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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 80, Julj 9, 1881. 


of Kntercommuttication 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 







Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 80, July 9, 1881. 







6 lh S. III. JAN. 1, '81.] 




NOTE3 : Reginald de Courtenay, 1 An Almanac for 170f>, 
3 An Unpublished Letter of Eugene Aram's Shakspear- 
iana "er" and "ar," 4 Fellers "Philosophical Cate- 
chism." 5 Grub Street Imperfect Books, 6 "The Three 
F's Epitaph Whiskey-skin Centenarians The Office of 
Town Crier Tavern Signs, 7. 

QUERIES : Gibraltar Queries, 7 Rev. J. Serces Dis- 
coloured Pearls Damsons Queen Elizabeth at Gloucester 
Bowker or Booker Family -Public-house Sign Heraldic- 
Sir J. Townshend, Kt., M.P. Rev. J. Bartlam Amberley 
German History Griffin's "Fidessa," 1796 Name of 
Author Wanted The Allen Family and the MS. "Con- 
certatio," 8 Hymn by C. Wesley (?) Irish Heraldry 
" Guaging " " Alk" Scotch- Dutch Regiments " Iron- 
mould "Charles Lamb A "Pot-wall" Philip Dacres 
The "Minced Pie House," Ac. Authors Wanted, 9. 

EEPLIES : " Celier "A Key to " Endymion," 10" Wage," 
11 "Tram,' 12 An Indian Brigade Serving under Wel- 
lington "The Worthy Sayings of Old Mr. Dod," 13 
"Maund" ^Estel, 14-"Laine" N. Scat chard-" Cocks " 
The Temporal Power of Bishops, 15 C. Marshall, Painter 
The Heron mentioned by Shakspeare Two Useful Herbs 
Mr. Gladstone's Latin rendering of " Rock of Ages " The 
Devil and the best Tunes "To be thrown over," <fec. To 
"call a spade a spade," 16 "The dead travel fast" York- 
shire Names in the Fourteenth Century Islands Sacked 
'before 1594 Records of Death at Corfu Shotley Swords 
A Wedding Day deferred, 17 " The Fortunate Blue-coat 
Boy" "So long "Authors Wanted, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Foley's "Records of the English Pro- 
vince of the Society of Jesus" Lee's "Studies of the 
Eighteenth Century in Italy," Ac. 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


In his sumptuous work, published in 1825, 
styled Genealogical Memoirs of the Royal House 
of France, Eichard Barre, last Lord Ashburton of 
the Dunning line, is considered by many to have 
settled the vexed question of the identity of 
Eeginald de Oourtenay, the ancestor of the Earls 
of Devon (see "N. & Q.," 5 th S. v. 338). The 
noble author devoted a chapter (the thirtieth) 
to discussing whether the English Courtenays 
" really descend in the male line from the royal 
house of France or not," and, giving his reasons, 
comes to the conclusion that they did, and 
that Reginald was in all probability a younger son 
of Peter of France and Elizabeth, the heiress of 
'Courtenai, " though not named." He has " there- 
fore thought fit to insert them in the genealogical 
table as a branch of the royal house, because he 
believes them to be so." It is suggested (p. 121) 
that Eeginald may have come to England iu 1178, 
when about eighteen, with his father Peter, who 
was sent over by Louis VII. on public business as 
^ambassador. At court he may have meb with a 
young lady of rank, a ward of the king, and may 
(have married her. 

Unfortunately, his lordship's theory will not 

stand the infallible test of dates, nor square with all 
that it is certainly known about Eeginald, his sons . 
and grandsons. The supposition it seems to be 
nothing more of Cleaveland, which Gibbon 
adopted, is far more probable, though discarded 
by Lord Ashburton, viz., " that after giving his 
daughter to the king's son, Eeginald de Courtenay 
abandoned his possessions in France, and obtained 
from the English monarch a second wife and a new 
inheritance" (Decline and Fall, chap. Ixi.). This 
second wife was not, however, Hawise, as Cleave- 
land thought, trusting the Ford Abbey register, 
which led him into many difficulties. The account-, 
in Dugdale's Baronage is equally confused. The 
fact is there were two Reginalds, father and son, 
but this does not seem to have been observed 
before. It appears on Oct. 22, 1173, died Matilda 
d'Avranches, Viscountess of Devon, Lady of Oak- 
hampton, widow of Robert fitz Edith, leaving t\vo 
young daughters, of whom Eeginald de Courtenny 
obtained from the king the wardship and marriage, 
together with the custody of the barony their 
inheritance. Hawise, said to have been the elder 
daughter, he married to his younger son Eeginald ; 
William and Eobert, his other sons, were appa- 
rently already married ; so, to secure the whole 
barony to his heirs, he espoused Matilda, the other 
daughter, himself. She survived his widow many 
years ; but not long after his death she had to 
escape abroad to evade marriage with William 
des Preaux, who had fined with the king to have 
her and her lands. Matilda seems to have retired 
to Sap, her manor in Normandy.* We find hep 
engaged in a lawsuit in Hilary Term, 1220, with 
the Prior of Burcester about her dowry lands in, 
Waddesdon. She died in 1224, when Eobert, the 
grandson of her husband, was found her heir (as 
son of her deceased sister Hawise). 

William de Courtenay was the son and heir of 
the elder Eeginald, and was old enough in 
13 Hen. II. to pay the aid to marry the king's 
daughter levied on the honour and knights' fees of 
his father, probably at that time with the king on 
the Continent. I take it to have been the same 
William who witnessed a charter of Peter of 
France, Lord of Courtenay, dated there 8 Kal. 
Dec., llGO.f In 1191 not only was tne elder 
Eeginald dead, but also his son and heir William ; 
and Eobert de Courtenay, the third son apparently, 
fined 300 marks to have the manor of Sutton 
(Courtenay), Berks, which Henry II. gave his 
father, until the heir of William, his elder brother, 
came of age. Eeginald, son of William, witnessed 
a charter of Gilbert Basset and Egeline his wife, 
dated about 1193, but seems to have died without 
issue ; and Hugh de Curtenay, who occurs in the 

* Stapleton's Rot. Norm., ii. p. crlv. 
f Hist. Gen. de la Maison Royale de Oourienay, by 
M. du Bouchet, folio, Paris, 1661. '" PreuveV & 


. III. JAN. 1, '81. 

Pipe Roll, Devon, 3 John, paying arrears of the 
great sum of 763J. odd, and assessed for scutage at 
fifty marks and a half, was evidently then in 
possession of the honour of the elder Keginald. 
About this date a William de Traci is styled 
" brother of Hugh de Courtenay " in a Ford Abbey 
charter (Mon. Angl, i. p. 791) ; elsewhere he is 
called son of Gervasia de Courtenay, who in all 
probability was widow of William de Curtenay, 
and previously of William de Traci, one of those 
who assassinated Thomas a Becket. 

A Keginald was evidently the second son of the 
elder Reginald, and his heirs at least inherited. 
He was the husband of Hawise, and the " strenuus 
Reginaldus " who begot Robert of the memorial 
inscription anciently in Ford Abbey. He died 
Sept. 27, 1194. 

The rest of the Devon pedigree may be found 
correctly enough in the tables prepared by Dr. 

Oliver and Mr. Pitman Jones (Archaeological 
Journal, vol. x.). Hawise, the widow of the 
younger Reginald, died July 31, 1219 (not 1209,. 
as the Ford Abbey register stated) for on Aug. 14, 
1219, the king tested a writ to the Sheriff of 
Devon to take possession of the lands of Hawise 
de Courtenay, " who is dead, as the lord the king 
has heard " (Excerpta e Rot. Fin., i. 36). 

The rearrangement of the Courtenay pedigree 
required by these emendations is best shown by 
the table herewith given. It allows of Robert de 
Courtenay, who married the daughter and heiress 
of Reginald fitz Urse (one of the assassins of 
Thomas a Becket), taking his proper place for the 
first time as a member of the family. The compilers 
of the genealogy in the Archceol. Journal were greatly 
puzzled about him as well as his son, the founder 
of Worspring [or Woodspring, as in pedigree} 
Priory, and they doubted dates which are correct. 

^Reginald de Curtenay, said to have come to=Matild8, d. and coh. of Matilda, 

inknowi). England with Queen Eleanor. Attached to Lady of Oakhampton, by Robert 
the Court of Henry II. Grantee of the manor fitz Roy or fitz Edith. Survived, 
of Sutton, Berks. Obtained the wardship of and went abroad to evade mar- 
Walter de Bolbec in 1168, and of the coheirs riage with William des Preaux. 
of the barony of Oakhampton, Devon, 1173? Lady of Sap, in Normandv. Ob. 
Dead 1191. g.p. 1224. 





William 2. =.- (Gervasia , - 

= 1. William de Reginald de=Hawise, the Matilda, 1. Robert de Curtenay,=2. 

Alice, ? Henrv de Cur- 

rie Curte- 

mother of 

Traci (? son of Curtenay, 

other d. and d.andh.of 

an official in Nor- Lady of tenai. 11!!2. 

nay, s. and 

Hugh de 

John de Si 

i- ob. Sept. 27, 


. of Ma- Regd. fitz 

mandy 1179.* Ob- C 

jcker- Egeline. ux. 1. 

li., paid 


delyandGrace 1194, bur. 

tilda, Lady Urse. Lord 

tained, 1179, mr. of mouth, Walt.'de Bol- 

for his fa- 

and of 

de Traci), 01 

e Ford Ab- 


Oak- of Mont- 

Sutton until the heirs d. 

and bee : 2. Gil- 

ther's ho- 

Wm. de 

of the arcl 

- bey, "Re- 

liarnpton, gomerv. 

of William, his elder coh. of bert Basset. 

nour the 

Traci. Qv. 

bishop's assas- unit Hober- 


July 31, one of the 

brother, come of age. Win. fitz ? Eustachia, ux. 

aid levied 

if wife of 

sins, 1170. 



9. archbp.'s 

t-heriff of Cumber- D 

incan, 1. Wm. fitx 

13 Hen. 11. 



land and Const, of w 

dowof Anceline: ?. 

Dead 1191. 

de C.) 

Her issue 

Carlisle, 5 & 6 John. Gilbert Lucas 'fitz 

ext. 1214. 

Died 1210. Bur. at P 

pard. John. 


? Constance. 




Reginald de Hugh de Cur- Robert de Curtenay, Baron= 

= 1212, Mary, widow Reginald, Wm. de Curtenay, Lord l. = Ada. d. of 

Curtenay, s. tenay, a] 

jpa- of Oak 1 

ampton, heir of his 

of Peter des son of of the honou 

r of Mont- .... Mar. 

of William, rently in 

)os- mother 

1219, and of his 

Preaux, d. and at Hawise. gomery, jur 

e matris. 2. Theo- 

witnessed a session of his mother's sistir 1224. Sheriff 
charterofG. grandfather's of Devon 2, 3, 4, 5, (i, Hen. 

one time presump- Founder of Woodspring bald de 
tive col), of Wm. Priory. Ob. s.p. 1214. See Lascelles. 

Basset and honour, 

III. 01 

). Iwerne. Aug. 2(i. 

de Vernon, Earl of Evton's 'Shro 

pshire,' xi. 

Egeline C. 1201-2. 

Ob. 1242. Bur. Ford Abbey. ' 

Devon and of the 127, and "N. d 

1193. Ob. s.p. 

Isle. Survived. vii. 268. 


Emma d. = l. John de Curtenay, = 
of , Baron of Oakhampton, of 
b. 1235, f nil age 1242. Ob. Ma v 3, 

=Tsabel, d. of John William de=Jane, d. of Thomas Hawise, ux. 
de Vere, Earl of Curtenay, Basset, of Colyton, John de Ne- 
Oxford, mar. 2. ofMusbery, Devon, widow of vill, Proto- 

1 i 
Egeline, ux. Robert de 
Philip de Curtenay, 
Col umbers, Canon of 

? first 1273. Bur. Ford Abbey. 


Devon. Reginald de Valle- forester of 

had Bats- Kxeter. 

wife, s.p. 

Ob. Aug. 11, 1303. 

tort. Ob. s.p. England. 

ford. Ob. 1257. 

Hugh, born March 25, 1250, ancestor 
of the Earis of Devon. 

As to the daughters of the elder Reginald, 
Egeline, wife of Gilbert Basset, ought to have been 
better known from the good account of her and 
her husband in Bishop Kennet's Parochial Anti- 

* In 1179/80 he accounted for the bernage of the 
Grand Vicomte of Caux and of the Vicomte of Monte- 
villiers, as appears by the Rolls of the Exchequer of 
Normandy (Stapleton's Rot. Norm., i. p. cvii ; ii. 
p. ccxiv). 

quities (of Ambrosden), printed so long ago a$ 
1695. Lands in Waddesdon seem to have been 
her marriage portion. A charter of Gilbert is 
witnessed by Egeline his wife and Henry de 
Courtenai, perhaps the youngest son of the elder 
Reginald, to whom the king may have stood god- 
father. Constancia de Courtenai and Eustachia 
de Courtenai, who appear in the Pipe Roll, Devon,. 
12 John, may have been other daughters of 

III. JAS. 1, '81J 


Reginald. These names were borne by two 
daughters of Peter of France, Lord of Courtenay,* 
living at this time, who named them, doubtless, 
after his own aunts, Constance, Countess of Cham- 
pagne, afterwards the wife of Bohemund,, Prince 
of Autioch, and Eustachia, Countess of Etampes, 
the only lady in the royal family of France who 
bore this rather unusual name. The Countess 
Eustachia, however, was daughter of Philip I. by 
Bertrade, his second wife, and sister of Florus or 
Fleury, who may possibly have been the Florus 
mentioned in the register of Ford Abbey, brother 
instead of " son," of Louis. The family of Cour- 
tenay frequently intermarried with the descendants 
of Elizabeth, Dame de Nangis, the only recorded 
child of Florus, which is noteworthy. 

There was a John de Curtenay who, for the 
health of his soul and that of Emma his wife, gave 
the manor of Esthyrst (adjoining Hirst -Courtney, 
near Selby, co. York, so called to this day), sixty 
acres, to the Templars, and they levied a fine of 
the same in Hilary Term, 19 Hen. III. (1235).f 
Was this John, certainly the Baron of Oakhampton, 
1242, husband at a later date of Isabel de Vere? 
Somewhat later a Robert Courtney, of Brayton, 
gave to Selby Abbey a toft, an oxgang of land, 
and a rent there, which William Courtney, his 
son, confirmed. + A. S. ELLIS. 



PARTRIDGE has achieved considerable fame as 
an almanac maker. Some extracts from one of 
his calendars may not be without interest. " Mer- 
linus Liberatus for 1706, by John Partridge ; 
London, printed by Mary Roberts for the Com- 
pany of Stationers," is a shabbily printed almanac, 
provided with all the apparatus of prophecy and 
diary. Amongst the advertisers is John Mayor, 
at the " Five Bells " in Old Bedlam, who amongst 
other things announces " all sorts of bells, little 
and great, for House-clocks and Pocket-clocks." 
Artificial eyes are thus advertised : 

"Mr. William Boys being dead, those curiosities in 
Glass are still continued by his son Mr. Smith, at the 
' Golden Griffin ' in St. John's Lane ; where you may be 
furnished with Artificial Eyes so exactly like the Natural, 
that they have long been worn and not known by the 
nearest Relations and Friends." 

Another advertises artificial teeth " so well as 
to eat with them, and not to be discovered from 
the Natural, by the nicest observer." Moreover, 
they are not to be " taken out a-nights as is falsely 
suggested, but to be worn years together." 

Partridge complains that letters for him " paid 
for in the country are charged on me again and paid 

* Pere Anselme's Hist. Gen. de la Maison Roy ale de 
France, \. p. 474. 

t Mon. Angl., new edit., vi. p. 841. 
J Burton's Mon. Ebor., p. 390. 

at London, so that I am obliged to be at 6d. and 9d. 
charge to write to and fro to justify they were paw 
in the country, but to no purpose." 

The most curious passage in the book, however, 
is that in which he denounces the superstition of 
witchcraft. This denunciation, although lengthy, 
is worth quoting in full : 

" This Quarter seems to be attended with a strange 
sort of disease : The moon in a Z tdiacal Parallel with ]j 
going to his opposition, and $ in the 12th in square to $ , 
consider'd with ^ in the Ascendant, shews a strange 
and unusual sort of Distemper that will afflict Mankind 
with a deprivation of Sense, Disorders in the Brain, 
Melancholy, Vapors and such like Hypocondriack Acci- 
dents, that will make some ignorant People cry out it is 

" And indeed this will be apt to agree with the Cant of 
a Crew of ignorant, pick-pocket rascally People, who take 
upon them the Title of Doctor both in City and Country. 

" And when any body goes to them with a water, or the 
Patient in person, to desire their Opinion and advice, the 
first word is, You are bewitched, you are under an ill 
tongue, you are under a curse, you are under a knot of 
witches : Nay, if it be a Child but of a year old, she will 
confidently say it is bewitch'd ; but if young or old, 
happen to have any thing of Fits attend them, then 
beyond all doubt it is witchcraft. The Patients being 
frighted with this pickpocket c<tnt, desire their help to 
unwitch them again. Then out comes a Quill of Quick- 
silver, a handful of St. John's Wort, or the word Tetra- 
grammation writ on a piece of paper to lay under their 
heads at night, or under their Beds. There was a 
Child of about ten years old had the misfortune to 
have her eye beat out, and the other eye by the inflam- 
mation like to be lost : Away they went to a witch- 
monger, and he said she was bewitched, and if they 
would send her to his house he would cure her. So they 
did ; and when he had pick'd their pockets of 10 or 12 
pounds, he sent the girl home uncur'd and in 14 days she 
died. This I know, for she was my neighbour ; I could 
tell you abundance of these, had I room. But if there 
is such a thing as Witchcraft, no doubt but the people 
are all bewitch'd that go to them. But to enquire further 
into the Case, the more cunning Knaves of them pretend 
to find when they are bewitch'd by Astrology. This is 
very pretty ! for if the same Sign be on the 12th and 
Ascendant, or the Sun or Moon in the 12th, or afflicted 
by the Lord of the 12th; or the Lord of the 6th in the 
12th in any evil Aspect to the Moon or Lord of the 1st or 
if Jj or ^ is in the 12th, then there is most certainly 
Witchcraft in the case : but if the same Planet be Lord 
of the 1st and 12th, it is beyond all doubt; but if there 
is a Woman in the Parish, or near it, that is old, 
Poor, and ugly, phe is certainly the Witch. But now let 
us turn the Tables, and see what these witchmongers 
will 8*y to it. 

' Let us suppose a Nativity (and I believe I can show 
you eeveral) where some, any, or all of these Rules take 
place, what must the Native do, be it He or She ? Why 
truly they are by these Rules like to be bewitch'd as long 
as they live; and riot one of these Witchmongers able to 
cure them ; for we have far more reason to believe the 
Positions in a Nativity to have a due and true effect on 
the Person born, than they can pretend to in a question 
on a Water, &c. But suppose we allow them both to be 
true, why Witchcraft? And again, if there is Witch- 
craft, why should no body know how, or be able to cure 
it but these ignorant Blockheads that can hardly write 
their own Names, and I am sure not a line of true English f 

" I do not intend here to write my thoughts of Witch- 


[6th s. III. JAN. 1, '81. 

craft in general, nor how far it may or may not be 
credited as such, but leave the Reader further to satisfy 
his curiosity in reading Wierius in Latin, or our in- 
genious Countryman Mr. Webster in England, where they 
may find full Satisfaction concerning these Cheats and 
Impostors. And to prove they are such, most of them, 
if not all, take a pride in being counted Conjurers and 
Kaisers of Spirits, &c. But besides, of all the dreadful 
Storiesof Witchcraft that lever heard, the tricksureplay'd 
for the most part at a great distance ; and you shall very 
seldom meet with any one that knows any thing of the 
Matter (beside the bare religion) unless you happen to 
meet with one of the Impostors, or some one deluded by 
them ; and this verifies the old proverb, That Popery and 
Witchcraft thrive best ly tradition. For as all those who 
are counted Witches are for the most part notorious Im- 
postors, or else poor deluded creatures; so on the other 
hand, all the Witchmongers that pretend to find out the 
Witches, and cure the Witchcraft, are as certainly Cheats 
a d Pickpockets. But of these things let this suffice at 
present ; and I hope in a small time, if God continue my 
Life and Health, to give the World a better Account of 
these Impostors and their Witchery in this than any here- 
tofore have done ; and this in a Treatise by it self, illus- 
trated with many stories of their cheating Tricks, arid 
how it Serves to get Mony, tho' by the worst arid basest 

These are the views of an astrologer on witch- 
craft. The companion picture would be a denun- 
ciation of astrology by a wizard or a witch. 


Fern Bank, Higher Broughton, Manchester. 


I have in my possession, among others, the 
accompanying letter, written by Eugene Aram. 
I am not aware that it has ever appeared in print 
before, and I have no doubt that Mr. Seatcherd, 
had he known of its existence, would have been 
glad to have published it among those to which he 
had access. 

" London, July 10"', 1754. 

" D r S r , If that particular acquaintance, if that 
intimacy & antient friendship which have so long 
subsisted between us is not yet forgot; if yet they have 
any influence, I know not whether I ought to be more 
glad to write or you to hear; many Years & many 
accidents have now past over me but still with some 
advantage I hope both with regard to my circumstances 
& my abilities in Letters, my Scituations eince I left 
you have been various, I was Tutor 3 years to the sons 
of a ffamily of distinction in Berks & in other Imploy- 
ments of that kind 4. years with the money arising 
thence I went over into ffrance a Tour partly of curio- 
fity & partly of profit in which having visited Roan 
Paris &c & even Blois & Orleans I acquired the 
Language which is now at once an extraordinary re- 
com'endation & benefit to me. This you see has been 
y c manner among thousand amusements in which I have 
disposed of my time my observac'ons whilst abroad have 
neither been few nor I hope impertinent, their perform- 
ances with the Pen did not escape me but they appeared 
to me Labour'd painted & despicable I brought over 
a few not to imitate I assure you S r . but for y c same 
reason our Sailors do Monkeys, In Town indeed are a 
few Masterly hands & but a few chicannene Champions, 
pray reply in two or three Posts at farthest otherwise I 

shall begone and don't direct for me but for Mr Win 
ffisher in Milford Lane in y e Strand London 
" I am S r 


"E. ARAM." 

I have also before me a note of the late Lord 
Lytton, commenting upon this very letter ; he 
speaks of the peculiarities of Aram's style, " which 
is laboured and artificial, but not without singular 
beauties, at times, both of harmony and construc- 
tion, despite occasional slips of grammar." 

Perhaps some of your readers who are interested 
in the mystery of Aram can help me to decide to 
whom his letter was written. I think the choice 
lies between two gentleman ; either Mr. Collins, 
Yicar of Knaresborough, or Mr. William Norton, 
at whose request Aram first went to that town. 

Perhaps, too, some one can inform me in whose 
family, in Berks for three years and elsewhere for 
four years, Aram lived as tutor. 

It is somewhat singular that in the narrative of 
his life, which he wrote after his condemnation, he 
omitted all mention of his visit to France, con- 
fining the account of his study of the French 
language to the two years during which he was in 
a situation with the Rev. Mr. Painblanc in Picca- 
dilly. FRED. W. JOY, M.A. 

Crakehall, Bedale. 


LET," V. i. (6 th S. ii. 143, 162). In my former 
communication I stated my opinion that still 
earlier instances of this expression were to be 
found. I now forward one : 

" And we rede in the bible that the first labourer that 
euer was. was caym the first sone of adam that was so 
euyl that he slewe his broder abel For as moche as the 
smoke of his tithes went strayt vnto heuen/ and the 
smoke and fume of the tithes of caym went doun ward 
vpon the erthe. and how wel that thys cause was trewe. 
yet was there another cause of enuye that he had vnto 
his broder For when Adam theyr fader maryed them 
for to multeplye the erthe of his ligne/ he wolde not 
marye ner Joyne to gyder the two that were borne 
attones. but gaf vnto caym her that was born with 
abel. and to abel her that was borne with caym. & thus 
he ganne thenuye that caym had ayenst abel/ For hys 
wyf was fayrer than cayms wyf/ and for this cause he 
slewe abel wyth the chekebone of a beste." Caxton's 
Game of the Chesse (about 1474), Figgins's Reprint, e ij. 

E. E. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

As the pronunciation of eras ar is often discussed, 
I have collected more than fifty examples of it, as 
will be seen below. 

It ought to be well understood that the change 
of er into ar is a real law of pronunciation in our 
language. In Middle-English er was pronounced 
as in F. serve, with a strong trilling of the r. It is. 

6' S. III. JAN. 1, '81. 


a universal and well-known law of change in English 
pronunciation always to suppress the trilling of r 
us much as possible. But this caused a slight 
change of the vowel sound, so that er (as in F. 
serve) became aa, as in baa, or as in vulgar English 
saav for serve. 

This law of change has been to some extent in- 
terfered with by the spelling, for, whilst uneducated 
people freely retain this change, the educated 
classes, who read much, have reduced the pro- 
nunciation of serve to that now in use by a further 
change of aa to an indistinct vowel sound with 
which we are all familiar, and which we indicate 
by er, though the r is really silent, being wholly 
untrilled. We may find sarve for serve in use as 
early as in Tyndall ; we now pretend to be ashamed 
of it. Sarmon for sermon occurs in the fourteenth 

Opponents of spelling reform are often un- 
acquainted with the history of the language, and 
are wholly unconscious of the fact that in many 
words we have already adopted a phonetic spelling. 
Such is peculiarly the case with words of this class ; 
a large number of them are actually spelt with 
ar, so that the Jaw of change is thereby concealed. 
I now give examples : 

1. The Middle-English word berne is now pho- 
netically spelt barn; the same is the case with 
bernacle, a barnacle ; herte, the heart (where the old 
still lingers) ; tern, a tarn ; perseley, parsley ; 
berken, to bark as a dog ; derk, dark ; herknen, to 
hearken (again the e) ; merke, a mark ; querelle, 
a quarrel (oddly pronounced quorrel) ; smert, 
smart ; sterten, to start ; yerde, a yard ; Derte- 
mouthe, Dartmouth ; kerven, to carve ; fer, far ; 
ferme, a farm ; wernen, to warn ; werre, war ; 
merren, to mar ; mersh, a marsh ; merveile, a 
marvel ; gerner, a garner ; gernet, a garnet ; werblen, 
to warble ; werpen, to warp ; serk, a sark, or shirt. 
And doubtless more might be added. In particular 
note persone, a parson, and ferrier, a farrier. 

2. In some words we boldly retain the changed 
pronunciation in spite of the spelling I allude to 
clerk, serjeant, Hertford, and the like. 

3. As to many words we are in a state of hesi- 
tancy ; some people shrink from saying Darby, 
Barldey, and from sounding Kerr as Carr, fearing 
hostile criticism, and unaware that Darby is rather 
the regular than the exceptional pronunciation. 
Here in Cambridge we have a Sherman who always 
calls himself barman, whilst another has Sharman 
over his shop- door. We say merchant, yet Mar- 
chant occurs as a name. As for the berberis, we 
call it a barberry, insinuating a third r with a clutch 
at a new sense in berry. We say fern, but also 
Farncombe. Perilous also appears* as parlous. 

4. Lastly, when we allow the law of change free 
play, as among the lower classes, who have not 
yet adopted the last modern refinements, we shall 
find plenty of examples, familiar to all of us. 

Such are sarve for serve ; sarvant, larn, sarten for 
certain ; varjus (verjuice), yarb (Shropshire for 
herb), sarpent, starn, consarn, detarmine, 'varsity, 
'tarnal, 'tarnation (short for 'tarnal 'nation), 
sarmon, varmin, marcy, narvous, Jarmany ; be- 
sides many more which our readers can supply for 

It will now, I think, be seen that there are really 
three pronunciations in chronological order : 

1. Er, as in F. serve, with trilled r; probably 

2. Er, as in clerk, with untrilled r; very common, 
but concealed by phonetic spelling, as when we 
write Clark. 

3. Er, with a modern refined pronunciation, as 
in the highly polite " your servant." 


[This article waa already in hand before the note on 
" Parson," in our last volume, p. 497, by MR. J. ELIOT 
HOPGKIN, appeared.] 

Under the title of "A Catholic Encyclopedist," 
Mr. Wilfrid 0. Eobinson gives, in The Month and 
Catholic Review for August, 1880, an interesting 
sketch of the life and literary labours of Frangois 
Xavier de Feller. A more complete memoir of 
this learned and indefatigable writer will be found 
in the Dictionnaire de Biographie Chretienne, 
which forms part of the Abbe* Migne's vast 
" Encyclopedic Catholique." Feller was born at 
Brussels in 1735, and was educated in the College 
of the Jesuits at Rheiins. In due course he be- 
came a professed member of the Society of Jesus. 
When the Order was suppressed in France in 1763, 
he found a refuge in the Austrian Netherlands ; 
and after the suppression of the Society in the Low 
Countries he resided at Lie"ge, where he assumed 
the garb of a secular priest and devoted himself 
with extraordinary energy to literary pursuits. 
Political troubles afterwards induced him to retire 
to Holland, and he finally fixed his abode at 
Ratisbon, where he died on May 21, 1802. His 
best-known work is the Dictionnaire Historique ; 
ou, Histoire abregee des Hommes qui se sont fait 
un Nompar leur Genie, leurs Talents, leurs Vertus, 
&c. This has gone through many editions. The 
most recent I have seen is entitled, " Biographie 
Universelle des Hommes qui se sont fait un Norn 
par leur Genie, &c. Revue et continuee juequ'en 
1860, parl'Abbe" Simonin," 8 vols., Paris, 1860. 

Perhaps, however, the ablest production of 
Father Feller's pen is the Catechisme Philoso- 
phique ; ou, recueil d' Observations propres a 
defendre la Religion contre ses Ennemis, which has 
been reprinted several times as a separate work, 
and which occupies the post of honour in the 
collection of Catechismcs Philosophiques Pole- 
miques, Historiques, &c., published by the Abbe 


[6'S III. JAN. 1,'81. 

Migne in 1842. Mr. Robinson, in the article 
referred to above, states that this Philosophical 
Catechism has been translated into German 
Italian, and English. I have been unable to find 
a copy of the alleged English version, and I shal 
feel obliged to any correspondent who will kindly 
supply ine with the date of its appearance and a 
transcription of the title-page. It has occurred to 
me that Mr. Kobinson may possibly have been 
misled by a statement in the memoir of Feller 
prefixed to Migne's collection. The writer of that 
memoir, speaking of the Philosophical Catechism, 
says, " II a e"te traduit en allemand et en italien ; 
on enpreparait une traduction en anglais." Per- 
haps the English translation was never completed. 
Madame de Genlis published Feller's Cate- 
chism in an inaccurate form, accompanied by 
notes of her own, under the disguised title of 
Catechisme Critique et Moral. She was so ignorant 
of the origin of the book that she attributed it to 
several Jesuit Fathers, whereas it was a matter of 
public notoriety that Feller was its sole author. 

Street, one of the most interesting relics of old 
London, of which the name has passed into our 
language as a household word, is fast changing 
its appearance, and in a few more years if the 
heroes of the Dunciad were to return to earth 
they would be unable to recognize their former 

A short description of the place as it now 
stands might interest some of the readers of 
" N. & Q.,"and be useful in future years, when its 
locality and the origin of its name will be forgotten. 

About 1831 Grub Street lost its classic name, 
and was rechristened as Milton Street. Its dimen- 
sions, however, are still the same, though very 
few of the old houses remain. A portion of 
the street was pulled down when the Under- 
ground Railway was made, and many of the old 
buildings have been replaced by large warehouses 
and merchants' offices. It runs nearly due north 
and south from 56, Chiswell Street to 96, Fore 
Street. The numbering commences from the 
north end on the west side, and the first ten houses 
are outside the City boundary. No. 10 is an 
eating-house, through the windows of which may be 
seen huge smoking joints of meat and lofty piles 
of cabbages, which would cause agonies of desire in 
the souls of the hungry authors who formerly 
frequented the neighbourhood. Inside the City 
boundaries the numbering of the houses recom- 
mences. Between the houses numbered 3 and 4 
of the new series is a passage leading to Haber- 
dasher Square, a picturesque old nook, with paving 
fl.jirs in the centre, and old-fashioned buildings 
wi'h red-tiled roofs and dormer windows. It is 
not mentioned in the Post Office Directory. A 

little further down the street are three genuine 
old Grub Street houses, Nos. 16, 17, and 18. 
These certainly date back to the latter end of the 
seventeenth century. The last house on the west 
side is numbered 36 A. Crossing over to the east 
side, the first three houses are worthy of notice. 
The first two seem to be built entirely of wood. 
They are old buildings, with the first and second 
stories overhanging the street. The corner house 
is 96, Fore Street. The one next to it in Milton 
Street is the back entrance to 95, Fore Street. 

Retracing our steps towards Chiswell Street, we 
come to two more curious houses, Nos. 68 and 69. 
The windows of the first and second stories project, 
and their appearance is very picturesque. These 
buildings appear to be the oldest in the street, and 
they are probably remains of Elizabethan London. 

The question naturally arises, When was the 
term Grub-Street first applied as an epithet to poor 
authors? One of your best-informed contributors 
gives me a reference to a passage in Andrew 
Marvel's The Rehearsal Transposed, published in 
1672. " He, honest man, was deep gone in Grub 
Street and polemical divinity." The term, however, 
was probably not in common use till the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, when it frequently 
occurs in the writings of the wits of the reign of 
Queen Anne. 

In 1730 the famous Grub Street Journal was 
commenced. It was not published in a permanent 
form till 1737, but in the mean time selections 
were given to the public under the title of 
Grubiana, The Grub Street Miscellany, &c., and 
the term became familiarized in our language. 
Johnson gave "Grubstreet" a place in his Dic- 
tionary, and in early life must have been on in- 
timate terms with many of its inhabitants. Per- 
haps some of your contributors could give us a list 
of the authors who have resided there. F. G. 

IMPERFECT BOOKS. Every book collector, I 
suppose, has to lament the absence of a title-page, 
or one or more leaves, which in books of rarity 
he finds it difficult to supply. Perhaps " N & Q " 
may be a medium for assistance in thia respect. 
For instance, I have the two impressions of Stubbs's 
Anatomy of Abuses, dated respectively May 1 
and August 16, 1583. My copy of August 16 
wanted the title-page, which I had supplied in 
iic-simile. Recently I acquired a copy, imperfect at 
;he beginning and the end, but which contained 
the title-page by which I have made my copy 
perfect. There remains with nie a very large pro- 
portion of the work, quite useless to me, but which 
might enable others to supply deficiencies in their 
copies, which I should be happy to do. Having 
offered to assist others, may I mention some of my 
own grievances ? 

I have the Seven Champions of Christendom, 
both parts, printed for Elizabeth Busbie, 1608, 

S. III. JAN. 1, -si.] 


black letter. It wants one page, and I know no 
how to supply it, even in fac-simile. Does anj 
one know of another copy, perfect or imperfect 
Again, I have a fine velluui book of Heures a lu 
saige de Rome, Imprimees a Paris le xiv iour du 
mois de Juing Mil Cent cinq cens et trois," which 
wants two leaves. FREDERIC ODVRY. 

"THE THREE Fs." We hear not a little 
nowadays of the difficulty of attaching a righ 
and definite meaning to these three mysterious 
letters. An authoress has, I think, been more 
successful than any one else I know, the title o: 
her recently-published volume being Tasmanian 
Friends and Foes : Feathered, Furred, and Finned 
"Birds, Beasts, and Fishes" would have been 
rather antiquated. ABHBA. 

EPITAPH. In the parish churchyard at Folke- 
stone is a gravestone bearing the following inscrip- 
tion : 

" In Memory of Rebecca Rogers, 
Who died August 22, 1688, aged 44 years. 
A house she hath, it 's made of such good fashion, 
The tenant ne'er shall pay for reparation. 
Nor will her landlord ever raise her rent, 
Or turn her out of doors for non payment. 
From chimney money* too this cell is free, 
Of such a house who would not tenant be." 

A. 0. S. 

WHISKEY-SKIN. A correspondent of "N. & Q." 
a little time ago gave us the derivation of gin- sling. 
Will he, or some one else learned in the philology 
of drinks, interpret whiskey-skin? The word occurs 
in Mr. John Hay's Pike County Ballads : 
" At last come Colonel Blood of Pike, 
And old Jedge Phinn, permiscus-like, 
And each as he meandered in, 
Remarked, ' A whisky- skin. ' " P. 26. 

About the time of the last contest for knights of 
the shire in North Lincolnshire the following lines 
were repeated : 

" When Jim Spruggins run for Congress 

There wasn't a high-toneder man 
To be found between Boston Harbour 

And the state of Michigan ; 
But when Jim got to Washington 
Of business naught thought he, 
But a deader hand at a whiaky-skin 

You needn't hope to see." 

These are the only two examples of the word 
with which I remember to have met. ANON. 

CENTENARIANS. Having occasion to refer, a short 
time ago, to the December number of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for 1780, I was surprised to find 
recorded in the obituary column the deaths of no 
less than five centenarians. I think the fact is 
worthy of record in these pages, and so I subjoin 
the names : 

(* For " chimney money," consult Cowel's Law Dic- 
tionary, and see " N. & Q.," 6"> S. ii. 110, 111 ] 

1. At Stainton, Cumb., Mrs. Smith, aged 104. 

2. At Carrickfergus, in Ireland, Mr. James 
O'Brien, aged 114. 

3. Near Buxton, Derbyshire, Sam. Fidler, aged 

4. At Liverpool, Tho. Keggan, aged 107. 

5. At Alfreton, Derbyshire, John Stewardson, 
aged 102. C. W. HOLGATE. 

TOWN CRIER. On December 1 there died, in Mill 
Street, Oakham, at the age of seventy-five, Seth 
Ellingworth, who for twenty-five years had been 
the town crier of Oakham. It is worthy of note 
that the office of town crier had been held in the 
same family for four generations. 


be the original verses under the sign of the " Hive " 
(see ante, p. 286) are still to be read at Abingdon, 
Berks. Their point consists in the publican's 
name having been for many years Honey. The 
pun is lost in the Lancashire sign : 
"Within this Hive we 're all alive, 

Good liquor makes us funny ; 
If you are dry, step in and try 
The flavour of our Honey." 

The name of the landlord has, however, been 
recently changed. W. J. BERNHARD-SMITH. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

GIBRALTAR QUERIES. Can any of your readers 

ell me who the officer's wife was who fired the 

first shot at the great siege of 1779-83 ? On this 

occasion General Eliott, who was standing by, 

xclaimed, " Britons, strike home ! " 

From what does the landing place known as 
:he " Ragged Staff " derive its name ? 

Near the guard house, on Mediterranean Road, 
.here is a recess hollowed out of the rock containing 
i stone seat. At the back of this seat is a care- 
'ully carved tablet, which has been unfortunately 
much mutilated, the following words and letters 
nly remaining : 

" Mrs. Chetwynds S 
When Phoebus 
Of his lost d 
This grot s 
Of one it 
... mor 
And cha 

)oes any one know who Mrs. Chetwynd was, or 
an any one supply the missing words of the in- 

Chaplain H.M. Forces. 



[6th S . III. JAN. 1, '81. 

Jaques Serces author, it is believed, of treatises 
published in Amsterdam and in London in 1729 
and 1736, viz., Traite sur les Miracles and Popery 
an Enemy to Scripture was acting in 1756 as 
minister of the French Chapel Royal at St. James's, 
in the books of which he is described as " vicaire 
d'Apleby." I seek to identify this Appleby out of 
the four parishes of the name which are found in 
counties Leicester, Lincoln, and Westmoreland, 
and to trace the place and date of the vicar's death, 
and should be grateful for information. H. W. 

New Univ. Club. 

DISCOLOURED PEARLS. A friend lately re- 
quested me to have a pearl ring cleaned for him. 
The jeweller to whom it was entrusted on re- 
turning the ring informed me that he had taken 
a small worm from each of the pearls through 
microscopic boles. He alleged that these worms 
were always found in pearls discoloured, as in the 
case of those cleaned by him. I should be glad if 
this curious fact, if it be such, can be confirmed 
by any of your readers. As the cost of cleaning 
the ring was only Is. 6d. or 2s., this story was 
not likely to have been invented to enhance the 
value of the cleaning operation. 


DAMSONS. Will somebody who knows what 
damsons are (which few southerners do) tell me, 
or rather my sister-in-law, where they are to be 
obtained at the nearest point to London ? A 
northerner will need no description ; but a 
southerner is deferentially asked to remember 
that what is wanted is the " prune damson," and 
not the damson so called at Covent Garden, which 
is simply a variety of plum, and not the true 

CITY OF GLOUCESTER ? I know that she visited 
Berkeley Castle and other places in the county, 
but have found no record of her having visited the 
city, though there is a tradition that she did so, 
and an old house by St. Nicholas Church is pointed 
out as the one she stayed at. J. J. P. 


me with pedigrees or any information with regard 
to this family? I am desirous of collecting 
materials for a work on the subject, and should be 
deeply grateful for any help. References to living 
members would be acceptable. I shall be happy 
to correspond with any one upon the subject. 


Saffron Walden, Essex. 

A PUBLIC-HOUSE SIGN. A couple of miles 
from Carlisle is an inn bearing the sign of the 
" White Quey." What is the meaning of "Quey"? 

The position of the house makes it unlikely that 
t should be a corruption of "quay." Mr. Hotten 
does not mention the sign. 


HERALDIC. To whom do the following arms 
Delong 1 Azure, a fesse wavy erminois between 
three mullets argent, pierced of the field ; on an 
escutcheon of pretence, Purpufe, on a fesse between 
hree horses courant argent, as many hurtes. 


COMBE 1604-11. Of what family was he? Sir 
John Townshend, the representative of the Nor- 
folk house, was killed in a duel Aug. 3, 1603. 

W. D. PINK. 

REV. JOHN BARTLAM, M. A. I have an engraved 
portrait of this clergyman, and shall be glad to 
learn what living he held, also any particulars 
concerning him. DUNELM. 

AMBERLEY. There is a district so called in the 
neighbourhood of Stroud, in Gloucestershire. 
What may be the derivation of the name ? If 
called, as some will have it, from amber stones, 
what and where are they? ABHBA. 

GERMAN HISTORY. What is the best history in 
English of the Rhine provinces of Germany ? 


GRIFFIN'S "FIDESSA," 1596. There are, I 
believe, only three copies known. One in the 
Bodleian ; a second from which C. Whittingham 
took his one hundred copy Chiswick reprint in 
1815 ; a third, one of Mr. Edmonds's treasure 
troves at Sir Ch. Isham's. I shall be much 
obliged for information as to the whereabouts of 
the second, and also as to any other copy known to 
exist. B. NICHOLSON. 

NAME OF AUTHOR WANTED. I shall feel much 
obliged for the name of the author and the place 
and date of publication of an old octavo volume 
(pp. 600), the copy now before me wanting the 
title-page, and there not being any clue in the body 
of the work to the information l" desire. Chap. i. 
is on " The Faith of a True Believer," &c., and 
chap, xxxvii. (which is the concluding one) " A 
Serious Contemplation of Mortality, or a Mournful 
Panegyrick in Memory of William III., King of 
Great Britain," &c. ABHBA. 

CERTATIO." The Rev. Mr. Thornber, of Blackpool, 
writing some time in the year 1853, says : 

"When the translation of a rare old MS., entitled 
'Concertatio,' which I am in the hopes of seeing pub- 
lished by a reverend Catholic friend, shall appear, many 
other things vrM he revealed to illustrate the Spanish 
invasion. It tells how Fleetwood purchased of the king 

6>>> S. III. JiS. 1, '81.] 



the fee of Rossal Grange ; how he deprived the cardinal's 
[Allen] nieces of the estate of Todderstaff, the gift of one 
of their uncles ; how the deeds were stolen when Rossal 
was plundered at night by the sheriff and his people, 
&c. The translation and publication of such a fund 
of local history will be hailed with satisfaction by the 
readers in the Fylde." 

Can you give me any information as to the 
author of the above manuscript, and say whether 
the same was ever published, as the Rev. Mr. 
Thornber anticipated ? JOSEPH SMITH, Jun. 


of the new hymnal published by authority of the 
Ohurch of Scotland, is said to be written by Charles 
Wesley, and concludes as follows : 

" Till death thy endless mercies seal 
And make my sacrifice complete." 

I shall be glad to learn whether this version is 
authentic, or whether the original has been altered. 


IRISH HERALDRY. Are there any works on the 
ancient heraldry of Ireland 1 That such a science 
existed there for many centuries before the invasion 
of the English is a fact known to all ; but where is 
it that a detailed reference can be met with 1 


" GUAGING " OR " GAGEING." This is the word 
which is applied to the pleating and embroidery 
work with which the old-fashioned smock-frocks 
are decorated. I should be glad to know how it 
ought to be spelled, and whether the derivation of 
it can be traced. W. D. PARISH. 

" ALK." Tanner, in his Notitia Monastic^ says 
that " Barrowe " in Lincolnshire was formerly " At 
Barwe," that is, in a wood. Stark, in his History 
of Gainsborough, makes mention of the Saxon alk. 
What is the meaning of alk ? Did the two words 
alk and at originally mean the same thing ? 

Walcot, Brigg. 

SCOTCH-DUTCH REGIMENTS. I find the follow- 
ing item of news in an Irish journal of December, 
1775 :- 

" London. Several transports were taken up yesterday 
in order to bring over six Scotch regiments from Holland, 
called Scotch-Dutch, which are to be incorporated with 
the English army and are to serve in America." 

Where were these regiments raised, and when 1 
Who were the men, and who were the officers ? 
What became of these regiments ? 



"IRON-MOULD." Is it not possible that this 
word is wrongly spelled, and that it ought to be 
written iron-mole? In Lyly's Euphues, 1579 
(Arber's reprint, 1868), p. 39, this sentence is 
found, " One yron Mols defaceth the whole peece 

of Lawne." All dictionaries consulted throw no 
light upon the word. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

CHARLES LAMB. In Barry Cornwall's Memoir 
of Charles Lamb his birthday is given as Feb- 
ruary 18 ; by Talfourd and others as the 10th 
of that month. Which date is correct ? 

S. T. S. 


A " POT- WALL." In a MS. signed in 1727 by 
several incumbents of Exeter parishes I find the 
phrase, " Tenement with a pot-wall," is quoted 
from a document dated 1582, and explained to 
mean "a tenement with a chimney for dressing 
victuals." Was this use of the word pot-ivall= 
chimney adopted in other parts of the country in 
the sixteenth century ? R. DYMOND. 


PHILIP DACRES. He married Winifred Mitchel, 
lived at Leatherhead in 1699, and was buried there 
in August, 1727. He is mentioned in Manning- 
ham and Bray. His daughters married R. Wil- 
kinson, R. Boilings, W. Evetts, and Frampton 
Lewis. I should be extremely obliged if any one 
would give me any information as to his father. 
Was he a Cheshunt Dacres ; and, if so, how de- 
scended ? T. B. 


THE " MINCED PIE HOUSE." I have before me 
a very pretty octavo view of this place. Where 
did it stand, and what is its history ? 

THE " MAIDENHEAD." I have an octavo litho- 
graph of this public-house. Where was it situated? 

THE "BRITISH AMAZON." There is an oval 
octavo portrait of a handsome woman thus desig- 
nated. It appears to be a magazine print of last 
century. Who was she 1 CALCUTTENSIS. 


The following signatures are appended to ballads in a 
volume of " Original Ballads by Living Authors, 
MDCCCL., edited by the Rev. Henry Thompson," pub- 
lished by Joseph Masters in 1850. Can any reader 
furnish the full names of the writers 1 P. R., Annabel 
C-, A. H. T., J. E. L , D. B., S. M., Enna. 

My Children's Diary ; or, the Moral of the Passing 
Hour, London, Darton & Harvey, 1824, 12mo. Preface 
signed R. D. 

Choir ocJiorographia, sive Hoglandlce Descriptio. Lon- 
don, 1709, 8vo. [5th s. x . 428, 455, 477 ; xi. 34, 154.1 

A Dissertation on Comedy. By a Student of Oxford. 
London, 1750, 8vo. 

A ncient Hi story : the History of Greece from Various 
Sources. 1848, 8vo. C. W. S. 


" A ring of gold, wedding two distant worlds." 
From a short poem, "On a Mother Looking at a Dead 
Child's Hair." I. C. G. 



III. JAN. I, '81. 

(6 th S. ii. 388). 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cellier was one of the chief agents 
in the celebrated Meal-tub Plot in 1680. This was 
a sham plot, got up between Thomas Dangerfield 
and Elizabeth Cellier, a Roman Catholic midwife, of 
very questionable morality, but of very considerable 
quickness and talent. Forged documents, which 
Dangerfield hid in the lodgings of Colonel Mansel, 
were, upon his deposition, found by Government 
officers ; but the imposition was soon found out, 
and Dangerfield was committed to Newgate. On his 
trial he endeavoured to throw the entire blame on 
Mrs. Cellier, and asserted that the original papers 
were all to be found in her house hidden in a meal- 
tub. This turned out to be true, and Mrs. Cellier 
was committed to prison. On her trial she 
managed to prove that Dangerfield was wholly 
unworthy of credit, and her marvellous impudence 
tind ready and unscrupulous lies led to her own 
acquittal, and made her name for the time equiva- 
lent to "an out-and-out lie." Her two trials are 
very curious, and after the first she published a 
remarkable tract, entitled " M a lice Defeated; or, 
a Brief Relation of the Accusation and Deliverance 
of Elizabeth Cellier, 1680. To be sold at her 
house in Arundel Street, near St. Clement's 
Church." At the end of this she shows up poor 
Dangerfield, under the title of " The Matchless 
Picaro, Don Tomaso Ganderfieldo." Mrs. Cellier 
must have been one of the most troublesome 
witnesses of all those concerned in these plot trials ; 
she was always undaunted, quick at reply, and full 
of ready wit. After her trial she thanked the 
jurors for giving her a good deliverance, and offered 
to " serve their ladies with the same fidelity in their 

The temporary use of the name of a notorious 
person as a noun or verb is always worth record- 
ing. Some years since, passing along Bankside, 
I heard a tall, stout man, at the door of a low beer- 
house, say to his companions, " If he do that agin 
we shall have to Hay-naw he." This was received 
with a grunt of approbation. The word was well 
understood in the locality, showing that the 
punishment inflicted on General Haynau, the 
woman-flogger, at Messrs. Barclay's brewery, in 
September, 1850, was not forgotten. 

