P. 

NASH POINT. Nash Point, in Bristol Channel, 
is known in Welsh as Y Rhas, and the valley and 

village are called respectively Guru y Rhas and 
Pentre y Rhas. What may the etymology be ? 
There is a small valley in the parish of Llandyssil, 
in Cardiganshire, known as Pant-y-Rhasis. 

v J. C. UNNONE. 

ESTELLA. I find in a collection of epitaphs 
one said to have been found in an Italian church- 
yard : " Here lies Estella, who transported a large 
fortune to Heaven in acts of charity, and has gone 
thither to enjoy it." Who was Estella? and what 
is the original of the above ? A. MIDDLETON. 

School House, Kingsbridge, S. Devon. 

LEADEN CASTS. I have a set of four small 
tablets, cast in lead, representing, in relief, the 
Judgment of Paris, Diana and Nymphs, and 
similar classical subjects. The size of each tablet 
is about 7 x 4| inches. If these particulars are 
sufficient for identification, I should be much 
obliged by any information as to the artist, &c. 
How should such leaden casts be cleaned ? 

R. E. E. 

CRABBE, THE POET. He, so his son George told 
me, was fond of quoting a little grotesque poem 
to children, I think beginning : 
" Old Man of the Sea, 
Come, listen to me ; 
For Alice my Wife, 
The Plague of my Life" 

Can any one tell me how it goes on ? QUIVIS. 

PEERAGE OF HEREFORD. Roger Fitzosborne 
was created Earl of Hereford by the Conqueror : 
the title must have died out again, for the Empress 
Maud created an Earl of Hereford in 1141, and 
there seems no more mention of them till the De 
Bohuns of John, and the succeeding reigns to 
Edward II., when the Earl of Hereford was killed, 
in rebellion with Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, at 
Boroughbridge. The title seems again extinct till 
Richard II. created Henry (afterwards Henry IV.) 
Duke of Hereford. I wish to have a list of those 
who have held the title, and to know if it was re- 
vived after Henry- IV.'s time. (There is a Viscount 
Hereford in 1549, but that is a different family 
altogether.) G. LAURENCE GOMME. 

4, Roseford Gardens, Shepherd's Bush Common. 

[Consult Nicolas's Historic Peerage of England, edit. 
1857, p. 246.] 

ROCHE, co. CORK. Wanted, any channel of infor- 
mation in re this family. CAMDEN TOWN. 

MADNESS IN THE DOG. Was rabies known in. 
America anterior to the arrival of the Spaniards, 
and in Hindostan ere Europeans traded and settled 
there? Did it exist in Australia, Van Dieman's 
Land, or New Zealand, before those countries were 
colonized by the English? In what parts of the 
world is the disease unknown, besides Greenland, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [4"' s. xn. JC-LT 26, 73. 

Lisbon, Syria, Constantinople, Egypt, South Africa, 
Guiana ? Has it been observed in any portion of 
South America, or Africa, in Arabia, Central Asia, 
Thibet, a.nd Islands of the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans ? Is there a Sanscrit or Zend word for 
rabies in the dog ? GEORGE R. JESSE. 

Henbury, Macclesfield. 

A letter from the Lords of the Council to the Eoyal 
Court of Guernsey, dated 19th August, 1584, it is 
stated that a certain widow, by name Martha 
Oliver, had, during her journey from Guernsey to 
London, "been robbed by Anwood, the pirate." 
Can any of your readers help me to information 
respecting this worthy 1 

I should like too to ascertain the origin of a 
Thomas Percifield, Persefel, or Percifil, who was 
living in Guernsey about the year 1700, and is 
described as of Lancashire. The godfather of one 
of his children (probably a relative) was a Mr. 
John Crompton, " Lieutenant to Capt. Simpson in 
the Royall Regiment of Fuzillieres." GULES. 

A BATTLE OF WILD BEASTS. I find the fol- 
lowing story in The Life of Dr. Thomas Newton, 
Bishop of Bristol (ed. 1816, vol. ii. p. 142), and 
should be glad to know if there is any other record 
of so singular an occurrence. The Bishop says 
that, when Lord Bath (William Pulteney) and 
Lord Bradford were young men, they happened to 
be at Berlin at the time that " the Duke of Marl- 
borough came thither to fix Frederic the first King 
of Prussia in the interest of the Allies, and to pre- 
vail on him to send a body of forces into Italy. 
He then proceeds as follows : 

"One day, for the Duke's entertainment, there was 
exhibited a battle of the wild beasts. A trooper's horse 
and a bull were turned out, and soon after were let loose 
a lion, and a tiger, and a bear, and a wolf, kept hungry 
for the purpose. The tiger crawled along upon the 
ground like a cat, and first jumped upon the bull's back, 
which soon brought the bull down, and then the great 
scramble began, the beasts tearing the bull to pieces and 
likewise one another. The wolf and the tiger were first 
despatched. The lion and the bear had a long contest. 
The lion with his teeth and with his claws wounded the 
bear in several places, but could not penetrate much 
farther than the skin. The bear somehow or other took 
the lion at an advantage, got him within his grasp, and 
gave him such a squeeze as squeezed the breath out of 
his body. The bear then furiously attacked the trooper's 
horse, who was grazing all this while at a little distance 
and not minding what was done ; but the horse with his 
liind legs gave him such a kick upon his ribs as provoked 
him into tenfold fury; and at the second attack, a second 
kick upon his head broke both his jaws and laid him 
dead upon the ground ; so that, contrary to expectation, 
the trooper's horse remained master of the field." 

S. W. T. 

of his letters to the late Duke of Wellington, to 
whom he wrote from Paris in February, 1841 
says :* 

' Darmez, the assassin, who in October last made an 
attempt on the life of the King (Louis Philippe) is con- 
fined in the Conciergerie, and subjected to the prison 
discipline, which he thus describes: 'The prisoner is at 
irst treated with the greatest indulgence nothing that 
xe desires is refused him. The Chancellor and the Grand 
Referendary visit him, and the people about him are 
attentive to his wishes, and anxious to converse with 
lim. This is called the process of kindness ; and if it 
ails to work upon the culprit's gratitude, and to produce 
;he discovery of the plot or accomplices, recourse is then 
had to the process of reduction. He receives little or no 
nutriment, is frequently bled, arid never allowed to go to 
sleep : his strength is sapped away by inches ; and if, in 
;his exhausted state, he makes no revelations, a third 
experiment is tried the process of excitement. Wine 
and spirituous liquors are administered, Ion gre, mal gre ; 
le is kept in a state of constant intoxication, in hopes 
;hat his incoherent reolies may give some clue to his 
secret thoughts. Thus the physical powers are tortured 
and perverted to weaken the firmness of the moral.' " 

Can this hare been true ; and is this barbarous 
system still carried on in French prisons ? 

N. H. R. 

1624. I have before me a small vellum bound 
volume, having the following title : " Psalmorum 
Dar id-is Paraphrasis Poetiea. Georgii Bucanani 
Scoti ; Argumentis ac Melodiis explicata atque 
illustrata opera et studio Nathanis Chutnei. Cum 
gratia et privileg. Caes. Maiest. Herbornae Naa- 
soviorum, 1624." 

I am anxious to know something about the 
value of this book. Perhaps some competent 
person could inform me as to the melodies, 
whether they are known, and in what other collec- 
tions they may be found ? They are certainly 
most curious, as they are set to the Horatian 
metres in which Buchanan translated the Psalms. 
The only information I can find about them is in a 
preface : 

" Egi cum primario scholae nostrae Cantore, M. Static 
Olthonio Osnaburgensi : ut tngenta diversis, qu93 in 
Bucanano continentur, carminum generibus, melodias 
certas, partim jam olim ab aliis usurpatas, nonnullas 
etiam a seipso modulatas. adjungeret .... atque ita 
laudibus et celebrationibus nominis divini multoties 
quotidie repetitis, locus gymnasio et domicilio nostro 
assignatus undiq: resonet." 

Is there anything known of this musician ? 

A. M. B. 

SCOTT. Can any one furnish the following in- 
formation for one of the Senators of the Dominion, 
the Hon. John Ferguson, of Bathurst, New Bruns- 
wick, who tells me that, more than once, in former 
years, he has obtained replies to queries through 
your columns 1 He wants to know in what book 
or periodical he can obtain a copy of a 

" Petition of the Ladies of Edinburgh to Dr. (1) 

and Reply thereto (attributed to Lord Byron, but not 
found in his published works) about the Cause of Love." 

It begin rs 



" Dear Doctor, Let it not transpire 

How much your Lectures we admire," &c. 
It was reprinted, about thirty or thirty-five years 
ago, in the New York Albion, then a periodical of 
high repute and extensive circulation amongst 
persons of British origin in the United States. 

Also, whether Martin Luther, or who else, wrote 
the lines beginning 

" Who loves not woman, wine, and song, 

Remains a fool all his life long " 1 
I would further beg to be informed where to find 
a long poem, which appeared in the newspapers of 
the period, on the death of Sir Walter Scott, in 
which all the characters of his novels are represented 
as individually attending his funeral, or bewailing 
his loss, in appropriate terms. Any replies please 
address to myself, Librarian of Parliament, Ottawa, 
Canada, and oblige ALPHEUS TODD. 

OLD ENTRIES. In a common-place book of the 
year 1766, formerly belonging to an ancestor of 
mine, and now in my possession, I find these 
entries : 

" The following is a grant under which (it is said) 
Lord Downes holds some lands near Knaresbro. 
I John of Gaunt 
to the do grant 
from me and mine 
to the and thine 
whilst the sun doth shine 
and grass grows green. 
* * * 

so that 'a enough." 

" The following is taken from the Histy. of Cumber- 

I King Athelstan give to Pallan 

Odcham and Rodcham 

Als quid and als fayre 

Als ever they mine weare 

And gar to witness Maulde jny wife." 

Can any of your readers give me any information 
with respect to these curious rhyming "con- 
veyances" of the period? 

I cannot help thinking I have somewhere seen 
the first of the above in print, and should imagine 
from the MS. that both were probably copied from 
some county history, but as I have not access to 
such at the moment, shall feel obliged by any 
light on the subject. Apparently there is a hiatus 
in the first grant. " H. H. S. C. 

any of your correspondents give the derivations of 
these names ? With regard to the last one, it is 
stated in Cassell's History of England, that it is 
an abbreviation of the name " Theodore." 



^ MEDAL QUERY. Can any of your readers iden- 
tify and describe for me the medal which bears on 
the obverse the bust of a human figure, and on the 
reverse, in the centre, the royal arms with sup- 

porters, surrounded by three lines of inscription ? 
On the outer ring I can plainly distinguish the 
words Minden, Guadaloupe, Niagara, Quebec, 
Crown Town, Lagos. This medal, from circum- 
stances needless to mention here, must belong to a 
period prior to 1764, and seems to me to have been 
struck to commemorate the foreign campaigns at 
the latter end of the reign of George II. Any 
account of this piece, or references to any works 
where it is engraved, would be very acceptable to 



(4 th S. xi. 130, 178, 202, 243, 387, 425, 
465, 512 ; xii. 33.) 

In calling Francis an obscure clerk, MR. Boss 
is simply adopting the expressions of Mr. Merivale, 
who (vol. i. 325) speaks of him, in 1773, as "a 
young and obscure retired clerk in the War 
Office." But if MR. Boss is mistaken in this 
respect, your distinguished correspondent C. P. F. 
is equally mistaken in supposing the position 
of Francis as first clerk to be "tantamount to 
that of an under-secretary or assistant-secretary 
of our day." Be this as it may, his social position 
at the period in question had been lowered by his 
marriage : he was living with an inferior set of 
people ; in fact, keeping rather bad company, and 
completely estranged, from anything like intimacy 
with the great. His only political connexion of the 
slightest note was Calcraft, with whom he was co- 
operating in a subordinate and rather humiliating 
way : " his business" (as described by Mr. Merivale) 
" being to act as the jackal's provider, who was 
himself providing for the lion." The lion was 
Lord Chatham, whom Francis could only reach 
through Calcraft, although he had been his paid 
amanuensis for a year. 

It is this position of Francis during the publica- 
tion of the Letters of Junius that gives force to 
the argument originally started by Mr. Charles 
Butler, who states, in his Reminiscences, that he 
and Mr. Wilkes 

"were convinced that Junius must be a man of high 
rank, from the tone of equality which he seemed to 
use, quite naturally, in his addresses to^persons of rank, 
and in his expressions respecting them." 

What has been called the grand manner of 
Junius, as well as his intimate knowledge of high 
personages, are equally remarkable in some of the 
private letters, which I cannot believe to have been 
written by the rollicking companion of " gents" (to 
use his own word) or by one who was content to 
play jackal to the jackal. 

The Autobiography was written some years 
after Francis had held high office ; and in no case 
can the egotistical reminiscences of an extravagantly 
vain man be accepted as proofs of his real position 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. xn. JULY 26, 73. 

or importance at anytime. To give a single instance 
of the preposterous self-glorification of this Autobio- 
graphy, he coolly takes credit for a letter which he 
evidently did not write, says that Lord Chatham 
made it the foundation of his speech in the House 
of Lords, and adds, " His speech the next day 
flamed in the newspapers and ran through the 
kingdom." Parliamentary reporting was then pro- 
hibited in both Houses. One paper, the Evening 
Post, published a meagre report of the speech. 
The rest, including the Public Advertiser, took no 
notice of it. 

With regard to Francis's letter to Calcraft of 
Dec. 1, 1770, this was written exactly one fort- 
night after the publication of the famous Letter of 
Junius to Lord Mansfield, Nov. 14, 1770. They 
are in pari materiel; and the question arises 
whether it is probable that the same man, after 
publishing a striking and exhaustive production 
on any given subject, should sit down and compose 
a bad paraphrase of it ? If those two letters came 
from the same pen, both external and internal 
evidence must be singularly at fault. 

As to the extracts (cited by C. P. F.) from the 
Fragments on the Kings of England, Francis 
might write a coarse attack on George III. without 
being Junius ; and similarity of tone (did it exist) 
would prove nothing in a writer who was con- 
stantly producing "echoes (or imitations) of the 
past." His tone, style, and manner of life during 
the Junian period are alone valuable <as tests. 


OLIVER CROMWELL, JUN. (4 th S. xi. 301, 366, 
430, 494.) The principal object I had in view 
when I wrote my note (p. 366) was to refute the 
statement made in the "Squire Papers," to the 
effect that Captain Cromwell was killed near 
Knaresborough. To prove my case I had to refer, 
amongst other books, to Noble's Memoirs of the 
Protectoral Times of Cromwell; there I found the 
anecdote relating to the MS. In Noble's time the 
identical book containing a copy of the pass was 
in the possession of Mr. Smith, an alderman of 
Huntingdon, who was descended from Gunton, the 
historian of the Cathedral Church of Peterborough. 
The following is the account given of it by Symon 
Patrick, Dean of Peterborough, and afterwards 
successively Bishop of Chichester and of Ely : 

" It is commonly called by the name of Swapham ; it 
being vulgarly believed to have been composed by Robert 
Swapham, a Monk of this Church of Peterborough : But 
in truth is for the greatest and most antient part of its 
History, the work of Hugo, surnamed Candidus, or White, 
an eminent Monk also of the same Church." 

Mr. Hustin, or rather Mr. Humphry Austin, 
which I find, on further examination, was the gentle- 
man's real name, knowing the great value of the 
book, concealed it, under one of the seats in the 
choir, as early as February, 1642, but Cromwell's 
soldiers made a complete wreck of the interior oi 

;he church in April, 1643, and of course the book 
was discovered. Mr. Austin bribed the fanatic, 
who was just about to toss it into the flames, to 
.et him carry it away, under the pretext that it 
was an old Latin Bible in which he was personally 
nterested. It was really a Chronicle of Peter- 
sorough Cathedral, and the source from which 
jrunton gathered the materials for his history. 
Symon Patrick declares that it was the only book 
rescued from " the more than Gothish Barbarity 
of those ignorant people." 

The following account of the destruction of legal 
documents, at the same time, is from a tract 
entitled A Short and True Narrative of the Rifling 
%nd Defacing the Cathedral Church ofPeterburghin 
the Year 1643, by Mr. Francis Standish. (The 
spelling and punctuation are the same as in the 
original) : 

'' I must not forget to tell, how they likewise broke 
open the Chapterhouse, ransack'd the Records, broke the 
Seals, tore the Writings in pieces, specially such as had 
great Seals annexed unto them, which they took or mis- 
took rather for the Pope's Bulls. So that a grave and 
sober Person coming into the Room at that time, finds 
the Floor all strewed and covered over, with torn Papers, 
Parchments and broken Seals : and being astonisht at 
this sight does thus expostulate with them ; Gentlemen 
(says he) what are ye doing? They answer, We are 
pulling the Pope's Bulls in pieces. He replies, ye are 
much mistaken : for these Writings are neither the Pope's 
Bulls nor anything relating to him. But they are the 
Evidences of several men's Estates, and in destroying 
these, you will destroy and undo many. With this they 
were something perswaded, and prevailed upon by the 
same person to permit him to carry away all that were 
left undefaced, by which means, the Writings the Church 
hath now, came to be preserved." 

May I have space to repeat the hope expressed 
by MR. SOLLY, that the mystery which hangs over 
the fate of Robert Cromwell may be cleared up ? 
I hardly think there is sufficient evidence to show 
that he lived long enough to meet his death at 
Newport, in the manner and at the time sug- 

The manuscript which was rescued from the 
hands of the soldiers in 1643 is still in the posses- 
sion of the Dean and Chapter. It is a very thick 
folio, and is the work generally quoted as " Swap- 
ham" in histories of Peterborough Cathedral. Mr, 
Botfield (Cathedral Libraries, p. 381) calls it the 

"Lieger Book of the Church, a Chronicle composed 
by Hugo, surnamed Candidus, a Monk of that Monastery, 
but usually ascribed to Robert Swapham, a Monk of the 
same Church." 

The original pass is not known to exist, but on 
the first page of the manuscript Mr. Austin (not 
Hustin, as printed ante pp. 366, 430) has given an 
account of his recovery of the volume, and has 
transcribed the acquittance of the soldier. I have 
copied the account carefully from the original; and 
it may be worth printing in the old form, as some 



interest has been awakened on the matter. Mr. 
Austin was Precentor of the Cathedral: 

" This Booke was hide in the Church, by me Humfrey 
Austin; February 1642. And found by one of Coll: 
Cromwells Souldgers when thay pul'd downe all y e seats 
in the Quire, Aprill 22 th 1643. And I makeing inquire 
amongst them, for an Old Latin Bible which were lost, I 
found out at last y e partie who had it, and I gave him for 
y 6 booke Tenn shillings, as you see by this acq. 

{The Coppie 
of his acquit; 

" I pray let this Scripture booke a lone for he hath 
paid me for it ; therefore I would desire you to let it 
a lone ; By me Henry Topclyffe, Souldger under Cap' 
Cromwell, Coll: Cromwell s sonn ; theirfore I praye let it 
a lone ; " By me Henry Topclyffe." 


S. xi. 504.) A representation of this bird, with 
train displayed, is supposed to have been employed 
by the early Christians to symbolize the resurrec- 
tion of the body and the immortality of the soul. 
It is of frequent occurrence as a hieroglyphical 
emblem in the Catacombs of Borne, an engraving 
from which is given in the section on " Christian 
Symbols" in the elegant work, entitled The Calendar 
of the Christian Church Illustrated (J. H. Parker, 
Oxford and London, 1851, 8vo.), p. 327. This 
volume, I may take occasion to add, is now out of 
print, and scarce. A second edition has, it is true, 
appeared, and at a reduced price. It bears the 
altered title of the Calendar of the Prayer-Book 
Illustrated, Enlarged, and Corrected; with 200 
Engravings from Mediceval Works of Art, but is 
somewhat abridged in matter, and does not con- 
tain the folding plates. 

The fact appears to be that the peacock, as an 
emblem of the Resurrection, supplanted the phoenix, 
which, used by the ancient Egyptians, seated on 
its claws, and with two human arms protruding 
from its breast in an attitude of prayer, as a type 
of the Sothic period, or their great Astronomical 
year, came, with the later fable of its rising from 
its ashes, to symbolize immortality of the soul and 
an after life. Not only does it thus appear on 
monuments and in windows, but, as we learn from 
the writings of Anastatius, the variegated feathers 
of the bird, or imitations of them in embroidery, 
were often used in early times as church decora- 
tions. The wings of angels, moreover, were often 
represented as formed of the feathers of the 
peacock ; a good illustration of which, taken from 
a pall of the fourteenth century, in the possession 
of the Fishmongers' Company, and not previously 
engraved, will be found in the frontispiece to Miss 
Lambert's elegant work on Church Needlework; 
with Practical Remarks on its Arrangement and 
Preparation. Murray, London, 1844, 8vo. 

There was an old idea as to the incorruptibility 
of the flesh of the peacock, which may have sug- 

gested the adoption of this bird as a symbol of 
triumph over death and the grave. A correspon- 
dent of Hone (The Year Book, p. 491) cites a pas- 
sage from a rare volume, entitled The Magic of 
Kirani,^King of Persia, and of Harpocration, 
1685, to the following purport : 

"A Peacock is a more sacred bird. Its eggs are good 
to make a golden colour, and so are goose eggs ; and 
when a Peacock is dead his flesh does not decay, nor 
yield any stinking smell, but continues as it were em- 
balmed in spices." 

Saint Augustine corroborates this from his own 
experience : 

" Quis nisi Deus creator omnium, dedit carni pavonis 
mortui, ne putresceret; quod cum auditu incredibile 
videretur, evenit ut apud Carthaginem nobis cocta appon- 
eretur, haec avis, de cujus pectore, pulparum quantum 
visum est decerptum, servare jussimus; quod post 
dierum tantum spatium, quanto alia caro quaecunque 
cocta putresceret, prolatum atque oblatum, nihil nostrum 
offendit olfactum : itemque repositum post dies amplius 
quam triginta, idem quod erat inventum est ; idemque 
post annum, nisi quod aliquantulum corpulentiae siccioris, 
et contractions fuit." De Civitate Dei, Lib. XXI. cap. iv. 

It is probable, after all, that the symbolical 
significance of the peacock, as a Christian emblem, 
differed at various times and places, according to 
the will of individual designers. The subject is, 
however, too extensive to pursue in this place ; and 
for the various meanings which this bird has been, 
or may be, used to convey, I must content myself 
with referring to the Philosophia Imaginum of the 
Pere Menestrier (Amstel. 1695, 8vo.), p. 747 ; to 
the Apelles Symbolicus of Von der Ketten (Amstel. 
1699, 2 vols. 8vo.), vol. i. p. 570 ; and especially to 
the Mundus Symbolicus of D. P. Picinellus (Col. 
Agrip. 1695, 2 vols. folio), vol. i. p. 315, where the 
various applicability of the peacock, as a religious 
emblem, is exhaustively investigated. 

The appropriation of the peacock in its more 
obvious significance, as a type of worldly pride, 
would appear to be of more modern date. In this 
sense it is employed by the Rev. T. B. Murray in 
his Alphabet of Emblems (1844, Rivingtons, 8vo.), 
page 44, where a representation of the bird, with 
unfolded tail, is accompanied by a set of appro- 
priate verses. WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 


Vide Mundus Symbolicus of Philip Picinelli, 
torn. i. p. 315, Col. Agr., 1681. Also the Com- 
mentaria Symbolica of Ant. Riccardus Brixianus 
Venetiis, 1591, torn. ii. vol. 122. 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

JACKSON FAMILY (4 th S. xi. 424.) This family, 
which settled at Tencurry, Cahir, co. Tipperary, 
came from Clonbullock, in the King's County, 
where they originally held large estates, and were 
members of the society called " Friends." There 
were three brothers, viz. : 

I. Joseph Jackson, of whom presently. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4 s. xn. j 25, 73. 

II. William Jackson, of 81, Coombe, Dublin, a linen 
merchant, in which trade he acquired a fortune of 
150,000. He married a relative of lus own, named Greer, 
by whom he had an only child, Elizabeth, his heir, who 
married on the 14th of August, 1787, Thomas Greer (he 
died 14th August, 1840), of Rhone Hill, co. Armagh (see 
Burke's Landed Gentry for Greer). 

III. Isaac Jackson, who died, I believe, without issue. 

Joseph Jackson, of Tencurry (old house), mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of William Fennell, of Eeag- 
hill, about the year 1758, and left issue: 

I. Thomas Jackson, of Millgrove House, Tencurry, 
who married Rachel (she was called by the country people 
" Ban bawn beg," or the little white woman, from her 
small -stature and fair complexion), sister to David Mal- 
comson, of Clonmell, and dying on the 6th of May, 1843, 
aged eighty-four years, without issue, his estates went to 
William and Mary Jackson, children of his youngest 
brother Joseph. 

II. Abraham Jackson, of Tencurry House, married, 
firstly, Anne Broadhead, of Bristol, and, secondly, Barbara 
Plaskett, of Haverford-West, Wales, but dying without 
issue, his property went to his brothers, Joseph and 

III. Joseph Jackson, of whom presently. 

I. Mary Jackson married John Walpole, of Cahir, and 
had issue, alorg with Sarah and Mary (both died between 
1866 and 1871, unmarried), a son, William Walpole, who 
married Sarah Smyth, and has issue, first, John Walpole, 
married to Emma Fanny Peard, second, William Horace 
Walpole, married to Marion Cathrow Peard, daughters 
of the late Henry Hawke Peard, Esq., J.P. and D.L., of 
Coole Abbey, co. Cork (see Burke's Gentry}. 

II. Hannah Jackson, married Samuel Jacob, of Clon- 
mell, and had issue, along with Joseph and Mary, another 
son, Joshua (the eldest), the celebrated " White Quaker," 
who married Miss Fayle, and has issue, first, Samuel, 

econd, Joshua, third, Richard. 

Joseph Jackson, of Brookfield House, Tencurry 
(third son of Joseph), built the large woollen fac- 
tory. He married Sarah (she died 14th January, 
1849, aged eighty-four years, and is buried along 
with her son in Mount Jerome Cemetery, Harold's 
Cross, Dublin), daughter of Joseph Miller (the 
constructor of that curious clock that spoke the 
hours, mentioned by "John Wesley in his Journal," 
dated 26th April, 1762), of the Wilderness, Lur- 
gan, co. Armagh. He left issue: 

I. William Jackson, who died 21st May, 1850, aged 
about thirty-five years, and is buried along with his 
mother in Mount Jerome. He was the last male repre- 
sentative of the Tencurry family, and, dying unmarried, 
his property went to his only sister, Mary. 

II. Mary Jackson, the last of the name, married, 29th 
February, 1841, to William Pigott, of Delbrook, Dundrum, 
co. Dublin, son of John Pigott, and grandson of Captain 
John Pigott, of Brockley Park, Queen's County. He 
(lied at his residence, Mount Pleasant Square, Dublin, 
llth of May, 1856, aged forty five years, having been born 
29th July, 1810, and is buried in Mount Jerome along 
with William Jackson. He left an only child, 

William Jackson Pigott, born 13th September, 1842. 
Lieutenant in the King's County Militia Rifles, March, 

The Jacksons of Tencurry claim descent from 
a family of the name, who gave large grants of 
money and lands for the purpose of erecting and 

supporting schools at Fork Hill. They were con- 
nected with families of the name of Manly of Mo- 
nasteroris, Kichardson, Pike, Pirn, Steel, and 
Armstrong, &c. 

I have an old seal in my possession belonging to 
one of the Jacksons, with the following: Arms, 
gules on a fesse between three shovellers tufted on 
the head and breast argent, each charged with a 
trefoil slipped vert, a crescent of the last. Crest, 
a shoveller, as in the arms, with the trefoil in its 
beak, and charged with a crescent on the breast. 
Motto, " Malo mori quam foedari." 


LOST BOOKS (4 th S. viii. 83.) I send you a 
few more notes towards a new " Bibliotheca Ab- 

John Lane. Is anything now known of Lane's 
poem on Guy of Warwick ? It was extant in the 
time of Phillips, who mentions it in the Tlieatrum 

St. Evrcmond. Are St. Evremond's papers still 
in existence ? One volume, at least, was left to 
Godolphin, and others were in the possession of 
Waller the poet. Des Maryeaux states that many 
things were omitted from his edition relating " to 
private passages," and there is little doubt that 
others would be suppressed on account of their 
free-thinking tendencies. It is not at all im- 
probable that some record of his intercourse with 
Spinoza may yet be found. 

Theobald and " The Double Falsehood." What 
became of the MSS. from which Theobald printed 
this play (1728), which he ascribed to Shakspeare? 
He describes one of them as " of above sixty years 
standing, in the handwriting of Mr. Downs, the 
famoiTS old Prompter," and afterwards in the pos- 
session of Betterton, who intended to have pub- 
lished it. He speaks, also, of two other copies, one 
of which came " from a noble person," who also 
favoured him with the tradition that the play was 
given by Shakspeare to a natural daughter. Al- 
though evidently much doctored, the work is 
certainly older than Theobald's time, and is in- 
teresting as an early instance of the influence of 
Cervantes upon the English drama. 

Philip, DuJce of Wharton.The old Earl of 
Cloncartie, who lived so long at Boulogne pensioned 
by the French Government, had several manu- 
script productions of his old friend the "mad duke " 
of Wharton. What became of them 1 

Diary of a Spanish Merchant. In the European 
Magazine, for June, 1813, there are some extracts 
from a MS. diary kept by a Spanish merchant 
from 1645 to 1664. Where is this now 1 It may 
assist in identification if I add that under Jan. 30, 
1661, it contains some very nasty details of the 
hanging of the corpses of Cromwell, Ireton, and 

Sir M. Hale's MSS. -Sir W. Lee. Chief Justice 



of the King's Bench, 12 Geo. II., in the case of 
the King against Bosworth, seems to have quoted 
in a somewhat different manner from the commonly 
received form, the well-known axiom about Chris- 
tianity in relation to the common law ascribed to 
Hale. The Chief Justice mentioned that in a MS. 
of Sir Matthew's, which he had seen, it was said, 
" that Christianity came in here by external spiritual 
force and discipline, was introduced as a custom, 
and is part of the law." What was this MS., and 
where is it now ? 

Sir John Falstaff. Botoner, the pursuivant or 
secretary of Sir John Falstaff, amongst other things, 
wrote a work entitled Ada Domini Johannis 
Fastolff, which was extant in Fuller's time. His 
son also made a collection of documents relating to 
the wars of the English in France, a copy of which 
was in the possession of Brian Fairfax. Is any- 
thing known of their present whereabouts ? While 
upon this subject, I should like to ask if it is known 
from what source Capt. Alexander Smith derived 
the adventures which he has given to Falstaff in 
his History of the Lives and Robberies of High- 
waymen, &c., 2 vols. LondL, 1714. Much of the 
narrative is taken from Shakspeare, but after ex- 
hausting the familiar scenes of Henry IV., he takes 
the fat knight into unknown latitudes. Was there 
not some earlier chap-book or popular history to 
which he was indebted for this after life ? In the 
life of Falstaff given in the Biog. Brit., vol. 5, Mr. 
Gough quotes, from " a manuscript poem upon the 
reign of Richard II., Henry IV., and Henry V.," a 
passage relating to the popularity of Shakspeare's 
Henry IV. : 

" howe'er the heaps 

May crowd in hungry expectation all 

To the sweet nugilogues of Jack and Hall." 

Has this MS. been printed ? 


ORPHEUS AND MOSES (4 th S. xi. 521 ; xii. 31.) 
Had the tone of MR. STEINMETZ'S remarks savoured 
more of courtesy, I would have replied to them at 
length ; as it is, I will only take leave to say that I 
did not in my note make use of the word " dis- 
covery," as the inverted commas may lead your 
readers to suppose ; and that I am as far, I hope, 
as MR. STEINMETZ, or any one else, from wishing 
or intending, by any word I speak or write, to 
show disrespect for, or to bring discredit upon, 
any portion of the Holy Scriptures, which through 
a long lifetime of many sorrows have been my 
chief support and solace. 

In support of my position, which I still hold to, 
let me refer your correspondent to the first book of 
Josephus's reply to Apion about the antiquity of 
the Jews. Nor do I see in what way it can 
militate against the dignity or divine authority of 
their sacred writings, because, as he asserts, they 
were known, more or less, to such men as? Pvtha- 

goras, Theophrastus, Herodotus of Halicarnassus, 
Hecatseus, and Plato. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

P.S. I have only just discovered that I have 
been the victim of a misprint. In my edition of 
the Poette Minores Grceci, by Ralph Winterton, 
1635, v8pojvr)s is erroneously given for -uSoyevr/s, 
the latter occurring both in Hederick and Liddell 
and Scott. Of these the former says, I'Soyevrjs, , 
ex aqua natus. A yeivo/mi ; the latter, v8oyevrj<s, 
es, sprung from the water, prob. 1. for v\oy-, in 
Orph. Fr., 2, 36 ; v. Lob. PathoL, 443. So that, 
after all, it is a classical word, although MR. 
STEINMETZ pronounces it to be " nothing of the 
sort," and, moreover, is " noticed " by two out of 
the three lexicographers I mentioned, though, by 
reason of the misprint, I failed at first to find it. 
That it stands for vAoyei/r)? is nothing beyond 
conjecture, as Liddell and Scott candidly admit. 
The only authority they give for t>Aoyev?)s, or 
vA^yei/^s, is Synesius, of the beginning of the 
fifth century. No reference to Orpheus. E. T. 

" Pea pein " is a misprint for poor pain. It is so 
stated in the Errata to Hawkesworth's edition of 
1765. In that of 1766 it is corrected to "poor 
pain"[xvii. p. 165.] EDWARD SOLLY. 

I know no such word as "pea-pern." Sir 
Walter Scott's edition of Swift's Works (Edinburgh, 
1824) reads, " instead of a poor pain in my face, I 
have a good substantial giddiness and headache." 

rather _ 

antithesis to " good 

of this kind might easily occur in deciphering this 

letter, may be shown by an extract from Mrs. 

Howard's reply to Swift. Swift had concluded his 

letter with this compliment : 

" I will say another thing in your praise, that goodness 
would become you better than any person I know ; and 
for that very reason, there is nobody I wish to be go 
so much as yourself." 

Mrs. Howard unfortunately read " poison " in- 
stead of " person" ; so she sharply rejoins : 

" . ... Answer these queries in writing, if poison or 
other methods do not enable you soon to appear in 
person. Though I make use of your own word poison, 
o-ive me leave to tell you it is nonsense ; and I desire you 
will take more care, for the time to come, how i you 
endeavour to impose^upon my understanding, by making 
no use of your own." 

Swift at once replied : 

" Thus have I most fully answered your queries, 
wish the poison were in my stomach (which may be 
very probable, considering the many drugs I take), if I 
remember to have mentioned that word in my letter. 
But ladies who have poison in their eyes, may be apt to 
mistake in their reading. ! I have found it out ; the 
word person, I suppose, was written like poison. Ask alt 
the friends I write to, and they will attest this mistake 
to be but a trifle in my way of writing, and could easily 
prove it if they had any of my letter? to show. I make 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. xu. JULY 26, 73. 

nothing of mistaking untoward for Howard, wellpull for 
Walpole, knights of a share for knights of a shire, 
monster for minister; in writing speaker, I put an n for 
a p; and a hundred such blunders, which cannot be 
helped, while I have a hundred oceans rolling in my 
ears, into which no sense has been poured this fortnight; 
and therefore if I write nonsense, I can assure you it is 
genuine, and not borrowed." 

Mrs. Howard did not become Countess of 
Suffolk till 1731. 


Perhaps Swift's abuse of the " stork" is because, 
in spite of its good qualities, the stork is a glutton, 
and eats garbage. The amusement referred to can 
only be indulged in by elderly matrons under a 
particular combination of circumstances. It con- 
sists in being justified in saying to one's daughter, 
" Rise up, daughter, and go to thy daughter, for 
thy daughter's daughter has a son." 


"FAWNEY" = A RING (4 th S. xii. 8.) The 
proper form of the Erse fain, faine, is ain, ainne 
(ainn, a great circle), which seem to be from 
anneau; or from annus, a circle; preceded by a 
digamma. If the word fawney had been found in 
Gipsy, it might have been of Oriental origin. In 
the different Gipsy dialects the word for ring is 
vongusto,angusti, anguszto, gusto, gushdo,jangustri, 
gostring, gusterin. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

MICHAEL ANGELO (4 th S. xii. 7.) Ottley assigns 
the print to Beatricetto. There are others by the 
same engraver after M. Angelo. Lafreri was a 
publisher. The peculiar state of the plate may 
render it a rarity. R. N. J. 

The engraver of this print was Nicolas Beatrizet, 
or Beautrizet, born, most probably, at Luneville ; 
the exact date is not, however, known ; it must 
have been early in the sixteenth century 1507 is 
named in the edition of Vasari, published at 
Florence by Lemonnier. Beatrizet died after 1560, 
as that date is to be found upon a print bearing 
his name, called The Ocean. Bartsch, vol. xv. 
No. 97, p. 267. Ant. Lafreri, born at Salins, 1572, 
was also an engraver, but is better known as a 
dealer in works of art. He bought unfinished or 
worn plates, retouched and altered them, adding 
his own name, with also, according to Nagler, 
" dem Beinamen Sequanus." The date of his first 
going to Rome is not known, nor are we acquainted 
with the name of his master. He died about 
1580. The first state of this plate bears only 
" Hierernias." BEN. NATTALI. 

The Library, Windsor Castle. 

COUNT BORUWLASKI (4 th S. xii. 7.) The Polish 
dwarf, Count Boruwlaski, died on Tuesday, the 
5th of September, 1837, in his 99th year. His 
remains were interred on Monday the llth, in the 

Nine Altars " in Durham Cathedral, near those 
of his friend Stephen Kemble. For some time 
previous to his death he resided in an elegant 
cottage on the Wear, near Durham. 

[See " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. i. 154, 240, 358 ; ii. 157.] 

321.) Perhaps doode is the Dutch dade, date ; 
opnette I take to be the French topinambour, 
Jerusalem artichoke ; first, I conceive the ami our 
was dropped, then for a smaller sort the diminu- 
tive was used, so that the word became topinet or 
topnette. F. J. V. 

8.) The arch was not added to the Prince of 
Wales's coronet till after the restoration of King 
Charles II. J. H. I. OAKLEY. 

" RENDER UNTO C^SAR," &c. (4 th S. xii. 8.) 
The original picture was in the collection of M. 
Heris, at Brussels. It was engraved by Landry, 
Visscher, Vosterman, with slight variations by 
Dankers, also in small. A repetition of the picture 
by one of Rubens's pupils, but finished by him, is 
in the Louvre. R. N. J. 

Does not your correspondent allude to the 
picture under the above title by Titian, in the 
Dresden Gallery, one of his most finished early 
ones ? D. C. E. 


ABP. OF DUBLIN (4 th S. ii. 440, 521 ; viii. 489.) 
I am indebted to the courtesy of the Rev. Win, 
Reeves, D.D., Rector of Tynan, Armagh, and 
Librarian of the Public Library in that city, for 
the following interesting information : 

The Latin autobiography of the Archbishop, in 
his own handwriting, was presented to the Armagh 
Library, in 1776, by the Rev. Thos. English, and 
is still preserved. It is entitled Qucedam meo& 
vitce insigniora, and commences : 

"Ipse natus calendis Maii 1650, patre Jacobo ejusdem 
nominis avo et proavo familia antiqua de Burras in 
Scotia Septentrionali." 

The volume, lettered on the back " The King's 
Royal Library of Dublin MSS. Hibernica, vol i.," 
contains, besides the autobiography, a translation 
or paraphrase of the same, evidently written by a 
member of the Abp.'s family, together with copies 
of Dr. K.'s letters from 1715 (July 2) to Oct., 
1716. There are 323 pp. in all. Dr. Reeves adds, 
" This is certainly the volume which Harris used." 
The autobiography, so long in the possession of a 
branch of the King family, the loss of which I 
have referred to before, must have been either a 
duplicate or transcript of this MS. C. S. K. 

Bythan Lodge, Southgate, N. 

HERALDIC (4 th S. xi. 525.) When a man marries 
an heiress, the issue by that marriage are the sole 

4 <s.xii.j UL r26,73.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 

representatives of the united houses ; the coat 
borne by that issue is one and indivisible for ever 
hereafter; consequently, any daughter, being a 
descendant of the said man and heiress, will pre- 
serve the coat of the said heiress, or of any other 
heiress who shall have intervened, the coats being 
quartered in the usual way. 

2nd. If a man marries an heiress, he will bear 
the coat of her house on the escutcheon of pre- 
tence ; if the issue by that marriage die, there is 
plainly no one representative of the united houses ; 
therefore, no bne is entitled to bear a coat repre- 
senting such union. 

When the man dies, his issue by any other wife 
will bear the coat of his house ; and neither he in 
his lifetime, nor his issue then or after, will be 
entitled to quarter the arms of the heiress. 

H. L. M. 

The allusion made by Mr. Ruskin is no doubt to 
the case of Angelique Cottin, the only record of 
which I can at present find is the following, in 
Mr. Henry Spicer's Sights and Sounds, 1853, 
p. 50 : 

" The report of the Commission of the Academy of 
Sciences, at Paris, Feb. 16, 1846, records the case of one 
Angelique Cottin, a girl of fourteen, in whose presence 
sounds were heard, and movements of articles of furni- 
.ture, without visible agency noticed. The case, however, 
is reported briefly and unsatisfactorily." 

Details of other cases of similar phenomena are 
given in the same book (including the very curious 
one occurring to Councillor Hahn, at Slawensick 
Castle, in Silesia) ; and the copious literature of 
spiritualism is replete with such, and easily acces- 

386, 501; viii. 55.) One might have supposed 
the question of this reading in Auld Lang Syne 
settled by the correspondence on the subject in 
" N. & Q." ; but it is not so, as the most recent 
publications of the song will show. In W. M. 
Rossetti's compact and richly annotated Burns, the 
reading is 

" And we'll tak a right guid willie-waught, 
For auld lang syne." 

This reading, as you are aware, has been seriously 
impugned by several of your correspondents, who 
contend, on what seem to me unanswerable 
reasons, that the text should read " guid-willie 
waught." Yet the reading of Rossetti is sustained 
by Dr. Hately Waddell, in his Lowland Scottish 
Version of the Book of Psalms. In his rendering 
of the 16th Psalm, and fourth verse, he reads: 

' Mair dule sal they hae, wha mel wi' ony ither : and 
sal neithr toom till them their williewaughts o' bluid ; 
no, nor lift their vera names intil my mouthe." 

Here willie-waught is used to signify a draught ; 
while we contend that waught signifies draught by 

itself, and that willie should be joined to guid, 
i.e. guid-willie, well-wishing, friendly. 

Such is the reading of Robert Chambers in his 
Songs of Scotland : 

" And we'll tak' a rickt-guid-willie waught 
For auld lang syne." 

We believe Chambers's text to be the more 
correct one. 

Readers partial to the Scottish Doric will be 
glad to hear of Dr. WaddelTs most curious and 
ingenious translation of David's Hebrew into the 
dialect of Burns. The feat is successfully achieved 
without a single cause of regret, for the Psalmist 
loses nothing in dignity in the homely phraseology 
of the Scottish peasantry, except for the fatal 
jingle of rhyme, too often admitted by the trans- 
lator. This spoils what is else so good. D. N. 

(4 th S. xii. 19.) In your notice of this book you 
mention the well-known miracle of Tipassa, where 
the loss of the tongues of the forty confessors did 
not deprive them of speech. You remark: 

" Although the African martyrs are said to have spoken 
' without any impediment,' the value of this assertion is 
very slight when we remember that it was made by 
the co-religionists and sympathisers with the Catholic 
sufferers men whose object was to strain their utmost 
to make out another set of miracles." 

Gibbon (ch. xxxvii.), after giving the Christian 
evidence, adds : 

" At Constantinople we are astonished to find a cool, a 
learned and unexceptionable witness, without interest, 
and without passion. JEneas of Gaza, a Platonic philoso- 
pher, has accurately described his own observations on 
those African sufferers. ' I saw them myself ; I heard 
them speak ; I diligently inquired by what means such 
an articulate voice could be formed without any organ of 
speech ; I used my eyes to examine the report of my ears ; 
I opened their mouth, and saw that their whole tongue 
had been completely torn away by the roots ; an opera- 
tion which the physicians generally suppose to be mortal.' " 

The subsequent observation of Gibbon is worthy 
of being recorded : 

" The supernatural gift of the African confessors, who 
spoke without tongues, will command the assent of those, 
and of those only, who already believe that their language 
was pure and orthodox. But the stubborn mind of an 
infidel is guarded by secret incurable suspicion, and the 
Arian or Socinian, who has seriously rejected the doctrine 
of the Trinity, will not be shaken by the most plausible 
evidence of an Athanasian miracle." 


Springthorpe Rectory. 

[For articles on this subject, see "N.& Q.," 2 nd S. v. 
409,483; 3 rd S. i. 268, 337.] 

COUNCIL OF NICJEA (4 th S. xi. 524 ; xii. 14.) 
The passage sought for is probably the statement 
given in Cave's Lives of the Fathers, ii., 1683, 
p. 57. Life of St. Athanasius, speaking of the 
number at the Council, he says : 

" Eutychius, the Arabick Historian, and Ismael Ibn 
Ali, a Mahumetan Historian mentioned by Mr. Selden, 



* s. xn. JULY 20, 73. 

enlarge the number to MMXLVIII., out of which they tell 
us the Emperor selected cccxviir. Though whence this 
variety of lit ports should arise, whether from the great 
numbers of inferior Clergy that came thither, but have 
no Votes in the Council, or from the dissenting parties 
n the Synod, not taken into account, is hard to say." 

[The following paseage is taken from Dean Stanley's 
Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church, fourth 
edition, 1869, pp. 94, 95: "At Nicsea the highest 
calculation, in the distorted accounts of later times, 
fixes the number at more than 2,000." This, if we include 
all the presbyters and attendants, is probably correct. 
The actuul i.umber of Bishops, variously stated in the 
earlier authorities as 218, b 250, c 270, d or 300, e was finally 
believed to have be?,M 320 or 318, f and this in the Eastern 
Church bus been so completely identified with the event, 
that the Council is often known as that of 'the 318.' It 
is a proof of the importance of the event that even so 
trivial a circumstance as the number should be made 
the groundwork of more than one mystical legend. 
In the Greek numerals it was T I H ; i. e., T for the 
cross, I H for the sacred name 'lrjaoi>Q. s It was h also 
supposed that their number was prefigured in the 318 
slaves of Abraham. It became the foundation of seeking 
mystical numbers for the later Councils. The greatest 
of all the Eastern Councils, in numbers and dignity, that 
of Chalcedon, prided itself on being just double that of 
Nicsea, 636. The Council of Constantinople, which de- 
posed Ignatius, and exalted Photius in the ninth century, 
prided itself on being exactly the same number, 318. 
The Alexandrians, after two Arabian historians,' giving 
the sum total of the Council as 2,348, represent the rest 
as the grand gathering of all the heretics of the world, 
Sabellians, Mariolaters, Arians ; and that the 318 were 
the orthodox and steadfast minority." 

Keferences : a 2,340 (Macrizi, 31) ; 2,848 (Mansi, ii. 
p. 1073; Eutychius, Ann., 1,440). b Anal. Nic., 34. 
' Eus., V.C., iii. 8. a Eustathius (apud Theod., i. 8), 
who, however, adds that he had not examined the 
matter closely. e Athan., Hist. Monach., c. 66 ; Apol. c. 
Arian., c. 23, 25 ; De Synod., c. 43. f Athan., Ad Afr., 
c. 2; Soc., i. 8; Soz. i. 17; (320) Theod i. 7. Ambrose, 
De Fide, i. 18. h Hid., i. 1. ' Macrizi, 31 : Eutychius, 
Ann.,i. 440.] 

SOMERVILLE PEERAGE (4 th S. xi. 157, 201, '257, 
325, 427, 493 ; xii. 15.) I venture to think that 
the differences between HERMENTRUDE and S. on 
the one part, and myself on the other, are merely 
verbal, and that substantially we are of the same 

I cannot understand wherein lies the affront 
against which HERMENTRUDE protests, for although 
she takes exception to my opinion as to represen- 
tation she does not express a definite opinion of an 
opposite tendency. On the contrary, she rather 
corroborates my argument so far, by admitting 
that there may be in a Family at least two persons 
possessing a representative character, the heir male 
and the heir general. This goes in the direction 
of what I contend for, and I submit, upon that 
admission, that according as the Peerage held by a 
Noble Family is descendible to heirs male or to 
heirs general, so will the real representative of that 
Noble Family be the heir male or the heir general. 
But, in answer to HERMENTRUDE'S enquiry, I may 

say that according to the Law of Scotland, which 
is applicable to the case before us, there may be 
other heirs than the two she mentions. For in- 
stance, there may be the heir of tailzie and pro- 
vision, to whom a Peerage may be descendible. 
Again HERMENTRUDE asks, " If the holder of the 
dignity has obtained it by fraud or ignorance, in 
what possible sense can he be a true represen- 
tative V As well ask, In what sense can he be a 
true Peer 1 Are we to begin by presuming fraud 
or ignorance [ l Instead of my saying " holder of 
the Dignity," would HERMENTRUDE have had me 
say "true and lawful holder of the Dignity"? 
When we speak of holders, surely we are under- 
stood to mean true and lawful holders, whether we 
use these words or not. The general principle is, 
that after the decision of a competent Tribunal 
this shall be truth and law so long as any one exists 
who has an interest to plead under it. 

S., also, objects to my statement that in a Noble 
Family I would consider the holder of the Dignity 
the representative, and asks " How, then, about 
Sir E. Seymour, who proudly regarded the Duke 
of Somerset as a branch of his family 1" The ques- 
tion, I presume, conveys its own answer, namely, 
that Sir E. Seymour was not a member of the 
Noble Family of which the Duke was the repre- 
sentative. I could not wish for a better example 
than that furnished by S. in Melville Zetland and 
Dundas of Dundas. Dundas of Dundas is the 
representative of the Family of Dundas as a whole, 
but he is not the representative of either of the 
Noble Families of Dundas Viscount Melville or 
Dundas Earl of Zetland. He is not a member of 
a Noble Family at all in the sense in which we are 
now speaking. If Nobility ran back to an indefi- 
nite extent, where would we look for the represen- 
tatives of many of our now Noble Families \ 

W. M. 



ROMAN CHURCH (4 th S. xi. 359, 449.) However 
the question " an rnysteria SS. Trinitatis et Incar- 
nationis sint credenda explicite?" may be resolved 
(see Theol Moral, S. Alphon. de Ligorio, lib. iii. 
cap. 1 ; Busembaum's Medulla Theol. Moral., lib. 
ii. cap. 1, &c.), A. M. may be assured that the 
form of reconciling a convert as still used by the 
Church of Rome demands, of course, a very much 
larger profession of faith than the Apostles' Creed. 
I cite as interesting to English people from the 
"Forma reconciliandi Conversum," in the Ordo 
administrandi Sacramenta, et alia qucedam Officia 
Ecclesiastics rite peragendi, in Missione Anglicand. 
Londoni, 1831 : 

" I, N. N., with a firm faith believe and profess all and 
every one of these things which are contained in that 
Creed which the Holy Roman Church maketh use of, to 
wit, I believe," &c. [The convert then recites the Nicene 
Creed.] " I most steadfastly admit and embrace Apo- 

4- s. xii. J.LY 26, -7^.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Btolical and Ecclesiastical Traditions, and all other 
Observances and Constitutions of the same Church." 

" I also admit the Holy Scriptures according to that 
sense which our Holy Mother, the Church, has held and 
does hold, to which it belongs to judge of the true sense 
and interpretation of the Scriptures. Neither will I 
ever take or interpret them otherwise than according to 
the unanimous consent of the Fathers." 

"I also profess that there are truly and properly Seven 
Sacraments," &c. 

"I embrace and receive all and every one of the 
Things which have been defined and declared in the 
holy Council of Trent concerning Original Sin and 

" I profess likewise that in the Mass there is offered to 
Gqd a true proper and propitiatory Sacrifice for the 
Living and the Dead." [Then follows explicitly a pro- 
fession of faith in (1) the Real Presence, (2) in Tran- 
substantiation, (3) in the doctrine of Concomitance.] 

: ' I constantly hold that there is a Purgatory," &c. 

"Likewise that the Saints reigning together with 
Christ are to be honoured and invocated," &c. 

"I most firmly assert that the Image of Christ, of the 
Mother of God, Ever-virgin, &c v ought to be had and 
retained," &c. 

" I also affirm that the power of Indulgences was left 
by Christ to the Church, and that the use of them is 

" I acknowledge the Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman 
Church for the Mother and Mistress of all Churches, 
and I promise true obedience to the Bishop of Rome," 

" I likewise undoubtedly receive and profess all other 
things delivered, defined, and declared by the sacred 
Canons and General Councils, and particularly by the 
holy Council of Trent, and I condemn, reject, and 
anathematize all things contrary thereto, and all heresies 
which the Church has condemned, rejected, and anathe- 

" I, N. N., do at this present freely profess, and sincerely 
hold this true Catholic Faith, without which no one can 
be saved," &c. 


** CALLIP^EDIA " (4 th S. xi. 444, 510.) The first 
edition of this book was printed at Leyden in 
1655, and contained lines abusive of Cardinal 
Mazarin and his family. The Cardinal sent for 
Quillet, spoke kindly to him, and promised to give 
him preferment. Shortly after, he gave him a 
valuable Abbaye which fell vacant. Quillet then 
republished his poem in 1656 at Paris, the lines 
against the Cardinal being replaced by others in 
his praise, and the whole prefaced by a flattering 
dedication to Mazarin. Full details are given in 
Mcnagiana, Amsterdam edition. 


GOBLIN (4* S. xi. 464.) The Clarendon Press 
series has no authority for the etymology of the 
word goblin other than that of the dictionaries in 
general, and altogether the derivation is a doubtful 
one. Casaubon (v. Richardson's Diet., sub. v.), on 
the authority of the scholiast upon Aristophanes 
derives it from the Greek wfaouUs, Ko/3aAot 
being, according to Liddell and Scott, mischievous 
goblins invoked by rogues, quasi KaKo(3ov\oi 

glosses Lemon ; but if this were assumed it would 
be better to imagine KaKo(3oX.o<s scattering evil, as 
(Sia/QoAos is Devil, or slanderer. Roquefort, in 
his Glossaire Rmnane, has " Gobelin, bobelin : 
Demon familier, lutin, esprit follet, le diable, en 
bus Lat. gobeliniis." 

Minshew and many others say from Gober to 
gobble, because nurses tell infants that they devour 
children whole. 

De la Monnoye says it is a word of very ancient 
use in Normandy, and that it is the diminutive of 
Kobolt, a word that the Normans brought with 
them from the north. 

Wedgwood quotes the precise passage cited by 
M. R. from Ordericus Vitalis, and thinks that 
it is amongst the Celts we must look for the 
origin. Coblyn is, in Welsh, a knocker, fom vobio, 
to knock : he adds The German Kobold means a 
mine-spirit ; and the miners atLlandudno maintain 
the existence of such Knockers in mines, and regard 
them as very harmless. Mining has been going on 
in Cardiganshire since the Romans were here ; and 
it is a miner's superstition, this Kobold, in Ger- 
many now. But the English and French word is 
infinitely more akin to the Welsh. In Chambers's 
Dictionary, by Donald, Cobalt, the metal, is said 
to be so called by the miners from Kobold, a devil, 
because it indicates the absence of more precious 

A cob is a blow, and the consequence of a blow 
is a lump. Cobstones are large stones, cobbles are 
stones rounded by the beating or cobbling of the 
sea, and, therefore, Neptune is the greatest of all 
cobblers, and should be worshipped by every son 
of Crispin. The ghost in Hamlet is represented as 
a dexterous miner, an " old mole," a knocker, and 
so a goblin ; and assuredly, in modern spirit stances, 
either spirits are knockers and coblyns, or the 
mediums cobble for them ; in any case, the fre- 
quenters have fallen amongst rappers and goblins, 
and if they go very far will scarcely preserve them- 

frorn rapine. C. A. W. 


"Some have derived the words elf and goblin from 
Guelphs and Ghibellines, the names of two great political 
parties which divided Italy and Germany during the 
middle ages ; and others derive goblin from the French 
gober, to devour." The National Encyclopaedia, Vol. 
VI. s.v. Goblins. 



POSITION OF THE PULPIT (4 th S. xi. 358, 469, 
511.) Durandus says, the "pulpit is so-called 
from being public, or placed in a public place." The 
late Welby Pugin, when rebuilding my church, 
said, " the north side of the nave, near the chancel 
arch, was the proper place for the pulpit, as the 
sermon was, or ought to be, an exposition of the 
Grospel " ; but in our case we had to place it on the 
south side of the chancel arch, there being a north 


[4 th S. XII. JULY 26, '73. 

aisle separated from the nave by a row of pillars 
and arches. S. WARD. 

The north side is the place for the pulpit, for the 
pulpit was the ambo from whence the Gospel was 
read, and it is always read on the north side. 
Sometimes it was read, and I suppose the sermon 
preached, when there was one, from the rood loft, 
which, with its circular staircase, still remains in 
some churches. I remember seeing the Gospel 
read at High Mass in Sevilla Cathedral from an 
ambo or pulpit in the choir screen. The pulpit in 
St. Paul's, when it stood in the chancel, was on the 
north side. E. L. BLENKINSOPP. 

Springthorpe Rectory. 


xi. 383, 432, 513.) The word sos is to be found in 
the Vocabulario del Dialecto Jitano, por D. 
Augusto Jimenez, of which a second edition was 
published in Seville in 1853. It is there given as 
a translation of the Spanish Que. I have before 
me the words of a gipsy curse, which were written 
for me by Antonio Bailly, the old valet de place in 
Seville, and given to me by him with the injunction 
never to address them to a gipsy unless I was ready 
to look my last upon the sun. This word sos 
occurs twice in the phrase (once in composition), 
which is as follows : 

" Aunsos guilles y te chooes nel fresniego e Bombardd 
Nasti dicabas qui chardiella sos sa menda te petro." 

and Bailly translated thus : " Though you may 
wash in the Gulf of Lyons, you can't wash out the 
stain I have inflicted on you." 

Having been thus mysteriously warned, of course 
I was all impatience to try the effects of this 
tremendous distich, and therefore seized an early 
opportunity of launching the curse at the head of 
a gipsy with all the venom of malignant hate that 
I could assume, and calmly awaited my fate. But 
I still live to tell the tale. My only reward was a 
prolonged and stupid stare from a pair of lovely 
eyes. Years of calm reflection have convinced 
me that Bailly made a fool of me. This Bailly, 
by the way, was 'a noteworthy character, a grand- 
son, according to his own account, of Mayor 
Bailly of the first French Ee volution, doesn't 
Carlyle call him "thousand-despatch Bailly"? 
He was Lord Byron's guide when his lord- 
ship was in Seville ; and Lord Byron wrote 
some lines before he left that city, and gave them 
to his faithful lackey. I do not remember ever to 
have seen these lines in print, and even if they 
have been printed, their repetition in " N. & Q." 
may serve to recall to some of your readers the 
portly figure that guided their young feet through 
the devious streets of that charming city, which, 
according to the popular proverb, not to have seen 
is to have failed in seeing a marvel. The verses 
are as follows : 

" All those that travel ever must decide 
'Tis time ill-spent without a skilful guide, 
One who the manners and the customs knows, 
And gives the history of all he shows ; 
Who all the locks, with picking, can undo 
With silver keys, with skill applied thereto. 
If such you want, and one who will not fail ye, 
I strongly recommend Antonio Bailly." 
Be it understood that I do not in the least criticize 
MR. SMITH'S knowledge of the Gipsy language. 

MR. SMITH'S suggestion is clever, but too 
charitable. The line is from Vol. i. p. 86 (1857 
edition), Romany Eye, and the context, " a gorgiko 
rye, sos kistur," &c., "'twas yov sos kerdo man 
cambri," shows that in this, as in other instances, 
in this and all his other works, Borrow uses 
Spanish for English Romanes ; indeed, he some- 
times seems to go further, e. g., Wild Wales, 
ch. xcviii., a stanza running : " Ando berkho rye 
cano", oteh pivo tehkhavo". tu lerasque ando berkho 
piranee, teh corbatcha por pico," of which no 
Eomanychal can even suggest a meaning. Can any 
of your readers interpret it ? Possibly, part of it 
is " on breast gentleman now, there drink and eat 
Thou .... on breast sweetheart and .... stay on 
shoulder." Pellengro, according to Dr. Smart, 
means a male, cf. pellonos testiculi, and pel to fall. 


For an outline grammar and vocabulary, see The 
Dialect of the English Gypsies, by Bath C. Smart, 
M.D., F.E.S., published for the Philological Society 
by A. Asher & Co., Berlin, 1863. JOHN ADDIS. 

BRONZE, TIN, AMBER, &c. (4 th S. xi. 115, 180, 
227, 291, 534.) I should plead guilty to the 
offence charged by PELAGIUS, of having stated 
things which are not in books, or which are con- 
trary to what is alleged in his books, if this offence 
were one acknowledged by the editor, or readers of 
" N. & Q." If we are not to publish anything but 
what is published in books, the highest functions 
of " N. & Q." would cease. The great value of 
" N. & Q.," and of such contributories to science, 
is, that they do contain matter which is not in 
books, and that such publications furnish to the 
student the highest and the latest knowledge, 
beyond the best and most accredited manuals, in- 
stead of being a simple borrower from other books. 
" N. & Q.," as we all know, has furnished a large 
store of new facts, and has achieved the merit of 
promoting original investigations. Standard works 
of reference are commonly from ten to fifteen 
years behind the living literature of the press ; 
and some, fifty or a hundred years. My reference 
to the form of Jcassiteros is based partly on the 
studies of an accredited author, Dr. Bleek, the 
nature of whose laborious studies is not likely to 
make him popularly known. His discoveries, of 



the importance in comparative philology of the 
prefixes, or definitives, M, S, K, &c., are well 
worth the attention of PELAGIUS, and are of great 
value in the comparative chronology of language 
and grammar. Treating K as a prefix then, we 
have a root for the early name of a metal, which 
in conformity with our knowledge might subse- 
quently be assigned to Tin and Iron. If somebody 
has chosen to think that the name of the tin 
islands is derived from the Sanskrit kastiva, which 
is not Phoenician, there is no harm in suggesting 
some earlier etymology, which will, at all events, 
have granted chronological probability. With 
deference to PELAGIUS, the archaeologist or ethnolo- 
gist can make as good history with a bronze 
weapon, a skull, the name of a planet, or a fable, 
as can be made from the loose wording of a chance 
Greek author, having no sound source of informa- 
tion or any good knowledge of the country or 
people to which he referred. At a period when 
we are creating history, extending and correcting 
that to be found in books, the dictum "it is 
written in a book" can no longer be applied as a 
writ of ne exeat on the expression of new opinions, 
forbidding their free currency and circulation. 



So much of the Diary of Lady Willoughby as relates to 
her Domestic History, and to the Eventful Period of 
the Reign of Charles I., the Protectorate, and the Resto- 
ration. (Longmans & Co.) 

CLOSE upon thirty years have elapsed since Mrs. Hannah 
Mary Rathbone published the above interesting and 
beautiful work. It has been added to in later editions. 
The first comprised the period 1635-1648. It is a book 
to gratify readers of all ages one to send the young to 
further study the real history of the times. It is pure in 
sentiment and expression. Mrs. Rathbone did not overdo 
the style and spirit of the period she illustrated. There 
are some writers of imaginary diaries who are over- 
whelmingly characteristic. They are like the player who, 
the better to act Othello, blacked himself all over. 

The Quarterly Review. No. 269. July, 1873. (Murray.) 
THE Midsummer number of the Quarterly begins with 
English poetry and ends with French politics. The con- 
clusion of the first is that there is no lack of English sub- 
jects yet untreated by English poets. The moral of the 
last is, that the French Revolution of 1789 is yet un- 
finished, and that France would have made more healthy 
progress at less terrible cost if French politicians of the 
time indicated had been true patriots instead of mere poli- 
ticians. The article which will, perhaps, be read before 
any other, is the one on " Beaumarchais and his Times." 
It is pleasant to read and pleasant to remember. It 
shows that Beaumarchais not only invented Figaro, but 
overturned the French monarchy, and created the United 
States ! Another excellent article is on a little known 
subject, the French Church. What may be called the 
"seasonable" article is the one on the Shah of Persia. 
It contains an illustration of the difficulty of making a 
very high personage understand what the electric tele- 

graph really is, and how it works. The English official 
succeeded at last by suggesting the existence of a dog so 
large that with its tail at Teheran its muzzle would be in 
London, and that as soon as anybody trod on its tail in 
Teheran the dog would bark in London. The Persian, 
however, might reasonably have asked how the imaginary 
dog would, on being touched in England, make the touch 
known in Persia. As much interest has been manifested 
by some of our correspondents to know the exact mean- 
ing of the word Shah, we add the following : The 
Ahasuerus (Achashverosh) of " Esther " is the same as 
Khshaydrshd, the old Persian word which the Greeks 
made " Xerxes." The first part of the word ' ' Khshaya," 
from which is derived the modern "Shah," meant, in 
old Persian, "King." 

The Legends and Commemorative Celebrations of St. 

Kenttgern, his Friends and Disciples. Translated from 

the Aberdeen Breviary and the Arbuthnott Missal. 

With an Illustrative Appendix. (Edinburgh, Printed 

for Private Circulation.) 

THIS carefully compiled and equally well edited volume 
is a welcome addition to legendary collections, and also to 
the stores of testimony as to how the intercession or 
intervention of saints was relied upon, and how the wor- 
ship of saints was shown to have inestimable value. The 
volume is " for private circulation, "and that, too, is well. 
Readers may be somewhat startled by the account of 
fraud and brutality by which St. Thenew became the 
mother of St. Kentigern, especially when they subse- 
quently come to this prayer : " Oh God, who hast willed 
that by interposition of Divine grace, the blessed Kenti- 
gern should be born of the blessed Thenew, grant, in Thy 
mercy, that they who worship her with sincere minds, 
may be able to be freed from the perils of hell." The 
whole book, including the exhaustive illustrative Appen- 
dix, teems with most curious matter in connexion with 
old times, and the teaching of the Church of the early 

The Oriental. Edited by J. H. Stocqueler. (J. B. Day.) 
THE title of this new periodical explains itself. Its editor 
is a well-known veteran, used to the work. The Oriental 
moreover, is well got up, and is of a clear, readable 
type. One note we make from the varied contents. It 
refers to the case of Mr. Hockley, the author of Pandu- 
rang Hdri. " Mr. Hockley " (on trial for receiving 
bribes) " was defended by Mr. Ayrton, an attorney the 
father of the present Chief Commissioner of Public 
Works a clever lawyer, gifted with a certain rough kind 
of eloquence, garnished with a sly humour, which took 
amazingly with a Bombay jury. After a speech of four 
hours' duration he procured an acquittal for Hockley, but 
the Court of Directors would not allow the Assistant 
Judge to continue in the service." 

Slonehenge Viewed ly the Light of Ancient History and 
Modern Observation. By the Rev. L. Gidley, M.A. 
(Salisbury, Brown & Co.) 

MR. GIDLEY has contrived, within fourscore pages, to 
convey a good idea of all that is known, and all that has 
been guessed, in reference to Stonehenge. He well under- 
stands how much a man may say on a subject if he only 
sticks close to it. Mr. Gidley's conclusion is that Stone- 
henge is a Druidical monument. We have had astro- 
nomical, mathematical, architectural, and oriental 
theories to account for this structure, and Mr. Gidley 
looks for more. He does not profess to have solved the 
whole enigma of Stonehenge, but he has concentrated 
much scattered light to help us towards a solution ; and 
we owe him thanks for his amusing and instructive volume. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4-s.xii. ^26,73. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

DICKENS'S WORKS. First Editions. 
THACKERAY'S WORKS. First Editions. 

Wauled by Liber, 89, Broad St., Beading. 

HISTORY OF THE COUNTY OF LINCOLN. London, John Saunders, Jun., 

49, Paternoster Bow, MDCCCXXXVIII. Vol. II. 

Wanted by Dudley Cary Elwes, Esq., 5, The Crescent, Bedford. 


M. S. H. The lest proof that Jacobite sympathies did 
not expire with cither Prince Charles Edward or Cardinal 
York, may be found in the fact that many persons looked 
upon a gentleman, recently deceased, and who called himself 
the Chevalier (John SobiesU Stolberg) Stuart, as rightful 
heir to all the Stuart inheritance whether that included 
succession to the throne or not. The Clievalier's theory or 
story was, that in 1773 a son was born of the marriage of 
Charles Edward with the Princess Louisa of Stolberg- 
Gedern; that the birth was kept secret, and the babe 
privately conveyed on board an English frigate, and con- 
signed to the care of a naval officer, named Allen, who 
brought Mm up as his own son. This mysterious child, it 
was further said, grown to manhood, married an English 
lady, in 1790, and in the following year the " Chevalier " 
was born, who so lately was believed in by a certain 
number of followers as representative of the Stuarts. This 
belief set at nought the circumstances that if Charles 
Edward had had an heir, it was to his interest to publish, 
not to conceal it ; that in his will he only recognized one 
child, his natural daughter, the Countess of Albany ; that 
hit brother, the Cardinal, considered himself King of 
England, de jure ; and that Admiral Allen left two sons, 
John and Thomas, without any declaration of the royal 
birth of the former. Jacobite sentiment cherishes the idea 
that John was the son of Charles Edward, and that the 
late " Chevalier Stuart," whose figure was so well known 
about London, was the son of the so-called "John." 

ANNOTATOR. How old the adage is, as to setting the 
Thames on fire, we cannot say j but the thing was done in 
1814. Lord Thurlow is our authority. In his Carmen 
Britannicum, written in honour of H.R.H. George 
Augustus Frederick, Prince Regent, my lord ascribes all 
Britain's triumphs to H.R.H., and winds up a passage 
of laudation, by exclaiming: "Thames, by thy victories, 
is set on fire !" 

E. M.Ivy Lane, says Stowe, "so-called of the Ivy 
growing on the Prebend House" 

YATIDI. We cannot help you to a solution ; but a re- 
ference to books on cyphers in the British Museum probably 
can; even then, " lejeu ne vaudrait pas la chandelle." 

J. D. (Geelong). The maiden name of the widow 
Brereton, whom John Kemble married, was Priscilla 
Hopkins. The song refers to no one in particular. 

CLERICUS RUSTICUS. For " Houselina Cloths," see 
N. & Q.," 4 th S. ix. 318, 375, 411. 

J. B. (Adam Bede). See" IX. & Q.," 4 th S. viii. 311, 
387, 468, 555. 

M. D. (Pig and Whistle). See " N. & Q.," 1 st S. ix. 
251 ; x. 33. 3 rd S. v. 122. 

EPITAPH (4 th S. xii. 6, 56). MB. BULK writes: "Mr. 
Smith, the publisher of the 1870 edit, of Camden's Remains, 
writes io me thus : ' The epitaph is from the edition of 
1674 ; if not in the early editions of Camden, probably 
added by Philipot or W. D. (who the last was 1 never 
have heard). 1 suspect the lines will not be found in any 
early edition of Burns's works.' If this statement be 
correct, it puts W. M. out of court. I should like to have 
the moot question settled." 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

Just published, price 2s. 6d. 

showing that the high-born Chiefs of the ancient and honour- 
able Catholic gentle House of WKLD, of CHIDEOOK HOUSE, in the 
County of Dorset, have through the last seven successive generations 
intermarried with noble and gentle Ladies, in whose veins flowed the 
Blood-Boyal of France and England. Compiled by THOMAS PABR 
HENNING, Esq., formerly of Leigh House, in the County of Dorset. 
Intended to form one of the Weld Pedigrees in " Dorsetshire Royal 

" The blood, and dearest-valu'd blood, of France." KING JOHN. 

Published by NICHOLS & SONS, 25, Parliament|Street, Westminster ; 
and WILLIAM SHIPP, Blandford. 

The Author proposes to publish, from time to time, in consecutive 
numbers, similar Pedigrees of all the most eminent Families in the 
County of Dorset, if the success of the work is sufficient to defray the 
expense of the undertaking. 

This Chart ( 'mutatis mutandis} applies equally to Cardinal Weld s 
branch of the line, which is now represented by the Lord Clifford of 
Chudleigh. It appertains likewise, witli slight alterations and the 
substitution of varied Genealogical matter in one of the columns, to 
the Welds of Lulworth Castle, all of whose alliances have been 
chivalrous and aristocratic in the highest degree. 

