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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 29, July 18, 1874. 


of Intercommunication 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 20, July 18, 1874. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 3, 74.] 




NOTES: Our Fifth Series, 1 Portraits of Dr. Johnson- 
Anne Boleyn, 2 On the Elective and Deposing Power of 
Parliament (No. IEL): Henry IV. to Henry VII, 3 
Shakspeariana, 4 A Mnemonic Calendar for 1874 Thomas 
'of Ercildoun "Calm Decay" Church-Door Notices where 
there is no Church, 5 English Dialects Earrings 
Parallel Passages Errata in Books Writing : Watershed : 
Three R's, 6. 

QUERIES : " The Passionate Remonstrance" Sweden 
Hooker, "EccL Pol.," v. 7, 3, p. 41 Engraved Paste, 7 
Greenwich Observatory Judicial Costume in Westminster 
Hall Innocents' Day : Muffled Peal Charles II. Supposed 
Discovery of a British Stronghold at Grassington Stacey 
Grimaldi Sacred Vessels and Vestments, 8 Use of In- 
verted Commas Metal Dish The Wakon-Bird The Welsh 
Testament Royalist Declaration of April 24, 1660-r"The 
Bee Papers" iThe Marshals of France Altars in the 
Middle Ages, 9. 

REPLIES : The Earliest Mention of Shakspeare : Constable, 
9 Marks on Porcelain, 10 Rise in the Value of Property 
In Scotland, 11 Funeral Garlands Crests of Knights of the 
Garter "Nor" for "Than," 12 A Stubborn Fact 
" Logarys Light " The Latin Version of Bacon's "Essays," 
13 The Surname "Barnes" " Gordano "Sarah, Duchess 
of Marlborough Quotation from Bacon Wanted" Quillet " 
"Medulla Historic Anglican*" Walking-Canes Swift's 
" Four Last Years of Queen Anne " " Tout vient a point " 
Drinking Hogan, 14 The Cistercians The Carol "Joseph 
was an old man " " Prester John " and the Arms of the 
See of Chichester, 15 Rev. E. Gee Penance in the Church 
of England Empress Elizabeth II. of Russia Euthanasia- 
Divining Rod" A Toad under a Harrow," 16 Pope's Views 
of Religion in England Scottish Titles "The Sword in 
Myrtles drest " " Repeck," 17 The Violet, the Napoleonic 
Flower Sir Thomas (Edward ?) Pnllison, or Pulesdon " No 
more use than a side pocket to a toad " " Dalk " Place of 
Burial of Edmund, Duke of Somerset, 18. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



On an occasion when Edmund Burke had finished 
a brilliant oration and an exhaustive argument in 
the House of Commons, another member, Mr. 
Cruger, modestly feeling that he could not equal 
the great speaker either in brilliancy or argument, 
but assuming that he was bound to say something, 
appropriated to himself a share of the orator's 
merits by simply exclaiming, " I say ditto to Mr. 

In 1856, MR. THOMS had entered on the seventh 
year of his beneficent reign as Editor of " N. & Q." 
He then commenced, with the thirteenth volume, 
the Second Series of the popular journal of which 
he was the founder ; and he took the opportunity 
of acknowledging the aid he had received, of con- 
gratulating his correspondents on the success he had 
accomplished by their means, and he described his 
application of their friendly contributions. As MR. 
THOMS'S successor, now beginning the Fifth Series 
of " N. & Q.," looks through the remarks which 
prefaces the Second, he finds himself in the position 

of Mr. Cruger, and imitates that laconic legislator 
by saying, " Ditto to Mr. Burke !" 

When MR. THOMS commenced the Third Series 
of " N. & Q.," in 1862, he had to speak of a twelve 
years' experience and the fruits thereof. He could 
then refer not only to the object for which " N. & Q." 
had been established, but to the complete success 
with which it had been carried out. He quoted 
the lines which Ben Jonson addressed to Selden, 
as lines the applicability of which to this journal 
had been pointed out by one of the first and most 
valued of our contributors. They are lines which 
will bear repeating here, for their application, it is 
hoped, is as well founded now as in 1862 : 
" What fables have you vexed, what truth redeemed, ' 
Antiquities searched, opinions disesteemed, 
Impostures branded, and authorities urged ! 
What blots and errors have you watched and purged^ 
Records and authors of, how rectified, 
Times, manners, customs, innovations spied ! 
Sought out the fountains' sources, creeks, paths, ways, 
And noted the beginnings and decays ! 
What is that nominal mark, or real rite, 
Form, act, or ensign that hath escaped your sight 1 
How are traditions there examined } how 
Conjectures retrieved ! and a story, now 
And then, of times (besides the bare conduct 
Of what it tells us) weaved in to instruct ! " 

At the beginning of the Fourth Series, in 1868, 
the Editor had to mingle some regrets with this 
expression of thankfulness to contributors, and of 
honest self-gratulation in the success of an enter- 
prise, in which success, and the labour by which 
it was achieved, he bore a greater part than his 
modesty would allow him to chronicle. The ex- 
pression of regret may be repeated here for losses 
similar to those mournfully alluded to by MR. 
THOMS. In this battle of life, men with whom we 
have long stood shoulder to shoulder succumb in 
the great struggle ; and as we honour the memory 
of the fallen, we seem to hear the military call, 
" Close up !" and we are again moving forward in 
the contest for, and search after, truth. 

It is matter for congratulation that " N. & Q." 
has lost no valuable contributor (except by .death- 
or infirmity) since MR. THOMS retired, and that 
new and well-endowed correspondents have sup- 
plied the places of the departed. To all these the 
tribute of thanks' and good wishes is heartily 
rendered, especially for the "patient courtesy" 
with which they have awaited insertion of articles 
unavoidably deferred. For the past and for the 
present so much 


[5* S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

" Hue undique Gaza 

Congeritur "; 

and the words will be as applicable for the future ; 
during which each " Gentle Header " is respectfully 
requested to consider that the following lines are 
especially addressed to himself : 

" Si quicquam irrepait vitiorum, Candide Lector, 
Ipsemet asquanimo corrige judicio." 


Among other interesting portraits which were in 
the possession of the late Dr. Turton, Bishop of 
Ely, were two of Dr. Johnson. The one, a half- 
length, said to be painted by Sir Joshua Keynolds, 
is a portrait of Johnson as a comparatively young 
man, resting his chin on his hands, which are 
clasped over a book, lettered " IRENE." This the 
bishop had engraved ; and on one of the pleasant 
and instructive evenings which I passed with him 
at the Deanery, Westminster, he gave me a copy 
of it, on which it is stated it was painted by 
Reynolds, engraved by G. Zobel, and was one of 
the first " fifty impressions," and a " private plate." 

The second, representing Johnson at an advanced 
period of his life, the bishop believed to be by 

Since the death of the good bishop, and the sale 
of his pictures, I have heard strong doubts expressed 
as to the genuineness of both these portraits ; and 
I am bound to confess that, as Johnson must have 
been at least forty-three when he became acquainted 
with Reynolds, the portrait, if a genuine portrait 
of Johnson, cannot be the work of our greatest 
portrait-painter. The object of this note is to learn, 
if possible, where these portraits now are, and 
the opinion of competent authorities as to their 
authenticity. WILLIAM Ji THOMS. 


The pedigree of Anne Boleyn has been studied 
and stated by many literary antiquaries, but it can 
hardly as yet be considered in a settled state. 
Modern writers continue to vary in opinion as to 
the number of Lord Wiltshire's children, and the 
dates and places of their birth. The mystery 
which hangs about the less distinguished members 
of this family, hangs in some degree over the most 
eminent of all, the mother of Queen Elizabeth. 

The priority of her birth is especially a point in 
dispute ; a matter of the highest controversial im- 
portance, as readers who have ever dipped into 
Sanders and Campian are well aware. This 
point affects the whole question of Henry's sup- 
posed relations with the other female members of 
her family, as those relations are described by Car- 
dinal Giovio in his Historia sui Temporis, and 
adopted, with many exaggerations, by certain 

classes of Italian and English writers. Was 
Anne Boleyn the elder or the younger daughter of 
Lord Wiltshire? The Index-maker to the great 
collection of State Papers of the Reign of Henry 
VIII. described her as the younger daughter. 
This authority has been followed by many recent 
writers. I would especially recite as examples 
three of the most eminent editors of historical 
letters and papers now living : Professor Brewer, 
in his great treasury of the Letters and Papers of 
the Reign of Henry VIII., vol. i., Intr. Ixv.; Mrs. 
Everett Green, in her excellent Letters of Royal 
and Illustrious Ladies, vol. ii., p. 193 ; and Mr. 
Pocock, in his valuable .Records of the Reformation, 
vol. i., Intr. 

Yet this opinion seems to be erroneous. The 
genealogical and historical antiquaries, who have 
had to study the Boleyn pedigree in connexion 
either with the descent of honours and estates or 
with the evidence preserved in sepulchral monu- 
ments, describe Anne Boleyn as the elder daughter. 
I cite this mass of evidence very briefly, and submit 
it to the attention, and, in case of need, to the 
correction of the three eminent writers who, follow- 
ing the Index-maker of the State Papers, have 
adopted the other theory. Sir Harris Nicolas 
makes Anne Boleyn the elder daughter: see his 
Historic Peerage, p. 514. Sir William Dugdale 
places Anne Boleyn before her sister Mary : see his 
Baronage of England, vol. ii., 106. Banks also 
places Anne Boleyn before her sister Mary : see his 
Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England, vol. i., 
p. 755. Clutterbuck makes Anne Boleyn the elder 
daughter of her father: see his History and An- 
tiquities of the County of Hertford, vol. iii., p. 95. 
Bloomfield, a very careful genealogist, makes Anne 
Boleyn the elder daughter of her father : see his 
History of Norfolk, vol. iii., p. 628. Morant, who 
has to deal with the Boleyn pedigree in connexion 
with Rochford Hall, arrives at the same conclusion : 
see his History and Antiquities of Essex, vol. i., 
pp. 270 and 281. Weever, a very scrupulous col- 
lector of facts, describes Anne Boleyn as the elder 
daughter : see his Ancient Funeral Monuments, 
p. 514. Miss Reilly, who had the use of family 
notes, and who wrote her book expressly to illus- 
trate the family pedigree, also describes Anne 
Boleyn as the elder daughter of her father : see her 
Historical Anecdotes of the Families of Boleyn, 
Carey, &c., p. 3. 

The erroneous impression as to the priority of 
birth of these two sisters arose in a curious way, 
through the ignorant mistake of a member of the 
Carey family, and received a legal and official cor- 
rection at the moment when it first arose. 

The earldom of Ormond was bestowed on Sir 
Thomas Boleyn, the father of these two ladies, with 
remainder to his heirs general: see Sir Harris 
Nicolas's Historic Peerage, pp. 401, 402. This 
earldom would have descended, together with the 

S* 8. 1. JAN. 3, '74.] 


earldom of Wiltshire, to his son George Boleyn, 
Viscount Rochford, if that elegant poet and gallant 
gentleman had survived him. Lord Rochford, as 
every one knows, was beheaded when his sister 
felU The earldom of Wiltshire had been granted to 
Sir Thomas Boleyn and his heirs male ; that honour, 
therefore, became extinct when the father of Anne 
Boleyn died, without male issue, at Hever Castle. 
The earldom of Ormond, having been granted to his 
heirs general, remained in abeyance among his sur- 
viving descendants ; who at the time of his decease 
were the Princess Elizabeth, only living child of his 
daughter Queen Anne ; Mary Carey, the Queen's 
sister; and Henry Carey, that sister's son. The ques- 
tion of priority at once presented itself. Had Mary 
been Lord Wiltshire's elder daughter, her son Henry 
Carey would have been the next male in succession 
to the Irish earldom. Anne being, in fact, the 
elder daughter, that Irish earldom fell in abeyance 
to Elizabeth as her only surviving child. 

The facts were, of course, perfectly well known 
to Elizabeth and to her aunt Mary, and Elizabeth 
very carefully preserved all her claims to her grand- 
father's honours as his heir general. Henry Carey, 
her cousin, was created by her Baron Hunsdon ; 
but though she loved him well, and favoured him 
much, she would never grant him any of the titles 
borne by her, and his, grandfather : see Nicolaa's 
Historic Peerage, p. 261. It happened, however, 
that George Carey, second Lord Hunsdon, a man 
who appears to have been wonderfully ignorant 
of his family pedigree, was induced to ask for the 
Irish earldom of Ormond on the pretended ground 
that his grandmother Mary was older than the 
Queen's mother, and that he, therefore, was his great- 
grandfather's proper heir general : see Domesti< 
Papers of Queen Elizabeth (in Record Office), vol. 
cclxiv., art. 135. Of course Elizabeth disallowed this 
claim. As an illustration of George Carey's igno- 
rance of his family history, I may mention that he 
spoke in his petition of Queen Anne as " a daughter 
to the daughter of the Earl of Ormond" ; omitting 
her Howard descent altogether, and rolling Lad] 
Margaret Butler and Lady Elizabeth Howard into 
one woman ! But his application to the Crown 
for a reversion of the Irish honours of his ancestor 
was the means of teaching him a little of his tru 
pedigree. When his daughter Elizabeth, Ladj 
Berkeley, died, the following words were placet 
over her grave : 

" Here lieth the body of Elizabeth, Lady Berkeley 
daughter and sole heir of George Carey, Lord Hunsdon 
son and heir of Henry Carey, Lord HunsdoH, son an 
heir of William Carey and the Lady Mary hia wife 
second daughter and co-heir of Thomas Bullen, Earl o 
Ormond and Wiltshire." See Collins's Peerage, vol. iv, 
p. 23. 

It is only necessary to add to this mass of evi 
dence that the Careys never could and never di( 
obtain any of the honours worn by Queen Anne' 
father until Elizabeth was dead, and the priorit 

f Queen Anne's posterity was at an end. Then, 
nd then only, the Careys obtained that viscounty 
f Rochford which had been conferred on the 
Joleyns by Henry VIII. See Nicolas's Historic 
"'eerage, pp. 261, 402. 

I may deal with the date of Queen Anne's birth 
in another communication. 




After Richard II., the next instance of a sovereign 
leposed was that of Henry VI., who, however, was 
Nearly deposed by force of arms, as was Richard III., 
ifter whom there was no instance of deposition 
until the case of Charles I. But the history of the 
whole intervening period is very material with 
reference to the alleged existence either of an 
elective or deposing power in Parliament ; and 
very strongly tends to negative the existence of 
either power. The history of this period is, for 
that purpose, to be studied continuously, because 
;he usurpation of Henry IV. led to the contest 
between the Houses of York and Lancaster, which 
was entirely a contest between two conflicting 
claims of hereditary right ; that contest was ter- 
minated by the accession of Henry VII., on condi- 
tion of his marriage with the heiress of the House 
of York, then recognized as having the better 
hereditary title ; and the hereditary title of the 
House of Stuart was recognized by Parliament as 
derived from her, as representing the House of York. 
That House had no right if Henry IV. had a valid 
elective title ; for then, either by the hereditary 
nature of the crown, or by Parliamentary recogni- 
tion, it would have gone to his heirs, and so the 
title of the House of York would have been dis- 

But Henry IV. really acquired the crown by 
conquest, and preferred to rely on that alone. It 
is true that on the day he usurped the crown, he 
so far used a flimsy pretext of election as to cause 
it to be recorded that the Peers assented to it. But 
it also appears from the same record that they 
could not help it ; for it seems that he distinctly 
asserted the right of conquest against any who 
should oppose him ; that he confiscated the estates 
of the late king's ministers, whom he had mur- 
dered ; that he degraded six of the principal peers 
whom he knew to be attached to the deposed king; 
that he threatened them with death if they should 
adhere to their late king, and that, as they did 
adhere to him, he caused them to be executed. It 
is manifest, then, that the flimsy pretext of elec- 
tion was only made use of as a politic disguise ; 
and that in reality he coerced Parliament into an 
assent to his usurpation. This was really and truly 
a conquest of the crown, and this every one was 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

conscious of. That the accession of Henry IV. was 
simply an act of conquest, the triumph of military 
force, is manifest from the facts, and from his own 
acts and words. He was, says Mackintosh, " at the 
head of an unresisted army," " the master of the Par- 
liament." The pretence of Parliamentary sanction 
for his usurpation is, therefore, vain. It is proved 
beyond a doubt that the principal peer who sup- 
ported him (Northumberland) had no idea that he 
was about to claim the throne, but only submitted 
in silence because he could not help it, and was in 
arms against him within a month. (Lingard, 
wol. iii. c. 4.) The records on the Eolls of Parlia- 
yinent, framed, no doubt, under the eye of Henry 
Vhimself, equally attest the real nature of his usur- 
pation. He distinctly and in terms asserted the 
aight of conquest ; and though he paraded before 
the people the pretence of election, he treated it in 
reality with open contempt. Hence all through his 
.reign he had to maintain himself on th.e throne by 
.force of arms ; and at its close his son said to him 
with truth, " You gained the crown by the sword, 
and I will keep it by the sword." Nor did the 
nation ever-for ten years together quietly submit to 
his usurpation. Hence Burke truly speaks of him 
.as a " conscious usurper." 

So conscious was Henry of the absence of any 
Teal title by election, and so well was he aware 
how false and hollow such a title would be, that 
though he again and again caused Parliament to 
pass Acts which declared the succession in his 
family, he found it impossible to reconcile them 
with any real and stable title, and, therefore, 
^abandoned them. He carefully made the Acts 
declaratory in order to avoid the appearance of 
election, which would have been fatal to any 
.security of title. But then a declaratory Act im- 
plied an existing title, and title he had none, save 
that of conquest, which would be equally valid 
without an Act of Parliament at all, while Acts of 
Parliament would have implied an elective title ; so 
in the result, on that, his only true title, he resolved 
to rest, and he abandoned the Acts of Parliament, 
which, therefore, are not to be found in the statute- 
book, but only on the Eolls. 

Henry was shrewd enough to see that what Par- 
liament gave Parliament could take away ; and so 
he deliberately, and after much deliberation and 
hesitation, rejected a Parliamentary title, because, 
in the absence of any hereditary right in him, it 
would have been an elective title, and he knew this 
to be worthless, as those who professed to have 
elected him might have assumed to reject his son 
or grandson. Hence he preferred to rest upon the 
title by conquest, his only real title, for he had no 
hereditary right, and there had been no real elec- 
tion, but a coerced assent to an armed usurpation. 

The death of Richard gave Henry no title to the 
throne, for he was descended from the third son of 
Edward, and the true heir descended from an elder 

son. The second was kept by him in close con- 
finement. It is a curious fact that even on the 
Eolls of Parliament Lionel is called the third son. 
In the course of the contests which ensued as to 
the right to the crown Lionel is called the third son, 
and John of Ghent the fourth son, of Edward III., 
and Lingard falls into the error ; whereas Lionel 
was the second ; John, from whom Henry de- 
scended, was the third. The Earl of March, from 
whom, through a daughter, the House of York 
claimed, was the son of a daughter of Lionel, the 
second son ; and during his life Henry could have 
no hereditary title to the throne ; yet, though con- 
scious of the utter absence of hereditary title, such 
a distrust had he of an elective title, knowing it 
was really coerced, that though he actually ob- 
tained more than one Parliamentary recognition of 
the succession of the crown to his heirs, he aban- 
doned and discarded them, and deliberately pro- 
posed for himself and for them to rely on conquest, 
that is, on armed force. A descent of the crown, 
however, to an heir gave, according to feudal 
notions, an imperfect kind of title, and for that 
very reason the descent of the crown to his son 
was disturbed by an attempt at a rebellion on 
behalf of the rightful heir, the Earl of March. It 
was suppressed, however, by the sword, and his 
successor reigned, as he had done, by force of arms, 
aided by the popularity gained by military prowess 
and success. But in the reign of his son's successor 
the title of the House of York was again and again 
asserted ; and its assertion, its recognition by Par- 
liament, and its ultimate success in the person of 
Elizabeth of York, form the most striking proofs 
of the deep-rooted attachment to the hereditary 
principle which has always characterized this 
country. W. F. F. 

(%o le continued.) 


MEN OF VERONA " " She is not to be kiss'd 
fasting." May not the idea of having a formal list 
of the qualities of a woman have been suggested 
by some actual occurrence in the sixteenth century 1 
"Catalogues of Conditions" were certainly occa- 
sionally made in all seriousness. One of these 
may be seen in the report made to Henry VII. in 
1505 respecting the Queen of Naples. In this 
curious paper occurs the following inquiry, and 
the answer made by the ambassadors : 

" 18. Item, That they endeavour them to speak with the 
said young queen fasting, and that she may tell unto them 
some matter at length, and to approach, as near to her 
mouth as they honestly may, to the intent that they may feel 
the condition of her breath, whether it le sweet or not, and 
to mark at every time when they speak with her if they feel 
any savour of spices, rosewater, or musk, by the breath of 
her mouth or not. To this article : we could never come 
unto the speech of the said queen fasting, wherefore we 
ould nor might not attain to knowledge of that part of 

5 th S. I. JAN. 3, 74.] 


this article, notwithstanding at sucli other times as we 
have spoken, and have had communication with the said 
queen, we have approached as nigh unto her visage as 
that conveniently we might do, and we could feel no 
savour of any spices or waters, and we think verily by 
the favour of her visage, and cleanness of her complexion 
and of her mouth, that the said queen is like for to be of 
a sweet savour and well eyred." 


Juliet, Act iii. sc. 5, 1. 31, Shakspere makes Juliet 
say " Some say the lark and loathed toad, change 
eyes." Can any "N. & Q." reader give me an 
illustrative passage to expkin this superstition? 
Is it founded on the extraordinarily accurate sight 
of the toad in catching its victims (see Penny 
Cyclopedia}, or on the lark's being able to see in 
the dark or twilight as toads, says Topsell, " in 
the daytime see little or nothing ; but in the 
night-time they see perfectly " ; or on any power 
larks may have of seeing the signs* of rain ? a 
quality attributed to waterbirds by Tully, " in his 
first Book of Divination," where, " speaking to the 
Frogs, he citeth these verses : 

" Vos quoqwe signa videtis aquai dulcis alumnae, 
Cum clamore paratis inanes fundere voces, 
Absurdoqwe sono fontea & stagna cietis." 
In English thus : 

"And you, water-birds, which dwell in streams so 


Do see the signes whereby the weather is foretold ; 
Your crying voyces wherewith the waters are repleat, 
Vain sounds, absurdly moving Fools and Fountains 
cold." Hiitory of Serpents, p. 723. 


P.S. Mr. Staunton has since given me a quota- 
tion now mislaid that shows that as the ugly 
toad has beautiful eyes, it was supposed to have 
stolen them from, or changed them with, the lark. 

THE BROCKEN. In K. H. VI., Part III. i. 4 
may not the words, 

* That raught at mountains with outstretched arms, 

Yet parted but the shadow with his hand," 
be an allusion to a phenomenon like that celebrated 
as " the spectre of the Brocken " ? S. T. P. 

A TIDAL TERM. In As You Like It, Act iL 
sc. 7, what is the meaning of 

" Till that the weary very means do ebb " ? 
Is there any word relating to the tides answering 
to " means." Malina is Spanish for a spring tide. 
' S. T. P. 

reader can commit to memory the two following 
nonsense verses, only seventeen syllables in all, he 
will have an easy and complete key to the calendar 
for 1874. The lines I propose are : 

For once, one finds three several beaux 
Fined two-and-six for sixteen " goes." 

The explanation is very easy. The words beaux 
and goes are thrown in for the rime (if I may so 
spell the word), but all the other words are 
significant, as follows : 

Far means four, and the first Sunday in January is 

January 4. 
Once means one, and the first Sunday in February is 

February 1." 

Similarly, one means March 1 ; finds means five, 
i.e., April 5 ; three is May 3 ; several is for seven, 
i.e., June 7 ; and there the first half-year ends. 
In the second half-year, or second line, fined means 
five, i.e., July 5 ; two is August 2 ; six is Sep- 
tember 6 ; for is October 4 ; whilst sixteen must 
be read as 16, i.e., November 1 and December 6. 
This is exceedingly easy in practice ; and I myself 
find that it is a great comfort to be always inde- 
pendent of reference to an almanack. If one 
knows the date of the first Sunday, one knows all 
the rest. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. 

stated (says Prof. Child) that there was a MS. of 
the well-known ballad or poem by this author, at 
Peterborough, will you print the accompanying 
disclaimer of the Cathedral Librarian there, that 
the MS. is not in the library under his charge ? 

F. J. F. 
" Peterborough, Dec. 20, 1873. 

" Sir, In answer to your letter of the 12th instant, I 
beg to inform you that there is not in the Cathedral 
Library any MS. copy of Thomas of Erceldown's poems. 

"We have scarcely any manuscripts in the Library, 
with the exception of the ancient Leidger Book of Kobt. 
de Swapham, and a Prologue of the Four Gospels gathered 
into one Story by a Priest of the Church of Lanthony, of 
the fourteenth century, or thereabouts. Most of the 
early MSS. were destroyed in the time of Cromwell. 

" I jjhould have been very happy if I could have 
rendered you any information respecting your inquiries. 
"Yours faithfully, 

" JAS. CATTEL, Librarian." 

"F. J. Furnivall, Esq." 

"CALM DECAY." Keble, in a note to the lines 
on the Twenty-first Sunday after Trinity, says he 
owes the beautiful expression, " Calm decay," to a 
" friend." Isaac Williams speaks of Tintern Abbey 
as "Calm in decay" (Cathedral, 179); but it was 
first used by Southey in Reflections on Autumn : 

" To me they show 

The calm decay of nature." 


CHURCH. The notes on a certain difficulty at- 
tendant upon the publication of banns of marriage 
remind me of another difficulty. The parish of 
Washingley, Northamptonshire, has no church, the 
old church having been destroyed some five cen- 
;uries ago, and no successor to it having been built. 
The parish is now attached to Lutton, where there 
is a church. At the entrance of the park of 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

Washingley Hall (once the residence of the Apreece 
family) are some Scotch firs. They stand a few 
yards from the gate leading to Caldecote Church, 
county of Huntingdonshire, diocese of Ely, Wash- 
ingley being in Northamptonshire, diocese of 
Peterborough. All notices that are required by 
law to be affixed to church-doors, are nailed on two 
of the Scotch firs just mentioned. At any rate, 
this was the custom during the twelve years that I 
recently lived within a few yards of the spot. And, 
when I had occasion to draw some Scotch firs for 
the frontispiece of my book of West-Highland 
legendary stories, The White Wife (S. Low & Co., 
1865), I sketched those Washingley firs to which 
the " church-door" notices were affixed. 


ENGLISH DIALECTS. I send you a few flowers of 
rhetoric of my own gathering, culled in actual con- 
versation, in the hope that they may possibly be of 
service to such of your correspondents as are col- 
lecting such phrases. 

Hast Lancashire. 

Cow-stall. (Said on the rejection of the Premier for 
South Lancashire.) "They'll ha* to find him another 

Cunning. " If they wanten to be middlin' fame, they 
should be churchwarden for a while." 

(The spokesman in these two instances is a fanner.) 

Difficult. (Said of a lame man.) " He seemed very ill 
set to walk." 

Embraced. (An Elizabethan word.) *' He clipped me 
and kissed me." (He was a terrier.) 

Frequently. " I 've told her, and I 've showed her, 
under and over." 

(The spokeswoman in these cases is a rare gem, an 
unspoiled servant of the old school, who writes in a letter 
that she is so busy, she has barely time to " take the 
fathers of the fowls.") 


Long distance. " It 's a smart little way.' K 
Poorly. " He 's very middling." 

Delirious. " He was quite sillified yesterday." 


EARRINGS. According to a Mahometan legend, 
Sarah, being jealous of Hagar, declared she would 
not rest until her hands had been imbued in her 
bondmaid's blood. Then Abraham pierced Hagar's 
ear quickly, and drew a ring through it, so that 
Sarah was able to dip her hand in the blood of 
Hagar without bringing the latter into danger. 
From that time it became a custom among women 
to wear earrings. See Michaelis, Laws of Moses, 
1814, vol. ii., 178. A. L. MAYHEW. 



MACAULAY, Lake Regillut. 
" While met in mortal combat, 

The Roman and the Tusculan, 
The horses black and grey. 

Fast, fast, with heels wild spurning, 

The dark grey charger fled ; 
He burst through ranks of fighting men ; 

He sprung on heaps of dead. 
His bridle far out streaming, 

His flanks all blood and foam, 
He sought the southern mountains. 

The mountains of his home. 

* * * * 

But like a graven image, 
Black Auster held his place." 

* # * * 

HOGG'S Queen's Wake, Twelfth Bard's Song. 
' When good Earl Walter rode the ring 
Upon his mettled grey. 

* * * * * 

Earl Walter's grey was borne aside ; 
Lord Darcie's black held on. 


Lord Darcie's steed turned to his lord, 

And trembling stood behind ; 

But off Earl Walter's dapple scoured 

Far fleeter than the wind ; 

Nor stop, nor stay, nor gate, nor ford, 

Could make her look behind. 

On holt and hill, on slope and slack, 

She sought her native stall." 

Egham Vicarage. 

ERRATA IN BOOKS. Your correspondent's com- 
munication, at p. 366 of your current series, on the 
errors in the first edition of Basan's Dictionnaire, 
1767, reminds me that I have by me a Note on 
Errata, also a " curio," and which appears in the 
following candidly apologetic form : 
" Errata for both volumes. 

" The Author is in his seventieth year, and never pre* 
tended to be an accurate writer." 

To these volumes the said author gave an equally 
quaint title, which runs thus:^- 

" Memoirs and Anecdotes of Philip Thicknesse, late 
Lieutenant-Governor of Landguard Fort, and unfortu- 
nately Father to George Touchet, Baron Audley." 



years ago I proposed the regular verb " to scribe," 
" he scribed," &c., for to write, he wrote, &c., which 
could substitute a regular for an irregular verb, and 
diminish the " right, rite, wright, write " ambiguity 
by one member (we use describe, prescribe, &c.). 
For "watershed" I proposed "aquacline" or 
"aquaclive." Since this shed comes from the 
German scheiden (parting), and not from bloodshed, 
coal shoot (schiessen, schuetten), my words have 
the advantage of a West European Latin incorpo- 
ration, such as thermometer versus /Wsermemesser, 
&c. I think instead of the educational three R'S, 
we ought to call them the "RAW material of 
knowledge," that is, Eeading, Arithmetic, and 
Writing, which would abolish the bad infantile 
spelling of two of them, and alsd indicate how 
often master and pupil are at WAR with each other. 


5* S. I. JAN. 3, 74.] 



[We most request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
Answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

ask if anything is known about this remarkable 
book ? 

" The Passionate Remonstrance made by his Holinesse 
in the Conclave at Rome upon the Proceedings and 
Great Covenant of Scotland," &c. Sm. 4to., 4t) leaves. 
Printed at Edinburgh, 1641. 

(bearing internal evidence, however, that it was 
from a London press) with a frontispiece represent- 
ing the Conclave Urban VIII. surrounded by his 
Cardinals, Bishops, &c., debating the affront lately 
put upon the Holy See by the rejection of the 
Service Book, and the influence in church affairs 
of the 

" Kingdome of Scotland, the most unfortunate and 
inconsiderable Angle in the world ; a people not worthy 
to be beloved, or sought after. Whose Revenues could 
Isardly afford the Oil to our Sallad, yet offered our 

E mbracemen ts. " 

The whole thing is a crow of the delighted 
Covenanters, and the object to congratulate them- 
selves upon the defeat of the presumed plot 
hatched at Rome, and entrusted to their ally, Bishop 
Laud, to bring about the restoration of the Papacy, 
but spoilt by the precipitancy of the Scottish 
bishops. To the Remonstrance is added the 
sympathetic abuses of the Cardinals upon the in- 
gratitudes of the silly Scots in repelling the Holy 
Father's sweet intents with their abominable 
Covenant, and the whole, indeed, a banter 
plentifully supplied with poetical encomiums 
upon the stand made against Popish intrusions, 
and compliments to the anon, author, a "young 
sprit," as Dr. Prymrose calls him, " whose ripe age 
was expected to yeeld a Golden Fleece." 

A striking comment upon my old book is 
furnished in the great movement of the day. In 
1641, it was ostensibly but a prelatic raid, although 
the maddened Scots people of the period made 
little difference between Popery and Episcopacy ; 
but, shade of John Kuox ! when we are told by 
our own Correspondent, in 1873, that the banner 
and contingent from Scotland was the most pro- 
minent feature at Paray-le-Monial, let it not be 
said at Rome that we are offering a national 
reparation for the ill manners of our forefathers ; 
rather let it stimulate us to rally our broken forces, 
and again unfurl the banner of the old Covenant 
against a real invasion of the common enemy. 

J. 0. 

SWEDEN. What is the etymology of Sweden ? 
The name has been derived from many sources, 
but I have not met with a derivation confirmed by 
historical proof. 1. From the old Cimbric word 

suidia, to burn, it being the practice in Sweden to 
set the forests on fire in order to procure fertile 
fields. 2. From sven, which in Swedish and Dansk 
means youthful, warlike, and was a name bestowed 
on many of the Scandinavian kings. 3. From one 
of the names of the God Odin. This kst is said 
to be confirmed by Runic inscriptions and the 
Edda. A. L. MAYHEW. 


Hooker, Eccl. Pol, v. 7, 3, p. 41 : 

IIpOS TOVS K TToStol/ d>#OVOS OvSetS <&UTat. 


Ilao-a Svoyuveia TOJ /3o rovnp crvva.TroTi6erai. 
Synes. Ibid. v. 15, 3, p. 68. 

TO. aiarOrjo-ei KaAa KO.L vorjo-ei KaXtov ei/coi/es. 
Philo Jud. Ibid. 

These passages are not verified in the edition of 
Hooker published at the Clarendon Press. The 
last is also cited by Jer. Taylor, in his discourse on 
" The Reverence due to Holy places," in the Life 
of Christ, in vol. ii. of Eden's edition, where, at 
least in the earlier issue of the volume, it is in 
like manner noted as unfound ; and I think that 
one, if not both, of the other passages is likewise 
cited by him, and not verified. There are many 
passages in Philo closely resembling the third, but 
only the exact words are asked for, the other 
passages being easily found. ED. MARSHALL. 

ENGRAVED PASTE. I possess a beautifully exe- 
cuted intaglio, size 14 by 1 inch, an imitation of 
an antique Greek gem, the subject being the helmed 
head of Pallas. It is sunk into a coloured paste 
of pale amethystine hue, and under the neck of 
the goddess is inscribed, in Greek characters, this 
name " L. or A. Pichler " (A. or A. IIIXAEP). 
Can any one furnish me with information regarding 
the above artist in glyptics, when and where he 
flourished, and so on ; and whether similar 
coloured-paste intaglios were not issued, towards 
the close of last century, by the well-known Mr. 
Tassie 1 I also desire to learn how such pastes are 
composed and formed, the surface, where not en- 
graved, appearing like ground glass ; also whether 
the art-work on the material was performed by 
means of a diamond lathe, or with steel tools, or 
impressed by a duplicate in relief, when the mate- 
rial was in a soft state, and afterwards sharpened 
up and strengthened by manipulative processes? 

Any information, or references to books, will be 
gladly acknowledged. CRESCENT. 


P.S. Since writing the above, I have found the 
following mention in Labarte's Handbook of the 
Arts of the Middle Ages, p. 55, edit. 1855 : 

" The art of engraving upon stones declined greatly 
in the seventeenth century, and was even so little culti- 
vated, that many of its processes were lost, With the 
eighteenth century appeared many artists of high merit. 
Joseph Pichler (f 1790) was the most celebrated of all, 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

and his productions may deservedly be ranked with 
those of the engravers of antiquity." 

Were there, therefore, more Pichlers than one ? 
Or what does the A. or A. signify ? 

the building of the Observatory at Greenwich is 
dated 2nd June, 1675, and the foundation stone 
was laid on the 10th August following. The first 
nautical almanac, published by order of the 
Commissioners of Longitude, was for the year 
1767, and all the elements were calculated for the 
meridian ' of Greenwich. By W. Emerson's 
Mathematical Principles of Geography, issued in 
1770, the longitude of London is stated to be 18, 
and is, therefore, evidently reckoned from, the 
meridian of Ferro, one of the Canary Islands. In 
the same work, Patagonia is stated to be situated 
between the longitude of 295 and 320 ; hence, at 
that date, the longitude was reckoned easterly 
round the world. 

When did the English first reckon the longitude 
from the meridian of Greenwich, and when was it 
first measured 180 easterly or westerly from that 
meridian ? Was the mode of reckoning regulated 
by an Act of Parliament, or was it assented to by 
the astronomers and geographers of the day ? 

E. H. C. 

Will the Judicature Act of last Session have the 
effect of superseding, or in any way altering, the 
costume as at present worn by the judges of the 
superior courts of common law when sitting in 
open court? As every one who has read it is 
aware, the Act practically amalgamates the three 
superior courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas, 
and Exchequer, while preserving for divisional 
purposes the name of each. The Act also renders 
it unnecessary that a judge, appointed after the 
Act comes into force, should be a serjeant-at-law. 
The variety of dress that is worn by the judges, at 
different times throughout the year, is to be 
accounted for by the fact of their being both 
Serjeants and justices, or barons, as the case may 
be. The line in Chaucer, speaking of the serjeant- 
at-law, who of " robes had many one," no doubt 
is as true now as it was then ; and although only 
one kind of dress is worn at the bar, the others are 
worn on the bench. I shall also be glad to hear 
of any work that treats of the various robes as now 

called in Germany " Kinderrnesse," and in Eng- 
land ' ; Childermas," used to be more strictly 
observed in the olden time. The office for the 
festival was one of sorrow ; the church bells were 
always muffled, and in the Church Service the 
Glwia in Excelsis, and often the Gloria Patri, was 
omitted. In many parishes we are still reminded 

that it is a red-letter day in our calendar by the 
ringing of a muffled peal on the church bells. This 
las been the case, from time immemorial, at 

! hurchdown, and at Woodchester, in Gloucester- 
shire ; also at Leigh-upon-Mendip, and Wells 
"lathedral, in Somersetshire. And seeing how, 
;hrough every passing year, Christmas-tide is 
aecoming shorn of its ancient character, it is well 
to make a note of such persistent usages. Some 
of your readers may be able to extend the list of 
places where the old custom in question still 
ingers. F. S. 


CHARLES II. Is there any record of an extra- 
ordinarily fine Bible, Field's, 1660, being presented 
to Charles II. at his coronation, or soon after ? 

J. C. J. 


"A gentleman, who is well acquainted with the 
beautiful country around Grassington (where it is pro- 
posed to establish an hydropathic establishment), in the 
course of his explorations in the neighbourhood, has 
recently discovered some ruins in Grass Wood, which 
appear to be the remains of a British fortress. The main 
building, he states, has possessed three compartments of 
a large size, and has been defended by an outer wall, 
which runs from it for a considerable distance, and then 
returns to its lower extremity. Within the circle of the 
wall there has been another building, and hundreds of 
tons of rubbish lie upon the ground. The ruins are upon 
the highest hill in the picturesque wood, and cover about 
half-an-acre of its surface. The position is most com- 
manding. Northwardly can be seen Great Whernside,. 
Kettlewell, Buckden, and the range of high hills in that 
direction ; eastwardly the Valley of the Wharf e may be 
traced in its devious discourse, to Simon's Seat and 
Beamsley Beacon ; southwardly are the Rylstone and 
Flasby Fells ; and westwardly the heights of Skierthorns 
and the hills of Bast Lancashire. It is a prospect of 
great beauty and extent. We are informed that it is in- 
tended to explore the ruins with a view to ascertain to 
what age of the world they belong." Leeds Mercury. 

The above information has not been followed 
by any other particulars. Perhaps some corre- 
spondent, or some member of the Grassington 
Mechanics' Institute, will favour " N. & Q." with 
a further account. JAMES HENRY DIXON. 

STACEY GRIMALDI. What article in the Ex- 
cerpta Historica, published by Bentley, was. 
written by the late Stacey Grimaldi, Esq.? 


MACKENZIE WALCOTT'S paper on the "In- 
ventory of Waltham Holy Cross," I find this : 
" A rnonstraunce of sylver gilte." Will he tell me,, 
as the present result of his researches of the 
inventories of the goods of the Church, what are 
the earliest records of vessels or vestments used in 
the service of the Benediction of the Holy Sacra- 
ment, or the exposition of the same ? e. g., mon- 

5 8. 1. JAH. 3, 74.] 


strance, or ostensorium tabernacle, benediction 
veil, &c. 1 H. A. W. 

some half-educated persons use inverted commas 
in the following odd way ? I quote from a genuine 
letter " This is very frequent in ' fever.' " What 
idea could be in the mind of the writer, which led 
him to distinguish a common noun in this manner ? 
I have seen several other instances of similar 
peculiarity. HERMENTRUDE. 

METAL DISH. I have an old massive white- 
metal dish, weighing some 12 Ib. It is stamped 
on the under side with an oval stamp, about the 
size of a shilling, bearing the golden fleece between 
two scrolls ; the upper one I cannot read ; the one 
below has ELLIS. On the upper side it is engraved 
with a shield, bearing a fess between two flaunches 
ermine ; impaling ermine or chevron. Can any 
of your readers give me the date of the dish from 
the stamp, or inform me whose the armorial 
bearings are ? W. M. 

THE WAKON-BIRD. I am very desirous of 
knowing what bird it was which the North 
American Indians called " wakon " in the days of 
the first explorers of their country. Its size and 
plumage are described by Carver, and it is, I 
think, mentioned by Hennepin and Charlevoix, 
though on this latter point I am not certain. I 
once went carefully through Audubon's Birds of 
America, but failed to find any description that 
corresponded with Carver's. Moore alludes to the 
"wakon-bird" in the following passage from his 
"Epistle to Lady Charlotte Eawdon, from the 
Banks of the St. Lawrence": 

" Then, when I have strayed a while 

Through the Manatauliri isle, 

Breathing all its holy bloom, 

Swift upon the purple plume 

Of my Wakon-Bird, I fly 

Where, beneath a burning sky, 

O'er the bed of Erie'a lake, 

Slumbers many a water-snake, 

Basking in the web of leaves 

Which the weeping lily weaves."* 

Eeferences to where any information on this 
subject can be found will be very acceptable to 

H. G. 

Testament now in use translated into Welsh 
directly from the original Greek, or merely from 
our English version ? Some interesting questions 
would arise in the former alternative. 

M. H. E. 

* Foot-note to the above in Moore's Poetical Works : 
" The Wakon-Bird, which probably is of the same species 
with the Bird of Paradise, receives its name from the 
ideas the Indians have of its superior excellence; the 
Wakon-Bird being, in their language, the ' Bird of the 
Great Spirit.' " MORSE. 

This Declaration, signed by loyalists and expressing 
the moderation of their views and their confidence 
in General Monck, is mentioned in Heber's Life of 
Jeremy Taylor, p. xcvi. Where can the original 
or copy of the above, with the signatures, be seen? 


" THE BEE PAPERS." Would my friend V. EL 
(4 th S. xi. 104) kindly inform me where I can find 
a copy of these 1 They are not among Goldsmith's 
Essays. C. E. N. 

since I saw a newspaper paragraph stating the 
names of several marshals of France who ha'd been 
tried by court-martial and all condemned and 
shot. Perhaps one of your correspondents can 
inform me where I could find that paragraph, or 
obtain information respecting those trials. 

J. B. G. 

your ecclesiological readers kindly tell me where I 
may find information respecting the material, size, 
and consecration of stone altars in the Middle Ages, 
particularly with regard to England ? 

W. H. S. 




(4* h S. xi. 378, 491 ; xii. 179, 357, 417.) 
Having laid aside for awhile my notes on Con- 
stable, I ask a small space in which to reply to- 
MR. ELLIOT BROWNE, who has not, I think, suffi- 
ciently considered the circumstances when he ques- 
tions "if Constable were sufficiently known in 
1595 to be named publicly as Watson's heir." 
Negative evidence is at all times doubtful, and the 
negative evidence on which he relies especially so. 
Spenser omits several poets : for instance, if JEtion 
be Shakspeare, Warner, then held in the highest 
estimation, is omitted ; if JEtion be Warner, then 
he omits Shakspeare. Meres also omits several, 
and among them the three Eornan Catholics, 
Southwell, Constable, and Donne; and, in addition, 
account must be taken of that pedantic peculiarity 
by which he compares our poets with others by a 
parallelism of numbers. If his lists be examined, 
this will be found to be so constant that the differ- 
ences, never exceeding one or two, maybe accounted 

The positive evidence, on the other hand, goes 
to prove that Constable was never better known 
than in and about the year 1595. The Diana, up 
to the 22nd sonnet, was first published in 1592, 
when Constable had left England, and they are 
then called orphans. In a book misdated 1584, 
probably for 1594, are' published seventy-six son- 



[5< u S. I. JAN. 3, 74, 

nets, twenty- seven only of which formed Constable's 
Diana, yet it is entitled " Diana, by H. Constable, 
with divers other 1 quatorzains by honorable and 
learned personages." Thus he is put in the fore- 
front, and no other named, though two-thirds of 
the sonnets are by others, and ten of these by Sir 
P. Sidney. Although also Constable was in exile 
for political causes, the book is dedicated to the 
Maids of Honour, and Smith, the publisher of both 
Dianas, adopts the phrase " orphan poems " from 
the 1592 edition, and says 

" These Orphan poems : in whose right 
Conceit first claym'd his byrth-right to enjoy." 

It is said there were after editions in 1597 and 
1604, but there seems to be no evidence of their 
existence. In England's Parnassus (1600) there 
are, I think, some ten or twelve quotations from 
his published sonnets, and two from poems now 
unknown ; he is quoted also in the Belvedere (1601), 
and the laudatory notice of him in the Return from 
Parnassus is of 1601 or 2. England's Helicon 
(1601) contained other of his pieces, and it must 
-be remembered that all these were compilations of 
known and esteemed pieces. The Venus and 
Adonis, in especial, was probably written before 
Shakspeare's Adonis of 1595. Contrary, also, to 
the statements of his biographers, there is no evi- 
dence to show that Constable was in England in 
or after 1592 until the accession of James. There 
.are no grounds for saying he was in England in 
1595, and I can find no evidence for the statement 
that he returned privately in 1601 or 2. Some of 
his sonnets give the dates 1588, 1590, and 1591, 
but none give any later than 1595, if so late, and 
there is reason to believe that shortly after 1595 
Constable, then abroad, gave up secular poetry, and 
turned to religion and theological controversy. 
Coupling all these things with the small amount 
of his published poetry, and the great influx of the 
poetry and verse of others, it may rather be con- 
jectured that Constable, like Dyer, gradually fa4ed 
from the public mind. 

These, however, are not all the proofs of a repu- 
tation earlier than 1595. James VI. did not print 
many commendatory verses before his poetical 
exercises in 1591, but the first is a sonnet by Con- 
stable, and as it is the first so is his name printed 
in larger capitals than that of any other. Simi- 
larly, no commendatory verses, nor even elegies, 
were printed before any of Sidney's works, save 
and except one. Constable wrote a sonnet to the 
Countess of Pembroke, and as may be seen by the 
sonnet itself, he sent with it the praises of her 
brother. These, in the form of four sonnets, were 
prefixed to The Defense of Poesy in 1595. These 
words also, " Watson's heir," led me to think o 
Constable, and that for two reasons. Sonnets wer< 
then in vogue as one of the most perfect forms o 
verse, and while Watson's chief poetical works in 
English were sonnets, so it was those on which his 

nore general fame rested. Thus Davison's quota- 
ions are ten of the Ecatompathia ; the twenty-four 
[notations in the Parnassus are also from the same, 
and so are four out of the five in the Helicon ; so 
also in Meres his name is paralleled with Petrarch's, 
'n Watson's heir, therefore, I looked for a newer 
ionneteer rather than a pastoral poet ; and, 
iecondly, I took the word heir as peculiarly appro- 
bate to Constable, for his sonnets were first pub- 
ished in 1592, the year in which Watson died. 

Thus it will be seen that the hypothesis that 
Constable was Watson's heir is somewhat more 
han what MR. ELLIOT BROWNE terms a guess. 
Fraunce, whom he thinks a better guess, did not, 
30 far as is known, write sonnets, and Emanuel 
xcepted, his known poetry consists of translations 
only. Besides his chief pastoral, Phillis and 
Amynlas, translated from Watson and Tasso, was 
irst published in 1587, with what Mr. Arbor justly 
alls a dishonest' preface, for Watson's name is 
neither mentioned nor hinted at, a suppression 
pointedly resented by Watson himself in the pre- 
face to his English Melibtzus in 1590. It is, no 
doubt, proved by the different editions of the Phillis 
and Amyntas that Fraunce was for a while, and 
inclusive of 1595, in a certain esteem. But some- 
thing must be put down to the fames of Watson 
and Tasso, and something as due to curiosity and 
;lique at a time when an attempt was made to 
naturalize the classic metres ; and I cannot bring 
myself to believe that so poor and strange a versi- 
fier as was Fraunce could ever be considered as 
Watson's true successor. Webbe, a favourer and 
practiser of the new metres, seems to mention him 
in 1586, and Meres does so in 1598. But there is 
no notice of him in anything that remains of G. 
Harvey, the inventor and supporter of English 
hexameters ; and besides Lodge, I know of no others 
who speak of him, for that he is the Coridon of 
Colin Clouf's Come Home Again is one of Malone's 
most unsatisfactory guesses. B. NICHOLSON. 

In reply to MR. C. ELLIOT BROWNE'S query (p. 
417), I beg to state that I quoted (p. 357) from the 
British Museum copy of Willobie his Avisa, 1594 
[4to.]. From canti xliv. to xlvii. of this poem it 
would seem that Willobie and Shakspeare were 
" faythfull frends." The whole passage has, I see, 
appeared in " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. ix. 59. The mystery 
of the authorship of the Hexameton is, I suppose, 
couched under the words " Vigilantius : Dormi- 
tanus," and perhaps the preceding words (which 
are Virgil's, transposed), "Contraria Contrariis," 
contain the clue to the interpretation of the former. 


Athenaeum Club. 

MARKS ON PORCELAIN (4 th S. xii. 472.) As an 
instalment towards a full reply to W. N. Y., of 
New York, I beg to say that I made it my business 

5" S. I. JAN. 3, 74.] 



to call upon one of the most courteous, as well as 
most extensive, dealers in old china in this metro- 
polis (London), and communicated to him the 
query as to the mark or visa presumed by your 
correspondent to be that of Brogniart. His answer 
was that in the course of his experience he had 
never, within his recollection, come across such an 
inscription on Sevres ; but, he added, and this I 
can substantiate from my own knowledge, there 
are, in numerous instances, marks scratched in 
under the glaze upon hard paste Sevres of the First 
Empire and Kestoration periods. I will push 
further inquiries elsewhere on this point. Regard- 
ing the pieces of the breakfast set, I would say that 
the marks would seem to indicate Sevres of 1781, 
that year's series of fictilia being known by the 
letters D D; that the crown over the double inter- 
laced L signifies that the pieces so marked were for 
royal use, or for presents from royalty ; that the 
letters B D, if cursive capitals, would seem to be 
the signature of Baudouin, who painted ornaments 
and friezes ; that the three dots, if alone, would 
form the mark of Tandrart (perhaps the " straight 
line, with three dots or elevations," as described 
by W. N. Y., is the heraldic label, upside-down, 
of Viellard); but that in these matters of keramics, 
"1'habit ne fait pas le moine," and so much depends 
upon the form, the texture, the style of ornamen- 
tation, and the gilding, that it is useless to 
attempt to give an authoritative opinion, from 
marks alone, as to the genuine or false character of 
specimens of porcelain. 

If, however, W. N. Y. thinks it worth while to 
send to my address below a private communication, 
covering sketches of the shapes of the pieces he 
possesses, with tracings of the marks on the 
porcelain, and a full description of the colours and 
pattern of the decoration, I shall be happy to 
secure further consideration for his specimens by 
practical professional men, as well as by myself, 
aa amateur student of thirty-five years' standing. 
In the mean time, if he would submit one of his 
breakfast pieces to Mr. Barnet Phillips, of the 
New York, Times, I think that that gentleman 
would be able to give a shrewd opinion respecting 
the true or fictitious nature of the ware. 

I quite agree with W. N. Y., that there are 
fields to sport over, for keramic game, in America 
(one of my very best bits was bagged, for a trifle, 
at New York). Old Wedgwood ware should be 
abundant, as it was exported so largely. Of Sevres 
pate tendre, I am doubtful whether much could be 
discovered ; it was always so costly to produce, 
and was not an article of commerce ; unless, 
indeed, I may except the fictitiously decorated 
soft-paste ware, issued about 1&15 by dealers who 
purchased the undecorated surplus stock at the 
royal manufactory, palming it off, when coloured 
up, as eighteenth century production, and flooding 
Europe therewith, and probably America too. 

" Tis true, 'tis pity ; pity 'tis 'tis true " that 
there is no art museum at New York. Now, how- 
ever, that the " Cesnola " Collection is secured, 
surely those interested will not confine their 
attention to the antiquities the General exhumed, 
but will gradually increase their range, and select 
specimens of Maiolica, of Sevres and Dresden, of 
Frankenthal and Capo di Monte, &c. Arms and 
armour, decorative furniture, Venetian and Bo- 
hemian glass, metal-work, enamels, plate and 
jewellery, tapestries and brocades and lace, all 
crave attention ; and good examples of various 
schools meet with high respect, not only on 
account of their own intrinsic beauties, but also 
on account of their value in art-training, and in 
moulding the taste and skilled manufactures of 
any country. In these respects, South Kensington 
Museum offers a splendid model for imitation on 
Manhattan Island, and thousands of refined and 
intellectual Americans must crave for such an in- 
stitution, and should agitate for its establishment. 
I should dearly like to help my Transatlantic friends 
in so good a cause. CRESCENT. 

3, Homefield Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 

P.S. Duesbury's Crown Derby china bears marks 
which do not at all resemble those on Sevres 

LAND (4 th S. xii. 490.) The information given by 
DR. RAMAGE on this subject is very interesting, 
but is somewhat marred by the inaccurate manner 
in which the equations are made between the 
Scotch and English currency. We are told that a 
rent of 200L Scots, paid in 1624, represents 101. 
sterling, that is, a pound Scots equals a shilling. 
The next receipt is in 1731, for 5991 17s. 4d. Scots, 
which DR. RAMAGE says is about 282. This would 
be at the rate of 11 id. per pound Scots. A third 
entry makes 81. 6s. Scots equal 8s. English. 

Now the pound Scots was in reality Is. Sd. ster- 
ling, as is generally pretty well known, a Scots 
shilling being equal to an English penny, or, in 
other words, the Scottish currency was one-twelfth 
the value of the English, with the same denomina- 
tions. This is shown clearly enough by the very 
documents quoted by DR. RAMAGE. The receipts 
given for the rental of Wraiths and Kirkland, 
391Z. 11s. 4d. Scots, DR. RAMAGE states, represent 
about 181. sterling, which is a fraction over lid. 
per pound sterling ; but the same rents, when 
represented a few lines lower down in sterling 
money, are stated to be 321. 12s. 7 '-fad., which is 
exactly at the rate of Is. 8d. per pound Scots, the 
fraction of 4 proving that the sum in pounds Scots 
was divided by twelve. 

Apropos of this, a story is recorded of Scott 
which well illustrates his shrewdness and humour. 
When Lady Anne Lindsay brought out her fine 
song of Auld Robin Gray, it was under the guise 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

of an old ballad, which was for a time believed. 
Scott meeting Lady Anne at an evening party 
where the song was sung, slily remarked to the 
authoress on the line 

" To mak' the croon a pund, young Jamie went to sea," 
that Jamie must have been a daft chiel to go to 
sea to make five shillings into one and eightpence. 
The fact is the crown was a purely English coin, 
first minted by Edward VI. in 1553. 

Your readers will remember the inimitable scene 
in Old Mortality, when the troopers burst in on 
the family circle at Milnwood, and the old miser, 
in bitterness of spirit, screws himself up to say 

" ' If twenty p p punds would make up this un- 
happy matter ' 

" ' My master,' insinuated Alison to the sergeant, ' would 
give twenty punds sterling ' 

" ' Punds Scotch, ye h h,' interrupted Milnwood. 

'"Funds sterling,' insisted the housekeeper." 

The Scotch coinage was cancelled at the Union 
in 1707 as a circulating medium, but it was neces- 
sarily continued as money of account for some 
time longer. By the documents in question it 
would appear that from 1739 the accounts were 
kept in sterling money. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

FUNERAL GARLANDS (4 th S. xii. 406, 480.) The 
funeral garland was undoubtedly an imitation " of 
the radiant coronet prepared for virgin souls," the 
crown of victory, to which Keble (Wednesday 
before Easter, Christian Year} and Jeremy Taylor 
(Holy Living, c. xi. s. 3) allude. In the legend of 
St. Cecilia, an angel gives her a crown of roses and 
lilies from paradise, saying, none but the pure can 
see them (Aur. Leg., 220). Weever says the 
funeral garland was given to a widow who had but 
one husband (Fun. Mon., 12). A marriage crown, 
or past, was often lent to poorer brides from the 
church stock. In 1733, at Bromley, Kent, a funeral 
crown, made of gold and silver, like myrtle leaves, 
and- lined with cloth of silver, was dug up. In the 
neighbourhood of London these garlands were 
carried by two young girls before the dead, anc 
then hung up in the church ; till at the beginning 
of the last century they were forbidden to be sei 
up, or were actually removed, but they had become 
merely hoops of artificial flowers, ribbons, anc 
paper gloves bearing the name of the departed 
with an hour-glass or eggs to resemble bubbles. 

Whitaker, in his History of Craven (p. 406) 
mentions paper garlands used at the funerals o 
maidens, inscribed with their names, and hung on 
the lattice of the chancels, in Wharfdale. There 
was one at Hanwood, Salop, some years since. 

The custom is as old as the time of Elizabeth 
The Priest says of Ophelia, 

" Yet, here she is allowed her virgin-crawfe [kranz], 
Her maiden strewments, and the bringing home 
Of bell and burial." 

Wren, Bishop of Ely in 1662, asked at his visi- 

Are any mean toyes and childish gewgaws, such as 
be fonder sort of people prepare at some burials, 
uffered to be fastened up in your church at anyone's 
leaaurel or any Garlands and other ordinary funeral 
nsigns to hang where they hinder the prospect or until 
hey grow foul and dusty, withered and rotten ? " 

The use of flowers strewn upon graves is far 
more ancient, as Prudentius says (Cathem., b. x., v. 

" Nos tecta fovebimus ossa 
Violis et fronde frequenti." 

Laurel, ivy, or other evergreens, were put into 
he coffin ; and Baronius says that in the fourth 
;entury the palm and the olive, symbols of victory 
md joy, were carried in the funeral procession 
(Greg. Turon. de Glor. Conf., c. 84 ; Durand. Div. 
')ff., lib. viii., c. 35 ; Annal. ad Ann., 310, n. 10). 
Shakspeare, in his Dirge of Love, says : 
" My shroud of white, stuck all with yew, 

prepare it. 

Not a flower, not a flower sweet, 
On my black coffin let there be strown." 


See Gent. Mag., xvii. 264. I remember seeing 
some in a village church near Doncaster, about 
;wenty-five years ago. J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

444.) Will the REV. J. WOODWARD, who com- 
plains, in your paper of the 6th December, of the 
manner in which the crests of the Knights of the 
Garter are placed over the stalls on the north side 
of St. George's Chapel at Windsor, explain how 
they could be placed in any other manner 1 He 
says they turn their tails to the Communion Table. 
Now all crests representing animals face to the 
right, unless they face directly to the front, there- 
fore the crests on the north side of St. George's 
generally face the organ, and those on the south 
side face the Communion Table. 

" NOR" FOR " THAN " (4 th S. xii. 388, 502.) I 
have not got the volume of Tytler here, but if MR. 
RANDOLPH will refer to the passages he will find 
there is no error. I have also found another case 
in the same work, from a Scotchman writing in 
1600 (Tytler, ix. 300), " I wish nothing better nor 
io achieve," &c. This the historian in a note ex- 
plains " nor " by " than," which he did not happen 
to do before. LYTTELTON. 

A Highlander comparing the two little towns 
of Tain and Dornoch, said, " Tain is no better nor 
Dornoch, nor Dornoch nor Tain." C. 

" I know no more about it nor the man in the 
moon," and "I would rather have this nor that," 
are examples of a very general use of this idiom 
in Lancashire. R. E. 


5 th fi. I. JAN. 3, '74.] 



A STUBBORN FACT (4 th S. xii. 469). Far be it 
from me to attack the faith either of MR. JAMES 
or of his friend the Captain ; nor do I, of course, 
deny the possibility of such apparitions as are 
here related ; but I must think that they are very 
much less common than is sometimes thought. I 
hold it to be perfectly possible that the operations 
of the mind may produce, in some men, such an 
effect upon the eyes as would be caused by an 
actual appearance presented to them, while in others 
no such thing will take place. I also grant that a 
strong conviction is sometimes found of such 
matters as the death of a friend or relation, which is 
difficult to account for ; but I contend that this is 
quite apart from the question of apparitions. Thus, 
then, I would explain MR. JAMES'S story : that 
such a conviction produced on the officer's eyes an 
effect such as I have mentioned. The difficulty is, 
of course, to distinguish between a case like this 
and an actual apparition of a disembodied spirit, 
of which I think no man who has considered the 
matter can deny the possibility; and in many 
cases I am quite ready to say this is most difficult, 
perhaps sometimes impossible. But one plain 
criterion is 1 the presence or absence of a sufficient 
end, or at any rate the possibility of the existence 
of a sufficient end, for which Almighty God should 
permit such an apparition ; and this is one reason 
why I am disposed to think that MR. JAMES'S 
story is not an apparition. What end did it serve 
that the officer in England became aware of the 
death of him in Kussia a few days sooner than he 
otherwise would have known it ? The other cir- 
cumstances are of little importance ; the coincidence 
of time is a most difficult matter to ascertain ex- 
actly ; one would like to see it, if possible, properly 
and astronomically calculated ; also to which ap- 
pearance did it refer? for there were two, and, 
perhaps, as much as five or ten minutes between 
them. Indeed, this very fact of there being two 
is in my favour, for it is easy to think that the 
presence and conversation of the Captain disturbed 
the ideas of the other officer so as to remove or 
lessen the effect on his eyes, which returned when 
he was left alone ; while the " red mark on the 
forehead " is likely enough to occur to a soldier 
thinking of a soldier's death. 

With regard, therefore, to the general question, 
if the fact of the real or fanciful appearance is well 
authenticated, as this on the whole seems to be, I 
would admit it ; but where there is no evidence 
that it was an actual spiritual apparition, I would 
account for it in some such way as I have now 
tried to do for MR. JAMES'S story. But I cannot 
help saying though it has been said before how 
remarkable it is that one never gets such stories at 
first-hand. To take the' present instance : MR. 
JAMES has his, not from the officer to whom it 
happened, but from another ; and so it will almost 
always be. MR. JAMES'S story is second-hand, 

and to us third-hand ; and though I have heard 
one or two of the kind myself, one of which came 
under the knowledge of an uncle, I never had them 
at all directly. CHARLES F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

" LOGARTS LIGHT " (4 th S. xiL 474.) This does 
not mean any particular kind of light, but a light 
in a particular part of the church. Loga=Logium 
Du Cange renders by " ^Edes, habitatio, domicilium," 
but says;that its truer meaning is andronem, xystum, 
a place for conversation or discourse. In course of 
time it was restricted to a less general sense, and 
used only of the stage of a theatre, Aoyiov, TO TOU 
Oedrpov, pulpitum, in which sense Vitruvius uses 
it (1. v., c. 8). From this it came to signify the 
reading-desk in churches, anibo, and afterwards the 
place from which the sermon was delivered, what 
we now call the pulpit. Taking, then, Logo, = 
Aoyeiov, a speaking-place, as the equivalent of our 
word pulpit, I understand "Logarys Light" to 
mean light for the pulpit ; and have no doubt in 
my own mind that this was the nature of the be- 
quests referred to by your correspondent. 

In days like these of composites and dips, this 
may seem but a sorry legacy, but those, it must be 
remembered, were days in which people did not 
"serve God beggarly," and "give Him of that 
which cost them nothing." They gave Him of 
their best, and to the best of their ability, and no 
doubt this " Logarys Light " would be of the cost- 
liest wax, and the comeliest mould. 


(4 th S. xii. 474.) The first edition of Bacon's Works 
printed in England (1730) gives, on page 299 of 
vol. iii., the dedications to the three editions of the 
Essays which were published in their author's life- 
time. They bear the respective dates, 1597, 1612, 
1625, and it is only in the last one that any allusion 
is made to a Latin version. The third edition is 
inscribed to the Duke of Buckingham, and the 
following sentence occurs in the dedication : 

" I have enlarged them (the Essays) both in number 
and weight; so that they are indeed a new work. I 
thought it therefore agreeable to my affection and 
obligation to your grace, to prefix your name before them 
both in English and in Latin : For I do conceive, that 
the Latin volume of them (being in the universal lan- 
guage) may last as long as books last." 

Archbishop Tenison, in his Introduction to the 
Baconiana, p. 60, says : 

" His Lordship wrote them (the Essays) in the English 
tongue, and enlarged them as occasion served. . . . The 
Latin translation of them was a work performed by divers 
hands ; by those of Dr. Hacket (late bishop of Lichfield), 
Mr. Benjamin Johnson (the learned and judicious poet), 
and some others, whose names I once heard from Dr. 
Rawley, but I cannot now recal them. To this Latin 
edition he gave the title of Sermones Fideles." 


Hazelwood, Belper. 


[5 01 S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

THE SURNAME "BARNES" (4 th S. xii. 496.) 
The Spanish surname is probably not related to 
the English name. Barnes is the appellation of a 
place, prov. Oviedo, and of two localities, prov. 
Zaragoza. The local name may possibly be con- 
nected with that of Barnais (Ba/rnacis), for which 
Madoz suggests an etymology. There is also a 
place called Barniedo, prov. Leon, and Barnades is 
a Spanish surname. 

" GORDANO" (4 th S. xii. 495.) Rutter (Delinea- 
tions of N.-W. Div. of S., Lond., 1829) derives the 
-distinctive appellation of Weston in Gordano from 
the ancient family of De Gordano, who had large 
possessions in the vicinity. ' K. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

495.) There are several portraits of this lady at 
Althorp, in which her hair is always of the colour 
described by J. W. LYTTELTON. 

J. W. inquires what was the colour of this lady's 
hair. Kneller's portrait, which was in the 
.National Portrait Exhibition, proves this hair to 
have been of a pale honey colour, and, doubtless, 
of a very pure and rich tint. Your correspondent 
will remember the pathetic anecdote which relates 
how, being once in a towering rage with her hus- 
band, who admired her hair as her chief ornament, 
she, to spite him, cut off her abundant tresses, laid 
them on a table in an anteroom, where the duke 
found them, and put them in his cabinet, where, 
after his death, she discovered them among his 
most valued treasures. F. G. S. 

496.) Your correspondent will find the passage he 
asks for in Bacon's Essay Of Unity in Religion. 
The words quoted by the member of Parliament, 
as given in Hume and Smollett's History, are not 
the exact words of Bacon, who says : 

" There be two false peaces, or unities ; the one, when 
the peace is grounded but upon an implicit ignorance ; 
for all colours will agree in the dark ; the other, when it 
is pieced up upon a direct admission of contraries in 
fundamental points : for truth and falsehood, in such 
things, are like the iron and clay in the toes of Nebu- 
chadnezzar's image ; they may cleave, but they will not 



"QUILLET" (4 th S. xii. 348.) This word, in 
the sense described, is in very common use in 
Cheshire. There is seldom a farm to be sold or 
let, but a " quillet " is mentioned in the advertise- 
ment, and in the sense quoted by Halliwell in his 
Archaic Dictionary, as current in Devonshire, 
" a croft or grass yard." WM. DOBSON. 


449.) This work was written by William Howell 

;he author of the once well-known Institution of 

eneral History. It long continued one of the 

most popular manuals of English history. The 

twelfth edition was published in 1766, with a 

ontinuation to the accession of George III. 


WALKING-CANES (4 th S. xii. 472.) I have the 
landle of a cane of old Chelsea porcelain. It is a 
rather graceful female head, and the cane proceeds 
rom the neck. P. P. 

(4 th S. xii. 484.) We think this is not a spurious 
work. We have a copy, and here is the title : 

" The History of the Four Last Years of the Queen. 
By the late Jonathan Swift, D.D.D.S.P.D. Published 
"rom the last Manuscript Copy. Corrected and enlarged 
}y the Author's own Hand " (see more at large in Pre- 
face). London, Printed for A. Millar, in the Strand, 

SUTER & Co. 
22, Cheapside. 

"TOUT VIENT A POINT," &c. (4 th S. xii. 268, 
315, 377, 482.) I have somewhere read of this as 
an Arabic proverb. HERMENTRUDE. 

DRINKING HOGAN (1 st S. iii. 450 ; 4 th S. vii. 
430, 481, 524.) Twenty-two years ago a query of 
mine, based upon the poet Gray's use of this 
expression, was inserted in " N. & Q." No reply 
was vouchsafed. Eighteen years later another 
querist took up the subject with little better 
result. I am anxious now, in this Fifth Series, 
to recur once more to the matter. As to the 
meaning of the compound expression, "hogen 
rnogen," all are agreed : its equivalent in our 
tongue is, unquestionably, high and mighty. But 
the question to which I in 1851, and W. P. again 
in 1871, wished for a reply, is, as the latter puts it, 
" What was the drink so called 1" In addition to 
Gray's verdict on its potency, by commending his 
friend for not drinking the hogan which would lay 
him in the dust, I have met with two earlier 
allusions to it. Gay, in his ballad of Molly Mog ; 
or, the Fair Maid of the Inn, has this stanza : 
"Those who toast all the family royal, 

In bumpers of Hogan and Nog, 
Have hearts not more true or more loyal, 

Than mine to my sweet Molly Mog." 

And Taylor the Water Poet, in his Certain Travels 
of an Uncertain Journey, published in 1653 (I 
quote from the Spenser Society's elegant reprint), 
when on his 

" female beast born, 
To an unknown feast born, at a Towae cal'd East Bourne," 

" There was a high and mighty drink called Rug. 
Sure since the Reigne of great King Gorbodug, 
Was never such a rare infus'd confection." 

And he ascribes to 

. I. JAH. 3, 74.] 



" Hogen Mogen Rugs, great influences 
To provoke sleep, and stupifie the sences." 

At the close of his poem he 

" found most potent admirable Ale, 
'Tis second to no drink but Ecat-Bourne Rug." 

The italics are all Taylor's. 

Now, not to trail a red herring across the scent 
by asking what Gay and the " Water-Poet " (not 
it would seem, water-drinker) respectively mean 
by " Nog " and " Kug," it is clear the drink calle 
Hogan was an unusually powerful tipple, whateve 
its components were. 


THE CISTERCIANS (4 th S. xii. 474.) Jongelinu 
(folio, Antwerp, MDCXXXX.) is the acknowledged 
text-book as to the history of the Cistercian Order 
He gives a full account of the foundation, rise, am 
progress of the Order, and a sketch of the estab- 
lishment of the abbeys connected with it every 
where up to the period he wrote. The title-pag 
of this elaborate work consists of a finely executec 
copper-plate engraving, designed, as well as I re- 
member, by Peter Paul Rubens. In Borne,* in 
1864, was printed La Trappe Congregation 
Moines de t'Ordre Binedictins-Cisterciens, an ex- 
ceedingly scarce and valuable pamphlet, of 39 pp. 
8vp., which gives an account of the Order as it 
existed in that year ; and which shows that " La 
Trappe est 1'Ordre deCiteaux, les Trappistes sont de 
vrais Cisterciens." On the death of Cardinal Marini 
on the 15th of April, 1864, His Holiness Pio Nono, 
in an autograph letter, graciously deigned to name 
Cardinal Antonelli " Protecteur de la Congregation 
des Trappistes de Tune et 1'autre observance." The 
pamphlet consists of a very full report to Cardinal 
Antonelli of the state of the Order as it then 
stood, and it states that the number of monks 
enrolled in the Order in that year (1864) and 
" under the province of France " was 3,000. 


The following works may be consulted with ad- 
vantage : Dugdale's Monasticon, pp. 695-702, 
folio ; Maitland's The Dark Ages, pp. 352, et 
sequent., 8vo., 1845 ; Milman's Latin Christianity, 
vol. iv., p. 308, 12mo., 1867, and Canon Robertson's 
History of the Christian Church, vol. ii. pp. 796, et 
seq., 8vo., 1868. To these also may be added 
Jeremy Collier's Ecclesiastical History of Great 
Britain, vol. i., p. 276, fol., 1708. The Order 
came over into England A.D. 1128, and settled first 
at the Abbey of Waverly, Surrey. 


I suppose the leading book on the Cistercian 
Order would be a thick quarto, entitled 

" Privilegium de Confirmatione, Statutorum et Con- 
ventus Cisterciensis, ut sunt carta caritas, usua Ordinis, 
et ea que antiqua dicuntur Cisterc. Instituta. A.D. 1498." 

* Imprimerie Forense, 1864. 

Dugdale's Monasticon, Tanner's Notitia Mo- 
nastica, are, of course, obvious sources for informa- 
tion. Also Annales Monastici, 5 vols., published 
in the Rolls series. An article in the Christian 
Remembrancer, July, 1867, might also be referred 
to, and Geddes's Miscellaneous Tracts, vol. ii. 


S. xii. 494.) This carol is known as the " Cherry- 
tree Carol." It has been printed by Hone (Ancient 
Mysteries, 90); Sandys (Christmas Carols Anc. and 
Mod., 123); Husk (Songs of the Nativity, 58); and 
by other collectors. I have a great respect for the 
memory of Mr. Sedding, but he was a mere tyro in 
traditional literature, and added nothing to existing 
collections. Had he lived longer, the case might 
have been different. The legend of the cherry-tree 
is undoubtedly very ancient, and the carol is prob- 
ably of some antiquity. It has always been a great 
favourite with the peasantry, and a variety of 
traditional versions exist in the various English 
counties. MR. PAUL is right in supposing that he 
has portions of two distinct carols. If he desires 
to know more on this interesting subject, I beg to 
refer him to the latest and best authority my 
friend Mr. Husk's valuable book before mentioned. 

OF CHICHESTER (4 th S. xii. 228, 294, 457.) MR. 
MACKENZIE WALCOTT is certainly right, although 
his view seems to surprise MR. TEW. I thought 
the old fable which connected the mythical Prester 
John with the charge of the arms of the See of 
Chichester was by this time utterly exploded ; and 
I flattered myself that I had had some small share 
in bringing about so desirable a consummation. 
I need not repeat here what I have written more 
at length elsewhere on the subject, further than to 
say that there is not the slightest connexion 
between Prester John and the See, or its arms ; 
while the seal of Bishop Seffrid II. does give us 
the effigy of our blessed Redeemer seated as in the 
book of the Revelation, i. 16 ; ii. 12-16 ; xix. 15-21. 
To these passages I beg to .direct MR. TEW'S atten- 
tion as explanatory of the sword, and as quite 
proving my case. The heraldic works. to which 
MR. TEW refers have no authority in the face of 
the fact above ; and, indeed, one writer only 
;opied from another the blazon of which he could 
not offer a reasonable explanation. 

I was not in time to prevent " Prester John "" 
rom appearing in his old guise on the seal of the 
>resent excellent Bishop (long may he be spared 
o the Church, and to his See). The seal was 
already engraved (and, as the Bishop said, " I fear 
wrongly ") before my explanation was in his hands. 

St. Mary's Parsonage, Montrose. 

The ancient seals of the See are my authority 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 3, '74. 

(see Dallaway, pp. 37, 124). They show no mitre 
or crown, but an aureole ; no mound, but the Book 
of Life ; no tombstone, but a throne, with the 
sacred monogram A.M., and the motto, " Ego sum 
Via, Veritas, et Vita." The church was dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity, and as at Norwich, Christ- 
church, Hants, &c., the dedication was called 
either Holy Trinity or Christchurch, hence the 
arms of the See. The blunders in the blazon date 
from the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
with the additions usually made by copyists who 
do not care for original research. I have given to 
the Cathedral library casts of the ancient seals yet 

EEV. E. GEE (4 th S. xii. 439, 501.) The Eev. 
E. Gee, rector of St. Benedict, Paul's Wharf, pub- 
lished the following useful and interesting 

" Catalogue of all the Discourses published against 
Popery during the Beign of King James II., by the 
members of the Church of England, and by the Non- 
conformists, with the names of the Authors to them." 
London, 1689. 

These discourses are 231 in number, of which 
228 were written by eminent members of the 
Church of England, and 3 only by Nonconformists. 
Mr. Gee himself was the author of 12 of the dis- 
courses. The Eev. F. Peck subsequently pub- 

" A complete Catalogue of all the Discourses written 
both for and against Popery, in the time of King 
James II., containing in the whole an account of 457 
Books and Pamphlets, a great number not mentioned in 
the three former Catalogues." London, 1735. 

Of these 457 the members of the Church of 
England were the authors of 319, and 138 emanated 
from members of the Church of Eome. The 
discourses in favour of Popery were comparatively 
few in number and feeble in execution. Even 
Lord Macaulay, who has given a lively account of 
the controversy, admits that " it was impossible 
for any intelligent and candid Eoman Catholic to 
deny that the champions of his Church were, in 
every talent and acquirement, completely over- 
matched" (History of England, third edition, 
vol. ii. p. 110). I need hardly add that the anti- 
Popery tracts above referred to formed the basis of 
Bishop Gibson's Preservation against Popery. I 
am the fortunate possessor of a copy of each of the 
discourses enumerated in Mr. Gee's Catalogue (with 
four exceptions), an announcement which may be 
interesting to future disputants. 


The Close, Exeter. 

xii. 169, 213, 298, 416.)~Aswell as others, I have 
a desire to ascertain what was the latest instance 
of church penance, and have waited to see if any- 
one had later experience than I, as an actual 
witness. I have a distinct and vivid remembrance 
of being present, either in 1826 or 1827, when I 

was about ten years old, at service at St. Mary's, 
Islington, and of seeing a penitent in a white sheet, 
which covered her face, standing at the beginning 
of the aisle, at the foot of the steps going up to the 
gallery. The penitent had, I believe, a taper in 
her hand, but I will not vouch for this ; it made a 
strong impression on my mind as a boy. I shall 
be glad to hear if there are any later instances. 

Budleigh Salterton. 

In Keble's Life of Bishop) Wilson may be seen 
in detail the constant efforts made by the Bishop 
in the Isle of Man, through his long episcopate, to 
enforce discipline through penance. He succeeded 
to a great extent, but I think it collapsed after his 
death. LTTTELTON. 

EMPRESS ELIZABETH II. or EussiA(4 th S. xii. 27, 
93, 198.) Was there not a descendant of Her 
Majesty, long living in Jamaica, who manned 
her cruiser with her slaves, and left a daughter, 
now living in England? HANNAH KEOGH. 

EUTHANASIA (4 th S. xi. 276, 352 ; xii. 9.) The 
common-sense view of this matter appears to be 
expressed by Southey, in a letter to Blanco White 
(White's Life, by Thorn, v. i., p. 421): 

"Nurses used to pluck the pillow and bolster from 
under the head of persons in the act of death, under a 
notion that the sufferer could not die if there were any 
pigeon's feathers in them. Perhaps what they did under 
this persuasion was first done to cut short the agonies of 
death, and the notion originally imagined to afford an 
excuse for it. It is said of Doctor Heberden that he 
ordered his own son to be bled when the agony began, 
saying, 'he will now die easier.' For obvious reasons 
this practice can never be allowed, but I wish it were 
thought unlawful to torment the dying with applications 
which cannot avail to any other end than of prolonging 
their sufferings and keeping them from their rest." 


DIVINING EOD (1 st S. viii., ix., x., xi., xii. ; 2 nd 
S. i. 243 ; 4 th S. xii. 412.) It is worth while 
adding to what has appeared on this subject that 
the divining rod is still in use on the Mendip Hills. 
See Geological Magazine, ix. 528. (Nov., 1872). 


" A TOAD UNDER A HARROW " (4 th S. xii. 126, 
339, 437.) Although not a toad, yet one of its 
nearest congeners is represented as thus comport- 
ing himself in this awkward predicament ; and 
so far supporting the view suggested at p. 437, by 
the passage in Rob Roy. 

Wickliffe, in one of his homilies, says : ' 

" Christian men may well say, as the poet in the fable 
represents the frogs as saying to the harrow, ' Cursed be 
so many masters.' For in this day Christian men are 
oppressed now with popes, and now with bishops, now 
with cardinals under popes, and now with prelates under 

F. S. 


a S. I. JAN. 3, 74.] 



The meaning of this proverb is simple enough 
when it is quoted in full. The following version of it 
I quote from a tale now publishing in Good Words 
("The Prescotts of Pamphillon ") : " I'm like a 
toad under a harrow, I don't know whichee corse 
to steer." H. FISHWICK. 

This old proverb is not at all in familiar use in 
New England ; but when used it is for the purpose 
of expressing a state of mind the very reverse of 
serene. Yet, unlike most proverbs, it does not 
appear to hold an altogether clear meaning. Per- 
haps it is for this reason that New England people 
more commonly make use of it to form a simile 
which relates to looks, not to feelings. Thus it is 
here said of a person who puts on, or is wearing, 
an unbecoming or conspicuous head-dress, that it 
makes him "look like a toad under a narrow." 
This expression may very likely be common else- 
where in the States, or in England. An analogous 
simile to this among New Hampshire people at 
any rate is to the effect that a person, or thing, 
that by certain surroundings is made to appear 
rather insignificant, " looks like a spider in a pan 
of milk." JAMES M. LEWIN. 

Boston, Mass., U.S. 

xii. 493.) It is hardly fair to extract one para- 
graph from a letter, such as that written by Pope 
to Swift on the 20th of June, 1716, and propose 
to criticize it as an exposition of Pope's views. 
The whole letter is written in a spirit of bitter yet 
playful discontent, and a passage in it a few lines 
lower down well illustrates this ; the writer says : 

" This is not a time for any man to talk to the purpose ; 
Truth is a kind of contraband commodity, which I 
would not venture to export." 

The spirit in which Pope wrote was quite 
understood by Swift, who in his reply, dated the 
30th of August, 1716, says : 

" I take your project of employment under the Turks 
to be idle and unnecessary. Have a little patience, and 
you will find more merit and encouragement at home." 

No criticism would be just on this letter, with- 
out taking into consideration Pope's former life, 
his previous letters, and the political circumstance 
of the period. EDWARD SOLLY. 

SCOTTISH TITLES (4 th S. xii. 349, 396.) It was 
usual, certainly, for the wives of the Scottish 
lairds, domini or barons, including those of the 
baronets and knights, but not those of such 
" landed proprietors " as did not hold their lands 
in capite, to be called by the names of their 
husbands' estates. Sir John Schaw, mentioned by 
Sir B. Burke, was dominus, or laird, of Greenock, 
in Renfrewshire. His wife was the lady of Sir 
John Shaw of Greenock, or, shortly, Lady Greenock. 
There was Margaret Hamilton, often arraigned 
before the Presbytery of Paisley for Romish pro- 

clivities, and who was called the " Gudewyfe of 
Ferguslee," another Renfrewshire estate. She was 
the wife of John Wallace of Ferguslee, a son of 
Wallace of Ellerslee or Johnston ; and the reason 
why she was designed " Gudewyfe," and not 
" Lady," was, that Ferguslee was held by her, or 
her husband, not immediately under the Crown, but 
under Lord Abercorn, a subject superior, the Crown 
vassal. L. L. 

109, 154, 336.) The original of the expression 
comes from a skolion, or drinking-song, of Kallis- 
tratus. The singer, at its recitation, held in his 
hand a myrtle-branch, which he handed to any one 
he chose when he had finished his verse. That 
guest was then bound to take up the theme, and 
produce, in his turn, a verse. Hence the skolion 
was essentially an irregular poem. I venture to 
quote the first two stanzas from Anthologia Lyrica 
(ed. Mehlhorn, Lipsise, 1827), on account of their 
beauty, and because the allusion in the first has 
become a commonplace of succeeding poeta and 
patriots to inspire republican sentiments : 
'Ev pvprov 

ore rv rvpavvov 
i(rov6fJLOV5 T* ' 

<$>l\.TO.T 'ApfJioSl 0V Tl 7TOV Tf 

8' ev /ia/cayocjv o~e <curiv 
i'va -jrep TroSwKTjs ' 
v re 


"REPECK" (4 th S. xii. 208, 294, 337.) A very 
common Celtic word was ruth, which literally 
=mud, but which was also applied to the slimy 
shores of rivers, the adjacent alluvial flats, and 
marsh-land generally. It appears to have been 
common to all dialects, and consequently assumed 
a great variety of shapes, one of them being rith, 
or ryth, which, with d the Saxon substitute for th, 
would become ryd. Dropping, more Gallico, the 
final consonant, we get ry, a form which occurs in 
the names Rye (Romney Marsh), Ryedale, Raydon, 
Roydon, and Croydon. Let me just observe that 
rith also took the form of riv, by the substitution 
of v for th, a change which is met with also in the 
Greek, as, 3>r)p t <Aao>, <At/3w for 6*7/3, S-Aaw, 
S-Ai/3w (Liddell and Scott's Lex. s. ^p). Riv 
occurs in Durobrivis (Rochester), and, as I would 
contend, in the French rive, and was the probable 
source of the Latin ripa. We have thus got ry 
(=mud or ooze). The meaning of peck seems 
scarcely open to doubt. I take it to be a form of 
pic, and consequently to signify a pointed stake. 
Pic, let me add, to.ok the forms of peak, pake, pike, 
and pigh (pyg). The form pigh, modified by the 
old Celtic inflexion eth, would become pigheth 
(=a staking, i. e., staked enclosure), a form which 



15* S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

occurs in pighyts, quoted by Halliwell, s. "pightle" 
Hence, to pitch, or as Hall, the chronicler, and 
Shakspeare have it, pight the tents, properly means 
to stake them. The word " pightle," let me just 
observe, is evidently a diminutive of pight, a view 
confirmed by its normal meaning, which is that of 
a small enclosure. " Eepeck," or "rypeck," would 
t}m$= mud-stake. W. B. 

xi. 134 ; xii. 452.) In a print, without date, pub- 
lished by Fores, Piccadilly, London, there is a 
drawing of a bunch of violets, and below the 
following : 

" Corporal Violet. 

"When Bonaparte left Fontainbleau, he told his 
friends he should return with the Violet Season, which 
furnished the idea for this print, and became a standing 
Toast. Amongst his friends, the portraits of Bonaparte, 
Maria Louisa, and the young king of Borne, will be 
discovered amongst the flowers." 


Walton Hall. 

In Madame Cochelet's Memoirs (I think) is to 
be found a description of Napoleon arriving at 
the Tuileries in 1815, and of the grand staircase 
being filled with ladies who smothered him in 
violets. H. K. G. 

DON (4 th S. xii. 368, 416.) In Edmondson's He- 
raldry it is stated that the present arms of Puleston, 
viz., Sa: three mullets arg., were granted in 1582, 
and that in 1583 a grant was made to one of the 
name of the following coat, viz., Arg: on a fess 
between three pelicans sa : as many hawks lures or. 
Perhaps these were granted to the Lord Mayor of 
London to whom H. W. refers. Can he give me 
any information about him, as I have not yet been 
able to identify him? W. T. 


TOAD" (4 th S. xii. 385, 435.) Since my boyhood, 
I have been acquainted with a variation of this 
saying : " He was as proud as a toad with a side 

pocket." CUTHBERT BEDE. 

This is a common saying in Dorsetshire and 
Cornwall. W. M. M. 

"DALK" (4 th S. xii. 367, 434.) From the sense 
of "pin,^ this word acquired those of brooch or 
cl'asp, as in Runic inscriptions in Stephens's 0. N. 
Eunic Monuments (see p. 918) and " dagger." I 
find in a Ripon wiU of 1488, "j dalk deaurat," 
" a Dalk cum ymagine Beate Marie." 

There is a Lincolnshire phrase, " Dallacked out 
= gaudily dressed up." Can this have originally 
meant, adorned with " dalks," or is it a corruption 
of "decked"? j. T. F. 

SOMERSET (4 th S. xii. 29, 276.) He was buried 

5 before the image of S. Jame at an autar in y e s d 
monastery churche on y e northe parte." (Chronicle 
of Tewkesbury, by Mastar Somarset, Harl. MS. 


Dnimmond of Hawthornden : the Story of his Life aiid 
Writings. By David Masson, M.A., LL.D. (Mac- 
millan & Co.) 

SOT often does the combination of gentleman, scholar, 
philosopher, and poet, occur so fully in one person as it 
Iocs in William Drummond of classic and romantic 
Hawthornden. His life, 15851649, began when Scot- 
and had its own king, and ended, it is said, through, or 
partly through, grief at the death of that king's son, the 
lethroned monarch of Great Britain. Like many men 
sred to the law, Drummond devoted himself to literature 
rn the highest paths of history, poetry, and philosophy. 
He was the first Scotsman, or, at least, the first Scottish 
poet who wrote pure English, so pure, that some 
English poets are said to have been jealous of him. His 
sonnets are pronounced by Hazlitt to be as near per- 
fection as mortal sonnetteer could make them. Hallam, 
rating them less highly, says they deserve to rank among 
similar Italian productions of the sixteenth century. 
Drummond's prose work, The Cypress Grove, for solemn 
argument against fear of death, for impressiveness of 
thought and eloquence of expression, has been compared 
with Sir Thomas Brown. Loyal to his lady as he was to 
bis king, Drummond felt a shadow cast on the pathway 
of his life when he lost the fair mistress whom he was 
about to marry. His whole story, with notices of his works, 
and an account of the sojourn made at Hawthornden by 
Ben Jonson, who walked the greater part of the way to* 
Scotland and back, is capitally told by Dr. Masson. The 
narrative of Drummond's love for the beautiful Miss 
Cunningham, of Barnes, is among the most attractive 
details of this very attractive volume ; and Dr. Masspn 
truly says of it, that " for a little history of love and its- 
painful deliciousness, there is nothing sweeter than the 
poems of the First Part." The romance of the story is not 
at all impaired by the fact that, at the age of forty-six, 
Drummoud married Elizabeth Logan ; and we willingly 
believe that he did so, " fancying she had a great re- 
semblance of his first mistress, whose ideal had been 
deeply impressed and stuck long in his mind." Around, 
his hero, Dr. Masson groups national and individual 
episodes and sketches of character, which are of the 
greatest interest, and which add to the value of a bio- 
graphical work which we warmly recommend to the 
lovers of thoroughly " healthy " books. 

The Sempill Ballates. A Series of Historical, Political, 

and Satirical Scotish Poems. Ascribed to llobcrt 

Sempill, 1567 1583. To which are added, Poems by 

Sir James Semple of Baltrees, 1598 1610. Now for 

the first time Printed. (Edinburgh. Stevenson.) 

MR. STEVENSON, of the " Olde Booke Schoppe," South 

Frederick Street, Edinburgh, is the editor, as well as 

the publisher, of the Sempill Ballates. They form a 

valuable addition to old Scottish ballad literature, and 

Mr. Stevenson has written a very useful Introduction to 

them. The political ballads are of great interest ; and 

the social ballads are quite equal to them. They are 

not for too nice readers ; nice or not, they will come to- 

the conclusion that, in the eleventh century, princes had 

as many lies flung at them as in the nineteenth ; and 

they will feel that, whatever may be the case now, 

politicians were not particularly honest of old, nor the 

5* 8. 1. JAN. 3, 74.] 



women, if they were all like the three graceless ones who 
are named and described in this collection. 

Billiotheca Cornubiensis. A Catalogue of the Writings, 
both Manuscript and Printed, of Cornishmen, and of 
Works relating to the County of Cornwall, with Bio- 
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By G. Clement Boase and W. Prideaux Courtney. 
Vol. I. A 0. (Longmans & Co.) 

WE sincerely congratulate the learned editors of this work 
on the completion of the first Tolume. They have 
shown unweariedness of spirit in the execution of almost 
Herculean labour. It is impossible to praise them or 
their work too highly. Their power of condensation (a 
rare power), and their references to where fuller details 
may be found, render this volume one of the most perfect 
of its sort that ever came under our notice. 

NEW SHAKSPERE SOCIETY. As you have so kindly 
noticed this new endeavour to promote the study of our 
great poet, will you let me say that, as two passages in 
my Prospectus of the Society had an ungenerous look- 
quite unintentional on my part towards former ex- 
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words " the criticism so wooden " into " the criticism, 
however good, so devoted to the mere text and its illus- 
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words " we can then lay hands on Shakspere's text," in- 
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much to do, thanks to the labours of the many distinguisht 
scholars who have so long and so faithfully workt at it." 
In dwelling on the main point omitted by these scholars, 
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and thanks for, the good work at other points which they 
have done. F. J. FUKNIVALL. 

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WE beg the numerous correspondents who have 
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the sentiments expressed in the letter from CHR. COOKE, 
in' our last number, to accept, one and all, our warmest 

MR. ROYLE ENTWISLE asks us to place here the follow- 
ing queries : first, The Praise of Margate by Peter 
Pindar (Dr. Wolcot). In what edition of the works of 
this satirist is it to be found ; and who was the author of 
the answer to it 1 and secondly, William Parsons, the 
player. Can you oblige me with the name of the author 
of An Apotheosis of William Parsons, the player, to 
whose memory there is the following epitaph in the 
churchyard of Lee, Kent ? 

"William Parsons, Esq., 
Died Feb., 1795, aged 59. 
" Here Parsons lies oft' on life's busy stage, 

With Nature, reader, hast thou seen him vie ; 

He science knew knew manners knew the age 

Respected knew to live lamented die." 
The " consecration " consists of sixteen verses, having for 
"The Argument," Parsons, Parnassus, Thalia, Mel- 
pomene, and another epitaph. 
" If Dan Prior tells truth, the gods have their freaks, 

And visit this earth every five or six weeks." 

From the introductory lines to the Apotheosis. 

0. K. Such questions cannot be discussed in 
" N. & Q." Record may, however, be made of a fact, 
to show that the innovation alluded to is not without 
precedent.^ When Origen visited the Holy Land, A.D. 
215, Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem, and Theocristus, 
Bishop of Caesarea, welcomed him, and, says Canon 
Robertson (Hist. Christ. Church, i. 143), " although then 
a layman, he was desired by them to preach in their 
churches. On hearing of this, Demetrius of Alexandria 
remonstrated, but Theocristus and Alexander justified 
themselves by precedents which showed that laymen 
had been permitted to preach in the presence of bishops, 
and with their sanction." 

GREEN ROOM. A theatre built beneath a massive 
building, like the one under the Criterion, is not a new 
thing in architecture. The Theatre de 1'Athenie at 
Paris is, so to speak, in a cellar. The Courrier de 
V Europe (Dec. 27) states that a modest salle de spectacle 
in one of the faubourgs of Lille (where the price of 
admission was one sou) the audience and building had a 
narrow escape from destruction by the explosion of a 
petroleum lamp. 

* *. 

" Enjoy the honey heavy dew of slumber ; 
Thou hast no figures nor no fantasies, 
Which busy care draws in the brains of men ; 
Therefore thou sleep'st so sound." 

Shakspeare, Jul. Qpesar, A. ii. sc. 1. 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 3, 74. 

G. H. "I knew a very wise man that believed that if 
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not care who should make the laws of a nation." 
Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun, Letter to the Marquis of 
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H. G. By the Act "29" Charles II., 1678, all 
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persons directing the burial otherwise, to forfeit 51." 

DELTA. The Eev. F. Mant writes to say that he him- 
self was misinformed as to the hymn in question having 
appeared in Lord Selborne's collection. 

J. F. M. See a note by HERMENTRTJDE, in our last 
number, p. 523, on Mary, daughter of William de Ros. 

W. W. The recent addition of twelve members to the 
Conclave, now makes the number of Cardinals forty-two. 

X. Y. Z. Consult Brand's Antiquities, and the works 
referred to in the notes. 

W. W. We should like to see the document, which 
shall be carefully returned. 

E. T. (New York). See an article on "Caspar 
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NOTES : Laud's Service Bulk Jottings in By- Ways. II. 
Euphues' Shadow, Lodge's or Greene's ? 21 On the Elective 
and Deposing Power of Parliament : No. III. Henry IV. to 
Henry VII., 23 Shakspeariana, 24 Dorsers and Preserves 
Scottish Family of Edgar Ordeal : a Freak of Pronunciation 
"You know who the Critics are," 25 Epitaph on Cardinal 
Howard at Rome" The Way Out" Unpublished Letter of 
Macaulay The Real Richelieu and Bulwer's Richelieu, 26. 

QUERIES : Elizabeth, Queen of Robert Bruce Adallinde, 
the Mother of Thierri "Twentiteem" Register Books 
Stamped Phipps Family Cymbling for Larks Carmoly 
(C.) "Histoire des Medecins Juifs, Anciens etModernes," 27 
" The Fair Concubine ; or, the Secret History of the Beautiful 
Vanella," &c. Farwell Family and the Representatives of 
General Monk, Duke of Albemarle Edmund Perceval, of 
"Weston in Gordano, Somerset Burning the Dead 
" Jacaranda" Pin Basket, 23 " Vigilantia et Fidelitate" 
John of Guildford Blind Harry's Wallace William 
Laurence, Rector of Strekhatn, 1615 1621 Earle's 
''Philology of the English Tongue" Drummond of 
Colynhalzie J. S. Mill on "Liberty" Clockmakers The 
First Commercial Treaty of England, 29. 

HEPLIES : Unpublished Poems by Burns, 29 Dr. Johnson 
and Mrs. Tnrton, ntte Hickman, 30 St. Cuthbert, 31 "The 
Irish Brigade," 32 Flint Guns "Shepherdess " as a Name 
"Talented" Lady Jane Covert, of Pepper Harrow Pillar 
Posts. 33 Chaucer's Fellow Squires Old Election Squib 
Stoball Percy, Earl of Northumberland, temp. Elizabeth- 
Crew Yard Thurot, 34" The Bee Papers "National and 
Private Flags "The Practical Christian" Hanging in 
Chains Carr=Carse, 35 Bondmen in England Serfdom in 
Scotland, 36 Royal Arms in Churches Heel-Taps Tenny- 
son's Natural History " Bloody " Bishop Mountain 
"From Greenland's icy mountains" "Spurring," 37 
"Calling out loudly for the earth" The Magpie Yardley 
Oak Fly-Leaf Inscriptions, 38 Affebridge The Marquis of 
Montrose's Poems Arms of Hungary Caser Wine, 39. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


The following extracts from the Kirk Session 
Records of Dundonald, Ayrshire, afford an authentic 
example of the measures taken, in nearly every 
parish in Scotland south of the Grampians, to meet 
the violent imposition on the Church of an unau- 
thorized Liturgy. Till of late years and by some 
still it has been represented that the opposition 
of the clergy and people to Laud's book in 1637 
was directed against read prayers ; but at Dun- 
donald church, as well as generally over Scotland, 
the Book of Common Order had been always in 
common use. It will be observed here also that 
objection is made only against " maters conteaned 
in the said buik": 

1637. Septr. 17th. " The whilk day the sessioun of 
Dundonald, Wnderstanding that the mater anent the 
service buik, appointed to be vssit in all the kirks w'in 
this kingdome, is to be agitated befoir the lords of his 
Ma tics richt honorabill counsell at Edinburgh wpon the 
twentie of this instant, And haveing sundrie scruples 
anent the maters conteaned in the said buik, have advysed 
and concluded humblie to supplicat wnto the said Lords, 
that they wold deall w' the Kings Ma tie , to the effect he 
wold be graciouslie pleassit not to vrge the practeis of 
the said service buik wpon the kirks of this kingdome 
& ours ; And to the effect foirsaid have nominated, and 
by thir pnts. nominats, constituts & authorizes, James 
ffullartoune of Crocebie our commissioner, to present our 

said supplicaune. in our names ; giveand & grantand to 
our said commissioner our full power to that purpois, as 
also, if ony thing sail be fund jllegall, jnformemall or 
jncommodiouslie, conceaved in this our supplicaune., to 
change and alter the same be the advyse of skilfull lawers 
in edinburgh at his comming eist. Be thir pnts. written 
be Mr. John fflemyng, clerk to the sessioun of Dun 
donald and subt. as follows." [No subscription.] 

Octr. llth. "The qlk day the gentilmen and oyer?, 
elders and deacons of the Sessioun of Dundonald who had 
supplicated to the richt honorable the Lords of his Ma tei * 
privie counsell at yair last melting jn Edinburgh the 20 of 
September last bypast humblie requeisting, yat by yair 
Lordschips intercessioune at the hands of our dread 
soveragne the Kings Ma tio they micht be fije from the 
practice of yat new buik of commoune prayer and all vyer 
jnnovaunes. in ye matter of religioun : Wnderstanding 
that the 17 day of this jnstant is appointit for yat nixt 
melting of yat honorable court, have nominat & be thir 
pnts. nominats constituts & authorizes Ja" ffullartoune 
of crocebie our commissioner to attend the foirsaid meit- 
ting of counsell, to receave ane answer of our said former 
supplicaune. pnted. be the ,said James in our~ names, 
giveand & grantand to him our full power to yat effect 
& to doe q' f urder sail be found expedient for fortherance 
of yat matter in all peaceable & legall forme allanerlie : 
Qlk we bind & obleis ws to ratine & approve as o r own 
deid : Be thir pnts. written," &c. 

Novr. 5th. " The qlk day the sessioun authorizd Mr 
William M c Kerrell of hilhouse to attend in yair names at 
edinburgh, or ony place qr. the councell souldsitt for the 
tyme, on the 15 of November instant, by this yair com- 
missioun following : 

" ' Fforsomeikill as, besides the severall petitions givin 
in by divers parodies of this kingdome, thair was a 
generall supplication condiscendit wpon & presentit to 
the richt honorabill The Lords of his Ma tcis privie Coun- 
sell, at thair last inciting at Edinburgh wpon the 17 day 
of October last bypast, humblie requeisting, that the 
autors of thes two bulks of commoun prayer & cannons 
sould be conveined & censured by thair lor' 1 ", for making 
such novatioune in the mater of religioun as the saids 
buiks beirs, & for oyer eveill faults touching the subjects, 
as in the said supplicaune. at mair lenth is conteaned ; 
And we ar hope full that by ordour & directioun from our 
gracious soveraigne the Kings Ma tie , and out of yair 
pious zeall to religioun, they will tak to heart this 
vniversall complaint of his Ma toi * gud subjects of all 
ranks, and will doe thairin according as conscience & 
justice requyres : Therfor we of the paroch of Dun- 
donald have authorized, & be thir pnts. authorizes, Mr 
W m M c Kerrell of hilhouse, our commissioner, to attend 
his Ma tei * will & yair Lor' Js yairanent, the 15 of November 
jnstant at Edinburgh, or qr it sail happin them to sitt 
for the tyme ; obleissing ourselfs to ratine qt he sail doe 
in this our commissioun in our names, as our own deid, 
he keipand himself always w'in bounds of loyaltie, & in 
all peaceable course & cariage & no otherways : Be thir 
pnts. written & subt.," &c. 

W. F. (2). 


Euphues 1 Shadow, London, 1592, bears on its 
title-page, " By T. L., gent.," and Greene, in his 
address to the reader, and in the dedication, says 
it is " by his absent friend, M. Thomas Lodge," 
now " upon a long voyage," having " gone to sea 
with Mayster Candish," who sailed from England 



15 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74. 

on 26th August, 1591. Mr. Collier, in his Biblio- 
graphical Account, evidently persuaded in the first 
instance by the style that the booklet was by 
Greene himself, has then sought for arguments to 
confirm his belief, and the result curiously shows 
how under the influence of a prejudgment, state- 
ments may be unconsciously warped, and mere 
assertions held as good arguments. His view is 
that Greene, finding his own name palled on the 
public, set forth Euphues' Shadow as by Lodge, and 
told his readers it was so, and also gulled and lied 
to his patron dedicatee, Viscount Fitzwaters. In 
proof he says that Greene tells us he had already 
" put forth so many of his own labours " that they 
might be weary of his name. Now, though only 
some of these words are between inverted commas, 
the sense conveyed is that the whole represents 
Greene's meaning, yet Greene simply says: 

" Gentlemen, after many of mine own labours that 
you have courteouslie accepted, I present you with 
Euphues' Shadowe in the behalfe of my[absent friend, M. 
Thomas Lodge, who at his departure to sea upon a long 
voyage was willing, as a generall farewell to all courteous 
gentlemen, to leave this his worke to the view," &c. 

The " so " of Mr. Collier's " so many " is an in- 
advertent interpolation, and there is no hint at 
public weariness, but, on the contrary, an acknow- 
ledgment that his own many labours had been 
" courteouslie accepted." 

Again, Greene says to Viscount Fitzwaters : 

" .... it fortuned that one M. Thomas Lodge, who 
nowe is gone to sea with Mayster Candish, had bestowed 
some serious labour in printing of a book called Euphues' 
Shadoioe ; and by his last letters gaue straight charge 
that I should not onely haue the care for his sake of the 
impression thereof, but also in his absence to bestowe it 
vpon some man of honor whose worthy virtues might be 
a patronage to his work," &c. 

Here first, according to Mr. Collier, Greene says 
he was enjoined to print the book, but the 
words " haue the care for his sake of the impres- 
sion" are interpreted by the previous words, 
" Thomas Lodge, who .... had bestowed some 
serious labour in printing," and distinctly shown 
to mean that he, Greene, was to have. a care of an 
impression that Lodge had already arranged should 
come forth, and which he had already, in all prob- 
ability, sold to the publisher. This price probably 
went towards his outfit ; and he did his best to 
procure a good sale for it by a Euphues title, and 
by a note of approval from Greene, the best known 
and one of the best esteemed Euphuist writers of 
the day, while Greene was rewarded by the plea- 
santnesses of duty done to an absent friend, and 
the forty shillings to be earned by the dedication. 
But, secondly, Mr. Collier says, " .... it is more 
than doubtful whether Lodge did write or could 
have written to Greene in the interval since his 
sailing with Cavendish." Any may say they 
doubt a stated fact, but why, writing nearly three 
hundred years aft ~\ and without shadow of fact 

assigned, it should be said that " it is more than 
doubtful" that Lodge wrote to Greene, I am unable 
to understand. But more, Mr. Collier says "since 
his sailing with Cavendish"; but this is entirely an 
idea of his own, Greene has no single word that 
countenances it. Lodge's letters were probably 
from the port of last departure in England, where 
the desire of Cavendish to have all present would 
cause him to name an early day, and where even 
in these more busy times vessels are still detained 
weeks after their appointed sailing days. Stores, 
armaments, crews, the adventurers, might all or 
any be causes of delay, and all conversant with 
the Channel have seen fleets of hundreds of weather- 
bound ships taking advantage of the long-wished- 
for fair wind, and putting forth from their original 
ports or from those in which they have taken 

Finally, Mr. Collier says the whole reads like a 
pretext. The reader has had such of the dedica- 
tion as bears on the question, and part of the 
address to] the readers, ending at " view." I now 
give the rest : 

" Which if you grace with your fauours, eyther as his- 
affected [Bloving] meaning, or the worthe of the worke 
requires, not onely I for him shall rest yours, but what 
labours his sea studies affords shall be, I dare promise, 
offered to your sight, to gratifie your courtesies, and his 
pen as himselfe, euery way, yours for euer. Farewell, 
yours to command, ROB. GREENE." 

Any statement is a pretext or lie with circum- 
stance to him who will believe it to be such, but I 
venture to think that any indifferent reader will 
say that if it be a pretext, Greene has cunningly 
concealed it under as straightforward a statement 
as could be penned. 

Turning to the evidence from style, " it is in all 
respects," according to Mr. Collier, "identical 
with the style of Greene ; and if Lodge wrote it, 
it was an intentional and successful imitation : all 
Greene's peculiarities for which in or before 1592 
he had obtained celebrity, are here to be abun- 
dantly noted "...." our belief is that it was by 
Greene. Euphues then held sway, and Greene, 
whose English .was otherwise graceful and facile, 
flowing on with a certain pleasant sweetness, so 
adapted himself to and adopted Lyly's manner and 
affectations as to become the most popular novelet 
writer of the day. Two of his books have titles 
derived from Euphues, and a third borrows from 
Sidney that of Arcadia, while he imitates both. 
It would have been strange, indeed, if Lodge, a 
younger adventurer in print, had not modelled his 
style on those of Greene and Lyly, the latter of 
whom by his very title he professedly followed. 
As Greene had made use of names from Euphues 
to make a catching title, so Lodge had already 
named a book Euphues' Golden Legacy; and its 
style is similar to that of Euphues' Shadow, though 
perhaps the forcing had not had time to produce 
so artificial a result. There is, therefore, a general 

5 th S. I. JAN. 10, '74.] 


resemblance between Greene's style and that of 
Euphues 1 Shadoiv, and both are imitated and forced, 
but it is only a class resemblance. As negative 
evidence, Euphues' Shadow wants that smoothness 
and, so to speak, rhythm which were among the 
graces of Greene's easy prose; and as positive evi- 
dence, and besides other marks, I would be content 
to let the question of authorship, so far as it can be 
decided by style, rest on a comparison of the open- 
ing sentences of the Golden Legacy and the Shadow. 
The verse is as strong proof and stronger, and in 
especial may it be denied that Greene ever wrote 
the little song: 

" Happie Phoebus, in thy flower." 
The three pieces given go also to confirm the 
truth of Greene's statements. They occur at inter- 
nals within the first eight leaves, while the remain- 
ing forty are prose only. Now in the Golden 
Legacy, and Greene's Menaphon, and similar books, 
including such prototypes as the Diana of Monte- 
mayor and Sidney's Arcadia, the prose is inter- 
spersed throughout with verse. Hence it is a 
reasonable belief that Lodge had not had time to 
-complete his design and wrote those occasional 
pieces which would eventually have been inserted. 
In like manner, in the Arcadia the verse is more 
infrequent in the third book, and except the usual 
eclogue at the end of the fourth, this and the fifth 
have only one short piece each, and this because, 
as may be gathered from the Preface to the 1590 
edition, Sidney wrote his verses at odd intervals, 
and fitted them in either in their intended place, 
or wherever seemed most suitable. Beyond these 
things, there are no known grounds for disbelieving 
the title-page of Euphues? Shadow and Greene's 
plain statement twice repeated; and Mr. Dyce's 
remark, written before the reasons given in the 
Bibliographical Account were published, seems to 
one still applicable : " Why Mr. Collier (Hist. 
of Engl. Dram. Poet., Hi., 149, note) should sus- 
pect that it might have been written ' by Greene 
liimself ' I am at a loss to understand." (Greene'; 



(Concluded from p. 4J 
So utterly untenable was the title of the House 
of Lancaster that in the course of the reign o 
Henry VI. it was formally challenged by the Duke 
of York before the Peers, who, as Lingard says 
were in those ages necessarily called upon to deter- 
mine questions of disputed succession. They acted 
however, in such cases, as the great feudal council o: 
the crown, and not at all as a Parliament, for the 
Commons were allowed no share in the decision o: 
the question. It is a great error, therefore, to suppose 
that their decision was that of a Parliament, and a 

till greater error to confound it with an election. It 
was the opposite of an election, for they decided 
which of two claimants of the crown by hereditary 
ight had a right to it. Both claimants in this 
:ase set up hereditary rights, and the Peers deter- 
mined in favour of the Duke of York ; only as 
.here had been two descents of the crown in the 
same family, they recommended as a compromise 
,hat Henry should retain the crown for his life. 
The terms of the compromise were rejected by the 
ting's partisans, and then Edward of York, on the 
death of his father, became entitled to assert his 
icreditary right, which had been affirmed by the 
Peers. He did assert it successfully, and Parlia- 
ment recognized his right to the throne as descended 
Tom the Earl of March. Parliament recorded its 
recognition of the title of the House of York in 
;olemn acts, branding the sovereigns of the House 
of Lancaster as usurpers. These are the authentic 
Acts of Parliament, and show that the silly story 
of an election by a London mob, which Mr. Fre"e- 
man borrows from a chronicler, is absurd ; and 
though on the accession of Henry VII. these Acts 
were repealed as regarded Henry VI., they were 
not repealed as regarded Henry IV., who was thus 
admitted by a sovereign of his own party to have 
been a usurper. 

Henry, no doubt, was displaced by force of arms, 
but it was in pursuance of a g-ucm-judicial sen- 
tence of the Peers, freely given while Henry was 
still in power, declaring his rival to be the true 
heir to the crown. On the other hand, this was 
no election or deposition ; but, on the contrary, it 
was the reverse of an election, for it was declaratory 
of an existing right ; and it was the reverse of a 
deposition, for it declared the reigning sovereign 
not to be the rightful sovereign. It was simply a 
solemn recognition of hereditary right in the House 
of York. 

The grounds on which their right was preferred 
by the nation and by lawyers have never yet been 
made clear, for the simple reason that they are of 
a legal nature ; and yet they are of such importance 
to the present question that it is necessary to ex- 
plain them. Briefly stated they come to this, that 
the House of York claimed as the nearer heirs, but 
as heirs-general, claiming through a female; whereas 
the House of Lancaster claimed as heirs one degree 
more remote, but then as claiming as heirs male, 
that is, by a descent derived entirely by the pater- 
nal line. York claimed through a daughter of an 
elder son ; Lancaster through the male descendants 
of a younger son. Now a Salic law had never 
been established in England, as in France ; and if 
the son of a daughter could succeed, then the 
daughter could have succeeded had the crown been 
vacant in her lifetime. And in the spirit of the 
feudal system, which regarded sovereignty as a sort 
of estate, it might as well descend to a woman as 
a man. But sovereignty in those days was so per- 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74. 

sonal, that there had always been a disposition to 
dissatisfaction on the descent of the throne to a 
female or a minor, until the great principle of con- 
stitutional law was established, that a sovereign 
should govern by ministers who had the confidence 
of Parliament. When that was regarded there 
was no danger in the descent of the throne to a 
woman or a minor, and there was certainly none 
in the case of a woman which would not equally 
arise in the case of a male who happened to be a 
minor. When this was understood there was no 
difficulty in hereditary descent in either case, and 
so it was ultimately settled. But though it was 
quite understood in those times, as the impeach- 
ment of Suffolk showed, the times were too tur- 
bulent for quiet descent of the throne according 
to hereditary right, and a false claim might 
temporarily triumph by force of arms. Thus it 
was with Henry IV., who set up a specious but 
false claim, founded on the notion that a male line 
of descent, though less near in blood, was to be 
preferred to a female line. His house, in fact, set 
up that the crown was entailed on heirs male ; and, 
accordingly, it is a curious fact that in the reign of 
Henry VI. the judges laid it down that an heir 
male could not derive title through a daughter. 
This was just the case of the Duke of York and 
his sons, who claimed through a daughter of an 
elder son; while Lancaster claimed as direct de- 
scendants in a male line from a younger son, that 
is, as heirs male. But it is evident that they 
assumed either a Salic law or an entail of the 
crown on heirs male, and there was no pretence for 
either one or the other. 