This is the name of one Madame Cellier, the 
" Popish Midwife/' who was deeply concerned in 
the Meal-tub Plot, and who " sat in State on the 
Pillory, near the Maypole in the Strand " (see 
The Devil Pursued, B. M. Library, C 20 f 
" Poetical Broadsides," 106). In her house was 
the "meal-tub" of this precious business. See 
B. M. Library C. 20 f, " Luttrell Collection," 

r ol. iii. 142. See likewise any of the histories of 
he Meal-tub Plot. When she " sat in State," as 
tbove, she was provided with a wooden shield,, 
with which to ward off the rotten eggs, cats, dogs,, 
nd other missiles an indignant public hurled 
,t her. F. G. S. 

In 1680 appeared 

" Malice Defeated : or a Brief Relation of the Accu- 
sation and Deliverance of Elizabeth Cellier, wherein her 
Proceedings both before and during her Confinement,, 
are particularly Related, and the Mystery of the Meal- 
Tub fully discovered. Together with au Abstract of her 
Arraignment and Tryal, written by her self for the satis- 
"action of all Lovers of undisguized Truth. [Curioua 
3evice ] London, Printed for Elizabeth Cellier, and are- 
;o be sold at her House in Arundel-street, near St. 
Clements Church, 1680." Folio, pp. 48. 

The trial is represented to have been at the 
' King's Bench Barr " upon April 30, 1680. This 
was answered by Thomas Dangerfield, who on his 
title styles it " a certain Scandalous Lying Pam- 
phlet, Entituled Malice Defeated." "London, 
Printed for the Author, and are to be sold at 
Randal Taylor's. 1680." Folio, pp. 20. Under the 
authority of " Robert Clayton, Mayor," dated 
September 13th, 1680, was published:- 

' The Tryal and Sentence of Elizabeth Cellier ; for 
Writing, Printing, and Publishing, a Scandalous Libel, 
called Malice Defeated, &c. At the Sessions in the Old 
Bailey, held Saturday the llth and Monday the 13th of 
Sept., 1680. Whereunto is Added Several Depositions,, 
made before the Right Honourable, the Lord Mayor. 
London, Printed for Thomas Collins, at the Middle- 
Temple-Gate, 1680." Folio, pp. 39. 

Elizabeth Cellier, described in the indictment as- 
" being of the Popish Religion," was fined 1,OOOL 
and set in " the Pillory three several days in three 
several publick Places," viz. the Strand, Covent 
Garden, and Charing Cross. 


This word must have been coined out of the 
name of Laurence Cellier, a Jesuit, who was born 
in 1630, and was the author of various works on 
classical literature. Among others Musce Avenion- 
enses: upon which Michaud's Biographie Univer- 
selle has the following remarks : " Ce n'est qu'un 
simple hommage poe'tique tres-court, a Ste-Marthe 
de Tarascon. 11 fut un temps, comuie on sait, ou 
Ton croyait que Madeleine, Marthe et Lazare 
etaient venus dans les Gaules." This belief sounds 
rather like a Cellier to the Protestant rnind. 


A KEY TO "ENDYMION" (6 th S. ii. 484). 
Perhaps others as well as myself may have found 
a key to unlock the mysteries of Endymion. I 
would suggest the following solution of the pro- 
blem. In every case, I believe, the number of 
letters in the fictitious name corresponds exactly 
with the number in the name of the character 
more or less represented by the author. Hebrew 

6th s. III. JAN. 1, '81.] 



scholars confirm me in this idea, as I understan 
from them that this is a favourite device of Jewis 
writers, and therefore very probably adopted bj 
Lord Beaconsfield. 

Many of the names admit of a double solution 
especially those which are clearly mixed characters 
made up by fusing two real persons into a fie 
titious one. It will be seen that the results I thu 
arrive at agree in the main with the key which 
has appeared in " N. & Q." at the above reference 

Endymion Disraeli (or Benjamin). 

./Joehampton ... Palmerstori (and perhaps a trait o 

two of //ar<ington). 

Prince Florestan ... Emperor Napoleon. 
Kigel Penruddock Cardinal Manning (mixed up with 

John Henry Newman). 
Job Thornberry ... Richard Cobden. 
Thornberry (alone) John Bright. 
Hortensius Possibly Historicus (Sir Win. Har- 


Mr. Sainte Barbe... Thackeray. 
Mr. Gushy ... Dickens. 

Walderahare ... Strangford. 
LordMontfort ... Lord Hertford. 

Beaumaris The late Lord Derby. 

Adriana Neufchatel Lady Burdett Coutts. 
Myra Roehampton Empress Eugenie. 
Enoch. Craggs ... Co-operation. 
Topsy-Turvy ... Vanity Fair. 

As I have not Endymion by me, possibly in 
some cases the guess is incorrect, but I have little 
doubt as to the principle which guided the author 
in the selection of names. Possibly the same test 
applied to his earlier novels will bring out similar 
results. H. T. F. 

The description of Hortensius (see vol. i. 
pp. 222-5), as well as the period at which the 
debate is supposed to have taken place, November, 
1835, seems to indicate the late Lord Chief Justice, 
Sir Alexander Cockburn, and not Sir William 
Harcourt, as the original from whom the sketch 
is derived. Sir Alexander Cockburn would have 
been commencing his legal career somewhere about 
that time, or not much earlier. 


" WAGE" FOR "WAGES" (6 th S. ii. 387). Both 
wage and wages are respectable forms enough, just 
as are house and houses, or any other pairs of 
singular and plural words. I find wage in Lang- 
toft (ed. Hearne), p. 319. Wage occurs also in 
the Promptorium Parvulorum, and (according to 
Stratmann) in King Alisaunder, 904 ; Hoccleve, 
i. 119 ; whilst the plural wages is in Piers Plow- 
man, B. xi. 283. I find Dr. Stratmann's references 
troublesome, from his tacit alterations of the 
spellings ; on actual reference to King A lisaunder, 
904, the form turns out to be gage, the same word, 
no doubt, but he should have given it as it stands. 
As to what is asserted in these matters, it will 
generally be found that the less a man knows 
about them, the more dogmatic he is ; the way to 

test a man's knowledge is to ask him to produce 
his authorities, and to require of him a quotation 
or two. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Whether the use of wage for wages is, or is not 
a vulgarism, is a point on which I shall not enter,, 
but I should like to assure your correspondent 
that it most certainly is not new, as the following 
quotations will show. Omitting Robert de- 
Brunne, as given by ANON., we have in the Com- 
plaint of the Black Knight, 1. 397 : 

" Love, alas ! quite him so his wage." 
And again we have in 1447, in the Lyvys of 
Seyntys (Roxburghe Club ed.), fo. 14, v. 31 : 

" Hyr lord wyl I yeve right good wage." 
And in the BoJce of Curtasye, 1450, 1. 618 : 
" Undur ben gromes and pages mony one, 
That ben at wage everychone." 

In the Frere and the Boye, 1460, 1. 36 : 

" To wynne better wage.'' 
In W. de Worde's Communycacyonj 1493, sign.. 
A iii : 

" I am worth none other wage 
But for to dwell in endlesse woo." 

In Lauder's Tractate, 1556, 1. 135 : 
" Mak yow lose }our latter waige, 
Quhilk is the heuinnis heritage." 

These do not by any means exhaust all the 
instances that might be given, but they will be 
sufficient for their purpose. The use of wage 
would seem to have to a great extent died out in 
:he seventeenth century, but we find instances of 
it in the present century. Mrs. Gaskell, in her 
North and South, chap, xvii., uses it, as also does- 
Ellis Bell, in Wuthering Heights, chap, xxxiii., 
in each case the word seems to be treated as a 
Drovincialism. XIT. 

Your correspondent ANON, is right, for it is 
thoroughly incorrect to say that " wage for wages 
s...a recent vulgarism." It occurs not unfre- 
quently in old writers ; e.g., circa Edward IV. : 
Thay askyd wage of the brygge, thay paid them thayre- 

Wright's Political Poems, ii. p. 277. 
!n Scotland : 

" Now, sirs, win weill ^our wage" 
"Sirs, I sail schaw 2ow, for my wage.'' 

Lyndesay's Works, pp. 390, 453 (E.E.T.S.).. 

VIr. W. Morris has revived it in his translation of 
Virgil : 

" If fate had willed it so 
That I should fall, I earned my wage." 

JEneid, ii. 434. 

?he word occurs not uncommonly in modera 
writers on political economy, as " It is usually the- 
in ploy er in quest of labour who offers in the first 
nstance a certain wage"; which I copied from one 
f Mr. Thornton's writings. The word seems to 
ave been revived, but while I do not find it in, 



III. JAN. 1, '81. 

Longnmir's Jamieson, it is in the Fromptorium 
rendered " stipendium." 0. W. TANCOCK. 


The use of wage in this sense is certainly not a 
modern vulgarism. Halliwell gives two examples 
that are quite to the point. With regard to 
Scottish practice it may be important to mention 
tin interesting distinction observed among the 
agricultural classes. They use wage in reference 
to the prcemium for which a man gives his 
services ; for example, one " young chield " might 
say to another, " Jock Tamson's gaun to Muckle 
Balcormie at the term, and he's gettin' a great 
big wauge." On the other hand, when the service 
is given and the money due, it becomes wages. 
The same youth, for instance, may have lived 
beyond even the ample means that had interested 
his acquaintances, and so have given the speaker 
already introduced occasion for exclaiming, " Did 
ye hear that Teelyour Tarras has reistit Jock 
Tamson's wauges ? " It seems to be very much 
the distinction grammarians draw between unit 
and plurality of idea, THOMAS BATNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

There can be no doubt that wage is a genuine 
old form of the word ivages, although, in England 
at least, as Nares says, it is " now used only in 
the plural." Examples might be multiplied alniosl 
ad infinitum. Nares gives, " With deeper wap 
and greater dignitie" (Span. Trag., part ii., 0. PL 
iii. 123), and " From those which paid them wage 
the island soon did win " (Polyolbion, xi. p. 863) 
Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps's Dictionary has : 
" For thou woldyst bring me thys message, 
I wylle give the thy wage." 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 102. 
" Ye have a knyght at yowre wage, 
For yow he ys an evell page." 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 166. 

This is certainly an archaism, for I find it ove 
and over again in old family account-books, abou 
the beginning of this century. How far it may b< 
also a vulgarism I leave to others. 


"A fair day's work for a fair day's wage" is ; 
common expression in Suffolk. Another expres 
sion, where wages is used, is, " When you hav 
done the work you shall have your ivages." 


Wages, and not wage, is the word almost univer 
sally used in the districts of the north of Scotlanc 
I am familiar with Aberdeen and Banff shires 
Thus, one farm servant will say to another, " Fah 
waages hae ye this half-year 1 " One man, tellin 
another how he is paid, will say, " A get in 
ivaages b' the week." WALTER GREGOR. 

The Manse, Pitsligo. 

Sir Walter Scott employs this word : " There, 
atiff, is thy morning wage" (Kenilworth, chap. iv.). 


" TRAM " (6 th S. ii. 225, 356). I cannot help 
oming to the conclusion that tram is only another 
orm of train, and I can bring forward some little 
vidence in support of my conclusion. It is 
vident, from what I find in different dictionaries, 
nd from the passages quoted in the different 
lotes in " N. & Q." referred to by MR. J. DIXON 
see 2 nfl S. v. 128, xii. 229, 276, 358 ; 4 th S. xii. 
299, 420), that the word tram was originally 
applied to the waggon only, and not to the way 
tself. Halliwell defines the word, " a sort of sledge 
unning on four wheels, used in coal mines." (1.) 
STow in O.F. train (see Cotgrave, s.v.} has amongst 
other meanings that of "a sled, a drag, or dray 
without wheeles," a meaning which is still preserved 
m M.F. in the dim. form traineau. (2.) And at the 
present time train in Fr. means " ce qui porte le 
iorps d'un carrosse, d'un chariot" (Littre), i.e. 
:he framework (I do not know and cannot find the 
correct English term*) which, in the case of four- 
wheeled vehicles without springs,f keeps the wheels 
together and supports the body, and this has a very 
considerable resemblance to the tram described by 
Halliwell, which is little more than such a frame- 
work. Train is also applied in French to the fore 
and hind quarters of a horse, as supporting the 
body.J It is quite clear, therefore, that by a very 
inconsiderable extension of meaning the Fr. word 
train might have been applied to such a vehicle as 
the original tram was. If this is granted, then all 
that remains for me to do, in order to prove or to 
give great probability to my case, is to show that 
the Fr. train, besides furnishing our word train, 
could also produce in English the word tram. 
And this I am able to do, for is not the Eng. 
grogram allowed on all hands to be derived from 
the Fr. gros grain ? and if so, then ain lias in one 
case, at any rate, become am in Eng. Of. also 
buckram, from the Fr. bougran; and in Halliwell 
one of the meanings actually given to tram is " a 
train, or succession of things." It should be re- 
marked, also, that the sound of train, pronounced 

* In Fleming and Tibbins's large Fr. and Eng. Diet. I 
find it (s.v. " Train ") called carriage, which is rather too 
ambiguous and how could one say " the carriage of a 
carriage ' ] whilst in Hilpert's Germ, and Eng. Diet., s.v. 
" Wagengestell," it is called " the train or frame." 

f In the case of vehicles with springs the train would 
be divided into two part?, inasmuch as the springs in 
that case support the body. The avant-train would com- 
prehend the two fore wheels with their axle-tree and 
pole, and the arricre-train the two hind wheels with 
their axle-tree. 

J The fore quarters are called the train de devanl or 
avant-irain; the hind quarters train de derriere or arriere- 

Indeed (1) + (2) == Irani, as defined by Halliwell. 

"> S. III. Jis. 1, 81.] 



as the French pronounce it, is more like tram tha 
our pronunciation of train=trane. I can beside 
give examples of the converse change, viz. of m int 
n. Thus the Fr. trame (from the Latin trama), in th 
sense of woof or weft, is in Cotgrave to be found in 
the form traine* as well ; whilst in the Prompt 
Parv. we find the trayne of a cloth. This same 
Fr. word trame also means a plot or treacherou 
scheme (Littre, complot, ruse), and in Halliwell '. 
find not only the same word trame, but also train 
defined as deceit, treachery. I think it will be 
allowed, therefore, that my evidence, if not conclu 
sive in other eyes than my own, is at least strong. 

Sydenham Hill. 

I cannot help thinking that MR. WALLIS has go 
liold of the real derivation of this word. If I hac 
followed Capt. Cuttle's advice some time ago, 1 
believe I should have been able to produce strong 
-evidence in support of MR. WALLIS'S view. I am 
-almost certain that in one of the volumes of wills 
published by the Surtees Society I have seen a note 
of a legacy left for the repair of some " tram or 
way " in a northern county. I have an impression, 
too, that it occurred in the Durham Wills, edited 
by Mr. Greenwell as vol. xxxviii. of the society's 
publications. I cannot at present refer to the 
book myself, but perhaps some kind northern 
friend can give us the passage. When the 
long- promised Glossary of Northern Words is 
provided for us, we shall have a treasury 
of inestimable value. As each new issue of a 
volume makes the ultimate labour of compiling 
such a work greater than before, would it not be 
well if the society would give us an instalment of 
the collections already made, if there are any, before 
the undertaking becomes a desperate one ? C. 

DOKE OF WELLINGTON (6 th S. ii. 205, 229, 496, 
516). MR. WEISBECKER is in error in supposing 
that Lord Beaconsfield's policy in bringing Indian 
troops to Malta was in any way original, as a 
brigade of our native Indian troops was transported 
up the Red Sea to Suez, under, I think, the com- 
mand of Sir David Baird, at the commencement 
of the present century. These troops were in- 
tended to co-operate with the force under Sir 
Ralph Abercromby in the attempt to drive the 
French out of Egypt ; they arrived all right, but 
too late for action, as the business had already 
been accomplished. JAMES CULL. 

Since my former communication, not claiming 
to be an authority, I have referred to that ex- 
haustive History of Waterloo, by Captain Siborne, 
and I find in speaking of the 2nd Corps, com- 

* This may possibly be a misprint for traime, for 
*.v. ' Trame " he says "as traime," but traime is not 
in his dictionary. 

manded by Lieutenant-General Lord Hill, he says 
that, in addition to the English divisions, it con- 
sisted " of the 1st Dutch-Belgian division, under 
Lieutenant-General Stedman, and of a brigade 
raised for service in the Dutch colonies, called the 
Indian brigade, under Lieutenant-General Baron 
Anthing." This is conclusive on the subject. 

W. DlLKE. 



(6 th S. ii. 327). A Wood has in Fast. Oxon., ad 

an. 1585, p. 756, Lond., 1691, as to his incor- 
poration : 

" Jul. 11. John Dod, M. of A. of Cambridge. He was a 
Cheshire man born, educated in Jesus Coll. in that 
university, afterwards a learned and godly Divine, 
successively Minister of Hanwell in Oxfordshire, Fenny- 
Drayton in Leycestershire, Canons Ashby and Fausley in 
Northamptonshire, tho for a time ( c ) silenced in each of 
them. He is commonly called the Decalogist, as having, 
with Rob. Cleaver another Puritan, written An Exposi- 
tion on the Ten Commandments. He hath also published 
several sermons, as the Oxford Catalogue informs you, 
and dying at Fausley in 1645, aged 86, was there buried." 

" ( c ) Tho. Fuller in Worthies of English in Cheshire," 
[p. 181 : " Most true it is, that good father Dod, though he 
Lived to see the flood of our late civil wars, made to him- 
self a cabin in his own contented conscience, and though 
lis clothes were wetted with the waves, (when plundred) 
he was dry in the deluge, such his self-solace in his 
lioly meditations. He dyed, being eighty-six years of 
age, anno 1645."] 

Fuller states that he was born at Shottliedge, in 
Cheshire, and refers to Dr. Clark, " by whom his 
ife is written." ED. MARSHALL. 

Sandford St. Martin. 

An interesting account of this excellent minister, 
drawn from many sources, may be found in Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, iii. It would indeed be 
a pity for his memory " to be clean died out." 
The Religious Tract Society some years ago issued, 
n good type, a large wall placard, entitled " Old 
Mr. DooVs (or Good Mr. Dod's) Sayings"; but I 
cannot just now say whether it is still " kept in 
tock." They were pithy and excellent ; doubt- 
ess a reprint of the pamphlet to which T. S. refers. 

S. M. S. 

For biographical notices of " Old Mr. Dod " 
I would refer T. S. to the list below. The 
edition of The Worthy Sayings mentioned by 
T. S. was sold at " Twelve Shilling a Hundred to 
hose who buy them to give away." The woodcut 
ortrait, so far as I remember, is not that of Dod. 
?he date of the printing is about 1780, and not 
qual to that of Gent. A good portrait of Dod 
ras published by Richardson. 
State Papers (Domestic Series), 1611-1618, vol. Ixvii. 
State Papers (Domestic Series), 1611-1618, vol. Ixxvii. 
Clarke's Martyrologie, 1651, p. 404. 
Capel's Tentations, their Nature, Danger, Cure : 
he fourth part, London, 1655, pp. 249, 250, 292. 
Capel'a Remains, London, 1658, reverse of A 4. 



[6th g. III. JAN. 1, '81. 

Ten Sermons, tending chiefly to the fitting of men for 

the worthy receiving of the Lords Supper The sixe 

first by J. Dod Also there is now added the Authors 

Life. Collected 1661, with his effi-ies. London, 1661. 

Barkdale's Memorials of Worthy Persons, 1661, p. 143 

Fuller's Church History of Britain, 1655, p. 119. 

Fuller's History of Worthies of England, 1662, p. 181. 

Neal's History of the Puritans, 1732, vol. iii. p. 319. 

Burnharn's Pious Memorials, 1753, p. 168. 

A Sermon, upon the Word Malt. Preached in the 
Stump of a hollow Tree, by the Rev. John Dod, M.A. 
Author of the Remarkable arid Approved Sayings. To 
which is prefixed, a brief Account of the Life of the 
Author. London, M.DCCL.XXYII. 

Middleton's Biographia Evangelica, 1779, vol. iii. p. 171. 

Bridges's Northamptonshire, 1791, vol. i. p. 70. 

The Christian's Magazine, October, 1791. 

Chalmers's General Biographical Dictionary, 1813, 
vol. xii. p. 143. 

Wood's Fasti Oxonienses, 1815, vol. i. c. 232. 

Baker's Northamptonshire, 1822, vol. i. p. 388. 

Watt's Bibliotheca Britaunica, 1824, vol. i. 309 1. 

Granger's Biographical History of England, 1824, 
vol. ii. p. 74. 

Burke s History of the Commoners, 1836, vol. iii. p. 549. 

Burke's History of the Landed Gentry, 1838, vol. iii. 
p. 549. 

Coleman's Memorials of Independent Churches in 
Northamptonshire, 1853, p. 7. 

Darling's Cyclopaedia Bibliographica, 1854, c. 929. 

Notes and Queries, 1855, 1 st S. xii. 383, 497. 

Rose's Biographical Dictionary, 1857, vol. vii. p. 93. 

Allibone's Dictionary of English Literature, 1859, 
vol. i. p. 507. 

Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography, vol. ii. 
f. 114. 

Bailey's Life of Thomas Fuller, 1874, p. 43. 

Memorials of the Rev. John Dod, with Appendix, 1875. 


"MAUND" (6 th S. ii. 388). The coincidence 
between the Afghan and English maund is pro- 
bably purely accidental. The E. maund is the 
Old Northumbrian mond, Matt. xiv. 20 ; Mark 
viii. 8 ; cognate with 0. Dutch mande, "a maunde' 
(Hexhani), Mod. Dutch, maud. I believe Spelman 
connects it with Maundy Thursday, with which it 
has nothing to do, as I have proved twice. I do 
not see how it conies from ma, to measure, though 
it is just possible. Of course, such a word, ij 
found in Persian, might be allied to English, be 
cause in and n are stable letters, not subject to 
Grimm's law ; but there is no such word in Persian 
except the suffix -mand, possessed of, which can 
hardly be the same thing. The only other Per- 
sian word like it is mandarij, that which contains 
which would somewhat answer in sense, only it 
happens to be of Arabic origin. What we want 
to know is whether maund is an Afghan word or 

This Indian commercial term is fully treated of 
in Prof. H. H. Wilson's glossary and in the 
Cyclopedia by Reeves. It does not appear to 
have any connexion with the nearly obsolete 

English word maund, a basket. Wilson traces it 
o the Arabic mann, and, after an account of its 
value in different parts of India, says : " The 
Hebrew mann or manah, from which through 
Arabic the Indian word is derived, corresponded 
more nearly to the sir." Richardson gives as the- 
meaning of the word, " a weight of 40 seirs, also 
the mannah of the Israelites." 

The word appears in several of the languages of 
India, being man in Hindi, and manugu or- 
manangu in the South. Wilson does not connect 
it with the Sanscrit root ma. There is no Indian 
word like maund, meaning a basket or bundle. 

R. B. S. 

An article recently appeared in the Times or> 
The Empire of the Hittites," and it is mentioned 
therein that at Carchemish, the capital, where- 
merchants from all parts of the world met together,, 
the maneh or maund of that city became the- 
standard of weight and money. I think this may 
add to my query and further the origin of weights- 
and measures. EDWIN SLOPER. 


In the Midland market towns sixty or seventy 
years ago, the basket in which butter was brought 
to market by the comely matrons and blooming- 
maidens, wives and daughters of the farmers, was- 
called a maund. The word may be still in use,, 
but as much of the butter is now going to shops,., 
the number of the fair venders has sadly dimin- 
ished. ELLCEE. 


JEsTEL (6 th S. ii. 386). The word is not (estell r 
but cestel, with one /. It is not plunil, but sin- 
gular, used with the article an, one. There is a. 
note on it in Sweet's edition of Gregory's Pas- 
toral Care, p. 473. In an A.-S. vocabulary we 
have,"Indicatorium, cestel" (Wright's Focafr., i. 81 
col. 1); and again in ./Elfric's Grammar (ed. 
Zupitza), p. 31. Mr. Sweet says it occurs to- 
translate Lat. stylus in JjUfric's Glossary, but it 
is not there. It is by no means so easy as seems- 
to be supposed. I cannot see that the W. e&tyll, 
pi. sb., helps us at all, nor is estyll certainly a 
Celtic word ; it seems to be nothing but the Low 
Lat. astula (Ducange), put for Lat. assulce, thin- 
boards. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

There is a short but interesting " De Voce- 
Anglo-Saxonica ^stel Dissertatio," by Thomas- 
Hearne, prefixed to vol. vii. of Leland's Itinerary. 
It appears that the word is only found in King 
Alfred's preface to St. Gregory's Pastorale, and 
not in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, as supposed by 
your correspondent. MR. LYNN'S citation of the- 
Welsh estyll is a decisive accession to one of 
Hearne's alternative explanations, that it is the 
pair of covers or boards of a book, and seems to. 
have been unknown to him. It would also be- 

III. JAN. 1, '81 ] 




valuable as a sample of British words surviving in 
English, but for the likelihood of Asser's hand in 
that preface. It is believed that such outlying 
British words are far more numerous than sus- 
pected ; but, on the one hand, the unreasonable 
disavowal of the Pan-Teutonists, and, on the other, 
the unreasoning patriotism of the Welsh, who 
would otherwise be the best qualified for the task, 
postpone the hope of an impartial abstraction of 


"LAINE" (6 th S. ii. 348). If Motcomb be a 
family name, it seems singularly racy of the soil, 
and the very wording of QY.'S description of the 
spot is highly suggestive of a contrary theory. A 
field named Motcomb, " lying in a hollow close to 

the old town of ," irresistibly reminds one of 

a mot-comb, a vale used for meetings in the olden 
time ; the number and appropriateness of all the 
combs clustering around it would certainly point 
to its and their connexion with the land rather 
than the landowner. 

Without leaving Sussex, we have Balcombe, 
near East Grinstead ; Barcombe and Telscombe, 
near Lewes ; Coombes, near Steyning ; Compton, 
near Chichester ; Seddlescombe, near Battle ; and 
Piecomb, near Brighton ; not to mention over 
twenty others to be met with in the same latitude, 
among them another Motcomb near another old 

As to Laine, would it be too much to surmise 
that the same Sussex folk who changed Farleigh 
into Fcurlight, and Halisham into Hailsham, may 
have in like manner altered the lane leading to 
the raotcomb into Motcomb Laine ? 

A reply to the query (5 th S. viii. 369) respecting 
the Lane family of Arundel might possibly throw 
a different light on the subject, but it is yet (so 
far as I know) unanswered. 


It occurs to me that this word may be derived 
from A.-S. len, Icen, or lehan. Bosworth gives 
Icen, land, loan or leased land ; cf. Germ, lehen, 
fee, fief. In that case, supposing Motcomb is a 
family name, it would mean land of which some 
Motcomb had received the enfeoffment. This is 
also probably the origin of len in Lenham, Kent, 
and Lenton, Nottinghamshire ; and of land in 
Kingsland. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 


This is a Sussex word. The following illustra- 
tive quotations are from a glossary of Old Country 
Words which I have just completed for the 
English Dialect Society, and which will shortly 
be issued : " * The laines or bottoms,' Annals of 
A griculture, xxii. 230 ; ' Laine, land or arable,' 
Ib.; 'Laines or divisions,' Agricultural Survey 
Report (Sussex), p. 26." JAMES BRITTEN. 


This word is in Coles : " Laine (q. laying) 
courses or ranks of stone in brick or building." 

NORRISSON SCATCHARD (6 th S. ii. 514). 
Norrisson Cavendish Scatcherd (not Scatchard), 
author of The History of Morley, 1830, was the 
eldest son of Watson Scatcherd, barrister. He 
himself was called to the bar at Gray's Inn, 
Nov. 28, 1806, but practised a very short time. 
He was elected F.S.A., Jan. 16, 1851, and died at 
Morley House near Leeds, Feb. 16, 1853, aged 
seventy-three. As regards his descendants, there 
is a solicitor at Leeds called Oliver Scatcherd, who 
is probably a near relation. FREDERIC BOASE. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. 

" COCKS" (6 th S. ii. 387). This word would 
appear to be the slang for any thing fictitious. See 
Hotten's Dictionary of Slang, where as applied to 
the " patterer's " fictitious narratives of murders, 
fires, and terrible accidents it is suggested that it 
may be a corruption of cook, or cooked statement, 
or that the Cock Lane ghost may have originated 
the term. Mr. Henry Mayhew, in his London 
Labour and the London Poor, devotes several pages 
to "cocks" (vol. i. p. 238; see also p. 228 of 
the same volume). CUTHBERT BEDE. 

442, 495). In answer to MR. RUMSEY'S doubt 
upon this subject, I subjoin my reasons for sup- 
posing that the execution of five prisoners at Ely 
in 1816 took place under the warrant of Bishop 
Sparke : 

1. Because at that time temporal power was 
vested in the Bishops of Durham and Ely, the 
former having jurisdiction over the whole county 
palatine of Durham, and the latter over certain 

2. Because three of the four bills in connexion 
with the execution are made out in the name of 
the Bishop of Ely, who at that time was Bowyer 

3. Because a similar proceeding had been 
enacted in Bishop Dampier's time, as is evident 
from the foot-note appended to the last bill. 

I believe that the secular authority was granted 
as early as the reign of William the Conqueror to 
Walcher, Bishop of Durham ; and this, together 
with that of the see of Ely, was only transferred to 
the Crown in the reign of William IV., 1836. 


Crakehall, Bedale. 

The jurisdiction of the Bishops of Ely is thus 
explained in Mr. Serjeant Stephen's Commentaries: 

" The isle of Ely was never a county palatine, though 
sometimes erroneously called so. It ws, however, a 
royal franchise, the Bishop of Ely having been formerly 
entitled, by grant of King Henry I., to jura re</alia within 
the district, whereby he exercised a jurisdiction over 



[6'" S. III. JAN. I, 81. 

all causes, as well criminal as civil. But by 6 & 7 Will. 
IV. c. 87 (amended by 1 Viet. c. 53) this secular autho- 
rity of the bishop is taken away and vested in the Crown." 
Vol. i. p. 138, ed. 1868. 

The marginal note refers to 4 Inst. 220 ; " Grant 
v. Bagge," 3 East, 128. Was not this bishopric 
originally formed out of the diocese of Lincoln with 
a view to the secular rather than the spiritual 
needs of the district ? 


My attention has been drawn to the inquiry of 
W. F. I possess five small water-colour drawings 
by Marshall, painted for the album of a late re- 
lative of mine. I cannot throw much light on the 
artist's history, but I well remember some twenty- 
five or thirty years ago his immense studio on 
the side of the London and North- Western Rail- 
way, near Kilburn station. He was at that time 
scene-painter to Her Majesty's Theatre, then in 
the occupation of Lumley. Possibly scene-paint- 
ing labours precluded him from devoting much 
time to the production of smaller drawings, but it 
would be interesting to know if there are many 
such in the hands of collectors. Those in my pos- 
session have been much admired. I am under the 
impression that Marshall died about the year 1855. 
A few years later I noticed that his studio was 
used as a schoolroom. CHAS. A. PYNE. 


ii. 369). ANON, has not stated whether the question 
is asked with a recollection of the frequent remarks 
which have been made on Hamlet, II. ii., " I know 
a hawk from a handsaw," soil., on the supposition, 
froai a "hernshaw" or "heronshaw." The question 
may be seen in brief by comparing the note from 
Mr. F. J. Furnivall's the Babees' Book, p. 193, on 
"heyronsew" of the text, in " N. & Q.," 4 th S. x. 
376, with MR. PICTON'S observations, pp. 425-6 ib. 


Two USEFUL HERBS (6 th S. ii. 368). " Herbe 
u. lait, nom vulgaire des euphorbes, des glaux, des 
polygalas," &c. ; " Herbs aux perks, gremil ou 
lithosperme " (Larousse). 


6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

Herbe h lait is Pulmonaria officinalls, and 
Herbe aux perles, Lithospermum officinale. The 
first is sometimes known in English as lungwort, 
and the second as gromwell. 


Museum, Kew. 

HYMN " ROCK OF AGES," &c. (6 th S. ii. 346). Has 
not Mr. Gladstone consciously, as a classical scholar, 
used the nominative case instead of the vocative 
in the line, " Jesus pro me perforatus " 1 He has, 

at all events, the sanction of Latin authors for such- 
a usage. In Livy, i. 24, we have : " Audi, pater 
patrate populi Albani ; audi tu,populus Albanus" ;. 
and again, in viii. 9 : '^Agedum, pontifex publicus- 
populi Romani, prsei verba," &c. Compare also 
Persius, i. 61, "0 patricius sanguis" and Lucretius, 
i. 45-6 : 

" Quod superest, vacuas aureis mihi, Memmius, et te, 
Semotum a cureis, adhibe veram ad rationem." 


Might one suggest, as a somewhat closer render- 
ing of the first two lines of this hymn, 
" Petra pro me scissa, Christe, 
Te petenti ne resiste " 1 


369). The saying has been attributed to the Rev. 
Rowland Hill. ST. SWITHIN. 


S. ii. 368). I heard a similar expression to this in 
West Somerset the other day. On inquiring 
when a young woman, who had lived in our 
family as housemaid, was to be married, I was 
informed that she had been " thrown out of the- 
desk in church ' ; (i.e., had her banns published) 
for the last time on the previous Sunday. My 
informant, an elderly man who had never lived 
out of West Somerset, told me that this was a 
common expression in that locality. D. K. T. 

To " CALL A SPADE A SPADE " (6 th S. ii. 310) IS 

a phrase of ancient date and Grecian by birth, viz., 
ra (TVKa O-VKCL rrjv cr/ca^i/ Se CTKOL^V oVo/za^cov 
(Aristophanes, as quoted by Lucian in his dialogue, 
Quomodo Historia sit Conscribenda, par. 41). 
It is among the regal apothegms collected by Plu- 
tarch (Reg. etlmper. Apophthegmata, Philip, XV. ), 
as having been made use of by Philip of Macedon 
in answer to an ambassador, who complained that 
the citizens, on his way to the palace, called him 
a traitor. " Aye/' quoth the king, " my subjects. 
are a blunt people, and always call things by their 
proper names. Figs they call figs, and a spade a 
spade" (TO, (rvKa (TVKOL, rrjv Q-KCX^V 8e cr/cac^i^ 
6Vo//,aovcri). Cf. Kennedy's Demosth., vol. i. 

115, Piccadilly. 

When this saying first appeared in " N. & Q. J> 
it was in the Latin of Melancthon to Archbishor> 
Cranmer (1 st S. iv. 274), " In ecclesia rectius 
scapham, scapham dicere" (Ep. ad Cranm., Mai. 1> 
1548), the communication being made by MR. 
FRASER. It has often been discussed since. The 
source of it is the answer of Philip to the Olynthian 
Lasthenes, when the former excused the Mace- 
donians from the charge that they had called the- 

6th S. in. JAN. 1, '81.] 



Olynthians traitors by saying, CTKCUOVS </>vo- KCU 
ay/JOiKous tiva.1 MaKeSovas, /cat TT)V (r/ccx^r/v 
<TKa.(f>r)v Aeyovras (Plutarch, Apophthegm., p. 178 
B, Par., 1624). The proverb also occurs in Lucian 
(De Hist. Scribend,, 41). Tzetzes (Chiliad., viii. 
564-5) refers it to Aristophanes, IK Ka>/ico6Yas Se^iws 
enrwv (6 4>iAi7T7ros) 'Apisro<dVovs ot MaKeSoVes, 
a/xa$ei9, o-Ka(r?v </>ao"i T?)V a-Ka^v. But I am 
not aware that any verse in the existing plays con- 
tains it. There is (Clouds, 1252-3), OVK av diroSoiriv 
ovS' o/3oAov av ovSevi, 6Vns KaAeo-eie KapSoirov 
T^V KapSoTnjv, as Erasmus has it in his Apoph- 
thegms. MR. BATES (2 nd S. x. 58) refers to a rather 
earlier use of it than Cranmer's in modern times, 
as it occurs in Eabelais (Pantagr., 1. iv. c. liv.). 
A somewhat later use is in the preface to the 
Anatomy of Melancholy, where Burton says, " I 
call a spade a spade " (C. FORBES, 1 st S. iv. 456). 

Sandford St. Martin Manor. 

Here is an instance of the use of the phrase 
earlier than the one quoted by MR. FREELOVE : 

" When those persones that wer at Lasthenes found 
theimselfea greued, and toke highly or fumishly, that 
certain of the traine of Philippus called theim trai tours, 
Philippus aunswered, that the Macedonians wer feloes of 
no fine wytte in their termes but altogether grosse, 
clubbishe, and rustical), as the whiche had not the witte 
to cal a spade by any other name then a spade : 
TO. ai>Kct avica rr\v GKa.$i]V CKafyrjV Xeyoii/. 

"Alluding to that the common vsed prouerbe of the 
Greke?, calling figgues, figgues : and a bote a bote. As 
for his mening was, that they wer traitours in very deede. 
And the fair flatte truthe, that the vplandishe, or homely 
and playn clubbes of the countree dooen vse, nameth 
eche thing by the right names." A pophthegmes of Eras- 
mus, 1542, reprint 1877, p. 189. 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

This passage will be found in Plutarch's 

TOV A A. TTttT '. CTKaLOVS 917 

icai dypoiKovs eivai MaKcSdvas, KCU rrjv 
(TKa^v Aeyovras (" Inepti, inquit, natura et 
agrestes sunt Macedones, utpote qui scapham 
scapham vocant." R. C. 


" THE DEAD TRAVEL FAST " (6 th S. ii. 344). 
From Burger's poem of Lenore : 

"Sie'a hin, sieh her ! der Mond scheint hell, 
Wir und die Todten reiten schnell.'' 

Stanza xvii. 

" Graut Liebchen auch? der Mond scheint hell, 
Hurrah ! " u.s.w. 

Stanzas xx., xxiv., and xxyii. 

115, Piccadilly. 

TURY (6 th S. ii. 342). Assuming that MR. WAL- 
COTT meant that the names he gave were now 

entirely lost, I may say that we still have Gryme 
(Grime), Hogg, Drake, Brennan (Brenhand 1), 
Laverack (Laveroks ?), Hablot (Habolot?). Lave- 
rack is yet found at Redcar, on the east coast of 
Yorkshire, a few miles from Guisborough. 

C. G. C. 

ISLANDS SACKED BEFORE 1594 (6 th S. ii. 369). 
Has not the reference to " a late sack'd island " 
in Shakespeare's Tarquin and Lucrece rather to 
do with some incident that occurred in the same 
cycle as the rape of Lucretia, which occurred in 
B.C. 510 ] The poet gives the tale as from a spec- 
tator's point of view, one who would have recent 
occurrences on his mind, and none more so than 
the sack and massacre of Sybaris by the Cro- 
tonians, that occurred, it is held, a short time 
before, if not the same year ; and as the city of 
Sybaris, from its position between " two slow 
rivers," might well be deemed an "island," it 
gives the more likely meaning of the expression. 


RECORDS OF DEATH AT CORFU (6 th S. ii. 349). 
Unless the registers kept by the British chap- 
lains during our protectorate of the Ionian Islands 
were sent to England at the union of the republic 
with the Hellenic kingdom, W. C. will probably 
obtain the information he desires by writing to 
the British Consular Chaplain at Corfu, who is, or 
very lately was, the Rev. J. W. C. Hughes. 


SHOTLEY SWORDS (6 th S. ii. 433). J. H. M. 
mentions sword-blades stamped with the name 
Shotley on one side, and with a bridge on the 
other, and asks when and by whom the swords 
were made. See Surtees's Hist, of Durham, 
vol. ii. p. 294, " Parish of Medomsley, Township 
of Benfieldside " : 

"At Shotley Bridge a colony of German sword-cutlers, 
who fled from their own country for the sake of religious 
liberty, established themselves about the reign of King 

William. These quiet settlers mingled with the 

children of the dale and forgot the language of their 
forefathers. Few of the original names are now left." 

Surtees gives some names in a note ; amongst 
others, " Adam, son of Adam and Mary Oley, bapt. 
16 April, 1692." And he adds, " This family are 
still at Shotley, and I believe retain the house in 
which their ancestor settled." R. R. DEES. 


" Each sword-blade had stamped upon it, near 
the hilt, the name Shotley on one side, and on the 
other a bridge." I suppose these marks to denote 
the place where the weapons had been manufactured, 
viz., Shotley Bridge, co. Durham. This town still 
has its " manufactures of cutlery." 


VERSARY OF A BIRTHDAY (6 th S. ii. 389). My 



g. in. JAN. 1, '81. 

relative Sarah George was born in 1796, on Feb- 
ruary 29. Her marriage, intended for Jan. 1, 
1816, was, at her own and her mother's wish, de- 
ferred to Feb. 29, 1816, when she became the wife 
of Mr. Thomas Abraham. As this lady died very 
early in the year 1864, and as 1800 was not counted 
a leap year, she had only fifteen anniversaries of 
her birthday, though nearly sixty-eight years of 
nge at her death. WILLIAM WING. 

Steeple Aston, Oxford. 

514). In my day 1811-18 there was extant 
a novel entitled The. History of George Templeman; 
or, the Fortunate Blue- coat Boy, a circulating 
library book. I do not know whether your corre- 
spondent J. H. I. alludes to that, but as no 
extraneous books were allowed to be read, save 
-only such as were " approved " by one or other of 
the Grecians, the head master having detected 
it in my possession, I got well horsed for such 
a breach of discipline, and was looked upon there- 
after as " the unfortunate Blue-coat boy." 

E. L. 

"So LONG" (6 th S. ii. 67, 194, 496). This 
phrase is a common salutation in this colony 
amongst the English and Dutch, and used on 
a temporary separation of friends, as au rcvoir by 
the French. I remember hearing it amongst the 
Blue Noses of Nova Scotia and the New Brims- 

Grahamstown, South Africa. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (6 th S. ii. 429). 

The Chameleon. The author of the above was Thomas 
Atkinson, of Glasgow. It is a highly interesting kind of 
annual, in three volumes first series, 1832 ; second and 
"third series, 1833 beautifully got up by Longmans, and 
illustrated with pictorial and musical engravings. The 
work was reissued in 1833, under the title of " Miscellanies 
in Prose and Verse, now first Collected and Enlarged " ; 
also in three volumes, by the same publishers, of which 
only 175 copies printed, containing, as the author says, 
"all that I care my friends should remember was mine." 
The ^Athencenm, speaking highly of the third series 
of this Glasgow annual, says, "This volume ia the work 
-of various hands. The chief writer, however, is Mr. A., 
who is at the same time bookseller, bard, and orator, 
and thriving in all." In the preface to the third series, 
the poor author, anticipating a fatal issue to the disease 
under which he was then suffering, thus apologizes for 
errors : " The volume has been hurried on that it might 
not be posthumous, and that he might see the Benjamin 
of his pen." Atkinson wrote and published much ; and, 
as a last chance for prolonging his existence, embarked 
for the West Indies, dying on the passage out, and 
leaving^ considerable property to establish a scientific 
institution for young men in Glasgow. J. O. 


" Fair are the scenes," &c. 

The poem inquired for by A. B. was written by the 
<late Rev. Robert Murray McCheyne, minister of the 

Church of Scotland, Dundee. It is dated from the "Sea 
of Galilee, 16th July, 1839," he being then on a tour in 
Palestine. A man of singular purity of life, and a 
devoted disciple of the great Master, he died March 25, 
1843, at the early age of twenty-nine years. His name 
is still a household word in Scotland. I Avill gladly for- 
ward a transcript of the poem should your correspondent 
desire it. C. R. R. 

(6 S. ii. 489.) 

" What steam is to machinery," &c. Any one who has 
gone down the Edgware Road must have seen a large 
board, about half-way between the Marble Arch and 
Praed Street, on which this saying is painted, and as- 
cribed to Lord Macaulay. But I have not been able to 
make the reference more exact. 


(6* S. ii. fill) 

" Wohl auf Kameraden, auf's Pfei d auf's Pferd," &c., 
is by Theodor Korner, the celebrated and deeply mourned 
young poet, who was killed in an engagement between 
Gadebusch and Schweriri in 1813, at the age of twenty- 
three. GORILLA. 

From Schiller's Wallenstein's Lager. The second line, 
however, should run : 

" In 's Feld, in die Freiheit gezogen." 



records, of the English Province of the Society of Jesus. 

By Henry Foley, S.J. Vol. VI. (Burns & Gates.) 
THIS volume has a special interest of its own, indepen- 
dently of its predecessors, for it contains the annals of 
the English College at Rome from 1579 to 1773, with the 

Sjilgrim-boOK of the ancient hospice attached to the col- 
ege from 15SO to 1656, besides a mass of historical 
information supplemental of the previous volumes. 

The English Hospice at Rome dates from the jubilee 
of 1350, when pilgrims of all nations thronged in crowds 
to visit the tombs of the Apostles. The ancient hospital, 
which was built and endowed in the time of the Anglo- 
Saxon heptarchy for the entertainment of English 
pilgrims travelling to Rome for purposes of devotion, 
had completely disappeared in the twelfth century, and 
the great hospital of Santo Spirito now stands on its 
site. The English therefore were without a national 
hospice at Rome until 1362, when John feheppard, a mer- 
chant of London, purchased several houses in a street near 
the Piazza Farnese, and converted them into a hospice for 
the reception of English travellers under the patronage 
of the Blessed Trinity and St. Thomas. Shepherd and 
his wife Alice became the superintendents of the new 
foundation, which was augmented in the reign of 
Richard II. by Sir John Hawkwood, the famous condot- 
tiere general, and others of his companions in arms. It 
was rebuilt in 1449, when money was collected for its 
enlargement in every parish in England, and until 
Henry VIII. broke off all relations with the Roman see 
the Hospital of St. Thomas was regarded as an institution 
of national importance. After the change of religion in 
England the resources of the hospital gradually failed, 
and although the wardenship was accepted by Cardinal 
Pole in 153^, it continued to languish, and would have 
died out altogether in the next generation if Pope 
Gregory XIII. had not refounded it in 1579 as a college 
for the education of fit ty divinity students to be employed 
in the English mi-sion. The foundation was endowed 
with a pension of six thousand crowns a year, and was 

6'h s. III. JAN. 1, '81.1 



confided to the care of the Jesuits of the English 
province, who continued to govern it until the suppression 
of the Society in 1773. It was from the first a fruitful 
nursery of priests for the English mission, and sent forth 
a series of martyrs and confessors to brave the penal 
laws in England in defence of the Catholic faith. The 
seminary priests were regarded by Cecil and Wal-angham 
as dangerous traitors, and the most unscrupulous pro- 
ceedings were resorted to for their extirpation. Not 
only were the priests proscribed and cruelly hunted down, 
but Queen Elizabeth's ministers stooped to employ spies 
as sham students in the seminaries, who were bribed to 
foment dissensions and to attempt the most infamous 
crimes. This is no calumny of the Jesuits, for it is fully 
borne out by letters remaining in the State Paper Office. 
For example, Atkinson, an informer in the pay of the 
Government, deliberately writes to Cecil in 1595 : " I 
hoped to do some service worthy of a good mvard. I 
could easily poison Tyrone through, a poisoned Host, being 
in the country to which he resorts, and pretending to be 
a Franciscan friar under Bishop Macraith," &c.* 
Students applying for admission at the college were 
called upon to answer a long series of interrogatories 
respecting their families and past careers, which are in- 
valuable for biographical and genealogical purposes. 
When they were admitted they took an oath on the 
Holy Scriptures "to be always ready at the bidding 
of their lawful superior to take holy orders and proceed 
to England for the aid of souls "; and this obligation 
was so faithfully observed that twenty-five of them suf- 
fered martyrdom before the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The anntial reports of the college begin from the 
foundation in 1579, and abound with interesting details, 
but from some unexplained cause they gradually fell into 
disuse after 1593, and ceased altogether after 1659. The 
Enalish Hospice of St. Thomas was united to the English 
College on St. Thomas's Day, Dec. 29, 1580, by a bull of 
Pope Gregory XIII., with the obligation of entertaining 
English travellers according to the original statutes, 
which ordained that poor pilgrims should be received for 
eight days, and travellers of the higher class for three 
days only. The statutes only contemplated persons 
visiting Rome out of devotion, but the college never 
refused hospitality to Englishmen properly introduced. 
Amongst other illustrious Protestant visitors, Milton 
the poet was entertained there, and arrived with his 
servant Oct. 30, 1638, when his fellow guests were the 
Hon. Mr. Gary, a younger brother of Lord Falkland, Dr. 
Holling of Lancashire, and Mr. Fortescue. Milton is not 
the only English poet whose name appears in the pilgrim- 
book, for Richard Crahaw came to Rome in a pilgrim 
habit on Nov. 28, 1646, and spent fifteen days in the 

We are glad to find that this supplemental volume is 
not to be the last of Mr. Foley's interesting eerie 5 *, for he 
ha^ in preparation a complete catalogue of the deceased 
members of the English province from the earliest times 
to 1879, with a catalogue of more than eight hundred 
alias es assumed by Jesuit fathers in times of persecu- 
tion, which will form a fitting sequel to The Records of 
the Enylish Province of ike Society of Jesus. 

Studies of the Eightfenth Century in Italy. By Vernon 

Lee. (Satchell'& Co.) 

