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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 4, January 24, 18SO. 


$le&tum of Kntmommuntcation 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CDTTLE. 






Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 4, Jan. 21, 1880. 



5"> S. XII. JULY 5, 79.] 





NOTES : Tennyson's Idylls: "Geraint and Enid," 1 The 
Rutherfurd Peerage, 2 Shakspeariana, 4 The Prince Impe- 
rial's Nurse The Duration of Parliaments, 5 Pope and his 
Quarrels Dickens on English Criminal Law Latimer New 
and Altered Scripture Proper Names, 6 Old English Names 
of Flowers, 7. 

UERIES : " The Parson of Calemberg "A Lottery, 1673 
A Bermudan Liturgy, 7 "The Rhapsody "Paul's Knights 
.Sit wells of Renishaw A Tercentenarian "Signum "= 
Signature Schiller's " Fiesko "The Yew The Trial of the 
Witches of Warbois, 8 Amyas Preston Magee and Mac- 
gregor Morton's "New English Canaan" Folk Medicine 
(Transvaal) A Shilling of Charles I. Lieut. -Gen. Fiddes- 
John Newton's Father-in-Law Authors Wanted, 9. 

REPLIES: "Your's," 9 A Custom at the Communion Ser- 
viceGifts placed in the Stocking at Christmas : Santa Claus, 
11 Parish Documents Bigland's "Gloucestershire Collec- 
tions," 12 Isaiah xxii. 18 The Exultet Roll Namesderived 
from Ecclesiastical Sources, 13 Swift on Fleas" The old 
Agamemnons" Anonymous Pamphlets (Oxford) "Lothe" 
=Loff St. Sampson John Hodgkins, Suf. Bishop, 14 
Galbraith of Balgair Re'. J. Dart The Coway Stakes- 
Superfluous Pronouns The Mystical Meanings of Precious 
Stones, 15 " Muff "Treasure Trove "Peter Paragraph" 
"Akimbo" "Nappy," 16 "Sir Bevis of Hamptoun " 
The Groom's " Hiss "Dante's Voyage of Ulysses Local 
Toasts General Thanksgiving, 1759" The Confessional " 
Ancient Fines, 17 "Slad" James Wright Elzevir's Folio 
" La Sainte Bible '" " Mormos "The Monitor or Back- 
boardGood Friday " Marble Day "Post Days The First 
to enter a House on Christmas (or New Year's) Mornine 
18-Authors Wanted, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lefroy's " Memorials of the Discovery 
and Early Settlement of the Bermudas "Gilbert Scott s 
"Personal and Professional Recollections "Grove's " Dic- 
tionary of Music and Musicians," Vol. II. Bullock's "Shak- 
speare's Debt to the Bible " " Fraser." 


Haying already shown, paragraph by paragraph, 
the minute resemblance between three or four of 
Tennyson's idylls and the prose versions compiled 
by Sir T. Malory, I promised, with the editor's 
permission, to continue the same subject, and will 
now proceed to compare the Laureate's tale of 
Geraint and Enid with that contained in the 
Mabinogion : 

Mabinogion. Arthur was accustomed to hold his 
court at Oaerlleon upon Uak...and once on a time he 
held it there at Whitsuntide... And as [he] sat at the 
banquet, lo ! there entered a youth [who said], " I am 
one of the foresters... of Dean. ..In the forest I saw this 
day a stag... pure white, and he does not herd with the 
other animals thro' stateliness and pride... and I am 
come. know thy will concerning him." 

Tennyson. Arthur on the Whitsuntide before 

Held court at old Caerleon upon Usk. 

There on a day, he sitting high in hall, 

Before him came a forester of Dean 

...with notice of a hart, 

Taller than all his fellows, milky white, 

First seen that day. These things he told the king. 

Mabinoyion." It seems best to me," said the king, " to 
go and hunt him to-morrow at break of day." Then 
Gwenhwyvar said to Arthur, " Wilt thou permit me, 
lord, to go to-morrow to see. ..the hunt ? "..." That will I 
gladly/ said the king. 

Tennyson. Then the good king gave order to let blow 
His horns for hunting on the morrow morn. 
And when the queen petitioned for his leave 
To see tie hunt, allowed it easily. 

Mabinogion. When the day came they arose... and 
Arthur wondered that Gwenhwyvar did not awake... 
" Disturb her not," he said, " for she had rather sleep 
than go to see the hunting."... After Arthur had gone. ..the 
queen awoke, and. ..with one of her maidens went thro' 
the Usk. ..and behold a knight on a hunter [came riding 
U P]- A golden-hilted sword was at his side... and around 
him was a scarf of blue purple, at each corner of which 
was a golden apple. ..He overtook the queen, and saluted 
her... then went they [together] to the edge of the forest, 
and there stood, " For," said the queen, " from this place 
we shall hear when the dogs are let loose." 

Tennyson. So with the morning all the court were 

But Guinevere lay late into the morn... 

But rose at last, a single maiden with her, 

Took horse, and forded Usk... 

A sudden sound of hoofs, for prince Geraint, 

Late also, wearing neither hunting-dress, 

Nor weapon, save a golden-hilted brand, 

Came quickly. ..thro' the ford. ..behind them... 

A purple scarf, at either end whereof 

There swung an apple of the purest gold, 

Swayed round about him.. .low bowed he [to the queen], 

..." Wait here with me," she said, 

" For on this little knoll, if anywhere, 

There is good chance that we shall hear the hounds." 

Mabinogion. [While they stood on the knollj they 
beheld a dwarf riding on a horse... and near him... a lady 
...and a knight. "Go, maiden," said the queen, "and 
ask the dwarf who that knight is.". .."I will not tell 
thee," he answered..." Then," said the maiden, " I will go 
ask himself." " Thou shalt not, by my faith," said the 
dwarf, " for thou art not of sufficient honour to speak of 
my lord." And as she turned her horse towards the 
knight, the dwarf struck her with his whip. ..and the 
maiden... returned to the queen. 

Tennyton. And while they listened... there rode 
Full slowly by a knight, lady, and dwarf... 
And Guinevere [not knowing the knight's name] desired 
Her maiden to demand it of the dwarf. 
Who... answered sharply that she should not know. 
" Then will I ask it of himself," she said ; 
" Nay, by my faith, thou shalt not," cried the dwarf, 
" Thou art not worthy e'en to speak of him." 
And when she put her horse toward the knight 
Struck at her with his whip, and she returned 
Indignant to the queen. 

Mabinogion. " I will go myself," said Geraint, " and 
learn who the knight is. "...[But the dwarf gave him the 
iame answer,] and when the prince turned his horse's 
head towards the knight, the dwarf struck him across 
the face, so that the blood coloured his scarf. Then 
Seraint put his hand upon the hilt of his sword, but 
bethought him it would be poor vengeance to slay the 
dwarf... so he returned to where the queen was. 

Tennyson. [The maid returned,] whereat Geraint 
Exclaimed, " Surely I will learn his name." 
[But the dwarf gave him the same answer,] and when 


Had put bis horse in motion toward the knight 
Struck at him with his whip, and cut his cheek. 
The prince's blood spirted upon the scarf, 
...and his quick hand caught at the hilt... 
But he refrained. ..from e'en a word, and so returned 
[Unto the queen]. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. (5' h s. xn. JULY 5, 79. 

Both authors then state how Geraint said to the 
queen that he would go to the next town for arms, 
which he would either borrow or buy, and would 
then demand an apology from the knight for the 
currish behaviour of the dwarf. When the prince 
got to the town he found it full, and every man 
was busy preparing for a tournament to be held 
on the morrow. Some were polishing armour, 
others sharpening swords or shoeing horses, so that 
it was impossible to get attended to, and as for 
buying or borrowing arms, it was quite out of the 

Mdbinogion. &.t a little distance from the town the 
prince saw an old. ..castle falling to decay. ..and a bridge 
...leading to it. Upon the bridge he observed a hoary- 
headed man sitting, clad in tattered garments..." Young 
man," said he, "why art thou so thoughtful 1" "Be- 
cause," said he, "I know not where to go to-night."... 
"Come then this way," said the old man, "and thou 
shalt have the best I can provide." So Geraint followed 

Tennyson. Then rode Geraint... and 
Beheld. a long valley. ..a castle in decay, 
Beyond a bridge that spanned a dry ravine. 
There musing sat the hoary-headed earl 
(His dress a suit of frayed magnificence). 
" Whither, fair son ? " he said. Geraint replied, 
" friend, I seek a harbourage for the night." 
[" Come then," the old man said,] " and partake 
My slender entertainment."... 
Then rode Geraint into the castle court. 
Mabinogion. [Having come to the castle] in a cham- 
ber he beheld a decrepit old woman, sitting on a cushion, 
clad in an old tattered garment of satin. ..and beside her 
a maiden, upon whom were a vest and a veil that were... 
beginning to be worn out. ..The hoary-headed man said 
to the maiden, " There is no attendant for the stranger's 
liorse but thyself." " I will render the best service I am 
able," said she... and when she returned the old man said 
to her, " Go now to the town and bring hither the best 
that thou canst find, both of meat and drink". ..and she 
went to the town to do her [his] bidding. 

Tennyson. [When the prince entered the castle] 
He found an ancient dame in dim brocade, 
And near her... 

Moved the fair Enid, all in faded silk, 
Her daughter... Then [said] the hoary earl, 
" Enid, the good knight's horse stands in the court, 
Take him to stall and give him corn, and then 
Go to the town and buy us flesh and wine." 
Mdbinogion, To the town went the maiden. And 
the old man with his guest conversed together till her 
return. She came back, and a youth with her, bearing 
on his back a costrel full of meat and wine. The maiden 
carried in her hand a store of white bread, and some 
manchet bread in her veil... and they caused the meat to 
be boiled. ..and when all was ready they sat down. ..and 
the maiden served them. 

Tennyson. So Enid... reached the town, and while 

the prince and earl 

Yet spoke together, came again with one, 
A youth, that following with a costrel, bore 
The means of goodly welcome, flesh and wine, 
And Enid brought sweet cakes to make them cheer, 
And in her veil enfolded manchet bread. 
And then... she boiled the flesh, and spread the board, 
And stood behind and waited on the three. 

Geraint then asked about the tournament and 

the conditions to be observed, and the earl answered 
him, saying 

Mdbinogion. " In the midst of a meadow. ..two forks 
will be set up, and upon the two forks a silver rod, and 
upon the... rod a sparrow-hawk, and for the sparrow-hawk 
there will be a tournament... and no man can joust... 
except the lady he loves best be with him. ..but thou hast 
neither dame nor maiden. ..for whom thou canst joust." 
Tennyson. " In this tournament can no man tilt 

Except the lady he loves best be there. 

Two forks are fixt into the meadow ground, 

And over these is placed a silver wand, 

And over that a golden sparrow-hawk, 

The prize of beauty... 

But thou that hast no lady canst not fight." 

Mabinogion. "Ah, sir," said he [Geraint], "if.. .thou 
wilt permit me to challenge for yonder maiden...! will 
engage if I escape... to love her as long as I live ; and if 
I do not escape, she will remain unsullied as before. "...At 
night, lo ! they went to sleep, and before the dawn they 
arose... and by the time that it was day they were. 
the meadow. 

Tennyson. To whom Geraint : 
" Let me lay lance in rest.. .for this dear child... 
And if I fall, her name will yet remain 
Untarnished as before; but if I live... 
I will make her truly my true wife." 
[Then all retired for the night,] 
And when the pale and bloodless east began 
To quicken to the sun, arose. ..and moved 
Down to the meadow where the jousts were held. 

Then follows the battle, in which the two com- 
batants were matched, till Yniol went 

Mabinogion. And said, "Remember the insult to 
Gwenhwyvar, the wife of Arthur." Then Geraint called 
up all his strength, and lifted up his sword and struck 
the knight upon the crown of his head, so that he broke 
all his head-armour, and cut thro' the flesh and skin... 
until he wounded the bone. 

Tennyson. And either force was matched, till 

Yniol's cry, 

" Remember that great insult done the queen," 
Increased Geraint's, who heaved his blade aloft 
And cracked the helmet thro' and bit the bone. 

Geraint then granted the vanquished man his 
life on the usual conditions. 

Mabinogion. " Thou shalt go to Gwenhwyvar, the 
wife of Arthur, and offer satisfaction for the insult which 
the maiden received from thy dwarf.". ..And [the knight 
made answer], "This will I do gladly."... And he went 
forward to Arthur's court. 

Tennyson. "Thou shalt ride to Arthur's court, and 

coming there 

Crave pardon for that insult done the queen." 
And Edyrn answered, " These things will I do."... 
And rising up he rode to Arthur's court. 


(To "be continued.) 

In an article in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
January, 1867 (new series, vol. iii.), I find a question 
incidentally raised respecting a once famous Scot- 
tish peerage case, which produced a decidedly 
acrimonious controversy, and enlivened more than 

5"' S. XII. JULY 5, 79.J 


one election of " the Sixteen" at Holyrood House 
after a fashion not altogether unknown even in these 
decorous days. The writer of the article to which 
I refer describes the curious way in which the 
supporters of the Lords Rutherfurd have been 
made the shuttlecocks of fortune, granted, it would 
appear, by a Lyon King (of days anterior to his 
present Leonine majesty) to an English baronet 
without a drop of Rutherfurd blood in his veins, 
but who had purchased the estate of Rutherfurd ; 
and assumed, it would appear (we should imagine 
without the Lyon's authority), by a Fifeshire 
family of good repute " as heirs of line of the old 
Lords Rutherfurd, whose peerage they are under- 
stood to claim." 

I have recently had the good fortune to come 
across a very rare old pamphlet setting forth the 
doughty deeds of "that Renowned General Andrew, 
Earl of Tcviot, Lord Rutherfurd," Governor of 
Tangier, which was published " in Commemora- 
tion of his Predecessor" by one of the rival 
claimants, George Durie of Grange, styling himself 
" George, Lord Rutherfurd," who takes the oppor- 
tunity to fulminate dire anathemas upon "one 
John Rutherford, a reduc'd subaltern officer," who 
"of late arrogantly pretends to represent" the noble 
family of Hunthill. The pamphlet is entitled : 

"The Moors Baffled, being a Discourse concerning 
Tangier In a Letter from a learned Person (long Re- 
sident in that Place) wrote at the Desire of a Person of 

Quality, and now published With an Abbreviate of 

the Genealogy of the Family of Rutherfurd thereto 
annexed. Edinburgh, Printed by T. and W. Ruddimans, 

This date is highly significant when read in con- 
nexion with the election of a representative peer 
for Scotland in that year, at which, as will be seen 
by the Return of the Court of Session, presently 
to be cited, the two rival claimants renewed their 
protestations against each other. If we could be 
certain that the publication took place before the 
election we should incline to call the dedicatory 
letter to the king, which prefaces the whole work, 
and is immediately followed by the genealogical 
"Abbreviate," a daring attempt to make His 
Majesty appear to the world as allowing the supe- 
riority of George Durie's claim, which is explicitly 
asserted in the body of the Dedication, and 
re-asserted by the signature " Rutherfurd " at its 
close. It says much for the judicial calmness oi 
the Court of Session that their Return, made two 
years after this publication issued from the Edin- 
burgh press, should be couched in such severely 
impartial language. The following passages from 
the " Return of the Lords of Session to an Order 
of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament 
assembled June 12, 1739," and submitted in their 
name Feb. 27, 1740, by Duncan Forbes, Lord Pre- 
sident, have such a forcible application to the entire 
subject of Scottish peerage law that I extract them 

rom the Return, as printed in Nisbet, vol. ii. 
pt. iv. (Fleming's edition, 1804) : 

" After the practice of creating peerages by patent the 
records, till of late, have been so carelessly kept that they 
cannot be absolutely depended upon ; patents of honour 
mve passed the Great Seal, and yet copies of the patents 
so passed are not to be met with in the Register of that 

Seal; besides that of vol. 57 of the Register of the 

3reat Seal, in the keeping of the Lord Keeper, twelve 
eaves are lost, by some accident now unknown ; and it 
appears from the minute book that the patent of Bar- 
;eny and several others were passed at such time ; that 
;hey probably may have been entered in some of those 
.eaves that are lost 

" The practice of Scotland went still farther ; and it 
was usual to obtain grants of honours not only to the 
grantee and his heirs male, and of tailzie, referring to 
the particular entail then made, but also to his heirs of 
tailzie whom he might thereafter appoint to succeed 
him in his estate, and even to any person whom he 
should name to succeed him in his honours at any time 
in his life, or upon death-bed : Now as it is impossible to 
trace through the records such nominations and appoint- 
ment, which in some cases may be valid, though not 
hitherto recorded, your Lordships will easily see that the 
Lords of Session are not able to give your Lordships any 
reasonable satisfaction touching the limitations of the 
peerages that are still continuing; and your Lordships 
will further perceive the reason why, in the foregoing 
observations, they speak so doubtfully of the continuance 
of peerages which, were they to judge only on what 
appears from the examination they have had of the re- 
cords, they should not doubt to report to be extinct or so 
conjoined with other titles of honour as not to be again 

In order that it may clearly be seen what were 
the various questions to which the Rutherfurd 
patent might give rise, I now cite the words of 
limitation in the grant, which I give from Nisbet, 
who prints (vol. ii. app. ii.) the relative clauses of 
all the patents referred to in the Return of the 
Court of Session : 

" Andreas Rutherfurd, Legatus Generalis. 

" Carolus, &c. Fecisse, nominasse, constituisse, et 

creasse,DominumRutherfurdde viz.ipsum Andream 

ejusque Haeredes masculos ex corpore suo legittme pro- 
creatos sou procreandos ; quibus deficientibus, quam- 
cumque aliarn Personam seu Personas quas sibi, quoad 
vixerit, quinetiam, in Articulo mortis ad ei succedendum ; 
ac fore ejus Haeredes Tallise et Provisionis in eadem Dig- 
nitate, nominare et designare placuerit secundum Nomi- 
nationem et Designationem Manu ejus subscribendam, 
subsque Provisionibus, Restrictionibus, et Conditionibus, 
a dict[o] Andrea pro ejus Arbitrio in dicta Designatione 
exprimendis: Ac dedisse et concessisse Tenoreque 
Prjesentium dare, &c., ei ejusque antedict[is] dictum 
Titulum, Honorem, Dignitatem, et Gradum Domini 
Parliamenti, ut ita tempore futuro vocitentur et denomi- 
nentur, cum Potestate sibi suisque antedict[is] deno- 
minandi et designandi semetipsos Dominos Rutherford, 
de ac gaudendi et fruendi eadem dignitate," &c. 

From the clause beginning "quibus deficientibus" 
down to that ending "in dicta Designatione ex- 
primendis," the words of limitation as given in 
Burke's Extinct and Dormant Peerage (1866), s.v. 
Rutherford, Earl of Teviot and Lord Rutherford, 
are identical with the same clauses as I have taken 


[5 th S. XII. JULY 5, 79. 

them from Nisbet, save as to the use of capita 
letters, the substitution of " subque " for Nisbet's 
" subsque," and the printing of " dicto " withou 
indication of the contracted form in which i 
appears in the earlier text, and which I represent 
by placing the omitted letter within square brackets 
I am thus minute in pointing out these very sligh 
differences, not as in any way reflecting on the 
accuracy of Sir Bernard Burke's reprint which 
indeed, so far as it goes, I prove to be substantially 
identical with my own but in order to show tha 
in working out the present subject I have gone to 
the older sources of information, the same, in fact, as 
were no doubt used by Ulster himself in preparing 
his account of this peerage. 

The exact state of the question regarding the 
Rutherfurd peerage in 1740 is best explained by 
the Court of Session, in language as remarkable 
for its caution as for its succinctness : 

" Rutherford. That in the Records of the Great Seal, 
in the keeping of the Lord Register, anno 1661, there 
appears a patent granting the dignity of Lord Rutherford 
to Andrew Rutherford and the heirs male of his body ; 
which failing, to whatsoever person or persons he should, 
by any writing under his hand, even on death-bed, 
appoint to succeed him. The Lord Rutherford appears by 
the rolls of Parliament to have sat or voted in the 1698, 
and Robert, Lord Rutherford, appears to have voted at 
the election of sixteen peers anno 1715 ; and in the year 

1733, at the election of a peer in room of the Earl of 
Sutherland, then deceased, George Durie of Grange 
appeared and voted as Lord Rutherford without any 
objection. At the general election the year following, 

1734, the same person claimed his vote, but he was pro- 
tested against by Captain John Rutherford, who laid 
claim to the honours of Rutherford, and gave in to the 
clerks his list in virtue thereof; against which the said 
George Dury in his turn protested ; and in the election, 
anno 1738, of a peer to serve in Parliament in the room 
of the late Earl of Morton, these two claimants renewed 
their protestations against each other, and tendered 
severally their votes ; but whether any, or which of them, 
has a sufficient right to that peerage they cannot say." 

New University Club. 

(To be continued.) 


" Ten times more dishonourably ragged than an old-faced 

ancient." 1 Hen. 1 V., iv. 2. 

"And I, sir (bless the mark !), his Moorship's ancient." 

Othello, i. 1. 

The common interpretation of this word is that 
it means an ensign, in the double sense of standard 
and standard-bearer. So our older dictionaries ex- 
plain it, and Cotgrave has, " Enseigne, an ensigne, 
auncient, standard-bearer." The explanation is 
correct, as far as it goes, but is not sufficiently 
precise. The ancient was a banner bearing an 
heraldic device, the token of ancient or noble 
descent, borne by a gentleman or a leader in war : 

" Lord Westmorland his ancyent rais'd, 
The dun bull he rais'd on hie/' 

The Rising in the North. 
" Master, Master, see you yon faire ancyent, 
Yonder is the serpent and the serpent's head." 

Percy's Rel. (ed. 1867), i. 303. 

The servant recognized by this device that the 
ship which bore it belonged to Duke John of 
Austria. The word was, however, used to denote 
one who was connected with some blazon of this 
kind, whether as an attendant to a standard or to 
some gentleman who had armorial bearings. In 
the English edition of the Janua Linguarum Tri- 
linguis, by J. Comenius, published by Roger 
Daniel in 1662, it is said that " the standard- 
bearers carrie the standards in the midst of the 
troops, whom the ancients march before with 
hangers " ; the Latin is " quos prsecedunt ante- 
signani cum romphseis " (p. 245). The word ante- 
signanus is explained by Ducange as one " qui 
prseibat vexillo ad illius custodiam." In Anchoran's 
Gate of Tongues Unlocked (ed. 1639), which is 
based on the work of Comenius, the passage runs 
thus : " whom the lieutenants precede or go before, 
with long two-handed swords " (p. 143). 

From these instances it is easy to see how the 
word came to mean a personal attendant or body- 
squire, who, says Fosbroke (Ant., ii. 752), " had 
the care of the things relating to the person of the 
knight, carried his master's standard, and gave 
the catchword in battle," an office often borne by 
men of honourable descent. This is the meaning 
of the word in Othello. lago was the personal 
attendant of the Moor in a military capacity, in 
modern language his aide-de-camp, receiving 
orders from his superior, especially, but not ex- 
clusively, about military movements. Hence 
Othello calls him " my ancient," and says to him : 

" These letters give, lago, to the pilot, 
And by him do my duties to the senate ; 
That done, I will be walking on the works, 
Repair there to me. 
lago. Well, my good lord, I '11 do *t." 

iii. 2. 

It was in accordance with his duties that he 
received through Cassio, Othello's lieutenant, 
directions about the watch that guarded the camp 
(ii. 3). 

We can thus understand why Bailey and 
others should explain the word ancient to mean 
a flag or streamer set in the stern of a ship." 
This was the flag that usually bore the heraldic 
sign belonging to the ship or its captain. 


" I '11 bring thee 

To clust'ring filberds, and sometimes I '11 get thee 
Young scamels from the rock." Tempest, ii. 2. 

This word has presented a difficulty which 
litherto has been found insuperable. Some editors 
uppose that it is a misprint for sea-mells, which 
las been assumed as an original form of sea-mews. 

5th 8. XII. JULY 5, 79.] 


But the word is a mere invention, and, moreover, 
the breeding places of the sea-mew or sea-gull are 
so few that it would always be a difficult task 
to obtain the young birds. Mr. Dyce proposes 
staniel, a kind of hawk, and Theobald, with whom 
Mr. Knight agrees, has suggested stannel, a name 
of the kestrel, as emendations of the text, but 
without much probability in either case. A mean- 
ing may be found for the word as it stands which 
presents no difficulty, and is quite in harmony 
with the other parts of Caliban's address. The 
root appears to be the O.N. and Dan. skcd, which 
bears the various meanings of shell, scale, pod, 
vessel, and skull. The primary meaning is that of 
covering or enclosing, as in the Sans, kul, to cover, 
to defend. Hence we have 0. N. skali, a house ; 
skalkr, a helmet ; and skalma, a sheath. This last 
form becomes in Sweden skdma (pron. skauma), 
which represents an older skamma or skama, the I 
being either assimilated or lost, as in the 0. Fries. 
scemma and schema, for scel-ma, in Dutch zal men 
(shall or ought we ?). This skama means a pod or 
husk (in Lancashire a shull), but primarily a shell, 
and scamel will mean a little shell. It might be 
applied to any of the smaller molluscs, but as refer- 
ence is made especially to the rock as the habitat 
of the scamel, we shall not be far wrong if we 
identify it with the limpet, which clings to the 
rock with so much force that it is not always easy 
to separate it. I propose, therefore, to interpret 
the passage thus : 

" I '11 bring thee 

To clustering filberts, and sometimes I '11 get thee 

Young limpets from the rock." 

There may seem to be a difficulty in proposing 
a Scandinavian origin for a Warwickshire word, 
but the root or stem was skal or skal in North 
Friesic, and we have retained the tennis in scull 
and scalp, which are cognate words. In the fifth 
and sixth centuries the Angles, who peopled 
Mercia, appear to have been very nearly related in 
speech to the Danes, who had formerly been their 
neighbours. The word was probably provincial 
and of limited area, being hemmed in by words 
similar in sound but of different meaning, such as 
-skam, shame, and skamel or schamel, a foot-stool. 

J. D. 

Belsize Square. 

Stanley's recent sermon, which alluded to the 
Prince Imperial's sad death, these words were 
used : " We heard of his faithful English nurse, 
and of her good counsels to him." The story of 
this nurse, as I heard it at the time of the prince's 
birth, is very remarkable. She lived at Gilling, 
near Richmond, in Yorkshire, and having seen 
that Dr. Locock was inviting respectable women 
to offer themselves for the situation, either through 
A dream or mental conviction she persuaded her- 

self that she was destined to have the care of the 
expected child. Disregarding all ridicule or re- 
monstrance from her less romantic neighbours, she 
presented herself, in plain cotton dress, at the 
time appointed for elective competition, at the 
great physician's house in London, and was at last 
admitted after many more pretentious candidates. 
Her tale to Dr. Locock- was the same that she had 
told her neighbours : " She knew that it was her 
lot to nurse the coming child." Her manner and 
fitness for the office prevailed, and she was sent 
to Paris. Some years elapsed, and my lady 
informant was in Paris, with a niece, and called at 
the Tuileries to see her Gilling acquaintance. 
She was received by the good woman in like 
peasant dress to what she had worn at Gilling. 
The imperial child was exhibited amongst his toys, 
and the offer was made them of a drive in the 
carriage that was always at her disposal for the 
recreation of her charge. She was as simple and 
unspoilt as when she left her English home. On 
the night of Orsini's attempt to destroy the em- 
peror and empress as they were about to enter 
the theatre, this good nurse was awoke, about 
midnight, by some one opening the door of the 
nursery, where she slept with the young prince. 
Perceiving that it was his father, she lay still, and 
saw the emperor go and kneel for a few seconds at 
the child's cot, and then quietly depart. More is 
probably known of this " faithful English nurse," 
but what I have stated of her original interview 
with Sir Charles Locock marks her strength of 
character. ALFRED GATTY, D.D. , 

Ecclesfield Vicarage* 

when so much is being said upon this subject, the 
following figures may perhaps be deemed apropos. 
The present Parliament is the thirty-fourth since 
the passing of the Septennial Act in 1716. Of 
these no less than ten had each a duration of six 
years and upwards, while nine others sat for more 
than five years. During the 163 years that have 
elapsed since the Septennial Act there has been 
no single instance in which a Parliament has died 
of old age, although that in which the Act was 
passed came very near to it. It was called (under 
the old triennial system) for March 17, 1715, and 
dissolved March 10, 1721-2, thus wanting but one 
week to completing the full term of seven years. 
The longest Parliament since then was the second 
Parliament of George II. It met June 13, 1734, 
and was dissolved April 28, 1741, an existence of 
six years, ten months, and fifteen days. In the 
present century the longest Parliament was the 
first of George IV., which met April 23, 1820, 
and was dissolved June 2, 1826, thus lasting six 
years, one month, and nine days ; but in the pre- 
sent reign the Parliament called by Lord Derby 
in 1859 was within three days of the same length. 



[5'h S. XII. JULY 5, '79. 

It met May 31, 1859, and was dissolved July 6, 
1865 a period of six years, one month, and six 
days. The shortest Parliament since the Sept- 
ennial Act was the ninth Parliament of George III. 
It was called for Dec. 18, 1806, and lasted until 
April 9, 1807 a period of four months and 
fifteen days. But the first Parliament of Wil- 
liam IV. was not much longer, sitting from Oct. 26, 
1830, to April 22, 1831, or five months and twenty- 
seven days. The average duration of Parliaments 
( since 1715 is about four years and nine months. 
The present Parliament, which met March 5, 
1874, will not die a natural death until March 5, 
1881. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

POPE AND HIS QUARRELS. I have lately had 
my attention drawn to two or three of the curious 
pamphlets issued during the war between Pope 
and the Dunces, and desiring to know something 
about them and their authors, I have consulted 
the General Indexes of " N. & Q." Eemembering 
the many interesting articles on Pope which ap- 
peared in the first and second series, and which 
are admirably indexed, I fully expected to find 
the information of which I was in search ; but I 
was disappointed. In vol. xi. of the first series, 
p. 485, there is a capital suggestion by a frequent 
and well-read correspondent, B. H. C., viz. for the 
publication, in a supplemental volume to Pope's 
works, of the various pieces written in praise 
or blame of the poet and his writings. This has 
never been carried out, nor, from the extent to 
which the collection would run, is it likely it ever 
will be. But cannot "N. & Q." do for such a 
collection what it did for The Dunciad give us a 
bibliography of such Popiana ? It would be very 
acceptable, I am sure, to many readers, and might 
be helpful to the completion of Mr. Murray's 
valuable edition of Pope's works. P. A. H. 

Saturday Review of June 21 brings a charge 
against Dickens which, if there were any founda- 
tion for it, would prove the great novelist to have 
been guilty of a piece of gross ignorance ; but 
happily there is no foundation for it, and as I do 
not think such an imputation on Dickens's com- 
mon sense should be allowed to go forth to the 
world supported by the high authority of the 
Saturday Review, I come forward, in the absence 
of a better champion, not only to defend, but I 
trust entirely to clear, Dickens from this stigma. 
The Saturday, in the course of a review of Mr. 
Browning's Dramatic Idyls, says : " It was bad 
enough in Dickens, who was wonderfully ignorant 
of many common things, to hang the Jew Fagin 
for no definite offence except that he was one of 
the villains of the novel ; but Fagin was tried in 
due form, though for some unknown crime, at the 
Old Bailey." So far the Saturday reviewer. Now 

mark what follows. In Oliver Twist, chap. L., I 
read : " ' The Sessions are on,' said Kags ; ' if they 
get the inquest over, and Bolter turns king's 
evidence as of course he will do from what he '& 
said already they can prove Fagin an accessory 
before the fact, and get the trial on on Friday, 
and he '11 swing in six days from this.' " An 
accessory before the fact in a case of wilful murder, 
so far from having committed no "definite" offence, 
is regarded by the law of England as a very defi- 
nite offender indeed, and even in these compara- 
tively mild days he would be liable to be executed, 
although he would probably get off with penal 
servitude for life. At the date of Oliver Twist, 
which is, I suppose, from forty to fifty years ago, 
he would undoubtedly, in Mr. Kags's expressive 
vernacular, have " swung" for it. 

Bexley Heath, Kent. 

LATIMER. The late Rev. R. Demaus in his bio- 
graphy of this Reformer thus speaks of Latimer's 
first " little cure " : " West Kington, the new field 
of labour to which Latimer had removed, is a little 
village on the confines of Wiltshire and Gloucester- 
shire, some fourteen miles from Bristol," &c. The 
living to which Latimer, weary of his royal chap- 
laincy, was presented by the king, at the recom- 
mendation of his friend and patron Dr. Butts, was 
not fourteen, but upwards of fifty, miles from 
Bristol not West Keynton, near that city, but 
West Kington (or Knighton), a little south-west 
of Salisbury, and about forty miles (as the crow 
flies) south-east of the former place, as well as in 
a different diocese. Aubrey, who was a Wiltshire 
man, and lived for some years at Broad Chalk in 
that county, and two or three miles distant from 
West Knighton, says : " In the walkc at the Par- 
sonage-house is yet the oake, a little scrubbed 
oake, and hollow, where he did use to sitt, called 
'Latimer's Oake.'" CH. ELKIN MATHEWS. 

7, Hamilton Road, N. 

NAMES. In the forthcoming revised edition of 
the Bible we may expect certain alterations in 
names. Assuming that the readings of the oldest 
three manuscripts (the Sinaitic, the Vatican, and 
the Alexandrian) are adopted, we shall find the 
following alterations : 

Pyrrhus will become a new Scripture name, as 
Acts xx. 4 should read " Sopater the son of 
Pyrrhus of Berea." It is dreadful to think what 
the diminutive of Pyrrhus might be. 

The names Persis, Rom. xvi. 12, and Epaphro- 
ditus, Phil. iv. 18, which only occur once each, 
should be omitted, as they are not found in the 
manuscripts, and will cease to be Scripture names. 

The altered names are : Ampliatus for Amplias, 
Rom. xvi. 8 ; Prisca for Priscilla, Rom. xvi. 3. 
and 1 Cor. xvi. 19 ; Phygelus for Phygellus, 2 Tim. 

5 th S. XII. JOLT 5, '79.] 


i. 15 ; Beor for Bosor, 2 Pet. ii. 15 ; Julianus for 
Julius, Acts xxvii. 3. 

It is singular that the name Priscilla, in Acts 
xviii. 2, remains unaltered. The termination 
anus is said to indicate that the person was an 
adopted child, thus Julianus is the adopted child 
of Julius. 

I give these alterations, &c., on the authority 
of Tischendorf's New Testament, the one thou- 
sandth volume of the Tauchnitz edition. 



" The hearbes following Broadway Cokoe flower, Asse 
cucombers, Dogges toung, Dogges ribbe, Calves snoutte, 
Goose grasse, Cattes tayle, Woolues clawe, Goates bearde, 
Buck leaues, hogges grasse, toades flowers. Libards clawes, 
Mad bearbe, cogroutb, penny male and female, popes 
hearbe, popes wood, dragons bloode, seventyded bearbe, 
jnonkes hoods, foolish motbes, Romish morsels, or divels 
bit, Romish royles or rigges, Woolues berryes, bel flowers 
and Canterbury tales, Virgins markes, mayden hayre, 
potbearb, Cup berryes, Goldemaries or marygoldes, 
jEUttleflowers, crosse herbe, alleluya." Beehiue of the 
Romish Ckurche, fo. 361. 



[\Ve must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names arid addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

" THE PARSOX OF CALEMBERG." Beloe, in his 
Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce Books, gives an 
amusing specimen of this old jest-book from a frag- 
ment then in the possession of Mr. Douce. The 
story he reproduces recounts how the waggish 
churchman managed to dispose profitably of his 
bad wine, by causing a large crowd to assemble in 
order that they might see him fly from the church 
steeple. When the people found they had been 
" sold " by the parson, we are informed they " were 
marvellously angry, and in their language cursed 
the parson perilously, some with a mischief and 
a vengeance ; and some said, 'God give him 
.a hundred drouse, for he hath made among us 
many a folly and totynge ape.' But the parson 
cared not for all their curses. And this subtle 
deed was spread all the country about." 

Now, what is the meaning of the term drouse ? 
I cannot find it in any archaic English or German 
dictionary which I have consulted. Does it mean 
curses ] And does totynge here mean giddy ? 
Spenser says of October : 

" For yet bis noule was tolly of the must." 
Apparently the wrathful peasants invoked on the 
head of the parson a hundred curses (or some- 
thing equally bad), because by his knavish tricks 
he had made fools of them all. But what is the 
etymology of drouse ? 

The History of the Parson of Calemberg seems 
to be an English translation of a German people's 
book, like our Merrie Jest of a Man that was 
called Howleglas, and it was probably an imitation 
of the exploits of the renowned Thyl Eulenspiegel, 
who also pretended that he could fly from a house- 
top, although the parson's jest is greatly superior to 
that related of Howleglas. Is there extant an 
entire copy of the Parson of Calemberg in English ] 
If so, has it been reprinted ? And, by the way, 
has our old English version of Howleglas been re- 
printed ? There is no mention made of any reprint 
in Lowndes. Roscoe gives a modern English 
translation of the original in his German Novelists. 
But subsequent editions of the German original 
contained additional and bolder jests at the 
expense of the clergy (as the Reformation was 
progressing in Germany), and these, it would 
appear, are reproduced in our old English version 
printed by William Copland (about 1550) ; for 
example, the story cited by Percy in his Reliques 
of the priest's leman who had but one eye is not 
given in Eoscoe's version. "W. A. CLOUSTON. 

A LOTTERY, 1673. The following letter is in 
Dr. Johnston's MSS. in the library of Mr. Frank, 
of Campsall, near Doncaster (E 2, p. 139). Can 
any one throw light upon the lottery referred to 1 

" AVLitefriers, 19"' Apr., 1673. 

" S r , The part wanting in y e Africa, together with y e 
Lottery Proposals, will be sent you on Munday, having 
been layd by this three weeks for sending, but was un- 
luckily omitted by y e person that undertook y e charge in 
this multitude of business y e opening of y e Lottery has 
created. The account of those gentlemen's families you 
sent will do very well, but as yet I have little leasure to 
peruse, but upon consideration shall give you farther 

" Our drawing cpen'd the 7 th inst 1 , and will continue 
so long as 60,000 may be drawn off by 6 cr 700 a day, so 
that if you procure any adventurers they may (putting 
in upon the author) be drawn imediatly upon notice, 
and their friends or correspondents may be*... while 

" One thing more, which y e paper expresses not, y l is 
y e adventurers upon the proposition of 40 s or 5" either 
drawing Britannias or Book of y e Roads, or receaving 
them upon y e recompencing of blanks, may if they please 
in lieu thereof accept of any other of y c books already 
extant, or if they draw more than one of a sort, or such 
books as they have already, they will be cbang'd accord- 
ing to y e rate, so far as conveniently may. 

" Y r humble serv', 


gr > _y r letters may constantly find at Whitefriers 
" Yo r very humble serv', 

" GR. KINO." 

Addressed : " Dr. Nath. Johnston, at his house in Pon- 
tefract. To be left at Ferribriggs, Yorkshire." 



A BERMUDAN LITURGY. Capt. Nathaniel 
Butler, Governor of the Bermudas in 1619, had 

* Torn off by seal ; perhaps present. 



[5"' S. XII. JULY 5, 79. 

great difficulty in inducing his two ministers to 
subscribe to the Book of Common Prayer. Capt. 
Smith, in his Generall Historic of Virginia, &c., 
tells us that the Governor, 

" Finding it high time to attempt some conformitie, 
bethought himself e of the Liturgie of Gurnsey and Jarse, 
wherein all these particulars they so much stumbled at 
were omitted. No sooner was this propounded, but it 
was gladly embraced by them both, whereupon the 
Governor translated it verbatim out of French into Eng- 
lish, and caused the eldest Minister upon Easter Day to 
begin the use thereof at St. George's towne." 

Do any copies of this translation remain? There 
is nothing more than Smith's statement in Ander- 
son's History of the Colonial Church. 


"THE KHAPSODY." I have a curious little 
miscellany so entitled, printed, as I infer, soon 
after 1691. I say so entitled, but the first eighteen 
pages are headed " The Rapsodist." It commences 
with " A Sermon of Parson Hyberdine," which is 
followed by Sir John Beaumont's " Bosworth 
Field," and many other interesting pieces, the last 
being a poem on the "King and Queen of 
Fairy " and a translation of it into Latin by Mr. 
Walter Dennestone, 1691, which ends the volume 
on p. 84. My copy wants title and all before p. 3. 
What is the proper title and where can I find any 
notice of the Rhapsody ? 


PAUL'S KNIGHTS. In Trevisa's version of Hig- 
den's Polychronicon, i. 349 (Rolls Series, No. 41), 
Irishmen are described as being always idle " as 
Povles knyjtes." To whom does the comparison 
refer ] Are the Paul's knights of Trevisa the same 
frivolous members of society as the Paul's men (the 
loungers in St. Paul's Cathedral) of the Elizabethan 
drama ? A. L. MAYHEW. 


SITWELLS OF RENISHAW. Can any one help me 
to find a pedigree (other than that contained in Dr. 
Gatty's valuable edition of Hunter's Hallamshire) 
of the family of Sitwell of Renishaw, Derbyshire 1 
On Aug. 27, 1808, Mr. Maurice Thomas, writing 
to his brother, Mr. B. Thomas of Chesterfield (law 
agent to Sir Sitwell Sitwell, the then baronet of 
Renishaw), refers to a very old pedigree styled 
" The Descent of Mrs. Elizabeth Sitwell, coming 
down to her own time, 1756." It was then in the 
possession of Messrs. Smith & Kekewick, of New 
Square, Lincoln's Inn. A copy of it was made on 
vellum for Mr. Heaton of Doncaster. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Sitwell was the daughter of George Sitwell of 
Renishaw and Anne Kent his wife, born 1684, 
died 1769. Neither copy of this pedigree can now 
be found. A. C. S. 

A TERCENTENARIAN. If we could but find 
conclusive proof of the following story, we should 

be in a position to reject much that Mr. Thorns 
has told us concerning the length of human life. 
I quote from Capgrave's Chronicle. As his manner 
is, he gives no authorities. Can any of your 
readers trace this wonderful tale to an earlier 
source 1 Capgrave, we may be sure, did not 
invent it. 

" Anno 6323. 1125. Conrard the Secund regned xv 
jere. In his dayes deied a knyte, they clepid him Jon 
of the Tymes, whech ly ved, as thei sey, ceo }ere LXI. ; for 
he was a werrioure in the tyme of Gret Charles. This 
Conrard took the caracte of the Cros of Seint Bernard 
hand, for to go to the Holy Lond, and fite ageyn the- 
enimes of Crist." P. 135. 

K. P. D. E. 

" SIGNUM " = SIGNATURE. I notice that Sir 
Travers Twiss, in the edition of Bracton just pub- 
lished by the Lords of the Treasury, translates 
signum (vol. i. p. 299), used in reference to the 
confirmation of a deed, by "signature." Is not 
this an error ] Ought not the translation to have 
been " seal " ] I apprehend that in the thirteenth 
century, in which Bracton wrote, signatures to 
deeds (in the sense of words or marks written) are 
of extreme rarity, and that the grantor of the deed 
always affixed his seal. Bracton, in fact, in this 
very passage, says that the donor should add the 
clause, " in testimony of which thing I have affixed 
my seal to this writing " ; and further on he says 
that it matters not whether the deed be sealed with 
one's own or another's seal. Signum (v. Ducange) 
would seem to have been used for the cross or 
mark with which charters were authenticated in 
the earlier periods, but what we should call " sig- 
nature," that is, the writing of a man's name for 
the purpose of authentication of a document, would 
seem to have been always called " subscription 
Possibly Sir T. Twiss used the word " signature " 
with the intention that it should include sealing 
as well as any other method of marking, but it 
would seem that such a use of the word is calcu- 
lated to mislead. SUSSEXIENSIS. 

SCHILLER'S " FIESKO." What could have led 
Schiller to write Fiesco's name " Fiesko " ? Such 
spelling is indefensible even on phonetic grounds, 
for co has in German the same sound as Tco. The 
letter k, we know, does not exist in Italian. 


THE YEW. I am aware that the Furies were- 
supposed to make their torches of yew, but why 
did this become a funereal or churchyard tree, and 
when ] Was it called " sad " on account of its 
doleful appearance and hue 1 Having an interest 
in the answers to these questions, might I ask for 
an early reply or for a reference to some accessible- 
authority 1 " B. E. 

" In the time of Queen Elizabeth was the remark- 

5 th S. XII. JULY 5, '79.] 



able trial of the witches of Warhols, whose con- 
viction is still commemorated in an annual sermon 
at Huntingdon." The above passage occurs in 
Dr. Johnson's edition of Shakspeare. Is this ser- 
mon still preached ] if not, when was it discon- 
tinued 1 JOHN CLARKE. 

AMYAS PRESTON. Who was Amyas Preston, 
and what family did he spring from? In Purchas's 
Pilgrie and Hakluyt's Voyage and Travels (both 
very rare books) he is spoken of as a great tra- 
veller about 1593-1610. Mr. Kingsley, in West- 
ward Ho ! says : " I know not whether any man 
still lives who counts his descent from that valiant 
captain Amyas de Preston ; but if such there be, 
let him be sure that the history of the English 
navy tells no more Titanic victory over nature and 
man than that now forgotten raid of Amyas Preston 
and his comrade in the year of grace 1595." 


2, Abingdon Road, Kensington, W. 

MAGEE AND MACGREGOR. I have often heard 
that the name Magee is a corruption of the Scotch 
name Macgregor. Is this so ? Where could I 
get the best information 1 W. M. T. 


ing to Lowndes and others, copies of Morton's New 
English Canaan, with the date of 1634, appeared 
in the Gordonstoun and North sales. Can any 
one tell where a copy of the work may now be 
found with the date of 1634 ? 


2, Bible House, New York. 


" On the third day the missionary saw at a fountain 
all those men who had killed one of the enemy. They 
made an ointment of yellow clay, mixed with the fat and 
blood of the slain, to anoint their bodies as an antidote 
against the stuff with which the enemy besmear all their 
wounded, that all may be killed who wounded them." 
The Christian Express, " Transvaalia," by Rev. A. Krapf, 
(Jan. 1, 1879, p. 8). 

Wanted further information as to this practice. 

Reinsgraben, Gottingen. 

A SHILLING OF CHARLES I. I cannot find in 
Hawkins or Henfrey any shilling of Charles I. like 
one which has been lately found here. Ob., king 
on horseback to left, with sword over right shoulder 
and plume over horse's head. Rev., oval shield 
garnished, with arms, and plume at the top between 
the letters c R. No legend or date. 

S. H. A. H. 

Wedmore Vicarage, Weston-super-Mare. 

LIEUT. -GEN. FIDDES. Can any one oblige me 
with the Christian name or names of this old 
Indian officer, who died in Cheltenham April 13, 

1863, in his eighty-second year ? There is a monu- 
ment to his memory in Christ Church in that town, 
but the inscription gives neither the information I 
require nor the place of his burial. There have 
not been any interments at Christ Church, and 
therefore there is not a register. A reference to 
any obituary notice will further oblige. 


tion upon the tombstone of the father-in-law of 
John Newton, at Olney, has recently been restored, 
and reads as follows : 

"George Catlett, late of Chatham, Kent, the affec- 
tionate and much loved father of Mary, the wife of the 
Rev. John Newton, died in the Lord, August 2nd, 1777, 
aged seventy-six. ' I know whom I have believed, and 
am persuaded that He is able to keep that which I have 
committed unto Him until that day."' 

Can any of your readers inform me whether Mr. 
Catlett was actually buried at Olney, or whether 
this inscription was only intended as a memorial 1 



Who is the author of a poem the subject of which is a 
tulip which its owner extremely valued, and which his 
gardener, a grim Presbyterian of the old school, con- 
sidered it his duty to destroy, as his master was, in his 
opinion, making an idol of it ? I do not know more than 
the two following lines : 
" ' Lo ! ' said the gardener, ' it was plucked by me; 

Fall'n is the Baal to which thou bowedst the knee.' " 

Gynomachia ; or, a Contest between two Old Ladies, in 
the Service of a Celebrated Orator (E. Burke). Lond., 
1789, 4to. 0. 

" So comes the reck'ning when the banquet 's o'er, 
The dreadful reck'ning, and men smile no more." 
Gay ? JAY DEE. 



(5 th S. xi. 348, 394, 415.) 
I have taken a little trouble in the short time at 
my command to ascertain the point at issue, and 
with your permission I will give your readers the 
result of my four days' search at the British Museum. 
In the first place, let me express my sincere thanks 
to Mr. Sims and his colleagues for the kind help 
I received at their hands in placing such books 
before me as they considered might be the means 
of lightening my journey, for without some dis- 
crimination of this kind one might have spent 
forty days instead of four in simply running 
through the catalogues. I divided my plan of 
search into five periods, which for shortness let 
me classify as Early English, Elizabeth, Stuart, 
Anne, and George : the first represented by the 
Paston letters and Netherclift collection of auto- 
graphs ; the second by the Sydney, Camden, 



[5"> S. XII. JOLT 5, '79. 

Cotton,. and Hatton correspondence, and original 
letters of state ; the third by the Evelyn corre- 
spondence ; the fourth by the Suffolk papers ; 
and the fifth by the Wilkes and Foote-Gower 
correspondence. Dates I purposely do not give, 
because they would encumber this paper un- 
necessarily ; but the whole of this correspond- 
ence and autographs, I may say, extends over a 
period dating from Edward IV., about 1450, to 
1778, temp. George III. In the first and second 
periods, the correspondence being chiefly of an 
official character, we find the "your" written short, 
iis " yore humble servant to command," and there- 
fore the materials are scanty for my purpose ; but 
in the Netherclift autographs I find Lady Jane 
Grey using the old Saxon "youres" (of which 
more as we proceed), and in the Hatton corre- 
spondence, in which there are some familiar letters, 
I find a letter from Queen Elizabeth ending with 
" yours," and a few from Burleigh, Walsingham, 
and Rochford, in which the " yours " appears like- 
wise without the apostrophe. 

In the Evelyn correspondence, at p. 5, there is 
a letter from him to his father, signed very clearly 
" Tour's, ALUANw2." 

The well-known writers of the Anne period, 
such as Chesterfield, Walpole, Swift, &c., do not 
employ the apostrophe. Steele does not do so, 
though in his printed letter, in the 1853 edition 
of Thackeray's Humourist, the " yours " is printed 
with the apostrophe. In my 1858 edition of this 
work, a letter of the Earl of Peterborow to Pope 
has the apostrophe, but not so in the edition of 
1853 ; nor does he use it in his letters in the 
Suffolk papers. 

In the fifth or George period we have Wilkes 
ending his letter, "Your's most sincerely and 
affect 1 ?." See 30869, fo. 53. His brother 
does likewise ; and I think in the same cover 
(fo. 53) there is a letter from Bonnell Thornton to 
Cotes, beginning " I will not suppose your string 
of epithets levelled at me," &c., ending "Mr. 
Wilke's and your's most steadily and heartily." 

In the Rev. F. Gower's (the intended historian 
of Chester) correspondence with Eichard Gough, 
author of British Sepulchral Monuments, com- 
prising nearly five hundred letters, we have a 
heap of examples. There are at least fifty letters 
by Gower in which the apostrophe is used not 
only at the end, but in the body of his letters. 
His friend Gough, on the other hand, does not 
employ it. Here are a few examples. In one 
of Jan. 19, 1768, writing about a bell, he asks the 
question, " Is Roger of Welcham your's or mine 1 
you did not say." This ends with "Most sin- 
cerely and heartily your's F. Gower." As a last 
example, showing how he 'might have avoided the 
apostrophe if he chose, here is one dated April 2, 
1769 : "I write this to prevent an unnecessary 
walk of your's to Bloomsbury." 

The only poets whose few letters I have seen 
are Pope and Gay, and they, in their corre- 
spondence with Mrs. Howard, afterwards Duchess 
of Suffolk (see Suffolk papers), do not employ the 
apostrophe. Shelley does so in a letter to Mr. 
Kitchener, dated 1812. It is written in a very 
clear hand, and is preserved in a glass case in the 
MS. room. The letter concludes with " I have 
no taste for displaying genealogies, nor do I wish 
to seem more important than I am. Your's sin- 
cerely," &c. 

The last example is from the Duke of Welling- 
ton to a Sir Thomas, asking him if he is to sit by 
him next Sunday, and he ends it with " Ever 
your's most sincerely, Wellington." 

Now, if the matter had to rest here, I fear my 
sceptical friends would not be satisfied with my 
explanation. They would simply say, "You 
merely set off one set of writers against another, 
and in point of number and time we appear to 
have the advantage." I am compelled, therefore, 
to go to authorities of " established reputation." 
I go to Chaucer, and in Chalmers's Glossary to his 
poems I find this stated : " Youres, pronoun pos- 
sessive Saxon, used generally when the noun to 
which it belongs is understood or placed before it, 
ex. g. He was an old felaw of youres=He was an 
old companion of yours, i.e. of or among your 
companions." Turning to the Netherclift aato- 
graphs I find Lady Jane Grey signing herself, in the 
Prayer Book in which the " goode Master Lieuf- 
tenante " of the Tower had asked her to " wrighte 
in so weithye a Booke," " Youres as the lorde 
knoweth as a frende, Jane Dudely." This is 
the Saxon possessive of Chaucer, and yet we 
find her sister Mary Graye, like Queen Elizabeth 
and others, dropping the e in " yours," just as we 
find Gough dispensing with the apostrophe, while 
his friend Gower, who is in daily correspondence 
with him, is always using it. Similarly like our- 
selves, some retaining the apostrophe in "dont," and 
others rejecting it we find the Earl of Peterborow, 
Walpole, Lady Bathurst, &c., in the Suffolk 
papers, paying no attention at all to the apos- 
trophe in the word " dont," while others of that 
period made a point of retaining it. But let me 
come nearer the mark with yet a stronger proof. 
I turn to one of our oldest grammarians, Dr. 
Lowth, successively Bishop of St. Davids, Oxford, 
and London, " whose principles," says Webster, 
" form the main structure of Lindley Murray's " 
(and of a good many other) "compilations." 
" Our's and your's," he informs us, " are directly 
from the Saxon ures, cowers, the possessive case 
of the pronominal adjectives ure and eower, 
i.e. our and your." "They were all," says 
Dr. Sullivan, in his An Attempt to simplify 
English Grammar, " formerly written with the 
apostrophe, as appears by Greenwood, Lowth, 
&c." And, finally, we come to Dr. McCulloch, 

5> 8. XII. JULY 5, 79.] 



who says, in his Manual of English Grammar : 
"The English possessive term is one of the 
parts of our language which we have preserved 
from the Saxon. The casal term of the Saxon 
possessive is es or is, as appears in such phrases as 
Oodes sight, kingis crown. The progress of 
change in the termination seems to have been es, 
is, 's, as manes, manis, man's. . . . Our ablest 
philologists have uniformly referred its origin to 
the old Saxon termination." And following the 
examples given, we have the " youres " of Chaucer 
and Lady Jane Grey, " yours " of her sister Mary, 
&c., and the "your's" of Evelyn, Shelley, &c. 
Surely this is proof conclusive that the apostrophe 
in " your's " simply signifies that a letter which 
once denoted the possessive case has been left out 
for " quicker pronunciation," and that, as in the 
ugly words " dont," " shant," and " wont," you 
may retain it or disregard it just as you please, 
for time and convenience have sanctioned the 
usage of both styles. 

In conclusion, let me point out one instance in 
which the apostrophe, having done duty for several 
generations as a reminder that it was the substitute 
for an e (which had been dropped out for the sake 
of euphony), came in its turn to be itself completely 
cut out of existence. Lord Beaconsfield's family 
name was originally written, I should say, as de 
Israeli. I remember to have read it constantly as 
d' or D'Israeli, but within the last ten years or 
more what has happened 1 Why, the apostrophe 
has been banished clean out of existence, the small 
d has given place te the big D, and the capital I 
been thrust ignominiously from its exalted position, 
and levelled down in a way which must amuse its 
former owner when he can spare time to philo- 
sophize on the vicissitudes of names. If a grand 
and glorious name has gone through so many 
changes in our own day, need we be surprised at 
the mutations experienced by a small word like 
" youres," coined more than four hundred years 

Pump Court, Temple. 

P.S. Since writing the above, I find Mrs. 
Eugenia Stanhope, in her dedication of Lord 
Chesterfield's letters to Lord North, uses the 
apostrophe thus : " Merit so conspicuous as your's 
requires no panegyric." My copy is printed by 
Dodsley, 1 776. I have written Peterborow as it 
appears in the Suffolk papers, and Lady Jane and 
her sister's surname as it is written in the Nether- 
clift collection of autographs. 

xi. 466, 495.) The custom of coming into the 
chancel at the time of saying the exhortation 
" Draw near with faith," &c., is probably a relic of 
the older custom ordered by the Book of 1559, 
" Then so many as shall be partakers of the holy 

Communion shall tarry still in the quire, or in 
some convenient place nigh the quire, the men on 
the one side, and the women on the other side. 
All other (that mind not to receive the said holy 
Communion) shall depart out of the quire, except 
the ministers and clerks." The Church of the 
sixteenth century never intended to sanction the 
present practice of non-communicants trooping out 
of the church in the middle of the service. This 
is further evident from two canons (1603) : xviil, 
" None, either man, woman, or child, of what 
calling soever, shall be otherwise at such times 
busied in the church, than in quiet attendance to 
hear, &c. ; nor depart out of the church during 
the time of service or sermon, without some urgent 
or reasonable cause" ; and xc., "The churchwardens, 
or quest-men of every parish, . . . shall diligently see 
that all the parishioners duly resort to their church 
upon all Sundays and holy-days, and there con- 
tinue the whole time of divine service." Thus 
the intention was that intending communicants 
should leave their seat and come into the chancel, 
non-communicants remaining in their former places. 
I imagine thnt this custom ceased generally at 
the Restoration, the practice having become im- 
possible by the fact that the Puritans had gener- 
ally filled the chancel with close pews. It is to be 
noted that the older form was " Draw near and 
take this holy Sacrament" ; the words "with faith" 
were introduced in the last revision. Bishop Cosin 
says, on the words " Draw near and take," &c., 
" Which seems to be an inviting of the people that 
are to communicate to come into the quire, where 

the Communion table is placed But the 

custom of calling up the communicants into the 
quire or chancel of the church, though it be no 
new thing, . . . yet anciently it was not so " 
(vol. v. p. 328). From this it seems that Cosin 
and other revisers of the Prayer Book did not 
wish the observance of this custom, but intended 
all to remain in their places, according to primitive 
use, " for of old time none of the lay people were 
permitted to come up or tarry longer in the quire 
than whilst they presented their oblations to the 
priest there at the altar." Perhaps it was for this 
reason that the words " with faith '' were added, 
to show that bodily motion was not required. 


At the parish church of Hunston, in Sussex, it 
is the custom for those who have received the 
Communion to remain kneeling at the altar-rails 
until the end of the service. This custom I 
witnessed in April last. Hunston is a small and 
remote village, and its ancient church (Norman 
doorway, windows Dec. and Perp.) has as yet been 
spared by the restorer. A. J. M. 


SANTA CLAUS (5 th S. xi. 66.) The "mythical 
being called Santiclaus," whom MR. LEES finds 



[5> S. XU. JDLT 5, 79. 

in Herefordshire and Worcestershire, is a very 
popular personage indeed elsewhere. The following 
quotation from Mr. Moncure Conway's Demonology 
may interest MR. LEES still more in the children's 
present-bringer : 

" My belief is that, through his legendary relation to 
boys, St. Nicholas gave the name Old Mick its modern 
moral accent. Because of his reputation for having 
restored to life three murdered children St. Nicholas was 
made tbeir patron, and on his day, December 6, it was 
the old custom to consecrate a boy-bishop, who held 
office until the 28th of the month. By this means he 
became the moral' appendage of the old Wodan god of 
the Germanic races, who was believed in winter time to 
find shelter in and shower benefits from evergreens, 
especially firs, on his favourite children who happened 
to wander beneath them. ' Bartel,' ' Klaubauf,' or what- 
ever he might be called, was reduced to be the servant of 
St. Nicholas, whose name is now jumbled into 'Santa- 
claus.' According to the old custom he appeared attended 
by his Knecht Klaubauf personated by those who knew 
all about the children bringing a sort of doomsday. 
The gifts having been bestowed on the good children, 
St. Nicholas then ordered Klaubauf to put the naughty 
ones into his pannier and carry them off for punishment. 
The terror and shrieks thus caused have created vast 
misery among children, and in Munich and some other 
places the authorities have very properly made such 
tragedies illegal. But for many centuries it was the 
custom of nurses and mothers to threaten refractory 
children with being carried off at the end of the year by 
Nicholas, and in this way each year closed, in the young 
apprehension, with a judgment day, a weighing of souls, 
and a Devil or Old Nick as agent of retribution." 
Demonology and Devil Lore, 1879, vol. i. pp. 111-12. 

1, Alfred Terrace, Billhead, Glasgow. 

The " benevolent Santiclaus," about whom MR. 
LEES inquires, is evidently a corruption of St. 
Nicholas, whose festival occurs on December 6. 
He is the patron of children and of scholars, and 
certainly in Belgium and France the children look 
forward to his festival with the greatest eagerness. 
Toy shops and sweetmeat shops assume quite a 
festive appearance for some days previously to the 
6th of December, and no child goes to bed on the 
eve of St. Nicholas without hanging up a stocking 
at its bed-head for the gifts which the saint lavishes 
with bountiful hand. It is quite delightful, on 
the following morning, to see the joy and excite- 
ment with which the stockings are emptied, and 
the presents which they contain examined and 
compared by the juvenile members of the family. 
It is needless to add that the presents are usually 
selected in accordance with the known taste of the 
recipient, which greatly increases the pleasure. In 
Eome the stockings are hung up on the eve of the 

This is a very popular practice in France, only 
the stocking is replaced by a shoe or boot, which 
is placed in the corner of the fireplace, and the 
gift is said to come, not from Santiclaus, but from 

Ayr Academy. 

PARISH DOCUMENTS (5 th S. x. 427, 527 ; xi. 
37.) May I be allowed to suggest that the word 
cate is an abbreviation of certificate 1 The latter 
s sometimes abbreviated to cat in Ireland, and 
)ossibly in England. An Irish Protestant clergy- 
nan of my acquaintance asked a peasant when his 
xpected marriage was about to come off. The 
man said that he " must wait until he could get 
a cat." The clergyman knew that an Irish girl's 
'ortune is often paid in pigs, cows, and sheep, with 
L supplement of a " dresser " or other article of 
urniture, but he was immensely surprised to find 
a cat amongst the quadrupeds that were considered 
necessary to stock the farm or house of the happy 
iouple. He was, however, very busy just then, 
and unable to unravel the mystery until the next 
time that he happened to meet the man, when he 
again questioned him as to his matrimonial pros- 
pects, and was told, " 'Tis waiting for the cat all 
through we are, your honour." Pressing for an 

xplanation as to this unattainable cat, the clergy- 
man learned that it was a certificate the man- 
meant. He was a native of a distant parish, and 
was obliged to obtain a certificate from its priest 
that he was a respectable man before he could be 
married to the young woman by the priest of the 
parish in which she was born, and in which her 
family resided. The Court of Kingsthorpe was 
probably obliged to grant a certificate that the 
lands had been entrusted to it for sale, if any of 
the seller's near relatives applied for such a docu- 
ment, in order that they might object to the sale 
if they had a right of inheritance in the land, or in 
order that they might state whether they had any 
charges on it. M. A. HICKSON. 

"Restoo" or " Eestowe Delf." Does MR. 
GLOVER wish to know whether the word Restoo or 
the word Delf is used elsewhere 1 If the latter, I 
am able to tell him that throughout Cheshire a 
stone quarry is invariably called a delf. 


Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

(5 th S. xi. 367.) Having gained the following 
information, I ask to be allowed to reply. 
The first volume of the Collections comprises 
127 parishes, from Abbenhall to Guiting Temple,, 
and was published in London in 1791. In 
the following year 252 pages of the second 
volume, comprising fifty-three parishes, and ending 
with Newent, appeared. The unpublished MSS. 
having in time become the property of the late Sir 
Thomas Phillipps, Bart., of Middle Hill, Worcester- 
shire, and subsequently of Thirlestaine House, 
Cheltenham, he printed particulars of eighteen 
parishes, from Newington Bagpath to Pauntley ; 
and this portion, of which there was only a limited 
impression, and ending with p. 316, may be pur- 
chased for 3Z. 3s. from the printer, Mr. Eogers, 

5* S. XII. JULY 5, 79. 



6, Sandford Terrace, Cheltenham. After a con- 
siderable interval, the publication was resumed by 
Sir T. Phillipps in 1870, and, in accordance with 
his directions, has been continued since his death 
in February, 1872, -by one of his executors, S. H. 
Gael, Esq., and five additional portions have been 
printed, viz. Part I., in 1870, comprising nine 
parishes, and costing 6s. Qd. ; Part II., 1871, four- 
teen parishes, 8s. ; Part III., 1873, twenty-four 
parishes, 18s. ; Part IV., 1877, twenty-seven 
parishes, ll. 11s. ; and Part V., 1878, four parishes, 
14s. 6d. The total cost of the additions, ending 
with Tewkesbury, is therefore 11. Is. ; and thirty- 
nine parishes are as yet unpublished. I have not 
seen the additional portions of the work, and am 
unable to express any opinion as to their literary 
and typographical character. ABHBA. 

ISAIAH xxn. 18 (5 th S. xi. 26.) In Psalm 
Ixxxiii. 13 there is a simile like the one in Isaiah. 
Through a mistranslation it is lost sight of in the 
A. V., where the verse reads thus : " my God, 
make them like a wheel, as the stubble before the 
wind." In The Land and the Book, p. 563, Dr. 
Thomson makes the following remarks upon the 
passage : 

" It is the wild artichoke. You observe that in growing 
it throws out numerous branches of equal size and 
length in all directions, forming a sort of sphere or globe 
a foot or more in diameter. When ripe and dry in 
autumn, these branches become rigid and light as a 
feather, the parent stem breaks off at the ground, and 
the wind carries these vegetable globes whithersoever it 
pleaseth. At the proper season thousands of them come 
scudding over the plain, rolling, leaping, bounding with 
vast racket, to the dismay both of the horse and his 
rider. Once, on the plain north of Hamath, my horse 
became quite unmanageable among them. I have long 
suspected that this wild artichoke is the gulgal, which 
in Psalm Ixxxiii. 13 is rendered wheel, and in Isaiah xvii. 
13 a rolling thing. Evidently our translators knew not 
what to call it. The first passage reads thus : ' my 
Qod, make them like a wheel (gulgal), as the stubble 
before the wind ' ; and the second, ' Rebuke them, and 
they shall flee far off, and shall be chased as the chaff of 
the mountains before the wind, and like a rolling thing 
(gulgal) before the whirlwind.' Now, from the nature 
of the parallelism ; the gulgal cannot be ' a wheel,' but 
something corresponding to chaff. It must also be some- 
thing that does not fly like the chaff, but in a striking 
manner rolls before the wind. The signification of qul- 
gal in Hebrew, and its equivalent in other Shemitic 
dialects, require this, and this rolling artichoke meets 
the case most emphatically, and especially when it rolls 
before the whirlwind. If this is not the ' wheel ' of 
David and the 'rolling thing' of Isaiah, I have seen 
nothing in the country to suggest the comparison." 

This is very similar to MR. BLENKINSOPP'S 

Godolphin Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

I have read with much interest MR. BLENKIN- 
SOPP'S note on this chapter and verse. I have no 
doubt but that the plant to which he refers is 
Anastatica hierochuntica, popularly called the 
rose of Jericho. It grows in the East, and throws 

out branches round a centre ; and when the plant 
dies these branches curl up, so as to form a ball,, 
which is blown about by the wind. I have had 
one of these balls for many years, and even now if 
placed in water it expands. A. J. K. 

THE EXULTET ROLL (5 th S. xi. 321.) I have 
always understood that Exultet Bolls are of the 
greatest rarity. I have not as yet seen Mr. 
Thompson's article in the Journal of the Archaeo- 
logical Association, but if the deacon is represented 
in the act of blessing the paschal candle, it is quite 
correct, for Durandus distinctly states that the 
paschal candle is blessed by the deacon in the 
presence of the bishop or the officiating priest. 

When the custom of blessing the paschal candle 
ceased to be observed, I know not. A reference to 
our Missal, or to the Officium Hebdomadce Sanctce, 
according to the Missal and Breviary of St. Pius V., 
will show that now the five grains of incense, and 
not the paschal candle, are blessed by the officiating 
priest. They are then fixed into the candle by the 
deacon after the words in the Exultet, "curvat 
imperia." The candle itself is not blessed. 
If there is only one clergyman in a parish, he 
officiates on Holy Saturday as priest until the 
Exultet, when he lays aside his vestment, and 
assumes the deacon's dalmatic, and proceeds with 
the Exultet, after which he reassumes his vest- 
ment, and continues to officiate as priest. 


(5 th S. xi. 365.) The prince (or rather princess, 
for it is a lady) of such searchers as MR. WALFORD 
is the author of an amusing little pamphlet called 
the Clergy List Revised and Classified (Simpkin 
& Marshall). Between that and my own obser- 
vation I can add to MR. WALFORD'S list these 
names : Chanter, Chaplain, Elder, Parsons, Collett 
(=acolyte), Proctor, Chancellor, Abbey, Abbiss, 
Crucefix, Sexton. On the other hand, many 
names which MR. WALFORD has inserted have 
really no right to a place ; for instance, are there 
in the world no bells, towers, porches, walls, closes, 
bands, stones, posts, vanes, crofts, and spires, 
except ecclesiastical ones 1 The fact is, we might 
find an ecclesiastical association with a great 
number of names ; but it does not follow that they 
ought to be put on such a list as this. Thus, if 
we are to take names which are in the Bible or in 
Church history, we might make the list I don't 
know how long we should have to put in Simons, 
Peters, Johns, Jameses, Andrews ; or if, as MR. 
WALFORD'S list seems to hint, we are to stick to 
the Old Testament, any list of Jewish names 
would give us plenty ; and if we are sufficiently 
liberal to take in the Apocrypha, MR. WALFORD'S 
authority, the Cambridge Calendar, will supply us 
with Tobias. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Farnborough, Banbury. 



[5'h s. XII. JULY 5, 79. 

SWIFT ON FLEAS (5 th S. xi. 248.) As a title or 
a maxim painfully suggestive, Prof. Augustus De 
Morgan, in his Budget of Paradoxes (p. 377), while 
discussing one of the most crotchety of the books 
(" The Mystery of Being ; or, Are the Ultimate 
Atoms inhabited Worlds ? " by Nicholas Odgers, 
1863) with which his most entertaining work has 
to deal, gives the following lines, without, however, 
indicating any source or authorship : 
" Great fleas have little fleas upon their backs to bite 'em, 

And little fleas have lesser fleas, and so ad infinitum. 

And the great fleas themselves in turn have greater 
fleas to go on ; 

While these again have greater still, and greater still, 
and so on." 

Probably, I think, these are his own as are 
other lines in the work and only an amplification 
of Swift's verse to illustrate a theory in its ascend- 
ing or descending scale appalling. 


United Service Club, Edinburgh. 

The version of Swift's lines which I heard or 
read as a boy ran thus : 

" Great fleas have lesser fleas and lesser fleas to bite them, 
And lesser fleas have lesser fleas, and so ad infinitum." 

Hampstead, N.W. 

See Bohn's edition of The Complete Angler, 

1856, p. 211, where the second version is quoted 

by the editor, with a different beginning, however : 

" Great fleas have little fleas and lesser fleas to bite 'em, 

And these fleas have smaller fleas, and so ad infinitum." 


NONS " (5 th S. xi. 329.) This refers to the sailors 
of Nelson's ship the Agamemnon, to which he was 
appointed Jan. 30, 1793 : 

" 1797. There, on the quarter-deck of an enemy's 
.first-rate, he received the swords of the officers, Riving 
them as they were delivered, one by one, to William 
Fearney, one of his old Agamemnon's." Southey's Life 
of Nelson, ch. iv. p. 113, "Family Library," 1830. 

" 1803. His feelings toward the brave men who hac 
served with him are shown by a note in his diary, which 
was probably not intended for any other eye than his 
own : ' Nov. 7. I had the comfort of making an olc 
Agamemnon, George Jones, a gunner into the Chameleon 
brig.'" 11., ch. viii. p. 298. 


[This answer scarcely grapples with the query, which, 
in effect, was Why did Nelson call the 69th, or South 
Lincoln, Regiment " the old Agamemnons " ?] 

423.) 19. Dissertation on St. Paul's Voyage, &c 
This was by William Falconer, M.D., F.R.S. In 
the third edition of the above work (London, 1872 
a list of Dr. Falconer's works, forty-seven in 
number, and an account of his life will be founc 
on pp. 119-24. 

46. The Oxford Argo. This was by Richarc 

Surdon, Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. See 
he Oxford Protestant Magazine, No. 2, April, 1847. 
53. Hints to Freshmen. The author was S. Rey- 
nolds Hole, of Brasenose College, Oxford. The 
;econd edition seems to have been issued in 1847; 
he first must have been before 1846. FAMA. 

"LOTHE" = LOFF (5 th S. xi. 468.) In the 
Northern Counties to loff is in very good cir- 
sulation as " to offer." Ferguson's Glossary has 
ofe, a chance, opportunity ; lofa, O.N. ; love, 
Danish, to permit, promise. There is a mistake 
n HalliwelPs lothe having that meaning : in every 
nstance given by him but one it means, as else- 
where, to dislike, abhor. In the present depression, 
at fairs and markets we hear of persons never 
aaving money loffed for their wares or services, 

never had a lotf," an offer, opportunity. There 
may have been some confusion to strangers from 
the change of the old guttural pronunciation of 
such names as Lough and Gough, now Loff and 
Goff. The former, with which our pronunciation 
accords, was used long ago in comic allusion to a 
man who makes an offer of himself in marriage, 
as distinguished from a male flirt, as, "Mr. Loff is 
a varra nice man." M. P. 


ST. SAMPSON (5 th S. xi. 368.) The saint who 
is intended is probably St. Sampson, who is com- 
memorated on June 27 in the Greek calendar, and 
of whom Baronius on the same day, in his Mart. 
Rom., has this notice : " Constantinopoli sancti 
Sampsonis presbyteri, pauperuin exceptoris." Pro- 
copius (De JEd. Just., bk. i.) mentions the hospital 
connected with his name. ED. MARSHALL. 

xi. 367.) A Dominican friar who studied at Cam- 
bridge (Cooper's Athence Cantabrigienses, i. 206 ; 
Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, p. 63 ; and Wood's 
Athence Oxonienses, Bliss, ii. 781). He was ap- 
pointed Rector of Laingdon, Essex, July 23, 1544, 
and to the Prebend of Harleston (St. Paul's) Nov. 26, 
1548. Having a wife he was deprived of his pre- 
ferments in 1554 ; but he then repudiated her, and 
was admitted to the rectory of St. Peter, Cornhill, 
April 2, 1555. This he lost on the accession of 
Queen Elizabeth, but was restored to his prebend 
and the rectory of Laingdon (Newcourt's Reper- 
torium Ecdesiasticum, i. 154, ii. 356). He appears 
to have died about June, 1560, for Alcockson 
succeeded as prebendary July 7, 1560, " per mort 
Hodgkins," and Keroyle was appointed to Laing- 
don Nov. 7, 1560, " per mort Hodgkynne." 


Little seems to be known of this bishop. The 
only facts I can see in Brett's Suffragan Bishops 
are that " he was a Black Friar, and in the year 

5"> S. XII. JULY 5, 79.] 



1531 he laboured with Bilney at Norwich to bring 
him off from the doctrines for which he was con- 
demned. Afterwards coming to the archbishop, 
and being under his eye, he was by his means 
brought to a better understanding in religion and 
married a wife, but in Queen Mary's time put her 
away." But the editorial list of the bishops whom 
he assisted to consecrate should be completed thus : 

8. Matthew Canterbury, ~) 

9. Edmund London, 

10. Richard Ely, }- 1559. 

11. Rowland Bangor, 

12. Edwin Worcester, J 

13. Nicholas Lincoln, "\ 

14. John Sarum, F -, eon 

15. Thomas St. Davids, f 100U ' 

16. Richard St. Asaph, ) 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Farnborough, Banbury. 

GALBRAITH OF BALGAIR (5 th S. xi. 87, 198.) 
Perhaps Y. S. M. can inform me whether Robert 
Galbraith of Cloncorick was the eldest son of John 
Galbraith of Blessingbourne. Robert Galbraith 
mentions that his mother has a claim to the lands 
of Killwaden, co. Tyrone. He had three sons, 
James, Hugh, and Humphrey, and two daughters, 
Lettice and Margaret. He alludes to his " kins- 
woman Elizabeth Foster, alias Gledstanes," 
" brother Arthur Galbraith," and " brother-in-law 
Charles King." John Galbraith of Blessingbourne 
had by his wife Margaret two sons, Robert and 
Arthur, and daughters, Jennet, Anne, Katherine 
(Charles King's wife was named Katherine), 
Elizabeth, and Isobel. He mentions his sister 
Agnes having married, in 1667, James Gledstanes 
of Fardross, co. Tyrone, " uncle Robert " (? father 
of Col. R. Galbraith of Dowlish), and his cousin 
Capt. Jas. Galbraith of Ramoran. His father he 
describes as " Archibald Galbraith, late of Mont- 
fastle " (?), who had lands and tenements in Glas- 
gow, inherited from his father John Galbraith. 

C. S. K. 

Kensington, W. 

REV. JOHN BART (5 th S. iii. 28, 96, 197) was 
buried at Yateley, co. Hants, Dec. 20, 1730. The 
present Vicar of Yateley writes : " There is no sort 
of monument, or brass, or stone placed to his 
memory in the church or churchyard that I can 
find, or that any old inhabitant is aware of." 

L. L. H. 

THE COWAY STAKES (5 th S. xi. 349.) A de- 
scription of these, with remarks on the method of 
their insertion, is contained in a lecture by Dr. 
Guest, " On the Origin of London," at the Royal 
Institution, and reprinted with corrections in 
the Athenceum, July 28, 1866, p. 113. The 
position of these stakes became the subject of 
legal inquiry in the Queen v. the County of 
Middlesex, in which " the geological evidence 

given by Professor Ansted was of great interest,, 
and was to this effect, that the ancient bed of the 
Thames at Walton was four hundred yards in 
breadth, whereas the stream is now only ninety 
yards, the former breadth of the river now forming 
the ' Valley of the Thames,' its alluvial soil in- 
dicating that the river originally ran over the 
whole breadth." The case was tried at Maidstone,. 
July 12, 1877, before Lord Justice Brett. It was 
reported in the Times, from which the notice of it 
is taken. 

The conservative power of sea water is illus- 
trated by the existence of the ancient piles which 
were employed in the formation of a pier, in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth, at Hastings, the con- 
struction of which was authorized by letters patent 
in 1578. ED. MARSHALL. 

SUPERFLUOUS PRONOUNS (5 th S. xi. 145, 216.) 
MR. JERRAM is, of course, perfectly right when 
he says that the German " Der Kopf thut mir 
Weh " is not exactly parallel to " My head aches 
me " ; but, if he refers again to my note, he will 
find that I never maintained the two expressions 
were exactly parallel. All that I said was that it was 
" possible that this dative [mir] might have been 
imported into English," by which I meant merely 
that I thought that the Germans who settle in 
America, and who are mostly of the lower class 
and not likely to trouble themselves about exact 
parallelism of expression, would be quite capable 
of rendering, and very apt to render, such an ex- 
pression as " Der Kopf thut mir Weh " by " the 
(or my) head aches me " ; and that so, as in some 
parts of the United States a mongrel language, 
composed of German and English, really has 
sprung up,* the me might have crept into English. 
I meant nothing more than this, and this I still 
maintain to be possible, though I hold it, with 
MR. JERRAM, to be more probable that the super- 
fluous me, &c., is of old English origin. 


Sydenham Hill. 

OF PRECIOUS STONES (5 th S. xi. 426, 454.) There 

* I am told that such a mongrel language has, though 
to a much slighter extent, been formed in London among 
the Germans, that is, that they Germanize many Eng- 
lish words, or form new German words which are a 
literal translation of English ones. Tims I had a Ger- 
man maid in my house who always used mitaus (a literal 
translation of without) instead of ohne ; and many years 
ago I had a German friend, a highly educated man, who 
not only used bei for von, when he spoke (in German) of 
a work being written by any one, but, when I ventured 
to correct him, maintained that he was right. And yet 
he had not lived more than eight or ten years in America 
and England, and was grown up when lie left Germany. 
The similarity of sound between ly and bei misled him. 
I have also known a French lady, who had lived many 
years in England, use acter for to act. 



[5'h S. XII. JULY 5, 79. 

are many old books in which MR. WINGFIELD 
would find the information he asks, but he might 
have to go to the British Museum for most of 
them. Of those now obtainable I may mention 
Barrett's Magus, which has recently been repub- 
lished by Quaritch, and Le Dogme et Rituel de la 
Haute Magie, par Eliphas Levi (Bailliere & Tindall, 
King William Street, Strand). I quote the follow- 
ing from Art Magic, New York, 1876, p. 398, " Of 
Stones, Gems, and Colours" : 

" Rabbi Benoni, a learned writer of the fourteenth 
century, said to be (sic) one of the most profound 
alchemists of his time, alleges that 'the loadstone, 
sapphire, and diamond are all capable of producing som- 
nambulism, and, when combined into a talisman, attract 
such powerful planetary spirits as render the bearer 
almost invincible.' All precious stones, when cut with 
smooth surfaces and intently gazed upon, are capable of 
producing somnambulism in the same degree as the 
crystal, also of inducing visions " [the state called hyp- 
notism can be induced by gazing on any small shining 
substance]. " Benoni affirms that the diamond will 
deprive the loadstone of its virtue, and is the most 
powerful of all stones to promote spiritual ecstasy. 
Amongst a great variety of similar aphorisms he says, 
' The agate quenches thirst if held in the mouth, and 
soothes fever. The amethyst banishes the desire for 
drink, and promotes chastity. The garnet preserves 
health and joy. The sapphire impels to all good things 
like the diamond. The red coral is a cure for indiges- 
tion, when worn constantly about the person. Amber 
is a cure for sore throat and glandular swellings. The 
crystal promotes sweet sleep and good dreams. The 
emerald promotes friendship and constancy of mind. 
The onyx is a demon imprisoned in stone, who wakes 
only of a night, causing terror and disturbance to sleepers 
who wear it. The opal is fatal to love, and sows discord 
between giver and receiver. The topaz is favourable for 
,!! haemorrhages, and imparts strength and good diges- 
tion.' " 

C. C. M. 

The best source of information is Marbodei 
Galli Poetce Vetustissimi de Lapidibus Pretiosis 
Enchiridion, &c. My copy, dated MDXXXI., was 
published at Friburg. It contains ample references 
to the ancient authorities on the occult nature of 
gems, and highly interesting poetical descriptions 
of their alleged properties. 

W. FRAZER, F.R.C.S.I., M.R.I.A. 

The Boy in Grey, by Henry Kingsley, might 
perhaps prove of use to your correspondent. 

Middle Temple. 

In Treasures of the Earth, by W. Jones, F.S.A. 
(Warne), a whole chapter is devoted to " Super- 
stitions connected with Precious Stones." 

L. P. 

MR. WINGFIELD should refer to Mr. William 
Jones's Finger- Ring Lore, pp. 113-14. H. W. 

Consult an article in the monthly part of All 
the Year Round for June, 1878, entitled " Some- 
thing about Precious Stones." 


"MUFF"=A STUPID PERSON (5 th S. xi. 384,511.) 
I would suggest that muff=& stupid person may 
have been introduced into England from the 
Netherlands, probably in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. In Dutch mo/=(l) a clown, a boor ; 
(2) as a nickname, a German, and particularly 
a Westphalian. Moffenland^Germanj, West- 
phalia. This mof (2) occurs as Mvff in Marlowe, 
" Sclavonians, Almains, Rutters, Muffs, and 
Danes" (1 Tamburlane, i. 1). jRwers=German 
horsemen (Renter, Reiter, cp. Fr. retire}. 



TREASURE TROVE (5 th S. xi. 367, 494.) I also 
made inquiries about the alleged discovery in Long 
Acre, and have reason to believe that the whole 
account as published was a silly hoax. 

J. T. M. 

" PETER PARAGRAPH " (5 th S. xi. 367, 493.) 
I thank MR. H. HALL for his notice of this person, 
and refer him further to The Genuine Memoirs 
of Miss Faulkner, otherwise Mrs. D I n, or 

Countess of H x [Halifax] in Expectancy, 

1770 (B.M., 12511, c.c.). 0. 

"AKIMBO" (5 th S. xi. 48, 212.) Jennings, in 
his Somersetshire Glossary, s.v. " Kingbow," says : 

" Chaucer has this word kenebow, which is perhaps the 
true one, a kenebow implying a bow with a keen or sharp 

' He set his hand in kenebow.' 

Chaucer, Second Merchant's Tale.'" 
I have not succeeded in verifying the quotation, 
nor indeed do I know what is intended by the 
Second Merchant's Tale. Other correspondents 
may be more fortunate, or, at any rate, less igno- 
rant. I note the passage as containing possibly 
an earlier instance of the occurrence of the word 
than is furnished by your correspondents. 

W. F. R. 
Worle Vicarage. 

"NAPPY": "NAP" (5 th S. xi. 106, 470.) 
C. Cotton, in his burlesque Voyage to Ireland, 
cant, i., after describing how a bottle of the " best 
Cheshire hum " is brought to him, proceeds thus : 
" Mine host poured and filled, till he could fill no fuller; 

'Look here, sir,' quoth he, 'both for nap and for 

Sans bragging I hate it, nor will I e'er do't 

I defy Leek and Lambhith, and Sandwich to boot.'" 
Campbell's Specimens of British Poets, iv. 299. 

Am I guilty of a " wild eccentricity " in sug- 
gesting that the nap which, with the colour, is here 
appealed to as proving the excellence of the ale, 
may have had something to do with the term nappy 
so frequently applied to that drink, and that it can- 
not here mean " a short slumber " 1 The meaning of 
the word " nap " I take to be the same as that 
conveyed in the " reaming swats " of Burns. 

G. F. S. E. 

5> S. XII. JULY 5, 79.] 



"SiR BEVIS OF HAMPTOUN" (5 th S. x. 207 
314.) To the editions of this romance enumerate 
I would add the following, which is said (3 rd S. vi 
122) to have been picked up at Aberdeen, anc 
believed to be unique. It was in the Daniel col 
lection. Sir Bevis of Hampton, Aberdene, 1630 
16mo. Can any of your readers say where it i 
DOW? H. G. C. 


xi. 408, 457.) A servant of ours, who remainec 
with us for the respectable period of twenty-thre< 
years, never cleaned his plate nor rubbed a ma 
hogany table without a very decided exhibition o 
the sound in question. HERMENTRUDE. 

c. xxvi. (5 th S. xi. 148, 190, 351.) I am fairly 
well acquainted with the writings of Solinus, but 
fail to find in them any mention of Ulysses having 
" perished whilst navigating the sea." His only 
important notice of Ulysses, so far as I can gather, 
is in the twenty-sixth chapter of his history, where 
he speaks of a promontory called after his name 
and .of a city built by him. " In Lusitania pro- 
montorium est, quod alii Artabrum, alii Ulyssip- 
ponense dicunt. . . . Ibi oppidum Ulyssippo, ab 
Ulysse conditum." I may have overlooked the 
passage, although I have taken a good deal oi 
pains to verify it. Will B. D. M. be good enough 
to point me to it ? EDMUND TEW, M. A. 

Patching Rectory, Worthing. 

LOCAL TOASTS (5 th S. x. 513 ; xi. 75.)" Horn, 
corn, wool, and yarn," is an agricultural toast, 
formerly proposed at all farming and other dinners 
in North Britain. The last occasion on which I 
heard the toast given was at a circuit dinner at 
Stirling, in 1856, when it was proposed by the 
presiding judge, the late Lord Justice Clerk Hope. 
His lordship, a scion of the Hopetoun family, was 
very punctilious as to proposing proper toasts, 
holding himself, as a justiciary judge, to be the 
representative of the sovereign. In this semi- 
royal capacity he was not only careful in toast- 
giving, but he claimed the exclusive right of pro- 
posing toasts. On one occasion the chief magis- 
trate of Stirling inadvertently transgressed by 
proposing his lordship's health. All rose to their 
feet, when the judge interrupted. " Stop," said 
he, with emphasis, " the toast is ' Good night.' " 
So saying he left the chair, dissolving the party. 

A common toast in the North was " Honest men 
and bonnie lasses." The late Dr. George Cook, 
of St. Andrew's, church historian and philosopher, 
related the following anecdote : Early in his 
ministry he was invited to preach in the town of 
Brechin, with a view to his being appointed to 
one of the parochial charges. Of the particular 
cure the Town Council were patrons, and the 

doctor was, on the Saturday preceding the day on 
which he was to preach, invited by the provost to 
meet the councillors at dinner. These were the 
days of toast-giving, every one being expressly called 
on in his turn to propose one. Wishing entirely 
to avoid politics, the doctor proposed the toast I 
have named. When the Town Council met a few 
days afterwards to consider as to his election, one 
member successfully objected. "We must not 
have a minister," said he, "who drinks to the 
lasses on the Saturday nicht." The toast had 
probably been innocuous if proposed on Friday or 

Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill, S.E. 

GENERAL THANKSGIVING, 1759 (5 th S. xi. 447.) 
This was Thursday, Nov. 29, and was appointed 
on receipt of the news of the fall of Quebec. The 
lord mayor and aldermen, &c., were introduced to 
the king by Mr. Secretary Pitt on Oct. 20, and an 
address of congratulation presented on the recent 
successes : 

" The reduction of Fort du Quesne on the Ohio ; of the 
Isle of Goree ; of Guadaloupe ; the victory of Minden ; 
the taking of Niagara, Ticonderoga, and Crown-point ; 
the victory off Cape Lagos ; the advantages over the 
French in the East Indies ; and, above all, the conquest 
of Quebec." 

For various addresses on the subject, see the 
Annual Register; for the heads of the royal pro- 
clamation, dated Oct. 26, see Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, xxix. 49G ; and for notices of sermons preached 
on the day of thanksgiving, see same vol., p. 603, 
and London Magazine, xxviii. 679. John Wesley 
in his Journal says that the day was generally 
observed with the solemnity of a fast. The oldest 
man in England had not seen a Thanksgiving day 
so observed before. Several books, such as British 
Chronologist, 1789, and the Chronological His- 
torian, 1826, erroneously give the date of the thanks- 
giving as the 30th in place of the 29th November. 


" THE CONFESSIONAL " (5 th S. xi. 427.; I have 
an engraving representing the same subject, but 
smaller. Underneath is " E. Hemskyrke, pinx." : 

" Betwixt a subtile priest and a cursed Wife 

I 'm plagu'd for my transgression, 
The two great Follyes of my life 
Is Marriage and Confession." 

J. S. 
Lowbourne, Melksham, Wilts. 

[MR. F. REDE FOWKE gives the same information, 
dding that the engraver was I. Beckett. ] 

ANCIENT FINES (5 th S. xi. 368.) " Maiden 
ents." See the articles " Amabyr," " Chevage," 
' Marchet," in Blount's Law Dictionary. As this 

custom " existed " in honour of Clun till such 
ime as Henry, Earl of Arundel, by his deed dated 
It. Aug., 3 & 4 Phil. & Mar., in consideration 
f 601, released it to all his tenants there," we 



[5"> S. XII. JULY 5, 79. 

may safely conclude that this very ancient custom 
was suffered to fall into general disuse during the 
sixteenth century. BOILEAU. 

OR "SLADE" (5 th S. xi. 348, 495.) 
There are many places called " slades " in Devon- 
shire, always narrow dells or little valleys, and 
consequently verdant, e.g., Slattenslade, near Parra- 
combe. 0. 

JAMES WRIGHT (5 th S. xi. 349), one of the 
grooms of the king's bedchamber, was knighted 
July 3, 1766, on being appointed his Majesty's 
Resident at the republic of Venice. Sir James 
Wright, Kt., of Woodford, Essex, Eesident at 
Venice, was created a baronet Sept. 19, 1772. In 
the interleaved copy of Betham's B-ironetage, 
vol. iii. p. 399, Rev. William Betham has made 
a note : "Near Woodford Bridge is a patent 
manufactory of artificial slate, belonging to Sir 
James Wright, Bart. Archbishop Moore's first 
wife was the sister of the late Sir James Wright, 
Bart., Resident at Venice." Sir James Wright is 
said to have died about 1786, but I can find no 
account of him in any of the baronetages which I 
have down here. L. L. H. 

St. Leonards. 

The following extracts are from Kearsley's 
Peerage, 1804 : "Wright, James, Ray-house, Essex, 
Dec. 5, 1772 " (List of Baronets, p. 721) ; "Wright, 
Sampson, 1783" (List of Knights, p. 731); 
" Wright, James, July 3, 1766, Bart." (Ibid.}. 

H. G. C. 


STERDAM, 1669 (5 th S. xi. 409.) I bought my 
copy, a good one and well bound, in London, 
about two years ago, for lls. I should say about 
15s. is the value. H. J. A. 

"MORMOS" (5 th S. xi. 427.) The word is 
Greek. " Mop/xw, a hideous she-monster used by 
nurses to frighten children with, like the mania 
of the Romans. An exclamation used also to 
frighten children, e.g., fjLop/Juo, SaKvet UTTTOS, 'Boh ! 
the horse bites ! ' Theocritus, 15, 40 " (Liddell and 
Scott). Mormo does not seem to have been 
adopted into classical Latin. It occurs, however, 
here and again in old English writers, as, "One 
would think by this play the devils were mere 
mormos and bugbears, fit only to frighten children 
and fools " (Collier's Short View, &c., ed. 1698, 
p. 192, quoted by Halliwell). " But to have been 
sick of the fright, to have lavished our constancy, 
courage, conscience, and all, in Indian sacrifice to 
a sprite or mormo, ne nocent " (Hammond, Works 
iv. 577, cited by Richardson). Mormo is ex- 
plained by Bailey, ed. 1731, "A bugbear, hob- 
goblin, raw-head and bloody bones"; by Johnson 
" Bugbear, false terror." ZERO. 

THE MONITOR OR BACKBOARD (5 th S. xi. 387.) 
' was at " a school for young gentlemen." kept by 

i mistress with female assistants, from 1833 to 
837, and there I saw the backboard frequently in 

use, usually I think along with the " stocks," by 

which was meant an instrument for confining the 
eet, and forcing them back as nearly as possible 
nto a straight line. The mistress of the school 

was anything but a cruel person, but to stand in 
he " stocks " with one's arms behind a backboard 

was a punishment often inflicted. I rather think 
! underwent it myself. C. T. B. 

About thirty-eight years ago I was a thin, weak- 
chested school-boy, and had almost outgrown my 
strength. My schoolmaster, who rather prided 
limself on the carriage of the majority of his pupils, 
took me in hand, and for a certain period each day 
'or some time I was tortured by the above. And 
[ believe it was more the dislike I bore to the 
'board" than anything else that made me try 
to hold myself straight. L. P. 

GOOD FRIDAY " MARBLE DAY " (5 th S. xi. 427.) 
I always wondered why so many people in the 
ountry districts of Sussex should devote them- 
selves to marbles on Good Friday, till I discovered 
that the marble season is strictly defined between 
Ash Wednesday and Good Friday ; and on the 
last day of the season it seems to be the object of 
every man and boy to play marbles as much as 
possible : they will play in the road at the church 
gate till the last moment before service, and begin 
again the instant they are out of church. There is 
evidently a custom besides a pastime in the case. 
Persons play at marbles on Good Friday whc- 
would never think of playing on any other day ; 
and it seems moreover to be regarded as an amuse- 
ment permissible on a holy day. Is it possible 
that it was appointed as a Lenten sport, to keep 
people from more boisterous and mischievous 
enjoyments? W. D. PARISH. 

The Vicarage, Selmestor. 

POST DAYS (5 th S. xi. 485.) DR. HYDE CLARKE 
says, "Before penny postage, Tuesdays and Fridays 
had been the foreign post days," which implies that 
the establishment of a daily foreign mail took place 
about the same time as the introduction of the 
penny post. This is, however, a mistake. The 
penny post began on January 10, 1840. I do not 
remember when the alteration in the foreign mail* 
was made, but it did not take place till four or 
five years after that. F. N. 

(OR NEW YEAR'S) MORNING (5 th S. x. 483 ; xi. 
52.) As in Edinburgh, so in Cheshire it is con- 
sidered unlucky for a light-haired person to " let in 
the new year." When I lived in Mobberley there 
were two men with very black hair, who, year after 

6"> S. XII. JULY 5, 79.] 



year, made a practice of going round to the different 
houses very early in the morning, knocking up the 
inmates, and wishing them " A happy new year." 
I presume they got some little acknowledgment 
for thus bringing luck at any rate, from " the 
better end of folk"; and I think, but am not 
positive, that there are dark men in other villages 
who hold the same important office. 

Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

Under this head, and under the head of 
" Wesley Bob " (5 th S. xi. 25), no reference, so 
far as I can see, has been made, either in " N. & Q." 
or in Mr. Thiselton Dyer's book, to several notes, 
headed " Lucky Bird " and " Vessel Cup Girls," 
which were contributed to " N. & Q." three or four 
years ago by others and by A. J. M. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. :xi. 509.) 

The Frenchman and the Ratt. This recitation will be 
found in The Excelsior Reciter, published by Nicholson 
& Son, \Vakefield. WILLIAM TEGG, F.R.H.S. 

(5"> S. xi. 479, 519.) 

M. P. is assuredly mistaken in attributing (5 th S. xi. 519) 
Love Not to Mrs. Hemans. It would be interesting to 
know in what edition of her works it appears ; also, upon 
what authority. It certainly does not appear in my 
edition ; but another poem may be intended, similarly 
entitled. Of course I mean the lyric, " Love not, love 
not, ye hapless sons of clay ! " the music of which I have 
before me, composed by John Blockley, the song being 
described as, " Love Not, a Ballad, the Poetry selected 
from the Sorroios of Rosalie, written by the Hon. Mrs. 
Norton, and published by her exclusive permission." 

T. L. A. 


Memorial* of the Discovery and Karly Settlement of the 
Bermudas or Somers Inlands, 1511-1687. By Lieut. - 
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., K.C.M.G., sometime 
Governor of the Bermudas. Vol. II. 1650-87. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

CONSIDERING the number and importance of our colonies 
in the West Indies, and the intimacy of their relations 
with the mother country, it is surprising that so little 
should be known of their history in England. This re- 
proach, however, to English literature would soon be 
removed if every colonial governor made the same use of 
his opportunities as Sir John Lefroy did, when he was 
Governor of the Bermudas, for he employed his leisure in 
collecting every record bearing upon the early history of 
the colony which could be found in the local Registry or 
in the State Paper Office, and he induced the colonial 
legislature to provide for the expense of their publication. 
His first volume appeared in 1877, and was noticed in our 
number of August 18 in that year. The present volume 
continues the history of the colony down to 1687, when 
the first assembly of the legislature was held after the 
Crown had taken possession of Bermuda on the forfeiture 
of the charter of the Bermuda Company. The General 
Assembly of 1684 was chosen from thirty-one families, 
and it is a striking proof of the permanency of Bermuda 
society that ten of the same names are to be found in 
the present House of Assembly, and as many more are 
borne by existing families of native gentry. The volume 

abounds with illustrations of men and manners of the 
seventeenth century, some of which are of more than 
local interest. For example, the colonial governor made 
no difficulty in granting divorces, and the process in 1654 
was as follows : Katherine Wilson disclaimed her late 
husband Thomas Wilson with his own consent by bill of 
divorcement, to which she set her mark in the presence 
of the colonial secretary on July 3, 1654; Thomas Wilson 
in the same manner disclaimed his wife for her unfaith- 
fulness on Nov. 9, 1654, and Governor Forster certified 
the divorce on Nov. 15, 1654. Governor Seymour was 
still less scrupulous, for Sept. 16, 1663, he annulled the 
marriage which had taken place in 1645 between Jane 
Grimsditch and John Wells, in order that her bisjamous 
marriage with a person named Miller might be made 
valid. During the same period witches were persecuted 
and tortured with revolting cruelty, and Quakers were 
heavily fined or transported from the island in 1672. Sir 
John has discovered in the Dyce Library at South 
Kensington fresh proofs that Shakspeare's play of The 
Tempest was suggested by the shipwreck of Sir George 
Somers, in a unique " tract by R. Rich, Soldier," and in 
a " Funeral Song on the Death of Henry, Prince of Wales." 
He also shows that the tradition of Waller the poet's 
visit to Bermuda is without a shadow of foundation, for 
his poem The Baltetl of the Summer Islands was published 
in 1645, and he was only released from the Tower in 
Nov., 1644, which leaves no time for such a journey. 
The wills of Nathaniel White, the chaplain of the Ber- 
muda Company in 1668, and of Richard Norwood, the 
schoolmaster, in 1675, contain bequests of books which 
point to a high standard of theological learning, and it 
would scarcely have been expected that the Summa of 
St. Thomas Aquinas would be left as a " precious " 
legacy by one Puritanical minister to another. The 
Memorials conclude in 1687, for Sir John Lefroy has 
left the modern history of the Crown colony to be written 
by a younger pen. It is full of incident, for Bishop 
Berkeley's benevolent proposal in 1725 to found a college 
in Bermuda for the supply of clergy to the Plantations, 
and the cause celiilre of Basham v. Lumley in 1829, 
attracted public attention to the fortunes of this sturdy 
little community in a remarkable degree. But whilst we 
shall rejoice to see Sir John Lefroy's hope fulfilled that 
some native of the islands will take up the history from 
the point at which he leaves it, we can scarcely hope for 
the Bermudas the singular good fortune of finding a 
second historian as diligent, conscientious, and well 
qualified as the author of the present Memorials. 

Personal and Professional Recollections. By the late 
Sir George Gilbert Scott, R.A. Edited by his Son, 
G. Gilbert Scott, F.S.A. (Sampson Low & Co.) 
THIS is a strange and rather painful book, and many of 
Sir Gilbert Scott's friends and admirers may wish that 
it had not been published ; but we suppose that was in- 
evitable. If Sir Gilbert had not written an account of 
his life, some one else would certainly have done so for 
him, and the taste shown in the short introduction pre- 
fixed to his own work warns us what the alternative 
might have been. The early part of the book is taken 
up with domestic matters, which are not of much general 
interest, and the remainder is rather an apology than 
an autobiography. Sir Gilbert was a man of many con- 
troversies, and he sometimes shows such an over-anxiety 
to put his own statement of the matter clearly before the 
world, that those who now only know his version of a 
matter may be led to suppose that there is more to be 
said on the other side than probably is the case. In 
most of his controversies he was more often right than 
his adversaries, and especially in the greatest of them 
that about the New Goverment Offices in Whitehall no 


[5 th S. XII. JULY 5, 79. 

unprejudiced man can blame him for acting as lie did. 
The conspiracy for we can call it nothing else which 
was got up against him in that matter, and in which 
several men high in office were implicated, is a striking 
example of the degradation that accompanies archi- 
tectural competitions. Who, by-the-bye, in this con- 
nexion was Mr. B. ? If things such as Scott has here de- 
scribed took place in a great Government competition, 
the scandals which so often turn up about municipal 
works are not to be wondered at. Sir Gilbert's criticism 
of his contemporaries is at least amusing to those who 
are not criticized, and it is generally fair ; but how far 
the survivors of the victims will relish being thus publicly 
dissected is a question we do not pretend to answer. A 
great deal is told us of the alterations carried out under 
Sir Gilbert's directions in many cathedrals and other 
important old churches. There is much in these altera- 
tions which we hold to be deplorable ; but before passing 
an unqualified condemnation on the architect, we should 
consider how much worse matters might have been, and 
probably would have been, in other hands. Little as we 
like what Scott has done in those cathedrals that were 
placed in his charge, we must admit that they are gener- 
ally less injured than those which have been " restored " 
by others. But, if it has effected no other end, this book 
will show posterity what a very queer thing " conservative 
restoration " was in the third quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Mr. Scott has done his work as editor with 
sound judgment and good taste ; we only wish that he 
had kept the writing of the introduction in his own 

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. By Eminent 
Writers, English and Foreign. Edited by George 
Grove, D.C.L. (Macmillan & Co.) 
Six parts, forming the first volume of this work, are now 
published, and we are therefore in a position to speak of 
its value as a book of reference. There are, of course, 
numerous errors and omissions, but it is proposed to 
remedy these blemishes in an Appendix. The majority 
of the articles are ably written, and supply information 
which may be sought in vain in any other work. There 
is, however, a regretable feature in some of the bio- 
graphies, which should have been avoided ; we refer to 
the exhibition of bias or prejudice on the part of indi- 
vidual writers : it is true they sign their articles, and 
therefore take the responsibility of their opinions on 
their own heads, but what they write has the implied 
approval of the editor. It is not just to describe 
Hummel as a "dull classic," particularly as the writer 
of the article appears to have but a limited acquaintance 
with the composer's works, and does not even mention 
his famous Pianoforte Concerto in A flat. Dr. Chrysander, 
it is said, is " a declared opponent of all modern music," 
a statement most strenuously denied by the Doctor him- 
self. The Appendix will provide a remedy for an omitted 
date or an incorrect quotation, but it will scarcely be 
possible to make amends on those points to which we 
have more particularly taken exception. 

Shakspeare's Debt to the Bible. With Memorial Illus- 
trations. By the Rev. Charles Bullock. (Hand and 
Heart Publishing Office.) 

THE Rev. Mr. Bullock's little book is almost a work of 
supererogation, for besides Bible Truths and Shalc- 
spearian Parallels, by Mr. J. R. Selkirk, which has 
already gone through three editions at least, we have on 
the same subject the yet more exhaustive book, by the 
Bishop of St. Andrews, On Shakspeare s Knowledge and 
Use of the Bible. Bp. Wordsworth tells us in his preface, 
" ' The Bible and Shakspeare,' said one of the best and 
most esteemed prelates that ever sat upon the English 
bench, Dr. John Sharp, in the reign of Queen Anne 

'the Bible and Shakspeare have made me Archbishop 
of York.' " 

Fraser's Magazine, the old literary home of Maginn and 
Father Prout, of Delta and of Thackeray, and of many 
another whose name is writ in the Temple of Fame, enters 
upon a new life in its July issue, the five hundred and 
ninety-fifth from the date of its first publication. With 
the author of Lorna Doone as its novelist, with Principal 
Shairp for its analyst of " Shelley as a Lyric Poet," with 
" Shirley " as its critic of Bibliomania, and with Principal 
Tulloch at once as historian of its brilliant past and 
expounder of its promising future, and as its editor in. 
that future, we may safely predict the crown of a long 
and useful life for Regina. 

A Catalogue of Books, MSS , Letters, &c., belonging 
to the Dutch Church, Austin Friars. Only 100 copies 
of this interesting volume have been printed for 
private distribution by the Consistory of the Dutch 
Church. The books and MSS. therein described form 
the library (founded in 1650) of the Dutch community 
of Austin Friars. In 1866 the whole of the collection 
was completely transferred to the keeping of the Library 
Committee of the Corporation of London, and may now 
be consulted at the Guildhall. The books include a use- 
ful collection of seventeenth century theology, with 
many rare English translations; and among the MSS> 
are to be found original letters of William of Orange, 
Philip Marnix, Abraham Ortelius, J. Scalisjer, Mercator, 
Peiresc, Camden, Lord Burleigh, Walsingham, Bacon, &c.^ 
with letters from the bishops and lord mayors of London, 
and ministers of foreign churches in England and abroad. 
The compilation of the catalogue is due to Mr. W. H. 
Overall, who has been assisted by Mr. C. Welch and 
Mr. W. Brace. 

$0ttre ta Camtfjiontonte. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

E. B. (" Hogarth's ' Laughing Audience ' "). It was 
last heard of as having been sold at Mr. G. Watson 
Taylor's sale in 1832. You will find a great deal of infor- 
mation in the Catalogue of Satirical Prints in the British 
Museum, No. 1949. 

"THE HAUNTED HOUSE" (5"> S. xi. 520.) ME. ED- 
WARD H. MARSHALL writes :" May I be excused for 
venturing to correct an editorial note 1 The painter of 
the " Haunted House " engraved, as have been many 
other of his works, in the Illustrated London News ia 
not Mr. G. Read, but Mr. Samuel Read." 

W. C. The reference has been given before ; see 5" 1 
S. x. 53. 

INQUIRER (" Broad Arrow "). See " N. & Q.," 4 th S. 
ii. 415, 500; x. 332, 476. 

FAMA. Anticipated, see ante, p. 17. 

W. J. LINTON. See 5 th S. xi. 457. 

F. S. H. Yes. 

ERRATUM. 5 tf > S. xi. 502, last line of first paragraph, 
for " Rev. J. T. Dredge," read J. I. Dredge. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

' S. XII. JUIY 12, 79.] 





NOTES: The Abbacy of Carobuskenneth, 21 Irish Parlia- 
ments, 22 Shakspeariana, 23 Hundred "Romish," "Ro- 
manist,' ' 24 Enlightening Public Opinion Hireling 
Preachers Horn Fair Ann Lyne, 25 Envelopes Scott's 
Motto to Lovel's Dream in the Green Room Christian Names 
Curious Baptismal Entry Parallel Passage Luther, 2tj. 

QUERIES : Toastmasters, 20 Who was Basawa? -Redcoats 
Guy de Beauchamp Philip Henry's Diaries, &c. Yew= 
Ebble The "Saturday Review" St. Bartholomew " Sil- 
vester Tramper" Mary, Daughter of the sixth Lord Chandos 
Crest of the Sextons of London, 27 fales by Auction The 
Farthing Pie House Fr. Garthside " A jamoda " Curious 
Old Book The "Pictorial Times" Heraldic Dates of 
Children's Games Arms of Austria A Cresset Stone 
Battle of Waterloo, 28 "Dead as Chelsea "Visitation of 
Staffordshire Assuming Arms Jerningham Family 
" Talented " Madame Roland T. or J. Erakine Authors 
Wanted, 29. 

REPLIES : The De Laune Family. 29 Fielding the Novelist, 
30 Sidemen A " Knotting-bag " "Specimen of a New 
Jest Book," Ac., 31 The " Kaleidoscope" Bishops' Wives 
The Comma as a Note of Elision Maleheire Arms- 
Marshal Bliicher Harvey Family. 32 Earls of Cornwall 
First Cousin Marriages Henson Family-^Dated Book-Plates 

[ "Mary Magdalen's Complaint," Ac. Nine Points of the 
Law " Sippet," 33 Somersetshire Meteorological Notes 
Latimer's Church " Dilamgerbendi Insula,'' 34 RootCat 
" Hodie mihi,' 1 &c. Showers of Sulphur " Blooming " 
Anglo-Saxon Coins Severe Winters Ploughing by the 

1 Horse's Tail. 35 Pope and his Quarrels Charlemagne, 36 
"Cuck": "Cock" Flour Mills "The Deil's Reply," &c. 
"Embezzle" Scotia Asparagus School in the Parvise 
Burial at Night The Cuckoo Landeg Family A few Idle 
Words "Goal"- Gaol Tradesmen's Tokens Count Street 
Bolles Pedigree Yankee, 3S-Parish Documents, 80. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Bishop Benson's "The Cathedral" 
Woolsey's "Introduction to the Study of International 
Law" Storr'g Gray and Milton Stevens and Morris's 
Cowper and Coleridge" Memories : a Life's Epilogue. ' 

When so much has been recently said and is now 
being said respecting the Roman Church, it may be 
well to place in the columns of " N. & Q." a few par- 
ticulars respecting this abbacy, which show to what 
an enormous extent of wealth it attained. They 
are extracted from a very interesting and somewhat 
rare book, entitled A General History of Stirling- 
shire, by William-.Nimmo, Minister of Bothkennar, 
Edin., 1777, 8 vo.: 

" Sect. VI. The Abbacy of Cambuskenneth. In 1124 
David I., the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore, mounted 
the Scottish throne, which had been successively occupied 
by three of his brothers before him. To him we are 
indebted for that system of laws which, from the two 
first words of it, goes by the name of Regiam Majestalem, 
Four bishoprics, eleven abbacies, two monasteries, be- 
sides sundry small religious fabrics, owed their founda- 
tions and first endowments to this prince's mistaken 
notions of piety; and in testimony of gratitude the 
clergy, who found their interest so much advanced by 
the liberality of the sovereign, distinguished him by the 
title of St. David. 

" Cambuskenneth, which, in process of time, became 
one of the most opulent and stately of the Scottish 
abbacies, was founded by that monarch in 1147. The 
situation about half a mile from Stirling was both 
pleasant and convenient, in the midst of a fertile country, 

where the community could be supplied with all sorts of 
provisions, as grain of every kind, coal, and plenty of 
fish from the neighbouring river. As soon as the house 
was fit to receive inhabitants, it was planted with a com- 
pany of monks, or canons regular, who were translated 
from Aroise, near to Arras, in the province of Artoise, 
in France ; they were of that order who observed the 
rules of St. Augustine, an order afterwards so numerous 
in Scotland as to possess no less than twenty-eight 
monasteries in the king<iom (Keitli on Religious Houses). 
[The original charter is given.] Besides the subjects 
mentioned in the original charter, King David made 
sundry other considerable donations to the monastery. 
He conveyed a grant of the church of Clackmannan, 
with forty acres of land, and the priests' croft near that 
church; as also of a toft at Stirling, and another at Lin- 
lithgow ; together with the tenth of all the sums duly 
payable for obtaining decreets in the courts of Stirling- 
shire and Calendar. At another time he bestowed the 
farm of Kettleston, near Linlithgow, together with the 
lands of Malar, near Touch, and certain privileges in the 
wood of Keltor, now known by the name of the Torwood. 
"The original charter was confirmed by sundry suc- 
ceeding monarchs, with the addition of other lands and 
privileges. Large donations were also made by private 
persons, insomuch that, in a short time, the endowments 
of this erection became very great. Some of these dona- 
tions bear that they were granted in puram eleemosynam ; 
others that they were made -pro salute animce of the 

" Bulls were also obtained from sundry Popes, pro- 
tecting the churches, lands, and other privileges belong- 
ing to the monastery, and prohibiting, under pain of 
excommunication, all persons whatsoever from with- 
holding from the Canons any of their juat rights, or 
disturbing them in the possession of them. The most 
curious of these bulls is that of Pope Celestine III., dated 
May, 1195, as it enumerates the possessions and immu- 
nities of the monastery at that time. [Some particulars 
or extracts are given.] 

" The bull likewise protects to the monastery the tithes 
of all the lands which the monks should cultivate with 
their own hand?, or which should be cultivated at the 
expense of the community; as also the tithes of all the 
beasts reared upon the pastures of the community ; and 
inhibits all persons from exacting these tithes. It more- 
over grants to the community the privilege of performing 
divine service with a low voice and shut doors, without 
ringing bells, in case of a national interdict. 

" Another bull of protection was granted by Innocent 
III. in 1201, in which, sundry parcels of land at Inner- 
keithing, Duneglin, and Ayr are mentioned, which had 
been conferred upon the monastery since the bull of 
Celestine. During the space of two hundred years after 
its erection, the monastery was almost every year ac- 
quiring fresh additions of wealth and power by donations 
of land, tithes, patronages of churches, and annuities, 
proceeding from the liberality of Kings, noblemen, 
bishops, and barons, besides many rich oblations which 
were daily made by persons of every rank. 

" From the middle of the fifteenth century there ap- 
pears a visible decline of that spirit of liberality to those 
religious establishments which, in preceding ages, had 
been so vigorously exerted by all ranks. Donations be- 
came less frequent, arid the immense possessions which 
cathedrals and monasteries had acquired began to be 
considered as public burdens, and that not without cause, 
for near the one halt' of Scotland was in possession of 

" Several proprietors of land began to withhold pay- 
ment of the tithes due out of their estates till they were 
prosecuted, and decreets were obtained against them in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. xn. JWT 12, '79. 

the civil courts. John, Lord Fleming, Chamberlain o\ 
Scotland under the regency of the Duke of Albany, in 
the minority of James V., relying, no doubt, upon his 
great power and influence, withheld for seven years 
payment of the tithes of his lands in Kirkintilloch, which 
amounted to thirty-three bolls of meal and three bolls of 
barley yearly. He was prosecuted at the instance of the 
community in 1523, and made a composition for bygone 
arrears at the rate of eight shillings four pennies Scots 
per boll. Much about the same time the feuers and 
tenants of Kilmarnock were prosecuted for the tithes of 
their lands, which amounted to a large quantity of 
victual yearly (Chartulary). 