Accordingly Henry IV., conscious of defect of 
hereditary right, sought to eke it out, as all usurpers 
have done, by the pretence of election ; a mere 
pretence, for he really got the crown, and kept it, 
by force of arms. The House of York, therefore, 
represented the principle of strict hereditary right; 
the House of Lancaster represented the principle 
of usurpation by force, under the specious pretext 
of election ; and the nation, after nearly a century 
of civil war, decided emphatically in favour of the 
former ; that is, in favour of the principle of strict 
hereditary right. Hence the Peers decided in 
favour of Edward IV. when he appealed to them, 
even against a reigning sovereign, after two descents 
of the crown, and after a lapse of half a century ; 
the most remarkable triumph of hereditary right, 
as Sir James Mackintosh observes, implying the 
idea that it was " indefeasible, though not neces- 
sarily implying any notion of Divine right." It 
was enough for the Peers that the crown was here- 
ditary by English law. That was all they meant 
when they decided in favour of the House of York, 
and they knew that their own titles rested on the 
same basis, and no other. 

On the death of Edward IV. the crown descended, 
of course, to his infant sons, if they were legiti- 

mate ; to his daughter Elizabeth, if they were not. 
Kichard set up their illegitimacy ; but as that was 
doubted, and he had no title even if they were 
not legitimate, he set up, as Henry had done, the 
pretence of an election, intending, if he could, to 
cure the defect of his title by marriage with Eliza- 
beth. This, however, was of course a marriage too- 
repugnant to be endured except from the pressure 
of a great political necessity, and many even of the 
partisans of York preferred her marriage with 
Henry of [Richmond, who represented the House 
of Lancaster, as by their union the long-standing 
contest would be terminated. And so it was. 

In the next I will deal with the case of Henry 
VII. and the succession of the House of Tudor, 
and the accession of the House of Stuart, as de- 
scended from Elizabeth of York, and deriving 
hereditary right from her. W. F. F. 


MARY-BUDS (4 th S. xii. 243, 283, 363.) In my 
reply I suggested that in Perdita's words Shakspeare 
was thinking of the yellow-haired weeping Mary 
to whom the flower was dedicated. Among the 
marigolds that have since cropped up in my read- 
ing this first of four stanzas of a pretty little 
" Barginet " in Lodge's Euphues' Shadow goes to 
show that the flower was at that time similarly 
suggestive to others: 

" Happie Phoebus, in thy flower 

On thy teares so sweetly feeding : 

When she spyeth thy heart bleeding 

Sorrow dooth hir heart deuoure. 

Oh that I might Phoebus bee, 
So my Clitia loved me." 

The quotations by C. A. W. show the same, that 
the flower symbolized the grief of Mary Magdalerj 
at the setting of the Sun of Eighteousness, and her 
weeping on the morn of the resurrection, and 
this is the explanation of Withering's puzzle. In 
all probability the French name souci is of the 
same origin, unless, as some doubtfully say, sold 
be a sun-name. If I understand C. A. W.'s expla- 
nation, it is curiously erroneous in more ways than 
one, for maudlin is not etymologically=weeping 
eye, but obtained the sense of sorrowfully blubbered 

from the pictorial representations of St. Maudlin. 
So we have a maudlin fair, which, like Donnybrook, 

xpresses a great uproar, and from another saint's 

fair, tawdry. 

Nor do I understand why he says no one can 
settle which of the marigolds Shakspeare meant. 
The question was not which of the marigolds, but 
was it a daisy. If C. A. W. suppose that the daisy 
is of the same genus, and may therefore botani- 

:ally be called a marigold, the supposition is wholly 
wrong, and almost as incorrect as calling Syngenesia 
a genus. Even, however, if the daisy were of the 
us marigold, neither English writers nor Eng- 

ish peasants mean daisy when they say marigold, 

5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74.] 



nor marigold when they say daisy. So distinct 
were they held in Elizabethan times that the daisy 
was the emblem of dissembling. The horse and 
ass are far nearer allied in nature, yet when an 
Englishman talks of horse-racing, no one supposes 
he means or includes donkey-racing. 


HAIILET. Have any of the commentators re- 
marked on the circumstance of Claudius reigning 
in Denmark to the exclusion of the heir apparent.' 
Certainly no mention is made of it in the play. It 
seems a little strange that no one should call atten- 
tion to such a mistake as putting a wrong man on 
the throne. SOLOMON EEX. 

" The Night-Crow cr.y'de, aboding lucklesse time." 
Third Part of King Henry VI. , act v., s. 6. 
What bird does this mean ? Does it allude to 
a cock crowing in the night ? 

Henbury, Macclesfield, Cheshire. 

SHAKSPERE. On the spelling of the name before 
our great poet's time, your readers may like to 
know that in the Controlment Eoll of 2 Hie. II. 
(June 1377 June 1379) there is an entry concern- 
ing " Waltmis Shakespere, nuper existens in Gaola 
Castri domini Regis Colcestrie." 


. DORSERS AND PRESERVES. In the thirty-fifth 
or thirty-sixth year of his reign (A.D. 1361 or 1362), 
Edward III. had, in John de Newbury's charge, 
these dorsers, severally ornamented as follows : 

"j. dorsorium de fama mundi; j. de Golias & Dauid; 
j. de Regibw* exuktw; j. de Armis leonelli; j. de 
Regibws , j. de Comitibws ; j. de passu saladini ; 
j. de insultu domnarum ; j. de Marcolf ; j. cum cresto & 
penna pauoim, de Worsted ; xliij. targetta depicta cum 
auro cum Garteriis de Armis Re^is." 

Among the " Confectiones " appear the names 
" Citronade, Zingiber madrean, Zingiber conserue, 
Zingiber belendyne, Chardecoynes (at 2s. and 2s. 6d. 
a lb.), Canelle, Gafiofole, Coliandre, Sank dragone, 
GalengaZ, Flos de Rys (rice-flower)," &c., 39/4. 
T. G. 41.762, Magna Garderoba, Comp. de receptis 
et expensis pro robis, &c., Eecord Office. 


be the general merits of Capt. Lawrence- Archer's 
work on this subject, noticed in " N. & Q." of the 
29th Nov. 1873, it is obvious, on an attentive 
perusal of the book, that the author has fallen into 
some very important errors in matters of detail. 
This is especially the case in his account of the 
Edgars of Newtoun, and in the genealogy he has 
proposed of that family. Most of the errors may 
be corrected by the materials he has himself col- 
' lected, and which are printed in the book. The 
most serious mistake into which the author has 

fallen, is in the attempt to question the fact of the 
last Eichard Edgar of Newton being the brother 
of Andrew Edgar of Eyemouth, the grandfather of 
the Eev. John Edgar of Hutton. This is, in effect, 
what 'the author has done in the account of the 
family of Newtoun, in the genealogy of the family, 
and in a note at page 132 to an extract from the 
Fasti Ecd. Scotiante of the Eev. Dr. H. Scott. 
A reference to the case mentioned in the extract 
(Molle v, Eiddell, reported in 16 Faculty Decisions, 
p. 429, and 6 Paton's Appeal Cases, p. 169), will 
show that the Eev. J. Edgar claimed as " grand- 
nephew and heir of line" of Eichard Edgar, that 
there was no question as to thev descent, and that 
the decision both of the Court of Session and the 
House of Lords turned on an entirely different 
matter, viz., the effect of the deed of Mrs. Hunter 
on the disposition and settlement of Eichard Edgar. 
The disposition itself was registered in the Sheriff 
Court of Berwickshire on the 21st March, 1767, 
and it will be found on a reference to this docu- 
ment, that Eichard Edgar left a legacy to his 
nephew Andrew (the father of the Eev. J. Edgar), 
and that he described this Andrew as the son of 
his own brother, Andrew Edgar of Eyemouth. 
Those who have looked into Capt. Lawrence- 
Archer's book will see at once the bearing this 
matter may have on the representation in the male 
line of the family of Wedderlie, and the importance 
therefore of stating it accurately. X. 

singular freak of pronunciation is exhibited in the 
word ordeal, which is commonly pronounced as a 
trisyllable, and thus disconnected from the word 
deal. Yet it is a mere compound from this very 
word deal; and, just as a deal means a part, a 
share, a piece chosen (originally a choosing), so 
ordeal means a choosing out, or a selection made 
with particular care, and hence a trial of a special 
nature. The prefix or- is a mere variation of the 
G. eras, which in 0. H. G. becomes ur-; so that 
the G. urtheil is the English or-deal, properly a 
dissyllable. Another peculiarity is that deal is also 
spelt dole. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


observations under "Miscellaneous," in "N. & Q." 
of 29th Nov., 1873, have reminded me of a very 
striking passage in Pierre Charron's De la Sagesse. 
His works, with those of Montaigne and Eabelais, 
are the mines from which much that is true and 
brilliant in modern French writings has been 
drawn. Speaking of the extent to which the 
judgment is influenced by the passions, Charron 

"De la vient que 1'on obscurcit les belles et 
genereuses actions d'autruy par des Tiles interpretations ; 
1'on controuve des causes, occasions et intentions 
mauvaises ou vaines, c'est un grand vice et preuve d'une 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 10, '74. 

nature maligne, et jugement bien malade, il n'y a pas 
grande subtilite ny suffisance en cela, mais de malice 
beaucoup. Cela vient d'envie qu'ils portent a la gtoire 
d'autruy, ou qu'ils jugent des autres selon eux, ou bien 
qu'ils ont le goust altere et la veue si troublee 
qu'ils ne peuvent concevoir la splendeur de la vertu 
en sa purete naifve. De cette mesme cause et 
source vient que nous faisons valoir les vertus et les vices 
d'autruy, et les estendons plus qu'il ne faut, des parti- 
cmlarites en tirons des consequences et conclusions 
generales : s'il est amy tout luy sied bien, ses vices 
mesmes seront vertus; s'il est ennemy, ou particulier ou 
de party contraire, il n'y a rien de bon. Tellement que 
nous faisons honte a nostre jugement, pour assouvir rios 

Charron wrote this nearly 300 years ago ; yet it 
is unfortunately as applicable to the French of the 
present day as it was to those of his time. 


Ashford, Kent. 

I copied the following from the gravestone of 
Cardinal Howard in the church of S. Maria Sopra 
Minerva, from which he derived his " title " : 
"D. 0. M. 













Where the asterisks stand is placed an escutcheon ; 
Quarterly of eight, four in chief, and as many in 
base : 

"1. Howard; 2. Brotherton; 3. Warren; 4. Mowbray; 
(5. Aubigny); 6. Clun; 7. Maltravers ; (8. Woodville)." 

The fifth and eighth quarters are scarcely visible- 
Cardinal Howard, who was born in 1629, was 
third son of Henry Frederick, twenty- first Earl of 
Arundel ; and Almoner to Queen Catharine of 
Braganza, wife of Charles II. 


St. Mary's Parsonage, Montrose. 

[See " JS. & Q." 2"" S. viii. 53, 75; 3 rd S. iv. 69.] 

"THE WAY OUT." On leaving the Kremlin 
(writes a traveller from Moscow) we reach a gate- 
way near which a Government official is constantly 
standing, and obliges the passers-by to take off their 
hats. We are told that such is the general rule 
which admits of no exception ; every one is com- 

pelled to bow and why 1 Because under this gate 
the retreating army of Napoleon withdrew from 
the Russian city, and finally left the invaded land 
an event to be ever kept in lively remembrance 
by the nation. A. A. L. 


ing over some papers of a deceased brother, I have 
met with a letter addressed to him from the late 
Lord Macaulay. It would appear that my brother 
must have written to his lordship after the publi- 
cation of his History of England ; but having no 
copy of his letter, I can only surmise the import of 
it from the reply. W. M. D N. 

" Albany, London, January 30, 1850. 

' ' Sir, I am much obliged to you for the trouble which 
you have kindly taken. I think Penn a poor, shallow, 
half-crazy creature ; but I am satisfied that he was not 
a Papist. That he corresponded with Cardinal Howard 
is probable enough. But what then 1 Burnet had a good 
deal of intercourse with Cardinal Howard ; and nobody 
suspected Burnet of being a Papist. Howard was an 
honest, sensible, moderate man, who was connected by 
blood and friendship with many of the most respectable 
Protestants in England. It would have been well if 
Penn had never kept worse company, or followed worse 
advice, than Howard's. 

"As to the other story to what does it amount? A 
nameless priest, talking to a nameless gaoler, calls Penn 
father Penn ; a gossiping Prebendary runs open-mouthed 
with the silly story to Sherlock. I see no sign of guilt 
in the conduct of the accused person ; any man of spirit 
would have acted in the same way. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

" C. Dameron, Esq., " W. B. MACAULAY. 

" Hartlepool." 

LIEU. The other day, in reading Dr. Martin 
Lister's Travels in France, circa 1699, I stumbled 
upon a good old French epigram on the death of 
Richelieu, 1642. I have thrown it roughly, but, I 
think, faithfully, into verse : 

" Surrounding Richelieu on his bier, 

Behold ten thousand lights appear; 

Wouldn't one candle do as well 

To light the Cardinal to Hell? " 

Charles Lamb once said that "Voltaire was a 
very good Jesus Christ for the French." Would 
it be cynical to say that Richelieu was a very good 
hero for Thackeray's Bullwig the Immortal '? No 
one that has read French history can forget the 
" Red Man's " terrible declaration: 

" I never undertake anything without having well 
thought over it ; but when once I have resolved, I 
go straight to my end ; I crush every one ; I mow down 
everyone; and then I cover everything over with my red 

Richelieu's efforts were all directed to one sole 
object, the establishment of a regal despotism. The 
State is monarchical, he said; the king's will issu-. 
preme ; he alone should appoint the judges, and 
command the subsidies. But behind this great 

. I. JAN. 10, 74.] 



red chess-piece moved the wise invisible hand of the 
world's ruler, and every noble that he sent to the 
scaffold, every tower his cannon levelled, cleared 
the way for the destruction of feudalism, and the 
great purifying tornado of the Eevolution. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

Jervise, in Notices regarding the Antiquities of 
Cullen in Banffshire, says : 

" It is said (possibly with truth, for I have seen no 
record to the contrary), that Bruce's ' Queen Elizabeth's 
bowels ' were buried at Cullen, she having died there, 
probably on her way from the shrine of St. Duthac at 
Tain ; and that for praying for her soul the king endowed 
a chaplaincy in the church of St. Mary at Cullen. Fordun 
makes no mention of the queen having died at Cullen, 
but says that her body was laid in the choir of the kirk 
of Dunfermline, where that of the king was subsequently 

The fact of the queen's death at Cullen is con- 
firmed by MSS. at Cullen House, the latest of 
which, dated 1543, is a ratification by Queen Mary 
of various endowments in favour of the kirk of 
Cullen, and goes on to say 
" the auld chaiplanrie of fiwe pundis infeft by umquhile 
our predecessoure King Robert the Bruce of gude 
mynde," &c., " to pray for the saule of Elizabeth, his 
spouse, quene of Scottii, quilk deceissit in our said burgh 
of Culane, & hir bouaillis erdit in cure Lady Kirk therof, 
be perpetuallie," &c. 

Now, perhaps some of the contributors to 
" N. & Q." will be able to say how it was that 
Queen Elizabeth came to die at Cullen. Mr. 
Jervise suggests that it might have been when she 
was on her way from the shrine of St. Duthac. 
But it is well known that at that shrine, or in the 
neighbourhood of it, she was seized by the Earl of 
Eoss, in 1306, and delivered up to the English. 
She was carried to London, where she remained a 
prisoner until after the battle of Bannockburn, 
1314. Did she pay a second visit to St. Duthac's, 
or what else brought her to Cullen to die ? 


the concubines of Charlemagne, p. 27, " Vie de 
Charlemagne," Les CEuvres d'Eginhard, par Alex- 
andre Teulet, Archiviste. Pale'ographe, Paris, 
1856. Is Adallinde the same person as Indiana 
of the French drama, Indiana et Charlemagne, 
Lyons ; and where can an account of the parentage 
of either be found ? E. 

" TWENTITEEM." Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
tell me exactly what day is designated by the term 

" Twentiteem," i. e. Twentieth even? The expression 
is perfectly well known about Almondbury, but 
when you ask what day in January it marks, no one 
can tell. I have made every effort to discover the true 
date, but without success, owing to the diversity of 
opinion which prevails. I am making a glossary 
of trial terms, now almost completed, and I am 
anxious to be set right on this point. A. E. 


books of a Wiltshire parish, I find that before- 
the entry of each baptism from 1783 to 1785, and 
of each burial from 1784 to 1786 there is a three- 
penny stamp impressed. This is exclusive of the 
baptisms and burials of paupers, which are regis- 
tered on separate pages, and unstamped. Can any 
of your readers tell me what is the meaning of these 
stamps? W. C. P.- 

PHIPPS FAMILY. It is stated in Burke's Peerage 

" The Phipps family was, during the sixteenth and 
early part of the seventeenth century, resident upon 
landed property in the county of Lincoln, on which Col. 
William Phipps raised a regiment of horse for the service 
of King Charles during the civil wars." 

I am anxious to know in what part of Lincoln- 
shire the Phipps property was situated, and whete 
I may find an account of this Col. William. 

E P. D. E. 

CYMBLING FOR LARKS. Thornbei, in his Ac- 
count of Blackpool (Lancashire) and iis Neighbour- 
hood, 1837, sajs (p. 90) 

" Cymbling for larks was wont to be nsed as a very 
common pastime. Now, however, it is scarcely known 
by name, and the instruments peculiar to the art being 
retained in the possession of a few curious individuals 
only, are passing rapidly into disuse." 

What was this pastime? What were the in- 
struments used in it ? Do any of them exist in any 
Lancashire or other museum 1 


CARMOLY (C.) Histoire des Medecins Juifs 
Anciens et Modernes. I have before me " tome 
premier" of this interesting book, published at 
Brussels in 1844, 8vo., by the " Societe Encyco- 
graphique des Sciences Medicalefi." The Preface 
speaks of a second volume. I have made inquiries 
through foreign booksellers, but cannot learn that 
this ever appeared. Can any reader inform me 'I 
The interesting nature of the promised contents 
" Continuation de 1'histoire des medecins israelites 
jusqu' aujourd'hui, une bibliographic medicale juive 
de tous les pays et de toutes les langues, un coup- 
d'oeil sur les e'pigrammes, satires et sarcasmes 
dirig^s contre les medecins, et centre la medecine 
Israelite depuis les temps les plus recule's, avec des 
additions et corrections au premier volume ") makes 
me desirous of obtaining it. WILLIAM BATES. 



[5'- u S. I. JAN. 10, 74, 

" THE FAIR CONCUBINE ; or, the Secret History 
of the Beautiful Vanella. Containing Her Amours 
with Albimarides, P. Alexis, &c. London, W. 
James, M.DCC.XXXII." 8vo., pp. 49. This is the 
title of a scarce and curious volume, of which I 
possess a copy. There is a frontispiece representing 
Vanella at full length, under which are six lines of 
verse. Unfortunately, in my copy, the binder has 
cut off the initial letters of the first three lines ; 
perhaps some of your readers may have a perfect copy 
of the book, and may not object to supply the void. 
I copy the verses as far as I have them : 
" he Old Patriarch we in Scripture find 
eming sheep by Art the Breed Confin'd 
made his Lambkins o' the motled kind. 
So Big Vanella with a Serious Air 
Views ev'ry Feature with Attentive Care 
To give her comeing Boy his Father's Princely Stare." 

I should also feel obliged by a key to the persons 
indicated by " Vanella," " Albimarides," and " P. 
Alexis." H. S. A. 

is now the representative of the family of Monk of 
Potheridge, co. Devon ? The General had no chil- 
dren ; but his brother Nicholas Monk, Bishop of 
Hereford, had two daughters, Mary, who married 
Arthur Farwell, and Elizabeth, who married Cur- 
wen Rawlinson. The latter left two sons, Monk 
and Christopher, who both died unmarried, but 
the [property, or a good part of it, came into the 
Rawlinson family, and has descended to the Rigges 
and Moores, but the blood evidently terminated by 
the death, s.p., of Elizabeth's children. 

Are there any descendants of Mary, who married 
Arthur Farwell, and can any one tell me who he 
was ? Was he related and, if so, how to the 
old family of Farwell or Farewell, of Hill-Bishop 
Holford, and Totsess 1 one of whom, Sir George 
Farwell, married Mary, daughter of Sir Edwarc 
Seymour, Bart., of Berry Pomeroy Castle, near 
Totness, heir male of his grandfather, the Duke o" 
Somerset, the Lord Protector. If this Arthu: 
Farwell is of that family, it will make two alliance 
with Plantagenet blood. Any information abou 
this Arthur Farwell, or the descendants of the 
Monks, will be much valued by 

C. T. J. MOORE. 

Frampton Hall, near Boston. 

SOMERSET. I wish for information concerning hi 
daughters ; he died in 1551. In Anderson's Genea 
logical History of the House of Yvery, it is state 
that Anne, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Christian, hi 
daughters by his second wife, all died withou 
issue, and the authority is given as " Visit. Dor 
& Soms., per Rob. Coke, penes Comitem c 
Oxford." This visitation, I presume, is now MS 
Harleian, 1559, in the British Museum ; but ther 

no assertion in it that the daughters died 
ithout issue. The pedigree of Lower of Cornwall 
Miscell. Geneal. et Heraldica, i. 266) declares that 

iomas Lower married Margrett, daughter of 
Edmund Percivall of Somersetshire ; and it is 
elieved that the wife of Richard Lowle, who came 
'om Somersetshire to New England, and who 

larried , daughter of Percivall (MS. Harl., 

559), was another daughter. Can any reader of 

N. & Q." give me any information on this point 1 

Boston, U.S.A. 

BURNING THE DEAD. I read somewhere (in one 
f Dr. Lankester's works,* if I remember aright), 
ome time ago, that the French burn their relatives 
ometinies, and make mourning rings, which they 
r, out of the iron obtained from the bodies. Is 
his the case 1 The ancient laws of Tuscany used 

allow in fact, in some cases insisted on bodies 
>eing burnt t ; but I was not aware that the 
French followed the custom which is so common 
imongst the heathen of this colony and the East 

enerally. Burning corpses in England is illegal. 
What is the statute which makes it so ] 
The servants of the Ranee (widow of Runjeet 
ingh, the Rajah of the Punjaub, and mother of 
H.H. the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh) wished, on 
death in 1863, to burn Her Highness's corpse. 
This was not done, as the British Government 
ntimated to the Ranee's followers that the laws of 
Sngland would not permit of it. What was done 
with the corpse ? J. W. S. 


"JACARANDA." To what use is this wood 
applied 'I The tree itself, with its ash-like leaves 
and deep blue bell -shaped blossoms clustering 
round the branches, presents a charming aspect. 

1 never saw it, except on the South American 
Continent, and am surprised that it should not (so 
far as I am aware) have been introduced into our 
great conservatories. S. 

PIN-BASKET. What is the origin of this expres- 
sion as used in the annexed passages from Asgill 1 
Its only metaphorical sense recognized by the 
dictionaries is " the youngest child of a family": 

" And I do also believe that this expression is now 
calculated to be the last of the exceptions, as the pin- 
laslet upon me of what I can neither answer nor ex- 
cuse." Defence, &c., 1712, p. 56. 

" But, as children use to keep their plumbs to the last, 
so our author (after all his preliminary reasons) hath 
kept the Will of King Henry the Eighth as a stone in 
his sleeve, for the pin-basket or clencher to all the rest." 
The Succession of the House of Hannover Vindicated, 
&c. (edition 1714), p. 4. 

"I find he hath met with something he is mighty 
fond of, and hath made it his pin-haslet of instances. " 
The Pretender's Declaration Abstracted, &c. (1715), p. 17. 

* On Food or On Animal Products. 

f As, for instance, in the case of Percy Bysshe Shelley 

5* S. I. JAN. 10, 74.] 


" As the pin-basket, or murdering stroke to Chris- 
tianity," &c. Asgill upon Woolston (1730), p. 13. 

F. H. 

" VIGILANTIA ET FiDELiTATE." Was there any 
English family of note in the seventeenth cen- 
tury having this motto, and, if so, was any lady 
in it named Diana ? J. C. J. 

JOHN OF GUILDFORD. Who was he ? 

A. M. 

BLIND HARRY'S WALLACE, Wanted, the date 
and place of publication of the above, in the black 
or German letter. J. S. 

1615 TO 1621. Can any of your readers give me 
any information about him ? In 1621 he died and 
was buried in the church. " The Right Worshipfull 
Mr. William Laurence, parson of this towne and 
of Newton, was buryed the 25th daye of Januarie." 
The title " Eight Worshipfull " shows that he held 
some dignity, such as chancellor, archdeacon, &c. ; 
but hitherto I have been unable to find out what 
it was. I suspect, but I have no positive proof, 
that he was of Queen's College, Cambridge, and 
elected Fellow in 1573. HUGH PIGOT. 

Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

TONGUE." In reading, or rather re-reading, this 
delightful little book, a small query occurs to 
me. Mr. Earle describes the Runic character 
(>) for th (the A.-Saxon thorn) as having main- 
tained itself in the English language to the close 
of the fifteenth century, and as having survived in 
the. shape of y in the words the and that (ye and yt), 
" down close to our own times." " It may be 
doubted," he adds, "whether the practice has 
entirely ceased even now." Do any old-fashioned 
people still write ye for the; and when was the 
form last used by printers ] We are all familiar 
with it in old letters and old Bibles. C. P. F. 

Christian name of the daughter of Drummond of 
Colynhalzie whom John Macaulay. (killed at the 
battle of Preston, anno 1745) married, and was she 
an only daughter 1 J. M. A. 

J. S. MILL ON " LIBERTY." Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." refer me to a review of John Stuart 
Mill's book on "Liberty" in any of the Quarterlies, 
or to any book, such as Mansel's, where it is 
examined ] C. A. W. 


CLOCKMAKERS. How can I find out where the 
following clockmakers resided in London ? Thos. 
Tompion, Joseph Knibb, John Monkhouse, Robt. 
Bumstead, Rich. Gunter. A. R. G. 

Haydn (Dictionary of Dates, art. " Treaties ") 
says, " the first commercial treaty was with Guy, 
Earl. of Flanders, Edw. II., 1274," and in Percy 
Anecdotes " Commerce " it is said, " the first 
commercial treaty on record is that with Haquin, 
King of Norway, in 1217." Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." explain the difference between these 
statements ? G. LAURENCE GOMME. 

(4 th S. xii. 470, 523.) 

All the pieces referred to by DR. RAMAGE, 
as having been recently sold at Sotheby's sale, 
professedly holograph MSS. of hitherto unpub- 
lished effusions of the bard, have, with exception 
of the one called The Cloaciniade, been long 
familiar to persons acquainted with a small volume 
of licentious songs, issued anonymously at Edin- 
burgh, shortly after Burns's death. Its title is as 
follows : " The Merry Muses of Caledonia; a collec- 
tion of favourite Scots Songs, ancient and modern; 
selected for the use of the Crochallan Fencibles." 
This was a social club composed of bon vivants of 
the middle and upper walks of Edinburgh society 
who met in a noted tavern in Anchor Close, and 
of which the bulk of the poet's Edinburgh corre- 
spondents were members. In this Club Song-Book 
the authors' names are not stated, nor is the name 
of Burns referred to, either as editor or contributor. 
Nevertheless the correspondence of the poet reveals 
the fact that, about the end of 1793, such a collec- 
tion was in process of formation by him. Seven 
or eight of the less indelicate pieces contained in 
it are embraced in the publications of Currie, 
Cromek, and other editors, as genuine productions 
of Burns, two of these having been published by 
Johnson in his lifetime, and acknowledged by the 
author. Some further account of this Crochallan 
volume will be found at vol. ii. p. 342, of M'Kie's 
Kilmarnock Edition of Burns, 1871. 

It appears odd to find a prominent annotator 
of Burns like DR. RAMAGE of Wallace Hall, 
Dumfries, asking for information about Robert 
Cleghorn, to whom the Burns MSS. in question 
seem to have originally belonged. He was a far- 
mer at Saughton Mills, in the neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh ; his name is found in the list of sub- 
scribers to the author's Edinburgh edition, 1787, 
and after the poet's death we find, in the list of 
subscribers in behalf of his bereaved family, dated 
Aug. 23, 1796, "Robert Cleghorn, Saughton Mills, 
21. 2s. ; Mrs. Cleghorn, 1Z. Is." He was among the 
larliest of Burns's Edinburgh associates, and ap- 
parently was the means of bringing Johnson, the 
music engraver, and the poet together, and thus 
enlisting the soul and services of the Latter in the 


[[5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74. 

formation of that invaluable reservoir of Scottish 
song, called the Scots Musical Museum. At the 
close of volume first, published in May, 1787, is 
given the old song, Bonie Dundee, with eight 
lines added by Burns. These were supplied at 
the request of Cleghorn, and sent accompanied by 
the following note : " To Mr. Cleghorn, Farmer 
(God bless the Trade !) Dear Cleghorn, you will 
see by the above that I have added a stanza to 
Bonie Dundee. If you think it will do, you may 
set it agoing 'upon a ten-stringed instrument, and 
on the psaltery.' E. B." In this connexion I may 
mention that in the bard's monument at Edinburgh 
is preserved the original letter, dated Feb. 1, 1787, 
addressed by the Earl of Buchan to Burns, and 
on the fly-leaf we find in the poet's handwriting a 
rough pencil-jotting of the first eight lines of this 
same song, Bonie Dundee, noted down from Cleg- 
horn's singing. 

Only two of the letters addressed to Cleghorn 
by Burns have found their way into the poet's 
correspondence, and song is the main topic of both. 
Cleghorn is also affectionately referred to in the 
Thomson correspondence on more than one oc- 
casion. In the summer of 1795, the poet was 
visited by Cleghorn at Dumfries, when Dr. Max- 
well and Syme of Kyedale were brought in to have 
a rare sederunt over the bowl of Inverary marble 
on the occasion. The poet's next letter, dated 21st 
August of that year, conveys the thanks of Mrs. 
Burns for his " obliging, very obliging visit," and 
encloses a rare song, called Gaffer Gray, which 
Cleghorn is to be sure to return, and not give any 
copies away. A song from the farmer, called 
Peggy Ramsay, is craved by way of equivalent. 
(Peg-a-Ramsay, by the way, must be a very 
ancient song, being quoted in the Twelfth Night 
of Shakspeare.)* 

Looking, therefore, at the character of the lyrics 
communicated by Burns to Cleghorn, such as Act 
sederunt of the Session and its companions, the 
manuscripts of which have so recently been brought 
to light, it seems evident that this jolly miller and 
farmer of Midlothian had a considerable share in 
the formation, if not also the publication, of the 
Crochallan facetiae referred to. 



(3 rd S. ix. 280.) 

ENQUIRENDO, at the above reference, asserts 

that a note to Boswell's Johnson (edit. 1835), 

which supposes Miss Hickman (to whom Dr. 

' Ne'er sae murky blew the night 

That drifted o'er the hill, 
But bonie Peg-a-Ramsay 
Gat girst to her mill." 

Johnson's Museum, vol. vi. 

Johnson wrote some amatory verses*) to have been 
;he "daughter of the friendly schoolmaster at 
Stourbridge," is " an egregious mistake." 

" Miss Hickman (he says) -was the daughter of Walter 
Hickman, Esq. (who was grandson of Sir William Hick- 
man, Bart.), a gentleman of considerable estate. She 
married Dr. Turton of Birmingham, and they were the 
parents of Dr. John Turton of Brasted Park, Kent, 
physician to his late Majesty George IV." 

These statements are repeated in the last edition 
of Burke's Landed Gentry (art. " Turton") ; and it 
is there further asserted that Dr. Turton was one of 
the sons of Sir John Turton, Baron of the Ex- 
jhequer, temp. William III., the fact being that 
Sir John Turton had only two sons,. William, who 
married and had issue, and John, who died an in- 
fant in 1677. 

Now the lady who married Dr. Turton, and to 
whom Dr. Johnson addressed the verses in ques- 
tion, was Dorothy Hickman, a member of the old 
Stourbridge family of that name, and half sister 
of the Rev. Walter Hickman, the first incumbent 
of St. Thomas's Church, Stourbridge, and also, in 
all probability, t head master of the Grammar 
School there. This reverend gentleman died about 
1741, leaving an unsigned and undated will 
whereby he gave and devised as follows : 

' To my dearly beloved kinswoman and betrothed wife, 
Mary Acton the younger, of Stourbridge, daughter of 
Clement Acton, late of Hales Furnace, all my real estate 
in the town of Stourbridge, or elsewhere, to her and her 
heirs for ever, in token of the great love and affection I 
have for her. My study of books to my nephew, John 

On the 25th of November, 1741, administration 
was (with the consent of Mary Acton) granted to 
John Turton and Dorothy his wife ; which Dorothy 
is styled " the only sister of the half blood, and 
next of kin to the said Walter Hickman." 

In 1747 further administration de bonis non ("so 
far as his goods were left unadministered to by 
Dorothy, wife of John Turton, his sister and 
administratrix ") was granted to Henry Hickmaa, 
of Stourbridge, clothier, IT uncle of the intestate. 

Walter Hickman's mother appears to have been 
Dorothy, daughter of Walter Moseley, Esq., of 

* " To a lady playing on a spinet." 

f Until quite recently the incumbency of St. Thomas's 
was always held by the head master of the Grammar 

1 Preserved in the Will Office, Edgar Tower, Worcester. 

See Burke's Landed Gentry, Art. "Acton of Gatacre 
Park " 

|| In an editorial note (3 rd S. ix. 280) it is stated that 
Dr. Turton was married to Miss Hickman in 1734. If 
this is the correct date, the nephew must have been a 
child at the date of Walter's will. 

T! The Hickmanswere for several generations engaged 
in this trade. Scott the descendant of a family of 
clothiers in his History of Stoiirlridge. asserts that it 
was carried on at Stourbridge as early as 1693; but 
Richard Hickman, of Stourbridge, clothworker, died in 
] 627. John Hickman was a clothier at Worcester about 
a century earlier. 

5* S. L JAM. 10, 74.] 



the Mere, Enville, Staffordshire, who was related 
to the Acton family ; but I am at present unable 
to state the name of his father, for Dorothy 
Moseley was twice married and both her husbands 
were named Hickman. The first was " Blchard 
Hickman, of Stourbridge, in the parish of Old- 
swinford, gent.," who died in 1710, aged 29 ; and 
the second " Gregory Hickman,* of the city of 
Chester, merchant." She died in 1722, aged thirty- 
three, and was buried with her first husband at 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1813, 
p. 18, there is a letter, dated Oct. 30, 1730, ad- 
dressed by Dr. Johnson to Mr. Gregory Hickman, 
of Stourbridge, in which the writer returns thanks 
for the " favours and assistance " he had received 
from Mr. Hickman when he yas a candidate for 
the situation of usher in the Stourbridge Grammar 
School. " But while I am acknowledging one 
favour (he writes) I must beg another, that you 
would excuse the composition of the verses you had 
desired." " Be pleased to consider (he continues) 
that versifying against one's inclination is the most 
disagreeable thing in the world ; and that one's 
own disappointment is no inviting subject." 

This shows that Johnson was known to Mr. 
Hickman as a writer of verses. 

Jane, the widow of another Gregory Hickman, 
of Stourbridge, was, in 1703, the wife of Joseph 
Ford, M.D., of the same place, who, I think, may 
have been the brother of Johnson's mother. It is 
well known that " Parson Ford " (immortalized by 
Hogarth) was the son of a physician who was Mrs. 
Johnson's brother ; but it seems to be doubtful 
whether his (the physician's) baptismal name was 
Joseph or Cornelius. If he should turn out to be 
Dr. Joseph Ford of Stourbridge, it would, perhaps, 
account for Johnson's being educated there. J 

I snould mention that the Stourbridge Hick- 
mans (though not descended from Sir William 
Hickman, Bart.) have always been of consideration 
and importance. 

One of them, Dr. Hemy Hickman, who at one 

* The Irish Hickmans are descended from a Gregory 
Hickman, a merchant at Hamburgh. According to Ed- 
mondson (Baronagium,) he was a brother of Dixie 
Hickman, ancestor of the Earls of Plymouth, but I very 
much doubt this. 

f M. I. in Enville church. On the tablet are the arms 
of Hickman (Per pale indented argent and azure) im- 
paling Moseley. 

% Boswell says, "After having resided for some time 
at the house of his uncle, Cornelius Ford, Johnson was, 
at the age of fifteen, removed to the school of Stourbridge 
in Worcestershire." Croker may have some note upon this, 
but the only edition of Boswell to which I have access 
here is the first. In Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, i. 222, 
is an " Epitaph for Dr. Joseph Ford, by his son, the late 
Rev. Dr. Ford." He is described as a physician " vetusta 
gente oriundi"and "ad Deos abiit sexagenarius.'* No 
date is given. 

Henry Hickman presented a library to the Stour. 

time "taught logic and philosophy at Stourbridge," 
was the author of several controversial treatises in 
defence of the Nonconformists (Athen. Ox.). Pepys 
dined with him on the 21st of August, 1660 ; and 
Bishop Crewe, to whom he had been tutor, met 
with him at Leyden in 1688. He had a Fellow- 
ship at Magdalen, which he was obliged to vacate 
at the Restoration. He afterwards became minister 
of the English Church at Leyden, where he died 
about 1692. H. SYDNEY GRAZEBROOK. 

P.S. Charles Hickman, Bishop of Londonderry, 
1702-1713, is said to have been a native of North- 
amptonshire. Is anything known of his ancestry t 
Henry Hickman (mentioned above) appears to 
have been, at one time, rector of Brackley. 

ST. CUTHBERT (4 th S. xii. 274, 311, 376, 438.) 
MR. MUNBY writes with some warmth in reply 
to D. P. I think the best plan is to take his 
remarks for what they are worth. I would simply 
ask for what reason should St. Cuthbert's burial- 
place be kept a secret ? Without some satisfactory 
cause for the mystery, we are surely quite justified 
in believing that the spot immediately east of the 
High Altar Screen was his burial-place. The 
shrines of St. Erkenwald in Old St. Paul's 
Cathedral, of St. Edward the Confessor in West- 
minster Abbey, of St. Alban in St. Alban's Abbey 
Church, and many others, are known to be in 
similar positions, why not also St. Cuthbert's at 
Durham ? R. FERREY. 

[The Rev. John Pickford reminds us that a paper on 
St. Cutbbert, from the pen of the late venerable F. C. H., 
appeared in our 3 rd S. iv. 44 ; in it the statement of the 
Hook of Days on the subject is dealt with. He also 
refers to Marmion, Canto II. stanza xiv., where Walter 
Scott alludes to the secrecy observed with regard to the 
precise spot of the last resting-place of the saint.] 

D. P., before making statements on facts of his- 
tory, will do well to consult authorities. He says the 
Benedictines " built and paid for Durham monastic 
Cathedral." The author of the translation of 
St. Cuthbert says that Bishop Aldwin did it. 
" Venerandus antistes Aldunus ecclesiam tertio, 
ex quo earn fundaverat, anno, pridie nonas Sep- 
tembris sollenniter dedicavit." The venerable 
Bishop Aldwin solemnly dedicated the church 
which he had founded, on the fourth day of Sep- 
tember, in the third year from its commencement. 
This, I presume, is testimony which D. P. will not 
be disposed to gainsay, especially as it is supported 
by the authority of the Bollandists, who say of 
their account " Ex codice MS. Nicolai Belfortii, 
suppleta ex Historia Dunelmensi Turgoti." 


bridge Grammar School about the year 1665. It was in 
existence a few years ago, during the head-mastership 
of the Rev. Giffard Wells, but it has now disappeared. 
The books, being chiefly theological, were not pleasant 
reading, but surely they ought to have been preserved. 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74. 

I send you a bookseller's advertisement which 
may interest your readers : 

" Raine, M.A., Rev. James. Saint Cuthbert, with an 
account of the State in which his Remains were found 
upon the Opening of his Tomb in Durham Cathedral in 
the year 1827. 4to. uncut, plates, published at II. Us. Qd., 
for 7s. 6d." 

According to the secret information possessed 
by D. P., Mr. Kaine and his clerical friends con- 
nected with the cathedral made a great mistake : 
be it so. Will D. P. kindly inform the readers of 
" N. & Q." who the bishop was, interred in the 
tomb described as being that of St. Cuthbert, and 
why secrecy need be observed in relation to the 
resting-place of the latter? According to the 
history of the times the body had many resting- 
places in its transit from Lindisfarne Abbey 
through the county of Northumberland, before its 
final resting-place at Durham was determined, 
from whence, tradition says, it could not be moved. 
Lindisfarne was the original see, afterwards re- 
moved to Durham, and all the places where the 
body rested on the way were considered as part of 
the county of Durham, although in another county. 

I visited the Cathedral at Durham a short time 
after the opening of the tomb, in the company of 
some friends, and then no doubt was expressed by 
the officials as to its being the last resting-place of 
the body of the saint. I, however, remember that 
'it was stated that Mr. Eaine was absent when the 
tomb was opened by the workmen employed ; he 
was, however, sent for immediately, but unfor- 
tunately lost the great sight of the robes, as they 
first appeared to those present, from his momentary 
absence. The question as to it being the tomb of 
St. Cuthbert or some other bishop, ought not to 
be left in doubt. J. B. P. 

Barbourne, Worcester. 

_ "THE IRISH BRIGADE" (4 th S. xii. 496.) The 
title of the song is, properly, The Battle Eve of the 
Brigade. It first appeared in the Nation, Irish 
newspaper, 1844, and has since been many times 
republished among the songs and ballads con- 
tributed to that periodical, under the title of The 
Spirit of the Nation. I have the fiftieth edition, 
printed from new type, and published by James 
Duffy, Dublin, 1870. The tune is, " Contented I 
am [and contented I'll be, EesolVd in this," &c.]; 
which may be found in Calliope, 1788, p. 346, and 
in the Edinburgh Musical Miscellany, 1792, vol. i. 
p. 91. There is another, " Contented I am, and 
contented I '11 be, For what," &c., written by G. A. 
Stevens, 1754. A third, in St. Cecilia, 1779, p. 
284, is, apparently, a moralized adaptation of G. A. 
Stevens's song. The author of The Eve of the Irish 
Brigade was Thomas Davis, who died about 1845, 
and was for awhile the recognized leader in song 
and ballad poetry of the Young Ireland party. 
Dissatisfied with the lyrics which he heard sung, 
Davis had warmly advocated the production oi 

fresh national songs, and being at first feebly 
seconded, was forced to volunteer his own services. 
Many of his poems are of high merit. He was 
incerely lamented at his early death. His friend 
Samuel Ferguson, LL.D., Q.C., author of the well- 
known Forging of the Anchor, &c., wrote a beautiful 
Lament for Thomas Davis, commencing thus : 
" I walked through Ballinderry in the spring-time, 

When the bud was on the tree ; 
And I said, in every fresh-ploughed field beholding 

The sowers striding free, 
Scattering broad-cast forth the corn in golden plenty 

On the quick seed-clasping soil, 
Even such, this day, among the fresh-stirred hearts of 

Thomas Davis is thy toil ! " 

Another Lament for TJiomas Davis, written by 
J. Frazer, beginniag 

" Is he gone from our struggle, 
The pure of the purest?" 

may be found in Edward Hayes's Ballads of Ireland 
(n. d., but before 1869), vol. i. p. 324. John Fisher 
Murray also wrote a poem To the Memory of 
Thomas Davis, commencing thus : 

" When on the field where freedom bled." 

This is printed at page 29 of the posthumous col- 
lection of The National and Historical Ballads, 
Songs, and Poems, ly Thomas Davis, M.E.I. A., 
new edition, 1869. "The Battle Eve of the 
Brigade," and " Fontenoy, 1745," occupy pp. 158- 
163 of the same volume. Davis gives a good his- 
torical sketch of the Brigade, in an Appendix. An 
account is given, also, in John Mitchell's History 
of Ireland, chap, x., Glasgow, Cameron & Ferguson, 
1869. The Brigade dates from the expatriation 
after the Treaty of Limerick, 1691, and Sarsfield 
was the commander. He fell at Landen, 1693, " in 
the van of victory" against William III. At the 
Eescue of Cremona, 1702, Dillon, Burke, Mac- 
donnell, and Mahony were among the leaders of 
the gallant Brigade. Dillon, with one-fourth of 
the officers, and one-third of the men, fell at the 
victorious onslaught of Fontenoy, O'Brien, Lord 
Clare, in command, in 1745. The "Battle Eve" 
probably refers to Fontenoy, but I cannot answer at 
present regarding Count Thomond. J. W. E. 
Molash, Kent. 

Count Thomond was Charles O'Brien, sixth 
Viscount Clare so-called. His grandfather, the 
third Viscount, followed James II. to France and 
was attainted, and left descendants who entered the 
French service. Count Thomond, on the death, 
1741, of the eighth Earl of Thomond, became heir 
male of the O'Briens, and but for the attainder, 
would have succeeded to the earldom, which he, 
however, assumed, as he had before done the 
viscounty of Clare. He died 1761, leaving one 
son, . Charles, who died, unmarried, 1774 (Ann. 
Eeg. xvii. 200). The heir male of the O'Briens is 
now said to be, not^Lord Inchiquin, who is of a 

5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74.] 



younger branch, but the Rev. Edward O'Brien, 
vicar of Thornton Curtis, who would, therefore, if 
his descent were proved and the attainder reversed, 
be Earl of Thomond and Viscount Clare. See 
Burke's Peerage, art. " Inchiquin." 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

The words and music of the song beginning 
" The mess tents were full," are printed in Mr. 
Wellington Guernsey's Songs of Ireland (Metzler 
& Co.), with the following introductory note, sup- 
plying the information required by L. W. : 

" The history of the Irish Brigade would fill many 
volumes; indeed, the romance of history has not many 
brighter pages. At the submission of Ireland in ]603, 
O'Sullivan Bear and some others, excepted from the 
amnesty, took service and obtained high rank in Spain ; 
and after the flight of O'Neil and O'Donnell in 1607, 
numbers of Irish soldiers crowded into all the Continental 
services. We find them holding commissions in France, 
Spain, Austria, and Italy, where their descendants are to 
be found to the present day. 3Iany of the Irish, who 
had lost their fortunes by the Cromwellian wars, were 
also forced to fly for service on the Continent. In all 
the great battles and campaigns on the Continent of 
Europe, for nearly a century and a half, they bore a 
conspicuous part; at Fontenoy, their last crowning 
victory in the French service was bloody and complete. 
Louis XV. rode along the Irish lines and personally 
thanked them, whilst George II. uttered at the time 
that memorable imprecation on the Penal Code, 'Cursed be 
the laws which deprive me of such subjects.' Their 
history after Fontenoy may be easily given. In 1747 
they lost their colonel, Dillon, 130 officers, and 1,600 
men, killed at the fight of Lanfeldt; some served in 
India, and the remainder in Germany, from 1756 to 1762, 
and during the American War in the French West India 
Islands. At this time they were greatly reduced, and in 
1793 completely broken up as the Irish Brigade." 

The words were written by Thomas Davis (born 
1814, died 1845), a poet of great excellence in the 
patriotic school, although an occasional fierceness 
sometimes marred the usefulness of his productions. 
The song is properly entitled The Battle Eve of the 
Brigade, and is supposed to be sung at the mess- 
table of the Brigade the night previous to the 
rescue of Cremona in Italy. 


FLINT GUNS (4 th S. xii. 517.) The earliest 
example of a flint lock proper (not a snapphance, 
which differed slightly from it in the construction 
of the hammer and cover for the pan), with which 
I am acquainted, is the small gun in the Tower 
Armoury, No. 79, known as the Birding Piece of 
King Charles I. when Prince of Wales, and dated 
on lock and barrel 1614. 


If H. FISHWICK would refer to Scott's History 
of the British Army, he will find plenty of informa- 
tion on the subject, and that flint locks were used 
before the seventeenth century. BROWN BESS. 

In Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, edit. 1873, 
article " Fire Arms," it is stated : 

" The petronel (from poitrine, the 'chest) or arquebus 
came into use 1480 ; and the musket employed in the 
armies of the Emperor Charles V. about 1521 ; these 
were of very rude construction, being first discharged by 
a lighted match, afterwards, about 1517, by a wheel-lock, 
then by the flint. The match-lock and wheel-lock super- 
seded by the flint-lock about 1692." 

Haydn cites no authority for his statements. 


" SHEPHERDESS" AS A NAME (4 th S. xii. 426.) 
I remember an old woman of Hadleigh, in Suffolk, 
who bore this as a Christian name. She herself 
gave me the following reason for it. The Festival 
of Bishop Blaize, the reported inventor of the art 
of combing wool, used to be observed in Hadleigh. 
There was a grand procession through the 'town of 
persons connected with the wool trade, and a lady 
attired as a shepherdess rode in state in a post- 
chaise carrying a lamb in her lap. The parents of 
the old woman Avere so impressed with this magni- 
ficent spectacle, that they gave to their child, who 
was baptized shortly afterwards, the Christian 
name of Shepherdess. HUGH PIGOT. 

Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

"TALENTED" (4 th S. xii. 427.) In 1832, S. T. 
Coleridge thus denounces the introduction of this 
word (July 8, 1832) : 

"I regret to see that vile and barbarous vocable 
' talented ' stealing out of the newspapers into the leading 
reviews and most respectable publications of the day. 
Why not shillinged, farlhinged, tenpenced, &c.? .... 
Most of these pieces of slang come from America." 

To this, the Editor, H. N. C., adds, in a note, 
" See ' eventuate ' in Mr. Washington Irving's 
Tour on the Prairies." Specimens of the Table- 
Talk of 8. T. Coleridge, ed. 2, Murray, 1836, 
p. 171. F. S. 


S. xii. 428.) In Bingley's History of Surrey it is 
stated that " Denzil, Lord Holies, married the 
widow of Sir Walter Covert, of Slangham, in 
Sussex." Lord Holles's second wife was called 
Jane. This then may be the "right worshipful 
Lady." I can only offer this as an idea. There 
are many allusions in the work to the estates, &c f , 
but too long to quote here. EMILY COLE. 


PILLAR POSTS (4 th S. xii. 445.) One of these 
stood a few years ago, and probably still stands 
alone, by a turnpike road in Shropshire. It was a 
massive post of oak, with a chamber to receive letters, 
cut out of the solid, and closed by an iron door 
fastened from behind by means of a key like a bed 
winch, with which the guard of the mail coach used 
to open it when he passed. The contrivance was 
so simple, and the slit for the letters so large, that 
their addresses could be read by any one looking 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74. 

in, and they might easily have been abstracted. I 
first saw it in 1844, and it then looked as if it had 
stood for a hundred years. 

THE GREY MOUSE IN " FAUST " (4 th S. xii. 516.) 
Shelley's translation appears to me to explain 
this passage sufficiently : 
" Mephistopheles. That was all right my friend ; 
Be it enough that the mouse was not grey ; 
Do not disturb your hour of happiness 
With close consideration of such trifles." 


CHAUCER'S FELLOW SQUIRES (4 th S. xii. 467.) 
There is, I think, either a misprint or a clerical 
error in the second of these names. Should not 
Whichcors be Whichcote 1 The former name I 
never met with or heard of ; the latter is that of a 
family of gentle blood which takes its name from 
Whichcote, in Shropshire, and through a marriage 
with a Lincolnshire heiress, became settled at 
Harpswell, in that county, in the reign of Ed- 
ward IV. See Shirley's Noble and Gentlemen of 
England, first edition, p. 134. 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

OLD ELECTION SQUIB (4 th S. xii. 513.) The 
election, to which this squib refers, took place in 
November, 1768. George Cooke had died in the 
same year in which he had been elected with John 
Wilkes. According to Smith's Register of Con- 
tested Elections, published 1842, second edition, 
page 102, the results of both the elections were : 

1768. John Wilkes 1,292 

George Gooke 827 

Sir W. B. Procter, Bart. ... 807 
1768, November, vice Cooke, deceased. 

John Glynn 1,542 

Sir W. B. Procter, Bart. ... 1,278 " 


STOBALL (4 th S. xii. 516.) This is, I apprehend, 
Stoolball. The game is yet played in Sussex. For 
a description of it see " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. xi. 457. 
" Stoil-ball " was one of the games which in former 
days men were forbidden to play in churchyards. 
See Myre, Instructions for Parish Priests (E. E. 
Text Soc.), p. 11. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

See Halliwell's Dictionary. 

Gray's Inn. 

The following extract from Mr. Pycroft's Cricket 
Field, p. 7, may possibly assist MR. COOKE'S re- 
searches : 

" The great John Locke wrote in 1679' The sports 
of England, for a curious stranger to see, are . . . . 
stob-ball, in Tothill Fields.' Here again (says Mr. 
Pycroft) we have no cricket. Stob-ball is a different 

But query whether the derivation is not " stop- 
ball," which might make the principle, at any rate, 
that of cricket. 


Stoball, Stobball, Stop-ball, or Stow-ball, was 
(according to Strutt's Sports and Pastimes) a game 
frequently mentioned by writers of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. It appears to have 
closely resembled golf, and is thus described by 
Aubrey in his Natural History of Wilts, quoted 
in Halliwell's Archaic Dictionary : 

" It is peculiar to North Wilts, North Gloucestershire, 
and a little part of Somerset, near Bath ; they strike a 
ball stuffed very hard with quills, and covered with 
soale-leather as big as a bullet, with a staffe commonly 
made of withy, about three and a halfe feet long. 
Colemdowne is the place so famous and so frequented 
for stobball playing. The turfe is very fine, and the 
rock freestone is within an inch and half of the surface, 
which gives the ball so quick a rebound. A stobball ball 
is of about four inches diameter, stuifed very hard with 
quills, sowed into soale leather, and as hard as a stone. 
I doe not hear that this game is used anywhere in Eng- 
land but in this part of Wiltshire and Gloucestershire 
adjoining. They strike the ball with a great turned staff 
of about four feet long." 


Hazelwood, Belper. 

ELIZABETH (4 th S. xii. 516.) A coeval portrait on 
panel was in the possession, of the late Sir Charles 
Slingsby, at Scriven, and exhibited among the 
Yorkshire worthies at Leeds in 1868. 


Watton Hall. 

At Alnwick Castle is a copy, by Phillips, of a 
painting representing him in the robes of a Knight 
of the Garter. J. MANUEL. 


There is an engraved portrait of Thomas Percy, 
seventh Earl of Northumberland, who was be- 
headed in 1572, in Sharpe's Memorials of the 
Rebellion of 1569, p. 317. The original picture is 
stated to be at Petworth. 

CREW YARD (4 th S. xii. 517) means a yard 
where stock is folded, in the dialect of the northern 
part of Lincolnshire. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

See Halliwell's Dictionary under " crew." 

Gray's Inn. 

THUROT (4 th S. xi. 365, 509 ; xii. 215, 525.) 
See " Notice respecting Francois Thurot, a French 
Naval Officer, buried at Kirkmaiden, Wigtonshire, 
in the year 1760. By George Corsane Cuning- 
hame, Esq. Communicated by David Laing, Esq., 
F.S.A. Scot." Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland, vol. v. (printed 1865), p. 364. 

W. M. 


5'" S. I. JAN. 10, 74.] 



" THE BEE PAPERS " (5 th S. i. 9.) I have an 
odd volume (the third) of a small edition of Gold- 
smith, published by John Sharpe, Piccadilly, 1809, 
which contains, as I think, the whole of "The Bee." 
I shall be happy to send it by post to C. E. N., if 
he would care to borrow it. 


Knowl Hill, Berks. 

Vide the fourth volume (pp. 139-295) of The 
Miscellaneous Works of Oliver Goldsmith, M.B. 
A new edition, in 4 volumes. London, 1801. 
No. I. of " The Bee " was first published on 
Saturday, 6th October, 1759 ; the eighth and last 
appeared on the 24th November in the same year. 

See the " Globe " edition of Goldsmith's Works, 
published by Macmillan & Co. W. A. C. 


I may be wrong, and, if so, some correspondent 
will correct me, but I believe private flags in 
England are purely a matter of whim. The royal 
standard and our naval and regimental flags are 
arranged according to rule, and so were the 
banners, &c., borne at funerals regulated by 
heralds. But if a man chooses to hoist a colour to 
show that he is at home, he can purchase which- 
ever of our naval flags he pleases ; or if he prefers 
his own arms, or any other device, in any shade of 
colour, no one interferes with him. As to mixing 
his own arms with the Union Jack, I never heard 
of such a thing either cantonwise, or otherwise, 
on the same flag. I am speaking as a landsman. 
I do not know what they do in yachts. P. P. 

" THE PRACTICAL CHRISTIAN " (4 th S. xii. 448) 
is by Dr. Eichard Sherlock, uncle of Bishop 
T. Wilson of Sodor and Man. * * 

(4 th S. x., xi., passim; xii. 38, 298.) In some 
recent numbers of " N. & Q." have been references 
to the practice, common once in England, of hang- 
ing criminals in chains, or irons, after execution. 
I remember seeing several, I think eight, pirates 
suspended on the side of the Thames opposite 
Blackwall. The taverns had " spy-glasses," as 
they were termed, Axed on the window-ledges for 
visitors to use. Subsequently, when removed by 
legislative enactment, some of the papers of the 
day complained of the people of London being 
deprived of their amusements, in not being able 
to enjoy the view of these pirates. I met with, in 
Sussex, a portion of a curiously contrived chain for 
holding the leg, which had been dug up in the 
neighbourhood of Pulborough, "where the man 
was gibbeted years gone bye." The only other 
relic of the sort which I am aware of being in 

existence, is in the custody of the Corporation of 
Eye, who, on the occasion of an archaeological 
meeting, or other cheerful occurrence, lend it for 
exhibition. It is a sort of hooped cage, and the 
skull, with some bones of the skeleton, is still 
remaining : I think it is stated to be the remains 
of a malefactor of the name of Breeds. On going 
'over a collection of newspapers in my possession, I 
have made the following casual extracts, which 
show that the gibbet was generally erected at some 
other spot than where the execution took place : 

Edmond Tooll, executed on Fitichley Common, Feb. 2, 
1700, and afterwards hung in chains. 

Michael von Berghen and another, executed at the 
Hartshorn Brewhouse, June, 1700, and afterwards hung 
in chains between Mile End and Bow. 

Herman Brian, Oct. 1707, executed in St. James's 
Street, near St. James's house, and hanged in chains at 
Acton Gravel Pits. 

William Elby, executed at Fulham, in the Town, and 
hung in chains there, August, 1707- 

Richard Keele and William Lowther, executed Dec., 
1713, on Clerkenwell Green, conveyed to Holloway, and 
there hung in chains. 

John Tomkins, Feb., 1717, executed at Tyburn, with 
14 other malefactors, and afterwards hung in chains. 

Joseph Still, executed 1717, on Stamford Hill Road, 
and hung in chains in the Kingsland Road. 

John Price, 1717, executed in Bunhill Fields, and hung 
in chains near Holloway. 

Mrs. Catherine Hayes, burnt alive, May 9, 1726. 

Sarah Malcolm, executed March 7, 1733, in Fleet 
Street, near Fetter Lane. 

Captain Lowry, Feb., 1752, executed at Execution 
Pock, and hung in chains by the river side. 

John Swan, March, 1752, executed at Chelmsford, and 
hung in chains in Kpping Forest. 

William Corbett, March, 1764, executed on Kennington 
Common ; his body was fixed in irons, and hanged up 
on Gallery Wall, near Mill Pond Bridge, in the New Road 
leading from Rotherhithe to Deptford. 

F. S. A. 


CARR=CARSE (4 th S. xi. passim; xii. 89, 112, 
234, 297.) The answer of L. on this subject, 
describing places in Scotland named Carse and 
Kerrsland, is very valuable as showing the identity 
of signification of the word on both sides the 
border. The vowel is often changed, and the 
word otherwise varied, I believe. It must be 
much older as a land-name, however, than any 
surnames; and the practice of deriving family 
names from property or locality, so well known 
in Scotland, is abundantly proved to have been 
as common in the northern counties, where so 
many families bear these primitive land-names as 
their patronymic Carr, How, Fell, Eigg, Peat, 
Myers, Thwaites, Potts, Holmes, Gill, Moor, Moss, 
Beck. Ing is not so common, except in its com- 
pounds, Ingham, Ingram, Ingwell, Ingmire, &c., 
but there was a trial for high treason in 1820 of 
Thistlewood, Ings, Brunt, &c. 

At p. 297 X. P. D. describes car as applied to , 
islands in the marshy counties. Doubtless, those 




[5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74. 

which have been formed by the growth of water 
plants from the less stable bogs, and have first ap- 
peared as green swamp, to be afterwards covered 
with willows, alders, &c. Like the floating island in 
Esthwaite water, which has, perhaps, disappeared 
again. A similar one showed itself in Windermere 
a few years ago, on two successive summers, I 
think, but eventually sank, long after the word 
carr was forgotten here. Along the shore of 
Northumberland, I see small islands named Car 
and Scar, Ox Car, Seals Car, and others, which 
probably owe their name to A.-S. carr, a rock. 
Perhaps some of your correspondents will tell us 
their character. 

I owe thanks to all who have helped to illus- 
trate so obscure a 1 word, and trust to hear of it 
more in future. Also to MR. BLENKINSOPP, 
p. 482, for his notice of ings in Lincolnshire ; 
and I shall be obliged to any of your country 
contributors who will give similar information, 
which, in the northern counties, cannot be beyond 
recovery. I have lately heard of ings of 100 acres, 
near York. M. 


BONDMEN IN ENGLAND (4 th S. xi. 297, 367, 404 ; 
xii. 36, 458.) These references show that much 
attention has recently been directed to the subject 
of serfdom in England. It may be of interest for 
me to notice that in the grant, by the Crown, in 
1564 (Pat. Eolls, 6th Eliz., Part I., m. 114), of the 
manor of Penpont, co. Cornwall, to Philip Cole, 
Esq., and Johanna, his wife, after conveying variou 
privileges and franchises pertaining to the manor, 
the Patent goes on to say : 

" Also all forfeitures, pannage, free warrens, liberties* 
natives men and women, and villans, with their 
children (natives nativas ac villanos cumeorum sequelis), 
also all tolls, &c." 

This was not a royal manor. It had been 
parcel of the possessions of the family of Carminowe 
and passed with one of the co-heirs of Thomas 
Carminowe (ob. 1423) to the Courteneys, and wai 
forfeited to the Crown upon the attainder o: 
Henry Courteney, Marquis of Exeter, in 1538-9 
It was again granted by Queen Mary to Edwarc 
Courteney in 1554, on his creation as Earl o 
Devon, and it again reverted to the Crown oa. his 
death, s.p., two years afterwards. 

We have evidence of bondage continuing afte: 
this date. Among the Lansdown MSS. (105, No 
42) is the draft of a Commission (I think in 
Burleigh's handwriting) directed to Sir Williair 
Cecil, Lord Burleigh, and others, in which th 
Queen, after reciting that " divers and sundry of ou 
poor, faifhful, and loyal subjects being born bond in 
bludde and regardant to divers our manors, &c 
have made humble sute unto us to be manumisec 
enfranchised, and made free with their children an< 
sequells," says, " we do commit unto you full powe 
and authority to accept, admytt, and" receive to b 

anumysed, enfranchised, and made free such and 
o many of our bondmen and bondwomen in bloud, 
irith all and every of their children and sequells, 
heir goods, &c., as are now appertaining or regardant 

all or any of our manors, &c., in Cornwall, Devon, 
somerset, and Gloucester, as to your discretion 

hall seem meet and convenient, compounding with 
hem for such reasonable fines or somes of money to 
e taken and received to our use for their manu- 
nission and enfranchisement as you and they can 
.gree for." 

Consequent upon this Commission, we find three 
leeds of enfranchisement, all dated in the 19th 
fear of Elizabeth, upon record in the "Crown 
jands Inrolment Office," granting manumission to 

1 few individuals and their families pertaining to 
he Queen's Manor of Helston-in-Trigg, co. Corn- 
vail, but the authority conveyed in the Commission 

does not appear to have been further exercised. 


SERFDOM IN SCOTLAND (4 th S. xii. 207, 271, 
451.) It is thought that DR. RAMAGE'S reading of 
the charter by James IV., of date 1489, looking to 
ihe collocation of the words, is probably incorrect 
(p. 207), in taking, as he does, bondis for bundis, 
which last imports bounds, or marches (" cum 
bundis [not bondis~] et pertinentiis eorundem," i. e. 
with, or according to, the bounds, and pertinents 
(=appurtenances) of the Place, Castle, and Mote- 
hill of Tybbris, which were granted). Kennet's 
GL, v. " Bunda" ; also " Abunda." 

Supposing, however, DR. RAMAGE'S reading, 
bondis, correct, the bondi, or bondi homines, as 
distinguished from the liberi-homines, were not 
actual serfs, or, as called often, "villeyns-in-gros"; 
they were thefirmarii, farmers, under short leases 
were those who held ad firmam, a grade of the 
agricolse. So thinks Skene, Fordun, ii. 417. On 
the other hand, it was the nativi, or servi, who 
were the serfs, and who might be acquired, trans- 
ferred, or recovered, as any chattel might. The 
adscripti glebce, the "villeyns regardant," were 
another section of the agricola? ; and, as to position, 
were more like the bondi than the nativi; and 
herein I differ somewhat from ANGLO-SCOTUS. 
They were attached, or astricted, to the soil, as the 
colliers and salters were, a privilege as it was con- 
sidered ; and, as long as they fulfilled the contract 
of location, they could not involuntarily be removed. 
(DalzelPs Fragments, Preface, and Innes's Legal 
Ant., p. 51.) 

In the other charter, in Cambuskynneth, to 
which DR. RAMAGE refers, the expression hominum 
meorum that is, the men of the granter does not 
denote absolute serfdom, for these men had animals 
to be pastured, as appears from the charter, which 
no serf could have; Kennet says that homines 
applied to all kinds of feudatory tenants, a view 

5'- S. I. JAN. 10, 74.] 



in which Spelman concurs (GL, v. " Homines" am 
" Homo"). L. 

EOYAL ARMS IN CHURCHES (4 th S. xii. 287 
354, 437.) These were certainly set up in the tinn 
of Cranmer, for Dr. Martin thus says : " Down 
with the Altar ! down with the Arms of Christ 
and up with a Lion and a Dog !" (Cranmer'f 
Works, ii. 217.) MACKENZIE E. C. WALCOTT. 

P.S. CLOTH OP ESTATE (4 th S. xii. 428) is a dai 
or canopy over a royal seat. 

In many of the older Protestant churches in 
Dublin the royal arms were suspended in front o: 
the organ-loft and facing the reading-desk. Amongst 
the lower orders of Koman Catholics an opinion 
formerly existed that the Protestants consequently 
worshipped the royal coat of arms. H. H. 

In the church of St. Thomas a Becket, the Cliffe, 
Lewes, the royal arms are carved in wood, painted 
and varnished. On either side, and above the 
arms, are the initials E. K., and above all is the 
date 1598. The arms are surrounded by a ribbon 
and held by supporters. One is a lion, but I am 
not sure if the other is the unicorn. At the lower 
corners are gilt crowns, and the ground is orna- 
mented with Tudor roses. I. C. E. 

[The supporters of the royal arms, under Mary and 
Elizabeth, were, Dext. a lion, Sinist. a dragon or a grey- 
hound. James L, as King of Great Britain, assumed, as 
supporters, D. a golden lion, for England, and S. one of 
the silver unicorns of Scotland. These supporters have 
continued unchanged. On the monument of Queen 
Elizabeth in Westminster Abbey, the unicorn is on the 
dexter side.] 

HEEL-TAPS (4 th S. xi. 504 ; xii. 18, 198.) 
X. X.'s derivation is set aside by this that "no 
heel-taps " did not imply " convivial thunder," but 
such -thorough- draining supernaculum drinking as 
betokened heartiest good will. That "heel-taps" also 
means a peg in th heel of a shoe, removed when the 
shoe is finished, is yet to be proved ; I cannot dis- 
cover that shoemakers know anything of any such 
peg, much less know it by that name. . Nor if it 
be proved will it then be proved that the drinking 
phrase for " not a drop to be left " is derived from 
it. " Tapping" is, I find, a local, but by no means 
general phrase for soleing, and, therefore, as 
cobblers have said to me, "heel-taps" may be a piece 
on the heel, or the iron sometimes added. The 
simplest supposition, though I confess I do not 
remember the word in this primary sense, seems 
to be to take heel-taps as meaning that which 
comes out of the tap when the cask is heel'd or 
tilted, namely the dregs, lees, or leavings. Tap- 
lash is also a phrase for such muddy remainders 
from ''lasche, to fresche and vnsavory, vapidus 
insipidus " (Prompt. Parv. ed. Way). Just, there- 
fore, as we speak of draining a cup to the dregs, 
or just as Taylor, the Water-Poet, says, they used 

such complemental oratory as, " off with your lap, 
wind up your bottom, up with your tap-lash," so 
" no heel-taps " would mean, what it does mean, 
leave no leavings, up with your glass till the last 
drop is out. B. NICHOLSON. 

55, 138, 177, 459.) Most certainly the shrike will 
attack the sparrow. During my sojourn at the 
Cape last year, I saw a butcher-bird entice a 
number of smaller birds near it by making a sort 
of plaintive cry. In a few minutes some half-dozen 
or more birds collected, and among them a sparrow. 
Immediately they were near enough to become 
easy prey, the butcher-bird flew into the midst of 
them and pounced upon the sparrow, a slight 
struggle followed, and away flew the victor with 
his spoil. In Stanley's Familiar History of Birds, 
under the heading of Shrikes (p. 161), mention is 
made of Selby being "fortunate enough to see the 
whole process of pinning a licdge-sparrow by one 
of these butcher-birds." Willoughby states it will 
" set upon and kill .... even thrushes." (See 
Knight's Cydopcedia.) H. G. G. 

"BLOODY" (4 th S. xii. 324, 395, 438.) This 
loathsome expression occurs in a letter of Latimer, 
Aug. 25, 1538, " a certain man told me that the 
bloody abbot should have said of late," &c. This 
seems to have been the mitred abbot of Evesham 
(his mitre being distinctly mentioned). The last 
abbot of Hales Owen, who was not mitred, had 
surrendered on June 5, or it might have been 
possible to connect it with the " Blood of Hales," 
but that relic was not examined until Oct. 24. 
The brave-hearted Clement Lichfield resigned, but 

would not surrender. 


BISHOP MOUNTAIN (4 th S. xii. 247, 452.) See 
Ward's Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, 
folio, 1740, p. 48. S. 

tii. 326, 455.) Dr. Josiah Miller, in his useful 
generally accurate work, Our Hymns, their 
Authors and Origin (Jackson, Walford & Hodder, 
1866), says, p. 304 : 

" This hymn was written at Hodnet in 1820, to be sung 
>y his, Heber's, people, with a sermon appealing to them. 
>n behalf of missions. The MS. used to be in the pos- 
ession of Dr. Baffles, of Liverpool." 


" SPURRING " (4 th S. xii. 44, 295, 398.) It is 
>robable that " spur " had at one time a more 
xtended range. I never heard the word in Kent, 
tut Lyly, a Kentish man, in his Mother Bombie, 
he scene of which is laid in Rochester, makes 
Accius, a foolish lout, say, " He be so bold as spur 
her, what might a body call her name "? (Act iv. 
c. 2.) B. NICHOLSON. 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74. 

S. xii. 285, 375.) I have heard a similar idea ex- 
pressed in Guernsey : " Les morts reclament la 
terre, et c'est leur droit." The dead call out for 
the earth, and it is their due. Such were the words 
with which Elizabeth Savidan, the wife of a fisher- 
man inhabiting the picturesque point of L'Er4e, on 
the western coast of the island, prefaced the follow- 
ing tale, which she related to me in her own native 
dialect of Norman French : A man who had 
gone down at low water to visit his trammel nets, 
found a dead body entangled in the sea- weed. It 
was not that of any of his neighbours. A violent 
storm had raged a day or two before, and the 
pieces of wreck, which the waves had thrown up 
on the beach, left no doubt that some unfortunate 
vessel had struck on one of the innumerable rocks 
which surround the island. The corpse, which was, 
no doubt, that of a passenger on board the ship, 
was handsomely dressed in a suit of velvet, richly 
laced with gold. The cupidity of the fisherman 
was excited, and his first thought was to search the 
pockets. A purse, containing a considerable sum 
in gold pieces, was found, and the fisherman, con- 
tent with his morning's work, hastened home, 
leaving the body to be carried away by the next 
tide. Great was his astonishment and affright on 
entering his cottage, at seeing the dead man seated 
by the fire-side and looking sternly and reproach- 
fully at him. The fisherman's wife, to whom the 
phantom was not visible, perceived his trouble, and 
on her pressing him to say what ailed him, he con- 
fessed what he had done. She upbraided him with 
his inhuman conduct, and, kneeling down with him, 
prayed the Almighty to forgive him his sin. They 
then hastened down to the shore, drew the corpse 
to land, and buried it in a neighbouring field. On 
their return home, the ghost of the drowned man 
had disappeared and was never more seen. 



An expression similar to the above is very 
common in Dorsetshire. When a corpse requires 
burial, I have often heard it said, " he, or she, do 
crave for the earth." Another odd expression is 
also used, and simply to announce that a funeral is 
to take place. A messenger will say to the clergy- 
man, " Please sir, Betty So-and-so do want to be 
buried to-morrow." The words "to call loudly 
for," or "to crave the earth," certainly form an 
expressive paraphrase or comment on the passage 
in our Burial Service,'" Earth to earth." 

E. A. D. 

THE MAGPIE (4 th S. xii. 327.) Though as free 
from superstition as most people, such is the effect 
of early impressions, that I seldom see a single 
magpie without looking for a second. But I have 
known many persons at times quite disconcerted 
when meeting several flights of magpies, without 

considering their number, whether odd or even. 
I was once travelling outside in the days of coaching 
between Newark and Lincoln, when, my neighbour 
frequently muttering and swearing between his 
teeth, I at last said to him, " Whatever is amiss 1 " 

Why," said he, " don't you see the magpies ? we 

shall buy the things dear ; D n 'em, they always 

bring us bad luck." It seemed he was a dealer on 
the road to a fair at Lincoln, and I said to him, 
" How is it then with the farmers we see on the 
road driving their cattle to the fair ; is bad luck 
to you good luck to them ; or if you were a seller 
instead of a buyer, how would it be?" He then 
admitted there could be nothing in it, but he 
evidently continued to fear a bad market for 
buyers. ELLCEE. 


"YARDLEY OAK" (4 th S. xii. 446, 481.) The 
most complete account of Cowper's Oak will be 
found in London's Arboretum, iii., p. 1765, 1838, 
at which time he had it measured. He gives the 
girth at one foot above the ground as thirty feet 
six inches. The stem then leant so much to the 
south as almost to admit of a person walking up 
with very little aid from the hands. It had three 
huge branches wholly devoid of bark, and had 
formerly been 'much injured by persons carrying 
away small blocks or slices of the wood as relics, 
or to manufacture snuff-boxes, &c. 

Cowper's Oak was called Judith from an old 
legend that it had been planted by the Conqueror's 
niece Judith, Countess of Northumberland. She 
held eighty-eight manors in Northamptonshire, 
including a portion of Yardley. There is a large 
engraving of it in Hayley's Coicper, vol. iii., 1806, 
Supplement. The two oaks figured by Strutt, and 
known as Gog and Magog, are quite distinct from 
" Cowper's Oak." EDWARD SOLLY. 

The title to the engraving of this oak is " Judith 
or Cowper's Oak, a portrait from Nature, drawn by 
Mrs. Meen, 1801, engraved by Caroline Watson, 
engraver to Her Majesty, 1805." 


FLY-LEAF INSCRIPTIONS (4 th S. xi. 24, 278, 300.) 
Perhaps the following from the fly-leaf of a,' 
Latin Bible of 1567, in Bishop Cosins' Library, 
may interest some readers : 
" Roland Sewell is the 

trew possessor of this book." 
" Gutta cavatt lapidem non vi, sed sepe cadendo 
Sic homo fit sapiens non vi, sed sepe legendo. 


" God preserve in health and wealth 
our noble queen Elizabeth." 

" Iste liber pertinet, beare it well in minde 
Ad me Rolandu : Sewell, both curteous and kinde 
A periculo doloris : Jesu him bringe : 
Ad vitam eternam : to life euerlastinge. 1608.'' 


5 th S. I. JAN. 10, 74.] 



AFFEBRIDGE (4 th S. xii. 328, 375, 484.) First, 
allow me to correct MR. PASSINGHAM as regards 
where the river Roding rises, it rises fourteen 
miles as the crow flies, or about nineteen miles by its 
sinuosities, from Chipping Ongar, and, secondly, 
to ask MR. SOLLY whether it is not more feasible 
that the river owes its name to the district through 
which it runs for so many miles in the upper part 
of its course, than the names of certain hamlets 
to the river. I conceive, therefore, that we should 
look for a derivation of the name of " Roding," 
which applies to this district, which is from Beau- 
champ Roding and Berners (not Barnish) Roding 
to High Roding, of some five miles in length, 
elsewhere. The word is evidently Saxon, allied 
to a Norman nomenclature, and probably has 
reference to the original holding, or the soil. That 
the conjecture referring the name of the river to 
Affe, or Ifil, is an erroneous one, I do not doubt 
for a moment. If the river gave the addition of 
II to Ilford, whence then the Wood to Woodford, 
the Staple to Stapleford, Passing to Passingford, 
All to All (Old) Ford, all of which are on the same 
river, and the absence of any name that might be 
contorted into II or Ifil, all up or down its course, 
elsewhere? W. PHILLIPS. 

xii. 449, 522.) In the Memoirs of the Marquis of 
Montrose, by Mark Napier, Edinburgh, 1856, will 
be found a rather interesting paper on Montrose's 
poems, with illustrative notes, &c. T. G. S. 


ARMS OF HUNGARY (4 th S. xii. 426, 500.) 
W. M. M. is quite right in saying there is no 
particular reason why Hungary should have a 
triple mount in its arms ; because it has not got 
one, the mount is always expressed by three curves 
or almost half circles in German heraldry. It is 
not so in English, French, and, I think, Italian 
arms. The dexter half is barry of eight gules, and 
argent, and has, as almost every coat of arms has, 
no signification. NEPHRITE. 

CASER WINE (4 th S. xii. 190, 256, 399.) J. T. F. 
(p. 399) should not call " Terefa" meat carrion. 
It means any meat, even the best, not killed by 
Jewish butchers legally, and is placed in the 
same category with " taraf," or " beast-prey " food. 
Mohammedans in Europe always take their meat 
of the Jews, never of Christians. The wine of 
ordinary vineyards is called Nesech, HD3, libation 
wine, and it is the Roman Catholic consecration of 
the fields to the Virgin, &c., or the Pagan one to 
their deities, which render it prohibitory, inde- 
pendently of the treading of the grapes by the 
naked feet of bacon and Ham-ophagi. This meat 
question gives the Rabbis great power over the 
butchers, who are now in England not allowed to 
sell rump-steaks, hind-quarters of mutton, &c. 



The Disciples. A New Poem. By Harriet Eleanor 

Hamilton King. (H. S. King & Co.) 
THE anonymous and sweet singer of Aspromonte has re- 
vealed her name, and has taken a still higher flight than 
that of her last flash of inspired song. It is not too much 
to say that as the lark increases in sweetness and power 
and melody as he rises nearer to Heaven's gates, so, in 
this new poem, The Disciples, bolder in attempt and 
loftier in object, the poet shows increase of strength and 
of sweetness ; and, as in the case of all true Children of 
Song, the greatest power is the result of the very simplest 
of means. Indeed, the beauty and force of simplicity 
have been rarely illustrated more exquisitely than in 
The Disciples. Mazzini has found a minstrel to sing his 
praises with delicacy and earnestness. They who may 
question the verdict will not doubt the fervour and the 
sincerity with which it is delivered. There is equal 
depth of feeling, with equal grace and warmth, in the 
narratives of the sufferings of Jacopo Ruffini, of the 
tragedy of Ugo Bassi (the principal poem in the volume, 
or, rather, the principal portion of a volume which is one 
sustained poem throughout), and, in the final songs, so 
melancholy, yet so full of melody, " Agesilao Milano " and 
" Baron Giovanni Nicotora." The limits of " N. & Q." 
hardly admit of affording examples, but we submit the 
following, being brief and to the purpose : 
" Italia ! when thy name was but a name, 
When to desire thee was a vain desire, 
When to achieve thee was impossible, 
When to love thee was madness, when to live 
For thee was the extravagance of fools, 
When to die for thee was to fling away 
Life for a shadow, in those dark days 
Were some who never swerved, who lived and strove 
And suffered for thee, and attained their end, 
And most of these have died that thou mayst live, 
And he is dead now who was first of them." 
"We suffer. Why we suffer, that is hid 
With God's foreknowledge in the clouds of Heaven. 
The first book written sends that human cry 
Out of the clear Chaldean pasture lands 
Down forty centuries ; and no answer yet 
Is found, nor will be found, while yet we live 
In limitations of Humanity." 

The Holy Bible, according to the Authorized Version, 
A.D. loll. With an Explanatory and Critical Com- 
mentary, and a Revision of the Translation by Bishops 
and other Clergy of the Anglican Church. Edited 
by F. C. Cook, Canon of Exeter. Vol. IV. Job, 
Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon. 

THIS volume, fourth of a great series, is also complete in 
itself. The Introductions to each book are distinguished 
for their simplicity, their learning, and their liberal 
feeling. Of the Song of Solomon, the editor says, " It 
may be said to be the enigma of the Old Testament, as 
the Apocalypse is of the New. No other book of Scripture 
bears even a remote resemblance to it, and none (the- 
Apocalypse not excepted) has so grievously suffered from 
the caprice and prejudice of innumerable commentators." 

A Dictionary of A rtists of the English School : Painters, 
Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and Ornamentalists. 
With Notices of their Lives and Works. By Samuel 
Redgrave, (Longmans.) 

MR. S. REDGRAVE has supplied a want that has long been 
felt ; no man could be better qualified for the work, and 
none, perhaps, has had better opportunities, or has 
known better how to use them. The volume contains 



[5 tu S. I. JAK. 10, 74. 

nearly 500 pages, double columns, clearly printed, with 
just enough said of every person named. How much can 
be said within a limited space by one who can keep 
within his subject is well illustrated in Mr. Redgrave 1 ! 
account of George Morland. It is a touching littli 
history, leaving the reader in full possession of wha 
Morland was, both as artist and as man. The allegec 
portraits of the two beautiful Miss Gunnings, now a 1 
Lord Mansfield's, are believed to be portraits of Mor 
land's two sisters. 

THE Antiguary is incorporated in Long Ago, whicl: 
is now edited by the proprietor, Mr. John Pigot, the olc 
and valued correspondent of " N. & Q." 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 

the gentlemen by -whom they are required, whose names and addresses 

are given for that purpose: 

LIST OF OFFICERS claiming to the Sixty Thousand Pounds granted bj 

Hie Sacred Mn.iesty for the Kelicf of His truly Loyal and Indigent 

Party. 4to., 1663. 

Wanted by Edward Peacock, Eiq., Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 


Wanted by the Rev. J. C. JacJczon, 1:5, Manor Terrace, Amhurst Road, 
Hackney, K. 


Our most valued correspondent W. M. (Edinburgh) 
has forwarded to us an instance of Parallel Passages, in 
which we fail to see the exact parallel; but, at his re- 
quest, we insert it : 

" Go fetch to me a pint o' wine, 

And fill it in a silver tassie, 
That I may drink before I go, 

A service to my bonie lassie. 
The boat rocks at the Pier o' Leith, 

Fu' loud the wind blaws frae the Ferry ; 
The ship rides by the Berwick- Law, 

And I maun leave my bonie Mary. " 

Burns's (save first four lines) My Bonie Mary. 

" My boat is on the shore, 

And my bark is on the sea ; 
But, before I go, Tom Moore, 
Here 's a double health to thee ! " 

Byron, To Thomas Moore. 

W. M. (Edinburgh) adds : " It requires to be looked at 
with a little care before the parallel is seen. I don't 
count much on the drinking part of it, but I think these 
are fine parallels : 

' The boat rocks at the Pier o' L'eith.' 
' My boat is on the shore.' 
' The ship rides by the Berwick-Law. 
' And my bark is on the sea.' 

none the worse that they are not verbal." 

E. A. H. L. writes : " ' The Three Kings.' There is 
an old inn in my parish which formerly bore the sign of 
' The Three Kings.' It was subsequently called the 
'Hare and Hounds,' having been taken by an ex-hunts- 
man of a pack of harriers. I am desirous of reviving the 
ancient name, and replacing the present sign by a 
painting of the ' Three Kings.' Can any of your readers 
refer me to a good example of a representation of the 
Magi suitable to an inn sign 1 I ain ignorant of the 

exact connexion of the Magi with inns and hospitality 
and drinking customs ; but in Norway, around the metal 
rims of ancient drinking horns, their names Gaspar, 
Melchior, and Balthazar often occur." The Three 
Kings used to be thus represented : Melchior, old and 
bearded ; Gaspar (or Jasper), a beardless youth ; and 
Balthazar as a Moor, with a thick beard. 

LAUKA. The French lover who would rather die than 
please his mistress was, as far as we know, no living 
person. Rotrou, in his tragedy Venceslas, makes 
Ladislas declare something to the above purpose, when 
speaking to Cassandre, Act ii. so. 2 : 

" Car enfin si Ton peche, adorant vos appas, 
Et si Ton ne vous plait qu'en ne vous aimantpas, 
Cette offense est un mal que je veux toujours faire, 
Et je consens plutot a mourir qu'a vous plaire," 

H. S. G., the writer of a note on Thomas Best, at 4 th 
S. xii. 502 (Dec. 20, 1873), is begged to put himself into 
communication with Thomas Baker, Esq., 28, Jackson's 
Row, Manchester, who is related to the Bests, and 
desirous of gaining further particulars of the family. 

M. M. (Wray). See Dr. Watts's 

" Lord, how delightful 'tis to see 

A whole assembly worship Thee " ; 
in which are the lines 

" I have been there and still will go, 
'Tis like a little Heav'n below." 

H. B. P. will find in Sir W. Jones's Ode in Imitation of 
Alccms the passage beginning with 
" What constitutes a state ? 
Not high-raised battlement nor laboured mound. 
Thick wall or moated gate." 

J. W. E. We regret that we have been unable to 
discover the name of the author of the song, We meet 
'neath the sounding rafter. 

J. P. We may form some idea of what may be in the 
moon, but we can form none at all of the whereabouts of 
MSS. sent to any of our contemporaries. 

R. J. Received. 

N. J. C. Vide " Dudgeon" in Dr. Latham's edition of 
Johnson's Dictionary. 

NEPHRITE. Martha and Margaret are both mentioned 
in the article referred to. 

E. F. SMITH (New York). "Lost and Found" is in 
The Romance of the Scarlet Leaf, and other Poems, by 
Hamilton Aide, London, Moxon. 

J. C. The Epitaph on Dr. Maginn will be found in 
our 2 nd S. x. 43, and also in Pettigrew's Chronicles of the 
Tombs (Bohn). 

A.S. A. (Richmond). You have not forwarded your 
name and address, as requested. 

C. R. M. Forwarded to Mr. Thorns. 

CIYILIS. Please send the papers referred to. Name 
and address should always accompany communications. 


Editorial Communications..should be addressed to " The 
!ditor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
'ublisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
ondon, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
o this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
iddress of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
is a guarantee of good faith. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 





NOTES : Old Northern English MS. Psalter, 41 A New Old 
Dramatist : Thomas Decker, 42 Folk-Lore, 44 William 
Roy Boleyn Pedigree William de Fournyuall " You may 
put it in your eye and see none the worse for it," 45 Epitaph 

'on a Tombstone at , near Paris The Campbells and 

Grants Bavin The Kilkenny Cats Elective and Deposing 
Power of Parliament, 46. 

QUERIES: -George III. and the Pig Unlawful Games of 
the Middle Ages Nathan Brook's "Complete List, 
Military," London, 1684 Henry Medwall Denham, Notts 
Somersetshire Legends -and Superstitions Jeremiah 
Saville The Waterloo and Peninsular Medals Gen. Thos. 
Harrison, 47 Grahame, Viscount Dundee Mrs. Siddons as 
a Sculptor Authors Wanted " Arcandam " The Greek 
Swallow Song Batenham's "Etchings of Public Buildings 
in Chester" Heraldic New- Moon Superstitions Smith: 
Pigot : Bovey, 48 Various Queries Nicholas Felton : Robert 
Kemp Wilson Arms Simpson Arms Moses of Chorene, 
49 Anonymous Books King at Arms Captain Grant and 
Sir William Grant The Centenary Club Geffroy de 
Chauceroie, 50. 

REPLIES : Bere Regis Church, 50 The Grim Feature, 52 
" Oil of Brick " "Nor " for " Than," 53 Charter of Edward 
the Confessor ' ' Centaury " Herefordshire Christmas 
Charms An Austrian Army The Cattle and the Weather- 
Chap- Books : " Wise Willie and Witty Eppy," 54 Libere- 
tenentes Portraits of Ur. Johnson Lord Ugonier Ring 
Motto Peck's Complete Catalogue "Embossed," 55 
"Spurring" Surname "Barnes" Italian Works of Art at 
Paris in 1815 Mary, daughter of William de Ros " Lines 
addressed to Mr. Hobhouse," 56 " Prayer moves," <fcc. The 
Acacia Funeral Garlands Scottish Titles Rise in the 
Value of Property in Scotland, 57 Penance in the Church 
of England Sir Thomas Puleston, Lord Mayor of London 
Innocents' Day A Mnemonic Calendar for 1874 Stern : 
Firm Peter Pindar "Talented" Altars in the Middle 
Ages The Best Cast, 68. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


I have lately had the good fortune to discover, 
in the library of St. Nicholas's Church, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, in several portions, tumbling about in a 
drawer among old magazines and Newcastle dust, 
the greater part of a very interesting MS. Psalter 
with Canticles. It is written on 208 folio pages of 
vellum, size ll inches by 8| inches. There have 
beenabout 100 pages more, which could not be found. 
The missing portions included Psalms i. xxxix. 1 ; 
xxxix. 17 xl. 9; xlvi. 5 xlvii. 11; xlviii. 11 
xlix. 4; Ixxxiv. 13 Ixxxvii. 10; cxviii. 28 141 ; 
cxxxv. 12 cxxxviii. 12; Canticum Anna, 2 end; 
Canticum Moysi (Cantemus), 112. The Psalms 
are here, as in the original, numbered according to 
the Vulgate. The Bemdicite, Te Deum, Quicunque, 
and Nunc dimittis, seeni never to have been in- 
cluded, but there have been the six ferial canticles 
from the Old Testament, together with Magnificat 
find Benedictus. The last five pages are in an 
inferior hand, and contain the Benedictus. The 
membranes are arranged in fasciculi of six sheets 
(twelve leaves or twenty-four pages). 

As may be supposed from what has been said, 
the folia were, when found, in a much-begrimed, 
smoke-dried, and crumpled condition ; some, too, 
were greatly injured by wet. After shaking them 

well, and brushing them with a soft hat-brush, I 
blackened six washpots full of water in lightly 
sponging them over. Finding that the colour of 
the capital letters, &c., was very fas.t on, I ventured 
on a tentative process of straightening with one of 
the worst of the leaves, and as this answered 
admirably, I pursued it with all the rest, and with 
such success that I will now endeavour myself to 
describe it for the benefit of others. Taking a 
single skin of two leaves, I (a) immersed it in a 
large, flat dish of cold spring water for two or three 
minutes, gently brushing oft' any dirt that seemed 
loose; (6) hung it on a towel-horse to drain for 
about the same time ; (c) laid it carefully out be- 
tween two layers of thick white blotting-paper, and 
these between two of my grandfather's copper 
plates ; (d) placed the yet wet and supple, but not 
now dripping, membrane between fresh blotting- 
paper in a napkin-press ; (e) changed the blotting- 
paper every five minutes or so, finishing off with 
strong cartridge-paper. As the later stages of the 
operation were going on with some membranes, the 
earlier steps were beginning with others, fresh 
relays of dry paper being constantly supplied from 
before the fire: and now I have the great satisfaction 
of seeing all the 104 folia as smooth and straight 
as when they were first written on, if not more so. I 
may add, that I tried a process of stretching on a 
board, which I had seen recommended, but it did 
not answer in the least, the skin contracting into 
most unsatisfactory-looking undulations. The pro- 
cess of immersion should be used with great caution 
where colour has been applied. In this case, how- 
ever, there was no running worth mentioning, only 
a very little here and there where the scribe had 
used weaker size, and now and then the clean 
impression on the blotting-paper of a very slight 
film off the soiled surface, that which remained 
being quite uninjured, and as brilliant as when it 
left the limner's hand. 

The outside of the last leaf, after a great deal of 
soot and dirt had been removed, showed some traces 
of writing in a later hand. The application of 
sulphide of ammonium, which is much better than 
galls, brought this out so as to be legible. It is, 
-"October the 20th, 1660. The gift of Doctor 
Thomas Burwell, Chancellor of this Diocesse." 
Chancellor Bur well was a well-known man in his 
day, and is frequently mentioned in the corre- 
spondence of Bp. Cosin. It is now time to describe 
more particularly the general contents of the MS. 

It is written in double columns, each Psalm 
beginning with a large blue capital letter, with very 
elegant ornamentation in vermilion. This begins 
a single verse from the Vulgate (with slight verbal 
differences here and there) in distinctly written 
black letter. Then a red paragraph-mark, and a 
literal translation of the Latin into English. Then 
a blue paragraph-mark, and a paraphrase or com- 
ment on the verse. The Latin verses begin with 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74. 

small red and blue capitals alternately, and the red 
and blue paragraph-marks are arranged in the same 
way. The English portions are written smaller 
than the Latin, and there are very few breaks at 
the end of lines. Where any do occur, they are 
filled up by some simple ornament in red. 
The 51st Psalm (Engl. 52nd) begins thus : 
" Quid gloriaris in malicia ; qui potens est in iquitate 
(sic). II Whar' tille ioyes you in malice ; yat myghty is 
in wickednes. *f\ In yis spaltrie . ye prophete spekis 
a gaynes alle ye kynde of ille men & sais . you yat is 
myghty in wickednes yat leste is . whar till ioyes y u in 
malice . as wha say . in god is fa (?) to yoie . yat is grete 
what yis wickednes is he opens. Tota die iniusticiam 
cogitauit lingua tua ; sicut nonacula acuta fecisti dolum. 
^[ Alle day vnrigthwisenes thoght yi tunge ; as jalouse 
scharp y u did treso' U he sais yat ye thoght of ye ille 
man is in his tunge . for he vmthinkis hym noght as he 
spek what he suld spek . as scharp rasour' yat hets newyng 
of face and makes ye blode to folowe . you did treson 
hetand fair hede . and bringand tille synne and pyne." 

The 94th Psalm (Engl. 95th) is given as in the 
Vulgate, not as in the Breviary, where of this Psalm 
alone, as liturgists are aware, a different version is 
given. The sixth verse is curious : 

" Venite adoremus et procidamus et ploremus ante 
dominum q ! fecit nos quia ip'e est d'n's deus n'r. TJ Comes 
loute we and falle we . and greete byfore cure lard yat 
made vs. If Comes in charyte . loute we in sothfastnes . 
falle we yat is meke we vs tille him . and greete we for 
cure synnes . byfore oure lard . witand yat ye flaume of 
oure synne yat brennes i' oure conscience is slokend with 

Here is a well-known fact in mediteval natural 
history brought to bear on Ps. cii. 5 (Engl. ciii.) 

" Qui replet in bonis desiderium tuu . renouabitur ut 
aquile iuuentas tua. lj ye whilke fulfilles in godis yi 
yernyng . newed salle be of harne yi youthede Tf After 
coroune is nojt bot fulfilling of yi desire in endless ioye . 
y* you yernys . and yat salle be when yi youthede is 
newed as of ye harne; ye harne when he is greued with 
grete eld . his neb waxes so gretely . yat he may noght 
open his mouthe and take mete . bot yan he smytis his 
neb tille ye stane and has away ye slogh . and yan he gas 
tille mete . and bycomes yong agayne ; so criste dos away 
fra vs our eld of synne and mortalite y* lettis to ete oure 
bred in heuen ; and newys vs in hym." 

Other specimens, taken almost at random, are : 

"And it salle paye tille god; abouen ye newe calfe 
forthbringand homes and nayles." 

" As in wod of trees . with brade axes yai schare doun 
ye yatis of it ; in ye same brade axe . and twybill yai kest 
it doue" 

' He yat lufes god he lufes maues saule." 

' Alle menne aghe to serue tille him," 

' Halghed in bapteme." 

' Gifand siker confort." 

' Myne eghen fayled." 

'Fra wham; whilk ; rightwisenes ; swhilk; sowkand; 
liggand; brennand; bryghthede; pouste (potestasj." 

In these extracts I have copied the th as y, 
because in the MS. it is formed exactly in the same 
way, but the true y is often dotted.. 

I find that this Psalter is the same as one which 
was in the possession of the learned Methodist, 
Dr. Adam Clarke, and which is frequently referred 

to in his well-known Commentary on the Bible. 
His copy was imperfect, beginning at Ps. vii. 17, 
and wanting from Ps. cxix. Part 21, to end of 
Ps. cxli. He does not mention whether it con- 
tained any of the Canticles. The Doctor remarks : 
" That the writer was not merely a commentator^ but 
a truly religious man, who was well acquainted with the 
travail of the soul, and that faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ which brings peace to the troubled heart, is 

manifested from various portions of his comment 

The language of true Christian experience has been the 
same in all times and nations." Com, on Ps. xiii. 

For other references, and large quotations, see 
especially his " Introduction to the Book of Psalms" 
at the end : Psalms viii., xvi., and cxiv. 

I should be glad to know where Dr. Clarke's 
copy now is, whether other copies be known to 
exist, and if so, where ; also whether anything be 
known as to its authorship. J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

The tendency of the present spirit of literary 
research is, in too many cases, rather to exhibit a 
contribution to a given subject than to treat that 
subject in the gross, and produce a volume accept- 
able, at all events, for its completion and maturity. 
In the present days of class literature every de- 
partment of letters grows more sub-divided, until 
the literature of genius is in danger of being con- 
sumed away by reason of its painful sub-divisions. 
Though both before and since the days of Euclid 
the " whole " has been esteemed as greater than 
its component " part," it has been reserved for our 
own time to witness an unequal struggle between 
body and members ; every particle of the intel- 
lectual system and it is true Jilso of the physical 
being bent on asserting a distinctive superiority. 
With our present zeal for inquiry that seems so 
determined, and a facility for analysis that is 
inexhaustive, it is much to be feared with regard 
to imaginative literature, that whatever is gained 
in truth and descriptive integrity may at the same 
time be lost in creative excellence and in grace of 

Some such reflections as these, we are bold to 
conjecture, must occur to every student of letters, 
as he reads into the pregnant pages of Thomas 
Decker. To so minute an extent (if we may excuse 
the blunder) has literary investigation been con- 
ducted that it is a matter of much congratulation 
that, after a lapse of more than two centuries, we 
are enabled, for the first time, to place upon our 
book- shelves the mature writings of one of the 
most vigorous of Elizabethan dramatists. To none, 
indeed, does the privilege seem more apparent than 
to those who, like ourselves, are surfeited from 
year to year with heaps of this literary debris ; not 

* The Dramatic Works of Thomas Decker, now firs 
Collected. London, John Pearson, 1873. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



" stones which the builders rejected," indeed, but 
rather, let us say, piles of solid masonry, only 
wanting that wondrous keystone to complete the 
poet's arch 

" wherethrough 

Gleams that untravelled world, whose margin fades 

For ever and for ever as I move." 

The further we burrow under Parnassus Mount 
ihe more do we deny ourselves the sun-shafts of 
Apollo. It is the more needful we should be 
acquainted with the mastery of the old writers in 
a period which, though not, as they would have it 
" An age of scum spooned off the richer past, 
An age of patches for old gaberdines," 

is, at least, an age of stone-breaking. Walpole 
and Oldys, Brydges, Hazlewood, and the earlier 
antiquaries, have been justly censured for giving 
us only what was delightful in literary antiquities. 
They trimmed away whatever was tasteless or 
noisome in the melange, and presented us to a right 
royal feast " the brains of singing-birds, the roe 
of mullets, the sunny halves of peaches." The 
later among the restorers of departed knowledge 
cannot be considered to err in their attachment to 
a conservative principle in. literature. But the 
editors of the Camden and other kindred societies 
to whom be all honour are diverging yearly 
from the spirit of their "nourrice of antiquity." 
They give us figures and dates when we would ask 
for thought and image. And before glancing at 
the pages of the volume before us, we are tempted 
to exclaim, with one whose misfortune it was that 
he was no antiquary "A fig for your dates, as the 
Syracusan said to the Athenian merchant ! " 

Thomas Decker as agrees his latest editor was 
one of those unhappy poets to whom the muse 
has proved a cruel step-mother. He seems to have 
been the literary Captain Shandon of his day a 
Doctor Maginn placed uncomfortably in the seven- 
teenth century. To friends and publishers he was 
tribulation exceedingly ; his begging letters alone, 
could they be collected, might form no mean part 
of his contributions to literature. Posterity, how- 
ever, has been the gainer by his wandering excesses, 
no man knowing so well as he to paint the interior 
of a debtor's prison. 

After two and a half centuries of neglect the 
dramatic writings of this fine writer have been 
collected and made public. But unhappily the 
nineteen pieces which Mr. Pearson presents us in 
his four handsome volumes, do not comprise all the 
writings for the stage which proceeded from Decker 
during a lifetime of remarkable activity. Two 
reasons occur to us as accounting for the havoc 
which an earlier posterity has made with his pro- 
ductions. From a contemporary ballad we learn 
he was one of the dramatic authors who suffered 
through the violence of a Shrove-Tuesday mob. 
The London apprentices from time immemorial 
had claimed for themselves the privilege of break- 

ing up the infamous haunts that existed in the old 
suburbs, and Shrove-Tuesday was the one day 
upon which custom permitted them to exercise 
their prerogative. No sooner had light dawned 
on the morning of March the 4th, 1617, than the 
flat-capped citizens of Fleet Street commenced 
their customary attack. In those ripening days of 
Puritanism, animosity had already spread against 
the play-writers as well as against all manner of 
performers in masques and pageants. Not only 
were the unclean temples of Southwark and Turn- 
mill Street subjected to popular indignation ; but 
even the Drury Lane playhouse was made a centre 
of riot and destruction. Every article of stage 
requirement was destroyed or plundered, and 
amongst the wreck were the play-books of Thomas 
Decker. Again, MS. Lansdowne, 807, is a folio 
volume formerly the property of John Warburton, 
Esq., and Somerset Herald. On the back of the 
first leaf is entered a catalogue of old plays, being 
a collection made by Mr. Warburton, but through 
the ignorance of his man-servant unfortunately 
destroyed. In this way are supposed to have 
perished some of the best of the plays of Decker. 

The Shoemaker's Holiday, the earliest of his 
comedies, is remarkable both for the excellent 
character of Simon Eyre and for two of the sweetest 
ballads we remember to have seen in the minor 
dramatists. Also, as the editor justly observes of 
it, it possesses considerable interest as a picture of 
English manners. Of the love story, so often fatal 
to the interest both of novels and comedies, we can 
only say that to this one it gives consistency and 
strength. There is something quaintly pleasing 
in the solicitude of the heroine and the lavishness 
of her proffered bribe : 

" Get thee to London, and learn perfectly 
Whether my Lacy go to France, or no ; 
Do this, and I will give thee for thy paines 
My camhricke apron, and my romish gloves, 
My purple stockings, and a stomacher ; 
Say, wilt thou do this, Sibil, for my sake 1 " 

In the comedy of Old Fortunatus, which Decker 
next set himself to compose, we fancy we discover 
a new character for the first time paraded on the 
Elizabethan stage. The stage parson has already 
been made the subject of controversy in " N. & Q.," 
as .the stage doctor has once or twice provoked the 
wrath of the Lancet. So in Old Fortimatus we 
see "the first appearance on any stage" of the 
stage Irishman. He is then, as always, an itinerant 
fruitseller, and complains of wearing out his boots 
in going to the Holy Land for Damascus pippins. 

It is much to be regretted that the surpassing 
masterpiece of Decker has a title which it is im- 
possible for us in this place to set down. 

" Truth is a naked lady," writes a later and not 
more scrupulous dramatist, and in this respect, if 
it be admitted in no other, Decker's plays may be 
held to resemble Truth. But in the pitiless 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 17, '74. 

obscenity of his title-pages he is not overcome by 
any other dramatist we can remember. Still, even 
with this hideous deformity upon it, which has 
served to make a fine play (" except to keep the 
wind-side of it "), a matter of no concern to politer 
people, appreciative critics have been unanimous 
in awarding to Decker's best comedy a foremost 
position in the literature of the stage. It is seldom 
that an early writer has so ably succeeded in 
investing the most sordid reality with so bright a 
halo of idealism. Decker belongs to a school 
which in later times has held a Balzac and a 
Dickens, but he portrays his characters in less 
anatomical outlines, and paints their feelings with 
a more loving hand. Witness the scene in which 
Orlando "old mad Orlando" is deceived into 
believing his daughter's death : 

" Hip. Her name, I think, was Bellafront : she's dead 

"Orl. Ha! dead] 

" Hip. Yes, what of her was left, not worth the keeping, 
Even in my sight was throwne into a grave. 

" Orl. Dead ! my last and best, peace goe with her. 
I see death's a good trencherman, he can eat coarse 
homely meat, as well as the daintiest .... Is she dead ? 

" Hip. Shee's turned to earth. 

" Orl. Wod she were turn'd to heaven ; Umh, is she 
dead? I am glad the world has lost one of his idols. 

In her grave sleepe all my shame, and all her 

owne ; and all my sorrowes, and all her sinnes." 



The following extract from the Cornish Telegraph 
will be interesting to many lovers of folk-lore : 

" There are many ancient beliefs and practices with 
respect to the moon still lingering in West Cornwall, which 
seem to be almost forgotten elsewhere. The following 
are a few examples amongst many : 

" Herbs for drying, to be used in fomentation, or for 
other medicinal purposes, are gathered at the full of the 
moon ; when winter's fruit should also be picked and 
stored, in order that it may retain its plumpness. Elderly 
persons prefer to sow their garden seeds and others during 
the moon's first quarter, from the idea that they will 
then germinate quicker and grow stronger than on the 

" Timber should be felled on the ' bating ' of the moon, 
because the 'sap is then down/ and the wood will be 
more durable. 

" When the old iron ' chills ' (lamps) were in general 
use, rushes, for making ' porvans ' (wicks), were cut at the 
full moon, because it was believed that they were then 
fuller of pith and less liable to shrink than if cut at other 

" Old gentlemen who wore their hair long behind, or 
in 'pigtails or queues,' and other persons as well, of that 
day, were very particular about having their heads 
trimmed at the time of full moon that their hair might 
grow the more luxuriantly. 

" The first money taken on market-day is still frequently 
spit on, for good luck ; and if silver, kept for luck-money, 
to be shown to the next new moon, and turned three 
times towards the person who shows it. Three wishes 
were made whilst showing the money, which the wisher 
turned three times from the moon towards himself. 

" It is considered unlucky to get the first sight of a new 
moon through glass, and many persons go out of doors 
purposely to. see her for the first time, when they hold 
towards her a piece of silver to ensure their success whilst 
that moon lasts. Those who offer this kind of adoration 
to Luna are mostly provided with a crooked sixpence, 
which they call a pocket-piece, and wear as a means to 
retain good luck. This observance of showing money to- 
the new moon is, probably, a vestige of an ancient rite 
connected with the worship of Luna or Astarte. 

" Another belief, which still holds good, is that when 
a child is born in the interval between an old moon and 
the first appearance of a new one, it will never live to 
attain to puberty. A recent observation confirms this as 
well to animals as children. Hence the saying of ' no 
moon no man.' Other popular notions, among old folks, 
are that when a boy is born on the waning moon, the 
next birth will be a girl, and vice versd ; they also say 
that when a birth takes place on the 'growing of the 
moon ' the next child will be of the same sex. Many of 
these fancies, however, may be astrological notions, 
handed down from ancient times and common to many 
places. Here much of such lore has been learnt from 
Sibley's Treatise on the Occult Sciences, which is the 
oracle of our western astrologers ; though they seldom let 
their study of that and similar works be known for fear 
of the ridicule with which it is now the fashion to regard 
such pursuits. W. B." 

A muffled peal is still always rung on the bells 
of our parish church (Weobley, co. Hereford) on 
Childermas or Innocents' Day. This custom was 
observed also in the adjoining parish of Dilwyn, 
and was only discontinued about five years ago- 
because the mufflers, or " muffs," as the ringers call 
them, were worn out. H. B. PURTON. 


The following] is an extract from a lady's letter, 
under date January 1, 1874: 

"WINCHESTER. We began 1874 in a very romantic 
manner, that of walking about the Close by moonlight, 
and listening to the muffled peals." 

G. W. S. P. 

Peninsula Eailway, in their last Eeport, state that 
the falling off in the numbers and revenue of pas- 
sengers in 1873 has been very large. " The current 
year is an unpropitious one in the Hindoo calendar, 
and the inducements to travel are below the average, 
No Hindoo marriages among the better classes are 
celebrated this year." HYDE CLARKE. 

natural history mention certain properties in 
fountains. I would ask any of your correspondents 
to inform me if these can be traced or noticed in- 
modern times. Ortelius, in his Theatrum Mundi, 
mentions a fountain in Ireland " whose water 
killeth all those beasts that drink thereof, but not 
the people, although they use it ordinarily." Pliny 
mentions a fountain in Sclavonia which is extremely 
cold ; yet if a man cast his cloth cloak upon it it 
is incontinently set on fire (it is not very clear 

I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



whether it is the cloak or the fountain that is to b 
understood). Do any traces of this fountain exist 
Propertius mentions the fountain Clitumnus, in 
Italy, " which maketh oxen that drink of it white 
and Pliny, certain streams in Bwotia, one of whicl 
turneth sheep black, the other white. If thes 
peculiarities existed in the days of Propertiu 
and Pliny, do they now exist ; or are the localitie 
known ? There is also a fountain mentioned bj 
Pliny, on the shores of the Red Sea, which dyed the 
fleece of sheep drinking therefrom scarlet or crim 
son. Is the site now known? There are mani 
other fountains with peculiar qualities mentionec 
by old writers, such as the fount immortalized bj 
Moore, which played of old in Ammon's shade 
cold in day-time, warm at night, fountain 
sweet at noon, bitter at night, &c., which havi 
been more or less made use of by poets. DC 
they still exist is a matter-of-fact question; that o 
Ammon's shade is, I believe, as doubtful as th< 
statue of the singing Mernnon. H. HALL. 

Lavender Hill. 

WILLIAM ROY. Have the kindness to publish 
the following lines, which will interest English 
readers : 

William Roy, with whose aid the Protestant 
martyr, Will. Tyndale, published the first edition 
of his English New Testament, is well known 
in English literature through his sharp satirical 
poem against Cardinal Wolsey. He was also the 
translator of a German, not Latin, dialogue, as has 
been believed till now, known under the title, 
fiialogus inter patrem Christianum et filium contu- 
macem. This translation was thought to be lost. 
Only some passages in the works of Will. Tyndale, 
Sir Thorn. More, and the mention of it in the lists of 
books prohibited by the Archbishop of Canterbury 
in the years 1527-32, testified of its existence. The 
translation was printed at Strasburg in 1527; but 
the agents of Henry VIII. and of Cardinal Wolsey 
were so busy to buy up and to destroy the whole 
edition, that even in the greatest libraries of Eng- 
land not a single copy of it is to be found. Some 
time ago a complete copy was discovered in the 
I. and R. Library of the Court at Vienna, where 
it was bound together with the also extremely rare 
first edition of the satirical poem of Roy against 
Wolsey, Rede me and be nott wrothe(see the reprint 
by Arber, Lond., 1871). Mr. Adolf Wolf, keeper 
of this library, will shortly publish an accurate 
edition of this old book, which is extremely interest- 
ing in connexion with the history of the first 
Protestant commotions in England. A. WOLF. 

BOLEYN PEDIGREE. In connexion with the 
Boleyn family mentioned at page 2 of " N. & Q." 
for January 3, 1874, I beg to submit the follow- 
ing inscription to your readers : 

" Here under leys 
Elizabeth and Mary Bullyn 

daughters of 
Thomas Bullyn son of George Bullyn 

the son of 
George Bullyn Vicount Rochford son of S r Thomas 


Erie of Ormond and Willsheere." 
In the year 1802, while some labourers were 
quarrying stones close to the old castle of Clonoony, 
in the King's County, they discovered a cave, and 
in the cave, at a depth of some eleven feet from 
the surface, concealed under a heap of stones, they 
found a slab stone, eight feet long, four wide, and 
one thick, covering a coffin cut in the solid rock, 
which contained the bones of two bodies, and at 
the extreme lower end of the flag-stone the inscrip- 
tion was cut in alto-relievo. 

Some years since there were the portraits of two 
ladies in Birr Castle, the seat of the Earl of Rosse, 
with the following inscriptions "Anno gotatis 17 " 
and " Anno tetatis 18." One of the portraits had a 
marigold (the symbol for the name of Mary), and 
the other portrait had a jewel dependent from the 
neck bearing the letter E. 

The Boleyns were connected through the family 
of Clere with the Rosses. 

Dundrum, co. Down. 

WILLIAM DE FOURNYUALL. I find a namesake, 
with an archer and four horses, among the fighting 
men who went with Edward III. (and Chaucer) to 
invade France in 1359-60. In the list of payments 
for this war, in the Wardrobe Book of Edw. III., 
kept by Sir William de Farle, from Nov. 3, 1359, 
to Nov. 7, 1360, is entered on leaf 101, back 

"WilhWmo Fowrnyuall pro consimilibus vadiis suis 
guerre, ad iiijd. ob. & vnius a&gittarii ad vjd. per diem, 
a xxix die augusti, vsque xxix diem Septembri, vtroque 
die computato, per xxxij dies, xxviijs. eidem, pro con- 
similibus vadm suis ad xijd. & j. sagittaro ad vjd. per 
diem, ab ultimo die Septembris vsqwe vltimum diem 
Maij, vtroqwe die computato, per ccxlv dies, xviij li. vijs. 
vjd. eidem, pro repassagio quatuor equorwm suorwwi de 
Cales, vt supra xijs. iiijd." 

I hope my said namesake knew Chaucer, and 
might alongside him. F. J. FURNIVALL. 