ON the first page of this book the author states that he 
is an " aesthetician." Those whose courage is proof 
against this portentous announcement will probably find 
that the " aesthetician's domain" is a new world, opening 
out fresh scenes of varied interest. The musical and 

* Calendars of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1595, 
vol. ccli. No. 49. 

dramatic life of Italy in the eighteenth century is to 
most persons a blank. Yet music and the drama were- 
then to Italy what philosophical and political thought 
were to France and England, and they stand out during 
that period as the only imperishable portion of Italian 
history. Mr. Lee commences with a sketch of the 
Arcadian Academy, that artificial society of amateur 
shepherds and shepherdesses whose pipes and pastoral? 
awoke Rome from her slumber. Before the close of 
the century the Academy sank into decay, but the move- 
ment which it represented continued to gather strength. 
The national enthusiasm was first displayed in music, 
and the reader finds a picture of the musical world as it 
existed when Dr. Burney visited Italy, and is intro- 
duced to the great composers, musicians, and singers of 
the day. It was to satisfy this passion for music that 
Metastasio, whose life is perhaps the mo^ interesting 
portion of the book, wrote his tragic operas. As the 
writer of unacted dramas and unsung songs he has been 
harshly judged by posterity, who have accepted his self- 
satisfied account of himself" a tolerable poet among bad 
ones " as a fair description of his literary merit. Lastly, 
we have a description of the ancient Italian comedy of 
the masks. The " commedia dell' arte," whose pedigree 
dates from prehistoric times, died away in the seven- 
teenth century to revive during the next in the realistic 
comedy of Goldoni and the fairy comedy of Gozzi. Mr. 
Lee's mastery of his subject enables him to clothe wan, 
spectres of the past with flesh and blood, and to impart 
that warmth and colour to his sketch without which, 
pictures of Italian life are unfaithful. 

Deutsches Familienllatt. (Berlin, J. H. Schorer.) 
THIS high-class illustrated weekly magazine would be an. 
excellent Christmas or New Year's gift from Pater- 
familias to his children if he wishes to see them keeping 
up their German by means of a constant supply of 
healthy and interesting literature. The FamilienUatt 
appears to deserve its name. The subject matter is ad 
rem on questions of the day; the serial stories are partly 
translations, partly original ; and the original tales are 
generally out of the beaten track. Such, e.g., is" Der 
Steppenkoriig," of which the scene is laid in the stillness 
of the steppes of level Hungary a stillness that has such 
power to thrill the heart of the Magyar. The illustra- 
tions are excellent. 

AMONG foreign elrennes we would call attention to 
the following, as of more than ordinary interest to the- 
lovers of art and letters : 

The Librairie Muijuardt (Court Librarians), Rue de la 
Regence, Brussels, announce, under the patronage of the- 
KSngof the Belgians, L'CEuvre de Pierre- Paul Rulens, 
reproduced in heliotype after the engravings of old 
Flemish masters, and accompanied with explanatory 
letterpress from the pen of M. Fetis. The subject- 
matter of Rubens's illustration of Bible history renders 
it specially appropriate to the present season. Another 
Belgian publication, partaking of the character of an 
e'trenne from the sumptuousness with which it promises 
to be brought out, isZa Belgjque Industrielle, 1830-1880,. 
announced by the Moniteur Industriel, Boulevard 
Anspach, Brussels, and intended to commemorate the 
progress marked by the Exhibition of 1880. Another 
echo of the year which saw the fiftieth anniversary of 
Belgian independence is to be traced in Cinquante A ns 
de Lilertc, M. Weissenbruch (Imprimeur du Roi), Rue 
du Poin9on, Brussels, which is announced as intended 
to comprise four volumes, devoted respectively to- 
Politics, Science, Arts, and Letters. 

M. ROUVEYRE, the publisher of L'lntermediaire (Ri:e 
des Saints Peres, Paris), promises to do good service to 



S. HI. JAN. 1, '81. 

students of foreign heraldry by reprinting the Traite du 
Blason of Jouffroy d'Eschavannes. The same publisher 
offers a valuable help to the pursuit of the closely allied 
science of sphragistics in the shape of Descriptions des 
Collections de Sceaux Matrices de M. Donge, by P. 
Charvet, containing descriptions of not less than six 
hundred and thirty-eight seals, with notes, index of 
names and places, &c. Of this work, we regret to see, 
only a limited impression is to be struck off, thus 
enhancing the value of the book no doubt, but at the 
expense of the general public. 

THE Rfvista Europea Rivista Internazionale (Flo- 
rence, Via del Castelaccio), with the commencement of 
a new volume (vol. xxii.), has commenced, apparently, a 
more vigorous life, under an enlarged and improved form. 
Among articles of general literary interest which have 
appeared since the change on November 1st we may 
name "Heine and German Thought," by Prof. lona, of 
Trieste; " Bettino Kicasoli " (the Great Baron, as he 
was well called in his lifetime), by the sympathetic 
Florentine pen of A. G. ; the Hungarian poet " Petofi," 
by Alfredo Mazza ; and an interesting account, by 
Signer Bertolotti, of the details, given as from an 
eye-witness, of Sir Walter Scott's visit in 1832 to the 
romantic feudal castle of Bracciano, in company with 
the Duke of Sermoneta, the head of the house which 
gave Boniface VIII. to the Roman See, and whom we 
saw in 1870 bringing to Florence the result of the vote 
which made " Roma Capitale." 

WHAT can possibly be added to what has already been 
said a hundred times over respecting the eminent merits 
of Whiialrer's Almanac ? So cosmopolitan, however, has 
the almanac become, owing to the information, toilsomely 
and carefully garnered from all quarters, which it 
annually affords, that we may be forgiven by the editor 
for suggesting that he should adopt as a motto for his 
next year's issue: 

" Que regio in terris nostri non plena laboris '.< " 

SIR JULIUS BENEDICT'S imprimatur vriM be sufficient to 
commend to all concerned The Professional Pocket-Hook; 
or, Daily and Hourly Engagement Diaiy for 1881 
(Rudal), Carte & Co.). 

AMONG the gift-books of the season, from the specimen 
furnished us of its illustrations, Mr. Wise's New Forest, 
published by H. M. Gilbert (Southampton), would seem 
to be very attractive. 

MR. JAMES STILLIE (Hanover Street, Edinburgh) sends 
us specimens both of his bound and unbound catalogues. 
The bound volume is quite a book of reference for the 
library shelves. Mr. Stillie, as the last survivor, we 
believe, of the Ballantyne firm in the days when the 
author of Waverley was one of its members, has a con- 
siderable store of " Scottiana," besides many works of 
great interest to various classes of student?, e.g., Pira- 
nesi's Lapides Capitolini, Letters to Lord Charlemont, 
&c., the Funeral at Rome of Maria Clementina [Sobieska], 
wife of James VIII. and III., and other rarities. 

IN these days of Hibernia excitata Irish book-catalogues 
fire few and far between. Therefore M. W. Rooney 
OVicklow Street, Dublin) deserves to attract the atten- 
tion of collectors to his catalogues of works on Irish 
history, Cruikshankiana, &c. 

WE have lost within the last week one < f the oldest 
find most esteemed correspondents of " N. &; Q.," the 
Rev. Mackenzie Walcott, F.S A., Precentor of Chichester 
Cathedral. He was widely known as an archaeologist 
and as a careful and pain? 'iking topographer, and was 

particularly well acquainted with the architecture, ritual, 
and customs of the earlier ages of the Church in England, 
a subject on which his pen never tired of writing. He was 
only fifty-nine years of age, and till within the last few 
weeks he seemed to be aa likely as any one to reach the 
allotted span of life. But in November he was attacked 
with an illness which nearly proved fatal at the time, 
and from the effects of which he never perfectly rallied. 
The only son of the late Admiral J. E. Walcott, some 
time M.P. for Christchurch, Hants, he was born in 1822, 
and was educated at Winchester School, under Dr. 
Moberley, and afterwards took his degree at Exeter 
College, Oxford. Whilst holding the curacy of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, he compiled a most valuable and 
interesting history of that parish, which was published 
in 1847. This he followed up by Memorials of West- 
minster ; A Handbook of St. James's, Westminster ; 
William of Wykeham and his Colleges; The Cathedrals 
of the United Kingdom; History of Christ Church 
Priori/, Hampshire; The Interior of a Gothic Minster; 
A History of the Cathedrals of the Western Church ; Eng- 
lish Coast Guides; The. Cathedral Cities of England and 
Wales, &c. He re-edited Plume's Life of Bishop 
Hackett, and was also an extensive contributor to the 
A vch ceologi cal Journal, the Gentleman's Magazine, 
Transactions of the Institute of British Architects, the* 
Ecclesiastic, &c. Mr. Walcott had held the Precentor- 
ship at Chichester for about seventeen years; he was a 
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, of the Society of 
Northern Antiquaries, of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Normandy, and a Corresponding Member of the Archaeo- 
logical Society of France. His death is regretted by 
a large circle of attached friends. 


We must call special attention to the following notice : 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

JOSEPHUS (" Jeremy Bentham "). After Dr. South- 
wood Smith's anatomical demonstrations, a skeleton was 
made of Bentham's bones, which was stuffed out to fit 
Bentham's own clothes, and a wax likeness, made by 
a distinguished French artist, was fitted to the trunk. 
The figure was seated on the chair which Bentham had 
usually occupied, with one hand holding the walking- 
stick called Dapple, his constant companion whenever 
he went abroad. The whole was enclosed in a mahogany 
case with folding glass doors, and may now be seen in 
University College, Gower Street. See " N. & Q.," 2"* 
S. iv. 51. 

C. D. (Villa Bruchmatt, Lucerne). The crown jewels 
at Dresden, Vienna, and Monza are perhaps the most 
famous and valuable in Europe. 

W. D. P. We have sent your letter and enclosures to 
P. J. F. G. 

C. F. S. W. (M.A ). We shall be happy to forward 
a letter. 

BRASSES NOT REGISTERED (6"> S. ii. 475). For Chris- 
topher " Merivale," read Christopher Urswyck. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6i S. III. JAN. 8, '81.] 




NOTES : Bishop Fisher's Sermon on Occasion of the Recan- 
tation of Robert Barnes : Notes on Bishop Fisher, 21 Brissel- 
cock : Turkey, 22 Dr. Guest on the Origin of London, 23 
Stamp on Pamphlets, 1712 Culpable Emendation In- 
dentures relating to the Shelley Family, 24 Hogarth's Resi- 
dence in Cirencester The Ornaments in Use in the Second 
Year of King Edward VI., 25" Please to ring the bell " 
"To the bitter end" Hats worn at Table Campbell of 
Lochaw-Christmas Folk-lore, 26. 

QUERIES : The Old Organ at St. Paul's A Swimming 
Machine "Turnip" Shaws Castle Napoleon's Power of 
Sleeping at Will The Templars in Lincolnshire" Consti- 
tutiones Anglise/'&c. Great Sankey Guerard de Nancrede 
Rawdon Family, 27-Sir John Hobart The Arrangement 
of Book-plates "Lackey" Houses in Cromer Street The 
House of Keys "The Murdered Queen "Mrs. Newby's 
Novels " Utensil" Talland, &c., 28. 

REPLIES : The Mystery of Berkeley Square," 29-Hermes, 
the Egyptian The Great Stone of Thor, 30 The Removal 
of Book-plates-Portrait of Sir Thomas Browne A Key to 
" Endymion," 31 Mowbray Family "A gaping," &c., Frog 
Heraldic, 32 Colours appropriated to the Saints in Art 
" Throng "Passion Play in England T. T. Stoddart 
" Boycotting "Mysterious Lake Sounds, 33 Margaret de 
Clare Railway Speed Lord Wellesley's Latin Verses 
S. P. Q.R. Edmund Berry Godfrey Bicknell Punsters and 
Pickpockets The MS. of Gray's "Elegy" A. Murphy 
"Snob" Flamingo Sir J. Cherowin, 35 Dr. Cheyne 
Seventeenth Century Altarpieces American Spelling The 
Vision of Constantine, 36" Parson " " Quadrupedem con- 
stringito " " Beaumontague " " Qui pro alio," &c. The 
" Spectator "Treatment of Angels by the Old Masters- 
Charles II. and Brambletye House The Executions of '45, 
37 " Bullion's day "Authors Wanted, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Waddington's "English Sonnets" 
Wheatley's "Samuel Pepys " Fochier's "Souvenirs His- 
toriques sur Bourgoin " Rylands's "Lancashire Inquisi- 
tions " Jevons's " Studies in Deductive Logic." 





To the kindness of Dr. Wood, President of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, I am indebted for 
the loan of a work of Bishop Fisher's which has 
escaped the notice of bibliographers. 

John Foxe (The Whole Workes of W. Tyndall, 
lohn Frith, and Doct. Barnes, London, lohn Daye, 
1573, fol., sign. *AAa. iij*, extracted from the 
Acts and Monuments) thus describes the scenes at 
the abjuration of Dr. Barnes in St. Paul's on Quin- 
quagesima Sunday, Feb. 11, 1526 (cf. Hall's 
Chron., new ed., p. 708): 

" The Cardinall had a skaffolde made for him in the 
toppe of the steyers before the Quyer dore, where he 
himselfe with xxvj. Abbottes, mitred Priors and 
BiBhoppes, and he in his whole Pompe mitred (which 
Barnes had spoken against) sat there inthronized, his 
Chapleynes and spirituall Doctours in gownes of 
Dammaske and Satten, and he himselfe in Purple, euen 
like a bloudy Antichrist And on the top of the stayers 
also, there was erected a new pulpit for the Bishop of 
Rochester, whose name was fisher, to preach against 
Luther and Barnes, and great basketes full of Bookes 
standing before the within the rayles, which after the 
ende of the Sermon, a great fyer being first made before 
the Roode of Northen, were commaunded to be there 

brent, and the aforesayd heretikes after the sermonfcD 
go thrise about the fyer, and to cast in their fagottes.' 

Compare p. 225. 

The sermon is in small 4to. The upper and 
lower margin of the title have merely ornamental 
borders. The side margins have significant figures : 
to the left above, branches with flowers ; below, 
a fowler liming birds on a bush ; to the right, 
snails and birds on a branch laden with mul- 
berries (or some such fruit); one of the birds is 
prepared to make a mouthful of a snail. Title : 
A sermon had at Paulis by 
the comandment of the most 
reuerend father in god my lorde le- 
gate/ and sayd by John" the bys- 
shop of Rochester/ vpo quiqua- 
gesom Sonday concernynge 
certayne heretickes/ wbi- 
che tha were abiured for 
holdynge the heresies 
of Martyn Luther 
that famous he- 
reticke/ and for 
y e kepyng and 
reteyning of 
his bokes 
the or- 
nance of the bulle of 
pope Leo the 

Cti priuilegio a rege indulto. 

Back of title blank. On signature A. ij. begins 
a preface, which ends on the verso of A. iiij. : 

"Fyrst here folo\veth an Epistole | vnto the reder 
by the same by shop. 

"My dere brother or syster in our sauiour Christe 
Jesu, who so euer ye be/ yt shall fortune to rede this 
queare/ our lorde for his great mercy graunt you hia 
grace/ that the redyng therof some what may promt 
your soule. 

" Fyrst I shall beseche you nat to misconstrue myn 
entet/ in puttyng forthe this queare to be printed/ but 
that ye take it to the best. For verily my wyll and 
mynde is/ that some frute myght ryse by the same vnto 
the cbriste people/ whicbe be the spouse of Christe. 
Unto whom (though vnwortby) I am ordeyned a minister 
for my lytell porcion. My duty is to endeuer me after 
my poure power/ to resist these heretickes/ the whiche 
seasse nat to subuert the churche of Christe. If we 
shall syt styll and let them in euery place sowe theyr 
vngratious heresies/ and euery where distroye the soules/ 
whiche were so derely bought with that moste precious 
blode of our sauiour Christe Jesu/ howe terribly shall he 
lay this vntyll our charge / whan we shalbe called 
vntill a rekenynge for this matter] It shalbe moche 
rebukefull and moche worthy punishement/ if we 
for our party shall nat gyue diligece for the defence of 
the true christen people/ fro these heresies/ as these here- 
tickes gyue for the corruption of the same/ specially whan 
we be certayne/ that our labour shall nat be vnrewarded/ 

[sign. A. ij. v] And assuredly these heresies be lyke 

the stynkynge weedes/ the whiche i euery erthe sprynge 
by them selfe : for as these euyll weedes nede no settynge/ 
no sowynge/ no waterynge/ no wedynge/ nor suche other 
diligenc[es] as the good herbes require/ but sprynge 
anone withouten all that busines : and where they haue 
enteres ones in any grounde/ it is veray harde to delyuer 



[6th s. III. JAN. 8, 'SI. 

that grounde from them : euen so it is of these heresies/ 

fore whan so litell diligence is done about the ministryng 
of this true doctryne/ it is necessary that all tho that 
haue charge of the flocke of Christe/endeuour them selfe 
to gaynestande these pernitious heresies. Wherin doutles 
the moost Keuerend father in god my lorde legate hath 
nowe meritoriously traueiled, and so entendeth to per- 
geuer and to continue/ to the full extirpatio of the same. 

[A. iiij. r] And therfore some what to resist this 

wicked sede/ by the mocion of dyuerse persos/ 1 haue put 
forth this sermon to be redde/ whiche for y e great noyse 
of y e people within y e churche of Paules/ whan it was 
eayde/ myght nat be henie. And if paraueture any dis- 
ciple of Luthers shall tbynke/ that myn argumentes and 
reasons agaynst his maister be nat sufficient : Fyrste let 
hym consider/ that I dyd shape them to be spoken vntyll 
a multytude of people/ whiche were nat brought vp in y e 
subtyll disputations of the schole. Seconde, if it may 
lyke the same disciple to come vnto me secretely/ and 
breake his mynde at more length/ 1 bynde me by these 
presenter/ bothe to kepe his secreasy/ and also to spare 
a leysoure for hym to here the bottum of his mynde/ and 
he shal here myne agayne/ if it so please hym : and I 
trust in our lorde/ that fynally we shall so agre/ that 
either he shal make me a Lutherfi/ orels I shall enduce 
hym to be a catholyke/ and to folowe the doctryne of 
Christis churche." 

The text, " Respice : fides tua te saluura fecit," 
Luke xviii. 42, is from the gospel for the day. 
The preacher considered first the multitude ; 
secondly, the blind man as a type of heretics (1, he 
was singular by himself ; 2, he was blind ; 3, he 
sat out of the right way and walked not ; 4, he 
was divided from the people among whom Christ 
was) ; thirdly, the diversity between the Church 
Catholic and the heretics ; fourthly, how the blind 
man was restored to sight, and how a heretic may 
te restored to the true faith ; fifthly, Luther's 
opinion of faith. 

Under head 4, sect. 3, we read (B. iiij. r) : 
" Thyrde, our sauiour dyd comande y l this blynde man 
shulde be brought vnto hym : And so must y e heretickes 
be reduced vnto y e wayes of y c churche. But by whom 
commaundeth our sauiour/ that thus they shall be re- 
duced 1 ? truely by them that beset inspirituallauctorite: 
as nowe y c most reueret father 1 god my lorde Legate/ 
hauyg this most souerayne auctorite/ hath indeuored 
hymselfe for [B. iiij. v] these men here present/ & other/ 
whiche were out of the way/ to reduce them in to the 
wayes of the churche. The heretickes contende/ that it 
shal nat be lefull thus to do : but they wold haue euery 
ma lefte vnto theyr libertie. But doutles it may nat be 
so : For the nature of man is more prone to all nough tynes 
rather than to any goodnes. And therfore many musi 
be compelled/ accordyng as the gospell sayth in an other 
place : comptllite eos irttrare. If euery ma shuld haue 
libertie to say what he wolde/ we shuld haue a meruelous 
worlde. No ma shulde stere any where for heresies." 

Towards the middle of the sermon a pause was 
allowed for prayer (sig. C. iij. r). Afterwards fol- 

" iiij. collectios : by the whiche to all them that be na 
ouer peruersedly drowned in the heresies of Luther/ i 
shall appare (as I verily suppose) that hia doctryne i 
veray pestilent and pernitious." 

The theme of these collections is the parable of 
he sower, and they relate to (1) the sower, (2) the 
seed, (3) the good earth, (4) the great increase of 
ruit. The book is imperfect, ending with G. iii., 
nit it seems certain that only one leaf is wanting. 
Dr. Wood, in a MS. note, makes this clear : 

Ames mentions an edition of the sermon against 
Luther printed by Wynkyn de Worde, which occupied 
ifty-six pages. If G was the last signature of this sermon 
t would have just fifty-six pages. 

" Ames had not himself seen the edition which he de- 
scribes. Is it possible that some copy of this later sermon 
was mistaken by Ames's informant for a copy of the 
earlier sermon, and then assumed to have been printed 
oy Wynkyn de Worde, and that this mistake gave rise to 
the notion that there were two editions by W. de Worde 
of the earlier sermon (1521) ? The edition reprinted by 
Mayor [for the Early English Text Society] has only 
forty-four pages. This volume was probably printed by 
Peter Treveris in or after 1526." 

It is highly probable that some of our ancient 
Koman Catholic families possess a complete copy 
of this sermon, so important for the Church history 
of Henry's reign. I shall be very grateful to any 
one who will enable me to procure a transcript of 
the missing leaf. Possibly other English works of 
Bishop Fisher^ beside his letters, may be extant. 
It is important that the collection of the Early 
English Text Society should be complete, and I 
entreat your readers for help to make it so. It is 
said that Fisher is to be canonized ; if so, it is to 
be hoped that some one will collect all extant 
materials for his life. J. E. B. M. 


(To le continued.) 

Jamieson, in his Scottish Dictionary, explains 
the former of these names by the latter, and in his 
Supplement suggeststhat it is acorruption of "Brazil 
cock," an explanation that, so far as I know, has 
hitherto passed unchallenged, though in a commu- 
nication to a friend, which has found its way into 
print (Harvie Brown's The Capercaillie in Scotland, 
p. 16, note), I tried to account for its derivation 
in another manner. The characteristic letter from 
King James VI. of Scotland, recently published in 
"N. & Q." (6 th S. ii. 203), mentioning "Brissell 
fowlis," has made me look again into the matter, 
and I am thereby confirmed in the opinion that 
the generally accepted meaning is wrong. The 
name seems first to occur in Lindsay of Pitscottie's 
Chronicles of Scotland (p. 146, fide Jamieson, but 
in Dalyell's edition, ii. p. 345), where is an account 
of the " great and gorgeous provisioun " made by 
the Earl of Atholl for James V. when that king 
" went to Atholl to the huntis " in 1529, though it 
must be stated that in Dalyell's opinion " this 
passage bears strong evidence of interpolation." 
Now the date of the introduction of the turkey to 
Europe is still a matter of uncertainty, but I am 

6">S. III. JAH. 8,'Sl.] 



not aware that it has ever been assigned to an 
earlier year than 1524,* and indeed the earliest 
published description of the bird, which seems to 
have been first printed in 1525, is that of Oviedo, 
who says nothing of its having then been brought 
to the Old World. There is, indeed, the pretty 
good evidence of Barnaby Googe of its not having 
been seen in England before 1530. Hence I think 
we may regard it as almost impossible that the 
" Brissel cock " provided for the royal table in the 
forest of Atholl in 1529 could have been a turkey. 
Again, we know that the turkey was not indigenous 
to any part of South America; it is, therefore, highly 
improbable that the name " Brazil cock " should 
have ever been conferred upon it, and, moreover, 
evidence is wanting that such a name ever existed. 
Jamieson's original supposition that " Brissel 
cock " is a corruption of " bristle cock," in reference 
to the hairy tuft with which the turkey's breast is 
adorned, will not, I think, hold, for "bristle" in 
Scottish takes another form. Accordingly, I ven- 
ture here to repeat the suggestion I have elsewhere 
(as above stated) made : that " Brissel cock " is 
simply coq de broussaille, and another instance 
of a French word adopted into the Scottish lan- 
guage, in support of which I submit that the six- 
teenth century form of the word, broissaille, 
according to M. Littre", brings it even nearer to 
the Scottish, as indeed one would expect. 

I may, perhaps, be allowed to add a few remarks 
on what has long been a puzzle to writers on 
poultry as well as to naturalists. Many conjec- 
tures have been hazarded as to how the very 
inappropriate name of " turkey " has been applied 
to a bird which we know was introduced from 
America. I believe the truth of the matter to be 
this. Several, if not most, of the mediaeval zoologists 
I may particularly cite Belon and Aldrovandus 
hopelessly confounded the turkey and the guinea- 
fowl under the name, proper to the latter, of 
Meleagris. Gesner must, indeed, be excepted, for 
he clearly saw that the turkey was not the Melea- 
gris, and finding it had been written of as Gallus 
peregrinus or Pavo Indicus, he accordingly (in 
1555) coined for it the names Gallopavus or 
Pavogallus, which he used almost indiscriminately. 
But this confusion was not confined to naturalists. 
We have in Cooper's edition of the Bibliotheca 
Eliotce, published in 1542, " Meleagrides, byrdes 
which we doo call hennes of Genny, or Turkic 
hennes," the earliest use of the latter name with 
which I am acquainted.f It is therefore obvious 
that " Turkey hen " was at first synonymous with 
" Guinea hen." As the birds became commoner 

* See the authorities cited by Pennant (Arctic Zoology, 
ii. p. 299, note). 

f I am indebted to my friend the Rev. Richard 
Hooper for kindly informing me that the last three 
words of the passage quoted do not occur in former 
editions of this work. 

and better known the confusion was, of course, 
gradually cleared up, and the name " turkey " clove 
to the bird from the New World ; not, I think, 
without some reason, for by its constantly repeated 
call-note, which may be syllabled turk, turk, turk, 
it may be said to have named itself. 

The subject of the introduction of the turkey 
and the guinea-fowl into Europe is, however, full 
of interest, and I shall be very glad if any cor- 
respondent of " N. & Q." can throw more light 
upon it. I would only warn those who may 
proffer their aid that what I have above stated 
shows that it does not follow because one meets 
with a turkey cock or turkey hen in an old bill of 
fare that it was the bird we now mean by that 
name. To this caution I will add another, that 
they should eschew, or take with all reservation, the 
statements they will find in Daines Barrington's 
specious essay (Miscellanies, pp. 127-151), which 
Pennant, in his excellent account of the bird 
(Arctic Zoology, ii. pp. 291-300), did his friend 
the real kindness of passing over in silence. 


Magdalene College, Cambridge. 

In the Athenceum, and a local paper, the Oxford 
Journal, as well as in "N. & Q.," attention has 
been drawn to the literary claims attaching to the 
memory of the late Master of Caius College. May 
I mention one point which I trust will interest 
some of the readers of " N. & Q." ? 

In a lecture on the campaign of Aulus Plautius 
in Britain in A.D. 43, delivered at the Royal 
Institution, and reported with revision by Dr. 
Guest in the Athenceum, there is a statement 
as to the origin of London. 

Aulus Plautius sailed from Boulogne A.D. 43, 
and his army, consisting of about 50,000 men, 
landed in three divisions at Hythe, Dover, and 
Richborough. But little opposition was expe- 
rienced from the petty chiefs of Kent, the mutiny in 
Gaul having put them off their guard. A. Plautius 
seems to have advanced by Silchester and Marl- 
borough to Cirencester, which became a fresh base 
of operations. He then probably went down the 
valley of the Thames by the ancient British track- 
way, the Icknield Way, which led across the 
Thames at Wallingford. Here a great battle was 
fought. Vespasian having forced a way across, 
Caractacus withdrew, and the next day's fight 
ended in a victory to the Romans. Plautius 
pursued the Britons along the Icknield Way by 
Tring, and then by the Watling Street, southward. 
The Britons crossed the Thames by a ford, and 
the Romans higher up by a bridge, when they 
became entangled in the marshes, and retreated 
to await the arrival of Claudius. Where was it 
that they secured for themselves a place of 


[6th g. in. JAN. 8, '81. 

safety ? Dr. Guest's answer is contained in the 
following extract from his lecture : 

" When Plautius withdrew his soldiers from the marshes 
they had vainly attempted to cross, he no doubt en- 
camped them somewhere in the neighbourhood ; I believe 
the place was London. The name of London refers 
directly to the marshes, though I cannot here enter into 
a philological argument to prove the fact. At London 
the Roman general was able both to watch his enemy and 
to secure the conquests he had made, while his ships 
could supply him with all the necessaries he required. 
When, in the autumn of the year 43, he drew the lines of 
circumvallation round his camp, he founded the present 
metropolis of Britain. The spot he selected has been 
perhaps with one small interval the habitation of civi- 
lized man for 1,833 [cor. 1,823, now 1,837] years. May 
we not venture to hope that its influence for good has not 
been altogether unworthy of the position it has occupied 
among the cities of the world." Atkenceum, Aug. 4 t 
1866, p. 148. 


Sandford St. Martin Manor. 

STAMP ON PAMPHLETS, 1712. On Jan. 17, 1712, 
Queen Anne in a message to the House of Com- 
mons drew their attention to " the great licence 
now taken in publishing false and scandalous 
Libels." The House, on the following day, in their 
Address to the Queen, in which, repeating the 
queen's words, they said that the false and scan- 
dalous libels " against your Majesty's Govern- 
ment " were " a Reproach to the Nation," promised 
to find a remedy. It was necessary to curb the 
free use of the press, especially in newspapers, 
broadsides, and pamphlets ; and after much con- 
sideration the celebrated Act relating to soap, 
paper, parchment, and other matters, 10 Anne, 
cap. 19, was passed, which imposed a stamp of a 
halfpenny per half-sheet on all newspapers and 
pamphlets. Whether or not Swift assisted in the 
passing of this measure is not very evident, for 
though he refers to it in his Journal, Jan. 31, 
1710/11, as a thing he is trying to prevent, yet 
subsequently, when the Act was passed, he writes, 
Aug. 5, in evident triumph, that the low party 
scribblers were practically extinguished. It is 
well known that the Act failed in the purpose for 
which it was intended; that in fact it injured the 
organs of the Government even more than those 
which wrote against it ; and that in a short time 
the Act fell into abeyance and the duties were not 
strictly levied. Grant (Newspaper Press, i. 102) 
says, " I have not been able to ascertain when or 
why the duties fell into disuse." The effect of the 
Act on the weekly and other papers is easily to be 
traced, but there seems to be very little informa- 
tion as to the stamping of pamphlets. Recently 
looking over a considerable number of single 
pamphlets published in 1712-16, I only found the 
red penny stamp on one, namely, Wesley's very 
curious poem against Curll, entitled Neck or 
Nothing, 1716. 

As the stamp would be impressed on the corner 

of the paper, in many instances it may have been 
cut away by the binder's plough. I should be 
glad to know whether many pamphlets were thus 
stamped, how long the doing so continued, and 
whether it was superseded by the payment of the 
three shilling duty. EDWARD SOLLY. 

grievous things in English literature is that editors 
and printers are continually altering texts whenever 
a word occurs that isinthe least unusual. Itisalittle 
too bad that they should treat readers as children, 
and always assume that they are at least as stupid 
as themselves. I have lately noticed three gross 
instances of this character, and I think some good 
might be done by noting more specimens of the 
same sort. My examples are these, all taken from 
Richardson's Dictionary. In each instance Richard- 
son gives the correct reading : 

1. " The postboy's horse right glad to miss 
The lumbering of the wheels." 

Cowper, John Gilpin, sixth stanza from 
end, ed. 1818. 

Altered by some blockhead to rumbling. Who 
was the blockhead 1 ? 

2. " As gilds the moon the rimpling of the brook." 
Crabbe, Parish Register, pt. i. 

Altered by Crabbe's own son to rippling. This is 
indeed a sad instance. 

3. " And as a goose 

In death contracts his talons close, 
So did the knight, and with one claw 
The tricker of his pistol draw." 

Hudibras, pt. i. c. 3. 

Altered in Bell's edition, with calm effrontery and 
without any notice given, to trigger. Yet tricker 
had not long been introduced into the language 
from the Dutch trekker, and the later form trigger 
is a mere corruption. The first duty of every 
editor is to let his text alone, unless there is certainly 
a corruption in it. Unfortunately editors often 
measure their authors by themselves, and think 
that everything must be corrupt that is not at 
once obvious to their own understandings. The 
reason is plain enough. It is less trouble to alter 
than to investigate, and the chances are consider- 
ably in favour of their escaping detection. 


FAMILY. In December, 1877 (5 th S. viii. 441), 
your correspondent HORATIO gave a learned 
account of two deeds witnessed, the one by 
Hellen Bysshe and George More, the other by 
John Shelley and Hellen Shelley ; and he showed 
that, Hellen Bysshe and Hellen Shelley being one 
and the same, it was through this alliance between 
the Shell eys and the Bysshes that the name of 
Bysshe borne by the poet Shelley, and the name of 
Hellen with two Z's borne by his sister, came into the 

6'bS III. JAN. 8, '81.] 


family. A third deed should have been with these 
two in the natural course of events, and HORATIO 
asked, " Where in the drift of ages is that third 
deed now 1 " Echo answered, and still answers, 
" Where ? " In the mean time two other in- 
dentures relating to the Shelley family have come 
to the surface together, though their connexion is 
not clear upon the face of them. In one of these 
deeds, dated March 25, 1738, John Shelley of Fen 
Place (jure uxoris], who died in the following 
year, again figures, as do also George Waller of 
Horsham, linendraper, and John Waller of Ifield, 
Sussex, yeoman. The other deed, dated April 7, 
1659, is between John Holinden of Tinchley, in 
the parish of Limpsfield, Surrey, Esquire, and 
Elizabeth his wife, of the one part, and George 
Shelley the elder, of Nutfield, Surrey, yeoman, and 
George Shelley the younger, his son and heir appa- 
rent, of the other part. The deed relates to property 
in the parish of Nut-field, called " Salmons, other- 
wise Crabbe hill." In the Shelley pedigree which 
I have lately published, there in a George Shelley 
of Hindon, Sussex, Gentleman, born 1611, died 
1661. I should be glad if some correspondent of 
" N. & Q.," more learned in such matters than I 
am, could say whether George Shelley of Hindon 
could possibly be the George Shelley the elder of 
the earlier deed referred to, or if not, what relation- 
ship, if any, existed between George Shelley of 
Nutfield and John Shelley of Ichingfield, the 
grandfather of John Shelley of Fen Place. In 
regard to the later of the two deeds (and why 
they have been kept together if they have no 
family connexion I do not see), it would be 
interesting to know whether George and John 
Waller were of the family of Edmund Waller the 

no life or memoir of Hogarth has mention ever 
been made of his residence in Cirencester, at the 
" Ram" inn, in the early part of his life, in 1719, 
his marriage with the daughter of Sir James 
Thornhill occurring in 1730. I have in my pos- 
session a most characteristic work by Hogarth, 
given to me, in a partly damaged state, nearly 
sixty years ago by a tradesman in the town, to 
whom it had been given by Mr. Tyler, then of the 
" Ram" inn, as mentioned below. The picture is 
about 2 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. On the right hand, 
a young officer with a weak face, in the military 
costume of the period, is listening to, and evi- 
dently impressed by, the leave-taking of the ill- 
looking host, with the parting glass in hand. A 
female is standing behind, and, with lips com- 
pressed, is relieving the officer of the contents of 
his coat-pocket his papers, &c. On the left of the 
picture is the counterpart. The smart young 
groom is most ardently embracing and deeply im- 
printing a kiss on the cheek of the pretty young 

waiting-maid, who, with her left arm around him, 
is taking his handkerchief from, his hind coat- 
pocket, the beery - looking tapster looking on 
approvingly, with the bottle and parting glass 
of beer, and a scullion girl, with a bucket of 
water, coming up with a wondering look ; the ill- 
drawn hindquarters of two horses stand behind, 
accoutred for the journey. Over a balustrade, 
leading to a house or mansion, are two or three 
stiffly drawn females (of a certain age) looking on, 
and the parson of the day, with his pipe, appa- 
rently beckoning them on in their good work. 

Mr. Tyler came to the " Ram " inn when about 
ten years old, about the year 1760 ; he subsequently 
became landlord, and afterwards owner. He 
told me there were some other pictures and relics 
at that time. Advancing in years, Mr. Tyler gave 
up possession in favour of the Messrs. Weaver, one 
of whom had married his daughter. Another picture 
was then extant, representing the interior of the 
"Ram" yard, which as it then was some of our 
old inhabitants and myself well remember. The 
Weavers had the picture engraved having the 
name of the painter and date, and that of the 
landlord, John Shaw, and the figure of a ram as 
their billhead, the picture being in the possession 
of Mr. Philip Watkins, whom I knew well ; but I 
had not this information in my possession at that 
time, and his widow (the second wife) told me she 
had never seen the picture. 

Mrs. Weaver, however, gave me the copper- 
plate, and I had some copies struck off (of which 
I send you a specimen), but I could never recover 
the plate. The engraving was executed by Mr. 
Tower of Gloucester, or under him. Mrs. Weaver 
also gave me a neat small engraving, in the stippled 
style, of Hogarth, from a portrait on vellum in 
" possession of C. Dyer." Mr. Dyer was probably 
a resident in Gloucestershire. I have never been 
able to gain any information on this point ; perhaps 
some of your intelligent readers may be able to 
afford a clue. The face is that of a young man, 
with a full wig and a three-cornered hat. 


OF KING EDWARD VI. I venture to offer for the 
perusal of all whom it may concern the following 
passage from a book of some rarity, which very 
few of those who write for or against Ritualism 
are likely ever to have heard of, and fewer still 
likely ever to have in their hands. Your readers 
will find a good account of the author in Wood's 
Ath. Oxon. (Paliser), vol. i. p. 613 : 

' Briefly concerning the whole form of their eccle- 
siastical service, in the first Communion book it is thus 
appointed, that The minister at the time of the Com- 
munion, and at all other times in his ministration, shall 
use such ornaments in the church as were in use ly au- 
thority of Parliament in the second year of the reign of 


[6'" S. III. JAN. 8, '81. 

King Edward the Sixt. I appeal now to the knowledge 
of every man, how well that act of Parliament is ob- 
served throughout the realm, in how many Cathedral or 
parish churches those ornaments are observed, whether 
every private minister by his own authority in the time 
of his ministration disdain not euch ornaments, using 
only such apparel as is most vulgar and prophane." 
A Refutation of Sundry Reprehensions, Cavils, and 
False Sleightes by which M. Whitaker laloureth to deface 
the late English' Translation, and Catholike Annotations 
of the New Testament, and the Booke of Discovery of 
Heretical Corruptions. By William Rainold, Student ol 
Divinitie in the English Colledge at Khemes. Printec 
at Paris the yere 1583. Small 8vo. (Epistle to the 
Reader, p. 19.) 


KING," inscribed in letters of brass on many a 
London door, are phrases familiar to us all. 
Ringing a merry peal, ringing the alarm, ringing 
the old year out and the new year in. expressive 
of joy, of sorrow, or of convenience, it is still ring. 
But why ring the bell? How came this active 
little word ring to be so inseparably coupled with 
the movement which gives tongue to the bell ? 
How did it come about ? There have been 
observed on the towers of some Italian churches, 
and depending from the walls of the Campo Santo, 
large metal rings much resembling the great 
mooring rings we remark by the canals of Venice, 
and on our own wharves and water-side landing- 
places. What purpose, however, could they serve 
in such unusual and apparently useless out-of-the- 
way positions ? My friend Mr. Collingwood Smith 
writes to me that his curiosity was first excited by 
the singular appearance of these rings at the 
cemetery of Chiavenna, and subsequently by a very 
large one attached to the tower wall of the church 
of Santa Maria Maggiore at Bergamo. 

"I was sketching," he says, " from under the porch of 
the church in the cool of the evening, near the hour of 
vespers, and had not been there long before I observed 
an acolyte make his way to the ring, and, lifting it, com- 
mence violently dashing it against the deeply fretted and 
bruised stone to which it was fastened. The ring gave 
out a deep bell-like tone, and as the people came slowly 
into church at this summons it occurred to me that in 
mediaeval times, probably, sonorous metal rings were not 
uncommonly used for church purposes instead of bells, 
and, if so, this may go far to explain the close relation 
between the words ring and bell.'" 

Jos. J. J. 

" To THE BITTER END." I am not aware whether 
it is known that this now common phrase is of 
nautical origin. Capt. John Smith, Governor- 
General of Virginia, says : " A Bitter is but the 
turn of a Cable about the Bits, and veere [slacken 
or pay] it out by little and little. And the 
Bitter's end is that part of the Cable doth stay 
within board " (Seaman's Grammar, p. 30). But 
this bitter's end became altered into bitter-end. 
Adm. Smyth in The Sailor's Word-Book has 
" Bitter- end. That part of the cable which is 

abaft the bitts, and therefore within board when 
the ship rides at anchor. . . . And when a chain or 
rope is paid out to the bitter-end no more remains 
to be let go." I need add nothing to the last 
words of his explanation. B. NICHOLSON. 

HATS WORN AT TABLE. The following is an 
extract from Crosby Records: a Cavalier's Note- 
Book, edited by the Eev. T. Ellison Gibson, 
1880 : " June 25th, 1666. I dined at the Castle 
in Dublin, at the Lord Lieutenant's table. There 
were, besides the Duke and Duchess, sixteen- 
persons : we sat with our hats on." What could 
have been the reason of their wearing hats at 
dinner ? That it was not the custom in Blundell's 
time is evident from his thus recording it. In 
Dutch paintings of this period we have no English 
ones to refer to we often see gentlemen wearing 
their hats indoors, and in the company of ladies ; 
but to do so at table, and in the presence of the 
king's representative, seems very strange. 


[For Hats worn at Meals," see " N. & Q.," 5 th S. v. 
27, 96.] 

BARRAN. The following precept, the original of 
which is now before me, may be worth preserving. 
I have extended the contractions in italics. 

"Duncan%s dominus de Cambell miles Dominus de 
Lochaw dilectw nosfris senescallis de Ardskodinche 
& lochaw Duwcano yong Cambell de Duwtrone & Er- 
lestino Angusii Cambell de barbrek sahttem Quia per 
inqzsicionem de ma?idato nostro factam & ad capellam 
nosiram retornatam compertum est quod Reginaldus 
m c molcalu?M de craginche quondam dominus de cor- 
barran' cum pertinencm obijt vestitws & saysitws ufc 
de feodo ad pacem dommi nostri regis & nosZram de 
predictis terns de corbarran' cum pertineuciis quod 
Ioha7676es lator presentium films quondam dzcti re- 
ginaldi est legitiirms * & propinqwt'or heres eius 
ch'eti quondam patris sui de supra&criptis terris cum 
pertinenciis & quod est legitimae* etato's & quod 
ch'cte terre de nobw tenentur in capite quare vobw 
coniunctim & diuisim mawdanms & precipinms qua- 
ienus eidem lohanni latori presenilum el suo certo 
assignato a%t attornato saytinawi hereditaria?^ dz'cte 
terre cum pertinenm's ut diuidatae per se ha&ere 
faciatis iudicate saluo jure cuiuslibei. Datum sub nostro 
Sigillo Apud strachur primo die mensis Decembm 
Anno Domini Millesimo qwadringintesimo quadragesimo- 

W. F. (2). 

CHRISTMAS FOLK-LORE. An old woman has 

ust told me that in the present year a great many 

fires will take place, because last Christmas Day 

was so full of sunshine. She had often heard her 

old grandmother say the same thing. 


6th s. III. JAN. 8, '81, ; 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

THE OLD ORGAN AT ST. PAUL'S. I am anxious 
to obtain the volume of the English Musica 
Gazette which contains an account of the building 
of the organ of St. Paul's Cathedral by " Father" 
Smith, and the dispute between him and Sir C. 
Wren. It is said to be in the January number of 
the volume for 1819 (1 1719), and to be from the 
pen of Dr. Busby. I should be grateful for any 
information, and still more so for the loan of the 
volume. (Miss) L. PHILLIMORE. 

5, Arlington Street, S.W. 

A SWIMMING MACHINE. Some fifteen or twenty 
years ago I seem to remember having seen at the 
Polytechnic, in Kegent Street, a machine upon 
which a person could spread himself in the breast 
swimming position, placing his hands and feet into 
strap loops on plates which were so constrained by 
mechanism that when he moved his hands and 
feet they were guided in the proper course for 
breast swimming ; the object of the machine was 
to train the limbs of learners to perform with ease 
the actions of swimming. I much want to know 
whether the machine still exists, and whether any 
published account of it is in existence. 


" TURNIP." Prof. Earle, in English Plant- 
Names, 1880, p. 96, says, " This [Eng.] neppe from 
Lat. napus, with prefix iwr-,made up turnep, since 
turnip, i.e., terra napus." What is the history of 
this word? It seems to be quite modern. In 
Cotgrave navet is rendered by naven ; turnip does 
not occur. 

SHAWS CASTLE. In St. Ronan's Well, ch. xx., 
Sir W. Scott says, "Shaws Castle, though so 
named, presented no appearance of defence." 
Query, the etymology or meaning of " Shaws." 

A. L. M. 

[SAaw=wood (Morris, Etymology of Local Names). 
It is the epithet " Castle," not the name Shaws," -which 
gave rise to Sir Walter's remark.] 

Where can I find an anecdote to the following 
effect ? Napoleon, returning home suddenly, sent 
for one of his ministers to attend him in, say, 
twenty minutes. He then threw himself down in 
an armchair and slept for, say, a quarter of an 
hour so soundly that Josephine came in and kissed 
him without awaking him. R. M. G. 

preceptories had the Templars in this county 1 In 
a paper on Temple Bruer, read at a meeting of 

architectural societies at Lincoln in 1857, by the 
Rev. Edward Trollope, F.S.A., now Bishop (Suf- 
fragan) of Nottingham, it was stated : 

" There were three preceptories in Lincolnshire one 
at Willoughton, near Kirton-in-Lindsey ; another at 
Aelackby, near Folkingham ; and the one termed Temple 
Bruer, near Sleaford, now under our notice." 

In addition to these, Sir C. J. Anderson (Lincoln 
Pocket Guide, p. 179) mentions Eagle, Skirbeck, 
Grantham, South Witham, Maltby, and Mere, his 
list, except as regards Skirbeck, agreeing with 
that given by Mr. Henry Godwin, F.S.A., in the 
English Archceologist's Handbook, p. 172. Who 
is right and who is wrong ? ST. SWITHIN. 


have what is probably the latest edition of this 
work, published in octavo, in 1557, by Thomas 
Marshe, of course in the memorable reign of Mary, 
and dedicated to Cardinal Pole (" Carnifex et 
Flagellum Ecclesiae Anglicanse "). It contains 
several curious matters relating to the state of 
religion, &c., in England. What is known about 
it 1 W. FRAZER, M.R.I. A. 

GREAT SANKET. There is a place in Lancashire 
thus called ; in the thirteenth century, Sanchi 
Magna or Sanki. Will any one kindly give the 
derivation of the name ? Possibly the saint to 
whom the church is dedicated may have some con- 
nexion with it. S. HORSLET. 


M. Guerard de Nancrede (?), Vicomte de 

Champr, went to America in company, or con- 
temporaneously, with General Lafayette. He 
became a naturalized American citizen under the 
name of Nancrede only, married a Miss Dixie, and 
settled in Philadelphia, where his descendants 
still remain. A sister, Madame Pauline de Calve", 
remained in France. Can any of your corre- 
spondents, versed in French pedigrees, assist me 
n the quest of his parentage and family con- 
nexions? H. W. 
New Univ. Club. 

RAWDON FAMILY. At p. 279 of Rawdon 

Papers, edited by Rev. E. Berwick, is a letter 

"rom Lord Breadalbane to the Duke of Albemarle 

Monk), " asking for his instructions for the House 

)f Peers to Sir Arthur Rawdon on his plea with 

VTr. Seymour " (sic) ; and in a foot-note it is stated 

hat Edward, last Earl Con way, by his will, dated 

Aug. 9, 1683, and made under the most suspicious 

circumstances (he died Aug. 13, 1683), left his 

estates (Rugely, in Warwickshire, now the pro- 

)erty of the Marquis of Hertford, and the Irish 

states at Lisburne, now the property of Sir 

lichard Wallace, Bart.) to Mr. Popham Seymour, 

a son of Sir Edward Seymour, Bart., a distant 

connexion, thus cutting out his only nephew, with 


[6th s. III. JAN. 8, '81. 

whom he appears by the published letters to have 
been on the most intimate and affectionate terms ; 
and, according to a letter of Sir Thomas New- 
comen in the collection, he says, " Sir Arthur was 
notoriously wronged out of it." Where can I see 
an account of the trial, and of the circumstances 
under which the will was made ? ECLECTIC. 

CORFE CASTLE, 1604-11. In Collins's Peerage he 
is said to have been the eldest son of Chief Justice 
Sir Henry Hobart, and afterwards his successor in 
the baronetcy of Blackling. This, however, seems 
scarcely probable, for although certainly a knight 
at the time, he having received that honour to- 
gether with his father, July 23, 1603, the date 
usually assigned for his birth, April 19, 1593, 
would make him too young for parliamentary 
honours at the period in question. Was there a 
second Sir John Hobart living at this era? Or 
should the name of the member for Corfe Castle 
be read as "Sir John Herbert "1 In the recently 
issued Parliamentary Blue-Book it is given " Ho- 
bert," which may mean either. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

is the plan adopted by collectors in arranging their 
ex libris ? Are they pasted down in books or on 
loose sheets ? If the former plan is the better one, 
is there any recognized system of classification ? 

C. W. S. 

of December 18 last contains the following : 

" The Revista Contemporanea of November 15 has an 
essay on ' Lackeys,' by Dionisio Chaulie, showing from 
the Archives of Simancas that they were originally a 
royal body-guard, and took their name from Cecilio Laz 
Cayo, their first captain, in the latter part of the eleventh 
century. The word was still written ' Lazcayo ' in the 
time of Philip II." 