" These pedigrees, printed on broadside sheets, and arranged with 
remarkable clearness and perspicuity, have been compiled with extreme 
care by a gentleman very conversant with genealogy, and more 
particularly in connexion with Dorsetshire. We were indebted to him 
for the list of the existing 'Ancient Families of Dorsetshire,' which 
appeared in our second volume. These Genealogical Trees will form 
interesting and valuable illustrations of the new edition of Hutchins's 
'History of Dorsetshire,' which is now in progress." Herald and 
Genealogist for December, 1863. 




Illustrated with Specimen Pages. By post, free. 
SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 15, Paternoster Row. 

READY ; consisting of Books of Early Woodcuts, Topography 
Books with Portraits, Early Printed Works, Facetiae, &c., and may be 
had. post free, for One Penny Stamp. Books Bought. JOHN MILLEK 
7, Green Street, Leicester Square, W. C. 

Recent Purchases of SECOND-HAND BOOKS. 800 Lots. 

24 pages. Post free. BRISTOL. 


vJT Very Soft and very Durable. Elastic Sides, or to Laee. 
THOMAS D. MARSHALL, 192, Oxford Street, W. 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73.] 





TOTES : Junius, 81 Surnames, 82 Eobert Mudie, 83 
Sbakspeariana The "TeDeum," 84 The Grim Feature- 
Royal Heads on Bells Whitaker's History of Craven, 85 
Sir Charles Wm. Hockaday Dick Louis Chasles "Blan- 
dyte Canada ; its meaning Melvil's Memoirs, 86. 

QUERIES : The Family of Mason the Poet "Blue Beard's 
Cabinets" Nash's "Worcestershire": early copies St. 
Kew, 87 Rev. .. Bolton, 1649 Hazlitt's "Lectures on the 
English Poets" Picture by Hoppner, R. A. Bishop Stilling- 
fl ee t "Rural Sports " : Descriptive and Elegiac High worth 
Church, Wilts Lord Elibank Heraldic Beth- GSlert, and 
Llewelyn-ap-Iorwerth Cousins, 88 " Interfair " Lord 
Preston, beheaded 1690 Sibyl Penn, Wife of David Penn, 
Esq. An Inscription St. Alban's Abbey "Par ternis 
Suppar," 89. 

REPLIES -Field Lore : Carr=Carse, 89 Episcopal Titles, 90 
Bibliography of Utopias "The County Magistrate" 
Duke of Hamilton's Regiment at Worcester Erasmus 
Quellyn, 91 " Mansie Wauch " Indian Newspapers 
William Phiswicke or Fishwick St. Aubyn Family Family 
of D'Anvers Mrs. Elizabeth Porter Painter Wanted, 92 
"Odd-come-shortly" Soho Square Empress Elizabeth II. 
of Russia Mary Windows Lost Books "Gersuma," 93 

' Richard West, Chancellor of Ireland David Rizzio-Serf- 
doms " History of Napoleon Bonaparte " " A Light Heart 
and a Thin Pair of Breeches," 94 Arms of a Widow " Hand- 
Book " " Roue "Tennyson's Ode on the Death of the Duke 
of Wellington Princes of Servia Paley and the Watch 
"Render unto Caisar" Snuff-box belonging to Burns 
"Religio Bibtiopolae" Funerals and Highways Misereres 
in Churches Crabbe, the Poet "I mad the Carles Lairds," 
fec., 96 ovre (3d}fi6g ovrt TTIOTIQ " Piers the Plowman ' 
The Colon, 97 Velteres Sir John Hony wood Sir 
Thomas Phillipps Epitaph Bulchyn John Dollond, 98 
"Lancaster" Inscription on Painting "A Tour Round m 
Garden " Secretary Murray Sandgate Castle, Captains an 
Lieutenants of Women in Church Ascance, 99. 

Notes on Books, <fcc. 


In an addendum to the essay entitled More about 
Junius, I printed by permission a letter from 
Sir Arthur Gordon (son of the fourth Earl of 
Aberdeen), beginning : 

" I have not once, but very often, heard my father 
say that Mr. Pitt told him that he knew the name of 
the author of the Letters of Junius, and that the author 
was not Francis." 

The following letter refers to this statement : 

" 29, Curzon Street, July 20, 1873. 
Dear Hayward, I have been struck by the account 
iven in your book of Lord Aberdeen's recollection of 
r. Pitt's statement that Sir Philip Francis was not the 
author of Junius. It may be interesting to you to know 
that Sir Arthur Gordon's account is confirmed by the evi- 
dence of my grandfather, Lord Chancellor Eldon. I per- 
fectly recollect Lord Eldon stating that Mr. Pitt said Sir 
Philip Francis was not the author of Junius, and Lord 
Eldon added that Mr. Pitt knew who the author was. 
Lord Eldon told me this in 1837. I never heard my 
grandfather say if he knew who the author was. Believe 
me, very truly, yours, GEORGE REPTON." 

Sir Arthur Gordon having stated that the late 
lamented Bishop of Winchester was present on one 


occasion when the statement in question was made 
by Lord Aberdeen, I wrote to the Bishop and re- 
ceived the following letter in reply : 

"Osborne, Feb. 10,1872. 

" My dear Hayward, I ought to have answered your 
letter sooner; but I have been intensely occupied and 
expected to see you. I have a general recollection of 
exactly what Arthur Gordon records; and such is my faith 
in his entire accuracy of recollection, that I have not the 
least doubt that, if I could refer to my diary of the time 
(which is in Sussex), I should find all he has told you com- 
pletely confirmed. I am most truly yours, 


This letter (to which I merely referred in my 
appendix) has now acquired a melancholy interest 
of its own. The last time I asked the Bishop 
about the diary, he said he had forgotten to refer 
to it. A. HAYWARD. 

JEAN LE TROUVEUR and C. P. F. have not met 
the point which I raised in my last communication, 
which was substantially this : " Junius was a person 
in a position to have received, or to believe that he 
had received, injury or affront from George III. 
and Lord Mansfield." I left it to be inferred that 
an obscure clerk in the War Office was not a person 
in that position. I am not concerned in determining 
whether, in after-life, Francis was arrogant and 
violent in tone and temper ; it is enough that his 
private correspondence at the time Junius was 
writing shows that Francis was then, as I described 
him, " a young man of genial disposition." That 
C. P. F. should quote a passage from Francis's 
letter to Calcraft in support of his views is not sur- 
prising; and I can afford to point out that the 
word "wretch" applied in it to Mansfield is also 
applied to him by Junius in the private letter to 
Woodfall which I quoted. In another private letter, 
too, we have, " That Swinney is a wretched, dan- 
gerous fool." 

It was my intention to have reproduced Francis's 
letter to Calcraft in some of my intermittent notes ; 
but on referring to it I find that its great length 
must exclude it from the pages of " N. & Q." The 
letter in question is of the greatest value as a 
sample of Francis's composition before he endea- 
voured, at a later period, to imitate Junius's style, 
though always with indifferent success; except, 
perhaps, in the instance of one short note to Major 
Cartwright, which is modelled after Junius's last 
private letter to Woodfall, but in which Francis 
incautiously copied the sentiments as well as the 
style of the original. Francis's letter to Calcraft 
was written for a purpose, and, therefore, as regards 
the sentiments, it cannot be received as unsuspicious 
evidence of the real feelings of the writer ; but, 
regarded as a test of his ability as a writer, it must 
be received without challenge; for he had every 
motive for doing his best, and expected it to be 
brought under the notice of Chatham. Now, let 
any one compare Francis's letter to Calcraft with 



[4 th S. XII. Auo. 2, 73. 

Junius's letter on the same subject (No. 41), 
written about a fortnight before, and he will at 
once see that the two papers could not have ema- 
nated from the same mind. Junius could not have 
emasculated his style down to the Franciscan level. 
I will now produce unsuspicious evidence of the 
light in which Lord Mansfield was regarded by 
Francis. This evidence is to be found in a letter 
which Francis wrote to a friend at Lisbon on the 
4th of February, 1766, and in which he gave an 
account of a debate in the Lords on the right of 
Parliament to tax the colonies. In this letter 
Francis says : 

"I did not get into the House time enough to hear 
Lord Cambden, who opposed the motion; but I understand 
that his whole discourse was rather oratorical than argu- 
mentative ; that he seemed to have adopted the decla- 
matory style altogether, with the principles of Mr. Pitt, 
resting his cause more on natural rights of humanity and 
the general doctrine of natural liberty than upon the 
laws and true constitution of England. I need not go 
through the common train of arguments in favour of 
freedom, virtual representation, trade, &c., which I dare 
say were urged with all the force they could possibly 
admit of, but to very little effect. For when Lord Mans- 
field had made his reply, it was so full, so learned, so 
logical, and, in every respect, so true, that not an atom 
of doubt remained in the breasts of his hearers. He 
traced the colonies from their origin their charters and 
history the impossibility of supposing two supreme 
legislatures how impracticable to draw a line for 
bounding the authority of the British legislature the 
absurdity of attempting to distinguish between the one 
act of legislation and the other, as if a greater degree of 
power were required to lay on taxes than to make any 
other kind of law proved by a multitude of examples that 
such an idea was equally false in fact as in reason. Ex- 
pressed the greatest tenderness for the Americana, and his 
firm belief that these commotions might be appeased 
without violence and bloodshed. That to give up 
the act in order to save our trade would be in effect 
incurring and the surest way of incurring the mischief 
we endeavoured to avoid. It would be ne moriare mori ; 
and ended thus : ' I shall conclude with saying, from my 
inmost heart, Amen to a prayer once made by Maurice, 
Prince of Orange, for his native country, That it may 
please God to open the understandings and better inform 
the minds of this poor, innocent, industrious, loyal, brave, 
t)ut wickedly misled and deluded people.' A long pause 
between every epithet, and a most pathetic delivery 
accompanied this sentence, and had an effect which I 
cannot easily describe. Lord Cambden then made a short 
reply to one particular point, which did not at all affect 
the whole question, and seemed to give up the argument." 

Advancing further, we find another piece of un- 
suspicious evidence on the same subject, though 
not as strong as that just quoted, in a 'letter which 
Francis wrote to Major Baggs, in Ireland, just ten 
days after his letter to Calcraft : 

" A very odd thing happened yesterday in the House 
of Lords. The Duke of Manchester declared that he had 
a motion to make, and was very quietly explaining the 
ground and the occasion of it, particularly the defenceless 
state of the nation. After he had been talking about a 
quarter of an hour, Lord Gower got up and interrupted 
him, saying that such matters were unfit to be divulged be- 
fore so crowded an audience, and therefore insisted that 

his Grace should not proceed until the House was cleared. 
This motion was vehemently opposed by the Duke of 
Richmond ; but the cry of clear the House increased to 
such a clamour and tumult that nothing else could be 
heard. Upon this, Lord Chatham got up and roared out 
that he wanted to speak to order, but not a syllable more 
could I distinguish. Since the damning of the French 
dancers I never saw such a scene. At last Chatham, 
finding it in vain to persist, marched out of the House in 
the true style of Secession, and was followed by all the 
minority Lords, even the Duke of Manchester, who was 
to make the motion. Lord Mansfield, who sits as Speaker, 
did all he could to appease them, but to no purpose ; and 
now they say, those Lords are preparing a flaming 

These passages, written in confidence to private 
friends, betray Francis's favourable opinion of 
Lord Mansfield ; Junius would have been unable 
to refer to " the rascal " and " the wretch " without 
an outburst of hatred. C. Eoss. 


I have for several years been in the habit, when 
I have come upon an odd surname, of " making a 
note of it." My friends, knowing that I was 
making a collection of this kind, have often 
assisted me, and the result is, I have at length 
gathered together (from all parts of England) a 
most extraordinary assortment of names. As I 
think it a pity that my collection should " waste 
its sweetness on the desert air," I beg to present it 
to the readers of " N. & Q.," feeling sure it will 
afford them some amusement. As many of the 
names in the following list may appear to be in- 
credible and the invention of an imaginative 
brain, I feel it incumbent upon me to state that I 
have not put down a single name which I do not 
believe to be authentic ; many I have proved to be 
so. It is perhaps unnecessary to add that, of course, 
none are drawn from the pages of fiction. I wonder 
if any other nation could show an equally odd 
muster-roll. Can any one mention instances of 
strange foreign names'? I have heard of Male- 
came; and recently I met with Barbagelato, which, 
allowing for the false gender of the participle, is 
perhaps equal to any in my collection : 

Alabaster, Appleyard, Abigail, Apothecary, Ancient, 
Allgood, Allfree, Allchin, Alderman. 

Bytheway, Bythesea, Beadle, Body, Budge, Beetle, 
Bobbin, Bottle, Boots, Bodily, Basket, Blossom, Bolster, 
Blight, Baby, Bairnsfather, Bather, Brain, Blood, Bell- 
ringer, Bellhanger, Bullwinkle, Birdseye, Bullock, Birch- 
enough, Ballhatchet, Bible, Barefoot, Breeks, Boatman, 
Brush, Bishoprick, Bray, Breeze, Boiling, Butter, Beggar, 
Brotherhood, Bodkin. 

Cant, Cherry, Crackle, Christmas, Cowmeadow, Curate, 
Canse, Cage, Coffee, Cakebread, Chataway, Commander, 
Camomile, Cleverly, Candle, Catstree, Crowfoot, Crabtree, 
Cutbush (a florist), Chant, Curds, Cobbledick, Cushion, 
Crush, Children, Chicken, Cornfield, Craze, Challenger, 

Death, Deadman, Dust, Drought, Drawwater, Drink- 
water, Drinkall, Drawbridge, Dainty, Dearlove, Delight, 
Dodge, Ditch, Daggers, Dollar, Dudgeon, Dinner. 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, '73.] 


Eighteen, Eyes, Eatwell, Earthy, Edinburgh. 

Frizzle, Freshwater, Fish, Faultless, Food, Friday, 
Fudge, Folly, Flippant, Fury, Flowers Woodland (Christian 
and surname), Fender, Freeborn, Forecast, Foreigner, 
Farthing, Friendship, Faddy, Fright. 

Goose, Gosling, Graygoose, Goosey, Game, Greenhorne, 
Gossip, Greengrass, Greedy, 1 Gaby, Goodenough, Good- 
fellow, Goodchap, Goodbody, Gotobed, Goodbehere, 
Gallop, Going, Giggle, Gush, Ginger, Guinea, Golightly, 
Grief, Governor, Gatherer, Ghost, Griffinhoofe, Galilee, 
Gammon, Goat, Garlick, Gallant, Greenland, Green- 

Honey, Honeybone, Hartshorn, Hornbuckle, Horn- 
blower, Herod, Horseshoe, Huntsman, Hazard, Honour, 
Hurry, House, Hackblock, Hamper, Holyland, Hand- 
somebody, Hasluck, Haddock, Haggis, Hole, Husband, 
Halfhide, Hailstone, Heaven, Hezekiah Hollowbread 
(Christian and surname), Haggard, Herbage, Hogsflesh, 
Heritage, Hatfull. 

Innocent, Irishman, Ironmonger, Image, Idle. 

Jolly, Jelly, Jabberer, Jump, Joy, Jealous, Jingle, 
Juniper, January. 

Kiss, Kindness, Kettle, Kite, Knocker, Kneebone, 

Leatherbarrow, Lovely, Lively, Littlechild, Leaping- 
well, Limb, Large, Littleproud, Legal, Ledger, Lessee, 
Lunch, Lovelock, Longcake, Longstreet, Leather, Lash, 
Lavender, Littleboy, Lambswool. 

Mackerel, Mutton, Mustard, Mercy, Mammon, Money- 
penny, Manifold, Mummery, Milestone, Middleditch, 
Muddle, Marriage, Meanwell, Menlove, Midwinter, Man- 
hood, Monument, Mammon. 

Nice, Nurse, Nodding, Nephew. 

Old, Odd, Organ, Others, Oysters. 

Pigeon, Pepper, Peppercorn, Pickles, Pheasant, 
Physick, Pain, Precious, Perfect, Punch, Puncher, 
Parish, Parsonage. Paternoster, Prettybody, Pagan, 
Paddy, Prophet, Pilgrim, Paradise, Prudence, Patent, 
Pitchfork, Playfoot, Pinches, Plaster, Penny, Pickup, 
Pluckrose, Dangerfull Pitcher (Christian and surname). 


Rawbone, Raw, Riches, Rake, Rasberry, Roach, 
Rainbow, Rust, Rant, Reason, Roadknight. 

Shove, Slaughter, Shave, Swine, Sheepshanks, Ship, 
Spice, Swearer, Sworn, Stirrup, Slipper, Stocking, Shirt, 
Sword, Shanks, Sleep, Silversides, Silverlock, Sowerbutts, 
Sermon, Snowdrop, Snowball, Smite, Screech, Stoney- 
street, Stutter, Steptoe, Swiggs, Sturdy, Smallbones, 
Sweetlove, Sweetapple, Straw, Spry, Sly, Salt, Sunshine, 
Snake, Saturday, Sneezum, Seefar, Showers, Sheepwash, 
Stack, Seamark, Sandbank, Skill, Stiff, Snipe, Saveall, 

Truelove, Thirst, Twiddle, Twaddle, Twopeny, Tart, 
Trot, Treasure, Tongue, Toby, Tinker, Thoroughgood, 
Toogood, Thick, Trusty, Tartar, Tarbox, Treble, Trick, 
Tiger, Thunder, Titmouse, Toy, Tantrum, Tattoo, Third- 
borough, Tabernacle, Tingle. 

Vicarage, Virgin, Vile, Village, Valentine. 

Whistler, Whalebelly, Whalebone, Whip, Whackum, 
Whereat, Wailing, Whisker, Waistcoat, Why, Weekly, 
Workman, World, Wellbeloved, Writer, Walklate, 
Window, Windmill, Wager, Wisdom, Wizard, Woodbine, 
Waterfall, Whitlow, Wildgoose, Worship, Whitehair. 

Younghusband, Yes. 


2, Stanley Villas, Bexley Heath, S.E. 


In a list of works by this prolific compiler, given 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, August, 1842, p. 

214, I have been able to identify all but the fol- 
lowing, none of which are in the British Museum 
Library, or if they are the information below is 
too meagre to enable me to find them in the 

(1). Session of Parliament, 1824, 8vo. 
(2). The Emigrant's Guide, 1827, 8vo. 

An Emigrant's Guide was published at Westport, 
in 1832. 

(3). Vegetable Substances, 1828, 18mo. 
(4). Conversations on Moral Philosophy, 2 vols., 1835, 

(5). Domesticated Animals, 1839, 8vo. 
(6). England, 1839, 8vo. 

A work called England and its People appears to 
be a different publication. 

(7). Winchester Arithmetic, 1839, 8vo. 

The World, 4 vols., 1839, 8vo. 
This might be a collection of several of his 
other works under a collective title, as, Spring,. 
Summer, Autumn, and Winter; or, the Air, the 
Earth, the Heavens, the Sea. 

(9). Sheep, Cattle, &c., 2 vols., 1840, 8vo. 

It is possible that No. 4 may be the same work 
as his First Lines of Natural Philosophy, 1832, 
which is in conversations, only " moral " has 
slipped into the title instead of " natural." 

Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6, may belong to Pinnock's, 
Catechisms, the identifications of whose authors, 
though talked of in the last volume of " N. & Q.," 
has not yet been begun. 

In the Caledonian Magazine for November, 
1822, Mr. Ralston Inglis (in his Dramatic Writers 
of Scotland, 1868, p. 147) attributes The Vixen 
Reclaimed, a farce, in two acts, to Robert Mudie ; 
but I doubt the authenticity of this, for though 
Mudie is said to have been the editor of that maga- 
zine, yet he left Scotland in 1820, two years be- 
fore the farce appeared. 

I should mention that I find the titles of Nos. 
5, 6, 7, and 8, either in the London or English 
catalogues (Sampson Low), but none of the others. 

Mudie could give the public Greek mottoes on 
nearly all his title-pages, but all his books put 
together cannot muster one index between them : 
such a thing never seems to have occurred to him. 

I do not recollect seeing the following anecdote 
in any of the anecdote books ; it occurs on p. 1 of 
his Popular Mathematics. He is put in mind of 

"the porter in a northern University. This porter 
was a very ' whale ' of books, and one of the professors, 
whose particular attention he claimed, found the sup- 
plying of his appetite from the University Library no 
easy task. At length he tried him with Euclid's Ele- 
ments of Geometry, to see how far sheer appetite would 
be able to digest that. The porter came not for an 
exchange until after two weeks had elapsed ; and at last 
he came somewhat crestfallen, saying, ' Docter, I hae 
read a' the wirds, an' leukit at a' the pikters, but it's the 
maist puzzleanimcus beuk I hae seen, an' I dinna onder- 



[4 tu S. XII. AUG. 2, 73. 

stand ae wird o't ; sae ye'll jeust hae the gudeness to gie 
me a beuk that has nae A's nor B's in't.' " 

9, Henry Road, New Barnet. 


TALE " (4 th S. xii. 43.) The allusion which your 
correspondent, MR. C. E. BROWNE, thinks he has 
found in this passage is surely beside the mark. 
Perdita, recalling the various flowers of autumn 
which she might offer to Polixenes, mentions that 
she has no " streaked gillyvors" in her garden, and 
that, for her part, she would rather be without 
them. Upon Polixenes inquiring her reason, she 
replies that she has heard that their piedness is 
produced by artificial means, and that she likes 
only what is pure nature. Polixenes, upon this, 
makes the memorable rejoinder, that the very art 
which perfects nature is an art that nature makes : 
"You see, sweet maid, we marry 

A gentler scion to the wildest stock ; 

And make conceive a bark of baser kind 

By bud of nobler race : this is an art 

Which does mend nature, change it rather ; but 

The art itself is nature." 

Perdita, struck by the ingenuity of the reasoning, 
admits its force. " So it is." But immediately, 
refuted, but not convinced, she adds : 

" I '11 not put 

The dibble in earth to set one slip of them : 
No more than, were I painted, I would wish 
This youth should say, 'twere well ; and only therefore 
Desire to breed by me." 

Her reason is expressed with unmistakable 
clearness. She no more admires painted flowers 
than she does painted cheeks, and she will have 
nothing to say to either. 

Mr. Hunter, in a long and very interesting note 
upon the whole passage (New Illustrations of the 
Life, Studies, and Writings of Shalcspeare), says: 

"Attempts to modify the form and colours of flowers 
have made part of the art of gardening in all ages. The 
gilliver was one on which, in Shakspeare's time, these 
attempts were made. Parkinson, who regards such 
efforts as ' the mere fancies of men without any ground of 
reason or truth,' says that if men would have lilies or gilli- 
vers to be of a scarlet red colour they put vermilion or 
cinnabar between the rind and the small heads growing 
about the root ; if they would have them blue, azure or 
biose; if yellow, orpiment ; if green, verdigris ; and thus 
of any other colour." 

Whatever fanciful resemblances, therefore, of the 
kind which MR. BROWNE hints, the vulgar may 
have discovered in this flower, there is no occasion 
to suppose an allusion to them in this place. It is 
the artificial colouring which forms the point of the 

The question remains, what was Shakspeare's 
object in introducing this digression into a scene 
which, without it, is one of the longest in his 
dramas ? I hazard with some diffidence the sugges- 

tion that Shakspeare here intended Polixenes un- 
wittingly to condemn the very arguments which he 
was afterwards to employ against the marriage 
of his son Florizel with the shepherd's reputed 
daughter. If I am right in the supposition, Per- 
dita's reply, " So it is," may have marked her 
sudden surprise and delight at discovering that 
the union of herself and her lover, which at the 
beginning of this exquisite scene she had so patheti- 
cally deprecated, was not so contrary to nature and 
propriety as she had feared. ALFRED AINGER. 

MOONSHINE. Nares's emendation on the Earl of 
Kent's threat against the steward, " I'll make a sop 
i' the moonshine of you " (Lear, ii. 2), seems to me 
as constrained and shallow as his resort to a 
cookery book for an explanation of it is ridiculous 
and unnecessary ; and it was evidently arrived at 
without a thought being expended on Shakspeare's 
ideal knowledge of the orb of night, as revealed in 
his other allusions to it, notably in Macbeth, iii. 5, 
where, either in a moment of ideality or of passing- 
frailty, he has sent Hecate to one of the corners of 
the moon for the " drops profound," out of which 
mischief may be distilled. 

It is an omen of evil, imaginary, doubtless, yet 
presented in both places as an object of superstitious 
dread ; and the evil it bodes for the steward at the 
hands of Kent is very clear : 

" Draw, you rogue ; for though it be night, the moon 
shines ; I '11 make a sop i' the moonshine of you ; draw, 
you whoreson cullionly barber-monger, draw. (Drawing 
his sword. ) " 

Plainly the intention is to make a " sop " of him, 
in the sense of steeping him, in his own blood, by 
the consenting light of the moon. 


Farnworth, Bolton. 

It may be worth noting that Arthur Warwick, 
in his Spare Minutes, 1637, has a phrase analogous 
to Shakspeare's 

" Now is the winter of our discontent." 

Richard III., Act i. sc. 1. 

'Whiles the sap of maintenance lasts, my friends 
swarme in abundance, but in the winter of my need, they 
leave me naked." Baldwyn's Reprint, 1821, p. 27. 


THE "TE DEUM." In a conversation I had 
many years ago with the late celebrated antiquary 
Mr. W. H. Black, on the subject of the Te Deum, 
or " Hymn of St. Ambrose," Mr. Black observed 
that in all the modern Latin copies a blunder 
was perpetuated which was quite at variance with 
the reading of the Ambrosian MS. at Milan. This 
blunder was in the substitution of numerari for 
munerari. I have been several times in Milan, 
and have visited the Ambrosian Library, but I 
have never examined the MS. of the Te Deum, 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73.] 



which if not so old as the time of St. Ambrose, is, 
probably, the work of the subsequent century. 

A few days ago, in the curious collection of your 
learned correspondent OTJTIS, I was shown a vel- 
lum book, a dumpy little quarto, all in MS., 
entitled Psalterium Litania, &c. The colophon 
is as follows : 

" Explicit psalterium, secundum usum fratrum ordinis 
predicatorum. Scriptum per fratrem Valentinum Briiss 
ejusdem ordinis et conventus Esslingensis. Anno Domini 
1450. In die Symonis et Jude apOstolorum." 

The MS. is beautifully w r ritten, in a clear "round" 
hand, and nothing can exceed the elegance of the 
illuminated initials. The book contains the whole 
of the psalms, the Te Deum, the Quicunque 
Vult, the Litany of the Saints ending with Saint 
Elizabeth a number of prayers to the Virgin, &c., 
and Antiphones in red letter.* On the first sight 
of this interesting MS. I thought of Mr. Black's 
remark, and I turned to the Te Deum to examine 
the verse, which in the " Common Prayer " reads, 
" make them to be numbered with thy saints in 
glory everlasting," and in an authorized Catholic 
Prayer Book which I have consulted reads, 
" Aeterna fac cum sanctis tuis, in gloria numerari" 
I find that the reading in the MS. book is in per- 
fect accordance with Mr. Black's remark, and with 
his assertion about the Ambrosian MS. It is as 
follows, " Aeterna fac c. sanctis tuis, gloria mune- 
rari." There is no chance of an ocular mistake. 
The book, from beginning to end, being written in 
large round Eoman character, and with no admix- 
ture of " church-text," or German Gothic letters. 

But the munerari instead of numerari is not the 
only variation that exists between the MS. and the 
modern prayer-books, Catholic and Anglican. In 
a modern missal the sentence is thus : " Aeterna 
fac cum sanctis tuis, in gloria numerari," which is 
in accordance with the Book of Common Prayer, 
viz.. " make them to be numbered with thy saints 
in glory everlasting." The " in " does not occur in 
the MS. book, and therefore the rendering would 
be not "in glory" but "by" or "with glory." 
" N. & Q." is not a field for a theological tourna- 
ment, or, I think, that I could show an essential 
difference in meaning between the readings of 
numerari and munerari, to say nothing about 
the reading which ignores the preposition " in." 

The town of Esslingen is in Wiirtemberg. Of 

Valentine Briiss I can give no information. Some 

learned theologian may perhaps supply the 

deficiency if Briiss was known beyond the cloister. 


THE GRIM FEATURE. In Milton's Paradise 
Lost, book x. 1. 272, Death is thus characterized: 

* The worms have attacked the leather binding, but 
the vellum has not suffered : it is as white and clean as 
if it had just come from the fabric of the maker. 

"So saying, with delight he snuffed the smell 
Of mortal change on earth. * * * * 
So scented the grim feature, and upturned 
His nostril wide into the murky air, 
Sagacious of his quarry from afar." 
"Grim feature" is explained by Mr. Joseph 
Payne to be "the shape or person of Satan" 
(Studies in English Prose, 1868, p. 122). Surely Mr. 
Payne meant to say " the shape or person of Death," 
for "the grim feature " is nominative to "scented," 
and is the monster " grim and terrible " described 
in Book ii. 1. 682. I fancy, too, Death is called a 
feature, with special reference to the olfactory func- 
tion under which he is there principally charac- 
terized. I note that the late Professor J. B. Jukes, 
in one of his published letters, seems to understand 
by the " grim feature " the nose of Death. De 
Quincey finds the " grim feature " in the Nebula 
in Orion, as figured in Nichols's System of the World, 
1846, pp. 50-51 ; but the monster there figured is 
a noseless face, with a forked streamer dividing the 
orbit from the long upper lip. See De Quincey's 
Works (Hogg & Son), vol. iii. p. 181. I shall be 
glad to learn what other correspondents of " N. & 
Q." think of the " grim feature." T "" ' 

Athenzeum Club. 


EOYAL HEADS ON BELLS. A friend has lately 
introduced me personally to three ancient bells in 
the turret of Brinsop Church, co. Hereford. They 
can only be approached by a very long ladder, 
which the courteous churchwarden, with the kind 
permission of the vicar, will provide. Each bell 
bears the heads of Edward I. and Eleanor, as on 
the bells recorded in " N. & Q." 4 th S. ix. 76, but 
the initial cross and the form of type are different, 
the latter being small capitals with a crown over 
each. One of the trio is cracked. They are all of 
the same early date and from the same founders. 
The legends run thus, in ancient Gothic capitals : 




One king's and two queens' heads are on each bell, 
as intervening stops. H. T. ELLACOMBE, M.A. 

of Eoman Catholics in the County of York, 1604, 
which has just come to me, there is a note by the 
editor, on page 45, about the Claphams of Beamsley, 
and a " vague tradition " that they were buried 
upright in their vault in Bolton Priory. Whitaker 
touches the same tradition in his account of the 
Claphams, History of Craven, p. 366, edition 1812, 
and then adds 

" I have looked into the vault through an aperture in 
the pavement, but could discover no coffins excepting 
one of the Manley family." 

I visited this beautiful ruin in the summer of 
1871, while staying at my old home in Ilkley, and 
going over it carefully with old Mr. Hirstwickj 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73. 

who has had charge of the place and acted as 
guide a great many years, I mentioned Whitaker's 
statement about the Clapham vault and the tradi- 
tion, and then asked him if he could tell me any 
more about it : 

" I can tell you all about it," the old man said eagerly. 
" I have found it all out for myself, and it cost me three 

Sound, but I determined to get to the bottom of it and I 
id. I knew nearly where the vault must be, so I got 
some men to dig. We did not strike the vault at once, 
but after a while found it, opened it, and there were the 
coffins sure enough, standing upright, just as the old 
folks used to say they were." 

I think he told me how many there were, but I 
cannot recall the numbers. I remember Mr. 
Hirstwick took a few steps, tapped a flag with his 
foot, and said the vault is right here. I was greatly 
interested in this story, and meant to send you a 
note about it sooner, thinking that some reader 
interested in these things might, in visiting 
Bolton, get more exact particulars from the old 
man if he is still alive. ROBERT COLLYER. 

Chicago, U.S. 

tered in Debrett as tenth baronet, born 1802; 
married Elizabeth Chassereau, of Brighton, 1835 ; 
succeeded his father. Sir Page, 1851 ; has one son, 
four daughters. Seat, Port Hall, Brighton. Title, 
Dick, of Baird, N.B., created 1642. The first 
baronet is said to have lent 50,OOOZ. to Charles I., 
of which only one-tenth was ever repaid. The 
present baronet so it is reported was recently 
offered a very humble post by the Brighton Town 
Council. The baronetcy is not recorded in Burke. 
This is worth noting. B. AZURE. 

Louis CHASLES. Our worthy London con- 
temporaries, Le Courrier de l-Europe and the 
Athenceum, in recording the recent death of 
Philarete Chasles, so long honourably known in 
French literature, have barely alluded to his 
celebrated father, the Conventionist. The latter 
deserves a corner in " N. & Q." for one especial 
reason. Louis Chasles, when the French Revolu- 
tion broke out, was a Canon in the Cathedral of 
Chartres. He at once flung himself into the new 
order, or disorder, of things ; started a Jacobin 
paper, was elected a deputy in the National Con- 
vention, and there took his place on the Mountain. 
He is remembered for having succeeded in getting 
the names of servants who accompanied emigres 
enrolled on the same fatal list as their masters. 
He opposed the proposition to allow Louis XVI. 
to have any legal defenders at his trial ; and he 
voted for the King's death. Louis Chasles was 
subsequently employed as representative of the 
people with the army of the North. He opposed 
Geoffrey, Freron, and Sieyes, and was the defender 
of Robespierre. Louis Chasles had several narrow 
escapes from the guillotine ; he suffered imprison- 

ment, but he was pardoned, and he found employ- 
ment and a refuge in the Hotel des Invalides. 
Later, the ex-conventionist established a board- 
ing-house for students in Paris. The especial 
reason of his deserving a note in these columns is 
to be found in the fact, that when, in 1816, the 
decree of banishment was published against the 
surviving regicides, he was exempted on the 
ground that lie had never accepted any employ- 
ment under Napoleon ! Louis Chasles was thus 
honourably distinguished from the Republicans 
who became imperial Bonapartists and, lastly, 
Bourbonite royalists. These last fell under the 
lash of Beranger 

" Tel qui longtemps lecha ses bottes 
Lui mord aujourd'hui les talons." 


" BLANDYKE." This word occurs in the evidence 
given in the trial which occupies, at this moment r 
so many columns of the daily press. The following 
cutting from the Standard of the 5th of June last 
explains its meaning, and is therefore deserving of 
preservation in the pages of " N. & Q." : 

" What are ' long-sleep mornings ]' (a laugh). Sundays 
and mornings after blandykes. 

" What is a blandyke ] It is a Stonyhurst name for a 
holiday. The college is an offshoot of the college at 
Liege ; and at Liege, when they had a holiday, they went 
out to a country house called ' Blandyk,' and so holidays 
came to be called blandykes." 

R. & M. 

CANADA : ITS MEANING. Abp. Trench, in his 
fifth lecture On the Study of Words, Parker, 1859, 
p. 170, writes, " One might anticipate that a name 
like ' Canada ' given, and within fresh historic 
times, to a vast territory, would be accounted for, 
but it is not." I find, however, that Mr. Goodrich 
(Peter Parley) in his Travels in Canada, Munday, 
n. d. (1839 ?), p. 3, says: " The word Canada is 
from an Iroquois expression, meaning a collection 
of huts." JNO. A. FOWLER. 

55, London Road, Brighton. 

MELVIL'S MEMOIRS. This very interesting book 
was first published, from the original MSS., by 
George Scott, at London, in 1683. In 1735 a 
second edition was printed at Edinburgh, because 
the first was then " rarely to be met with except in 
the libraries of the curious." It does not seem to 
be generally known that there were two distinct 
impressions of the first edition, yet such certainly 
appears to have been the case. The title-pages of 
these two imprints are nearly identical ; and both 
appear to be printed by E. H., for R. Boulter, at 
the Turk's Head in Cornhill. A careful com- 
parison, however, shows throughout the whole 
volume innumerable differences in the type, setting 
up, and errors. It was common in the case of 
books of which large numbers were wanted, like 
Sacheverel's trial, to employ several independent 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73.] 



presses ; but of MelviTs Memoirs the edition was 
probably small, and a double setting up of the 
type could hardly have been required. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 


The first of this family of whom there is any 
record is Valentine May son, who, in 1623, ex- 
changed the living of Drifneld, co. York, for that 
of Elloughton in the same county. He is said to 
have died in 1699. If so, he must have been 
upwards of one hundred years of age. Can any of 
your readers inform me of the correctness or other- 
wise of this statement ? 

Valentine Mayson had three sons, who are known 
to have left descendants : (1) Richard, whose 
daughter Mary married a Eichardson of Hull, and 
had issue, who are still represented by the family 
of Eichardson of Shotley, Dearman of Braithwaite, 
Birchall of Bowden, Harris of Bradford, Mennell 
of Malton, and Backhouse of Darlington. (2) 
William, for many years Eector of Wensley, co. 
York. He died in 1708, and was buried in St. 
Mary's Church, Castlegate, York. He left issue a 
daughter, Barbara, who married Thomas Barker of 
York, and had issue Barbara, who married John 
Hutton, Esq., of Marske, brother of the then 
Archbishop of Canterbury, by whom, however, 
she had no issue. (3) Robert, a merchant at Hull, 
and mayor of that town in 1681 and 1696. He 
married and had a son, Hugh, who was appointed 
Collector of Customs at Hull in 1696. This Hugh 
possessed a considerable estate in the East Eiding, 
the greater part of which descended to his son, 
William, Vicar of the Parish Church of Holy 
Trinity at Hull from 1722 to 1753. The poet, 
who was born at Hull, 23rd Feb., 1724, was the 
son of the latter by his first wife, Sarah, who died 
in 1741, and was buried at Sutton, of which parish 
her husband was the principal owner. The vicar 
married a second wife, who survived him. He died 
,26th August, 1753, leaving issue by his second 
marriage an only daughter, Ann, the wife of the 
Eev. Henry Dixon, for many years Vicar of Wad- 
worth, co. York. Ann Dixon had two sons, Wil- 
liam Henry and James, who succeeded to the 
property of their uncle the poet, but are now both 
dead, without descendants. The vicar's sister, 
Mary, married Arthur Eobinson, Esq., of Hull, 
and had issue a daughter, also named Mary, who 
married Josiah Wordsworth, Esq., of Sevenscore, 
co. Kent, and Wadworth, co. York, by whom she 
had issue two daughters, the eldest of whom, Mary, 
married Sir Charles Kent, Bart, (extinct), Anne, 

the younger, married Henry Verelst, Esq., of 
Aston Hall, formerly Governor of Bengal, and the 
progenitor of the present family of Verelst of Aston. 
The above is, I think, a pretty full answer to 
numerous queries which have at various times 
during the last few years appeared in " N. & Q." 
Any information respecting descendants in the 
male line (if any) of Valentine Mayson will be 
gratefully received. Also as to the families of the 
poet's mother and step-mother. M L. 

"BLUE BEARD'S CABINETS." Where can I find 
the meaning of the following lines, all of which are 
to be found in the exquisite poem, " Blue Beard's 
Cabinets," of W. W. Story's Graffiti d 'Italia, 
Blackwood, 1868 : 

1. " Behind it other curious rings you '11 find 

Morone's, whence a prisoned devil spoke. 

2. Aboukir's, gifted with a lightning sword, 
Which, when his hand waved, sheared his foeman'a 


3. Joudar's, which owned its black tremendous slave. 

4. Here you will find the wondrous planisphere 
Of Abdelsamad, in whose depths were seen 
All regions of the earth that smote with fire 
The nations at his owner's wrathful nod. 

5. The bodkin that Amina used to pick 
Her grains of rice before her fouler feast. 

6. Agrippa's glass and that of Schemseddin, 

7. With Conachar's white feather by its side. 

8. There is Rhaicus' bee, 
And one that Sappho caught on Cupid's lips, 
Which stung her to a luscious epigram. 

What epigram 1 ? 

9. The famous distich of Calibrates, 
Writ on a seed of sesamum." 

In each case I have underlined the word, or meaning 
I wish for reference to. CIDH. 


I have been offered, for twelve guineas, a copy of 
Nash's History of Worcestershire, in the original 
binding of blue boards, backed with white vellum, 
1781, with the Appendix and Domesday, 1775, 
and the Supplement, 1799. At page 500, vol. i., 
is the letter from Lord Monmouth, beginning 
" Now that you know." I am told that this letter 
was suppressed and only appears in a few early 
copies, the pecuniary value of which is thereby 
increased. I have been acquainted with the book 
all my life, but was not aware of this fact, if it be 
a fact ; and I should be glad to know whether I 
can place reliance in my informant's statement. I 
am unable, just now, to compare the copy in question 
with other copies of the work. 


ST. KEW. There is a parish in Cornwall called 
St. Kew, spelt in Domesday Book Lanchehoc, 
in the Valor of Pope Nicholas (1290) Lamowe, 
in a writ of Edward III. (1357) Lannov, and in 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, '73. 

Bacon's Liber Regis, St. Knee, alias St. Kew, alias 
Lanow. There is also a parish about two miles 
from Weston-super-Mare called Kewstoke, which, 
probably, owes its origin to the same saint, for there 
is a cleft in the hill above the church, commonly 
known as the " Pass of St. Kew," and tradition 
asserts that it is the path by which the old saint 
was wont to descend to an oratory. Can any reader 
of " N. & Q." throw light upon the obscurity of 
St. Kew 1 A bishop of Menevia named Ceuen is 
mentioned in Welsh Chronicles as contemporary 
with Oudoceus, who lived in the sixth century, 
and he is said to have founded the Church of 
Llangeneu, which formerly existed in Pembroke- 
shire. Can St. Kew be identified with him? 


REV. BOLTON, 1649. Can you tell me 
whether Mr. Bolton, chaplain to the Earl of 
Holland, who attended that nobleman on the 
scaffold, 9th March, 1649, was born in Yorkshire 
and afterwards went to Ireland ? ARMIGER. 

POETS," ed. 1870, p. 87. Who is the " political 
writer" alluded to in the following passage : 

"A noted political writer of the present day (i. e. 1818 
or thereabouts) has exhausted nearly the whole account 
of Satan in the Paradise Lost, by applying it to a cha- 
racter (the first Napoleon) whom he considered as, after 
the devil (though I do know whether he would make 
even that exception), the greatest enemy of the human 


PICTURE BY HOPPNER, R.A. I am anxious to 
trace a picture by Hoppner, left unfinished at the 
time of his death, about 1810, and, I believe, sold 
with his effects then. Subject, a young man, age 
about twenty-three, in a yeomanry uniform, with a 
boy about six years old trying on his helmet. It is 
believed the picture was nearly finished. I should 
be very glad of any information about the picture 
which could help me to trace it. Communications 
to be addressed to Miss C. St. John Mildmay 
Rectory, Chelmsford. 

BISHOP STILLINGFLEET. Trollope, in his His- 
tory of the Royal Foundation of Christ's Hospital 
(London, 4to., 1834), p. 203, says 

/'With respect to Bishop Stillingfleet, Mr. Pepys states 
him to have been a Blue-Coat-Boy in a letter to Sir 
Thomas Beckford, Alderman of London.* At the date 
of this letter, which was written on February 17, 1681-2, 
the venerable prelate was still alive, so that the truth 
might have been easily ascertained ; but his biographers 
have assigned the honour of his education to a school at 
Cranbpurn, in Dorsetshire, and there is now no means of 
disputing their accuracy." 

The place of education of so learned a prelate as 
Stillingfleet is an interesting subject of inquiry. 

* See his Diary and Correspondence, vol. ii. p. 5. 

Through the medium of " N. & Q." the truth may 
yet be ascertained. H. P. D. 

In Three Parts. Part 1. Angling. 2. Fowling; 
and 3. Hare Hunting." Who was the author? 
The Angling part begins 

" Unmann'd by sloth, and unrelax'd by ease, 
Without the rod, the basket, or the line, 
My friend, can Angling e'er pretend to please, 

Howe'er the Muse's faith, or thine?-" 
My copy is perfect in itself, but has been paged 
and published with others, the second page com- 
mencing 188. I do not find any reference to it in 
the Bibliotheca Piscatoria, nor as yet have any of 
my brother collectors of angling literature responded 
to my inquiries. JNO. GREVILLE FENNELL. 

tion of Highworth Church, Wilts, some years ago, 
a curious distemper painting of S. Dunstan shoeing 
a horse, which placed its foot on the anvil, was 
found. I wish to know if this has been engraved. 


LORD ELIBANK. Do any of the descendants of 
the last Lord Elibank still exist ; if so, where do 
they reside 1 Information on the above will 
oblige. HENRY B. MURRAY. 

24, College Square, Belfast. 

[Replies to be sent to the above address.] 

HERALDIC. To whom did this coat of arms 
belong Azure, three roses, two and one 1 It was 
most probably in connexion with either Stafford, 
Nevill, Bohun, Bourchier, or Thos. de Woodstock, 
as with their arms it existed formerly in the Church 
of Kimbolton. T. P. FERNIE. 

In Welsh records, literature, or relics of the 
bards, is there anything relative to the tradition of 
Llewelyn-ap-Iorwerth and his hound Gelert ? Wil- 
liam Robert Spencer founded his beautiful ballad 
on this story, which is traditionary in a village at 
the base of Snowdon, where a stone to this day is 
still pointed out as marking the spot where the 
dog was buried. We read that King John, whose 
daughter Llewelyn-ap-Iorwerth married, presented 
the hound to him in 1205. According to Douce, 
there is an old song on the circumstances in Jones's 
Relics of the Welsh Bards, and he says that 
Gelert is also called Cilhart. There is a common 
Welsh proverb " I repent, as much as the man 
who slew his greyhound." Leland, Camden, Pen- 
nant, Powel, do not appear to mention the 
subject. GEORGE R. JESSE. 

Henbury, Macclesfield. 

COUSINS. There are eight varieties of cousins, 
viz., father's brother's son, father's brother's 
daughter, father's sister's son, father's sister's 

S. XII. AUG. 2, 73.J 



daughter, mother's brother's son, mother's brother' 
daughter, mother's sister's son, mother's sister 3 
daughter. Is there any language, European o 
extra-European, in which the word equivalent t 
" cousin " is spelled in eight different ways, t 
discriminate between these varieties I If not 
what is the nearest approach made to that number 

D. G. 


" For the merchantman, except he first be at compos 
tion with his factor to use his interfairs quietly, he wi 
neither stir his ship to sail, nor yet will lay hands upoi 
his merchandize : even so let us do all things, that w 
may have the fellowship of our wives, which is th 
factor of all our doings at home, in great quiet and rest. 
Page 561 in the Homily of the State of Matrimony 
new edition, printed for S. P. C. K. 1839. 8vo. 

Is this word found in any book previous to th 
sixteenth century ; and, if so, where ? 


LORD PRESTON, BEHEADED 1690. Can you tel 
me to what family this nobleman (see " N. & Q. 
4 th S. xi. 496) belonged. Was he related to th 
old Scotch family of the De Prestons ? 


Universities Club. 

King Henry VIII. is stated to have entrusted t( 
this lady the care of his three children, among 
whom was the, afterwards, great Elizabeth. Ai 
account of her, and reference to further information 
is requested. It appears there was a monument to 
this pair in (Great?) Hampden Church, Bucks 
is it still there, or, at least, is its inscription pre- 
served ? GAVELOCK. 

A.N INSCRIPTION. Will any reader of " N. & Q.' 
tell me the meaning of the following inscription^ 
which surrounds a mortar of bronze-metal, whicl 
was found in Scotland 1 

"LoF. GOOT. VAN. AL. Ao. 1629." 

M. OF T. 

ST. ALBAN'S ABBEY. What is the date of the 
wooden watching chamber for the custodian of the 
shrine of S. Alban, at S. Alban's Abbey? I shall 
be glad of any other particulars respecting it. 


"PAR TERNIS SUPPAR." This motto of Lord 
Northwick is to me untranslatable, and quite 
unintelligible. FREDK. RULE. 

[There is no difficulty : The pair are nearly equal to 
the three."] 


(4 th S. xi. 110, 259, 351, 362, 490.) 

A reference to the first mention of this term will 

show MR. HYDE CLARKE that it was given to a 

wider range of information than that to which, at 

p. 362, W. E. F. has since applied it, when recom- 
mending the giving of the old names in the New 
Domesday Book. This seems very desirable, but 
as MR. CLARKE observes, hardly needs a new name. 
My object is a more general, if a humbler, sort of 
gleaning from the fields that which others may have 
missed for want of the same opportunities as sta- 
tionary rural people possess. The brevity required 
by " N. & Q." prevented my saying as fully as in a 
local appeal, " I have chosen this name as allowing 
scope for informal remark on what we may 
learn from the old names in connexion with the 
aspects and situation of the fields themselves, the 
traditions that linger among them, and any light 
shed on them by history or science which may help 
to a just estimate of their teaching." 

The first paper, as well as the abridgment of its 
sequel below, will show that it is for the preserv- 
ing the old names in use, and for practical illus- 
tration of questions now and for ages to come, as 
their fitness becomes understood, rather than the 
laying them up in legal and formal depositories, 
that I try to popularize the study of Field-lore. 

No. II. In the days of Burns the Carse of Gowrie 
was celebrated for its beauty and its rich harvests. 
Though so far north, it is probable that the tribute 
brought by subsidence from the Grampians, and 
the screen afforded by the same mountain chain, 
may have contributed to give it much of this 
luxuriant character. And thus, when we read 
that a field is named carr, that seems an index to 
its present level fertility, though it points to a 
time when it was equivalent to dangerous quag- 
mire; as to quality, it must be interpreted rela- 
tively to situation and surrounding. The Old Carrs 
in our sunny Cumbrian valleys once deserved the 
same name as " the plains of Altcar," where I 
read lately of a hundred thousand persons being 
assembled to witness the great Liverpool coursing 
meeting, regardless of the cold, " the morning fogs 
over the low-lying peaty ground," and of " the 
widest of ditches, and the well-known mud of Alt- 
car," all seeming to testify to its origin. But 
while from their small extent and sheltered situa- 
tion, and the annual overflow of our lively streams, 
the former have been enriched, no such influence 
could reach the great level tract within a short dis- 
tance of the sea-shore.* 

It is so remarkable that this word carr, which 

nay be found obscurely underlying the names on 

he maps of all the northern counties, at least, 

alternating with pot, and mire, and moss, and others 

f like significance, should be left off and forgotten 

n Cumberland, that I think it must have been 

uperseded by another of the same sound when 

vehicles on wheels were required. Karre is Dan- 

I have lately read of the " Appleby Carr Stakes," 
nother instance of the modern use of these spots, as 
veil as of the name's prevalence southwards in Leices- 
rshire or Norfolk. 



(4< L S. XII. AUG. 2, 73. 

ash, and car is still the name in Cumberland and 
Westmoreland for a common cart. Other counties 
i sound the final letter Northumberland and Scot- 
land as cairt. In this way, carr might have dropped 
*out of use in the older sense, as we are so very rich 
in synonymes, sump, mire, bog, slosh, slake, &c., 
und have even retained a British word, pant, in 
-this sense. It is best known in North Cumberland 
farmyards, and occurs in Anderson's Ballads, in, I 
think, the " Caldbeek Wedding." The verse, be- 
sides the inimitable ridicule of the pot-valiant and 
loyal miner, is notable as containing these two 
words in apposition, and showing how inconvenient 
it might have been to retain the older carr : 
" Meyner Leytle wad noo hoist a standert, 

Puir man ! he could nit daddle far ! 
But stack in a pant by the middle, 

An' yen tuik him heame in a car." 

The word pot serves here for any deep place on 
land or in a river. Hugh Miller mentions a part 
-of the sands of Nigg, in Cromartie, which is fed by 
streams, and is never dry, as called the Pott. 
Walter Thornbury has noticed the same word in 
the same sense, on the coast of Cardigan. We 
speak of a peat-pot, and I read of Pottlands near 
Cockermouth. Unless there is something of the 
signification of a vessel, or cup-shaped clay in 
which the bog is contained, in this car, we have no 
trace of bar, a vessel, which Lincoln has, in accord- 
ance with many other Danish words there ; but 
which Molbech does not connect with this root. 
Since my former paper was written I have seen, for 
the first time, Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, and 
have been astonished that so long ago he had sug- 
gested kiorr, Islandic, as the derivation of carse, 
which is not received, or even mentioned by the 
newest Scottish dictionaries. One Southern philo- 
logist seems long ago to have heard of car as " a 
remarkable floating island in the North." It is 
quoted by Halliwell from Home Tooke's Diver- 
sions of Purley, In this work its derivation is 
pronounced upon, with the usual success of stran- 
gers to all analogy in the district, as " connected 
Avith car, cart, chariot, and carrus Latin," &c. 
But the description is excellent, as showing its real 
belongings : 

" Adjoining Esthwaite, near Hawkshead, Lancashire, 
there is a tarn, or small lake, called Priestpot, upon 
which is an island containing about a rood of land, mostly 
covered with willows, some of them eighteen or 
twenty feet high, known by the name of the Car. At 
the breaking up of the severe frost in 1795, a boy ran 
into the house of the proprietor of the island, who lived 
within sight of it, and told him that 'his Car was comin 
wp the tarn!' The owner and his family looked, an 
beheld with astonishment, not 'Birnam Wood coming 
io Dunsinane,' but the woody island approaching them 
with a slow and majestic motion. It rested, however, 
before it reached the edge of the tarn, and afterwards 
frequently changed its position as the wind shifted, being 
sometimes at one side of the lake, which is about 10( 
yards across, sometimes in the centre. It is conjectured 
to have been long separated from the bed of the lake, and 

only fastened by some of the roots of the trees, which 
were probably broken by the extraordinary rise of the 
waters on the melting of the ice." 

(To le continued.) 

EPISCOPAL TITLES (4 th S. xii. 64.) I have 
ilways felt with HERMENTRUDE that colonial and 
Scotch Bishops ought not to be addressed by the 
itle of lords, and that good taste would lead them 
,o repudiate the title when so improperly fastened 
upon them. There is not the smallest doubt that 
)ur JBishops derive their titles, as they do their 
seats in the House of Lords, from their baronies, 
,nd not from their office per se. Neither colonial 
nor Scotch bishops have any territorial possessions, 
but have their incomes from grants, government or 

What, to my mind, plainly settles the doubt 
_f doubt there can be is that when a bishop re- 
;ires, like the present Bishop Suinner, he loses both 
lis title and his seat in the Lords becomes plain 
oishop, and nothing more. With just as much 
propriety, a suffragan might be called " My Lord," 
as any Scotch or colonial bishop. The title is 
purely territorial, and with the loss of the territory 
ceases to the former holder of it. 

I quite endorse the sentiment that " to address 
a man by a title which does not belong to him is 
mockery rather than courtesy," but, notwithstand- 
ing, it cannot but be owned that there is a great deal 
of this, quite apart from the episcopacy ; for what 
right have the sons of our higher nobility to the 
title of Marquises, Earls, or Lords ? None on 
better grounds than that of courtesy, and, therefore, 
I maintain that they ought to be placed in the 
same category with the bishops aforesaid. 


With respect to the objection raised by HER- 
MENTRUDE to the title of Lord Bishop being borne 
by colonial prelates, I may quote from memory a 
circumstance connected with the first appointment 
of bishops for the colonies, which seems to bear 
upon the question. 

The first bishops appointed by the church for 
the Colonies were Bishop Inglis of Nova Scotia, 
consecrated on the 12th of August, 1787 ; and 
Bishop Middleton, consecrated Bishop of Calcutta 
on the 8th of May, 1814. 

Neither of these bishops was styled " my Lord 
Bishop." The reason for this I always understood 
to be that they had no seat in the House of Lords, 
not being temporal peers. 

Another reason may have been " the extreme 
caution of the ecclesiastical rulers of the day," in- 
asmuch as we are told in connexion with the con- 
secration of Bishop Middleton in the chapel of 
Lambeth Palace that 

" Such was the timidity of those who promote d this 
important measure, and such the jealousy and alarm 

i* & XH. Atw. 2, 78.] 



with, which, it was regarded, that the Consecration waa 
as private as was consistent with the occasion, and the 
sermon of the preacher, Dr. Eennell, was actually 

It was afterwards represented that one of the 
chief pastors of the church was placed in an un- 
favourable position in a country like India, where 
.considerable importance was attached to title and 
rank. Bishop Heber, therefore, who succeeded 
Bishop Middleton, received the same honorary 
title which was given to his brethren in the English 
episcopate, and as it was not deemed right to 
make a distinction between the colonies, the name 
-of " Lord Bishop " has ever since been borne by 
them all. 

I may add that this honorary title is laid aside, 
when for any reason the see has been vacated, and 
-that those bishops who have resigned their ap- 
pointments are no longer designated as " My Lord 
.Bishop," but as Bishop So-and-so, that is, with the 
addition of their surname. Quoting from memory, 
I am subject to correction, but I believe that I am 
right in the facts. FREDERICK MANT. 

Vicarage, Egham. 

xii. 2, 22, 41.) Allow me to thank SIR CHARLES 
W. DILKE for the information he has afforded on 
ibis subject, but at the same time to deprecate the 
too caustic tone in which his remarks are made. I 
did not pretend to give a complete catalogue of 
such works, but as complete as the means within 
my reach would enable me, having had my interest 
in the subject excited by noticing the list inserted 
in Sydney Whiting's Helionde. My object was as 
much to elicit information, as I said, from " more 
experienced bibliographers " (of whom, I have no 
doubt, SIR CHARLES is one), as to give it ; and I 
think the columns of " N. & Q." the very best 
place for making a general collection of the titles 
of " Utopias " et hoc genus omne. 

My plan seems to be thought too broad in one 
direction, and too restricted in another. I had a 
plan, however, and laid down certain definitions, 
which SIR CHARLES calls arbitrary ; but that is 
simply a matter of opinion, and he agrees with me 
in saying that " it is hard to know where to draw 
the line." I should perhaps have stated that I con- 
sidered a narrative form of composition, not a mere 
disquisition, as essential, and therefore I freely 
acknowledge that Plato's Republic was, by inad- 
vertence, wrongly included, and that possibly one 
or two others of the works mentioned may be in- 
truders, from my not having them under my eye 
as I wrote. Mere satires (as such) were not within 
my scheme, and allegories I meant to include only 
so far as they possessed a political or social import, 
thereby excluding all the numerous theological 
allegories, after the style of Bunyan ; they would 
be worth collecting, no doubt, in another list. 

As to Swedenborg, I can assure SIR CHARLES 

that there is not a single allegory in his writings, 
certainly nothing of the kind of the length of half- 
a-page, unless his curious and beautiful prose 
poem, The Love and Worship of God, be so re- 
garded, which yet, I venture to think, would be an 
incorrect" opinion. His New Jerusalem and Its 
Heavenly Doctrine, if that is the work SIR CHARLES 
alludes to, is merely a dry statement of his theo- 
logical doctrines. His writings are largely occupied 
with expositions of an allegorical sense he supposed 
to be contained in the Scriptures, but his Memora- 
bilia, or visions, interspersed throughout many of 
his works, are, in his own intention, at least, plain 
matter-of-fact relations. So also, undoubtedly, is 
that work of his which most resembles the Utopias 
we are discussing, namely, The Earths in tlie Uni- 
verse; whether we regard its contents as sober 
facts or idle dreams, he certainly relates them as 
simple realities. 

Since my paper appeared, I have discovered two 
or three other works of a like character, and have 
been favoured with some communications on the 
subject from readers of "N. & Q.," of which I 
hope to make use in a future article. 


Cheltenham Library. 

" THE COUNTY MAGISTRATE " (4 th S. xii. 28.) 
This novel was not written by Lord Brougham, 
but, according to the Hand-Book of Fictitious 
Names, by F. E. Chichester, Earl of Belfast. There 
are several others by this Lord B * *****, 
Masters and Workmen, The Fate of Folly, &c., &c. 


CESTER (4 th S. xii. 7.) In the Mercurius Politicus 
of 1651 there are found among the prisoners cap- 
tured after the defeat several officers of the name of 
Hamilton, who were possibly in the troop of horse 
which William, second duke, is said by Douglas 
(Scotch peerage) to have raised for the King. A 
Colonel Hamilton was taken near Worcester; a 
Major Hamilton in Yorkshire. In the Mercurius 
Politicus, Sept. 11-18, p. 1064, a Quarter-Master 
Hamilton is said to have been arrested. Also in 
other papers of the period captures near Maxwelton 
(1 Dumfriesshire) are mentioned of Lieutenant-Col. 
John Hamilton ; and I think at the same place of 
a George Hamilton. I know that this is vague, 
and it is probably no news _ to T. F. ; but it may 
lead some one whose inquiries have been better 
directed to assist T. F. Such information as he 
wishes would be sedulously concealed, perhaps, at 
the time, because, on one side, at least, it would be 
a death warrant. E. CUNINGHAME. 

ERASMUS QUELLYN (4 th S. xii. 28.) I am not 
able to answer MR. COSENS'S question relative to 
the portraits of notable Englishmen painted by 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73. 

this artist, but it seems very unlikely that he 
could have painted any at all in the time of 
James I., seeing that King James died on the 27th 
of March, 1625, when Quellin was only eighteen 
years of age, a period at which he had hardly 
begun to paint. He was a learned man and a 
professor of philosophy in his native city, Antwerp. 
Becoming enthusiastic about painting, he threw up 
his professorial chair, and entered the school of 
Rubens; he was eight years the junior of Van 
Dyck, and is considered to show more of the 
manner of that great painter than of his nominal 
master, Rubens. In addition to his historical 
compositions, he painted portraits of many of the 
illustrious artists of his day, so that he must have 
been very assiduous if, commencing late in life, he 
found time to paint many notable Englishmen 
also. His son, Jean Erasme Quellin, was a greater 
painter than he; and Pilkington says that many 
works by him are ascribed to the elder Quellin. 
He was only born in 1630, and could have painted 
nothing in the time of Gondemar. Van Dyck was 
not invited to London by King Charles before 
1632, and, in the absence of proof, I think it ex- 
tremely improbable that the elder Quellin should 
have come to England before Van Dyck. 

Walpole says there was a Quellin, a Flemish 
statuary, son of a statuary in Antwerp, settled here 
in London in a large old house in Tower Street, Seven 
Dials ; and then Walpole runs on in his hap-hazard, 
desultory way, and says that William de Ryck was 
a " disciple of Quellin, who seems to have been 
a painter" ; this is after he has told us that Vertue 
mentions him as having carved Thynne's monu- 
ment in Westminster Abbey. Can anybody 
explain what the gossiping and witty Walpole 
means by all this? C. A. W. 


"MANSIE WAUCH" (4* S. xii. 8.) When 
Mansie Wauch first appeared in Blackwood (1824- 
1827) it was generally attributed to John Gait. 
Heir's title to it now, however, is indisputable. 

Kensington Crescent, W. 

INDIAN NEWSPAPERS (4 th S. xii. 28.) I believe 
that the only available file of Rickey's Calcutta 
Gazette is a folio volume in the Calcutta Public 
Library. The late Mr. Abbott (Pips) had another, 
which he lost and advertised for, apparently with- 
out success. CALCUTTENSIS. 

FACTOR OF CAMBRIDGE (4 th S. xii. 27.) I have 
long wished to learn something about this Cam- 
bridge worthy. From the second Report of the 
Commission on Historical MSS. (p. 118), I find that 
amongst the deeds at Gonville or Caius College 
Cambridge, is a 

" Grant by Edward VI. of an annual pension of 3Z. t< 
Gonville Hall in lieu of Phiswicke Hostel, which ha< 

>een left to Gonville Hall by William Fiswicke, Bedel of 
he University in 1393, but had been lately transferred to 
Trinity College." 

I have a large collection of MSS. relating to the 
?ishwick family, but have nothing to lead nie to 
iuppose that there was ever a branch of it settled 
n Cambridgeshire. With regard to the Lanca- 
shire family (a full account of which will be found 
n my History of Goosnargli), I may say that, 
although they held lands in Fishwick at a very 
early date, I have no evidence to prove that they 
ever held the manor. In 5 Edward I. (1276-77) 
Roger, the" son of Roger, the son of Alan, held lands 
n "fishwic," and at the same time a deed was 
executed, to which the parties were Roger, son of 
Roger, son of John " de Fishwic," and Roger, son 
of Roger, son of Adam " de Fishwic." From that 
date until the end of last century the family never 
left that part of Lancashire. If W. X. W. will 
favour me with a letter, I can give him further par- 
ticulars. H. FISHWICK. 

Carr Hill, Rochdale. 

ST. AUBYN FAMILY (4 th S. xii. 48.) 

" My daughter ' Phelyp is departyd on Crstmas Day, 

Almyghtie [God] pardon her soule ; and my wyffe hath 

take grette discofort therbye ; but, I thank our Lord, she 

doth take it better way, and thankythgod of his sending." 

Thus writes Thomas St. Aubyn to Honor Gren- 
ville, Viscountess Lisle, in a letter dated " ult. 
Jan.," with no year, but certainly between 1532 
and 1540. He had married a Grenville, for he 
speaks of " yo r neices my daughters," and his wife 
signs herself " your loving and lowly Sister, Mary 
Seynt- Aubyn." Some half-dozen letters from him 
are to be found in the thirteenth volume of the 
Lisle Papers (Public Record Office, Chapter-House 
Papers, Room XIX., Press 32, Shelf 1; temp. 
H. VIII.). They are generally dated from 
" Clewyns " or " Clowens," Cornwall. Perhaps 
SOUTHERNWOOD may find this reference of some 

ARMS OF D'ANVERS (4 th S. xii. 27.) Boutell 
(English Heraldry, p. 209, 1867) gives the arms of 
Sir Thomas de Anvers, from the roll of Edward 
II., as, Gules, a chevron between three mullets or. 


MRS. ELIZABETH PORTER (4 th S. xi. 484 ; xii. 
13.) Dr. Johnson's wife, had, I believe, an only 
daughter, and her name was Lucy, so she could 
not have been the lady to whom the " admonition," 
&c., was presented. E. COLE. 

PAINTER WANTED (4 th S. xii. 27.) I would 
suggest that the picture Y. K. means is one by 
Stothard, representing the death of Lord Robert 
Manners, in Rodney's naval engagement, April, 
1782. I only know the picture from an engraving 
of it by Sherwin, and"' published by Macklin in 
1786. A monument to Lord Robert and two fellow 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73.] 



officers* is on the right hand as one enters th 
north door of Westminster Abbey. 


" ODD-COME-SHORTLY " (4 th S. xi. 524.) I hav 
heard a lady, native of Somersetshire, where sh 
has resided all her life, use the expression, " Ode 
come shorts." Upon asking her its meaning, the repl} 
was, " Any odd things of a trivial, miscellaneou 
kind." She informs me that the phrase is common 
in Somersetshire. A. B. MIDDLETON. 

The Close, Salisbury. 

SOHO SQUARE (4 th S. ix. 507 ; x. 36.) Lord 
Macaulay pointed out the use of the local name o: 
Soho, prior to the battle of Sedgemoor ; but it does 
not seem to be generally known that Soho Stree 
existed several years previously. In 1678, when 
the new parish of St. Ann was constituted by Aci 
of Parliament, the eastern boundary of the new 
district was in part Soho Street, a name which ii 
had probably had for some time, as in 1708 it is 
mentioned by Hatton as Old Soho Street, and is 
so indicated by Kocque in his map, 1745. After 
this it has merged in Wardour Street. 

In a MS. " List of Popish Eecusants residing 
in the parishes of St. Martins in the Feilds, St. 
Giles in the Feilds, St. Pauls Covent Garden, and 
places adjacent, contrary to the Lawes of this 
kingdom, and His Majest 3 Proclamations, etc. ; 
presented to the Lords of the Councill at White- 
hall, on the 5th of October, 1681," I find an 
entry of " Mr. Bennet a fann Maker in Sho hoe 
fields," and a little further down there is a note : 
" Mr. Martin Steel 'att ye Signe of the Dog, in King 
Street in St. Giles, where there is a resort of a very 
great many Papists shoe makers." 

Perhaps MR. KERSLAKE, who gave an interesting 
note on "Ho Hoe" (4 th S. x. 102), may throw 
further light on the origin of So-ho or Sho-hoe. 

Soho Square was previously called King's Square, 
but the suggestion that this name was derived 
from that of the architect, Mr. G. King, is rendered 
improbable by the fact that in the earliest printed 
records of it, such as Chamberlayne's Present State, 
1682, it is mentioned as " The King's Square, near 
St. Giles-in-the-fields." EDWARD SOLLY. 

27.) In the first volume, Wraxall's Memoirs, there 
is some account of a person he calls the pretended 
daughter of Elizabeth II. By it, Admiral Greig 
appears to have been concerned in the ensnarement 
rather than the release of the unfortunate woman. 
The edition of Wraxall I have seen is the third 
published, 1818. Subsequent ones may throw 
more light on the story, which is there rather con- 
fusedly told. A g_ 

* Captains William Bayne and William Blair. 

MARY WINDOWS (4 th S. xii. 47.) I believe Mary 
windows are a modern invention, and that one 
has lately been inserted at St. Chad's, Haggerston. 
The vicar's daughter, Mary, solicited subscriptions 
for it from other Maries, and the subject of the 
stained glass is, no doubt, taken from the history 
of one or all of their Scriptural namesakes. I have 
an impression that somebody is canvassing for a 
John, or an Elizabeth, window, on the same plan. 


LOST BOOKS (4 th S. xii. 72.) John Lane's poem 
on Guy of Warwick is the Harleian MS. 5243, 
and his dedication to it is printed in the Percy 
Folio Ballads and Eomances, ii. 521-5. Mr. 
Hales (ib. 515) says it is only a revision of Lyd- 
gate's versification of Thomas Eudbourne's Historia 
Guidonis de Werwyke ; and, though licensed to be 
printed in 1617, does not seem ever to have been 
printed. So the poem is not a " lost book." 

Sir M. Hole's MSS. MR. BROWNE will probably 
find the one he wants among the Hale MSS. in 
Lincoln's Inn Library. F. J. FURNIVALL. 

; ' GERSUMA" (4 th S. xi. 81, 164, 431, 513.) 
There is 'an instance of the occurrence of the word 

ersum in the time of Henry II. : 

" Si praepositus dafc gersum pro tenenda villa, coqui- 
narii erit." Chron. Monast. de Abingdon, vol. ii.; Ap- 
pend, iii. p. 306. Lond., 1858, Rolls Ser. 

It signifies, according to the Glossary, Ibid., 
D. 444, " A reward ; a voluntary payment." This 

extract is from a document, De Consuetudinibus 

Abbend., compiled in consequence of a dispute as 
;o the receiver of the rents on the death of Abbot 
Roger, p. cviii. The date of his death appears, p. 

237, to be in the reign of Henry II. 
The word gersuma is also defined : 
" Gersuma. Apud forenses Anglicos usurpatum legitur, 
vofine, seu pecunia data in pactionem, et rei emptae vel 
onductae compensationem. Unde in venditionum for- 

mulis, et locationum chartis, haec au.t similia verba pro 

more inserta : Pro tot solidis vel tot libris in gersumam 
olutis vel traditis. Gersuma praeterea pro delicti com- 

)ensatione interdum capitur." Maigne d'Arnis, Lex. 

Man. Med. et Inf. Latinitatis, s. v. Par., 1866. 

The following notice of the word is from Blount's 
Law Dictionary, s. v. " Fine," Lond., 1691 : 

" The word fine sometimes signifies a sum of money 
^ aid for an income to land or tenements let by lease, 

nciently called Gersuma, sometimes as amends, pecuniary 
)unishment, or recompense upon an offence committed 

gainst the king and his laws, or a lord of a manor." 

In a charter granted to Wallingford, cart. 51, 
Henr. III., m. 10 (described in Sir T. D. Hardy's 
Syllabus of Eymer's Fcedera, vol. i. p. 76, as 

1267, Jan. 10. Inspeximus and confirmation of 
he charter granted by K. Henry [II.] to the 

urgesses of Wallingford "), there is this : 

" Prohibeo etiam et praecipio super eandem foris 
acturam ne prsepositus Wallingford Geresumam 

b aliquo quaerat." 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. -2, 73. 

Where Dr. Brady explains it differently : 

" Geresumma, or sometimes Jeresumma, is properly an 
Income or fine paid for the entrance upon some place, 
estate, or office. Here it signifies plainly a bribe, or 
money given to the king's officer to connive at, and not 
to prosecute those that gave it in criminal cases. ' 
Historical Treatise of Cities and Boroughs, by R. Brady; 
Append., p. 13, Lond., 1704. 