"Two priories belonged to the abbacy that of Insula 
Sancti Colmoci, situated upon a small island in the loch 
of Monteith in Perthshire, and that of Rosneath, in the 
shire of Dumbarton. 

" Much civil as well as sacred business was transacted 
in religious houses. In 1308 Sir Kiel Campbell, Sir 
Gilbert Hay, with other barons, having met at Cambus- 
kenneth, entered into an association to defend the liberty 
of their country, and the title of Robert Bruce to the 
crown, against all enemies of whatever nation ; to which 
they not only affixed their subscriptions and seals, but 
swore upon the great altar. 

" The Scottish kings transacted business almost as 
often in monasteries as in palaces. Many charters are 
still extant which were granted by different sovereigns 
at Cambuskenneth ; it was also the place of meeting of 
sundry conventions of parliaments. In 1326 the whole 
clergy, earls, and barons, with a great number of an 
inferior rank, having convened in the abbacy, swore 
fealty to David Bruce, as heir apparent to the crown, in 
presence of Robert his father, &c. 

" During the wars with England, in the reign of David 
Bruce, the monastery was pillaged of all its most valu- 
able furniture. The books, vestments, cups, and orna- 
ments of the altar were carried off. In order to the 
reparation of that loss, William Delandel, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, made a grant to the community of the vicar- 
age of Clackmannan (Chartulary). 

" In 1559 the monastery was spoiled, and a great part 
of the fabric cast down by the reformers, who, though 
their views were laudable, yet in several instances pro- 
ceeded to the execution of them in a tumultuous manner 
a circumstance almost unavoidable in every revolution. 
Several of the monks embraced the reformation, but, on 
that account, had their portions prohibited by the Queen- 
regent (Spottisu-ood, Knox). 

" Monasteries were places of such general resort that 
they were often the stage of mercantile transactions as 
well as of those that were sacred. The great concourse 
of people that usually assembled around religious houses 
upon holy days required provisions for their refreshment. 
This suggested the idea of a gainful trade to traffickers, 
who repaired thither, not only with victuals and drink, 
but also brought along with them different articles of 
merchandise, which they disposed of amongst the crowd. 
This was the original of fairs. Hence feria, which ori- 
ginally signified a festival, came also to signify a fair ; 
and the old fairs have generally their name from some 
saint, near who e festival they were held. 

" Lands once belonging to the Abbacy of Cambus- 
kenneth. [An enumeration of twenty-seven different 
properties or lots is given.] 

" Churches which, with their tithes and pertinents, 
belonged to it. [A list of fifteen is given. ] The patron- 
age of many of these churches likewise belonged to the 
abbacy. When a church was granted to a monastery, 
the community drew all the tithes and other emoluments, 
and appointed a vicar to serve the cure, who had an 
allowance out of the small tithes for his maintenance. 

It appears, however, that often there was no worship ia 
these churches at all. 

" Privileges and other casualties belonging to the 
monastery. [Twenty-two are enumerated.] The monas- 
tery of Cambuskenneth had a strong spur to agriculture, 
which, in all probability, extended likewise to other 
religious communities. The lands which they rendered 
arable at their own expense were exempted from paying 
tithes to any cathedral or parish church. Add to this, 
that church-lands were generally let at moderate rents-' 
to tenants who -were seldom ejected when the lease 
expired, but received a new one. These tenants meeting 
with so great encouragement, and, moreover, being 
exempted from military services, and other burdens to 
which the tenants of laymen were subjected, applied 
themselves to the cultivation of their farms, of which 
they considered themselves as in some manner pro- 

" Several abbots conformed to the reformed reli- 
gion, and kept possession of their revenues; nor were 
those who did not conform immediately ejected, but 
continued to enjoy some parts of the benefice during 
life, if they did not incur a forfeiture for misdemeanours. 
At the death or forfeiture of the abbots, the possessions 
which pertained to them were, for the most part, either 
bestowed in pensions upon favourites at court, or erected 
into temporal lordships. The private monks had also 
an allotment during life, which was often so ill paid 
that many of them were reduced to great want." 



I shall be glad to be referred to a history or 
historical record of the Irish Parliament from its 
commencement, or from any later period, to the 
close of 1800, when it ceased to exist as a separate 
legislative body. By the fourth article of the 
Articles of Union between Great Britain and Ire- 
land it was enacted, inter alia, that 

" One hundred commoners (two for each county of 
Ireland, two for the city of Cork, two for the city of 
Dublin, one for the University of Trinity College, and 
one for each of the thirty-one most considerable cities, 
towns, and boroughs) should be the number to sit and. 
vote on the part of Ireland in the House of Commons of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland." 

The names of these " thirty-one most consider- 
able cities, towns, and boroughs" are not enumerated 
either in the Articles of Union, which are embodied 
in the Statute Book as 39 & 40 Geo. III., cap. 67, 
or in the Acts and Statutes passed by the Irish 
Parliament, but we know that the following were 
selected : Belfast, Carrickfergus, Lisburn, Armagh,. 
Catherlogh [Carlow], Ennis, Youghal, Bandon- 
bridge, Kinsale, Mallow, Newry, Downpatrick, 
Enniskillen, Gal way, Tralee, Kilkenny, Limerick, 
Londonderry, Coleraine, Drogheda, Dundalk, Port- 
arlington, Sligo, Clonmel, Cashel, Dungannon, 
Waterford, Dungarvan, Athlone, Wexford, New 

Can any one state (1) by what authority these 
corporations were selected for the privilege of 
returning members to the Imperial Parliament out 
of the large number of cities and boroughs which 
returned members to the Irish House of Commons,, 

5th s. XII. JULY 12, '79.] 


and (2) in what manner the representatives sent 
from Ireland to the House of Commons of the 
Imperial Parliament, at its first meeting on 
January 22, 1801, were elected or nominated I 
Neither the English nor the Irish Parliament 
appears to have been dissolved for the purpose. By 
a royal proclamation dated November 5, 1800, the 
members of the existing Parliament of Great 
Britain were declared to be the members of the 
respective Houses of the first Parliament of Great 
Britain and Ireland on the part of Great Britain, 
but I have been unable to ascertain how the changes 
in regard to the Irish portion of the representation 
were carried out. I imagined that the members of 
the existing Irish House of Commons were also 
simply transferred from St. Stephen's Green to 
Westminster, the members for the discontinued 
boroughs only being turned off ; but, if this was 
so, how was the fusion effected in the case of the 
boroughs which returned two members to the Irish 
House, but which were limited to one member by 
the Act of Union ? 

A complete list of the members sent from 
Ireland to the first Imperial House of Commons 
may be worthy of a permanent record in "N. & Q." : 

Antrim Rt. Hon. John Staples, Edin. Alex. McNaghten. 

Belfast Edward May. 

Carrickfergus Noah Dalway. 

Lisburn George Hutton. 

A rmagh Hon. Archibald Acheson, Robert Camden Coke. 

Armagh City Patrick Duigenan, LL.D. 

Catherlogh [Carlow] Sir Richard Butler, Bart., William 


<Jatherlogh Town Hon. Henry Sadleir Prittie. 
Cavan Francis Saunderson, Nathaniel Sneyd. 
dare Hon. Francis N. Burton, Hugh Massy Dillon. 
Ennis John Ormsby Vandeleur. 

Cork Henry, Viscount Boyle, Robert Uniacke Fitzgerald. 
Youghal Sir John Keane, Bart. 
Bandonbridge Sir Brodrick Chinnery, Bart. 
Kin^ale William Rowley. 
Mallow John Longfield. 
Cork City Mountiford Longfield, Hon. John Hely- 

Donegal Henry Vaughan Brooke, Arthur Saunders, 

Viscount Sudley. 

Down Robert, .Viscount Castlereagh, Francis Savage. 
Down patrick Samuel Campbell Rowley. 
Newry John Moore. 

Dublin Hans Hamilton, Frederick John Falkiner. 
Dublin City John Claudius Beresford, Rt. Hon. George 


Dublin University Hon. George Knox, LL.D. 
Fermanagh John Willoughby, Viscount Cole, Mervyn 


Enniskillen Hon. Arthur Cole-Hamilton. 
Oalway Hon. Richard Trench, Richard Martin. 
Galway Town St. George Daly. 
Kerry Rt. Hon. Maurice Fitzgerald, James Crosbie. 
Tralee Arthur Moore. 

.Kildare Maurice B. St. Leger Keatinge, John Latouche. 
Kilkenny Hon. James Wandesford Butler, Rt. ^Hon. 

William Brabazon Ponsonby. 
Kilkenny City William Talbot. 
.King's County Sir Lawrence Parsons, Bart., Denis 

Bowes Daly. 

Leitrim Nathaniel, Lord Clements, Rt. Hon. Theophilus 


Limerick John Waller, William O'Bell. 
Limerick City Henry Deane Grady. 
Londonderry Hon. Charles William Stewart, Sir George 

Fitzgerald Hill, Bart. 
Coleraine Walter Jones. 
Londonderry City Henry Alexander. 
Longford Sir Thomas Fetherstone, Bart., Sir William 

George Newcomen, Bart. 

Louth Rt. Hon. John Foster, William Charles Fortescue. 
Drogheda Edward Hardman. 
Dundalk Vacant. 

Mayo Rt. Hon. Denis Browne, George Jackson. 
Meath Marcus Somerville, Hamilton Gorges. 
Monaghan Richard Dawson, Warner William Westenra. 
Queen's County Rt. Hon. William Wei lesley- Pole, Sir 

John Parnell, Bart. 
Portarliagton Frederic Trench. 
Roscommon Hon. Thomas Mahon, Arthur French. 
SUfjo Joshua Edward Cooper, Charles O'Hara. 
Sligo Town Owen Wynne. 
Tipperary James Francis, Viscount Mathew, John 


Cashel Richard Bagwell. 
Clonmel Vacant. 

Tyrone Somerset, Viscount Corry, James Stewart. 
Dungannon Sir Charles Hamilton, Bart. 
Waterford Rt. Hon. John Beresford, Richard Power. 
Dungarvan Edward Lee. 
Waterford City William Congreve Alcock. 
Westmeath Gustavus Hume Roehfort, William Smyth. 
Athlone William Handcock. 
Wexford John, Viscount Loftus, Abel Ram. 
New Ross Robert Leigh. 
Wexford Town Francis Leigh. 
Wicklow William Hoare Hume, George Ponsonby. 

" To MAKE A MAT*." 

" Were I in England now (as once I was), and had but 
this fish painted, not a holiday fool there but would give 
a piece of silver : there would this monster make a man,- 
any strange beast there makes a man : when they will 
not give a doit to relieve a lame beggar they will lay out 
ten to see a dead Indian." Tempest, ii. 2. 

I have not met with any explanation of this 
phrase. In my youth, to " make a man " meant 
in the West of England to endow him with wealth 
or honour. One who had obtained a valuable 
appointment, or who had come into the possession 
of a large amount of property, was said to be a 
" made ! ' man. The meaning of the passage seems 
to be that any strange beast there will bring a man 
much wealth. " Made " is used with a similar 
meaning in the following passages : 

" He hath given her his monumental ring, and thinks 
himself made in the unchaste composition." All 's Well, 
&c., iv. 3. 

" Go to : thou art made, if thou desirest to be so." 
Twelfth Night, iii. 4. 

" You 're a made old man ; if the sins of your youth are 
forgiven you, you 're well to live. Gold ! all gold ! " 
Winter's Tale, iii. 3. 

J. D. 

Belsize Square. 



THE CRUX OF SONNET cxvi. Several more or 
less unsatisfactory attempts have been made to 
remove the obvious corruption which mars the 
beauty of this fine sonnet : 

" Love is not love 

Which alters when it alteration finds, 
Or bends with the remover to remove. 
O, no ! it is an ever-fixed mark, 
That looks on tempests and is never shaken ; 
It is the star to every wandering bark, 
Whose worth 's unknown, although his height be taken." 

In the first edition of the sonnets the lust line 
stands : 
" Whose worth 's unknowne, although his hiyth be taken." 

I propose to transpose one letter, and read : 
" Whose worth 's unknown, although his hight be taken." 

Right I take to be a survival in substantive 
form of the old English verb hight, as used by 
Chaucer and revived by Spenser (Anglo-Saxon 
hatan). Coles's Dictionary, 1685, gives the word 
as still used in Cumberland, and defines it " to 
promise or vow," with a reference to the old trans- 
lation of Psalm cxvi. verse 14, which in the 
authorized translation reads : " I will pay my 
vows unto the Lord now in the presence of all his 
people." It is even possible that the word, like 
several other archaisms, may have survived as part 
of the technical maritime vocabulary. Captain 
John Smith, in his Generall Historie of Virginia, 
&c., Lond., 1626, writes : "The pilots about noone 
made themselves Southwards of the lies twelve 
leagues, and demanded of the Captaine their wine 
of hight as out of all danger.' 1 Spenser in one 
passage of the Fairy Queen seems to use the word 
in the sense of to command or direct : 

" But the sad steele seiz'd not where it was hitjht 
Upon the childe, but somewhat short did fall." 

V. xi. 8. 

I submit that hight supplies the necessary anti- 
thesis in the last line, and that the entire metaphor 
thus restored is not less congruous than many which 
occur in the sonnets. BIBLIOTHECARY. 

HUNDRED. Mr. Wedgwood explains the hund- 
in hundred " as a docked form of taihun, ten " ; 
the suffix -red being equivalent to A.-S. reed, with 
the sense of " rate." This is very nearly right, but 
we may approach a little closer still. The Gothic 
taihun-teliund, a hundred, is equivalent to ten- 
tenth, and hund is a docked form of tehund, tenth, 
the ordinal, not the cardinal number. It is equi- 
valent, in fact, to the -enth in tenth, and to the 
-ithe in tithe. It is worth noting that the word is 
similarly docked in other languages. Thus, Lat. 
centum is short for decentum, tenth, an old ordinal 
form from decent, ten ; the suffix -turn answering to 
E. -th by Grimm's law. Gk. e/carov is short for 
cvsKaroi/, where -KO.TOV is for Se/carov, tenth ; 
and ev is one. The Skt. fata, a hundred, also 
appears in the form dacati, lit. tenth, from dacan, 

ten. We also find Skt. dacat, meaning an aggre- 
gate of ten, a decade. The Lithuanian stimtas, a 
hundred, is short for deszimtas, tenth. It will be 
easily seen that there is not merely a docking of 
the form for tenth, but an absolute omission of the 
word ten as well. Thus the Latin centum really 
does duty for decem-decentum, and so on. It was 
a very pardonable abbreviation, and arose from 
dealing with large numbers. Thus the Gothic 
for 100 is taihuntehund, as above stated ; but 
the Gothic for 200 is simply twa hunda, a neut. 
plural form used as an abbreviation for twa taihun- 
tehunda, which was naturally found to be too long 
for practical purposes. The same abbreviation was 
used for any number of hundreds beyond the first. 
We thus get a complete solution of the word. Simi- 
larly the Gk. -KO.TOV really stands for ^e/ca^e/carov, 
and so on. There is a loss of three syllables, not 
of a single letter. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

" EOMISH," " ROMANIST," &c. I observe in 
" N. & Q." of June 14, on p. 474, that some one 
is said to have been buried "with Romish rites"; 
also, on p. 476, " Romanists in Mapledurham." 
I beg, in the interest of letters, to object to such 
language. " Romish " is neither English nor Ger- 
man. No one hears the emperors of the West 
called " Romish emperors." Nor do the personally 
conducted tours which we see advertised let us 
hope never to be seen otherwise arrive at 
" Romish " hotels. But " Riimisch " is German. 
And the German Lutheran word, mutilated and 
ill pronounced, was sent over here for the purpose 
of affronting Catholics. In that, notwithstanding 
the blundering and stupidity of its use, it has had 
a long and gracious success. Similarly " Ro- 
manist " is an English home coinage, translated 
from a Latin one " Romanensis." No one ever 
heard Horace or Cicero called a "Romanist." The 
word had, and has, the same purpose as " Romish," 
and some others. 

In " N. & Q." we meet as literary men, and, we 
can say with great truth, women. If I were to 
use a vocabulary as displeasing to the majority of 
readers as the words which I have quoted are 
displeasing to a large minority, I presume that my 
note would be rejected. I am avoiding any ap- 
pearance of reprisals ; they would be easily made. 
But my wish, and I think the general wish, is to 
see in " N. & Q." a complete abstinence from all 
terms giving offence to any one of the discordant 
elements of which English life, "literary men, 
general readers, &c.," is composed. D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

[Of our two correspondents to whose language D. P. 
objects, one has since departed < seculo, and the other, 
we feel sure, had no idea of giving offence. Romanensis 
= Romanist = member of the Roman Communion, and 
is therefore inapplicable to Horace or Cicero. Romish 
rites = rites of the Roman Church, and we are unable to 
see any other meaning in the phrase. ED.] 


the first Parliamentary Reform Bill it was neces- 
sary for the minister in power to take steps for 
enlightening public opinion, or what, in some 
cases, may be more correctly described as exciting 
it. Newspapers were few, and commanded no 
great amount of influence. They could not be 
altogether relied on to produce the effect desired. 
Such, at least, was the case during the French 
revolutionary war, when the younger Pitt was at 
the helm of affairs ; and I have not forgotten my 
mother telling me of what to the men of to-day 
must appear to be a strange expedient. She died, 
aged eighty-four, a few years since, and well 
remembered when she was a girl being surprised 
at discovering one Sunday morning, in the pews of 
her parish church, a description of the horrors of 
war as practised by the French troops during the 
repeated invasions of German territory. War 
being made to feed war by the Emperor Napoleon, 
even the non-combatants of invaded districts were 
shamefully plundered, and too often these outrages 
did not stop at the abstraction of property and the 
despoiling or destruction of dwellings. Some of 
the most heinous crimes of the military were de- 
scribed in forcible terms in the papers in question, 
which certainly had the intended effect on the 
mind of my venerable' informant at least, for to 
her dying day she always held in detestation 
soldiers in general, and French soldiers in par- 
ticular. The fact no doubt was that, as William Pitt 
found himself involved in a contest that taxed the 
country's ability to the utmost, the only way of 
reconciling the nation to the sacrifices that the war 
made necessary was to .excite in it a sentiment of 
hostility to the French as a people. To bring this 
about be devised the clever expedient of trans- 
mitting to every parish in the kingdom copies of a 
carefully prepared and highly coloured description 
of the military excesses of the French armies, just 
as the heads of the English Church sometimes 
transmit forms of prayer, though the latter, except 
in special cases, have to be paid for by those who 
desire to use them. That our ecclesiastical organi- 
zation should thus have been made available for 
the spread of political information is a curious fact, 
but I do not remember to have seen it stated in 
print. G. H. W. 


HIRELING PREACHERS. It may be worth 
making a note on this subject, as evidenced in a 
curious old pamphlet, a curate's letter addressed 
to the then Bishop of London. After narrating 
the details of his examination for ordination ; his 
rebuke to Dr. Hind ; his being " attested " with 
others " like a party of recruits for the foot- 
guards " ; his attendance at the king's chapel, " the 
fee of half-a-crown demanded for use of a dirty 
surplice " ; his being fleeced by the secretary for 

fees, and sent pennyless into the country " to 
preach the gospel of peace," a full description is 
given of the first ecclesiastical registry office, kept 
by a Mr. Hawkshaw, a tailor and parish clerk of 
Christ Church, Newgate Street. Then, after a 
conversation recited at length, the table of 
fees is given for London and Westminster, viz., 
reading and preaching, 10s. 6d., office fee, Is. ; 
preaching, 7s. 6d., fee, 9d. ; reading on Sundays, 
5s., fee, Gd. ; on week days, 2s. 6rf., fee, 3d. ; a 
burying, Is., fee, l\d. ; sick visit, Is., fee, ld. 
The office equipped some of the clergy for this, and 
this bishop is charged with supporting such in- 
stitutions, thereby " depriving honest curates of 
bread," and letting " a set of miscreants thrive." 
The date asserted is a few years previous to the 
publication of the tract, which is dated 1772. 


" Among the many trades or mysteries which in the 
early history of our country held a quasi- corporate 
existence for the protection of native industry, that of 
hornerg, or buyers of horns and manufacturers of horn 
wares, is one of the most ancient. Though we do riot 
find any special mention of this trade until the reign of 
King Henry III., it must have then become an im- 
portant branch of industry, for we find that that king in 
the fifty-third year of bis reign (A.D. 1268) granted an 
annual fair to Charlton, in Kent, for three days at the 
eve, the day, and morrow of the Trinity. The time for 
holding this fair was afterwards changed to St. Luke's 
Day (October 18th). Philipott, who wrote in 1659, speaks 
of this fair as kept yearly on that day, and called Horn 
Pair 'by reason of the great plenty of all sorts of winding 
horns and cups and other vessels of horn there bought 
and sold.' This fair, retaining the same name, continued 
until its abolition in 1872 under the provisions of the 
Pairs Abolition Acts (1871). It was formerly celebrated 
by a burlesque procession, which passed from Deptford, 
through Greenwich, to Charlton, each person wearing 
some ornament of horn upon his head. The procession 
has been discontinued since 1768. It is said to have 
owed its origin to a compulsive grant made by King John 
or some other of our kings when detected in an adventure 
of gallantry, being then resident at Eltham Palace. 

" In the reign of King Edward III. the Homers of the 
City of London, though not incorporated by charter, were 
classed among the forty-eight mysteries of the City. In 
the fiftieth year of that king's reign a controversy arose 
between the king and the Corporation as to whether the 
Common Council of the City was to be elected by the 
wards or the mysteries of the City. This led to an ordin- 
ance being made by the City, with the consent of the 
king, that the election was to be by the mysteries, pur- 
suant to which ordinance forty-eight mysteries deputed 
members to the Common Council ; the Homers, ranking 
in the third class, or smaller mysteries, were deputed to 
send two members." -City Press, July 2, 1879. 

H. Y. N. 

ANN LYNE. A short time since in " N. & Q." 
you gave lists of persons who in the reigns of Mary 
and Elizabeth suffered for their religion, such being 
extracted from a work entitled The History of the 
Gunpowder Plot, &c., by Jas. Caulfield, Lond., 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. xn. JULY 12, 79. 

1804. Ann Lyne is mentioned as having suf- 
fered at Tyburn in the year 1600. Especial 
mention is made of Ann Lyne in the State Papers, 
Domestic Series, years 1601-1603 (extract Flanders 
correspondence to Thos. Phelippes). I beg to for- 
ward the same, which I have extracted, thinking it 
may be found interesting : 

" 1601, April 3/13, Brussels. Advices sent to Thos. Phe- 
lippes.. ..The Scots say that the Earl of Marr's embassy to 
England is to demand from the Queen, both by fair means 
and threats, a declaration of his master's title ; and if she 
refuse ' his master will do, yea marry will he.' It is a 
shrewd Scotch trick, in such a time of general discontent 
in England, to send a solemn embassy, with a train of 
such crafty-headed fellows. If it were to congratulate 
the Queen on her escape from the Earl of Essex's dan- 
gerous conspiracy he would have used but a private 
gentleman, as the Queen did to him after the Gowrie 
matter. But he had some further reach, and means to 
take his opportunity in the general aversion which he 
finds in all estates of the present Government. 

" It is evident the late plot was laid by the Puritans. 
The principal actors were zealous in that profession. 
The earl showed it at his arraignment, yet some in 
authority, whose throats those furious spirits would have 
cut had they prevailed, seem to clear the guilty, and 
impose the crime upon the innocent Catholics. There- 
upon they have executed three or four poor priests (one 
condemned four or five years ago) and Ann Lyne, a 
Catholic gentlewoman, only for harbouring priests. It 
is true Sir Chris. Blount, after living all his life in 
seclusion, died a Catholic, but so might others who now 
stand at the helm, if past hope of life, and in fear of 
further peril than the last stroke of death; but these 
proceedings have not been the first against us, nor are 
they the last we must suffer.... 

" An Irishman recounts that masses are said openly in 
Waterford, and the friars go a-begging as openly as in 
times past, but this present persecution of Catholics 
in England and extraordinary liberty in Ireland hang 
not together." 

I should be glad to have any particulars of 
the Ann Lyne referred to ? 


ENVELOPES. On the introduction of the penny 
postage, envelopes, though they had been known 
before, came first into common use. While they 
were yet uncommon it was the practice for persons 
to have cardboard models of them and cut and 
fold them for themselves. My memory of this 
fact has been refreshed by reading in Laman 
Blanchard's Life and Literary Remains of L. E. L. 
a letter written about that time, in which she 
requests that " slate pencils, a quire or so of small 
coloured note-paper, and a pasteboard pattern of 
the letter envelopes " may be sent to her (i. 205). 



" Sometimes he thinks that Heaven the vision sent, 
And ordered all the pageants as they went ; 
Sometimes that only 'twas wild Fancy's play, 
The loose and scattered relics of the day." 

This admirable description of a dream, Scott's 

motto to Lovel's dream in the Green Room, has 
always been printed without a reference, and so 
often thought to be an " Old Play " motto. But I 
have just found the lines in Cowley's Davideis, 
ii. 789. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Farnborough, Banbury. 

CHRISTIAN NAMES. I send you some unusual 
Christian names which I have met with during the 
last few months : Jubal, Easter, Chastity, Virtue, 
Nimrod, Omega, Jason, Temperance, Providence, 
Suffrina, Cassandra, Hannibal, Madonna, Plato, 
Doctor, Phoenix, Belissa, Neva, Esmeralda, Ruby- 

Bexley Heath, Kent. 

registers of Glen Magna Church, co. Leicester, a 
few days since I came across the following quaint 
piece of business : "1761. William (so called thro' 
ye mistake of ye midwife), ye daughter of William 
Gimson Jun r & Mary his wife, w's baptized Jan. 
ye 19 th ." I regret to add that in former times 
these registers were most shamefully cared for, 
those for no less than 150 years being now lost. 
The oldest book dates from 1687. F. D. 


PARALLEL PASSAGE. An equivalent to the 
well-known saying of Lord Beaconsfield, " The 
unexpected always happens," may be found in 
Plautus, Mostellaria, i. iii. 40, " Insperata accidunt 
magis ssepe, quani quse speres." 


12, Monteith Row, Glasgow. 

LUTHER. It is curious to find Luther occurring 
as a surname in England in the reign of Henry VIII., 
but so it is. See Archceologia, xliii. 214. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names arid addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

of June 4, 1879, appeared the following, which up 
to this time has not elicited any reply in that 
journal. The subject is one of interest, and may 
perhaps receive some light through your columns : 

" I recently heard, when dining in the City, that the 
origin of the custom of having toastmasters at City ban- 
quets was something as follows. It is said that at one of 
the banquets of the old East India Company the Duke 
of Cambridge (father of the present duke), who was 
always partial to dining in the City, had to speak. Mr. 
Toole, who was one of the officials of the company, and 
a man by no means wanting in confidence, said, ' Some 
of the gentlemen have some difficulty in hearing your 
Royal Highness ; shall I give out what the toast is 1 ' 
The practice was found so convenient that it was re- 

. xii. JULY 12, '79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

peated on many future occasions, and Mr. Toole deve- 
loped into the great City toastmaster. Can any of your 
correspondents say if the story is correct, or add any 
particulars of their own 1 " 

Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 

WHO WAS BASAWA 1 Jules Baissac, in his 
Origines de la Religion, 1877, preface, p. vi, says : 

" There is in the legends of Basawa, the restorer of 
the Civaite Lingaism, and of his nephew Tchanna- Basawa, 
his apostle and the propagator of his reform, a crowd of 
instructive traits of edification. One sees there the 
Linga, principle of moral as of physical life, mount hy 
all the degrees of speculation and elevate itself to the 
heights where sits enthroned He who, according to the 
language of Bossuet, reigns above all the heavens and 
holds in his hands the reins of all empires," &c. 

M. Baissac gives no reference, and it is the first 
time I have ever heard of Basawa. It would 
greatly oblige me if any of your Oriental readers 
would inform me who he was and when he lived, 
and in what writings these legends and the philo- 
sophy of uncle and nephew are to be found. What 
is said by M. Baissac ef their work is similar to 
what is to be found in the Kabbala Denudata and 
the Philosophy of the Kabbala by Franck, and the 
Kabbala by Ginsburg. The time in which, there- 
fore, Basawa and nephew are supposed to have 
lived and delivered their doctrines, or when it was 
reported of them, would throw light upon the 
much discussed question whether the Kabbala 
was ancient or modern, whether the Jews origi- 
nated it, or whether they derived it from Oriental 
sources. W. J. BIRCH. 

REDCOATS. In Higden's Polychronicon, i. 242, 
we read : " Tempore consulum milites Romani 
pridie quam pugnarent rosea veste induebantur, 
quod fiebat ad celandum sanguinem, ne viso san- 
guine corda militum trepidarent. Inde et rosati 
dicebantur." What authority is there for Higden's 
assertion that red was the colour of the uniform of 
the Roman soldiery in the time of the consuls, and 
that they were hence called " Rosati " ] 



married Alice, daughter of Ralph de Toney, and 
he had by her two sons Thomas, who succeeded 
him, and John, who after great honours and 
exploits died unmarried, or without children. 
"Besides these two sons," says Collins, in his 
Peerage, "Earl Guy left five daughters, all 
honourably married." Will some one say to whom 
they were " honourably married " ? 


TORICAL MSS. I shall be much obliged to any 
readers of " N. & Q." who can tell me in whose 
hands Philip Henry's diaries now are. I have 

seen those for 1661, 1663, and five other years to 
1678 ; also some notes of his life up to the time of 
his marriage, and a paper called Remarkable Pro- 
vidences observed by Mr. Henry ; but Sir John B. 
Williams seems to have had access to many others, 
which were dispersed at the sale succeeding his 
death. MATHEW GOCH. 

YEW = EBBLE. Permit a second query on the 
yew (ante, p. 8). Britten, in his Plant Names, p. 165, 
says, on the authority of Forby and Wright, that 
in "E. Anglia, Norfolk, and the Eastern Counties" 
ebble=aspen (Pop. tremula). In the interest of a 
still vexed Shakespearian question, might I ask 
whether in the above counties or elsewhere it is 
applied also to the yew 1 B. NICHOLSON. 

notice of the life of Mr. James Grant, the author 
of the History of the Neivspaper Press, which ap- 
peared in the Boolcselhr for June, 1879 (p. 510), 
contains the statement that " one of his latest 
ventures was an appendix to this [work], in which 
he attacked the Saturday Review ; this provoked 
a reply, and Mr. Grant was convicted of numerous 
inaccuracies." Was the account of the Saturday 
Revieio ever published, and if it did appear in 
print, can the possessor of a copy furnish a colla- 
tion and a summary of its contents 1 


Montgomerie, who escaped on horseback ? Ger- 
vase Markham, in his Cavalries, published in 1617, 
dedicated to Charles, Prince of Wales, Duke of 
Cornewall, Albanie, and Rothsay, says : " I have 
heard it reported that, at the massacre in Paris, 
Montgomerie, taking an English mare, first in the 
night swam over the river Seine, and after ran her 
so many leagues as I fear to nominate." 

Author of Book of the Horse. 

" SILVESTER TRAMPER " is a book mentioned in 
the Life and Literary Remains of L. E. L., by 
Laman Blanchard (vol. i. p. 20). It is, I gather, 
a book of imaginary travels. Can any one give 
information as to its author and time of publica- 
tion ? Miss Landon read it when a child, but in 
after life she tried in vain to procure a copy. 

K. P. D. E. 

LORD CHANDOS, married William Brownlow, of 
Humby, co. Lincoln. Is there any posterity ? I 
cannot find that there was in the Brownlow or 
Gust pedigree. J. W. STANDERWICK. 

a work on heraldry the crest of Sexton of London 
(as distinguished from Sexton, England) described 
as " Out of a ducal coronet or, a dexter arm, in 

NOTES AND QUERIES. IB* s. xn. JULY 12, 79. 

armour, embowed, ppr., g.arnished, in gauntlet an 
anchor sa., fluke and cable or." Can any of your 
readers tell me to what Sexton this refers ? 


SALES BY AUCTION. Is it known when they 
were first practised in England 1 ANON. 

Where was this place 1 Why so named 1 

St. John's Wood. 

THE KEY. FR. GARTHSIDE was rector of a parish 
(possibly in Lincolnshire) in 1725. Query what 
parish 1 THOMAS NORTH. 

" AJAMODA." Are goats fond of parsley ? Prof. 
Monier Williams renders Sanskrit aja-moda, aja- 
modu, aja-modilca, " goat's delight, name of various 
plants, common carroway, the species called ajwaen 
(Ligusticum ajivaen), and especially a species of 
parsley, L. ajivaen." R. S. CHARNOCK. 


CURIOUS OLD BOOK. I have recently been 
shown an old book which I never heard of before. 
The title-page is as follows : 

"The | Ladies Dictionary; | being a | General Enter- 
tainment | for the | Fair-Sex : | A | work | Never at- 
tempted before in English \ Licensed and Enter'd 
according to Order | London | Printed for John Dunton 
at the Raven j in the Poultrey 1694. Price Bound Six 

There is a dedication " To the Ladies, Gentle- 
women, and others of the Fair Sex," signed 
" N. H." The book, though written in the plain, 
unvarnished language of the time, is full of the 
strictest morality, and contains much information 
and instruction that would be useful to the fair 
sex of the present day. Is it rare or not 1 Who 
was the author ? WM. HUGHES. 

THE " PICTORIAL TIMES." The subject of ex- 
tinct periodical journals and literature seems to 
find a place in the columns of " N. & Q." and 
prove of interest to its readers. Allow me, there- 
fore, to add the name of another journal to the 
list, and ask how long its life endured. The 
Pictorial Times, to the best of my recollection, 
began its candidature for public favour in 1843, 
and certainly was in existence in 1845-6, perhaps 
even later. I can well remember the walls of a 
town in the north of England having large posters 
pasted upon them about the latter period, headed, 
in immense capitals, " Many Thousands of Pounds 
to be Given Away," and circulars to the same 
effect being most widely distributed, in order to 
induce people to become subscribers to this journal 
the prize being the chance of winning 1,OOOZ. 
There was also a woodcut in the journal depicting 
a poor woman calling at the office and saying to 
the publisher, " Please, sir, give me one of your 

thousands," under the impression that it was to be 
had for merely the asking. It ought to be ob- 
served that there were some excellent illustrations 
iinbellishing its pages. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

HERALDIC. What family bears Or, a chevron 

ihecky argent and sable between three water- 

bougets of the second 1 Crest, A gryphon's head 

rased proper. Motto, " Audeo." Where can 

I obtain its pedigree ? DEXDIE. 



PARISH'S observations about marbles and Good 
Friday (ante, p. 18) suggest to me the above 
question, which some of the readers of " N. & Q." 
may be able to answer. In the course of a 
tolerably extensive experience of the alleys and 
slums of London I have learned that tops, marbles, 
tip-cats (eheu /), battledore and shuttlecock, and 
other favourite games of both girls and boys, come 
out and disappear at about a given date. Whether 
there exists some lex non scripta concerning these 
things, and what may be the cause of the ob- 
servance of seasons, are matters on which I should 
be glad of information. J. K. 

obliged if any of your correspondents can tell me 
how to depict the arms of the younger branches 
of the imperial house of Austria. Do they use 
any differences ? and do they bear their shields on 
the double-headed eagle with the crown of a prince 
of the Holy Roman Empire ? Does Prince Louis 
of Bavaria bear the same coat as the king 1 and 
what coronet is he entitled to use ? 


14, Hill Street, W. 

A CRESSET STONE. A cresset stone is an ancient 
lamp-stand, a stone somewhat like a font, into 
which holes were sunk in the form of cups. In 
these oil or tallow and a wick were inserted. I 
want to know more about them. They are very 
rare. Will some reader give particulars relative 
to them and quote existing examples ? 



BATTLE OF WATERLOO. In Temple Bar for June 
of the present year it is stated that 

" On Sunday, June 18, 1815, it chanced that between 
the services a clergyman in Kent was walking in his 
garden with his gardener, an old soldier who had gone 
through the Peninsular campaign. The gardener looked 
attentively at a bank, from the face of which mould kept 
crumbling down. ' There 's a fight going on, sir, some- 
where. When we were in Spain we always knew when 

5"' S. XII. JUEY 12, 79.] 



a cannonade waa taking place, wherever it might be, by 
a crumbling of fresh mould.' He tnok a spade and dug 
down a foot : along the smooth surface left by the steel 
an imperceptible trembling shook down little pellets of 
soil. ' That 'B it, sir,' said the old soldier, ' they are at 
it, sure enough f ' This was the first intimation in Eng- 
land of the battle of Waterloo." 

Who was the clergyman, and what authority is 
there for this statement I 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"DEAD AS CHELSEA." I found this phrase 
lately in the National Magazine, 1833. What is 
its meaning? E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

IN 1854. Is there a copy accessible anywhere ? 
It is not in the British Museum. 


ASSUMING ARMS. Can you throw any light on 
this subject < I inherited in 1870 an entailed 
estate, taking in addition to my family arms name 
and arms of predecessor in possession. I now 
carry my own 1 and 4 quarterly, and those as- 
sumed 2 and 3 quarterly. Is this correct ? Some 
heralds say not. T. 

JERNINGHAM FAMILY. The lordship of the 
manor of Painswick, Gloucestershire, was for a 
long time held by members of this family ; and in 
Rudder's History of Gloucestershire (1779), p. 596, 
there is as follows : " There are several memorials 
on flat stones for the Jerninghams, in this chancel 
[of Painswick Church], containing very little more 
than their names." From this I presume that 
some at least of the family have been buried in 
the church ; but I cannot find the flat stones in 
question, and the name does not appear in any 
of the mural inscriptions. The church, I may 
mention, is at present undergoing the process of 
restoration. May I ask some of your readers 
kindly to refer me to any sources of information 
respecting this old family 1 ABHBA. 

" TALENTED." Has the origin of this word been 
exactly determined yet? We all know what 
Macaulay said of it in his conversation with Lady 
Holland. John Sterling, in a letter to Carlyle 
criticizing Sartor Resartus, called it " a mere 
newspaper and hustings word, invented, I believe, 

12, Monteith Row, Glasgow. 

MADAME ROLAND. What is the true version 
of this memorable woman's death ? Each detail is 
of import. Carlyle represents her as insisting on 
dying before Le Marcke to show him how easy it 
was, but Berlin (that strange connoisseur in judicial 
murdering) and many other French authors state 

that she made a " woman's last request" to Sanson, 
that Le Marcke might die first lest the sight of 
her death might unman him. The heroic womanly 
grace of this latter version makes one hope it is 
the true one. A. F. 

T. OR J. ERSKINE. I have a volume of MS. 
prose and poetry, written by T. or J. Erskine about 
the middle of last century. Some of the poems 
are dated " Tunbridge Wells, 1769," other pieces 
are dated "Roy 1 Reg*, St. Hiliers Island of 
Jersey," the same year and the one following. 
The writing is very good, and the language choice 
and cultivated. The volume has the name Frances 
Erskine, 1770, inside the cover, in a different 
handwriting from that of the author. Can any of 
your readers tell me who he was, and if he pub- 
lished any works ? HERMES. 

" Throwing oil upon the troubled waters." 

' Life let us cherish." 

T. E. 
L. M. 


(5 th S. xi. 509.) 

The De Launes or De Launs were of French 
extraction. The first of the name of whom any- 
thing is known in England was William De Laune, 
a French Protestant clergyman (rerlri Dei pred-i- 
cator), who had been compelled to leave his native 
country on account of his religion. He seems to 
have combined the practice of medicine with the 
preaching of religion, as in 1582, on Dec. 7, he was 
summoned before the College of Physicians of 
London for practising without a licence. He then 
presented a petition for a licence, in which he 
stated that he had studied medicine for eight years 
at Paris and Montpelier, that he had long followed 
the profession without a single complaint against 
him, and that he had a large family wholly de- 
pending on his exertions. On Dec. 22, 1 582, he 
was examined and admitted a licentiate of the 
College. He appears afterwards to have practised 
for many years, and dying in February, 1610, was 
buried at St. Anne's, Blackfriars. So much for 
the first De Laune. The second of the name who 
rose to distinction was, in all probability, one of 
the "large family" of the first. This was Gideon 
De Laune, who became a noted and wealthy 
apothecary in the city of London, who was the 
apothecary of James I., and whose bust may still 
be seen at Apothecaries' Hall. It is remarkable 
that, being " an alien born," he could not be elected 
an alderman of the city of London, a dignity to 
which he aspired. That there was a strong bias to 
physic in the family cannot be denied, for the roll 
of the College of Physicians contains the name of 



Paul De Laune, a brother of Gideon, who, after 
taking an M.A. degree at Cambridge, became a 
Doctor of Medicine at Padua, and, having been 
incorporated at Cambridge, was admitted a Fellow 
of the College of Physicians on April 21, 1618. 
Dr. De Laune was for many years in Ireland, in 
the capacity of physician to the Viceroy. By thus 
leaving London he lost his practice, but supported 
himself for some time by discharging the duties of 
the Professor of Physic in Gresham College, as the 
locum tenens of Dr. Winston, who fled to the Con- 
tinent in or about the year 1642. In 1652 
Dr. Winston returned, and Dr. De Laune lost his 
professorship and his livelihood. " Under these 
circumstances, though then a septuagenarian," he 
accepted from Oliver Cromwell, in 1654, the ap- 
pointment of Physician General to the Fleet, and 
in that capacity sailed with Blake for Jamaica. 
He was present at the taking of that island. 
Thenceforward nothing was known of him, but it 
is supposed that he died in Jamaica in December, 

While the career of the younger brother had 
ended in poverty and an unknown grave, Gideon 
the elder had amassed a large fortune, had a coat 
of arms granted to him by Sir W. Segar, Garter, in 
1612, and, in fact, became the founder of a family. 
Gideon De Laune lived to a great age, dying in 
1659. His only son Abraham predeceased him, 
having purchased the manor of Sharsted, in the 
parish of Doddington in Kent, at the beginning 
of Charles I.'s reign, from the family of Bourne. 
He had several children, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son William, who was knighted, and died 
in 1667. Another son, George, a merchant ad- 
venturer of the city of London, has a passing men- 
tion in Pepys's Diary, under date Dec. 29, 1662, 
where we read of " the strange burning of Mr. De 
Laun a merchant's house in Loathbury, and hii 
lady (Sir Thomas Allen's daughter, who had been 
Lord Mayor in 1660), and his whole family, not 
one thing, dog nor cat, escaping." Sir William 
Delaune, as the name was then spelt, was suc- 
ceeded by his son William, who was a colonel in 
the army, and knight of the shire for Kent in th< 
first Parliament of George I. He died withou 
issue in 1739, and his estate passed through hii 
sister Jane Thornicroft to the Pinkes and Faunces 
who as Faunce-Delaune still hold the estates am 
manor of Sharsted. Returning for a moment tc 
Gideon De Laune, it is not improbable, with regan 
to his great age at his death (ninety-four) in 1659 
that he may have been the brother, and not the son 
of William De Laune. It does not appear in wha 
relation Dr. William Delaune, who, as Vice-Chan 
cellor of the University of Oxford, correspond e< 
with Pepys in Dec., 1702, stood to the rest of th 
Delaune family. 

As to any connexion between the De Laun 
family and that of Delane there would seem to b 

one. The name Delane is undoubtedly Irish. It 
s Delaney with the y elided. It should be noted 

bat this Delaune hare has already been started 
n " N. & Q." (see 1 st S. xii. 166, 235, 498). From 

hose queries and replies, as well as from the 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1847, from Dr. Munks's 
most excellent Roll of the Royal College of Phy- 

icians, and from Hasted's History of Kent, the 
oregoing particulars of the De Laune family have 

een mainly derived. G. W. D. 

Athenaeum Club. 

FIELDING THE NOVELIST (5 th S. xi. 484, 509.) 
["he gipsy and Mother Wells were committed in 
he first instance by Mr. Teshmaker, of Ford's 
Grove (great-grandfather of the present owner of 
hat place, Teshmaker Busk, Esq.), having been, 
arrested on a warrant granted by Alderman Chitty. 
Virtue Hall and Fortune Natus were subsequently 
arrested and brought before Henry Fielding, then 
a police magistrate, who has given a full and most 
amusing account of the whole proceedings, so far as- 
was connected with them. Mary Squires and 
Susannah Wells were tried at the Old Bailey on 
Feb. 21, 1753, convicted, and sentenced Wells to 
3e branded on the lu\nd and imprisoned for six. 
months, Squires to death. Squires was respited 
through the exertions of Sir Crispe Gascoyne and 
ultimately pardoned. Canning was indicted for 
perjury on April 29, 1754, convicted, and sentenced 
to seven years' transportation. She returned ta 
England at the expiration of her sentence, and 
received a considerable sum of money which had 
been subscribed and bequeathed by believers in- 
her innocence. Wells died at Enfield on Oct. 5, 
1763. Squires was buried with gipsy pomp at 
Farnham in Surrey, on Feb. 26, 1762. The mass 
of contradictory evidence is enormous, thirty-six 
witnesses on one side and twenty-six on the other 
swearing to facts utterly irreconcilable. If the 
balance of testimony can be said to incline either 
way I am disposed to think it is slightly in favour 
of Canning. Blackivood's Magazine, May, 1860 ; 
Paradoxes and Puzzles, p. 317 ; Nineteen State 
Trials, p. 504 ; Fielding's pamphlet, 1753, p. 30 ; 
Dr. Hill's pamphlet, A Full and Authentic Account, 
&c., p. 66 ; Churchill's Ghost, p. 182 ; Annual Re- 
gister, 1761, p. 179 ; Cambridge Journal, Feb. 27, 
1752. I- P. 

I wrote only through accidentally discovering 
that Henry Fielding had been one of Elizabeth 
Canning's dupes, and as the fact, or what seemed 
to be such, was new to me, I thought it might be 
new to some other people. It is not mentioned in 
either of the biographies of Fielding that I have 
consulted, not even by Sir Walter Scott, so far as 
I can discover. I will only add that in the book 
I quoted from the magistrate before whom Squires 
and Wells were examined (not " tried," as 0. in- 

xii. JULY 12, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


advertently writes) is spoken of as " Justice " 
Fielding and " Mr." Fielding. The great novelist's 
very last work was a description of his voyage to 
Lisbon. In it he recounts his efforts as a magis- 
trate for the improvement of the police and the 
detection of murderers, with the good result that 
the winter of 1753 stood unrivalled during a course 
of many years for its entire freedom from street 
robberies. He writes as having continued his 
duties as a magistrate so long as his strength per- 
mitted ; and as he did not sail for Lisbon till June, 
1754, it is fair to conclude that he, and not his 
brother, was the magistrate before whom Squires 
and Wells were examined in February, 1753. 
This is the more likely because we are told that his 
half-brother, Sir John Fielding, succeeded him in 
his office of a Middlesex magistrate. Besides, 
Fielding wrote his pamphlet in March, 1753, and 
in it he says : 

" As to my own conduct in this affair, I know it to be 
highly justifiable before God and before man. I frankly 
own I thought it entitled me to the very reverse of 
censure. The truth is, the same motive prevailed with 
me then which principally urged me to take up my pen 
at this time." 

The case came before a magistrate on February 14, 
and it seems probable that by the word " then," 
used about a month after, the writer refers to the 
hearing before himself as a magistrate, when Squires 
and Wells were committed for trial. G. H. W. 

SIDEMEN (5 th S. xi. 504.) I do not think MR. 
MARSHALL has left much to be said. Surely the 
etymology from side and man is quite sufficient. 
The Latin assistens means little else ; it is only 
"one who stands (or is) beside." The absurd 
attempt to make sidesmen stand for synodsmen is 
just one of those fancies which were so abundant 
in the sixteenth century, when it seems to have 
been held that all English was derived from Latin 
and Greek, and that there was no originality in it. 
We find side-bench, side-board, and side-u-agh (i.e. 
side-wall) all in the Middle-English period. Hence 
side-man is a perfectly consistent and intelligible 
formation. We need seek no further. 


MR. MARSHALL not only says, " So far as I am 
aware, the first use of the word ' sidemen ' occurs 
in a document of 1596," but, as I understand him, 
he implies that he is not aware of the word " sides- 
men " occurring earlier than 1691. The Monthly 
Magazine for June 1, 1810, xxix. 458-62, contains 
a " Transcript of the Parish Expenditure of Milton 
Abbot [near Tavistock, Devon] for the year 1588, 
in the Order, and exactly after the Letter of the 
Original," in which the following items appear in 
the accounts of the " Heywarden " (apparently the 
churchwarden) : " For the wardens and sidesmens 
dynners, xijd ; For the warden and sidesmens 
dyner at this visitation, xijd." The former item 

was paid apparently at the archdeacon's visitation, 
and the latter at the bishop's. 

I am sorry to have to add that the original 
document is not now to be found at Milton Abbot, 
where, as the vicar informs me, the earliest existing 
parish record is dated 1653. Wir. PENGELLY. 


A " KNOTTING-BAG " (5 th S. xi. 469.) The fol- 
lowing words of a song written by Sir Charles 
Sedley and composed by Henry Purcell will throw 
light on the question what is a knotting-bag : 

" ' Hears not my Phillis how the birds 

Their feather'd mates salute ] 
They tell their passion in their word*, 
Must I alone be mute'.*' 

Phillis without a frown or smile 
Sat and knotted all the while. 

' So many months in silence past, 

And yet in raging love, 
Might well deserve one word at last 
My passion should approve.' 
Phillis without a frown or smile 
Sat and knotted all the while. 

' The god of love in thy bright eyes 

Does like a tyrant reign, 
But in thy heart a child he lies 
Without a dart or flame.' 

Phillis without a frown or smile 
Sat and knotted all the while. 

' Must then your faithful swain expire 

And not one look obtain, 
Which he to soothe his fond desire 
Might pleasingly explain ? ' 

Phillis without a frown or smile 
Sat and knotted all the while." 


Knotting was a common custom with ladies 
some fifty years ago. An article of boxwood, like 
a short netting needle, but much broader, was 
wound round with fine twine, the other end being 
fixed to a small roller. A knot was made at every 
inch of the twine, which was wound round the roller ; 
the twine so knotted was used to tie parcels or for 
any other purpose. There was no use in this process ; 
it only served to employ the fingers when they had 
nothing else to do. It was superseded by the in- 
troduction of crochet and such like work. With 
some ladies it is a positive misery to have their 
fingers idle. I know one English lady who gave 
great offence to the Presbyterians in Scotland by 
persisting in knotting on Sundays. 


xi. 507.) " Cudgel thy brains no more about it." 
Downs, one of the majors of the S. J. W. L. V. 
Regiment, was " Marcus Spermaceti the Elder." 
He was a fellow of infinite jest and jollity fat, 
fleshy, and Falstaff-like, and with a heart as big as 
bis body. There is a coloured engraving of him in 
his scarlet coatee, blue pantaloons, and hessians, 
spurred as a field officer, with pigtail behind, and 



his stout bamboo cane in hand. Leigh Hunt has a 
characteristic gibe at him in his Town. He died 
on board a Berwick smack on his passage to 
London, and his body, wrapt in canvas and covered 
with a tarpaulin, was towed up astern in the 
smack's dingy. He was a favourite with all a 
sort of second Grose. NOTE HURST. 

ZINE (5 th S. xi. 487.) The Kaleidoscope, a Liver- 
pool weekly miscellany, was published and edited 
during the whole period of its existence by Mr. 
Egerton Smith, the publisher and editor of the 
Liverpool Mercury, a political newspaper, at that 
time issued weekly. The first number of the 
Kaleidoscope was issued on July 28, 1818, in a folio 
form, which after the publication of the first two 
annual volumes was changed into a quarto. Eleven 
volumes of the new series were issued. The last 
number bears the date of Sept. 6, 1831. The price 
throughout the whole period was 3%d. per number. 
The miscellany was conducted with considerable 
taste and spirit. William and Mary Howifct first 
essayed their literary powers in its pages. The 
Sketch Booh of Washington Irving was also there 
first presented to English readers by the insertion 
of the papers from the original American edition. 
The circulation was limited, there not being suffi- 
cient scope or interest in a provincial town to 
command success. It might be thought that the 
publication of Chambers's Journal and the Penny 
Magazine led to the discontinuance of the Kalei- 
doscope. This, however, cannot have been the case, 
since the first number of Chambers bears the date 
of Feb. 4, 1832, and the first number of the Penny 
Magazine March 31 in the same year, being several 
months after the suppression of the Liverpool pub- 
lication. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

BISHOPS' WIVES (5 th S. xi. 448.) If W. M. T.'s 
query refers only to the wives of English bishops 
since the Reformation, it may be answered at 
once with a decided negative. No bishop's wife, 
since the second Mrs. Cranmer came over in a 
box, has borne any title in consequence of her 
lord's episcopality. The sole exception may per- 
haps be her late Royal Highness the Duchess of 
York and Princess-Bishop of Osnaburgh. Nay, 
more, had Queen Elizabeth had her way the 
bishops' wives would not have been allowed the 
ordinary title given to married ladies. Strype 
gives us Her Majesty's farewell to Parker's wife : 
" I thank you for your entertainment, but I cannot 
call you madam." Bishops' wives are valuable 
members of society, useful too useful at times 
and ornamental ; but they are a modern innova- 
tion upon our ancient constitution, grudgingly and 
of necessity permitted (see the statute 2 Ed. VI. 
c. 21), but not provided for by the wisdom of our 
ancestors, Saxon or Norman. Ladies whose hus- 

bands are peers both spiritual and temporal bear, 
of course, their proper title ; but Mrs. Proudie 
must remain content to be Mrs. Proudie. " Let 
me in," said the lady with no ticket at the door of 
the exhibition ; " don't you know that I am the 
bishop's lady ? " " Very sorry," said the janitor, 
" but I couldn't do it even if you were his wife." 
By the way, can any one tell me whence this story 
comes 1 ? EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

The Temple. 

486.) I am at a loss to understand the drift of this 
notice. The notorious fact that a comma as a mark 
of elision is comparatively modern is, of course, 
well known to every student of English who has 
ever seen a manuscript. The quotation cited, 
beginning " This wretched world'is transmutacion," 
proves nothing to the contrary. It is simply a 
quotation from Chaucer, misprinted, or copied 
from an edition by a wholly incompetent 
editor, as must be patent to all who understand 
the matter. The old title of the poem, viz. " A 
Ballad of the Village without Painting," which is 
still the title by which it is generally known, con- 
tains a most amusing blunder. It is her visage, 
not her village, that a lady paints. 



MALEHEIRE ARMS (5 th S. xi. 447.) In Charles's 
roll of arms for Hen. III. and Edw. I., No. 589, is 
Will. Maulure, which with little doubt is equiva- 
lent to Maleheire. The arms are, Or, a demi-lion, 
tail forked, gules. D. G. C. E. 

428.) Forty and odd years ago I heard more than 
once, from the lips of a German diplomatist who 
was in England with Bliicher in 1814 (not "after 
the battle of Waterloo"), that the Prussian mar- 
shal, struck as he rode through the streets with 
the show in our London shop windows, exclaimed, 
"My God, what a town to sack !" I did not un- 
derstand the exclamation as expressing " the senti- 
ments of a marauding savage," but wonder at the 
profusion of wealth displayed and apprehension of 
the risk we ran if invaded. H. D. C. 


Bliicher, on looking over London from St. Paul's, 
is said to have exclaimed, "Was fur Plunder!" 
i.e. what lumber, what a confused mass (of build- 
ings). If the old warrior had meant plunder in 
the English sense of the word, he would have 
expressed himself differently. W. P. LUNDIK. 

HARVEY FAMILY (5 th S. xi. 449.) John Scott, 
of Enfield, co. Middlesex, citizen and deputy 
lieutenant of the City of London, was knighted at 
Windsor Castle by Queen Anne, circa 1707 (see 
Le Neve's Knights). May not he have been the 

5*8. XII. JULY 12, -79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" Sir John Scott " referred to by your corre 
spondent? W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

EARLS OF CORNWALL (5 th S. xi. 469.) For an 
account of the more or less mythical Earls of Corn- 
wall before the Norman Conquest, A. X. can 
consult Dugdale's Baronage. A summary of this 
information will be found in Davies Gilbert's 
Parochial History of Cornwall, iv. 346-48. 


15, Queen Anne's Gate, S.W. 

An historical paper on the ancient dukes and 
earls of Cornwall was read, if I am not mistaken, 
at the Congress of the Archaeological Association 
ut Penzance, in August, 1876. 


Hampstead, N.W. 

FIRST COUSIN MARRIAGES (5 th S. xi. 428.) 
W. W. will find Mr. Geo. H. Darwin's paper, 
" Marriages between First Cousins in England and 
their Effects," in vol. xxxviii. of the Journal of 
the Statistical Society (1875), pp. 153 and 344. 


HENSON OR HINSON FAMILY (5 th S. xi. 428.) 
There is a pedigree of the family of Hinson of Ful- 
harn in Harl. MS. 1468. According to Bridges 
there is a printed pedigree of Hinson of Fordham 
in Visitation of Middlesex, 1663 (Salisbury, 1820). 

Middle Temple. 

DATED BOOK-PLATES (5 th S. xi. 446.) Your 
correspondent A. describes a book-plate dated 1668. 
In a copy of the third edition of Florio's translation 
of Montaigne's Essays, 1632, which I possess, there 
is an engraved book-plate. In the centre is the 
name of the owner with date, Neville Catelyne, 
December 3, 1660, surrounded by a rather rude 
double ornamental border, four inches long and 
two broad. ALEX. IRELAND. 

Inglewood, Bowdon, Cheshire. 

DEATHE " (5 th S. xi. 447.) This poem was written 
by Father Kobert Southwell, S.J. After having 
been most cruelly tortured by TopelifTe the in- 
former, he was hanged, drawn, and quartered for 
his faith, Feb. 21, 1595, at Tyburn. See his life, 
written at considerable length in Records of the 
English Province of the Society of Jesus, vol. i., 
first series, by Henry Foley, S.J., Lond., 1877. 
A list of his poems is given in this life, among 
which the poem in question is named. A volume 
of his poems and prose was printed in 1620, but 
does not contain Mary Magdalen's Complaint, but 
fias S. Mary Magdalen's Funerall Teares in prose. 
In the Records, &c., a pedigree of the Southwell 
family is given. A short account of this Father 

Robert Southwell may be found in Challoner's 
Memoirs of Missionary Priests, 1741. C. J. E. 

Your correspondent should compare 
"S. Peter's Complaint and Saint Mary Magdalen'g 
funerall Teares, with sundry other selected and devout 
Poems. By R[obert] S[outhwell] of the Society of Jesus. 
Permissu Superiorum, 1616, 12Hio." 

The first edition of the Funerall Teares quoted 
by Lowndes is dated 1594, 8vo., but Mr. Pearson's 
catalogue, issued last February, contains an earlier 
edition, also in 8vo., of 1591. A. 

Southwell's poem may be found in the Rev. 
A. B. Grosart's invaluable edition of Southwell's 
Complete Poems, p. 62. W. T. BROOKE. 

"NINE POINTS OF THE LAW" (5 th S. xi. 447.) 
I think MR. WAGSTAFF will have to look to some 
better source than " an odd corner of an old maga- 
zine " for the explanation of the above saying ; 
for in the correct version there are only eight 
" points," in the old saying of Mr. Selwyn (a former 
candidate for the chamberlaincy of the City of 
London), which " points " are the following : " 1 
a good cause ; 2, a good purse ; 3, an honest and 
skilful attorney ; 4, good evidence ; 5, able 
counsel ; 6, an upright judge ; 7, an intelligent 
jury ; and 8, good luck without which, with all 
the other seven, it is odds but he miscarries in his 
suit " (see Scribbleomania, p. 261). 


ETYMOLOGY OF " SIPPET '' (5 th S. xi. 387.) This 
is, as MR. JERRAM suggests, a soppet or little sop, 
the sop being, according to Bailey, " bread soaked 
in broth, gravy, dripping, wine, or any liquid." 
In the earliest quotation in which I have seen 
sippet used, the word merely means a little sip or 
draught. I get this from Skelton, cited in Mr. 
Wedgwood's Dictionary, in voce " Sip " : 
" And ye will geve me a sippet 

Of your stale ale." 

Yet by Cotgrave's time, 1611, sippet was already 
used in the sense of a bit of bread steeped in wine 
or sauce, for he gives, " Tremper, to dip, soak, 
supple in liquor ; trempette, a sop, a sippit." Tor- 
riano, ed. 1659, is even more precise : " A sip,* or 
sippet, setta di pane da intignere." And in the 
Compleat Cook, 1655, 12mo., we have sippet in its 
modern sense of a culinary garnish of fried or 
toasted bread or crusts, where, speaking at p. 16 of 
how to boil a carp, we are told : " Let him boyl 
between two dishes in his own blood, season it with 
pepper and vargis, and so serve it up upon sippets." 
Again, in boiling a rump of beef, p. 43 : " Set it 
boyling with these things in it til it be tender, and 
serve it up with brown bread and sippets fryed with 
butter, but be sure," Ac. 

* Query, was a sip of bread once said '< Torriano looks 
like it. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. xn. J TOT 12, 

Sippet cannot be considered at the present day 
as an obsolete or a provincial word. Most modern 
dictionaries enter it. It is still generally used, 
though merely at present a word of the kitchen and 
of those who prepare our food. In the more new- 
fangled and genteel cookery books I regret to see 
it replaced by the unnecessary crouton, but in the 
march of gentility that is inevitable. I might di- 
verge into the cognate archseology of breuris and 
sops in wine, but this note is already long enough. 


I have all my life been accustomed to the use of 
this word in Worcestershire and elsewhere, and 
have supposed it to mean that when the triangular 
piece of toast is put in the gravy it will " sip it " 
up. Miss Hooper, in her Every- Day Meals (H. S. 
King & Co., 1857), when giving directions for 
minced meat, says, ' Fry sufficient sippets of bread 
for your party, place round the dish for serving, on 
each a sprig of fried parsley " (p. 140). In the 
same author's popular work. Little Dinners, she 
says, "Serve with toast sippets" (p. 171). Miss 
Acton, in her Modern Cookery, speaks of " pale 
toasted sippets " (p. 230j, " pale fried sippets of 
bread " (p. 231), and gives receipts for fried sippets 
(p. 4) and sippets a la Heine (p. 5). The word 
sippet, therefore, would appear to be in common 
use elsewhere than in Somersetshire. 


This word, in the sense attributed to it by MR. 
JERRAM, has been familiar to me all my life. But 
inasmuch as it has the misfortune not to be French, 
and "hashed mutton, minced veal, and the like" 
are dishes purely national, and consequently not 
met with in genteel society, one seldom hears it, 
and I thought that its employment might be a 
peculiarity of my father's household. But as 
a friend, of whom I have made inquiry, assures me 
that he too is well acquainted with the term, I feel 
justified in saying that it is in common use in this 


A sippet is so called just because it is a sippet, 
i.e., a thing that sips, or sops, or sups up the gravy. 
It is a common word in the north of England. 
Thus, too, a tippet is so called because it is a thing 
at the tip of a hood or liripipiurn, and a gibbet is 
so called because it is a thing that gibs or jerks up 
its victim. See Mr. Wedgwood's Dictionary. 

A. J. M. 

I suspect that there are few counties iu England 
where the " triangular piece of toast " is not known 
by this name. I have always heard it so called. 
Was it not Dr. Parr, of eccentric celebrity, who, 
on being invited to eat hash, replied, " If you 
pleathe. Give me all the thippetth ! " 


The word is common in Derbyshire and Leicester- 

shire, as applied to the slips of toast served with 
hashed dishes. GEO. CLULOW. 

S. xi. 445.) I have a fac-simile in wood of one of 
the hailstones which fell in Mill Park (Somerset- 
shire or Gloucestershire ?) on Friday, July 15, 1808. 
It measures 8 in. round. The average measure- 
ment of those which fell was 8 in. This model 
was given me by my father. 



LATIMER'S CHURCH (5 th S. xii. 6.) Surely MR. 
MATHEWS has misread his Aubrey. The passage 
he quotes, " In the walke at the parsonage," &c., 
occurs in Aubrey's description of West Kington in 
the hundred of Chippenham (Topographical Col- 
lections, Canon Jackson's edition, p. 87). In the 
notes Canon Jackson says : 

" Hugh Latimer was instituted to this rectory in 1530' 
by the celebrated Cardinal Campeggio, tben Bishop of 
Sarum. He remained about five years. His letters to 
Sir Edward Bayntun of Bromham are written from this 
place. In them he speaks of his 'little bishoprick of 
West Kington.' " 

My uncle held the rectory for many years, and 
his widow often speaks of the traditions of Latimer 
which were current in the place when she lived 
there. Latimer's pulpit has been preserved, and 
a stained glass window on the south side of the 
chancel has been erected to his memory, the gift of 
Mr. Gabriel of Bristol, the architect who restored 
the church for Canon Barrow, my uncle's successor* 

Pewsey Rectory, Wilts. 

" DlLAMGERBENDI INSULA " (3 rd S. viii. 349, 
398, 442, 482, 542 ; ix. 69, 221, 309 ; xi. 284 ; 
5 th S. xi. 269, 295, 357.) MR. A. S. FETHERS 
has more than astonished me by the assertion that 
" if any one will examine the works of the Vener- 
able Bede, he will find it is the name of the Isle- 
of Wight at that period." I do not know to what 
works of Bede MR. FETHERS refers, but in his 
History, where one would more reasonably expect 
to find it, he nowhere calls the island by thia 
name, but over and over again " Vecta." See 
bk. i. c. iii. ; iv. 13, 16 ; v. 19, 23. This was its 
ancient Roman name, as we learn from Suetonius 
(Vita Vespasian., 4) and other Latin authors. 
" By Ptolemy it is called 'Ovi/cn/cris ; by the 
Saxons, Wiht ; and by the Britons, Guith. It is- 
said by most historians that, when the Saxons 
invaded this kingdom, this island fell to the share 
of those of them who were called Jutse, whom 
Bede expressly names VitcK* which the Saxon 

* " Jutae et Vitse videntur idem nomen esse 
transpositis modo duabus primis literis " (Nota 
Hussey in Bedce Hist., 1. i. c. xv.). 



idiom would of course pronounce Witce, as it 
changes Vir into Wep. " (Bowen's Geography). 

A reference to the above passages in the eighth, 
ninth, and eleventh volumes of the Third Series of 
" N. & Q.," as pointed out by MR. W. STAVEN- 
HAGEN JONES, will show how exhaustively, but 
with how little definite result, the origin of the 
strange word Dilamgerbendi was discussed in your 
pages twelve or fourteen years ago. R. M M. 

KOOT="CAT" (5 th S. x. 514; xi. 117, 137, 
: 337.) Cat is the name of a domestic implement 
which seems to belong to the early days of tea, 
when its accompaniment was toast. There has, 
in all my remembrance, hung in a corner of the 
kitchen ceiling of this house one of these old stands 
for keeping hot a plate of buttered toast at the fire ; 
and I have seen and heard of others so retained in 
other houses, no doubt as curious relics, when they 
were superseded by safer metal stands. The centre 
of the cat is a ball, of dark oak, with six spokes, 
like a star, each wrought in a cable twist ; the 
whole of excellent workmanship and high polish. 
When I early inquired as to its name and use, it 
was said that it was probably so called because, 
like a cat, it must fall on its feet, and that it could 
not be upset. The plate of toast, however, might 
have been thrown off. The name doubtless be- 
longs to the form, and its power of resistance and 
obstruction, and not to any plant or growth in 
particular. M. P. 


" HODIE MIHI, CRAS TiHi," &c. (5 th S. x. 155 ; 
xi. 492.) On tombstone of Thos. Bannatine, who 
died 1635, Greyfriars, Edinburgh : 

" Hodie mihi, eras tibi. 
Vita quid hominis? Flos, umbra, et fumus, arista; 

Ilia mails longa est ; ilia boriis brevis est. 
To-day is mine, to-morrow yours may be ; 
Each mortal man should mind that he must die. 
What is man's life .' A shade, a smoak, a flower 
Short to the good, to the bad doth long endure." 

Sir T. Dick Lauder, Scottish Rivers, p. 9. 

The saying quoted from St. Chrysostom, " Give 
me to-day and take to-morrow," has quite a 
different meaning from "Hodie mihi, eras tibi." 
It means, as Erasmus puts it, "Fruar ego hac vita, 
tu futura. Dictum quod in ore habere solebant 
homines voluptatibus addicti " (Adag. " Da mihi 
hodiernum, tu sume crastinum "). G. F. S. E. 

SHOWERS OF SULPHUR (5 th S. x. 495 ; xi. 155, 
518.) A shower of sulphur occurred in this place 
{Cowbridge, Glamorgan) on the 8th ult. I observed 
the sulphur floating on the pools and puddles, and 
remaining on the paths when the water had sub- 
sided. I collected some of it, and might easily in 
a short time have collected half a pound or so. It 
resembled exactly what is called by housekeepers 

flour of brimstone, and I detected immediately, by 
tasting, that it was sulphur. THOMAS PAYNE. 
Cowbridge, Glamorganshire. 

Did C. C. M. see the letter in the Times stating 
that the supposed sulphur turned out to be the 
pollen of pine trees ? JAYDEE. 

" BLOOMING " (5 th S. xi. 46, 174, 197.) It may 
perhaps be worthy of note that the Rev. Joseph 
Granvil, in his tfadducismus Triumphatus, Lond., 
1726, under the title of " The Demon of Tedworth " 
(1661), makes mention that on one occasion the 
spirit came into a room panting like a dog, and, 
" company coming up, the room was presently filled 
with a blooming noisome smell." 


ANGLO-SAXON COINS (5 th S. x. 380, 414.) Some 
information on this subject is contained in Annals 
of the Coinage of Great Britain, &c., by the Rev. 
Rogers Ruding (London, John Hearne, 1840, 
3 vols.). EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

The Temple. 

SEVERE WINTERS (5 th S. xi. 24, 134, 176.) The 
following is told by Col. Landmann in his Adven- 
tures and Recollections, i. 224. On leaving New 
York he took with him two bottles of madeira, 
which became frozen on the journey, the thermo- 
meter showing fifty degrees of frost. Taking them 
out in a Canadian public-house to refresh himself, 
he found the contents frozen, and quite white, 
except a small globule in the centre. This he got 
at and swallowed ; he did the like with the second 
bottle, after which he felt considerably intoxi- 
cated. On thawing the remainder in the bottles 
he found it to be pure water. The frost had 
separated the alcohol from the water ; the former 
remained unfrozen ; so he had swallowed the 
separated alcohol concentrated in a very small 
compass. This is the only way in which wine can 
be frozen ; the alcohol cannot be frozen with the 
rest of the liquid, but is separated from it by the 
action of the frost. All accounts of chopping frozen 
wine must be received with something more than 

In Jan., 1854, 1 went into residence as an under- 
graduate at Oxford. The river was frozen over 
for miles. I remember a four-in-hand driven down 
the Isis. The ice up the Cherwell, particularly 
about Parson's Pleasure, was splendid. A bottle 
of port froze in my rooms, and I well remember 
my " scout " in consternation over this event, as 
also concerning a sodawater-making machine, the 
contents of which also froze, lest the " fixed four " 
should explode the glass globe. X. C. 

503 ; xi. 77.) In Caithness and Sutherland, before 
the time of Mr. Trail, who introduced the modern 



systems of farming there, they always ploughed by 
attaching the plough, a wooden one-stilted thing, 
to the horse's tail. Ropes were made of twisted 
rushes which, though they did not last long, were 
cheap. I remember once seeing a bridle made of 
rushes and a wooden bit. I also once saw a man 
carrying a big heavy rope on his back in the north- 
west of Ireland, west of Glen Colurn Kill, which 
he was taking to exchange for herrings, and which 
I was told was made from fir found in the bogs 
and beaten till the fibres were loosened, when they 
were twisted into a rope. It was said to be a 
strong but not a lasting rope. J. R. HAIG. 


7.) I am delighted to see at the above reference 
a proposal to give the bibliography of the literature 
connected with Pope and his quarrels. The sug- 
gestion emanates, I suspect, from a gentleman not 
entirely a stranger to " N. & Q., ;> who has himself 
a very curious collection of Popeana pamphlets, 
and probably possesses more knowledge of the 
subject than any one now living. We may expect, 
therefore, some valuable information about the 
chronicles of the warfare carried on between Pope 
and the Knights of the Bathos. 

The first source from which to obtain a catalogue 
of the productions of Pope's literary enemies is 
naturally " The List of Books, Papers, and Verses 
in which our Author was Abused," &c., given in 
the Appendix of the Dunciad. Additions were 
made to this list from time to time as new editions 
of the Dunciad were issued, and some of the works 
mentioned are now very scarce. Pope himself had 
a collection of them bound up in four volumes. Two 
of these volumes, in 8vo.,were lettered "Libels upon 
Pope. Vols. I. and II." Another volume of 12mo. 
pamphlets was lettered " Curll and Company," and 
the fourth volume " Libels on Swift and Pope."* 

I shall only describe in this communication two 
works which are perhaps not to be found in the 
collections of your other contributors. 

1. " An Author To be Lett. Being a Proposal humbly 
address'd to the Consideration of the Knights, Esquires, 
Gentlemen, and other worshipful and weighty members 
of the Solid and Ancient Society of the Bathos. By their 
Associate and Well Wisher Iscariot Hackney. Evil be 
thou my Good. Satan. Numb. I. To be continued. 
London : Printed for Alexander Vint in the Strand. 
1729." 4to. Title-page; preface, 3 leaves; pp. 12; 
errata, 1 page. 

This was, I believe, afterwards included in the 
collection of the verses, essays, letters, &c., relating 
to the Dunciad by R. Savage. Johnson, in his 
Biographies, attributes An Author To be Lett, &c., 
to Savage, but the greater part of it is undoubtedly 
the work of Pope : Savage could no more have 
written it than he could have written the Dunciad. 

* Do these volumes still exist? 

2. " One Epistle to Mr. A. Pope, Occasion'd By Two 
Epistles Lately Published. 

Spiteful he is not, tho' be writ a Satire, 
For still there goes some Thinking to Ill-Nature. 


London : Printed for J. Roberts, in Warwick-Lane. 
[Price One Shilling.]" 4to. pp. 24. 

This is the joint production of Leonard Welsted 
and James Moore Smythe. It appeared after- 
wards with explanatory notes in the collected 
edition of Welsted's Works published by John 
Nichols (London, 1787, 1 vol., 8vo.). Pope was 
much annoyed by this pamphlet, and attacked it 
several times in the Grub Street Journal. 

F. G. 

P.S. Your correspondent P. A. H. writes Po- 
piana. In Pope's time it was written Popeana. 
In Lowndes it is Popeiana. Which is the most 
correct spelling ] I hope that your correspondents 
who send descriptions of Popeana pamphlets will 
do so only from personal inspection. 

368, 517.) Many of the North-country gentry 
were not able to write in the middle of the six- 
teenth century. In Raine's History of North 
Durham, xxxii., is a document of the date 1561, 
to which is attached 

" The Schedule of the names of all the Lords, Free- 
holders, Tenaunts and Inhabitants within the county of 
Northumberland that have consented and agreed to the 
Execution of the Articles conteyned in this Booke, ac- 
cording to the tenor of the same ; and for the testimony 
thereof, such of them as can write have hereunto sub- 
scribed their names : and suche others as can not write- 
have hereunto set their markes, and caused their names to 
be written." 

There are 146 names appended, the greater part 
of them certainly persons of gentle blood ; of these 
ninety-three " have hereunto set their markes." 
Among the illiterates are John Ogle of Ogle Castle 
and members of the houses of Fenwick, Carnaby, 
Collingwood, Swinburne, Manners, Selby, Heron, 
and Errington. MABEL PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

BINDERY, ROPERY, &c. (5 th S. x. 447 ; xi. 76, 
99, 357.) The first is a very good word, and in my 
opinion well " worth importing," for it supplies a 
positive want, there being no other single word in 
our language to express the same thing, although I 
fear that so long as we allow the abomination of 
" establishments for young ladies," which some 
people seem to think so much more genteel than 
" schools," there is little chance of its superseding the 
more imposing term " bookbinders' establishment." 
Nor have we any need to go across the Atlantic 
for the word, since we can get it so much nearer 
home, and from the same source from which the 
Americans have adopted it. It is the Dutch 
binderij, and every bit as good as brewery (Du. 
bromverij), bakery (Du. bakkerij), which, by the 

5-fa S. XII. JULY 12, 79.] 



way, seems to be now almost obsolete in England 
and a hundred other words similarly formed, in 
Dutch, German, and English. The Dutch hav 
not only such words as drukkerij (Ger. Druckerei 
for " printing house," but also another admirabL 
word, boekerij (which we can now only expree 
by borrowing a word from the Latin), which i 
surely as good a name for a place where books art 
kept as rookery is for the resting-place of rooks 
We are too apt nowadays to forget how much trutl 
there is in the remark made by W. Camden near!] 
three hundred years ago : " Great verily was the 
glory of our tongue before the Norman conques 
in this, that the old English could express most 
aptly all the conceits of the mind in their own 
tongue without borrowing from any." Thanks 
however, to the labours of Prof. Skeat, Dr. Morris 
and others who have done so much to promote the 
study of early English, we are beginning to see it: 
worth, and may have reason to hope that "our 
sparkfull youth " will no longer " laugh at their 
great-grandfathers' English, who had more care to 
do well than to speak minion-like, and left more 
glory to us by their exploiting of great acts than 
we shall do by forging of new words and uncouth 
phrases " (Remains concerning Britain, p. 25). 

King Street, Covent Garden. 

" CUCK" : "CocK" (5 th S. xi. 48, 196.) There 
is a hill about a mile from Salisbury, overlooking 
the village of Laverstock, which goes by the name 
of " Cocky Down." C. H. 


PRIVILEGED FLOUR MILLS (5 th S. xi. 29, 410.) 
I am very much obliged to your several learned 
correspondents who have thrown such extended 
light upon this question. I have myself, during 
the several months which have elapsed since I 
addressed my query to you, found various instances 
of such privileged mills in the town ordinances of 
Berwick- upon-T weed, Bristol, Exeter, Worcester, 
Tettenhall Regis, and elsewhere. In London the 
Knights Templars had a mill of their own. These 
will all be referred to in more or less detail in a 
paper " On Early Laws and Customs relating to 
Food," which will appear in a forthcoming part of 
the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 
I shall take the opportunity of using some of the 
facts now contributed. CORNELIUS WALFORD. 
Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 

(5 th S. xi. 148, 237.) Burns's Address to the Deil 
drew from his contemporaries David Morison and 
John Learmont (see their Poems, 1790 and 1791) 
" Answers," but what W. T. is looking up must be 
the under mentioned, which I find among my 
Burnsiana : " The Deil's Reply to the Poet Burns. 
The following poem, written in imitation of Burns, 

is reprinted in a leading paper and signed James 
Ditchburn, Ushaw Moor." It is a 12mo., pp. 8, 
without other title or date, containing twenty-eight 
stanzas, the first of which is that quoted by W. T. 
It explains away the charges the poet brings against 
his Satanic majesty, and thus in the twenty-eighth 
stanza warns his traducer of the drunkard's death 
which awaits him : 

" Sure E8 you mourn 'd the daisy's fate, 
That fate is thine at no far date : 
Stern Ruin's plough-share drives elate 

Full on thy bloom, 

And crush'd beneath the furrow's weight 
Shall be thy doom." 

J. 0. 

"EMBEZZLE" (5 th S. x. 461, 524 ; xi. 30, 55, 
248.) Another instance : "Imbesilment of re- 
cordes ; . . . servauntes .... defrauding their 
masters of their goodes ; or ... . imbesiling the 
same " (The Nevve Boke of Justices of Peace, by 
Anthony FitzHerbert, 1554, quoted in the Yorksh. 
Archaol. and Top. Journ., 1878, vol. v. pp. 363-4). 

W. C. B. 

SCOTIA (5 th S. xi. 298, 355.) Mr. J. F. Camp- 
bell, in his Popular Tales of the West Highlands, 
ii. 36, says, " Even the word Albanach, now used 
for Scotchman, means wanderer." 


ASPARAGUS (5"> S. xi. 264, 319, 397.) If 
Y. S. M. will slit his asparagus straight down, he 
will find the inside of the long white stalk very 
masticable and very good. We English, as a rule, 
only eat half our asparagus, and we insult it by 
the addition of melted butter. I recommend both 
your correspondents to try the Belgian dressing, 
;he yolk of a hard-boiled egg and a little butter 
melted, not " melted butter." HERMENTRUDE. 

366, 394, 472.) I was at Malmesbury on Tuesday, 
May 27, and on ascending the stairs to the 
chamber above the grand Norman porch of the 
ibbey church, I discovered a school of about thirty 
ihildren being conducted there. It is called the 
Abbey School. In St. Michael's Loft, in the 
'riory Church, Christchurch, Hants, a school was 
ormerly held. C. H. MAYO. 

Long Burton, Sherborne. 

Is par-vise really from parvis (see 5 th S. xi. 472) ? 
very much doubt it. G. C. E. 

BURIAL AT NIGHT, 1601 (5 th S. xi. 349, 474.) 
believe that the Dyotts of Staffordshire, one of 
hose ancestors fired the famous shot from the 
ower of Lichfield Cathedral which slew the 
anatic Lord Brocke, are always buried by torch- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [*- s. xn. JULY 12, 79. 

403.) The statement that the cuckoo changes her 
note from a " major sixth to a minor third " is 
obviously a mistake. The cuckoo frequently sings 
-an untrue interval, something between a major 
third and a minor third, but always within these 
limits. W. H. CUMMINGS. 

LANDEG FAMILY (5 th S. xi. 169, 336, 458.) 
A charming old lady of the name of Landeg was 
living with her cousin, a Miss Reid, in Portland 
Place, Bath, some twenty years ago. She was the 
niece of Dr. J. Bo wen, a Bath celebrity in the 
beginning of the century. 



A FEW IDLE WORDS (5 th S. xi. 485.) If CLARRY 
"will turn to any modern English dictionary he will 
find that the lady was more correct than Mr. 
Crabb Robinson. Antiquarian is quite as much 
a noun as an adjective, and is used as such, I 
should think, a hundred times oftener than anti- 
quary. Moreover, Mr. Robinson scarcely did 
himself justice in his claim to be a noun, which is 
merely the name of a thing : surely Mr. Robinson 
was more than that. J. F. P. 


" GOAL "=GAOL (5 th S. xi. 366, 514.) I possess 
.a copper token having on the obverse a bust of 
John Howard, surrounded with the words " John 
Howard, F.R.S., Halfpenny," and on the reverse 
a draped full-length seated figure, uttering the 
words " Go forth," and surrounded with the words 
" Remember the Debtors in Goal." The token is 
without date. Bailey (1727) has, " Goal, a Prison 
or Jail," and " Goaler, the Keeper of a Jail or 
Prison." Johnson says this orthography is in- 


TRADESMEN'S TOKENS (5 tu S. xi. 28, 139, 157, 
197.) The Paris Maintain Company is a mis- 
print for the Parys Mountain Company, which is 
identical with the Parys Mines Company. Pennant 
has written of the mountain, and much of what he 
has said is quoted in a reference to the subject 
in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana (edit. 1845, 
vol. xiv., or vol. i. of Miscellaneous and Lexico- 
graphical Section, art. " Anglesey "). The " moun- 
tain " is a small elevation in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the town of Amlwch, Anglesey, and 
was once of world-wide celebrity for its yield of 
copper ore, supposed to be the finest discovered, 
"the working of which gave employment to many 
hundreds of persons. The mines have declined 
immensely in productiveness and value for many 
years now, but are still worked to some extent, 
though with what success I am unable to say. 


MR. STAVENHAGEN JONES will find the Anglesey 
penny token of 1787 described in the supplement 
to the Gentleman's Magazine of that year, p. 1160. 
It is there described as being issued by the Paris 
Mountain Company. I ani inclined to think 
" Maintain " in Ruding is a printer's error. Pye, 
in both editions of his work (1794 and 1801) on 
provincial coins, ignores the first issue, in 1784, of 
the Anglesey pennies, as recorded in my work, 
vol. i. p. 52, and by Ruding, as quoted by MR. 
JONES. Pye gives the issuer of these pennies as 
the " Paris Mine Co., struck at a mint erected in 
Birmingham." D. T. BATTY. 

I have a curious token which bears on the 
obverse a picture of the Rock of Gibraltar and the 
words "Payable at Keelings Gibralter" (sic), and 
on the reverse three towers, with a key hanging 
suspended from the doorway df the centre one, and 
the words " Value one quart. 1802." 



216.)" Count " Paravicini or Palavicini seems to 
have settled in Nottingham in the early part of 
the last century. His house, in what is now called 
Count Street, is situated within the old parish of 
St. Mary, and the registers of that church record 
the burials of " Bercini, wife of Mr. George Para- 
vicini," on March 18, 1727-8, and of "Mr. George 
Paravicini" on March 26, 1735. This Mr. George 
Paravicini was evidently the " Count Palavicini " 
referred to by QUEST, but he is not dignified by 
that title in either of the two instances in which 
his name appears in the registers of St. Mary's 
Church. The name is written Paravicini in the 
registers, but the street in which he resided is 
called " Palavicini's Row" by Deering. I have 
met with no other instances of the name in the 
registers of the other churches in the town of 
Nottingham or in the neighbourhood. 


Higbfield, near Nottingham. 

Your correspondents will doubtless obtain some 
information about the Palavicinis by addressing 
the Rev. F. Paravicini, Balliol College, Oxford. 


BOLLES PEDIGREE (5 th S. xi. 149, 237.) The 
creation by Charles I. of an "honourable baron- 
etess " in the person of Lady Bolles of Wakefield is 
an event so rare as to have been considered unique. 
Can any reader refer to a similar creation 1 


YANKEE (5 th S. x. 467 ; xi. 18, 38, 235.) See 
Webster's Dictionary for some explanation as to 
the probable origin of this word. 


5.s.xii.jcLYi2,'79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


PARISH DOCUMENTS (5 th S. x. 427, 527 ; xi. 
37 ; xii. 12.) Delf is apparently of wide use as 
a synonym for a quarry, as I have observed it in 
various common forms of grants or reservations of 
easements and appurtenances contained in leases 
and conveyances. The context in which the word 
occurs is generally more or less as follows, " all 
mines, delfs, and quarries of lead, coal, cannel, 
slate," &c. NICOLAI C. SCHOTJ, Jun. 


" Though mean and mighty, rotting 
Together, have one dust, yet reverence, 
That angel of the world, doth make distinction 
Of place 'tween high and low." 

Cymbeline, Act iv. sc. 2. 
(5' h S. xi. 468.) 
" Sola fides sufficit." 

From the last line of the fourth verse of the hymn, 
" Pange, lingua, gloriosi 

Corporis mysterium." G. C. E. 

The lines quoted by MR. AKERMAN from Budaeus are 
an obvious parody, or rather skit, upon one of the stanzas 
of that noble hymn of the Church which is sung on 
Corpus Christi, Pange Lingua. The lines of the original 
to which they refer are, 

" Fitque sanguis Christi merum ; 

Et, si sensus deficit, 
Ad firmandum cor sincerum 
Sola fides sufficit.'' 

(5"> S. xi. 509.) 
" Their only labour was to kill the time, 

And labour dire it is, and weary woe." 
The lines (incorrectly quoted by C. P.) are by Thompson, 
Castle of Indolence, stanza Ixxii. 11. 1, 2. T. L. A. 

" Praise is the best diet for us all." 
In J. Hain Friswell's Familiar Words this saying is 
ascribed to Sydney Smith, and the reference there given 
is to " W. W. p. 333." MARS DEXIQUE. 

(5> S. xii. 9.) 

"So comes a reck'ning when the banquet's o'er," &c., 
will be found in Gay's " Tragi-Com.-Past.-Farce," What 
d'ye Call It, Act ii. sc. 9. A. GRANGER HUTT. 

" Fall'n is the Baal," &c. 

Young's Love of Fame, sat. ii. 11. 43-4. MR. BOUCHIER 
has slightly misquoted the first line. FREDK. RULE. 

The Cathedral: its Necessary Place in the Life and 

Work of the Church. By Edward White Benson, 

Bishop of Truro. (Murray.) 

ALL who know Bishop Benson and his work at Lincoln 
and at Truro will recognize at once in this little book, 
email in bulk but pithy and full of interest, the earnest- 
ness and deep religiousness with which his name is asso- 
ciated. He desires to breathe a new life into old and 
venerable institutions, and to show that the functions of 
the cathedral are progressive, and as necessary now in 
the present state of our society as they ever were in by- 
gone days. He is very hopeful that the dawning age will 
be an age of reconstruction, and that whilst all that is 
good in the ancient cathedral system should be carefully 

preserved, there may be grafted upon the old stock new 
and vigorous branches, so that the great needs of the day 
may be satisfied and the grand cathedral may become, in 
fact as well as in name, the mother church of each 
diocese. Bishop Benson devotes the first section of his 
work to an account of what he terms " The Old Activity," 
and under this head he gives an able sketch of Lincoln 
Cathedral as it existed in the middle of the fifteenth 
century. He takes a special delight in pointing out that 
study and " higher education " were distinctly provided 
for ; that the prcebenda was to be a centre of civilization 
to its district ; that, as Bishop Grosseteste says, a resi- 
dentiary should feed his flock with the three necessaries, 
" the word of preaching, the pattern of a holy conversation, 
and the devotion of single-hearted prayer" ; and that 
nothing was further from the original idea of the cathe- 
dral than that it should merely supply so much patronage 
or enable so many dignitaries to live at their ease. A 
school of architecture, a school of music, a school of 
grammar, a school of theology all these were to flourish 
beneath its shelter. He then proceeds to that which is, 
in fact, the central idea of the work, the relation of the 
chapter to the bishop. The cathedral chapter was 
intended to be, should now be, the bishop's council. He 
quotes, not without approbation, words of Bishop Words- 
worth to the effect that " episcopal authority " in its 
present aspect " seems too much to resemble an inverted 
pyramid trembling on its apex. In an ancient diocesan 
synod it reposed quietly on its base." The essential 
character of the institution is, in his view, conciliar. In 
this characteristic he finds the best remedy for that 
isolation which he regards as one great cause of present 
episcopal difficulties. No one culture or experience can, 
he thinks, do justice to the increasing complications of 
modern life. Each class, every contour-line of society, 
needs its own representative man ; a iro\w7roiici\oc aoQia 
is again demanded. The cathedral council is to supply 
this want : it must advise, it must recommend, it must 
formulate. The bishop " should seek its counsel, but 
does not need its consent; he is bound to ask, though not 
to follow." There may be grave doubts how far this kind 
of association could be maintained in actual practice. 
Would a bishop continue to consult a chapter whose 
views were at variance with his own '? Would a chapter 
continue to advise a bishop who asked though he did 
not follow their advice ? We must confess that we enter- 
tain serious misgivings upon this point. But the Bishop 
passes to other matters about which there will be less 
difference of opinion. The cathedral should be a home of 
theological learning ; the English Church has always been, 
must always be, a learned church. Here may be found 
for theological students, for the younger clergy, a wise, 
broad, sympathetic teaching ; here also a theological 
faculty, and here those who shall teach effectively pastoral 
divinity. A staff of free preachers may also be created. 
The great difficulty of carrying out these views appears 
to us to lie in the existing mode of presentation to 
cathedral offices. A canon dies he has been the 
Professor of Pastoral Theology, let us say; a new canon 
is appointed he knows little or nothing of pastoral 
theology ; how is the work to proceed 'I No one, how- 
ever, can rise from the perusal of Bishop Benson's book 
without admitting at once the deep interest of the subject, 
the clear and able manner in which it has been handled, 
and the large stores of archaeological learning which are 
displayed throughout the volume. 

Introduction to the Study of International Law. By 
Theodore D. Woolsey. Fifth Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged. (Sampson Low & Co.) 

THOSE who remember the earlier editions of Dr. Woolsey's 
excellent manual will at once perceive that the words 



. XII. JULY 12, 79. 

"revised and enlarged" carry with them the expression 
of a reality, and are by no means a figure of speech. 
We have, indeed, now in our hands the latest and fullest 
manifestation of the distinguished author's views on 
many of the most interesting questions of the day, some 
of which have arisen since he first began to put into the 
hands of the public the thoughts embodied in his lectures 
to the studiosa juventus of Yale College. President 
Woolsey's book is even now, after all the additions which 
it has received, a comparatively small and concise work, 
and in this sense still merits the title of " Introduction," 
modest as that title seems for the author's high position 
as a master in his branch of juridical science. It is of 
course impossible that subjects should here be treated 
with the fulness of Wheaton or Halleck, but for that 
very reason many will probably be induced to read 
Woolsey's Introduction who would shrink from the more 
voluminous text-writers. There are some lacunce which 
we should have liked to see filled in the present edition. 
With the prominence which the Suez Canal and the 
proposed inter-oceanic canal across the Isthmus of 
Panama have for some time been giving to the question, 
we should like to know Dr. Woolsey's views on the 
neutralization of such works. Copyright, again, which 
has formed the subject of discussion at recent congresses 
in Antwerp, Paris, and London, is undoubtedly coming to 
the front as an international question ; and here, too, we 
miss what could not have failed to be an interesting 
exposition, whether we agreed with the views expressed 
or not. As a publicist, Dr. Woolsey is practical rather 
than theoretical. He does not believe much in schemes 
of international courts of arbitration, but he does believe 
in the advance of International Law, though not in an 
"easy or unopposed advance." The Christian law of 
nations is, in fact, spreading over the East in a way and 
to an extent which, as Dr. Woolsey points out, Wheaton 
could scarcely have thought possible. The study of so 
wide-spread a system of principles of justice cannot but 
be enlarging to the mind. We commend Dr. Woolsey's 
book to the attention of all who, whether intended for 
diplomacy, the Bar, the Senate, or simply for private 
life, are desirous of sharing to the full in the benefits of 
a liberal culture. 

Gray's Poems. Edited by Edward Storr, M. A. (Riving- 

Milton's L' Allegro, II Penseroso, and Lycidas. (Same 

editor and publishers.) 
Courier's Task (Book L). Edited by the Rev. E. T. 

Stevens and the Rev. D. Morris. (Longmans & Co.) 
Coleridge's Ancient Mariner. (Same editors and pub- 
lishers. ) 

FROM one of his two prefaces it appears that between 
the Charybdis of Mr. Matthew Arnold's one note, and 
the Scylla of superfluity, Mr. Storr is somewhat em- 
barrassed. In his practice, however, he inclines rather 
to the latter than the former. Surely, in the notes to 
Gray, to ticket poor Whitehead and Colley Gibber as 
" Arcades ambo ! " can serve no purpose of instruction. 
Nor are his comments always unanswerable. Gray had 
no gifts for vers de societi:. he thinks. This is quite a 
matter of opinion. The " Long Story " probably set the 
tune to Praed ; and one of its couplets, 

" My grave Lord-keeper led the brawls ; 

The seals and maces danced before him," 
is nearly as well known as anything in the Bard or 
Elegy. But beyond the fact that Mr. Storr always spells 
the name of the antiquary Nichols wrongly, we have no 
further fault to find with these little books. Those of 
Messrs. Stevens and Morris are equally good, though we 
should have thought that the term ' Lake poets," as 
applied to Coleridge, Southey, and Wordsworth, was 

sufficiently exploded. The illustrations to these latter 
works might, we think, be omitted with advantage. 

Memories : a Life's Epilogue. (Longmans & Co.) 
THE least happy thing about this volume is its title. It 
a little suggests those strains of pensive commonplace 
which are the despair of the reviewer, and, moreover, 
quite inadequately describes these very bright and 
various Spenserian stanzas. About the wisdom of writing 
a long poem in a metre and manner which so closely 
resemble those of Childe Harold there may be difference 
of opinion ; but the author bears his burden lightly and 
seems to be thoroughly equipped with the odds and 
ends of information which lend so much vivacity to this 
particular fashion of verse. There are many pleasant 
and some powerful passages in the book. We suppose it 
would be heresy to say that any of them are worthy of 
Byron, but we have certainly happened upon one or two 
as good as any in Hood's excellent Irish Schoolmaster. 

MESSRS. G. A. YOUNG & Co., Edinburgh, announce an 
Analytical Concordance to the Bible, on an entirely new 
plan, containing every word in alphabetical order, 
arranged under its own Hebrew or Greek original (with 
the literal meaning of each, and its pronunciation), 
exhibiting 118,000 passages more than Cruden's. marking 
30,000 various readings in the Greek New Testament, 
with the latest information on Biblical geography and 
antiquities, by Robert Young, LL.D. 

AMONGST Mr. Murray's list of forthcoming works are 
a Life of Bishop Wilberforce, by Canon Ashwell ; & New 
Dictionary of the English Language, for practical refer- 
ence and methodically arranged ; A Life of Albert 
Diirer, with a History of his Art, by Moritz Thausing; 
a Memoir of Edward and Catherine Stanley, edited by 
their Son, the Dean of Westminster ; a third edition, 
revised, of the Handbook to St. Paul's Cathedral, by the 
lute Dean Milman ; The Student's History of Modern 
Europe,from the End of the Middle Ayes to the Treaty of 
Berlin, 1878 ; together with new and revised editions of 
many of the handbooks both home and foreign those 
indispensable companions of all travellers. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

M. A. With regard to queries 1 and 2, we should 
recommend you to apply to some foreign bookseller ; 
3, to Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co. 

J. S. S. writes : " Is there not recorded somewhere a 
famous speech made at a wedding breakfast '\ By whom 
was it made ? " 

" About 1830 one of the religious papers styled Lord 
Palmerston a ' Man of God.' A reference to the passage 
will oblige." 

R. BACON. Apply to Messrs. Strahan & Co. 

NOT 1C It . 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5* s. xii. JULY 19, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Lord Collingwood C. C. C. Oxford : The Sacramen 
in Elizabeth's Reign, 41 Division of Words into Syllables- 
London Signs, 42 Metrical English Versions of the Psalm 
Patron Saints, 43 The Aldine Anchor R. Fulton Bar 
tnh, a Hindu Prince, 44 Enlightening Public Opmion Isl 
of Wight Thackeray and Carlyle " Sic vos," &c. Cymo 
graph St. Swithin's Day Hannah Sparke, &c., 46. 

QUERIES: Two Similar Epitaphs French accented "E,' 
46 Benhall Peerage" Otia Sacra " " Patchock " Th 
"Durham Lettter" Queen Elizabeth and Melissus "Mosse 
from an old Manse " Holman and De Gymnick Families 
The Regicides, 47 Passenger Postage" The Death Wake ' 
Gloucestershire Weather, 1792 "Orarium," &c, "Plotty" 
Shelley at Geneva Sir Tobie Matthew, 48 Miss Landon' 
Letters Great Tom of Lincoln Charles Lever Author 
Wanted, <fec., 49. 

REPLIES : Keeping School in the Parvise, 49 The Palm, SC 
Celts and Saxons, 51 " Hale-coast "Rev. J. AUin, 52 
Moreton Arms De Laune Family Biographical Queries 
"Kybosh" Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, 53 
"Lothe "The Yew Metaphysics, 54" Hatts " " Samson 
Agonistes " Frogshall How of Sudbury " Talented " Th 
Hook John Taylor English Vineyards, 55 Assuming Amu 
Tubbing The Mystical Meanings of Precious Stones, 56 
FFin Names "Nappy" Custom at the Communion Ser 
vice A " Knotting-bag" Swift on Fleas Ploughing by the 
Horses Tail "Slad " "Ginnel." 57 "A house to let " 
James Wright Baronetesses Bishops' Wives Dante's Voy 
age of Ulysses Penance in the Church of England, 58 
Authors Wanted, 69. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Trollope's " Thackeray "Payne Col- 
lier's " History of English Dramatic Poetry to the Time of 
Shakespeare " Farrer's "Primitive Manners and Customs 
Creighton's " Epochs of English History." 

Notices to Correspondents, Ac. 

I extract the following copy of a letter of Lord 
Collingwood's from the Newcastle Daily Journal 
for Nov. 17, 1876. I think it deserves a place 
in " N. & Q." Written shortly after the third 
battle of St. Vincent, on Feb. 14, 1797, the letter 
had not hitherto been published ; it was addressed 
to Admiral Koddam : 

" Lisbon, March 1, 1797, Excellent. 
" Dear Sir, I am sure you will rejoice to hear we have 
had a most glorious fight with the Spaniards, in which 
I hope you and all the world will think we have well 
supported the British character. We were crusing with 
our little fleet off Cape St. Vincent, ten sail of us. On 
the 6th of February, Admiral Parker joined us from 
England with five sail, making up fifteen sail, including 
the Diadem, 64. On the llth or 12th, the Admiral 
received information that the Spanish fleet was near us 
27 sail of the line, 7 of them first-rates, nothing under 
74, with 9 frigates and with a spirit of gallantry which 
does him high honour resolved to fight them, trusting 
to the superior skill and ability of his officers and men 
to make up for the great disparity of force. On the 
night of the 13th our nearness to them was announced 
by hearing their signal guns. The morning of the 14th 
was fine, moderate weather, but thick and hazy. About 
seven the frigates to windward made the signal for see- 
ing them, and soon after we discovered them not very 
far off, both to windward and leeward of us, and dashed 

at them immediately, before they had well time to form 
their order of battle, or discover how few their assailants 
were. We cut through their line, which was not com- 
pact, and divided them into two distinct parts about 
noon ; then tacking, and throwing our whole force upon 
the larger division of 18 sail, which adhered to their 
Admiral, Cordova, we stuck to them for the rest of the 
day. The Excellent was well and soon up with the 
enemy, and had her good share in the day's business. 
The San Ysidro of 74 guns, the first ship that surren- 
dered, struck to us. We engaged her at the length of a 
half pike, the fire from our guns burning their beards. 
The Spaniards had not nerves to stand that long. I did 
not take possession of her, but making the signal to the 
Admiral to send a frigate to tow her off, he sent the 
Lively, and we made all sail up to the next, and came 
alongside the San Nicola, when she was abreast the 
Josef. I could have stepped from our sheet anchor on 
to hers before we fired, and when she luffed to avoid our 
boarding her, she clapped alongside the San Josef, so 
that our shot went through both ships. Commodore 
Nelson in the Captain and Trowbridge had been engaged 
with those ships, and as we shot ahead for want of means 
to back our yards everything being shot away the two 
Spaniards fell on board the Captain, when the Commo- 
dore at the head of his ship's company boarded them 
both, and they surrendered to him on their own quarter- 
deck, where he received their swords, one of his boat's 
crew bundling them up with as much composure as he 
would tie a faggot. We afterwards engaged the Spanish 
admiral in the Santissima Trinidada, of 132 guns, an 
hour, and she did us more injury than all the rest ; but 
their fire was nothing compared to ours. In the evening, 
while the fresh unsoiled Spaniards came up, and the 
signal was made to discontinue the fight, we carried off 
four of their fine ships two first-rates and two thirds- 
and left their admiral a wreck. Some say he struck. I 
did not see it. The day following the Spaniards lay to 
windward of us, but showed no disposition to come 
down. I suppose they held a council of war. We were 
employed in mending our rags, and we were not in a 
state to seek them and take care of our prizes at the 
same time. We carried them into Lagos Bay, and 
anded the prisoners. This victory is perhaps one of the 
most uncommon pieces of good fortune that ever hap- 
jened to any commander. And what makes the thing 
>etter, he is well satisfied with everybody in the fleet, 
for the Excellent's part, he takes every opportunity of 
giving her commendation, and is making some of my 
>eople pursers, gunners, and boatswains. Our first lieu- 
enant will certainly be made a captain by the Ad- 
miralty. God bless you, my dear sir, and all your family, 
and I am ever, with the most sincere regard and affec- 
ion, your faithful, humble servant, 


BETH'S REIGN. I have been examining the Com- 
)uti of Corpus Christi College lately, especially 
rom the accession of Elizabeth. Of course the 
ollege, like all such institutions, conformed to the 
hanges which Elizabeth or her counsellors ordered 
n the ritual of the previous reign. The most 

markable change to the student of prices is the 
essation of all purchases of wax, and a great 
iminution in those of wine. A few tallow candles 
re bought for dark days, and the wine needed for 


the office is very small in quantity. But in 
C. C. C. it is bought for each communion, and it is 
plain that the purchases made indicate all the 
occasions on which the rite was administered. As 
the facts throw some light on religious offices in 
the Anglican Church for twenty years and more 
after Elizabeth's accession, as C. C. C. was reputed 
to have been strongly affected towards the older 
religion, and as Hooker was first a student and 
afterwards scholar and fellow of the college, it may 
be worth while to record some of these intimations 
from the college books. In 1557-8 the college, 
for the last time, buys half a hundredweight of 
taper wax. In 1558-9 the account records the 
purchase of a communion book, and in the next 
year two more such books. 

Communions in 1567-8 : Christmas, Twelfth- 
tide, Easter, Whitsuntide, Trinity Sunday, second 
Sunday in August, second Sunday in October, 
second Sunday in November. 1571-2 :* Feb. 20, 
Good Friday, Easter Day, Whitsunday, All 
Hallows. 1578-9 : Dec. 7, Jan. 4, Feb. 1, Mar. 1, 
April 5, May 10, June 7, July 5, Aug. 2, Sept. 7, 
Oct. 10, Nov. 1. 1583-4 : only two communions, 
Easter Day, Sept. 1. 

Hooker appears as junior scholar in October 
term, 1573. He had been a student for some time 
previously, it is said five years. J. E. T. K. 


curious to observe the rules which have grown up 
for dividing English words into syllables. In 
practice these rules are ready and convenient 
enough, and as they serve the practical purpose 
of rendering books legible, there is no particular 
reason for altering them. But it may still be 
worth while to show that, from a theoretical or 
etymological point of view, they break down 
entirely, and constantly contradict common sense. 
A few examples will make this clear. 

The rough and ready rule is, I suppose, in prac- 
tice, this. Begin a new syllable with a consonant 
rather than a vowel, and if two consonants come 
together, put the former into one syllable, and the 
latter into another. I take up a well-known handy 
edition of the Pickwick Papers, and I find the fol- 
lowing examples in the opening pages : Impera-tive, 
explana-tion, unques-tionably, asto-nishmeut, conti- 
nued, impu-dence, solilo-quize, peru-sal,pros-perity, 
fes-tivity, counte-nance, uncer-tain, distin-guished, 
plea-sure, par- tide, princi-pals, indivi-dual. I omit 
others which are less odd. Nearly every one of 
these is, etymologically and theoretically, wrongly 
divided, as may easily appear to a Latin scholar. 
Even those who know no Latin must perceive 
that we should never think of writing peru-se, 

* The plague raged in this year, and many members 
of the college migrated to Culham. But some members 
were constantly resident. 

feas-t, plea-se, par-t, or divi-de. In many cases 
the root or base is cut right in half. Thus, 
continue and countenance are from the base ten, 
impudence from pud, soliloquize from loq, pros- 
perity from spe, distinguished from sting, principals 
from cap. These examples may serve to remind 
us that our present rules, doubtless convenient, 
easy, and sufficient, are nevertheless, when we 
come to theorize, completely and utterly indefen- 
sible. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

I have noted the following in examining a large 
collection of old letters : 

1660. M r Joseph Cuff at y e rose in hand in S' Swithunes 


1661. The Golden ball in Lime Street. 

1662. Y e Signe of the Boatswaine in Tower Street. 

1663. Y c Sword in hand in Cornhill (Peter Smith).* 

1664. The cross keyes Inn in Holbron. 

Y e redd Lyon in Fetter lane neere fleet Street. 
Y e 3 Stills upon Horsledowne (Rich d Roffey, a 

strongwater man). 

Will. Pallisor at y e Spurr in Southwarke. 
M r Browneinge, a coocke neare the purape on the 

Backeside of the Exchange att the signe of 

Kinge James his head. 
A drugster liveth at the blue ancker in Lumbert 


1665. M r Charles Cooke, Turner, at y' plow and harrow 

in little East Cheape. 
Y e Kings Head upon Horsledowne (Mr. Lewis 

Boulden, a chandler). 
M r Spencer Pigott, apothecary, at the greene 

dragon and talbot in Canon Streete. 
Y e Bull at Aldersgate. 
The Sun on Bunnhill (Sirnond Couse, tobacco pipe 


Y e Checquer upon y' hill (near Rye, Sussex). 
M r Rowland at y e cross keys in Maidstone. 
The 7 Starrs, Fetter lane. 

1666. The blackamores hedd in the Strand over against 

the Exchange. 

George Batte at the White Swan in S' Marten's lane. 
Y" White harte, Bromely ; y e Bell, do. 

1667. Y e signe of the 3. marriners, a pastry cooks house 

at Ratcliffe crosse. 
The 3 hatts on Tower ditch. 

1668. Y e anckor in sething lane nigh y e Navy Office 

(Capt 11 Newman). 

The three Boares heads over against the meale 
market in Southwarke. 

1669. The crosse daggers & home in Morefeilds next 

doore to Long Alley end. 

1670. Next doore to the three twobacquo pipes Rose- 

marry Laine. 
1672. Y e six bells in Princes Street near Covengarden 

(M r Hancock's house). 

Y e signe of the Blackboy and y c Three Tobacco 
boules in Southwarke near y* Melle Market. 

1679. Walter Monke at the goate in Lothbury. 

Mrs. Christian's at the golden ball in Winchester 

1680. Y e sine of y e Sune (Southwark). 

1682. (A coach ran from) y e bull in Tunbridge to London. 
Roger Williams at the Kings head in fleet street. 

* Peter Smith died of the plague in 1665. I should 
be glad to know his calling. 

5" S .xii.jcLTi9,79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

1682. The Angell, corner shop of fenchurch Street (Jn" 

M r Richard Pope's at y e blackboy in Southwarke. 

1683. M r James Wightman, watchmaker, over against 

the Salutation Taverne in Lumber Street. 
The greyhound Inne in Southwarke. 
M* Clagget at y* signe of y e black Swan in Cornhill. 

1684. M r Tho" Thorpe, a goldsmith at the goatt neare 

the tempell gatt in fleet street London. 
The sine of y e Caley (galley ?) near Stapell Inne. 
Sine of the heartey Cbocke in Canone Street. 

1685. The monkes bead in Maidstone. 

1689. M r Ralph Birt's, the horse shoe taverne in Drury 


1690. M r Lismore (tailor) at y e naked Boy in Earl's 

Court in Boar Street in Co vent Garden. 
1694. Edw. Miller at M r Hamlins Coffee House in 

Swithin's Alice. 

1697. The Nags head in Jewen Street. 
1716. Y* sign of y Roebuck in Cheapside ; also y e sign 

of y* Mug, under which is written, y e Loyal 

Society of the Mughouse. 

1723. M r Daniel Stringer at the Oyle Jar in Wallbrook. 
T. W. W. SMART. 

PSALMS. An amusing chapter of the curiosities 
of our literature might be compiled of the various 
whimsical metrical English versions of the Psalms 
which have been made from time to time. Per- 
haps not many readers even of " N. & Q." are 
aware that a portion of the 137th Psalin has been 
adapted to Sapphic measure as follows : 
" Fast by thy stream, Babylon, reclining, 
Woe-begone exile, to the gale of evening 
Only responsive, my forsaken harp I 

Hung on the willow. 

Gushed the big tear-drops as my soul remembered 
Zion, thy mountain paradise, my country ! 
When the fierce bands Assyrian, who led us 

Captive from Salem, 

Claimed, in our mournful bitterness of anguish, 
Songs and unseasoned madrigals of joyance : 
' Sing the sweet-tempered carol that ye wont to 

Warble in Zion.' 

Dumb be my tuneful eloquence, if ever 
Strange echoes answer to a song of Zion : 
Blasted this right hand, if I should forget thee, 
Land of my fathers ! " 

This curious essay is copied from the Panoramic 
Miscellany ; or, Monthly Magazine of Literature, 
Science, and Art, vol. i., 1826. Possibly Southey's 
youthful Jacobin effusions in Sapphic measure, so 
admirably, and withal so mercilessly, parodied by 
Canning, may have suggested the idea of attempt- 
ing to improve upon Sternhold and Hopkins, by 
adapting one of the Psalms to the same kind of 
rhyme ; but, however this may have been, it can 
hardly be allowed that the result as above is very 

A still more remarkable specimen of poetical 
vagaries in versifying the Psalms is given by Sir 
Egerton Brydges in his Censura Literaria, which 
readers of " N. & Q." who have not access to that 
work will probably be interested to see reproduced 
in this connexion : 


Blest is the man, 

Yea, happie than, 

By grace that can 
Eschew ill counsell and the godles gates : 

And walks not in 

The way of sin, 

Nor doth begin 

To sit with mockers in the scornfull sates : 
But in Jehovah's law 

Delites aright, 
And studies it to know 

Both day and night : 

That man shall bee 

Like to the tree 
Fast planted by the running river growes, 

That fruite doth beare 

In tyme of yeare, 
Whose leafe shall never fade nor rute unloose." 

The scarce old book (a small 8vo. of sixteen 
leaves), from which these very odd " cuttit and 
clippit " verses are given by Brydges as a speci- 
men, is entitled : 

"The Mindes Melodic. Contayning certayne Psalmes 
of the kinglie prophete David, applyed to a new pleasant 
tune, verie comfortable to everie one that is rightlie 
acquainted therewith. Edinburgh : Printed be Robert 
Charteris, Printer to the Kings most excellent Majestic, 
1605. Cum privilegio regali." 

What kind of " a new pleasant tune " such lines 
were " applyed to " does not appear, but it must 
have been quite as whimsical as the measure is 
"original." W. A. CLOUSTON. 


" But worship be unto our Lady of the seven okes and 
St. Job of Wesemale, with al the glorious saints which 
are at Antwerp on the high alter, for there did happen 
some foresight, by the cunning of unfolding the booke of 
lies and causing kinges too beleeve that the Moone was 
made of greene Cheese." Beehiue of the Romish Churche, 
1580, bk. iv. c. 5. fo. 272 b. 

"St. Hugh and St. Eustace gotten the hunters in 
garde, St. Martin and St. Urban the aleknightes, tavern- 
hunters, and drunkardes, St. Arnolde is Baal over the 
Millers, St. Steeuen ouer the Weauers. The carpenters 
doe vaunt of theyr patrone St. Euloge, the taylers doe 
cleaue to St. Goodman, the potmakers have elected St. 
Goare, St. Anthonie must keepe the hogges, St. Loy the 
horses and kine, St. Hugh the dogges least they turne 
madde, St. Gallus gardes the geese, St. Wendelin the 
sheepe, St. Gertrude reegneth ouer rats and myce, 
SS. Cosmus and Damian are good for al byles and swelling 
diseases, St. Clare doth cleare and heale the firy and red 
eyes, St. Petronella can drive away al manor of agues, 
St. Vincent and St. Vinden cause all things that are lost 
to be restored againe, St. Seruatius doth cause al thingea 
to be well kept, St. Vitus doeth direct all daunsers, St. 
Otilia doeth gouerne the bead, St. Katharine the tongue, 
St. Appollin the teethe, St. Blasius the necke, St. Eras- 
mus the whole bellie, St. Burgarde, St. Roche, St. 
Quirinus, St. John, and other more gouerne the thighes, 
the knees, the shinnes, and the feete these saints with 
rose garlands with gaie coates," &c. (fo. 259b-261). 

Similar lists may be found in Becon's works and 
the Homilies, and in my Sacred Archaeology, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6- a. xii. JULY 19, -79. 

book-collecting friends will know what pleasant 
memories are associated witk the volumes bearing 
on them the device of the anchor used by the 
family of Aldus, printers who have achieved 
enduring fame for the beauty of their typography. 
Not less pleasant are the associations with the 
imitation of their device used by William Pickering, 
the most tasteful of English publishers. The Rev. 
John Mitford upon one occasion wrote a little 
impromptu, containing allusion to the devices used 
by several printers, and ending with well-deserved 
good wishes to William Pickering : 

" Impromptu. By the Eev. John Mitford. 

[Here is Pickering's device.] 

' Let your emblems or devices be a dove, or a fish, or a 
musical lyre, or a naval anchor.' 

Would you still be safely landed, 

On the Aldine Anchor ride ; 

Never yet was vessel stranded 

With the Dolphin by its side. 