This derivation does not seem to be known to 
most etymologists. The ordinary derivation of 
the word is from Gothic laikan, to run. Are we, 
then, to conclude that the lexicographers have all 
baen on the wrong scent 1 JAMES HOOPER. 
Denmark Hill. 

I often wish to know something of two curious 
houses in Cromer Street. They are on the right 
hand on turning from Judd Street. One has 
plaster mouldings, the other is finished en barbette. 
I have not met in any handbook with a notice ; 
if other readers of " N, & Q." have, a reference 
will be acceptable. G. L. 

THE HOUSE OF KEYS. The popular branch of the 
Tynwald or Parliament in the Isle of Man is com- 
posed of twenty-four members. These are deno- 
minated " Keys." The Tynwald is a Scandinavian 

institution, and the word, according to Prof. 
Munch, is " the old Norwegian denomination 
Jnnvollr field of the Thing or Parliament only 
slightly modified." But why are the members of 
the popular branch of the Manx Tynwald called 
" Keys " ? Will any of the learned correspondents 
of " N. & Q." favour me with information on the 
subject of this appellation ? MANNINAGH. 

"THE MURDERED QUEEN." Who was the 
author of " The Murdered Queen ; or, Caroline of 
Brunswick. A Diary of the Court of George IV. 
By a Lady of Rank. London : Enians, Cloth 
Fair, 1838 " ? The names of Lady Anne Hamilton 
and Lady Charlotte Bury have been mentioned in 
connexion with the book. From one passage in it 
I conclude Lady Anne Hamilton had nothing to do 
with it. Had Lady Charlotte ? It has a strong 
smack of her Diary illustrative of the Times of 
George IV.. and the title is strikingly like it. 

T. M. Q. 

MRS. NEWBY'S NOVELS. I am very desirous 
of learning the title of a novel (I believe by Mrs. 
Newby) which appeared in 1865 or 1866. The 
hero was an earl, disguised throughout the greater 
part of the tale as a doctor's assistant. B. 

begin to accentuate this word on the second 
syllable? From a consideration of the following 
quotations it would appear that it was usually, if 
not entirely, accented on the first syllable : 
" And waggons fraught with utensils of war." 

Milton, P. R., iii. 336. 
" Such zeal he had for that vile utensil." 

Garth, The Dispensary, ii. 223. 
" And the old utensil of tin 
Was cold and comfortless within." 



able Margaret Stanley, second daughter of Thomas, 
Lord Monteagle (who died in 1560), by his former 
wife, Lady Mary Brandon, daughter of Charles, 
Duke of Suffolk (this Lord Monteagle was the 
son and successor of the first baron, better known 
as Sir Edward Stanley, K.G., the " On, Stanley, 
on ! " of Marmion at Flodden Field), was married 
1. to William Sutton ; 2. to John Talland. I 
assume, from this brilliant espousal of his, that 
John Talland was a gentleman of position, yet I 
find no arms registered at the Heralds' College 
under that name. On the other hand, there appear 
to be three coats under the name of Tallant, two> 
of which have almost identical bearings, differenced, 
inter se, by the one being paly, the other barry, 
while the third relates to a Cornish family of the 
same name, and bears no resemblance to either of 
the others. Philip Tallent, in whose family I am 

6"> S. III. JAN. 8, '81.] 



interested, lived temp. Elizabeth, and died in 1618, 
at Newark, Notts. His wife's name was Frances. 
His descendants at least those connected with 
Newark, commencing with his own son have 
always borne the surname of Tallents, and not 
Tallent, though some of these have again adopted 
the older style. On reference to some records of 
early Plantagenet origin I find the name " Ta- 
lenatz " (qy. represented by the " Talletz," whose 
arms are registered at the College) among the list 
of manor holders ; and, in records of a little later 
origin, the name " Talenant " among the general 
category of feudal tenants, but no nearer approach 
to Talland, Tallant, or Tallent. Can any fellow 
reader help me in my researches after the ancestry 
of Phillip Tallent ? C. T. T.-B. 



(4 th S. x. 373, 399 ; xi. 85 ; 5 th S. xii. 87 ; 6 th S. ii. 

417, 435, 452, 471, 514.) 

At last we have something like tangible evidence 
in the communication made by Mr. MEEHAN 
on this subject. Unfortunately, the links of the 
testimony are not as closely welded together as 

they might be. First, we have a " Mrs. ," 

who related the story of the Berkeley Square 
house to the writer of the letter addressed to the 
late Bishop Thirlwall. Then we come to a 
"Lady M ," who endeavours to establish the 
locality of the mansion (a work of supererogation 
that). From her we are passed on to a "Miss 
H ," who is cited as haviug told the tale to a 
"Mrs. P ." This "Miss H " was informed 
by some " E. C. friends " (Eoman Catholic, I sup- 
pose) that a family they knew hired the haunted 
house, and that it was during their occupation of 
it the tragic incident occurred which Miss Rhoda 
Broughton has also related in nearly identical 
terms. What I should now wish to learn is the 
name of these " R. C. friends." Will MR. MEEHAN 
favour me with it, or will he favour our Editor with 
it, confidentially ? 

As for J. C. M., the exorbitancy of his 
"hopes" is absolutely delightful. The estate 
agent (Mr. Lofts) assures him that Atkins, an up- 
holsterer, has had charge of the house ; that he 
(Lofts) went over it with Atkins and Lord Fitz- 
hardinge's solicitor about a year ago ; that Miss 
Myers, the then owner, refused to renew the lease ; 
that since then a reversionary lease has been sold 
to Mr. Fish, a " well-known builder "; and lastly 
comes his corollary : " I hope these particulars may 
satisfy the most incredulous." 

Need I say that not a grain of satisfaction is to 
be found in them by the most diligent seeker? 

J. C. M. then observes that the Berkeley Square 
mystery was, for a long time, matter of constant 

comment in society, but that of the thousands who 
believed in it not one was at the pains " to knock 
at the door (a mistake that), to ask at the vestry, or 
to inquire of the turncock." 

Will some charitable soul make trial of J. C. M.'s 
expedient : knock at the door, ask at the vestry, 
inquire of the turncock (especially of the turncock ; 
turncocks are such authorities in matters of mys- 
tery), and communicate to " N. & Q." the result ? 

CLARRY is as conclusive as J. C. M., for I find 
no analogy between incidents such as those brought 
forward by MR. MEEHAN and Miss Broughton, 
and the rnaunderings of the "jilted" Mr. Myers 
" upstairs and downstairs " and in his back yard. 
CLARRY complains of the inconvenience of living 
near a haunted house. Will he not help us, then, 
to clear up the mystery, and so re-establish the 
peace of the neighbourhood ? T. WESTWOOD. 


I confess to an old attachment to the Berkeley 
Square " ghost," and therefore I read with a some- 
what mournful sense of humour the evidence in his 
favour adduced by MR. MEEHAN in the extract from 
the letter to Bishop Thirlwall : "Miss H., who re- 
peated the tale to Mrs. P., was told by some R. C. 
friends [query Rosy^Crucian ?] of hers that a family 
they knew hired the haunted house," &c. True, the 
story as there told is identical in nearly all details 
with that I heard from " a man in the street " at 
about the same date. But this intolerable sequence 
of hearsay is the more provoking, because a little 
trouble might have converted (and perhaps might 
still convert) it into some direct and substantial 
evidence. Surely it would have been quite easy 
for the bishop's correspondent to have got into 
direct communication with the original witnesses ; 
it may still be possible for MR. MEEHAN (who 
knows all the names) to do so. 

It seems the lease had six years to run when 
Mr. Myers died. CLARRY has missed the point 
of my argument, which was not that " the letting 
value of a house in Berkeley Square " would have 
been any consideration with Mr. Myers, but that the 
disregard of it had to be accounted for in the case 
of the lady who inherited the lease, and who is not 
suggested to be lunatic or eccentric. 

J. C. M. is in error in supposing that no attempts 
have been made by inquiry to elucidate the mys- 
tery. Several persons of my acquaintance have 
from time to time inquired at the house, in every 
case being repulsed by refusals to give any in- 

Whatever may be the truth as to the past (and 
these circumstantial stories would hardly have 
originated in the exclusive habits of Mr. Myers), 
I cannot help looking forward with some curiosity 
to the future history of this house. If there was 
no ghost before, there certainly ought to be one 
now. It is not necessary to have any personal 



|6'h S. III. JAN. 8, '81. 

acquaintance with haunting ghosts to know from the country, with the invention of all arts and 
records the sort of persons who make them. These sciences, which were the property of the Egyptian 

are always either the monomaniacs whose whole 
lives, internal and external, have been long rooted 
to one spot, or those whose memories are indis- 
solubly bound to it by some great suffering or 
crime. Poor Mr. Myers undoubtedly ought to 
"walk." C. C. M. 

If not an impertinent question, I should like to 
ask why this house has not been done up and let 
since the gentleman's death. [C. 0. M. stated 
in our last vol., p. 516, that he has recently 
" observed that No. 50 had been newly painted 
and apparently fitted for a tenant."] That 
occurred some years ago, and the outlay for plain 
necessary repairs would have repaid itself, one 
would think, by now. As I am on the subject of 
haunted houses, let me add the following from 
Nottingham, which I have direct from the family 
to whose mother it happened some years ago : 

"It is situated in Middle Pavement. You go under 
an archway, through some iron gates, and at that time 
the house or offices were occupied by a solicitor named 
Plowriy;ht. I and another woman were employed to take 
care of them. The place had the reputation of being 
haunted, and the clerks used to ask if we ever had 
scare. One day after the clerks were gone, and without 
saying a word to any one, we determined to explore the 
cellars, and at last came to an old place like a crypt with 
a stone altar at the end. No one was certainly there, 
but we suddenly heard such unearthly groans as made 
us hasten away." 

Putting ghosts aside, T should like to know 
the history of the old building. The locality can 
be easily identified, for the building was still there 
in 1873. SCOTUS. 

May I be allowed to say that I entered the 
house, 50, Berkeley Square, London, on March 
20, 1851, in the service of the late Miss 
Curzon, who died in May, 1859? During the nine 
years I was in the house, and I have been in it at 
all hours alone, I saw no greater ghost than myself. 

Head Porter, Brasenose College, Oxford. 

HERMES, THE EGYPTIAN (6 th S. ii. 487). 
As your querist C. C. seems to look upon Wilson's 
Astral Dictionary as a work of authority, and is 
therefore probably a student of the occult sciences, 
the following information may be of service to him, 
although he might have got it, and more, on refer- 
ence to one of the standard works on the mvtho- 

1 T 1 . , " 

priests, such as the formation of language, the 
invention of letters, of mathematics, of medicine, 
of music, drawing, of gymnastics, of rituals, as well 
as of all civil and ecclesiastical institutions. Thus, 
he is the sum total of all priestly art and wisdom ; 
and for that reason the holy writings of the 
Egyptians, called after him Hermetic writings, 
were ascribed to him. These writings were, how- 
ever, only accessible to the priests, and only on 
great festivities the people were permitted to look 
at them from a distance. Clement of Alexandria 
speaks of forty-two books of Hermes as existent in 
his time, as of a Universal Encyclopaedia, com- 
prising the totality of all divine and human know- 
ledge. If thus we are to conceive a really existing 
work, all the single parts and volumes of which 
were headed by the name of Hermes, the reputed 
author, then this name was used among the later 
Neo-platonists in a much broader sense, and, so to 
say, transferred to the entire literature. And it 
is in this sense that lamblichus designates the 
entire body of the knowledge of the sciences and 
arts possessed by the Egyptian priests by the 
name of Hermes. To him, he says, our ancestors 
ascribed all inventions of wisdom, and after him. 
named all their writings, writings of Hermes. 
Nor will this appear strange when we find the 
same writer, lamblichus, stating in another pas- 
sage of his work that Hermes had written 20,000 
books, or, according to Manetho, even 36,528. Of 
such Hermetic writings a few only have been 
transmitted to us and still remain. 

Hermes and his reputed writings have continued, 
until recent times, to enjoy a great consideration 
among mystics and dabblers in occultism, a class 
which called, and probably still call themselves, 

Thus we have an Hermetic medicine, an 
Hermetic Freemasonry, and the expression " her- 
metically sealed " for things which are so tightly 
closed that no air can reach them, because Hermes 
was credited with the art of closing and making 
inaccessible, by magical seals, treasures and vessels. 
The Pastor, written by Hermas, one of the so- 
called Apostolic fathers, does not, of course, belong 
to the category of Hermetic writings. J. N. 

THE GREAT STONE OF THOR (5 th S. viii. 364). 
The following statement will not be without in- 
terest to your archaeological readers. In November, 

logics and religions of the ancients. Hermes 1877 (as above), I called attention in the columns 
Trismegistus is not. as C. C. seems to assume, an of " N. & Q." to this venerable relic of prehistoric 
historical personage in the proper sense of the antiquity, probably of Danish origin, which exists 
term, but, as Thot among the Egyptians, and as at Thursaston (Thor-stane-ton), Cheshire, about 
Hermes among the Greeks, only a personification, eight miles from Birkenhead, and which, from its 
the symbol of the priesthood, the essential mediator secluded position, has almost entirely escaped 
between the Deity and the people. He therefore notice. I then stated my apprehensions that the 
is credited with the legislation and civilization of 1 advance of modern improvements would be likely 

6t' S. III. JAN. 8, '81 ] 



to efface this record of Danish heathendom. Wha 
I then feared had very nearly come to pass. Th 
lord of the manor, being desirous of improving hi 
property, applied to the Enclosure Commissioner 
for a permissive order to enclose the common an 
to lay it out for building villas, for which the sit 
is admirably adapted. A commission of inquirj 
was sent down, which communicated with the Cor 
poration of Birkenhead, being the nearest marke 
town. It happened, fortunately, that the article in 
"N. & Q." had been seen and noticed by severa 
members of this Corporation, who drew the atten 
tion of the commissioner to the desirability o 
preserving the monument. The result has been 
that not only will the monument be preserved, bu 
sixty acres of the surrounding land are to be se 
apart for a public park. The gigantic rock altar 
with its beautiful natural amphitheatre, will thus 
be kept intact for ages yet to come. This cir 
cumstance, I think, affords encouragement to those 
who interest themselves in the preservation of our 
remnants of antiquity. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

491). As indignation appears to have prompted 
verses in one of your contributors, perhaps the 
following old-fashioned performance on this theme 
may be of interest : 

" The BOOK-PLATE'S Petition. 

By a Gentleman of the Temple. 
While cynic CHARLES still trimm'd the vane 
Twixt Querouaille and Castlemaine, 
In days that shocked JOHN EVELYN, 
My First Possessor fix'd me in. 
In days of Dutchmen and of frost, 
The narrow sea with JAMES I cross'd, 
Returning when once more began 
The Age of Saturn and of ANNE. 
I am a part of all the past ; 
I knew the GEORGES, first and last ; 
I have been oft where else was none 
Save the great wig of ADDISON ; 
And seen on shelves beneath me grope 
The little eager form of POPE. 
I lost the Third that own'd me when 
The Frenchmen fled at Dettingen ; 
The year JAMES WOLFE surpris'd Quebec, 
The Fourth in hunting broke his neck; 
The Fifth one found me in Cheapside 
The day that WILLIAM HOGARTH dy'd. 
This was a Scholar, one of those 
Whose Greek is sounder than their hose; 
He lov d old books and nappy ale, 
So hv'd at Streatham, next to THRALE 
'Twas there this stain of grease I boast 
Was made by DR. JOHNSON'S toast. 
He did it, as I think, for Spite ; 
JMy Master call'd him Jacobite. 
And now that I so long to-day 
Have rested post discrimina, 
Safe in the brass-wir'd book-case where 
I watch'd the Vicar's whit'ning hair, 
Must I these travell'd bones inter 
In some COLLECTOR'S sepulchre? 

Must I be torn from hence and thrown 
With frontispiece and colophon ? 
With vagrant Es, and 7s, and Os, 
The spoil of plunder'd Folios ? 
With scraps and snippets that to ME 
Are naught but kitchen company ? 
Nay, rather, FRIEND, this favour grant me : 
Tear me at once ; but dont transplant me I 
"Cheltenham, Sept' 31, 1792." 


447). COL. FERGUSSON will find all the informa- 
tion he requires in Wilkin's Supplementary Memoir 
of Sir Thomas Browne, in the first volume of his 
complete edition of his Works, 1835, 4 vols., 8vo. 
(reprinted in " Bonn's Antiquarian Library," 1852, 
3 vols.). But in case he has not easy access to the 
book, I may mention that there is in the College 
of Physicians of London a portrait of Sir Thomas 
Browne, supposed by Dr. Munk (Roll of the Coll. 
of Physicians, vol. i. p. 305) to have been given 
by his son, Dr. Edward Browne, who was pre- 
sident of the College from 1704 till his death in 
1708. Sir Thomas Browne's daughter Anne 
married Henry Fairfax, grandson of Thomas, Lord 
Viscount Fairfax, and her daughter Frances 
married David, Earl of Buchan. I take the oppor- 
tunity of asking some questions about the Religio 
Medici, &c., which I hope will appear shortly, 
together with the Letter to a Friend, &c., and the 
Christian Morals, in a volume forming part of the 
' Golden Treasury Series." 

1. There is reason to believe that an edition of 
;he Rel. Med. was published between 1645 and 
1656. Can any one give me (from personal in- 
spection or knowledge) the date and other parti- 
culars, and also mention where it is to be seen? 

2. Sir Thomas Browne says (Rel. Med., pt. ii. 
sect. 9), " The whole world was made for man, but 
.he twelfth part of man for woman." What does 
his mean ? 

3. He says (Christ. Mor., pt. iii. sect. 22), " He 
s like to be the best judge of time who hath lived 
o see about the sixtieth part thereof," i.e., ap- 
>arently when he is seventy or eighty years old. 

What is the exact meaning of the expression ? 

4. He mentions (Letter to a Friend, sect. 11) 
that endemial distemper of little children in 

^anguedock called the Morgellons." Where is 
ny account of it to be found T W. A. G. 


A KEY TO " ENDYMION" (6 th S. ii. 484; iii. 10). 

The author of Endymion has far too much tact to 

make the personages of his novel recognizable imita- 

ons of public characters. Of course many traits are 

opied from the life, or the personages would not 

e lifelike ; but the sketches form so many " dis- 

olving views," which melt into each other in such 

way that no sooner do we say, " This is So-and- 

," than the person changes into something quite 



. HI. J AN . 8> - 81 . 

different. The second marriage of Lady Montfort, 
while still young, to the man of her choice, is 
utterly unlike the experience of Mrs. Norton. 
The only thing common to Adriana Neufchatel 
and Lady Burdett^, Coutts is that they are both 
rich. Prince Florestan is evidently at first Louis 
Napoleon, but then he changes into his uncle, and 
the landing on the south coast of France, and 
acceptance by the army sent against him, form 
just a repetition of the return from Elba. Lord 
Beaumaris drives down to the Derby, and that is 
all I can see to remind one of the late Lord Derby. 
Cardinal Manning did not join the Church of 
Koine till he had attained middle life and become 
Archdeacon of Sussex. Nigel Penruddock joins 
it when a young man, and then melts into Car- 
dinal Wiseman, who was lorn a Eoman Catholic. 
If Mr. Vigo begins as a fashionable tailor, he ends 
as Hudson, " the railway king." The only resem- 
blance between Sidney Wilton and Sidney Herbert 
is that they are both named Sidney. St. Barbe is 
a writer, and so was Thackeray, and there the 
resemblance ends. JAYDEE. 

MOWBRAY FAMILY (6 th S. ii. 389). The wife of 
Roger de Mowbray (son of Nigel de Albini) was 
Alice de Gant, by whom he had two sons, Nigel 
and Robert. The former died about the year 1191, 
and was succeeded by his son William, who was 
one of the twenty-five barons appointed conser- 
vators of Magna Charta in the reign of King 
John. He died in 1222, and was buried in the 
priory of Newburgh, in Yorkshire, leaving (by his 
wife Agnes, daughter of the Earl of Arundel) two 
sons, Nigel and Roger. The former died without 
issue in 1228, and the latter, who succeeded him, 
died in 1266, leaving a son Roger, who died at 
Ghent in 1297, and was buried in Fountains 
Abbey, Yorkshire. His wife was Rose, sister to 
Gilbert, Earl of Clare, by whom he had, amongst 
others, John, who succeeded him. This baron 
married the only daughter and heiress of William 
de Braouse, Lord of Gower, and was eventually, 
with several other barons, taken prisoner at the 
battle of Boroughbridge in 1322, executed at York, 
and hung in chains for conspiracy against King 
Edward II. He was succeeded by his son John 
who, after having distinguished himself in the 
French wars, died of the plague at York in 1360 
His son, John de Mowbray, married Elizabeth 
daughter of Lord Segrave, heiress of the Earl o: 
Norfolk, and was killed near Constantinople in 
1367, being succeeded by his sou John, who dying 
without issue, the titles and estates devolved upon 
his brother Thomas, who, after having distinguishec 
himself in various ways, died of the plague a 
Venice in 1400. His wife was Elizabeth, siste 
and heiress of Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel 
by whom he left two sons, Thomas and John (botl 
of whom eventually succeeded to the title an 

states), also two daughters, Isabel and Margaret, 
fterwards Ladies Berkeley and Howard re- 

I have in my possession further particulars 
elating to members of this noble family, which 
or several centuries, from the Conquest downward, 
leld immense estates in this district, still known 
>y the name of the Vale of Mowbray. If your 
[uerist will write to me direct I shall be glad to 
;ive him what little assistance lies in my power in 
urtherance of the object which he has in view. 


Baldersby, Thirsk. 

If "N. & Q." can find space for the "missing 
inks " (so called by C. T. T.-B.), here they are : 
foger, son of Nigel de Albini, who assumed the name 

and arms of Mowbray Alice de Gaunt. 
Succeeded by his son Nigel, ob. 1191=Mabel, daughter 

of Earl of Clare. 
Succeeded by bis son William, ol. 1222=Agnes, daughter 

of Earl of Arundel. 
Succeeded by his son Nigel, ob. 1228=Maud, daughter of 

Roger de Gamvil. 
Succeeded by bis brotber Roger, ol. 1266=Maud, daughter 

of William de Beauchamp. 
Succeeded by bis son Roger, ol. 1298=Rose, sister of 

Gilbert, Earl of Clare. 
Succeeded by his son John, hanged 1321=Aliva, daughter 

and coheiress of William de Braose of Gower. 
Succeeded by his son John, ob. 1361=Joan, daughter of 

Henry, Earl of Lancaster. 

These descents are taken from the pedigree given 
at p. 141 of The History and Topography of the 
Isle of Axholme, by the Rev. W. B. Stonehouse, 
M.A., London, 1839. Why did C. T. T.-B. not 
turn to so recent and so useful a work as The 
Genealogist's Guide to ^Printed Pedigrees, London, 
1879, for which all pedigree-hunters are indebted 
to Dr. G. W. Marshall, who therein refers to no 
fewer than twenty publications containing pedi- 
grees, more or less full, of Mowbray 1 W. E. B. 

For pedigree of Mowbray family, see Burke. 

W. L. K. 

FROG " (6 a S. ii. 504). If any of MR. UDAL'S 
lady friends are in possession of The Girl's Own 
Book, by Mrs. Childs, they will find on page 86 
(I cannot give the date of my edition, for the title- 
page was never an integral portion of it since my 
memory runneth) the only version of this interest- 
ing epic to which I can direct them. There are 
but twelve couplets (if it be not a bull to say so, 
since two are triplets and four are uniplets, if that 
be the right word), and there are a few textual 
variations. Moreover, there are ten comets and 
nine peacocks. HERMENTRUDE. 

HERALDIC (6 th S. ii. 469). The arms described 
closely resemble those borne by the ancient family 
of Treawyn, Arg., on a bend vert, between six 
cross crosslets fitchee, gules, three pastoral staves 

6* S. III. Jilt. 8, '81.] 



or. William Treawyn, who was living 13 Hen. 
IV., 1413, assumed the name of Weare, but re- 
tained his ancestral coat of arms. One of this 
family held Burrington, near Plymouth, at the 
close of the seventeenth century. The above 
described arms are on a monument in St. Pancras 
Church, Pennycross, impaled with Keede, and 
also on the Knighton monument in St. Budock 
Church, near Plymouth. Mr. James Knighton, 
of Weston Mill, Gent., married Joanna, daughter 
of Mr. Thomas Were, of Burrington. Mary, 
daughter of Mr. John Were, married Eichard 
Hall-Clarke, of Halberton, Esq. Mr. Richard 
Hall-Clarke, of Bridewell, near Collumpton, is the 
present owner of Burrington and other estates once 
possessed by Reede, Were, and Knighton. 

J. W. 
St. Budeaux. 

The family of Lake, of Smarden, co. Kent, seated 
there in 1540, bore these arms, as also did Viscount 
Lake, with augmentation. See pedigree in Berry's 
Kentish Families, and Burke's Armory. 

W. L. KING. 

Watlington, Norfolk. 

(6 th S. ii. 86). OSTIARIUS will find full par- 
ticulars of the colours appropriated to the saints 
in Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, 
2 vols. MERVARID. 

" THRONG " (6 th S. ii. 386). This word is fre- 
quently used as a noun in Scotland, in the sense 
of a crowd. In the Scotch version of the Psalms 
(metrical) it has the same meaning, see Ps. cxlviii., 
second version, v. 11 : 

"Praise God ... ye kings, ye vulgar throng." 

C. E. 

This word in colloquial Scotch has three mean- 
ings, which are entirely distinct : (1.) Throng, a 
gathering or crowd. (2.) Throng, busy. Thus, " I 
see you 're throng the noo." (3.) Throng, full. A 
common expression is, "Was the church throng 
to-day ? " or, " There were a good many people at 
church, but it wasn't throng." 


1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

OF ELIZABETH (6 th S. ii. 509). The circumstance 
brought forward by Mr. Bone was related by the 
Rev. John Shawe, some time Vicar of Rotherham, 
and afterwards of Hull. In 1643 he had to flee to 
Manchester, where, through Sir William Brereton's 
influence, he received a ministerial appointment at 
Lymn, in Cheshire ; he preached also in Man- 
chester. Not long after he was invited to Cartmel, 
in Furness, to a people that were " exceeding igno- 
rant and blind as to religion." He went thither 
at the end of April, 1644, and remained there 

eight weeks. Cf. Broadley's Memoirs of Shawe, 
1824, pp. 35-37 ; and Yorkshire Diaries and 
Autobiographies, Surtees Soc., vol. Ixv. pp. 137- 
139, where Mr. Jackson, the editor, says : 

" Here is one argument at least for the use of these 
miracle plays, which, in spite of the crusade against 
them, are still acted in the North. I have heard of the 
life of Noah forming the subject of one of them in the 
parish of Halifax within the last few years. When the 
door of the ark was shut some one was represented as 
seeking for admission. The answer was, ' Why did you 
not come in with the procession 1 ' " 


444). A publication, Random Shots and Southern 
Breezes, by L. F. Tasistro, is alluded to in the 
notes to Whittier's Poems (see Routledge's edition, 
1852, p. 129), so that the name appears to be 
genuine. W. R. MORFILL. 

"BOYCOTTING " (6 th S. ii. 511). It is well that 
this word should be recorded in " N. & Q.," but ib 
is of even more importance that the correct mean- 
ing should be assigned to it ; and I know my 
friend MR. HOLLAND will excuse me if I point out 
that his interpretation of it is erroneous. As a 
mere matter of history it should be stated that no 
" attacks " were made upon Captain Boycott, nor 
was there any " attempted destruction of his crops," 
at any rate, until after the process to which he 
has given his name had been applied to him. Boy- 
cotting is simply a popular equivalent for ostra- 
cizing ; and it was stated in one of our illustrated 
papers, to which, I am sorry to say, I have no 
exact reference, to have been invented by Father 
O'Malley, the parish priest of Lough Mask, who 
found ostracizing too difficult a word for popular 
use, and employed boycotting as a substitute. It 
should be noted that so rapidly has this recent 
invention been adopted into the language, that it 
is already commonly employed in newspapers with- 
out the use of inverted commas or a capital letter. 



MYSTERIOUS LAKE SOUNDS (6 th S. ii. 327). 
MR. W. H. PATTERSON, speaking of the mysterious 
sounds heard occasionally by dwellers on the shores 
of Lough Neagh, inquires " if such sounds have 
been noticed in connexion with other large shallow 
lakes with low shores in other parts of the world." 
There is one body of water which I am acquainted 
with exactly answering to this description, and 
which derives its name from the fact that mys- 
terious murniurings are heard in its neighbour- 
hood. This lake is very large, very shallow, and, 
being in a prairie country, its coasts are very low. 
I refer to Lake Manitoba, in the Canadian pro- 
vince of the same name. This great sheet of water 
is regarded with much awe by the Indians, who 
assert that strange noises are frequently heard, 


[6th g. in. J AN . 8, '81. 

more especially at a place called the " Narrows," 
where the lake is contracted. 

The name Manitoba is derived from two Ojibewa 
words signifying the " Straits of the Great Spirit," 
or " Manitou." 

Without giving the matter very serious con- 
sideration, I accepted, when in Manitoba, the ex- 
planation regarding these sounds which is popularly 
current there. The " half-breeds " believe that the 
noise is caused by the waves beating on the shingle 
in a particular direction, when the wind is blowing 
from a certain point of the horizon with a mode- 
rate velocity. The Indians, however, call the 
sound of waves beating on the shore "mood-wa- 
osh-kah," and they apparently distinguish between 
this noise and that which excites their fear and 
wonder at Lake Manitoba. 


Chaplain H.M. Forces. 


WALL (6 th S. ii. 446). May I be allowed to add 
a correction of this query by way of postscript? 
I find that I had overlooked a note made from 
Rot. Pat. 12 Ed. II., showing that the elder Mar- 
garet was defendant in a suit in August, 1309. 
Her death, therefore, must be subsequent to this 
date. I am sorry also to have been guilty of a slip 
of the pen in giving 1315 as the date of the 
younger Margaret's marriage. It was certainly 
before Aug. 26, 1309, when "Peter de Gauaston 
and Margaret his wife " appear on the Fines Roll ; 
and the Chronicle of Dunmow gives the date as 
Nov. 2, 1307. HERMENTRTJDE. 

407). I have always understood Brunei did one 
hundred miles an hour between London and Bath, 
and believed it the broad gauge express speed of 
the future. SCOTUS. 

I remember travelling with the late Mr. Brunei 
and others associated with him in the construction 
of the South Devon Railway (Exeter to Plymouth), 
on an experimental trial of the atmospheric system 
of traction. The date was about 1846 ; the run 
was from Exeter to Starcross, a distance of about 
eight miles. The speed attained rather exceeded 
seventy miles an hour. I think the late Mr. W. 
Froude, F.R.S., was of the party. 



(6 th S. ii. 482). The quotation of the lines 
described by Savage Landoras magno fratre digna 
reminds me of a criticism, signed " Rugbeiensis," that 
appeared in the Times shortly after the verses were 
announced as forming the inscription on a statue 
of the Duke then (1842) recently erected in the 
City. It was objected that the grammar of the 

first couplet, " Conservata [not conjurata] A. atque 
E. . . . coluere " was doubtful, and " Quse sensere 
tuos .... triumphed " was proposed as a correction. 
Is the author of the criticism known ? Exception 
has also been taken to the last couplet. I well 
remember having the lines set in a " Philology " 
paper at Rugby in December, 1842, and a correction 
of them desired. The weak point, if there be any, 
is supposed to lie in the last line ; but I think, and 
a schoolmaster of thirty years' experience may, 
perhaps, be allowed an opinion, that it does not 
much matter whether the couplet forms a " con- 
secutive " sentence or a " final " : in the first case, 
as I am sure that I need scarcely point out even 
to schoolboy readers of " N. & Q.," the construc- 
tion is quite correct, otherwise ne qua is required. 

S. P. Q. R. (6 th S. ii. 426). The following inter- 
pretation of these letters may amuse your readers. 
They form part of the decoration of the Adam 
ceiling of the Court Room of the Bank of England, 
and on a remark by a visitor that they seemed 
very incongruous in such a place, " Not at all," 
said one of my colleagues ; " they stand for small 
Drofits and quick returns." HENRY H. GIBBS. 


The list of complements may be further increased 
ay the following, which was seen by my friend 
the present Vicar of Harrow in the examination 
paper of an undergraduate at Oxford some years 
ago : " Society for the Promotion of the Christian 


EDMUND BERRY GODFREY (6 th S. ii. 467). 
Your correspondent asks, What is the reason that 
this unfortunate man is never allowed to have his 
proper Christian names ? The fact that the mis- 
nomer began so early points, I think, to the reason 
being the rarity of two Christian names at that 
time. No doubt the confusion of the name with 
that of the town of St. Edtuundsbury helped the 
mistake considerably. S. J. H. 

BlCKNELL AND BROOKVILLE (6 th S. ii. 469). 

This name seems likely to be a contracted form 
of Bickenhill, which is a Warwickshire place- 
name. The theory is strengthened by the fact that 
Bicknell was (and perhaps is) a surname in the 
same county. WM. F. CARTER. 

PUNSTERS AND PICKPOCKETS (6 th S. ii. 428, 451). 
The terrible dictum referred to is to be found in 
a scarce little book (there is a copy in the Dyce 
Library, South Kensington Museum), published in 
1722, when Johnson was but thirteen. The title 
is An Epistle to Sir Richard Steele, on his Play 
call'd the Conscious Lovers, by Benjamin Victor, 
and it is an answer to " the acute but petulant " 
critic, John Dennis (see Thompson Cooper's Bio- 

. III. JAN. 8, 'el.] 



graphical Dictionary, p. 489, for a short notice o 
him). At p. 28 we read : " Says D[enni> 
(starting up) Sir, the man that will make such a 
execrable pun as that in my company, will pick m 
pocket, and so left the room." The pun whic 
provoked Dennis's displeasure was uttered b^ 
Purcell, who, going into a tavern with Congreve 
met Dennis, who went in with them. Wantinj 
Dennis out of the room, and knowing that b 
was " as much surpriz'd at a pun as at a bailiff, 
Purcell took this way of getting rid of him 
So ends another little literary delusion. The nex 
generation must not be brought up in thi 
belief that it was Dr. Johnson who , classec 
punsters with pickpockets. R. F. S. 

THE MS. OF GRAY'S "ELEGY" (6 th S. ii. 222 
356, 438, 474). The manuscript of the Elegy i 
mentioned in Cunningham's edition of Johnson' 
Lives of the Poets. Unfortunately the whereabouts 
of it is not mentioned : 

" The only existing copy of the Elegy in a Country 
Churchyard in the handwriting of its author was sole 
August 4, 1854, for one hundred and thirty-one pounds 
It is written in his small, neat hand (he wrote with a crow 
quill) on one half of a sheet of yellow foolscap, foldec 
into two." Vol. iii. p. 417 note. 


The library, together with his manuscripts 
which the poet left to his friend and executor 
Mr. Mason, was bequeathed by him to Mr. Bright, 
of Skeffington Hall, Leicestershire, and at his 
death treated as family property, and sold by 
auction on Nov. 27, 1845. At that sale Mr. Foss, 
commissioned by Mr. Penn, of Stoke Pogeis, bid 
for the original MS. of the Elegy, which, after an 
animated and sensational competition, was knocked 
down to him for one hundred pounds.* The MS. 
was again sold by auction on Aug. 4, 1854, to 
Mr. Wrightson, of Birmingham, for 13lZ.t May 
I ask your zealous correspondent MR. BATES to 
give a helping hand in tracing it further ? 

By those who are desirous of tracing the MS. it 
should be borne in mind that Mr. Penn, the pur- 
chaser in 1845 of the MS. Elegy and Odes, had 
them inlaid on fine paper, bound up in volumes of 
richly-tooled olive morocco, with silk linings, and 
each volume finally enclosed in an outer case of 
plain purple morocco. WILLIAM PLATT. 

115, Piccadilly. 

The original of this is in this country, and not 
in America. I saw it, a few years since, in the pos- 
- session of a well-known collector, who, I think, 
well knows the value, and has properly cared for 
it. G. E. 

* Of this sale an interesting account is given in the 
Gent. Mag. for January, 1846, pp. 29-33. 

t See the Gent. Mag. for September, 1851, p. 272: 
also the Atkenceum, July 29, 1854, p. 940. 

ARTHUR MURPHY (6 th S. ii. 468). Is not the 
word " wit," in the passage cited by MR. C. A. 
WARD from Macaulay, a misprint for pit ? Murphy 
was a dramatic author, and the pit in his day was 
occupied by the critics, and, it was supposed, the 
most intelligent part of the audience. 


436 ; ii. 329, 358, 415, 433). It may interest 
some of your readers to know that in H.M. Navy 
snob is almost invariably used as a nickname 
for the ship's shoemaker. My servant at present, 
who does the work of that rating, is always called 
by that name, and I have heard it used continually 
for the last ten years. C. V. S. 


It is stated (6 th S. ii. 433), on the authority of 
Hone's Every-Day Book, ii. 837, that " Snob was 
used in the sense of a cobbler in the Garrett election 
song 1781" (anent " The Garrat(?) Elections," see 
Chambers's Book of Days, i. 659 ff.). De Quincey, 
in his English Mail Coach (iv. 291), observes in- 
cidentally in a note : 

"Snobs, and its antithesis noos, arose among the internal 
factions of shoemakers, perhaps ten years later [than 
1804-5]. Possibly enough the terms may have existed 
much earlier ; but they were then first made known, 
picturesquely and effectively, by a trial at some assizes 
which happened to fix the public attention." 

To what trial does De Quincey refer ? 

H. B. P. 

FLAMINGO (6 th S. ii. 326, 450, 478) is the Por- 
tuguese form of the bird's name, whence we have 
it unaltered in English (see Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica, ninth ed., sub voce). In the edition of 
Herbert's Travels published in 1638, the word 
occurs twice (pp. 14, 15) as " flemingo," with 
" passe " and " pasche " prefixed, an addition which 
bas long been a puzzle to me. 


Magdalene College, Cambridge. 

SIR JOHN CHEROWIN (3 rd S. i. 328, 378 ; 6 th S. 

i. 352, 470). The arms of the family of Curwen 
of Cumberland on the monument to " John Chero- 
win, Esq.," afford strong presumptive evidence, but 
not positive proof, of his connexion with that 
'amily. I have met with early examples of the 
same arms adopted by families bearing different 
names, a result which might be expected from the 
"act of our more ancient coat armour being arms of 
assumption, and not of grant. As we cannot 
ignore the letters patent, we must assume the 
name of the person buried at Brading to have been 
Sherwyn until evidence to the contrary is produced. 

?hat John Sherwyn, Esq., the grantee, was a mem- 
' ier of the family of Curwen is probable, and that 

e changed his name, when the family assumed the 

ame of Curwen in lieu of Culwen, in the reign of 
Henry VI., is not unlikely; but perhaps this 



[6> S. III. JAN. 8, '81. 

" stout " Constable, not approving of the new 
cognomen, adopted the name by which he was 
afterwards known. 

MR. JACKSON'S hypothesis of the origin of the 
name of Sherwen may be correct, but I do not 
agree with him that " by pronouncing the ch on 
the slab hard you certainly get Curwen." Should 
not the name be pronounced in three syllables, 
whether ch is pronounced hard or soft, as Ker-o- 
win, Cher-o-win ? JAMES HORSEY. 

Quarr, Hyde, I.W. 

DR. CHEYNE OF CHELSEA (6 th S. ii. 28, 153, 
196). A question has been asked relating to Dr. 
George Cheyne, 1671-1743, one part of which 
received, I believe, no reply, namely, Where did he 
graduate and whence did he derive the title of 
M.D. ? Whilst seeking for some information on 
this point, and having looked over his Philosophical 
Principles of Natural Religion, Lond., 1705, 8vo., 
I was led to examine a little volume which stood 
next to it on the shelf, Essays on Partial Derange- 
ment in Connexion with Religion, by John Cheyne, 
M.D., Dublin, 1843, 8vo. At the commencement 
of this is a brief memoir of the writer, stating that 
he was the son of John Cheyne of Leith, a medi- 
cal practitioner, and that his grandfather and great- 
grandfather had been members of the Edinburgh 
College of Surgeons, a portrait of the elder of these, 
painted by Sir J. Medina, being still in the hall of 
the college. Where is any account to be found of 
this Mr. Cheyne of Edinburgh, surgeon, who lost 
much money in consequence of his devotion to the 
cause of the Stuarts, and how, if at all, was he re- 
lated to Dr. George Cheyne, F.R.S. ? 


384, 494, 524). The remarks of MR. BROWN 
hardly throw much light upon the matter. If 
these " perspective " reredoses were generally 
triumphal arches, or, as G. T. suggests, views of 
other churches, what could possibly be their 
object or meaning, placed in the most conspicuous 
position in a church 1 From G. T.'s note it would 
appear that such objects were distasteful to the 
Puritans. Are there any references to them in 
the controversial literature of the period 1 

Some years ago I noticed in the church of Par- 
ham, Suffolk, a reredos, which I supposed to be 
" Elizabethan." It consisted, so far as I remember, 
of three panels under rusticated arches, with 
mouldings and enrichments, all executed in wood, 
but there was nothing suggestive of a painting 
about it. There was a reredos of early Renais- 
sance character in St. Bartholomew the Great, 
Smithfield, before the restoration (nothing of the 
kind, of course, now remains), but I do not think 
there were any pictures about it. I have also some 
notes on a curious east window in Morden Church, 
Surrey ; they are dated May 17, 1874, and are 

as follows : Glass of seventeenth century : four 
ights (glass in traceried head of window of a later 
period, representing Reynolds's cherubs), the two 
jentre lights filled with the Ten Commandments 
(which have been restored), Moses and Aaron in 
;he two side lights. At the bottom, crossing the 
whole window, is a representation of an un- 
furnished apartment, with one window divided by 
bhe mullion of the real window ; a man stands on 
bhe north side of the room in an attitude of 
astonishment ; a woman is in the south side, also 
expressing fear or astonishment, her face concealed 
by a kind of veil or hood. No local explanation 
or information could be obtained as to the mean- 
ing of this subject. G. H. J. 
Carlton Chambers, W. 

A painting in perspective formerly existed at 
the west end of Hadleigh Church, Suffolk, and it 
was painted in the seventeenth century. It is 
thus described in an old MS. book belonging to 
the living : 

' At the west end of the wall against the steeple there 
is drawn in perspective the prospect of a church or some 
stately fabric, they say done by old Benjamin Coleman, 
but by the direction of Dr. Good [a former rector, from 
1618 to 1638]. In the middle of this is a diall platform, 
formerly round, but now changed, and in a square over 
it these two short verses on the wall : 
'0 watch, I say; 
God's House sayth Pray.' " 

This painting remained until 1834, when the 
then rector, Archdeacon Lyall, again applied the 
brush, but only to obliterate the ingenious con- 
trivance of his predecessor. Many of the in- 
habitants remember it well, and describe it, 
perhaps with the exaggeration of fond regret for 
its loss, as apparently prolonging the length of the 
church, and causing them to imagine that they 
were gazing on the stately nave of some vast 
cathedral. HUGH PIGOT. 

Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

AMERICAN SPELLING (6 th S. i. 16, 161, 204 ; ii. 
74, 195, 471). If DR. BREWER had alluded to 
me less kindly than he has done, I should have 
felt rather frightened to find that my remarks had 
attracted the attention of so eminent a philologist. 
As a matter of taste I should not object to pro- 
nouncing traveller half so much as to spelling 
traveler. But taste, I presume, must hide its 
diminished head in a question of this sort. As to 
the travel(l)er himself, UNEDA and I have shaken 
hands over him across the Atlantic, and agreed to 
let him return home without further hindrance. 


IN " CYGNUS " (6 th S. ii. 384, 436). I fear the ex- 
planation of J. M. H. cannot be accepted, as the 
cross was alleged by Constantino to have been 
seen above the meridian sun (Gibbon, Decline and 

6"' S. III. JAN. 8, '31.] 



Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. i., chap. xx). 
Some writers have thought the vision was oc- 
casioned by solar halos. Gibbon repudiates the 
whole story as a deliberate imposition, but I see 
no reason for doing so. Fragments of solar halos 
intersecting would readily form a cross, and 
several instances of these occurrences are recorded. 
Before the fatal accident on the Matterhorn in 1865, 
three crosses were seen (see plate in Whymper's 
Ascent of the Matterhorn or Scrambles in the Alps, 
I forget which). Again, the Brighton Herald 
states that at Brighton in April, 1852, "sun set- 
ting, evening very fine, with slight haze westward, 
when a ray of brilliant light shot upwards about 
20 deg. above the horizon, directly perpendicular 
from the sun, and soon after its appearance it was 
crossed by a horizontal band of a paler colour, but 
about the same breadth. It formed a perfect cross, 
and lasted half an hour." In the article " Halo," con- 
tributed by me to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
I have drawn attention to the facts before men- 
tioned and have endorsed the halo theory. 


"PARSON": "PERSON" (6 th S. ii. 281, 411, 

" Parson, Persona, Signifies the Rector of a Church, 
because for his time, he represents his Church, and sus- 
taineth the person thereof, as well in suing, as being 
sued in any Action touching the same (FUta, lib. 9, 
cap. 18)." Cowel, ed. 1684. 

"Of the separate rights of Parson and Vicar The 

Distinction of great and small Tythes does no great 
Service in determining the Rights of Parson and Vicar 

no Tythe of Glebe Land shall be paid of common 

Right by the Parson to the Vicar, or by the Vicar to the 
Parson." Johnson's Vade Mecum, S. 251, &c., ed. 1715. 

"Parson, Mortal, formerly the Rector of a Church, 
made so for his own Life, was so called." Bailey, ed. 

The first of these extracts fully endorses the 
opinion of Blackstone, vol. i. p. 352, ed. 1876. 
The last two extracts seem to show that formerly 
rectors only were called parsons. 


VENGER'S DAUGHTER" (6 th S. ii. 367, 414). 
Shakespeare seems to have been thinking of this 
mode of torture when he makes Prospero threaten 

" I '11 manacle thy neck and feet together." 

Tempest, II. i. 


" BEAU-MONTAGUE " (6 th S. i. 256, 304 ; ii. 98, 
297). Under this heading B. C. speaks of " aqua 
mirabilis, the juice of a cinder, worth a guinea 
a spoonful " as a saying used " to evade curiosity." 
To this may be added a saying for the same purpose 
which was common enough thirty years ago in 

Shropshire, viz., " Layers for medlars and crutches 
for lame ducks," used when children asked what 
something was which older persons did not care to 
explain. BOILEAU. 


i. 436 ; ii. 54). I have been able to trace this to 
Kadulphus Ardens's Homm. de Temp., i. 43, " In 
Commern. Defunctt." (Migne's Patrolog., t. civ. 
col. 1485). ED. MARSHALL. 

THE " SPECTATOR " (6 th S. ii. 167, 279). The 
name "Gardner" in my reply (6 th S. ii. 279) should 
be Lardner. I may extend my list by adding the 
names of Blackmore, seventy-one ; Philips, seventy- 
four ; Prideaux, seventy-six ; Ramsay, seventy- 
three ; Eay, seventy-six ; Watts, seventy-four 
years old at death. EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

MASTERS (6 th S. ii. 86, 215). Mrs. Merrifield, On 
the Practice of the Old Masters, may be consulted 
with advantage, vol. i. ch. vi. of her work con- 
taining original treatises (dating from the twelfth 
to the eighteenth centuries) on the art of painting 
in oil, miniature, mosaic, and on glass, &c. (London, 
Murray, 1849, 2 vols.). WILLIAM PL ATT. 

115, Piccadilly. 

The first volume of Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and 
Legendary Art contains a good account, with 
examples, of angels as treated by the old masters. 


(6 th S. ii. 488, 524). An account and a view of 
Brambletye House is given in Mr. E. Walford's 
lately published Holidays in Home Counties. 


But little remains of the ruins of this house. 
Sir Henry Compton was lord of the manor of 
Brambletye in the reign of James I., and is sup- 
posed to have built the house. The Comptons 
were seized of the manor in 1660. Who succeeded 
them is not clear ; but Sir James Richards, who 
was of French extraction Horsfield says his father 
ame to this country with Queen Henrietta Maria 
is described as of Brambletye House in 1683-4. 


There is a print drawn by William Scott, and 
printed by C. Hullmandel, of the ruins of this 
aouse. I have a copy in an album, where it has 
been quite forty years, I think, as the album was 
n another person's possession long before it came 
nto mine. I enclose a very rough tracing of th 
print. H. A. ST. J. M. 

THE EXECUTIONS OF '45 (6 th S. ii. 86, 217). 
Thanks to W. Gr. for some information new to 
me bearing on the subject. I have since found in 



III. JAN. 8, '81. 

the Scots Magazine, 1745, p. 580, Lieut. Thos. 
Deacon, Robert Deacon, Ensign Charles Deacon, 
given among persons who surrendered at Carlisle. 
Ibid, 1746, pp. 319-330, is the trial and execu- 
tion of the rebels who were committed to South- 
wark Gaol from Newgate. Thomas Deacon is there 
stated to be the son of an eminent and opulent 
M.D. in Manchester, who designed him for his 
own profession and sent him to the university, 
where he got his head full of Jacobite notions. 
Syddal is stated to have been a Roman Catholic 
barber. 1 Nothing is said there of the religious 
manifesto. Charles Deacon, aged seventeen, was 
reprieved ; there was an affecting parting between 
the brothers; Charles was taken in a coach, under 
charge of a guard, to see his brother's dreadful 
end. Deacon and Syddal's heads were put up in 
Manchester, where Syddal's father's had been 
placed before in 1715 (pp. 396, 442). The Bishop 
Deacon must, I suppose, have been consecrated by 
a nonjuring bishop, as his name does not occur in 
the lists of episcopal successions. W. G. will know 
how far he is right in making Thomas Theodorus 
Deacon his son. I trace the reprieves of Charles 
Deacon, in the Scots Magazine, 1746, pp. 326, 397, 
442, ^498, 544; 1747, pp. 44, 142. He is not 
mentioned among them afterwards, and probably 
was among those pardoned and sent to America 
(p. 192.) 