It was suggested that, in deeds from Edward I., 
the word is replaced by " prse manibus." But it 
is still retained in a deed of the date A.D. 1295 
{23-4, Ed. I.), where it is : 

" Pro hac autem donatione .... dedit mihi praedictus 
Robertus duas marcas sterlingorum prae manibus in 
gersumam." Kennett's Par. Ant., p. 325. Oxon., 1695. 

And in another of the date A.D. 1300 (28-9, 
Ed. I.), where it is : 

"Pro hac .... dedit mihi praedictus Johannes 
viginti solidos in gersuma." Ibid., p. 345. 

But in one of A.D. 1332 (6-7, Ed. III.), it is : 

"Pro hac .... dedit mihi praedictus Johannes 
quandam summam pecuniae prae manibus." Ibid., p. 420. 

It would seem as if, after the introduction of 
the phrase " prse manibus," any one of the three 
forms would occasionally be used, until this one at 
last prevailed. ED. MARSHALL. 

.S. xi. 462 ; xii. 14.) He was matriculated at 
Merton College, Oxford, in Lent, 1688, at the age 
of seventeen, as the son of the Kev. Richard West, 
of Creiton, co. Northampton, on which county he 
was elected a Demy of Magdalen College, in July, 
1689, at what was called " the Golden Election," 
when Addison, Sacheverel Archb. Boulter, Bishop 
.Smallbroke, and other distinguished persons were 
admitted. He became Fellow of his College in 
1697, and resigned his Fellowship in 1708 ; B.A., 
6th May, 1691 ; M.A., 14th Feb., 1692-3. He 
wrote An Essay on Grief, with the Causes and 
Remedies of it, 12mo. Oxon., 1695. See Wood's 
Aihence, (Bliss), iv. 602. Hearne's Diary (Bliss), 
vol. i. p. 183. J. E. B. 

DAVID EIZZIO (4 th S. xi. 485, 534.) The writers 
who lived at the same time with Eizzio all describe 
him as a Piedmontese. Queen Elizabeth's Scotch 
agent, Eandolph, in a letter to Cecil 3rd De- 
cember, 1564, mentions the new secretary, Rizzio, 
as an Italian (Keith, 268). 

Thuanus, in his history (Lib. 37) says Eizzio was 
a man of low extraction, the son of a musician at 
Turin, whose father had him taught to sing, as he 
had a very fair voice ; that not rising so fast at the 
Court at Nice as he desired, he followed the Count of 
Morette, whom the Duke of Savoy sent as Ambas- 
sador into Scotland ; that Eiz did not return home 
with the Count, but remained in Scotland to see 
what good fortune he could have. From a letter 
of Archbishop Grindal, quoted by Strype, an. 1566, 
it would seem that Eizzio was recommended to the 

($ueen by the Cardinal of Lorrain. Eizzio endea- 
voured to induce the Queen to have a guard of 
Italian soldiers; he invited Italians to come to 
Scotland, amongst whom was his own brother 

SERFDOMS (4 th S. xi. 484, 535.) In the Pedes 
Finium, published by the Eecord Commission, 
many deeds are given conveying, i. e. selling men. 
In the ninth year of the reign of King John, 
Walter de Eisely sold to the Knights Hospitallers 
Eudolph Kinel and all his family. The original 
runs thus : 

"Et prasterea idem Walterus concessit et quietum 
clamavit de se et hereditibus suis praedictis fratribus et 
eorum successoribus totum tenementum quod Radulphus 
Kinel de eo tenuit. Scilicet unum Mesagium cum perti- 
nentiis in Risele et unam quartiam terrae et quatuor 
selliones qui jacent ante portam ipsius Radulfi et ipsum 
Radulfum et totam sequelam suam in perpetuum." 

Very few fines of the reign of Henry II. are in 
the Eecord Office. OUTIS. 

Risely, Beds. 

503, 533.) There is more direct authority than 
that cited by MR. TEGG for Lockhart's authorship 
of the History of Napoleon Bonaparte in the 
Family Library. In a letter to Lockhart, Sir Walter 
Scott writes (October 30, 1828) : 

" Your scruples about doing an epitome of the Life of 
Boney, for the Family Library that is to be, are a great deal 
over delicate. My book in nine thick volumes can never fill 
the place which our friend Murray wants you to fill, and 
which, if you don't some one else will, right soon. . . . By 
all means do what the Emperor asks." 

As Lockhart prints this letter in his Life of Sir 
Walter Scott (chap. Ixxvi.), we may be sure that if 
he had not written the book, and some one else 
had, he would have said so in a note. 


BREECHES " (4 th S. xi. 238, 308, 514 ; xii. 18.) 
The proprieties were not always observed by our 
old song writers, but as Allan Eamsay's Tea Table 
Miscellany was specially got up for the lasses, and 
his gallant address assured them " that the modest 
voice and ear of the fair singer would meet with 
no affront," it might be considered that our hearty 
sailor's song was out of place there ; it was, there- 
fore, with much doubt that I sought for it in the 
early editions of Allan, and am now enabled to 
say that it is not found in the fifth edition, Edin- 
burgh, 1729-30; that of Dublin, 1729; or that of 
London, 1740. I find it, however, in one without 
title, evidently later in the century, from the con- 
tents of which the popular book had clearly been 
gathering bulk by the introduction of much new 
matter ; this may, indeed, be Phorson's edition, 
for in the Union Song Book, printed by him at 
Berwick in 1781, I find our song, which he may 
have thence transferred to his edition of Eamsay. 

J. 0. 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, '73.] 



ARMS OF A WIDOW (4 th S. xi. 403, 490.) A 
ridow is only entitled to bear her late husband's 
:oat of arms if her own family is likewise entitled 
o bear arms ; otherwise she would have no shield 
,o place arms upon, and certainly no right to bear 
icr late husband's coat of arms sole. D. C. E. 

S. Bersted, Bognor. 

I suspect the widow has no arms of her own, and 
uherefore wants to use her husband's. This she can- 
not do, hence the opposition she meets with. If 
this view is correct, neither ARGENT, MR. UDAL, or 
MR. PIGOTT have answered her query. P. P. 

"HAND-BOOK" (4 th S. vi. 527 ; xi. 530.) King 
Alfred's " hand-book ;; is very well authenticated, 
and, though the idea of forming it appears to have 
been suggested to him by Asser, the name was 
clearly given to it by the King. Pits in his De 
rebus Anglicis," 1619, p. 170, in the list of Alfred's 
writings, mentions it as Manuale Meditationum, 
Librum unum. Quern Handbooke vocauit." 
Asser gives an interesting account of his first 
suggesting such a note-book to Alfred, who greatly 
approved the idea and desired him at once to com- 
mence it ; and says the King called it his Hand 
boc : Asser himself, however, seems to have 
preferred the more pedantic name of Enchiridion. 

" (4 th S. xi. 461, 532.) C. A. W. ques- 
tions "if it was a punishment ever inflicted on 
people of rank." He forgets the case of the Count 
Horn, broken alive in Paris by command of the 
Eegent. In earlier days the Baron von Wart 
suffered thus in Germany for the murder of the 
Emperor Albert. Count Patkul was condemned 
to the same death by Charles XII. of Sweden, and 
in Portugal, in the eighteenth century, the Duke 
of Aveiro and the Marquis of Tavora, with others, 
were broken alive on the wheel in Lisbon, burnt, 
and their ashes cast into the sea. 


OF WELLINGTON (4 th S. xi. 342, 407, 473.) It 
seems not unlikely that the Poet-Laureate may 
have had his mind full of the ideas of Simonides, 
as MR. DAVIES suggests ; but " the toil of heart 
and knees and hands," in scaling " the toppling 
crags of duty," are expressions more common 
among the Greek poets than the epithet "four- 
square " as applied to the firm character. Hesiod 
(Works, 287) expresses it very beautifully in the 
well-known passage : 

/awTa, Oeol 7rpO7rapot$ev eOrKav 
r jua/cpos e /cai^o/o^ios o?/>s ITT 

TO TT/DWTOl/' eTHJV 8'etS &KpOV 

8r) CTretra TreAei, ^aAeTrr; ?rep eovcra. 
" But the immortal gods have placed the sweat of the 
brow before -virtue ; long and steep is the path that leads 

to it, and rough at first ; but when the summit is reached, 
then it is easy, however difficult it may have been." 

There is little doubt that Milton had this pas- 
sage in his thoughts when he penned one of the, 
opening sentences of his Essay on Education : 

" I shall detain you now no longer in the demonstration 
of what you should not do, but straight conduct you to a, 
hillside, where I will point you out the right path of a. 
virtuous and noble education ; laborious, indeed, at the 
first ascent, but else so smooth, so green, so full of goodly 
prospect and melodious sounds on every side, that the 
harp of Orpheus was not more charming." 

How difficulty and labour are the school of 
virtue, is brought out in a different way in the 
Alcide al Bivio of Metastasio, and the lines are so 
beautiful that they are worthy of being cited in 
connexion with the thoughts of the Poet-Laureate ; 
" Quell' onda, che ruina 
Dalla pendice alpina, 
Balza, si frange, e mormora 
Ma limpida si fa. 
Altra riposa, e vero, 
In cupo fondo ombroso, 
Ma perde in quel riposo 
Tutta la sua belta." 

"That water which falls from some Alpine height is 
dashed, broken, and will murmur loudly, but grows 
limpid by its fall. That other, it is true, reposes in a 
hollow, shady bed, but loses in that repose all its beauty."" 


" Terpaywvo? avev \f/6yov " answers to the 
vernacular definition of a good man as " a brick." 

C. S. 

PRINCES OF SERVIA (4 th S. xi. 483, 534.) 
Upon the deposition of Alexander Karageorgevitsh, 
December 23, 1858, not Michael Obrenovitsch, but 
old Milosch, who had been compelled to abdicate,. 
1839, was restored. He died 1860, and was suc- 
ceeded by Michael. For this supplement of MR. 
PINK'S generally correct note, I am indebted 
mainly to Mackenzie and Irby, The Turks, the 
Greeks, and the Slavons. See table of dates, p. 685, 


PALEY AND THE WATCH (4 th S. xi. 354, 452 ; 
xii. 15.) That Paley took in part the illustration 
of finding a watch, as evidence of a maker, from 
the preface to Nieuwentyt's book, there can be no 
doubt ; but whether it is quite just to say that 
" he stole it without acknowledgement " may fairly 
be doubted. Nieuwentyt's book, The Proper Use 
of the Contemplation of the Universe for the Con- 
viction of Atheists and Unbelievers, was written in 
Dutch, and published in 1715. It was translated 
into English by Chamberlayne in 1718, and pub- 
lished under the title of the Religious Philosopher. 
A second edition was printed in 1720, and a 
third edition was brought out in 1730. It was 
re-translated into French in 1725, and published 
at Paris. Paley was well acquainted with the 
writings of Nieuwentyt, for he refers to him by 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73. 

name, and at page 143 quotes from the Religious 
Philosopher in terms of praise. The argument of 
" found a work of art, it proves that there must 
have been a maker," was by no means new ; it 
had been used by many previous writers, such as 
Henry More, Bishop Wilkins, and others ; and 
was not original to Nieuwentyt. When Paley 
wrote the argument was common to all ; and 
though he clearly had Nieuwentyt's book before 
him, as the identity of some of the expressions 
proves, yet it is but fair to believe that when he 
wrote the State of the Argument Paley considered 
he was using public property, and not stealing 
another man's ideas. EDWARD SOLLY. 

" BENDER UNTO C.ESAR," &c. (4 th S. xii. 8, 74.) 
^Titian's picture of this subject is in the Eoyal 
Gallery at Dresden, and was engraved by Henry 
Eobinson for Blackie's Imperial Bible. Is this 
what AN OLD LADY means ? W. H. 


56.) I have in my possession a snuff-box which 
was brought from India by a Dr. Shaw, and left 
inadvertently by him in my house. He told me 
that the box had belonged to Eobert Burns, and 
that he had got it from a gentleman in India who 
did not expect to come home again. The box con- 
sists of what in Scotland is known as a " cloot" of 
an Ayrshire cow. It has a brass rim, and a lid of 
the same material. Inside is a " snuff pen " of 
rather primitive make. The whole property is in- 
disputably old. I only wish that Dr. Shaw would 
claim it again, as I have no right whatever to hold 
it. Identification may come through the means of 
this notice ; and should this be the case, and Dr. 
Shaw not turn up, I shall deposit the box and pen 
in the Burns Monument in Edinburgh. 



"EELIGIO BIBLIOPOLE" (4 th S. xi. 96.) In 
Dunton's Life and Errors it is said that 

" Benjamin Bridgewater, Gent., was of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and M. A. His genius was very rich, and ran 
much, upon poetry, in which he excelled, and that he 
was in part author of Religio BiUiopolce. But, alas ! in 
the issue, Wine and Love were the ruin of this Gent." 

If Ben is not altogether a myth, the eccentric 
bookseller himself did the other part, for it ap- 
pears to have been squared to fit his character, and 
figures among his projects, under the new title of 
Dunton's Creed ; or, the Religion of a Bookseller, 
in imitation of Dr. Brown's Religio Medici, the 
fourth edition. J. 0. 

FUNERALS AND HIGHWAYS (4 th S. xi. 213, 285, 
374, 433.) On first discovering the belief amongst 
farmers and labourers, in my neighbourhood, that 
the path along which a corpse had been carried to 
the parish churchyard for interment, was thereby 

legally constituted a public highway, I thought 
it a mere prejudice ; but, as " N. & Q." has elicited 
the fact of the existence of such an opinion over a 
large portion of England and Wales, in the counties 
of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Worcestershire, Bucking- 
hamshire, Glamorganshire, and Cornwall, it appears 
probable there is some ancient foundation for the 
tradition. Can any of our students of Celtic lore 
and Druidical rites, throw any light on the origin 
of this popular persuasion 1 or is there anything to 
the point in Picart's Religious Ceremonies and 
Customs ? There may be something analogous 
amongst the funeral observances of American 
Indian tribes. GEORGE E. JESSE. 

MISERERES IN CHURCHES (4 th S. ix., x., xi. 
Those fine specimens should be noted extant in 
the magnificent old priory church of Cartmell, 
Lancashire, which are in wonderful preservation, 
considering that the choir was roofless, and the 
stalls consequently exposed to the weather for 
many years. I am sorry that I was not able to 
make notes of the subjects of the carving, but my 
impression is that the fox preaching to the geese 
was one. J. F. M. 

[See Murray's Handbook for Lancashire, where it is 
stated that " for nearly two centuries the chancel was 
without a roof, and the fine oak stalls suffered accordingly. 
Their seats are 500 years old, with grotesque carvings, 
the work, doubtless, of the monks ; but the upper por- 
tions are modern."] 

CRABBE, THE POET (4 th S. xii. 67.) The lines 
are several times repeated in the tale of "The 
Fisherman and his Wife," in German Popular 
Stories, translated from the collections of the 
Brothers Grimm, vol. i. p. 27, London, 1823. 
There is only one additional line : 

" Hath sent me to beg a boon of thee." 
The commencement is " man," not " Old man," 
the man being an enchanted prince in the form of 
a fish. H. P. D. 

When I was a little girl, a lady, distinguished 
in the literary world by her historic writings, used 
to tell me funny stories, amongst which the " Old 
Man of the Sea " was the favourite : 
" Old Man of the Sea, 

Come, listen to me ; 

For Alie my Wife, 

The Plague of my Life, 

Hath sent me to ask 

A boon of thee." 

The words of the rhyme have passed from my 
memory, but not the facts there related. Should 
I succeed in obtaining the complete version (and I 
have good hopes), it would give me pleasure to 
send it to QUIVIS. ALMA. 

" I MAD THE CARLES LAIRDS," &c. (4 th S. xi. 
156, 201, 351, 413; xii. 11.) I wonder no "full- 
blooded" Scotchman has remarked that King 
James did not make the carles LAIRDS, he made 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73.] 



hem LORDS (in Scotland this o is long, and pro- 
lounced like oa in board). A man may be a laird 
n Scotland in spite of king or queen. When an 
idvocate in Scotland is made a judge, if he be 
previously a laird, he adds the name of his estate 
GO his title, Lord; otherwise he uses his surname, 
as Lord Jeffrey, Lord Cockburn, &c. Duncan 
McNeil, Lord Colonsay, was a laird, and was spoken 
of by his neighbours, rich and poor, as " Colonsay" 
before he was made a judge or peer of the realm. 
There is a story of one of his countrymen confound- 
ing him with " Colenso," and inquiring, " What is 
it that Colonsay has been saying agen Moses ?" 


ovre /3tofjLos ovre Trto-rts (4 th S. xi. 484.) I 
presume the passage of which J. J. R. is in quest is 
that in the Acharnians of Aristophanes, v. 308 : 
OLO-LV oirre /?w//,os ovre TTLO-TLS ov6' op/cos ju,ej/et. 


" PIERS THE PLOWMAN " (4 th S. xi. 500 ; xii. 
11.) MR. PURTON takes it for granted that the 
author of Piers Plowman was a monk ; whereas 
MR. SKEAT (who, by his magnificent three-text 
edition, has made the poem his own) leans to the 
opinion that he was a layman. MR. SKEAT 
writes :- 

" I do not think it at all clear that he was a priest ; on 
the contrary, one would glean from the poem that he 
was a married man, and therefore not a priest." Text A. 
p. xxxiv, note. 

" It is an open question whether he was a monk and 
unmarried, or whether his wife Kitte and his daughter 
Calote were real personages. The latter supposition 
seems to me so very much the more natural that I do 
not see why it should not be adopted." Text A. p. xxxyi. 

It is true that Bala and David Buchanan (see 
Wright's Piers Ploughman, p. ix, note ; 2nd ed.) 
style him sacerdos, but this notion of his being a 
priest seems to have arisen solely from his learning 
and Scripture knowledge. There are, however, 
many lapses in these (see MR. SKEAT'S Text B. 
p. xlv). It is true also that he calls himself a cleric : 
but see Text A, p. xxxvi for an explanation of this. 

With regard to the shepe of the Prologue. MR. 
PURTON has neglected to give an exact reference 
to MR. SKEAT'S note in Text B., and I fail to find 
it. That shepe= shepherd, I have little doubt. 
Wright glosses the words a sheep, or a shepherd. 
Dr. Morris glosses Scheep=scheepe, shepherd. 
(Specimens of Early English, 1st ed.). Professor 
Morley (who holds the author to be a priest) in his 
English Writers (vol. i. p. 758) begins his abstract 
of the poem thus, " In the soft summer season, 
says the poet, I put on the habit of a layman." A 
very strong argument that .sfoepe=shepherd is that 
in Text G., which received the last alterations and 
corrections of the poet, the word is changed into 
shepherde (see Wright's P. P. p. xxxiii). I con- 
fess that shepe for shepherd seems to me an unusual 

form. It occurs, however, (if I interpret rightly) 
in the following quotation given by Mr. Wright 
from John Ball's letter (Thomas Walsingham, 
Hist. Ang. p. 275). 

" John Schep sometime Seint Mary priest of Yorke, 
and now of Colchester, graeteth well John Namelesse, 
and John the Miller, and John Carter," &c. Wright's 
P. P. p. xxiii. note. 

An analogous form, hunt and hunte for hunter 
is common enough. 

" The hunte strangled with the wilde beeres." 

Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 1. 1160. 
"Me thoght I herde an hunte blowe." 

BoJce of Duchesse,l. 345. 
" Of huntes and eke of foresterys." 

1. 361, see 1. 375. 

" He was an hunt upon the hilles." 
Gower, Conf. Affiant, ed. Pauli, vol. ii. p. 158. 
" Her telleth her, how his hunt hath blowe." 

Vol. ii. p. 332. 

THE COLON (4 th S. xi. 343, 409, 431 ; xii. 37.) 
Since this matter was first mooted, I have had 
an opportunity of consulting works, which, had I 
seen before, would have spared my appealing to 
" N. & Q." ; but, since it has been a means of 
eliciting so much erudition, it can scarcely, I 
think, be regretted. The following quotations 
from a small but learned little work, which is 
anonymous,* although they are not quite relevant 
to the issue, which is when this point was first used 
in printing, are, nevertheless, interesting, as showing 
that an ancient name does not always represent 
the same thing as applied to more recent periods, 
and likewise in tracing its origin and history : 

" The origin of points is not easily traced in the depths 
of antiquity. Suidas tells us, that the period and the 
colon were discovered and explained by Thrasymachus 
about 380 years before the Christian aera. But it is most 
probable that, by periods and colons, Suidas only means 
the composition of such sentences and members of 
sentences as Demetrius, Phalerius, Dionysius of Hali- 
carnassus, Cicero, Quintilian, and other ancient writers 
have distinguished by these terms. In favour of 
this opinion, it may be observed that Thrasymachus 
is said to have been the first who studied oratorical 
numbers, which entirely consisted in the artificial 
structure of colons and periods, f 

" About the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries, writers 
began to leave a space between the words, and to make 
use of commas, colons, and periods ; but not with any 
degree of regularity." 

MR. NORGATE has pointed out that the colon 

* Essay on Punctuation. 2nd Ed., 1786. (Written, 
as I learn from the Gentleman's Magazine of 1792, by 
the Rev. J. Eobertson.) 

f The same authority considers it very probable that 
the distinctions or divisions which Jerome, in his Latin 
version of the Scriptures, calls cola and commata were 
not made by the addition of actual points or stops, "but 
were formed by writing, in one line, as many words as 
constituted a clause, equivalent to what we distinguish 
by a comma or a colon." 



XII. AUG. 2,73. 

may be seen in the Biblia Pauperum (the first 
edition of which was, according to Noel Humphreys, 
probably printed about 1410). He also states it 
may be seen in Pfister's Bible of 1456-1460 ; but 
it is to be found most extensively used in the cele- 
brated Gutenberg Bible, which was printed some 
time before Pfister's. 

These facts appear to demonstrate that the colon 
is considerably older than printing itself ; that it 
is to be found in one of the earliest known zylo- 
graphic books, and in one of the earliest complete 
books printed with movable types. MEDWEIG. 

VELTERES (4 th S. xi. 236, 311, 468 ; xii. 38.) 
If MR. SHAW will refer to the Close Rolls, Eotuli 
Litter arum Clausarum, T. D. Hardy, 1833, he will 
find the word "veltrar" frequently used in the 
sense of a dog-leader. For example, " The King 
to the Sheriff of York," &c. "We send you 240 
of our greyhounds, with 56 ' veltrars ' in charge of 
them," &c. " The King to Roger de Neville," &c. 
" We send you Henry Fitz-Baldwin the * veltrar/" 
&c. As to the dog called " vaultre " by Cotgrave, 
it never could have been allowed in forests at all, 
unless lawed or expeditated. Therefore, it cannot 
be the one alluded to in Canute's Laws. As to 
mota, it means pack, or kennel. Moota canum, or 
muta canum, is the same as meute de chiens, a 
kennel or pack of hounds. See Cowel's Law 
Dictionary. Also consult Le Hoy Modus, where 
mute de chiens means twelve running dogs and a 
lime-hound. GEORGE R. JESSE. 

SIR JOHN HONYWOOD (4 th S. xi. 484 ; xii. 55.) 
It is believed that Sir J. H. had in his pos- 
session a full-length painting of the George Ann 
Burchett mentioned at p. 484. Information 
wanted as to the present possessor of the picture. 

E. R. W. 

SIR THOMAS PHILLIPPS, BART. (4 th S. xi. 502 ; 
xii. 57.) See my Heraldry of Worcestershire, sub 
" Morris " and Phillipps." It is stated in Burke's 
General Armory that William Phillipps of Broad- 
way, co. Worcester (grandfather of the late Sir 
Thomas), was first cousin to Sir Clifford William 
Phillips, Sheriff of London, who, according to 
Warburton (London and Middlesex Illustrated), 
was descended from Sir John Phillips, of Picton 
Castle, Bart. Sir Clifford received the honour of 
knighthood in 1743, and Warburton adds that his 
pedigree is " entered at large " in Vincent's Salop 
in Coll. Arm., and is " verified by vouchers in his 
own possession." H. SYDNEY GRAZEBROOK. 

The Manchester City News, having republishec 
the inquiry concerning Sir Thomas Phillipps, has 
since received and printed the following from a 
correspondent : 

"An inquiry appears under the heading Notes and 
Queries in your supplement of the 5th inst., respecting 

he Thomas Phillipps named in the Cathedral register. 

The entry runs : 

' Baptism 1792, July 22, Thomas Philips, son of 
Hanna Walton.' 

and the writer wishes to know whether the supposition 
;hat the entry is of the baptism of the eminent antiquary 
and genealogist, Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., F.R.S., is 
warranted by facts. I am in a position to. adduce this 
confirmatory fact, that the antiquary was born in the 

louse. 32, Cannon Street, Manchester, now occupied by 
Mr. Edward Twigg, which is at least presumptive 

vidence that his baptism would take place in the Cathe- 
dral. Further on, reference is made to the marriage of 
Mr. James Orchard Halliwell, P.S.A., to the eldest 
daughter of Sir Thomas Phillipps, and some readers 
might infer from the tone of the writer's remarks that 

Mr. Halliwell and his wife's exclusion from Thirlestane 

House, near Cheltenham, by the terms of Sir Thomas's 
will, arose from the circumstance that they were Roman 

Catholics. This is not so. The property in Cannon 
Street and Hanson's Court remained to Sir Thomas, but 
reverted to Mr. Halliwell (who has taken the name of 
Phillipps) by entail. Mr. Halliwell Phillipps has since 
disposed of it to a Manchester gentleman. Yours faith- 
fully, J. H. A. 

'' Manchester, July 12, 1873." 

H. B. 

EPITAPH (4 th S. xii. 6, 56, 80.) I can now set 
at rest, sans doute, the originality of this epitaph, 
as I have found it verbatim in the 1636 edition of 
Camden's Remains. How Mr. Gunnyon, in his 
edition of Burns, published by Warne & Co., can 
have ascribed the lines to the Scottish bard, it is 
in vain for me to conjecture. Although the 
" Joyful Widower" slightly differs from the 
epitaph, still the thoughts, and even the rhymes, 
are the same ; in fact, they are a palpable plagiarism 
from the epitaph in Camden's Remains. 


Ashford, Kent. 

BULCHYN (4 th S. xi. 422, 511; xii. 35.) This 
diminutive, een not chin, is common in Ireland, and 
occasionally the double diminutive is used in a 
contemptuous sense. Thus bouchal is a boy, and 
bouchaleen a little boy. I have frequently heard 
the expression, " Now, you little bouchaleen, run 
away." There is caivbeen, a little old cap ; dudJwen, 
a little old pipe ; Shaneen, little Johnny ; spalpeen, 
and many others. In Welsh we have bach-in, 
little boy; moch-in, little pig; bwlch-in, little gap, 
&c.; and the English-speaking people, ignorant, 
perhaps, of the words being already diminutive, 
frequently prefix " little " to them. Among Eng- 
lish surnames we have Peterkin, Tomkin, Watkin. 

JOHN DOLLOND (4 th S. xi. 465, 510, 533.) 
Becket has a long and interesting biography, too 
long to be inserted in " N. & Q.," but any extract 
especially required would be made with much 
pleasure by E. COLE. 

See Lives of Eminent and Illustrious English- 
men (1837) vol. v. p. 297; the National Encyclo- 

* fc S. XIL ATO. 2, '73.3 



cedia, vol. v. (containing a list of his published 
iapers), and the Imperial Dictionary of Universal 
3iography, voL ii., p. 119. F. A. EDWARDS. 

"LANCASTER" (4 th S. xii. 26.) I have under- 
stood that "Lancaster" was derived from Lune 
the river on which the town stands) and castra, or 
A-S. Gassier, a, fortified place. This seems more 
probable than the derivation given by H. T. C. 
The town is called Loncastre in the Domesday 
Survey. F. A. EDWARDS. 

INSCRIPTION ON PAINTING (4 th S. xi. 483, 512.) 
I am obliged to MR. DAVIES for his suggestion. 
I had myself filled the gap with the word " ad- 
umbrat " by conjecture, on the same grounds, but 
I wanted it filled from an authentic source, i. e., 
from an inscription on any other picture, or from 
some publication, HERBERT EANDOLPH. 


"A TOUR EOUND MY GARDEN" (4 th S. x. 187 ; 
xi. 535.) The Rev. J. G-. Wood was the translator 
of this work into English. ST. SWITHIN. 

SECRETARY MURRAY (4 th S. xi. 414, 491, 531 ; 
xii. 16.) ANGLO-SCOTUS doubts the existence of 
any descendants of Secretary Murray. I have 
always understood that the heir and representative 
of the family was the late Mr. Murray, the well- 
known and respected manager of the Theatre 
JRoyal, Edinburgh. That gentleman's eldest son, 
Mr. Charles Murray, a merchant in China, married 
a daughter of the late Sir Hugh Lyon Playfair, by 
whom he has a numerous family, and with him the 
representation of the family rests. SCOTUS. 

TENANTS OF (4 th S. viii. 353.) I have dis- 
covered a few additional officers of this castle. 
Captain Sir Sam. Lennard, Bart., M.P. for Hythe, 
about 1718. In Lyons's Hist, of Dover, vol. ii. 
p. 230, in the list of constables of Dover Castle, 
Sir John Beauchamp, E.G., is mentioned as holding 
ulso the Castle of Guines, and the forts of Mark, 
dolne, Eye, and Sandgate. In the pedigree of 
Curson of Water Perry, co. Oxon, in Burke's 
Extinct Baronetcies, I find another captain : 

"Richard Curzon, Capt. of Sandgate Castle, 11 Henry 
VI., father of John, commonly called John with the 
White Head, from whom the Lords Scarsdale." 

A guard seems to have been kept at Sandgate 
at a very early date ; the last volume of the Kent 
Archaeological Society mentions a writ 41 Hen. III. 
"eonianding 6 men and a constable out of the 
hundred of Stowting to watch at Sandgate." 


WOMEN IN CHURCH (4 th S. xi. 363, 466 ; xii. 
38-) Separation of the sexes is observed at Stan- 
ton Harcourt., near Witney ; I am speaking of 

what I saw forty years ago. The two aisles are 
built so that both males and females may see the 
clergyman, but they cannot see each other. 


In Lower Brittany, the sexes keep quite distinct 
in the churches, the women occupying the nave, 
seated or kneeling on the bare stones, unless they 
have the means of paying for the use of a chair, 
and the men standing in the aisles. I observed 
the same custom in some parts of Spain. 

E. McC. 

ASCANCE (4 th S. xi. 251, 346, 471 ; xii. 12.) 
I believe in seeking the origin of this word no 
one has yet pointed out the Italian adjective, 
"schiancio," oblique, sloping; and the adverb 
" aschiancio," across, athwart. R. N. J. 

The presence or absence of the s is not material. 
The s represents the ancient particle, the extensive 
range of which has been pointed out by Bleek, but 
the full value of which has been little studied. It 
evidently has an effect of extension or of intensi- 
fying, of which we have good examples in its em- 
ployment as a prefix and a plural in English. In 
Georgian it is used to express locality, on the same 
principle. It is found even in the Kaffir group. 
In English and the other Germanic languages it is 
not uniformly employed. HYDE CLARKE. 

Giraldi Cambrensis Opera. Edited by J. H. Brewer, M.A. 

Vol. IV. (Longmans & Co.) 

THE fourth volume of Mr. Brewer's edition of the works 
of Giraldus contains the "Speculum Ecclesize " and the 
" De Vita Galfridi Archiepiscopi Eboracensis : sive 
Certamina Galfridi Eboracensis Archiepiscopi." Mr. 
Brewer edits the " Speculum " from what remains of the 
original MS., and does not believe that any copy of the 
original ever existed. Monkish transcribers were not 
likely to multiply such fierce and exaggerated scandal 
against their own order. The " Speculum," in fact, does 
not reflect the Church, and it does distort the truth as to 
the monks, who were really laymen " except so far as 
they had bound themselves, as Fellows of Colleges do now, 
to vows of celibacy, obedience, and community of goods, 
to which Fellows of Colleges at present are not bound." 
The book is full of good stories, and the Preface is among 
the best of the many good ones with which Mr. Brewer 
has amused and enlightened his readers. 

Life, Legend, and Canonization of St. John Nepomucen, 
Patron Saint and Protector of the Order of the Jesuits. 
By A. H. Wratislaw, M.A. (Bell & Daldy.) 
THE head master of the Grammar School at Bury St. 
Edmund's needs no introduction to our readers, to whom 
he must be well known by the works he has edited or 
written. Mr. Wratislaw can condense a long story 
within narrow limits, as in the interesting little work 
named above. Its interest chiefly lies in the circumstance 
that, step by step, Mr. Wratislaw leads us to the conclu- 
sion that St. John Nepomucen is nearly as mythical a 
personage as William Tell himself. His biography, as 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 73. 

officially told by the Jesuits (who take him, after Jesus, 
for their second patron saint), "is all but a lie from 
beginning to end." 

Mann : its Names and their Origins. By J. M. Jeffcott. 

(Philip & Son.) 

THE High Bailiff of Castletown has, in this little work, 
furnished valuable information for those who have not 
leisure in these busy days to read Mr. Cumming's and 
other elaborate works on this ancient and interesting 
island. Mr. Jeffcott's chief theme is the derivation, with 
the signification, of the name of the island. He holds 
that the names of people are older than those of the 
places in which they dwell; that Jews, for instance, 
were known before Judaea. His conclusion is that Mann 
has its name from the Mannanee, " a tribe of the pri- 
mordial race which populated Ireland " ; for which our 
Irish friends, with their Milesian flag unfurled, will hurl 
defiance at him. As for the word " Mannanee," the 
High Bailiff says, " It may denote the clan or tribe of the 
Bed or Fawn"; and that "the Menevii of Britain, the 
Menapii of Ireland, and the Mannanee may -have origi- 
nally belonged to the same clan." So that we maybe all 
brothers, and entitled to cry " La Fraternite oulaMort!" 

Cracroft's Investment Tracts. The Trustees' Guide: a 
Synopsis of the Ordinary Powers of Trustees in Regard 
to Investments. With Practical Directions and Tables 
of Securities. Second Edition. (Stanford.) 
ANY difficulties hitherto experienced by trustees in ascer- 
taining their powers of investment will be considerably 
lessened, if not entirely removed, by the issue of the 
Trustees' Guide. While full information on the subject 
of trust-funds is given with reference to all Acts of Par- 
liament bearing on the subject, we venture to think that 
the Guide will prove a very great boon to the investing 
portion of the British public, as it contains intelligible 
tabular statements of the securities comprised, for the 
most part, in the official list of the Stock Exchange, 
showing, with other information, the variation of divi- 
dends and prices since 1867. Thus is paterfamilias 
enabled to form for himself a tolerably correct idea of the 
nature and quality of the security in which he proposes 
to invest his hardly accumulated savings. 

The True Theory of German Declension and Conjugation : 
a Contribution to the Study of the German Language. 
For the Use of Teacher and Student. By A. H. 
Keane, B.A., Professor of Oriental and Modern Lan- 
guages at the Hartley Institution, and Ladies' College, 
Southampton. (Asher & Co.) 

WHEN German grammarians vary in their ideas as to the 
number of declensions in their language, and " furnish a 
certain number," to quote Noehden, " more or less, from 
two to ten," can it be wondered at that Mr. Keane 
should think "this very discrepancy sufficient proof that 
the whole system is essentially vicious " ? No one can 
doubt that the system of teaching the grammar of any 
language in this country, although better than what it 
was, is still very bad, and from its very nature calculated 
to make ordinary children recoil from the subject. Too 
much is attempted at once. He, therefore, who endea- 
vours to make grammar progressive, that is, suitable to 
the varying ages of youth, as well as interesting, will 
remove many a stumbling-block, and so advance linguistic 
education. We take it that to simplify matters, and 
that, too, very considerably, is Mr. Keane's main object ; 
his little work, therefore, is deserving of a fair and un- 
prejudiced trial. If this be accorded him, we are sure, 
from the motto he has adopted, " Heed not so much 
what men say, as what they prove," that Mr. Keane 
has perfect confidence as to what the verdict will be. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresse 
are given for that purpose : 

MILTON'S MINOR POEMS. (Edited by Warton), 1791. 
NOTES AND QUERIES. Series 1st, Vol. VIII. 

AV anted by Mr. J. Bouchier, 2, Stanley Villas, Bexley Heath, S.E. 

SHELLEY'S POEMS. Any early editions. 

Wanted by John Wilson, 93, Great Russell Street, W.C. 


UKBANUS. In Peter Cunningham's Handbook for 
London, there is this said of Grub Street : " Now called 
Milton Street, from the nearness of its locality to the 
JBunhill residence of our great epic poet ; an extraordinary 
change from all that is low and grovelling in literature to 
all that is epic and exalted." So far, your authority is 
good ; but we have somewhere seen it stated that a carpenter 
named Milton bought up the leases, and conferred his own 
name upon the street. The little that is left of old Grub 
Street (of the poet's time) well deserves a visit ; but no 
time must be lost, for now, in the City, ancient London is 
swiftly disappearing. 

LANCASTER. A " Man of Ross" (a song) was written by 
the Rev. John Skinner, episcopalian minister, of Longside, 
Aberdeen. He was the author of Tullochgorum, and of 
other Scotch songs, that are better known than his prose 


" Nous n'avons qu'un honneur, il est tant de maitresses." 
See Corneille, Le Cid, A. iii. s. 6. 

X. Y. Z. One more may be added to your list. In 
1800, the Rev. Mr. Bidlake, Chaplain to the Duke of 
Clarence, published a tragedy called Virginia ; or, the Fall 
of the Decemvirs. If Walter Scott had read it, he probably 
would not have said that Gait's dramas were the very 
worst that ever were written. 

D. P. Next week. 

A. M. Consult Memoirs of Bulstrode Whitelocke, 
Lond., 1860, 8vo., by R. H. Whitelocke. 

GENEALOGICUS. Next week.-, 

NUMMUS. If in very fine condition, it is worth about 

S. W. T. The custom is said to have arisen when an 
epidemic, fatal as the plague, prevailed, and sneezing was 
one of the early symptoms of an attack. ''Prosit!" is 
often the good wish expressed in Germany when one in the 
company sneezes. 

E. T. The paper will be received with much pleasure. 
W. M. Next week. 

ERRATA. P. 65, col. 1, line 2 from the bottom, for 
" Llidell," read " Slidell." P. 72, col. 2, line 24 from the 
top, for " Des Maryeaux," read " Des Maireaux." 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor" Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20. Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

S. XII. AUG. 9, 73.] 





I OTES : Antiquity of Names derived from Manors of 
Hundreds The (so-called) Lady Chapel of Glasgow Cathedral, 
101 Stonehenge, 102 Sixth Extract from my old MS. Note- 
Book, 103 Travelling in Ireland in 1801 Notes on old 
English Homilies, 104 The late J. W. Croker and "Cutcha- 
cutchoo" "A Domestic Winter-Piece " Ulster History, 
105 American isms Locality of the Court of Common Pleas 
in Westminster Hall Epitaph The late Bishop of Win- 
chester, 106. 

QUERIES : _The Canons of Eusebius : Peshitta MSS. Sir 
John Maundevile, 107 Underwood Family A Modern 
Myth, 108 The March of Intellect Authors and Quotations 
Wanted Quotations from Keble's "Christian Year" 
Heraldic, 109 The Wright Family Military Topography 
F. Bonnefoy " Mr. Fuller's Observations of the Shires," 110. 

REPLIES : Orpheus and Moses, and the " Orphics " generally, 
110 Carr=Carse, 112 Moonshine "Curious Myths of the 
Middle Ages "The original " Blue Boy "Michael Angelo, 
113 "Nice" Draught = Move The Parish Church of 
Cullen, 114 Cheshire Words The "Signet" Library Who 
is B,, Press Licenser ? 115 Madness in the Dog" At Bay " 
Palindromes, 116 Count Boruwlaski Silver Threepence 
and Fourpence ' ' Pedlar " " Embossed " Steel Pens- 
Death of King Oswald, 117 Carolan P. Pelham Nash 
Point, 118 Battles of Wild Beasts " Setting the Thames on 
Fire " Beardsley, &c. Fawney=a Ring Mawbey Family, 

Notes on Books, &c. 


There are many names of old families in this 
country which are identical with the names of 
manors or hundreds; and from this last it 
is evident that the ancestors were originally 
owners of the territories so named. There is, 
or was in Lord Coke's time, a hundred of Cole- 
ridge in Devonshire ; and the illustrious family of 
that name are still seated there, and probably have 
been there ever since the hundred itself originated, 
which, as Sir John Taylor Coleridge showed in his 
learned edition of JBlackstone, following Lord Coke 
himself, was ages before Alfred, who is idly sup- 
posed to have established them; and it is more 
than probable, as there is no trace of their being 
established in Saxon times, that it was a Roman 
division of the country, a conclusion recently sup- 
ported by a learned paper of Mr. Coote on the 
" Centimation of Britain." Again, there is the old 
Devonshire family of Hole, very widely diffused in 
the country, and there is a manor of Hole, which 
there is little doubt was the home of their ances- 
tors, perhaps in Eoman times. Again, there is 
another old Devonshire family, that of Bere, and 
there are several places so named, one of which is 
Bere-Kegis. So in Yorkshire there is a place 

called Pickering, no doubt the ancient seat of the 
old family to which Mr. Pickering, the Queen's 
Counsel, belongs. Instances might be multiplied 

One instance at the present moment has a pecu- 
liar interest, that of Wilberforce. There is a place 
in Yorkshire so named, Wilberfoss being the same 
word as Wilberforce. But there is another instance 
which has a great historic interest. There is a 
place called Strete-Kalegh in Devon, and in Brae- 
ton, temp. Henry III., there is the name of "Walter 
de Balegh." There is no doubt that he was the 
ancestor of Sir Walter Ealeigh, whose family were 
seated in Devon in the time of Elizabeth, after the 
lapse of centuries. " Strete," it may be added, is 
a word of Latin origin, and seems to denote that 
the place existed during the period of the Konian 
occupation. It may be observed that the Christian 
name was during the Middle Ages connected with 
the name of the place by the particle " de," which 
in modern times has been dropped. And the 
antiquity of Christian names in the same family is 
another curious circumstance. To my learned 
friend, Sir Henry Thurston Holland, son of the 
illustrious Sir Henry Holland, I pointed out in one 
of the year-books of Edward III. the name of an 
ancestor of his, " Henry Thurston de Holland," 
which was evidently Holland in Lincolnshire. The 
names are so peculiar that it is impossible their 
identity and collocation could have been accidental; 
and here we see how the " de " became dropped in 
modern times, and the Christian name was added 
to the name of the place. No doubt almost all 
names of good families have had this origin. It is 
to be borne in mind, however, that the names of 
hundreds have sometimes so altered since the Con- 
quest that they can often hardly be recognized. 
Hence, although Lord Coke mentions a hundred of 
Coleridge in Devon, it does not follow that it is 
known by that name now. Will any of your 
Devonshire readers inform me if it is so, and also 
in what locality it is situated? W. F. F. 



This part of the building seems to have received 
its name from the Eev. W. M. Wade, an Episco- 
palian clergyman, who wrote a History of Glasgow 
about the year 1820. This gentleman was pro- 
bably the first to treat the subject in an intelligent 
manner, for such was the lamentable ignorance in 
the west of Scotland at that time in regard to 
religious architecture and the commonest arrange- 
ments of a cathedral choir, that the previous " his- 
torians" who had touched on the subject maintained 
that the high altar once stood, not in its proper 
place at the east end of the chancel, under the 
great window, but in the space beyond it, out of 
the choir. Mr. Wade showed the absurdity of 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73. 

such an idea, and in so doing indicated his belief 
that this space east of the choir, extending about 
twenty-eight feet from east to west, was in all pro- 
bability the Lady Chapel. As he says, and many 
people now know, such a chapel usually stood at 
the east end of a cathedral under a lower roof. 
There are, by the way, two singular exceptions to 
this almost invariable custom, in the Lady Chapels 
of Canterbury and Ely, both of which are situated 
to the north of, and parallel with the choir. Mr. 
Wade, however, goes on to make an acute sugges- 
tion, which, with our extended sources of informa- 
tion, I think, will turn out to be the true one. He 
says (pp. 40-42 of this book) : 

" From the position, however, of the eight small win- 
dows in this appendage to the church, and from the 
decorative style of the work around these windows, as 
well as from the depth of the intervening piers, one is 
almost tempted to conclude that eight small altars, served 
by as many chaplains, may have existed here previously 
to the Reformation. * * * * At Durham the Chapel 
ef the Nine Altars occupies exactly the same relative 
position to the rest of the cathedral." 

Curiously, this supposition has been verified by 
the discovery, since Mr. Wade's time, of the names 
of at least three altars which stood in this very 
space, those of St. Martin, St. James, and SS. 
Stephen and Lawrence, martyrs, and each un- 
doubtedly occupied a site beneath a window, form- 
ing a little oratory. Such an arrangement left a 
clear passage between the back of the high altar 
and the central clustered shafts which support the 
roof of this chapel. In the great English cathe- 
drals such a passage, often of great extent, was 
generally left behind the altar, and called the 
Presbytery. In Glasgow Cathedral this passage is 
exactly opposite the door of the chapter-house, 
which stands at the north-east angle of the chancel, 
and no doubt was often traversed by processions of 
clergy on their way round the church outside of the 
choir. The persons who ignorantly supposed that 
the high altar could ever have stood in this confined 
space totally forgot that a cathedral chancel is shut 
in by stone parcloses, sometimes partially open to 
the north and south aisles, but always closed 
behind the altar. From recollection, there is clear 
evidence of this on the two arches at the east end 
of the choir. The spring of the arch shows an 
enrichment or break in the masonry, marking the 
point where the parclose wall stopped short, leaving 
the head of the arch open. These two arches were 
filled with tracery of the late decorated period, 
about seventy years ago, by a Mr. Stark, an archi- 
tect employed by the Glasgow magistrates to 
" renovate " the choir, who actually glazed them, 
perhaps under the impression that they were win- 
dows ! 

This fine building has certainly been restored 
and adorned with stained glass windows at a great 
cost, and the choir has been fitted up with seats 
and a three-decker pulpit and precentor's desk in 

the most approved Presbyterian style. But if the 
good people of Glasgow think it now resembles the 
decorous arrangement of a cathedral choir, they are 
egregiously mistaken ; for the pews run from 
north to south, right across the choir, with a narrow 
passage between, leading from the pulpit to the 
west door; and not only so, but these pews over- 
flow into the choir aisles, which are also used by 
" sitting " worshippers, a narrow passage only being 
left ! To crown all, the pulpit rears itself a little 
in front of the ancient site of the high altar. 
Never did the baldness of the Calvinistic service 
seem to me so out of place as in this noble relic of 
mediaeval Christianity. I abstracted myself as 
much as possible from the present, and in mental 
vision recalled the days when the greatest of Eng- 
lish kings, Edward I., in lowly reverence bent the 
knee at the high altar of St. Kentigern's cathedral. 



In a paper in the Saturday Review of July 26 
it is said that there "are no means of knowing 
anything about the origin of Stonehenge." " There 
is a class of cases about which neither pickaxe or 
records can tell us anything : in this class we put 
Stonehenge. We know not who built it, nor when 
it was built, nor why." But is this so ? Aurelius 
Ambrosius is an historical personage ; he is mentioned 
in Bede (c. 16) as one of the Eoman-British chiefs, 
under whom, in the course of the fifth century, the 
Britons made a stand against the Saxon invaders. 
And in that compilation of British stories and tra- 
ditions which passes under the name of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, it is over and over again stated that 
Stonehenge was a burial-place, and was the burial- 
place of Aurelius, and that the stones were erected 
by him in his lifetime. The historical part of 
their history can easily be separated from the 
fabulous, and that part of it which covers the 
period from the invasion of Caesar to the reign of 
Cadwallador is chiefly historic, though mixed up 
with some fabulous matter which can easily be dis- 
tinguished. The matter of fact can be discerned 
beneath its layer of fabulous matter which over- 
lays it. Thus the matter of fact that Stonehenge 
was erected in the time of Aurelius can be dis- 
tinguished from the fable that he obtained the 
stones by the aid of an enchanter from Ireland. 
The fact is mentioned over and over again ; and it 
would be idle to suppose that there was no founda- 
tion for it. There is this to be observed, that in 
the first mention of it the stones are described as 
brought to a burial place (c. 12), so that it was 
already, when the stones were set up, a place of 
burial. Then, it is stated afterwards, that Aurelius 
was buried within the " Giants' Dance," as it was 
called, which, it is said, " he had in his lifetime 
commanded to be made" (B. viii. c. 16). After- 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73.] 



wards, it is stated, that Uther was buried close by 
Aurelius Ambrosius, " within the Giants' Dance " 
(B. viii. c. 24). Lastly, it is stated that Constantine 
(who, it is said, succeeded Arthur) was buried 
" close by Uther within the structure of stones, 
which was set up with wonderful art not far from 
Salisbury, and called in the English tongue 
Stonehenge" (B. xi. c. 4). Now, it would be 
simply absurd to discard all this as fabulous. The 
history, be it observed, stops at the invasion of 
Ina, long before the end of the seventh century. 
Treated only as a record of tradition, it is the record 
of a tradition so fresh, that only two or three 
centuries had elapsed since the events recorded. 
No one has ever supposed that Geoffrey sat down 
and invented it all ; and the names and events 
mentioned during the historic period accord to a 
great extent with known historic facts. Aurelius 
himself is certainly historic, and there seems no 
reason to doubt that his successors are so. Their 
history seems to me to record British traditions as 
the Saxon Chronicle does the Saxon. It would be 
as idle to reject the story of Stonehenge because 
it is connected with a fabulous aspect as to reject 
the story of Aurelius himself because in Geoffrey 
he has an air of fable. He is mentioned also by 
Nennius, who wrote at the end of the tenth century, 
and though he is embellished with the aid of fable, 
it would be absurd to doubt that he was a real 
existing person. He is called by Nennius " The 
great king among the Kings of Britain" (s. 48), 
and, therefore, there is the less difficulty in as- 
sociating his name with a great work. At all 
events, it appears that there is the strongest reason 
to believe that the stones were erected by him or 
in his time ; and it is clear that at all events their 
erection belongs to British times ; and further, 
that it was a burial-place. It is impossible to 
think that the distinct statement, that he and two 
other kings, his successors, were buried there, had 
no foundation in fact ; and it seems at least 
probable that, as is also stated, he erected the 
stones. This view is further confirmed by the fact 
that the ancient name of Amesbury, which is, I 
believe, the town nearest to Stonehenge, was 
Ambrose-bury, the place or residence of Ambrose ; 
and it is alluded to in the chronicles in connexion 
with Ambrosius, who was doubtless the great 
British Prince Aurelius Ambrosius. 

There is something very unsatisfactory in re- 
jecting altogether a whole history because it is 
mixed up with fabulous matter. And in this 
instance it admits of positive proof that such a 
wholesale rejection is unwarranted, because a large 
portion of the facts stated are known to be historic ; 
and especially the existence of this very man, Am- 
brosius. It would be natural that some memories 
of those times should have been handed down at 
least to the seventh century by tradition, and the 
mere fact that these memories are mixed with 

fables does not compel us to reject the whole -, 
while the fact that the history stops before the end 
of that century shows that the tradition existed 
at that early period. It is hardly true then that 
we know nothing of Stonehenge. W. F. F. 


The following extract from " My Old MS. Note- 
Book " will be acceptable, I doubt not, to many of 
your readers : 

I Wylfull Herysye being in ^>fyte mynde and pros- 
perytie/ do make my last will and testament for when I 
shall die I ca'nott tell, wherfore I haue many phisytion* 
& surgions, the worllde beyng verye quasye,* yet I feare 
to be taken tardye/ In the name of the devell Amen/ 1 
Wylfull Herysye depted from the coste of germanye 
being sicke of a knavysh fever that shaike both body and 
soule, yet being in my prosperitie do make my last will & 
present testament in maiTr and forme folowing/ Fyrst 
I bequeyt my soulle vnto the devell the great god and 
hyghe byshop of herityques which was my maker and 
father/ and begatt me of wrongevnde r standyng the 
scripture in the phantasticall churche of vnchastitiey 
whose power and vsurped autorite I Wilfull Herysye do 
love to fplowe/ and to lyve vnchasttly ys all my pleas Ar / 
Also I will my bodye to be buried & knavyshlye coveyd 
vnto o r mother malignant/ w i a rablementt of herytyques 
brablyng t and pratyng before and behyndd me w* a boke 
full of herysye in their hands wrasting and wrything the 
scripture after their folysh phantasye/ Item I bequey t< 
my father the deuel and to my mother wrong vnd r - 
standing the sc'pture w' all theirs/ y* ys to saye my 
brother BeringariV my brother luther/ my vnckle ffryth/ 
my Cosyn wyclyfe/ my Cosyn Tindalle/ my frynds 
Melanthon/ and Ecolampadi" w' other their scolars/ as 
Barnes/ Bale/ bucer/ Turner/ Tracye/ Joye/ Roye/ Basin/ 
and my assured frynde Coverdale' w' all their hole 
generation/ y' they shall folowe my beare/ some clothed 
in cloaks for lack of gownes' some in their bare jackytts 
for lack of cottes which dare not at all tyraes shewe their 
faces but in corners here & there w' flatteringe tonge 
and Judas herts w* long disguysed garmentts and antyke 
berds/ And when you haue coveyhed my body to 6 r 
mother malignantt church, I wyll thei shall offer vp a 
fagot of a halfpenye and a boke of herisy in their hands 
to bring my bodye to the sepulc re y* ys to wytt, to a stak 
& a barrel! of pytch and tarre/ and there to offer vp the 
fagott w 1 wepinge eyes and a sorowfull harte, to see me 
their m r herysye so honorablye buried, for y* ys the 
farest deth y' herysye or any of my generation shall 
come vnto/ Also I bequey to Jack sauce that he shall 
rede the sc r pture and not folowe y* but here and there 
to catch a pece for his purpose/ and yet as wyse as a 
dawe/ Also I bequeye to my seconde sonne Wylfull 
Opinion/ y* what so ev 1 ' he heryth or redyth he shall not 

* Quasy=queasy,i.e. sick, out of sorts, in a disturbed 
state. Shakespeare uses the word three or four times. 
See Much Ado About Nothing, ii. 1. Queasy stomach. 

f Brable and brabler (wrangle and wrangler) are words 
used by Shakspeare : 

" In private brable did we apprehend him." 

Twelfth Night, v. L 

" We hold our time too precious to be spent 
With such a brabler." King John, v. 2. 



XII. AUG. 9, 73. 

belyve hyt/ nor trust no man but hym selfe/ Also I 
bequeye to all other of my generation siiwhat/ y 4 ig to 
say y [ they shall nether beleve god his lawes nor the 
kinge. but alwayes be raylyng & jesting w* out honestie, 
good order or charitye/ and at lenght (sic) shall come to 
me their m r Herisye. 

This document is charming. I have also hit 
upon a host of prophecies in the Note-Book, which 
I will send in due time. E. COBHAM BREWEK. 

Larant, Chichester. 


In an old memorandum or note-book in my pos- 
session, and which appears to have been the property 
of a gentleman of the name of T. Hartigan, of Ennis, 
co. Clare, I find the following curious entries, 
which may throw light on the expenses of Irish 
locomotion and hotel bills seventy-two years ago : 

Ennis, Thursday, 7th May, 1801. 
Expenses paid from 16th March last to this day, viz., 

42 days' breakfast, at Is. 4d 2 15 4 

43 dinners, at 5s 111211 

Washing-woman's bill 19 10 

Lodgings 383 

Hogan, for civilities 114 1 

Handed A. Perry with Habeas Corpus 

20 10 
1 14 

Limerick, Friday, 8th May, 1801. 
Particulars of Mr. Sargent's bill, which I ordered to 
be paid by Mr. Power: 
Carriage hire from Ennis to Limerick * ... 1 14 li 

Breakfast 033 

Punch ... ... 022 

Mr. Fitzgerald's fare 077 

Paid by Mr. Power 

I paid the driver for himself 

2 7 l 


2 9 3g 

Nenagh, Saturday, 9th May, 1801. 
Left this post for Roscrea. 

Paid 16 miles' postage, at 1*. 4eZ 114 

Turnpikes 033 

Breakfast, Is. 7%d. ; driver, 2s. 2d 3 9 

Roscrea, Saturday, 9th May, 11 o'clock. 
Left this post for Portloan. 

Paid 19 miles' postage 154 

Turnpikes 022 

Porters at Portloan Oil 

Driver ' 022 

1 10 9 

Portloan, Saturday, 9th May, 3 o'clock, P.M. 
Travelled post to Monasterevan. 

Paid ten miles' postage, at Is. 4d. ... 13 4 

Driver, 3s. 3d. and turnpikes, 2s. 2d. ... 055 

18 9 
* Twenty Irish miles. 

Monasterevan, Saturday, 7 o'clock P.M. 

Dined here and paid bill 084 

Bed 1 7* 

Maid Oil 

Waiter 022 

Sunday morning, 6 o'clock, 10th May. 
Left Monasterevan in the boat. 

Boat, Sunday, May 10th, 1801. 

Breakfast 1 74 

Boat hire 9 11 

Molony'sDo 070 

18 6^ 

Paid porterage, my valise, trunk, and port- 
manteau from the Canal Harbour to 
Cooke's Hotel, in Exchequer Street ... 1 7 

Not including the rather smart bill for break- 
fasts and dinners, &c., at Ennis, and confining our- 
selves altogether to the travelling expenses from 
Ennis to Dublin, a distance of some 95 Irish miles, 
we find that the cost was not less than 81. Os. lO^d, 
in other words, nearly eight times more than the 
same distance can be gone over for now ; and 
while it occupied five days to make the journey 
between Ennis and Dublin in 1801, the same 
journey can now be made between those places 
by the Athenry junction line in little more than 
so many hours. Verily there is a change in Irish 
locomotion within the past seventy-one years. 


[Some of the above calculations are not according to 

edited by the Eev. R. Morris, LL.D. (Early Eng- 
lish Text Society.) The passage "& evene fille 

drinke o tige atte mete," p. 67, is, I think, 
not rendered rightly by " and at evening let it eat 
its fill, and drink once at meat"; it ought to be, 
"and even (just) fill (se impleat, se satiet), and 
drink one draught at meat." Tige, at all events, is 
A.-Sax. tyge, 0. H. Germ, zug, tractus, haustus 
(see my Dictionary, 2nd edition, p. 509). 

Eiful, p. 81, and eilich, p. 5, are not = eisful 
and eislich, as the editor thinks, p. 240, but com- 
pounds of e\& : A.-Sax. egefull, Ettmiiller's Lexic., 
p. 3 ; 0. H. Germ, egilicher ; Graff's Sprachschatz, 
vol. i., p. 103. 

"& mid po|e (printed wo|e) dome binimeS 
him his bilive," p. 179: here "po?e dome" is no 
compound, but a declined adjective and substan- 

e : as a compound it would be po/i-, or po^dome. 
In a note on p. 179 the editor says, " Wrache, 
variously written ivreche, wrake,"; this is not quite 
right : wrdche, indeed, is = ivreche, wrceche (Dic- 
tionary, p. 573), as Idche (Homilies, p. 229) = lceche, 
3ut wrake (Homilies, p. 61) is a different word, for 
which see Dictionary, p. 574. 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73.] 



Hold, p. 183, is not "abode," but corpse, 
' cadaver " (Dictionary, p. 2*72). 

Ifile^ede (printed iwile%e$, MS. iyile^ed'?), p. 209, 
^ , translated by " wily," on the supposition of its 
1 eing connected with wile, or rather wili ; but, as 
< ven wili does not occur at so early a period, it is 
?aore probable, and, considering the prefix (or 
} ireposition) i ( = $e), almost certain, that iwile\ed 
U the participle of iwile$en, A.-Sax. geTpelegian 
( make rich, luxurious 1} : for the change of e to i, 
nee ayilegen, under awefyen, Dictionary, p. 9. 
leres, ibid, (as p. 35), tela, not " wiles," see Dic- 
ionary, p. 199, in voce gar. 

La^es, lages, p. 211, =ld?es (as filler ibid. = 
Juyer) lows (laws), tumuli, " saltus," not "lairs," 
'see Dictionary, p. 268, in voce hldye; lair (cubile) 
is 0. Eng. leir, Dictionary, pp. 309 and 589. 
Waferiht, p. 215, is probably mis written for 
waherift, Dictionary, p. 544. 

Scat, p. 231, seems to be a mistake for seat = 
scheat; in the corresponding line in Furnivall's 
Early English Poems, viii., 183, seed for scet, and 
scier for sciet (in Hickes's Thesaurus, vol. i., p. 224, 
scete = sch&te, a cognate word). 



CHOO." In a long-forgotten pamphlet, entitled 
The Croaker, or Venus Angry, 2nd edition, Dublin, 
1805, there is a letter from the late Mr. Croker, 
which I think is characteristic enough to be worth 
disinterring. I should premise that " Cutchacut- 
choo " was the name of a romping game said to 
have been introduced at the Vice-Regal Court by 
the Duchess of Eutland, and at that time the sub- 
ject of many squibs and satires by the wits of 

"9th Feb., 1805. 

" I am informed that you have published a pamphlet 
directly and nominately charging me with having written 
a lampoon called Cutchacutchoo. 

_ " Had this been any other than a false and indecent 
libel on Female reputation, and a base and cowardly 
invasion of the Peace of Families, I should perhaps not 
have thought it necessary to break the silence which I 
have maintained with regard to other charges of, in some 
degree, a similar nature and equal untruth. 

" But as I am desirous that not even the most obscure 
and ignorant individual of the community should suspect 
me of so infamous an offence, I must request you to 
inform the Person who has induced you to publish the 
accusation, and the World before whom you have made 
it, that I deny, in the most explicit manner, that I am 
the author of Cutchacutchoo, or that I had ever seen or 
heard of it, until I saw it in print, or that I have any 
other sentiment with regard to it than a perfect convic- 
tion of its Falsehood, an entire contempt for its Dulness, 
and a deep Abhorrence of its malignity. 
" I am, Sir, &c., 


The work thus forcibly criticized is scarcely 
amenable to the charge of dulness, however objec- 

tionable upon the score of morals and taste. The 
author, whoever he was, has certainly imitated 
with some success the style of the Familiar Epi- 
stles upon the Irish Stage, which I suppose was 
really Croker's, and this may perhaps have increased 
his offence. If we ever have the luck to get an 
English Querard, the article devoted to the late 
distinguished Secretary of the Admiralty will be 
one of the most curious and interesting in the book. 

"A DOMESTIC WINTER-PIECE." This is the title 
of " A Poem, exhibiting a full view of the Author's 
Dwelling-Place in the Winter Season. In two 
parts. Interspersed with a great variety of Enter- 
taining Reflections. By Samuel Law, of Barewise, 
near Todmorden, Lancashire, Weaver. Leeds. 
Printed by James Bowling. M.DCC.LXXII." The 
work is now exceedingly scarce, and is curious as 
being the composition of a man " who did not so 
much as know the alphabet perfectly well, when 
[his] twenty-first annual sun was rolled away." 
There is a certain degree of merit in the poem ; 
and the allusions prove that its author was familiar 
with ancient mythology, astronomy, and hydro- 
statics. He also quotes and translates passages 
from Homer, Virgil, and Ovid, in illustration of 
his similes and expressions. Part I. contains 680, 
and Part II. 402, ten-syllabled lines ; and there is 
a characteristic preface occupying four pages. The 
poem appears worthy of a note as an item towards 
the formation of a complete bibliography of the 
works of Lancashire authors. 


of a paragraph in the Freeman's Journal of the 
31st of May, as it cannot fail to be useful to many 
readers of " N. & Q." : 

Rev. George Hill, whose capacity as an editor of his- 
torical papers is so well known by his admirable skill in 
editing the Montgomery manuscripts, is at present 
engaged upon the Antrim papers, including those of 
Randal, Marquis of Antrim, who played so conspicuous a 
part in the troublous times of 1641. Carte, in his 
History of the Life and Times of James, Duke of 'Ormonde, 
has done everything he could to disparage the character 
of the Marquis of Antrim, solely because he differed in 
policy from Ormonde, and represents him as vain and in- 
capable. Yet the series of astonishing successes of the 
Earl of Montrose in Scotland, in 1646 and 1647, which 
shed a last ray of glory over the royal cause, was owing 
to the Ulster soldiery under O'Kane and other Irish 
leaders, sent thither by the Marquis of Antrim's influence. 
We understand that the private papers of the Mac- 
Donnells, Earls of Antrim, have been thrown open to him, 
and a new view of this distinguished Irishman, Randal, 
Marquis of Antrim, may be expected, rescuing him from 
Carte's obloquy. Amongst a variety of original papers, 
which will be printed for the first time, will appear 
' Letters Descriptive of the War in the Route and Glyns, 
1585 ' r ' Diary of the Second Earl of Antrim ; of his 
Journey from Dublin to Dunluce, soon after the Com- 
mencement of the War of 1641 ' ; ( Colonel James Mac- 



[4'" S. XII. AUG. 9, 73. 

Struggle in Scotland, in 1644 '; and sund 
work will probably appear in November 

Donnell's Account of the Earl's Movements after his 
Escape from Carrickfergus, T643'; 'Bond between 
Antrim and Montrose before commencing the Royalist 
and sundry others. The 
A. M. B. 

AMERICANISMS. I have always thought that 
the opinion expressed by Mr. De Vere in his work 
entitled The English of the New World, and men- 
tioned in the notice of that work in the Saturday 
Review of July 12, 1873, viz., that " the best part 
of the so-called Americanisms are nothing more 
than good old English words which, for one reason 
or another, have become provincial in England," 
was a correct one. I, who am a native of West 
Cornwall, have always found that I could read and 
understand the Biglow Papers with ease, although 
I have known many " east country men," if you 
will excuse the expression, unable to do so, more 
especially when called on to read them aloud. In 
fact, the Bigloio Papers appeared to me, when 
first I read them, nearly pure " West Cornwall." 

Whether this is to be accounted for by the fact 
that a great number of the original settlers of New 
England came from the West, and that West 
Cornwall and New England have since stood still 
in the matter of dialect, I leave for others to decide, 
but my experience is as I have stated. 

I may add that the word " hot-foot," which is 
often used by the late Mr. Haliburton in Sam 
Slick, not noticed by Mr. De Vere, is doubtless the 
same as is to be found in " The Man of Lawes 
Tale" (Chaucer's Canterbury Tales), in the following 
line : 

" And Custance have they taken anon ' fote-hot.' " 

The note in my edition explains the meaning as 
" full speed," which appears to me to be going out 
of the way to paraphrase a word which is perfectly 
intelligible as it stands. J. C. BATTEN. 

IN WESTMINSTER HALL. A curious old point 
turned up last week in the Tichborne Case, so 
fertile in points legal, literary, and historical. In 
the Great Charter it was provided that the Court of 
"Common Pleas" i.e. for common suits between 
subjects should be fixed "in the same place," 
which was in Westminster Hall. Roger North tells 
us that in his time the place was near the great 
door, and exposed to draughts of cold air, and it was 
proposed to move it a few yards further in. But 
this Sir Orlando Bridgman opposed, as being an 
infraction of the Great Charter, declaring that if 
the Court were moved all judgments would be 
invalid. However, the objection was not regarded. 
Still, the Court sat in the Hall itself down to 
modern times. A statute of Elizabeth, which first 
enabled a Chief Justice to try causes by himself, 
required that it should be in "Westminster Hall." 
And it was actually objected last week that the 

trial in the Common Pleas was invalid because the 
Court sat at the Sessions House. However, the 
Court overruled the objection, because the trial was 
by consent, otherwise it might have been valid. 
The Queen's Bench was ambulatory for ages, and 
has sat at York, at Reading, at Hertford, and all 
sorts of places. W. F. F. 

EPITAPH. I send you a copy of an inscription 
that I have seen within the last few days. It is 
copied from a grave-stone in the churchyard of 
Patrick Brompton, in the North Riding of York- 
shire : 
" To the memory of two brothers who seem to have been 

employed by a railway company. 
" Our Engines now are cold and still ; 

No water does our boilers fill ; 

Our coke affords its flames no more ; 

Our days of usefulness are o'er ; 

Our wheels deny their noted speed, 

No more our guiding hands they heed ; 

Our whistles too have lost their tone, 

Their shrill and thrilling sounds are gone ; 

Our valves are now thrown open wide ; 

Our flanges all refuse to guide ; 

Our clanks, also, though once so strong, 

Refuse their aid in the busy throng ; 

No more we feel each urging health, 

Our steam is now condensed in death ; 

Life's railway 's o'er, each station's past, 

In death we're stopped and rest at last. 

Farewell, dear friends, and cease to weep ; 

In Christ we rest, in Him we sleep." 


nexion with the circumstances of this reverend 
prelate's death, which arose from a disjoint ure of 
the vertebrae of the neck by sudden concussion, I 
think it would be well if the public were informed 
that in cases of this kind a very simple remedy 
exists. It proved efficacious in one coming within 
my own knowledge, although, let us hope, by no 
means a solitary one. Some fifty years since (it 
may be more), a surgeon at Newmarket, driving 
in a gig, was overset, and dislocated his neck. 
The groom came off unscathed, and being a man 
of some nerve and presence of mind, at once 
adopted the following method (of which he had, 
curiously enough, only heard the day previous), 
viz., placing one knee on the vertebrae imme- 
diately between the doctor's shoulders, he drew 
the latter well towards him, the effect of which 
was a restoration of the vertebrae to their ori- 
ginal position, and' the doctor to consciousness. 
I knew both these men personally ; indeed, long 
after the accident, the injured man was instru- 
mental in introducing to the world your very 
humble servant, C. PETTET. 

Addison Road, N. 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 9,73.] 




[We must request correspondents desiring information 
m family matters of only private interest, to affix thei 
lames and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
mswers may be addressed to them direct.] 

Can any of your readers give any information a 
,o the earlier history of that very interesting and 
rery wide-spread method of noting parallel pas 
sages in the Holy Gospels, by means of the canon: 
and sections of Eusebius of Csesarea 1 

His tables are given by Bishop Lloyd in th< 
Introduction to his Greek Testament, with th( 
sections in the margin of the Gospels; both are 
given likewise by Dr. Tischendorf in his seventh 
edition, and in the main these are the same as those 
given by Bishop Lloyd, though I do not observe 
that Dr.' Tischendorf says from what MS. he has 
given them. A very large number of the Greek 
MSS. which have come down to us likewise con- 
tain the sections. The Kev. J. W. Burgon, B.D., 
Fellow of Oriel College, who has given a good dea] 
of attention to this subject, tells me that these are 
quite deserving of being carefully collated, so that 
the 'tables and sections might be critically edited 
from a careful collation of them in the chief Greek 

But the use of these tables was not confined to 
Greek-speaking Churches. Dr. Tischendorf, in his 
Prolegomena to his seventh edition, p. 74, says, 
" In longe plerosque codices quum Grsecos turn 
Latinos aliosque a quarto inde seculo transisse 
constat." They occur in very many manuscripts 
of the Peshitta or earliest Syriac version, and 
likewise in the Heraklean or later Syriac version, 
but with a wide difference as regards the elder or 
Peshitta version ; for while in the Heraklean 
version (so far as I have had opportunity of 
observing manuscripts), and likewise in the 
Peshitta MS. in the British Museum, Add. 14456 
(Cod. 80 of Dr. Wright's Catalogue, who says that 
it is an eighth century MS.), the sections are sub- 
stantially the same as in Bishop Lloyd's edition ; 
all the older Peshitta manuscripts that give them 
at all exhibit a totally different recension, and an 
increased number of sections, varying from 71 to 
39, in the several Gospels. 

Thus the number of sections in Bishop Lloyd 
are & Matthew, 355 ; 8. Mark, 236 ; 8. Luke, 
342 ; 8. John, 232 ; and in the Peshitta are 
8. Matthew, 426 ; 8. Mark, 290 ; 8. Luke, 402 ; 
S. John, 271. Thus the total of the Peshitta 
sections is 1,389, those found in Greek vary (Mr. 
Burgon tells me) from 1,162 up to 1,181. 

_The Peshitta tables are fully published (though 
with some few errata occasioned by the figures 
fading with age) from the grand, beautiful Syriac 
Codex in the Mediceeo-Laurentian Library at 
Florence, by Assemani in his Catalogue of the 

Oriental MSS. there. This is the only complete 
copy of the tables in Syriac that we at present 
know of. To these the MS. prefixes the Letter of 
Eusebius to Carpian, indicating that these sections, 
as found in^the bulk of the MSS. of the Peshitta, 
are really Eusebius's, and making it probable that 
those now commonly found in extant Greek MSS. 
are a somewhat later revision of Eusebius, yet a 
very old revision, since it is found in the Codex 
80 of Dr. Wright's Catalogue, a MS. of the eighth 
century. Its presence in the MSS. of the Hera- 
klean recension seems to indicate that it was in the 
Greek MSS. of the sixth or seventh century, 
i.e. either in those used by Philoxenus, Bishop of 
Mabug (Hierapolis), who originally made that 
version, or by Thomas Herakleensis (of Hharkel), 
Bishop of the Germanicia, who revised it. 