THE WORSE FOR IT." I have been rather amused 
at finding this colloquialism to express nonentity, 
tvhich I had conceived to be of purely English 
origin, in a letter of the grave and witty Erasmus, 
le is descanting on the gifts he has received from 
undry eminent personages to whom he had dedi- 
:ated his various works, and comes to a certain 
Cardinal, by whom he states himself to have been 
reated in a very ungenerous fashion : 

" Episcopo Lepdiensi nunc Cardinali, cui inscripsimus 
Ipistolas ad Corinthios, cui libellum inauratum niisimus, 
ui donavimus duo volumina Novi Testament! in mem- 
ranis non ineleganter adornata neque pretii mediocris 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74. 

ut libenter debemus pro splendidis promissis, quae non 
semel obtulit: ita non est, quod illi pro donate te- 
runcio gratias agamus. Tantum donavit, quantum si 
*incidat in oculum quamms tenerum, ni/iii tormenti sit 
allaturam : id ipse non inftcialitur."* 

Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 



"Here lie 
"Two grandmothers, with their two granddaughters 

Two husbands, with their two wives 

Two fathers, with their two daughters 

Two mothers, with their two sons 

Two maidens, with their two mothers 

Two sisters, with their two brothers 

Yet but Six Corpses in all lie buried here ; 

All born legitimate, from incest clear." 

This puzzle has appeared in different forms, but 
I have never seen any solution of it. 


Wyverby, Melton Mowbray. 

Taylor, in his valuable work, Words and Places, 
attributes to many well-known Scottish families a 
Norman origin ; among others, the Campbells and 
Grants, the latter of which he deduces from Le 
Grand (p. 201), and in a foot-note, on the same 
page, he states that Skene, in his History of the 
Highlanders,vo\..ii.p. 280, &c., attempts to disprove 
the supposed Norman origin of the Campbells and 
other Scottish families. He admits, however, the 
case of the Grants, vol. ii. p. 255. I have not seen 
Mr. Skene's work, and am not aware of his line of 
argument ; he is, however, perfectly right in re- 
taining the Celtic derivation of Campbell, and he 
is wrong in giving up that of Grant. The former 
is plainly from Cam, crooked or awry, and bel, a 
mouth (see the Ir. Diets, of O'Brien and O'Eeilly). 
The name evidently originated, like those of many 
others, in some personal peculiarity of its first 
possessor, a very common practice among the Celts. 
By a reference to the Annals of the Four Masters, 
we find such names as the following : " Aedh 
Balbh, or the Stammerer, A.D. 737 ; Aedh Suidhe, 
or the Tawney, A.D. 600 ; Bran Seg, or the Little, 
A.D. 733 ; Cairbre Crom, or the Crooked, 757, for 
crom lias the same meaning as Cam. In later times, 
we find the great Irish family of the O'Conors, who 
were divided into two branches, distinguished by 
the agnomina of Don and Ruadh, i. e., the Brown 
and Red, which distinction, Dr. O'Donovan states, 

" Was first made in the year 1384, when Turlogh Don 
and Turlogh Ruadh, who had been for some time 
emulating each other for the chieftainship of Sil- 
Murray, agreed to have it divided equally between them ; 
on which occasion it was arranged that the former should 
be called O'Conor Don, and the latter ' Conor Ruadh." 
Jr. Toj)l. Poems, p. 20. 

In 1542, we find that Conn Bacacli, Con the 

* Jortin's Life of Erasmus. London, 1760. Vol. ii., 
p. 444. 

Lame, was created Earl of Tyrone. These examples 
will be quite sufficient to show that some of the 
highest families in Ireland have been named from 
personal peculiarities, and even defects. The noble 
family of the Campbells need not, therefore, be in 
the least ashamed of their Celtic origin, or that 
the first of the name had a facial defect ; for he 
would not have been remembered by it had he not 
been a remarkable chief or warrior in his day. 

Eespecting the distinguished name of Grant, 
which Mr. Taylor derives from the French Le 
Grand, and which Mr. Skene appears to resign, it 
will be found in the Annals of the Four Masters 
as early as A.D. 716, as follows : 

''The battles of Ceannanus (Kells, in Meath) by 
Conall Grant (i. e., the Grey) Ua Cearnaigh, wherein 
were slain Tuathal Ua Faelchon, and Gormghal, son of 
Aedh, son of Dluthaeh, and Amhalgaidh Ua Conaing, and 
Fearghal, his brother. Conall Grant himself was also 
slain, in two months afterwards, by King Fearghal." 

I believe there can be no disputing the above 

Sunday's Well, Cork. 

BAVIN. In the glossary to the Globe Shakespeare 
this word is explained as being "applied con- 
temptuously to anything worthless." Around 
Belfast Lough " the Bavin " is the name of a very 
worthless fish the wrasse ; it is full of bones : the 
only use made of it by the fishermen is to bait their 
lobster pots. W. H. PATTERSON. 


Ytos KCU yeverrjp B?}piv <j>iX6veiKov Wtvro, 

T/s TrXtov e/cSeTrai'wv, KXrjpov aTravra </>ayoi, 
Kai fj.Ta Trjv fipuxriv TYJV - 


Epigram. Grcecorum, Johan. Brodcei 
Franeqfurti, MDC., p. 227. 


[The following notes appear in the above work : 

" EK $a7ravwi/ = expendens." 

" De patre et filio comedonibus qui simul in certamen 
descenderunt, uter plus de substantia devorare possit : ac 
demum omnibus devoratis, se mutuo consumpserunt."] 

MENT (PAGE 24) : CORRECTION. " As Sir James 
Mackintosh observes, implying the idea that it was 
' indefeasible, though not necessarily implying any 
notion of Divine right.' " The marks of quotation 
should be confined to the word " indefeasible," the 
words following being added by the writer. I wish 
to add, that it does not follow that because Henry 
IV. was a usurper, and never had any legal right 
to the throne, that therefore the statutes of his 
reign were never laws, for .they, as Lord Hale 
explained, became valid by subsequent tacit adop- 
tion. This was recognized in a case which arose 
when Lord Macclesfield was Chancellor. 

W. F. F. 

5'" fi. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

GEORGE III. AND THE PIG. In " N. & Q." of 
January 1st, 1870, page 19, you did me the favour 
of inserting a few observations on James Bissett, 
which a correspondent of your paper, a few weeks 
after, called an omnium gatherum. May I ask 
him, or any other of your numerous readers, if they 
could favour me with the supposed observations 
made by George III. to my father, on the latter 
presenting His Majesty with an enormous pig? 
The incident was represented in a caricature pub- 
lished, in 1800 or 1801, by Forbes, of Piccadilly, 
or Gilray. It was just after the Irish rebellion, 
and the print was very popular. My father then 
lived at Fazeley, near Tamworth. Having pur- 
chased the pig, and shown it at several fairs in 
Staffordshire, he hired a canal boat, by which it 
was conveyed at considerable expense to London. 
On its passage through Oxford the animal excited 
some amusement among the students. The king 
being apprized of the intended present, appointed 
a time for the interview, which took place at 
Windsor Castle. My father, being a member of 
the Staffordshire Yeomanry (Lichfield troop), wore 
his regimentals, and was offered a commission, 
which, however, he declined. The wonderful pig 
was afterwards brought to the hammer, and pro- 
duced a smart competition between a pair of rival 
showmen. It was found poisoned the next morn- 
ing, and considerable suspicion rested on the un- 
successful competitor. I should be glad either to 
purchase the caricature, or to have a copy of the 
remarks which fell from the king. My father died 
at Croydon, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, 
and his son, the writer of this, is also an octoge- 
narian. I shall be eighty-five (if spared) on the 

50, Addison Street, Nottingham. 

What were the games of " Cayls " and " Cloysh," 
declared illegal by the statute 33 Henry VIII. c. 1 ? 
I find also " Guek " denounced as " an unleeful 
and reprovable game" in the regulations of the 
Sanctuary of St. Martin's-le-Grand (which regula- 
tions comprised, among others, an ordinance that 
" barbours " were not to ply their vocation in the 
Sanctuary on the Sabbath). What was Guek 1 

LONDON, 1684. I am desirous of seeing a copy of 
the above work, often referred to in Cannon's 
Records of the Army, and in Mackinnon's Cold- 
stream Guards. I have sought for it in vain at the 
British Museum and in the catalogues of the Mili- 

tary Libraries. Any information on this subject 
will be thankfully received by me. 

S. D. SCOTT. . 

HENRY MEDWALL. Wanted, the date of the 
death of " Mayster Henry Medwall, late Chape- 
layne to the ryght reverent fader in God Johan 
Morton cardynall, Archbyshop of Caunterbury." 
He was the author of the Interlude of Nature, 
1538, and of another interlude, called Fulgens and 
Lucres. This second is undescribed. The only 
copy I ever saw is preserved in the library of a 
very ancient family in the north of England. 


DENHAM, NOTTS. Will any Nottinghamshire 
topographer kindly inform me of the whereabouts 
of this place 1 In 1775 a relative of mine is stated 
to have been born there, where he resided for many 
years. I am not confounding it with the Denhams 
of Bucks, Suffolk (or Norfolk), or Scotland. 


Being engaged in collecting (for future publica- 
tion) the legends and superstitions of Somerset, 
I shall feel much obliged to those readers of " N. 
& Q." who are acquainted with any, if they will 
communicate them to me for insertion in the pro- 
posed collection, so that my efforts may be rendered 
as successful as possible. C. H. POOLE. 

St. Alban Hall, Oxford. 

JEREMIAH SAVILLE. Can you give me any 
particulars of this musician, who lived about the 
time of the Restoration, and is only known now 
through his madrigal or "fa la" song, The Waits, 
which (I know not why) is always sung at the 
close of any concert of Madrigals, and to which 
the late Mr. Oliphant (who, were he living, could 
tell us all about it) wrote a couplet of verse 1 He 
is just mentioned in Burney, but Fe"tis has not a 
line about him. 

When were these medals issued 1 The Waterloo 
medal, I remember, came first ; but how long after 
the victory it commemorated? and in what year 
was the Peninsular medal issued ? I think the 
Duke just lived to see the latter. C. T. B. 

GEN. THOS. HARRISON. Is it possible to 
obtain any genealogical account of Gen. Thomas 
Harrison, the regicide, and one of Cromwell's men; 
also (if he had any), his crest and coat of arms ; 
and, a very difficult matter, I presume, his 
autograph? A traciag of his signature to the 
death-warrant I have. I am very much interested 
in this matter, and have exhausted, fruitlessly, all 
means of obtaining this information, which I had 
a legitimate right to call upon. 


Capt. U.S. Coast Survey, Plymouth, Mass. 



[5"- S. I. JAN. 17, 74. 

hanie, of Duntroon, titular Viscount Dundee, was 
attainted for his share in the '45, and died at 
Dunkirk, 1759. Did he leave any children, and 
if so, what became of them and their descendants, 
if any ? Did his father (William Grahame, titular 
Viscount Dundee, attainted 1716) leave any other 
descendants 1 To whom did the estates of Claver- 
house ultimately pass ? M. L. 

admirable work, Anecdotes of the Arts, published 
in 1800, is the following statement: 

" The first tragedian of the English stage, Mrs. Sid- 
dons, has executed the busts of herself and her brother, 
Mr. John Kemble, with astonishing truth and effect." 

The public would be glad to know what has 
become of them. GEORGE ELLIS. 

St. John's Wood. 

WANTED, the author of a poem beginning: 
" We must be semi-atheists God is here, 
And we forget ; yet if some emperor, 
A gluttonous satyr, were but near us now, 
How reverent we should be ; and yet we stand 
With, absent heart in the deep gaze of God." 

The poem is said to have been written by a 
nobleman's son. * * * 

" Du droit qu'un esprit vaste et ferine en ses desseins 
A sur 1'esprit grossier des vulgaires humains." 

Was this celebrated answer of Talma to the game- 
keeper a quotation ; if so, from what author 1 

Kingsbridge Grammar School, South Devon. 

" All night the storm had raged." 
Who is the author of a poem on Grace Darling 
beginning thus. W. W. 

" ARCANDAM " : OLD BOOK. Who was the 
author, and when was it printed, of a little book, 
which is printed in black letter, is not paged, and 
has the above word, " Arcandam," at the head oi 
each page 1 

It appears to be an astrological treatise on the 
twelve signs of the Zodiac. At the end of the 
treatise, there is a similar one on the "Physiognomy 
of the Body Humane." It is not perfect, wanting 
leaves at beginning and end. PEARMAIN. 

the original Greek swallow song sung by th 
Athenian children ? A FOREIGNER. 

IN CHESTER." I have twenty-four Etchings Oj 
Public Buildings in Chest- (two series), by G 
Batenham. Have any more been published ? 


HERALDIC. Arms, quarterly, 1. Azure, a griffin 
segreant to the sinister, standing on a crown am 
holding in the left paw a sword. 

2. Two bendlets, between a decrescent in dexter 
liief and an increscent in sinister base, all within 

bordure or. 

3. Or, a double-headed eagle displayed, crowned. 

4. Party per fess, gules and azure, in chief a 
emi-lion rampant, holding a lily ; in base three 
inqfoils in fess. 

In pretence, an inescutcheon, gules charged with 
tter L, and surmounted by an electoral crown. 

The whole shield surmounted by a similar 
rown, and surrounded by two collars, the inner 
ne composed of SS., a crown, and a pillar be- 
ween two lions rampant respecting each other, 
ilternately, with a cross suspended ; the outer one, 

chain of flowers, from which is suspended an 

Supporters : Dexter, a griffin, as in the arms ; 
inister, a lion, holding a lily. 

I am not conversant with foreign heraldry, and 
nay be incorrect in my blazon, or description. I 
hould like to knoAv to what prince, potentate, or 
)ower, they belong. G. A. C. 

Or, a chevron gules, in the dexter chief -the 
mdge of Ulster, showing the rank of baronet. 
Co whoni were these arms granted? Date be- 
ieved to be 1650. D S. 

There is in the south aisle of Kimbolton church 
a well carved boss. Two hearts banded with the 
motto " Be trewe." Whose coat of amis is this ? 



informed by an old Dorsetshire shepherd that " a 
Saturday's new moon once in seven years was once 
too often for sailors," meaning thereby that sailors 
have a special dread of a new moon falling upon 
that day of the week. As an illustration of this, 
the new moon for August last fell upon a Saturday, 
and certainly both weather and sea were unusually 
rough for the time of year. Doe's this superstitious 
notion obtain elsewhere 1 J. S. UDAL. 


"Le Neve in his MSS. puts a query if Sir Rober 4 - 
Smyth, Bart, (of Upton, Essex), had not a second 
wife, Rebecca, daughter of Sir William Rowney, or 
Rumney, Knt., relict of .... Spurstowe, Esq., and if 
he had not by her two daughters, Margaret, married to 
Granado Pigot, of Abington, co. Cambridge, Esq., and 
Rebecca, wife of William Robinson, of London, mer- 
chant." Betham, Baronetage, ii. 371. 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." answer Le Neve's 
query 1 Granado Pigot appears to have been a 
son of George Pigot, by Frances, his wife, daughter 
of Sir Eobert Chester, whose mother was the 
daughter and heiress of Sir James Granado, 
equerry to Henry VIII. 

" A house in Little-Chelsea being then known by the 
name of Sir James Smith's house, was sold in 1699 by 

5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 


the Boveys, as heirs of Dame Anne Smith, to Anthony 
Earl of Shaftesbury." Lysons's Environs of London 
second edition, ii. 110. 

Who was this Sir James Smith ; and is any 
thing known of the ancestry of Dame Anne, ne 


VARIOUS QUERIES. Wanted, any information 
regarding Charles Collins, who is understood to b 
author of Comala, versified from Ossian, and on 
or two other short poems, privately printed in & 
small volume, 1819, Hodson, Cambridge, printer 
Comala was composed by the author during the 
autumn of 1817. He had just completed his seven- 
teenth year, and he says " it served to amuse some 
few intervals of leisure, stolen from severer studies/ 
Also regarding the editor and contributors to the 
Merchant Taylors' Miscellanies, printed by Hansard 
London, 1832. This school magazine, edited by 
Marmaduke Mapletoft, Gent., existed from March 
1831, to June, 1832. I should be gkd to know 
who were the authors of the following papers, al 
of them of a poetical or dramatic cast : 

1. Essays on the Greek Drama. By S. 

2. Nugse Dramaticse (a Dramatic Scene). By (Omicron) 

3. Marius on the Ruins of Carthage : a Soliloquy. By V. 

4. A Dramatic Sketch, in 6 Parts. By B. 

5. The Dialogues of the Dead. By L. C. N. 

6. Chorus from " Clouds " of Aristophanes. Translated 

by G. I. 

7. Essay on the Bacchae of Euripides. By L. L. 

8. Essay on the Choephori of Eschylus. By 0. 

9. Colin and Lydia: a Pastoral Dialogue. By Peter 


I want any biographical information regarding 
William Seward Hall, author of The Empire of 
Philanthropy, a Dramatic Poem, in three acts. 
London, 1822, 8vo. The book is dedicated to the 

Would any of your Australian readers inform 
me who is the author of Enderby, a Tragedy, in five 
acts, no date (1865?), 8vo. ? The play is published 
by F. F. Bailliere, of Melbourne, and is printed by 
Mason, Firth & Co., Flinders Lane, Melbourne. 


NICHOLAS FELTON. I shall be glad of informa- 
tion about Nicholas Felton, a son, I suspect, of 
Bishop Felton, who succeeded Laurence in this 
living in 1621, and was turned out of his living, 
then reckoned as worth 200Z. a-year, by the Earl 
of Manchester in 1644 (Walker's Sufferings of 

There was a Nicholas Felton, a native of Yar- 
mouth, Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 
1616, and Bishop of Ely from 1619 to 1626, when 
he died, and was buried under the Communion 

* Joseph Bovey, of Coughton, co. Warwick, married, 
in 1677, Mary, daughter of Henry Smith, of Cropthorne, 
co. Worcester, which Henry was cousin-german to Sir 
Robert Smyth, of Upton, Bart. 

Table in St. Antholin's Church, London (Ben- 
tham's Ely). 

There was another Nicholas Felton, son to 
Eobert Felton, who was admitted as Sizar at 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, January 15, 1633, 
when in his fifteenth year. Fellow in 1641, 
ejected 1644. 

Neither of these was the rector of Stretham, 
though probably all were of the same family. 
The wife of our rector, Elisabeth Felton, was 
buried December 23, 1624. 

EGBERT KEMP. The history of another of 
my predecessors, though he is of later date, is a 
great puzzle to me " Mr. Eobert Kemp, inducted 
1690 ; buried 1696." I cannot find his name either 
in the Oxford or in the Cambridge Graduati. 


Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

WILSON ARMS. In the old churchyard of St. 
John's, at Hampton, on James Eiver, Virginia, 
there existed before the late civil war a massive 
iron-stone tomb slab, on which was elegantly 
engraved this coat of arms, viz., " Sa. on a cross 
engr : between 4 cherubs heads, or., a heart of the 
1st wounded on the left side proper, crowned with 
a crown of thorns vert." This stone was to the 
memory of Capt. Willis- Wilson, who died in 1701. 
Col. Wm. Wilson, his father, was Eoyal Collector 
of Customs for James Eiver, and died at a great 
age, about 1715. Among the archives of the 
Capitol at Eichmond Va., I have seen a letter from 
Col. Wilson to the Governor, of a date between 
1680-90, to which is attached his seal, bearing a 
clear and distinct impression of these same arms. 
This coat is unique, and differs totally from those 
assigned by Burke to the Wilsons generally, in 
whose arms the wolf figures prominently. 

I desire to ascertain, if possible, the original 
grantee of these arms, and whether they are borne 
ay any family of Wilson in England at this day. 
Baltimore, U.S.A. 

SIMPSON ARMS. What is the crest, &c., of the 
Simpson family, and do the Simson or Sympsou 
amilies bear the same crest, &c. 1 

J. W. S. 

MOSES OF CHORENE. Some years ago I re- 
nember to have seen, in one of the Bampton 
" ectures, a note to the effect that it was stated by 
Vtoses of Chorene that the grandson or great- 
grandson of Togarmah was named Haig ; that he 
ad rebelled against Nimrod, and retired into the 
mountains of Armenia, where Nimrod had attacked 
lim, but was unsuccessful in attempting to subdue 
lim, and was killed in the attempt. I shall be 
)bliged if some of your readers would give me 
nformation as to this. I do not remember reading 
Moses of Chorene either at Eugby or Trinity. 
An old relative used to tell me that we were 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74. 

descended from Togarmah, but all my family and 
I only laughed at it as an old superstition. Any 
information will be acceptable to 

J. E. HAIG. 

ANONYMOUS BOOKS. Required, the authorship 
of the following works : 

"Histoire de la Revolution de France, prece"dee de 
1'Expose Rapide des Administrations successives qui ont 
determine cette Revolution Memorable." Nouvelle 
Edition. Par Deux Amis de la Liberte. 4 vols. 12mo. 
Paris, 1792. 

" History of the Campaigns in the Years 1796-9 in 
Germany, Italy, Switzerland," &c. . . . Illustrated with 
Sixteen Maps and Plans. 4 vols. 2nd Edition. London, 

" Le Gaffe, ou L'Ecossaise." Comedie, par Mr. Hume, 
traduite en Fran9ais. Londres, 1760. 

[Perhaps intended for John Home, author of the 
tragedy of Douglas, but I cannot find that he wrote any 

" Letters on Mr. Hume's History of Great Britain." 
Edinburgh, 1756. 

" Memoirs of the Private and Political Life of Lucien 
Bonaparte, Prince of Canino." Translated from the 
French. 2 vols. London, 1818. 

" St. Stephen's ; or, Pencillings of Politicians." By 
Mask. [James Grant, I suspect.] London, 1839. 


KING AT ARMS. Where, in the scale of prece- 
dence, does this dignitary stand ? It seems to me 
that the principal King at Arms, in each of the 
three kingdoms, should, in virtue of his office, be 
knighted as a matter of course, not that the pre- 
fix of " sir " would add to his dignity, for that, I 
take it, is considerably greater than the rank of 
Knight Bachelor. S. 

large portion of the coast of this colony, Victoria, 
was discovered in December, 1800, by James 
Grant, Lieutenant, E.N., in command of H.M. 
brig " Lady Nelson." One of the capes was named 
by him Cape Sir William Grant ; it is marked on 
his chart " Cape Solicitor, or Sir William Grant's 
Cape," which would seem to identify the person it 
was named after as the eminent lawyer who was 
at that time Solicitor-General, and who, shortly 
after, became Master of the Rolls. W T hat is known 
of Grant and his after career? When Flinders 
wrote his Voyage to Terra Australis, published in 
1814, Grant was a captain. Was he a family con- 
nexion of the Master of the Eolls ? J. B. 

Melbourne, Australia. 

THE CENTENARY CLUB. This is believed to 
have existed in London about the latter end of the 
last century. Any information about it will be 
thankfully received. VIRION NIGHTON. 

GEFFROY DE CHAUCEROIE. Allow me to draw 
MR. FURNIVALL'S attention to the fact that among 
the signatories to a deed in the Tresor des Chartes, 
published by Boutani in his St. Louis et Alfons< 

if, Poitiers, p. 490, appears the above person, as 
Sire de Bercoie. MR. FURNIVALL will remember 
hat the dominions of Alfonse de Poitiers were 
listorically connected with England. Is it not 
probable that Chaucer was of noble descent 1 



(4 th S. xii. 492.) 

The composer of this epitaph seems to have been 
a great coxcomb and an inaccurate scholar ; and 
some passages admit of nothing but a conjectural 
rendering. But allowing for bad Latin, and cor- 
recting a few errors due to the author, to the 
copyist, or to the printer, the following version 
may be attempted. It may be observed that a 
passage sometimes can have but one rendering, 
but one which in .no way helps us to the sense. 
" Patrimonium narcoticum," for instance, can mean 
nothing but "narcotic patrimony"; but what the 
sense or nonsense of this bit of pedantry is, can 
only be guessed. The errors are as follows : 
1. .4, "conculcus" should be concalcas, or concalces; 
1. 9, full stop after " oriundi " ; 1. 13, " academiam"; 
1. 16, comma after " postea," not full stop ; i. 17, 
colon after " contulit"; 1. 25, " Praedicatorem';' 
1. 28, full stop after "invenere"; 1. 29, colon after 
" maledicjB "; 1. 36, fuU stop after " fuit "; 1. 38, 
comma, not full stop, after "narcoticum"; 1. 47, 
full stop after "13"; 1. 50, 51, full stop after 
" consecravit " instead of " Elizabetha " ; 1. 53, no 
stop after " habitare." The initial capital letters 
are most capriciously placed, but that is trifling. 
Thou passest on 

stay a little 

it will be to thee no waste to know 

the worth of that which thou 

treadest under foot. 

Here lie, 

set apart when he passed into ashes, 

the remains of Andrew Loup of Dorchester, 

born in arid sprung from an 

ancient lineage in Bere. 

Having been educated with due care 

and suitable success 

by his kinsfolk, 
he sought the renowned Academy of Oxford, 

where, in Hall, 

through four years he laboured stoutly. 

he betook himself to one of the Inns of Court ; 

to increase his skill, and investigate the 

secrets of commerce, 

he abode nearly five years 

among the French, the Italians, the Spaniards. 

Then he revisited his country, 

Academics found in him a philosopher, 

lawyers an expounder, 
his neighbours a peacemaker, 

the oppressed a defence, 
all who had to do with him, a religious man.. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



But see the giddiness of 

the evil-speaking crowd : 

while among the ranks of the orthodox 

he showed himself an unconquered champion, 

he was by some traduced as a Papist, 

because of set purpose, and 

without heresy or schism, 

for the glory of God and the seemliness 

of the Church, 
he clung to the foundations and the rites 

of the Christian faith. 
In his last days he found repose in 

his patrimonial home : 

whence, yielding to an Herculean disease 

under which for three years he laboured, 

at length, and under sentence of death 

still mindful of his baptismal vow, 

he expired, 

before he had passed through the 

last decade of the archetypal length of man's life, 

on the 13th of June 

in the 1639th year 

since the birth of the Saviour of the world. 

To the memory of a husband never 

(had not the Holy Scripture 

closed the fount of tears) 

to be mourned sufficiently, 

Elizabeth, his most pious wife, 

consecrated this offering. 

" I had rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God, 
than to dwell in the tents of ungodliness." Ps. Ixxxiv. 10. 

I should have admitted that one expression, 
" Aula cervina," I can make nothing of. Probably 
it refers to some Oxford tradition, which those with 
local knowledge may explain. 

The forty-fifth line is unintelligible ; but it is 
just possible that it may refer to the " threescore 
years and ten," leaving out of sight the patriarchal 
lives, and treating that period as the original or 
normal duration. But the sense I have suggested 
can hardly be forced out of any conceivable gram- 
matical construction. LYTTELTON. 

P.S. Since writing, it has been suggested to 
me that "Aula cervina" is Hart Hall. May be 
so ; but I do not know that hall. 

It may be observed that the words "Voti 
fluminei damnas memor expiravit " form a spon- 
daic hexameter ; but it is probably accidental. 

[There was formerly a Hert or Hart Hall, which 
became Hertford College in 1740.]) 

Premising, first, that the Latin is a little canine, 
and that the stops are in utter confusion ; and, 
secondly, that certain parts, though they can be 
translated, cannot be explained unless we know 
deceased's history ; premising, I say, this, there 
seems no very extraordinary difficulty in MR. 
GUEST'S brass. I render it thus : 

Passenger, stay a little ; it will be no loss of time for 
thee to know the history of such a man as thou treadest 
under thy feet. Here, by the ashes of his predecessor, 
lie buried the remains of Andrew Lombe of Dorchester, 
born and sprung of an ancient race among the natives of 
Bere : brought up by his friends with no less care than 
was lit, and with success as happy as became them, he 
sought the celebrated University of Oxford, where in 

Hart Hall he worked hard for four years. Afterwards 
he betook himself to one of the Inns of Chancery. Then 
for increase of his knowledge and inquiry into the secrets 
of commerce abiding for nearly five years among the 
French, Italians, and Spaniards, he at last returned to 
his own country, where academics found him a philo- 
sopher, lawyers a conveyancer, neighbours a peacemaker, 
the opprest a refuge, and all who knew him a religious 
man. But consider the folly of the evil-spreading 
multitude ; for while he showed himself an unconquered 
champion among the ranks of the orthodox, he is alleged 
by some to be a Papist because, to the glory of God and 
the honour of the Church, he embraced, without practis- 
ing heresy or schism, the foundations and ceremonies of 
the Christian religion. In extreme old age he found his 
estate a trouble ; worn out by which, and labouring for 
three years under severe illness, at last, as destined, he, 
mindful of his baptismal vow, expired before he had 
spent ten years in the relics only of his former life, in 
the year from the birth of the Saviour of the world 1637, 
on the 13th of the month of June. This to the memory 
of a man never enough to be wept for (if holy Scripture 
had not closed the fount of tears), his most loving wife 
Elizabeth has consecrated. "I had rather be a door- 
keeper in the house of my God, than to dwell in the 
tents of ungodliness " (Ps. Ixxxiv. 10). 


With the exception of one or two places, un- 
doubtedly obscure, and of which I am not certain, 
this epitaph appears to me to be perfectly intel- 
ligible. Avoiding baldness as much as may be, I 
will render it as near to the Latin as I can. I 
assume it to " be a true and correct copy." 

Regardless passer, stop awhile, and pause. There is 
that beneath your feet the worth of which it is worth 
your while to learn. Here with his father's ashes are 
deposited the remains of Andrew Loupi, of Dorchester, a 
scion of the ancient stock of Beeren. Trained with 
loving care, the profiting was in due proportion. Placed 
at Hart Hall, in the celebrated University of Oxford, he, 
for three years, diligently applied himself to study, and 
thence migrating to one of the Inns of Chancery, he 
afterwards, to add to his stores of knowledge, and to gain 
an insight into mercantile affairs, passed nearly five years 
in France, Italy, and Spain. He then returned to his 
native land, where, so extensive had become his attain- 
ments, so admirably formed his character, by scholars 
he was pronounced a philosopher, by lawyers an autho- 
rity on mercantile jurisprudence, by his neighbours 
a pleasant neighbour, by the oppressed a firm defender, 
by all a religious man. But mark the fickleness of 
popular favour of the multitude ever more alert to 
blame than praise. Foremost among the champions of 
orthodox belief, he yet, but without any show of heresy 
or schism, held firmly by those doctrines and ceremonies 
of the Christian Faith which he deemed to be funda- 
mental, and alike conducive to the glory of God, and the 
peaceable ordering of the Church. On this ground he 
was charged with having become a Papist. His declining 
years he solaced with the managing of his estate. At 
length, having laboured for three years under a grievous 
malady, which in the end proved fatal, he, ever mindful 
of Ms obligations for an unfailing flow of blessings, and 
when he had enjoyed his patrimony scarce ten years, 
breathed his last, on June 13, in the year from the 
Saviour's birth 1643. And this is dedicated by his most 
dutiful wife to a husband for whose loss she must have 
been inconsolable, had not Holy Scripture shut up the 
fountain of her tears. 

" I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my 


S. I. JAK. 17, 74 

God, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness" (Ps. 
Ixxxiv. 10). 

The only passages of which I have any serious 
doubt are those printed in italics, being in the 
original, " Voti fluruinei damnas memor," and 
" Protoplast! vivendi relliquias per decennium 
peregerat." The former, but for fiuminei r would 
be clear enough, as damnas = damnatus, and 
voti damnatus is classical (Liv., vii. 28, xxvii. 45). 
The latter is a great puzzle, and can only admit of 
the rendering which I have given, upon the pre- 
sumption that several of the words are employed 
in a very unusual and strained acceptation. Pro- 
toplastus, for instance, is always, so far as I know, 
used of Adam, nor am I aware that it ever refers 
to the first founder of a race. Suidas certainly 
connects it with ap^yos, and dpx?jyos is so used 
by Sophocles (0. C., 60). But then again as to 
"relliquias" and "peregerat," I know of no 
instance of the one meaning property left behind 
by a former possessor, or of the other the use or 
enjoyment of such property. Such being the case, 
my rendering must be taken as purely conjectural 
for as much as it is worth which, in -my own 
judgment, is near akin to nothing. If MR. GUEST 
has an opportunity, will he look at the monumental 
brass again, to be sure that no error has crept into 
the copy ? EDMUND TEW, M. A. 

THE GRIM FEATURE (4 th S. xii. 85, 191, 316, 
435.) In my turn I venture to think PELAGIUS 
is wrong in explaining "the grim Feature" to mean 
the " future victims " of death ; thus making it 
objective to "scented," and leaving that verb 
without any nominative. He surely overlooks that 
there is 'a full-point after " bloody fight," and that 
each, member of the simile is a complete sentence 
by itself. If he do not, he has yet to learn that 
Milton does not construct a sentence without a 
substantive, pronoun, or relative, to govern the 
verb. Such being the case, it seems to me indis- 
putable that the verb "scented" is intransitive, 
and that its nominative is " the grim Feature." I 
can see, too, why Milton did not give Death his 
name here. The reason was the near position of the 
word Death in the preceding "line. Had he, by 
inadvertence, written 

" design'd 

For death, the following day, in bloody fight. 

So scented Death, delighted, and upturn'd 

His nostril wide into the murky air," 

his exquisitely attuned ear would have resented 
the symptosis, and he would have substituted for 
" Death " some descriptive equivalent ; and what 
could be finer than the one which has possession of 
the text ? 

The entire passage, combining the two relative 
sentences, is thus given in the first edition, bookix. 
11. 272-281, but I observe that from 1. 230 (mis 

printed 2gO) the numbering is wrong up to 270. 

It is rectified at 1. 280: 

" So saying, with delight he snuff'd the smell 
Of mortal change on Earth. As when a flock 
Of ravenous Fowl, though many a League remote, 
Against the day of Battel, to a Field, 
Where Armies lie encampt, come flying, lur'd 
With scent of living Carcasses design'd 
For death, the following day, in bloodie fight. 
So scented the grim Feature, and upturn'd 
His Nostril wide into the murkie Air, 
Sagacious of his Quarrey from so farr." 

Let us inquire what are Milton's usages of grim 
and feature. For the latter we have the passage 
in the Areopagitica (already cited in " N. & Q.," 
4 th S. xii. 317), where feature is frame or form, as 
of a living body. (Elsewhere, as in Comus, it is a 
part of the face.) Grim is frequently used in 
Paradise Lost ; viz., once of Moloch's idol ; once 
of the fires of hell ; once of war ; and in the re- 
maining four places it is the epithet of Death or of 
his cave. Surely it may be hence inferred that, in 
the passage in question, the phrase " grim Feature" 
means the shapeless shape of Death, which is so 
eloquently described in book ii., 11. 666-676, et seq. 
Here he is called an " execrable shape . . . grim and 
terrible " ; " the grisly Terror," and " grim Death"; 
all of which are admirably summed up in that one 
masterly phrase " grim Feature." 

While I cannot but think that PELAGIUS " doth 
vainly talk " on this occasion, I feel obliged to him 
and your other correspondents who have discussed 
with so much ability the question I submitted to 
their consideration ; and to MR. JOSEPH PAYNE for 
so frankly acknowledging his mistake. JABEZ. 

Athenaeum Club. 

PELAGIUS may rest assured that " grim Feature " 
is not the " objective case after scented," or that it 
means " creation," " the future victims now made 
over to corruption." It is, undoubtedly, the nomi- 
native to the verb, answering to " a flock of rave- 
nous fowl," in the antecedent member of the simile. 
About the grammar, or the sense, there is no diffi- 
culty whatever. It runs perfectly clean and clear 
i.e., " As a flock of ravenous fowl " scents, &c., 
so " the grim Feature scented." The emendation 
of PELAGIUS is simply a case of " e fulgore fumum," 
and he does nothing more by it than to import a 
totally new element into the discussion. The question 
previously raised was on the meaning of the word 
" feature " whether it meant Satan or Death. It 
has been generally admitted to mean the latter, as, 
in fact, it can mean nothing else. I have some- 
times thought whether it may not be barely pos- 
sible that " feature " has crept into the text for 
figure. Grim figure comes very much nearer to 
common usage, and might be capped by many cog- 
nate expressions, as poor figure, sorry figure, &c. 

Upon the whole, my loyalty to Milton compels 
me to say that I believe he never would have 
written a sentence so awkward in construction, and 

5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



so involved in sense as this would be, presuming 
PELAGIUS'S exegesis to be correct. 


Can PELAGIUS really be serious in the explana- 
tion he gives of this passage ? Can he adduce any 
other instance of " feature " being ever used in the 
sense he attributes to it, viz., " corrupted creation," 
or rather "carnage, prey innumerable"? This 
meaning is quite new to me. Again, if "grim 
feature " be the objective, what is the subject or 
nominative to "scented"? It can only be the 
pronoun "he" some half-dozen lines back, but if 
so, it should be repeated to make sense, and just 
imagine Milton writing " So (he) scented the grim," 
&c. ! a construction quite at variance with what 
PELAGIUS himself refers to as peculiar to that poet. 
See his own example, "So spake the Universal 
Lord," &c., with which the passage in question 
completely agrees, if "feature" be taken as the 
nominative. E. M. C. 


"OiL OF BRICK" (4 th S. xiL 448.) A neighbour 
tells me that " Oil of brick " was inserted in the 
London 'Pharmacopoeia, 1746, in which it was 
named Oleum Lateritium, and was prepared as 
follows : Bricks common heated to redness, 
quenched in olive oil, afterwards bruised and dis- 
tilled ; the product forms a dark brown oil, similar, 
both in colour and consistency, to ordinary oak 
varnish. At the present day, it is factitiously 
prepared by mixing equal parts of crude oil of 
amber and olive oil. J. MANUEL. 

" Oleum Lateritium. Oil of Bricks. Heat bricks red 
hot, and quench them in oil olive, till they have soaked 
up all the oil ; then break them into pieces small enough 
to be conveniently put into a retort ; and distil with a 
sand heat gradually increased : an oil will arise, together 
with a spirit, which is to be separated from it as in 
the foregoing process. 

"This preparation has had a place in most Dis- 
pensatories, under the pompous names of oleum philo- 
sophorum, sanctum, diinnum, benedictum, and others as 
improper as that under which it stands above. It is 
really oil olive, rendered strongly empyreumatic by heat; 
the spirit, so called, is no more than phlegm, or water, 
tainted with the burnt flavour of the oil. It has been 
celebrated for sundry external purposes, particularly 
against gouty and rheumatic pains, deafness and tingling 
of the ears, &c., and sometimes likewise given inwardly. 
But common practice seems to have now entirely 
rejected this loathsome remedy." 

The above, which is from Quincy's English Dis- 
pensatory, 14th edit., 8vo., London, 1769, will 
inform H. T. how he may himself make " Oil of 
brick"; and if the last sentence was true in 1769, 
I should think that in 1873 this oil has "No 
Name." j. B. B; 


The following is the receipt for its preparation 
given in the Pharmacopoeia of the London Colledg, 

1666 : 

" Take, of bricks broken in pieces, as big as an Hens 
Egg ; heat them red hot, and quench them in Old Oyl, 
where let them lie till they be cool ; then beat them into 
fine pouder, and still them in a glass retort, with a fit 
reciever, give fire to by degrees and keep the Oyl in a 
glass close stopped." 

Two centuries ago it was much recommended in 
gout, sciatica, and as an anodyne generally ; but 
it has long since passed away from all authorized 
pharmacopoeias. The use of the powdered brick is 
only that of a porous absorbent to hold the oil 
whilst it is subjected to destructive distillation. 


See Gray's Pharmacology, &c., 5th edit., 1831, 
At page 209 is the following: 

"Oil OF BRICKS, Oleum lateritium. From olive oil, 
mixed with brick-dust, and distilled; very resolvent, 
useful in palsy and gout." 

J. O. N. 


"NOR" FOR "THAN" (4 th S. xii. 388, 502 ; 5" 
S. i. 12.) In reference to LORD LYTTELTON'S note, 
I can assure him that the expression is not yet 
obsolete. The old-fashioned Gloucestershire farmers, 
as distinguished from the new school of "agri- 
culturists," as they prefer to style themselves, 
frequently use the word " nor" for " than." One, 
an old neighbour of mine, a rare tough blade, now 
on the retired list, between eighty and ninety, and 
in easy circumstances, always makes use of it. He 
is like " Sir Joshua," a little deaf, though, instead 
of an ear-trumpet, he more often has a pipe in his 
hand ; and 

When they talk'd of their quanos, perphosphates and 

He shifted his Broseley and only drank ' rough.' " 

that is, cider of rough flavour, which old cider- 
drinkers prefer. In offering you, for instance, 
some of particularly good quality, he would speak 
in this vein, " Try this, sir, this is pretty drink, 
'tis better nor common," meaning, better than 
common " drink." And here I may note that the 
word " drink " in the example given, is employed 
in that precise and limited sense which logicians 
term " second intention," and stands for " cider " 
only, just as the same men use the word 
" beast " for " oxen " ; sportsmen, " birds " for 
" partridges " ; and Scotchmen, " fish " for 
"salmon." In Scotland, "How many fish have 
you killed ? " would refer to salmon only. I would 
further remark, that before railway-station, certi- 
ficated school-teacher, and cheap newspaper 
influences, these old turns and expressions are 
fast dying out, and should, I think, be noted down 
and recorded in " N. & Q." by the country clergy 
and others. F. S. 


It appears to me that this must be merely a 
Celtic idiom, one of the many instances still re- 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74. 

maining, handed down to us from the ancient Britons. 
For certain it is that the same word in Welsh, " na," 
is expressive of both phrases ; nor is this a vul- 
garism, inasmuch as it frequently occurs in the 
Welsh Testament; thus, "gryfach no, myfi" 
(mightier nor I, or than I). Again, " mwy na 
phrophwyd " (more nor, or than, a prophet). Such 
instances are innumerable. M. H. K. 

xii. 171, 238, 436.) MR. C. FAULKE-WATLING, in 
his obliging reply, states that the application of 
the word rache to a dog hound, and brack to a 
bitch hound, is not universal. I was aware of the 
exceptions mentioned, but the passage referred to 
in Lear contains, in the 1623 edition, several in- 
accuracies. Brack may be there a misprint for rach. 

Webster derives brack from braque (Fr.), " A 
bitch of the hound kind." Christopher Wase, in 
his translation of Gratius, 1654, uses the word 
bratck for bitck. In the First Part of Henry IV., 
Hotspur says, "I had rather heare Lady, my 
Brach, howle in Irish." And in Lear is the 
passage, " Truth's a dog must to kennell ; hee must 
bee whipt out, when the Lady Brach may stand 
by the fire and stinke." 

May I ask in what work is the German word 
bract used as signifying a scenting dog 1 Tke 
Gentleman's Recreation, by Nicholas Cox, did not 
appear until 1674 (Blome's in 1686), and the quo- 
tation seems taken in great measure from Hector 
Boece, but with alteration and omission. Boece 
does not, I believe, state that brack is a mannerly 
name. Our early ancestors, though, perhaps, as 
virtuous, were not so squeamishly mincing as their 
descendants. Family Shakspeares were unknown. 

" CENTAURY " (4 th S. xii. 407, 520.) The genus 
Centaurea, to some species of which C. L. refers 
under the above heading, is a very large one, and 
it is not possible to tell from his description which 
member of it is referred to. The " peculiar 
properties attributed to this plant by the Greeks " 
were probably those of healing ; the name being 
given to it, according to Pliny, from the centaur 
Chiron, who cured himself with it from a wound 
which he had accidentally received from an arrow 
poisoned with the blood of the hydra. See Prior's 
Popular Names of British Plants. 

CUSTOM (4 th S. xii. 466.) See a very similar 
account in Brand's Pop. Antiquities, i. 30 (Bohn's 
edition), cited from Gentleman's Magazine, Feb., 

CHARMS (4 th S. xii. 469.) Would GYRVI give 
some indication of the district where the charm; 
he cites are in use ? JAMES BRITTEN. 

British Museum. 

"AN AUSTRIAN ARMY," &c. (3 rd S. iv. 88 
4 th S. x. 412, 503.) The following paraphrase, 
;hough not translation, in Latin, of the well- 
inown alliterative alphabet in English, made 
several years ago, may perhaps be thought worth 
mbalming in "N. & Q.," as a specimen of classic 
trifling. It has the same number of lines as the 
original. The last line in the English, as it con- 
sists of words beginning with the letter A, is 
intended, I presume, for & (" And, per se ") : 

" Austriaci agmen agunt audaces agglomerantes, 
Belgradi bellum balistis belligerantes, 
Cimmerii comites contendere consociantur, 
Dum diri dubio discrimine digladiantur, 
Ensibus erumpunt equites examine equorum, 
Famam fert Fortuna, ferocia facta furorum, 
Gens gentem grassans geminat gladios graviores, 
Hinc Heliconiades hilarant herois honores. 
Insidias ineunt, irarum immane imitamen, 
Jam juvenes jugulant juvenes, juvenale juvamen, 
Luctantur lapides longo laxare labore, 
Muris mirifico minitatur machina more. 
Nil numerus noscit, noxam, neque nobile nomen 
Objicit, offensis oculis obstantibus omen. 
Perpauci patriae pro paupertate pavescant, 
Quum queruli quaerunt quassi quacunque quiescant ; 
Religio revenit, revocat ratione retentos, 
Suvarrus sedare sonos scit sanguinolentos. 
Turca triumphasti ! tranquillo tempore turges, 
Usurpatores undis ultricibus urges ! 
Vanescat vanis Victoria vse ! violenter, 
Victores valeant ! valeatis vos vehementer 
Vernae vinosi, vacuarum vis viduarum, 
Xerxes, Xanthippus, xenium xerampelinarum, 
Zenonis zelus, zothecse zelotyparum ! 
Arma adsurit agris, at amoribus absit amarum ! 

E. A. D. 

516.) This prognostic of fine weather has been 
familiar to me in Wiltshire since my childhood ; 
that is for, at least, fifty-five years. 

E. C. A. PRIOR. 

(4 th S. xii. 495.) I expect to be able shortly to 
answer fully MR. PATTERSON'S inquiries. Mean- 
while let me refer with praise to the first part of an 
excellent andlong-desired account of Tke Humorous 
Ckap-BooJcs of Scotland, written by John Eraser, late 
of Glasgow, and now of New York, where he is 
editor of the Arcadian. I am daily expecting the 
second part, in which I have already received a 
proof of the full length portrait of Dugald Graham, 
the ingenious author of many famous Penny 
Histories, &c., including Jockie and Maggie's 
Courtship, Lothian Tom, Leper tke Tailor, John 
Cheap the Packman, and the two humorous old 
songs, Turnamspike and John Hielandman. It is 
probable that the authorship of Wise Willie and 
Witty Eppy remains unknown. But an account 
of it is promised in the forthcoming sixth chapter. 
The subject of old Scottish chap-books has 
successively interested Sir Walter Scott, William 
Motherwell (who commenced making a collection, 

5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



and bitterly reproaches borrowers for diminishing 
his store), and Dr. Strang, of Glasgow. John 
Fraser is likely to do serviceable work, and throws 
light on much of the popular chap-literature of 
Scotland during the last century, when Wise Willie 
was a favourite. His book is published by Henry 
H. Hinton, 744, Broadway, New York, and James 
Hadden, Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow. 

J. W. E. 
Molasb, Kent. 

LIBERETENENTES (4 th S. xii. 515.) I take it 
that these were persons who held land, tenements, 
or other kinds of property, exempted from all 
kinds of charges or burdens whatsoever, freeholds 
absolutely. Such were many of the possessions 
held by the greater religious houses, as plainly 
appears from the schedules in the Monasticon. Du 
Cange describes them as " Qui liberum tenementum 
tenent vel possident," and gives as his authorities 
Leg. Malcolm., ii., Reg. Scot., cap. 9, and Fleta., 
lib. ii., c. 72, 13. They were divided, it appears, 
into intrinseci and /orenseci=burghers, and non- 
burghers, not unlike those under the Roman Com- 

Sir Henry Spelman says (Glossary), " Galli, 
ingenuiles vocant, quos nos } Liberc-tenentes" but 
says the status of the latter has undergone a change, 
and that "Eorum Ingenuiles non sunt liberi a 
rusticis servitiis, ut hodie nostri plerumque Libere- 
tenentes," the difference being exemption from 
labour, which then, if demanded, they were obliged 
to give. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

PORTRAITS or DR. JOHNSON (5 th S. i. 2.) The 
first of the two portraits mentioned by MR. THOMS 
of Dr. Johnson, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is not 
amongst the list of portraits given in Boswell's 
Life of Johnson, Illustrated Edition, 1851, 
published at 198, Strand. Boswell gives a long 
catalogue of the various portraits, &c., of Johnson, 
vol. iv., p. 285 ; he also gives four portraits of him 
by Sir Joshua, one appearing on the title-page of 
each of the four volumes. The first is said to have 
been taken in 1756, when Dr. Johnson was forty- 
seven. He is represented seated at a table, pen in 
hand, and apparently in a " brown study." It is 
stated to be Sir Joshua's first picture of him. The 
three other portraits given are of inuch later date, 
I think. Boswell would scarcely have omitted the 
first portrait mentioned by MR. THOMS, had such a 
one been taken by Sir Joshua Reynolds. I cannot 
find that it is mentioned at all, though the list 
comprises some eighteen portraits of Dr. Johnson ; 
nor is there a portrait by Gainsborough amongst 
the number. FREDK. RULE. 

LORD LIGONIER (4 th S. xii. 490.) J. H. L.-A., 
in a note to his article on the family of " Lawrence 
of Philadelphia, Jamaica, &c.," states that General 
Lagonier, afterwards Lord Ligonier, was Earl 

Beauchamp's ancestor. I should be curious to 
learn on what authority J. H. L.-A. makes the 
statement. The last Lord Ligonier died in 1782, 
I believe childless; certainly his honours expired at 
his death. Nor can I detect any connexion be- 
tween the families of Lygon, Earl Beauchamp, and 
Ligonier, Earl and Viscount Ligonier, in any peerage, 
ancient or modern. M. 

RING MOTTO (4 th S. xii. 517.) This appears to 
be an interesting old betrothal ring, and the motto 
freely translated would be " As we are now of one 
mind, I give thee this in open betrothal." The 
cinquefoil, having been adopted for the external 
outline, was doubtless intended to represent the 
entire devotion of the donor to his betrothed, or 
that he had made a wise choice, that leaf being 
formerly used to represent the five senses, and so 
metonymically wisdom. The giving of betrothal 
rings and the publication of betrothals are still 
common in Germany. BROCTUNA. 


PECK'S COMPLETE CATALOGUE (2 nd S. vii. 247 ; 
3 rd S. vii. 212.) Of my edition of Peck's Com- 
plete Catalogue, which appears to have been un- 
mentioning Rev. E. Gee (5 th S. i. 16), the most 
satisfactory notice, amidst many other kind com- 
munications I have received, is the following from 
the lamented Rev. M. A. Tierney, with reference to 
the first part : 

" Peck's work was always useful, but you Lave made it 
by your additions really valuable. It is now an instruc- 
tive as well as serviceable volume ; and I bope it will not 
be long before we shall see tbe socond part of it. To 
those who, like myself, have the good fortune to possess 
a collection comprising, in addition to all the tracts 
enumerated by Peck, very many of those which you have 
described, it must of course be particularly interesting." 

Dr. Todd, after he had read this letter, ob- 
served : 

" I was very glad to see Dr. Tierney's letter. I hope 
that neither your remarks nor mine on any of Peck's 
articles can be accused of anything like bigotry or 
intolerance. We have both laboured to edit the book 
in a scholarlike spirit, and true scholarship knows no 
party. The only thing that looks like ' Exeter Hall ' is 
the word 'Popery' on the title-page, which modern 
Roman Catholics look upon as an insult, why, is difficult 
to say. But for this neither you nor I can be responsible." 

I shall only add that the number of books and 
pamphlets relating to this controversy, at that 
period deposited in this library, is more than 600, 
and that many others are incorporated, to be found 
in the Bodleian, Trinity College, Dublin, Sion 
College, &c. I have subsequently been informed 
by the learned Dr. Reeves, librarian of the Archi- 
episcopal Library of Armagh, that he can yet 
furnish a supplement to these multiplied Cata- 


"EMBOSSED" (4 th S. xi. passim; xii. 29, 117, 
178, 218, 297.) One of the most satisfactory ex- 



[5 lh S. I. JAN. 17, '74. 

planations of the hunting technical " imbost " is 
to be found in Lyly, whose comedies are a some- 
what neglected storehouse of words and phrases. 
In Mydas (iv. 3) the two pages are laughing at the 
language of hunting : 

' Min. I pray thee speak some. 

'Pet. I will. 

' Huntsman. But speak in order, or I 'le pay you. 

'Pet. There was a boy lasht on the single, because 
when he was imbost, hee tooke soyle. 

'Min. What's that? 

'Pet. Why, a boy was beaten on the taile with a 
leathern thong, because when hee fomde at the mouth 
with running, hee went into the water." 

From another part of the dialogue, as well as 
from this, it would seem that " to lash " was at 
that time another hunting technical not understood 
by ordinary mortals. To boss, though not, I 
believe, part of the language of venery, was used 
in the same sense as "imbost." Stubbes, in his 
Anatomie of Abuses, says of barbers, " For then 
shall your mouth be bossed with the lather or 
fome that riseth of the balles (for they have their 
sweete balles wherewithall they use to wash)." 


_" SPURRING" (4 th S. xii. 44, 295, 398.) This is 
said to be a Lancashire word, and equivalent to a 
" calling of the banns," i. e. calling for evidence of 
the publication of them at the marriage ceremony. 
It seems, then, no other than and, at least, is alike 
in signification to the Scotch speiring or speering, 
the participle of the verb to speir, which signifies 
to inquire, ask, or investigate : 

" A pyper met her gaun to Fife, 
An' speir't what was 't they ca'd her." 

Song of Maggie Lander. 
L. L. 

SURNAME " BARNES " (4 th S. xii. 496 ; 5 th S. i. 
14.) The inquiry of CURIOSO is very interesting 
to me. In Queen Elizabeth's days the Barnes held 
large estates in Middlesex and Surrey, and were 
in the Commission of the Peace. They were ardent 
Roman Catholics, and greatly mixed up in the 
several conspiracies of the times. Most of their 

Property was confiscated in Elizabeth's and James 
,'s time that is, the property of such of them as 
were attainted of treason. Their spurs were 
hacked off in true feudal fashion, and every record 
of their existence erased from the sacred pages of 
the heralds : not a single pedigree of them or their 
ancestors is there now to be found in the College 
of Arms, and I think few traces of them elsewhere. 
From one branch my great-grandfather, Eichard 
Barnes, descended, and the tradition in his family 
was that several of his ancestors, direct or collateral, 
after suffering much for their adherence to Eome, 
fled to the Continent ; and it is not at all unlikely 
that in Spain they would find their future home, 
where they would be well received by the sovereign. 
At this time there were many Englishmen settled 

in that country, and as early as Henry VIII.'s 
reign, or the commencement of Elizabeth's, I find 
a younger Hatton, of Hatton, in Cheshire, " wed a 
doghter of y e greatest Duke in all Biscaye " ! 
Who was then " y e greatest Duke in all Biscaye " ? 
And will your correspondent kindly say in what 
town in Spain (and how far from Madrid) these 
Barnes are now settled, and what baptismal names 
they bore in generations past 1 The registers (if 
any) of two or three hundred years since should 
supply interesting information. T. H. 

(4 th S. xii. 342, 411, 524.) On this subject your 
correspondents may perchance have seen a letter 
from an indignant Italian in the Times of the 
30th October, 1871, and a spirited article in 
Macmillan's Magazine for December of the same 
year. A publication they are less likely to have 
met with is a book printed at Paris in the sixth 
year of the Eepublic (1797-8), entitled Etat des 
Objets d'Art envoyes aux divers Musees Franpais 
et conquis par les Armies de la Republique pendant 
la Guerre de la Liberte. The Etat is made up of 
long lists of those priceless treasures (beginning 
with the Transfiguration and the Laocoon). of which 
Italy and the Netherlands had been so ruthlessly 
despoiled. The compiler tacks on to his catalogue 
the remark that, as for Raphael's frescoes in the 
Vatican, " il sufnt a la Ee"publique Franchise de 
les de"sirer pour les acquerir"; and he concludes 
with a threat of bringing the "pressure of bayonets" 
to bear even upon John Bull : 

" On ne doit pas regarder comme perdue pour la 

Republique cette superbe galerie d'Orleans Ne 

sait-on pas qu'elle est a Londres? Le conquerant de 
1'Italie voudra sans doute 1'y retrouver et la rendre au 
musce de la grande nation." 

H. D. C. 

xii. 495, 523.) I am much obliged to HERMEN- 
TRUDE for her prompt answer to my query. The 
authority I quoted from was The Sussex Archceo- 
logical Collections, vols. v. and viii. ; in the first 
from a paper by Mr. M. A. Lower, M.A. ; in the 
second from one by Mr. William Durrant Cooper, 
F.S.A. ; who both state that the third wife cf 
William de Braose, who died A.D. 1290, was Mary, 
daughter of William de Eoos. I also think, but 
am not sure, that in the Burrell MSS. in the 
British Museum, such is stated to be the fact, 
under Seeding Manor, No. 5686, fo. 156 et seq. 
I suspect, from a date given in that MS., that, 
though an inquisition was not taken until 19 
Edward II. , she died in the tenth year of that reign. 

D. C. E. 

The Crescent, Bedford. 

S. xii. 329, 357.) I remember these lines when 
first published, and they were then said tc be by 

5 th S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



Lord Byron. I believe, indeed I am almost cer- 
tain, they were first published in The Liberal, 
Verse and Prose from the South. ELLCEE. 


" PRAYER MOVES," &c. (4 th S. xii. 309, 455, 506 ; 
5 th S. i. 20.) I thought myself bound to use every 
effort to rectify the mistake which I was led into 
respecting this quotation. The following extract, 
from a letter received lately from a friend, will, I 
think, settle the question : 

" I am happy to inform you that, after some research, I 
have found the line you enquire about' Prayer moves 
the Hand which moves the world.' It is the 19th line 
in the hymn commencing ' There is an eye that never 
sleeps,' composed by the Rev. John Aikman Wallace, 
Minister of Hawick, and first appeared in the Scottish 
Christian Herald, 1839, p. 616. Since then the original 
line has been somewhat altered from ' It moves the Mind 
omnipotent ' to ' Prayer moves the Hand which moves 
the world.' 

" The original in five stanzas is very rough, and com- 
prises two measures, C.M. and L.M., so that it has been 
recast to bring it into common measure. It is entitled 
Prayer in the original, 1839." 


THE ACACIA (4 th S. xii. 209, 314, 436.) I ex- 
tract the following from Dr. Mackey's Lexicon of 
Freemasonry, edited by Donald Campbell, C. 
Griffin & Co., London : 

"Acacia. The ancient name of a plant, most of whose 
species are evergreen, and six of which, at least, are 
natives of the East. The Acacia of Freemasonry is the 
Mimosa Nilotica of Linnaeus, a shrub which grew in 
great abundance in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem." 

I may add that the acacia is invariably referred 
to as a shrub in masonic ceremonies ; and I, there- 
fore, think it can hardly be the locust-tree, as sug- 
gested by DR. DIXON. E. S. N. 

FUNERAL GARLANDS (4 th S. xii. 406, 480 ; 5 th 
S. i. 12.) In the Argus, for August 5, 1790, is the 
following item : 

" Sunday being St. James's Day, the votaries of St. 
James's church yard attended in considerable crowds at 
the shrines of their departed friends, and paid the usual 
tributary honours of paper gloves and garlands of flowers 
on their graves." 

It is customary in country places to carry gar- 
lands before the " bier of a maiden," and then to 
hang them over her grave. See Comical Pilgrim's 
Pilgrimage into Ireland. W. WINTERS. 

Waltham Abbey. 

SCOTTISH TITLES (4 th S. xii. 349, 396 ; 5 th S. i. 
17.) If I could see my way to do so, I should be 
glad, as a friend to precision, to accept the assur- 
ance of L. L. that, before addressing or referring 
to the wife of a Scottish landed proprietor, corre- 
spondents and others made it their duty to be " well 
and ripely advised " as to whether her husband 
held his estate immediately under the Crown or 
not. But does L. L. wish us distinctly to under- 
stand that, supposing Sir John Schaw, instead of 

holding Greenock directly from the Crown, had 
held it from a subject superior (in which, I presume, 
there would have been no incompetency), his wife 
would have been called (so far as Greenock was 
concerned) the "Gudewyfe of Greenock"? That 
is really what L. L.'s statement comes to ; because 
he does not place her right to the title of " Lady 
Greenock" upon the fact of her being the wife of 
a Baronet or Knight, but upon the fact of her 
being the wife of a person who held his lands im- 
mediately under the Crown. He speaks of this 
latter class as including Baronets and Knights, but 
it did not necessarily include them ; they might 
not have held an acre either one way or the other. 
I cannot help thinking that in dealing with a 
question of usage a safe answer is preferable to a 
subtle one, and the words " landed proprietors " 
were used by me advisedly. W. M. 


(4 th S. xii. 490; 5 th S. i. 11.) I am obliged to 
MR. PICTON for drawing my attention to the 
stupid blunder made in the equation between the 
Scottish and English currency. Of course I was 
aware that a pound Scots money was equal to 
twenty pence of our present currency, and thought 
that I had so calculated, but had evidently not 
done so. These sheep farms in Closeburn, of which 
I spoke, belonging to the Duke of Buccleuch, are 
now paying somewhat more than ten to eleven 
times what they did about the middle of last 
century. Thus, throwing away the odd shillings, 
for Mitchellslacks in 1763 was paid 90Z. per 
annum ; now, 1,050. For Locherben, 1777, was 
paid 1021. per annum ; now, 1,111Z. Is it not the 
case that the rise in arable farms is still greater ? 
I am able to contrast the rise in these sheep farms, 
of which I have spoken, with the rise of rental in 
a small property, chiefly, or, I may say, entirely 
arable, the leases of which lie before me since 1753. 
The Baltersan property, to which I refer, consists, 
in Scotch measure, of 445 acres, and is situated in 
the parish of Holywood, about five miles from 
Dumfries. It was bought in 1753 for 1,145Z., and 
was let at that time for 45 1., showing that it was 
bought for about twenty-five years' rental. The 
following shows the gradual rise in the rental : 
1753 rent 45 



It will be observed that the rental in 1844 is lower 
than it was in 1815, and this is accounted for by 
the fall in value of everything at the close of the 
French war. I believe the rental fell immediately 
in 1816 to 430Z., but the lease is missing. I have 
heard that the tenants at that time got into 
difficulties, and had to give up their farms. The 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 17, '74. 

rise in this case is fourteen times what the property 
was paying in 1753, and at thirty years' purchase 
it would bring about 19,OOOZ., instead of 1,145?. 


xii. 169, 213, 298, 416 ; 5 th S. i. 16.) Penance 
was done in the church of Terling in Essex about, 
or hot long before, the year 1850. I did not see 
it, but it was talked of in the neighbourhood. 
Verification could be obtained, I presume, by apply- 
ing to the clergyman of the parish. %.*%. 

DON (4 th S. xii. 368, 416 ; 5 th S. i. 18), was of a 
Denbigh family, notices of whom may be found in 
a recent volume of the Archceologia Cambrensis. 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Puleston, 
married Feb. 21, 1584, Mr. Eichard "Wilbraham, 
Common Serjeant of the City of London, from 
whom, in direct descent, is the present Lord Skel- 
.mersdale. An uncle of this Mr. Eichard Wilbra- 
ham was Becorder of London, and a brother, Sir 
Eoger Wilbraham, was Master of the Court of 
Eequests, surveyor of the Court of Wards and 
Liveries, and Solicitor-General for Ireland in 1585. 
Mr. Eichard Wilbraham was buried in St. Michael's, 
London, in 1601. F. 

INNOCENTS' DAY (5 th S. i. 8.) I have in my 
hands a letter from the vicar of Ampney Crucis, 
Gloucestershire, containing the following passage: 

" The bells are rung muffled on St. Innocents' Day. 
The peal is begun at 12 noon ; the bells are left v.p, and 
they finish it in the evening about 8 p.m." 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

A MNEMONIC CALENDAR FOR 1874 (5 th S. i. 5.) 
When MR. SKEAT was at the pains to compose the 
two lines thus designated in " N. & Q.," January 3, 
p. 5, I think he could not have been acquainted 
with the old mnemonic distich : 

" At Dover dwell George Brown, Esquire, 

Good Christopher Finch, and David Fryar." 
The initials of the several words in these lines are 
the Sunday letters opposite the first day of every 
month in the Calendar in the Book of Common 
Prayer ; and by means of them, if the Sunday 
letter for any year be known, the days on which 
all the Sundays fall in that year may be readily 
found. For example, A stands opposite the 1st of 
January, and as D is the Sunday letter for this 
year, the first Sunday in January this year was the 
4th. Again, D is opposite the 1st of February, 
and consequently that day will be the first Sunday 
in that month this year ; and so mutatis mutandis 
for all the other months. The first Sunday in any 
month being known, the others are manifest. A 
glance at the Calendar in the Book of Common 
Prayer will make this very plain. It must be un- 
necessary to add, that the utility of these lines is 
not limited to Sundays. F. S. A. 

" STERN" : " FIRM" (4 th S. xi. 484, 532.) The re- 
ference to Walker shows that a century ago there 
were different opinions as to the pronunciation of 
" stern " and " firm," but not how they were then 
pronounced. Only fourteen years after the critique 
in the Dramatic Censor Archdeacon Nares seems 
to have known no more about it than myself : 

"Of the irregular sounds of i: u short. The letter r 
produces this effect upon an i as upon an e immediately 
preceding it in the same syllable. Ex. Bird, circle, firm, 
virgin, so that it is not easy in these circumstances to 
trace the orthography from the sound. Vergin, virgin, 
and vurgin would be pronounced exactly alike." * 


Garrick Club. 

PETER PINDAR (5 th S. i. 19.)" The Praise of 
Margate " is in " Tales of the Hoy ; interspersed 
with Song, Ode, and Dialogue." My edition of 
the works of Peter Pindar is in three volumes, the 
first two published in 1801, the third in 1805 
(London, Wood, Vernon, &c.). The different pieces 
are numbered continuously throughout the three 
volumes, and " Tales of the Hoy " is No. 46, the 
last piece but two in the third volume. 


Wyverby, Melton Mowbray. 

" TALENTED " (4 th S. xii. 427 ; 5 th S. i. 33.) 
In the Life and Speeches of Daniel O'Connell, by 
his son, 2 vols., 1846, there appears to be no 
reference to the use of this word, and although 
many speeches are quoted, it does not, I think, once 
occur. In a review article that appeared in 1830 
on Jean Paul F. Eichter, Thomas Carlyle, in trans- 
lating, uses the expression "the most talented 
men," vide Critical and Miscellaneous Essays (re- 
printed 1872), vol. iii., p. 38. J. MILLER. 

would refer W. H. S. to Martene de Antiquis 
Ecclesice Eitibus, i. 110, ii. 288, iii. 98 (edit. 
Venice, 1783, 4 vols. folio), and to Catalani's 
Pontificale Eomanum, ii. 196, (edit. Paris, 1850, 
3 vols. quarto). 

With regard to England, Mr. Maskell notes in 
the Monumenta Eitualia. III. cxlix., that "the 
separate consecration of altars was of late intro- 
duction " ; and there is in his book no such form. 
They were however specially blest during the con- 
secration of a church. 


THE BEST CAST (4 th S. xii. 443, 522.) There is 
some plausibility in the suggestion of M. P., that 

* It seems that our ancestors distinguished these 
sounds more correctly. Bishop Gardiner, in his first 
letter to Cheke, mentions a witticism of Nicolas Rowley, 
a fellow Cantab with him, to this effect : " Let hand- 
some girls be called virgins, plain ones vurgins " " Si 
pulchra est virgo, sin turpis vurgo vocetur." Elements 
of Orthoepy, p. 27. Lond., 1784. 

5" S. I. JAN. 17, 74.] 



the first four lines of this prophecy refer to 
James VI. of Scotland and I. of England, and that 
the last two lines refer to William III. and his 
father-in-law, James II. ; but still it is surrounded 
with very grave objections. 

The first line of the prophecy is this" Allwayes 
the vj is the best cast of the dyce," and I cannot 
imagine how these words are to be applied to 
James, the son of Mary. In no sense was he the 
" best cast of the dyce," nor has VI. been remark- 
able for good kings in English history ; witness 
Henry VI, Edward VI, the boy king, and 
James I who was VI. of Scotland, a man most 
assuredly not to be proud of. 

The second line runs thus: "When the ace 
beryth up the vj then shall england be a payradice," 
but it would be an historical outrage to assert that 
England was a paradise under any one of the 
Stuart dynasty, unless, indeed, " the silver age of 
Anne " may be excepted. 

Lines three and four are 

" When vj and iiij sett all of one syde/ 
then y e worde of vj shalbe spred full wyde." 

M. P. says this refers to the marriage of Prince 
Charles with the daughter of Henry IV; of France. 
But surely James was no longer vj but i when he 
left the throne of Scotland for that of England ; 
and how did this marriage bring it about that " y e 
worde of King James was spred full wyde"? 
That marriage in nowise consolidated the authority 
or increased the popularity of the Stuarts. 

In regard to the last two lines, M. P. says " they 
were added afterwards," and refer to the Revolution. 
The lines are 

" When iij & ij holld nott all one assent 
then shall there be anewe kyng/ & a newe parlamentt." 

In the first place there is not the slightest reason 
for supposing that these two lines are of later date 
than the four preceding ones the ink, the character 
of the writing, the spelling, the stops, are all of 
the anterior date. No one can see them and not 
pronounce them to be early Tudor. In the next 
place, the Prince of Orange was not William III 
till he was already King of England. It was not 
because William and his father-in-law were at 
variance that William was made King of England, 
but because James and his subjects were at 
variance that the Prince of Orange was invited 
over by the people of Great Britain. It was not 
because or " when iij & ij held not one assent " 
that the new king was chosen, but when James II 
and his people held not one assent that the Prince 
of Orange was made William III, and James was 
declared to have abdicated. Dissension between 
James and his father-in-law had no part nor lot in 
the matter. 

There can be no doubt that the six lines are one 
subject and not two prophecies joined together. 
Giving M. P. full credit for his suggestion, I must 

still differ from it, and think I am " not reasonless 
to reason thus." E. COBHAM BREWER. 

Lavant, Chichester. 


The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, 
together with. Vita de Dowel, Dobet et Dolest, secundum 
Wit et Resoun. By William Langland. Edited, from 
numerous MSS., with Prefaces, Notes, and Glossary, 
by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A. In Four Parts. 
Part III. (Early English Text Society, No. 54.) 
Generydes. A Romance in Seven-line Stanzas. Edited 
from the Unique MS. in Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Edited by W. Aldis Wright, M,A. Part I. (Early 
English Text Society, No. 55.) 

The Myroure of Oure Ladye. Containing a Devotional 
Treatise on Divine Service, the Offices used by the 
Sisters of the Brigittine Monastery of Sion, at Isle- 
worth, during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. 
Edited, from the Original Black-Letter Text of 1630, 
with Introduction and Notes, by John Henry Blunt, 
M.A., F.S.A., &c. (Extra Series, No. XIX.) 
THE Early English Text Society continues to reflect the 
energy of its founder ; while the books just issued show- 
that neither is the zeal of their editors abated, nor their 
stores of learning exhausted. ;The third of the four parts 
of which Mr. Skeat's important edition of The Vision of 
William concerning Piers the Plowman is to consist, is a 
noble volume of between six and seven hundred pages, 
and contains what is known as " Whitaker's Text," or 
" Text C." The poem is introduced by an elaborate and 
instructive Preface, in which the editor describes the 
various MSS. of the C-Text, its date, character, and the 
allusions in it ; and besides describing the edition of it 
issued by Dr. Whitaker, gives a brief notice of the Doctor 
himself. Those only who have looked at this preface 
can form an idea of the labour which it must have cost 
Mr. Skeat a labour so exhaustive that we should think 
there can be little left for any future editor to supple- 
ment or to correct. 

The C-Text of The Vision is followed by Richard the 
Redeles, another poem attributed to William Langland, 
and which has been twice printed by Mr. Wright, under 
the title of Poem on the Deposition of Richard II., viz., 
for the Camden Society in 1838, and in 1859 in the first 
volume of his Political Poems and Songs. The volume 
concludes with a short poem a letter of advice, as Mr. 
Skeat aptly describes it addressed to a youthful but not 
incompetent king, Henry V. The poem has been well 
named by the editor " The Crowned King," and he shows 
very clearly that it was not the work of Langland. but 
one of several poems written in imitation of Piers the 

Of the second book on the list, Generydes, a romance 
in seven-line stanzas, edited by Mr. Aldis Wright, from 
the unique MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, as it contains only a portion of the text, we shall 
postpone our notice until we have the advantage of 
having before us the result of Mr. Wright's investigation 
into the history of the work and its author, &c. 

A glance at the contents of the volume of the " Extra 
Series " just issued by the Society The Myroure of 
Oure Ladye will show that it has a value far different 
and, in the opinion of many, doubtless far higher than 
that which led to its reprint by the Early English Text 
Society, in the illustration which it furnishes of con- 
ventual life in this country during the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. After the editor's Introduction, in 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 17, '74. 

which he gives us a bibliographical notice of the Mirror, 
an historical account of Sion Monastery, and of the 
life of the Sisters, and then of the services as illustrated 
by the Mirror, he prints the life of Saint Bridget, 
supposed to be written by the same author. The 
" Myroure " itself then follows in three parts ; and the 
volume is brought to a close by the necessary notes and 
a short and useful Glossary. The learned editor of The 
Annotated Hook of Common Prayer has spared no pains 
to give interest and completeness to the volume com- 
mitted to his charge. 

The Power of the Priesthood in Absolution, and a Few 
Remarks on Confession, &c. By William Cooke, M.A., 
F.S.A., Honorary Canon of Chester. Second Edition. 
(Parker & Co.) 

CONSIDERING the important doctrinal questions. Con- 
fession amongst the number, that are now agitating the 
Church of England, Mr. Cooke has done well in repro- 
ducing this excellent little book, which originally appeared 
in 1858. The value of the work is enhanced by a copious 
Appendix ; and when we add that it received the special 
commendation of such a man as the late Bishop Hamil- 
ton, of Salisbury, there remains nothing to say by way 
of praise. 

Letts' 's (No. 26) Pocket Diary, and an Almanac for 1874. 

(Letts, Son & Co.) 

IT is only necessary to say that the present publishers 
have fully succeeded in their endeavour to maintain the 
well-established character of this useful Diary. 

" You know who the critics are ! The men who have 
failed in literature and art." At p. 439 (Miscellaneous) 
of the last volume, the sentiment expressed in the above 
phrase, in Mr. Disraeli's Lothair, was traced back to 
Balzac in 1846; to Pope, 1711; and to Dryden, 1693. 
We now add one more link to the chain, and this is again 
afforded by Dryden, twenty years earlier. In 1670, he 
thus commenced the prologue to the second part of 
Almanzor and Almahidej or, the Conguest of Granada: 
" They who write ill, and they who ne'er durst write, 
Turn critics out of mere revenge and spite." 

8th the old iron railings at the west end and on the north 
and south sides of St. Paul's Cathedral were sold by 
public auction, by Messrs. Home & Co., preparatory to 
the opening out of the thoroughfare, which will be 
effected by the improvements now almost completed. 
The sale included the west gates in front of Ludgate 
Hill, together with the north and south sides of the 
railings included in the widening of the thoroughfare. 
They were described by the auctioneers as having been 
made of the best Sussex charcoal iron, cast about the 
year 1710. The attendance at the sale chiefly consisted 
of dealers, the result being, as the entire proceeds of the 
sale, 349Z. 5s. only. The property was disposed of in 
Dean's Court, Doctors' Commons. It has been stated 
that the original cost of the railings was 20,0001. 

WE have received the folio wing: "Some of your readers 
may be interested in helping me to carry out a collection 
of book-plates which has engaged me for some years, 
selecting and arranging the early and rare, the artistic 
and choice, and the curious and quaint, of which there 
are many, not armorial. I shall be willing to insert any 
gentleman's book-plate bearing upon any of these charac- 
ters, and will acknowledge his plate by a copy of my own, 
and shall be glad to purchase also or to exchange dupli- 
cates. I have in hand three folio volumes, and enclose 
to you photographs of the three title-pages, which were 

designed and drawn by that worthy mediaeval artist, the 
late Mr. George Barclay. HENRY PAKITT." 

" Carlton Husthwaite, Thirsk." 

EARLY ENGLISH LITURGY. A small quarto volume, 
containing twenty-five curious Liturgical tracts, issued 
during the reigns of Edward VI., Elizabeth, and James I., 
among which was included " Psalmes and Hymns of Praier 
and Thanksgiving, made by William Barlowe, Bishop of 
Lincolne," privately printed, 1613, was on Tuesday last 
sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson, of Leicester Sauare, 
for 721. 

Naden has been elected a Fellow, and Mr. R. L. Hesketh 
an Associate, of the Institute. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 

Wanted by Editor, Yorkshire Garland, Hull. ' 

AGASSIZ, BrBLiooRApiiiA ZOOLOGIZE. Vol. II. Kay Society. 


Vignette Title, and Dedication Plate to Vol. I. only. 

Wanted by Boolcworm, 14, Market-Jew Terrace, Penzance. 


A. M. Col. Mure, of Caldwell, in his Critical History 
of the Language and Literature of Ancient Greece (Vol. 
iii., 100 110), affords as good an account of the Scolion 
as can well be found in any writer. Speaking of " the 
favourite series of Harmodius and Aristogiton," he says 
that, in Athenceus, that series "is inscribed in whole or 
in part to Callistratus, an Athenian." The transcript is 

QU^KRO. H. B. is the pseudonym of the celebrated 
father of Richard Doyle. He is said to have adopted 
the initials H. B. on his caricatures from the circum- 
stance of his always sketching them with a Hard Black or 
H.B. pencil. 

SLAUGHAM. See Brayley's History of Surrey. It is 
there noticed that the widow of Sir Walter Covert of 
Slaugham, Sussex, re-married with Denzil, Lord Holies. 

R. H. F. For a thorough sifting of the story of the 
Masque de Fer, see the last number of the Edinburgh 
Review and the works named in that article. 

ABHBA. Only two volumes of the edition to which 
you refer (1829) of the London University Magazine 

V. DE S. FOWKE. Any German teacher in Oxford 
could solve this difficulty. 

G. M. P. The' answer will be published when, re- 

B. E. A. CRESCENT acknowledges with thanks your 
kind correction. x 

E. B. S. (Glasgow.) In type. 
G. L. H. Next week. 

A. S. A. (Richmond). Your letter arrived too late for 
this week. In next number, with pleasure. 
A. H. B. (Edgbaston.) Always glad to hear from you. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 





NOTES : French Revolution, 1792 : Official Badges A 
Jacobite' Letter, 61 Kentish Epitaphs, 62 Academy of 
Antient Music, 63 Edward III.'s Minstrels in 1360-61 The 
Flag of England " Mousquetaires " and " Carabiniers " 
Unaccountable Sounds "Black-a-vized," 64 Lord Byron 
in Scotland An Historical Elephant Abbotsford in 1825 
Body-snatching Barbara's Lines on Dean Ireland, 65 
Healthy Profession" Scrip " for " Letter " A Horoscope 
of 1818" First Sketch of English Literature," 66. 

QUERIES: Sir Joshua Reynolds: Miss Day: Mrs. Day- 
Topography (Gloucestershire) "Like" as a Conjunction 
Poplar Wood, 67 "News from New England " " Yule's 
Gird" Monk Lewis The Four of Clubs The Poet Cowper 
"Trooper" Tipteerers Old London Anthem: Ant- 
hymn Portraits in Crayons The Cartularies of the 
Abbeys of Vale Royal Norton, Birkenhead, and Combermere, 
Chester Ashley Cowper Tiovulftngacaestir, 68 Turpin, 
Archbishop of Rheims Dr. Isaac Barrow (Master of Trinity) 
Sir William Jones, the Orientalist Early Circulating 
Libraries, 69. 

REPLIES : Caspar Hauser, 69 Browning's " Lost Leader," 
71" Compurgitors," 72 Consecration of Bishop Varlet, 73 
Hart Hall : Hertford College, Oxford The American 
Civil War Matthew Paris Family Names given in Baptism, 
74 Paste by Pichler " To Scribe" Use of Inverted 
Commas Scottish Family of Edgar, 75 Sacred Vessels 
"Jacaranda" "The Fair Concubine," &c. Earle's 
" Philology of the English Tongue " " The Way Out " 
" Ordeal," 76-" Blind Harry's Wallace "The First English 
Commercial Treaty Register Books Stamped "All night 
the storm" The Greek Swallow Song Mrs. Siddons as a 
Sculptor Mr. Herbert Spencer and the Poker, 77 Welsh 
Language "Bloody" Bibliography of Utopias, 73 The 
Latin Version of Bacon's "Essays" Arms of Hungary 
Caser Wine : Carrion Funeral Garlands The Violet, the 
Napoleonic Flower, 79. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


During a recent examination of a parcel of coins 
and medals relating to the great Revolution in 
France at the close of the eighteenth century, I 
eaine across three or four badges, which appear to 
have been worn by subordinate officials. I purpose 
to describe these, in the hope that I may elicit in- 
formation other than I possess respecting such 
interesting memorials. 

No. 1, of brass gilt, is circular in form, and 2f 
inches in diameter ; it has a ring for suspension, 
large enough for either chain or ribbon, and pos- 
sesses both an obverse and a reverse, like any 
medal. The details of the obverse are these : 
Within a cable-pattern bordering are the words, 
" Service du Conseil des 500 " (In the service of, or 
In attendance on, the Council of Five Hundred), sur- 
rounding a cap of Liberty, from which emanate 
rays of glory, while below the central device is 
engraved, on an oblong tablet, the name "De- 
inange," doubtless that of the official who won this 
badge. The reverse presents to view the caduceus 
of Mercury as a centre-piece, round which, within 
a cable border, like that on the obverse, runs this 
legend, "Tout homme utile est respectable" 
(Every useful man is respectable). 

I conceive 'that the caduceus ornament indicates 
that the original wearer, Citizen D^mange, was a 
messenger attached to the Council of Five Hundred, 
and as that assembly was created in the year 1795, 
the date of this badge may be approximated thereto. 

No. 2 is an oval badge, If x If- inches, of brass 
or bell-metal, gilt. This badge has been struck 
from dies, and is like a medalet, with a loop for 
suspension. On the obverse appears a standing 
figure of France (?) holding in one hand the fasces, 
and in the other the pileus and cap of Liberty. 
The figure is placed upon an oblong pedestal, on 
which are delineated the open-hand sceptre and 
scales of Justice, the mirror of Truth, &c., and the 
legend is "Republique Frangaise." The reverse 
is formed by a wreath of laurel (?) and oak, sur- 
rounding the following inscription, " Action de la 
Loi, Tribunal de premiere instance," freely trans- 
lated thus, "Law Department, District Inferior 
Court." At the foot of the wreath the artist, 
Maurisset, has recorded his name ; his work is 
clear, and shows trained skill, though not equal to 
that of Duvivier, his contemporary. It is pre- 
sumable that this badge, like No. 1, was worn by 
a subordinate official of the Court named on the 

No. 3, also an oval badge, of brass or bell-metal, 
gilt, in size 2lxlf inches, is unlike the former 
examples, in having both sides exactly alike. On 
each field is inscribed " Eespect a la Loi," sur- 
rounded by an oak-wreath, of fair workmanship. 
No indications of any particular tribunal where 
this badge was used are given. A duplicate speci- 
men differs in being silvered instead of gilt. 

So many years have elapsed since I set foot in a 
French court of justice, that I cannot tax my 
memory with any details of the costume of either 
judges, advocates, or of any of the attendants ; 
though the period, 1851, being that of the Ee- 
public which preceded the Second Empire, may 
have given rise to reproductions of old Revolu- 
tionary customs and symbols. Perhaps, among the 
million who read " N. & Q.," some one may be 
found who has gleaned special information upon 
the subject of French official badges, and may 
be induced to tell us all about them ; whether they 
are still worn, or if not, when their use was aban- 
doned. CRESCENT. 


I have copied the following letter from three 
leaves sent me by your correspondent Mr. J. P. 
Earwaker, F.S.A., Merton Coll., Oxford. Mr. Ear- 
waker writes : 

" I obtained them from an old account book of one John 
Cozier, or Cosier, grocer, of Oxford, in which some late 
member of the family, living about 1800-1820, had 
scribbled various memoranda, and filled it with news- 
paper cuttings, &c. I believe the letter thus given has 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 

been published somewhere, but where I do not exactly 


" Coppy of a Letter of one of my Grandfathers to his 
son at Colledge. 

" Dr. Son, I receved yours & am so well satisfied with 
your conduct on the birth day of that old rump rogue 
with an Orange that I have sent you a draught on your 
Tutor according to your desire. As long as my son pre- 
serves his principles sound I shall not be angry at any 
frolicks of youth, provided therefore you never get drunk 
but on Holidays, as the Government is pleased to call 
them, and toasting the damnation of the rump and con- 
fusion unto the day. You may confess yourself freely 
without fear of incurring my displeasure. I approve of 
the company you keep much, but be sure not to herd 
with sons of courtiers for there is no concience or honesty 
in them nor will the nation thrive untill the King enjoys 
his own again, a health wich I fail not to drink every day 
in a bumper and I hope you do the like. I shall never 
think I can remind you enough of this matter for I had 
rather fee you hanged for your true King than enjoy any 
place under this Orange rascal who has undone the nation. 
Our family have allways been in the true old cause and 
we will live and dye by it Boy. Damn the rump that 
is my motto. Old England will never thrive nor see any 
good days untill it is tlioroly roasted. Your Godfather S r 
John dined with me yesterday, he asked kindly after you. 
We drunk nine bottles of stum and talked over all matters. 
We scarce utterd a word for wich the rascally wigs 
would not have hanged us, but I expect no better from 
fellows who would pull down the church if they had it in 
their power. I hope it will be able to stand in spite of 
all their malice and that I shall drink Church and King 
as long as I live. You know what King I mean, God 
remove him from the other side of the water where he 
now is. Let every man have his own, I say, and I am 
sure that is the sentiment of an honest man and of one 
who abhors these persecuting rascals who makes men pay 
for their conciences, but do thou my boy rather submit to 
their power than court their favour for wright is might, 
and alltho might may overcome it, it can never be 
abolisht. If kings derive their power from Heaven man 
can have no just pretence to deprive them of it. Orange, 
damn the name, he hath no such wright, we know he was 
made by man and consequently his title can not be 
deduced from Heaven. Your Tutor informed me you have 
been in great apprehension for the Church at Oxford 
and we in the cuntry agree it is in danger, but let her 
enemies do what they can an honest heart will continue 
to drink to her preservation, and while the wigs see the 
unalterable determination of our party they will allways 
be afraid of executing their wicked purposess. As for 
taxes we must expect them whilst the Government is in 
such hands and the true King in banishment. A wig, a 
Justice of peace, at the sessions the other day had the 
Impudence to tell me they were Imposed on by parliment, 
but how can that be a parliment wich wants one part of 
three of its constitution, nay and that the head? Is not the 
head superior to the body and consequently hath not the 
King a better wright to Impose takes than Lords and 
Commons'? Without a King let wright take place I say 
and then we will pay without grumbling, but to be taxed 
by a rump, a set of wigs and presbeterians, and fellows 
with an Orange in their mouths, I will drink confusion 
to them as long as I can stan. However I hope to see 
better days and that we may change our health and drink 
to our friends openly, for we are assured here by some 
Roman Catholic priests, who are honester fellows than 
the wigs and may be brought over to go to church in 
time, that the french King will do his utmost to restore 

us again to our liberties and properties, for wich reason 
we allways drink his health and confusion to the rump. 
I hope you will do the same at your club at Oxford, for 
take it from me as I had it from others that all hopes of 
this nation have of being preserved is from that quarter, 
indeed there wants no other reason for our drinking him 
than that the wigs are his enemies, for nothing can ever 
be good for this nation wich these rascals wish well to. 
I am sure no one ever suspected me of wishing well to 
the pope and yet I would drink his health sooner than I 
would a presbeterian I hope you will never converse 
with any such, but when you cant meet with true Church 
of England Men rather chuse papists, for they are lesa 
enemies to our church, and that they would destroy it is 
a Lye because the wigs say it, but confusion to them and 
may the King enjoy his own again will allways be the 
toast of Your Father." 


1. "H. I. S. Johanes Taylor de Cowling M tu9 
Aiio J5t. 83, 1675." And the same in English 
on the other side ; except that John Taylor is 
there described as " Husbandman." This epitaph 
is cut, the Latin on one side and the English on the 
other, in a sound bright beam of oak, about six 
feet long. The letters are tall, narrow, sharply in- 
cised, and as clean and bold as if they were new. 
The beam has evidently run lengthwise along the 
grave, and has been fitted into sockets in a head- 
post and a foot-post, as the manner is among poorer 
folks even now-a-days. John Taylor's grave, how- 
ever, has long ago been levelled : for many years 
his memorial-beam did duty as a rafter in one of 
the old cottages that grew up around the Norman 
church of St. Bartholomew, at Rochester. And 
now, again, these old cottages are destroyed ; the 
church of St. Bartholomew stands out clear, and is 
restored ; and John Taylor's beam is towed away 
there, in a small western gallery. 

2. "Julia Northampton, 1461." This is a small 
black-letter brass in the chancel floor of Hartlip 
church. Close to it is 

3. " John Osbourne one of y e Queenes Magestery 
Audeytores of the Excheksver decessed the xxi of 
May 1577." This, also, is a small black-letter 
brass, without figure or coat of arms. The spelling- 
is unusually eccentric. 


" I coo & Pine & tfe'er Shall be at Rest 
till I come to thee Dearest Sweetest Blest 



This charming epitaph is boldly cut in a large blue 
flagstone, in the middle aisle of Hartlip church. 
Below it, on the same stone, is the following coat 
of arms, in relief on a sunk oval : Parti per 
pale ; dexter, a chevron ( ) between 3 martlets ( ) : 
sinister, 1st and 4th, ermine ; 2nd and 3rd, sable, 
on a cross or, 5 mullets of the first. Two crests : 
the one, a gauntlet displayed ; the other, a demi- 
leopard, collared. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 



5. " To the pious memory of my most deare wife Mary 
Coppin (Daughter of Mr. Edward Osborne of this Parishe 
Gent:). She dyed in child-bed the day of Christ's Nativity 
in the yeare 1636 and of her age 24. 
Yet in this narrow circle of her life 
She had beene mayd, wife, widdow, & a wife : 
All perfect peeces, but like Patterns showne, 
That her good might be others as her owne. 
Here Frvit of age w 1 yovth's sweete Blossoms grew : 
Beavty made virtve fayre, that, virtve trve : 
And having so with wisdome crownd her Dayes, 
That Time covld not have added to her prayse, 
She 'a call'd to Heav'n, with Angells there to sing 
The joyfull Tidings which this Daye did bring. 
Here ends her Trovble : & here end ovr strife, 
Dvty is paid with Death, and Love with Life. 
Thomas Coppin." 
Mrs. Coppin (felix opportunitate mortis) lies in 
the chancel of Hartlip church. Her epitaph appears 
in gilt letters on a handsome mural monument. 
The next four epitaphs, all of them from Iwade 
churchyard, reflect the style of the later eighteenth 
century as closely as that of Mary Coppin reflects 
the Jacobean. The first two of them are of 
unusual merit ; and it will be seen that they 
all relate to one and the same family, and all 
(though they cover a period of forty-five years) 
seem to come from the same hand. The Craydens, 
I believe, are, or were, farmers in the parish of 
6. (On "William Crayden, aged 5 months, and 
Eleanor Park Crayden, aged 3 years. 1811): 
'' Go then, dear Babes, where bliss sincere is known ; 
Go where to love and to enjoy are one : 
Yet take these tears, Mortality's relief, 
And, till I share your joy, forgive my grief : 


Account of Money paid to the Band and Singers 
employed for the Season 1787-8. 
Qualities. Sums. Names. 
Rep. Violin 6 Wm. Thos. Wilcox. 

Counter Tenor 660 Wm. Wilson. 
Hautboy 660 J. C. Luck. 

Drum 1212 John Asbridge. 

Rep. Violin 660 Fk. Js. Messing (?). 

Alto Voice 6 6 John Parker. 

Alto Voice 660 Thos. Walker. 

Tenor Voice 3 W.Clark. 

Double Bass 660 G. Smart. 

Trumpet and Horn 900 Thos. Attwood. 
Bass Voice 19 5 J. Sale. 

Do 660 J. Sale, for my father, 

J. Sale, senr. 
Do 660 Jas. Saunders. 

Principal Singers ... 63 Misses Abrams, by Re- 
Principal 2nd Violin 12 12 W. Napier, by Do. 
Principal 1st Violin '67 16 Barthelemon, by Do. 
Hautboy 5 10 Jo. Heinnitz. 

Do 660 James Lowe. 

Violoncello 600 G. Likes. 

Bass Voice 4 14 6 Wm. Boyce. 

Do 2 15 Robt. Didsbury. 

Tenor Voice 6 6 G. Aylmer. 

Counter Tenor 4 10 Wm. Shrubsole. 
Rep. Violin 600 Richd. Chapman. 

Trumpet 600 Hezekiah Canteo. 

Tenor Voice 9 J. Paul Hobler. 

Double Bass 12 12 James Billington. 

Rep. Violin 440 W.English. 

Horns 12 12 Thos. Leander, for his 

Counter Tenor 21 J. Gore. 
Tenor Voice 6 Miles Coyle. 

'Tis all a Father, all a Friend, can give." 
7. (On Esther Crayden, aged 4 years. 1816) : 
" Beneath, a sleeping Infant lies, 
To Earth whose Body lent 
More glorious shall hereafter rise, 
But not more innocent : 
When the Archangel's Trump shall blow 
And Souls to Bodies join, 
Millions shall wish their lives below 
Had been as short as thine." 

8. (On Hester, wife of William Crayden, aged 78. 

1854) : 

" How strangely fond of life poor mortals be ! 
Who, that shall see this Bed, would change with me ? 
Yet, gentle Reader, tell me which is best, 
The toilsome Journey, or the traveller's rest.'' 

9. (On William Crayden, aged 91. 1856): 
*' Time, which had silver'd long my hoary head. 
At length has ranged me with the peaceful dead. 
One hint, gay Youth, from Dust and Ashes borrow : 
My days were many; thine may end tomorrow." 

It is only necessary to add that each of these nine 
epitaphs was copied by me on the spot, except that 
of John Taylor, which I wrote down a few hours 
after seeing it. ARTHUR J. MUNBT. 
Inner Temple. 

Do 4 10 W. Thomson, by order 

of Richardson. 
Rep. Violin 4 4 Jno. Tentum. 

Do 440 Jno. Fentum, for Mr. 

Do 660 G.French. 

Double Bass 6 John Philepot. 

Rep. Violin 6 6 Martin Schram. 

Do 660 Christopher Schram. 

Hautboy 600 Elisha Manessier. 

Bassoon 6 J. Holmes. 

Counter Tenor 4 10 Ja. Horsfall. 
PrincipalVioloncello 12 12 Ch. F. Eley. 
Bass Voice 660 Thos. Smart. 

Do 660 J. Danby. 

Counter Tenor 6 6 J. Danby, for J. Gui- 
Rep. Violoncello ... 4 10 J. B. Adams. 
Tenor Voice 660 Jon. Page. 

Do 660 J. W. Callcott. 

Do 4 10 Thos. Costellow. 

Bass Voice 660 Wm. Lenton. 

Counter Tenor 717 6 W. Rennoldson. 
Rep. Violin 660 J. Fisin. 

Conductor and Boys 52 10 Ben. Cooke, 
Tenor Violin 2 10 John Immyns. 

Principal do. .. 9 0) T i T.-T j 

Serjt. Trumpet 12 } John Richards - 
Tenor Voice 5 James Bartle man 

Rep. Violin... 600 Alex. Scouler. 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 


4 4 

, for self 

Tenor .. 4 4 0| 

Violin .................. 4 4 OJ 

Tenor .................. 600 J.A.Oliver. 

Bassoon ............... 4 4 W. Jenkinson. 

Violin .................. 440 Albert Innes, for Wood- 

cock, Laving paid the 

same to Mrs. Wood- 

Bass Voice ............ 1212 J. Webbe. 

Tenor Voice ......... 6 6 Per W. Webbe, for S. 

Webbe, junr. 

B. B. 

EDWARD III.'s MINSTRELS IN 1360-61. Their 
names are given (in the dative case) in the Eoll of 
accounts of cloth for robes given them (34-35 Edw. 
III., 391) as : 

" Hanekino filz Libekyn, Piper : Hernekyn, Piper ; 
Lambekyn, Taborer; Oyli, Piper,- Wilh'eimo Hardyng, 
Piper; Petro, Clarioner ,- Yhilippo, Trumpour; Johanni 
de Hamptone, Trumpour ; Nichofoo, Trumpour ; Rogero 
Fromward, Trumpour; Petro de Roos, Trumpour; 
Gerardo, Piper; Roberto Fol (=fool), Bourdour 
(jester); Petro, Comhere (?) ; NichoJao, Fidelere ; Petro, 
Sauterer ; and Magwfro Joha?i)ii, Wafrere ; MinistralKs 
domini Re</is." 

The King's Henxmen have their nicknames, I 
suppose, as two are entered as "Mustard & Garlek" ; 
three others as "Clays, Fige, & Vynegre." Chaucer's 
name is not in this Eoll, so that he probably did not 
then belong to Edward III.'s household. 


THE FLAG OF ENGLAND. Under a late Admi- 
ralty order, Englishmen in Spain are deprived of 
the right of placing their own national flag on their 
houses. It is only to be borne on land by consuls, 
say they, but on the sea may be borne by the 
merchant's craft. Considering for how many cen- 
turies St. George's Cross, the flag that braved a 
thousand years the battle and the breeze, has 
waved over the factories of our merchants in east 
and west, the subject is one well worthy of inves- 
tigation in " N. & Q." H. C. 


Perhaps to many persons the origin of these corps 
may not be so well known as their names. Bran- 
tome's description of them forms one of the most 
graphic sketches to be found in his amusing 
Memoires. He says, speaking of the Spaniard 
Alba, that when he went to suppress the revolt of 
the Flemings, known as "Les Gueux," he took 
with him only 

" Dix mil homines de pied, tous vieux et aguerris sol- 
dats, tant bien en point d'habillemens et armes, la plus 
part dorees, et 1'autre de gravees, qu'on les prenoit 
plustost pour Capitaines, que pour soldats : et il fut le 
premier qui leur donna en main des gros mousquets, et 
que 1'on vit les premiers en guerre et parmy- les com- 
pagnies : et n'en avions point veu encore parmy leurs 
bandes (Spanish), lorsque nous allasmes pour le secours 

de Malte, dont depuis nous en avons pris usage parmy 
nos bandes (French), mais avec de grandes difficultez a 
y accoustumer nos soldats. Et ces mousquets estonnerent 
forts les Flamans, quand ils les sentirent sonner & leurs 
oreilles; car ils n'en avoient veu non plus que nous 
(French) ; et ceux qui les portoient on les nommoit mous- 
quetaires, tres-bien appointez et respectez, jusques a 
avoir de grands et forts gojats, qui les leur portoient, 
avoient quatre ducats de paye, et ils ne les leur portoient 
qu'en cheminant par pays ; mais quand ce venoit en une 
faction, ou marchans en bataille, ou entrans en garde ou 
en quelque ville, ils les prenoient. Et vous eussiez dit 
que c'estoient des Princes, tant ils etoient rogues, efc 
marchoient arrogamment et de belle grace ; et d 1'occasion 
de quelque combat ou escarmouche, vous eussiez oiiy 
crier ces mots par grand respect : Salgan Salgan los 
mosqueteros afuera afuera, adelante los mosqueteros. 

" Soudain on leur faisoit place, et etoient respectez, vnire 
plus que Capitaines pour lors, a cause de la nouveaute, 
ainsi que toute nouveaute plaist." 

Brantome next speaks thus of the Carabiniers : 
"Le grand Prieur, Dom Hernand son fils bastard, 
estoit General de la Cavalerie, composee de quatorze 
compagnies de Lanciers, et quatre d'Harquebusiers & 
cheval, que depuis on a appelles paimy eux et nous 

To complete the picture Brantome adds: 

" De plus il y avoit quatre cents courtisanes & cheval, 
belles et braves comme Princesses ; et huit cents & pied, 
bien a point aussi." 

No wonder the Flemings fared so badly. 


Ashford, Kent. 

UNACCOUNTABLE SOUNDS. On the evening of 
the 18th Aug., 1873, sitting in my library, with 
two friends, our conversation was brought to a 
momentary pause by a very singular and curious- 
noise. Having formerly read (in some ghostly 
treatise) of a sound which, from its description, 
seemed to be like that we heard, I rose and went 
to the window, taking a candle as it was dark 
outside. "Did you hear that noise?" I said. 
" Certainly," they replied ; and one added, " was it 
an owl?" " Here is the explanation look." They 
came to the window ; and we found passing over 
the centre of the pane a large snail, possibly at- 
tracted by the light, for the curtains were not 
drawn. Had I been alone at the time, I have no 
hesitation in saying I should have been considerably 
startled, the sound was so loud, clear, and so- 
unusual. I wetted my finger, and rubbed it over 
the pane, producing exactly the same moaning 
sound. Many such noises, apparently unaccount- 
able, and calculated to alarm the nervous and super- 
stitious, might certainly be as well explained in a 
perfectly natural way, if, as on this occasion, prompt 
examination were made. A. E. 


" BLACK-A-VIZED." An instance of the import- 
ance of knowing provincial words occurred during 
the trial of the atrocious Newtown Stewart mur- 
derer. A woman swore that she had seen the 
accused come out of the bank and walk down the 

5 :h S. 1. JAN. 24, 74.] 



street. In describing him she said he was black- 
avized. The cross-examining counsel asked how 
could she see, at that distance, that he was " black- 
of-eyes." Neither the counsel nor the judge knew 
that the Scotch call a black-haired, dark-com- 
plexioned man " blackavized." The Ulster people 
dislike persons of that complexion. The word 
occurs in the beautiful story of JRab and his 
Friends. S. T. P. 

Dr. Guthrie, the late popular Scotch minister, we 
have the following relation : 

" A sister of Dr. Guthrie used to tell how, sitting one 
afternoon by the window long ago, she observed a youth- 
ful stranger who had emerged from the coach, walk 
down the street (at Brechin, Forfarshire), leaning on the 
arm of another gentleman. His appearance irresistibly 
awakened her curiosity. ' What a handsome man! ' she 
exclaimed, as she summoned the rest of the family 
group to the window ; ' but how sad that he is lame.' It 
was not till the coach had resumed its journey to 
Aberdeen she learned that the man thus admired was 
Lord Byron." 

The lady was misinformed, and the authors of 
the Memoir should have said so. Byron never 
was in Scotland after he had left it in 1798, in his 
eleventh year, to take possession of the seat of his 
ancestors. C. 

paper we read that Lord Northbrook has lately 
made a public entiy into Agra, seated on the same 
elephant which, since 1797, has borne Sir J. Shore, 
Lord Wellesley, Lord Hastings, and all the other 
Governors-General of our Indian possession down to 
the present time. As in 1797, to take a part in 
such an imposing ceremony as the public entry of 
a Governor-General into the second city of the old 
Mogul empire, the elephant would be at least 
twenty-five years old, it follows that now he must 
be at least a centenarian. 

Munster, in his Cosmogony, says, " Elephants 
are long lived; they have great pleasure in good 
waters, are very impatient of cold, and many of 
them live almost 2(X) years." If the elephant in 
question is of a good constitution, he may, like 
Macaulay's New Zealander, survive to contemplate 
the ruins of our Indian empire from a broken plat- 
form on the remains of the Agra Central India 
Railway Station. 

However this may be, allow me to throw out in 
your pages the suggestion that, in case of his death 
within any reasonable historical period, that his 
skeleton should be carefully preserved and de- 
posited either ia the East India Museum or the 
national one in Bloomsbury. 

G. C. HALL, 
Surgeon, Indian Medical Service. 


ABBOTSFORD, IN 1825. Among some old papers 
now before me is a memorandum of the annual 

value of the estate of Abbotsford. It is marked 
"Abbotsford Valuation at Walter's Marriage, 
1825." A great number ofpendicles, or small por- 
tions, are specified, but they are classed under the 
following heads : 

Toftfield 383 15 

Shearing Flats 35 

Crabtree and Gutter 1710 

Cole Yards 9 

Woodpark 13 10 

Broomilees 120 

Kaeside 104 6 

Abbotslee 86 3 

Abbotsford 59 10 

Four hundred acres of wood, the , 

greater part more than 5 years old ; 
average, 20s. per acre ... ... 400 

Add Abbotsford House, Garden, and 

1,228 14 

Total 1,428 14 

The above seems worthy of preservation, as 
Lockhart, in his Life of Scott, gives no such detailed 
information. C. 


BODY-SNATCHING. The following note is from 
a copy of the Universal Spectator and Weekly- 
Journal for Saturday, May 20, 1732 : 

" John Loftas, the Grave-digger, committed to Prison- 
for robbing of dead corpse, (sic), has confess'd to the 
Plunder of above Fifty, not only of their Coffins and 
Burial-Cloaths (sic) but of their Fat, where Bodies 
afforded any, which he retail'd at a high Price to certain 
People, who, it is believ'd, will be call'd upon on Account 
thereof. Since this Discovery several Persons have had 
their Friends dug up, who were found quite naked, and 
some mangled in so horrible a Manner as could scarcely 
be suppos'd to be done by a human Creature." 


55, London Road, Brighton. 

thirty years ago, I heard a friend repeat some 
satirical lines, written by Barham (Thomas In- 
goldsby), upon Dean Ireland of Westminster 
and his Bed. Riband of the Bath, all of which 
had escaped my memory save the first and last 
couplets. In 3 rd S. vi. p. 424, I asked if any 
reader could furnish a copy of them ; but my 
query remains unanswered. I believe I can now 
answer my own inquiry, under circumstances some- 
what analogous and almost as remarkable as those 
under which Coleridge wrote Christabel. 

In the course of an extraordinary dream, in 
which I fancied myself acting the part of Cicerone 
to a distinguished personage, when making a sort 
of Haroun Al Kaschid peregrination of West- 
minster, we visited the Abbey ; and in reply to an 
observation of mine, my companion said that 
Barham did not belong to Westminster. I said 
no ; probably Dean Ireland would not appoint him, 
and that may have led to Barham's lines upon 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 

him, which I then repeated as follows, and, 
stranger still, recollected on waking : 

" Oh Peter, if thou beest the Peter, 
And for the office none were meeter, 
Who dost of Heaven's gate keep the key, 
If You should ever chance to see 
From out your starryfied abode 
Some Reverend Dean coming your road, 
Oh straight clap to the door and lock it, 
The key put in your breeches pocket, 
And leaning o'er the wicket, say, 
' Good Mister Dean, You have lost your way ; 
Nobody here Red Riband wears, 
So please walk down them area stairs.' " 

D. L. 

HEALTHY PROFESSION. It may be worthy a 
record in " N. & Q." that in the parish of Great 
Catworth, Hunts, William Bunbury, B.D., was 
rector there upwards of forty years, dying in 1748, 
aged eighty-two ; Matthew Haddock, M.A., was 
rector forty years, dying (it is said by suicide) in 
1848 ; Thomas Evanson, M.A., was rector forty- 
seven years, dying in 1835 ; and Eichard Latham, 
M.A., was rector thirty-seven years, dying 1873. 
Thus, during the long period of 164J years, there 
were only four incumbents of this living. The 
parish is situated on a hill, and is generally healthy ; 
there have been several deaths, recorded in the 
churchyard, past eighty, and two past ninety, one 
considerably so. The late rector once, some years 
ago, remarked to the writer that his parish was 
"ridiculously healthy," there not having been, 
during the past year, a single death, out of upwards 
of 600 people. The living belongs to Brasenose 
College, Oxon. The same gentleman also told me 
of a parish in Cheshire (of which county he was a 
native), in which the curate and clerk had between 
them fifty children. He did not name the parish. 

T. P. F. 

" SCRIP " FOR " LETTER." When a boy it was a 
common thing for me to hear that the postman 
had brought a scrip, but it is a local word in Kent, 
which I think is now quite in disuse. Last week 
I received a letter, in which an old gentleman says, 
" I sent you a ' scrip ' at once, to thank you for the 
parcel, and now write more fully." F. S. A. 


A HOROSCOPE OF 1818. In a volume of old 
almanacs for 1818 I find a loose fragment of paper, 
on which is the horoscope of 

" Miss Davis, 


November 6, 

8h. 10 P.M., 


A small portion of it is torn, but it looks very 
learned ; and if the lady whose horoscope is cast is 
still alive, and reads " N. & Q.," perhaps she would 
like to see it. Pasted in the fly-leaf of the volume 
is this note, in pencil : " Eichard Lewis was born 

at half-past 3 o'clock on Saturday evening, the 17th 
day of October, 1818." MORTIMER COLLINS. 
Knowl Hill, Berks. 

This work, by Professor Henry Morley (published 
by Cassell, Petter & Galpin, in a thick duodecimo 
volume), contains a vast amount of biographical 
and historical information compressed into the 
smallest possible space. It is of the nature of 
Murray's Handbooks, and will be as useful to the 
student as Murray is to the traveller. In the 
thousands of references dates, names, &c. errors 
were inevitable, and the Professor, I have no 
doubt, like Mr. Murray, will thank any reader to 
point out such oversights or misprints, so that 
ultimately we may have a thoroughly trustworthy 
literary guide-book. As a commencement I have 
noted a few, as follows : 

George Buchanan (p. 403). Buchanan was sixty, not 
fifty years of age, when made Principal of the University 
of St. Andrews. His pupil, the Regent Moray, was 
assassinated in 1570, not 1670. 

Sir John Suckling (p. 546). Suckling is said to have 
died of a wound in the heel, a servant who had robbed 
him having put a penknife into his boot. But, instead 
of this improbable story, Aubrey states that the poet 
took poison in Paris, and family tradition corroborates 
the statement (see Memoir by Rev. Alfred Suckling, 

Cowley (p. 548) was not the son of a grocer, but of a 
stationer, who, by will, left 1401. apiece to his six 
children, and the same sum to his then unborn son, the 
poet (Johnson's Lives, by Cunningham, and Notes and 

Milton (p. 604). " In 1654 gradual loss of sight ended 
in Milton's complete blindness." He was wholly blind 
in 1652. The letter recommending Marvell as assistant 
secretary is dated February 21, 1652, old style, or 1653. 
This letter (which is not in Milton's handwriting) was 
undoubtedly addressed to Bradshaw, not Cromwell, and 
in it Milton recommends Marvell as "an able servant," 
not "an humble servant." 

Milton's Third Wife (p. 642)." Milton again married. 
He was then fifty-four years old, and his third wife was 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Minshull, of Cheshire. 
Her age must have been little more than twenty." 
Elizabeth Milton was daughter of Mr. Randle Minshull, 
of Wistaston, near Nantwich. She was baptized De- 
cember 30, 1638, married February 11, 1662-3, died 
October, 1727. 

De Foe (p. 728). "Daniel Foe, after the battle of 
Marston Moor, had left England." The battle of Marston 
Moor was fought in 1644. Foe, or De Foe, as he after- 
wards wrote his name, was not born before 1661. As 
Daniel, in the hot blood of youth, joined in Monmouth's 
insurrection, " Marston Moor " is probably a slip of the 
pen for Sedgmoor. It is added (p. 800) that Defoe retired 
from political strife in 1715; but it appears from Lee's 
Daniel Defoe, 1869, and Notes and Queries, that Defoe 
was actively engaged in 1718, and, presumably, long after- 
wards, in writing in certain political journals of that time. 

Congreve (p. 761). "Congreve was of a Staffordshire 
family, and born in 1672." Congreve was born at 
Bardsey, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and baptized 
February 10, 1669-70. " In 1693, at the age of twenty- 
one, produced .... at Drury Lane, his play of the Old 
Bachelor." He was then twenty-three. 

5 l " S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 



Gay (p. 790)." In 1713 he published his first poem 
Rural Sports, a Georgic." His first poem was in th 
style of Milton, entitled Wine, and published in 1708. 

Collins (p. 841). "AVilliam Collins, born 1720." H 
was born on Christmas-day, 1721 (Aldine Poets, 1858). 

[We must request correspondents desiring informatio 
on family. matters of only private interest, to affix thei 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

DAY. In the Life and Times of Sir J. Reynolds 
by Leslie and Tom Taylor, "Lists of Sitters" t< 
Sir Joshua for portraits are given, " so far as thej 
can be ascertained from his pocket-books." Amon 
them the following appear : page 155, in list fo 
January, 1757, Miss Day (afterwards Lady Fe 
noulhet) ; page 176, in list for January, 1759, Mrs 
Day; page 186, in list for January, 1760, Mis 
Day. Is the Miss Day of January, 1757, and o 
January, 1760, one and the same person, or ar< 
they two distinct persons, which would appear 
possible from there being an interval of three years 
between the sittings 1 In the Index, however, these 
two dates are placed against Miss Day, as if one 
person only was meant. If one person only, do these 
two dates imply that two distinct portraits were 
painted of her, and if so, where are they now (one 
is in the possession of the Baring family), and have 
both been engraved (McArdell and others engraved 
the one in the Baring Gallery) 1 

Was Mrs. Day any relative or connexion 1 What 
was her Christian name, and where is her portrait 
now? Was she, or was she related to, the Mrs. 
Day who was the mistress of Richard Lord Edge- 
cumbe, Walpole's friend (see Walpole's Letters, 
Cunningham's edition, i. p. Ixxi., ii. pp. 28, 34) ? 

Where can I .find information as to the birth, 
parentage and education of Miss Day, afterwards 
Lady Fenoulhet, and where and when did she die ? 

3, Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park, W. 

down, near Cheltenham, in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the ancient camp (British or Roman, 
for authorities are divided), there are several places 
with peculiar names. These lie chiefly on the 
slopes leading to the encampment, and invite an 
examination, which some of your readers may be not 
unwilling to afford ; some, indeed, may recognize 
these names at once, or, at any rate, throw on them 
the light of research. They are as follow : 

Kaibrane. A hollow approach, or natural covert 

Bloody Man's Acre. Well. The ancient well, near an ex- 
cavated covert way. 

Break Heart. A steep ascent. 

Green Street. A Roman road that runs round the 
southern side of Churchdown Hill, and gives into 
the great Roman way leading from Gloucester to 
Cirencester (Corinium.) 

Soldiers' Walk. Tradition says that, at the 
siege of Gloucester, there was a battery thrown up 
here, armed with guns in position to command the 

Now, these names, here spelt phonetically, as 
they are now pronounced by the country people, 
may be safely referred to the time of the Civil 
War, or later, with the exception of Katbrane^ 
Muzzle, and Green Street. Of these the latter speaks 
for itself, and it only remains to note for elucidation, 
and discussion the remaining words, Katbrane and 
Muzzle, on which I shall be glad to have any in^ 

Whilst on the subject of names, I may mention 
as worth recording some others, applied "to places 
in the parish of Churchdown, but not near the 
encampment or connected with it. They are the 
Zoons, the Lynch, the Crump, and the Nymph ; 
Gospel Ash also, which requires no comment. 