A pamphlet is referred to under 1746, p. 326 : 
A Genuine Account of the Behaviour of Francis 
Col. Townley, &c. I have no opportunity at 
present to refer to this or to the other references, 
for which I thank W. G. A CWT. 

"BULLION'S DAY" (6 th S. ii. 407). Taking the 
latter part of your correspondent's query, July 4 
was called " Bullion's day " because it is noticed 
in the calendar as St. Martin Bullion's translation, 
though it is not observed. There is a saying which 
differs a great deal from that which your corre- 
spondent quotes, but by which he may be able to 
find an answer to his query, so I quote it : " If the 
deer rise up dry and lie down dry on St. Bullion's 
day, it is a sign there will be a good gose-har'st," 
meaning, apparently, that dry weather is favourable 
to the crops. Thus the answer required is evi- 
dently wet weather. G. S. B. 

" In Scotland this [July 4] used to be called St. Mar 
tin of Bullion's Day, and the weather which prevai!e< 
upon it was supposed to have a prophetic character. I. 
was a proverb, that if the deer rise dry and lie down dry 
on Bullion's Day, it was a sign there would be a gooc 
gose-harvest gose being a term for the latter end o 
summer ; hence gose-harvest was an early harvest. I 
was believed generally over Europe that rain on this da^ 
betokened wet weather for the twenty ensuing days." 
Bool of Days, ii. 20. 


" A MANY PERSONS " (6 th S. ii. 227, 416). Thi 
is a usual form of expression in Lincolnshire wit' 

11 classes, and, I believe, in many other parts also, 

"here is another like unto it a sight=ma,ny. 

much : " We 've hed a sight o' rain agean, this 

ackend ; it 's terrible bad for tha land." " What 

sight o' sea-maws I seed this mornin', when I 

ent a-shepperdin', sewer-ly (surely) ; we mun be 

ween ta 'ev a storm." " What a blazin' sight 

' money that place must a cost a-buildin' ! " 

R. R, 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

In Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, pt. i. p. 12, 
n a quotation from Mr. John Bellows's paper 
elating to the burning of Bishop Hooper at 
Gloucester, these words occur : 

I have mentioned that there is internal evidence to 
how that the narrative must have been furnished to 
oxe by a native of Gloucester or its neighbourhood, 
le calls, for instance, Cirencester by its local name 
Jiceter, and tells us, in true Mercian dialect, that Hooper 

arrived at Ciceter about a Itven of the clock. This is 
>recisely the form used by the country people about 
lere now, in speaking of numbers. If six cows are seen 
eeding in a field, and one asks a labourer standing by 
low many there are, he will not answer ' six,' but 'about 

a six.' " 



u (J.i) KarkQov, /i/} av't\y' 

This was a law of Solon (Diog. Laert., Vit. Sol., c. ix), 
and is cited by Plato (" De Legibus," lib. xi. iriit., Opp. t 
p. 675 C., Lugd., 1590). The translation by Ficinus, 
' Quae non deposuisti, ne tollas," with the substitution 
)f " posuisti," is placed by Erasmus in his Adagia. 



English Sonnets by Living Writers. Selected and 
Arranged, with a Note on the History of the Sonnet. 
By Samuel Waddington. (George Bell & Sons.) 
A CLEVER American writer, in a recent work on the 
Science of English Verse, comments upon the absence 
from our literature of any adequate collection of English 
sonnets. Without pausing to inquire how far this is just 
to the labours of Mr. Dennis and Mr. Dyce, it may be 
noted that the appearance, within a few months of each 
other, of two books of this class certainly suggests that 
the subject is not exhausted. The very elaborate and 
accurate Treasury of English Sonnets by Mr. David 
Main the worst defect of which is that its dimensions 
render it rather a warehouse than a "treasury "suf- 
ficiently deals with the work of deceased authors, while 
Mr. Waddington's volume continues the task for those 
who are still among us. If to these two books be added 
the treatise of Mr. Charles Tomlinson upon the Sonnet 
and its Origin, the amateur will only need to procure 
(like Master Stephen) " a stool to be melancholy upon," 
and, if he be of an assimilative habit, he shall straight- 
way " overflow you half-a-score or a dozen of Sonnets at 
a sitting." And it must be admitted that the pastime is 
singularly seductive. Like duelling, it has (in a measure) 
the advantage of placing the small men on a level with 
the great. Once master its mechanical secret, and, with 

6th s. III. JAN. 8, '81.] 



a fitting inspiration, the otherwise unknown bard may 
turn out a sonnet which Time will not willingly let die. 
It is probably this fact which has made so many of the 
major poets refrain from hazardous competition with 
their minor brethren. Victor Hugo, we believe, has 
written but one sonnet ; Mr. Browning, master of metres 
aa he is, has published none ; and Mr. Tennyson, who 
ia here represented by Montenegro, is notoriously not at 
his own level in this form. Mr. Matthew Arnold and 
Mr. Roasetti are more fortunate, and it is difficult to say 
which is the better. The latter, in his splendid sonnet 
On Refusal of A id between Nations, fills " this sraa'l 
lute " with a white heat of lyric intensity which it ia 
hard to find outside his own work, and, the two sonnets 
To Rachel excepted, one turns to the well-known ex- 
amples of Mr. Arnold with renewed delight in their 
austere and lofty beauty. Next to these two masters 
comes Mr. Longfellow, whose sonnets on Dana's burial 
and the Ponte Vecchio at Florence are among the best 
work of his tuneful and serene old age. After these, 
again, there are a crowd of writers, most of whom follow 
them at no long interval. The sonnets of Mrs. Kemble, 
of Archbishop Trench, of Mr. J. A. Symonds, Prof. Dow- 
den, Mr. Edmund Gosse, and Mr. George Macdonald are 
of a high order of excellence. Many of the best examples 
in this volume are suggested by famous names. Such 
are Mr. Ernest Myers's Milton, Mr. Watson's Beethoven, 
Mr. Lang's Homer, Mr. Brodie's Keats, and Mr. Richard 
Garnett's Dante. Of other writers whose work we have 
found especially attractive may be mentioned Mr. 
O'Shaughnessy, Mr. Aldrich, Mr. Monkhouse, and Lord 
Hanmer, whose Old Fisher is as clear-aired as Theocritus. 
We cannot, however, for a moment pretend to exhaust 
the "infinite riches in a little room" of Mr. Wadding- 
ton's volume. But we are bound to say that, as a mere 
book, it is exceedingly pretty. The selection is made 
with great skill, and (we suspect) with much critical re- 
straint. It is also rendered more valuable by a careful 
note upon the Sonnet, in which, as well as by examples 
in the body of the book, the editor shows that he himself 
possesses a practical and very successful knowledge of 
the form. In these days of hurry and hand-to-mouth 
compilation, this anthology deserves special praise for its 
good taste, its catholicity, and its quiet thoroughness. 

Samuel Pepysand the World He Lived In. By Henry B. 

Wheatley", F.S.A. (Bickers & Son.) 
THE diary of Samuel Pepys is not only often quoted, but, 
what is much better, widely read. As an historical 
record it may easily be valued too highly, for, aa Mr. 
Wheatley has been careful to point out, Pepys was 
violently prejudiced in favour of those who were kind to 
him, and unduly bitter against their enemies as well as 
his own. We should certainly be unwise did we take for 
truth his estimate of any man's or woman's character if 
it were unsupported by other and better evidence. As 
an illustrator of social life and manners Pepys stands 
unrivalled. No one else of any other age or country has 
been able to produce a memoir at once so simple and so 
full of the times. Mr. Wheatley 's book is not a com- 
mentary on the diary we wish, by-the-bye, he would 
write one but a series of essays on the life of the diarist, 
the work he did, and the age in which he lived. A 
popular book of this kind requires a combination of good 
qualities to do it well. A thorough knowledge of old 
London must be the foundation, but no one could have 
done what Mr. Wheatley has accomplished had he not 
possessed a wide acquaintance with the general history 
of the seventeenth century. Pepys flourished at a time 
when England was ruled by a gang of harlots, lackeys 
and panders, and yet the king, of whom hardly one gooc 
action has been recorded, does not seem to have teceivec 

n the popular estimation any blame for the deeds of the 

;odless crew whom he retained about him. Charles, aa 

Mr. Wheatley most truly remarks, " was one of the most 

worthless of our monarchs and the moat beloved." It ia 

a strange assertion, and yet we believe it true to the 

etter. The causes why it was so lie deep and cannot be 

;ntered upon here ; we may, however, quote with ad- 

r antage a passage from the poema of John Norria, the 

ector of Bemerton, than whom a more grave and pious 

oul was probably not to be found in the kingdom. In 

ia Pastoral on the Death of His Sacred Majesty King 

Charles II. Norria does not think it disgraceful to say : 

" He was all love, all peace, all clemency ; 
He allur'd the love and melted down the hate 
Of all ; he had no enemy but Fate." 

The truth must have been that Norris and other rural 
>eople, who lived far away from the court and its vicioua 
sircle, had no idea of what manner of folk the king and 
iia courtiera were. We have nothing but praise for Mr. 
Wheatley's book. The only fault we can think of is that 
it is not long enough. He evidently knows so very much 
more than he has cared to tell us about the persons and 
places which he notices that we are at times inclined to 
i>e angry with him for his reticence. We must not con- 
clude without noticing the fact, which we believe Mr. 
Wheatley was the first to discover, that Samuel Pepys, 
n an age of cruel sports, had an objection to cock-fight- 

Souvenirs Hidpriques sur Bourgoin : Titres et Documents 
Divers relatifs a cette Ville. Par Louis Fochier. (Paris, 

IN France, as well as in England, local histories are 
becoming more and more numerous. Savants begin to 
feel that the life of a nation ia made up of an aggregate 
of small elements, and that the character of an epoch, 
the features of a civilization, are the result of the thought, 
the feeling, and the utterances of the various centres of 
population, both large and otherwise, which form together 
the mother country. We are glad, accordingly, to hail 
M. Louis Fochier's volume on Bourgoin. It is interestingly 
written, illustrated with a considerable number of pieces 
justificatives, and if the materials are rather meagre on 
the epoch previous to the revolution of 1789, this is owing 
to the fact that no special chronicle has yet been found 
exclusively treating of Bourgoin and its environs. Never- 
theless, Bourgoin not only existed at the time of the 
Roman conquest, under the name of Bergusium, but, if 
the laws of etymology are correct, its existence as a town 
might be traced as far back as the Celtic epoch. How- 
ever, M. Barillet (Dictionnaire Universel d Histoire et de 
O'eographie) dismisses it with a line and a half, and M. 
Lalanne (Dictionnaire de I Histoire de France) omits it 
altogether. M. Fochier's monograph is divided into 
three parts, of unequal dimensions. The first takes us 
from the earliest times to the destruction of the Bastille. 
It occupies only a little more than a hundred pages, and 
gives us the impression of a writer who sees of the feudal 
system nothing but its defects, and who is not much 
better disposed in favour of monarchical institutions; 
and yet, if ever a district in France had reason to be 
anti-revolutionist, it was certainly Bourgoin and the pro- 
vince of Dauphine,of which it forms a part. Its position 
(we quote from M . Fochier's introduction) on the prin- 
cipal road leading to Italy, its proximity to Lyons, and 
various other circumstances, made of Burgoin, for the 
space of ten years, a focus of violent agitation. It 
became the scene of dramatic incidents, and within its 
walls occurred, on a reduced scale, the counterpart of the 
episodes which were taking place throughout the length 
and breadth of the land. Bourgoin had its Girondists 



[6th s. III. JAN. 8, 81. 

and its Jacobins, its Feuillants and its Sans-Culottes. 
Its Robespierre was a scoundrel of the name of Vauquoy, 
who introduced the Reign of Terror, and fed the guil- 
lotine assiduously in the name of liberty, equality, and 
fraternity. This portion of M. Fochier's work is by far 
the most interesting ; and, as original documents illus- 
trative of it exist in large numbers, we have a most 
piquant sketch of the revolutionary epoch ; in fact, the 
author has taken care to give us copious extracts from 
the journals of the municipal council and the popular 
clubs. The concluding chapter, referring to Bourgoin 
during the period included between ] 800 and the present 
day, is, we need scarcely say, important chiefly from 
a local point of view, and will not long detain the general 

Lancashire Inquisitions: Stuart Period. Part I. 

Edited by J. Paul Rylands, F.S.A. (Lancashire and 

Cheshire Record Society.) 

THE counties embraced within the special province of 
this society, the third volume of whose publications is now 
before us, constitute a very important district, rich in 
matter of interest to the genealogist and antiquary. The 
work which has been already done for it by other societies 
has by no means exhausted the field. It needs but a 
glance at the objects which the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Record Society aims at carrying out to realize how much 
yet remains to be done. The class of records to which 
the present volume belongs is one of the most valuable 
for genealogical workers, and the documents of the 
Stuart period, though out of the natural chronological 
sequence, will in many cases, no doubt, come in very 
usefully as carrying on the chain of family history sub- 
sequently to the last printed general series of mediaeval 
inquisitions. The work set before them has been on the 
whole well done by Mr. Rylands and Mr. Vincent ; but 
we greatly regret that the society did not adopt the plan 
of the Scottish Retours, which are printed in the lan- 
guage of the original. This would, to our minds, have 
been a much more satisfactory procedure, and one more 
in accordance with precedent. It would also have en- 
hanced the value of this very useful record of Lancashire 
in the olden time. 

Studies in Deductive Logic. By W. S. Jevons. (Mac- 

millan & Co.) 

IN this volume Mr. Jevons devotes himself to deductive 
logic, which has of late years been somewhat depreciated 
by logicians. If it is by induction alone that new truths 
are discovered, yet deduction, as the inverse operation of 
induction, will never cease to have value. Deduction is 
also more capable of treatment by the symbolical method 
of reasoning, of which Mr. Jevons is now the chief 
exponent. The book, which is thrown into the form of 
question and answer, should be read by all logical 
students. Its characteristic, besides the use of symbols 
to represent logical forms and syllogisms, is the effort 
made throughput to show the value of logic as an agent 
in strengthening the reasoning processes and training 
the mental powers. It is provided with a number of 
" logical nuts to crack," problems to be worked out, and 
definite questions to be answered, which will test the 
student's grasp of the principles of the rules which they 
illustrate. A logical index is appended to the volume, 
which furnishes a key to the solution of all problems 
which involve three distinct terms. 

MR. EDWARD WALFORD and Mr. Elliot Stock have both 
circulated letters embodying their respective views of 
the history of the foundation of the Antiquary. We 
can only regret the severance which has taken place. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

C. D. (Villa Bruchmatt, Lucerne). Sir John Cole, of 
Newland, co. Dublin, created a baronet 1660, was father 
of Arthur, the only Lord Ranelagh of that family. The 
names and matches of his daughters (Lord Ranelagh's 
sisters) may be thus stated by a comparison of Burke's 
Peerage, Extinct and Dormant Peerages, and the Peerage 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland (printed for W. Owen, 
L. Davis, and J. Debrett, Lond., 1790) : 1. Catherine, 
mar. Thomas Berkeley, Esq., of Donegal. 2. Letitia, mar. 
Dr. William Fitzgerald, Dean of Cloyne, afterwards 
Bishop of Clonfert. 3. Mary, married, 1675, Henry, 
third Earl of Drogheda, and had issue Charles, Lord 
Moore, &c. 4. Frances, married (s. p.) Sir Thomas Dom- 
vile, of Temple Oge, co. Dublin, created baronet 1686. 
5. Margaret, married, first, John Burdet, Dean of Clon- 
fert, and had issue; secondly (s.p.}, Thomas Lloyd, Esq., 
of Croghan (or Cloghan), co. Roscommon. 6. Elizabeth 
(ol. Aug. 19, 1733), married, Feb. 20, 1671, Sir Michael 
Cole, Knt., and their great-grandson was first Earl and 
Viscount Enniskillen. Ambassadors no doubt attend 
public court ceremonies and receptions of the sovereign 
as of right, though possibly some distinction might be 
drawn between the several grades in the diplomatic 
hierarchy. There are, of course, private parties at every 
court which have no official character, and to which no 
official right of access could exist. 

ECLECTIC. (1) 6 Hen. IV., so called because, in 
conformity with an ordinance of Edw. III., 1372, no 
lawyers were returned. See Stubbs, iii. 46, 391 ; Tas- 
well-Langmead, p. 315. (2) Sharon Turner, Hallam, 
Lingard, Froude, Green, &c., besides the Rolls Series 
(Hen. VII.) and special works on particular portions of 
the period to which any of the above authorities would 
lead you. 

BOSCOBEL. In addition to the Castelar literature 
translated into English mentioned in " N. & Q." (6 th S. 
ii. 500, 528), a translation of this author's History of the 
Development oj the Republican Idea in Europe appeared 
some years ago in Harpers Monthly. 

GREVILLE WALLPOOLE. Consult the works on sur- 
names and Christian names by Lower, Charnock, Bards- 
ley, Miss Yonge, &c., and the references in " N. & Q." 
General Index, Fifth Series, and the current series. 

L. Customary, but not universal. Whether it could 
be sustained in an action -would probably depend (sup- 
posing there were no decided cases) upon the question 
whether it could be proved to be a custom under the Law 

M. M. H. Ift7es=knight ; <-/enerosui=zeui\Qma,n ; 

J. H. L. A younger brother of Prince Rupert, who 
died 1663. 

J. E. HODGKIN. Yes. 

EREATA. 6"> S. ii. 374, col. 1, 1. 6 from top, for 
" croffe " read eroppe ; 507, col. 1, 1. 23 from top, for 
" 1829 " read 1629. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6h S. III. JAN. 15, '81.] 





NOTES : Private Correspondence of the late Eight Hon. 
John Wilson Croker Kecords of the Baptists of Cork, 41 
Early Roman Catholic Magazines, 43 Historical Accuracy 
A Neat Set-down of Lord Byron Halton Family of Cum- 
berland and Derbyshire, 44" Twinkle, twinkle, little star " 
in Latin Stuart Epitaphs in Rome and Dunkeld, 45 The 
Great Bell of St. Paul's-Names of Trains The Endurance 
of Cromwell in the Popular Memory A " drop,'* 46. 

QUERIES : A Volume of Tracts by Thomas Nashe "New 
Epigrams," 1695, 46 Swift's Verses on his own Death- 
Due de Berri=Mrs. Brown, circa 1800 Premier Baron of 
England" Evangelien der Spinnrock "Rev. F. R. Reade 
"Rodney" A Twice-told Tale Northern Mythology 
Tetney Church Bells, 47 "Mitcham Whisper "Folk-lore 
as to Oaths " Allobrogical" Ethelred the Unready Lea- 
mington Rev. F. Mosley Numismatic Miss Drax : the 
Harcourt Papers Irishmen termed "Grecians" A Copper 
Token Mr. Upcott William Pitt Sappho, 48 Authors 
Wanted, 49. 

REPLIES : John Reading: the Readings The "Adeste 
Fideles," 49 Lucy (?) Wentworth, Countess of Cleveland, 50 
Courtenay Pedigree Two Letters from Teresa Blount 
Great St. Mary's Chimes, Cambridge The Old Organ at 
St. Paul's The Bagpipe in Lincolnshire, 52 The Mystery 
of Berkeley Square, 53 "In a brown study" The Bells of 
King's Coll., Cambridge Keightley Family "Brag-,' 54 
Lord Balmerino's Vault at Holyrood Electric Telegraph 
Anticipated, 55 Thatched Churches " Gibraltar " 
Etienne Dolet-Norfolk Turkeys, 56 "Pricked" Music 
" Cravat," &c. " All and some" Dean Moore Bretherton 
Family "Exta" " The Book," Ac. Portraits of Sir T. 
Browne, 57 Hawick "Riding Song" Work Songs C. 
Marshall, Painter Cabul Mr. Gladstone's Latin ren- 
dering of "Rock of Ages," Ac. Lay ton of West Layton 
R. Pomeroy, 58 Euphuism Authors Wanted, 60. 

NOTES ON BOOKS r-Gilchriafs "Life of William Blake" 
Burke's "Historical Portraits " Vaughan's "New Readings 
and Renderings of Shakespeare's Tragedies." 



Some years ago, my old friend Mrs. Croker 
(who died at Kensington Palace on Nov. 7 last, 
in her ninety-second year) gave me many of the 
autograph letters addressed by various eminent 
men of the day to her husband, the late Eight 
Hon. John Wilson Croker. 

These letters, which possess more than a passing 
interest, I propose to place before your readers 
from time to time. J. J. M. 

1. From the Earl of Aberdeen, when Prime 
Minister, to Mr. Croker : 

"Downing Street, Jany. 6, 1855. 


" Your letter contains a melancholy picture 
of the truth. I never recollect anything like the 
present state of the daily Press ; and I know not 
what may ultimately be the consequences. I fear, 
however, we must admit that all hope of a remedy 
is vain ; at least it entirely passes my power to 
provide one. 

"I well recollect the days of the Courier to 
which you refer, and am fully aware of its prompt 
and successful efforts in the cause of truth. But 

you were young, active, and able ; and you had 
useful fellow labourers. I should not now have 
the least notion how to organize a system of 
counteraction of this kind. 

" I can easily understand why I should be, 
almost exclusively, the object of their attacks. 
Whatever may be the qualities of different Minis- 
ters, I am the bond by which they are united 
together. That once destroyed, the whole fabrick 
falls to pieces. 

"This is not, however, a Ministerial question. 
Ministers must always expect to be treated with 
injustice ; but it is new to see our Naval and 
Military Commanders held up to publick scorn 
in this fashion. 

" I thank you very much for your letter, as a 
proof of confidence and old friendship. I share 
your apprehensions, but I fairly confess that I am 
at a loss how to avert the danger. The power of 
the Press for good and for ill, has been steadily 
progressive, and will probably continue. My 
great hope is in the good sense of the people of 
this country, who are also becoming more en- 
lightened every day, and better able to distinguish 
the good from the bad. We must educate, by all 
the means in our power ; and we shall be able to 
trust the people more safely with their own con- 
cerns. Many changes of popular opinion have 
taken place in our day j and we need not alto- 
gether despair of seeing a salutary impulse given 
by apparently inadequate causes. 

" Ever my dear Croker 
" Truly yours 


[Next week we hope to eive a letter from Mr. Croker 
to Mr. A. Greville, Bath King at Arms, brother of Mr. 
Charles C. F. Greville, Clerk of the Council ; it bears an 
autograph reply from the Duke of Wellington, on the 
subject of an incident at the battle of Waterloo.] 


The following notes are taken from the Baptist 
Eegister, Cork, the only record in the possession of 
that body. It is now in the custody of Mr. Flem- 
ming, of this city, one of the trustees, to whom 
I am indebted for its perusal. It is in a very 
dilapidated condition, and requires the greatest 
care in handling. I have no doubt it would be 
gratifying to many to know that anything of 
interest in it has been preserved in the pages of 
" N. & Q." We learn from this register that, 

"The records of the Church (Baptist) of Cork were 
destroyed by fire in 1729, and that on Mr. Fowke's settle- 
ment here he set himself to make up that loss. He col- 
lected the few remaining papers and gathered information 
from some ancient members, one of whom lived to be 
ninety years old. He digested and entred it in this book 
with his own hand." 

The old member was a Mrs. Rose, who was born 
1668, and March 24, 1757, was in the full enjoy- 
ment of all her faculties. Some of the materials 



[6th s. III. JAN. 15, '81. 

were compiled from papers which had been col- 
lected by the Rev. Mr. Gibbons. 

" First inquiry, Who were the chief instruments in 
settling a Baptist Church in and about Cork? 

" As far as appears, the first person of eminence of this 
profession in Cork was Edward Riggs, Efq., of Rigsdale, 
for many years representative in Parliament for the 
borough of Bandon, and in the commission of the peace. 
He came from England with the commissioners for 
settling the forfeited estates, and settled at Rigsdale 
about 1651. After some time he was assisted by Mr. 
Woods, who instructed his children in classical learning. 
Amongst those he took under his protection was Mr. 
Thomas Delaune, a gentleman distinguished in the 
learned world by his writings and plea for the Non- 
conformists. His parents were Irish tenants to Major 
Riggs. Designed for a priest, he had the first rudiments 
of learning in the Friary at Kilcrea,* near the Ovens. 
The Major observing his fondness for learning, undertook 
the care of his education. He was baptized in one of 
the fishponds at Rigsdale. When he grew up Major 
Riggs sent him to the west of Ireland, to be a clerk to 
a fishery, which he had in company with Mr. Barnfield, 
where he remained some years. During the troubled 
times he went to England, and meeting there with Mr. 
Edward Hutchinson, a Baptist pastor from Ormond 
removed thence in the common calamity Mr. Delaune 
married his daughter Hannah, and went to London. 
Here he assisted Mr. Reach in compiling his Tropologia, 
a Key to Open Scripture Metaphors and Types, and kept 
a grammar school. But what made his name precious 
to the Baptists is this elaborate performance, in which 
he pleaded the cause of Dissenters in general, and Bap- 
tists in particular. His sufferings on account of this 
book are very movingly eet forth by Mr. Daniel Defoe 
in his preface to a new edition, and in Crosby's History 
o/ the Baptists. Mr. Delaune f- was apprehended Nov. 29, 
1683, by Sir Thomas Jenner, Recorder of London, and 
on the 10th a Bill was found against him by the grand 
jury of London ; 13th he was called in the Old Bailey, 
and in January condemned to pay the fine, after which he 
continued in Newgate about fourteen months, so that he 
must have died about 1685. He left a wife and two small 
children, who died in prison, having no subsistence else- 
where. He was born 1645. The account which Crosby 
published of him was chiefly taken from a letter which 
our present pastor, Mr. Gibbons, transmitted before the 
second volume was published. 

" Mr. Woods (above mentioned) at his death left a son 
and daughter. The son, Mr. George Woods, was many 
years a deacon of the Church at Cork, and died about 
1670. The daughter became Mrs. Lucia Roe. 

" Mrs. Anne, relict of Major Riggs, was born in 1652 
in Lower Ormond. Her father was Mr. Allen of Kil- 
lowny. They had a meeting-house at Clockeating, under 
the Rev. James North. This lady was third wife of 
Major Riggs, who was sixty years of age and she twenty- 
five at their marriage. The Major died ninety years old, 
leaving her a good part of his Irish estate, about 1,2001. 
yearly. His children by her were Edward, one of the 
Commissioners of H.M. Revenue of Ireland, and was 
possessed of his father's English estate; Thomas, who 
became one of the new prophets, and was a man of wit 
and learning; Ruth, married Mr. Caleb Falkiner, banker 

in Cork ; another daughter married Neville, Esq., a 

gentleman of estate ; Judith, of whose early piety an 

* Kilcrea Abbey was built for Franciscans by Cormac 
Mac Carthy, Lord Muskery, in 1465. 

f A reprint of his Anglice Metropolis is just announced 
by Mr. D, Bcgue, to be edited by Mr. E. Walford, M.A. 

account is in print by the Rev. Abdiel Edwards, Pastor 
of the Baptist Church in Dublin. When Edward, her 
eldest son, came to proper years, and had a family, she 
gave him one-third of the Irish estate. In Cork she 
raised a decent house for worship, provided for its future 
establishment, and as they were sometimes molested in 
the burial of their dead, she purchased a burying-groundj 
and had it walled round. She died at Rigsdale, 1741, 
ged eighty-nine years. Her funeral sermon was preached 
by Mr. Gibbons from 2 Cor. v. 1. She was also eulogized 
by Mr. Cuthbert. 

" Mr. Caleb Falkiner was the youngest son of Mr. 
Daniel Falkener of Dublin, who left his children, John, 
Daniel, and Caleb, a competency. Daniel forsook the 
ways of his ancestors to prepare for being head magis- 
trate of the city and Member of Parliament. About 
1711 Caleb married Ruth, daughter of Ann Riggs, who 
died young, leaving three children, two of whom are still 
alive, viz , Mr. Riggs Falkiner and Elizabeth, now Mrs. 
Herrick. He married secondly Mrs. Mary Newport, and 
died Feb. 2, 1746/7, aged sixty-one years. His funeral 
sermon was preached by Rev. Edw. Gibbons from 
Ps. xxxvii. 37. His body was interred in the Baptist 
graveyard, with several of his children, where he ordered 
a handsome monument for his family. 

" Mr. Thomas Mills, born at Wottenbasset, Wiltshire, 
came with his wife and many Protestant families after 
the Revolution. He was baptized May, 1736, and died 
aged seventy- two years. His first wife died s.p. By 
a second (now married to Rev. James North, Pastor of 
a Baptist Church in Lower Ormond) he left two daughters 
and a son, Mr. Stephen Mills. 

" Mrs. Sarah Smart died about twenty-six years ago. 
She left two silver cups|| to the church for communion. 
She was also instrumental in settling the church at Cork, 
and exciting Mr. Riggs to contribute largely to it. When 
Mr. Coleman had been dead some years, and the flock 
going astray, even the five widows who held out longest 
were going to join other dissenting congregations, her 
letter stopped their purpose. And when Mr. Pettit, who 
came from Dublin, was on the point of quitting on 
account of the small subscriptions, she made Mr. Riggs 
supply a maintenance. She died on her birthday, 
Jan. 20, 1729/30. Her funeral sermon was preached by 
Mr. Gibbons from Eccles. vii. 1. 

Note. " Mention being made of five widows, we may 
observe that, from the death of Rev. Mr. Coleman in 1680 
to the Revolution, the Protestant Dissenters were not 
allowed places for public worship in Cork. From the 
time of Mr. Coleman's death to the settlement of the 
church by Mr. Pettit was rather more than twenty years. 
We know that Major Riggs lived until 1707. It is a pity 
we have no account of the five remarkable women, but 
suppose this Mrs. Smart to be one of them. 

" Chapter II. Notes concerning the Baptist Ministers 

in the Church of Cork. 

" The first we can trace with certainty was Mr. Cole- 
man. He was pastor of a small people who attended 
his preaching in his own house, 'Colerran's Alley.' He 
died in Cork, 1680. Mr. Gibbons has found a MS. 
sermon preached by him 1675-6. He left a daughter, 

J The burial ground contains many monuments, but 
the place has been allowed to go to ruin. It is now 
surrounded by a high wall, and is closed under the 
Intramural Burial Act. 

His monument is still in the south-west corner of 
the cemetery. 

|1 One of these cups is now in the custody of Mr. 
Flemming. It is inscribed, " Ex Dono Saras Smartt, 
1706." The letters A. B. are stamped on the cup. 

6th S. III. JAN. 15, '81.] 



afterwards Mrs. Sarah Smart. From an extract we 
have been favoured with from Wales, Mr. Coleman was 
alive in 165-3. Mr. Lambe is mentioned as his prede- 
cessor, but of him we have no account. 

"1700. Mr. Pettit was ordained at Clonmel as pastor 
of the Church of Cork. Mr. Riggs then promised thirty 
pouads a year, and his wife made up more. He was 
born and married in England ; at the age of twenty-five 
came to Ireland, and five years after became a preacher 
and pastor of this church, where he continued twenty- 
five years. He died at Cork, June, 1729, aged fifty-five 
years, and was interred in the Baptist graveyard, which 
was purchased and walled in during his life. His funeral 
sermon was preached by Mr. Gibbons, from ' Well done 
thou good,' &c. He was comely, of a good size, and 
inclined to fat; his countenance a mixture of gravity 
and liveliness. One of his daughters, Ruth, was first 
wife to Joshua Nun. Mary married, firstly, Caleb 
Thomas, of Dublin ; secondly, Francis Bustead. During 
Mr. Pettit's illness the church here was supplied by Mr. 
Gibbons, then assistant to Mr. Abdiel Edwards, by whom 
he was ordained at Lismortagh, assisted by Mr. Daniel 
Green, Mr. Samuel Fowke, and Mr. Giles Mason, at a 
general meeting anno 1729. 

" On Mr. Gibbons coming to Cork the following list of 
church members was delivered to him, 1729." 

These lists are divided into three columns. The 
first contains the name, the second when baptized, 
the third events. For instance, the first list con- 
tains the names of sixteen men and thirty- one 
women, "We are not able to furnish a list prior 
to this " ; members added since 1729 ; Mr. Gib- 
bons's settlement here ; men, forty-eight ; women, 
twenty-eight ; names, baptisms, and events. 

" Chapter III. Some remarkable occurrences since 
Mr. Gibbons's settlement. 

" Mrs. Jane Trayer, daughter of Abraham Abbot. This 
lady was appealed to by Dr. Russell* and Dr. Clayton, f 
Bishop of Cork, to give up her .opinions, but without 
effect. She died Dec. 18, 1754. 

"Mary Trine, a woman who could neither read nor 
write. She was born in England, wife to Joseph Trine, 
skinner. She died about seven years ago. Of a remark- 
able memory. 

" Mrs. Bentley, wife to Eentley, apothecary, bap- 
tized Oct. 2, 1752. Her husband swore he would not 
cohabit with her if she submitted to baptism. Privately 
performed, her mother, aunt, and Eliza Warren, only 
present. Mr. Gibbons officiated. 

"Thomas Downs, shoemaker, received a member in 
Mr. Pettit's time, died 1741 ; left a widow, Mary, very 
distressed, and two children, Ann and Southwell. Mrs. 
Downs, through Mrs. Falkinerand Mrs. Goddart, became 
nurse to the present Mr. John Bagwell, an infant, who 
was sent for by his grandfather Calwell to be reared in 
Bristol, his parents being dead. Ann was maintained 
by Mrs. Renes and Mrs. Francis, and the boy two years 
by Mr. Gibbons, who prevailed on John Austen to per- 
fect him in his trade. By this time Mr. Calwell per- 
mitted Mrs. Downs to send for her children, grown up 
to seventeen or eighteen years. Friends provided 
clothing, and Mr. Gibbons paid the p-\s8age and for eea 
provisions. They had not been long in Bristol before 
young Mr. Calwell took a liking to Ann, and by the 
management of the mother and brother married her, 

* Ven. Thomas Russell, Archdeacon and Vicar-General 
of Cork, 1725-45. 
t Dr. Clayton, Bishop of Cork and Ross, 1735-45. 

the old gentleman being almost blind and in the decline 
of life. A few days after the marriage the old man 
died, leaving his son a fine estate, which he did not long 
enjoy, for in a few years he died, leaving one daughter 
entitled to 500/. a year, and his wife guardian with a 
large legacy." 

R. C. 

(To le continued.) 


As several of your contributors, myself among the 
number, have drawn attention to the fact that the 
British Museum Library does not contain a per- 
fect set of the magazines issued by the Roman 
Catholic body previous to the Act being passed for 
their " emancipation " from political grievances in 
1829, I have attempted to draw up a list of those 
in my own possession, in the hope that others may be 
able and willing to supplement it from their own 
knowledge and experience. So far as I can learn, 
the first attempt of the kind was made just sixty- 
five years ago. I give the title and a short account 
of each seriatim : 

1. Catholicon ; or, the Christian Philosopher : 
a Roman Catholic Magazine. Vol. i., July 
December, 1815. 8vo. The imprint is "London, 
printed and published by Keating, Brown & Keat- 
ing, 38, Duke Street, Grosvenor Square." The 
following advertisement is prefixed to vol. i. : 

" The title of P^(,bl^c^st } hitherto given to this magazine, 
we beg leave to change for that of Catholicon, which will 
be more characteristic of its views and objects, as well as 
more conformable to the prospectus that appeared in 
the Laity's Directory for 1810, when it was first proposed 
under that title to the Catholic public, although from 
intervening causes the actual period of its publication 
was delayed till July, 1815." 

This is, therefore, probably the earliest Roman 
Catholic periodical published in England. It 
bears the running title " Publicist " at the top of 
its pages, but is styled " Catholicon" on the title- 
page. Each number consists of forfcy pages ; no 
price is mentioned. Its main object consists of 
" notices of Catholic and strictures on anti- 
Catholic publications." Its tone is defensive 
throughout rather than aggressive, and it is rather 
in the style of the Edinburgh Revieiv. Vol. v. 
extends from June, 1817, to March, 1818, and 
with it ends the first series. (It contains a supple- 
ment to the year 1816.) The Catholicon was 
issued very irregularly in 1817, one month (Feb- 
ruary) being omitted altogether. A second series 
is commenced in April, 1818, with same imprint 
as before, and the price is added one shilling 
a number. This new series appears to be completed 
in one volume, containing nine numbers and a 
supplement. Upon p. 360 is " End of vol. i." ; 
but the title-page has no " vol. i." upon it, so 
that in all probability this is the conclusion. 
The last fact recorded in it is the death of Dr. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [" s. in. JAN. 15, 'si. 

O'Reilly, Koman Catholic archbishop of Armagh, 
which happened Jan. 31, 1819, and so fixes tne 
date of the conclusion of the publication. A third 
series of the Catholicon was issued in 1824 as the 
Catholic Spectator, as will be seen hereafter. 

2. The Catholic Miscellany and Monthly Re- 
pository of Information. London, printed and 
published by Ambrose Cuddon, No. 2, Carthusian 
Street. 8vo. It was commenced in January, 
1822. The following is an extract from its preface : 

" We feel an honest shame when we reflect that the 
Catholics of England, with so much talent on their side, 
have not hitherto succeeded in establishing one [periodical 
publication] dedicated to their service." 

In regard of its contents it appears to be a sort of 
imitation of the Gentleman's Magazine, but it is 
printed in single, not double, columns. The first 
volume has a frontispiece a portrait of the Rev. 
Prince Hohenlohe ; the second, one of Pope Leo 
XII. ; the third, that of the Rev. Dr. Milner ; the 
fourth, that of the Rt. Rev. Bp. Poynter ; the fifth, 
a view of St. Edmund's College, Old Hall Green, 
Herts ; the sixth is illustrated with stone draw- 
ings of several convents and monasteries, English 
and foreign, and the seats of English Catholic 
gentry. In the fifth and sixth volumes the con- 
tents of each number are reduced by nearly one- 
half in bulk. No price is named throughout. 
Vol. vi. bears the names of " Sherwood & Co., 20, 
Paternoster Row," as publishers. Vols. v. and vi. 
are " printed by Cole & Moore, 27, Old Change." 
The last part that I have seen is dated December, 
1826. I should be glad to learn whether any more 
volumes were published. 

3. The Catholic Spectator, Selector, and Monitor, 
or Catholicon. Third Series. Vol. I. 8vo. 
"Printed and published by Keating & Brown, 
38, Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, and 9, Ivy 
Lane, Paternoster Row. 1824." This volume is 
interesting as containing the account of the 
miraculous cure of Miss O'Connor by Prince 
Hohenlohe at New Hall, Essex, and much in- 
formation on the condition of the Irish and 
continental Catholics. It comprises twelve 
numbers, and has a classified index. I have seen 
no later number or part than the above, and my 
copy is bound and lettered with no reference to its 
being a " vol. i.," so probably this is complete. I 
should add that to the volume is prefixed a por- 
trait of Pope Leo XII. 

4. The Catholic Journal. This is issued in 
a rather small octavo form. No. 1 is marked 
"price Vd, London, Saturday, March 1, 1828." 
No. 13, the last that I have seen, is dated Saturday, 
May 24, 1828. This number contains a notice 
that in consequence of its increased sale the paper 
will be enlarged, but I doubt if the promise was 
ever performed. This journal is political in fact, 
more of a newspaper than a magazine and contains 
notices of the proceedings of many public meetings 

held to advance the cause of Catholic emancipation 
both in London and in the provinces. My thirteen 
numbers are bound up in a volume, but without 
a title-page. They contain a few advertisements 
of books, servants, &c. I will bring my list down 
to a later date on a subsequent occasion. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

Charles Gavan Duffy's work called Young Ire- 
land: a Fragment of Irish History, 1840-1850(1880, 
8vo.), which gives an account of the origin of the 
disaffection now so rampant there, and " how the 
repeal movement began," I stumbled upon one 
or two passages which appeared to me to be worthy 
of notice in the pages of " N. & Q." At p. 75 he 
mentions the " massacre " in Rathlin as taking 
place " under Charles I." He adds, that he re- 
members hearing this story when a boy from some 
of the Senachies. It is natural that the Senachies 
should have blundered as to the date, but one 
would have thought that Sir Charles would have 
known that the so-called "massacre" happened in 
the year 1575, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and 
not in that of Charles I. Again, at p. 344 there 
is a blunder connected with his own county, for Sir 
Charles Duffy is a Monaghan man. He talks of 
" Clontibret in Ulster, where the Irish had been 
successful in a memorable battle against the army 
of the Commonwealth." I conclude he means the 
skirmish at Clontibret, near Monaghan, where the 
Irish had a temporary success against Sir William 
Russell in 1595. 

These mistakes are probably due to the work 
having been written far away from libraries and 
books of reference, and therefore should not be too 
severely judged. Ev. PH. SHIRLEY. 

Ettington Park. 

lately looking over some letters of my relation 
Madame Sismondi, written from Geneva in the 
year 1819, where I met with an anecdote respect- 
ing Lord Byron that seems worth preserving. On 
some occasion when he was visiting Madame de 
Stae'l at Coppet he was so unmannerly as to make 
a violent attack upon Geneva and the Genevese. 
Rocca, the husband of his hostess, replied, " C'est 
bien vrai, milord, mais qu'est-ce que vous aviez 
a faire dans une telle caverne d'honnetes gens 1 " 
(" Very true, my lord, but what had you to do in 
such a den of worthy folks 1 ") Madame de Stae'l 
was much pleased with the neatness of the retort, 
which Madame Sismondi had from Dumont, who 
was present at the scene. H. WEDGWOOD. 

DERBYSHIRE. Some interesting MS. notes coming 
under my notice, I have copied them verbatim, 

III. JAN. 15, '81.] 



with a view to render them of general as well 
as permanent service to antiquaries and others by 
publishing them in the pages of "N. & Q.": 

" Memoratu digna haec sunt. 

Im : Halton filius Milonis nat' ap d Greystocke, 21 
Apr., 1628. Baptizat. in Ecclesia de Greystock, 24 Apr., 

Timotheus Halton, F. M. Baptizat. 19 7 br , 1633. 
Johnes Halton, F. M. natus A, 1650. 
Hieromias Waterhowse inductin us in Ecclesiam de 
Greystocke, 2 8 br , 1616, sepult. 19 Febr., 1632. 

Timotheus fil. Imanuelis natus apud Winfield maner. 
Anno 1679. 

Im'anul fil Timothei nat. apud Greenwhait 29 Aug M , 

Winfield fil. Im'anulis nat. apud Winfield manor 10 th 
Maii, 1760. 

Im'anul fil. Winfield nat. apud Derby, 14th July, 1785. 

Januaru xxx>, 1631. A true & p'fecte Rentall of 

the whole yeares Rent due unto me Miles Halton gent. 

by eu'ie p'ticular Tenant at Whitsunday arid Martinmas 

by equall portions as followeth. 


John Arnoldson, senior 
John Arnoldson, iu'ior 
Miles Turner 
George Atkinson ... 
William Atkinson ... 

Thomas Wilson, iu. 

Bartholomew Halton 
Anthonie Halton . 
John Halton 

Janett Cooke 
Edward Turner 
John Lancaster 
Will ra Toppin 

viij* vj d 

x s 

v s 

iij viij d 

ij s 

vj viij 
iiij 8 


y. viij 
xvj d 
xyiij 11 

Sum Total 55 4 d 

Graystock, Cumberland. 

Memorand. That in the Yeare 1739 the Winter begun 
sometime before Martinmas with much Snow and Sharp 
Frosts and so continued untill beginning of December. 
Sometime before Christmas began againe a Severe hard 
Frost with cold winds, which continued about a fort- 
night, and then fell a deep dry snow, the Frost and 
Snow together the coldest that had been knowne in the 
memory of man continued without intermission for 8 
or 9 weeks ; afterwards came very dry weather untill 
Aprill the 21 st , 1740 (on which day), with a hard frost 
y e presedent night), fell a Snow which covered all again 
and was in many places neare a yard deep and very cold. 
In the 8 weeks Frost I measured Jed [] this word] above 
a yard thick, and in many places it was much more. 
N. the 3 last days in the old yeare were the most severe 
cold of any. 

' Our north which alway hath been famous 
For colds wherewith to cramp and lame us, 
Did at that very time resemble a 
Certain d d place call Nova Zembla.' 

' O ! Hyenas postestate mirabilie.' 

Wingfield Park, near Derby. 

LATIN BY SPIRITS. In Epes Sargent's Scientific 
Basis of Spiritualism, just published (Colby & 

Rich, Boston, Mass., U.S.), I find the following, 
which may be set off against the too frequently 
well - founded imputations on the educational 
attainments of " spirits ": 

"Mr. John L. O'Sullivan, formerly United States 
Charge to Portugal, and a gentleman long personally 
known to me, has published an account of his ex- 
periences (May, 1880) with Alexander Phillips, a medium 
aged twenty-three, at his rooms, No. 133, West Thirty- 
Sixth Street, New York. My friend of forty years, Dr. 
J. R. Buchanan, was present. Under test conditions, 
and in full gaslight, they repeatedly got the independent 
writing. Several Latin quotations were given; among 
the rest the following translation of a stanza from Jane 
Taylor's little nursery poem, beginning ' Twinkle, twinkle, 
little star.' The writing, small, close, and back-handed, 
was finally deciphered thus : 

' Mica, mica, parva stella, 

Miror quonam sis tarn bella, 

Splendens eminens in illo 

Alto velut gemma ccelo.' 

To Mr. O'Sullivan's account of repeated experiments, 
Dr. Buchanan adds his testimony thus: 'To the fore- 
going statement of Mr. O'Sullivan I would add my 
indorsement of its absolute and minute correctness.' " 

I should not be surprised to learn that the above 
translation has an earlier and less remarkable 
authorship. The literary consciences of spirits 
are sometimes elastic. Has any reader of "N. & Q." 
met with the foregoing Latin lines before, and, if 
so, where 1 0. C. M. 

The following monumental inscription, which I 
copied in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, 
Rome, seems to deserve a permanent record in the 
pages of " N. & Q." : 

" Hie jacet Carolus Stewart Ultimus e stirpe quae ex- 
turbatos ex Anglia reges cum Carolo Odoardo Duce Romas 
demum consedit. In Pontificia militia Balistariorum 
regimen tenuit, ipse curante []] munitiones centum eel- 
larum aductae urbis arci praebuit, plurium equitatuum 
insignia meruit. Patrimonio pauperibus diuturno famu- 
latu sibi addictis relicto, obiit sextas Ealendas Januarii 
anno 1845 annos natos 86. Corpus ejus voluntate prope 
illud praemortuae uxoris hie positum, in Pace Domini 
diem resurrectionis expectat." 

At Dunkeld a still later Stuart memorial, 
pointed out by the cicerone of the cathedral as that 
of one of the " last of the Stuarts," bears this in- 
scription, which, however, throws no light on the 
genealogy of Count Roehenstart : 

"Sacred to the memory of General Charles Edward 
Stuart, Count Roehenstart, who died at Dunkeld on the 
28th Oct., 1851, aged 73 years." 

It would be interesting to learn who the two 
Stuarts commemorated at Rome and Dunkeld 
respectively were, and how they were related to 
the royal house. C. P. S. 

[Count Roehenstart's monument is comparatively well 
known, and we were aware that the guide had even gone 
so far as to describe the count as " the last of the Stuarts," 
but we understood that he only used this description 
because he found it popular, and not because he had any 
authority for such a statement.] 



[6th s. III. JAN. 15, '8L 

THE GREAT BELL OF ST. PAUL'S. The following 
extract from the City Press should find a place in 
"N. &Q.": 

"St. Paul's has always possessed, and still owns, a 
great bell. From time immemorial the citizens claimed 
the eastern part of the churchyard as the place of 
assembly for their folk-motes. ' In the great steeple 
there situate (which, we may remark, was an isolated 
Btructure) was their common bell, which being there 
rung, all the inhabitants might then hear and come to- 
gether.' Thus Stow. Dugdale supposes this building 
to have stood where is now St. Paul's School. So far 
back as the 15th of Edward I. (1286) mention is made, 
in a Quo Warranto, of the custom of ringing a bell in 
this tower as one existing long ere that date. Henry VIII. 
lost tower, spire, and bell, at a game of hazard to Sir 
Miles Partridge, who quickly overthrew his winnings 
and melted the bell. For not far short of two centuries 
St. Paul's had no great bell. That which it now pos- 
sesses was the gift of William III. It was originally 
cast in the reign of Edward I., and was hung at the gate 
of Westminster Hall to notify the hour to the judges. 
It was afterwards called ' Edward of Westminster,' and 
subsequently ' Westminster Tom.' William gave it to 
the cathedral of St. Paul, whither it was brought on 
New Year's Day, 1699. Since then it has been twice 
recast, each tune with an addition of metal. It weighs 
more than 2 cwt. over 5 tons. It is 10 ft. in diameter, 
and 10 in. in thickness of metal. The tone is very fine 
in the musical note A, concert pitch. The hour is struck 
by a large hammer, and falls on the outside brim of the 
bell by its own weight. The bell is only tolled that is 
to say, the clapper is only used on the death of one of 
the royal family, or of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the Bishop of London, the Dean of St. Paul's, or the 
Lord Mayor." 


8, Oxford Road, Kilburn. 

NAMES OF TRAINS. Would it not be well to 
put on record a list of the names by which certain 
trains are known ? The Flying Scotchman and 
the Flying Dutchman are familiar, and I have 
directed attention (5 th S. xii. 147) to the Abyssinian 
of the London and South- Western Railway loop- 
line, with which I trust few readers of " N. & Q." 
are acquainted. The Echo for December 29 speaks 
of an accident to " a fast train known as the Zulu, 
which left Paddington at three o'clock yesterday 
afternoon for Plymouth." JAMES BRITTEN. 