Some of your readers may know whether there 
is anything that may throw light on the history of 
the revision of these sections ; their general direction 
would appear to me to lie in removing some of the 
very minuter parallelisms ; some of the sections in 
the Peshitta version occupy half a line only. 

I may add that my friend the Eev. H. Deane, 
B.D., Fellow of S. John's College, is giving attention 
to all that he can find of these sections in MSS. of 
the Heraklean versions, and it has for many years 
been an object with me to re-edit the Peshitta, 
including a careful collation of the sections as given 
in these elder Peshitta MSS., though other duties, 
and the absence of strong health, delay the work 

The careful collation and critical edition of the 
sections as given in Greek MSS., and also in Latin 
ones, has yet to be done, and would be of great 
interest and value. P. E. PUSEY, M.A. 



Whilst recently compiling for iny own use an In- 
dex to his Voiage and Travaile, I noted among the 
numerous obsolete terms about a score, as per list, 
vhich I do not recollect to have met with before, or 
not in the same sense, and of which I shall be glad to 
lave an explanation from some one better versed in 
he English of the fourteenth century. The references 
are to the excellent edition published by Ellis (now 
Ellis & White) in 1866 excellent as regards the 
ext, a reprint of the 1725 edition, which was 
bunded upon the best MS. of the author, that in 
he Cottonian Library, Titus C. xvi., although, as 
Vtr. Morris has shown, not quite accurately copied ; 
ind for its illustrations, a reproduction by Fairholt 
f the curious old grotesque engravings in the 
lack letter quartos. 

99. AlJcatran. "And fro Jerico, a 3 myle, is the Dede 
ee. Aboute that See growethe moche Alom and of 

35. Calahdyke. " There (in Babyloyne) duellethe the 
oudan in his Calahelyke (for there is comounly his See) 
fayr Castelle." 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73. 

67. Cambylle. " Men drawen out of the Erthe a thing 
that men clepen cambylle : and thei ete it in stede of 

238. Cumanez. "For he (the Gret Chan) hathe of 
Mynstralles the nombre of 13 Cumanez." 

307. Feme. " And the folk of that contree (the Yle 
clept Rybothe) han none houses ; hut thei dwellen and 
lyggen under Tentes made of hlack Feme." 

141. Galamelle. " Thei (the Sarrazines) drynken gode 
Beverage and swete and norysshynge that is made of 
Galamelle : and that is that men maken Sugar of." 

219-20. Grenaz, &c. " The rede (precious stones) ben 
of Rubies, and of Grenaz and Alabraundynes ; the grene 
ben of Emeraudes, of Perydos and of Crisolytes : and the 
black ben of Onichez and Garantez." 

209. Loyres. " In that contree (the kyngdom of Mancy) 
ther ben Bestes taughte of men to gon in to Watres, in 
to Ryveres, and in to depe Stankes, for to take Fysche : 
the which Best is but lytille, and men clepen hem Loyres." 

217. Mountour. " And in the myddes of this Palays 
is the Mountour for the Grete Cane, that is alle wrought 
of gold, and of precyous stones and grete Perles." 

48. Orielle. " And his Nekke (the Foul that is clept 
Fenix) is zalowe aftre colour of an Orielle, that is a ston 
well schynynge." 

29. Papyonns. " In Cipre men hunten with Papyonns, 
that ben lyche Lepardes, and thei taken wylde Bestes 
righte welle." 

4. Reconsyled. " Thanne I trowe well that within a 
lityl tyme oure righte Heritage (the Holy Londe) before 
seyd scholde be reconsyled, and put in the hondes of the 
righte Heires of Jesu Crist." 

185. Redye. " For, for the gretnesse of the Erthe and 
of the See, men may go be a 1000 and a 1000 other weyes, 
that no man cowde redye him perfitely toward the parties 
that he cam fro. " 

252. Schiere. "And alle the Tartarienes han smale 
Eyen, and litille of Berd, and not thikke hered, but 

311-12. Toothille. "And in the myd place of on of hys 
Gardynes is a lytylle Mountayne, where there is a litylle 
Medewe, and in that medewe is a litylle Toothille with 
Toures and Pynacles alle of gold." 

54. Farde. "And betweene Cycele and Itaylle there is 
but a lytille Arm of the See, that men clepen the Farde 
of Mescyne." 

As "alkatran" is mentioned with alum, and was 
found near the Dead Sea ; it is probably an alkaline 
salt. " Galamelle" is perhaps a corrupt reading of 
calamelle, which may be derived from calamus. 
" Reconsyled" may be understood as referring to the 
True Faith, but seems to be used absolutely in the 
sense of recovered or restored. " Redye" is evidently 
formed from redeo. "Schiere" usually signifies 
bright or clear, and " toothille" is explained by 
Wright as meaning an eminence ; but these senses 
do not appear applicable to the passages in which 
the words are here used. "Farde" looks like a 
misprint of Faroe. 

The glossary, with comparatively few references 
(evidently a hasty production), given at the end of 
the volume, is very far from complete, and a few 
of the explanations are wrong ; e.g., 155, "sowd," pay 
or wages, is explained war; and 190, " truffulle," a 
trifle or trifling jest, is said to mean truth. I was 
in hopes of our having a critical edition, and that 
a gentleman might have been found, gifted with 

the requisite ability, to do for Sir John Maundevile 
what Colonel Yule has so effectually accomplished 
for Marco Polo. From recent enquiries, however, 
I am afraid that there is but little prospect of this, 
and if some one among the numerous learned cor- 
respondents of " N. & Q." would in its columns 
only elucidate the many geographical difficulties 
that so frequently occur, and thereby assist the 
ordinary reader to identify the places mentioned, 
he would, I think, confer an obligation on many 
besides myself. The admirable notes to The Book 
of Ser Marco Polo would of course afford to any 
one undertaking the work considerable assistance. 
The popularity of our earliest English traveller in 
the East was formerly much greater than that of 
his celebrated Venetian precursor ; but after being 
over estimated for some centuries, probably on 
account of the wonderful tales which he relates in 
all good faith, he has in more recent times been 
unduly neglected, notwithstanding the large amount 
of curious and authentic matter to be found in his 
pages. An able writer in the Retrospective Review 
(is not its revival a desideratum ?) speaking of The 
Voiage and Travaile, justly remarks that 
" the literature of the Middle Ages has scarcely a more 
entertaining and interesting subject; and to an English- 
man it is doubly valuable, as establishing the title of his- 
country to claim as its own the first example of the 
liberal and independent gentleman travelling over the 
world in the disinterested pursuit of knowledge, unsullied 
in his reputation, honoured and respected wherever he 
went for his talents and personal accomplishments, and 
(in the words of the faithful panegyric inscribed on his 

" ' Moribus, ingenio, candore et sanguine clarus.' " 
Alverton Vean, Penzance. 

UNDERWOOD FAMILY. Can any of your readers 
give me some information concerning this family? 
The pedigree I am tracing goes pretty easily up to 
Henry Underwood, whose sons, Jeofry (sic), John, 
and Edmund, were baptized at Bletchley, Bucks, 
in 1579, 1582, and 1589 respectively. This I gather 
from the parish register. My wish is to connect 
the said Henry Underwood with one of the families 
of that name entitled to bear arms. The only 
families (of that name) that I can find so entitled 
are the Underwoods of Weston, Herts, those of 
Hereford, and those of Bixley, Norfolk. All the 
Underwoods who have established their right to 
arms seem to have traced up to those families 
instead of obtaining a grant. This information is 
from the Heralds' College. The Christian names 
of the branch of the family of Underwood that I 
am tracing are almost identical with those contained 
in the pedigrees preserved in the College of Arms 
and in the British Museum. GENEALOGICUS. 

A MODERN MYTH. In Button's History of 
Derby (ed. 1817), there is a story of the semi-inystic 

4* s< xil. AUG. 9, 73.] 



class, which I have often thought, if properly in- 
vestigated, might afford an interesting illustration 
of the manner in which these traditions are deve- 
loped. " About the reign of Oliver Cromwell or 
beginning of Charles II.," a family of the name of 
Crosland, consisting of a father and two sons, were 
tried and condemned for horse stealing at the 
Derby Assizes. "After sentence," says Button 
"the Bench entertained the cruel whim of ex- 
tending mercy to one of the criminals upon the 
barbarous condition that the pardoned man shoulc 
hang the dther two." The father and the eldest o: 
the sons have the offer made to them in succession 
and both refuse, in neat little speeches, which migh 
have come, and probably did come, via Hutton 
from Plutarch. The youngest son, however, witl 
that singular fortune which has always attendee 
the younger sons of fiction, from Puss in Boots to 
Mr. Trollope, consents " with avidity," and ac- 
quitted himself so well that he was appointee 
hangman for Derbyshire and the adjoining counties, 
where he appears to have led a useful and honoured 
life until 1705, when Hutton chronicles his demise 
Your readers will not require to be told that even 
" in the reign of Oliver Cromwell " this incident 
could not possibly have occurred as stated. Hutton 
evidently found a tradition and gravely recorded 
it as a fact, dovetailing it with certain names and 
dates. But what was the nucleus of truth ? Was 
there a hangman of the name of Crosland ? 


walking the other day, I happened in course of 
conversation with my companions to remark in 
rather a loud tone of voice, and half in jest, that I 
would send the following to "N. & Q.": "Are 
there any toads in Ireland ? If not, why not ? No 
Irish need reply." Instantly I heard a voice from 
a man on the road, whom I had not observed, 
" Hwhat 's that ye 're sayin', Parson, about No 
Oirish need apply?" I felt at the moment con- 
siderably taken aback, fearing my friend might 
challenge me to fight ; but at once recovering my 
presence of mind, I told him, in as conciliatory a 
tone as I could, that he was the very person to give 
me the information of which I was in search, and 
proceeded to ask him the above questions. He 
replied, that he had been born and brought up in 
Ireland, and that he could assure me that there 
were no toads in Ireland, nor adders, nor any 
venomous reptiles, but that there were some 
" Bathrachians" (sic), that frogs abounded. But 
the soil and climate did not suit toads and adders ; 
it was a humid atmosphere, &c. I asked him 
whether some people did not think St. Patrick 
drove them all away ? But he straitly declined to 
be " drawn" on this point, harping sedulously on 
the rationalistic strings. I have no doubt tfiat his 
parents would from their hearts have believed in 

the St. Patrick explanation. Is not the blessed 
saint seen in the cottage pictures driving all the 
snakes into the sea, and can any one doubt for a 
moment that this accounts for their absence'? 
Now, I should like to repeat my question seriously 
in " N. & Q.," and shall be glad to see any replies, 
from the Emerald Isle or elsewhere. My own 
belief with regard to the pictures is, that they have 
at first been symbolical of the expulsion of the 
powers of evil, and have afterwards given rise to 
the popular notions with regard to snakes, &c. 

J. T. F. 
Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

" Truth, like a torch, the more it 's shook it shines." 
' ' Vidi equidem motas subito flammescere prunas ; 

Et sensim, nullo discutiente, mori." 
Where do the above lines come from 1 They 
occur on the title-page and the following page of 
Sir William Hamilton's Discussions (second edition, 
1853). C. P. F. 

Who is the author of 

"We learn, by mortal yearnings, to ascend '"? 

S. S. 

Who is the author of these lines 1 
" That bowery recluse, the nightingale, 

Lulling his lonely heart with worlds of song, 
Wee wanderer through leafy cloisters pale, 
Keeps piping, piping all night long," &c. 

J. R. P. K. 
Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 

Whose are these lines on Time ? 
" Time, thou shouldst be counted by 

Not weeks and months, but joys and fears ! 
Seasons I 've known like seconds fly ! 

An hour has seemed a hundred years ! " 

The following lines I fancied were Cowper's, but 
I cannot find them : 

" 'Tis said, th' offending man will sometimes sigh, 

And say, ' My God, in what a dream am I ! 

I will awake.' " 


The original source is wanted of 
'Vain deluding mirth. 1 ' 
' Long sought and lately won." 
' The sword in myrtles drest." 
' The man of songs. '^ 
' Minstrel raptures." 
Harsh din." 
"Little drop o/ light." 
" No rest below." 
" Quiet mirfh." 
" A spouse with all a daughter's heart." 

T. M. 

HERALDIC. What family bore the following 
arms : Quarterly 1 and 4, a bend engrailed, charged 
with three wheat sheaves ; 2 and 3, three roses, in 
chief vair ? These arms are on a massive silver 



[4 th S. XII. Ana. 9, 73. 

spoon, of very rude workmanship, and apparently 
old date ; beneath the shield are the letters B-f R : 
it came to the present possessor through the family 
<>f Jeffrys, of Kirkham Abbey, co. York. 

W. M. M. 

THE WRIGHT FAMILY. There was a Nicholas 
Wright, second son of John Wright, of East 
Laxham, Norfolk, who (temp. Henry VIII., pos- 
sibly later) married Anne, daughter and co-heir of 
Edmund Baupre, of Baupre Hall, by Catharine, 
daughter of Philip Bedingfield. They are said to 
hare had five children (v. Blomfield's Norfolk, 
p. 545 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, vol. ii. pp. 1641-2). 
The undersigned is desirous of ascertaining the 
names of these children, and any facts relating to 
their marriages and their descendants. Peter, 
Anthony, and Nicholas Wright, brothers,, believed 
to be of the Norfolk family, came to Massachusetts 
in 1636-7. J. J. LATTING. 

64, Madison Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 

plans of the following important battles and sieges 
of the close of the seventeenth and early part of 
the eighteenth centuries? Barcelona, Belleisle, 
Cherbourg, Dunkirk, Fontenoy, Geneva, Genoa, 
Lille, Minorca, Mons, Namur, Rochelle, Steinkirk, 
Turin, Ypres, and of New Orleans in 1815, and 
Venice, 1849. Some of these doubtless exist in 
the British Museum, and others in histories and 
memoirs, but my literary resources here are 
limited. J. B. 


F. BONNEFOY. I have a portrait of the Hon. 
Miss Bingham from a painting by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, " Engraved by F. Bonnefoy, R.A., en- 
graver to his Majesty." Published in 1786. I 
cannot find any account of this engraver. Is any- 
thing known of him ? 

As I have often admired the woodcuts in a large- 
paper copy of the Antiquarian Itinerary in my 
possesssion, it has excited a desire to know who 
the engraver of these was. Will some one kindly 
inform me ? W. H. G. 


In Gutch's Collectanea Curiosa (compiled from 
the Tanner MSS.), vol. i. 222-6, art. xxiii., is an 
article bearing the above title, composed soon after 
1631, the transcript being in Archbp. Sancroft's 
hand. Who was this "Mr. Fuller," and were 
the observations printed previously? The editor 
of the Bodleian (printed) Catalogue attributes the 
paper to Thomas Fuller, the Church historian. 
The spirit of the paper, which takes off the 
peculiarities, trades, &c., of the counties, &c., is in 
accordance with this opinion. The shires, cities, 
&c., are wittily impersonated ; and there is a pun 
On the Attorney-General Noy, who died Aug., 1634. 

That the writer was a Cambridge man is shown by 
the following passage : 

"At last in comes a Doctor of Divinity, Dr. Oxford; 
and after him Dr. Cambridge, desiring to be excused 
that he came last ; for Oxford being a young and youth- 
ful University did easily overrun him, whereas Cambridge 
being older could not keep pace with him. Tush ! Baid 
Oxford ; I am the ancienter University," &c., p. 224. 

It is possible that another owner of this numer- 
ous and witty name might have penned the 
paper. I shall be glad if any one can state 
whether it was printed in the lifetime of the author. 

Stretford, Manchester. 


(4 th S. xi. 521 ; xii. 31, 73.) 

I regret that I must again take exception to 
MR. TEW'S facts and inferences. I gave no opinion 
respecting the word vSoyev^s, which was not in 
question, but on -uSpoyei^s, which I declared to be 
a compound of modern times, and not " Archaic," 
as MR. TEW contended. He now says he finds 
that the latter word is a " misprint " for the former, 
in his edition of the Poetce Minores Greed, by R. 
Winterton, 1635. In effect, on referring to Win- 
terton's edition, (the only one with that text) I find 
not only the word, but a very full translation of 
the phrase, as follows ut ex aqua natus Moses 
descripsit. (!) This occurs in three editions, 1635, 
1677, 1684. There is consequently no "misprint," 
as will otherwise appear presently. The two words 
are identical in meaning the former being intended 
as the poetic, like vSos for v8<ap, but neither is 
classical in the ordinary meaning of the term, and 
I now proceed to explain the origin of this sub- 
stitution in the text of the " Orphic " fragment in 

The word v8oyvrj<s is referred to by Mullachius 
in his notes, before quoted, as a reading suggested 
by Isaac Casaubon. It therefore occurred to me, 
when discussing MR. TEW'S note, that it was 
Casaubon who originally " discovered " Moses in 
the Orphic fragment ; but I had no time to test 
and verify my conjecture. 

I went to the library to hunt up the word in 
Casaubon. But, alas ! where was I to fish up the 
thing out of the immense ocean of old Isaac's 
numberless lucubrations ? Impossible ! A lucky 
thought, however, flashed to mind " Try old 
Estienne." And so to the ponderous and 
voluminous Thesaurus Grcecce Linguae I rushed 
hopefully. Sure enough there it was that 
fjSoyevrjs, and all MR. TEW'S difficulties vanished 
in &n instant ! 

The substitution seems to have been suggested 
by Casaubon in manuscript, and it is thus "noticed" 

4* s. xii. AUG. 9, 73.3 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


y Estienne : " vSoyevrjS sc. I'Spoyei^s Orph. F 
;3, p. 243. Casaub. ad Anthem., 130, Schcef 
vlSS." (Thesaurus Grcecce Linguae, vol. iv., 2933) 
Obviously, Winterton adopted the proposed sub- 
titution of Casaubon, putting in, however, the 
.vrong word, namely, v8poyevr)<$ instead of the 
wetic v8oyevr)<s. Hence, the fact that the wore 
^as " noticed " by Hederick, and by Liddell anc 
3cott, without verification and inquiry as to its 
jrigin and giving it without any classical reference 

Casaubon, however, seems to have adopted the 
notion from Joseph Scaliger, who says in his Notce: 
" Ante inepte legebatur uAoyevr)?. Est igitur 
vSoyevrjS aquigena, hoc est Moses, ex aquis tan- 
quani natalibus extractus." He then sets up a 
fantastic derivation of the name " Moses," founded 
on the word mo, given by Josephus as the Egyptian 
for water. In like manner, he infers oYTrAa 
OecrfJLOv to mean StTrAaKa SeA-rov $o-y>ieov, duplices 
Decalogi tabulas ; and exclaims, " Sed mirum unde 
horum notitia Orpheo aut Onomacrito ; unde 
Groecus homo hasc scivit?" In Fragmenta Notce 
at the end of the De Emend. Temp., p. 49, edit. 
Genev. 1629. 

Now, the fact is that Scaliger must have got the 
notion from the earliest translation of the Prcepar. 
Evang. of Eusebius, namely, of the year 1470, a 
copy of which is in the Library of the British 
Museum. But it is curious that the difficulties 
of the original are entirely avoided therein, and 
the following imaginary declaration substituted : 
" Priscorum nos haec docuerunt omnia voces, 
Quae binis tabidis Deus olim tradidit illis." 

But the " emendation" of Scaliger and Casaubon 
was adopted by no editor excepting K. Winterton, 
and I believe I have examined every edition, down 
to the latest, that of Mullachius. It is curious that 
in the Migne edition of Eusebius (Prcep. Evang.) 
vAoyevr)s is rendered " ferra-creatus," by way of 
antithesis, utterly incompatible with the text, which 
is completely perverted : 

" terraque creatus 

Mortalis docuit, divino abs Numine postquam 
Hauserat, ac gemino tulerat viventia saxo" (!). 

MR. TEW is quite right in inferentially question- 
ing the " authority " of vXoyevrjs ; but this is by 
no means contended for, indeed, just the reverse 
is the case. It is not " classical" according to the 
Canon of Aristophanes of Byzantium. 

One word about these " Orphics " in general. It 
is certain they were fabricated partly in the time 
of Pisistratus, and partly during the first centuries 
of the Christian era by the Neo-Platonist poets 
and philosophers of Alexandria. The peculiarity 
of these Neo-Platonists explains the general tenor 
of these " Orphic " utterances. These philosophers 
revived the ethics and religious theory of Plato, 
but combined them with the ancient religious 
mysteries that is to say, the Phallic mysteries in 

all their bearings into a system of allegorical 
interpretation, afterwards generally adopted by the 
Fathers of the Church, and transmitted by them to 
the modern expounders of Holy Writ. Those 
Neo-Platonists also laid claim to a high degree of 
internal illumination, identical with the clair- 
voyance, animal magnetism, and spiritualism of the 
present day. Verily, the muse of history must 
laugh at this perpetual reproduction of old exploded 
hallucinations or crafty pretensions ! Now, the 
entire fragment of the " Orphics " to which we are 
alluding is quoted from Eusebius, and Gesner (ad 
locum) pertinently observes : "Eusebius, PraBpar. 
13, 12, ponit ista e/< TWV 'Ayio-rojSovXov, K.r.A. 
Dubitabam an non ipsius quoque Eusebii fraus 
hie intercesserit, nee dum plane ilium liberare 
ausim. . ." And, respecting the third line of the 
fragment, Gesner says : " Hie versus, si quis alius, 
inculcatus mini videtur vel a Judceo vel a 
Christiano," p. 361. Again, on the word JJLOVVO- 
in the fragment, he observes : " hie 

praBrogativam Abrahami significare, credo, debuit." 
Need any more be said to show the worthlessness 
of these " Orphics " as " testimonies " among the 
heathen to Holy Writ in general, or to MR. TEW'S 
"water-born" Moses in particular? 

Hence (to sum up), one of three conclusions : 
either (1) the passage MR. TEW quoted is of the 
age of Pisistratus (B.C. sixth century) and refers to 
Pan, as I suggested, or (2) it is of the Neo-Plato- 
nist era a jumble between Christianity, Judaism, 
and the old " mysteries " before alluded to, or 
(3) it is the fabrication of some Jew or Christian 
with more zeal than honesty, as is usually the case. 

However, I incline to the first conclusion, as 
before given, that Pan is the divinity alluded to in 
the passage brought forward by MR. TEW. I 
moreover submit that the words therein, Aoyos 
dpxcu'wv, do not mean " antiquorum effatum," but 
that they point to the Platonist Logos of " the 
beginnings," the Logos or " God Himself, con- 
sidered as containing in himself the eternal ideas, 
the types of all things." John the Evangelist 
adopted it in the same signification. It is identical 
with the Sacti of Hindoo mythology. It is only 
by giving the above meaning to Aoyos that sense 
can be made with the verb it governs Siera^ei/. 

The entire passage reads suggestively of the 
Evangelist's grand exordium, "In the beginning 
was the Word," &c. : 

"Eo-rt 8e TTCIVTWS 


'xrjv avros e^wv /cat ^cro'arov 
Aoyos apxcuW, ok vAoyev^s 
(K Oeoaev y va>//,at(rt Aa/3a>v Kara StTrAaKa $o~//,ov. 

The e/c 6eoOev yvoj/x,ato-i seems equivalent to 
' the Word (Logos) was with God" ; the 0eo-/zos is 
;he ancient sacred word for Law, which charac- 
terized the mystic festival of Ceres and its cere- 
monies (whence this very term) in which there was 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. [4< s. xn. A. 9, 73. 

" the carrying of the Law " the Thesmophorion, 
unquestionably of Egyptian origin ; and the Si7rAa, 
" two-fold," seems to refer to the legislation of 
Ceres, the divisions of which were, reverence to 
the Divinity and goodness towards men a division 
which is evident in the Decalogue as promulgated 
in the Bible, and apparent in the words of the 
angels exulting at the Nativity, " Glory to God in 
the highest, and on earth peace," &c., as given by 
Luke, whose erudition and culture are pre-eminent 
among the Gospel writers. Finally, the phrase 
Kara SnrAa/ca O(T[JLOV means " according to the 
two-fold law," which corroborates my interpretation. 
The same form occurs in the Sacred Text, KO.T' 
eiKoVa 17/xwv, Gen. i. 26, secundum imaginem nos- 
tram. Literally, the passage may be rendered as 
follows : " He is entirely (self-existent) supreme 
above, and upon Earth all things He .completes, 
having (holding) their beginning, middle, and their 
end, as Logos (creating Force) of the Beginnings, as 
Hylogenes (PAN) he ordained, taking (drawing) 
from the Divine Counsels and according to the 
two-fold Law." 

Since writing the above, and glancing through 
the Prcep. Evang., lib. xiii., c. 13-635, I found a 
confirmation of my independent conjecture as to 
the true meaning of Aoyos in the fragment. Euse- 
bius actually quotes a fragment of Orpheus in which 
Aoyos is thus used, and interpreted as meaning 
the " Word" of the Gospel : " Els Se Aoyov 6clov 
/?Ae^as, roirno TrpocreS/oeue, K.r.A. Divino in 
Verbo defixis totus inhsere Luniinibus," &c. (Migne, 
ubi supra.} 

I am sorry that MR. TEW is offended by my 
remarks in my previous reply, and I disclaim his 
inference of discourtesy on my part, or any im- 
putation of irreverence in his views. The readers 
of " N. & Q." must decide whether his announce- 
ment had not the air of a " discovery," and whether 
I have done my duty in disposing of it. "N. & Q. 
is not only a means of mutual aid to literary men, 
but it is a sort of authority with general readers, 
and care should be taken that it does not become 
a vehicle of error or improbable conjecture. 

It is evident, however, that MR. TEW did not 
translate the original text, but Winterton's imagi- 
nary translation : 

" Ut ex aqua ortus Moses 

Accepta divinifrus lege quse duplicia praecepta continet." 

Thus rendered by MR. TEW : 

" So too that Sage, 

Who, water-lorn, yet heaven inspired, proclaimed 
That two-fold law, on dyptic tablets grav'd." 

The assertion of Josephus, to which MR. TE\ 
refers me, importing that Pythagoras, Theophrastus 
Herodotus, &c., were acquainted with the sacrec 
writings, is a mere dictum, utterly unsupported b} 
evidence ; and I request MR. TEW to contrast i 
with the fact that one of the Jesuits, whose nam 
I forget, published a book to prove that Herodotu 

ctually wrote about the Jews in his history, with- 
ut being aware of it, Herodote, historien des Juifs, 
ans le savoir ! On the other hand, it is very 
oldly contended that the writers of the Bible 
vince an acquaintance with other sources than 
)ivine inspiration. With regard to the very topic 
efore us, Moses, one writer thinks he has dis- 
overed that the name is not derived from the 
tymon given in Exod. ii. 10, inasmuch as the 
name required for " drawn out " would be "wn y 
lashui, suggesting that the name actually signifies 
: the son of Isis " ! Another declares that " Moses " 
s the Assyrian Mashi, " night !" Finally, a third 
akes a much higher flight, and propounds that 
' Moses, Aaron, and Hur, make a triad, with 
Miriam ' the Virgin ' for a fourth, and that the 
ames of the three are close copies of the second 
"haldsean Trinity ! " Quousque tandem ! How 
ar is the patience of weary souls to be abused ? 

Again I say these are all " vain searches." 
A.S that erudite and othodox scholar, J. P. Cory, 
>bserved, " The writings of Moses give to the 
chosen people, not so much a new revelation, as a 
orrect, authenticated, and inspired account of cir- 
;umstances which had then become partially ob- 
scured by time and abused by superstition." 
Ancient Fragments, Introd. Dissert., p. xli. 

Christianity is an ultimate fact. It is neither to 
upset nor upheld by argument. It is an ulti- 
mate fact like gravitation, chemical affinity, 
electricity upon which ultimate facts positive 
sciences are based, without the necessity for de- 
monstrating the why, how, or because of these 
ultimate facts their respective origins, never to 
be explained " here below." 



(4 th xi 110, 259, 351, 362, 490; xii. 89.) 

(Concluded from p. 90.,) 

I read lately of a " close of land to let, named 
High Carr, near Hawkshead"; so, I presume, 
other people have, and have had carrs there, 
stationary enough. The names hill, how, and rigg 
in fields, are well known as of kindred meaning. 
The two former may be various in form, but the 
latter, rigg, was usually applied to an oblong hill 
or table-land. The word, whether Islandic, Hrygg, 
Dan., Ryg, or A.S., Hrycg, originally meant only 
back, protuberance, without any reference to 
ploughing. With this sense it soon became asso- 
ciated, as the spots to which it was given as a name 
were most fit for tillage, and " rig and fur " are the 
common words for the alternate ridge and furrow 
in ploughing, or for ribbed knitting. But there 
are numberless places named in these counties, and 
most in the low level of Cumberland, as rigg. 
And undoubtedly these spots, whether as single 
fields or farms, were seen by our forefathers, each 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73.] 



ising above the surrounding swampy ground, like 
.he back of a couchant animal, and named accord- 
ngly ; as French geologists have since called our 
dome-shaped rocks, roches moutonnees. There is 
one instance of the daily use of rig in this old 
sense, familiar to all rural people. The name of 
the chain back-band of a cart-horse is still rig- 
ryape. It is curious, also, as belonging to 
primitive state of things, when the harness was of 
home-grown hemp, and the ryg-rceb,* or ryg-harnisk, 
or back-band, was veritably a hempen rope or girth. 

This compound term, which no glossarist has 
noticed, came into sudden notoriety last winter, 
when some mischievous boys were brought before 
the county magistrates on a charge of rig-ryaping 
somebody's door in a lonely place, thereby causing 
great disturbance to the inmates of the house, and 
such convulsive terror to a baby that it could not 
sleep for many nights after. This " ancient pas- 
time," as it was called, I never heard of before, 
but can imagine the harsh disturbance caused at 
dead of night by drawing the hard close chain 
backwards and forwards through the iron bow of 
an old-fashioned door-snecJc. The magistrates evi- 
dently knew the meaning of the word, but perhaps 
few townspeople. It was at first correctly reported, 
but in later accounts was refined, in local papers, 
into "rope-rigging," and its significance entirely 
lost sight of. 

I have to acknowledge MR. Cox's very interest- 
ing notice, at p. 259 (4 th S. xi.), of the prevalence of 
car in field-names over all the Danelagh, and of its 
being understood by illiterate people in Derbyshire 
in the Danish sense. It is so known in parts of 
Yorkshire, and occurs in old wills, I hear. But in 
Cumberland I have never met with one person 
who knew its meaning in the field-names, from 
which I learnt it, by general analogy with the 
Danish, long before (I should have said) any glos- 
sarist but Brockett gave Scandinavian references 
(and they were not quoted by many when given), 
as when Southey said the "derivation of carr 
remained to be discovered." Our local glossarists 
had no such word except as a rock ; and such as 
MR. CHARNOCK'S and MR. ATKINSON'S works were 
not known. I had never even seen Bailey's and the 
older dictionaries that give it as an old country 
word. I am glad to see it for the first time in Mr. 
Ferguson's new Cumberland Dialect. " Caer-gai," 
which is described by 0. as a bay in Pembroke- 
shire, including a long hollow, may be one of the 
old bogs, though iUs given as a fort in Mr. Taylor's 
list ; but as, in his very excellent and amusing 
book, Names and Places, Altcar is defined as a 
steep place, there may be a possibility of confusion. 
Certainly, I have been astonished that a word once 
so widely prevalent as carr has left no trace on 
the nomenclature of England. M. 


* Danish, rceb, Isl., hreppr, rope. 

MOONSHINE (4 th S. xii. 43.) DR. CHANCE'S 
" moonshine" is so like the Elizabethan dish termed 
" eggs and butter," still known in Lancashire as 
"buttered eggs," and to be had in France by 
asking for des ceufs brouilles, that I am tempted to- 
give him that receipt to compare with his own: 

Beat up eggs, and put them into a pan with a 
little butter ; let them simmer for a minute or two, 
stirring them well; serve on buttered toast. If 
overdone they will be tough or " flocky." 


S. xii. 66.) MR. BARING-GOULD has, probably,, 
taken this description of the latter times from Bp. 
Horsley's Letter, which was printed in the British 
Magazine, vol. v., 1834. This was reprinted in 
part, as a note, at the end of the Tracts on Anti- 
christ, with which the fifth volume of the Tracts: 
for the Times begins. In these publications the 
way in which the conclusions are arrived at from 
different parts of Holy Scripture may be examined. 

Sandford St. Martin, Oxford. 

[In the British, Magazine, vol. v., 1884, will be found 
four letters addressed to the author of Antichrist in the 
French Convention, by Bp. Horsley. These were trans- 
mitted to the Editor of the B. M., for publication, by 
the Bishop's son (H. H.). We presume the actual letter 
referred to by MR. MARSHALL is that commencing at 
page 517, " written " (H. H. says) " twelve years after 
the commencement of the French Revolution." The 
question, however, is on what authority does MR. BARING- 
GOULD credit St. Anselm with the statements before 

THE ORIGINAL " BLUE BOY " (4 th S. xii. 64.) 
I doubt whether MR. SCHARF will appreciate the 
claim of omniscience set up for him by EGOMET. 
Really learned men are usually very modest ; but 
who can know everything even about Gains- 
borough's Blue Boy ? Lord Westminster's picture 
is familiar to all lovers of English art ; but may I 
ask EGOMET whether he has seen Sir Joseph Haw- 
ley's Blue, Boy, which (with one of the finest 
Vandycks extant, the Doge Spinola) forms part of 
the Baronet's collection at Hoove Lee, near Brighton. 
In artistic beauty, as also for originality, Sir 
Joseph's Blue Boy runs, in my humble opinion, 
the Marquis of Westminster's very closely indeed. 
Few experts would venture to assert that the Hawley 
Blue Boy is not a Gainsborough ; the same may 
be said of the work in the Grosvenor Gallery, but 
as to which of the " Boys " was painted first, what 
xpert not being a conjuror can tell ? 


MICHAEL ANGELO (4 th S. xii. 7, 74.) The 
engraving of Michael Angelo's Hieremias to which 
C. D. L. refers is one of the works of Nicolas 
Beatrice of Lorraine, an artist held in deserved 
repute by all print collectors. He was born at 
Luneville about 1507, and was living in 1562, 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73. 

when he published his engraving of The Last 
Judgment. He resided chiefly at Rome. A notice 
of Beatrice", or, as the Italians call him, Beatrizet, 
is to be found in all the chief biographical 
dictionaries, and a catalogue of 109 of his works 
is contained in Le Blanc's Manuel de I' Amateur 
d'Estampes (vol. i., p. 216). De Marolles, in his 
Catalogue des Limes d'Estampes, attributes to 
Beatrice" a number of works marked B, which, 
however, Baverel (Notices sur les Graveurs) and 
Bartsch (Peintre-Graveur, vol. xv.) have shown to 
belong to Beatricius Dado or Daddi. Antoine 
Lafrery was the most celebrated publisher of, and 
dealer in, engravings, maps, and illustrated books 
of the sixteenth century. He was born at Salins, 
in Burgundy, in 1512, and seems to have commenced 
business as a publisher at Rome about 1540. He 
was himself possessed of some skill as an engraver, 
and gave the finishing touch to many of the works 
which he published, while several are attributed to 
him alone. Notices of Lafrery will be found in Le 
Blanc (vol. ii., p. 482), Gori(vol. i., p. 179), Nagler 
(vol. vii., p. 238), the Biographic Universelle, and 
other similar works. R. C. CHRISTIE. 


" NICE " (4 th S. xi. 425, 492, 533 ; xii. 58.) As 
regards the origin of a word, which belonged rather 
to spoken than to written French, De Roquefort is 
an excellent authority. He states distinctly that 
nice was used as a diminutive not only of novice 
but also of niais. This is very probable, as their 
meanings were somewhat similar ; and when speak- 
ing in jest or expressing contempt, the French 
often pronounce the final consonant, especially of 
monosyllables. In forming an opinion as to what 
was the common use of such a word, a few quota- 
tions from books are only likely to mislead those 
who rely solely upon them. Certainly, it is more 
probable that the changes were novitius, novice, 
nice, and nidensis, niais, nice, than that nice 
sprang by one alteration from nescius. Yet that 
nice was used as a diminutive in three senses is not 
at all improbable. RALPH N. JAMES. 

Ashford, Kent. 

Chaucer's use of this word = foolish, silly, 
ignorant, may very likely be a derivative of nescius; 
but it has no connexion whatever with nice in the 
modern acceptation, which comes, I feel no doubt, 
from a totally different root. Wedgwood inclines 
to the same opinion, and says : 

" Probably, nice, in the modern sense, may be wholly 
distinct from the foregoing, and may be explained from 
PL D. nusseln, nustern, &c., to sniff at one's food, &c., to 
eat without appetite, to be nice in eating." 

But by what possible process of etymological 
twisting canignorance and fastidiousness be brought 
into concert ? EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

A recent correspondent having pointed out the 
peculiar Dorset word nish as akin to nice, allow 

me to draw his attention to a very similar Lanca- 
shire word, nesh, of like, but I think more 
forcible meaning ; in fact, so expressive that I know 
no other single word that conveys the same idea, 
on which account it is frequently used in the county 
by people a considerable degree above the vulgar 
and illiterate. It refers to weak and effeminate 
sensitiveness to physical pain or hardship, for 
instance, if a man fears a blast of wind, a wetting 
in the rain, the prick of a pin, or any other slight 
physical discomfort, he is said to be nesh. This 
is one of many instances I could adduce of single 
Lancashire words having a meaning and force 
quite unexpressible by single words of the recog- 
nized " Queen's English," or of these latter, again, 
being used in quite unusual senses, and even 
grammatical constructions. 

Elm Road, N., Dulwich. 

DRAUGHT=MOVE (4 th S. ix. 483 ; x. 17, 94, 
156.) Caxton never uses draught in the sense of 
pawn in his Game of the Chesse After treating of 
the form of the pieces, and the character of those 
whom they represent, he goes on to 

" The fourth tractate and the last of the progressyon 
and draughtes of the ibrsayd playe of the chesse." Fo. i. 
vj. vo. 

" The second chapitre . . . treteth of the draught of 
the kyng, & how he mevyth in the chequer." 

"When he wyl meue hym, he ought not to passe at the 
first draught the nombre of iij. poyntes, & whan he 
begynneth thus to meue from his whyt poynt, . . . ." 
Fo. k. ij. vo. 

Draught then is evidently move, and nothing 

In this last quotation point is as evidently 
square, and so it is also throughout the book. See, 
for instance, fo. i. vij. : " The first is wherfore that 
Ixiiij. poyntes been sette in the eschequer whyche 
ben al square." HENRY H. GIBBS. 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

SCRIPTIONS (4 th S. xii. 23.) Since writing, I have 
by chance found some information which was 
probably not accessible to Mr. Jervise when he 
compiled his notice, and which proves the correct- 
ness of the doubts which I ventured to state 
against the antiquity of the inscriptions. In the 
Report on the Muniments of the Earl of Seafield, 
by John Stuart, LL.D., in the Third Report of 
the Historical MSS. Commission (p. 404), it is 
said that 

"By a Deed of Erection and Foundation, dated 10 
Decemr., 1536, the Chaplainry of St. Anne was in- 
stituted in the Collegiate Kirk of Cullen on the gift of 
John Duffy Muldavit, ancestor of the Earls Fife." 

This is 132 years later than the period (1404) 
which Mr. Jervise seems inclined to fix as their 
date, and corresponds much more nearly to the 
style of the inscriptions, which are evidently of 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73.] 



ie middle of the sixteenth century. Besides, as 
; friend in Edinburgh, who has access to the bes 
, uthorities, informs me, the Duffs only acquirec 

luldavit in 1404, by marriage with an Agnes de 
1 Camera, whose mother was the last of thi 

f uldavits of that ilk. But they had lands abou 
1 Mullen before that date. 
Farther, the endowment of a chaplaincy by 

lobert the Bruce in this church (which Mr 
'ervise mentions with doubt) is proved by the 
oeafield Muniments (sup. cit.), as "on 6th March 
1455, a ratification was granted under the Greal 
oeal of the erection and endowment made by King 
Robert Bruce in the College Kirk of Cullen," anc 
-n the following century, "on 13 July, 1543, the 
infant Mary, Queen of Scots, granted a ratification 
of several endowments in favour of the Provost oJ 
the College Kirk of Cullen." This deed is said to 
narrate that 
" the auld chaiplanrie of fiue pundis infeft be ' um- 
quhile our predecessoure King Robert the Bruce of gude 
mynde, of the burrow rudis of oure burghe of Culane, 
with thretty-thre schillingis four pennyis gevin in 
augmentatioun thairof be the bailleis and Communitie 
of the said burghe to sustene ane Chaplane daylie .... 
to pray for the soule of Elizabeth his spous, quene of 
Scottis, quhilk decessit in our said burgh of Culane, andhir 
bouallis erdit in oure Lady Kirk thairof, be perpetuallie 
unit incorporat and erectit .... in help and supplement 
of oure College Kirk newlie erectit be bailleis, burgessis, 
and Communitie of Culane, Alexander Ogilvy of that 
lik, and Alexander Dyk, Archidene of Glasgow, be 
consent and Confirmation of the Bischop and Chapter of 

It is also shown by the last mentioned deed, 
that Ogilvy of that ilk (or Finlater) was not the 
sole re-erector of the College Kirk of Cullen, but 
that the Baillies and Community and Alexander 
Dyk (or Dick), Archdeacon of Glasgow, aided in 
the benefaction. What this last person's connexion 
with the church was, does not appear. It is also 
evident that the Kirk was collegiate before the 
time of Eobert the Bruce, and thus among the 
very earliest establishments of that rank in Scot- 
land. Indeed, it may be doubtful if any others 
can show their existence prior to the Kirk of 

CHESHIRE WORDS (4 th S. xii. 65.) MR. EGER- 
TON LEIGH is not the only worker occupied in 
enlarging Wilbraham. His fellow labourers in the 
same field may present him with the fruits of their 
toil, when informed how far they will be placed in 
a position before the literary public to share justly 
with him in any credit due to the compilation of a 
new glossary. GEORGE R. JESSE. 

SIGNET IN SCOTLAND. Part First. A-L, Edin., 
printed for the Society, 1871," 4to. (4 th S. xii! 
65.)! cannot agree with OLPHAR HAMST in 
thinking it a misfortune that catalogue literature 

should have hitherto escaped such criticism as that 
with which he has now favoured us. 
Of the above Catalogue, he says: 

" It is a huge catalogue, with huge mistakes, of the 
most amateurish kind, from beginning to end. Whoever 
is responsible x for it has added another to the long list we 
already possess of catalogues that are the laughing-stock 
of foreign bibliographers." 

I am not aware that there is any concealment, or 
room for doubt, as to where the responsibility rests. 
The "advertisement" on the leaf following the 
title-page says: 

" In preparing the present General Catalogue of the 
Signet Library, no labour has been spared to ensure 

and it bears the signature of " David Laing, Li- 
brarian." This being so, I cannot believe that the 
effect produced upon foreign bibliographers will be 
such as OLPHAR HAMST anticipates. They will 
remember, though some of their brethren of Eng- 
land may forget, that David Laing is no amateur. 
Even if they notice errors or omissions, they will 
not laugh at the work of a man who, more than 
half-a-century ago, was described as possessing " a 
truly wonderful degree of skill and knowledge in 
almost all departments of bibliography ";* the 
friend of Scott and of Carlyle, to whom the former, 
speaking as a book-fancier, subscribed himself as 
" always yours, in all fraternitie " ; f and to whom 
the latter wrote, regarding the catalogue of a pro- 
posed National Exhibition of Scottish Portraits : 

" What value and excellence might lie in such a Cata- 
logue, if rightly done, I need not say to David Laing ; 
nor what labour, knowledge, and resources would be 
needed to do it well ! * * I can perceive work enough 
for you, among others, there ! " J 

I have no intention of going into the alleged 
errors and omissions to which OLPHAR HAMST 
alludes. But assuming his strictures to be well 
founded, I think if, in passing, he had lifted his 
tiat to 

" The veteran Hero of the field," 
he would have lost nothing in dignity, nor would 
his remarks have fallen with less force upon generous 
minds. W. M. 


WHO is B., PRESS-LICENSER ? (4 th S. xii. 267). 
I believe that one Nathaniel Butter (the intro- 
ducer of regular weekly news-sheets), who flourished 
"n 1621 and later, was a Press-Licenser, and is, 
iherefore, not unlikely to be the man alluded to 
under the initial B, as being in company with ! L 
undoubtedly L'Estrange), called a tyrant of the 
jress. The latter founded the Intelligencer in 
1663, and the Observator on the 12th of May, 1680. 

* Peter's Letters (by Lockhart), ed. 1819, vol. ii., p. 183. 

t Letter received 9th November, 1830, 

I Essays, by Thomas Carlyle, ed. 1865, vol. iv., p. 336. 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73. 

MADNESS IN THE DOG (4 th S. xii. 67.) Rabies 
is only too well known in British Guiana. I was 
at George Town for three weeks this last winter, and 
at least two deaths from undoubted hydrophobia 
occurred during that time. Strenuous means were 
being adopted for stamping it out. It was intro- 
duced from Barbadoes, where it had been very 
prevalent, much to the surprise of the Creoles, 
who fondly used to imagine that dogs never went 
mad in the Tropics. VIGORN. 

Clent, Stourbridge. 

Monier Williams (Sansk. Diet.) gives alakas, 
alarkas, a mad dog ; the Arabic has kalb, kalbdn. 
It is scarcely necessary to consult the jargon called 
Zend. E. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

"AT BAY" (4 th S. xi. 507; xii. 14.) One 
reason given by MR. WEDGWOOD why at bay 
cannot have any connexion with aux abois is, that 
" the meaning is different." I deny this. Aboi 
(the sing.) is, properly speaking, the barking* of a 
dog ; and so etre aux abois means, strictly, to be 
amid (or to be exposed to) the barkings of dogs, 
and is applied to a hunted stag or wild boar ; and 
as these barkings are at their loudest and fiercest 
when the hunted animal cannot escape, and so 
turns and faces its pursuers, and holds them tem- 
porarily in ^check, the phrase carries with it the 
notion of being at extremity (1), and also of turning 
and facing and holding in check (2). These notions 
are all of them contained in our to be (or to stand) 
at bay also (see Johnson and Webster) ; only to the 
French mind (1) is the predominating idea (and 
hence the secondary meaning of etre aux abois, to 
fee at the last extremity), whilst we give the pre- 
dominance to (2). 

It is quite true that aux abois could never have 
produced at bay; but abois, or rather the sing. 
aboi, may most certainly have been concerned in 
the production of bay. In Old Eng. the expression 
was at abay (Halliwell), and in old French aboi 
was written abai (or abbai), and aboyer, abayer 
(or abbayer). Cotgrave gives us " abbay, the 
barking or baying of a dogge," and " tenir en 
abbay, f to hold at bay"; and, as far as form 

* Aboi seems to have been formed from the verb 
aboyer, which is from the Lat. adbaubari, to bark at. 

t Literally, no doubt, to keep [the dogs] barking, and 
so to keep them off, for the dogs bark so long only as 
they do not venture to rush in. Hence the secondary 
meaning given by Cotgrave, ' ' to delay or drive off with 
false hopes," for the dogs behold their prey within their 
grasp almost, and yet are tantalized for a time, and 
sometimes even lose it. In this secondary meaning, the 
expression agrees very closely with MR. WEDGWOOD'S 
tenere a bada = to keep [one] waiting (faire perdre le 
temps Villanova's Ital. Diet.}. But it is only the 
secondary meanings which coincide; the process of 
thought by which they are arrived at is different. Tenir 
<n abbay means primarily to keep barking ; tenere a bada 
means primarily to keep gaping (see Diez, s.v. badare). 

goes, this can have nothing to do with the Ital. 
tenere a bada. Littre tells us that the simple 
verb baier * was also used in Old French, and in 
English we have to bay = to bark ; so that bay, in 
at bay, may have been formed either by dropping 
the a of the O.E. abay, or directly from a Fr. subst. 
bai, corresponding to Littre's verb baier. I rather 
prefer, however, to think that bay is the shortened 
form of abay, because I find in the Eng.-Fr. 
of Cotgrave to hold at a bay (the a and the 
kept separate), which seems to show that the a of 
abay had come to be regarded as the article ; and, 
if it was so regarded, it would be extremely likely 
to drop, t This would dispose of MR. WEDGWOOD'S 
difficulty about the accent. 

Another and a very serious objection to MR. 
WEDGWOOD'S derivation from tenere (or stare) 
a bada is, that Italian never came into contact 
with English, and so these phrases (which, by the 
way, were never used of hunted animals, and never 
meant lo keep, or stand, at bay) were not likely 
to pass into English excepting through French, and 
that they do not appear in French. J I fully 
endorse what MR. PAYNE says about referring 
English words indiscriminately to all sorts of 
languages, in his note on " Ascance " (4 th S. xii. 12). 

In conclusion, I may state that the derivation 
from aboi is that maintained by the best etymolo- 
gists. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

PALINDROMES (4 th S. xi. passim ; xii. 19.) 
R. & M., in giving the true Welsh palindrome for 
"kill a blind sheep," has omitted to say that the pal- 
indrome " Llad dad doll " is also good Welsh, and 
signifies " holy blind father." A. R. 

" Sator arepo teret opera rotas " may be handled 
in half-a-dozen different ways. J. MANUEL. 

I think the following squared words are worthy 
of a record in " N. & Q." They are from a Roman 
inscription in the Cirencester Museum : 


They read " Rotas opera tenet arepo sator " in four 
directions, and " Sator opera tenet arepo rotas " in 
four directions. It has been interpreted " Arepo 

In both cases delay is the concomitant, and so both 
expressions come to mean to keep one waiting, and 
especially to keep one waiting in vain. 

* In classical Latin, the simple form baubari is the 
only one met with. 

t As Cotgrave has " to hold at a bay " in his Eng.-Fr. 
part, and " to hold at bay" in his Fr.-Eng. part, it would 
seem that the a was just beginning to drop in his time 
(A.D. 1632). 

I There seems to have been a word baie in French 
corresponding to bada, but I cannot discover that there 
were ever such expressions used as etre a baie, tenir a 

t* s. xii. AUG. 9, 73.3 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


t e sower guides the wheels at work." I am in- 
d -bted to the Guide to the Roman Remains at 
( irencester for this. SPHINX. 

COUNT BORTTWLASKI (4 th S. xii. 7, 74.) I was 
v ell acquainted with the " little count," and have 
o'ten chatted with him at his residence, the 
tk Banks' Cottage," Durham. In his Autobiography 
h3 speaks of his children, and, I think, that he 
E ones their deaths. The Autobiography is an ill- 
vxitten work, and the information is very unsatis- 
factory. The Durham Chronicle, in a cutting 
r3view, ignored his title, and regarded his children 
as myths ! JAMES HENRY DIXON. 

The Count died at Durham. I remember his tell- 
ing me, some forty years ago, that he had four sons, 
all full grown men. There was a long notice of him 
in the Durham Advertiser, not long ago. I think 
there is also a memoir of him published at Durham. 
Probably the publisher of the Durham Advertiser 
can give information about it. 


xi. 461, 510.) W. M. D. N., in suggesting that both 
these coins should be perforated, reminds one of 
the philosopher who is said to have made a large 
hole in his study door for his cat to pass through, 
and a small one beside it for her kitten. Would 
not perforating one of the coins only afford a readier 
means of distinguishing them ? But I believe it is 
intended that the fourpenny piece shall be super- 
seded by the threepenny ; and it appears that none 
of the former have been coined since the issuing of 
the latter. This change in the currency does not 
seem to be a wise one, as an examination of the 
relative frequency of the use of the two coins will 
show. It may be added that the cost of coining 
fourpenny pieces is less than that of coining three- 
penny in the proportion of three to four, there being 
three of one and four of the other to the shilling ; 
and that the loss by wear must be greater in the 
smaller coin, as there is a greater amount of surface 
in four threepenny pieces than in three fourpenny. 


"PEDLAR" (4 th S. xi. 341, 434, 530.) I must 
incur the risk of being quizzed to ask if this word 
may not have come to us from the Italian a piede 
dair erta, on foot from the mountain, or a piede 
all' erta, on foot, on the look out. Then, as the 
French alerte came from the Italian all' erta, a pied 
a Valerie, un pied alerte, pedlerte, pedlare, pedler, 
it not possible from what we know of the extent 
to which the Italians pushed their trade in the 
north of Europe, that the first " Pedlars," known 
s such in England, were Savoyards and other 
northern Italians? The expression "Pedler's 
.trench ' seems to favour this conjecture. Pedon 

is also an old French word which meant " a foot 
messenger" ; [and Pedon alerte gives a similar line 
of derivation. EALPH N. JAMES. 

Ashford, Kent. 

" EMBOSSED " (4 th S. xi. 210, 321, 349, 391, 507 ; 
xii. 29.) The word imbost occurs in Somerville's 
Chase, Book 3, in the description of the hunted 

" The huntsman knows him by a thousand marks, 
Black, and imbost ; nor are his hounds deceived." 

STEEL PENS (4 th S. xi. 440; xii. 13, 57.) Steel 
pens are a much older invention than is generally 
supposed. I wrote occasionally with one when a 
boy (1822 to 1826), having found several amongst 
the stock of old steel waste in the warehouse of a 
relative, a retired ornamental steel- worker, at Wol- 
verhampton, who died in 1827. These pens were 
made, so I was told, for the London market, late 
in the last or early in the present century. Cer- 
tainly they had been made at least fifteen, or per- 
haps twenty, years when I found them, as the 
manufactory in which they were produced had been 
closed the former number of years. 

They consisted of a holder of steel, ornamented 
with flutings and facets. One end was solid and 
tapered for lightness, the other had a barrel with 
an internal screw. The pen had two screws, divided 
by a collar. One was used to screw the pen into 
the barrel for use, and the other to secure it when 
turned inward as a protection when not in use, or 
to carry in the pocket, after the manner of a small 
barrel cork-screw. Of course one screw was out- 
side, and apparently formed one end of the holder. 

I was instructed to be very particular in wiping 
the pen perfectly dry after using it, and before 
screwing it into the barrel of the holder, in order 
to prevent corrosion. The price at which these 
instruments were manufactured was half-a-guinea 
each ; this was the maker's price. The retailer in 
London charged accordingly, possibly a guinea, or 
even more. Of course I had no experience of the 
wearing powers of these pens, as I only used them 
exceptionally, but was told that with care in pre- 
serving from corrosion, they would last a very long 
time. They were tolerably flexible, and made very 
clear lines. GEORGE WALLIS. 

South Kensington Museum. 

DEATH OF KING OSWALD (4 th S. xi. 397 ; xii. 
56.) On Bede's notice of the death of Oswald 
'Hist. Eccles., lib. iii., c. ix.), Professor Hussey has 
ihe following note, in which he apparently inclines 
;o Oswestre in Shropshire: 

"Duo comitatus hunc locum sibi clamant. Lancastria 
uxta Winwicum nomen loci Maserfelth exhibuit, et 
nscriptionem in ecclesia Winwici ab antiquo conservatam, 
non omisso argumento quod in Nordamhymbrorum 
regno situm babeat, ubi Penda Osualdum aggresSus est. 
Salopia vero suam etiam habet Maserfeldam hodie Os- 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, '73. 

westre sive Oswaldstre, qui Brittanice Crux Osualdi dici- 
tur, atque in eo comitatu pugnatum, quianempe Osualdus 
eum a Penda nuper devicto ceperat. Ab hac sententia 
stat auctor Vitae S. Osualdi apud Capgravium, auctorita- 
tem ejus oonfirmante Cambdeno. Est autem Oswestre 
ab urbe Salopiae septem fere miliaribus versus Walliam, 
a fossar. Offse miliario non plane diraidio. In quo qui- 
dem campo ecclesia quse Candida Ecclesia dicitur in S. 
Oswald! honore fundatur. Mon. Ang. i., p. 38, S." 

Sharon Turner (History of the Anglo-Saxons, 
vol. i., p. 367, 12mo., 1836) speaks quite positively 
to the fact of Oswestre in Shropshire being the 
place : 

" His (Penda) invasion of Northumbria was fatal to the 
less warlike Oswald, who fell at Oswestry in Shropshire, 
in the thirty-eighth year of his age, and the ninth of his 

Jeremy Collier and Fuller concur in this opinion, 
as also Rapin. Lingard says in a note : 

" By most supposed to be Oswestrie in Shropshire ; by 
some Winwick in Lancashire." 

Bowen (Geography, vol. i., fol. 1747) says: 
" It was first called Maserfield, but took its present 
name from Oswald, King of the Northumhiians, who was 
here slain in battle with Penda, the pagan king of the 
Mercians. Tne Church of St. Oswald was called Blanc - 
minster, and was once a monastery, but is now parochial." 

He places it in Shropshire. 


CAROLAN (4 th S. xii. 9, 56.) The following 
anecdote is related of him in the Monthly Review, 
as an instance of the facility with which he com- 
mitted tunes to memory, as well as of the 
astonishing ease with which he could produce new 
melodies : 

" At the house of an Irish nobleman, where Geminiani 
was present, Carolan challenged that eminent composer to 
a trial of skill. The musician played over on his violin 
the fifth concerto of Vivaldi. It was instantly repeated 
by Carolan on his harp, although he had never heard it 
before. The surprise of the company was increased 
when he asserted that he would compose a concerto him- 
self at the moment ; and the more so when he actually 
played that admirable piece known ever since as Carolan's 


P. PELHAM (3 rd S. vii. 400 ; 4 th S. xi. 504.) 
ALSWYCK will find at the first reference some 
notice of P. Pelham. The authority I quoted was 
A Biographical History of the Fine Arts, &c., 
by Dr. S. Spooner, published in New York by 
J. W. Bouton, in 1855. Dr. Spooner enumerates 
the following engravings by Peter Pelham: Oi 
George I.; George II.; Anne; Oliver Cromwell 
Thomas Hoiks, Duke of Newcastle ; Robert, Vis- 
coiint Molesworth; John, Lord Carteret ; James 
Gibbs, Architect; Peter Paul Rubens; Edward 
Cooper ; and Dr. Edmund, Bishop of London. ] 
gave my reasons for believing that this Peter was 
father of Peter Pelham, of Boston, U.S., our firs 
resident artist. In 1748 Helen Pelham, sister o 
our Peter, directed her letters to be sent to her a 

he Hon. Mrs. Conway's, in Green Street, near 
GJrosvenor Square. Who was this Hon. Mrs. 
Conway ? At that time the family of the Marquis 
f Hertford bore the name of Conway, and was 
'epresented by Francis, first Earl, and his brother 
Field Marshal) Hon. Henry Seymour Conway. 
Their only sister, Anne, was married in 1755. 
jeneral Conway married, in 1 747, Caroline, daughter 
>f John Campbell, fourth Duke of Argyll, and this 
ady, I presume, would be the only Hon. Mrs. 
Jon way living in 1748. Her daughter was famous 
'or her love of the arts, being the well-known Mrs. 
A.nne Darner. The Seymours, who had adopted 
,he name of Conway, were not blood relatives of 
;hat family. Edward, second Viscount Conway, 
married a Popham of Littlecote, and when his son, 
the third viscount, d. s. p., this nobleman be- 
queathed his estate to the children of his cousin- 
^erman, Letitia Popham, and her husband, Sir 
Edward Seymour. It is useless to inquire why he 
elected persons so remote in blood from him, but 
such was the case. At all events, as the Seymours 
had succeeded to the Conway estates, and enjoyed 
the title when renewed, they may have felt some 
interest in those who had inherited the Conway 
blood in part. One sister of the above-named 
Edward, second Viscount Conway, was Frances, 
wife of Sir William Pelham of Brokesby. They 
ha,d at least five sons; and it has occurred to me as 
possible that Peter Pelham, the artist, may have 
belonged to this branch, and that his daughter, 
Helena, may have thus been domiciled with the 
Seymour-Conways as a companion. On the other 
hand, Helen Pelham writes in 1762 from Chichester, 
and Chichester is the title granted in 1801 to the 
main line of the Pelhams. As they were especially 
a Sussex family, Peter may have belonged to some 
obscure branch of it. I can only say to ALSWYCK 
that Dr. Spooner reports that Peter Pelham died 
in 1738. If he were the father of Helen and our 
American Peter Pelham, he was alive in 1748. In 
1762 Helen Pelham writes from Chichester as 
follows to her nephew: 

" Now, Charles, as to my picture, how can you think I 
would sit for it ] Your grandfather sat for his at 80, 'tis 
true ; but there never was so handsome, so charming a 
man at that age as he was ; it was with much ado I got 
him to have it done. I told him that I would not be 
without it for anything in the world, nor indeed no more 
I would ; and as there was a tolerable good painter upon 
the place, I insisted on it ; but as to miniature, there is 
not one nearer than London, and it would cost above half 
a year's income to have it done were I even there, and 
most likely I shall never go there again." 

Possibly some Sussex genealogist near Chichester 
can tell us if any record or inscription remains in 
memory of any Pelhams there. 


Boston, U.S.A. 

NASH POINT (4 th S. xii. 67.)" Y Rhas " is a 
corrupt form arising from rapid pronunciation of 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, '73.] 



wo words, viz., yr, the, and as, a plain surface, a 
lane. Vide Pughe in Foe, and also aes in the 
ame dictionary. " Guru " is a misprint for Cwm, 
.e. a dingle. "Pentre," an abbreviation of 
'entrev, means, generally, a village. Yr As Vawr 

i the large plain) is called by the English, Nash Yr ; 

. Is Vach (the little plain) is Anglice, Monk Nash. 
The word " Ehasis" in Pant y Ehasis is a cor- 
upt form of the English word races a place 
loubtless so called from some racing, either foot or 
lorse, having been held there. The Welsh word 
or race- course is fihedegva, as Waen-redegva, &c. 

E. &M. 

BATTLES OF WILD BEASTS (4 th S. xii. 68.) 
Many wild-beast fights are described in The Private 
Life of an Eastern King, edited by W. Knighton, 
Lond., 1856, including a very remarkable one 
between a "man-eating" horse and a tiger, in 
which the horse was the conqueror. 


80.) I believe this adage to be a corruption, both 
in form and signification, of an older one. Was 
not the original "Setting the Tamis on fire"? 
Tamis, though not to be found in Johnson, means 
(and the word is still used by old world country 
people) a sieve. Friction produces heat, and 
eventually flame ; a strong, quick hand in sifting 
would make the tamis, or sieve, hot. To set, or 
rather not to set, the Thames on fire, means that a 
man is not very clever ; but to say " He will never 
set the Tamis on fire" would be equivalent to 
" He is not quick handed or industrious." 

E. E. W. 

BEARDSLEY, &c. (4 th S. xii. 69.) The name 
Beard's ley explains itself; Tudor, Tudur, or 
Tewdwr, is a Welsh form of Theodore ; Eoyce 
may be, i.q. the Cornish and Welsh Eice or= 
Eoy's, or from Eowse. Newman or Nyman is 
=to the surnames Newcomen, Alrnan, L'Estrange 
Whale. E. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

FA\VNEY==A EING (4 th S. xii. 8, 74.) The Irish 
words aw, ainn, or ainne, mean a great circle : 
from these are derived the vulgar forms fain, faine. 
or f ainne, which are the diminutives of ain, &,c. 
The word faine is now correctly Anglicized fawney 
Though fawney is vulgar, I never considered it 
nor have I ever heard it, set down as a slang word 
.t has been a long time in use in Ireland, and in 
the older Irish dictionaries it is not put down as 
vulgar. In McCurtin and O'Begly's Ir. Diet., ed 
1733, the following occur : faine sealadh, a sea 
ring ; fame dorus, a door ring ; faine ancoire, th< 
anchor ring ; and at present we say fdinge 6ir, ; 
gold ring. I know a townland called Fawne> 
which lies in a ring, and a natural circle of lo\v 
hills surrounds two-thirds of it. O'Brien says 

'upon these Celtic monosyllables, am and ainn, the 
jatin words anus and annus have been formed." 

MAWBEY* FAMILY (4 th S. xi. 485.) I am glad 
,o see this query, as it may result in the confirma- 
,ion of an idea, long entertained by me, that the 
Mawby family might be traced to the times of the 
rusades. The maiden name of my mother was 
Ann Mawby. She was twin to her brother Joseph, 
le being half-an-hour the elder ; and I, happening 
;o be born on the same day of the month as both of 
ihem, had the Christian name Joseph conferred 
on me in consequence. Some thirty years ago, 
and since, I frequently received letters from him, 
;he seals of which were impressed with an eagle 
displayed, charged on the breast with a bezant ; 
and I was inferred by my mother that the family 
arms were considered the same as those which I 
subsequently discovered in Berry had been granted 
:o a Joseph Mawbey, her statement seeming to 
derive some confirmation from the fact of the 
Christian name Joseph appearing to be as much a 
family connecting link as the surname Mawby 
itself. My mother also informed me that she had 
beard the old Lord Wlnchelsea congratulate her 
father, Mawby, on the respectability of his family, 
and so forth; and I also learned from her that 
bhe Mawbys, of Lincolnshire, Eutlandshire, and 
Northamptonshire were related. Therefore, grant- 
ing such to have been the case, her family, 
sographically Eutlandshire, carries descent from 
.e Norfolk family both presumptively and cor- 
roboratively, as my mother also stated to me that 
in her father's house was a drinking vessel, with a 
transparent bottom, whereon was the crest of an 
eagle displayed, and my uncle Joseph told me that 
the motto attaching to Sir Joseph Mawbey's coat 
was on a blazon in his own possession. In Berry 
I find Demorby, Morby, Morby or De Morby, 
Mawby e, Mawedby, and, specially, "Mawbey, or, 
a cross gu. fretty of the field, betw. four eagles, 
displayed, az. each charged on the breast with a 
bezant. Crest, an eagle, displayed, az. charged on 
the breast with a bezant. [Granted to Joseph 
Mawbey, of Kensington, Surrey, 1757.]" Motto, 
" Auriga virtutum prudentia." 

In the churchyard at Hamilton, Eutland, may 
be seen one gravestone, or more, to the memory 
of Mawby, or Mawbys, of that place. But as 
armorial comparison or agreement might adjust or 
confirm orthographical variation, it seems essential 
to ascertain what were the arms borne by the 
Norfolk family ere determining identification. I 
would also suggest the possibility of the Norfolk 
family being related to that of Morbois, one of a 
number of chief men who accompanied a French 
king on one of those crusading expeditions, temp. 
Eichard I., &c., and the advisability of testing 
armorially, orthographically, and etymologically, 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 73. 

while pursuing the investigation genealogically. 
This note is chiefly suggestive. J. BEALE. 

Spittlegate, Grantham. 


Handbook of the Cathedrals of Wales, Llandaff, St. 

David's, St. Asaph, Bangor. With Illustrations. 


IN form and beauty fit for a bridal, or, indeed, any 
other present, this handbook comes as gracefully as it 
also does appropriately, for those who prefer an autumn 
holiday at home, and an intelligent guide to lead them 
on their way, and to enlighten them as they go. A visit 
to the four cathedrals of Wales is an excellent object ; 
and with the aid of this book it may be easily accom- 
plished. Every one knows how to get there. On 
arrival, the author takes you by the arm, tells you all that 
can be possibly worth knowing, and leaves you with a 
sensation, on your part, of regret as well as gratitude. A 
little summary of Welsh church history is comprised in 
the following words : " The Welsh Church, although in 
full communion with the English, maintained a precarious 
independence until after the Norman Conquest. Norman 
Bishops were then intruded into each Welsh See, and the 
ancient British Church became fully merged in that of 

Church Goods in Hertfordshire. Inventory of Furniture 
and Ornaments remaining in all the Parish Churches 
of Hertfordshire in the Last Days of the Reign of 
King Edward VI. Transcribed from the Original 
Records by John Edward Cussaus. (Parker & Co.) 
HE who does not possess this book lacks one of the most 
important as well as interesting chapters in the history 
of England. If there were good men who saw nothing 
but idolatry in much of old church furniture, there were 
also good men who must have witnessed the destruction 
of such furniture with the most exquisite pain. Between 
these stood the men who had sympathies with neither 
side. They gloried in destroying what some thought 
holy, and all but themselves considered with respect. 
Mr. Cussans's book is full of examples of the base uses 
to which such furniture was subjected. Sacring bells 
were bought to attach them to the neck of calf or ass ; 
tailors converted church cloths into attire for their 
bodies, or those of their wives and children; and 
villainous grocers wrapped their comfits in leaves of illu- 
minated manuscripts. For what remained in the 
Hertfordshire churches in the last days of Edward VI., 
and what was done with some of it, we refer our readers 
to this very interesting book. 

Ich Dien. (Moxon & Son.) 

THIS is a poem which, in good English and with plain 
common or uncommon sense, impresses on people, as on 
princes, that " I serve " implies the subjection of all to 
duty. It reminds us in its teaching of the saying of 
some by-gone sage, that "the idle man is the devil's 

Yva<n I " 

MR. FRANCIS T. DOLLMAN, having made the collection 
of every possible document, sketch, and memorandum 
connected with St. Mary Overies (or St. Saviour's) Church, 
Southwark, the subject of his most careful attention 
during the last few years, is now in possession, not only 
of sketches, but of accurately measured drawings of the 

whole of the destroyed nave by which, without difficulty, 
that portion of the church could be easily restored. Mr. 
Dollman hopes before long to submit to his professional 
brethren illustrations of this fine old church in its 
integrity, with plans of the buildings which originally 
stood between it and the river. 


OUR CORRESPONDENTS will, we trust, excuse our sug- 
gesting to them, both for their sakes as well as our own 

I. That they should write clearly and distinctly and on 
one side of the paper only more especially proper names 
and words and phrases of which an explanation may be 
required. We cannot undertake to puzzle out what a Cor- 
respondent does not think worth the trouble of writing 

II. That Quotations should be -verified by precise re- 
ferences to edition, chapter, and page ; and references to 
"N. & Q." by series, volume, and page. 

III. Correspondents who reply to Queries would add to 
their obligation by precise reference to volume and page 
where such Queries are to be found. The omission to do 
this saves the writer very little trouble, but entails much to 
supply such omission. 

QUILCHA. Tradition and history combine to furnish a 
reply. The first says that Macbeth was the last of the 
Scottish Rings buried in lona. The second records that 
Malcolm Ceanm,ore subsequently established Dunfermline 
as the place of royal sepulture. 

DOUBLE X. There is no plagiarism in a phrase so 
common. Fielding's Tom Thumb rose above burlesque 
when he said 

" 1 ask but this, 

To sun myself in Huncamunca's eyes." 
The idea, at all events, was not more absurd than the one 
of which it was born. Don Carlos, in Young's Revenge, 
had previously, in reference to his mistress, said, " While 
in the lustre of her charms I lay" To romantic poetry, 
Walter Scott finally added the sentiment, in the " Lay of 
the Imprisoned Huntsman," Malcolm Graeme's song in 
the sixth Canto of the Lady of the Lake : 
" No more at dawning morn I rise 
To sun myself in Helen's eyes." 

We beg to express our best acknowledgments to PRIVATE 

ANAGRAM. The Dublin Evening Mail, referring to the 
Newton Stewart murder, points out that the letters of the 
name " Thomas Hartley Montgomery S.I." form, by trans- 
position, the following sentence: "Ah! ghastly story;, 
memento mori!" We are obliged to H. M. for informing 
us where this curious anagram originally appeared. 

D. P. Unavoidably postponed. 

C. E. (Croydon). Captain Marryat wrote The Pirate 
and Three Cutters. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor "Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 16, 73.] 





TOTES : Episcopal Titles, 121 Travelling in Cornwall in the 
beginning of the Present Century, 122 A Letter of Dr. 
Jenner"s, 123 Two old Songs The History of the Tichborne 
Family Famine in Ireland in 1740 and J741, 124 The Post- 
Office in 1764 From a MS. Note-Book, 1770 The Peter 
borough Tortoise "Career," 125 "A Toad under a 
Harrow " " Albert Lunel "John Wesley The Chancellor- 
ship of the Exchequer, 126. 