Fleet is Wechel's flying courser, 
A bold and bridleless steed is he ; 
But when winds are piping hoarser 
The Dolphin rides the stormy sea. 

Stephens was a noble printer, 
Of knowledge firm he fixt his Tree ; 
But time in him made many a splinter 
As old Elzivir in thee. 

Whose name the bold Digamma hallows 
Knows how well his page it decks ; 
But black it looks as any gallows 
Fitted for poor authors' necks. 

Nor time nor envy e'er shall canker 
The sign that is my lasting pride ; 
Joy, then, to the Aldine Anchor, 
And the Dolphin at its side ! 

To the Dolphin, as we 're drinking, 
Life, and health, and joy we send ; 
A poet once he saved from sinking, 
And still he lives, the poet's friend." 
This bit of cardboard is now but rarely seen, and 
a transcript from it may be of interest to some of 
your readers. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

ROBERT FULTON. It has recently been asserted 
that he was not a native of Pennsylvania, but of 
Scotland, and pretended to be an American for the 
purpose of obtaining from the Government of 
France some advantages for his inventions. A 
valuable periodical, called The Register of Pennsyl- 
vania, contains, in the number for February 5, 1831, 
a communication respecting him and John Fitch, 
from which the following account is taken : 

" I knew John Fitch and Robert Fulton. The latter 
was about the year 1780, and for several years, my school- 
mate !n the town of L r, Pennsylvania. We were 

then very small boys. His mother was a widow, and in 
straitened circumstances. I had a brother who was 
fond of painting. The war of the revolution, which pre- 
vailed at that period, made it difficult to obtain materials 
from abroad, and the arts were at a low ebb in the country. 
My brother, consequently, prepared and mixed colours 
for himself; and these he usually displayed on mussel 

shells. His cast-off brushes and shells fell to my lot, 
some of which I occasionally carried in my pocket to 
school. Fulton saw and craved a part. He pressed his 
suit with so much earnestness that I could not refuse to 
divide my treasure with him, and in fact he soon, from 
this beginning, so shamed my performances by the supe- 
riority of his own that it ended in my voluntarily sur- 
rendering to him the entire heirship to all that came into 
my possession. Henceforth his book was neglected, and 
he was often severely chastised by the schoolmaster for 
his inattention and disobedience. His friends removed 
him to Philadelphia, where he was apprenticed to a 
silversmith, but his mind was not in his trade. He 
found his way to London, and placed himself under the 
patronage of his celebrated countryman West." 

The communication is signed Epoc, and was 
doubtless written by the late Thomas P. Cope, a 
native of Lancaster, who removed to Philadelphia 
and became one of our most eminent merchants. 
He established the line of packet-ships between 
Liverpool and Philadelphia which preceded the 
American line of steamers. UNEDA. 


IN BATTLE A.H. 623 (A.D. 1226). 

" Malik Nasir- lid-din Mahmud was the elder son of 
Sultan Shams-ud-din. He was an intelligent, learned, 
and wise prince, and was possessed of exceeding bravery, 
courage, generosity, and benevolence. The first charge 
which the Sultan confided to him was that of Hansi. 
Some time after, in 623 H. (1226 A.D.), Oudh was en- 
trusted to him. In that country the prince exhibited 
many estimable qualities. He fought several battles, 
and by his boldness and bravery he made his name famous 
in the annals of Hindustan. He overthrew and sent to 
hell the accursed Bartuh(?), under whose hands and sword 
more than 120,000 Musulmans had received martyrdom. 
He overthrew the rebels of Oudh and brought a body of 
them into submission." Sir Henry Elliot's History of 
India, edited by Prof. John Dowson, vol. ii. p. 328, 
" History of the Shamsiya Kings, a Branch of the Albari 
Tribes of Turkistan." 

If, as is by no means improbable, " the infamous 
Jasrath,"* or Dasa-ratha of the Khokhar, or more 
correctly Gahkar, branch of the Suraj-vansi dy- 
nasty, who in A.D. 1431 carried away the Malik 
Sikandar a prisoner to Jesrouta,t or Jesro"d, ninety- 
six miles north-east from Labor, was the same 
person as Dasa-ratha, the father of Bharata of the 
Ramdyana,^. and this date, as well as A.D. 1226 
above given for the death of Bartuh, killed at 
Oude, is to be relied upon, it follows that 
the last mentioned could not have been Bharata, 
the son of Dasa-ratha, by whom the adjoining 
towns Bhurrut and Kukkee, in the Bunnoo dis- 

* History of India, by Sir Henry Elliot, edited by 
Prof. J. Dowson, vol. iv. p. 74. 

f Elphinstone's and Burnes's maps of Afghan-i-stan ; 
Thirty-Five Tears in the East, by J. M. Honigberger, 
vol. i. p. 128 ; Travels in the Panj-dl, by Baron C. Hiigel, 
edited by Major T. B. Jervis. 

J French translation of the JRdmdyana, by M. Hip- 
polyte Fauche. 

A Year in the Panj-dl, by Major Herbert B. Ed- 
wards, C.B., vol. i. p. 338. 

5 s. xii. JULY 19, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tricfc, were founded, and leaves it doubtful which 
of the two dates has the stronger claim to fixing 
the real period of the historical events recorded in 
the Rdmdyana. E. E. W. ELLIS. 


the note on this subject (ante, p. 25), I have acci- 
dentally discovered that the paper distributed in 
every parish church through the country was 
written by the celebrated William Cobbett, in the 
summer of 1803, during the short ministry of Mr. 
Addington, and not of Mr. Pitt, as I had every 
reason to suppose. According to Cobbett this 
publication was issued by the Government, sent 
to all the parishes, distributed in the churches, and 
read from the several pulpits. My venerable in- 
formant would appear to have forgotten the last 
fact. I quote a couple of characteristic sentences 
from the number of Cobbett's Political Register 
which is dated June 14, 1809 : 

" This paper was entitled, ' Important Considerations 
for the People of this Kingdom ' : it was in the news- 
papers attributed to Lord Hawkesbury, afterwards to 
Dr. Horsley, Dr. Rennell, and other learned and eloquent 
men ; but the real author of it was myself. I wrote it ; 
offered it to Mr. Addington through Mr. Yorke ; he 
accepted of it, in which he showed his sense of duty to 
be above party pique : and it was published and dis- 
tributed at the expense of several thousands of pounds." 

G. H. W. 

THE ISLE OP WIGHT. Under the head of 
" Dikmgerbendi Insula" (ante, p. 34) MR. TEW 
would derive Wight from Jutce or Vitce, the people 
to whom the island fell on the Saxon invasion. 
In my memorandum book I have noted from 
somewhere or somebody (unfortunately I have not 
a reference) as follows : "Isle of Wight this is 
tautology. Wight alone would suffice = holy 
island, from Gothic we = holy, and ight, or igt, or 
igot^eyot, an island." I should like to be cor- 
rected. Hie ET UBIQUE. 

passages from these authors are, I think, curious 
enough to be noted, especially considering the 
dates are so near. Both authors are speaking of 
Louis XIV. :- 

" It is curious to see how much precise majesty there 
is in that majestic figure of Ludovicus Rex. In the 
plate opposite we have endeavoured to make the exact 
calculation. The idea of kingly dignity is equally strong 
in the two outer figures, and you see at once that ma- 
jesty is made out of the wig, the high-heeled shoes, and 
cloak, all fleur-de-lis bespangled. As for the little lean, 
shrivelled, paunchy old man, of five feet two, in a jacket 
and breeches, there is no majesty in him at any rate, 
and yet he has just stepped out of that very suit of 
clothes. Put the wig and shoes on him, and he is six 
feet high, the other fripperies, and he stands before 
you majestic, imperial, and heroic ! Thus do barbers 
and cobblers make the gods that we worship." Paris 
Sketch Bool, " Meditations at Versailles," p. 285, July 1, 
1840 (advertisement to first edition). 

" No man can be a grand-monarque to his valet de 
chambre. Strip your Louis Quatorze of his king-gear, 
and there is left nothing but a poor forked radish, with 
a head fantastically carved ; admirable to no valet." 
Heroes and Hero Worship, " The Hero as Man of Letters," 
p. 170, read May 19, 1840. 


" Sic vos," &c. The invaluable rule, " In ne- 
cessariis unitas ; in dubiis libertas ; in omnibus 
caritas," was referred by Canon Farrar, at Croy- 
don Church Congress (1877), to Eupertus Mel- 
demus, " an obscure German divine." In " A 
Crack aboot the Kirk for Kintra Folk," appended 
to the Memoir of Norman Macleod, D.D. (voL L 
p. 340), may be read, "It was a gude sayin' o' 
auld Mr. Guthrie, ' In things essential, unity ; in 
things doobtfu', liberty ; and in a' things, charity.' " 
But, as John Kinge remarked nearly three hundred 
years ago, "What needeth such curious learning 
to appoint every egge to the right hen that laid it, 
as some did in Delos 1 " ST. SWITHIN. 

LIFE. The following paragraph has appeared, 
under the above heading, in the Times, July 3, 1879, 
and may, I think, fitly reappear in " N. & Q." : 

" Mr. T. Morgan Owen writes from Bronwylfa, Rhyl, 
July 1 : ' As of late we have read much concerning golden 
and silver weddings, the accompanying tomb inscriptions, 
to be seen in Llannefydd churchyard (a village about six 
miles from Denbigh), may interest your readers : 1. 
Whom one nuptial bed did containe for 80 years do 
here remaine. Here lieth the body of Elin, wife of lohn 
Owen, who died the 25 day of March, 1659. Here lieth 
the body of lohn Owen, who died the 23 day of August, 
1659. 2. They lived amicably together in matrimony 
70 years. Here lyeth the body of Katherine Davies, 
the wife of Edward lones, who was buried the 27 day 
of May, 1708, aged 91 years. Here the body of Edward 
lones, son of lohn-Ap-David, Gent., lyeth, who was 
buried the 14 day of May, 1708, aged 91 years.' " 


CYMOGRAPH. This is an instrument for sketch- 
ing the mouldings of buildings. I have heard the 
word in conversation, but I do not think it has 
found a place in our dictionaries. I never saw it 
in print anywhere until to-day, when I met with 
it in the following passage : " I have a series of 
the profiles of these mouldings taken, for the most 
part, with the cymograph invented by Prof. 
Willis, and perfected by Mr. Edmund Sharpe of 
Lancaster, to whom I am indebted for them" 
(Mr. John Henry Parker, in Arclueologia, vol. xliiL 
p. 90). K. P. D. E. 

" SNICKUPS * : " SWEDGE." A labourer in 
Essex told me the other day that the turkeys in 
his neighbourhood were dying very much this 
season of the "snickups." By this he meant a 
kind of sneezing fit. He also said that " swedge " 
land was the best for keeping geese on. According 
to his explanation this is meadow land where it is 
easy to pull up the grass. See on "Sneck-up" or 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5* s. xn. JULY 19, 79. 

Snitch-up," " N. & Q.," 1"'S. i. 467, 492 ; ii. 14 ; 
iv. 28 ; xi. 92. JOHN CHURCHILL SIKES. 

Godolphin Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

" On leaving the monastery we rode to the principal 
mosque of the town. I was struck by seeing a large 
ostrich egg suspended from the ceiling by a silver chain. 
On my asking the Turk who showed me over the build- 
ing why this egg was hung there, he replied, ' Effendi, 
the ostrich always looks at the eggs which she lays ; if 
one of them is bad she breaks it. This egg here is sus- 
pended as a warning to men that, if they are bad, God 
will break them in the same way as the ostrich does her 
eggg."' Burnaby's On Horseback through Asia Minor, 
vol. i. p. 316. 

E. H. A. 

In the neighbourhood of Gloucester a country 
damsel was heard to say that she should go up into 
the garden to-morrow (being St. Swithin's Day) to 
see " whether the apples were christened," chris- 
tened, as I suppose, by the rain falling upon them. 
The belief prevails here that on St. Swithin's Day 
there is a change in the nature of the apples ; 
whereas before they were vapid and tasteless, after 
they become fruity and grateful to the taste and 
are fit for use. F. S. 


kindly notice of my Letter on Exceptional Lon- 
gevity which appeared in the Illustrated London 
News of June 21, in which the writer referred to a 
statement of mine " that I had never seen any 
evidence of a person attaining the age of 106," 
evoked a communication obviously intended to 
show 1 was wrong, by giving me evidence of a still 
greater age. The writer referred to a portrait of 
Mrs. Sparkes, of Wellingborough, "engraved by 
Bartolozzi after Hall," on which she is described 
as "Mrs. Hannah Sparkes, born October, 1678. 
Living at Wellingborough, August, 1785." The 
old lady did not long survive the taking of her 
portrait, for in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1785 
her death is recorded under date September 18 : 
" At Willingborough, Northamptonshire, in her 
107th year, Mrs. Hannah Sparke, widow, mother 
of the late Havey Sparke, of Knuston." There is 
nothing in the portrait, which was not engraved 
until 1800, to show that Mrs. Sparke was of the 
exceptional age of 107. On the contrary, a medical 
friend, to whom I submitted it for his opinion as to 
her age, regarded it as the portrait of a well 
nourished old lady of between seventy and eighty, 
and that is my own impression. 

I have a great many portraits of centenarians 
and reputed centenarians, and I believe portraits, 
especially photographic portraits, furnish good 
evidence as to the approximate age of individuals. 

I may have something more to say upon this 
point, and I should be greatly obliged if any 

Northamptonshire genealogist or correspondent 
would investigate the age of the " mother of 
Havey Sparke of Knuston " and publish the result. 
It would be doing good service to the cause of 
biological truth. WILLIAM J. THOMS. 

40, St. George's Square, S.W. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

Two SIMILAR EPITAPHS. In Cuddesdon Church- 
yard is the well-known epitaph by Bishop Lowth 
on his daughter : 

" Cara, vale, ingenio praestans, pietate, pudore, 

Et plus quam natae nomine cara, vale. 
Cara Maria, vale, at veniet felicius aevum, 

Quando iterum tecum, sim modo dignus, ero. 
Cara, redi, laeta turn dicam voce, paternps 
Eja age in amplexus, cara Maria, redi." 

On a monument in Brislington Church, near 
Bristol, there is this one on a son (" N. & Q.," 2 nd 
S. ii. 417) : 
" Care, vale, sed non aeternum, care, valeto, 

Namque iterum tecum sim modo dignus, ero. 
Turn nihil amplexus poterit divellere nostros ; 
Nee tu marceaces, nee lachrymabor ego." 

Besides the commencement and the similar senti- 
ments, a line in each is almost exactly the same. 
Will any correspondent confer the favour of the 
dates of the two 1 ED. MARSHALL. 

Sandford St. Martin. 

FRENCH ACCENTED "E." Will one of your 
learned French scholars inform me by what rule 
the e in French is accented? Thus e(3evos is ebene; 
why 1 "H/9ws is also similarly accented heros, but 
the conditions of the two vowels are not the same. 
Again, e'/cAei^ is eclipse, hcereticus is heretique, 
and so on, but I can perceive nothing in common 
in these different expressions of the letter e. I 
once thought that the accent might be divisional, 
but evidently eb-ene and ec-lipse require the con- 
sonant to be added to the initial vowel. I have 
asked many foreigners and many English scholars, 
but can obtain no satisfactory answer. I am told 
there is no rule, but this is not credible, and I 
have no doubt that this appeal will elicit an 
answer containing the information asked for. In 
regard to the grave accent, it is always given to 
an e when followed by one consonant and another 
e, provided the three letters are not contracted (as 
in meme, rfoe), and that they make only one 
syllable, as maniere, ebene, Grece, pcre, rappelerent, 
commencerent, menent, presentment, and so on. 1 
am not aware that it occurs under other conditions. 


6tHs.xii.jTn.Ti9/79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the surname of the Baron Benhall summoned to 
Parliament in the 34th of Ed. III. ? The arms 
were Gules, a fer de moulin argent, over all a 
bendlet azure (Sir C. Barker's Heraldic Collec- 
tions). But these are the well-known arms of Sir 
Guy Fere, who was lord of the manor of Benhall 
in Suffolk in 25th of Ed. III. (Davy's Sv/olk Col- 
lections). They are cited by Planche, Lower, &c., 
as a typical instance of " armes parlantes " arms 
borne to mark and illustrate the bearer's name. 
A Sir John Fere accompanied Ed. I. to the Holy 
Land in 1270 (Rymer's Fcedera), and probably 
assumed the cross incline on that occasion. The 
arms are, therefore, clearly those of Fere, not of 
Benhall. How, then, came Sir Robert de Benhall 
to bear them ? Was the name possibly Fere de 
Benhall ? IOLKOS. 

Cape Town. 

[The surname was Benhall, or, as it is written in 
Burke, Benhale. Of any descendants of the baron sum- 
moned by writ April 3, 1360, nothing appears to be 
known. Burke does not blazon the arms.] 

" OTIA SACRA." Scarce volume of poems, 
printed for private circulation. By MUdmay 
Fane, second Earl of Westmorland. London, 1648, 
4to. I shall be obliged if any one can inform me 
where a copy can be acquired. The British Mu- 
seum contains two prints. H. M. VANE. 

74, Eaton Place. 

" PATCHOCK." Within the last two years there 
was in " N. & Q." a reference to a passage in 
Spenser's Description of Ireland, where it is said 
that some of the English settlers had become " as 
very patchocks " as the Irish themselves. I cannot 
recover the passage in " N. & Q." nor can I find 
it in Spenser. Can any one help me to the 
reference? H. WEDGWOOD. 

appeared on the 4th of November in the Times, 
and I believe in other morning papers also. Did 
the writer ever publish it in a revised form ? To- 
wards the end of the letter the following sentence 
occurs : " I will not bate a jot of heart or life, so 
long as the glorious principles and the immortal 
martyrs of the Reformation shall be held in rever- 
ence." Thus I find it printed in the Annual 
Register (p. 199) and in Molesworth's History of 
England, (1874, ii. 351). " Bate no jot of heart 
or hope " are Milton's well-known words. " Bate 
a jot of life " is nonsense. J. DIXON. 

before me a charming vellum binding, powdered 
all over in gold, with the letter E crowned. It 
bears on one side the inscription D . ELIZABETHS 


MEEISSUS, the Vs and e's being much alike. It 

seems to be a fancy name of one of the courtiers. 
Is it known who he was ? J. C. J. 

Who is Peter Rugg, the missing man of Boston, 
who acts as the Wandering Jew's doorkeeper in 
Hawthorne's curious sketch, A Virtuoso's Collec- 
tion ? All the curiosities in this museum, as those 
of your readers who are acquainted with the essay 
will remember, are, or are supposed to be, well- 
known objects, both animate (that is once animate) 
and inanimate, collected from all ages of history 
and fiction, e.g., Una's lamb, Rosinante, the alba- 
tross transfixed by the Ancient Mariner's bolt, 
Burns's mountain daisy, the tub of Diogenes, 
King Arthur's sword Excalibar, Cowper's sofa, 
Peter Schlemihl's shadow, Goldsmith's peach- 
bloom suit, the Wandering Jew himself, and in- 
numerable others. I do not, however, remember 
ever to have heard of Peter Rugg before. It has 
rather a Washington Irving sound. Is he in one 
of Irving's books ? I bought lately a cheap copy 
of the Mosses, published by Routledge & Sons, 
which, although otherwise apparently complete, 
does not contain the above sketch. Why should 
this, and this alone, have been omitted 1 


Bexley Heatb, Kent. 


desirous of information regarding Sir John Hoi- 
man, M.P., of Banbury, Bart., created June 4, 
1663, alive 1698, second son of Philip Holman, of 
Warkworth Castle, Banbury. Sir John married 
Jane, daughter of Samuel Fortrey, of Kew, mer- 
chant. No family is shown to him in the pedi- 
gree in the writer's possession, but there is a 
picture of a Mary Ann Sophia Holman (marked 
so on back), companion oval picture to that of a 
Count de Gymnick, which I am anxious to identify 
as the link between the families, otherwise we 
cannot account for the old pedigree and pictures 
of the De Gymnicks in our family. Sir John's 
sister Mary married George Clarke, of Watford, 
Esq., M.P., an intended " Royal Oak Brother." 


THE REGICIDES. Can any of your readers afford 
information as to the birthplace and family of 
Colonel Robert Phaire, or Phayre, one of the three 
colonels to whom the death warrant of Charles I. 
is addressed ? In 1658 he married the daughter 
of Sir Thomas Herbert of Tinterne, Bart., as 
appears from a memorial brass to the latter in the 
church of St. Crux, York. At the Restoration he 
was committed to the Tower with the other regi- 
cides, but, strange to say, was released, after a 
short confinement, without trial or punishment. 
In 1666 he was again accused of plotting against 
the Government, but once more escaped without 
penalty, and died at an advanced age in 1682, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5 th s. xn. JULT 19, 79. 

leaving 1,000?. to each of his eight children, besides 
the landed estates granted to him by Cromwell in 
Cork and Wexford, which are still held by his 
descendants. He bore the same arms as Sir Guy 
Fere of Benhall, in Suffolk, contemp. Edward I., 
viz., Gules, a fer de nioulin argent, over all 
a bendlet azure. Bardsley and the author of the 
Norman People and their Descendants identify the 
Norman name of Fer, Fere, Ferre, with the modern 
form of Fair, Phayre, Phear, &c. : the latter author 
adds Farr. 

Thomas Phaer, or Phayer, of Kilgerran Forest, 
Pembrokeshire, who translated Virgil in 1558, was 
originally of Norwich, and the name occurs in 
Norfolk to this day. A Eicardus Ferr of Hereford 
is mentioned in 1583. Colonel Phaire is supposed 
to have belonged to one of the eastern counties. 
Cromwell's letter to him is given by Carlyle, and 
his name occurs frequently in the records of his 
time. It is an uncommon one, and I should be 
glad if more light could be thrown on its origin. 


any reader of "N. & Q." give me a few bio- 
graphical particulars relating to Miss Fanny Eliza 
Lacy, author of the Visitor in Grey and many 
other works in prose and verse '} 

A literary miscellany was published between 
three and four years ago called the Shotover 
Papers, Oxford, 1875 (Mr. Vincent publisher). 
How many numbers of it were published ? I shall 
be glad of any particulars. E. INGLIS. 

BUTLER, in his satire on the Royal Society, says : 
" A learn'd society of late, 
The glory of a foreign state, 
Agreed upon a summer's night 
To search the Moon by her own light 
To take an inventory of all 
Her real estate and personal, 
And make an accurate survey 
Of all her lands, and how they lay, 
As true as that of Ireland, where 
The sly surveyors stole a shire." 

To what do the last two lines refer ? 


I have the volume of the above magazine for 1856 
(published by Bell & Daldy), containing critical 
articles on Tennyson, Carlyle, Thackeray, Euskin, 
&c., and some exquisite poems, e.g., " The Blessed 
Damozel," " The Burden of Nineveh," &c. Were 
any other volumes of this magazine published, and 
have the various contributions, other than those 
since included by Mr. D. G. Eossetti in his poems, 
been since acknowledged 1 


PASSENGER POSTAGE. A reference to a maga- 
zine article on "Passenger Postage," which ap- 
peared about ten years ago, is desired. F. 

" THE DEATH WAKE." Where could I procure 
a copy of The. Death Wake ; or, Lunacy, a Romaiint 
in three Chimeras, by Thomas Tod Stoddart, 
published about 1834? HERMES. 

'THE BEGGAR'S BENISON." There existed in 
Fifeshire, towards the end of the last century, a 
society called " The Beggar's Benison." When 
was it instituted, and what was its object 1 



In Kit Marlowe's Doctor Faustus (Act iv. sc. 2) 
this expression occurs. Is this the original of it, 
or was Marlowe quoting a then familiar proverb ? 

lowing short paragraph appeared in the Gloucester 
newspapers many years ago, and has been re- 
printed in the Gloucester Mercury, June 28, 1879 : 

" We are informed that a person who has been dead 
For more than half a century, who lived at the Bell, in 
Barton Street, kept a commercial diary, and at the same 
time a meteorologic register. From this it appears that 
on the 5th of June, 1792, Gloucester and the surrounding 
country was not only visited by an intense frost, but the 
surface of the ground was covered with a deep snow." 

This was remarkable. Can any one supply par- 
ticulars in confirmation of the statement 1 


" ORARIUM " : " SUDARIUM." Is not the former 
rather than the latter the right word for the pas- 
toral staff cloth 1 In the month of October, 1877, 
I searched for the word (in a book the name and 
the author of which have escaped me) for my dear 
friend the late John Hewitt, and orarium was 
certainly the term used. E. 

" PLOTTY." Sir Charles Bell paid a visit to 
Campbell the poet at his little place at Sydenham. 
They rambled down into the then delightful village 
by moonlight, and, adjourning to the inn, took some 
" egg and plotty." Tom got glorious, and returned 
to his wife not drunk, but in excellent spirits. 
What is plotty ? C. A. WARD. 


SHELLEY AT GENEVA. Where would it be 
possible to procure (by whom, too, was it pub- 
lished ?) the Six Weeks' Tour, a little work contain- 
ing an account of a tour taken by the Shelleys and 
Byron round the Lake of Geneva ? This book is 
mentioned by Moore in his Life of Byron, p. 320 
(Murray, ed. 1838), and was published circa 

Hotel Beau Site, Aigle, Switzerland. 

SIR TOBIE MATTHEW. There was published in 
1857 Bacon and Shakespeare: an Inquiry touch- 
ing Players, Play- Houses, and Play- Writers in 
the Days of Elizabeth, by W. H. Smith, Esq. 

5s. xii. JULY iv79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Appended to this work is an abstract of a MS. 
respecting Tobie Matthew, containing a true his- 
torical relation of his conversion to the Holy 
Catholic Church, with the antecedents and con- 
sequents thereof. " The MS. itself," observes Mr. 
Smith, " could it now be traced, would make an 
interesting volume, worthy of publication by the 
Camden or any other literary society." Is any- 
thing known of this MS. whether it is still in 
existence, and, if so, where it is preserved ? 

E. H. A. 

Miss LANDON'S LETTERS. In one of Miss 
Landon's letters she speaks of a " lively American 
writer, who in the amusing tale of the Cacoethes 
Scribendi encourages her whole family to write by 
the assurance that ' the printers would find them 
spelling and grammar ' " (Blanchard's Life of 
L. E. L., vol. i. p. 99). I am anxious to know 
what is the book quoted. ANON. 

GREAT TOM OF LINCOLN was cast in the minster 
yard in 1610. After hanging for over 200 years 
(the bell being cracked) it was recast in 1834 by 
Thomas Mears of London. Was there any "Great 
Tom " prior to 1610 1 and was the present appella- 
tion given as a diminutive of an ancient dedication 
of the great bell of the cathedral to St. Thomas 1 
Any information or references to authorities will 
be acceptable. MARTTN. 

IN The Life of Charles Lever, vol. ii. pp. 288-9, 
it is stated that he was in the habit of getting his 
shoes from a descendant of the celebrated Count 
Lally, who cobbled at Lethekenny. Can any one 
inform me who that descendant was, and if he 
exists now ? ECLECTIC. 

" NUHC homines audite Deo chorus undique rumpit." 
Some years ago I saw scribbled on the woodwork of an 
organ in a small country church the above neat hexa- 
meter, which has lingered in my memory ever since. IB 
it original, or can any of your readers kindly refer me 
to the author ? MARS DENIQTTB. 

" Like five-barred gates their amplitude is seen 
Less by the structure than the space between." 



(5 th S. xi. 366, 394, 472 ; xii. 37.) 
There seems to be some confusion in the minds 
of your correspondents as to what the parvis of a 
church really was and as to what uses it was applied. 
CHANCELLOR HARINGTON (xi. 472) quotes from 
Staveley's History of Cliurches in England that a 
certain part of the church was anciently called the 
parvis . . . a parvis pueris ibi edoctis; that this parvis 
was also used for a sort of court consistorial ; that 

the lowest part of the church next the doors was 
called the parvis, and sometimes courts temporal 
were held there, and though the courts were dis- 
continued the teaching and instruction of children 
was still continued, &c. It would be difficult to 
bring together within the same space statements 
equally misleading and unfounded. No part of 
the body of the church was ever called the parvis ; 
the derivation of the word from "parvis pueris ibi 
edoctis " is childish and absurd. No courts, tem- 
poral or spiritual, were ever held therein ; at least 
we have no authority that such was the case. If 
the remainder of Mr. Staveley's work is no better 
founded than these quotations, it must be exceed- 
ingly unreliable. 

The history of the parvis possesses such interest 
for the antiquarian student that I offer no apology 
for attempting to put your readers on the right 
track for its investigation. For the origin of the 
word we must go a long way back. Xenophon, 
in his Cyropcedia, i. 3, describes the enclosed 
parks or pleasure grounds of the Persian monarchs 
by the term TrapaSeto-o?, which is an ancient 
Persian or Zend word closely allied to the Sanskrit, 
in which pdrades'a signifies an outside enclosure. 
The same word was adopted by the LXX. as the 
equivalent of Heb. gan in describing the garden 
of Eden, Gen. ii. 8, Ee^vrei'o-ev 6 0eos Trapaoeta-ov 
ev ESe/z,. Hesychius defines it TOTTOS ev rtp 
TreptVaTw, an ambulatory. In the early ages of 
Christianity the word was applied to the enclosure 
in front of the church, equivalent to the Trpovaos 
of the Greek temple. Viollet-le-Duc, sub voce 
" Parvis," says : " Le parvis est videmment une 
tradition de Pantiquite* ; les temples des Grecs 
etaient habituellement pre'ce'de's d'une enceinte 
sacr6e dont la cloture n'e"tait qu'une barriere a 
hauteur d'appui." 

The Romans imitated the Greeks. In front of 
the temple of Antoninus and Faustina at Borne, 
and in the temple of the Sun at Baalbec erected 
by the emperor Hadrian, there were forecourts or 
parvis, that at Baalbec of great magnificence. 

The parvis of the mediaeval cathedrals was 
merely a continuation of this tradition. They are 
alluded to from a very early period by ecclesiastical 
writers under the name of paradisus. Thus the 
Canon Romanus : " Dicimus paradisum nihil 
aliud esse, nisi locum ante basilicam." Anastasius, 
the librarian of the Vatican, writing in the ninth 
century, speaking of Donus I., says : " Hoc atrium 
beati Petri, quod paradisus dicitur, estque ante 
ecclesiam, magnis marmoribus struxit." 

The enclosure of the paradisus was used for 
various public purposes. The sacred relics were 
occasionally exhibited there whilst the chapter 
intoned the Gloria from the exterior arcades of the 
church. Here also was erected the scaffold or 
pillory for the punishment of delinquent clerics. 
The paradisus of the Western churches differed 



from the narthex of the Eastern. The latter was 
always a covered portico, where the catechumens 
assembled previous to their baptism. When infant 
baptism became generally adopted, the narthex 
was no longer required and fell into disuse. The 
parvis of the French cathedrals was always an 
open area, with an enclosure breast high merely to 
mark its limitation. Although these enclosures 
have been swept away, some of them remained 
down to the time of the Revolution, and the areas 
still exist at Paris, St. Denis, Amiens, Poitiers, 
and elsewhere. The change from Low Latin 
paradisus to modern parvis is very curious. 
Brachet (Dictionnaire Etymologique) gives the 
various stages of the transition. First the medial 
d is thrown out, as in many other words, such as 
benir from benedicere, choir from cadere. It be- 
comes then parais, softened into pareis. The 
intercalation of v is common both in Latin and 
French, asfluvius homfluere, pluvius from pluere, 
&c. It is then parevis, which by the elision of e 
in rapid pronunciation becomes parvis. 

The term was of course introduced into England 
from France, but the parvis in the French sense 
was not generally adopted amongst us. There is 
evidence that a parvis formerly existed at the west 
end of St. Paul's, and it is no doubt to this that 
Fortescue (De laudibusLegumAngl., ii. 124) alludes 
when he describes the students from the Inns of 
Court after dinner " se devertunt ad pervisum et 
alibi consulentes cum servientibus ad legem et 
aliis consiliariis suis." It is probable that this 
passage has led some people to the conclusion that 
courts of justice were held in the parvis. For this 
there appears to be no foundation. The law 
students attended there to consult the Serjeants, 
who frequented the parvis as a place of general 
resort, to see their clients and bring themselves 
before the public. It is in this sense that the 
hackneyed quotation from Chaucer's prologue is to 
be understood. The " serjeant at law ware and 
wise " frequented the parvis to see his clients. I 
should much like to know who are the " ancient 
writers " who describe " the pleadings of lawyers " 
and their subsequent prohibition. I have made 
a tolerably searching examination, but can find no 
evidence whatever for such a statement. 

In the absence of any real parvis to the English 
churches, the church porch and the room over it, 
where there happened to be one, might be occa- 
sionally called by the name. Cotgrave, writing in 
the early part of the seventeenth century, inter- 
prets Fr. parvis as " the porch of a church," but 
adds, " more properly, the utter part of a Palace." 
None of the instances quoted by your corre- 
spondents bear out the application of the term to 
a church porch. The will of John Gines, in refer- 
ence to the porch of St. Sepulchre's, ignores the 
term. The minute book of Colyton, quoted by 
MR. ROGERS, calls the room " the chamber over the 

ihurch porch." Indeed, I can find no authority 
'or styling either the porch or the room over it the 
larvis or parvyse. It is wonderful what a goodly 
structure can be erected based on so frail a founda- 
ion as mere assertion and conjecture. 

The keeping school in the room over the church 
Dorch has been common in all parts of the country 
intil a very recent period, if it does not still pre- 
vail in some rural districts. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

A very narrow street, close to the " Lady 

'hurch," at Calais, is entitled Les Parvis de St. 

Pierre. The church, however, as its English name 

implies, is dedicated to St. Mary ; nor was there 

ver at Calais, to my knowledge, a church of St. 


THE PALM (5 th S. xi. 347.) Although a long 
chapter on the symbology of the palm might be 
written, I hardly think that much of importance 
could be added to what MR. MARSHALL has already 
adduced as to the reasons why it has been uni- 
versally accepted as "the emblem of victory. The 
supposition of Aulus Gellius is the general and 
most plausible one. Thus Levimis Lemnius says : 

" Caeterum quum haec arbor oneri renitatur, nee pre- 
nioiiti bus urgentibusque cedat, hoc insigne incertaminibus 
victori decerni, solet quod invictum animi robur palmas 
naturam referat, ac sit rei fortiter atque animpse gestum 
symboluin ac trophaeum. Sic martyres qui invicto in- 
fractoque animo adversus Tyrannorum stevitiam substi- 
terunt, amicti stolia albis palmis manibus gestasse leguntur 
in victorias argumentum." Simililudinum ac Parabo- 
larum quce in Bibliis ex Herbis atque Arboribus desu- 
muntur dilucida explicatio, &c. Erphordiae, anno 
M.D.LXXXI. 8vo., p. 53. 

This learned little volume is, by the way, very 
rare, and not less so is the English version, dedi- 
cated to the Earl of Essex : " Herbal for the Bible, 
an Explanation of the Similitudes, &c., borrowed 
from the Plants and Herbs mentioned in the 
Scriptures. Drawn into English by T. Newton. 
E. Bollifant, 1587. 12mo." 

I may cite an English writer of the same period : 
" It is the nature of this Tree, tho' never so ponderous 
a weight were laid upon it, crescere suo pondere, not to 
yield to the burthen, but still to resist the heavinesse of 
it, and to endeavour (as doth Chamomile the more 'tis 
trod on) to lift and raise itself upward, for this cause 
planted in Church-yards in the Eastern Countries, as an 
Emblem of the Resurrection ; instead whereof we use the 
Ewe-Tree in these colder Regions : For the same reason 
(as also Palm Leaves being firm and durable) given by 
the Romans to their Victorious Combatants and Con- 
querors, in their Coronet, called Palma Lemniscata 
(because the Garland or Coronet was tied about with 
certain Woollen Ribbands called Lemnisci), and so from 
its repugnant Energy, and hardiness, it is the Emblem 
or Hieroglyphick of a Soldier's Life." Histona Vegtta- 
bilium Sacra : or a Scripture Serial, <kc. By William 
Westmacott, of the Borough of Newcastle under Line, 
in the County of Stafford, Physician. London, 1694. 
12mo., p. 143. 

. xii. JULY 19, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The question is still further discussed by another 
writer : 

"Primus Theseus palmam donasse victoribus fertur 
in Graecia, Plutarcho referente in Theseo, qui in 
Symposiac. i. 8, quaest. 4, causas exponit ; cur cum 
alia certamina alias haberent coronas, palmam com- 
muniter omnia? an propter pulchritudinem ] an in 
tuitu longaevitatis, et quod nullum ex se natum folium 
objiciat? an quod sacra sit Apollini Pythio, certaminum 
praesidi .' an quod, ut Babvlonii cantant, CCCLX. utilitun 
genera praebeat 1 aut quod se non sinat deorsum premi 
imposito pondere, sed contra renitatur ? Multa de his 
Cornel, a Lap. in Apoc. i. c. quae videat, qui cupiet 
Palma datur palmce ! laboranti, puta, certanti, vincenti. 
Inde Passeratius de imagine Victoria? notissima, ex 
nummis et Scriptis Komanorum : 

' Florentem pennata gerit Victoria palmam.' " 

P. 542. 

Jok. Henrici Ursini Arboretum Biblicum, in quo Ar- 
bores et Frutices passim in S. Littrit occurrentes, ut (t 
Plantce, Herlce, et Aromata, Notit Philologieis, Philoso- 
phicis, Ttieologicii, expoHuntur et illustrantur, &c. 
Norimbergae, 1699. 8vo., pp. 624, 276. 

The following Latin epigram by Charles Lamb 
and its accompanying English version are, I fancy, 
well known, but as I do not find them in my 
edition of his Works (Moxon, 1840) or in Eliana, 
being the hitherto Uncollected Writings (Moxon, 
1864), their preservation here, in connexion with 
this subject, may not be thought inappropriate. 
They appeared in the Champion newspaper of 
May 7, 1820, and were republished in the Annals 
of the Fine Arts for that year, vol. v. p. 439, 
whence I transcribe them : 

" In tabulam eximii pictoris B. B. Haydoni, in qua Soly 
maei, adveniente Domino, palmas in via proster- 
nentes, mira arte depinguntur. 

Quid vult iste equitans ? et quid velit ista virorum 
Palmifera ingens turba, et vox tremebunda Hosanna 1 
Hosanna Christo semper semperque canamus. 

Palma fuit Senior pictor celeberrimus olim ; 
Sed palmam cedat, inodo si foret ille superstes, 
Palma, Uaydone, tibi : tu palmas omnibus aufers. 

Palma negata macrum, donataque reddit opimum. 
Si simul incipiat cum fama increscere corpus, 
Tu cito pinguesces, fies et, amicule, obesus. 

Affectant lauros pictores atque poetae. 

Sin laurum invideant (eed quis tibi 1) laurigerentes, 

Pro lauro palma viridanti tempora cingas. 


Translation of the above. 

What rider 's that ? and who those myriads bringing 
Him on his way with palms, Hoeannas singing? 
Hosanna to the Christ, Heav'n Earth should still be 

In days of old, old Palma won renown ; 

But Palma's self must yield the painter's crown, 

Haydon, to thee. Thy palms put every other down. 

If Flaccus' sentence with the truth agree, 
That ' Palms awarded make men plump to be,' 
Friend Horace, Haydon soon in bulk shall match with 

Painters with poets for the laurel vie : 
But should the laureat band thy claims deny, 
Wear thou thine own green palm, Haydon, trium- 
phantly. C. L." 

[See editorial note, " The Yew," p. 54.] 

CELTS AND SAXONS (5 th S. xi. 5, 52, 213, 369, 
469.) If MR. SCOTT can prove that the " Uchtre- 
dus filius Scoti " mentioned by A. S. A., and said 
by genealogists to have been the ancestor of the 
Buccleuch and Ancrum families, was identical 
with the "Uchtredus filius Waldevi" of 1120, I 
must admit that he was a Saxon ; but MR. SCOTT 
seems only to suppose that one person was described 
by these two names. In the absence of any certain 
or positive proof that this supposition is correct, I 
must continue to believe that " Uchtredus filius 
Scoti " was the son of an Irishman, a native of 
Scotia major or Scotia minor, by a Saxon wife, 
and that his name of Uchtred came from his 
maternal ancestors. Bede calls the Irish Scots, 
and says that, "issuing from Hibernia," they 
obtained by " friendship or the sword " settlements 
amongst the Picts and Britons which they retained 
in his time. From the ninth to the eleventh 
century the Irish frequently intermarried with the 
Danes and Saxons, and it seems a much more 
natural way of accounting for the name and nation- 
ality of " Uchtredus filius Scoti " to take him for 
the son of an Irishman and a Saxon woman than 
to follow MR. SCOTT in his wide researches all over 
England, the Lothians, Norway, Denmark, and 
Ireland in search of " sons of the tribute." These 
researches are far too wide for me, and I am afraid 
they will lead MR. SCOTT into a fierce battle with 
some of my learned countrymen, who will never 
admit that the west of Ireland was ruled by 
Danish kings from the ninth to the eleventh 
century, although a Danish prince or chief named 
Ivar may have possessed himself of the city of 
Limerick about that time. The English name of 
Scutt is probably derived from tax or tribute, and 
I suspect it has sometimes changed into Scott for 
the sake of " euphony " or " gentility " ; but unless 
there is good proof to the contrary, I cannot but 
think we may fairly believe that a man living on 
the west coast of what is now Scotland, between 
the sixth and the eleventh centuries, and then de- 
scribed as " filius Scoti" or " Le Scot," was of Irish 
descent. And surely his descendants would be 
nearer akin to Wallace than to a Bed Indian, the 
[rish of Scotia major and Scotia minor and the 
Welsh being only different branches of the Celtic 
stock. Of the friendly intercourse between the old 
Eastern and Western Gaels (unlike the O'Gormans 
and MacLarens of the present day at Westminster) 
we have a curious illustration in the unpublished 
Annals of Innisfallen," in the Bodleian Library, 
which say: "A.D. 1104. The king of Scotland 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ s. xii. jm 19, 79. 

sent a camel to Mortogh O'Brien as a present, and 
the people of Ireland were astonished at the enor- 
mous size of the animal." This Mortogh O'Brien, 
or, as he is called by the Irish genealogists, Mortogh 
More (the great), was the great-grandson of Brian 
Boru, who defeated the Danes at Clontarf (v. Dr. 
Todd's Wars of the Gael ivith the Gaill), and the 
sovereign of Munster from 1086 until 1116. His 
nephew, Donal O'Brien, was king of Man and 
of the Hebrides from 1104 to 1108, and it was in 
the former year that strange visitor the camel 
" astonished " the people of Ireland. Can the old 
monks on Innisfallen island have meant the 
Hebrides by Scotland ? and was the camel sent 
from the Hebrides by King Donal O'Brien to his 
uncle, or from the mainland of Scotland by King 
Edgar 1 ? In Miss Gordon Cumming's delightful 
book From tlie Hebrides to the Himalayas (vol. i. 
p. 93), noticing the little island of Canna, one of 
the inner Hebrides, she says that the " little kirk- 
yard on it is a field of rank waving grass, dotted 
with grey rocks carried thither from the shore to 
mark the resting-place of the sleepers, while a 
broken cross of yellow sandstone guards this lone 
God's-acre. It is one of these stones," she adds, 
" that tells perhaps of ancient superstitions, for on 
it are carved divers emblems of unknown meaning, 
amongst others a camel, the sole instance in which 
that Eastern treasure appears in Scottish sculp- 
ture." The sculptured camel is probably a me- 
morial of the Scottish gift to the Munster king 
when Donal O'Brien was king of the Hebrides. 

" HALE-COAST " OR " HALE-CAUST " (5 th S. xi. 
468.) The herb is alecost, or, as written by Cot- 
grave, alecoast. It was also called costmary, bal- 
samine, or balsam herb (Balsamita vulgaris). In 
French it was known as costamer, cost, coq, sauge 
romaine (Cotgrave). Alecost occurs in all the old 
herbals. Its medicinal virtues may be read in 
extenso in Culpepper's English Physitian Enlarged, 
ed. 1671, p. 75. Culpepper speaks there of alecost 
as a very frequent and familiar herb in the gardens 
of his time, and he continues, " It is an especial 
friend and help to evil, weak, and cold livers." 
As to the etymology, the second element may be 
connected with costus, an Eastern shrub of noted 
aromatic properties, with which it somehow came 
to be confounded, though, of course, widely dis- 
tinct, the balsam of which shrub Horace mentions 
in a familiar quotation from his Odes as Achcemi- 
nium costum. The Oriental spice root was known 
in England in 1440, for we find in the Promp- 
torium, " Cooste, herbe : Costus, cujus radix dicitur 
costHm," on which Mr. Way notes that "of the 
various virtues of coste, which is the root of an 
Indian plant, the early writers on drugs give long 
details." As to the ale portion of alecost, Skinner 
says, " quia forte cerevisise immissa gratum ipsi sa- 

>orem odoremque conciliat, et est sane jucundissimi 
odoris planta." And so in Johnson's edition of 
errard, bk. ii. ch. ccviii. (cited by Nares), " Cost- 
narie is put into ale to steep, as also into barrels 
ind stands, amongst those herbs wherewith they 
do make sage ale." ZERO. 

The plant referred to by HERMENTRUDE is pro- 
iably that of Pyrethrum tanacetum of Linnseus, 
cnown also as Balsamita vulgaris. It is a com- 
posite plant, native, it is said, of Italy, but intro- 
duced into this country as early as 1568. It is 
a creeping, rooted, hardy perennial, growing to a 
icight of from two to three feet, the leaves having 
a strong balsamic odour, in consequence of which 
hey were formerly used to put into ale and 
negus, from whence is derived the old English 
name of ale-cost, which would seem to be the 
orrect form of spelling. It is also known by 
the name of costmary, derived, it is said, from 
the old Latin name of Costus amarus or the French 
coste amere. Although the plant is generally found 
in cottage gardens, it is now seldom grown for 
culinary purposes, and even in France it is only 
used occasionally for mixing in salads. The par- 
ticulars here given will be found in Lindley and 
Moore's Treasury of Botany, vol. i. p. 119, article 
" Balsamita/' JOHN K. JACKSON. 

Museum, Kew. 

The following extracts from Dr. Prior will 
answer your correspondent HERMENTRUDE : 

' Alecost, from L. costus, some unknown aromatic, and 
ale, so called from its having formerly been esteemed 
an agreeable aromatic bitter, and much cultivated in this 
country for flavouring ale (see ' Costmary '). Balsamita 

" Costmary, L. costus amarus, its name in Bauhin's TJi. 
Bot., p. 674. Fr. coste amere, misunderstood as costus 
Marice, from Gr. KOOTOQ, some aromatic plant unknown. 
Balsamita vulgaris, L." 

The Anglo-Saxon name was cost. See Saxon 
Leechdoms, lib. ii. Ivi., &c., and Glossary, vol. ii. 
p. 377, and vol. iii. p. 320. G. 0. E. 

KEY. JOHN ALLIN (5 th S. xi. 467.) John Allen 
is mentioned in Wren's Impeachment, section 13, 
where it is stated that " the terror of [certain] pro- 
ceedings hath caused other ministers to leave their 
cures and go away, viz. Mr. William Kirington 
[Herrington], Mr. Thomas Warren, Mr. John 
Allen, and others." These were all ministers in 
Ipswich. Brook, in his Lives of the Puritans, 
iii. 456, says, speaking of John Allen, barn 1596 : 
" A divine of his name, and probably the same 
person, was minister of Ipswich, who, during the 
oppressions of Bishop Wren, voluntarily departed 
from his cure and went to London." He refers to 
Wren's Parentalia, p. 96, and continues : " He 
went with many others to New England, &c. 
Died Aug. 26, 1671," &c. I should like to know 
on what authority T. W. W. S. says he was the 

s. xii. JULY 19, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


son of John Allin of Wrentham, Suffolk. The 
Eev. John Phillip was Hector of Wrentham from 
1609 to 1638, when he was driven away by Bishop 
Wren, and he afterwards resumed his incumbency. 
During the interval the Rev. Robert Asty was 
instituted to the rectory, so that I see no place 
whatever for John Allen. I shall be glad to com- 
municate with T. W. W. S., and meanwhile would 
reer him to my History of Congregationalism in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, pp. 88, 422, &c. 


TON (5 th S. xi. 221, 412, 472, 518.) I think both 
statements are incorrect : Sir William Moreton 
was not member for Brackley when he died, and 
there was an election for that borough between 
1754 and 1761. I believe the facts are these. At 
the general election in 1754 the members returned 
for Brackley were Marshe Dickinson and Thomas 
Humberstone. The latter died the following year, 
and there was a new election for Brackley in Nov., 
1755, when Sir William Moreton was elected with- 
out opposition, and continued member for the 
borough till the next general election in 1761, 
when he was not a candidate, and Marshe Dickin- 
son and Robert Wood were returned without oppo- 
sition. Sir William died two years subsequently. 

May I suggest that the Index Society would do 
very good service if they would publish a complete 
index of Parliamentary candidates, showing those 
elected and those rejected, and indicating the 
places they represented and how long they sat ? 


The following extract from the list of Members 
of Parliament for Brackley given in Baker's His- 
tory of Northamptonshire proves satisfactorily that 
Sir William Moreton represented that remarkably 
small constituency : " Nov., 1755. Sir William 
Moreton, Recorder of London, vice Humberstone, 
deceased." He apparently continued to do so until 
" 21 May, 1 George III. (1761)," when there were 
returned " Marshe Dickinson, Esq., re-elected ; 
Robert Wood, Esq., Under Secretary of State " 
(vol. i. p. 571). JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourae Rectory, Woodbridge. 

THE DE LAUNE FAMILY (5 th S. xi. 468, 509 ; 
xii. 29.) Gideon Delaune, the celebrated king's 
apothecary, was certainly the eldest son of William 
Delaune, "Preacher of the Word of God, and 
Physician" (as he described himself), being so 
named in his father's will, of which he was one of 
the executors. Gideon himself, and perhaps others 
of the family, was a native of Rheims. The will 
of his younger brother Paul, who disappeared so 
mysteriously, was dated Dec. 13, 1654, but not 
proved until June 6, 1657. Paul's only surviving 
son, Benjamin, was a London merchant, and at his 
death, in 1679, in the service of the H. E. I. Co. 

abroad. By his wife Margaret, daughter of George 
Coney, he had, with other issue, a son William, 
who was afterwards Vice-Chancellor of Oxford 
University, and at his death had been President 
of St. John's College for thirty years. It was 
Mary Delaune (not Jane), only sister of the last 
William Delaune (the last surviving male de- 
scendant of Gideon Delaune's numerous family), 
who married Colonel Edward Thornycroft. De- 
laune and Delane are entirely distinct names. 
The first of the family in England wrote his name 
" De Lawne," and some of his descendants con- 
tinued to do so. J. L. C. 

468.) T. C. asks what was the office of " ostiarius 
scaccariL" The office would appear to be that of 
the doorkeeper of the Scaccarium, and what that 
was the following extracts from Du Cange will, I 
think, explain : 

" Scacarium etiam appellatum olim in Normanniae Du- 
catu, suprema Curia, in qua appellationes ab inferioribus 
judicibus supremo jure dijudicabantur. Hinc Justiciarii 
superiores dicuntur Scacarii Magistri. Blna autem 
singulis annis tenebantur Scacaria, primum ad Pascha, 
alterum in festo S. Micbaelis. Scacarium apud Anglos 
varie sumitur, interdum enirn, et proprie dicitur Curia, 
in qua res fisci pertractantur. Scacarii were the judges 
in those courts, and were called Barones Scacarii or 
Scaccarii. The King's Treasury also was called by the 
term Scacarium or Scaccarium." Du Cange, s.v. 

Ducange derives the name from the public build- 
ing in which the ultimate courts of appeal were 
held, so called from the pavement, which consisted 
of different coloured squares, similar to the squares 
(like a chess-board) of the tabula, " in qua Scacis 
luditur, alternis quadris albi ac nigri coloris dis- 
tincta." E. C. HARINGTON. 

T.\Q Close, Exeter. 

" KYBOSH " (5 th S. xi. 508.) The Slang Diet. 
gives : " Kibosh, nonsense, stuff, humbug : ' it 's 
all kibosh,' i.e. palaver or nonsense ; ' to put on 
the kibosh,' to run down, slander, degrade, &c." 
I suppose kye-bosk is the same word. In Sketches 
by Boz (" Seven Dials ") two women are described 
abusing one another : " ' Hooroar,' ejaculates a 
pot-boy in parenthesis, ' put the kye-bosk on her, 
Mary.'" T. LEWIS 0. DAVIES. 

Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

A. is in error in stating that in the expression 
" Giving a piece of work the kybosh " the meaning 
is that the job is being done in a hurried or care- 
less manner. To kybosh a thing or give a thing 
the kybosh means to settle a thing in the sense of 
overthrowing or upsetting, as, for instance, it might 
be said the death of the young Pretender gave the 
kybosh to the hopes of the Jacobite party. 

L. M. K. 

S. xii. 27.) His five daughters were : 1. Maud, 


xn. JULT 19, 79. 

married, first, before 1359, to Geoffrey Lord Say ; 

secondly, according to Dugdale, to Edmund ; 

she died between 1369 and 1372. 2. Emma, mar. 
Roland de Odingseles. 3. Isabel, mar. John de 
Clinton. 4. Elizabeth, mar. Sir Thomas Astley. 
5. Lucy, mar. Eobert de Napton. 

May I call your attention for a moment to a 
difficulty connected with a grand-daughter of Guy, 
Earl of Warwick ] Is it stated in the Rous Roll 
that Agnes, daughter of Earl Thomas his son, 
married, first "... Cokesay, and secondly, . . . Bar- 
dolf." This Agnes, with much surface probability, 
Mr. Stapleton, in a note to his Liber de Legibus 
Antiquis, identifies with Agnes, wife of Thomas 
Lerd Bardolf, whose parentage has been hitherto 
.unknown. I am painfully aware that I am com- 
mitting great presumption in objecting to anything 
advanced by so eminent a genealogist ; but I ven- 
ture to suggest that I cannot quite reconcile this 
presumed identification with a passage on the 
Patent Roll of 11 Ed. III., Part 2, which refers to 
Agnes widow of Thomas Bardolf, quce departibus 
Alemanu' extitit oriunda. Can this passage mean 
otherwise than that Lady Bardolf was a German ? 
and if so, how could she be a Beauchamp of 

"LOTHE" (5 th S. xi. 468 ; xii. 14.) DR. BRUSH- 
FIELD will find in Halliwell's Archaic Dictionary, 
under "Lithe (5)," a reference to " Kennett MS.," 
consequently there may be no printed authority for 
lothe meaning to offer for sale in Cheshire. The 
quotation is no doubt taken from Bishop Kennett's 
glossarial collection in the Lansdowne MSS. 
(No. 1033) at the British Museum. 

I resided formerly for some years in Cheshire, 
and had opportunities for studying the dialect, but 
I never heard lothe used in the sense noted by the 
bishop. Such negative evidence, however, proves 
nothing, and the word may well have died out 
there since White Kennett's time. Grose gives 
as North-country words "lathed or overbelathed 
strongly pressed or entreated over again," which 
may be connected in an assumed sense of impor- 
tunately pressing goods or inviting one to buy 
Wilbraham, in his Cheshire Glossary, 1826, gives 
lathe, to ask, to invite, marking it also as a Lan 
cashire word. Halliwell, who copies Wilbraham 
for the word and its definition, marks it 'only as 

THE YEW (5 th S. xii. 8.) B. E. has asked a 
question upon an obscure point of antiquity in re 
questing information as to why and when the yew 
came to be planted in churchyards, and for wha 
reasons it was considered sad and funereal. A 
to the latter point, its appearance and poisonou 
nature at an early time caused the epithet " sad 
to be applied to it. Pliny states : 

" Similis his etiamnum aspectu est, nequid prsetereatur 
taxus, minus virens, gracilisque, et tristis, ac dira Ma 

pxio fructu. Lethale quippe baccis, in Hispania prae- 

ipue, venenum inest Hanc Sextius smilacem a Grae- 

is vocari dixit, et ease in Arcadia tarn praesentis veneni, 
it qui obdormiant sub ea, cibumve capiant, moriantur." 
Lib. xvi. cap. x. 

Caesar says that Cativolcus, one of the rulers of 
he Eburones, poisoned himself with the yew (De 
3ello Gall., lib. vi. cap. xxx.). 
The earliest authority for the planting of the 
ew in the churchyard that I know of is Giraldas 
3ambrensis, who visited Ireland in A.D. c. 1184, 
,nd observed it in burial grounds and holy places : 
" Prse ten-is autem omnibus quas intravimus, longe 
copiosius amaro hie succo taxus abundat, maxitne vero 
n coemiteriis antiquis locisque sacris sanctorum virorum 
manibus oliin plantatas (a 1. plan ta Us), ad decorem et 
ornamentum quern addere poterant, arborum istarum 
copiam videas." "Topogr. Hibern.," dist. iii. cap. x., 
Opp., Lond., 1857, vol. v. p. 153. 

There was further an obvious reason for its being 
3lanted in churchyards, as affording a substitute 
for the palm : 

" But for encheson that we have none olyve that berith 
greene leef algate, therfore we take ewe instede of palme 
and olyve and beren aboute in processyon, and so is this 
day callyd Palme Sonday." Liber Festivalis, Domin. in 
Palm., sig. c.f.v., Caxton, 1483. 

So far as it seems from this^ the abundance and 
appropriateness of the yew as an ornamental tree for 
the churchyard caused it to be planted there, and it 
was afterwards found of convenient use in the cere- 
monies of the Church, and this includes its use at 
funerals. I am not aware of any authority, apart 
from conjecture, which proves more. 


I have always understood that the yew was 
grown in the churchyard that each parish might 
furnish a supply for purposes of archery, in days 
before the bow and arrow were superseded by gun- 
powder. I have no book of reference at hand to 
enable me to verify this, but doubtless many of 
your readers have. FRANCES COLLINS. 

5, New Burlington Street, W. 

The " churchyard yew " is so called because yews 
were ordered to be planted in churchyards in order 
that yew bows might be provided for the archers of 
England, and as it is an excessively slow-growing 
tree it was to be planted in the richest soil obtain- 
able. J. R. HAIG. 

[\Ve shall be glad to hear from correspondents, who 
have sent replies since the above were in type, how far 
their communications are now superseded. The same 
will apply to " The Palm," p. 51.] 

Since sending my query, I have noticed the 
following : 

" The blacksmith at Glammis was greatly reputed for 
his mother wit. He was the Ulysses and lexicographer 
of the district. A countryman asked him for an explana- 
tion of the word metaphysics. ' Weel,' said the black- 
smith, ' I think I have hit on the meanin'. When ane is 

5t s. xii. JULY 19, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

speakin' in a way that naebody can understand, and when 
the speaker himsel' disna ken what he wad be at that is 
metaphysics.' " Dr. C. Rogers, Familiar Illustrations of 
Scottish Life, ch. vii. p. 127, eighth thousand, Lond., 1876. 

Sandford St. Martin. 

Your correspondent might consult Christopher 
North perhaps the Nodes Ambrosiance. See notes 
to Prof. Fowler's edition of the Novum Organon. 

Junior Garrick. 

NAME ON KECORD (5 th S. xi. 466.) According to 
H. H. C. a competent authority has declared Hatts 
to be the oldest hereditary surname on record, 
apparently on faith of a document earlier than 
1066. In the Morning Post, Jan. 2 last, it was 
stated that the Bannermans of Elsick boasted of 
being one of the earliest families in Scotland who 
used hereditary surnames. The statement was in 
the notice of the death of Lady Bannerman, widow 
of Sir Alex. Bannerman, first M.P. for Aberdeen, 
afterwards Governor of Newfoundland. It would 
be interesting to learn to what dates the surname 
could be satisfactorily traced, and whether Scotch 
or English families have the better claim to 
precedence. HANDFORD. 

H. H. C. may or may not be correctly informed 
as to what he tells us about the family of Hatt, 
but he has assuredly erred greatly in giving a 
vague reference. To tell us that something is to 
be found in the Cottonian manuscripts without 
giving any further help is about as wise as it would 
be to say that he had read it in a book. Does he 
know the number of articles contained in Sir 
Robert Cotton's collection? Planta's catalogue, 
p. xv, informs us that there are about twenty-six 
thousand. K. P. D. E. 

" SAMSON AGONISTES" (5 th S. xi. 467.)" The 
Philistines took him and put out his eyes." The 
Hebrew phrase in question signifies to extirpate 
the eye-ball. It also means to deceive, as in 
Numbers xvi. 14, " Wilt thou put out the eyes of 
these men ? " M. D. 

FROGSHALL (5 th S. xi. 467.) There is a Frog- 
hall between Dunchurch and Coventry on the great 
Holyhead road, where it is intersected by the Foss 
way. There is also a Froghall at Norton-under- 
Cannock on Watling Street, and another near 
Cheadle in North Staffordshire. The first two are 
ancient houses ; the last I do not know. 


' How OF SUDBURY (5 th S. xi. 468.) MR. E. G. 
HOWE will find some scattered notices of How in 
Morant's Essex. Stonedon was purchased by 
Richard How, who had issue two sons, Richard, 
who died without issue, and John, who also pos- 

sessed Great Ropers. He (John) was sheriff of 
Essex in 1730, and died in 1784. By his will 
Stonedon manor passed to William Taylor, who 
took the name of William Taylor How. The arms, 
as given in Edmondson's, Burke's, and Papworth's 
heraldries, are Argent, a chevron between three 
wolves' heads couped sable, for How, or Howe, of 
Suffolk and Essex. The arms assigned to this 
family by MR. E. G. HOWE, viz., Gules, a chevron 
between three wolves' heads erased argent, are to be 
found in Burke's General Armory and in Pap- 
worth's Ordinary of British Armorials as those 
b'orne by two Kentish families, Golding and Petitt. 


" TALENTED " (5 th S. xii. 29.) Have you space 
for this quotation from Coleridge's Table Talk, 
1835, vol. ii. p. 63 1 

" I regret to see that vile and barbarous vocable talented 
stealing out of the newspapers into the leading reviews 
and most respectable publications of the day. Why not 
shillinffed, farthinged, tenpenced, &c. ? The formation of 
a participle passive from a noun is a licence that nothing 
but a very peculiar felicity can excuse. If mere con- 
venience is to justify such attempts upon the idiom, you 
cannot stop till the language becomes, in the proper sense 
of the word, corrupt. Most of these pieces of slang come 
from America." 


Athenaeum Club. 

THEODORE HOOK (5 th S. xi. 486.) In the 
memoir of Theodore Hook in the Gentleman's 
Magazine (1841), vol. xvi. p. 434, it is stated, 
" We have also before us a prospectus of a con- 
templated history of the house of Hanover, which 
he had undertaken, but never lived to complete." 

L. L. H. 

487.) Charles Knight, in his biography of Taylor 
in the Penny Cyclopcedia, says that " he was 
buried in St. Paul's, Coyent Garden." The idea 
that he found his last resting-place at St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields may have arisen from the fact that 
the southern side of the churchyard was called 

the watermen's ground," from the number of 
Thames watermen buried there from the neigh- 
bourhood of Hungerford, York, and Whitehall 
Stairs, as stated by me in Old and New London, 
vol. iii. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

ENGLISH VINEYARDS (5 th S. xi. .185, 256.)- 
In the Roll of the Household Expenses of Bishop 
Swinfield, edited by the Rev. John Webb, men- 
tion is several times made of white wine from. 
Ledbury "Vinea de Ledebur." It is said that 
"this vintage had yielded during the preceding 
autumn (A.D. 1288) seven pipes (dolia) of white 
wine, and nearly one of verjuice. The wine was 
valued at eight pounds the pipe, or about half the 



price of the foreign wine got from Bristol, and 
brought up the Severn to Hawe." This Swinfield 
was Bishop of Hereford, and commenced a pro- 
gress through his diocese in A.D. 1289, and has 
left a "Boll" of the expenses incurred in this 
visitation, which took him a year to go through. 
The editor of this Moll says : "A farm in the 
parish of Ledbury, on the Gloucester road, still 
bears the name of Vineyard, and in after times the 
descendants of Bishop Skipp had a vineyard on 
their estate of Upper Hall, in the parish of Led- 
bury. Towards the end of the seventeenth century, 
George Skipp, Esq., made both white and red 
wine from his plantation. The editor has often 
seen the site on which the vines grew " (Roll of 
Bishop Swinfield, vol. ii., note by the editor, 
p. cxxvii). 

In the recently published Herefordshire Pomona, 
edited by Dr. Bull, it is said : " There is also a 
' Vineyard ' estate on the banks of the river Wye, 
one mile east of Hereford. This property was left 
to the Trinity Hospital charity, in the city of 
Hereford, in 1607, by Mr. John Kerry. The 
vines here grew on terraces, supported by stone 
walls, and one or two very aged vine-tree stocks 
exist there at this time." EDWIN LEES, F.L.S. 


There is a chapel at Bath, belonging to the 
Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, called the 
Vineyards Chapel. It is very possible, therefore, 
that in the mild climate there vines were grown 


ASSUMING ARMS (5 th S. xii. 29.) It may remove 
T.'s doubt to be informed that in circumstances 
the same as his the Lyon office in 1850 assigned to 
my family arms similar to those which he carries, 
viz., the original paternal coat 1 and 4 quarterly, 
and that of the predecessor 2 and 3 quarterly. 
We retain the family name with that of the pre- 
decessor as a prefix. A. C. S. 

TUBBING (5 th S. xi. 343, 390.) I can match 
A. J. M.'s anecdote. When a girl of fourteen I 
was one of a family party sojourning at a French 
watering-place, then rising into repute, where the 
English tourist was yet comparatively a curiosity. 
The solitary jug provided for the ablutions of two 
young ladies was of so minute a size that we were 
obliged to keep sending our English maid to refill 
it at the pump. "Please, miss," said she, one 
morning, " what does ' too-joo dee lo ' mean ? It 's 
what Mariette says when she meets me." A few 
days later we had a ray of light thrown upon 
the Gallic estimate of our innocent actions. Our 
landlady stood conversing with friends exactly 
below our open windows, where she was unavoid- 
ably (as perhaps she intended) overheard. " Oh, 
my dear friends, you cannot imagine what these 

English are like ! They are so dirty, so dirty ! 
The quantity of water which it takes to get those 
creatures clean every morning is something per- 
fectly appalling." HERMENTRUDE. 

Kather more than fifty years ago I came up to 
Oxford from a public school to not by any means 
a low-class college. The provisions for washing in 
those days were of a very continental character, 
and I verily believe that there was no individual 
in the college who possessed or used a genuine 
and honest tub. Good Mr. Tuckwell, a well- 
known surgeon at that time in Oxford, was to me 
at least, and I believe to many others, the apostle 
of tubbing. I can even now well remember my 
astonishment when he counselled me to wash 
myself all over every morning with cold water, and 
I am truly thankful to say that I took his advice, 
and have obeyed it, at least as to its former part, 
through all these long succeeding days and years. 

" Audii, et voti Phoebus succedere partem 
Mente dedit ; partem volucres dispersit in auras." 

Within the last few years of a most healthy life a 
visitation of lumbago and the advice of one of our 
most eminent doctors have warned me to have the 
chill taken off, where sometimes, in my hot youth, 
I broke the ice. B. 

Here is an early instance. Eddi, c. xx., relates 
of St. Wilfrid of York that " corpus in aqua bene- 
dicta nocturnis horis inclementer, testate ac hyeme 
consuetudinarie lavavit." By "aqua benedicta" 
I do not understand holy water, but I presume it 
to mean rather that St. Wilfrid made the sign of 
the cross over his tub before tumbling into it, just 
as our Anglo-Saxon forefathers made the sign of 
the cross over their glasses before drinking the 

PRECIOUS STONES (5 th S. xi. 426, 454 ; xii. 15) 
are treated of in numerous books ; amongst others 
in the following : 

The Gnostics and their Remains. C. W. King. 8vo. 
London and Cambridge, Bell & Daldy, 1864. 

The Philosophy of Magic, &c. E. Salverte (A. T. 
Thomson's translation). 2 vols. 8vo. London, Bentley, 

Dactyliotheca, seu annulorurn sigillarum quorum apud 
Priscos tarn Graecos quam Romanes usus. 4to., 1609. 

Camilli Leonardi Speculum Lapid. et Petri Arlensis 
de Scudalupis sympathia septem metallorum accedit 
Magia Astrologica Petri Constantii Albini. Ilumb., 

Albertus Magnus de Secretis Mulierum item Virtutibus 
Herbarum, Lapidum et Animalium Amstelodami. 1662, 

Marbodus, sive Marbodeus Gallus. Liber lapidum, seu 
de gemmis, varietate lectionis et perpetua annotatione 
illustrates a Joh. Beckmanno, additis observationibus 
Pictorii, Alardi, Cornarii. Gottingae, 8vo., 1799. 

The title of the work which MR. WALFORD (5 th S. 
xi. 454) could not remember is Stories in Precious 



Stones, by Helen Zimmern, with six illustrations, 
third ed., post 8vo., London, H. S. King, 1873. 
24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea. 

THE INITIAL FF IN NAMES, &c. (5 th S. xL 247, 
391.) From a recent examination of some MSS. 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, I am 
led to believe that MR. A. H. A. HAMILTON is 
correct in his conclusion that it was not originally 
" intended to spell any name with two initial fa" 
and that the single capital F was formed by two 
small ones. For instance, under date 1697, the 
following entry appears in one of our parish 
records : " To ffletcher's charges to y e Visitation 
00 06 08." The Christian name Francis was at 
the same period written with two small fs ; in- 
deed, it does not appear that the capital F came 
into use in writing till towards the close of the 
last century. 

The well-known family name of Folliott, the 
first of whom in this country was created Baron of 
Ballyshannon in 1619, and whose descendants 
continued to occupy a prominent position in this 
neighbourhood as chief landowners, was always 
written with two small /'s, as the many specimens 
of their signatures which still exist testify. ^ The 
present representative of the Folliott family 
Lieut.-Col. John Folliott still retains the old 
form of writing the family name with two small 

Many years ago I saw an old concordance of 
the Bible, published early in the last century, 
which had belonged to the father of Benjamin 
Franklin. His name was written on a fly-leaf 
thus, " Josiah flranklin." The book was lent to 
a lady who lived in a boarding-house, and was 
returned without the part of the fly-leaf which 
contained the name. UNEDA. 


"NAPPY" : "NAP" (5 th S. xi. 106,. 470 ; xii. 
16.) The well-founded suggestion of G. F. S. E. 
that the meaning of " nappy ale " is foaming ale, 
ale that carries a good head in the tankard, may 
be illustrated by the following quotation from 
Palsgrave, " Noppy, as cloth that hath a grosse 
woffe gros. Noppy, as ale is vigoreux." The 
coating of foam is naturally compared to the soft 
nap of shaggy cloth. H. WEDGWOOD. 

xi. 466, 495 ; xii. 11.) This custom was observed 
at Glatton, Huntingdonshire, from 1850 to 1854, 
and previous to that date. I cannot tell if it is 
still in use in that church. The chancel is large, 
and all the communicants had room to kneel on 
hassocks placed in rows, or if from age or infirmity 
they were unable to kneel for so long a time, they 
sat on the old stone seats on either side of the 
chancel. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

A " KNOTTING- BAG " (5 th S. xi. 469 ; xii. 31.) 
The " article of boxwood " described by MR. BLEN- 
KINSOPP is familiarly called a shuttle. It is much 
larger than those used for tatting, and is often of 
more costly materials. I have two beautiful ones, 
ivory and tortoiseshell inlaid with silver. It is 
a mistake to suppose that the knotted twine or 
cotton was only used to tie parcels. I have a 
quantity of fringe for toilette covers, made by loop- 
ing the thread and working a firm head. One of 
my ancestresses, who was renowned for her skill in 
every kind of needlework, made an elaborate trim- 
ming for a brocade stomacher in ribbons and silk 
knotting, so I beg to consider that there was some 
use in this process. THUS. 

SWIFT ON FLEAS (5 th S. xi. 248 ; xii. 14.) If, 
instead of trusting to treacherous memories, we 
turn to the original, Poetry, a Rhapsody, by Jona- 
than Swift, we shall find the passage to run thus : 
" So naturalists observe, a flea 
Has smaller fleas that on him prey; 
And these have smaller still to bite 'em, 
And so proceed ad infinitum." 

J. C. M. 

HORSE'S TAIL (5 th S. x. 366, 503 ; xi. 77 ; xii. 
35) was not obsolete in Cavan thirty-five years ago, 
as I distinctly remember an instance mentioned at 
dinner on the evening of the day when it was 
observed. One of the company remarked that it 
was by no means uncommon. E. C. G. 

" SLAD " OR " SLADE " (5 th S. xi. 348, 495 ; xii. 
18.) In this parish of Rous Lench is a wood cloth- 
ing a good deal of the side of a long, curving, and 
abruptly-rising hill. Formerly it extended further 
than it does now. What remains is called " The 
Slad," and is a favourite fox covert. Strictly 
speaking three names belong to it, viz., " Kitchen 
Coppice," " The Holt," and "The Slad." But the 
divisions are undistinguishable except to one who 
knows the locality accurately, being merely little 
grips, noticed only when walking in what is prac- 
tically one wood. It is universally known as " The 
Slad." In the hamlet of Sheriff's Lench (contained 
in the parish of Church Lench), about three miles 
off, is another wood, similarly placed, also called 
" The Slad." W. K. W. CHAFY-CHAFY. 

Eous Lench Court, Evesh&m. 

" GINNEL " : " VENNELS " (5 th S. x. 388 ; xi. 97, 
137, 197.) Vennel comes directly from the_ Lat. 
venella or venilla, of which the primary meaning is 
a little vein, and the secondary one a lane or side 
street leading out of a main thoroughfare. The 
latter meaning is exhibited in the following quota- 
tions from the Annales of J. de Amundesham, 
vol. i. (Rolls Series) : 

" In hebdomada Palmarum quidam homo, tenens Epis- 
copi Eliensis, assuetus latrociniis boviura et ovium, apud 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5< h s. xn. JDIT 19, 79. 

Hertforde inorti fuit adjudicatus, et cum illo mulier 
qusedam, qua; maritum suum interfecerat in Parochia de 
Hatfelde : qui usque ad quamdam venellaiu juxta Hat- 
felde adducti, poenam suspensionis, novis furcis erectis, 
vir facinprosus sustinui t, et mulier criminosa ibidem con- 
flagrata ignis incendio migravit ab hoc saeculo." P. 62. 

" Est equidem inter semitam quae ducit a venilla, 
1 Nova '* nuncupata, usque Sopwellane, qusedam fossa 
defensiva, satis profanda et alta." P. 428. 


St. Albans. 

Venella is the old Latinism used by Wheat- 
hampstede for a passage or lane at St. Albans. 
Thus, too, we have in English Winnales at Win- 
chester and St. Richard's Wyne at Chichester. The 
Scottish wynd is another form. The origin of the 
word is the French venelle. It sometimes, as at 
Norwich, is the synonym for gate or street : " Una 
venella appellata Bew Gate " (Monasticon, iv. 14), 
in distinction to the highway, " communis via." 

Gain alley : a possible solution of the deriva- 
tion. North-country people alone use the word 
ginnel, and speak of the " gainest way," i.e., the 
nearest road. E. H. 

" A HOUSE TO LET" (5 th S. x. 496 ; xi. 19, 235.) 
On the question as to whether the phrase " to 
be lett " (so spelt) be erroneous this seems in point, 
taken from Swift's poem of Stella at Wood-Park : 

" Her Quarter 's put at Lady-Day, 
She vows she will no longer stay, 
In lodgings, like a poor Grizette, 
While there are lodgings f to be lett."% 

Cotgrave, 1632, has under "Loue" "rented, 
farmed, letten, or taken upon rent." A. 

JAMES WRIGHT (5 th S. xi. 349 ; xii. 18.) Sir 
James Wright, of Woodford, co. Essex, was Resi- 
dent, or Ambassador, from England to the Republic 
of Venice, 1765 to 1773 ; created a Knight- 
Bachelor, by King George III., July 3, 1766, and 
a Baronet of England, it is generally stated, 
Sept. 19, 1772, but this seems very doubtful. 
Burke, in his Extinct Baronetage, makes no men- 
tion of the creation ; neither does Courthope, in 
his accurate Synopsis of the Extinct Baronetage of 
England (8vo. 1835). The latter writer gives, at 
the end of that work, " A complete List of all the 
Baronetcies of England, from their first institution 
to the present time, distinguishing those which 
have become extinct from those which are in 
existence ; the latter being shewn by italic 
print." Under 1772 there is no such creation, 
the earliest being on Oct. 7 ; but on Dec. 8, 1772, 
there is a Wright of Georgia, a baronetcy then 

* Elsewhere Englished as " Newlane." 

f Probably Swift wrote houses, not lodgings, in the last 
line, which the sense seems to require. 

J Swift's Works, in 4 vols., Faulkner, Dublin, 1735, 
12mo. ; see vol. ii. p. 143. 

created, and still existing, which was originally 
conferred on a James Wright, who was Governor of 
Georgia, in North America, 1760-71. Abp. Moore, 
of Canterbury, was first married to a sister of the 
Resident at Venice, but she died before 1770, 
apparently issueless. A. S. A. 


BARONETESSES (5 th S. xii. 38.) On Sept. 9, 
1686, General Cornelius Speelman of the United 
Provinces was created a baronet, with a special 
clause in the patent according to his mother the 
rank and title of a baronetess of England. (See 
" N. & Q.," 1 st S. xi. 103 ; 2 nd S. xi. 129, 196.) 


BISHOPS' WIVES (5 th S. xi. 448 ; xii. 32.) 
There certainly were some strong efforts made in 
the last century to get the wives of the Lord 
Bishops " my lady"-ed, but the tone of Article 
XXXII. was too strong for the movers, and the 
attempt deservedly failed. As to " bishops' 
ladies," I have always heard the story in connexion 
with Mrs. Whately. Shortly after the archbishop's 
appointment to Dublin, she was shopping at a 
silk-mercer's, and desired a quantity of goods to 
be sent for approval to her house. The mercer 
objected. The lady asked, " Do you know who I 
am ?" He answered, " No, I do not." " I am the 
archbishop's lady." " Madam," rejoined the trader, 
" I could not if you were the archbishop's wife." 
The mercer was evidently a disbeliever or a 
Catholic. NOTE HURST. 

c. xxvi. (5 th S. xi. 148, 190, 351 ; xii. 17.) I 
made the statement on the authority of an intel- 
ligent annotator to Dante, Pietro Fraticelli, who, 
commenting on this episode in the Inferno, says : 
"E detto secondo Plinio e Solino, i quali narrano 
che 1' Itacense morisse navigando per 1' oceano." 
I regret that I am unable to point out any passage 
in Solinus to verify that statement. B. D. M. 

xii. 169, 213, 298, 416 ; 5 th S. i. 16, 58 ; xi. 377.) 
In addition to the cases referred to I beg to fur- 
nish an account of one that occurred in 1840, via., 
Particulars of a most Singular Penance, performed 
in St. Peter's Church [Liverpool] this [Wednesday] 
Morning [Feb. 19, 1840] : 

" For some time past the fish market in Liverpool has 
been in a state of the greatest confusion and uproar, 
owing to a dispute between two well-known characters 
in the fish line. We are told that the parties some time 
since had a regular row, in the course of which Mrs. 
Hutton had the unwarrantable audacity to call Mrs. 

Newton the very impertinent and opprobrious name , 

for which offence Mrs. Newton instituted proceedings 
against her in the Ecclesiastical Court. These proceed- 
ings were last week brought to a trial, and Mrs. Hutton 
was found guilty of scandal, and adjudged to pay all ex- 
penses, and afterwards to stand in a sheet in St. Peter'a 



Church and make a public declaration of her assertions 
being false. Accordingly this day, Wednesday [Feb. 19, 
1840], was appointed for the ceremony to take place. For 
some time before the appointed time a vast number of 
persons of all grades had assembled in the neighbourhood 
of the church, and when the doors were opened an im- 
mense number entered the church in order to have a 
glimpse of the degrading ceremony. All was suspense 
for a time, but at length the woman made her appearance, 
attired in a white sheet, walked up the aisle, and after 
some ceremony being performed by the officers of the 
court she made a public recantation of the expressions 
she had made use of, and declared that she was sorry for 
what she had said. 

" The whole of Church Street was by this time literally 
crammed with spectators, so much so that it was with 
difficulty that either a coach or cart could pass. When 
the ceremony had concluded each party withdrew, 
attended by their respective friends." 

This account was published in a chap-sheet at 
the time. Chap literature is an interesting subject 
to many, and it would be well if some one would 
write a regular history of it. It was not below the 
thought of Sir Walter Scott, and he had some 
correspondence respecting it with William Mother- 
well, the Scotch poet. The latter intended to write 
a history of it, and with that view had made, or 
was making, a collection of chap-books, but unfor- 
tunately while showing them to certain friends 
some were pocketed or stolen, and the history was 
not written. He was naturally much annoyed by 
his loss, and said that such pilferers ought to be 
" cut above the breath," an expression I would feel 
obliged to any correspondent to explain. 



"Master Huggett and his man John 
They did make the first cannon." 

" In 1543 the first ordnance ever manufactured in 
England was cast at Buxted in Sussex by Ralph Hogge. 
The site of his furnace, corrupted into ' Huggett's Fur- 
nace,' by which name it is yet known, can even now 
be readily traced. The distich is preserved by the 
peasantry." Extract (unpaged) from an article on " The 
Sussex Ironstone " in the Practical Mechanic's Journal. 
More information would probably be found under " Bux- 
ted " in Horsfield's Sussex and the Sussex A rch. Coll. 

(5 th S. xii. 29.) 
" Throwing oil," &c. 

See Dr. Brewer's Phrase and Fable, s.v. "Oil." The 
fountain head of the thought seems to be Biblical, e.g., 
Ps. cxxiv., cxli. 5; Prov. xv. 1 ; Is. Ixi. 3 ; and, I may add, 
passim. F. RULE. 


English Men of Letters. Edited by John Morley. 
Thackeray. By Anthony Trollope. (Macmillan & Co.) 
NOTHING of fitting importance has yet appeared in the 
way of a biography of Mr. Thackeray. The " studies " 
and biographical sketch by his old friend James Hannay 
were able and sympathetic, but necessarily brief, 
being intended respectively for a magazine and a daily 
paper ; while the charming essay by Dr. John Brown of 
Edinburgh and the late Mr. Lancaster, which appeared 

in the North British Review, was more critical than 
biographical. We had always hoped that Thackeray's 
surviving daughter, Mrs. Richmond Ritchie, who inherits 
so much of the gentler side of her father's character, 
would one day give us a precious little memoir, which 
should be a typical example to after times of " the truth 
told lovingly," and satisfy us all. It appears, however, 
that to have undertaken such a task would have been 
against the expressed wish of her father ; and it is not 
likely, under these circumstances, that it will be per- 
formed by any of his family. We must therefore console 
ourselves with the sketch now given us by Mr. Trollope, 
and rejoice that it has not fallen into meaner hands. Mr. 
Trollope knew Mr. Thackeray well in the latter part of 
his life ; and, if we remember rightly, wrote charmingly 
of him in that famous magazine of which he himself was 
so long a mainstay. He writes charmingly of him here 
amiably yet frankly of his character, keenly and enthu- 
siastically of his works. Perhaps too much space is 
devoted to reiteration of the statement that Thackeray 
was not a cynic, which no one who is worthy to read 
and admire him ever believed for an instant ; but some- 
thing, we suppose, must be conceded to the pertinacity of 
the wrong-headed in this matter. The account of his 
habits and way of work is in the highest degree interest- 
ing, though it leaves us more and more astounded at the 
capacity of the mind which, under such conditions, 
could produce what Mr. Trollope rightly calls " a sufficient 
life's work." Our only regret is that there should have 
been so few personal utterances in this delightful book. 
We do not doubt the portrait by Mr. Trollope there will 
probably never be a juster or kinder ; yet who of us that 
loved the Fielding of the nineteenth century does not crave 
some new memento of him some "memorandum " or 
"note '"? It has been said that there were too many of 
Kingsley's letters in his recently published Life; but 
surely it is hard to have none at all of Thackeray's, 
especially when we remember how many of those 
" pearls " his biographer speaks of were prodigally con- 
signed to his fugitive correspondence. 

The History of English Dramatic Poetry to the Time of 
Shakespeare ; and A nnals of the Stage to the Restoration. 
By J. Payne Collier, F.S.A. A New Edition. 3 vols. 
(Bell & Sons.) 

THERE are sundry excellent reasons why we should give 
an early though necessarily a very brief notice of these 
three goodly quartos. The first of these is our regard 
for our old friend the editor, who, when " N. & Q." was 
started, came forward to give it the benefit of his long 
literary experience. The next is that the book is issued 
by George Bell, who was our first publisher, and continued 
to publish for us for the first fourteen years of our 
existence. And the last and best reason of all is because 
the work is one to justify our hearty commendation of it 
to the notice of our readers. If they do not find this 
history of our dramatic literature a complete and exhaus- 
tive book on the important subject to which it refers, it 
is not from want of time and pains bestowed upon it by 
the writer, who had devoted many years to the preparation 
of the first edition, which appeared as long since as 1831 ; 
while, as we learn from the preface to this new and 
enlarged edition, Mr. Collier has always kept a copy at 
his elbow, in which he has inserted every new fact con- 
nected with our early stage and its literature which he 
has come across in the course of his kindred studies 
during the nearly half century which has elapsed since 
the work was first given to the world. A curious proof 
of this is furnished in the preface to the book before us, 
where Mr. Collier announces the recent discovery in the 
Registers of the Stationers' Company that Richard 
Burba ge, the original actor of Shakspeare's Hamlet, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5< a. xn. JULY 19, 79. 

Macbeth, Othello, &c., and his brother Cuthbert Burble 
or Burbaee, the stationer who put forth BO many correct 
texts of Shakspeare's dramas, were not of Warwickshire, 
as has hitherto been supposed, but sons of " Edmond 
Burbie, husbandman, of Erlsey, in the county of Bed- 
ford." Mr. Collier does not seem to have searched the 
registers of Erlsey (which is no doubt Arlesey near 
Baldock), which we have reason to believe are still in 
existence. Cuthbert Burbie or Burbage was apprenticed 
in 1584, and he was therefore probably born about 1570, 
and if any correspondent of "N. & Q." who resides in the 
neighbourhood will take the trouble to inspect the 
registers, and furnish us with the dates of birth and 
baptism of Kichard, the great tragedian, and Cuthbert, 
the worthy publisher, he will have our best thanks, and 
no doubt those of all our readers who take an interest in 
anything connected with Shakspeare. 

Primitive Manners and Customs. By James A. Farrer. 

(Chatto & Windus.) 

THIS book is very good of its kind that is, as a popular 
exposition of some phases of primitive life ; and it has 
the advantage of being arranged under subjects which, 
more or less, place before the unpractised eye a very 
good outline of what the primitive life of mankind was, 
according to modern reading of the evidence on the sub- 
ject. The weakest point in the work is that of attempt- 
ing too much on a limited scale. The chapter on " Com- 
parative Folk-Lore" is a good example of what we mean. 
Under a title that belongs to a separate department of study, 
a few pages are loosely thrown together to illustrate the 
theory that "the people from whom we inherit our popular 
traditions were once as miserable and savage as those we 
now place in the lowest scale of the human family." 
Mr. Farrer had unfortunately formed a strong a priori 
theory before setting out upon his work ; and this, it 
appears to us, produces a constant strain upon his 
language, and forcibly suggests that there is more 
evidence which does not fit in well with that which is 
adduced. One other blemish we feel bound to point out, 
namely, that Mr. Farrer does not always quote his autho- 
rities. Even popular books should bear on their pages 
unmistakable proof of their thorough reliability ; and 
if it is not worth while placing before the popular as 
distinguished from the scientific reader, all the means by 
which, if he chooses, he can approach the subject from a 
higher ground, one of the chief uses of popular books will 
have been abrogated. Let us, how ver, say that if we 
have pointed out what appear to us to be some short- 
comings, we do so with the belief that the book is worthy 
the attention of our readers. 

Epochs of English History. Complete in One Volume. 

Edited by Rev. M. Creighton. (Longmans.) 
MR. CREIGHTON has done well for schools in republishing 
the series of Epochs edited by him compactly bound in a 
single volume of moderate size. But we regret that his 
own Shilling History of England does not find a place in 
the collection. For it might have been considered as 
summing up the general teaching of the series, though 
in itself an entirely independent work. The language of 
some of the Epochs is rather too much on the lines 
of the Saxon Chronicle to be free from an appearance 
of affectation. We think Mrs. Creighton's view of 
King John's character is more in accordance with 
the verdict of his contemporaries than that to which we 
took some exception in noticing Mr. Creighton's Shilling 
History. We are glad to find that Mr. York Powell 
allows Alfred the Great to have been a "very learned 
man for his day " : the qualification is worthy of notice. 
The maps, plans, and pedigrees which are reproduced 
add to the value of the volume as a manual for the use 
alike of teachers and students. 

SHAKSPEARE AND THE BIBLE. In your number for 
July 5 (ante, p. 20) you take notice of a book by the Rev. 
C. Bullock on Shakspeare's Debt to the Bible, which you 
justly characterize as " almost a work of supererogation," 
and proceed to make mention of my volume, Bible Truths 
and Skaksperean Parallels, and that of Bishop Words- 
worth on Shakspeare's Knowledge and Use of the Bible, as 
two books that preoccupy the ground. I have already 
pointed out in one of your contemporaries the extent to 
which, page after page, Mr. Bullock has availed himself 
of my work. You say that my volume " has already gone 
through three editions at least." I may mention that of 
the present (fourth) edition, forming one of Mr. Gent's 
admirable series of handbooks, upwards of 4,000 copies 
have already been disposed of. Will you also allow me to 
add that when Bishop Wordsworth's work was announced 
the second edition of my volume was in the hands of the 
printer. J. B. SELKIRK. 

THE coloured drawings copied in fac-simile from the 
fresco paintings in St. Gabriel's Chapel, Canterbury 
Cathedral, were exhibited during the present week in the 
Library of Lambeth Palace. They will be issued in a 
reduced form in the forthcoming number of the Archceo- 
logia Cantiana. 

to C0rrrs'ucmttrnts. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

H. D. C. writes : " May the speech inquired for by 
J. S. S. (ante, p. 40) have been made not at a wedding 
breakfast but at a coming of age 1 I find in a cutting 
from the Family Herald of October 14, 1854 : ' One of 
the best speeches perhaps ever delivered on a festive 
occasion by a gentleman in proposing the toast of " The 
Ladies " was made at a meeting at Hampton Court, 
Herefordshire, to celebrate the coming of age of the 
eldest son of Mr. Arkwright. The speaker was the Rev. 
E. B. Hawkshaw, whose wife is sister to Mrs. Arkwright.' 
The speech is given not quite at length." 

A. C. B. ("Quorum.") The Latin form of the com- 
mission issued to justices of the peace ran, " Quorum 
unum A B esse volumus." 

Lord Palmerston (ante, p. 40) was called the " Man of 
God " not in 1830, but about the year 1857, when he 
nominated Drs. Bickersteth, Baring, &c., to bishoprics. 

L. P. writes that his remarks (ante, p. 18) as to the 
monitor apply to eight years ago. By some slip thirty- 
eight had crept into his MS. 

D. B. You are quite mistaken. Our own view of the 
matter entirely accords with MR. WALFORD'S. See 
"N. &Q.,"5ti'S. xL360. 

F. T. C. The phenomenon referred to has already been 
remarked on by us. See " N. & Q.," 5 th S. xi. 479. 

D. P. Sorry not to have seen you. 

T. S. N. (" Homer and the Razor.") See 5> S. xi. 358. 

J. P. As soon as possible. 

Various letters forwarded. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 





NOTES : The Father of Thomas de Quincey, 61" Count Lu- 
canor" and " Howleglas," 62-Australian Heraldry, 63 
Haydon's alleged Application to the Duke of Wellington in 
1830 for Employment, 64 Mr. Nicholls : Charlotte BrontS 
Tennyson and Washington Irving Cabriolet : Cab. 65 A 
Dog-hole and a Dog's Kennel Dead Horse Day Kit's Coty 
House Mosquito Nets, 66 Curious Names Hamlet's Gar- 
den Folk-Lore Christian Names, 67. 

QUERIES :" The Christian Pattern, or the Imitation of 
Jesus Christ," &c. Clarke Family Lady E. Howard. 67 
St. Edmund's Bury Sambden's Greek Grammar, &c. Bunn's 
"Life and Recollections "Burns Author Wanted Dic- 
tionary Wanted Genius O. Swift Books Published by 
Subscription Pepper, 63 " Peter's farthynges "" Labur- 
num" " Skyrack" Sir C. Wetherell Olio H. N. Bell- 
Temple Bar Pauncefote Family " Beau " Brummell 
Authors Wanted, 69. 

REPLIES: The Witches of Warboys. 70 Pope and his 
Quarrels Kensington Palace Chapel " Adamant," 72 The 
Abbacy of Cambuskenneth Hannah More Rare Editions of 
Shakspeare The Cuckoo, 73" Four went ways" Madame 
Roland Trenchmore Peter-pence Envelopes T. or J. 
Erskine Folk Medicine, 74 A. Mezzotint Toastmasters 
Shelley A Dissenting Minister a Centenarian" The Oxford 
and Cambridge Magazine"" Dead as Chelsea "Butler on 
Irish Surveyors, 75 Battle of Lepanto- Earls of Cornwall- 
Rev. H. Christmas A Wedding Speech Fielding-Obscure 
Expressions Frogshall, 76 Charles Collins A Shilling of 
Charles I." Silvester Tramper "Celts and Saxons The 
Man who Sold his Soul Otway " Hydraulic " Music, 77 
A Lottery " Sippet " Sidemen Rev. W. Shaw Prayers 
towards the East SirT. Steuart The Pied Piper of " Hame- 
lin" The Farthing Pie House, 78 Schiller's " Fiesko " 
"Akimbo " " Patchock " Wellingore, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Walcott's " Church Work and Life in 
English Minsters" Leared's "A Visit to the Court of Mo- 
rocco" Scoones's "Goethe's Faust." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 

There are several interesting references to his 
father scattered through the autobiographical 
writings of the opium-eater. In one of them he 
refers to a book written by the elder De Quincey. 
This anonymous work has hitherto eluded the 
search made for it. MR. JAMES CROSSLET, F.S.A., 
however, in an article which appeared in "N. & Q.," 
5 th S. iv. 407, called attention to some articles by 

T Q , giving a narrative of a tour in the 

midland counties in 1772, which appeared in the 
Gentleman's Magazine of 1774. It seems very 
probable that this is the missing work, although 
" the style would rather seem to indicate the writer 
to have been a man of mature years and experi- 
ence." Whilst assuming it to have been written 
by Thomas Quincey, it would be published when 
he was twenty-one. There is nothing so common 
in literature, except bad writing, as the assumption 
of an elderly style. Thomas Quincey's success as 
a business man shows that he must early have 
acquired a knowledge of the world and a keen 
power of observation. As strengthening MR 
CROSSLEY'S surmise, it may be mentioned that the 

Read to the Manchester Literary Club. 

Tour attained an independent existence, and thus 
might well justify De Quincey's description of his 
'ather as an anonymous author. The editor of the 
entleman's Magazine, in the plenitude of his 
)ower, made a number of alterations in the MS., 
reatly to the disgust of T Q , who there- 
ore printed it in an independent form. The 
itle is : 

" A Short Tour in the Midland Counties of England, 
>erformed in the Summer of 1772. Together with an 
Account of a similar Excursion, undertaken September, 
.774. London : printed by M. Lewis, for the Author : 
,nd sold by J. Bew at No. 28, Paternoster Row, MDCCLXXV. 
?rice One Shilling and Sixpence." 

[t forms an octavo volume of 108 pages. 

The passage referring to his father's book in De 
Quincey's Autobiography stands thus in its original 
'orm in T ait's Magazine for Feb., 1834 : 

:< He wrote a book : and though not a book of much pre- 
;ension in its subject, yet in those days to have written 
a book at all was creditable to a man's activity of mind, 
and to his strength of character, in acting without a 
precedent. In the execution this book was really re- 
spectable. As to the subject, it was a sketch of a tour 
in the midland counties of England, in one octavo 
volume. The plan upon which it was constructed made 
it tolerably miscellaneous ; for throughout the tour a 
double purpose was kept before the reader, viz., of atten- 
tion to tbe fine arts, in a general account of the 
paintings and statues in tbe principal mansions lying 
near the line of bis route ; and, secondly, of attention to 
the mechanic arts, as displayed in the canals, manu- 
factories, &c., then rising everywhere into activity, and 
quickened into a hastier development, by Arkwright and 
tbe Peels in one direction, and in another by Brindley, 
the engineer, under the patronage of the Duke of Bridg- 
water. ...In the style of its execution, and the alternate 
treatment of tbe mechanic arts and the fine arts, tbe 
work resembles tbe well-known tours of Arthur Young, 
which blended rural industry with picture galleries, ex- 
cepting only that in my father's I remember no politics, 
perhaps because it was written before the French Revo- 

De Quincey was writing from memory, and the 
fact that he greatly toned down this description of 
his father's book when he revised these articles for 
republication may perhaps be taken as an indica- 
tion that he felt it to be somewhat overcharged. 
In the Short Tour very little attention is paid to 
any of the fine arts except architecture, but manu- 
factures which were then just rising into import- 
ance are often described. 

In a preface of eight pages he descants on the 
critical sins of the editor, affirms that 

" Mr. Corrector, the manufacturer of the periodical 
work in question," had "taken such liberties with the 
author's performance as scarcely to leave him the satis- 
faction of knowing his own meaning... .Besides as the 
piece has been honoured with much more attention 
(especially in a certain local situation) than could 
reasonably be expected, the author was desirous of 
making, though not an agreeable regale, a less soporific 
potion for the mental taste of his frisnds ; and notwith- 
standing he is confessedly allied to ignorance, is yet un- 
willing to be the fosterer of untruth." 

He then proceeds to discuss the right of an 



* s. xn. JULY 26, 79. 

editor to alter the phrases and sentiments of his 
contributors. This is still a burning question, and 
the echo of this old grievance may not, after all, 
be uninteresting : 

" Not every one," observes T. Q., " who attempts to 
write has genius to render him successful, nor have those 
who pretend to correct alwayg an ability for the under- 
taking. I am not qualified for an amender, nor am, 
Heaven be praised, a cobbler of the works of others; 
but were I obliged to revise the journal of a traveller for 
instance, I should be cautious how I advanced any thing 
with the least deviation from truth ; I might perhaps, in 
such a case, be scrupulous of asserting that ' we have 
more wool than we can make up in manufactures," and 
without a total deprivation of memory should hardly 
make the streets of a city welt-peopled in one page, and 
instantly dispeople it in the next ; nor would I bestow 
the epithet of wretched on a village upon which reality 
and the writer had not dared a stigma : if the buildings 
of a town were remarked as good ones or neat, I should 
account it not very proper to say that ' the church, how- 
ever, is handsome,' any more than to induct so much 
modesty into my author as to force him to call his own 
remarks curious. Numberless incongruities like these, 
which are to be met with, would, or ought to, teach me 
to avoid faults of this nature; if, through my inad- 
vertency or that of the printer, any mistakes were found 
at last, I should not then, I hope, let pride so far obtain 
the ascendency over my reason as to refuse a necessary 
reparation for the detriment, the subjoining a catalogue 
of such errata. Yet, be this as it may, such refusals 
have actually happened; performances have been cor- 
rected whilst they became the distorted shadow of a 
shade, and, in consequence, writers have been injured 
and the public insulted." 

The work gives an interesting sketch of the 
condition of the parts visited, the writers of guide- 
books coming in for a share of criticism, and the 
effect of the enclosure of commons being fully dis- 
cussed. At Worksop he was told that the expense 
of making the " navigation " (the canal then being 
cut) was so great that it would never pay the sub- 
scribers. The crooked spire of Chesterfield " dis- 
gusted " him. At Derby, he says, the silk mills 
employ " between three and four hundred hands, 
mostly women and girls, the earnings of the latter 
being only from twopence to threepence a day." 
Some of the motive power was obtained by children 
working inside the wheel. 

The second excursion was taken two years later, 
in 1774. He sailed from London to Boston, and 
lie admires the seat at Rufford "of that philoso- 
phical and truly patriotic baronet, Sir George 
Saville," and commends his planting and road- 

The sight of the subterranean canal at Norwood, 
with the " complication of locks " by which .the 
Tsoats change levels, gives rise to a burst of verse, 
in which Brindley, the engineer, is coupled with 
Shakspere as " the darling heirs of fame." On the 
return journey he notices that " the seventeen 
miles from Hodsdon to Shoreditch is almost a 
continual street of good houses or handsome villas 
of the citizens ; those, while they create a crowded 
confusion in the landscape, give a sketch of the 

luxury of the age and of the opulence of this 
immense city, the most favoured emporium of 
commerce, the metropolis of the modern world." 

The book, it will be seen, is a plain and often 
trivial narrative, marked by an evident desire for 
accuracy and a praiseworthy minuteness as to the 
size and '' dimensions of remarkable buildings," 
and only here and there a glimmer of ambition in 
the style of treatment. The preface shows that 
under the stimulus of wounded pride the writer 
could be vigorous and trenchant, and many inci- 
dental remarks on enclosures, emigration, and 
other topics show him to be a man accustomed to 
think. It must, however, be at once admitted 
that the matter-of-fact style of this work of Thomas 
Quiucey the father if it be his contrasts very 
strangely with the brilliant power and erratic force 
of the writings of Thomas De Quincey the son. 


Bank Cottage, Barton-on-Trwell, Manchester. 

In a very charming little volume entitled Count 
Lucanor, translated from the Spanish of Prince 
Don Juan Manuel (A.D. 1335-1347) by James 
York, M.D., and published by B. M. Pickering in 
1868, there is a story told of the " Invisible Cloth " 
(chap. vii.). " My lord," said Patronio, " three 
impostors came to a King, and told him they were 
cloth-weavers, and could fabricate a cloth of so 
peculiar a nature that a legitimate son of his father 
could see the cloth ; but if he were illegitimate, 
though believed to be legitimate, he could not see 
it," &c. A similar story is told in Mr. Frederic 
Ouvry's privately printed English version of 
Howleglas, published by William. Copland (besides 
Mr. Ouvry's preface, see Mr. Collier's Biblio. 
Acct., vol. i. p. 379, for particulars of this book). 
As only a very few copies of this highly curious book 
were reproduced, I may perhaps be pardoned for 
transcribing the following chapter (p. 25) : 
" ^[ How Howleglas tooke upon him to le a painter, <&c. 
" Than it fortuned that Howleglas myght no longer 
tary in the land of Sassen for hys knauishenesse : tha de- 
parted he into the lad of Hessen to Marchborough to the 
earle, and he asked Howleglas what occupacion he was 
ofl Then aunswered Howleglas worshipfull lord I am a 
painter, my cunning doth exell al other, for in no land 
is not so cunning as I. Then answered y e erle, haue you 
here any ensaple of your work ? Then answered Howle- 
glas to the earle yes my lorde, | Then had he be in 
Flauders, & brought with him diuers ymages that 
pleased the erle wonderfull well. Then sayde the earle 
to Howleglas Master what shal I geue to you to tke 
vpon you to paint vpo the wal in my hal, al the lordes, 
& knightes of my progeny, fro the fyrst vnto y c last in 
y e good lyest and fayrest maner y' y c can with al the erles 
of Hessen and their ladies with them, and how our for- 
fathers were maried to ladies of straunge lands. And 
al this must you cast that it may be vpo the wales of my 
hall. Then answered Howleglas to the earle. worshipfuil 
lorde : if it please you yt you wyll haue all thys y l you 

5-s.xii.juLY26,79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


haue rehersed to me to be painted so costli & rychly as 
you speake of, then would it cost, onely the colours y' 
should long therto aboue, iii. c, golde geldens. Then 
aunswered the earle to Howleglas and sayde make yt well, 
and in the beste maner that you can & we twaine shal 
agree after the beste maner. And alsoo I shall doo youe 
a greater pleasure then all that come the to. And then 
toke Howleglas the woorke vpon hym. but he sayd to the. 
lorde, that he must nedes haue an. c gildens I earnest to 
bi the colours yt belonged thereto and tor his mens wages. 
And then bad the earle the rent maister gene to Howle- 
glas an. c. gildens, and so he did. Then wente Howleglas 
and gat him thre felowes, and then came he again to the 
earle & iisked him a bone before he bega to worker & 
y erle grauted him and then he did aske of the eurle, 
that there should no person be so hardy to come into the 
hall to trouble him and his workemen, without they aske 
hym lycence. And the erle graunted his desire : and 
tha went Howleglas into the hal with his seruauntes & 
when he and they were in the hall, Howleglas set a paire 
of tables before them, and he bad the play but he made 
them before to sweare that the shoulde not bewraye him : 
and the felowes had good pastime, wherewyth they were 
wel content, & glad that they might haue meat, drinke, 
and cloth, and doo no other thinge, but play and passe 
the time in that maner. And Howleglas did no other 
thinge, but hang a white cloth before y e wall. That 
done, he cam & plaied with hys seruauntes : In meane 
time longed the earle greatly to see his worke, if it were 
so goodly as the copy was, and to se if the coloures were 

g)od, and so he departed ad came to Howleglas & sitid : 
ood maister painter, I pray you let me go with you to 
se your worke. Then said Howleglas to the lord, worship- 
ful! lord before y' you see mi worke, I must shew to you 
one thinge. He the which is not borne in wedlocke, may 
not see my painting. Then sayd the erle that wer a 
merueyloua thinge. And then went he with Howleglas 
into the hull and there had he hanged vp a whit cloth 
that he should haue painted. And he had in his hande 
a whit rod & he did awaye the cloth that haged vpon 
y e wal and pointed vpon the wall with his whit rode, and 
shewed the erle that that was the first lord of y e land and 
erle of Hessen, And this is y e erle of Koine he had a 
wife that they called Justine, the Dukes doughter of 
Benem. And after he was made Emperour, And of y c 
daughter of him came Adulphus. And of a dulphus came 
william the swarte. And this william had one Lewis, 
so forthe to your noble grace. And I know well that 
there is no parson liuinge that can deproue mi workes, 
so cureously haue I made, and with faire colours, but the 
Lord saw no worke, but y e plain wal. Then thought he 
in his minde am I a bastard is my mother a hore ? I see 
nothing but the whit wal. And for because that he 
would not be knowe for a bastard he said to Howleglas, 
maister your Woorke pleaseth me merueylosly well, but 
my vnderstandinge is very small therin, And with that 
he went out of the hall, & came to his wife & she 
asked him how that work did please him? he said I haue 
shrewed trust in him. Tha siid the erle, 1 like it well, 
shall it please you to looke theron, and she graunted, And 
then she desyred Howleglas that she might se his worke, 
& he grauted her & then sayd vnto her secretly, as 
he had sayd before to her lorde & shewed her the lordes 
vpon the wal w l the white rod in his hande : as he 
did to the lord and there stode one folishe gentilwoman 
with the lady & she said, that she saw no painting 
on the wall and the other speake not on worde, 
And the thought Howleglas wyl this foole tel truthe : 
then must I needes depart. Then hanged he vp the 
white cloth and so departed the lady. And when she 
was come to her lord he asked her how she lyketh the 
worke, she saide how y' it liketh me, it lyketh not my 

folishe gentlewoman & she sayd that some of her gentle 
women sayd that it was but deciete & so thought the 
lord ; then sayde the lord to Howleglas, yt he should 
make redy his worke that he & his lords might se it to 
morrow yt he might know which of them were borne in 
wedlocke and which were not, for he that is not borne 
in wedlocke all his land is forfet to me. Then aunswered 
Howleglas, I wyll do it with a good wyl. Then went he 
to the rent maister, and receiued of him a. c. gold gildea. 
And when he had receiued the mony, he sayde to hys 
seruants, Now must we all dcparte and gaue them mony, 
of the which they were contente, & so departed. Then 
on the morow came the earle with his lordes into the 
hall and the asked whcr the maister painter was and his 
company, for he sa.vd he would see the worke. Then 
turned he vp the cloth and asked the & the sawe any 
worke and they sayde nay. Then sayd the erle, we be 
deceiued, He sayd we haue sore longed to se Howleglas. 
and nowe he hath begyled vs, but it maketh no great 
mater for the mony. But let vs banishe him fro our 
land for a begiler of people, and so they did. And so 
departed the earle with hys lorJes." 



(Concluded from 5"' S. xi. 484.) 

Ipswich, Qld., Town of. Arg., on a cross quar- 
terly az. and gu. four mullets of the field : 1, a 
fleece, round the body a collar with ring ; 2, a pick 
and spade in saltire and a bucket ; 3, a plough and 
two wheatsheaveSj with a view of the town in the 
background ; 4, a paddle steamer on waves of the 
sea, and in the background a hilly coast-line, all 
ppr. Motto, Confide recte agens. 

Launceston, Tasm., Town of. No arms. 

Melbourne, Viet., City of. Arg., on a cross gu. 
an imperial crown : 1, a fleece, round the body a 
collar with ring ; 2, a whale spouting ; 3, a bull 
standing in grass ; 4, a ship in full sail on waves 
of the sea ; all ppr. Crest, A kangaroo's head 
erased below the fore paws or. Motto, Vires 
acquirit eundo. 

Melbourne, See of. Az., on a chevron arg. an 
open book ppr. ; in chief a crosier and a palmer's 
staff with, scrip, both erect ; in base four mullets of 
six points in cross arg. 

Melbourne, R.C. Archdiocese of. Per fess az. 
and arg., in chief four mullets in cross arg., in base 
a Bible supporting a heart emitting flames and 
(the heart) surmounting a crosier in bend. 

Melbourne, University of. Az., a winged female 
figure, intended to represent Victory, robed and 
attired ppr., the dexter hand extended, holding a 
wreath of laurel or, between mullets of eight point* 
arg. Motto, Postera crescam laude. (Assumed 
ante 1863.) 

Melbourne, Trinity College (C. of E.). Arg., a 
chevron gu. between three trefoils slipped vert. 
Crest, A fleur-de-lis arg. Motto, Pro ecclesia, pro 

Melbourne, Ch. of Eng. Grammar School. Arg., 
in chief an inescutcheon az., charged with four 
mullets in cross arg., between a mitre and a fleur- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. EC* s.- xn. JULY 26, 79. 

de-lis of the second (az.) ; in base an open book with 
three seals ppr., on the leaves the words " Ora et 

Nelson, N.Z., See of. Or, a Calvary cross az., 
on a canton of second three mullets of six points 
arg. (Assumed 1867.) 

New South Wales, Colony of. Badge or em- 
blem, corn stalks or wheat. 

Perth, W. A., See of. Az., two crosiers in saltire 
arg., crooks or, between four mullets pierced and 
radiated or. 

Kichmond, Viet., Town of. No arms. Motto, 
Farnam extecdere factis. 

Sandhurst, Viet., City of. Arg., quarterly : 
1, .... in bend ; 2, spade and pick, head upwards, 
in saltire ; 3, garb ; 4, a bunch of grapes, stalked 
and leaved ; all ppr. Crest, Out of a mural crown 
or, a flagstaff, the flag therefrom charged with five 
stars. Supporters D., a horse ; S., a bull. Motto, 

Sandhurst, B.C. See of. Arg., a Bible sup- 
porting a crosier in bend sinister, surmounted by 
a heart emitting flames, pierced from behind by a 
barbed arrow in bend dexter, all ppr. (Assumed 

Sandridge, Viet., Borough of. Quarterly, gu. 
and arg. : 1, a beehive ; 2, woolpack ; 3, a kan- 
garoo sejant erect ; 4, a cabled anchor in bend. 
Crest, A ship in full sail on waves of sea ppr. 
Supporters Two sailors, the dexter holding a 
cutlass and the sinister an oar, blade upwards, ppr. 
Motto, Post tot procellas portum. 

Stawell, Viet., Borough of. Motto, By industry. 

Sydney, N.S.W., See of. Az., four mullets of 
eight points in cross arg. 

Sydney, N.S.W., University of. Arg., on a cross 
az. an open book between four eight-pointed 
mullets arg., and on a chief gu. a lion passant 
gardant or. Motto, Sidere mens eadem mutato. 

Tasmania, See of. Az., a crosier in bend dexter 
surmounting a key in bend sinister or, between 
four mullets of eight points arg. (Assumed ante 

Victoria, Colony of. Az., five stars, represent- 
ing the constellation of the Southern Cross, arg. 
(see Gov. Gazette, March 26, 1877, p. 629). The 
top mullet has seven points, the left-hand eight, 
the bottom nine, the right-hand six, and the inter- 
mediate five points. Badge, Five white stars, 
representing the Southern Cross, as in the arms 
(see Gov. Gazette, Feb. 3, 1870, p. 225). 

Western Australia, Colony of. Arg., a swan 
sable, beaked and numbered gu., swimming in 
water ppr. (Assumed ante 1858.) Badge, A 
swan, as in the arms. JAS. SIM. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

A strange blunder has been made in the Corre- 

spondence and Table-Talk of B. E. Haydon (Chatto 
& Windus, 1876) in reference to an application 
from the painter for employment made in 1830. 
In the account (Corr. and Table-Talk, Memoir, 
pp. 154, 155) of the correspondence in that year 
between Haydon and the Premier, on the public 
encouragement of historical painting in England, 
it is stated (p. 155) that " Haydon replied " (to the 
duke's letter of October 12, 1830) "on the 14th, 
in a sad letter, that lays open to us the condition 
of his mind. He describes his life and labours and 
his actual position to the duke. Then he adds : 
' This perpetual pauperism will in the end destroy 
my mind. I look around for help with a feeling 
of despair that is quite dreadful.' " The editor 
continues to quote the remainder of this " sad 
letter" (and truly sad it is), not, however, adhering 
to the words of the copy preserved in Haydon's 
MS. Journal, which is undated. He goes on : 
" The duke, I regret to say, never replied. Per- 
haps, as he sat behind his iron blinds, he felt a 
certain touch of scorn for the man who could make 
such a fuss over being starved," and adds a foot- 
note illustrative of the duke's love of "little gains," 
and good bargains, and of his dislike to parting 
with his money. 

Now if Mr. F. W. Haydon had examined his 
father's journal, not to say with care, but even in 
the most ordinary way, he would have found that 
as this " sad letter " was addressed to the duke of 
Bedford, and not to the Duke of Wellington, all 
his own fine writing about the Field- Marshal's 
" iron blinds," contempt for the " fuss " made by 
Haydon " over being starved," love of money, and 
all the rest of it, was utterly out of place. Mr. 
Tom Taylor has published the letter (Life, 2nd ed. 
vol. ii. p. 288), and dates it October 14. Though 
he does not give the name of the duke to whom 
it was addressed, he does not imply that it was 
written to the Duke of Wellington, who was, by 
the way, remarkably scrupulous in replying to 
communications made to him, even of the most 
trivial character. Mr. F. W. Haydon has himself 
printed the correspondence between the duke and 
the painter on the public question in his second 
volume (pp. 225-7), and has there given his father's 
answer to the duke's letter of Oct. 12, 1830. 
Though dated, as the editor of the Correspondence 
and Table-Talk has dated the " sad letter," on the 
14th of that month, it deals, not with Haydon's 
necessities, but with the duke's arguments (in his 
letter of the 12th) against the possibility of encou- 
raging historical painting in England by a grant 
of public money. In the memoir (p. 155) we are 
informed that " in a few days " a few days, that 
is, after the "sad letter" of Oct. 14, 1830 
" Haydon appealed again to the duke for public 
employment and received for answer an assurance 
that Haydon's ' own good sense must point out how 
impossible ' it was for the duke to comply with 

5"' S. XII. JULY 26, 79.] 



the request." This appeal to Haydon's " own good 
sense" is made in the duke's answer, dated 
Oct. 15, to Haydon's letter to him of the 14th, and 
not in his answer to a letter from Haydon of " a 
few days " after that date (Corr. and Table-Talk, 
vol. ii. p. 227). It is not very easy to see, in fact, 
how a letter written on the 15th of a month could 
well have been a reply to a letter dated " a few 
days after" the 14th. H. S. 

lately read for the second or third time the Life of 
Charlotte Bronte by Mrs. Gaskell. Few books 
are so interesting or so melancholy. Great ori- 
ginal genius oppressed by sickness, domestic mis- 
fortunes, and poverty fully illustrated the sentiment 
of Juvenal : 

" Haud facile emergunt, quorum virtutibus obstat 
Res angusta domi." 