MEMORY. I was at school at Rugeley at the time 
of the Luddite disturbances in 1812. There was 
an old labourer employed about the garden, whose 
indignation was roused by the sight of soldiers and 
guns passing by the playground on their way to 
put down the just aspirations of the people, as he 
considered them. He exclaimed, " We want another 
Oliver, we do." [See " N. & Q.," 6 th S. ii. 485]. 

Another recollection of the same period occurs 
to me respecting another matter which has lately 
been noticed in " N. & Q.," viz., the use of the old 
exclamation, "By'r Lady." A country girl, 
a servant in the house, excited by some iniquity of 

one of the boys, cried out, " Ay, that I will, be- 
leddy." H. WEDGWOOD. 

A " DROP." May it not be as well to place on 
record in " N. & Q." an extract from my letter to 
the Globe relating to a case of death by poisoning 
in connexion with the double meaning usually 
attached to the word " drop " ? The matron of an 
orphanage at Twickenham inadvertently poisoned 
herself from an overdose of aconite : 

" It appears from the evidence that the doctor 
verbally recommended a drop of aconite on a lump of 
sugar. Must not the unfortunate victim have taken him 
to mean a small quantity, in the same sense as a 'drop 
of milk,' * drop of gin,' &c. 1 On no other supposition 
can the taking of a large quantity of so deadly a poison 
be accounted for." 

I may remark that a drop (lit.} would be the 
maximum dose of Fleming's tincture. 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

the library of which I have the honour to be in 
charge there was some years ago a volume, now 
missing, of tracts by Thomas Nashe. As books 
sometimes turn up in a marvellous manner, I 
think it is just worth the chance to send the items 
to " N. & Q." If the volume has come into the 
possession of some of your readers, an amicable 
arrangement might be possible. The book could 
be identified both by the order in which the 
tracts are placed and by the library class marks. 
The tracts stand thus : 

1. Strange News of the Intercepting Certaine Letters 
and a Convoy of Verses. 1593. 

2. The Unfortunate Traveller ; or, the Life of Jacko 
Wilton. 1593. 

3. Pierce Pennilesse's Supplication to the Devill. 1595. 

4. Have with You to Saffron Walden. 1596. 

5. Lenten Stuffe, containing a Description of Yar- 
mouth in Norfolke, with the Praise of the Red Herring. 

6. Christ's Tears over Jerusalem, with an Admonition 
to London. 1611. 


"NEW EPIGRAMS," 1695. 

" A Book of New Epigrams. By the Same Hand that 
Translated Martial. London, Printed for Henry Bon- 
wicke at the Red Lyon in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1695."" 

Who was the author of this book ? I cannot 
find it mentioned either by Lowndes or Hazlitt. 
On the fly-leaf of my copy is the inscription, " J. 
Colerane, Ex dono Authoris, D.D., Killegrew," 
with the book-plate of Henry, Lord Coleraine, 1702. 
There are commendatory verses by N. Tate and 

6bs.m.jAH.iv8i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a copy of the Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift 
London, 1739, folio ; but there is also a spuriou 
folio edition, published in 1733, and dedicated t< 
Pope. Can any reader of " N. & Q." give me any 
particulars respecting this latter issue in addition 
to those contained in Scott's Life of Swift ? 

S. D. 

M. NAUROY, 30, Eue de Seine, Paris, is anxiou 
to identify, if possible, the date and place of birth 
and London residences of a Mrs. Brown, whom he 
believes to have been married, circa 1806, to the Du< 
de Berri, while the prince was residing in London 
apart from the rest of the exiled royal family o: 
France. Any information concerning Mr. or Mrs 
Brown would be acceptable, and especially any 
thing throwing a light on the supposed marriage. 

Michaud, Biog. Univ., s.v., mentions only " unc 
intime liaison avec une dame anglaise," without giving 
names or exact dates, but approximately circa 1800-1804, 
and 1804-1814. The only acknowledged marriage was 
announced to the French Chamber in a royal message ol 
March 28, 1816. Michaud's language is certainly entirely 
against M. Nauroy's theory.] 

the Catholic Directory for 1881, p. 34, that Lord 
Mowbray, Segrave, and Stourton claims to be pre- 
mier baron of England as Lord Mowbray, and that 
the date of the creation of that barony and that of 
Segrave is given as 1283. In Courthope's edition 
of Nicolas's Historic Peerage it is stated that Koger 
de Mowbray was summoned to Parliament June 23, 
1295, and Nicholas de Segrave Dec. 24, 1264, on 
which latter day Eobert de Roos was also sum- 
moned, ten days later than the summons issued to 
Hugh Despencer, ancestor of the present Lady le 
Despencer. Unless, therefore, some new lists of 
summons have been discovered, I fail to see how 
this peer can justly claim to be premier baron of 
England as Lord Mowbray, although his rank as 
Lord Segrave would appear to place him as second 
or third on the roll of barons. 


"EVANGELIEN DER SpiNNRocK." Many years 
ago for it was before the death of that most in- 
telligent and obliging of booksellers, Tom Rodd 
I saw in one of his catalogues a small volume, of 
which, I believe, the above is the correct title. It 
is, as I conclude, a Dutch version of the French 
Les Evangiles des Quenouilles. I missed it, and 
have never since seen or heard of any other copy ; 
and though, so far as I have been able, I have looked 
into the writings of Mone, Hoffmann von Fallers- 
leben, and such other books on Low Country litera- 
ture as I possess, I have never seen any allusion to 
or mention of such a translation. Neither does 
P. Janet refer to it in his edition (1855) of the 
French original. Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
tell me of the existence of a copy, or refer me to 

any account of the work in any bibliographical or 
literary history ? WILLIAM J. THOMS. 

Emmanuel College, Cambridge (A.B. 1709, A.M. 
1718), and married the sister of a fellow student, 
the Rev. Towers Ashcroft, who bore him a son and 
a daughter. The son, John Reade, married Sarah, 

daughter of Wilmot, and left an only daughter, 

Sarah, wife to Sir Thomas Pate Hankin, Lieut. - 
Col. of the Scotch Greys, who died s.p. The widow 
married secondly Edmund Ferrers, of Oak Ferrers, 
in Fletching, co. Sussex, and here the daughter, 
Faith Reade (the heir by survivorship) in 1747 
became the wife of the rector of the adjoining parish 
of Maresfield, the Rev. Henry Michell, whose de- 
scendants now quarter for Reade, Gu., three fleurs- 
de-lis betw. a chevron or. What preferment, if 
any, did Francis Reade hold ? When and where 
did he die 1 Who was Sarah Wilmot ; and what 
was the date and place of her husband's death ? 
Information on all or any of these points would 
greatly oblige. H. W. 

New Univ. Club. 

"RODNEY." In Mr. C. H. Poole's recently 
issued Glossary of Staffordshire Words this word 
is found, meaning " to skulk and idle about ; also 
an idle, skulking fellow who will not work, a 
loafer." I am informed that the word is used in 
Caermarthen in the sense of a vagabond. What 
is the origin of the term ? Has it been primarily 
a proper name 1 F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 


A TWICE-TOLD TALE? In the Daily Telegraph, 
Dec. 27, 1880, an anecdote is given, on the au- 
-hority of Karatygin, the Russian actor, of the late 
Smperor Nicholas visiting one of the State peni- 
tentiaries. On questioning the prisoners, each one 
declared he was innocent, excepting a wretched- 
ooking gipsy, who frankly admitted he had stolen 
a pony, whereupon the emperor ordered his 
elease, lest the innocent should be corrupted by a 
criminal associate. As the same tale is told of the 
Duke d'Ossuna when he was viceroy of Naples on 
iberating a format from one of the Spanish galleys, 
t would be interesting to know whether it is 
ounded on fact, or is merely one of those ingenious 
leasantries inserted in memoirs at the expense of 
heir historical value. B. D. MOSELEY. 

NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. Wanted the name 
f a trustworthy and thorough book on Northern 

ythology, preferably in English or German, 
hough Danish, Norse, or Swedish might do. I 
mow Grimm's Handbuch d. Deutechen Myihologie. 

)uring the episcopate of Bishop Tomline, that 
relate, it is said, removed a bell from Tetney to 



[6th S. III. JAN. 15, '81, 

ornament a "Hermitage" he was then building at 
Riby ; but the bell, being badly packed, sounded in 
the carrier's cart, and so proclaimed the fact : the 
bell was afterwards restored. I am told that some 
amusing verses were written at the time upon the 
occurrence. I should be grateful for a copy. 

Ventnor, I. W. 

" MITCHAM WHISPER." This expression occurs 
in Mr. Spurgeon's John Ploughman. Whence its 
origin? JAS. CURTIS. 

FOLK-LORE AS TO OATHS. The following 
curious piece of superstition, which came to light 
during a recent "morning at Bow Street," may be 
new to some of the readers of " N. & Q.," as it is 
to myself : 

" A woman came forward for the purpose of giving 
evidence on behalf of the prisoners, but she declined to 
take the oath. In reply to Mr. Vaughan, she stated 
that her reason for doing so was because she was 
enceinte. Mr. Vaughan : But surely that makes no dif- 
ference to your being sworn ? Witness : Well, it makes a 
great difference to me, and I shan't do it. Mr. Vaughan : 
If you come to speak the truth, your condition can make 
no difference. I cannot accept any statement as evidence 
unless you are sworn. Witness : Well, I certainly won't 
be." Daily Neics, Dec. 29, 1880. 

What is the explanation of the woman's objection 
to taking the oath ? EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 
6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

" ALLOBROGICAL." What is the meaning of 
this epithet in the following passages ? 

" These which I have abstracted from our judicious 
surveyer, and an hundred other doubts concerning the 
extent and managing of the new Consistory, are enough to 
let an ingenuous reader see on what shelves of land this 
late Allobrogicall device is erected." Bp. Hall, Episco- 
pacie ly Divine Right, pt. iii. 5, p. 245. 

" Although this allobrogical Brood [the Presbytery of 
Edinburgh] maintain Parity, there be notwithstanding 
some few Patriarchs who rule and over-rule all, who lord 
it and pope it over the Lord's Inheritance." The Burden 
oflssachar, 1646, in The Phoenix, 1708, vol. ii. p. 265. 


ETHELRED THE UNREADY. What is the earliest 
passage in which this sobriquet occurs ? 

LEAMINGTON. This town is of course named 
from the river Learn. But how is the ing to be 
explained ? What are the old forms of the name ? 

A. L. M. 

STAFFORDSHIRE. I shall be glad to have his 
pedigree. He married Jane, daughter of William 
Ellis, of Kiddall, co. York. His father was Francis 
Mosley, baptized Sept. 26, 1630, died 1699 ; Fel- 
low of the Collegiate Church, Manchester, anc 
Rector of Wilmslow, Cheshire. J. L. 

NUMISMATIC. Silver coin, size of a shilling 
Obv.: legend, "Post Tenebras Lux"; field, an 

eagle with wings spread standing on a (?) 

within a wreath. Rev. : legend, " Egalite, Liberte, 
Independance"; m.m., "W.; field, " 15 Sols," in 
/he centre of a radiated circle. Edge milled. Is 
;his a coin of the second French Republic, 1848-52 ; 
if not, what is it 1 Ogilvie states, " Sol, in France 
a small copper coin, a halfpenny ; usually sou or 
sous. A copper coin and money of account in 
Switzerland." Were silver coins in " sols " issued 
of any other value ? 

79, Carlton Hill, N.W. 

following letter from Lady Harcourt to her son 
not then eighteen will show the different style of 
correspondence then carried on between a mother 
and son, and that, I trust, now in use (Harcourt 
Papers, vol. iii. p. 63) : 

" Cockthrop, Sept. 16th, 1754. 

' I told you in a former letter of Hia Grace the 

Duke of Kingstons Intended Match, if a divorse cou'd 
be obtained, and likewise of Lord Walgraves [sic'] with 
Miss Drax. The latter I hear is declared, and I am told 
a person representing to him the flaw there was in that 
Ladys Character, his Lord 8p replyed, that nothing was 
worthy of consideration in a woman, but her beauty. 
Are not these glorious principles ; and is not he a proper 
person to form the mind of a young Prince ? " 

Note, Lord Waldegrave was then governor to 
the Prince of Wales, afterwards George III. Who 
was the Miss Drax here alluded to, and what 
became of her ? ECLECTIC. 

young Irishmen on arriving in England known as 
" Grecians " ] The term is in general use. 


A COPPER TOKEN. I should feel greatly obliged 
for information about a copper halfpenny token 
bearing on obverse G. v. STEWART + LISDOURT + 
1867 ; on reverse, " 2. 6." A gentleman of this 
name conducted a colony of settlers to the North 
Island of New Zealand about the above date. 
Was he the issuer of this token 1 Where is Lis- 
dourt ? B. W. ADAMS, D.D. 

Santry Rectory, Ireland. 

MR. UPCOTT. I should be glad to have any 
details regarding this well-known collector of 
autographs and such things. I believe his treasures 
were sold ; if so, I should like to know when. 


Lennox Street, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM PITT. I am desirous of making a 
complete list of the pictures and engravings of 
William Pitt, and should be much obliged for any 
assistance from readers of " N. & 0." 

G. F. R. B. 

SAPPHO. F. G. Welcher wrote a little work on 
Sappho, which was published at Gottingen in 1816. 

. in. ,UN. 



It purports to be a vindication of her personal 
character. Can any reader favour me direct with 
the pith of it ? C. A. WARD. 

May fair. 


Thoughts on Nature and Religion; or, an Apology 
for the Right of Private Judgment Maintaintd. By 
Michael Servetus, M.D., in his answer to John Calvin. 
Printed by Phineas Bagnell & Co., 1774. A copy 
of the above book, now before me, contains a MS. note 
stating that the author's " real name was Patrick Blair, 
Esq., M.D." Is anything known of this book ? 

C. W. S. 

" The small dark volume rough [or rich ?] with tarnished 
gold." Q. 

" Such silence, one could hear a shadow fall 

Athwart the stillness." 
" Where Meranon, ever gazing at the East, 
Waits till the arrows of the brightening dawn 
Smite into song the silent lips of stone." 


" A mo, amas, I love a lass." 

Where can I find the words in full ? I fancy it occurs 
in a drama by O'Keeffe. JOSEPHUS. 

In Pearson On the Creed (p. 240 of folio ed.) a pas- 
sage is cited as from Jerome's Comm. on Ecclesiastes 
which is certainly not in that work. Part of it runs, 
" Ut Angelus in caminum Babylonis ad tres pueros 
liberandos descendit, ita Christus ad fornacem descendit 
inferni, in quo clausse justorum animae tenebantur." 
Where does this really come from ] S. 

What Greek father says : 

yap 77 QtorrjQ Ti\tiovv TO. iravra TO. Kara 
TOV TraQovq, KCLI ovv Ty "fyv\y KareXOtlv 
tig TO. KaTa\Q6via. S. 

(3 rd S. i. 109 ; vi. 61 ; 4 th S. i. 12 ; 6 th S. ii. 434.) 

(4 th S. xi. 75, 219; 5 th S. xi. 265, 298, 331, 372, 

418; xii. 173, 357, 457 ; 6 th S. i. 85, 141, 160, 

224; ii. 434, 487.) 

The dates of John Reading's appointments at 
Lincoln, quoted by MR. CUMMINGS in his recent 
note, are very valuable ; and there is at least 
a possibility, if not quite (as MR. CUMMINGS 
suggests) a " probability," that the John Reading 
(.No. 1) appointed "Junior Vicar" Oct. 10, 
1667, "Poor Clerk" Nov. 28, 1667, and 
" Magister Choristorum " June 7, 1670, may have 
been the same who was appointed organist of 
Winchester Cathedral in 1675. Where there are, 
however, so many Richards in the field as we find 
here, it is hard to say whether any two are, or are 
not, identical. 

This Reading, or a namesake of his, published 
in 1663 a tract on church music, a copy of which 

was in Dr. Bliss's sale. But it is hardly credible 
that this was the work of the young man who was 
four years later appointed " Junior Vicar " at 
Lincoln. Here, then, we have Reading (No. 2). 

In 1681 John Reading (No. 1) resigned his post at 
Winchester Cathedral, in which he was succeeded by 
Vaughan Richardson, and accepted that of organist 
at the College, for which he undoubtedly composed 
the Election Graces and the "Dulce domum," 
which was afterwards altered by P. Fussell. 
These, together with other Graces and a " Hymnus 
Matutinus " by J. Bishop, and a three-part song 
by Dr. W. Hayes, were published at Winchester 
in 1811 by the Rev. Gilbert Heathcote, A.M., 
Fellow of Winchester College. Several of this 
Reading's songs are in Playford's Choice Ayres, 
1681, in the Theatre of Music, 1687, and in Comes 
Amoris, 1688. That he "in all probability" 
composed " Adeste fideles " seems to me to be a 
very hazardous conjecture, entirely unsupported by 
any trustworthy evidence. The late DR. RIMBAULT 
was silent on the point, though it was the one 
which was originally mooted in these columns by 
NOTIA (3 rd S. i. 109), to whose query his note was 
presumably intended as a reply. MR. H. PARR 
raised the question again (4 th S. i. 12); but no 
satisfactory answer has ever yet been given to 
him. The belief in Reading's authorship of the 
hymn seems to rest on an obiter dictum of a 
" daughter of the late Vincent Novello," who was 
supposed to have found it and harmonized or 
arranged it ; but Mr. V. Novello's attributions of 
authorship were not always strictly accurate, as 
appears from later examination of some masses pub- 
lished by him as the compositions of Mozart. MR. 
CUMMINGS, in his interesting note, names Jeremiah 
Clark (not Clarke) as the successor of Reading, on 
the death of the latter in 1692, at Winchester 
College ; and Mr. Husk (Grove's Dictionary of 
Music and Musicians) says that Clark " became 
for a short time organist " there. I suppose, there- 
fore, that there must be good evidence of this, 
though I have been unable to find it ; but I have 
a note in the handwriting of the late Mr. T. 
Oliphant, usually an accurate person, to the effect 
that Reading died in 1695, and was succeeded by 
John Bishop. This tallies precisely with DR. 
RIMBAULT'S account, taken " from the records of 
the Cathedral and College of Winchester." If 
evidence to the contrary exist, proving Reading's 
death to have occurred in 1692, and that Clark (and 
not Bishop) succeeded him, MR. CUMMINGS will 
oblige many of your readers by putting them in 
possession of it. 

Unfortunately, Mr. Husk has been precluded, 
probably by want of space, from telling us in the 
Dictionary anything about J. Bishop. As it may 
interest some readers, while we are on the subject 
of Winchester organists, I will add a note of what 
I know about him at the end of these remarks. 



[6th s. III. JAN. 15, '81. 

Next to this John Reading comes another, 
named by DR. RIMBAULT on the authority of " the 
records of Chichester Cathedral," who was ap- 
pointed organist in the room of Bartholomew 
Webbe, 1674, and held the post till 1720, when he 
was succeeded by Thomas Kelway. This cannot 
have been the same as either of the Readings 
named above, and must be called John Read- 
ing (No. 3). 

Arriving at the next John Reading (No. 4), we 
may accept it as possible, if not " probable," that 
he was the son of Reading (No. 1). MR. CUM- 
MINGS tells us that this Reading was born in 1677. 
I should be glad to know the evidence of this date. 
If it be correct, which I by no means doubt, it 
makes it impossible that this should have been 
(as conjectured by DR. RIMBAULT) the same 
" Mr. Reading " who sung the song called 
The Infallible Doctor, which was printed in 
The Pleasant Musical Companion by J. Play- 
ford in 1685, and published in 1686 and 
1687 (for these two editions are identical). 
No one who reads the words of that song will, 
I think, venture to suppose that they could have 
been given to a child only eight years old to 
sing ; had they been different in character, and 
sung by so young a boy, he would, accord- 
ing to the custom of the time, have been called 

"The boy," or "Mr. 's boy," or "Master 

Reading." We are, therefore, driven to the 
conclusion that the singer was a Reading 
(No. 5), for he cannot well have been either the 
organist of Chichester or of Winchester. 

J. Reading (No. 4) certainly was a "child in 
the Chapel Royal" under Dr. Blow, and became 
afterwards organist of St. John's, Hackney. 
While holding that appointment, as appears 
clearly on their titles, he published his Bool of 
New Anthems and Bool of New Songs. MR. 
CUMMINGS thinks that both of these "must 
have been printed before 1700," because he 
has found that Reading was appointed in 1700 
organist at Dulwich. I think, on the contrary, that 
they cannot have been printed before 1708-9, as 
the composer on both titles names his old master 
as " the late Dr. Blow"; and Dr. Blow did not die 
till Oct. 1, 1708. If the Dulwich organist be really 
identical with the organist at Hackney, there is 
here another puzzle ; but he may have returned 
to Hackney from Dulwich, or may have held the 
two appointments together. Mr. Oliphant, who 
was well up in the newspapers of that time, says 
(in another MS. note) that the Boole of New Songs 
was published "about 1720." DR. RIMBAULT 
quotes Reading's preface to that publication as 
showing that the New Songs were Reading's 
"first essays"; but the composer probably only 
meant, in using that expression, to say that they 
were his " first essays " in the " Italian manner," 
which he was there engaged in recommending. 

At any rate, it is hard to believe that Reading 
(No. 4), who had been an organist at Hackney and 
at Dulwich (?) in 1700, could have gone as 
" Junior Vicar " and " Poor Clerk " to Lincoln in 
1702, remaining there as "Magister" and "In- 
structor Choristorum " in 1703 and 1704. The 
person who filled these places must have been yet 
another Reading (No. 6); for the publications of the 
Hackney organist prove beyond question that he 
was still in London after 1708, if not until 1720. 
MR. CUMMINGS himself quotes entries " in his own 
hand " (where made ?), showing that Reading (No. 4) 
was in London in 1737 and in 1750. In the latter 
year he was organist of St. Dunstan-in-the-West, 
Fleet Street, and of the united parishes of St. 
Mary Woolnoth and St. Mary Woolchurch [not 
Woolchurchaw : Woolchurch Haw, or Yard, was 
the place adjacent to the church (burnt in 1666) 
where wool was formerly weighed ; it is mentioned 
as early as temp. Ed. II.]. Reading (No. 4) was 
an original subscriber to the Royal Society of Musi- 
cians in 1738, and Hawkins (1766) speaks of his 
having died " a few years ago, at a very advanced 
age." MR. CUMMINGS puts the date very precisely, 
Sept. 2, 1764. May I once more venture to ask 
for his authority 1 

It appears, then, that there were at least five 
or six John Readings between 1663 and 1764 (?). 
Artists of this name seem to have been " as 
plentiful as blackberries," and it will be interest- 
ing to see what Mr. Husk has made of them when 
that part of the new Dictionary appears. I only 
hope that the limits imposed upon antiquarian 
research in that work may be so far relaxed as to 
allow him space to give us the results of his 
accurate industry in this direction. 

John Bishop, born in 1665, and said (Dictionary 
of Musicians] to have been " a scholar of Rosin- 
grave," cannot have been the pupil of a man who 
was "early" sent to Italy (1710) to study, and 
only returned a few years later, while Bishop had 
become organist of Winchester College in 1695, 
on the death (?) of J. Reading. In 1701 (Lond. 
Gazette, June 12) he still held that situation ; but 
in 1729 he succeeded Vaughan Richardson as 
organist of the Cathedral. It appears by his 
monument in the College Cloisters that he died, 
aitat. 72, in 1737. He was succeeded by Kent, 
who had competed for the place in 1729. Bishop 
composed some church music, and published 
a collection of airs for two flutes : " His ' Hymnus 
Matutinus' is even now elegant" (Dictionary of 

LAND (6 th S. ii. 408). There may be a doubt, 
I think, as to the Christian name of the sub- 
ject of MR. BLATDES'S query, but I see no 
grounds for any doubt as to her parentage. 

in. JAN. is, ' 



With regard to her Christian name there i 
this much uncertainty, that while MR. BLAYDES 
calls her Lucy, Sir Bernard Burke, in the las 
edition of his Dormant and Extinct Peerage 
(1866), calls her Catherine. It is certain that he: 
mother was named Catherine, and that the countesi 
gave that name to her own daughter, the wife o 
Wrtliam Spencer, of Cople, Bedfordshire. By the 
December number of Miscellanea Genealogica e 
Heraldica it would appear that the information 
upon which the query concerning the Countess o 
Cleveland is based is a series of " Notes in the 
Parish Eegisters of Toddington [Bedfordshire]," o 
inscriptions on coffin-plates of the Wentworth 
family, " taken in 1845, in which year the vault 
was opened, and there were found to be thirteen 
coffins, of which three had no plates." Un- 
fortunately, we are not told by whom the notes 
were taken, or by whom they were inserted in the 
parish register. They have clearly so, at least, it 
appears to me not the same authority as the 
parochial register itself. It would be interesting 
to know whether the register agrees on this point 
with the notes. It will be obvious, I trust, that 
the particular question as to the value of such notes 
for purposes of evidence does not affect the general 
value of the monumental and other inscriptions 
by which MR. BLAYDES is illustrating Bedfordshire 
family history. Such collections are of great 
assistance to the genealogist. I may observe that 
Morant's Essex, which had evidently not been re 
ferred to by MR. BLAYDES at the time of sending 
his query, supports the Notes by calling the Coun- 
tess of Cleveland Lucy. I therefore admit that 
the preponderance of authority is in favour of that 
name, and I am disposed to attribute Sir Bernard 
Burke's Catherine to a clerical or typographical error, 
easily made where both the mother and daughter 
of the countess were actually named Catherine. 
But whatever her Christian name may ultimately 
be proved to have been, there is no doubt that 
the second wife of Thomas, the Lord Wentworth 
of Nettlestead created Earl of Cleveland in 1625, 
was herself a Wentworth, the fourth daughter of Sir 
John Wentworth, first Baronet (created 1611) of 
Gosfield and Codham Hall, by Catherine, daughter 
of Sir Moyle Finch. The ancestry of the husband 
and wife meets at a common point in Sir Eoger 
Wentworth, third son of John Wentworth of North 
Elmsall, Yorkshire, whose own line was a branch 
of Wentworth Woodhouse, the parent stock of the 
Earls of Strafford. 

Sir Eoger Wentworth, by his marriage with 
Margery Le Despenser, was ancestor, through his 
eldest son Sir Philip, of the Lords Wentworth of 
Nettlestead. His second son, Henry, first of Cod- 
ham Hall, Essex, was ancestor of Lucy (or Cathe- 
rine), second wife of Thomas, Earl of Cleveland. 
MR. BLAYDES seems to think that there were other 
Earls of Cleveland and of the Christian name of 

Thomas. I do not know where he has found them. 
The testimony of the peerages, so far as I have 
been able to search them, is unanimous to the 
effect that Thomas Wentworth was the only Earl 
of Cleveland of any line whatsoever. Earl Thomas, 
the husband of Lucy (or Catherine) Wentworth, 
died " piously," as MR. BLAYDES has himself told 
us in Misc. Gen. et Her., on " March the 25th, 
A D 1 1667." I see no reason to doubt the testimony 
of the peerages to the effect that as he died s.p.m. the 
earldom thereupon became extinct. And I am 
not aware that any Cleveland title of that degree 
in the peerage has at any subsequent date been 

It will, of course, be seen from the account 
which I have given of her parentage that Lucy (or 
Catherine), Countess of Cleveland, was not " Lady 
Lucy Wentworth," according to modern usage. It 
may interest MR. BLAYDES to know that an earlier 
intermarriage between the Wentworths of Nettle- 
stead and Gosfield took place in the person of 
Thomas, second Lord Wentworth (1552-89), grand- 
father of the Earl of Cleveland, who married Anne 
Wentworth of Gosfield. She is stated to have 
been daughter of Sir John, but by mistake, I think, 
for his father Sir Eoger, Sheriff of Essex and Herts, 
1499 (ob. 1539), who married Anne, only daughter 
of Humfrey Tyrell, of Little Warley, and thereby 
obtained Gosfield. This I argue from the fact that 
Anne, the daughter of Sir John of Gosfield, was 
thrice married, but never to a Wentworth, and 
dying s.p. the succession passed to her cousin John, 
grandson of Henry, younger brother of her father, 
and ancestor of the Countess of Cleveland. 

Some points of interest, connected with the two 
aaronies of Wentworth in the Nettlestead family, 
[ must reserve for the separate treatment which 
they appear to deserve. 


New University Club, S.W. 

Lady Lucy Wentworth was daughter and co- 
leiress of Sir John Wentworth, of Gosfield, Bart, 
created 1611, title extinct 1631). There was only 
one Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Cleveland. The 
;itle was created Feb. 7, 1625, and he died March 25, 
L667, leaving no surviving son, so the earldom 
)ecame extinct. He was twice married, first to 
Anne, daughter of Sir John Crofts, of Saxham, 
Suffolk, Knt. She died in 1637, and was buried 
at Tuddington, Beds, leaving three sons, Thomas, 
/Villiam, and Charles, who all died before their 
ather, and three daughters, Anne and Mary, who 
lied unmarried, and Anne, who married Lord 
jovelace, and transmitted the barony of Went- 
worth to her daughter. The Earl of Cleveland's 
econd wife was Lucy, daughter of Sir John Went- 
rorth, of Gosfield, Essex, by his wife Catherine, 
aughter of Sir Moyle Finch. She died Nov. 23, 
651, and was buried at Tuddington on Dec. 2, 



[6ti S . III. JAN. 15, '81. 

1651 (Collins's Peerage, 1735, p. 601). In some 
peerages she is called Catherine, not Lucy (Burke, 
Dormant and Extinct Peerages, 1866, p. 578). MR. 
BLAYDES does not state whether he quotes from 
a monument only or from some better authority. 
Possibly she bore both names. In Burke's Ex- 
tinct Baronetage (p. 560) she is styled Lucy Went- 


ELLIS'S contributions to baronial genealogy are 
always interesting and important, and I can 
confirm the accuracy of his pedigree of Courtenay, 
with some slight modifications which he may be 
glad to consider. 

Hugh de Courtenay had another brother besides 
Reginald, for Hugh was the heir of his brother 
Gerard, and had seisin of his brother's lands in 
Buckinghamshire and Lincolnshire on Nov. 4, 
1217 (Rot. Glaus.}. I can scarcely doubt that the 
bulk of Hugh's great estate was derived from, his 
mother, as it did not descend to his cousin, 
Eobert de Courtenay of Oakhampton, who was 
his grandfather's heir in 1224. But I cannot think 
that Hugh de Courtenay was the son of the widow 
of William de Traci, because the chartulary of St. 
Nicholas Priory, at Exeter, contains a deed by 
which Hugh grants to Everard Cole certain lands 
in his manor of Morton which " William de 
Traci avunculus meus granted to Amy, wife of the 
said Everard" (Collectanea Topographica et Genea- 
logica, vol. i.). It is certain, however, that William 
de Traci, son of Gervasia de Courtenay, granted in 
North Shillingford to Tor Abbey in 10 Ric. I., 
and it looks as if he were the son of another 
William de Traci, whose wife was the sister 
of Hugh de Courtenay's father. I have no books 
at present to refer to, but it would be easy to 
ascertain what became of the large fief held by 
Hugh de Courtenay, and who were its Doomsday 
owners. It is worth remarking that Gervasia was 
the name of the heiress of the barony of Dinan in 
Brittany, who was successively the wife of June! 
de Mayenne, Geoffrey Vicomte de Rohan, and of 
Richard Marshal, Earl of Pembroke. 

It must be doubted also whether Henry de 
Courtenay was not more probably the grandson 
than the son of Reginald the founder of the family, 
for a writ issued on May 16, 1214, to the Sherifi 
of Somerset to give Henry seizin of the lands of 
Josce de Baiocis. TEWARS. 

71, 90). Is it not more likely that the Lady 
Kildare alluded to was Elizabeth, widow of John 
eighteenth Earl of Kildare, daughter and coheii 
of Richard, Earl of Ranelagh, sister of Frances 
second wife of Thomas, Earl of Coningsby, anc 
therefore aunt of Margaret, Countess of Coningsby 
and that the Lady Catherine whose name imnie 

diately follows (6 th S. i. 91) was her other sister, 
jady Catherine Jones ? Lady Southwell was half 
ister to Margaret, Lady Coningsby. 

To show further the intimacy between the 
Blounts and Coningsbys, I may mention that I 
lave inherited a volume of Houbraken's heads, in 
which is this inscription : " This Book did belong 
o Mr. Pope ; was left by him to Mrs. Blount, 
who left it with all his other Prints to Lady 
Frances Coningesby," one of my great-great- 
grandmothers. EDMUND M. BOYLE. 

S. ii. 500, 528). In the History of Great St. Mary's 
Church, written by Mr. Sandars, and published 
)y the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, it is stated, 
p. 32 : 

" Their composition is currently attributed to Dr. 
Crotch, but this is a mistake, the credit of their inven- 
tion being due to Dr. Jowett, of Trinity Hall, Reg. Prof, 
of Law, in the latter half of the last century, who was a 
;alented musician." 

The Rev. Joseph Power, late of Clare College, and 
Librarian to the University, gave me, shortly before 
his death, a copy of the chimes, and he is my 
authority for saying they are in the key of D. 


THE OLD ORGAN AT ST. PAUL'S (6 th S. iii. 27). 
I regret that I cannot send Miss PHILLIMORE 
the volume of the English Musical Gazette which 
she desires to see, but if she would take the trouble 
to refer to a volume entitled Documents Illustrating 
the History of St. Paul's Cathedral,* which I edited 
last year for the Camden Society, she will find one 
or two papers which may throw some light on the 
subject about which she is inquiring. At pages 161-4 
she will find Father Smith's "Original Specification 
for the Cathedral Organ, 1694," printed from the 
very document itself, with Bernard Smith's bold 
autograph signature appended to it, now in the 
possession of Mr. W. H. Cummings; and at 
pages 164-8 a reprint of a curious paper, " Queries 
about St. Paul's Organ circa 1700," which refers in 
set terms to Sir Christopher Wren, and which was 
probably written by some friend of Renatus Harris. 
Possibly the following paper, "Proposals by Renatus 
Harris to Erect an Organ over the West Door circa 
1702," from a printed copy rare, if not unique 
in the cathedral library may also interest your 
correspondent. W. SPARROW SIMPSON. 

I think I may safely say that no Lincolnshire 
man has been known to play the bagpipes within 
the memory of the " oldest inhabitant." When I 
was a boy (more than forty years ago) the plough- 
men and other labourers played the Jew's trump 
(Jew's harp), which is now never seen, and some 
few the flute. I well remember often listening 

[* Reviewed in " N. & Q.," C* S. ii. 399.] 

6th s. in. JAN. is, "si.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


with delight to the poor blind son of one of our 
men, whose lonely cottage was in a valley by a 
beck side at the end of the farm, and who played 
well on the flute. I have often walked out on the 
hill side on a summer's evening, when the wind 
was favourable, that I might hear him. He has 
been gone many years, and the lonely cottage has 
been pulled down because it was said to be the 
resort of poachers. On visiting the place last 
year, which is now occupied by one of my brothers, 
I found the accordion was the favourite instru- 
ment. I used to hear one of the servant-girls 
playing it in the kitchen, one of the waggoners in 
the stables, and the shepherd a' top o' th' hill. 
Only the other day I met a waggoner playing his 
accordion by the side of his team as he went to 
town, and the pleasure it gave the horses was very 
evident. This was much bettter than swearing 
and whipping. People living in large towns form 
very erroneous ideas of farming men, whom they 
are in the habit of calling Hodges, Clodhoppers, 
Johnny Eaws, and other contemptuous names. 
These men are often very kind the roughness all 
outside ; and the pleasure some of them take in 
their horses is extraordinary. I know scores of 
these men, and lose no opportunity of talking to 
them in their own way and about their own 
affairs. This " low " taste of mine, I am afraid, 
sometimes surprises some of my sisters-in-law and 
nieces, who cannot understand why I have gone 
with the shepherd " a-shepherding " or to talk to 
the Irishmen shearing, instead of staying in the 
garden to play at lawn tennis. 

Fuller would have so given it in his Proverbs of 
the County, instead of which he says : 

"Lincolnshire Bagpipes. I behold these as most 
ancient; because a very simple sort of Musick; being 
little more than the Oaten Pipe improved with a Bag, 
wherein the imprisoned wind pleadeth melodiously for 
the Inlargement thereof. It is incredible with what 
agility it inspireth the heavy heels of the Country 
Clowns, overgrown with hair and rudenesse, probably the 
ground-work of the poetical fiction of dancing Satyrs. 
This Bagpipe in the judgement of the Rural Midas' s, 
carryeth away the credit from the Harp of Apollo 
himself, and most persons approve the Blunt Bagpipe 
above the Edge Tool Instruments of Drums and Trumpets 
in our Civil dissentions." Fuller's Worthies, 1642, f. 152. 

K. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

See two notes in " N. & Q.," 5 th S. iv. 368, 474, 
for an explanation. 0. W. TANCOCK. 

373, 399 ; xi. 85 ; 5 th S. xii. 87 ; 6 tb S. ii. 417, 
435, 452, 471, 514 ; iii. 29). In my former com- 
munication I simply gave an extract from a MS. 
letter, once in my possession, and addressed by the 
writer to the late Bishop Thirlwall. The publica- 
tion of that has brought correspondence from those 
who have not only confirmed my story, but who 

" K. C. friends " mentioned. As I have not the 
time or opportunity to follow up the clues in my 
possession, I have handed over all the information 
in my power to the Eev. C. F. S. Warren, of 
Farnborough, Banbury, who has undertaken to do 

popular instrument in this locality. Many think 
that when Shakespere speaks of the " drone of a 
Lincolnshire bagpipe " he alludes to frogs. Not a 
bit of it. No doubt the bagpipe was then a popu- 
lar instrument with the peasantry in Lincolnshire 
as well as in most other parts of England. This 
could be proved by numerous passages from the 
poets, which I need not quote, as I have no doubt 
they are as well known to the other readers of 
"N. &Q." as to myself. Shakespere probably 
wrote "Lincolnshire" because this county was 
then considered one of the most rude and rustical. 

beastly in t 

of the leaste experience, to fynde faute with your 
Prince."* (Aye, there was the rub.) And the 
bagpipe was considered a rude and rustical 
If "Lincolnshire bagpipes'* had meant frogs, 

* Hall's Chronicle, 1550, f. 229. 

C. C. M/s proposal for permission to be in the 
house for some nights, especially in the room, 
should be tried. It would be for the owner's 
advantage to allow it, as it would settle the matter 
one way or the other. I have no doubt that known, 
trustworthy, and determined persons would volun- 
teer. I heard MR. MEEHAN'S story years ago, and 
have no reason to doubt it. SCOTUS. 

MR. MEEHAN'S ghost story appeared in print 
in Temple Bar some time before 1871 ; but if my 
memory serves me it was there said to refer to a 

dl-told story, but do not recollect that it was 
said to be founded on fact. JAMES BRITTEN. 

MR. MEEHAN quotes (6 th S. ii. 514) from a 
letter addressed to the late Bishop Thirlwall, dated 
Jan. 22, 1871, some rumours then current as to 
the house in Berkeley Square which was supposed 
to be haunted. In this letter it is stated that a 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6 lb s. m. JAN. 15, 8i. 

servant had been found in a bedroom, at twelve 
o'clock one night, "in strong convulsions "; and that 
she was taken to St. George's Hospital, " where 
she died the next morning, refusing to the last to 
give any account of what she had seen." 

I have been connected with the hospital for 
nearly twenty years, and I never heard that so 
remarkable a case had come under observa- 
tion ; nor can those who have been attached to 
the institution for a longer period recollect any- 
thing of the kind. 

If MR. MEEHAN could give the name of the 
servant, or the date of her admission to the hos- 
pital, the statement could be verified or otherwise. 

" IN A BROWN STUDY " (6 th S. ii. 408). Your 
correspondent will find an instance of this phrase 
in Lyly's Euphues, 1579, Arber reprint, p. 80, 
where we have : " It seems to me (said she) that 
you are in some brown study, what coulours you 
might best wear." A still earlier instance is in 
the tract on the Manifest Detection, &c., of the 
Use of Dice at Play, 1532, edited for the Percy 
Society in 1850 by Mr. J. 0. Halliwell, p. 6 : 
"Lack of company will soon lead a man into a 
brown study." See " N. & Q.," l Bt S. i. 418, where 
the phrase is suggested to be a corruption of 
" brow-study," and derived from O.G. braun, in its 
compound form Aug-braun, an eyebrow." 

S. J. H. 

Dr. Brewer suggests that "brown study" is 
explained by the French expression sombre reverie, 
and adds that sombre and brun both mean sad, 
melancholy, gloomy, dull, and quotes Congreve 
"Invention flags, his brains grow muddy, 
And black despair succeeds brown study." 

But this quotation hardly bears out his view of 
the meaning of the expression, which he gives as 
" Absence of mind ; apparent thought, but real 
vacuity," for Congreve implies that before the 
" brains grew muddy " invention did not flag, and 
that a state of mind very different to vacuity 
existed. C. T. PARKER. 

Woodliouse Eaves. 

(6 th S. ii. 443). Whilst reading some MS. letters, 
written about a hundred and fifty years ago by a 
member of a family long connected with Eton and 
King's College, Cambridge, I saw DR. HAVEN'S note 
relating to the sale of the bells at King's College. 
One of these may be thought worth a place in 
your columns, as showing the expense of living at 
Cambridge in those days, and how fathers were 
then addressed by their sons. Septimius Plumptre 
was the son of the M.P. for Nottingham, and his 
mother was the daughter of Sir Francis Molyneux, 
Bart., of Taversall, co. Nottingham, and aunt to 
the mother of the twelfth Duke of Norfolk. 

Septimius's grandson (an Etonian) is living, in his 

eighty-ninth year, and, now Dr. Bullock Marsham, 

and Lord Stratford de Redclifte are dead, must be 

among the elder "Eton boys." Till his death 

Septimius Plumptre addressed his father as 

' Honoured sir " in writing to him, and begged 

' his duty to his mamma " after he was a Master 

at Eton. 

"September 29, 1739. 

! HONOURED SIR, By help of a good horse, pretty 
;ood roads and very good company I got safe to Cam- 
bridge arid am very well as I hope you all continue to be. 
I have enclosed the sum of my last Qrs. expences. 
pray give the enclosed letter to my sister Bell. We 
have pulled down the old Bell House that stood in our 
Chapel yard and hope to sell the bells soon. 
" I am sir your dutyfull 

" and obedient son 

" To John Plumptre Esq. 
"Member of Parliament 

" at Nottingham. 
" By Caxton Bay. 

" From June 29 to September 29 1739. 

s. d. 

Cooks Bill, II. 6s. Id.; Coals, Is. 5d. ... 1 8 
A Periwig, II. Is. ; Shoes, 10s. ; Taylor, 


Laundress, 9s. 4<1 ; Barber, 5s ....... 

Cobler, 4s. 6d. ; Bedmaker, 7s. Qd. ; Sem- 

stress, 2s. Sd ............. 14 

Bookseller, 12s. . 12 

5 9 6" 
C. H. 

KEIGHTLEY FAMILY (6 th S. i. 296). THUS will 
find some interesting particulars of the Keightley 
and Hyde families, drawn up by Lady Frances 
(whose husband's name is misprinted as Knightley 
in Burke's Extinct Peerage) in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for April, 1829. 


" BRAG " (6 th S. ii. 425). I cannot endorse MR. 
KNIGHT'S derivation of this word from F. bragues, 
M.F. braies, L. bracas. Diez, in his Eomance 
Dictionary, edited by Donkin, has : " Brague, 
O.F. , diversion ; F. braguer, to be merry ; N.Pr. 
braga, to E. brag, O.F. bragard, &c. It is not 
found in O.Pr., hence probably from N. braJc, 
noise, brdka, to brag." It is very likely that the 
word has this origin, and has nothing to do with 
breeches. The primary sense of the verb seems to 
be to make a noise, and so to talk in a noisy 
manner. This derivation is in harmony with the 
use of the provincial verb to crack, to speak boast- 
fully. Braggere is found in the Vis. of Witt, 
concerning Piers the Plowman, vi. 156, and brace, 
noise, occurs in the Ormulum, 1. 1233 : 

" Wi)>J>utenn brace and brae." 
Cf. also A.-S. gebrcec, D. brag. We have, how- 
ever, still to account for the old adjective brag, 
boastful. Prof. Skeat supposes the words to be of 
Celtic origin, from W. bragio, to boast, brae, 

6* S. III. JAN. 15, '81.] 



boastful. If this is so, may not brague, diversion, 
and braguer have the same origin 1 But is it not 
probable that there has been both Teutonic and 
Celtic influence at work in the production of the 
word as noun, adjective, and verb ? 


The derivation from F. bragues is a mere fancy. 
One great use of my Etymological Dictionary is 
that it so easily disposes of these fancies. I find, 
on referring to it, that braggcre (a boaster) occurs 
as early as in P. Plowman, A. vi. 156, which takes 
us back to A.D. 1360 at once. It is one of the few 
Celtic words in English ; proved to be Celtic by 
its occurrence in Gaelic, Breton, Irish, and Welsh. 
Many so-called Celtic words are really borrowed 
from English, and may often be known from their 
occurring in only one of the Celtic tongues. In- 
stead of looking under bragues in Cotgrave, look 
under bragard. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

S. ii. 408). SCOTUS should have gone a mile 
further east, to the picturesque and historical little 
hamlet of Restalrig, in whose churchyard is situate 
the ancient and beautiful sepulchre of the Lords 
Balmerino. Here probably repose the ashes of the 
ancestor referred to. The Logan and Balmerino 
mausoleum, which internally resembles St. Mar- 
garet's Well at Holyrood, was the burying-place of 
the Logans, Barons of Eestalrig, from the beginning 
of the sixteenth century till 1604, when the lands 
and title became forfeited on account of Robert 
Logan's participation in the Gowry conspiracy. 
About this time the baron, being in great poverty, 
sold his barony of Restalrig to Elphinstone of Bal- 
merino, whose descendants were interred in the 
historic koimeterion till the days of the second 
Jacobite rebellion, when the last, bravest, and best 
Balmerino perished on Tower Hill (1746). The 
vault, together with the lands of Restalrig, then 
passed into the hands of Hay, the secretary of 
" bonnie Prince Charlie," who in turn forfeited 
their possession for the same unfortunate cause ; 
and so, when Miss Hay, his daughter, the venerable 
contemporary and friend of Charles Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe of Hoddam, craved its shelter, the poor boon 
was churlishly denied by the new proprietor, the 
Earl of Bute. Referring to this circumstance, the 
amiable but eccentric antiquary writes : 

" I believe it [the vault] belongs to Lord Bute, and 
that application was made to him to allow Miss Hay, 
whom I well knew, daughter of Hay of Restalrig, Prince 
Charles's forfeited secretary, to be buried in the vault. 
This was refused, and she now lies outside the door. 
May the earth lie light on her ! old lady, kind and 


513). I cannot find in any biographical work in 

my library a notice of " Garibay," but I have no 
doubt MR. PLATT will find one in the British 
Museum. Garibay (Estevan) y Zamalloa, was a 
Spanish author, who wrote Los XL. Libros del 
Compendia Historial de las Chronicas, y Universal 
Historia de todos los Eeynos de Espana. Anvers, 
Plantin, 1571, 4 torn., en 2 vols. fol. This edition 
was revised by the author whilst the work passed 
through the press. There was another, but a less 
esteemed, edition, printed at Barcelona 1628. 
Should not the word quiso in the proverb quoted 
be quisto? Poor Garibay! I hope his soul has 
found at last a haven of rest. 

Ashley House, Epsom. 

S. ii. 403). If, as I suppose, the first edition of 
Glanville's Scep&is Scientifica appeared in 1655, 
there are many earlier notices than his of this 
curiously unscientific and impossible, yet happy, 
anticipation of the ABC telegraph instrument. 
I have not been able to get further back than 
Strada, whose idea amounted to an inspiration, 
and was appropriated by the compiler of the queer 
book called Recreations Mathematiques (first 
printed at Pont a Mousson in 1624, and very 
frequently afterwards both in French and English). 
This author does not content himself with a descrip- 
tion of the instrument, but gives a figure to illus- 
trate the invention. His scepticism is evidenced 
by the concluding words of the chapter : " L'in- 
vention est belle, mais ie n'estime pas que il se 
trouue au monde un aymant qui ait telle vertu ; 
aussi n'est-il pas expedient, autrement les trahisons 
seroient trop frequentes et trop ouuertes." Kircher 
in his Magnes (I quote from the edition 
of 1643) treats the whole question exhaustively, 
and in the same critical and enlightened spirit 
which characterizes most of his writings. He 
quotes the passage from Strada in extenso; he 
admits that the idea of what he calls Steganographia 
Magnetica has occupied the minds of many ; he 
derides those charlatans who would prescribe the 
magnetizing of the needle under some particular 
planet, and at considerable length demonstrates 
the absurdity of the means proposed to be employed 
by such " stolid alembicators." But he goes on to 
observe that he has taken great pains* to ascertain 
whether in some other way " those at a distance 
from each other might by the aid of the magnet 
converse with each other," yet without fruitful 
result. Bishop Wilkins, in his Secret and Swift 
Messenger, showing how a man may with " Privacy 
and Speed communicate his Thoughts to a Friend at 
any Distance " (first ed., 1641), describes the mag- 
netic dial and ascribes the idea to Strada, but 
concludes " that we cannot discourse with another 

* "Nihil non egi quo non in hujus magnetic* Ste- 
ganographiae mysteria quovis modo penetrarem." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6<- s. m. JAN. 15, -si. 

by these Magnetical Virtues at a greater distance 
than two or three Foot or thereabouts." 


THATCHED CHURCHES (6 th S. ii. 447). I believe 
they are not uncommon in Norfolk. Coveney 
Church, Cambridgeshire, is still thatched. Met- 
ford Church, in the parish of Stretham, in the 
same county, was thatched until a few years ago, 
when, on its restoration, the straw was replaced by 
tiles. HUGH PIGOT. 

Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

The chancel only of Tivetshall St. Margaret, 
Norfolk, is thatched. Tivetshall St. Mary was 
thatched until 1873. There were many examples 
in Norfolk until recent restorations. See Lad- 
broke's Views of Norfolk Churches, 1823. 

C. K. M. 


Ingwortb, Swafield * (nave only), Thurgarton, 
Trimingham (chancel only) all in Norfolk. The 
Handbook of English Ecclesiology, 1847, mentions 
also these Norfolk churches : Paston, Eidlingtou, 
Ormesby, and Norwich St. Ethelred. 



The nave and chancel of Fritton Church, near 
Fritton Decoy, in Suffolk, are thatched. 

G. F. E. B. 

The parish church of South Cove, in Suffolk 
(near South wold), was roofed with thatch when I 
saw it in 1876, and probably is so still. 

W. E. TATE. 

Worplesdon, Guildford. 

The church of Pakefield, near Lowestoft, is 
thatched was, at least, when I was there in July, 
1879. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Farnborough, Banbury. 

See " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. xii. 35, 100, for a list of 
churches with thatched roofs. E. FARRER. 

The church of Middleton, in Suffolk, is thatched. 

FALGAR " (6 th S. ii. 406). Gibraltar is a corrup- 
tion of Geb-el-Tarik [Gebel-al-Tarik, Gibbon], or 
" hill of Tarik," it being first fortified in 711 A.D. 
as a base of operations, and a ready point of access 
from the Barbary coast, by Tarik-ebn-Zeyad, a 
Saracen general, when passing into Spain for the 
conquest of the Visigothic kingdom (Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia). Gibraltar is probably, therefore, 
the correct accentuation, though it might be thought 
pedantic to employ it in defiance of long estab- 
lished and general usage. Similarly Trafalgar 
(Tarif-al-gares) is correct, despite Braham's "'Twas 
in Trafalgar's bay," and, I may add, that the former 
accentuation is adhered to in the Nelson family, 
by whom the courtesy title of the eldest son is 

renounced (Viscount) Trafalgar. It would be 
nteresting to know the present Spanish names 
accented) for these places. X. C. 

[The Spanish names have not been altered, nor yet 
their accent. They are still, in Spanish, Gibraltar and 

ETIENNE DOLET (6 th S. ii. 408). Accused of 
atheism by the Sorbonne, for accentuating too 
pointedly the meaning of a passage in his transla- 
;ion of Plato's Dialogue entitled Axiochus* 
Etienne Dolet was tried, found guilty, and first 
ortured, then strangled and burned on the Place 
Maubert, at Paris, August 3, 1546. On seeing the 
sorrowful looks of the people who followed him to 
execution, he is said to have given utterance to this 
verse : 

" Non dolet ipse Dolet, sed pia turba dolet." 
Of. Ne'e de la Eochette, Vie d'Estienne Dolet, 
Paris, 1799, in-8 ; Joseph Boulmier, Estienne 
Dolet, sa Vie, ses CEuvres, et son Marty re, Paris, 
1857, in- 12 ; Niceron, Memoir es, t. xx. 


115, Piccadilly. 

He was both hanged and burned. " Suivant la 
teneur de sa sentence, il fut pendu d'abord et 
brale" ensuite " (vide E. Dolet, sa Vie, ses CEuvres 
et son Martyr e } by Joseph Boulmier, Paris, 1857, 
p. 248). H. KREBS. 


Michaud's Biographic Universelle gives a short 
account of Etienne Dolet, and says of his death : 
" Mis en prison et condarnne' au feu, sans qu'on 
sache bien clairement si le crime qui motiva cet 
arret terrible tenait aux nouvelles opinions ou a 
1'athe'isnie." Larousse's account (Grand Die- 
tionnaire Universel) is the same, but more ex- 
planatory : "Le 2 Aout, 1546, la cour rendit un 
arret. qui condamnait Dolet a etre pendu et brute 
ensuite avec ses livres." This account is cor- 
roborated by the most recent authority upon 
the subject, Mr. E. Copley Christie, in his Life of 
Etienne Dolet (Macmillan). 


6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

NORFOLK TURKEYS (6 th S. ii. 427). Norfolk 
has long been celebrated for its breed of turkeys, 
and the London markets at Christmas are largely 
supplied from that county. The turkey would be 
the excuse for detaining the children from school, 
no doubt. I have a picture of the Norwich and 
London stage coach (a double-bodied coach) on its 
way up loaded with turkeys at Christmas time, 
with a pair of leaders to the team, and another of 
the same coach returning empty with but four 

* Deux Dialogues de Platon, I'un intitule Axiochus, 
Vautre Hipparchus. Traduits en Francais. Lyon, 1544, 

6ti s. III. JAN. 15, '81 ] 



horses. Date 1830. Also another sketch of a 
coach, 1845, unloading turkeys at Mrs. Ann 
Nelson's, Bull Inn, Aldgate, at the same season of 
the year, with these lines underneath : 
" It is a Christmas coach, I vow, 

And whirls along in pride, 

For all its outside passengers 

Are food for the inside. 

With bottles broach, ' The Norfolk coach ' 

As good a toast as heard is ; 

And long live they who feast to-day 

Upon its Christmas turkeys." 


"PRICKED" Music (6 th S. ii. 428). "A booke 
of prikkyd songge "=a manuscript music-book. 
The expression "to prick," in the sense of "to 
copy," music is frequently to be heard in country 
choirs. J. R. 

" CRAVAT " AND ' BREAST-PIN w (6 th S. ii. 429). 
HERMENTRUDE is correct in thinking that a 
cravat is a silk neck-scarf, and a breast-pin a 
brooch. The cravat was of half-handkerchief 
shape, and too small to tie. It was crossed in 
front, and fastened with a breast-pin, sometimes 
also called a bosom-pin. I remember, when a girl, 
in New England, the cravat, as I have described it, 
being worn by my mother, but it has been out of 
fashion for many years. S. E. M. 

The etymology of cravat is thus given by 
M. Littre" : " Cravate, de Cravate=Croate ; parce 
que cette piece d'habillement fut de'nomme'e 
d'apres les Cravates ou Creates qui vinrent au 
service de France." GUSTAVE MASSON. 


" ALL AND SOME " (6 th S. ii. 404). Dr. Morris 
illustrates both meanings in his English Accidence, 
p. 142. After explaining the ordinary use of the 
expression, Dr. Morris adds : " It has also the 
force of wholly, altogether ; hence it is supposed 
that some = same, O.E. samen, together. Cp. 
Spenser's phrase, ' Light and dark sam.' " That 
the phrase is not unique in modern poetry, and 
that it might well have occurred in the Earthly 
Paradise without special archaic reference, is seen 
from the fact that it occurs in Absalom and 
Achitophel Dr. Morris quotes 

" Stop your noses, readers, all and some." 


THOMAS MOORE (6 th S. ii. 427). For some 
notices of Thomas Moore, who was Dean of St. 
Paul's in the reign of Henry V., and who founded 
a chantry in the cathedral, see Dean Milman's 
Annals of St. Paul's, pp. 149 and 515. 


S. ii. 427). A pedigree of this family was entered 

at the Heralds' Visitation of 1664-5, which has 
been printed by the Chetham Society. J. R. 

DERIVATION OF "EXTA" (6 th S. ii. 428). 
Exta is a contraction of ec-i-sta, a superlative form 
from ex (ec), meaning " most prominent," i.e. " most 
important." (cp. e^o^o? in Homer). It was applied 
therefore to the most important of the entrails for 
purposes of augury, the heart, lungs, and liver. 
It can have nothing to do either with exitus or 
exsecta ; but it is a curious accident that a word 
which in its most literal sense means "out" or 
" outside," should be used in Latin of the inner 
parts of the body (eVre/ca), or, as we sometimes 
call them, the " inwards." C. S. JERRAM. 

(6 th S. ii. 464, 497, 521). I have " Fairburn's 
Genuine Edition of The Book, including the De- 
fence of her Koyal Highness the Princess of Wales 
as prepared by Mr. Spencer Perceval." On the 
first title-page is an open book, on which is written : 

" Delicate Investigation. I can, in the face of the 
Almighty, assure your Majesty that your daughter-in- 
law is innocent. Caroline." 

The second title-page has 

"An Inquiry or Delicate Investigation into the Con- 
duct of rier Royal Highness the Princess of Wales before 
Lords Erskine, Spencer, Grenville, and Ellenborough, 
the four Special Commissioners appointed by his Majesty 
in the Year 1806. .Reprinted from an authentic copy, 
superintended through the press by the Eight Hon. 
Spencer Perceval. Fourth edition. London, 1820." 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

447 ; iii. 31). There is an engraved portrait of 
" Thomas Browne, med. doctor," in a small half- 
sheet. This was published before he was knighted 
by Charles II., in Sept., 1671. Before his Works, 
1686, fol., is a portrait engraved by R. White. 
Others were engraved by Van Hove, P. Vaudre- 
banc, and T. Trotter (see Granger's Biog. Hist. iii. 
117, v. 215). Granger says : " There is a portrait 
of him... in the anatomy school at Oxford ; and at 
Devonshire House are the portraits of Sir Thomas, 
his wife, his two sons, and as many daughters, in 
one piece by Dobson." Sir Thomas had ten chil- 
dren, of whom one son and three daughters sur- 
vived him. This son was Edward Browne, an 
eminent physician, who attended Charles II. on his 
death-bed, and became President of the Royal 
College of Physicians. He died Aug. 27, 1708, 
and a notice of him will be found in the Biog. 
Brit. ii. 638. J. INGLE DREDGE. 

Portraits of the author of Religio Medici are in 
;he Bodleian Library, Oxford, and St. Peter's, 
STorwich. It is possible that the second named 
may have been removed. The first was engraved 
by White for the folio of 1686, and again for 



. III. JAN. 15, '81. 

Bonn's three-volume edition of the works of Sir 
Thomas Browne, edited by Simon Wilkin, F.L.S. 

J. H. I. 

There is a portrait in the folio edition of the 
Edigio Medici, published in 1663. Macaulay in 
the third chapter of his History refers to a Tour in 
Derbyshire, by Thomas Browne, son of Sir T. 
Browne, also to a Journal by the same author. 


There is a finely-engraved portrait of the author 
in the sixth (and best) edition of the Pseudodoxia 
Epidemic* (1672). This edition was published 
under the author's care ten years before his death ; 
therefore there is every reason to believe the 
portrait a good one. J. Y. W. MACALISTER. 

Leeds Library. 

(6 th S. ii. 446, 495). A cheap edition of this song, 
at twopence or threepence, could be had a few 
years ago, and probably can be had still, from 
any bookseller in Ha wick. C. 

WORK SONGS (5 th S. x. 344, 477 ; xi. 158 ; 6 th 
S. ii. 473). I have come across some more examples 
of these in Gover's Folk-Songs of Southern India, 
pp. 180-5. Mr. Gover calls them by the better 
title of " labour songs." He says : 

" They were all taken down on the spot as they were 
sung by a gang of coolies engaged in arduous manual 
labour. The custom follows that of the English sailor- 
one member of the gang gives the strain, the rest join in 
the chorus." P. 180. 


iii. 16). This landscape painter exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, 1828-78 (52 works) ; at the 
British Institution, 1828-67 (52 works) ; and at 
Suffolk Street, 1828-79 (138 works). He lived, 
1828-31, at 24, Everet Street, Russell Square ; 
1831-2, at 14, Parliament Street ; 1833-5, at 
8, Gumming Place, Pentonville ; 1835-41, at 
62, Upper Stamford Street ; 1846, at 4, Berners 
Street ; 1848-51, at 35, Haymarket ; 1853-57, at 
1, Upton Road, Kilburn ; (in 1852, 1855, 1856, and 
1857, he addresses from Her Majesty's Theatre) ; 
1859-60, at 4, Park Cottages, Park Village East ; 
1861-2, at 4, Great Marlborough Street ; 1863-66, 
at 13, Douro Place ; 1867, at Meriden, Coventry ; 
1868-70, at 35, Haymarket ; 1872-3, at 11, Golden 
Square; and 1874-9, at 72, Park Road, Haver- 
stock Hill. I have not heard of his death. In 
1838 he exhibited a "View of Shepperton Lock, 
Evening." The other three views he does not 
seem to have exhibited. ALGERNON GRAVES. 

CABUL (6 th S. ii. 269, 418). -In a paper on 
Mount Caucasus (Asiatic Researches, vi. 486" 
Capt, Francis Wilford, speaking of "Chavila 
where gold is found," says : 

" The country is probably that of Cabul. It is a very 
.ncient denomination, for Ptolemy calls its inhabitants 
Cabolitse and the town itself Cabura, which is obviously 
a corruption from Cabul, for the Persian name for a shed 
or pent-house is indifferently pronounced calul and cabur. 
Tradition says that Cabul was built by an ancient king of 
that name, and the place where he lived is still shown 
near Cabul. They generally call him Shah Cabul." 

At p. 495, after speaking of Bamiyan and its 
distance and bearing from Cabura or Orthospana, 
the present city of Cabul, he says : 

" One of the Sanskrit names of Cabul is Asa-vana, and 
sometimes by contraction Urd'h'-As-vana, or, as it is 
always pronounced in the spoken dialect?, Urdh' Ashban 
or Asbaria. The upper Nilabi, or Naulibis in Ptolemy, 
falls in at Ghorbund, or Gorasd-van in Sanskrit, which 
appears to be the Alexandria ad Paropamisum of the his- 
torians of Alexander." 

By-the-bye, it does not follow that Cabul was the 
first name of the river. River names are doubtless 
occasionally derived from towns. It might have 
been called " the river of Cabul," and in time the 
Cabul. R. S. CHARNOCK. 


HYMN " ROCK OF AGES," &c. (6 th S. ii. 346 ; iii. 
16). MR. TERRY has resolved any doubt as to the 
orthodoxy of Mr. Gladstone's grammar in his 
rendering of the above hymn into Latin. Permit 
me to adduce two other instances from Horace 
where the nominative adjective is found agreeing 
with the vocative substantive, and vice versa. In 
Ode 1, ii. 11. 30-2 : 

" Tandem venias, precamur, 

Nube candentes humeros amices 

Augur Apollo." 

Again, at 11. 35-7 : 

" Sive neglectum genus, et nepotes, 
Kespicis Auctor 
Heu nimis longo satiate ludo." 


LAYTON OF WEST LAYTON (6 th S. ii. 287, 351, 
457). There is in the church of Kirby Hill (which 
is the parish church of Kirby Ravens worth) a 
monument said to be that of a member of the Layton 
family, and probably the one referred to by MR. 
RAINE. It is about ten feet from the ground, at 
the east end of the north aisle. An organ has 
been lately built close in front of it, so that it is 
impossible to find anything more about it. I saw 
what can be seen, and the sexton told me to 
whom it belonged. I am sorry I can tell MR. 
CARMICHAEL no more of it. C. G. C. 

FAMILIES (6 th S. ii. 328, 493). MR. CARMICHAEL, 
in noticing my query concerning the descendants 
of Richard Pomeroy of Bowden, calls his eldest 
son Sir Henry Pomeroy. I am aware the Harleian 
Society Visitation calls him so, but I do not find 

. III. JAK. 15, '81. J 



any authority for it in the Harleian MSS. There 
is no doubt Edward Harris (to whom Cornworthy 
Priory was granted in 1559) and his son, Sir 
Thomas Harris, married mother and daughter, the 
second wife of the former being Agnes or Anne, 
daughter and heiress of William Huckmore, and 
mother, by a subsequent marriage with Henry 
Pomeroy, of Elizabeth, who married Sir Thomas, 
son of Edward Harris by his first wife. W. S. 

EUPHUISM (6 th S. ii. 346, 436). Allow me, as 
an illustration, to refer to The Monastery, in 
which Sir Walter Scott has most graphically 
and amusingly drawn the character of a euphuist 
of the days of Elizabeth, that of Sir Piercie Shaf- 
ton. How very easy it is to imagine any one 
being the " homo unius libri " in those days, when 
there were so few printed books, comparatively 
speaking, in existence. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

328, 355): 

" All Johnson's places of resort and abode are vener- 
able Nevertheless, in this mad-whirling all-forgetting 

London, the haunts of the mighty that were can seldom 

without a strange difficulty be found With Samuel 

Johnson may it prove otherwise ! A gentleman of the 
British Museum is said to have made drawings of all hit 
residences : the blessing of Old Mortality be upon him ! " 
Carlyle's Miscellaneous Essays, vol. iv. p. 113, edition 
of 1872. 

To what does this refer] 

6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

429, 458). 

" There is no home," &c. 

The poem was written by Josiah Conder. I have it, 
but it is too long for "N. & Q.," or I should have been 
tempted to copy, at any rate, the last stanza, which, after 
half a century, I still consider very beautiful. 



Life of William Blake, with Selections from his Poems 

and other Writings. By Alexander Gilchrist. New 

and Enlarged Edition, illustrated from Blake's own 

Works, with Additional Letters and a Memoir of the 

Author. (Macmillan & Co.) 

THE artist is never paid ; it is the artisan." Thus wrote 

Goethe of Chodowiecki, and the words might stand for 

epigraph to the story of William Blake. All through his 

career he seems to have been fighting against the hard 

truth of this maxim, girding at it or fretting under it, 

but absolutely refusing to be repressed by it. The only 

way in which he could exist at all, apart from the 

fostering patronage of such men as Mr. Butts and Mr. 

Linnell, was by engraving; and even his engraving, 

compared with that of the Heaths and Schiavonettis, 

was not to the taate of his public. Now, perhaps, we 
should prefer to the work of either of those popular 
artists that manly style which could lend a semblance of 
itrength even to the smooth elegance of Stothard; but 
n his own day it was not thought safe to allow him to 
;ngrave his own designs. They must be lucidly trans- 
lated by a more compliant burin. It is, therefore, the 
more remarkable that, remanded as he continually was 
to the humbler offices of art, he should still have pre- 
served sufficient enthusiasm to enable him, in spite of 
neglect and discouragement, to produce such splendidly 
individual work as the Songs of Innocence and Expe- 
rience, the Gates of Paradise, the Gram, and the magni- 
ficent Illustrations to the Book of Job. And posterity 
the posterity of critics and connoisseurs, at all events 
has long done justice to these wonderful performances. 
One of the foremost admirers was the late Mr. Gilchrist, 
to whose excellent biography we owe it that Blake is no 
longer a Pictor Ignotus, a qualification which, we observe, 
is very properly omitted from the title-page of this new 
edition. We say "new edition," though the words but 
imperfectly describe the present handsome reissue, which 
is something more. In the first place, it includes some 
thirty new letters, addressed by Blake to his pinchbeck 
patron, William Hayley. These, the majority of which 
belong to Mr. Frederick Locker and Mr. Alexander Mac- 
millan, are of the highest interest, although collectively 
they convey an almost painful impression of that entirely 
hollow pact, the friendship of " the enthusiastic, hope- 
fostered visionary " (as he somewhere styles himself) and 
the scribbling, flatulent " Hermit of Eartham." Then, 
again, there is the letter defending Fuseli, which Mr. 
Swinburne unearthed from the Monthly Review for 1806, 
with its vigorous and Hogarth-like fling at dilettantism. 
Mr. W. M. Rossetti has also much extended his " Cata- 
logue of Paintings and Drawings " in the first edition, go 
as to bring it down to the latest date; while Mr. F. J. 
Shields supplies a new and careful description of certain 
of the recently discovered designs for Young's Night 
Thoughts, now in the possession of Mr. Bain, of the 
Haymarket, and part of which, engraved by Blake him- 
self, were published by Edwards, of New Bond Street, in 
1797. The keenly sympathetic review contributed by 
Mr. James Smetham to the London Quarterly is printed 
in the second volume, which fitly closes with a brief but 
welcome memoir of Mr. Gilchrist by his widow. So 
much for the literary additions to the Life. In point of 
embellishments the gain is equally notable. New fac- 
similes of the Job by the Typographic Etching Company 
replace the old spotty photo-lithographs of 1863, while ex- 
cellent copies of sketches by Mr. Herbert Gilchrist enable 
us to realize the Felpham cottage, with its " thatched roof 
of rusted gold," and the narrow room in Fountain Court, 
with its window overlooking the muddy Thames, where 
Blake drew, and dreamed, and died. In addition 
there are some finely engraved cuts, borrowed from Mr. 
Horace Scudder's article in Scribner's Magazine for June 
last, a new plate from the Jerusalem, and a striking 
design to Hamlet. These, with a photographic copy 
of the Phillips portrait in the Grave, make up the tale 
of the principal supplementary illustrations. A very 
beautiful cover, contrived by Mr. Shields from one of 
Blake's fairy designs, completes what, without any reser- 
vation, is undoubtedly one of the most tasteful and 
" thorough " editions of a fine-art book which we ever 
remember to have seen. 

Historical Portraits of the Tudor Dynasty and the Re- 
formation Period.. Vol. II. By S. Hubert Burke. 

A PERUSAL of the second volume of Mr. Burke's work 
has only served to confirm the opinion which we formed 



[6th S . III. JAN. 15, '81. 

and expressed on its predecessor. Both parts are Con- 
spicuous for the same merits and the same faults. No 
one can read them through and we may claim for our- 
selves that we have carefully studied their contents 
without recognizing that the author is well acquainted 
with the literature of the period, or without acquiescing 
in the justice of his verdicts on the characters of most of 
its chief actors. Most of the principal noblemen are now 
acknowledged to have been time-servers, supporting or 
abandoning each religious party in turn as its fortunes 
rose or fell true to no principle save that of enriching 
their families with the spoils of the church which they 
professed themselves desirous of strengthening. The 
world has gradually discovered that the leading poli- 
ticians under Henry VIII. were not endowed with such 
lofty qualities as partisan historians of past ages had 
assumed, and it tolerates language now which forty years 
ago would have been borne down to the earth under a 
storm of condemnation. Even with this change of 
opinion the charity of Mr. Burke's readers must not un- 
frequently be subjected to a severe strain ; sometimes it 
must break down altogether under the weight of the 
burden. The most conspicuous instance of his want of 
consideration for the dangers which lay in waiting for 
the statesmen of the Tudors will be found in the reflec- 
tions on the career of Archbishop Cranmer. The por- 
trait of that unhappy man is painted in the darkest 
colours there is no relief to the sombreness of the 
picture. Even in the facts of the archbishop's life Mr. 
Burke cannot always be relied upon. If Cranmer was 
born in 1489, as stated correctly on the first page of this 
volume, he could not have been in his thirty-ninth year 
in 1523 (p. 5), nor could he have been forty-nine at the 
time of his second marriage in Germany. What justifi- 
cation Mr. Burke can allege for calling the archbishop's 
mother by the name of Mary, we know not ; the heraldic 
visitation calls her Agnes Hatfield. When we find an 
author stumbling in places where we can follow in his 
steps, we should scarcely be justified in accepting im- 
plicitly his opinions on points where it is impossible to 
corroborate his statements. We cannot but enter a 
decided protest against the vagueness with which Mr. 
Burke often quotes his authorities. Bare references to 
Lord Herbert's Life of Henry and White- Rennet are 
enough to make the hair of the student " turn white in 
a single night." with indignation. Why will he not 
adopt in this matter the advice of those who are anxious 
to secure a wider popularity for his labours'? He must 
surely be conscious that the difficulty which will beset 
any one desirous of ascertaining the accuracy of his con- 
clusions will prove a sore hindrance to the use of these 

New Readings and Renderings cf Shakespeare's Tragedies. 

By Henry Halford Vaughan. Vol. I. (C. Kegan 

Paul & Co.) 

THE attempt to restore the text of Shakspeare offers 
fewer attractions and needs more labour than the work 
of a simple commentator. Yet the less attractive task is 
sometimes the most useful, since without it much of 
Shakspearian commentary is but wasted industry. The 
first volume of Mr. Vaughan's New Readings and 
Renderings, containing King John, Richard 11., and 
Henry IV., Parts I. and II, seems to us to possess a 
peculiar value for lovers of the great English dramatist. 
The learned leisure of a man of letters is often the source 
whence spring happy suggestions, almost revelations, 
respecting the subject which occupies his mind. Besides 
this advantage, Mr. Vaughan possesses mental gifts 
which qualify him to perform successfully the task he 
has undertaken. He brings to bear upon the subject 
trained powers of criticism, a keen insight into the 

workings of the poet's mind, and an acquaintance with hia 
methods and his mannerisms. He is rather a practical 
than a theoretical reformer. He neither makes altera- 
tions to display his ingenuity, nor does he emend to 
effect a fancied improvement or to satisfy his precon- 
ceived theories. Where the text affords a satisfactory 
meaning he scrupulously adheres to it, and only exercises 
his power of conjectural criticism when the corruption 
of a passage may reasonably be inferred from some 
patent ambiguity of expression or from some deficiency 
or excess in the scansion. Reckless excision or sweeping 
changes are generally the result of haste, where the evil 
is seen, but the remedy is not readily discoverable. The 
expenditure of labour is more truly gauged by the slight- 
ness than by the extent of an alteration. In all MB 
emendations Mr. Vaughan endeavours to give sense to 
corrupt passages by the slightest change possible, and a 
comparison of his simplicity with the elaboration of 
some of his predecessors will attest both his labour and 
his success. The apparent obviousness of many of his 
suggestions excites surprise in such cases the highest 
praise that no one ever thought of them before. Space 
does not permit us to quote examples of Mr. Vaughan's 
skill in textual criticism from a work which all Shak- 
spearian readers would do well to read. We shall look 
forward with interest to the publication of the succeed- 
ing volumes, in the hope that they may prove of equal 
merit to the first. 

WE hope to give a Note next week on the Library of 
Balliol College, Oxford, by the Rev. T. K. Cheyne, Fellow 
and Librarian of Balliol College. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

JOHN GLASSCOCK. Rimmer's Ancient Stone Crosses of 
England, 1875. See also Journal of the British Archceo- 
logical Association, vol. xxxiii., pt. iv., Dec., 1877, 
The Ancient Churchyard Crosses of Staffordshire, by 
C. Lynam; and consult references, s.v. "Crosses" in 
Genl. Index, vols. i.-xxx. of the Journal (printed for the 
Association, 1875). 

E. C. HULMB. The question is one which constantly 
crops up, for the simple reason that no arguments, how- 
ever sound, convince those who do not desire to be 

ALEX. FERGUSSON. Larousse (Or. Diet. Univ.) writes 
the name Ivanhoe in the article dedicated to that novel. 
The Firmin-Didot form, Ivanhoe', is only a different 
mode of marking a pronunciation identical with that in 

ENQUIRER. Dio Cassius, translated by Manning, 1704. 
Eginhard, in Latin and French, by Teulet, published by 
Soc. de 1'Hist. de France, 1840-43. We think we have 
seen an English translation announced lately, but are 
unable to specify the publisher. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6> S. III. JAN. 22, '81.] 





NOTES: The Library of Balliol College, Oxford, 61-Tbe 
" Rouen " Roll of Arms, 62 John Wilson Croker Middle 
Temple Lane, 64 The "Turk's Head Bagnio," 65 Irish 
Marriage Settlement, 1873" Spare the rod "Good Advice 
4 to Letter Writers and Readers The Balaclava Charge- 
French Inn Signs, 66. 

QUERIES : Thames Embankments Asok, &c. Vegetius 
The Growth of Hair, 67 "Subsidence" Dissection of 
Swine The Mayors of Lincoln Margaret Russell, &c. A 
Philippine St. Godwald St. Ibar Booker, the Astrologer 
Pheasants in England W. Barrington, ob. 1843, 68 
A Tree at Penang Rawdon Family Memoirs "A Com- 
mentary vpon Du Bartas " "The man in the street" 
" Pouring oil on troubled waters " Pigott Family, 69. 

EEPLIES : The Derivation and Meaning of Christian Names, 
69-Feller's " Philosophical Catechism "Lord Byron's "Set- 
down," 70 Queries by Jeremy Taylor -Hogarth's Residence 
in Cirencester, 71 Lucy (?) Wentworth, Countess of Cleve- 
land "The Blue Bonnets over the Border " Cordiner's 
"Antiquities," 72 Hymn by C. Wesley Book-plate 
"Quod fuit esse," &c. Rev. J. Bartlam Hessian Boots - 
N. Ball Infant Folk-lore, 73 Drysalter-R. Mainwaring, 
D.D. J. Gruenpeck Velasquez "Defence of the Apology," 
&c,, 74 Conacre A. Schoonebeek's Military Orders Gala- 
tians, iii. 19, 20 Flamingo, 75 The MS. of Gray's "Elegy " 
F. Bartolozzi Shotley Swords C. Marshall, Painter- 
William Pitt" Routously "Spanish Proverbs" The 
Lamplighter's Poem "Rev. J. T J. Hewlett, 76" Right 
away "Changes of Pronunciation Yorkshire Proverb- 
Edge Inscriptions on Coins A Billy-cock Hat, 77 William 
Bingham " Jingo "Lincolnshire Provincialism Authors 

NOTES ON BOOKS: -Con way's "Demonology and Devil 
Lore" Stapfer's " Shakespeare and Classical Antiquity" 
Smith's "British Mezzotinto Portraits "Foster's " Peer- 
age, "&c. 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 

The annals of a college library can rarely be 
traced with an approach to continuity, and those 
of Balliol are no exception to the rule. When 
Dervorguilla, our pious foundress, arranged for the 
living together of her " pauperes scholares," it is 
not probable that the idea of a library had sug- 
gested itself to her. Whatever books the old Dooms 
de Balliolo possessed were doubtless too well worn 
to last many centuries; and the same remark 
is probably true of the volumes which Richard 
de Bury (tutor of Edward III.) bequeathed to 
Durham College in this university, and some of 
which are said to have found their way, on the 
dissolution of " Durham," into the library of 
Balliol College (Wood's History and Antiquities of 
the University of Oxford, by Gutch, vol. ii. 
pp. 910-11). Our library of printed books, how- 
ever, proves that the Fellows of the college were 
learned and cultivated men, capable of appreciating 
Florio's Montaigne and Sir Walter Raleigh's subtle 
historical disquisitions, as well as the ponderous 
tomes of professional theology. Great care must 
have been taken in forming our fine collection of 
historical tracts, which, as is the case with other 
Oxford historical libraries, has not yet, perhaps 

>een adequately examined. The study of medicine, 
;oo, appears to have been zealously prosecuted ab 
one time in Balliol ; otherwise how can we account 
'or the copious store of antiquated medical litera- 
ture which loads some of our shelves? For an 
Oxford college library is no bad index to the state 
of learning and education at various periods of our 
academical history ; and though for a time it would 
almost seem as if the interest of our Fellows were 
mainly centred on rapidly obsolescent editions of 
classical texts, or at any rate on a very narrow 
tudy of classical philology, no one who observes 
our additions for the last thirty years at least will 
hesitate to infer that, year by year, our conception 
of study, of antiquity, and of education has been 
widening. There is an interesting entry in a 
register of donations to the library consisting of an 
xtract from the will of a Mr. Payne, a Fellow of 
the college, who died early. It states that the 
donor leaves certain German works to the library 
[theology, church history, and poetry are all repre- 
sented) in the hope that other members of the 
society may be stirred up to cultivate a language 
and a literature so fruitful in results. I think 
that the advice has not been ill attended to. Until 
the recent transformation of our Balliol library, 
the majority of the works added annually to the 
collection were of continental origin. It is true 
a liberal-minded donor to some extent restored the 
balance of the languages by the legacy of a large 
collection of English theological books of the past 
and the present century ; but the collection is wisely 
kept apart, and awaits the disturbing hand of u 
future historian of the lower theology. It is much 
to be regretted that the college, which had the 
option of selecting some of the books or taking 
them all en masse, did not make a better use of its 
discretion. Fifty or a hundred books would have 
been an ample allowance. 

About three years ago the college, having at its 
disposal a fine old dining hall, released from its 
former use by the splendid building which now 
domineers over the garden quadrangle, bethought 
itself of converting it into a new library and read- 
ing room. Several years previously a special 
library, on a very small scale, had been set on foot 
for the undergraduates, but it was felt that, in the 
greatly increased size of the college, something 
more adequate to the wants of young students was 
highly desirable. Let me state, by way of paren- 
thesis, that Balliol had for some years past done 
its utmost to improve its library from the point of 
view of special learning. 

When Mr. D. B. Monro, now Vice-Provost of 
Oriel, broached the idea of " aiding or relieving 
the Bodleian by the arrangement that each college 
should develope a particular part of literature" 
(see MR. MADAN'S article in "N. & Q.," 6 th S. ii. 
321), the Balliol librarian was one of the consent- 
ing parties, and the result is that in several depart- 



[b*th s. III. JAN. 22, '81. 

ments this library is, or was at any rate, better 
supplied than any other college library in Oxford 
except Queen's. The subjects of philosophy, theo- 
logy (particularly German), and the history of re- 
ligions deserve to be honourably mentioned, though 
since the popularizing tendency has gained ground 
in our society the specializing has fallen somewhat 
into arrears. The library is now, excluding the 
older books, a collection of the best standard 
works and books of reference in the subjects most 
studied in Oxford (with a large sprinkling of 
wissenschaftlich works in other languages than 
English, and therefore adapted to few but graduate 
readers, unhappily our undergraduate students 
seem to shrink from the trouble of reading books 
not in the vernacular). 

Our collection of manuscripts is a large one, but 
contains few of interest except to very special 
scholars. Our greatest benefactor was William 
Grey, Bishop of Ely [and Lord Treasurer, 1454-78]. 
He endowed us with not less than 127 MSS., 
including some, exquisitely written, of works of 
Cicero. It is difficult to specify the important 
MSS. when so much depends on knowledge of 
subjects not those of the present writer. " One 
of your MSS. of Isidorus's Etymologice" writes 
MR. MADAN of Brasenose, " certainly supplements 
all published editions in several passages." But 
Mr. Coxe's Catalogue is accessible, and to his 
pages I refer the reader. He does not, indeed, in- 
clude our most recent benefactions, mostly due to 
the kindness of Mr. Greville Chester. These con- 
sist of various Oriental manuscripts Hebrew, 
Arabic, and Armenian (not, however, of critical 
importance) acquired by him in his Eastern 
travels. Among our printed books I ought to 
mention a choice collection of English trans- 
lations, and of early editions and translations 
generally, of the Bible ; a copy of the 1512 folio 
edition of the Sarum Missal, with remarkable MS. 
notes ; and two copies of Dean Nowell's Small 
Catechism, both of which are the only copies 
known of their editions. I may add a copy of an 
Italian translation (interesting from the name of 
its author, Brunetto Latini) of the Ethics of Aris- 
totle, printed at Lyons anno 1568. 


Balliol College. 


(Concluded from 6 th S. ii. 464.) 

38. "Le S r de ffelton." Gu., 2 lions passant 

arg., crowned or* 42 b 1 

39. " Le S r Bardolphe." Az., 3 cinquefoils or 42" 2 

40. " Le Staple." Arg., 2 bars nebulee sa., on 

a chief gu. a lion passant gardant or ... 42 b 3 

* G. gives instead, Gu., three lions rampant arg. (not 

41. "Le Cynq portes." Per pale gu. and az., 

3 demi-lions passant gardant conjoined 
in pale with as many demi-hulks of 
ships or 

42. "Le S r Harrington." Sa., a fret arg. ... 

43. " Le S r de Wells." Or, a lion ramp., tail 

forked, sa. 

44. " Le S r Gharleton." Or, a lion ramp. gu. 

45. " Le S r Matrevers." Quarterly, 1 and 4, 

Gu., a lion ramp, or; 2 and 3, Sa., a 
fret or 

46. " Le S r Lattymer." Gu. , a cross patonce or 
The next shield is left blank (1 indicates 

separation between barons and knights) 

47. "Monsyer John Stanly." Quarterly, 

1 and 4, Or, on a chief indented dan- 
cettee of 3 indents az. as many roundles 
arg.; 2 and 3, Arg., on a bend az. 3 
stags' heads caboshed or * 

48. "Monsyer John Cheney." Quarterly, 

1 and 4, Or, a lion ramp, per fess gu. 
and sa. ; 2 and 3, Chequy or and az., a 
fess gu., frettee erm. f 

49. "Monsyer William Cheney." Quarterly, 

1 and 4, Az., a cross patonce J or; 2 and 
3, Gu., on 5 fusils in fess arg. as many 
escallops sa. 

50. "Mounsyer William Bourcher." Quar- 

terly, 1 and 4, Arg., on across engrailed 
gu. inter 4 water-bougets sa. a martlet 
... ; 2 and 3, Gu., a fess arg. inter 6 
billets or 

51. "Mounsyer John Souche." Quarterly, 1 

and 4, Gu., semee of roundles or, a 
canton erm. ; 2 and 3, Arg., a fess dan- 
cettee ea. bezantee 

52. "Mounsyer John Popham." Quarterly, 

1 and 4, Gu., a chevron arg. inter 10 
roundles or; 2 -and 3, Arg., on a chief 
gu. a roundle inter 2 stags' heads ca- 
boshed or ... 

53. " Mounsyer John Blunte." Barry nebulee 

of 6 or and sa.|| 

54. " Mounsyer John Cornwayle." Erm., a 

lion ramp, gu., crowned or, within a 
bordure sa. bezantee 

55. " Mounsyer Richard Darrundell." Quar- 

terly, "l and 4, Sa., a fret or; 2 and 3, 
Gu., a lion ramp, or; and over all a 
crescent ...^[ 

56. "Mounsier Walter Hungerford." Quar- 

terly, 1 and 4, Sa. . two bars and in chief 
3 roundles arg. ; 2 and 3, Per pale in- 
dented dancettee gu. and vert, a chevron 

Folio Spice 

42 b 4 

42 b 5 

42 b 6 

42 b 7 

42 b 8 
42 b 9 

42 b 10 

42 b 11 
42 b 12 
42 b 13 

42 b 14 
42 b 15 

42 b 16 
42 b 17 

42 b 18 


: Monsyer Raffe Rocheford." Quarterly, 
1 and 4, Gu., an eagle displayed or; 

42 b 20 

* The quarters are reversed in G. (i.e., it is Stanley 
quartering Lathom, not Lathom quartering Stanley). 

t In G. the second and third are simply Chequy or 
and az. ; there is no fess. 

J The cross is "flory " in G., not "patonce." 

G. has the cross charged with an annulet, not a 

|| This shield is not completed in G., but pencilled 
for a quarterly coat, i.e. 1 and 4, ..., 2 bars nebulee ... ; 
2 and 3, ..., a castle triple towered ... 

1" In G. the lions also are charged on the shoulder 
with a crescent azure, the crescent in centre being or 
like tincture. 

6th S. III. JAN. 22, '81.] 



2 and 3, Quarterly gu. and or, within 
a bordure sa. bezrintee ......... 

58. "Mounsyer Hugh Stafford." Or,achevron 

and bordure gu. ... ... ... ... 

59. "Mounsyer Delingregge." Arg., a cross 

engrailed gu ............. 

60. " Mounsyer Walter Clopton." Sa, a bend 

arg., cotised or* ............ 

61. "Mounsyer Hewgh Walterton." Barry 

of 6 arg. and gu., over all 3 crescents 
sa., 2andl ............ 

62. "Mounsyer Pelham." Az., 3 pelicans 

arg., 2 and 1, vulning themselves gu. 

63. "Mounsyer Percyvall Sowdan." Quar- 

terly, 1 and 4, Gu., a man's head 
couped at the neck and wreathed arg. ; 
2 and 3, Sa., 3 cinquefoils arg.f ... 

64. "Mounsyer Will' Arches." Gu., 3 double 

arches, 2 and 1,J arg .......... 

65. "Mounsyer Will' Grauntsoun." Paly of 6 

arg. and az., on a bend gu. 3 buckles or 

66. "Mounsyer Andrew Butler." Quarterly, 

1 and 4, Gu., a cross moline arg. within 
a bordure engrailed or ; 2 and 3, Arg., 
6 covered cups sa. ......... 

67. " Mounsyer Will' Lyle." Or, a fess inter 

2 chevrons sa ............. 

68. "Mounsyer Edmonde Thorpe." Az., 3 

crescents arg ............. 

69. " Mounsyer ffelbridge." Or, || a lion ramp. 


Monsyer Courtney." Or, 3 roundles gu. 
and a label of as many pendants az., 
each charged with 3 annulets arg. ... 
Mounsyer Swinebourne." Quarterly, 1 
and 4, Or, a saltire engrailed sa. ;fr 2 
and 3, Gu., crusilly and 3 boars' heads 
arg. ............... 

72. "Mounsyer Will' Bedwell." Quarterly, 
1 and 4, Gu., a goat saliant or ; 2 and 3, 
Or, an eagle displayed vert ...... 

73.** "Monsyer Hewgh Standysh." Az., 3 
dishes arg. and a label of as many 
pendants orff ............ 

74. " Mounsyer Edward Perres."Jt Quarterly 

arg. and sa. ............ 

75. "Mounsyer Thomas Trevet." Arg., a 

trivet sa. ............... 

76. " Monsyer Deverous." Arg., a fess and in 

chief 3 roundles gu .......... 

77. "Mounsyer Hoo." Quarterly sa. and arg. 

78. " Mounsyer Thomas Erpingham." Vert, 

an inescutcheon within an orle of mart- 
lets arg ............. . 

Folio Space 
43 1 
43 2 
43 3 
43 4 

43 5 
43 6 

43 7 
43 8 
43 9 

43 10 

43 11 

43 12 

43 13 

43 14 

43 15 
43 16 

43 17 
43 18 
43 19 

43 20 
43 b 1 

43> 2 

* G. has the cotises dancettee, and the chief point 
of the bend charged with an annulet sable. 

f The second and third quarters are not finished in G. 

J In G. the pillars of the arches are or, only the arch 
itself being argent. 

The second and third quarters are not filled in in G., 
the first and fourth being Gu., a cross arg., and a bend 
engrailed or. 

|| G. has the field ermine. 

Tf In G. the saltires are charged with an annulet 

* Between Nos. 72 arid 73 G. gives an additional coat 
(which makes his total up to 108), viz. "Willelmus 
Wish>im." Sa., a fess inter 6 martlets arg. 
t This shield not completed in G. 

tt In G. the name is " Edw : Perrers " (the surname 
being in pencil only). 

79. "Monsyer Trumpington." Az., crusilly 

and 2 hautboys addorsed or ... ... 43 b 3 

80. "Mounsyer Raffe Bracebridge." Vair 

arg. and sa., a fess gu 43 b 4 

81. "Mounsyer Thomas Fogge."* Arg., on 

a fess inter 3 annulets sa. 3 pierced 
mullets of the field 43^ 5 

82. "Mounsyer Nicholas Hawte." Arg., on a 

bend az. 3 lions passant or 43 b 6 

83. "Mounsyer Thomas Tunstall." Sa., 3 

combs arg., 2 and 1 43 b 7 

84. " Mounsyer John Curson." Erm., a bend 

chequy arg. and sa 43 b 8 

85. " Mounsyer Curson." Erm., a bend chequy 

arg. and ea. ; in sinister chief a martlet 

gu. 43 b 9 

86. " Robert Curson." Gu., on a bend inter 

6 billets or, 3 escallops sa 43 b 10 

87. "John Hore." Sa., 3 cinquefoils arg., 

pierced gu. 43 b 11 

88. " Le S r de Kyme." Quarterly, 1 and 4, 

Gu., crusilly and a cinquefoil or ; 2 and 

3, Az., crusilly and a chevron or ... 43 b 12 

89. " Monsyer John Tiptofte." Arg., a saltire 

engrailed gu. and alabel of 3 pendants az. 43 b 13 

90. "Monsyer Raffe Velemane."f Gu., 3 birds 

inter 2 cotises arg. 43 b 14 

91. " Monsyer Robert Umfreyville." Gu., a 

cinquefoil within an orle of cross 
crosslets orj 43 b 15 

92. " Monsyer Hewgh Lutterell." Or, a bend 

inter 6 martlets sa. ; a bordure engrailed 

of the second 43 b 16 

93. "Mounsyer Pyers Buckton." Quarterly 

arg. and gu., in the second and third 
quarters 3 goats statant, 2 and 1, arg., 

attired or 43 b 17 

91. "Mounsyer Richard Redman." Gu., 3 

lozenge cushions erm., tasselled or ... 43 b 18 

95. "Mounsyer John Strange." Gu., two lions 

passant arg., each charged on the 
shoulder with a fleur-de-lis sa.jj ... 43 b 19 

96. "John Norburye." Sa., on a chevron 

inter 3 bulls' heads caboshed arg. a 
fleur-de-lis of the field 43 b 20 

97. "Mounsyer Henry Kardelecke." Az., a 

castle triple towered or TJ 44 1 

98. " The Lord S 4 Amand." Or, a fret sa., 

and on a chief of the second 3 roundles 

of the field 44 2 

99. "S r Henry Halshum." Or, a chevron en- 

grailed inter 3 lions' heads erased gu. 44 3 

100. " S r ffelbridge." Or, a lion ramp. gu. ... 44 4 

101. "S r Norteyn." Per pale gu. and az., a 

lion ramp. erm. ... ... ... ... 44 5 

102. " S r John Sturton." Sa., a bend or inter 

6 roundles,** barry wavy of 6 arg. and 

[az.J ("fountains") 44 6 

103. " Sir John Daperscourte." Erm., 3 bars 

humettee gu.ff 44 7 

* G. has the name written " Forge," and gives two 
annulets in base (four in all, instead of three). 

f In G. the name is written " August : Valenan." 

J G. has in the dexter chief a crescent ... (for differ- 

This shield is not filled in in G. 

|| G. has only the top lion charged with the fleur-de-lis. 

U This shield is left blank in G. 

** G. gives only three roundles, instead of six. 

ft G. has Ermine, three cocks gules. 



16*8. III. JAN. 22/81. 

Tolio i ace 

104. " S* Inge leves."* Gu., 3 bars gemelles 

or, and a canton arg. billetty sa. ... 44 8 

105. " S r \V m Loring." Quarterly arg. andgu.; 

over all a bend of the second 44 9 

105. "S r Thomas Arthur." Gu., a chevron 

arg. inter 3 clarions orf ... ... 44 10 

107. " S r Warberton." Arg., 3 birds ga.J ... 44 11 

p.g. During the passing of this roll through 
the press, it has been pointed out to me that the 
castles in the coat of Cobham, No. 17, were 
doubtless introduced by the Harleian 6137 copyist, 
Sir John Oldcastle being dead at the time of the 
sie*re. The entry probably relates to the lord of 
Sterborough, and the charges on the chevrons 
should be three estoiles sa., not lions rampant. 
Guillim's copy has a chevron tricked in ink in 
each of the four quarters, but nothing else added, 
which seems to indicate that there was some diffi- 
culty in making out what the charges were in- 
tended for. 


2. From Mr. Croker to Mr. A. Greville, Bath 

King-at-Arms : 

" West Molesey, Surrey, 14 March, 1852. 


" Ask the Duke, from me, to be so good as 
to answer this question : 

" M. Lamartine, amongst other wonderful (as 
they seem to me) stories, says that at the last 
charge at Waterloo, the Duke himself drew his 
sabre, and putting himself at the head of the 
column of cavalry ' charged like a common trooper.' 
I don't think that the Duke ever forgot that he 
was a general and not a trooper. It would not sur- 
prise me to hear that he had not even drawn his 
sword that day. Perhaps also I might venture to 
ask his Grace whether he did say * Up Guards and 
at them.' This also is very unlike him ; but it 
was certainly a moment in which he might have 
departed from his usual style. Pray let me have 
your answer as soon as you can find an opportunity 
of speaking to the Duke. Give him my affec- 
tionate regards, and, I fear, farewells! I write 
from bed, where I am confined by (we think) some 
disease of the heart, and can (tho' the danger may 
not^ be immediate) hardly hope that I shall ever 
again see my illustrious and dear friend. 
" Ever, my dear Greville, 
" faithfully yours, 

" A. Greville, Esq. " J. W. CROKER." 

' In G. the name is written " Inglows." 
t This shield is not completed in G. The name stands 
as " Thomas Archer." 

% G. draws the birds as shovellers, and against the 
first four of the shields which succeed this one is written 
in pencil : " Note wheth[er] these tha[t] follow w[ere] 
at the sei[ge]." They belong, however, to the collection 

On the above letter is endorsed the following 
memorandum, in the handwriting of the Duke of 
Wellington : 

" I certainly did not draw my sword. I may 
have ordered and I dare say I did order the 
charge of the Cavalry and pointed out its direction, 
but I did not charge as a common trooper. I 
have at all times been in the habit of covering as 
much as possible the troops exposed to the fire 
of cannon. I place them behind the top of the 
rising ground, and make them sit and lie down 
the better to cover them from the fire. After the 
fire of the enemy's cannon, the enemy's troops may 
have advanced, or a favorable opportunity of 
attacking might have arrived. What I must 
have said, and possibly did say, was, 'Stand up 
Guards ! ' and then gave the commanding officers 
the order to attack. 

"My common practice in a defensive position 
was to attack the enemy at the very moment at 
which he was about to attack our troops ! 

" I am very sorry indeed to hear that you are 
unwell. You must keep yourself quiet and take 

[See "N. & Q.," 1 st S. v. 396, 425; vi. 11, 400; viii 
111, 184, 204, 275 ; x. 90.] 