QUERIES: Jersey Spinners "Are the Anglican Orders 
Valid?" Numismatic Queries Mrs. Phillips's Apology 
"Pedigrees of Lancashire Families" Tuthill Family, 127 
A Eare Gem Ship-building at Sandgate Rahel=Rachel 
" Bossive "Painter Wanted Lady Student at Oxford, 128 
Sir Richard Steele Lord King, ob. 1734 The 1632 Edition 
of Shakspeare Marmaduke Thomas de Brenton and his 
Burial Place, 129. 

REPLIES : Enclosure of Malvern Chase, 130 The Scottish 
Ancestors of the Empress Eugenie, 131 The De Quincis, 
Earls of Winton, 132 Mary aud Elizabeth Hamilton W. 
Martin, the Natural Philosopher, 133 Somerville Peerage 
Nicene Creed, 134 Alienation of Armorial Bearings 
Estella Earldom of Hereford, 135 Medal Query Rev. C. 
Leech Chateaubriand's Mother "And ere we dream of 
manhood" Bedd-Gelert Hazlitt's "Lectures on the English 
Poets " Lieut. John Crompton, 136 Heraldic " Par 
ternis suppar "Sibyl Penn To Set the Thames on Fire 
Cater - Cousins, 137 Oliver Cromwell, Jun. Historical 
Stumbling-Blocks Baronetcy of Dick Mary Window 
Painter Wanted Tennyson's Natural History, 138 Blanket 
Tossing Epitaph Sandate Castle Ladies of Edinburgh: 
"Ladies' Petition," 139. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


HF.RMENTRUDE has treated with playful, kindly 
levity a subject which has sometimes, even in Eng- 
land, disclosed itself as serious. She informs us of her 
" young days," and of the simple faith which per- 
vaded instructor and learner when she " was taught 
that bishops were addressed as ' my lord ' because 
William the Conqueror made them temporal 
barons." Those must have been happy days. " If 
this be the case," she continues, " how is it that 
we hear the title applied to a great many whom 
neither William the Conqueror nor any one else 
has made temporal barons?" An excellent ques- 
tion, which carries the joke to its utmost limits, 
and leaves all of us who are in the secret in plea- 
sant smiles. But may I humbly suggest to the 
coming historian of our country a few inquiries 1 
Who says that William made the Catholic bishops 
of England temporal barons when, and where? 
What was the meaning and value of the word 
baron when William "made them temporal barons" ? 
Perhaps, too, our future guide will explain the fol- 
lowing passage of Matthew Paris, that is to say of 
Kogerde Wendover, which I here translate, with 

* See 4> S. xii. 64, 90. 

some important words supplied by Selden. It is 
the first paragraph in the year 1070: 

" In the year 1070 the King William, having adopted 
the worst plan possible (pessimo usus consilio), spoiling 
all the mineters (monasteria) of the English of their 

gold and silver, insatiably appropriated them The 

Bishoprics also, and all the Abbeys which held Baronies 
in pure and perpetual alms, and, up to that time, had 
had freedom from all military service, he placed under 
military service, enrolling each of the Bishoprics and 
Abbeys according to his pleasure, for as many soldiers as 
he chose should be furnished by each of them, to him 
and to his successors, in time of hostility." 

This was certainly making people temporal 
barons, but only with the view of taxing their 
baronies, not to give a title of honour. But was 
every one who held land, known as a barony, a 
temporal baron, and " my lord " too ? And when 
did barons come to be called lords, as they are 
now? How much we have to know ! In the mean- 
time may I note that the learned Selden in a trea- 
tise, not entirely jocular, on Titles of Honour, in 
the Second Part, chap, v., p. 690, London, 1631, 
has this, after mentioning a charter of Stephen 
in which the addition of "Bar" for Baro, to name, 
is found : 

" But in the writs of summons to Parliament, pleadings, 
and other instruments, most regularly, the word Baron is 
wholly omitted, and usually Chivaler supplies it, as an 
addition, in the Parliament Writs to the temporal Barons, 
and Dominus, and sometimes Dominus Parlamenti, in 
pleadings and the like. And the spiritual Barons are 
expressed only by their Ecclesiastical Titles." 

But our surprises and pleasantries are not over. 
What is the fate of those countries where, as HER- 
MENTRUDE pathetically reminds us, neither William 
the Conqueror, nor any one else, has made " tem- 
poral barons " of bishops. Yet in France, Spain, 
Italy, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Poland, Kussia, 
both Americas, both Indies, there are the bishops 
of Christendom, who were certainly not made 
barons by William the Conqueror nor any one else. 
But all are known by the titles of my lord, your 
grace, as those ternis may be rendered in the various 
languages, with the addition of their sees. And 
the Catholic archbishops and bishops in the three 
kingdoms, of whom alone I am qualified to speak, 
are received in every country in the world with the 
rank and titles which indicate their sacred jurisdic- 
tion. The Archbishop of Westminster is arch- 
bishop of that see everywhere. HERMENTRUDE is 
taught, if indeed she may be supposed to be taught 
any longer, by an authority which she may choose 
to acknowledge, that all other authority is fallible, 
and that Churches and General Councils have erred. 
She is no doubt enjoying this humorous aspect of 
her case. All have erred, or may err. Catholics 
and Protestants of great scholarship and high social 
standing in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for 
once, and for once only, agreed upon one point 
all have become foolish; and several millions of 
other people, ladies and gentlemen, greengrocers, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. n* a. xn. AUG. is, 73. 

laundresses, crossing-sweepers, beggars, and a good 
many temporal barons, have followed them. Kernel 
insanivimus omnes. We take our correction. Causa 
finita est : HERMENTRUDE locuta est. But if there 
is one person in the future whom, more than others, 
I pity, it is the Mangnall of the next generation ; 
our new historian may not have survived to assist 

I did not suspect, until HERMENTRUDE suggested 
it, that there might be a woman who would call 
herself the Most Noble the Marchioness of Isling- 
ton. I can believe it now. Quite as comic fooleries 
are going on under our eyes daily ; and if HER- 
MENTRUDE will devote her historical learning to 
the subject, she will find ample matter for her 
lively pen in detailing the impostures by which 
she is surrounded. I will answer for it that she is 
not taken in. Never ! D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

MR. TEW says (p. 90), "There is not the 
smallest doubt that our Bishops derive their 
titles, as they do their seats in the House of Lords, 
from their baronies, and not from their office per 
se." The following extract from Phillimore's 
Ecclesiastical Law, 1873, p. 96, shows there is the 
greatest possible doubt as to the fact alleged : 

" Bishops suffragan were consecrated to supply the 
place of the bishops of the sees when absent . . ., on 
weighty affairs .... The first trace of one seems to be 
in A.D. 1240. But from the end of the thirteenth 
century to the time of Henry VIII. there seems to have 
been a pretty regular succession of suffragans in most 
dioceses. By courtesy, they were commonly designated 
' Lords.' It is, indeed, a vulgar error that the title of 
lord is only given to bishops with seats in parliament. 
The Bishop of Sodor and Man always had this title. It 
is probably only a translation of ' Dominus,' and just as 
applicable to the bishop of a church not established as 
of one established by temporal law." 

The "vulgar error" spoken of by Sir R. Philli- 
more has led to the practice of omitting the term 
lord in the titles of colonial and other non-parlia- 
mentary bishops : and now the practice is quoted 
to prove the truth of that error. 

It even seems very doubtful whether it is 
correct to speak of the bishops as deriving their 
seats in Parliament from their baronies. Lord 
Coke so asserts, indeed, but a different view is 
maintained by Gibson and Lord Hale. I will 
only quote two sentences from the latter : 

" Neither had they it (their seat) by tenure : for, 
regularly, their tenure was in free alms, and not per 
laroniam; and, therefore, it is clear they were not 
barons in respect of their possessions, but their pos- 
sessions were called baronies, because they were the 
possessions of customary barons. Besides, it is evident 
that the writ of summons usually went electo etconfirmato, 
before any restitution of the temporalties ; so that their 
possessions were not the cause of their summons." 
Phillimore, p. 66. 


The story I have heard is that, when the first 

Bishop of Calcutta was consecrated, much doubt 
Avas expressed as to the correct mode of addressing 
him, which was set at rest by the Prince Regent, 
who, when the Bishop attended a levee, addressed 
him with marked emphasis as " my Lord." The 
" first gentleman in Europe " having thus settled 
the etiquette, all subsequent colonial bishops have 
received the title. : Undoubtedly, bishops derive 
their seats in the House of Lords from their 
baronies, . but it is not equally certain that those 
only are lords who have seats in that House. The 
junior bishop on the bench has no seat, but in all 
formal documents he is styled Lord Bishop of 
So-and-so ; and the case is similar with regard to 
the Bishop of Sodor and Man. From the earliest 
times bishops have had distinctive titles of honour ; 
and at the present day in France, where there are 
no episcopal peerages, the bishops are addressed as 
" Monseigneur." The true distinction seems to be, 
that bishops are lords in virtue of their sees; 
lords of Parliament in virtue of their baronies, 
when such are attached to their sees. Suffragan 
bishops .have, strictly speaking, no sees. It is 
true that they are called after some town, as 
Dover and Nottingham, but they have no throne in 
any church in those towns, because, according to 
ancient rule, there cannot be two episcopal thrones 
in one diocese. Having no see, they have no 
title. In some cases, the mode of address must 
be governed by courtesy, not by right. MR. TEW 
states that Bishop Sumner has lost his title as well 
as his seat in the Lords, but surely no one would 
think of addressing that venerable prelate other- 
wise than as "my Lord." If MR. TEW had visited 
the late Emperor at Chiselhurst, would he have 
withheld the title of Majesty ? Yet the Emperor 
had as completely lost his throne as Bishop 
Sumner his barony and his see. H. P. D. 

The title of Lord Bishop was, I believe, given to 
Bp. Middleton in 1814, as soon as he was con- 
secrated ; at all events, he was publicly addressed 
as " my Lord Bishop of Calcutta " by Dr. Law, 
then Bishop of Chester, on the 17th of May, 1814: 
and on his death, in July, 1822, he was styled in 
an extraordinary Government Gazette as "the Eight 
Reverend the Lord Bishop of Calcutta." Accord- 
ing to Baron Maseres, the Roman Catholic Bishop 
of Canada was openly addressed as "my Lord 
Bishop" in 1775. EDWARD SOLLY. 

I suggest that " my Lord " is merely " Mon- 
seigneur " or " Monsignore," and is no more 
" territorial " in the case of a bishop than in that 
of a judge. COLONUS. 

Whilst reading the Memoirs of Trevithick, the 
great civil engineer and inventor of high-pressure 

4* s. xii. AUG. 16, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


steam-engines, I met with the following paragraph, 
which is worthy of record in the pages of" N. & Q./' 
showing the difficulties of travelling in the far west 
of England. In the year 1800 "The Cornish coach to 
London was a van or covered waggon, which conveyed 
the few who travelled on wheels" (p. 106, vol. i). 
There was a one-horse chaise kept specially for the 
use of Mr. Watt (Watt & Boulton, of low-pressure 
steam-engine celebrity) when he visited this Cornwall 
district on business. Trevithick's wife " has spoken 
of drives with her husband in this much envied 
post-chaise of three-quarters of a century ago. It 
was kept for the aristocracy by Mr. Harvey, who 
lived opposite Newton's Hotel in Camborne. It 
was the only comfortable carriage to be let on hire, 
fit for gentlefolk, in the West of England, to supply 
the twenty or thirty miles of country from Truro 
to the Land's End" (p. 119). As this was the 
then state of affairs, Trevithick tried his hand at 
a steam locomotive to run on the ordinary roads. 
In this he succeeded, and his friend, Davies Gilbert, 
Esq., describes the experiment: 

" The travelling engine took its departure from Cam- 
borne Church Town for Tehidy on the 28th of December, 
1801, where 1 was waiting to receive it. The carriage, 
liowever, broke down, after travelling very well, and up 
an ascent, in all about three or four hundred yards. The 
carriage was forced under some shelter, and the parties 
adjourned to the hotel, and comforted their hearts with a 
roast goose, and proper drinks, when, forgetful of their 
engine, its water boiled away, the iron became red hot, 
and nothing that was combustible remained, either of the 
engine or the house." 

Undeterred by this calamitous conflagration, 
Trevithick commenced the construction of another 
locomotive, which he brought to London in 1803 ; 
it was a great improvement, not so heavy, and with 
a horizontal cylinder instead of a vertical one. 
"Andrew Vivian ran it one day from Leather Lane 
to Lord's Cricket Ground, Paddington, and home 
again, by way of Islington a journey of half-a-score 
miles through the streets of London "(p. 141, vol. i). 

In the year 1808 Trevithick constructed not only 
a locomotive engine but a railway, and there is a 
print existing of the carriage and engine, with the 
railroad, as it was exhibited, at one shilling ad- 
mittance. It was in a field adjoining the New 
Hoad, near, or at the spot now forming the site of, 
the present London and North- Western Railway 
Station : and, once, the public were carried at twelve 
or thirteen miles an hour round curves of fifty or 
one hundred feet radius. 

The manners and customs in Cornwall are thus 
described in a letter to Trevithick from his friend 
Captain Vivian, who quotes from the Falmouth 
paper (Feb. 23, 1802), that the population of Cam- 
borne is increasing, viz., "In one week nine women 
upraised, five pair of banns published on Sunday, 
and five more delivered to the clerk the Saturday 
following, eight children christened, and five 
weddings, a rare week's work, which have produced 

a few lines inverse, which I perused this morning; 
it describes the parson reprimanding the clerk, 
sexton, and organist for getting drunk, and him- 
self at the same time reeling against the altar-piece 
at the coniinunion-table, and breaking one of the 
commandments " (p. 115, vol. i.). The word " up- 
raised" in the sense above is novel to me. 



The original of the following letter, written by 
the illustrious Jenner, with a parlous postscript 
respecting vaccination, is in my possession. It was 
given to me by a deceased friend, the Rev. S. 
Barber, of Bridgnorth, to whom it was presented 
by Mr. Wm. Clement, the father of the late 
Member for Shrewsbury. Post-mark linear, Chel- 
tenham: address, " Mr. Clement, Surgeon, Shrews- 
bury." Postage, 8d. : 
"My dear Sir, 

"I will not occupy your time but for a minute. I 
write just to request the favor of you to tell me what kind 
of answer has been made to the College (in consequence 
of their general address) from Shrewsbury? Did the 
medical gentlemen reply in a body, or individually ? 

" The Coll. of Surgeons have lately, I find, sent a cir- 
cular letter to the Fellows (of course i). 

"Pray pardon me forgiving you so much trouble, and 
believe me, 

" Ever yrs. very truly, 


"Cheltenham, 21 Jan., 1807." 

" P.S. I have long ventured to predict that Dr. 
Pearson, when he found himself foild in all his vile 
attempts to destroy my reputation, would make the des- 
perate resolve that Vaccination was useless. See the 
verification of the prophecy in the Med. and Ckir. Review 
for the present month. Vaccination will feel no loss in 
his secession. He certainly has more retarded than ad- 
vanced the practice." 

Previous to settling at Cheltenham, Dr. Jenner 
spent much of his spare time with friends at Cam, 
being a member of a Catch Club there. While lately 
inspecting the memorials of the family of Philli- 
inore of that parish, I met with the following in- 
scription on an altar-tomb in the churchyard, which 
supplies an extension of the pedigree of the Jenner 
family not hitherto published : 

" In memory of John Phillimore, of Uptrup, in this 
parish, clothier, who departed this life April 17, 1753, 
aged 57. Also of Mary his wife, daughter of Mr. Stephen 
Jenner, of Slimbridge, by Mary his wife. She departed 
this life Jany. 8, 1736, aged Also seven more of their 
children was buried here, viz., Dan 1 , Elinor, John, Mary, 
Deborah, Eliz th , Stephen." 

Remark the occurrence twice of the name Ste- 
phen, so frequently found in Dr. Jenner's pedigree. 
Uptrup = Upthorp, Norse, of which there are 
several other examples in the neighbourhood, as 
Sharpness, Berkeley, &c. 

* Snenton, Notts. 


NOTES AND QUEEIES. [4 th s. xn. AUG. ie, 73. 


In 1828 there was published at Paisley a little 
volume of poems, of which only thirty copies were 
printed. It contains poems on a variety of sub- 
jects, local and political, chiefly the production of 
Mr. James M'Alpie, sheriff-substitute of Renfrew- 
shire, anno 1694. In the volume is given the 
following song, taken from the MS. of a Matthew 
Baird, dated 1673 : 

" I hate the esteat of that Lover's conditione, 

Who pynes for hir, who regards not his [pain,] 
I hate the esteat of that foolish ambitione, 

Who fondly requyts trwe Love w' disdaine ; 
I love them y' love me, my houmer is such, 
And those y 4 Doe hate, I '11 hate them as much ; 
And thus I resolved [how] e're it doe goe, 
I cair not whither I get hir or no. 

But q 1 if ane other hir favor inherit, 
Which only by right is dew wnto me : 

Shall I reap the fruit of another man's merit, 
Shall this make me gladder or sadder to be ? 

Shall I grive q n she 's griven, or move q" she 's moved ; 

Or skigh q n she's scorned, or laugh q n she's loved 1 ? 

.Shall I breck my heart, being forsaken so 1 

No, niver a bit, whither I get hir or no. 

Mor fickell than fortoune, mor light than the wind ; 

Mor bruckle than weather hir sex doeth remain ; 
Her tempest is turned wnto a calme I doe find, 

And oft times hir sun shine is turned to rain. 
So like or dislick is all one to have, 
What comes by the wind must goe by the wave ; 
I cairie on sail howe'er the wind blow 
And I cair not, by , whither I get hir or no." 

William Motherwell, in reviewing the book in 
the Paisley Magazine, asserted that the song in 
Baird's MS. was only a transcript of a previously 
existing one, as he had seen allusions made, and 
an answer written to it, of an earlier date. He 
proved this assertion, in a succeeding number of 
his magazine, by publishing the following, entitled, 
" Ane reply to ' I cair not quither I get hir or no/ " 
by Sir William Mure of Rowallan: 

" To pleid bot quhair mutuel kyndnes is gain'd, 
And fancie alone quhair favour hath place, 
Such frozen affectioune, I ewer disdain'd, 

Can oght be impaired by distance or space. 
My loue sal be endles quhair once I affect 
Even thoght it sould please hirmy serwice reject : 
Stil sail I determine, till breath and life go, 
To loue hir quither scho loue me or no. 

If sche by quhose favour I liue sould disdaine, 
Sail I match hir wnkyndness byprowingwngrait'i 

no ; in hir keiping my hert must remaine 

To honoure and loue hir more than sche can heat. 
Hir pleasour can no wayes retourne to my smairt, 
Quhose Ivfe in hir power must stay or depairt : 
Thought Fortoune delyt into my overthro, 

1 loue hir quither scho loue me or no. 

To losse both traivel and tyme for a froune, 
And chainge for a secreit surmize of disdaine ; 

Loues force, and true vertue, to such is wnknowne, 
Quhose faintnes of courage is constancies staine. 

My loyal affectioune no tyme sail diminisch ; 

Quhair once I affect my favour sail finisch ; 

So sail I determine, till breath and lyfe go, 
To loue hir quither scho loue me or no." 
FINIS 10 Octob., 1614. 


In the Tichborne Case, some allusion was recently 
made to the history of the family. The Lord Chief 
Justice stated that in the reign of Elizabeth one of 
the family was member for the County ; and that 
on the accession of James I. a Tichborne was High 
Sheriff, and proclaimed him sovereign. Very likely 
that was one cause of the baronetcy, which dates 
from 1610. The Tichbornes were always Roman 
Catholics ; but the Roman Catholics, it is known, 
had great expectations of toleration from James, and, 
therefore, rather hailed his accession. It is strange 
that no allusion was made to the sad fate of Chid- 
iock Tichborne in the reign of Elizabeth. He was 
executed for participation in the plot of Babington, 
the proof of which was so suspicious and question- 
able as to amount to no real proof at all. It is 
quite possible that James may have conferred the 
baronetcy on the family partly as a reparation for 
the cruel wrong thus done to them under his pre- 
decessor. This is the more .probable, as there is 
every reason to believe that the only real plot was 
to liberate Mary, James's mother ; although, by 
means of artful interpolations in the letters, Wal- 
singhani sought to make it appear a plot for 
assassination. State trials in those days, as 
Reeves and Jardine have shown, were mere 
mockeries of justice ; and there was no real 
evidence of such a plot. W. F. F. 

" POTATO PROPHECY." The following extracts are 
taken from the Gentleman's Magazine for the years 
1740 and 1741. The low price of provisions and 
the desolation caused by famine were contem- 
poraneous in the latter year, as will be seen in the 
two paragraphs annexed : 

" In the north of Ireland wheat sold for 6d. a stone, 
and beef at a penny a pound, and other provisions in 
proportion." Gentleman's Magazine, xi. 449. 

" Having been absent from this country (Ireland) for 
some years, on my return to it last summer I found it 
the most miserable scene of distress that I ever read of 
in history. Want and misery in every place ; the rich 
unable to relieve the poor ; the road spread with dead 
and dying bodies ; mankind of the colour of the docks 
and nettles which they fed on ; two or three, sometimes 
more, on a car, going to the grave for want of bearers to 
carry them, and many buried only in the fields and 
ditches where they perished." Gentleman's Magazine, 
xi. 630. Appendix. 

The words here used are an accurate portraiture 
of the condition of Ireland in the years 1845 to 
1847, and which was directly traceable to the 
failure of the potato crops. A similar calamity 
had occurred in 1740, when the severity of the 
frost destroyed all the potatoes that had been 

4- s. xii. AUG. 16, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


planted. The same year (1740) an Irish bard 
made the beloved esculent of his countryman a 
theme for his muse ; and then prophesied that 
such failures would inevitably lead to the emigra- 
tion of the Irish a prophecy that began to be first 
realized 105 years after its utterance, and which, 
in the thousands still yearly departing from the 
coasts of Ireland, seems to forebode the abandon- 
ment of their native land by the whole of its able- 
bodied Celtic population. 

Here is the manner in which the prophetic bard 
appeals to the patron saint of Ireland to preserve 
it from the evil he predicts : 

" O blest St. Patrick ! in compassion smile, 
And pour thy comforts on this once-lov'd isle. 
Humbly to thee the suppliant knee we bend, 
On thee in this extremity depend. 
The thawing globe instruct us to explore, 
Replenish our plantations as before ! 
If thou shouldst fail we fly our native air, 
To foreign climes, where plenty reigns ; repair, 
With bread and flesh, our wasted strength renew, 
And bid rack-rented lands a long adieu." 

Gentleman's Magazine, x. 30, Jan., 1740. 
Surrey House, Booterstown, co. Dublin. 

THE POST-OFFICE IN 1764. We frequently read 
in the daily papers complaints against the Post- 
Office for various shortcomings, but, defective as it 
may still be in some respects, we should hardly 
hear of such a singular postal custom in these 
days as appears to have existed about the middle 
of the eighteenth century. I copy from an old 
letter in my possession, dated May, 1764. The 
idea of a prepaid letter being rejected is, to us of 
the nineteenth century, very novel ! The writer, in 
England, is addressing his brother in Virginia : 

" Very often of late have I been so foolish, I should 
say unfortunate, previously to pay for the letters coming 
to you when put into the post and directed to Mr. Fell's 
care. To my great concern I have been since assured 
that such letters never go further forward, but are im- 
mediately thrown aside and neglected. I believe I 
wrote to you three or four times this last winter by this 
method, and am since informed of this their fate. You may 
form a great guess of the truth of it by or by not receiving 



" Emblems of the humours of the deceased were some- 
times placed on their monuments, as in this epigram upon 
a woman named Myro. 

" O'er Myro see the emblems of her soul ! 
A whip, a bow, a goose, a dog, an owl. 

^ Tlie m V i lli denotedtl:iat she used to chastise her ser- 
vants. The bow that her mind was always bent on the 
care of her family. The goose that she loved to stay at 
home. The dog that she was fond of her children, and 
tne owl that she was assiduous in spinning and tapestry 
which were the works of Pallas, to whom the owl was 

. "At the Earl of Holderness's, at Ashe, in Yorkshire 
is an old picture with advice which seems to be borrowed 

from this, It is supposed to be painted by Hans Holbein, 
and represents a woman, said to be Queen Elizabeth's 
housekeeper, standing on a tortoise, with a bunch- of keys 
by her side, her finger upon her lips, and a dove on her 
head. Under is 

"Uxor amet, sileat; fervet nee ubique vagatur, 

Hoc testudo docet, claves, labra, junctaque turtur. 
Which is thus translated 

" Be frugal, ye wives : live in silence and love, 

Nor abroad ever gossip and roam ; 
This learn from the keys, the lips, and the dove, 
And tortoise still dwelling at home." 


the Episcopal Palace of Peterborough there is 
preserved under a glass case the shell of a large 
tortoise, which appears to have been a double " cen- 
tenarian." Beside the shell there lies a description 
of this remarkable animal, a copy of which the 
Lord Bishop of Peterborough kindly permits me to 
send to "N. & Q.": 

" The Peterborough Tortoise. 

^ " It is well ascertained that this tortoise must have 
lived about 220 years. Bishop Parsons had remembered 
it for more than 60 years, and had not recognized in it 
any visible change. Bishop Marsh (in whose time it died) 
was the seventh who had worn the mitre during its 
sojourn here. Its shell was perforated (as is seen) in 
order to attach it to a tree, to keep it from, or rather to 
limit its ravages, among the strawberries, of which it was 
excessively fond. It ate all kinds of fruit, and sometimes 
a pint of gooseberries at a time, but it made the greatest 
havoc among the strawberries. It knew the gardeners 
well (of whom it had seen many), and would always keep 
near them when they were gathering fruit, &c. It could 
bear almost any weight ; sometimes as much as eighteen 
stone was laid upon its back. About October it used to 
bury itself, in a particular spot of the garden, at the 
depth of one or two feet, according to the severity of the 
approaching season, where it would remain without food 
until the following April, when it would again emerge 
from its hiding-place. 

" Palace, Peterborough, March, 1842. 

"The bishops during whose time it lived were : 

1. John Thomas, 1747-1757. 

2. Richard Terrick, 1757. 

3. Robert Lamb, 1764. 

4. John Hinchcliffe, 1769. 

5. Spencer Madan, 1794. 

6. John Parsons, 1813. 

7. Herbert Marsh, 1819-1839." 

Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 

" CAREER." Gabriel- Harvey (1593), Pierces 
Supererogation, says, " Fresh invention .... must 
have his friskes and careers another while"; mean- 
ing the same metaphorical curvets of which Bar- 
dolph speaks. Andrew Marvell (1678), Gfroivth of 
Popery, vol. i. p. 598, says, " Two lords . . . had 
given themselves carriere" R. Waller (1684) writes, 
' Experiments .... with the carriage while it ran 
a full cariere upon a level plain" (Essays of 
Natural Experiments, p. 146). 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 16, 73. 

"A TOAD UNDER A HARROW." This adage, 
with the characteristic change of harrow to harve, 
is a common adage in East Cornwall. A toad 
under a harrow, in mortal fear of its moving tines, 
has no hope in, nor time for, expostulation, and 
must needs submit. The saying is expressive of 
an enforced, abject, and silent submission, as appli- 
cable to Mammalia, genus Homo, as to Keptilia, 
genus Bufo. T. Q. C. 

" ALBERT LUNEL." The Figaro of the 31st of 
May last, in a notice of my Bibliographical List of 
Lord Brougham's Works, observed that I had 
rejected all doubtful publications, including a "re- 
suscitated novel." The Figaro was quite right. 
When I wrote the above list I was of opinion that 
Albert Lund was not by Lord Brougham. I am 
now of opinion that Lord Brougham was the author 
of Albert Lunel, and that there can be no doubt 
about the matter. 

In your last volume MR. BATES concluded one of 
his exhaustive and interesting notes by asking, Who 
was the author? He, apparently, had not personally 
inspected the "privately-printed volume" he refers 
to (No. 133 in my List). It conclusively proves 
Lord Brougham to be the author, without the 
corroborative evidence I have since obtained. In 
one of his letters Lord Brougham says he obtained 
Mr. Eogers's copy from his executors; and on p. 71 
that he had 1,000 locked up in a cellar. 


JOHN WESLEY. I do not know if the following 
letter on the subject of suicide has been published 
by any of Wesley's biographers. I have met with 
it in a book of newspaper cuttings collected by 
my grandfather during the latter years of last cen- 
tury. The date of the letter must, I think, be 
about 1788 to 1790. It may be interesting to some 
of the readers of " N. & Q." That Wesley was a 
good, and, in some respects, a great man, no candid 
person will deny, but I fear he occasionally (as in 
the present instance) showed himself one of the 
" unmerciful doctors " : 

" To the Editor of the General Evening Post. 
" Sir, 

" Last night I saw in your paper of July 31st a kind of 
answer, by an anonymous writer, to the proposal of a 
method for banishing that scandal of England, self- 
murther, out of the kingdom, namely, 'the enacting that 
the body of every self-murtherer, sane or insane, should 
be hanged in chains.' It cannot be doubted that this 
would be as effectual here as a similar method was at 
Lacedsernon, where this foul crime was more generally 
prevalent than ever it has been here. But this gentleman 
scruples not to affirm that ' all self-murtherers are mad.' 
And this is a common opinion, whereby the laws against 
this horrid practice are effectually eluded. But it is 
said, ' the fact itself proves insanity.' If so, what need of 
coroners, or of jurors, to examine witnesses, and deter- 
mine whether they were sane or insane ? ' But none,' he 
says, 'is ever brought in felo de se.' Yet he himself men- 
tions one but a few lines after. The law accounts every 

one who kills himself felo de se, unless it is proved by 
other proofs that he was insane before. And every 
coroner and juror is flatly perjured who does not bring in 
this verdict, where there are not other proofs of insanity. 
'But such a law as is proposed,' your correspondent 
thinks, ' would not deter men from the crime.' Because 
' if the fear of God did not deter them, no other motive 
would.' The fear of God ! they have it not. It weighs 
nothing with such as these. But they have a little fear 
of shame left, and it is highly probable this would avail 
when no other motive would. If your correspondent sees 
good to say any more on this head, and to sign his name, 
I shall probably reply ; but I do not like fighting in the 
dark. I am for open day. 


"As to the well-devised story of the young woman's 
drowning herself, I believe not one word of it. But were 
it true, if the dishonour done to that, or an hundred dead 
bodies, might be a means of deterring five hundred (yea, 
or one person) from destroying both their bodies and 
souls in hell, surely humanity itself would loudly call upon 
us to use this very means." 


2, Stanley Villas, Bexley Heath, S.E. 

The following " Occasional Note " from the Pall 
Matt Gazette of the llth inst. is of great interest 
at the present time : 

"Special attention is directed just now to the post of 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and it is only natural that 
people should ask questions as to the nature of that 
office, which, owing to the obscurity in which it is 
clouded, are not always easy to answer. Perhaps the 
best information that can be obtained on the subject is 
to be found in Thomas's Notes of the Rolls Office, from 
which it appears that the Lord Chancellor in ancient 
times performed part of his duties in the Exchequer, and 
acted with the chief justiciar in matters of revenue. The 
Chancery is supposed to have been separated from the 
Exchequer about the close of Richard I.'s reign, or the 
beginning of the reign of John, and the appointment of 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer to have taken place 
soon afterwards. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is 
often mentioned in the reign of Henry III. Ralf de 
Leycestre surrendered the office 32 Henry III., and the 
King committed the Exchequer seal to Edward de West- 
minster. Henry III. also by his writ commanded Albric 
de Fiscamp to execute the office, and he gave leave to 
Geoffrey Giffard, Chancellor of the Exchequer, to appoint 
a fit person to act for him as often as his affairs should 
render his absence necessary. His Majesty also by his 
writ had the custody of the Exchequer seal delivered to 
Roger de la Leye, to be kept by him durante lene placito. 
The Chancellor of the Exchequer's office has on emer- 
gencies been held by the Lord Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench. Thus Sir John Pratt was Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer in 1721, Sir William Lee in 1754, Lord Mansfield 
in 1757 and 1767, Lord Ellenborough in 1806, and Lord 
Denman in 1834, from the 2nd to the 10th of December. 
The Chancellor of the Exchequer was also entitled to sit, 
as well as the Lord Treasurer, with the Barons of the 
Exchequer when they sat in the Exchequer Chamber as 
a Court of Equity. Sir Robert Walpole sat as Chancellor 
of the Exchequer in the case of Naish v. the East India 
Company, when the judges were equally divided in 
opinion, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer gave his 
decision after three days' hearing. The office has often 
been held in conjunction with that of First Commissioner 
of the Treasury. It was thus held by Lord Godolphin in 
1694, by Mr. Charles Montagu in 1697, and subsequently 

4 s. XIL A. 16, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


by Sir Robert Walpole, Stanhope, Pelham, Grenville, 
Lord North, Pitt, Addingkon, Perceval, Canning, and in 
later days by Sir Robert Peel." 

Z. (1.) 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

JERSEY SPINNERS. In Mr. Bruce's Calendar 
of State Papers, under the date of Jan. 31, 1637-8, 
there is a notice of an 

" Order in Council on petition of the Mayor and Alder- 
men of Canterbury, who stated that the Jersey Spinners 
in the said City, being in number above 1,000, are, by 
reason of tjhe great importations of yarns from Turkey 
made of Camel's hair, whereof tammies, mohairs, gros- 
gramms and other stuffs are woven, fallen into great 
decay, being almost reduced to beggary, to the great 
burthen of the said city. It was ordered that the Mayor 
and Aldermen may transport into foreign parts one ton 
of Jersey worsted yarn yearly for three years, paying 
customs and duties for the same, &c." 

What is meant here by " Jersey spinners " ? The 
Channel Islands were formerly famous for the 
manufacture of woollen knitted goods, and home- 
made Guernsey frocks are still in request, but I 
have never heard of any emigration of working 
men and women from either of the islands which 
would account for so large a number as 1,000 being 
congregated together in Canterbury. Did the 
French Protestant refugees, of whom we know that 
there was a considerable colony established in 
Canterbury, and where their descendants possess 
a church in which divine service is to this day 
performed in French, take the name of " Jersey 
spinners" from their practising the same industry 
that was carried on in the islands? Were, in 
short, these spinners natives of Jersey, or were 
they natives of France who manufactured an article 
to which the name of Jersey had been given ? A 
list of names of the principal families among them, 
if such a list could be procured, would go far 
towards settling the question. 



There is a bound pamphlet with this heading in 
the British Museum, which takes very strongly the 
Roman Catholic side of the question. It has no 
title-page, but is known to have been printed for 
private circulation among persons interested in the 
controversy about the beginning of the year 1863, 
at the Church Press, in Burleigh Street, London. 
Who was the author ? H. 

NUMISMATIC QUERIES. A medal of Jerome 
Savonarola, who was excommunicated and burnt in 
1498, reads on the obverse, " Hieronimus Savo. 
Fer. Vir Doctiss. Ordinis Predic. Harum"; and on 

the reverse, " Sup. Terrain Cito et Velociter Gladius 
Domini." What is the meaning of Harum, which 
is of a larger character than the preceding words, 
and does the legend on the reverse allude to the 
prophetic powers claimed by the famous Ferrarese 
monk ? 

2. A medal of Cecco (.. Francesco) Ordelaffio III., 
Lord of Forli, who died 1466, reads, ob. " Cicus III. 
Ordelaphius Fori Livii P. P. Ac Princeps." In the 
field, " V.F. MCCCCLVII." Eev. " Sic Mea Vitali 
Patria est Michi Carior Aura." What is to be 
understood by " V.F." Michi is of course the 
mediaeval form of mihi. 

3. A medal of Innocent XII., who died 1700, 
reads, ob. " Innocentius XII. Pont. Optim. Maxim. 
An. 11." Eev. " Egenos Vagosq. Indue In Domum 
Tuam Usaise." This is inscribed on a scroll in the 
field over (apparently) a large hospital, and is, with 
the exception of the last word, a quotation from the 
Vulgate, Isaias c. Iviii. v. 7. Does Usaise stand 
for the name of that prophet, and if so, can any 
similar example be adduced ? 

Alverton Vean, Penzance. 

Mus. PHILLIPS'S APOLOGY. I have in my pos- 
session a curious old book, entitled 

"An Apology for the conduct of Mrs. Teresia Cpn- 
stantia Phillips, more particularly that part of it which 
relates to her marriage with an eminent Dutch merchant, 
&c. London : Printed for the Author, 1748." 

The book, which is in three vols., post 8vo., ap- 
pears to have been published in numbers, the first 
page of each of which bears the autograph signature 
of the authoress, who says that such extraordinary 
care was taken to intimidate the booksellers, in 
order to stifle the work, that she was compelled 
to publish it herself, at her ownhouse, and that none 
of the papers would insert an advertisement of it, 
although offered a high price to do so. Can any 
of your readers inforn* me why these measures 
were taken to prevent the sale of the book 1 

E. K. D. 

[There was an earlier edition, without date, but about 
the year 1724, according to Allibone, who _ states that 
" several tracts were published relating to this work."] 

I have just observed in this work " Coulthart of 
Collyn," as it formerly appeared in The Landed 
Gentry. Has it been found, after all, to be correct? 


TUTHILL FAMILY. I am engaged in compiling 
a genealogical account of the Tuthill family in the 
U.S., descendants of John Tuthill of Southold 
(Long Island, New York), born July 16th, 1635. 
He was the son of Henry Tuthill and Bridget, his 
wife, supposed to be from Norfolk co., but may 
possibly have been of the Tothill Family of Devon- 
shire, perhaps a grandson of Eichard Tothill the 
printer. This Henry had a brother John, and one 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4^ s. xn. A. 10, 73. 

or both came to America between 1637 and 1640. 
I am very desirous of obtaining the pedigree of 
Henry Tuthill, and would be thankful for any in- 
formation that will establish the date of his birth, 
residence, &c. A lot of genealogical manuscripts 
were advertised for sale by Bernard Quaritch, in 
his Catalogue of June 15th, 1859, among which 
were a number relating to " Tothills " of Devon- 
shire, tempo 1574 to 1663. Can any one inform 
me how they were disposed of, and where they are 
at the present time, so that I may be enabled to 
procure copies of them ? WM. H. TUTHILL. 

Tipton, Iowa, U.S.A. 

A HARE GEM. In a letter written by Mr. J. P. 
Clinch, a well-known barrister and author, in Ire- 
land, some half century ago, to a friend, he 
states : 

" I saw more than two years ago, in your office, a seal 
to a lease, of which I recognized the identity to that in 
Carey's lease. It is taken, I believe, from a cameo, be- 
cause if an original, it would be above any market price. 
The figures, as I once before told you, are those of 
Olympias, Philip her husband, and Alexander their son. 
Of those three the profiles of the first and last are well 
known ; that of Philip is more rare, beyond comparison." 

What has become of the gem ? Where is the 
original of this beautiful and rare specimen of 
ancient art ? MAURICE LENIHAN, M.E.I.A. 


to Sandgate states that the origin of Sandgate as a 
village was due to 
" a ship-builder of the name of Wilson, who settled here 

in 1773 Mr. W. resided at Sandgate about 25 

years, daring which time he built a considerable number 
of large ships of war and other vessels, some of which 
were for his late Majesty's service ; others as privateers 
carrying about twenty guns," &c. 

I am anxious to obtain any reference to works 
on ship-building mentioning the fact of " large 
ships of war" being built here. In Pepys's Diary 
date 23 May, 1660, there is an account of the 
king altering the names of the ships, the " Cheriton' 
being altered to the " Speedwell." Sandgate is in 
the parish of Cheriton. Could vessels have been 
built here during the Commonwealth ? 


RAHEL = RACHEL. In examining lately a parisl 
register in the North Riding of Yorkshire, I me 
with the name Railes Yonge, being the woman' 
name, in a marriage entry, of the year 1621. Tb 
Christian name Railes, is, I have no doubt, a clerica 
error for Rahel, Rahel being a form which is fre 
quently found in the early editions of the Englis] 
Bible, as the rendering of the Hebrew bm (Rachel) 
the name of Jacob's wife. I have not, howevei 
found Rahel elsewhere used as a Christian name 
and should feel greatly obliged if any one eoul 
supply other instances of its use in former times 


" BOSSIVE." This word occurs in Osborn's 
pitaph on Sir Robert Cecil, the minister who per- 
iaded James I. that the nation was so rich it 
ould neither be exhausted nor provoked : 
' Here lies, thrown for the worms to eat, 
Little lossive Robin that was so great, 
Who seem'd as sent by ugly Fate 
To spoil the Prince, and rob the State, 
Owning a mind of dismal ends, 
As traps for foes, and tricks for friends." 
>Vhat is the origin and meaning of this word* 


[The word is a coarse allusion to Cecil's peculiar con- 
ormation. See Bacon's essay on Deformity.] 

PAINTER WANTED. I have a painting, some 
enturies old, the figures in bas-relief^ can any 
orrespondent kindly inform me who painted in 
hat manner ? The raised parts are formed of some 
ard substance, with the surface very smooth. 
?he scene is a pool of water, bulrushes, and a rock 
rom which spring three distinct jets into the pool. 
STaked slaves are fishing up something bright and 
ilvery, and placing it in baskets, whether fish or 
metal, is not sufficiently clear ; but whatever it is 
t is brought up by means of tubes not hooks. 


St. John's Wood. 

LADY STUDENT AT OXFORD. A foreign friend 
las just sent me the following narrative. I seek a 
solution of the mystery from " N. & Q.," and I 
send you the story accordingly : 

: In the last century, a young girl Christian name 
Susan, surname unknown was on her way to London in 
search of a ' situation,' when, as she was toiling along the 
high-road to Oxford, she was overtaken by a student of the 
University on horseback. He offered her a 'lift,' which 
she accepted. They entered into conversation, and were 
mutually so much charmed that when the hour for 
parting came they felt the full force of the words in the 
German song, that ' Scheiden macht weh.' Love, like ne- 
cessity, is the mother of invention. A luminous inspiration 
came to the youth, and the maiden hailed it with rapture. 
She was to assume masculine attire, to enter herself as 
a student of the University, and to become the youth's 
pupil, 'chum,' 'guiding-star,' in short, everything. So 
said, so done. Lothario's stratagem met with a kind of | 
success, that he was far from anticipating. Susan took 
to the student's gown and to the masculine studies ' as to 
the manner born.' Her native intelligence being backed 
by prodigious industry, she rapidly won fame and honours. 
Lothario meanwhile suffered terribly from ennui. He 
began to yawn frequently when in Susan's company, and 
at length proposed a dissolution of partnership. 'Why 1 ? 
asked Susan. The youth delicately hinted that he had a 
conscience, and that his conscience reproached him for 
having perhaps proved a rock of offence against Susan's 
advancement and settlement in life. Susan opened her 
pretty eyes wide with astonishment. ' How so ] ' asked she ; 
and, indeed, the sequel proved that Lothario need not 
have troubled himself with scruples, for Susan eventually 
married a rich nobleman, and moreover obtained con- 
siderable reputation as a writer of romances." 

Is this itself a romance ; if not, who was Susan 1 

A. E. 

4 *s. xii. AUG. 16, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


SIR RICHARD STEELE. Can any of your readers 
nform nie whether Eichard Steele, son of William 
Steele by Elizabeth, his first wife, was the father of 
3ir Richard Steele ? and, if so, who was his wife, 
md where and when did he marry her ? Sir R. 
Steele is said to have been born in Dublin in 1671 
'was he an only child ?), and his father is stated to 

have been secretary to the Duke of Ormond. Sir 
R. Steele was knighted 9th April, 1715, and died 
1st September, 1729, at Llangunnor, in Caermar- 
thenshire, where his second wife had property. 
Who were his two wives, and when and where did 
their marriages take place ? Where were he and his 
wives buried 1 Had he any family by either wife ? 

Richard Steele, of Sandbach, Letitia Shawe, 

Cheshire. In 1631 of Pinch- 
ley, Middlesex 


of Kent, 
1st wife. 

=1. William Steele, Recorder of= 
London, 25 Aug., 1649; Lord 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 
28 May, 1655 ; Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland, 26 Aug., 1656. 

=Mary, widow of 
Michael Har- 
vey, and da. of 
. ... Mellish, 

2. Lawrence. See 
Burke's Landed 
Gentry, under 
Steele of Rath- 

3. George. 

2nd wife. 

Richard Steele. 

1. William Steele, 

I shall be glad of any further information as to 
this family of Steele. 

15, Markham Square, S.W. 

[Some genealogical particulars of the Steele family will 
be found in "N. & Q." 2 nd S. xii. 71, 89, 137. Consult 
also H. R. Montgomery's Memoirs of the Life and 
Writings of Sir Richard Steele, 2 vols. 1865.] 

LORD KING, OB. 1734. Peter, first Baron King, 
is stated by Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the 
Lord Chancellors, to have been the son of a grocer 
and salter at Exeter, who, though carrying on a 
wholesale and retail trade, was said to have been 
of a genteel family, long settled at Glastonbury in 
Somersetshire, and that his first judicial appoint- 
ment was as recorder of Glastonbury, where his 
forefathers had been settled. I have no where else 
seen these facts mentioned, and in none of the 
pedigrees of the family I have seen is his descent 
traced back further than his father, Jerome King, 
who married a sister of the illustrious John Locke. 
I am anxious to discover his earlier descent, 
tracing from his alleged ancestors at Glastonbury, 
and also whether there is any other family of the 
name claiming descent from a common ancestor of 

[For confirmation of Lord Campbell's statement as to 
the trade followed by the first Lord King's father, see 

edited b w - N - 

aware whether any record is kept of the number 
and whereabouts of the 1632 edition of Shak- 
speare's works, as well as of the first edition of 
1623. I have just seen a copy of the former in a 
fine state of preservation, which, until recently, 
was thought to be one of the edition of 1685. The 
reason for the error was, that at some period the 
volume was rebound, and the title-page being lost 
one taken from the later edition was inserted in its 

2. Benjamin Steele. 1. Mary. 

place. With this exception it is perfect, contain- 
ing the dedication signed by John Heminge and 
Henry Condell, their address " to the great variety 
of readers," &c. The colophon has the date " 1632." 
Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q." can 
give me an idea of the value of the work. 

T. W. 

MARMADUKE. This name occurs as a Christian 
name in the families of Constable, Wyvill, Gres- 
ham, and others. Can any one inform me whence, 
and at what time, it was introduced into England, 
and also the meaning of the name 1 Burke Extinct 
Baronetcies, gives a Sir Marmaduke Wyvill, living 
temp. Edward I., and a Sir Marmaduke Constable 
as Sheriff of York, 40 Edward III. In early deeds 
I find the word Latinized and declined like " dux." 

Titsey Place, Limpsfield. 

Is it known for certain where Thomas de Brenton, 
Bishop of Rochester, was buried] According to 
Weever, his remains were interred in Seal Church, 
near Sevenoaks, as may be gathered from the 
following paragraph in his Funeral Monuments, 
but no such brass as that described now exists. 
Weever says : 

"In this church [Seal], rpon a marble stone inlaid 
with brasse, I found the portraiture of a bishop : and 
these words onely remaining, Credo quod JRedemptor 
meus muit. And these figures, 1389. Vnder which (as 
I gather by the date of the yeare of grace) Thomas 
Brenton, Bishop of Rochester, lyeth interred." 

From this it appears that the name of the 
person and the greater part of the inscription were 
missing, and that the date alone gave Weever any 
clue as to who was interred beneath. Now, in the 
register of Archbishop Courtenaye, f. 231a, will be 
found the will of Thomas de Bryntone, Bishop of 
Rochester, bearing date April 29, 1389, in which 
he desires that his body shall be buried in the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. xn. A. ie, 73. 

chapel of the blessed Virgin Mary in Eochester 
Cathedral, near to the tomb of Thomas Trillek, 
his immediate predecessor in the bishopric. The 
question therefore arises, were the wishes of the 
Bishop carried out, or is Weever correct in assign- 
ing Seal Church as his last resting-place ? Perhaps 
some of your readers will be able to investigate 
the matter further, and explain these seeming in- 
consistencies. E. H. W. DUNKIN. 
Kidbrooke Park Road, Blacklieath. 


(4 th S. ix. 298, 435 ; x. 276.) 

In a reply to my query as to the " thirds " of 
Malvern Chase, which were, by agreement with 
the commoners, taken as the king's share, when 
the Chase was finally disafforested under a decree 
sanctioned by Act of Parliament (16 Car. II.), 
C. G. H. denies that the Earls of Gloucester and 
Warwick were ever lords of the whole, Chase, 
though authors on the subject do not state any 
reservation in the original grant from Edward I. 
to Gilbert de Clare, the Red Earl of Gloucester. 
Dr. Thomas says (Antiq. Pri. Mag. Malv., p. 

" Fuit olim de dominico regum nostrorum, usque ad 
tempera Edvardi primi, qui manerium hoc [Malvern] cum 
chacea adjacente et castro de Hanleya, et aliis terris 
Gilberto de Clare, Glocestriae comiti, cum Joanna d'Acres 
filia sua in matrimoniam dedit. Inter quern et S. 
Thomam filium domini de Cantilupo tune episcopum 
Herefordensem, exorta controversia de chaceas limitibus, 
in summitate mentis, ad disterminandas suas, et istius 
ecclesiaa possessiones, fossam duxit, quas adhuc cernitur." 

This great ditch, made near and along the ridge 
of the Malvern Hills, is mentioned as a wonderful 
work by Camden and succeeding writers, and 
relics of it are still visible. The making of this 
boundary ditch involved the Earls of Gloucester, 
who certainly exercised rights over the whole 
Chase, in a dispute with the litigious Godfrey 
Giffard, Bishop of Worcester, though it is by no 
means clear how this ditch could be as the Bishop 
insisted "damnum ecclesise Wigorniensis " ; foi 
Dr. Thomas, in another place, gives this reason for 
the formation of the great trench, which was pro 
bably fenced with paling " quia bestise sylvan 
transeuntes terminos Herefordenses frequeute 
ibant et non revertebantur." The Bishop of Here 
ford, therefore, the game being stopped in tmnsiii 
would take nothing by his motion as to limiting 
the Chase to the eastern side of the Malvern Hills 
but how could loss accrue to the see of Worceste 
by the making of the ditch? The game-lovin 
Bishop of Worcester was, however, solaced for an 
loss his see might sustain from the making of the 
ditch, by an agreement to send to his palace at 

Duas damos bonas tempore pinguedinis in vigilia 
Issumptionis beatas Marias, et duas damos bonas tempore 
ermisionis in vigilia Nativitatis Domini." 

In case of the see being vacant, the prior and 
onvent at Worcester were to have the benefit of 
bis gift of venison, duly demanded, and thus the 
reat ditch was left to repose in peace. 

In one respect only can it be truly said that the 

Earls of Gloucester and their successors were not 

ords of the whole Chase, or rather the country in 

hich the Chase was situated, which extended 

rorn the river Teme northward, to Cors Forest, in 

jrloucestershire, southward, bounded eastward by 

he river Severn. Within this forest country 

here were oases, as they may be termed, the subject 

grants prior to the reign of Edward I., though 
hese would probably be under forest law. Thus 
kishley, which belonged to the Abbey of Tewkes- 
mry, Pendock, the property of St. Mary's Monastery, 
t Worcester, and Madresfield, the ancient estate of 
he Braceys (now possessed by the Earl Beau- 
'hamp), though surrounded by lands within the 
3hase, were not included in Edward's grant to the 
Bed Earl. There might possibly be some smaller 
jortions of land belonging to Great Malvern- 
Priory, besides which the bishops of Worcester and 
>thers had the right to assart so many acres within 
;he Chase that is, felling wood and cultivating 
:he land thus marked out though only as tenants 
;o the lord of the Chase, the land that they 
assarted reverting again to him. 

The lord of the Chase held his court at Hanley 
Castle, and the Abbot of Westminster, the Priors 
of Great and Little Malvern, and the lords of 
Madresfield, Birts- Morton, Severn -Stoke, and 
Bromsberrow were " free suitors " to this court ; 
and I before stated that I wished to know what 
the powers and privileges of these " free suitors " 
were, which is nowhere stated that I am aware of, 
though the laws and customs of the Chase are 
given in Dr. Nash's Worcestershire under "Forests." 
Had these " free suitors " any manorial privileges, 
or did they only sit in judgment with " the lord of 
the Chase"? 

I presume that all present Lords of Manors 
within the bounds of the Chase can only claim 
under grants from the Crown subsequent to the 
reign of Henry VI., for after the battle of Barnet all 
the Earl of Warwick's possessions fell to the Crown ; 
and though nominally restored to the widowed 
Countess by Act of Parliament, she, as permitted, 
passed them over (Malvern Chase included) to 
Henry VII., and thus the Chase remained with 
the Crown till Charles I. sold his rights in it, 
finally by a decree in Chancery, confirmed by Act 
of Parliament, reduced to one-third part of the 
lands forming the Chase; "the other two-third 
parts shall be left open and free for the freeholders 
and tenants and commoners to take their common 
of pasture and common of estovers, therein as here- 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 16, '73.] 



)fore they have been accustomed." See the recited 

Let in Nash's Worcestershire. 
Enclosure Acts, I am aware, have so curtailed 

he original Malvern Chase in modern times, that 
'. believe little now remains of it except Malvern 
: nd Castle-Morton Commons, unless the parishes 
"f Colwall and Mathon on the western side of 

vlalvern Hills, and always considered members of 

he Chase, remain subject to the decree and Act 
>f Parliament before mentioned. C. G. H., in his 

eply to my question as to the king's thirds of the 
Ohase, nowhere distinctly enumerated, blames me for 

lot finding out the map marking the thirds, which 

le says is at Blackmore Park, but no writer had 
mentioned the existence of the map there, which I 
presume may be considered as open to consulta- 
tion; nor was I interested in the matter of the 
lands included in the portion taken by the king, 
till surprised by the summit of the Worcestershire 
Beacon, at Malvern, being enclosed, and buildings 
erected there for photographic and refreshment 
purposes, which, though they may meet the views 
of a crowd of excursionists, desecrate the before 
undisturbed ground, and are dis-sightly and in- 
appropriate to the exalted position they occupy. 

It is certainly noteworthy, and had never been 
mentioned by topographers, that a slip of land 
reaching from the western base of the hill, in the 
parish of Mathon, and just including the summit of 
the "Worcestershire Beacon, worthless as it must 
have been at the time of the disafforestation of the 
Chase, should have been selected as a part of the 
king's thirds, and yet remained unmarked and 
unenclosed till within the last two years. C. G. H. 
has explained the right of Mr. Hornyold to enclose 
and lease this piece of ground, and thus the sum- 
mit of the hill is vulgarized and Nature expelled 
(as Horace might say) that gingerpop, &c., may be 
quaffed under cover, and admission to the enclo- 
sure paid for. But I regret to say that I have 
noticed recent enclosures on and about the Malvern 
Hills where the allegation of being part of the 
king's thirds could not be made ; and whether by 
lords of manors or other commoners, who are all 
placed on the same level by the decree and Act of 
Charles II., the restriction that, with the exception 
of the king's thirds, " the other two parts shall be 
left open and free for the freeholders and tenants 
and commons to take their common of pasture 
and common of estovers therein," with the par- 
ticular proviso that " no enclosure shall be made," 
has been entirely neglected. That the commoners 
have a concurrent right with lords of manors within 
the Chase (where later Acts of Parliament have 
not interfered), in the matter of enclosures, was 
rendered clear when the Worcester and Hereford 
Railway was carried over Malvern Common, the 
promoters of the line paying to the general body 
of commoners the sum of 500?. for the waste land 
they appropriated. I believe this is the only case 

in which the commoners have been consulted, 
though their right and interest must be the same 
as to any enclosure of land, great or small, accord- 
ing to the Decree which was confirmed by Act of 


EUGENIE (4 th S. xi. 89, 200, 426, 453.) MR. 
GRACIE seems to be annoyed that I should doubt the 
accuracy of the pedigree of the Kirkpatricks of 
Conheath. I assure him that I had no intention 
to give the slightest pain in examining these anti- 
quarian matters, but he is no doubt aware that 
there is great difficulty in bringing forward proofs 
from trustworthy documents where we have to go 
back four or five hundred years, or even for a much 
shorter period. I feel no interest in the pedigree 
except a desire to see some obscure points cleared 
up in a satisfactory manner, and I shall be glad 
if MR. GRACIE will give us his assistance to settle 
such questions. 

As I said before, through the kindness of Mr. 
W. Sharpe, of Hoddoin, I had the use of the notes 
forming the tree, the main points of which, I am given 
to understand, were due to his late brother, Mr. 
Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, though some additions, 
had been made by MR. GRACIE. I had no means of 
apportioning the parts of the pedigree, but we now 
know that MR. GRACIE claims at least anything 
that may be gathered from the Garrel tombstones. 
I then pointed out that I thought some links of 
the chain had been dropped out, and I still think 
so, though I have attempted to supply the defi- 
ciency to a certain extent. We have from about 
1450, when we may suppose that Alexander was 
born, to the death, in 1686, of William Kirk- 
patrick, who is said to have sold the estate in 1622 
only four generations, Alexander, William, Alex- 
ander, and William, which stretch over 236 years. 
Now I confess to be unable to credit such extra- 
ordinary longevity in a family, unless some stronger 
evidence is brought forward than has yet been given 
to the world. I have pointed out how this diffi- 
culty may be obviated by the introduction of other 
individuals into the tree, whose names I have found 
in old documents. 

Then, in regard to that William whom MR. 
GRACIE calls the last Baron of Kirkmichael, I 
imagined that the tombstone to which he refers 
would have confirmed his statement, but I do not 
find that it is so. Through the kindness of a 
friend, who lives close to Garrel churchyard, I 
have procured a copy of all (five in number) the 
inscriptions in the grave-yard in which the name of 
Kirkpatrick appears. The inscription runs thus: 
" Here lyes the corps of William Kirkpatrick, who 
departed life on the 2nd of Feb., 1686. Here lyes 
the body of George "Kirkpatrick in Knock, who 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4 th s. xn. AUG. 16, 73. 

departed this life June 24, 1738, aged 67 years. 
Erected by James Johnston, his son-in-law." Here 
it will be observed, that there is nothing on the 
tombstone to prove that this William Kirkpatrjck 
was the William who sold the estate in 1622, or 
that this George possessed the property of Knock. 
He is called in not of Knock, and might, there- 
fore, only be a tenant, in the same way as Robert 
Kirkpatrick of Glenkill seems to have been 
merely a tenant, if we can draw an inference from 
the inscription on his tombstone, which runs thus : 
" Robert Kirkpatrick of Glenkill died 12th Oc- 
tober, 1746, aged 60 years. The superior abilities 
he possessed, aided by honest industry, exalted his 
station in life. His amiable disposition endeared 
him to mankind. Mrs. Kirkpatrick of Glenkill 
died 2nd June, 1771, aged 68 years. Her virtue, 
piety, and benevolence of heart procured her uni- 
versal esteem. Her family feel the loss of a most 
affectionate parent and the poor their benefactress." 
This Robert, if he be the son of William, who died 
in 1686, was born the same year that his father 
died, and William could not have been less than 
eighty-five in that year, as he could scarcely sell 
his-property and give a title before he was of age. 
Does MR. GRACIB believe also in this extraordinary 
circumstance, though such things do occasionally 
occur 1 

All these Kirkpatricks, of whom we have the 
tombstones in Garrel churchyard, may have been 
offshoots of the old barons of Kirkmichael, but at 
all events the inscriptions do not prove it. If they 
had been so, the feeling, which is natural to man- 
kind, of claiming kindred to families who have 
acted a distinguished part in the affairs of their 
country would have led them doubtless to record 
the fact. I believe that they were tenants of the 
lands where they resided, unless it can be proved 
that they were proprietors, and I am the more 
inclined to think so as in some old documents 
referring to lands in Kirkmichael parish that have 
come /under my notice I find a James Johnston, 
joint-tenant with others of the farms of Wraiths, 
Kirkland, and Auchenskew, in 1731. These lands 
were adjacent to Knock, and I have little doubt 
that this was the son-in-law who erected the tomb- 
stone in 1738 to his father-in-law, George Kirk- 
patrick. I confess to be still more at sea than ever 
in regard to the pedigree of the Conheath family 
since I have examined these Garrel tombstones. 
There is nothing found in them to connect the 
Conheath family with the Kirkmichael branch, 
but possibly MR" GRACIE may be able to supple- 
ment their deficiencies from other more reliable 
sources. When the property was sold about 1622 
did William, retain any fragment, or did it pass 
away entirely to Charteris of Amisfield ? If any 
portion was retained, can MR. GRACIE tell us wha 
lands remained in the possession of the old family 
The points which require to be cleared up, and 

o which I draw MR. GRACIE'S particular attention, 
ire the following: First. What proof is there 
-hat Alexander of 1484 is the son of a Kylosbern 
baron 1 Second. What proof is there that William 
who died in 1686 was the William who sold the 
Kirkmichael property about 1622 ? Third. What 
Droof is there that Robert of Glenkill is son of 
William, as this does not appear on the tomb- 
stone ? If these last two queries be not answered 
satisfactorily, it throws more than doubt on the 
,vhole of the Conheath pedigree. In asking these 
questions, do not let MR. GRACIE suppose that I 
do so with any intention or wish to prove any 
.nformation he may give to be inaccurate. I look 
it the subject as a mere matter of antiquarian 
research, and care not how it is determined so that 
we are able to get at something like a satisfactory 
conclusion. C. T. RAMAGE. 

366,455,526; xi. 45, 138, 239, 305, 368, 445, 494; xii. 
57.) There are four charters in all in the Cambus- 
kenneth Chartulary respecting the land of Duglyn, 
given by Seher de Quinci to the canons, and in two 
of these, the first and the fourth, he is twice styled 
"Comes Wintonie," so that MR. SMITH may be 
perfectly assured of the fact in continuing his 
valuable notes. It is unnecessary to encumber 
these pages with the charters at length, because the 
book must surely be accessible in some London 
library. The first, however, begins, " Seherus de 
Quinci, Comes Wintonie" and is granted " con- 
cessione et assensu Roberti filii mei," and the wit- 
nesses' names are " Roberto filio Seheri Comitis, 
Rogero priore de insula episcopi, Waltero capel- 
lano Regis, Willelmo de Bosco, Hugone de Pre- 
benda, Gilberto clerico Regis, Willelmo de Selford, 
Miloni Senescallo, Henrico de Brebot, Roberto 
Carnane, Rogero filio Henrici, Willelmo de Bur- 
hame, Willelmo de Finelei, Willelmo de Salle, 
Ricardo clerico, Johanne Waleram, Willelmo ca- 
pellano et multis aliis." The mention of " Walterus 
capellanus Regis " fixes the date of the charter to 
be previous to the 5th of the Ides of December, 
1207, when he was elected Bishop of Glasgow. 
(Preface to Eeg. Glas., p. xxv.) The next charter 
is by " Seherus de Quinci," without any addition. 
Among the witnesses are " Willelmus capellanus 
domini Regis" and "Symon de Quinci." The 
former of these was doubtless William de Bon- 
dington, afterwards Bishop of Glasgow, and imme- 
diate successor of Walter as chaplain. So the date 
of this deed is also fixed about 1207-8. 

The third charter is a confirmation by William 
the Lyon of the grant of " Seherus de Quinci," so 
styled without addition. And the last is a charter 
of resignation by " Seherus de Quinci Comes 
Wintonie," bearing that in the Earl's " plena 
curia " at Locres, Duncan, the son of Hainelin, and 
Adam, his heir, had appeared and resigned and 

4* s. xii. A. 16, '73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


t iit-cluimed all right and title which they hel 
i 3in the Earl of the lands then granted by him to 
t .e canons with consent of Robert, his son, and the 
- id Duncan. The witnesses are "Roberto filio 
> :heri comitis Wintonie, Willelmo coinite de 
alusbiri, Roberto filio Walteri, Baldewino de Wat 
J ohanne filio comitis de Fyff, Willelmo de Vepont, 
^ > f . de Lacraie, Willelmo Senescallo, Roberto Car- 
i ane, Duncano filio Hamelini, et Tereld cognato 
s 10, Ricardo et Willelmo capellanis, Willelmo filio 
I jambur, et filio suo, Lambur, Hugone cementario 
c t Hugone clerico cognato suo, Siward de Alvethi 
[Alva] et filiis suis Siward et Thoma, Ricardo Ser- 
gant et Roberto Stur et multis aliis." This array 
of witnesses, with its curious mixture of English 
earldoms, and Celtic, Norman, and Danish Christian 
names, gives an interesting peep at the composition 
of a great baronial court of that era. It may be 
fi-dded that in three of the charters the lands are 
said to have been held by " Nesus filius Willelmi, 
auus meus" [i.e. the Earl's], thus quite identifying 
the " Seherus Comes Wintonie" of the charters 
with the son of Robert and Orabile, Nesus's 

The charter by David II. to John de Logy, in 
1363, cited by F., is well enough known, being 
printed in the Great Seal Register (David II., p. 
32, No. 76). He is supposed to have been the son 
of Margaret Logy, David's Queen, by her first 
husband, John de Logy, this last being the son of 
Sir John de Logy, who was executed by Robert 
the Bruce for participation in the Soulis conspiracy 
in 1320. For these facts, and other extremely in- 
teresting notices of the Logy family, now repre- 
sented by the Earl of Erroll, see Riddell's Peerage 
and Consistorial Law (pp. 982 and 1048). 


522 ; xii. 55.) If OLPIIAR HAMST had shared in 
the admiration (possibly exaggerated) of French 
bibliographers for Charles Nodier, and their interest 
in all that concerns him, he would not have written 
(respecting one of the four authoresses named 
Hamilton who wrote at the beginning of the present 
century), " Nothing appears to be known of ' M.' 
Hamilton." Mary Hamilton, who professed to 
write romances, was an English lady who resided 
in France, chiefly at Amiens, and who, in 1811 and 
1812, published three novels:!. La Famille du 
Due de Popoli: Memoires de M. de Cantelmo, son 
frere. Paris, 1811. 2. Auguste et Jules de Popoli, 
suite des Memoires deM. de Cantelmo. Paris, 1812. 
3. Le Village de Munster ; Traduction libre de 
I' Anglais. Paris, 1811. She resided at Amiens 
with that eccentric clerical baronet, Sir Herbert 
Croft, and shared with him the mania of writing 
in a language which she very imperfectly under- 
stood, a task which it will be easy to understand 
was not difficult when the pair had 'Nodier as their 

secretary. " Comrne sa vie e"tait toujours precaire," 
says M. Wey, in his Vie de Ch. Nodier, " il accepta 
une place chez le Chevalier Croft, Anglais exile 
qui demeurait a Amiens avec lady Mary Hamilton " 
(so she appears to have styled herself), " bas bleu, 
dont 1' erudition linguistique se bornait a la langue 
Anglaise, et qui avait la prevention de prendre rang 
parmi les auteurs francos. Elle e"crivait, avec 
1'aide de sa femme de chambre. des ronians inin- 
telligibles, et sous pre"texte d'en revoir les e"preuves, 
Charles Nodier, qui ne pouvait comprendre le texte 
original, e"crit entre deux Za?ij/i(es,refaisait tranquille- 
ment un autre livre, dans lequel lady Hamilton 
avait la bonte de se reconnoitre. Elle publia de la 
sorte un volume profonde"ment inconnu, que Nodier 
rn'a dit se nommer la famille Popoli." 

M. Brunet, in his life of Nodier in the Biogra- 
phie Universelle, has a similar statement. 

A long note on Mary Hamilton will be found in 
the new edition of Les Supercheries Devoilees 
of Querard, vol. ii., p. 244; and she is referred to 
I think more than once in the Bulletin du Bib- 
liophile, in some of the numerous articles upon, or 
letters of, Nodier. Indeed, it was there that I 
first met with her name, but I have, unfortunately, 
no reference to the volume. The author of the life 
of Sir Herbert Croft in the Biographie Universelle 
has confounded this lady with her more celebrated 
namesake Elizabeth Hamilton, as, according to 
Querard (La France Litteraire, vol. iv., p. 20), M. 
Pigoreau has also done in his Bibliographic Bio- 
graphico-Romanciere. I have sometimes thought 
of writing to " N. & Q." to ask what claim Mary- 
Hamilton had to the title which is given to her, 
and whether Le Village de Munster had really an 
English original. Is not OLPHAR HAMST too severe 
on the author of the Life of Mrs. Cameron for 
citing one of Elizabeth Hamilton's works by the 
title of Brigetina Botherum. He says, " There is 
no such book as Brigetina Botherum. It is the 
name of the heroine in Memoirs of Modern Philo- 
sophers." OLPHAR HAMST does not seem aware 
that this book was translated into French, and 
published under the title of Bridgetina, ou les 
Philosophes Modernes (Paris, 1804. 4 vols., 12mo.). 


In the Songstresses of Scotland, 2 vols., Svo., 
OLPHAR HAMST will find a very interesting account 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Hamilton, and some amusing 
extracts from her poems. 

3. xii. 48.) This Martin is, I suspect, the brother 
of the painter, and of Jonathan Martin, famous 
? or setting fire to York Minster. I remember now 
ery well, some forty years ago, he lived near North 
Shields, and always designated himself " Natural 
Philosopher"; his great hobby- no uncommon 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. XIL A, w, 73. 

one at that time was the discovery of perpetual 
motion. E. L. BLENKINSOPP. 

Springthorpe Rectory. 

I send an extract from Sykes's Local Records of 
Northumberland and Durham, which, I apprehend, 
will show who the real Philosopher Martin was : 

"1814, May 31. The Society of Arts presented a 
silver medal and ten guineas to Mr. William Martin, of 
Wallsend, Northumberland, for his invention of a spring 
weighing machine. This very ingenious and self-taught 
mechanic was born at the Wood House, near Haltwhistle, 
in Northumberland, and is the brother of Mr. John 
Martin, the celebrated painter and engraver, and also of 
Jonathan Martin, who is of considerable notoriety for 
haying set fire to York Cathedral. Mr. William Martin 
claims the invention of the safety lamp. He has also 
made models of various bridges, railways, &c., which 

frove him to be possessed of great mechanical ingenuity, 
n the year 1821, he published A New System of Natural 
Philosophy, on the Principle of Perpetual Motion, with 
a portrait, Svo. This very curious work, in which 
he refutes Sir Isaac Newton's philosophy, is replete 
with visions, dreams, robberies, &c. This variously 
talented man has engraved several copper-plates, among 
which are a flash bank-note, the plates to illustrate the 
life of his brother Jonathan, which the latter hawked 
about for sale, also portraits of himself, views of York 
Cathedral, done after the fire, and various others, and is 
at present (1831) engaged in engraving on steel. He is 
also a Poet ! and has published ' A New Philosophical 
Song, or Poem Book, called The Northumberland Bard ; 
or, the Downfall of all False Philosophy, 1827, 8vo.' He 
has repeatedly lectured in Newcastle, and the neighbour- 
ing towns and villages, on his own system of Natural 
Philosophy. In June, 1830, he undertook a lecturing 
tour through England, and returned in the summer of 
the following year, and he says with success, nobody at- 
tempting to defend the Newtonian system. In August, 
1831, he sent, by post, a large packet, containing six or 
eight sheets of paper, very closely written, to Baron 
Brougham, Lord High Chancellor of England, explaining 
to his Lordship the Martinian System of Natural Philo- 
sophy! on the perusal of which, he is confident his Lord- 
ship will take such measures as to cause the new system 
to be universally adopted. Mr. Martin is a writer upon 
almost every subject, which has drawn forth attacks from 
numerous anonymous scribblers. These he treats with 
great contempt, always boldly signing himself ' William 
Martin, Nat. Phil, and poet.' " 

I well knew " Philosopher Martin," as he was 
universally called in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in my 
young days. He was a stout, portly man, perfectly 
cracked, but harmless. He used to strut about 
the streets very pompously, wearing the silver 
medal above mentioned round his neck ; and was 
always ready to explain his " philosophy," or his 
last new invention, and very ingenious he was to 
any one. I believe he was supported by his brother 
John, the great painter, and died at an advanced 

Outwood Hall, Wakefield. 

SOMERVILLE PEERAGE (4 th S. xi. passim ; xii. 
15, 76.) I do not purpose to interfere in this dis- 
cussion, but simply to affirm what seems to be 
denied, that Sir E. Seymour was a member of the 

noble family of which the Duke of Somerset was 
the representative. 