However, Currer Bell rose superior to all. 

My object is at present to correct some mistakes 
as to the Kev. Patrick Bronte, incumbent of 
Haworth. The author states that he was tutor in 
the family of the Eev. Mr. Tighe. This is a mis- 
take. The Rev. Thomas Tighe was rector of 
Drumgooland and Drumballyroney in the county of 
Down. He was my grand-uncle, and from his son, 
who was one of the best friends I ever had, I have 
heard the facts which I now state. 

I remember my uncle's establishment, Parson's 
Hill, near Castle Wellan. Though his elder brother 
could return either two or three members to the 
Irish Parliament, my uncle lived in a cottage not 
as good as the residence of a gentleman's steward. 
A parlour and two bedrooms, a kitchen and ser- 
vants' room, and a housekeeper's room formed the 
whole house. Mr. Tighe was most hospitable. I 
have been with him as a child, along with my father 
and mother. I suppose he sent his sons to some 
farmhouse to make room for us. I have been told 
lie used to have clerical meetings at his house, and 
to lay down mattresses in the parlour for his guests 
as on board ship. He lived several miles from any 
town. One of his curates was the Kev. Benjamin 
Williams Mathias, afterwards the most popular 
preacher in Dublin. He had very fine offices, in- 
cluding a room fitted up for a study. He bought 
the property intending to build, but his wife died 
young, and he continued to live in the original 
cottage. He was looked upon as a patriarch in the 
country, and is still remembered. I mention these 
facts to show the style in which some of our gentry 
lived in Ireland during the last century. Mr. 
Tighe died just after the king's visit in 1821. 

His son told me that he remembered Mr. Bronte 
well. He was a child when Mr. Bronte was a 
young man. He was then known as Paddy Prunty, 
and had a school in one of his father's parishes. I 
remember some such schools, just emerging from 
hedge schools, and taken up by the more diligent 

of our clergy. My uncle saw the young man's 
ability, and took great pains to teach him, but he 
(Mr. Bronte) never taught my cousins anything. 
Mrs. Gaskell tells us Mr. Bronte entered St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in July, 1802. I suppose Mr. 
Tighe thought him unable to get a sizarship in 
Trinity College, Dublin, which till lately depended 
on classics. I should like to know something of 
his entrance and degree. He was probably a good 
mathematician, and was advised to seek a place 
where mathematics were more appreciated. H. 

from the many parallel passages cited in "N. & Q." 
that I am by no means singular in feeling a strong 
interest in such matters. It is, perhaps, rather a 
contrast than a parallel to which, with your per- 
mission, I draw attention. Washington Irving's 
" Pride of the Village," in his tilcetch Book, has for 
its backbone the pathetic story of a blasted life 
and a broken heart, but it is just possible that it 
may have afforded to our sweet singer the sug- 
gestion for his exquisite May Queen, inasmuch as 
Irving's Pride of the Village was also Queen of the 
May, " crowned with flowers, and blushing and 
smiling in all the beautiful confusion of girlish 
diffidence and delight." And then in a later scene 
we see her wasted and hectic. " She felt a con- 
viction that she was hastening to the tomb, but 
looked forward to it as a place of rest. The silver 
cord that had bound her to existence was loosed, 
and there seemed to be no more pleasure under 
the sun." Our May Queen is touched by the 
sweetness of " all the land about and all the flowers 
that blow," and Irving's Pride of the Village would 
" totter to the window, where, propped up in her 
chair, it was her enjoyment to sit all day and look 
out upon the landscape." Our May Queen exults 
in the honeysuckle that " round the porch has 
woven its wavy bowers," and she is anxious that 
when she has gone little Effie should " train the 
rose-bush that she set about the parlour window," 
and to Irving's Pride of the Village " the soft air 
that stole in [through the lattice] brought with it 
the fragrance of the clustering honeysuckle which 
her own hands had trained round the window." 
Our May Queen reaches forward to view her grave 
"just beneath the hawthorn shade," and wills that 
Effie shall not come to see her till it be " growing 
green," and in Irving's sketch "evergreens had been 
planted about the grave of the village favourite, 
and osiers were bent over it to keep the turf un- 
injured." The coincidences, at most, are trivial, 
and the treatment in each case is so distinctive 
and characteristic that they may well be accidental. 

CABRIOLET : CAB. Those who can look back 
to the introduction of the hired cabriolet into 
London will remember that it was a humble copy 
of the private carriage of that name. It carried 



a. XIL JUH 25/79. 

one passenger, who sat beside the driver. Soon 
this close companionship was found unpleasant, 
and two persons sat inside, the driver being 
perched on a sort of outrigger seat, overhanging 
the off wheel. Next, a closed carriage was in- 
vented, in which two persons sat, facing each 
other, and riding sideways, the door being behind. 
But it was found that a dishonest passenger could 
slip out of this carriage unknown to the driver, 
and the duobus was superseded by the present 
four-wheeler. " Hansom's patent safety " came 
into use in 1837 or 1838. 

I remember when it was thought vulgar to call 
a cabriolet a cab. Now the word is recognized 
English, and is known all over the world ; and a 
servant would stare if he were told to fetch a 
cabriolet. The original carriage, copied from that 
in use in France, was introduced among us in 
1828 or 1829. I have a very retentive memory 
for all sorts of rubbish, and can call to mind a 
comic song of about that date, The Good Old Days 
of Adam and Eve, which set forth how 

" In days of yore, when folks got tired, 
A hackney coach or a chariot was hired ; 
But now along the streets they roll ye 
In a shay with a kiver called cabriolet." 

The other day, in reading Macaulay's Life and 
Letters, I met with an illustration of the transition 
from the original word to the new one. Macaulay 
is describing the division on the first Reform Bill, 
in March, 1831, and tells how, on leaving the 
House, he " called a cabriolet." Only two months 
later he tells his sister that he " called a cab, and 
was whisked away to Hill Street." JAYDEE. 

History of English Literature, by H. A. Taine, 
D.C.L., translated by H. Van Laun (Chatto & 
Windus), is the following passage : " One Dr. 
Leighton was imprisoned fifteen weeks in a dog's 
kennel, without fire, roof, bed, and in irons" 
(bk. ii. chap. v.). This is probably a correct trans- 
lation of the French ; but in the work from which 
M. Taine derived his information, Neal's History 
of the Puritans, vol. ii. ch. vii. p. 367 (see note to 
Taine, bk. ii. ch. vi.), Dr. Leighton himself makes 
his petition thus : 

" That the gaoler of Newgate being sent for, clapt him 
in irons, and carried him with a strong power into a 
loathsome and ruinous dog-hole, full of rats and mice, 
that had no light but a little grate, and the roof being 
uncovered, the snow and rain beat in upon him, having 
no bedding, nor place to make a fire, but the ruins of an 
old smoaky chimney. In this woeful place he was shut 
up for fifteen weeks," &c. 

It would appear that the familiar English phrase, 
" a dog-hole of a place," had deceived M. Taine. 


DEAD HORSE DAY. A friend of mine, who 
sailed for Melbourne in the spring, writes in the 
journal of his voyage : 

" April 8, 1879. Having been a month out this day 
the sailors have a sort of jubilee, called Dead Horse 
Day, which means that they manufacture an imitation 
horse of sacking, &c., and put a man dressed up on him. 
A procession is then formed round the ship, the sailors 
saying a refrain somewhat as follows : ' Poor old man ! 
your horse will die ; we think so and we hope so.' At a 
certain stage in the proceedings the horse falls down 
sick, and a man arrayed in green spectacles and tall 
black hat is called in, and administers physic alas, to 
no avail, as the poor old horse is very soon pronounced 
dead. Another man, dressed up, then acts as auctioneer. 
This used to be done to get the passengers to subscribe a 
certain sum to bid for it, the horse not being knocked 
down until a sufficient sum had been offered ; but the 
skipper of this ship would not let us subscribe, as he 
says it usually produces a good deal of drunkenness. A 
ration of grog was served out to each man instead. 
Alter the horse is sold he and his rider are hauled up to 
the yardarm, and at a given signal rockets and blue 
lights are let off, and the horse falls into the sea, the 
man coming down by the rope on to the deck. To a 
landsman's eye it looks rather dangerous, as the yard is 
a good height, and the end where man and horse are 
suspended is a long way over the side of the vessel. The 
rider has been known to cut the wrong rope and drop 
into the sea with the horse." 

In the above journal there is no record of any 
ceremonies connected with crossing the Line. 


current in the neighbourhood of these stones say 
in Rochester, &c. some forty-two years ago, 
that there was on Kit's covering stone a 
basin of water that, ladle it out as you would, 
could never be emptied. Two of us, curious boys, 
mounted the flat roof and found, not one basin, 
but two, or one cavity divided by a septum. 
Commencing on Baconian principles, we carefully 
examined these, and the murder soon seemed out. 
The septum had a communicating hole below, and 
our minds were satisfied with the theory that, not 
caring to take the trouble of throwing the water 
over the stone, some one had ladled it from one 
basin into the other, with the result, of course, of 
everything remaining in statu quo. 

Not far off were some scattered stones that 
never could be counted twice alike ; but our belief 
in the bucolic intellect was shaken, or it may be 
confirmed, and our half holiday was short. 


MOSQUITO NETS. Mosquito nets are well known 
to persons who have travelled, but I believe it 
is not generally understood that a similar con- 
venience has been used in this country. In Kerby 
and Spence's Introduction to Entomology we read 

" In marshland in Norfolk, as I learn from a lady who 
had an opportunity of personal inspection, the inhabitants- 
are so annoyed by gnats that the better sort of them, as 
in many hot climates, have recourse to a gauze covering 
for their beds, to keep them off during the night. 
Whether this practice obtains in other districts I do not 
know." Edition 1843, vol. i. p. 90. 



It did obtain at the Cistercian abbey of Sawtre, 
for in the inventory taken at the Dissolution we 
find in " The New Chamber " that there was a 
" beadstead with a net for knatts" (Archceologia, 
xliii. 240). K. P. D. E. 

CURIOUS NAMES. In a Wigtownshire news- 
paper, the other day, I saw the marriage announced 
of a lady named Christian Pagan. The combina- 
tion is sufficiently marked to at least call for 
chronicle. W. M. L. 

HAMLET'S GARDEN. In a MS. volume of a 
tour in Iceland, in 1818, in Mr. Petreus's vessel, 
the Experiment, there is the following : 

" On the 2nd of June we found a good inn at EUinore, 
from which we walked to Hamlet's Garden, BO called from 
the whim of the inhabitants of Elsinore, as it joins a 
email palace, and is the only place in this vicinity that 
an be likened to Shakespeare's account. Iso memoir of 
Hamlet is to be found in DitnUh history, but a prince of 
that name is recorded in the history of Jutland." 


St. John's Wood. 

FOLK-LORE. Allow me to call the attention of 
such of your readers as take an interest in the folk- 
lore of our rural districts to a series of articles in 
the last three or four numbers of the Queen news- 
paper, under the title of " How to Count Twenty." 
They are by various hands and very curious. 



will find (ante, p. 26), as a general rule, that 
"Easter" is simply a corruption of Esther. 
Among such as speak the Lancashire dialect this 
is the usual pronunciation. HERMENTRUDE. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

OF JESUS CHRIST. Translated from the Original 
Latin, and recommended by George Hickes, D.D. 
London, Printed for John Nicholson at the King's 
Arms in Little Britain, &c., 1707." Who was the 
translator of this book] It begins with a letter 
" To the Honourable Sir William Boothby, Bart., 
of Ashborn-Hall, in Derbyshire " :" Sir, The 
Author of this Translation is a worthy Gentleman 
of my acquaintance, but one so very modest and 
bashful that I cannot persuade him to publish his 
Name with his Book, though he hath easily pre- 
vailed with me to introduce it into the World with 
mine," &c. 

Who was Robert Keith, who translated the 
Imitation of Christ, and The Valley of Lilies and 

Soliloquy of the Soul, by Thomas a Kempis, into 
English ? and when and where was the first edition 
published? The copy I have seen was printed in 
Edinburgh, in 1801, by Mundell & Son for J. 
Fairbairn, Ogle, and Aikman, and C. Dickson, 
but reference in it is made to anoiner edition. 

I should be glad of some information concerning 
the connexion, if any, between Henri Jacques 
Guillaume Clarke, born at Landreceies in 1765, 
afterwards Due de Feltre, and the family of 
Clarke (formerly Woodchurch) of Notts, now 
represented by Sir Philip Haughton Clarke, 
Bart. The various books which mention the Due 
de Feltre be they for or against the first Napo- 
leon's usurpation ngree in ignoring the name of 
the Due de Feltre's father. But the Due and his 
sons (now dead) bore the arms of the Woodchurch- 
Clarkes, viz., Gules, three swords erect in pale. 
I have heard it asserted that the " Irish adven- 
turer," as he was called, was descended from the 
Clarkes of Port Hall, near Lifford, Donegal, whose 
relatives were in the West Indies at the same time 
as Sir Simon Clarke, the well-known planter and 
virtuoso. Another attempt at genealogy derives 
him from the natural son of Robert, son of Henry 
Luttrell and Elizabeth Clarke, born in 1708. This 
Robert is said to have "died abroad," and his 
brother Simon succeeded to the estates, and was 
created, in 1785, Earl Carhampton. The story of 
the family would be worth recording, for it appears 
that the Clarkes of Lifford assert that they are the 
representatives of a younger brother of Simon 
Clarke, who was created a baronet by Charles II. 
for his services to the Royalist cause. This 
younger brother was a Cromwellian, and was 
rewarded or paid by Oliver with the lands of Port 
Hall at the close of the Irish rebellion. From one or 
other of the branches descended the Due de Feltre, 
who betrayed every cause he served, being first a 
traitor to the Directory, and then a traitor to 
Buonaparte. M. C. 


Settle's tragedy The Empress of Morocco was 
acted at the Court of Charles II. in 1673, the 
" first" prologue, "written by the Lord Mulgrave," 
was spoken by " the Lady Elizabeth Howard " (see 
The Empress of Morocco, a Tragedy with Sculptures, 
by Elkanah Settle, servant to His Majesty, 
London, 1673). Now Dryden, in 1663, married a 
" Lady Elizabeth Howard." Was Dryden's wife, 
then, the " Lady Elizabeth Howard " who spoke 
the prologue ? This seems at first sight scarcely 
probably, as Settle's tragedy, it is well known, was 
recommended at Court by the Earl of Rochester 
with the sole object of wounding Dryden, and the 
Laureate's wife could hardly with propriety, I 



think, have resumed her maiden name. But still 
I should like to have positive proof that she was 
not the lady in question, and would therefore ask 
those of your readers who are better versed than 
I am in the peerage whether there was in 1673 
another Lady Elizabeth Howard who could have 
spoken the above-mentioned prologue. 


ST. EDMUND'S BURY. Will any of your corre- 
spondents, acquainted with the history of this place, 
have the goodness to tell me First, whether there 
was any nunnery (not monastery) there in the 
years 1236-43, with details of it if there were ? 
namely, to what order it belonged, the name of 
the abbess, and the style of architecture. Secondly, 
whether there is any trace of a residence of Hubert 
de Burgh, Earl of Kent ? ' His last wife, Princess 
Margaret of Scotland, was there on two occasions, 
the circumstances of which seem to indicate some- 
thing more than a passing visit. I wish to ascer- 
tain whether she had a home in this locality, 
whether she was probably visiting a friend, or 
whether there was a nunnery at which she might 
be staying. If probabilities seem to point to the 
friend, who was that likely to be ? I have vainly 
consulted several books before troubling you. 


SELII COLLOQUIA" (GREEK). Can any one kindly 
give me information about these books? They 
are among the list prescribed for study in King 
Ed. VI.'s Grammar School, Southampton, by 
Bishop Morley's statutes of Feb., 1674-5. 


Woolston, Southampton. 

believed that Alfred Bunn published, or printed 
for private circulation, a book under this or some 
similar title, although no record of such publication 
can be found. Did he do so, or did he write any 
book, autobiographical or otherwise, later than 
1845, other than the following, noted in Allibone 
and the London Catalogue? "The Stage both 
before and behind the Curtain," 3 vols., London, 
1840 ; " Old and New England," 2 vols., London, 
1853? G. W. 

BURNS. Many years ago I lost a copy of 
Burns's Life, Correspondence, &c., in four volumes, 
in one of the foot-notes of which were some beautiful 
verses which had been published anonymously, 
and were ascribed to him, but he disowned- them 
with very strong expressions of admiration of them. 
Since then I have examined many editions of 
Burns and copies of miscellaneous collections of 
poetry, and made sundry inquiries of his country- 
men and admirers after these verses, in vain. They 
began : 

" The wind blaws cauld o'er Dunnet Head, 

The snaw dri's snelly thro' the dale, 
The gaberlunzie tirls the sneck, 
And shivering tells his wa'fu' tale : 

My Effie's voice, oh ! wow 'tis sweet, 
E'en tho' she bans and scaulds a wee ; 

But when 'tis tuned to sorrow's din, 
Oh haith 'tis doubly sweet to me." 

Much of it, I am very sorry to say, has escaped 
my memory, and I am desirous, if possible, to 
be informed where a copy may be obtained, and 
shall be greatly obliged by your assistance herein. 


AUTHOR WANTED. Is anything known of the 
author of the following work ? It cannot be very 
common in this country : 

" Select | Translations | and | Imitations | from [ the 
French of Marmontell and Gresset. | By an Officer of the 
Army, | who fought for America under Gen. Wolfe | 
at the taking of Quebec. | Copyright Secured. | New 
York, | printed for Samuel Campbell, | No. 124, Pearl 
Street, | 1801." 

It contains the " Ver Vert " of Gresset, which 
has been noticed a good deal lately. The author 
says he has studied the spirit and not the expres- 
sion of the author. At p. 147, in his translation 
of " Laurette " by Marmontel, he has made use of 
Shakespearian phraseology : 

"A robber and murderer is broke on the wheel, be- 
cause he takes our gold, which is but trash. And you 
who ravish from us our good name, our innocence, and 
peace of mind, jewels that all the wealth of India could 
not purchase, what is it you deserve? You have not 
enriched yourself; but you have made us poor indeed." 

The italics are the translator's. A. H. BATES. 

DICTIONARY WANTED. Name or publisher of 
a good German and English dictionary of scientific 
terms, for the use of readers or translators of worka 
on zoology, archeology, &c. 


[The following may meet your requirements: 
Technologisches Wurterbuch in Franziisischer, Deutscher 
und Englisher Sprache. Von Alexander Tolhausen. 
3 parts. Leipzig, Tauchnitz. This work was reviewed 
in the Athenceum for Oct. 14, 1876. See also " N. & Q.," 
5ti. S. iii. 370; iv. 73, 109, 134, 238.] 


PAINS." Who was it that thus defined genius 1 

K. F. S. 

OWEN SWIFT. I shall be very thankful if any 
one will kindly give me information concerning 
him. ALMAMO. 


the date of the earliest English book containing a 
list of subscribers to its publication ? ZERO. 

PEPPER. I want a short quotation in verse or 
prose on the subject of pepper, in Spanish or Eng- 

5fl-s.xiLJoiT26.79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


lish, to engrave on a pepper pot. Can any of your 
contributors supply me with one I C. E. W. 

"PETER'S FARTHYNGES." The query by C. T. B. 
respecting " Peter-pence " (5 th S. xi. 506) reminds 
me that in the "Parish Expenditure of Milton 
Abbot " (see ante, p. 3 1 ) the hey warden's " accownte " 
for 1588 contains the item, "For Peter's far- 
thynges, vjd." In " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. iv. 104, MR. 
ELLACOMBE stated that the " old Churchwardens' 
Accounts of Tallaton, Devon," contained the entry, 
" 1610. Paid for Peter's Farthings, xd.," and he 
asked, " What was this payment 1 " As the query 
remains unanswered I beg to repeat it. 



[See p. 74.] 

"LABURNUM." I have been searching lately 
for the meaning and derivation of this word. I 
do not feel quite satisfied with the only one I have 
found, and should be glad to know if there be not 
some other than that which Dr. Prior gives in his 
volume on the names of English plants and trees. 
He gets " laburnum " from labor, the hours of 
man's labour being expressed by the opening and 
closing, by day and at eventide, of the leaflets of 
the tree. Is this correct 1 GIBBES EIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

" SKYRACK." At Headingley, near Leeds, there 
used to be a public-house called " The Skyrack 
Inn." The name was said by local antiquaries to 
be a corruption of " shire oak." Is this philo- 
logically probable ? And was it ever, the custom 
for the place of county gatherings (shire motes, 
hundred motes, &c.) to be marked by a tree 1 


Wetherell died from some accident at Preston 
Hall, near Maidstone, on Monday evening, 
Aug. 17, 1846. What was the accident, and 
where was he buried 1 J. E. B. 

OLIO. In Eichardson's Dictionary it is said 
that Milton, in his Answer to Eikon Basilike, 
sect. 15, accuses some one, presumably the author 
of that work, of writing oglio instead of olla, which 
is the true Spanish spelling. I wish for the refer- 
ence to the passage which Milton criticizes. 


TINGTON PEERAGE CASE," 1820. I find the fol- 
lowing in Archdeacon Wrangham's Catalogue of 
the English portion of his books, p. 621, in reference 
to this work : " This appears to have been com- 
piled by the late Mr. John Macken, whose literary 
nom de guerre was Ismael Fitzadam." I should like 
to know why this so appeared to the archdeacon. 
It appears to me not to be the case. Mr. H. N. Bell 

describes himself on the title-page as a " student 
of the Inner Temple." As his name is not in the 
Law Lists, I presume he was never called to the bar. 
Is he still alive ] Assuming he was about twenty 
when the above, the only book I find he wrote, was 
published, he would be about eighty now. 


TEMPLE BAR. Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
inform me what large building formerly stood on 
the site of the Marygold, i.e. Child's Bank 1 In 
the course of demolition a pier, having -four arches 
springing from it, has been brought to light ; they 
are composed of upper greensand, i.e. firestone 
blocks, and various architects agree that it^must 
have been a portion of an ecclesiastical building of 
the thirteenth century. A wall of chalk about two 
feet and a half in thickness, cased with ragstone, runs 
north and south through the whole area, which 
may possibly be a portion of it. Two sides of the 
old arches were visible in the cellars of the old bank, 
and beneath them is a well. Did the Temple ever 
extend so far as this towards Fleet Street ] 


Temple Bar. 

THE PAUNCEFOTE FAMILY. I have a copy of 
Genealogical Notes of the Family of Pauncefote, 
of Stoke-Hall [Nottinghamshire] and Carswalls 
[Gloucestershire], pp. 12, 4to., with an engraving 
of arms " presented to this work by Sir George 
Pauncefote, Bart." This would seem to be a 
private impression of pp. 9-20 of vol. iv. of a 
large publication. Can you oblige me with the 
title of the work, the name of the author, and the 
date? Sundry particulars of this family, which 
was " long and closely connected with the history 
of the county," have been given in Gloucestershire 
Notes and Queries, No. xxvii., p. 15. ABHBA. 

" BEAU " BRUMMELL. Can any one inform me 
where I can procure an engraving of " Beau " 
Brummell ? I have tried nearly all the old print 
shops in London without any success ; but I know 
that there are some few engravings still in existence. 

8, Bolton Gardens, South Kensington. 

Addrets to Old Maidf. By One of the Sisterhood. It 
begins thus : 

" Hail, sober state which all the world contemns, 
The dread of woman and the pest of men." 

A. F. 


" When St. Barnabie bright shines night and daie, 

Poor Ragged Robin blooms in the hay." 
These lines are given as the description of picture No. 44 
in this year's Academy exhibition. 


" To snatch from time what time would fain destroy. " 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. xn. j 26 , 79. 



(5 th S. xii. 8.) 

The annual sermon at Huntingdon, of which 
Dr. Johnson speaks, had its origin thus. The 
three unfortunate members of the family of 
Samwell or Samuel, who were tried and executed 
At Huntingdon, April, 1593, for " bewitching " 
several persons, including " the Lady Cromwell," 
-and causing her death, after a lingering illness, 
had their little property at Warboys seized and 
forfeited to the lady's husband, Sir Henry Crom- 
well, who was lord of the manor of Warboys. 
The goods amounted in value to about forty 
pounds ; and Sir Henry, being unwilling to enrich 
himself thereby, gave (says one of the Corporation 
books) "goods to forty pounds value of the said 
goods to the said Corporation to pay Queen's College, 
Cambridge, for a sermon to be preached yearly, 
upon Lady Day, by a Doctor or Bachelor of 
Divinity, that should inveigh and preach against 
Sorcery ; for which he should have forty shillings, 
but should distribute to the poor ten shillings 
thereof ; and if they fail, then the Rent-charge 
should cease." An indenture, dated Sept. 28, 
1593, was made to this effect between the Corpo- 
ration of Huntingdon and Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge ; and the sermon would appear to have 
been annually preached in All Saints' Church, 
Huntingdon, for a period of more than two cen- 
turies, up to about the year 1814. The late Mr. 
Robert Carruthers, who was a junior master in the 
Grammar School, when he published his History 
of Huntingdon in Nov., 1824, says that the 
preaching of the sermon " was very properly dis- 
continued about ten years ago." 

Bray ley, in his Huntingdonshire, published in 
April, 1808, appears to speak of the sermon as 
being at that date preached annually ; but he 
adds : 

" May not this sermon have tended to encourage that 
strong belief in witches which is still current among 
the common people of this county, and which, as some 
recent events at Great Paxton evidently prove, cannot 
always be restrained to the mere abuse of the presumed 
criminal ( It would certainly be more to the credit of 
parties now concerned if the discourse or sermon were 
constantly employed to discountenance the vulgar belief 
in witchcraft, which, whatever may be the opinion of 
those who give the tone to colloquial expression in the 
upper ranks of society, is still by far too general among 
the lower classes in many parts of this kingdom." 

The incident to which Brayley referred though 
he does not mention it elsewhere was the con- 
viction and imprisonment in Huntingdon Gaol of 
four women and five men for committing two 
violent assaults upon Anne Izzard, a poor harmless 
old woman of Great Paxton, under the belief that 
she dealt in witchcraft. 

Sir Walter Scott, in his Demonology and Witch- 
craft (letter viii.), speaks of the witches of 
Warboys and the annual sermon, although he is 
in error in attributing the endowment of the 
" lecture " to Sir Samuel Cromwell. Noble, in 
his Cromwell (vol. i. p. 25), says : 

' It is with real concern that I acquaint the reader 
that there is still an annual sermon against witchcraft in 
Huntingdon, by a divine sent from Queen's College, for 
which he receives '21., but is obliged to distribute ten 
shillings to the poor, and by custom to treat part of the 
Corporation to a dinner. This is the more extraordinary 
as all the penal statutes against this supposed crime of 
witchcraft have been repealed by an Act of Parliament, 
which is tacitly declaring that there are no such beings 
as witches, nor crime as witchcraft ; it would, therefore, 
be highly commendable in the Corporation of Huntingdon 
and Queen's College to agree that, if a sermon must be 
preached, the subject of it should, instead of being 
levelled at the pretended sin of witchcraft, be an address 
to the people, cautioning them against falling into such 
errors and prejudices as made their forefathers involve 
the unhappy and immeasurably injured Samwells in ruin 
and destruction." 

In MR. J. PAYNE COLLIER'S notes on "The 
Registers of .the Stationers' Company," published 
seventeen years ago in this journal (3 rd S. i. 401), 
will be found one (No. 30) relating to Judge 
Fenner's " arraignment, judgement, and execution 
of three wytches of Huntingdonshire," concerning 
which MR. PAYNE COLLIER says : " No other 
record of these witches, that we are aware of, has 
descended to these times." 

In my collection of Huntingdonshire books I 
have a copy of the following work, in 129 pages : 

" The Inantity and Mischief of Vulgar Superstitions. 
Four Sermons preached at All-Saints' Church, Hunting- 
don, on the 25th Day of March, in the Years 1792, 1793, 
1794, 1795, by M. J. Naylor, M.A., Fellow of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, and Lecturer at the Parish Church 
of Wakefield, Yorkshire. To which is added some 
account of the Witches of Warboys. Cambridge, 
B. Flower; London, Rivingtons, &c., 1795." 

In the preface to this book Mr. Naylor makes a 
vigorous reply to the observations of " the reverend 
and learned author of the Memoirs of the Pro- 
tectoral House of Cromwell" and defends " the 
society of Queen's" from the supposition that they 
were the slaves of superstition, and that any 
member of their body should do otherwise than 
deprecate the lamentable effects of the miserable 
delusions attendant upon a belief in witchcraft. 
No express reference is made to the witches of 
Warboys in these four sermons, but appended to 
them is an abridgment of the narrative of 

" The most strange and admirable Discoverie of the 
Three Witches of Warboss, arraigned, convicted, and 
executed at the last Assizes at Huntingdon, for the 
Bewitching of the Five Daughters of Robert Throck- 
morton, Esquire, and divers other persons, with sundrie 
Divellish and grievous Torments: and also for the 
Bewitching to Death of the Lady Crumwell. The like 
hath not been heard of in this Age ! London, 1593." 

The Rev. Mark Noble, who died in 1827, pub- 



lished his two- volume work, Memoirs of the House 
of Cromwell, in 1784, and from the passage I have 
already quoted it would appear that it was the 
custom at that time for the preacher of the annual 
sermon against witchcraft and sorcery, not only to 
present to the poor of Huntingdon the sum of ten 
shillings out of the two pounds that he received 
for his sermon entailing the journey from Cam- 
bridge but that he also had to treat part of the Cor- 
poration to a dinner. So that, " honour and glory" 
-excepted, he would not be much the gainer by 
the douceur of the two pounds. Within my own 
knowledge, at the present time, the preacher of 
the sermon to a benefit club is, after the annual 
dinner, presented by " the Father of the Club " 
with a golden sovereign, as an acknowledgment of 
"" his admirable, &c., discourse." Nevertheless, 
the poor parson is none the richer for the gift, and 
cannot even keep it for show, like the sovereign of 
the Vicar of Wakefield's children ; for he would 
altogether lose caste if he did not, in returning 
thanks for the one pound, say that it Lad given 
him " great pleasure, &c., to preach for so excellent 
a society, &c., and that he begged to be allowed 
to present the one pound as a donation to the 
funds of the society." It would appear that there 
is nothing new under the sun, and that the 
preacher of the Huntingdon sermon was, pecu- 
niarily, no gainer thereby. CUTHBERT BEDE. 


6, 36.) I send a few more descriptions to add to 
those given, ante, p. 36 : 

3. " The Narrative of Dr. Robert Norrig, concerning 
the Strange and Deplorable Frenzy of Mr. John Denn... 
An officer of the Custom House : Being an exact 
account of all that past betwixt the said Patient and the 
Doctor till this present Day: and a full Vindication of 
himself and his Proceedings from the Extravagant Re- 
ports of the said Mr. John Denn.... 

' Excludit sanos Helicone Poetas 

Democritus ' Har. 

London, Printed for J. Morphew." 8vo., pp. 24. 

The date (1713) is unfortunately cut off. This 
little volume is very rare. It was for a long time 
attributed to Pope, who was supposed to have 
written it in reply to Mr. Dennis's criticism on 
Addison's Cato. A letter written by Steele, at 
Addison's desire, to Mr. Lintot, repudiating all 
knowledge of The Narrative, and expressing dis- 
approval of its contents, was always stated to have 
been the cause of the breach between Addison 
and Pope. Mr. Dilke, in The Papers of a Critic 
(1875, 2 vols., 8vo.), vol. i. pp. 253-65, shows that 
Steele's letter to Lintot was a forgery, and gives it 
as his opinion that the pamphlet was written bv 

4. " Verses addressed to the Imitator of the First Satire 
of the Second Book of Horace. By a Lady. London, 

Printed for A. Dodd, and sold at all the Pamphlet Shops 
in Town. Price Six Pence." Fol., pp. 8. 

This poem is generally included in the works of 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Mr. John Wilson 
Croker saw a copy of it at Ickworth in the hand- 
writing of Lord Hervey. It was probably their 
jomt production. 

5. " A proper Reply to a Lady, occasioned by her 
Verses addressed to the Imitator of the First Satire of 
the Second Book of Horace. By a Gentleman. London, 
Printed for T. Osborne, in Gray's Inn, near the Walks. 
Price Six Pence." Fol., pp. 8. 

I am unaware who was the author of this pamphlet. 

6. " An Epistle from A Nobleman to a Doctor of Di- 
vinity : In Answer to a Latin Letter in Verse. Written 

from H n C 1, Aug. 28, 1733. London, Printed 

for J. Roberts, near the Oxford Arms, in Warwick Lane. 
MDCCXXXIII. Price Six Pence." Fol., pp. 8. 

Written by Lord Hervey. 

7. "Tit for Tat. Or An Answer to the Epistle to 
[should be ' from '] A Nobleman. 

1 Remember Milo's End, 
Wedged in that Timber, which he strove to rend.' 


London : Printed Tor T. Cooper, at the Globe in Ivy Lane. 
MDCCXXXIV." Fol., pp. 8. 

Author unknown. 

8. " Tit for Tat. 

' Remember Milo's End, 
Wedged in that Timber which he strove to rend.' 


To which is annex'd An Epistle from A Nobleman to 
a Doctor of Divinity. In answer to a Latin Letter in 
Verse. Also the Review; or, The Case fairly Stated on 
both Sides. Wherein is shewn the true Cause of the fore- 
going Poems. Honit soit qui mat y Pense. Motto of 
the Garter. London : Printed for T. Reynolds, in the 
Strand, and sold by the Booksellers in Town and Country. 
MDCCXXXIV. Price One Shilling." FoL, pp. 12. 

Nothing is known for certain of the origin of 
Pope's quarrel with Lady Mary Wortley and Lord 
Hervey. The famous lines on Sporus are probably 
the bitterest satire in our language, and were not 
entirely undeserved, but nothing can excuse the 
coarseness of the abuse with which he attacked 
Lady Mary in almost every piece he produced after 
1731. The idea that Pope's hatred arose from dis- 
appointed love is very improbable. Mr. Dilke 
suggests that the cause of the quarrel was a pair 
of sheets, which Lady Mary returned to Pope with- 
out having had them washed. F. G. 

I gathered up the following particulars con- 
cerning this royal chapel from the late highly 
esteemed chaplain, Mr. Bullock : 

1. The register commences in 1721. 

2. The chapel was originally between the great 
staircase and the council room, and can still be 
traced there, the large east window obtaining light 
from a very small quadrangle. Here, doubtless, 
the famous Richard Bentley, Master of Trinity 
College and Chaplain to George I., officiated, and 

NOTES AND QUERIES. P & xn. JULY 26, 79. 

" was afraid to go from Kensington Palace to St. 
James's (where he lived and was keeper of the 
Eoyal Library) after evening prayers, which were 
not over till 10.30, as the road was not safe " (see 
Dr. Wordsworth's Life of Bentley). Here, too, the 
learned Dr. Waterland, Archdeacon of Middlesex, 
acted as chaplain. The following letter is pub- 
lished in Bishop van Mildert's life of him : 

" Magdalen Coll., Aug. 30, 1720. 

" Sir, I can now acquaint you that I shall not be in 
waiting at Kensington before the 16th of December. I 
intended to be there at the beginning of the month, but 
my wife being ill I wrote to my brother chaplains to 
take care of the fortnight, and they will be so kind as to 
do it. I shall be very glad to see you at Kensington any 
time after the 16th. There are lodgings provided for 
the chaplains as I well know, having so found it the last 
year. The lodgings are in or near the Square, which is 
all I remember of them. I thank you for the favour 
of your last, &c. Sir, 

" Your most humble servant, 


" To Mr. Stanton." 

Dr. Doran, in his interesting book Lives of 
the Queens of the Home of Hanover, says, " The 
Queen, Caroline wife of King George II., attended 
divine service regularly in the chapel in Kensing- 
ton Palace." 

In 1834 H.E.H. the Duchess of Kent, requiring 
the space, shifted the chapel to the present site at 
the north-west corner of the palace, and the Bishop 
of London, Dr. Blomfield, declined to reconsecrate, 
as it was still in the same building. In the earlier 
chapel people still living remember seeing the 
Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen Caroline, 
at church on Sunday in the gallery. 

3. The resident chaplains : 

(1) Eev. Eobert Blakeway, 1721-1736. 

(2) Eev. Eichard Ward, 1736-1756. "Eev. 
Mr. Ward, Eeader of Kensington Church and 
Chaplain of His Majesty's Palace there " (Gent. 
Mag., March 21, 1756). 

(3) Eev. J. Dimsdale, 1757. There is a 
monument to Eev. Jeffery Dimsdale in Ken- 
sington Church, 1774. 

(4) Eev. Seth Thompson, D.D., 1805. Eector 
of Foxley, Wilts, and preacher at Bronipton 
Chapel (Gent. Mag., 1805, a long memoir). 

(5) Eev. John Wetherall, LL.D., 1807-1833. 
Eector of Streatley, Berks, and domestic chaplain 
to the Duke of Kent. 

(6) Eev. Joseph Jackson, 1833-1854. 

(7) Eev. John Barlow, F.E.S., 1854-1867. 

(8) Eev. W. T. Bullock, M.A., 1867-1879. 
Prebendary of St. Paul's, Secretary to the 
S. P. G., &c. 

(9) Eev. W. C. Bromehead, M.A., 1879. 

4. The church plate is very handsome : A large 
flagon, A.E., 1660 ; a chalice, A.E., 1664 ; a 
small flagon, W.E., 1692 ; a paten, G.E. L, 1714; 
a paten, G.E. II., 1736 ; an alms dish, G.E. II., 

1736. It will be observed the dates dp not agree 
with the initials of the reigning sovereigns. 

A. 0. K. 

"ADAMANT" (5 th S. xi. 449.) Sir Thomas 
Browne combats the opinion adopted by the Eev. 
E. Johnson, and supplies the information MR. 
WALFORD desires : 

' We hear it in every mouth and in many good Authors 
reade it, That a Diamond, which is the hardest of stones 
not yeelding unto Steele, Emery or any thing, but its own 
powder ia yet made soft or broke by the bloud of a Goat. 
Thus much is affirmed by Pliny, Solinus, Albertus, 
Cyprian, Austin, Isidore, and many Christian Writers ; 
alluding herein unto the heart of man and the precious 
bloud of our Saviour ; who was typified indeed by the 
Goat that was slain and the scape Goat in the wilder- 
nesse ; and at the effusion of whose bloud not only the 
hard hearts of his enemies relented but the stony rocks 
and vail of the Temple were shattered. But this I per- 
ceive is easier affirmed than proved. For Lapidaries, and 
such as professe the art of cutting this stone, doe gene- 
rally deny it ; and they that seem to countenance it, have 
in their deliveries so qualified it that little from thence 
of moment can be inferred from it. For first the holy 
Fathers without further enquiry did take it for granted, 
and rested on the authority of the first deliverers. As 
for Albertus he promised this effect but conditionally, 
not except the Goat drink wine, and be fed with Siler 
montanum,petro selinum, and such herbs as are conceived 
of power to break stone in the bladder. But the words 
of Pliny, from whom most likely the rest at first derived 
it, if strictly considered doe rather overthrow then any 
way advantage this effect. His words are these : ' Hir- 
cino rumpitur sanguine nee aliter quam recenti, cali- 
doque macerata et sic quoque multis ictibus, tune etiam 
praeterquam eximias incudes malleosque ferreos frangens.' 
That is it is broke with Goat's bloud but not except it be 
fresh and warm, and that not without many blows ; and 
then also it will break the best Anvills and hammers of 
Iron. And answerable hereto is the assertion of Isidore 
and Solinus. By which account, a Diamond steeped in 
Goat's bloud, rather increaseth in hardness than acquireth 
any softnesse by the infusion ; for the best we have are 
comminuible without it ; and are so far from breaking 
hammers that they submit unto pistillation, and resist 
not an ordinary pestle." Vulgar and Common Errors, 
bk. ii. chap. v. 


Pliny, in his Natural History, bk. xxxvii. 
chap. iv. (Holland's translation, 1634), says : 

" This invincible minerall (against which neither fire 
nor steele, the two most violent and puissant creatures 
of natures making, have any power, but that it checketh 
and despiseth both the one and the other) is forced to 
yield the gantelet and give place to the bloud of a Goat, 
this only thing is the means to break it in sunder, how- 
beit care must be had, that the Diamant be steeped ther- 
in whiles it is fresh drawn from the beast before it be 

cold I would gladly know whose invention this might 

be to soake the Diamant in Goats bloud, whose head de- 
vised it first, or rather by what chance it was found out 
and known 1 " 

All subsequent writers have adopted this tale as 
a fact, and have given it with many curious varia- 
tions. Arnoldus de Villanova held that the virtue 
was proper to the goat and not to his blood alone, 
and that he was most potent at certain times and 

5ts.xu.joiY26,'79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


after eating particular food. Albertus Magnus 
asserts that the goat's blood is only efficacious ii 
he has drunk wine. Brown has in his Vulgar 
Errors, bk. ii. chap, v., some good remarks upon 
this strange fiction. EDWARD SOLLY. 

The adamant is here the adamas of the Greeks 
and Romans, in other words the diamond. The 
fable that it could be softened by the fresh warm 
blood of goats is at least as old as Pliny (N. H., 
lib. xxxvii. ch. iv.), and was not unfrequently 
alluded to in after times. Bartholomew Glantville, 
1360, repeats it, and adds, " The bloude of a Goat 
buck, that is fedde with Ivie breaketh wonderfully 
the stone both in the bladder and in the reines as 
he [Pliny] saith." And Batman, 1582, adds from 
himself, " Diuerse authors affirrne, that the hot 
bloud of a Goat bucke dissolueth a flint stone into 
softnesse." B. NICHOLSON. 

Littleton notices this property of goat's blood. 
Facciolati and Forcellini (sub voce " Adamas ") 
say : " Is tanien hircorum calido, et recenti san- 
guine perfusus facile frangitur. Hsec ex Plin., 
lib. xxxvii. cap. iv., ubi alia plura ad hanc rem." 

2, Tanfield Court, Temple. 

21.) MR. D-. WHYTE gives extracts from Nirnmo's 
General History of Stirlingshire, 1777. A better 
authority for the information they contain would 
have been The Cartulary of Cambuskenneth, a 
sumptuous volume, edited by Mr. William Fraser 
for the Grampian Club in 1872, at the cost of the 
Marquis of Bute. MR. WHYTE'S object is to show 
"to what an enormous extent of wealth" the 
abbacy attained. Mr. Fraser, in his introduction 
(p. 22), remarks : 

"The possessions of the abbey were widely scattered, 
and a glance at the miscellaneous character of its pro- 
perty will show the difficulty which persons constantly 
resident in the monastery must have experienced in 
managing it profitably." 

And further (p. 26) : 

" It is a commonly received opinion that the abbeys of 
Scotland were very opulent, and that the monks lived in 
the greatest luxury. But the nature of the property of 
Cambuskenneth was such as to render the management 
of it expensive and difficult, and their register reveals 
that the community were often in indigence. Their 
extreme poverty is referred to in several of the grants as 
a special reason for giving the canons relief in various 

These statements are confirmed by the documents 
printed in the Cartulary. N. CLYNE. 


HANNAH MORE'S LIFE (5 th S. xi. 486.) Under 
this heading Lowndes notes " Life of H. M., by 
Sir A. M'Sarcasm, Bart. (Satirical)," Bristol, 1802, 
and " Life, with a Critical Review of her Writings, 
by W. Shaw," London, 1802, upon which I would 

observe that, with the exception of the name of 
Shaw thereon, the second is the exact title of the 
first, now before me, which, although printed at 
Bristol, is a London publication ; and as the date 
ascribed to both is 1802, and the " Life of H. M., 
by W. Shaw," an otherwise unknown book, I ven- 
ture to assert that no such biography exists. 
Keeping the above in view, it is not difficult to 
suppose that this name of Shaw in connexion with 
H. More may through some confusion have found 
its way into MR. SOLLY'S copy of the satire, or it 
may really indicate, as believed by him, the name 
of the masked satirist. As to Shaw, looking to 
the fact that he figures as one of the supporters 
of the Curate of Blagdon against "good Mrs. 
Hannah," I am inclined to believe him to have 
been the man, and therefore now post his name 
in my copy as that of the disguised Sir Archy 
M'Sarcasm. A foregone conclusion induced me 
some time ago to bind up this book with another 
satire, " A Poetical Revieiv of Miss H. M.'s Stric- 
tures upon Female Education, in a Series of Ana- 
pestic Epistles. By Sappho Search," i.e., the Rev. 
Jno. Black, of Butley, Suffolk, 1800. The same 
spirit pervades both, and both are " printed for 
T. Hurst " ; but I think they are now rightly 
assigned to their real authors. J. 0. 

xi. 95, 114, 170.) In my first communication I 
erred in assigning only eighteen volumes to the 
Billy Jones Shakspeare. My copy lacks vols. xix. 
and xx. ; and though it is credible that the issue 
may have stopped at vol. xviii., yet I think there 
is evidence to show that it did not. I lately pur- 
chased " the Leipsick edition " in twenty volumes. 
On its receipt I was not a little surprised to find 
that the first eighteen volumes were page for page y 
save the title-pages, the same as the Billy Jones 
edition ; besides, it has the same portrait, and is 
printed (with the same misprints) on the same 
coarse German paper. The first title-page of this 
edition runs thus : " The Plays of William Shak- 
speare, accurately printed from the Text of Mr. 
Steeven's [sic] Last Edition, with a Selection of 
the most important Notes. Vol. I. containing,. 
&c. Leipsick : Printed for Gerhard Fleischer the 
younger. 1804." The twentieth volume has the 
date 1812, the intermediate volumes having the 
dates of the intermediate years. Bad copies of 
the plates to Bell's edition illustrate these volumes. 
So at length, I think, we have run the fox to- 
earth. The Vienna edition, 1814, and the Billy 
Jones edition, 1826, are merely reissues of the 
Leipsick edition. C. M. INGLEBY. 

Athenaeum Club. 

403 ; xii. 38.) Among some notes by Mr. Mark- 
wick on passages in White's Natural History of 
Selborne (see Bell's edition, vol. i. p. 483) occurs 


the following, from the seventh volume of the 
Transactions of the Linnean Society : "The 
cuckoo begins early in the season with an interval 
of a minor third; the bird then proceeds to a 
major third, next to a fourth, then a fifth, after 
which his voice breaks without attaining a minor 
sixth." Mr. Markwick continues : 

" This curious circumstance was however observed very 
long ago, and it forms the subject of an epigram in that 
scarce black-letter volume the Epigrams of John Hey- 
wood, 1687 : 

' Of Use 95. 

Use maketh maistry, this hath been said ahvay, 
But all is not ahvay, as all men do say, 
In Aprill, the koocoo can sing her song by rote 
In June of tune, she cannot sing her note 
At first, koo coo, koo coo sing still can she do, 
At last kooke, kooke, kooke ; six kookes, to one koo ! ' " 

According to the letter cited by MR. W. F. 
MARSH JACKSON the cuckoo opens her bill on 
April 23 about Killarney. In East Sussex she is 
expected on or just after the 14th, when it is sup- 
posed an old woman lets the bird out of a bag at 
Heathfield Fair : so says Archdeacon Parish 
(Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect). Mrs. Latham's 
account of the West Sussex nursery belief is that 

" A certain old woman of irascible temper has charge 
of all the cuckoos, and that in the spring she fills her 
apron with them, and if she is in a good humour allows 
several to take flight, but only permits one or two to 
escape if anything has happened to sour her temper. 
This spring [1868 ?] a woman of the village complained 
quite pathetically of the bad humour of the cuckoo- 
keeper, who had only let one bird fly out of her apron, 
and 'that 'ere bird is nothing to call a singer.' " The 
Folk- Lore 'Record, vol. i. p. 17 (Folk-Lore Society). 

Archdeacon Parish further tells us that in 
Worcestershire the cuckoo is not expected to make 
itself heard before Tenbury fair (April 21) or after 
Pershore fair (June 26) ; he quotes from the 
Deutsche Mythologie, p. 691 : 

" Our Lord was one day passing a baker's shop, when, 
feeling hungry, he sent in one of his disciples to ask for 
a loaf ; the baker refused it, but his wife, who with his 
.six daughters was standing at a little distance, gave him 
-the loaf secretly, for which go9d deed they were placed 
in heaven as seven stars the Pleiades ; but the baker 
-was changed into a cuckoo, which sings from St. Tiburtius' 
Day (April 14) to St. John the Baptist's Day (June 24) 
that is, as long as the seven stars are visible." 

This legend reminds one of Ophelia's " They say 
the owl was a baker's daughter. Lord, we know 
what we are, but we know not what we may be,' 
a piece of un-natural history fully commented upon 
by Mr. Thorns in his Notelets on Shakespeare, 
pp. 108 et seq. ST. SWITHIN. 

" FOUR WENT WAYS " (5 th S. xi. 485.) There is 
a pond on Holmwood Common in the parish ol 
Dorking called the Four Wents Pond. It lies 
at the crossing of the Dorking and Newdigate road 
with the road from Holmwood < Jhurch to Leigh. 


Yateley, Hants. 

MADAME ROLAND (5 th S. xii. 29.) In vol. xiv. 
of the Philobiblon Society's Miscellanies, which 
contains a few pages of " An Unpublished Diary 
of Madam Roland," A. F. will find a discussion as 
to the circumstances of her death and her last 
words. H. A. B. 

TRENCHMORE (5 th S. xi. 488.) An English dance 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, of which 
nothing certain is now known, except that it was 
a lively movement. Kemp, in his Nine Daies 
Wonder, 1600, says, "Some sweare, in a trench- 
more I have trode a good way to winne the world." 
Taylor the water poet writes, " Nimble-heeled 
mariners . . . capering . . . sometimes a Morisco or 
Trenchmore of forty miles long." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

PETER- PENCE (5 th S. xi. 506.) Peter's farthings 
are mentioned in the parish documents ot Hart- 
land, Devonshire, as late as the year 1613 (see 
Historical MSS. Rep., v. 573). 

[See p. 69.] 

ENVELOPES (5 th S. xii. 26.) I have a large col- 
lection of franks, and omong them are very many 
envelopes, all, of course, older than the introduction 
of the penny post in Jan., 1840. I cannot, how- 
ever, find any of earlier date than 1835-6. 


Hampstead, N.W. 

T. OR J. ERSKINE (5 th S. xii. 29.) There can 
hardly be any doubt that the vol. of MSS. mentioned 
by HERMES was the property of the Hon. Thomas 
Erskine (third son of the tenth Earl of Buchan), 
afterwards Lord Chancellor of England. As is 
well known, he served as a midshipman before he 
joined the army. In the Army List for the year 
1769 I find his name as junior ensign, of date 
Sept. 14, 1768, of the 2nd Battalion of the 
1st Royal Regt. of Foot, then serving at Minorca. 
"Frances" was doubtless his wife, a daughter of 
Daniel Moore, Esq , M.P. They were married in 
May, 1770. Amongst Lord Erskine's published 
writings are " Armata," a prose piece, in the style 
of Swift, and "The Farmer's Vision," a poem 
written about 1813, and many " verses." 


United Service Club, Edinburgh. 

FOLK MEDICINE (TRANSVAAL) (5 th S. xii. 9), by 
which German or Dutch name (translated into 
English) I presume MR. BLACK means " People's 
Medicine." I have had a relative out there for 
twenty years, and I beg leave to observe the whole 
story sounds like a myth ; probably the writer has 
a fertile imagination. ENGLISHMAN. 

P.S. It was probably the usual formality 
practised out there in funeral rites. 



xi. 508.) John, the sixth Duke of Bedford, 1766- 
1839, was twice married. His first wife was 
Georgiana, daughter of the fourth Viscount Tor- 
rington, who died in 1801, and was the mother ol 
the late Lord John Russell (Earl Russell). The 
duke subsequently, in 1803, married Georgiana, 
daughter ef the fourth Duke of Gordon, who died 
Dowager Duchess of Bedford in 1853. The mezzo- 
tint of Reynolds after Hoppner is a portrait of this 
lady. She was born in 1781. Particulars of this 
and of other engraved portraits of her are given in 
Evans's valuable Catalogue of Engraved British 
Portraits. EDWARD SOLLY. 

TOASTMASTERS (5 th S. xii. 26.) These officials 
were employed in the City long before the late 
Duke of Cambridge was " partial to dining in the 
City." During the short-lived Peace of Amiens, 
1802-3, the chairman at a banquet proposed " The 
Health of the Three Consuls." The toastmaster 
announced the toast as " The Health of the Three 
per cent. Consols," which the guests doubtless'would 
drink with enthusiasm. W. G. 

SHELLEY AT GENEVA (5 th S. xii. 48.) Permit 
me to inform MR. RICHARD EDGCUMBE that the 
History of a Six Weeks' Tour through a Part of 
France, Switzerland, Germany, and Holland ; ivith 
Letters descriptive of a Sail round the Lake of 
Geneva and of the Glaciers of Chamouni, was pub- 
lished in 1817 by T. Hookham, jun., Old Bond 
Street, and C. & J. Oilier, Welbeck Street. MR. 
EDGCUMBE will find it reproduced in Mrs. Shelley's 
collected Works of Shelley (published by Moxon). 
To the volume published in 1817 was appended 
Shelley's magnificent poem, Mont Blanc: Lines 
written in the Vale of Chamouni. 


Richmond, Surrey. 

History of a Six Weeks' Tour, &c., is not a rare 
volume, and I have seen it in book catalogues at 
least thrice during the last six months, at prices 
from eight to sixtaen shillings. I could put MR. 
EDGCUMBE in the way of procuring a copy, or, if 
he visits London, will readily lend him mine. 


The original edition of the Six Weeks' Tour 
(1817) is not particularly scarce. There was a 
copy offered for sale by Dobell, of Queen's Crescent, 
Haverstock Hill, lately. Mrs. Shelley made a 
few alterations when she reprinted the book among 
Shelley's works. They are recorded in my forth- 
coming edition of Shelley's prose works, which will 
comprise Mrs. Shelley's portions of the Tour as 
well as Shelley's. H. BUXTON FORMAN. 

38, Maryborough Hill, St. John's Wood. 

S. xi. 509.) The Dissenting minister referred to 

was in all probability a Mr. George Fletcher, wha 
was preaching a good deal in small chapels in 
London and its vicinity about twenty-h've or 
twenty-six years ago. He was usually announced 
in the advertisements as 105 years of age, and this 
fact it was that proved a source of attraction when 
he officiated. He was not a regular minister, but 
a lay preacher in some denomination I think the 
Baptist. When he died, as he did shortly after 
the time named above, it was, I believe, discovered 
that he was not nearly so old as he had represented 
himself to be in fact, so far as I can now remember, 
he was not much over eighty. 


(5 th S. xii. 48.) Of this monthly magazine only 
one volume (1856) was published. FAMA. 


" DEAD AS CHELSEA " (5 th S. xii. 29.) As dead 
to the service as a pensioner in Chelsea Hospital. 


The expression used by Butler in the Elephant in 
the Moon, 

" As true as that of Ireland, where 
The sly surveyors stole a shire," 

refers to Dr. Petty's survey of the confiscated 
lands. In 1652 he was appointed surveyor of 
forfeited estates in Ireland, at a salary of 365Z. per 
annum. Wood (Ath. O.con., iv! 215) says : '"Tis 
said that by this employment he obtained an estate 
in Ireland worth about 10,OOOZ. per annum, but a 
great part being refunded, because their former 
owners were declared innocent as to the then late 
rebellion." This was done in the Court of Claims, 
established at Dublin in 1662 to judge of the 
qualifications of nocent and innocent. Dr. Petty 
was elected by the burgesses of Westlow, in Corn- 
wall, in 1658, and the same year was impeached 
for mismanagement in the allotment of the Irish 
lands. Dr. Petty was Gresham Professor of 
Music from 1650 to 1660, was knighted in 1661, 
and appointed Surveyor-General for Ireland (see 
Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors, 1740, 
pp. 217-27 ; and his own books entitled A Brief 
of Proceedings between Sir Hierome Sankey and 
Dr. Petty, folio, 1659, and Reflections vpon some 
Persons and Things in Ireland, 8vo., 1660). . Dr. 
Petty was very active in the formation of the 
Royal Society, and many of the earliest meetings 
of the Fellows were held in his lodgings, " over an 
apothecaries shop." Sir H. Sankey never forgave 
Dr. Petty, for, having quarrelled, Sankey chal- 
lenged him, and left place and weapons to Petty's 
selection. The latter appointed the meeting in a 
dark cellar, the weapons woodmen's axes. This 
>rought much ridicule on Sir H. Sankey. Butler 
only considered Petty as one of the ringleaders of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5* s. xii. JUL* 26 , -79. 

that scientific club, in which it must be admitted 
many marvellously quaint, and some ridiculously 
absurd, schemes were introduced and discussed 
"with the most amusing pedantry. 


BATTLE or LEPANTO (5 th S. xi. 309, 417.) I 
find in the Picture Collector's Manual, by J. R. 
Hobbes (London, T. & W. Boone, 1849), that 
one Filippo Gherardi, who was born at Lucca, 
painted two pictures the battle of Lepanto and 
the triumph of Marc Antonio Colonna. He died 
in 1704. MAES DENIQUE. 

EARLS or CORNWALL (5 th S. xi. 469 ; xii. 33) : 
EESTORMEL CASTLE (5 th S. xi. 407, 454.) Papers 
were read at the Congress of the Archaeological 
Association at Penzance, in August, 1876, on the 
"Earls of Cornwall" by Mr. J. E. Planche', Somerset 
Herald, and on the "Duchy and Dukes of Cornwall" 
by Mr. S. I. Tucker, Rouge Croix, both of which 
are published in vol. xxxiii. pt. i. of the Journal. 
At the same Congress a visit was paid to Eestormel 
Castle, on which a paper was read by a local 
archaeologist, Dr. Couch, and a photograph of the 
interior of the keep was taken and published. 

J. T. M. 

REV. HENRY CHRISTMAS (5 th S. xi. 68, 373, 
394.) In 1864 I had several interviews with Mr. 
Christmas in London and in Devonshire, where he 
lectured upon wit and humour, the Seven Churches 
of Asia Minor, &c. Subsequently he forwarded 
to me a prospectus of the Society for Lecturers, &c., 
and I endeavoured in 1865 to find him in London, 
but he had taken another name, and I could not 
ascertain his address in London until his death in 
1868. He stated to me his belief in astral and 
phrenological science, which he derived from my 
Plea for Urania, 1854, and otherwise. In the 
Clergy List for 1868 he appears as Henry Noel- 
Fearn. I understood from him that he had edited 
the Literary Gazette and other publications, besides 
being a critic and industrious author. He was 
opposed to capital punishment, and he attended 
the large meeting at Exeter Hall (on the evening 
of April 29, 1846), speaking, with Messrs. O'Con- 
nell, J. Bright, Fox, &c., in favour of its abolition. 
Mr. Christmas was a genial and liberal man. 

C. C. 

A WEDDING SPEECH (5 th S. xii. 40, 60.) Doubt- 
less the wedding speech which is inquired after is 
that of the Chief Justice Cockburn on proposing 
the health of the bridesmaids at the wedding of 
the Baroness Ferdinand de Rothschild, 1866 (the 
bride, alas, did not survive the year). He said 
that interest and attraction centred rather in the 
bridesmaids than the bride. As they were between 
Epsoin and Ascot he would borrow a word from 
the turf and say, " She is no longer in the betting 
she has been made safe," &c. W. G. 

This, I think, was a speech by Mr. Bernal 
Osborne at the wedding breakfast of Miss Annie 
de Rothschild and the Hon. Elliot Yorke cer- 
tainly one of the cleverest and most amusing of 
speeches. It was quoted in extenso in all the 
papers the next day. As the marriage took place 
on Feb. 12, 1873, it can easily be referred to. 


FIELDING THE NOVELIST (5 th S. xi. 484, 509 ; 
xii. 30.) Your correspondent I. P., in mentioning 
the publications concerning the case of Elizabeth 
Canning, says, " Fielding's pamphlet, 1753, p. 30 ; 
Dr. Hill's pamphlet, p. 66." My edition (1753) of 
the pamphlet "by Henry Fielding, Esq.," has 
sixty-two pages, and Dr. Hill's pamphlet (1753) 
has fifty-three pages. They appear to be the first 
editions. Elizabeth Canning is said to have 
married " advantageously " during her enforced 
residence abroad. Is this correct 1 


OBSCURE EXPRESSIONS (5 th S. x. 267, 409 ; xi. 
58, 176.) Unless I mistake what F. W. J. means, 
he represents, by his comparison with Meles, that 
the term " badger," as applied to travelling dealers, 
is derived from the habits of the badger. Junius 
certainly, as cited in Johnson, takes it so, but 
others, so far as I have seen, are opposed to so 
fanciful a derivation ; e.g. Minsheu has (not under 
the same word as the animal), " Badger, or carrier 
of corne, or like necessary provision, forte a GalL 
bagage, i. Ang. baggage, luggage." Blount, Law 
Diet., derives it from the French " bagagier, i. a 
carrier of luggage," and defines the " badger " as 
" one that buys corn or victuals in one place and 
carries it to another to make profit by it." Others 
derive it from bajulus, or the A.-S. to buy. Baga 
was used in Low Latin for articles of easy trans- 
port. Mr. Wedgwood traces it to the French 
bladier, a corn dealer, and gives examples of a 
similar process of transmutation. 


FROGSHALL (5 th S. xi. 467 ; xii. 55.) Frog Hall 
was a well-known spot on the edge of Whittlesey 
Mere, and Frog Hall Farm and Frog Hall Mill are 
still in the Ordnance map. I do not know if 
either of these represents the original Hall. In Dean 
Duport's humorous Latin version of a water party 
at Whittlesey Mere in 1669, thus headed, In Con- 
mvium Navale quo Episcopum et alios e Clero 
Petriburgensi in Stagno Vitelsiano excepit Nobi- 
lissimits Vir Guilielmus Pierrepontius Mense 
Auguslo, 1669, I find this reference to the place : 

" Non procul hinc magno stabant pallatia Regis 
Ranulphi, qui jam senio confectus et armis 
Fluminis in ripa vitam ducebat inertem. 
Nempe ilium, ut fama est, post Batrachomyomachiam 
Kanarum Dux egregius Simoentis ad undas 
(Credere si fas est) genuit Physignathut olim : 
Qui cum Troxarten acie jam fuderat hostem, 

5*8. XII. JULY 26, -79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Victor ovans, tumidis inflavit cornua buccis, 
Denique et hanc Aulam Ilanarum erexit et Arcem, 
Murinae cladis monumentum, ac grande tropaeum ; 
Murium item atque hominum longe vestigia vitans, 
Urbe procul, sedes extreme in littore fixit." 


474.) There were two portrait painters of the 
name of Collins, but neither of them called Charles, 
but Richard and Samuel. The former exhibited 
his first picture at the Eoyal Academy in 1777. 
In 1789 he was appointed painter on enamel to the 
king. He also painted on ivory, and divided with 
Cosway and Shelley the fashionable sitters of the 
day. He died about 1831, aged nearly eighty 
years. Samuel Collins was a miniature painter of 
great excellence in the reign of George III. 



A SHILLING OF CHARLES I. (5 th S. xii. 9.) 
The reason why S. H. A. H. cannot identify his 
coin is because it is no doubt a half-crown of 
Charles I. much clipped by contemporary pos- 
sessors or money-changers, the legends being 
entirely cut off, and the whole piece greatly reduced 
in size. As far as I can tell from the description 
given, it appears to be of the very rare type of the 
Tower (London) mint mentioned as " Type 2 b " 
on p. 320 of the new (1876) edition of Hawkins's 
Silver Coins, and very similar to the crown in 
Folkes's and Ruding's plates, xviii. 2. If with the 
rose as mint-mark the date would be 1631. This 
type of half-crown (with the plume between c. R. 
above the shield) was unknown to Hawkins when 
his first edition was published, and also to me 
when I issued my Guide in 1869-70. S. H. A. H.'s 
piece would have been a valuable coin if not so 
much clipped ; but very many of Charles L's coins 
were greatly mutilated by clipping in the hard 
and troublous times of the civil wars. 


" SILVESTER TRAMPER " (5 th S. xii. 27.) Was 
not George Walker the elder, father of George 
Walker, the distinguished chess player and writer 
on chess, the author of Silvester Tramper and many 
other books that amused and instructed youth some 
three quarters of a century ago 1 Mr. Walker 
wrote The Three' Spaniards and several romances 
of that class, much enjoyed by lovers of the Myste- 
ries of Udolfo, Castle of Otranto, and romanticists 
generally. He died in the north-east corner of 
Soho Square in a house on the north side. A clever, 
worthy man he was, and greatly respected. 


CELTS AND SAXONS (5 th S. xi. 5, 52, 213, 369,469 ; 
xii. 51.) An article on the name of Wallace will be 
found in the volume entitled The Norman People, 

p. 437 (H. S. King & Co., 1874), from which I send 
you the subjoined extract : 

" Wallace or de Corcelle, of Normandy The family 

of Walensis, originally de Corcelle, derived from William 
Walensis, who c. 1160 granted lands to Melrose Abbey. 
This family came from Salop with the Fitz Alans. 
Blakeway (Sheriffs of Shropsh.) remarks on the name in 
the Fitz Alan charters as an evidence of the Shropshire 
origin of the latter. And Eyton (Hist. Salop, vii. 225) 
observes the name of Walensis as from Shropshire. The 
family were tenants of the Fitz Alans of Salop, for 
Roger Walensis held from them in 1165 (Lib. Niger).'' 


S. xi. 508.)" The Transylvanian Anatomic ! " by 
R. B. Peake, published in Bentley's Miscellany, 
1840, vol. viii. p. 288. W. G. STONE. 

Walditch, Bridport. 

LOST A PLAY OF OTWAY (5 th S. xi. 509.) 
The advertisement in question was printed in the 
Observator, Nov. 27, 1686, and again on Dec. 4. 
It is worded thus : 

"Whereas Mr. Thomas Otway sometime before his 
Death made four acts of a Play, whoever can give Notice 
in whose hands the Copy lies, either to Mr. Thomas Bet- 
terton, or Mr. William Smith at the Theatre Royal, shall 
be well Rewarded for his pains." 

This advertisement is also to be found in the 
Biographia Dramatica, 1812, vol. i. p. 555, and 
in Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, vol. xxiii. 
p. 424. In the latter it is stated that Otway was 
said to have had with him at the time of his death 
a copy of a tragedy which he had sold to Mr. 
Bentley the bookseller. Chalmers adds, " It does 
not appear that this play was ever discovered, but 
in 1719 a tragedy was printed entitled Heroic 
Friendship, and attributed to him without any 
foundation." EDWARD SOLLY. 

The advertisement is printed in Cunningham's 
edition of Johnson's Lives of the Poets, vol. i. 
p. 214, note : " He left an unfinished tragedy, 
referred to in an advertisement in L'Estrange's 

Observator of Nov. 27, 1686 ' Some pretend, 

says Giles Jacob, ' that he [Otway] left a finished 
tragedy behind him ; but that piece is a poor per- 
formance, not in Mr. Otway's hand, and very 
unworthy of him' (Jacob, Lives, 8vo., vol. i. 
p. 194)." EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

2, Tanfield Court, Temple. 

" HYDRAULIC " Music (5 th S. xi. 508.) The 
following, from Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, may 
be of use to ZERO in his investigation of this sub- 
ject : " vSpavXts, a hydraulic organ, invented by 
an Egyptian named Ctesibius, Aristod. ap. Ath., 
174 B ; described by Hedyl, ib. 497 D ; also 
vopavXos, o, Schneid. Eel. Phys., 310, 97 ; hy- 
draulus in Cicero [3 Tuscul, c. 18] ; so TO 
vopavXiKov opyavov, Ath., 174 C." Pliny de- 
scribes the hydraulus as " instrumentum musicum 


NOTES AND QUERIES. to* s. xn. JUL* so, 79. 

aquae decursu sonum reddens " (1. ix. c. 8). Other 
references to the word may be found in Facciolati 
and Forcellini. EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

2, Tanfield Court, Temple. 

A LOTTERY, 1673 : JOHN OGILBY (5 th S. xii. 
7.) John Ogilby, 1600-76, dancing master, poet, 
printer, and master of the revels under Charles II., 
printed many splendid books, mostly in folio, 
several of which were illustrated by Hollar ; and 
to facilitate the sale of them he established, about 
1664, under royal patronage, a lottery in which all 
the prizes were books of his own editing and 
printing or publishing. The Plague and the 
Great Fire of London seriously interfered with the 
working of this scheme ; and he subsequently 
opened a new " standing lottery," the prospectus 
of which is to be found in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, 1814, pt. i. p. 646, in which he quaintly 
complains that his subscribers do not pay. He 
says : " Promisers, though seeming well resolved 
and very 'willing, yet straining courtesie not to go 
formost in paying their moneys, linger out, driving 
it off till near the time appointed for drawing . . . 
his only advantage a speedy vendition . . . hazy 
humours magnifying, medium shillings loome like 
crowns." Ogilby was a man of untiring energy. 
Wood, in the Athence Oxonienses, iii. 739-44, gives 
the main facts of his life, and states that after the 
fire in 1666 he had to begin the world again with 
only 51. EDWARD SOLLY. 

ETYMOLOGY OF " SIPPET " (5 th S. xi. 387 ; 'xii. 
33.) An instance of this word in the sense of 
shreds or little pieces occurs in the Musarum De- 
licice, where a writer who is attacking the female 
fashions of the day, particularly that of wearing 
" spots " or patches, says : 

" Has beauty, think you, lustre from these spots 1 
Is paper fairer when 'tis stain'd with blots 1 
What ! have you cut your masks out into sippets, 
Like wanton girls, to make you spots and tippets ; 
Aa I have seen a cook that, over-neat, 
To garnish out a dish hath spoil'd the meat 1 " 

Upon the Naked Bedlams and Spotted Beasts 
we see in Covent Garden. 

Butler uses snippets in the same sense. : 
" Witches simpling, and on gibbets 
Cutting from malefactors snippets." 

Hudilras, pt. ii. canto ii. 11. 823-4. 

This last word comes near the other in sound as 
well as sense, but its derivation is obviously dif- 
ferent. G. F. S. E. 

SIDEMEN (5 th S. xi. 504; xii. 31.) In the 
Annals of Cartmel, by James Stockdale, p. 34, 1 
find the following : 

"In Cartmel parish the care of the poor and of parochia 
affairs generally was intrusted to twenty-four persons, the 
most considerable landowners in the parish for the time 
being, chosen from the seven townships of the parish, who 
were called the twenty-four sidesmen. The following i 

a list of the names of the first twenty-four sidesmen on 
ecord, taken from an old book in the vestry chest dated 
7 May, 1597." 


EEV. WILLIAM SHAW, D.D., F.S.A. (5 th S. xi. 
486.) He died Sept. 16, 1831 (Gentleman's Maga- 
ine, 1831, vol. ci. pt. ii. p. 378). L. L. H. 

PRAYER TOWARDS THE EAST (5 th S. xi. 427 r 
490.) Jews do not pray towards the east except 
when they happen to be west of the Holy Land. 
3ee Solomon's prayer, 1 Kings viii., especially 
vv. 46-48, et seq. M. D. 

448, 493.) The list of persons given as being in 
xile with Sir Thomas Steuart (" Bible Coltness " 
he was called by William Penn) is so far correctly 
taken from the Coltness Papers. In another part 
of that collection, however, mention is made of a 
very remarkable man as being then in exile, namely 
Mr. William Carstaires, the most distinguished 
minister of the Scotch Church at that time, and 
who attended William on his landing in England. 
Mention is also made of Mr. Alex. Pitcairn, a re- 
fugee minister who was called upon to baptize Sir 
T. Steuart's child (Coltness Coll., pp. 78-9). From 
another source, namely, Life of Fletcher of Saltoun? 
by David, Earl of Buchan, I gather that at the time 
in question (circa 1683) there were in exile, besides 
those gentlemen already named, Lord Cardross, 
Fletcher of Saltoun, Dr. Burnet, and Mr. Cunning- 
ham, editor of Horace and author of a Latin Hist, 
of Great Britain. 


United Service Club, Edinburgh. 

THE PIED PIPER OF " HAMELIN " (5 th S. vi. 51, 
175, 338 ; vii. 19 ; xi. 497.) I should say the 
reason why the name of this towu is spelt "after 
this strange fashion " is that it is almost the only 
way in which an Englishman can pronounce it, as 
for us it seems to require either an i or an e between 
the I and the n. J. J. R. 

THE FARTHING PIE HOUSE (5 th S. xii. 28.) 
This house, of which I have a drawing, stood by 
the Farthing Pie Gate on the New Road, Mary- 
lebone, towards the " Yorkshire Stingo " end. I 
have no map by me at present, so, though I well 
remember the gate, I cannot name the precise spot. 
The first time I went through the gate, not the 
house as a boy, I recollect being mightily tickled 
by the name on the ticket, and shouting it out 
lustily on returning. The tollman laughed. 


The " Green Man " public- house, in the Euston 
Road, opposite Osnaburgh Street, formerly bore 
this inscription on its front. It was removed a 
few years back. G. D. T. 

0* 8. XII. JULY 26, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


SCHILLER'S " FIESKO " (5 th S. xii. 8.) If, as 
JAYDEE says, the letter Jc does not exist in Italian, 
so must it also be remembered that c does not, 
strictly speaking, exist in German as an indepen- 
dent letter, but only as an element in the com- 
pounds ch, sch, and ck. We often, it is true, find 
it used in proper names, as Carl, Coeln, Crefeld, 
Cleve, &c., but all these would be more correctly 
written with a k. There has always been an in- 
clination among Germans to substitute a k for 
a hard c, and a z for a soft c, in imported words ; 
thus Elelctrizitat is orthographically correct. As 
regards JAYDEE'S inquiry, I am afraid it must be 
admitted that Schiller did violence to the Italian 
language in thus mutilating a proper name, and of 
this mutilation JAY DEE will find another striking 
instance in the same play, Kalkagno being sub- 
stituted for Calcagno, although in the name of 
Sacco (another conspirator) the Italian orthography 
is left unchanged. Probably the alteration to which 
JAYDEE refers was a mere whim of Schiller's, for 
in his adaptation of Macbeth he retains the c not 
only in Macbeth, but also in Macduff and Mal- 
colm. H. F. R. 

"AKIMBO" (5 th S. xi. 48,212; xii. 16.) The 
Second Merchant's Tale, falsely attributed to 
Chaucer, was edited for the Chaucer Society, in 
1876, by Mr. F. J. Furnivall, under the title of 
The Tale of Beryn. The passage to which your 
correspondent refers will be found at p. 57, 1. 1838, 
of that edition. S. J. H. 

"PATCHOCK" (5 th S. xii. 47.) MR. WEDGWOOD, 
on referring to p. 636 of the Globe edition of Ed- 
mund Spenser's Complete Works, 1869, will find 
the following, viz., " I meane such English . . . are 
degenerate and growen to be as very patchockes as 
the wild Irish." H. G. H. 

Freegrove Road, N. 

WELLINGORE (5 th S. xi. 148, 492.) We are 
entertained, if not instructed, by E. A. B. stating 
that the simple division of this name into three 
words shows the derivation : " ' Well in gore ' at 
once declares the existence of a well and describes 
its position." Such valuable etymology should be 
multiplied. Alexander the Great: divide it into 
words, and it means " all eggs under the grate. 
Antinous similarly means " ants in house." Vac- 
cination then means "facts in agitation." Enough 
of such child's play. Gore is a crux to all your 
correspondents. Not one approaches the meaning 
of the word. Besides " Gore Inn," near Taunton, 
there is " The Old Gore Inn," near Ross. Gower 
(the same word) is the name of a district in South 
Wales. Goragh, near Newry ; Goragh Wood, 
name of a railway station ; Ballynagore and 
Logore. Besides these Irish gores, we have Scotch 
ones Ardgoiuer, Gkngoiver,Lochgower } Rienagour, 

near Aberfoyle, and Arienagour, in the island of 
Coll. All these gores, and many more, your corre- 
spondents would teac"h your readers mean a narrow 
strip of land or a ridge of land. 

The word gore is the Anglicized form of the 
Gaelic gabhar, a goat. The Gaelic Dictionary of 
the Highland Society gives, " Gabhar, a goat 
capra." " Gower and Gowrie often occur in 
Scottish topography," says the late Colonel 
Robertson, " and they are all derived from gobhar 
or galhar, which means a goat." 


Ross, Herefordshire. 


Church Work and Life in English Minsters. By Mac- 
kenzie E. C. \Valcott, B.D., F.S.A., Prsecentor of 
Chichester. 2 vols. (Cbatto & Windus.) . 
THE task which Mr. Mackenzie Walcott has set himself 
in this work is one of no common difficulty. To condense 
into two volumes of very moderate dimensions, and, we 
may add, of very moderate cost, the enormous mass of 
material which he lias garnered during many years of 
study in this special field of labour would have simply 
appalled a less earnest worker. The pages are crowded 
with facts, and, in many places, with references to stan- 
dard books and even to detached papers in archaeological 
journals which will be almost invaluable to younger and 
inexperienced students; even practised antiquaries will 
hail, with satisfaction many of the references to manu- 
scripts and other less obvious sources of information. As 
Mr. Walcott designs his work " to meet the requirements 
of persons of all classes and opinions," he has been very 
careful to avoid irritating topics ; and whilst he has re- 
peopled desolate sites and has " treated architecture under 
its highest form of beauty, namely, as expressive of de- 
votional feeling," and has touched with a loving hand all 
portions of his subject, he has refrained from dealing 
with doctrinal matters, and has abstained from religious 
controversy altogether. The first volume is divided into 
four parts. First, a brief architectural exposition, of 
which the most valuable portion seems to us to be that 
which discusses tho ground plan, symbolism, furniture, 
and arrangement of the earlier and later cathedrals. 
Secondly, a paper on "The Daily Life of Seculars and 
Conventuals," crowded with the most minute information 
as to costume, religious services, secular work, furniture, 
diet, and mode of life. No detail, however small, has 
been thought unworthy of notice, and the minute touches 
which abound on every side complete a picture of real 
interest. We suspect that very many who talk freely 
about the old monastic life have very little idea of its 
duties or its occupations, or of the activity which pre- 
vailed in the great religious houses of England. Mr. 
Walcott opens the barred doors for us, and allows us to 
see the busy life within. The brethren transcribing 
chronicles, illuminating church books, carving in wood 
and stone, pain ting glass windows of gorgeous hues, com- 
posing treatises, or studying the works of bygone sages, 
are there in their habit as they lived. The busy cham- 
berlain with his multifarious duties, the active kitchener 
preparing to feed so many hungry mouths, the stately 
prior ruling and governing with no feeble hand, the 
pitanciar with his dainty dishes, the cellarer with his 
store of provisions, the infirmarer visiting the sick, the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. IB* a. xn. JULY 26, 79. 

almoner giving doles to the poor, the praecentor with 
his tuneful choir all these and many others pass before 
us in long procession through the stately cloister. We 
would fain linger over this section, for it has a special 
charm of its own. But we must hasten on to the third 
section, which treats of the foundation of the cathedrals, 
secular and conventual, and to the fourth section, which 
is, in effect, a condensed handbook to all the English and 
Welsh cathedrals, both of the Old and of the New Foun- 
dation. To these Manchester and Ripon are added, and 
a brief space is found for Truro, the last addition to the 
goodly list. 

The second volume opens with two papers, the 
first on the origin and development of monasteries in 
England, the second on the relations of monasteries to 
the outer world, including under this comprehensive 
phrase the relation to the bishop, to the parish churches, 
to the cathedrals, to the people at large, to education, to 
the national taste. This is followed by " The English 
Student's Monasticon," which purports to contain an 
alphabetical history of all the monasteries, convents, 
collegiate churches, friaries, and hospitals in a very con- 
densed form. Here, in about two hundred pages, is pre- 
sented to us a mass of information which has probably 
never been offered before in so small a space, for Mr. 
Walcott gives us the dedication of each religious house, 
the order to which it belonged, details as to the style of 
architecture and dimensions, its net income at the Dis- 
solution, the name of its founder and (where that is 
known) the date of foundation, the number of its inmates 
at the Suppression, in the case of many of the churches 
anecdotes connected with their history, and, what is 
certainly not the least valuable portion, reference to M8S. 
illustrations, books, and special monographs. Ground 
plans of several of the cathedrals, and of Newark, Esse- 
borne, Bayham, Lewes, Charter House, Rievaulx, and 
Byland, add to the interest of the volume. Where the 
feast is so plentiful the guests may not complain ; but yet 
we cannot but regret the absence of a general index 
(although the alphabetical arrangement of two large 
sections of the work renders this omission of somewhat 
less importance) and the want of an index to the words 
which are explained in the text. We will take some of 
the words which occur on only two pages (pp. 33 and 45 
of the first volume). It would have been a real benefit 
to young students to know that here they would find in- 
terpreted such words as amicla, pylche, ocrece, staminia, 
Injgerdel, brachile, lumbare lineum, peduies, sotulares, 
calabre, strarjulte, stray Is, furrit- pane, coopertorium, capi- 
tale, pulvinar, exculitores, alsconsa, and many others. 
The list would make a good examination paper for a 
novice in English ecclesiastical history. Every student 
has not Ducange at his elbow, and if he had would often 
turn empty away from that vast book. But our very 
blame is praise ; this criticism does but reveal the large 
amount of archaeological lore profusely scattered through- 
out the work. We cordially recommend the book to our 
readers ; it evidences at every turn original research and 
independent study. 

A Visit to the Court of Morocco. By Dr. Leared. 

(Sampson Low & Co.) 

DR. LEAKED acted as physician to the Portuguese 
embassy which was sent in the summer of 1877 to con- 
gratulate the Sultan of Morocco on his accession, and 
therefore had exceptional facilities for acquiring a 
thorough knowledge of Morocco and the Moors. He has 
used these advantages well, and his book is singularly 
free from guide-bookism, being unpretentious, accurate, 
and observant. But what could have induced him to use 
an entirely distinct method of orthography in his explan- 
atory map from that which he employs in the text ? It 

makes his map worthless in following his route, and 
absolutely puzzling to the general reader. Barring the 
map, there is not a single drag in the book. From Tan- 
gier to Alcassar, where the boy-king Sebastian lost his 
life and his army at the Battle of the Bridge in 1578, 
past Muley Edris, untrodden by Christian foot, to 
Mequinez, the favourite city of the Sultan, we accom- 
pany the ambassador's party as we read. The Moorish 
fashion of transacting the high business of state is 
peculiar. " To realize the situation," says Dr. Leared, 
" imagine the Duke of Cambridge and Sir Stafford 
Northcote seated on the floor of a dark room, say, in the 
Custom House, crowded with merchandise, and Lord 
Beaconsfield squatted on a rug in a cellar, or in Palace 
Yard, while conducting the business of their respective 

Goethe's Faust. Translated by W. D. Scoones. (Triibner 


" MANUM de tabula " is what we should call to all in- 
tending Faust translators. Goethe's immortal work can 
scarcely be adequately rendered into English ; of second 
and third rate attempts enough exist. It is possible that 
some day a great poet may arise who will be able to 
interpret the German bard, but that day does not yet 
seem to be near at hand. Mr. Scoones's verse translation, 
though fairly accurate, is prosaic in tone, and lacking in 

THE British Archaeological Association announces its 
thirty-sixth annual meeting, to be held at Great Yarmouth 
and Norwich, from the llth to the 20th of August, under 
the patronage of the Prince of Wales, and presidency 
of Lord Waveney. A goodly programme of churches, 
castles, camps, and excavations, is already put forth to 
whet the appetite of the archaeologist, so that the meet- 
ing has every prospect of being both interesting and 

THE August number of the Law Magazine and Revitw 
will contain an article on the Capitulations of Lesser 
Armenia, giving some new details of the history of the 
Capitulations and of the Consular jurisdiction in the 

$0ttre to CnrrciJjpontoute. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

E. C. A. P. (Taunton). For "Mother Shipton," see 
" N. & Q.," 1 st S. v. 419; 2 nd S. xi. 33, 96 ; 3 rd S. ix. 139, 
229; 4 th S. i. 391, 491; ii. 83, 117, 235; iii. 405. 609; iv. 
213 ; v. 353, 475 ; vii. 25 ; x. 450, 502 ; xi. 60, 206, 355. 

W. H. A. You will find the tradition, and many 
others, referred to in " N. & Q.," 5"' S. ix. 8, 111, 218, 
478,516; x. 38, 276. 

E. H. Thanks for your letter. We shall be glad to 
forward your communication to our correspondent. 

J. B. H.-See " N. & Q.," 5 th S. xi. 466, and p. 55 of 
our present volume. 

F. H. V. Parchment. 
B. D. Forwarded. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5 th S. XII. AUG. 2, '79.] 





NOTES: Did Sir Walter Scott Translate "Goetz Von Be r- 
lichingen " ? A Visit to Naseby Field, 81 The Father of 
Eustace Fitz John, 83 On some of the References in the 
"Christian Year," 84 Jesus College, Oxford, 1599 Curious 
Entries in a Parish Register, 85 A German Executioner's 
Sword Weymouth and Melcombe Regis Drought in Scot- 
landWicket, 86 "The Fox's Brush" Inn, Ropsley A 
Centenarian Magdalen, Headington French Leave, 87. 

QUERIES : Temple Bar Statues The Mystery of Berkeley 
Square, 87 Avours Sub-sizar : Hound " The Imitation 

of Christ "Marlowe and Mr. of Dover Harvey of 

Wangey, Essex Local Offices Belgravia or Belgradia 
" Philately "Robin Hood " Reynard the Fox "Portrait 
of Mrs. Garrick, 88 Dr. Jones " Strang "" Upon the 
Square "Engravings Heraldic Orrery Rock Figures Sir 
R. Button" flibernia" Authors Wanted, 89. 

EEPLIES: The Bibliography of the Literature connected 
with Pope and his Quarrels, 89 Keeping School in the Par- 
vise Biographical (circa 1600) Queries, 91 Whistling, 92 
Scotch Territorial Names Sitwells of Renishaw, 93 
"Akimbo" The White Horse of Kilbnrn The Monitor, 94 
Sales by Auction Lt.-Gen. Fiddes Wallflowers, 95 Anne 
Lyne Irish Parliaments " Patchock " Tubbing, 96 
Hogarth's "Laughing Audience" The Clarke Family- 
Genius " Beau " Brummell Assuming Arms Sir J. 
Wright, 97-Folk Medicine De Laune Family The Pied 
Piper of "Hamelin" ".The Beggar's Benison " " Hodie 
mini," <fec., 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Morley's "Robert Burns "Browning's 
" Dramatic Idyls " Symonds's "Sketches and Studies in 
Italy "Peacock's Scotter, &c. 

Notices to Correspondents, Ac. 



On what authority rests the assertion that Sir 
Walter Scott translated the Goetz von Berlichingen 
of Goethe ? I am aware that the translation of 
this play appears in some collected editions of 
Scott's works published after his death, that it is 
attributed to Sir Walter in Lowndes's Biblio- 
grapher's Manual, and that the same writer is 
credited with the authorship in the translation of 
Goethe's dramas which forms a volume of " Bonn's 
Standard Library." In the editions of Scott which 
I have seen his claim to it is substantiated by 
what I have a right to believe a misquoted title- 
page, and in the volume of Bohn's Library a pre- 
face originally unsigned is supplied gratuitously 
with his signature. 

It is time that this matter should be set at rest, 
unless an error is to be transmitted to future times 
and Sir Walter is to be burdened with the respon- 
sibility of work which is generally pronounced 
unworthy of him. My reason for questioning the 
authorship shall be stated. A few days ago, look- 
ing over the attractive book-stall of Mr. Maurais, 
in Goodge Street, I picked up a volume of plays. 
It consisted of four dramas, all translated from the 

erman the Piccolomini of Schiller and the 
Death of Wallenstein of the same author, both in 
3. T. Coleridge's rendering, and both printed for 
T. N. Longman & G. Rees, 1800 ; Otto of Wittels- 
bach ; or, the Choleric Count, translated from the 

erman of James Marcus Babo by Benjamin 
Thompson, Esq. (Vernor & Hood, 1800) ; and the 
play in question. The title-page of this I repro- 
duce : 

" Goetz of Berlichingen, with the Iron Hand, a Tra- 
gedy. Translated from the German of Goethe, author 
of ' The Sorrows of Werter,' &c. By William Scott, Esq., 
Advocate, Edinburgh. London : Printed for J. Bell, 
No. 148, Oxford Street, opposite New Bond Street, 1799." 

Now, this is the same play which is attributed to 
Sir Walter ; the date is the same and the preface 
is the same. The preface, however, to which the 
signature of Walter Scott is affixed in Bohn's 
Library, is followed only by a place and date, 
Edinburgh, 3d February, 1799. Is it possible that 
two editions of a play which appears to have been 
practically still-born can have appeared in the same 
year 1 or how otherwise came the editors of Scott 
to substitute the name Walter for William ? I may 
add that Baker, Reed, and Jones, in their well- 
known Biographia Dra/matica, under the head of 
the play, assign Goetz of Berlichingen with the 
Iron Hand to William Scot (tic), while under the 
head " Scott," with commendable impartiality, they 
credit Sir Walter with its authorship. Not a very 
trustworthy authority is, of course, the Biographia 
Dramatica, which attributes Lamb's Mr. H. to 
the Hon. George Lambe. Otto of Wittelsbach, 
which appears in the same volume, is the most 
successful of the many imitations of Goetz ton 
Berlichingen which were issued within a few years 
of its appearance. To the name of Benjamin 
Thompson, the translator, is affixed, in the Bio- 
graphia Dramatica, a list of no less than twenty- 
one plays, all from the German. Among these 
may be counted The Stranger, which still, in a 
sense, holds possession of the stage. The two 
translations of Schiller by Coleridge are of course 
the first editions. JOSEPH KNIGHT. 

An inspection of an old hall, church, castle, or 
battle-field has to me ever, from my earliest days, 
possessed an inexpressible charm, and many a visit 
has been paid and many a long summer day spent, 
"fleeting the time" carelessly as they did .in 
Arden's shade, in places renowned in history or 
celebrated by old romaunt and song. Where can 
be found the district in England unhallowed by 
many such places, with their interesting associations 
and memories of the past 1 Second to none stands 
Northamptonshire, the "county of spires and 
squires," and equally as rich in historical memories 
as in ecclesiastical structures. Believing that a 



[5 th S. XII. AUG. 2, '79. 

little account of an afternoon visit recently paid to 
a place certainly not one of the least celebrated in 
England Naseby Field will prove of interest, it 
is forwarded for insertion in your pages. 

Naseby is a large parish situated locally in the 
county of Northampton and nearly in the centre of 
England, and the place where the battle was fought 
is said to be six hundred feet above the level of the 
sea. Of Naseby Thomas Carlyle observes : " It 
stands nearly in the heart of England. Gentle 
Dulness taking a turn at etymology sometimes 
derives it from navel ; Navesby, quasi Navelsby, 
from being, &c." And alluding to the remarkable 
watersheds he continues : "Avon Well, the dis- 
tinct source of Shakspeare's Avon, is on the western 
slope of the high grounds. Nen and Welland, 
streams leading towards Cromwell's Fen country, 
begin to gather themselves from boggy places on 
the eastern side." It may here be remarked that 
Carlyle in company with Dr. Arnold of Rugby 
visited the battle-field about six weeks before the 
death of the latter in 1842. The country is now 
brought so much under cultivation as to make it 
difficult to identify many of the spots described in 
contemporary accounts of the battle ; however, 
some of the physical features yet remain. There 
are still Mill Hill and Dust Hill and Rutput Hill, 
and a place called Broad moor was the scene of the 
battle, partly arable, partly moor land, but all at 
that time open and unenclosed. Standing upon 
the battle-field, on every side an immense tract of 
open country is seen. 

King Charles I. left Market Harborough, a little 
town in Leicestershire, about six miles distant from 
Naseby, at seven o'clock on Saturday morning, 
June 14, 1645, marching through Sibbertoft, an 
intervening village. His army consisted of about 
11,000 men, half of whom were cavalry and the rest 
infantry, whose principal weapon was the pike. 
In those days the bayonet had not been invented, 
and each infantry regiment was divided into two 
divisions, called pikemen and shotmen, the former 
.armed with a pike some twelve feet in length, and 
the latter with a heavy musket. The king was 
dressed in complete armour, as depicted in the 
noble portrait of him by Vandyke yet existing ; 
and a glorious sight it must have been as the royal 
army came over the brow of the hill, with their 
-corslets and steel caps mirroring back the morning 
sun. There, too, might have been seen the royal 
standard of England floating proudly on the wind, 
and the notes of the trumpets might have been 
heard sounding what was called " the points oi 
war."* The cavalry formed the wings, the right 
commanded by Prince Rupert and the left by Sir 

* Johnnie Mortsheugh, the sexton, in narrating his 
campaigning experiences at the battle of Bothwell Brigg, 
observes to the Master of Ravenswood, " And to be sure 
I blew sic points of war, that the scraugh of a clockin 
hen was music to them " (Bride of Lammermoor). 

Marmaduke Langdale. The centre, composed of 
infantry, was led by Sir Jacob Astley. He it was 
who thus prayed prior to the battle of Edgehill, 
"0 Lord, thou knowest how busy I must be this 
day. If I forget thee do not thou forget me. 
March on, boys !" No doubt on this fatal day he 
breathed the same brief prayer. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax, then only thirty-three years 
of age, was chief in command for the Parliament, 
and led the centre of their army, with stout-hearted 
Philip Skippon as his lieutenant, though Fairfax 
for a time headed his right wing in the charge, 
leaving the finishing of the pursuit to Cromwell. 
Henry Ireton, afterwards Cromwell's son-in-law, 
commanded the left wing, fronting Prince Rupert, 
and Oliver Cromwell led the right, opposing Sir 
Marmaduke Langdale. The word of the Parlia- 
mentarians was " God our strength," that of the 
Cavaliers " Queen Mary." The right and left 
wings of both armies charged at once. Two or 
three stanzas from a stirring lyric written by 
Macaulay ia his very early days may here be 
quoted as descriptive of the charge, purporting to 
be the composition of Obadiah Bind-their-kings- 
in-chains-and-their-nobles-with-links-of-iron, ser- 
geant in Ireton's regiment : 

" They are here ; they rush on. We are broken we are 

gone ; 
Our left is borne before them like stubble on the 


Lord, put forth thy might ! Lord, defend the right ! 
Stand back to back in God's name, and fight it to the 

Stout Skippon hath a wound : the centre hath given 

ground : 

Hark, hark ! What means the trampling of horse- 
men on our rear ? 
Whose banner do I see, boys ? 'Tis he, thank God, 'tis 

he, boys ; 
Bear up another minute, brave Oliver is here. 

Their heads all stooping low, their points all in a row, 
Like a whirlwind on the trees, like a deluge on the 

Our cuirassiers have burst on the ranks of the accurst, 
And at a shock have scattered the forest of his pikes." 

Ireton's division at first gave way before the 
impetuous charge of Prince Rupert ; his horse was 
shot, and he was wounded and taken prisoner. 
Rupert pressed onwards in search of plunder, and 
the chance of rallying was given to the Parlia- 
mentarians. Fairfax and Cromwell defeated the 
left wing of the royal army, but the main struggle 
was in the centre a deadly one for about an 
hour and at last the Royalists gave way. Rupert 
and his cavalry, having gone beyond the village of 
Naseby for the purpose of plundering, did not 
return until the battle was lost. It is stated that 
about 1,000 Royalists were slain, 700 in the battle 
and 300 in the pursuit, for Cromwell and his 
Ironsides chased the fugitives nearly as far as 
Leicester ; 4,500 men were taken prisoners, whilst 
the loss of the victors is set at only 150 or 200 

5> S. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 


men. The battle of Naseby was fatal to the 
fortunes of King Charles I., and to it rapidly 
succeeded the investment of Bridgewater, the 
surrender of Bristol and Oxford, the storming of 
Dartmouth, and the siege of Colchester, each of 
these losses more effectually and more surely 
weakening the royal cause. Cromwell wrote as 
follows to William Lenthall, Speaker of the Com- 
mons House of Parliament, in reference to the 
battle of Naseby and the conduct of the General- 
in-Chief, Sir Thomas Fairfax : 

"Harborough, 14 June, 1645. 

"Sir, This is none other but the hand of God : and 
to Him alone belongs the glory, wherein none are to share 
with Him. The General served you with all faithfulness 
and honour ; and the best commendation I can give him 
is, That I daresay he attributes all to God, and would 
rather perish than assume to himself. Which is an honest 
and a thriving way ; and yet as much for bravery may be 
given to him, in this action, as to a man. Honest men 
served you faithfully in this action. Sir, they are trusty : 
I beseech you, in the name of God, not to discourage 
them. I wish this action may beget thankfulness and 
humility in all that are concerned in it. He that ventures 
his life for the liberty of his country, I wish he trust God 
for the liberty of his conscience, and you for the liberty 
he fights for." Letter xxix., Naseby, Carlyle's Cromwell. 

The village of Naseby is about one mile distant 
from the scene of the battle, and is in much the 
same condition now as it was then, though some 
excellent modern cottages have been erected by 
Lord Clifden. The church is a handsome structure, 
consisting of nave with side aisles and chancel, 
having at the west end a lofty tower surmounted 
by a spire, and in the churchyard are some remark- 
ably fine sycamore trees. At a short distance from 
the village of Naseby, and about a mile from the 
battle-field, is an obelisk of stone surrounded by 
a moat, erected in 1825 by John and Mary Frances 
Fitzgerald, lord and lady of the manor of Naseby. 
Upon the base of it a very singular inscription is 
engraved, and upon the sides of it the British 
holiday-makers have everywhere inscribed and 
scratched their names, as they invariably do on all 
public monuments to which access is permitted. 

In 1647 Charles I. was again in Northampton- 
shire, in confinement at Holmby House, some six 
miles distant from Naseby field, a mansion built 
by Sir Christopher Hatton in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. The terraces are still in existence 
where he took exercise and played at bowls, and 
from them a very fine prospect of a rich champaign 
country is commanded, bounded by the noble 
woods of Althorpe. There is another lordly man- 
sion in Northamptonshire built by the same Sir 
Christopher Hatton, the dancing Chancellor* 

* " Full oft within the spacious walls, 

When he had fifty winters o'er him, 
My grave Lord Keeper led the brawls ; 
The seals and maces danc'd before him." 

If Sir Christopher danced at Stoke Pogia, why should he 

Kirby Hall, at present hastening fast to decay. 
Close to the terraces of Holmby is the quiet 
churchyard, where the mortal remains of a former 
pastor repose, a man once renowned for his anti- 
quarian tastes and bibliographical knowledge,. 
Charles H. Hartshorne. To him G. J. Whyte- 
Melville appropriately dedicated his charming 
novel descriptive of Northamptonshire in days of 
yore, entitled Holmby House, in which the sur- 
rounding scenery is so graphically described, and 
the troublous times in the days of King Charles L 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


The following is perhaps worthy of being made 
a note of in the pages of " N. & Q.," where, by the 
admirable indexes, it may be more available for 
the use of future inquirers. 

Every one interested in genealogical researches 
knows that John, father of Eustace and Pain,f 
favourites of Henry I. and prominent personages 
in the troublous times of King Stephen, was said by 
the heralds to have been son of Eustace, " Baron 
of Tonsburgh in Normandy," younger brother of 
" Harlowen de Burgh, ancestor of the De Burghs 
and Irish Burkes " ; and, on the authority of 
Glover, to have been called " Monoculus " from 
the loss of an eye. The Stemma Fundatoris 
of the monks of Malton states that he was a 
brother of Serlo de Burgh, but there is no proof 
of this, I believe t (Mon. Angl, ii. 819). What 
I submit for consideration is this. "Johannes 
nepos Walerami," it appears by Domesday Book 
(i. fo. 265 b), held in capite that manor in Saxling- 
ham, Norfolk, to which the church appertained. 
In the same place Edric, freeman of Stigand, had 
held under him, in King Edward's time, a carucate 
and a half with soke and sac. After the Conquest, 
Edric was a captive in the hands of Waleram, and 
to ransom himself pledged this land to (the abbot 
of) St. Benedict at Holme, for a marc of gold and 

not also have " led the brawls " at Holmby House and 
Kirby Hall, his own mansions'? 

f There was a third brother William. All three were 
at Court at Cambridge, and witnessed the charter of 
Henry I. granting Bichenouer to Milo de Gloucester, his 
constable (Roy Ch. No. 7, Due. Lane,). It was probably 
on the same occasion they also tested the king's charter 
founding Cirencester Abbey, therefore in 1133 (Mon* 
Angl. ii. 136). 

I It is true Eustace fitz John obtained the farm of the- 
royal manors of Burg (i.e. Aldburgh) and Knaresburg, 
with no doubt the custody of the castle at the latter place,. 
in 1131, after Serlo de Burg, but not as his heir. Serlo had 
his name evidently from Aldburgh, then simply " Burg" 
as in Domesday Book; whereas it was his contemporary- 
Robert de " Burch," of Burgh in Norfolk, who was 
ancestor of Hubert and the Irish Burkes. Eustace might 
have been named after Eustace, the viscount of Hunting- 
donshire, under whom a certain John held six bovates in. 
Stickleton, 1086. 



[5h S. XII. AUG. 2, '79. 

seven pounds (of silver). Now (1086) " Johannes 
nepos predict! Walerami" holds this of St. Benedict 
in fee (ib., fo. 217). All this is from the Survey. 
The same John " nepos Walerani " held also a 
manor in Elsenham, in Essex, in which county 
there was likewise a considerable tenant in capite 
named " Johannes filius Walerami," a first cousin, 
although John, the " nepos," seems to have been 
Waleram's heir and successor, at Saxlingham at 
least. " Nepos " more generally meant nephew than 
grandson at this date, but it is impossible to say 
whether John was a brother's or a sister's son of 
Waleram. However, I think there need be no 
doubt that it was he himself who, as " Johannes 
filius Ricardi," gave the tithes of Sexlingham to the 
abbey of St. Peter at Gloucester, Eustace fitz 
John adding 20s. yearly from the same place. 
Both these gifts are referred by the compiler to the 
time of Abbot Serb, 1072 ob. March 3, 1104 
(Hist, et Cart. Mon. S. Petri de Glouc., vol. i. 
p. 114). A copy of the charter is, however, not pre- 
served. This gift to Gloucester was unknown to 
Bloniefield, but some further. particulars of John's 
descendants, unrecognized, however, as such, may 
be found in, his History of Norfolk (vol. v. p. 497). 
As to the fee in Saxlingham held by John of the 
abbot of St. Bennet, Holme, it appears in the time 
of King Stephen, Abbot Hugh, who was that 
monarch's nephew, with the consent of the whole 
convent, granted it as half a knight's fee to John 
fitz Robert and his heirs, unless the heirs of Payne 
fitz John should recover it (Cartulary, Cott. MS. 
Galba, E. ii. fo. 28 b). This was probably after the 
death of Payne, without heirs male, before 1139. 
He left two daughters and coheirs, then unmarried : 
Cecilia, given by the king to Roger, son of Milo, 
Earl of Hereford (Earl Roger died without issue, 
1154) ; and Agnes, who as widow of (Hubert) de 
Montchenesy was in 1185 cet. 60, and again in the 
king's gift. She had at that date three sons, Sir 
Ralph, Sir William, Hubert a clerk, and two 
daughters, one the wife of Stephen de Glanville, 
the other of William Painel. 

As to Waleran, the father of John, it seems to 
me very probable he was that Walleran fitz Ran- 
nulf who had given the manor of Penfield in Essex, 
land in London, near St. Peter's Church (in Wood 
Street), and the tithes of all his lands in England, to 
the abbey of St. Stephen at Caen, founded by 
William the Conqueror, who himself confirmed 
this donation among others by his charter by or 
before 1077.* This, however, is not all that is re- 
corded of this Waleran, for it appears in that 
memorable year 1066, before the expedition, the 
" Countess " Matilda, arranging for the endowment 
of the sister abbey of the Holy Trinity at Caen, 
recently founded by her, bought a carucate of land, 

* Gall. Chr., vol. xi. Instr. p. 67, and Mon. Angl., 
ii. 957. 

opposite the church, of Walleran, son of Ragnulf 
the moneyer, together with a mill and land in 
Amblida, which his brother Conan held, for the 
sum of twenty livres and a mark of gold.t In 
1094 John, son of Waleran, consented to Roger 
his knight giving the tithes of Fifehide, in Essex, 
to Bermundsey Abbey (Mon. Angl., i. 640).J 



Christmas Day. " Towards men of love " : this 
is now the reading of the text in Tregelles and 

Sixth Sunday after Epiphany. " 'Ev Se <ai 
KOU dAecro-ov" (cor. 6'A.eo-o-ov) : Horn., II., xvii. 647. 

Third Sunday in Lent." Gray " : The, Progress 
of Poesy, vv. 73-4. " ' The sword in myrtles 
drest'": from Callistratus, in Athenceus, lib. xv. 
p. 695. The English line occurs in Collins's Ode 
to Liberty, where the Greek ode is wrongly ascribed . 
to Alcseus, who flourished earlier than the heroes 
celebrated in it. " There 's not a strain to memory 
dear," and note, " See Burns's Works, i. 293, Dr. 
Currie's edition": the reference is to a poetical epistle 
addressed by Mr. Telford, of Shrewsbury, to Burns, 
and found with his papers after his death, A 
large portion of it was printed by Dr. Currie 
(Burns's Works, Montrose, 1816, vol. i. p. 293). 
The following is an extract from it : 

" Pursue, O Burns, thy bappy style, 
Those manner-painting scenes, that while 
They bear me northward mony a mile 

Recall the days, 
When tender joys, with pleasing smile, 

Blest my young ways. 

No distant Swiss with warmer glow 
E'er heard his native music flow, 
Nor could his wishes stronger grow 

Than still have mine, 
When up this ancient mount I go 

With songs of thine." 

Fifth Sunday in Lent. " Wildering " : see 
Keble's letters on this expression in Coleridge's 
Memoir, pp. 161-2, Ox., 1869. 

Wednesday before Easter. There is a reference 
to Jer. Taylor's " Holy Living, c. xi. 3 " (cor. 
ch. ii.), for the " coronet or special reward." Taylor 
notices this in another place, in the Life of Christ 

f Gall. Chr., vol. xi. Instr. pp. 60-7. The land opposite 
the church is first described as " terra unius carrucae," 
afterwards as fifty acres, and held of the fief of Radulf 
the chamberlain (? de Tancardvill). Amblida I take to be 
Amblie in the canton of Creully, not far from Caen. 

J Now by Domesday Book we find another Fifhide, 
parcel of the barony in Dorset of a Waleran, who in Wilts 
and in the index list of Dorset is styled " Venator." This 
barony eighty years after was in the possession of his 
descendant, Walter Walerand, among whose knights we 
find the name of John de Fifhide (Liber. Niger, i. 108). 

5"- S. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 


(vol. ii. p. 660, Eden's ed.), but at neither place is 
there any authority assigned for this, which he 
(p. 660) calls the " pious opinion of the Church." 
It may be stated that Ludolph of Saxony (Vita 
Jesu Christi, pt. ii. c. Ixxxviii. 7) has : 

"Aureola vero eat praemium accidental, non tamen 
quodlibet accidentale, sed illud quod respondet operi 
excellenti, scilicet, martyrio, virginitati, et prsedicationi 
...Undo versus isti: 

' Aureolam si ferre volam : fore virgo studebo, 
Martyriumve subibo pium, populosve docebo.' 
Et iterum : 

' Aureolam martyr, doctor, virgoque meretur.' " 
A comparison of the remarks of Taylor in vol. ii. 
u.s. will show how closely he follows the view con- 
tained in the passage of Ludolphus. Bp. Heber 
enters upon the question how far Jer. Taylor, in 
his Life of Christ, was indebted to Ludolphus, and 
this may very well be one of the passages in which 
Taylor may have gained something from him. See 
Heber, Life of Taylor, vol. i. pp. cxxxii-iii, Eden's 
ed. St. Thomas Aquinas considers the relation of 
the aureola to the aurea, or essential reward, in 
Summa Th., suppl. qusest. xcvi. 

Third Sunday after Easter. " Like Thracian 
wives " : Herodotus, v. 4. 

Fifth Sunday after Easter. "For what shall 
heal when holy water banes ?" Aristotle, Eth, Nic., 
vii. ii. 10, 6'rav TO uSwp irviyy, TI S? eTruriveiv ; 

Sixth Sunday after Trinity." Herbert's Poems, 
p. 160" : The Floiver, v. 16, p. 160, Lond., 1660. 
" ' And all this leafless and uncoloured scene 
Shall flush into variety again.' Cowper." 

This is taken memoriter from the Task, vi. 178-80 : 
" And all this uniform uncoloured scene 
Shall be dismantled from its fleecy load, 
And flush into variety again." 

See " N. & Q.," 4> S. xi. 235. 

Thirteenth Sunday after Trinity." Fences de 
Pascal, part i. art. viii." : is it to 18 of this 
article ] 

Nineteenth Sunday after Trinity. "The first 
lorn hour " : in the reprint of the first edition this 
is printed " the first torn hour," it must be pre- 
sumed in error. The same expression, " lorn hoar," 
occurs in the poem on the Accession service. 

Twenty-first Sunday after Trinity. "'Calm 
decay ' is borrowed from a friend " : George James 
'Cornish. See Memoir, u.s., p. 31. 

Twenty -fourth Sunday after Trinity. "' Je 
mourrai seul.' Pascal " : is this expression in 
Pascal ? The sentiment is in the Priere, Pensees, 
pt. ii. art. xix. 3, " Car, Seigneur, comme a Fin- 
stant de ma mort je me trouverai separe" du monde, 
de'nue de toutes choses, seul en votre presence . . ." 


JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD, 1599. The following 
letter and account refer to the entering of a young 
gentleman at Oxford nearly three centuries ago. 

The original is preserved at Brogyntyn, Oswestry, 
the seat of Lord Harlech, a descendant of the 
" Wor'll mr. William Maurice, Esquire " (after- 
wards Sir William Maurice), addressed in the 

" Jesus. 

" Wor'll S'r I rec'd 1'res and xl* in money by the 
handes of this bearer, and I have sent here Inclosed the 
Particularies of his expences hitherto, w'ch must be 
discharged quarterlye, and by half yeares, according to 
the custome, order, and many wantes of our towne, in 
regard whereof I am instantely to desire y'u to furnish 
vs w'th all such necessaries, rather befor' the time then 
any waye afte'r ; the youth will doe well I doubte not, 
by the grace and assistance of the Almightie, to whose 
blessed tuition I hartiely recom'end y'r wor. as also mr. 
and m'resse Brynkir. 

Junii 11 [or 17] 1599. 

Your Worr. most readie 

G [or G.] OWENS. 

Addressed: To the Wor'll mr. William Maurice, 
Esquire, at the Clenenue, give these. 

Sm'a recept ... ... vij ' 10* 


Imprimis fo'r his admission iiij" x* 

Ite' to buy bookes iiij 

Ite' for shoes ... ... ... ... xx d 

Ite' to ride to my L. Bishop ij s 

Ite' his studie chamb'r & teach'ng ... xx" 
Ite' the stuffe and makenge of his hose xviij' 
Ite' his landr'es ... ... ... ... xx d 

Ite' his batt'es lix" v d 

Sm'a solutor' est v" xj s i d 
Endorsed : William Brynkirs note of expences." 

A. E. 
Croeswylan, Oswestry. 


1658, Nov. 14. Thomas Matthew died the 12th day of 
November and was buried the 14th day of November 
1658 in his garden Late taken out of his orchard. 

1663, Oct. 8. Anne White widow buried in the quakers' 
burying-place by Edmund White, ye Anabaptist contrary 
to law. 

1663, March 13. Gulielmus Shakespeare de Fancot, 
sepultus erat. 

1719, Dec. 31. William Norman put in ye ground, 
being an Anabaptist. 

1725, March 21. Bernard Stoniford, Bricklayer hurl'd 
into a grave. 

1727, Aug. 30 Harris*, Widd. hurl'd into ye 


1727, Jan. 9. Olney's child hurl'd into ye ground. 

17'28, Aug. 26. Mary Shaw, Widdow, hurld into ye 

1730, May 25. James son of a young w... who lodges 
at John Waters's at Herne. She calls herself by ye name 
of Mary Arnold & sais ye name of ye child's Father is 
John Deverill. I'm told they both came from Winslow 
in ye County of Bucks or thereabout. 

1737, Jan. 26. Ann, Dater of Mary ye wife of John 
Quaringdon w thought fit to get marry'd to one Daniel 
Search & burying him is now marry'd as is said to one 
Samuel Purton by whom she has this Dater Ann Baptis'd 
Jan. 26. her Husband John Quaringdon now living in ye 

1738, May 29. John, a male child laid & found in a 
Neighbour's cart conditionally baptis'd this child is 
about 6 months old. 



[5* S. XII. AUG. 2, 79. 

1743, June 17. Elizabeth, daughter of John & Jane 
Willison of Hern Dary man, Baptized. N.B. This 
child has 5 compleat fingers on ye right hand beside ye 

1751, Sept. 6. Samuel Harris hurl'd into the ground. 

1766, June 7. Isabella Louisa Grimaldi, an infant, 

I send the above extracts from the parish register 
of Toddibgton, co. Beds, trusting they will find a 
corner in " N. & Q." The expression " hurl'd into 
a grave " is so quaint and forcible that, not having 
met with it before, I trust some of your readers 
will note the same, as it would be interesting 
to know whether it was in general use at that 
time or merely local. I have also included the 
names of Shakespeare and Grimaldi, as they are 
quite exceptional in this neighbourhood. 


Hockliffe Lodge, Leighton Buzzard. 

example of this weapon is in my collection, in- 
scribed on both sides of the blade with the fol- 
lowing doggerel, in Roman capitals and old Ger- 
man, which I have endeavoured to render into 
English doggerel : 

The wise will mark his fellow's fate; 

Death follows sin indeed; 
And deeds of ill are followed still 

By dying for their meed. 
Yet by the sword 'tis better far 

By law adjudged to die, 
Than with a skin unscathed to be 
Condemned eternally. 

There is a notice of this sword in the Journal of 
the Archwological Institute, vol. xx. p. 78. 



On the blade is also seen a cross of Calvary, 
the imperial mound, ensigned with a patriarchal 
cross, and the date 1589. The broad double-edged 
blade shows signs of grinding at the points of per- 
cussion, evidence of much use. The cross guard 
and pommel are of brass, the latter in the form of 
a funeral urn. W. J. BERNHARD-SMITH. 


that it behoves "N. & Q." to take some cogni- 
zance of an advertisement which appears on the 
cover of its number for July 19, 1879. This 
advertisement states that certain auctioneers will 
offer for sale at Weymouth, on August 1, a collection 
of documents which they call the " Sherren Papers," 
forming the archives of the ancient borough of Wey- 

mouth and Melcombe Regis for upwards of 500 
years. Now the " United Borough and Town of 
Weymouth and Melcombe Eegis " has only existed 
under that name and style since the time of Eliza- 
beth ; but each of the two towns, Weymouth and 
Melcombe Kegis, has been a borough, I believe, 
ever since the days of Edward II., and it would 
seem, therefore, that these " Sherren Papers " 
cover nearly the whole period since the two towns 
were incorporated. It is difficult to understand 
how the municipal archives of two not unimportant 
boroughs can have become " Sherren Papers," 
whatever that may mean. And it appears incre- 
dible that the mayor and corporation of the united 
borough should allow their own archives to be sold 
by auction in their own town, unless, indeed, they 
mean to buy them back again. If they do not, 
I think they will deserve to be sent in a body to 
the neighbouring isle of Portland. A. J. M. 

DROUGHT IN SCOTLAND. It may be worthy of 
note that, notwithstanding the continuous and 
pitiless rains that for months have prevailed 
throughout the length and breadth of the land, 
there should be one district which not only has 
been exempt from this extraordinary downfall, but 
positively suffered from long-continued drought. 
I give below an extract from a letter received the 
other day from a gentleman residing at Paisley, 
and also send the " public notice " referred to 
therein, from which, if deemed too long for insertion, 
extracts can be made : 

"Paisley, July 12, 1879. 

" But now we have had some rain and expect to tide 
over the water famine. It is rather curious that with 
Europe, and even England, nearly drowned, we here 
should have had fifteen months with hardly rain enough 
to lay the dust of the streets. I enclose a public notice 
which in the midst of the surrounding deluge is a curiosity 
in its way." 