F. S. 


" LIKE " AS A CONJUNCTION. Can any reader 
give me instances, early or late, of like only, used 
as a conjunction, with the verb expresst 1 A very 
high authority lately scolded me for so using the 
word, in print and speaking, as in " like he did," 
&c., and declared that this use was quite modern, 
had come up only of late years, and was a wrong 
use, since as was the right word. An instance, 
which I thought in my favour, and which is quoted 
ay Mr. T. S. K. Oliphant, in his excellent little 
)ook, The Sources of Standard English, from Prof. 
March's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, 
" Elpenes hyd drinca% wcetan gelice and spingc de%, 

Elephant's hide soaks-up water like as a sponge does," 
s against me ; for, as Mr. Henry Sweet says, 
gelice is an adverb, and and the conjunction, as in 
T iatin " similiter ac." The question is, then, when 
[id like drop the as, if it was followed by a verb ? 
n the translation of the Bible, " The lion shall eat 
traw like the ox " [eats straw], like must be a con- 
unction, but the verb is not expresst. There must 
iave been a confusion between the prepositional 
se of like=like to, resembling (" I, like him, am a 
lan"), and the conjunctival use in which like= 
ike as. We want a series of quotations to clear 
tie point. F. J. FURNIVALL. 

POPLAR WOOD. I append a clipping from the 
Garden, which would lead us to suppose that this 
rood can resist the action of fire. Perhaps some 
f your readers can verify the statement : 

" Many despise poplar as a timber, but it has one 
olden quality it will not burn. Some years ago a 
actory at Nottingham took fire on the second floor, and 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 

burnt out to the top furiously, but not downwards ; 
although the floors lay a yard thick with hot clinkers and 
melted machinery, yet it did not get downwards, because 
the floors were of poplar." 

H. H. F. 

land's Faction Discovered, by C. D. (London), 1690, 
it is stated to be " An Answer to a Pamphlet 
entitled News from New England," &c., and I am 
most anxious to see a copy of the latter tract. 
This News from New England is said to be 
lately published ; and from comments on it, must 
have contained 1. A charge that Andres's com- 
mission was illegal and arbitrary. 2. That the war 
with the Indians was encouraged by Sir E. A. 3. 
That the Declaration of the Prince of Orange was 
kept back from the people. 4. That unlawful 
taxes were levied. 5. That the Indians had done 
great harm to the eastward. 6. An account of a 
fight with the Indians by the troops under Benjamin 
Church. 7. That the Indians say that they were 
.encouraged by some people in Boston. 8. A story 
.about Mohawks, Jesuits, and an eclipse of the sun. 
.9. Probably some notice of troops being sent to 
Albany. Can any of your readers, from the 
. above description, identify the News and tell me 
where a copy can be seen ? 


Boston, U.S.A. 

" YULE'S GIRD." A few years ago, on a Christ- 
mas morning, I heard a baby cry, and its nurse 
thereupon exclaim, "Baby's broken yule's gird!" 
Can any one explain the phrase 1 I may mention 
that the nurse was most probably of Scandinavian 
descent, as she belonged to the fishing population 
of the north-east coast of Scotland. 


MONK LEWIS. Where is a pedigree of the 

family of Matthew Gregory Lewis to be found ? 

' To what family of Lewis do the following arms 

'. belong Azure, a chev. argent between 3 garbs. . 1 


THE FOUR OF CLUBS. Why is this card called 
the worst in the pack ? In times gone by it was 
also satirically called by the name of one of the 
masters of a college in Cambridge, long since 
dead. S. N. 


[See 3" 1 S. i. 223.] 

that the pronunciation of the name of the poet 
Cowper as " Cooper" is supported by its being 
rhymed with " trooper." Is this so or not, and i: 
so, where is the couplet or stanza to be found 1 

E. B. 

TIP-TEERERS. Can any one explain the meaning 
or derivation of this word ? My mother tells me 

that fifty years ago Christmas mummers were so 
called at and about Midhurst. The word does 
not seem to be at present known in this more 
eastern part of Sussex. It is, of course, only pho- 
netically written. 


OLD LONDON. The premises now in the pos- 
session of Messrs. Fourdrinier, Hunt &' Co., 
wholesale stationers, No. 12, Sherborne Lane, King 
William Street, London Bridge, were, I believe, 
originally occupied as an inn. Can you give me 
any idea as to date when such was the case, and 
by what name the house was designated ? 


ANTHEM : ANTHYMN. Johnson gives "A 
hymn sung in parts, and should therefore be 
written anthyrnn." Has it at any time been cus- 
tomary to write the word in this way, and if so, 
when 'I In Canterbury Tales antiphone is used. 


PORTRAITS IN CRAYONS. I have two remark- 
ably fine portraits in crayons, probably painted by 
John Russell or Francis Cotes. On the frame of 

one was written "Charlotte daughter of 

Duke of ." Can any one help me to identify 

this portrait 1 W. ABERCROMBIE. 


MERE, CHESTER. Can any of your correspondents 
kindlv inform me where these are to be found? 

H. T. 

ASHLEY COWPER. This Ashley Cowper was 
clerk of parliaments, barrister-at-law, and died 
1788, leaving three daughters. I desire the name 
and county of his wife. " NEPHRITE. 

TIOVULFINGACAESTIR. This name occurs in 
Bedaj Hist. Eccl., II. cap. 16, as the name of a 
" civitas," near which Bishop Paulinus baptized a 
great multitude in the river Trent. The learned 
editor of Mon. Hist. Brit, gives various readings 
Tuilf-, Tuisf-, Tulf-, Uulf-. The third book o e 
Henry of Huntingdon's Histories, which contains 
the same narrative almost word for word, is 
omitted in the Mon. Hist., because for general 
purposes it adds nothing to Bede ; so that we have 
not the benefit of the editor's collation of MSS. 
In Sir H. Saville's collection of writers after Bede 
CFrankfort edition), we have the name spelt 
" Fingecester," with another reading in the margin, 
" Tiowlfingacestre." A learned friend consulted 
for me the MS. (13 B. VI.) in the British Museum, 
and reports that the original word has been 
carefully erased, not crossed out, and at the side is 
written, in darker ink and a different hand, 
Fingecestre. The other MSS. of this author 

<" S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 



mentioned in the preface to Mon. Hist. Brit., are 

(A) MS. Norfolk, Arundel, vellum, No. 48 

(B) MS. Grosvenor, vellum, in small folio 

(C) MS. in the Library of Corpus Christi College 
Cambridge, No. CCLXXX., quarto. Will any o 
your correspondents, having access to one of thes< 
MSS., kindly give the spelling of this name I I 
occurs a little after the middle of Book III., in thi 
account of the baptism by Paulinus in the Trent. 


Irlois," Spanish Ballads, vol. i. p. 261, translatec 
byS. Eodd, 1812: 

" No one peace would make between 'em, 

Not a noble interfer'd ; 
None but good Archbishop Turpin 
In this generous cause appear'd. 

Turpin, royal Charles's nephew, 

Lord High Cardinal of France, 
He alone this friendly office 

Strives sincerely to advance." 

How is Bishop Turpin supposed to have been 
the nephew of Char-le-Magne, as above stated 1 


Will any one assist me in tracing the pedigree oi 
Isaac Barrow's relatives during the years 1630 
1750 ? Did Barrow, Bp. of S. Asaph, ever 
marry? G. F. BARROW, M.A. 

Temple Club, Strand. 

he a sister who married a Mr. Pinnel 1 What 
was her second husband's name ? Any other par- 
ticulars respecting her that may be known will 
oblige. BRENDA. 

all events, kept one as early as 1661, as appears 
from a note of his at the end of the Thracian 
Wonder : 

" If any gentlemen please to repair to my house afore- 
said, they may be furnished with all manner of English 
or French histories, romances, or poetry, which are to be 
sold, or read for reasonable considerations." 

Is there any more ancient notice of a circulating 
library in this country ? J. 0. HALLIWELL. 

(4 th S. xii. 325, 414, 478.) 

The first book with which I am acquainted, de- 
voted to an investigation of the circumstances con- 
nected with this extraordinary and mysterious 
character, proceeded from the pen of the illustrious 
Bavarian State Counsellor, P. J. Anselm von 
Feuerbach, who died at Frankfort, in the summer 
of 1833. The title of the volume, which was his 

last production, is : " Kaspar Hauser. Beispiel 
eines Verbrechens am Seelenleben des Menschen. 
Anspach, 1832. 8vo." 

This memoir, which was drawn up for Queen 
Caroline of Bavaria, and of which a later edition 
was published at Altona, was translated into Eng- 
lish, in the same year, under the title of Caspar 
Hauser. An Account of an Individual kept in a 
Dungeon, separated from all communication with 
the world, from early Childhood to about the age of 
Seventeen. Drawn up from Legal Documents. 
London, 1832. 8vo." 

A second edition of this appeared in 1833, with 
further details from a pamphlet by Professor 
Daumer, from a narrative by the subject of the 
memoir, and from an essay by Schmidt von 
Liibec, containing many additional particulars. A 
portrait, which was also to be obtained separately, 
was prefixed to the volume. I have also before me 
the third edition (1834, 8vo., pp. 212), which 
appears to be a reprint of its predecessor. 

For this English version, it is well to add, we 
are indebted to the pen of a German gentleman, 
Hennin Gottfried Linberg, who also translated 
from the French Victor Cousin's Introduction to 
the History of Philosophy. 

A translation from the same original may also 
be found in the Penny Magazine for February, 
1834. Nos. 118, 119, and 120. 

It is worthy of note that Von Feuerbach dedi- 
cated his essay to Earl Stanhope, who had adopted 
the unfortunate youth, and provided for his sup- 
port ; and this in terms so beautiful and touching, 
that I am sure they will be read with pleasure by 
those who may not have the volume in which they 
are to be found: 

"To the Rt. Hon. Earl Stanhope, &c., &c., &c. 

' To no one could this Dedication have been addressed 
with greater propriety than to your Lordship ; in whose 
person Providence has appointed to the youth, without 
childhood and boyhood, a paternal friend and powerful 
protector. Beyond the sea, in fair old England, you have 
prepared for him a secure retreat, until the rising sun of 
;ruth shall have dispersed the darkness which still hangs 
over his mysterious fate, and perhaps, in the remainder of 
lis half murdered life, he may yet hope for days, for the 
sake of which, he will no longer regret his having seen 
lie light of this world. For such a deed, none but the 
;enius of Humanity can recompense TOtr. 

" In the vast desert of the present time, when the 
icarts of individuals are more and more shrivelled and 
tarched by the fires of selfish passions, to have met once 
nore with a real man, is one of the most pleasing an 
ndelibly impressive occurrences which have adorned the 
evening scenery of my lift. 

"With inmost veneration and love, 
" I am your Lordship's 

"Most obedient servant, 


The death of this eminent jurist took place in th 

ear succeeding the publication of his memoir, and 

while he was still interested in the investigation of 

be dark story of its subject. The suddenness of the 



5* S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 

event, and the peculiar circumstances which at- 
tended it, suggested foul play on the part of certain 
persons supposed to be interested in the suppres- 
sion of the truth. A friend of my own, a German 
gentleman holding an official position, has told me 
that he was informed by one of the accomplished 
daughters of Von Feuerbach, that it was the firm 
belief of herself and the other members of her 
family that the death of their distinguished rela- 
tive was accomplished by poison, administered at 
a place to which he had been summoned on the 
pretext of official business. I may also add that 
the same friend remembers to have seen Caspar 
Hauser in his youth, conversed with him, and 
shaken him by the hand. He bears testimony to 
the fidelity of the portrait, which accompanies the 

By dint of careful tuition, aided, as it would 
appear, by good-natural abilities, this mysterious 
individual had succeeded in attaining a fair amount 
of intelligence. He resided at Anspach, where he 
had obtained, through the President of the Court 
of Appeal, employment in the Registration Office. 
In this he was still engaged, when, on December 
17, 1833, his brief and unfortunate career was cut 
short by the dagger of an unknown assassin. No 
trustworthy clue was found for the identification 
of the latter ; but it was hardly to be doubted that 
he was the same who had made an unsuccessful 
attempt in October, 1829. A day or two after the 
fatal occurrence, Lord Stanhope arrived at Anspach; 
and not the least remarkable part of the whole 
affair was the entire change which had now taken 
place in the feelings of his lordship towards his 
former favourite, and his intense desire to convict 
him of imposture and suicide. These positions he 
attempted to prove in a volume published then- 
abouts at Heidelberg. The matter then slumbered 
for awhile, till some five-and-twenty years later it 
was revived by Professor Eschricht, of Copen- 
hagen, who repeated, and attempted to sub- 
stantiate, the charges of Lord Stanhope, but at the 
same time rather leaned to the opinion that Hauser 
was a person of weak intellect. This led Professor 
Daumer, the former tutor of the youth, to take up 
his defence, and bring forward a number of facts 
which, while they served to increase the mystery 
tended strongly to show, that, at all events, the 
crime of imposture could not be laid to his charge 
An excellent paper on the subject, referring to this 
revival of the controversy, and summarizing its 
results, will be found in the New Monthly Maga 
sine for December, 1860, vol. cxx., p. 184. 

The singular, indeed unique, features of the casi 
seemed to render it peculiarly fitting for the illus 
tration of the principles of the late Robert Owen 
Accordingly an essay was put forth by one of hL 
disciples, entitled : 

" Caspar Hauser; or the Power of Externa 
Circumstances exhibited in forming the Humar 

Character. With Remarks by John Green, Social 
Missionary for the Liverpool District. Manchester, 
ley wood. 8vo. (no date), pp. 36." 

In April, 1852, occurred the death of Charles 
jeopold Frederick, Grand-Duke of Baden. I can- 
lot ask space here to revive and discuss the court 
candals and genealogical mysteries of the reigning 
ouses of Bavaria and Baden, and the share in 
hese to be ascribed to Stephanie Tascher de la 
5 agerie (niece of Josephine), Madame Geyer von 
~eyersberg (afterwards Countess of Hochberg, the 
morganatic spouse of the Grand-Duke), the infa- 
mous Ludwig, and the officer, Major Hennenhofer, 
lis tool and creature. Suffice it to say, that attention 
was again drawn to the Caspar Hauser mystery, and 
hat hints for its possible elucidation will be found 
n the various obituary notices of the personage above 
named, notably in the Daily News for April, 1852. 

Twenty years later even at the present day 
nterest in this dark and painful history is not ex- 
tinct. I am informed that within the last twelve 
months several books or pamphlets have appeared 
.n Germany, in which the question has been once 
more fully investigated. In them it is contended, 
on the one hand, that the unfortunate man was the 
result of an illicit amour, and that his father was a 
priest ; and on the other, that he was one of the 
missing sons of the Grand-Duchess, Stephanie, 
who had been spirited away by Ludwig, that he 
tiimself might succeed to his father's title. Lastly, 
those are not wanting who, following Lord 
Stanhope, assert roundly that the man was a mere 
impostor ; that the entire story of his early life was a 
fabrication, to attract admiration and interest; and 
that the wound by which he died was self-inflicted, 
either with the object of reviving flagging interest, 
and accidentally more serious than intended, or 
purposely suicidal, when the burden of imposture 
had become too great to be borne. 

The interest manifested by Lord Stanhope for 
this singular being finds its prototype, more than a 
century earlier, in that which was excited in the 
mind of Lord Monboddo by Peter the Wild Boy, 
also a native of Germany. For further particulars 
reference may be made to the Ancient Metaphysics, 
or the Science of Universals (Edinburgh, -1779-99- 
6 vols., 4to.), of that singular author, or to Wilson's 
Wonderful Characters (ed. 1821, vol. ii., p. 152). 
The reader may also care to be reminded of the 
savage girl found in France about the same period, 
and mentioned by Louis Racine in his poem La 
Religion; and of an intermediate hero, whose 
curious history is sufficiently indicated in the fol- 
lowing title of a very interesting little book : 

" An Historical Account of the Discovery and 
Education of a Savage Man, or of the First De- 
velopments, Physical and Moral, of the Young 
Savage caught in the Woods near Aveyron, in the 
year 1798. By E. M. Itard, &c. London, 1802. 
12mo. pp. 148." 

6* S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 



In the foregoing desultory remarks I have not 
pretended to give a complete or connected account 
of their subject ; or to do much more than indicate 
the sources of information with which I happen 
to be acquainted. The dark enigma of the life of 
Caspar Hauser remains where it was ; and will 
probably have to await for its solution that final 
hour when all mysteries shall be made clear. Thus 
the student of history will class it with that of the 
Man with the Iron Mask, of Junius, and of Louis 
Philippe, ex-King of the French. To all which 
may possibly come to be added last but not least 
that of the Claimant himself ! 



When travelling in Bavaria, in 1852 and 1854, 
I was informed at Nuremberg that the wounds of 
Caspar Hauser were believed to have been inflicted 
by his own hand. At first they had not been con- 
sidered dangerous, but mortification had ensued. 
The theory was that, having found his popularity 
decreasing, he attempted to revive it by represent- 
ing himself as the victim of further persecutions, 
and, to strengthen the credibility of this falsehood, 
he had stabbed himself in several places, uninten- 
tionally overdoing his work. I possessed no means 
or leisure for investigating the evidence. A two- 
volume book, illustrated, on Nuremberg, in recent 
years, touches upon this story. I will endeavour 
to furnish the full title. J. W. E. 

Molash, Kent. 

A full account of this young man will be found 
in Tracts relating to Caspar H auser, by Earl Stan- 
hope. London, Hodson, 1836. 




(4 th S. xii. 473, 519.) 

An inquiry concerning this impressive poem ap- 
peared several years ago in " N. & Q.," I believe, 
but I have not the earlier volumes at hand for con- 
sultation. As in the case of another perplexing 
poem by Robert Browning, How they brought the 
Good Neivs from Ghent to Aix, no satisfactory 
answer was received. Fortunately, the author is 
still living, honoured and vigorous among us (long 
may he so continue, " the first by the throne " of 
Apollo), and a word from him would remove the 
difficulty. He is courteous to all, and may be 
willing to decide what special incident, if any, was 
referred to in the description of Roland's night- 
journey ; and, also, whether the portrait of the 
"Lost Leader" is generalized or particular. In 
the absence of such an authoritative statement, 
may I venture, with sincere respect to MR. J. 
BOUCHIER, to differ from his opinion regarding 
Wordsworth having been the person indicated 
Surely this is a gratuitous assumption. I admit 

that Wordsworth has proved to be a " Leader," and 
a noble one. His influence has been powerful and 
wholesome. It is impossible to read the later 
poems' of Byron, especially cantos iii. and iv. of 
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, without observing 
the reflection on that poet of Wordsworth's loving 
study of Nature. The habitual contemplation of 
grand scenery, as affecting mental emotion, is con- 
tinued as a theme by the younger poet from the 
suggestions of the elder. Even whilst turning the 
author of the Lyrical Ballads into ridicule in Don 
Juan, and writing of his longer poem as 
" A drowsy frowsy poem, call'd the Excursion, 
Writ in a manner which is my aversion : " 

Canto iii., stan. 94. 

Byron still was learning valuable lessons from 
Wordsworth, and by his own poetry helping to 
create an extended audience for the Bard of Rydal. 
Valuable space need not be occupied in showing 
how, to others than Byron, a true " Leader " was 
found in Wordsworth. One living writer alone 
may be briefly mentioned, viz., Sir Henry Taylor, 
whose masterly prose criticisms on Wordsworth, 
in the Quarterly Review, confirm the impression 
gained from his Philip van Artevelde, of the 
reverent love with which he had drunk from that 
" well of English undefiled," the writings of him 
who wrote of Tintern Abbey, the Duddon, and 
Laodamia. But such influence as this, great 
and enduring though it be, is not what is attributed 
to the " Lost Leader." He affects not alone a few 
superior disciples, but a multitude. Much more 
distinctly and palpably than the recluse of the 
Lakes does the figure of Browning's hero stand 
forth as a man of mark. I cannot believe that 
either Wordsworth or Southey was intended. The 
paltry Collectorship of Customs for the one, or the 
Government pension bestowed on the other, might 
explain the opening line of the poem 

" Just for a handful of silver he left us," 
if we could possibly imagine so generous a 
heart as Browning's alluding unkindly to such 
rewards (which were not bribes to these men). 
But neither poet won, or cared to win, the ac- 
companying " riband to stick in his coat." Southey 
determinately refused a proffered baronetcy. Oddly 
enough, both MR. J. BOUCHIER and MR. DALBY 
neglect the indications of the first verse, whilst 
attempting to fathom the meaning of the second. 
But the first verse seems to me to be full of con- 
tradiction to the new Wordsftorthian or Southeian 
theory. Nor could S. T. Coleridge, another 
"Leader," have been intended. Mark these 
lines : 

"We that had loved him so, followed him, honoured him, 
Lived in his mild and magnificent eye, 
Learned his great language, caught his clear accents, 
Made him our pattern to live and to die ! " &c. 

Can these words refer to^ Wordsworth ? Surely 
not. His eye, judging by the portrait still pre- 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 24, '74. 

served at my College of St. John's, Cambridge (to 
which he belonged), was mild, indeed, but by no 
means magnificent. Southey, it is true, had " an 
eye like a hawk." But who has ever made either 
of these two poets "a pattern to live and to die'"? 
although, in his noble unselfishness, his devoted 
literary industry and honesty, Southey was a better 
model for imitation than we can easily find else- 
where. How, again, could we Englishmen speak 
of having " learnt his great language," in regard to 
either of these two men 1 

If we must fix upon some single person, it would 
be more reasonable to choose Goethe. I well re- 
member his " mild and magnificent eye " in his 
portrait (taken in his old age) at Munich, the 
original of one engraved in G. H. Lewes's Life of 
Goethe. See the glittering star on his breast in 
Dawe's portrait, engraved in Bonn's Autobiography 
of Goethe, as illustrating the line about the " riband 
to stick in his coat." Kemember Wolfgang 
Menzel's bitter antagonism and persistent mis- 
representations, because, forsooth, the Baron VOD 
Goethe was not a patriot after the demagogic 
pattern desired ; because he preferred to devote 
himself to the study of science, art, and literature, 
at Weimar, wearing, also, his honours as Geheimer 
Eath, instead of rushing, like Fichte, from the 
lecture-room, at the head of his students, to 
attempt a repulse of the French invaders. Both 
men were deserving of admiration, but the work 
allotted to each was different. I do not contend 
for the identification of Goethe as the " Lost 
Leader," even as a dramatic impersonation, 
although many of us have for his sake " learnt 
his great language," in order that we might revel 
in the treasured thoughts of his Faust, and have, 
in early life, at least, " made him our model to live 
and to die." We interpreted his doctrines of 
Culture, and his exhortations to do the nearest 
work with energy, to suit our individual require- 
ments. As to the later interchange of hostilities, 
mentioned in the poem, let that be for those alone 
who are incapable of seeing how, in his work and 
example, Goethe showed a higher patriotism than 
even Korner and Fichte. Kotzebue was too small 
a soul to have been intended by Browning. We 
may accept Goethe, perhaps, as fulfilling the re- 
quirements, but certainly not William Words- 
worth. J. W. E. 
Molash, Kent. 

As a close student of Eobert Browning fo 
hirty years, will you allow me to suggest that thi 
" Lost Leader" may mean Goethe 1 Many allusions 
lead me to this belief. Goethe was supposed, bj 
some of his followers, to have stifled his libera 
aspirations in the flattering atmosphere of the petty 
court at Weimar, from whose hereditary Prince h< 
received both place, pension, and orders : 
" Just for a handful of silver he left us, 
Just for a riband to stick in his coat." 

Again, Goethe's remarkable personal beauty (style, 
upiter tonans) may be Alluded to in the " mild 
nd magnificent eye, in which his followers lived." 
^he "Lost Leader" is evidently of a majestic 
resence, and capable of inspiring his followers 
rith the most enthusiastic devotion, both charac- 
eristics of Goethe in a supreme degree ; and 
inlike Wordsworth, who I cannot believe is meant 
n any way whatever. But, perhaps, after all, the 
' Lost Leader " is purely ideal ; the same may be 
aid of " The Patriot," unless he is meant for Eiego, 
o which opinion I incline. J. S. D. 

" COMPURGATORS" (4 th S. xii. 348, 434, 497.) 
?hese functionaries were commissioners appointed 
iy Kirk-Sessions, sometimes by Town Councils, 
o take general oversight of public morals, and 
more particularly to take order for the due 
ibservance of the Sabbath and fast days. A few 
ixtracts from Kirk-Session records will make the 
eaders of " N. & Q." quite as well acquainted 
ivith these unpleasant dignitaries as they shall 
lesire to be. 

" 8th May, 1603. The said day it is thocht expedient 
hat ane baillie with tua of the sessioun pas throw the 
;owne everie Sabboth-day, and nott sie as they find 
ibsent fra the sermones ather afoir or efter none ; and 
or that effect that they pas and sersche sic houss as 
;hey think maist meit, and pas athort the streittis; and 
chieflie that now during the symmer seasoun, they attend 
or cause ane attend at the ferrie boat, and nott the 
names of sic as gungis to Downie, that they may be 
3unischit conforme to the act sett downe agains the 
3rackaris of the Sabboth ; siclyp the sessioun appoyntes 
ordour to be tane with the absentis fra the sermones on 
;he ulk day, and thair names notit and gevin up to the 
sessioun." Aberdeen, p. 26 (Spald. Club.) 

" 1649, 20 May. The collectors with one of the minis- 
ters or baillies are appoynted to goe throw the toun and 
the feilds, and observe and note those who are sitting, 
walking and vaiging out of tha house before and efter 
sermons on the Sabbath, and to report y r diligence everie 
session day." Dunfermline (ed. Dr. Henderson, 1865), 
p. 31. 

The editor informs us that at Dunfermline these 
familiars of the Holy Office were termed " seizers," 
and that their functions continued to be exercised 
in that town till about 1820. Fast days seem to 
be put on the same level as the Sabbath. 

1649. "20 Feb. Ordains to warn elspit walker in gok- 
hall and helen Cunnynghame thair for Dichting lint on 
the last fasting d&y."Dunf. p. 30. 

1641. Dec. 21st." That day, Jo n Smart fiesher being 
convict for selling a carkoise of beef and having pott on 
a rost at hes fire at fasting day, is ordainit to pay 8 mks. 
quer he payit ; and William Anderson in knoches for 
bringing a hameleading of y c s' 1 curkeis of beefe y e fast 
day, is ordainit to pay 30s. q r of he peyit 24s." Dunf. 
p. 10. 

No choice of kirks was allowed : 
1620. Oct. 25th." Item, it isordanit that no inhabitant 
within this burght sail in ony tyme heirefter go to ser- 
mone to Futtie Kirk on the Sabboth day, but that thay 

resort to thair awin paroche kirkis within this burght, 

5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 



and heir the sermones within the same, both befoir and 
efter noone." Aberdeen, p. 95. 

While attendance on preaching was strictly 
enforced, some latitude was permitted in the early 
part of the seventeenth century in the matters of 
refreshment and recreation before and after service. 

1647. March 28th. "That day it is statut and actit 
thatif ChristianeLaw,bre\vster, shall be convict heirefter 
in absenting hirself fra the kirk on the Sabbath day, and 
in selling drink thereon in tyme of preaching or uther- 
weyes imoderatlie before or eftir preaching. And in 
masking drink anie tyme that day. . . that she stand at 
the tron on a Settirday or anie mercat day betwixt 10 
and 12 h rs , befoir noone w h a paper on hir browe shaw- 
ing hir notorious scandall. . . and y r eftir y' she shall 
make hir publick repentance on the Sabbath before noone 
in face of the haill congregat" before the pulpett." 
Dunf. p. 23. 

1646. June 14th. " That day Jo n Buist made his publick 
repentance before the pulpitt for breaking of the Sabba"' 
(sic) in playing at the Kytes (quoits) in tyme of preach- 
ing, and peyit 20s. as he was ordanit." Ib. p. 22. 

1641. July 6th. " Orderit that people who are found 
drynking in tyme of preaching on y* Sabbath day shall 
be wardit (put in prison) furthwith without delay." 

But after 1649 stricter notions prevailed (v. sup. 
1649, 20th May). 

1650. Aug. 27th. "It is thot fitt that the ministers 
and magistrates meet everie Sabbath in the kirkyard aftir 
the afternoons sermon, to goe throw the towne for re- 
marking and suppressing the enormities. . . . manie 
strangers wha fled from the south parts for fear of Crom- 
well, walking up and downe idlie and not regairding the 
Lords day." Dunf. p. 36. 

1651. Aug. 18th. " Jean Barclay sharplie admonishit 
be the moderator in name of the sessioun for goeing to 
the old toune on the Lords day betwixt sermones." 
Aberd. p. 125. 

The compurgators having thus secured a congre- 
gation, had now to keep it. 

1650. March 10th. "The session ordaines Andro 
Thomeson belman to attend the west doore of the kirk 
in tyme of Devine service, y' nane get furth before the 
last blessing w'yat license given be the collector and 
visitors and a sufficient excuse notifyied by y" 1 . And 
also or Jains y 1 the eist doore of the kirk be lockit all 
the tyme of devine service, at least fra the tyme the 
collectir of the almes comes in." Dunf. p. 32. 

Their next duty was to see to the proper beha- 
viour of the congregation. 

1663. Nov. 14th. " The same day the kirk bedelles 
being conveined anent the neglect of their dewtie, 
ordains ilk ane of them to carie in their hands at all 
respective meitings of divyne service, ane whyt staff as 
was in use of old, not onlie for wakining those that 
sleips in the kirk, but also to walk to and fro from 
corner to corner in the kirks, for removing of barnes 
and boyes out of the kirks, who troubles the samyne by 
making of din in tyme of divyne service." Memorabilia 
of Glasgow (priv. pr. 1868), p. 186. 

1643. April 23rd. " That day andro thomsone belman 
is ordaint to tak notice of those who in the communion 
yle in tyme of preaching and uther tymes of God's ser- 
vice, has y r comon Discourses and conferences, and taks 
y r sneizing tobatto in the most remote and secret pairt 
of y s s a yl e whar they think they will not be seen, and y 
s' 1 andro is ordainit to delate such y 1 order may be taine 
wi" 1 yame." Dunf. p. 12. 

1648. March 26th. " That dayit is thotfitt that public 
admonishing be given out of pulpitt to those y* offers 
and takes snizing in the kirk in tyme of preaching or 
prayer." Dunf. p. 25. 

No doubt, the snuff, forbidden to the nose, was 
supplied in abundance to the ears. For my part, 
I much prefer the snuff in the sermon. K. B. S 


463, 531.) Mgr. Dominique-Marie Varlet, of 
Paris, and a Doctor of the Sorbonne, was 
nominated Bishop of Ascalon inpartibus infidelium 
(an ancient episcopal see in the ecclesiastical 
province of Palasstina Prima) on 17 Sep., 1718, by 
Pope Clement XI., as coadjutor, Cum jure futurce 
successionis, to Mgr. Louis-Marie Pidon de Saint- 
Olon, Bishop of Babylon, and Vicar- Apostolic of 
Persia ; and he was consecrated in the chapel of 
the Seminary of Foreign Missions at Paris, on 
Quinquagesima Sunday, 19 Feb., 1719, by Mgr. 
Jacques Goyon de Matignon de Thorigni, formerly 
Bishop of Condom (which see he had resigned in 
1693, having held it from 3 Oct., 1671), assisted 
by the celebrated Jean-Baptiste Massillon, Bishop 
of Clermont (1717-42), and Fr. Louis-Francois de 
Mornay, O.S.F. Cap., Bishop of Eumenia, i. p. i., 
and Coadjutor to Bishop of Quebec in Canada 
(1713, resigned 1733, and died 1741). He had 
succeeded to the bishopric of Babylon, by the 
death of Mgr. Pidon, at Bagdad, on 20 Nov. 1718, 
and set out immediately from Paris for his distant 
diocese ; but owing to several suspicious circum- 
stances connected with his journey to the East, the 
Congregation of the Propaganda at Eome (who had 
the care of all foreign missions), decreed his 
suspension on 7 May, 1719, which sentence was 
communicated to him, on his arrival in Persia, by 
the Bishop of Ispahan. On this, he returned to 
Europe, and took up his residence in Holland ; 
remaining there till his death, at Rhynwyck, near 
Amsterdam, 14 May, 1742, at the age of sixty-six 
years. The suspension was never removed, and he 
continued a schismatic, and professor of Jansenism 
to the end of his career ; having, on four separate 
occasions, administered the rite of consecration, 
without any episcopal assistance, to the first four 
Jansenist Archbishops of Utrecht, as follows : 
1724, Oct. 15, Cornelius Steenoven, died 1725, 
April 3, at Leyden ; 1725, Sep. 30, Cornelius- 
Joannes Barchman-Wuytiers, died 1733, May 13, 
at Ehynwyck, near Utrecht ; 1734, Oct. 28, 
Theodoras Van der Croon, died 1739, June 9; 
and 1739, Oct. 18, Petrus- Joannes Meindaerts, 
who carried on the succession (after Varlet's death 
in 1742, as above), by consecrating bishops for the 
restored sees of Haarlem and Deventer, and died 
1767, Oct. 31. There have been eighteen Jansenist 
prelates between the years 1742 and 1873, nine of 
Utrecht, eight of Haarlem (including the new 
bishop, Dr. Casparus-Joannes Einkel, Pastor of 


[5 !h S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 

the church of S. Nicolaas at Krommenie, in the 
diocese of Haarlem, consecrated on August 11 
last, in the church of S. Laurent at Kotterdam), and 
five of Deventer. The present occupant of the 
latter see is Dr. Herman Heykamp, who was con- 
secrated in July, 1854. The archbishopric of 
Utrecht has been vacant since the death of Dr. 
Hendrik-Johannes Van Buul on June 4. The 
Jansenist Church of Holland consists, at present, 
of two bishops, twenty-four pastors, and a popula- 
tion of about 7,000 souls, distributed over sixteen 
parishes in the diocese of Utrecht, and nine in 
that of Haarlem ; the diocese of Deventer has now 
no church or congregation belonging to the com- 
munion, the bishop being dean of the metropolitan 
chapter, and pastor of S. Laurent's Church at 
Rotterdam ; and the chapter of Haarlem ceased to 
exist in 1867 ; on the death of its late bishop, 
Dr. Lambertus de Jongh, the see remained vacant 
for six years, owing to there being a question 
as to whether the right of election of a bishop 
devolved upon the clergy of the diocese, or upon 
the Archbishop of Utrecht and his metropolitan 
chapter ; the controversy has, however, been settled 
by Dr. Rinkel's late consecration. Besides the 
twenty-five churches scattered over the north of 
Holland the principal of which are those at 
Utrecht, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam there is one 
on the island of Nordstrand, in the duchy of 
Slesvig, now belonging to Prussia, which is 
dependent on the diocese of Utrecht. A. S. A. 

P.S. Should a catalogue of all the Jansenist 
uccession be acceptable to the readers of "N. & Q.," 
I shall gladly furnish one. 

(5 th S. i. 51.) LORD LYTTELTON, as a Cambridge 
man, hesitates very naturally to render " Aula 
Cervina" as Hart Hall. The following information 
may remove the doubt, as well as help to confirm 
the Editorial Note concerning it. First, the site 
can be determined by Gutch's Anthony Wood, 
where, in speaking of the buildings of S. Alban 
Hall, he says, " The walks now used by this Hall 
lying in the east part thereof, belong also to 
Merton by virtue of a lease from Balliol College 
whereon anciently stood Hert Hall." Then again 
in The History of the University of Oxford, we 
are told that Walter de Stapledon, the subsequent 
founder of Exeter College, when about to accom- 
plish his munificent design of founding a college 
or hall in Oxford, engaged Hart Hall, and after- 
wards completed his plan on the spot where 
Hertford College now stands (i. e., by removing 
it to the present site of Magdalen Hall). Hart 
Hall continued to be a place of education without 
interruption till the Principalship of Dr. Richard 
Newton, who conceived the plan of endowing it 
as a college. King George III., accordingly, fur- 

thered his design and made the hall "a Body 
Corporate and Politick " under the name of Hert- 
ford College. Various benefactors and sixty-four 
Principals of Hart Hall are recorded. Dr. Newton 
then became the first Principal of Hertford College 
after the Royal Charter had been granted in 1740. 
Whether the following note, which occurs in the 
history quoted above, accounts for the extinction 
of " Hertford College " and the substitution of 
Magdalen Hall, I do not know 

" By the statutes, it may be called by the name of 
any other person who will complete the endowment of 
it, or become the principal benefactor to it." 

A. H. B. 

S. Alban Hall, Oxford. 

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR (4 th S. xii. 368.) 
The only history of the war from a Southern point 
of view, is The History of the War between the 
States, by Hon. Alexander H. Stephens, ex-Vice- 
President of the Confederate States, now M.C. 
from the State of Georgia. This, however, is 
rather a history of the causes which led to the war 
than of military operations. Materials for a his- 
tory of the war, consisting of official reports of 
commanders, and other original documents, are 
being collected by the Southern Historical Society, 
and published from time to time in their official 
organ, The Southern Magazine (Baltimore, Mary- 
land). G. L. H 

Greenville, Ala. 

MATTHEW PARIS (4 th S. xii. 473.) If it be the 
rule, as I believe it is, that the commemoration of 
persons, whose bodies have been removed from one 
place of sepulture to another, be altered from the 
day of their death to the day of their translation, 
then, undoubtedly, MR. GALTON is right, and the 
author of Parliaments and Councils of England is 
wrong. And what gives a strong colour to MR. 
GALTON'S view is, that in the Church of England 
Calendar, prefixed to the Book of Common Prayer, 
the anniversary days, both of Edward, King of the 
West Saxons, and Edward the Confessor, are set 
down on the days of their respective translation 
the former on June 20th; the latter on October 
13th. Rapin places the Parliament in question on 
the 13th of October. He says, " Which met at 
London, October 13th. M. Paris, p. 849. This was' 
a Parliament. See Ann. Burton., p. 322 " (vol. i., 
325, 1732, Fol., note). We know, from history, 
that Edward, commonly called the Martyr, was 
murdered at Corfe Castle on 18th March, 978, and 
that Edward the Confessor died peacefully in his 
bed, on Jan., 5th, 1066. Wheatley, Stephens, 
with all the best writers on this subject, are quite 
unanimous in their opinion an opinion identical 

495.) The reason why in Roman Catholic countries 
family names are not given in baptism is because 

5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 



it is thought necessary or desirable that the child 
should have a tutelary saint, who is for the most 
part the saint presiding over the day when the 
little stranger made his first appearance. The 
name is therefore sought in the calendar, and in 
this practice we have the origin of our " Johns," 
" Thomases," and so forth. In Anglo-Saxon coun- 
tries this part of the significance of name-giving 
became lost as the old Catholic traditions died out, 
although the ancient custom is still generally fol- 
lowed from habit. Sometimes in Italy, but very 
seldom, people who do not care about the saints 
give family names to their children. Thus Gari- 
baldi's two sons are named respectively Menotti 
and Ricciotti. Such saintless beings, having no 
recognized onomastic day, are liable to the disad- 
vantage of receiving no presents or other attentions 
from their friends on what in Catholic lands is the 
equivalent of our " birth-day." H. K. 

PASTE BY PICHLER (5 th S. i. 7.) Information 
will be found in Rev. C. W. King's various books 
on Gems, in reply to CRESCENT'S inquiry. Briefly 
recapitulating which, I may say that the Pichlers, 
John and Louis, were celebrated engravers at 
Naples during the latter half of the last century, 
where they successfully imitated the antique style 
of gem-engraving. I possess a fine intaglio on 
sard by Louis Pichler, of the head of Paris. It is 
signed in the exergue A* IT; and I doubt not that 
there are also the initials of the name on the paste. 
I believe that the gems executed by Louis are 
much esteemed by foreign collectors. The execu- 
tion is perfect, but my gem, at any rate, appears 
greatly deficient in vigour and character, if com- 
pared with any fine antique work. Pastes are 
made by pressing the disc of glass, when hot, upon 
a matrix of tripoli and pipeclay. Mr. King states 
that the number of pastes issued by Tassie was 
15,833. J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

West Derby. 

"To SCRIBE" {5 th S. i. 6.) It is, perhaps, just 
as well that this verb has not come into general 
use, for it would have increased confusion instead 
of simplifying matters. The regular verb " to 
scribe" being already in use in our language, 
where it has no less than two meanings, or rather 

1st. When timber merchants measure up timber 
that they have bought, they mark the number of 
the balk and their initials or private marks on each 
piece with a small iron instrument made purposely. 
Marking timber thus is called "scribing" it. I 
am not quite sure whether the instrument is called 
"a scribe" or not, or whether it is called a 
" scribing iron." It has some such name. 

2nd. When a board has to be fitted against an 
uneven wall or other irregular surface, a carpenter 
will lay the edge of the board against the wall ; 
there will, of course, be points where the board 

touches, and gaps where the wall is hollow. He 
then takes a pair of compasses fixed open to a 
certain distance, and drawing one point of the 
compasses along the wall, with the other point he 
traces a line on the surface of the board, which 
line is, of course, parallel to the wall, and follows 
all its irregularities. This process is called " scrib- 
ing " the board ; and when the wood is chipped 
away to the line which the carpenter " has scribed" 
it fits into all the hollows and projections of the 

Mobberley, Cheshire. 

apprehend the only answer that can be given to 
the question, Why do half-educated persons use 
inverted commas oddly 1 ? is, that they are, half- 
educated : and to the question, What idea was in 
the mind of the writer? the reply is, No idea at all, 
or none capable of being expressed. It is one of 
the many blunders in punctuation and the like 
that one sees on sign-boards, &c. marks of admi- 
ration for full stops, commas for hyphens, and' 
other varieties. One of the latter was for many 
years to be seen over a shop-door near Bromsgrove, 
and is ludicrous enough to be embalmed. A man 
meant to describe himself as a farrier and a cow- 
doctor. What he actually did was to announce 
himself to all mankind in this threefold fashion, 
as " William Brettell, Beast, Leech, and Farrier." 


Nothing is so certain as uncertainty ; and in some 
matters one may be excused a benevolent unbelief. 
The author of the work referred to disclaims any 
intention of disparaging the Edgars of Eyemouth, 
but he is not justified in admitting their claim to 
represent Edgar of Newtown, until they have 
substantiated it before the Lyon King of Arms. 
If genuine, nothing can be easier than to do so. 
A reference to other claims in the same work will 
show that the author was in the position of " the 
painter who pleased everybody and nobody." 
There were two contemporary Richard Edgars in 
the same county, and each had a brother Andrew, 
therefore the settlement referred to [1767] does 
not show the connecting link between R. E., of 
Newtown, and the Rev. John Edgar, of Hutton. 
And again, in Molle v. Riddell, if I mistake not, 
the question on which that action was founded 
was settled adversely to Molle (acting for Rev. 
J. E.) before any question of pedigree arose. But, 
so far as I am aware, no pedigree ever has been 
proved, and until it is, and to the satisfaction of 
the proper authorities, the question must, I think, 
be considered open. Besides this, the representa- 
tion of Newtown would not necessarily carry that 
of Wedderlie in the male line. Coincidences are 
often so embarrassing, that when we encounter 
them it is well to pause. Sr. 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 

SACRED VESSELS (5 th S. i. 8.) I must refer to 
niy Sacred Archceology for any information which 
I possess on the subject of " Benediction with the 
Blessed Sacrament," for obvious reasons. I may 
however say that the mediaeval monstrance in 
England was used in two ways : (1) at York we 
find, " j monstrum cum ossibus S. Petri in beryl," 
that is, a reliquary (Monast. 6, p. 1205, a) ; but 
(2) at Lincoln we find a processional transparent 
vessel, a round pyx of crystal having a place for 
the Sacrament for the Rogation days (16. 1279) ; 
at Windsor, " ij angeli stantes efc portantes fere- 
trum de berillo ad imponenduin Corpus Christi " 
(Ib, 1364) ; so at Aberdeen, " una pyxis de 
crystallo cum diversis reliquiis" (Reg. Aberdon. 
142) ; " monstrantia argenti deaurata pro custbdia 
Eucharistise, monstrantia pro conservatione reliqui- 
arum" (Ib. 185) ; " monstrantia instar Calicis pro 
custodia Ven. Sacramenti cum visitantur infirmi " 
(Ib. 186) ; " j stondyng pyx of crystal and gylt to 
bere the Sacrament in sett with stones and jewels 
besides the crystal" (MS. Inv. S. Stephen's Westm.). 
The rites of Durham mention a goodly " Shrine 
ordained to be carried the said day in procession, 
called Corpus Christi Shrine, and on the height of 
the said shrine a four-squared box all of chrystal, 
wherein was enclosed the Holy Sacrament of the 
Aulter." "A Nooster [ostensorium] for the Sacra- 
ment of curios work of sylver and gylt haveing a 
beryll in it cxliiii. unces" (MS. Inv. Westm. Abbey"). 
In 1452 the Council of Cologne forbade expo- 
sition on the altar, or carrying the Host visibly in 
procession within the " Monstrance," except upon 
Corpus Christi day, and one other day in the year 
on an extraordinary occasion. In 1699 Grancolas 
says that benediction with the Holy Sacrament 
was not earlier than a century before that date. 
The English instances of a portable monstrance 
date only from the second quarter of the sixteenth 
century. " Blessing with the Chalice" is mentioned 
by Becon and in the Homilies. 


" JACARANDA" (5 th S. i. 28.) This is the com- 
mon name in Brazil for rosewood. It is sold to 
English buyers for export under this name, and is 
not a tree fit for conservatories. B. 

I have had excellent furniture made of this 
wood in Brazil. It is a species of rosewood. 


"THE FAIR CONCUBINE," &c. (5 th S. i. 28.) 
I take the beautiful Vanella to be Anne Vane, 
daughter of Gilbert, Lord Barnard, who bore a 
natural son to Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, 
father of George III. John Heneage Jesse, in 
The Memoirs of the Court to the Death of George II., 
gives this child the singular name of "Fitz- 
Frederick of Cornwall." He was born in 1732 (the 
date of H. S. A.'s book) and died before his mother, 
in 1736. She died on the llth March in that year. 

I suppose P. (or Prince) Alexis stands for the 
owner of the " princely stare," but who was Albi- 
marides I cannot say. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

TONGUE" (5 th S. i. 29.) The fashion which C. P. F. 
asks after seems, like some other old fashions, to be 
re-appearing. I have seen it in people's letters who 
are not, that I know of, specially old-fashioned; 
and in printing it may be seen in some of Bagster's 
Bibles and New Testaments. He professes, I 
believe, to employ it " wherever a line may be saved 
by doing so." C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

"Ye" for "the" is still frequently used in 
their drafts by all classes of lawyers ; and I have 
met with it in the correspondence of friends of my 
own, middle-aged and young. It is a very con- 
venient form of contraction in rapid writing, and 
all the old contractions are kept up in legal drafting, 
and sometimes in the copies, for this very reason. 

H. T. 

"THE WAY OUT" (5 th S. i. 26.)- A. A. L. has 
been imposed upon by a " traveller's tale." The 
" spaski Vorota," or Gate of the Redeemer, the 
principal entrance to the Kremlin, is so called from 
a painting over the gateway, held in great reverence 
from ancient times. It is to this that the obeisance 
is made in uncovering the head in passing under 
the arch. This custom has prevailed from the date 
of the erection of the gateway, in 1491, and was 
formerly enforced by severe penalties. As to a 
Government official being stationed to see that due 
reverence is observed, there is frequently a sentry 
on duty, but I have passed through many a time 
without seeing any such official. Any person 
failing to uncover would run the risk of being 
"bonneted" by some passing Gorodoveeye, or 

Whether Napoleon left the Kremlin by this 
gate or not, I do not know ; but certainly this has 
no connexion with the custom alluded to. 


Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

" ORDEAL " (5 th S. i. 25.) That ordeal is pro- 
perly a dissyllable is shown by its old form ordccl 
as given in dictionaries ; but it seems hardly correct 
to say that " deal is also spelt dole," for while these 
words differed originally as active and passive, 
dole being clearly traceable to dal, which, according 
to Home Tooke, is the past part, of dcelan, to 
divide, they still differ as to shades of meaning, 
however closely they may now agree in their gene- 
ral signification ; this appears in the phrases, " a 
great deal," " a scanty dole," while to dole out alms 
does not express quite the same thing as to deal 
them out. In addition to the G. urtheil with 
which our word is in fact identical, the Russian 
or Sclavonic otdel, i. e., out-del, signifying division, 
bears a striking resemblance in form to ordeal, and 

5 th S. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 



in signification to its primitive meaning of choosing 
out. To recur for a moment to the word dole, I 
cannot refrain from transcribing, as quoted by H. 
Tooke, s. voc., the following couplet from Dry den's 
translation of Juv. Sat. 1 : 

" Clients of old were feasted; now a poor 
Divided dole is dealt at th' outward door." 

W. B. C. 

"BLIND HARRY'S WALLACE" (5 th S. i. 29.) 
The first edition of Blind Harry's Wallace was 
published in Edinburgh in the year 1570. For 
list of subsequent editions vide Allibone's Dic- 
tionary of English Literature, under " Henry the 
Minstrel." The only MS. copy known of Sir 
William Wallace is in the Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, dated 1488. 


18, Kensington Crescent, W. 

S. i. 29) with any foreign country was that with 
Norway in 1217 (Rymer, Foe. i. 223), and the first 
commercial treaty with Flanders was in 1274. 
Consult Anderson's Historical and Chronological 
Deduction of the Origin of Commerce, vol. i., pp. 
200-235. EDWARD SOLLY. 

W. P. C. will refer to the Act of Parliament, 23 
Geo. III., and to the History of Parish Registers 
in England, by J. S. Burn, ed. 1862, page 34, he 
will there find the information he is in search of 
on this subject. The stamp duty of 3d. was im- 
posed by the above Act from the 1st of October, 
1783, the provisions of which Act were extended 
to the Dissenters from the 1st of October, 1785, 
under Act 25 Geo. III., and both Acts were re- 
pealed in 1794 by Act 34 Geo. III., c. 11. 


3, Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park, W. 

By 23 Geo. III., c. 67, the following duty was 
imposed as from the 1st day of October, 1783: 
" Upon the entry of any burial, marriage, birth, or 
christening in the register of any parish, precinct, 
or place in Great Britain, a stamp duty of three- 
pence." The Act was, by sec. 7, not to extend to 
burials from hospitals or workhouses, nor to the 
birth or christening of any child of parents receiving 
any parish relief. By sec. 8 the Act applied to the 
registers kept by the " people called Quakers," and 
a further Act, 25 Geo. III., c. 75, extended its ap- 
plication to the registers of Protestant Dissenters 
from the Church of England. Both Acts were 
repealed in 1794 by 34 Geo. III., c. 11, and not 
before. Either, therefore, W. C. P. is mistaken 
in respect of the year in which the stamps cease to 
appear on the register; or there happened to 
be no entries thereon between 1786 and 1794, 
which is at least unlikely ; or, " the parson, vicar, 
or curate, or other person having authority to 

make " these entries on the register of the Wilt- 
shire parish, laid himself open to the penalty im- 
posed by sec. 3 of the above firstly recited Act. 

H. M. K. P. 

" ALL NIGHT THE STORM," &c. (5 th S. i. 48.) 
W. W. will find another W. W., one William 
Wordsworth, to be the author of the poem he 
seeks. See Eossetti's edition of Wordsworth, pp. 
327-8, the lines he quotes being 11. 28-9 of the 
noblest tribute ever paid Grace Darling. 



THE GREEK SWALLOW SONG (5 th S. i. 48.) 
The Swallow Song, alluded to by A FOREIGNER, 
may be found in The Golden Treasury of Ancient 
Greek Poetry, published at the Clarendon Press, p. 

Highburst Wood. 

MRS. SIDDONS A SCULPTOR (5 th S. i. 48.) I 
have some recollection of being shown a bust (in 
plaster?) of Mrs. Siddons, by herself, when sur- 
veying the rooms at Newnham, near Oxford, in 
1832, or thereabouts. J. B. B. 

xii. 471, 523.) I do not think it would be neces- 
sary to institute a series of experiments to prove 
that the placing a poker perpendicularly before a 
grate has an effect in causing the fire to burn, or 
(what has not been inaptly termed) to " draw up." 
However slight the effect may be and I believe it 
to be only slight* it is to be accounted for on 
perfectly scientific principles ; viz., by dividing 
and concentrating the current of air, which every 
fire " draws up " to itself. This was the view, I 
remember, that the late Professor Daniell (inventor 
of the pyrometer) took of it, in incidentally speak- 
ing of "this old woman's custom" in his lectures 
on Heat at King's College. 

Most persons are aware that the air, which is 
composed of oxygen and nitrogen, is a perfectly 
elastic fluid. When combustion takes place, as in 
the ignition of a fire, great rarefication ensues in 
and about it, forming, under favourable circum- 
stances (as in a furnace) almost a complete vacuum. 
Inconsequence of this rarefication and the elasticity 
of the air, the latter rushes forward to fill up the 
space, and is as greedily sucked in, as it were, by 
the fire. And now comes "the tug of war" 
" Greek meets Greek !" Air and coal are decom- 
posed, and their elements or atoms wage a war of 
extinction neither gives in ; both are destroyed 
(or rather enter into new combinations, for there 

* It must be remembered tbat, before so placing it, 
the fire itself generally, at least frequently, receives a 
" poke," which would Lave considerable effect in causing 
it to burn by admitting the air to pass through it mor 



S. I. JAN. 24, '74. 

z s no such thing as destruction), and a few ashes 
only remain to tell the tale. 

But the modus operandi of the poker will be 
best understood by comparison. The more we en- 
deavour to oppose the admission of the air to the 
fire the fiercer the conflict becomes. If you close 
your fireplace, and leave only a small opening 
before the grate, you will hear its rushing forward 
acts like a pair of bellows this concentration feed- 
ing it more rapidly, and destroying it more rapidly. 
Diminish opposition by increasing the size of the 
aperture, and the force will diminish in like ratio. 
This applies still more to furnaces where the air is 
compelled to pass entirely through the fire. 

It may not be uninteresting to note here the 
great analogy between our own breathing, as well 
as that of quadrupeds and birds, and what may be 
called the breathing of fire. By means of our 
lungs, acting like a pair of bellows, we draw in the 
air, which is rapidly decomposed. We absorb the 
oxygen to support the combustion of life, and we 
exhale or throw off chiefly carbonic acid (which is 
poison) and watery vapour. Now the vacuum 
formed by fire becomes its lungs, by means of 
which the air is drawn in ; and, as in our own 
lungs, it is rapidly decomposed and robbed of its 
oxygen to support combustion ; whilst carbonic 
acid, steam, &c., are driven off. Trees and plants, 
too, breathe by means of their leaves, which are 
their lungs, in a somewhat similar way. Cut off 
the leaves of a plant and it will soon perish. If 
the leaves become worm-eaten it will soon look 
sickly : if it is not stopped it will die from con- 
sumption ! 

Whilst ridiculing the want of " qualitative and 
quantitative ideas of physical causation " in others, 
Mr. Herbert Spencer does not appear to have quite 
apprehended them himself at least in the present 
instance. MEDWEIG. 

WELSH LANGUAGE (4 th S. xii. 368, 415, 523.) 
My suggestion that our word " twelfth " might 
have been derived from " ystwyll," which is Welsh 
for " Twelfth-day," has not found favour with your 
correspondents ; and, after reading their com- 
munications, I am not disposed to press it. But, 
supposing my notion to have been erroneous, a 
question remains to be solved, viz., whence is that 
English word " twelfth " derived 1 I am unable 
to find its origin in any other language with which 
I am acquainted. As to the pronunciation of the 
Welsh " 11," I think your correspondents deny too 
broadly its resemblance in sound to our " thl," or 
" 1th " (as the case may be). I have often been in 
Wales and heard Welsh spoken by the natives ; 
but, while admitting that the English orthography 
just quoted does not adequately or exactly convey 
the sound of the Welsh aspirated " 11," I maintain 
that it bears a fairly approximate resemblance to 
it, and that no other combination of English letters 

of the alphabet could very much improve upon it. 
The fact is, that the sound of gutturals and aspi- 
rates generally cannot be expressed by letters of 
the alphabet. For instance, it would be impossible 
by such means to represent the two distinct sounds 
of " Ich " and " Ach " in the German. 

But, to return to the etymology of " ystwyll." 
I am surprised to find MR. UNDONE (who, from, 
his letter, I should fancy, knows more of the 
language than I do) doubting the existence of 
Welsh words in which "ys" precedes syllables 
beginning with " tw," or " t " and another conso- 
nant. There are, in fact, several such, and, there- 
fore, I do not think he is entitled to assume that 
the word in question, "ystwyll," ought to be 
syllabled thus, "y"and "stwyll"; for in Welsh 
" ys " is commonly used both as a prefix and an 
expletive. I have, therefore, quite as much right 
to assume that the division of the word should be 
into " ys " and " twyll." On this assumption, 
another etymology for " ystwyll " may be suggested. 
One of the meanings of " twyll " is " an illusion." 
If we translate that into " appearance," we have 
the " epiphany " at once. This may be also deemed 
"far fetched," but I think it is not more so than 
deriving " ystwyll " from the French " e'toile," or, 
as W. E. proposes, from the Welsh " Gwyll," 
which would metamorphose " gloom and darkness " 
into the appearance of a star ! surely the most 
striking example ever met with of the " lucus a 
nonlucendo"! M. H. K. 

" BLOODY " (4 th S. xii. 324, 395, 438 ; 5 th S. i. 
37.) I think Latimer used the word in the ordi- 
nary manner of good writers : 

" Saul and his bloody house." 2 Sam. xxi. 1. 

" Even the rememberers of bloody Mary might do that 
unpopular Queen the justice," &c. Saturday Review, 
Jan. 10, 1874, p. 48. 

And Macbeth is advised by the apparition to 
" Be bloody, bold, and resolute," &c. 
The omission of the comma would vulgarize the 
entire passage. FITZHOPKIXS. 

[See N. & Q.," 3 rd S. xii. 460 ; 4'" S. i. 41, 88, 132, 210, 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF UTOPIAS (4 th S. xi. 519 ; xii'. 
2, 22, 41, 91, 153, 199.) I have before me 

" The Travels of Hildebrand Bowman, Esquire, into 
Carnovirria, Taupiniera, Olfactaria, and Auditante, in 
New Zealand ; in the Island of Bonhommica, and in the 
powerful Kingdom of Luxo-Volupto, on the Great 
Southern Continent. Written by Himself, who went 
on Shore in the Adventure's large Cutter, at Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound, New Zealand, the fatal 17th of December, 
1773; and escaped being cut off, and devoured, with the 
rest of the Boat's crew, by happening to be a-shootirig in 
the woods ; where he was afterwards unfortunately left 
behind by the Adventure. London : Printed for W. 
Strahan, and T. Cadell, in the Strand, 1778. 8vo. xv. and 
400 pp." 

I should feel greatly obliged to any correspondent 

5 th if. I. JAN. 24, 74.] 


who would inform me whether " Hildebrand Bow- 
man " is a fictitious name, and whether the state- 
ment which commences the first chapter " I was 
born in Holdernesse, a district of Yorkshire, near 
the borough of Heyden (i. e. Hedon), of which my 
father was a freeman " is founded on fact. 


S. xii. 474 ; 5 th S. i. 13.) I quote from the edition 
of which the following is the title, 

" Francisci BACONI, Baronis de VERULAMIO 

Sermones Fideles, Ethici, Politici, (Economic!; sive 
Interiora Rerum. Accedunt Faber Fortunae, colores 
boni et mali, &c. 

" Impensis Job. Baptistae Schb'nwetteri. Francofurti 
ad Mcenum, MDCLXV. 

Illustri et excellent! DOMIXO 

Duci Buckingham!*, Summo Angliae Admirallio. 

Honoratissime Domine, 

"Salomon inquit, Nomen bonum est inslar Vnguenti 
fragrantis et pretiosi .... Consentaneum igitur duxi, 
Affectui et obligation! meae, erga HlVftriuiinam Domina- 
tionem tuam, ut Nomen tuum illis prajfigam, tarn in 
editions Anglica quam Latina. Etenim in bona spe sum 
Volumen carum in Latinam (Linguam scilicet uni- 
versalem) versum posse durare, quamdiu Libri et Litene 
durent .... 

" Domination tuse 
Servus devinctissimus et fidelis 


It would appear, therefore, that the Latin as well 
as the English version of the Essays is due to 
Bacon himself. M. Victor Cousin (Cours de 
Philosophic, Bruxelles, 1840), Tom. II., p. 102, 

states : 

" Hobbes etait un ami et un disciple avoue de Bacon. 
Nous savons que c'est Hobbes qui, avec Ben-Jonson, a 
traduit Padmirable Anglais de Bacon dans un Latin qui 
a aussi sa beaute," 

M. Cousin is referring especially to the De 
Augmentis Scientiarum and the Novum Organum. 
Can any of the correspondents of " N. & Q." cite 
an authority for the Essays also 1 B. E. N. 

ARMS o? HUNGARY (4 th S. xii. 426, 500 ; 5 th S. 
i. 39.) Two correspondents write that there is no 
particular reason why Hungary should have a 
triple mount in its Arms, and also that the dexter 
half has no meaning. They are, I venture to 
assert, not quite correct. Hungary is known by 
all Hungarians, and spoken of not uncommonly, if 
perhaps euphuistically, as "the land of the four 
rivers and the three mountains," the rivers being 
the Danube, Theiss, Save, and Drave in Hun- 
garian, Duna, Tisza, Szava, Drava ; the mountains 
Tatra, Fatra, Matra, the popular names of three 
of the highest points of the Carpathians. The 
Arms are always said to represent this i. e., the 
four bars argent on the dexter side the four 
rivers, and the three mountains vert on the sinister 

side these three mountain peaks. They have both, 
therefore, significations. 

If your correspondents will refer to a memoir of 
that great and lamented man, the late Count 
Stephen Szecheryi, in the Revue dcs Deux Mondes 
for 1867, they will see that he used the expres- 
sion I have quoted, in referring to the country for 
which he lived and died. 


CASER WINE : CARRION (4 th S. xii. 190, 256, 
399 ; 5 lli S. i. 39.) I thought that our word 
carrion best represented taraf, as a term of re- 
proach, applicable from a Jewish point of view, 
even to what we should consider the very best 
meat. J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

FUNERAL GARLANDS (4 th S. xii. 406, 480 ; 5 th 
S. i. 12, 57.) There are two very interesting 
papers on this subject in that charming work The 
Sketch Book, by Washington Irving, one entitled 
" Rural Funerals," the other " The Pride of the 
Village." JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

S. xi. 134, xii. 452 ; 5 th S. i. !&) I remember 
some very pretty devices in violets which came 
out, I believe, on the death of the son of Napoleon, 
the " King of Rome "; they had, on the edge of the 
petals, profiles of the members of the family ; each 
profile formed the outward edge of the petal, look- 
ing at the flower, not away from it, so that the 
face was white. E. L. BLENKINSOPP. 

I don't know if the violet was connected with 
the Napoleonic dynasty before 1814; but in that 
year, while the Emperor was in Elba, coloured 
prints were circulated, representing a plant of 
violet in blow. But, on looking close, an outline 
of Napoleon's side-face was discernible among the 
leaves and flowers. Beneath was the motto " En 
printemps il reviendra." This was realised in 
1815. The soldiers talked of him, among them- 
selves, as " Corporal Violet." S. T. P. 


Wilkes, Sheridan, Fox. The Opposition under George 

the Third. By W. F. Rae. (Isbister & Co.) 
THE last published life of Wilkes was bracketed with 
that of Cobbett, and was from the pen of the Rev. 
John Selby Watson, of such unhappy notoriety. This 
book was published in 1870. Comparing the two lives of 
Wilkes, one might almost think that the writers were 
treating of two totally distinct persons. Mr. Rae treats 
his subject in a masterly way; he is rather unjust, 
perhaps, to George III., who was not without some 
excuse. He was not a little driven into the course he 
took by the efforts of others to ride over him, roughshod. 
However this may be, Mr. Rae has told the story of His 
Majesty's Opposition with great spirit. Morally, the 



[5" 1 S. I. JAN. 24, 74. 

three men were not exemplary ; politically, they were 
not so bad as their enemies painted them. Any way, they 
have never been more cleverly treated than in this most 
readable volume, not the least merit of which is that it is 
in a large, handsome, legible type, which is most pleasant 
to the eyes of the reader. 

Modern Birmingham and its Institutions. A Chronicle 
of Local Events from 1841 to 1871. Compiled and 
Edited by J. Alford Langford, LL.D. Vol. I. (Bir- 
mingham, Osborne ; London, Simpkin & Co.) 
DR. LANGFORD is approaching the close of his long and 
valuable labours. He has already told the story of Bir- 
mingham from a very early period down to the first year 
named in the above title-page. Books compiled as these 
have been, with scholarly care and rare discretion, are 
among the very best contributions to local history. Dr. 
Langford has not much more to tell, and we congratulate 
him on the approaching termination of a work which 
does him so much honour. 

The Orkneyinga Saga. Translated from the Icelandic. 
By Jon. A. Ilealtalin and Gilbert Goudie. Edited, 
with Notes and Introduction, by Joseph Anderson. 
(Edinburgh, Edmonston & Douglas.) 
THE Keeper of the National Museum of the Antiquities 
of Scotland has added to the national stock of poetry and 
history. This early history of the northern Jarles is 
founded on national songs, the springs of history itself. 
More than half the volume is occupied with an Introduc- 
tion, in which more is to be learnt about Orkney than can 
be easily found elsewhere. We recommend workers out 
on holiday next summer to read this book before starting, 
then to go by steam to Aberdeen, thence to Kirkwall, 
and, with this volume in hand, " do " Orkney thoroughly. 
They will experience that rare thing, a novel pleasure. 

Facetiae. Musarum Delicice ; or, the Muses' Recreation. 
Containing severall Pieces of Poetique Wit. By Sir 
J. M. and Ja. S. 1658. 
Wit Restor'd: in severall Select Poems, not formerly 

publish't. 1658. 

Wit's Recreation. Selected from the Finest Fancies of 
Moderne Muses, with a Thousand Outlandish Proverbs, 
1640. The whole diligently compared with the Original!, 
with all the Wood Engravings, Plates, Memoirs, and 
Notes. New Edition, with additional Notes, Indexes, 
and a Portrait of Sir John Mennes. 2 vols. (J. C. 

THE above works are among the reprints which are now 
as much in fashion with certain readers as ancient 
comedies are on the stage. There are students curious 
in such literature, but the books are for upper shelves. 
They are, compared with true poetry and wit, what the 
crab apple and the sloe are to a Ribstone pippin and 
an Orleans plum. Prcemonitus, prcemunitus. 

IN Whitaker's A Imanacl; for 1873, amongst "Objec- 
tionable Royal Pensions," there is Mr. J. Holdship 
" Chaffwax," 1,145*. 11s. ! ! H. B. P. asks, What is 
" Chaffwax " ? What can make it, or him, or her, worth 
such a sum ? 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the persons by whom thej- are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose : 
NOTES AND QUERIES. No. 264, Jan. 18, 1873. 

Wanted by Mr. Erooksbank, The Bailey, Durham. 

LENA; or, the Silent Woman. In B Vols. 

Wanted by MissJ. Cwt'iis, Leasam House, Bye. 


R. W. The passage occurs in Tacitus, in the descrip- 
tion of the funeral of Junia : " Catone avunculo genita, 
Cassii uxor, M. Bruti soror" Annal, iii., 76. "Praeful- 
gebant Cassius atque Brutus eo ipso quod effigies eorum 
non visebantur." Their " imagines " were not among 
the twenty that figured at Junia's funeral. The con- 
stitution being subverted, the assertors of public liberty 
were not to be honoured, but, as Tacitus elsewhere 
remarks, " Negatus honor gloriam intendit." 

G. W. D. (Oakham). See European Magazine, Vol. 
xxxii. 153, 241, for a life of Cardinal Langham. It 
is there conjectured that, from his name and the legacy 
he left to the church, he was born at Langham in 
Rutlandshire. The bequest seems to have consisted of 
a vestment and an altar. 

S. N. (Ryde). Skinner derives Balk from valicare, 
Ital. to pass over. St. Martin's Church, Oxford, is called 
Carfax from its situation at the meeting of the four 
main streets of the city, the quatre voies. Here formerly 
stood the Carfax conduit, now in Nuneham Park. 

0. S. The Sound Dues (for lighting the Cattegat) were 
first levied in 1348. England first paid them in 1450. In 
1857, they were, by agreement between Denmark and 
other nations, capitalized. England's share of payment 
amounted to 1,125,206*. 

M. R. N. should apply to the person the proper pro- 
nunciation of whose name he desires to ascertain. Other 
correspondents, asking questions of a similar quality, are 
referred to general custom and to pronouncing dictionaries, 
which usually leave the inquirer as puzzled as ever. 

G. L. H. The correction has already been made. See 
4 th S. xii. 455. Distance will often account for having 
been anticipated. 

T. H. C. "Never look a Gift Horse in the Mouth." 
Rabelais, Liv. II. ; Hudibras, Pt. I., Canto i., 1. 490. It 
is said to be quoted by St. Jerome. 

A. S. A. Ultra Centenarianism. Forwarded to MR. 

A. S. " Rowland for an Oliver." See " N. & Q.," 1" S. 
i. 234; ii. 132; ix. 457. 

W. H. B. (Camberwell). You had better forward a 

G. R. J. "Strangers on the bar," is of universally 
known significance. 

F. H. STRATMANN is referred to " N. & Q.," 4 th S. xii. 

H. J. F. We must first see the epitaphs in question. 

METHUSELAH. Of course, the date should be 1668. 

C. E. B. In our next "Shakspeariana." 

J. H. L. A. Returned. 

Several contributions, already in type, are unavoidably 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Ofiice, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74.] 





NOTE3 : A. Shakspeare Myth Exploded, 81 Unpublished 
Letter of John Wesley Bishop of Ross iu Scotland, 82 A. 
Yorkshire Feist "Transmigration," 84 Parallel Passages 

Norfolk Epitaph The Miracle of Paray-le-Monial 
Housebreaking, a Craft Old Kensington Thomas Camp- 
bell Daux Anwyl ! 85 Remarkable Mouse- Nests A.Strange 
Signature A. Roman Catholic Visitation in 1709, 80. 

QUERIES: Authors and Quotations Wanted The Rhee 
"St. George's Lofte" Carious Coin or Token Dy moke, 
Skipwith, and Woodward Families " Called Home" Rev. 
S. Rid^eway, 87 Greek Anthology Illustrations to "Pick- 
wick" A Second- First Climacteric Sir Thos. Herbert of 
Tintern, Btrt. Date of a Calendar, temp. Edward II. 
Schaik, a Portrait Painter "The Only Kid," &c. Arith- 
metic Water-mark The Wishing Wells of Great Britain 
and Ireland Sir John Bulley, K.G. .\rmorial Sir John 
McGetti, 1664 Frances Ayscough, Relict of Sir William 
Ayscough, Kt., of Osgoodby, 83 Nicholas Mortimer 
Religious Biography of a Noble Lady, circa 1650 The 
" Free Chapel " of Havering-mere Black Priest of Weddale 
"Escrivano de Molde" "S" versus "Z" Portrait of 
Barbor, the almost Martyr, 89. 

SSPLIES: Charles Oweu of Warrington, 90 Irish Pro- 
vincialisms Unlawful Games of the Middle Ages, 91 
Episcopal Titles, 92 J. S. Mill on " Liberty " The 
" Violet-Crowned " City Turning the Faces of Busts to 
the Wall, 93 Cymblin? for Larks "Bavin" Graham, 
Viscount Dundee Pin-Basket, 94 Epitaph on a Tomb- 
stone at , near Paris Gen. Thomas Harrison "Den- 
ham," Notts "The Blinde eate manye a Flye" Stacey 
Grimaldi Boleyn Pedigree, 95 New Moon Superstitions 
Poplar Wood" Crue " " Had I not found," 9J Heel-taps 

"Oil of Brick" Surname "Barnes" "Canada" 
"Quillet" Cervantes and Shakspeare, 97 "Sketches of 
Imposture " The Lark and the Toad Royal Arms in 
Churches Special Forms of Prayer The Waterloo and 
Peninsular Medals The De Quincis, 93 Polygamy, 99. 

Notes on Books, &e. 


In a long and elaborate article ou " Ben Jonson's 
Quarrel with Shakespeare," which was published 
in the North British Review, July, 1870, and which 
appears to be claimed by Mr. Richard Simpson 
(" N. & Q." 4 tb S. viii. 3, col. 1), it is stated, in a 
note to p. 411, that 

" There is some obscure tradition'pf a defect in Shake- 
speare's legs, to which he is supposed to allude in the 

and the writer finds an allusion to this defect in 
Jonson's Poetaster, where Chloe asks Crispinus, 
*' Are you a gentleman born 1" and expresses satis- 
faction at sight of his little legs. (At least, if that 
be not the writer's meaning, I am unable to assign 
a reason for the foot-note.) This article is a perfect 
hot-bed of myths, supported by the most singular 
misstatements. I select this one case for exami- 
nation, as a sample of several others. It is by such 
a dissertation as this that false biography is con- 
structed ; and for this reason I venture to ask for 
space in " N. & Q." for the detection and explosion 
of this myth of Shakspeare's lameness. 

There never was any tradition on the subject. 
The first writer who makes mention of Shakspeare's 
lameness was Capell. He, however, takes credit 

to himself for the hypothesis, that when Shakspeare 
wrote, in Sonnet 37 

"So I, made lame by fortune's dearest spite," &c. ] 
and in Sonnet 89 

"Speak of my lamaness, and I straightjwill halt," &c. 
he was signalizing his own personal defect. After 
Capell the hypothesis met with little notice, and 
no entertainment. Maloae, however, speaks of it 
thus : 

" A late editor, Mr. Capell, &c., conjectured that 
Shakspeare was literally lame ; but the expression ap- 
pears to have been only figurati/s. So again in Gorio- 

' I cannot help it now, 

Unless by using means I lame the foot 
Of our design.' 
Again in As You Like It: 

' Which I did store to be my foster-nurse. 
When service should in my old limbs lie lame.' 
In the 89th Sonnet the poet speaks of his friends imputing 
a fault to him of which he was not guilty, and yet he 
says, he would acknowledge it ; so (he adds) were he to be. 
described as lame, however untruly, yet rather than his 
friend should appear in the wrong, he would immediately 
halt. If Shakipeare was in truth lame, he had it not in 
his power to occasionally for this or any other pur- 
pose. The defect must have been fixed and permanent." 

So far Malone. From the time when Malone's 
common-sense note appeared in the variorum 
edition of 1821, vol. xx. p. 261, CapelFs ridiculous 
fancy met with no countenance. Some fifteen 
years later, however, my late friend, the Rev. Win. 
Harness, took up the neglected crotchet, and gavi 
it careful nursing. In his Life of Shakespeare, he 
re-states the hypothesis as a fact, but without any 
mention of its author ! Mr. Harness's remarks 
consist mainly of an answer to Malone. " It 
appears," he writes, "from two places in his 
Sonnets that he was lamed by accident." He then 
quotes the two lines from the Sonnets. 

" This imperfection would necessarily have rendered 
him unfit to appear as the representative of any cha- 
racters of youthful ardour in which rapidity of movement 
or violence of exertion was demanded; and would oblige 
him to apply his powers to such parts as were compatible 
with his measured and impeded action. Malone has 
most inefficiently attempted to explain away the palpable 
meaning of the above lines Surely many an in- 
firmity of the kind may be skilfully concealed ; or only 
become visible in the moments of hurried movement. 
Either Sir Walter Scott or Lord Byron might, without 
any impropriety, have written the verses in question. 
They would have been applicable to either of them. 
Indeed the lameness of Lord Byron was exactly such as 
Shakespeare's might have been; and J remember as a 
boy that he selected those speeches for declamation which 
would not constrain him to the use of such exertions as 
might obtrude tb.3 defect of his person into notice." 

Curiously enough, Mr. Harness nimself was, 
during the years of my acquaintance with him, too 
lame for the dissimulation which he imagined to 
have afforded Shakspeare a valuable resource.) 

Mr. Harness having thus converted the foolish 
conjecture into a fact, it became a current remark, 


[5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74. 

that our three greatest poets were afflicted with 
lameness ! 

In 1859, MR. W. J. THOMS added his little 
quota to float the tradition. In " N. & Q." 2 nd S. 
vii. 333, he suggests that Shakspeaie's lameness 
might have been occasioned by his soldiering : 

"The accident may well have happened to him while 
sharing in some of those encounters from witnessing 
which, as I believe, he acquired that knowledge of mili- 
tary matters of which his writings contain such abundant 

By this time the myth had germinated, and was 
ready for use by any forger of Shakspeare-biography ; 
and thus it became " an obscure tradition." After 
all, the " obscure tradition" turns out to be so 
obscure as never to have existed ; the whole truth 
being that the notion of Shakspeare's lameness was 
a conjecture of the eighth editor of his works, 
based upon a most absurd and improbable inter- 
pretation of the 37th and 89th Sonnets. 

It has been reserved for me to inform the world 
that Shakspeare was crook-backed, for has he not 
written, in Sonnet 90, the line 

" Join with the spite of fortune, make me low" ? 
By Fortune's spite, then, he was a hunch-back, and 
by Fortune's dearest spite, he was a limper ! It 
has been recently discovered in America, that 
Shakspeare had a scar over the left eye, to which 
he alludes in the same Sonnet (see a recent article 
on the Becker mask in the New York Herald) ; 
and his ghost appeared thrice to a Stratford gentle- 
man, exhibiting the newly -made gash on the fore- 
head ! (See the Birmingham Daily Mail, Jan. 9, 
1874.) So it is plain we shall have to construct a 
new Shakspeare, who shall be halt, hunch-backed, 
and scarred, like his own Richard III. JABEZ. 

Athenajum Club. 


The following are copies of two documents 
relating to John Wesley, the originals of which 
are preserved in the muniment room of the Charter- 
house, and which I have reason to believe have 
never been printed. When Wesley left Charter- 
house he carried with him to Oxford an Exhibition 
from the school of 20Z. a year. It appears that his 
"mercer" was the channel by which the quarterly 
payments reached him, banking as a separate 
business being little, if at all known. It is to a 
mistake of this tradesman, or his London corre- 
spondent, that we are indebted for this letter of 
apology to the " Treasurer of the Charterhouse." 
" John King M r " is the Rev. John King, D.D., 
Master of the Charterhouse of that date. 

" Christ Church, Nov. 3, 1721. 

" Sir, I am extreamly sorry that an accident should 
happen wch has given you reason to have an ill opinion 
of me, but am very much oblig'd to your Civility for 
putting the most favourable Construction on it. I hope 
this will satisfy you that it was by mistake and not my 

design, that you have twice deliver'd the exhibition for 
the first Michaelmass quarter, which indeed was through 
the mistake of my Mercer who return's it, or rather thro' 
the negligence of his Correspondent, who forgot to inform 
him of his having receiv'd the mony. This made him 
suspect that it was detain'd in which he was confirmed 
by receiving no answer from London, and at Lady-day, 
when I gave him my Tutor's Bill for that quarter, he 
told [mej he had not receiv'd the exhibition for the first, 
wch he supposed was detain'd, because I had been absent 
the whole eight weeks in one quarter, and which made 
him advise me to write a receit for that and the other 
due at the end of the year. 

" These five pounds if you please shall be deducted at 
Christmass, or if that does not suit with your conveniency 
shall be return'd as soon as possible. 

"I am 
" S r Your oblig'd & humble Serv* 


Addressed on the outside as follows : 

M r Eyre Treasurer of 

The Charter-house, 

The letter has been folded, fastened with a wafer,, 
and has traces of two post-marks. 

' These are to certifie the Governours of the Charter- 
house that John Wesley of Christ Church, Oxon., hath 
resided in the said Colledge all the Quarter ending at 
St. Thomas Day, 1720, except eight weeks, and is studious 
and of good behaviour. 

" Viewed by me " Student of Christ Church. 

"John King M r " HEN. SHERMAN, M.A. 

" 16"' Jan. 1720-1. " Student of Christ Church." 

" Jan. 4 th 1720. Reed then of the Treasurer of y 8 
Charterhouse five pounds for an exhibition due thence 
to John Wesley of Christ Church Coll. Oxon. at St. 
Thomas' day last past. 

" Witness my hand GEO. WIGAN, Tutour." 

What follows is in a different hand, probably 
that of the " Treasurer of the Charterhouse," or his 
clerk : 

* " Memor a Wesley rec d twice for Xmas. Quarter 1720 as 
appears by the Quarter book of Lady day & Michfis. 
1721 therefore deducted at Xmas. 1721." 

C. H. 

The name of a bishop of this see, hitherto en 
tirely unnoticed by our ecclesiastical historians, 
both English and Scottish, having been recovered 
by me in the course of my researches in the epis- 
copal succession of the Church of Scotland between 
the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, the result 
appears to be deserving of record in the pages of 
" N. & Q."; and as my notices of the prelate are 
extremely meagre, this note may elicit some addi- 
tional information, the more probably, as there is 
a work now in the press, Scoti-Monasticon, by one 
of your correspondents (Canon Mackenzie Walcott, 
B.D.), whose attainments and qualifications for this 
difficult undertaking are undoubted, and universally 
acknowledged by all competent of judging. In- 

5 ;h S. I. JAN. 31, 74.] 



deed, a reference to the very interesting and 
valuable article on the " Ancient Church of Scot- 
land" in The Sacristy (vol. ii., pp. 328-346), though 
only a tentative attempt to supply a want long felt 
by archaeologists, and necessarily brief and imper- 
fect, affords every prospect of this desideratum 
being shortly given to the world. 

This bishop's name is variously stated, as Griffin, 
Griffinus, Greffin, and Grisnius, by different authori- 
ties, between the years 417 and 1423. The earliest 
notice of him I find in Les Escossais en France, 
Les Franpais en Ecosse, par Francisque-Michel 
(Londres, Triibner et C le , 1862), where, in the Ad- 
ditions and Corrections (p. 499, referring to vol. i., 
p. 124 of the same work), it is stated, " Les passages 
suivants serviront a computer le tableau des rela- 
tions entre la France et 1'Ecosse dans le premier 
quart du XV e siecle"; and it is merely stated, "Rev. 
P. in Dieu Mgr. Greffin, evesque de Eoz, 1417." 
The next is inTheiner's Vetera Monumenta Hibern- 
orum et Scotorum Historiam illustrantia, qua ex 
Vaticani, Neapolis ac Florentice Tabulariis de- 
prompsit etordine Chronologico disposuit Augusti- 
nus Theiner. Ab Honorio PP. III., usque ad 
Paulum PP. III. 1216-1547. (Roma; Typis 
Vaticanis, 1864), where there is a letter from Pope 
Martin V., dated at Constance, 1st March, 1418: 

" Venerabili fratri Griffino Epo. Rossensi, ac dilecto 
filio Fynlao de Albama, ord. Predic. professori, ac in 
sacra pagina Bacalario, Nuntiis sedis Apostolice ad Reg- 
num Scotie profecturis, qui Nuntii Collectores etiam in 
eodem Regno constituuntur, et mandatum habent, ut 
omnes, qui ibidem Benedicto XIII. antipape adheseriut, 
a censuris ecclesiasticis absolvere possint. Dat. Con- 
stancie Kal. Marcii, Pontificatus nostri anno prime." 

It is evident from this papal letter, written before 
the close of the seventeenth General Council of 
Constance, which had deposed Pope Benedict XIII. 
on the 26th July, 1417, that Griffin, Bishop of 
Moss, along with Fr. Finlay de Albama (Albania ?) 
a Dominican, was sent to Scotland as Nuncio 
Apostolic, for the purpose of absolving that nation 
from the ecclesiastical censures which it had in- 
curred by adherence to the above Anti-Pope, who 
had previously been acknowledged as the legiti- 
mate pontiff by France, Spain, Scotland, Sicily, 
and Cyprus. The result of the nunciature is known 
to have been that Scotland transferred its obedience 
to Pope Martin V. before the month of August, 
1418 ; but there appears no account of the nuncio's 
proceedings, and it would be interesting to ascer- 
tain if Griffinus signed the decrees of the Council 
of Constance as " Bishop of Ross in Scotland." 
Pope Benedict XIII. refused to submit to the 
authority of the Council, but had to retire into 
Spain, where he was now only acknowledged by 
the King of Aragon, and died there in 1424, after 
a, pontificate of upwards of thirty years, the longest 
of any occupant of the papal dignity. The third 
and last mention is from Morcelli's Africa Chris- 
tiana, where he gives as his authority " ex lib. 

arch. Sacri Colleg.," and it is as follows : " Gris- 
nius an. 1423. Episc. Rossensis in Scotia. Episc. 
Hipponis Regiensis in Africa." This entry would 
seem to imply that Griffin was then bishop of the 
ancient see of Hippo-Regius, in Numidia, a church 
province in north-western Africa, and of which 
the great S. Augustine was bishop A.D. 396-430 ; 
but it could have been only a titular dignity, or in 
partibus infidelium, as though the bishopric of 
Hippo was one of the only two sees which had 
escaped the destroying rage of the Mohammedans, 
A.D. 1073; it must have ceased to exist about that 
time ; still a Bishop of Bona (the modern name of 
Hippo) appeared again, after a century, at the 
Lateran Council, A.D. 1179. There are grave diffi- 
culties in the succession of occupants of the Scottish 
see of Ross during the latter part of the fourteenth, 
and first half, if not the whole, of the fifteenth cen- 
turies, for there appear to have been three bishops 
of the name of Alexander between 1350 and 1416. 
Alexander I., nominated directly by Pope Cle- 
ment VI. on 3rd November, 1350, on resignation 
of Bishop Roger ; Alexander II., elected by 
Chapter, but also nominated by apostolical authority 
of Pope Gregory XI. on 9th May, 1371, on death 
of Alexander (cf. Theiner, pp. 294, 342), and the 
Kalendar of Feme (MS. in Dunrobin Castle), 
records, among other obits, " ob. bone memoriedni. 
Alex, frylquhous epi. rossen q. obiit vi die mesis. 
julij ano. mccc nonagesimo octauo"; and Alex- 
ander III. was Bishop of Ross in 1404, and still 
sitting in March, 1416 ; and I leave this crux in 
ecclesiastical chronology to be settled by competent 
writers like Canon Walcott or Professor Stubbs. 
Griffin must, therefore, be inserted as Bishop of 
Ross between 1416 and 1420, for we find John 
Touch to have been " bishop-elect and confirmed " 
on 10th July, 1420 ; and he signs as " Episcopus 
Rossensis " on 14th August of that year, between 
which two dates he must have been consecrated ; 
so that our Griffin had apparently resigned the 
see, and been created Bishop of Hippo v.p.i. pre- 
viously to July, 1420, and been titular of the latter 
episcopal see at Rome in 1423. I shall not here 
attempt to follow out the succeeding rulers of my 
native diocese after the last appearance of Bishop 
John, of Ross, in 1439, soon after which he must 
have vacated it, if indeed this reference in Keith 
is to be relied upon, which is doubtful, for there is 
an allusion to " Thome de Tulach Epi. Rossensis " 
in a letter of Pope Eugene IV. to Andrew Munro, 
Archdeacon of Ross, dated 7th March, 1445, while 
Thomas Urquhart is recorded as bishop there in 
April, 1441, and down to 1455 ; and Thomas Tul- 
loch appears (from an inscription on a bell at Fort- 
rose) as Bishop of Ross in 1460 ! 

Again, in the Orkneyinga Saga (lately carefully 
edited by Joseph Anderson, Keeper of the National 
Museum of the Antiquaries of Scotland, and pub- 
lished at Edinburgh by Edmonston & Douglas 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74. 

1873) it is stated (under " The Bishopric of Orkney, 
1060-1469," p. Ixxviii.) that " Thomas de Tulloch, 
fourteenth bishop, first appears in existing records 
in 1418. He seems to have been previously Bishop 
of Ross." These discrepancies I confess my in- 
ability to reconcile satisfactorily, nor do the diffi- 
culties decrease subsequently, when Henry is 
"electus et confirmatus Rossen." on 19th October, 
1463, on an embassy to England in April, 1473, 
and the see vacant 16th August, 1477, when John 
Wodman de May was " Prior and Postulate of 
Ross." Finally, another Thomas, " Bishop of Ross," 
founded the Collegiate Church of Tain 12th Sept., 
1481, and is called Bishop of Ross in 1487, although 
it is clear, from documentary evidence, that William 
Elphinstone, was " electus, confirmatus Rossensis," 
on 18th March, 1481-2, and sat in Parliament on 
2nd Dec., 1482, by that title, though not conse- 
crated till after his translation to the see of Aber- 
deen, which took place between 17th May and 
27th July, 1484, and according to Fasti Aberdo- 
nensis (Preface by C. Innes, p. 44), "between 17th 
December, 1487, and April, 1488." fed jam satis. 

A. S. A. 

A YORKSHIRE FEAST. At Woolley Park, G. 
W. Wentworth's, is preserved the following account 
of the feast at Wentworth Woodhouse, on the 
coming of age of the last Marquess of Rockingham. 
It is also mentioned in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
July, 1751 :- 

An Account of the preparation and Entertainment given 

by the Rt. Honourable Charles, Marquess of RocJcing- 

Aam, on Monday, the 13 May, 1751. 
One Ox weighed 120 stones lllb., and the Tallow 26 

stones 61b. 
Another Ox weighing 103 stones 31b. The Tallow, 18 

stones lllb. 

A lesser pair, weighing 142 stones. 
Fifteen Sheep, weighing 95 stones 61b. 
Nine Calves, weighing 67 stones 61b. 
Fifteen Lambs, unweighed. 
Pigeons, one hundred do/en. 
Fowls and Chickens, 177.J 
Hams, 48. 

For bread and pyes, 3 hundred and 50 Bushels. 
Salmon to pickle, sixty pounds. 
Cod and Salmon dressed fresh, 32 stones. 
Crabs and Lobsters, a horse load. 
A chest of China Oranges. 

A Sill of Fare. 
110 dishes of roast Beef. 
10 Pyes. 
48 Hams. 

40 dishes of Fowl and Chicken. 
50 dishes of Mutton. 
55 dishes of Lamb. 
75 dishes of Veal. 
104 dishes of Fish. 
100 Tarts and Cheesecakes. 
60 dishes of Crafish, Crabs, and Lobsters. 
Upwards of 24 Tables was intermixt with 
each two dishes of China Oranges. 

Tables, 55. 

In the Grand Hall was 383 seats. 
In the drawing room one hundred and ten. 
In the anty room ninety and five, 
In the corner room fifty and two. 
In the Far room one hundred forty and six, 
In the new servants' Hall one hundred and three, 
In the Steward's Hall thirty and two. 
In the old servants' Hall thirty and six. 
In Bedlam and Tower four hundred and twelve. 
In the Dining room sixty and six. 
In the Supping room thirty and eight. 
In the Pillar'd Hall three hundred and four. 
In the Lobby thirty and six. 
In the Powder rocm thirty and two. 


?mall Beer at dinner, Three Hogsheads, 
strong at dinner, seventeen Hogsheads, 
i'unch, six Hogsheads, 
'ortwine, seventy dozen of bottles. 
Claret, not counted. 
24 Hogsheads of Strong Beer and Ale was distributed to 

the people without the Doors. 
Seats and Tents were prepared for 5,500 without the 



"TRANSMIGRATION" (London: Hurst 
Blackett. 3 vols.). In this interesting novel, the 
author, Mr. Mortimer Collins, thus explains the 
motif of the story : 

( The idea of an experience of metempsychosis has 
dwelt in my mind since, walking with one of England's 
great poets on the terrace of Kydal Mount, in full sight 
of that 'aerial rock' which he loved to greet at morn 
and leave last at eventide, he answered an inquiry of 
mine with the immortal words on my title-page : 

i ' Our birth is but a flee p and a forgetting; 
The eoul that rises with us, our life's star, 
Hath had elsewhere its setting, 
And cometh from afar.' " 

There can be no doubt that Wordsworth is here 
only expressing an idea which we find more fully 
developed in the sixth jEneid of Virgil, where it 
is a supposition that the souls of the departed, 
after certain periods, return again into the world 
to animate new bodies. But Virgil, in turn, does 
but amplify an idea to be found in the fourth 
antistrophe of Pindar's second Olympic ode : 

" All, whose stedfast virtue thrice 

Each side the grave unchanged hath stood 

Still usseduced, unstained with vice 
They by Jove's mysterious road 

Pass to Saturn's realm of rest." 

Therefore, whatever the fact may be, the idea cer- 
tainly " cometh from afar" B.C. 520. 

But do we not assent to the theory when we say 
"there is nothing new under the sun "1 Nay, did 
not Terence, more than two thousand years ago, 
anticipate this very saying, when he complained 
in one of his prologues that nothing could be 
said which had not been said before 1 


Farnworth, Bolton. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74.] 


PARALLEL PASSAGES. Isaiah says, chap. lix. 
14, 15 

" Arid judgment is turned away backward, and justice 
standeth afar off ; for truth is fallen in the street, and 
equity cannot enter. Yea, truth faileth." 

Of which the LXX. rendering is 

KCU aTrecrT^cra/xev oTricra) rrjv Kpicriv, KCU 
i] SLKaiocrvv?) /xaKpav d^earrrjKfv d<f> nfjLiav' OT6 
KaTrjvaXiodr) ev TOU? oSois avrwv r] aAry^eia, Kal 
Si i>#et'as OVK r/8vvavTO 8ie\0etv. Kcu t'j d 

Euripides says, Medea, 411-415 

ov(TL Trcrycu, 

Kat mica KCU Travra TraAtv o-Tpe 
dvSpda-L fjLev 86X10.1 ftovXat' Oewv 8' 

oviccrt TTtcrTis dpape. 
Which Potter turns 

" Refluent and mounting to their source 

The sacred streams are roll'd ; 
And Truth no more her righteous course 

Nor Justice knows to hold : 
All things are chang'd : insidious trains 
Are man's ; nor heav'nly Faith remains." 

The ideas seem to me identical. 


NORFOLK EPITAPH. The following epitaph was 
copied by a clergyman in this neighbourhood from 
a monument on the outside of the churchyard wall 
at Haddiscoe, Norfolk : 

" Here lies Will Salter, honest man, 
Deny it envy, if you can ; 
True to his business and his trust, 
Always punctual, always just ; 
His horses, could they speak, would tell 
They loved their good old Master well. 
His up-hill work is chiefly done, 
His stage is ended, race is run. 
One journey yet remaineth still, 
To climb up Zion's Holy Hill, 
And, now his faults are all forgiven, 
Elijah-like drive up to Heaven, 
Take the reward of all his pains, 
And leave to other hands the reins. 

William Salter, 

Yarmouth Stage Coachman, 

Died Oct. 9, 1776, 

Aged 59 years." 

W. D. B. 
Reepham, Norwich. 

dition tells us that, on two occasions, Mohammed 
was the subject of a -similar miracle : 

1. " Two angels took out Mohammed's heart when he 
was a boy, purified it in snow, then weighed it, and found 
it weightier than all the thousands they put into the 
other scale." E. Deutsch, Art. " Islam," Quart. Rev., vol. 
127, p. 328. 

2. "As I (Mohammed) was within the enclosure of the 
Kaaba, behold one (Gabriel) came to me with another, 
and cut me open from the pit of the throat to the groin ; 
this done, he took out my heart, and presently there was 
brought near me a golden basin full of the water of faith ; 

and he washed my heart, stuffed it, and replaced it." 
Abulfeda, quoted by Ockley, Hist, of the Saracens, p. 2& 


HOUSEBREAKING, A CRAFT. That the above is 
a fact, the British public know too well ; but that 
its professors should proclaim themselves as such, 
is a fact only this day made known to me at least. 
I have just seen two or three carts standing at 
Somerset House, with the calling of their pro- 
prietors painted on them in plain letters, thus 
" Housebreaker and Contractor." Seriously, I 
know of " Shipbreakers," but " Housebreaker " aa 
the name of a legitimate trade is new to me. 



OLD KENSINGTON. I lately found this " cutting" 
referring to Old Kensington. Baron Grant has- 
obliterated Jenning's Buildings, and from his. 
pleasure-grounds the dial will be visible : 

" On the south side of High Street, nearly mid-way 
between Young Street and the entrance to the well-nigh, 
defunct Jenning's Buildings, the old inn, ' Red Lion,' was 
entered by a yard which still remains. About forty feet 
from the ground on the south wall of the old house a 
large stone slab let into the wall forms the plate of a sun- 
dial, the gnomon of which is so long that it is supported? 
by a strong S-like prop of iron. This dial, which would 
be visible from all parts of the coaching yard, has been, 
examined, and the following was found engraved on it : 

' 17 Loose no Time 13 

A. The Royal Crown. R. 

William Munden, 

May y 5.' 

This William Munden was a 'Barber Chirurgeon ' 
(surgery was not constituted a distinct science and art 
till 1745). He held property in various parts of Kensing- 
ton, and was churchwarden of the parish church, 1698." 

J. M. 

THOMAS CAMPBELL. I have in my possession? 
an autograph letter from Thomas Campbell, the 
poet, in reply to a request of mine that he would 
cause to be published, in an edition of his collected 
works, his lines on the death of William Wallace. 
He stated, as his reason for not doing so, his fear 
of being unjustly accused of borrowing from Wolfe's 
" Burial of Sir John Moore." I answered that I 
saw no pretext for such a calumny, unless, perhaps, 
the accident that he had written " his head unen- 
tombed shall in glory be shrined." I think some 
future edition of Campbell's poems ought to con- 
tain those noble lines, " The Dirge of Wallace." I 
presume the poet felt annoyed at the absurd accu- 
sations made against him of plagiarism in the case 
of " The Exile of Erin " a charge circulated by 
some silly and credulous people, on the traditional 
authority of some deceased old lady or other. 

S. T. P. 

DEUX ANWYL ! I was always under the im- 
pression that the word " Anwyl " was one of the 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 31, '74. 

most musical in the Welsh language, but true it is 
we never see ourselves as others see us ; so I was 
not surprised, in turning over old leaves of " N. & Q." 
the other day, to find (Oct. 21, 1871) a well-known 
explorer into one branch of literature, in asking, 
" Who was the author of the novel Reginald Treon*, 
by Edward Treon Anwyl"! falling foul of the 
word, thus, " Anwyl would make ' Wanly,' for ex- 
ample, and look more Christian-like ! " But I am 
surprised that a gentleman who tortures his own 
name into such an anagram as OLPHAR HAMST 
should think any word unmusical ! "Anwyl" is 
a " good " old Welsh adjective (often found as a 
surname), " dear" to Welshmen ; and which not un- 
frequently passes his lips when he nurses his little 
one or worships his God. CYMRO AM BYTH. 

the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A., entitled Strange 
Dwellings (Longmans & Co., London), that is, homes 
constructed without the aid of hands, and planned 
by instinct, there is (p. 388), inter alia, the following 
account of two remarkable mouse-nests, and which, 
though only relative to a ridiculus mus, I have 
made a note of: 

"A number of empty bottles had been stowed away 
upon a shelf, and among: them was found one which was 
tenanted by a mouse. The little creature had considered 
that the bottle would afford a suitable home for her 
young, and had therefore conveyed into it a quantity of 
bedding, which she made into a nest. The bottle was 
filled with the nest, and the eccentric architect had taken 
the precaution to leave a round hole corresponding to the 
neck of the bottle. In this remarkable domicile the 
young were placed ; and it is a fact worthy of notice that 
no attempt had been made to shut out the light. Nothing 
would have been easier than to have formed the cavity 
at the underside, so that the soft materials of the nest 
would exclude the light ; but the mouse had simply 
formed a comfortable hollow for her young, arid therein 
she had placed her offspring. It is, therefore, evident 
that the mouse has no fear of light, but that it only 
chooses darkness as a means of safety for its young." 

The second case is this : 

" The rapidity with which the mouse can make a nest 
is somewhat surprising. One of the Cambridge journals 
mentioned, some few years ago, that in a farmer's house 
a loaf of newly-baked bread was placed upon a shelf, 
according to custom. Next day a hole was observed in 
the loaf; and when it was cut open, a mouse and her 
nest were discovered within, the latter having been made 
of paper. On examination, the material of the habita- 
tion was found to have been obtained from a copy-book, 
which had been torn into shreds, and arranged into the 
form of a nest. Within this curious home were nine 
young mice, pink, transparent, and newly born. Thus, 
in the space of thirty-six hours at the most, the loaf must 
have cooled, the interior been excavated, the copy-book 
found and cut into suitable pieces, the nest made, and 
the young brought into the world. Surely it is no wonder 
that mice are so plentiful, or that their many enemies fail 

to exterminate them." 


A STRA.XGE SIGNATURE. The old writers on 
nat ural signatures were unacquainted wiVh one 

of a most strange and singular character. When 
the seed-lobes of the Tonquin bean are separated, 
the radicle and plumule will be found to form a 
(sometimes more and sometimes less) perfect female 
arm and hand, with outstretched fingers ! 

Oak Village, N.W. 

Perhaps the following verbatim transcript from an 
original letter amongst the Gibson MSS., in Lam- 
beth Palace Library, may be thought worthy of a 
place in your columns. It is addressed to Arch- 
bishop Tenison by a Lancashire clergyman of 
family and position, and appears to contain points 
of interest : 

" Blackburne, Nov. 3, 1709. 

" May it please your grace, According to your Lord- 
ship's Directions, I have made the best enquiry I could 
to find out the particular Circumstances of the Popish 
Bishop's Visitation within my parish, & the 
I have made are as follows 

" The first week in July (w ch was the next week after 
my Lord of Chester held his Visitation here) Bishop 
Smith came to Mr. Walmsley's, of Lower Hall, in 
Samlesbury, within my Parish, & Confirmed there on 
Friday, Saturday, and Sunday (vizt) the 8 th , 9 th , and 
10 th of July. I cannot find that any Persons of Note 
were there or any Protestants, except one or two of Mr. 
Walmsley's Servants who dare make no Discoveries of 
these matters. The number of the Papists that were 
there was very great ; Mr. Hull, my curate at Samlesbury 
Chappel tells me that he see multitudes goe that way 
past his house, some on foot, some on horse-back, most of 
them with little Children in their Arms ; But the greatest 
Concourse of people was on Sunday, because the Bishop 
was to preach that day. The neighboring Protestants 
seemed to take little Notice of this matter, it being no 
Novelty with them, the same Bishop haveing been there 
upon the same occasion about 5 years agoe. I think the 
Papists have been a little more reserved this, then (sic) 
they were the last time the Bishop was in this Neighbor- 
hood. For then they made great Boasts of their vast 
Numbers, But now I have heard nothing from any of 
them of this matter. If this account be not so perfect 
as your Grace could wish, I desire you will not impute 
it to my Negligence, but to the unwillingness of people 
in this country to intermeddle ag st Papists, w ch if it 
should come to any of their Ears they would study to 
requite them with the greatest mischiefe they could 
think of; And indeed 'tis dangerous medling with them 
here, where they bear down all before them with theii 
Power & Interest. I do not know that my Lord of 
Chester has any Notice of this matter, but if jour Grace 
think fitt I shall communicate it to him. I am, my 
Lord, Your Grace's most obliged & Obedient Son & 
Serv', Jo: HOLME." 

Indorso'- The most reverend Father in God 
his Grace the Lord Arch-Bp of Canterbury, at 
his Palace at Lambeth. These." Post-mark 
" Preston, Nov. 9." Heraldic seal, with 4 
quarterings the first and fourth, barry of six 
with a canton. Library, Lambeth Palace. 
Gibson MSS., No. 930. 


6, Lambeth Terrace. 

5 th S. I. JAN. 31, '74.] 



[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 


" We are spirits clad in veils, 

Man, by man, was never seen ; 
All our deep communion fails 
To remove that shadowy screen." 

" To thank with brief thanksgiving 

* * * * 

That even the weariest river 
Winds somewhere safe to sea." 

T. W. C. 
Ka/DTrov efj.oi TroBfoi'Tif (TV S'dvOea </>vAAa 


(rrjfjLaivovcr 3 OTTL fJiarrjv TTOVCOJ. 

Name of work and page ? R. S. CHARNOCK. 
Gray's Inn. 

" Aiunt, Thai saye, 
Quid aiunt, Quhat saye thai 'I 
Aiant, Lat thaim saye." 

H. A. W. 

" We shall march prospering not through his presence, 

Songs may inspirit us not from his lyre ; 
Deeds will be done while he boasts his quiescence, 
Still bidding crouch whom the rest bade aspire." 

In a sermon preached in 1661, the following 
occurs : 

"Pray for the king's health, but drink only for your 
own, remembering the poet's advice : 

' Una salus sanis, nullam potare salutem, 
Non est in pota vera salute talus.' " 

Who is the poet ? The first line is an adaptation of 
^Eneid, ii. 354 : 

" Una salus victis, nullam sperare salutem." 

Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

" He did not know, poor beast, why love should not be 
true to death." 

A. O. V. P. 

" We may live without Poetry, Music, and Art," &c. 

W. A. C. 
A Persian saying, that our bliss on earth 

" Is not in pleasure but in ease from pain." 

" That seeking others' good, we find our own." 

" In Fame's eternal temple shine for aye." 

" But no Elisha in Elijah's room." 
" Trammelled and bound in custom's changeless school, 
Absurd by system, frivolous by rule." 
" Cold lookers on, they say, 

Can better judge than those who play." 
" When Hope, long doubtful, soared at length sublime." 

H. N. C. 

THE RHEE. In Taylor's Words and Places, 
p. 270, on river names, in connection with the root 

" Rhe," or " Rliin," he states that the Rhee is in 
Cambridgeshire. What part of the county is it. in ? 
There is an old watercourse, "TheWryde," near 
Thorney. Is that the stream intended ? 


" ST. GEORGE'S LOFTE." On an inquiry being 
made, temp. Edw. VI., into the furniture, &c.> 
belonging to the Church of Kimbolton, Hunts, it 
was found that " Also solde by Thomas Rolling,. 
&c., w th thassent of all .... a Lofte, called 
St. George's Lofte, for xvj 8 ." What can this have 
been ? T. N. FERNIE. 

CURIOUS COIN OR TOKEN. My servant recently 
picked up, while digging in rny garden in Hamp- 
shire, a coin or token, bearing on one side a pair 
of scales evenly balanced, with a fishing-hook 
under the left-hand scale ; and on the reverse side 
a heart, with a broad edge to it, and beneath, the 
figures " 1794." The edge is milled, but rather 
worn, and the coin is made of some dark metal not 
unlike bronze. Is it a coin or token ? 

N. H. R. 

LIES. Burke, in the Peerage and Baronetage, 
under " Skipwith," says that 

"Sir William (Skipwith) m., 2ndly, Alice, dau. and 
heir of Sir Lionel Dymoke, of Scrivelsby, in the co. of 
Lincoln, and by her acquired a considerable estate, and 
left an only child, Henry, ancestor of the Skipwiths of 
Prestwould.' ! 

Should this not be " an only son "'? My pedigree 
asserts that Richard Wood ward, of Butler's Merston 
(d. 14th August, 1556), was son of John Wood- 
ward, of Butler's Merston, by his marriage with 
" Dorothy, dau. of Sir Wm. Skipwith, by Alice, 
heiress of Sir Lionel Dymoke"; and that she died 
Nov. 8, 1554. I think the privately printed 
history of the Skipwiths confirms this statement. 

" CALLED HOME." I was looking through the 
registers of a country parish in Dorsetshire a short 
time ago, and came across several entries of mar- 
riages, written about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, where the expression " called home " was 
used to denote the publication of the banns. This 
is, however, but the Dorset vernacular for the 
same. The register recorded their publication in 
due course, on " three several Lord's daies," with 
ihe exception of one I noticed to be on " three 
several market daies." 

I would ask, was it ever usual in olden times for 
the banns to be published on market days instead 
of on Sundays ? J. S. UDAL. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

Where can any information be obtained regarding 
lim and his writings 1 A. G. 



[5 (b S. I. JAN. 31, 74. 

GREEK ANTHOLOGY. Which is the best, fullest, 
and completest edition of the Greek Anthology 1 


.names of the artists who did " Illustrations to the 
Pickwick Club, edited by ' Boz,' by Samuel Weller, 
to be completed in eight parts. The local scenery 
sketched on the spot." London, E. Grattan, 1838. 
Why is " edited by Boz " put in 1 because the 
original Pickwick (1838) has for title, " The 
Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, by 
Charles Dickens "1 Perhaps the first few numbers 
of Pickwick were "edited by Boz." It is well 
known how particular Dickens was about his 
illustrations, so I cannot think that these Weller 
plates were published under his authority, as they 
are very bad. NEPHRITE. 

'of Sidbury Church, Devonshire, is a brass plate 
inscribed " 1650. Hie jacet Henricus, Eoberti 
Parsonii filius ; qui exiit anno aetatis suse climac- 
terico AeurepoTrpwTO)." The Lancet has invited 
explanations as to the age at which Henry died. 
The replies which its correspondents give are con- 
flicting, e. gr. 

1. On the second climacteric after the first, i. e., at 21. 

2. On the second principal climacteric, whichever 
that may be. 

3. In the year next to the first climacteric, i.e., at 8. 

4. <( Undoubtedly the meaning is, he died in his 63rd 

5. In the second of his grand climacterics, i. e., at 126. 

To myself the language of the epitaph seems to 
point to Henry's being a young person, with a 
father still living, and so to exclude the last two 
conjectures. CYRIL. 

Who was he ? He is referred to in the margin o: 
Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 258, as the possessor of s 
manuscript therein referred to as an authority. 

J. F. M. 

"before me an ancient calendar, in which the 2Vtl 
of March is marked " Eesurrectio Domini," witl 
" B" for the Sunday Letter. The Black Prime, 01 
"Golden Number, opposite the 21st of March, ii 
xvi. In what year was the calendar written 1 I 
purports to belong to the first half of the fourteentl 
-century. M. D. T. N. 

to learn something of him. He was practising hi 
^rt in 1760 or 1765. J. R. B. 

" THE ONLY KID," &c. Is anything known o 
the origin of the two curious compositions at th 
end of the Passover Service of the German Jews 
" The Only Kid" and " Who Knows One Thing' 

Ire they in the Talmud, or what is the earliest 
ate at which they are found ? J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

ARITHMETIC. I have been asked for informa- 
ion about an old system of arithmetic, in which 
urns especially- addition sums may be proved 
y " casting out the nines." This is rather a vague 

ay of putting it, but I know no other. Is there 
ny book which I can consult, or will any corre- 
pondent assist me ? M. H. S. C. 

WATER-MARK. On the paper of an old etching 
epresenting an aged, miserable, worn-out, shoeless 
lorse, turned out on a common to die, and standing 
verthe carcase of a dead one which dogs are about to 
.evour, is a water-mark of some emblems resembling 
water-wheel, or a circle of palings, &c., and the 
>vords PRO PATRIA H D. What is the date and 
;ountry of this paper 1 The etching itself may be 
; copy, made at the time, after Paul Potter or 
ome other old master of the Low Countries. Is 
here any book on water-marks ? 


Henbury, Macclesfield. 

[RELAND. Can any of your readers give me some 
information respecting the customs observed at the 
wishing wells in Great Britain and Ireland, or any 
luperstitions connected with them ? C. L. W. 
[See 4 th S. xii. 227, 298.] 

SIR JOHN BTJRLEY, K.G. Wanted the date, 
actual or approximate, of the death of Sir John 
Burley, K.G., temp. Richard II., called Messire 
Jehan le Burle in a list, in French, printed in 
Heylin's Historie of St. George, p. 351. J. F. M. 

ARMORIAL. To whom does a coat of arms, 
" argent, a chevron engrailed gules, between three 
mullets pierced, vert," belong ? It is engraved on 
a sun-dial in the garden of a very old house in 
Hampshire. B. L. 

SIR JOHN McGETTi, 1664. In the records of 
baptisms for the parish of Dirleton, East Lothian, 
there is the following entry : 

"1664. Sep. 4. Geo. Heriot, a son named John. 
Witnesses, Sir John McGetti and Livingstone of Salt- 

Can you give any particulars regarding this Sir 
John McGetti, or mention where such are likely to 
be found ? B. 


will, dated December 1, 1711, in which she desires 
to be buried in the parish church of St. Hellen in 
Yorke, " nigh to my dear mother there buried." 
She leaves to Sir Win. Hawksworth ten broads ; 

5* S. I. JAH. 31, 74.1 


to Lady Hawksworth, his wife (her granddaughter), 
her diamond ear-rings, &c. ; to Mr. Fawkes ten 
broads, and to Mrs. Fawkes, her granddaughter, 
her table of plate, &c. ; to Mr. Mann, minister of 
Kilborne, her right and interest in a farm at 
Button under Whitsoncliffe ; to Dorothy, the wife 
of Richard Utley, fifty shillings yearly ; to her 
cousin, Mrs. Spencer, 501., &c. ; Mrs. Fairfax, 20Z. ; 
to Cosen Elizabeth Aysoough, of Yorke, 5Z., &c. ; 
to Frances, the daughter of Cosen Edward Masters, 
201. ; to John Corbut, her cosen, 101. ; to Cousin 
Elizabeth Breary, twenty broads. Query 
daughter was Lady Ayscough 1 

Clifton, Brighouse. 

NICHOLAS MORTIMER. There was a royal 
chantry in the Lady Chapel of Chichester, founded 
by King Henry V. ; the purpose of the endowment 
includes the name of Nicholas Mortimer, a kins- 
man of the royal family. Who was he 1 


CIRCA 1650. In a sermon, delivered about 1652, 
Dr. Fuller, pleading for moderation in fasting, 
refers to 

"A noble lady whose religious life is lately printed; 
who some hours before her death, being in perfect mind 
and memory, called for a cup of wine, and spake to her 
kinswoman. ' If God,' said she, ' restore me to my health 
again, I will never macerate my body so much, to disable 
it, as I have done with my fasting.' " 

Who is meant ? JOHN E. BAILEY. 

I read in Richard Parker's View of Cambridge, 
translated from the Latin into English by Richard 
Hearn (Parker was a son of Archdeacon Parker, a 
former rector of this parish), that Thomas, of 
Castle Bernard;, in addition to other preferments, 
was " Warden of the Free Chapel of Havering- 
rnere, now Harrimere Chapel, in the Parish of 
Streatham, but upon the river of Ely, and Canon 
of Aukland, with the Prebend of Fishwashe. A 
notable Benefactor, who resign'd his wardenship 
about the year of our Lord 1426." I shall be 
glad to know the meaning of the expression " Free 
Chapel," and how such free chapels were usually 
served. In this instance the chapel has dis- 
appeared long since ; but I suspect that there were 
many such chapels formerly in the Fen district. 


Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

mysterious and rather important personage, who 
appears to have nourished about the middle of the 
thirteenth century 1 All I have been able to ascer- 
tain is that, along with the old Earl of Fife and 
the Lord of Abernethy in Scotland, he shared in 
the transcendant privilege of sanctuary. According 

to Wyntoun (Cronyldl, bk. vi. c. xix. L 38, et seq.) 
there were only three originally who were partakers 
in such a right : 

" That is, ye blak prest of Weddale, 
The Thane of Fyfe, and ye thryd syn 
Quhaewyse be Lord of Abernethyne " ; 

and in the oldest Border treaty, 1249 (Border 
Laws, 4), is found, "pro domino Episcopo Sancti 
Andrete jurabit Presbyter de Weddale." Where 
was " Weddale" situated? It can hardly be Wear- 
dale, in the county of Durham. The Bishop of 
St. Andrews, in 1249, was David de Bernhame, 
who, while Great Chamberlain (1228) to Alexander 
II., King of Scots, was elected to that see, 1239, 
June 3, and consecrated on January 22 following, 
Fest. of S. Vincent, M., by the Bishops of Glas- 
gow, Caithness, and Dunblane. He anointed the 
young King Alexander III. at Scone, on July 13, 
1249, and died 1253, April 26, at Newthorn, near 
Berwick (of which town he was a native), his 
remains being interred in the abbey church of 
Kelso.' A. S. A. 

" ESCRIVANO DE MoLDE." In Montalvos' 
Copilacion de Leyes, printed at Burgos in 1488, 
the colophon runs thus : " Este libro se imprimio 
en la muy noble y muy leal cibdad de burgos por 
maestre fadrique aleinan escrivano de molde, 28 Set., 
1488," &c. The phrase, "Escrivano de Molde" 
(writer by types, forms, or moulds) is very interest- 
ing. Can any of your readers mention other books 
in which it occurs ? WM. BRAGGE, F.S.A. 

" S " VERSUS " Z." Some years ago, an elderly 
correspondent of mine used to amuse me by always 
writing " surprized." I was under the impression 
that this was an obsolete spelling. But in a certain 
series of proof-sheets which have passed through 
my hands during last autumn, I find poor letter s 
constantly ousted by 2. " Teaze," " realize," " ad- 
vertize/' &c. Are we about to desert s for z, or is 
my compositor eccentric ? HERMEKTRUDE. 

The Rev. William Valentine, the late vicar of St. 
Thomas's, Stepney, had in his possession a fine 
portrait (on panel) of Barbor, who after he was 
tied to the stake 'was saved from martyrdom by 
the death of Queen Mary. To commemorate his 
preservation, lie is said to have had this portrait 
painted, and a jewel made, consisting of a minia- 
ture of Elizabeth, set round with precious stones 
(see Gentleman's Magazine for December, 1840, 
p. 602, where both are engraved). By his will 
these memorials were to descend as heirlooms, but 
in the course of time they were separated, and 
some years ago Mr. Valentine became the possessor 
of the picture. Are there now in existence any of 
the representatives of Barbor who might desire to 
possess the portrait 1 Mr. Valentine once received 
some proposals for this purpose. W. J. T. 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 7. 


(1 st S. viii. 492.) 

The following is in answer to a query that ap- 
peared twenty years ago. Charles Owen was a 
brother of James Owen, a nonconforming minister 
of Salop. Their father was John Owen of Abernaut, 
near Caermarthen ; he had nine children, of whom 
James, the second son, was born Nov. 1, 1654, and 
died April 8, 1706. Charles Owen was probably 
younger than James ; the earliest mention I have 
found of him is on June 16, 1702, at an Ordination 
of Dissenting Ministers, held in Warrington by 
Matthew Henry, Bisley, Ainsworth, &c., "Mr. 
Charles Owen began with Prayer and Beading." 
On August 18, in the same year, there was another 
ordination at Wrexham, by Matthew Henry, James 
Owen, &c., when " Mr. Charles Owen, Mr. Jenkin 
Thomas, and Mr. Benyon pray'd; Mr. J. Owen 
pray'd and preach'd," &c. 

In The Jacobite Trials at Manchester, edited by 
W. Beamont, Esq., for the Chetham Society, 
p. 53 : 

" We have also a bill found against Owen, our Presbe- 
terion minister of our towne, for publishing that book 
which I sent you by your brother Legh, which will whip 
his pockett, for the coppey will cost him 3CM. or 40., the 
haveing sett forth the whole book in the bill of indicte- 
ment." Letter from J. Goulborne (steward of the Legh 
family at Warrington) to P. Legh, Esq., att Lyme. 

The book referred to is evidently his Plain 
Dealing, 1715, for among the Rawl. MSS. in the 
Bodleian Library, I find an Answer to Plain 
Dealing, &c., dedicated 

"To the Hon We and worthy Gentlemen the Grand- 
jury of Lancashire. 

"Gentlemen, I can recommend this performance 
to the protection of none so propper as to your selves, 
who have so eminently signalized your zeal in defence of 
our holy Religion by a just and legal prosecution of the 
author of this Pamphlet, who, it seems, has his residence 
amongst you. 

" I should not have presumed to meddle in this matter 
after you had concerned your selves, were it not that I 
am sensible the contagion has spread abroad, where your 
happy influence has no authority to exert itselfe, and, 
therefore, I thought it necessary that something by way 
of antidote should be published, in order to stop the 

" So, hopeing you '11 still persevere in your care for 
the preservation of our Holy Religion against all it's 
enemies, I beg leave to subscribe my selfe 

Gentlemen, y r most obedient ar Tt ., 

D. W." 

Walter Wilson, in his History of Dissenting 
Churches, vol. iii., p. 514 (8vo. Lond., 1810), says : 
"We have seen a sermon* upon the Queen's 
death [Aug. 1, 1714] by Dr. Owen, of Warrington." 

In Bogue and Bennett's Hist, of Dissenters, vol. i., 

1808), speaking of James 
for Scripture Ordination, 

* On the text " And Ahab, the son of Omri, did evil 
in the sight of the Lord above all that were before him." 
1 Kings xvi. 20. 

p. 426 (8vo., Lond., 
Owen and his Plea 
published in 1694 : 

" After his decease, Charles Owen, his brother, 
prosecuted the subject. He published a Vindication of 
the Plea, a Treatise on the Superiority of Ordination by 
Presbyters to that of Bishops, &n& a. History of Ordination? 
which had all been begun by his brother James, and 
were completed by him ; and in them he notices and 
exposes the arguments of Mr. Gipps, rector of Bury, h 
Lancashire, who had written against James Owen'a 
Plea for Presbyterian Ordination." 

I subjoin a list of works by C. Owen : 

1. Some account of the Life and Writings of James 
Owen. 12mo., Lond., 1709. (Bodl.) 

2. The Scene of Delusions Open'd, in an Historical 
Account of Prophetick Impostures. 12mo., Lond., 1712. 
(J. F. Marsh, Esq.) 

3. Hymns Sacred to the Lord's-Table, Collected and 
Methodiz'd. By Charles Owen. Sm. 8vo., Leverpoole, 
1712. (The late Dr. Robson.) 

4. Donatus Redivivus: or, a Reprimand to a Modern 
Church Schismatick. (Anon.) Lond., 1714. (" N. & Q.") 
Republ. as Rebaptization Condemned. Lond., 1716. 
(" N. & Q.") 

5. Plain Dealing : or Separation without Schism and 
Schism without Separation. 8vo. Lond., 1715. (Bodl.) 
12th edition. 8vo., Lond., 1727. (Brit. Mus.) 

6. Validity of Dissenting Ministry. 8vo., Lond., 1716. 
(Brit. Mus.) 

7. A Funeral Sermon for the Rev. Mr. T. Risley. Svo., 
Lond., 1716. (Brit. Mus.) 

8. A Vindication of Plain Dealing from the Aspersions 
of two Country Curates, contained in a Pamphlet entitled, 
Plain Dealing proved to be Plain Lying. (Anon.) 8vo., 
Lond., 1716. (Brit. Mus.) 

9. Plain Dealing and its Vindication defended against 
a certain Pamphlet. (Anon.) 8vo., Lond., 1716. (Brit. 

10. The Jure Divino Woe: exemplify'd in the re- 
markable Punishment of Persecutors, False Teachers, 
and Rebels. A Thanksgiving Sermon preached (on 
Jude 11) at Manchester, Nov. 14. 8vo., Lond., 1717. 
(Brit. Mus.) 

11. Plain Reasons, I. for Dissenting from the Com- 
munion of the Church of England. II. Why Dissenters 
are not and cannot be guilty of Schism, &c. By a true 
Protestant. 3rd edition. (Anon.) 8vo., Lond., 1717. 
23rd edition. 8vo., Lond., 1736. (Bodl.) 

12 The Dissenters claim of Right to a Capacity for 
Civil Offices. (Anon.) 8vo., Lond., 1717. (Brit. Mus.) 

13. The Danger of the Church and Kingdom from 
Foreigners Considered. (Anon.) 8vo., Lond., 1721. 
(Brit. Mus.) An edition with his name on title. 8vo., 
Lond., 1750. (Bodl.) 

14. An Alarm to Protestant Princes and People who 
are all struck at in the Popish Cruelties at Thorn, &c. 
(Anon.) Svo., Lond., 1725. (Brit. Mus.) 

15. Meditations on the Incarnation, Sufferings, and 
Death of Christ [abridged from the Wonders of liedeem- 
ing Love, by C. 0.]. Lond. Religious Tract Soc., First 
Series, Tracts, No. 302. 1830. (Brit. Mus.) 

16 Essay towards the Natural History of Serpents. 
4to., Lond., 1742. (Brit. Mus.) 

17. Funeral Sermon. 8vo., Lond., 1746. (Watts 
Bibl. Brit.) 

18. On Marriage; on Hebr. xiii. 4. 8vo., I too. 

19. The Vanity of Human Life illustrated under the 
Similitude of Nothing, a Discourse [on Ps. xxxix. 5] 

5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74.] 



occasioned by the Death of Mrs. M. Lythgow, &c. 
8ro., Manch., 1758. (Brit. Mus.) 

The above works are, I believe, usually as- 
cribed to one author, but I am inclined to think 
that they are by two different men, perhaps father 
and son. Some of your Lancashire readers may 
be able to solve this question. 

No. 2 was translated into German, and published 
at Leipzig in 1715. Plain Dealing, p. 38 : 
" Rebaptization is another novel Practice lately in- 
troduced into the Church, &c. You may see more 
of this in my Donatus Redivivus and The Amazon 
Unmask'd." W. H. ALLNUTT. 

Bodleian Library. 

IRISH PROVINCIALISMS (4 th S. ix. passim; xii. 
479, 522.) I may preface my answers by saying 
that in some parts of the north of Ireland the 
settlers can still speak and understand Gaelic ; this 
is not the case in the County Derry, but the in- 
habitants of the lowlands can speak almost as good 
Scotch, and certainly can understand it quite as 
well, as the inhabitants of the Scotch Lowlands. 
When speaking to an Englishman, or anyone who 
speaks English fairly, they would consider it very 
bad manners to tali broad ; in courtesy to him, 
they do their utmost to speak intelligible English, 
and rarely embellish their speech with proverbs or 
old sayings. Anyone wishing to hear them con- 
verse in their every-day tongue would do well to 
follow the example of Dan O'Connell. 

For some years I have been engaged collecting 
materials for a work on the antiquities, manners, 
customs, legends, &c., of the County of Derry, 
and I need hardly say that any contribution which 
would throw light on the subject would be most 
interesting to me. 

The word houghel is commonly applied to a 
splay-footed person, who shuffles along in an awk- 
ward manner. JSoughling is walking awkwardly, 
to move from side to side. The word is Scotch, 
and is derived from hoghlin, a pig. Anyone who 
has seen a fat pig walking can form an idea of the 
way a houghlin" person wabbles from side to side. 
Crowl is also Scotch. A common expression is " a 
wee donsie crowl "=a small sickly child ; "I 'm very 
donsie "=I 'm very feeble or sickly. Bray is the 
Scotch brae, pure and simple. 

As MR. WARREN has already said, the whitteret 
takes its name from the white ring round its throat ; 

A whitteret about a house is considered very 
sonsie (lucky). It is also commonly believed in 
the County Derry that if it found one asleep in 
the open field it would cut one's throat, and, vam- 
pire-like, suck the blood. I once feigned to sleep 
close to a little burn which threaded its way be- 
hind an old stone ditch overgrown by whin bushes. 
A couple of these animals, which I knew to be in 
the ditch, presented themselves in about ten 

minutes, and continued to watch me closely until 
I began to move ; they were very cautious however, 
and would not venture nearer to me than about 
five yards. Their odour was most offensive. I 
may add that danjampery is in common use in 
County Derry. 

Fouther is correctly explained by MR. SKIPTON. 
In the County Derry they say of an unhandy per- 
son, " You 're a fouther and the ducks 'ill get ye." 
I think it is of Scotch origin, though I do not find 
it in Jamieson's Dictionary. 

There is a word in common use somewhat like 
it, viz., footie, which means a small insignificant 
person or thing. 

"It's a footey thing tae fa' oot aboot"=it's a 
small matter to quarrel about. Lim, or Leim-a- 
vaddy, the " Dog's Leap." 

Carry, or Carryback, so called from the rocks or 
stones of which it is built. Faughan, or Fochan, 
so called from the tender good grass which grew 
on its fertile banks. 

Nowe is Scotch, and means a little hill or knoll. 
In an old song, which I heard sung in County 
Derry, the following occurs : 

" We'll ca' the yows (ewes) frae the nowes 
Molly and me. " 

Dellanfan is a short way of saying " daylight 
fallin'." MR. SKIPTON did not catch the sound 
properly ; it is pronounced del-let-fawn, or del-leete- 
fan ; the t is always sounded. Gammon is a popular 
game about Christmas ; it is called in Scotland 
cammack, from cammock, a crooked stick. Gaelic 
cam crooked. 

For skelp, see Jamieson, vol. ii. pp. 397-8. In 
County Derry a splinter is called a skel, which 
Jamieson confounds with "skelp." Jamieson 
traces byre to the French bouverie, a stall for oxen, 
from bceuf, an ox. For derivations, and fuller ex- 
planations of the words, houghel, crowl, whitteret, 
blether, and mill lade, see Jamieson's Scottish 

In reference to my former paper (4 th S. ix. 513) 
on this subject, I still adhere to the views therein 
expressed. I have made every inquiry personally 
in the district, about the saying "that bangs 
Banagher," and find there is nothing known about 
it, but the good people of Banagher, on the river 
Shannon, lay claim to the saying, and ground their 
claim on traditions which I cannot believe. I also 
confirm the remarks of J. CK. K. and HERMEN- 
TRUDE : the saying is common in Glasgow and the 
Lowlands of Scotland, and I have frequently heard 
it in Lancashire and Cheshire ; indeed, wherever 
Irishmen migrate in numbers they carry their 
proverbs and sayings with them. 


S. i. 47.) Kayles, written also cayles and keiles, 
derived from the French word quilles, was frequently 



[5 th S. I. JAN. M, 74. 

played with pins, and, no doubt, gave origin to the 
modern game of nine pins, though primitively the 
kayle pins do not appear to have been confined to 
iiny certain number. 

The game of cloish or closh, mentioned frequently 
in the ancient statutes,* seems to have been the 
same as kayles, or at least exceedingly like it. 
Cloish was played with pins which were thrown at 
with a bowl instead of a truncheon, and, probably, 
differed only in name from the ninepins of the 
present time. 

Gleek is mentioned with priniero in Green's Tu 
yuoque, where one of the characters proposes to 
play at twelve-penny gleek ; but the other insists 
upon making it for a crown at least. 

I have extracted the above from Strutt's Sports 

and Pastimes of the People of England, edit. 1868, 

pp. 271, 334, and have presumed that by "guek" 

is meant gleek, but perhaps I may be in error here. 


3, Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park, W. 

Kayles, cayles, keiles, keel-pins, or kittle-pins, 
was the progenitor of modern skittles. The game 
consisted in throwing a club or cudgel at a row of 
pins, and differed from cloysh, cloish, or closh, in 
which the pins were knocked down by a bowl. 
Minsheu (1627) thus defines closh- "the casting 
of a bowle at nine-pinnes of wood, or nine shanke- 
bones of an oxe or an horse." Both these games 
were in the first instance prohibited by the 17 Edw. 
IV., cap. 3. See Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 
p. 271, and Fosbroke's Encyclopedia, p. 617. 


Hazelwood, Belper. 

" Closh is an unlawfull game forbidden by the 
statute Anno 17 Edw. 4, cap. 3, which is in casting 
of a bowle at nine-pinnes of wood or nine shanke 
bones of an oxe or horse." Minsheu, 1627. It 
was also prohibited says Strutt, 18, 20 Hen. VIII., 
though Collier, Ann Stage, I. 36, calls them not 
statutes but orders issued. There is, too, a con- 
sensus of authorities that cayles, keeles, kiles, &c., 
skales, and probably scoyles, are ninepins. " Nine- 
pins or kiels," Jonson's Chloridia; "Kiles or nine 
pinnes," Minsheu. "Aliossi at keeles, skales or 
nine pinnes," and " Cione, a bird. . . . Also a 
ninepin or peg or keele," Florio. And so Cotgrave 
under " quille," from which all these words are 
derived. Keeles, also, like closh and loggats, were 
sometimes of bone, as slxnvn by Jonson (as above), 
Hanmer (Hamlet, v. 1), and in The Merry Milk- 
Maid of Islington (Strutt). In Coles's Dictionary 
is " closh, the forbidden game at closh-cayles, nine- 
pins." Hence we may perhaps conjecture thai 
the two words were synonymes or interchangec 
for similar games in different districts, and that 

* An. 17 Edw. IV. cap. 3, again 18, 20 Hen. VIII., in 
both which acts this game is prohibited. 

jlosh, whether as a more barbaric word, or from its 
more frequent use in the statutes and proclama- 
ions, dropped out of use. I do not remember 
laving met with it in any Elizabethan dramatist 
or poet. Strutt seems to say that cloish differed 
Torn cayles in the pins being thrown at with a 
:>owl instead of a truncheon, and others, misled by 
this, have said so. It is to be regretted that Strutt 
does not always give his authorities, but he him- 
self says, under " cayles," that the two drawings 
ae copies " represent that species of the game 
:alled club-kayles," jeux de quilles a baston, names 
which imply that there were kayles not played 
with a club. The phrase closh-cayles also suggests 
that closh may (if not of the root clash) be allied 
to closh, a disease in the feet of cattle. If so, and 
it is rendered the more likely by the use of shank 
bones for pins, the phrase might be glossed as 

In interpreting, however, closh and keels as 
ninepins, we must take the latter as the generic 
term for a variety of games typified by the more 
general ninepins. Thus, as stated by Strutt, keeles 
not only included ninepins and skittles or kittle - 
pins, but, as shown by his drawings, games where 
the number of pins varied. Nay, there are two 
reasons for believing that keels was applied to 
other games in which a pin, peg, or goal was used. 
For first, in French quille is not only, according to 
Cotgrave, " a keyle or pin of wood used at nine- 
pins or keyles," &c., but " a la quille is at cat and 
trap." And, secondly, in a parlour game intro- 
duced or re-introduced some years ago, and called 
squales, an evident variation of kayles and skales, 
flat discs are slid from the edge of a round table 
towards a centre pin much as in curling, bowls or 
loggats. I may add, that while bowls was clearly 
a gentlemanly and citizen game in great vogue, 
the very unfrequent mention of keeles or ninepins 
seems to show that it was a more rustic pastime or 
more vulgar town game, and this is borne out by 
Sidney's Arcadia: 

" And now at keeles they try a harmelesa chaunce, 
And now their curre they teach to fetch and daunce." 

" Lamon's Song," Book I., and similarly in " Geron 
and Mastix," Book II. : 

" Now shepheards spend their dayes 
At blow-point, hot-cockles, or else at keeles." 

" Guek " is a misspelling or error for gleek, the 
game which, after primero, was the chief gambling 
game at cards. It was played by three, and I 
fancy had some resemblance to piquet. 


P.S. Perhaps some one will give us the words 
of the statutes, &c., mentioned above, as also those 
of 33 Henry VIII. mentioned by Hanmer. 

EPISCOPAL TITLES (4 th S. xii. 64, 90, 121, 162, 
450, 503.) I fail to see that I have committed 
" the logical fallacy of defending that which nobody 

5 !h S.I. JAX. 31,71] 


has denied." MR. TEW denies that bishops, other 
than peers of the realm, have a right to the title 
of " Lord." I assert, on the contrary, that they 
are lords by right, and not only by courtesy. MR. 
TEW founds his argument on the assumption that 
right and legal claim are convertible terms. I 
found mine on the fact that the Church can confer 
rights which the civil law may or may not enforce, 
and which are not affected by the acknowledgment 
or denial of them by the State. MR. TEW is 
singularly unfortunate in citing a Scotch bishop 
as one who cannot demand to be called Lord 
Bishop in a legal document. The present Scotch 
prelates are not less lord bishops, though the civil 
power does not so style them, than their prede- 
cessors were bishops, though in the days of perse- 
cution of the Scotch Church the civil power refused 
to recognize their episcopal character. Notwith- 
standing the absence of State recognition, the 
power conferred by the Church upon these bishops 
in the last century was so effectual that the whole 
episcopate (Anglican) of the United States traces 
its origin to a bishop (the senior of the canonical 
three) who was consecrated by them. And if 
the Church can thus confer power without State 
recognition, a fortiori she can give right to a title 
which is only an outward sign of the power con- 

Those persons who are not members of the 
Church, and who consequently refuse to acknow- 
ledge her authority, must necessarily refuse to 
accord as a right any titles which are derived 
from the Church and not directly from the sove- 
reign, and thus to a, certain extent it is true that 
" the question seems to turn upon private opinion 
only." But, historically, the Church is a power 
independent of the State, allied with it by estab- 
lishment, as in England, or entirely unconnected 
with it, as in Scotland, Ireland, and the United 
States. It is a power having its own laws and 
its own rights, giving to its ministers certain 
functions which the State is incapable of giving, 
and conferring certain titles, as marks of honour, 
upon its chief ministers which are not derived 
from the State, and which, therefore, the State 
cannot take away, though it may ignore them. 
Given, then, an acknowledgment of the Church as 
a power, and the right of her bishops to any title 
she may confer is, I think, established. Deny 
her existence as a power, and the denial of the 
right of her bishops to any title not derived from 
the State is the logical consequence. Does MR. 
TEW deny the one, and therefore the other ? MR. 
TEW concludes his note by a question, whether he 
ought or ought not to address the suffragan bishops 
of England as lord bishops. If he will refer to 
my first note (vol. xii. p. 122), he will find it there 
stated by me : 

" Suffragan bishops have, strictly speaking, no sees. 
It is true that they are called after some town, as Dover 

and Nottingham, but they have no throne in any church 
in those towns, because, acoordi ng to ancient rule, there 
cannot be two episcopal thrones in one diocese. Having 
no sees they have no title." 

I may add that the Ch urch herself decided this. 
Convocation considered the point at the time of 
the consecration of the Bisho p of Nottingham, and 
decided that the title of lord bishop should not be 
given to suffragans. H. P. D. 

J. S. MILL ON "LIBERTT" (5 th S. i. 29.) 
C. A. W. will find a review of this work in the 
British Quarterly Review, vol. xlyiii. p. 1. G. 

THE " VIOLET-CROWNED " CITY (4 th S. xii. 496.) 
The word IOO-T<CU/OS, applied distinctively to 
Athens, may be found in the references of CANTAB, 
and (I believe) nowhere else. Boeckh (TlivSapov 
TO. o-wo/xeva, Leips., 1819), torn. ii. p. 580, 
remarks, "iocrre<avos, spectat ad ipsa solennia 
quibus hie Dithyrambus inservicbat, in quibus 
violaceas coronas usurpatas esse prius docst 

Mr. T. Mitchell, in his edition of Aristophanes' 
Acham. (Lond., 1835), appends the following 
note : 

" The graceful practice of twisting chaplets around the 
head of the'ancients is too well known to need illustration ; 
and in Athenian chaplets no flower bore a more frequent 
part than that beautiful one which formed so common an 
ornament in their parterres and gardens." 

In his translation of the same comedy into 
English (Lond., 1820), he gives a note as follows: 

" The violet was the favorite and distinguishing flower 
of the Athenians. lonians in their origin, they saw in 
the ion, or violet, an allusion to the name of their founder. 
While Sparta, therefore, was characterised as the Dory- 
Stephanos, or javelin-crowned city, the Athenians took 
pride in being called the io-stephanoi, or violet-crowned." 

This explanation is ingenious, but there appear 
to be grave philological doubts as to its soundness. 
Perhaps some contributors to " N. & Q." may 
throw additional light on the matter. 

B. E. N. 

(4 th S. xii. 495.) When I was in Paris, in July, 
1848, during part of the "Red" Revolution, a 
friend informed me that he had been present when 
the mob made havoc of the furniture, &c., of Louis 
Philippe's palace in the February insurrection. He 
gave iK3 some of the velvet of the chairs, and the 
purple and gold china, then destroyed relics 
which I still preserve. He mentioned that the 
marble bust of the once-popular Citizen King was 
only saved from immediate destruction by the 
infuriated populace through the happy expedient 
of a student. He turned the face of the bust 
round, so that it was reflected in the mirror then 
behind it, and said, " There, let the Old Cheat have 
a look at himself. He cannot have a worse punish- 
ment." Justifying Voltaire's eulogium, the monkey 



[5 th S.I. JAN. 31,74. 

portion of a Parisian mob's character is always 
ready to come in sight, along with the tiger's. 
Everybody laughed, enjoying the joke, and a fine 
work of art was saved. Good use is made of the 
incident of turning a picture's face to the wall in 
Charles Eeade's Put Yourself in His Place. But 
neither of these cases affords explanation of the 
custom mentioned by S. S. S. J. W. E. 

Molash, Kent. 

CYMBLING FOR LARKS (5 th S. i. 27.) The first 
question is as to the verbal form " Cymbling," 
which is not recognized by any of the chief 
dictionaries of the English language. I am in- 
formed, however, upon good authority that in 
Yorkshire, at least, the phrase "cymbling for 
bees " is still in use, and that it is applied to the 
common method for making bees settle, in fact 

" Tinnitusque cie, et Matris quate cymbalo, circum." 
Having thus connected the verb to cyuible 
with the noun cymbal, the next question, 
which relates to the nature of the sport of 
" cymbling for larks," becomes more easy. In 
Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, edition of 1801, 
p. 29, I find the following passage, which I have 
no doubt describes the sport in question under 
other names. He is quoting from Jewel for 
G-entrie, Lond., 1614 : 

"There is also another method of fowling, which, 
says my author, for I will give it nearly in his own 
words, is performed with nets, and in the night 
time, and the darker the night the better : ' This 
sport we call in England most commonly lird-lutting , 
and some call it low-balling, and the use of it is to go 
with a great light of cressets or rags of linen dipped 
in tallow, which will make a good light ; and you must 
have a pan or plate made like a lanthorn to carry your 
light in, which must have a great socket to hold the 
light, and carry it before you, on your breast, with a 
bell in your other hand, and of a great bigness, made in 
the manner of a cowbell, but still larger, and you must 
ring it always after one order. If you carry the bell, 
you must have two companions with nets, one on each 
side of you, and what with the bell and what with the 
light, the birds will be so amazed, that, when you come 
near them, they will turn up their white bellies. Your 
companions shall then lay their nets quietly upon them 
and take them. But you must continue to ring the bell ; 
for if the sound shall cease, the other birds, if there be 
any more near at hand, will rise up and fly away.' ' This 
is,' continues the author, 'an excellent method to 
catch larks, woodcocks, partridges, and all other land 
birds.' " 

Whether any of the instruments above described 
are to be found in any museum, or elsewhere, I am 
unable to say. H. M. K. P. 

"BAVIN" (5* S. i. 46.) In this county of 
Sussex bavin means a bundle of underwood, some- 
times called kindlers, as they are used for lighting 
fires. Wedgwood gives the meaning, "a brush 
faggot. O. Fr. ba/e, faisceau, fagot." Chambers, 
in his dictionary, considers them as a kind of 

fascines used in foitification. Shakspeare, too., 
certainly, in the only passage in which I can find 
the word, uses it in this sense : 

" The skipping king, he ambled up and down 
With shallow jesters, and rash bavin wits, 
Soon kindled, and soon burn'd." 

Henry IV., First Part, Act iii. sc. if. 

Fagots made of dry, light brushwood were 
called bavins in Sussex some twenty years ago, and 
probably retain the name. They kindle readily 
and burn out quickly ; so do the "rash bavin 
wits," not only of Shakspeare's, but of all time. 

H. B. P. 

James Graham, titular Viscount Dundee, who died 
at Dunkirk, in 1759, sold the family estate of 
Duntrune to his uncle Alexander Graham before 
1735. Alexander Graham settled the estate on 
his brother David, who died in 1766. By his wife 
Girzel Gardyne he left an only son, Alexander, 
who succeeded to the family estate, and died in 
1782. He had married Clementina, daughter of 
David Gardyne, of Middleton, and left a son, 
Alexander, and several daughters. Alexander 
Graham, of Duntrune, died s. p. in 1802. Two- 
of his sisters were married. The younger sister, 
Clementina, was wife of Gavin Drummond. Her 
daughter, who bore the same Christian name, 
married David, eighth Earl of Airlie, father of the 
present Earl. Amelia, the elder sister, married, in 
1781, Patrick Stirling, of Pittendreich, Forfar- 
shire, and became mother of two sons and two 
daughters. Alexander, the second son, died in 
infancy. The elder son, William Stirling Graham, 
born 12th June, 1794, died in December, 1844, 
and was succeeded in the estate of Duntrune by 
his elder sister. That gentlewoman, Miss Clemen- 
tina Stirling Graham was born in May, 1782, and 
is consequently now in her ninety-first year. IB 
youth she was celebrated for her amusing persona- 
tions. Some of these she has related in a volume 
entitled Mystifications, published in 1864 under 
the editorial care of Dr. John Brown, of Edin- 
burgh. To my work The Modern Scottish Minstrel 
(Edinb., 1870, 8vo.) she is an esteemed contributor. 
She represents the Grahams of Duntrune and 
Claverhouse. Jane, her younger sister, married 
John Mortlock Lacon, of Great Yarmouth, with 
issue six sons and four daughters ; she died in 

Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill. 

Miss Sterling Graham, of Duntroon, is the pre- 
sent representative of Bonny Dundee, a lady whose 
acquaintance is highly prized by those who know 
her. P. P. 

PIN-BASKET (5 th S. i. 28.) The mother's, not 
youngest, but whether youngest or only child, last 

5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74.] 



without hope of another is intensely endeared to 
her, and is called the pin-basket, because the 
basket containing the infant-toilet remains there- 
after pinned up and closed. Changing, therefore, 
" youngest " in the dictionaries into " last," the 
word pin-basket, i.e. pinned-basket, seems, in all 
four quotations, appropriate. JOHN PIKE. 

There is sometimes heard among the peasants, 
in Wales, the saying " I will put a pin in her bas- 
ket." The meaning which they attach to the 
phrase may be best illustrated by such vulgarisms 
as " I will do for the chap," " I will finish him oft'," 
" I will cook his hash for him," &c. K. & M. 


(5 th S. i. 46.) The solution of the enigmatic epi- 
taph does not present much difficulty. From line 
1, compared with 3 and 4, it is clear that the " six 
corpses " belonged to two families, each consisting 
of a woman, her son, and her grand-daughter. 
Line 2 shows that two alliances had taken place 
between the members of the two families ; and as 
the grand-daughters were still maidens (line 5), it 
follows that each man must have married the other 
man's mother. Thus we obtain the husbands and 
wives of line 2, the maidens and mothers (i. e., 
stepmothers) of line 5, and the brothers and sis- 
ters of line 6 ; for each man became brother to the 
other man's daughter, by the union of their re- 
spective parents. A. C. 

Let old Smith, father of young Smith, marry 
Jane Robinson, daughter of Ann ; and let young 
Smith marry Ann Eobinson. Let old Smith and 
Jane his wife have a daughter Jemima, and let 
young Smith and Ann his wife have a daughter 
Kezia. Jemima, daughter of Jane, is of course 
Ann's grand-daughter, and Kezia, being daughter 
of young Smith, is grand-daughter of old Smith's 

On the double marriage Jane became [step] 
mother to young Smith, and Ann became mother 
[in law] to old Smith. Jemima, being daughter 
of old Smith, is of course sister to young Smith, 
and Kezia, being daughter of Ann, is sister of 
Jane, and, therefore, of Jane's husband, old Smith. 
The rest is obvious. Q. E. D. C. S. 

Copied from Palmer's Epitaphs: 


" Two of these six must be men. It will make the 
solution easier to give them names ; Elizabeth, John, 
and Sally : Anne, Thomas, and Suky. Elizabeth and 
Anne of different families, only allied by their second 
marriage. Elizabeth by a first husband had John : and 
afterwards married Thomas, and by him had Suky. Anne, 
by a first husband, had Thomas ; and afterwards married 
John, and by him had Sally. The two grandmothers, Eliza- 
beth and Anne; their two grand-daughters, Sally and 
Suky. The two husbands, John and Thomas ; their 
two wives, Elizabeth and Anne. The two fathers, John 
and Thomas; their two daughters, Sally and Suky. 

The two mothers Elizabeth and Anne ; their two sons, 
John and Thomas. The two maidens, Sally and Suky ; 
their two mothers, Elizabeth and Anne. The two sisters, 
Sally and Suky ; their two brothers, John and Thomas ; 
for Suky is half-sister to John, and Sally half-sister to 
First Husband==Elizabeth Thomas, Second Husband. 



First Husband=Anne=f John, Second Husband. 



P. W 

I haye always heard it explained thus : Two 
friends, A and B, marry their respective mothers, 
and have each a daughter, C and >. 

A=B's mother B==A's mother 

C D 

Mrs. A is, therefore, grandmother to D, as Mrs. 
B is grandmother to C ; A is half-brother to D, as 
B is to C. There is no difficulty with the rest. 

C. L. W. 

GEN. THOMAS HARRISON (5 th S. i. 47.) There 
is a portrait of him, with fac-simile of his autograph 
and seal, in The High Court of Justice, by 
James Caulfield, London, 1820. He is there sup- 
posed to be the son of a butcher or grazier, living 
at Newcastle-under-Line, co. Stafford. There is 
also a portrait of him in Historical Sketches of 
Charles J., Cronmell, and >Charles II., by W. D. 
Fellowes, London and Paris, 1828, with the same 
account of his origin. According to Clarendon, 
he was born near Namptwich, in Cheshire. 

S. H. A. H. 

Sydenham. . 

" DENHAM," NOTTS (5 th S. i. 47.) As a Notting- 
hamshire man, I can say there is a Dunham in 
Nottinghamshire. It is situated on the Trent, 
five miles north-east of Tuxford. I know of no 
Denham. "W. PHILLIPS. 

" THE BLINDE BATE MANY A FLYE " (4 th S. xii. 
316.) S. will, I think, find the above proverb in 
Chaucer, or one of the poems attributed to Chaucer. 

A. H. B. 

STACEY GRIMALDI (5 th S. i. 8.) In the Herald 
and Genealogist, by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A., 
vol. i., p. 548, is a list of " Mr. Grimaldi's distinct 
works " ; also of some contributions of his to 
various periodicals. G. P. 

BOLEYN PEDIGREE (5 th S. i. 2, 45.) In the 
South or Sidney Chantry Chapel in Penshurst 
Church, on a small flat gravestone, there is a cross 
gradated in brass with this laconic inscription in 
black letter 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 31, '74. 

" Thomas Bullayen, sone of Syr Thomas Bullayen." 
The above is from a note made by me during a 
recent visit at Penshurst, distant about three miles 
from Hever. H. M. VANE. 

74, Eaton Place, S.W. 

As Mr. Pigott appears to be acquainted with 
the Boleyn pedigrees, perhaps he could oblige me 
by throwing some light on the following family 
Par. Keg. St. Michael's Barbados, Baptism " 1646 
Sept. 10. John son of John and Joan Bullen." 
The grandson (apparently) of the above, < was 
James Bullen, of Barbados (and described as also 
of Eedruth, Cornwall), partner of Edward Lascelles, 
ancr. of Lord Harewood. S. 

NEW MOON SUPERSTITIONS (5 th S. i. 48.) It is 
a common belief in England and Scotland that a 
new moon falling on a Saturday brings bad 
weather, and there are several sayings to that effect. 
In the north of Italy a change on Wednesday is 
dreaded, and in the south of France a change on 
Friday. A new moon on Monday is everywhere 

Highhurst Wood. 

POPLAR WOOD (5 th S. i. 67.) Every officer who 
served with our army in Afghanistan had daily op- 
portunities of seeing that poplar wood burns readily 
enough ; so readily, indeed, as to be almost worth- 
less for fuel. The timber described in H. H. F.'s 
extract must have been very different also in the 
matter of strength. Any that I have seen would 
have yielded to a much less superincumbent weight 
than " a yard thick of hot clinkers and melted 
machinery." " N. & Q." has always very properly 
set its face against puns, but I cannot help saying, 
for once, that the replies to H. H. F.'s query ought 
to be headed " Pop'lar Error." CHITTELDROOG. 

"CRUE" (4 th S. xii. 517; 5 th S. i. 34.) The 
word " Crue," according to E. Coles, English 
Dictionary of Hard Words, London, 1685, is oi 
Scottish origin. He gives Cruise, Creffera, Sc. 
Hogsty. Solsbury church is probably a mistake. 
According to the old legends, Bladud fell upon the 
Temple of Sol or Apollo in Trinovantum [London] 
Lambarde says, Top. Diet., p. 175 [Lond., 1730]: 

" Gal/ride hath mention of a Temple dedicate to 
Apollo, upon the which Bladud, the Kinge, an In 
chaunter, felle, practisnge against kinde to flie with 
winges "; 

and on referring to old Jeffrey's History for th< 
account of the death of Baldudus, the son o: 
Hurdibras, we find, lib. i. cap. xiiii. (Paris edition 
1517), " ceciditqe super templum Apollinis intra 
urbe Ternouatum et in multa frusta contritus est. 5 ' 
All the most authentic accounts seem to fix the 
place of his death in Lo ndon. 


1st. The word swine's-mw/<3, or, spelt in th< 
way I am in the habit of hearing it pro 

.ounced, "creeve," is daily used in the north 
f Northumberland, and is, I think, common 
hroughout Scotland ; but, like so many of our 
Ider words, it is mainly used by the labouring 
lasses, educated people not taking much interest 
n pigs beyond eating them. 

I believe " swine's-cruife," or " creeve," conies 
inder the denomination of a " vulgar " word, and 
hat its equivalent, when addressed to ears polite, 
iught to be pigsty. 

In an interesting work, De Verborum Significa- 
ione, fol., Edinburgh, 1599, Skene says, " Creffera, 
ir hard porcarum=ane cruife, or ane Swine's- 
3ruif, quhilk in sum auld buikes is called ane 

Just as we have " byre," a cow-house, so we 
lave " cruife," or " creeve "a pig-house, in com- 
mon use, as I have said before, in the extreme 
north of England. 

2nd. Derivation. I should say it can be derived 
rom any language one likes best. There is the 
Saxon " Crreftan," to build, hence a house or hut ; 
Anglo-Sax. "Cruft"=a vault ; Teutonic "Krofte" 
= a cave ; Celtic " Cro" and Cornish " Krou" also 
meaning a hut ; Icelandish " Kroo "=a tavern. 

This word is, I believe, in use in Lancashire. 
Among the peasantry its general meaning seems 
bo be a poor, humble dwelling, a hovel, or hut. 
The word occurs, though differently spelt, in Tivo 
Gentlemen of Verona, Act IV., scene i., line 75 

" We'll bring thee to our crews," 
where it has apparently the meaning given above ; 
but this does not help one to the derivation. 

E. S. 


" HAD I NOT FOUND," &c. (4 th S. xii. 309, 357, 
418, 504.) Perhaps my friend DR. ROGERS 
will permit me to refer him to an edition of 
Aytoun's poems, edited by himself, and pub- 
lished in 1844 by A. & C. Black, Edinburgh. 
There, at page 66, he will find the poem given 
under its proper title, " Inconstancy Reproved." It- 
bears the same name in Watson's collection, ard 
is referred to by the same name in Chambers's 
Biographical Dictionary. Indeed, the whole 
structure of the poem goes to justify its original 
name. The first three lines form what may be 
called the whole argument of the poem, which is 
well sustained throughout : 

" I do confess thou'rt smooth and fair, 
And I must have gone near to love thee, 
Had I not found the slightest prayer," &c. 

It is evident that the poet never intended her to 
be thought his mistress or the mistress of any 
one else. She was so inconstant that nobody cared 
to have anything to do with her, and the poet 
naturally enough tells this coquettish young lady, 
that, seeing she cannot be content with the love of 

5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74.] 



one, she is worthy to be loved by none. DR. 
ROGERS evidently has got bewildered among the 
number of poems addressed by Aytoun to other 
mistresses, scornful, careless, unsteadfast, incon- 
stant, and otherwise. JAMES HOGG. 

HEEL-TAPS (4 th S. xi. 504 ; xii. 18, 198 ; 5 th S. 
i. 37.1 This word is probably derived from to heel 
a cask (i. e., to tilt it) after the clear contents have 
been nearly drawn off, and when the liquid running 
from the tap begins to look turbid. Heel-taps, 
therefore, are the residuum of liquid in an almost 
empty cask, and, by analogy, the leavings in a 
glass when the best of the liquor has been drunk 
off. " No heel-taps " is, both in form and in 
meaning, equivalent to " no leavings." 



" OIL OF BRICK " (4 th S. xii. 448 ; 5 th S. i. 
53.) As your correspondents reply, they do not 
state the fact that this article is used by seal 
engravers and cutters of stones, to retain the dia- 
mond powder on the soft-iron tools. The hot 
brick renders the oil more viscid, but yet it is very 
permeating and never congeals by cold. I have 
seen it rubbed over the bridge of the nose to pre- 
vent snoring, and certainly with efficacy. 

F. S. A. 

SURNAME " BARNES " (4 th S. xii. 496 ; 5 th S. i. 
56.) Will T. H. be so good as to give his authority 
for the astounding statement, that when " the 
property of the family of Barnes was confiscated 
in Elizabeth's and James I.'s time," " their spurs 
were hacked off in true feudal fashion, and every 
record of their existence was erased from the sacred 
pages of the Heralds" ? Does he mean gravely to 
assert that these extraordinary proceedings were 
enforced by judicial sentence, or is it a mere 
rhetorical flourish, by which he attempts to explain 
the fact that no pedigree of Barnes is now to be 
found in the College of Arms ? TEWARS. 

"CANADA" (4 th S. xii. 86, 176.) Canada de 
Ares is the name of a place in Spain, prov. Cas- 
tellon de la Plana ; and Canada is found in the 
names of sixty-nine localities in Spain. Qu. the 
Spanish canada, a dale between two mountains. 


Gray's Inn. 

In Hennepin's New Discovery of a Vast Country 
in America, the following account is given of the 
origin of this name : 

" The Spaniards were the first who discovered Canada; 
but at their first arrival, having found nothing considerable 
in it, they abandoned the country, and called it 11 Capo di 
Nada, that is, the Cape of Nothing. Hence, by cor- 
ruption, sprung the word Canada." 

Capo is the obsolete form of the present word 
Vdbo. UNEDA. 


Charlevoix, in his History of New France, 
speaking of the route of Castier, in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrenc.e, in 1634, says : 

" This bay [Chaleur] is the same that is laid down on 
some maps as Baye des Espagnols ; and there is an old 
tradition, that Spaniards entered it before Castier, and 
that, seeing no signs of any mines there, they had several 
times repeated the words A ca nada nothing there. This 
the Indians subsequently repeated to the French, inducing 
them to suppose Canada to be the name of the country." 

In a note to this passage Charlevoix says : 

" Some derive the name from the Iroquois Kannata, 
meaning a collection of cabins." See Shea's Charlevoix, 
vol. i. p. 113. 

Another origin of the name is suggested in New 
England's Rarities Discovered, by John Josselyn, 
Gent., printed in London in 1672. On page 5 he 
says : 

" New England is by some affirmed to be an Island, 
bounded on the North with the River Canada (so called 
from Monsieur Cane), on the south," &c. 

Who this Monsieur Cane may be I know not. 

On a map in L'Escarbot's History of New France, 
published in Paris in 1609, the river St. Lawrence 
and the country on both sides are designated 

Upon this information it seems most probable 
that one or the other of Charlevoix ; s explanations 
is the true one. The subject is interesting and 
needs further examination. C. W. TUTTLE. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

"QUILLET" (4 th S. xii. 348; 5 th S. i. 14.) In 
the Aihenceum for January 3, 1874, p. 16, occurs 
the following passage in a review of "Llanaly 
Point," by Lady Verney : 

" Owen is a Welshman litigious on principle regard- 
ing his feud with David Hughes about the Quillet 
an infinitesimal piece of waste land to which he clings 
with true Celtic attachment." 

The peasantry in Glamorganshire call the small 
iron wedges with which they fasten the handles of 
their pickaxes, mattocks, and other tools "quillets." 
From this it may be inferred that the meaning of 
the word " quillet," as applied to land, is a wedge- 
shaped piece thereof. But whence came that 
word amongst them ? What is its derivation ? It 
does not seem to be included in the most ordinary 
Welsh dictionaries as being a Celtic word. Do 
the peasants of Glamorganshire inherit this term 
for a hedge from the Normans 1 R. & M. 

501.) In Bond's Handy Book of Rules and 
Tables for Verifying Dates, Bell & Daldy, 
London, 8vo., 1866, I find, at p. 27, the following 

" As an illustration of the mistakes which are made 
by overlooking the fact, that the Kew Style was adopted 
earlier in some countries than in others, one may notice 
that some writers have supposed that both Cervantes 
and Shak?peare died on the same day, whereas the fact 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 31,74. 

is that there was ten days' difference between the dates 
of the death of one and the other. 

"Michael de Cervantes Saavedra, the. author of Dow 
Quixote, died on the 23rd of April, 1616, at Madrid, on 
Saturday, according to the New Style of writing dates 
in use at that time in Spain, which style had been 
adopted there as early as the year 1582 (Year Letters 
CB, 1616, New Style, 23rd of April, 1616, Saturday). 
And William Shakspeare died on the 23rd of April, 1616, 
at Stratford-on-Avon, on Tuesday, according to the Old 
Style of writing dates at that time in use in England, 
the New Style not having been adopted in England at 
that time, and not until the year 1752 (Year Letters 
GF, 1616, Old Style, 23rd of April, 1616, Tuesday). 
Saturday, 23rd of April, 1616, New Style, corresponded 
with Saturday, 13th of April, 1616, Old Style. Tuesday, 
23rd of April, 1616, Old Style, corresponded with Tues- 
day, 3rd of May, 1616, New Style. Hence it is shown 
that Cervantes died ten days before Shakspeare." 


I think it is certain that they both died on the 
same day, Old Style ; and the introduction of the 
New Style into England or Spain has nothing to 
do with the question. Shakspeare died on his 
birthday, Tuesday, April 23, 1616, as appears on his 
monument : 

"Obiit An Dni 1616 
^Et53, die 23 Apri." 

Cervantes, shortly before his death, dictated a most 
affectionate dedication to his patron, the Count de 
Lemos, who was at that time President of the 
Supreme Council in Italy ; he informed His Ex- 
cellency that he had received extreme unction, 
and was on the brink of Eternity. This dedication 
was dated April 19, 1617 (?). Smollett's Don 
Quixote, third edition, corrected, London, 1765, 
page xxix. I conclude the date here given is a 
printer's error, as 1616 is the usual year assigned. 

J. B. P. 
Barbourne, Worcester. 

LIBRARY (4 th S. xii. 328.) In my copy the title- 
page gives the author's name, " R. A. Davenport, 
Esq., author of The Life of Ali Pasha," &c. 

A. H. B. 

THE LARK AND THE TOAD (5 th S. i. 5) : 
" Some say the lark and loathed toad change eyes." 
Romeo and Juliet, iii. 5. 

I do not think this old saying " superstition " 
seems a harsh word for such a fancy had its origin 
in one of the three sources suggested by MR. 
FURNIVALL ; it may rather have arisen from the 
fact that the lark, as Hanmer says, " with a sweet 
pipe hath little ugly eyes, and the toad large and 
fine eyes, but a dismal croaking voice." This, 
remarks Warburton, was the occasion of a common 
saying amongst the people, that the toad and lark 
had changed eyes. (Mason would read " changed 
for " change " in Shakspeare's line.) 


I believe there is an old folk-tale upon this 

subject. Johnson, who, it will be remembered, 
spent his youth in Staffordshire, says, 

" The tradition of the toad and lark I have heard ex- 
pressed in a rustick rhyme : 

' to heav'n I 'd fly, 

But that the toad beguil'd me of mine eye.'" 

[ quote from a note to the passage in the edition 
of 1778. C. ELLIOT BROWNE. 

ROYAL ARMS IN CHURCHES (4 th S. xii. 287, 
354, 437 ; 5 th S. i. 37.) The following extract 
illustrates my previous note. Sanders said that 

" The Parliament ordered the King's arms, three 
leopards and three lilies, with the supporters, a dog and 
a serpent, to be put in the place where the Cross of 
Christ stood." 

And Burnet's reply is 

" They did not order the King's arms to be put in the 
place where the Cross had stood. It grew, indeed, to be 
a custom to set them up in all churches, thereby ex- 
pressing that they acknowledged the King's authority 
reached even to their churches, but there was no order 
made about them. A lion and not a dog is one supporter, 
and the other is a dragon and not a serpent." 


SPECIAL FORMS OF PRAYER (4 th S. xii. 368, 415.) 
Such forms are certainly now used in the Catholic 
Church. One was appointed only recently for use 
during the triduum which preceded the dedication 
of the Archdiocese of Westminster to the Sacred 
Heart. I believe others were issued for some other 
dioceses upon the same occasion. 


S. i. 47.) C. T. B.'s queries will be answered by 
these extracts from Sir H. Nicolas' Orders of Knight- 
hood, &c., vol. iv., Hist, of Medals, p. 32 : 

" The glorious frequency of victories in the Peninsula, 
during the years 1808 and 1809, caused two gold medals 
to be instituted for the reward of such superior officers 
as had distinguished themselves." 

The exact date is not given ; but it is clear from 
the next extract that the Peninsular medal was 
before, not after, the Waterloo medal, and long 
before the date C. T. B. gives, p. 38 : 

" The crowning victory of Waterloo was commemorated 
in an especial manner. Instead of rewarding the superior 
officers with the medal which had been given for all the 
battles of the Peninsular war, a medal was purposely 
struck in its honour, which was given to every officer, 
non-commissioned officer, and private soldier who was 

On p. 39 is the official memorandum from the 
Horse Guards, dated 10th March, 1816. 


THE DE QUINCIS (4 th S. x., xi., xii. passim.} 
King David I., the saint, was certainly married to, 
the widowed Countess of Simon de St. Liz ; and 
Maud, or " Matildis Regine," accompanied him to 
Scotland on his accession to the throne of his 

5'" S. I. JAN. 31, 74.] 



native land, A.D. 1124 ; witnessed a charter to the 
Abbey of Dunfermline, circa A.D. 1128 (Reg. de 
Dunferm., and Dugdale's Monasticon, edition 1661, 
p. 1055), and died A.D. 1130,* leaving an only son, 
Prince Henry. She is generally considered to 
have had only one son by her first marriage, 
Waltheof, who became a monk, was elected second 
Abbot of Melrose, A.D. 1148, and was offered the 
See of St. Andrews in Scotland A.D. 1159 ; he 
refused it, and died immediately afterwards, 
August 3, A.D. 1159 (Fordun, Jocelyn of Fumes, 
and Ada Sanctorum, in " Vita S. Waltheoi," 
Aug. 3, torn, iii.), being subsequently canonized, 
with festival on day of death, as " Abbot and 
Confessor." A. S. A. 


John de Lacy, who died July 22, 1240, left 
issue two children, Maude, probably born about 
1226, who married Eichard de Clare, Earl of 
Gloucester ; and his successor, Edmund, Earl of 
Lincoln, who may have been born about 1228, 
but whether their mother was Margaret de Quincy, 
or some hitherto unknown predecessor, I am unable 
to say. Margaret is mentioned as John's wife, 
Nov. 23, 17 Hen. III. (1232). HERMENTRUDE. 

POLYGAMY (4 th S. xii. 427, 500.) Martin Madan 
seems to have intended by the short title of his 
work, TJielyphthora, to translate into Greek the 
words " Female Ruin." Has it ever been remarked 
that there could not be such a substantive in 
Greek ? If any one doubt, let him try to accentuate 
it. Of course there might be an adjective, d-qXv 
Qopa ; but this is what Madan did not want. 
The substantive he did want would be @rjXv 
Oopia, or Thelyphthoria. Cf. Plutarch's phrase, 
oiKOf^Oopia. ywcuKwv. JABEZ. 

Athenaeum Club. 


Lectures on the Geography of Greece. By the Rev. Henry 

Fanshawe Tozer, M.A. With Map. (Murray.) 
THESE lectures, delivered at Oxford in 1872, afford more 
information than might be expected from the simply- 
worded title-page. Mr. Tozer has travelled over some 
of the scenes he describes, and, therefore, enables the 
reader to form a true conception of the country. He 
gives a summary of the physical conditions by which the 
Greeks were influenced, sketches the connexion of the 
geography with the history, and, as he modestly says 
" he draws attention to one or two subjects which, 
hitherto, have been but slightly noticed." The lectures 
are ten in number; and they increase in an interest which 
culminates in the last. There is not only a good genera 
index, but a valuable etymological index of Greek names 
of places. More need not be said to indicate how 
valuable this volume is to students. They will find it 


Bygone Days in Devonshire and Cornwall. With Notes 
of Existing Superstitions and Customs. By Mrs. 
Henry Pennell Whitcombe. (Bentley &; Son.) 
MRS. WHITCOMBE names above a hundred works (in- 
cluding " N. & Q.") from which she has compiled this 
volume ; and she acknowledges aid and assistance from 
above a score of gentlemen, from peers of the realm to 
;own elerks, all well qualified and willing to give help. 
The compiler states that there is nothing new in her 
jook, but she has gathered a vast amount of folk and 
other lore worth the collecting, and now offered in a 
pleasant and useful form. 

Lost Beauties of the English Language. An Appeal to 
Authors, Poets, Clergymen, and Public Speakers. By 
Charles Mackay, LL.D. (Chatto & Windus.) 
IN Dr. Mackay's book, the scholar and the general reader 
will equally find their account. There is certainly as 
much amusement as learning in it. There is many a 
pearl dropt from the old chaplet which would be well 
restored to its old place. But there are others which are 
probably fallen from their high estate for ever. Words, 
like men, if they descend to vulgar companionship, lose 
the stamp of refinement. Dr. Mackay, among hundreds 
of other examples in his very interesting volume, quotes 
" axe " and " a-feared " as good old English words. The 
latter, indeed, is not of vulgar bearing as long as it is 
found in the old poets. Still, should Dr. Mackay be in 
the next Parliament, would he have the courage to say, 
" I axed the First Lord of the Treasury ; and he was 
a-feared to give me an answer ! ! " 

Waves and Caves, and other Poems. By Cave Winscom. 


THIS little book is worth reading, and, when read, is 
worth reading again. It is not till the close of Part I. 
in Waves and Caves that the story developes ; but thence- 
forward, in language truly poetical, and with rhythm and 
simile well-constructed on every page, the life of a 
young pirate on the Sicilian shores is charmingly told. 
Among the poems appended, are some interesting and 
striking verses. " Marlowe " is an Edinburgh University 
prize poem. " Willie is Dead " and " The Wreath of 
Sorrow " are touching pieces. In Waves and Caves the 
author of Tsoe, and other Poems sustains his past talent 
for versification. 

The Herald and Genealogist. Edited by John Gough 
Nichols, F.S.A. Part XLVI., January, 1874. (Nichols 
& Sons.) 

A NEW and varied number of the periodical so ably 
edited, we had almost said written, by the late Mr. J. 
Gough Nichols. The next Part, which will bring the 
work to a close, will contain the papers which Mr. Nichols 
had already prepared for it, and, in addition, what our 
readers will look forward to with interest and regard as 
a fitting tribute to him, a memoir and portrait of that 
accomplished and lamented gentleman. 

Visions ! by a Converted Man (Evangelization Mission), 
bears out its title ad punctum : it is visionary, but truly 
devotional. In a pamphlet of thirty-one pages are re- 
suscitated several supernatural appearances. Divine 
revelations, extraordinary in kind, there have been and 
may be now, but their existing testimony is not enhanced 
by emanations wente sand in corpore fraqili. From 
pp. 7, 9, 10, 12, and 20, we infer the author's health to 
have been not the soundest. Sincerity, however, is 
stamped on every page of the pamphlet. 

A Treatise on Purgatory. (The Purgalorian Examiner, 


THIS is a severe assault on one of the outposts of the 
Roman Church, and the batteries have been well directed. 
The balls fired are truth and common-sense. The debris 



[5 th S. I. JAN. 31, 74. 

is, therefore, proportionally great. Chap. IV., with 
citations from Joseplms and Bp. Burnet, contains some 
cogent arguments. The reference to the Pythagorean 
metempsychosis is ably put, and the articles on Indulgences 
expose many unnatural extravagances. In parts the 
treatise is too flippant for conviction. Pp. 6, 39, 41, 42, 
&c., will ridicule but not convert. 

your correspondent A LITERARY IDLER very heartily for 
pointing out some of the errata in this book. Since its 
first issue, errors discovered have been, and they always 
will be, at once corrected on the stereotyped plates. 
Your correspondent's courtesy encourages me to hope 
that other readers of" N. &Q.," who may observe other 
oversights, will not mind the trouble of sending me note 
of them if they are assured that no such act of good 
nature will be tin-own away. HENRY MORLEY. 

University College, London. 

" Hie ET UBIQUE " writes : " I was shooting at Cowes 
(Isle of Wight) on Friday, 16th inst. The primroses were 
out, thickly in places ; and a gentleman, at lunch, stated 
that, last week, a bird's nest, with two eggs in it, had 
been taken. The rooks there are collecting materials 
for their nests. This may be interesting to readers of 
' N. & Q." 

THE REV. CHARLES F. S. WARREN, M.A., writes : 
" May I be allowed, as a reader of " N. & Q.," to say that 
the Jansenist catalogue, so kindly promised by A. S. A., 
would be very acceptable to me, at least, and, I have no 
doubt, to many more." 

THE next meeting of the Archaeological Institute will 
take place on Friday, the 6th of February. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following hooks to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses 
are given for that purpose: 
STATUTES AT LARGE. Vols. I., II. , and III. 
POLYOLBION. l)rayton's reprint or original. 

Wanted by W. H. Stevenson, Drypool House, Hull. 

FIRST REPORT of the Royal Commission of Historical Manuscripts. 
Wanted by Rev. Canon W. Cooke. The Hill House, Wimbledon, S.W. 

which appeared in some Christmas Annual from 5 to 7 years ago. 
AV anted to purchase a copy or exchange. 

Wanted by Mr. Lindley, 6, Catherine Street, Strand, W.C. 


J. A. G. By some unexplained neglect, Louis Philippe, 
born in 1773, was not duly christened till he was twelve 
years old. Fifty years later, a woman, Maria Stella 
Petronilla, appeared in France with a strange story, 
namely, that in 1773, at Modigliana, in Italy, Louis 
Philippe was born, his mother being the wife of the 
gaoler; at the same time, she, Maria Stella, was born, 
the daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Chartres (after- 
wards of Orleans), and that an exchange of children took 
place, the Duke wishing for a male heir. She added, 
that the boy was secretly transported to Paris, where the 
Duchess falsely alleged he was born, her son ! Maria 
Stella, " Baronne de Steinberg," obtained a decree in her 
favour from the court of law of Faenza. In Paris, her 
story was found to be worthless. She lived there un- 
molested till her death, in 1845. Some of us may recollect 
her, at her window in the Rue de Rivoli, flinging crumbs 
to the hundreds of sparrows that resorted to her from 
the opposite gardens of the Tuileries. 

0. M. This incident may help you. In Act iii. sc. 17, 
of Le Manage de Figaro, Beaumarchais put in the 
mouth of Marcelline an apology for, if not a defence of, 
the alleged immorality of young Frenchwomen. She 
grounded it on the fact that they were shut out from 
nearly every honest calling, even from dress-making, 
which had then been assumed by men ("tailleurs pour 
dames "). " Est-il un seul etat pour les malheureuses 
fllles ? Elles avaient un droit naturel a toute la parure 
des femmcs. On y laisse former mille ouvriers de 1'autre 
sexe." This passage was suppressed when the comedy 
was represented. " Tailleurs pour dames" are not quite 
extinct ; and it is not so long ago since, in England, men 
measured ladies for stays, and were considered as the 
best stay and corset makers. 

B. We cannot understand why a letter, .marked 
" private," and signed B., should have been sent to 
" N. & Q." We are in equal ignorance why the letter 

accompanying it, beginning " My dear Prince " 

(what is rather obscure), should also have been sent to 
the office of "2\ r . & Q." 

J. N. B. " Bumper," see " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. vi. 230. 
There is a choice of derivations : " Au bon pere ! " 
"Bombard," a drinking vessel; and as being called 
bumper from so filling the glass as causing the liquid to 
" bump up " slightly above the rim. 

M, P. In Power's excellent Handy Bool about Books, 
you will find (p. 39), 1688, " ' Historical Account of Books 
and Transactions of the Learned World,' Edinburgh. 
This was the first review of books published in Scotland 
or in Great Britain." 

TRIPLEX. " Lucifer " may be said to have been a 
Christian name, inasmuch as it was the name of the 
impetuous Bishop of Cagliari, contemporary with 

L. D. Pretty; but you will find it better expressed in 
Martial, xi. 89 : 

" Intactas quare mittis mihi, Polla, coronas! 
A te vexata malo tenere rosas." 

A. K., and several other correspondents who have 
written to " N. & Q." on " JElia Lelia Crispis," are referred 
to 1 st S. iii. 242, 329, 504, and. 3 rd S. xi. 213, 265. 

S. -N. (Ryde.) A correspondent writes : " Lord 
Wharton's Charity : Will S. N. kindly point out the 
correct mode of application? -' 

H. R. "Documents" are always returned when re- 

P. " foolish Israel ! never warned by ill." See 
Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel, Part I. 1. 753. 

JAMES BRITTEN. The omission alluded to has been 
referred to the cause you name. 

R. AV. D. The publisher of " N. & Q." will reply,io 
your note. 

J. X. Z. We cannot reply satisfactorily to your query. 

DELTA. The note has been forwarded. 

C. A. W. It meant counting heads. 

J. BOUCHIER. If possible. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
;o this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

5 th S. I. FEB. 7, '74.] 





NOTES : Catalogue of Works of Art, &c., 101 The Licence 
assumed by Lawyers The Rev. Jonathan Bouchier, 102 
Double Returns in Parliamentary Elections A Labyrinth of 
S. Bernard, 104 The Aspirate H Parallel Passages 
Griselda as a Play Monumental Inscriptions, 105 Litho- 
tomy in the Seventeenth Century Law and Sentiment The 
Lord Chamberlain's Inspection of Theatrical Pieces, 106. 

QUERIES : " Tedious "Kentish Usage Mediaeval Wines- 
William Combe, Author of " Dr. Syntax" Twelfth Day Old 
Story Isabel, or Elizabeth, the Wife of Charles V., 
Emperor of Germany "The Third Foot" Hungary 
Prince Rupert Storer Family, 107 The Philomaths Sir 
David Lindsay of the Mount Bishop Rutter"s Portrait- 
Quotations Wanted Jocosa as a Christian Name 
Viscounty of Buttevant Baxter Arms Seats in Parliament 
Lt.-Col. Livingstone, 1689 John Hull, the Engraver, 108 
"Jure Hereditario" Papal Ratification of the Privileges of 
an English Town Heraldry Chap-Books The Gothic 
Florin Altar Frontals, 109. 

REPLIES: On Shakspeare's Pastoral Name, 109 Dr. Bossy: 
Itinerant Empirics, 111 Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Turton The 
O'Briens of Thomond, 112 Moses of Chorene Feringhee and 
the Varangians, 113 Simpson Arms "Le Gaffe, ou 
L'Ecossaise" The Marshals of France "The Night Crow," 
114 Dialogue between Charon and Contention William 
Laurence An Inscription "Dadum I return" Realising 
the Signs of Thought Tiovulfingacaestir Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, 115 Burning the Dead Clockmakers "lake" as 
a Conjunction Heraldic Black-a-vized, 116 " De Quincey : 
Cough's Fate" Henry Hickman Quotations Wanted 
Greek Anthology Curious Coin or Token Bere Regis 
Church, 117 Affebridge : Roding " Paynter Stayner " 
Bondmen in England, 118 "Nor" for "Than," 119. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


The above volume was printed by the Corpora- 
tion of London, on the occasion of the opening of 
the New Library and Museum, in November, 1872. 
A work of this character might have been made 
a very useful handbook for those desirous of be- 
coming acquainted with the past history of London, 
in various pointfe of view ; but, on the contrary, 
blemished as it is by various mistakes, the volume 
is nearly as apt to mislead as it is to inform. Of 
these errors I proceed to make note of a part. As 
the pages are not numbered in the volume, I 
must denote the leaves by the sheets, beginning 
with the heading of City " Topography": 

A 5. Edward III. was not murdered, with his brother, 
the Duke of York ; it was Edward V. King Henry I. 
did not erect the chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula, in the 
Tower of London, " about 1272 "; he died in 1135. 

B 7. The name of the noble family formerly residing 
at Baynard's Castle was " Fitzwalter," not " Fitzwalters." 
Fitzwalter also was not the " City Champion "; he was 
the City "Castellan"; altogether a different office. 
Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, did not found a sanctuary 
at the Black Friars in 1276 ; he died in 1243. 

C 3. " Henry III. directed the Lord Mayor, in 1259 "; 
he could not do so, as the Mayor of London had not the 
title of " Lord " given to him till a century later, in the 
reign of Edward III. 

C 4. There is no monument in St. Paul's " erected in 
honor of General Woolf "; the name is " Wolfe." 

D 6. The name of the Mayor who built the Tun on 
Cornhill was not " Henry de Walleis," but " Le Waleys," 
or "Waleys." The Royal Exchange was burnt, not "on 
the 18th January, 1838," but on the 10th of that month. 

D 7. " The steeple [of St. Michael's, Cornhill] was 
rebuilt in 1721." Is the tower of the church meant 

F 4. Oliver Cromwell did not marry " Elizabeth 
Bowchier "; .his wife's name was " Bourchier." 

F 7. " Sectis Australis Interior Sacelli Fraternam 
Sacrosancta Trinitatis," to any one who knows the first 
rudiments of Latin, is mere gibberish; read "Sectio 
Australis Interior Sacelli Fraternitatis Sacrosanctas 

G. Charterhouse was not founded by Sir Walter 
Manny in 1340-1 ; but in 1349-51. 

H 4. "It removed from the Old Bailey to Lincoln's 
Inn 1835," speaking of the College of Surgeons. " It -was 
removed " at a date prior to 1816, as 1 find by John 
Wallis's London, Guide, published in that year, now 
before me, and to Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

H 6. " The poet Chatterton rests here" St. Andrew's 
Church, Holborn. It is stated, on good authority, that 
he was buried in the burying-ground of Shoe Lane 

H 7. "Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord Chamberlain to 
Queen Elizabeth "; read " Lord Chancellor." 

K 3. " Mrs. Connely held her levees here " (Soho 
Square) : " Mrs. Cornelys" is probably the person meant. 

K 7. " The notorious Edmund Currl was also pilloried 
here" (at Charing Cross). Edmund "Curll," I pre- 
sume, is meant. 

O 3. St. Thomas's Hospital was "purchased of Henry 

VIII by the Corporation of London, July 5, 1551." 

Henry VIII. died in January, 1547, more than four years 

In the " List of English Plate," &c. 
* 2. It is stated that the use of the piece of plate known 
as the " Nef," or Ship, was common with the wealthy on 
the Continent, " but was unknown, in England." Imme- 
diately after, however, one is mentioned as being pos- 
sessed by Piers Gaveston in 1313 ; and another as being 
among the plate of our Edward III., in 1334. 

In the " List of London Antiquities," &c. 

A 5. "A magnificent candelabra"; "candelabrum," 
is meant. 

In the " List of Coins " 

B 3. For " minted at Normandy," substitute " in Nor- 
mandy"; we do not speak of books printed, or coins 
minted, " at England." 

Under "Printers' Medals" 

t 3. For " Francesca da Bologna," read " Francesco." 

In " Koman and Mediaeval Antiquities " 

A 2. " Emporium regium a Thomas Gresham .... 
conditum "; "a Thoma Gresham" is the correct Latin. 

A3. " Victoria D.G. Brit. Regini "; " Regina " would 
be correct. 

A 4. "The Edkin family at top. Legend: 'Edkin's 
Memorial Prize ' ": read " the Edkins family .... Edkins' 
Memorial Prize." " Eliptical .... badge"; read " Ellip- 

J. "Socet : Panuif :" is perhaps meant for Latin, but 
it is not. 

That the above may be corrected in the next 
edition of a really interesting book, is the object of 
your being troubled with this by COLON. 



(5 tb S. I. FEB. 7, 7*. 


The authority of a high court of criminal juris- 
diction in England to limit the loquacity, and to 
restrain within reasonable bounds the licence 
assumed in the defence of a culprit, has become a 
question of very general interest. In the fourth 
edition of a learned and elaborate work by the 
Hon. Daines Barrington, Observations on the Ancient 
Statutes, published in 1775, the following passage 
occurs : 

" In other countries, advocates have been subjected to 
penalties even for prolixity,() which appears by an ordi- 
nance of Charles the Seventh of France, as also many to 
the same purpose by his successors. "(/) 

To this passage the author has added the follow- 
ing notes : 

() " In the Court of Session in Scotland, the Lords 
have to this day an hour-glass before them. The Roman 
advocates used to make a sort of agreement with the 
Court, how long they might have a liberty to speak in 
defence of their client, as appears by the following epi- 
gram of Martial : 

"'Septem clepsydras magna tibi voce petenti 

Arbiter invitus, Cseciliane dedit ; 
At tu multa diu dicis, vitreisque tepentem 

Ampullis, potas semisupinus aquam, 
Ut tandem saties vocemque, sitimque rogamus, 
Jam de Clepsydra Cseciliane, bibas.' 

L. vi., Ep. 35. 

" This Epigram of Martial explains a passage in Dio 
Cassius, which mentions the giving water enough to those 
who were engaged in lawsuits." L. Ixxvi. 
(/) " See Ord. Royales, Paris, 1552, pp. 68-9." 

The above epigram is thus translated in The 
Epigrams of Martial Translated into English 
Prose, and published by Mr. Henry G. P. Bohn, 
London, 1860, pp. 276-7: 

" To Caecilianus, a troublesome pleader. The Judge 
has reluctantly permitted you, Csecilianus, on your loud 
importunity to exhaust the Clepsydra* seven times. But 
you talk much and long, and bending half backwards, you 
quaff tepid water out of glasses. To satisfy at once your 
voice and your thirst, pray drink Csecilianus from the 
Clepsydra itself." 
" Seven glasses, Csecilian, thou loudly did'st crave, 

Seven glasses, the Judge, full reluctantly gave. 

Still thou bawl'st and bawl'st on, and as ne'er to bawl off, 

Tepid waters in bumbers supine dost thou quaff ; 

That thy voice and thy thirst at a time thou may'st 

We entreat from the glass of old Chronusthou take." 


The clepsydra was early used as an emblem o\ 
justice in the Athenian courts, and was probably 
introduced from Greece into Borne. The licence 
assumed by lawyers did not escape the satirica 
notice of Swift, when he declared " there was a 
society of men among us, bred up from their youth 
in the art of proving, by words multiplied for the 
purpose, that white is black, and black is white, as 

* " A clock which measured time by the fall of a cer 
tain quantity of water confined in a cylindric vessel. See 

Beckmann's History of Inventions, vol. i. p. 

86.: Bohn 

hey are paid. To this society all the rest of the 
icople are slaves." 

A very interesting chapter, under the title 

' Forensic Casuistry," on the duty of an advocate 

when he finds that the case of his client is based 

n falsehood and fraud, may be seen in a valuable 

listorical Essay by William Forsyth, Q.C., 

"jondon, 1849. The question was anciently raised 

>y Quintilian, who declared that "the advocate 

ill not undertake the defence of every one ; nor 

will he throw open the harbour of his eloquence as 

\ port of refuge to pirates." " Nor let false shame 

>revent him from abandoning a cause in which he 

las engaged under an impression that it was just 

tvhen he discovers in the course of the trial that it 

s dishonest ; but he ought previously to give 

notice to his client of his intention." 

By one of the Edicts of Justinian it was ordered 
hat advocates should take a solemn oath "that 
hey were not to uphold a cause that was villainous, 
ir supported by falsehood, and if, in the progress 
if the trial, they discovered that a case of that kind 
lad been entrusted to their care, they were at once 
,o abandon it." It was a noble saying of Queen 
Elizabeth, that she wished her counsel to remember 
.hat they were counsel, " not so much pro Domina. 
Elegina, as pro domina veritate." By the ancient 
aw of Scotland advocates were required to be 
yearly sworn " to execute their office of advocation 
diligently and truly, and that as soon as they 
understand their client's cause to be unjust and 
wrongful, they should incontinent leave the same." 
The law of Spain imposes upon them an oath that 
they will not defend unjust causes. The advo- 
cate's oath prescribed by a modern ordinance of the 
representative Council of Geneva requires him to 
swear that " he will not attempt to deceive the 
judges by any artifice, or by any false expositidn 
of facts or law ; that he will abstain from all offen- 
sive personality, and not advance any fact against 
the honour and reputation of parties." 

Sir Edward Coke has declared " that fraud and 
falsehood are against the Common Law," of which 
he was the great oracle. The illustrious D'Argues- 
seau thus addressed the bar of France : " Let the 
zeal which you bring to the defence of your clients 
be incapable of making you the ministers of their 
passions, and the organs of their malignity." A 
modern English judge of the purest principles has 
declared that " the zeal and the arguments of every 
counsel, knowing what is due to himself and to his 
honourable profession, are qualified, not only by 
considerations affecting his own character as a man 
of honour, experience, and learning, but also by 
considerations affecting the general interests of 
justice." W. B. 

Mr. WALTER THORNBTTRY, in 1866, wrote two 
articles in "N. & Q." (3 rd S. ix. 75, 282) giving some 

L FEB. 7, 74.] 



account of my grandfather, the Rev. Jonathan 
Boucher, who was, before the American Revolution, 
settled in Virginia, and afterwards in Maryland, as 
an Episcopal clergyman, and was, after his return to 
England, vicar of Epsom, where he died in 1804. 
I have lately been reading a MS. autobiography of 
" this fine old Virginian Royalist," as MR. THORN- 
BURY terms him, and although the greater part 
consists of private and family details of no general 
interest, there are some passages descriptive of the 
troubles of those who held by " Church and King" 
in the Revolution, which I venture to think are 
worthy of a place in " N. & Q." After reading his 
account of his vigorous and high-spirited conduct 
in the skirmish in the church (not unlike the 
scene in the first chapter of Woodstock], the only 
conclusion I can come to is that my grandfather had 
not only made a mistake in his politics, but that 
he was born a century too late. He should have 
been a seventeenth-century Puritan, when he would 
have girded himself with " the sword of the Lord 
and of Gideon," and gone forth with Captain Fight- 
the-good-fight and Sergeant Bind-their-kings-in- 
chains to " smite the Amalekites " at Naseby and 

With regard to his criticism on Washington's 
character it must be taken for what it is worth. 
For myself I am much more inclined to accept 
Thackeray's estimate of the famous President (The 
Virginians, ed. 1872, p. 716). As, however, my 
grandfather knew Washington, not merely per- 
sonally, but intimately, his account of him is at 
any rate interesting. It would, I suppose, be out 
of the question to compare Washington with such 
soldiers as Napoleon and Frederick, or with such a 
statesman and ava dvSpwvas our own Cromwell; 
but I should think ne is very fairly entitled to be 
considered " a great man," although on a lower 
level than these giants of our race. 

I had better now let my grandfather speak in 
his own words : 

" I now found it necessary to have an assistant, as I 
had thirty boys. Amongst these was the stepson of the 
since celebrated General Washington, and this laid the 
foundation of a very particular intimacy which subsisted 
until we finally separated, never to unite again, on our 
taking different sides in the late troubles. I did know 
Washington well ; and although occasions may call forth 
traits of character that never would have been discovered 
in the more sequestered scenes of life, I cannot conceive 
how he could, otherwise than through the interested repre- 
sentations of party, have ever been spoken of as a great 
man. He was shy, silent, stern, slow, and cautious, but he 
had no quickness of parts, extraordinary penetration, nor 
an elevated style of thinking. In his moral character he 
was regular, temperate, strictly just and honest, and, as I 
always thought, religious ; but he seemed to have nothing 
generous or affectionate about him. He lived at Mount 
Vernon very much like a gentleman, where the most dis- 
tinguished part of his character was that he was an ad- 
mirable farmer 

" Annapolis, to which I afterwards removed, was quite 
a new scene to me. It was then the genteelest town in 

North America, the residence of the governor and all the 

great officers of state The first transaction of any 

moment in which I engaged was the assistance I gave in 
a convention of the clergy of the province, in which, 
chiefly through my instigation, we petitioned for a bishop. 
This gave great offence, and for some time neither the 
Governor nor other influential men would speak to me. 
Conscious of having only done my duty, I would however 
make no concessions, and I declared that however much 
I might be bound to them in gratitude for past favours. 
I would allow no man to dictate to me. The times had 
now become beyond measure troublesome : men's minds 
restless and dissatisfied, grumbling at the present state of 
things, and for ever projecting reformations. In Mary- 
land the condition of the established clergy was highly 
respectable ; and being all under the patronage of G overn- 
ment, they naturally were all on the side of Government. 
An Act was sought to be passed by the efforts of a faction, 
subjecting the clergy to a novel court composed equally 
of laymen and clerks. It was to compel us to accept of 
a modus in lieu of tithe. For a long time this was with- 
stood, and I was drawn into a long newspaper contest 
with two lawyers. All I choose to say of it is, that I was 
allowed to have the better of the argument, but they 
carried their point 

" Queen Anne's parish in Prince George's county now 
falling vacant, the Government offered it me. It was in 
a healthy pleasant part of the country ; I did not, there- 
fore, hesitate to accept tke living. On going to it I had 
indeed a most unpleasant reception, for the unpopular 
part I had lately taken respecting Government had set 
the people against me, and they were, in general, a set 
of violent patriots. Hence the first Sunday I found the 
church doors shut against me ; and not long after a tur- 
bulent fellow paid eight dollars for so many loads of 
stones to drive me and my friends from the church by 
force. All these difficulties only made me take more 
pains ; and though I never made the least concession re- 
specting my principles or conduct, I soon made a little 
party amongst them, and went on with tolerable quiet, 
though never with much comfort. 

" I was married in June 1772, and in a short time my 
wife accompanied me to my house at Castle (1) twenty 
miles from her mother's, and here we sat down to the 
business of life with a resolution to do our duty to the 
best of our power and be happy. But alas ! the times 
grew dreadfully uneasy, and I was neither an uncon- 
cerned nor idle spectator of the mischiefs that were 
gathering. I endeavoured in my sermons to check the 
mischief that was impending, but in vain. I received 
letters threatening me with the most dreadful conse- 
quences if I did not desist from preaching at all. All the 
answers I gave to these threats were in my sermons, in 
which I declared I could never suffer any human authority 
to intimidate me from doing what I believed to be my 
duty to God and his Church; and for more than six 
months I preached, when I did preach, with a pair of 
loaded pistols lying on the cushion ; having given notice 
that if any one attempted what had long been threatened, 
to drag me out of the pulpit, I should think myself justi- 
fied in repelling violence by violence. Some time after a 
public fast was ordained, and on this occasion my curate, 
who was a strong Republican, hadjprepared a sermon for 
the occasion, and supported by a set of factious men, was 
determined to oppose my entering my own pulpit. When 
the day came, I was at my church at least a quarter of 
an hour before the time of beginning ; but, behold, Mr. 
Harrison was in the desk, and was expected, I was soon 
told, to preach. In addition to this, I saw my church 
filled with not less than two hundred armed men under 
the command of Mr. Osborne Sprigg, who soon told me 
I was not to preach. I returned for answer that there 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 74. 

was but one way by which they could keep me out of it, 
and that was by taking away my life. At the proper 
time, with my sermon in one hand and a loaded pistol in 
the other, like Nehemiah, I prepared to ascend my pulpit, 
when one of my friends, Mr. David Cranford, having got 
behind me, threw his arms round me and held me fast. 
He assured me that he had heard the most positive orders 
given to twenty men picked out for the purpose to fire on 
me the moment I got into the pulpit, which therefore he 
never would permit me to do, unless I was stronger than 
himself and some others who stood close to him. I main- 
tained that once to flinch was for ever to invite danger : 
but my well-wishers prevailed, and when I was down it 
is horrid to recollect what a scene of confusion ensued. 
Sprigg and his company contrived to surround me and to 
exclude every moderate man. Seeing myself thus cir- 
cumstanced, it occurred to me that there was but one 
way to save my life ; this was by seizing Sprigg, as I im- 
mediately did, by the collar, and with my cocked pistol 
in the other hand, assuring him that if any violence were 
offered to me, I would instantly blow his brains out. I 
then told him he might conduct me to my house, and I 
would leave them. This he did, and we marched together 
upwards of a hundred yards, guarded by his whole com- 
pany, whom he had the meanness to order to play the 
Rogues' March all the way we went. Thus ended this 
dreadful day, which was a Thursday. On the following 
Sunday I again went to the same church, and was again 
opposed, but more feebly than before. I preached the 
sermon I should have preached on the Thursday, with 
some comments on the transactions of the day. 

" The time was now fast approaching when if I did 
not associate, and take the oaths against legal govern- 
ment, I should be proscribed, and unable to get out of 
the clutches of these misguided men, for on the 10th of 
September all farther intercourse with Great Britain was 
to be stopped; so that I began to think seriously of 
making my return to England. On mentioning this to 
my wife she concurred in my opinion, and even pressed 
me to it, though such a step could not but be ruinous to 
all my prospects in America ; but to stay would have 
been equally fatal to my property and my life, and cer- 
tainly to my peace. Our scheme was that she should 
remain behind me, and take the best care she could of my 
estate, in the hope that in a year or so the storm might 
blow over and I return to her. She, however, found her- 
self quite unequal to such a separation, and entreated me 
not to urge it. It was, therefore, settled that we should 
sail at once for England. Though we had not a week to 
prepare ourselves in, my dear wife got everything ready, 
but as it seemed to be of moment for the preservation of 
our property that we should go away with the avowed 
purpose of returning again, and that we might appear 
effectually to do so, we took none of our effects with us. 
I came away with but one suit of clothes and bills of ex- 
change to the amount of little more than 400Z. 

" On the 10th September, 1775, we left our house, 
amidst the tears and cries of our slaves, and went on 
board a small schooner, the Nell Gwynne. Our accom- 
modations here were very bad, and as I told my wife, 
ominous, I feared, of the hardships she would have to 
encounter. We slept on one of the miserable bunkers in 
the wretched cabin, with a piece of old sail for our 
coverlid, and a bag of hominy for our pillow. Yet she 
declared she slept soundly, and so did I, owing no doubt 
to the great exertions of body and mind to which we had 
been so long subjected. After a day and night we reached 

our destined ship, the frigate, and on the 20th, the 

wind being fair, we sailed with a fresh breeze down the 
Chesapeak, and soon lost sight of the capes of Virginia, 
never to see them more. Our voyage was tempestuous 
but short. We landed at Dover on the 28th October." 

I have only to add that the above-mentioned 
lady, my grandfather's first wife, was a Miss Addi- 
son, of the same family as the immortal Spectator. 

2, Stanley Villas, Bexley Heath, S.E. 

TIONS. The following is a list of those elections 
which have resulted in double returns (in one case 
a treble return), and how they have been finally 
decided since the Keform Act in 1832, up to the 
present date : 

Aylesbury 1859. 
Bernard, C . . 552 

Smith, C . . . ) KOK Smith seated on scrutiny by 
Wentworth, L . j one vote. 

Coleraine 1832. 

Beresford, C . ) Q- Mayor's casting vote for 
Copeland, L . j Beresford, but on petition 

Copeland seated. 
Dumbartonshire 1865. 

Smollett, C . . \ 

Stirling, L 

Campbell, L . ) 

Brett, C . . . J 

Aldridge, C . . ) 

Hurst, L . . j" 


574 Query. 

Helstone 1866. 

153 Campbell on petition. 

Horsham 1868. 

Hurst seated, Aldridge de- 
clining to defend seat. 
Huntingdonshire 1857. 
Rush, C . . . 1,192 

Fellowes, C . . \ i i nfi On scrutiny Fellowes seated. 
Heathcote, L . / I)1UD 

Knaresboro' 1852. 

Dent, L . . . I Vote struck off Westhead, 

Westhead, L . >- 113 and others returned. 

Wood, C . . . ) 
Collins, C . . 107 

Lanarkshire 1837. 
Lockhart C . | 3 485 Query . 
Murray, L . . j 

Montgomery Boroughs 1847. 

Pugh, C . . . \ OQQ P^ 11 seated, Cholmondeley 
Cholmondeley,C j declining to defend. 

Thetford 1841. 

Baring, C . . 86 

Flower, C . .) 71 E.Euston unseated and Flow- 
Earl Euston, L j er subsequently elected. 

Totness 1839. 

Baldwin, C . . ) -, 19 Declared void as to both 
Blount, L . . / candidates. 


p. S. In the General Election of 1841 Messrs. 
Pryse (L) and Harford (C) were returned as equal 
in consequence of the loss of a poll-book, but Mr. 
Pryse obtained the seat upon petition. 

lowing is copied from a board hanging on an inside 
staircase wall of the Latin convent on the summit 
of Mount Carmel. This labyrinth consists of five 
maxims, " quo bene vivit homo," which are to be 
thus deciphered. The word " Noli " in the bottom 

5 th S. I. FEB. 7, '74.] 



square to the left is the commencement of each 
precept ; " dicere," in the upper square to the left, 
is the second word of the first ; " omnia quse," in 
the next square but one to the left on the bottom 
line, is the third; "scis" (in the upper line) is the 
next, and so on, zigzag, until " non vult" is arrived 
at. So that the first maxim runs thus : " Noli 
dicere omnia quse scis, quia qui dicit omnia quse 
scit ssepe audit quod non vult." The second is 
elicited by the same process, taking " fa-cere " as 
the second word, and so on. 

Labyrinthus a divo Bernardo compositus quo lene 
vivil homo. 






non vult 












non est 















Quia qui 




Spotland, Kochdale. 


THE ASPIRATE H. An Indian prince, the Eao 
of Cutch, who had for his private tutor a distin- 
guished Irish officer, now a lieutenant-general, 
sagaciously observed to him, " Why, in such words 
as whip, do you write the aspirate after the w, 
though you sound it before it 1" S. T. P. 

PARALLEL PASSAGES. Examples of similar 
thoughts, occurring in the writings of different 
authors, are occasionally cited in " N. & Q." as 
instances of plagiarism. But in many of these 
it may as fairly be assumed, unless the imitation 
is too servile to be mistaken, that the same idea 
may have presented itself spontaneously to two 
minds, neither of which knew that it had been 
adopted by the other. 

Thus Burns sings of "the lasses" as classed 
among "the noblest works" of Nature: 
" Her prentice ban' she tried on man, 
And then she made the lasses, 0." 

And a Hindu poet, in a romantic legend of Eaj- 
pootana, which has never been translated, thus 
describes the heroine*: 

* Ind. Antiq., ii. 341. 

" None other in the world has been formed from the 

mould in which Mru was cast, 
Either the mould is broken, or the workman is unable 
to make another." 

Although not exactly parallel, the same idea has- 
been suggested by the Muse to both her votaries, 
neither of whom had the faintest knowledge of the 
existence of the other. W. E. 

GRISELDA AS A PLAT. The story of Griselda,. 
now being acted on the stage at the Princess's- 
Theatre, in a version dramatized by that popular 
novelist, Miss Braddon, appears to have given rise, 
in days of yore, to one or more comedies, as I find 
that in Bakers Biographia Dramatica, edition 
1782, mention is made, as hereunder, of the follow- 
ing plays: 

"Patient Griseld. Com., by Ralph Radcliffe. Not. 
printed. (No date given.) 

" Patiente Grissell. C. Anonymous, 1603. The plot, 
of this piece is founded on Boccace's Novels, Dec. 10,, 
Nov. 10. The story is also to be found very finely told 
in a poem, called Gualtherus and Grisalda, which is a 
translation or modernized versification of one of Chau- 
cer's Canterbury Tales. This piece was entered, by 
Cuthbert Burby, on the books of the Stationers' Com- 
pany, March 28, 1600." 



various times some extravagant specimens of 
monumental inscriptions in " N. & Q." Is it 
possible to match the three following 1 I copied 
them myself, and can vouch for their correctness, 

1. S. Mary, Luton, Bedfordshire. 

" Sacred to the memory of Theodosia Mary, the beloved, 
now unceasingly lamented wife of Sam 1 Crawley of* 
Underwood, Esq r . by whom, in admiration of her virtues 
and out of respect to her memory, this monument ha* 
been erected : they were married June 19, 1817- She- 
died Jan. 3, 1820, leaving one child. 

" Her virtues were indeed of that superior cast as to- 
at once pronounce her the most perfect of beings ; her 
faith and hope in Christ steadfast ; her temper angelic, 
her heart warm and affectionate, her friendship sincere ;. 
as a wife and a mother she was a pattern ; in a word, 
she was faultless, matchless, without equal ; and ha& 
left her husband inconsolable, her infant, her uniform 
virtues, her best inheritance. 

" She was indeed too good for this world, and the 
Almighty claimed her for his own that he might confer 
upon her the prize of everlasting bliss in heaven, the 
just reward of her virtues in this world, and as procured 
for her by the mediation of her Saviour Christ Jesus. 

" world ! thou art indeed a loser. She the gainer 
of immortality ! " 

2. All Saints, Vange, Essex. 

" To the memory of Mary the Vertvovs wife of George 
Mavle x Rector of this Parish, and Charles their only 
child ; .Shee was the davghter of Jvstinian Champnefifr 
of Wrotham, and of Sarah davghter of John Darel 
Calehill in Kent, Esqvires. 

" Shee dyed Septemb. 4 th 1659. 
"Reader, putt off thy Shoes, thou tred'st on Holy 

Where lyes the rarest Phoenix, and Her Onely Birth, 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 74. 

Whom Shee svruived, strange vnheard of wonder! 
But (Alas !) now dead, those pauements buried under : 
Lament Her loss, the world grows worse, of her rare 

There is none left, to breed the like ; Shee was so 

Blest Saint ! once mine Squall ; might I now 

adore thee, 
Thy bliss, my loss, that thou to rest art gone before 


let thy Cinders warm that Bed of dust for me, 
(Thy mournfull Husband) till I come to ly by Thee. 
Lugens fudit G. M. supradict Sacr. Theolog. Bac- 


3. All Saints, East Horndon, Essex. Dame 
Martha Tyrrell, March 27th, 1690, aged 27. 
" Could this Stone Speake it would the Reader tell 
She that lies here did Her whole sex excell. 
And why should death with A promiscuous hand 
At one Rude Stroake impoverish a land." 

In this church is a magnificent incised slab to 
the memory of Lady Alice Tyrrell, A.D. 1422. 

A. H. B. 

The following extract, which I copied several years 
ago from the parish registers of Hunstanton, pos- 
sesses many points of interest : 

"Hoc anno (1630) vii die August Robtus Burward 
vicarius de Hunstanton versus Londinum iter arripuit, et 
post sex Hebdomadas in quibus Chirurgum ibi expec- 
taverat, xxii die Octobris inter horas x et xi ante me- 
ridiem pro calculo in vesica inscisus fuit per M a Mullins; 
et admiranda Dei misericordia bonitate et auxilio suffultus 
patienter admodum scissurum sustinuit ; post xvi Heb- 
domodas feliciter fere sanatur, et tandem xvi die Peb- 
ruarii felici ac prospero itinere ad Hunstanton revertitur. 
Deo optimo maximo suntgratiae ingentes. Amen." 

The vicar did not, however, live for many months 
to enjoy his restored health, for in the following 
year occurs this entry: 

" 1631. Robertus Burward sepultus erat July 3 nl ." 

Hazelwood, Belper. 

LAW AND SENTIMENT. The following extract 
from a curious and scarce work, entitled, 

"The Warning Voice of a Hermit abroad who has 
been compelled to write in his Justification, and he hopes 
for the Good of Mankind, under the protecting hand of 
Divine Providence (for which he can never be thankful 
enough) through a long and tedious passage of the Most 
Imminent Perils and Dangers of being extinguished and 
sent to his Grave. By Richard Milnes, of Horbury, near 
Wakefield, late of Shepley Bridge, Mirfield, by Leeds, 
Yorkshire. Wakefield : printed for the Author by E. 
Waller, Wood Street, 1825" (large 4to. 181 pp.). 

may interest some of your readers, as showing that 
sensibility dwells even in the very sanctum of 
Themis : 

" My crying at this very excellent sermon brought to 
my mind that I once went with a friend, in London, to 
see the famous Garrick in King Lear ; we sat with our 
backs to the front box, and at our back sat Lord Mans- 
field on one side, Lord Thurlow on the other, a great 

Law Lord, and they every one cried at this play ; then 
well might I cry at a good sermon." 


THEATRICAL PIECES. We all remember the inter- 
ference of the Lord Chamberlain, at the Court 
Theatre, in the play of Happy Land; and, accord- 
ing to the Echo of Jan. 8, 1874, that official pro- 
hibited the appearance of certain, caricatures of 
Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Lowe, and other members of 
H.M.'s Government, which were introduced into 
the new burlesque of Buy Bias Righted, at the 
Vaudeville Theatre. 

The play which gave immediate rise to the Par- 
liamentary Bill by which all dramatic pieces are 
obliged to undergo the inspection and censure of 
the Lord Chamberlain, before they can be admitted 
to a representation, was called The Golden Rump ; 
an anonymous piece, never acted, and never 
printed, which was offered to Mr. Henry Giffard, 
manager of Goodman's Fields Theatre, for repre- 
sentation; and in which abuse was vented most 
freely not only against the Parliament, the Council, 
and the Ministry, but even against Majesty itself. 

Fielding, in Pasquin, a dramatic satire on the 
times, acted at the Haymarket in 1736 ; and in 
his comedy of The Historical Register, acted also 
at that house, in 1737, had cast severe reflections 
upon the Ministry; and it is supposed by the com- 
piler of Baker's Biographia Dramatica that the 
prime minister (Sir Robert "Walpole), dreading 
such satirical strokes levelled at his measures, and 
anxious to stop over-caustic criticisms by a preven- 
tion of licentiousness for the time to come, found 
means to have The Golden Rump written by some- 
body or other, and sent to Giffard, who, falling 
into the trap, carried the piece to the Minister, to 
consult him as to what was best to be done with 
so slashing and abusive a composition. Sir Eobert, 
once in possession of the MS., made such use of it 
as immediately occasioned the bringing into and 
passing in Parliament of the Bill referred to above. 

Some correspondent will doubtless supply the 
date of this Licensing Bill ; and whether the Act 
of Geo. II. remains in force, or has been superseded 
by later legislative enactment. CRESCENT. 


[Sir Robert Walpole had "winced "at Fielding's satire 
of him, as Quidam, in The Historical Register for 1736. 
The Licensing Bill, still in force, passed in 1737. Ches- 
terfield (opposing it in the Lords), said, " You have no 
right to put an excise on wit. Wit, my lords, is the pro- 
perty of those who have it, and too often the only 
property they have to depend on. It is, indeed, but a 
precarious dependence. Thank God, we, my lords, have 
a dependence of another kind ! ! "J 

. I. FEB. 7, 7*.] 




[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

a letter from the Isle of Wight, dated Jan. 7, 1874, 
Eyde : 

"A Family whom we know have a picture of an 
Ancestress which they have lent to an exhibition now 
open here. In the Catalogue it is stated that she lived 
to be 162 ! She was a Countess of Desmond a Fitzgerald. 

" In Kentish language you would call her ' a tedious ' old 
woman indeed. The dates of her birth and death are 
given, and the reigns through which she lived ; so it is 
not a mistake in the figures. Referring to the Catalogue, 
I see it is stated that she was born in 1464 ; married in 
the reign of Edw. IV. : lived during the reigns of Edw. IV., 
Edw. V., Rich. III., Hen. VII., Hen. VlIL, Edw. VI., 
Mary, Elizabeth, James I., and died at the beginning of 
Charles I.'s reign. The portrait is by Rembrandt." 

In addition to the curiosity of this asserted 
longevity, I cite the letter to call attention to the 
singular use of the word " tedious" as a superlative 
in Kent. The writer, a younger brother of mine, 
refers to it as a usage known to me when I lived 
in that county many years ago. Another brother 
had a curacy in the same county, which was at one 
time the head-quarters of our family, and he too 
has often repeated to me the same use. A lad at 
a cricket-match would say, " That was a tedious 
swift ball," or " That was a tedious hard hit." 

Once my brother was catechising a class in his 
village school, when he asked all round, in reference 
to the Deluge, What is a flood ? No reply, till the 
smallest girl of the class jerked out, with a feeble 
effort, "a tedious lot of water." Is the use 
known elsewhere 1 HERBERT EANDOLPH. 


MEDIAEVAL WINES. " 2 ollas de argento plenas 
vino dulci voc' Osey " (Prob. JEt. Hugonis Mor- 
timer, 12 Hen. VI. 52). Is this a wine known 
now, and by what name? "Vin' vocat' clarre" 
(various authorities). Claret, or clary 1 I suppose 
most of us were told in our youth that George, 
Duke of Clarence was drowned in a butt of 
malmsey. Was there ever such a wine 1 I find 
frequent allusions in mediaeval documents to " vin 
de Maluesie," but malmsey is a word I have never 
yet encountered out of print. HERMENTRUDE. 

TAX." This voluminous writer, whose extraordinary 
career has never yet been fully traced out, died in 
the Lambeth Eoad, on the 19th June, 1823. He is 
said to have been intimate with Walter of the 
Times, and to have been a frequent writer in that 
journal. Can any one who has access to a file of 
that paper for 1823 say whether it contains an 
obituary notice of him ? 

Did Combe leave a will ? If so, does it make any 

allusion to his papers, or any provision for his 
illegitimate children ? M. E. 

TWELFTH DAT. Dr. Dasent, in an Essay on 
Norse History, states that our Twelfth Day is called 
in Norway St. Kneed's, or Canute's, Day, and that 
the proverb respecting it is that the saint drives 
out Yule with the whip, his emblem. In the recent 
book on Weather Folk- Lore by Mr. Swainson, he 
quotes a proverb respecting St. Kneed's Day, fixing 
the date July 10th. Which is the correct date ? 

A. S. 

OLD STORY. Where can I find the following 
story ? A village schoolmaster, from some part of 
England, had an intense desire to visit Home. To 
effect this object he saved his small earnings until 
he thought he had amassed a sum sufficient to 
provide for his expenses. At last, after walking all 
the way from Calais, he came within sight of the 
Eternal City, when, resting, he bethought himself 
to count his slender store of money, and the result 
was, finding he had spent exactly half the sum 
with which he had set out, he retraced his steps, 
and spent his last penny in paying for the ferry 
which brought him back to his native village. 

J. B. 

Melbourne, Australia. 


" II eut une sensible douleur de la mort de I'lmperatrice 
Madame Isabel, qui mourut en peine d'enfant a Toledo 
[year or date not given]. Les signes qui ont accoustumS 
de preceder de si grands accidens, ne manquerent pas en 
cette occasion ; puisqu'il 'y eut ce jour-li une Eclypse 
de Soleil, et qu'il parut une Comete epouvantable." 
Histoire de Charles V., par Don Jean Antoine de Vera et 
Figueroa, Bruxelles, 1663, p. 233. 

According to the History of Portugal by Faria y 
Souza, p. 333, Steeven's translation, Elizabeth died 
at Toledo, A.D. 1539; but nothing is said regarding 
the month of her death. Upon what date of the 
month did this event occur, and where is an account 
to be found of the solar eclipse and comet said to 
have been visible on the day of its occurrence ? 


" THE THIRD FOOT." In the N.E. of Scotland 
a person is sometimes said to be at " the third 
foot" when he is very busy, overwhelmed with 
work, as it were. Is the phrase known elsewhere, 
and how does it arise 1 NORMAN-SCOT. 

HUNGARY. I want a history of the War of 
Independence in Hungary during the year 1848. 

A. L. 

PRINCE RUPERT. What were his arms ? Was 
he entitled to " Bohemia (with a label) quartered 
with England " ? G. E. P. 

STORER FAMILY. Information is desired re- 
specting this family, especially of Thomas Storer, 



[5 th S.I. FEB. 7,74. 

who possessed property at Southeram, near Lewes, 
>Sussex, about 1624. When did Thomas die, and 
what were the names of his wife and children, if 
:any 1 E. H. W. DUNKIN. 

Kidbrooke Park Road, Blackheath, S.E. 

THE PHILOMATHS. A literary club at the end 
of the last century was called the Philomaths. 
They met every Tuesday in London, and discussed 
abstract questions such as War, Love, Justice, and 
the like. I shall be glad to have further infor- 
mation about them. C. KEGAN PAUL. 

; notes to Marmion, Sir Walter Scott complains of 
> the carelessness of Mr. George Chalmers in editing 
Lindsay's works, and cites a specimen of his dis- 
regard for the elucidation of the author's text. The 
poet, recounting his services to James V. during 
.Ms childhood, is made to say 

" The first sillabis that thou didst mute 
Was pa-da-lyn upon the lute. 
Then plaied I twenty springis perqueir, 
Which was great pleasour for to hear." 

Scott says : 

" Mr. Chalmers does not inform us by note or glossary 
what is meant by the king muting pa-da-lyn upon the 

lute ; but any old woman in Scotland will bear witness 
that pa-da-lyn are the first efforts of a child to say, 
* Whare 's Davie Lindsay ? ' and that the subsequent 

words begin another sentence 

' Upon the lute ' 

Then played I twenty springis perqueir, &c.' " 
Few persons, I imagine, will be disposed to 
question the accuracy of Scott's amendment. For 
a child to play (or mute] pa-da-lyn, or anything 
else, upon the lute would be impossible, and it is 
obvious the poet meant by the expression to 
acquaint the king of his first attempts to speak ; 
but it appears to me that Sir Walter's explanation 
of pa-da-lyn is not quite satisfactory. I am of 
opinion that the " sillabis " pa-da-lyn do not mean 
" Whare 's Davie Lindsay?" but "Play Davie 
Lindsay " ; and the succeeding words seem to bear 
out this notion 

" Upon the lute 
Then played I," &c. 

that is to say, in obedience to the child's request. 
Very possibly this reading may have occurred to 
others besides myself. To me it appears self-evident; 
but I should be glad to learn through the medium 
of " N. & Q." whether Scott's amendment is gene- 
rally accepted as correct. W. A. C. 

-volumes of the Chetham Society's publications 
(Manchester), illustrating the " Stanley Papers " is 
an etched portrait of this bishop of Sodor and Man 
(seventeenth century). Although the date of pub- 
lication is scarce seven years old, not one person 
connected with it can tell me where the original 
steel plate is to be found, or even the name of the 

engraver. The Eev. Canon Eaines, of Milnrow, 
was the editor of the papers, and the late Rev. Mr. 
Hornby, of Naples, was the donor of the etching. 
Lord Derby, who has the original painting, knows 
nothing of the engraving, nor does his librarian. 
I should be very glad if any of your corre- 
spondents could possibly infonn me who was the 
engraver, or where the plate is now deposited. 

H. J. 

"But thou art fled 
Like some fair exhalation, 
The brave, the gentle, and the beautiful, 
The child of grace and genius." 

Epigraph in the Life of the Duchesse d'Orle'ans: 

" France 

Whose heart I thought I had, for she had mine." 

S. G. B. 

in common use ? I saw it on a tombstone, about 
a century old, at Kingsthorpe, near Northampton. 


record of the establishment of the claim to this 
peerage be found 1 I have a printed pedigree of 
the descent to the present viscount, but it does not 
show the reference. S. 

BAXTER ARMS. What is the correct blazonry 
of the arms of the late Sir David Baxter, of Kil- 
marron, Fife 1 He died in 1872. E. H. FIRTH. 

SEATS IN PARLIAMENT. Did our early legis- 
lators sit on bolsters during their labours in the 
House 1 In the Wardrobe Boll (of Henry Snaith, 
Keeper of the Wardrobe) for the year 37-38 
Edw. III. (A.D. 1363-64), 39/7, I find an entry of 
the delivery to Henry de Karsewell, one of the 
King's tailors, of 32 ells of canvas for bolsters for 
the House of Parliament : 

" Eidem [Henrico de Kareswell, Cissori domini nostri 
regis] pro bolsters pro domo parliament^ apud west- 
raonasterium, per manus Johannis Hawilyng f&ctis, xxxij 
vlnas, per iiij. quarteria,* Canebi." 

Chaucer's name is not mentioned in this Eoll. 

LT.-COL. LIVINGSTONE, 1689. Was the traitor 
Lt.-Col. Livingstone the same person who married 
the widow of Dundee and eventually became 
Viscount Kilsyth? In 1689, he was Lt.-Col. of 
Sir Thomas Livingstone's Regiment of Dragoons, 
and being detected in a traitorous conspiracy, _was 
arrested and sent to Edinburgh, where he remained 
a prisoner for several years. GEO. CLEGHORN. 

13, Pittville Parade, Cheltenham. 

Sotheby's, on the 10th November last, of engrav- 

* This must mean 4 quarters broad. 

5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 74.] 



ings, &c., the property of the family of the late Sir 
B. West, P.E.A., there was an oil portrait described 
as " The original picture, by Stubbs, of John Hall, 
the celebrated Line Engraver." On seeing the 
same I was as much struck with the general 
unlikeness to Hall, as represented by Gilbert 
Stuart in the portrait at the South Kensington 
Museum, as by the striking likeness to Wooflett, 
who hangs close by, also painted by Stuart, sub- 
stituting the wig of the period for the cap in which 
he is there, as he is generally represented. 

Supposing the portrait to have been painted by 
Stubbs (and he painted very few), is it not more 
likely, from the fact of Woollett being associated 
with him, by the engraving of several of his paint- 
ings, that it is a portrait of him rather than Hall ] 

L. H. H. 

"JURE HEREDITARIO." This seems a very 
simple phrase to create a difficulty ; but where, in 
our early chronicles, it is stated that A. B. acquired 
certain manors "jure hereditario," does it mean 
" by hereditary right," that is to say by descent, 
or does it, occasionally or invariably, mean "in 
hereditary right," that is to say for an estate of 
inheritance ? I abstain from quoting the particular 
instance in which my difficulty arises, in order 
that the grammatical question of interpretation of 
a mediaeval Latin phrase may not be mixed with 
the historical one of the particular title referred 
to. J. F. M. 

AN ENGLISH TOWN. In the record, dated 33 
Hen. VI., of a certain lady's admission to the 
freedom of a town, the following clause occurs : 

"Ac etiam predictam Cristinam registrar! fecimus in 
libris nostris, in memoria omnium privilegiorum nos- 
trorum, in cartis nostris contentorum, quequidem privi- 
legia, omnia et singula, Sanctissimus in Christo pater 
nosier et dominuf Deo Nicholas papa quartus graciose 

What could Pope Nicholas IV. have had tD do 
with the privileges of an English town ? 

M. D. T. N. 

HERALDRY. To what families do the following 
bearings belong respectively; they occur in Benolts's 
Visitation of Devon, 1531, and are the quarterings 
of a family of the name of Hereford (? of where) 1 

(1) argent on a chevron gules, three spear heads or; 

(2) gules, on a bend argent, three roses sable ; 

(3) sable, seme'e of cross-crosslets arg., two griffins 
rampant combattant or. (1) apparently represents 
the bearings of an heiress of " Wood of Eynsham, 
com. Oxford"; (2) is a quartering of this family; 
and (3) belongs to a name, as far as I can read it, 
of " Trefer of Winborne, com. Dorset." The arms 
of the family of Hereford above-named are given 
as argent, a fesse lozengy gules, in chief a lion 
passant guardant sable. A. F. H. 


CHAP BOOKS. Wanted any specimen or series 
of the old chap-books, which I can consult at the 
British Museum or elsewhere. H. M. 

[See 2 nd S. i. 270; v. 435, 522; vi. 88; viii. 22.] 

THE GOTHIC FLORIN. What was the origin 
of this coin of the reign of Queen Victoria, the 
exact number coined, and why was the issue 
stopped? W. B. 

ALTAR FRONTALS. In early drawings of altar 
frontals, apparently a stole is shown hanging over 
in front at the two ends. What are the meaning 
and explanation for this 1 In many good modern 
frontals the design seems indirectly to embody this 
idea. E. M. M. 


(4 th S. xii. 509.) 

MR. ELLIOT BROWNE hardly rises to the height 
of his own arguments in merely assuming that 
Philisides is Sir Philip Sidney, when he might 
assert it with certainty. To those arguments may 
be added these. First, three from Alexander's 
addition to the third book of the Arcadia,. He 
makes Philisides die of a wound in the thigh from 
an empoisoned dart thrown by an unknown hand, 
and Sidney died of a chance bullet wound in the 
thigh, which, ending in inward mortification, 
seemed to confirm the belief that shot wounds 
were poisoned wounds. Philisides' calm death 
and quiet address to his friends is an imitation of 
Sidney's, and the desire to live in their friends' 
memories is common to both death-bed speeches. 
The history of the " tilting in Iberia (where I was 
borne) dedicated to the memorie of the Queene 
Andromanes marriage," when a novice in armes 
he, with Musidorus, Pyrocles, and others in their 
train, ran in a pastoral show against the Corinthian 
knights, is a plain reference to the magnificent 
tournament and show before the French embassy 
that came over to negociate the marriage with the 
Duke of Anjou in 1581, and in which Sidney, 
Fulke Greville, the Earl of Arundel, and the Lord 
Windsor were the challengers and Knights of 
Desire that attacked the Fortresse of Perfect 
Beautie. In the chroniclers (see Nichols' Progr.) 
the feats of arms in this tournament are described 
in much the same glowing terms as those used by 
Alexander's Philisides. Fourthly, Sidney writing, 
Philisides speaks autobiographically of himself in 
"The song I sang old Lanquet (Languet) bad me taught" 
(Arc., B. III.) and thus identifies himself with 
Sidney. Fifthly, the second book of Browne's 
Britannia's Pastorals is dedicated to William, 
Earl of Pembroke (1616) ; and in one of the commen- 
datory verses, probably by Wm. Herbert, we have, 
" Hee masters no low soul who hopes to please 
The Nephew of the brave Philisides." 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 74. 

But there is a sixth and more cogent argument. 
It is a great mistake to suppose, that because one 
poet speaks of a friend, statesman, or other poet 
under a pastoral name, that such name became a 
sort of baptismal Arcadian name recognized and 
adopted by all. Even Spenser, though he had 
the authority of arch-poet, did not impose names 
used by all. Sidney he spoke of under Sidney's own 
assumed name, Astrophel, but Drayton calls him 
Elfin, Bryskett, Spenser's friend, Philisides, and 
A. W. Willie, probably from the Wiltshire stream 
that gave its name to Wilton, while Spenser's 
Willie, I believe, after fresh investigation, to be 
certainly, and in accordance with Malone's belief, 
John Lyly. Here, however, there can be no doubt 
as to Philisides, for it has no meaning in Greek, 
English, or any other tongue, unless it be a Gre- 
cized form of Phil[ip] Sid[ney], 

Next, as to "good Melibee." Thenot asks 
Collin, that is Chettle, who, as appears from 
another passage in the Mourning Garment, was 
then about fifty, what had been said by wise men 
of old as to certain state events of their times. 
He asks Collin, one of the passing generation, what 
he had heard from men of his own and a past gene- 
ration as to the causes of war between Spain and 
England in 1586 or 7. Now here it is to be noted 
that, Spenser being dead, Chettle wittingly calls 
himself " Collin," acknowledging that he takes the 
name in these words "I cannot now forget the 
excellent and cunning Collin indeed (for alas I 
confesse my selfe too too rude)." And it is to be 
noted, in that it is, as I believe, one of the three 
examples in the book of the re-giving of a pastoral 
name after the first owner's death. Melibee is a 
second instance. The "good Melibee" of this 
passage I have for some time taken to be Walsing- 
ham, as suggested by MR. ELLIOT BROWNE, not 
only because Watson so called him in his eclogue 
on his death, but because Spenser in reference to 
this very eclogue calls him, in The Ruins of Time 
(1591), by the epithet which Chettle, as Collin the 
second, takes from him 

" Good Melibee, that hath a poet got 
To sing his living praises being dead." 

But this good Melibee being dead, Chettle, speak 
ing of poets now alive, calls Marston the friend o 
Anti-Horace Dekker, not good Melibee nor even 
Melibee, but "young Melibee." The error o 
thinking that "songs" in pastorals necessarilj 
meant songs or plays, and not the sayings, or a 
the text glosses it " saws," of the persons spoken 
of, according as they were poets, statesmen, o 
prose writers, and non-attention to this distinctive 
epithet young, have lead to Mr. K. Simpson' 
curious mistakes in his Introduction to the Siege oj 
Antwerp. As MR. BROWNE justly says, Marston 
in 1586, or even 1588, was but a child. Again 
Walsingham, being dead in 1590, Drayton, no 
bound by Chettle's authority, or probably writinj 

ome time before 1603, applies the name Melibee 
o some one who was either related to, or a great 
riend of, Sidney, and of a station at least equal 
with Sidney's or Walsingham's. In his eclogue 
ament of Sidney he says (Eel. vi.) 
" Thou that down from the goodly western waste 

To drink at Avon driv'st thy sunned sheep, 

Good Meliboeus that so wisely hast 

Guided the flocks delivered thee to keep, 

Forget not Elphin." 

And then in similar strains he adjures 
" Alexis that dost with thy flocks remain 
Far off within the Caledonian ground." 