The Dukedom was conferred on the Protector 
Somerset with the somewhat curious limitation in 
the patent, that his male descendants by his first 
wife should succeed after the failure of those by 
his second wife. He was attainted and his honours 
were forfeited ; but by the reversal of the attainder 
his great-grandson (grandson of the eldest son of 
the second marriage) was second duke. This line 
ended in the person of Algernon, the seventh duke, 
when Sir Edward Seymour (descended from the 
eldest son of the first marriage) succeeded. Thus 
the progenitor of both lines was the first Duke of 


With all due deference to W. M., I cannot help 
thinking that Dundas of Dundas is the head of 
the House of Dundas. W. M. says that he is 
head, as "the representative of the family of 
Dundas as a whole." I may be wrong, yet I 
cannot but consider this whole family as syno- 
nymous with the house of which Zetland and 
Melville are ennobled branches. When we speak 
of a house, the ennobled cadets are included, and 
then the chief is the representative of its founder. 
Analogies may be found in the Highland clans, and 
in certain Irish families. While the titles of 
Zetland and Melville are held by Dundases, it 
seems to me that the holders are members of the 
House of Dundas, and only representatives of 
their respective lines and peerages. Suppose no 
limitation to exist, in the course of time the 
nobility conferred on a cadet might be ultimately 
inherited by another, and unennobled, cadet of 
the same "whole family" or house. I do not 
insist on my view of the case. The " heir of 
tailzie and provision" may be in the line of an 
unennobled brother of the ennobled cadet, as a 
member of the common house, or, to stretch the 
argument, the ultimate heir of the ennobled line 
might be the representative of an unennobled 
ancestor, which would seem to indicate that no ac- 
quisition of a peerage by a cadet would affect the 
genealogical question. One branch may bear 
blossoms and another not. Yet they would both 
alike be subordinate to the parent stem. S. 

NICENE CREED (4 th S. xi. 36, 183, 333, 412,, 
526.) The compilers and revisers of the Book of 
Common Prayer constantly referred to all the 
primitive forms with which they were acquainted, 
and, in translating the Nicene Creed, we can well 
understand that they would refer to the older 
Greek authorities in preference to the more modern 
Latin. In the Definitions of the Catholic Faith 
and Canons of Discipline of the First Four General 
Councils, &c., published by Jas. Parker & Co., 2nd 
edit., 1869, p. 2, it is seen that the phrase is not 
used in the original Nicene Creed, the only men- 



ion of the Church, and that without the ayiav, 
eing TOVTOVS dvaOf^aTL^L ?} KaOoXtKr} KCU 
cTroo-roAiKr) fKKXrjcria. The omission in this 
original form referred to is considered by Bingham, 
Sook x., c. 4, to arise from, the fact that there was 
hen no dispute as to the articles following the 
leclaration of belief in the Holy Ghost. On p. 34 
>f the Definitions, &c., is to be found in the Creed 
jf Constantinople, Eis piav ayiav KaOoXiKrjv, 
<.r.A.; but to this is appended the following note : 
' ayiav. Sanctam apud Def. Fid. Cone. Trident. 
In exteruis autem versionibus minime constat." 
And there is a reference in Bp. Hooper's Works, 
Parker Soc., p. 534, which, in some degree, bears 
;>ut this note. Thus, in quoting the " Symbolum 
Constantinopolitanum ex exemplar! quodamGraeco- 
[atino" from Binius (Binii Cone., torn, i., p. 663., 
Paris, 1636), the words are "In unam Catholicam." 
Moreover, the following extracts from Bingham's 
Antiq., Book x. c. 4 (my edition is of London, 
Knaplock, 1715), may throw some light on the 
omission in our Service Book. 

On p. 99, Const. Apost., Lib. 7, c. 41, the Creed 
for Catechumens omits this and certain other 
articles. This is the case with many other 
specimens of this Creed. But, p. 101, Cyril's 
Catech. 6, the words are " in one Catholick Church." 
This is in the Creed. In that of Alexandria 
(p. 103), as quoted by Socrates, i. c. 26, " and in 
one Catholick Church." 

Again, p. Ill, Epiphanius (Anchorat, n. 120, 
Tom. 2, p. 122), " And in one Catholick," &c. In 
addition to all these, we find Bp. Jewel quoting 
the Creed (referred to above as that of Alexandria) 
from Socrates, i. c. 26, " Efc in imam Catholicam." 
Concerning which, he says, Part iii., p. 256, Parker 
Soc., " and they of Mr. Harding's side have ever- 
more " Credo in sanctam ecclesiam." When also they 
will allege these words of Socrates "... Credo . . . 
in unam catholicam ecclesiam." This last quotation 
from Socrates is the strongest which we have pre- 
sented in favour of the argument that possibly the 
" ayiav" of the Constantinopolitan is an interpola- 
tion, inasmuch as Socrates calls this to which he refers 
the actual Nicene Creed, and was probably, in 
some measure, that upon which the Constanti- 
nopolitan would be built. 

From the above I infer that many of the 
ancient forms omitted ayiav or sanctam, and I 
would, therefore, fain suggest that the Reformers 
either 1, considered the word an interpolation, or 
2, that they translated from a form in which the 
word did not occur. They certainly had no 
doctrinal objection. Carelessness can scarcely ac- 
count for the omission, although Humphreys and 
the Prayer Book Interleaved assign that cause. 


244.) Sir John Maclean observes that "Arms 

being an heritable possession, descending to the 
issue of the original grantee only, no one has the 
power to alienate them." He will probably thank 
me for giving him a direct authority to the contrary, 
which I extracted many years ago from Hunter's 
South Yorkshire, vol. ii. p. 356. 

Godfrey Bosvile, of Gunthwaite, having purchased 
the Manor of Oxspring from Richard Eyre, the 
grandson and heir of Richard Oxspring, obtained 
from him an assignment of the Oxspring arms by 
deed, of which the following is a copy : 

" Sciant praesentes et futuri quod ego Richardus Byre 
(de Normanton) super Soram, films et heres Georgii 
Eyre, in com. Nott. generosi, dedi, concessi, et hac prse- 
senti carta mea confirmari, Godfrido Bossevile, de 
Gunnildthwyth, in com. Ebor. armigero, Tunicam 
meam armatam de Oxspring, vocat. myne armes, quam 
habeo, habui, vel in future habere potero, injure Richardi 
Oxspring, avi mei, heredibus suis et assignatis. Et ego 
praedictus Richardus, et heredes mei, prsedictam tunicam 
armatam prasfato Godfrido hered. et assign, contra oomes 
gentes warantizabimus et defendemus in perpetuum. 
Hiis testibus, Carolo Barnby, Radulpho Wordysworth, 
John Wordysworth, yeoman, Thoma Pecke, Will Wordis- 
worth, et multis aliis. Dat. apud Oxpreng, vicesimo 
quarto die mensis Novemb. anno regni regis Edwardi 
sexti, Dei gratia, Angliaa, Fran. Hiberniae Rex, Fidei 
Defensor, ac in terra supremi capitis ecclesiae Anglicanse 
et Hiberniae primo. 

" Per me Richardus Eyre." 

Y. S. M. 

ESTELLA (4 th S. xii. 67.) I find an Estella 
mentioned in an old Biographie Universelle in the 
following terms. He may be the man required : 

" Estella (Diogo), originaire d'Estella dans la Navarre, 
naquit en Portugal, il prit de bonne heure 1'habit de 
franciscain, et consacra ses talents a la predication et a 
la composition de quelques ouvrages qui eurent beaucoup 
de succes, mais dont aujourd'hui personne ne se souvient." 

It also states that he was the author of a work 
on Ecclesiastical Rhetoric, a Spanish treatise on 
the Vanity of the World, Devout Meditations on 
the Love of God, The Wickedness of the World, 
and A Life of John the Evangelist. He also 
edited a Latin Commentary on St. Luke, and on 
Psalm cxxxvi. He died in 1590. 


EARLDOM or HEREFORD (4 th S. xii. 67.) I 
think that William Fitzosborne, and not Roger, 
was created Earl of Hereford by the Conqueror. 
This William died in 1071, and was succeeded by 
his second son, Roger, who, being concerned in a 
conspiracy to dethrone the King, was put into 
prison, and his lordship and lands escheated to the 
crown. Roger died in prison in the year 1099. 
Was William Fitzosborne the son of Walter 
Gifard, son of Osborne de Boleluc and Avelin, his 
wife, "sister to Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy 
and great-grandmother to the Conqueror," who 
acted as one of the commissioners sent by William 
to collect proofs and evidences for compiling 
Domesday Book 1 


NOTES AND QUERIES. c** s. xn. AUG. IG, 73. 

Did the Earldom of Hereford become vacant by 
the death of Harold, son of Earl Godwin, or the 
death of Harold, son of Earl Raulph ? 

I know that Earl Eaulph was deprived of his 
command in 1051, in consequence of his cowardice 
or incapacity in a battle with the Welsh ; but in 
Domesday Book, under the title Warwickshire, 
No. 38, in the enumeration of the Great Tenants 
in capite, Harold is registered as one of the Barons ; 
and also under the title, Glouc., No. 61, and 
Worcestershire, No. 22, Heraldus films Kudulfi. 
" Amyas Harold " is said to have been called from 

Also, in Domesday Book, under the title Here- 
fordshire, is an entry to this effect : " Gucth uxor 
Radulfi com hac M. tenuit." Perhaps her con- 
nexion with the family of the Confessor procured 
her this favour. FREDERICK MANT. 

MEDAL QUERY (4 th S. xii. 69.) This is the 
common and well-known medal struck in silver, 
bronze, and most frequently in brass, to com- 
memorate the early American, West Indian, 
African, and other campaigns. The bust is that 
of George II. in armour, and on the reverse are 
the arms of France reversed. No description has 
been published. J. W. FLEMING. 

The following is the description of the medal 
wanted by NUMIS : Obv. laureated bust in armour, 
with riband and Star of the Order of the Garter, 
of " GEORGIVS II. REX." Rev. 


Around a shield containing a lily reversed, with 
the motto " PERFIDIA EVERSA " supported by the 
lion and unicorn : " w. PITT, AUSP. GEO. n., PR. MI." 
on the scroll beneath. "MDCCLIX." SIZE 13. The 
medal, not uncommon, commemorates the above- 
named victories gained against the French. 



xii. 8.) In an indenture dated July, 20, 1721, re- 
lating to some property for the foundation of a 
" chapel or meeting " for the Presbyterian body in 
Morpeth, quoted in Hodgson's History of North- 
umberland, Newcastle, 1832, part ii. vol. ii. p. 441, 
are the names of Sir William Middleton, Bart.* 
and Cumberland Leach, of Belsay. 

The Rev. S. S. Meggison, Vicar of Bolani, in 
which parish Belsay is situated, might be willing to 
supply some direct information as to Mr. Leech. 


Ne we astl e-on-Tyne. 

* Son and heir to Sir John Middleton, Bart., ob. 1717, 
of whom v. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, London, 
1868, ml. Monck. 

CHATEAUBRIAND'S MOTHER (4 th S. xii. 47.) I 
think it probable Chateaubriand's mother may 
have been of the family of Picot, of Jersey. I have 
known members of both families, and know there 
was some connexion between them. EFFESSEA. 


S. xii. 67.) This line is to be found in Gilford's 
Juvenal his version of 

" Obrepit non intellecta senectus." 

Sat. ix. 129. 

" The noiseless foot of Time steals swiftly by, 
And ere we dream of manhood, age is nigh." 

S. S. S. 

(4 th S. xii. 88.) Sir S. R. Meyrick, in the Cam- 
brian Quarterly Magazine of January, 1831, wrote 
on this subject, and deemed the story purely 
traditional, and " one of Druidic origin, such as 
are generally styled Mabinogion." He goes on to 

" Now the greyhound, we know, was a title under 
which the female divinity was worshipped among the 
Britons, and the name of Celert, or mystical, from cell 
concealment, was, under such circumstances, by no means 
inappropriate. Hence, some Welsh cromlechs have the 
appellations Llech yr A si and Llech y vilast ; and the 
feats of this greyhound have been collected by the Rev. 
Mr. Davies, in his Rites and Mythology of the Druids. 
. . . It will be there seen that the cradle is a meta- 
phorical expression for the coracle, in which an aspirant 
for the Druidic order was compelled to undergo what 
were considered the greater mysteries. The name 
Llewelyn we must take according to its literal import, 
and we shall find that Hew, or the lion, was often intro- 
duced as a mythological character : thus Llew, Llaw- 

Another writer in the same magazine (July, 
1833) says : 

"The extensive prevalence of this little tale is as- 
tonishing. It is to be found under various modifications, 
in many works and languages. In the Story of the Seven 
Wise Masters, under the title of ' The Knight and the 
Greyhound' ; as well as in the English Gesta Romanorum ; 
also in the Centi Novelli ; in the Turkish Tales, Persian 
Tales," &c. 

A. R. 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

ed. 1870, p. 87, (4 th S. xii. 88.) For an answer to 
the question "Who is the political writer," &c., I 
beg leave to offer the name of Dr. Stoddart, at the 
period alluded to the Editor of the Times. His 
vituperation of Napoleon I. was so strong and 
persistent that Hone nicknamed him "Doctor 
Slop," and published a collection of his more 
abusive attacks on the Emperor, under the title of 
Bonaparte-phobia. J. C. H. 

I find the following notices of him in the Baptismal 
Registers of Manchester Cathedral : 

4'" S. XII. AUG. 16, 73.] 



"1691, April 26, Catherine, Daughter to John 
rompton of London. 

"1692, Oct. 21, Winkfeild Mary, Daughter to John 
Irompton in fflanders. 

"1695, Nov. 8, Mary, Daughter to Lieutenant John 

"1696, Sep. 8, James, Son to Lieutenant John Cromp- 

" 1698, January 22, ^ Anne, Daughter to Lieutenant 
. "ohn Crompton." 

The name Percifil or Percivall has been rather 
common in the parish of Manchester from an 
oarly period. J. OWEN. 

Stretford Road, Manchester, 

HERALDIC (4 th S. xii. 88.) The arms inquired 
for by MR. FERNIE answer to those of Sir Stephen 
Cosenton, temp. Edward III. He is mentioned in 
Froissart, and some curious notes about his arms 
will be found in Beltz's History of the Garter. 
His granddaughter married Alexander Hamon, of 
Acrise, Kent, whose great-granddaughter married 
Sir Edward Boys, of Fredville ; Elizabeth Boys 
married Thomas Tumor, of Canterbury ; and in 
1660 her daughter Elinor married Thomas Loftie, 
of Smeetly, who died in 1678. A portrait of him 
was exhibited at the recent meeting of the Kent 
Archaeological Society at Cranbrook, by a lineal 
descendant, who claims to quarter the arms of 
Cosenton, and who would no. doubt be glad to find 
them in connexion with any of the noble and 
princely bearings mentioned by your correspondent. 

F. E. 

"PAR TERNIS SUPPAR" (4 th S. xii. 89.) The 
old motto of the Eushout or Eoualt family used to 
be translated, " The two are as good as the three." 
The family of Eoualt bore the same arms as the 
Dukes of Normandy, to whom they were related, 
namely, two lions passant-guardant ; and when 
Henry II., on his marriage with the heiress of 
Acquitaine, the coat armour of which was a lion 
passant-guardant, united the two bearings, and 
adopted three lions on his shield, it is said that 
the Eoualts, who had of course no pretence to do 
this, adopted the motto " Par ternis suppar," as an 
assertion that their old bearing of two lions was as 
opd, old and noble as the three lions borne by 
ang Henry. EDWARD SOLLY. 

SIBYL PENN (4 th S. xii. 89.) In a pedigree of 
the Penn family, extracted from the Heralds' 
visitations, this lady is described as daughter of 
William Hampden, of Kimble, in the county of 
Buckingham ; she was married to David, son and 
heir of John Penn, of Penn, in the same county, 
and had issue (1) John, who married Ursula, 
daughter of Walliston, and (2) Margaret, who 
became the wife of Tho. Gifford, of Middle Clay- 
don, Bucks. By letters patent, issued in 1553, 
and reciting those of 1541, grants were made to 
Sibella Penne of two manors in Little Missenden, 
as well as other pbssessions in the same locality. 

These concessions were in acknowledgment of her 
good and faithful services in the nursing and 
education of Edward VI., " and for other con- 
siderations " (Lipscomb's Bucks, vol. ii. p. 394). 
It may interest GAVELOCK to learn that I have in 
my possession a deed relating to a transfer of pro- 
perty at Nether Worton, Oxon, the contracting 
parties being William Penn (the grandson of 
David and Sybil), his kinsman, Ferdinando Poul- 
ton, author of a well-known digest of the criminal 
law, and Nowell Sotherton, Baron of the Ex- 
chequer. WM. UNDERBILL. 
13, Kelly Street, Kentish Town. 

There seems to be no doubt that Henry VIII. 
entrusted the care of Edward VI. to this lady. 
The fact is mentioned in Letters Patent, dated 24th 
March, 1541, recited in Letters Patent, dated 1553, 
granting to David Penne and Sibil, his wife, the 
reversions of the manors of Beamond, and Aufrick 
in Little Missenden. See Lipscomb's Bucks, vol. 
ii., p. 395. A. J. K. 

To SET THE THAMES ON FIRE (4 th S. xii. 80, 
119.) It is very strange that the French have a 
very similar pun: " To set the Seine on fire." Our 
pun lies between the London river and the cloth 
used for sieves (tamis or tammy), and the French 
between the Paris river and a drag-net. In the 
North- West of France the " pecheur a la seine " 
(or dragman) is a household term, and the seine, or 
drag-net, is as common as possible. In both cases 
the expression is used only in the negative, and 
implies reproof. We never say that a clever fellow 
will " set the Thames on fire," but we say a stupid 
or lazy one will " not " do so, or, speaking ironically, 
leave out the not. So in France, the lazy fisherman 
will not " set his nets (seines) on fire," but a hard- 
working dragman would never be described as one 
who works so diligently as even to set fire to his 

Lavant, Chichester. 

[The subject has been already noticed in " N. & Q.," 
3 rd S. vii. 239, 306 ; but Dr. Brewer's note adds useful 
supplementary information.} 

CATER-COUSINS (4 th S. ix. passim; x. 36, 52, 
153; xi. 493; xii. 38.) On referring to Dr. 
Sullivan's Dictionary of Derivations, Dublin, 1860, 
I find the following: 

"Cater-cousin; quatre-cousin, F. A fourth cousin; but 
originally said in ridicule of persons claiming relationship 
upon very remote degrees." 

This tends to prove that the meaning sometimes 
attached to the word is not confined to Lancashire, 
or even to England. T. T. W. 

W. (1) asks what is, rather was, the meaning of 
" Faire le diable a quatre." I should say it was 
originally an expression used by the old French 
duellists when the seconds fought as well as_the 
principals. Such a duel, in the days of long rapiers, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. xn. A. ie f 73. 

was "Faire le diable a quatre"; although it may 
or may not have been " all on the square." 

Asliford, Kent. 

Faire le diable a quatre. I refer W. (1) to Le 
Roux's Dictionnaire Comique. " Pour dire faire 
du bruit, du tintamare, du fracas, du de"sordre, 
battre, menager, casser, briser." 


OLIVER CROMWELL, JUN. (4 th S. xi. 301, 366, 
430, 494 ; xii. 70.) In a brief memoir of Richard 
Cromwell, published in 1714, in The Lives and 
Characters of the most Illustrious Persons, British 
and Foreign, who died in the Year 1711, London, 
8vo., there is a remarkable reference to the Pro- 
tector's sons. The author observes, p. 283: 
F* " Oliver had three sons, Oliver, Richard, and Henry ; 
who for some time after the Civil War broke out, went to 
school at Welsted in Essex, the eldest of which, who was 
a very handsome Young Gentleman, was suddenly sent for 
by his Father to go to the Army, but did not long survive, 
being taken off by the small Pox in the Flower of his 

In this short account there are evidently two 
mistakes; three sons in place of five, and Welsted 
instead of Felsted. Many similar errors exist in 
the memoir, but there seems no reason to doubt 
the general statement that a son of Cromwell's, who 
went from Felsted School to the army, died shortly 
afterwards of small-pox. May not this son have 
been Robert Cromwell ? EDWARD SOLLY. 

49.) I am sorry to find that in the opinion of 
your very intelligent correspondent, THE TIMES 
REPORTER, the difficulties I have encountered in 
ascertaining, from the several reports, what the 
Lord Chief Justice really did say on the subjec 
of the Tichborne handwriting, are really of niy 
own creation, and that it may be said of me 

" He made the giants first, and then he kill'd them." 
But I have one small consolation, that, while he 
and my other critics agree in setting me down as 
one of the foolish for not seeing at once what the 
Lord Chief Justice really did say and mean, they 
by no means agree among themselves as to what 
he really did say and did mean ; so that each, in 
his endeavour to correct me, actually justifies my 
doubt, and their united criticisms prove that the 
stumbling-block which I have found, be it what it 
may, is not a mare's nest. WILLIAM J. THOMS. 

BARONETCY OF DICK (4 th S. xi. 403 ; xii. 86.) 
The communications of Y. S. M. and MR. AZURE 
raise in fact two separate questions : 

1st. Whether the Baronetcy of Dick is a genuine 

Of this there can be no doubt. The Nov 
Scotian Baronetcy of Dick was created in 1642 
by Charles L, in the person of William Dick o 

Jraid, a wealthy Scottish banker, in recognition of 
is services to that monarch by advancing him a 
uni of 6,OOOL On the death of the first baronet, 
n 1655, the title descended to his grandson, great- 
randson, and great-great-nephew, by none of 
whom was the title assumed. 

On the death of the last-mentioned heir, the 
itle devolved on his son and grandson, the latter 

whom, in the year 1821, established his claim 
o the title before a jury of Edinburgh magistrates, 
nd died without male issue, about the year 1845, 
ipon which event arises the second question. 

2nd. Whether the present Charles Wm. H. 
Dick, of Brighton, is entitled to the honour 1 

In Lodge's Peerage for 1855 the name of the 
ibove gentleman appears as Baronet of Braid, and 
t is there stated that he succeeded his father in 
.851. Considering that the assumption has been 
illowed to stand unchallenged for twenty years, it 
certainly seems hard that doubt should be raised 
is to the validity of the claim, especially as even 
he careful editors of Burke cannot expect the title 

be established before a jury (as on a former oc- 
casion), taking into account the alleged condition 

f the present claimant and the necessary expenses 
fhich such a mode of proof would demand. 


MARY WINDOW (4 th S. xii. 47, 93.) A (so- 
called) Mary Window has recently been put into 
Shilton Church, Warwickshire. The name of the 
donors was Mary. The subjects all, I believe 
lave reference to incidents in the life of the 
Virgin Mary. G. R, 

PAINTER WANTED (4 th S. xii. 27, 92.) MR. 
JUTON is right with regard to the painting of the 
death of Lord Robert Manners. I remember an 
application being made to my father from the 
bead of the family (the painting having shortly 
before been burnt at Belvoir Castle) to know if he 
intended repainting the picture. His reply was, 
" if the family wished it, but the popularity of the 
event had ceased." At the time, my father was 
desirous of painting on a large scale, and had pre- 
pared himself accordingly ; but after the death of 
the Marquis of Exeter, finding no other nobleman 
following up his painting at Burleigh Hall, and 
losing so many of his first admirers, considered the 
booksellers, after Alderman Boydell, his only 

55.) I have been watching the habits of a pair of 
these birds (the lesser shrike) which had a nest of 
young near my house. The other day (2nd July) 

1 saw the male flying with a bird in his claws from 
a high^ elevation to the hedge where his nest was. 
H r dropped it in the middle of the meadow, and I 

aw him, through my telescope, dissecting it, and \ 
' after several attempts again raise it and fly to 


s. xii. AUG. 16, 73.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


1 sdge near the nest. On going to look, I found 
t e bird to be a willow wren. Its head was torn off. 


Morris, in his History of British Birds, says of 
t le shrike (vol. i. p. 179): 

" Rennie relates that in Russia it is trained to catch 
g nail birds, and is valuable for its destruction of rats and 
r lice. It is a very courageous bird, attacking fearlessly 

t lose that are much its superior in size One has 

1 een taken in the act of pouncing on the decoy bird of a 
f )wler." 

The Poet-Laureate is then quite right. 


BLANKET TOSSING (4 th S. xi. 137, 222.) It ap- 
pears that this mode of punishment was not un- 
known in the lower regions. An old ballad of the 
Gunpowder Plot ends with the following lines : 
" When the King with his son 

To the Parliament 's gone, 

To consult about old musty papers, 

We '11 give them a greeting, 

Will break up their meeting, 

And see who can cut the best capers. 

But this was scarce said, 

When in popt the head 

Of an old Jesuitical wight, 

Who cried you 're mistaken, 

They 've all saved their bacon, 

And Jamie still stinks with the fright ! 

Then Satan was struck, 

And said 'tis bad luck, 

But you for your news shall be thanket. 

So he called to the door 

Seven devils or more, 

And they tost the poor dog in a blanket ! " 


EPITAPH (4 th S.^xii. 6, 56, 80, 98.) It now 
appears that this epitaph was in existence in 1636, 
and consequently could not have been written by 
Burns. I am very glad to hear it. In ascribing 
it to Burns, I was not actuated by any desire to 
claim it for him. I merely expressed my erroneous 
belief as to what I considered a melancholy matter 
of fact. 

If, however, MR. RULE wishes to discover the 
origin of the delusion, he will require to go further 
back than the days of Mr. Gunnyon and Warne & 
Co. The song of "The Joyful Widower" was 
published anonymously in the Scots Musical Mu- 
seum in 1787 ; and Mr. Stenhouse, in his Illustra- 
tions (prepared about 1820) for a new edition of 
that work, stated that the song was by Burns. Mr. 
Scott Douglas, in his edition of Burns, 1871, vol. i., 
p. 201, says, "it would seem that the verses were 
furnished by our poet, and that the MS. is still in 
existence." The explanation will probably be found 
in the words of Burns himself regarding the aid 
he was rendering to the Museum, " I have col- 
lected, begged, borrowed, and stolen all the songs 
I could meet with." (Letter to Mr. Candlish in 
May or June, 1787.) W. M. 


SANDGATE CASTLE (4 th S. viii. 353 ; xii. 99.) 
The " Sir John Beauchamp " alluded to by MR. 
FYNMORE as Constable of Dover Castle, is probably 
the same who, after the Battle of Cressy and the 
capture of Calais by Edward III., was appointed 
(January, 1349) governor of the town and its de- 
pendencies, on the discovery of the treachery of 
Aimery, Edward's first appointed governor. 
Amongst the outlying forts of Calais were the 
Castle of Guisnes, and the forts of Colne, Oye, 
Marque, and Sangatte, mentioned by MR. FYN- 
MORE ; and on the threatened siege of Calais, a 
century later, by Philip of Burgundy, the three 
last-mentioned forts are especially named as having 
been surprised by him before he took to flight on 
the approach of the Duke of Gloucester. Of the 
two forts of similar names on the opposite shores 
of the Channel, the Kentish Sandgate, will, there- 
fore, have to be given up by MR. FYNMORE in con- 
nexion with Sir John Beauchamp, unless, as still 
Constable of Dover Castle, he may possibly have 
held command over Sandgate ; but in this case 
there would have been no association with the 
French forts mentioned. S. H. HARLOWE. 

St. John's Wood. 

(4 th S. xii. 68.) I send you the Ladies' Petition 
written from memory, which, if printed in 
" N. & Q.," will perhaps amuse your readers. 1 
am sorry I cannot name the author, nor can I name 
any publication in which it is printed ; it certainly 
is not Byron's, as suggested, but the fact has escaped 
my memory. 

" Dear Doctor, let it not transpire 
How much your Lectures we admire, 
How at your eloquence we wonder 
When you explain the cause of thunder, 
Of lightening and electricity, 
With so much plainness and simplicity, 
The origin of rocks and mountains, 
Of seas and rivers, lakes and fountains, 
Of hail and rain, and frost and snow, 
And all the storms and winds that blow; 
Besides a hundred wonders more 
Of which we never heard before. 
But yet, dear Doctor ! (not to flatter) 
There is a most important matter, 
A matter which you never touch on, 
A subject which our thoughts run much on, 
A subject (if we right conjecture), 
That well deserves a long long lecture, 
Which all the ladies would approve ! 
The natural history of love f 
Deny us not, Dear Doctor Moys; 
list to our entreating voice, 
And tell us why our poor tender hearts 
So easily admit love's darts ; 
Teach us the marks of love's beginning, 
What makes us think a beau so winning, 
What makes us think a coxcomb witty, 
A black coat wise, a red coat pretty, 
Why we believe such horrid lies, 
That we are angels from the skies, 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 16, 73. 

Our teeth like pearl, our cheeks like roses, 
Our eyes like stars ; such charming noses ! 
Explain our dreams, awake and sleeping ; 
Explain our blushing, laughing, weeping ; 
Teach us, Dear Doctor, if you can ! 
To humble that proud creature man; 
To turn the wise ones into fools, 
The proud and insolent into tools ; 
To make them all run helter-skelter 
Their necks into the marriage halter; 
Then leave us alone with these, 
We'll turn and rule them as we please. 
Dear Doctor, if you'll grant our wishes, 
We promise you five hundred kisses ! 
And rather than the affair be blunder'd, 
We'll give you six score to the hundred ! " 

Limefield, Blackburn. 


Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia. By Samuel Johnson, 

LL.D. (W. Tegg.) 

THE charming old story of the Happy Valley, with its 
beautiful details and its excellent moral, is here pro- 
duced in a pretty and portable form. It in no respect 
resembles any story now offered for sale, but it is nothing 
the worse on that account. It is comfortable to turn 
from the style of some, at least, of the cheap modern 
tales, to walk with Dr. Johnson and hear him tell this 
romantic story in his well-known manner. 

Cornhill Magazine, for August. 

ON looking through this very readable number, occasion 
presents itself to make a note on the heat of the moon, and 
the strange result following from Lord Kosse's re- 
searches : " The cold, pale moon, that 

' Climbs the sky 

So silently and with so wan a face,' 
has been shown to be in reality so warm that no 
creature living on our earth could endure contact with 
that heated surface. The middle of the disc of the 
' white full moon ' is hotter than boiling water. It has 
thus been the fate of science yet once again to destroy 
an illusion which had for ages suggested a favourite 
poetical image." 

The People's Encyclopaedia : a Compendium of Uni- 
versal Information. With the Pronunciation of every 
Term and Proper Name. By L. Colange, LL.D. Illus- 
trated by Seven Hundred and Eight Wood Engravings. 
(Encyclopaedia Publishing Company.) 
NEARLY a thousand pages, double columns, close (but 
clear) type ! what can be said of such a volume in the 
few lines that "N. & Q." can afford] We can say this, 
that it is a marvel of industry, for Dr. Colange appears 
to have been alone in collating and condensing into one 
compact volume all that could be usefully gathered from 
what has been published on science, the arts, and the 
"belles lettres. We thus make a note of the appearance 
of The People's Encyclopaedia. There can be no doubt 
as to its success. 

While the " Boy " Waits. By J. Mortimer Granville. 

(H. Prowde.) 

THIS little volume, as its title implies, owes it existence 
to the good account to which odd moments of time have 
been turned by its author. Consisting of a number of 
short, readable papers on all kinds of subjects, it cannot 
fail to interest generally. 

Analysis and Specimens of the Joseph and Zulaikha : a 
Historical- Romantic Poem, by the Persian Poet Jami. 
(Williams & Norgate.) 

THE translator here offers to the public the first render- 
ing, as he believes, of this poem into English. Jami, 
born in 1414, appears to have been a most prolific 
writer, the titles of thirty-four of his works in prose and 
sixteen in verse being knoAvn. The translator, who ac- 
knowledges his indebtedness to Prof. Rosenzweig in the 
execution of his work, asks the indulgence of those 
readers who may not see in the poem the merit which 
he fancies it possesses. 

THE author of I live for Those who love Me, Mr. George 
Linnaeus Banks, is about to visit America " for oratorical 
purposes." A Subscription Testimonial Committee has 
been formed, in order to obtain for him, as the Prospectus 
states, " substantial help to cheer him on his way." 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentleman by whom they are required, whose name and address are 
given for that purpose : 

MILTON'S POETICAL WORKS. Pub. by J. & R. Tonson,1758. Vol. I. 
N COUNT'S GRAND TOUR. 3rd Edition, Lond. 1778. Vol. II. 

Wanted by Mr. Brabrook, 28, Abingdon Street, Westminster. 

SYDONIA.' Lady Charleville, it has been said, trans- 
lated Voltaire's poem into English; bid the book, it is 
also said, was suppressed. 

T. S. Remember what Milton told Salmasius, that his 
writings were jit only to make winding-sheets for pilchards 
in Lent ! 

B. A. The word " spread" as a slang word, originated 
at Cambridge. It did not imply a profuse feast, but a 
poor one spread over the table, to make a shoiv. 

PHILO-BEDE. In the July number of the Quarterly, 
p. 84, are the following words: " The Anglic kingdom of 
Northumbria, if not founded by Ida, first rose into 
power when, in 547, he appeared on its shores." This will 
answer both your queries. 

B. G Y. It is true that Lamartine, in his Celebrated 
European Characters, treats William Tell as a real 
personage. He, however, begins the story with these 
significant words: " We are about to relate what the Swiss 
have handed down as the poetic origin of their freedom." 

K. M. writes: " Harbottle, Northumberland, near 
Rothbury. Information is desired as to this ancient 
castle and manor, and its vicissitudes up to the present 
time." Our correspondent is referred to Murray's Hand- 
book for Northumberland, and Chambers's Domestic 
Annals of Scotland. 

E. T. In the next number of " N. & Q." 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor "Advertisements and Business Letters-to "The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20. Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 23, '73.] 





JOTES : Origin of Our Castles De Meschin De Meschines, 
Earls of Chester, 141 " Broker " Shakspeariana, 143 
Lawrence Lawrence Odious Comparisons : a Short Sermon, 
&c., 144 James Prince Lee, Bishop of Manchester " Stray 
Leaves, containing Translations from the German Poets," &c., 
145 " Confirmation of Arms " " Houppelande "Napo- 
leon's Use of Snuff Remarkable Epitaph, 146. 

iUERIES : French Poem " Briga " The Wren Family, 
147 "How do you do?" Hutton Family (Scotland) 
Sasines, &c. "Kat. Southwell, Mrs. Oliver" Eate of 
Interest in the Seventeenth Century John Glover's Paint- 
ings, 148 Lord Macaulay Kissing before a Duel St. John's 
Church, Clareborough, Notts. Mortimers of Scotland 
Abigail Hill-Peerage of Lancaster St. Winefrede's Well 
" Out of Place and Unpensioned " " La Flora di Tiziano " 
" Camp-shed " Pillaton, Staffordshire, 149. 

REPLIES : Orpheus and Moses, 150 Utopian Bibliography- 
Lady Student at Oxford Palindromes, 153 Chateaubriand's 
Mother "The sword in myrtles drest " Nash's "Worces- 
tershire " Whi taker's History of Craven, 154 Lord Preston 
Sir John Maundevile The " Te Deum," 155-St. Alban's 
Abbey Military Topography " Though lost to sight, to 
memory dear," 156 Bishop Stillingfleet Antiquity of Names 
derived from Hundreds The late Bishop of Winchester- 
Queries from Swift's Letters Soho Square Madness in Dogs 
"A Whistling Wife " Ascance, 157 "I mad the Carles 
Lairds" "A Light Heart " Funerals and Highways 
Battles of Wild Beasts-Sterne's " Sentimental Journey," 158 
Snuff-box presented to Bacon by Burns " Nice" "Whose 
owe it?" 159. 

Notes on Books, &c. 

It is commonly conceived that the castles in 
this country are of Norman origin, but I own it 
has always appeared to me that they are chiefly of 
Eoman origin ; 'of course, with numerous additions 
in Norman times. It admits of positive proof that 
many of them are of Eoman origin, and these so 
resemble others in the style of construction and 
masonry that the number must be very large indeed of 
castles originally Eoman, though afterwards more 
or less Norman. First, there clearly were many 
castles in Eoman times. Eichard of Cirencester 
says there can be no doubt truly : " Plurima insuper 
habebant Eomani in Britannis castella, suis quseque 
muris, turribus, portis et repugulis munita" (Iter., 
xviii.). Beyond all doubt, the Normans had a 
regular systeni of castrametation, which they 
followed in all their chief stations, where they had 
castra, fortresses or fortified camps. And it is 
certain that the terminations caster and cester de- 
note a Eoman station, and are derived from castrum 
or castra. That being so, it should follow that all 
the cities or towns so called were Eoman stations, 
and had Eoman fortresses or castles ; and it is 
beyond a doubt, that in many of them it was so. 
Thus, perfect Eoman towns may be seen in Col- 
chester, Gloucester, Winchester, Castor (near Nor- 

wich), and Chester, and at most of these places, as 
at Colchester, there are the remains of a castle 
with Eoman masonry. In the course of ages, no 
doubt, many of the Eoman castles may have be- 
come destroyed ; but it is believed that in everyplace 
having either of the terminations above mentioned 
there are, or were, traces of a Eoman castle or 
fortification. Take, for instance, Eochester, or, as 
Bede calls it, " Ehof s cester, from one that was 
formerly the chief man of it " (B. ii. c. 3). The 
Saxons built no castles : their edifices, such as they 
were, would be of wood ; they were of a wandering, 
predatory character, apter at destroying than at 
building. Their churches, certainly, were of wood ; 
and there is no mention of a castle erected in Saxon 
times. This Ehof, no doubt, was a Saxon, but 
the cester, or castle, was of Eoman origin. Those 
who look at its massive foundations cannot doubt 
that they are of Eoman masonry, though added to, 
no doubt, long afterwards in Norman times. The 
number of places having this termination, or one 
derived from it, is very considerable : Leicester, 
Worcester, Manchester (a place of Eoman origin, 
though supposed to be so modern), Cirencester, 
Chichester, Gloucester, Winchester, Ilchester, Tow- 
cester, Doncaster, Dorchester, Tadcaster, &c. To 
these must be added places ending in 'eter, as 
Uttoxeter, Exeter, and others, for these were 
derived from cester ; and thus in old books, as in 
the Year-books, Exeter is spelt Excestre. It 
would be very interesting to search carefully in 
these places for traces of Eoman masonry, or of 
Eoman castrametation. In some of them, no 
doubt, the castles have disappeared, but in many 
they remain. And they remain in some not 
having that appellation ; for instance, Lewes and 
Dover. No one can examine Lewes without 
seeing traces of Eoman castrametation, and there 
is a castle the basis of which is Eoman masonry. 
At Dover, beyond all doubt, the castle is of Eoman 
origin, for the chronicler mentions that the Con- 
queror took the castle, and describes its site : 
" Situm est ad castellum in rupe mari contigua " 
(Pict., 137). No one will find any trace of castle- 
building in Saxon times, and Dover was a Eoman 
station. W. F. F. 


This refugee family returned to England in the 
seventeenth century. There is no doubt they 
were formerly Earls of Chester (in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries). In Dictionnaire de la No- 
blesse, par M. de la Chenaye-Desbois, 1775, torn. x. 
p. 77, we find 

"Meschin, en Poitou. Ancienne noblesse militaire, 
connue, des le xii e siecle, par plusieurs de ce nom qui 
accompagnerent Godefroy de Bouillon au voyage de la 
Terre-Sainte. Mesnard Meschin, cheTalier, fit une dona- 
tion aux moines de PIsle d'Aix le 11 Nov. 1216, en pre- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. i* th s. xn. AUG. 23, 73. 

eence de Messire Meschin et de plusieurs autres. Guil- 
laume Meschin vivoit en 1364. Dans les Holes des bans 
et arriere-bans des provinces de Poitou, Saintonge et 
Angoumois tenu sous Louis XI. en 1467, par Yvon du 
Fou, chev. Chambellan du Hoi ; sous Charles VIII. en 
1491 par Jaques De Beaumont, Seigneur de Bersuire, 
grand-senechal de Poitou; et sous Francois I. en 1533 
par M. de Jarnac, ou trouve plusieurs homines d'armes et 
Brigandiniers du nom de Meschin, entr'autres Pierce et 
Eustache Meschin qui passerent a la montre faite de 26 
Nov. 1491. Nicholas Meschin vivoit en 1569. 

" Les troubles de Religion ont fait perdre a la branche 
qui subsiste en France, les titres primordiaux qu'un, frere 
aine enleva, en sortant du Royaume pour s'etablir 
en Angleterre, ou sa descendance subsiste encore a ce 
que nous croyons, dans N. . . de Meschin, colonel in 1755 
d'un Regiment en garnison a Gibraltar, ou dans sa pos- 
terite. C'est ce qui fait que nous ne pouvons donner une 
filiation suivee de cette Famille, que dupuis Charles de 
Meschin apres. 

" Armand de Meschin, capitaine de cavalerie, fut tue ii 
la bataille de Coutras en Guienne en 1587. 

" Charles de Meschin (descendu de lui) de la religion 
P.R., capitaine de cavalerie, s'establit a la Rochelle et 
epousa Elizabeth Dezert de lameme ville. II eut : Josue, 
quit suit ; et Jeremie rapporte apres. 

" Josue de Meschin, Lieutenant dans la marine, epousa 
en 1667 Damoiselle Judith Faure, fille de feu David Faure et 
Marie Brusle du lieu de Tonnay-Charente. C'est ce Josue' 
de Meschin qui passa en Angleterre et emporta en 
1'absence de son frere cadet, les titres et papiers de la 
Famille. II y mourut et laissa posterite, qui y subsiste 
comme nous 1'avons dit. 

" Jeremie de Meschin, son frere cadet, Ecuyer, capitaine 
des vaisseaux du Roi, le Saint- Jean-Baptiste et le Fan- 
faron, sous les ordres du Chev. de Chateaurenaud, Chef 
d'Escadre. Sa majeste en 1686 lui enjoinit de se rendre a, 
St. Jean d'Angely en St. Saintonge et au pays d'Aunis pour 
contenir les matelots de la Religion P. R. et nouveaux 
convertis, les empecher de quitter le Royaume et 
remaner les esprits que quelques personnes mal inten- 
tionnees pourroient avoir alienes. Epousa Judith Papot, 
fille d'Antoine et de Marie Langlois de la Rochelle. De ce 
mariage vint 

"Jeremie de Meschin II. Chevalier de Saint Louis, 
ne 1674, Capitaine des vaisseaux du Roi. II est un 
des ofiiciers de Marine, qui de son terns ait le plus 
commande de vaisseaux du Roi, e'pousa 1699 Anne 
de Manay, fille de Guillaume de Manay et dAnne 
Drapeau, de la ville de Tonnay-Charente. De ce mariage 
vint : 1. Guillame mort 1700. 2. Etienne peri en 1727. 
3. Guillaume qui suit. 4. Andre mort en 1729. 5. Anne- 
Angelique mort Religieuse, 1727. 6. Marie Anne, mariee 
a Louis Calixte de Rorthais, chevalier, Seigneur de St. 
Hilaire, de la Guessiere, &c. Chevalier de St. Louis. 

"Guillaume de Meschin, Chevalier de St. Louis, 
capitaine des vaisseaux du Roi, ne 1711. II fait 21 cam- 
pagnes sur mer et s'est retire en 1762 apres 34 ans de 
service, epousa en 1742 Elisabeth, fille de Dominique de 
Vizien de la Pallue, Ecuyer. Issus : 1 Armand qui suit. 
2 Marie Jeanne, epousa 1760 haut et puissant Seigneur 
Francois de Connan, chevalier, Seigneur de Conezac, en 
Perigord, Chevalier de St. Louis. 

" Armand-Antoine de Meschin, chevalier de St. Louis, 
ne en 1759. 

"Les armes: d'azur, a une croix potencee d'argent. 
Elles etoient ci-devant surmontee d'un casque orne de 
lambrequins. Et le cimier etoit itne levrette naissante." 

This is condensed from three quarto pages, which 
M. de la Chenaye-Desbois devotes to his account 
of the family. 

Poitou is now the departments of Vendee, Deux 
Sevres, and Vienne.* 

The family surname of the Earls of Chester was 
De Meschines, or De Meschin, and as these earls- 
were Viscounts Bayeux, governors of Abrincis, and 
one of them Duke of Bretagne, or Brittany (Dug- 
dale, Bar., 41), all contiguous to the Province of 
Poitou ; and, moreover, as one of them had grants 
in Poitou, a strong a priori presumption thence 
arises that this Poitou family of De Meschin is 
descended from the Earls of Chester. 

The De Meschin family was famous for the 
number of knights which it sent to the Crusades ; 
and Dugdale mentions that Ranulph, Earl of 
Chester, in the Holy Land, being " general of the 
Christian army, did glorious things" (Bar., 43). 

As to the meaning of the name De Meschin, the 
late Lord Audley, an accomplished antiquary, 
on one occasion brought a pedigree of the Audley 
family to my chambers, in which he pointed out to 
me that one of the Norman Earls of Rossmar (a 
title which his lordship claimed) was called Le 
Meschin, the meaning of which he considered was 
a man dangerous to meddle with, in short, a 
"Tartar" the idea expressed by the motto, Nemo 
me impune lacessit. 

The first Act on the Scottish Statute Book shows 
that Meschin was the surname of the Earls of 
Chester ; it is the Charter of Strathanet (since 
called Annandale : original in Brit. Mus. Cart. 
Antiq., xviii. 45) to Robert de Brus " Usque ad 
divisam Radulphi Meschines .... cum omnibus 
illis consuetudinibus quas Radulphus Meschin 
unquam habuit in carduillis " (Acts of Scotland, 
1844 edition, vol. i. p. 82, p. 47 n. 12). 

Hugh, Earl of Chester, who died in 1119, made 
a charter to St. Werburge. Among the witnesses 
to it are "Ranulfo de Meschines et Willielmo 
fratre suo, Osberno de Meschines, Hugone filio- 
Osberni et Willielmo fratre ejus" (Ormerod's 
Cheshire, i. 17). 

Randle de Micines, or De Meschines, Earl of 
(Chester, who died 1128, also gave a charter to the 
Abbey of St. Werburge. It is witnessed, among 
others, by "Willielmo Meschini, Hugonis filii 
Osberni, Osberni filii Hugonis" (Ormerod's Cheshire, 
i. 19). This William was brother to the Earl of 

In 1101 there was a convention between Hen. I. 
and Robert, Count of Flanders. Among those ( 
that guaranteed the execution of the convention 
on behalf of Hen. I. was " Ranulphus Meschines " 
(1 Rymer, Feed., 1739, p. 2), first cousin to that 
monarch, and ancestor to the Earls of Chester. 

The Temple. 

* Poitou became subject to the English crown by the 
marriage of Hen. II., in 1152, to Eleanor, daughter and 
heir to William, Duke of Aquitaine. 

4 s. xii. AUG. 23, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



As at least three derivations are current o; 
this word, I may, perhaps, be allowed to sug- 
gest a fourth. Broker is admitted on all hands 
to be intimately connected with the Low Lat, 
brocarius, and is, I believe, derived from it. The 
only meaning given by Ducange to brocarius i 
" proxeneta, interpres et consiliarius contractuum 
Anglis broker " ; but, from the only passage* which 
he quotes in illustration of the word, it would seem 
that the brocarius had originally some connexion 
with the wine trade. I suggest, therefore, that 
brocarius is derived from the Low Lat. broca (Fr, 
broche), a tap,t or brocus% (or brochus, Fr. broc) a 
jug or pot ; and if so, it would mean a man who 
had to do with a tap, jug, or pot. Now, Ducange 
gives vinum venditum ad brocam (and also ad tap- 
yam] as meaning wine sold in small quantities ; 
and in Cotgrave I find vendre vin a broche inter- 
preted " to retaile or draw wine ; to utter or sell it 
by pot-fulls." A brocarius would, therefore, 
originally have meant one who sold wine, and per- 
haps other alcoholic liquids, from the tap or by the 
jug i, e., in retail = our tapster. And hence, by an 
easy transition, the word would come to mean ; 
retail-dealer generally. In favour of this view is 
the Fr. brocanteur, which still is used to mean a 
" retailer of second-hand goods," and is derived by 
Ducange from abbrocamentum\\ (also from broca), 
on which he remarks, " Angl. abbrochement, Gall. 
Achat en gros et vente en detail." Littre adopts 
this derivation, and says that brocanteur is con- 
nected with the Eng. " to broke," but he concludes 
with the disheartening "origineinconnue."!" From 
this meaning of buyer and seller on his own ac- 
count, broker might easily have acquired the 
meaning which it now commonly has, of one who 
buys and sells for others ; but, indeed, even now 
it is apparently sometimes used of one who buys 

* " Statuiraus quod brocarii sint electi per communiam 
villae, qui dabunt singulis annis unum dolium vini." 

f The derivation of broca itself is uncertain. Diez 
now refers it to the Gaelic brog=&n awl (see Jamieson, 
s.v.), and certainly its primary notion seems to have been 
that of something solid, narrow, and sharp pointed, as 
may be gathered from the meanings spike, tooth, point, 
spit, and sharp-pointed stake, assigned to it, amongst 
others, by Ducange. The meaning of " doliaris fistula," 
or hollow tap, which he also gives it, and which I make 
use of here, is, therefore, no doubt a secondary one. 

J Like cellarius, a butler or steward, from cello, ; and 
pannarius, a cloth dealer, from pannus. 

He seems to have taken broche, a spit or a tap, broc, 
a pot, in this instance, but the Lat. broca, seems also to 
have meant a vessel of some kind, and the Ital. brocca 
still=tne *r. broc, so that the Fr. broche may, possibly, 
at one time, have been used=broc. 

j| Brocanteur is, of course, the Lat. brocator, with an 
n inserted, as in the Fr. galantine from gelatina. (See my 
note on jongleurs, 4 th S. x. 302.) Brocator is not given by 
Ducange, but he gives abrocator =brocarius. 

1 That is to say, Littre was unable to see that abroca- 
mentum, as he spells it, was connected with broca 

and sells on his own account, for Webster defines 
merchandise-broker as " one who buys and sells 

A still better explanation of the word, however, 
may, I think, be derived from the consideration of 
other words of the same family given by Ducange. 
These are abrocator and abrocare, both evidently 
from broca. Abrocator he defines "proxeneta, 
pararius, Gall, courtier* Hinc forte vox nota 
brocanteur " (see note ||). But this is precisely the 
definition he gives of brocarius, and, therefore, 
abrocator=brocarius. But abrocator is manifestly 
derived from abrocare, and to this he gives the 
meaning of " perforare, Gall, mettre en perce, fistu- 
lam dolio apponere, a Gallico broche." He should 
rather have said from broca. Abrocare is, there- 
fore, exactly our to broach, or, as it was in old Eng., 
to abroach. Abrocator, therefore (and, therefore, 
probably, also brocarius), is, literally, one who 
broaches casks, and hence, metaphorically, one who 
broaches a business, sets it agoing, a negotiator, 
and so a broker. Wedgwood quotes a form abro- 
carius (=brocarius) from the Liber Albus, and 
this form is strongly in favour of my view. Mahn, 
too (in Webster), gives, s. v. broke, an old Eng. 
abbrochment, to which he assigns the meaning of 
brokage, negotiation ; and the same word is, as I 
have shown, quoted by Ducange, s. v. abbrocamen- 
tum. Broker, therefore, according to this view 
broacher.-t F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

(4 th S. xii. 84.) 

Taking the sentence from Arthur Warwick's 
Spare Minutes quoted by S. piecemeal, Shak- 
spearian analogy could easily be found for the 
whole of it ; and I add one by way of illustra- 
tion : 

" But in the winter of my need." Warwick. 

" Now is the winter of our discontent." Shakspeare. 

" They leave me naked." Warwick. 

"Have left me naked (to my enemies)" Shakspeare. 
But this is arbitrary, and, if pursued, would land 
us in a charge of plagiarism, of the most tinkering 
description, against Warwick, which neither of 
us, I dare say, would be prepared to defend. For 
the complete sentence, " Now is the winter of our 
discontent made glorious summer by the son of 

Courtier=Q\a broker. 
f The k or, perhaps, I should rather say, the hard c 
Jfor the old Eng. form is brocour) remained in broker, 
because broker was either formed from brocarius direct, 
or else came to us through the French at a time when 
;he Lat. c had not become ch in French. Broker is, 
;herefore, probably, an older form than broacher, which, 
with to broach, came to us through the Fr. brocher. 
Comp. candle and chandler, camp, campaign, and cham- 
pagne, cant and chant, &c., and see my note on " As- 
cance " in " N. & Q., 4 th S. xi. 472. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4- s. xn. AUG. 23, 73. 

York," there is no analogy in the quotation from 
Spare Minutes, but the very opposite ; and I sub- 
mit therefore that S.'s analogy is deficient in pro- 
priety. I should place the entire quotation rather 
as a parallel to the proverb "Prosperity gains 
friends, and adversity tries them" (4 th S. x. 14, 77 ; 
4 th S. xi. 58). ROYLE ENTWISLB, F.E.H.S. 

Farnworth, Bolton. 

If it is worth while to bring together as " analo- 
gous" expressions of Shakspeare's and those of 
authors writing twenty years after his death, S. 
might have matched his quotation from Arthur 
Warwick's Spare Minutes, 1637, more strikingly. 

Here is his quotation, " Whiles the sap of main- 
tenance lasts, my friends swarme in abundance, 
but in the winter of my need, they leave me naked." 

Here is mine, in analogy : 

" But myself, 

Who had the world as my confectionary ; 
The mouths, the tongues, the eyes and hearts of men 
At duty, more than I could frame employment; 
That numberless upon me stuck, as leaves 
Do on the oak, have with one winter's brush 
Fell from their boughs and left me open, bare 
For every storm that blows ; I, to bear this, 
That never knew but better, is some burthen." 

Timon of Athens, Act iv. sc. 3. 

The theme as well as the phrase. EREM. 

My note applied to the gilly-flower itself, not to 
Perdita's immediate and secondary allusion, which 
is, no doubt, correctly explained, if indeed it wanted 
any explanation, by Mr. Hunter, and by Steevens 
before him. In the Winter's Tale, as well as in the 
Paradise of Daintie Devises, and other works of 
the Elizabethan period, we find the gilly-flower 
surrounded by erotic allusions. I simply en- 
deavoured to show the reason. 


LAWRENCE LAWRENCE. In the Herald and 
Genealogist for June, 1873, a doubt is expressed 
that Lawrence Lawrence, of Jamaica, was from New 
England ; and implied, whether he was not a native 
of Jamaica. And the same writer ridicules the 
idea that his daughter, Mrs. Catherine Francklyn, 
who died in London in 1831, could have been 
the granddaughter of his father, Thomas, born in 

The first doubt is thus set at rest: 

" Island Secretary's Off., Jamaica. Entered 20th Jan., 
1743. George II. by letters patent, signed by Governor 
Trelawney on 6th Jany., 1734, 'grants,' &c., to Lawrence 
Lawrence, 'in consideration of his having transported 
himself with his servants and slaves to our Island of 
Jamaica,'' a certain piece of land, on which he is bound 
to keep a certain number of white men; and in the event 
of insurrection, &c., to ' serve us and our heirs in arms.' " 

Lawrence Lawrence was styled Captain in the 
local and family papers (in possession of Rev. 

Richards, St. Thos. ye Vale, 1864), and his brother 
Thomas is stated to have been Mayor of Phila- 
delphia in 1749. 

Lawrence Lawrence married Susanna, eldest 
daughter of John Lawrence, whose sister Mary 
was ancestress of Lords Abinger, Stratheden, &c. 

In the will of James Lawrence, of Fairfield, 
Jamaica, recorded May 8th, 1756, reference occurs 
to his nephews and nieces, the children of Lawrence 
Lawrence, who had married his sister Susanna. 

Lawrence Lawrence died 2nd January, 1752 (his 
widow married, thirdly, David Dunbar, and died 
3rd of May, 1765). His will, proved in Jamaica, 
and entered 4th of May, 1753, contains the names 
of his children then living and in infancy, viz., 
1. Lawrence Lawrence. 2. Lemon Lawrence Law- 
rence. 3. Susanna, afterwards Mrs. Patrick Dun- 
bar. 4. Catherine, afterwards Mrs. Francklyn, who 
died in London in 1831 (see her will proved there). 
5. Rachael, afterwards Mrs. Harry Gordon, and 
mother of Ann, wife of Alexander Edgar. 

Mrs. Catherine Francklyn (before mentioned), of 
Gloucester Place, Portnian Square, London, mar- 
ried, first, Thomas Harding, Esq., and, secondly, 
Francklyn, Esq. Her will, dated Aug. 18, 
1830, was proved in London, Sept. 21, 1831, by 
her executors, Thomas Hall* and George Lawrence. 
It contains curious genealogical references to her 
relationship to the " Penn " and other well-known 

The Rev. Alexander M'Whorter, Newhaven, 
Connecticut, had, in 1863, the family Bible of 
Thomas Lawrence, said to have been born at Great 
St. Alban's in 1666. The latter married in 1687, 
when aged twenty-one, Catherine Lewis, and his 
youngest son's (Lawrence Lawrence) birth is en- 
tered as on Oct. 1, 1700, the father being then 
aged thirty-four. It will thus be seen that there 
is no difficulty in accounting for the period 1666 

The parish registers of Great St. Alban's do not 
go back as far as 1666, but this does not affect the 
question; for Lawrence Lawrence's father, so far 
as time is to be considered, might have been born 
even in 1636, and yet have had a granddaughter 
who died in 1831. * J. H. L. A. 

lowing lines occur in the witty Tom Crib's Memo- 
rial to Congress of Thomas Moore : 

" A pause ensued till cries of ' GREGSON ' 
Brought BOB the poet on his legs soon 
(My eyes, how prettily Bob writes ! 

Talk of your Camels, Hogs, and Crabs, 
And twenty more such Pidcock frights 

Bob 's worth a hundred of these dabs : 

A grand-uncle maternally of the 6th Earl of Har- 

4* s. xii. AUG. 3, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


For a short turn-up at a sonnet, 
A round of odes or Pastoral lout, 

All Lombard Street to nine-pence on it, 
Bobby 's the boy would clean them out !) " 

The poet adds a note to the penultimate line : 

"More usually 'Lombard Street to a China orange.' 
There are several of these fanciful forms of betting 
' Chelsea College to a sentry-box,' ' Pompey's Pillar to a 
stick of sealing-wax/ " &c. 

There is an amusing and now hard-to-find little 
book, intituled Jack Randall's Diary; or, Pro- 
ceedings at the House of Call for Genius. Edited 
by Mr. Break window, &c. (1820, sm. 8vo.). 
Moore was acquainted with this, and cites it more 
than once, if I mistake not. He had probably 
read the following note : 

, " It was at this battle, between Jack Martin the Eaker, 
and the Nonpareil, that Mr. Ranger acquired that 
figurative style of betting that his friends of the fancy 
have so much admired ; as ' Waterloo Bridge to a deal 
plank ' ; ' Burlington Arcade to a slop shop,' " &c. Page 

Now the inference from this may not improbably 
be, that for this felicitous locution we are indebted 
to the prolific imagination of the NONPAREIL him- 
self. Such, however, is not the case ; the formula 
was in use long before the time of the pugilistic 
hero, and the most that he did was to adopt or 
revive it. Thus, the expression is found in an 
axiom, one of certain "Social Beacons," cited 
in The Eccentricities of John Edwin, Comedian, 
&c. By Anthony Pasquin, Esq., 2 vols. (1791), 
8vo. : 

" When you see a man carrying a child, and his wife 
strutting unencumbered, it is a province to a Seville 
orange, that he is not the father." Vol. i. p. 247. 

and possibly earlier instances may be found. 
Thus much in the interests of philology. It is an 
ungracious task to pluck a single leaf from the 
chaplet that encircles the brow of the once re- 
nowned NONPAREIL, but if any one can afford to 
spare one, it is surely the hero who fought sixteen 
battles, and was never beaten in one, closing his 
glorious career at the " Hole in the Wall," Chancery 
Lane, March 12, 1828, at the all too early age of 

I am reminded that restitution maybe made to the 
eccentric EDWIN of certain other literary wares, at 
all events till a prior claim is set up to the property. 
Among the Edinburgh Fugitive Pieces of William 
Creech (1815, 8m), one of the founders of the 
renowned Speculative Society, is an Abridgment 
of a Sermon, which took up an hour in delivering, 
from these words, " Man is born to trouble," to the 
following effect : 


The subject falls naturally to be divided into three 

1. Man's entrance into the world. 

2. His progress through the world. 

3. His exit from the world ; and 

4. Practical reflections from what may be said. 
First then : 

1. Man came into the world naked and bare. 

2. His progress through it is trouble and care. 

3. His exit from it is none can tell where. 

4. But if he does well here he'll be well there. 
Now 1 can say no more, my brethren dear, 
Should I preach on this subject from this time to 

next year. AMEN." 

E.G. Page 226. 

Now, according to the biographer of Edwin, the 
same sermon was preached by the actor to his 
companions, Eemington and Shuter the comedians, 
as shilelah in hand, and "a few shillings" in 
pocket, not to mention " Georgy the fiddler and 
another child of Phoabus," they were wending 
their way on foot from Waterford to Dublin, in 
1766 (vol. i. p. 73). WILLIAM BATES. 


Shortly after the decease of the Eight Reverend 
James Prince Lee, D.D., F.E.S., &c., first Bishop 
of Manchester, the accompanying satirical epitaph 
was inserted in the Manchester Examiner and 
Times of Wednesday, March 16, 1870 : 

" The following is being handed about among the 
Clergy of the Diocese. We do not know that we are at 
liberty to name its author, but there can be no harm in 
saying that he is neither a Radical nor a Dissenter : 


Here lies a Right Rev. Father in God, 
Who ne'er spoil'd his children by sparing the rod ; 
Who took not his pattern from Him who when living, 
Was large-hearted, merciful, meek and forgiving ; 
But preferring in strife to work out his salvation ; 
Made quarrels and scoldings his Christian vocation ; 
And, in mind, of the pedagogue's narrowest span, 
Held the birch the sole nostrum for governing man. 
Would you edit a book without learning or brains ] 
You have only to study his Barrow's Remains. 
Are you seeking your posthumous venom to spill '.' 
You cannot do better than copy his Will" 

Dr. Lee was a son of the late Mr. Stephen Lee, 
Secretary and Librarian to the Eoyal Society. He 
was born July 28, 1804, consecrated Bishop of 
Manchester, Janua,ry 23, 1848, at Whitehall, by 
the Archbishop of York and the Bishops of Chester 
and Worcester, and died December 24, 1869, at 
Mauldeth Hall, Lancashire, formerly the episcopal 
residence, but now the seat of William Eomaine 
Callender, Esq., J.P., D.L. 


" STRAY LEAVES, containing Translations from 
the German Poets," &c. London, 1827. Since I 
put forth, anonymously, in 1827, a small volume 
with this title (borrowed from Herder's Zerstreute 
Blatter), the title (Stray Leaves) seems to have 
become a popular one ; for before my adopting it 
I am not aware of any publication that bears it. 
My little volume has long been out of print with 
this title, although partially reprinted in 1838 with 
another title. Confusion must, no doubt, occur 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 23, 73. 

sometimes from books having the same descriptive 
title-page ; and it seems odd that authors should 
not aim at originality, as I did iu being indebted 
to a foreign source, and not copy titles that may 
lead to mistakes. JOHN MACRAY. 


" CONFIRMATION OF ARMS." A note on this 
subject may not be uncalled for. One frequently 
observes a grant of armorial bearings thus de- 
scribed. The consequence is, that a casual reader 
of heraldic literature might suppose that such 
arms had been of immemorial use in a family, and 
that their registration only had been neglected. 
Such a case might occur where an ancient 
Scotch family had ignored the well-known Act of 
James VI. (I.). Qy. Was the matriculation 
noticed in MiscelL Genealogica et Heraldica, Nos. 
28, 29 356, not simply a grant of arms ? SP. 

" HOUPPELANDE." A curious example of the 
different sources from which a word may be derived, 
and how the meaning of it may vary at different 
times, will perhaps be interesting. De Roquefort 
says, in explanation of this word, that it is 

" Sorte de yetement lourd et fait d'une etoffe grossiere 
laquelle contient beaucoup de petites houppes. Ce nom 
a ete donne a une cape de berger et de voyageur, faite 
de cuir, pour lea pre'munir centre la pluie ; a un habit de 
femme ; a une sorte de casaque & manches courtes. Huet 
derive ce mot de la province d'Uplande, en Suede, d'ou 
nous seroit venu ce vetement. Au surplus, ce mot est 
assez ancien dans notre langue ; on le trouve dans 1'in- 
ventaire des meubles de Charles V., dans les sermons de 
Saint Vincent de Ferrier, en parlant de Saint Elizabeth : 
Fecit sili magnas hopulandas ut gentes dicerent." 

From this it would appear that the " Houppe- 
lande " was originally a garment of many capes, 
like our coachman's coat, and after passing into a 
leathern waterproof, ended by having short sleeves, 
but no cape at all. We may, however, in opposi- 
tion to Huet, observe that "hopalanda" is a Spanish 
word, signifying a tunic or close coat with a long 
train to it, and that the " hopa," of a somewhat 
similar shape, is said to have been worn by the 
Romans. The houppelande, without sleeves, more- 
over, was worn in France in the fifteenth century, 
but it had then ami-holes. RALPH N. JAMES. 

Ashford, Kent. 

NAPOLEON'S USE OF SNUFF. A passage in Dr. 
Kenealy's speech for the defendant in the present 
Tichborne Trial will probably create or confirm in 
the minds of thousands of readers an erroneous im- 
pression respecting the personal habits of the great 
Napoleon. Roger Tichborne is described as one 
who "carried snuff about, not like an ordinary 
man, but in his waistcoat pocket, like Napoleon." 
With regard to this alleged habit, his private 
secretary, De Bourienne, in his Life of Napoleon 
(London, 1831), affords us the following unequivocal 
statement : 

"All that has been said about Bonaparte's immoderate 
use of snuff has no more foundation in truth than his 
pretended partiality for coffee. It is true that at an early 
period of his life he began to take snuff, but it was very 
sparingly, and always out of a box ; and if he bore any 
resemblance to Frederick the Great, it was not by filling 
his waistcoat pockets with snuff, for, I must again ob- 
serve, he carried his notions of personal neatness to a 
fastidious degree." (Vol. i., p. 312.) 

We find the common opinion contradicted in an 
equally positive manner by Constant, the Em- 
peror's valet: 

" It has been alleged that his Majesty took an inordi- 
nate deal of snuff, and that in order to take it with the 
greater facility he carriedit in his waistcoat pockets, which 
for that purpose were lined with leather. This is alto- 
gether untrue. The fact is, the Emperor never took 
snuff except from a snuff-box, and though he used a good 
deal, he actually took but very little. He would fre- 
quently hold the snuff-box to his nose, merely to smell 
the snuff ; at other times he would take a pinch, and, 
after smelling it for a moment, he would throw it away. 
Thus it frequently happened that the spot where he was 
sitting or standing was strewed with snuff ; but his hand- 
kerchiefs, which were of the finest cambric, were scarcely 
ever soiled. He had a great collection of snuff-boxes ; 
but those which he preferred were of dark tortoise-shell, 
lined with gold, and ornamented with cameos or antique 
medals in gold or silver. Their form was a narrow oval, 
with hinged lids. He did not like round boxes, because 
it was necessary to use both hands to open them, and in 
this operation he not unfrequently let the box or the lid 
fall. His snuff was generally very coarse rappee, but he 
sometimes liked to have several kinds of snuff mixed 
together." Memoires de Constant, vol. ii., p. 87. 


REMARKABLE EPITAPH. On a brass plate let 
into a stone slab in the chancel floor of the small 
church of Clapham, Sussex, just admirably restored 
by Sir Gilbert Scott, is the following inscription, 
which in adulation, reaching to the uttermost limit 
of hyperbolism, is a specimen so unique as to 
deserve some place of record more enduring even 
than the " monumentum sere perennius"; and know- 
ing of no repository more suitable, I offer it to the 
custody of "N. & Q.": 

" Here Lyeth the Body of Wilhelmina Shelley 

who departed this Life the 21st of March 1772 

Aged Twenty three Years. 

She was a pattern for the World to follow 

such a being both in form and mind 

perhaps never existed before 

A most dutiful, affectionate, and Virtuous Wife 

A most tender and Anxious parent 

A most sincere and constant Friend 

A most amiable and elegant companion 

Universally Benevolent, generous, and humane 
The Pride of her own Sex, 
the admiration of ours 

She lived universally belov'd, and admir'd 

She died as generally rever'd, and regretted 

a loss felt by all who had the happiness 

of knowing Her, by none to be compar'd 

to that of her disconsolate, affectionate, 

Loving, & in this World everlastingly Miserable 

Husband, Sir JOHN SHELLEY, who has 

Caused this inscription to be Engrav'd. 

4- s. XIL AUG. 23, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Tradition says that the " everlastingly Miserable 
lusband" married again within the year. 


[More than three years had elapsed when Sir John 

; Shelley married (in 1775) his second wife, Elizabeth 

Woodcock; by whom he had three daughters, all of 

?hom died unmarried. By his first wife, Wilhelmina 

< Newnham) he had one child, a son (John), by whom hi 

- fas succeeded, in 1783. It was this first wife who brough 

he Maresfield Park estate into the Shelley family.] 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
Dn family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

FRENCH POEM. Can any of your readers fur- 
nish me with correct information concerning the 
accompanying poem? It is said to have been 
written on the death of one Colonel de Beaumanoir, 
a native of Bretagne, who was killed in A.D. 1749, 
while defending Pondicherry against the English. 
He was buried the same night by a few faithful 
followers, in the north bastion of the fortress, and 
the next day the fleet sailed with the remainder oJ 
the garrison for Europe. I have been told that the 
poem is to be found in the Appendix to the 
Memoirs of Lolly Tolendal, by his son. The last- 
named work is, however, not in the British Museum 
Library, nor in the Libraries of the India Office 
and Eoyal Asiatic Society, though there are other 
works in these libraries concerning the French 
governor, Lally Tolendal. The French poem is, 
as you will perceive, an almost word for word 
rendering of Wolfe's Burial of Sir John Moore at 
Corunna, and the question therefore is, whether the 
English or the French poem is the original. If any 
of your readers can answer this question, they can 
perhaps also inform me in what library the Memoirs 
of Lally Tolendal is to be found; or, supposing 
that the French poem is only a clever parody, 
when, and by whom, it was written? 


" Ni le son du tambour, ni la marche funebre, 
Ni le feu des soldats, ne marque son depart ; 
Mais du Brave, a la hate, a travers les tenebres 
Mornes nous portames le cadavre au rempart. 


De minuit c'etait 1'heure, et solitaire et sombre, 
La lune a peine offrait un debile rayon, 
La lanterne luisait peniblement dans 1'ombre 
Quand de la bayonnette on creuza le gazon. 


D'inutile cercueil ni de drap funeraire 
Nous ne daignames point entourer le Heros, 
11 gisait dans les plis du manteau militaire 
Comme un guerrier qui dort son heure de repos. 


La priere qu'on fit fut de courte duree, 
Nul ne parla de deuil, bien que le coeur fut plein. 
Mais on fixait du mort la figure adoree, 
Mais avec amertume on songeait au demain. 

Au demain ! quand ici ou la fosse s'apprete 
Ou son humide lit on dresse avec sanglots, 
L'ennemi orgueilleux marchera sur sa tete, 
Et nous, ses veterans, serons loin sur les flots. 


Us terniront sa gloire, on pourra les entendre 
Nommer 1'illustre mort d'un ton amer ou fol, 
II les laissera dire Eh ! qu'importe a sa cendre 
Que la main d'un Breton a confie au sol ] 


L'oauvre durait encore, quand retentait la cloche 
Du sommet du Belfroi : et le canon lointain, 
Tir6 par intervalles, en annonyant 1'approche 
Signalait la fierte' de Pennemi hautain. 


Et dans sa fosse alors nous le mimes lentement, 
Pres du champs ou sa gloire a etc consomme : 
Nous ne mimes a 1'endroit pierre ni monument, 
Le laissant seul a seul avec sa Renommee ! " 

S. M. D. 

[This subject was dealt with, some years ago, in the 
Athenaeum. " N. & Q." would be grateful to any one who 
could refer to the article in which the French claimant 
was put out of court.] 