F. D. 


[The notice, dated May 22, 1879, is issued by order of 
the Commissioners. They state that, owing to the 
" long-continued drought," it has been found necessary 
to curtail the supply of water from the Paisley Water- 
works for general purposes, and to discontinue it entirely 
for many others.] 

WICKET. This word, as a cricket term, has 
come to be applied (how recently one would be 
glad to learn) not only to the pitched stumps that 
resemble nearly enough a " wicket " i.e. a little 
but to the ground covered by the bowling. 

* The corresponding French term guichet is limited to- 
a little door placed for convenience within a larger gate. 
As to derivation, while Wedgwood sees in wicket the 
notion of rapid movement to and fro vfk, a start, wicken 
(Dutch), yibrare, wink, &c. Littre gives for the old 
Scandinavian vik the meaning "retreat," "hiding-place," 
a sense which, perhaps, more readily connects itself 
with the little fortress (et being the familiar diminutive) 
a gate supplies than that of swaying to and fro. 

. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 



This extension of meaning, resulting from the 
scientific development of our national game, is of 
itself worthy of note ; but what is more remarkable 
is the lack this extension illustrates of what would 
be a very useful word. The word we want would 
correspond with the German Bahn (way, path, 
road, course). Ask the hockey-player what he calls 
the bounded strip between the goals, or the skittle- 
player to name the course over which his ball is 
rolled or thrown, and he will be found at a loss. 

" THE Fox's BRUSH " INN, ROPSLEY. In Hot- 
ten's History of Signboards is this paragraph : 

" It is certainly somewhat strange that, in this sporting 
country, the sign of the Brush, or Fox's Tail, should be 
so rare ; in fact, no instance of its use is now to be found, 
although, beside the interest attached to it in the hunting 
field, it had the honour of being one of the badges of the 
Lancaster family " (p. 170). 

" The Fox's Brush" Inn may be found, in the 
midst of the Duke of Rutland's country, at Ropsley, 
Lincolnshire. On the next page of Mr. Hotten's 
work it is stated that 

"At the White Horse, near Burleigh-on-the-Hill, the 
noted Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, spent the last years 
of his life and died " (p. 171). 

If this refers to Burley-on-the-Hill, near Oakham, 
Hutland, the author greatly blundered. 


A CENTENARIAN. The following, I think, de- 
serves a corner in " N. & Q." : 

" There died at Worcester on Sunday last Mrs. Harts- 
borne, at the age of one hundred years and eleven 
months. Mrs. Hartshorne was twice married, first to 
Dr. Nash, of Worcester, and secondly to a Staffordshire 
gentleman, whom she survived for many years. She 
retained her faculties to the last, and up to a few weeks 
before her death was to be seen occasionally walking 
with an attendant in the streets of Worcester." Sunder- 
land and Durham County Herald, July 4, 1879. 


" An attempt to revive the old question of the right to 
Open Magdalen was made on Monday, a meeting having 
been announced to be held in the Union Square, Old 
Headington, ' for the purpose of taking proceedings at 
once by claiming a right as owners of Open Magdalen, 
and other rights belonging to the said parish of Head- 
ington.' The business consisted of the reading of extracts 
from an old Act of Parliament referring to the matter, 
and relating to stone, sand, and gravel pits, allotments 
for the poor, and a sebtion which stated that small 
allotments may be laid together and enjoyed in common." 
Oxford Chronicle, July 19, 1879. 


FRENCH LEAVE. Dr. Brewer says this " allusion 
is to the French soldiers, who in their invasions 
take what they require, and never wait to ask per- 
mission of the owners/' Mr. Hotten says it means 

" to depart slyly, without saying anything." In 
a newspaper bearing date Oct. 16, 1805, I read, 
"On Thursday last Monsieur J. F. Desgranche, 
one of the French prisoners of war on parole at 
Chesterfield, took French leave of that place, in 
defiance of his parole engagement." This would 
imply that, seventy years ago, Mr. Hotten's defini- 
tion was an accepted one. A. R. 
Croeswylan, Oswestry. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

TEMPLE BAR STATUES. Probably I am not 
the only reader of " N. & Q." who deeply regretted 
the destruction of Temple Bar ; and most certainly 
there are many who will feel an interest in its 
future history, now that it has been " improved 
away" from Fleet Street. I am told that what was 
Temple Bar is now a pile of dirty stones in a piece 
of waste ground in Farringdon Street ; that the 
time-honoured old wooden gates, at which the 
carriage of royalty had so often to wait, and which 
old citizens used to regard with feelings of pride 
and pleasure as the visible evidence of important 
rights and privileges, are now lying rotting on the 
ground. What has become of the statues I did 
not hear. I should be very glad to learn that I 
have been misinformed in this matter, and thank- 
ful for any information as to where Temple Bar 
now is, in whose custody it rests, and what is 
intended to be done with it. EDWARD SOLLY. 

following is a cutting from Mayfair of May 10, 
1879; What is the mystery connected with the 
house in Berkeley Square ? 

" The mystery of Berkeley Square still remains a 
mystery. We were in hopes that during the last fort- 
night a full, final, and satisfactory answer would have 
been given to our question ; but we have been disappointed. 
The story of the haunted house in the heart of Mayfair 
is so far acquiesced in by the silence of those who alone 
know the whole truth, and whose interest it is that the 
whole truth should be known. That story can be recapi- 
tulated in a few words. The house in Berkeley Square 
contains at least one room of which the atmosphere is 
supernaturally fatal to body and mind. A girl saw, 
heard, or felt such horror in it that she went mad, and 
never recovered sanity enough to tell how or why. _A 
gentleman, a disbeliever in ghosts, dared to sleep in it, 
and was found a corpse in the middle of the floor, after 
frantically ringing for help in vain. Humour suggests 
other cases of the same kind, all ending in death, mad- 
ness, or both, as the result of sleeping, or trying to sleep, 
in that room. The very party walls of the house, when 
touched, are found saturated with electric horror. It is 
uninhabited save by an elderly man and woman who act 
as caretakers; but even these have no access to the room. 
That is kept locked, the key being in the hands of a 



XII. AUG. 2, 79. 

mysterious and seemingly nameless person, who comes to 
tlie house once every six months, locks up the elderly 
couple in the basement, and then unlocks the room, and 
occupies himself in it for hours. Finally, and most wonder- 
ful of all, the house, though in Berkeley Square, is neither 
to be let nor to be sold. Its mere outside shows it to be 
given up to ghosts and decay. Readers who feel curious 
about the matter are referred to our issue of a fortnight 
ago for the details, of which the above account is a 

Kirton- in-Lindsey. 

AVOURS. " Eound his [Henry VII. 's] tomb 
stand his nine accustomed Avours or guardian 
saints, to whom he calls and cries," &c. (Stanley, 
Westminster Abbey, p. 158). I should be glad to 
know the etymology of A vour, and to hear of other 
instances of the use of the word. 



SUB-SIZAR : HOUND. In the Anecdotes of 
Bowyer it is recorded of one Eichard Jenkin that 
he was " admitted a sub-sizar for the Master of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, Dr. Tanner." In 
the same work we are told that a " hound " of 
King's College, Cambridge, is an undergraduate 
not on the foundation, nearly the same as a "sizar." 
A more distinct explanation of the above terms is 
required. The same question was asked in the 
Gentleman's Magazine in Sept., 1813, but it seems 
to have elicited no reply. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

author of the translation into English of the 
Imitation of Christ printed by Eliz. Kedmayne, 
London, 1684 ? Another edition of the same was 
also printed by " Eliz. Kedmayne in Jewen-street, 
London," 1705, and reprinted in 1831 by T. C. 
Hansard, Paternoster Kow, and sold by Longman, 
Eees, Orme & Co. . EDMUND WATERTON. 



Collier's Bibliographical Catalogue, vol. i. p. 521, 
he describes a copy of Marlowe's Hero anc 
Leander with MS. notes, in which allusion is 
made to Marlowe's acquaintance with " Mr. 
of Dover, whom he made become an [atheist].' 
This Mr. Blank was otherwise a remarkable per- 
son, for we learn that he " learned all Marloe by 
heart and divers other bookes : he would never 
have above one book at a time, and when he was 
perfect in it hee would put it away and 
another, Hee was a very good scholar." Is it 
possible to recover his name ? BIBLIOTHECARY. 

3 rd S. iii. 103 ; iv. 529 ; v. 42, 247, 326, are some 
interesting particulars respecting this family. '. 
shall be glad of any further information either a 
to the ancestors or the descendants of Sir Jame 

larvey, Lord Mayor of London, and particularly 
s to the father of George Harvey, sworn assistant 
f the Feltmakers' Company, Oct., 1656. It 
ppears that of this family were Sir Walter 
larvey, Lord Mayor 1273, and Sir William Har- 
r ey, Clarencieux. . E. B. 

LOCAL OFFICES. I want to carry out the hope 
ixpressed by the Atfienceum (July 12, 1879, p. 41) 
or an " annotated catalogue of English officials, 

which shall take in not those of the towns only, 
ut of the manor, the parish, and the hamlet also." 
'. had, indeed, already contemplated such a cata- 
ogue, and have made considerable collections. 
But such a work requires the help of " N. & Q.," 

and I hope I may ask this. I may add that I 
lave already been favoured with notes from Mr. 
Charles Jackson and Dr. A. Laing. 


of two old maps of London in the Grace collection, 

find that the line of thoroughfare running from 
Pimlico to Chelsea is marked in one pjirt Upper 
and Lower Belgrade Place. Belgrave Square, as 
t is now called, was not then built, for the " Five 
Fields " then occupied the site of that and other 
squares and streets which form the most aristocratic 
district of the West-End. Was this really the 
original form of the name, or was it an error on 
the map-maker's part 1 J. E. S. C. 

may be the meaning of these much-used terms,, 
which I have not as yet been able to find in any 
of our many dictionaries, old or new 1 Unde 
derivantur ? ABHBA. 


Can any one refer me to a copy of this old 
ballad? M.A. 


" EEYNARD THE Fox." Is there any evidence, 
and if so what, that the story of Reynard the Fox 
was known in England before the publication of 
Caxton's version of the tale in 1481 ] ANON. 

spearian Library and Museum at Stratford-upon- 
Avon is a portrait in oil, remarkably well painted, 
of Mrs. Garrick, representing a very beautiful 
woman in the prime of life. Gainsborough is said 
to have been the artist, but it is merely a sup- 
position. In The Catalogue of the ShaTcspeare 
Museum this portrait is merely mentioned, and 
numbered eighty-two, amongst the many valuable 
gifts of Miss Wheler. On what authority is this- 
portrait assigned to Gainsborough ? If he was not 
the artist, who was ? JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Kewbourne Kectory, Woodbridge. 

5" S. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 



DANIEL JONES. A large plaster bust has come 
into my possession with the following inscription 
upon it as the name of the subject and the sculptor: 
"Daniel Jones, Esquire. J. E. Thomas sculptor, 
London, 1838." Can any of your correspondents 
give me a clue to the identity of the said Daniel 
Jones, Esq., as I am unable to trace him in the 
ordinary biographical dictionaries ? 

W. H. K. W. 

Is this an English word ? I find it in a MS. 
written about 1693 by a person (probably a Dutch- 
man) imperfectly acquainted with the English lan- 
guage. Here are some extracts showing the 
context : 

"And therefore lie could not but strung so much the 
more of the lame and insufficient report which that 
General person had given." 

" Bott thos who know the cuntries of Flanders and 
Brabant need not strang at the Prince of Orange not 
oblidging us," &c. 

" Which I often did much strang att nether could I 
ever know the reason thereof." 

"We cannot therfor but strang why that prudent 
prince," &c. 

" All the advantages being rightlie considred, we 
cannot but strang that the Prince of Orange did not," &c. 


" UPON THE SQUARE." What is the earliest 
known use of this phrase 1 It occurs in Scott's 
Fortunes of Nigel, ch. xiii. : " While Lord Glen- 
varloch chose to play, men played with him 
regularly, or, according to the phrase, upon the 

ENGRAVINGS. I have a collection of old en- 
gravings. Where could I get a treatise upon 
engravers and their work] Which is the best work 
on the subject ] HERMES. 

HERALDIC. Can any of your readers inform me 
to what family the following crest belongs? A 
dexter hand, vested, holding up a skull. On the 
same paper under the crest are the letters H. B. M. 
The complete arms and any particulars of the family 
will be very acceptable. KHAN. 

ORRERY. Orrery is said to be a place in Ireland. 
Whereabouts is it? It is not in Black's larger 
atlas. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


ROCK FIGURES. It appears from La Billardiere's 
Voyage a la Recherche de la Peyrouse that there is 
a rock close to, or one of, the Eddystone rocks like 
a vessel in full sail, that has deceived English and 
French navigators. Is this mentioned in English 
books, and is the resemblance still existing ? 
Eusebe Salverte, in his Sciences Occultes, p. 19, 
gives an account of this and of a rock of similar 
description at Corfu. This rock, described by 
Pliny and confirmed as still existing by the 

Bibliotheque Universelle,w&& fabled by the Greeks 
of old to have been the Phoenician vessel in which 
Ulysses was returning home till Neptune, in jealousy, 
and to thwart him, turned it to stone. The rock 
of Niobe, on the side of Mount Sipylus, is like a 
woman weeping when seen from a distance, but 
when approached the resemblance disappears. 
Salverte thinks that this, dressed up in the fashion 
of a myth, has been shaped into the legend of 
Niobe. C. A. WARD. 


Nov. 21, 1645. Information is requested re- 
specting him ; also respecting his ancestors and 
descendants, both direct and collateral. Why was 
he given that title 1 Sir Robert was the son of 
Sir William Sutton, of Aram, co. Notts. M. T. 

MEANING OF " HIBERNIA." Might I ask some 
help in determining what is the exact force of 
" Hibernia " at various periods of history 1 I read 
that the poem on the Argonautic expedition 
attributed to Orpheus may be as old as the reign 
of the first Darius, who died B.C. 485. There the 
appellation lernian seems applied to all our group 
of islands (ed. Leipzig, 1764) : 

vrjaoiaiv 'Itpviffiv dffffov iKWfiai. 
What is there to show that " Hibernia " thus 
covered more space than the modern name Ire- 
land ? And if so, how am I to follow historically 
the process -of its restriction to 
" The first flower of the earth and first gem of the sea : " 1 

H. L. L..G. 


English and Scottish Sketches. By an American. 
London, William White, 1857. 

Evenings with the Poets. By the Author of Success in 
Life, Memorials of Early Genius, &c. London, T. Nel- 
son & Sons, 1860. 

A Winter with Robert Burns. Being Annals of . his 
Patrons and Associates in Edinburgh in the Years 1786-7, 
and Details of his Inauguration as Poet Laureate of the 
Can. Kil. Edinburgh, Peter Brown, 1S46. J. G. 

'" Applause seasonably declined returns with accu- 
mulated force." A parallel might be " Cast thy bread 
upon the waters," &c. IVORY. 


(5 th S. xii. 6, 36, 71.) 

In following the good example set by F. G. 
let me explain that I write Popiana advisedly, 
following the form adopted by the compilers of the 
miscellanies connected with Menage, Voltaire, and 
Walpole (whose names, lik# Pope's, ended with a 



[5 th S. XII. Aca. 2, 79. 

route e), who wrote Menagiana, Voltairiana, and 
Walpoliana, examples followed by Southey, who 
called his two little volumes Omniana. 

I think the first in the following list is one of the 
earliest attacks on Pope. It is in some parts more 
clever than decent. 

9. " JJsop at the Bear Garden. A Vision. By Mr. 
Preston. In Imitation of the Temple of Fame, a Vision 
by Mr. Pope. London, Sold by John MorpheWj near 
Stationers' Hall, 1715." 8vo. 

An advertisement occupying two pages is 
followed by a quizzical announcement, which com- 
mences : 

" The first Book of Tom Thumb, transform'd from the 
original Nonsense into Greek Heroicks, is so near finished 
"that the Undertaker hopes to be able to deliver it to the 
Subscribers by the first of April next," &c. 

The poem commences on p. 9 and ends on p. 32, 
pp. 33-8 being occupied with notes which contain 
some curious allusions to the Bear Garden and its 

10. " A Complete Collection of all the Verses, Essays, 
letters, and Advertisements which have been occasioned 
by the Publication of Three Volumes of Miscellanies by 
Pope and Company. To which is added an exact List of 
the Lords, Ladies, Gentlemen, and others who have been 
abused in these volumes. With a large Dedication to 
the Author of the Dunciad, containing some Animad- 
versions upon that Extraordinary Performance. 

Thee, great Scriblerus, Malice still inspires, 
And with cold Venom damps the Poet's Fires : 
A snarling Elf who breaks the Critick's Trust, 
With Spleen condemns, and always is unjust : 
Whose own Example best explains his Laws, 
And is himself the vast Profund he draws. 

London, Printed for A. Moore near S. Paul's. MDCCXXVIII. 

(Price One Shilling.)" Pp. 52. 

With a frontispiece, an imitation of the owl 
frontispiece to the Dunciad : Pope on crutches, 
standing on a pile of books lettered " Pope's 
Homer," " Pope's Shakespeare," " Miscellanies," 
" The Profound," and surrounded by owls, with 
a label over his head, " Hie est quern queeris." 

11. " Durgen, or a Plain Satyr upon a Pompous Satyrist. 
' In trutina ponetur eadem.' Hor. 

Amicably inscribed by the Author to those Worthy and 
Ingenious Gentlemen misrepresented in a late invective 
Poem, call'd The Dunciad. London, Printed for T. War- 
ner at the Black-Boy in Paternoster Row. M.DCCXXIX. 
Price Is." 

Address to the Reader, pp. iv. The Address to 
the Reader is followed by the 
" Postscript. 

The Reader is desired to observe that the beginning of 
the Poem turns upon the following Quotations : 

' Or ship'd with W d to Ape and Monkey Lands.' 

Dunciad, Book i. p. 11. 

'E. W. poetical Son of John Taylor." Profund, 
Chap. 9." 

12. " A Collection of Pieces in Verse and Prose which 
have been publish'd on occasion of the Dunciad. Dedi- 
cated to the Right Honourable the Earl of Middlesex by 
Mr. Savage. London, Printed for L. Gilliver at Homer's 
Head against S. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street. 

In the Dedication to the Earl of Middlesex, 
which occupies pp. iii-vii, and is signed " R. Sa- 
vage," Savage speaks of the only part in. the 
volume to which he had claim being the " Author 
;o be Let," "having no title to any other, not even 
small ones out of the Journals." The Dedica- 
tion is followed by 

(a) " Two Epistles to Mr. Pope concerning the Authors 
of the Age. By the Author of the Universal Passion." 

(b) "An Essay on Satire, particularly on the Dunciad. 
By W. Harte of S. Mary Hall, Oxon." 

(c) " Harlequin Horace or the Art of Modern Poetry." 

(d) " An Epistle to Mr. Pope from a Young Gentleman 
at Rome. London, Printed in the Year MDCCXXX." 

(e) " Certain Epigrams in Laud and Praise of the 
Gentlemen of the Dunciad." 

(f) " An Author to be Let." 

(g) " Essays, Letters, and other occasional Pieces re- 
lating to the late War of the Dunces." 

The copy before me would appear to be im- 
perfect, for it commences with the fourth article 
in the table of contents, " An Epistle to Mr. Pope," 
which is followed by the " Epigrams," " An Author 
to be Let," and the " Essays." I have a separate 
copy of the first three, of which the following are 
the titles : 

(a) " Two Epistles to Mr. Pope concerning the Authors 
of the Age. London, Printed for Lawton Gilliver at 
Homer's Head against S. Dunstan's Church in Fleet 
Street. MDCCXXX." Pp. 54. 

At the end a curious list of four pages of books 
printed for L. Gilliver. 

(b) " An Essay on Satire, particularly on The Dunciad. 
By Mr. Walter Harte of S. Mary Hall, Oxford. To 
which is added a Discourse on Satires arraigning Persons 
by Name. By Monsieur Boileau. London, Printed for 
Lawton Gilliver at Homer's Head against S. Dunstan's 
Church in Fleet Street. MDCCXXX." 8vo., pp. 46. 

(e) " Harlequin Horace or the Art of Modern Poetry. 
Tempora Mutantur et nos mutamur in illis. London, 
Printed for Lawton Gilliver at Homer's Head against S. 
Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street. MDCCXXXI. Price 1*." 
Pp. 59. 
Dedication to ,T n R h, Esq., 6 pages. 

The last three (e, /, and g), which are uniformly 
and very neatly printed, are separately paged, but 
have no distinct title-pages. " Certain Epigrams in 
Laud and Praise of the Gentlemen of the Dunciad" 
is the heading of p. 1 of the collection, which ends 
on p. 14. This is followed by a bastard title of "An 
Author to be Let," which is word for word the 
same as that of the quarto edition of 1729, de- 
scribed by F. G., ante, p. 36, with the omission 
of " Numb. I. To be continued," &c., and occupies 
twelve pages, besides five pages of preface not 
paged ; while the " Essays, Letters, and other 
occasional Pieces relating to the late War of the 
Dunces " commences with a half-title and fresh 
pagination, which extends from p. 1 to p. 41. 

13. " A most proper Reply to the Nobleman's Epistle 
to a Doctor of Divinity. To which is added Horace 
versus Faunius or a Case in Point, as reported by Ben 
Johnson and The Bellman of S. James' Verses. London 

5 th S. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 



Printed : Sold by J. Huggonson near Serjeant's Inn i 
Chancery Lane, 1734. Price 6d." 

The " Proper Reply " occupies twenty pages 
very large type, is dated from Chichester, Childer 
mas Day, 1733, and is signed " W. Sh w n." 

P. A. H. 

I beg to refer F. G. to Dr. Warburton's edition 
of Pope's Works, 1757. In vol. viii. p. 234, there i 
a letter, dated July 20, 1713, from Pope to Addison 
in which this occurs, in relation to Dennis : " You 
may conclude from what I here say, that 'twa 
never in my thoughts to have offered you my pen 
in any direct reply to such a critic, but only in 
some little raillery ; not in defence of you, but in 
contempt of him," &c. This explanation is given 
in a foot-note : " This relates to a paper occasionec 
by Dennis's Remarks upon Cato, called Dr. Norris's 
Narrative of the Frenzy of John Dennis." In 
voL ix. and in A Letter to a Noble Lord (Hervey) 
p. 231, Pope states it as his belief that in the 
Verses on the Imitator of Horace " both sexes hac 
a share in the composition ; that is, his lordship 
and a right honorable lady" (Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu). Dr. Johnson asserts that the Letter 
was never sent to Lord Hervey, and that to " a 
cool reader of the present time it exhibits nothing 
but a tedious malignity." " Popiad," sic in War- 
burton's edition. FREDK. RULE. 

366, 394, 472 ; xii. 37, 49.)-! am sorry that MR. 
PICTON does not appreciate the authority of Thomas 
Staveley, whom I have been accustomed to regard 
as a high authority in matters antiquarian. I 
have read MR. PICTON'S letter with interest, nor 
do I write with a view of combating his position ; 
for, in fact, on referring to Dr. Cowell's Law Dic- 
tionary, I find that the position which MR. PICTON 
has taken is endorsed by that learned doctor. 
Still, I am anxious to remove the impression that 
I have endeavoured (ignorantly or intentionally) 
to palm upon the readers of " N. & Q." a worthless 
And " unreliable " authority. I therefore venture 
to submit the following extracts from Chalmers's 
Biographical Dictionary to the candid reader : 

" Staveley (Thomas, Esq.), a learned gentleman of 
Cussington, Leicestershire, after having completed his 
academical education at Peterhouse, Cambridge, was 
admitted of the Inner Temple in 1647, and called to the 
bar in 1654. He passed the latter part of his life in the 
study of English history, and was esteemed a diligent, 
judicious, and faithful antiquary.. ..His History of 
Churches in England, &c., was first published in 1712, 
and reprinted in 1773. It is a work of considerable 
research and learning, the result of having carefully 
examined many books and records, and contains a com- 
plete account of the sacred furniture of churches from 
the earliest origin," &c. 

Staveley was also the author of the celebrated 
Romish Horseleech, printed in 1674 and again in 
1769, and of many other works (see Rose's 
Biographical Dictionary). Should a perusal of 

Staveley's History of Churches in England be 
desired, I shall be happy, since the work is scarce, 
to lend my copy, as a vehicle for imparting in- 
formation on the interesting subjects discussed 
therein. E. C. HARINGTON. 

The Close, Exeter. 

In Matthew Paris's History of the Reign of 
Henry III., under the year 1250, occurs this 
passage, showing clearly that the parvis, whatever 
that may mean, was used as a place of education 
more than six hundred years ago : " Unde pro 
ilia substantiola persolvenda cogebatur ille pauper- 
culus, multis diebus scholas exercens, venditis in 
parvisio libellis, vitam familicam et codrinam 
protelare." The gloss upon which is, " Sane 
aliquando pars qusedam in inferiore navi ecclesise 
scholse exercendse destinata, a parvis pueris edoctis, 
parvis vel parvisium, the parvis, dicebatur." 
From which it will be seen that, however "childish 
and absurd" the derivation may be, it is not justly 
chargeable either upon Staveley or his follower 
CHANCELLOR HARINGTON. Parvis, to a certain ex- 
tent, is a synonym ofparadisus, as the latter word 
is used by mediaeval writers ; but whether it is a 
derivative of it is, to my mind, more than question- 
able. All that Du Cange ventures to say is, 
" Nostris vulgo parvis." No doubt, as MR. PIC- 
TON says, we get it from the French, but where 
the French get it from is not so easy to decide. 

468 ; xii. 53.) " Bilsbye ostiarius scaccarii " was 
a Lincolnshire man, in whose family the office of 

Usher of the Exchequer had been hereditary for 
several generations. At the death of John Kener- 
mond,* Dec. 16, 1435, it descended to his sole 
daughter and heir Agnes, then aged thirty-two, 
and the wife of Thomas Billesby, of Billesby, co. 
"incoln (Inq. 14 Hen. VI., No. 15). There was 

>ower to discharge the duties by deputy, so that 
Agnes Billesby continued to hold this office up to 

he date of her death, Aug. 4, 1470, when that 
event transmitted it to her grandson and heir 

Tohn, son of Richard Billesby,t who predeceased 

lis mother Nov. 23, 1459 (Inq. 38, 39 Hen. VI., 

tfo. 35). By inquisition taken at Westminster, 
3ept. 1, 10 Edw. IV. (1470), the jury found that 
" Predicta Agnes in dicto brevi nominata tenuit die 

uo obijt in dominico suo vt de feodo officium hostiarij 

* Not Ke?Twermond, as by the Visitation of Lincoln- 
tiire (1562-4), printed in the current number of the 

f Hie proof of age (Inq. 19 Hen. VI., No. 48), taken 
t Alford, co. Lincoln, Nov. 1, 1441, shows that Richard 
r&B born at Bilsby, and baptized there in the church of 
foly Trinity, April 25, 1420. Among other local occur- 
ences on his birthday, it is stated that Cadeby steeple 
ell to the ground by reason of high wind (fuit tarn 
alidus ventus quod campanile de Cadeby cecidit ad 
erram), and Richard Haghe held a court of the Duchy 
f Lancaster at Bilsby. 



* s. xn. A. 2, 79. 

de scaccario domini Regis cum alijs diversis officijs dicto 
officio spectantibus et pertinentibus, videlicet, officijs 
hostiariorum et proclamatorum in communi Banco 
Marescallorum hostiariorum proclamatorum et Bmri- 
ariorum in singulis Itineribus Justiciariorum Itinenm- 
cium infra regnum Anglic, vna cum quinque denarijs 
quolibet die in Recepta Scaccarij predict! percipiendis in 
dicto officio hostiarij in dicto Seacoario de quibus eadem 
Agnes obijt seisita in dominico suo vt de leodo in Bal- 
liva supradicta." Inq. 9 & 10 Edw. IV., No. 55. 

The said office, with the others above set out, 
was held of the king by the service of great ser- 
jeanty, and was worth twenty marks yearly, 
"juxta verum valorem ejusdem." Madcx (Thomas), 
in his History and A ntiquities of the Exchequer, 
states that the post was one of high antiquity, and 
he makes frequent allusion to those who held it 
in the early periods of English history. See 
" Ostiarius " in his index. 


WHISTLING (5 th S. xi. 186, 275, 336.) Nothing 
but a tender regard for the susceptibilities of the 
gentler sex has hitherto prevented me from sub- 
mitting an humble word on this subject ; for whist- 
ling is not generally thought to be an excellent 
thing in woman, and there is a discouraging proverb, 
known to " N. & Q.," about a whistling woman 
and a crowing hen. In spite of all which, I may 
now venture to offer a hope that others who have 
met with whistling women will add their testimony 
to the consensus referred to above. Any instance 
showing that the powers, physical or mental, of 
man are also fully possessed by woman is surely 
valuable ; and so I confess to a special interest in 
the case of that excellent young woman whom 
SCOTUS, using a good north-country phrase, de- 
scribes as his servant lass. For myself, I have 
heard a young lady, at an evening party, whistle 
the song of The Mocking Bird with a mo?t sweet 
and resonant clearness ; I know of two young 
ladies (a clergyman's daughters) in Shropshire, 
whose whistling was the chief attraction of a 
fashionable charity concert, lately held in that 
county ; and I can point also to my fair friend 
Sally Mempus, aged two-and-twenty, whom I have 
seen whistling after her work to the passing 
ships, as she sat, a hundred feet above them, 
upon a narrow ledge half-way down the cliff a 
spot which no one save a daring climber like Sally 
could reach or escape from. A. J. M. 

DR. HYDE CLARKE is quite right. There is 
much less whistling among farmers' men than 
forty or fifty years ago, and less singing also. 
When I was a boy, most of the men sang at 
plough and with their teams. Their voices borne 
over the hills by the breeze were one of the charms 
of a country ramble. They mostly sang love songs 
or sentimental ditties. I remember The Mistletoe 
Bough was a great favourite with one of my 
father's men. Some time ago I remarked to the 

rector of a neighbouring parish how very seldom I 
heard men singing at the plough, compared to 
when I was a boy. He replied, " That is because 
you were bred among the hills, and now live in a 
flat country ; men don't sing in flat countries." I 
felt this was correct. Milkmaids sang to their 
cows, without which it was believed they would 
not " give their milk down." If you meet a 
country girl nowadays, and ask her, " Where 
are you going to, my pretty maid 1 " you can 
never say the reply was, " A-milking, sir," for 
maids no longer milk, but leave it to be done by 
men called "garthmen." At the "clippins" all 
the men were expected to sing, but those who- 
could not might whistle, as I have heard them 
more than once. Like milkmaids, " clippins " 
have all vanished. Those kindly gatherings, 
where the master and his neighbours and his men 
all made merry together, have all gone, and we 
have steam ploughs, and reaping machines, and 
labourers' unions instead. Although there is yet 
more singing and whistling in hilly than in flat 
countries, it is certain that farmers' men neither 
sing nor whistle half as much as they used to do. 
As far back as I remember, our middle classes 
considered whistling vulgar (as boys we were not 
allowed to whistle). It is possible the labourers 
have now got to think so too. Kailway trips, -and 
more ready access to towns, are bringing every- 
thing to a dead level, and gradually effacing the 
old-fashioned country ways. R. E. 


Certainly " the wisdom of our ancestors " seems 
to have regarded whistling as one of the preroga- 
tives of the superior animal, man, and which 
woman, the weaker vessel, had no right to usurp 
or appropriate. Instance the old rhyme 
" A whistling woman and a crowing hen 

Are neither good for God or men." 
Or thus varied in Hazlitt 

" A whistling wife and a crowing hen 

Will call the old gentleman out of his den." 
So in French, " Une poule qui chante le coq et 
une fille qui siffle portent malheur dans la maison." 


In the programmes of entertainments to be given 
by the Blandford Institute in the Corn Exchange 
of that pleasant Dorsetshire town, there is fre- 
quently the announcement of " an air to be 

whistled by Miss ." This young lady whistles 

such airs as The Blue Bells of Scotland, &c., most 
accurately and musically, and is always called 
upon for an encore. W. E. TATE. 

New Athenaeum Club. 

I once knew two ladies who whistled admirably ; 
I have often listened with delight to their duets. 
I agree in the opinion that one does not often now 
hear artisans and boys whistling in the streets. 
The reason is not far to seek : this class is almost 

6">S. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 



invariably smoking. The cigar and tobacco pipe 
have quite banished the cheery notes once so com- 
mon. H. E. WILKINSON. 
Anerley, S.E. 

After attempting in vain to get my dog to obey 
orders to come into the house, my wife essayed to 
whistle, when she was suddenly interrupted by a 
servant, a Roman Catholic, who exclaimed, in the 
most piteous accents, " If you please, ma'am, don't 
whistle. Every time a woman whistles the heart 
of the Blessed Virgin bleeds." Is this merely a 
local or a general belief among Roman Catholics ? 



Whistling gone out ! Of course it has ; tobacco 
has come in. One pipe has put out the other. 
We can't both smoke and whistle. I knew a lady 
who whistled exquisitely, introducing certain 
musical graces ; the shake was not to be forgotten. 
She accompanied herself on the piano by pre- 
ference. I have known others who whistled 
tolerably well. P. P. 

" A whistling maid and a crowing hen 
Are liked by neither gods nor men." 
So runs an old adage. The reason in the first case 
is that a woman stood by and whistled while she 
watched the nails for the Cross being forged. The 
>latter instance of antipathy is probably only given 
for the sake of the analogy. 


A few weeks since I heard a very spirited, 
powerful whistle (of a tune) approaching me, and 
when the whistler turned the corner and came in 
sight, I was surprised to see that she was a girl of 
some fourteen years. I never heard man nor boy 
whistle better, nor in a fuller and deeper tone. 


Last February I was present at a torchlight 
skating party, on an old wood-surrounded dam, 
when a young lady (native of Jamaica) whistled 
Sir Roger with great verve ; her tone and execu- 
tion were particularly good. JAELBOIS. 

ARGENT'S mistake begins with the very title of his 
query. The Highland names he mentions are not 
territorial. Thus Mackintosh of Mackintosh is 
not a contraction for Mackintosh, proprietor of an 
estate called Mackintosh, but Mackintosh, chief 
of Clan Mackintosh. " This title, indeed, as used 
in the Highlands," says Dr. Jamieson (Scot. Diet., 
art. " Ilk "), " seems more generally to signify that 
he to whom it belongs is chief of the name or clan 
distinguished by the name than to respect the lands 
possessed by him." Jamieson might have said 
" always signifies," for in the whole Highlands I do 
not know one exception to this rale. Of course 
there are many territorial "of's" in the North, 

such as Brodie of Brodie, where name and estate 
are the same ; but in these cases Camden's rule 
most probably applies, that the family name has 
been derived from the land, and not the reverse. 

Each Highland clan had its " country," but the 
chief, as the name of course implies, was chief of 
the men, not of the land they dwelt on. Indeed, 
possession of estates, in the sense of getting any 
rent but " hosting and hunting," is quite a recent 
thing in the Highlands. Any clan map of Scot- 
land will remove ARGENT'S " gravest doubts re- 
garding the existence " of the tracts of country 
known by the names he mentions, but, of course, 
these enormous districts are not the property of the 
chiefs. Territorially, Mackintosh is Mackintosh of 
Moyhall, near Inverness ; Macleod, Macleod of 
Dunvegan in Skye, &c. ; but though they should 
unfortunately lose every acre to-morrow they would 
not one whit the less be "of." Highlanders,, 
when they used a surname at all, spoke of 
a chief in Gaelic as (say) Mackintosh, or, as it 
is now generally translated, " the Mackintosh," 
and so we find it in old records. Thus in the 
" Roll of ye Names of ye Landislordis .... in 
the Hielands quhair brokin Men hes Duelt and 
presentlie Duellis," appended to Act of Scots 
Parliament of 1587, are included " Mackintosche," 
" Mackanzie," &c. ; but later on Parliament and 
Privy Council adopted the Lowland style and 
generally called the Highland chiefs " laird of," as, 
to give one of the innumerable examples, "Lauchlan 
M'Intosh, brother to the Laird of M'Intosh," in 
a Scots Act of 1646. Probably the present style 
is a combination of these two ways. Of course the 
commonest of all forms of what Scott calls " terri- 
torial appellation " in Scotland is to speak of a man 
simply by the name of his estate. Thus Sir Walter^ 
in his introduction to the Legend of Montrose, 
speaks of James Stewart nearly always as " Ard- 
voirlich." This practice is not, however, confined 
to actual ownership. Farmers are known in the 
North by the names of their farms, and even 
clergymen are sometimes spoken of by the names 
of their parishes. R. R. MACGREGOR. 


SITWELLS OF RENISHAW (5 th S. xii. 8.) Though 
I do not know the whereabouts of the pedigree in 
question, I can furnish A. C. S. with some in- 
formation which may be of service to him, either 
in extending or verifying the pedigree in Gatty's 
Hunter. I have references to a number of bills 
and answers in the Exchequer (temp. Elizabeth) 
respecting the Sitwell family. These I should be 
glad to send to A. C. S. I have also a complete 
copy of some depositions by commission (July 1, 
41st Eliz.) in a suit in which Elizabeth Sitwell 
was plaintiff, and Francis Sitwell and George 
Sitwell defendants. It is of great length, and 
contains much information, both genealogical and 



[5"> S. XII. AUG. 2, 79. 

historical, respecting this family. I subjoin the 
following extract : 

" Robert Sytwell of Gannow, in the countie of Derbie, 
yeoman, aged xxxvj yeres or ther about, sworne and 
examined, sayeth he knew Robert Sytwell deceised, but 
he certenly knoweth not whether the saide Elizabeth 
Tvas ever married to the said Robert Sytwell accordinge 
to the lawes of holy cliurche, but he hath credibly hard 
ithat at the tyme of the supposed mariage the said Robert 
.Sytwell deceiaed wepte and wronge his hands, sayinge, 
Alas ! that ever I saw that day." 

S. 0. ADDT. 


If A. C. S. will look to No. 6673, fo. 210, of the 
Additional Manuscripts in the British Museum, 
he will find there a pedigree of Sitwell. The said 

MS. is part of Rev. Wooley's collections for 

Derbyshire. I have not seen the pedigree, taking 
it only from my own index to these collections, so 
that I cannot say whether it will be of any use to 
your correspondent, but I hope that it will prove 
satisfactory to him. JULES C. H. PETIT. 

"AKIMBO" (5 th S. xi. 48, 212 ; xii. 16, 79.) 
'The etymology is given in my Etymological 
English Dictionary, part i. I did not like to 
mention this sooner ; but, as S. J. H. now supplies 
the reference to Beryn, I think it only fair to say 
that Mr. Wedgwood gave this reference long ago, 
but to Urry's edition, in which it is 1. 1105. That 
edition was, till lately, the only one available ; 
but as soon as Mr. FurnivalPs edition appeared I 
noted the word, and so was enabled to give the 
^reference to both editions, which I have done. 

310.) The replies to this query need correcting. 
Firstly, the hills are called Hambleion, not Hamble- 
<fon. It is true there is a scar above a pool called 
the White Mere, a little way from where this white 
horse is cut out, but the name of the mere has no 
more to say to a white mare than pea-soup has 
to Magna Charta. The only authority for such 
a legend is a vilely painted modern signboard 
attached to a public-house in the outskirts o: 
Thirsk, where a jockey is going up in the air like 
& balloon, and a grey mare descends to the Inferno 

Although I have been a subscriber to " N. & Q.' 
for upwards of twenty years, and have all your 
volumes during that period in my library, I canno 
lay my hands on the particular volume, but you wil 
see that the White Mere of Hambleton has been 
exhaustively discussed in your pages. I alway 
understood that it was a mason from the Vale o 
White Horse, working at a neighbouring church 
who sculptured this grand horse. It may, however 
have been a native of Kilburn returning home afte 
seeing the one in Berks. It was cut about 1855 
and some fourteen years after an urgent appea 
was made to the public for subscriptions for it 

restoration, which was nobly responded to. Another 
appeal is now made, as the heather never ceases to 
;row, and a donation sent to any of the York local 
papers I feel sure will be gratefully received. 


THE MONITOR OR BACKBOARD (5 th S. xi. 387 ; 
xii. 18.) This appliance may have been " long 
ago discarded by men," but I can assure J. R. S. C. 
that it was in daily use in the very respectable 
day and boarding " preparatory school " at which 
[ received my early education. With this was 
associated the "stocks," a standing board, by 
which the feet were kept at right angles, and to 
the use of which I would fain attribute the elegant 
podalic divergence which (if I do not flatter 
myself) marks my gait, and differentiates it from 
the in-turning footfall of the awkward young 
loobies of a later generation. This would be about 
the year well, I will take excuse for not putting 
too fine a point upon it, and content myself with 
saying that my revered preceptresses are still 
alive, far advanced in the old red sandstone 
period and the more external graces of grey 
front curls and knitted mitts. It is a gross 
exaggeration to speak of these things as " in- 
struments of torture." Their use is not asso- 
ciated in my memory with any ideas of pain or 
even discomfort, but rather as affording relief 
from intellectual strain ; for when the hands were 
pinioned by the " backboard " they could not hold 
the Eton Grammar, and some confusion about 
"recurring decimals," pure or mixed, might be 
excused in a lad whose feet had been imprisoned 
in the " stocks." 

There is a well-known series of four clever 
etchings by George Cruikshank, entitled " The 
Dancing Lesson," originally published in 1824, 
reissued by T. McLean, of the Haymarket, in 
1835, and at a still later period included in the 
folio volume known as Cruikshanlciana. In 
plate ii. we see a little girl, presumably, from her 
constrained attitude and expression, standing in 
the " stocks," though her feet are hidden by the 
box-like character of the instrument ; and in 
plate iv. we get a capital view of a " backboard," 
by which is rigidly pinioned another little girl, so 
standing that her heels touch and her toes point 
in exactly opposite directions, while a juvenile 
disciple of Terpsichore, of what was then the ruder 
sex, is dancing a sailor's hornpipe to the enlivening 
accompaniment of the professor's kit. 



J. R. S. C. will be astonished to hear that the 
instrument of torture, as he calls it, was not dis- 
carded even by men so very long ago in fact, I 
much question if it be discarded yet. About four 
years since I was serving on a jury at the Chester 
Assizes, and in the large open space in front of 

5'h s. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 



the courts/where the soldiers exercise, I saw severa 
(I suppose) recruits, whose figures wanted improv- 
ing, marching backwards and forwards holding 
backboards on their shoulders. I think it probable 
they use them there still ; but I have, fortunately, 
not had to pay a compulsory visit to the courts oi 
Chester since that time, and I have had no further 
opportunity of watching the soldiers exercise. ! 
should think there must be many girls' school 
where backboards are still in use. My daughter 
had to use one at school fifteen months since ; and 
though she, of course, says they are "horrid things,' 
I cannot say they appear to me to be instruments 
of very great torture, any more than dumb-bells 
or calisthenic poles are ; that is, if those I hare 
seen used are of the same construction as the back- 
boards which J. R. S. C. speaks of, and if their 
use is not too prolonged. They consist of a flat 
board some eight or nine inches wide, tapering off 
at each end so as to be easily grasped by the hand. 
The board is worn against the shoulder-blades, and 
is held in its position by the wearer's hands. The 
most objectionable feature in the use of the back- 
board seems to me to be the position of the hands, 
which tends to check the circulation of blood in 
the arms. EGBERT HOLLAND. 

Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

SALES BY AUCTION (5 th S. xii. 28.) Under its 
older English names of an outrope, an outcry, or 
a portsale, there are numerous allusions to the 
auction in our early literature. So in the Nomen- 
clator of Adrian Junius, 1585, "To make open 
sale or portsale, to sell by the voyce of the common 
crier, for who gives most." Again, in the Alvearie, 
1580, a little earlier, "To sell publickly or by 
portsale, as they sell by the crier," &c. In Cot- 
grave, 1611, we read, " Fendre a I'encant, to sell 
by portsale or outrope. Proverbe, En un encant 
tiens la bouche coye. Be not hasty to overbid 
another." " Enchere, any portsale, outrope, or 
bargaining, wherein he that bids most is to carry 
it." Compare also Dekker's Dead Tearme, 1608 
(cited by Nares), " As at a common outrope, when 
hpuseholds-stuffe is to be solde, they cry, Who will 
give more 1 " 

As regards book auctions, the kind of auction 
in which a large section of your readers are per- 
haps- most interested, I find no book auction cata- 
logue earlier than the Restoration. Here is one : 
" Catalogus Librorum Bibliothecse Lazari Seaman, 
quorum auctio habebitur Londini, &c., cura G. 
Cooper, 1676." Such catalogues of the seventeenth 
century are all now scarce, still a good number of 
them are known to exist. I only possess one my- 
self, viz., that of the library of John Lloyd, 
Bishop of St. Davids, sold by auction at Tom's 
Coffee-house by John Bullard, 1699. A. 

In my copy of Raymond's History of England, 
fo., 1787, p. 419, it is stated, among the remark- 

able occurrences in the reign of William III.,. 
"1700. The first auction in England by Elisha 
Yale, Governor of Fort St. George in the East 
Indies, who sold the goods he brought from thence 
in that manner." WILLIAM WING. 

Steeple Aaton, Oxford. 

LIEUT.-GEN. FIDDES (5 th S. xii. 9.) Thomas- 
Fiddes entered the military service of the late East 
India Company, as a cadet of infantry on its Bengal 
establishment, in 1803, and landed at Calcutta in- 
1804. He was never an ensign, successively attain- 
ing the rank of lieutenant, April 12, 1805 ; captain, 
Jan. 1, 1819 ; major, June 16, 1826 ; lieutenant- 
colonel, June 19, 1831 ; colonel, Aug. 9, 1843 ; 
major-general, , 18 ; and lieutenant-gene- 
ral, Sept. 15, 1856. He served in the following 
campaigns Indore, 1805-6, Java, 1811, and Bur- 
mah, 1824-5 ; was latterly in command of 45th 
Kegt. Ben. Nat. Infantry, and in 1841-2 officiated 
as a member of the Military Board at Calcutta, 
becoming colonel of the 42nd Light Infantry, and 
on obtaining his "off-reckonings," or colonel's 
allowances, finally returned to England on per- 
manent furlough, Feb. 10, 1845. He died at his 
residence, Oakfield, Cheltenham, April 13, 1863, 
at the age of eighty-one. He was of an old Scot- 
tish family, Fiddes, Futhes, or Fuddes, and was, I 
believe, married (cf. Gent. Mag., N.S., vol. xiv. 
p. 673, and Army List). A. S. A. 


The Christian name of this officer was Thomas 
only. A very short obituary notice of him appears 
in the Cheltenham Examiner of April 15, 1863,. 
which speaks of him as " Major-General Fiddes." 
According to this paper he had been a resident in 
Cheltenham for nearly twenty years. A cadet of 
1804, he became colonel (regimental rank) Aug. 9, 
1843, and lieutenant-general in the army Sept. 15, 
1856. At the time of his decease he is entered as 
colonel of the 5th Regiment Bengal Native Infantry 
and " on furlough " (Indian Army and Civil Ser- 
vice List, 1863). JOHN A. C. VINCENT. 

In the Army List of March, 1863, I find in the 
list of Indian officers Lieut.-Gen. Thomas Fiddes ;. 
date of commission as major-general, June 20, 1854, 
as lieutenant-general, Sept. 15, 1856. B. B. 

WALLFLOWERS (5 th S. xi. 506.) MR. HEMS 
does not seem to be aware that Halliwell has 
already given " bloody warrior " as pertaining to- 
the West. I resided in Taunton thirty years ago, 
and then the term was very commonly used in that 
district, although I observe the Somersetshire 
Archaeological Society in its collection of words 
las overlooked it. In the first part of the Shrop- 
shire Word-Boole, compiled by Miss Jackson, she 
;ives the same term for the dark variety of wall- 
lower as in use in some parts of Salop ; but I 



[5th s. XII. AUG. 2, 79. 

fancy its use is by no means common in the border 
county. A. R. 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

ANN LYNE (5 th S. xii. 25.) I think that Chal- 
loner's Missionary Priests or Dodd's Church His- 
tory will give MR. R. E. LYNE the information 
which he wants. E. C. G. 

IRISH PARLIAMENTS (5 th S. xii. 22.) Nearly 
the last proceeding of the Parliament of Ireland, 
after the Act of Union was agreed on, was to pass 
a special bill to arrange the election. It was en- 
titled : 

" An Act to regulate the Mode by which the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons, to serve in 
the Parliament of the United Kingdom on the part of 
Ireland, shall be summoned and returned to the said 

In this Ac the thirty-six cities and boroughs to 
send representatives are specified. I suspect that 
the name of Henry Sadleir Prittie as member for 
Carlow borough is a mistake. He lost his father 
on January 3, and became Lord Dunally three 
weeks prior to the meeting of Parliament. The 
first member who sat for Carlow, according to 
H..S. Smith (Hist, of Parliaments, 1850, Hi. 192), 
was Charles Montague Ormsby. The same writer 
gives John Ponsonby as member for Galway town, 
and not St. George Daly. There was some irre- 
gularity respecting the writs for Dundalk and 
Clonmel, but the Right Hon. Isaac Corry sat for 
the former, and Col. William Bagwell for the 
latter borough, according to Debrett's Royal Ka- 
lendar (April 25, 1801). In all lists of members 
which I have seen the representative of Lisburn is 
said to be George Hatton, not Button: 


MR. LARPENT'S query is interesting, and I regret 
I cannot fully answer it, but I am strongly of 
opinion that, upon the Act of Union with Ireland 
receiving the royal assent, the then Irish House of 
Commons was dissolved, and that an election for 
counties and boroughs in Ireland permitted to return 
members to the Imperial Parliament took place. I 
have documentary evidence that the twenty-eight 
representative peers were elected in July, 1800. 
There was a general election in August and Sep- 
tember, 1802, when no less than twenty-eight 
gentlemen were elected in Ireland who had no 
seats in 1800, at least in that part of the United' 
Kingdom. One of these was George Canning, re- 
turned for Tralee, described in a Red Boole for 1803 
as " Rt. Hon. a Privy Councillor and Receiver 
General of the Alienation Office," whatever that 
might be. This historic name reminds the reader 
of Canning's premature death almost immediately 
after he became Premier in 1827. 


Steeple Aston, Oxford. 

Will you permit me to make one or two correc- 
tions in the list of the members sent from Ireland 
to the first Imperial House of Commons^ printed 
with my query respecting Irish Parliaments 1 The 
member for Downpatrick was not Samuel Campbell 
Rowley, but Clotworthy Rowley, and the member 
for Dungannon was not Sir Charles Hamilton, 
Bart., but Hon. John Knox. The member for 
Youghal, John Keane, was not created a baronet 
until Aug. 1, 1801, and the members for Queen's 
County should have been described as Hon. Wil- 
liam Wellesley-Pole and Right Hon. Sir John 
Parnell, Bart. The members for Carlow county 
were Sir Richard Butler, Bart., and William Henry 

" PATCHOCK " (5 S. xii. 47, 79.) Mr. Edward 
B. Nicholson identifies Spenser's " very patchocke" 
with Shakespeare's " very pajock," and he inter- 
prets the word as being a form of pad-jock, i.e. 
pad-ass. I do not endorse that explanation, but 
I cannot help thinking that we have in Spenser 
the key to Shakespeare's word. Will MR..WEDG- 
WOOD tell us what a patchocke is 1 


Athenaeum Club. 

P.S. Since writing the above I find that in 
" N. & Q.," 4 th S. viii. 255, is the note that MR. 
WEDGWOOD probably alludes to. It is signed 
" T. McGrath." 

TUBBING (5 th S. xi. 343, 390 ; xii. 56.) Tubbing 
was not at all commonly practised before 1850. 
Sponge, hip, and other baths began to appear in 
the ironmongers' shops a few years before that 
time ; even daily sponging was not common in the 
early part of this century. I remember a part of 
one of Sir Astley Cooper's lectures being quoted in 
the newspapers, in which he recommended spong- 
ing daily in cold water (as was his practice) as 
being very favourable to the general health and 
a great preventive of cold. He spoke of his own 
immunity from cold, going out in the evenings and 
to the lectures in his dress of knee-breeches and 
silk stockings. Up to 1833 I bathed frequently 
I may say daily in the river when the weather 
permitted, and had the opportunity of a warm bath 
at all times. After that time, removing to a dis- 
tance from river or baths, I took to sponging, 
which I pursued till about 1845, when I began 
tubbing, and I have since daily " tubbed," though 
getting very nearly to the end of my fourth score 
of years. Some few years ago, however, my doctor 
told me that, in consequence of the sluggish action 
of my heart, I must take the chill off the water. 
Before that time I frequently broke the ice. In- 
1860 I went into a furnished house where there 
was no arrangement for tubbing. I had taken 
linen and plenty of towels with me, and till I could 
get a bath I sponged myself, using plenty of water. 


5h s. XII. AUG. 2, 79.] 



In the course of the first week, passing by the 
kitchen door through a back door into the garden, 
I heard the housemaid say to the other servants, 
and as I thought showing my towels, " Look here ! 
I do believe he washes his body from head to foot 
every morning." This shows that such an opera- 
tion was then considered very uncommon. 


20.) Allow me to correct and add to your editorial 
note in reply to E. B. The original engraved pic- 
ture was last heard of as lot 3 in Mr. Richard 
Sanderson's (of Belgrave Square) sale at Christie's, 
June 17, 1848, and sold for forty-nine guineas, 
having in Mr. G. Watson Taylor's sale brought 
only twenty guineas. It was exhibited in 1814 at 
the British Institution, and originally belonged to 
R. Brinsley Sheridan. The original sketch in oil 
on canvas (size 19 1 in. by 16 in.) of the old beau 
and orange girl for this picture is in my collection. 


33, Edithna Street, StockwelL 

THE CLARKE FAMILY (5 th S. xii. 67.) I am 
desirous of obtaining additional information re- 
specting a family of this name, of which I possess 
the following particulars. Capt. Robert Clarke of 
Inniskilling (son of; Robert Clarke of the same 
town), baptized in 1G54 (Bradshaw's Enni$killen 
Long Ago, p. 69), was one of the. five who first 
proposed to defend that town against King James's 
troops, and raised a company for the purpose 
(McCarmick's Farther Impartial Account of 
Actions of the Inniskilling Men, Lond., 1691, 
pp. 3, 14), of which he was captain. He was con- 
sequently attainted by King James's government 
in 1689. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Jas. 
King, Esq., of Corrard and Gola, co. Fermanagh 
(by Nicholis Johnston his wife), and died 1717, 
leaving issue [with daughters, (1) Elizabeth, (2) 
Anne, married first John Archdall, Esq., of Dru- 
min, co. Louth, and had by him, who died 1703, 
a posthumous child John, died unmarried June 13, 

1787, and secondly Johnston of Fermanagh, and 

by him had three sons] a son, Jas. Clarke, Esq., of 
Athboy, co. Meath, married Mary, daughter of 
Henry Ball, Esq., of Donegal co. (by a sister 
of Wm. Conolly, Esq.), and aunt of Gen. Sir Guy 
Carleton. first Lord Dorchester (she died July, 
1760), and he died (will dated Aug. 2, 1742, proved 
Feb. 28, 1746), leaving issue (1) Robert Clarke, 
41 a headstrong and disobedient child," cut off by 
his father with five shillings, and living in London 
in 1750 ; (2) William Conolly Clarke ; (3) Kathe- 
rine, married Samuel Forster, of Athboy. A Robert 
Clarke was a Commissioner of the Revenue at 
Galway 1652, and obtained lands there. 

C. S. K. 

Kensington, W. 

PAINS " (5 th S. xii. 68.) The following references 
may help to supply the answer : 

1. " Man of genius, that is to say, man of originality 
and veracity, capable of seeing with his eyes, and in- 
capable of not believing what he sees." Carlyle's Fre- 
derick the Great, second ed., in 4 vols., Lond., 1858, vol. i. 
p. 27. 

2. " The good plan itself, this comes not of its own 
accord : it is the fruit of ' genius ' (which means tran- 
scendent capacity of taking trouble, first of all)," &c. 
Carlyle's Frederick the Great; vol. i. p. 407. 

A little further on Carlyle says (p. 411) : " I 
find, except Samuel Johnson, no man of equal 
veracity with Friedrich Wilhelm in that epoch : 
and Johnson too, with all his tongue-learning, 
had not logic enough." I do not know whether 
Carlyle had in his mind the following passage 
from Madame D'Arblay's Memoirs of Dr. Barney 
(vol. iii. p. 5), where she reports Dr. Johnson as 
saying, at an interview on Nov. 25, 1784, " But 
there is nothing so little comprehended as what is 

genius Genius is, in fact, knowing the use of 

tools." C. W. PENNY. 

Wellington College. 

The quotation is, I think, not quite correct. I 
believe it should be " an infinite capacity for hard 
work " and that it is taken from Goethe. 

L. M. 

"BEAU" BttUMMELL (5 th S. xii. 69.) In the 
Print Room of the British Museum there is a por- 
trait of "Beau" Brummell, from the original 
miniature by John Cook. Not long ago a gentle- 
man wrote to me from Paris asking me to purchase 
him one. In vain I searched in several print shops. 
I got him one of ours photographed. 

Louis FAGAN. 

Reform Club. 

There is a portrait of Brummell in his Memoirs 
by Captain Jesse (first edition in 1844, second in 

ASSUMING ARMS (5 th S. xii. 29, 56.) A. C. S. 
has only partially elucidated my difficulty. His 
arms are quartered in the same way as mine, and 
this, as authorized as he states, is no doubt all 
correct ; but he says he puts his family name last, 
thus running counter to his blazon, which I avoid 
by putting my family name first and my assumed 
second. T. 

SIR JAMES WRIGHT (5 th S. xi. 349 ; xii. 18, 
58.) The statement as to the creation of Sir James 
Wright, Kt., a baronet, taken from the London 
Gazette, appears so clear and distinct that it seems 
hardly to admit of doubt. The confusion which 
has arisen from the creation of two baronets having 
the same name, in one year, may perhaps have led 
to the belief that only one had been created. In 
Beatson's Political Index, 1806, the two creations 



[5"' S. XII. AUG. 2, 79. 

are thus given : "No. 1109. Sept. 19, 1772. Sir 
James Wright, Kt., of Woodford"; "No. 1113. 
Dec. 5, 1772. James Wright, Esq., of Georgia" ; 
with the note that the latter is extinct. This is 
evidently a mistake ; perhaps it was intended to 
apply to the Woodford title. Sir James Wright 
of Georgia died Nov., 1785, and was succeeded by 
his son Sir James, who died in 1816, and was 
succeeded by his son, the third Sir James. Sir 
James Wright of Woodford, according to Towns- 
end, died about 1786. His name ceases to appear 
in Debrett's Royal Kalendar after 1785.. Has 
W. P. any evidence that he was alive in 1800j and 
that he left a son ? EDWARD SOLLY. 

Sutton, Surrey. 

FOLK MEDICINE (TRANSVAAL) (5 th S. xii. 9, 74.) 
May I be permitted to whisper to ENGLISHMAN 
that his forefathers used the word/oZfc (folc) long 
before they learned to speak of people ? This fact 
rather detracts from the sarcastic force of his first 
sentence. Perhaps he will kindly point out the 
logical force of his second. I am quite unable to 
see how the circumstance of ENGLISHMAN'S having 
had a relative out in Transvaal for twenty years 
can of itself invalidate Mr. Krapf s claim to credit. 


DE LA.UNE FAMILY (5 th S. xi. 468, 509 ; xii. 29, 
53.) Mary Delaune, the heiress of the family, by 
her husband Colonel Edward Thornycroft, had 
issue a son Gideon and three daughters, Dorcas, 
Anne, and Elizabeth, the last the wife first of 
George, twelfth Lord Abergavenny, and afterwards 
of Alured Pincke. The son Gideon Thornycroft 
succeeded his uncle William Delaune in the 
estate of Sharsted, and, dying s.p. in 1742, left the 
same to his mother, who at her decease, two years 
later, bequeathed it to her two unmarried daughters, 
Dorcas and Anne. The survivor of these ladies, 
Anne Thornycroft, died at an advanced age in 
1791, when Sharsted devolved upon her nephew 
Alured Pincke, the only son of her sister Elizabeth 
by her second husband. Mr. Pincke dying in 1822, 
aged ninety-one, his widow Mrs. Mary Pincke (nee 
Faunce) succeeded, surviving her husband until 
1839, when she died at the advanced age of nearly 
or quite one hundred years, having long outlived all 
her issue. Since then the estate has been held by the 
Faunce family, now Faunce-Delaune. My question 
is, when and where was the marriage between 
Elizabeth, Dowager Lady Abergavenny, and Alured 
Pincke, sen. ? Lord Abergavenny, her first husband, 
died in 1723. According to the peerages his 
widow afterwards married John, first Earl Dela- 
warr, who survived her. Unless this is a mistake, 
Lord Delawarr must have been her third husband. 
There is not, I believe, the shadow of a doubt as to 
her marriage with Alured Pincke, inasmuch as it 
was through this marriage her son Alured inherited 
Sharsted, as heir of the Delaunes. The Pinckes 

of Sharsted were a branch of Pincke of Kempsholfc,. 
Hants, derived from William Pincke (grand- 
nephew of Dr. Eobert Pincke, Vice-Chancellor 
of Oxford temp. Charles I.) and his wife Jane, 
daughter of Colonel Alured the regicide. 

W. D. PINK. 
Leigh, Lancashire. 

I should be glad to know who was the Colonel 
Delaune who married Anne Hugessen, and what 
was the date of the marriage. C. T. 

THE PIED PIPER OF " HAMELIN " (5 th S. vi. 51, 
175, 338 ; vii. 19 ; xi. 497 ; xii. 78.) The tongue- 
tied Englishman, for whose sake J. J. E. thinks 
that Hameln should be spelt Hamelin, might 
plead for a remodelling of all foreign words. Any 
one seeing Hamelin for the first time would take 
it to be a French name rather than a German one. 
How does the Englishman manage to pronounce 
Hln ? JAYDEE. 

" THE BEGGAR'S BENISON " (5 th S. xii. 48) was 
instituted at Anstruther during the last century 
as a club for collecting facetice. The entry fee was 
101. 10s., and the club was composed of the very elite, 
from royalty downwards. At the death, two years- 
ago, of M. F. Conolly, the oldest town clerk in 
Scotland, the entire hypothec came into my pos- 
session. This consists of a large mahogany box, 
diplomas, silk sashes for the sovereign and other 
officers, silver-gilt medals, two extraordinary seals, 
&c. At the same time I heired the relics of the 
Musomanik Society, patronized by Sir Walter 
Scott, the Ettrick Shepherd, &c. 

J. F. S. GORDON, D.D. 

8, Stonefield Terrace, Glasgow. 

" HODIE MIHI, CRAS TIBI," &C. (5 th S. X. 155 ^ 

xi. 492 ; xii. 35.) I lately bought for a book-plate- 
(being a collector of such gear) a small engraved 
emblem or vignette with this inscription ; but I 
now think that this is not an ex-libris, but an 
illustration cut from some book of emblems, or * 
perhaps the headpiece of a funeral card. The 
date seems to imply some special allusion. The 
subject is this. From a rent and ruined square- 
built sepulchre lovely flowers, tulips and anemones, 
are springing, intermixed with taller ears of grain,, 
about whose steins dodder (Cuscuta) is entwined. 
To the right, on the tomb itself, lies an enormous 
skull. To the left a stony pedestal is raised, on 
which rests a winged hour-glass. One wing is a 
bat's (for night),* the other a bird's (for day). On 
this, again, lies an antique lamp, the beaten-down 
smoke of which wavers away far into the sky 
behind.f Across the stonework of the tomb is 
written " hoDIe Mlhl Cras tlbl." It will be seen. 

* So Tennyson, " The black bat night has flown." 
f Note that we here also have the fios, fumus, and 
arista associated supra (p. 35) with " Hodie mihi," &c. 

5> S. XII. AUG. 2, '79.] 



that the elongated letters of this motto constitute 
u chronogram, which is, I suppose, MDCIIIII. The 
design, however, which is fine and striking, seems 
of later date say a century later, 1705. Will 
.some of your readers, skilled in sorting such 
numerical puzzles, say what the date should be 1 
The art is probably German. A. 


The Stoic inquired about by ME. SPKNCE is Cleanthes, 
who says in his hymn to Zeus, IK trov yap yevoc laptv. 
It is the passage quoted by St. Paul at Athens, Acts 
xvii. 28 : 'Qg icat TIVC Q ruv Kad' vpaq iroirjTwv liprjicaffi, 
Tou yap Kai ytvoQ iafjiiv. K. N. 

Kenan or his editor is quoted as saying, " A Stoic was 
the first to speak the word that all men are brothers, all 
having God for their Father." Surely he must have 
overlooked the passage in Malachi ii. 10, "Have we 
not all one father 1 ? hath not one God created us? why 
do we deal treacherously every man against his brother, 
by profaning the covenant of our fathers ? " It is not 
impossible that the philosopher might have gained the 
idea from the Septuagint, though certainly more pro- 
bable that it was the result of his own reflection, being 
a truth that is not only revealed, but one that is also 
discoverable by reason if only the unity of God be first 
predicated. In either case it is not accurate to claim 
for the Stoic priority in the expression of the truth. 

J. W. HALL. 


English Men of Letters. Edited by John Morley. 

Robert Burns. By Principal Shairp. (Macmillan & Co.) 

ACCORDING to Principal Shairp, every decade since the 

death of the Ayrshire ploughman has produced at least 

two biographies of him. If we may judge by the interest 

still taken in the subject, as evidenced by the publication 

of a sumptuous edition of his works, and the appearance 

of his commonplace book in a popular magazine, it seems 

probable that this periodical issue may continue for as 

many decades more. But of Burns as a man we surely 

know enough perhaps too much ; and it is to be hoped 

that the inevitable biographers of the future will devote 

themselves more to his " works " than his " life. " We 

gather that Principal Shairp is of the same opinion. In 

the concluding chapter, which is the freshest and the 

most interesting part -of his book, he says, " How often 

has one been tempted to wish that we had known as little 

of the actual career of Burns as we do of the life of Shak- 

speare, or even of Homer, and had been left to read his 

mind and character only by the light of his works.' 

This, we think, is incontestable. Of all persons, the poet 

with his exaltations and depressions, his strength ant 

weakness, his endless fine contradictions and inconsis 

tencies, can least bear the prying and often distorting 

pocket-glass of a Boswell. If William Shakspeare ever 

indulged in that over-enlivening " nappy " which has 

recently exercised the readers of '* N. & Q.," no one, save 

perhaps one popular American divine, has been foum 

bold enough to assert, upon the doubtful evidence 

of the Vicar of Stratford, that he died from the 

effects of a drinking bout ; and as for Homer, in ou: 

absolute ignorance of his personal merits or defects, w 

may safely use him as a tabula rasa to write all th 

virtues on. It is not so with poor " Rhymer Robin, 

whose heritage of song seems doomed to come accompanie 

with the " thoughtless folly" that "stained his name." 
rofessor Shairp's little book will aid the reader to weigh 
oth impartially, and it is full of the selective insight 

which we expect in the Oxford Professor of Poetry. 
Fhat the austere and reticent writer who recently issued 

a " Macmillan's Primer " on composition would always 

approve of the style we are not prepared to say. Speaking 
)f the production of Tarn O'Shanter, the professor de- 
cribes the poet as " agonized by an ungovernable access 
)f joy " (!). We prefer Mrs. Burns's account of his con- 
litinn : " He was in such ecstasy that the tears were 
japping down his cheeks." But even here " ecstasy " 
ias a factitious look, and we doubt if Mrs. Burns used 
his particular word. 

Dramatic Idyls. By Robert Browning. (Smith, Elder 


E. BEOWNING gives us six poems, curiously varied in 
subject, curiously alike in the scientific element of the 
)oet's mode of thought. Martin Jtelph is the story 
>f a man who, witnessing the execution of a girl in 
the days of the Pretender, was powerless to speak 
and stop it, though he alone saw the lover coming 
with the proofs of innocence, and who, in after years, 
oes through much unreasonable self- accusation in a very 
natural way. Pheidippides runs from Athens to Sparta 
'or help against the Persians, meets with Pan and gets 
jromise of Pan's help on his way home, and is to have 
elease from the runner's business for reward ; when 
Athens is saved, he is sent on one last errand of speed 
io tell Pan; he starts, arrive?, shouts " Athens is saved ! " 
and earns his release in death. Halbert and Hob are 
" two wild men," father and son, living together ; they 
quarrel, fight ; the son is turning the father out of doors, 
but desists on hearing that the father had done the same 
on a similar occasion by his father ; on the morrow the 
old man is found dead, and the young one, after the 
burial, " tottered, muttered, mumbled, till he died, 
perhaps found rest." Ivan Ivdnovitch is very powerful, 
and has more of the purely artistic element than any 
in the book except Pheidippides, which is mainly ar- 
tistic and comparatively little scientific. Ivn Iv&novitch 
is our old friend the Russian carpenter who lynched a 
woman because she had let the wolves get her three 
children away from her on a sledge-drive from one vil- 
lage to another. The description of the wolf-chase is 
magnificent, and all that is descriptive is in the poet's 
best manner; while the argument on the informal 
execution is thoroughly characteristic in subtlety and 
exhaustiveness. The character of Ivan stands out finely 
life-like amidst greatly handled accessories. Tray is a 
rather thin contribution to anti-vivisection literature ; 
and Ned Bratts is an extraordinarily powerful treatment 
of a subject far from taking, the conversion of a dread- 
ful pair of miscreants through the influence of Bunyan 
and The Pilgrim's Progress, which leads them to confess 
sundry crimes, and to beg and obtain the meed of being 
hung their only safe road to salvation, in their own 
opinion. The psychological element here is very strong, 
the atmosphere quite overpoweringly heated, which, 
though not gratifying, is appropriate, as the time is Mid- 
summer Day, the place Bedford Assize Court. 

Sketches and Studies in Italy. By J. Addington Symonds. 

(Smith, Elder & Co.) 

To those who know and love Italy this new volume of word- 
pictures of the sunny South cannot fail to be a welcome 
companion. It should go with them on their travels, 
and lead them from town to town, from valley to mountain, 
from Crema to Amalfi, from Larian shores to Euganean 
heights. For such purposes few books could be better 
adapted to the needs of the cultured traveller. But it 
is not every kind of culture which can go all lengths 



[5* S. XII. AUG. 2, '79. 

with Mr. Addington Symonds. In reading these sketches 
and studies, as they are now for 'the first time collected 
together, we can trace the thread of the Neo-Classic 
spirit which runs through them all more distinctly than 
we could when they appeared, sporadically, in the 
periodical literature of the day. We now see, perhaps 
more clearly than before, the reason why, with all his 
critical knowledge of the subject, Mr. Symonds had yet 
eeemed to be so strangely wanting in warmth when 
treating of Dante. It is the intense medievalism of the 
Commedia, we believe, with which the author of the 
sketches entitled " Antinous" and "Lucretius" could 
never be in sympathy. With the humanism of 
Petrarch, or Politian, with the ironic smile of 
Berni or Ariosto, Mr. Symonds is at once at home. 
He would greet Boiardo and Ariosto's travesty of the 
chivalrous epic with a " Sic Genius !" He would analyze 
with delight every detail of that truly beautiful Renais- 
sance faQade of the Certosa at Payia, while the " dim, 
religious light " of the interior of Milan Cathedral would 
in all probability oppress him with a sense of mediaeval 
austerity. There are many touches in Mr. Symonds's 
book which remind us of the doctrine underlying the 
equally exuberant language of Mr. Pater's Studies in the 
Renaissance. That doctrine seems to be summed up in these 
words : " Get all the sensations you can out of this life, 
and enjoy them to the full, for beyond the grave there 
is nothing." It is natural that a writer of this school of 
thought should take delight in "tender half-tones of 
violet and russet paling into greys and yellows," and that 
he should fairly revel in the delicate beauty of the Italian 
sunset hour, the hour after " Ave Maria." It is natural 
that to Mr. Symonds, spending Christmas in Rome, St. 
Peter's and St. John Lateran should be but the " dust 
of decaying shrines." It would have been more true, we 
think, to the under-tone of his Sketches and Studies had 
they ended on the Monte Generoso, where he wonders 
"how this phantom show of mystery and beauty will 
pass away from us how soon and we be where, see 
what, use our sensibilities on aught or nought ? " 
Scatter and the Neighbourhood. By Edward Peacock, 


THIS little tract of thirty-six pages, printed at Hertford 
by Stephen Austin & Sons, is a lecture delivered in the 
Scotter Reading Room in 1878, and published by the 
members of the local Reading Room and Lending 
Library Society. Of course everybody knows that what- 
ever Mr. Peacock does, he does well; but probably no 
other living man could have produced such a 
charming account of one of the average agricultural 
parishes of Lincolnshire. Mr. Peacock has evidently 
thrown his heart into the work, and his lecture, brief 
as it is, has been elevated by his remarkable know- 
ledge and skill into a narrative of permanent historical 

Artists of the Nineteenth' Century and their Works, by 
C. E. Clement and L. Hutton (Triibner & Co.), promises 
to be an exceedingly useful work of reference, whose 
utility to themselves, moreover, Us many possessors 
might considerably enhance by having it interleaved and 
"posting up " to the day. We have received Dreams of 
my Solitude on the Mysteries of the Heavens, by J. Prusol 
(Reeves & Turner); An Introduction to the Study of 
Heat, by J. Hamblin Smith, sixth edition (Rivingtons) ; 
also The Skin and its Troubles, "Health Primers" 
(D. Bogue). Dr. Mackay's very useful Facts_ and Dates 
(Blackwood & Sons) has reached a third edition. 

THE July number of the Edinburgh Review, among 
other articles of importance, has one to which we would 
especially call attention that on " Norwich Worthies," 
.evidently from the pen of a writer who is not only 

thoroughly " up " in his subject, but has taken no little 
pains to- inspire his readers with an interest in the history 
of the old city and the many " worthies " who in bygone 
days were born within its walls, or who, not being actual 
natives, have been so closely connected with it " as to 
leave their fame and memory in the place in which they 
found their field of action or of suffering." 

Library Association have decided to help in obtaining 
information relative to special collections of books 
throughout the country. The undertaking is one of 
great difficulty, and it can only be accomplished (even 
partially) by associated effort. The difficulty is, of course, 
greatest in regard to the special collections in the 
possession of private owners. It has been thought desir- 
able, in the first instance, to see what can be done in 
a defined district, and to begin with the counties of 
Lancaster and Chester. Mr. J. H. Nodal will read a 
paper on the subject at the approaching meeting of the 
Library Association at Manchester; he will endeavour 
to present as complete a view as possible of the different 
special collections which are known to exist in Lancashire 
and Cheshire, and any information will therefore be 
gratefully received by him, at The Grange, Heaton Moor,. 
near Stockport. _ 

ta 0rrT!ii>0ntenfcS. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 1 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

SUPINE. The book to which you refer is printed in at 
least two modern editions of Milton's Works, viz., by Rev. 
Dr. Symmons (7 vols., 1806) in his third volume; and by 
Rev. John Mitford (8 vols., 1851) in his sixth volume. 
It is entitled an Accidence or Commenced Grammar. Our 
correspondent Mr. Kerslake, of Bristol, could probably 
tell you all about its rarity and price. 

told of a book which would give him information about 
the " make-up " of a newspaper and the routine work of 
the daily press. [We&re of opinion that a real knowledge 
of editorial duties can only be acquired by practical 

JAMES NICHOLSON. The custom of " well dressing " 
prevails also in Derbyshire. You will find a full descrip- 
tion in Thiselton Dyer's British Popular Customs, p. 211. 
See Gent. Mag., 1794, Ixiv. pp. 115, 226 ; Jour, of the 
Brit. Arch. Assoc., 1852, vol. vii. p. 205 ; Times, May 19, 
1874; also, " N. & Q." I 9 ' S. vii. 280; 5th s. i. 428, 473. 

Our good friend the REV. W. D. PARISH writes: 
" My name appears sufficiently often in " N. & Q." to 
make me anxious to correct ST. SWITHIN, who styles me 
Archdeacon Parish. I am not Archdeacon, but Chan- 
cellor of Chichester." 

H. J. H. (Bishop's Stortford). We shall be happy to 
forward a prepaid letter to our correspondent. 

F. T. should refer to Mr. Collier's Annals of the 
English Stage. 
. R. W. O'BTRITE. Next week. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; ai d 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 





NOTES : Shakspeare in Gloucestershire, 101 The Riddells of 
that Ilk, 102 Early Book Auctions : Bare Catalogues, 103 
Centenarianism A Howard Marriage, 104 "The Har- 
monious Blacksmith " Swedenborg on the " Ignis fatuus " 
Poetical Version of the Miracle at Cana, 105 Diprose's 
History of St. Clement Danes Job xxx. 18 Corporation 
Documents offered for Sale" Playing the bear," 106. 

QUERIES : Lyne Family-Sir W. Scott-Heraldic "Mon- 
feti Theatrum Insectprum," 107 "Ancient Classics for Eng- 
lish Readers" Imprisonment in the House of Commons A 
Deed of Denization Cowper's "Iliad" Essendine, Whissen- 
dine, <fec. The Spanish Armada Rev. T. Parker Penang 
Lawyers A " Corpus Inscriptionnm Latinarum Galliae " 
Vira Nonamba, 108" Modus Vivendi," 109. 

REPLIES : Restormel Castle, 109 The Bibliography of the 
Literature connected with Pope and his Quarrels, 110 
Curious Coincidences, 111 Gloucestershire Weather The 
Yew, 112 A Definition of Metaphysics The Oxford M.A. 
Gown, 113 Strawberry Leaves Celts and Saxons, 114 The 
Moreton Arms "Cymagraph" "Strang" Alfred Bunn 
Douglas Family Hamlet and Eisinore, 115 Famagosta 
" Sharpe's London Magazine " Polacky : Mickiewicz Lord 
Lexington Daniel Jones, 116 Curious Baptismal Entry 
Books published by Subscription "Skyrack" Charles 
Lever De Laune Family The Cuckoo, 117 Frogshall 
"Four went ways"- The Evil Eye and Red Hand " Hy- 
draulic Music" "Dead as Chelsea "Drought in Scotland 
Engravings Scott and " Goetz von Berlichingen " 
Bishops' Wives, 118 "The Pictorial Times," Ac. Miss 
Landon's Letters Tobacco The Clarke Family, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS -.Guest's " Lectures on the History of 
England" Marsh's "Students' Reminder" "The New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register" Axon's 
" John Ruskin." 

Notices to Correspondents, Ac. 


That period of Shakespeare's life between 1586, 
when he left Stratford, and 1589, when he appears 
in London, has long puzzled biographers. Local 
research has lately brought out facts which go a 
long way towards proving that within this dusky 
interval Shakespeare paid a visit to certain people, 
his relations, at Dursley in Gloucestershire. In 
1868 the Rev. R. W. Huntley, in a note to his 
Glossary of the Cotswold Dialect, pointed out this 
fact. In 1877 the Rev. J. H. Blunt, in a book en- 
titled Dursley and its Neighbourhood, confirmed 
and added to the existing evidence of Shakespeare's 
visit to Dursley. It is known that Oldys once 
agreed to furnish an account of ten years of Shake- 
speare's life, containing much new matter. Un- 
fortunately circumstances prevented Oldys from 
performing his promise. We are, therefore, unable 
to say whether he had gained some idea of Shake- 
speare's Gloucestershire connexions. The object 
of the present sketch is to state the collected facts 
of the two previous writers, and to add some con- 
jectures as to Shakespeare's connexion with other 
dramatic authors of his time following from this 

A family named Shakespeare formerly resided 

in Dursley and the neighbourhood, for James 
Shakespeare was buried at Bisley on March 13, 
1570. Edward, son of John and Margery Shake- 
speare, was baptized at Beverston on Sept. 19, 
1619. It is said that a John Shakespeare was 
married to a Margery Roberts at Stratford, Nov. 25, 
1584. The interval is great between the two dates 
above, or we might have said they were the same 
people whose son was baptized as above. Thomas 
Shakespeare, weaver, was married to Joan Turner 
at Dursley Church, March 3, 1677-8, and of their 
children, Edward was baptized on July 1, 1681 ; 
Mary, 1682 ; Thomas, 1685 ; and Mary, 1691. 
John Shakespeare was a mason in Dursley from 
1704 to 1739, and Thomas Shakespeare had a 
"seat place" assigned to him in 1739. Betty 
Shakespeare received poor's money from 1747 to 
1754. Some of this family "still exist as small 
freeholders in the adjoining parish of Newington 
Bagpath and claim kindred with the poet." The 
name of Hathaway is not at all uncommon in the 
Beverston registers, and is still in existence in the 

In the second part of Henry IV., Act v. sc. 1, 
" Gloucestershire Davy " says to Justice Shallow, 
" I beseech you, sir, to countenance William Visor 
of Woncot against Clement Perkes on the Hill." 
This Woncot, as Mr. Steevens supposes in a note to 
another passage in the same play (Act v. sc. 3), is 
Woodmancot, still pronounced by the common 
people Womcot, a township in the parish of Durs- 
ley. This township lies at the foot of Stinchcombe 
Hill, still emphatically called " The Hill" in that 
district, on account of the magnificent panorama 
which it commands. On Stinchcombe Hill there 
is the site of a house wherein a family named Pur- 
chase or Perkis once lived. It is thus reasonable 
to suppose that this Perkis of Stinchcombe Hill is 
identical with " Clement Perkes of the Hill." The 
family of Visor were also undoubtedly the ancestors 
of the Dursley family known in more recent times 
by the name of Vizard. Arthur Visor or Vizard 
was bailiff of Dursley in 1612, and the descendants 
have been there to this day. Mr. Blunt's book 
contains their pedigree. A pathway in the woods 
near Dursley is traditionally known as " Shake- 
speare's Walk." In Rich. II., Act ii. sc. 3, the 
description of a wild prospect in Gloucestershire, 
which takes in the view of Berkeley Castle, exactly 
answers to the view on which the eye still rests 
when the spectator stands on Stinchcombe Hill : 

" How far is it, my lord, to Berkeley now ? " &c. 

" There stands the castle by yon tuft of trees." 

This knowledge of local names, local disputes, 
and local scenery could not have belonged to a 
stranger. It would be hard to say how Shake- 
speare became possessed of such knowledge unless 
he had paid a personal visit to the district. There 
is a strong consensus of opinion that he went to 
Scotland for his Macbeth vividness of detail ; why 



[5th s. XII. AUG. 9, '79. 

not as likely to have gone to Gloucestershire? 
Again, there is a vague tradition that Davenant's 
mother was an innkeeper's daughter in one of the 
vales, perhaps of Evesham, still more probably of 
Berkeley, where Shakespeare may have become 
intimate with her. 

The separate individual work of Marlow and 
Shakespeare in certain plays which appeared 
between 1589-92 is difficult to point out, although 
two hands are known to be there. Edward II. 
(1590) has always been given wholly to Marlow. 
But allow the hypothesis that Shakespeare had a 
hand in it and we get certain things much clearer. 
In 1589 Shakespeare was in London, fresh from 
his Gloucestershire excursion, full of the weird 
interest and history gathered around Berkeley 
Castle, and impressed with the tones of its local 
dialect. He is but a country lad, full of power. 
He meets with Marlow and an acquaintance begins. 
Shakespeare advises Marlow, already a dramatic 
writer of repute, to work up the history of the un- 
fortunate Edward II. into a play, which appears 
in 1591. Throughout this play are lines with a 
hitch in the metre, apparently lines with a syllable 
wanting, as Act i. sc. 1 : 

" Were sw'orn to your father at his death." 
" Earl of Cornwall, King and Lord of Man." 

Some thirty other examples occur in the whole 
play. The critics have found great difficulties in 
assigning reasonable cause for the deficiency, and 
various are the opinions. My hypothesis is this. 
Shakespeare, receptive, appreciative a man of 
the homo sum type did not come away from 
Gloucestershire empty. He was tainted with the 
dialectical pronunciation. Ask a Berkeley rustic 
of to-day to read the lines above, and you will find 
him make ten syllables of each. Sw'orn will 
become swu-orn, Earl will become Ye-arl, and so 
on. This diphthongal elongation of the vowel is 
the strongest point in the Gloucestershire dialect. 
In his native Warwickshire Shakespeare had none 
of it, but conceiving himself as assisting Marlow 
in composing a peculiarly Gloucestershire subject, 
he adopted this dialect from the strength of recent 
impressions. It is probable that the short lines in 
the undoubted plays of Shakespeare might be 
amended by such a system of reading. It was 
often common in prose in the Elizabethan writers 
to lengthen the vowel, as in foorthe, woork, woorth, 
&c. Many strong provincialisms current in the 
Cotswolds are to be found in Shakespeare. When 
he first joined with Marlow he was young in the 
literary and dramatic world. Use and success 
worked off his early rusticity and gave him polished 
language. It is generally asserted that Shakespeare 
and Marlow wrote together the Taming of the Shrew 
in 1589. We cannot think they so soon broke off 
the connexion as not to write in company in 1590. 



The late John Riddell, the most eminent 
consistorial and genealogical lawyer of his day, 
was a cadet of this family, and proud of the 
fact, with good reason, as it is, or rather 
was till 1819, when "ancient Riddell's fair do- 
main" was sold, one of the oldest landed families 
in Scotland. Mr. Riddell, in one of the literary 
disputes he had with the late Mr. Cosmo Innes, 
who was equally eminent in his own line of re- 
search, took that gentleman severely to task for 
asserting, in his preface to the Chartulary of Mel- 
rose (p. xiv), that the Riddells only acquired their 
surname from their lands in Roxburghshire instead 
of giving it to the estate. In a work which he 
published in 1843, called Stewartiana, Mr. Riddell 
(at pp. 108-16) treated the subject with his usual 
fulness of illustration, and from it I quote without 
more particular reference. The original charter to 
the family was granted by David I. (1124-53) to 
Walter de Riddale of the lands of Whittunes, 
Lilislive, &c., to be held as one knight's fee. 
When Mr. Riddell wrote, it was said by him to be 
in the Riddell charter chest. From Walter, the 
grantee, there is an unbroken descent to the present 
Sir Walter Riddell of that ilk. But Mr. Riddell, 
in his arguments and proofs as to the strictly per- 
sonal character of the surname, instanced Gervase 
Ridel, a witness to the Inquisition of the same 
David when Prince of Cumbria, A.D. 1116, as of 
the same family with Walter de Eiddale, and 
treated the Ridels and the de Riddales as closely 
connectedin fact, of the same stock ; for he 
speaks, on the authority of Chalmers's Caledonia, 
of the Roxburgh Ridels as spreading into Mid 
Lothian, and giving their name to Cranston-Ridel 
in that county. Now it is a curious and rather 
remarkable fact that while the Riddells (now of 
that ilk) in deeds and monastic records, for several 
centuries from their first appearance in Scotland, 
are invariably* styled "de Ridale," the other stock, 
commencing with Gervase or Geoffry " Ridel," 
always have their surname thus spelt, and never 
with the prefix " de." Ridel with them, as it is in 
Normandy at this day, is strictly a personal sur- 
name, not territorial. This seems, therefore, to 
point at a distinct origin for these two ancient 
families. The English stock, which I identify 
with the Cranston-Ridel family, sided with Eng- 
land in the wars of the succession, and thus 
lost their Scotch estate ; the de Ridales, who, 
strangely enough, do not appear prominently at 
that era, though they lived near enough to the 
Border, retained theirs till a recent period. Sir 
Hugh Ridel, of Craneston, is on the Ragman Roll, 
but none of the other family appear there. 

* There is one exception. " Walter Eidel " witnesses 
a charter by William the Lyon (Acts of Parliament, 
vol. i.). 

5 th 8. XII. AUG. 9/79.] 



The Ridels of England were chiefly connected 
with Northamptonshire and Essex, and in the 
Pipe Roll, 34 Hen. II., Hugh Ridel is found 
in possession of the land of Witering in the 
former county. In 3 Ric. I. Richard Ridel 
ia the owner. A century later Hugh Ridel 
petitions Edward II. (8 of his reign) that these 
lands of Witering, which had been taken from 
him by Ed.ward I., because, at the request of 
Simon Frisel, he stayed in Scotland with John 
de Balliol, and had been given to the petitioner's 
son Geoffry during the king's pleasure, might be 
restored to him (Rot. Parl., i. 309 a). And thirty 
years afterwards, 21 Ed. III., another Hugh Ridell, 
son and heir of " Mons r Geffrei Ridell," petitions 
Edward III. for restoration of his manor of " Crane- 
ston in Loudion," out of which his father had 
been expelled by the Scots for his allegiance to the 
English crown, styling it the heritage of his an- 
cestors (Tb., ii. 190 b). The probability is it was 
never restored, and thus the connexion of this 
family with Scotland ended. According to 
Bridges, they held Witering till the reign of 
Edward IV., when the family ended in an heiress. 

At the very time when these Ridels of Witering 
and Cranston appear in the Pipe Rolls of Henry II. 
and Richard I. the de Ridales of Lilisclive are found 
in the chartulary of Melrose. One deed (p. 152 of 
that record) gives very remarkable evidence of four 
generations coexistent in the twelfth century. Pa- 
trick de Ridale, Walter his son and heir, William 
the son and heir of Walter, and William the son of 
William and grandson of Walter, all appear in this 
grant to Melrose. The deed that follows it (p. 154) 
is a confirmation by Eustace de Vesci, their over- 
lord, of the de Ridales' grant. One of the witnesses 
singularly enough is Gaufridus Ridel, and he is not 
styled consanguineus, as he would have been had he 
been related. Hugh "Ridel" also attests a confir- 
mation hy William the Lyon of a grant by Patrick 
"de Ridale" to Melrose (p. 157). At this same 
period the Pipe Rolls show that a Patrick and 
Roger de Riddale flourished in the county of 
York. It has been said by Chalmers that the 
first of the Scotch de Riddales came from this 
quarter. The Christian name of Patrick certainly 
favours this origin. 

I think it has been clearly shown (1) that the 
two families spelt the surname quite differently ; 
(2) that no relationship is asserted between them 
n the deeds where members of each appear as wit- 
nesses ; and (3) that the de Riddales never left Rox- 
burghshire after their original settlement, while the 
Ridels owned lands both in England and Scotland. 
Mr. Riddell, in the disquisition on his family 
above referred to, while discarding the errors of 
Douglas's Baronage, which are many, has mixed 
up the two surnames so that an ordinary observer 
could not detect the real distinction between them 
the spelling, a very remarkable thing at that early 

date, and the invariable omission of the " de " in 
the surname of the English family. The arms, of 
the families were different, though this by itself 
would not prove a different origin, the Riddells 
of that ilk bearing a chevron between three 
ears of rye, and those of England three or five bars 
wavy. These last appear on the shield of Jordan 
Ridel, of Tilmouth in Northumberland, in 1230 
(Raine's N. Durham, p. 325). But the consistent 
differences in the spelling of the surname, so rare 
at that early date, indicate a distinct origin 
for the two families, as has been shown in this 
note. The point had not occurred to me till I 
lately observed a remark by my friend A. S. A. to 
the effect that the Riddells had originally come 
from Ridale in Yorkshire, an origin only applicable 
to one of these two stocks the strictly Scotch one 
of that ilk. The history of the old families of a 
country is a part of its general history, as has been 
well observed, and it is remarkable that two 
families of such early standing in the south of 
Scotland, and so nearly of the same surname, 
should have a different origin, as is attempted to- 
be shown here. ANGLO-SCOTUS. 

In connexion with this subject (ante, p. 95) the 
following interesting list, from one of Mr. Daniell's 
recent catalogues, seems worthy of preservation in 
" N. & Q." As far as my experience goes, such 
items are very uncommon in booksellers' cata- 

" Dunton. Catalogue of the Libraries of Henry 
Stubbs, late of London Dr. Dillinghara, of Oundle, 
Northamptonshire Thomas Vincent, London Tho. 
Cawton, of Westminster and John Dunton, father of 
the bookseller, and sold by auction in Warwick Lane 
Dawson Turner's copy, with autograph and note, in 
1 vol. 4to. bds., 26s. 1682. Thomas Parkhurst, the 
auctioneer, professes to deliver the catalogues gratis 'at 
the Bible on London Bridge,' and elsewhere. ' As it is 
the largest, so the choicest, collection of books that hath 
hitherto, or perhaps may again, be exposed to sale by 
auction ' (Address to Reader). 

" Catalogue of the Massanne Library, sold at the sign 
of the Black Swan, over against the south door of St. 
Paul's Church (amongst the woollen-drapers), St. Paul's 
Churchyard, by Millington, with a curious preface, 4to. 
bds., Dawson Turner's copy, with autograph and MS. 
note, large paper, 21*. 1687. 

" Catalogue of all the Books printed in England since 
the dreadful Fire of London, 1666, collected by R. Clavell, 
4to. wrap., 8s. 6d. 1673. 

" Catalogue of the Library of John Humphrey, of 
Rowell, in Northamptonshire, sold at Jonathan's Coffee 
House, Cornhill, by Cooper, 4 to. wrap., 8*. Gd. 1682. 

" Catalogue des Diverges Liures Francoises Recueilles 
dans la France par Robert Martine Libraire de Londres, 
aupres du quel ils se vendent, a 1'Enseigne de Venize, en 
la Rue nomme, Old Bayly, sm. 4to. wrap., 8s. 6d. 1640. 

" Catalogus Librorum tarn Impressorum quam Manu- 
scriptorum, Quos Ex Roma, Venetiis aliis que Italiaa 
locis Selegit Robertus Martine Bibliopola Londinensis, 
sm. 4to. wrap., 8*. 6d. 1632. 



[5 th S. XII. AUG. 9, '79. 

" Catalogue of the Library and Choice Manuscripts of 
a Person of Honour, sold by Bateman, at the Bible and 
Crown, Paternoster Row, 4to. wrap., 8s. 6d. Date about 

" Catalogue of the Library of Robert Scott, sold at Ave 
Maria Lane, by Walford, 4to. wrap., 8*. 6d. 1687. 

" Catalogue (priced in MS. of the period) of Books 
sold at Cambridge, at the Black Bull in Trumpington 
Street, by Millington, 1700, prices in MS., not quite 
complete and mended, 4to. mor., curious, 8s. 6d. 1700. 

" Catalogue (priced and named in MS. of the period) 
of the Household Goods of the Duke of Richmond and 
Lennox, of Cobham Hall, Gravesend, sold at St. James's 
Square, with MS. notes on the margin, fol., folded wrap., 
16s. 6d. 1703. 

" Catalogue (curious manuscript, priced) of Books in 
the Warehouse at Stationers' Hall, at Little Britain, and 
at Pelican Court, belonging to D. Midwinter and Aaron 
Wood, 35 pp., very neatly written, sm. 4to. wrap., 8s. 6d. 

" Chelsea Don Salteros Coffee House, catalogue of the 
rarities, 8vo., curious, 2s." 


8, Oxford Road, Kilburn. 

CENTENARIANTSM. As the subject of centena- 
rianism, its probability in certain cases and its 
possibility in many others, finds a place still in 
" N. & Q.," I venture to put on record a fact 
within my own experience which, though now 
sixty years old, lives very distinctly in my memory. 

In the latter part of 1819, when I was seventeen 
years old, I went with my brother, the Rector of 
St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, to the London Work- 
house to see an old woman, an inmate there, who 
was reported to have attained the extraordinary 
age of 108. We found her sitting bolt upright in 
her chair, but with every appearance of very ad- 
vanced age. Her skin was dried and shrivelled 
like brown parchment or leather, and her eyes were 
dim and sunken, though the sight of them was not 
destroyed. But her voice was clear and strong, 
and her general vigour considerable, as she had 
walked down to Greenwich on the previous day to 
see " her youngest lad," as she termed him, a pen- 
sioner of the Hospital, aged eighty-five, as registered 
in the books of the Hospital. He was the youngest 
of three children, the two elder ones being dead. 

The old lady was born somewhere in the north 
of England, but had in early life come up to Lon- 
don, and had been for a long period employed in 
the market gardens of Brompton and Fulham as 
a gatherer and carrier of fruit and vegetables to 
Covent Garden Market. She carried them on her 
head, and thence acquired that habit of holding 
herself upright which she retained in her extreme 
age. She seemed to have little or no memory of 
any special events which occurred in the course of 
her long life, with one exception, and that was the 
execution of the Scotch lords on Tower Hill in 
1746. She was a spectator of that beheading, and 
followed the mob to see the heads placed on Temple 
Bar, and she added, "A brave mob it was." 

Now as to the authenticity of the statement of 

her being 108 years old. It seems to be estab- 
lished chiefly by the age of her third son, as proved 
by the register of Greenwich Hospital. According 
to that he was born in 1734, and was eighty-five 
in 1819. Consequently the marriage of his mother, 
who had given birth to two sons previously, must 
have been as far back as 1731, and supposing her 
to have been then about twenty, the date of her 
birth would be, as she stated it to be, 1711, three 
years before the death of Queen Anne ; so that she 
and the Spectator came into the world in the same 
year, the first paper by Addison being dated 
Mar. 11, 1711. It is something to be able to say 
that I have seen and conversed with a person who 
was contemporary with Addison, Steele, Pope, 
Swift, and other heroes of that Augustan age ; one 
who, born in the reign of Queen Anne, survived 
to that of George IV. I believe, that she lived 
three years after I saw her, and died, truly " full 
of years," at the age of 111 in 1822. G. B. B. 
Mollington Hall, Chester. 

Dixon's Two Queens, vol. iv. p. 21, speaking of the 
marriages of the daughters of the then Earl of Surrey, 
he says, "The youngest, Catherine, married Sir 
Rhese ap Thomas of Wales "; and again, in vol. vi. 
p. 34, he tells us that the only one who raised the 
banner of revolt in behalf of Queen Catherine and the 
Pope was Sir Rhese ap Thomas, brother-in-law of the 
Duke of Norfolk, who was taken and executed for 
his treason in 1531. These statements repeat, and 
give the currency of Mr. Dixon's well-deserved 
popularity to, an old and curious error. Sir Rhese 
ap Thomas, KG., it may be seen from the account 
of him in my own Genealogical Notes concerning 
the Thomas family,* was married thrice ; first to 
a daughter of Sir John Ellis, descended from Sir 
Henry Elys, of Yorkshire ; secondly to Eva, only 
daughter and heiress of Henry ap Gwilym, of 
Court Henry ,t who bore him his heir in 1478 ; 
and thirdly to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William 
Thomas, of Ragland Castle, and sister of Sir 
William Herbert, first Earl of Pembroke of that 
family,t who was the widow of Sir Harry Strad- 
ling, Knt., of St. Donat's Castle, Glamorganshire,^ 
and survived her second husband, dying at Picton, 
in Pembrokeshire, Feb. 5, 1535. Sir Rhese him- 
self died in 1527, probably in June, his will being 
probated July 5 of that year. His only legitimate 
son, Sir Griffith ap Rhys, KB., married, about 
1504, Katherine, daughter of Sir John St. John, 
and aunt of the first Lord St. John of Bletshoe,|| 

* Genealogical Notes, pp. 9-16, 95, 134. 

t Collins's Peerage, vol. vii., p. 506, Brydges's edition. 

I Tomb of Thomas Stradling in the chapel of St. 

Anstis's Register of the Garter, vol. i p. 292. 

|| Collins's Peerage, vol. vi. p. 742; Habington's Anti- 
quities of Worcester, p. 21. 

5"" S. XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 



and died in 1521, leaving issue 1. Agnes, married 
first William, sixth Lord Sfcourton, who died in 
1557, and secondly Sir Edward Baynton, Knt.. of 
Eowden, in Hertfordshire, and died in 1574. 
2. Kice, born about 1508, who succeeded his grand- 
father, and married Lady Katherine Howard.* 
daughter of the second Duke of Norfolk of that 
family, and having been imprisoned in the Tower 
since before Oct. 3, 1531, was beheaded on Tower 
Hill, Jan. 4, 1531-2, and one of his servants was 
hanged and quartered. 

The confusion of identity between Sir Ehese and 
his grandson Eice first appears, I think, in Collins's 
Peerage, Sir Egerton Brydges's edition marrying 
Lady Katherine in the Norfolk pedigree to Sir 
Ehese ap Thomas and in the Dynevor pedigree to 
Eice a.p Griffith Fitz Uryan. The date of Sir 
Ehese ap Thomas's death being certain from the 
proof of his will, we find in the Calendar of State 
Papers, Reign of Henry VIII., published under 
the direction of the Master of the Eolls, abstracts 
of several letters written by Lady Katherine 
Eyx, as she signs herself, speaking of her hus- 
band as living and young in 1528 and 1529.* 
Also in the Act of Attainder of Eice ap Griffith (in 
the Statutes of the Realm^), passed by Parliament 
at its session of Jan. 15, 1531, we find her called 
" Lady Kateryn, Wydowe, late the Wyff of the 
sayde Eice ap Gruffith." And in the Act of 
Attainder of Queen Katherine Howard and her 
" complices," 33 Hen. VIII. c. 21,t she is spoken 
of as Katherine, Countess of Bridgewater. In the 
first Act of Attainder Sir Ehese ap Thomas is 
mentioned by name as grandfather of Eice ap 
Qruffith, and deceased. Burke's Peerage annually 
repeats Mr. Collins's error in the Norfolk pedigree, 
and its reappearance in Mr. Dixon's book I think 
justifies this public correction. 


Baltimore, U.S.A. 

tory of the Ancient Parish of Prestbury, one of the 
Ohetham Society's publications (issued in 1876), by 
Frank Eenaud, M.D., occurs the following state- 
ment, which is, I think, erroneous : 

" Charles Legh was a colonel of militia, and served the 
office of sheriff for Cheshire in 1747. He built the brick 
front of Adlington Hall, the left wing and chapel, and in 
many other respects added to and adorned the mansion, 
park, and grounds. He also rebuilt the north aisle of 
Prestbury Church. He was a friend of Handel, who 
composed the Musical Blacksmith whilst on a visit to 
Adlington. Mr. Legh had asked for an original com- 
position whilst the two were out walking. The request 
was made when they were near to Hollingworth smithy, 
and whilst they walked home through the park Handel 
whistled the tune, and afterwards wrote it down. The 

* Collins's Peerage, vol. vii. p. 506 ; Papers Foreign 
and Domestic, Reign of Henry V1IL, vol. iv. pp. 2356 
2372, 2511-12, &c. 

f Statute* of the Realm, vol. iii. pp. 415, 857. 

whole originated in the natural music made by the smiths 
n plying tlreir trade. Handel also left behind the music 
of a hunting song, the words of which were composed by 
Mr. Legh, and which is yet preserved in the family." 
Pp. 109-10. 

I have, however, always understood that the 
original " harmonious " blacksmith, a term presum- 
ably identical with "musical," lived and died at 
Little Stanmore, or, as it is now more usually 
:alled, Whitchurch, in Middlesex, within a mile of 
Edgware. When on a visit, in the autumn of 1877, 
;o my old friend the Eev. J. B. Norman, the 
Rector of Whitchurch, he pointed out to me the 
grave in that churchyard of William Powell, said 
x> be the " harmonious blacksmith," who died in 
1780, with its recently erected monumental stone, 
which had been put up by subscription and re- 
placed a much older one, consisting of the old- 
fashioned horizontal board between two upright 
posts, which had fallen into decay. The present 
church was built about 1715, by the then Dake of 
Chandos, and contains an organ upon which 
Handel used to play when visiting at Canons, the 
stately ducal seat, now pulled down. The ceiling 
and walls were painted by Laguerre and are still 
in excellent condition. On the north side of the 
altar is the large chapel of the Brydges family 
with the sepulchral vault underneath, now closed 
up and concreted. Surely the evidence seems 
greatly to preponderate in favour of Whitchurch 
having been the residence of the blacksmith and 
the place of the composition of this piece of music, 
rather than Adlington, which is a township in the 
extensive parish of Prestbury, in the county of 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

of Swedish folk-lore about the ignis fatuus is men- 
tioned by Swedenborg in his essay on phospho- 
rescence : 

" Marshes produce the most brilliant wild fires; I hare 
seen some of these wandering flames as large as a lamp, 
which sometimes went out and then were lit again, mov- 
ing about from place to place, and two or three visible 
at once over snow and water, and more vivid and ruddy 
in the coldest air than at other times. I have often 
watched them with delight for a long time at a distance 
of a hundred and twenty feet. These fires are commonly 
called fire-dragons, and treasures are thought to be con- 
cealed under them." Miscellaneous Observations con- 
nected with the Physical Sciences, by E. Swedenborg 
(translated), London, 1847, p. 103. 


Bank Cottage, Barton-on-Irwell, Manchester. 

IN GALILEE. I have seen it stated in the biography 
of one of the English poets Dryden, so far as my 
memory serves that the prize was awarded him, 
at a college competition or for a school exercise, 
on the subject of the miracle at Cana, on his pro- 
duction of the following very beautiful couplet : 



[5'h S. XII. AUG. 9, '79. 

" The modest water owned a power divine, 
Confessed its God, and blushed itself to wine." 

It is perhaps not known to many of the readers 
of " N. & Q." that the idea at least of the above is 
not new or original, and that the words them- 
selves are nearly identical with those which occur 
in a passage from an ancient Latin hymn. The 
hymn referred to is that of the Irish poet and 
prose writer Sedulius, who flourished in the fifth 
century, and who is distinguished by the title 
"Scotus Hybernicus." This hymn, commencing 
"A solis ortus cardine," is given in full in the 
Lyra Hibernica Sacra, the second edition of which 
has just appeared, the stanza alluded to being as 
follows : 

" Novum genus potentias, 

Aquse rubescent hydriae 

Vinumque jussa fundere, 

Mutavit unda originem." 

This stanza is rendered into English verse as 
follows by the editor of the Lyra, Canon Mac 
Ilwaine : 

" The water owns a power Divine, 
And conscious blushes into wine ; 
Its very nature changed displays 
The power Divine that it obeys." 

M. E. 

P.S. Since the above was written I have been 
reminded that Richard Crashaw (1634) was the 
author of the following Latin epigram : 

" Nympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit." 
which he translated as follows : 

"The conscious water saw its God and blushed." 
The anecdote, however, sent herewith is fresh in 
my memory, and may have met other readers of 
" N. & Q." It is also worth suggesting whether 
Crashaw may not have borrowed his epigram 
without acknowledgment from Sedulius. 

Several of the obituary notices of Mr. Diprose, 
who died a few weeks ago, spoke of his Account of 
the Parish of St. Clement Danes as having been 
published in two volumes. My own opinion is 
that one volume duly appeared in 1868, but that 
the second volume, though the greater part, if not 
the whole, was printed, has not yet been issued: 
For the sake of future bibliographers it is desirable 
that this doubt should be removed. 


15, Queen Anne's Gate. 

JOB xxx. 18. "It bindeth me about as the 
collar of my coat." This version curiously mixes 
the modern description of dress with ancient ideas. 
There is no obscurity in the Hebrew, ^rO^O *J??' 
(as Gesenius understands it, s.v. j"l) (4), ed. Treg.), 

nor the Septuagint, a orrep TO TTC/HO-TO/^OV rov 
YITWVOS Trepieo-^e pe, "where the opening of 
the tunic for the neck supplies the metaphor. On 

looking at such versions as I have to see how the 
translation " collar of my coat " came in, I have 
noticed the following : 

Coverdale has, " And [they] gyrded me therwith, 
as it were with a coat," understanding it rather 

The Geneva and Bishops' Bibles have, " Which 
compasseth me about, as the collar of my coat." 
And in the Bishops' Bible (ed. 1695) there is the 
following explanation : " It is the manner among 
the Hebrues to have their garments sowed round 
in euery part, sauing a hole onely in the highest of 
it to put foorth the necke." 

It appears, so far, that the A. V. is principally 
due to the Genevan, from which the word "collar" 
comes. This may be derived from the "capitio 
tunicse" of the Vulgate, which in Ducange has 
these significations : " Capitium, ea pars tunicee 
qua caput immittitur. Tegmen capitis, capucium, 
capuchon " (Migne's edition, Paris, 1 866). 


The following, from the Pall Mall Gazette of 
the 2nd inst., should appear in reference to 
A. J. M.'s communication, ante, p. 86 : 

"At Weymouth yesterday a large number of docu- 
ments, being the archives of the borough for above 500 
years, were offered for sale by public auction. They had 
originally belonged to the Corporation, but by some 
means had got into the possession of the late Mr. Sherren, 
and had since been known as the Sherren papers. Mr. 
Sherren's successor offered them for sale, after refusing 
to transfer them to the Town Council for lOCtf. Yester- 
day the auctioneer explained that the late Mr. Sherren 
bought the papers with other matter in "a barbarous 
state of mutilation," as reported by the Record Com- 
mittee forty years ago. Mr. Pelly Hooper, solicitor, 
attended on behalf of the Corporation, and in their names 
protested against the sale, the documents being, as he 
said, the property of the Corporation. The auctioneer, 
Mr. Milledge, denied this, and said the papers were 
a valuable possession, extending over 500 years. He had 
received notice from the town clerk that the Council 
would proceed against him for any loss sustained by the 
sale. Mr. T. B. Groves, a member of the Council, said 
he had received a letter from Mr. H. Edwards, M.P. for 
Weymouth, stating that Mr. Sherren had no legal right 
to sell the papers, and that opinion was backed up by 
Mr. Riley, of the Record Office, who said that public 
documents could not be held by private persons, no 
matter how long they had been acquired. Mr. Groves 
said that only the previous day he had read of some tons 
of Government papers being sold at about 5*. a ton. 
Mr. Alderman Thomas said the Sherren papers were 
brought before the public by I)r. Black, of the Royal 
Archaeological Society, upon their visit to the town. As 
no one would bid above 300. the reserve price for the 
papers, no sale took place." r r- i 

H. Y. N. 

"PLAYING THE BEAR." Our gardener observed 
yesterday that the weather had " played the bear " 
among the mustard and cress. Is this expression 
known to any of your correspondents 1 The gar- 
dener has never left Northamptonshire. F. C. 

5"> g. XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 




[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names arid addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

LTNE FAMILY. To assist a genealogical investi- 
gation at present being made, information as to 
the Lyne family in general, and more particularly 
as to the Warwickshire, Oxfordshire, and Wilt- 
shire branches of the family, will be most accept- 
able ; also, as regards any of the following : 

Richard Lyne, or Lynes. Rector, Feltwell, Norfolk, 

Richard Lyne, Vicar, St. Nicholas, Kenilworth, War- 
wickshire, 1291. 

John Lyne, Vicar, Allesley, Warwickshire, 1337. 

Wm. Lyne, Rothersthorp (Vicar), Northamptonshire, 

Reginald de Lyne, Shortcombe, Devon, temp. Edw. I. 

Thomas Lyne, Corley, near Fillongly, Warwickshire. 

John Lyne, Mayor of Thetford, Norfolk, temp. 
Henry VIII., 1486. 

Sir Wm. Lyne, Vicar, Haldebury or Aldbury, Herts, 
20 Richard If. 

Robert Lyne, Rector, Pitchcott, Bucks, 1507. 

John Lyne, Rector, Erpingham, Norfolk, 1403. 

John Lyns, or Lynes, Rector of St. Mary's, Ellingham, 
Norfolk, 1400. 

Simon Lyne, of Guildford, Surrey, 30 Henry VIII. 

AVm. Lyne, Rothersthorp (Vicar), Northamptonshire, 

Lady Alicia Lyne, owner of a portion of Whitwick 
manor, settled upon her by Sir John Knyvell in 
8 Henry VIII. 

John Lyne, Rector, Brixworth, Northamptonshire, 

John Lyne, Rector, Lamport, Northamptonshire, 1721. 

Mrs. Elionor Lyne,* buried in Westminster Abbey, 
June 5, 1648. 

Thomas Lyne, Vicar, Ryburgh Parva, Norfolk, 1532. 

Sir George Lyne, Knt., who married Ann, daughter 
of Sir Wm. Goring, of Burton, Sussex. 

John Lyne, Esq., who married Grizel, daughter of 
Thomas Gent, Esq., one of the Barons of the Exchequer, 

The Rev. Dr. Lyne, Fellow of Eton College, who died 
in July, 1767. 

The Rev. R. Lyne, made Chaplain in Ordinary to His 
Majesty, Oct., 1744. 

The Rev. Lyne, Chaplain to the Embassy, Aix- 

la-Chapelle, 1748. " 

The Rev. Richard Lyne, Rector, Eynesbury, Hunts, 

Sir Humphrey Lyne, son of Cuthbert Lyne, whose 
daughter Margaret married Henry Hooke, Esq., of 
Bramshott, Hants, in 1634. 

Henry Lyne, of Little Compton, Gloucestershire, born 
about 1680-90. 

R. E. L. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT. In Lockhart's Life of Sir 
Walter Scott, he mentions that when in Italy in 
April, 1832, a lady requested Sir Walter to do some- 
thing for her to which he had a great repugnance 

[* See Col. 
p. 142 ED.] 

Chester's Westminster Alley Registers, 

jut with which request he nevertheless promised 
iompliance. On being asked why he had done so, 
le answered, " That as he wasn't good for much 
low he thought he should try and oblige every- 
body." Who was the lady 1 In looking over some 
manuscripts some time ago, I found some verses 
written by Sir Walter when in Italy " at the re- 
quest of the Countess of Wallinglass (?), a Russian 
ady." Would this be the lady mentioned above, 
and would the verses be the "something" to which 
e had such repugnance 1 The writing is very 
ramped and difficult to decipher, hence my un- 
ertainty about the lady's name. If any correspon- 
dent would kindly give me a clue to the proper 
name of the lady I should be much obliged. Here 
are the first eight lines : 

" Lady, they say thy native land, 

Unlike this clime of fruit and flowers, 
Loves, like the minstrel's northern strand, 

The sterner share of nature's powers. 
Even Beauty's powers of empressing (1) 

Decay in the decaying hours, 
Until even you may set a task 
Too heavy for the poet's powers." 

What is the proper word at the end of the fifth 
line ? Have the verses ever been published ] 


HERALDIC. Can any of your readers tell me 
the names of the families to whom the following 
three coats belonged ? 1. A chevron betwixt three 
bucks trippant, on the chevron three fusils (or 
lozenges). 2. Ermine, a fess engrailed betwixt 
three horses' heads couped. 3. A chevron betwixt 
three trefoils. With the exception of the field of 
No. 2, no tinctures are given. I found the arms 
in an old sketch ; the coat preceding them is that 
of Maxey, followed by that of Crispe. I believe 
them to be the arms borne by Nathaniel Maxey, of 
London, who married the daughter and heiress of 
Sir Rowland Crispe. Nathaniel Maxey died in 
1708. He bore the same arms as the Maxeys of 
Salnighall, co. Essex, and was presumably of that 
family. Sir Rowland Crispe was the son of Dr. 
Tobias Crispe by his wife Mary, daughter of Row- 
land Wilson. Dr. Tobias Crispe was son of Ellis 
Crispe, of London, who married Hester, daughter 
of John Ireland. She, after her husband's death, 
married Sir Walter Pye, Kt., Attorney of the 
Court of Wards. Ellis Crispe died Sheriff of 
London in 1625. Any information as to the 
ancestors of Nathaniel Maxey would be gratefully 

i r< TT 

received. w. -n. 

1634 I have a book thus entitled about which I 
am desirous of obtaining particulars. The volume 
is particularly interesting to me as an entomologist, 
being, I believe, the first book published in Eng- 
land devoted wholly to insects. Can any corre- 
spondent say how many copies were printed, and 
at what price it was sold, and whether the book 


. XII. Ace. 9, 70. 

is now generally to be met with, or give me any 
other particulars 1 Was any book published on 
the Continent prior to this date (A.D. 1634) on 
insects] W. GARDNER. 

GABRIEL HARVEY. Does there exist any au- 
thentic portrait of Gabriel Harvey, the friend of 
Edmund Spenser 1 A. GRANGER HUTT. 

THE GARDENS OF HOLTROOD are said to have 
been greatly enlarged and improved in the days of 
Mary Stuart. Is there any contemporary account 
of them still extant, and where 1 And what was 
the fate of the Lady Elizabeth, the wife of that 
Earl of Huntley who rebelled in 1562 and fell in 
the battle of Corrichie Burn, or died very shortly 
after 1 She was a daughter of Kobert, Lord Keith, 
and a sister to William, fourth Earl Marischall of 
Scotland. W. 