Now this Melibosus cannot be Walsingham, be- 
cause the latter had no connexion by birth or 
property with Salisbury Plain and Wiltshire, 
md because we know that this eclogue is a 
re-written form of a previous lament published in 
1593. Nor can he be Marston, as MR. SIMPSON 
would again have it, for first the words and the con- 
text show that statesmen or nobles are spoken of; 
secondly, because Marston was then a young man 
about town writing plays, and, in 1605, imprisoned 
for writing Eastward Ho ; thirdly, because though 
his father-in-law, or future father-in-law, as a 
clergyman in Wilts, might have had sheep to keep 
there, Marston had none ; and, fourthly, because 
all that we know or rather can suppose of Mar- 
ston's place of residence after he ranged himself 
is that it was at Coventry. But, as I have said, 
the poem, by its subject and wording, was pro- 
bably written long before its supposed date of 
publication in or about 1605 (for the volume has 
no date), and its good Melibceus is, I should say, 
the husband of Mary Sidney, Countess of Pem- 

Lastly, as to Melicert. I confess that though 
the conjunction of Sidney, Walsingham, and Shak- 
speare was a strange one, I was inclined to think 
that Chettle could not have given the same name 
to two people in one book. But, since reading 
MR. ELLIOT BROWNE'S note, and reconsidering 
the matter, I believe that the smooth-tongued 
Melicert of the Philisides and Melibee trio must 
have been a statesman or person of eminence, and 
the significant name Honeycomb, or he of the 
honeycomb, agrees well with Ascham's notice of 
Burleigh in his Introduction to his Scholemaster, 
and with the description given for instance in 
Chalmer's biography. The same consideration is, 
I believe, the common key of the three examples. 
Colin dead, Chettle adopts the name ; Walsingham 
dead, Drayton gives the name Melibceus to 
another of eminence, probably the Earl of Pem- 
broke, who died 1601, and Chettle, both being 
gone, gives it, with the distinctive adjunct young, 
to a new poet ; Melicert the statesman, being dead, 
Chettle applies it, when speaking of living poets, 
to Shakspeare of the honied muse. 
I cannot but think, however, that in the absence 

5 th S. 1. FEB. 7, 74. J 



of any points of marked resemblance, and I can 
see none such in MR. ELLIOT BROWNE'S instances, 
the Walsingham theory not merely weakens but 
disposes of his other belief that Chettle called 
Shakspeare after the Melicertus of Greene's Mena- 
phon. The supposed meaning of Melicert, the 
character of Melicertus, and the terms applied to 
Shakspeare by Meres, Chettle and others, suffi- 
ciently account for the respective choice of names. 
A remembrance of the name in Menaphon may have 
been what physicians call an exciting cause to 
Chettle, just as grandfather John may be a reason 
for calling a son John, but in this case I don't 
think Shakspeare Melicert has even Menaphon 
Melicert's nose, but a distinct and well-shaped head 

Red Hill, 9th January, 1874. 

P.S. The Marston who is supposed to be the 
dramatist is described by Wood as of Coventry. 
In this Marston's will, however, he calls himself 
of London, and his bequests refer to Southampton 
in especial, to persons in Shropshire, Surrey, and 
London, but without mention of any place or person 
in Wilts. 

(4 th S. xii. 47, 477.) 

The very amusing note of my friend, DR. RIM- 
BAULT, induces me to send some account of three 
worthies all more or less of the Bossy class. 

The stage or waggon doctor is now rarely met 
with in England, and we may say the same of him 
on the Continent. AbouU/hirty years ago, a Doctor 
Burnett used to visit the Craven Dales. He had 
his carriage a comfortable van neatly fitted up 
as a chemist's shop. The doctor had a gentlemanly 
exterior. His dress was of the finest black, what 
a tailor would call superfine. His hair was 
powdered, and he wore a neatly-trimmed pigtail. 
He was polished in his manners and address. 
Indeed, he was too gentlemanly, and " Your ser- 
vant, sir ! " with bowings, and scrapings, and un- 
covered head, was of more frequent occurrence 
than there was any occasion for. A stranger meet- 
ing the doctor in a country lane would have set 
him down for the parish clergyman for he was 
too natty to have been mistaken for the parish 
clerk, the national schoolmaster, or the Methodist 
parson. I cannot say where the Doctor learned 
politeness, perhaps it was at that celebrated 
academy where "them as larns manners pays 
tuppence a week extra !" If so, it is perfectly 
clear that the doctor's instruction had been con- 
fined to the manners' class, and had not extended 
to the grammatical one. When we conversed with 
him, we discovered his ignorance, not only of the 
common rules of grammar, but also of the healing 
art which he professed to practise. His chemical 

knowledge may be guessed at, when it is stated 
that he sold " cholera of lime ! " i. e. chloride ! 

He had, however, numerous friends, and his 
"red-pills," a remedy against indigestion, were 
much esteemed, and were taken by many who 
ought to have known better. He also sold a 
liquid which he called his " Medicamentuin Ameri- 
canum." It was a universal panacea, and when 
combined with the red-pills, it cured " aw macks 
ov ailments " at least, so said the peasants, who 
used to call it Th' American mend 'em or cure 
owt, i. e., cure for all things Doctor Burnett and 
his " cure owt " figure in the Stories of the Craven 

Burnett was accompanied by a lanky youth, who 
wore a livery that looked like a faded stage pro- 
perty. This dress was profusely edged with a 
thick gold lace that had become soiled and dingy. 
This specimen of a hobble-de-hoy called at the 
houses and left announcements of his great master's 
arrival. These notices were to be kept clean till 
called for. Burnett is the only itinerant English 
practitioner that I can call to mind. He died 
many years ago. I regret that the gravity of his 
deportment was such as prevents me from classing 
him amongst empirical humorists, such as the 
Doctor Bossy of my learned friend. I will now 
pass to the Continent. 

In Switzerland a Doctor Rock said to be from 
Geneva used to frequent the Valais and Vaud. 
He had a rudely constructed caravan, from the 
stage-front of which he gave a dramatic exhibition 
a scena between himself and daughter. It was 
a sort of comic duet what the cafes-chantants call 
a duologue, and the performers were dressed in 
character. When the " Comedy," as it was called, 
was finished, the Doctor's daughter, a showy girl, 
would beat a drum and sound a gong as a musical 
prelude to the medical and surgical orations of her 
father. Like our Doctor Burnett, the Swiss char- 
latan had his pet digestive pills, and his universal 
remedies in draughts. The dramatic display was 
only made in certain places, such as the square 
near the old abbey at St. Maurice. As on such 
an occasion many of the hearers did not patronize 
the pills or potions, the Doctor's daughter went 
round with a plate or with her papa's hat a pro- 
ceeding that always caused a skedaddling among 
those whose love of music was not such as induced 
them to pay the piper ! Kock used to exhibit at 
Lausanne, until he was stopped by the Board 
of Health, or, as he said, by the jealousy of the 
Lausanne practitioners. 

For some time past Rock has wholly disappeared. 
I have heard that he is dead. 

In Italy an itinerant doctor used to exhibit in 
the great square of Bologna and in the piazzas or 
places of other cities particularly in the 
Piazza della Signora at Florence. Dottore 
Trentano was a regular practitioner and a 



[5* S. I. FEB. 7, 74. 

graduate of an Italian University. Why 
he, an educated and clever man, should have 
adopted such an irregular mode of practice I can- 
not say. He had a carriage such an one as Con- 
tinental commercial travellers use. The box seat 
had just room for two persons the rest of the 
vehicle being a capacious closet or depository, 
where the bottles, &c., were stored. Trentano 
was a serious-looking man, in a very plain dress ; 
and his public anatomical lectures, which were 
illustrated by a folio of coloured plates, and a 
human skull and bones, were listened to with every 
mark of attention. When a patient left the crowd 
to consult the doctor there was no hurry. The 
ailing man had to take a seat on the box and then 
to pour his complaints into the Doctor's ear. This 
would last for a quarter of an hour and sometimes 
much longer. During this auricular process there 
was nothing to amuse or astonish the multitude, 
except an occasional feeling of the pulse, or an 
application of the stethoscope. On my last visit 
to Florence and Bologna I missed Trentano. 
Some said that he was dead ; other accounts said 
that by the solicitations of the faculty he had been 
induced to abandon his public practice and to 
settle quietly down as a village practitioner. I 
know not which account is the true one ; all I can 
state is that he has disappeared. 


Dr. Bossy was not a German but a Spaniard. 
When young he was placed in a monastery in Spain 
by his father, but this mode of life proving dis- 
tasteful to him, he effected his escape and even- 
tually settled in England, when he changed his 
name from Garcia (his patronymic) to Bossy. My 
authority is his grandson, now living. 


59, Walford Road, South Hornsey. 

DR. JOHNSON AND MRS. TURTON (5 th S. i. 30.) 
The Turtons here referred to are not the branch 
descended from Sir John Turton and his wife 
Anne, daughter of Samuel More of Linley, co. 
Salop. An excellent and correct pedigree of 
Turton of Alrewas, co. Stafford, is given in Shaw's 
Staffordshire, vol. i., p. 133. 

The following notes by Mrs. Eicketts, daughter 
of Swynfen Jervis, of Meaford, co. Stafford, and of 
Elizabeth Parker, his wife (grand-daughter of Sir 
John Turton), will explain some matters alluded to 

" Mr. Turton of Orgreave and Aldrewas, in Stafford- 
shire, was father of Sir John Turton, one of the Justices 
of the King's Bench in the reign of King William 3rd. 
He (Sir John) married Miss Anne More, of the great 
family of that name, of Linley in Shropshire. They had 
issue one son, named William; Elizabeth, Mary, Margaret, 
and Anne. 

" William Turton married Miss Elizabeth Bent, 
daughter of a wealthy merchant in London, a woman of 

uncommon quickness and understanding, and lived to 
near 80 at Alrewas. They had issue one son, John, and 
one daughter, Elizabeth. 

"John married, 1st, Miss Benson of London; by her 
he had, 1.* William ; 2. Catharine. He married, 2ndly, 
Miss Beckford, of the family of Beckfords in Jamaica ; 
by her, Jane = Sir Philip Musgrave of Eden Hall, Cum- 
berland : and 3rdly, Mabella, daughter of Dr. Swynfen 
of Swynfen. He died upwards of fourscore in 1771. 
Mr. William Turton* (son of John Turton and Miss 
Benson) never married. He had two illegitimate 
children, a son, and a daughter, married to Mr. 
Frederick Evelyn, afterwards Sir Frederick Evelyn, 

This son is the ancestor of the Turtons of Brasted. 
The daughters of Sir John Turton were Elizabeth, 
married Mr. Davis of London ; Mary, married Mr. 
Walcot of Walcot, co. Lincoln ; Margaret, married 
George Parker of Parkhall, Esq.; Anne, married 
Thomas Mulso, Esq. By Mabella Swynfen, John 
Turton had a son, John, and two daughters. 

Sir John Turton leaves bequests to his nephews, 
William Turton and Philip Turton, sons of his 
brother Philip ; to their sisters, Elianor Hadder- 
sitch and Mary Deverell, and to his " cosyns," Mr. 
John Turton of the Oak, Mr. William Turton, his 
brother, and Mrs. Sarah Turton, their sister. 


THE O'BRIENS OF THOMOND (5 th S. i. 32.) The 
prominent position which this family has filled in 
Irish history, induces me to add to MR. WARREN'S 
note, and to show that Lord Inchiquin, although 
chief of a younger branch of the O'Briens, is heir 
male to the first earl (and last independent prince) 
of Thomond. 

Turlogh O'Brien, called by the Irish, King of 
Thomond, and the Imeal heir of Brien Boiromhe, 
had two sons who left male descendants ; of whom 
Connor, the eldest, died in the reign of Henry 
VIII., when the sovereignty of his country de- 
volved, according to the custom of Tanistry, on 
his younger brother Murrough, whose territory of 
Ibraekan was transferred to Connor's son Donough. 
In 1542, the English king decided on endeavouring 
to reconcile the Celtic dynasts to his superiority 
by taking from them a surrender of the estates and 
rank which by Tanistry was only theirs for life, and 
returning the lands with English titles which should 
descend to their male heirs. Murrough, son of 
Turlogh, was then O'Brien, chief of his powerful 
sept ; and he agreed to give up the rights, which, 
as such, belonged to him, if he were created Earl 
of Thomond. But St. Leger, the Lord Deputy, 
had more confidence in the loyalty of his nephew, 
and heir by Tanistry, than in his ; and he and the 
Council wrote to Henry VIII. 

" That that graunte coulde not precede without the 
greate detryment and disparagement of Donnogh Obreyn, 
whiche ys nexte to be Obryn, and had servid very 
honestely your Majesty in the rebellyon tyme." 

They therefore suggested that 

" Obreyn, for the tyme leing, shalbe placed in your 

5" S. I. FEB. 1, 74.] 



parlyamente by the name of Erie of Thomonde, and the 
seconde, or Senescall of Thomond, to be placed as a 

Of this curious arrangement, which was to have 
been carried out by the authority of Parliament, 
and would apparently have attached a Parlia- 
mentary dignity to a Celtic chieftainship, the King 
at first approved, provided Donough be made a 
baron only, and that merely by what we should 
call a title of courtesy, since it was to be under- 

" That the heire of th' Erie of Thomonde, from hence- 
forth, must abide his tyme to be admitted as a member of 
our Parliament till his father or parent shalbe decessed, 
and to be only an hearer, standing barehed at the barre, 
besides the Cloth of Estate, as the youg Lordes doo here 
in our Realme of Englande." 

The patents, as eventually granted, are fully re- 
corded in the article of Burke's Peerage to which 
MR. WARREN refers, who will see that, although 
Lord Clare was prevented from legally ^inheriting 
the earldom of Thomond by the outlawry of the 
third Viscount Clare, no attainder interferes with 
the claim of the Eev. Edward O'Brien, if his 
descent is correctly set forth. 

That article, however, is in error in stating that 
the last Earl of Thomond left his estates to Mur- 
rough, afterwards Marquis of Thomond. Murrough, 
Lord O'Brien, to whom he left them in 1738, was 
the fourth, but then the only surviving son of 
William, fourth earl of Inchiquin, and died in 
childhood of small-pox, seven months after Lord 
Thomond, when the estates devolved on Lady 
Thomond's relatives, the Wyndhams. GORT. 

MOSES OF CHORENE (5 th S. i. 49.) I cannot 
give MR. HAIG the reference to the particular 
Bampton Lecture he speaks of ; but Cornelius a 
Lapide (i. 165, edition, Paris, 1861) gives the 
reference to Moses of Chorene, book I. chap. ix. ; 
and Smith's Bible Dictionary (s.v. Togarmah), 
after referring to a former article to show that 
that name is connected with Armenia, mentions 
MR. HAIG'S ancestor as follows : 

" The Armenians themselves have associated the name 
Togarmah with their early history, in that they represent 
the founder of their race, Haik, as a son of Thorgom." 
(Moses Choren. i. 4, 9-11.) 


224, 293, 456.) DR. CHANCE asserts that 
Varangian is probably or possibly a corruption of 
Frank, and " it seems the name of Varangians was 
first given to them by the Eussians, whom they 
had conquered." This is easily decided, not 
by reference to secondary authorities, but to 
the Chronicle of Nestor, which shows that the 
present Eussians took the name of Eussians from 
the Warings ; that in the land where the Warings 
lived there were Warings called Eussians, as 
others were called Northmen, English, and Goths. 

At that epoch, under the Eastern name of 
Varangians, the Warings were associated with the 
English, as they were afterwards in the Varangian 
guard at Constantinople. They will also be found 
so associated in the pages of Tacitus as Angli et 
Varini (Germania, VII., ch. 40), not to speak of 
other instances. It might be thought we were 
sufficiently interested in our national antiquities to 
learn what had become of a tribe so coupled with 
us at an early date and on many occasions ; 
but English historical investigation has never re- 
ceived sufficient encouragement or assistance, and 
has been chiefly dependent on the chance labours 
of individuals. On this head of the Varini, or 
Warings, however, there is sufficient material. 

In The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 
for 1849, it will be found that, on the 8th Feb., a 
paper was read by me, in which the Varini were 
connected with the Varangians of Eussia. Without 
referring to other occasions, about 1861, a paper 
was read by me on the Warings before the Literary 
Institution at Constantinople, published in the 
Levant Quarterly Review, and republished in a 
separate form. This has been a motive for local 
archa3ological inquiries. On the 25th Feb., 1868, 
I read a more complete memoir, " The Varini of 
Tacitus ; or, Warings and their Eelations to 
English Ethnology," before the Ethnological 
Society, and which will be found in their journal. 
Of this too separate copies were distributed. 

This memoir, which is now known to many 
historical inquirers, contains a large mass of re- 
ferences to the classical, Byzantine, medieval, 
Eussian, and oriental authorities. As the word 
Varini, or Waring, is as old as Tacitus, it does not 
appear probable it is derived from Frank or Franci. 
Any connexion must rest on another base. 

It will be seen from the memoir that, as the two 
great empires of England and the United States 
were founded by one race, so was that of Eussia. 
With regard to the expeditions of the Warings 
against Constantinople, they are well known, but 
their conquest of Bulgaria has attracted less 
attention. Their share in the invasion of Hungary 
and Armenia, and their expeditions, according to 
the Arabian historians, on the Caspian Sea remain 
to be examined, as also their connexion with the 
Avars and Huns. 

There is one passage in the history which one 
might be surprised has not attracted notice at the 
present moment of the marriage of an English 
prince into the house of Eomanoff. It is well 
known that the marriage of Henry Le Bel, King of 
France, with a daughter of Jaroslaus, Duke of 
Eussia, carried into the veins of the royal families 
and gentry of the west the blood, not only of 
Euric the Atheling, but of the house of Basil, 
the Macedonian, claiming a Eoman and Arsacid 
descent. These latter pretensions, it may be 
observed, enable a fabulous genealogy to be 



L5 h S.I.FBB. 7,74. 

traced not only to the historical epochs of Cyrus 
and Gracchus, but to the mythological epochs of 
Jupiter, Hercules, Venus, Jfeneas, and half the 
gods of the Pantheon. 

It is certainly worthy of note that a thousand 
years after the conquest and foundation of the 
Eussian Empire, our race should again be con- 
nected with Slavonia by the marriage of two 
descendants of Euric. 

With regard to the name of Russians, I am now 
more confident that its origin is to be attributed to 
the Eugii. HYDE CLARKE. 

SIMPSON ARMS (5 th S. i. 49.) Does J. W. S. 
suppose that armorial bearings are attached to a 
name, or does he imagine that all persons who 
bear the common surname of Simpson are of the 
same family 1 He is informed that not only do 
the various Simpson, Simson, or Sympson families 
not bear " the same crest, &c.," but that a large 
proportion of them have no right to bear any arms 
at all G. K. 

The crest of this family in Durham is a dexter 
arm holding a wreath of laurel, proper. 

F. S. A. 

" LE CAFFE, ou L'ECOSSAISE " (5 th S. i. 50) was 
written, I believe, by John Hume, or Home, Esq., 
of Ninewells, Berwickshire, the elder brother of 
David Hume, the historian. It is stated in the 
Preface that it is written by " M. Hume, pasteur de 
1'Eglise d'Edimbourg, deja connu par deux belles 
tragedies, joules a Londres : il est le frere de ce 
celebre philosophe Mr. Hume" It is not men- 
tioned by Baker in the Bio. Dram,, under the head 
" Home, John," where six plays, all tragedies, are 
attributed to him. Baker seems to know but 
little of him, believes he is related to the historian, 
and has heard that he has some pretensions to the 
title of Earl of Dunbar. For his pedigree see 
Burke, Landed Gentry (edition 1853, i. 614). 
Boswell gives an amusing illustration of John 
Hume's ready wit and sense of humour in his 
Life of Johnson (edition 1791, i. 248). J. Hume 
received a pension through Lord Bute, at the same 
time as Johnson. EDWARD SOLLY. 

THE MARSHALS OF FRANCE (5 th S. i. 9.) The 
following is a list of the marshals of France who 
have been condemned and executed, but J. B. G. 
will see that only one of them has been shot : 

1. Gilles de Laval, Marshal de Eetz, for his 
horrible crimes, was condemned to be burnt it the 
stake ; but, out of respect for his noble family, he 
was strangled before the flames reached him, and 
his body was not reduced to ashes. He suffered at 
Nantes in 1440. 

2. Louis de Luxemburg,' Count de St. Pol, Con- 
stable and Marshal of France, having engaged in 
conspiracies against Charles VIL and Louis XL, 

was delivered up to the latter by the Duke of 
Burgundy, and decapitated on the 19th Dec., 1475, 
on the Place de Greve. 

3. Charles de Gontaut, Duke de Biron, Admiral 
and Marshal of France, greatly distinguished him- 
self at the battles of Arques and Ivry, and at the 
sieges of Paris and Eouen, was advanced to the 
peerage and made marshal by Henry IV. He 
entered into several conspiracies against his bene- 
factor, and having joined in the scheme for par- 
titioning France into several small states by the 
aid of Spain and Savoy, he was arrested and be- 
headed inside the Bastile, on the llth July, 1602. 

4. Marshal de Marillac, a notable soldier in his 
day, was arrested in the midst of his army for con- 
spiring against the life of the all-powerful Cardinal 
Eichefieu. He was beheaded in the Place de 
Greve, on the 10th May, 1632. 

5. Henry II., Duke de Montmorency, Marshal 
of France, joined the conspiracy of Gaston de 
Orleans against Cardinal Eichelieu, and took up 
arms in the province of Languedoc, of which he 
was governor. The king sent against him Marshals 
De la Force and Schomberg, and a battle ensued 
at Castelnaudary, where the Duke was defeated and 
taken prisoner. He was beheaded at Toulouse, on 
October 30th, 1632. 

6. Baron de Liickner, Marshal of France, one of 
the captains under Frederick the Great, entered 
the French service and played a conspicuous part 
in the military operations in the north during the 
first years of the Eevolution. He fell under the 
suspicions of the Eevolutionary Tribunal, and was 
guillotined in the Place de la Eevolution, Nov., 

7. Philippe de Noailles, Duke de Mouchy, 
Marshal of France, was arrested for his royalist 
proclivities, and died on the scaffold in 1794. 

8. Michael Ney, Prince of Moskowa, Duke of 
Elchingen, and Marshal of France, shot in the 
garden of the Luxembourg, on the 7th Dec., 1815. 

So that out of the nine marshals of France who 
have been condemned to death, Bazaine is the 
only one who has escaped the extreme penalty. 

' E. N. 

" THE NIGHT CROW " (5 th S. i. 25.) It may 
help in the elucidating of MR. JESSE'S query to 
say that the Welsh call a certain bird a " night 
crow" (brdnnos). See in Welsh Bible, Lev. xi. 16, 
Deut. xiv. 15, where the English translation gives 
" night hawk." Thomas Edwards, in his English 
and Welsh Dictionary (Holywell, 1850), gives the 
translation of the word " night raven " as bran nos, 
i.e., night crow, " which," said he, " is called the 
corpse bird." To this day when the bird called 
the night crow visits any place, it is regarded by 
the peasants in some parts of Wales as foreboding 
" lucklesse time " a death generally. Pughe, in 
his Welsh Dictionary (1832), under the word 

5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 74.] 



" Delluan," says that the corpse bird (" Aderyn y 
Corff" of Thomas Edwards) is the brown owl. 
One rhymer wrote of that bird as follows : 

" The corpse bird with his dog's nose," 
i.e., the sense of smell is so acute in that bird that 
it scents afar off, as does a dog the trail of its prey. 

K. &M. 

(4 th S. xii. 428.) Whether the following formed a 
part of the " excellent good Ballant," which has 
gone amissing, I do not know ; but as it is found 
in a book of fifty years' prior date to the " Cogita- 
tions," 1688, and is in the same vein, it may very 
well be tacked to the verses you have printed. 

Charon and the Eoman Prelates are the inter- 
locutors here : 

11 B. B. Charon have ore, the Ghostlie Fathers come 
To thy torne Boat, and their Eternall Home. 

" C. Who;calls the Ferry-man of Hell 1 ? B. B. It's wee 
Prime Statesmen of the Roman Prelacie ; 
Bring not thy scurvie Barge which looks so thin 
As any Cloud, as old as Sunne, and Moone. 

"C. Deils in these Prelates pride, they've left the Earth 
Into a fair combustion, after death 
They 're come the very Hells for to confound, 
And our Infernall common-wealth to wound. 
Enter right Reverend, many Catholic kings, 
Popes, Monarchs, which this nimble Vessell brings 
Each hour, into these fatall mansions, doe 
Embarque without a scruple. What are you ] 
Come, good my Lords, you must be rul'd by me, 
You had your Time, now take your Destinie, 
Though your big-bellies could engrosse a Coach, 
Yet if your soules sink, I '11 byde your reproach." 

See The Passionate Remonstrance, "Edingborough,"1641. 

A. G. 

1615 TO 1621 (5 th S. i. 29.) The name of William 
Laurence occurs in Bloomfield's History of Norfolk, 
but I am unable to identify him as the above. 
William Laurence, rector of Caston, resigned 
August 15, 1579, rector of Ellingham in 1585, and 
afterwards rector of Thurlton from 1606 to 1611, 
when he resigned. W. WINTERS. 

Waltham Abbey. 

AN INSCRIPTION (4 th S. xii. 89.) I take the 
inscription on the bronze mortar to be old Dutch, 
and to mean " Praise (or thank) God for all." I 
have a very handsome bronze mortar enriched with 
two rows of arabesque ornaments and mouldings, 
with two dolphins for handles, and having the in- 
scription " Laus Deo Semper, 1685." Engraved on 
the upper rim is a shield charged with a fleur-de- 
lis, between the letters P and E. This example 
has the original bronze pestle. A. W. M. 


" DADUM I RETURN" (4 th S. xii. 517.) A similar 
expression is made use of by the working class in 
Essex and Hertfordshire, pronounced, however, as 
" addum " or " attum." This appears to be simply 

a provincial contraction of " at the time " or " that 
time." THOS. BIRD. 


472.) I was much interested in the query of 
PELAGIUS, and expected a good many replies. 
My expectation has failed ; and I begin to think 
that the peculiarity to which he alludes, instead of 
being imaginative only, as I supposed at first, may 
be feminine. I beg to inform him that though I 
do not see counters arranged in a pattern, I do see 
mentally a long column of Arabic figures, one 
representing the base ; and I never think of a 
figure unconnected with its proper place in the 
column. Similarly, every century runs upwards 
in a column. The alphabet is arranged in the 
same manner, Z representing the base ; nor do I 
ever think of a word without seeing it in type. 
While I say this, I feel that I ought also to confess 
that " upwards of thirty" has been a puzzle to rne 
ever since I can remember ; and that I always 
have to pause and think whether " the middle of 
the sixteenth century" means 1650 or 1550. 

My sister-in-law confesses to a similar mental 
vision as to figures, but hers are arranged in a 
circle. My brother cannot understand us at all. 


TIOVULFINGACAESTIR (5 th S. i. 68.) This name 
would corrupt from Theudulf, or Theodulf-ing, 
" descendant of Theudulf" ; or even from Theodul- 
ing, " descendant of Theodule." 


Grays Inn. 

DAT (5 th S. i. 67.) Miss Day, Mrs. Day, and 
Nanny Day, are generally written of, and I believe 
rightly, as one and the same person. It is quite 
possible that the entries in Sir Joshua's pocket- 
book apply to two different portraits, for the lady 
had the credit of being widely admired. The fol- 
lowing extract from an uncollected letter of Horace 
Walpole's to Madame du Deffand may be interest- 
ing to MR. MASON : 

"June 1773. Un ancien ami m'a recommande en 
mourant, une sienne maitrease et des enfans dont je suia 
une espece de tuteur. Cette femme se maria a un 
gentilhomme, et s'en separa 1'annee apres. Elle s'est 
etablie a Calais par economic, et pour clever ses filles^au 
couvent. Elle se conduit tres sagement et tres honnete- 
ment, voit la meilleure compagnie de la ville, en est 
aimee et respectee ; son banquier vient de mourir. II 
fallait passer a Londres pour avoir le consentement de 
son mail a un nouvel arrangement de ses affaires. Elle 
est ici. On voudrait donner son hotel, qui est grand, 
beau, et a bon marche, au nouveau Commandant de la 
place. Elle en a ecrit a Monteynard, qui lui a fait 
une r6ponse tres honnete, mais sans demordre totalement. 
Elle croit quo la protection pourrait la sauver. Tout ce 
qu'elle demande, c'est de garder sa maison, jusqu'a la fin 
de son bail, c'est a dire deux ans et demi." 




[5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 74. 

BURNING THE DEAD (5 th S. i. 28.) Some months 
after the death of the Ranee, H.H. the Maharajah 
Dhuleep Singh conveyed the body of his mother 
to India, where it was burnt according to the rites 
of the country. It was at Cairo, on his return to 
England, that the Maharajah first saw the lady he 
afterwards married, the present Maharanee. 


CLOCKMAKERS (5 th S. i. 29.) Tompion lived at 
Brentford at the beginning of the last century. I 
have one of his clocks at my country house. I 
forget the Christian name and the date, but will 
write to A. E. G. the next time that I go down 
there if he wishes to know. P. 

At Windsor Castle is an old clock made by 
Knibb in 1677. In the Camden Society's Secret 
Services of Charles II. and James II., vol. lii., are 
various payments made for the King. In the 
account up to July 3, 1682, is an item, " Paid to 
Mr. Knibb (the same person, I think, referred to 
above) by his said Ma'tie's comand, upon a bill for 
Clockwork, 141Z." SAMUEL SHAW. 


In a kind of newspaper, called The Affairs of 
the World, and published in October, 1700, is the 
following notice : 

"Mr. Tompion, the famous watchmaker in Fleet 
Street, is making a clock for St. Paul's Cathedral, which, 
it is said, will go one hundred years without winding up ; 
will cost 3000J. or 4000J.. and be far finer than the 
famous clock at Strasburg." 

The following advertisement appeared in Mer- 
cator, No. 79, 21-4, Nov., 1713 : 

" On the 20th instant, Mr. Tompion, noted for making 
all sorts of the best clocks and watches, departed this 


Thomas Tompion lived at the corner of Water 
Lane, Fleet Street, where he died in 1713. Joseph 
Knibb, according to a token, is called " clockmaker 
in Oxon., 1677." With the names of the others 
I am unacquainted. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

[Thomas Tompion and George Graham were buried in 
the nave of Westminster Abbey. The slab over their 
common grave, on which are commemorated their 
"curious inventions" and "accurate performances," 
removed at the beginning of the present century, but 
happily not destroyed, was replaced, in 1866, together 
with that over Sir Isaac Newton's grave.] 

" LIKE " AS A CONJUNCTION (5 th S. i. 67.) In 
compliance with the request " for instances, early 
or late, of like only used as a conjunction, with the 
verb expressed," I refer to Mrs. Wood's novels 
passim, contenting myself with one quotation 
from East Lynne : " It came into her mind . . . 
like it had done before." (Bentley, 1862, Part II. 
chap. iv. p. 172.) It would, I doubt not, be easy 
to find similar illustrations of this usage in other 
modern writers whose English may be more or les 

lipshod, but not in careful and accurate authors, 
n the case of these latter, whether early or late, 
he apparent use of like as a conjunction is mostly 
iue to an ellipsis, by the judicious supplying of 
ivhich all may be set right ; thus in the example 
*iven, " The lion shall eat straw like the ox," may 
not the sense stand thus : " The lion like the ox 
in this particular) shall eat straw"? There is 
mother class of examples where vividness or 
icturesqueness has been obtained by a variation 
if case ; thus, when it is said that such a man has 
in eye like a hawk, is it not intended to say an eye 
ike a hawk's, although we take for comparison the 
whole bird instead of that particular part of it, the 
iye 1 So also in Hamlet : 

"An eye like Mars to threaten and command, 
A station like the herald Mercury." 

he first line of which, in confirmation of my theory, 
altered in Punch, some years ago, to 

" An eye like Ma's . . . ." 
and illustrated by Leech or some other. 

W. B. C. 

HERALDIC (4 th S. xii. 88, 137.) The arms 
azure, three roses argent, two and one, were borne 
ay a family of Nevill ; they are so assigned by 
Edmondson in his Complete Body of Heraldry, but 
;here is not any clue to what branch of the family 
;hey belong. 

(4 th S. xii. 109.) Argent, on a bend engrailed 
vert, is the coat of arms of the family of Rickards 
of Wales and Hereford, who quarter gules, three 
roses argent, a chief (not in chief) vair for Taylor. 

A. W. M. 


" BLACK- A-VIZED (OR) VIC'D" (5 th S. i. 64.) 
S. T. P., in his interesting commentary on this 
word, tells us that "the word occurs in the 
beautiful story of Rob and his Friends "; it also 
occurs in an authority which will be more accept- 
able to the Scots than even the excellent Dean 
Ramsay, and that is his namesake and predecessor, 
Alan Ramsay, who thus describes himself in an 
epistle to Mr. James Arbuckle, Jan., 1719, line 
69, et seq.: 

" Imprimis then, for tallness I 
Am five foot and four inches high ; 
A blackavic'd snod dapper fallow, 
Nor lean, nor overlaid wi' tallow ; 
Wi' phiz of a Morocco cut, 
Resembling late a man of wit (wut), 
Auld gabbih Spec." 

This was The Spectator, in which a description is 
given of himself [the spectator] as the silent 
gentleman. The glossary rightly interprets black- 
avic'd of a black complexion ; this will tally with 
Alan Ramsay's " phiz of a Morocco cut." What a 
pity it is that this sweet poet is not more read in 
this country. J. HAIN FRISWELL. 

Fair Home. 

5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 74.] 



"DE QTJINCEY: GOUGH'S FATE" (4 th S. x. 331, 
418.) I was lately much surprised to come across 
the following passage in Bishop Watson's Memoirs 
(London, 1817); I was shocked to find that doubts 
had ever been thrown upon the fidelity of Gough's 
terrier, that sublime love which has been more 
splendidly celebrated than that of any other dog. 
Bishop Watson thus writes to Mr. Hayley: " On 
one of our highest mountains (Helvellyn) a man 
was lost last year ; two months after his disap- 
pearance his body was found, and his faithful dog 
sitting by it ; a part of the body was eaten, but 
whether hunger had compelled the dog to the deed 
is not known." I trust MR. JESSE will notice this 
horrible suspicion in his promised work, and be 
able to show that the poor animal deserved the 
praise of Scott and Wordsworth. 


HENRY HICKMAN (5 th S. i. 31) was not rector 
of Brackley, but vicar, the incumbency being a 
vicarage. In an anonymous History of Brackley, 
published in 1869, by Alfred Green, a bookseller 
in that borough, we are told that Hickman was a 
Worcestershire man by birth, a Fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, A.M., and a preacher without any 
Episcopal orders, first at St. Aldate's, Oxford, then 
at Brackley ; and that he was much resorted to by 
men and women in the time of interruption and 
usurpation, and that he continued there till the 
Act of Uniformity displaced him. He died at 
Leyden in 1692. Wood enumerates his contro- 
versial tracts, written from the Presbyterian point 
of view. WILLIAM WING. 

Steeple Aston, Oxford. 

QUOTATIONS WANTED (5 th S. i. 87.) 
" We shall march prospering," &c. 

See Browning, The Lost Leader. 
M. L. 
" To thank with brief thanksgiving," &c. 

See Mr. Swinburne's " Garden of Proserpine," 
Poems and Ballads, pp. 196-9. 
^.'\. . H. BUXTON FORMAV. 

GREEK ANTHOLOGY (5 th S. i. 88.) There are 
not many modern anthological works, I believe, 
from which a selection can be made. Each school, 
too, will probably recommend its own publication. 
Anthologia Gr&ca in usum Scholce Mugbiensis 
has the advantage of being more recent in date 
than Bruge's Westminster and Eton edition ; but 
this latter has been literally rendered into English, 
and contains metrical versions by Bland, Merivale, 
&c. Keeker's Commentatio de Arith. Grcec. ranges 
in the dates of its editions from 1843 to 1852. 
The anthological works of the fifteenth, sixteenth, 
and seventeenth centuries, from which the modern 
Greek authors have extracted valuable hints for 
new eTTtypa/x/iara, are sadly defective in their 
pagination. BARROVIUS. 


CURIOUS COIN OR TOKEN (5 th S. i. 87.) The 
article mentioned by N. H. R. appears to be a 
copper coin of the East India Company. The 
" fishing-hook " is an Indian character : I am not 
learned enough to say what its meaning is. The 
coin in question, I should suppose, is much worn. 
Probably over the heart, on the reverse, there has 
been a figure like that of a 4-, and the heart has 
been crossed diagonally ; in the upper segment 
there has been a v, and in the three other segments 
E . i . c. As the dimensions are not given, it is not 
easy to say what its value is, but probably it is 
one- twelfth of an anna = half a farthing. I believe 
it is of no rarity. T. J. A. (OLIM CCC.X.I.) 

BERE EEGIS CHURCH (4 th S. xii. 492 ; 5 th S. i. 
50.) Without wishing to be hypercritical, I must 
ask permission to make a few remarks on one or 
two of LORD LYTTELTON'S emendations of the 
text of this epitaph, and likewise on some parts 
both in his and MR. WARREN'S translations which 
do not seem to me correct. 

The emendations I object to are finding no 
fault with the others " Prasdicatorem " for Prce- 
diatorem, contending for the latter as the proper 
word. Prcediator is a specific law term, glossed by 
Du Cange, " WI^TTJS virap-^ovriav. vTrepfopov S?mov 
fv8c8(p.evos. Emptor praediorum"; rendered by 
Cooper (Thesaurus), " men of law expert in actions 
real, or matter concerning lands." In middle Latin, 
it was used of persons who were " familiar with 
mercantile law, and hence were often consulted in 
points relating to it by lawyers." (White and 
Kiddle, sub voce.} A valuer, land-agent, appraiser, or 
perhaps as MR. WARREN gives it, " a conveyancer." 

2. " Comma, not a full stop, after narcoticum " ; 
I cannot see my way to this. " Quo devictus " 
surely begins a new sentence, and has no sort of 
connexion with the one preceding, nor is there any 
authority for LORD LYTTELTON'S " whence," in his 
translation. " Quo " is the relative of " morbo 
herculeo," not, as LORD LYTTELTON and MR. 
WARREN seem to take it, of " extreme progressu." 
The latter gentleman's rendering is clearly wrong, 
" he found his estate a trouble, worn out by which," 
&c., as "narcoticum" can never possibly mean 
trouble, nor anything short of the very opposite. I 
am vain enough to think my own rendering the best 
as yet, taking the or do verborum thus : " Tandem 
laborans per triennium herculeo morbo, quo de- 
victus"; open, however, always to correction. 

3. "Set apart when he passed into ashes," _ is 
LORD LYTTELTON'S rendering of "ad quisquilias 
decessoris, sepositae jacent exuviae." I cannot concur 
in this, as it seems to me a mistranslation, and, 
moreover, not a full one. For surely " sepositae 
exuviae " are neither grammatically nor logically to 
be referred to " ad quisquilias decessoris," but to 
"Andreas Loupi," the " quisquiliae decessoris" being 
the ashes, or remains of some one father or an- 



[5* S. I. FEB. 7, 74. 

cestor who had died before him, and by (ad) or 
beside of which, his own were laid. MR. WARREN 
has quite caught the sense, and given it very 

I notice nothing else but the date of the year, as 
to which we all seem to be at issue. I gave 1643, 
under the supposition that the x might have been 
transposed by some blunder of the engraver, and 
ought to have been joined to the former three. 
However it may be as to 1637, it cannot by any 
possibility be 1639. 

. I am indebted both to LORD LYTTELTON and 
MR. WARREN for the light which they have thrown 
upon one or two passages, of which I could make 
neither " top nor tail." Does any one know who 
this Andrew Loupi was 1 EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

P.S. Upon re-perusal I find, "1. 4, 'coneulcus' 
should be concalcas, or concalces " ; sorry to say, I 
think not, and for a very cogent reason, which is 
that the Latin language has no such word. Calco 
in composition becomes culco, e. g. inculco, deculco, 
occulco, proculco, and so here conculco. Conculcus 
is wrong doubtless, not being Latin, and I think 
conculcas or conculces may be accepted as legitimate 
emendation. Perhaps in the penultimate the a for 
u may be a misprint. 

AFFEBRIDGE : BODING (4 th S. xii. 328, 375, 
484 ; 5 th S. i. 39.) Whether the river took its 
name from the nine hamlets, or the hamlets took 
theirs from the river, has been a doubtful point 
with most authors. I think it probable that the 
river gave the name. Roding is clearly a com- 
pound name, and the termination ing or meadow 
must be separated from the Eod. I believe the 
oldest records name the river Rodon ; this is prob- 
ably Saxon, and might mean either " a long and 
narrow thing," or be derived from "a cross." 
Now Higher Roding, or Rod-meadows, are those 
highest up on the river Rod-on, or nearest to its 
source ; and the name higher or upper seems to 
refer to the river. If this view is correct, we have 
first the river Rod or Rodon, which gives its name 
to the adjoining meadows as Rod -ings ; and more 
lately the river taking its name from the meadows, 
and changing from Rodon to Rodings. 


" PAYNTER STAYNER " (4 th S. xii. 354, 453.) 
The Painter-Stainers' Hall is No. 9, Little Trinity 
Lane. Cunningham says that the company were 
the forerunners of the Royal Academy. They 
formed a licensed guild long prior to 1580, but 
their charter dates from that year. They tried to 
compel Gentileschi, Steenwych, and other court 
painters, to pay fines for following their art, not 
being free of the company. They failed, however, 
to enforce them. But Chas. Cotton, an original 
member of the Royal Academy, was master of the 
company in 1784. Cornelius Jansen was a mem- 

jer, and Inigo Jones and Van Dyck guests at 
their feasts. A painter-stainer is said, in Webster's 
Dictionary, to be a painter of coats of arms. I 
think that stainer and grainer are almost synony- 
mous. These men were house decorators, wood 
stainers, marble imitators, herald painters ; at 
masques and plays they were much in request; 
and the serjeant painters were, no doubt, many of 
;hem artists of considerable repute and skill. 
Some years ago they held an exhibition of wood- 
training, to which any working man in the trade 
might send specimens, and they gave prizes a 
custom which they have not continued, I believe. 
There were some very splendid specimens sent. 
The discontinuance is to be deplored, for the imita- 
tions of graining; in wood in houses, otherwise 
sumptuously fitted up, are often simply contempt- 
ible. C. A. W. 

BONDMEN IN ENGLAND (4 th S. xi. xii. passim ; 
5 th S. i. 36.) Mr. Selby, the most courteous and 
obliging Superintendent of the Search Room at the 
Record Office, has been good enough to point out 
the following document to me. It is an Inquisition 
taken at Leominster, in Herefordshire, on July 23, 
1579, in pursuance (I suppose) of Queen's Eliza- 
beth's grant of 1575 to Sir Henry Lee, of the fines 
he could get out of any 300 of her bondmen for 
the grants of their freedom that she empowered him 
to make. 

" Exchequer, Queen's Remembrancer, Ancient Mis- 
cellanea. Special Commissions, 821 (37). 

" An Inquisition indented & taken the xxiij. of July 
1579, at Leomster in the countie of Hereford, before 
Thomas Heron gentleman, comissioner, & by the othes of 
John Creswell gentleman, John Morgan gentleman, John 
wancklen, Richard Abathe, Humfrey vale, John avale de 
Morten, *John Poull de Luston, John Arvall de Hope, 
Roger Bailis, Ancell Cowarne, Hughe whitwall, wilh'am 
appryse, wilh'am Stansbury senior, Richard davise, John 
easwald *, free & lawfull men, tenauntes & en- 
habytauntes dwellinge within her maiesties maner of 
Leomster in the countie aforeseid, who sale vpon their 
othes, that humfrey wancklen, , Thomas wancklen & 
Richard wancklen, the Children of Thomas wancklen 
decessed, ar bondmen in bloud regardant to the Quenes 
m&iesties maner of Leomster in the countie of Hereford, 
& ar very little worth. And also that Richard wynd, & 
John wynd, the sonnes of hughe wind decessed, ar like- 
wise bondmen, in bloud, & little worthe ; And also that 
Thomas wancklen of Morton, sonne of Edmond wancklen 
of Stokton, is likewise a bandman, and little worth ; And 
also that wilh'am wynd & John wynd, sonnes of John 
wynd, ar lickwise bandmen in bloud, & little worth; 
And also that waiter wancklen, wilh'am wancklen, 
Thomas wancklen, & f wancklen, were the Childeren 
of wilh'am wancklen of luston decessed ; And that the 
said waiter wancklen is worth in goodes six pounds, 
thretten shillings, & fouer pence ; & wilh'am wancklen 
is worth in goodes thre pounds ; & Thomas wancklen & 
f wancklen worth little ; And that John wale, sonne 
of hughe wale of luston, decessed, is also a bandman in 

Blanks here in original between the names. 
Blank in MS. 

5 th S. I. FEB. 7, 71] 



bloud to the maner afore-seid, and worth in goodes ten 
poundes , And further the seid Jury saitb that hughe 
wind, late of morton hamlet in the parishe of Eye, in the 
Countie aforeseid, decessed about thretten yeres last past, 
was the Queues m&iesiies bandman in bloud, regardant to 
the maner aforeseid ; And that the seid hughe wind was * 
1 befor his deathe ' seassed in his demeane as of fee of 
& in the moitie or one half the maner of aston, alias 
asheton, with certen landes tenemewtes & pastures ther- 
unto belon[g]i[n]ge, set, lieinge & beinge in the parishe of 
Eye in the Countie aforeseid ; And that one John avail 
decessed, beinge a frexnan, was seased in his demeane as 
of fee in thother moitie or one half of the seid maner of 
aston, alias asheton : all w^ich seid maner, landej, & 
tenementes & pasture, ar worth yerely, ouer & aboue all 
charge & reprises, threttene poundes, six shillings, & 
eight pence, & late were parcell of the landes & pos- 
sessions of Sir George blount knight, & nowe or late were 
in the tenures or occupacions of thes persons followinge, 
viz: of hughe wynd, sonne & heier of the fore seid hughe 
wynd, who was lately manumissed [&] (as in his own right) 
is seassed in his demeane as of fee in parte of the seid 
maner to the yerely value of four poundes; And one 
wilh'am avale is also lickwise seassed in his demeane 
as of fee of & in one other parcel of the seid maner 
to the yerely value of four poundej; And the 
residowe of the seid whole maner is in the seuerall 
tenures & occupac?'ons of John avaston, willtam galley, 
John freman, .Richard wynd, George Lugarne, wilh'am 
Caldwell, Thomas perkins, John byrd, Koger Bayly, 
Ancell Cowarne, Richard perks, John Bayly of Morton, 
& Thomas avail of Stokton,* "humfrey vale, John Downes, 
& hughe whitwall ; ' 2 And further the seid Jury knoweth 
not. In witnes wherof, to thes presenter they haue set 
to their handes & scales the daie & yere aboue written." 

" NOR" FOR "THAN" (4 th S. xii. 388, 502 ; 5* h 
S. i. 12, 53.) F. S. (p. 53) says that I supposed 
" nor " for " than " to be obsolete. But I think 
the whole context of what I said (4 th S. xii. 388) 
shows that what I meant was, obsolete among the 
best educated class. LYTTELTON. 



History of Two Queens: I. Catharine of Aragon: 
. II. Anne Boleyn. By William Hepworth Dixon. 

Vols. III. and IV. (Hurst & Blackett.) 
MR. DIXON has completed, in the above volumes, the two 
stories which he has narrated with so much grace and 
vigour. Better still, he has cast the light of truth upon 
incidents that have not been seen under that light before ; 
and if some reputations suffer, others are rehabilitated. 
Full of romantic and dramatic sentiment as the story of 
Catharine is, we think that the more absorbing interest 
is concentrated in the story of Anne Boleyn. Never has 
it been told so fully, so fairly, or so attractively. Anne 
has had cruel and unscrupulous enemies. She has them 
still, among persons whose so-called religious prejudices 
are as blindly fierce as were the passions of those who, 
for their miserable worldly profit, pursued this innocent 
woman to death. Tragedy will have its victim and its 
martyr on the stage. It often combines both in one 
individual on the scaffold. This it did in the person of 

* The words between 11, and between 22, are inter- 
lined in a different hand. 

the guiltless Anne. No human being, exposed to such 
trial and suffering as she was, met cruel fate with more 
noble and unobtrusive dignity. As much may be said 
of the gallant gentlemen who might have saved their 
lives by accusing Anne of treason and infidelity, but who 
preferred terrible death to living at the cost of a lie. The 
whole story of Anne vindicates her honour. In the 
reading of it, tears will flow in many sympathetic eyes ; 
and no one will close the volume without a feeling of 
gratitude to the author, the last and most gallant of the 
champions of poor Anne Boleyn. 
Dulce Domum: Essays on Home Life. By Frederick 

Perry, M.A., Vicar of S. Saviour's, Fitzroy Square. 

(Strahan & Co.) 

" DULCE DOMUM" touches on an astonishing number of 
themes, both original and cited. Engrossing the reader, it 
exhausts not a few of the duties and affections of social 
life. Aristotelian tnodo operandi, Mr. Perry published 
first his Fragments of Christian Ethics, and now, to com- 
plete a well-ordered commonwealth, brings out his 
Politics, or Dulce Domum, a series of essays on the inte- 
gral members of a home. He would lead men to be good 
citizens by making the study of morals a necessary 
postulate of the rationale he constructs. He is attractive 
as a psychologist and physiologist. Each sequent shows 
his anthropology to be yvwQi aiavrbv. Bold is the 
citizen who will instruct his confreres how and when 
they ought to marry ; how a husband and wife ought 
mutually to behave ; how parents, children, masters, 
servants, should act in their respective relationships ; but 
the Vicar of S. Saviour's makes the venture, and succeeds 
in the attempt. His ideas must coalesce with those of 
the sensible, being admonitory of the extreme of any 
virtue On the side of excess or defect, and requiring the 
adjustment of the mean to be left to self -judgment and 

The Quarterly Review. No. 271. (Murray.) 
THOSE persons who have taken an interest in the much- 
talked-of book, Lettres a une Inconnue, by the late 
Prosper Merimee, will probably turn first to the article 
on this subject in the January number of the Quarterly. 
They will see that a clever man is not exempt from saying 
very foolish things. Two other personal articles add to 
the attractions of the number, one on Mrs. Somerville, 
the other on John Stuart Mill. That venerable lady was, 
in her earlier years, preached against by name, in York 
Cathedral. She was lifting the minds of men towards 
Heaven by scientific expositions, which, at the time, 
were considered unlawful. A notice on Mr. Ralston's 
pleasant books on Russian songs and folk-lore is almost 
as pleasant as the books themselves. What may be called 
the all-absorbing article of this number is " Sacerdotalism, 
Ancient and Modern." This will be read and re-read. 
The writer is said to be the Rev. Mr. Capes. 

The Paradise of Birds. An Old Extravaganza in a 
Modern Dress. By William John Courthope. Second 
Edition. (Blackwood & Sons.) 

FROM the pen of the author of Ludilria Lunce has 
emanated some excellent intellectual recreation. From 
beneath the poem there appears to peep some little pet 
doctrine, which, like the roc bird out of his shell in 
limbo, only wants encouragement to protrude still further. 
The author would like to say, perhaps, more than he has 
said. The allusions to men, acts, customs of modern 
date, are happily and cleverly put. The mode of per- 
suasion by which a human entrance is obtained into 
Paradise, the evasive, yet thoroughly legal resort by 
which an exit is also effected, and the final union and 
sympathy between man and birds, are treated in a 
masterly style. If only for a revival of one's ornitho- 
logical reading, these verses are worth a perusal. 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 7, '74. 

Columbus : A Historical Play, in Five Acts. By Edward 

Rose. (Effingham Wilson.) 

IN the year 1792, Mr. Morton brought out, at Covent 
Garden, a play under this title, which was acted at 
intervals till 1823. It took Columbus to Peru, and there 
were as many low comedy parts in it as there were 
heroic. The old drama is forgotten, and Mr. Rose's 
Columbus is fresh and original, and has dramatic qualities 
in it that fit it for the stage. The piece opens at Santa 
Fe, whence it passes to the deck of Columbus' s ship, and 
thence to Barcelona, Cadiz, and finally to Segovia, where 
Beatrix dies in the hero's arms ; and Columbus is the 
other victim which a tragic poem demands. His last 
words are, " Into thy hands, Lord, I commend my 
spirit." Irving's Life of Columbus has furnished the 
principal incidents. 

The New Quarterly Magazine. (Ward & Co.) 
THE second number of this quarterly magazine is even 
better than the first, in which there was a capital bio- 
graphy of, and criticism on, Rabelais. There is a similar 
article in the second number on Sully, and another on 
Fanny Burney. Each number contains a novel, entire, 
with articles on travels, art and science. The novels are 
very good, and the whole publication is well got up and 
well edited. 

ST. ANTHOLIN'S CHURCH, LONDON. This church, built 
by Sir Christopher Wren, will shortly be pulled down ; 
the benefice having been united with that of St. Mary, 
Aldermanbury, close by. The fittings of the interior, 
except some (as the font and communion table) which 
are reserved for their proper uses, will first be sold on the 
spot. The sale will take place almost immediately ; and 
amongst the things to be sold will be several panels of 
rich open work in oak, carved into leaves and flowers ; 
and a tall standard of iron, handsomely foliated and 
painted blue and gold, whereon the sword and mace of 
the City were wont to rest when the Lord Mayor 
attended service at St. Antholin's. Amongst the readers 
of " N. & Q." there may be some whose regard for the 
ancient uses of dedicated things may induce them to 
rescue these memorials from the harpies of Wardour 
Street. The interior lines of this church are a master- 
piece of apt arrangement. The outline of the site and of 
the walls is irregular and shapeless; yet within, by 
means of octagon forms which lead the eye onward and 
upward to oval and to circular forms, Sir Christopher 
has produced a quite remarkable effect of symmetry and 
Btateliness. A. J. M. 

WE have been favoured by the following note from 
MR. THOMS : " You and many of your readers will 
rejoice when I tell you that our French cousin, L'lnter- 
mediaire des Chercheurs et Curieux, the Notes and Queries 
Franqais, which was necessarily suspended in August, 
1870, by the unhappy war between France and Germany, 
has re-appeared under the management of its original 
editor, M. Carle de Rash. To the courtesy of that 
gentleman, I presume, I am indebted for the pleasant 
surprise which the receipt of the first two numbers for 
this year (its seventh) afforded me on Tuesday. Perhaps 
you will kindly permit me, through your columns, to 
return my thanks to that gentleman for his kind atten- 
tion, to wish him and L' 'Intermediate a long and 
prosperous career, and to communicate the good news to 
my brother contributors. 

A. S. writes : " There is an inaccuracy in MR. MANT'S 
statement, 4 th S. xii. 481. Reference to, a peerage old 
enough to contain the Chatham pedigree will show that 
Governor Pitt was the great-grandfather, in the direct 
male line, of the first Lord Camelford. I think it was 
the second of the name who was killed in the duel, and 

the paternal grandfather of William, first Earl of 
Chatham. Confirmation of this statement can be found 
in Macaulay's Essay on, William Pitt." 

" LORD WHARTON'S CHARITY." The Secretary is "S. 
H. Evans, Esq., 13, Austin Friars, London, E.G.," to 
whom applications must be made by the clergyman of 
the parish requiring Bibles and Prayer-Books lor the use 
of school children. S. N. 


fLQlitt& io C0rp0ntettW. 

ENQUIRER. Sir William Congreve, Bart., the inventor 
of the famous rocket, died in 1828. He left two sons, of 
the ages of two years and one year, William Augustus and 
William Frederick. " Neither of these gentlemen," says 
the last edition of Debrett, " has been heard of for a con- 
siderable period, and their friends fear they are both 
dead. If so, the title is extinct." 

T. J. BENNETT. Ackermann speaks of " Corpus Christ! 
or Bene't College." C.C.C. was founded in 1352 by two 
guilds in Cambridge, termed " Gilda Corporis Christi " 
and " Gilda Beatae Mariaj Virginis." The former guild 
was established in St. Benedict's parish. 

BLAIRMORE (Newcastle-on-Tyne). Consult Prof. West- 
cott's The Bible in the Church, A General View of the 
History of the English Bible, A General Survey of the 
History of the Canon of the New Testament. 

THOS. BIRD (Romford). Consult A Rudimentary 
Treatise on Clocks and Watches and Bells. Fifth 
Edition, with a new Appendix. By E. B. Denison. 

H. NELSON (Downpatrick). Have you rendered the 
Russian name correctly 1 ? The lady's letter had better be 

F. L. (Leaside). Your queries can be answered by 
consulting the catalogues in the library of the British 

T. STRATTON. Rome was pronounced " Room " on the 
English stage as late as the days of the Kembles. 

J. H. JAMES (Ohio) and F. S. H. (Philadelphia). The 
date has been corrected. See 4 th S. xii. 460. 

L. L. "That is not wit which consists not with 
wisdom." See South, Hi., 33. 

J. A. F. "Ultra-centenarianism" has been forwarded 
to MR. THOMS. 

N. S. (Oxford). The derivation of both words is 

J. 0. P. Apply to F. W. Harmer, George Street, 

INDOCTUS. " Betwixt you and me," of course. 

Miss J. Y.'s offer is declined, with thanks. 

R. H. F. A cotta is a short surplice. 

J. B. (Melbourne). See 4 th S. xii. 213. 

H. H. G. (St. Dunstan's). Col. in type. 

" Sunday Newspapers," next week. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Ofiice, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74. J 





NOTES: The late Mr. Herman Merivale Sunday Newspapers, 
121 The Works of Thomas Puller : the " House of Mourn 
ing," 123 Shakspeariana, 124 St. Michael's, Queenhithe 
London Codrington Baronetcy Revenging Flodden, 125 
French Noblemen, about 1700 Anachronism Short-hand 
Writing Extraordinary Burial in an Orchard Transmigra- 
tion, 126. 

QUERIES : Authors Wanted Crystal Nuptials in Russia 
" The Ten Ambassadors " Sir Thomas Strangeways, 127 
The Sackbut Catherine Pear Oil Painting on Copper Plate 
Keble's "Christian Year" "A Biographical Peerage of 
the Empire of Great Britain," 1808 Jay : Osborne Death's 
Head and Cross-Bones Grinling Gibbons, 128 Burial of a 
Gipsy in a Church Coin or Token The Zampognari of 
Naples Colepepper and Davenant Penn Pedigree Thomas 
Muggett, M.D. " Warlock "Mr. Hugh Skeys Godwit 
Manuel of Shots, 129 Lodowick Loid Dr. Johnson 
Heraldic Curious Literature, 130. 

REPLIES : On the Elective and DeposingPower of Parliament, 
130 Field Lore : Carr, &c., 131 A Stubborn Fact, 132 
Hart Hall, Hertford College, Oxford Cervantes and Shak- 
speare, 133 A Professor of Hebrew, temp. Elizabeth 
"Anthem": " Anthymn," 134 Sweden "Arcandam" 
Kentish Epitaphs King of Arms Note of the late Mr. 
Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe to "Lord of the Isles" The 
Poet Cowper : " Trooper " S versus Z Date of a Calendar, 
135 Sir Thomas Herbert, of Tin tern, Bart. Sir John 
Burley, K.G. Sir David Lindsay The Barbor Jewel The 
Waterloo and Peninsular Medals Irish Provincialisms, 136 
Register Books Stamped " Hie et Alubris " " Calling 
out loudly for the Earth" Crowing Hens The Prodigal 
Son The Chartularies of the Abbeys of Vale Royal Norton, 
Birkenhead, and Combermere Copying Printed Matter, 137 
Browning's "Lost Leader" Seizing Dead Bodies for Debt 
Henry Hallywell Birds of HI Omen Sinologue The 
Cattle and the Weather Rev. E. Gee, 138. 
Notes on Books, &c. 


Our readers must have seen with deep regret the 
announcement of the death of MR. MERIVALE on 
Sunday last ; but few of them probably are aware, 
that though, we believe, his name rarely or never 
appeared in our columns, MR. MERIVALE was a 
frequent and valuable contributor. Like the late Sir 
George Cornewall Lewis, and many other eminent 
men, MR. MERIVALE found rest from his laboriou; 
official duties in the indulgence of his love oi 
letters ; and great as were his merits as a public 
officer, and few have done the State better service, 
he will probably be best remembered by his pub- 
lished works. The first of these, his Lectures on 
the Colonies and Colonization, led to his appoint- 
ment as Under-Secretary for the Colonies, from 
which he was eventually promoted to the Under- 
Secretaryship of State for India. His Life of Sir 
Philip Francis, from the materials amassed by the 
late Mr. Parkes, and his continuation of Sir Her- 
bert Edwardes's Life of Sir Henry Lawrence? are 
valuable contributions to our biographical literature 
His Historic Studies contains a series of essays on 
many curious points of history, and illustrates that 
spirit of well-considered scepticism which mani- 
fested itself more clearly in the doubts which he 
threw out as to the genuineness of the Paston 

betters. But that that arose solely from his love 
of truth was beyond dispute ; for probably nobody 
was better pleased, when, by the discoveries and 
investigations which followed, the authenticity of 
;hat remarkable correspondence was established 
beyond all doubt. The loss of MR. MERIVALE 
will be deeply felt by all whose good fortune it was 
to be numbered among his friends. 


Recently, one of the metropolitan magistrates, 
in adjudicating upon a case of Sunday trading, in 
which the defendant was a newsvendor, stated that 
the case presented a difficulty, as Sunday papers 
were not in existence when the Act was passed for 
the better observance of the Lord's Day. It may 
therefore be of interest to sketch the origin and 
early history of these papers. 

The following paragraph appears in Tirnperley's 
Encyclopedia of Literary and Typographical 

" 1778. Johnson's Sunday Monitor. This was the first 
newspaper published on the Sabbath in Great Britain. 
It appeared in London." 

Timperley's statement is incorrect, as the paper 
did not appear till 1780. He evidently had not 
seen it, as he does not give its correct designation. 

The original Sunday paper was the British 
Gazette and Sunday Monitor, No. 1 of which is 
dated March 26, 1780. It was projected by a 
printer named Johnson, and its success called 
several rivals into existence. The proprietor sub- 
sequently added his name to the title, and it was 
known as E. Johnson's British Gazette and Sunday 
Monitor, under which designation it lasted till 
1803. About this time it changed hands, and the 
new proprietor dropped its first title, and it appeared 
as the Sunday Monitor. It had then fallen so low 
as to become the organ of Joanna Southcott, for 
the sake of the extra sale which followed the pub- 
lication of the manifestoes of that religious fanatic. 
The death of this notorious impostor is thus recorded 
in the issue of January 1, 1815 : 


" To Mr. Stokes. 

" Sir Agreeably to your request, I send a messenger 
to acquaint you that Joanna Southcott died this morning, 
precisely at four o'clock. The believers in her mission, 
supposing that the vital functions are only suspended for 
a few days, will not permit me to open the body until 
some symptom appears which may destroy all hopes of 
resuscitation. I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

" Piccadilly, Dec. 27, 1814. 


" Sir As you desired to be present at Mrs. Southcott's 
accouchement, had it taken place, as was then expected, 
the friends consider it as their duty to inform you, and 
all the medical gentlemen who had that intention, that to 
all appearance she died this morning, exactly as the clock 



[5"' S. I. FEB. 14, '74. 

struck four. Care is taken to preserve warmth in the 
body as she directed, and it is the wish of her friends 
that you will see her in her present state. 


" 38", Manchester Street, Tuesday, Dec. 27, 1814. 
" To Dr. E. Reece. 

"As Mrs. Southcott's believers are of opinion she has 
only gone into a trance (which she predicted twenty 
years ago), and that she will be delivered of Shiloh in 
four days, we shall on Sunday next be able to com- 
municate further particulars." 

In the paper of June 23, 1815, it describes itself, 
" The first Sunday newspaper ever established in 
the kingdom." It experienced all the vicissitudes 
which invariably overtake the Sunday paper, and 
died in 1829, after an existence of fifty years. 

The London Recorder, or Sunday Gazette was 
the first to enter into competition with Johnson's 
print. The copy of August 7, 1791, contains a 
self-laudatory notice, in which it is asserted that 
" The superiority of this print commenced in 1779," 
but, as this paper is " No. 575," it could not have 
appeared before August, 1780. It lasted till 1808, 
a-nd was then merged in its rival, the Sunday 

The next in chronological order was Ayre's 
Sunday London Gazette, and Weekly Monitor, 
started on the 27th April, 1783. The office of the 
paper was at 5, Brydges Street, Covent Garden, 
opposite Drury Lane Theatre. The editor an- 
nounced in the first number, that Ins print would 
be something more than a compilation of articles 
from the Public Ledger and the other daily papers, 
the insinuation evidently being directed against 
Johnson's print. Ayre's paper lasted till 1795. 

A paper was started by J. Almon, of 182. Fleet 
Street, called the Sunday Chronicle. The earliest 
copy I have seen is dated "March 30, 1788," and 
it lasted till the close of 1790. It was unnumbered, 
so that it is difficult to fix the date of its birth. 

The Reviciv and Sunday Advertiser was first 
published on June 22, 1789, and it lasted till 1796. 
The Observer came out for the first time on 
Sunday, December 4th, 1791, and it has appeared 
uninterruptedly to the present day. It has entered 
upon the eighty-third year of its career, and is one 
of the rare instances of a Sunday paper becoming 

The Sunday Reformer and Universal Register 
Avas originated on the 14th April, 1793. In No. 38 
(December 29, 1793) there is a portrait of Dr. 
Louth, Bishop of London, which appears under the 
heading of " Evangelical Biography." This paper 
had an independent existence till 1796, after 
which date it was amalgamated with the London 

The first number of Bell's Weekly Messenger 
appeared on May 1st, 1796, and it speedily became 
the leading Sunday paper. On April 10th. 1814, 
23,100 copies, at 8d. each, were sold ; this number 
containing particulars of the downfall of Bonaparte 

and the capitulation of Paris. The day of pub- 
lication has of late years been changed to Monday. 

The Weekly Dispatch commenced its career 
on Sunday, Sept. 13, -1801, and it has been con- 
tinued since without intermission. 

The British Neptune, or Naval, Military, and 
Fashionable Sunday Advertiser was commenced on 
January 2, 1803, and it had an existence of twenty 

The Englishman, or Sunday Express made its 
original appearance on the 5th June, 1803. In the 
32nd number (Jan. 8, 1804) the editor states that 
its success " has exceeded our most sanguine anti- 
cipations," the sale of the previous week having 
amounted to 1,245 copies. This paper lasted till 

The Ncirs was commenced on Sunday, May 5th, 
1805, and it lasted till 1836. In the 207th number 
(April 23, 1809) the editor alludes to a scheme 
in agitation " to impede the free circulation of 
newspapers on a Sunday," and those who have been 
unable to purchase the paper owing to the " officious 
zeal of a servile tool of a disgraced ministry," are 
requested to forward their addresses to the office 
(28, Brydges Street, Covent Garden), so that the 
paper may be regularly delivered on Sunday 
morning at their residences. 

The- Independent Whig began its career on 
Sunday, Jan. 5, 1806, and did not succumb till 

The Examiner (still in existence) first appeared 
on January 3rd, 1808, and was continued for many 
years as a Sunday paper, but the day of publication 
was subsequently changed to Saturday. 

The Champion, another Sunday paper, was com- 
menced in January, 1813, and lasted till 1822. 

The first number of the John Bull appeared on 
Sunday, Dec. 17, 1820. It was originally edited 
by Theodore Hook, of convivial notoriety, and it 
was a staunch supporter of " our glorious Consti- 
tution in Church and State." The agitation in 
favour of Roman Catholic Emancipation seems to 
have driven the editor frantic, and excited appeals 
were made weekly on behalf of "our most holy 
religion" ; but the inconsistency of publishing a 
religious newspaper on the Sabbath does not appear 
to have occurred to the proprietors. The day of 
publication was ultimately changed to Saturday. 

The Sunday Times was commenced in 1822, and 
has appeared regularly to this day. 

Bell's Life in London came into existence on 
Sunday, Feb. 7, 1822, and it still appears. In the 
315th number (March 9, 1828), the editor notices the 
" contemptible effort of our contemporaries to excite 
prejudice against this journal," and gives under the 
heading of " More Comfort for the Conspirators," 
the number of papers disposed of during the 
previous quarter. From this we ascertain that on 
March 2nd, 1828, 25,289 copies were sold. 

Pierce Egan's Life in London made its first 

5 th S. I. FKB. 14, 74.] 



appearance on Sunday, Feb. 1, 1824, and it lasted 
till 1827. 

Old England and Constitution, another Sunday 
paper, was started on Nov. 14, 1824, and its career 
terminated in 1825. 

In 1833, the Eye, or Sunday Monitor appeared, 
but it lasted a few weeks only. 

The foregoing list, although incomplete, gives 
the titles of the principal Sunday newspapers 
which appeared within the period comprised by 
the dates 17801830. WILLIAM RAYNER. 

Harrington Street, Hampstead Road. 


With a view to complete my list of Fuller's 
works, I shall be glad to hear of existing copies of 
the following editions, &c., Avhich I have not been 
able to meet with in the' libraries : 

Holy State, 16i3 ; Holi/ War, 1650 (Puttick's Cat., 
Feb., 1873), 1652 (Millar's Cat., Jan., 1872) ; Joseph's 
Parti- Coloured Coat, 1648 (Brewer); Andronicus, 1649 
("the third edition," Lowndes) ; Cause and Cure of a 
Wounded Conscience, 1810 (Brewer) ; Pisgah-Sight, 1652 
(Lowndes) ; an edition of The Thoughts, " reprinted 
recently by Mr. Hinton, of Oxford " (Watt) ; Myriel's 
Daily Devotions (Biography of Colet), 1635 (Lowndes 
names this edition as containing Fuller's notice of Colet), 
1641 (Russell names this) ; The Valley of Vision, by 
Dr. Holdsworth (so said), 1661 (mentioned by a corre- 
spondent of " N. & Q.," 1st S. ii. 44) ; Pulpit Sparks, by 
Dr. Reeve, 1659 (Russell) ; Sparke's QvffutariOnov vel 
Scintilla, Altaris, date of fourth edition (the third is dated 
1663, and the fifth 1673). 

Allow me to add the following note about that 
interesting old volume of funeral sermons, entitled 
QPTJVOIKOS' The House of Mourning, with which 
Fuller is connected. Mr. Russell (Memorials of 
Fuller, pp. 81 and 332) attributes to Fuller cer- 
tain sermons in the first, or 1640 * edition of this 
work. But none of Fuller's Sermons were in this 
particular edition, the preachers of the forty-seven 
discourses being described on the title-page as 
four Doctors in Divinity, viz., " Daniel Featly, 
Martin Day, Richard Sibbs, Thomas Taylor," 
" and other reverend divines." At the date of this 
edition Fuller had scarcely begun to publish 
sermons ; yet the twenty-sixth in the collection 
(p. 499), entitled "Saint Paul's Trumpet," is 
attributed to him (Memorials, pp. 81-2). This 
edition is often put in catalogues under the name 
of Fuller as one of the authors. Fuller's con- 
tributions first appeared in the second, or the 
1660 edition (pp. xii., 610), which was published 
by his old " stationer," John Williams, who, to 
increase the sale, added on the title-page, at the 
end of the names, " Thomas Fuller," as well as 
Dr. John Preston, and Dr. Richard Houldsworth. 

* Published by Philip Neville at the signe of the 
Gunne in Ivie Lane (pp. 916, xvi.). Many of the 
sermons are separately dated 1639. 

In this edition there were six additional sermons, 
all preached between 1650 and 1660, four of which 
(viz., " Death's Prerogative," " The Patriarchal 
Funeral," "The True Accountant," and "The 
Righteous Man's Service to his Generation"*) 
" may perhaps," says Mr. Russell, " be ascribed to 
Fuller." The first and third of these discourses 
are certainly not Fuller's, internal evidence being 
against such paternity. The second discourse, 
" The Patriarchal Funeral," is by Dr. John Pearson 
(afterwards the Bishop of Chester), it having been 
preached in 1658 before the Right Honourable 
George, Lord Berkeley, upon the death of that 
nobleman's father. (This sermon is printed in the 
Minor Theological Works of Dr. John Pearson, 
vol. ii. 112-135, edited by Churton, who does not, 
however, give the title-page of the original discourse, 
which was published separately by John Williams, 
in 4to., in 1658. See 1359 E., British Museum.) 
Only the last of the above list of four sermons is 
really Fuller's. His also is " The Just Man's 
Funeral," which immediately precedes "The 
Righteous Man's Service." Fuller's contributions 
thus occur together, being the fifty-first and the 
fifty-second of the series. One of them, and per- 
haps the other, had been already published by 
John Williams (in 1649 and 1657 respectively), 
whose property, it is presumed, they were. 
The fifty-third, or last sermon, is by a different 
author, and is not recognizable as Fuller's. The 
third, or 1672 edition, said to be " newly corrected 
and amended, with several additional sermons," 
contained only three more sermons, separately 
paged (pp. 1 48), the first of which is entitled 
" Nature's Good-Night," first printed in 1656, 
being by " Fra. Moore, Curate of Soules at High- 
week"; the second is by Edmund Barker, Rector 
of Buriton, Hants, at the funeral of the Dowager 
Lady Elizabeth Capell ; and the third (query by 
Josias Alsop) entitled " Days Appointed to Wait 
for a Change," is the funeral sermon upon Dean 
Hardy, who preached Dr. Fuller's funeral sermon 
in 1661, and who died 1670. The additional 
names upon the title-page of this edition are 
Dr. John Pearson, Dr. Christ. Shute, Dr. Edmund 
Barker, and Dr. Josias Alsop ; Fuller's name, now 
given with his doctorate degree, occurring the last 
but two upon the list. This edition was also 
issued by John Williams (Pp. 610, 48, xii.). It is 
difficult, but not hopeless, to apportion the sermons 
in this valuable old book to the respective con- 
tributors. A list of the fifty-three sermons of the 
second edition, but not of the preachers or of those 
to whose memory the sermons were preached, will 
be found in Darling's Cyclo. Bib., col. 1557. 

Stretford, Manchester. 

* In Russell's Memorials (p. 81), this tide is printed 
as though it formed two sermons. 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, '74. 


DRYDEN. I do not remember to have seen in any 
of the recent lives of Shakspeare any notice of the 
Shakspearian traditions mentioned by Dryden in 
his Defence of the Epilogue to the Second Part of 
the Conquest of Granada, 1672, although, of course, 
they were well known to the old editors, and one 
of them at least was discussed by Johnson and 
Malone. I give them in Dryden's own words : 

" Shakspeare showed the best of his skill in his Mer- 
cutio, and he said himself that he was forced to kill him 
in the third act, to prevent being killed by him. But for 
my part, I cannot find he was so dangerous a person. I 
see nothing in him but what was so exceeding harmless 
that he might have lived to the end of the play, and died 
in his bed without oifence to any man." 

The other tradition seems to lend some counte- 
nance to Mr. Hallam's position, that some portions 
of Shakspeare's writings were as obscure to his 
contemporaries as to ourselves: 

" In reading some bombast speeches of Macbeth, which 
are not to be understood, he (Ben Jonson) used to say 
that it was horrour ; and I am much afraid that this is 

I am not sure that I quite understand this 
passage. Is horror here to be taken in the phy- 
sical sense, as used by Bacon, and now vulgarized 
into " the horrors"? 

In Dryden's other Prefaces and Defences there 
are several other interesting items of gossip about 
Jonson, as that he always submitted his plays to 
Beaumont before performance ; that Morose, in the 
Silent Woman, was sketched from life, &c. 

In order to estimate the value of these traditions, 
it is necessary to bear in mind that Dryden in his 
younger days must have lived very much in the 
society of men who had probably known Shak- 
speare, and had certainly witnessed the performance 
of his dramas during his own lifetime. In 1672 
there was still left the remnant of a school who 
depreciated the new drama, of which Dryden was 
the apostle, and swore by the departed glories of 
the Blackfriars and the Globe. In the same De- 
fence, Dryden affirms that " the discourse and 
raillery of our new comedies excell what has been 
written by them " [the Elizabethans]. And this, 
he says, " will be denied by none but some few old 
fellows who value themselves on their acquaintance 
with the Blackfriars, who, because they saw their 
plays, would pretend a right to judge ours. The 
memory of these grave gentlemen is their only plea 
for being wits." 

These old habitues of the Blackfriars must have 
almost exactly corresponded, in relative age and 
date, to those pleasant old gentlemen we sometimes 
meet with in society now, alas ! every year more 
rarely who ignore everything that has been done 
upon the boards since the great Kean and Byron 
time of Drury Lane. C. ELLIOT BROWNE. 


" Whether hadst thou rather be a Faulconbridge ? " 
K. John, i. 1, 134. 

This usage of had with the infinitive is as old as 
Chaucer, and thus we have in the ClerJces Tale: 

" Al had hir lever kan hadde a knave-childe." 
In Percy's Reliques, i. 71, 30, it is carried still 
further, thus : 

" Where they had gladdest to le.'' 
But though it is sanctioned by the old writers, and 
prevails generally at the present day, I conceive it 
is incorrect. Surely it arose in this way : "I would 
rather be " was abbreviated into " I 'd rather be" ; 
then " I 'd " was erroneously expanded into " I 
had." Is this so, or can the form " I had rather 
be " be defended in any way 1 

Again, in the Times of Nov. 4, I read, " he had 
continually to ask his father," and " the fact has 
to be explained," both forms, indeed, being common 
enough. I suppose there is some ellipse ; in the 
first case, perhaps, of the words "an obligation 
upon him," so that at full length the sentence will 
run, " he had the obligation upon him to ask his 
father " ; in the second I do not exactly see what 
words should be supplied. Perhaps a reader of 
" N. & Q." will throw some light upon this. 

F. J. V. 

" CRACK." 

" 'Tis a noble child. A crack, madam." 

Coriolanus, i. 3. 

Of this word Dyce, in his Glossary, says, 
" Crack : a boy, usually an arch, lively boy." I 
conceive that " crack " is here, and in the other 
passages cited in the Dictionaries under that word, 
used for " crackrope " or " crackhemp," which latter 
words are frequently used by the Elizabethan dra- 
matists as terms of reproach. If so, the word 
" crack " in the passage cited from Coriolanus and 
elsewhere is used playfully. What makes me 
think that it is an abbreviation of " crackrope " is 
that in Massinger's Unnatural Combat, i. 1, ad 
init., the usher says of the page 

" Here's a crack; I think they suck this knowledge in 
their milk." 

And ii. 2, ad fin., he says to him, " Peace, crack- 
rope." I may remark that it is not uncommon ia 
compound words to find the last part of the com- 
pound dropped, " quack " for " quacksalver," and 
" mole " for " mouldwarp," are in daily use ; so 
also " ensign " for " ensign-bearer," a word used by 
Sir Philip Sidney. Again, we find " standard" for 
" standard-bearer " in the old ballads.* Perhaps, 
also, the word " wag," a " pert person " (Latham), 
the derivation of which he gives up in despair, is 
an abbreviation of " wag-tail," which latter word 
is frequently used as a term of reproach by the 

* To these instances we may add " shepe " for " shep- 
herd " at the commencement of Piers Plowman's Vision, 
if we adopt the interpretation of ME. SKEAT and DR. 
MORRIS ("N. & Q.," 4"' S. xi. 500; xii. 11, 97, 309). 

5" S. I. FEB. 14, 74.] 



old dramatists, this metaphor being taken from 
the bird of that name ; thus the Earl of Kent, in 
King Lear, ii; 2, ad fin., says to the steward: 

" Spare my grey beard, you wagtail." 
It may appear of little importance what the 
exact meaning and derivation of the word "crack" 
may be, but I think if this principle, that the 
second part of a compound word is frequently lost 
in process of time, be once admitted, it may serve 
to explain other words which need explanation. 

F. J. V. 

P.S. I add three more passages in which the 
word " crack " occurs : 

" I saw him break Scogan's bead at tbe court-gate, 
when he was a crack, not thus high." K. Henry IV., 
Part II., iii. 2. 

"Since we are turned craiks, let's study to be like 
cracks, act freely, carelessly, and capriciously." Ben 
Jonsoris " Cynthia's Revels." 

' I have invented projects for raising millions without 
burthening the subject, but cannot get parliament to 
listen to me, who look upon me as a crack and a pro- 
jector." A ddison. 

In this last passage I conceive " crack " stands 
for " crack-brain." 


" Many times there cometh less hurt of a thief than of 
a railing tongue : for the one taketh away a man's good 
name, the other taketh but his riches, which is of much 
less value and estimation than is his good name." Homily 
against Contention and Brawling. First Book put forth 
by Edward VI. 

Shakspeare was no plagiarist in this, for as these 
Homilies were read in all the churches, he was 
merely quoting an axiom he knew to be familiar to 
every one. p. p. 

CHAUCER AND SHAKSPEARE. An article in the 
Quarterly Review, which appeared some twelve 
months ago, attempted to show (not, I venture to 
think, with the complete success at which it aimed) 
the indebtedness of Shakspeare to his great prede- 
cessor Chaucer. As a slight contribution, how- 
ever, in the way of evidence, I submit the following: 

Constance, in the Man of Lawes Tale, says: 
" In Him trust I, and in his moder deere, 
That is to me my sayl and eek my steere." 

Romeo, in Romeo and Juliet, i. 4, says: 

' But He that hath the steerage of my course, 
Direct my sail ! " 

While on the subject of Chaucer, may I call 
attention to his quaint argument, by anticipation, 
against the " Permissive Bill " people ? It occurs 
in the Troylus and Cryseyde: 

" In every thing, I wote, there lith mesure ; 
For though a man forbede drunkennesse, 
He not forbedes that every creature 
Be drinkeles for alwey, as I gesse." 


is, I believe, a project on foot for pulling down this 
old church and uniting the benefice with some 
other. It may be well, therefore, to put it on 
record that at the south-east corner of the church,, 
at about six feet from the ground, there is built 
into the wall a stone slab bearing the following 
inscription, which I copied on the spot: 



I may add that, under the Union of Benefices' Act.,. 
four City churches, St. Benet, Gracechurch ; St. 
Mary Somerset ; St. Mildred, Poultry ; and All 
Hallows' Staining, have already disappeared ; and 
three more, St. Martin Outwich ; St. Antholin r 
Budge Eow ; and St. James, Duke's Place, are- 
about to disappear; and that such of their fittings 
as are reserved from sale bells, fonts, communion- 
plate, organs are or will be dispersed among 
other churches of the metropolis; so that, hereafter, 
there will be no trace of these things on the spot, 
unless the churchwardens keep an inventory of" 
the contents of the destroyed church, which, so- 
far as I am aware, the Act does not compel or 
direct them to do. A. J. M. 

CODRINGTON BARONETCY. I observed lately in 
the daily papers that there are two claimants of 
this title. It being perfectly clear that the second 
baronet, who disinherited his son the third baronet, 
could not, by any such act, alienate the descent of 
the title from his present representative, Sir William, 
Eaimond, I cannot imagine how there can be any 
question about the representation. Some Court 
ought to be erected to affirm or disallow the many 
claims at present in existence in the Baronetage,, 
and which in some instances really have no founda- 
tion whatever. The Heralds' College, indirectly,, 
has this power, as regards armorial insignia attached 
to such titles, and ought to be supported in the 
exercise of it. SP. 

REVENGING FLODDEN. In Lockhart's Life of 
Sir Walter Scott, an anecdote is given, the sub- 
stance of which is, that Sir Walter, when travelling 
on the English side of the Border, had occasion, on 
account of the illness of one of his domestics, to 
send for a medical man. When he appeared, Scott 
was astonished to recognize in him an old man 
who had been a farrier at Ashestiel. After having 
had some questions put to him regarding his treat- 
ment, the ci-devant farrier replied, on Sir Walter 
remonstrating, that he must have killed a few of 
his patients : 

" Ou aye, may be sae, whiles they dee, and whiles no ; 
but it 's the will o' Providence. Ony how, Your Honour, 
it wad be lang before it maks up for Flodden." 

From an old MS. in my possession, giving a 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74. 

history of the ancient family of Skene, in Aberdeen- 
shire, the paper and writing of which prove it must 
have been in existence one hundred years before 
the great Sir Walter was born, I give an extract, 
having modernized the spelling: 

"The two Doctors of Physic, viz. the one Professor of 
the College of St. Andrews and the other the 1st Pro- 
i'essor of Medicine at Aberdeen ; both of them were, 
upon their coming from France, fallen short of money 
at London, had only a quarteen by them, and resolving 
to kill or cure wherever they come, were heard to say, 
one to another; let us spend this and then revenge 
PinMe and Flou-dun; and being arraigned before the 
King, King James preferred the one to be his Ordinary, 
the other his Extraordinary Doctor, and recommended 
them to St. Andrews and Aberdeen, for the love he bore 
to Sir John Skene, his brother." 

A. A. 

de Bellegrade, in his Reflexions sur ce qui j)6ut 
plaire ou deplaire dans le Commerce du Monde, 
which may have suggested to Chesterfield many 
observations that are to be found in his Letters, 
when speaking of the ignorance of some of the 
young French noblemen, about 1700, mentions a 
Monsr. de Mont-Bazon, who asked, 

" Pourquoi Cesar, qui mourut au milieu du Senat de 
Home, etoit mort sans confession, puisqu'il y a tant de 
Pretres a Rome." 

The fourth edition of the Abbe's book was pub- 
lished in 1709, but I am^not aware when it was 
written. In it we find several " sentiments " we 
meet with elsewhere, for instance 

" Les plus grands hommes ne laissent pas d'avoir de 
petites foiblesses." 

" Je la vois tous les jours, et j'en suis aussi charme que 
je 1'etois lorsque je la vis la premiere fois." 

"L'on n'aime pas long-temps des gens dont 1'amour 
ressemble a la haine." &c., &c. 


Ashford, Kent. 

ANACHRONISM. Looking into Pope's Essay on 
Criticism the other day, I was struck with a note 
appended by Warton to the couplet, 

" And while self-love each jealous writer rules, 

Contending wits become the sport of fools." 
"Mr. Harte," says Warton, "related to me that, 
being with Mr. Pope when he received the news 
of Swift's death, Harte said to him, he thought it 
a fortunate circumstance for their friendship that 
they had lived so distant from each other. Pope 
resented the reflection, but yet, said Harte, I am 
convinced it was true." Now this conversation 
could not possibly have occurred under the circum- 
stances described, for Swift outlived Pope more 
than a year. The latter died May 30, 1744; Swift, 
October 29, 1745. It is surprising that Mr. Elwin, 
so careful and so elaborate an annotator, should 
have quoted Warton's statement without pointing 
out its inaccuracy. C. 

extract the following from Duncan Macdougal's 

Improved System of Short-Hand, William Smith, 
113, Fleet Street, London, 1840, fourth edition: 
" The book of the New Testament, with the time that 
each book will occupy in writing. When the student of 
short-hand is able to write within the limited time required " 
rather significant words these " he is then able to 
follow a speaker who speaks with propriety 

Romans . 

1 Corinthians 

2 Corinthians 
Philippians . 

1 Thessalonians 

2 Thessalonians 

1 Timothy . 

2 Timothy . 
Titus . 
James . 

1 Peter . 

2 Peter . 

1 John . 

2 John . 

3 John . 

Hours. Min. 




























Total Time . 27 55." 
When we consider what the title-page sets forth, 
" that simply to write the short-hand may be 
acquired in one hour," to say the least of it, it 
appears a very wonderful performance for a pre- 
Pitman age, and one which fully justifies my de- 
scription. EOYLE ENTWISLE, F.K.H.S. 

BURIAL IN AN ORCHARD. The following entry 
is in the Bourton-on-the- Water Eegister : " 1704. 
Wm. Wickser's wife, of Layborough, was buried 
in Widow Green's orchard at Lower Slaughter (a 
chapelry to Bourton) March 5." D. E. 

TRANSMIGRATION. The passages which I have 
transcribed seem to present similar ideas to those 
of Wordsworth in his celebrated lines on " The 
Intimations of Immortality," &c. 

The first I suppose to be from a poem by Dr. 
Mackay, but I have never seen it in print or manu- 
script. The second is from Tennyson : 
" Countless chords of heavenly music, 
Struck ere earthly sounds began, 
Vibrate, in immortal concord, 
Thro' the answering soul of man : 
Countless gleams of heavenly glory 
Shine through spirits pent in clay, 
On the old men at their labours, 
On the children at their play. 
We have gazed on heavenly secrets, 
Sunned ourselves in heavenly glow, 

5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74.] 



Seen the glory, heard the music, 
We are wiser than we know." 

" Moreover something is or seems, 
That touches me with mystic gleams, 
Like glimpses of forgotten dreams 
Of something felt, like something here ; 
Of something done, I know not where ; 
Such as no language may declare." 



[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

AUTHOR WANTED of the following lines. I 
anything known about them as a literary curiosity 1 
I am requested by a lady, now in her ninety -sixth 
year, in whose memory this fragment has lingered 
for more than fifty years, and from whose dictation 
I have just written these lines, to seek this infor- 
mation from some correspondent of " N. & Q." 

What is the allusion to "Girguntum's walled 
ground," and to " Leonard's Well" 1 
" It is the day of Martinmas, 

Cups of ale should freely pass ; 

What though winter has begun 

To push down the summer's sun ; 

To our fires we can betake, 

And enjoy the crackling brake ; 

Never heeding winter's face 

On the day of Martinmas. 

We can tell what we have seen 
When the hedge sweet briar was green, 
Who did hide in the barley mow 
Waiting for her Love, I trow ; 
Whose apron longer strings did lack, 
As the envious girls do clack ; 
Such like things do come to pass 
Ere the day of Martinmas. 

* * * * 

Some do tKe city now frequent, 
Where costly shows and merriment 
Do wear the vapourish evening out 
With interludes and revelling rout, 
Such as did pleasure England's Queen 
When here her Royal Grace was seen ; 
Yet will they not this day let pass, 
This merry day of Martinmas. 

Nell hath left her wool at home, 
The Flanderkin hath stayed his loom ; 
No beam doth swing, nor wheel go round, 
Upon Girguntum's walled ground, 
Where now no anchorite doth dwell, 
To rise and pray at Leonard's Well ; 
Martin hath kicked at Balaam's ass, 
So merry be Old Martinmas. 

Now the daylight sports are done, 
Round the market-cross they run, 
'Prentice lads and gallant blades 
Dancing with their gamesome maids, 
Till the Beadle, stout and sour, 
Shakes his bell and calls the hour ; 
Then farewell lad and farewell lass 
Till next merry Martinmas. 

Martinmas shall come again, 
Spite of wind and spite of rain, 

W. D. B. 

" Cloth of frieze be not too bold 
Though thou 'rt wedded to cloth of gold." 

What historical event gave rise to the verse 
ending thus ? I cannot remember the exact word- 
ing of the first two lines, but they are to the effect 
that cloth of gold must not disdain to be wedded 
to cloth of frieze. I should be very glad to know 
where the verse is to be found. F. B. 

to have read in a work the title of which, when 
found, was not " Guttled," and so has escaped me 
a curious account of a Kussian (royal ?) mar^ 
riage. One novel feature in its celebration was 
the manufacture of the saluting guns used on the 
occasion, which were of ice ; the apartment, and a 
portion of its furniture, if I mistake not, were also 
of ice ; the bridal bed was of the same material ; 
the poles and beyond these I will not venture to 
pursue my voyage of inquiry probably supported 
some icicle fringes, and other Arctic drapery to 
match. I would not risk the credit of my memory, 
which, after an interval of some years, is likely to 
prove defective ; but I think this much, at least, 
will be found to be correctly stated. Will any of 
your Anglo-Russian readers kindly help me to 
verify this vague reference ? So far as my memory 
serves me, my authority was, and I hope still is, a 
single volume work on Riissian Manners and 
Customs, &c., of which I regret to say I cannot 
even guess the date. F. PHILLOTT. 

[A full account of the singular wedding in question 
will be found in Mrs. H. C. Romanoff's Historical 
Narratives from the Russian (Rivingtons, 1871), pp. 
40-46. The bridegroom was the unfortunate Prince 
Michael A. Galitzin, whom the Empress Anna forced to 
occupy the position of "Court Jester" after he had 
joined the Church of Rome. The bride, whose name 
was Bujeninova, was a Calmuck female-jester attached 
to the suite of the Empress. The famous " House of 
Ice " was 56 feet long, 17^ wide, and 21 high. Before it 
were placed "six three-pounder cannons, and two eighty- 
pounder mortars ; they were actually fired more than 
once." Readers who wish for further information, and 
do not object to its being conveyed in the Russian 
tongue, will find an etcellent description of the marriage, 
and detailed plans of the Ice House, in vol. vii. pp. 
347-351 of that most valuable Russian periodical, the 
Russkaj/a Starina, or Russian Past, so excellently 
conducted by Mr. Semevsky, at St. Petersburg.] 

"THE TEN AMBASSADORS." Decker, in 1606, 
alludes to " the comming of the ten ambassadors." 
To what event does he refer 1 J. 0. P. 

was he, and what were his arms ? He married 
[Catherine, Dowager Duchess of Norfolk, whose 
first husband died 19th October, 1432. Did she not 
also marry John, Viscount Beaumont, and Sir 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, '74. 

John Widville, and what was the order of the 
marriages ? The doubt is between the second and 
third. J. F. M. 

THE SACKBUT. In a picture by Paul Veronese, 
at Paris, the " Cena di San Giorgio," Titian is play- 
ing the double bass, Paul Veronese and Tintoret the 
violoncello, another man a violin ; Bassano a flute, 
and a Turkish slave the sackbut. In a translation 
of the Lives of Haydn and Mozart, by L. A. C. 
Bombet (Murray, 1818), p. 15, there is a note 
saying that this ancient instrument would have 
been lost to us for ever but for the ashes of Mount 
Vesuvius. At Herculaneum one was dug up. The 
lower part is of bronze, and the upper part and 
mouthpiece is of solid gold. It is asserted that the 
Kings of Naples presented it to his present Majesty, 
i. e., George III. Is this the fact, and where is this 
instrument] From this antique, the translator 
goes on to say, the Italians fashioned their 
tromboni ; but that in quality of tone nothing of 
modern make has equalled the ancient one. I 
should be glad to learn if this still holds good; 
and if so, whether any attempt has of late years 
been made to investigate the causes of this 
superiority of tone. C. A. W. 

Mayfair, W. 

CATHERINE PEAR. Suckling, in his Ballad 
upon a, Wedding, compares the streaks of red on 
the lady's cheeks to those on 

" a Catherine pear, 

. The side that 's next the sun ''; 

and, in the Schoolmistress, Shenstone speaks of the 
lovely dye of the Catherine pear. Is this pear 
extinct, or has it only changed its name 1 

Lavater tells us, we instinctively expect a hand- 
some apple to prove toothsome ; but us the least 
comely pears, so far as my experience goes, are 
generally the sweetest, one might suppose the 
Catherine pear's charms to have been but skin 
deep, and hence to have lost their hold on popular 
favour, were it not that Shenstone declares its 
juice to have been, equal to its dye. Will some 
Meliboeus afford this immortalized fruit a note 1 


it introduced into England, and when discontinued? 


_ KEBLE'S " CHRISTIAN YEAR." Will some one 
give me the true sense of the third line in the 

" And far below, Gennesaret's main 
Spreads many a mile of liquid plain 
(Though all seem gather'd in one eager bound), 
Then narrowing cleaves yon palmy lea," &c. 
It is in the poem for the Seventh Sunday after 
Trinity. j. D. 

OF GREAT BRITAIN," dated June 1, 1808, and 

printed by " T. Bensley, Bolt Court, Fleet Street." 
Wanted the name of the compiler. I possess 
the first two volumes, and at the end of the second 
is a note to the effect that the bishops will be given 
in the succeeding volumes, " which are now in the 
press." The work is remarkable for its plain- 
speaking with regard to the living nobility. A 
duke is stated to be " very peculiar in his person 
and habits." Another nobleman " has been willing 
to exhibit himself in the theatre of the world : and 
his name occurs frequently among the speakers in 
Parliament : but his speeches, it must be confessed, 
are not remarkable for their acutenes?, precision, 
or knowledge." 

Another's " eccentricities are not unknown, and 
a marriage, which broke forth unexpectedly, caused, 
a few years ago, not a little conversation in fashion- 
able circles, severely to the disappointment of the 
noble admiral his brother." The house of North, 
" frank, unassuming, and kind, have for centuries 
set a pattern of what in truth they are, true no- 
bility." Lord Bathurst is "sagacious and sarcastic" ; 
the Earl Grosvenor " discovered some inclination 
to become an author ; but he has much more solid 
pretensions to distinction he is immensely rich ! " 
while Earl Carnarvon is remarkable " for the in- 
temperance of his language." Lord Byron has, 
though only twenty, shown great talent, and Lord 
de Dunstanville " has large property in Cornish 
boroughs." E. PASSINGHAM. 

JAY : OSBORNE. Whence are these surnames 
derived ? Are they Norman or Saxon 1 

A. 0. M. JAY. 

the history or origin of this symbol, and why is it 
a regimental badge ? D. E. 

GRINLING GIBBONS. 1. Is there any informa- 
tion relative to Grinling Gibbons the carver besides 
that contained in Evelyn's Diary and A. Cun- 
ningham's Lives of the British Painters, Sculptors, 
and Architects; and if so, what does it amount to 1 

2. What was the subject of the carving executed 
by Gibbons after a cartoon by Tintoretto, which, 
first brought him under Evelyn's notice 1 Cun- 
ningham says that it was bought by Sir G. Viner, 
and afterwards passed into the collection of the 
Duke of Chandos at Cannons. Is it still there ? 

3. What is Gibbons's personal appearance, colour 
of complexion, eyes, &c., as given in his portrait 
by Sir Godfrey Kneller, in the Haughton Gallery 1 
How are he and his wife represented in the portraits 
by Closterman ; what is her appearance, and who 
was she 1 

4. What is the title of Mr. Wornum's book in 
which Gibbons is mentioned? 

5. What is the exact description of Tintoretto's 
picture of the Crucifixion in the Scuola di San 
Kocco at Venice ? As W. M. J. is in immediate 

5"- S. I. FEB. 14, 74.] 



want of this information, a letter containing it 
addressed W. M. J., Clarghyll Hall, Alston, Car- 
lisle, would greatly oblige. W. M. J. 

lately been told that a Gipsy girl was buried some 
years ago in the Parish Church of Stretham, Cam- 
bridgeshire ; and on referring to the register oi 
burials, I have learnt that the burial took place in 
the year 1783. The entry is as follows " Ashena 
daughter of Edward & Greenleaf Boswell Ap. 23.' 

No mention is here made of the child having 
been of Gipsy origin ; but I am satisfied that the 
entry relates to the child whom popular tradition 
states to have been a Gipsy. A slab inscribed 
with her name was formerly to be seen, I am told, 
in the north aisle. It is probably now covered by 
pews. For some years, it is said, Gipsies used to 
visit the grave periodically ; but books having 
been lost from the church, the pilgrims were sup- 
posed to have been the thieves, and such pilgrim- 
ages were thenceforth prohibited. 

The Boswells are said to have been rich, and to 
have had their table spread with " silver plate." 
If so, they would have no difficulty in paying the 
fees, and in having a grand funeral. But it appears 
strange that the clergyman of the day should have 
allowed intramural interment to a comparative 
stranger, and a member of a wandering tribe. 

According to Borrow, Gipsies in Spain, 4th Ed. 
1846, Gipsies are always most anxious to be buried 
in consecrated ground ; but is any other instance 
known of a Gipsy being buried in a church ? 


COIN OR TOKEN. I possess a bronze coin or 
token, on one side of which is a pair of scales, 
evenly suspended, with a fish-hook under the left- 
hand scale. On the reverse is a large heart, with 
what appears to be the figure 4 on the top of it, 
and below is the date " 1794." Can any one 
explain the object of such coin or token 1 It bears 
no name or anything to show its value. 

N. H. R. 

find an account of them, their habitat and customs? 

0. S. P. 

are mentioned in Macaulay's History of England, 
the former as having a quarrel with the Earl of 
Devonshire, the latter as being a French partisan. 
In neither case is the Christian name or rank 
alluded to. I shall feel greatly obliged if any of 
your readers can give me their names, or any other 
information connected with them. Evelyn, in his 
Diary, speaks of the quarrel with the Earl, and 
calls him " Col. Cwlpeper." I have some docu- 
ments signed by John Lord Culpeper, 1701, John 
Lord Colepeper, 1715, and a Thomas Culpeper, 
1700, but I should not think either of these can 

be right. The wife's name I should also like to 
know. I have a Henry Davenant, but of this I am 
also doubtful. EMILY COLE. 


PENN PEDIGREE. William Penn, founder of 
Pennsylvania, bequeathed to William, his son by 
his first wife, his Irish property. The son married 
Mary Jones, and died in 1720. Did he leave issue? 
Where was this property situate 1 Did not Mary 
Jones marry secondly a Mr. Gordon ? When did 
she die 1 My impression* is that Mary married 
Mr. Gordon in Ireland, and that she was of the 
Eanelagh family, and died before 1750. There is 
probably some marriage settlement on record in 
Dublin which would throw light on this second 
marriage. M. S. S. 

THOMAS MUGGETT, M.D. I wish for informa- 
tion in regard to " Thomas Muggett, Doctor in 
Physick," who wrote 

" Health's Improvement ; or, Rules comprizing and 
discovering the Nature, Method, and Manner of Pre- 
paring all sorts of Food Used in this Nation." 

What other works did he write ; is the one 
mentioned scarce 1 L. D. 

" WARLOCK." Mr. Earle, in his Philology of the 
English Tongue, p. 274, supposes "warlock" to be 
a modification of the A.-S. wcer-loga, i.e., a belier 
or breaker of one's pledge ; thence applied to any 
intelligent being that was perfidious, and under a 
ban, and beyond the pale of humanity. I should 
be glad to hear if there were any corroborative 
evidence for this etymology. A. L. MAYHEW. 


MR. HUGH SKEYS. He was a merchant in 
Lisbon between 1780-1790. He married Miss 
Fanny Blood, who died very shortly afterwards. 
He then returned to Dublin, settled there, and 
married again. Can any one tell me the name of 
his second wife 1 C. K. P. 

GODWIT. From whence is derived this name 
as applied to a well-known wading bird, a spring 
and autumn migratory to our shores 1 Montagu, 
in his Dictionary of British Birds, gives Godwin 
or Godwyn as a local name of this species. 


Great Cotes, Ulceby, Lincolnshire. 

MANUEL OF SHOTS. In Crookshank's History 
of tlie State and Sufferings of the Church of Scot- 
land from the Restoration to the Revolution, second 
dition, Edinburgh, 1751, vol. ii., p. 63, we read 
that " Manuel of Shots died of his wounds as he 
ntered the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, after the skir- 
mish at Airdsmoss, July 20th, 1680." Who was 
le ? J. MANUEL. 


Derived from a Gordon family tradition. 


[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74. 

LODOWICK LOID, who lived in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth and James I., was the author of The 
Pilgrimage of Princes, 1607. He is styled one of 
Her Majesty's Serjeants-at-Arms. In fulfilling the 
duties of his office, did he attend the person of the 
sovereign, the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, or the Lord Mayor of London 1 
Where can I find any biographical account of him ? 
A list of his works is given in Lowndes, which 
contains, besides The Pilgrimage of Princes, eleven 
others on various subjects. A query for a list of 
Serjeants-at-Arms during the Tudor period ap- 
peared in " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. ix. 351, but elicited 
no reply. LLALLAWG. 

DR. JOHNSON. In the well-known letter of Dr. 
Johnson to Lord Chesterfield is the following 
passage : "The Shepherd in Virgil grew acquainted 
with Love, and found him a native of the Kocks." 
In what part of Virgil is the reference to be found ? 

H. W. 

New University Club. 

HERALDIC. Will some one kindly inform me 
if the strawberry-leaves in a ducal coronet should 
be " proper " or " or " ? also if the pendants of an 
archbishop's mitre should be red ? I -believe those 
of a bishop's mitre are white. I want also to know 
the arms of the county of York ; have the three 
Hidings different shields ] 

I should be very thankful to be told of any book 
which gives the arms of the English counties. I 
am aware of the sheets published by different 
booksellers, but they are not correct. 

W. M. M. 

CURIOUS LITERATURE. I am informed that there 
are some works in French written in a double style, 
so that one-half of the page gives a different signifi- 
cation to that of the whole. I remember, some 
years ago, the press gave a letter of introduction 
attributed to Cardinal Richelieu, in which the 
letter folded in half gave a totally different signifi- 
cation to the whole. I shall be glad if any one will 
give me reference, either to any French works 
written in this way, or to the last-named letter 
Cardinal Richelieu, whether in French or English. 

S. M. C. 



(4 th S. xii. 321, 349, 371, 389, 416, 459.) 
I am sorry to have been so long in replying to 
W. F. F.'s criticisms, but hope to meet with no 
further interruptions. 

Before entering on the main question, I woulc 
like to make a few remarks on certain criticisms o: 
W. F. F. on my former paper. 

He says (p. 371) that I have not observed that 
"the question at issue is one of fact and not o: 

heory" ; but my learned opponent, in his first 
)aper, certainly begins by stating his theory as to 
he general question, and then goes on to prove it 
)y particular instances ; besides, facts are worth 
nothing if there is no theory to string them together. 

Again, W. F. F. urges against my assertion that 
' if the kings of England could not be elected or 
deposed, they must rule by virtue of divine right," 
liat they would rule by virtue of English law, if 
ay that law their crown is hereditary. But may I 
ask who makes the laws of the realm ? ' For my 
own part, I always understood that it was the Par- 
lament. After Some purely personal remarks, my 
opponent winds up with a sneer at " the authority 
of writers whose researches have led them to fancy 
that Canute and the Conqueror were ' elected.' " 

Now (1.) Florence of Worcester (ann. 1016) dis- 
tinctly asserts the election of Cnut " cujus (i.e. ^Ethel- 
redi) post mortem episcopi, abbates, duces et quique 
nobiliores Anglise in unum congregati pari consensu 
in dominum et regeni sibi Canutum elegere .... 
omnemque progeniemregis .^thelredi repudiantes, 
pacem cum eo composuere et fidelitatem illi jura- 
vere." In 1017 he was formally acknowledged as 
king of all England, and Florence adds, " Fredus 
etiam cum principibus et omni populo ipse et illi 
cum ipso percusserunt." Nothing, it seems to me, 
can be plainer than this. 

(2.) William of Poitiers over and over again 
asserts that the Conqueror was elected, recording 
the offer of the crown to William at Berkhamp- 
stead, his delay, but final acceptance, and his coro- 
nation. In one passage (p. 143) he makes his right 
threefold : by bequest or hereditary succession,_ by 
conquest, and " coronatus tali eorumdem (i. c., 
Anglorum) consensu vel potius appetitu ejusdeia 
gentis firmatum." Ordericus Vitalis (503 B) records- 
the offer of the crown, and adds that the chief men 
said that they would only, as they had been used, 
submit to a crowned king. 

W. F. F. then goes on to maintain that even if 
there were any precedents in favour of my theory 
before the Conquest, it would not matter, as "their 
polity was so rude and unsettled," and cites Burke 
and Mackintosh ; and then argues that the Cor- 
quest, in that it was a conquest, " worked an entire 
change." I can only answer, as before, that this 
view would break the continuity of English history, 
and that it is a well- ascertained fact that the Con- 
queror did not wish to do this, but tried, by em- 
ploying the legal fiction of entirely disregarding 
Harold's reign, to represent himself as the true 
successor of the Confessor by grant, as he himself 
asserts, in an extant charter. 

But when W. F. F. accuses me of misrepresenting 
Mr. Freeman's ideas, i. e., when he says that that 
historian does not consider the Conqueror to have 
been elected, this is too bad; and I am sure 
that if W. F. F. takes the trouble to read over the- 
account of the " interregnum " in Mr. Freeman's 

5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74.] 



works, he will see that he is quite mistaken, and 
that his sneer was quite* gratuitous. Again, the 
" feudal system " never existed in any country as 
a system. Traces of feudalism are seen in England 
as early as the time of Cnut, and W. F. F.'s whole 
argument, as to the attempt of a vassal to depose 
his lord involving forfeiture of his estates, is founded 
on a misconception. I assert this on the authority 
of Mr. Hallam (Middle Ages), who says, that if the 
obligations on the king's side were broken, the 
vassal could take up arms, and cites an instance in 
France, t. Louis IX. 

W. F. F. assumes that the three cases of election 
I cited, viz., William I., Stephen, and John, were 
the only cases during that time. What I meant 
was, that they were cases in which a lineal heir had 
been excluded by election ; but I will now show 
that there were other instances of election between 
the Conquest and Edward II. : 

(1) Henry I. W. Malm, says, " In regem electus 
est," and we infer from the context that it was by 
the "proceres." 

(2) Henry II. So Will Newb. ii., c. 1. 

(3) Richard I. So Benedictus Abbas, ii., 78. 

(4) Henry III. So Ann. Waverl., p. 286, i. c., 
by all who then adhered to him. 

With Edward I. the modern doctrine of here- 
ditary right begins to appear. After some remarks 
as to Stephen's election, W. F. F. asserts that the 
crown being got by Henry is still held by his heirs. 
This last statement I confess I do not understand, 
for if, as W. F. F. holds, Parliament cannot elect 
or depose a king, the heir of Henry II. is certainly 
not Her Gracious Majesty. 

But W. F. F., seemingly conscious of the weak- 
ness of his case, then adds the following words : 

"My proposition that no Parliament ever elected or 
deposed a sovereign, of course only applied to the period 
when Parliaments existed, i. e., subsequent to the rise of 
Parliaments, in the reign of Henry III. And as to the 
period between the Conquest and that era, I expressly 
paid that the succession was unsettled, and Parliaments 
did not exist; so that the question did not arise." 

I think that W. F. F. should have stated the 
limits he intended to observe before this. His 
argument is that of a lawyer, and he refuses to 
admit any connexion between the old Witena- 
gemot and the Parliament (in the narrowest sense 
of the word). 

W. F. F. then discusses the question of John's 
election, quoting Spelman and Blackstone, and 
giving an account without references, especially as 
to the " secret gifts." The primate, in his speech, 
explains the motives for the course he adopted, 
" Se praesaga mente conjecturare et quibusdam 
oraculis edoctum et certificatum fuisse quod ipse 
Johannes regnumefc coronam Anglias foret aliquando 
corrupturus et in magnam confusionem prsecipita- 
turus ; et ne haberet liberas habenas hoc faciendi, 
ipsum electione non successione hfereditaria eligi 
debere affirmabat." Thus John had the intention 

of claiming by hereditary right, but this act of 
Hubert . Walter thwarted his designs. I cannot, 
therefore, understand W. F. F. when he says that 
" the king and his supporters were conscious of the 
defect of his hereditary title, and desired to patch 
it up by a show of election to make it popular." 

W. F. F. sees in the regency of William Mar- 
shall, Earl of Pembroke, " the germ of responsible 
government, and the true check upon the doctrine 
of hereditary right to the crown." But, to the best 
of my knowledge, Henry, though so young, was 
the eldest living male of the royal family ; and it 
seems to me that the fact tells just the other way, 
i.e., that the chief men appointed a regent to guard 
the interests of one whom they had elected (v. 
Ann. Waverl., p. 286), a clear proof of their com- 
petency. I do not, of course, mean to deny that 
hereditary right was then unknown, or had no 
influence. I contend that, though the choice was 
restricted to a single family, the Parliament (in all 
its forms), as representing the people, had the right 
of choosing any member of it. The recommenda- 
tion of the last king had great weight, but prac- 
tically the eldest son, as the eldest of the family, 
and therefore the most capable of governing, was 
chosen ; and. the exercise of the right of free elec- 
tion fell into disuse, being only revived at certain 
great crises. My point is that in all cases of depo- 
sition of kings the right- was revived, and was not 
anything new ; that the supreme assembly always 
has been, and still is, capable of deposing the king, 
of changing or of regulating the succession in any 
way it sees fit. W. A. B. C. 

(To be continued.) 

FIELD LORE : CARR, &c. (4 th S. xi., xii. 
passim; 5 th S. i. 35.) I am interested in the 
remarks on field lore in " N. & Q.," having long 
thought that a careful and systematic study of the 
names of fields would go far to substantiate many 
local traditions, and, at the same time, assist in 
recalling natural features of the country as they 
existed long centuries ago. Names of fields rarely 
change ; they are handed down from generation to 
generation, and, although sometimes corrupted in 
transit, are, as a rule, wonderfully true to their 
original signification both in form and sound. 

As an illustration I give, from a list now before 
me, a brief analysis of the nomenclature of fields 
in the parish from which I write. I must add 
that this is a North Lincolnshire marsh parish, 
2,600 acres in extent, bounded on the north by 
the Humber. Two-thirds are marsh, the fields 
divided by drains ; the rest very old uncleared 
land, slightly undulated, and many feet above the 
level of the marshes. For centuries it was the 
property of the Barnardistons of Kedington, in 
Suffolk, who had a seat here. 

A rather considerable proportion of the fields is 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74. 

named after old inhabitants, who have called their 
lands after their own names, their former existence 
only to be demonstrated by looking into the 
parish registers. Others again have reference to 
the stock for which they were appropriated, as the 
Ox-pasture, Ewe-croft, Neatgang, Bullgarth, Cow- 
close, Stock-field, Cowgate, &c. 

Another rather large class refers to local position, 
or some object or natural feature. Thus we have 
the Great Nooks and the Little Nooks closes, so 
named, doubtless, from the sharp bends or angles 
formed by the windings of a boundary drain 
known as the Old-fleet, forming two large angles or 
recesses in the one, and two smaller angles in the 
other. Then there is the House-close where no 
tradition lingers of any habitation, and yet on a 
slight elevation in the centre of the field we 
plough up charred wood, coarse broken pottery, 
and fragments of tobacco-pipes, thick and strong, 
with very small bowls, made, as an old labourer 
once remarked to me, in days " when bacca wor 
dear and poipe-clay cheap." A stretch of rich 
pasture land, containing ' several isolated and 
elevated patches or mounds, standing above the 
level of the marsh, is known as the Holmes, one 
part yap excellence as the Bon-holme. Before the 
Humber embankments were constructed these 
would stand up, high and dry, above the level of 
the periodically tide-covered fittie land. In later 
times they were the! chosen haunts and battle- 
ground of the ruff, a bird now, as a resident, prac- 
tically extinct in the county. Then we have the 
Beck-field, Mill-holme, and Mill-field ; no probable 
site, or any tradition, remaining of any mill saving 
the names of these fields. 

Near the old Hall (pulled down about seventy 
years since) are the Hall-wong, Moats-Close, the 
moats still remaining, partly refilled; the Btitt-close, 
probably the site of the archery butts. Other 
fields are known as Rush-close, Thorn-tree-plat, 
Heed-forth, Bridge-carr, Blow-well-plat, the latter 
from the circular ponds where springs rise. 

Four fields (about 125 acres) immediately adjoin- 
ing the Humber embankment are called the 
Groves. This name has long been a puzzle, and 
certainly is an anomaly in a treeless land like the 
marsh. In the will of Sir Tnos. Barnardiston, 
Knt., 1618, we find mention of the " Manor of 
Coots and the Grosse ; and again " Cootes and 
the Grosse."* At this period (the present em- 
bankment is a comparatively modern construc- 
tion) these fields laid beyond the embankment 
and were " fittie " land. Groves may be a corrup- 
tion of Grosse; but if so, from whence comes 
the word Grosse ? 

The meaning of other names is not very appa- 
rent. Some, however, of the numerous readers oi 

See a pamphlet Kedington and the Barnardistons, 
by Richard Alinack, Esq., p. 60. 

N. & Q." may be able to give the interpretation.; 
a few have a very Scandinavian ring about them 
Pingle, Sweedale-croft, Malmbridge-close, Skiddal- 
croft, Stithy-green, Leach-croft, The Slawns, Hagg, 
Semary's, High-dales, &c. ; the termination dal or 
dale is not uncommon, yet the land is flat and 
treeless. JOHN CORDEAUX. 

Great Cotes, Ulceby, Lincolnshire. 