" BRIGA." Some years ago I met with a Celtic- 
Eoman gravestone of the sixth century, near Evian, 
in Haute Savoie, to which I drew the attention of 
the Swiss archseologians, and I am told it has 
since been deposited in the Cantonal Museum at 
Lausanne. Part of the inscription runs thus : 
" Mavortio consule. Sub hunc (sic) consule Bran- 
dobrigse receperunt redemptionem a Godomaro 
rege." The name of the consul, Mavortius, clearly 
indicates the date to a year. See L'Art de Verifier 
les Dates. Who these Brandobrigoe were, and 
what precise meaning was attached to the word 
redemptio in the sixth century, are questions which 
have hitherto puzzled many wise heads in Switzer- 
land, and will probably long continue to do so. 
Another puzzle, to me at least, is the meaning of 
the word briga. I feel all but certain that it must 
have a meaning, for it formed the last syllable of 
many towns in Spain when Spain was Eoman. In 
Baetica we find Mirobriga; in Lusitania, Mero- 
briga, Lacobriga, Caetobriga, Augustobriga, Tala- 
briga (2), Arabriga ; and in Tarraconensis, Nemeto- 
ariga, Segobriga, Mirobriga, Juliabriga, Lacobriga, 
N"ertobriga, Armallobriga, &c. Will any of your 
.earned readers, better versed than myself in the 
Celtiberian and Celtic dialects, kindly throw light 
>n the matter ? OUTIS. 

Bisely, Beds. 

THE WREN FAMILY. In the Builder of May 
11, 1872, there is an inquiry signed " Suo Marte," 
whether any reason can be given for there being 
no mention in Parentalia of Anne, one of the 
isters of Sir Christopher Wren. She was born, it 
s there said, at her father's living of Knoyle, in 
Wilts, and baptized in the year 1634, and she 
married in due time Dr. Henry Brunsell (not 
Brounsell), prebendary of Ely, installed October 


NOTES AND QUERIES. u* s. m AUG. 23, 73.. 

18, 1660, and rector of Stretham, near Ely, from 
1662 to 1678, on the nomination, no doubt, of 
their near relative, Matthew Wren, then Bishop 
of Ely. She died in 1667, and was buried at 
Stretham, and the following is the entry which 
records her burial : 

" M tris Anne Brunsell, the wife of Doct r Henry Brun- 
sell, rector of Stretham, was buryed the last day of 
February An. Dni. 1667." 

A very neat little marble monument on the 
north side of the east wall in Stretham Church 
thus speaks of her : 

"Anna Filia 'Xtof. Wren, Dec. Windsor, Uxor Hen. 
Brunsell LL.D Mater Henrici, Xtoferiq hie Sepultor: 
& Annae adhuc Superstitis, exiguae quidem molis, sed 
Gemarum instar magni pretii et virtutis Vitam egit aliis 
jucundissimam sibi ante acerba propter varies Corporis 
dolores quos admirabili patientia & -3*]quanimitate per- 
pessa animam placidissime Deo reddidit 27 die Feb. An. 
Dni. 1667, ^Etatis sme 33." 

The daughter Anna, who is here spoken of? 
died in the summer of the next year ; and there is 
this entry of her burial in the register : " M tris 
Anne Brunsell, the daughter of Doct er Henry 
Brunsell, Rector of Stretham, was buried August 
y e eleventh." 

There is a short Memoir of Doctor Henry 
Brunsell in Bentham's Ely Cathedral. He had 
been educated, it is there said, at Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, and admitted to the practice of physic, 
but at the Restoration he betook himself to 
Divinity, and became rector of Clayworth, Notts, 
prebendary of Southwell, rector of Kelshall, Herts, 
and of Stretham, Ely. He died Feb. 23, 1678-9, 
and was buried in the chancel of Stretham Church, 
where there is a black marble slab to his memory 
with this inscription : 

"Hie jacet Henricus Brunsell LL.D r . Prebendarius 
Ecclesiae Eliensis, et Rector de Stretham. Obiit 23 Febr. 
1678, an Mi&tis suse 61." 

He founded three scholarships at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, and three at Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. In the Combination room of the latter 
college there is a small portrait of him. 

Any information relating to the Wren family, or 
to the family of Dr. Brunsell, his birthplace, the 
place of his marriage to Anne Wren, &c., will be 
very acceptable to the present rector of Stretham. 

Are not the Wren Hoskynses, one of whom is 
M.P. for Herefordshire, the present representatives 
of the Wren family 1 HUGH PIGOT. 

Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

P.S. Any information relating to Stretham and 
its rectors will be also very acceptable. 

"How DO YOU DO?" Mr. Hensleigh Wedg- 
wood rightly explains this phrase as a direct 
translation from the Old French Comment hfaites- 
vous ? But as his explanation is not generally 
known, I copy here the three instances of the Old 

French phrase given by Hippeau in the second 
part of his Glossaire (1873), p. 170 : 
" Lors li dist la dame, comment 
Lefaites vous, biaus tres douc sire 1" 

Roman du Chastelain de, v. 3488. 
" H li demandent de lur piere, 
Et coment lefesait lur miere." 

Lai d'Haveloc, v. 562. 

' Que fait mes sires ] est-il sains et haities." Honce- 
vaux, p. 159. 

Has MR. ADDIS, or any reader, a note of any 
early use of the phrase in English ? I don't see it 
in HaveloL F. J. F. 

Letter of date July, 1785, the other day, in which 
the writer addressing his friend, Mr. Campbell, 
refers to " Lady Hutton " and her son. I have 
never found any pedigree of Hutton to account for 
this lady. Who could she have been 1 H. 

SASINES, &c. In a letter, dated 1775, the fol- 
lowing passages occur, and I should much like to 
know the meaning and use of the different docu- 
ments named. Will some of your contributors 
kindly give them 1 

" When the Sasines are Registered and returned from 
Edinb h Mr. Anderson writes me he will deliver to you, 
viz. 'The Precept of Clare Constat by Mr. Aytoiie, a 
small parchment ' ' My Instrument of Sasine on Brown- 
hills, a parchment also, and larger' 'Extract of Mr. 
Aytone's disp" to my Brog", which is the paper you 
deliv d to B, Frazer ' ' Bond of relief I gave the Prin 1 of 
his cautionry for me to M rs D. with my name tore off.' " 

Brownhills and Braehead is near St. Andrews, 
and the writer of the above was " seized of" it in 
1785. F. H. D. 

Bolwar, Miss., U.S.A. 

painting of a young lady, half length, life size, on 
oval frame, has the following words painted on 
it : 

Kat. Southwell Born, 1679. 

Mrs. Oliver Died, 1703. 

Can any one tell me who she was ? The painting 
is in the style of Sir Peter Lely. F. D. F. 


CENTURY. What was the usual rate of interest 
per cent, charged on loans in the seventeenth 
century, say between the years 1630-50 ? Was 
eight per cent, per annum considered usurious at 
that period? JAMES PEARSON. 

date was John Glover, the landscape-painter, 
painting views around London ? I have a painting 
of his, 3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., a view of Primrose 
Hill and the Regent's Park, where there is no 
building to be seen except Marylebone Church and 
two or three of the large houses standing alone in 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 23, 73.] 



;he circle of' the park. The point is from about 
:he Eyre Arms or Swiss Cottage, and now that the 
whole" space shown in the picture as meadow land 
is covered with roads and streets, such a picture, 
apart from Mr. Glover's known skill, has a peculiar 
interest to those who care for old localities. I 
should like to ascertain when Mr. Glover was likely 
to have been painting in that part. I shall be 
pleased to show it to any one. G. W. 


LORD MACAULAY. Is not the article in the 
Edinburgh Review of April, 1832, on the " Waverley 
Novels " by Lord Macaulay 1 


KISSING BEFORE A DUEL. Wesley's Journal 
(June 16, 1758) tells of a duel between two officers 
at Limerick : " Mr. B. proposed firing at twelve 
yards ; but Mr. J. said, ' No, no, six is enough.' 
So they kissed one another (poor Farce !) and, 
before they were five paces asunder, both fired at 
the same instant," &c. This kiss smacks of France. 
"Was it used in England as well as in Ireland 1 
And up to what time 1 QUIVIS. 

This church is now undergoing restoration, and 
the tower being in bad condition, one corner, S.W., 
had to be taken down to the foundation. Having 
removed the stones and mortar, it was discovered 
that they had been built on a solid rock ; this rock 
had been hollowed out in the usual shape of a 
stone coffin, and the remains of a human skeleton 
were discovered within it. The . buttress and 
corner of the tower were built over the corpse ; the 
feet were towards the east. Can any one of your 
readers explain the circumstance 1 



Alexander I. of Scotland, which extended from 
1107 to 1126, and at later periods in the same 
century, certain members of the family of Mortimer 
or Mortuo Mare made their appearance in that 
country. Can any of your readers inform me how 
they were related to the family of Mortimer which 
came to England with the Conqueror 1 

Ecclesfield Vicarage. 

ABIGAIL HILL, afterwards Mrs. and then Lady 
Masham. Can any of your readers inform me if 
there is any portrait extant of this lady? She is 
described in the Athenceum of the 2nd inst. as 
"one of the cleverest women of Queen Anne's 
tiffle. EOCKHURST. 

queror created Eoger of Poictou Baron of Lancaster. 
He afterwards forfeited the title, was restored by 

Eufus, and again forfeited under Henry I. It then 
became the appanage of many noble families as 
gifts from the crown. I am desirous of knowing 
who these v noble families were. Eichard created 
John Earl of Lancaster among other titles, and 
Henry III. created Edmund Crouchback Earl, from 
whom it regularly descended to Henry IV., who 
joined it to the Crown, where it has since remained. 

ST. WINEFREDE'S WELL. Mr. Ambrose Poynter 
contributed a paper on St. Winefrede's Well, at 
Holywell, Flintshire, to the Archceological Journal, 
iii. 148. In it he stated that 400Z. had been ex- 
pended removing various buildings around the 
well, strongly urging more substantial repairs to 
the edifice enclosing it. I wish to know what has 
been done in the matter since that period (1846). 


before me two caricature portraits, a small mezzotint 
and a larger line engraving, both of which have the 
above title. They represent a meagre personage, 
of very disconsolate aspect, pressing the head of his 
cane to his chin, and gazing wistfully into space. 
In the larger, the wall of the room is decorated with 
a portrait of Wilkes and a copy of the Middlesex 
Petition. The immediate result of the Middlesex 
election of the 16th of March, 1769, was the utter 
failure of Colonel Henry Lawes Luttrell, who had 
thrown himself out of his seat for Bossiney in a 
vain attempt to aid the Ministry by ousting Wilkes. 
I suspect that this is his portrait, published imme- 
diately afterwards. Am I correct ? 


"LA FLORA DI TIZIANO." In 1826 an en- 
graving of this very beautiful painting was executed 
by Gio. Eivera. Where is the original now to be 
found 1 I have a painting in my possession from 
which it would appear the engraving was taken, 
and evidently of great age. T. A. 

" CAMP-SHED." Wanted the derivation of this 
term, used in the neighbourhood of the Thames to 
denote a low partition of concrete, or wood, or 
stone, between the water and the shore. " Camp- 
side " is a word also employed. Can the former 
have (like water-shed) any connexion with the 
German scheiden ? F. G. WAUGH. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall Mall. 

me any information, or description, other than what 
may be got out of the county histories of a place 
called Pillaton, or Pileton, near Penkridge, in 
Staffordshire, formerly the residence of the Little- 
ton family, and now almost destroyed ? 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [*" s. xn. AUG. 23, 73. 

(4 th S. xi. 521 ; xii. 31, 73, 110.) 

As it may be acceptable to some readers of 
"N. & Q.," and, at the same time, obviate the 
suspicion that, because I have refrained from 
giving my reasons for the views put forward in a 
former paper, I have none worth the giving, I 
propose now, under the Editor's sanction, to state, 
as briefly as I can, why I conclude that " the 
Hebrew Scriptures were very much better known 
to the learned among the heathen than is commonly 
believed or allowed." To cite passages from these 
writers a work of no great difficulty tending to 
show the wonderful similarity between many of 
their doctrines and those of the early Scriptures, 
would need space larger than could be reasonably 
requested ; I will first, therefore, turn to those 
Scriptures themselves, and try if, from what is 
commonly called internal evidence, we cannot 
gather something at least favourable to this view. 
I take the incident of the Queen of Sheba, as 
referred to by our Lord, and I ask, of the 
"wisdom." which she learned at the mouth of 
Solomon, would she learn nothing of that which he 
himself declares to be the highest of all wisdom 
the knowledge and fear of the true God ? And in 
speaking to her of this would he be likely to 
refrain from speaking to her of that book from 
which this wisdom was to be learned, furnishing 
her with it, and urging her to its study ? And if 
it were secular wisdom only which she sought and 
gained, where would be the point of the reproach- 
ful contrast (Matt. xii. 42), " The Queen of the 
South shall rise up in judgment against this 
generation, and shall condemn it ; for she came 
from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the 
wisdom of Solomon, and behold a greater than 
Solomon is here " 1 

I take again the case of " the wise men from the 
East." When they saw the wonderful "star," 
how could they know that it portended one who 
" was born King of the Jews," but from something 
they had read in the Jewish Scriptures, probably 
as many think, the prophecy of Balaam ? 

I take lastly the Ethiopian Eunuch. And who 
dare deny that he was acquainted with these 
Scriptures 1 " Was sitting in his chariot, reac 
Esaias the prophet" (Acts viii. 28). But he was a 
heathen, although most likely what is called s 
" proselyte of the gate." There were many such, 
but they were all converts from Gentile and Pagan 
nations ; and thus distinguished " Jews and pro 

I appeal now to what may be called externa 
evidence. The Jews have ever been a restless 
wandering people. In early times, as in late, the} 
were to be found in almost every land. They ha(" 

uffered long captivities that in Baby Ion of seventy 
r ears' continuance. Is it at all likely, therefore, is 
t barely possible, that under such circumstances, 
ind brought, as they must have been, into daily 
ontact and intercourse with the people among 
vhoni they lived, that none of these people should 
lave felt any curiosity to examine into their 
lustoms, manners, and religion, and hence, to some 
xtent at least, have become acquainted with 
heir sacred writings ] I should certainly say not. 

Moreover, there was the Septuagint translation, 
nade B.C. 277, and placed by order of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus in the public library of Alexandria. 
Are we to suppose that that Book alone would lie 
neglected on its shelf, and attract no attention 
roni the many learned men who nocked to that 
ibrary 1 We cannot suppose this, but the rather 
'eel sure that it would be a Book among the first. 
Jiey would be likely to inquire for, and to read 
with more than common interest. 

I come now to " the ancient Fathers," of whom 
your correspondent says, they " were too well in- 
brmed to come to any such conclusion, from the 
similarities and coincidences existing between pas- 
sages in the respective writings." Among these 
"ancient Fathers," I presume, he will grant an 
eminent place to such names as Justin Martyr, 
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, Clement of Alex- 
andria, St. Augustine, and St. Ambrose, with each 
and all of whom. I will undertake to prove that he 
is, on this point, dead at issue. But not to swell 
my paper to an inconvenient length, I will give 
extracts from the first two only, with references to 
the other three. In his treatise styled Ad Grwcos 
Cohortatio, Justin says : 

14. ov yap Aav#avetv evicts i^tov oi/xat > 
evrv^ovras Travrtos TTOV rrj re AtoSwpou to~TOpia !l 


TWV, ort Kat Opckeus, /cat 'O/^pos, Kat 2oAwv o 
TOVS VO/AOVS ' AOrjvaiois yeypa<ws, Kat Ilv6a- 
ydpas, /cat IIAaTtov, Kat aAAot rives, ev ry 
AiyvTTTO) yevd/zevot, Kat CK r^s Mow crews tcrroptas 
w(eA>7$ei/Tes, vVrepov evavrta TCOV Trporeptov p.i] 
KAu>s Trept #etov 8oavTwv airrots aVe^T? vavro. 

For I think that none of you who have read 
what Diodorus and others have written about 
these matters can fail to see that Orpheus, and 
Homer, and Solon, the Athenian lawgiver, and 
Pythagoras, and Plato, with many more, after they 
had visited Egypt and became acquainted with 
the writings of Moses, were so influenced by them 
as to change their opinions entirely on the nature 
of their gods. 

25. fVTavOa 6 HAarcov tra^oos Kal <avepws 
rov TraAatov Adyov, Muwo-e(os dvop;aet vopov, 
TOV fjiv ovduaros Mwvo-eoos, <d/3w rov Kwvetov 
[j,f[Mvr)(r6at OeStcos. 

By the ancient Word, Plato manifestly here 
means the law of Moses, but through fear of the 
hemlock durst not mention the name of Moses. 

4- s. xii. A UG . 23, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


To the same effect he speaks in his first Apology 

Theophilus of Antioch (Ad Antol. ii. 12) writes 


ovv T<OV 

c.T.X. And many writers have followed them 
md attempted to give an account of these matters 
'.e. the creation of the world. But though, he 

continues, they took their materials from Ge 
they failed miserably of the truth. 

In addition, I refer to Clemens,* Alexand. 
Strom, i. ; August., De Cimtat. Dei, lib. viii. c. 4 ; 
Ambros., Serm. 18 in Psalm cxviii., and lib. i. 
Ep. 6. So much for " the Ancient Fathers." 

The frequent allusions to the Jews and their 
customs by profane writers lead fairly to the con- 
clusion that they may, to a greater or less extent, 
have been acquainted with their sacred books. 
Thus Horace (Sat., lib. i. 10, 69-70) alludes to their 
Sabbath and practice of circumcision. So also 
Juvenal (Sat. vi. 158-160), on which the Delphian 
annotator remarks, " Constat Ethnicis non latuisse 
Sacros Libros, cum ex eis pleraque suas in Fabulas 
traduxerint.' ; See also Persius, v. 184 ; Tacitus 
(Hist., 1. v. c. 4) ; Justin, in his Epitome of 
Trogus Pompeius (Hist., lib. xxxvi.),'whose accounts 
of Abraham, Joseph, Israel, and Moses, are in 
some particulars given almost word for word as 
they stand in Genesfis, Exodus, &c.*f" 

Passing by the stricture on my rendering of 
Stcra^ev, which, I admit, is not altogether a happy 
one, J as to what is said of the " practices of Hindoo 
worship," I can see no difficulty in accounting for 
any elements in it bearing a similarity to doctrines 

* Archdeacon Wilson. Evans remarks (Biograp. of 
Early Church, Clemens Alexand.}, "But while we thus 
assent to the propriety of the philosophical form of 
Clement's works, we cannot but find fault with the 
imprudent length to which he often pushes his argument. 
AVho, for instance, can refrain a smile of ridicule when, 
among his examples of the Greeks borrowing from the 
Jews, he adduces their generalship, and says that Mil- 
tiades borrowed from Moses the tactics of Marathon ? " 
Strom, i. 162. 

t He speaks, for instance, of the ten sons of Jacob, 
of the selling of Joseph to foreign merchants, of his skill 
in interpreting dreams, of his being taken into favour by 
the King, of the famine which prevailed, and of his 
forethought in providing against it. Also of the Exodus, 
the wandering in the desert, the coming to Mount Sinai, 
and various other particulars in their history, amongst 
which is most noteworthy a loathsome disease ("scabiem 
et pruriginem "), which, he says, fell upon the Egyptians, 
and in consequence of which the Israelites were driven 
from the land. This can be nothing less than the " boil 
breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast, 
throughout all the land of Egypt" (Ex. ix. 9). 

J Nor, as I take it, is "Silvarum Alumnus" for 
vXoytvriQ. Alummts, at most, is but & foster-son, not a 
son in the strict literal sense of natural generation. Its 
Greek equivalent is 0pf/i/ua, not V'IOQ, Traig, or TSKVOV. 
The true Latin rendering, according to the etymology, 
is e ligno natus ; the English, wood-born, not wood-reared, 
as " Silvarum Alumnus " would necessarily make it. 

or ceremonies of the Christian religion, as we have 
very strong ground for the belief that the Gospel 
was preached in those regions even in apostolic 
times, certainly, as we are assured by Jerome, 
before the close of the second century. He says 
(Ep. 84), " Pantsenus stoicse sectse philosophus ob 
prsecipuse eruditionis gloriam, a Demetriano 
Alexandrise Episcopo missus est in Indiam, ut 
Christum apud Brachmannas, et illius gentis 
philosophos prsedicaret." * 

Pantsenus, a stoic philosopher, was, on account 
of his singular learning, sent by Demetrianus, 
Bishop of Alexandria, to preach Christ to the 
Brahmins, and the philosophers of that nation. 
Apropos of St. Jerome, I know nothing of his 
saying about the devil having "inspired the 
heathen writers," &c. ; but Justin Martyr says 
something not unlike it (Apel, 1, 44-60. Dial. c. 
Trypho., 69. Cohort, ad Gr., 14), yet not that he 
" inspired them with the passages," but that under 
his influence they corrupted them. 

If they corrupted them, it is manifest they must 
have known them ; and it tells nothing against 
my argument how that knowledge was arrived at. 
In saying this, however, I intend, by no means, to 
endorse your correspondent's theory. 

On the striking remark which your contributor 
says he completely endorses, I need say little more 
than that, as it is but a " remark," striking or 
otherwise, he can hardly expect it to be accepted 
as a truism until accredited by authority better 
than that of individual opinion. 

On the question, however, of " defences of the 
Gospel," it occurs to me that St. Paul urges it as 
the duty of a Bishop to " hold fast the faithful 
word, that he may be able by sound doctrine both 
to exhort and convince the gainsay ers " ; and that 
St. Jude admonishes those to whom he was writing, 
that they " earnestly contend for the faith which 
was once delivered to the saints." But how this 
can be done, except by such methods as those em- 
ployed by Justin Martyr, Tertullian, &c., in their 
Apologies, and Butler, Paley, &c., in their works 
on Christian evidence, I am yet to learn. And as 
these treatises were professedly put forth as 
' defences of the Gospel," and being such defences 
as both St. Paul and St. Jude evidently enjoin, it 
seems to me that in stigmatizing them as " im- 
pertinences," the charge is not only levelled against 
allible men, like ourselves, but even against 
: ' holy men of God, who spake as they were moved 
ay the Holy Ghost." 

I hold as firmly as your correspondent, or 
anyone soever, that no word of man, said or written, 
can even one iota add to, or diminish from, the 
ntrinsic excellency or divine authority of Holy 

* Eusebius says (Bed. Hist. lib. v. c. x.) that Pantsenus 
bund there a Gospel of St. Matthew which was reported 
o have been left by St. Bartholomew, who, as it is said, 
irst preached the Gospel in that country. 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 23, 73. 

Scripture, for which reason, as I have said before, 
no danger need be apprehended from the fact that 
they have been, and are still, more or less known 
to persons who were not, and are, not, firm believers 
in them. 

As Gesner has been mentioned, I will just say 
in conclusion, that lie goes even farther than I do ; 
for he not only understands line 36 of Moses, but 
also 23 of Abraham. His words are " MovoyeW)s 
hie prffirogativam Abraham! significare, credo, 
debuit. Vid. Fabric. Cod. Apocr. V. T. T., i. 
p. 368, ubi et de Astrologia Abrahami Onmia." 

I had gone thus far before I saw your corre- 
spondent's second paper. I have read it carefully, 
but find no reason from it either to alter or to cancel 
anything I have written. You must kindly, how- 
ever, afford me space to note a little in reply, which 
shall be as brief as I can make it. Now I submit, 
in the first place, that the recurrence of a word in 
three, or in any number of consecutive editions, is 
no certain guarantee that it is not a misprint. 
E.g., Matt, xxiii. 24 "Strain at," for strain 
out ; Matt, xxvii. 9 " Jeremy " for Zechariah. 
Were it so, there would be no misprints in Scrip- 
ture, an assertion, I take it, which your correspon- 
dent would hardly venture to " endorse." Coming 
to this amari aliquid, he says of vSpoyei/^s and 
vSoyevr) 1 ?, "neither is classical in the ordinary 
meaning of the term." What " ordinary meaning 
of the term " means, I do not know ; but I do know 
that it is to be found in a classical author, and as 
such it is classed by our best lexicographers, 
hold it still to be a misprint, and that both from 
my own and MR. STEINMETZ'S authorities. I an 
glad also to find that his patient research has issuec 
a good deal to my advantage, for from having 
strenuously stood up for vAoyev^s as against 
t>Spoyevr)s, he now, upon the authority of Estienne 
gives up the former and, to my seeming, adopts th< 
latter, or, at all events, its "poetic" form. Bu 
Estienne is not the ultimate appeal. " The sub 
stitution," he says, " seems to have been suggestec 
by Casaubon in manuscript," and " obviously 
Winterton adopted it." But where, I desire t< 
know, is the proof? "Seem," and "obviously, 
and all such words, carry with them nothing o 
testimony or evidence. That such scholars a 
Hederick and Liddell and Scott would give anj 
word " without verification and enquiry as to it 
origin," I flatly deny; and that they give thi 
" without any classical reference whatever," is, a 
to the latter, a plain contradiction of the fact as i 
stands in their own book. 

But Casaubon, it appears, is not the origina 
authority either. He also " seems "to be a copyisi 
Scaliger now must " come to judgment." But eve 
with him we do not run the word to grounc 
Scaliger is a debtor too, and " must have got th 
notion from the earliest translation of the Prcepcv 
Evang. of Eusebius." This is stated as a " fact 

f it be so, we hope that the proof is at hand, and 
romise, when produced, to be of the very first to 
ive it our adhesion. 

And now we have got to my friend E. Winterton, 
f whom it is asserted (quite categorically) that he 
dopted the " emendation." from " Scaliger and 
Casaubon." Winterton himself says nothing of the 
ind. As an honest man, he gives his authorities; 
lit not a word of the two just named. He says, 

In hac editione nostra Poetarum Gracorum, ex- 
mplum longe optimum Henrici Stephani, edituni 
in Folio, uti loquuntur). Anno MDLXVI., eoque 
.eficiente (neque enim Stephanus omnes edidit) 
Crispini, edituni (in Duodecimo) Anno MDC., 
[uantum licuit, secutus sum." Stephens, therefore, 
md Crispinus, are the only editors to whom he 
cknowledges himself under obligation. 

I decline to follow your correspondent in his dis- 
quisition on " these ' Orphics' in general." The 
ield is much too wide for " N. & Q.," and has no 
mportant bearing upon the point at issue. If he 
,vould like to read the best that has been, or can be, 
said about them, I would commend him to the 
edition of the late Dean Gaisford, a scholar second 
,o none, a critic confessedly principum facile 

I demur in toio to the exegesis on Aoyos. The 
irticle is not prefixed. See John i. 1, and v. 14. 
That on #eoy/,os is no better. I deny that it is 
derived from " the mystic festival of Ceres," &c., 
or was exclusively characteristic of them. It is a 
generic term comprehensive of all laws, divine and 
human. Neither does Thesmophorion mean the 
carrying of the law." It is a pure legal phrase 
for the making or enacting a law, just as the Latins 
have legemferre. 

The amusing theory about Pan, with some other 
particulars in the paper, I may well pass by, being, 
as they seem to me, rather pleasant reveries than 
facts that call for any comment. , 

But the reader's patience must be tired out, that 
is, if any one has had patience to read so far. I 
leave, then, the matter in their hands. They will 
be able to draw their own conclusions ; and whether 
for or against me, feeling sure they will be impar- 
tial, I shall be content. This much, however, 
I would ask, that they will do me the favour to 
carry back their thoughts to the position on which 
I started (4 th S. xi. 521) not laid down dogma- 
tically, or in any way as a " discovery," or with the 
" air of a discovery" namely, that " It has always 
been my firm conviction that the Hebrew Scriptures 
were very much better known to the learned among 
the heathen than is commonly believed or allowed," 
and putting aside* -uSoyevi)? altogether, if they 
please, to say whether, in the present paper, I have, 

* The reader cannot fail to observe, however, that 
according to MR. STEINMETZ'S own showing, Scaliger, 
Casaubon, and Gesner, are all alike with me both in the 
interpretation and application of the word. 

4* s. xii. AUG. 23, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


r have not, done something towards proving th 
enableness of that position, and whether I am, o 
in not, justly amenable to the charge of havin 
aade this excellent periodical " a vehicle of erro 
>r improbable conjecture." " Palmam qui merui 

As to these being all " vain searches," is simpl^ 

,iatter of opinion. Others may think otherwise 

ind lie open to no just censure. " Quot homines 

ot sententiae." I protest, however, against th 

.nsinuation that such " searches" have anything in 

;hem of a disparaging tendency on the character o 

the Sacred Writings. They are not, in their results 

employed as " testimonies " by myself, at least om 

way or the other ; and therefore to argue agains 

them as if they were, is nothing better than 

" beating the air." My reverence for them, I be 

lieve, is as true and as loyal as that of your cor 

respondent, or any living man. Certainly it con 

strains me to place them under a category very 

different from that under which the natural sciences 

come, " gravitation, chemical affinity, electricity, 

et hoc genus omne. 

As a last word, I will take leave to say, speaking 
quite generally, that much more than a superficia 
knowledge of ancient history is wholly indispensable 
to the successful handling of subjects so recondite 
as Neo-Platonism and the Orphic Hymns. 

[This discussion is now closed.] 

UTOPIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY (4 th S. xi. 519 ; xii. 2, 
22, 41, 91.) The following works appear to me, 
from their titles, to belong to MR. PRESLEY'S 
class : 

A Pleasant Dialogue betweene a Lady called Listra and 
a Pilgrim. Concerning the government and common 
weale of the great province of Crangalor. Imprinted at 
London by John Charlewood, 1579. Small 8vo. 

The second part of the painefull Jorney of the poore 
Pylgrime into Asia, and the straynge woonders that he 
sawe Imprinted at London by John Charlewood, 1579. 
email 8vo. 

The Isle of Pines, or a late Discovery of a fourth Island 
near Terra Australis Incognita, By Henry Cornelius 
\ an Sloetten. London, 1668. 4to. 

A New and further Discovery of the Isle of Pines in a 
Letter from Cornelius Van Sloetten. With a Relation 
of his voyage to the East Indies. London, 1668. 4to. 

Hairy-Giants : or, a Description of Two Islands in 
the South Sea, called by the name of Benganga and 
Coma : Discovered by Henry Schooten of Harlem : in a 
Voyage began January, 1669, and finished October 1671 
Also a perfect Account of the Religion, Government, and 
Commodities of those Islands. Together with the Cus- 
toms and Manners of the Inhabitants : which are of an 
extraordinary Stature, viz., Twelve foot high or there- 

f U ^\ ^ ten > Dutch ^ Henr y Schooten and Eng- 
lished by P. M. Gent. London, 1671. 4to 

T 7 A }y estern Wonder; or, Brazeel. an Inchanted 
.sland discovered ; with a Relation of Two Ship-wracks 

in a dreadful Sea-storm in that discovery. To which is 
Ided a Description of a Place, called Montecapernia 

relating the Nature of the People, their Qualities, Hu- 
mours, Fashions. Religion, &c. London. 1674. 4to. (By 
Richard Head.) 

O-Brazile, or the Inchanted Island : being a perfect 
Relation of the late Discovery and Wonderful Dis-In- 
chantment of an Island on the North of Ireland : with an 
Account of the Riches and Commodities thereof. (By 
William Hamilton.) In the Savoy, 1675. 4to. 

The History of the Sevarites or Severambi : A Nation 
inhabiting part of the third Continent, Commonly called 
Terras Australes Incognitae. With an Account of their 
admirable Government, Religion, Customs, and Language. 
Written by one Captain Siden, A Worthy Person, who, 
together with many others, was cast upon those Coasts, 
and lived many years in that Country. London, 1675. 

The History of the Sevarites. The Second Part more 
wonderful and delightful than the First. London, 1679. 

The History of the Sevarambians : a People of the 
South Continent. In five parts. Translated from the 
Memoirs of Captain Siden. London, 1738. 8vo. 

An Account of the Famous Prince Giolo, son of the 
King of Gilolo, now in England. With an Account of 
his Life, Parentage, and his strange and Wonderful Ad- 
ventures ; the manner of his being brought for England. 
With a Description of the Island of Gilolo, and the Ad- 
jacent Isle of Celebes : Their Religion and Manners. 
Written from his own Mouth. London, 1692. 4to. 

A New Discoverie of an Old Traveller Lately Arrived 
from Port-Dul, Shewing the Manner of the Country, 
Fashions of the People, and their Laws. And withal 
giving an account of the Shifts and Tricks he was Forced 
to use for the time of his Continuance there. London, 
1676. 4to. 

T. T. 

LADY STUDENT AT OXFORD (4 th S. xii. 128.) 
This is only an incorrect version of a scandalous 
story that obtained currency as to the early life of 
Susanna Freeman, afterwards known as Mrs. 
Centlivre, a prolific playwright in the days of 
Queen Anne and George I. She is said to have 
been concealed, in male attire, in the rooms of 
Antony Hammond, in his college, not at Oxford, 
but at Cambridge. It is not stated that she " took 
;o the student's gown" in the original account; 
lor did she marry a rich nobleman, her first hus- 
band being a nephew of Sir Stephen Fox, who 
either forsook her or left her a widow, at the age 
of seventeen. Her second husband was a Mr. 
Carrol, a young officer, who was killed in a duel 
ibout a year and a half after his marriage ; and her 
hird, Mr. Joseph Centlivre, one of the "Yeomen 
>f the Month" to Her Majesty. His name is given 
s "John Centlivre" in Chamberlayne's Anglia 
Notitia for 1707. 

Susanna wrote seventeen plays of various de- 
criptions, the best remembered being The Busy- 
wdy, A Bold Stroke for a Wife, and The Wonder; 
ut as to romances, she wrote none at all. A long 
iccount of her, with the story above alluded to, is 
riven in Whincop's Dramatic Poets, 1747. 

H. T. ElLEY. 

PALINDROMES (4 th S. xi. passim; xii. 19, 116.) 
'he Latin palindrome mentioned p. 116 had already 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 23, '73. 

appeared in " N. & Q." fourteen years ago, under 
the heading " Squaring the Circle." I mention 
the heading more particularly, as the search for it 
has caused me considerable trouble (2 nd S. viii. 
291, 421). It is there given as " said to be cut on 
a piece of wood about nine inches square, fastened 
against a pew in the Church of Great Gidding, in 


8 A T O B 

A R E P 



I took a rubbing from this inscription in Great 
Gidding Church, and herewith enclose a copy of it 
for the Editor's acceptance. He will see from it 
that the original gives " A R i p o " instead of 
" A R E P o," and " T E N i T " instead of " T E N E T " 
(the N being inverted), though both these words 
are evident errors. They are boldly cut on a very 
hard bit of oak, which age has not darkened in 
colour. The square is within an octagon, some- 
what ornamented, the size of the square being 
4 x 4| inches, and of the octagon 6? x 6| inches. 
In " N. & Q." (2 nd S. viii. 421) are some ingenious 
speculations as to the meaning of the sentence. 
On the restoration of Great Gidding Church a few 
years ago, the piece of oak had to be removed from 
the pew door in the north aisle ; but it was care- 
fully preserved by the vicar. 


CHATEAUBRIAND'S MOTHER (4 th S. xii. 47, 136.) 
Chateaubriand's mother was " Apolline Jeanne 
Suzanne de Bede"e, dame de Villemain, fille de 
messire Ange Annibal de Bede"e, chevalier, seigneur 
de la Bouetardais, et de Beringue Jeanne Marie de 
Eavenel du Boistilleul " (Memoires d'Outre-Tombe, 
8vo. Bruxelles, 1850, tome 6, p. 415). 


St. Neots. 

Captain J. Bertrand Payne, in his great 
Armorial of Jersey, which is a model for all genea- 
logical works, says that the younger brother of 
Count Kene", Peter de Chateaubriand, was the 
father of Armand de Chateaubriand, the first of 
the name established in Jersey. After having 
bravely fought for the royal cause during the whole 
of the campaign of 1792, Count Peter was en- 
trusted with the honourable yet perilous mission 
of conducting between Jersey and France the 
correspondence and communications of the Royalists. 
This delicate task he pursued with success from 
1795 till 1810, when, being cast upon the coast 
of Normandy by stress of weather, he was arrested, 
carried to Paris, and condemned to death by the 
Government of the day. Count Armand, whom 
EFFESSIA probably mistakes for his uncle, Count 
Kene 1 , did marry a Jersey lady, Miss Jane Le 

Brun, whose grandson is the present Count Henry 
de Chateaubriand. No one knowing the in- 
habitants of Jersey would ever accuse them of 
being guilty of generating poets ; they are the 
most prosaic and commonplace of peoples. 



109.) Is not the allusion to a line in one of the 
most popular songs of ancient Greece? so beautifully 
translated by the late Dean of St. Paul's (Milman), 
and which I listened to with delight some fifty 
years ago, when he was delivering his lectures, as 
Poetry Professor, in Oxford : 

" In myrtle wreath my sword I sheathe, 
Thus his brand Harmodius drew ; 
Thus Aristogeiton slew 
The Tyrant Lord in freedom's cause, 
And gave to Athens equal laws." 

See Milman's Agamemnon, &c., p. 226. 

J. E. B. 

NASH'S " WORCESTERSHIRE " (4 th S. xii. 87.) 
I have sold more than fifty copies of this work, of 
both editions, and in only one instance was the 
letter of Lord Monmouth referred to missing, and 
in that case the leaf containing it had been taken 
out. JAS. COOMBS. 


85.) Opposite to Whitaker's statement, that he 
" looked into the vault through an aperture in the 
pavement, but could discover no coffins excepting 
one of the Manley family," may be placed, not the 
allusion merely, but the challenge of a no less 
careful student of the numerous historical associa- 
tions of Bolton Priory the poet Wordsworth : 
" Pass, pass, who will, yon chantry door ; 
And through the chink in the fractured floor 
Look down, and see a griesly sight 
A vault where the bodies are buried upright ; 
There, face by face, and hand by hand, 
The Claphams and Mauleverers stand ; 
And, in his place, among son and sire, 
Is John de Clapham, that fierce Esquire, 
A valiant man, and a name of dread 
In the ruthless wars of the White and Red ; 
Who dragged Earl Pembroke from Banbury Church, 
And smote off his head on the stones of the porch." 

The statement of your Chicago correspondent is 
a valuable corroboration of the poet, and it 
deserves the fuller confirmation he suggests, on 
account of the scepticism which prevails upon the 
subject among our " Guides " to the Priory. 

I suggest an error on Whitaker's part in the 
site as responsible for it all. He saw through one 
chink a solitary coffin, which belonged to the 
" Manleys " ; while the poet saw through another 
chink those that belonged to the " Claphams 
and Mauleverers." 

According to Black, the chantry Wordsworth's 
site is a space at the east end of the aisle, inclosed 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 23, 73.] 



y a wooden lattice in the Perpendicular style ; and 

ere eight large stones, lying side by side, about 

; even feet long, and raised twenty inches above 

he floor, cover the vault of the Claphams of 

Jeamsley. But he adds, in reference to the tra- 

Lition, " the upright coffins can no longer be seen, 

f, indeed, they were ever visible."* 

If this was the site indicated by Mr. Hirstwiek, 
ve should, of course, ordinarily suppose that the 
lumber of coffins in the vault corresponded with 
:he number of stones on the surface. 

Farnworth, Bolton, 

LORD PRESTON, 1690 (4 th S. xi. 496 ; xii. 89.) 
Sir Richard Graham or Grame, who was created 
Viscount Preston in the peerage of Scotland in 
1680, was descended from a branch of the Menteith 
family. His grandfather, Sir Richard Graham of 
Esk, co. Cumberland, was created a baronet in 1629. 
The title of Preston does not indicate any relation- 
ship with the old family of Preston, or De Preston. 
Lord Preston was not beheaded in 1690 ; he was 
twice tried for high treason, once in 1689, when he 
was brought in as guilty of a high misdemeanour 
and committed to the Tower, but released after 
very singular proceedings ; and a second time in 
1690-1, when he was tried at the Old Bailey, 17th 
Jan., found guilty, and condemned. His com- 
panion in this trial, Mr. Asheton. was executed at 
Tyburn on the 28th January, 1690-1 ; but Lord 
Preston was, by the intercession of powerful friends, 
pardoned in June, 1691. He claimed a double 
peerage, Scotch and English; the latter was 
forfeited on his attainder, the patent for it being 
dated Versailles, January 21st, 1688, and, con- 
sequently, only one day before the Convention 
declared that the throne was vacant in consequence 
of King James's abdication. But this attainder 
did not affect the Scotch title, and he died as 
Viscount Preston in 1695, and was succeeded in 
the title by his son, Edward Graham, second 
Viscount Preston. The title became extinct in 
1739 on the death of his grandson, the third 
Viscount. EDWARD SOLLY. 

I am unable to find any nobleman of this name 
who was beheaded in 1690. Sir Richard Graham, 
Bart., of Esk and Netherby, co. Cumberland, was, 
in 1681, created a peer of Scotland as Lord 
Graham of Esk, and Viscount Preston, co. 
Haddington. He was one of the principal 
Secretaries of State to James II., and upon the 
Revolution was committed to the Tower. En- 
deavouring to escape, he was, in 1690, prosecuted 
for high treason, found guilty, and sentenced to 
death, but the sentence was never executed. Through 
the intercession of his friends he obtained a pardon 

* Black's Picturesque Guide to Yorkshire, seventh 
edition, revised and corrected. Edinburgh, 1871, the 
year of your correspondent's visit. 

in June, 1691, and retired to Nunnington in York- 
shire, where he died Dec. 22, 1695. His peerage 
became extinct with his grandson in 1739. Lord 
Preston was.^ descended from a younger branch of 
the Grahams, Earls of Strathern ; consequently, he 
was in no way related to the family of De Preston, 
whose representative is Sir Henry Preston, Bt., of 
Valleyfield, Perth. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

SIR JOHN MAUNDEVILE (4 th S. xii. 107.) 
Alkatran: Sp. alquitran; Ital. catrame; Fr. gou- 
dron, tar. The substance meant is, doubtless, the 
petroleum \rhich abounds in that region, the slime 
of the Bible. Alabraundines, Ital. alabandino, a 
kind of precious ruby or carbuncle stone Florio. 
In Sp. a red stone mixed with blue Baretti ; 
manganese, magnesia Taboada. Perydos, Peridot: 
explained chrysolite by Webster, after Dana. Loyres: 
this would seem to signify an otter, from Ital. 
lutra, as old Fr. loire (mod. leurre), a bait, from 
G. luder. Mountour : evidently used in the 
sense of a raised throne. Fr. montoir or montouer 
is a horse-block, Cotgr. Schiere : thinly spread, 
as allowing the light to shine through. Schyre, as 
water or other lycure, perspicuus, clarus. Prompt. 
Parv. Compare Fr. semer clair, to sow thin ; 
clair seme, few and far between, scarce ; toile claire, 
thin linen. Farde of Mescyne : apparently the 
Du. vaerd, trajectus, locus ubi trajicitur fluvius 
Kilian ; the passage from Italy to Sicily. Toot- 
hille : see Tote hylle in the Promptorium, and 
Way's note. In Wycliffe's version "the totehil 
Sion" corresponds to " aram Sion" of the Vulgate. 
Galamelle : Fr. caramele, burnt sugar, from the 
Arabic, according to Littre. To redye : not con- 
nected with redeo, as MR. BOASE suggests, but 
rather with E. ready, of which it is the verbal root. 
Here it signifies to direct, address himself towards 
the parts he came from. Swedish reda, to arrange, 
set to rights, prepare ; Sc. to red, to put in order. 
Compare Dan. rede sig ud av, to extricate oneself. 


Alkatran is = Portug. alcatrdo, Span, alquitran, 
bitumen. Feme, dative of fern (filex). Medye is 
probably, as I have taken it in my Dictionary of 
the 0. Engl. Language, p. 394, s. v. rcedien, 
"ready, parare." Toothill=totehille, "specula"; 
the verb toot, O. Engl. toten (spectare, speculari), is 
still used in Lincolnshire (Brogden's Lincolnsh. 
Words) and Lancashire (Bamford and Peacock's 
Glossary}. F. H. STRATMANN. 

THE " TE DEUM " (4 th S. xii. 84.) In a MS. 
Dutch Psalter, which I bought at the recent sale 
of Mr. W. H. Black's Library, I find a note which 
may be worth putting on record. On two fly-leaves 
inserted by Mr. Black there is a table of the contents 
of the volume. Among them I find this : " ' Canti- 
cum su^e Ambrosius en' Augustijrs. Du god 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 23, '73. 

louen wy.' f. cxxxiiij. v. This is the Te Deum, 
wherein the verse (corrupted in modern copies) is 
read : Laetse beghauet worden mit dinem heiligen : 
in die ewige glorie." The MS. is of the fifteenth 
century, probably quite as early as the "dumpy 
little quarto " spoken of by DR. DIXON. Consult 
Thompson's History of the Te Deum. 


The question raised by DR. DIXON is a very 
interesting one, which would be much elucidated 
by copious collation of early editions and MSS. 
I suspect that it will be found that all the late 
MSS., after the use of Sarum, contained the 
reading in gloria numerari ; and it would be 
curious to see at what date the variation from the 
Roman text commenced, and also how, and when, 
and why it was that the "authorized Catholic 
Prayer Book " first contained the altered version. 
I have not many liturgical books or MSS. here to 
consult, but I may mention that in my copy (unique 
but, alas, very fragmentary) of the earliest folio 
Sarum Breviary (Paris, 1506) the words are "in 
gloria numerari," whilst in the Pontificals, Roma- 
num (fo. Venetiis apud Juntas, 1544) they are, cum 
sanctis tuis gloria munerari. I have an illu- 
minated MS. Psalter, 4to., of the end of the 
thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century, 
probably of French execution, wherein the passage 
runs, in gloria munerari ; so that we have here 
three variations from which to choose. A reference 
to some of the very early MSS., here and abroad, 
would, doubtless, lead to a plausible explanation 
of the change. The primers seem to stick to the 
in gloria numerari. J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

West Derby, Liverpool. 

ST. ALBAN'S ABBEY (4 th S. xii. 89.) The Rev. 
P. Newcome, in his History of this Abbey (London, 
1795), p. 117, says : 

" William ordained that a constant watch or guard, of 
one monk at a time, should be placed over this altar to 
the Virgin ; it stood iu the south wing, and the watch 
took his station near the altar of St. Blaze in some of the 
recesses of the wall in the gallery (triforium), or in a 
small closet now remaining, with an iron gate in front, 
which had been built in imitation of the little chamber 
in the wall, as mentioned in Scripture, 2nd Kings iv. 10 ; 
and from which, being directly opposite the Virgin's 
altar, he might have a constant view of the altar and 
its contents, aided at night by wax lights burning 

This William was the twenty-second abbot, 
William de Trumpington, who ruled the monastery 
A.D. 1215-1235. W. E. B. 

MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY (4 t]l S. xii. 110.) 
Plans of the fortifications, combined in some 
instances with bird's-eye views, of Barcelona, 
Dunkirk, Lisle, Mons, Namur, Ypres, and Turin, 
are to be found in a folio volume of maps (23) and 
plans of engagements, &c. (47), engraved " for Mr. 
Tindal's Continuation of Mr. Rapin's History." J. 

Basire, sculpt. They are engraved on copper. 
My copy wants front cover and title-page, other- 
wise the maps, &c., are in good condition. Would 
J. B. like to have them ? JNO. A. FOWLER. 
55, London Road, Brighton. 

(1 st S. iv.; 3 rd S. vi., viii.; 4 th S. i., iv., passim; 
vii. 56, 173, 244, 332.) The original habitat of 
this line has been so frequently asked for in the 
pages of " N. & Q.," and with little, or at least 
no satisfactory, result, that you may be surprised 
at seeing it made once more a subject of commu- 
nication to you. It is nearly two and twenty years 
since it was first inquired after in your columns, 
and to give all the references is unnecessary. 
Suffice it to say that the late F. C. H. confessed 
himself " unable to give any information as to its 
authorship" (4 th S. vii. 173); and the Editor of 
" N. & Q." (loc. eod.) remarked " it would appear 
to be utterly impossible to trace the origin of this 

The reference (4 th S.jii. 56) is that to which I 
would call attention. There you will see that C. W. M. 
quoted two stanzas reproduced from the New Orleans 
Sunday Times, and expressed his suspicion of " a 
small literary forgery." That suspicion was endorsed 
in an editorial note, and I very decidedly shared 
it. But I have just received a note from an old 
friend in Ipswich, Mass., U.S.A., wherein he says: 
" Seeing the enclosed in the paper of to-day (30th 
July), reminds me of an old discussion we held in 
China, so I cut it out and send it to you. Unless I 
am mistaken, you wrote at the time to ' N. & Q.' 
about it." 

My friend is right, as I repeated the query (3 rd 
S. viii. 290) ; but here is his enclosure, which I 
append in original for your satisfaction : 

" OBIGIN or A FAMILIAR LIKE. A correspondent of 
Harper's Bazar writes that the oft-quoted line, ' Though 
lost to sight, to memory dear,' originated with Ruthven 
Jenkyns, and was first published in the Greenwich Maga- 
zine for Marines, in 1701 or 1702. As a literary curiosity, 
we quote the whole poem : 

' Sweetheart, good-bye ! that flutt'ring sail 

Is spread to waft me far from thee, 
And soon before the fav'ring gale 

My ship shall bound upon the sea. 
Perchance, all desolate and forlorn, 

These eyes shall miss thee many a year; 
But unforgotten every charm- 
Though lost to sight, to mem'ry dear. 

' Sweetheart, good-bye ! one last embrace ! 

cruel fate ! two souls to sever ! 
Yet in this heart's most sacred place 

Thou, thou alone, shalt dwell for ever. 
And still shall recollection trace 

In Fancy's mirror, ever near, 
Each smile, each tear, that form, that face 

Though lost to sight, to mem'ry dear.'" 

I am sorry the name of the paper is not given, 
but this is not material, and can be obtained if 
required. It will be seen that the first eight lines 

-s. xii. A. 2:3,73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a 3 those already given from the New Orleani 
p per. 

This may, of course, be another attempt at i 
h ax, but it is worth while to inquire if such a 
p iblication as the magazine named did or did no 
e ist in 1701-2, or at any other date. 

In any case, it is singular that such a hackneyec 
q lotation should not hitherto have been tracec 
b >yond 1828, although well known as much older 
(<.- th S. vii. 173); and this further notice may haply 
lead to some result, in one way or other satisfactory 

W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

BISHOP STILLINGFLEET (4 th S. xii. 88.) Bishop 
Stillingfleet received his early education from Mr, 
Thomas Garden, at Cranbourne, Dorsetshire, his 
nitive place. He was from there removed to 
Bingwood, Hampshire, where he was placed under 
the tuition of Mr. Baulch, whose school, founded 
by Mr. W. Lynne, enjoyed the privilege of 
having some of its scholars elected to exhibitions 
at the University. In 1648 he entered St. John's 
College, Cambridge, under the tuition of Mr. 
Pickering, one of the Fellows. At the age of 
eighteen he took his B.A., and soon after (in 1653) 
obtained a Fellowship, the first that became vacant 
after he had taken his degree. Soon after this 
period, he withdrew for a time from the University 
and resided as a private tutor in the family of 
Sir Eoger Burgoyne, at Wroxall, in Warwickshire. 
As soon as he was of sufficient standing, he took 
his M.A., and became tutor in the family of the 
Hon. Francis Pierrepoint, brother of the Marquess 
of Dorchester. In 1663 he became B.D., and in 

(4 th S. xii. 101.) The hundred of Coleridge still 
exists in Devonshire. It is situated near the south 
of the county, being bounded on the north-east by 
the river Dart ; on the west and north-west by the 
tidal estuary of the Avon at Kingsbridge, and the 
high road thence to Totnes ; on the south and east 
by the English Channel and Start Bay. It may 
not_ foUow that the present Attorney-General 
derives his name from it ; his grandfather was 
master of the King's School at Ottery St. Mary, 
and his great-grandfather a weaver at Collumpton, 
both in east Devon. S. WARD. 


.06.) Would MR. PETTET, for the benefit of the 

ilearned, say whether the vertebras of the neck, 

when dislocated, project outwards between the 

shoulder blades, so that when the knee of the 

operator is placed between the shoulder blades it 

exercises a direct pressure on the protruding bones 

the vertebrae. I, not knowing, should have 

thought that in such dislocations generally the 

projection would be at too high a point for the knee 

to reach it, or to render the leverage of the shoul- 
ders available at all. In dislocations of the neck, 
where do the vertebrae usually project ? 

C. A. W. 


I am reminded, from a strong recollection, that it 
was alleged of the late Mr. Gwyn, of Ford Abbey 
(who attained to a great age), that he was, when a 
school-boy at Hackney, thrown in a frolic, whilst 
playing at leap-frog, by another boy bobbing, and 
his neck dislocated. A clever lad came suddenly, 
and, placing young Gwyn's head between his legs, by 
a very strong pull, contrived to restore the dislocated 
neck an act of great self-possession and strong 
nerve. The above instance of recovery is re- 
membered by a few persons connected with the 
late Mr. Gwyn of Ford Abbey. P. 

73.) The word printed Stork was, probably, Stoat 
in Swift's MS. The most whimsical person could 
hardly dislike such a gentle, harmless creature as a 
stork, and probably Swift had never seen one. A 
stoat and a fox might well be paired together as 
objects of aversion. JATDEE. 

SOHO SQUARE (4 th S. ix. 507 ; x. 36 ; xii. 93.) 
Is not a King Street to be constantly found in 
proximity to a church 1 Take, for instance, besides 
King Street, Soho (known formerly as King Street, 
St. Anne's}, King Street, St. James's, and King 
Street (St. Paul's), Covent Garden. Are these 
pure coincidences, or may we not find the origin of 
the names in the intention to typify the connexion 
between Church and State 1 H. W. 

King Street, St. James's, S.W. 

MADNESS IN DOGS (4 th S. xii. 67, 116.) Dogs 
in the Mauritius are subject to rabies. In 1851 
Colonel Tait, commanding K.E. in that island, 
died from hydrophobia, caused by the bite of a 
small lap-dog. Other cases have occurred before 
and since. H. H. 

Wools ton, Hants. 

" A WHISTLING WIFE " (4 th S. xi. 282, 353, 
394, 475 ; xii. 39.) The Italian proverb, I believe, 
runs thus : 

" In una casa non c' e pace 
Dove '1 gallo piu della gallina tace." 


ASCANCE (4 th S. xi. 251, 346, 471 ; xii. 12, 99.) 
E. N. J.'s reference to the Italian "schiancio" 
s, no doubt, of value as a contribution to the 
)hilological inquiry into the " meaning " of " as- 
ance," but cannot be received as any indication of 
ts "origin," if by origin we intend the immediate 
iource from, whence it was derived. What we 
eally want to know is where the English word 


NOTES AND QUEKIES. [4-8.xii.Auo.23,7s. 

came from, and how it came to be an English word 
at all. I think I have shown that its " origin " to 
us is French, not Italian nor Swedish. The in- 
teresting point to us Englishmen is to ascertain 
whence and how the stray er found its way amongst 
us and became naturalized in England. " Schiancio " 
is a cognate word, of collateral formation, but 
ascance is certainly not derived from it. A true 
etymology, as Brachet so clearly maintains, should 
account for every letter of a word, should show 
what has been lost, gained or transformed in its 
passage from its original source. In the present 
case, I think, this can be done. Ascant=escant, 
out of the corner, cornerwise, across, athwart. It 
then became an English adverb by addition of s 
(as in dages, by day, neahtes, by night, nedes, by or 
of need, darkleys, bockligs, &c.) : thus ascants= 
ascans=ascance=ascaunce. The secondary meta- 
phorical meanings, so well interpreted by MR. 
FURNIVALL, seem all to square with this etymology. 

Kildare Gardens. 

"I MAD THE CARLES LAIRDS," &c. (4 th S. xi. 
156, 201, 351, 413 ; xii. 11, 96.) The query put 
by J. G., as to where this saying is to be found 
recorded, has not yet been answered. Some have 
ascribed it to James I. (VI. of Scotland?) and 
others to James V. Meantime, it may be stated 
that Ellcee's views (xii. 96) are without authority 
and misleading. He seems to think that the king 
did not need to make carles lairds, as they might 
be such without his interposition. He made them, 
however, as he says, lords ; and then adds that 
when a Scotch advocate is raised to the judicial 
bench, if he be a laird, he takes for title the name 
of the lairdship, but if not he assumes his own 
surname. In all this there is error ; and it seems 
to lie chiefly in supposing that a laird is no other 
than one holding land in fee and heritage. How- 
ever, to be a laird, properly, the owner must hold 
immediately under the Crown. If he does not, 
but has an over-subject-superior interposed between 
him and the Crown, he is only a good- man. Lairds 
were indifferently called barons (lesser) and 
domini ; but never properly lords ; and Mr. 
McNeill, now a peer by the title of Lord, or Baron 
Colonsay, although, previously to his being en- 
nobled, called " Colonsay," from that island being 
his property, yet could not be laird of Colonsay 
if not a Crown vassal in respect of it. Then there 
is no uniform rule as to the assumption of title by 
Scotch judges on their appointment, who, if lairds in 
the proper sense, may nevertheless adopt their own 
surnames in preference, as many of them have 
done. (Vide Sir Geo. Mackenzie, Science of 
Heraldry ; and Thomson on the Old Extent}. 


BREECHES" (4 th S. xi. 238, 308, 514; xii. 18, 94.) 

J. 0. writes that he cannot find the above in the 
early editions of the Tea Table Miscellany, and 
then quotes the fifth edition. Has he referred to 
the first (1724) ? I have not had an opportunity 
of doing so, but I can add a note showing the song 
to have been known in 1728. I have before me 
volume vi. of The Musical Miscellany (London, 
8vo., printed by John Watts, 1731), and the song 
is there given under the title of "The Sailor's 
Ballad," sung by Mr. Legar in Perseus and Andro- 
meda. Baker, in his Biographia Dramatica, 1782, 
p. 278, vol. ii., describes Perseus and Andromeda 
to be a pantomime in five interludes, three serious 
and two comic ; the serious composed by Monsieur - 
Eoger, and the comic by John Weaver, dancing 
masters, acted at Drury Lane, printed, 8vo., 1728. 
No doubt the song was popular at the time. Was 
Weaver the author of it ? I find his abilities were 
not confined to his heels, he having written various 
works ; among others, A History of the Mimes 
and Pantomimes of the Ancients. 


FUNERALS AND HIGHWAYS (4 th S. xi. 213, 285, 
374, 433 ; xii. 96.) It is a vulgar error to suppose 
that a funeral passing over private grounds creates 
a right of way ; also, that it is lawful to arrest the 
dead body for debt ; that first cousins may inter- 
marry, but that second cousins may not ; that 
persons born at sea have a right of settlement in 
Stepney parish ; that, to disinherit a child, it is 
indispensable the sum of one shilling be bequeathed. 
These, with others, are errors popular among the 
lower classes, having no more validity in law than 
reason. EGAN. 

BATTLES OF WILD BEASTS (4 th S. xii. 68, 119.) 
In India, in such fights between the tiger and 
buffalo, the latter has generally been the victor. ': 


27.) The first edition of this work was printed for 
T. Beckett, and bears the date of 1768. It was 
written during the preceding summer, at Sterne's 
favourite living of Coxwold, the author dying 
March 18, 1768, " at his lodgings in Bond Street." 
That what we possess of this, his last work, was but 
an instalment of an intended whole, is sufficiently 
indicated by the title, by which we see that the 
" Journey," of which, in the published portion the 
traveller gives only his French experiences, was to 
have been continued through Italy. " Who but the 
author," asks W. M., in the "Critical Observations" 
prefixed to an edition of 1810 before me, " will call 
it a journey through France and Italy? Every page 
of it might have been written in his own chamber in 
London. Sterne's death, indeed, prevented the 
completion of the work, which might otherwise, 
perhaps, have assumed a different appearance." 

Sterne died on the first floor of No. 41, New 

S. XII. AUG. 23, '73.] 



B< nd Street, London ; he was buried in the grave- 
ya -d of St. George's, Hanover Square ; his body 
b( ;ame a prey to the " snatchers," and was conveyed 
to Cambridge for dissection ; and his books were 
so d by his widow to Todd & Sotheran, booksellers 
at York, whose shop-catalogue of 1768 proclaimed 
b\ its title that it contained " The Library of Lau- 
reice Sterne, M.A., Prebendary of York, and 
ai thor of Tristram Shandy." See Willis's Current 
Sotes for April, 1854, pp. 31-34. 


(. th S. xii. 7, 56, 96.) The statement as to the 
sfle of this relic furnished to the Gainsborough 
News by " An Ollerton Gentleman " is copied verb, 
d lit. from a communication to Hone's Year-Book 
(p. 630), from a correspondent who was present at 
the sale. The name of the purchaser is there 
given as " Munnell." WILLIAM BATES. 


" NICE " (4 th S. xi. 425, 492, 533 ; xii. 58, 114.) 
I cannot see any difficulty in understanding how 
I " nice " passed from a meaning implying more or 
less contempt to one denoting approbation. We 
use soft much in the same manner. To say a man 
is soft, implies that he is foolish ; yet we say a 
sound or word is soft to convey the impression 
that it is agreeable to the ear. 

Ashford, Kent. 

"WHOSE OWE IT?" (4 th S. xii. 6, 36.) I have 
heard this expression in Ulster, where many 
English provincialisms, chiefly from Northumbria, 
survive. I happened to be in the churchyard of a 
country village. A funeral procession came to the 
gate just as some boys from the neighbouring 
school were going out. " boys," exclaimed one 
of them, " here 's a funeral ! Whose owe it ?" 

F. R. 


Tacitus. By William Bodham Donne. (Blackwood & 


THE seventeenth volume of the now well-appreciated 
" Ancient Classics for English Headers " is one of the most 
interesting of the whole series. Of the personal history 
of Tacitus there is not much to be said, but Mr. Bodham 
Donne tells that little very well. It is not known where 
the historian and orator was born. The year of his birth 
Mr. Donne is inclined to fix A.D. 51. In the year 99, he 
says, Tacitus "departs from sight." The great writer 
lives in his works. Of them Mr. Donne furnishes a 
graceful precis, such as conveys, within narrow limits, a 
large amount of information. Living, as it would seem, 
only forty-four years, his first work appeared when he 
was forty years of age. This seems to have left him too 
little time to execute his other works ; but these may 
have been in preparation long before. The Emperor 

Tacitus ordered that ten copies of the writings of his im- 
mortal ancestor should be transcribed annually, and 
placed in the public libraries. " The Roman libraries," 
says Gibbon, " have long since perished, and the most 
valuable part of Tacitus was preserved in a single MS., 
and discovered* in a monastery in Westphalia." Of the 
orations, nothing has been preserved, but Mr. Donne 
thinks something like the echoes of them are to be heard 
in the speeches of certain personages in the history. In 
his consideration of the character of the historian, he is, 
perhaps, too much inclined to favour him. Yet it is not 
to be admitted that there was any truth in Tertullian's 
words : " At enim idem Cornelius Tacitus sane ille men- 
daciorum loquacissimus." 

A Memoir of the Goddards of North Wilts. By R. 

JefFeries. (Swindon, Coate.) 

A VERY useful contribution to the history of county 
families, and a tolerably complete history of that of 
Goddard, a name which, we are told, indicates descent 
from Odin and from ancestors who united the offices of 
priest and king. In Arthur's Etymological Dictionary, 
however, the word Godard = God-like disposition ; to 
which is added, ' ' the name may be local, from ' Goddard,' 
a mountain in Switzerland." In Mr. F. Edmunds's 
Traces of History in the Names of Places, " Goddard, 
from Godred = ' good in counsel.' " 

Lays and Legends of the English Lake Country. By 
John P. White. (London, J. Russell Smith ; Carlisle, 

THESE lays and legends are modern versions, and gener- 
ally graceful versions, of stories that have long been, 
current in our Lake Country. With Murray's Handbook 
for excursions, fine weather, and this volume at night in 
the excursionist's inn, a pleasant and profitable month, 
may be passed in that charming district. The poetry is 
good, and the annotations valuable and interesting; 
rather long, perhaps, as if the writer of them had taken 
his cue, for length, from the giant at St. Bees, who was 
four yards and a half long, his teeth half-a-foot, and his 
chine-bone capable of containing three pecks of oatmeal. 

R. R. R. writes : " I am collecting materials for & 
history of the Cheshire family of Croxton (of Croxton, 
Ravenscroft, Norley, &c.), and should be glad of any 
pedigrees, or references to works containing accounts or 
pedigrees of that family. The name has sometimes been 
written Croxon, and is, I believe, at present so spelt by 
a Shropshire branch of the family." 

THE Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth Palace will 
be CLOSED, as usual, for the recess, from the 1st of Sep- 
tember, for six weeks. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentleman by whom they are required, whose name and address are 
given for that purpose : 

London, 1850. 


Wanted by Rev. A. B. Grosart, Park View, Blackburn, Lancashire. 


CHAM-PION. The antiquity of the term "rook" in the 
game of chess is undoubted. ' The Pseudo-Ovidius, lib. i. 
de Vetula, names the pieces thus : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. V th s. xn. A. 23, 73. 

" Sex species saltus exercent, sex quoque scaci, 
Miles, et Alphinus, Roccus, Rex, Virgo, Pedesque. 

* * in campum vero secundum 
Tres alii saliunt, in rectum Roccus, eique 
Soli concessum est, ultra citraque salire." 
N. G. "Setting the Thames on Fire" is a subject 
which "N. & Q." thoroughly exhausted some years ago. 
Besides references already given, see 4 th S. vi. 39, 101, 144, 

WESTON should consult the newspapers of the period for 
lists of the Directors. 

A. H. E. By gavelkind, in Kent, at afather's death, the 
land was divided among his sons; the youngest, in 
addition, inheriting the hearth. The custom 'is said to be 
not quite extinct in Kent. The writer of the Introduction 
to Murray's Handbook to Kent and Sussex, says, " Gavel- 
kind exists in the immediate vicinity of London, and 
gives its name to the manor or township of Kentish Town." 
The original name of the manor had nothing to do with 
Kent. In Palmer's St. Pancras, it is stated that the name, 
at the Conquest, was Cantelows or Kennistoune, and this 
is made equivalent to Cantelupe's town, from the ancient 
family by whom the manor was owned. 

COTJNTER-TENOK. The words of the Stabat Mater are 
supposed to have been written by Jacopo Bendetti, of 
Umbria. In that city, in the thirteenth century, he was a 
nourishing lawyer, happily married. The sudden death 
of his wife turned him to religion, and sorrow inspired 
him with sympathy for the Mother of Sorrows. The 
Stabat, however, is not in Tresatti's edition of Bendetti's 
Works. Mr. Schwartz, in the August number of Mac- 
millan, points out that the. " Cur mundus militat," which 
is undoubtedly Bendetti's, is not to be found in Tresatti's 

A. A. The following is, probably, the line you are 

<( Sit meretrix Helena, at sancta appelletur Helena." 

BAL. Dibdin's song Monsieur Nongtong paw was 
sung in an entertainment, The General Election. In 
1796, in the Dictionary of .Literary Conversation, a story 
similar to that in the song is told of a Parisian in Holland, 
who takes the answers to his questions as referring to a 
"Mr. Kaniferstane," and it is said to be an entirely new 

ARCH. T. "Feringhee," denoting a Frank or European, 
is said, in Mr. Mounsey's Journey through the Caucasus, 
to be the corrupted formof" Varangians," the body-guard 
of the Emperors at Constantinople, consisting of Danes, 
Norwegians, and English. It appears, from an article in 
the last Quarterly, that Harold Hardrada, the King of 
Norway, who was killed at the battle of Stamford Bridge, 
1066, liad served several years in that formidable body. 

Several communications on Siirnames have been -duly 

" Episcopal Titles " next weeJc. 


We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher" at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.Cj 

Price Half-a-Crown, direct from Author, no stamps taken, 

GODDARD : a Memoir of the Goddards of North 
Wilts. Compiled from Ancient Records, Registers, and Family 
Papers. By RICHARD JEFFERIES, Coate, Swindon, Wilts. 



192, Fleet Street (Corner of Chancery Lane). 


NOTE PAPER, Cream or Blue, 3s., 4s., 5s., and 6s. per ream. 
ENVELOPES, Cream or Blue, 4s. 6d, 5s. 6d., and 6s. 6d. per 1,000. 
THE TEMPLE ENVELOPE, with High Inner Flap, Is. per 100. 
STRAW PAPER Improved quality, 2s. 6d. per ream. 
FOOLSCAP, Hand-made Outsides, 8s. 6d. per ream. 
BLACK-BORDERED NOTE, 4. and 68. 6d. per ream. 
BLACK-BORDERED ENVELOPES, Is. per 100 Super thick quality. 
TINTED LINED NOTE, for Home or Foreign Correspondence (five 

colours), 5 quires for Is. 6d. 
COLOURED STAMPING (Relief), reduced to 48. 6d. per ream, or 

8s. 6d. per l.nOO. Polished Steel Crest Dies engraved from 5. 

Monograms, two letters, from 5s. ; three letters, from 7s. Business 

or Address Dies, from 38. 
SERMON PAPER, plain, 4s. per ream ; Ruled ditto, 4s. 6d. 
SCHOOL STATIONERY supplied on the most liberal terms. 

Illustrated Price List of Inkstands, Despatch Boxes, Stationery, 
Cabinets, Postage Scales, Writing Cases, Portrait Albums, &c., post 


The Vellum Wove Club-House Paper, 

Manufactured expressly to meet a universally experienced want, i.e. a 
paper which shall in itself combine a perfectly smooth surface with 
total freedom from grease. 

The New Vellum Wove Club-House Paper 

will be found to possess these peculiarities completely, being made from 
the best linen rags only, possessing great tenacity and durability, and 
presenting a surface equally well adapted for quill or steel pen. 

all others for smoothness of surface, delicacy of colour, firmness of tex- 
ture, entire absence of any colouring matter or injurious chemicals, 
tending to impair its durability or in any way affecting its writing pro- 
perties. A Sample Packet, containing an Assortment of the various 
Sizes, post free for 24 Stamps. 

PARTRIDGE & COOPER, Manufacturers and Sole Vendors, 
Fleet Street, E.C. 


Reproductions of Simple and Artistic Cabinet Work from Country 

Mansions of the XVI. and XVII. Centuries, combining good taste, 

sound workmanship, and economy. 

COLLINSON & LOCK (late Herring), 

109, FLEET STKEET, E.C. Established 1782. 


Imitations of rare old BROCADES, DAMASKS, and GOBELIN 

COLLINSON & LOCK (late Herring), 

109, FLEET STREET, LONDON. Established 1782. 

pHUBB'S NEW PATENT SAFES, steel-plated 

\J with diagonal bolts, to resist wedges, drills, and fire. Lists of 
prices, with illustrations of all sizes and qualities of Chubb's Safes, 
Strong-Room Doors, and Locks, sent free by CHUBB & SON, 57, St. 
Paul's Churchyard, London. 



& CO., of 14, ST. MARY AXE, have just received a Consign- 
ment of No. 3 MANILA CIGARS, in excellent condition, in Boxes 
of 500 each. Price 21. lus. per box. Orders to be accompanied by a 

N.B. Sample Box of 100,10*. 6& 

1*8. XII 

i. AUG. so, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




> )TES : William Bullein's Praise of Chaucer, Gower, Lydgate, 
Skelton, and Barclay, 161 Episcopal Titles, 162 Surnames, 
164 Origin of Hundreds : Centuriation of Roman Britain, 
165 "Robbing Peter to pay Paul" Tavern Signs Bell- 
ringing "The grassy clods now calved" Hooker's 
"Ecclesiasticall Politie "Infernal Machine Monumental 
Brass in Kemsing Church, 166. 

C QERIES : Lord Kenyon Author Wanted Elizabeth 
Hands Nursery Rhyme John Maude of Moorhouse 
Crabb of Cornwall, 167 The Sublime Porte Tobias Fur- 
neaux, R N " As warm as a bat "Quarterly Review, 1827 
Mr. Langley, York Royalist Rising in Kent (1648) 
"Tales and Legends of the Isle of Wight" Helmet and 
Beehive" Raise " " Le Philosophe Anglois " Croylooks 

John Locke, 168 Keats Meaning of Words The 
Gibault, De Quetteville, and Dobree Families of Guernsey 
Penance in the Church of England in the last Century 
Thomas Mudd, 169. 