In Collins's Cicero, p. 27, edit, of 1871, occurs the 
following passage : " The fruitless appeal .... will 
be always remembered as having supplied Lord 
Palmerston with one of his most telling illustra- 
tions." Will one of your numerous correspondents 
oblige me by quoting the " illustration " referred 
to 1 C. M. B. 


Some time since, turning over a file of old news- 
papers, circa 1833, I came across a brief notice 
that "Lady Briscoe was imprisoned [or committed] 
yesterday by order of the House of Commons." 
What were the circumstances and who was the 
lady? H. M. 

A DEED OF DENIZATION. I have in my pos- 
session a deed of denization granted in the thirty- 
eighth year of James I. " Godfro Blcharde in 
Wassenburgh in Ducatu de Gulick in partibus 
Belgie oriund," &c. Can any of your correspondents 
kindly identify the above localities 1 H. C. F. 

COWPER'S "ILIAD." I have recently seen it 
stated in print that Cowper, in a note on bk. i. 
1. 502, &c., of the Iliad (lines about 625 of his 
translation), refers to Homer's speaking of prayers 
as " the daughters of Jove " " in the most striking 
passage on prayer in heathen literature." Can 
any one who has access to an old annotated edition 
of Cowper's Iliad contribute enough of the note to 
show the exact words to which Cowper refers, and 
how they bear the translation he gives and the 
comment he makes 1 H. N. CHAMPNEY. 

Whence comes the last syllable in the names of 
these English localities ? Has it any affinity to the 
same in Engadine, for example 1 


THE SPANISH ARMADA. A thin large quarto 
volume was printed at the end of the last or the 
beginning of the present century, containing a list 
of the names of those persons who subscribed 
money for the defence of the country when the 
Spanish Armada was expected. I should be glad 
to know the title of this work, and where a copy 
may be seen. ANON. 

REV. THOMAS PARKER, pastor of the church at 
Newbury, Mass., and author of The Visions and 
Prophecies of Daniel Expounded (London, 1646) 
and other works, was born and baptized on Whit- 
sunday, June 8, 1595, according to a memorandum 
of his friend Judge Sewall, and died at Newbury, 
April, 1677, in his eighty-second year. Notices 
of him will be found in Drake's Dictionary of 
American Biography, Allibone's Dictionary of 
Authors, Coffin's History of Newbury, Mass., 
Allen's American Biographical Dictionary, and 
Brook's Lives of the Puritans. None of these 
writers give the place of his birth. Can any reader 
of "N. & Q." furnish it? His father, Robert 
Parker ("N. & Q.," 2 nd S. xi. 243; 4 th S. vii. 475),. 
a Puritan minister, preached at Wilton, Wilts^ 
about the date of the son's birth. 


Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

PENANG LAWYERS. Lieut.-Col. Bridges, in his 
Round the World in Six Months, says that on his 
arrival at Penang he "made particular inquiries 
for Penang Lawyers, big canes, which I had always 
heard of as one of the products of the place, but 
not only could I not get one, but could not even 
hear of one." Can any reader of " N. & Q." inform 
me what is the origin of the name or where these 
canes are grown 1 ULRICH. 

GALLIC." Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." 
inform me whether there exists a " Corpus In- 
scriptionum Latinarum Gallise," or give me the 
title of any work where I may find a collection of 
them 1 I am acquainted with Boiesieu's Antiquites 
de Lyon and Spon's Ant. de Lyon. V. S. 


(Indian Antiquary, 1879, vol. viii. p. 94). No- 
namba, who belonged to the Chalukya branch of 
the great Chandra- vansi dynasty, made a grant of 
lands, dated Saka, 366, which, if Saka Yudish- 
thira is, as appears to me probable, intended, 
would be equivalent to A.D. 1776. What is the 
most recent, as well as the earliest, mention of 
Nonamba or Nolamba in Indian records ? 

The name No-namba or No-lamba is synonymous 
with Sukh-lamba, meaning supernumerary recruits 
on regimental muster rolls, for whom full pay was 
not drawn. According to one account there were 
only six Chakra-vartis, or Buddhist district officers^ 

5* S. XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 



viz., Ben, Bali, Dhundh-Mar, Aji-pal, Piiruravas, 
and Mandhata, in which list neither Nala, Chakra- 
yarti of Narwar (forty miles south-west from 
Gualior), nor Nolamba of the valuable grant referred 
to, is mentioned. R. R. W. ELLIS. 


" MODUS VIVENDI." This formula is in daily 
use to express a practical compromise. How came 
it to be introduced, and what is the origin of it ? 
Does it occur in any remarkable passage in any 
classical writer? The nearest expression that I 
can point to is " Conditio vivendi," in Horace. 
Was it simply an imitation of the earlier expres- 
sion in common use " Modus operandi " 1 



(5 th S. xl 407, 454.) 

I have still to thank your correspondents for so 
kindly answering my query. SIR J. MACLEAN thinks 
I am under a misapprehension respecting Restor- 
mel. But I was referring mainly to the twelfth 
century, SIR J. MACLEAN apparently almost ex- 
clusively to the fourteenth, &c. I will give my 
authorities ; but first wish to say with regard to 
the family name, now spelt Denham, that I believe 
it was originally taken from Dine and Dinan, Dine 
from their castle and Dinan from their barony in 
Brittany, ham, of course, being the old form of 
home, dwelling-house. Stowe, in his Battel Abbey 
Roll, which he appears to have copied from the 
original, spells the name Dine. The prefix of Car- 
for Caer- to the name, Cardin, Cardinan, is said 
by Dr. Nicholas to mean fortress. Denham Castle 
was probably built by Robert de Dinan, who is the 
first, I think, I have met with called de Cardi- 
nan : " Robertus de Cardinan debet x marcas, 
prohabendo foro apud Lostwetell " (Madox, Hist, 
of Excheq., 274, 6 R. I.). Before this date Madox 
always speaks of the family as " de Dinan," and 
Dugdale speaks of the treasurer (H. VII.) as " de 
Care-Dinham." Robert apparently built his caatle 
temp. R. I., and with the parish, which had pre- 
viously been called Glin, named it after Dinan in 
Brittany, the ancient home of his family. It is of 
this Robert Leland was probably speaking where 
he sajs, " One Dinan, a great lord in Cornewaule, 
made a church at Pendinas." Thus much may 
suffice to correct such statements as that in Gil- 
bert's Cornwall, viz., that Car-din-ham means " the 
rock man's home or habitation." 

Restormel and Lostwithiel were both settled dr. 
1338 by Ed. III. on the Dukes of Cornwall (Carew, 
p. 438) ; both committed dr. 1307 by Ed. II. to 
the custody of his seneschal, Thomas De-la-Hyde 
(Madox, p. 638). According to Lysons (Mag. Brit., 
iii. 176), Edmund, Eajl of Cornwall, died seised of 

Restormel in 1300. William of Worcester speaks 
of Restormel as having been the residence of this 
earl, and Lysons says : 

" It is probable that, as he seems to have been the first 
earl who possessed it, he was the only one who inhabited 

it Restormel Castle, the ancient seat of the baronial 1 

family of Cardinan, came into the possession of the Earls 
of Cornwall towards the end of the thirteenth century. 

Restormel Castle was a seat of the Cardinans, and 

was probably built by them. We find it in the year 1264 
in the possession of Thomas Tracy, who married the 
heiresss of that ancient baronial family. Among the* 
documents of the Arundell family is a deed dated at Res- 
tormel, by which the said Thomas Tracy surrendered 
the castle of Restormel and the barony of 'Kardinan' 
to Ralph Arundell, to be held on behalf of Simon de Mont- 
fort as a security against his enemies, who had threatened 
them with destruction." 

Isolda, the heiress of the Cardinans, survived 
her husband De Tracy, and " in her widowhood 
conveyed Cardinan Castle and manor, in or about 
the year 1259, to Oliver de Dinan." The date is 
clearly wrong, for, as we have seen, De Tracy was 
apparently alive and residing at Restormel Castle 
in 1264 ; but the fact that no mention in this deed 
of conveyance is apparently made of Restormel 
appears to show that it had then ceased to belong 
to the family. 

With regard to the barony. My uncle, the late 
Rev. C. B. Cookes, more than once told me that 
an application was formerly made by the family of 
my grandmother, the heiress of Mr. John Denham 
of Kent, to the Heralds' College anent the barony 
of Denham, and that the answer of the College was 
that the descendants of the coheirs of the Lord 
Treasurer would take any rights yet remaining 
before the heir general, who, failing these, would 
come after. Sir H. Nicolas says much the same 
(Hist. Peer.). From the wills of the Treasurer's 
mother (1496) and brother-in-law (1485), Sir T. 
Arundell, it is clear that at the dates given three 
coheirs, the Ladies Carew, Zouch, and Arundell, 
had issue. Whether the Ladies Carew, Zouch, and 
Fitzwarin, the other coheir, have descendants 
now living I cannot at present say, but it appears 
certain that Lord Arundell of Wardour is the lineal 
descendant of the above Lady Arundell. I am a 
staunch stickler for the preservation, as far as may 
be, of old titles, for I think it highly desirable in 
an hereditary monarchy to encourage hereditary 

The family of Denham is ancient and not un- 
distinguished. They are said to have been Barons 
of Dinan in Brittany before the Conquest. Fulke, 
temp. William I., was the first English baron (Sir 
H. Nicolas). Alan, the second., received from 
Hen. I. the English barony of Burton for skying 
(Camden says at Gizors) the Champion of France 
in single combat (Testa de Nevil). "Oliver de 
Dinan . . . was also a famous souldier in the British 
warree, and after he was reconciled to Hen. II. 
was much esteemed of hym " (Pole's Collections, 



m A. 9, 79. 

p. 82). Kobert, temp. Eic. I., is mentioned as 
having " undoubtedly the greatest estate [seventy- 
one knights' fees] then pertaining to any private 
man in the province" (Gilbert). John, "which 
attended Henry 7 out of his exile, for that-tayning 
the Crowne, was made Lord Thresorer " (Pole) ; 
and last, not least, Sir John Denham, the poet's 
father, appears at different times to have been 
Lord Justice, Lord Commissioner, Lord Chief 
Baron, and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, and 
Baron of the Exchequer in England. How Sir 
John performed his various duties we gather from 
Lord Chancellor Bacon's charge to his successor, 
Sir W. Jones, in which he recommends him to 
imitate " the care and affection to the Common- 
wealth, and prudent and politic administration of 
Sir John Denham." When in Ireland Sir John 
was so good an " administrator of the revenue " 
(Bacon) that he set up the customs, which had 
previously produced only 5001., until, before his 
death, they were let for 54,OOOZ. 

Astley Rectory. 

I find that I was in error in stating, at the re- 
ference last quoted, that Kestormel Castle never 
belonged to the Dinham family. My friend Mr. 
George Freeth, of Duporth, co. Cornwall, who was 
for many years an officer of the Duchy of Corn- 
wall, informs me 

" that Isolda de Cardinal), daughter and heir of Andrew 
de Cardinan, by her charter granted to the most Serene 
Prince Lord Richard, by the grace of God King of the 
Romans, her castle at Restormel with her demesne there, 
which lies near the castle on the east side of the king's 
highway, which extends from Bodmin to Lostwythiel, 
with the freemen and villans, the whole of her wood 
tliere with the villans of Lostwythiel, three mills belong- 
ing to the town and castle, the water of Fawe and fishery 
of the same, and all liberties and free customs, &c., as 
freely as she held the same, to hold to him and his heirs 
for ever, so that he or his heirs may not exact or occupy 
anything on the west side of the king's highway by reason 
of that feoffment." 

Mr. Freeth is unable to give me the date of the 
document. He adds, " To this day the manor of 
Kestormel claims nothing on the west side of the 
Bodmin Eoad." I may add that this correction 
does not affect my other statements. 


Bicknor Court, Coleford, Glouc. 


6, 36, 71, 89.) I send descriptions of a few books 
relating to Pope's quarrel with Gibber. Of Pope's 
literary controversies this was the most unfor- 
tunate. Gibber gave as good as he received. 
A son of Eichardson the painter describes Pope's 
features as writhing in anguish while he was read- 
ing one of Gibber's satirical pamphlets. Pope's 
dislike for Gibber was originally caused by some 

remarks made by the latter when taking the part 
of Bayes in The Rehearsal. A certain licence was 
allowed to the actor in this part, and it was usual 
to introduce original observations referring to the 
topics of the day. Gibber took advantage of the 
opportunity to ridicule Three Hours after Mar- 
riage, a feeble comedy by Gay, to which Pope and 
Arbuthnot had also contributed. The quarrel was 
subsequently embittered by the publication of 
Gibber's play, The Non-juror, which was very 
offensive to the High Church party and to the 
Eoman Catholic families, the Carylls, the Stonors, 
and the Blounts, with whom Pope was on intimate 

A conspicuous place was given to Gibber in 
the New Dunciad, and in 1743, when a com- 
plete edition of the poem, in four books, was pub- 
lished, Gibber was substituted for Theobald as 
hero of the poem. Pope died the next year, and 
Gibber wrote an unfriendly epitaph on his anta- 
gonist, of the tone of which the following lines will 
give some idea : 

" Readers might think that none but good men die. 
If graves held only such, Pope, like his verse, 
Had still been breathing and escaped the hearse, 
Though fell to all men's failings but his own." 

14. " A Compleat Key to the Non-Juror. Explaining 
the Characters in that Play, with observations Thereon. 
By Mr. Joseph Gay. 

' Moveat Cornicula risum, 
Furtivis nudata coloribus.' Hor. 

The Second Edition. Printed for E. Curll. London 
1718." 8vo., pp. 26. 

Mr. Carruthers, in his Life of Pope, rashly states, 
p. 158 (second edition, London, 1857), that this 
pamphlet is " without doubt " the work of Pope. 

15. " The Tryal of Colley Gibber, Comedian, &c., For 
writing a Book intitled ' An Apology for his Life,' &c. 
Being A thorough Examination thereof; wherein he is 
proved guilty of High Crimes and Misdemeanors against 
the English Language, and in characteri-sing many per- 
sons of distinction. Lo ! He hath written a Book ! 
Together with An Indictment exhibited against Alex- 
ander Pope of Twickenham, Esq. ; for Not exerting his 
Talents at this Juncture : and The Arraignment of 
George Cheyne, Physician at Bath, for the Philosophical, 
Physical and Theological Heresies, uttered in his last 
Book on Regimen. London : Printed for the Author ; 
and sold by W. Lewis in Russel-Street ; and E. Curll, in 
Rose-Street, Covent- Garden; Messrs. Dodsley, Jackson, 
Jolliffe and Brindley, in St. James's and Bond-Street, 
and at all Booksellers in London and Westminster, 1740. 
Price One Shilling." Title, six pages of introduction; 
text, 1 to 40. 

16. " A Letter from Mr. Gibber, to Mr. Pope, Inquiring 
into the Motives that might induce him in his Satyrical 
Works, to be so frequently fond of Mr. Gibber's Name. 

' Out of thy own Mouth will I judge thee.' 

Pref. to the Dunciad. 

Printed and Sold by W. Lewis. Price Is. London, 1742." 
8vo., pp. 66. (a) An engraving, oblong fol., of Pope's mis- 
adventure related on p. 48 by Gravelot. (6) Ditto, re- 
verse copy reduced 5 in. by 3| in. 

17. " A Blast upon Bayes ; or a New Lick at the Lau- 
reate. Containing Remarks upon a Late Tattling Per- 

5* S. XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 



formance, entitled, A Letter from Mr. Gibber to Mr 
Pope, &c. 'And lo there appeared an old woman ! 
Vide the Letter throughout.' The Second Edition 
London : Printed for T. Robins, in Fleet-Street, and sol 
at all the Booksellers, and Pamphlet-Shops in Town an 
Country, 1742. Price Sixpence." Title-page and pp. 26 

18. "A Letter to Mr. C ... b ... r. On his Letter t< 
Mr. P 

' Tu ne cede malis sed contra audentior ito.' 


London : Printed for J. Roberts, near the Oxford-Arm 
in Warwick-Lane, 1742." Half-title, title, pp. 26. By 
Lord Hervey. 

19. " Another Occasional Letter from Mr. Gibber to 
Mr. Pope, wherein The New Hero's Preferment to Hi 
Throne in the Dunciad, seems not to be Accepted. An( 
the Author of that Poem His more rightful Claim to it 
is Asserted. With An Expostulatory Address to the Rev 

Mr. W. W n, Author of the new Preface, and Adviser 

in the curious Improvements of that Satire. By Mr 
Colley Gibber. 

Remember Sauney's Fate ! 
Bang'd by the Blockhead, whom he strove to beat. 

Parodie on Lord Roscommon. 

London, Printed : And Sold by W. Lewis in Russel-Street 
Covent-Garden, 1744. Price One Shilling." Pp. 56. 

F. G. 

In the appendix to the Dunciad Warburton in 
his edition (1757) gives in his list, which is chrono- 
logical, two attacks on Pope, both of which, I infer, 
preceded jEsop at the Bear Oar den, 1715 (included 
in Warburton's list). The first two attacks given 
in the Appendix are : 

20. " Reflections critical and satirical on a late Rhap- 
sody, called, An Essay on Criticism. By Mr. Dennis. 
Printed by B. Lintot. Price 6d." 

21. " A New Rehearsal, or Bays the younger ; contain- 
ing an Examen of Mr. Rowe's plays, and a word or two 
on Mr. Pope's Rape of the Lock. Anon, [by Charles 
Gildon]. Printed for J. Roberts, 1714. Price 1." 

I think it is a fair conjecture that the above 
both appeared in 1714, as they precede four attacks 
on Pope in 1715, of which one is JEsop at the Bear 
Garden. " Durgen : a Plain Satire on a Pompous 
Satirist. By Edward Ward, with a little of James 
Moore," is also in Warburton's list. 


CURIOUS COINCIDENCES (5 th S. x. 385, 502 ; xi. 
32, 72, 296, 474.) The following curious co- 
incidence occurred some years ago. To ensure 
accuracy I send the account of it in the words of 
H. E., to whom it happened : 

" I had bought a book (a Macchiavelli) in London just 
as I was starting for Florence, and it was packed up with 
my things in the paper parcel in which it was sent from 
the bookseller's, and which was not opened till some 
weeks after we got to Florence, when we were living in 
the Palazzo Boutourlin (ci-devant Nicolini), No. 15, Via 
de' Scrvi. When I opened the parcel and the book, a 
paper tumbled out of it, evidently a fragment of an 
Italian exercise, one sentence of which was, in question- 
able Italian, ' Conduct me to the Palazzo , No. 15, 

Via de' Servi,' the precise house to which it was taken. 
I pasted the paper into the volume, with a note of the 
circumstance, and there it is now, for the coincidence 
was so strange that I thought it worth preserving ; and 

you are welcome to perpetuate it, and to make the most 
of the fact of a blank having been left for the name of 
the palazzo, which had recently changed owners." 

G. F. S. E. 

When Surgeon-Major B. Hinde, M.D., of the 
Army Medical Staff, was in charge at Bathurst, 
Gambia, I regularly sent to him by post the Satur- 
day Review, which was always handed for perusal to 
the Governor, Colonel D'Arcy. In one of these 
papers a letter was found, which was duly returned 
to me. It was addressed to a lady at Lyme Regis. 
I recognized the writing of a friend, Mr. E. 
Damon, F.G.S., of Weymouth, to whom I returned 
it. Colonel D'Arcy was afterwards appointed 
Governor of the Falkland Islands, and I continued 
to forward the Saturday Review to him. Enclosed 
in one of these papers was found a letter addressed 
to a firm in London, which he returned to me. I 
immediately recognized it as having been de- 
spatched from a department in the company in 
which I am myself engaged. It contained a 
document of some importance as a security. In 
both instances my papers had of course been 
posted in the same office as the letters which got 
shuffled inside them in the post bag. 


The following curious coincidence occurred not 
long ago at the Hu Mersfield Savings Bank. Two 
depositors were at the counter together, one named 
Cain Quarmby and the other Abel Quarmby. It 
was naturally supposed that these men were 
relatives, but on inquiry it was found they were 
strangers to each other, never having even met 
before. The somewhat unusual name of Quarmby 
s local ; there is a village of that name near Hud- 
dersfield, formerly the seat of the De Quarmbys, a 
'amily which has been extinct for many centuries. 
The name used to be spelt Whenby, then Queneby, 
Querneby, and finally Quarmby. I may also 
remark that the name Cain is by no means uncom- 
mon in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield. 


I think I may fairly claim the following as a 
ery curious coincidence ; certainly it is one of the 

most remarkable that have ever occurred to myself. 

Till within the last few years the Clergy List con- 
ained the name of a highly respected gentleman, 
n no wise related to me, but bearing, and called 
>y, the same first Christian name as myself. We 

"iad been introduced to each other, but had had no 
pportunity of cultivating each other's acquaint- 
nce. It chanced that in 1867 I was visiting the 
*aris Exposition, and passing one morning through 
he building, my attention was arrested by the 

and of trophy of Bibles which was raised in the 
entre of one of the alleys by the British and 
'oreign Bible Society. On the opposite side stood 
n English gentleman, who was engaged in a 


[5'h S. XII. AUG. 9, 79. 

similar survey, and as our eyes fell from the 
object of our gaze they met each other, and a 
slight smile of recognition gradually lighted up 
both our countenances. We advanced towards 
one another and shook hands ; but it was obvious 
from his manner that we were in precisely the 
same case were aware that we had met elsewhere, 
but had no recollection whatever as to who we 
respectively were. " I beg your pardon," was our 
common exclamation, " but I cannot at this mo- 
ment remember your name." I forget which was 
the first to reply, but the answer was identical : 
" My name is the Kev. Charles Bingham " and 
" My name is the Eev. Charles Bingham." 

I am no calculator, but I fancy it would be a 
very difficult task to estimate the amount of im- 
probability involved in the circumstances above 
recorded. C. W. BINGHAM. 

It may tend somewhat to abate the wonder of 
the coincidence as to the tarts mentioned by DR. 
CHANCE (5 th S. xi. 296) to remind him of what was 
very probably in his mind, even if unconsciously, 
at the time, viz. that he was in the very country 
of pastry and cream tarts. It is, I believe, a fact 
that the pastry chefs in clubs, hotels, and mansions, 
all over Europe, are from the Engadine, and that 
a large number of the confectioners with Italian 
names (e.g. Gatti) are Swiss from the Italian pro- 
vinces. Large numbers of these persons return to 
spend their latter days in their own valleys, erect- 
ing villas which are ornamented on the lines of 
the sugar applied to " French " pastry. 

W. C. J. 

48.) I have looked through the Gloucester Journal 
for the summer of 1792, and can find nothing to 
corroborate the statement of such severe weather 
in June of that year : on the contrary, I find evi- 
dence which goes to contradict it. On the day 
mentioned (June 5) there was an open-air enter- 
tainment at Frampton-on-Severn, a village a few 
miles from Gloucester, with a dinner on a lawn and 
a dance in the evening, and nothing is said about 
the weather. In some remarks in the Journal oj 
June 25 on the prospects of the harvest the only 
allusion to the weather is that, owing to the wel 
and coolness of the summer, the barley suffered 
little on the colder lands. J. SAWYER. 

Journal Office, Gloucester. 

The summer of 1792 was remarkably cold anc 
ungenial all over England. A note in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for October, p. 883, describes it as 
uniformly wet, windy, cold, and dark, excepting 
only one dry week in August, when the heat was 
so excessive as to cause many deaths, and at th< 
commencement of September all thoughts o 
summer were finally annihilated by the severe 
frosts. In the same volume, p. 667, there is an 

account of a severe storm in the Cheviot Hills on 
Tune 23, when the snow and hail covered the 
ground to a depth of half a foot. In Sykes's 
Local Records, i. 361, there is an account of a 
similar storm at Sedgefield in Durham on July 17, 
when the depth of ice was two feet, the corn totally 
destroyed, and the trees were stripped of their 
"eaves. EDWARD SOLLY. 

I have searched the Gentleman's Magazine, but 
lave not found any confirmation of this frost and 
'all of snow. There is no communication from 

loucester or elsewhere (under " Country News ") 
respecting it At the beginning of the number for 
July, 1792, there is the meteorological register for 
June, and, on the whole, the month was a fine one, 
but there were some violent storms about the 8th,. 
between 16th and 19th, and on the 23rd and 30th, 
The storm of the 23rd is only mentioned in con- 
nexion with the Cheviot Hills, but the effects there 
are recorded of the discharging of a waterspout, 
and the destruction done by hailstones of an extra- 
ordinary size and snow is spoken of. The hail- 
stones are said to have remained on the ground for 
two or three days, and to have been then as large 
as marbles. With so much atmospheric perturba- 
tion there may have been frost and snow in June 
at Gloucester. GIBBES EIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

Your quotation from the Gloucester Mercury 
called to my remembrance a pamphlet I have, 
Causes of the Scarcity investigated, with an Account 
of the most Striking Variations in the Weather 
from Oct., 1784, to Sept., 1800 : 

"1791. No frost either in winter or spring, but on the 
12th of June (Whitsunday) snow fell in various parts, 
and in a few days after the thermometer was at 75." 

" 1792. Spring and summer yery wet and cold ; hay 
and corn bad; wet winter, but neither frost nor snow." 

The author was the Rev. Samuel Hopkinson, 
B.D. Printed by Newcomb, Stamford, 1800. I 
(now in my eighty-fourth year) knew in after years 
Mr. Hopkinson. J. How. 

The Retreat, King's Langley. 

THE YEW (5 th ' S. xii. 8, 54.) I like my friend 
MR. MARSHALL'S reply, but would wish to declare 
my doubts as to the notion, so often expressed, of 
the churchyard yew being planted to supply the 
parish with bows. It is seldom the case that 
more than one yew tree exists, and that shows no 
signs of its limbs having been lopped off to make 
bow staves ; nor am I sure that the branches of 
the churchyard yew would serve the purposes of 
the parish. Bows were made of English yew 
doubtless, but it was very inferior to the foreign 
yew. Even in the earlier times we know of no 
ordinance ordering the parish to plant the yew for 
the purpose. These ordinances would range from 
the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries, and the price 
of a bow in the time of Edward III. was from Is. 

6*8. XII. AUG. 9, '79.] 


to Is. Cd. This might perhaps denote that they 
were all made of English woods, among which 
there was no great difference in value. In the 
time of Henry VIII. the prices of bows varied by 
law from 6d. to 3s. 4d. ; and he enforced the im- 
portation of foreign bow staves in every shipload 
of merchandise in proportion to cargo. Very long 
bow staves were admitted duty free ; and for fear 
lest the supply should be too easily used up, bow- 
yers were ordered to use elm, ash, and wych-hazel 
in certain proportions to yew. This again seems 
to me some proof that yew staves were not easily 
procured from English trees. 

The Acts of Hen. VIII. were repealed in the 
third year of Queen Mary, and Parliament settled 
the prices of bows as follows : for a bow made of 
best foreign yew, 6s. 8d. ; for an inferior sort, 
3s. 4d. ; and for one made of English yew, 2s. 

Neither Stow, nor Strutt, nor Brand mention 
the churchyard yew tree as the source of bow 
staves ; nor am I aware that parish records or 
accounts show any sale or provision of bow staves 
from the tree. But the parish was often charged 
with making and repairing 'butts, and the pay- 
ments are recorded. 

I am inclined to think that the notion of the 
parish yew tree providing the bucolics of the 
period with bow staves has been accepted and 
promulgated on insufficient grounds ; but I may 
be wrong, and shall be obliged if proof of my error 
is given. GIBBES KIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

This tree, from its poisonous properties, being 
injurious to cattle, could only be cultivated in an 
enclosed site ; and as the only available enclosures 
in archery times were the little pieces of ground 
on which the churches stood, afterwards enlarged 
as burial-grounds, it is but reasonable to suppose 
that the epithets applied to a churchyard should 
soon come into use when speaking of the yew tree. 


Carlton Chambers, S.W. 

Thanking MR. MARSHALL for his reply, the 
latter part of which was unknown to me, would 
your other correspondents allow me to say that 
what I wanted was authority ? Giraldus, as quoted 
by MR. MARSHALL, disposes, I think, of the view 
that the " churchyard yew " was due to an ordi- 
nance or law that yews were to be there planted 
for archery purposes. In a work of the sixteenth 
century (foreign) I read that they were so planted 
in England for shade and " condones," which I 
took at its worth. B. K 

xii. 54.) If Archdeacon Denison is quoted cor- 
rectly, I shall be glad to have Cicero's words to 
see whether they apply to what we call meta- 
physics. The word " metaphysica " is not in 

Ernesti's Clavis, and in Riddle and Arnold's 
Latin-English Dictionary it is marked as not 
found in any classical author. The definition is 
old. I have heard it ascribed to Voltaire, but 
Cicero and Voltaire are rather wide references, 
and I have not time to make diligent search. 
Here, however, is a passage in a similar spirit : 

" On peut etre metaphysicien sans etre geometre. La 
metaphysique eat plus amusante ; c'est souvent le roman 
de 1'esprit. En geometric, au contraire, il faut calculer, 
mesurer. C'est une gene continuelle, et plusieurs esprits 
ont mieux aime rever doucement que se fatiguer." 
Quest, sur V Encyclopedic, " Metaphysique." 

Mathews, in one of his "At Homes," introduced 
a Scotch professor said to be Dr. Birkbeck 
delivering an introductory lecture at a mechanics' 
institution. He put on a plaid wrapper, and spoke 
with a Scotch accent, which I shall not attempt to 
give in writing. All which I remember is : 

" Gentlemen mechanics, Phrenology is the science 
which is taught in free schools, where the heads of the 
scholars are sure to be well bumped. Metaphysics, 
gentlemen mechanics, is when one man explains to 
another man what he cannot understand himself, and 
argues about it." 

This I heard, and I believe more is preserved in 
one of Duncombe's piratical reports, most of which 
I have, but not that which I now want. Perhaps 
some more fortunate possessor will correct me if 
my memory is inaccurate as to what I heard fifty 
years ago. FITZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 

xi. 273.) I have not noticed any reply to MR. 
PICKFORD'S question, which he says he has fre- 
quently asked, but which has never been answered, 
as to the time when the dress gown of the Oxford 
M. A., made of black stuff with ample velvet sleeves, 
now confined exclusively to the proctors, ceased to 
be worn by all masters of arts on state occasions. 
May I be allowed to ask, did masters of arts ever 
wear such a gown 1 I have before me Loggan's 
Oxonia Illustrata, published about 1673 (it has no 
date on the title-page). In the plate of "The 
Habits of the several Degrees of the University " 
the master of arts is thrice represented : first, in 
a long-sleeved gown ; secondly, with a hood on his 
back ; thirdly, " toga lugubri indutus." The last 
resembles a preaching gown, having short sleeves, 
tied round the wrist. The proctor, on the other 
hand, is represented in a gown with short, loose 
sleeves of velvet. Again, in Williams's Oxonia 
Depicta, undated, but published in 1733 (vide 
Hearne's Remains, vol. ii. p. 784), in the proces- 
sion to the House of Congregation of the cumulator 
the proctors are represented in their short sleeves 
of velvet, and the master of arts in an unmis- 
takable master's gown, with the horse-shoe-cut at 
the bottom of the long hanging sleeve. If the 
proctor's gown with short velvet sleeves were ever 



[5"> S. XII. Ana. 9, '79. 

worn by masters of arts it would appear to have 
ceased to be worn before Williams and Loggan. 
In the all but fifty years that I have known Oxford, 
and twenty-five of residence, I never heard of any 
master of arts affecting the proctor's ample loose 
velvet sleeve unless in his year of office. I am in- 
clined to think that MB. PICKFORD is possessed of 
one of those myths which float about junior common 
rooms and are believed by undergraduates only. 
Will MR. PICKFORD produce some tangible evi- 
dence of the proctor's velvet sleeves having been 
worn by masters of arts on state or any other 
occasion? DEO DUCE. 

STRAWBERRY LEAVES (5 th S. ii. 129 ; v. 75.) 
In an interesting paper on strawberries in the July 
number of the Gentleman's Magazine there are the 
following remarks : 

"The only allusion to the strawberry in the whole 
series of Notes and Queries is the following question, 
which remained unanswered by any correspondent, nor 
was light thrown on the subject by .any editorial sug- 
gestion. ST. SWITHIN inquires, Why were these leaves 
chosen to decorate ducal and other coronets 1 The 
question cannot be answered in this form, because straw- 
berry leaves were not chosen to decorate coronets, but 
a certain number of conventional leaves were used to 
ornament the crowns of the nobility as early as the 
reign of Edward III., and these leaves, which in early 
coronets are very unlike a strawberry leaf, did not 
receive their modern name till a much later epoch, and 
the reason of their being so named is unknown to us. 
It is only in quite recent times that such expressions as 
' He aspires to the strawberry leaves,' &c., occur in our 
literature; and it may be remarked that the Earl of 
Beaconsfield has made frequent employment of the 
metaphor in his early novels, two examples of which are 
quoted in Latham's Johnson's Dictionary. The ducal 
coronet is ornamented with eight of these conventional 
leaves, as they are guardedly called in the new edition of 
the Encyclopaedia, Britannica, five of which are shown 
in illustrations. When the ducal coronet serves as a 
crest coronet, it only displays three strawberry leaves. 
The coronet of a marquis is heightened by four straw- 
berry leaves, three being visible in drawings, whilst that 
of an earl has eight, with four represented in illustration. 
The coronets of viscounts and barons have no ornamen- 
tation of strawberry leaves, and it was only since as late 
as the reign of Charles II. that baronets were entitled to 
a coronet at all. Since 1715 the base of an archbishop's 
mitre has been a ducal coronet, consequently the straw- 
berry leaves are present. Pleur-de-lys are substituted 
for strawberry leaves in the imperial crown of England 
and in the coronets of the Prince of Wales and younger 
sons of Her Jinjesty, but that of the Duke of Cambridge 
bears strawberry leaves." 

In alluding to " N. & Q." the writer appears to 
have overlooked MR. RULE'S communication in 
5 th S. v. 75, where he asks why, and on whose 
authority, the trefoil floral ornaments of duca] 
coronets were ever called strawberry leaves. 


Godolphin Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

CELTS AND SAXONS (5 th S. xi. 5, 52, 213, 369, 
469 ; xii. 51.) Allow me to state that in my re- 
marks, under the above head, of May 10, Ib79, by 

slip of the pen I wrote " west " instead of " east " 
is the locality of Danish occupation and conquest in 
'reland in the tenth and eleventh centuries ; but 
as regards Miss HICKSON'S challenge for assert- 
ng that Uchtred, son of Waltheof, was likewise 
.ermed Uchtred, son of Scot, I beg to refer her to 
the chartulary of Glasgow Abbey, in which about 
.he year 1116 we find as witnesses Uchtred, son of 
Waldef, and under the same date, and doubtless 
referring to the same person, Uchtred, son of Scotus 
or Scot. I would likewise most distinctly say that 
Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, the Waldef in 
question, was Danish and not Saxon in his pater- 
nal descent, and in right of such descent was Earl 
of Danish Northumbria and Earl or Jarl of North- 
ampton and Huntingdon, in direct descent from 
"" uthrum the Scald, first Jarl of Huntingdon by 
the creation of Alfred the Great, who in 867 
divided England with that royal Dane, assigning 
lim the district called the Danelagh, north of Wat- 
ling Street from Dover to Chester, and ending in 
the northern Roman wall between " Scotwater " 
and " Skotland's firth." It must also be borne 
in mind that Waltheofs son-in-law David, King 
of Scotland (who had married Maud, eldest 
daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Danish Northumbria 
and Huntingdon, and became in her right entitled 
to these possessions), was the first of Malcolm Kan- 
more's race mentioned under the name of " Scotus," 
doubtless from the Danish idea of that locality, as 
situated between the Tyne and the Firth of Clyde, 
and in the ninth and tenth centuries in the occupa- 
tion and under the rule of the royal Skiolding, 
Dubhgall, or Lowlander Scot, a race whose dialect 
to this day bears a strong affinity to Low Dutch as 
spoken in Jutland, and whose customs likewise are 
more Danish than Gaelic. 

Cleveland, Walthamstow. 

Your fair correspondent quotes Miss Gordon 
Gumming as mentioning that a sculptured camel 
in the kirkyard of Canna, in the Hebrides, is " the 
sole instance in which that Eastern treasure appears 
in Scottish sculpture." It is not strictly the only 
instance. John Stuart, in his Sculptured Stones of 
Scotland, besides the Canna camel, mentions and 
figures a camel represented as " kneeling on its 
forelegs on the cross slab at Meigle in Perthshire." 
Stuart quotes the Annals of Ennisfallen in these 
words : "In this year (A.D. 1105) a camel, which 
is an animal of wonderful size, was presented by 
the King of Alban to Mucertac O'Brien." Your 
correspondent says by the King of Scotland. 
Which is correct I have no means of ascertaining, 
but I call attention to it, as the period when the 
name Scotland was confined to what we now call 
Scotland is still, I believe, questionable. 

J. C. M. 

In her interesting communication Miss HICKSON 

. XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 



quotes a passage in Miss Gordon Cumming's book 
in which, mentioning one of the stones in the little 
kirkyard of the island of Canna, she states : 

" It is one of those stones that tells perhaps of ancient 
superstitions, for on it are carved divers emblems of un- 
known meaning, amongst others a camel, the sole instance 
in which that Eastern treasure appears in Scottish sculp- 

This is not, however, the sole instance of the 
appearance of the camel on the sculptured stones 
of Scotland, as I have before me a rubbing I took 
of the Dunfallandy stone, on which the figure of 
the camel is clearly portrayed, and its being found 
so far inland is, I think, even more extraordinary 
than its occurrence on the coast. A. A. 


221, 412, 472, 518 ; xii. 53.) The Moreton family 
seem usually to have borne as arms, Argent, a 
greyhound courant sable, and as a crest a dog's 
head couped argent, and these are given in the 
pedigree of Moreton of Little Moreton in Ormerod's 
History of Cheshire and Burke's History of Com- 
moners. But they sometimes bore the above arms 
quartering Macclesfield, Gules, a cross engrailed 
ermine, on account of Richard, the son of Eralam 
de Moreton, having in the reign of Edward III. 
married Margaret, the daughter and heiress of 
Jordan de Macclesfield, and as a crest occasionally 
a wolf's head erased sable. The arms of Maccles- 
field may. yet be seen incised on a stone shield on 
St. Michael's Church in that town ; and the latter 
crest is yet remaining on an old service of pewter 
at Little Moreton Hall. I have recently paid 
a visit to the old Hall of Little Moreton the 
ancient home and found it most rapidly going to 
decay in fact, it may now be doubted whether any 
amount of money would restore it. The moat was 
choked up with mud, the floors of the rooms giving 
way, the chapel filled with potatoes, and, in fact, 
such a picture of desolation it has rarely been my 
lot to witness. But around all this decay it was 
most remarkable to see the excellent condition 
of the- glass and the lead-work of the windows, 
arranged in beautiful patterns of diaper work ; 
the date must have been the latter part of the 
sixteenth century. It was the time when Lord 
Bacon complained that the houses were " so full 
of glass that we cannot tell where to come to be 
out of the sun or the cold." On a pane is yet re- 
maining the following distich, cut with a diamond : 

" Man can noe more knowe weoman's mynde by teares 
Than by her shadow judge what clothes shee weares." 

Underneath are the names of Jonathan Wood- 
notte and Marie Woodnotte, and the date 1621. 
The pedigree shows that Mary Moreton was 
married to Jonathan Woodnotte of Shavington. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

xii. 45.) Your correspondent will find a full de- 
scription of this instrument, with an explanatory 
engraving by Prof. Willis himself, in vol. v. of the 
Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal, for the 
year 1842, p. 219. I have often had the oppor- 
tunity of observing how well, in the hands of the 
professor, it answered the purpose for which it was 
invented. E. V. 

" STRANG " (5 th S. xii. 89.) This is the verb 
"to strange "= to be surprised at; and it is the 
precise equivalent of the Spanish estranar (from 
estrano = strange). I met with it in a book treating, 
I think, of the Brownists or Muggletonians, but I 
cannot here refer to the passage. I sent the ex- 
tract to the S sub- editor of the Philological Society's 
Dictionary, and Dr. J. A. Murray will no doubt 
find it among his papers. HENRY H. GIBBS. 

ALFRED BUNN (5 th S. xii. 68.) Alfred Bunn 
published, I believe, a skit against Punch. I 
think it had a cover in which the wrapper to 
Punch was imitated. He had been satirized in 
Punch, and took his revenge in this form. 

G. B. 

Upton, Slougb. 

Many years ago (perhaps twenty) I heard a 
printer, who resides in this county, and who 
claims in some way to be related to Alfred Bunn, 
say that he was about to print his Life and Recol- 
lections. He never did it, although I understood 
him to say he had all, or part, of the MS. in his 
possession. If G. W. chooses to write to me I will 
privately furnish him with the name, &c., of this 
printer. R. R. 


DOUGLAS FAMILY (5 th S. x. 428.) Where can 
I see a complete pedigree to 1800 of the Douglases, 
baronets of Kellhead 1 Francis Douglas, Esq., 
a cadet of this family, died at the house of a Dr. 
Johnston, at Mansfield, on his return from Mat- 
lock, whither he had been for his health, in 1793. 
By his will, proved Nov. 14, 1793, he is described 
as of Dean Street, St. Anne's, Westminster. Was 
he ever married, or had he any nephew named 
Francis ? His brothers were : Sir John Douglas, 
of Kellhead, Bart., who died in 1793 ; Stuart, a 
general in the army ; Erskin, a physician, who 
had four daughters, one " Frances, wife of Rev. 
Sanford, of Sunbury, Middx." ; also another 

brother David, who had a son James, a captain. 
Where, also, can I see a complete pedigree to 1800 
of the Douglases of Cavers ? W. H. COTTELL. 
19, Harrington Road, Brixton, S.W. 

HAMLET AND ELSINORE (5 th S. xii. 67.) Mr. 
Augustus J. C. Hare, in the first of a series of 
Scandinavian sketches in Good Words for this 
present August, describes a visit to Elsinore 



[5h S. XII. AUG. 9, '79. 

(Helsingor) and gives a woodcut of its castle. He 
says : 

" The great castle of Kronborg rises, with many 
towers built of grey stone, at the end of the little town, 
on a low promontory jutting out into the sea. Stately 
avenues surround its bastions, and it is delightful to 
walk upon the platform where the first scene of Shak- 
spere's Hamlet is laid, and to watch the numberless 
ships in the narrow Sound which divides Denmark and 
Sweden.... Beyond the castle a sandy plain extends to 
Marienlyst, a little fashionable bathing-place embosomed 
in verdure.... Hamlet's Grave and Ophelia's Brook 'are 
shown at Marienlyst, having been invented for anxious 
inquirers by the complaisant inhabitants. Alas ! both 
were unknown to Andersen, who lived here in his child- 
hood, and it is provoking to learn that Hamlet had 
really no special connexion with Elsinore, and was the 
son of a Jutland pirate in the insignificant island of 


FAMAGOSTA (5 th S. x. 163, 255, 359 ; xi. 32, 
430.) Having been compelled to leave England 
before I had time to revise my former note on this 
subject, I should be obliged if you would permit 
me to amend it by saying that, after a careful 
comparison of the Assyrian form of Ammochostos 
with the Greek, I am convinced that the etymo- 
logy suggested by Sir H. Rawlinson must be 
abandoned, and that the word must be referred 
not to the Phoenician j"lJJJ"lpJ, holy, but to 
fl^"?!"?) new 5 the Greek letter ^ corresponding 
to the Semitic |"f or ^, and not to p. The full 
name would therefore signify f\ JJ* "Iff 
new metropolis, or 

> New Amathus. 

In spite of the reduplicated p, I incline to the 
latter etymology, both Amathus and Ammochostos 
having been amongst the principal seats of the 
cultus of the Dea Syra, or Oriental Aphrodite. 
The initial guttural, moreover, may perhaps account 
for the digamma in the modern name. 

Sehore, Central India. 

P.S. This is an unfrequented nook of India, 
but it does possess a small station library, and on 
turning over the books I was delighted to find 
some old volumes of "N. & Q.," about five, I 
think, commencing from 1857. I need not dilate 
on the never-ceasing pleasure and instruction to 
be derived from turning over these volumes in a 
leisure hour. 

" SHARPE'S LONDON MAGAZINE " (5 th S. x. 428 ; 
xi. 293, 330.) COTHBERT BEDE writes at the last 
reference, " Mr. Alfred W. Cole, who was subse- 
quently the editor, now began to contribute to the 
pages of the magazine." Your correspondent is in 
error. I was never the editor of Sharpe, though 
I did contribute several " Legends in Verse," be- 
sides the tale of " Lorimer Littlegood, Esq.," to its 
pages. When I commenced the last-named con- 
tribution the magazine was edited by a Mr. Strous- 

berg, a Prussian gentleman, to whom, I believe, it 
then belonged, and who had also been, I think, 
the editor of the Bankers' Magazine. My con- 
nexion with Sharpe ceased in 1856, when I left 
England to practise at the Cape bar. I quite agree 
with CUTHBERT BEDE in his estimate of George 
Cruikshank's illustrations of my poor story ; but 
then I used to tease poor old George by telling 
him that he never drew so well after he took to 
total abstinence a charge which he very indig- 
nantly repudiated, maintaining that " the Bottle " 
pictures were his very best. 

Cape Town. 

POL A CRT : MICKIEWICZ (5 th S. xi. 428.) 
Being well acquainted with the Polish and 
Bohemian languages, I can give the answer 
desired, and here it is. Polacky reads in Eng- 
lish Pollaizkey. The a is here to be read like 
a in French or German, and the Iz more like ts 
a general rule. Mickiewicz reads in Polish 
Meetskavich, the a pronounced like a in hay, 
i.e. like a French e. I may here add for future 
use that cz in Polish = ch in church, chimney, 
chapter, &c. ; sz = sh in shop, shape, &c. ; 
szcz=shtch or sh'ch; u oo in boot, hook; ch= 
kh, or the ch of the German. To say that ck sounds 
like sk or thereabouts is decidedly wrong. This 
would be right with respect to the Russian alphabet, 
where c=ss, and k k, i.e. sk. But here we have 
not to deal with the Russian, but with the Polish 
and Czech alphabets. NIELS UNFRIED. 

Pleskau, Russia. 

LORD LEXINGTON (5 th S. xii. 89.) Consult so 
common an authority as Burke's Extinct Peerage, 
where it is stated that the first Lord Lexington 
descended from William de Sutton, one of the 
heirs of Henry Lexinton, Bishop of Lincoln, who 
held the lordship of Lexington, now called Laxton, 
in the county of Nottingham. J. L. C. 

DANIEL JONES (5 th S. xii. 89.) This gentleman 
is probably Mr. Daniel Jones, of Beaupre", in 
Glamorganshire, a large contributor to the local 
charities. He was a man of considerable wealth, 
in the use of which he was very liberal. There is 
a bust of him in the Cardiff Infirmary, to which 
he was a great benefactor. G. B* 

Upton, Slough. 

Mr. Daniel Jones, of Beaupre", Glamorganshire, 
was an eccentric, shrewd, hard-headed man, who 
commenced life as a solicitor, and married Louisa, 
daughter of Whitlock Nicholl, Esq., of the Ham. 
His bust by J. E. Thomas was, I believe, placed in 
the Cardiff Infirmary, to which institution he had 
contributed about 11,000. Mr. Jones died in 
1841, aged eighty-eight. 


5"> S. XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 



A note very similar to the one given at the above 
reference is found in the register of Whittlesey, 
St. Mary, co. Camb., among the baptisms for 
1794, where an entry has this conclusion : " By 
the mistake of y e Nurse this, child was named 
Matthew instead of Martha, the name given her 
by her Parents." W. D. SWEETING. 



68.) Dryden's translation of Virgil's ^Eneid (1697) 
was an early and successful example. The pro- 
posals for subscribers to Pope's translation of the 
Iliad were issued in 1713. The pecuniary result 
was great. But Dr. Johnson condemned the prac- 
tice, saying, " He that asks for subscriptions soon 
finds that he has enemies. All who do not en- 
courage him defame him." But the great lexi- 
cographer could not put a stop to the practice. 
Doddridge's Family Expositor of the New Testa- 
ment was issued by this method without apology 
in 1738. I observe also a list of subscribers in 
Buck's Tlieological Dictionary, 1802, and in other 
books at the end of the eighteenth century. 


" A List of Benefactors of this Work" is given in 
Blome's Britannia, published 1673. Gent's his- 
tories of Hull and Ripon, 1733-5, contain lists of 
subscribers. W. F. MARSH JACKSON. 

"SKYRACK" (5 th S. xii. 69.) CYRIL'S query 
supplies me with a possible note. Will he quote 
the local antiquaries referred to, as their explana- 
tion is valuable if based upon a good foundation ? 
I could answer the question about shire moots 
being marked by a tree by many examples, but 
perhaps I may mention the fact that I have nearly 
completed a study of open-air primitive assemblies 
in Britain, which I hope to publish soon, and I 
think my collection will be tolerably complete. 
" N. & Q." has already assisted me, and I hope 
this note may bring me further help. 


Caatelnau, Barnes, S.W. 

The derivation as given by CYRIL seems to be, 
in its result, correct. The word "Skyrack," as 
applied to the inn, is probably derived from the 
name of the wapentake in which the inn is situated, 
viz. " Seyre Ake," and this word modernized would 
be " shire oak." Watkin, in his treatise on copy- 
holds, mentions a manor in Shropshire where the 
manor court was held under a very aged ash tree, 
and he also says that he knows of other manors 
where the same custom prevails (vol. ii. p. 15, 
second edit.). F. SYDNEY WADDINGTON. 

See " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. xii. 503 ; 4* S. L 58, art. 
" The Skyrack Oak." J. MANUEL. 


49.) The town mentioned where Count Lally's 
descendant lived as a cobbler was Letterkenny, not 
" Lethekenny " as printed. ECLECTIC. 

DE LAUNE FAMILY (5 th S. xi. 468, 509 ; xii, 
29, 53, 98.) Abraham Delaune, second and only 
surviving son of the well-known Gideon Delaune 
(the King's Apothecary), married, as his second 
wife, Anne, daughter of Sir Richard Sondes, of 
Throwley, co. Kent, Kt. Abraham Delaune 
died Jan. 23, 1637-8, more than twenty-one years 
before his father. His widow Anne remarried, 
April 20, 1643, Abraham Chambrelan, of London,, 
who died Aug. 26, 1651 ; and thirdly, Feb. 3, 
1652-3, William, afterwards Sir William, Huges- 
sen, of Lynsted, co. Kent, Kt., to whom she was 
third wife. She was living June 28, 1667, when 
she consented to the marriage of one of her daugh- 
ters, but died before Dec. 13, 1673, when Sir 
William Hugessen had a licence to marry a fourth 
wife. Gideon Delaune, her fourth son by her first 
husband, and younger brother of Sir Wm. Delaune, 
married Anne, daughter of Sir William Hugessen 
by his first wife. Their marriage licence was 
issued from the Faculty Office, April 24, 1673, and 
they were to marry at Gillingham, Kainham, 
Upchurch, or Milton, co. Kent. He was described 
as of Lynsted, Kent, a bachelor, aged thirty-five, 
and she as Anne Weckerlyn, widow, of the same 
parish. She was the widow of Rodolph (or Ralph) 
Weckerlyn. Gideon Delaune was buried at Lyn- 
sted, Oct. 6, 1709, and his widow Anne, Nov. 20, 
1719. They appear to have left no issue. 

J. L. C. 

Hon. Daniel Dulany, Attorney-General, Judge 
of Admiralty, &c., in Maryland, who died Dec. 5, 

1753, originally spelt his name Delany, the same 
as his first cousin, Dr. Patrick Delany, Dean of 
Down, the friend of Swift, and claimed kin to 
Gideon De Laune of Blackfriars, whose arms were 
granted in 1612. These arms, impaled with those 
of his wife's family (she was the daughter of Col. 
Walter Smith), he put on her tomb in St. Ann's, 
Annapolis ; she died March 18, 1737. Dulany's 
death is noticed in Gentleman's Magazine, April, 

1754, p. 191, where the name is given Delany. 
The above may be a partial reply to D. G. 

T. H. M. 

403 ; xii. 38, 73.) It is evident that Mr. Mark- 
wick knew nothing of music as a science. An 
interval is the difference of pitch between one 
sound and another ; and therefore if the bird sang 
kook fifty times it would not follow that she sang 
an interval of a fiftieth. My former statement, 
that a cuckoo sings a variable interval approaching 
a major or minor third, is true from my own fre- 



[5 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 79. 

quent observation, and is corroborated by com- 
petent musicians. W. H. CUMMINGS. 

FROGSHALL (5 th S. xi. 467 ; xii. 55, 76.) There 
is a Froghatt between Kettering and Welling- 
borough, in Northamptonshire ; but it is the name 
of a copse, and not of a house. It is not unlikely, 
however, that a house may once have stood there. 

A. J. M. 

"FouR WENT WATS" (5 th S. xi. 485 ; xii. 74.) 
In Greenwood's large map of Surrey (1823) the 
pond which MR. STILWELL mentions is named 
Four Wench Pond. The " road from Holmwood 
Church to Leigh," across the common, did not 
exist in 1823, Holmwood Church not having been 
built till later. Greenwood's map is on the scale of 
an inch to the mile, and, in general, very accurate. 


THE EVIL EYE AND BED HAND (5 th S. xi. 8, 
293.) To the list of five-fingered mountains 
mentioned by DR. HYDE CLARKE Isandula may 
apparently be added, for I saw it stated in a printed 
private letter from the Cape that Isandula means 
little hand, from the peculiar shape of the mountain 
against which our ill-fated camp was pitched. 
Passing to another quarter of the world, the little 
red coral hands are, or were twenty years since, 
commonly enough sold at Naples as charms against 
the evil eye. A child in our family having a bad 
" crick " in the neck, the Italian doctor gravely 
recommended the purchase of one of these coral 
hands to tie round the neck, and seemed seriously 
to believe that the little girl had been "over- 
looked." A. 

" HYDRAULIC " Music (5 th S. xi. 508 ; xii. 77.) 
In Johnson's Rasselas, chap, vi., there is the fol- 
lowing passage, which may interest ZERO : 

"One of the groves, appropriated to the ladies, was 
ventilated by fans, to which the rivulet that ran through 
it gave H constant motion ; and instruments of soft musick 
were placed at proper distances, of which some played by 
the impulse of the wind and some by the power of the 


In the gardens belonging to the Quirinal Palace 
at Home there is (or was some twenty years ago) 
an organ played by water. It was on the principle 
of the barrel organ, and was so placed that the 
water of a stream in the grounds could be diverted 
at pleasure to turn the motive power. The effect 
was certainly novel, though the performance would 
not have satisfied a refined musical ear. 


Anerley, S.E. 

" DEAD AS CHELSEA " (5 th S. xii. 29, 75.) MR. 
WALFORD may be glad of the following : " ' Dead 
as Chelsea, by G d ! ' an exclamation uttered by 
a grenadier at Fontenoy on having his leg carried 

away by a cannon-ball " (Dictionary of the Vulgar 
Tongue, 1788). E. DE PEVEREL. 

DROUGHT IN SCOTLAND (5 th S. xii. 86.) Surely 
the letter of the gentleman in Paisley, stating that 
" we here for fifteen months have hardly had rain 
enough to lay the dust," must be strangely inaccu- 
rate. By the return of the Registrar-General I 
find that the rainfall in Paisley for the month of 
June was five inches, distributed over eighteen 
days more, in fact, than the average of the eight 
principal towns, which was 4'97 inches. How 
much rain fell between July 1 and July 12, the 
date of the gentleman's letter, I do not know ; but 
I cannot but surmise that the dust was well laid 
by the deluge of June. J. C. M. 

ENGRAVINGS (5 th S. xii. 89.) There are Dr. 
Willshire's Ancient Engravings, second edit., in two 
volumes, 1878 (?), and Mr. L. Fagan's Handbook to 
the Prints and Draivings in the British Museum. 

H. Y. N. 

VON BERLICHINGEN " ? (5 th S. xii. 81.) Most 
undoubtedly he did. " William," as originally 
printed on the title-page, was a sheer blunder, 
which seems to have been discovered shortly 
after publication, and a new title printed, 
but not till after several copies had been dis- 
tributed. All this was done without Scott's know- 
ledge, who never heard of it until more than thirty 
years after, when on seeing the statement in Wil- 
liam Taylor's Survey of German Poetry (vol. iii.), 
that Goets von Berlichingen had been " translated 
by William Scott, Advocate," he wrote to Taylor 
to complain of the mistake. The following para- 
graph in Scott's letter is conclusive : 

" The late Mat. Lewis, commonly called Monk Lewis, 
managed the publication with John Bell, the bookseller. 
Both persons corresponded with me under my well- 
known name of Walter Scott ; nor had they any right or 
apology for changing it into William ; nor did I ever see 
a copy of the book in which I was so transmuted." 

The whole letter, with Taylor's answer, is printed 
in the second volume of Eobberds's Memoir of 
William Taylor. F. NORGATE. 

7, King Street, Covent Garden. 

It is very probable that the translation was a 
juvenile work. German was not, at the time of 
its appearance, very much known in England ; 
and if it be, as MR. KNIGHT says, a work un- 
worthy of Sir Walter, he may in later years have 
been not unwilling to let it sink into oblivion. 

.S. E. 


BISHOPS' WIVES (5 th S. xi. 448 ; xii. 32, 58.) 
The story is not correctly quoted. The answer 
was made to the wife of a bishop of Cork (I think 
St. Lawrence) long before Abp. Whately's time. 


5 th S. XII. AUG. 9, 79.] 



THE "PICTORIAL TIMES," &c. (5 th S. xii. 28.) 
I have copies of this paper up to vol. ix., No. 223, 
June 19, 1847, but I do not know the date of its 
final issue. As your correspondent asks for par- 
ticulars concerning similar " extinct periodical 
journals," I would note that the first, number of 
the Illustrated Times was issued June 9, 1855. 
Of the Illustrated Historic Times, No. 36, vol. ii., 
was published Sept. 21, 1849. I have a bound 
volume of the Literary Times, illustrated with 
views of places, &c., price twopence, the first 
number of which appeared on Saturday, Oct. 17, 
1835. My volume consists of twenty-one numbers. 
There was also another weekly illustrated paper, 
now extinct, Pen and Pencil, conducted by Mr. 
W. J. Linton. I have the first two volumes, in 
the original cloth bindings, of the Illustrated Mid- 
land News, conducted by Mr. Joseph Hatton, the 
first number of which was published Sept. 4, 1869. 
The Graphic and Historical Illustrator, by E. W. 
Brayley, F.S.A. (1834), would seem to have been 
the pioneer of illustrated weekly sheets, although 
the Mirror of Mr, Timbs must not be forgotten, 
together with the Penny Magazine and Saturday 
Magazine. But the first appearance of the Illus- 
trated London News, on May 14, 1842, was a novelty 
in journalism, and its introductory article " Our 
Address," as well as the preface to the first volume, 
should be studied by writers, on this subject. The 
editor truly says in his preface, " We discovered 
and opened up the world of illustration as con- 
nected with news." COTHBERT BEDE. 

Miss LANDON'S LETTERS (5 th S. xii. 49.) The 
tale of "Cacoethes Scribendi" appeared in the 
Atlantic Souvenir for 1830, an annual published 
in Philadelphia. I do not remember the name of 
the author of the tale, and have not the book at 
hand to refer to. M. N. G. 

TOBACCO (5 th S. xi. 225, 273.) In the Reliquiae 
Hearniance, edited by Dr. Bliss, occur the two fol- 
lowing curious passages in reference to smoking, 
which will, I think, interest the many readers of 
"N. & Q." who indulge in that practice : 

1720-1, Jan. 21. "I have been told that in the last 
great plague at London [i.e. in 1665] none that kept 
tobaconist's shops had the plague. It is certain, that 
smoaking it was looked upon as a most excellent pre- 
servative. In so much that even children were obliged 
to smoak. And I remember, that I heard formerly, Tom 
Rogers, who was yeoman beadle say, that when he was 
that year, when the plague raged, a school-boy at Eaton, 
all the boys of that school were obliged to smoak in the 
school every morning, and that he never was whipped so 
much in bis life as he was one morning for not smoaking." 

1723, Sept. 5. ' ' Yesterday, at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
was a smoaking match over against the Theater in Oxford, 
a scaffold being built up for it, just at Finmore's, an ale- 
house. The conditions were, that any one (man or 
woman) that could smoak put three ounces of tobacco 
first, without drinking or going off the stage, should have 
twelve shillings. Many tryed, and 'twas thought that 

a journyman taylour of St. Peters in the East, would 
tiave been victor, he smoking faster than, and being 
many pipes before, the rest : but at last he was so sick, 
;hat 'twas thought he would have dyed ; and an old man, 
that had been a souldier, and smoaked gently, came off 
conqueror, smoaking the three ounces quite out, and he 
told one, (from whom I had it,) that, after it, he smoaked 
four or five pipes the same evening." 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Audi alterant, partem. Balzac, as Raikes tells 
us in his Journal, has painted French manners 
with a truth and accuracy unrivalled. A remark 
by so keen an observer on " the fetid herb which 
overran civilization in less than two centuries" 
may not be undeserving of consideration : " Le 
tabac de"truit le corps, attaque l'intelligence, et 
he"bete une nation." H. D. C. 


THE CLARKE FAMILY (5 th S. xii. 67. 97.) It 
may perhaps be worth while to point out that in 
vol. iii. p. 97 of Excursions in Ireland, by Thos. 
Kitson Cromwell (London, 1820, 12mo.), under a 
notice of Tullaroan, or Grace's parish, in co. Kil- 
kenny, it is said : 

" On a table monument is an inscription to Mr. Gabriel 
Clarke, ancestor of the present Marshal Henry Clarke, 
Duke of Feltre in France, who, dying in 1728, and claim- 
ing an alliance with the Grace family, directed bis body 
to be buried here [in Grace's chapel]." 

In A Survey of Tullaroan, by William Shaw 
Mason (Dublin, 1819, 8vo.), is a copious account 
of the family of Grace, from which probably M. C. 
would obtain more information as to the ancestry 
of the Duke de Feltre. J. EDWIN- COLE. 

St. Stephen's Club, S.W. 


Lectures on the History of England. By J. M. Guest. 

(Macmillan & Co.) 

THE students in the College for Men and Women in 
Queen Square were fortunate in having an opportunity 
of hearing Miss Guest's lectures. There must have been 
very few among them whose knowledge would not be 
much increased thereby. We are not sure, however, 
whether the lecturer would not have served her pupils 
better had she confined herself to a narrower area. The 
history of England from first to last is a vast subject ; 
so vast indeed that, with all the cross lights we now have, 
it is not possible for any one mind to grasp the whole in 
such minute detail as to be able to write upon it with 
advantage to himself and those who read him. Miss 
Guest, we should judge, is far more at home in the earlier 
and latter periods than she is in the time embraced be- 
tween the reign of Henry II. and the death of Charles I. 
With the early part there is little fault to find, and with 
the latter, whether we agree with her or not, if she sins 
it is in the very best company. This can hardly be said, 
however, of her treatment of several other periods the 
Tudor time, for instance. It may be that she is quite 
right in her estimate of the character of Mary of Scotland, 



|5' S. XII. ADO. 9, 79. 

but it would only have been just to her readers to have 
pointed out that the whole case is crossed and recrossed 
by difficulties, and that many of those who are best 
entitled to be heard hold opinions absolutely contra- 
dictory of those put forth by the lecturer. 

The Students' Reminder and Pupils' Help. By Thomas 

Marsh. (Stevens & Haynes.) 

THIS is a help for the early days of an omnivorous stu- 
dent in classics, modern languages, history, &c. Here 
will be found the well-known opening passage of Caesar's 
account of Gaul, Virgil's " Tityre, tu patulse," Horace's 
ode describing "Soracte, white with snow," and other 
familiar school friends. We think the pupil might have 
been cautioned against some of the more prominent 
dangers to which, in the absence of a master, verbal 
interlinear translation is peculiarly open. We hope that 
those who may use his book will not feel bound to adopt 
all Mr. Marsh's views on English history, some of which 
are scarcely in accordance with the latest lights. As a 
vacation companion, Mr. Marsh's book possesses the 
advantage of packing flat, so that it may act as a con- 
venient "Reminder," however far afield the student 
may be going. 

The Neio England Historical and Genealogical Register. 
THIS quarterly magazine, the number of which for July, 
1879, is before us, is now in the thirty-third year of its 
existence. It has always been well conducted, but is, if 
possible, under the admirable supervision of Mr. John 
Ward Dean, better than ever. Many of the papers in 
the present number, as in fact in most of its predecessors, 
are as interesting and important to English as to American 
readers, as they contain valuable details respecting several 
Anglo-American families probably not to be obtained 
elsewhere. For this reason, if for no other, the magazine 
ought to have a large circulation here. Its price is only 
three dollars a year, and it can be ordered of the society, 
whose address is No. 18, Somerset Street, Boston, U.S.A. 

John RusJcin : a Bibliographical Biography. ByW. E. A. 

Axon. (Manchester, Hey wood.) 

THIS little pamphlet has lost in interest by the publication 
of Mr. Shepherd's more complete work, The Bibliography 
of RusJcin. Mr. Axon aims at setting forth the objects 
of Mr. Ruskin's publications, and has succeeded in fur- 
nishing his disciples with a pleasant account of the 
teachings of their master. With what delight will they 
not learn from the preface to Deucalion that Mr. Ruskin 
has sufficient materials by him to publi.-h seventy-three 
more octavo volumes ! 

WE ought to have announced before the fact that it is 
proposed to issue a series of Tracts illustrative of old 
Leeds. The first number of the series has reached us, 
The Early Years of the Leeds Library. We feel sure, 
from the manner in which it has been compiled, and 
from the interest of the parts that are promised, that 
the projectors will experience some difficulty in carrying 
out their threat of limiting the impression to one hun- 
dred copies. 

$0ttreS to CorregpOHtratW. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

PRIVATE STUDEHT. You seem to be working on good 
lines, and for some of your subjects we could not recom- 
mend better books than those you name. For Arabic 
you would perhaps find El Shidiac Fario's Practical 
Grammar (1856) useful, as it contains reading lessons, 
dialogues, &c.; De Sacy's Qrammaire Arabe and his 

Chrestomatkie might be of value later on, and also 
Ewald's Grammatics, Critica (Lipsiae, 1831-33). For 
Sanskrit you might find additional help in Monier 
Williams's edition of the Story of Nala (1860), and in 
his Sanskrit Manual (1862), which contains progressive 
exercises. There are some recent books on Anglo-Saxon 
a Comparative Grammar, and a Reader, by Dr. F. 
March, published in New York (1870-71), which could 
probably be obtained through Triibner or Sampson Low. 
Thorpe's edition of Rask's Anglo-Si'xon Grammar is a 
work of authority, but it may be difficult to meet with 
except in public libraries. Dasent's edition of Rask's 
Grammar of Ike Icelandic or Old Norse Tonyue would no 
deubt be useful, and is probably full enough for any 

R. W. O'BYENE. There has existed since 1872 a per- 
manent body, the Council of Administration of the Ministry 
of Justice of the French Republic, charged with the duty 
of investigating into the right to titles, when brought 
before it, and of preventing the usurpation of titles. 
There are also provisions on this 'subject in the Penal 
Code, art. 259 (Law of May 28, 185S), which impose a 
fine of from 500 to 10,000 francs on any person who 
" without right, and with a view to arrogate to himself 
a designation of honour, shall have publicly taken a title, 
changed, altered, or modified the name assigned to him 
on the State Registers (Actes de I'Elat Civil)." We 
have before us official documents in which the Marshal 
President, Due de Magenta, is described by his title, and 
similarly the Due Decazes, while Minister for Foreign 

C. W. S. (Southampton.) The chapel dedicated to 
SS. Peter and Paul, on the reputed spot where they 
parted to go to their respective places of martyrdom, is 
mentioned in an edition of Vasi's Itinerario di Roma of 
1794 now before us, but very briefly, and without giving 
the inscription. Nibby, in his adaptation of Vasi, does 
not appear to mention either chapel or inscription. But 
Sir George Head, in his Tour of Many Days in Rome, 
London, 1849, vol. iii. p. 75, gives an account of both. 
His version of the inscription is slightly different from 
yours. Of the early history of the chapel little seems to 
be known. It was rebuilt in 1590 by Cardinal Pietro 

J. B. BATTEN (Whitehall Club). We are not aware of 
any authority for attributing a paternal descent from the 
Vikings to the new Prince of Bulgaria. And in any case 
Battenberg is simply a titular designation for the children 
of the morganatic marriage of Prince Alexander of Hesse 
with the Countess Julie de Haucke, daughter of Maurice, 
Count de Haucke, vo'ivode of the kingdom of Poland. 
Battenberg is a small town on the river Edder, or Eder, in 
Electoral Hesse. 

HORACE MURRAY should refer to the periodical in 
which the puzzle originally appeared. Anyhow, his query 
is not suited to the columns of " N. & Q." 

S. H. One of several different species of the genus 
Rubus, including the raspberry and blackberry. 

F. (" Shakspeariana ") has sent no name. 

T. B. G. Many thanks. We will hand the paper and 
catalogue to our correspondent. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; ai. d 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5-s.xii.Au 6 .i6,79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : The Roman System of Provincial Administration, 
121 A Visit to Kirby, 122 Rickmans worth, 123 Galileo 
"The Rose of England," a Christmas Carol St. Botolph, 
Bishopsgate The Iretons, 124 Margaret Sinclair 1 ' God 
speed them well," 125 " Twopenny Damn " Throwing the 
Old Shoe "The Sunny Eye "Bibliography in "N. & Q." 
Sir Gilbert Scott's Marriage, 126. 

QUERIES : Bgranger's Song "Le Bon Dleu," 126 Law- 
rence of Groningen Sannazarius Fowls, 127 "Castle of 
Maidens" Author Wanted "I'll do you dags" Ortellius 
J. Sansbury Heraldic Houston Family The "Mirror" 
A Coach Race "Dryasdust" "Scuppet," 128 Radolph 
Meisy, Preacher " A Form of Penance," &c., 129. 

REPLIES : St. George and the Dragon, 129 The Abbacy of 
Cambuskenneth, 130 Heraldry : The Right to hear Arms 
Irish Members in the First Parliament of the United King- 
dom, 131 The Thames Word Formation Genius, 132 - 
Bambden's Greek " Grammar" C. C. C. Oxford Diprose's 
" History of St. Clement Danes." 133 The Spanish Armada 
Redcoats May Morning, Oxford Sir C. Slingsby 
"Plotty" Waterloo " He must needs," <fec., 134 " Shot- 
over Papers "Children's Games Hawthorne's " Mosses 
from an Old Manse"" Ajamoda" Cabriolet : Cab Ben- 
hall Barony, 135 " Howleglas " " Hatts " Scotch Terri- 
torial Names The Oxford M.A. Gown W. and V. "Smur- 
ring," 136 Proverbs which have changed their Meanings - 
Sutton, Lord Lexington, 137 "Four went ways " Church 
Bell Customs Seventy Years of Wedded Life Curious 
Christian Names, 138 Curious Epitaphs, 139 

NOTES ON BOOKS : " Transactions of the Royal Historical 
Society " " Genealogical Memoirs of the Family of Knox '' 
"Rental Book of Cupar Abbey" "Macmillan's Maga- 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



This work, though avowedly composed from the 
labours of others, is neither a precis nor a mere 
compilation. It is vivified by the expression of 
original views, which are generally just and often 
acute. The subject itself is unquestionably an 
interesting one, as well on its own merits as 
because the provinces of the West, which most 
concern us, still exhibit undeniable marks of that 
Roman organization which accompanied the original 
introduction of the provincial system. 

In a broad sense the provinces may be described 
as being those accessions of territory beyond the 
peninsula which the destiny of the city had com- 
pelled her to acquire. The acquisitions being 
made, Rome at once set to work to utilize them in 
the way dearest to her heart by making one con- 
quest afford the materials for effecting another, 
while the city herself should be relieved of the 
drain of men and money which had pressed upon 
her vitality since her earliest days. The provinces 

* The Roman Syxtem of Provincial Administration to 
the Accession of Conttantine the Great. Being the Arnold 
Prize Essay tor 1879. By W. T. Arnold, B.A. (Mac- 
mfflan & Co.) 

must be made to contribute land tax and other 
revenues to the civic treasury, besides unceasing 
drafts of their military youth. Another boon also 
should be obtained from them. Where the newly 
acquired countries, like Spain and Gaul, and after- 
wards Britain, were more or less temperate in 
climate, they could furnish settlements for emi- 
grating cives Romani. In short, for all purposes 
adapted to the general relief of Italy the provinces 
were made available. But it is scant philosophy 
to limit our views of the operation of the provincial 
system to this one result only. Though the pro- 
vinces expended money and men in the service of 
Rome, they gained quite as much as they lost nay, 
rather gained more than they lost. An old country 
sometimes resigned a faded or a blood-dripping 
nationality, while a new or barbarian country had 
nothing to resign which in any way expressed a 
national existence. The Asiatic had as little claim 
to the latter as the painted savage. But in return 
for their submission the civilized countries gained 
uninterrupted peace and a market for their science 
and art, while the barbarian was prevented from 
doing any more harm to himself and his neighbours. 
At p. 35 Mr. Arnold ably demolishes Mr. Free- 
man's strained notion that "from Mummius to 
Augustus the Roman city stands as the living 
mistress of a dead world." Mr. Arnold asks (and 
the passage is a good example of his style) : 

" Where was the national independence which Rome 
destroyed 1 In Macedonia perhaps alone of all her con- 
quests. There was no nation in Spain, none in Gaul, 
none in Britain, none in Asia Minor. It is impossible 
not to lament the extinction of Macedonia, but it must 
at the same time be remembered that Rome had not pro- 
voked the struggle, and it may be questioned whether 
the Macedonian government bad enough vitality left, if 
quite exempt from Roman interference, to defend its 
subjects from the perpetual encroachments of the bar- 
barians, as Rome defended them. If, then, the Roman 
rule did not in the great majority of cases destroy national 
independence, there being none to destroy, still less did 
it destroy municipal freedom (Mr. Freeman's words). It 
is plain matter of fact that where they found municipal 
arrangements existing the Romans let them alone, and 
even recognized them, and where they did not exist they 
made it their first object to introduce them." 

The countries whose natives were thus transferred 
to Rome would, in the phraseology of English 
public law, be distributable into dependencies and 
colonies, the one division representing old lands, 
almost exclusively peopled with their own inhabit- 
ants, the other comprising those new lands to 
which Rome herself had supplied a population, 
estating it with the tribe lands of the barbarians. 
Between these two denominations the differences 
in practice and principle were grave and essential, 
though they agreed closely in one point the supply 
of money and men to the central government. 
With the colonies, however, the modern western 
European has most concern. In them he finds his 
early history and his indubitable antecedents. The 


NOTES AND QUERIES. is- s. xn. A UG . is, 79. 

fee simple of Spain, Gaul, and Britain was handed 
over to Roman colonists from time to time during 
several centuries, until every acre which was not to 
be fiscal or rei privates of the emperor was appro- 
priated to individuals. Though the natives were 
thus dispossessed and their dangerous tribal 
organization was uprooted, they themselves took 
their appropriate position in the new social hier- 
archy, viz., as coloni or farmers fixed to the soil, 
under the wholesome guidance of their new masters. 
And while these men paid rent the Roman colonists 
in respect of their lands became responsible for the 
land tax and the onera patrimonalia. But though 
planted on a new soil and charged with new duties 
the Roman colonist was still, as he had been, civis 
Romanus. Mr. Arnold's surprise, therefore (p. 37), 
that a Spaniard could be a consul at Rome, or that 
he or another provincial could be emperor even, is 
quite unnecessary. The Spaniard or other pro- 
vincial was in one sense not a Spaniard or a pro- 
vincial at all. He was a Roman citizen, an ingenuus 
of Roman or Latin stock, born merely in Spain or 
elsewhere, to which his ancestor had emigrated and 
where he had received his allotted ctnturia or lati- 
fundium. It is misconstruing history to think 
only of Lucan as a Spaniard or St. Augustine as 
an African. Neither would have relished the 
compliment. It is a similar want of clearness 
which has prompted Mr. Arnold (p. 33) to speak 
of provincial natives as "assimilating Roman 
civilization " because Roman civilization was found 
in their countries. Such culture was certainly 
there, but it was the culture which Roman colonists 
had imported with themselves. Mr. Arnold, how- 
ever, only shares with his authorities this want of 
familiarity with Roman colonization, the proofs of 
which lie principally in the texts of the agri- 
mensores and the epigraphic and material evidences 
still extant of the application of their art. There 
are other points of constitutional interest which 
have also escaped Mr. Arnold. He entirely ignores 
the provincial tenure of land called possessio, though 
upon that only could be levied the land tax. But 
there also his authorities were unable to help him. 
Again, Mr. Arnold's account of the coloni (p. 161) 
would have been made more ample and satisfactory 
if he had had recourse to a more modern authority 
than Savigny. Upon this and other points he would 
have found newer and more detailed information 
in Mr. Coote's Romans of Britain, a work which, 
inter alia, contains an elaborate exegesis of the 
provincial system as demonstrable in Britain. 

Mr. Arnold's interesting book is of a class by no 
means common in England, and we unhesitatingly 
recommend it to both scholars and students. 


Sir Christopher Hatton's "lordly house" of 
Kirby being mentioned in the account of a visit 

to Naseby (ante, p. 81), a description of its 
present state may be interesting, and perhaps 
induce those who do not know it to visit one of 
the finest, if not the finest, of old Elizabethan 
houses before its walls fall down. 

One afternoon, at the end of July, I went to 
see it. From a country road a gate opens into 
fields, and, driving across them, grey roofless gables 
and large mullioned windows are seen between 
fine old trees. The house stands in a large field, 
and all round the ground slopes gently up at a 
little distance from it, so that it is not seen till 
you are near, and, being so retired, is said to have 
been thought of as a hiding-place for George III. 
when Napoleon's invasion was expected. 

Before the entrance is a large square enclosure, 
within grey stone walls, with three gateways, one 
in the centre of each side ; the part of the wall 
opposite the house has an open arcade on the top. 

Through a front now roofless and windowless, 
designed by Inigo Jones, you enter the very large 
court, and it is like a great Italian palace made 
English by the mullioned windows. On all sides 
are pilasters two stories high, fluted, with rich 
capitals ; and two bands of carving, flowers, with 
the Stafford knot and Hatton crest, go all round 
above the windows. Over two of the pilasters on 
the great hall side are carved these letters : 


The house was begun by the Staffords. Four 
beautiful doorways, with two delicate columns on 
square bases, having richly carved capitals and 
lintels, open into the court on each side to the 
right and left on entering ; and opposite, a portico 
of the " three orders," the beautiful little pilasters 
of the upper stage hidden under a mass of ivy, 
forms a projecting centre between five-storied 
mullioned windows, those on one side belonging 
to the great hall. This side, opposite the entrance, 
is solid and deep, and forms the great block of the 
house ; and here a few rooms remain, and you can 
go up the stone staircase, with no balusters and 
partly open to the sky, but still keeping in the 
centre its fine stucco ceiling of bold Italian design. 
It leads to a few rooms, one having a wooden chim- 
neypiece, a niche and wreaths of fruit, and the 
cornice of the room is of fruit with a ribbon twisted 
round. There are two or three more rooms with 
ceilings and cornices of the same date (early eigh- 
teenth century), and a beautiful wreath on the 
ceiling of a little room in the portico opening into 
a balcony. But only curiosity can make one 
forget the risk of walking in these rooms, where 
the ceilings look as if in a few minutes they would 
come down. 

In the great hall a Jacobean waggon-roof ceiling 
remains and the wooden music gallery, supported 
by large acanthus-leaf brackets. Beyond this a 
door leads to broken steps at the back, down 

xii. AUG. 16, -79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


which, tradition says, Sir Christopher Hatton once 
handed Queen Elizabeth ; and going down you 
see, as she did, on the right a bold projection with 
two bays of round mullioned windows, two stories 
high. You go on into the field that was once the 
garden, famous, Bridges says, in his history of 
Northants, for its plants and exotics, and from it 
the view of the house is very beautiful. To the 
right, looking eastward, are the great mullioned 
windows, with trees behind them, and opposite 
the south front of the house, with eleven gables 
varying in shape, proportion, and ornament. 

White pigeons fly in and out of the one gable 
that has a roof ; we found swallows' nests in the 
drawing-room, a hen warned us out of the hall, 
and the rooms with the round mullioned windows 
are shared by an old man and a goose. And this 
ruin has taken place in one lifetime. 

But nothing could be more beautiful than it was 
on that, almost the first, summer day, with the 
grey walls mellowed with lichen in the sunshine, 
masses of hart's-tongue fern for hangings inside, 
patches of golden stonecrop in windows and bal- 
conies, and thick velvet moss on the beams that 
once supported the floor of the long gallery, down 
which Sir Christopher danced with the queen. 

The chimneys are very good, and all the carving 
is unhurt by time. 

Good photographic views may be had of Mr. 
Drake, Uppingham, but the details should be care- 
fully studied and photographed, for they are of un- 
usual beauty ; and one can fancy that in the solemn, 
somewhat ponderous grandeur of Burghley, and in 
the graceful splendour of Kirby, may be seen the 
difference in the characters of the two great men 
for whom they were built. 

Sir Christopher wrote in 1580 that he was going 
to take a pilgrimage to Dene " to view my house 
of Kirby, leaving my other shrine I mean Hol- 
denby still unseen, until that holy saiat may sit 
in it to whom it is dedicated." 

Holdenby has long been gone, all but a frag- 
ment, before photographs were invented; but we 
ought to learn every lesson that Kirby can teach, 
we children " of an age that lectures, not creates," 
before it is silent for ever. 




After an inspection of the records and registers 
of Rick mans worth I am enabled, by the kindness 
of the vicar, the Rev. Alleyne Higgs Barker, M. A., 
to note some few particulars respecting the parish 

The earliest registers, all in good preservation 
are : banns and marriages, 1653-1716 A.D. ; bap- 
tisms and burials, 1653-1704 A.D. By some un- 
published MSS. of Mr. James Birch Sharpe of th 
monuments, tombs, vaults, brasses, &c., certain 

valuable gleanings of the past may be made, in- 
asmuch as no facts appear to have been chronicled 
n the registers respecting monuments defaced or 
removed by the demolition of the old church in 
1825. By Mr. Sharpe's notes, taken in 1825, it 
appears that the parish of Rickmansworth, other- 
wise called Rickmersworth, was in the hundred of 
^assio and in the liberty of St. Albans, and, ac- 
iording to the last census, contained 673 houses, 
663 of which were inhabited, six were uninhabited, 
and four were being built. In these 663 houses 
were domiciled 800 families, 313 being mainly of 
an agricultural character, 271 in trade, and 216 
otherwise employed. Of the population, total 
3,940, 1,961 were males and 1,979 females. Eccle- 
siastically regarded, Rickmansworth was a rectory 
without cure and a vicarage, the Bishop of London 
being patron ordinary and lay impropriator, and 
the benefice then in the diocese of London and the 
precincts of Canterbury. By the above census it 
bias been observed that there were sixty persons 
short of five to a family in the whole. The poor 
rates, too, amounted to 3,065Z. 7s. 4$d. The 
assessment seems to have been somewhat unequal, 
and generally below two-thirds or a moiety of the 
real value of the property. On the discovery that 
the parish church was very decayed and the 
roof in a dangerous condition, a vestry was sum- 
moned on June 18, 1824. From the proceed- 
ings of their meeting, recorded in the handwriting 
of Joseph Caffall, Vestry Clerk and National School 
Master, it may be learnt that the following order 
was passed and duly signed by three church- 
wardens and seventeen inhabitants : 

" The vestry are unanimously of opinion that Mr. 
William Atkinson be instructed forthwith to make a 
minute survey of repairs necessary to the church as well 
as for repewing, with an estimate of the same, keeping 
the repewing distinct. And that the churchwardens do 
immediately communicate with Mr. Atkinson on the 

By the subsequent minutes and the entry " for 
the purpose of taking into consideration the report 
made by the surveyor respecting the necessary 
repairs and alterations to the church, and also to 
make a rate for the use of the poor, and other 
parish business," it seems that the parishioners on 
July 23, 1824, arrived at the following conclusions : 

" Resolred unanimously that it appears to this vestry 
by the surveyor's report that the expense of the necessary 
repairs of the church and chancel and the consequent 
repewing of the same will amount to the sum of 3,9821., 
and that this sum may be greatly increased by the dis- 
covery of further dilapidations in the execution of the 
estimated repairs, when probably with care and economy 
a new church may be built for the same or a little larger 
sum to accommodate at least 2,000, of which 500 or more 
would be free. Resolved, therefore, unanimously that 
a committee of nine gentlemen, to consist of the minis- 
ter, churchwardens, and one inhabitant in each hamlet, 
be appointed and authorized to advertise for plans and 
estimates for erecting and completing a new church, and 
to report the same, together with their opinion thereon, 



s. xn. A. 10, 79. 

to a vestry called for that purpose. Five to be a quorum. 
Resolved unanimously that it be an instruction to the 
committee to take into consideration the propriety of 
putting a new roof of slate upon the church, and to 
ascertain as far as they are able without appointing sur- 
veyors the amount of the expense thereof and the amount 
of the value of the lead on the present roof. The fol- 
lowing persons are appointed to form the committee, 
with the minister and churchwardens : S. Salter, Esq., 
for the town; Thomas Clutterbuck, Esq., for Croxley; 
Mr. R. Barker for Charleswood ; H. Bache, Esq., for 
West Hyde. Resolved unanimously that the committee 
have power to add increase to their number if found 
necessary. Resolved that the report of the committee 
be submitted to a vestry to be called for that purpose 
on or before this day two months. Edward Hodgson, 
S. Salter, W. Bagot." 

The minutes of this vestry are in the hand- 
writing of Mr. Wilson. G. F. BARROW, M.A. 
(To be continued.) 

GALILEO. I have been for some years noting 
the various tracts which have appeared, chiefly in 
Italy and Germany, on the trial of Galileo. Dr. 
F. H. Eeusch, of Bonn, has however made it need- 
less for me to trouble your readers with the cata- 
logue, for his exhaustive treatise, Der Process 
Galilei's und die Jesuiten (Bonn, 1879, large 8vo., 
pp. xii, 428), contains a review of the literature of 
the subject as well as the principal documents at 
length, and a critical commentary upon them. Dr. 
Eeusch has long had the subject before his thoughts, 
having reviewed from time to time the publications 
of Gebler and many others in his (now unhappily 
defunct) Theologisches Literaturblatt. The clear- 
ness and judicial calmness of Dr. Eeusch's style 
are known to many Englishmen. This new book, 
which is most conveniently arranged in chapters, 
and furnished with a full table of contents and 
index, may stand in the place of all other works on 
the subject, for it is a digest of all. One quali- 
fication, a very rare one, Dr. Eeusch can boast, 
which probably is wanting to every other labourer 
in the field, viz., an exact acquaintance with the 
literary policy of the Church of Eome. The late 
Eev. Joseph Mendham had such a knowledge, Dr. 
Gibbings of Dublin and Dr. Db'llinger of Munich 
have it, but many write glibly on these matters 
who have yet to learn that any special study of the 
subject is required. Dr. Scartazzini, an author 
whose views on almost every disputed point are 
combated by Prof. Eeusch, calls his book "the 
most important that has hitherto been written on 
the life, the works, and especially the trial of 
Galileo." It is " a true model of extensive and 
thorough learning and literary conscientiousness " 
(see the last number of the Rivista Europea of 
Florence). One word more. Why does a pro- 
gressive firm sanction an exploded fiction by retain- 
ing the motto " E pur si muove " ? 



CAROL. In a very interesting and valuable, 
though much dilapidated, MS., lately bought for 
the British Museum by its energetic Keeper of the 
Manuscripts, Mr. Maunde Thompson, are four 
verses of a carol which seems to refer to Henry V.'s 
victory at Agincourt (?). As I do not recollect 
having seen them before, I ask you to print them, 
on the chance of some one else knowing of a 
complete copy of the carol. 

A Carolle ffor Cristymesse. 
The Rose es the fayreste fflowr of alle 
That ever more wasse, Or ener more schall ; 
Off alle thies flowres the Rose berys pryce, 
The Rose of Ryse. 

The Rose it es b e fairest flour, 
b e Rose es swetteste of odoure ; 
b" Rose, in care it es comforthetour, 
b e Rose, in seknes it es saluoure, 
In medcynne it es moste of myghte, 

The Rose so bryghte. 

Witnesse thies clerkes b' bene wysse, 
b Rose es b" flour moste holdyn in prysse, 
berfore me thynke b' flour delyce 
Scholde wirchipe b e Rose of Ryse, 
And so scholde ober flowres alle 

And bere his thralle. 

Many a knyghte w* spere & launce 
ffolowede b' Rose to his plesance, 
When b e Rose by-tyde a chaunce, 
ban ffadede alle b e floures of fraunce 
in plesance of b e Rose so trewe, 

And chaungyde hewe. 

IN 1819. G. B. B. has made a mistake. He 
writes (ante, p. 104) that in the latter part of the 
year 1819, when seventeen years old, he went with 
his brother, the Eector of St. Botolph, Bishops- 
gate, to visit a centenarian. The visit could not 
have taken place in the year which he mentions, 
by which I mean that G. B. B.'s brother was not 
Eector of St. Botolph in the year 1819. My 
father was at that time Eector of St. Botolph, 
Bishopsgate, having been collated to the living in 
1815. The mistake is not unnatural, considering 
the circumstances, because my father resigned 
Bishopsgate in April, 1820, when he accepted the 
see of Killaloe ; but a date which appears in the 
columns of " N. & Q." is looked upon with respect, 
and may be afterwards quoted upon that authority 
if not corrected. I therefore correct the error. 

Fulwell Villa, Upper Teddington. 

I have been lately going through the registers of 
Attenborough Church, near Nottingham, and im- 
proved the occasion by taking a literal transcript 

S. XII. AUG. 16, 79.] 



of the entries that crossed my examination re- 
lative to the Ireton family. I present them 
seriatim : 

1. " Henricus Ireton infant Germa'ni Ireton baptizat 
fuit 3 die mensis Novembris A 1611." 

2. "Johannes Ireton infant Germanni Ireton armig' 
baptizat fuit 17 die niensis Octobria A 1615." 

3. " Mathens Ireton infant Germa'ni Ireton baptizat 
fuit in festo s'cti Ma... " (remainder illegible). 

4. "Thomas Ireton infant Germani Ireton armig' 
baptiz. fuit 4 die Maij. A 1619." 

The first entry, which relates to the baptism of 
Sir Henry Ireton the regicide, has been in more 
than one instance incorrectly transcribed, e.g., the 
Gent. Mag., April, 1788, has : " Henricus Ireton, 
infans Germani Ireton arm. baptizat fuit Decimo 
die mensis, Novembris, 1611." If compared with 
my copy it will be found that, besides some errors 
of small moment, an important mistake is made 
in the day of the baptismal rite. 

In the Reliquary, vol. x. p. 169, a pedigree is 
given of the Ireton family, by John Sleigh, Esq., 
and an error made therein, as to the parents of 
Henry Ireton and his brothers, is pointed out in 
the same volume, p. 254, by a correspondent who, 
however, unfortunately falls into a mistake himself 
by reproducing the erroneous entry, as just above 
quoted, from the Gent. Mag. 

In vol. xiii. of the Reliquary, pp. 77-80, extracts 
are given from the parish registers of Attenborough, 
and Henry Ireton's baptismal entry is there cor- 
rectly described, with the exception of the omis- 
sion of the word " die." The entries of Matheus 
and Thomas Ireton also appear, but not that of 
Johannes Ireton. Henry Ireton, as we all know, 
married Oliver Cromwell's daughter Bridget, and 
it may be interesting to give the curious entry 
in the parish register of Holton, near Oxford, 
on the occasion of his marriage, and which is 
related in the volume just referred to, p. 189 : 
" Weddinges. 

" Henry Ireton, Commissary General to Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, and Bridget, daughter to Oliver Cromwell 
Lieut. Gen 1 of the horse to the said Sir Thomas Fairfax 
were married by Mr. Dell in the lady Whorwood her 
house in Holton, June 15, 1646." 

My second entry refers to a younger brother o; 
the general's, who was alderman and afterwards 
(1658) Lord Mayor of London ; was knighted by 
Oliver Cromwell, but after the Restoration assumec 
the style of John Ireton, Esq. He died in 1689 
and was buried in the parish church of St. Bartho- 
lomew the Less, London. The third and fourth 
entries also refer to younger brothers, but of whom 
I have been able to gather no information : in al 
probability they died young. 

The registers of Attenborough Church have been 
moderately well kept. There are two old book 
No. 1 dates from 1560 to 1643 ; No. 2 from 1653 
to 1777. It will be noticed that the register i 
defective from 1643 to 1653 ; this, no doubt, is fullj 

ccounted for by the ecclesiastical anarchy which 
,t that time prevailed. F. D. 


Miss MARGARET SINCLAIR. Another link of 

he few remaining which connect us with '45 is 

now snapped. It is desirable to record the fact in 

' N. & Q." The following is taken from the Times 

ibituary of the 6th inst. : 

" One of the best known members of the old Edinburgh 
ociety, and one of the last survivors of the Abbptsford 
circle, has just passed away in Miss Margaret Sinclair, 
of Ulbster, who died on the 4th of August at her resi- 
lence in Sloane Street, in her eighty-seventh year. 
Second daughter of the Right Hon. Sir John Sinclair, 
f Thurso Castle, Caithness, M.P., founder of the Board 
jf Agriculture, by his second wife, the Hon. Diana Mac- 
donald, only daughter of Alexander, Lord Macdonald (of 
;he Isles), and the personal friend of Anne Scott, Sir 
Walter's daughter, she lived through the most brilliant 
period of the social life of the northern capital. She had 
;he curious fortune of being god-daughter to Prince 
Charles Edward's protectress (her great-grandmotker, 
Lady Margaret Macdonald), and of being presented at 
Court in her extreme youth by the old Duchess of 
Gordon, the celebrated beauty. She was intimate with 
the princesses of the old royal family, and retained to 
;he last a multitude of recollections of the world of two 
generations ago. She was one of fifteen children, who 
were all distinguished for their appearance and talent. 
Their town residence in Edinburgh was for three-quarters 
of a century one of the principal centres of the season 
there, and the pavement outside was popularly known as 
the Giants' Causeway, as the average height of the 
family was not less than six feet. Among them were 
Sir George Sinclair, M.P., the friend of William IV. ; 
Archdeacon Sinclair, the well-known promoter of the 
National Society; Prebendary Sinclair, of Chichester; 
Alexander, the Scotch genealogist ; Janet, Lady Col- 
quhoun of Colquhoun ; Hannah, authoress of the Letter 
on tiie Principles of the Christian Faith ; Catherine, the 
novelist; and Julia, Countess of Glasgow." 



The following will prove interesting to some of 
your readers. Some one having asked in the 
Church Times of the 18th ultimo whether any one 
could tell him anything of a custom in vogue in 
the parish of Claxby, Market Rasen (and in others 
in the locality), of saying " God speed them well " 
(by the clerk) after the third time of publishing the 
banns, the Rev. Ernest Geldart, Hatchford, Cob- 
ham, Surrey, wrote : 

"The custom alluded to by your correspondent of 
greeting the last publication of banns with the response, 
'God speed them well,' is not confined to the parish 
mentioned. At Croxton Kerrial, near Melton Mowbray, 
exactly the same words are used ; and, so far as I know, 
have been from time immemorial. Another quaint cus- 
tom prevails there which I do not remember to have 
noticed elsewhere, which is that before the parish feast 
it is considered almost a necessity to repaint or rewhiten 
the front of every cottage in the village." 
And another correspondent : 

" The custom alluded to by your corespondent prevails 
in the parish of Birkby. It is a very small, primitive 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. xn. A. IB. '79. 

village. The little church stands on a slight eminence, 
about a furlong from the railway, six miles north oi 
Northallerton. I officiated there at a wedding some 
years since, and the clerk, in the middle of the service 
after the first Blessing, and before the Canticle, intoned 
with a loud voice the words, ' God spede 'em weel. 
Another custom prevailed in the same parish. The 
bridegroom always put into the priest's hand a larger 
piece of money than the amount of the fee, and the 
priest was required to give the change to the bride. The 
old Saxon Missal directed ' that a piece of silver should 
be given by the man to the woman ' when he said the 
words, ' with all my worldly goods I thee endow.' I have 
no doubt this custom of giving the silver to the woman 
immediately after the ceremony is the traditionary con- 
tinuance of the custom enjoined in the pre-Reforination 
Prayer Book." 

Eockliffe Lodge, Leighton Buzzard. 

" TWOPENNY DAMN." In a letter to Mr. Ellis, 
dated March 6, 1849, Macaulay writes: "How 
they settle the matter I care not, as the duke says, 
one twopenny damn" (see Life, ii. 257, ed. 1878). In 
a note on the expression Mr. Trevelyan says : 
" It was the Duke of Wellington who invented 
this oath, so disproportioned to the greatness of its 
author." But perhaps the last word should not 
be spelt with an n. Is there not in India a small 
coin called a dam, worth about three farthings ? In 
a quotation I have met with from a code of Gentoo 
laws, a good wife is one who will not expend a 
single dam without her husband's consent. The 
duke's expression may possibly not be an oath, 
but simply an assertion of unconcern expressed in 
monetary terms. 

Compare the similar expression, " Not worth a 
curse" which is the modern meaningless corruption 
of " Not worth a hers "=" Not worth a cress " (see 
Skeat, Etym. Diet., s.v. "Cress"). 



PAIR. This seems to have been intended as an 
augury of long life to the bride. Carpentier, in 
his continuation of Ducange, explains the throwing 
up a shoe aloft as an augury respecting the life of 
the person to whom the shoe belongs. " Vanum 
prsesagium, imo scelestum sortilegium, initio nuper 
actse Quadragesimse, de illo (filio) exercuisti ; ut 
quasi mori non posset, cujus calceamentum in 
altum projectum ultra trabem supervolasset. Pec- 
catum tibi niansit et filii vita recessit" (Vita S. 
Arnulphi). H. WEDGWOOD. 

A PARALLEL : THE SUNNY EYE." " To see the 
sun the eye must be sunny " is a sentiment which 
is attributed to Goethe. It occurs in Jer. Taylor's 
" Sermon preached before the Univ. of Dublin," 
Worlcs, Eden's edit., viii. 375, as, " Though the 
windows of the east be open, yet every eye cannot 
behold the sun ; Plotinus saith, ' the eye that is 
not solar cannot see the sun'; and it is not the 

wit of the man, but the spirit of the man ; not so- 
much his head as his heart, that learns the divine 
philosophy." The reference to Plotinus is Ennead. 
i. lib. vi. c. 9, p. 115, Ov yap av TTCOTTOTC fiSev 
d^OaXfJLus vjXtov, ^AioeiSiys /XT) yeyev^/zcvos. 


consulting the indexes of " N. & Q." with the 
object of finding what special bibliographies have 
from time to time appeared, I find that some of 
the special bibliographies which I remember to 
have seen in " N. & Q." are not indexed under the 
word " Bibliography." A list of the special 
bibliographies in " N. & Q." is therefore much to 
be desired. Will readers forward (say on post- 
cards) references to those special bibliographies 
which they chance to know of in "N. & Q."? 
And further, will such readers as feel inclined 
scan an index or a volume and forward a note 
(giving series and volume) of having done so, 
together with the references they have made ? 
The references received I hope to group in a list 
for a future number of " N. & Q." One more 
request. Will readers contribute towards a 
dictionary of catalogues of books on special sub- 
jects by forwarding to " N. & Q." the titles of new 
books (and of little-known old books) which con- 
tain special bibliographies not referred to on the 
title-pages ? The editor, I feel sure, will be good 
enough to allow all the above communications to- 
be addressed under cover to him for me. 

F. W. F. 

Gilbert Scott himself is in error on the precise 
date of his marriage, who shall decide the point 1 
In the newly published volume of Personal anc$ 
Professional Recollections, by the late Sir George 
Gilbert Scott, edited by his son, I read, p. 85, "Io 
1838 (June 4th), I was married to my dear cousin 
Caroline "; p. 250, " We were married on June 5th, 
1838." P. W. TREPOLPEN. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

of your French readers tell me what is the exact,, 
or at least the nearest, English equivalent for the 
phrase " Le Bon Dieu " 1 I have been led to make 
his query by some remarks in Mr. W. H. Pollock's 
Lectures on French Poets, delivered at the Eoyal 
Institution, and lately published, dh Beranger'& 
song so entitled. Mr. Pollock says that this song 
gave great offence both in France and England, 
and that the Quarterly Revieivin. 1831 characterized 

sth a. XIL AUG. 16, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


it as " execrably irreverent," and called its verses 
" batches of blasphemy." The lecturer states that 
" it may be not altogether uninteresting to refer to 
this expression of opinion as an instance of how 
things have changed since 1831," meaning by this, 
as I understand him, that people nowadays do not 
consider the song either blasphemous or irreverent. 
This is a matter of opinion ; but, speaking for my- 
self, although I would not go so far as the Quar- 
terly Bevieiv in terming it " blasphemy," because 
this, I should say, includes the idea of intention 
and I feel sure that Beranger had no such inten- 
tionstill I cannot well see how any one can read 
the song without coming to the conclusion that the 
poet, notwithstanding the justness of some of the 
sentiments expressed, was guilty of glaring pro- 
fanity. I know of few things in literature equal 
in profanity to the refrain : 

" Je veux, mes enfants, que le diable m'emporte, 
Je veux bien que le diable m'emporte." 

When it is remembered into whose mouth Beranger 
puts these words, one is almost inclined to think 
that he must have been temporarily bereft of his 
senses when writing them. There is perhaps, 
however, one excuse for the poet, and this forms 
the main subject of my note, namely, "Le Bon Dieu" 
probably to a Frenchman means something very 
different from what a literal translation of the 
words into English would mean to an Englishman, 
and this meaning I wish to ascertain. A friend 
suggests that " Le Bon Dieu " is something like 
our "Providence." This explanation would be 
partially, but not wholly, satisfactory. It is 
singular that Beranger and his prototype, the 
sweet singer of Scotland, should both on occasion 
have been guilty of sad profanity, although pro- 
bably unintentionally in both cases. I allude to 
stanzas viii., ix., and x. of Holy Willie's Prayer. 
But I hardly think that even these are quite equal 
in this respect to Beranger's extraordinary refrain. 

Bexley Heath, Kent. 

LAWRENCE OF GRONINGEN. In the latter part 
of the sixteenth century a certain Stephen Law- 
rence was a "Captain in the Low Countries." He 
was an Englishman. His descendants were settled 
in England, Holland, and America. In 1668 
Adolphus Lawrence held a high official appoint- 
ment at Groningen, where his arms (sculptured) 
may still be seen along with (impaled ?) those 
apparently of his office, which are thus described : 
" Zyn wapen is gedeeld linker helft een halve arend : 
regterhelft een balk waarin een zespuntige 
ster : op het gekrvande helmteeken staat een 
zespuntige ster. Dit waapen heeft lenige gely- 
kenis met dat van de famille Lawrence." I am 
not a Dutch scholar, and therefore unable to 
translate the above. Thomas Lawrence of 
Groningen went to New York, where, in 1663, 

he married Mary Longfield in the old Dutch 
church. He brought with him (still preserved as an 
heirloom) a massive silver cup bearing these arms : 
A double-headed eagle displayed ; a profile helmet 
with handsome mantling, and, on a wreath, the 
crest, a dexter hand, fingers apart, over which 
five stars. Below the shield is the collar of 
some order. I should be glad to know what 
arms these are. J. H. L. A. 

[See " N. & Q.," 4"' S. iv. 31, 123, 148 ; xii. 489, 511 ; 
5'h S. ii. 285.] 

SANNAZARIUS. Robert Blakey, in his Historical 
Sketches of the Angling Literature of all Nations, 
says : 

" The ' Eclogues ' of Sanazarius are nine in number. 
The first is on the angling seasons.... The second eclogue 
is devoted to a description of night fishing.. ..The third 
eclogue describes the river enemies of the trout and 
salmon.. ..In the fourth eclogue, entitled 'The Sea 
Swains,' &c....The fifth eclogue describes the feelings of 
a young angler who has been crossed in love.. ..The sixth 
is the angler's songs.... In the seventh eclogue we have 
' The Strife'; in the eighth, 'The Fowlers'; and in the 
ninth, ' The Complaints, or the Friends.' " 

But according to Vulpius's edition of Sannazarius's 
Latin poems, published at Padua in 1719, which 
is a good edition, and according to all the best 
editions, there are only five eclogues, which are 
followed by " Salices," and at the end of the 
epigrams in Vulpius's edition there is a fragment. 
Will some one kindly say what eclogues are 
generally referred to in speaking of Sannazarius's 
piscatory eclogues 1 also, if the five eclogues con- 
tained in Vulpius's edition are the same as some 
of those mentioned by Blakey, and, if not, where 
these referred to by Blakey may be found ? 


FOWLS. " All fowls that creep, going upon all 
four" (Levit. xi. 20). In this passage in the 
A. V., as in earlier versions, the term " fowls " is 
applied to flying insects, as locusts and grass- 
hoppers (v. 22). This use of the word agrees with 
the derivation, but is at least most uncommon, 
and I venture to ask for other instances of it. 
In Wilson's Bible Student's Guide, Lond., 1850, 
the application of the Hebrew word mj^ to 
" flying insects " is noticed. But the more ' recent 
English glossaries of Bible words which I have 
seen omit it, as also does the earlier Explanation 
of Obsolete Words, by Archd. Cotton, Oxford, 1832. 
Cruden also, at least in the editions of the Con- 
cordance up to Lond., 1836, has no reference to 
either " fowl " or " creep " as occurring in this 
place. The Vulgate has, " Orune de volucribus," 
from which, probably, this translation came. 


Sandford St. Martin. 

P.S. I have now seen the following instances 
of the use of " fowls " in this sense. Ecclus. xi. 3, 
which in the A. V. is, " The bee is little among 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ s. xu. AUG. i, 79. 

such as fly," is translated by Coverdale, " The bey 
is but a small beast amonge the foules," with 
which, except in spelling, the Bishops' Bible corre- 
sponds. The same verse is translated in the 
Geneva Bible, " The bee is but small among the 

" CASTLE OP MAIDENS."" Edenburghum, urbs 
. . . quse quondam vocabatur castrum puellarum" 
(Higden's Polychronicon, ii. 64, Kolls Ser.). In 
SpurrelPs Welsh Dictionary, Castell y Morwynion 
(Castle of Maidens) is given as an old name for 
Edinburgh. Is there any legend connected with 
the name ? A. L. MAYHEW. 


AUTHOR WANTED. Is anything known of the 
author of the following, or whether it is real or 
fictitious ? 

" A Short account of the extraordinary life and travels 

of H. L. L , native of St. Domingo, now a prisoner 

of war at Ashbourn in Derbyshire, shewing. ..the means 
of his conversion to God.... Written by his own hand. 
Printed and sold by Parkes, Ashbourn.. .[1804]. 12mo. 
pp. 64, 1*. 

O. H. 

" I 'LL DO TOTJ (OR TOUR) DAGS." An expression 
used by children of young, and sometimes of older, 
growth, meaning, "I'll do something that you 
cannot do." What is its origin and the etymology 
otdags? J. J. 

ABRAHAM ORTELLIUS. I recently purchased an 
atlas, the plates of which are stated to have been 
engraved by Abraham Ortellius, date 1590. I find 
on referring that Ortellius was the geographer of 
Philip II. What is the literary value of the atlas 1 

L. M. 

JOHN SANSBURT. Nicholas Carlisle, in his En- 
dowed Grammar Schools, vol. ii. p. 68, gives, as one 
of the celebrated scholars of the Merchant Taylors' 
School, John Sansbury, and styles him " the Latin 
dramatic poet." Cunningham does not reckon him 
with the distinguished Mercatores, having probably, 
like myself, never heard of him. The Penny Cyclo- 
paedia does not mention him, nor does Payne (Diet, 
of Dates) nor Phillips ; but for all our silent 
ignorance I suppose he must have been a very 
eminent satirist in his day. Can anybody make 
a fact adhere to this ghost of a scholar or furnish 
a semblant corporeity to this labourer in learning, 
who is at present nothing more than a shadow of 
ink upon paper ] I see by Allibone that he went 
to St. John's College, Oxon, became vicar of St. 
Giles's there, and that his Tragedice Diverges are 
still in MS. though acted at Oxford. Died 1609. 

C. A. WARD. 

HERALDIC. In my collection is the following 
book-plate : Arms, Ar., on a chev. az., betw. three 

torteaux, as many cinquefoils or ; a chief chequy or 
and az. Crest, a griffin salient, holding in its 
mouth a key or. Motto, " Fortiter occupa portum." 
To whom does this coat of arms belong ] 


RENFREWSHIRE. Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
give information as to what member or members 
of this family came to America about the year 1740 
or perhaps rather earlier? William Churchill 
Houston, born in South Carolina about that date, 
was a prominent citizen of the state. He graduated 
at Princeton College in 1768, was member of the 
Convention for framing the Federal Constitution, 
member of the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, 
1775-6, and member of the Continental Congress. 
He died in Philadelphia in 1793. This gentleman 
was undoubtedly one of the Houstouns of Renfrew- 
shire, and information is desired as to the name of 
his father and date of emigration to this country. 

209, South Third Street, Philadelphia, U.S. 

THE " MIRROR." There was a magazine called 
the Mirror published in Edinburgh in 1779-80, 
and reprinted in three vols., 12rno., in 1809, when 
it was published by Taylor & Hessey, in Fleet 
Street. It consists of essays, somewhat after the 
fashion of the Tatler, Idler, Guardian, &c. Who 
was its editor, and what is known of its history 
and career ? E. WALFORD, M. A. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

A COACH KACE. Under date of May 20, 1658 r 
Evelyn recorded in his Diary, " I went to see a 
coach race in Hyde Park, and collationed in 
Spring Gardens." Where can I find any details 
of this sport ? EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

"DRYASDUST." Is it known who coined this 
word, now so universally applied to an antiquary 
or archaeologist ] The question was put to me the 
other day, and I assigned its paternity to Sir 
Walter Scott, for I do not think that it was in 
vogue prior to the appearance of the Waverley 
Novels. Thomas Carlyle uses it very frequently, 
and its cognate adjective, " Dryasdustical," in his 
Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, published 
originally in 1845. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" SCUPPET." What is it and where can I find 
it described ] It is not in Ogilvie. I find the 
word used to describe an instrument that is repre- 
sented, together with a palm branch, on the rev. 
of a copper halfpenny token (see Batty's Copper 
Coinage, p. 130, No. 774, Hackney ; also Pye, 
pi. xxxiv. No. 1). It is also, with the palm 
branch, on the rev. of a gilt pattern halfpenny I 
have of George III., 1788, by Droz, struck at Soho 
by Boulton & Watt. Mr. D. T. Batty, Man- 

5". s. xii. AUG. 16,79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Chester, writes to me : " The device (a ' scuppet ') 
you draw my attention to is used by Conder, p. 83, 
No. 120, and is, I believe, an agricultural instru- 
ment used (and so called) in the South for cutting 
hay from the stacks as required for feeding the 
cattle in winter, though I do not quite see its 
emblematic connexion with a palm branch, signify- 
ing, I presume, victory, or possibly peace. It is 
not very unlike the Roman clavus, or helm." The 
pattern halfpenny of George III. is also curious in 
having on edge, " Eender to Cesar the things 
which are Cesars," which does not agree with 
Matt. xxii. 21, Mark xii. 17, or Luke xx. 25. 


[For the clavus, see Smith's Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities (Murray).] 

KADOLPH MEISY, PREACHER. On a raised tomb 
in the old churchyard of Randwick, near Stroud, 
Gloucestershire, there are these inscriptions : 

" Heare sleepeth the body of | Margret, the wife of 
Had | olph Meisy, Preacher, aged 83 [?]. | Her faith had 
long war | with ain and Satan, and had | a joyful victory 
by Christ | the xix of April, Ano 1628." 

" Heare sleepeth the body of | Radolph Meisy, 
Preacher, | a gentelman by birth, a | painful labovrer 
in the | ministry 34 years, and | rested the 24 of Decem- 
ber, | Anno 1628." 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." oblige me with 
particulars of this worthy minister or with refer- 
ences to any sources of information 1 He is not 
mentioned in Stratford's Good and Great Men of 
Gloucestershire, Cirencester, 1867. But this need 
not surprise us, for the volume, as the author 
states in his preface, " is not presented as con- 
taining a full roll of our county worthies ; it could 
be greatly lengthened by names from the lists of 
the dead and the living." ABHBA. 

was prepared A.D. 1637 by Matthew Wren, 
Bishop of Norwich, for Archbishop Laud, at the 
request of the Bishop of Exeter, who had many 
cases of renegades, amongst sailors and seamen, 
who wished to be received back to the Church. 
The service is given at length in Collier's Eccles. 
Hittory, vol. ix. Was it ever used, and in what 
instances ? L. PH. 

(5 th S. viii. 447 ; ix. 189, 209, 349, 417, 495 ; 

x. 39, 157, 357.) 

In the passage quoted by A. P. S. (5 th S. 
ix. 209) from Dean Stanley's Lectures on the 
Eastern Church, it is said that there can be no 
doubt that the story of St. George the Martyr 
" has been incorporated with an Arian legend of the 
Arian George, Bishop of Alexandria, murdered by 

the Alexandrian mob," and that " in this legend 
(told at length in the A eta Sanctorum, April 23, 
pp. 120-123), the contest of St. George is for the 
Empress Alexandra, in whom we can hardly fail 
to see the type of the Alexandrian church," &c. 
This statement is somewhat misleading, inasmuch 
as the legend told at length in Acta Sanctorum, 
pp. 120-123, has nothing whatever to do with the 
Arian George, who has been summarily disposed 
of some pages before. Nor does the narrative in 
question contain one word about a " contest for 
the Empress Alexandra," whose name only occurs 
two or three times ; first, quite incidentally, when 
it is said that she had secretly become a Christian, 
and again towards the end, when, after a dead 
man had been restored to life, and the statues of 
Apollo and other gods had fallen down, she openly 
declares her faith, whereupon the emperor in a 
rage orders her and George to be beheaded. The 
writers in the Acta Sanctorum, before giving this 
story of the martyr, not only denounce the errors 
of those who have confounded the two Georges, 
showing that the Arian Bishop of Alexandria 
could have no possible claim to the title of martyr, 
but also repudiate in strong language the many 
false miracles, "non tantum fide sed etiam lectione 
indigna," attributed to the saint, among which 
they specially mention the story of the dragon, 
which they say was never heard of in Europe till 
about the year 1100,* when it seems to have been 
imported from the East, and having afterwards 
become generally known through the Golden 
Legend of J. de Voragine, " deinceps sic nota fuit 
ut quicunque Georgii res attingebat nihil fecisse 
videretur nisi hanc gemmam eis insereret." This 
supposition that the story originated in the East 
seems to have no other foundation than the mere 
fact of its being unknown in Europe before A.D. 
1100, whence it was inferred that it must have 
been imported by some of the Crusaders on their 
return from the Holy Land. Mr. Leaton Blen- 
kinsopp, on the contrary (Christian Remembrancer, 
April, 1863, p. 361), says that it is " of purely 
Western origin, for it is unknown in the East." 
Nor is this assertion at all invalidated by an ex- 
pression of Felix Faber, in his Evagatorium Terrce 
Sanctce (A.D. 1480), when, speaking of St. George, 
he says, " Venerat enim de Cappadocia in Syriam, 
ubi draconem interfecit juxta Barutum," which 
certainly does not necessarily imply that the 
legend was believed, or even known, by the in- 
habitants there before his time. It is, however, 
noteworthy that all the traditions seem to agree 
in laying the scene of the exploit in the East,t 

* " Ante a. 1100 nihil ejus fuisse in Europa scitum pro- 
bat scriptorum omnium antiquorum silentium" (p. 104). 

f Pococke, travelling in the East, in the early part 
of the last century, saw, at a short distance from the 
town of Bey root, " the place where they say St. George 
killed the dragon." 



xn. A m -w. 

which affords an additional ground, if any were 
needed, for rejecting the extraordinary theory that 
the dragon is "the embodiment of Athanasian 

As for the conjecture that St. George became 
patron saint of England, " by a simple confusion 
of names," instead of St. Gregory, it has not even 
the recommendation of novelty, having been 
originally put forth by the ingenious and very 
eccentric Mr. John Byrorn, and entirely demo- 
lished more than a hundred years ago by Dr. 
Samuel Pegge, in a paper presented to the Society 
of Antiquaries (Archceologia, vol. vii.). 