This is a common name in Norfolk, but, as far 
as my observation goes, always a compound one, 
for very wet pieces of land in the marshy districts, 
planted with osiers or alders, and hence called 
asier or alder carrs. One I know of is called the 
bird-carr, from the fact of the black-headed gull 
(Larus ridibundus] formerly (thirty or thirty-five 
years ago) breeding there. N x. 

A STUBBORN FACT (4 th S. xii. 469 ; 5 a S. i. 13.) 
Perhaps the following extract from the auto- 
biography of the late Lord Brougham may be of 
interest in connexion with the subject of your 
note with the above heading. It certainly pre- 
sents another nut for unbelievers in apparitions to 
crack, and its authority is undoubtedly genuine : 

" Tired with the cold of yesterday, I was glad to take 
advantage of a hot hath before I turned in. And here a 
most remarkable thing happened to me so remarkable 
that I must tell the story from the beginning. After I 

left the High School, Edinburgh, I went with G' , my 

most intimate friend, to attend the classes in the Uni- 
versity. There was no divinity class, but we frequently 
in our walks discussed and speculated upon many grave 
subjects among others, on the immortality of the soul 
and on a future state. This question, and the possibility, 
I will not say of ghosts walking, but of the dead appear- 
ing to the living, were subjects of much speculation ; and 
we actually committed the folly of drawing up an agree- 
ment, written with our blood, to the effect, that whichever 
of us died the first should appear to the other, and thus 
solve any doubts we had entertained of the ' life alter 
death.' After we had finished our classes at the College, 

G went to India, having got an appointment there 

in the Civil Service. He seldom wrote to me, and after 
the lapse of a few years I had almost forgotten him ; 
moreover, his family having little connection with Edin- 
burgh, I seldom saw or heard anything of them, or of him 
through them, so that all the old school-boy intimacy had 
died out, and I had nearly forgotten his existence. I 
had taken, as I have said, a warm bath ; and while lyinjr 
in it and enjoying the comfort of the heat, after the late 
freezing I had undergone, I turned my head round, look- 
ing towards the chair on which I deposited my clothes, 
as I was about to get up out of the bath. On the chair 

sa t Q } looking calmly at me. How I got out of the 

bath I know not, but on recovering my senses I found 
myself sprawling on the floor. The apparition, or what- 
ever it was that had taken the likeness of G , had 


"This vision produced such a shock that I had no 
inclination to talk about it, or to speak about it even to 
Stuart ; but the impression it made upon me was too 
vivid to be easily forgotten ; and so strongly was I affected 
by it, that I have written down the whole history, with 
the date, 19th December, and all the particulars, as they 
are now fresh before me. No doubt I had fallen asleep ; 
and that the appearance presented so distinctly to my 
eyes was a dream, I cannot for a moment doubt ; yet for 

5 th S. I. FEB. 14, '74.] 



years I had bad no communication with G , nor hac 

there been anything to recall him to my recollection 
nothing had taken place during our Swedish travels either 

connected with G or with India, or with anything 

relating to him or to any member of his family. I recol 
lected quickly enough our old discussion, and the bargain 
we had made. I could not discharge from my mind the 

impression that G must have died, and that his 

appearance to me was to be received by me as proof of a 
future state ; yet all the while I felt convinced that the 
whole was a dream ; and so painfully vivid and so un- 
fading was the impression that I could not bring mysell 
to talk of it, or to make the slightest allusion to it. 
finished dressing, and as we had agreed to make an early 
start, I was ready by six o'clock, the hour of our early 

" Brougham, October 16, 1 862. I have just been copy- 
ing out from my journal an account of this strange dream. 
Certissima mortis imago ! And now to finish the story, 
began above sixty years since. Soon after my return to 
Edinburgh there arrived a letter from India announcing 

G 's death, and stating that he had died on the 19th 

of December. Singular coincidence ! Yet when one 
reflects on the vast number of dreams which night after 
night pass through our brains, the number of coincidences 
between the vision and the event are perhaps fewer and 
less remarkable than a fair calculation of chances would 
warrant us to expect. Nor is it surprising, considerin <3 
the variety of our thoughts in sleep, and that they all 
bear some analogy to the affairs of life, that a dream 
should sometimes coincide with a contemporaneous or 
even a future event. This is not much more wonderful 
than that a person whom we had no reason to expect 
should appear to us at the very moment we had been 
thinking or speaking of him. I believe every ghost story 
capable of some such explanation." 

I will not make any comment on the attempt at 
explanation, further than to say that I do not con- 
sider the reasoning very sound. When we find 
these coincidences repeated many times, there is 
certainly room for questioning their mere accidental 
occurrence. H. G. W. 

(5 th S. i. 51, 74.) " Aula Cervina," as the Editor 
very correctly remarks, was the ancient Hart Hall, 
before it became Hertford College. On the break- 
ing up of that house the premises lapsed to the 
University, and were by it made over to Magdalen 
Hall, now in occupation of them, but formerly 
adjoining to Magdalen College. As to the origin 
of the name, Antony a Wood tells us" Ab eodem 
(Elia de Hertford) Aula Cervina (quippe prima 
pars vocis Hertford Cervum idiomate Anglicano 
denotat) appellari ccepit." 


A. H. B. (p. 74) says that I hesitated to render 
Aula Cervina as Hart Hall, and that I ddUbted if 
it was right. But it was not hesitation but 
inability, and not doubt but ignorance. I said I 
had never happened to hear of Hart or Hert Hall, 
and of course a mere assertion was not conclusive. 
It is clear enough now. LTTTELTON. 

I am a Cambridge man as well as LORD 
LYTTELTON, and therefore speak with hesitation ; 

but I have always understood, that by reason of 
some very great stringency in the statutes, no one 
could be got to take the Principalship of Hertford 
College on the death, 1805 (Le Nevej, of Bernard 
Hodgson ; that the college falling therefore into 
decay, was dissolved by Act of Parliament in 1822 
(the last Fellow, the Eev. Eichard Hewett, who of 
course had a pension, died in 1833) ; and that the 
buildings were handed over to Magdalene Hall, 
the old Magdalene Hall being taken into Magdalene 
College. CHARLES F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

The following, from the Times of Jan. 30 last, 
is worthy of preservation in "N. & Q.," in illustration 
of what correspondents have written on this sub- 
ject. Some information in regard to Hart Hall, 
or Hertford College, may be found in Ackermann's 
Oxford. Unless my memory is at fault, it was the 
college at which Charles James Fox received a 
portion of his education : 

" A scheme has been drawn up of a Bill for the incor- 
poration of Magdalen Hall as a College under the desig- 
nation of the Principal and Scholars of Hertford College, 
and for transferring the endowments at present held in 
trust for the Hall by the University to the new College. 
The Bill does not propose the foundation of Fellowships, 
or any modification of the present system of government 
of the Hall. Magdalen Hall was transferred to its present 
site by an Act of Parliament obtained in 1816, under the 
principalship of the late Dr. Macbride. It was originally 
erected by Bishop Waynflete in the neighbourhood of 
Magdalen College for students previous to admission into 
his society. Hertford College, of which it is now pro- 
posed to revive the title, was originally Hert Hall (Aitla 
Cervina) ; in 1740 its Principal, Dr. Newton, obtained 
with some difficulty its incorporation as a College, con- 
sisting of a Principal and four Fellows, for which latter 
he provided a small endowment, insufficient, however, to 
procure a succession of Fellows ; and in 1805, there being 
no Principal, and but one Fellow, the College was dis- 
solved, and what remained of the endowments was in part 
appropriated to the foundation of the Hertford Latin 
Scholarship, in part granted to the use of Magdalen Hall, 
upon the death of the surviving Fellow. The Hertford 
Scholarship was accordingly established in 1834." 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

501 ; 5 th S. i. 97.) Your correspondents have laid to 
M. Viardot's charge more than he deserved. So far 
from stating that the New Style was adopted earlier 
in England than in Spain, he says just the reverse, 

en retard des Espagnols." His statement is 
quoted verbatim in a volume entitled Collier, Cole- 
ridge, and Shakespeare, London, 1860, together with 

comment which, as it fully explains the subject, 
may be usefully repeated : 

" Dr. Drake, in Shakespeare and his Times, alluding to 
Shakespeare's death on the 23rd April, 1616, writes thus : 

" ' It is remarkable that on the same day expired in 
Spain his great and amiable contemporary, Cervantes ; 
rhe world being thus deprived, nearly at the same mo- 
ment, of the two most original writers which modern 

urope has produced.' 

" The same remark had been made many years before 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, '74. 

by John Bowie, the editor of Don Quixote, and it is thus 
commented upon by M. Louis Viardot, in his Notice sur 
la Vie, <L-c., de Cervantes :' On trouve, en effet, dans les 
biographies de Shakespeare, qu'il decedale23 avril, 1616. 
Mais il faut prendre garde que les Anglais, n'adopterent 
le calendrier gregorien qu'en 1754, et qu'ils furent jusque- 
la en retard des Espagnols pour les dates, comine les 
Kusses le sont aujourd'hui du reste de 1'Europe. Shake- 
speare a done survecu douze jours a Cervantes.' 

" Here is a double mistake ; first on the part of the 
English writers, as is cleverly enough pointed out by M. 
Viardot ; and next on the part of M. Viardot himself 
only that his mistake is much more remarkable for igno- 
rance of the subject, and far less excusable, inasmuch as 
it was committed with full attention directed to the point 
in question, which the others had wholly overlooked. 
M. Viardot states that Shakespeare survived Cervantes by 
ticelve days, forgetting that, although that number of days 
be now the difference between old style and new, it was 
not so when Shakespeare died. The difference was then 
but ten days, and did not amount to twelve for nearly 
two centuries afterwards." 

And to this the following foot-note is appended: 
" Another example is Mr. Knight's supposed Play Bill 
for Much Ado about Nothing, prefixed to his 'Supple- 
mentary Notice ' of that play, and dated ' This day being 
Tuesday, July 11, 1600,' which is a new-style date." 

J. B. P. thinks " it is certain that they both 
died on the same day Old Style.'' This must mean 
that when Spanish biographers of Cervantes 
asserted that he died on April 23, 1616, they were 
employing the Old Style. Will J. B. P. favour 
readers of " N. & Q." with the grounds on which 
he has arrived at that conclusion ? Seeing that 
the New Style was introduced into Spain in 1582, 
I should have thought all subsequent writers would 
have employed it in their chronology. But J. B. P. 
asserts that " the introduction of the New Style 
into Spain has nothing to do with the question." 
I confess J. B. P. has mystified me, and I should 
be obliged if he would " turn on the light." 


Athenaeum Club. 

(4 th S. xii. 516.) Cevallerius was the second King's 
Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge. His name, 
as given in Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesice Anglicance,is 
Anthony Eodolphus Cevallerius. The following 
notice of him is from Strype's Life of Abp. Parker, 
1709, p. 366 : 

" Another, who, if I mistake not, died this year [1572], 
namely, Rauf le Chevalier, or, as he is writ in Latin, 
Rodulphus Cavalerius, Hebrew professor at Cambridge, 
whither he went anno 1569, as we have heard before. I 
have seen his last will in French, made in Guernsey, 
where he now was, as it seems, with his wife and 
children. His wife's name was Elizabeth le Grimecieux. 
He had two daughters, Joel and Mary, and only one 
son, Samuel, and three nephews, beyond sea, Robert, 
Anthony, and Oliver." 

Strype gives considerable extracts from his will, 
which bore date Guernsey, Oct. 8th, 1572, and 
from which it appears that Cevallerius and Prof. 

Tremcllius of Heidelberg had married sisters. Abp. 
Parker presented Cevallerius to the seventh pre- 
3end of Canterbury in 1569. 

Sir Anthony Cook (the father-in-law of Cecil) 
was the chief patron of Cevallerius, and procured 
him a patent of naturalization in 1552. It is 
probable that he then taught in the University 
inder the name of Mr. Anthony (see Strype A nn. 
Bef., i. 530). In the same book (i. 524) there is 
an account of Dr. Saravia, who in 1566 was settled 
as a teacher in Guernsey, but proposed to return 
home to Flanders. Chambrelayne, the governor, 
persuaded him to go first to London, and gave 
liim a letter to Cecil, who at once became his 
patron, made him a free denizen, and persuaded 
him " to tarry where he was." 


"ANTHEM": "ANTHYMN" (5 th S. i. 68.) John- 
son thought the word should be written " anthymn," 
deriving it from the Greek av^u/tvos. Barrow 
also writes " anthym." The word, according to 
some, is a corruption of avri^tovos through the 
Anglo-Saxon antefen ; but the Quarterly Review 
(April, 1861) thinks it more correctly derived 
through the Anglo-Saxon word " anthymn," from 
avrt, and t!^tvos. (Dr. Johnson's avOvfivos is, I 
believe, an imaginary word.) The terms " anthem " 
and " antiphon," the Quarterly adds, mean much 
alike, ai/Ti-{!/>ivos referring to the method of sing- 
ing the words, while dvT6-<wvos had reference to 
the alternate vocal performance only. 

MR. MILLIGAN says that in the Canterbury 
Tales "antiphone" is used. Chaucer, however, 
has "antem" in the following lines from the 
Prioresses Tale ; and " antheme," " antetheme," 
" anteteme," are also found in other writers: 

" And whan that I my lif shulde forlete, 
To me she came, and bad me for to sing, 
This antem veraily in my dying, 
As ye han herde." 

18, Kensington Crescent, W. 

Barrow spells the word thus in one of his 
sermons ; but there is no doubt that the derive 
tion shown by Chaucer is the correct one. 
Another fanciful derivation I have seen is from 
av#/Aov, as if it were the "flower" of church 
music. See Blunt's Annotated Book of Common 
Prayer, p. Ixii. (sixth edition), where references 
are given on the subject to old volumes of 
" N. & Q." C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

"Anthem," anciently spelt "anteme" (Dr. Han- 
mer's translation of Socrates, lib. vi. c. 12, London, 
1636, quoted in Annot. Boole of Common Prayer, p. 
Ivi), also " antem," " antempne " (Myrroure of Our 
Lady, fol. Ixxxix. ib. p. Ixii.), is derived from 
dvTL(}>wva. Barrow, in one of his sermons, spells the 
word " anthymn " : this induced Dr. Johnson to give 

5 th S. I. FKB. 14, '74.] 



the derivation as avOvfj-vos. Bailey gives the same 
derivation, but simply as a query. 

Pallion Vicarage. 

SWEDEN (5 th S. i. 7.) " Sweden " is a corruption 
of the old name of Sweden, which was Svipjoft ; 
with the article suffixed, Svi^oftin. The etymology 
of the first part of the word, svi, is unknown. We 
only know that the Swedes were called Sviar from 
the oldest times ; even Tacitus calls them Suiones. 
pjtjft means people, nation ; and the whole word 
is thus the people of the Sviar. The present name 
of Sweden is Svearike or Sverig. 

Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 

" ARCANDAM" (5 th S. i. 48.) I have a copy of 
this book, of which this is the full title : 

" The most EXCELLENT, profitable, and pleasant BOOK 
Of the Famous Doctor, And expert Astrologian, ARCAN- 
DAM, or, ALCANDKIN : To find the fatal Destiny, Con- 
stellation, Complexion, and Na-tural inclination of every 
Man and Child by his birth. WITH An Addition of 
PHYSIOGNOMY, very pleasant to read. Newly turned out 
of the French into our Vulgar Tongue. By William 
W arde. London, Printed for Thomas Vere, at the sign 
of the Angel without Newgate, 1670." 

It contains curious old woodcuts of the signs of 
the Zodiac. On referring to several biographical 
dictionaries, I can find no account whatever of 
Arcandam or Alcandrin. Can any of the readers 
of "N. & Q." give any information respecting him 1 ? 


KENTISH EPITAPHS (5 th S. i. 62.) The epitaph 
numbered seven, at Iwade, Kent, is by no means 
of uncommon occurrence in churchyards in Eng- 
land, and has often done duty over infants' graves. 
In the Arundines Cami, editio quarta, it is trans- 
lated into Latin verse, and its authorship is 
assigned to Charles Wesley. The epitaph is said 
thei'e to be in Wibech Churchyard. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. . 

KING OF ARMS (5 th S. i. 50.) I am concerned 
to find that I have been guilty of lese-majesU in 
speaking, in a former communication, of a great 
heraldic functionary as " King at arms." This is 
a grievous, though common, error ! S. has also 
fallen into it. " King of arms " is unquestionably 
the proper designation, and I feel that I owe a 
deep debt of gratitude to the eminent member of 
the Heralds' College who condescended to take me 
to task for so great a slip made in pointing out 
what I believe to be an erroneous heraldic practice. 
Of course, I accepted the one as a complete " set 
off" against the other, and having reformed my 
own manners, live in hopes of seeing other errors 
corrected. J. WOODWARD. 

SHARPS TO "LORD OF THE ISLES" (4 th S. x. 94.) 

It will be recollected that a difficulty arose 
respecting this note (vol. x. p. J300, ed. Edinb., 
1848), where Mr. Sharpe gives a quotation from a 
MS. History of the Presbytery ofPenpont referring 
to a traditionary statement in regard to Robert 
Bruce and Kirkpatrick of Closeburn. This was 
thought by ANGLO-SCOTUS to be from Rae's MS. 
History of the same Presbytery, and I confess that 
I fell into the same blunder. We are, however, 
both mistaken in this, as I find the quotation of 
Mr. Sharpe is taken from the Rev. Mr. Black's 
MS., which is certainly in the Advocates' Library, 
and which is printed in the Appendix to Symson's 
History of Galloway. I ought to have observed 
that no name is given in the note, and possibly 
Mr. Sharpe may not have been aware of Rae 
having written on the same subject. I have 
already (4 th S. x. 187) told all that is known re- 
garding Rae's MS. C. T. RAMAGE. 

THE POET COWPER : " TROOPER " (5 S. i. 68.) 
"A riddle by Cowper 

Made me swear like a trooper, 
But my anger, alas ! was in vain ; 
For remembering the bliss 
Of beauty's soft kiss, 
I now long for such riddles again." 
This is an answer published in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, 1806, to the well-known riddle " I am 
just two and two." See Benham's Globe edition, 
p. 524. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

" S " VERSUS " Z " (5 th S. i. 89.) The ignorance 
and indolence of compositors tend to alter our 
spelling. HERMENTRUDE'S workman was clearly 
a conservative. " Fullness " has become "fulness," 
and "authour"has been shortened to "author," 
because printers are lazy. This last word would 
become " lasy " if the newfangled spelling were 
established. Our alphabet has many anomalies, 
but we need not increase them : s and z have 
different sounds, and should be kept to their proper 
work as far as possible. If we are to write " tease," 
why not " sneese," " wheese " ? If " realise," why 
not " sise," " prise " ? The fact is that in this age 
of rapid writing we neglect both spelling and 
punctuation, and the result is a gradual disestab- 
lishment of orthodoxy in both, through the com- 
Knowl Hill, Berks. 

DATE OF A CALENDAR (5 th S. i. 88.) See De 
Morgan's useful Book of Almanacks. Here we have 
the thirty-five possible almanacks, with an index 
for finding the proper one for each year. Accord- 
ing to this, the years in the fourteenth century 
when Easter Day fell on March 27, and the Sunday 
letter was B, were 1323, 1334, and 1345. But I 
have seen the 27th of March marked as Easter 
Day without any respect to the year in which the 
Calendar was published, e. g., in a Sarum Breviary 
of 1556, in which year Easter Day fell on April 5, 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74. 

in an undated MS. Calendar, and in that of the 
Sarum Missal, printed by the Church Press Com- 
pany. These are all I have to refer to at this 
moment; but, no doubt, it is the regular thing, and 
perfectly explicable. Perhaps some one who has 
paid special attention to such matters will kindly 
enlighten us. J. T. F. 

Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

The year in which this Calendar was written 
would seem to be 1345. Hampson, Medii JEvi 
Kalendarium, ii. p. 90, gives a table to find the 
Dominical Letter for any year (Old Style). From 
this table it appears that B was the Sunday Letter 
for the following years: 1306, 1317,1323, 1334, 
1345, 1351, 1362, 1373, 1379, 1390. At page 187 
of the same work is a table for finding the Golden 
Number. From it we find that 16 was the number 
for 1307, 1326, 1345, 1364, 1383. Comparing the 
two sets of years, we arrive at 1345 as the date of 
the Calendar. JOHNSON BAILT. 

Pallion Vicarage. 

(5 th S. i. 88.) He was author of A Relation of 
Some Years' Travels, London, 1634 ; and also 
assisted Dugdale in the Monasticon (see Allibone). 
Burke says (Extinct Peerage, p. 273, last edit.), 
"it is stated" that he was descended from Sir 
Richard Herbert, brother of the first Earl of Pem- 
broke. Sir Thomas was created a baronet at the 
Restoration (Extinct Baronetage, p. 258), and died 
1682 (Allibone). The title, Burke further says, 
is supposed to have become extinct with his son. 

SIR JOHN BURLEY, K.G. (5 th S. i. 88.) The 
precise date and the place of the death of this 
knight have not been ascertained, but that event 
must have happened between the months of June 
and October, 1383, for on June 22 the king's em- 
broiderer acknowledged the receipt of the sum of 500 
marks from the king, when he had orders to prepare 
a garter and robes for the Earl of Nottingham, who 
succeeded to the stall of Sir John Burley in the 
Order of the Garter (see Beltz, Memorials of the 
Order of the Garter, p. 259). J. WOODWARD. 

See the list of K.G.'s in Sir H. Nicolas's Orders 
of Knighthood, vol. ii. p. 53. 


He was buried in the Church of the Blackfriars, 
Hereford. JOHN MACLEAN. 


_ SIR DAVID LYNDSAY (5 th S. i. 108.) No doubt 
Sir Walter Scott is wrong in his particular expla- 
nation of " pa, da, lyn " ; but quite right in the 
main in condemning Chalmers's edition. Let me 
recommend W. A. C. to consult the edition by 
Mr. Fitzedward Hall and Mr. J. A. H. Murray 
(Early English Text Society). In Part II., p. 305 

;he three words are correctly explained in a side- 
note by " play, David Lyndsay." I have also seen 
the correction printed elsewhere, but cannot re- 
member the reference. WALTER W. SKEAT. 
Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. 

THE BARBOR JEWEL (5 th S. i. 89.) The present 
aossessor of this jewel is the Rev. E. E. Blencowe, 
Stow Bardolph Vicarage, Downham Market, Nor- 
folk. I have no doubt he would be glad to be 
:ommunicated with respecting the portrait of 
Barbor. C. R. M. 

(5 th S. i. 47, 98.) The question asked by C. T. B., 
as I understand it, has no reference to the gold 
medals specially granted to officers of superior 
rank down to the termination of the war with the 
battle of Toulouse, but to those known as the 
Waterloo and Peninsular medal; and information 
is asked as to the year in which the latter was 
granted. C. T. B. is quite right that the Waterloo 
medal came first. It was granted to combatants 
only, those actually present in either of the actions 
of the 16th, 17th, or 18th June, 1815. The 
Peninsular medal was graciously awarded by Her 
Majesty, under General Order of the 1st of June 
1847, to both combatants and non-combatants. The 
grant extends over the entire period of the Penin- 
sular War, and the medal has clasps attached for 
those general actions at which the recipient was 
present. W. DILKE. 


The gold medals referred to by MR. WARREN 
were given, in two sizes, only -to General and Field 
officers, or to officers of equal rank. The order is 
dated, " Horse Guards, 9th September, 1810." 



I beg leave to apologize to C. T. B. and all 
whom it may concern for my ignorance in not 
knowing that there is a new Peninsular medal as 
well as an old. A friend corrects me, and gives, 
also, this description: 

"The Peninsular medal is Olv. Head of Queen with 
legend Victoria Regina, 1848. Rev. Queen, in robes an J 
crown, crowning Duke of Wellington with laurel. Let/end 
To the British Army, 1793-1814." 


IRISH PROVINCIALISMS (4 th S. ix. xii. passim ; 
5 th S. i. 9.) Some of these are also common 
in Lancashire. To "hap" the bed-clothes about 
any person in bed is to push them close to 
him, so as to keep him warm. " At skrike o' 
day" is one of our phrases, but we sound it to 
rhyme with strike, not with creek. " Skrike" 
means shriek; but why it should be applied to the 
break of day, I leave wiser persons to decide. 
" Sant Peter 'er fair flayd," said a Lancashire man, 
giving a graphic description of a sermon he had 

5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74.] 



heard ; "he' re awssin' to walk o' th' wayter, yo 
sen ; an' he fell daan fifteen fathom, an' he skriked 
aat." (Perhaps your correspondents in the southern 
counties may be glad of a translation: " St. Peter 
was greatly frightened ; he was trying to walk on 
the water, you see, and he fell down fifteen 
fathoms (!), and he shrieked out.") 


Some years ago, when at Londonderry, I wrote 
out a collection of names of places, with their sup- 
posed meanings. Amongst them I find Limna 
Vady, the leap of the dog. I cannot now remember 
the authority, but think it was some local guide- 
book. A. S. 

REGISTER BOOKS STAMPED (5 th S. i. 27, 77.) 
The stamps in the register represent the collection, 
by the clergyman, of a Government tax of three- 
pence on each birth, marriage, and burial, except 
in the case of paupers. The Crown appears to 
have been very lax in checking the accounts de- 
livered by the clergy; hence the irregularity in the 
use of the stamps. W. C. P. will find a corre- 
spondence upon the subject of this tax in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine for July, 1792, pp. 596-7, 
August, 1792, p. 716, and October, 1794, pp. 895-6. 

T. N. 

There are some singular entries in the Eegister 
of Whittlesey S. Mary, co. Camb., quoted in my 
book on the Peterborough Churches, p. 100, which 
may interest W. C. P. in connexion with this sub- 

" 1783. Oct. In the beginning of this month the nasty 
three penny Tax took place, and as I expect, from the 
great Number of poor and the Rebellious Humour of the 
Parishioners, to collect but few threepences. I shall mark 
those that pay with V in the Baptisms and Burials. N.B. 
As people are most frequently openhearted on the day of 
Marriage, I expect most of my Parishioners will pay y e 
3 d on that occasion. I shall therefore mark those that do 
not pay with a V. 

" I squeezed 3 d from many a poor wretch ill able to 
give even so much to Government I am affraid. I think 
I ought not to urge quite so hard." 

The fees for one year in this parish amounted to 
II. Os. Qd., upon which the curate has this note: 

" 'tis very much more than I expected or than I shall 
have next year, for as Poverty is admitted a plea, it will 
be very frequently urged." 



" Hie ET ALTJBRIS " (4 th S. xii. 388, 499.) This 
motto corrected, as it has been by some of your 
correspondents, to Est Ulubris, was placed by the 
great philosophic physician Dr. Cullen above the 
door of his country house on Ormiston Hill, near 
Edinburgh, which has a magnificent view across 
the vale of the Almond to the Ochills and the 
outlying Grampians. Here he used to retire from 
the bustle of the capital, to rusticate and muse, 

spending his leisure time in gardening. I believe 
the records of these hours may still be seen in 
foreign plants and shrubs around his old house. 
Many have, like Dr. Cullen, enjoyed such retire- 
ment, and been able to exclaim with Politian : 
" Felix ille animi, divisque simillimus ipsis, 
Quern non mendaci resplendens gloria fuco 
Solicitat, non fastosi mala gaudia luxus ; 
Sed tacitos sinit ire dies, et paupere cultu 
Exigit innocuse tranquilla silentia vitae." 


S. xii. 285, 375 ; 5 th S. i. 38.) The same expres- 
sion in their native language is very common 
amongst the peasantry of Glamorganshire. 

R. &M. 

CROWING HENS (4 th S. xi. xii. passim.) I had 
for three years in my poultry-yard a hen of the 
pheasant kind, with comb not unlike those of 
other hens, which crowed constantly during the 
day, especially about feeding-time. There are 
also several at this present moment among the 
poultry in the farm-yards of the farmers in my 
parish which crow constantly. Far from looking 
upon them as birds of ill-omen, we have generally 
considered them as birds worth keeping, insomuch 
as they are (as a rule) good layers, and when too 
old for that purpose, are not bad eating. Gastro- 
nomy, not superstition, is the ill-omen in these 
*' northern" regions for the hens. 

-Low Wray Parsonage, Windermere. 

THE PRODIGAL Sox (4 th S. vii. 56, 150.) Dib- 
din, in his Tour in France and Germany, vol. i. 
318, gives an amusing cut of the prodigal son 
getting on the wrong side of his horse, arrayed in 
the cloak, cocked hat, and top-boots of a French 
officer of the period. I have met with a print 
where the same hero is dressed in wig, knee- 
breeches, &c., and a huge turnip-watch is being 
stolen from him by his not very creditable com- 
panions. SENNACHERIB. 

CHESTER (5 th S. i. 68.) H. T. will find all that 
remains of the Vale Royal Chartulary (and that is 
only a transcript) in the Harl. MS. 2064, at the 
British Museum. The chartulary of Combermere 
is also in the British Museum, Coll. MS., Faust 
B. VIII. As I have lately had occasion to consult 
the MS. referring to Vale Royal, if H. T. will 
favour me with a note, I might possibly be able to 
furnish the information he requires. 


Carr Hill, Rochdale. 

COPYING PRINTED MATTER (4 th S. viii. 480 ; ix. 
19, 127, 291.) After much trouble, I procured 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 14, 74. 

some of this paper and found it practically useless. 
The paper will sometimes copy printed matter, but 
is so thick that the copy cannot be seen from the 
other side ; and after repeated trials, 1 failed to get 
a transfer. Beside this, I found the turpentine 
somewhat defaced the original. Having much 
copying to do, I was induced to make experiments, 
being convinced of the practicability of such a 
process ; and after numerous failures, I at last suc- 
ceeded. Two points I considered indispensable : 
1st. That the original should not be injured, 2nd. 
That it should not be necessary to take a re-transfer. 
My process fully answers both these conditions, 
and is besides cheap and expeditious. Having 
been at some little expense and trouble, I do not 
care about making the process public, but should 
any of your readers desire to use it, I shall be glad 
to hear from them. J. WARRINGTON. 

N.W. Cor. 4th and Race (]), Philada., U.S.A. 

BROWNING'S "LOST LEADER" (4 th S. xii. 473, 
519 ; 5 th S. i. 71.) MR. DALBY very naturally 
asks me for my authority for stating that Mr. 
Browning means Wordsworth by his Lost Leader. 
I was told it by a friend, who had it from Mr. 
Browning himself. Before I knew it for certain, 
I suspected that the poem referred to Wordsworth. 
If MR. DALBY will turn to Shelley's sonnet ad- 
dressed to this great poet, beginning 

" Poet of Nature tliou hast wept to see," 
he will find that Shelley reproaches him in terms 
not unlike those with which Mr. Browning re- 
proaches the Lost Leader : 
" Thou wert as a lone star whose light did shine 
On some frail bark in winter's midnight roar : 
Thou hast like to a rock-built refuge stood 
Above the blind and battling multitude : 
In honoured poverty thy voice did weave 
Songs consecrate to truth and liberty, 
Deserting these thou leavest me to grieve, 
Thus having been, that thou shouldst cease to be." 

It is not to be wondered at, that men like Shelley 
and Mr. Browning should mourn the defection oi 
their illustrious brother-bard from his early liberal 
principles. No one can doubt Wordsworth': 
sincerity, as his uprightness and honesty of pur- 
pose were equal to those of Milton himself. 
Wordsworth and his fellow poet Coleridge were 
frightened by the excesses of the French Eevolu- 
tion ; but great intellects like these ought to have 
been able to distinguish between essentials anc 
non-essentials, and to understand that these ex- 
cesses were no necessary part of the great Eevolu- 
tion, but, as it were, mere accidents. Had ten 
times as many victims perished on the guillotine 
they would not have falsified nor altered in anj 
respect the great leading principles of the Eevolu 
tion. MR. DALBY disputes Wordsworth's title to 
be considered a " leader." I cannot agree with hin 
in this opinion. Wordsworth is all but universally 
acknowledged to be one of the greatest Englisi 

>oets, if he is not, indeed, the very greatest since 
Milton ; and, as such, he may well be called a 
' leader " of thought. JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

158, 196, 296.) I believe it is generally supposed 
hat Mrs. Henry Wood, in her work, East Lynne, 
efers to the case of Bishop Carr, at whose death 
lis creditors threatened to seize his body ; but the 
debts were paid by a gentleman, who afterwards 
named the Bishop's daughter. The circumstances 
ire well known in Worcestershire, but I do not 
efer more particularly to them, as some of the 
parties concerned are living. CLERICUS. 

HENRY HALLYWELL (4 th S. xii. 209, 255, 318) 
was buried in the nave of St. Margaret's Church, 
[field, Essex, of which he was some time vicar. 
Eis signature appears in the parish registers. I will 
lend the inscription that is on the stone and fuller 
particulars in a few days' time. 


BIRDS OF ILL OMEN (4 th S. xii. 327, 394.) 
In M. G. Lewis's ballad of Bill Jones, the follow- 
ing are the introductory stanzas : 
" ' Ah, well-a-day,' the sailor said, 

' Some danger must impend, 
Three ravens sit in yonder glade, 
And evil will happen, I 'm sore afraid, 

Ere we reach our journey's end.' 
' And what have the ravens with us to do ] 

Does their sight betoken us evil ? ' 
' To see one raven is lucky, 'tis true, 
But it 's certain misfortune to light upon two, 
And meeting with three is the devil ! ' " 

Ed o-ar Allan Poe's poem is rather at variance with 
the poem of Lewis, for Poe's bird is solitary, and yet 
he is " ill omened." N. 

SINOLOGUE (4 th S. xii. 267, 312, 379, 418.) 
This occurs as an English word in the Journal of 
Botany for December, 1873, p. 376. 


516 ; 5 th S. i. 54.) I have heard, that, in Derby- 
shire, when the cattle remain on the top of the 
hills, the weather will be fine ; but wet when they 
descend to the valleys. GEORGE E. JESSE. 

EEV. E. GEE (4 th S. xii. 439, 501 ; 5 th S. i. 16.) 
The original edition of A Memorial of the Re- 
formation of England was published in 1596, 
under the initials of its author, E[obert] P[ersons], 
or Parsons, alias Coobuck, alias N. Doleman, the 
celebrated Jesuit. The edition edited by Edward 
Gee (of which I possess a copy), and which was 
called by him The Jesuit's Memorial, was published 
in 1690. The titles of Mr. Gee's other works, 
some of which were anonymous, may be ascertained 
from Watt's Bib. Brit. 


Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

5">S. I. FEB. 14, 74.] 




Debrett's Illustrated Peerage and Titles of Courtesy of the 
United Kingdom, of Great Britain and Ireland. To 
which is added much Information respecting the 
immediate Family Connections of the Peers. (Dean & 
Debrett's Illustrated Baronetage, with the Knightage, <bc. 

(Dean & Son.) 

" DEBRETT " is the oldest of our "Annuals." It is now 
in its hundred and sixtieth year, and it may he said to 
have improved every year. The magnitude of vigilant 
labour required is shown hy the fact that there are 
16,000 alterations in the present volume, arising from 
various incidents and changes since last year's publica- 
tion. Two claimants are recorded for the baronetcy of 
Frederick, and two for that of Codrington, each, mean- 
while, calling himself by the title. That of Congreve is 
open to a claimant. That of Dick is still maintained by 
Debrett, though it is given up by others skilled in 
heraldry and genealogy. 

The Life and Death of ' John of Barneveld, Advocate of 
Holland. With a View of the Primary Causes and 
Movements of the Thirty Years' War. By John Lothrop 
Motley. 2 vols. With Illustrations. (Murray.) 
OF all great statesmen and patriots John of Barneveld 
stands in the foremost rank of the most illustrious and 
the most unfortunate. The prince (Maurice) whom he 
raised to greatness, and his country which he had mainly 
helped to freedom and prosperity, alike basely betrayed 
him. He opposed the evil ambition of Maurice, and he 
advocated freedom of trade and universal religious tole- 
ration. Maurice judiciallyjnurdered him, and Barne- 
veld's jealous countrymen allowed (and so shared) the 
crime. If his family and friends would have petitioned 
for his pardon, he would have been saved ; but neither 
he, nor those dearest to him, would tarnish his honour 
by such a confession of offence ; and he was beheaded 
for no particularly denned crime. Mr. Motley's name 
is sufficient warrant that this work is worth reading. 

Records of the Past, Vol. I., edited by Dr. Birch, 
(Bagster & Sons), is an interesting volume of trans- 
lations of Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions by Sayce, 
Talbot, Smith, Rawlinson, and Renouf. Students in 
Biblical history and archaeology will find some pleasant 
recreation in these texts, which have been extracted 
from tablets, with cuneiform characters, found in lands 
conterminous to Palestine. Some of the inscriptions are 
of extreme antiquity, one reaching back to ante-Mosaic 
history. They are invaluable, not only from their 
intrinsic worth, but as affording evidences of the 
durability of language subject to little alteration during 
a period of many centuries. Sir H. Rawlinson's inde- 
fatigable labours in copying the inscriptions respecting 
Darius, the son of Hystaspes, lend an additional interest 
to the attractive Persian records collated by Dr. Birch. 
We look forward to the appearance of the second volume. 
Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and 

Schools of Religious Thought. Edited by the Rev. 

John Henry Blunt. (Rivingtons.) 

A WHOLE library is condensed into this admirable volume. 
Adams's Religious World Displayed is extinguished by 
it. Marsden's Dictionary of Christian Churches and 
Sects, useful as it is, only does a portion of the work 
achieved under the editorship of Mr. Blunt. All 
authorities are named, and an invaluable index is supplied. 
The work manifests the earnestness of humanity in its 
thirst for truth and its desire for light. The work has 
its amusing side; at least, one cannot read without a 
smile Archbishop Manning's former denunciations of 

the Pope as an impostor and disturber, and of Popery 
as a snare and a delusion, made when he was a High 

Anecdote Lives of the Later Wits and Humourists. 
Canning, Captain Morris, Curran, Coleridge, Lamb, 
Charles Mathews, Talleyrand, Jerrold, Rogers, Albert 
Smith, Hood, Maginn, Thackeray, Dickens, Poole, 
Leigh Hunt, Father Prout, &c. By John Timbs, 
F.S.A. 2 vols. (Bentley & Son.) 

HALF a century ago there was a little work published, 
called Laconics; or, the Best Words of the Best Authors, 
which was deservedly popular. It was Mr. Timbs's first 
work of compilation, and he is devoted to similar labour 
now, with all the good-will, and, seemingly, with the 
vigour of youth. In these anecdote lives there is the 
best essence of a score of biographies, and every page 
sparkles with anecdotes. We should be glad to hear that 
some share of the fund provided by Parliament for the 
solace of aged writers had been allotted to this inde- 
fatigable worker. As it is, the fund seems to be often 
applied after an incomprehensible fashion. 

The Folk-Lore of Rome. Collected by word of mouth 

from the People. By R. H. Busk. (Longmans.) 
THIS is one of the most readable of books for those who 
take interest in folk-lore. We know how Cinderella 
comes to us from Rhodope, the Lady of the Pyramid. 
So, from remote resources, many of these tales have 
passed through various countries, taking their tone from 
the soil, and finally settling at Rome. The notes are 
brief and interesting ; and they pleasantly illustrate life 
and manners. For instance : " Speziale, a druggist 
(droghiere is a grocer). It is a- custom in Rome for the 
doctors of the poor to sit in druggists' shops ready to bo 
called for." Young and old readers are equally well 
provided for in this handsome and entertaining volume. 

The Treasury of Languages. A Rudimentary Dictionary 

of Universal Philology. (Hall & Co.) 
THE epigraph on the title-page of this rudimentary dic- 
tionary is " Daniel iii. 4," the pertinency of which we 
fail to discern. As far as this commencement goes, it 
deserves encouragement. Some people will be aghast at 
the multitudinous languages and dialects in the world. 
Mezzof'anti himself, probably, could not speak a word of 
Pumpopolsk, which is described as "Ugrian, a dialect of 
Ostiak, allied to Inbosk." 

Newman 1 has proposed the following scheme for a sort of 
new Heptarchy, each division of which is to legislate for 
itself. After speaking of details, he says, 

" I ask permission to define this scheme by an actual 
plan of grouping the English counties. If London is to 
be a separate legislature, this may be a reason for not 
joining into one rural legislature the counties which are 
on opposite sides of it. I propose, then, for England 
seven rural circles : 

" I. (Transumbria) centre York : containing North- 
umberland, Durham, and Yorkshire. 

" II. (Transdevia) centre Lancaster : Cumberland, 
Westmoreland, Lancashire, Cheshire. 

" III. (Cisumbria) centre Peterborough : Lincoln, 
Nottingham, Leicester, Rutland, Huntingdon, Cam- 
bridgeshire, Norfolk, Suffolk. 

"IV. (Mesanglia) centre Worcester: Derbyshire, 
Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Herefordshire, Monmouth- 
shire, Gloucestershire. 

"V. (Transtamia) centre Bedford: Northamptonshire, 
Oxon, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, 
Middlesex (without London), Essex. 

" VI. (Albion) centre Guildford : Kent, Surrey (with- 



|5 lh S. I. FEB. 14, 74. 

out London), Berkshire, Hants (with Isle of Wight), 

"VII. (Wessex) centre Exeter: Wilts, Dorset, 
Somerset, Devon, Cornwall. F. AY. NEWMAN." 

It is worth noting in " N. & Q."that the above scheme 
was ever proposed. 

A LETTER signed Andrew Agnew, and dated from 
Lochnaw Castle, Stranraer, N.B., 22nd December, 1873, 
has just reached " N. & Q." The writer is trying to 
collect in a systematic manner information as to Galloway 
antiquities and customs. He will be glad to receive any 
information on camps, mote hills, old castles, churches, 
chapels, burying grounds, standing stones, kists, urns, 
Celts, arms, bones, coins, or any ancient remains ; cranoges, 
or artificial island dwellings, with particulars as to wood 
"found in mosses ; also names of places and their deriva- 
tions ; those illustrative of traditions, as Lochnafolie 
(Loch-na-fola, the Lake of the Blood) ; the former ap- 
pearance of the country, as Khockaldie (the Hill of the 
Hazels) ; those to which " Kil " is prefixed, indicating a 
chapel, and endeavour to account for it in cases such 
as Kilquhockadale, Kilhern, c. Natural history, and 
especially animals now extinct, as Craigmoddie (the 
Wolf's Rock) ; Brockloch (the Badger's Lake); and finally, 
county stories, or songs of local origin, old customs, and 
proverbs. Answers to be sent to the address above 

MR. H. W. HENFREY, 14, Park Street, Westminster, 
writes: "Seal of the Protector Oliver's Council. 
George Vertue, in his account of the Works of Thomas 
Simon, 4to., London, 1753, engraves (plate xxv.) and 
describes (p. 42) this seal ' as affixed to an Order sent to 
Guernsey by Oliver CromwelJ.' It is circular, If inches 
diameter, bearing a garnished shield with the Protector's 
Arms (Quarterly, 1st and 4th, St. George's cross ; 2nd, 
St. Andrew's cross; 3rd, the Irish harp. Over the 
centre an inescutcheon, bearing a lion rampant). The 
shield is surrounded by a laurel wreath, and the legend 
SIGILLTM CONSILII. I should feel extremely indebted to 
any reader in Guernsey or elsewhere who could assist me 
in obtaining a cast of this seal for publication in my 
Numismata Cromwelliana ; or, Medallic History of 
Oliver Cromwell, where it is intended to give autotype 
copies of all his medals, coins, and seals." 

M. HENRI TESTARD, M.A. B.D. (Pension Wachmurth, 
2, Square de Champel, Plateau des Tranchees, Geneve, 
Suisse), is engaged in writing a pamphlet on Theodore 
Parker. He would be obliged to any of our readers who 
would give him a complete list of Parker's works, and tell 
him whether any book or magazine articles have ever 
been published in England or America concerning that 
renowned disciple of Channing. 



Particulars of Price. &c., of the following books to he sent direct to 
the persons by whom they are required, whose names and addresses are 
given for that purpose : 

COWES des Lettres Originales de 1'ArmC'e du General Bonaparte en 
J.gypte. iuterceptCs par la flotte sous le Commandement dc 1'Amiral 
Lord Nelson. London, printed for J. Wright, opposite Old Bond 
Street. Piccadilly, 1799. 2 vols. or 2 parts. 

Wanted by M . Ulric Richard Desaix, aux Minimes, a Issoudun, Indre, 


Wanted by G. J. Armytage, Eiq.,F.S.A., Clifton, Brighouse. 


MR. G. L. GOMME, in reference to " Church Bells " 
(4 th S. xii. 6, 85, 406), writes : " See notes of great value 
in the following numbers of the Builder, 24th Sept., 
1864, 15th April, 1865, 6th Oct., I860, 2nd and 30th 
June, 1866, 6th Oct., 1866, 15th Dec., 1866, 12th Jan., 

1867, 1st and 21st Aug., 1868, 30th May, 1868, 15th March, 

1869, 4th and 25th Dec., 1869, 16th, 23rd, and 30th April, 

1870, 7th May, 1870, 13th Aug., 1870. As there is no 
index to the Builder, for the early years, these references 
may be useful." Also, on " Paynter Stayner " (4 th S. xii. 
354, 453; 5 th S. i. 118), MR. GOMME refers to "a good 
article in the Builder for 9th June, 1860, where it is 
stated the company had its origin in a fraternity of 
artists formed in the reign of Edward III., and styled a 
company, though not then incorporated." Finally, re- 
ferring to " Size of Churches" (4 th S. xii. 340, 367), the 
same obliging correspondent states that there is a "tabu- 
lar statement in the Builder for 31st Dec., 1864, by Mr. 
E. B. Denison, and a further one by Mr. Samuel Sandars 
in the Builder for 21st Sept., 1867." 

LEINSTER GARDENS. Mr. Andrew Cant (to whom is 
sometimes ascribed the honour of having given his name 
to the Slang Dictionary) was not an " illiterate man." 
In Chambers's Domestic Annals of Scotland, iii. 621, is 
the following account : " On Thursday was interred in 
the Grey Friars' churchyard, the corpse of Mr. Andrew 
Cant, one of the ministers of this city at the Revolution, 
and since, made a bishop of the clergy of the episcopal 
communion. He was esteemed a learned and eloquent 
preacher. He died in the ninety-first year of his age, 
and sixty-fourth of his ministry." The above is quoted 
from the Edinburgh Evening Courant, April 27, 1730. 
In the Rudimentary Dictionary of Universal Philology 
(1874, Hall) " Cant " is denned as slang or vulgar speech, 
derived from the Latin " Canto "==I sing. See Life of 
Bamfylde Moore Carew, London, 1789. 

G. F. S. How the name was pronounced in England, 
in former times, may be judged from a line in Shakspeare, 
where it is a trisyllable : 

" This dreadful lord, 

Retiring from the siege of Orleans," &c. 

LT. REG. We really cannot undertake to explain the 
inexplicable lines of unintelligible poets. As Socrates 
said, to deal with such passages, when the poets them- 
selves were not present to give light to them, was a mere 
waste of time. 

MR. R. PASSINGHAM writes : "At one of the recep- 
tions given to Mr. Disraeli at Glasgow, the Disraeli arms 
are stated to have been placed on the walls. Can any 
Scotch correspondent oblige me with a description of 

GRAM. "Jemmy Twitcher" is the name of one of 
the most cunning and treacherous highwaymen in The 
Beggars' Opera. 

W. ANDREWS (Hull). See The Archaeological Journal, 
vol. vi., p. 239, for an article on " The Gad Whip Service," 
by W. S. Walford, F.S.A. 

MR. V. DE S. FOWKE, Oxford, asks what historical 
character is meant by "Marmion Herbert" in ilr. 
Disraeli's Venetia. 

F. S. D. Water-marks on'paper. See " N. & Q.," 2 nd 
S. vi. 434, 491 ; vii. 110, 265 ; viii. 77. 

R. H. The epitaph has been repeatedly printed. 

W. H. No reply has been received. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor " Advertisements and Business Letters to " The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74.] 





NOTES: Col- in Col- Fox, Col,Treeetour, <fcc., 141 Dante and 
Tennyson : Parallel Passages, 142 The Wordsworths, 143 
George the First at Lydd, Kent The Hindu Triad The Irish 
Peerage, 144 Order before Culloden Ne Sutor, &c. Fifty 
Years Ago Cacography Charles I. : Account for his Inter- 
ment Forfarshire Song, 145 Donkey Shotten Herring 
Ringleader Abbreviated Place- Names Norfolk Dialect 
" The Crown of a Herald King of Arms," 146. 

QUERIES : John Froben, Printer of Bale Robert de "Wyclif 
Tomb of Witti-kind and Abbey built by Char-le-Magne at 
TrSmoigne Cotton's " Medley of Diverting Stories " Monu- 
mental Inscription, 147 Nicolas de Bruyn Fothergill 
Family " Desier " Haunted Houses" Derbeth " Bib- 
liography" The White Rose and Red " " The Conversion 
of CoL Quagg " " The English Mercurie," 1588 The Pass of 
Finstermunz "That beats Akebo" "The Kalewala" 
Philip of Spain and the Order of the Garter, 148 Author 
Wanted The Sheriffs of Worcestershire " Mistal " 
" Wisdom 's better than Money " The Popish Plot 
"Quanto post Festum sol rubescit," <fcc. "Abided" 
LL. M. Degree A Negro Etonian Agnes Bulmer and 
" Messiah's Kingdom," 149. 

REPLIES : On the Elective and Deposing Power of Parlia- 
ment, 149 A Second- First Climacteric, 152 William Combe, 
Author of "Doctor Syntax" Double Returns in Parlia- 
mentary Elections, 153 "St. George's Lofte" Bere Regis 
Church The Rhee Early Circulating Libraries " Enderby," 
a Tragedy Use of Inverted Commas, 154 Lithotomy 
" CalledHome" "S" versus"Z" " Jocosa"as a Christian 
Name Twelfth Day The Establishment of Sunday News- 
papers "The Ten Ambassadors" Greek Anthology 
Grahame, Viscount Dundee The Insignia of the Knights of 
the Garter at Windsor, 155 The Aspirate H The Grey Mouse 
in " Faust" Martial's Epigram, xiii. 75 Mill on "Liberty" 
"From Greenland's icy mountains," 156" Quillet " " Like " 
as a Con junction The American Civil War Charles Owen of 
Warrington " The Sea-Blue Bird of March" Old Metrical 
Title-Deeds, 157 Innocents' Day: Muffled Peal "To 
Scribe " Bulleyn's " Dialogue" Sir John Burley, K.G., 158. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


I suppose that there is no doubt that this 
difficult prefix, in some of its uses, means false ; 
and it is said to be allied to a verb CWere=deceive, 
though I do not find any instance of such a verb 
in that sense. 

Col-prophet, for example, as used by Lillie and 
others, means, evidently, a false prophet, and I 
shall presently give other instances of a similar use ; 
but whether it has this meaning in Chaucer's " Col- 
fox," and " Colle tregetour" does not seem so certain. 

The first phrase is written as follows in the 
six-text edition published by the Chaucer Society: 
Ellesmere, "a colfox (ful of sly Iniquitee)" 
Nonnes Preests Tale, p. 294, 1. 4405 ; Hengwrt, "a 
colfox"; Cambridge, "a col fox"; Corpus, "a 
kolle fox"; Petworth, "a col foxe"; Lansdowne, 
" a kole fox." The editions of 1532 and 1561 have 
"a col foxe"; Wright's has "a cole-fox"; and 
Morris's, " a colfox." 

Now Coll may have been the name of a fox so- 
called, perhaps, from his cunning, or, perhaps, with 
no meaning at all, any more than Reynard has a 
meaning, or Pug for a fox ; Puss for a hare or cat ; 
or Tom in Tom-cat and Tom-tit; or Robin in 

Eobin-redbreast ; or Jenny in Jenny-wren and 
Jenny-ass; or Jack in Jack-snipe, Jack-daw, or 
Jack-ass ; or Neddy for the same beast ; or Billy in 
Billy-goat ; or Nanny in Nanny-goat ; or Dicky in 
the child's phrase Dicky-bird. 

Was Col ever used for NicoZas instead of our 
present diminutive Nick, as Col-in is in Italian, 
or at least in Genoese ? If so, then, as many of 
the above serve to distinguish the male from the 
female, so may this. 

But irrespective of the use of such names for 
distinction of sex, people often choose to give 
Christian names as a sort of generic name to things 
or people. Thus Defoe, in Robinson Crusoe, makes 
one of his Englishmen say, "And you, Seignior 
Jack Spaniard, shall have the same sauce, if you 
do not mend your manners"; and Jack Tar now- 
a-days talks of " John Chinaman." 

So, whether the name was given to the fox for 
his cunning or for any other reason, it may have 
come to be a synonym for fox, and to be used 
either as a name or epithet for anything that was 
fox-like in form or disposition, that was sharp- 
nosed, or cunning, or treacherous, or false. Thus 
Chaucer has in the same tale, 1. 4573, p. 298, 
" Ran Colle owre dogge/ and Talbot and Gerland"; 
and the Scottish shepherd calls his fox-faced dog 
a Coll-ie. 

Gower, in his Vox Clamantis (Bk. I. ch. 11), 
answers the query I have put above, using " Colle " 
for " Nicholas," as he does Watte for Walter, Gibbe 
for Gilbert, and the like : 

" Watte vocat, cui Thomme venitj neque Symme retardat, 

Recteque Gibbe aimul Hicke venire jubent : 
Colle furit, quern Geffe juvat, nocumenta parantes, 
Cum quibus ad damnum Wille coire vovet." 

Colle tregetour, in the House of Fame (p. 248, 
1. 187, in Morris's edition, vol. v., Bell's Aldine 
Series), may mean " cunning juggler"; but it may 
quite as probably be, like Jack in Jacfc-Pudding, 
a mere cant name for a juggler, and the passage 
reads like it. It is not "a colle tregetour," but 
" Ther saugh I Colle Tregetour," where Colle is like 
Jack in Dr. Caius's " I vill kill de Jack Priest." 

The Coil-prophets, or Coleprophets of Lillie, 
Heywood, Knolles, Scot, and others, were doubt- 
less those wolves in sheep's clothing, false prophets ; 
and the Colepoyson of Heywood, and the Colknyfe 
of the author of the Townely Mysteries, must carry 
with them the idea of treachery. 

Here you have them from the Dictionary slips of 
the Philological Society, for which I am editing 
part of "C": 

". . . . that he shulde nede to send ani such coll 
prophetes as these heretikes are, to teache his church 
the faithe." 1532. Sir T. More, Confutation of Tyn- 
dale, Works, 1557, fo. 707. 

" . . . . established by such conjuring witches and 
coleprophetes seduced by the lying spirit as was Merline." 
1547. The Life of (he 70 Archbisshopp of Canterbury, 
fo. c, 7 vo. 


[5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74. 

" Whereby I found I was the hartless hare, 
And not the beast colprophet [false prophet, ed. 1610] 

did declare." 

1587. Mirrour for Magistrates. Owen Glendower. 
" . . . . things written by Coleprophets upon whited 
walls." 1600. Letter in Harrington's Nugce Antiquce, 
p. 11. 

"As hee was most vainely persuaded by the cold 
prophets." 1603. Knolles, History of the Turks, 1014. 
" Ye plaie coleprophet (quoth I) who taketh in hande 
To knowe his answere before he do his errande." 
1650. Heywood, Proverb Dialogues. 
Part I. ch. 9, p. 17. 

" Of Coleprophet 

Thy prophesy poysonly to the pricke goth 
Coleprophet and colepoyson art thou both." 

C. 1650. Heywood's Epigrams, 6th cent., 89. 
"If tkese cold-prophets, or oraclers, tell thee pro 
speritie, and deceive thee." 1665. Scot's Discovery of 
Witches, sign. M. 8. 

" All after the cheaters kind, the old cole instructeth 
the young in the terms of his art." 1532. Vse of Dice- 
play. Percy Soc. 

" God kepe us 

From alle byllehagers with colknyfes that go." 
C. 1460. Townley, Mysteries Prima Pastorum, 

p. 85. 

Again, in the sense of being deceived instead of 
deceiving, like the more modern words Cutty and 

" We are no colls, you must not flam us." 
1637. The Walks of Islington, Act ii. sc. 12. 

Some have thought " Col," in " Col fox," to be 
Coal, as we now spell it, and take it to be used 
adjectively in the sense of black. But foxes aren't 
black, especially this one, who, judging by his 
name, was red : 

" And daun Kussell the Fox/ stirte up at ones." 

L. 4524. 

And even if they were black, it would not explain 
the other uses. 

Possibly " Col " might mean not coal-black but 
coal-red, or fire-red, the colour of a live coal ; but 
this is inconsistent with its use, as well in other 
English words to be mentioned presently as in 
this same word in German. 

I think, therefore, there is much to be said for 
those who read " Col " as meaning coal-black. It 
has obviously this meaning in coalfish, coalrney, 
or coalsey, the young of the black or green cod 
(Germ. Kohlfisch), and there is also a fish called 
the coal-perch. The little titmouse, called Cole- 
tit, Coal-head, and Cole-mouse (Kohlmeise), has 
its name. 

Topsell, in his Four-footed Beasts, p. 174, has a 
passage which connects the fox with coal : 

" Foxes which keep and breed towards the South and 
West, are of an ash colour, and like to wolves, having 
loose hanging hairs, .... and these are noted by two 
names among the Germans from the colour of their 
throat. One kind of them is called koler, whose throat 
appeareth to be spinkled and darkned with cole-dust, so 
as the tops of the hair appear black, the foot and etalk 
being white. 

" A third kind is of a} bright skie-colour (called 
Blauwfuchs), and this colour hath given a different name 
to horses, which they call Blauwschimmel, but in the 
foxes it is much more mingled, and these Foxes which 
have rougher and deeper hair are called Erandfuchse." 

I find in Hilpert's Dictionary that Kohler means 
(a) the coalfish, (6) the brand-fox (brandfuchs); 
but under Brandfuchs he gives no explanation. 

Brand means, of course, a burnt-red colour ; and 
I learn from Dr. Kissner that Brandfiichse are 
foxes with black feet and ears, and black tips to 
their tails ; but that others of a dark red, and 
having white tips to their tails, are also so 
called, and others also which are dark in colour, 
but whose hair seems burnt. 

Kohlfuchs the very word in Chaucer or 
Kbhlenfuchs is another name for the same black- 
marked fox ; and fuchs being used in German for 
a sorrel horse, brandfuchs and kohlfuchs are used 
for sorrel horses with black about them. 

So, then, " Col," or " Cole," in Col-prophet, is 
certainly false or cunning ; " Colle," in Colle trege- 
tour, may be cunning, but is more probably a 
name. " Colle," applied to the dog, is certainly a 
name ; " Col," or " Cole," in Col fox may be cun- 
ning, or may be a name, but is much more probably 
coal, meaning black, or rather marked with black. 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 


It is interesting to notice the diverse manner in 
which a similar train of thought has been put into 
words by the great writers of every age and country, 
especially by the poets, who have been the in- 
terpreters to each successive generation of the pre- 
valent ideas of their time. 

The vanity of human wishes has been a favourite 
theme with philosophical versifiers from Juvenal to 
Johnson, but the ephemeral nature of fame artistic 
and literary has not been so frequently sung. The 
subject has, however, been treated, both by Dante 
and Tennyson, in a manner not unequal to the 
great powers of each of the poets. I propose to 
bring before the readers of " N. & Q." the passages 
in question. There can be no insinuation for a 
moment entertained that the modern poet Lias 
borrowed from the old. The parallelism is that 
of thought rather than of language, yet in several 
of the lines there is a remarkable similarity. No 
doubt our Poet-Laureate is familiar with the 
Divina Commedia of the great Florentine, and 
there may have remained in his ear the ring of 
the stately music of the Italian unconsciously 
moulding his periods. 

I will first give the passages from Tennyson, In 
Memoriam, sec. Ixxvi. : 

" What hope is here for modern rhyme 
To him, who turns a musing eye 
On songs, and deeds and lives, that lie 
Foreshorten'd in the tract of time 1 

5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74.] 



These mortal lullabies of pain 
May bind a book, may line a box, 
May serve to curl a maiden's locks ; 

Or when a thousand modns shall wane 

A man upon a stall may find, 
And passing, turn the page that tells 
A grief then changed to something else, 

Sung by a long forgotten mind." 
Again, in sec. Ixxii. : 

" We pass : the path that each man trod 
Is dim, or will be dim, with weeds : 
What fame is left for human deeds 

In endless age 1 It rests with God. 

O hollow wraith of dying fame, 
Fade wholly, while the soul exults 
And self infolds the large results 

Of force that would have forged a name." 

Let us now turn to the Tuscan poet, Purgatorio, 
canto xi., 91-106 : 

" vanagloria dell' umane posse, 

Com' poco verde in sulla cima dura, 
Se non e giunta dall' etati grosse ! 

Non e il mondan romore altro che un fiato 
Di vento, che or vien quinci ed or vien quindi, 
E muta nome, perche muta lato. 
Che fama avrai tu piu, se vecchia scindi 
Da te la came, che se fossi morto 
Innanzi che lasciassi il pappo e il dindi, 
Pria che passin mill' anni? ch'6 piii corto 
Spazio all' eterno, che un muover di ciglia, 
Al cerchio che piu tardi in cielo e torto." 

The parallelism, it will be seen, is rather in the 
general tone of thought than in particular ex- 
pressions, yet there are some lines remarkably 
suggestive of each other. Compare 

" hollow wraith of dying fame," 

" vanagloria dell' umane posse." 

" What fame is left for human deeds " 

" Che fama avrai tu piti, se vecchia scindi." 
" Or when a thousand moons shall wane " 

" Pria che passin mill' anni 1 " 
" What hope is here for modern rhyme " 

" Com' poco verde in sulla cima dura ! " 

" In endless age 1 it rests with God." 

" ch'e piu corto 

Spazio all' eterno, che un muover di ciglia, 
Al cerchio che piu tardi in cielo e torto." 

I subjoin Gary's translation of the extract from 

Dante : 

' powers of man ! how vain your glory, nipt 
E'en in its height of verdure, if an age 

Less bright succeed not 

. . . . The noise 
Of worldly fame is but a blast of wind 
That blows from diverse points, and shifts its name, 
Shifting the point it blows from. Shalt thou more 
Live in the mouths of mankind, if thy flesh 
Part shrivel'd from thee, than if thou hadst died 
Before the coral and the pap were left ; 

Or e'er some thousand years have past I and that 
Is to eternity compared, a space 
Briefer than is the twinkling of an eye 
To the heaven's slowest orb." 

Gary's translation is tolerably faithful ; but the 
English blank verse sadly lacks the solemn musical 
cadences of the Italian " terza rirua." 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 


A neighbour of mine put into my hands, the 
other day, some interesting papers and letters 
about the Wordsworths, which I presume have not 
been printed. One of the documents is a tiny 
pamphlet, of ten pages, entitled " The Rents Bank 
Mercury," dated July 19th, 1825, written in a 
pretty printed hand. It is a bright little picture, 
done in the old-fashioned newspaper way, of the 
domestic life in the cottage where the Wordsworths 
were then living. A couple of letters from Dora 
Wordsworth, one from Miss Jewsbury, and a paper 
containing a little branch of Hicberry, with this 

" Gathered by the poet Wordsworth near the Solitarys 
Glen in Langdale, as we, with two or three others, were 
riding in a cart through some of the passes of Langdale." 

These, with a letter from the poet, from which 
an autograph hunter has cut the signature, with a 
part of the letter itself, make up the collection. I 
enclose a copy of one of the letters from Dora 
Wordsworth : 

" Rydal Mount, Feb. 1st, 1827. 
" My dear Miss Cookson, 

" As it is so long since I have written to you, I feel 
somewhat ashamed of troubling you with a few lines on 
my own business ; but as I should be glad of a line from 
you at any time, and always be most happy to be of use 
to you in any way, I cannot help thinking you will be 
the same. So without more ado, will you buy SIX- 
TEEN SIXPENNY Dutch dolls and send them by the Canal 
woman to Kendal. We have drained poor Kendal of these 
articles ; so are now obliged to travel to the next town. 
You may well wonder what the dear little Baby can want 
with sixteen sixpenny dolls. They are to make pin- 
cushions, and needle-books, and thread-cases of. And 
Aunt Hutchinson wants some, and Miss Barlow, and Miss 
Southey, who is staying with us, and Mrs. Luff. I have 
made four or five already, and want six more. I intend 
to send a pair to dear Miss Jewsbury. We have not 
heard of her directly for some time, but from Miss Barlow 
we were delighted to hear she was improving. I have 
not written to her for ages ; indeed, I have been so far 
from well since September, that I have done nothing but 
make pincushions, sit on the sofa, and vide on my pony 
with my Father by my side, and drink wine and eat 
mutton chops of mother's cooking. I have not been 
downstairs for the last week, having had a violent cold, 
but I am thankful to say it has almost left me, and this 
morning I feel perfectly well. 

" We are all at home but my brother John. Willy is 
well and good ; he is grown amazingly, and keeps up his 
strength with it. I often think of the pleasant time we 
spent at Rents Bank. I should like nothing better than 
to pass another six weeks there next Summer, but this, 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74. 

I fear, won't be practicable. Aunt Wordsworth has not 
yet walked herself to death, which I often tell her she 
will do, tho' she still continues the same tremendous pe- 
destrian. You have, I dare say, heard from Elizabeth 
Cookson of poor dear Aunt Joanna's accident. We have 
had no tidings very lately ; but her last letter was more 
satisfactory, and written in excellent spirits. She likes 
the ' Sweet Mona ' better and better every week. My 
Father is very busy ; his Poems are going through a new 
Edition ; they will be out, he hopes, in April. I am happy 
to tell you his eyes are quite well, and he can read or 
write by candlelight without any inconvenience. He is 
indebted for this comfort to a young gentleman who was 
here in the Summer, and advised him to apply the blue 
stone to his eyes, which he did, with the desired effect. 

" All here beg their kindest remembrances to yourself 
and Mr. Cookson, and your sisters, and believe me ever 
your faithful and affectionate 


' ' You must forgive this miserable production, but I 
have quite forgotten how to write or express myself in any 
decent manner. My dear little Doves are well, and coo 
the day through." 




The following extract from the old register of the 

parish of Lydd is cut from the Kentish Express and 

AshfordNeivs of the 13th December, 1873, to which 

it was sent by Mr. A. Finn, of Westbroke, Lydd : 


" That on ye 7 day of January, 1724, his majesty King 
George ye first came from Rye to Lidd. In his way to 
London from Hanover, he was driven to Rye by a storm 
and landed on ye beach about Jews Gut, and walked from 
there to Rye very much fatigued. He was detained there 
till Friday by a deep snow ; he was received at Lydd by 
ye Balif and Corporation over against Mr. Lees. The 
trained band was under arms and lined ye street, ye bells 
rang, a large ship's flag was displayed on ye great Pinnacle 
of ye steeple, and ye great guns and small arms were fired 
as his Majesty passed thro ye street. 

"Mr. Baliff, upon ye stopping of his Majesties coach, 
made him a short complement upon his safe arrival after 
ye danger and feteague of ye storm, and then offered the 
ensigns of his office, wch he was desired to keep for his 
Majesties use. 

" Immediately when Mr. Richd. Noble, then Balif, had 
ended his complement, Mr. Henry Wood, then Curate, 
began ye following speech to his Majesty : 

" ' May it please your Majesty, 

< y^g your Majesties most dutiful, and loyal subjects, 
ye Balif, Jurats, and Commoners, Minister, and Pa- 
rishioners of your Majesties ancient Town and Corpora- 
tion of Lydd, humbly beg leave, with hearts full of 
gratitude to ye Divine Providence, wch hath preserved 
yr. Majesty from ye iminent danger of ye seas, joyfully 
to congratulate your safe arrival into ys, your Kingdom 
of Great Britain, to wish yr. Majesty a safe and speedy 
journey to your capital, and a long and happy reign over 
a dutiful and affectionate People, a people who only want 
to know yr. Majesty and their own happiness in order to 
love your sacred person with ye most ardent affection, 
and to return ye felicity they enjoy under yr. mild and 
gracious administration with ye profoundest and most 
cheerful obedience. There is yet one wish remaining 
wch we reserve for ye last, because we know it is what 
sits neardlt to yr. Royal heart, even yt it may please ye 
Divine Providence to prosper yr. Majesties pious endea- 

vours for ye protection and security of ye Protestant faith 
abroad, to ye maintenance of true Religion, to ye just 
confusion of superstition and tyranny, to the lasting 
honour of yr. Majesties name, and ye brightening of ye 
crown of Glory, yt awaits yr. Majesty in ye next life. 

" ' May it please yr. Majesty, I have a very high sense 
of ye great honour I now enjoy, but I am not at all for- 
getful of ye rigour of the season, and therefore in tender- 
ness to yr. Majesty I must do violence to my self by 
putting an immediate stop to ye most -grateful of employ- 
ments, yt of prayers and good wishes for ye prosperity of 
yr. Majesty and ye Royal Family. But tho ye due con- 
sideration of time and place obliges me to contract my 
own happiness, my zeal for yr. Majesty and your Royal 
Family shall always have its full scope elsewhere, even in 
ye temple, in ye desk, ye pulpit, and at ye Altar, and 
herein all considerate persons will in their several sta- 
tions and capacities follow my example, as being intirely 
convinced yt, whilst they are praying for your Majesty 
and ye Royal Family, they are in ye most effectual 
manner praying for ye continuance of their own preser- 
vation and happiness. 

"'I humbly hope yr. Majesty will be pleased graciously 
to excuse a faltering tongue unable to express ye affec- 
tion of a heart overawed by yr. Majesties presence.' 

" Ld. Townsend said yt his Majesty vvas well pleased 
with every part of ye speech, and so they drove on." 

Perhaps it may be as well to insure the safety of 
the above in "N. & Q.," for a remarkable instance 
of how parish registers may be mutilated came 
within my own knowledge about thirty years ago. 

I was then intimate with an old major, in the 
East India Company's service, who was, at that 
time, about seventy years of age. For some pur- 
pose he wanted a certificate of his birth, which had 
occurred in a parish in Ireland. When the parish 
register was examined, the page on which his birth 
would have been entered was found to have been 
torn out of the book. This caused inquiry as to 
who had had an opportunity of, and 
ultimately the daughter of a former vicar, who was 
fortunately still alive, confessed that, as the entry 
of her birth stood next to that of the major, she 
had, when a young woman, torn out the page and 
burnt it, in order that no person might know her 
exact age. RALPH N. JAMES. 

Ashford, Kent. / + 

THE HINDU TRIAD. In these times of religious 
controversy it may not be altogether uninteresting 
to notice the curious coincidence, that in India, 
while temples abound dedicated to the second and 
third persons of the Hindu Trinity, none is known, 
so far as I am aware (and I had a twelve years' local 
experience, and have read many works on the 
subject), of the first person, Brahma, or of the 
Trinity in Unity, Brahm. SP. 

THE IRISH PEERAGE. By the death of Lord 
Blayney, which happened on the 18th of January, 
the Crown has the power of creating a fresh Irish 

The last appointment, that of the barony of 
Rathdonnell,;took place in December, 1868, within a 

5 :h S. 1. FEB. 21, 74.] 



month of the Marquis of Hastings's death and the 
extinction of his Irish honours. Since then, three 
more peerages being the number necessary to 
give the Crown this prerogative have become 

They are 1. The Viscounty of Strangford, in 
January, 1869 ; 2. The Barony of Howden, in 
October, 1873 ; and 3. The Barony of Blayney, in 
January, 1874. 

The Government, if they wish an appointment 
to please the Irish (Home Eulers and their 
opponents), should advise that an Irish dukedom 
be conferred on one of the royal princes. 


ORDER BEFORE CULLODEN. From an old news- 
paper, The Bath Journal, for May 5, 1746, I send 
this extract : 

" The following is a copy of the Rebels' Orders before 
the Battle of Culloden, found in the Pocket of one of the 
prisoners : 

" ' Parole. 

" ' Roy Jaques. 

" ' It is his Royal Highness's positive Orders, that every 
Person attach himself to some Corps of the Army, and 
remain with the Corps Night and Day, until the Battle 
and Pursuit be finally over, and to give no Quarter to the 
Elector's Troops on no Account whatsoever. This regards 
the Foot as well as Horse. The Order of Battle is to be 
given to every General Officer and every Commander of a 
Regiment or Squadron. 

" ' It is requir'd and expected of each Individual in the 
Army, as well Officer as Soldier, that he keeps the Posl 
he shall be allotted ; and if any man turns his back to 
run away, the next behind such man is to shoot him. 

" ' No Body, upon Pain of Death, is to strip the Slain, or 
plunder, until the Battle is over. The Highlanders to 
be in Kilts, and no Body to throw away their Guns. 

" 'Sign'd, George Murray, Lt. Gen.' " 


NE SUTOR, &c. The principal manufacture o: 
shoes in Scotland is at Selkirk, and the shoes there 
are made by the " sutors," a name still given to 
the burgesses, who qualify themselves by licking 
the " birse," a brush of hogs' bristles, which is passec 
from mouth to mouth. F. S. 


FIFTY YEARS AGO. I remember, among the 
humours of the time, a current example of apt 
translation. An archbishop had sent a present o 
fish to a friend a bon vivant who facetiously ac- 
knowledged it thus : 

"En ! venit in disco piscis ab Archiepisco- 
po non ponatur, quia nonreturn datur." 

Translated, but whether by the archbishop or hi 
friend, I do not recollect : 

" In a dish "I hop wasn't there 

Came some fish V Because there was no beer.' 

From the Archbish ) 


CACOGRAPHY, or, let me call what follows 
abnormal spelling, of which I made a note on 

eading Ouida's work, Under Two Flags. ' I think 
;hat was the volume. 62, honor, scepter ; 64, 
uster ; 66, ascendency ; 71, saber; 80, marvelous j 
85, odor ; 86, favor ; 87, succored ; 106, succor ; 
L12, Brummagen ; 119, meager ; 125, quarreling, 
rancor; 142, offense ; 150, theater ; 164, equaled;. 
166, leveled ; 172, unrivaled ; 1T7, quarreled ; 179, 
:entered ; 185, somber ; 232, fibers ; 239, plalanx ; 
256, Eambrandt ; 268, 383, esprit du corps ; 31 8,, , 
defense ; 324, reveler ; 376, traveled ; 482,, 
traveler. The above orthography is surely 
eccentric, whether it be the printer's or the lady's. 


the Entry Book, No. 105, of the Protector Oliver's 
Council of State (in the Public Eecord Office), page- 
333, is the following order : 

" Thursday, 14th August, 1656. 
" His Highness the Lord Protector present. 

" Upon consideracon of the humble peticon of Thomas-- 
Herbert, Esq r , w th an accompt thereunto annexed, of 
Two hundred twenty nyne pounds five shillings, dis- 
bursed by him, and Cap' Anthony Mildmay, for y e in- 
term' of the Late King, the sayd accompt hayeing been 
examined and allow'd by Col. Thomas Harrison, The 
Counsell doe approve of y e sayd accompt, and order y v 
the same be allow'd." 

I am not aware that the foregoing extract has 
ever been printed, and if not, it may interest some 
of your readers. The amount, 2291. 5s., exactly 
agrees with that given on page 211 of Sir Thomas- 
Herbert's account of the funeral of the king, 
annexed to his Memoirs, &c., 3rd edit., 8vo.,. 
London, 1815. After giving several of the 
particulars of this bill, Herbert says (p. 213),, 
" The Accompt being examin'd and proved, I had 
a Discharge " ; although he does not give the date, 
which we can now supply from the Council Entry- 
Book, quoted above. It is curious that the order 
is dated more than seven years subsequent to iho- 

HENRY W. HENFREY, F.E. Hist. S., &c. 

14, Park Street, Westminster. 

FORFARSHIRE SONG. The following is a more- 
than usually successful imitation of old song. It 
is taken from a MS., written in rustic hand, and 
apparently about forty years old ; but I can say 
nothing of its authorship : 

" Lord Spynie, ye may pu' the rose, 

An' spare the lily flower, 
When ye gae through the gardens green 

To woo in lady's bower. 
An' ye may pu' the lichtsome thyme, 

An' leave the lanesome rue ; 
For lang an' sair will the lady mourn 

That ye gae there to woo. 
For ye will look an' talk o' love, 

An' kindly, kindly smile, 
An" vow by grace an' a' that 's gude ; 

An' lay the luring wile. 
'Tis sair to rob the bonny bird 
That maks yon melodic ; 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74. 

'Tis cruel to win a woman's love 
An' no hae lojre to gi'e. 

I wadna hae your wilfu' hand 

Tho' a' the earth were thine. 
Ye 've broken mony a maiden's heart, 

Ye 've mair than broken mine. 

I wadna hae your faithless heart 

It 's no your ain to gi'e ; 
But gin ye ever think o' heaven, 
O ye man think o' me ! " 

W. F. (2). 

" Palmer told me that in the wild country to the East, 
where the slaves come from, and the natives of which 
are called Donkos or 'the stupid' (Barbaroi), dwelt a 
people who did not believe in the existence of the soul 
after death, who laughed when they heard of such a 
thing, and said that when a man was born he was born, 
and that when a man died he was dead, and that then 
there was an end of the palaver." 

So writes Mr. Winwood Eeade, in his chapter 
on Akropong, The African Sketch Book, vol. ii., 
pp. 128-9. The derivation of the word donkey has 
been more than once discussed in " N. & Q." I 
should like to add the suggestion that it comes 
from donkos stupid, to those previously made. 
Some survivor of West Coast fevers may have in- 
troduced the term into England, or it may have 
been imported from the plantations in the other 
hemisphere. ST. SWITHIN. 

SHOTTEN HERRING. Mr. Halliwell, in his Dic- 
tionary (ed. 1850), gives us the meaning for this 
term, " A gutted herring, dried for keeping ; meta- 
phorically, a lean meagre fellow, a term of con- 
tempt." Several illustrations follow. In Harris's 
State of the County of Down (Dublin, 1744) I find 
the following, in his chapter on the herring 
fishery : 

"They [the herrings] are poor and weak after they 
have spawned, and stay on our coasts some time to 
recover strength. Such as are taken in that condition 
are called shotten herring, and are not worth the expense 
of salt and barrel. When they recover some strength 
they go back to the Northern Sea, where they find 
plenty of food fit for nourishing and fattening them." 


KINGLEADER. This -paragraph, from TJie Times, 
of January 26, 1874, should have, I think, a place 
in the columns of "N. & Q.": 

" THE WORD ' RINGLEADER.' The Rev. J. Hoskyns- 
Abrahall writes to us : ' Lord Coleridge (see Law Report 
in The Times, January 22) has mentioned, as justifying 
his decision of a case, an instance of the word ' ring- 
leader ' in no bad sense, the passage in which it occurs 
being this : ' It may be reasonable to allow St. Peter a 
primacy of order, such a one as the ringleader hath in a 
dance.' Barrow's Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy. 
Oxford edn. of Works, 1830; vol. vii., p. 70. There can be 
added the following from Fox's Preface to Tyndall's 
Works : ' In the number of whom may rightly be ac- 
compted, and no lesse recommended to the studious 
Christen reader, these three learned fathers of blessed 
memory, William Tyndall, John Frith, and Robert Barnes, 

chief ringleaders, in these latter tymes, of thys Church of 
England.' " 


examples of these are within my own knowledge. 
I should be glad to see the list extended : 

Amotherby (Yorkshire), Amerby. 

Barfrestone (Kent), Bars'on. 

Cirencester (Gloucestershire), Cicester and Ciciter. 

Goodnestone (Kent), Godstone. 

Leighton Beaudesert (Bedfordshire), L. Buezard. 

Leominster (Herefordshire), Lemster. 

Lilleshall (Salop), Linsell. 

Pontefract (Yorkshire), Pomfret. 

Pontesbury (Salop), Ponslury. 

Trottescliffe (Kent), Trosley. 

Uttoxeter (Staffordshire), Uxeter and Uxler. 

Wednesbury (Salop), Widgebury. 

Some of these abbreviations are oral only ; others 
would be used also in writing. A. J. MUNBY. 

NORFOLK DIALECT. One quiet morning in 
summer, I heard a noise in the garden which 
sounded like a woodpecker's tap. I asked what it 
was, and was told that " It was nothing but the 
mavish a knapping, of the dodmans." I was 
obliged to request an explanation ; but it was not 
till after many questions that I was able to under- 
stand that my gardener only meant to tell me that 
" The thrushes were breaking the snail shells." I 
afterwards found that the word " knapping " had, 
in that part of Norfolk, given the name to a once 
profitable trade. The people employed in pre- 
paring flints for the army before the invention of 
percussion-caps were called "knappers." 


In looking over that useful work, Heraldry, His- 
torical and Popular (second edition, 1863), I have 
observed a few omissions of a not altogether un- 
important character, which I hope will be supplied 
in the next edition. Amongst these, I may mention 
the following : 1. The origin and meaning of the 
peculiar crown, above referred to. 2. The Lyon 
(not " Lion," as elsewhere spelled by the authoi) 
King of Arms, who is not noticed in the list of 
Kings of Arms at p. 326, although the English and 
Irish are. 3. The earliest instance of a " feather 
badge" in England (King Stephen). 4. The 
proper description of the " pheon," which is merely 
styled "the barbed head of a spear or arrow," 
which it is certainly not, for it is peculiarly dis- 
tinguished by the indentation of the inner edges 
of its flanges. 5. The Broad Arrow, so conspicuous 
amongst charges, is altogether unnoticed. 6. The 
significance of the coronet of the Earl of Arundel 
(1445), &c. 

I own that these are but trifling errors ; but as a 
compiler's labour, to a certain extent, is limited to , 

5* S. I. FtB. 21, 74.] 



utilizing the studies of others, we do him .a service 
when we point out omissions, and do not seek to 
disparage him. Another improvement that may be 
suggested is marginal references to authorities, 
and the sources of opinions expressed when not 
original not that we expect originality. SP. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

" N. & Q." 2 nd S. iv. 351, is a query as to the 
name of a wood engraver whose works bear the 
initials I. F., which called forth an interesting note 
from the editor, assigning them to John Froben, of 
Bale, better known as a printer. Of Froben, under 
the Latinized name of Frobenius, there is a fine 
portrait by Holbein in the collection of Mr. Thomp- 
son, at Sheriff Hutton. The portrait is that of a 
shrewd and intelligent man of middle age, in a 
black dress trimmed with fur ; before him is a case 
for type, much the same as those now in use, and 
a small-sized ball, with which to put the ink on the 
type ; behind him is a book-case with books on 
the shelves : the whole highly-finished and in won- 
derful preservation. At the foot of the picture, 
on a sort of window-sill, is written (in one line), 


The picture is painted on an oak panel, and in the 
centre of the back is beautifully cut, by some 
expert wood engraver, a shield of arms, apparently, 
or, a serpent erect wavy, surrounded by the collar 
of the Order of the Saint-Esprit with the cross sus- 
pended, and above the shield a ducal coronet. 
These may be the arms of a former possessor of the 
picture, and some of your correspondents con- 
versant with foreign heraldry may be able to say 
to what family they belong. There is also an old 
wax seal in one corner, with I H and what looks 
like a coronet over the letters. I may add that 
John Froben's books, as painted by Holbein, are 
all represented with their fore edges outwards, 
each with metal clasps, except one, which is tied 
with silk. G. D. T. 

EGBERT DE WYCLIF. Can any one tell me 
whether this Robert, of Kent, mentioned in the 
following enrolment, was any relation to the great 
Reformer, John Wyclif ? I also print this docu- 
ment to keep before students the fact that in 
Chaucer's time, villeins, and their children and 
goods, were conveyed with estates as part of the 
appurtenances to it : 

"18 June, 9 Ric. II., 1386. Conmtssiones, Lilere 
patentes, & script 1 * recognita de termino Sawed Hillarij 
Anno decimo [Ricardi II.]. 

" Kanct'a. Carta Roberti Wyclif clerici cogm'ta. 

"Memorandum quod Johannes de Appleton 
vem'< coram Baronibws. xxiiij die Febrwam hoc termino, 
et exhibuit Curt'e quandam cartam petens illam irrotulari, 
& Barones illam irrotulari perceperunt in hac verba. 
Sciant presentes & futuri qwod ego Robertus de Wyclif, 
clericus, dedi, concessi, & hac presenti carta mea con- 
firmaui Johanni de Appleton & Elizabethe vxori ems* 
Manerium meum de Dertford, ac omnia terras & tene- 
menta, prata, pascua, pasturas, redditus & seruicia, 
reuersiones & feoda, ac corpora villanorwm, cum 
eorum catallis & sequelis, cum perkinentibus que ego & 
predzctas Johawwes haJuimws de dono & feoffamento 
Wittelmi de latymer domim de Danby in villis de Dertford, 
Wylmyngton, Crayford, Stone & Darente in Comite 
Kancte, Ha&endwm & tenendwm eisdem Johanni & Eliza- 
bethe vxori eius,* & assignatis suis, de capitalibws 
dom'nis feodi, per seruicia inde debita & consueta, im- 
perpetuum. Et ego, predicts Robertus predi'ctam 
Manerium, ac omnia terras, tenementa, prata, pascua, 
pasturas, redditus, & seruicia, reuersiones & feoda, ac 
corpora yillanorwm cum eorwm. catallis & sequelis, cum 
pertinentibus, prefatis Johanni & Elizabethe vxori eius 
heredibws & assignatis suis, contra omnes gentes 
warrantizabo imperpetoiMm. In cuius rei testimonium 
Huic presenti carte mee sigillum meum apposui ; Hiis 
testibtw Galfrto*o Conale, Ricarcfo Martyn, Wille/mo 
Bull, Roberto Hostiler, Willelmo Monce, & aliis. 
Data apud Dertford, xviij die Junij Anno Regni Regis 
Ricardi secwndi post conquestum Angh'e nono. Et super 
hoc, predicts Robertus Wyclif, presens in Curia pre- 
dicto xxiiij. die Febrwarii cognouit coram prefatis 
Baronibws dt'cten cartam esse factum suum." 


BANK OF THE RHINE. Collection des Romans 
de Chevalerie mis en Prose Frangaise Moderne, par 
Alfred Delvau, tome iii., Paris, 1869, Bibliotheque 

Cologne and Tre'rnoigne on the left bank of the 

Is Cologne called Tre"-Moigne from the skulls of 
the three magi, Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar, 
said to be buried there ;t or are they different 
cities to which distinct localities can be assigned ? 


Oldys (Biog. Brit. iii. 2061) mentions a Medley 
of Diverting Sayings, Stories, Characters, &c., in 
verse and prose, in quarto, which was written about 
the year 1686 (as it was attested in another hand), 
by Charles Cotton, Esq., the author of the second 
part of Walton's Angler, and which was some time 
in the library of the Earl of Halifax. Who is the' 
present possessor of this volume ? 


church of Blidworth, in Sherwood Forest, Notts, 
is a dilapidated alabaster monument, with a border 
of stags' heads, cross-bows, and other emblems of 
wood-craft; in the centre the following inscription 

* Qy. " et heredibus " left out. 

f History of Germany, by Mrs. Markham, p. 123. 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74. 

(which has been renewed on stone). What is its 


"" Heere rests T. Leake, whose vertves weere so kiiowne 
In all these parts, that this engraved stone 
Needs navght relate, bvt his vntimely end, 
Which was in single fight : whylst youth did lend 
His ayde to valor, hee w th ease orepast 
Many slyght dangers, greater then this last. 
But will-full fate in these things governs all. 
Hee towld out three-score years before his fall, 
Most of w h tyme hee wasted in this wood, 
Much of his wealth, and last of all his blcocb 
"1608. Feb. 4." 

W. G. 

NICOLAS DE BRUYN. I have some old engrav- 
ings by him (date 1600); are they scarce or 
valuable? They are Scriptural subjects, Garden 
of Eden, &c. ALLOWAY. 

FOTHERGILL FAMILY. Wanted information as 
to the following: 

Sir George Fothergill, a Norman baron and 
general to Duke William's forces at the taking of 
the city of York; mentioned by Drake in his 
Eboracum. Sir George Fothergill, one of the 
officers at Flodden Field ; this most particularly 
desired. Sir William Fothergill, standard-bearer 
at Solway Moss ; mentioned by Burns in his His- 
tory of Westmoreland. JOHN FOTHERGILL. 

The Botelers, Newton, Sudbury, Suffolk. 

" DESIER." Have any of your correspondents 
ever come across this name (of a woman) ? I have 
had it before me to-day, and feel anxious to know 
its meaning. It is American, I think. 

Point de Galle. 

HAUNTED HOUSES. I should be very glad if 
any of your readers could furnish me with par- 
ticulars of a house, now pulled down, that formerly 
stood in Lavington, near Devizes. I think it was 
once the parsonage. I am also seeking for par- 
ticulars of any legend respecting Stapleton or 
Stepleton Castle, near Presteign, Herefordshire. I 
have heard many weird tales of both these places, 
and should now be thankful for any authentic in- 
formation about either of them. UMBRA. 

" DERBETH." This word occurs as the name 
of a farm in the Lowlands of Scotland. Can any 
of your philological contributors indicate a probable 
derivation ? >A. 


The Historic of France. The first four books 
Printed by John Windet. 1595. 
Who was the author ? 

Printed in Saxon type by 

Is this the first book printed in Saxon type ? 
A Prognostication for the Year of our Lord God, 1569. 
ctised in Salisbury, near unto the Close by Master 

Henry Lou, Doctor in Phisike. Imprinted bv Thomas 

Would this be considered a Salisbury book ? 

B. W. B. 

" THE WHITE ROSE AND BED." Who is the 
author of this clever poem ? It has been attributed 
to Mr. William Allingham, and also to Mr. Bret 
Harte ; but on no other grounds than certain 
similarities of diction. JABEZ. 

Athenaeum Club. 

and where did the above story (I think, by Sala) 
first appear ? D. C. 


" THE ENGLISH MERCURIE," 1588. Who were 
the authors of this remarkable literary fraud? 
D'lsraeli suspected that it was " a' jeu d' esprit of 
historical antiquarianism, concocted by Birch and 
his friends the Yorkes." Has this opinion ever 
been corroborated or disproved ? The circumstances 
of the case are probably too well known to most of 
your readers to need recapitulation here ; but to 
those to whom they may not be known, it will 
only be necessary to refer them to a late edition of 
the Curiosities of Literature, that work having 
passed through eleven editions before the decep- 
tion was found out. MEDWEIG. 

THE PASS or FINSTERMUNZ. What 'event of 
importance has ever taken place in this Pass, which 
is in the Rhsetian Alps between Switzerland and 
the .Tyrol, ten miles north of Glurns ? I have 
failed to find it in any book of reference. 

S. H. Y. 

hard). My mother has often told me that her 
mother, who died about 1835, a clergyman's wife, 
was accustomed to use, as an expression of astonish- 
ment, this phrase. Can any of your readers 
enlighten me as to its meaning or derivation ? I 
suspect it is a corruption from the French. L. 


" THE KALEWALA." Is there any English trans- 
lation, prose or verse, of this work ? I am awa*3 
of the article by Oxenford in the Temple Bar 
Magazine. F. 


TER. The question as to whether the insignia of 
the Order of the Garter were presented to Philip 
of Spain on board his ship, or after his landing 
at Southampton, is one of the minor points of 
history which remain doubtful, for the Earl of 
Shrewsbury's expression, as cited by Mr. Froude, 
" on his coming to land," does not clearly indicate 
whether it was before or after the landing. Is 
there any authentic account of the ceremony which 
would settle the question ? Perhaps some of your 

5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74.] 



readers in these days of minute research may be 
nble to answer. T. A. 

AUTHOR WANTED. In a Dutch play, entitled 
Melibea, Treur-bly-ende-spel, printed at Amster- 
dam, 1618, occurs a long passage in English verse. 
I am anxious to discover whether these lines are 
taken from any English poet, and transcribe the 
first eight in the hope that some of your readers 
may recognize them. Some of the words seem to 
be rather obscure, but this may be due to the errors 
of the Dutch printer: 
" Ah inward creys put up a bitter roule 
'Tis love that is imprinted in my soule 
With beautes scale, and vertue faire disguis'de 
Although Anchrys, alas is now disprys'de 
Wrong sturres remorsed greef, griefes deadly sore, 
But yet the more she frownes I love the more 
And reason can this passion not remove 
Where lore drawes hate, and hate engendreth love." 

F. S. A. 

one furnish the names and addresses of these for 
the years 1778, 1779, 17801 Who was sheriff for 
1825 ? Of two lists, one gives the name of T. S. 
Vernon, Esq., Shrawley; the other, that of Sir 
Thomas Phillips, Bart., Middle Hall. Which is 
correct 1 MONTE DE ALTO. 

" MISTAL." What is the probable derivation 
of this word, in common use here for a cow-house? 
It is so spelled in legal papers I have seen, but 
Halliwell gives it as mirsel, and limits it to York- 
shire only. Is it known in other parts of England ] 


Chapel Allerton, Leeds. 

whole Art of Knowledge, and the Art to know 
Men. Written by a person of quality ; and left 
as a legacy to his son. London, 1698." Who 
was the author 1 ED. MARSHALL. 

THE POPISH PLOT. Bound in a volume of early 
book-sale and other catalogues, I have the first 
two leaves of 

"A compleat Catalogue of all the stitc'h Books and 
single Sheets Printed since the First Discovery of the 
Popish Plot (Sept. 1678) to January 1679-80." 

I should like to know the printer's name and 
date of this, also what leaves are wanting, and if it 
is of any degree of rarity. GEORGE POTTER. 

42, Grove Road, Holloway, N. 

" Quanto post Festum sol rubescit 

Tanto .... frigus crescit." 

Would any of your readers enable me to fill up 
this old saying in monkish Latin, which I re- 
member to have heard in former days 1 I do not 
remember either line correctly, and should be 
grateful for the information, peculiarly appropriate 
to this season. J. W. WALLER. 

" ABIDED." Can the use of this word instead 
of " abode " be justified 1 I am surprised to see it 

used by Sir Arthur Helps, in his recent book, 
Some Talk about Animals. At p. 144, I find, 
" but when he had chosen it, he abided by it " ; 
and again, at p. 161, " they had the satisfaction of 
having abided by their principle." C. B. M. 

LL.M. DEGREE. I have just taken this com- 
paratively new degree at Cambridge, and, like 
many others, I am anxious to know whether there 
is a distinctive hood. I am told that I may wear 
the usual M.A. hood, but I rather object to this, 
as white is certainly not a law colour. It seems 
that the proper hood should be black lined with 
blue. If there is not such a hood, has the Vice- 
Chancellor, or the Eegius Professor of Law, 
power to grant one ? The question is important 
to many clergymen who have taken the degree in- 
stead of M.A. I believe there is no degree like 
it in any other University. 


A NEGRO ETONIAN. The story is going round 
the papers, that a negro, Elliot, born in Massa- 
chusets, and now in Congress, a representative of 
South Carolina, was educated at Eton, England, 
which I very much doubt. Can any one tell me 
whether he was so or not ? Nearly every so-called 
negro, who is pushed forward, is said by the admi- 
nistration papers to have had a first-class education 
in France or England, and to be an " elegant 
gentleman"; but this is the first I remember to 
have seen " located," and would like to be able to 
deny it authoritatively, if possible. F. H. D. 

Louisville, Ky., U.S.A. 

I shall be grateful for any information about the 
life, and literary work, and reputation of Agnes 
Bulmer, authoress of Messiah's Kingdom, a long 

foem, in twelve books (London, Eivingtons, 1833). 
t is spoiled by digressions and wretched lyrics 
dragged in to the supposed relief of the ordinary 
heroic measure, which is, however, itself fairly done 
in every way. I think it would still be read with 
pleasure by those who are fond of such religious 
writing, for, though tedious to the general reader, 
James Montgomery noticed it with some praise, 
and, moreover, declared it to be the longest poem 
by a lady in any language that he was acquainted 
with. J. H. I. OAKLEY. 


(4 th S. xii. 321, 349, 371,389,416, 459; 5 th S. i. 130.) 

(Concluded from p. 131 J 

W. F. F., in the second part of his paper in 
reply to mine (p. 389), urges that " the notion that 
our sovereign's title to the crown was ever derived 
from her coronation is an entire error ; the corona- 



[5 th S. I. FKB. 21, 74. 

tion was only a solemn recognition of a right already 
vested." He supports this by instancing Henry III., 
Edward I. and II., and winds up by stating that 
" those who had it (i. e., an hereditary title) were 
at once recognized as having it." In my view, of 
course, coronation was the completion of the act of 
election ; to the choice of the people the sanction 
of the Church was given. I conceive that I am 
justified in this by the constant practice in the 
chroniclers of calling the king-elect " dux," " domi- 
nus," or something like it, before the rite of coro- 

(1) Henry II. Hoveden (i. 213) says, " Henricus, 
dux Normannorum .... coronatus, et in regern 
consecratus a Theobaldo," &c. So too Matthew 
Paris (i. 299). 

(2) Kichard I. is called " Count of Poictou," then 
" dux Normannorum," and not " rex " till his 
coronation (v. Hoveden, iii. 3 ; Matthew Paris, ii. 3, 
iii. 208 ; and Benedict of Peterborough, ii. 73). 

(3) So too as regards John. (Matthew Paris, ii. 
78, iii. 219). 

(4) An interval occurs between John's death 
and the occasion when (Matthew Paris, ii. 195) the 
chronicler says the chief men came together " ut 
Henricum in regem Angliae feliciter exaltarent." 

(5) Edward I. The Annals of Worcester (Annales 
Monastici, iv. 462) call him "dominus" till his 
return and coronation, and even W. F. F. has to 
allow that " he then began to reign," i. e., from the 
time of his father's funeral, not of his death. And 
the Chronicon Monasterii de Melsd (ii. 160) speak 
of Edward as " dictus Edvardus " till his coronation, 
when the royal title is first given to him. 

(6) Edward II. The last-named authority (p. 
279) calls Edward II. " dominus," and then adds 
" coronatus est in regem." 

On the whole question I may refer to Allen's 
Royal Prerogative, 46 seq. (My references are all 
to the editions in the Rolls Series). 

Thus, I think, I have disproved this statement 
of W. F. F. as to the effect of coronation. I pro- 
pose to treat the two instances, as yet discussed by 
him, with greater minuteness in a second paper, 
i. e., Edward II. and Richard II. 

MR. PURTON (p. 459) asks me in which of his 
works Pole said " populus regem creat." I got the 
fact from Mr. Froude's History (iii. 34). He there 
discusses the De Unitate Ecclesia of Pole, in which 
this phrase occurs. I beg to thank him for the 
two valuable witnesses he brings on my side. The 
whole subject is well worth being discussed, as it 
involves the question of how far the powers of the 
Parliament extend, a point which is of great pre- 
sent interest. W. A. B. C. 

P.S. Since writing the first part of my reply 
to the arguments of W. F. F., I have come across 
a very weighty authority on my side Sir Harris 
Nicolas in his Chronology of History (in Lardner's 
Cabinet Cyclopedia). He discusses the question 

of coronation, not from a constitutional point of 
view, but with sole reference to accurate chronology 
(pp. xv. 284 seq.). His conclusion is that, " from 
the reign of John to that of Edward VI., the 
several reigns did not commence until some act of 
sovereignty was performed by the new monarch 
(generally the ' proclamation of his peace '), or until 
he was publicly recognized by his subjects ; and 
that in the cases of the first eight kings after the 
Conquest, their reigns did not begin till . . . the 
coronation." He supports this opinion by citations 
from Mr. (now Sir Thomas) Duffus Hardy's Intro- 
duction to the Close Rolls, Tyrrel's Sibliotheca, 
Politico,, Allen's Royal Prerogative, L'Art de 
Verifier les Dates, and an essay by Mr. Thomas 
Astle, F.S.A. He then goes on to discuss each 
reign separately with great learning. 

To come now to the particular case of Edward II. 

(1.) In the account of the proceedings given by 
the Chronicon Monasterii de Melsd, it is asserted 
that "factum est Parliamentum apud Londonias" 
and that this Parliament deposed (" ulterius non 
regnare ") Edward and elected his son. The king 
resigns his crown "sperans filium suum post se- 
regnaturum"; " quo facto apud Londonias publicato- 
statim definitum est per onines regni nobiles, quod 
films pro patre ad regni regimen admitteretur." 
Again when describing the coronation, the 
chronicler says " deposito Edwardo a regni regimin 
films suus. . . electus est in regem"; and the 
coronation follows. 

(2.) Capgrave in his Chronicle speaks as follows : 
" And then (i. e. at London) begunne a Parle- 
ment the next day after the Epiphanie, where was 
concluded be alle the lordes, that the king was 
insufficient to govern the people : wherefor they 
chose the Prince to be kyng." But the prince 
refuses the crown; "he made his avow to God that 
he schuld never take the crowne with oute his 
fader consent." Capgrave then continues thus: 
" Than, be the decre of the Parlement thei sent 
to the kyng, 2 bischoppis, 2 herlis, 2 abbotes, 
4 barones, and of every schire of Ynglond, 3 Icnytes, 
ivith btirgeis of othir tonnes to notifie to the kyng 
the sentens of the Parlement; also that' he was 
deposed and his son Edward chosen." The olu 
king then in great grief resigned the crown. Cap- 
grave adds, "in his (i. e., Edward III.) first yere 
he wrote lettyres to alle the schiris in Ynglond 
that his fader had resigned and he was chose bi the 
comenauti of the reme for to be kyng." 

(3.) Walsingham's account is very similar, espe- 
cially as to the composition of the deputation. 

This assertion of Edward's, coupled with his 
declaration as prince (cited by W. F. F. without 
reference) that he would not accept the crown till his 
father had abdicated voluntarily, seems to be con- 
clusive. Capgrave's testimony as to the composition 
of the deputation justifies the inference that persons 
of those degrees sat in the Parliament. Of course, 

5 th S. I. FEB. 21, '74.] 



to depose a king is always an extreme measure, 
and almost necessarily accompanied by force ; but 
the point is that Parliament was consulted before 
the final step was taken, thus acknowledging its 
power of deposition. Besides, to deny this power 
is nothing less than denying the title of her 
Majesty to the crown. 

Now as to Richard II. W. F. F. contends that 
because the title of the barons was hereditary, 
that of the king was also ; this no doubt was so in 
a perfectly organized feudal hierarchy ; but in Eng- 
land the policy of the Conqueror prevented the 
growth of perfect feudalism and preserved the 
old national rights of the English, among them 
that of choosing a king. Thus it came to pass 
that after the Conquest the king occupied a double 
position : he was the national sovereign and feudal 
suzerain ; in the former case election, though 
often formal, still went on ; in the latter allegiance 
could be formally renounced. For to deny either 
of these propositions lands one immediately in 
that great bog of de facto and de jure claims, of 
which the best example is the state of affairs in 

W. F. F. too (p. 421) asserts the control of 
Parliament over the king's ministers ; but, as far 
as I am aware, the origin of ministerial responsi- 
bility cannot be dated earlier than Edward IIL's 
reign. The case of the Spensers is not in point, 
for they were put to death not as royal ministers, 
but as royal favourites. 

As to Mr. Freeman's statement respecting 25 
Edw. III. c. 2., W. F. F., it seems to me, strangely 
misconceives the meaning of his expression " suc- 
cession to the crown." Whether kings be elected 
or reign by divine right, there is always a succession 
to the throne ; and to confine it to the latter case 
is absurd. Besides, Mr. Freeman's explanation of 
the whole matter is the one which any careful 
reader would arrive at, and which only the tech- 
nical construction of a lawyer could deny. 

W. F. F. quotes from the Close Rolls to prove 
that Richard II. succeeded his grandfather at once; 
but they merely assert that, Edward III. having 
died on June 21, the great seal was given to the 
king and bestowed by him on some one else, on 
June 22. This is very different from the modern 
theory, that when the king dies, his heir succeeds 
at once, " le roi est mort ; vive le roi." Then, too, 
when we consider who was the eldest male of the 
royal house Lancaster and remember the violent 
opposition to him in the last years of Edward III., 
and find that the first acts of Parliament were to 
elect Peter de la Mare, Speaker of the Good Par- 
liament, Speaker again, and to revive the prose- 
cution against Alice Perrers, we must admit that 
there were special reasons for the very remarkable 
election of a child as king. Mr. Freeman himself 
allows that the succession of Richard II. " marks 
a distinct stage in the growth of the doctrine of 

hereditary right " (Growth of English Constitution, 
2nd ed. p. 219). We do not find any longer state- 
ments as to the election of one king after another, 
but only cases, growing rarer and rarer as we go 
on, in which Parliament is called in to settle the 

Technically, of course, king, lords and commons 
are the three branches of the sovereign body of 
England ; but, practically, power has always 
rested with the two latter, and, I conceive, it is 
the omission of the king's assent which is the 
reason of Mr. Freeman calling the Parliament 
which deposed Richard II. " in some sort irregu- 
lar"; but this can only be a difficulty to lawyers, 
and I should think that even they would rather 
give up all their technicalities than sacrifice the 
welfare of the kingdom to their professional pre- 

(1.) Walsingham gives a good account of all the 
proceedings ; he speaks of the writs sent out " sub 
nomine Ricardi regis," and says, that after his 
resignation Richard added, " quod desideravit ut 
dux Lancastrite succederet sibi in regno ; sed quia 
hoc in potestate sud non erat. . . ."; thus clearly 
allowing the superior authority of Parliament. 
Walsingham adds that " quoniam videbatur cunctis 
regni statibus quod illse causa? (i. e., the list of 
articles of accusation) erant sufficientes et notoriaB 
ad deponendum eundem regem." Sentence was 
given against him ," per pares et proceres regni 
Anglice spirituales et temporales, et ejus regni com- 
munitates, omnes status ejusdem regni reprcesen- 
tantes"; for this reason, and the king's confession 
of incapacity, "ipsum Ricardum. . . . merito 
deponendum pronuntiamus, decernimus et decla- 

He adds, as to Lancaster's claim that " postquam 
quidem vindicationem tarn Domini spirituales 
quam temporales, et omnes regni status concesse- 
runt unanimiter, ut dux prsefatus super eos reg- 
naret "; and that the Archbishop of York preached 
on the text " vir dominabitur in populo (I. Samuel 
ix. 17, A. V.) 

(2.) Capgrave and (3.) Contin. Eulog. Hist. 
describe the deposition in very much the same way. 

Mr. Hallam, too, thinks that it was a " national 
act and should prevent our considering the Lan- 
castrian kings as usurpers of the throne," and that 
"it was one of those cases of extreme urgency 
which leave no security for the common weal but 
the deposition of the reigning prince." His com- 
parison of the revolutions of 1399 and 1688 has 
become classical ; he ends it by the following very 
remarkable confirmation of the theory, which I am 
upholding, " in this contrivance (i. e., issuing writs 
for Parliament returnable in six days) more than 
in all the rest, wt may trace, the hand of lawyers.'' 
The renunciation of Richard was supplemented by 
a solemn deposition founded on specific charges of 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74. 

It does not seem to me that the violence in this 
case, so much insisted on by W. F. F., was any- 
thing more than is the almost necessary accom- 
paniment of the exertion of the highest power of 
the Parliament ; and the degrading .Richard's 
adherents was very natural indeed. 

No doubt, Kichard was in duress and his abdi- 
cation was null : this was felt, and hence the solemn 
sentence of Parliament ; but the Parliament was 
free, for all men were disgusted with the failure 
of the fair promise of Richard's youth, and only 
waited for a leader to rise against him. Then, 
when Henry had obtained the crown, his discon- 
tented adherents went over to the remains of 
Richard's party. It is what always happens at 
such crises, e. g., the Presbyterians joined the 
Episcopalians to restore Charles II. in 1660. 

W. F. F., by the branding of Henry IV. by 
Parliament, probably means what took place in 
the first Parliament of Edward IV. ; but then the 
country had just been going through a prolonged 
civil war, whereas Henry IV. 's so called usurpa- 
tion was the result of a very short struggle, and 
sanctioned by a Parliament, which was a much 
truer representative of the nation than that of 
1461. The internal troubles under Edward IV. 
were much greater than those under Henry IV. 
Thus, I believe thab the parliamentary title of 
Henry IV. was never reversed by a true Parlia- 
ment ; and, even granting the validity of this 
reversal, it, in turn, was reversed in the first year 
of Henry VII. 

I conceive that I have made out my case with 
regard to Edward II. and Richard II. ; but I shall 
be very happy to consider any criticisms, and 
await with great impatience W. F. F.'s special 
pleading in the great cases of Charles I. and 
James II. W. A. B. C. 

Though it is but a trifling matter, I may venture 

to remind W. F. F. that there is no mistake (5 th 

S. i. 4) in calling Lionel the third son of Edward 

III. William, who died an infant, was the second. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Had the Lancet correspondents looked into a 
Greek Lexicon or Testament, and one or two other 
old books, including Sir Thomas Browne's Pseudo- 
doxia, they might have avoided some vulgar errors. 
AeirrepoTT/DcuTw shows that the writer was thinking 
of its occurrence, in St. Luke vi. 1, as the first 
Sabbath after the second [day of unleavened bread]. 
Hence he would use it in its proper signification of 
the first of something after the second of something 
else ; and, though he rather bungled his phrase, it 
is pretty plain that he meant the first [year] after 
the second [climacteric year]. Anno climacterico 8. 
to be the true analogue of ev o-a/3/3aTw 8. should 
mean in the first climacteric year after'his second 

[natural year, or year of his birth] ; but as that is 
nonsense, we must fall back on the other. 

To the question, what is the second climacteric 
year ] there may be two answers, but I apprehend 
that, unless to a caviller who harps upon the 
uncertainty, there is but one. The climacteric 
numbers were 7 and 9 ; so that, whether in days 
or years,, the series 7, 14, 21, &c., were climacteric, 
and so were 9, 18, 27, and all multiples of 9. 
7 x 7 = 49 was an especial climacteric. 9x9 
= 81 was one of the two grand climacterics; but 
the other, the grand climacteric par excellence, was 
63, because, being 7x9 and 9 x 7, it partook of 
the virtues of both numbers. Sickness in this 
year was especially feared, and in it, says Minsheu 
and doubtless very truly " many worthy men 
died." But the usual climacterics seem to have 
been septennial (perhaps for astrological reasons, 
and) because within such periods man's body and 
mind were supposed to undergo changes more or 
less complete. " For the dales of man are usually 
cast up by Septenaries, and every seventh year 
conceived to carry some altering character with it, 
either in the temper of body, mind, or both." 
(Browne's Vulgar Errors, b. iv. ch. 12, where are 
some remarks on the subject beyond his age.) 
These Septenaries, too, agreed with the ordinary 
calculations of the periods of youthful life, and 
with these periods only, for while " Adolescence, 
Juventus, Senecta," and others would not fall in 
with these series, the others did. Infancy without 
teeth was said to last seven months : 

"Infancia, childhood that breedeth teeth endureth 

and stretcheth seauen yeares Afterward commeth 

y" second age y' is called Pueritia, childhood : which 

dureth and lasteth other seuen year And after 

that commeth the age that is called Adolescentia .... 
and dureth the third seauenth yeare . . . . as it says in 
Viatico. But Isidore sayth that it endureth to the fourth 

seauen yeares But Phisitions account this age to 

the ende of thirtie, or fiue and thirtie yeares." Batman 
vppon Bariholome, 1. vi. c. 1. 

Hence, both because it was the more usual mode 
of reckoning climacterics, and because the divisions 
of childhood, boyhood, and sometimes of youth, were 
so reckoned, the father would probably calculate 
by seven-year periods, and note the exit of his 
son, Henry Parson, as 7 + 7 + 1 = in his fifteenth 
year. If, however, he reckoned by the double 
series, 7, 9, 14, 18, &c., the boy would have been 
in his 9 + 1, or tenth year. There is, I believe, no 
authority for translating SeirrepOTrpwros as second- 
first, whether = 9 or = 14. 


P.S. It has since occurred to me that the epitaph 
writer, dwelling over much on a fancied double 
analogy between the seventh, the day of rest, and 
the seventh climacteric year, when the work of 
reconstruction of the body was ended, might have 
taken <raf3(Barov 8. as the first after two of its 
like, the first after two other o-df3/3ara (Coloss. ii. 

S. I. FEB. 21, 74.] 



1), that is, as in the third climacteric year. Thi 
would get rid of the difficulty spoken of above 
The interpretation is erroneous and the analog) 
wrong, for the two previous sabbata were not seven 
day sabbaths ; but the believers in mystical num 
bers would do, and do, much for the sake of an 

TAX" (5 th S. i. 107.) I have found an obituary 
notice of the author of Doctor Syntax in the Times 
Friday, June 20th, 1823. I think it is well worth 
rescuing from the oblivion of a newspaper file fifty 
years back, and it will interest, I dare say, many 
of your readers beside your correspondent M. E. 
It is remarkable that of a writer who could boast 
of having given to the world one hundred books, 
contributed to a score of journals, and furnished 
matter for two thousand columns in the news- 
papers and magazines of his day, we should know 
so little : even his name is generally spelt, as in 
The Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography 
and by Allibone, Coombe, and the last popular 
edition of Doctor Syntax gives 1773 as the date of 
his birth. The Times mentions his Letters of the 
late Lord Littleton (sic) ; Moore has a note on his 
connexion with his lordship : 

" Talked of Combe ; said to be the writer of Macleod's 
Loo-Choo, as he certainly was of of Lord Littleton's 
Letters, and many other books of other people's. Combe 
kicked Lord Littleton downstairs, at some watering 
place, for having ridiculed Lady Archer by calling her a 
drunken peacock, on account of the sort of rainbow 
feathers and dress she wore. Lord L. also had rolled a 
piece of blanc -mange into a ball, and covering it with 
variegated comfits, said, ' Tbis is the sort of egg a drunken 
peacock would lay."' 

Eogers, in his Table, Talk, says of Combe : 

" He was certainly well connected. Fitzpatrick re- 
collected him at Douay College. He moved once in the 
highest society, and was very intimate with the Duke of 
Bedford. Twenty thousand pounds were unexpectedly 
bequeathed to him by an old gentleman, who said ' he 
ought to have been Combe's father ' (that is, he had 
been on the point of marrying Combe's mother), and who 
therefore left him that large sum. Combe contrived to 
get rid of the money in an incredibly short time." 

The following is the notice of his death in the 
Times : 


" Yesterday morning died, between the hours of three 
and four, at his lodgings in Lambeth-road, William 
Combe, Esq., in the 83rd year of his age. He was a 
gentleman who, in the course of his protracted life, had 
suffered many fortunes, and had become known, through 
various incidents, to so many people in every rank of 
society, that it seems hardly necessary to draw his cha- 
racter. His lot forbade his stepping aside in order to 
let the stream of life pass by, and observe whom it swept 
along : he swam, mingled with the rest, down the current, 
but with just so much elevation above the stream as 
enabled him to perceive the sinkings and risings of all 
around him ; so that there was hardly a person of any 
note in his time with whose history he was not in some 
degree acquainted. He knew others as well as he was 

known to them. Upon every branch of art, it might 
almost be said upon every department of science, he 
could expatiate in an instructive and interesting manner. 
The destruction of his fortune, and the incessant calls 
for his pen, rendered profundity unattainable, nor, 
indeed, in his case, was it necessary. 