IMPLIES : Carolan, 169 Old Entries, 170 Catalogue of the 
Signet Library, 171 Cullen Parish Church : John Duff of 
Muldavit, 172" A Parenthesis in Eternity," 173" The Idle 
Man" Marmaduke "Hard Lines" "Church of England 
Quarterly," 174 From a MS. Note-Book, circiter 1770 Sir 
Richard Steele John Glover Old Songs, 175 "Canada " 
"Blue Beard's Cabinets "Chancellorship of the Exchequer 

The History of the Tichborne Family " Upraised " = 
"Churched" "Pedigrees of Lancashire Families," 176 
Tennyson as a Naturalist A Modern Myth Petition of the 
Young Ladies of Edinburgh "Par ternis suppar" "To- 
Day" St. Aubyn Family Mansie Wauch Gainsborough's 
" Blue Boy "Earldom of Hereford " Mary Anne," a Re- 
publican Toast, 177 Rev. Comberbach Leech Heraldic 
Crabbe, the Poet Thomas Longley "Embossed" 
Erasmus Quellin, 178 " Faire le diable a quatre " " A Tour 
Round my Garden "Women in Church The Earliest 
Mention of Shakspeare P. Pelham Red and White Roses 
" Insense," 179. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


Few things are pleasanter in reading old books 
than to come on a passage of praise of our old poets, 
showing that in Tudor times men cared for the 
" makers" of former days, as we do still. To Mr. 
David Laing's kindness I owe the introduction to 
the following quotation from a rare tract where one 
wouldn't have expected to find such a passage, 
namely, " A Dialogue bothe pleasaunt and pretifull, 
wherein is a godlie regiment against the Feuer 
Pestilence, with a consolation and comforte againste 
death. "IT Newlie corrected by William Bullein, 
the author thereof. Imprinted at London, by Ihon 
Kingston. Julij, 1573." 

P. 17. " Crispine. I did beholde on the other side the 
nine Muses, -with strange instrumentes of Musicke, sittyng 
vnder the hille Parnasus, and Poetes sittyng vnder the 
grene trees,* with Laurell garlandes, besette with Roses 
aboute their heades, hauyng golden Pennes in their 
handes, as Homer, Hesiodus, Ennius, &c.,writyng Verses 
of sondrie kindes. And Lucanus sat there very high, 
nere vnto the cloudes, apparelled in purple : saiyng 

Quantum sermotus ego : 

Cardine Pernasus gemino petit ethera colle 

Motif Phcebo Bromioque sacer. 

* I take these accented double e's, so common in 
Tudor books, to mean that the type was founded abroad, 
and intended for French use as well as English. 

And nere theim satte old Morall Goore,* with pleasaunte 
penne in hande, commendyng honeste loue, without 
luste, and pleasure, without pride. Holinesse in the 
Cleargie, without Hypocrisie, no tyrannic in rulers, no 
falshode in Lawiers, no Vsurie in Marchauntes, no rebel- 
lion in the Commons, and vnitie among kyngdomes, &c. 
Skelton satte in the corner of a Filler, with a Frostie 
bitten face, frownyng, and is scante yet cleane cooled of 
the hotte burnyng Cholour, kindeled againste the 
cankered Cardinall Wolsey: writyug many a sharpe 
Disticons, with bloudie penne againste hym, and sente 
theim by the infernall ryuers StyxFt,egiton,a,nd Acheron, 
by the Feriman of helle, called Charon, to the saied 

How the Cardinall come of nought, 

And his Prelacie sold and bought, 

A nd where suche Prelates bee, 

Sprong of lowe degree : 

And spirituall dignitee, 

Farewell benignitee, 

Farewell simplicitee, 

Farewell humanitee. 

Farewell good charitee. 
Thus paruum literatug, 

Came, from Rome gatus, 

Doctor dawpatus, 

Scante a bachelaratus : 

And thus Skelton did ende, 
With Wolsey hisfrende. 

Wittie Chaucer satte in a chaire of gold couered with 
Roses, writyng Prose and Risme, accompanied with the 
Spirites of many kynges, knightes, and faire Ladies. 
Whom he pleasauntly besprinkeled with the sweete water 
of the welle, consecrated vnto the Muses, ecleped 
Aganippe. And as the heauenly spirite commended his 
deare Brigham, for the worthie entombyng of his bones, 
worthie of memorie, in the long slepyng chamber, of 
moste famous kinges,f Euen so in tragedie he bewailed 
the sodaine resurrection of many a noble man, before 
their time : in spoilyng of Epitaphes, wherby many haue 
lost their inheritaunce, &c. And further thus he saied, 

Couelous men do catche, all that thei mai liaue, 

The felde and theflocke, the tombe and the graue f 

And as thei abuse riches, and their graues that are gone, 

The same measure thei shall haue euery one. 

Yet no buriall hurteth holie men, though beastes them 

deuour ; 
Nor riche graue preuaileth the wicked, for all yearthly 

power. % 

Lamentyng Lidgate, lurking among the Lilie, with a balde 
skons, with a garlande of Willowes about his pate: 
booted he was after sainct Benets guise, and a blacke 
stamell robe, with a lothlie monsterous hoode hangyng 
backwarde, his stoopyng forward bewailyng euery estate, 
with the spirite of prouidence. Forseyng the falles of 
wicked men, and the slipprie feates of princes, the 
ebbyng and flowyng, the risyng and falling of men in 
auctoritie, and how vertue do aduaunce the simple, and 
vice ouerthrow the most noble of the worlde. And thus 
he said 

* This is, no doubt, the true pronunciation of Gower's 

f Brigham gave Chaucer a new tomb in Westminster 

J It is to be hoped that the worthy doctor didn't think 
these verses were in Chaucer's style. Are they an at- 
tempt to imitate the spurious Gamelyn ? 

J Alluding to his translation from Boccaccio, his 
alles of Princes.'' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4- s. XIL A DO . 30/73. 

Oh noble Princes conceiue and doe lere 
The Jail of Kyngesfor misyouernere, 
And 'prudently peisyng this matter. 
Vertue is stronger then either plate or maile : 
Therefore consider when wisedome do coumaile 
Chief preseruatiue of Princely magnificence, 
Is to almightie God to doe due reuerence. 
Then Bartlet * with an hoopyng russet long coate, with 
a pretie hoode in his necke, and fiue knottes vpon his 
girdle, after Frances trickes. He was borne beyonde the 
cold riuer of Twede-t He lodged rpon a swete bed of 
Chamomill, vnder the Sinamum tree : about hym many 
Shepherdes and Shepe, with pleasaunte Pipes : greatly 
abhorryng the life of Courtiers, Citezeins, Vsurers, and 
Banckruptes, &c., whose old dales are miserable. And 
the estate of Shepherdes, and countrie people, he 
accoumpted moste happie and sure, &c. Saiyng. 

Who entreth the court in yong and tender age 
Are lightly blinded withfolie and outrage: 
But suche as enter with witte and grauitie, 
Bowe not so sone to suche enormitie, 
But ere thei enter if thei haue learned nought, 
Afterwards vertue the least of their thought." 

The book has many sketches of the life of its 
time, and is in parts very interesting. For its 
description of a reformed Nodnol (London), or city 
of Ecnatneper (Repentance), in the land of Taerg 
Natrib (Great Britain), pages 159-168, the book 
may fairly claim a place among Mr. Crossley's 
Utopiana, There is an allusion to Barclay's " Ship 
of Fools" at p. 138; and many travellers' lies 
from Mandeville, &c., are told by Mendax., 
p. 144, &c. F. J. F. 


D. P. implies that HERMENTRUDE, for whose 
knowledge and opinions every gentleman must feel 
the greatest respect, is wrong in saying that William 
made bishops temporal barons. I have not Selden's 
Titles of Honor here, but Matt. Carter, in his 
Analysis of Honor, says, referring at the same 
time, in a note, to " Mr. Selden's Titles of Honor, 
ch. v., f. 699-704": 

" These Spiritual Barons were distinguished from the 
Temporal Thanes in the time of the Saxons by holding 
their lands free from all secular service ; excepting tri- 
noda necessitas (as it was called), which was, assistance 
in War, in building of Bridges and Castles, which con- 
tinued till the fourth year of William I., who then made 
the Bishopricks and Abbies, subject to knights service 
in chief, by creation of new tenures ; and so first turned 
their possessions into Baronies, and thereby made them 
Barons of the Kingdom ly tenure. That all Bishops, 
Abbots, Priors, and the like, that field in chief of the 
King, had their possessions as Baronies, and were accord- 
ingly to do services, and to sit in judgement with the rest 
of the Barons in all cases, but cases of Blood, from which 
they are prohibited by the Canon Law." 

Therefore William did, according to Selden, make 
the bishops barons of the kingdom by tenure. The 

* Alexander Barclay, the author of Eclogues, translator 
of Brandt's Slultifera Navis, &c. 

t This is an interesting confirmation of Barclay's 
Scotch birth, which Mr. Laing considers fully establisht. 

t See 4 th S.'xii. 64, 90,121. 

object D. P. has in view is evidently to show that 
bishops sat in Parliament in right of their eccle- 
siastical titles alone, but his quotation relative to 
the customary form of summons in the reign of 
Stephen does not prove that the ecclesiastical title 
and the barony had been separated after William's 
time ; it rather shows that they had become in- 
separably united. D. P. does not tell us anything 
about the immediate successors of the first bishops 
made barons of the kingdom by William, or that, 
as we should say now, each of them was created a 
peer when he obtained the barony. 

As regards the title of " My Lord," given by 
courtesy to the bishops of the various countries to 
which D. P. refers, and to our Scotch and Colonial 
bishops, and those of the Roman Catholics of Great 
Britain and Ireland, it would be childish to with- 
hold it, although in the nineteenth century it is 
not customary to give the title of "My Lord" to 
every person who would have been styled " Domi- 
nus " in the Middle Ages. 

If HERMENTRUDE failed to make her meaning 
sufficiently clear for D. P.'s understanding by using 
simply the word baron without further explanation, 
every other reader of " N. & Q." understood what 
she meant, as probably not one of them is ignorant 
of the various senses in which the word baron was 
used at different periods. D. P. must be as clever 
as he thinks himself if he can teach them anything ; 
for, taken as a body of men, they know all that is 
known. He may amuse them, but he will not 
instruct them. RALPH N. JAMES. 

Ashford, Kent. 

As the quotation from Phillimore's Ecclesiastical 
Law, which I have verified, refers evidently to 
courtesy titles only, it tells nothing whatever for 
your correspondent's case. No one has denied that 
such titles are given to certain bishops and others, 
but simply the right of those persons to bear them. 
I maintain, also, that " the vulgar error spoken of 
by Sir R. Phillimore " refers only to a practice, 
not to a right. And it is the right that is in ques- 
tion. He does not say " only to be given," bat 
" only given to bishops with seats in Parliament." 
We know, and admit, that it is given to others, 
but we contend that it ought not to be. It is given 
by advocates to judges on the bench, but no one 
will affirm that it is given to them as a title they 
can demand. Notwithstanding the conflicting 
judgments of Coke, Gibson, and Hale, I still hold 
" that bishops derive their titles, as they do their 
seats in the House of Lords, from their baronies, 
and not from their office per se." Phillimore is 
with me here, at least, to a great extent. He says 
(Eccl. Law, vol. i. p. 62, 1873): "Every bishop 
hath a barony, in respect whereof, according to the 
law and custom of Parliament, he ought to be sum- 
moned to Parliament as well as any of the nobles j 
of the realm." Their true position, as I think, is> 

t th S. XII. ADO. 30, 73.] 



tl at stated by Chambers in his Cyclopaedia, sub 
v< ce bishop : " The bishops of England are all 
b rons and peers. Barons in a two-fold manner, 
v 2., feudal, in respect of lands and baronies annexed 
tc their bishopricks ; and by writ, as being sum- 
n oned to Parliament." 

D. P. asks, in his reply to HERMENTRUDE, 
" Who says that William the Conqueror made the 
Citholic bishops of England temporal barons 
when, and where?" Dr. Gibson says it (127): 
"For although their baronies did put them more 
u ader the power of the king, and under a stricter 
o oligation to attend ; yet long before William the 
C onqueror changed bishopricks into baronies, they 
were, as bishops, members of the Mycel-Synod, or 
Witena-gemote, which was the great Council of the 
nation." In 3 Salk. 73, it is also said, " They 
were not barons till the Norman reign "...." but 
William the Conqueror .... turned their posses- 
sions into baronies, and made them subject to the 
tenures and duty of knight service." (See Philli- 
niore's Eccl Law, vol. i. p. 66.) 

In reply to H. P. D. I answer, that if I had the 

; pleasure of addressing Bishop Sumner, I dare say 

| I might style him "My Lord"; but I should do 

i so in the sense, and under the limitation, I am now 

i contending for. It would have been exactly the 

same in my supposed interview with " the late 

Emperor at Chiselhurst." Had H. P. D. lived 

when William III. was king, would he, or would 

i he not, " have withheld the title of Majesty " from 

James II., or from either of the Pretenders? 

Your correspondents have been singularly unfor- 
tunate in citing the case of the bishopric of Sodor 
and Man. For, if it tells either way, it tells for 
me, and not for them. In his short history of that 
island, Bishop Wilson says (Works, p. 455, fol. 
1782), " The Bishops of Man are barons of the 
isle. They have their own courts for their tem- 
poralities, where one of the deemsters of the isle 
I sits as judge." It may be their not having a seat 
in the English House of Peers is the consequence 
of some arrangement entered into between the 
Government and the Earl of Derby, when he ceded 
to the English crown the sovereignty of that isle. 

In Switzerland are several Catholic bishops who, 
in society, are addressed as Monsignors ; but such 
titles are not acknowledged by the Federal laws. 
In the recent proceedings against two Catholic 
prelates, they were called Monsieur Mermillod and 
Monsieur Lachat; and in the recent debates at 
Berne any one who used the term " Monsignor" or 
" Mon Seigneur" was called to order, and had to 
retract. It may be a breach of good manners to 
withhold the title of " My Lord" from any bishop, 
Catholic or Protestant, that we meet in society; 
but etiquette and right are two very different 
things. I quite agree with HERMENTRUDE. Catholic 

and Scotch bishops are no more Lords and Graces 
than a Cornish miner is a " Captain," or the re- 
pairer of a Lincolnshire sea-bank is a " banker." 

Throughout eastern and western Christendom, 
" My Lord," or some equivalent title implying rule 
and dignity, is invariably accorded to bishops, 
irrespective of establishments or Parliamentary 
peerages. It is generally held by Churchmen that 
it was the subject of prophecy, as in the Christmas 
Psalm : " Instead of thy fathers thou shalt have 
children, whom thou mayest make princes in all 
lands." Hence the Scottish and Irish bishops, 
although they are enduring the affliction of dis- 
establishment, and are no longer temporal peers de 
facto, have not thereby forfeited the title of honour 
and dignity which has always been the privilege 
of their order, semper et ubique. A. B. 

Deer, N.B. 

In Christendom I should prefer to hear of no 
" Lord Bishops," " Graces," &c. Such titles seem 
vainglorious, and scarcely consistent with the pro- 
fession of only spiritual superiority. I do not 
deny that they may be conveniently permitted to 
be used ; and in this light they are scarcely worth 
discussing. HERMENTRUDE seems to have fallen 
into an historical error. She should have taken 
her stand on ancient usage, so far as it is recog- 
nized by -the State. I myself cannot conceive such 
titles conferring any real dignity, or being in any 
way related to Christianity, as we find it charac- 
terized in its fundamental records, and therefore 
regard them (be it said without disrespect to any 
one) as, for the most part, factitious. LYSTRA. 

The titles of Dominus in the West and Kyrios in 
the East (in the case of a Metropolitan, Despotes) 
have always been given to bishops, irrespective of 
any civil position ; they belong to the Church's 
nobility. The title has nothing in itself connected 
with the House of Lords, nor with the baronies 
bestowed on bishops by William I. Bishops sit 
in the House of Lords not by virtue of their being 
created barons, but because they form the first 
estate of the realm : the three estates being Lords 
Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and Commons. In 
accordance with this, in the writ which summoned 
the bishop to Parliament, he was enjoined to bring 
with him the Prior or Dean of the Cathedral 
Church, the Archdeacons, and one Proctor for the 
Chapter, and two for the diocese. This was a part 
of the " Prseniunientes Clause" of the writ of 
Edward I., and, strange to say, this clause is re- 
tained with slight variation to the present day ! 
(See Joyce's Sacred Synods, p. 273.) These proc- 
tors were, it would seem, different persons from 
the proctors who sat in Convocation. It is equally 
clear that bishops were addressed as lords before 



[4 th S. XII. AUG. 30, 73. 

there was any Upper and Lower Houses of Parlia- 
ment, both in this country and in others in Europe. 


I should like to add a few curiosities to MR. 
BOUCHIER'S list, 4 th S. xii. 82. They are Avis, 
from Avice, a well-known mediaeval Latin female 
name ; Blancheflower, or Blanchefleuer, a name 
not uncommon in west Somersetshire among the 
Huishes. There is Archedeckne (Archdeacon), 
one of the most amazing of names ; and likewise 
Waukenphast, a London bootmaker. Applega.rth 
is as good as Appleyard. Many of the odd 
names are derived from places, e. g., Bythesea, 
Bottle (Bootle), Bullwinckle, Bray, Cowmeadow, 
Cause. Coffee is a corruption of Cuffee, itself a 
corrupted Irish name ; Chataway is territorial ; 
Death is D'Ath, a very old name; Dainty has 
another form in Daintry, colloquial for "Daven- 
try"; Eat well is territorial, also Frizzle, or Fres- 
well, and Freshwater ; Flowers Woodland, . like 
Hezekiah Hollowbread, is a fortuitous union ; 
Griffinhoofe is corrupted from the German ; Green- 
street, Honeybone (Honeybourne), Holy land, 
Hasluck, Hole, Haggard are territorial ; " Idle" was 
the name of one of Hogarth's " apprentices " in the 
famous series of designs, it is territorial ; Kiss is 
German; Leatherbarrow (Lederbarrow) andLeaping- 
well are territorial ; Ledger is St. Leger ; Longstreet 
is territorial ; Pain is Payne ; Pilgrim has its fellow 
in French and German ; Paradise is due to "of the 
Parvis," which latter may re-appear in " Purvis " ; 
Sowerbutts is, probably, from " Saarbriick " or 
" Sauerbreuk " ; Stoney street is territorial ; Seefar 
may have been Seafarer or Seaford ; Sheepwash is 
territorial; Steptoe was, probably, first given to 
a lame man ; Stack, Seamark, Sandbank, Sanc- 
tuary, and, perhaps, Thirst (Thirsk), are territorial, 
likewise Tongue (Tong) and Toby (Scotch) ; 
Thirdborough is official ; Wakerly (not in MR. 
BOUCHIER'S list) is territorial. 

The originals and cognates of a very large 
proportion of English names should be looked for 
in the Dutch and Flemish languages. 

Many of your readers may have thought, as I 
have, that common ridicule of Puritan Christian 
names is very unfair : they are very often transla- 
tions from the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, or 
German, e.g., Rich- in -Peace Smith is perfectly 
recognizable in Frederick Smith, and God's-Gift 
Jones owed his first name to the Italian or Latin. 


"Argument" is the oddest name I have met 
with (over a shop in Whitby) ; but if your corre- 
spondent will set himself to collect names to which 
no meaning can be attached or etymology given 
not names of places or localities, not derived from 
Christian names, not taken from trades or occupa- 

tions, not nicknames transmitted to descendants 
nor personal peculiarities, and not corruptions from 
some foreign language I suspect he will be sur- 
prised by the shortness of his list ; the really 
curious names are the names which have no 
meaning that we can discover. P. P. 

If MR. BOUCHIER should ever visit the parish 
church of Heacham, King's Lynn, he will find a 
black marble slab, in the floor, to the memory of a 
Mr. " Pig," with a coat of arms attached. This 
name may be worthy of a place in his curious list. 

W. M. H. C. 

What are we to make of Twelvetrees, Tradescant, 
Thickbroom, Leatherbarrow ; and what shall we 
say of such a name as Scaredevil ? The occupation, 
sometimes, associates very peculiarly with the 
name : we have known apothecaries and surgeons 
of the names of Littlefear, Butcher, Death, and 
Coffin ; Pie, a pastrycook ; Rideout, a stable- 
keeper ; Tugwell, a dentist ; Lightfoot, a dancing- 
master ; Mixwell, a publican ; and two hosiers of 
the names of Foot and Stocking. A more fatal 
equivoque was, perhaps, never produced by sur- 
names than the following : 

' ' Count Valavoir was a general in the French service* 
and distinguished himself under the great Turentie. It 
happened, that while they were lying encamped before 
the enemy, the Count one evening attempted to pass one 
of the sentinels after sunset. The sentinel challenged 
him, and the Count answered, Va-la-voir, which, literally, 
signifies ' go and see.' The soldier, who took the word 
in this sense, indignantly repeated the challenge, and 
was answered in the same manner, when he fired ; and 
the unfortunate Count fell dead upon the spot a victim 
to the whimsicality of his surname." 


The lady named " Onions," who got out at "Pickle 
Bridge," will be fresh in everyone's recollection. 
Some disagreeable names will be found enumerated 
in the preface to the Supercheries Litteraires 
DevoiUes, by Querard. OLPHAR HAMST. 

From my list of odd surnames I send a few of 
the oddest, which are not in MR. BOUCHIER'S in- 
teresting collection : Blackbrow, Liptrapp, Tooth, 
Halfside, Longman Strong'th'arm (Christian and 
surname), Smallpiece, Littlepage, Lightbody, Chip- 
chase, Fairweather, Canon Ball (Christian and sur- 
name), Warboys, Biggerstaff, Slyman, Properjohn, 
Goodday, Goodspeed, Dudman Welladvise (Chris- 
tian and surname), Careless, Reckless, Scamp, 
Strange ways, Spearpoint, Doolittle, Gladdish, 
Shoebottom, Fiveash, Rodd, Thickbroom, Pill, 
Winter-flood, Storm, Middleship, Varnish. 

T. M. 

MR. BOUCHIER'S amusing list of surnames seems 
to include only existing names. Perhaps he would 
be interested in one of mine, which comprises such 
only as I have found to occur between 1291 and 

4- s. xii. AUG. so, 73.] NOTES AND QUEEIES. 


1440, and, again, between 1682 and 1704. They 
ire arranged chronologically. 

Edw. I. (1291-1307), Blanket, Spillewyne, Skar- 
let, Alicia Thepundersstepdoghtre. 

Edw. II. (1307-1327), Bonesoy. 

Edw. III. (1327-1377), Ealph Screch and John 
de la Misericorde (parties to a suit), De Stablegate, 
Milkesop, Alicesone, Harneys, Garubon, Shapacape, 
Go to Bedde, Twentymark, Hiredman, Adam of 
the Holies, Eosamond, Brandewyne, Philip Alayn- 
seruant-ffrank (i. e., servant of Alan Frank), 
Whithors, Shillyng, Halfacre, Blakhat, Swetapple, 
Payable, Shavetail, Blakamour, Underdone. 

Eic. II. (1377-1399), Whytheberd, Inthehay, 

Hen. IY. (1399-1413), Hassok, Eoughened, 
ffarewell, Johannes-that-was-the-man-of-Crise, Eas- 
call, Sly, Fairmayden, Whitebrede, Strykere, 
Thunder, Seint Jakes, Holiwood. 

Hen. Y. (1413-1422), Alfryd. 

Hen. VI. (1422-1440), Brekerope, Quyxley, 
Greyfin, Basket, Warmewell, John Cryour Barker, 
Alicia Strangewoman, Mustard. 

Chas. II. (1682-5), Bufoyloth. 

Jas. II. (1685-8), Goldsadle, Catchlove, Behe- 
theland, Wildgoose, Fireside, Whitehair. 

Will. III. (1688-1702), Sessions, Kittie, Pescod, 
Strewbrew, Foresight, Thorough-kettle, Smallbone, 
Lace, Euly, Basilea, Saffron, Omiash, Pharao. 

Anne (1702-4), Beefe, Watchie, Seorchival, 
Bacchus, Eufane, Soleiroll, Tonzy, Eaiment, Wood- 
not, Patience, Mock, Stifle, Ernrye, Holiehand, 
Archthelonie, Toe. 

One of the oddest series of names (I hope) ever 
inflicted on a defenceless infant, is to be found in 
the register of St. Bride's, as follows : 

" 1679, May 10 [Baptized], Carolus Henricus Ricardus 
Marca Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Cadyman and 
Eenritta his wife." 

Mr. Philip Cadyman must have been a gentle- 
man of remarkable tastes, and I feel sorry for poor 
Carolus as she grew up. However, she was free to 
sign Elizabeth. HERMENTRUDE. 

The surnames of my housemaid and groom are 
Tidd and Todd. It is a curious coincidence that 
they should be living in the same house at the 
same time. More curious is the fact, that the 
surnames of my four in-door servants, eight years 
ago, were Carter, Shepherd, Plowman, and Sheerer ; 
and this in a small agricultural parish. 


Toes, shoemaker, Heeles, clogmaker, Longbones, 
Pyefinch, all now or late of York. Buss and Pop- 
kiss, Dover, 1851. Pickles seUs pickles at Leeds 

H. N. 0. 

In Sunderland live, in the same house, Mr. 
Doubleday and Miss Halfknight ; in Taunton 
(some years ago) I read on a sign-board over a shop, 

" Locke and Milton " ; and in Oswestry I once 
knew a boy who rejoiced in the name of Daniel 
O'Connell Cobbett Conde. Conde pere was a 
Eadical tailor. A. E. 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

[Several correspondents have kindly furnished ad- 
ditions to the above note, by selecting surnames from 
various directories, which are also names of colours, 
minerals, countries, &c. These, however, amusing as 
they may be, are a little beside the purpose. What 
"N. & Q." chiefly seeks, are names which are so rare as 
not even to be often found in printed collections. Within 
"N. & Q.'s" experience are the following: Moist and 
Mudd, who are ratepayers in West London. Pharaoh is a 
hairdresser in Marylebone, and Dagobert was, at one 
time, a barber near Leicester Square. Houchin and 
Paragrean, and Kinnerfick, are in Surrey. Eastwood's 
Ecclesfield has a John Smalbehynd ; and Sussex possesses 
many Hobgens. Among the Roundhead captains there 
was a Roseworm; and Jekdoe has survived to these 
later times. There is a Harold still at Battle, Vergette 
is known at Peterborough, Dudmarsh at Harpenden, and 
these may be translated ; but Entincknap, near Bentley 
(Hants), must be a puzzle, even to its owner. Yeaw is 
the name of a brewer on the banks of the Thames. 
Easterly Rains was in trouble at the Sessions not long 
ago, and Grand Riches is the name of a coachman who 
was lately witness in an assault case.] 

EOMAN BRITAIN. This is the exact title of the 
interesting paper presented to the Society of An- 
tiquaries, in 1869, by Mr. Henry Charles Coote, 
F.S.A. The centuria according to this learned 
writer was an estate, or allotment, or assignment 
of land ; containing from 50 to 200, or even 250 
jugera, which last would, probably, answer to 
the Saxon plough-land or hide, as it was some- 
times called enough land to support a plough, 
that is the ploughman and his family. " The terri- 
tory having been appropriated " (says Mr. Coote), 
"the next step was to divide and assign it in 
centurice or private estates. The centuriation, as it 
was called, was the legal and constitutional act 
which perfected the change from public land into 
private property " (page 7). 

The centuria was, it seems, originally so called 
from its containing a hundred jugera, but in later 
times the number of jugera was increased, and 
sometimes doubled, and Isidore defines the centuria 
as ducenta jugera. That this is the real origin of 
hundreds is apparent, from the fact that they cer- 
tainly existed in Eoman times, and are found, not 
long afterwards, existing everywhere under the 
Saxons, without any mention in contemporary his- 
tory of their institution by the Saxons. No 
doubt the Saxons had some system of " centuria- 
tion" in their native country, but it was only 
numerical, not .territorial, whereas the Eornan 
system was, as our own is, territorial. As early as 
the time of Bede we find land divided into hun- 
dreds of family lands, term familiares. Thus he 
states that the extent of the Isle of Wight was 



s. xn. AUG. so, 73. 

(B. iv. c. 16) " twelve hundred family lands" ; the 
Saxon family land corresponding with the Roman 
jugera, and a hundred of these corresponding with 
the Roman centuria; whence, no doubt, the 
Welsh cantred, the Roman-Britons having retained 
the same divisions which the Saxons afterwards 
adopted. An old chronicler defines a hundred as 
containing a hundred villas : Hundredus continet 
centum villas (Brompt. 956). The term " villa " 
in Bede is rendered by the Saxon translator "tune" 
(town), and included not only the mansion of the 
owner but the cottages of the tenants and slaves 
who cultivated it. The extent of the Saxon hun- 
dred, as of the Roman centuria, greatly varied ; 
and it can easily be imagined that in the course 
of time, among a rude and barbarous people, their 
limits would often be altered, by divisions or an- 
nexations from various causes. Hence we find that 
the size of hundreds very greatly varies, as also 
the number of manors a hundred contains. 

W. F. F. 

of this saying is to be found in Thomas Nash's 
Have with you to Saffron-Walden, 1596, viz.: 

" And yet, as I shrewdly presage, thou shalt not finde 
many powling pence about him neither, except he rob 
Peter to pay /We." (Mr. Collier's reprint, p. 9.) 


TAVERN SIGNS. In the neighbourhood of Rip- 
ponden, Yorkshire, is a public-house called The 
Quiet Woman. The painting represents the figure 
of a female, but without a head. At Weakey, in 
Saddleworth, Yorkshire, is a public-house known 
by the sign of The Gate. On the front of the 
house hangs a miniature gate, on which are in- 
scribed the words : 

' This gate hangs well, 
And hinders none. 
Refresh and pay, 
And travel on." 


G. H. A. 

BELL-RINGING. Being on a pedestrian tour 
last summer in the North Riding of Yorkshire, I 
visited Hardrow, near which are the noted Water- 
falls. In the village is a small Episcopalian church. 
I was told by a resident that there is connected 
with this church a chapel-of-ease, some five miles 
distant, in which is a belfry but no bell. When 
service is to be held, which is only very occasionally, 
the clerk mounts the belfry, and rings a hand-bell, 
calling out, "He's a-comin," "He's a-comin," 
alluding to the clergyman, whom he can see ap- 
proaching at a distance of two miles. G. H. A. 


taste of this supposed metaphor of Milton's has 
been questioned. Some one somewhere suggested 
there might be no metaphor at all ; that Milton, 

being blind, dictated " caved," with the long open 
a, grateful perhaps to his ear, and could not (for 
the same cause of blindness) revise the error of 
spelling into which his secretary, or printer, had 

But how was it with John Wesley, who saw very 
well how to write and revise till turned of eighty, 
and who thus transcribes from a friend's account 
of an accident that happened to a Cornish man : 
" He was sitting cleaving stones, when the rock 
calved in upon him"? Exactly (in sense if not in 
sound) as Suffolk labourers now talk of a ditch 
and a hungry farmer of his stomach " caving in." 


advertisement on the last page of " N. & Q." for 
June the 21st, 1873, Mr. Kerslake has a note on 
the rare second edition of Hooker's Ecclesiasticall 
Politie, which raises a question of some interest. 
He says the second and very rare edition printed 
by John Windet, in 1604, was the first edited by 
John Spencer, Hooker's friend, and has the note 
to the reader signed T. S., and not J. S., as stated 
by A. Wood, and adopted by Keble, from his not 
being able to get a sight of a copy of this second 

I believe the " note to the reader " in the second 
edition was signed I. S. ; it is so in the copy in my 
library; but it is very probable that some of the 
first copies of the book had the letters printed 
T. S. by mistake, which was corrected as soon as 
the error was observed. In Stansby's edition of 
1611-17 the letters are J. S., and they are so 
quoted by Isaac Walton (who was Dr. Spencer's 
nephew) in his Life of Richard Hooker. 


INFERNAL MACHINE. The " infernal machine" 
for destroying ships, which is at present alarming 
some people, appears to be a by no means novel 
invention. So early as 1663, the Marquis of Wor- 
cester writes, in his Scantlings of Inventions, ix. : 

"An engine portable in one's pocket, which may be 
carried or fastened in the inside of the greatest ship, 
Tanquam aliud agens, and at any appointed minute, 
though a week after, either of day or night, it shall 
irrevocoverably (sic) sink that ship." 

Happily, he also alludes to the means of " pre- 
venting and safeguarding any ship from such an 
attempt by day or night." J. S. LAURIE. 

Whitehall Club. 

KENT. It may be well to draw attention in the 
pages of " N. & Q." to the fact that the brass of 
Thomas de Hop in the chancel of Kemsing Church, 
near Sevenoaks, has undoubtedly been antedated. 
The period hitherto assigned to it is early in the 
fourteenth century, about 1320, whereas I find, 
from the archives of the see of Rochester (Keg. 
Hamo de Hethe, f. 1946.), that Thomas de Hop was 

4* s. xii. AUG. 30, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


not admitted to the rectory of Kemsing unti 
March 27, 1341, more than twenty years later, an< 
that he died probably at the close of 1346, his wil 
having been proved on January 7th of the following 
year. Since there is no date on the brass, which i: 
still as perfect as when first laid down, it is no 
improbable that the monument was placed in the 
church under his own direction during his lifetime 
and allowing for this, it may be safely assumec 
that the engraving was executed between the years 
1340 and 1350, instead of about 1320. 

I may add that the history and antiquities o 
this little country church have been already full] 
discussed by me in the Reliquary for January o 
the present year, where an accurate reduction o 
the brass of Thomas de Hop will be found. 

Kidbrooke Park Road, Blackheath. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

LORD KEN YON. Until comparatively a recent 
period, the connexion between the first Lord 
Kenyon and the family of Simpson of Bounty 
Hall, Jamaica, and 30, Portland Place, London, 
used to be shown, but I do not remember to have 
seen it in the later published pedigrees. Mr. Simp- 
son, M.P. for Sevenoaks, was the nephew of Lord 
Kenyon's wife. The latter had also two nieces, 
daughters of Simpson of Bounty Hall, one of whom, 
Mary, married Handasyde Edgar, M.D., and the 
other * a Colonel Tullok, or Tullock. The wills 
explanatory of these alliances are on record in 
Jamaica, and therefore I should be grateful for a 
pedigree of the Simpson family which any of your 
readers may be able to give me, as obtaining in- 
formation from the W. I. Colonies within a reason- 
able period is not to be thought of. S. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Some time ago, I asked 
through " N. & Q." for some information respecting 
the author of a small collection of poems, chiefly in 
the Buchan (Aberdeenshire) dialect, and published 
m Aberdeen in 1829 or 1830, but failed then to 
elicit any reply to my query. The author was an 
old soldier ; so I gleaned from the opening verses 
of his first or introductory poem. As far as my 
memory serves me at this distance of time, the 
lines were as follows : 

" In Buchan I was born and bred, 

Of parents mean and poor, 
Who constantly inured me 
Hard labour to endure. 
I 'listed in a neebouring fair 
A soger for to be, 

* Or was she sister, and not niece, of Lady Kenyon? 

And we in a transport ship 

Soon sailed o'er the sea, 
To join my regiment then abroad 

AIMn my youthful bloom, 
We marched through showers of cannon balls 

Up to Fort Bergen op Zoom." 

I read the book the year in which it was published, 
but have never seen it since. I have a faint recol- 
lection that it was published by a Mr. Wyllie, a 
bookseller in Aberdeen, but of that I am not cer- 
tain. I should be very glad if some of your Aber- 
deen or Aberdeenshire correspondents would favour 
me, through " N. & Q.," with some information 
respecting the writer of this collection of poems, 
including a copy of the title-page of the work. 

W. McL. 

ELIZABETH HANDS. Who was Elizabeth Hands 
who published by subscription " The Death of 
Ammon : a Poem, with an Appendix containing 
Pastorals and other Poetical Pieces," Coventry, 
1789 1 The list of subscribers is large, contains 
names of note, and many members of colleges at 
Oxford and Cambridge. In the dedication to 
Bertie Greatheed, Esq., the authoress describes 
herself as " born in obscurity, and never emerging 
beyond the lower stations in life." H. P. L\ 

NURSERY EHYME. There is a quaint old 
nursery rhyme which lingers in my memory. I 
should be obliged if the readers of " N. & Q." could 
help me to any collection of rhymes in which it 
may be found. This is it, as far as my memory 
serves me : 
" There was an old woman as I have heard say, 

Who went to church her prayers for to say ; 

When she came to a stile, she rested a little while^ 

When she came to the church door, she rested a little 

As she went through the porch and in at the door, 

She saw a man lying dead on the floor. 

From his head to his heels, from his heels to his chin, 

The worms crawled out, and the worms crawled in ; 

' Shall I be like this when I am dead 1' 

' The very same/ the sexton said. 

' Ough ! ' she cried, and then she died." 

[t is certainly an odd production, and rather 
,/errible for a child to hear. L. D. 

up, in Philadelphia, an exquisite copy of Thomas 
Grent's History of Hull. It is bound in fine olive 
3alf, heavily gilt and tooled. The above name and 
iddress are on one of the pages. Can it have be- 
onged to the author of Verbeia ? 


Chicago, U.S.A. 

CRABB OF CORNWALL. I want to trace the 
enealogy of this family, who were located for 
aany generations in the valley of the Tamar. The 
ame first appears about 1217, as assisting to de- 
troy the fleet of Eustace the Monk (Harleian 
IS. 636). In 1225 the bailiffs of Southampton 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4 th s. xn. AUG. 30, 73. 

were ordered to buy cordage for the king's great 
ship under the inspection of Stephen Crabbe. An 
engineer of the name assisted Edward I. at the 
siege of Berwick, and Nicolas mentions his son 
as opposing Baliol's landing in the Tay in 1332. 
The same man was sent for by Edward III. before 
his expedition to France, in 1340, and made 
governor of forty ships to follow the defeated 
French fleet after the battle of Sluys in the same 
year. Nicolas also speaks of the frequent oc- 
currence of the name in English naval history, but 
I have so far been unable to discover any other 
mention of it than is given above. They bore for 
arms, " Azure, chevron between three fleurs de lis, 
argent." Where shall I find the Manor and Stan- 
nary Courts Rolls for the county of Cornwall 1 

J. C. F. 

THE SUBLIME PORTE. At what date, and from 
what Christian power, did the Sublime Porte first 
condescend to receive an ambassador, and who 
was the first ambassador from the Court of Eng- 
land who was received ; also, who and what were 
the diplomatic agents previously 1 If any of your 
intelligent correspondents will answer all or any of 
the above queries, they will oblige a curious but 
ill-informed inquirer. E. H. C. 

TOBIAS FURNEAUX, R.N. I want to find the 
exact naval rank of Tobias Furneaux at the time 
he commanded the " Adventure," Cook's com- 
panion vessel during his second voyage round the 
world. Cook mentions him several times in the 
diary of his voyage as " Captain" Furneaux, but 
as Cook was himself only a commander, it was 
scarcely consistent with naval etiquette that the 
second in command should have been of higher 
rank than his principal. The title of Captain was, 
I imagine, a courtesy title. I want to be sure. 

J. B. 

Melbourne, Australia. 

" As WARM AS A BAT." Many people say they 
feel " as warm as a bat," just a"s others say they 
feel " as warm as a toast." In what sense is the 
word "bat " to be understood ? J. BEALE. 

"QUARTERLY REVIEW," 1827. Can any one 
tell me who is the author of the article on Milton 1 

MR. LANGLEY, YORK. Who was Mr. Langley, 
schoolmaster at York in the time of the Common- 
wealth and beginning of the Restoration, 166 11 
He was a classical master, but I cannot find his 
name in the books in York. H. C. 

feel obliged to any " man of Kent " who can com- 
municate any family traditions or anecdotes con- 
nected with this heroic, though unsuccessful enter- 
prise. The paper I recently delivered at th( 

meeting of the Kent Archaeological Society was, as 
[ stated, only an outline. 


with the Adventures of the Author in search of 
Them." By Abraham Elder, Esq. 2nd edition, 
1843. Who wrote this work I It is not mentioned 
n Mr. Olphar Hamst's Handbook. Mr. Abra- 
lam Elder was evidently a person of culture and 
research, possessed of a delicate humour and much 
iterary skill. His book is very interesting, and 
might well be reprinted. Even those parts of it 
which are out of date serve to show how far we 
lave advanced, in certain directions, in the last 
;hirty years, such a sentence as the following, 
? or instance, from his discourse on the Pied Piper 
of Newtown : 

" There are also still in existence some very beautiful 
,nd copious remains of ancient literature in a language 
which Sir William Jones affirms to be more perfect than 
the Greek, and more copious than the Latin the Sans- 
crit, the oldest language known." 

The book is illustrated with pictures by Robert 
Cruikshank a man how different from George ! 



HELMET AND BEEHIVE. Could you, or one of 
your correspondents, inform me of an English 
ballad which makes mention of a warrior's helmet 
converted into a beehive "in the piping time of 
peace"? HERMIT OF N. 

"RAISE." Can any one tell me whether this 
causative of rise (A.S. risan) has yet been found in 
Anglo-Saxon 1 The Ormulum is Stratmann's first 
authority for it, and both Wedgwood and he give 
the Old Norse reisa, Gothic raisjan, as its source ; 
but one would expect to have found it in Anglo- 
Saxon too, though that had hebban, to heave, to 
raise. F. J. FURNIVALL. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Who was the writer of the 
novel entitled " Le Philosophe Anglois ; ou, His- 
toire de Monsieur Cleveland, Fits naturel de Crom- 
ivell, e'crite par lui-meme, et traduite de 1'Anglois 
par 1'Auteur des Memoires d'un Homme de 
Qualite 1 " (in eight volumes), Amsterdam, 1770. 

W. F. P. 

CROYLOOKS. What may the etymology of this 
word be ? Old people in the vale of Glamorgan 
go gathering croylooks for fuel, and these croylooks 
are the wood that remains from furze-bushes that 
have been set on fire. T. C. UNNONE. 

JOHN LOCKE. Is it known how many portraits 
of Locke were painted by Sir G. Kneller, and 
where they are now ? Mrs. Rollings, the widow of 
an eminent physician, bequeathed a portrait of 
John Locke to her daughter, Jane Champernowne. 
This, I suggest, was the last that Kneller painted, 

4 th S. XII. AUG. 30, '73.] 



namely, that painted in 1704 for Anthony Collins partially obliterated ; but I have not been able to 
(see Locke's letter to Collins, September 11, 1704) ; read the name of the penitent, whose sin may be 

and I believe it was engraved by Smith, and pub- 
lished in 1721. The Champernowne pictures 
appear to have been sold at the end of the last 
century. T. E. 


KEATS. Shelley, in his Adonais, stanza 30, 
speaking of " the mountain shepherds " who la- 
mented poor Keats's early death, says : 

" From her wilds lerne sent 
The sweetest lyrist of her saddest wrong ; 
And love taught grief to fall like music from his tongue. 

The allusion is, I presume, to Moore. Where does 
this poet pay a tribute to the memory of Keats 1 

inferred that of unchastity, but 

"Which was baptized by Mr. Watson [the rector of 
the adjoining parish of Somerton] July 8th, 1755. Mem. 
She left the parish to prevent my obliging her to her 

This is in the handwriting of the same vicar as 
the entry in 1740. WILLIAM WING. 

Steeple Aston, Oxford. 

[The form of penance is printed in " N. & Q.," 4 th S. 
i. 468. See also 2 nd S. ix. 167, 168.] 

modesty, but in simple ignorance, that I would ask, 

THOMAS FLUDD. Information wanted con- 
cerning any of the passengers of the ship " Alex- 
ander," given in Drake's Founders of New Eng- 
land, p. 106, as having sailed from London for 
Barbadoes, in May, 1635 ; and particularly of 
Thomas Fludd, showing from what places in Eng- 
, land thev came. Fludd, Flood, Flud, Flod, Flodd, 

V ,1 ' and ,.^ S S (a f y?' f)' what Fluyd, Floyd, Flowd, Elude, Floud, and Flewd, as 
the meaning of the particle Genes? Hydrogen is the ^ e ^ itten ' b diff ; rent members of ' the 

not that which is born of water, but that of which game famil MARTIN H. STAFFORD. 

water is born. In either sense vopoyevr) 1 ? is a | TVPW Vnvt 

name for Moses. Oxygen is the acid bearer, not 

the acid-born ; Cyanogen the colour maker, not the 

colour-born ; but when we get to Hylogenes, it 

is pretty plain that wood-born is meant. Medical 

doctors are occasionally heard to speak of Patho- 

genic disease, meaning not dirt-making, but dirt- 


(4 th S. xii. 9, 56, 118.) 
As an ardent admirer of Carolan's productions, I 

made fevers. Let us be consistent ; and to be so, am greatly delighted to learn that Mr. John Hogan 
is make a start upon good authority. is executing a monument in Italy, which promises to 

H. T. H. be, in some measure, a worthy tribute to the memory 
of one of the greatest bards which Ireland has ever 

THE GIBAULT, DE QUETTEVILLE, AND DOBRE"E produced, and of whom most Irishmen in all parts 
FAMILIES OF GUERNSEY. Will one of your of the world are justly proud. Lady Morgan's 
Guernsey readers favour me with the armorial laudable patriotism has partly supplied that which 
bearings of these families. I am also anxious to should have been done by the Irish nation, and I 
learn if anything is known of the antecedents of hope that, sooner or later, Irishmen and Irish- 
the first settler of the last-named family, who women, too, will show their veneration for Carolan 
came, I believe, from Vitre, Brittany, about the by erecting a national monument to his memory, 
middle of the sixteenth century. I do not find the It is not creditable to the Irish people that he has 
name in the Breton Armorials, whereas a family of been so long neglected not even a stone marks 
the name of D'Erbree is frequently mentioned in his grave. Among the hills and glens of Ulster I 
connexion with Vitre. Is it possible that the have often listened with delight to his deathless 
islanders, who changed the name of Andrews to strains sung by peasants who knew nothing of 
Andros, might also have corrupted D'Erbree to written music, but they heard his songs sung by 

E. H. D. their fathers, and so they hand them down from 
generation to generation. When centuries have 

PENANCE IN THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN THE P assed awa y> and wh en the hardest marble has 
LAST CENTURY : WHAT WAS IT ? In the Parochial cruml:) led to dust, the melodies and the name of 
Eegister at North Aston, Oxfordshire there is this Carolan wil1 live in the hearts of the Irish race, 
entry : My enthusiasm has led me from the query. As 

In Irish it is Toirrdhealbhaigh Ua Cear- 

Memorandum -That Mr. Cooper sent in a form of 
^enance by Mr. Wakefield of Deddington, that Catherine 
should do penance in ye Parish Church of North 


bhallain, which is, correctly Anglicized, Turlough 
O'Carolan, now written without the prefix 0'. 
There are or at least there were a short time ago 

T i p several families in the counties of Armagh, 

rther on, a piece of paper has been cut Monaghan, and Leitrim who are descended, or 
the register and the rest of the entry | are of the same branch, and who spelled their name 

-> 7 - -*"> c*i.^* accordingly she 

?t ?'. ?. es % 1 , Wlll i am Vau S han > Vicar - Charles May, 
John Bailhs, Churchwardens." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4* s. xii. A, so, TS. 

Carolan. The O'Cairellains of the county of Deny, 
whose tribe name was Clann Diarmada, and who 
were anciently lords of the modern parish of Clan- 
dermotfc, are quite a distinct family; their name 
in the Irish annals is almost invariably written 
O'Cairellain or O'Caireallain, while the other name 
is generally written O'Cearbhallain or O'Cerballain ; 
and as to the name Cearbhall or Ua Cearbhall, now 
Anglicized O'Carrol or Carroll, they were anciently 
kings of Oerghialla or Oriel, and were not of the 
same family as Carolan. It is difficult now to 
distinguish between the O'Cerbhallains and the 
O'Cairellains ; both families Anglicize their names 
Carleton, Carolan, Carlin, Carland, Curlan, &c., 
but most of the Derry family Anglicize their name 
Carlin and Carland. In conversation the peasantry 
pronounce it Kirlan and Kirrelan. 
Mr. Hardiman says of Carolan : 

" To him Ireland is indebted for upholding its ancient 
character for music and poetry, and the debt yet remains 
to be paid. In every part of the world his strains are 
heard and admired; and our countrymen in foreign 
climes feel justly proud of their national bard. But how 
has he been requited at home? His humble grave may 
indeed be traced, but not a stone tells where he lies. 
The indignant exclamation of Johnson is not even yet 
applicable to us : 

* See nations slowly wise, and meanly just, , 
To buried merit raise the tardy bust ! ' 

" Carolan was born at Newton, near Xobber, co. Meath, 
in the year 1670, and died 1738. His father, Shane 
O'Carola'n, was plundered of his ancestral property in the 
civil wars and frequent quarrels of that period. In con- 
sequence of this he was obliged to remove from his native 
place to Carrick-on-Shannon. Here the future bard was 
first taken notice of by Mrs. McDermott Roe, who had 
him instructed with her own children. In his eighteenth 
year he had an attack of small-pox, which deprived him 
of sight. Previous to this he had shown no particular 
talent for music, but now finding himself unfit for most 
professions, he expressed a wish to learn the harp. Mrs. 
McDermott Roe employed a harper to teach him, and 
when he had finished his education, she presented him 
with a horse and an attendant. Thus equipped, in his 
twenty-second year he began his wandering life, and soon 
rose to the highest place among Irish bards and harpers. 
His compositions are very numerous ; hundreds of them 
are lost for ever, and many more are only preserved by 
the peasantry in the wilds of Ulster and Connaught. 
Except another Bunting turns up, we may expect that 
many of his unwritten airs will be lost. When seized 
with his last illness he was at Zemp, in co. Fermanagh. 
Bidding the Maguires a last farewell, he proceeded to 
the house of his never failing friend, Mrs. McDermott 
Roe. He was accompanied from town to town by his 
friends, who took leave of him with tears. When he 
arrived at Mrs. McDermott's, which he had left some 
fifty years before with a reputation to gain, he called for 
his harp, and played his Last Farewell to Music. His 
funeral was attended by a vast concourse of people, 
among whom were sixty clergymen of various denomina- 
tions ; but there was no one present who mourned his loss 
with more poignant sorrow than did his life-long friend, 
Mrs. McDermott Roe, then in her eightieth year. He 
was buried in McDermott Roe's vault at the east end of 
the venerable old church of Kilronan." 

For memoirs of Carolan, see Irish Minstrelsy, 

edited by Jas. Hardiman, M.R.I.A., and Bunting's 
Ancient Irish Music. CUMEE 

Turlough O'Carolan is all the name existing, so 
far as can be gathered from Joseph C. Walker's 
curious book of Historical Memoirs of the Irish 
Bards, Dublin, 1786. He gives, at p. 67 of the 
Appendix, a life of O'Carolan, and so far is the 
name from being a pseudonym that Turlough was 
born at Nobberin 1670, "on the lands of Carolan's 
town " in Westmeath, which were wrested from 
his ancestors by the Nugents in the 'time of 
Henry II. He lost his sight by small-pox very 
early, for he had no impression of colour, and used 
to say his " eyes were transplanted to his ears." 
He was one of the greatest of the musical geniuses 
of Ireland. Some of his music is given by Walker. 
The reputation of some of his melodies is great 
even here. O'HourJce's Feast is well known, and 
so charmed Dean Swift that he gave an English 
version of it. I do not know the version, but with 
all niy respect for the great Dean, I have no doubt 
the honour he conferred upon it was to spoil it. 
The Dean was not nearer to a poet than wit and 
epigram can bring any great intellect. O'Carolan 
died March, 1738, at the age of sixty-eight. Gold- 
smith said of him: " Of all the bards this country 
ever produced, the best, the greatest, was Carolan 
the Blind." He lies buried at Kilronan, " with 
not a stone to tell." With this fact before us, it is 
ludicrous to set up Lady Morgan's bas-relief in a 
Dublin church. Why not place it in Kilronan 
parish church, where the body lies 1 You might 
as well stick it up at St. Stephen's, Walbrook, or 
some town in Lorraine, because it was ceded to 
France by treaty in the year he died, 1738. 

C. A. W. 

Mayfair. _ 


(4 th S. xii. 69.) 

I cannot find a complete copy of the Metrical 
Charter relating to lands near Knaresborough. 
Hargrove, the historian of that place, takes no 
notice of it whatever. 

The second grant quoted by H. H. S. C. is, 
I think, open to a great deal of suspicion ; for, in 
the first place, although both the King of Scots 
and the Prince of Cumberland obeyed the sum- 
mons of King Athelstan and acknowledged his 
superiority, it does not seem probable that those 
powerful princes would allow him to interfere with 
the distribution of land within their territories, 
and it is not likely that he possessed private 
estates so far from the seat of his own government ; 
in the second place, we hear nothing of the docu- 
ment until 1387, when it is said to have been 
brought to light during a successful raid into 
Cumberland by the Scots, under the Earls of Fife 
and Douglas. Such a scene of hurry and confusion 

* s. xii. A, so, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


is must needs have accompanied the destruction o 
louses and carrying away of enormous booty, wa 
lot very favourable to the preservation of ol 1 
iharters, nor do I think the Scots of the perio 
were much given to antiquarian research. One o 
the best chroniclers of that age, Henry de Knighton 
?ives a full description of the incursion, but say 
nothing about the charter. Thomas de Walsing 
ham does not record the affair at all. And wit! 
regard to the witness, " Maulde, my wife," n 
mention is made of the existence of this lady by 
any of the most reliable historians. The earliest 
account I have found of the document is in 
Holinshed, who admires its simplicity, but doei 
not state from what source he derived his informa 
tion. In his version the spelling is rather dif- 
ferent : 

" I king Athelstan giues to Paullane 

Odiham and Rodiham 

Als guid and als faire, 

Als euer they mine waire, 

Arid yarto witnesse Mauld my wife." 

Several grants of land in this ancient metrical 
form are preserved. I have two before me now 
relating to lands granted by Athelstan to the 
Abbeys of Bipon and Beverley ; but, as they 
extend together to upwards of a hundred lines, 
and are evidently spurious, of course I cannot ask 
you to give them space. The following charter, 
however, said to have been granted by Edward the 
Confessor, occurs in the Eecords of Exchequer, 
and is quoted by Camden, who certainly believed 
in its authenticity : other writers express an adverse 
opinion ; but, if they be right, they must at least 
allow that the forgery is of very respectable 
antiquity, for the copy, actually in existence, dates 
from the reign of Edward II. : 
" Iche Edward Koning 

Have yeoven of my forest the keping 

Of the hundred of Chelmer and Dancing 

To Randolph Peperking, and to his kindling ; 

With heort and hynd, doe and bock, 

Wild foule with his flocke, 

Partrich, fesaunte hen and fesaunte cock, 

With green and wilde, stob and stokk, 

To kepen and to yeomen by all his might, 

Both by day and eke by night, 

And hounds for to holde, 

Goode swift and bolde 

Pour greyhounds, and six braches, 

For hare and fox and wilde cattes ; 

And therefore Iche make him my booke. 

Wittenes the bishop Wolston, 

And book ylered many on, 

And Sweyne of Essex our brother, 

And to-ken him many other, 

And our Stiward Howelin 

That bysought me for him." 

Another, in rather a different style, was given 
by William the Conqueror to the ancestors of the 
Hopton family. One copy is preserved by Eobert 
Crlover, Somerset herald in 1571 ; another by 
William Eastall, one of the Justices of the Kind's 

Bench in 1558, in his treatise entitled Les Termes 
de la Ley; but the wording of the two copies, 
although evidently referring to the same transac- 
tion, is so different as to give rise to grave doubts 
as to whether either copy is a correct transcript of 
the original. That given by Glover is as fol- 
lows : 
" To the heyrs male of the Hopton laufully begotten, 

To me and to myne, to thee and to thine 

While the water runs, and the sun doth shine ; 

For lack of heyrs to the king againe. 

I William, king, the third year of my reign, 

Give to the Norman Hunter, 

To me that art both liue and deare, 

The hoppe and hoptoune, 

And all the bounds up and downe, 

Under the earth to hell, 

Above the earth to heaven, 

From me and from mine, 

To thee and to thine, 

As good and as faire, 

As ever they mine were, 

To witness that this is sooth, 

I bite the white wax with my tooth, 

Before Jugg, Marode and Margery, 

And my third son Henery, 

For one bow and one broad arrow. 

When I come to hunt upon Yarrow." 

There is some reason to believe that the first 
three lines, which seem to create an entail, are 
spurious ; they are not found in the most ancient 
copies. One would expect to find the words 

From me and from mine " in the place of " To 
me and to mine "; but the reading in the text may 
possibly be correct, because the king still retains 
an interest in the estate. KastalTs version is as 
follows : 

"I William, king, give to thee Plowlen Royden, my 
bop and my hoplands, with all the bounds up and down, 
from heaven to earth, from earth to hell, for thee and 
;hine to dwell, from me and mine to thee and thine, for a 
DOW and a broad arrow, when I come to hunt upon 
Yarrow. In witness that this is sooth, I bit this wax 
ivith my tooth, in the presence of Magge, Maud, and 
Margery, and my third son Henry." 


xii. 65, 115.) It is somewhat difficult to know 
what to reply to W. M., or whether, indeed, his 
lote requires any answer at all. What is it W. M. 
expects me to do ? If he complains of my criti- 
ising without giving examples of faults and 
easons for condemnation, I am, of course, quite 
willing to supply these omissions. If he simply 
complains of the tone of my note, I at once express 
egret that I am not skilful writer enough to make 
i complaint pleasant, and I tender my apologies if 
r have written anything, other than criticism, 
hich would wound anybody's feelings.* 

* I have received a letter from Mr. Martin, the 
ibrarian to the Inner Temple Library, in which, refer- 
ing to the third paragraph of my note on p. 65, he says : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4 th s. xn. AUG. 30, 73. 

That the Signet Catalogue should command 
respect is exactly what I complained of. In my 
case it commanded so much respect that I relied 
upon it implicitly, until after some hours' work I 
gradually became convinced that it was totally 
unreliable, had all the faults of, and was as bad as, 
most other catalogues, had misled me, and, in fact, 
such work as I had done from it was useless. 

In my note I desired simply to criticise the 
Catalogue, but W. M. brings in, and compels me 
to notice, the much respected name of a celebrated 
writer, Mr. David Laing, who has done more than 
any man living for the history and literature of 
Scotland : he is the Payne Collier of Scotland. If 
the Signet Catalogue is Mr. Laing's, it adds another 
instance to the one Mr. Payne Collier, supplied us 
with some years ago, that a man may be pro- 
foundly learned in literature, and yet be ignorant 
of the art of making catalogues of libraries. It is, 
however, a common conceit amongst literary men 
who have never had any special training for the 
work, that they quite understand how to make a 

W. M. seems to me most unhappy in his 
selection of the quotation from the " advertise- 
ment," that " no labour has been spared to ensure 
accuracy," when we have such practical denial of 
these words in the Catalogue itself. I hope W. M. 
does not imagine I criticise from pleasure ; quite 
the contrary, it is a great deal of trouble, requires 
attentive reading, much of the Signet Catalogue 
not being at all interesting, and if it makes no 
enemies, is certainly not calculated to make friends. 

I now pass on, and do lift my hat and bow with 
the greatest respect for the talents and learning of 
the librarian of the Signet Library, but not, I am 
sorry to say, for the Signet Catalogue. 


W. M. fitly pays a tribute to the European fame 
of the learned Keeper of the Signet Library, which 
certainly is in little danger from the cavilling of 
OLPHAR HAMST. It would be superfluous to add 
a word to what has been so well said by W. M. ; 
but I would notice a pleasing instance of the 
literary activity of my honoured friend which lies 
before me. This is a recent tract of 48 pp., con- 
sisting of a Letter to Principal Shairp, of St. 
Andrew's University, with statement and appendix 
of original documents in Mr. Laing's possession, 
the whole forming a clear and triumphant exposi- 
tion of the authorship of the beautiful " Ode to the 

-"The catalogue of this library printed in 1843 may, 
perhaps, be described in those words, at all events I am 
quite ready to admit that it is not a good catalogue ; but 
inasmuch as nearly thirty years have elapsed since it was 
printed, it would have been, I think, more generous if 
you had presumed that, should a catalogue be printed by 
the authorities of this Inn, it would probably, like that 
of Lincoln's Inn, be worthy rather of commendation than 

uckoo." The claim so pertinaciously urged by 
some, more gifted with zeal than discretion, on 
aehalf of Michael Bruce is quite disposed of, and 
shown to rest on nothing better than vague second- 
rate tradition ; while poor Logan, who has been so 
long held up to obloquy as a thief and plagiarist, 
is proved to be the undoubted author of the poem. 
That at a time of life when so many repose on their 
worthily-acquired laurels, Mr. Laing should thus 
rehabilitate the fame of an ill-starred genius, is an 
idditional link to the chain which binds him to 
the esteem of his countrymen, and a proof that the 
ripe scholarship, which for half a century has 
maintained the foremost place in Scottish literature, 
still flourishes with unabated vigour. 


MULDAVIT (4 th S. xii. 23, 114.) I agree with 
ANGLO-SCOTUS in regard to the date of the 
inscriptions in the Church of Cullen, and I think 
I understand how that well-informed and very 
accurate investigator of our northern grave litera- 
ture, Mr. Jervise, has been led astray in the matter. 

In 1536 Ellen Hay, mother of John Duff, of 
Muldavit, founded a chaplainry " to praei for 
Elen Hay and hir bairns," and built the south aisle 
of the Church of Cullen as a "local habitation" 
for said chaplainry, vesting the patronage thereof 
in her son John and his heirs. In 1792 a monu- 
ment, now in the mausoleum of the Fife family 
near Duff House, was removed from that aisle. 
This monument consists of the effigy of a warrior 
in the usual position, with an accompanying slab- 
stone, bearing an inscription, which in part reads, 
or has been read (I have not seen it), as follows: 
" Hie jacet Johanes Duf de Maldavat et Baldavi, 
obiit 2 Julii, 1404"; and Mr. Jervise, it would 
seem, being ignorant of the date 1536, naturally, 
although rashly, concluded that this was the date 
of the aisle itself and of its inscriptions. But how 
then are we to account for the date 1404 ? In one 
of two ways : the monument on which it is found 
is either the genuine memorial of an earlier John 
Duff, preserved from some older structure or 
removed from some other part of the church, ancj, 
set up in the new aisle ; or it is spurious as to the 
date at least. Adopting the first view, we go back 
to documents of the time indicated in search of a 
John Duff, but strange to say we find him not, 
but instead we find a David Duff, who, having 
married the heiress of Muldavit, " Agnes de 
Camera " (Scotice, Chalmers), obtains, on the 9th 
Feb. of the very year 1404, a charter of the lands 
of Muldavit in favour of himself and his wife, the 
longer liver of the two, their heirs lawfully be- 
gotten, and failing them, the heirs whomsoever of 
the said David. Now, if there was a John Duff, 
of Muldavit, in 1404, the family must have suffered 
severely during the short period from Feb. 9 to 



aly 2. David and his wife, their children, if thej 
] id any (it is not at all probable that John coulc 
1 ave been a son of theirs), and John himself, al 
( Led within six months. From these facts anc 
c >nsiderations, the conclusion that must be drawn 
i ; that the date of the inscription is not authentic 
t lat is to say, it is either a misreading of the rea 
( ate, or that date has been tampered with. Sup- 
1 osing the true date to be 1604, and it is quite 
] ossible for John, son of Ellen, to have lived to 
t hat date, how easy would it be to read the time- 
worn figures as 14 instead of 16, and how easy 
would it be also, if there was a motive, so to alter 
or partially obliterate the 6 as to make it appear a 4 
But cui bono ? Well, supposing a respectable 
Ancestor was wanted by a comparatively parvenu 
family, such a worthy as John Duff, dignified in 
monumental stone, would serve the purpose very 
well, especially if, by throwing him back two 
centuries, it would be possible to affirm, without 
fear of contradiction, that he was the second son 
of the thirteenth Earl of Athole, David de Strath- 
bogie, an undoubted descendant of Macduff, Thane 
of Fife ; that the said John gave up the surname 
of Strathbogie and adopted that of Duff, and that 
consequently the family in question is, perhaps, 
the- most ancient in the kingdom, all which has 
been asserted. It is generally believed by those 
who have some knowledge of the subject that the 
Earl of Athole had only one son, who was only 
three years of age at the death of his father in the 
battle of Culblean, 1335, and that this son, who 
was subsequently a follower of the Black Prince, 
died without male issue. If this is the case, have 
not the descendants of the second son a claim to a 
higher title than they at present possess '? 

If this was a matter that concerned merely a cer- 
tain family, it might be allowed to pass unnoticed, 
but as it interferes with and prevents a right under- 
standing of the antiquities of an important district, 
it ought, I think, to be cleared up if possible. 


ANGLO-SCOTUS has good 'reason to doubt the 
antiquity of the inscriptions which are cut upon 
various parts of the aisle at the kirk of Cullen, in 
consequence of the statement that Elen Hay, who 
built the aisle, &c., was the "mother of John 
Duff, of Muldwit, who died in 1404." This error, 
which arose from the paper having been rather 
hurriedly put to press, and before being properly 
revised, was soon discovered, and will be rectified 
in the next part of the Society's Proceedings. 

I may state that the husband of Elen Hay (the 

mother of a John Duff, of Muldavit), died about 

.9 (Douglas's Baronage), and that the style of 

the architecture of the aisle of the church of 

ullen, as well as that of the lettering of the 

inscriptions within it, clearly belong to the first 

nail oi the sixteenth century. 

The inscription upon the front of the stone upon 
which the recumbent effigy lies in the mausoleum at 
Duff House and that upon the flat slab apparently 
belong to the early part of the fifteenth century. 
The latter, much worn by being trampled upon, is 
not now very distinct ; but the former (which 
certainly looks as if it had been touched up) is 
plain enough, and reads thus : 

I)tc . Caret . tofjanetf . trbf . tfc . maftrafcat 
& . fcaltraine . obttt . * . tfoltt . 1404. 

A. J. 

"A PARENTHESIS IN ETERNITY" (4 th S. xi. 504 ; 
xii. 34.) This forcible expression of the learned 
physician of Norwich occurs in a singular and 
interesting biography, the author and subject of 
which were alike singular themselves : 

" Every one who knows that time is but a parenthesis, 
a portion bracketted out of eternity, feels anxious to b 
acquainted with the religious opinions of any individual 
whose career is presented to his notie." Life of John 
Walker, M.D., by John Epps, M.D. London, 1832. 
8vo. p. 240. 

Byron has 

" Between two worlds, life hovers like a star, 
'Twixt night and morn upon the horizon's verge." 
Don Juan, cant. xv. 99. 

So also Nicholas Michell, in a poem on The 

Present Time : 

" The present hour, small fragment, speck of Time ! 
What human joy, what agony, what crime, 
It doth condense ! Thought terrible and sublime ! " 
New Monthly Magazine, Jan., 1866. 

An adumbration of the same thought occurs in a, 
local serial long since passed away, but which is 
worthy of record as having emanated from the 
once celebrated school conducted by the father of 
the late Eowland Hill, of the Post-office, M. D. 
Hill, the late Recorder of Birmingham, and other 
men of hardly less ability : 

" A vision opened to my musing eye ; 
I stood on the brink of the ever rolling wave 
Which joins the two eternities, the past, 
Lost in the region of all measured space, 
And blended in th' infinity of void ; 
The future yet more endless than the past." 
The Hazlewood Magazine, vol. viii., Feb., 1830, p. 54. 
The last paragraph of the Autobiography of 
bribbon will be remembered, commencing with the 
words : 

"The present is a fleeting moment; the past is no 
more ; and our prospect of futurity is dark and doubtful." 

A modern poet has the lines : 

" The Whole ! Ah ! crush in one the years, 

The total lapse of human time ; 
And what in total Man appears 

His universal life sublime, 
This mighty breathing of our race, 
This chieftaincy of Time and Space 1 
What but a Day between two Nights, 

A listening to a double roar, 
A running to and fro with lights, 

A gathering shells on either shore ; 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [4 s. xii. A, so, 73. 

On either hand a dreadful deep 

Of endless change, or else of sleep ! " 

Macmillan's Magazine, Jan., 1863, p. 171. 

The genesis of one of Charles Wesley's "best 
Tmown hymns is thus eloquently expounded : 

" As he stands on the narrow neck of ground at the 
Land's End, where two seas all but meet, he thinks of 
the hand-breadth bridge of Time, thrown up for man's 
brief probationary step between the boundless scenes of 
Eternity past and Eternity to come ; he instantly realizes 
his solemn position, and sings in strains weighty and 
thrilling : 

" Lo, on a narrow neck of land 
'Twixt two unbounded seas I stand 

Secure, insensible : 
A point of life, a moment's space, 
Removes me to that heavenly place, 

Or shuts me up in hell ! " 

Charles Wesley, the Poet of Methodism. A Lecture 
by the Rev. John Kirk. London, 1860. 

In a charming book, which Sir James Mackintosh 
is said to have described as "one of the most 
beautiful he ever read," the following occurs : 

" Time is one of the most mysterious subjects on which 
the mind can meditate ; since constituting what has been 
called a moveable image of immoveable eternity, the 
transparent solitude of interminable space seems the 
only mansion for its residence. But time is only an 

imaginary quality The Eternal meditates in a 

perpetual present ; but Time has no existence ; though 
the mother of the body, it is not the mother of 
the tomb; it is only a small imaginary portion of 
eternity." On the Beauties, Harmonies, and Sublimities 
of Nature, &c. (By Charles Bucke.) Lond. 4 vols. 
8vo. Vol. iv. p. 293. 

One more quotation, which may serve to illustrate 
the same subject : 

" Time is the most undefinable yet paradoxical of 
things ; the past is gone, the future is not come, and the 
present becomes the past, even while we attempt to 
define it, and, like the flash of the lightning, at once 
exists and expires. Time is the measurer of all things, 
but is itself immeasurable, and the grand discloser of all 
things, but is itself undisclosed. Like space, it is in- 
comprehensible, because it has no limit ; and it would be 
still more so, if it had." Lacon ; or, Many Things in 
Few Words, addressed to Those who Think. By the Rev. 
C. C. Colton. 1823. 2 vols. 8vo. Vol. i. p. 260. 

The foregoing, jotted down just as they occurred 
to my mind, may be considered supplementary to 
a former paper (see " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. x. 245), 
under the title "Time, Past, Present, and 


xii. 120.) You allude to this saying of "a by-gone 
sage " in your editorial notice of Ich Dien. 

Bishop Horne, if he does not assign the origin oj 
the sentiment to the Turks, at least attributes an 
analogous saying to them : 

" The busy man, say the Turks, is troubled with one 
devil, but the idle man is tormented with a thousand. 

Phe most sluggish of creatures, called the Potto, or 
Sloth, is also the most terrible for its ugliness, to show 
;he deformity of idleness, and, if possible, to frighten us 
rom it." 

Farnworth, Bolton. 

MARMADUKE (4 th S. xii. 129.) I have always 
understood that " Marmaduke " was derived from 
magnus dux, although I know no instance of the 
irst part of the name being declined ; the latter, 
lowever, usually is, not only in old inscriptions as 
MR. GOWER remarks, but in many recent ones. 
A very elegant inscription at Munich terminates 
thus (date 1793) : 


Marmaducis Baronis de Langdale filia 
Marito delectissimo, usque ad extremum spiritum, 
Comes individua 
Hoc posuit." 

The five successive Lord Langdales of Holme 
bore this name. The Master of Herries, descended 
from the Constables, now bears it. Is not the 
name Apollonia very uncommon 1 C. G. H. 

"HARD LINES" (4 th S. xii. 67) is a soldier's 
term, by which is understood hardship or difficulty, 
possibly derived from duty imposed in the front 
lines when facing an enemy. Gobbet, who had 
been a soldier once, would probably retain this ex- 
pressive phrase slang though it is from its 
common use in the army. Hard lines is a term 
frequently heard in Cambridgeshire in the sense 
indicated above. EGAR. 

The following appeared in " N. & Q." (1 st S. xii. 

" Line was formerly synonymous with lot. Thus the 
Bible version of Psalm xvi. v. 6, is ' The lines are fallen 
unto me in pleasant places ; yea, I have a goodly heritage '; 
while in the Prayer Book we read, ' The lot has fallen 
unto me in a fair ground ; yea, I have a goodly heritage.' 
Hard lines is, therefore, equivalent to hard lot." 

CHETHAM inquires after the author of three learned 
and able articles on "The Eise, Progress, and 
Decay of English Scholarship," which appeared in 
the above periodical in the years 1838-9. As no 
reply has yet been given, I can inform him that they 
were written by the eminent Greek scholar George 
Burges, who died at an advanced age at Ramsgate 
in January, 1864, and of whom, since his death, I 
have seen no biographical notice except a very brief 
reference to him in the Athenceum which appeared 
at the time. If any further account of him is hi 
print, I should be glad to be made acquainted with 
it. Of periodicals at present we have enough and 
to spare, but we appear to be sadly in want of one 
devoted to the purposes of a general obituary. 
Notices of individuals deserving of remembrance 

4- s. xii. AUG. 30, 73.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


A hich ought to be preserved, are scattered in 
i etropolitan and provincial newspapers and various 
] iblications, but are fre