7, King Street, Covent Garden. 

21, 73.) I have read MR. CLYNE'S note, but do 
not agree with his views, although he gives no 
direct contradiction to anything that was quoted 
from Nimmo's History. Mr. Nimmo was a 
sound historian, giving authorities and ori- 
ginal documents when necessary, and speaks 
with a moderation of expression that might be a 
pattern to any writer. I do not think that any 
better authority than his work can be found, for 
he had all the evidence on the subject that others 
have, and I am satisfied that the extracts I gave 
from him showed unquestionably to what an 
enormous extent of wealth the abbacy attained. 
I should have liked to have given a complete copy 
of the section, but to save space contracted it as 
much as possible. However, I beg now to give 
lists of possessions, &c., held by the abbacy, and 
readers may judge for themselves as to its wealth 
or poverty : 

" Lands once belonging to the Abbacy of Cambusken- 
neth. 1. The lands of Cambuskenneth ; 2. The lands of 
Colling* ; 3. Bandeath ; 4. Carsie ; 5. Tillibody; 6. Red- 
inch ; 7. Lands of Kettlestone, with miln ; 8. Lands 
upon the Forth, between Pullemiln and the road down 
to the ships; 9. Tofts at Stirling, Perth, Linlithgow, 
Haddington, and Renfrew ; 10. Forty acres with a toft 
in Clackmannan, and the miln thereof; 11. Lands at 
Kinclaven; 12. Lands at Kincardine; 13. Half a carru- 
cate with a toft at Grail ; 14. Half a carrucate with a 
meadow at Balcormack ; 15. A carrucate at Binning ; 
16. A carrucate at Kirkintilloch ; 17. Two ox-gangs in 
Dunipace ; 18. Other lands in Dunipace; 19. Part of 
the lands of Menstrie ; 20. Lands at Innerkeithen ; 21. 
Lands at Duneglin ; 22. Lands at Ayr ; 23. The lands of 
Fintilloch in Strathern; 24. The lands of Cambus- 
barron; 25. The lands of Maldar near Touch; 26. Lands 
with milns at Arrengosk ; 27. The lands of Loching. 

"Churches which with their tithes and pertinents 
belonged to it. 1. The church of Clackmannan, with its 
chapels ; 2. The church of Kinkleven, with all its perti- 
nents ; 3. The church of Tillicultrie ; 4. The church of 
Kincardine ; 5. The church of Glenleafe ; 6. The church 

" * These appear to be the lands in the parish of St- 
Ninians, now called Collie or Corrie, upon the borders of 
which, at a place called Trosk, the Abbot of Cambus 
kenneth had a country-house." 

of Egglis, afterwards called Kirktown, and now known 
by the name of St. Ninian's, with its chapels of Larbert 
and Dunipace, and its other chapels and oratories ; 7. 
The church of Alveth (Alva) ; 8. The church of Kirkin- 
tilloch ; 9. The church of Tillibody, with its chapel at 
Alloa; 10. The church of Fortiviote ; 11. The church 
of Kilmaronock ; 12. The church of Kinnoul ; 13. The 
church of Lecroch (probably Leckrop) ; 14. The church 
of Arrongosk ; 15. The church of Kippen. The patron- 
age of many of these churches likewise belonged to the 
abbacy. When a church was granted to a monastery 
the community drew all the tithes and other emoluments, 
and appointed a vicar to serve the cure, who had an 
allowance out of the small tithes for his maintenance. 
It appears, however, that often there was no worship in 
these churches at all. 

" Privileges and other casualities belonging to the 
monastery. 1. Fishing with one net in the river of 
Forth between Cambuskenneth and Polmaise ; 2. The 
fishings of Karsie and Tillibody ; 3. Fishing with one 
net in the river of Clyde, near Kenfrew ; 4. One salt 
pan with the necessary quantity of land about it ; 5. The 
half of the skins and tallow of the beasts slain for the 
king's use at Stirling ; 6. The tenth of all sums paid for 
obtaining decrets in the courts of Stirling and Calantyr ; 
7. The kane or custom of one ship ; 8. The tenth of the 
king's feus in the lordship of Stirling; 9. Forty shillings 
yearly out of the customs of Perth ; 10. Common pas- 
turage in Pethcorthing ; 11. A merk of silver out of the 
revenues of Crail ; 12. The pasturage of 500 sheep and 
20 cows at Binning ; 13. The privilege of grazing a cer- 
tain number of cows at Borland, near Kincardine ; 14. 
The tenth of the feus of Bothkennar, amounting to six 
chalders of grain and eight pounds five pence Scots yearly ; 
15. An additional chalder of victual out of Bothkennar, 
by a grant of Sir William More ; 16. A pension of an 
hundred shillings out of the church of Blare ; 17. Forty 
shillings out of the king's revenues of Airth, besides the 
tenth of the feus; 18. Ten pounds out of the revenues 
of Plean ; 19. Forty shillings out of the revenues of 
Stirling ; 20. Twenty cuderni of cheese out of the 
revenues of Stirling ; 21. Certain privileges in the Tor- 
wood ; 22. All the oblations presented to the church of 
the monastery." Nimmo's History of Stirlingshire, 8vo., 
Edin., 1777, pp. 115-17. 

After reading these lists of properties, privileges, 
&c., held by the abbacy, I do not see how any 
unprejudiced man can possibly believe that its 
members were as poor as rats or church mice. It 
was their own party friends who first began to feel 
the pressure or oppression that was gradually 
creeping over them, and moved for reform. If the 
system had gone on as it had done, it seems pro- 
bable that in another hundred years, the Keforma- 
tion not having taken place, the ecclesiastics would, 
instead of owning about the half of Scotland, have 
owned nearly the whole of it, to the grievous injury 
of the inhabitants. 

" From the middle of the fifteenth century there ap- 
pears a visible decline of that spirit of liberality to those 
religious establishments which, in preceding ages, had 
been so vigorously exerted by all ranks. Donations 
became less frequent, and the immense possessions which 
cathedrals and monasteries had acquired began to be 
considered as public burdens, and that not without cause, 
for near one half of Scotland was in possession of eccle- 
siastics." P. 99. 

And p. 129, as to the luxury of the convents : 

XII. AUG. 16, 79.] 



" At the demolition of these convents [the nunnery o 
Emmanuel, the convent of Dominicans or Black Friar 
in Stirling, the convent of Franciscans or Grey Friar 
at Stirling] more wealth was found in them than wa 
consistent with their avowed professions of poverty 
That of the Grey Friars at Perth, which was also puller 
down in 1559, was well provided not only with th 
necessaries, but also with the delicacies of life. Th 
furniture of the beds and tables was equal in finery t< 
that of any of the nobility ; and though there were bu 
eight persons in the convent, and it was about the middle 
of May, eight puncheons of salt beef* and great stor 
of other victuals were found in it." Knox's Hist. 

Who, after this evidence, can possibly believe in 
the indigence or extreme poverty of the abbacy o: 
Cambuskenneth 1 D. WHYTE. 

xi. 29, 152, 196, 271, 309, 356, 395, 409.) I cor- 
dially agree with D. Q. V. S. in his remarks upon 
what he calls " arms finders," and I hope the sub- 
ject and its remedy will find a little more ventila- 
tion in the pages of "N. & Q." The evil (to 
which I drew attention in " N. & Q.," 4 th S. viii. 
291) is no doubt a serious one, as well to lovers ol 
heraldry for its own sake, as also to genealogists. 

I investigated a case some time ago for a friend 
who had received from one of these "emporium 
for armorial bearings," in return for a few shillings, 
a coloured sketch of the arms of (we will say) 
Smith of Dorset with the crest of Smith of York- 
shire, and the only evidence upon which this 
extraordinary finding was made was that furnished 
by his " name and county." Can any one imagine 
for a moment that this is an isolated case ? I quite 
shudder when I consider the work entailed upon 
the genealogists of the future unless they utterly 
discard for it must come to this all evidence 
offered by heraldic insignia that cannot show an 
original grant from the College of Arms. Can 
nothing be done to remedy this state of things 1 
Is the Heralds' College utterly powerless in the 
matter? The days of the heralds' visitations, 
alas ! have gone by when this proof would have 
been required. From the time of their discon- 
tinuance since 1686 we may date the decline of 
heraldry, which now in these matter-of-fact days 
chiefly exists but as a means of revenue days 
when, for the annual payment of two guineas, the 
carriage of the opulent trader is allowed to bear 
down by its intrusive emblazonry the "simple 
charge " upon the shield that heralded from Caer- 
laverock. It might be impossible to resuscitate 
such visitations, but surely the Heralds' College 
might devise some solution. 

As matters stand at present the same thing (at 
least so it appears to the would-be " armigeri " of 
the present day) can be got at the one place for less 
pence than perchance you pay pounds at the other. 

" * So great a quantity of salt beef in the month of 
May appenrs surprising, and supposes a very great store 
to have been laid up in the beginning of winter." 

Will not a comparison such as this furnish Mr. 
Goldney with an argument to illustrate his motion 
in Parliament relative to the Heralds' College, 
which only an imperative attention to foreign 
affairs prevented from being brought on last 
session 1 

The College of Arms might certainly not disdain 
to deprive its opponents of a strong point of attack 
by endeavouring to adopt some method of meeting 
an evil which, if carried to its extreme limits, 
would seem to suggest, What is the use of a 
Heralds' College at all 1 J. S. UDAL. 

Inner Temple. 

I do not suppose that MR. JAMES HORSEY will 
find all the laws of armorial bearings in the Statute 
Book. But if he will refer to the statute 13 Ri- 
chard II. c. 2, he will find the jurisdiction of the 
Court Military or Court of Chivalry declared. As to 
" the civil jurisdiction of which," according to 
Blackstone, that is, " the redressing of incroach- 
ments and usurpations in matters of heraldry and 
coat armour, it is the business of this court, accord- 
ing to Sir Matthew Hale, to adjust the right of 
armorial ensigns, bearings, crests, supporters, pen- 
nons, &c., and also rights of place or precedence, 
where the king's patent or Act of Parliament, 
which cannot be overruled by this court, have not 
already determined it" (vol. iii. bk. iii. ch. vii.). 
More recently there are the observations of Mr. 
Serjeant Stephen to the same effect : 

" Notice may here be taken of the ancient and long 
disused Court of Chivalry (or Court Military) , which used 
to be held before the Lord High Constable and Earl 
Marshal of England. It was not a court of record, but 
bad a jurisdiction criminal as well as civil, relating, in 
;he former case, to deeds of arms and war, and in the 
atter to the redressing of injuries of honour, and of en- 
sroachments in matters of coat armour, precedency, and 
other distinctions of families." 

Then follows a reference to Sir Matthew Hale, u.s. 
and to Blackstone, with a further list of authorities 
Stephen's Commentaries, Lond., 1868, vol. iii. bk. v. 
ch. v. p. 466, note o). 

This court would decide according to precedent 
and its own rules, for which in every case there 
an no more be a statute to which they are actually 
referable than there can be in respect of the de- 
isions of the Court of Chancery. 

Sandford St. Martin. 

THE UNITED KINGDOM (5 th S. xii. 22, 96.) In 
selecting the members to sit for Irish constituencies 
n the first Parliament of the United Kingdom the 
bllowing course was adopted, from which it will 
>e seen that MR. WING is wrong in supposing 
a special election. 

The members for the counties retained their 
eats, as also those for Dublin and Cork cities, the 
inly ones returning two members to the United 



Parliament. In the case of boroughs which had 
returned two members to the Irish Parliament and 
were now semi-disfranchised, it was decided by 
ballot which of the two should retain his seat, the 
names being written on slips of paper and drawn 
from a glass by the Deputy Clerk of the Crown. 
In one or two instances the necessity for balloting 
was obviated by the voluntary withdrawal of one 
of the two sitting members. Both the old members 
for Dundalk and Clonmel resigned their seats, 
rendering newelections necessary for these boroughs, 
when Messrs. Corry and Bagwell were respectively 

The members for Londonderry county at the 
Union were Hon. C. W. Stewart and the Earl of 
Tyrone. The latter became a peer during the 
recess, and was succeeded by Sir George Hill in 
January, 1801. Similarly the Hon. H. S. Prittie, 
M.P. for Carlow, succeeded to the peerage during 
the recess. His seat was filled by his brother, the 
Hon. F. A. Prittie, on whose resignation in July, 
1801, Mr. C. W. Ormsby was elected. St. George 
Daly was the member for Galway until March, 
1801, when he resigned on being appointed a Baron 
of the Exchequer in Ireland. The Hon. J. B. 
Ponsonby succeeeded him. The members for 
Queen's County at the Union were Sir John Par- 
nell, Bart., and the Right Hon. C. H. Coote. On 
the death of Sir J. Parnell, Mr. Wellesley Pole 
was returned Dec. 8, 1801. Mr. Coote succeeded 
to the peerage early in 1802, and his seat was filled 
by the election of Mr. Henry Parnell, afterwards 
Lord Congleton. The member for Longford county 
was Sir William Gleadowe Newcomen, Bart, (not 
George). ALFRED B. BEAVEN, M.A. 

THE THAMES (5 th S. xi. 188, 217, 238, 278.) 
Habington, in his Castara, pt. i., has a sonnet to 
the Thames (Arber's reprint, p. 35). 


The Common, Wimbledon. 

TION (4 th S. vii. 533 ; xi. 461 ; 5 th S. ii. 216 ; iii. 
177.) The word revalenta offers another example 
of this mode of word formation. The original 
word was ervalenta, which is still sometimes seen,* 
and this was very anomalously though ingeniously 
formed from Ervum lens, the botanical name of 
the lentil. It may be thought that revalenta is 
a mere transposition of ervalenta for the sake of 
euphony, and euphony may perhaps have had a 
trifle to do with the transposition. The main 
reason, however, no doubt was that it was seen that 
by substituting re for er the word would have the 
appearance of being derived from the Lat. revalesco, 
though it had in reality nothing to do with it, and 
so would allure by holding out the prospect of the 
recovery of health. That this is not a mere sur- 

* See Dr. Pavy's Treatise on Food, p. 310. 

mise on my part is shown by the form which the 
originators of the food have given to the word in 
French, viz., revalesciere, which contains nearly the 
whole of the Latin verb and gives up still more 
of the original Latin words. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

PAINS" (5 th S. xii. 68, 97.) Longfellow says, 
" Believe me, the talent of success is nothing more 
than doing what you can do well, and doing well 
whatever you do without a thought of fame" 
(Hyperion, bk. i. last chapter). I quote this not 
because I agree with the definition given above of 
genius; any more than I do with that given by one 
of Bulwer Lytton's characters, I think in the Lady 
of Lyons, " He is a genius : he can do everything 
but that which is useful." Your correspondents 
seem to confound success with genius. Perhaps, 
if we could get the exact words of Goethe with the 
context (and doubtless they were in Longfellow's 
mind when he penned the above), we should find 
that his dictum applied to success ; that without 
pains even genius could not achieve the highest 
fame for the noblest productions of the human 

I take genius to be an innate capacity for doing, 
untaught and without effort, in a superior way, 
what others do after great effort and application, 
and without this capacity taking pains will only 
produce mediocrity. What amount of pains alone, 
or what " knowledge of the use of tools," could 
have produced a competitive rival to the calcu- 
lating boy Bidder? I have seen and watched 
Morphy when he was playing six games of chess at 
the same time without looking at the boards. This 
was genius which no amount of knowledge of the 
men, and no amount of trouble, could attain. The 
very fact of pains being taken by a genius is that, 
having capacity, every law, rule, or principle that 
should govern or regulate his particular bent 
becomes easy and plain, and progress and develop- 
ment afford pleasure, because little or no effort is 
required in their pursuit. 

An infinite capacity for hard work is not a good 
definition of genius, because the possession of the 
capacity of genius renders work light and easy. I 
have seen a boy of six, without instruction, go tc- 
a piano and pick out a tune with the proper chords 
for the bass, and give imitations of singers that he 
had heard. His genius has been developed since, 
to the great delight and satisfaction of his masters, 
who have said, " It is a pleasure to teach him, 
because he is so quick and all comes so easily to- 
him." Pains and " knowledge of tools " would 
not alone have done this. 

Those who have the honour of using the for- 
mula R.A. have doubtless taken infinite pains, but 
the genius for art was there to facilitate its pursuit. 
Without study and application their genius might 

. xii. AUG. 16, 79.] 



only have obtained a bohemian fame perhaps only 
such as that of the mild genius who excites the as- 
tonishment of the multitude by his delineation of 
the objects of earth, air, sea, and water on the foot- 
paths. Genius, however contemptible, is there. 
His next-door neighbour, without the innate capa- 
city, but with the strongest determination and the 
greatest greed for hard work, might labour for 
years and not be able to produce an ichthyological 
specimen that the gazing public would reward 
with their pennies, because it was immediately 
identified as a mackerel. I have known, and do 
know, many dramatists who are very much given 
to " hard work," but I have only heard of one 
Shakespere. CLARRY. 

This was the doctrine of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
held in common with Dr. Johnson. It has merely 
acquired polish and point in being passed about 
like many other good sayings, which first came into 
existence in a more or less nebulous form, and 
hare gradually been fashioned into epigrams. It 
may be found, slightly Vcirying in form, in several 
of Reynolds's discourses : 

"It seems, indeed, to have been hia constant and 
decided opinion that ' the superiority attainable in any 
pursuit whatever does not originate in an innate pro- 
pensity of the mind for that pursuit in particular, but 
depends on the general strength of the intellect, and on 
the intense and constant application of that strength to 
a specific purpose.'" Beechey's Life of Reynolds, 1835, 
vol. i. p. 35. 

"His own opinion on the subject has already been 
stated; and Johnson's notion, that 'true genius is a 
mind of large general powers accidentally determined to 
gome particular direction,' appears to have suggested or 
confirmed it." Ibid., p. 39. 

" There ia one precept, however, in which I shall only 
be opposed by the vain, the ignorant, and the idle. I 
am not afraid that I shall repeat it too often. You 
must have no dependence on your own genius. If you 
have great talents, industry will improve them ; if you 
have but moderate abilities, industry will supply their 
deficiency (second discourse)." Ibid., p. 327. 

Bead especially his sixth discourse. R. R. 


SELII COLLOQUIA " (5 th S. xii. 68.) In answer to 
my query, the Rev. W. D. Macray suggests that 
it was Camden's Grammar which Bishop Morley 
wished the Southampton boys to learn. He is 
probably right. The mistake in the name, how- 
ever, is not mine. Copies of the school statutes 
were invariably appended to the leases of the school 
premises to the head masters. From the earliest 
of these which I could find I took my list, and I 
have referred again to three copies, of the dates 
respectively of 1696, 1770, and 1813, and the word 
appears written clearly Sambden, without any 
possibility of doubt. But 1 think I ought to men- 
tion the error. The other work, I am informed 
from the same source, is Joh. Posselii Familiaria 

Colloquia, Gr. et Lat., one edition at Wittemberg 

Woolston, Southampton. 

C. C. C. OXFORD (5 th S. xii. 41.) The list of 
communions for various years given by J. E. T. R. 
is not very easy to understand. What is the pre- 
cise meaning of the double year date in each case ? 
Especially, what is the meaning in the last clause 
of the paragraph, " 1583-4 : only two communions, 
Easter Day, Sept. 1 " ? To what year do these 
two communions belong ? The days of the month 
can scarcely in every case indicate the actual dates 
of the celebrations of the holy communion, as in 
1579 Sept. 7 falls on a Monday, Oct. 10 on a Satur- 
day. As to the last day in the list, Sept. 1, it is 
not plain to what year it belongs ; if to 1583 it 
falls on a Sunday, if to 1584 on a Tuesday. The 
custom seems to have been established in 1579 of 
celebrating on the first Sunday in each month. It 
is scarcely probable that within four or five years 
this rule should have been so widely departed from 
that there should be only two communions in the 
whole year. The choice of Ash Wednesday and 
Good Friday as two days for communions in 1572 
(presumably the year intended, as Ash Wednesday 
falls on Feb. 20, 1572) is worthy of a note. In> 
1579, April 19, Easter Sunday, should undoubtedly 
be added to the days on which there was a cele- 

An accurate list (if it could be obtained) of the 
celebrations in the earlier years of Elizabeth's reign 
would be interesting ; such a one as that given in 
the article to which I have alluded is unfortunately 
worse than useless. JOHNSON BAILT. 

Pallion Vicarage. 

(5 th S. xil 106.) I have on my shelf the second 
volume of this work, which I purchased (second- 
hand) of my bookseller Dec. 1, 1876. Having had 
the first volume some time, I was informed that a 
second volume was issued, and I sent to Diprose's 
office for it. My messenger brought back on this 
and several subsequent occasions the same mes- 
sage that it was not yet published. I then saw 
and purchased the copy I now possess. Again I 
sent to Diprose's office to inquire if the second 
volume was issued, and received the same reply,, 
which so excited my curiosity that I again sent 
my messenger to make the same inquiry, with 
instructions to state that a copy of the desired 
volume had been seen. This remark produced the 
information that the volume had not been pub- 
lished, and if a volume had been seen it must have 
been a copy that had been forwarded to the press. 
My messenger also brought me a circular, headed 
" Will be published in a few days (waiting sub- 
scription list only) Vol. II. Some Account of St. 
Clement Danes," &c. This circular also contains 
copies of the opinions of the press, amongst them 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p a xn. AUO. ie, 79. 

that of the Times for April 21, 1876. The volume 
is uniform with the first, contains 360 pages, in- 
cluding appendix, index, and after the index the 
account of the opening of St. Clement's Vestry 
Hall, Nov. 23, 1875. The preface is dated 
January, 1876. I have never seen another copy, 
and I am still curious to know why it was never 
published. T. N. 


THE SPANISH ARMADA (5 th S. xii. 108.) The 
thin quarto referred to by ANON, was published in 
1798, and is entitled Names of the Nobility and 
Gentry who contributed to the Defence of the 
Country at the time of the Spanish Invasion, 1588. 
The late Mark Antony Lower says that, according 
to the introduction, the above work "is taken 
from a manuscript written in that year [1588], 
when Queen Elizabeth directed Sir Francis Wal- 
singham, Keeper of the Privy Seal, to inform the 
Lieutenant of each county, that ' for the better 
withstanding of the intended invacon of this 
Eealme, upon the great preparacons made by the 
King of Spaine, both by sea and land, the last 
yere, the same having been suche as the like was 
never prepared yet anie time against this Eealme/ 
she required from her loving subjects an extra- 
ordinary aid by way of loan for the defence of the 
country." In so far as regards the county of 
Sussex, the names of the contributors are printed 
in extenso in the first volume of the Sussex Archceo- 
logical Collections, with brief genealogical remarks 
by Mr. Lower. One hundred and eight of the 
Sussex gentry and yeomanry of this southern 
county responded to their queen's invitation, and 
the aggregate sum subscribed by them amounted 
to nearly 4,5002., and if the other counties of " thi: 
Eealme" contributed in the same proportion, the 
result must have been as gratifying to her Tudor 
Majesty as it was creditable to the loyalty and 
patriotism of her loving subjects. Famous name 
occur on this Sussex list : among those passec 
away are Carylls, Coverts, Culpeppers, Dobells, 
May (father of May, the historian and poet), 
Sherley (father of the celebrated " three brothers ' 
Sherley); while of those still influential in the 
county there are Barttelotts, Elphicks, Gages 
Gorings, Pelhams, Shelleys, &c. One contributor 
of 251. is Thomas Cobden, a West Sussex yeoman 
an ancestor, direct or collateral, of the Eicharc 
Cobden of our own days, who, it will be remembered 
now sleeps among his West Sussex kindred. 


Reform Club. 

EEDCOATS (5 th S. xii. 27.) The assertion o 
Higden's Polychronicon, that red was the colour o 
the uniform of the Eoman soldiery in the timi 
of the consuls, does not seem to rest upon anj 
ancient author. We know that the paludamentum 
or general's military cloak, was of a red colou 

n the time of the Eoman Eepublic. But the 
xmimon soldier's coarse cloak called sagum, usually 
worn by him, and mentioned by Livy, Caesar, and 
Tacitus, was most probably of a dark- blue natural 
colour, as the epithet "cseruleus," applied to it 
>y Enuius, seems to confirm. In later times of 
ihe empire, however, with the spread of luxury 
.here was a growing fashion to wear garments of 
various colours scarlet, violet, and purple which 
may have been introduced also among the legions 
and cohorts of the imperial army. Cp. Guhl and 
Soner, Leben der Griechen und Eomer, third ed., 
pp. 601 and 607. H. KREBS. 


OXFORD (5 th S. xi. 385.) The Musical Times 
:br May 1, 1848, gives the hymn mentioned by 
MR. MARSHALL, with music composed by Dr. 
Benjamin Eogers (1625-95). It is there called 
Hymnus Eucharisticus, and commences "Te Deum 
Patrem colimus, Te laudibus prosequimur," &c. 


SIR CHARLES SLINGSBY (5 th S. xi. 488.) 
" Colonel Charles Slingsbye buried July 7, 1644, 
in York Minster." Mr. Skaife adds in a note, 
" I am unable to assign a place for Sir Charles in 
the family pedigree" (The Yorkshire Archceol. and 
Topog. Journal, vol. i. p. 236). L. L. H. 

, "PLOTTY" (5 th S. xii. 48.) In Jamieson's 
Scottish Dictionary " plottie " (so spelt) is defined 
to be " a hot drink, properly denoting one of an 
intoxicating character." The author subjoins two 
quotations from St. Bonan, iii. 37, 41 : " Get us a 
jug of mulled wine, plottie as you call it. ... Your 
plottie is excellent, ever since I taught you to mix 
the spices in the right proportion." The word is 
of common use in Scotland for mulled wine. 

A. C. S. 

As an old resident of Sydenham, I have made 
inquiries concerning "plotty," and the only in- 
formation procurable is that the village inn men- 
tioned is the " Greyhound," Sydenham (close to 
Campbell's residence) ; but "plotty" is unknown 
now, nor can it be ascertained there of what it was 
composed. JAS. CURTIS. 

12, Old Jewry Chambers, E.G. 

WATERLOO (5 th S. xii. 28.) I believe that my 
father was one of many who, on June 18, 1815, 
went to the neighbourhood of the Tower to listen 
to a dull, continuous sound which, rightly or 
wrongly, was assumed to be that of guns, and 
which was borne up the river. E. C. G. 


(5 th S. xii. 48.) Marlowe was certainly quoting 
an older saying which was familiar in his time, as 

xii. A TO . 16, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


he was born in 1564, and could not have written 
Doctor Faustus much before 1584. It is to be 
found in Heywood's Johan Johan the Husbande, 
Tyb his Wyfe, and Syr Jhan the Priest, printed 
by Rastall, 1533 : 

" There is a proverb which trewe now preveth, 
He must nedes go that the dyvell dryveth." 

It is plain, therefore, that the saying was spoken 
of as a " proverb " half a century before the time 
when Marlowe quoted it. EDWARD SOLLY. 

"SHOT-OVER PAPERS" (5 th S. xii. 48.) The 
" Shotover Papers" appeared at intervals of a fort- 
night during term at Oxford, between Feb. 23, 
1874, and Feb. 9, 1875, with one special Com- 
memoration number, June. 1874. There were 
thirteen numbers in all, and the set was published 
as a volume in 1875 by J. Vincent, 90, High St., 
Oxford. The five editors were undergraduates. 
The papers, without aiming at any high literary 
standard like the Oxford Spectator, were undeniably 
clever and smartly written. FAMA. 


CHILDREN'S GAMES (5 th S. xii. 28.) Undoubtedly 
there are some of these that are perennial the 
skipping-rope, for example, in the case of girls, and 
marbles with boys and others that come in and go 
out at varying periods. Thus I have noticed in 
June and July our pavements become covered 
with figures of a rude sort, by which both sexes 
play at " hop-scotch." The rules and practice of 
this game appear to vary considerably in different 
districts, judging from the variations observable in 
the chalked-out squares or angular figures within 
which the hoppers display their dexterity. 

J. R. S. C. 

(5 th S. xii. 47.) I think MR. BOUCHIER will find 
that A Virtuoso's Collection was first published in 
England in Mr. H. A. Page's Li/6 of Hawthorne 
(Henry S. King & Co.). Was not Eoutledge's 
edition of the Mosses published some time before ? 
My impression is that the latter has no date, but 
I am at present unable to refer to either of the 

Reinsgraben, Gb'ttingen. 

" AJAMODA " (5 th S. xii. 28.) Sheep are fond 
of parsley, therefore it is extremely probable that 
goats also relish the plant. It is very much re- 
commended to be sown amongst the grass seeds in 
sheep pastures. ROBERT HOLLAND. 

Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

CABRIOLET : CAB (5 th S. xii. 65.) The London 
cabriolet was in use prior to 1828. A note in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1823, pt. i. p. 463, fixes 
the exact date of its introduction : 

"April 23. Cabriolets were, in honour of his Majesty's 
birthday, introduced to the public this morning. They 

are built to hold two persons besides the driver (who is 
partitioned off from his company), and are furnished 
with a book of fares for the usa of the public to prevent 
the possibility of imposition. These books will be found 
in a pocket hung inside of the head of the cabriolet. 
The fares are one third less than hackney coaches. " 

The word cab was at that time not used in good 
society ; it was known as a vulgar slang term 
meaning a house of bad fame (Bee's Slang Dic- 
tionary, 1823). Hence persons who were precise 
and afraid of being misunderstood long hesitated 
to use the phrase " I went in a cab." 


Edmondson gives the arms of Benhall as Arg., a 
cross sarcelly gu. and a bend az. A cross cercelee 
differs but slightly from a cross inoline, so those 
arms seem to be based on the oft-cited bearing of 
Sir Guy Ferre (the authority for which is the Roll 
of Edward II.), with perhaps a reference to the 
" cross engrailed " appearing in the arms of the 
Uffords. Robert de Benhall married, before 1342, 
Eva, daughter and heiress of John, Baron Claver- 
ing, whom he survived at her death in Sept., 
1369. He died s.p., and was buried, as was his 
wife, at Langley Abbey, Norfolk, a foundation of 
her ancestors. He was the fourth husband of Eva, 
whose second husband was Sir Thomas de Ufford, 
killed at Bannockburn, 1314, and buried also at 

The manor of Benhall, Suffolk, was bought by 
Sir Guy Ferre before 20 Edw. I., and, as he died 
without heirs, was escheated to the Crown, and 
then granted to Sir Robert de Ufford. Query, 
at what date 1 Kirby, Svffolk Traveller, says 
2 Edw. III. (1328). And was the grantee Robert 
de Ufford, the son (living 1344) of Eva by Thomas, 
or his first cousin Robert, created Earl of Suffolk, 
March, 1336-7 ? In either case it appears not 
improbable that Eva's connexion with the Ufford 
family, who held Benhall, would account for her 
marrying one Robert de Benhall, who probably 
only derived his name from the place of his birth, 
and may have been a person of mean extraction. 
Banks says his summons to Parliament in 1360' 
was probably jure uxoris, though the writ was 
personal, without any reference to a barony. A 
great heiress of those days, who had been thrice 
married to scions of baronial houses (two of her 
husbands were Audleys), was not unlikely on the 
fourth occasion to have consulted only her own 
inclination if she had the power of choice. 

W. E. B. 

Robert de Benhall was summoned to Parliament 
by writ April 3, 1360, which, I suppose, would be 
the thirty- fourth year of Edward Hi. ; but neither 
be nor any of his descendants appears to have been 
summoned to Parliament afterwards. I can find 
no mention of any baron of the name or title of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. is* s. xn. ACG. w. 79. 

" HOWLEGLAS" (5 th S. xii. 62.) It may interest 
your readers to know that Mr. Kenneth R. H. 
Mackenzie published a version of Owlyglass, illus- 
trated by " Crowquill," in the year 1860 (London, 
Trubner & Co.). It is excellently well translated 
from the German, and its perusal may amuse 

OK RECORD (5 th S. xi. 466 ; xii. 55.) I regret 
that I must leave to others to state to what date 
exactly my family, Bannerman of Elsick, can trace 
their surname, or whether Scotch or English here- 
ditary surnames have the better claim to prece- 
dence, but I believe we are one of the earliest of 
the Scotch. 

I have a publication, printed in Aberdeen by 
D. Chalmers & Co. in 1812, probably for the 
seventh baronet, holding this view. In mentioning 
that the name "had its origin in the privilege 
held by the progenitors of the family of carrying 
the royal standard," the king's " standard in time 
of war," and that " they were hereditary banner- 
bearers, ' equites vexillarii,' to our kings about the 
tenth and eleventh centuries," notes are given as 
follows : "Scoti Chronicon, lib. xii., apud 1100. 
Many new names came out at this time, as Lock- 
hart, Gordon, Seyton, &c. Others got their sur- 
names by their offices, as Stewart, Urquhart, 
Bannerman," &c. "Sir George Mackenzie says 
there were no surnames ' before Malcolm Caen- 
more's time.' According to Sir James Balfour . . . 
Keith and Hay were the oldest surnames." These 
notes and references could probably be easily 
verified. G. BANNERMAN, Bart. 

Brackley, Northamptonshire. 

I wrote with the object of finding out from some 
of your correspondents the exact reference to the 
MSS., and for any further information about 
the family to which they relate ; also, of finding 
out whether that note was authentic or not. 

H. H. C. 

xii. 93.) Cosmo Innes, in his book on Scotch Sur- 
names, gives a list of those taken from places ; 
amongst others I find that of Forsyth or Forsythe. 
Can any of your readers inform me where that 
place is, and what is the derivation of the word ] 


xi. 273 ; xii. 113.) The late Dr. Bliss, Principal 
of St. Mary Hall, and once Registrar of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford no mean authority told me, 
some quarter of a century ago, that he believed 
the gown with velvet sleeves, now exclusively 
worn by the proctors, was once the usual dress 
gown of the ordinary master of arts of Oxford. 
It may be observed that, both in shape and in 
the cut of the sleeves, it is exactly the same as the 

more conspicuous dress gowns worn by the D.D. 
and the D.C.L. Even the gentleman commoner 
in former years had a dress gown, made of silk 
with sleeves studded with silken tassels, somewhat 
like that of the parish clerk of a London church 
forty years ago. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I have been told by an eye-witness himself 
then a B.A. that the present proctor's gown was 
worn by all the masters in the Sheldonian Theatre 
when the " allied sovereigns " visited Oxford in 

W AND V (5 th S. vii. 28, 58, 75, 217, 297.) 
I hasten to give a mite of evidence on the 
question of the interchange of these sounds in the 
present day. Not many weeks since I heard a 
native of a Kentish seaside town say to my 
daughter, " You will have to bathe a little further 
away from the pier to-day, miss, because of the 
vessels," referring to two colliers which were lying 
near the usual bathing- place. This was repeated 
verbatim et literatim, for the lady to whom the 
remark was addressed did not hear it distinctly at 
first. F. S. H. 

Merton, Surrey. 

" SMURRING " (5 th S. xi. 68, 271.) It has sur- 
prised me to find that none of your correspondents 
has identified the word smore, or smoor, with 
" smother," which was used by our earlier English 
writers as a noun as well as a verb : 

" Thus must I from the smoke into the smother ; 
From tyrant duke unto a tyrant brother." 

Shaks., As You Like H, i. 2. 

" In a word, a man were better relate himself to a 
statue or picture, than to suffer his thoughts to pass in 
smother." Bacon, Ess. xxvii., "On Friendship." 

As to the form smore or smoor, it may be remarked 
that the softening of th in words of this kind is 
very common in English. Abbott, Shakspearian 
Grammar, p. 347, refers to this fact, and, after 
mentioning that whether and ever are often spelt 
whe'r or where and e'er, says, " Some, but it is im- 
possible to say what, degree of ' softening,' though 
not expressed in writing, seems to have affected th 
in the following words " : 

Brother (Rich. II., v. 3, 137). 

Eitlwr (J. ., iv. 1, 23 ; Rich. III., i. 2, 64, &c.). 

Further (1 Hen. IV., iii. 1, 257). 

Hither (Rich. III., i. 4, 250). 

Neither (Merch. Ven., i. 1, 178). 

Rather (3 Hen. VI., i. 1, 224, &c.). 

Thither (2 Hen. VI., i. 4, 78). 

Whether (Com. of Err., iv. 1, 60 ; J. C., v. 4, 
30, &c.). 

Whither (Lear, ii. 4, 299). 

I have not given all Dr. Abbott's references, nor 
have I copied his quotations at length, as any 
reader of " N. & Q." can verify them for himself. 

5 th S. XII. AUG. 16, 79.] 



During a spare half-hour I have collected a few 
Instances of this form of contraction, both from 
our ordinary language and from provincial dialects 

Ordinary Language. 

Other becomes "or" (noticed by Abbott, l.c.). 

Hither becomes "here," thither becomes "there," 
whither becomes " where," not to be confoundec 
with the locatives here, there, where. 

Provincial Dialects. 

Brother (brore), " broo," North (Halliwell). 
have supposed an intermediate form on the analogy 
of " mo," " moe," for more. 

Leather becomes " leer," North (Halliwell). 
Mother becomes "mur" (used in the sense ol 
hysteria in Shaks., Lear, ii. 4, 

" O, how this mother swells up toward my heart ! 
Hysterica passio, down, thou climbing sorrow, 
Thy element's below" ; 

and by Bacon in that of (1) phlegm this use is 
mentioned, but not quoted by Halliwell (2) 
the sediment of a liquid, " the mothers of waters 
distilled," Nat. Hist., 357 : this quotation is 
from Richardson). 

" Deafe cares, blind eyes, the palsie, goute and mur, 
And cold would kill thee, but for fire and fur." 

Rowland's More Knaves Yet, 1612. 
This is quoted by Halliwell, s.v. " Mur," which he 
explains as " a severe cold with hoarseness." 

Rather becomes "rare," Devon = early (Halli- 

Whether becomes " whe'er," " where," Somerset. 

To these may be added : 

Vaar "foder" or "fader." Friesian dialect 
of the island of Sylt. Quoted from Kohl's Travels 
in Marsh's Eng. Lang., ed. Smith, p. 24. 

Far for " farther," North (Halliwell). It may 
be argued that this is really the older form, being 
equivalent to Old Eng. ferre, A.-S. fyrre ; but it 
is possible that we have in " farther " not a mere 
confusion with "further" (comparative of "forth"), 
as is usually said, but a genuine instance of the 
old form of comparative in -ther, which is seen in 
either, other, whether. 

Perhaps bore may be merely a contracted form 
of " bother." 

As to the word smother itself, some of the readers 
of ""N. & Q." who are better acquainted with the 
Celtic languages than I am will be able to say 
whether we are to look for its origin in the Gaelic 
smuidreach, explained in M'Alpine's Gaelic Dic- 
tionary as " a bolt of smoke." 


The word smoor (the double o pronounced like 
French eu) is quite common in Scotland in the 
sense of "smother" or "suffocate." "The lifts 
may fa' an' smoor the laverocks " is an ordinary 
proverb said satirically about anything which is 
barely possible or unlikely. Smor (with the o 
pronounced as above) is the south Norse word for 

" butter." There is, however, another application 
of the word smurring in the sense of " purring." 
When a cat is lying comfortably before the fire, 
and giving out that musical sound, some country 
folks say, "Do you hear the cat smurring 1 ?" . Has 
this any connexion with Mrs. Grote's use of the 
word ? 0. 

This word has no doubt a Flemish origin. One 
frequently sees painted up, in Antwerp and other 
places in Belgium, the notice " Net te smooren " 
(No smoking). FREDERICK E. SAWYER. 


The word smurr is a common expression in 
Norfolk to denote a very fine rain. 


INGS (5 th S. ix. 345, 470 ; x. 193, 352 ; xi. 137, 
177, 258.) Proverbs ought generally to be ac- 
cepted literally where possible. 
" Muckle din and little 'oo, 
As the deil said when he clippit the sow," 

is the Scottish rendering of it. A sow probably 
would make " muckle din " when it was " clippit " 
by such a personage as " the deil," and there is 
certainly not much " 'oo " to get, but there is 
some, which is used when dyed for fly dressing. 
I used to pay the well-known Mrs. Hogg (no rela- 
tion to pigs) 8*. an ounce for it. J. R. HAIG. 

I believe MR. SOLLY will find information on 
this subject in The Handbook of Proverbs, and in 
the Polyglot of Foreign Proverbs in " Bohn's Anti- 
quarian Library." W. M. M. 

A collection of proverbial sayings has been 
made by Dr. Mair, and is published by G. Rout- 
ledge & Sons. J. H. 

SPTTON, LORD LEXINGTON, 1645 (5 th S. xii. 89, 
L16.) The account given of his creation in Collins's 
Peerage, second edit., 1710, in part answers this 
question (vol. i. pt. ii. p. 95) : 

'Robert Sutton of Auhram or Aram, Notts. Esq., 
mving in the time of the late unhappy Troubles diversly 
manifested his Loyalty to King Charles the first, in 
supplying his Majesty with considerable aid and large 
assistance, in garrisoning the town of Newark upon Trent, 
where continuing out the whole course of the destructive 
rVars, he performed no little Service. In consideration 
whereof, and by reason of his lineal descent from the 

leiress of the honourable family of Lexington he waa 

dvanced to the dignity of Baron Lexington of Aram." 

The title became extinct in 1723 on the death 
of the second lord, when the Lexington estates 
>assed to his nephew Lord Robert Manners. Besides 
Surke's Dormant and Extinct Peerage, 1866, p. 523, 
or particulars of the extinct family of Sutton, see 
he Peerage of the present time for the existing 
amilies of Manners Sutton (Viscount Canterbury) 
and Manners (Baron). Much information is also 
o be found in The Lexington Papers (Lond., 1851, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [*" a. xn. AUG. ie, 79. 

8vo., pp. 1-360), edited by the Hon. H. Manners 
Sutton from the MS. at Kelham Hall, the seat of 
Lord Lexington. EDWARD SOLLY. 

" FOUR WENT WAYS " (5 th S. xi. 485 ; xii. 74, 
118.) I owe an apology to MR. STILWELL. Green- 
wood's map (1823) has misled me. It does not 
show any road intersecting that from Dorking to 
Newdigate, but in an earlier map (1818) prefixed 
to Timbs's Picturesque Promenade round Dorldng 
the road is laid down as it now exists. It completes 
the four ways or wents which I have no doubt gave 
a name to the pond, as MR. STILWELL suggests. 
If a went means a way, " four went ways " is 
tautologous. Richardson who, unlike so many 
lexicographers, gives a reference when he quotes 
an author, cites the following instances of went= 
way from Chaucer and Spenser : " At a turning 
of a went How Creusa was ylost " (House of Fame, 
bk. i. 1. 182) ; " Troilus is .... by a prive wente 
into my chamber com" (Troylus and Cryseyde, 
bk. iii. 1. 738). I may add another instance : 
" Doun by a flowry grene wente " (The Boke of the 
Duchesse, 1. 398) ; "Farre underground from tract 
of living went" (Faerie Queene, bk. iv. c. ii.) ; 
" Shall breath itself a while after so long a wente " 
(ib., c. v.). SURRIENSIS. 

CHURCH BELL CUSTOMS (5 th S. xi. 186, 276.) 
There is a custom I have noticed at some churches 
of ringing the bell three times quickly in succes- 
sion, with three strokes only each time, and then 
ringing it once with nine strokes. What is the 
meaning of the custom ? 


In this place the striking is three times three 
for a male, and three times two for a female, on 
the tenor bell ; but for children under twelve, 
twice three for a male, and twice two for a female, 
on the treble bell. GEO. L. APPERSON. 

The Common, Wimbledon. 

45.) The subjoined cutting is taken from the 
Nottingham Journal of the llth ultimo. The 
village of Cotgrave is situate about six miles south- 
east of Nottingham : 

" Under the above beading tbere was a paragraph in 
last Friday's Journal giving an account of a remarkable 
instance of two married people living together seventy 
years and over. The facts, it seems, were procured from 
the epitaphs on some old gravestones in a churchyard in 
Wales, and I believe the dates given were some 150 or 
200 yeara back. Now we need not go so far from home, 
nor so far back for dates, to find an instance of this kind. 
AVe have in this village a living specimen of over seventy 
years of married life. There is a couple of old people, oi 
the name of Crampton, now living together in this parish, 
who are both over ninety years of ige, and they have 
lived together man and wife over seventy years. Their 
oldest son, now living, is seventy years of age. What 
makes the case more remarkable, the old people are so 
well and hearty, and to all appearance are likely to liv 

or some years to come. In fact, the old man is a wonder 
upon earth. He is to be seen each morning out with his 
">a3ket of victuals, soon after six o'clock, going, not exactly 

;o work, but to 'tend' cows in the lanes, and this he 
does, staying out in all weathers, until towards five 
o'clock in the afternoon. He may be seen almost any 
day on some of our roads, either sitting on a bank, with 

lis glasses on, reading a tract or an old newspaper, or else 

le is engaged gathering up a little manure off the road. 

The old man is as cheerful as a lark, and his voice is so 
strong that you can hear him shout nearly half a mile off. 
Altogether it is really a remarkable case. 

F. D. 

CURIOUS CHRISTIAN NAMES (5 th S. x. 106, 196, 
376 ; xi. 58, 77, 198.) In the register of marriages 
at Halifax parish church (Dec. 1, 1878) is the 
name of a witness, Charity H. This may be taken 
in future days as the name of a woman, but it is 
indeed that of a man. On inquiry into the cause 
of such a name, it was found that the names Faith 
and Hope had been given to his sisters ; and his 
father on his deathbed wished the name Charity 
to be given to a child that was then expected. A 
boy, however, was born, and friends were puzzled 
how to carry out the father's wish, when one in- 
geniously suggested " And Charity," perhaps 
thinking that " And " would serve as a male name, 
as it did duty sometimes for Andrew. The man 
said that he was married under the name of And 
Charity H. On searching the registers afterwards 
he was found to be correct ; but for some cause or 
other he had dropped the And, and signed himself 
Charity alone. 1 may add to this, that in Hunter's 
Deanery of Doncaster (vol. ii. p. 143) occurs the 
name of Patience Warde, who was of Hooton 
Paynel and became Lord Mayor of London in 
1681. His father, after the birth of six sons, 
vowed that if he had another he should be called 
Patience. He kept his vow : nor did the name 
pass out of the family, for his brother's grandson 
bore the name ; but in the next generation it was 
Latinized and became Patientius. 

On a tablet in Halifax Church occurs " Ann 
Eichard, daughter of Eichard and Margaret 
Dobson." T. C. 

In the face of Eev. xiv. 4, for which see Vulgate 
as well as English version, it seems going rather 
too far to speak of Virgo as being inappropriate 
" as a Christian term to a man." Still, the bap- 
tismal appellation in the case mentioned by DR. 
BRUSHFIELD seems to be traceable, in all pro- 
bability, to the Surrey surname, concerning which 
it would be interesting to have more information. 
Virgin, though without a local habitation assigned 
to it, occurs in Burke's Armory, but not Virgo. 


A young woman with the name of Phoebe Virgo, 
and, on the lucus a non principle, the nickname of 

eft s. xii. AUG. 16, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" Young May Moon," a native of Gloucestershire, 
is well known to me. A lady known to me by 
name has children baptized respectively Boaz, 
Ruth, Jehoshaphat. The estate of Theophilus 
Thickbroom, deceased, is referred to in the 
Times of Jan. 10, 1879. I lately saw the mar- 
riage of a Gad William Meadows, and the death 
of some one with the Christian name of Abednego, 
as also the decease, March 2, 1878, of Archimedes 
Couch, Esq., H.M. Dockyard, Deptford. 


The witness mentioned by MR. BLENKINSOPP as 
Thomas Jolley (Jolly) Death has a brother named 
Sudden Death, as the former told me when he was 
on a " professional " visit to this town as a private 
detective. The father of the two young men may 
yet be alive, and if so, he has probably had time 
to reflect upon the hideous names with which he 
labelled his two baby boys to go through the 
world with. But what of the minister (if there 
was one) who sanctioned such ghastly ribaldry of 
prenomens? The real name of the family is 
D'Ath, after which statement I need say no more 
to your intelligent readers. J. W. J. 


In the Times obituary of Dec. 7 last is recorded 
the death of Mr. Emperor Adrian, a member of 
the Local Government Board. In the Times of 
Jan. 3 is recorded the death of a daughter of Mr. 
Crucefix Canton. C. T. B. 

A labourer named Anger Burgess died at Col- 
lington, Line. A gentleman rejoicing in the pre- 
nornen of Hymen was recently fined for assault in 
an omnibus. EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

The Temple. 

I have heard my father say that Elwes the miser 
had his two (illegitimate) sons christened Useless 
and Needless. Perhaps some of your corre- 
spondents can verify the statement. 



On a recent visit to Ely I read in the graveyard 
of the parish church these not very common names : 
True Gilding, 1852 ; Juner Perry, 1846 ; Green 
Layton, 1797 ; Susanna Gotobed, 1796, aged 
ninety-two. W. S. S. 

CURIOUS EPITAPHS (5 th S. xi. 346.) In Crow- 
land Abbey, co. Lincoln, is the following edition of 
the epitaph quoted by Hie ET UBIQUE : 

" Beneath this place in 6 foot in length against ye 
clerks pew, lyeth the body of Mr. Abram Baly. He 
dyed ye 3 Jan., 1704. Also ye Body of Mary his Wid 
She Dyed ye 15 May, 1705. Also ye Body of Abram, 
Son of ye sd Abram and Mary. He dyed ye 13 Jan.! 
1704. Also 2 wch dyed in there Enfantry. 
" Man's life is like unto a winter's day, 
Some break their fast and so departs away, 

Others stay dinner then departs ful fed : 
The longest age but sups and goes to bed. 
Oh, reader, then behold and see, 
As we are now so must you be." 

D. G. C. ELWES. 

A prose version of the second epitaph appears 
in Bishop Henshaw's Horce Succisivce, " How time 
runs away ! and we meet with death always ere 
we have time to think ourselves alive. One doth 
but breakfast here, another dines, he that liveth 
longest doth but sup ; we must all go to bed in 
another world" (ed. 1640, pt. i.). The idea 
which compares the course of mnn's life to time 
spent at an inn can be traced to Cicero, who says, 
" Ex vita discedo, tanquam ex hospitio, non tan- 
quam ex domo " (Senect., 23). 


66, Lausanne Road, Peckham. 



Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Edited by 
Rev. Charles Rogers, LL.D., Historiographer to the 
Society. Vol. VII. (Printed for tlie Society.) 
Genealogical Memoirs of the Family of Knox. By the 
Rev. Charles Rogers, LL.D. (Printed for the Gram- 
pian Club.) 

Rental Book of Cupar Alley. Edited by Re v. Dr. Rogers. 
With Historical Notices of the Abbots by Major-Gen. 
Stewart Allan. Vol. I. (Printed for the Grampian 

WE have perused these volumes with much care and 
with no little interest, but we lay them down with 
considerable disappointment, arising from the want of 
careful revision which mars their best features. That 
the Royal Historical Society may have a useful career 
before it we should be the last to deny. Its two sections, 
the purely historical and the genealogical, ought to 
enable it to meet varied tastes and wants. It is curious, 
however, that no publications appear to emanate from the 
genealogical section as such, but only, so far as we can see, 
from the " Grampian Club," of which the " Historio- 
grapher " to the Royal Historical Society seems to be 
the sole ostensible channel of communication with the 
outer world. Yet the list of Fellows published in the 
Society's Transactions shows that it is not from want of 
good men that the deeds of the Society fall short of its 
promise. We observe that Baron de Bogoushevsky 
figures as a somewhat lengthy contributor to the Trans- 
actions, on a subject well adapted to a Russian pen. The 
baron appears to have quite a system of his own for repre- 
senting in print the contractions used in sixteenth cen- 
tury English. Mr. H. H. Howorth, Dr. Hyde Clarke, 
the Rev. A. H. Wratislaw, the Rev. Dr. Irons, and 
Mhjor-Gen. Stewart Allan all contribute interesting 
articles. But we are sorry to see the \vay in which men 
of real learning in their several branches of study are 
made to write such pure nonsense as " ab aure ad aurum," 
or even to become absolutely unintelligible. We always 
wish to understand Dr. Hyde Clarke, but we cannot tell 
what was his occult meaning in this passage on p. 307 : 
" It is alleged by Dr. Thomson, in his lectures to Rurick, 
to enter Slavonia is the same as that in Wibbukind's 
Chronicle addressed by the Welsh to Hengist and Horsa." 
Here revision must be sadly wanting. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* a. XIL AUG. ie, 79. 

In the Memoirs of the Knox Family a great deal is 
said about a number of persons bearing the name, but of 
whose relationship with the Reformer there is little or no 
proof. The Aberdeenshire family of Knox of that ilk is 
not known to have any connexion whatever with the 
Knoxes of Ranfurly, and the Reformer's relation to 
Ranfurly is matter of assumption rather than proof. 
Of Knox and Norman Leslie, and their companions in 
captivity at Mont St. Michel, Mr. Hill Burton, in his 
History of Scotland, gives a far more graphic present- 
ment than Dr. Rogers. The subject of these Memoirs 
was a stirring one; we wonder that it did not stir the 
author of the present volume. 

The Rental Boole of Cupar Alley would have been of 
greater interest and equal utility, it seems to us, had 
half the matter now printed been omitted. The " His- 
torical Notices of the Abbots," prepared with that 
minute attention to small details on the byways of his- 
tory which appears to characterize the work of Major- 
Gen. Stewart Allan, together with a well-selected body 
of extracts from the rental book, would have been amply 
sufficient to show the antiquarian reader what light the 
documents cited were calculated to throw upon mediaeval 
Scottish life. We trust that the second volume will 
contain matter at once more weighty and of greater 
general interest; but we shall probably, in that case, 
regret all the more that the publication should have 
been spread over two volumes, causing a proportionate 
delay in the time of our reaching the true pith of the 

VERT pleasant reading on a very unpromising subject 
will be found in the current number of Macmiltan's 
Magazine. The article is written by the Rev. J. Cave- 
Browne, and treats of the portraits of the Archbishops 
of Canterbury collected in the large Dining-room at 
Lambeth Palace. With the exception of portraits of 
sovereigns in our royal palaces, no such unbroken series 
of high dignitaries is elsewhere to be found ; but the 
white official drees of the Church, with black stole and 
square-cut collars or bands, makes the archbishops look 
very much alike. Nevertheless, the writer finds some 
tangible distinctions to point out as to wigs, bands, and 
ruffs, and his account of their leading actions, or some 
prominent event of their lives, is gossiping, instructive, 
and abundantly amusing. His knowledge of the pictures 
themselves does not come down to the present time. 
The second portrait of Archbp. Warham is no longer at 
Lambeth Palace, nor is the crayon drawing of Bancroft 
by Luttrel, engraved in Doyly's Life of Saner oft. There 
still remains in the Library a beautiful little oval portrait 
of Sancroft, drawn on parchment in lead pencil, and 
probably by Loggan, which Mr. Cave-Browne does 
not mention. It varies from the picture in the 
Dining-room. It is absurd to accept the portrait of a 
youth, a mere lad, in black, with the motto, " Rapido 
contrarius orbi," as the primate when a young man. It 
bears date 1650, at which time Bancroft was thirty-four. 
The crayon was deposited for a time in the palace by 
Archbp. Sutton. The portrait of Tenison is by Simon 
Dubois. The picture of Arclibp. Arundel is a copy from 
H false picture at Pensburst Place, made falser still by 
the copyist. The processional cross and mitre (an adap- 
tation from the Warham portrait) are absurdly made at 
Lambeth to spring to the right and the left from the 
primate's shoulders. The picture at Penshurst is a 
very poor parody of the one of Warham, so much 
later, by Holbein, with a few of the accessories 
displaced. The exception made by Mr. Cave- Browne 
in favour of a likeness of Cardinal Kempe is un- 
fortunate, as Horace Walpole's claims on his behalf 
in the Strawberry Hill pictures have long since been 

exploded. The small panel picture of Chicheley, together 
with the mitred head in stained glass, are more deserving 
of belief. The Archbp. Parker, arbitrarily assigned to- 
Lyne, is in a miserable condition, but it forms the sub- 
ject of one of C. Picart's most brilliant engravings. He 
was probably assisted in that by Hogenberg's exquisite 
engraving, and must also have had a very greatly im- 
proved working drawing by a skilful artist to guide him. 
This is frequently to be seen in the refined engravings in 
Lodge, where many of them are done from very bad 
pictures ; but by the intervening hand of a skilful 
painter, like Hilton or Derby, a really fine work of art is- 
secured, and fortunately without any detriment to the- 
fidelity of the likeness. 

WE hope shortly to have something to say on the sub- 
ject of Italian folk-lore, which ia at present but little 
understood in this country. The folk-tales of Italy 
already collected, from the Italian Tyrol down to the 
island of Sicily, now form a library of themselves, and 
the collections are still going on. Among the collectors 
are some of the most learned and gifted men of the king- 
dom Comparetti, De Gubernatis, Imbriani, Bernoni, 
Pitre, &c. In view of the interest now awakened iu 
England in respect of folk-lore generally (evidenced by 
the formation of the Folk-Lore Society) we cannot but 
think that the proposed contributions will be acceptable 
to the readers of " N. & Q." 

The Genealogist'* Guide to Printed Pedigrees is the> 
title of a forthcoming work by G. W. Marshall, LL.D., 
the editor of the Genealogist. It is in the form of an 
alphabetical index of family names, embracing all those 
whose pedigrees may be found in the more important 
genealogical and topographical works, and in less known 
works, with complete references to the pages where they 
occur. It will be published by Messrs. George Bell & 

MESSES. WHITTINGHAM & Co. of 91, Gracechurch St., 
announce Perthshire in Bygone Days, by Mr. P. R. 
Drummond. Amongst the celebrities (personally known 
to the author) noticed in the volume are General Lord 
Lynedoch, Sir David Baird. Sir William Stirling Maxwell, 
George Gilfillan, Robert Nicoll the poet, &c. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and) 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

R. C. HOPE (Scarborough), writes : " I am making a 
collection of the legends and superstitions connected 
with holy wells, wells, fountains, springs, &c. Any 
help in the way of local legends, &c., will be thankfully 

K. You should write to the Hon. Sec., H. B. Wheatley,. 
Esq., 5, Minford Gardens, West Kensington Park. 

H. D. C. (Dursley.) We have a letter for you. 

M. P. M. See ante, p. 39. 

M. S. Next week. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; ai d 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5.hs.xii.A*G.28,79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : The Athanasian Creed : The Danger of Compen- 
diums in Matters of Authority, 141 Tennyson's Idylls : 
"Geraint and Enid," 142 Thomas Tyrwhitt, 144 Another 
Old English Jest of Asiatic Origin " Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica," 145 A Kare Tract Queen's and Queens' Colleges 
' ' Catch a weasel asleep " A Centenarian Convivial 
Etiquette " Colonize," 146 A Quintuple Marriage, 147. 

QUERIES : Gymnick Family" Grecian " : " Abyssinian " 
"Dopper" Bishop Heber's Grandmother Lancashire 
Ballads The "Basing House" Inn Curious Painting, 147 
Cotton's "Angler" Vaughan Family S. Humphrey- 
Grose's " Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue "Petty Family 
Geraint Funeral Folk-LoreSir R. Vyvyan Binding of 
Book of Charles II. Heraldic, 148 Dunstable and Plain 
Speaking Cumberland Row, Lambeth The Long Barn, 
Kennington Bishop Barnett The last Woman burned to 
Death in England DUrer The Emperor Maximilian of 
Mexico The Transfiguration in Art Authors Wanted, 149. 

REPLIES: Keeping School in the Parvise, 149 Books Pub- 
lished by Subscription St. David's Day "William and 
Margaret," 151 "Coker" C. C. C. Oxford Curious Entries 
in Parish Registers, 152 Avours Mary, Daughter of George 
Bruges, sixth Lord Chandos, 153 Heraldic History of the 
"Saturday Review" G. Harvey Dead Horse Day Mos- 
qnito Nets" Easter "Dictionary Wanted A Centenarian, 
154 Olio Motto for a Pepper-pot Laurence of Groninger 
Two Similar Epitaphs Children's Games The Spanish 
Armada The Abbacy of Cambuskenneth Funeral Armour 
in Churches, 155 Curious Epitaphs Sidemen A. Bunn 
"Strang," 156 Genius W. Scott and "Goetz von Berlich- 
ingen FF. Owen Swift Sir C. Wetherell " Laburnum," 
157 Pope and his Quarrels Hawthorne's "Mosses," &c. 
Dorset Toasts Redcoats " Kempt " De Laune Family 
" Hatts " " Skyrack," 158 Shakspeare in Gloucester- 
shire : Marlowe, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : North's " Church Bells of Northants "" 
Findlay's "Iron Kirk" "Wild Oats": " Fabellae Mostel- 
larise," &c. 


Popular books books to make things plain and 
easy of access may mislead (1) either from their 
plan being misunderstood, (2) or their information 
proving inaccurate. Of the former (1) Card well's 
Two Liturgies is a striking example as misunder- 
stood by the judges in the Knightsbridge case, 
who were led by it into their grave literary blunder 
in the matter of the Consecration prayer. They 
went to Cardwell instead of going to the book 
itself ; and so, from ignorance of his arrangement, 
fell into the trap unwittingly laid for them, and 
have in consequence raised over themselves a 
mound of mirth unto this day. They sought but 
saw not, because they sought not aright. 

Of the latter (2) Sir William Palmer's Origines 
Liturgicce has latterly afforded a pregnant proof. 
The dignitaries in and about Convocation, while 
discussing the Athanasian Creed, affirmed, or 
acquiesced in the affirmation, that the Creed in 
England, in the old time before the Reformation 
was called the Psalm Quicunque vult, and saic 
only on Sundays on some Sundays at an obscur 
service as a common Sunday Psalm. Whence dk 
they get this ? From Palmer (Origines Liturgicce 

'61. i. pp. 233-4), who twice asserts what is con- 
rary to fact concerning the "Symbolum Athanasii" 
for such is the heading of the Creed in Sarum) : 
' The Athanasian Creed, termed Psalmus Qui- 
unque vult, was sung on Sundays . . . was only 
recited on Sundays, according to the offices of 
Sarum and other English churches, and on other 
days nothing was appointed instead of it." A 
congeries of error ! Had Sir William looked a 
ittle forward, both in Salisbury and York, he 
would have found its use provided for, not on 
undays only, but on every day of the week, and 
so might have saved the dignitaries their stumble. 
One compendium proved their rock of offence. 
Another, their old friend Dr. Burton's compendious 
volume of Primers (Oxford, 1834), might have kept 
them straight. Had they consulted him they 
would have discovered (p. 325), set out at full, at 
the very head and front of Bishop Hilsey's Primer 
(1539), "The Symbol or Creed of the Great 
Doctor Athanasius. Daily read in the Church." 
This, as testimony borne to the practice of the 
Church of England ten years before 1549, when 
taken in conjunction with the rubrics of Salisbury 
and of York, must surely set the matter at rest. 

As to the obscurity of the service at which the 
Creed was said. Prime was the layman's matins, 
the service which people were urged to attend in 
their parish churches, with tierce, following prime, 
before mass on Sundays and greater holydays. As 
in religious houses the novices and labourers of 
the house attended prime on weekdays, before 
going out to their daily labour on the glebe, and 
on Sundays and holydays, before they heard tierce 
and mass, they must soon have known the service 
and its Creed by heart. 

In referring to an English authority for an 
English practice no doubt the dignitaries acted 
honestly, though, as it turned out, unfortunately. 
Had they thought proper to look a little further 
afield, they would have found Bona telling them 
(sub " Symbolo Athanasii," in De Singulis partibus 
Divince Psalmodice, xviii. p. 863, Antv., 1677), 
" Olim quotidie ad primam cantabatur." In De 
Variis Eitibus Div. Psalm., v. p. 897, "De Ritu 
Carthusianorum," he says, "Ad primam dicunt 
quotidie symbolum Athanasii." In the same De 
Var. Bit. Div. Psal, p. 900, " De Ritu Ambro- 
siauo," we have "Sequitur Epistolella ut vocant cum 
responsorio brevi, cui statim quotidie subditur sym- 
bolum Athanasii." They would have seen Guyetus, 
had they turned to him, writing, " In omnibus 
antiquis Breviariis quotidie dicebatur," sc. " sym- 
bolum Athanasii" (Heortologia, Venet., 1729, De 
Ordinando Officio, cap. xix. queest. v. p. 207) ; while 
Grancolas (Latine, Venet., 1734, Commentarius 
Historicus in Romanum Breviarium, cap. xxxv. 
p. 108) writes, " Honorius Augustudunensis, 1. 2, 
cap. 19, refert in quibusdam ecclesiis quotidie ad 
primam cum oratione Trinitatis, ' Omnipotens qui 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5* s. XH. A. 23, 79. 

dedisti famulis verse Trinitatis,' &c., recitatum 
fuisse." And lower down he cites, " Explanationem 
gymboli S. Athanasii, quod ad priniam quotidie ca- 
nitur. Idem videre estin ordinarioS. ApriTullensis : 
atque in consuetudinibus Cluniacensibus ab Ulrico 
collectis, 1. 9, c. 3, ' Qnicunque nullo die omittitur 
a nobis, sed in privatis diebus sinml cum aliis 
Psalrnis ; in Dominica post preces,' i.e. post Psalnios 
quotidie dicebatur, et Dominicis post preces. 
Carthusiani quoque illud quotidie recitant, post 
Psalmos horse primce, sicuti etiam Ecclesia Seno- 
nensis." I should add that Azevedo (De Divino 
Officio, Venet., 1783, Pars ii., " Exercitationes 
Ecclesiastics Secundse Partis." Exercitatio xx., 
"De Symbolo Athanasii," p. 797) corroborates Bona 
above, and so would many others, had I space to 
cite them. And to Salisbury, York, Aberdeen, 
and those referred to in the commentators quoted, 
it may not be amiss to append, as a sample of 
other old churches, Paris (Brev., 1557), at daily 
prime, " Symbolum Athanasii"; the Carthusians 
(Brev., Lugduni, 1642), as referred to above 
by Grancolas ; and, indeed, a myriad of old 
books beside those of the churches of Sens, of 
Besanc,on (Brev., Par., 1565), of Aix (Lugd., circ. 
1500), and of Angers (MS.), all of them older, or 
representing books older, than the days when 
Cranmer innovated in the matter of the Creed of 
St. Athanasius. But enough has been adduced to 
show the lurking dangers of compendiums in 
points of authority and literature. 


(Concluded from p. 2.) 

For some mysterious reason the Laureate has 
chosen to dislocate the order of the tale. He 
begins with the home life of the newly married 
pair, the causeless jealousy of the bridegroom, and 
his command to Enid to clothe herself in her faded 
silk, for he means her to ride with him into the wil- 
derness. We are then taken back three years, and 
are told the way that Geraint both wooed and 
won his beautiful Enid, who was taken to court, 
where the queen herself gave the young spouse her 
bridal attire. Again the narrative is broken, and 
the reader must go back to the order of Geraint 
to his bride to dress herself in mean attire and 
accompany him on horseback wherever he chose 
to go. We are again to take up the tale by 
passing over all the first part after the 145th line 
to the last three lines, which connect the tale 
with part ii. 

This dislocation answers no good purpose, but 
only obscures the tale. Homer, Virgil, Milton, 
and others, it is true, begin in medias res, and 
fetch up the antecedent parts by relating them to 
some host or guest, but there is no such artifice 
here. All the parts are told historically, but the 

poet has chosen to arrange his parts 2, 1,3, instead 
of 1, 2, 3 ; and this being the case, the reader 
must begin with line 145 and read to within ten 
lines of the end of part i., then turn to the fifth 
line and read to the point from which he started. 
It begins with " Arthur held his court at Caerleon 
on Usk " ; goes on to the wooing of Enid, her 
leaving home, her welcome at court, and her 
wedding "with all ceremony"; then, turning to 
line 5, we are told " Geraint loved his young wife 
dearly," but a misunderstanding arose, and he 
commanded her to accompany him to the wilder- 
ness ; then skipping from line 14.5 to the close of 
part i., the fragments are pieced together and the 
tale continued. 

After sojourning in the court three years, Geraint 
returned home with his young wife. 

. And he began to love ease and pleasure 
...and took no delight in tournaments as he Lad done 
formerly, but liked to continue in the palace, and gave 
up hunting and his other amusements. ..And there was 
murmuring and scoffing. ..among the people. ..on account 
of liis relinquishing everything for the love of his wife. 

Tennyson. He grew 

Forgetful of the falcon and the hunt, 
Forgetful of the tilts and tournaments... 
And.. .the people... began to scoff him 
As a prince whose manhood was all gone 
And molten down to mere uxoriousness. 

Malinogion. And Erbin... spoke unto Enid, and in- 
quired whether it was she that had caused him to act 
thus...." Not I," she said; " there is nothing more hate- 
ful to me."... But it was hard for her to own this to 
Geraint. ..and she was very sorrowful. 

Tennyson. [This rumour being told her] saddened 

And day by day she thought to tell Geraint, 

But could not... 

While he that watched her sadden was the more 

Suspicious that her nature had a taint. 

Malinogion. One morning in the summer time they 
were upon their couch. ..and the sun shone upon it. ..and 
the clothes slipped from off his arms and breast, and he 
was asleep... And Enid gazed upon his marvellous beauty, 
and said, " Alas ! am I the cause that these arms and 
this breast have lost their manliness? "...And as she spoke 
the tears dropped from her eyes, and fell on his breast... 
and woke him. 

Tennyson. At last it chanced that on a summer 

(They sleeping each by either) the new sun 

Beat thro' the... casement. 

And moving he cast the clothes aside... 

And Enid woke, and sat beside the couch 

Admiring him... and said, 

" noble breast and all puissant arms, 

Am I the cause that all your force is gone?"... 

And the strong passion in her made her weep 

True tears upon his broad and naked breast, 

And these awoke him. 

Malinogion. And he thought that she wept and 
spoke thus because she loved some other man more than 
him. ..and he was troubled in mind, and called his squire, 
and when he came, " Go quickly," said he, " and prepare 
my horse and arms ; and do thou arise," he said to Enid, 
"and clothe thyself in thy worst riding dress, and evil 

5>> S. XII. AUG. 23, 79.] 



betide me if thou returnest here until thou knowest 
whether I have really lost my manliness." 
Tennyson. And he thought, 

"She is not faithful to me, and I see her 

Weeping for some gay knight in Arthur's hall." 

At this. ..he shook his drowsy squire, and cried, 

" My charger and her palfrey" ; then to her, 

"...Put on thy worst and meanest dresa 

And ride with me." 

"We must now skip over some 700 lines of the 
poem for the continuation. Towards the close of 
part i. five lines are repeated, beginning, "Remem- 
bering how first he came to her drest in that dress," 
and at this point the narrative is continued. In 
both versions Geraint commands Enid to ride far 
in advance and not to speak to him, and he takes 
her over rough roads through tangles haunted by 
robbers. From time to time, being in advance, 
Enid hears some lurking gang arrange to attack 
Geraint and steal the horses, and she gives him 
warning. He chides her for speaking, overthrows 
every attacking party, and gives the horses to 
Enid to drive forward, till at last she has quite a 
string of them, and becomes faint and weary, sick 
at heart, and almost ready to die. At length 

Mdbinogion. They left the wood, and came to an 
open country with meadows on one hand, and mowers 
mowing the meadows... And there came a slender stripling 
with a satchel. ..and a small blue pitcher in his hand. [It 
was the noonday meal for the mowers, but the lad gave 
the provisions to the prince and lady]. And Geraint said 
to him, " Take thou whichever horse and arms thou 
choosest in payment of thy service.''...'' This would be 
ample," said the youth, " to repay much greater services 
than I have rendered to thee." 

Tennyson. So thro' the green gloom of the wood 
they past, 

And issuing under open heaven, beheld 

...a meadow... and mowers mowing in it. 

And there came a fair-haired youth, that in his hand 

Bare victuals for the mowers... 

[These were given to the prince and lady, and then 
Geraint said to the lad] 

" Boy. ..take a horse and arms for guerdon."... 

"My lord, you overpay me,". ..said the boy. 

The boy then asked them to come to his master's 
house, where they would find a welcome ; but 
Geraint declined to do so, and said 

Mdbinogion. " Go to the town and take a lodging for 
me. ..and see that it is commodious for the horses also." 
Ttnnyson. " Go hire some. ..chamber for the night 

And stalling for the horses." 

This was done. And Geraint commanded Enid 
to keep as far off from him as the chamber would 
allow. While there, the master of the youth 
visited Geraint, and Geraint gave him a banquet, 
and told the host he might invite as many of his 
friends and neighbours as he liked to dinner, and 
he (Geraint) would pay the expense of their enter- 
tainment. When the meal was over, the guest 
asked permission to pay his respects to the lady, 
and, seeing how neglected she was, proposed that 
she should elope with him, promising that he 
would love and cherish her. His words were so 

ardent and he was so far gone in intoxication that 
Enid thought it would be no use thwarting him, 
and said, if he really wished it, the best plan would 
be for him to come early in the morning and carry 
her off by force, and to this he assented. It was 
now bedtime ; and while Geraint was asleep, Enid 
noiselessly laid his armour in readiness. 

Mabinogion. And though fearful of her errand, she 
came to his side and spoke softly, saying, " My lord, arise 
and clothe thyself."... And then she told him all the earl had 
said to her... And he took warning and clothed himself... 
and he said, " Bid the host come here," and the man 
came. "Dost know how much I owe thee, friend 1 ?" 
asked Geraint. " I think but little." " Take the eleven 
horses and the armour for the debt." " Heaven reward 
thee," said the host, " but I have not spent the worth of 
one.'' " For that reason," said Geraint, " thou wilt be 
the richer." 

Tennyson. Then breaking his command of silence 


She told him all that earl Limours had said... 
Then issuing armed he found the host, and cried, 
" Thy reckoning, friend." And ere he learnt it, " Take 
Five horses and their armour." And the host 
...answered amazed, "I scarce have spent the worth 

of one." 
" Ye will be all the wealthier," said the prince. 

On they rode, till Enid observed through the 
mist a knight riding after them, and she warned 
Geraint, and when the knight came up 

Malinogion. Geraint turned on him, and struck him 
with his lance upon the centre of his shield, so that the 
shield was split... und he himself thrown over the horse's 
crupper to the ground, in peril of his life. 

Tennyson. And in the moment after, wild Limours... 

Dashed on Geraint, who closed with him, and bore 

Down [sic] by the length of lance and arm beyond 

The crupper, and so left him stunned. 

At length they came in contact with King 
Arthur and tarried awhile with him, and the evil 
spirit of Geraint gradually gave way. 

Malinogion. Then Geraint went to his own domains, 
and henceforth reigned prosperously ; and his fame and 
splendour lasted with renown and honour both to him 
and Enid from that time forth. 

Tennyson. Thence after tarrying for a space, they 
rode their own land. 

And being ever foremost in the chase, 

And victor at the tilt and tournament, 

They called him the " Great Prince," 

And Enid a grateful people named 

" Enid the Good."... Nor did he doubt her more, 

But rested on her fealty, till he crowned 

A happy life with a fair death. 

Perhaps I may be allowed to state that 
the second part of Tennyson's Geraint and Enid 
appears to me by far the best portion of all 
the idylls. It is better poetry and of a higher 
type. The first part is too close a copy of the 
prose story, and the dislocation alluded to above 
is a fatal blemish. As part ii. of Geraint and 
Enid is the best, the idyll called Gareth and 
Lynette is undoubtedly the worst, as the whole 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5. s. xn. A. 23, 79. 

scope of the beautiful allegory has been misunder- 
stood and sadly perverted by the poet. 

L xvant. 


See EuhnJcenii Epistolce ad Wyttenbachium (ed. 
Kraft), pp. 24, 26, 35, 45, 159, 166 ; F. A. Wolf, 
Liter. Analekten, ii. 2, art. 12=iv. 549-57. He 
made Kuhnken's acquaintance at Paris (Wytten- 
bach, Vita Ruhnkenii, p. 71, edit. I799=pp. 123 
seq. edit. Bergman). His essay De Babrio, Lond., 
T. Payne, 1776, 8vo. An auctarium appended to 
his edition of Orpheus De Lapidibus. Both essay 
and auctarium reprinted by Harles, Erlangen, 
1785, 8vo. Cf. Fabricius- Harles, Bibliotheca 
Grceca, i. 629 ; Saxe, Onomasticon, vii. 173 seq. ; 
Ruhnken in Biblioth. Grit., pt. iv. pp. 85 seq., 
134-5. His edit, of Aristotle's Poet., Oxf., 1794, 
4to. ; second edit, ibid., 1794, 8vo. ; third edit. 
ibid., 1806, 8vo., 7s., l.p. 21s. ; fourth edit, ibid., 
1817 ; fifth edit, ibid., 1827. Thomas Burgess de- 
dicates to him his edition of Dawes's Miscell. Grit., 
Oxf., 1781, " honoris causa et grati animi testi- 
monio." His " notte breves ad Dial, de Orat. 
margini edit. Lipsii, Anty., 1627, et Broterii 
appositse, quas descripsere Thomas Kidd in pnef. 
ad Opuscula Ruhnkenii," Lond., 1807, Ixix seq. ; 
Seebode in Archiv fur Philologie und Padagogik, 
1824, i. 796 seq. ; Dronke in his edit, of Tac. Dial. 
Cf. Dalzel, Anal. Maiora, i. 7 (2) 158, 171, ii. 4 (2) 
37, 180 ; Kidd's preface to Person's Tracts, xcv 
seq. ; Chalmers ; Watt ; Biographic Universelk ; 
Hofer, Biographic Generale; above all, the Lit. 
Anecd. and Lit. Illustr. of John Nichols. Monk, 
in his Alcestis, gives from B. M. Tyrwhitt's MS. 

In 1814 the Cambridge press promised a pub- 
lication which would still be grateful to the learned 
world, and on which the sister press might at this 
day well employ one of the many rising Oxford 
scholars (Mus. Grit., i. 416) : "It is in contempla- 
tion to reprint in one volume Tyrwhitt's Disser- 
tation on Babrius, his edition of Pseudorpheus 
Trept A.i0wv, his Notes on Euripides and on Strabo, 
and his other smaller pieces of a classical nature." 

We are indebted to the pert ignorance of the 
Edinburgh Review (No. 28, article on Falconer's 
Strabo} for one of the most interesting notices of 
Tyrwhitt (Copleston, A Reply to the Calumnies of 
the Edinburgh Review against Oxford, second edit., 
Oxf., 1810). The reviewer had called Falconer 
" a distinguished graduate, selected from the whole 
body, at an advanced period of life, to conduct the 
greatest work that it had undertaken for more 
than a century preceding." Copleston retorts 
(p. 40):- 

" The truth is, the editor never was a graduate ; he was 
not a member of the university when he undertook this 
work ; he was not then at an advanced period of life ; he 

resided here a little more than a twelvemonth during the 
progress of it, chiefly that he might enjoy the society of 
literary men and the use of the libraries." 

To make the balance true, the power whose man- 
date conferred on Falconer a degree, ejected, like 
another Lord Manchester, poor Tyrwhitt from his 
Alma Mater (Copleston, p. 34). 

" Certain it is, that no such attempt has heen made 
since, except in the single and minute, but very success- 
ful instance of Aristotle's Poetics, which was produced 
by an auxiliary volunteer, residing in the metropolis, 
engaged in business, and never secluded from the avoca- 
tions of society. By not enjoying the leisure, perhaps, 
he never contracted the indolence or apathy of a monk, 
but preserved the activity even by the distraction of his 
faculties. His name stands in the title-page plain 
Thomas Tyrwhitt without any decorative adjunct or 
title of degree though it would have done honour to 
the proudest which the most exalted seat of learning 
could bestow." 

Copleston retorts (pp. 34-5) : 

" Lest it should be imagined that there is any truth in 
what the reviewer intimates, that Tyrwhitt took no 
degree at Oxford, and was not even a member of the 
university, I will add a very brief summary of facts and 
dates concerning that illustrious critic. 

" He was born in 1730 ; came from Eton to Queen's 
College, Oxford, 1747; took the degree of B.A. in 1750; 
was elected fellow of Merton College in 1755 ; took the 
degree of M.A. in 1756 ,* and remained fellow of that 
college seven years (i.e. till 1762), when he was made 
Clerk of the House of Commons and resigned his fellow- 
ship. He quitted all public employment in 1768 ; from 
which time till his death in 1786 he occupied himself 
chiefly in critical and other literary studies, to which the 
greater part of his former life had been devoted. His 
Poetics is a posthumous publication from unfinished 
notes, and the title-page was, of course, arranged by 
another hand." 

Again, speaking of the Strabo (pp. 98-100) : 
" The excellence of Tyrwhitt's conjectural emenda- 
tions is acknowledged by the reviewer ; although he is 
studious to deprive Oxford of all share of the credit. 
Even here his evil genius of ignorance haunts him every 
step he takes. He asks why they were not published in 
one small supplementary volume. The answer is, they 
have been printed in a small volume, as every pretender 
to exact Greek criticism ought to know, twice already : 
once in London in 1783, which edition is quoted by 
Schweighaeuser in his notes to Polybius, and once by 
Harles in 1788, from which the French translators have 
taken his conjectures, as far as they have gone, and in 
general adopted them, with acknowledgments of their 

" The reviewer praises these emendations highly, and, 
put of near two hundred, selects six as being particularly 
ingenious, and as having been confirmed by manuscripts 
collated since his death. The first and last of these six 
have had no confirmation whatever from manuscripts ; 
the first is not so much a conjecture as an adoption of 
the sense given in the old Latin translation ; the third is 
only partially confirmed : and the second and fourth 
have no pretensions to superior sagacity, as I will leave 
it to any one conversant in these matters to determine. 
How unaccountable all this ! when, in the imperfect 
reading which I have myself given to the notes, I have 
found above twelve very ingenious ones positively con- 
firmed, as many partially confirmed, and at least twenty, 
far exceeding those selected by him in acuteness and 

5<>s.xii.A.23,'79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ingenuity, not yet confirmed, but bearing the strongest 
marks of probability." 

In a note Copleston specifies the emendations to 
which he refers. JOHN E. B. MAYOR. 



The following is the twenty-first anecdote in 
Taylor's Wit and Mirth (see Shakspeare Jest-Books, 
edited by Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt) : 

" A country fellow (that had not walked much in streets 
that were paved) came to London, where a dog came 
suddenly out of a house, and furiously ran at him. The 
fellow stooped to take up a stone to cast at the dog, and 
finding them all fast rammed or paved in the ground, 
quoth he : ' What a strange country am I in, where the 
people tie up the stones and let the dogs loose ! ' " 

Curiously enough, what seems to be the original 
of this droll story is found in the Gulistan, or 
Rose-Garden, of the Persian poet Saadi (chap. iv. 
tale 10), where it is related somewhat as follows : 

A poor peasant presented himself before the 
chief of a gang of robbers, and recited verses in 
his praise. The robber chief, instead of rewarding 
the poet, caused him to be stripped of his clothes 
and driven out of the village. The dogs attacking 
him in his rear, he tried to take up some stones, 
but they were frozen to the ground. Thus dis- 
tressed, he exclaimed, " What a vile set of men 
are these, who set loose the dogs and fasten the 
stones ! " The chief, having heard him from a 
window, laughed, and said, " wise man, ask 
a boon of me." "I want my own garment," said 
the poet, " if you vouchsafe it," and so on. In the 
sequel he gets back his gown and goes away, " a 
sadder and a wiser man." 

This story, by the way, Saadi places in his chapter 
or section entitled " The Advantages of Tacitur- 
nity," and a very instructive tale it is on that 

" When poets say, ' I 've written fifty rhymes,' 
They make you dread that they '11 recite them too ! " 

I do not think it likely that this story is told in 
any English jest-book printed before Taylor's Wit 
and Mirth, which, indeed, is the most original of 
all our old books of facetiae. How, then, came it 
into England 1 Taylor tells us in his title-page 
that his stories were " chargeably collected out of 
Taverns, Ordinaries, Inns, Bowling-greens and 
alleys, Ale-houses, Tobacco-shops, High-ways and 
Water-ways"; and Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt justly 
remarks that " taverns and pot-houses supplied 
Taylor, no doubt, with a large proportion of the 
matter for his Wit and Mirth." But if this tale 
be not found in any earlier English jest-book, how 
came it to be an ale-house jest in Taylor's time ? 

A more general question, how Saadi's little story 
came into Europe, is not so difficult to answer. It 
must have come, as hundreds of other Asiatic 

stories, " merry and tragical, tedious and brief," 
migrated westward during the Middle Ages, 
through the Moors of Spain, who held regular 
intercourse with their co-religionists in northern 
Africa and in Asia ; European intercourse with 
the Saracens during the Crusades, and, afterwards, 
through the hordes of pilgrims that flocked to the 
Holy Land ; and through the merchants of the 
Venetian Republic, who for a long period carried 
on an extensive trade with Syria and Egypt, and 
who must have " imported," along with their rich 
bales of merchandise, still more precious treasures 
of Oriental fiction, of which the early Italian 
novelists probably made good use. 

Now, I have a shrewd suspicion that Saadi's 
story of the poor poet and the dogs is to be found 
in either of the two famed books of facetiw 
Arlotto and Poggius. Perhaps some correspondent 
of " N. & Q." would kindly state whether I am 
correct in this conjecture. To some " outsiders " 
this may be thought a very long note about a very 
small matter ; but to readers and correspondents 
of " N. & Q.," at least, the tracing of the migra- 
tions and transformations of popular tales and 
fictions must be peculiarly interesting. 

[See " N. & Q.," 5 th S. xi. 302, 382, 426.] 

" ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA," ninth edit., art. 
" Bibliography : Anonymous and Pseudonymous 
Works." The writer of this article says : " In 
England the practice of anonymous writing, in 
spite of the example of journalism, l:as never 
largely prevailed." I should much like to know 
upon what data this opinion of the encyclopaedist 
is founded. It seems to me that there is not only 
no foundation for it, but that it is contrary to the 
fact. When the late Mr. Halkett's book appears 
with Mr. Laing's additions it will disclose an 
amount of anonymous literature that will surprise 
those who have not devoted some attention to the 
subject. The writer adds : " Works of this class, 
however, are most applicable to countries in which 
the liberty of the press has been most restricted " 
(p. 658, ninth edit., an opinion adopted from the 
eighth edit., p. 712). I believe it will also be 
found that the liberty of the press of this country 
was at one time sufficiently restricted for shoals of 
anonymous publications to thrive, if, indeed, re- 
striction has anything to do with the matter. 

On the same page we find that Voltaire " him- 
self wrote several works anonymously." This is a 
very modest way of stating it. The fact is that 
Voltaire wrote not only several, but dozens of 
works without his name, five columns of index 
being required to enumerate them in Querard's 
Bibliographic Voltairienne. 

The last edition (1872) of Barbier is spoken of as 
a complete work. It has never been completed. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. is* s. xn. A. 23, 7*. 

A part was issued in 1877, and nothing has 
appeared since. The last edition of the Super che- 
ries Litteraires Devoilees, which is complete, is 
not referred to at all, only the first edition being 
mentioned. These are no doubt slight matters 
when the magnitude and excellence of the articles 
in the Encyclopedia are considered. 


A BARE TRACT. The following cutting from 
the Exeter and Plymouth Gazette of the 16th inst., 
will doubtless be highly interesting to the readers 
of "K &Q.": 


LIBRARY. The Rev. H. E. Reynolds, Librarian of the 
Cathedral Library, Exeter, has made the discovery of a 
most interesting little work in the boarding of a copy of 
Jac. Fabri Stapulensis Comment, in Epistolas Calhohcas, 
a folio volume printed at Basle in 1527, the four leaves 
of the pamphlet having been opened and pasted as a 
folio sheet inside the cover in binding up the book. The 
newly found copy of the Praclyse of Cyrurgyons is in a 
fine state of preservation, and is an inch taller and wider 
than that of the only other copy known to exist that 
which is in the British Museum. It is not in the 
Bodleian, nor yet in the extensive special collections of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, the Royal College of 
Physicians, or the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. 
The description is as follows : '% Thepractyse of Cyr/- 
urgyons of Mountpyl 'ler : and of other that neuer came 
there/ [woodcut on title-page of two surgeons con- 
sulting.] [Begins on second page]. ..The causys why 
many/ a man dothe dye :...[ends on page 8]... let us praye 
euermore for/ his mercy. Amen./ ^[ Finis pro temppre/ 
1 Imprynted by me Rycharde/ Banckes. Cum priui/- 
legio Regali/ Ad imprimendum solum. [Woodcut of 
St. Luke, the Physician.] 4 [no place nor date, ? 1540] 
4 leaves unpaged. Black Letter.' Richard Bankes, 
Bankys, or Banks was a bookseller and printer, who is 
said by Ames to have carried on his business for about 
twenty-five years ; but there are comparatively few books 
bearing his imprint, and those with dates were issued 
between 1525 and 1542. He printed several other works 
relating to medicine, such as The Seynge of Vrynes, 1525 ; 
Vertues and Propertes of H erl es, 1526; The Questionary 
of Cyrurgens, 1541 ; Tretyse ayenst Pestylence, n.d., &c." 

A fuller account of the above rare tract will be 
found in the Athenaeum of Aug. 9, 1879. 

The Close, Exeter. 

COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. In a Keply on "The 
Witches of Warboys and the Huntingdon Sermon 
against Witchcraft " (ante, p. 70) I had occasion to 
speak of " Queen's College, Cambridge "; and my 
quotations showed that the apostrophe before the 
letter s was thus used by Sir Walter Scott, Rev. 
M. Noble, Rev. M. J. Naylor, and the Town Clerk 
of Huntingdon. But a valued correspondent of 
" N. & Q.," the EEV. J. PICKFORD, of Newbourne 
Rectory, points out to me that " Queens' College, 
in Cambridge, was founded by two queens of Eng- 
land Margaret of Anjou and Elizabeth Wood- 
ville consequently ought to be written Queens' 
and not Queen's. Queen's College, in Oxford, 

was founded in 1340 by Robert de Eglesfield r 
aided by Queen Philippa, and is therefore written 
Queen's." I hope that MR. PICKFORD will pardon 
me for thus publishing his private note ; but it 
contains information that might be serviceable to 
many readers and writers. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

" CATCH A WEASEL ASLEEP." Strange to say, 
the explanation of this common saying has never 
been asked for in "N. & Q." In anticipation 
thereof I send the following anecdote, related, I 
believe, by Giraldus Cambrensis : 

" A weasel having brought out her young into a plain 
for the enjoyment of sun and air, an insidious kite carried 
off one of them. The mother concealing herself with 
the remainder of her family behind some shrubs, grief 
suggested to her a stratagem of exquisite revenge. She 
extended herself on a heap of earth, as if asleep, within 
sight of the plunderer, and the kite immediately seized 
her and flew away, but soon fell down dead by the fatal 
bite of the revengeful animal." 


Godolphin Road, Shepherd's Bush. 

A CENTENARIAN. The following information' 
respecting a centenarian may prove interesting to' 
you. There is an old man living in the parish of 
Talgarth who states that he is 104 years old. The 
vicar of the parish, the Rev. Mr. Bowen, questioned 
him as to his age, the names of his father and 
mother, and his birthplace. When he had obtained 
them he consulted the register books in this 
parish, and found that a child bearing the name, 
and exactly corresponding in all details, had been 
baptized 104 years ago. If the matter is thought 
of sufficient interest I shall be glad to furnish any 
further information in my power. 

W. E. T. MORGAN, Curate. 

Glasbury, R.S.O., Radnorshire. 

singing a song in company, as, for instance, at a 
rent dinner or a " club feast," or in the tap-room 
of a public-house, the performer always repeats the 
name of it. The rest of the company then take 
their glasses and say, "Your health and song." 
I fancy the latter part of the formula is common 
in most places, but not the first part. Also, I 
observe that when two or three people take a glass 
together privately, or when one treats another, they 
never then pledge each other in the words " Your 
health," or "Your good health," but invariably 
say, " My respects." ROBERT HOLLAND. 

Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

"COLONIZE." David Hume, writing to Dr. 
Franklin in 1760 (Life of Benjamin Franklin, by 
Bigelow, 1879, i. 412), rebukes him for employing 
unusual words, among which he cites " colonize." 
It is strange that this word should have appeared 
new to Hume, for it had been used by Bunyan (Holy 
War) and by Howell (Letters, bk. iii. letter 9), and: 
could hardly have become obsolete in England, 

flft S. XII. AUG. 23, 79.] 



one would think, since their days, while it had 
survived in America (see Johnson, Richardson, 
Worcester, &c.). J. DIXON. 

A QUINTUPLE MARRIAGE. Perhaps the fol- 
lowing may be regarded by some as a curiosity. 
On July 15, 1782, a clergyman marries three 
couples ; he is then married himself by another 
clergyman, and afterwards marries another couple. 
This is found in the registers of Halifax parish 
church. Such an event can hardly be paralleled, I 
think. T. C. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix tbeir 
names and addresses to tbeir queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to tbem direct] 

GYMNICK FAMILY. Can any one acquainted 
with Belgian or German genealogies help me to 
find out who the Gymnicks were ? Four fine 
portraits, of three Counts de Gymnick and a 
chanoinesse, and a curious old emblazoned seize 
quartier pedigree are among the family antiquities 
of a Derbyshire family, but no connexion whatever 
can be traced between them. That portion of the 
pedigree relating to the Gymnicks traces the de- 
scent in the female line from Margareta Rolman 
von Dodenberg, by Catherine von Hochsteden, by 
Maria von Liitzerat, to Von Gymnick ; arms, Arg., 
cross engrailed gules. The pedigree reads up- 
wards, and there is a row of sixteen shields 
emblazoned along the top. The only possible clue 
is, I fear, very far fetched. Is there any possible 
link between Rolman and Holman of Warkworth 
Castle, near Ban bury, now, alas ! destroyed, but 
all the pictures, &c., are in the possession of the 
Derbyshire family aforesaid. The first of these 
Holmans was George, of the parish of St. Benet 
Fink, London, who died August, 1619. His son, 
Philip Holman, bought Warkworth from the Chet- 
wodes, and his son again made a most noble 
alliance and founded a worthy family, now extinct, 
in spite of its double connexion with " the blood 
of all the Howards " and Stafibrds to boot. I 
would like some more information about the Chet- 
wodes and Warkworth. They got it from the 
Wahuls, and some fine heraldic glass of many 
quarterings is carefully fitted and preserved in 
Derbyshire. Beezeley's Banbury seems a difficult 
book to get : I have hunted in vain. SCOTUS. 
[See ante, p. 47.] 

" GRECIAN " : " ABYSSINIAN." In many places 
e.g. London, Liverpool, and Manchester young 
Irishmen, on their first arrival in England, are 
known as " Grecians." Has this ever been 
explained ? 

Travellers on the " loop line '' of the L. and 
S. W. K. will know that there are two routes from 

Hounslow to Waterloo, one (rid Barnes) direct, 
the other (vitl Gunnersbury) more circuitous. 
Trains proceeding by the latter route are quite 
commonly called "the Abyssinian" by guards, 
passengers, and porters. Can any one say why ? 
The only explanation I have been able to elicit is 
that they go a long way round, but this is, I think, 
hardly sufficient. JAMES BRITTEN. 

" DOPPER." Mrs. Hutchinson (In Tents in the 
Transvaal), speaking of a visit to a rich Boer, says 
"he repudiated the appellation of Boer, and insisted 
on being called a Dopper." What is the exact 
meaning of this word so used 1 In my Dutch 
dictionary (Tauchnitz) Dopper=gauger. 



mine has a full-length picture in a landscape, by 
or after Sir Godfrey Kneller, representing a young 
lady with dark hair, in a yellow dress, about six- 
teen or eighteen years old, with a beautifully 
painted King Charles on her lap, said to be a Miss 
Cayley, Bishop Heber's grandmother. Any in- 
formation as to her will oblige. J. R. HAIG. 

LANCASHIRE BALLADS. In a small book just 
published, A Year in a Lancashire Garden, one 
verse of an old Lancashire maying song is given 
on p. 50 : 

" We have been rambling all this nigbt, 

And almost all tbis day ; 
And now, returned back again, 

We 've brougbt you a brancb of may. 
A brancb of may we have brought you, 

And at your door it stands ; 
It is but a sprout, but it "s well budded out, 

By the work of our Lord's hands." 

Will any of your readers kindly give me the whole 
song or tell me where it can be found 1 I should 
be much obliged, too, if they could tell me the 
Lancashire ballad where every verse ends with 
the refrain 

" For the basiers are sweet in the morning of May," 
as mentioned on p. 49 in the same little book, 
A Year in a Lancashire Garden. Would any 
one likewise kindly tell me if he knows of any 
old Lancashire ballad book ? S. S. 

THE " BASING HOUSE" INN. In the History of 
Basing House, in Hampshire, 1827, p. 27, it is 
stated, on the authority of the Gent. Mag., 1806, 
p. 1169. that there was an inn bearing this sign in 
Shoreditch, " which exists there to the present 
day" (i.e. 1806). Can anyone inform me if it 
still exists, or give any particulars concerning it ? 

H. G. C. 


CURIOUS PAINTING. In my collection is an 
original picture, temp. George II., representing a 



s. xu. A. 23, 79. 

rnan in the costume of the period falling, head 
foremost, into the wide end of a large gold-mounted 
horn, suspended by a cord with knot and bullion 
tassel, and the head of another figure (? male or 
female) emerging from the narrow end, whence 
further exit appears impossible. It is in oil on 
canvas (size 18 in. by 14 in.), and attributed to 
Hogarth ; and its meaning is explained by the 
following inscription in the centre : 
" Beware of Suretiship, take heed of Pleasure, 
You may go in with Ease and come out at Leisure." 

Have any of your readers met with mention of 
the picture, and has it been engraved 1 

W. I. K. V. 

In a note in Macaulay's History of England 
(chap, iii.) on a remarkable passage, showing the 
scarcity of books in country places in the seven- 
teenth century, it is said : " Cotton seems, from 
his Angler, to have found room for his whole 
library in his hall window ; and Cotton was a man 
of letters." Can any one point out the passage 
alluded to by the historian in Cotton's Angler ? 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

VAUGHAN FAMILY. Can any one give me in- 
formation respecting the pedigree of the Vaughan 
family, who were settled at Linton, Herefordshire, 
about the latter part of the last century? Were 
they a branch of the Vaughans of Court Field, co. 
Monmouth ? CAROLUS. 

3, Grove Place, Swansea. 

Museum I can find nothing about Samuel Hum- 
phrey, the poet who died at Canonbury Tower, 
except a mention in Baker's Biog. Dramatica, 
where even his Christian name is not given. En- 
, cyclopaedias do not name him nor the Biog. Brit. 
I should be much obliged if any of your readers 
could give me a hint. He wrote the librettos for 
Handel, who thought highly of his melody, it is 
said. Where? CHAS. A. WARD. 

1785. There appear to have been two issues of 
the first edition of this remarkable book in 1785, 
having different headings on the first page. The 
one runs, A Burlesque Provincial and Proverbial 
Dictionary; the other on the same page has, A 
Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue. Pre- 
suming that this change was made by Grose him- 
self, which was the original heading ? Probably 
the first, because the second one is that employed 
in the second or corrected edition of 1788 ; and, il 
so, some friendly critic may have suggested to him, 
when the book was first issued, that "classical' 
was a better word than " burlesque." 


THE PETTY FAMILY. Where can I find the 
descendants of Thomas Petty, who was son of the 
Irst Earl of Shelburne, and who married Mary, 
Countess of Orkney? Is it possible to see the 
family tree of the Lansdowne family, which might 
give the information ? DICK. 

GERAINT. There is a hill overlooking the town 
of Llangollen called Moel-y-Geraint, better known 
as the " Barber's Hill," because, as is said, a barber 
was hung thereon for murder at the beginning of 
the present century. What is the meaning of the 
word Geraint ? BOILEAU. 

FUNERAL FOLK-LORE. Concerning the funeral 
of a lady of title, a Roman Catholic, who died a 
few years since, two or three cottagers concurred 
in the following account : That as she lay in her 
coffin, to be seen by the tenantry and others, she 
bore a hammer in her right hand, and a golden 
coin in her left hand : with the hammer she was 
to knock at the gate of heaven, and with the coin 
to pay St. Peter for her admittance. I need 
hardly say that I discredit the story, notwith- 
standing that it reached me from more than one 
witness ; but I would ask, does it point to any 
piece of folk-lore or superstitious fancy ? These 
poor cottagers may have caught sight of a crucifix 
and reliquary, or something of that nature, and 
interpreted them according to their own ideas. 


SIR EICHARD VYVYAN. In an interesting 
leader on this Cornish worthy in the Times of the 
18th inst., it is said that " he produced an elaborate 
book dealing with the problems of biology, of the 
merits of which we can say nothing, since it was 
suppressed as soon as it was issued." Can any 
particulars of this book be furnished ? 


employ any special mode of binding ? I have a 
copy of Erasmus's Moria Encomium (English 
translation, published by W. Leake of Fleet Street). 
It is bound in red leather, gilt edges, and profusely 
ornamented at back and corners with a cipher of 
two crossed C's, having a royal crown above, and 
below two palm branches. It is lettered " Folly." 
If Charles had any library it probably formed one 
of his collection. W. F. 

HERALDIC. Edward Gould, Esq., of Mansfield 
Woodhouse, Notts, married first Lady Barbara 
Yelverton, only daughter of Henry, third Earl of 
Sussex, and by her (who died in 1781) had issue 
a son, who became Lord Grey de Ruthyn, and two 
daughters. He married secondly Anne, daughter 
of Charles, eighth Lord Dormer, and by her had 
two sons, Charles and Frederick, and two daughters 
(twins), Evelyn and Lucy. What is the date of 
Mr. Gould's second marriage, and where can his. 

5 s. xii. AUG. 2s f -TO.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


pedigree be found ; are there any descendants 
of his second marriage in existence, and, if so, who 
are they, and where do they live ? ECLECTIC. 


gauntlet, ch. xviii., Latimer says : "If this is 
not plain speaking, there is no such place as 
downright Dunstable in being ! " Born and bred 
near Dunstable, I should like to know why that 
place is celebrated for plain speaking. 

Godolphin Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

CUMBERLAND Row, LAMBETH. I have lately 
purchased a very nice drawing of Cumberland 
How, Lambeth, now pulled down. It was a row 
of wooden houses near the Vestry Hall, and I am 
told it dated from the time of the Plague. I 
shall be glad to receive any particulars respecting 
the houses and the people connected with them. 

J. F. B. 

print of the Long Barn, Kennington, which I am 
told was at one time used as a refuge for distressed 
Protestants. I shall be glad to learn through your 
columns any particulars relating to the building 
and its associations. A. B. 

HATFIELD HOUSE, HERTS. I shall be very much 
obliged for any information respecting the above. 
He was Treasurer of England, &c. I wish to trace 
his pedigree. H. P. 

The Grange, Clifton, near Biggleswade. 

LAND. Has this subject been fully investigated 
in " N. & Q." ? Some years ago I made a note 
from a volume Celebrated Trials, I believe, was 
the name of the book, but unfortunately I did not 
take the complete title or date, but I think it was 
about 1820-4. It was there recorded that Cathe- 
rine Hays, for the murder of her husband, was 
burned, presumably in London, on May 9, 1726, yet 
I fancy an execution of this sort took place in 
Exeter as lately as 1760. W. H. H. E. 

of Diirer's numerous woodcuts known to have been 
printed upon silk I mean early and fine impres- 
sions of his larger woodcuts, such as the " Great 
Passion " I Information will be greatly esteemed 
by W. FRAZER. 


is the best life of him in English, French, or Ger- 
man 1 MERVARID. 

Biairhill, Stirling. 

son states in the History of our Lord in Art, vol. i. 

p. 341, that the Transfiguration appears in a mag 
nificent Evangelium preserved in the cathedral at 
Aix-la-Chapelle. As I am now engaged in collect- 
ing transcripts of all the pre-Raphaelite represen- 
tations of this subject, I am anxious to learn where 
or by what means I could procure a copy of this 
illumination. I would gladly defray the expense 
of having it photographed, if any one at Aix-la- 
Chapelle could be found who would kindly search 
for the work in question and point it out to a pho- 
tographer there. Another early representation of 
the same subject is mentioned by Burckhart 
(Cicerone for Italy, p. 70) as existing on the 
so-called dalmatica of Charlemagne, preserved in 
the treasury of St. Peter at Rome. I wish to 
learn whether any illustration of this also has been 
published. MARGARET STOKES. 

Carrig Breac, Howth, co. Dublin. 


Sin his Maether gaed Awa. Where can I find a poem 
thus entitled? P. C. N. 

(5 th S. xi. 366, 394, 472 ; xii. 37, 49, 91.) 

The readers of " N. & Q." have very likely had 
quite enough of this subject ; nevertheless I must 
crave space for a few parting words to clear up 

As it is admitted that I am right on the main 
question of what the parvise was and how the 
name originated, no more need be said on that 
point. CHANCELLOR HARINGTON thinks I have 
done scant justice to Staveley's work on the His- 
tory of Churches in England, which is said by 
Chalmers " to be a work of considerable research 
and learning," &c. Staveley wrote at a very un- 
critical period, when a writer got the reputation of 
learning and research by compiling information 
from all sources and pouring it out " rudis indi- 
gestaque moles," without any critical investigation 
of its relative authority. At the date of his book 
(1712) the great work of Ducange, Glossarium ad 
Scriptores, had been published above thirty years 
(1678), and that of Manage, Origines de la Langue 
Franpaise, above sixty (1650), in both of which 
Staveley would have found the true history of the 
parvis. His statement as to the uses of the parvis 
for law courts was devoid of any authority or 
reference. I think, therefore, that I was fully 
justified in calling this portion of his work " un- 
reliable," a word which I maintain is good English. 
In so doing I mean no reflection on CHANCELLOR 
HARINGTON'S learning ; finding the information to 
his hand he naturally did not think of searching 

MR. TEW, however, comes to the rescue with 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5- s. xn. A. 23, 79. 

a quotation from Matthew Paris, which, with the 
gloss thereon, also quoted, he states justifies the 
derivation which I had pronounced " childish and 
absurd." Let us see how this stands. I have 
diligently searched Matthew Paris's History under 
the dates 1249-50, but cannot find the passage. 
My edition is that of the Kecord Office, edited by 
Sir Frederic Madden. I ani aware that the quota- 
tion is given by Ducange with the reference to 
A.D. 1250, and therefore it must, I suppose, exist 
with the gloss, as also quoted, in some edition 
which I have not seen. Be this as it may, taking 
the quotations as they stand, very little reflection 
will show that they prove the very opposite of what 
is asserted. The quotation states that a certain 
poor scholar was compelled for some time to keep 
a school to provide the means of subsistence, "ven- 
ditis in parvisio libellis," which I translate, " the 
small books (for the boys) being sold in the parvis." 
There is no mention at all of the school being held 
ia the parvis. From some other entries about the 
same date it seems likely that the reference is to 
the parvis of Notre Dame, which was always a 
large open area in front of the church, a very 
unlikely place to keep a school in, but very suitable 
for the sale of school books, since in the middle 
ages it was partially surrounded by booksellers' 
shops. That other accommodation than the parvis 
was provided for schools on the very spot appears 
from two entries in Matthew Paris's History. The 
first is under date 1249, in which he says the privi- 
lege was granted to the Cistercian monks of establish- 
ing schools at Paris, " ut Parisiis et alibi, ubi 
universitas foret, scolarium scolas licite exercerent, 
et ad hoc mansiones praeparaverunt." Under date 
1250 it appears this privilege was exercised, "Pro- 
curante enim Abbate Clarvallis natione Anglico 
constructa est Parisiis nobillissima mansio .... 
ita ut confluat ad ipsos scolarium numerosa mul- 
titude." The unknown writer of the gloss seems 
jgnorantly to have confounded "Parisiis" with 
41 parvis," and hence the somewhat absurd inference 
that the schools were kept in the parvis, and the 
name derived " a scolariis parvis." This has been 
copied without inquiry by Staveley, and so handed 
down. It is in this way that errors are perpetuated 
by the careless adoption of statements without 
verification, which gain credence by repetition. 

One word more. MR. TEW is still unwilling to 
be convinced. He admits that we derive the word 
parvis from the French, but where, says he, did 
the French get it from ? " All that Ducange ven- 
tures to say is ' Nostris vulgo parvis.' " I do not 
know what edition of Ducange MR. TEW refers to, 
but I have before me that of 1734, in which two 
folio columns are given to the elucidation of the 
word, which is traced through its successive forms 
of paradisus, paravisus, parvisius, pervisus. If 
further elucidation is wanted I would refer him to 
the works of Manage, Littre, Brachet, and Viollet 

le Due, where he will find the whole history of 
parvis clearly traced out. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 


68, 117.) There is an edition of Gay's Poems 
(2 vols., 4to., 1720) which contains such a remark- 
able list of subscribers that it is worthy of being 
brought to the notice of your readers. Gay was 
no doubt assisted by the Duchess of Queensberry, 
Mrs. Howard, Pope, and other influential friends 
in obtaining subscriptions. I will only mention 
a few of the best known names : Dr. Arbuthnot 
(author of John Bull, Art of Political Lying, &c.) ; 
Duke of Buckingham (the poet) ; Lord Bathurst 
(" who drank champagne with Pope and the wits," 
afterwards the friend of Sterne) ; John Barber 
(friend of Swift and protector of Mrs. Manley) ; 
Hugh Bethel, Esq. (Pope's " blameless Bethel ") ; 
Mrs. Martha and Mrs. Teresa Blount ; Edward 
Blount (cousin of preceding) ; William Congreve, 
Esq. ; Henry Cromwell, Esq. (friend of the luck- 
less Corinna, who supplied Curll with Pope's 
letters) ; Lord Hervey (the Sporus of Pope's satire), 
five copies ; Hon. Simon Harcourt, Esq. ; Hon. 
Mrs. Sophia Howe (a giddy maid of honour, whose 
end was very sad) ; Mr. Heidegger ; Mr. Handel ; 
Viscount St. John ; Richardson and Jervas (the 
artists) and Sir Godfrey Kneller ; Eight Hon. 
Paul Methuen ; the Hon. Mary Lepell (afterwards 
wife of Lord Hervey, the most charming woman of 
her day) ; Lord Peterborough ; Right Hon. Wil- 
liam Pulteney (afterwards Lord Bath and husband 
of Miss Gumley, the heroine of the Bolingbroke 
caricature) ; Mat. Prior, Esq. ; Alex. Pope, Esq. ; 
Kitty, Duchess of Queensberry, and her husband, 
five copies ; Duke of Wharton (the poet) ; Right 
Hon. Robert Walpole and his brother Horatio ; 
Lady Mary Wortley ; Edward Young, Esq. (author 
of Night Thoughts). Can any of your readers 
name a book published by subscription with so 
many famous names among the subscribers ? 

F. G. 

There is a voluminous and interesting list of 
subscribers, extending over twenty pages, prefixed 
to Tonson's illustrated folio edition of Matthew 
Prior's Poems on Several Occasions, 1718. A hasty 
glance through the names shows me Jonathan 
Swift, John Gay, Sir Richard Steele, Henry 
Sacheverell, Sir John Vanbrugh, &c. It has been 
also pointed out to rue that among these sub- 
scribers occurs the name of Colonel Roger 
Handasyd. Now, Laurence Sterne mentions his 
father as " Roger Sterne, lieutenant in Handa- 
side's (sic) Regiment." But Mr. Fitzgerald, in his 
Life of Laurence Sterne (vol. i. p. 27), expresses 
some doubt if Roger Sterne ever served at any 
period of his life in the 22nd Foot (Handasyd's). 
Sterne's biographer is at least certain that Roger 

5". s. xii. A. 23, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Sterne could never have held the rank of lieutenant 
in that regiment. Mr. Fitzgerald's reasons for this 
decision seem cogent, but perhaps some of your 
readers can throw some additional light on this 
question. A. 

I have a large-paper copy of the fourth edition 
of Paradise Lost, being the first folio and illus- 
trated edition. At the end of the poem six pages 
follow, headed " The names of the Nobility and 
Gentry that encourag'd, by subscription, the print- 
ing this Edition of Milton's Paradise Lost." Then 
follow the names in alphabetical order, commenc- 
ing " George, Lord Abergavenny." The book was 
printed in London " by Miles Flesher, for Jacob 
Tonson, at the Judge's-Head in Chancery Lane, 
near Fleet Street, 1688." 


See " N. & Q., 1 st S. xi. 284, where the editor 
expresses his belief that Walton's Biblia Sacra 
Polyglotta (1657) was probably the first book 
printed by subscription in England. He allows 
that Minsheu's Dictionary, 1617, may be said to 
have been issued in a very similar manner, and 
adds some further references on the subject. 



C. Knight, in The Old Printer and the Modern 
Press, Lond., 1854, pt. ii. ch. ii. pp. 206-12, has 
a notice of "subscription books." The earliest 
which he mentions is the Penniless Pilgrimage, by 
Taylor the Water Poet, which was published in 
1618. ED. MARSHALL. 

ST. DAVID'S DAY (5 th S. xi. 166, 273 ) The 
subject opened by MR. WALFORD, A. R., and 
others in " N. & Q." has been well-nigh worked 
out by a host of writers years ago, especially by 
Brand in his Popular Antiquities, who, by the 
way, was the first, so far as I know, to quote the 
passage from Pepys's Diary cited by A. R. (vide 
edit, of 1849, vol. i. p. 105). He also quotes a 
verse from Poor Robin's Almanack for 1757 re- 
lating the hanging of "poor Taff" in effigy. It 
seems hard upon Brand that his extracts from 
Pepys, Poor Robin, and others should be given by 
modern writers as if they were the original citers 
and not copiers, although the authorities may be 
as come-at-able as they were to Brand. The Rev. 
T. F. Thiselton Dyer, in his British Popular Customs, 
1876, p. 112, I see gives Poor Robin's verse and 
Pepys's passage. If A. R. were to attend the 
annual dinner of the Welsh School, held on 
March 1 in London, he would notice that the leek 
is still regarded, although it now takes the form of 
silver and is worn in the coats of the gentlemen 
present. The origin of the leek is, or appears to be, 
unfathomable. Wilkins, in his Wales Past and 
Present, Merthyr, 1870, p. 145, says : 

" The partiality shown by a Welshman for leeks is only 

equalled by the regard a Jew or Spaniard has for an 
onion. Inseparable from a Welshman is the leek. Its 
selection as a national emblem is believed to have 
originated at the battle of Meigen, fought in the seventh 
century between the Angles under Edwin and the British 
led by Cadwallawn." 

Woodward, in his History of Wales, vol. i. p. 139, 
also says : 

" In 633 A.D. we find Cadwallawn in rebellion against 
Edwin, being in alliance with Penda, the heathen King 
of Mercia, for Bede, who speaks thus particularly, tells 
us that Edwin had subjected Wales as far as Anglesey 
(in which he even planted a colony of Angles) to his 
sway. Edwin met the united British and Mercian army 
at Heathfield on the 12th of October in the abore-named 
year, and with one of his sons was slain, his army being 
totally routed. This was the famous battle of Meigen, 
celebrated by Welsh bards, and to which is referred the 
adoption of the leek as the national emblem." 

The transference of the leek from Cadwallawn 
to St. David is thus stated by the same author in 
speaking of that saint. He was canonized in 1128 
A.D., and ever since has been the tutelar of Wales, 
and the traditions which elder time had associated 
with other national heroes (as, for example, the 
badge of the leek with Cadwallawn) were trans- 
ferred to him (p. 146). Of course other hypotheses 
have been advanced, which any one, if he will, may 
find put forth in the works I have quoted from or 
herein mentioned. J. JEREMIAH. 

Keswick House, Quadrant Road, Canonbury, N. 

I think it is in Hogarth's print of the " Arrest " 
in the Rake's Progress that a Welshman is repre- 
sented as wearing a leek in his hat. Only last St. 
David's Day I myself encountered in the streets 
of London a very respectably dressed man with a 
full-grown specimen of the vegetable fixed in fess 
across the front of his hat. A good many years 
ago I remember seeing in shops in London small 
models of leeks, to be worn, I presume, by Welsh 
ladies on March 1. They were of enamel and 
gold, and in one example of emeralds and pearls. 