" It would be difficult to sum up the various works of 
which he was the author or compiler. The Devil upon 
Two Sticks in England was as popular as any in its day, 
and still retains a reasonable degree of celebrity, by the 
delineation of character and display of anecdote, when 
those of whom it treats are no more. The spurious 
breed of Dr. Syntaxes, to which his work has subsequently 
given birth, attest the fame of the original ; and without 
subjecting this work to that severity of criticism which it 
never meant to challenge, it displays such readiness of 
versification, such pliability of intellect, and, we may 
add, such an amiable playfulness of mind, with knowledge 
of the little scenes of domestic life, as are rarely to be 
found in one whom adversity might have steeled, and 
age benumbed. 

"He was educated at Eton and at Oxford, and his 
first entrance into the world was attended 'by those ad- 
ventitious circumstances which but too often seduce the 
possessor some fortune, a graceful person, an extensive 
acquaintance, elegant manners, and a taste for literature. 
He played, he sang, he danced, and it might almost be 
said he was undone ; but his literary attainments which 
remained, when, in the course of nature, lighter ac- 
complishments had lefthim,were converted into the means 
of support. Though mild and unresenting in his nature, 
and habitually sparing of his censures, his first work was 
a satirical poem, entitled the Dialoliad, the subject of 
which has, we believe, sunk into the grave about the 
same time with the author. A singular work, entitled 
Letters of the late Lord Littleton, was written by him : an 
assumed similarity of style to that of the deceased noble- 
man, and the repetition of some unimportant incidents, 
known, as it was supposed, only in the family, deceived, 
as we have been informed, Mr. Windham, one of the 
most acute judges, and Lady Littleton, the nearest friend 
of the deceased, into the belief that the letters were the 
enuine production of his lordship. 

" With the degrading vice of drunkenness Mr. Combe 
was totally unacquainted ; he was equally free also from 
;he practice of gaming of every kind ; and we may add, 
;hat his general qualities, united to his excellent talents, 
which, under happier auspices, might have raised an 
mmble man to fortune and eminence, served to diffuse 

lustre round the declining fortunes of one born in 


[See Life in Hotten's edition of Dr. Syntax.} 

TIONS (5 th S. i. 104.) MR. PASSINGHAM states that 
he Mayor in the Coleraine election of 1832 gave 
lis casting vote for Beresford. The Mayor, as I 
ake it, gave his ordinary vote as an ejector, and 
his, being the last vote given, seated Beresford 
or the time. But a casting vote (ni fallor) is one 
r ested in a special officer over and above his vote 
-s a common elector, and I know of no authority 
>y which a Returning Officer at a Parliamentary 
lection can give such. I see your correspondent 
s in doubt about the Dumbartonshire election, 
865: Smollett took the seat by permission of 
is opponent, also as to the Lanarkshire contest 
f 1837: Lockhart was allowed to count 1486, or 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74. 

one over his opponent, and so was returned. Then 
as to the Totness election of 1839, it should be 
stated that Baldwin subsequently got the seat. 

In the general election of 1874, there has been 
a double return at Athlone, and the Returning 
Officer has seated one of the candidates by what 
the newspapers call (but I think erroneously) his 
casting vote. W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

"ST. GEORGE'S LOFTE" (5 th S. i. 87.) The 
answer to this inquiry is, surely, not far to seek. 
As the Eood Loft was the loft in which the great 
Eood was placed, so St. George's Loft was the loft 
in which was placed the image of St. George. No 
doubt his image was in one of the chapels which, 
in former times, existed in the parish church of 
Kimbolton. In the second year of the reign of 
Edward VI., the churchwardens of Ludlow acknow- 
ledge to have received certain sums of money " for 
the lofte that Saynt George stode one," " for the 
image of Saynt George that stode in the chapelle," 
and " for a volt that the saide image stode in " (aee 
p. 36 of Wright's Churchwardens' Accounts of Lud- 
tow t Camden Society) ; and in the Churchivardens'A c- 
counts of St. Michael's, Cornhill, privatelyprintedby 
Mr. A. J. Waterlow, are references (pp. 11, 15) in 
the years 1457 and 1459 to the image of St. George, 
to its curtains, and to its scaffold. Not long since 
(12th Nov. 1873), I was in the noble parish church 
of Kettering, whose doors stood open to the way- 
farer, where upon the north wall, above the gallery 
pews, I saw a fine large painting of St. George and 
the dragon. B. H. B. 

BERE REGIS CHURCH (4 th S. xii. 492; 5 th S. 
i. 50, 117.) Hutchins, in his Dorsetshire (vol. i. 
p. 47), notices this inscription, but gives no copy 
of the Latin, and only the substance in English, 
cautiously avoiding what a schoolboy would call 
the hard places. He styles it a very long and 
obscure inscription. Under the brass plate is, he 
informs us, " an altar tomb, on the side of which is 
a short inscription and four Latin verses in memory 
of Thomas Loup, who died 16." The rest is hid by 
a pew built against it. In the extracts from the 
Burial Register two other Loups or, as there given, 
Loops are noticed: 1608, George Loop, of Hide; 
1637, John Loop, of ditto, the elder yeoman. In 
the same year Andrew Loup's, or Loop's, name 
occurs, as ef Hide, the elder, Gent., on whom the 
inscription referred to was made. 

I cannot but join my request to MR. TEW'S, that 
some one in the immediate neighbourhood of Bere 
Regis would verify the text of the inscription as 
printed in N. & Q." (Dec. 20, 1873). Till this 
is done the latter part of it can scarcely be rendered 
into English with any degree of certainty. 

I may observe that Herculeus morbus is the 
specific medical term for epilepsy (Castelli Lexicon 
Medicum, edit. 1688, 4to. p. 464), and it ought to 

be so translated in any English version of the in- 
scription. LORD LYTTELTON renders it " an Hercu- 
lean disease"; MR. WARREN, "severe illness"; and 
MR. TEW, " a grievous malady." One would wish 
to know something more of this paragon of perfec- 
tion, but I fear there is little prospect of obtaining 
any information of interest concerning him. 


THE RHEE (5 th S. i. 87) is one of the names of 
the Cam. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

Shown on the map of the Ordnance Survey, and 
in K. Johnston's Royal Atlas is a tributary of the 
Cam, one of its two primary sources. The one, 
the Granta, rising near Henham-on-the-Hill, Essex. 
The Rhee, the westernmost branch, rises near Ash- 
well, in Hertfordshire, and flows as a county 
boundary between the parishes of Ashwell and 
Dunton, in Bedfordshire, enters Cambridgeshire in 
the parish of Guilden Morden, at the junction of 
the three counties of Beds, Herts, and Cambs, and 
has its confluence with the Granta, thence forming 
the main stream of the Cam, in the parish of 
Haslingfield, adjoining Granchester, about three 
miles south-east of Cambridge. E. T. L. S. 

Rose, voce "Fancourt," records that Samuel 
Fancourt, an English Dissenting minister, " may 
be regarded as the original projector of circulating 
libraries," and that "in 1740, or 1745, he set on 
foot the first circulating library in the metropolis." 
To reconcile this with Kirkman's advertisement, so far 
as it relates to " reading " his books " for reasonable 
considerations," possibly they, like books in public 
libraries, were licensed to be read only on the pre- 
mises. JOHN PIKE. 

"ENDERBY," A TRAGEDY (5 th S. i. 49), was 
published in Melbourne in December 1867. The 
author's name did not transpire at the time, and, 
judging from the severe notice his work received 
in The Argus of Jan. 24th, 1868, he would be un- 
likely to divulge it afterwards. The reviewer, 
however, " imagines Enderby to be the work of a 
young man hopes so, at all events " because 
" there are one or two bits here and there which 
are tolerable," " alas," he adds, " as grains of wheat 
in a bushel of chaff." EDWARD A. PETHERICK. 

USE OF INVERTED COMMAS (5 th S. i. 9, 75.) 
assume that inverted commas are, and always were, 
notes of quotation. That is not the case. In the 
prologue to The Sisters, by James Shirley, written 
in 1642, first printed in 1652, three passages are 
printed in italics, and marked, line by line, in 
inverted commas ; but these passages are not quo- 
tations, but parts of Shirley's prologue, which he 
desired to distinguish from the rest and to empha- 

5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74.] 



size. This is the earliest instance of the employ- 
ment of inverted commas which I have been able 
to discover. In 1649, Milton used them as marks 
of quotation. JABEZ. 

Athenaeum Club. 

LITHOTOMY (5 th S. i. 106.) Lithotomy is much 
more ancient than the seventeenth century; it was 
practised before the Christian Era ; but the singular 
notions were entertained, that the operation could 
only be performed with safety in the spring, and 
between the ages of nine and fourteen. Vide 
Aurelius Cornelius Celsus, lib. vii. cap. xxvi. 


" CALLED HOME " (5 th S. i. 87.) The Bare- 
bones, or Little Parliament of 1653 first introduced 
those regulations for registration to which we have 
reverted of late years. Marriage was declared to 
be a civil contract, and was legally solemnized by a 
justice of the peace. Marriage by a clergyman 
was optional. The banns were published on three 
successive Sundays after morning service, or the 
proclamation was made in the market-place by the 
bellman on three successive market-days. The 
parish register of Boston, Lincolnshire, furnishes 
the number of marriages proclaimed in both places : 
Year. Market-place. Church. 

1656 102 48 

1657 104 31 

1658 108 52 

In 1658, persons were allowed to adopt the 
religious ceremony if they preferred it. 

Brecknock Road, N. 

" S" VERSUS "Z" (5 th S. i. 89, 135.) I should 
think myself a rude person if I were to charge 
MR. MORTIMER COLLINS with " ignorance and in- 
dolence," or with being too " lazy " to write con- 
sistently. Yet, he treats in this rude fashion 
compositors and printers, and in a dozen lines 
forgets himself, and shifts the charge to the right 
shoulders, to authors who " neglect both spelling 
and punctuation." But he gives a final uncompli- 
mentary word to the " compositors," who follow the 
copy of those neglectful authors. As a rule, my fel- 
low workers are neither " ignorant" nor " indolent." 
Compositors often suggest sense where authors by 
their neglect, or their wretched handwriting, have 
been guilty of nonsense. I should like to see MR. 
MORTIMER COLLINS, for his undeserved censure, 
condemned to do a month's honest compositor's 
work. His friends would not know him at the end 
of it. However, I forgive him, wishing him better 
manners, or, let me say, a kinder way of showing 
the good manners which I am ready to believe that 
he possesses. E. MERITUS COMPOS. 

" JOCOSA" AS A CHRISTIAN NAME (5 th S.i. 108.) 
In very common use during the fourteenth and 

fifteenth centuries ; but Joyce is the English form 
Jocosa only the Latin. HERMENTRUDE. 

TWELFTH DAY (5* S. i. 107.) St. Canute's 
Day is, in the reformed calendar, kept on January 
19th. If the Old Style still prevails in Norway, 
January 19th would be January 7th. THUS. 

(5 th S. i. 121.) MR. EAYNER, in his interesting 
communication, refers to the change of day of 
publication, in repeated instances, from the Sunday 
to the Saturday, of the then long-established Sun- 
day papers. This change was made about fifty 
years ago, and was consequent upon the alteration 
of the day for the issue of the London Gazette, 
the Sunday papers giving the list of bankrupts 
from the Gazette. The change was made by 
Government, at the instance of the newsvendors, 
for the [purpose of saving Sunday labour. The 
Observer, established in 1791, is the only paper 
published now exclusively on Sunday. 


"THE TEN AMBASSADORS" (5 th S. i. 127.) 
Seven special embassies, but ten ambassadors, 
visited London in 1603, to congratulate King 
James, and see what they could make of him. It 
was then that the office of Master of the Cere- 
monies was founded, and Sir Lewis Lewkenor 
appointed. The ambassadors were from the 
Palatine, Holland (4), Netherlands, Spain, Venice, 
Tuscany, and France. EDWARD SOLLY. 

GREEK ANTHOLOGY (5 th S. i. 88, 117.) Evi- 
dently BARROVIUS has entirely misunderstood the 
query, p. 88. The question is not about " antho- 
logical works," i. e., excerpts from Greek writers 
for schools, but about that collection of Greek 
epigrammatists which is known to scholars by the 
name of Anihologia Grccca. The best edition of 
this collection is that of F. Jacobs, Anthologia 
Grceco,, ad fidem Codicis olim Palatini nunc 
Parisini, Leipzig, 1844-47, which may be had (ni 
fallor) at Messrs. Williams & Norgate, in Hen- 
rietta Street, Covent Garden, where also Tauchnitz's 
Text Edition, in 3 vols., may be had. In Jacobs' 
and Eost's JBibliotheca Grceca is under the title 
of "Delectus Epigrammatum Grsecorum," a very 
cheap edition of the best epigrams with excellent 
Latin notes. A. B. 

GRAHAME, VISCOUNT DUNDEE (5 th S. i. 48, 94.) 
See the Perluslration of Great Yarmouth, vol. i. 
p. 267. A. G. 

IN S. GEORGE'S CHAPEL, WINDSOR (4 th S. xii. 444; 
5 th S. i. 12.) In my former communication upon 
his subject I alluded to the custom whereby the 
lelmets and crests of the Knights of the Golden 
Fleece were placed so as, under all circumstances, 



[5 th S. I. FKB. 21, 74. 

to face towards the high altar. It would have 
been more appropriate to the matter in hand 
if I had stated but at the moment I had forgotten 
it that on the early stall-plates of the Knights of 
the Garter, which still remain, the helmets and 
crests of those knights whose stalls were on " the 
Prince's side" are contournfa, so that, as far as 
these plates were concerned, the custom at Windsor 
was evidently identical with that to which I have 
referred as obtaining at Dijon. I have little doubt 
that originally the helmets and crests surmounting 
the stalls were similarly arranged, but I have not 
meant to suggest the resumption of this practice. 
The habit of representing the helmets and crests on 
the stall-plates, turned towards the sinister in the 
case of the knights on the "Prince's side," was 
doubtless discontinued when it became the custom 
for knights to change their stalls as their seniors in 
the Order died out. 

I alluded, also, only to the misplacement of the 
crests of the " knights subjects," but I might have 
included those of the sovereign and the royal 
princes, for the same fate has befallen them also, 
and the royal crest upon their helmets in S. 
George's Chapel is disposed in a manner which 
would have occasioned considerable astonishment 
to the royal founder and those of his successors 
who really wore a crested helm. 


THE ASPIRATE H (5 th S. i. 105.) -The sagacity 
of the Indian prince, as shown in his observation 
to his Irish tutor, is admitted; but I hope S. T. P. 
does not mean us to understand that the authorized 
and ordinary way of pronouncing whip is to place 
the aspirate before the initial letter. W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

THE GREY MOUSE IN "FAUST" (4 th S. xii. 
516 ; 5 th S. i. 34.) I think that this extract from 
the notes of Mr. Bayard Taylor's translation of 
Faust, which was published about two years ago 
in the United States, will give MR. BANKS the 
information which he desires. I copy it from the 
Leipzig reprint : 

" Goethe here refers to an old superstition concerning 
one of the many forms of diabolical possession. Perhaps 
he also remembered the following story, quoted by Hay- 
ward from the Deutsche Sagen : 

"'The following incident occurred at a nobleman's 
seat in Thiiringia, about the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. The servants were paring fruit in the room, 
when a girl, becoming sleepy, left the others and laid 
herself down on a bench, at a little distance from them. 
After she had lain a short time a little red mouse crept 
out of her mouth, which was open. Most of the people 
saw it, and showed it to one another. The mouse ran 
hastily to the open window, crept through, and remained 
a short space without. A forward waiting-maid, whose 
curiosity was excited by what she saw, in spite of the 
remonstrances of the rest, went up to the inanimate 
maiden, shook her, moved her to another place, and then 
left her. Shortly afterwards the mouse returned, ran to 

the former familiar spot where it had crept out of the 
maiden's mouth, ran up and down as if it could not find 
its way, and was at a loss what to do, and then disap- 
peared. The maiden, however, was dead, and remained 
dead. The forward waiting-maid repented of what she 
had done, but in vain. In the same establishment a lad 
had before then been often tormented by the sorceress, 
and could have no peace ; this ceased on the maiden's 

" Goethe probably intended the mouSe as a symbol of 
the bestial element in the Witches' Sabbath, by which 
Faust is disgusted and repelled. The apparition of Mar- 
garet, which has also a prophetic character, is the ex- 
ternal eidolon of his own love and longing." 

G. G. 


MARTIAL'S EPIGRAM, xm. 75 (4 th S. xii. 426, 
520.) I quote from the ed. Mattheei Eaderi S. J. 
Ingolst, 1611 : 

" Littera quse sit, Grammatici certant. Vinetus ad 
ilia Ausonii : Hcec gruis effigies. Y intelligit Pala- 
medicam litteram. 4>, verb gruis tantum unius. 
Ubi de Y plura ex Philostrato leges. Gropaldus, 
volantes, inquit, ordine quodam literam Y psilon faciunt. 
Id quod Palamedem deprehendisse legimus. Cselius 
Rhodiginus, vel A vel Y, notari putat. Inter volandum, 
inquit, litter a A, ab eis delineari videtur, vel ut aliis 
amplius arridet Y, cujus invcntionem ex avium volatu 
Palamedi attribuunt. Id quod indicare Philostratus 
advertitur. Alii A, gnecum intelligent, ut D. 
Hieronymus ad Eusticum de vita monast. Et sane 
hsec sententia cum Cicerone, ^Eliano, et Tzetze facit, 
et verisimillima est." . . . 

Ernesti says, " Commentarius Eaderi est omnium 
optimus"; and the original authorities given by 
the old commentators are often more satisfactory 
than the reproductions of them by modern editors. 

B. E. N. 

MILL ON "LIBERTY" (5 th S. i. 29,. 93.) See an 
article by Mr. John Morley. in The Fortnightly 
Review for August 1, 1873, and Mr. Fitzjames 
Stephen's Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity (Smith, 
Elder, & Co.), of which work a second edition has 
just been issued. E. A. P. 

Perhaps the most important review of this work 
is that by the late Mr. Buckle, reprinted in his t 
Posthumous Works (Longmans, 3 vols.). 


S. xii. 326, 455 ; 5 th S. i. 37.) Local histories of 
Oswestry claim a village called Whittington, near 
that town, as the place where Heber's missionary 
hymn was first sung, and the date as 1820 ; and 
from a newspaper of the period, I find that Heber 
did preach the first sermon ever preached in the 
church of that place, on behalf of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society. But the hymn itself was written 
in 1819, and when the MS. passed into the collec- 
tion of autographs of the late Eev. Dr. Eaffles, 
Congregational Minister of Liverpool, a fac-simile 

5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74.] 



was taken in lithograph, even to the very marks 
of the file on which the printer had impaled it. 
On the back of this lithograph is a circumstantial 
history, signed " E." One of the lines that Heber 
intended for the fifth verse is given in the litho. 

thus, " when the seas were roaring"; the first 

word being indistinct, and looking like " Twre " or 
" Sure." Kennedy, the compositor who put the 
hymn into type, is still living in Wrexham. 

A. K. 
Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

This hymn was composed before a missionary 
meeting at the vicarage, and first sung at the 
Town Hall, Wrexham. Mr. Hughes, the bookseller 
in Church Street, still has the original copy. 

E. H. W, 

Farlow Vicarage. 

"QUILLET" (4 th S. xii. 348 ; 5 th S. i. 14, 97) 
is undoubtedly the same as the Icelandic, word 
" hvilft," pronounced queelte, which means a hollow 
in a mountain side. It is probably connected with 
the verb, "hvelfa," to vault, and " hvelfing," a vault, 
as " a hvilft " has in some measure the shape of a 
vault turned upside down. 

Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 

"LIKE" AS A CONJUNCTION (5 th S. i. 67, 116.) 
But why must it be as a conjunction ] Why 
may it not ratlier be the adjective with its strong 
comparative force ? Taking it as such, there seems 
to me no difficulty whatever. " The lion shall eat 
straw like an ox," i. e., the lion, as if he were an 
ox, or the lion just like an ox, shall eat straw. 
And thus in the LXX. we have it, KCU Xeu>v ws 
/3ov<s <ayTcu a^vpa, and in the Vulgate, " leo 
quasi bos comedat paleas." No doubt W. B. C. 
is right in his impression of the meaning of the 
last example. To have an eye like a hawk, is to be 
like the hawk only so far as the eye goes. 


THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR (4 th S. xii. 368 ; 
5 th S. i. 74.) The best history of the late Ameri- 
can Civil War, as seen from the secessionist point 
of view, is undoubtedly that written by Alexander 
H. Stephens, the Vice-President of the rebel Con- 
federacy; though Pollard's is more read able, because 
less philosophical, and fuller in interesting details, 
being written by a professional journalist. I may 
also state that Moore's Rebellion Record gives the 
full text of the official reports of both sides, in civil 
as well as military matters, in addition to a vast 
amount of interesting matter collected with great 
impartiality as material for history. 


Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

492 ; 5* S. i. 90.) Of the works of C. Owen 

enumerated by MR. ALLNUTT, this library possesses 
three only : 

The Scene of Delusions Open'd, in an Historical 
Account of Prophetick Impostures. 1712. 

Plain Dealing; or, Separation without Schism, &c, 

Essay towards the Natural History of Serpents. 1742. 

In the first, in princ., there is a paragraph I 
cannot understand, and of which I should be glad 
to see an explanation, viz. 

" In this Book he " (a Philo-Prophet) "tells us of the 
approaching Judgments of God upon the Roman Empire, 
& Impenitent Christendom ; with the fall of Babylon, & 
the Redemption of Sion. I '11 say nothing here of their 
TmSctffo. in and about Manchester; nor of that Kind 
Providence which gave so strange & seasonable a check 
to that Spirit in this Vicinity." 

MR. ALLNUTT has not included in his list a 
pamphlet previously mentioned in " N. & Q.," 1 st 
S. viii. 492 : 

The Amazon disarm'd ; or, the Sophisms of a Schis- 
matical Pamphlet, pretendedly writ by a Gentlewoman, 
entituled, An Answer to Donatus Redivivus, exposed and 


" THE SEA-BLUE BIRD OF MARCH " (4 th S. xii' 
177, 236) : 

" Or underneath the barren buah 
Flits by the sea-blue bird of March." 

I have always thought these lines referable to the 
wheatear, Saxicola cenanthe, one of the earliest of 
our little summer visitors, generally arriving from 
the middle to the end of March, and to the 
dwellers near the sea coast often one of the first 
indications of returning spring. I never see the 
little fellow at this season, flitting from stone to 
stone, or clod to clod, and mark the pale grey-blue, 
or " sea-blue," of its neck and back without re- 
calling these lines. Again, how marvellously has 
Mr. Tennyson, in Locksley Hall, in two words, 
given us a life-like picture of the wild and cautious 
curlew : 
" 'Tis the place, and all around it, as of old the curlews 

Dreary gleams about the moorland flying over Locksley 

Hall.'' Locksley Hall, stanza ii. 

Those who, in the wide expanse, "the rounding 
gray," of the Lincolnshire marshes, have watched 
at a distance a flight of curlews, will be able to 
fully realize the truthfulness of the poet's word- 
painting "dreary gleams"; and dreary gleams 
they are, as the light now catches the upper, now 
the under side of their plumage, the effect per- 
chance heightened by a background of dark rain- 
cloud, now lost altogether, again flashing into sight, 
and drifting away in a weary, hopeless manner 
across the grey expanse. JOHN CORDEAUX. 

Great Cotes, Ulceby, Lincolnshire. 

170, 395.) The following is from the Yorkshire 
Magazine of the year 1786, page 330: 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 7*. 

" The following curious poetical title-deed was granted 
by William the Conqueror to an ancestor of the present 
Lord Rawdon. It is copied verbatim from the original 
grant now in the possession of his Lordship's father, the 
Earl of Moira, who still possesses the estates in Yorkshire, 
on which he lately built a noble mansion called Eawdon 
Hall, in the West Riding : 

" ' Concessum ad Paulum Roydon. 
" ' I, William, King, the third yere of my reign, 

Give to thee, Paulyn Roydon, Hope and Hope-towne, 

With all the bounds, both up and downe, 

From heaven to yerthe, from yerthe to hel, 

For the and thyn, there to dwel, 

As truly as this king right is myn ; 

For a cross-bowe and a harrow, 

When I sal come to hunt on Yarrow. 

And in token that this thing is sooth, 

I bit the whyt wax with my tooth, 

Before Meg, Maud, and Margery, 

And my thurd sonne, Henry.' " 



44, 58.) At the churches of the adjoining parishes 
of Luccombe and Selworthy, co. Somerset, it is (or 
was till very recently) the custom to ring a half- 
muffled peal on Innocents' Day. The object of a half- 
muffled peal, with its alternations of joy and sorrow, 
is far superior to that of bells wholly muffled. 
There is no fear of the mufflers pertaining to these 
two belfries being worn out, as the effect is pro- 
duced by tying pieces of old beaver or felt hats on 
one side of the clapper, and they are renewed year 
by year. J. CHARLES Cox. 

Hazelwood, Belper. 

A muffled peal was invariably rung on the bells 
of the parish church of Ross, Herefordshire, on the 
Feast of the Holy Innocents, in my youth. 
Whether the custom is still preserved, I do not 
know. T. W. WEBB. 

The muffled peal on Childermas Day still sur- 
vives at Great Risington, Gloucestershire. 


" To SCRIBE " (5 th S. i. 6, 75.) This term is 
used to the present day by the officers of Customs, 
the regulations of which still insist on the " scrib- 
ing " upon all casks of wine and spirits imported, 
the " Gauge," that is, the " Content " and " Ullage' 
of the same, with initial marks referring to the 
ship, importer, and date of importation a regula- 
tion that can be traced through old books ol 
instruction many years back. Indeed, the same 
practice is clearly shown in the writ, 4 Edward II 
(Ryley's Memorials of London, page 81), which 
directs that before casks of wine be " stowed away ' 
each tun " shall be marked at one end and the, 
other with the gauge mark." A similar " scribing ' 
is performed on chests of tea, when imported, as 
they pass the Queen's beam, the number anc 
weight of the package being " scribed " thereon 

The same regulation applied to casks of oil, and to 
square timber and other measurable wood, before 
ihe duties were repealed ; but the merchants con- 
;inue the practice for their own security. 

The instrument is variously called a " scriber " 
and a " scribing iron." That in use for the casks 
and the chests is formed of two parts, by which 
ircular figures and letters may be formed ; but 
that for timber is a straight iron cutter, for strokes 
only. W. PHILLIPS. 

BULLEYN'S DIALOGUE (4 th S. xii. 161, 234, 296, 
377.) A friend has observed to me that, with my 
premises, I might have more strikingly brought 
out my conclusion that Bulleyn's allusion, in the 
apparently unintelligible passage in question, is 
to Bartlet Green, and not to Alexander Barclay ; 
but having suggested whipping for weeping, I 
considered that I had conveyed to the minds of 
your readers that Bonner had come the pedagogue 
over the obdurate young Protestant, and applied 
the birch in the old fashion ; thereby showing the 
true reading and fitness of application to the 
martyr. The author of the Dialogue has many 
flings at the late hierarchy, and at Bonner in par- 
ticular; but as Elizabeth had ascended the throne 
when the book was written, all dread of the 
Papists had subsided, and lampoons and carica- 
tures upon the' persecutors had succeeded. We may, 
therefore, suppose that Vxor and Civis in the 
Dialogue were examining Master BoswelPs collec- 
tion of the latter, among which Bonner whipping 
Bartlet Green's breech, as represented in this quaint 
contemporary illustrative initial, was likely one. 

A. G-. 

SIR JOHN BURLEY, K.G. (5 th S. i. 88.) The 
precise date and the place of the death of this 
knight have not been ascertained, but that event 
must have happened between the months of June 
and October, 1383, for on June 22 he acknow- 
ledged the receipt of the sum of 500 marks from 
the king ; and in the latter month the king's 
embroiderer had orders to prepare a garter and 
robes for the Earl of Nottingham, who succeeded 
to the stall of Sir Robert Burley in the Order of 
the Garter : 'see Beltz, Memorials of the Order of 
the Garter, p. 259. J. WOODWARD. 

[The above reply is substituted for that which appeared 
on the same subject last week, p. 136. In the previous 
reply it was said, "the Earl of Nottingham, who suc- 
ceeded to the stall of Sir John Burley." No mention 
was made by MR. WOODWARD in the original MS. of Sir 
Robert Burley.] 


Studies in Modern Problems. By Various Writers. Edited 

by Rev. Orby Shipley, M.A. (H. S. King & Co.) 
THESE studies are no ordinary productions. Their authors' 
statements are ex cathedrd, because avowedly based on 

5 th S. I. FEB. 21, 74.] 



Church of England doctrine, and announced in a temper 
of loyal allegiance to that historical church. Their pro- 
fessed object is , to oppose the spirit of infidelity and of 
disbelief in the divinely authorized ministry of the clergy 
to declare dogmatically the judgment of the Church ir 
formal decisions, and to suggest a right modus operandi 
on debated questions. 

No. 1. Sacramental Confession By A. H. Ward, B.A. 
Opponents would have found themselves assailing an 
almost inpregnable position in this essay had not the 
writer left a breach open by confusing acts instigated by 
a spirit of penitence with acts of penance. He has 
weakened his hold on Scripture by affiliating the practice 
of penance to the Agony of Gethsemane and the suffer- 
ings allied to the work of expiation. Sacramental is a 
term, adds Mr. Ward, which has no necessary con- 
nexion with the system of confession ; habitual confession 
is not compulsory, and should be rendered frequent con- 

No. 2. Abolition of the 39 Articles. By Nicholas 
Pocock, M. A. The author of this essay thinks the time 
has come when the subscription of the clergy to the 
Articles should be abolished, and that they should be 
removed from the position they now hold in the Church 
of England system. Their Zwinglian origin is his main 
objection. He will find supporters ; but the many who 
will take up the challenge will more than question the 
desirability of ejecting a regime which at once keeps in 
check doctrinal excess on either side, unless another be 
substituted whichshallbelessliable to assault. TheArticles 
can hardly be said to be Zwinglian in toto because they 
were written in a Zwinglian age. Mr. Pocock's arguments, 
however, claim the attentive consideration of every school 
of revisionists ; he is at home in his subject. 

No. 3. The Sanctity of Marriage, by John Walter Lea, 
B.A., F.G.S., should be read by all who converse on 
questions brulantes respecting this subject. The inherent 
sanctity of marriage, with its close analogy to the In- 
carnation, is rescued from the philosophy that would 
reduce it to the level of a social convenience, or an in- 
tellectual regulation of the animal instincts of the 
mammalian. The spiritual vinculum matrimonii cannot 
be broken, because, by nature, it is an ordinance founded 
on the principle of the Hypostatic Union. A further re- 
laxation of the marriage ties would lead to open war 
between Church and State. The prohibited degrees are 
strongly defended by Mr. Ward. 

Memoir on the Comparative Grammar of Egyptian, 
Coptic, and Ude. By Hyde Clarke. (Triibner & Co.) 
THE best idea we can give of this interesting memoir is 
by employing the author's own words: "This intro- 
duction to the Comparative Grammar of the Egyptian 
language is intended to throw light on the early history 
of that people. Besides the relations of the Egyptian 
race with the Caucasus, it also embraces some account 
of the great Agav race in Africa, Caucasia, and America. 
The facts here brought forward throw a new light on 
the ancient ethnology of Caucasia, and also on what has 
been termed Caucasian grammar." Mr. Clarke subse- 
quently states that in the Ude language spoken in the 
Caucasus, " we have a living Egyptian, and of the earliest 
type. . . . The study of the Ude language and popula- 
tion, as well as that of others in the Caucasus, is of great 
importance in all historical investigations, because it will 
greatly assist in laying better foundations for history. 
The language of the few hundreds who now speak Udish 
will, under the invasion of Turkish and Russian, in our 
time perhaps cease to live ; and the collection of every 
fact, however small, however isolated, is valuable, 
because one fact may be the connecting joint or link of a 
chain of evidence otherwise incomplete." 

Literary Remains of the late Emanuel Deutsch. With 

a Brief Memoir. (Murray.) 

THE " brief memoir " comes from the pen of one who has 
a heart as well as a head. It tells with simple dignity 
the touching story of one of the most modest and accom- 
plished of ill-requited scholars. The Literary Remains of 
Mr. Deutsch, although comprised in a single volume, 
yield more fruit than many scores of more pretentious 
works. The famous articles on The Talmud and Islam 
alone might justify such an opinion, but there are others 
of 'equal importance, which will be read with the same 
absorbing interest. 

The Slang Dictionary. Etymological, Historical, and 
Anecdotal. A New Edition, revised and corrected, 
with many Additions. (Chatto & Windus.) 
THIS is in every way a great improvement on the edition 
of (1864. Its uses as a dictionary of the very vulgar 
tongue do not require to be explained. It belongs in its 
own way to philology ; and in some of its illustrations 
and interpretations there is, perhaps, not so much wild- 
ness as in the insane flights in which the most accom- 
plished philologists occasionally indulge. 

COLUMBUS. CRESCENT writes, a propos of the notice 
at p. 120 of "N. & Q.."on Mr. Rose's historical play 
of Columns, and referring to the quotation in that 
notice, " Into thy hands, Lord, I commend my spirit," 
as being the last words of the great navigator, " I would 
like to mention an early authority for that sentence. In 
the Venice edition, A.D. 1571, of Le Historic del Sign. 
Don Fernando Colombo, nelle quali s'ha particolare & 
vera relatione della vita < de' fatti dell' Ammiraglio Don. 
Christoforo Colombo suo padre, &c., translated from the 
Spanish into Italian by Alfonso Ulloa, the following ex- 
tract relative to the death-bed of Columbus is to be 
found at p. 246 : ' L'Ammiraglio, rese 1'anima a Dio il 
giorno della sua Ascensione a' XX. d' Maggio dell' anno 
MDVL, nel suddetto luogo di Vagliadolid; hauendo 
prima con molta diuotione presi tutti i sacramenti della 
Chiesa, e detto queste ultime parole : " In manus tuas, 
Domine, commendo spiritum meum." ' Of this extract I 
offer a rough and ready translation, thus : The Admiral 
gave up his soul to his God on Ascension-day, the 20th 
of May, 1506, at the aforesaid city of Valladolid ; having 
first, with great devotion, partaken of all the sacraments 
of the Church, and having pronounced these last words, 
' Into thy hands, Lord, I commend my spirit.' The 
copy I examined had in it the autograph of the well- 
known diplomatist and book collector ' Dehaym ' ; the 
1571 edition is stated to be very scarce and valuable, and 
I perceive that in a foot-note respecting a copy of an 
edition more than a hundred years later in date, viz., that 
of 1685, Mr. Quaritch says, ' The original Spanish work 
of Ferdinand Columbus is not known to exist. Barcia 
re-translated the Italian for his collection.' I have not 
by me Irving's Life of Columbus, but doubtless that 
charming writer made good use of the son's history of 
bis father's achievements ; and it may be accepted as a 
well-authenticated fact that the Latin words which Mr. 
Rose, in his play, presents in their English version were 
the veritable ' ultime parole ' of him, who, in the sense 
of the words of his epitaph, gave a New World to Spain." 

" You know who the critics are," &c. (4 th S. xii. 439 ; 
5 th S. i. 60.) MR. J. BRANDER MATTHEWS, of the Lotus 
Club, New York, adds a link to the chain of names of 
writers who have used the above illustration. MR. 
MATTHEWS says : " In Kean, ou Desordre et Genie, a 
live-act piece, written by Alexandre Dumas pere to fit 
Frederick Lemaitre, and produced Originally in Paris, at 
the Theatre des Varietes, shortly after the English 
tragedian's death, reference is made to those whom ' im- 



[5 th S. L FEB. 21, 74. 

puissance a jette dans la critique.' Dumas wrote this 
in 1834 or '5, and the parallel passage was not published 
by Balzac until 1846." At p. 60 of the present volume, 
the sentiment was traced back to Dryden, 1670. What 
is now wanted is an earlier instance. 



Particulars of Price. &c., of the following books to be sent direct to 
the persons by whom they are required, whose names and addresses are 
given for that purpose : 

A PERFECT LIST of all such Persons as by Commission under the 
Great Seal of England are now confirmed to be Gustos Kotulorum, 
Justices of Oyer and Terminer, Justices of Peace and Quorum, and 
Justices of Peace. 8vo. 1660. 

Wanted by Edward, Peacock, Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

EKASMI OPERA OMNIA. Ex Kecens. J. Clerici. 1703. First volume 

Wanted by Dr. Edward Adamson, Eye, Sussex. 



Wanted to borrow or purchase, either in the original or translated. 

Address L. L., Grove End, Addlestone, near Weybridge Station, 


&aticesi to C0mjg0ntenW. 

ESSEX, L. There is no book, as far we know, which 
gives the lives of the various claimants to the title of 
Dauphin of France, son of Marie Antoinette and 
Louis XVI. There were about twenty claimants ! 
Only a few of them attracted more than passing notice. 
First, it should be stated, that M. de Beauchesne, in his 
Louis XVII., published in 1853 (translated by Mr. W. 
Hazlitt), proved without doubt the death of the most 
unfortunate of boys in the Temple, and his burial. Of 
the more or less noisy pretenders to be the unhappy 
prince, the first was Hervagault, a tailor's son. He died 
in the prison of Bicetre in 1812. The second was 
Bruneau, the son of a wooden-shoe maker. He died in 
1818, after having suffered imprisonment. Silvio Pellico 
mentions another, who was his fellow prisoner, who called 
himself Duke de Bourbon, and who was subsequently 
found murdered in a Swiss valley. The fourth was the 
Rev. Eleazer Williams, a missionary to the Oneidas : of 
his ultimate fate we are ignorant. The fifth was Mr. 
Augustus Meves, a Jewish teacher of music in London, 
whose son still claims to be the legitimate King of France 
and Navarre. The sixth, known as Naundorff, a German 
watchmaker, was well-known in Camberwell and Chelsea 
as the Duke of Normandy, and as a man skilled in the 
chemistry of war. Woolwich spoke well of his projectiles. 
All the above, except Meves, made great temporary dis- 
play in France. The stories of all differ from each 
other, but every one of the claimants had crowds of 
idiotic followers. Naundorff died in Holland in 1844. 
His family are now before the Court of Appeal in Paris. 
In 1851, a judicial judgment had refused to recognize 
their claims. They now seek to set aside that judgment. 
M. Jules Favre defends their claim, and speaks of Naun- 
dorff as " le Prince ! " In conclusion, we must refer our 
correspondent to a life of the Duchess of Angouleme, 
called Filia Dolorosa, and, for more extended details, to 
Querard's Supercheries Litteraires Devoilees, 2nd edit. 
(Paris, 1869), vol. ii., col. 833-938. 

ME. HERBERT RANDOLPH, quotes: "Serpens nisi 
serpentem comederit non fit Draco"; and asks where is 
this to be found, and whence the notion I It is aptly 
used by Sir Robert Wilson as a motto, on the title-page 
of his work on the Military Power and Resources of 
Russia, published in the year 1817. Mr. H. T. Riley, in 
his Bool: of Latin and, Greek Quotations, Proverbs, &c., 

gives it as follows : "Serpens ni edat serpentem draco 
non net," and describes it as a proverb. 

DRAMATIST. Alleyne's letter to his wife, from Chelms- 
ford, 2nd May, 1593, and a second, from Bristol, 1 st of 
August, same year, are printed in Mr. Payne Collier's 
Life ofAlleyn (1841), pp. 24, 25. Mr. Collier says that 
the first is very incorrectly printed in Lyson's Environs; 
and that Malone published the second (Sliakesp. by 
Bosw. xxi. 389) " with many minute variations from the 
original, and with some important errors." 

C. F. S. W. Crockford states that the Bishop of St. 
David's was made B.D. and D.D. per Literas Regias, in 
1840; the Cambridge Calendar, however, only recognizes 
him as M.A. The same is the case with the present 
Bishop of Ely (Dr. Woodford), on whom the Archbishop 
of Canterbury conferred a D.D. 

J. W. DEAN (Boston.) It is a well-known fact that, 
disgusted with the proceedings of the Court, Cromwell 
determined, in 1637, to emigrate to America, that he 
embarked with his whole family, and that the vessel 
being detained by proclamation, he returned to Ely. 

W. A. D. In the Preface to Israel's Sojourn in the 
Land of Egypt, it is said, " that the work is apocryphal, 
all must allow " ; again, " several literary characters of 
the present day (1834) .... are of opinion that it is of 
very high antiquity." 

ED. MARSHALL. Sir W. Raleigh's cordial (made up of 
almost as many materials ns the Mithridatic antidote) is 
not "still used by doctors." There is a " vulgar error " 
in the often-repeated assertion that the cordial is in the 
British Pharmacopoeia. 

F. W. M. Dr. Latham, in his edition of Johnson's 
Dictionary, says " Boatswain, s. [A.S. batswan] officer on 
board ship in charge of rigging, flags, &c." 

BELISARIUS asks MR. C. F. S. WARREN to give the 
riddle made by Cowper, to which he has given the 
answer in " N. & Q." for Feb. 14. 

A. E. (Almondbury.) Names and initials of writers 
only appear in the Indexes at the end of the half-yearly 
volumes. Please adopt A. E. (1) in future. 

W. M. F. Will you be good enough to send such ex- 
tracts as you yourself deem interesting? 

H. R. The anecdote of Wellington, the Commissary, 
and Picton has been frequently in print. 

F. RULE and S. M. C. For Cardinal Richelieu's letter 
see " N. & Q.," 1 st S. xi. 223. 

F. G. L. The communication you kindly sent has been 
forwarded to Mr. PASSINGHAM. 

W. T. G. should make his inquiry at the office of the 
paper named by him. 

S. A. PHILLIPS. Irish peers cannot be elected as 
M.P.s for places in Ireland. 

A. A. " Revenging Flodden." Where will a letter 
find you ] 

T. H, C. (U.S.C.) The derivation is doubtful. 

T. B. G. Next week. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor" Advertisements and Business Letters to "The 
Publisher "at the Office, 20, Wellington Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

To all communications should be affixed the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

5 th S. I. FEB. 28, '74. 





NOTES: Emma Isola, 161 Shakspearfana, 163 Poetical 
Resemblances George Chapman's " Homer's Iliads": Extra 
Profuse Dedication, 164 Francis Scarlett " Simpson " 
Pictures by Murillo Sunflower as a Preventive of Fever, 165 
TheJDuke of Wellington An American Motto Taaffe 
Corpse on Shipboard Burial Customs Old Indian Deed of 
Conveyance for over Sixteen Square Miles in Massachusetts) 

QUERIES : " Blodins " Shakspeare's Sonnets "Album 
Unguentum" Burke's Dormant and Extinct Peerage, ed. 
1866 B6zique Bene't College Knight Biorn Anonymous 
Poems Heraldic, 167 Small Tables Engraved Portrait of 
the "Fair Geraldine" The Nail in Measurement Adam 
Smith Faeetisa Facetiarum Pathopoli Dr. Johnson Sir 
Matthew Bale's MSS. Sir John Reresby's Memoirs Portrait 
of Lady Catherine, Duchess of Queensberry, 168 Robert 
Maitland Ferdoragh " As I sit within the rood loft," &c. 
Museums and Natural History Societies " To get the Sack," 

REPLIES: On the Elective and Deposing Power df Parlia- 
ment, 169 Compurgators Lithotomy, 171 "The Fair 
Concubine ; or, the Secret History," &c. "Embossed," 172 
The Sink and the Fire Welsh Testament, 173- Catherine 
Pear The " Free Chapel " of Havering-Mere " How they 
brought the good news from Ghent to Aix," 174 The Gothic 
Florin Viscounty of Buttevant "Tedious" "We are 
spirits," &c. Lt.-CoL Livingstone " But thou art fled," &c. 
Isabel, or Elizabeth, Wife of Charles V." Crack" : " Wag": 
"Rake, "175 Henry Hoare's Charity The Black Priest of 
Wedale Double Returns to Parliament The Latin Version 
of Bacon's " Essays " " Like " as a Conjunction Bere Regis 
Church, 176 "Prester John" and the Arms of the See of 

Chichester Polygamy " Spurring " " Ings, " 177 Scottish 
Titles Lord Ligonier ' ' Jacaran da' 'Twelfth Day Epitaph 
on a Tombstone near Paris Hart Hall, 178 Moses of 
Chorene Mnemonic Calendar Stoball, 179. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


Just half a century has elapsed since Charles 
and Mary Lamb, being at Cambridge, became 
acquainted with a little orphan girl at school. She 
at once attracted the sympathies of the brother and 
sister. Orphan pupils generally remain at school 
during the " vacation " ; but Lamb invited the soli- 
tary little girl to spend her holidays with him and 
Mary. Sympathy grew into strong affection ; and, 
after the first visit, the little orphan girl regularly 
spent her holidays in Lamb's home of sunshine and 
of shadow. She is known to us all, in Lamb's cor- 
respondence, as Emma Isola. 

Lamb regarded her with paternal affection. In 
March, 1826, Emma was as a born daughter of the 
Lanib household. Coleridge had invited his friend 
and sister to his house, and Lamb, accepting the 
invitation " with great pleasure," says, " May we 
bring Emma with us 1 " 

In leisure hours, Lamb undertook a task which, 
it is said, no father should undertake with his child. 
It is indicated in a letter of July, 1827, to Mrs. 
Shelley: "I am teaching Emma Latin, to qualify 
her for a superior governess-ship which we see no 
prospect of her getting. 'Tis like feeding a child 
with chopped hay from a spoon. Sisyphus his 

labours were as nothing to it !" How the pupil 
floundered among verbs active and verbs passive, 
and how the deponent verbs came in like Chaos to 
make confusion worse confounded, is amusingly 
told in the Lamb correspondence. Emma requited 
the pains when she helped Lamb to understand 

So year passed after year, and Lamb rendered 
those which had gone by nothing the less sweet by 
giving the young girl a copy of The Pleasures of 
Memory. At length we come to 1830. In a letter 
written in March of that year, addressed to William 
Ayrton, Lamb shows that his love for " a very dear 
young friend of ours" was so mixed up with fear 
for her life from brain fever, that he could attend 
to no allurements to authorship or editorship, even 
from Mr. Murray. Since the Lambs had first met 
her, at the house of Ayrton's sister, at Cambridge, 
" she has been," he says, " an occasional inmate 
with us (and of late years much more frequently) 
ever since. While she is in this danger, and till 
she is out of it, and here " (at Chase Side, Enfield) 
" in a probable way to recovery, I feel that I have no 
spirits for an engagement of any kind. It has been 
a terrible shock to us !" 

Lamb went down to Bury to bring the fair 
young invalid to town, if she were able to bear the 
journey. Weak as she was, she was there, as else- 
where, his good genius, and exercised her healthy 
influence over him. Lamb loved good wine, for it 
inspired him to utter brilliant sense, and, some- 
times, sparkling evanescent folly. Anxious for his 
good name, and fearing it might be compromised, 
misunderstood, if he took wine in that strange 
country house, Emma Isola got him " in a corner," 1 
and induced him to promise to abstain. Lamb' 
promised, and kept his word. He was all the- 
merrier for it on their way home in the stage- coach j 
for it was there they had the talkative fellow- 
traveller, who, after trying Lamb on every point 
of conversation for which he cared or knew 
nothing, asked him " as to the probability of its 
turning out a good turnip season ! " To which 
Lamb replied, " I believe it depends very much 
upon boiled legs of mutton ! " The reply stirred 
even the young invalid to laughter, which to 
youthful invalids is a tonic. By-and-by, the 
two travellers reached Enfield, where Mary Lamb 
awaited Emma's coming with impatience, "and, 
after a few hysterical tears for gladness, all was 
comfortable again." 

At the end of May, Lamb wrote, in mingled joy 
and gladness, to Mrs. Hazlitt : "Emma stayed a 
month with us, and has gone back in tolerable 
health to her long home, for she comes not again- 
for a twelvemonth." 

Emma Isola returned, however, again and again, 
and occasionally for lengthened periods. In an 
undated letter to Gary, the translator of Dante, 
but written in 1833, Lamb says: " You will be 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 23, 74. 

amused to hear that my sister and I have, with the 
aid of Emma, scrambled through the Inferno 
by the blessed furtherance of your Polar Star trans- 

In May of the above year, when Lamb was 
dwelling " at a Mr. Walden's," Edmonton, where 
Miss Lamb was one of the insane " patients," her 
brother wrote to Wordsworth, of the weight ever 
on his mind, or ever being feared. " To lay a little 
more load on it," he says, " I am about to lose my 
old and only walk companion, whose mirthful 
spirits were ' the youth of our house,' Emma 
Isola. I have her here now for a very little while, 
but she is too nervous properly to be under such a 
roof, so she will make short visits, be no more an 
inmate. She is to be wedded to Moxon, at the 
end of August. So perish the roses and the 
flowers ! How is it 1" 

To Patmore, Lamb wrote : " Moxon has fallen in 
love with Emma, our nut-brown maid.'' And 
Leigh Hunt replied to a similar intimation by 
calling the lover, " The Bookseller of the Poets, 
and with no disparagement to him from the anti- 
thesis, a Poet among Booksellers." 

For the young bride, Lamb was resolved to sacri- 
fice his dearest possession his portrait of Milton. 
" It might have been done by a hand next to Van- 
dyck's," he said. Lamb had proposed to leave it 
to Wordsworth, who was to bequeath it to Christ's 
College, Cambridge ; but he could not resist the 
yielding it to the bride. " I have given Emma my 
MILTON (will you pardon me ?) in part of a portion." 
No doubt Wordsworth forgave him. 

Lamb himself could not be reconciled to an 
event which he nevertheless described as a happy 
one. "I am very uncomfortable," he wrote to 
Hazlitt, " and Avhen Emma leaves me I shall wish 
to be quite alone. Emma will explain to you th* 
state of my wretched spirits." 

They revived under pleasant provocation ; and, 
when Moxon presented his young fiancee with a 
watch, Lamb wrote a letter full of affectionate 
banter, of which this is a sample : 

" Give Emma no more watches ; one has turned her 
head. She said something very unpleasant to our old 
clock in the passage, as if he did not keep time, and yet 
he had made her no appointment ! She takes it out every 
instant to look at the moment-hand. She lugs us out 
into the fields, because there the bird-boys ask you, 
' Pray, sir, can you tell me what 'a o'clock ? ' and she 
answers them punctually. She loses all her time looking 
to see 'what the time is.'. ..This little present of Time ! 
why, 'tis Eternity to her.... Between ourselves, she has 
kissed away ' half-past twelve,' which I suppose to be the 
canonical hour in Hanover Square." 

Later in the letter he adds : 

" Never mind this opposite nonsense. She does not 
love you for the watch, but the watch for you. I will be 
at the wedding, and keep the 30th July, as long as my 
poor months last me, as a festival, gloriously." 

Of the bridal there is no record. Mary Lamb 

had been under temporary restraint, but she tells 
herself how she awoke on the wedding-day : 

" The dreary blank of unanswered questions, which I 
ventured to ask in vain, was cleared up on the wedding- 
day, by Mrs. Walden taking a glass of wine, and, with a 
total change of countenance, begging to drink Mr. and 
Mrs. Moxon's health. It restored me from that moment, 
as if by an electrical stroke, to the entire possession of my 
senses. I never felt so calm and quiet after a similar 
illness as I do now. I feel as if all tears were wiped from 
my eyes and all care from my heart." 

Lamb felt the separation acutely, but he would 
not allow the young people to think so. He wrote 
to Moxon : "My bedfellows are cough and cramp: 
we sleep three in a bed... .Mind, our spirits are good, 
and we are happy in your happinesses. Our old 
and ever loves to dear Emma." 

From a letter to Gary we see the effect on 
Lamb's own home : " Moxon is flaunting it about 
a la Parisienne with his new bride, our Emma, 
much to his satisfaction, and not a little to our 

When the honeymoon was over, and the Moxons 
were established in Dover Street, Lamb wrote in 
the following strain to the newly- married couple : 

" Read ' Darby and Joan ' in Mrs. Moxon's first album. 
There you '11 see how beautiful in age the looking back 
to youthful years in an old couple is. But it is a violence 
to the feelings to anticipate that time in youth. I hope 
you and Emma will have many a quarrel and many a 
make up (and she is beautiful in reconciliation) before 
the dark days shall come in which ye shall say, ' There 
is small comfort in them.' " 

Alluding to Moxon's sonnet to his wife, begin- 

" Fair art thou as the morning, my young bride," 

Lamb says that he dwelt upon it in a confused 
brain. But he hastens to do away with any idea 
that the parting from the adopted daughter of his 
heart has quite darkened his home. " Tell Emma," 
he writes, " I every day love her more, and miss 
her less. Tell her so from her loving ' uncle,' as she 
lets me call myself." And then, after other matters, 
he ends with, " I am well and happy, tell E." 

In December, 1833, Lamb thanked Kogers for 
some active interest he took in the welfare of the 
Moxons. Lamb strove to keep it up, by saying, 
" The Pleasures of Memory was the first school 
present I made to Mrs. Moxon . . and I believe she 
keeps it still. . . All the kindness you have 
shown to the husband of that excellent person 
seems done unto myself." 

In February, 1834, to Miss Fryer, who had been 
pitying his loneliness, Lamb wrote that he had been 
keeping his birthday in Dover Street. " I see them 
pretty often," he adds, and then, referring to his 
own home, he says: "It is no new thing to me to 
be left to my sister. When she is not violent, her 
rambling chat is better to me than the sense and 
sanity of this world. Her heart is obscured, not 
buried. It breaks out occasionally, and one can 

5 lh S. I. FEB. 28, 74.] 



discern a strong mind struggling with the billows 
that have gone over it." Then, turning as it were 
from the shadow to the sunlight, he looks into the 
other home, and says: "Emma, I see, has got a 
harp, and is learning to play. She has framed her 
three Walton pictures, and pretty they look." 

To the last, Lamb loved the child of his heart 
with an unselfish love; and a part of the little he 
had to leave fell, after his sister's death, to Mrs. 
Moxon. The "dark days," however, to which 
Lamb alluded, came still darker than he had con- 
templated them. At the end of a quarter of a 
century of married life, the " Bookseller of Poets 
and the Poet among Booksellers" died. There 
was embarrassment, a brave struggle to get clear of 
it, and success was for a moment grasped, but it 
was only held for a time. The end is almost utter 
shipwreck. The Emma Isola who was the youth 
of Lamb's house stands before the world, blame- 
less, but in an almost destitute position. TJiat is 
hardship enough for one to bear; but hers is a 
large family, including five daughters, nearly all in 
delicate health. Those among us who remember 
Lamb, others who know and appreciate him in his 
works, betrothed couples who are under the purple 
light of love, the newly-married whose roughest 
part of life is but " the crumpling of the roses," and 
the long-married who have not known, and are not 
likely to know, the dark and comfortless days all 
alike may be glad to learn that at Messrs. Glyn, 
Mills & Co.'s subscriptions may be paid in to the 
" Moxon Subscription Fund." The spirit of Charles 
Lamb, if it can be moved by any earthly action, 
will assuredly smile on all who show active bene- 
ficial sympathy with Emma Isola. ED. 



(4 th S. xii. 244, 364.) 

Whether this be the correct reading of the 
line in Macbeth (I. iii. 6), commonly given, " Aroint 
thee, witch ! " I think very doubtful. The most 
probable derivation of "Aroint thee," I take to be 
that it is an imprecation, or exorcism, corrupted 
from the Lat. " [Dii]averruncent !" ; Averruncus 
being a deity supposed to avert evil. It is true, 
however, that the rowan-tree was held in high 
estimation by the peasantry in the north of Eng- 
land, for its supposed efficacy in depriving witches 
and evil spirits of their power to harm. It is the 
common mountain ash ; and is sometimes called 
the " whicken [quicken] tree," and " witch-wood." 
I well remember, when a boy in Westmoreland, 
hearing my grandmother recite a ballad, narrating 
how a witch's intentions on a ploughboy were 
frustrated by his carrying a rowan-tree switch as a 
whip for his horses. Two lines live in my memory : 
" It's we'el for the lad, with the rowan-tree gad [goad], 

For I cannot come near him by the length of the land." 

Brockett, in his Glossary of North Country 
Words, says the superstition has been handed down 
to us from antiquity, and probably originated with 
the Druids. Skinner is uncertain whether the 
tree may not have derived its name from the colour 
called roan : the more likely derivation, however, 
is that given by Ihre, from runa, an incantation. 

J. C. 

Zanesville, Ohio. 

AROINT AND AROUGT (4 th S. xii. 364.) MR. 
PATTERSON is wholly mistaken in what he says of 
Hone's essay on Hearne's print of the Descent into 
Hell (Ancient Mysteries, p. 138). Hone certainly 
does not propose to turn aroint (whether in Mac- 
beth or Lear) into arougt, any more than he pro- 
poses to turn arougt into aroint. All he attempts 
to prove is that the last word in the print is arougt, 
and not (as Johnson supposed) arongt ; whence it 
follows that the word in the print and Shakspeare's 
aroint are two distinct words. In the print the 
porter of Hell-gate is represented as a conventional 
devil, holding a trident in his left paw, and a horn 
in his right. He is blowing the horn, and the 
sounds he is supposed to make are represented by 
Out, out arougt ! JABEZ. 

Athenaeum Club. 

The Lancashire name for the rowan-tree was 
witchen. Rowan was a protection, not only to 
mankind, but also to cattle ; and Lightfoot, in 
Flora Scotia, says : " The dairy-maid will not for- 
get to drive them to the shealings or summer-pas- 
tures with a rod of the rowan-tree, which she care- 
fully lays up over the door of the sheal-boothy or 
summer-house, and drives them home again with 
the same." It is a fresh circumstance, in fact, in 
favour of Miss Kent's, or, as MR. BRITTEN says, 
S. H.'s conjecture, and strengthens my personal 
predilection for it over every other conjecture. Nor 
do I consider her rendering of 'Michael Burgher's 
copper-plate drawing of the Descent into Hell, at 
p. 252 of her Sylvan Sketches, at all inferior to 
Hone's, and certainly not to Hearne's, for whom 
was executed. 

According to her, it is a drawing " in which oui 
Saviour is represented with a roan-tree cross in his 
left hand, while with the right he appears to draw 
a contrite spirit from the jaws of Hell." But 
neither Hearne nor Hone touch the rowan-tree, 
though the superstition was one of the most ancient 
and extended. Only their readings of the words 
upon the scroll which issues from the mouth of the 
demon affect the subject. Hearne has them Out, 
out arongt; Hone, Out, out arougt, the latter 
arguing, with great good reason, that the last word is 
evidently an abbreviation on account of the unusual 
distance it traverses beyond the boundary line of 
the plate. In evident despair, he concludes with 
a reference to Boucher's Supplement to Johnson's 
article on the word aroint, where he alludes to the 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 28, 74. 

Lancashire word areawt, which signifies get out, or 
away with thee,* and says : 

" But the authority of English manuscripts in the age 
of Hearne's Calendar was almost arbitrary. Its loose 
and undermined character is sorely lamented by the 
preface-writer to Bishop Bales's interlude to God's Pro- 
mises; he says that ' the same words being so constantly 
spelled different ways makes it very certain they had no 
fixed rule of right and wrong in spelling ; provided the 
letters did but in any manner make out the sound. Of 
the word they would express, it was thought sufficient.' " 

All this I think is eminently favourable to the roan- 
tree reading. Supposing the word ever existed, I hold 
;ihat its value would be a doubtful one, either in the 
Lear or Macbeth line ; for the power of it must neces- 
sarily be limited to command or imprecation, and it 
is contrary to the system of demonology to suppose 
that witches were either obedient to orders or 
terrified by oaths. 


Jamworth, Bolton. 

There are certain minds which are ever on the qui 
vive to discover resemblances of expression in the 
works of different writers, which they uncharitably 
set down as plagiarisms. I am none of these, know- 
ing how invariable are the phenomena of nature and 
human life in all ages, and that the same ideas must 
naturally occur to all thoughtful minds, and find 
expression in much the same set of terms. It is 
Delated of a certain facetious Abbot, that upon 
being told that many of his jokes were not 
altogether new or original, he was wont to ex- 
.claim, "Let them, be excommunicated who have 
said all our good things before us !" With per- 
mission, I submit a few examples which I have re- 
cently met with of similarity of idea and expression 
in different writers. 

Amongst the numerous racy sayings preserved 
of Wilkes, of North Briton notoriety, is his observa- 
tion to Sir William Staines (Lord Mayor, 1800), 
who began life as a bricklayer, at one of the Old 
Bailey dinners, when the worthy knight was eating 
a great quantity of butter with his cheese : "Why, 
brother," said Wilkes, " you lay it on with a 
trowel ! " In Congreve's play of the Double Dealer, 
one of the female characters, speaking of a lady of 
her acquaintance, exclaims (spitefully) : 


Why she lays it on with a trowel ! " 
Dean Swift, in one of his coarse, but witty, 
satires, has the following : 

" Not infants dropt, the spurious pledges 
Of Gipsies littering under hedges." 

which reminds one of Butler's lines in Hudilras: 
" And lovers solacing behind doors, 
Or giving one another pledges 
Of matrimony under hedges." 


The Lancashire equivalent to this now-a-dajs is ger 

Byron's celebrated line, in his apostrophe to the 
ocean, in Childe Harold : 

"Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow," 
has been the subject of diverse comment. It is 
generally acknowledged to be a great truth ex- 
pressed in striking language ; but hyper-critics 
have carped at the phrase " azure brow," an objec- 
tion so contemptible that it need only be referred 
to and dismissed. Barry Cornwall (Bryan Waller 
Procter) employs the same idea in his magnificent 
Address to the Ocean : 

" Thou trackless and immeasurable main' ! 
On thee no record ever lived again, 
To meet the hand that writ it." 

There is no just cause to suspect either poet of 
plagiarism ; the truth embodied in these respective 
quotations is so self evident as to require for its 
discovery no extraordinary penetration. A counter- 
part to Burns's oft-quoted lines 

" The rank is but the guinea's stamp, 
The man's the gowd for a' that," 

has been found in Wycherley's play of the Country 
Wife : 

" I weigh the man, not his title ; 'tis not the King's 
stamp can make the metal better.'' 

Sterne expresses a somewhat similar sentiment 
in his "Dedication to a Great Man" in Tristram, 
Shandy, which I am not aware has been noticed 
before in connexion with Burns's famous lines. It 
is as follows : 

" Honours, like impressions upon coin, may give an 
ideal and local value to a bit of base metal ; but Gold 
and Silver will pass all the world over, without any other 
recommendation than their own weight." 

Needless to observe that the illustrious Scottish 
peasant has expressed the sentiment in by far the 
neatest language. 

Apropos of Sterne, Dr. Ferrar, about the 
beginning of this century, published a small book, 
entitled Illustrations of Sterne, in which he 
endeavoured to prove the witty author of Tristram 
Shandy the vilest plagiarist. It is true he showed 
that Sterne was largely indebted, in writing 
Tristram, to Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 
but as Sterne himself says, "Every man's \,it 
must come from his own soul and no other body's." 

W. A. C. 


PROFUSE DEDICATION. In recent numbers of 
" N. & Q." an advertisement has appeared, setting 
forth the reprinting, by Mr. Eussell Smith, of 
Chapman's Homer's Iliad and Odyssey ; and this 
notice reminded me of the extravagant dedication 
preceding the old edition (of 1606 ?) printed for 
Nathaniel Butter. Not contented with having 
two strings to his bow, honest George must needs 
have no less than seventeen, my notes giving the 

5 th S. I. FEB. 28, 74.] 



following as the patrons to whom Chapman 
addressed his Iliads : 

"To Anne, Queene of England &c a ., Sacred Fountaine 
of Princes, Sole Empresse of Beavtie and Vertve. 

"To the Eight Gracious and Worthy, the Duke of 

" To the most Grave and honored Temperer of Law 
and Equity, the Lord Chancelor, &c a . 

" To the most Worthie Earle, Lord Treasurer & Trea- 
surer of Our Country, the Earle of Salisbury, &c a . 

" To the most honored Restorer of ancient Nobility, 
both in bloud & vertue, the Earle of Suffolke, &c a . 

" To the most Noble and learned Earle, the Earle of 
Northampton, &c a . 

" To the most Noble, my singular good Lord, the Earle 
of Arundell. 

" To the learned and most noble Patron of learning, the 
Earle of Pembroke, &c a . 

"To the Right Gracious Illustrator of Vertue, and 
worthy of the favour Royall, the Earle of Montgomrie. 

"To the most learned and noble Conductor of the 
"Warres, Arte, and the Muses, the Lord Lisle, &c a . 

" To the Great and Vertuous, the Countesse of Mont- 

"To the Happy Starre Discovered in our Sydneian 
Asterisme, comfort of learning, Sphere of all the vertues, 
the Lady Wrothe. 

" To the Right Noble Patronesse and Grace of Vertue, 
the Countesse of Bedford. 

" To the Right Valorous and Vertuous Lord, the Earle 
of Sovth-Hampton, &c a . 

"To my exceeding good Lord, the Earle of Sussex, 
with duty alwaies remembred to his honour'd Countesse. 

" To the right Noble and Heroicall, my singular good 
Lord, the Lord of Walden, &c. 

" To the most truely noble and vertue-gracing Knight, 
Sir Thomas Howard. 

" Ever most humbly and faithfully devoted to you, and 
11 the rare Patrons of divine Homer. 


Observe the skill with which the poet-translator 
avoids any repetition of terms in the praises he 
sings, and how judiciously he apportions to each 
patron the right amount of flattering compliment. 
"Verily, the art of vanity- tickling must have reached 
a lofty height in the early years of the seventeenth 
century, even though the above be deemed, as I 
believe it is, an extraordinary specimen of the dedi- 
catory-fulsome style. CRESCENT. 


FRANCIS SCARLETT. I observe that in the 
account given in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage 
of this family there are one or two slight inaccu- 
racies, as, for instance, that Francis Scarlett, some- 
times called Captain, " served as member for St. 
Andrew's parish, in the first Legislative Assembly 
of Jamaica." This is an error, as may be seen by 
referring to the official list of the first Assembly, 
in 1663. Captain Scarlett does not appear either 
in the list of the members of the first Council. 

This gentleman was styled Captain, from the 
fact that he commanded a vessel which traded 
between London and Jamaica, as may be seen in 
the local records of the latter island ; but he does 
not appear to have served in any official capacity; 

and, moreover, the links connecting him with the 
father of the first Lord Abinger (two of whose 
brothers were Members of Assembly in Jamaica) 
are, I think, imperfect, although they might be 
discovered.* SP. 

TAVERN INSCRIPTION. Allow me to recommend 
to the notice of every true Briton (except Sir 
Wilfrid Lawson) this encouraging inscription, 
which I saw recently on the wall in a village inn, 
at Farnborough in Kent : 
"All who enter herein 

Need not have any fear ; 

For when they have drank (sic) all the rum and gin 
They can do the same with the beer." 

These spirited lines are due, I understand, to the 
genius of the landlord. A. J. M. 

" SIMPSON." I take it that this word, which, in 
the East of England, is used to denote the common 
groundsel, is corrupted from its botanical name 
senecio, senecion-is (vulgaris), which in some 
dialects of England is tendon. There is a 
tendency to corrupt n to w, and to interpolate p. 


Gray's Inn. 

PICTURES BY MURILLO. Those persons who are 
so fortunate as to possess pictures by Murillo will 
probably be glad to know that in the scarce cata- 
logue of the old collection of Loridon de Ghellinck 
of Ghent, after minute descriptions of full-length 
portraits of Don Kodrigue de Silva Mendoza Gus- 
manand of D. Inigo Melchior Fernandez de Velasco 
de Frias, both dated 1659, is the following note: 

" Monsieur Maelcamp les a apportes d'Espagne, avec 
onze autres du meme Peintre, que la Famille de Madame 
son Epouse y avoit acquis, lesquels sont passes en Angle- 

Although no date is given, I think these eleven 
Murillos must have been either the first, or among 
the first, brought to England. Was Maelcamp the 
Flemish for Malconi ] Perhaps a notice of them 
might be found in the Gentleman's Magazine, or 
some newspaper about a hundred years old. 


Ashford, Kent. 

The following paragraphs are extracted from The 
Swiss Times and from The Craven Pioneer. Similar 
remarks have been in several German, French, 
Swiss, and Italian journals, and also in medical 
works : 

"All those who live in malarial districts should, if 
possible, test the asserted influence of sunflower cultiva- 
tion in removing the sources of fever. German, Italian, 
and French savans have testified as to its efficacy in this 
respect. An account comes to us from Holland of a land- 
owner on the low banks of the Scheldt, who planted 
three or four plota of sunflowers a few yards from his 
house with such effect that for ten years there has not 

I myself have a clue to one of these links. 



[5 th 8. 1. FEB. 28, '74. 

been a case of miasmatic fever among the tenants on his 
property, though the disease continues to prevail in the 
neighbourhood." Swiss Times. 

"No plant absorbs nitrogen so rapidly as the sun- 
flower ; it is ravenous as the stomach of an ostrich. A 
pigeon was buried amongst the roots of a sunflower. 
After some weeks not a vestige of the bird was found. 
The plant had devoured, and even digested, the feathers." 
Craven Pioneer. 

The extract from The Swiss Times merits a con- 
sideration. The pigeon story in the other extract 
is questionable ; and we may ask whether the same 
effect might not have been produced if the bird 
had been placed for some weeks amongst the roots 
of any other plant or flower. The sunflower is of 
easy cultivation; it will grow anywhere. I have 
had miniature specimens on an old wall. The 
seed is much relished by domestic fowls and cage- 
birds. A. MURITHEAN. 

THE DUKE OP WELLINGTON. I was dining in 
company with the Duke, in 1836, at Betshanger, 
near Walmer, in Kent, when the conversation 
turned upon events in the Peninsula. The Duke 
looking out from the window upon the park, said: 
"At such a battle" (I forget where) "I saw 
Soult in his tent, not further off than that clump 
of trees," pointing to one at a distance, " writing, 
with his staff about him. I 'd got my glass upon 
him. Suddenly he handed a slip of paper, and an 
aide-de-camp galloped off. I saw what he was at. 
I made a counter- move, and I beat him." The 
sparkle of his eye and the compression of his lips 
are not easily to be forgotten. 



AN AMERICAN MOTTO. A humourist of the 
U.S.A. tells a story of an M.D. who has adopted, 
as a family motto to his recently "found" arms, 
" Patients is a Virtue." N. 

TAAFFE. In a former note it was stated that 
the wife of Christopher Taaffe, "generosus in 
Comitatu Derriw" (1745), was named Anne.* 
This appears to have been an oversight; her name 
was Mary. She was the mother of Arthur Taaffe 
(ob. 1750), of the Rev. Henry Taaffe, and of Anne 
Taaffe, and either her husband or herself had a 
sister married to a Mr. Wheeler, for her son Henry 
mentions his Cousin Thomas Wheeler in his will 
(1771) along with his own children 1, Arthur 
Roger ; 2, Elizabeth ; 3, John Armistead ; 4, 
Richard Brownrigg; 5, Thomas Wheeler. 

The author of Annotations on King James II.'s 
Army List made the following communication to 
the writer, many years ago, on this subject. Re- 
ferring to the will of Christopher Taaffe, who died 
in Dublin in 1736, he says: 

" I think he is identical with the Christopher named 

* It was a " Michael Taafe," who died in 1762, whose 
mother was named Anne. 

in the will of Arthur Taaffe, of Jamaica. . . (he) had 
(i. e., Christopher, who d. 1736) sons named Arthur and 
Henry, and I am inclined to think that he had also a son 
George, who passed into Connaught and settled there." 

But, in the will of Christopher (1736), no men- 
tion is made of his sons; and, therefore, I should 
be glad to know whence he obtained his informa- 
tion. S. P. 

CORPSE ON SHIPBOARD. Fuller, Holy Warre, 
c. 27, says of St. Louis : 

" His body was carried into France, there to be buried, 
and was most miserably tossed ; it being observed, that 
the sea cannot digest the crudity of a dead corpse, being 
a due debt to be interred where it dieth ; and a ship 
cannot abide to be made a bier of." 

W. G. 

BURIAL CUSTOMS. A little more than a century 
ago, in Wales, the poor were not buried in coffins ; 
they were merely wrapped up in canvas and carried 
away to be buried in a coffin, which was kept for 
common use in the church, just as a bier is now. 
There were two coffins kept, one a large one, 
another a small one. T. C. UNNONE. 

Some time in the year 1846, while visiting Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts (United States), I met with an 
old gentleman by the name of Capt. White (now 
deceased), who, ascertaining I had a liking for 
antiquities, pulled down from the wall an old stock- 
ing, full of old, musty, and, many of them, nearly 
illegible records for my examination. 

Among them was an old deed of the original tribe 
of Indians for a large tract of land, where now 
stand the cities of Haverhill, Ipswich, Salem, 
Lawrence, &c., which conveyance, when I saw it, 
had been recorded at Ipswich over 190 years. The 
following is a copy of the same : 

" Know, all white men and Indians by these presents 
that we, Sagaho and Passaquai, Chiefs of ye Tribe of 
Pasconoway, in consid of 3 16 0, have given and granted 
to ye inhabitants of Pawtucket 16 miles by 18 on Little 
River, and we will warrant and defend ye same against 
all white men or Indians. 

" Nov. 15, 1642. 

" Signed, Sagaho and 

To this, for a seal, was affixed a picture of two 
bows and arrows. 

The names of a dozen persons were given at the 
bottom of the conveyance, and who were, probably, 
the original grantees. Among these names were 
Ward, White, Dustin, Coffin, &c., whose 
descendants still reside there. Is there any men- 
tion of this large grant of land in the historyfof 
New England or of the tribe of Pasconoway ? 



5 th S. I. FEB. 28, 74.] 



{We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix thei 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

" BLODIUS " Blood colour, as seems most prob 
able, and as Ducange explains it, or blue, as Dr 
Rock (Church of Our Fathers, ii. 260) seems to 
show ] In a matrimonial cause at Durham in 1451 
(Surt. Soc., vol. xxi. p. 31), both parties deposed as 
to their clothes at the time of their marriage. The 
man said that they were "somjjwmetcolorisambo" 
the woman, " blodii coloris ambo." This seems to 
settle it ; but how are we to understand Dr. Kock's 

The following occur in Ripon wills, inventories, 
<&c., mostly of the fifteenth century. I should be 
glad of any satisfactory explanations, or of confirma- 
tions, or refutations, of my own surmises. 

Hayr pro vstrina xxx vine; carbones de Hale; 
myo r pro pane micando (what is the word ?) ; 
Wayneclowtes; plogh clowtes; birne Iron as distinct 
from markyng Iron ; flekes pro plaustro ; j call 
p't xij d (1 for calling the cattle home) ; pro le 
graneship xijs viijd (about the price of a fat ox in 
same inventory) ; gresman (1 a grazier) ; pescuarium 
(among bed-clothes) ; vnum allarium blodium ; 
j perpendiculum ; unum Suster Eight in Collegio 
S. Trin, Pontefract ; les Crystynges (a locality in 
the village of Shirburn in Elmet) ; j dalk deaurat, 
a dalk cum ymagine B. marie ; blakke bokesye 
and bulckasyn (textile fabrics), pannus vocatus 
lewan (1 Louvain) ; vna vlna de cremell (? creiuell), 
crewel, or worsted; j toga de mostar de velis; 
Sewent Ordigne makyth and declarit my testament, 
&c. (1522) ; Item in Appryware (1 in Napery- 
ware) ; byemyllne (? the town mill, so " Bye Well," 
the village well at N. Kelsey in Lincolns.) ; 
ploxomegate (now Blossom Gate, a street in Ripon) ; 
J. D. impregnata cum W. K. alector seu cum 
R. S. &c. ; in toga laxa et terrela sua. J. T. F. 
Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

SHAKSPEARE'S SONNETS. What is the earliest 
allusion to, or quotation from, the Sonnets? I 
mean, of course, after the publication in 1609, and 
exclude Meres's notice, which, if it refers at all to 
the series afterwards published, certainly only does 
so inter alia. Is there, in fact, any notice or men- 
tion of them up to 1640, the date of the new 
edition ? SPERIEND. 

" ALBUM UNGUENTUM." Pray will some reader 
help me to the meaning of the following sentence, 
occurring in Matthew Paris under the year 1092 ? 
I refer especially to the clause which I have given 
in italics: "Eodem anno, Johannes, Wellensis 
prsesul, natione Turonicus consensu Willielmi Regis, 
albo unguento manibus ejus delibatis transtulit in 
Bathoniam, sui cathedram prsesulatus." Does it 

mean that he bought the consent of the king with 
money=silver 1 Rufus was not the man to do 
much for nothing, or "to shake his hand from 
holding of bribes." EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

1866. I was much surprised on turning over the 
pages of this work lately to find the following 
under "Archer, Baron Archer" : 

"One line, descending from Fulbert L'Archer the 
Norman, was settled, at a very remote period, at Kilkenny 
in Ireland, and its descendants -may still be traced in that 
Kingdom, one being the present Graves C. Archer, Esq., of 
Mount John, co. Wicklow." 

How the author arrived at such an inference, 
and conceived the idea of placing this gentleman 
in so palpably inappropriate a situation, it is hard 
to imagine. But this we all know, that the first 
explanation of the origin of the Kilkenny Archers 
was given by a member of the Royal Arch. 
Society, in 1866, in an exhaustive paper, and that 
there is no evidence whatever, first, that Mr. G. C. 
Archer represents, in the male line, the Archers of 
Kilkenny ; second, that he is in any conceivable 
manner connected with the pedigree of "Lord 
Archer"; but if the author will justify his assertion 
by any evidence, however weak, I pledge myself to 
join issue. R. C. 

BEZIQUE (OR BE"SIQUE.) What is the derivation 
of this word ? W. J. W. JONES. 

"BENE'T COLLEGE." Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, was formerly known by this name. 
When and why was this familiar name dropped ? 

T. J. B. 

KNIGHT BIORN. In a short German tale, by De 
la Motte Fouque", called Sintram and his Com- 
panions, the scene of which is laid in Norway, 
me of the characters is called " Knight Biorn." 
What is the meaning of Biorn in English ? The 
story is founded on a picture by Albrecht Du'rer ; 
[ should like to know what it represents. 

F. E. 

ANONYMOUS POEMS. Wanted the names of the 
authors of the following poems, and when and 
where they first appeared in print : 1. The Address 
o the Stars, beginning : 

" Aye, there ye shine, and there have shone 
In one eternal hour of prime," &c. 

2. The stanzas quoted by Longfellow in the 1st 
Chapter of the 3rd book of Hyperion, commencing : 
" Come, golden Evening ! in the west 
Enthrone the storm-dispelling sun," &c. 

J. W. D. 

HERALDIC. To whom do these coats of arms 

>elong ? Impaled, ar., 4 pallets, vert ; ar., a chev. 

ngraUed, gu., between 3 mullets pierced, vert. 

They are engraved on an old sun-dial in a very old 

garden, which (as is stated in the parish quit-rent 



[5 th S. I. FEB. 28, '74. 

roll) together with the house and property " were 
for many years in the Family of Symonds (noted 
for the succour they gave King Charles the Second 
in his Flight from Worcester)." From the Symonds 
family they passed to the Conduit, Hide, and 
Eichards families, and to Lord Hugh Seymour, who 
sold them to the present possessors at the end of 
the last century. B. L. 

SMALL TABLES. What was the use of the pretty 
little walnut or mahogany tables one sometimes 
sees in old-fashioned houses, which are about 
twenty inches high, with a circular top, nine inches 
or so across, and always with a raised rim ] I have 
heard they were for a kettle and stand. Is this 
so? P. P. 

DINE." I have seen an engraving by Scriven after 
the original picture of the " Fair Geraldine," the 
subject of Surrey's sonnet, preserved at Woburn. 
It was published by Longman, &c., in 1809. Can 
any of your correspondents say what work it was 
designed to illustrate 1 I believe she was the wife 
of Lord Clinton when the portrait was taken, but 
am not sure of this. Any information about this 
interesting portrait, and the engraving taken from 
it, will oblige. JAMES GRAVES. 


arbitrary length of two and a quarter inches in the 
mercer's measure designated a nail ? The hand of 
four inches is no doubt the average breadth of the 
human hand. M. D, 

ADAM SMITH. Is there any published work 
that gives statistics showing the average acreage ol 
land necessary to support one man ? Adam Smith 
(Wealth of Nations, page 29, Murray's reprint), 
says : 

" In the lone houses and very small villages which are 
scattered about in so desert a country as the Highlands 
of Scotland, every farmer must be butcher, baker, am 
brewer for his own family." 

If I could ascertain the acreage of these farms 
when Adam Smith wrote, it would, give the infor 
mation so far as Scotland is concerned, but th 
sterility of the soil would prevent this giving an 
average data. G. LAURENCE GOMME. 

Gelastinum Severum, A 1645. Wanted, the 
name of the author, place of publication, and anj 
other particulars about this work. G. W. 0. 

Eev. Stephen Isaacson's edition of Henry- Isaacson : 
Life of Andrewes (Hearne, 1829), he says (p. xrL 
that among the complimentary verses to the Chro 
nology were lines by Fuller, the church historian 

'hese do not appear, at any rate under Fuller's 

ame, in the 1633 edition. Were they added 
fterwards? J. E. BAILEY. 


DR. JOHNSON. Where shall I find a quotation 
rom Johnson made by Macaulay, respecting the 
all of two houses in Fleet Street 1 P. C. 

United University Club. 

ire deposited in Lincoln's Inn Library ; but what 
las become of his theological MSS., of which he 
eft five folio volumes ? I ask the question because 

am anxious to examine them. CYRIL. 

he Queen Dowager, Henrietta Maria, he says : 
" To give a little instance of her inclination for the- 
inglish, I happened to carry an English gentleman with 
me to court, and he, to be very fine, had got him a 
garniture of rich ribbon to his suit, in which was a 
mixture of red and yellow ; which the Queen observing, 
jailed to me, and bad me advise my friend to mend hi. 
'ancy a little, as to his ribbons, the two colours he had 
oined being ridiculous in France, and might give the- 
French occasion to laugh at him." P. 163, 1st edition. 
What was signified by the mixture referred to ? 


OF QUEENSBERRY. At Drumlanrig Castle, the seat, 
of the Duke of Buccleuch, in Dumfries-shire, there 
is a beautiful picture of this lady, which may be 
known to some of your correspondents, as it was- 
long kept in London. The query I wish to have 
answered, if it can be so, is, by whom was it- 
executed 1 The history of the picture is the 
following, and I believe it to be perfectly authentic. 

When the Duchess was seventy-five years of 
age, Lord Thurlow, then Attorney-General (1776), 
gained a law-suit for her, and from a feeling of 
gratitude for his services, she agreed, at his request,, 
to sit for this picture for him. It descended from 
him to a grand-niece, Mrs. Brown. At her death 
it was left by her to her nieces, the Misses Ellis. 
It remained with them till the last of them died,, 
in 1860, when it was sold, and thus came into tLe- 
possession of the Duke of Buccleuch. The picture 
represents the Duchess, of whom Horace Walpole 

wrote : 

" To many a Kitty Love his ear 

Would for a day engage ; 

But Prior's Kitty, ever fair, 

Obtain'd it for an age," 

as still possessing in her advanced years great 
beauty, and showing a most winning expression. 
The head is curiously enveloped in a wnite kerchief. 
A copy of this picture had long been in Drumlanrig, 
but, when compared with the original, it is " Hy- 
perion to a Satyr." I ask, then, if it be known by 
whom this picture was executed. 


5 ft S. I. FEB. 23, 74.] 



EGBERT MAITLAND, third son of Sir Robert 
Maitland, slain at the battle of Durham, A.D. 1346, 
married the heiress of Shives and Gright, co. 
Aberdeen. Who was she 1 GEORGE SHAND. 

Heydon Rectory, Norfolk. 

FERDORAGH. What is the meaning of this Irish 
name, or, as it is also written, Ferdorcha and 
Feardoragh ? It occurs in two instances in my 
family history. Ferdoragh Savage, circa 1580, had 
two sons, elder Fordarrah (another form of spelling), 
and Jenkin Boy, who were both killed fighting 
against the O'Neils in Antrim. Boy means yellow 
haired, and Jenkin was so called from his com- 
plexion, and his name is easily explained ; but I 
am anxious to know the signification of his brother's 
and father's name. Another more remote ancestor 
of mine was named Jenico. Does this mean 

Army and Navy Club. 

" As I sit within the rood loft while the thunder tones 

are pealing 

From the deep mouth of the organ as I touch it once 

Wanted, the name of the periodical, believed to 
have been a Christmas number for 1868 or 1869, 
in which the Rood Loft (the above being the first 
two lines) appeared. D. H. M. 

How can I get the names of these throughout the 
kingdom? A. X. Y. 

" To GET THE SACK." What is the meaning of 
this phrase ? This question being put lately to one 
generally able to solve such inquiries, he sought to 
conceal his inability by saying, " Oh, ask the Chan- 
cellor"; and, upon its being pointed out that the 
answer of the Ex- Chancellor and that of the Chan- 
cellor in esse would necessarily differ, his answer 
was, " Then ask ' N. & Q.' " WOOLGATHERER. 


[And a very sensible answer it was, as our correspondent 
will see, if he refers to our 1 st S. v. 585; vi. 19, 88.] 



(4 th S. xii. 321, 349, 371, 389, 416, 459 ; 5 S. i. 
130, 149.) 

Before proceeding further, it is proper that I 
should notice the copious and learned strictures 
of W. A. B. C. First, I must again insist that the 
question is one of fact, not of theory ; and it is 
most important to keep fact and theory distinct. 
Theories must be based on facts; and for that very- 
reason it is necessary first to settle the facts, and 
not to lay down a theory, and then seek to make 
facts square with it. The question was raised by 
ray denial of Mr. Freeman's statement, that the 
" great council of the nation " has again and again 

elected or deposed sovereigns ; whereas I, on the 
contrary, asserted that in no single instance has the 
" great council of the nation " asserted any sucb 

If the inquiry is extended to Saxon times, the- 
result is only more strongly against Mr. Freeman's 
statement ; for nothing is more remarkable in those 
rude, barbarous, and turbulent ages ' than the 
strength of the hereditary principle and the rare- 
ness of departures from it except in cases of force 
and violence, which it is admitted are of no weight. 
Except in such cases, the rule of hereditary suc- 
cession was never departed from in Saxon times ; 
nor is there a single instance of election. The cases 
which Mr. Freeman fancies are instances of election 
are all cases of hereditary succession, quite regular 
according to the idea of it then existing, which 
was different from ours. The Saxons divided the, 
inheritance, and had not adopted the rule of " repre- 
sentation," i. e. of a deceased son being represented 
in succession by his child; neither did they allow 
of female succession to the crown. But they 
adhered substantially to the rule of hereditary 
succession; and all writers agree that the throne 
never went out of the family, which alone shows 
the crown was not elective. The rule was here- 
ditary descent, as then received, and it was 
never disturbed except by force and violence. 
As to the chief Saxon monarchy, for instance, 
whatever its extent, from Egbert to Edward, 
through a line of fourteen kings, the crown 
descended by hereditary succession, except the 
interruption caused by Canute's conquest and 
the succession of his sons ; and, on their death, we 
are told by the Saxon chronicle that the people 
acknowledged Edward for king, " as was his true 
natural right"; that is by succession, as the son of 
King Ethelred, who also, the chronicle says, was 
called by the witan their natural lord, i.e. as is plainly 
implied, by birth and descent. Not a single in- 
stance of election of any one not of the royal family 
can be found in Saxon times. 

As to instances of deposition in Saxon times, they 
were all cases of force and violence ; and it is idle to 
dream of the Saxons as controlled by councils. As 
Milton wrote, long ago : " Their actions were most 
commonly wars, but for what cause waged, or by 
what counsels carried on, no care was had to let 
us know. Whereby their violence, we understand 
of their wisdom, reason or justice, little or nothing :: 
the rest superstition and monastical affectation." 
This is very much the idea of Mr. Burke, Sir 
James Mackintosh, and Mr. Hallam ; and it has 
just been enforced with great vigour in Mr. Yeat- 
man's interesting History of the Common Law in 
Saxon Times. Even Mr. Freeman admits this, 
and only ventures to rely on one case of deposition 
in the Saxon times (earlier than Ethelred) ; and 
Mr. Stubbs, in his valuable history just out, adds 
another; but, on reference to the original authorities, 



(5 th S. I. FEB. 28, 74. 

it will be found that both were cases of force and 
violence, that in neither is there the least allusion 
to any " council," and that in one of them, the one 
chiefly relied on by both -writers, it was a clear 
oase of forcible ouster by an invader, a rival 
claimant of the crown ! Not a single instance of 
deposition by the act of any national council can 
be found in Saxon times. Mr. Freeman mentions 
only one prior to that of Ethelred ; and both were 
cases of expulsion by an invader. Ethelred was 
driven from the kingdom by the arms of Canute, 
who ultimately assumed the sovereignty of all 
-England, by conquest, and, as Mr. Yeatman says 
-very truly, was really the first sovereign of England, 
which is plainly implied in the language of the 
"Saxon chronicle. No doubt one of the chronicles 
-says that Canute was elected or chosen king, but 
that only shows how loosely the phrase was used. 
The Saxon chronicle says that when he fought 
the last great decisive battle, the whole Eng- 
lish nation fought against him, that he gained 
the victory, that the English nobility were 
destroyed, and that " then he obtained the whole 
realm of the English." Then a later hand added, 
that he was " chosen king," which, so far as the 
English were concerned, clearly was because they 
could not help it ; and it must be taken as mean- 
ing that they chose to submit to him rather than 
wage a useless struggle. But on his death his 
sons succeeded, and on their death the son of 
Ethelred succeeded, and the chronicle says he 
was acknowledged for king " as his true natural 
right." Thus, then, at the Conquest the crown was 
clearly hereditary. 

On Edward's death William was not the heir, 
and he gained the crown by conquest. The notion 
that the Conqueror was " elected" is rested on the 
statement of his chaplain, William of Poitou, who 
also says that the Confessor, at the advice of 
Stigand and Seward, had left the crown to him, a 
statement which, if true, would not sustain the 
notion of election, but which is evidently false ; 
for the persons named were both dead at the time, 
and almost the last act of the Confessor was to 
send for his nephew as the heir to the crown. 
This shows that at the time of the Conquest the 
crown was regarded &s hereditary ; and the Saxon 
chronicle an authority at once contemporary, and, 
on such a point, undoubted describes William as 
obtaining the crown by conquest. It states that 
after the battle of Hastings he waited to see if the 
people would submit to him, and then ravaged 
the realm until they did so, and that the chieJ 
men then submitted to him that is because they 
could not help it. That was the only sense in 
which he was ever "elected"; and Mr. Stubbs 
admits that William himself never urged so false 
and foolish a pretence, but that he claimed 
the crown as the chosen heir of Edward, add- 
ing, with equal truth, that it was a claim the 

English did not admit, and of which the Normans 
;hemselves saw the fallacy (258). But the other 
dea, of election, is infinitely more absurd ; and all 
ihat Mr. Stubbs could bring himself to write 
was " that the form of election and acceptance was 
observed," by which he means the coronation, in 
which there was no " form of election " at all, and 
most certainly never was an election in reality. 
[t was the solemn recognition of a sovereign, on 
lis solemn oath to rule according to law. The 
Ignorant monkish chroniclers, indeed, regarded the 
coronation as an election. Thus the Conqueror's 
chaplain says he was elected king " electus in 
regem " and crowned ; but by elected he meant 
xowned : and the Saxon chronicle explains it ; 
x>r it says, " the Archbishop hallowed (or con- 
secrated) him king, and swore him, ere he would 
set the crown on his head, that he would well 
govern the realm." But this was simply a con- 
dition imposed by the Church on the act of con- 
secration, which, in those ages of superstition, was 
supposed to invest the king with a sacred character, 
as " the Lord's anointed." The ignorant monkish 
chroniclers fell into two blunders first, in supposing 
that this consecration made the sovereign king ; 
and next, in supposing that the condition imposed 
by the Church on consecration was a sort of election. 
And as the chroniclers and scribes, like the chancel- 
lors, were ecclesiastics, hence the " regnal year" was 
dated from the coronation, in absurd contradiction 
both of fact and law. For beyond all doubt, in 
law the royal heir was king the moment the right 
descended on him by his father's death; and in 
fact, sovereigns exercised the royal power from that 
time, and often for weeks or months before their 
coronation. Hume, with his usual acuteness, per- 
ceived and pointed out the blunder : " Such stress 
was formerly laid on the rite of coronation, that 
the monkish writers never gave any prince the 
title of king till he was crowned (though he had for 
sometime been in possession of the crown and 
exercised all the powers of sovereignty" (vol. i. 
c. 7). 

At the Conquest, the old Saxon rule of an 
hereditary monarchy was continued, and was 
strengthened by the establishment of the feudal 
system, which was essentially hereditary. Every 
sovereign who has really been recognized by the 
nation since the Conqueror has reigned by here- 
ditary right. Every sovereign has so reigned 
except such as have not been so recognized. The 
Conqueror himself declared, in the charter in which 
he guaranteed the nation the hereditary succession 
of their lands, on condition of rendering the ser- 
vices due to him : " prout statutum est eis et illis 
a nobis datum et concessum jure hcereditario in per- 
petuum per commune consilium totius regni nostri." 
How could the sovereign guarantee hereditary 
rights if his own sovereignty was not hereditary ] 
The subsequent charters, also, were all based upon 

. I. FJSB. 28, 1 74.] 



the hereditary right of succession to the throne 
For the king granted it for his heirs as well as for 
himself, "pro nobis et hceredibus nostris in per- 
petuum," words which would have been idle unless 
his heirs were to succeed to the crown. And so as 
to the barons and all other freeholders of the realm, 
the succession of their titles and estates to their 
heirs was assured in the same charters, "hseres 
habeat heereditatem suam." Thus the right of every 
freeholder to his estate, and of every peer to his 
title, rested on the same basis 'of hereditary right as 
that of the sovereign to the crown. W. F. F. 

(To be continued.} 

"CoMPURGATORs" (4 th S. xii. 348, 434, 497 ; 
5 th S. i. 72.) The extracts given by ANGLO-SCOTUS 
as from the Kirk-Session Records of Glasgow are 
certainly not thence extracted, but appear to be 
taken from a book or rather a heterogeneous mix- 
ture of books called a History of Glasgow (1870, 
p. 168); and no better instance could be given of 
the danger of trusting to such second-hand infor- 
mation than ANGLO-SCOTUS affords when he tells 
us that members of the Kirk Session were paid for 
performing their duties ! I have read of bishops 
in Scotland enjoying the stipends which other 
clergymen laboured for, but, without having seen 
the Session Register of Glasgow, I will venture to 
say that if ANGLO-SCOTUS can find there, or in any 
other such record, an example of lay elders of the 
Kirk being paid for their pious work, he will have 
discovered something " not generally known." 
Neither was it ever the duty of elders, lay or 
clerical, to "lay hands on" delinquents of any 
degree. That belonged to the civil magistracy; 
and elders of the Kirk could only initiate those 
means of reproof and correction which it has always 
been one of the chief duties of the Christian Church 
to employ. 

The first extract given by ANGLO-SCOTUS refers 
less to ecclesiastical than to the civil procedure 
necessary to check the tumults that were common 
in the streets at that period, and most probably it 
records an order of the magistrates sitting in the 
Session. A similar instance occurs during Arch- 
bishop Lindsay's government 

" 1637. Sabbath, observance of Aug. 18th. The Session 
enact, that the Ports be shut on Saturday's night, and 
Watchers set to observe Travellers." (Hist, of Glasgow, 
p. 150.) 

The part which the Church took in carrying out 
such orders as those given in the second extract is 
shown by another excerpt from the same autho- 

"1654. Sabbath, observance of. The Session enacts 
that the Ministers, time about, after Sermon on Sabbath 
nights, do visit the Bridge with one Elder, and exhort 
the people that flock there to go home." (Do., p. 173.) 

But whatever share the Church had in these 

measures, few will follow ANGLO-SCOTUS in calling 
her discipline of her children according to the ideas 
of the time "persecution"; and in the annals of 
the Kirk under Episcopacy we have too many 
instances of real persecution to leave any desire to 
add to their number by exaggeration. ANGLO- 
SCOTUS, who quotes Scott's novels as authority for 
historical fact, and a peerage lawyer for proof of 
the evil effects of the Eeformation on the morals 
of a people, goes on to say what is usual about an 
unknown entity called " Calvinism," and the 
" sanctimoniousness " of the Scots character. I am 
sorry to hear that we poor Scots are so soon to 
lose, under the influence of " the larger country," 
the blessings of a Reformed Church, but I do hope 
that your learned correspondent is too sanguine as 
to the effect of that influence at least in one matter 
which he speaks of I mean excessive drinking. 
There is no saying when one may not be overtaken 
in the fault, and to a quiet man like myself it 
must always be less painful punishment to be ob- 
served (if they find me in the street) by such as 
the " compurgators " of a hundred years ago were, 
than to have policemen dragging me off for being 
drunk in my own house, to be put in prison by a 
police magistrate, as may be done in this year of 
grace in Merry England. W. F. 

LITHOTOMY (5 th S. i. 106, 155.) Lithotomy is 
older than the time of Celsus. Hippocrates (ob. B.C. 
361) forbade his pupils, by a solemn oath, to cut for 
stone, as he considered that operation a speciality. 
He gives no account of the manner in which it 
was performed in his time. But Ammonius, sur- 
named Lithotomus, of Alexandria, who lived about 
150 years after Hippocrates, and Meges, in the 
days of Augustus, both performed lithotomy in a 
manner admitted by Celsus to be much like his 
own operation of " cutting on the gripe." This 
procedure was certainly undertaken in this country, 
as in the rest of Europe, during the Middle Ages, 
till it was superseded by the barbarous " Marian 
operation," where the staff was first employed. 
Dr. Douglas (History of the Lateral Operation, 
London, 1726) remarks that the terms " cutting on 
;he gripe "and "cutting on the staff "were" probably 
borrowed from the Dutch, in which language these 
ways of cutting were expressed by terms 
analogous to them, and perhaps they came to be 
;aken into the English language by being used by 
ithotomists, whom we have had oftener than once 
Tom Holland." The celebrated Frere Jacques de 
Beaulieu brought the lateral operation into vogue, 
but Cheselden, of St. Thomas's Hospital, in the 
larly part of the last century, has the undoubted 
merit of having first brought lateral lithotomy into 
something like its present perfection, and com- 
)arative safety to the patient. Pirrie (Principles 
and Practice of Surgery, third edition, 1873) not 
inly gives a clear account of the history of lateral 



[5* S.I. FEB. 28, 74. 

lithotomy, but also affords to the reader much 
interesting information about the origin of the 
median, suprapubic, and other varieties of the 
operation. ALBAN DORAN. 

Royal College of Surgeons. 

" THE FAIR CONCUBINE ; or, the Secret History 
of the Beautiful Vanella. Containing Her Amours 
with Albimarides, P. Alexis, &c. London, 
M.DCC.XXXII." 8vo. (5 th S. i. 28, 76.) Happening 
to have a perfect print, I append the required copy 
of the verses : 

" As the old Patriarch we in Scripture find, 
Of teeming sheep by art the Breed confin'd, 
And made his Lambkins o' the mottled kind, 
So big Vanella, with a serious air, 
Views ev'ry feature with attentive care, 
To give her coming Boy his Father's Princely stare." 

" The beautiful Vanella " indicates the Hon. 
Anne Vane (eldest daughter of Gilbert, Baron 
Barnard), who was Maid of Honour to Queen 
Caroline, and P. Alexis represents Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, whose mistress she beeaine, and 
by whom she had a son, born in St. James's Palace, 
and christened Cornwall Fitz-Frederick. 

On the marriage of the Prince she retired with 
her son to Bath, where, on 27th March, 1736, she 
died unmarried, aged 26, her son having prede- 
ceased her on 20th of the same month. 

Johnson, in Vanity of Human Wishes, couples 
with her the daughter of Sir Charles Sedley (mis- 
tress of King James II., and by him created 
Countess of Dorchester) in verse : 

" Yet Vane could tell what ills from beauty spring, 
And Sedley curs'd the form that pleas'd the King." 

The following lines apply, and the under-mentioned 
publications have reference to the lady : 
" The fairest forms that nature shews, 

Sustain the sharpest doom, 
Her Life was like the morning Rose, 

That withers in its bloom." 
" Ev'n man, the merciless insulter, man, 
Man, who rejoices in the sex's weakness, 

Shall pity V , and with unwonted goodness, 

Forget her failings, and record her praise." 

Vanella in the Straw. A Poem. 8vo. London, 

Vanelia ; or, the Amours of the Great. An Opera. 
8vo. London, 1732. 

Vanessa. The Humours of the Court; or, Modern 
Galantry. A New Ballad Opera. 8vo. London, 1732 

Alexis's Paradise; or, a Trip to the Garden of 
Love at Vauxhall. A Comedy. 8vo. London, 1732 
" Oh ! look Vanella, for my eyes impart 
The sincere dictates of Alexis' Heart." 

I have an excellent mezzotint engraving of th< 
lady by Faber, from her portrait by Vander-Bank. 

H. M. VANE. 
74, Eaton Place, S.W. 

" The beautiful Vanella " was Miss Vane, thi 
well-known mistress of Frederick, Prince of Wales 

She is referred to in A Satire on the Prince's 
Marriage, 1736. EDWARD F. KIMBAULT. 

"EMBOSSED" (4 th S. xi. xii. passim; 5 th S. i. 
5.) With respect to the All 's Well passage 
iii. 1), " We '11 make you some sport with the fox 

ere we case him," CROWDOWN (xii. 178) points out 
hat " to case a hare is for to uncase, to skin him/' 
This I had pointed out before (xii. 29, note). 
STeither of us, however, has brought forward any 

novelty, inasmuch as* Eichardson says the same r 

is I stated in the aforesaid note. 
Indeed, all the commentators on Shakspeare, and 

all the dictionaries, so far as I am aware, agree in 

giving the word the sense of "to skin" in this 
passage. MR. FURNIVALL starts a contrary view 
xi. 507), interpreting the word, as I understand,. 
;o mean " to enclose as in a case or box " (xii. 

298); he says, " before he accepts the other inter- 
pretation, he must have proof that it was the 
iustom of Lords and their followers to skin their 
foxes when they caught 'em." He then cites one 
passage from L'Estrange, in which the word " fox- 
skin " occurs. Another may be found in Fletcher's 
Woman's Prize, ii. 2, ad init., where the word is. 
used figuratively : 

" Pray to Heaven that Rowland 
Did not believe too much what I said to him, 
For yon old foxcase forced me ; that 's my fear." 

Here by " yon old foxcase " the lady means an aged 
suitor of hers. Now, it will be observed that in 
neither instance is any particular fox referred to ; 
but the idea of a skinned fox seems to have been 
familiar to the speakers' minds : I submit, there- 
fore, that the two passages supply sufficient evi- 
dence that the practice of skinning a fox was not 
unfrequent in the seventeenth century. 

To turn to another point. MR. JESSE (xii. 297) 
says, " case may be a misprint for uncase." That 
it is not a misprint, appears from the following 
passages of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Bring out the cathounds : 

I '11 make you take a tree, whore ; then with my tiller- 
Bring down your gibship ; then have you cas'd 
And hung up i' the warren." 

Scornful Lady, v. 1. 

"And where, man, have you been] at a poulter's? 
That you are cas'd thus like a rabbit ?" 

Little French Lawyer, iv. 5. 

Tinker. Here comes a nightshade. 
Dor. A gentlewoman whore : 

By this darkness, I '11 case her to the skin. 

Coxcomb, ii. 2. 

Moreover, CROWDOWN (xii. 178) informs us that 
" to case " is the current word in the kitchen for 
" to skin." 

It is evident that the proper word in this sense 
is " uncase " ; but in course of time the negative 
prefix was dropped, and " uncase " became " case." 
There are many other words which have undergone 
the same process of mutilation, of which I will 

5* S. I. FEB. 28, 74.] 



only cite two : " embowel," which is frequently 
used for "disembowel"; and "skin," which in 
the common phrase " to skin a rabbit " surely 
means " to unskin." F. J. V. 

(^ S. xii. 223.) 

"The synke & the fyre shalbe gyu'fullye brought. 
And whe the fyre standythe vnd r the synke / then stands 
Englande w'out a rightous [rightful] kyng / but the vi 
shall vpp & the synke shall vnd r / whe did men ryse there 
wylbe moche wond'/." 

This prophecy was given without any attempt 
at an interpretation, that the readers of " N. & Q." 
might exercise their ingenuity upon it, if they 
chose, but a promise was subjoined that if no one 
adventured a solution, I would myself suggest one. 
A sufficient time having elapsed, the promise shall 
be now redeemed. 

The prophecy, I apprehend, points to Charles 
I. and Oliver Cromwell. "The synke" is the 
Parliament; "the fyre," the king; "the vi" is 

1. The synke. The Rump Parliament, which 
voted that Charles should be brought to trial, was 
the " fag-end," or sink, of the Long Parliament. A 
sink is a place for offscourings, and the house 
which contained the Rump was the sink into 
which was poured the offscouring of the Long 

2. The fyre. A passage from Shakspeare is so 
pertinent that no apology is needed for its intro- 
duction here. Bolingbroke, the usurper, says: 

" Methinks King Kichard and myself should meet 
With no less terrour than the elements 
Of fire and water. . . 
He be the fire, I '11 be the yielding water ; 
The rage be his, whilst on the earth I rain 
My waters ; on the earth and not on him.'' 

Richard II. Act. iii. 3. 

It would almost seem that the poet had " The 
Sink and the Fire " prophecy in his eye when he 
wrote these words. 

3. The vi. "Cromwell, as Usurper." There 
are only five orders in a peaceful and obedient 
state king, church, lords, commons, and people. 
The sixth is a new order, introduced to disturb the 
constitution. This well represents a usurper. 
Cromwell was not one of the five regular orders of 
the state, but a sixth or extraordinary one. 

Substituting the things signified for the pro- 
phetic symbols, the words may be paraphrased 
thus : 

The Rump Parliament shall be brought by guile 
into collision with the King. When the King has 
been trodden under foot by the Rump Parliament, 
England shall be ruled by one who is not its 
"rightful king." For "the sixth shall up," the 
usurper shall be paramount, Cromwell shall be 
ruler, but at the same time " the sink shall under," 
the Rump Parliament, by which he rose to power, 

shall be brought under. It was not only brought 
under by him, it was absolutely dissolved and 
stamped out. 

The wonder is that the nation suffered all this 
and did not rise in rebellion. Briefly thus: 

The Rump and the King shall be guilefully 
brought (together). And when the King standeth 
under the Rump, then stands England without a. 
rightous (rightful) king. But Cromwell shall up, 
and the Rump shall under. Whe'ne did men ryse 
(why didn't men rise), there will be much wonder. 

The word "whe" is the Anglo-Saxon hwene- 
(whe"ne), scarcely, not at all. In the second line 
we have the contraction for " when." 

These old prophecies are certainly curious, and. 
it is still more "passing strange" that they " speak 
in sober meanings." I am not so presumptuous as. 
to suppose that all "judgments, in such matters,, 
will cry i' the top of mine," but this I will say with 
candour, if any of your correspondents will suggest 
more plausible interpretations " I will take up his, 
opinion and forego my own." 


WELSH TESTAMENT (5 th S. i. 9.) The Welsh 
Testament now in use is not translated " merely 
from our English version," nor is it " merely " from 
the original Greek. The translators, like sensible 
people, used all the helps within their reach. I 
remember hearing the late Rev. John James, of 
Gellionen, who had made the subject a special study, 
say that the translators were largely indebted to the 
Vulgate. It can, however, be easily proved that they 
did not confine themselves to that or any other ver- 
sion. To a great extent they have adopted the style 
and language of Dr. Morgan's version, printed 1588. 
W. Salisbury's version (1567) appears to have been 
less used. Salisbury professes to translate from the- 
Greek and Latin. To be brief, I will just point 
out a few cases where the translations differ, and 
the reader may draw his own conclusions, (a) In 
English the Greek words Scu/x,a>v and Sta^oAo? 
are rendered by the one word devil ; but in all the 
Welsh versions they are rendered respectively 
cythraul and diafol. (b) Matt. xxv. 8, Salisbury 
and English Common Version agree in reading; 
" are gone out" ; Dr. Morgan and Welsh Common 
Version, " are going out." (c) James i. 17, English 
Common Version makes the one word gift represent 
two different Greek words ; all the Welsh versions 
use two words, (d) 1 John iii. 16, the Welsh 
Common Version agrees with Vulgate and English 
Common Version, while Salisbury and Dr. Morgan 
differ from them and agree with the Greek. Cf. Al- 
ford's or any other modern translation, (e) John v. 
2, Dr. Morgan reads "sheep-gate"; Welsh Common 
Version has been altered to correspond with English 
Common Version, " sheep-mar^." Salisbury agrees 
with Vulgate. ( /) Acts xx. 28, Salisbury agrees with 
English Common Version, "feed"; Dr. Morgan 



[ S. I. FEB. 28, 74. 

and Welsh Common Version have " act the shep- 
herd towards," or " shepherdize " ; Vulgate reads 
" regere." (</) 1 John ii. 23, altered to correspond 
with English. T. C. UNNONE. 

CATHERINE PEAR (5 th S. i. 128.) The Catherine 
pear was (and I believe is) very small, rosy-cheeked, 
and named after the Queen of Charles II. I am 
under the impression that I have read somewhere 
that it was not particularly palatable. This is as 
much " note " as can be made by 


When old Girard, in 1597, described the Pyrus 
superba sive Katherina as the best pear, the num- 
ber of known pears was very small. Parkinson, 
in 1656, enumerates sixty-four varieties. Miller 
gives upwards of two hundred, and the Fruit Cata- 
logue of the Horticultural Society (Lond. 1831) 
includes 677, in which list the Catherine pear is 
IN"o. 172 ; most of these new, and very greatly 
improved, varieties having come from France. 

Miller says (ed. 1807) the Catherine pear, a 
small red fruit, is yet common in the London mar- 
Jkets, because it comes early, but it is a poor fruit. 
Loudon mentions it (Arboret. ii. 882, 1838) as a 
small, red early fruit still occasionally sent to 

I think Shenstone's lines 

" And here of lovely dye, the Cath'rine pear, 
Fine pear ! as lovely for thy juice, I ween ; 
Oh may no wight e'er pennyless come there, " 

are to be taken as the pleasant recollection of a 
school-boy, to whom all fruit is lovely. 


This pear is not extinct, nor has it changed its 
name. It is to be still found in a few old orchards 
in Cheshire, and it is somewhat valued by the 
country people, who appreciate a dry mealy pear 
more than they do a rich juicy one. From this it 
may be inferred that the Catherine pear is not of 
very first-rate quality ; indeed its beauty, which 
is undoubted, is, as suggested, only skin deep ; it 
is a dry, mealy, though sweet pear, with an in- 
tensely musky flavour. My almost next-door 
neighbour has a Catherine-pear tree. 

We have some rather curious names of old- 
fashioned kinds of fruits in Cheshire, amongst 
which may be mentioned the Sanjem apple, a 
small, prettily streaked variety, which is so early 
that it is supposed to be ripe on St. James's 
day (July 25th), whence the name. A large and 
good cooking apple goes by the name of Traddle 
Hole, from a tradition that the variety was raised 
from a pip which a weaver found in the traddle 
hole beneath his loom. But we have a pear which, 
on account of its juiciness (juicy by comparison, 
for it is by no means as melting as the pears of the 
present day), rejoices in the elegant soubriquet of 
Slobberchops. EGBERT HOLLAND. 

S. i. 89.) Free chapels, according to Tanner, were 
places of religious worship, exempt from all ordi- 
nary jurisdiction, although the incumbents were 
generally instituted by the bishop, and inducted by 
the archdeacon of the place. Most of these chapels 
were built upon the ancient manors and demesnes 
of the Crown for the especial use of the king and 
his retinue when residing in the neighbourhood. 
When, however, the Crown parted with the estates 
in question, the chapels went with them, retaining 
at the same time their original freedom. But those 
lords of the soil who have had free chapels on their 
manors that do not appear to have been ancient 
demesnes of the Crown, such are thought to have 
been built and privileged by grants from the Crown. 
(See Tanner's Notit. Monast. xxviii.) Sir Simon 
Degge says that the king may erect a free chapel, 
and exempt it from the jurisdiction of the ordinary. 
Dr. Gibson observes that many free chapels have 
been in the hands of subjects, but it does not 
follow that those chapels were originally of royal 
foundation. Archbishop Stratford affirms that 
ministers, officiating in oratories or chapels erected 
by any of the kings or queens of England, or their 
children, have no need of the licence of the ordi- 
nary. (See Dr. Burn's Eccles. Law, vol. i. 275.) 

In early times chapels were not unfrequently 
granted in the court-house or manor-house of the 
patron of a church as a privilege to himself and his 
family, or for the benefit of one or more families 
who lived some distance from the parish church ; 
at the consecration there was commonly some fixed 
endowment given to it. (See Gloss, of Gothic Ar- 
chitecture, Parker.) W. WINTERS. 

Waltham Abbey. 

Parochial chapels, or chapels of ease, have always 
been dependent upon the church of the parish, and 
are served by the clergyman of the parish, or by 
some priest deputed by him, and, like the church, 
are usually under the visitation of the ordinary. 
Free chapels were founded by the king, or by some 
other lord, I presume with the king's licence, and 
provided with a perpetual endowment and main- 
tenance for the minister without charge to the 
rector or parish. They were also specially made 
exempt, or free, from episcopal or other jurisdic- 



GHENT TO Aix" (5 th S. i. 71.) The question 
whether this incident is a fictitious one is, I think, 
easily answered. First, the title is accompanied by 
a vague date, " 16 "; an historical incident would 
have been definitely dated or not dated at all. 
Secondly, the good horse Eoland carries his rider 
in one headlong gallop 120 miles, starting at mid- 
night, and arriving a little after sunrise ; is such a 
feat possible 1 S. FOXALL. 


5 th S. I. FEB. 28, 74.] 



THE GOTHIC FLORIN (5 th S. i. 109.) I suppose 
W. B. means the first florin of Queen Victoria, 
which is not so Gothic as the present one. Its 
origin was as follows: It being determined to 
issue a coin value two shillings, to be called a florin, 
a number of patterns were struck, and, of course, 
the meanest-looking and worst one was selected, 
and a large issue of it was the result. The outcry 
at its appearance was natural, and it was withdrawn 
for several reasons; amongst others were: 

1. That the diameter was too small. 2. That 
" Dei Gratia " was omitted from the legend, earn- 
ing for the coin the nickname of " The Godless 
Florin." 3. That the portrait of the Queen was 
execrable, being in fact no likeness at all. 4. That 
the design was Gothic, whilst the inscription was 
in dumpy Roman characters. 5. That the whole 
business was a fine example of " the way how not 
to do it." 

After it had been current about a year, the 
present florin was issued, which is a great improve- 
ment on the "Godless one," but is not by any 
means the best of the patterns, one or two of which 
are very