How do those who deny that Welshmen wore 
leeks in their hats on St. David's Day in Shake- 
speare's time explain the fact that Hogarth, another 
close observer of men and things, has represented 
a Welshman so wearing one in the fourth plate of 
the Rake's Progress ? R. R. 


(5 th S. xi. 468.) The question here raised is by 
no means a new one. Dr. Johnson says in his 
life of Mallet, " His first production was ' William 
and Margaret,' printed in Aaron Hill's Plain 
Dealer, July 24, 1724, of which, though it contains 
nothing very striking or difficult, he has been 
envied the reputation ; and plagiarism has been 
boldly charged, but never proved." Mallet in his 
Works, ed. 1759, says this poem was suggested to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5<" a. xn. AUG. 23, 79. 

him by the fragment of an old ballad quoted by 
Merrythought in Fletcher's comedy The Knight 
of the Burning Pestle, namely : 

" When it was grown to dark midnight, 

And all were fast asleep, 
In came Margaret's grimly ghost, 
And stood at William's feet. 

Mallet states that he believes this was all that 
existed of the old ballad. The entire song, con- 
sisting of twenty verses of four lines each, entitled 
Fair Margaret and Sweet William, is printed by 
Bp. Percy, Reliques, 1765, iii. 121, as from a 
" modern copy picked up on a stall," and contains 
the above-quoted verse preserved in Fletcher's play, 
on which the bishop notes that " it has acquired 
importance by giving birth to one of the most 
beautiful ballads in our own or any language, the 
song entitled Margaret's Ghost, . . . the elegant 
production of David Mallet, Esq." It is plain, 
then, that there was a well-known ballad about 
"Margaret's ghost" in 1611, when the comedy was 
written, of which Mallet only knew four lines, and 
that these suggested to him the poem entitled 
William and Margaret. I believe both ballads 
are to be found in all editions of Percy's Reliques. 
In the sixth edition, 1823, there is a note referring 
to a book published in 1773 called The Friends, in 
which there is a different version of Mallet's ballad, 
put forth as the real original, which Mallet had 
appropriated half a century before. The editor of 
the Reliques observes, " Probably altered by some 
transcriber from Mallet, than which nothing is 
more common in popular songs and ballads." 
Thompson, in 1776, claimed this ballad for Mar- 
veil, and printed it in his Works (4to., i. xx.) ; 
but this was soon admitted to be a mistake. 
Whether the ballad was really founded on fact is 
another question ; but Mallet says that the lines 
in Fletcher's play had " reminded him of an un- 
happy adventure much talked of formerly, and so 
given birth to his poem." EDWARD SOLLY. 

"COKER" FOR "CocoA" (5 th S. xi. 487.) 
Perhaps the following, which I extract from the 
late Mr. H. Mayhew's London Labour and the 
London Poor, 1851, No. 16, and addressed in a 
letter to that gentleman, will answer MR. LTJNDIE'S 
query : 

" Mr. Mayhew has been favoured with the following 
from Messrs. Keeling and Hunt, gentlemen to whom he 
is indebted for much valuable information : 

" ' Monument Yard, London, 7th April, 1851. 

'" Sir, Your correspondent, C. B., of Portland Town, 
has properly questioned the accuracy of the word " Coker," 
as applied ; to nuts sold under the generally known title 
of " Cocoa," the proper derivation being " Cocos nucifera," 
one of the palm tribe and a native of India, first imported 
in 1690. From the researches e have made, we can 
only infer the word " Coktr " is a corruption, or, more 
properly speaking, a Custom-house licence, to create a 
distinction in the mode of levying the duty on this de- 
scription of fruit, and the kernels of a nut which is the 

produce of a different description of tree, and the decoc- 
tion of which is used so generally for the purpose of 
beverage ; for the term " Coker " we find, upon reference 
to the Customs Acts of Parliament, was classified many 
years back by Mr. Hume, the then Chairman of the 
Board of Customs, and has been retained accordingly. 

" ' The correct word is " Cacao," " Coco," from whence 
the English adaptation " Cocoa," is decidedly correct ; 
but the word " Coker " and other anomalies are retained 
in order to discriminate between the duties levied upon 
articles bearing similar names, but different in use in a 
similar way to Prunes (the French for Plums), which 
pay 7s. per cwt. duty, and Plums, commonly called 
French Plums, which pay 20s. per cwt. " Coker " nuts, 
commonly called " Cocoa," are now free of duty ; while 
Cocoa in husks and shells pay one penny per pound duty. 
" ' We are, Sir, 

" ' Your obedient servants, 
" ' Henry Mayhew, Esq., " ' KEELING AND HUNT. 

&C-, &C.' " 

S. J. H. 

" Coker-nut, n. (Com.) The cocoa-nut. This mode of 
spelling cocoa-nut was introduced by the London Custom- 
house in order to distinguish more widely between this 
and other articles spelt much in the same manner, and 
is now extensively used in commercial circles. Sim- 
monds. Homans." Dr. Webster's Comp. Did. of the 
Enq. Lang., revised by Chauncey A. Goodrich, D.D., 
LLiD., and Noah Porter, D.D., 4to., London, Bell & 
Daldy, no date (preface dated 1864). 


24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea. 

C. C. C. OXFORD (5 th S. xii. 41, 133.) I did 
not explain in my note (ante, p. 41) the meaning 
of the double date, as I thought nobody would be 
unaware of the fact that ancient accounts rarely 
begin on Jan. 1, and that, therefore, a double year 
must be taken in quoting from them. I do not 
know why April 19, 1579, " should be undoubtedly 
added," as your correspondent informs me, if it is 
not found in the original. Nor do I see why this 
gentleman confidently asserts that what I have 
stated is " worse than useless." I have made 
certain statements which may be tested by an 
examination of the original ; I have drawn no 
inferences. But I can assure MR. BAILT that 
the utility of all facts depends on the capacity of 
those before whom the facts come. 

J. E. T. E. 

S. xii. 85.) In the parish register of Warleggan, 
in Cornwall, is the following entry, similar to 
some of those at Toddington noted by MR. F. A. 

1681. George Piper, an Anabaptist tumbled in y* 
ground Feb y 25. 

Though possessing a somewhat extensive acquaint- 
ance with parish registers, I have never seen a like 
entry, and I think it may be explained that Piper, 
being an Anabaptist, had died unbaptized, and 
consequently was not entitled to be buried with 
the rites of the Church. The same remark will 
apply to the Toddington burial of Dec. 31, 1719 > 

5"' S. XII. ADO. 23, 79.] 



and probably to the others in which, in the register 
of that parish, the body is described as " hurl'd into 
y c ground." 

The Warleggan registers, which commence in 
1542, contain many interesting entries besides the 
mere facts of baptisms, marriages, and burials, e.g., 
there is the following note : 

1684. Warleggan Chancel built [rebuilt?] May 84, 
by A. T. R. W. [Ambrose Triggs, Rector of Warleggan] ; 
1685. The rails of the Communion table made. 
In 1618 is an entry giving an account of the plant- 
ing of a number of trees in the churchyard, with 
the names of the parishioners who planted them 
and the day of their doing so. 

Ambrose Triggs, above mentioned, was instituted 
to the benefice in 1673, upon the death of William 
White, whose burial is thus recorded : 

1673. Mr. William White, Minister of this parish, and 
a very good man, died with a Cancer in his mouth July 
1673. Ambrose Triggs, Rector, Aug. 1673. 

Ambrose Triggs was " Rector also of Boconnoc and 
Chaplain to y e Right honorable Lady Mohun." 
"All the trees in the town place planted by 
A. T. R. W., except 6 Old trees," &c., followed by 
a description of certain alterations in the lawn and 
garden. His burial is thus entered : 

1706. Ambrose Triggs, Rector of Warleggan, died the 
12 th day of July by three of the Clock in the morning 
and was buried July 14, 1706. 

1752. Mary Baudris (the late Rectors widow) was 
buried y e 6"' April aged 100. 

1746. Daniel Bawdris, Rector was buried Aug. 12. 

1717. Mathew Baudris a French Refugee, brother of 
Daniel Baudris Rector, buried March 16, 1717, and a 
moorstone (granite) set upon his grave May 30, l7l8." 

I find also the following entry : 

1762. William Best was buried August the 30 1762, 100. 

1762. Elizabeth Best his wife was buried Aug. 30. It 
is to be noted that the above persons William Best and 
Elizabeth his wife, Died within a Quarter of an hour of 
each other and were buried at one time and in one grave. 

I may add that I do not find the name Baudris 
in the late Mr. Durant Cooper's Lists of Foreign 
Protestants and Aliens resident in England, 1618- 
1688 (Camden Soc., 1862), though John Baudry 
appears therein. JOHN MACLEAN. 

Bicknor Court, Coleford, Qlouc. 

To /iurZ=wheel on a barrow, &c., is still quite 
a common expression in Scotland. " Hurled to 
the grave" is probably=carried to burial on a 
wheeled bier. X. C. 

AVOURS (5 th S. xii. 88.) The meaning of this 
word may be seen by a reference to the earlier 
form of spelling the word. In Henry VII.'s in- 
structions for his tomb there is, " And in the sides 
and both ends of our said towmbe we wol taber- 
nacles bee graven, and the same to be filled with 
ymages, specially of our said avouries (or patron 
saints) of coper and gilte " (Handbook to West. 
Abbey, abr. ed., Lond., Bell, n.d., p. 33). The 

word belongs to the old law term " avoury," French 
" advouerie," which implies the justifying or main- 
taining an act, and the " avoir " would be the one 
who does this ; the advocate, or patron, was the 
patron saint. Minsheu has : " Avourie, a Gall, 
avouer, ou advouer, i.e. to avow, avouch, approve, 
justify or maintaine (a terme of law), is where 
one taketh a distresse for rent, or other things, and 
he that is distrained, sueth a replevin : now he 
that tooke the distresse, justifying or maintaining 
the act is said to avow, and that is called his 
avowrie." Compare Spenser's F. Q., vi. iii. 48, 
" He bad him stand t'abide the bitter stoure 
Of his sore vengeaunce, as to make avotire 
Of his lewd words and deedes which he had done," 

where " to make avoure " means to justify. 


This surely must be a misprint for avoues. 
" His nine accustomed avoues or guardian saints, 
to ivhom he calls and cries." Mid. Lat. advoco 
was to call in the aid of a superior power in your 
defence. Hence advocatiis, Fr. avoue, an advocate 
or defender ; and advocatia, protectio, tuitio (Du- 
cange), specially applied to the protection of a 
guardian saint. " Advocztiam Dei et S. Vedasti 
sibi profuturam assumpsit." H. WEDGWOOD. 

LORD CHANDOS (5 th S. xii. 27.) The query of 
your correspondent anent the posterity of this 
lady is of some little genealogical interest, inas- 
much as in them should any now exist vests 
the representation of Anne, eldest daughter of 
Ferdinando, fifth Earl of Derby, and senior co- 
heiress of the Lady Eleanor Grey, the younger 
granddaughter of Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk. 
So far as I am aware, in none of the numerous 
published pedigrees of " royal descents " is this 
line alluded to, a circumstance the more remark- 
able considering the very near place it at one 
time appeared to hold in the "Protestant suc- 
cession." Descendants of Mary (or, as it should be, 
Margaret) Bruges certainly existed in the middle 
of the last century, and it is very doubtful if they 
are yet extinct. Her first husband, William 
Brownlow, was (according to a pedigree in Beltz's 
History of the Chandos Peerage) of Snaresford, 
or Snarford, co. Lincoln, and died in 1675. He 
was doubtless connected with the Brownlows of 
Hemsby, but his name does not appear in any 
account of that family that I have seen. The 
issue of this marriage was an only daughter, Eliza- 
beth, afterwards the wife of Philip Doughty Esq., 
who, apparently in right of this marriage, succeeded 
to the estate of Snarford. The last of the Doughtys 
of Snarford whether a lineal descendant of this 
marriage I do not know bequeathed the estate 
to SirEdward Tichborne, Bart., who thereupon 
assumed the Doughty surname and arms. After 
the death jof her first husband Margaret Bruges- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. xii. A. 23, 79. 

married secondly Sir Thomas Skipwith, Bart., but 
the issue of this marriage failed in 1763. She died 
Jan., 1742 (see her burial in Westminster Abbey 
Registers, Jan. 8, as " Hon. Dame Margaret 
Skipwith"). In connexion with this line of 
" royal descent," I should like to ask also if any- 
thing is known of the posterity of the Hon. Rebecca 
Bruges or Brydges, the third daughter and eventual 
heiress of William, seventh Lord Chandos, in 
whom failing the issue of Elizabeth Doughty 
the representation of Lady Anne Stanley would 
centre. She married Thomas Pride, son of Thomas 
Pride the regicide, and left, it seems, an only 
daughter, Elizabeth, married to William Sherwin, 
Esq. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

HERALDIC (5 th S. xii. 107.) The following may 
be of some use to G. H. Nathaniel Maxey Patti- 
son, Esq., resided for many years at Congleton in 
Cheshire, several times filled the office of mayor, 
and was the leading silk manufacturer in that town 
in the early part of the present century. He 
married Helen, daughter of Roger Comberbach, 
Esq., Prothonotary of Chester, by whom he was 
the father, with other children, of James Pattison, 
Esq., M.P. for the city of London. He died, I 
think, in 1827, and was buried in the south aisle 
f St. Peter's Church at Congleton, where there is 
a tablet to his memory and to that of his wife, who 
.predeceased him. Their respective hatchments 
were suspended in the same church, and, if yet in 
^existence, the heraldry upon them might be of 
value in tracing the descent sought for. It seems 
more than probable that Mr. Pattison was either 
descended from or allied to the Maxey family, on 
account of his bearing the names Nathaniel Maxey. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Papworth gives : Vert, on a chevron, between 
three bucks or, as many lozenges gu., Robinson, 
Cranesley, Northumberland, and co. Northampton, 
1611 ; but roebucks trippant, Robinson, London. 
Erm., a fess engrailed between three horses' heads 
couped sa., Baker, London and co. Worcester. The 
above are the only examples of coats 1 and 2 in 
G. H.'s query. As for coat 3, a chevron between 
three trefoils, Papworth gives this bearing with 
various tinctures as belonging to forty or fifty 
names too many for insertion as a reply. 

A. C. 

xii. 27.) MR. TREPOLPEN asks if the account of 
the Saturday Review by the late Jas. Grant was 
ever published. I find that the promise made by 
Mr. Grant, in the preface to the third volume, to 
publish it in a separate form was carried out by 
Tinsley, Catherine Street, Strand. I have just 
been presented with the three volumes by a daughter 

of the author, but the pamphlet in question is not 
included. Should it reach my hands I would, if 
not too late, have pleasure in placing it at the 
service of your correspondent. M. D. 

GABRIEL HARVEY (5 th S. xii. 108.) Evans's 
Catalogue of Portraits, n.d., vol. i. p. 161, No. 5046, 
is : " Harvey, Gabriel, wit and poet, nat. 1545, of 
Christ Coll., Camb. ; proctor to the univ. ; advocate 
in Prerogative Court ; ob. 1630 ; 8vo. Is. Thane." 


DEAD HORSE DAY (5 th S. xii. 66.) I have 
witnessed the dead horse ceremony more than 
once in old days, when going to India round the 
Cape, but without fireworks. The meaning of the 
phrase and the thing is, I see, not given. It is 
this : When a crew are engaged at the dock, for<a 
certain voyage or a twelvemonth, they stipulate 
for one or two months' wages in advance before 
they " sign articles." This advance is either left 
with the family or spent ashore, and for the 
first part of the voyage the crew have to " work like 
a horse," but are earning nothing ; but when the 
time for which advanced wages were given is com- 
pleted, they are said to have "worked off the dead 
horse," and they celebrate the event by pitching 
his supposed carcass overboard. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

MOSQUITO NETS (5 S. xii. 66.) K. P. D. E. 
will find mosquito nets in full operation not a 
hundred miles from Victoria Station. A portable 
mosquito net, fixable to any bed. is a desideratum. 

J. K. 

" EASTER " (5 th S. xii. 67) may be simply a 
corruption of Esther as a general rule, but I know 
an instance of a child that was baptized by the 
name Easter because she was born on Easter Day. 

S. L. 

DICTIONARY WANTED (5 th S. xii. 68.) Miss 
MACLAGAN may be referred to the International 
Dictionary for Naturalists and Sportsmen, in 
English, French, and German, of Mr. Edwin 
Simpson-Baikie, of which five numbers, A G, 
have been issued by Messrs. Triibner & Co. This 
supplies the terms used in " hunting, shooting, 
fishing, natural history, and the sciences." 

J. K. 

A CENTENARIAN (5 th S. xii. 87.) It is to be 
hoped that some one at or near Worcester will 
investigate the case of Mrs. Hartshorne, especially 
as it has secured " a corner in ' N. & Q.' " I have 
found it a safe, indeed a necessary, rule never to 
use a newspaper statement without verification. 
On August 8, 1876, there appeared in a Devon- 
shire newspaper a somewhat circumstantial an- 
nouncement of a reputed centenarian who had just 
died in this county. Since that date two other 

s s. xii. AUG. 23, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


cases have been announced, one of them no longer 
ago than July, 1879. I have investigated each of 
them, and, without now entering into particulars, 
the result has been that they have one and all 
broken down. Neither of the three old ladies was 
a centenarian. WM. PENGELLY. 


OLIO (5 th S. xii. 69.) The oglio gibed at by 
Milton occurs in division xv. of Eikon BasiliJce, 
intituled " Upon the many Jealousies," &c. J. 


A MOTTO FOR A PEPPER-POT (5 th S. xii. 68.) 
" Where 's the peck of pepper Peter Piper picked?" 
Pepper is English for piper and for pie-meant-o. 

" Observe the goodness of our God that hath, notwith- 
standing these noysome qualities, given unto man the 
knowledge how to tame them, and cause them to be 
profitable for health ; for if taken simply of itself it 
would prove dangerous to life, but may be taken without 
offence in meat and in medicine to work those good effects 
in Physick whereunto it is conducible." Abridged from 
Thcatrum Botanicum, 1640, p. 359. 

S. H. 

Allow me to suggest to C. K. W. the following 
quotations : 

" There 's auld Pepper." 

Guy Mannering, vol. i. ch. xxii. 
" I am peppered, I warrant." 

Romeo and Juliet, iii. 1. 

I lemember seeing an old pepper-pot, dating 
probably about the latter part of the seventeenth 
or beginning of the eighteenth century, upon which 
was inscribed in quaint characters : 



The only English line I can think of or find is 
1. 112 of Goldsmith's Retaliation : 

" Who pepper'd the highest was surest to please." 
18, Long \Yall, Oxford. 

(5 th S. xii. 127.) If it be of any use to your cor- 
respondent J. H. L. A. to have the translation of 
die arms described in Dutch in his note I here 
subjoin it : 

" His armorial bearings are mi party ; to the left a half 
eagle ; to the right a bar, on which a star of six points. 
The helmet is crowned and bears a star of six points as 
crest. These arms bear some resemblance to those of 
the family of Lawrence." 

V. S. 

Two SIMILAR EPITAPHS (5 th S. xii. 46.) The 
epitaph in Brislington Church quoted by MR. 
MARSHALL commemorates Joshua Rowley Gilpin, 
the son of Joshua and Maria Gilpin, who died 
Sept. 9, 1806, aged nineteen years. The father, 

who erected the tablet, was, I understand, Vicar 
of Wrockwardine, in Shropshire. 

G. D. W. 0. 

CHILDREN'S GAMES (5 th S. xii. 28, 135.) Years 
ago, in South Lincolnshire, Shrove Tuesday was 
the day for beginning the battledoor-and-shuttle- 
cock and top-whipping season. Some impatient 
spirits anticipated the festival, no doubt, but the 
nusiance was not full-blown or orthodox until the 
time consecrated to batter was fully come. I be- 
lieve it is a general thing in Christian England 
for the cricketing season to open on Good Friday. 


THE SPANISH ARMADA (5 th S. xii. 108, 134.) 
The complete title of the quarto volume on the 
Spanish Armada is, " The Names of the Nobility, 
Gentry, and Others who contributed to the Defence 
of this Country at the Time of the Spanish Inva- 
sion in 1588. With a Brief Account of their 
Spirited and Patriotic Conduct on that Occasion. 
London, printed for Leigh & Sotheby . . . 1798," 
4to. pp. viii-72. Two copies are among the books 
in the Grenville Library, British Museum. The 
names of the contributors in each county are set 
out separately, with the amounts of their contri- 
butions and the dates of the payments. Any 
person interested in the history of the defence of 
England against the Spanish Armada should also 
peruse the Report on the Arrangements which were 
made for the Internal Defence of these^ Kingdoms- 
when Spain by its Armada projected the Invasion 
and Conquest of England . . ., drawn up by Mr. 
John Bruce, M.P., and privately printed in 1798. 
The appendix to this report contains much infor- 
mation on this subject. W. P. COURTNEY. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate. 

21, 73, 130.) I have no "views" on the subject 
of MR. WHYTE'S note. The passages I quoted 
from Mr. Eraser's introduction to the Cartulary (a 
volume worth looking at, were it only for its beauty) 
give his explanation of the repeated references in 
the abbey writs to the poverty of the canons, not- 
withstanding the imposing roll of the properties 
belonging to their house. N. CLYNE. 

x. 11, 73, 129, 152, 199, 276, 317 ; xi. 73, 178, 
252, 375, 457.) To the list of churches in which 
armour is preserved I can add St. Decuman's, near 
Watchet, in Somersetshire. On iron brackets over 
the tombs of the Wyndhams are four helmets, all 
of the time of Elizabeth and James I. Three of 
them are, so far as can be seen from the floor of 
the church, too flimsy-looking to be genuine ; the 
other looks as if it might have been made for use. 
All of them are surmounted by the crest of the 
Wyndhams, apparently of wood gilded. There are 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5* s. xn. AUG. 23, 79. 

three empty brackets, so that there were probably 
at one time no less than seven helmets, and, as 
some of the brackets have hooks, it is not un- 
likely that coats of arms, gauntlets, or swords once 
hung from them. The sextoness informed me that 
one of the missing helmets fell down some years 
ago. The churchwarden picked up the pieces, and 
the remainder of the history of that helmet is a 
blank ; it was never heard of again. W. H. 

It is stated in the Mirror that the flags, &c., 
carried in procession at the funeral of the great 
Lord Chatham, were hung up in the church near 
his seat at Hayes, in Kent. Are they still there 1 

According to Brayley's History of Surrey, the 
armour of Edward Cecil, Viscount Wimbledon, 
who died in 1638, is arranged in detached portions 
round the chapel on the south side of the chancel 
in which he lies buried. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hampstead, X.W. 

Some pennons, &c., probably of the Marken- 
fields, have survived the recent " restoration " of 
Eipon Minster, and still hang in the north tran- 
sept. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

CURIOUS EPITAPHS (5 th S. xi. 346 ; xii. 139.) 
The epitnph " Our life is but a winter's day," &c., 
is in the churchyard of St. Andrew's the Less, 

Cambridge, on Stewart, who died 1772, aged 

forty-six, and it can be seen on a tombstone at 
Ecclesfield, near Sheffield. I have seen this epitaph 
also in Llangollen Churchyard, Denbighshire, with 
the two last lines thus : 

" Such is our lot We linger out the day ; 
Who stays the longest has the most to pay." 

Perhaps the following epitaphs may amuse your 
readers. In the churchyard, South Cave, three 
miles from Welton, Yorkshire, in memory of 
Richard and Susan Scatcherd : 

" That Dick loved Sue was very true ; 
Perhaps you '11 say what 'a that to you 
That she loved Dick, and in it 's this, 
That Dick loved Sue and that made bliss." 
Also at Welton, Yorkshire : 
" Here lie's he, ould Jeremy, 

Had seven wives, and eight (sic) times married been ; 
Now here in his age, he lies in his cage 
Under the grass EO green." 

13, Doughty Street. 

A slightly different version of the second epitaph 
mentioned by Hie ET UBIQUE is given in the 
Brighton Herald of Dec. 9, 1815, as occurring in 
Horsham Churchyard, Sussex : 
" This life is like a winter's day, 
Some only break their fast and go away ; 
Others stay to dinner and depart full fed ; 
The greatest age but sup and go to bed." 


I have seen the lines " Our life," &c., as an 

inscription upon the window of an inn. The first 

two differ from those quoted by Hie ET UBIQUE : 

" Life is an inn ; think, man, this truth upon ; 

Some only breakfast, and are quickly gone." 


SIDEMEN (5 th S. xi. 504 ; xii. 31, 78.) It might 
be inferred from MR. TOMLINSON'S quotation 
from the Annals of Cartmel that the members of 
the vestry at that place were known as "sidemen" 
so early as 1597. In the extract referred to, bearing 
date May 17 in that year, they are called "the 
xxiiijtie sworne for the weale of the church," and, 
if I remember right, the word sidemen does not 
occur in the Cartmel church books until 1751. 
The general form of oath required to be taken be- 
fore admission into the "societyeandfelloweshippe 
of the twenty fourty " was as follows : 

" You shall sweare that you shall from time to time 
and att all times hereafter (as neede shall require) bee 
ayding and assisting unto the churchwarden of this p'ish 
of Cartmell, for the well governeinge, proffitte, and goode 
of the churche, as one of the xxiiijtie elected for the 
saide p'ish, as well in advising and assisting of the church- 
wardens for the time being for the good of the church 
as the succeeding churchewardens that hereafter shall be 
from tyme to tyme, in takein ' of the accomptes of the 
oulde churchwardens, that the parishioners bee not 
wronged therein, to the best of yo'r skill and under- 
standinge. Soe helpe you God and by the contents of 
this book." 


The members of the governing body of the 
parish of Cartmel were not called " sidesmen " in 
the sixteenth century, as would appear from the 
passage quoted by MR. TOMLINSON : until 1751 
they were styled " the twenty-four." This form 
of vestry was not uncommon in the north of 
Lancashire, and is of great antiquity. Goosnargh, 
Lancaster, and Preston had each its " twenty-four 
sworn men" ; Kirkham has thirty. At Garstang in 
1734 the "twenty- four " were called "gentlemen 
sidesmen." For the oath taken at Goosnargh see 
"N. & Q.," 3; d S. vii. 211. Of the origin and 
history of the institution I have given a sketch in 
The History of Goosnargh. 


ALFRED BUNN (5 th S. xii. 68, 115.) "Bunn's 
(Alfred) A Word with Punch, or the respective 
Merits of Wronghead, Sleekhead, and Thickhead. 
Woodcuts, 4to., 9s. Qd." (Sugg's Catalogue, April, 
1870). I have just come across the above. 


"STRANG" (5 th S. xii. 89, 115.) The accom- 
panying extract is probably the one referred to by 
MR. HENRY H. GIBBS. It is the only instance 
of the word amongst the quotations sent in for the 
Philological Society's new dictionary : 

"A Knight whereof [Kent] having spent a great 

5">3. XII. AUG. 23, 79.] 



Estate at, and reduced himself to one Park and a fair 
Hous in it, was further ambitious to entertain Queen 
Elizabeth (of blessed memorie) at it. To that purpose 
hee had new painted his Gates, with a Coat of Arms, am 
Motto overwritten, thus, oia VANITAS, in great golden 
letters. The Lord Treasurer Burleigh, attempting to 
read, desired to know of the Knight what hee meanec 
by oia : who told him it stood for omnia. The Lord 
replied, Sir, I strange at it very much, your having made 
your omnia so littl as you have, you notwithstanding 
make your V.ANITAS so large." Dr. Ed. Hooker, Pre- 
fatorie Episil to Pordage's Mystic Divinitie, 1683, p. 40. 

S. J. H. 


PAINS " (5 th S. xii. 68, 97, 132.) The following 
definition, which was, I think, the late Lord 
Lytton's, epigrammatically expresses the power of 
genius : " Genius does what it must : talent does 
what it can." FRANCES COLLINS. 

Rosebank, Isleworth. 

VON BERLICHINGEN " ? (5 th S. xii. 81, 118.) 
Scott's translation of Goethe's drama appeared in 
1799. A short time ago I was struck by the great 
similarity of these two passages : 

" So also shudder'd he, 

Not at dog's howl, or gloom-bird's hated screech, 
Or the familiar visiting of one 
Upon the first toll of his passing-bell." 

Keats's Hyperion, bk. i. 11. 170-3 (pub. 1820). 
" Ich wollte lieber das Geheul der Todtenglocke und 
ominoser Vi'gel, lieber das Gebell des knurrischen Hof- 
hunds Gewissen, lieber wollte ich sie durch den tiefsten 
Schlaf Keren, als von Laufern, Springern und andern 
Bestien das ewige : Schach dem Kunig." Gothe, Qiitz 
von Berlichingen, Akt ii. sc. 1. 

Blairhill, Stirling. 

THE INITIAL FF IN NAMES, &c. (5 th S. xi. 247, 
391 ; xii. 57.) My ancestors almost uniformly 
spelt their names with the ff until the middle of 
the last century. I find, however, many instances, 
ven as early as the thirteenth century, where it is 
spelt with a single small /. My great-great-grand- 
father signed his will in 1730 "James ffishwick," 
and his widow in 1756 signs "Jennet ffishwick." 
They had eight children who lived to maturity, 
and they all adopted the capital F and wrote 
"Fishwick." About the same period the parish 
registers began to drop theff. 


May not the ff be simply a remnant of Celtic 
orthography ? In the Welsh language the proper 
sound of our/ is represented bjff, the single/ in 
Welsh being pronounced like our v. M. H. B. 

OWEN SWIFT (5 th S. xii. 68.) Born at No. 6, 
Angel Court, Great Windmill Street, Haymarket, 
on Feb. 14, 1814 ; bred a pugilist ; fought in the 
prize ring when fifteen years of age ; won fourteen 
out of sixteen fights ; though a very light weight 

killed two of his opponents ; became a sporting 
publican ; kept the " Horseshoe " Tavern, in Tich- 
borne Street, so well known to the betting frater- 
nity and to many patrician patrons on the eve of 
great races ; found a refuge at the Licensed 
Victuallers' Asylum, and died there on June 9 
last. Such is the brief record of a life not blame- 
less or well spent, yet, withal, that of a not un- 
worthy man according to his lights and education. 
His teachers and backers were worse than himself. 

W. E. B. 

SIR CHARLES WETIIERELL (5 th S. xii. 69.) His 
"death was occasioned by an accident which occurred 
on the 10th of August [18461. He had been to Smarden 
to view an estate he liad thought of purchasing, and 
slept at the ' Star' Inn, Maidstone, on the night of Sun- 
day, the 9th. On the morning of Monday, the 10th, he 
ordered an open fly to proceed to Rochester. He got 
outside on reaching Rocky Hill, and on approaching the 
back entrance to Mr. Milner's, Preston Hall, the mare 
got her tail over the reins, and on the driver loosening 
them to disentangle them naturally slightly increased 
her pace. This apparently frightened Sir Charles, who 
caught hold of the off rein, and immediately the horse 
started, drew the carriage over a heap of stones, and 
overturned it. Sir Charles fell on the side of his head ; 
he partly recovered sensibility on the fourth day, but 
subsequently relapsed, and died on Monday, the 17th. 
A coroner's jury returned their verdict, ' Death from 
concussion of the brain.' " Annual Register for 1846, 
App., p. 279. 

He died at Preston Hall, and was interred in 
the Benchers' vault of the Inner Temple. 

C. W. EiirsoN. 

"LABURNUM" (5 th S. xii. 69.) The following 
passage occurs in Thomas Martyn's edition of 
Philip Miller's Gardener's and Botanist's Dic- 
tionary, 1797, sub voce "Cytisus" : 

" He [Haller] also remarks that the Latin name 
laburnum was evidently formed from the Alpine name 
I'aulours. Formerly it was called in English bean- 
trefoil and peascod-lree, but the Latin name has pre- 
vailed over these. In German it is Bohnenbaum, and in 
French cytise des Alpes, aulours, and/a ebenier." 

K. I'. D. E. 

The laburnum is mentioned several times by 
Pliny, and the name is, no doubt, much older than 
lis time. I would rather connect it etymologically 
with labor, I fall, slide, glide ; labundus, falling, 
sliding. To a rustic eye the drooping character of 
he yellow clusters is what mainly distinguishes 
;he shrub. The Berkshire plant-name for labur- 
num " golden chain " gives the same idea more 
? aintly. But Tennyson exactly formulates the 
ree as it would strike a child or a poet : 

" Laburnums dropping- wells of fire." 

In Memoriam, sec. 81. 

The labrusca, or wild vine, may be connected with 
he same root. ZERO. 

The etymology is unknown, and it is far better 
o say so than to guess. The " etymology " from 



a. xn. AUG. 23, 79. 

labor is, of course, wrong (1) because it does not 
account for the u before r ; (2) because it does not 
account for the suffix -num ; and (3) because you 
have to make up a reason for connecting the two 
words. It may be taken as a general rule that all 
etymologies requiring a "because" are to be 
regarded with suspicion. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

xii. 6, 36, 71, 89, 110.) I suspect this _is a scarce 
tract. It was afterwards republished in vol. iii. 
p. 12 of the Miscellanies (by Pope and Swift), 
Lond., B. Motte, 1732, 8vo. I describe the tract 
from a copy before me, following F. G.'s whole- 
some advice : 

22. " A Further Account of the most Deplorable Con- 
dition of Mr. Edmund Curll, Bookseller, since his being 
Poison d on the 28th of March. To le pullish'd Weekly. 
London. Printed, and Sold by all the Publishers, Mer- 
curies, and Hawkers, within the Bills of Mortality. 
1716." Half title, title-page, pp. 22, 8vo. 
This is, of course, the sequel to The Full and True 
Account of a Horrid and Barbarous Revenge ly 
Poison on the Body of Mr. Edmund Curll, &c. 
Lowndes enters this last under " Pope," but omits 
the sequel, of which, therefore, a full description 
may be worth giving. A. 

(5 th S. xii. 47, 135.) Messrs. G-. Routledge & Sons 
published an edition of this in 1851. 


DORSETSHIRE TOAST (5 th S. x. 306, 375, 412 ; 
xi. 78.) Is there any evidence that the lines men- 
tioned by C. H. as a Dorsetshire toast are peculiar 
to that county ] I remember that a few years 
back I often heard them at harvest homes in 
Sussex. The words of the song in which they 
occur were lately, at my request, sent to me by the 
man who generally sang the song (differing but 
little from the version sent to " N. & Q." by MR. 
J. S. UDAL), and who wrote that he had known 
the song as long as he could remember. It may 
probably be a harvest home toast in general use in 
different parts of England. GESE. 


EEDCOATS (5 th S. xii. 27, 134.) I believe it may 
be proved from ancient authors that red was the 
prevailing colour of the soldier's clothing, probably 
of his tunic : 

" Roma magis fuscis vestitur, Gallia russis : 
Et placet hie pueris militibusque color." 

Martial, xiv. epig. 129. 

And to this custom Isidore, who lived in tv, 
seventh century, also alludes : " Kussata quam 
grace Phoeniceam vocant, nos coccineam ; hac sub 
consulibus Romani usi sunt milites, unde etiam 
yoissati vocabantur" (Orig. xix. 22). Consequently 
it wus changed at that time, but that red was stil 

he colour of the uniform under the later emperors 
s proved by Tertullian, who, speaking of a Chris- 
ian martyr soldier, says, " Nunc russatus sanguine 
uo" (De Corona Mil, c. i.). Also among the 
presents sent by Valerianus to Claudius, then a 
egionary tribune, figure " tunicas russas militares " 
Poll., Claud., 14). V. S. 

"KEMPT" OR "KEMPE" (5 th S. xi. 223, 294.) 
r empt, kjempe, or kempe is the Danish word for 
i soldier. In some parts of Scotland, before the 
days of reaping machines, when the reapers were 
triving with each other on the harvest field who 
,hould reap best and quickest, it was called 
' kemping." The word is also used in connexion 
vith a boys' game. The seed stalks of the com- 
mon rib-grass are pulled ; they are then called 
'kernps." Taking them singly, boys endeavour 
with alternate blows to take off as many of the 
leads of the "kemps" of their opponents as possible. 
This also is called " kemping." C. 

DE LAUNE FAMILY (5 th S. xi. 468, 509 ; xii. 29, 
53, 98, 117.) COLONEL CHESTER has obligingly 
enabled me to, in part, reply to my own question. 
The Lady Abergavenny who became the second 
wife of John, first Earl Delawarr, was not Elizabeth, 
the widow of George, twelfth Lord, but Anne, 
widow of George, eleventh Lord. This is clearly 
proved by the special marriage licence issued by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, June 8, 1744, for 
" the Rt. Hon. John, Lord De la Warr, widower, 
and Anne, Lady Dowager Bergavenny, widow." 
It is to be noted that the mistake as to the lady 
in the earlier editions of Collins's Peerage, although 
corrected in the last edition (by Brydges), has yet 
crept into recent works of this kind. 

W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

ON RECORD (5 th S. xi. 466 ; xii. 55, 136.)-In 
Italy and Spain many surnames continue un- 
changed since the Roman times. Of Italian sur- 
names of that kind I have none present to my mind 
at this moment. Of Spanish names I remember 
two, Civilis and Britto. Both are still common in 
Portugal as well as in Spain, especially Britto. 
They will be found in the index of Roman names 
in Huebner's Inscript. Hispan. Latince. 

V. S. 

" SKYRACK " (5 th S. xii. 69, 117.) The follow- 
ing information respecting this term, which I have 
picked up from various sources, may perhaps be of 
interest to your readers. Skyrack, i.e. shire oak, 
is from scyran, Old English, to cut, as we cut 
shares, with shears ; cec, Old English, an oak. There 
being no standing armies in Saxon times, all youths 
of fourteen years and upwards were to be brought 
to do suit and service, to be sworn to uphold the law, 

5 th S. XII. AUG. 23, '79.] 



and to take share in the defence of the district. 
These districts were called ivapentakes, because 
they took their weapons (wwpen, a weapon) when 
called upon, and touched the stone or centre when 
they swore their oaths. A division of this kind 
still remains in the parish of Leeds, and is called 
the wapentake of Morley. In the township of 
Headingley there still remains the skire or shire 
oak, magnificent in its decay after the lapse of 
many centuries. Mr. Isaac Taylor says that the 
word wapentake tells us of the defensive military 
organization of the Danes. N. GREENWELL. 

See Allen's Hist, of Yorks., ii. 564-5, for much 
interesting information on the subject. There are 
in the parish of Harborne, co. Staffs., two cottages 
called " The Three Shire Oak," occupying the site 
of an old oak which formerly stood there, and 
which, it is said, stood also in three shires, viz. 
Worcester, Salop, and Stafford. As the lane in 
which these cottages are situated has recently 
been christened " Three Shire Oaks Road " by the 
Local Board, whose liberties with several other 
curious and ancient names in the neighbourhood I 
hope one day to chronicle in " N. & Q.," I may 
perhaps here be allowed to record the old and 
correct denomination. 


In the Gent. Mag., 1809, p. 32, is an interesting 
paper on a large elm tree in Basingstoke, which has 
recently been cut down. H. G. C. 

(5 th S. xii. 101.) There is much that is interesting 
in this note, but the connexion of Marlowe with 
the subject is utterly conjectural and far from con- 
vincing. There is no evidence that Shakespeare 
advised Marlowe to write his Edward II. And it 
is unlikely, for Marlowe was the better educated 
man, and at the time the more advanced dramatic 
writer, and the example of historical plays had 
been set. The explanation of slight irregularities 
of metre by an introduction of Gloucestershire 
dialect is unconvincing, and even rather ludicrous. 
No doubt " sworn," i. 1, 83, is a dissyllable, an 
instance of a habit (easily to be illustrated from 
other writers) of pronouncing a short vowel closely 
before or after a letter I or r; so Mowbcry, 1. Ill ; 
chapelain, 1. 195 ; musheroom, i. 4, 284 (see 
Abbott's Shakespearian Grammar, 4*77). Instead 
of reading " Earl " as a dissyllable, it is better to 
count it a monosyllabic foot, as is not uncommon 
in Chaucer, e.g. Prol, 391, and in Shakespeare and 
other dramatic writers. It is perhaps dangerous 
to follow Dr. Abbott in assigning to Shakespeare 
" the plural of the Northern dialect," but to ex- 
plain Marlowe's metre by saying Shakespeare may 
have been in Gloucestershire, may have picked up 
provincialisms, may have talked them to Marlowe, 
and that Marlowe may have adopted them, is 

more than is credible. It may be safely said that 
Marlowe's writings are particularly free from pro- 
vincialisms, and that no evidence of the kind can 
fairly be gathered from Edward II. in support of 
the theory. I do not see how the play can be 
called " a peculiarly Gloucestershire subject." 
Scarcely any of the action takes place in Glouces- 
tershire ; neither the " daughter to the Earl of 
Gloucester " nor " Berkeley " is provincial in any 
way ; none of the other personce are of that county. 
Act ii. sc. 2 and Act iv. sc. 5 may be assigned to 
Gloucestershire possibly, but they are scenes 
without local colouring ; and the murder scene, 
Act v. sc. 5, belongs of course to Gloucestershire, 
but it has no local allusion or colour which does 
not come from Holinshed or Stow, save, perhaps, 
the notice of the king living " in the dungeon " 
instead of " over it," which I am told does not 
agree with local tradition. Indeed, Marlowe is every- 
where the poet working on an interesting historical 
subject, got up very accurately from books. He 
keeps strictly to history except where he intro- 
duces allusions to events of his own days, as 
i. 4, 96-105 ; but his knowledge of provincial 
England and English is little, if at all, shown. 


Perks is a very common name in this place. 
There is another Wodmancote in this county, 
between Bishop's Cleeve and Winchcombe. One 
of Justice Shallow's friends was Will Squele, a 
Cotswold man (2 Henry IT., Act iii. sc. 2). I 
send these notelets vaieant quantillulum. 



So late as 1812 the Hill, Stinchcombe, was in 
the occupation of the Purchas family. In the 
obituary of the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ii., 
1812, I find the following notice : " At Margate, 
in his seventy-fifth year, J. Purchas, Esq., of 
Stinchcombe Hill, near Durslev, Gloucestershire." 

J. W. B. P. 


The Church Bells of Northamptonshire, their Inscriptions, 
Traditions, and Peculiar Usts. With Chapters on 
Bells and the Northants Bellfounders. By Thomas 
North, F.S.A. (Leicester, Samuel Clarke.) 
ONE after another the hell lists of the different counties 
are being collected and published, and none of them 
better than those which have been undertaken by 31 r. 
North. In The Church Bells of Leicestershire he com- 
menced an account of the campanology of the diocese of 
Peterborough, which the present volume carries on, and 
a third is promised on the bells of Rutland. Each 
volume is complete in itself, and, as the title sets forth, 
is a good deal more than a dry list of bells ; and the 
introductory chapters, though, as the author say?, they 
contain little which is new to professed " catnpanists," 
give a good deal of information in a concise and readable 
form, and will be useful to all to whom the study of bells 
is new. These chapters have been revised since thdr 



xn. A. 23, 79. 

first appearance in the Leicestershire volume, and as 
they will probably also form part of that on Rutland, we 
take the liberty of suggesting to Mr. North that he is not 
stron^ in liturgical lore. Some of his mistakes are very 
curious For instance, in two or three places the part 
of the Communion Service from the offertory to the end 
is called the " post-Communion office " ; and on p. 67i, 
" morrow mass" is explained as " apparently a term used 
for early matins." In a further revision these and the 
like should be corrected ; and we notice that Mr. Worth 
has' amongst his correspondents at least one learned in 
ritual, who would no doubt lend his aid. The mam body of 
the book is taken up with the accounts of the bells of each 
separate church in the county; and here we are given 
not only a description of what is there now, but a history 
of the bells of the parish so far back as anything can be 
learned about them, beginning generally with the in- 
ventories of 1552. At Fawsley the identical ring of four 
bells mentioned at that date still hangs in the steeple 
an exceedingly rare case and we wish Mr. North 
had given us the notea they sound. Perhaps even 
more interesting than the bells themselves are the usages 
connected with them, which we wish every historian of 
bells collected as carefully as Mr. North has done, for 
they are gradually disappearing and being changed. It 
is curious that so many bell-ringing customs of the 
Middle Ages survive in spite of the efforts made to put 
them down in the sixteenth century. In rural parishes 
the convenience of a bell sounding at known times has 
no doubt caused the continuance of many daily bells, but 
it will not account for everything that is kept. The 
illustrations are both numerous and good. Many of the 
stamps are necessarily old friends, but it was right to 
give them all. We are not quite reconciled to the 
arrangement by which they all come twice over. It is 
convenient for reference, but it adds to the bulk of a 
volume which is already a large handful. 

The Tron Kirk, JEdinluroh. A Lecture by William 
Findlay, Assistant to the Rev. W. C. E. Jamieson, 
one of the Ministers of Edinburgh. (Edinburgh, W. 

MR. FINDLAY, with the laudable object of interesting 
others besides the members of his congregation in the 
fortunes of an historical place of worship, has gathered 
together the disjecta membra of the story of that 
portion of the " Gritt Kirk" of St. Giles, known as the 
Tron. The present building, which Mr. Findlay's zeal, 
somewhat outrunning facts, covers with the halo of a 
"hoar antiquity," is in reality only about two hundred 
and forty years old. There are churches still in use by 
the Scottish Establishment which are much more vener- 
able in point of years. But it is true enough that few 
have a closer connexion with the varied phases of post- 
Reformation ecclesiastical history than John Knox's old 
parish, and we sympathize with Mr. Findlay in his 
desire that some kindly hand may, ere it be too late, save 
the Tron Kirk from decay. 

Wild Oats. By Cave Winscom, Author of Tsoe, Waves 
and Caves, Camden, and other Poems. (Pickering & 

Falellce Mostellarice ; or, Devonshire and Wiltshire 
Stories in Verse. Including Specimens of the Devon- 
shire Dialect. (London, Hamilton Adama & Co. 
Exeter, Henry S. Eland.) 

" WILD OATS " is a short story in verse modern matter 
treated in a decidedly modern manner, not withoul 
technical ability and feeling. There is scarcely enough 
to keep it alive; but the author might, if he chose, do 
something better worth doing than fall in with the hoi 
lowness which marks the superficial section of society 
falellcc Moitdlarice is simply a book of ordinary verse 

vithout even the technical excellence now commonly 
nough reached by writers. The specimens of Devon- 
hiredialect do not excel even in that line. 

MESSRS. KELLY & Co. have recently issued a new 
dition of their Post Office Directories for the counties 
if Northumberland and Durham, and for tbe North and 
5ast Ridings of Yorkshire. The antiquarian portion has 
jeen very much enlarged, and now contains such a variety 
)f most useful archaeological, antiquarian, and architec- 
ural details as to make each volume an interesting topo- 
;raphical work. Readers of " N. & Q " will find in these 
wo volumes a great deal of matter that will be new to 
Jbem with respect to the Roman Wall, and to such, 
mansions as TJpsall Castle, Everingharn Park, and such 
nteresting parish churches as that of Cleasby, in which 
)r. Robinson, the celebrated diplomatist, afterwards 
Bishop of London, lies buried. 

IN Mr. George Long, M. A., some time Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and Professor in University College, 

jondon, we have lost a scholar of the old-fashioned type 
as well as an accomplished man of letters. He will be 
remembered best, perhaps, by the work which he so 

ovingly devoted to the elucidation of his favourite author,. 

Jsesar, but he will also, we cannot doubt, be handed 
down to posterity as the historian of the Decline of the 
Roman Republic. " Sit ei terra levis ! " 

A POSTHUMOUS work of the late Mr. R. R. Brash on 
the Ogam Inscribed Monuments of the Gaedhil in the 
British Islands will shortly appear. The work is edited 

)y Mr. George M. Atkinson, and contains fifty photo- 

ithographic plates from drawings of the principal monu- 
ments on which the Ogamic characters are found. 
Messrs. George Bell & Sons are the publishers. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

R. T. S. We do not remember to have received the 
paper referred to ; but reference was made to Mr. Christ- 
mas's various communications upon numismatics in our 
last volume, p. 394. 

V. S. and other correspondents, when sending com- 
munications on various subjects to "N. & Q.," will 
greatly oblige us by writing them on separate pieces of 

R. C. HOPE (Scarborough.) asks whether the custom 
of casting for Bibles in church on Whitsun Tuesday 
still obtains at St. Ives. 

D. C. E. Under the circumstances, we shall feel 
obliged by your sending the first two parts. 

A. S. A. We hope to use the last Note. A proof of 
the other one will be sent, probably next week. 

H. D. C. We were enabled afterwards to send it to 

J. How. Ghazipiir, India. 

LLAWTHUN (Oxford). Hengist. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do "not print ; ai d 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5- s. xii. AUG. so, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


LOtfDOlf, SATURDAY, AUGUST 30, 1879. 


NOTES : John Gilpin's Second Holiday, 161 Shakspeariana, 
163 Beilby Porteus, 164 B. R. Haydon Odd Popular Super- 
stitionsDemijohnPope Adrian IV., 166 Curious Mis- 
translationStudents at Oxford before the Plague of 1313-9 
Chaffinch or " Pink " : the Wet Bird Vegetarians in 1802 
Mr. Turnerelli's Present to Queen Charlotte Curious 
Marriage Register, 167. 

QUERIES: Lady Mary Cookes's Monument in Tardebigge 
Church, 167 " Universal History" "Folk," 163 Henry 
Filkin Honeymoon Heraldic Titles of Nobility and Desig- 
nations of Rank in Switzerland " AlKey to the Drama," <tc. 
The Church of Dulbathlach The Earl of Leicester's Army, 
1584 Bryan, Lord Fairfax, of Cameron, in America, 169 
Authors Wanted, &c., 170. 

REPLIES: John Hodgkins, Suffragan Bishop, 1537, 170 
Early Book Auctions: Rare Catalogues, 171 "Philately " 
Bfiranger English Vineyards Sacramental Wine, 172 
" Hue and Cry " " Miserrimus " The " Adeste Fideles " 
Balcony" Drift," 173-Norfolk Dialect "Braid" Curious 
Surnames A. Marvell Provincialisms "Getting into a 
Scrape" "Sannterer" Cabriolet : Cab Highland Plant 
Superstitions French Prisoners of War Marshal Tallard, 
174 "As poor as Job's Turkey " Folk-Lore in Hampshire 
Restormel Castle Sir F. H. Drake" Who wrote Shak- 
speare" "Loppard" W. Shippen Tobacco, 175 The 
Lapwing" The First to enter a House, Ac. Penance in 
the Church of England Ancient Fines -The Comma 
"Jolleying" Cucking Stools " Cad," 176 "Robin Hood 
and the Bishop of Hereford " Belgravia Harvey of Wangey 
"The Turkish Spy" "The Old Agamemnons " 
" Housen, 177" As mad as a Hatter'' Allusion in Cotton's 
" Angler " " William and Margaret" Toothache The Fyl- 
fot, 178 Authors Wanted, 179. 

NOTES ON BOOKS -.McDonnell's "Ulster Civil War of 
1641 "Marshall's " Deddington "Vivian's " Visitations of 
Cornwall" Spurrell's "Carmarthen" Walford's " Lon- 
doniana" Henry s Sir W. Scotfs "Cadyow Castle." 

Notices to Correspondents, Ac. 

Cowper little thought that in writing John 
Gilpin he was doing more to secure remembrance 
of himself, and thus to give an interest for pos- 
terity in his other poems, than he was able to do 
with all his best efforts in translating or composing 
more serious works. Yet such was the truth. 
Indeed, few writers are able to judge the relative 
value of their own labours. They may know, and 
know thoroughly, which of them cost most toil, or 
which most clearly embodied their chief thoughts, 
theories, or opinions ; but the actual value to the 
outside world of each successive offspring from 
their brain is what the outside world itself can 
ulone determine, not the producing poet. Milton, 
perverse in his heterodoxy, opinionative, com- 
bative, soured, and vindictive, clasped to his breast 
as his darling and ripest the weazened bantling 
of his old age. He declared it to be superior to 
the hopeful infants of his early spring, L'A llegro, 
II Penseroso, Comus, Lycidas, and the Arcades. 
He preferred it to his Paradise Lost. One expla- 
nation of this partiality meets us in the dislike 
that all men have to be suspected of dotage. The 
Archbishop of Grenada very properly dismissed 
Gil Bias, not, as the latter evidently imagined, solely 

because the secretary did not flatter the old man 
after that woeful attack of paralysis. Dissatisfaction 
at his ill-timed candour and plain-speaking may 
have had something to do with it, no doubt, but 
the justifying cause was shown in this reflection, 
that a dismissal was the fitting punishment of a 
young man who possessed so little affection that 
he was in haste to scan faults in his benefactor ; 
and who was also so injudicious as to tell all that 
he imagined, without having sufficient common 
sense and experience of the world to feel sure that 
such criticism would be unpalatable. 

We are not tempted to institute a comparison 
between John Gilpin and The Task, or the trans- 
lation of Homer, or the numerous other writings 
of Cowper. It is enough for our purpose to 
remember that, for the world in general, it is John 
Gilpin which has won, and still retains, affection. 
A few months ago, shortly before Christmas, a 
new edition of " The Diverting History " was pub- 
lishing by Messrs. George Routledge & Sons, 
illustrated with twenty-nine pictures, six of them 
coloured, by Randal Caldecott. The artistic 
beauty, the vigour and effectiveness of these 
designs make them, beyond all comparison, 
the very best that have ever been given in a 
popular edition. The handsome quarto which 
they adorn is better worth a guinea than most of 
the drawing-room presents which issue from the 
binder's in gorgeous covers, and yet a " splendid 
shilling" secures the prize. Moreover, another 
coin of the same value purchases the companion 
volume, by the same artist, The House that Jack 
Built. Never before were the recent improvements 
of printing in colours more skilfully adapted than 
to the graceful beauty and genuine humour of 
these illustrations by R. Caldecott. They are 
poem-pictures of the highest merit. 

According to a promise recently made, I here 
give a reprint of the now rare poem, A Second 
Holiday of John Gilpin, July 2, 1785. Of course 
it is inferior to Cowper's original, but it is not 
unworthy of being brought back to the public. I 
never saw but one other copy beside my own. 
Except a few rectifications of quotational commas 
and punctuation, the reprint is exact. 


Or, A Voyage to Vaux-hall, where, tho' he had better 
Luck than before, he was far from being contented. 

[Large copper-plate view of the boating party, same 
date, sometimes issued separately.] 

John Gilpin was a citizen, 

Of credit and renown, 
A common-council man was he, 

Of famous London town. 

Most folks had heard of Gilpin's fame, 

And of the race he won, 
When he on horse back did set oat, 

All unto Edmon'on. 



[5'h S. XII. AUG. 30, '79. 

And never since that luckless time, 

Which gave him such dismay, 
For ten whole years, had he, and spouse, 

Enjoy'd a holiday, 

The main chance minding, still at home, 

On Bus'ness quite intent ; 
He made amends, there is no doubt, 

For what that day was spent. 

Their daughters, rising in their teens, 

Were innocent, and gay, 
And as young girls, they often beg'd 

To have a holiday. 

Good Mistress Gilpin had a heart 

Her pretty girls to please ; 
But how to win John Gilpin to 't 

Was not a task of ease. 

" Howe'er," said she, " leave that to me, 

It never will cause strife ; 
And he will, sure, comply once more, 

To please his loving wife." 

She mark'd the time, in chearful mood 

John Gilpin for to see; 
Then unto him thus did she speak, 

One evening o'er their tea. 

" My dear, you must a favour grant, 

Your tenderness to prove." 
Said Gilpin, " What is your desire 1 

I can't deny my love." 

*' Why, there 's my sweetest life," said she, 

And strok'd his smirking face ; 
.At which he kiss'd his dearest dear, 

And smil'd with comely grace. 

** You know," said she, " since that sad day, 

Which we could not foresee, 
That we have never thought upon 

Another holiday. 

" Ten circling years have made their round, 

Arid time comes stealing on ; 
Uext Tuesday is our wedding day, 

Then pray let us have one." 

John Gilpin hum'd and ha'd awhile, 

Then cried, " It shall be so, 
Yet hope, you do not mean, my dear, 

To EBJIONTON to go. 

41 That cursed jaunt I can't forget, 
Which brought me such disgrace ; " 

" No, no, my dear," she quick reply'd, 
" I mean a nearer place. 

*' Amusements round the town are found, 

Delighting unto all; 
Therefore with me, if you'll agree, 

We '11 go to sweet Vaux-hall. 

" A sculler, sure, will take us all, 

The purchase can't be great; 
And theti along the silver Thames, 

How we shall ride in state." 
"Thy will be done," John Gilpin cry'd, 

"I like thy thought in this ; 
The ev'ning is not all the day, 

Much bus'ness we can't miss." 

Then Mistress Gilpin said to John, 

" That we may all be gay 
Your very suit you shall have on, 

Made for your wedding day. 

" Your lac'd cravat, and beaver hat, 

Your cane, with head of gold, 
With roll'd up hose, and then you'll be 

Most charming to behold." 

At length the happy time arriv'd, 

John Gilpin, neatly dress'd, 
Look'd like a citizen, indeed, 

Array'd in all his best. 

The Misses, with their kind Mama, 

All furbelow'd about, 
With proper cloaks, in case of rain, 

In joyful mood set out. 

And now unto the river's side, 

They smilingly drew near; 
The Waterman crie?, " Gilpin comes," 

And runs to get the fare.* 

Now seated in the cleanly boat, 

How smoothly did they glide ; 
Their hearts were ev'ry one on float, 

As was the flowing tide. 

The daughters gracefully did look, 
Which graces much my theme, 

Stately as are the downy swans 
That swim upon the stream. 

John Gilpin view'd with joy the pair, 

(Forgive him this small pride) 
And thought them pictures of his dear, 

When she became his bride. 

Good Mistress Gilpin too was pleas'd, 

Because she then did find, 
That tho' her charms began to fade, 

They bloom'd in Gilpin's mind. 

Boat after boat now press'd the tide, 

And seem'd to swim a race ; 
John fear'd, least some mischance shou'd hap, 

As in the former case. 

For not to pleasure much inclin'd, 

Fate seem'd to be his foe, 
To make of him the laughing stock, 

Wherever he did go. 

His person known, likewise his name ! 

The wags, as they row'd by, 
Cried, " Smoke John Gilpin, that's the man 

That rode to manfully." 

At this alarm'd, he hung his head, 

Asbam'd of his disgrace ; 
But with their dashing oars, they dash'd 

The water in his face. 

Then bounce against the boat they went, 
Which made the Ladies scream, 

And Gilpin's hat, by sudden jerk, 
Went souse into the stream. 

Too swift it sail'd to be o'ertook, 
Which made the wags more gay, 

And all cry'd out, "See Gilpin's hat, 
How fast it runs away ! " 

[End of the First Part.] 

I think it well to break off here, and give the 
second half on another occasion. 

Molash Vicarage, by Ashford, Kent. 

(To be continued.) 

* Text misprinted "watermen," "run," and "fair." 

6> S. XII. ATJQ. 30, 79.] 



"HAMLET," ACT in. sc. 2. 

" For thou dost know, Damon dear, 

This realm dismantled was 
Of Jove himself, and now reigns here 
A very, very pajock." 

Many suggestions for the emendation of the 
unmeaning pajock have been made, among which 
peacock is often admitted into the text, although a 
most unsatisfactory guess, with nothing in its 
favour beyond beginning with p and ending with 
ock. The most plausible, as it appears to me, is 
paddock, suggested in " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. vi. 16 ; 
3 rd S. v. 232, and I believe the suggestion would 
have carried more weight than it did if, unfor- 
fortunately, a bad reason had not been given for 
the substitution, the supposition, namely, that 
Hamlet calls the king a paddock in allusion to his 
poisoning, from the venomous nature of the toad. 
But independent of any such allusion, a toad is 
used as a term of contempt, and only a few pages 
on Hamlet actually calls his uncle paddock : 

" For who, that 's but a queen, fair, sober, wise, 
Would from a paddock, from a bat, a gib, 
Such dear concernings hide V' 

As far, then, as meaning is concerned, paddock 
leaves nothing to be desired, but I believe that 
we can come still nearer the mark, and that the 
true original of which we are in search is patchock, 
the intensitive of patch, a contemptible person : 

"A crew of patches, rude mechanicals." 
The word occurs in Spenser's description of Ireland, 
Globe edition, p. 636, " I meane such English are 
degenerate and growen to be as very patchockes as 
the wild Irish." A person writing by the ear and 
not being acquainted with the word patchock might 
very well have written it pajock. 


P.S. Since sending the above I have recovered 
MR. McGRATH's note (4 th S. v. 255), by which I 
see that he is the true author of the proposed 
emendation. It is surprising that it has not met 
with universal assent, but perhaps a slight change 
in the way in which the nonsensical pajock is 
accounted for may give it a better chance. 

"DISAPPOINTED," "HAMLET," i. 5, 77. The 
following argument that this word here has not 
the general sense " unprepared," usually given 
to it, but the special meaning of " unshriven," is 
from the pen of a Koman Catholic critic : 

"You ask me why I interpret the word 'disappointed,' 
in the famous line in Hamlet, 

' Unhousel'd, disappointed, unaneled,' 
to mean unshriven, and whether it is not out of place 
to put the sacrament of penance between communion 
and extreme unction. I reply that Shakspere (or rather 
the Ghost) does not mention the sacraments in the order 
in which they are received, but in the order in which 
their loss would be calamitous, and thus he observes a 
real climax. 

"The full preparation for death, according to the 
Church's rites, is to receive viaticum after a good con- 
fession, and then to be anointed. It is not of any im- 
portance whether viaticum comes before or after ex- 
treme unction. In early times the sick man was generally 
first aneled and then houseled ; now he is first houseled 
then aneled, and this was the case long before Shak- 
spere's time. But even now, when the two sacraments 
are not conferred together, unction often precedes 

" But Shakspere seems to me to mention the sacra- 
ments, not in the order of their reception, but in the 
order in which their omission may occur as a climax of 

" He who is houseled will, as a rule, have time to 
prepare himself by confession, and to be anointed after- 

" But several cases occur when the sick man receives 
only two sacraments, viz., confession and unction. 
Either the viaticum is not accessible, or the sick man 
cannot swallow, &c. As Myrc says, in his Instruction* 
for Priests : 

' But gef he be so seke wythynne 
That of castynge he may not blynne, 
He schal not thenne hys hosul take 
For vomyschment and castynge sake.' 
In that case, then, he confesses and is anointed. But if 
when the priest is called, the sick man is senseless, then 
he cannot be houseled or shriven, but he may still be 
aneled ; since that sacrament for its efficacy does not 
require actual, but habitual disposition, i.e. if he desired 
to receive it, and were disposed to receive it, before he 
lost his consciousness, and had true repentance for sin, 
then by anointing, as St. James says, ' if he be in sins 
they shall be forgiven him.' 

" Hence it is a misfortune to die without viaticum, a 
still greater one not to be shriven, but the greatest of all 
to be deprived even of the last chance, and to have no 
sacrament at all, which was the elder Hamlet's case. 

" ' Appointment,' therefore, in Measure for Measure, 
Act iii. sc. 1, may apply to the whole preparation, in- 
cluding all sacraments that could be received, which in 
Claudio's case were shrift and viaticum ; for, as he was 
not sick, he could not be anointed, even before death. 
But in Hamlet I think the word 'disappointed' is 
restricted, by its collocation between ' unhouseled ' and 
' unaneled,' to the loss of confession, so that the poor 
soul was deprived of every succour. 

' No reckoning made, but sent to my account 
With all my imperfections on my head.' " 

F. J. F. 


" So he nodded, 

And soberly did mount an arm-gaunt steed, 

Who neigh'd so high that what I would have spoke 

Was basely dumb'd by him." 

Ant. and Cleop., i. 5. 

" Some propose to read," says Mr. Knight, 
" termagant ; but arm-gaunt, of which we have no- 
other example, conveys the notion of a steed fierce- 
and terrible in armour ; and the epithet, therefore, 
is not to be lightly replaced by any other." Nares 
thinks that Warburton was right in explaining the 
word to mean " worn by military service." A 
very common interpretation is that which Boucher 
has adopted in his Glossary, " lean or thin, very 
lean ; as lean as the arm usually is." According 
to this explanation, the proud Antony chose t 



xn. A. so, 79. 

display his horsemanship on a lean, sorry jade, 
which is what a Koman general was not very 
likely to do. There is, however, no necessity to 
make the substitution which Mr. Knight mentions, 
and which Mason was the first to offer, nor to 
suppose that Antony's horse was " fierce in armour," 
or a lean, sorry animal. These various attempts 
to give a suitable meaning to the passage have 
arisen from an ignorance of the fact that in Shak- 
speare's time, and for nearly a century after it, the 
word arm was used to denote the fore-thigh, or 
upper part of the fore-leg, of a horse. The Gentle- 
man's Dictionary, published in 1705, consists of 
three parts, the first containing " the terms and 
phrases us'd in the Manage, and the Diseases and 
Accidents of Horses." In this part we are told 
that the " Fore-thigh, or Arm of a Horse, is that 
part of the fore-leg that runs between the Shoulder 
and the Knee. Tho' the fore-thigh do not bend or 
bow, yet we commonly say a Horse goes fine that 
bends well the fore-thigh ; importing thereby 
that he bends well his leg " (s.v. " Thighs "). This 
seems to show that the word arm, as the Fr. bras, 
was formerly a name for the whole fore-leg. The 
word arm-gaunt means, therefore, slender in the 
fore-thigh or fore-leg, and is equivalent to " high- 
bred." Any one looking at the thick fore-leg of a 
horse of the Suffolk breed, or any horse used for 
draught, and then at the slender, but sinewy, 
fore-leg of a fine hunter or a racehorse, may see what 
Shakspeare expressed by the term "arm-gaunt." 
The horse that Antony rode was not a clumsy 
draught horse, but such a finely formed steed as a 
Roman of high rank might properly use. 

J. D. 
Belsize Square. 

" HAMLET," ACT iv. sc. 5. 

" Ophe. ... Oh you must weare your Rew with a 
difference. There 's a Daysie, I would give you some 
Violets, but," &c. 

The Edinburgh reviewer (No. 265) gives an 
explanation which may, for more reasons than one 
be at once rejected. The ordinary one, that the 
allusion is heraldic, is doubtless right. The words 
wear and difference would be sufficient evidence 
even if the context were not. But no one has as 
yet explained, I believe, what this " difference ' 
was, or how Ophelia denoted it. Did Shakespeare 
whose every word in this scene is significant 
merely say this without intending any explanatory 
action ? I cannot believe it, nor that he wouk 
have so forgotten his role as an artistic playwright 

The second " rew " was Ophelia's, a sincere grie 
for her father's death. The first " rew " was worn 
by the queen, and was grief for the elder Hamlet's 
death, a formal and feigned grief, as abundantly 
shown by her over-hasty remarriage with hi 
brother. It was therefore to be worn " with a 
difference," with a distinguishing mark, and tha 

mark is expressed in her next words, " Mine is 
ingle, yours must be worn with the dissembling 
daisy ; there is one." 

The punctuation of a comma after " Daysie " is 
clearly wrong, for the daisy being dissembling and 
,he violet faithfulness, they must have been offered 
,o different persons. The modern punctuation, 
'daisy :" would do very well, with perhaps as 
)etokening her quick turn to probably, as Clark 
and Wright (Clar. edit.) suggest Horatio, and as 
wringing more into contrast the queen's faithless- 
ness and his faithfulness. The full stop after 

difference " might stand, but it would be better 
were it " difference ; " The full stop or the ; 
would denote the time of search for the daisy, for 
lowers of dissembling or of forgetfulness would be 
rare in her flower gatherings. The daisy was 
apparently the only " single flower" in her posy. 



The late Mr. Thackeray, if I remember right, 
somewhere quotes at some length a fulsome pane- 
gyric on George II. from an early publication of 
the future Bishop of London, and attributes his 
subsequent promotion in part to the adulatory 
temper there displayed. While content that 
Thackeray should so cheaply fill one of his well- 
paid pages, those who are acquainted with the 
minor literature of 1760 will be amused to find 
such importance attached, after the lapse of near a 
century, to an ephemeral fashion of speech. Some 
of the following references, if looked up, will prove 
that the Government of the day had some better 
motive for their choice than a desire to encourage 
tcadyism. Brydges, Restituta, iv. 416, seq. 
Nichols, Liter. Anecd. He printed a sermon on 
the character of David, preached at St. Mary's, 
Cambridge, Nov. 29, 1761. Memoir of him in 
Rivington's Ecclesiastical Annual Register, 1809, 
pp. 160-96. A patron of Paley's (Meadley, Life of 
Paley, 176). An effective preacher (Dr. R. Coke's 
Memoirs, 29). His connexion with the Bible 
Society (G. Browne, History of the Bible Society, 
i. 15, 44). Index to Mathias, Pursuits of Litera- 
ture. He introduced the practice of standing 
during singing (Bp. White's Memoirs of the Ame- 
rican Episcopal Church, 294). Ann. Biogr., 1819, 
pp. 41, 47 ; 1822, p. 361 ; 1823, pp. 363, 364 ; 
1828, p. 441 b ; 1832, p. 429 a. Bent's Literary 
Advertiser, 1811, p. 70 a; 1812, p. 46 b. British 
Rev., 1811, No. 4. Van Mildert's Life, p. 23. 
Blanco White's Life, i. 336. Spanish edit, of 
Evidences. Beloe's Sexagenarian, i. 337, 347, 
424, 427-36; ii. 140, 163. Gent. Mag., Ixvii. 
351 b, under Feb. 24, 1797, died " in Lansdown 
Place, Bath, in her seventy-second year, Mrs. Anne 
Porteus, sister to the Bishop of London." Address 
of clergy to him on his appointment to London] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(Ibid., 1787, p. 1121); of the Privy Council (Ibid., 
1120b). A sycophant (Walpole's Last Journ., 
i. 107-8). Life by Kob. Hodgson, with portrait, 
1811, 8vo. ; 1812, "8vo. (Isaac Reed's copy of this 
Life, with a long MS. note by him and letter by 
Porteus, in Sugg's catalogue, No. 86, for 1875, 
price 5s. 6d.) He has verses in Acad. Cant. Luctus 
et Gratulationes, 1760, signature H b. (Was this 
the piece that aroused Thackeray's virtuous ire ?) 
Letter to him on education by Dr. Haygarth, 1812. 
His Stunden der Andacht zur Belebung des reinen 
Christenthums, nach der Ylten Avflage aus dem 
Englischeniibersetztvon Riesterer, Freiburg, 1841-2, 
2 vols. Sir W. Forbes, Life of Beattie. Hannah 
More's Life. Mrs. Carter's Letters. His death 
<T. S. Whalley's Journal, ii. 307, cf. 304). Sir 
Egerton Brydges, Autobiography, i. 67, " Porteus 
was then the popular preacher of the bishops. His 
manner was mild, but somewhat languid, and not 
always purified from original vulgarity. He was 
then awkward, reserved, and somewhat pedantic 
in his manner and mien." Sir H. B. Dudley, 
Letter to the Rev. R. Hodgson on his Life of 
Bishop Porteus, 1811, 8vo. Letter to Wilber force 
(Corresp. of W. W., 1840, i. 279). Refuses 
(Nov. 11, 1806) to ordain a colonist, declaring that 
he had no concern with any colony except the 
West India Islands (Ecclesiastical Legal Guide, 
17, 18). Gilbert Wakefield's Directions for the 
Study of Theology (originally published anony- 
mously, 1784, then in the appendix to his 
Memoirs, 156, seq. ; a new edit, Glasgow, 1819), 
"To the Right Rev. Beilby, Lord Bishop of 
Chester, the polite scholar, the instructive preacher, 
the conscientious prelate, the friend of Christian 
liberty, the advocate of human nature, os ov So/cetv 
a/no-Tos, aAA' tfvat OeXei, these directions, calcu- 
lated to render the clerical profession useful and 
respectable, are inscribed, with sentiments of dis- 
interested esteem, by the author." See Lowndes- 
Bohn, i. 841 a ; Living Authors (1798), i. 38. 
He prohibited Dr. Draper from preaching in his 
diocese (Monthly Literary Advertiser, July, 1808, 
52 b). The Pulpit, 1809 (Ibid., 1809, 60 a). 
Index to Owen's History of the Bible Society, 
under Beilby and Porteus. He entertained Robert 
Hall at Fulham (Recollections of William Jay, by 
his son Cyrus, 1859, p. 62, cf. 330). His marriage 
(Gent. Mag., 1765, p. 247). Death of his widow, 
March 20, 1815 (Ibid., 1815, i. 285 a). Died at 
Fulham Palace, May 14, 1809, aged seventy-eight 
(Ibid., 1809, p. 485 ; Cambridge Chronicle, 
May 20, 1809). Dispensation passed to enable 
the Rev. B. Porteus, M.A., Chaplain to Lord 
Grantham, &c., to hold the rectory of Ruck- 
ing, co. Kent, diocese Canterbury, and also the 
rectory of Writtesham, id., worth 200Z. per annum 
(Cambr. Chron., vol. ii., No. 73, March 17, 1764). 
Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, pre- 
sented to a prebend in the Cathedral of Peter- 

borough (Ibid., No. 102, Oct. 6, 1764). Em- 
powered by dispensation to hold also the rectory of 
Hunton (Ibid., Aug. 24, 1765). Empowered by 
dispensation to hold the rectory of Lambeth, 
and also the rectory of Hunton, co. Kent, 
a peculiar to the Cathedral Church, Canter- 
bury ; worth nearly 700Z. a year (Ibid., Aug. 22, 
1767). Several of his sermons, discourses, &c., 
advertised (Ibid., Dec. 12, 1767, third page). 
Appointed Master of St. Cross, worth 8001. per 
annum (Ibid., April 6 or 13, 1776). Death of his 
brother, Edward Porteus, Esq., at his house in 
York, Saturday, Dec. 28, 1793 (Ibid., Jan. 4, 
1794). His elder brother, Robert, was incumbent 
of Cockayne Hatley, near Polton, Beds. (Life of 
Porteus, 6, 7). The bishop's nephew, Robert 
Porteus, also of Christ's College, Cambridge (B.A, 
1790, M.A. 1793), Rector of Wykeham Bishop, 
Essex, died May 19, 1803, and on the same day 
his wife, daughter of Mr. Butcher of Cambridge, 
died at her father's (Eur. Mag., June, 1803, p. 486). 
See on him Gent. Mag., Ixxxviii. (2) 630 b. Wai- 
ford, County Families, first edit., 477 b. Watt 
(Biblioth. Brit.) omits several of the bishop's 
books, some of which had a very large sale. Of 
the Sermons I have noted a fifth edition, 1786 ; 
also 1803, in 2 vols. 8vo. His Seatonian prize was 
unusually successful : Death: a Poetical Essay. 
By B. P., M.A., Fellow of Christ's College. The 
third edition. Cambridge, printed by J. Bentham, 
printer to the University, for T.and J. Merrill, book- 
sellers at Cambridge, 1760, 4to. pp. 20. (Possibly 
this gave offence to Mr. Thackeray.) Works, with 
life by Hodgson, 1811, 6 vols. 8vo ; 1823, 6 vols. 
8vo. Letter to the Clergy of the Diocese of Chester, 
concerning Sunday Schools, second edition, London, 
T. Payne, 1786, 8vo. pp. 31. His lectures on St. 
Matthew appeared in a German version, Vorles- 
ungen uber das Evang. Matth., Berlin, 1806, 
2 vols. 8vo. Perhaps some of your readers may 
add further particulars, and so lighten the labours 
of future historians of Cambridge, of Christ's 
College, or of the sees of London or Chester. 


ROBERT HAYDON. Readers of Mr. Tom Taylor's 
Life of Haydon have doubtless noticed the absence 
of quotations from the painter's journal between 
May 25 and July 30, 1829, and perhaps wondered 
why the narrative of the editor should jump from 
the former date to July, without any reference to 
the month of June or to Haydon's record of what 
he did and thought in it. In searching the MSS. 
of my father some time since for evidence of my 
own baptism in 1829, I stumbled on the explan- 
ation, or what appears to me to be the explanation, 
of Mr. Taylor's omission. It is this : The entry 
for May 25, 1829, is the last in vol. xv. of the MS. 



s. XH. A so, 

journals, and vol. xvi. begins with an entry for 
July 22, 1829. Thus, to all appearance, the entries 
for dates between these two do not exist ; and an 
editor would naturally conclude that, for some 
reason or other, Haydon had left the events of the 
period between them unrecorded. This, however, 
is not the case. Most of the intermediate entries 
are to be found in vol. ix., and a few more in 
vol. i.a of the journals. The reason of this per- 
plexing dispersion of the entries for June and July, 
1829, is simply that my father's new volume 
(vol. xvi.) was not at hand for their reception. 
He could not wait for it, and so he "journalized" 
in any old volume which provided him with a 
sufficient amount of blank paper for his purpose. 
Of course, no editor could be expected to wade 
through fifteen " bulky folio " MS. volumes on the 
chance of finding the entries of a single month, 
with possibly a few letters and pen sketches, so 
that Mr. Taylor stands excused, I think, for his 
omission. The editor of the Correspondence and 
Table-Talk, however, coming across some of these 
stray entries for 1829 in a volume lettered 1820 
(vol. ix.), which contains also entries for 1820, has 
been led into errors of date, one of which, as it 
seriously affected myself, I corrected in two letters 
which appeared in the Athenaeum on July 21 and 
Sept. 8, 1877. 

There is, however, no excuse for any confusion 
between the two sets of entries, for they are written 
at two different ends of the volume in which they 
occur, and are separated by several blank pages, 
those of 1829 being headed by the sentence : 
" Till I get a new journal I must write in this for 
June, 1829." I shall be glad to print, in successive 
numbers of " N. & Q.," the entries in my father's 
journals from May 26 to July 17, 1829, from the 
MS. volumes i.a and ix. They are, some of them, 
of great interest. FRANK SCOTT HAYDON. 

Merton, Surrey. 


" The following superstitions, handed down by tradition, 
are yet fervently believed in many parts of America : 

White specks on the nails are luck. 

Whoever reads epitaphs loses his memory. 

To rock the cradle when empty is injurious to the child. 

To eat while a bell is tolling for a funeral causes 

The crowing of a hen indicates some approaching 

When a mouse gnaws a gown some misfortune may be 

He who has teeth wide asunder must seek his fortune 
in some distant land. 

Whoever finds a four-leaf trefoil shamrock should 
wear it for good luck. 

Beggars' bread should be given to children who are 
slow in learning to speak. 

If a child less than twelve months old be brought into 
a cellar he becomes fearful. 

When children play soldiers on the road side it fore- 
bodes the approach of war. 

A child grows proud if suffered to look into a mirror 
while less than twelve months old. 

He who proposes moving into a new house must send 
in beforehand bread and a new broom. 

Whoever sneezes at an early hour either hears some 
news or receives some present the same day. 

The first tooth cast by a child should be swallowed by 
the mother, to ensure a new growth of teeth. 

Buttoning the coat awry, or drawing on a stockin 
inside out, causes matters to go wrong during the day. 

By bending the head to the hollow of the arm the 
initial letter of the name of one's future spouse is repre- 

Women who sow flaxaecd should, during the process, 
tell some confounded lies, otherwise the yarn will never 
bleach white. 

When women are stuffing beds the men should not 
remain in the house, otherwise the feathers will come 
through the ticks. 

When a stranger enters a room he should be obliged to 
seat himself, if only for a moment, as he otherwise takes 
away the children's sleep with him. 

The following are omens of death : A dog's scratching 
on the floor or howling in a particular manner, and owls- 
hooting in the neighbourhood of the house. 

Domestic harmony must be preserved when washing 
day comes, in order to ensure fine weather, which is 
indispensable, as that ceremony is generally performed 
out of doors." 

These examples of American folk-lore are taken, 
from vol. i. No. 12 (the number for August 6, 1879) 
of The Britannic, a copy of which has been sent 
to me. W. S. S. 


" The invention of cork stoppers for bottles is attri- 
buted to the Benedictine monk Perignon, who from 1668- 
to 1715 was butler at the farm of Hautvillers, belonging 
to his order. The old Greeks and Romans, at all events, 
knew nothing of cork stoppers, and (according to the 
Hannoversches Wochenblatt) they stopped the earthen 
or (then very dear and rare) glass vessels which they took 
with them on journeys, and which were wound round 
with willow branches, bast, straw, or rushes, with a tin 
mouthpiece. The manufacture of these flasks was an 
important work in Athens and elsewhere; from them 
are descended the so-called demijohns of to-day. For 
a long time, perhaps a thousand years, bottles were 
stopped with a flax stopper dipped in oil." English 
Mechanic, No. 749, Aug. 1, 1879, p. 516. 

See also Ogilvie, Fr. dame-jeanne, an American 
name for a carboy. W. STAVENHAGEN JONES. 

POPE ADRIAN IV. The following coincidence 
may be thought worthy of record, it having struck 
me as singular that, walking lately to the little 
church of Binsey on a Sunday, I should find a girl 
going there whose name on inquiry proved to be 
Breakspear. Her father is a labouring man living 
in Binsey. There was a church here of wood as 
early as 730 A.D., built by St. Frideswide in honour 
of St. Margaret, whose holy well is still in the 
churchyard. Binsey was a cell to the priory of St. 
Frideswide, and the church continued attached to 
St. Frideswide's Priory until temp. Hen. VIII., 
when it was annexed by Cardinal Wolsey to his 
college, and has remained with Christ Church eve? 


. xii. AUG. so, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


since. In the middle of the twelfth century Nicolas 
Breakspeare, a former incumbent of Binsey, was 
made Pope. He took the title of Adrian IV. in 
1154, and died on Sept. 1, 1159. There is some- 
thing singular in finding a Breakspear still in 
Binsey in 1879. GIBBES RIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

sketch of Our French Watering- Place (I quote 
from the " Reprinted Pieces " in the Charles 
Dickens edition, p. 176) is a curious mistranslation 
which I do not think has been noticed. Speaking 
of a M. Loyal he says : " He is a little fanciful in 
his language : smilingly observing of Madame 
Loyal, when she is absent at vespers, that she is 
'gone to her salvation' alle"e a son salut." Salut 
is, of course, the usual French name for the rite 
with which English Catholics are familiar under 
the name of " Benediction," which usually follows 
vespers, where these are sung. 


British Museum. 

[Might not the expression really used have been "allee 
faire son salut"] This, without reference to any par- 
ticular service, would have much the meaning given by 

1348-9. Anthony Wood says that on good 
authority he had heard that the number of stu- 
dents in Oxford before the plague was 30,000. 
This statement has been ridiculed, and the au- 
thority required. I have just been reading through 
Gascoigne's Dictionarium Theologicum, Lincoln 
Coll. MSS., and have found the authority, vol. ii. 
p. 569 : " Fuerunt triginta millia scholarium in 
Oxonia ut ego vidi in rotulis antiquorum Can- 
cellariorurn Oxonise quuni ego fui Cancellarius." 

J. E. T. R. 


Saturday, August 2, was fine and hot, but in the 
evening it turned to cold and wet. The rain (with 
us) began at 7.30, and a terrific storm raged from 
midnight till four o'clockin the morning the storm, 
accompanied with hail, or rather lumps of ice, that 
did such destruction in the neighbourhood of 
London and elsewhere. On the Monday, I was 
talking about it with a Rutland labourer, who had 
been helping to carry hay on the Saturday. He 
said, " We hurried it on, for I know'd as we should 
soon have rain. The wet bird was a singing 'wet ! 
wet ! ' all the arternoon." By " the wet bird " he 
meant the chaffinch, which is locally known as 
"the pink," from its apparently repeated iterations 
of that word. Certainly, the note of the chaffinch 
sounds more like "pink" than "wet" ; but, as I 
had never before met with this piece of folk-lore, 
nor heard the chaffinch called "the wet bird," I here 
make a note of it. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

VEGETARIANS IN 1802. I have been reading, 
and with great interest, Mr. E. B. Nicholson's 
thoughtful essay on The Rights of an Animal (C. 
Kegan Paul & Co.), with its appendix of extracts 
from John Lawrence. In one of these Lawrence 
says : 

" I am aware of a small sect of Bramins among us who 
are disposed to proceed a step beyond me, and to deny 
that nature has conferred any such right on man as that 
of taking the lives of animals, or of eating their flesh. 
These, 1 suppose, are the legitimate descendants of the 

saints of Butler's days, who were for abolishing black 

pudding, and eating nothing with the blood in." 

I know that in all ages there have been, from 
various motives, persons who have abstained from 
the flesh of animals, but I should be glad to have 
further particulars as to the existence of a sect of 
vegetarians at the date (1802), when Lawrence 
wrote. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Bank Cottage, Barton-on-Irwell, Manchester. 

LOTTE. The following extract from the London 
Review and Literary Journal for Nov., 1809, may 
be of interest to your readers : 

"Mr. Turnerelli presented his jubilee bust of the King 
to the Queen at Windsor Castle. He afterwards waited 
on her Majesty at Frogmore by appointment to place the 
bust in a conspicuous situation. It is an excellent like- 
ness of his Majesty, and was greatly approved of by the 
Queen, the Princess Elizabeth, the Duke of Sussex, and 
others of the royal family." 


St. John's Wood. 

with the subject of curious marriage registers, I 
may mention that an instance worth recording 
was brought under my notice about two years ago. 
It was a marriage in the north of Ireland co. 
Down, I think and it was the bridegroom's 
second appearance in that trying character. When 
the register came to be signed, it was found no 
marriage had been entered for nine years previous, 
and that the last entry was that of the same 
bridegroom with his first wife ; and, strange to 
say, the bride on the second occasion was one of 
the bridesmaids on the first. C. R. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

bigge Church, has long been supposed to be by 
Roubiliac, but on whose or on what authority I 
have no idea. According to the parish register 
Lady Mary was interred in old Tardebigge Church 
in 1694, and her husband Sir Thomas in 1701. 
Now, as Roubiliac did not come to England until 


NOTES AND QUERIES. IB* s. xn. A, so, 79. 

about 1720, it must, if by his hand, have been 
executed some time after, and in that case at the 
expense, probably, of Sir Thomas's nephew, Sir T. 
Gookes Winford, Bart., who inherited his uncle's 
large landed property. But the Kev. Mr. Dickins, 
the worthy vicar of Tardebigge, has recently been 
so kind as to send me a close copy of the inscrip- 
tion on this monument, which states that it was 
erected by Sir Thomas. It cannot, therefore, be 
by the great sculptor mentioned. It may possibly 
have been the work of Gibber (1630-1700) or of 
Gibbons (1648-1721). But freestone appears to 
have been the material Gibber usually preferred, 
and wood that commonly used by Gibbons. Mr. 
Westmacott, K.A., speaks, in his Handbook, 
of Gibber as an artist of some repute, and of 
Gibbons as one whose great ability procured him 
extensive employment as a sculptor, but more 
especially as a carver in wood. Mr. Westmacott 
says that Gibbons's bronze statue of James II. 
is a performance of great merit ; that the execu- 
tion of it is careful ; and the details, when the 
naked form is seen, show knowledge of the figure. 
Evelyn (1683) speaks of Gibbons as being without 
controversy the greatest master, both for invention 
and rareness of work, that the world ever had in 
any age ; " nor doubt I at all that he will prove 
as great a master in statuary art." Walpole, how- 
ever, says, " At Windsor, Gibbons, whose art 
penetrated all materials, carved that beautiful 
pedestal in marble for the equestrian statue of the 
king in the principal court " ; but presently sub- 
joins, " The talent of Gibbons, tho' he practised 
in all kinds, did not reach to human figures." The 
monument consists of half-lengths of Sir Thomas 
Cookes and his first wife Lady Mary. Lady 
Mary's right hand is in her husband's, who is 
gently pressing it. With her left she is pointing 
to her right breast, in allusion, as I take it, to the 
disease she died of. The hands are beautifully 
articulated and very life-like. Indeed, the nude 
form throughout, where seen, is very well rendered, 
and shows much careful study of the figure. Query, 
Can any of your sculptor readers do me the favour 
to tell me by whom this fine monument was pro- 
bably executed ? There is no sculptor's name or 
monogram upon it. H. W. COOKES. 

Astlcy Rectory, Stourpork 

this work was issued by a society of gentlemen. 
It is a very masterly performance, if one may 
judge from the twentieth volume, which contains 
the preface (so called by an English " bull "), two 
or three capital treatises, and an index. Lowndes 
gives the edition of 1747 as of twenty-one volumes 
and the Dublin edition as consisting of twenty 
volumes, 1745. But the 1747 edition seems to 
have had its twentieth volume issued in 1748, 
and is printed for T. Osborne, in Gray's Inn, &c. 

This is certainly the concluding volume. I suppose 
Lowndes is wrong in this, although no doubt he 
may have seen the rather large index bound 
separately ; but it is, nevertheless, numbered con- 
tinuously with the preface and tracts, pp. 251-585. 
The folio edition was commenced in 1736 and not 
completed till 1765, in twenty-six volumes. Can 
any oue explain how this happened :' The folio, 
begun long before, is completed long after. Works- 
in folio and quarto were going out of vogue about 
that date. Was it owing to this that a fresh issue 
in octavo was subscribed before the folio was half 
done, and so much more successful as to cause the 
folio to be set aside for a time ? Allibone gives 
no account of books that appear without an author's 
name, so he does not mention the work at all. 
Lowndes never does much more than chronicle 
editions, so that the history of this History remains 
unrecorded. Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." 
learned in bibliography tell us who started it and 
who were the writers of the various articles in it ? 
The best edition is that of 1779-84, 60 vols. 8vo. 
Can any one inform me what relation that work 
bears to the edition of 1747? Is it, as far as 
it goes, word for word identical, with the original 
articles brought down, by continuation merely, to 
forty years later, or were they entirely rewritten 
by new men 1 Charles Butler, in his Horce 
Biblicas, says, " I generally consult the Universal 
History a work of great merit." Professor Smyth, 
Lectures on Modern History, says more : " Consult 
the volumes of the Universal History, where you 
will find, either in the text or references, every 
historical information that can well be required." I 
presume that both these writers refer to the sixty- 
volume work. Does Gibbon use this work or quote 
it in his notes ? C. A. WAJRD. 


"FOLK." To your correspondents who are in- 
terested in the word " folk " I might address this 
query, Is there not a misprint in a line of the 
venerable Old Hundredth? All authors know 
that there is some fatality in the cropping up of 
misprints, and a similar fatality in the perennial 
survival of many of them. One perpetuated mis- 
print (certainly an apparent one) is in the lines, 

" We are his/oci, he doth us feed, 
And for hia sheep he doth us take," 

which are a paraphrase of the sentence, " We are- 
his people and the sheep of his pasture." I am 
quoting from Eous's version, which is called " the 
Scotch"; but the old Scottish Psalter (as well as 
Sternhold and Hopkins) adopts virtually the same 
rendering of Psalm c. The rendering in these old 
times was as literal as possible, and I feel con- 
vinced that the line in the poet's manuscript was 

" We are hia/ott-, he doth ua feed." 
The phrase, " Thy people and sheep of thy pasture," 

5* s. xii. AUO. so, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


occurs also in Psalm Ixxix. 13, and the same poet 
renders it, 

" So we thy folk and pasture-sheep 
Shall give thee thanks always." 

If in the Old Hundredth the word " flock " has 
been a perpetual misprint, it would be in vain to 
search for an edition that has "folk." My present 
information is that there is no such edition, but I 
do not presume to make a note of it ; I prefer that 
it should suggest a query. D. C. A. A. 

HENRY FILKIN, a native of England and a man 
of education, was an officer of the New York 
Custom House in 1680 and during several sub- 
sequent years. He resided in Brooklyn, New 
York, in 1689, of which town he was one of the 
leading men. He is styled " gentleman " in a com- 
mission of Governor Sloughter of New York, 1691, 
and was appointed Clerk of King's County and one 
of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, 1693. He 
was lieutenant-colonel of militia as early as 1691, 
and the same year was one of the patentees of a 
large tract of land in New York State. He died 
in 1713, leaving several children, among whom 
was Francis Filkin, a wealthy merchant and alder- 
man of New York City, who died without male 
issue in 1781. There ia nothing known of the 
male descendants of Henry Filkin, but his de- 
scendants in various female lines have intermarried 
with many of the oldest and most distinguished 
colonial families. Any information concerning the 
English Filkins which would throw some light 
upon the ancestry of the settler is anxiously 
desired. There is an estate in Oxfordshire called 
Filkin's Hall, which is held by the Colston family. 
Does it derive its name from the Filkin family ? 

0. H. 

88, Wellington Street, N.Y. City, U.S.A. 

HONEYMOON.- Can any "N. & Q." man give 
me an earlier instance of this word than the follow- 
ing in 1552, which, for the first time in my life, 
has explained the meaning of the word to me : 

" Hony mone, a tonne prouerbially applied to such 
as be newe married, whiche wyll not full out at the 
fyrste, but thone loucth the other at the beginnynge 
exceedingly : tho likelyhode off theyr exceadynge loue 
appearing to aswage, y which time the vulgar people cal 
the bony mone. A phroditia, ferine, hymtna" R. Iluloet, 
Abcedarium Anglico-Lalinum pro Tyrunculis. 

So it is honeymoon, because the honey will change 
like the moon, to water or gall. 


HERALDIC. Can any one explain why Browne 
Willis ascribes "Gules, a chevron between six 
escallops argent," to the Fowlers of Buckingham ? 
I should be glad to know what family really bore 
these arms. W. F. C. 

RANK IN SWITZERLAND. When and from what 

cause did these titles and designations cease to be 
used in Switzerland? for, I take it, such is now, and 
has for some time past been, the case ; yet that it 
was not so in the republic, until a comparatively 
modern date, is shown by an entry that I have lately 
come across during some researches in the Court 
of Probate at Somerset House, and which for its 
curiosity may be worthy of being embalmed in 
" N. & Q." It is that " on the 2nd day of March, 
A.D. 1730/1, Letters of Administration of the 
goods, &c., of the Honble. Christian Beate Lillie, 
late Countess Dowager de Spaar, in the Kingdom 
(sic) of Switzerland, deceased, were granted by the 
Prerogative Court of Canterbury to John Gabriel 
Sack, her son." I may add, too, that, when in 
Helvetia some years ago, I recollect seeing in the 
cemeteries memorials of counts, barons, and other 
noble folk (Freiherren and Adel Leuten, Contes 
and Seigneurs), but I never met, nor even heard 
of, any such existing in the flesh. 


" A KEY TO THE DRAMA ; or, Memoirs, In- 
trigues, and Atchievements of Personages who 
have been chosen by the most celebrated Poets as 
the fittest Characters for Theatrical Representa- 
tions." Can any one elucidate the origin of this 
book ? Vol. i. of this work probably all pub- 
lishedhas fallen into my hands, and purports to 
be the " Life, Character, and Secret History of 
Macbeth; by a Gentleman, no professed Author, 
but a Lover of History and of the Theatre (London, 
printed by J. Browne, Shoe Lane, 1768)." Is 
this connected with the French romance, trans- 
lated in 1708 as The Secret History of Mack-beth, 
King of Scotland ? R. 


TnECnuRciiop DULBATHLACH. In the Register 
of Moray the mensal churches of Keith and Edin- 
daich are coupled with the above in a Bull of 
Pope Honorius III., dated A.D. 1222. Will any 
of your correspondents inform me where Dulbath- 
lach is ? J. F. S. GORDON, D.D. 

St. Andrew's, Glasgow. 

could I find the papers relating to this army, 
including a nominal roll of its officers then serving 
in the Low Countries ? Sp. 

AMERICA. A letter is extant, dated "Mount- 
Eagle, near Alexandria, in Virginia, January 18, 
1800 " (a copy of which is before me), in which 
this nobleman reports to a relative of his own in 
this country the death of Washington. The reasons 
why Lord Fairfax was in America at that time are 
given in Burke's Peerage. Will any one say if 
there was any relationship between Washington 
and Fairfax, or if the latter was related to the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5> s. xn. AUG. so, TO. 

Hon. Henry Fairfax of Hurst, who married a 
daughter of Sir Thomas Browne 1 A. F. 

" Ah ! what avails to understand 

The merits of a spotless shirt," &c. 


[See "N. & Q.," 5 th S. vii. 479.] 

* Thence to Wiggan about supper, 
To an hostess, none more slutter : 
Buxom was ehe, yet to see to, 
She 'd be drunk for company too." 


" The greater the truth the greater the libel." 



(5 th S. xi. 367 ; xii. 14.) 

Fr. John Hodgeskyn (Hodgkynne, Hodkynne, 
Hodgeskin, Hodgkinns, Hodgkyns, Hodgekynes, 
or Hodgkins, for so his name was variously 
written) was a Dominican or preaching black friar 
of Oxford, and Sacne Theologise Professor or 
D.D. of that university. His early ecclesiastical 
preferments have not been ascertained hitherto, 
but he was at Norwich in August, 1531, 
when Thomas Bylney, a priest and B.C.L., was 
burnt as " a relapsed heretic," though this friar is 
stated by Sir Thomas More to have previously 
succeeded in making him recant his errors (Works, 
p. 349 ; Collier's Eccl. Hut., edit. 1852, iv. 181-2). 
In 1537 he was presented, along with Robert 
Stunndell, S.T.P., to King Henry VIII. by Dr. 
John Stokesley, Bishop of London, for nomination 
as his "suffragan" (more correctly auxiliary) 
bishop, to assist, episcopally, in the duties of the 
diocese of London, as had been customary there, 
and " of which comfort he was then deprived." By 
writ of Privy Seal, dated at Westminster, Dec. 3, 
1537, the king was pleased accordingly to nominate 
<c Dr. John Hodgskyn, priest, born in wedlock, and 
of the legal age, as well as experienced both in 
spiritual and temporal matters," to the title anc 
dignity of the suffragan see of Bedford, within the 
province of Canterbury, according to the Act 
26 Hen. VIII., cap. 14, A.D. 1535. He was 
consecrated " ad Sedem Suffragan. Bedford., Lin- 
coln. Dioces., infra provinciam Cantuariensem," on 
Sunday, Dec. 9, 1537, in a chapel within the vesti 
bule of the cathedral church of St. Paul at London 
(in virtue of Letters of Commission from Abp 
Cranmer) by the Bishops of London (Stokesley) 
Rochester (Hilsey), and St. Asaph (Warton o 
Parfew), all of which was certified by instrumen 
from the Abp. of Canterbury, dated the same daj 
at his manor of Lambeth (Registrum Cranmeri 
ff. 204 a, 204 b ; Rymer's Fcedera, 0. xiv. 584, H. vi 
P. ill 12). He became vicar of Walden, co. Essex 

?eb. 12, 1540-1, "per mortem Moore," patron, 
Thomas, Lord Audley, of Walden, " et uxor." 
Registrum Bonneri, ff. 133, 149). This previous 
rector was William Moore, or More, suffragan 
)ishop of Colchester, last commendatory abbot of 
he Benedictine monastery of Walden (which he 
surrendered to the Crown, March 22, 1538), and 
archdeacon of Leicester, who was appointed by King 
ilenry VIII. suffragan to Bishop Goodrich of Ely, 
Sept. 26, 1536, consecrated in Lady Chapel, Black- 
Viars, Oct. 22 following, and died shortly before 
Feb. 11, 1541 (Beg. Cranmeri, fol. 197). Hodgkins 
esigned this benefice about Nov., 1544, on being 
iollated, July 23 previous, to the rectory of Laing- 
don, with the annexed chapel of Basildon, by the 
jatron, Bishop Bonner of London, but was deprived, 
'n or before April, 1554, by Queen Mary for 
seing married, restored by Queen Elizabeth in 
1559, and retained it till death (Regist. Bonneri, 
ff. 148, 451 ; Regist. Grindalli, f. 118). Nominated 
to the prebendal stall of Harleston in St. Paul's 
"'athedral, London, Nov. 26, 1548 patrons, " pro 
hac vice," Ed. Moyle and others he was also de- 
prived of this preferment in April, 1554, but 
restored to it in 1559, and remained in possession 
till death (Regist. Bonneri, ff. 165, 450 ; Regist. 
Grindalli, fol. 115 ; Regist. London.). It is re- 
markable that, on his deprivation of both prebend 
and parish in 1554, his successor was the celebrated 
Nicholas Harpesfield, who had also, in his turn, to 
cede these two preferments to Hodgkins on the 
next change of rite in 1558-9. He submitted to 
the Marian rule, however, and, having repudiated 
his wife, was admitted to the rectory of St. Peter, 
Cornhill, April 2, 1555, patrons, the Mayor, alder- 
men, and citizens of London, but of this living he 
was deprived in 1558-9 by the restoration of his 
immediate predecessor, John Pulleyne, S.T.B., 
whose principles as a reformer were firmer, for he 
fled to Germany on deprivation in 1555, and re- 
turning in 1559, was also archdeacon of Col- 
chester, till his death in 1565 (Regist. Bonneri, 
ff. 463, 483). It is on record that he ordained 
priests, deacons, &c., for Bishop Bonner even 
oftener than that prelate himself (Courayer, 
pt. i. bk. ii. ch. i. p. 319, French edit.). Bishop 
Hodgeskyn, by his last compliance with the new 
order of things, retained his prebend of St. Paul's 
and rectory of Laingdon for the remainder of his 
days, and was one of the assistant prelates at 
the consecration of Matthew Parker to the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury on Dec. 17, 1559. He 
had assisted at the consecration of no less than 
sixteen bishops, four under Henry VIII., three 
under Edward VI., and nine under Queen Eliza- 
beth, between Dec. 19, 1540, and Jan. 21, 1560, 
all of which must have been under different rites 
and ceremonies, varying from the ancient Sarum 
pontifical to the newly established form of ordain- 
ing or consecrating of an archbishop or bishop in 

. xii. AUG. so, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Church of England by the Edwardian ritual. 
He died before July 7, 1560 : " Joh. Hodgeskyn 
Episcopus Bedford, restitutus Eccles. de Laingdon, 
obiit ante 7 Jul. 1560 " (MS. Collectio Kennett. 
White, Bishop of Peterborough, torn. xlvi. p. 3 1 1 ; 
Begist. Grindalli, ff. 115-18). Bailey's A Defence 
of Holy Orders in the Church of England (1871, 
12mo., p. 98) translates the above : " John Hodges- 
kyn, Bishop of Bedford, having been restored to 
the church of Laingdon, died on the 6th of July, 
1560" ; but I am inclined to agree with MR. 
SOLLY'S date of "about June, 1560," as more 

Erobable, for his successor in the prebend of Har- 
iston was only nominated on July 7 (Hardy's Le 
Neve's Fasti, ii. 390 ; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 
154, ii. 357), while the succeeding rector of Laing- 
don (Kervyle) did not succeed until Nov. 7, 1560, 
both being "per mortem Hodgkynne" in that 

Neither the place of his death nor that of his 
burial has been hitherto discovered, but it was pro- 
bably in London and when he must have been about 
sixty years of age or upwards. His character cannot 
be commended, for his principles were evidently un- 
stable and vacillating, changing with every successive 
form of government, under four different sovereigns, 
from 1531 to 1560. Originally a preaching friar 
of the Dominican order, he is found reconciling 
a degraded priest who had previously recanted his 
heresies in 1527 (Regist. Tunstalli, fol. 135) ; next, 
one of Henry's suffragan bishops, consecrated by 
the Catholic ceremonial, but ignoring the papal 
authority ; marrying, in violation of his monastic 
vows of celibacy, under the influence of Cranmer ; 
assisting at the consecration of bishops under 
Henry VIII., Edward VI, and Elizabeth; de- 
prived of his livings at the accession of Queen Mary, 
but readily repudiating his wife, and obtaining 
inferior church preferment as a reward for his com- 
pliance with and return to the Catholic faith and 
former obedience to the see of Rome. Last scene 
of all, submission to Elizabeth and all the changes 
made by her government, both in church and 
state ; taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy 
required of him by law, and probably at the same 
time receiving back hi.s deserted wife ; then assist- 
ing to carry on the new succession of English 
bishops, with altered ceremonies of consecration ; 
and, finally, closing his ignoble career in apparent 
obscurity and neglect, having received no eccle- 
siastical promotion or public mark of approbation 
from those for whom he had sacrificed his con- 
science and his faith. The authorities had 
evidently obtained from him all that they wanted, 
and now cast him aside as an unprofitable servant. 
It may be noticed, in conclusion, that he was not 
permitted to join in any consecration during Queen 
Mary's reign, his character being evidently too 
well known then. A. S. A. 


(5 th S. xii. 95, 103.) See " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. xi. 
463 ; 3 rd S. vii. 6, 98. At the first reference there 
is a valuable paragraph about the " eleven first 
catalogues of books ever sold by auction in Eng- 
land," according to Heber's note, from whose pos- 
session they passed eventually to the British 
Museum. The first in the list is the catalogue 
of Dr. Seaman's library, 1676 ; the rest were all 
issued before 1680. 

Perhaps amongst the earliest provincial book 
auctions were some at Oxford, viz., one in Feb., 
1678/9, "apud Theatrum Sheldonianum," and 
others of Rich. Davis's books, described in cata- 
logues of which parts i., ii., and appendix were 
issued in 1686, part iii. in 1688, and part iv. in 
1692. There is special interest attaching to these 
latter auctions from the fact that a poem in Latin 
hexameters was published in London by J. Tonson 
in 1689, entitled Audio Davisiana Oxonii habita, 
per Gulielmum Cooper, Edvar. Millingtonum, 
Bibliop. Lond. It is an amusing piece of about 
five hundred lines, a few extracts from which may 
not be out of place. After a description of the 
circumstances which led to the auction, and of the 
place where it was held (near Bocardo, at the North 
Gate), one of the characters opens the sale thus : 
" Si bene quid memini, bis sextus volvitur annus, 
Ex quo nota diu Gallis, notissima Belgis 
AUCTIO, sera licet, nostris tandem uppulit oria. 
Londinum accepit plausu, fremitumque secundum 
Granta dedit; sit fas et Vos sperare faventes. 
En vobis Libri " 

The conditions of the sale are thus given : 
" Ills librum, quiequis pluris licitatur, habeto. 
Lis siqua incident, decidere Yog penes esto. 
Saucia quae sint cunque volumina, Restituuntor. 
Tertia cum sonuit plaga, irrevocabilis esto.'' 

The sale itself is described in some detail, and 
probably with historical accuracy. The first lot is 
a Hebrew Bible, which a wiseacre among the 
crowd discovers to have ./mis on the first page, and 
is laughed at for his ignorance of Hebrew books. 
Another book is put up as a specimen of magnifi- 
cent red binding, and the young bibliomaniac who 
buys it without inquiring about the contents is 
warned, " Nimium ne crede colori." 

It is to be noted that book auctions are here 
said to have been introduced into England as early 
as 1675, and to have taken place at Cambridge 
before 1686. Are any facts known which will 
ionfirm these statements ? I strongly suspect that 
;he alleged auction catalogue " apud Theatrum 
Sheldonianum," quoted above from "N. & Q.," 
2 nd S. xi. 463 (Heber's note), is no other than the 
Catalogue of Books printed at the Theatre in 
Oxford, issued at Oxford on Feb. 16, 1678/9. The 
;hird (second ?) book auction at Oxford seems to 
lave been that of Tho. Bowman's books in 1687. 




NOTES AND QUERIES. [5* s. XIL AUG. so, 79. 

I have only the authority of an old magazine 
for the following : 

" Elihu Yale, an American, brought such a quantity of 
goods from the East Indies that he had not room enough 
in his house in London for them, BO he had a public sale, 
and this was the first sale by auction in England, about 
1715. E. Yale was buried at Wrexham, Denbighshire, 
and on his tombstone occur the lines : 
' Only the actions of the Just 
Smell sweet and blossom in the dust.'" 


[Haydn's Dictionary of Dates gives Yale's Christian 
name as EUsha, and the date " about 1700."] 

" PHILATELY " (5 th S. xii. 88) is a word used to 
express the art, occupation, or amusement of postage 
stamp collecting, and consequently a philatelist is 
a collector of postage stamps. 


Middle Temple. 

Does not this word signify a collector of postage 
stamps, and derive its origin from reAos, the 
nearest Greek word for a stamp the tax paid on 

BERANGER'S " LE BON DIEU " (5 th S. xii. 126.) 
I do not think that we have any equivalent to 
the French " Bon Dieu," but the Germans have in 
their " Liebe Gott," who goes about the country 
doing acts of kindness and redressing minor 
wrongs, passing for an ordinary person, and not 
disclosing himself till about to depart. Not having 
books at hand, I cannot give references, but I 
believe there are some cases in Grimm's Kinder- 
marcher. Heine's student dreams that he is " der 
liebe Gott," that the angels praise his verses, that 
he eats the most expensive confectionery, drinks 
cardinal, and has no debts, but 

" Doch Langeweile plagt mich sehr, 

Ich wollt ich war auf Erden, 
TJnd war ich nicht der liebe Qott 
Ich konnt des Teufels werden." 

Buck der Lieder, p. 230. 

So far as I can recollect the tales in which " de 
Liebe Gott" is a party, he never does anything 
illnaturedly. FITZHOPKINS. 


ENGLISH VINEYARDS (5 th S. xi. 185, 256 ; xii 
55.) The question of the capability of Englanc 
for producing wine was long since noticed bj 
Polydore Virgil. In the notice of Britain, at th 
beginning of his History, he observes : 

" Vites in hortia magis umbrae, quam fructus causa 
passim crescunt, atque uvam ferunt, quae tamen nis 
sequatur calida sestas, raro maturescit....Vinum, ui 
ostendimus, tellus non gignit : pro vino, cerevisia, quam 
ex ordeo conficiunt, in usu est : potus certe assuetis cum 
utilis turn jucundus. Sunt vina ex Galliis, Hispania, e 
Creta insula apportata." Angl. Hist., lib. i. p. 20, Lugd 
Bat, 1651. 

MR. EDWIN LEES will know, I assume, that i 

he parish of Powick (I use the spelling of my 
outh, not the revived Powyke) there is a field 
ailed the vineyard, or the vinery, of which the 
radition is that it was formerly the site of a vine- 
ard. It adjoins the bowling green. In a copy 
f an old assessment (1818) the name is "The 
"inery," the occupier John Goodyear, whom I 
ell remember. 

The late Kev. E. W. Winter, Eoman Catholic 
riest at Hanley Castle from about 1810 to 1842, 
ad the southern walls of his little chapel and of 
is house covered with vines, from the grapes of 
chich he made excellent wine, both for sacred and 
Domestic use. Query, is not the name of Lord 
sandys's seat at Ombersley, " The Vine," another 
race of the existence and the extent of English 
ineyards ? E. C. G. 

The large space of open grass land, sloping 
owards the north-west, above the precincts of 
Rochester Cathedral, is known from of old as 
' The Vineyards." In Hampshire there is a pack 
)f hounds called the "Vine" hounds; whether 
his be a local name or not I do not know. 

A. J. M. 

[No doubt from the seat of the Chute family, pur- 
chased from the (extinct) Lords Sandys in 1653.] 

SACRAMENTAL WINE (5 th S. x. 328 ; xi. 48, 75, 
109, 176, 291, 318.) In the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries there was a favourite class of wines, 
which, being in themselves somewhat harsh and 
oitter, were mixed with honey and spices. These 
"piments"were so called because they were prepared 
by "pigmentarii" or apothecaries. Le Grand writes, 
" A banquet at which no piment was served would 
have been thought wanting in the most essential 
article." For sacramental purposes it is of early 
date, but used only on the most sacred occasions, 
as the Feast of the Assumption, and its general use 
was denied the regular clergy by order of the 
Council of Aix-la-Chapelle in the year 817.* Of 
the various kinds, hippocras and clarry were the 
favourite piments. Of the former the following is 
the recipe : " Ypocrase for lords with gynger, 
synamon and graynes, sugour and turresoll : and 
for comyn pepull, gynger, canell, longe peper and 
clarifyed hony."t Clarry was a mixed wine, and 
seasoned with similar ingredients. 

" He drinketh Ipocras, clarrie and vernage, 
Of spices hote, to encrease his corage." 

Merchant's Tale (Chaucer). 

Hippocras appeared, as occasion desired, as 
a white or a red wine. Hence we may to a certain, 
extent trace the use of white wine equally with 
red wine for sacramental purposes.! I n recent 

* Vie Privee des Francois, vol. iii. p. 66. 

t Pegge's Form of Cury, p. 161. 

J A point to which I would refer your correspondent 
who inquires as to the origin of the use of white wine in, 
the Roman Catholic Church. 

5"> 8. XII. Ana. 30, 79.] 



times these medicated wines have been known 
under four names as wermuth or wormwood 
wine, which was consumed in Hungary and 
Italy ; as bishop, when made with burgundy and 
the infusion of toasted oranges ; as cardinal, when 
old Rhine wine was used ; when mixed with tokay 
it received the dignity of " pope." 


" HUE AND CRY " (1 st S. xi. 185 ; 3 rd S. viii. 
352 ; ix. 40, 83 ; xii. 169, 256 ; 4 th S. viii. 21, 
94, 209, 309 ; 5 th S. viii. 24 ; ix. 508 ; x. 14, 
178 ; xi. 99, 258, 357.) I disagree entirely 
with MR. WALFORD'S suggestion that we have 
in this phrase the Norman word and its 
Saxon equivalent. I believe that they have both 
come to us direct from the Norman French. 
Littre", under the word " Hu4e," cites a line from 
the old poem of Roncisvals, in which the two 
words are found together : 

" Lors recommence li cris et la hnee." 
And in his note on the etymology of the word he 
says, " On disait aussi le hu." In Fleming and 
Tibbins's English and French Dictionary we find, 
under " Hue and Cry [Fr. J hue, cri de plusieurs 
personnes pour arreter un criminel, un voleur ; fr. 
J a hus et a cris, with hue and cry]." This last 
French phrase is now quite obsolete, but it is 
evidently the source from whence our English 
" hue and cry " is derived. The two words can 
scarcely be considered synonymous ; for the mean- 
ing of "huer" is to shout at, and "crier" means 
to call out loudly. The former is connected with 
the English " hoot," and the latter with the North 
English " greet " ; but in the form we find them 
neither the one nor the other can be called Saxon. 
It is easy to understand how, through the Norman- 
French, in which language the proceedings of the 
courts of law were so long conducted, the phrase 
" Hue and cry " came into general use. 



It is a very bold, and indeed off-hand, statement 
that " the first part hue is the A.-S. hiw, 'a family,' 
and hence ' a crowd.' " Your correspondent can 
scarcely have seen the full account of " hue " in 
5 th S. viii. 24. What evidence does he offer 1 


May I point out that hue has nothing in the 
world to do with the A.-S. hiw, a household, 
family ? It is of Norman-French origin, and con- 
nected with Fr. huer (to shout), which, according 
to Diez, Brachet, and Littre, is an onomatopreia 
from the interjection hu, hue. 


" MISERRIMUS " (5 th S. xi. 348, 392, 432.) On 
the title-page of my copy I wrote in pencil, some 
forty years back, " By William Pitt ScargilL" He 

was, I believe, a dissenting minister. My authority 
for so writing I do not remember, nor whether I 
made any note of it at the time on the fly-leaf of 
the book. That copy is not at hand just now, 
though I have it in my possession, and wrote it in 
this place. NOTE HURST. 

The "ADESTE FIDELES" (5 th S. xi. 265, 298, 
331, 372, 418.) The hymn was very commonly 
sung in the Lancashire churches certainly in 1820 
(as my hymn book shows) to the following words : 

" Ye faithful, triumphant enter into Bethlehem, 
Enter, oh enter with joy of heart ; 
Tidings, glad tidings, sent from heaven by angela, 
O, come let us adore, O, come let us adore, 
O, come let us adore the Lord. 

A virgin conceived and bore the world a Saviour, 
God of god, and light of light. 
Hail, holy infant, very God of very God, 
O, come let us adore, &c. 

Great joy to all people, to-day a Son is given ; 
Glory, glory be to Thee, O Christ. 
The eternal Word was made man, and dwelt among us, 
0, come let us adore, &c. 

Sing praise in full chorus, all ye hosts of angels, 
Sing praise all ye nations of the earth. 
Hallelujah ! Hallelujah ! 
O, come let us adore," &c. 

Is not this earlier than MR. OAKELEY'S ? 

P. P. 

BALCONY OR BALCONY (3 rd S. ix. 303, 380, 519 ; 
5 th S. x. 299 ; xL 39, 56, 78, 357, 431.) The fol- 
lowing lines from the Eev. Mr. Bramston's " Art 
of Politics," in vol. i. of Dodsley's Collection of 
Poems, has, I think, escaped your readers : 
" Pots o'er the do