LANE. On the gates forming the entrance to 
Middle Temple Lane from the Embankment is 
affixed a notice to the effect that this entrance 
(which is the only exit from Middle Temple Lane 
to the Embankment) is intended for the use of 
those resident in the two Temples, or having 
business there. The Temples being private pro- 
perty, it is clear that all ways into or through 
them are primd facie private ways, and the public 
is only permitted to use them by the sufferance of 
the owners of the soil. But there seems reason 
for believing that this presumption of exclusive 
right in the members of the Temple to the use of 
Middle Temple Lane can be rebutted, and that by 
showing a right of way for the public (possibly for 
limited purposes) over the same during the day- 
time. Although we cannot show the existence of 
such a right as this at the commencement of the 
reign of Eichard I. (the commencement of legal 
memory), nor is it necessary that we should do 
so, yet we can show that it was in existence 
in the reign of Edward III., thus raising a pre- 
sumption that it existed at the former date. There 
are three mandates of that king, dated respec- 
tively 2 Nov., 2 Edw. III. (1329), 15 Jan., 
3 Edw. III. (1330), and 10 March, 28 Edw. III. 
(1354). The first of these is headed, "de portis 
novi Templi Londonise per majorem obfirmatis, 

of arms temp. Edward IV., which in the Harleian MS. 
6137 likewise follows the " Rouen " Roll, and is known 
as the " Gentry " Roll of Arms. 

6th s. III. JAN. 22, '81.] 



ne per aquam transitus Justiciariis prohibeatur, 
aperiendis," is directed to the Mayor of London 
and after reciting that there ought to be, and 
had been " totis temporibus retroactis, . . . per 
medium Curise novi Templi Londonise usque 
aquain Tamisiae communis transitus, pro Justiciariis 
et clericis nostris ac aliis, negotia sua apud 
Westmonasterium prosequentibus, et per aquam 
transire volentibus," and that the Mayor was in 
the habit of keeping the doors of the Temple 
closed during the day, whereby this right was 
interfered with contains a command to him to 
keep the same gates open all day. The second 
mandate is entitled, " de ponte novi Templi Lon- 
donise reparando" is directed to John de Pul- 
teneye, Mayor, and, after declaring the existence 
of the " communis transitus " in almost the same 
language as the first-mentioned document, except 
that the right is declared to belong " tarn clericis 
de cancellaria nostra et aliis ministris nostris, quam 
aliis quibuscumque," reiterates the command to 
keep the gates open ; and then, after saying that 
" Pons per quern transitus ad aquam . . . existet " 
was in a ruinous condition, commands the Mayor 
to repair the bridge. The third mandate is 
directed by the king, "dilecto sibi in Christo 
Fratri Johanni Pavely, Priori Hospitalis Sancti 
Johannis Jerusalem in Anglia " (Edward having, 
subsequent to the date of the two first-mentioned 
documents, viz., in the twelfth year of his reign, 
granted the residue of the manor of the new 
Temple to the Hospitallers, they having been in 
the possession of the Church since the suppression 
of the Templars) ; and, after mentioning that the 
bridge by way of which " tarn magnates quam 
alii fideles nostri" were accustomed to take boat 
for Westminster was again in need of repair, com- 
mands that these repairs be effected " sine dila- 
tione," lest, for the want of such repairs, " transitus 
hominum per pontem ilium impediatur aliqualiter 
in future." These three mandates are to be found 
in Rymer's Fcedera. Here we have a clear state- 
ment that for a long time previous to the reign of 
Edward III. there had been a right of way 
through the Court of the Temple to the water, 
for the justices, clerks of the chancery, and those 
attending the Parliament and king's councils, and 
for all others whomsoever (see mandate of Jan. 15, 

It may be argued that ths words " aliis " and 
" alii fideles nostri," used in the first and third 
mandates respectively, must be construed to refer 
only to persons ejusdem generis with "Justiciariis" 
and " clericis " in the one case, and " magnates " in 
the other ; but even if this be allowed, the words 
of the second mandate are, I believe, sufficient to 
include the general public, for these words are not, 
be it observed, "aliis" alone, but "aliis quibus- 
cumque"', and they may perhaps be taken as 
explanatory of, and additional to, the "aliis" 

and "alii fideles nostri" of the first and third 
mandates. Possibly it may be well contended 
that this right of way (if there be one) is limited to 
a right of passage for the purpose of reaching the 
water, and there taking boat. But supposing this 
too, to be conceded, we may maintain that there 
is still occasion for the exercise of the right, 
For is there not a steamboat pier close to the 
Temple Gardens, convenient to be used by " our 
justices and clerks and others" going to West- 
minster ? 

It is noticeable that the king, in his grant of the 
Temple to the Hospitallers, reserves to himself 
the right of appointing the gate-keeper (Monast., 
vi. 80), presumably for the purpose of keeping the 
?ates open, and thus preserving the right of way 
for the public. From the days of Edward III. 
downwards we constantly read of persons taking 
boat at the Temple stairs, and no doubt using 
Middle Temple Lane as the way to the water. In 
all such maps as include the Temple in Stow's 
Survey (Strype's edition) there is indicated a well- 
defined, and somewhat broad, way through the 
Temple down to the water's edge, and this seems 
to be intended for Middle Temple Lane. 

I have no wish to call in question the existence, 
or suggest the curtailment, of a right, to whom- 
soever it may belong ; least of all of a right 
belonging to those highly respected and learned 
bodies, the Honourable Societies of the Inner and 
Middle Temple. But I would crave leave to ask 
by what means have " the others whomsoever," 
i.e. the public, lost their right (as opposed to user 
by sufferance) to a way over Middle Temple Lane, 
and the Benchers of the two Societies obtained a 
right to limit its use, or the use of the gates form- 
ing the entrance to it, to certain persons, or certain 
purposes ? F. S. W. 

THE " TURK'S HEAD BAGNIO." More than one 
well-known locality has, I believe, been tradition- 
ally assigned as the scene of the famous chamber 
duel in Hogarth's " Marriage a la Mode." The only 
evidence, however, which the picture itself affords 
in the matter is a bill on the ground, in the right- 
hand corner, bearing the words " The Bagnio" and 
the representation of a Turk's head in an oval. 
Hence Ireland and others speak of the place as 
the "Turk's Head bagnio." The" Turk's Head " 
was a common commercial sign, in special favour 
with bathing houses, and no doubt continued to 
be used by many establishments in which as the 
notes on the u Marriage a la Mode " found among 
the papers of Mr. Lane, of Hillingdon, discreetly 
put it "the bath was but the accessory, the 
appendix," to a more prosperous, if less reputable, 
business. I have been fortunate enough to find 
the old bill of an actual and veritable " Turk's 
Head Bagnio." I do not for a moment suppose 
it to refer to the place that Hogarth intended ; 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. in. JAN. 22, 'si. 

indeed, the plate has no date. Still, as a contri- 
bution to the humbler literature of the eighteenth 

tunic, with a cloak about his shoulders. Then 
comes this announcement : 

[Turk's Head.] 

At the Turk's Head Bagnio 

in James-Street, Golden-Square, 

it being the Compleatest in LONDON. 

Where Gentlemen, Ladies, & others may 

le Bathed, Sweated, & Cupped, after y* newest 

and best Method in England 

by Alice Neale. 

Well known for having had y Honour of Cupping 

&c. Great Numbers of Nobility and Gentry in 

cfc about the City of LONDON, &c. 

N.B. There is a back Door with a Lamp in Bridle lane 
Brewers Street, where a Chair may come to ye Sweating or 
Bathing Room Door. 

I have no desire to vex the ghost of the departed 
Alice Neale. Patronized by the " Nobility and 
Gentry in and about the City of London," she may 
have been a person of unimpeachable character, 
having no sort of relationship to the frail sister- 
hood from which Foote drew his famous " Mrs. 
Cole." But, without maligning this particular 
institution, it was doubtless to some such 
" back Door with a Lamp " that a pair of hired 
chairs, borne swiftly along by thick-calved Irish 
chairmen, came furtively from the masquerade on 
that eventful evening when the earl was killed. 
And it needs no great stretch of imagination to 
infer that to those same noisy and combative 
Hibernian bearers, always ready for a fight or a 
guinea, the earl was indebted for that precise in- 
formation which enabled him to follow so speedily 
upon his faithless lady and her lover. 


manners and customs of the Irish " just now occupy 
a good deal of the public attention, perhaps the 
accompanying copy of a marriage settlement of one 
of my tenants in the north of Ireland, the original 
of which (about the size of one's hand) is now 
before me, may be acceptable to the readers of 
" N. & Q." It has at least one advantage there 
is no unnecessary verbiage. As I believe the parties 
are all living, I have not given their names : 

" , 19 July, 1873. 

"Mrs. , Having arranged a marriage between 

my son James and your daughter Mary, I hereby agree 
to give my land and interest in my holding in the town- 
land of to my son James, to come into possession 

after my decease, and that I will give him said land with- 
out any incumbrarx;e whatever. his 

" (Signed) x 

"Witness mark." 


inquiry has been lately carried on in the columns 
of the Illustrated London News as to the origin 
and history of this saying, and the discussion has 
been assumed to be closed with a statement (on the 
authority of Prof. Skeat, I believe) that its first 
appearance in print is in Clarke's Parcemiologia 
Anglo- Latina, 1639. It will be found, however, 
in a similar collection, Thomas Draxe's Bibliotheca 
Scholastic^ 1633 (but preface dated 1615), and he 
probably took it from the following passage in 
Davies of Hereford's Scourge of Folly, 1611 : 
u I must 

Whippe you for lying, now you lie untrust : 

I have tane you with the manner (too vilde). 

Untrusse : to spare the Rodd 'a to spill the childe." 
Epigram 212, p. 101. 

" Spill " and " spoil " are, of course, convertible 
terms. It is worthy of remark that, though the 
proverbs which form the staple of the Scourge of 
Folly are throughout it printed in italics, the line 
in question is not so printed ; from which it may 
perhaps be inferred that this proverb was first for- 
mulated by Davies himself, and so afterwards 
gained general currency. VINCENT S. LEAN. 
Windham Club. 

READERS. A friend placed in my hands, the 
other day, a printed slip of advice, which I think 
might be useful if reproduced in " N. & Q." It 
runs thus : 

" If a letter consist of one page only, read it at once, 
for there is probably something in it. If of two pages, 
it is doubtful; but read it. If of three pages, put it 
into your pocket and read it at your leisure. If of four 
pages, throw it into the fire, for you may be sure that 
there is nothing in it. A badly written letter is an act 
of injustice, as well as a practical insult upon the person 
to whom it is addressed. It is mere selfishness on the 
part of the writer to inflict upon his correspondent a 
maximum amount of difficulty and loss of time, simply 
to save himself from a minimum amount of trouble in 
writing clearly. A lettr without a date is more than a 


Hampstead, N.W. 

THE BALACLAVA CHARGE. I think a list of 
the surviving officers of this memorable charge 
would be interesting. Can any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." give a list 1 The last officer, I believe, 
who has passed away, who was present at this 
charge, was the gallant Col. F. A. Weatherley, 
killed at the Cape, on the Zlobane Mountain, 
March 28, 1879. DUNELM. 

de Eoute." Have we any " quarter- way " houses 
in England? "Autant Ici qu'Ailleurs." A 
quaintly modest invitation, the counterpart of 
which I do not remember seeing here either. 





We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix theii 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

THAMES EMBANKMENTS. The frontispiece to 
The Adventures of Rivella; or, the History of the 
Author of the Atalantis, 8vo., 1714, represents 
the south front of Somerset House, and a very 
distinct embankment or water wall, with a parapet, 
over which two gentlemen, in the garden above, 
are looking down upon the river, on which two 
swans are disporting themselves. The plate is 
from a design by P. la Vergne, and seems to have 
been used by Curll as a frontispiece for other 
books, such, for example, as Mrs. Baker's novel, 
Exilius; or, the Banished Roman, 1715. Old views 
all seem to show that the grounds of the houses 
on the river side were laid out in terraces. There 
seem to have been three terrace walls to the 
grounds of old Essex House, and two to those of 
Somerset House. Is this print to be received as a 
correct representation, or is it a fancy sketch ? 
Perhaps it is in part correct, as far as the terrace 
wall is concerned, but incorrect in representing 
the Thames water as coming up to the foot of the 


Extract from the Tuzuk-i-Bdbari; or, Missing 
Fragment of the Memoir of the Moghal Emperor 
Bdbar, by Sir Henry Elliot, vol. iv. p. 281 : 

"Events of the year 935 (1528-29 Aj>.).-0n Sunday, 
the 5th Mohurrum, intending to visit Gualior, which in 
books they write Galiar, I passed the Jumna and entered 
the fort of Agra. On the 10th I alighted at the Char- 
Bagh, a k6s from Gualior to the north, and next morn- 
ing 1 entered Gualior by the Hathi-Pul gate, which is 
close by Raja Man Singh's palaca, and proceeded to 
Raja Bikramajit's palace. 

" On Tuesday, the 14th, messengers arrived from 
Bikramajit, the second son of liana Sanka, who with his 
mother Padma-vati, was in Ran-Thambhdr. Before 
setting out to visit Gwa~lior, a person had come from a 
Hindu named Asok, who was high in Bikramajit's con- 
fidence, with offers of submission and allegiance, ex- 
pressing a hope that he would be allowed seventy lacs 
as an annuity. The bargain was concluded, and it was 
settled that, on delivering up the fort of Ran-Tham- 
bhdr, he should have parganas assigned him equal to 
what he had asked. After making this arrangement, I 
sent back his messengers. When I went to survey 
Gwalior I made an appointment to meet his men in 
Gwalior. They were several days later than the ap- 
pointed time. Asok, the Hindu, had himself been with 
Padma-vati, Bikramajit's mother, and had explained to 
the mother and son everything that had passed. They 
approved of Asok's proceedings, and agreed to make the 

* Antiquities and Coins of Afghdn-i-itdn, by H. H. 
Wilson, p. 99; Illustrated London News, Nov. 29, 1879, 
W. Simpson, Esq., p. 490 ; Classical Dictionary, by Prof. 
John Dowson, M.A., p. 26; Indian Antiquary, vol. ri. 

proper submissions, and to rank themselves among my 
subjects. WhenRana" Sanka defeated Sultan Mahmud 
and made him prisoner, the Sultan had on a splendid 
crown-cap and golden girdle, which fell into the hands 
of the pagan, who, when he set Sultan Mahmud at 
liberty, retained them. They were now with Bikra- 
majit. By the person who came from him to wait on 
me he now sent me this crown and golden girdle, and 
asked Bayna in exchange for Ran-Thambhdr. I 
diverted them from their demand of Bdydna, and 
Shamea'ba'd was fixed on aa the equivalent for Ran- 

Asok of the above account is supposed to have 
been Asoka of the bilingual Pa"li edicts found at 
different places between Mount Abu, in Meywar, 
and Kapiir di Giri, in Afghan-i-stan,t one of the 
Greek palseological dobash double-tongued papas, 
or priests, who travelled in India during the 
Mahabharata, at the time of the Reformation in 

Padma-vati, meaning wealthy, the second widow 
of the Rd,na Sanka of the Tuzuk-i-Bdbari, is evi- 
dently the Poppa Bai of the Hindu account of the 
affair given by Col. Tod. But while he speaks 
of her disloyalty in having been bribed to agree to 
the bargain, strange to say, he altogether ignores 
her name as well as that of Asok, the confidential 
agent who acted for her on the occasion, and, 
what is still more perplexing, describes her in a 
note as being a different person, that is to say, a 
princess of ancient times, who had then become 
proverbial among the Raj -puts on account of her 
nismanaged sovereignty. When, and by whom, 
was the popular Indian romance Qissa Padma- 
vati written, and does it throw any further light 
upon the matter ? R. R. W. ELLIS. 



" Vegetius Renatus of the Distempers of Horses and 
he art of curing them : as also of the Diseases of Oxen 
ind the Remedies proper for them .... Translated into 

English by the Author of the Translation of Columella 
. . . London, Printed for A. Millar, opposite Catherine 

Street in the Strand, 1748." 8vo. 

This book, which I possess, is curious and inter- 
esting in several respects. Will some one give me 
nformation as to the original from which it is 
,aken? The article on Vegetius in Smith's Die- 
ionary of Biography and Mythology mentions his 
Rei Militaris Instituta, but tells us nothing of 
my book on the distempers of horses. Is the 
riginal or mediaeval compilation published under 
iis name, or has the writer of the article been at 
'ault? ANON. 

THE GROWTH OF HAIR. A hairdresser, re- 
marking upon the frequency of a stronger growth 
f hair upon one side of the face than on the other, 
stated that it always grew more strongly on that 

f The Lost Tribes, by G. Moore, M.D., p. 269. 
J Annals and Antiquities of Rdj-Asthdn, by Lieut.- 
Col. James Tod, vol. i. pp. 307-10. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. m. JAN. 22/81. 

side on -which the man himself was stronger. 
He added that he " had been told by a doctor " 
that you would never find heart disease in a patient 
when the growth of hair on the left side of his face 
was the thicker. (1) Is this a prevalent belief? 
(2) Has it any connexion with a theory of magnetic 
polarity in the human body? (3) Is there any 
literature on the subject ? 

24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea. 

" SUBSIDENCE." Some years ago the question 
was asked in " N. & Q." whether the second syllable 
of this word should be pronounced loDgor short. The 
recent extraordinary subsidences at Blackheath 
(Times, Jan. 13, p. 7, col. 5) have renewed the 
inquiry. Certainly in society we almost always 
hear it as subsidence. Is this right or wrong ? 


DISSECTION OF SWINE. This was the recog- 
nized way of learning human anatomy, in the 
Italian schools at least (Salerno, Bologna, &c.), 
before dissection of the human subject was sanc- 
tioned by Church or State. Can any one furnish 
me with references to this in any mediaeval book 
on medicine, or university statutes? 


liam Belle fill the office of Mayor of Lincoln? 
Some local books say in 1371, others in 1491. 


through some old deeds of the Clifford family, 
which are in my possession, I met with an inden- 
ture drawn up between George, third Earl of 
Cumberland, and one of his tenants, in the year 
1603, bearing the signature of E. Eussell as an 
attesting witness. George, third Earl of Cumber- 
land, married, in 1577, Margaret Eussell, third 
daughter of Francis, second Earl of Bedford. 
Will any of your readers kindly tell me what, if 
any, was the relationship between this E. Eussell 
and Margaret, Countess of Cumberland ? I have 
not access to Wiffen's Historical Memoirs of 
the House of Russell. FRED. W. JOY, MA. 

Crakekall, Bedale. 

A PHILIPPINE. In Cornwall (and probably in 
other parts of England) a nut with two kernels is 
called a " Philippine " (or more correctly a philip- 
pina). The person who cracks such a nut presents 
it to some one at the table, and a challenge is 
thereby given and accepted, the condition thereof 
being that whichever of the two first greets the 
other next morning with " Good morning, Philip- 
pina," is entitled to a present. Whyte-Melville, in 
his Sister Louise, refers to " Philippine," but instead 
of a nut the fruit is a double strawberry. Athe"ne"e 

asks Louise, "Have you eaten your Philippine? 
Then make up your mind ; wish, and you shall 
have." Did this piece of folk-lore obtain in the 
court of Louis Quatorze, or has the author only 
taken a novelist's privilege? 


ST. GODWALD. We read in The Calendar of 
the Anglican Church (Parker, 1851) that a village 
and church in Worcestershire are named after 
St. Godwald, who also had formerly a chapel 
outside Sidbury Gate at Worcester. Further in- 
formation respecting this saint is desired. 

ST. IBAR. In an Irish charm, written on the 
last page of the Stowe Missal, St. Ibar is associated 
with the cure of blindness. What authority is 
there for such an association? To what legend 
does it refer? F. E. WARREN. 

St. John's College, Oxford. 

Can you give me any information as to this 
once celebrated person's descendants? He was the 
friend of Lilly, Wharton, and Ashmole, and was 
buried at St. James's, Duke's Place, London, 
April, 1667. I should also be glad of any informa- 
tion regarding this family. C. E. B. BOWKER. 

Saffron Walden, Essex. 

THIS COUNTRY? In Dugdale's Baronage, yol. i. 
p. 701, I find that King John, in 1199, granted to 
William Briwere a licence " to hunt the hare, fox, 
cat, and wolf, throughout all Devonshire," &c., 
" and to have free warren throughout all his own 
lands, for hares, pheasants, and partridges." 

F. W. J. 

1789, DIED 1843. I ask for any information 
respecting the above, my grandfather. His history 
is short. At thirteen or fourteen he ran away 
from home, because it was against his father's 
wishes that he should go to sea, and, joining some 
ship at a port unknown, he went in her to India, 
where he settled, made a fortune, married, and 
died. When travelling in the East some years 
ago, I made a visit to Calcutta, in the hope of 
gaining some important information about him ; 
but of those who knew him many had passed away, 
whilst those living could not tell me what part 
of Wales he came from. At length I visited the 
old cemetery at Calcutta, and ou a massive tomb- 
stone I read and copied the following inscription : 
'' Wm. Barrington, Esq., born N. Wales, June 17, 
1789 ; died in Calcutta, June 25, 1843." If any 
of your correspondents could tell me if any branches 
of the family are living, or if they have heard of 
any Barringtons residing in some towns or villages 
in North Wales, I should feel extremely obliged. 

19, Oreen Park, Bath. 

III. JAN. 22, '81.] 


A TREE AT PENANG. The following passage i 
extracted from a letter written to a friend of min 
in 1842. It is descriptive of a large tree at Pe 
nang : 

" One morning we took a jaunt to inspect an enormou 
tree, the great sight of the island for lionizers. Afte 
riding through a narrow valley and passing through 
a romantic gorge, where the inclining ridges met, anc 
from whence we obtained a lovely view of hill, vale, anc 
ocean, we wound our way through a jungle path to the 
foot of this monarch. It is a large tree, certainly, but 
though it towers far above its friends, it can scarcely be 
called a leviathan; but here are dimensions height 
from root to first branch, 120 feet, straight as an arrow 
girth, 30 feet, 5 feet from the ground." 

I should greatly like to know something of thii 
tree, its species, whether it is still existing, and, i 
so, its present dimensions. B. 

wich, editor of the Eawdon Papers, states, at the 
end of his preface, that " a memoir of the Rawdon 
family will shortly be prepared and given to the 
public so as to bind up with these papers." Was 
this ever done, as it is not in my copy, published 
by John Nichols (London, 1819) ? ECLECTIC. 


Arber's Transcript of the Stationers' Registers 
(vol. iv. p. 4) there is this entry : 

" 8 Nouembris 1620. John Grisman Entred for his 
copie vnder the handes of master TAUERNOB, and master 
Lownes warden, A booke called, A Comentary vpon 
Du BARTAS, translated out of Ffrench by Doctor LODGE 

Mr. Arber adds a query"? Thomas Lodge, M.D., 
the poet." I have not the slightest doubt that it 
was by him ; such a work was quite in his way. 
What I want now to know is, if such a work was 
ever printed ; and, if in existence, where could a 
copy of it be seen ? A. S. 


"Certain patriots in England devoted themselves for 
years to creating a public opinion that should break 
down the corn laws and establish free trade. ' Well,' 
says the man in the street, ' Cobden got a good stipend 
out of it.' " 

The above passage from Emerson's Conduct of 
Life contains the first reference I know of to the 
typical man in the street. Is Emerson the in- 
ventor of the happy phrase ? JAMES HOOPER. 
Denmark Hill. 

Whence is this expression derived 1 W. E. H. 

[Our correspondent, it should be stated, is quite aware 
that Dr. Brewer refers the saying to the Biblical passage, 

** A flnffc ft ri Q war f nrcf li OUTOTT iivtrtM* M tl* -1--: 

'A soft answer turneth away wrath. 
" something more conclusive."] 

He desires 

Will some correspondent of "N. & Q." kindly 
give me particulars of the marriages of the dif- 

ferent male members of this family from 1700 to 
1770 ; also the Brody branch of the family ? 




(6* h S. i. 195, 243, 365 ; ii. 171.) 
HERMKNTRUDE questions some of my etymologies, 
&c., of the names Beatrice, Bridget, Ferdinand, &c. 
1. I did not derive Raymond from ram-man, but 
from ram-mund. 2. I see no get or rice ending in 
Bridget and Beatrice. In the former name et repre- 
sents the common diminutive, or is, perhaps, rather 
the final letter in brecht, bert, bright. In Beatrice 
(It. Beatrice, Sp. Beatrix) the last part of the 
name is derived from a genitive, dative, or ablative 
of Beatrix. I am aware that there is no such a 
word as beatrix in our Latin dictionaries, and I 
know of none in mediaeval Latin. No doubt 
most of the Latin feminines in trix are formed 
from a word ending in or or er; as amatrix, bella- 
trix, genitrix, imperatrix, sutrix, testatrix, testrix, 
venatrix ; but matrix, natrix, and obitetrix do not 
appear to have been so formed. Therefore, in 
later times, at all events, I do not see why Beatrix 
could not have been formed from a name Beatus. 
Beatus is the name of two saints and of eight other 
persons mentioned in Zedler's Lexicon ; and Bea- 
irix was the appellation of a virgin and martyr of the 
;ime of Diocletian, and also of seventeen different 
r emales given in said lexicon. To hint that the name 
Noah is nearer Fohi than Ferdinand is to Bertram, 
because the former has two letters in common, 
s unfortunate. Etymology does not depend so 
much on the resemblance of one word to another 
as it does on a word possessing the same, or nearly 
he same, radicals. No one could doubt that Noah is 
a Hebrew word, whereas Fohi, or rather Fub. (or 
?5), is a Chinese word, derived from the Sanskrit.* 
w let us put the names Ferdinand and Bertram 
Sp. Beltrdn) side by side, and examine them 
>y the aid of etymological rules. In etymology 
f and 6 aie interchangeable ; so are t and d and n 
ind m; and d is found as a suffix ; whilst medial 
is sometimes dropped ; as in Sp. Federico for 
Frederick. Curiously enough, as an instance of such 
uffix, we have Beltrandus, the name of a philo- 
opher of the third century, and of a bishop of 
Acerra of the fifteenth century ; whilst Beltrand 
was the name of a Spanish sculptor and architect 
f the sixteenth century. Besides, I could give 
many words or names which would seem to be 
nore far-fetched than Ferdinand from Bertram, 
n the river name Adige not a single letter (unless 
; be d for t) of its original Greek origin, remains. 

* Abbreviated, according to the common Chinese 
ashion, from Full-tub, from the Sanskrit Buddha. 



in. JAN. 22, '81. 

I did not, however, derive Ferdinand from Bertram. 
Being in Paris, away from my books, I mentioned 
what I had read somewhere. It seems Meidinger 
places Ferdinand under nand,forgenannt=kundig ; 
and for the first part of the name the etymologist 
may choose from A.-S. ferh, anima, vita ; feorh, 
anima, vita, spirhus ; ferhth, animus ; and 0. G. 
fert, facilis. Alberic and Amalric or Almaric, 
are merely different forms of the same name, and 
are not of Teutonic, but of Gothic, origin. Hum- 
boldt has a good deal to say on the etymology of 
Amalric (whence Amerigo). The name Frederick 
is nearly always wrongly translated. 



HERMENTRUDE refers to the Chinese Xoah as 
Fohi. This reminds me that when I was at Can- 
ton I accompanied the late Sir Hope Grant on 
a sight-seeing excursion, during the course of which, 
under the guidance of the accomplished chaplain 
of the British Consulate, who left nothing un- 
explained, I visited a singularly interesting tern pie, 
dedicated, so far as I can remember, to " Nuh " 
(Noah), in which were three colossal images of the 
Buddhas, and some yards in front of them the re- 
cumbent effigy, richly gilt, and nearly life size, of 
a corpulent old man contemplating a bunch of 
grapes, which he held up before, or rather above, 
him. On the proper left of the temple were ranged 
small images of three men and three women, with 
a fourth woman larger than the others ; and facing 
these, on the other side, and some yards behind 
the recumbent Nuh, there were numerous little 
figures of animals. In one of my subsequent ex- 
cursions I purchased at an old curiosity shop a long 
narrow roll of paper, on which was represented 
a temple floating amongst waves and clouds, with 
a stork, carrying in its bill a red stick of incense, 
flying towards it. 

It is strange that no one should have given the 
English public the benefit of a full account of the 
Canton " hall of the five hundred worthies," an 
Oriental Valhalla, with literal translations of the 
inscriptions on the pedestals of the statues, which 
latter, by the way, seemed to me extremely in- 
teresting, j. H. L.-A. 

Is not Beatrice=Beatrix=she that blesses ? 

C. F. S. WARREN. M.A. 
Farnborough, Banbury. 

iii, 5). If MR. THOMPSON COOPER turns to p. 259 
of Dr. Oliver's Collections towards Illustrating the 
Biography of the Scotch, English, and Irish Mem- 
bers, S.J. (London, 1845), he will find it stated 
that an Irish Jesuit, J. P. Mulcaille, gave "an 
.English translation of Abbe" Fellers Catechisme 
-rtiilosophiqiie, in 3 vols., Dublin, 1800. It is 

pleasing to observe in the beginning of the first 
volume the subscription list for nearly COO copies." 
In the seventh volume of their Bibliotheque des 
ficrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus, the Peres De- 
Backer accept Dr. Oliver's statement as to an 
English translation, although in an earlier volume 
of their excellent work they had said that "en. 
1801 ou en avait commence" une traduction 
anglaise, mais qui ne fut pas acheve"e." Unfortu- 
nately I have not at band the later edition of the 
Bibliotheque, &c., so I quote from the one published 
at Liege between 1853 and 1861 (vide t. vii. p. 547;. 
t. i. p. 300). Such were the authorities for the- 
statement made by me in an article, so kindly 
noticed by MR. COOPER, which the Month and 
Catholic Revieiv published last August. I ought 
to have mentioned there that the Catechisme of 
De Feller has been likewise translated into Dutch 
and Spanish. I hope some correspondent may 
answer MR. COOPER'S appeal, and tell us more of 
the English translation. According to Dr. Oliver,, 
the English translator died in December, 1801, so 
that he might have been known to De Feller. 
Do the letters of the latter anywhere mention the 
former 1 There are a great many letters of De- 
Feller in the Royal Library at Brussels, as also 
there were in the house of the Gesii at Rome and 
in the Jesuits' house, Rue des Postes, at Paris. 
What has been done with those in Rome and 
Paris since the invasion of the Vandals of Paris 
and of Piedmont ? WILFRID C. ROBINSON. 
Roozendael, Brugge. 

LORD BYRON'S " SET-DOWN " (6 th S. iii. 44). 
Whatever may have been Lord Byron's opinions 
of the Swiss and these are plainly stated in a 
letter to Mr. Moore, dated Sept. 19, 18211 am 
disposed to take the story related by Dumont 
to Madame Sismondi cum grano salis. Lord 
Byron left the environs of Geneva in 1816. His 
last visit to Coppet took place on Oct. 1 of that 
year. The letter to which MR. WEDGWOOD refers 
was written three years later, besides which 
the anecdote is obviously at second hand. But 
who is the authority? Surely not the Dumont 
who so shocked Mr. Moore and Lord John Russell,, 
during their brief sojourn at Geneva, by retailing 
a base and wholly unfounded calumny involving 
the character of an absent man. Moore says that 
the act of which Dumont accused Byron was made 
to comprise within itself all the worst features of 
unmanly frauds upon innocence. The whole 
story has since been proved false in every par- 
ticular, and in my opinion wholly disqualifies 
Dumont from giving evidence about a man whom 
he evidently disliked. Moore's conversation with 
Dumont took place in 1819. Thus it is evident 
the fit was then upon him, and that it broke out in 
irreflective calumny. If your readers will take the 
advice of one who is by no means blind to Byron's, 

6th S . III. JAN. 22, '81.] 



faults, they will consign this fresh anecdote to 
well-merited oblivion. KICHARD EDGCUMBE. 
53, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

QUERIES BY JEREMY TAYLOR (6 th S. ii. 512). 
Echebar, "who reigned in Mogor," is pro- 
bably Akbar, Mogul Emperor (1542-1605). Both 
Mogor and Narsinga are mentioned by Thomas 
Blundevil in his " Description and Use of Planciua 
his Mappe " (Blundevil's Eight Treatises, ed. 1636, 
p. 547), where he states that India "containeth 
many Provinces and Realmes, as Cambaiar, Delli, 
Decan, Bishagar, Malabar, Narsingar, Orixa, Ben- 
jrala, Sanga, Mogores, Tipura, Gourous, Ava, 
Pegua, Aurea Chersonesus, Sina, Camboia, and 
Campaa." In Eobert Morden's Atlas Terrestria 
(circa, 1650) the empire of the Mogul appears as 
a large tract of country north of a line from Bom- 
bay to the mouth of the Ganges, extending to the 
" M. de Caucasus " (otherwise the Hindoo Koosh 
and Himalayan ranges), and including part of 
Afghanistan, Cashmere, and part of Assam. Nar- 
singar is marked as a town some one hundred 
miles north-west of Madras, which is here named 
Fort St. George, or Madrasapata. Narsinga was 
celebrated for its diamonds. Gerard Malynes 
(Consuetudo vel Lex Mercatoria, 1622) informs us 
that "Diamonds the most perfect, called Nayfe, 
are found in the Kingdoms of Decau and Nar- 
singa, and the Hand of Ziclan." It may not be 
out of place to note that in this neighbourhood, or 
in the adjacent kingdom of Golconda, Sindbad is 
supposed to have met with some of the adventures 
of his first voyage. A remarkable confirmation of 
his marvellous stories will be found in Marco 
Polo's account of his travels, and in the narration 
of Nicolo de' Conti, in Mr. R. H. Major's India 
in the Fifteenth Century, published by the Hak- 
luyt Society. Both writers tell of an inaccessible 
mountainous district, abounding in diamonds and 
infested with serpents, and their accounts corre- 
spond as to the manner in which the stones are 
obtained. According to the latter writer, the spot 
where the diamonds abounded was a mountain 
called Albenigaras, fifteen days' journey north of 
the city of Bizenegalia. This city is probably 
identical with Bisnagur, or Bijinagur, which was, 
according to Major Rennell (Memoir of a Map of 
Hindoostan, 1792), " the capital of the ancient 
Kingdom of Narsinga," and is situated near the 
western bank of the Tungebadra river. Mr. Major 
(Introduction, p. xxxi) supposes this city to be the 
city of Mahradje, in which dwelt the Maharaja, or 
great king, mentioned by Sindbad. If we may 
accept these and other more important identifica- 
tions of places spoken of in Sindbad's travels, it 
would seem that we do wrong to treat his narrative 
as entirely fabulous, and that we should receive it 
with as much respect as we do other travellers' 
tales of the same period. 

I have been unable to find any reference to 
Veneatapadino Kagium. T. W. RUNDELL. 


As MR. WARREN quotes the Contemplations OH 
the State of Man as a work by Jeremy Taylor, the 
following account of it will be of interest to him, 
as showing that the work is falsely assigned to 
Taylor : 

"The Contemplations on the State of Man and the 
Christian Consolations are both omitted from the present 
edition of Taylor's Works. The evidence on which they 
are so rejected and assigned to other writers will be found 
in full in a email volume which the editor has been 
allowed to deposit in the Bodleian Library, called Pseudo- 
Tayloriana. The first of the two works is shown in a 
pamphlet by Archdeacon Churton to be a compilation 
not very skilfully made from a treatise by Nieremberg, 
a Spanish writer. The second is from the pen of Bishop 
Racket, as was suggested to the editor by the Rev. James. 
Brogden, and it is now proved beyond dispute." Note at 
vol. i. p. vii of Eden's Jer. Taylor. 

There is a marginal note (p. 26, Lond., 1699) 
which refers to Jarrie, Thesau. Indie., for Echebar. 


iii. 25). There is an etching of John Shaw's bill- 
head in J. Nichols's Genuine Works of William 
Hogarth, vol. iii. p. 102, where it is styled "A 
curious Topographical Print." It bears the words 
" W. Hogarth f *.," but is not dated. J. B. Nichols 
also refers to it at p. 298 of his Anecdotes, 1833, 
but he places it among the " Prints of uncertain- 
date." In the catalogue of Mr. H. P. Standly's 
famous sale in April, 1845 (p. 95), occurs the 
following item on this subject : " Shaw's Tavern 
Bill. A View of the Inn Yard, W. Hogarth sept. ; 
a copy of the above,* and an autograph letter of 
the present proprietor of the inn. (3)." The print 
in stipple to which MR. WARMER refers is no. 
doubt the portrait by Worlidge, engraved by T. 
Priscott, which was used as a frontispiece to the 
third volume of Nichols's Genuine Works, 1817, 
and to the Clams Hogarthiana of the Eev. E. 
Ferrers, published by Nichols in the same year. 
The original drawing on vellum is supposed to 
have been made in or about the year 1750. In 
1817 it belonged to Mr. Charles Dyer, a printseller 
in Compton Street, Soho, well known as an illus- 
trator of books by inserted plates, &c., a branch of 
industry of which Mr. J. Gibbs, of Newport 
Street, is, I believe, one of the last repre- 
sentatives. MR. WARNER'S notes as to the " Ram" 
and the picture in his possession are highly in- 
teresting, and his recollections go so far back that 
I am tempted to ask him to tax them still further. 
I scarcely know what is meant by Hogarth's, 
residence in Cirencester." Is there any local 
tradition to this effect, or is it simply an inference 
drawn from the fact that he painted the yard of 

* Probably J. Nichols's copy, above referred to. 


[6"> S. III. JAN. 22, '81. 

the inn 1 And how is the date " 1719" arrived at ? 
I am not aware of any paintings by Hogarth which 
are assigned to quite so early a period. Any 
definite information on these two points would be 
of considerable value to Hogarth students. 


LAND (6 th S. ii. 408 ; iii. 60). MR. CARMICHAEL'S 
difficulty, expressed in his penultimate paragraph, 
has grown out of another blunder in the usual 
printed accounts of the Wentworth family. As 
he rightly states, Anne, daughter of the first Sir 
John Went worth, Knt., of Gosfield, " was thrice 
married, but never to a Wentworth." It was her 
sister Mary who married Thomas, second Lord 
Wentworth. The marriage took place at Gosfield 
on Feb. 9, 1545/6, and the entry in the parish 
register distinctly describes the parties. The error 
in the books is the less pardonable because the 
match is properly set forth in the Visitation of 
Essex of 1612. There is not the slightest doubt 
that the Christian name of the Countess of Cleve- 
land was Lucy. The same Visitation gives the 
three daughters and coheirs of Sir John Went- 
worth of Gosfield, Knt. and Bart., as Elizabeth, 
Cecily, and Lucy. The first died unmarried, and 
the second married William, first Lord Grey of 
Werke. By a strange perversity she also is de- 
prived of her proper name in Burke's Extinct 
Peerage, and wrongly called Anne. 


S. ii. 345, 437, 454). A friend well versed in the 
history of our Scottish songs has kindly sent me 
the following information : 

" Scott seems to have taken his idea from one of two 
songs in Hogg's Jacobite Relics, vol. i. pp. 5-7. The first 
is ' Lesley's March to Scotland,' of which the first verse is 
* March ! march ! pinks of election, 

Why the devil don't you march forward in order? 
March ! march ! dogs of redemption, 

Ere the blue bonnets come over the border.' 
The second song is entitled ' Lesley's March to Long- 
marston Moor/ and begins thus : 
'March ! march ! why the de'il don't you march? 

Stand to your arms, my lads, fight in good order,' &c. 
Both theee sengs are united to an air called ' Lesley's 
March,' which Oswald gives in his Second Collection of 
Scotch Tunes, and also in his Caledonian Pocket Com- 
panion, bk. ii. p. 36, date about 1745-50. Oswald, in 
both the above collections, also gives the air of ' Blue 
Bonnets,' and directs it to be played slow. ' Blue Bon- 
nets ' is also in McGibbon's collection, circa 1746-62, and 
he also directs it to be played slow. The air of Blue 
Bonnets,' as given by Oswald and McGibbon, is quite a 
-different tune from 'Lesley's March.' Hogg took his 
version from the latter. In Neil Gow's Second Collection 
of Reels, p. 5, there is an air called ' Duplin House,' 
which is ' Lesley's March ' remodelled by him and re- 
titled. Mr. R. A. Smith, it is supposed, took his version 
of the air (to which, or to variations of which, Scott's 
words are commonly sung) from Neil Gow's collection. 
<See note by E. F. Graham, Wood's Songs of Scotland, 

ol. iii. p. 55). Wood adopted Smith's version ; but as 
Neil Gow altered Oswald, and Smith altered Neil Gow, 

t is not wonderful that so many versions of the air are 
met with in recent collections of Scotch music. 

' Mr. Stenhouse, in his Illustrations to Johnson's 
Musical Museum, No. 460, p. 404, calls the old air of 

Blue Bonnets ' ' this fine old pastoral air,' and says it 
first appeared in a MS. dated 1709. The air in John- 
son's Museum is identical with that called ' Blue Bon- 
nets ' in Oswald, McGibbon, and Hogg's collections. 
Mr. R. A. Smith, previously mentioned, inserted the air 
of 'Lesley's March,' united to Scott's words, in The 
Scottish Minstrel, vol. v. p. 10. He there calls the air 

Blue Bonnets over the Border,' which has now been 
adopted as the usual name of the old march." 

If MR. SETH WAIT and MR. HUTH care to com- 
pare the two tunes, I shall be glad to lend a small 
book containing both. NELLIE MACLAGAN. 

28, Heriot Row, Edinburgh. 

[The reply at the last reference has evidently escaped 
your notice.] 

CORDINER'S " ANTIQUITIES " (6 th S. ii. 447). 
The following reference to this work is from 
Gough's British Topography, ed. 1780, vol. ii. 
p. 752 : 

" We may shortly expect, under the patronage of Mr. 
Pennant, an account of the remote parts of this king- 
dom, from Banffshire to Ross, Caithness and Strathnavern, 
in a series of letters to him by the Rev. Charles Cordiner, 
Minister of St. Andrew's Chapel, Banff, illustrated with 
two-and-twenty plates of ruins and the most romantic 
parts of the north : the plates engraved from Mr. Cor- 
diner's drawings. 4to." 

Mr. Cordiner had already published these views : 
East and West Views of Bothwell Castle, 1763 
(R. Paul, sc.) ; The Ancient Chapel of Cruikston 
(R. Paul, sc.) ; Marr Lodge (P. Mazell, sc.) ; Duff 
House (P. Mazell, sc.). Lowndes, edited by 
H. G. Bohn, details two works by this author 
that noticed by Gough,as above (twenty-one plates), 
and Remarkable Ruins and Romantic Prospects of 
North Britain, London, 1788-95, 2 vols., 4to. (the 
number of plates not mentioned). In Quaritch's 
Great Catalogue (Supplement, 1877, p. 711) a copy 
of Cordiner's Antiquities and Scenery of the North 
of Scotland, with twenty-one plates, is marked 
7s. 6c?., a fair indication of its present value. In 
H. G. Bonn's General Catalogue (1848, vol. i. 
p. 87) Cordiner's Remarkable Ruins is described 
as having "one hundred engravings by Peter 
Mazell." Ib was published at 61, and Mr. Bohn 
offered three copies at prices varying from a guinea 


I think there can be no doubt that the book 
described by ABHBA is the first volume of the Rev. 
Charles Cordiner's Remarkable Ruins and Romantic 
Prospects in the North of Scotland, accompanied 
with Singular Subjects of Natural History and 
Ancient Monuments hitherto Undelineated and 
Undescribed, London, 1788-95, 2 vols., 4to. (plates 
by Peter Mazell). Mr. Cordiner was " minister at 

. m. JAK. 22/81.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Banff," and his work was issued in twenty-fou 
parts at 5s. each ; cf. Lowndes (Biblio. Manual 
ind Watt (Biblio. Brit.). J. INGLE DREDGE. 

iii. 9). This beautiful hymn was included b; 
John Wesley in his Collection of Hymns for ti\ 
Use of the People called Methodists, first printe 
in 1779. The Eev. Kichard Watson (Works 
8vo. v. 194) inadvertently ascribes the authorship 
to John Wesley. There can, however, be nc 
doubt that it was written by his brother Charles 
It is No. 183 (vol. i. p. 57) in Short Hymns on 
Select Passages of the Holy Scriptures, by Charles 
Wesley, M.A., Bristol, 1762. The reading of th 
last line, as printed by John Wesley, is, 

"And make the sacrifice complete." 
As printed by Charles Wesley in 1762 it is 

" And make my sacrifice compleat." 


A BOOK- PLATE (6 th S. ii. 427). The name which 
has been erased from ST. JOHNS' book-plate is 
"Francis Haarer." See my query in "N. & Q. 
(5 th S. viii. 269), which, as it never elicited a reply, 
and the subject is now cropping up again, I may, 
perhaps, be allowed to reproduce here : 

" FRANCIS HAARER. Among some book-plates which 
Ixave recently been added to my collection is one bearing 
the above name, and of which the following is a descrip- 
tion : Arms Quarterly, gu. and az.; in the first and 
fourth quarters a spur arg. in pale ; over all, on a bend 
einister sa., three quatrefoils of the third. Supporters 
Dexter, a lion holding in his dextsr paw a sword broken 
at the point; sinister, an eagle. Motto, 'Audentes 
fortuna juvat.' There is no crest, but the whole is 
surmounted by a crest coronet. I shall be glad to learn 
who the owner of this plate was, especially from the 
unusual circumstance of one who was apparently a 
commoner bearing supporters. Date, circa, 1840." 

It is singular that ST. JOHNS and I should have 
been struck with the same plate, and I hope we 
shall now hear something more of it. 


[The coat does not occur in Papworth's Ordinary or 
Burke's General Armory, nor the name in Lower's 
Patronym. Brit. May not both be foreign ?] 

" QUOD FUIT ESSE," &c. (6 th S. ii. 468). Two 
translations of these lines will be found in the 
Guardian of Feb. 25, 1874, in 'answer to a query 
in the number for February 11. One regards the 
couplet as a mere tour de force, the key to the 
puzzle being that " esse quod " represents " Toby 
Watt." The other tries to put a serious meaning 
into the words. Your readers can judge between 
the two. The two lines run : 
" Quod fuit esse quod est quod non fuit esse quod esse 

Esse quod est non esse quod est non est erit esse." 

J. H. S.'s translation is : 
" What Toby Watt was is not what Toby Watt was to be : 

Toby Watt is not to be what he is : he it not (but) he 
will be Toby." 

The other correspondent has a loftier conception 
of the passage : 
" To live a life like his, true life will be ; 

To die a death like his, no death will be ; 

Not yours his life, not yours his death will be." 



These lines form an epitaph in the churchyard 
of Lavenham, Suffolk. In the churchyard of Am- 
well, near Ware, is an almost literal translation of 
them. The lines were the subject of inquiry 
thirty years ago, as any one having access to the 
back numbers of the Athenceum may discover for 
himself by referring to that for March 23, 1850. 

M. G. D. 

KEV. JOHN BARTLAM (6 th S. iii. 8). I know 
the engraved portrait well. J. B. was the great 
friend and amanuensis of the celebrated Dr. 
Samuel Parr. He lived at Alcester. He was 
vicar of Tettenhall, minister of Studley, and vicar 
of Bedey. He is described in a well-known novel, 
Widows and Widowers, by a Warwickshire Lady. 
A sufficiently long account of him may be found 
in Johnstone's Memoirs of Dr. Parr, vol. i. p. 538. 

J. B. B. 

HESSTAN BOOTS (6 th S. ii. 468). Some of 
Gessner's spirited military prints, published by 
Ackermann in 1801, represent the Hessian troops 
and Austrian Hussars in the Hessian boots, tassels 
and all. Gessner, I was told by John Cawse, the 
artist, was almost a dwarf, and was brother of 
Death of Abel" Gessner. Are these prints 
valuable now ? P. P. 

NICHOLAS BALL (6 th S. ii. 468.) Surely H. B. 
cannot be ignorant of the name of the Right Hon. 
Nicholas Ball, many years one of the most eminent 

f Irish judges. He was Solicitor and Attorney 
jreneral for Ireland under Lord Melbourne's 
Government (about 1836-8), and as he was called 
;o the Bar in 1814, it is probable that he eked out 
lis income as a barrister by writing for the press, 
fie was a son of John Ball, Esq., of Eccles Street, 
Dublin, where he was born in 1791. He died 
bout 1865. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

INFANT FOLK-LORE (6 th S. ii. 443). The pre- 

entation of an egg, with salt, bread, a coin, <fec., 

o an infant on its visit to the first house it is taken 

o is scarcely yet obsolete in North Lincolnshire 

ind South- West Yorkshire, but I have never met 

with the superstition that the egg had to do with 

uture fecundity. For further information see 

N. & Q.," 5 th S. ix. 48, 138, 299, 477 ; x. 37, 

16, 278, 398. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

Though I have spent many years of my life in 
Nottinghamshire and other parts of the midland 



[6tbS.III. JAN. 22, '83, 

counties I never heard of this superstition, but I 
find the custom here is common. This week the 
first visit of a neighbour's infant was made to my 
sister, and an egg was given to it to take away. 
An old servant said, " But it must have a bit of 
salt also," and she brought a little salt carefully 
wrapped in paper, and the baby's hand was closed 
on it when it went away. ELLCEE. 


DRYSALTER (6 th S. ii. 447). This word is 
applied to two distinct, but not altogether dis- 
similar, trades. A drysalter, according to Latham, 
is a " dealer in dried meats, sauces, oils, pickles, 
and various other goods"; while, according to 
Ogilvie, he is, secondly, " a dealer in dye stuffs, 
chemical products, &c." The Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica (ed. 1854) mentions both uses of the word, 
the former as the more correct. Is it not probable 
that the two trades were originally combined, and 
that when separated both retained the name ? 
Certainly it is more appropriately applied to a pur- 
veyor of salted provisions, as is its derivative, 
drysaltery, immortalized by Mr. Browning : 
" And it seemed as if a voice 

(Sweeter far than by harp or by psaltery 
It breathed) called out, ' Oh, rats, rejoice ! 
The world is grown to one vast drysaltery ! " 

Pied Piper of Hamelin. 

What is the earliest use of the word drysalter ? 
The dictionaries give none before Sir W. Fordyce 
in 1790. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

As a matter of fact I do not think that dye 
merchants are called drysalters. A drysalter is 
one who deals in salted and dried meats and fish, 
but the majority of the seventy-one drysalters 
whose names appear in the London Directory for 
1880 deal also in oils, colours, dyes, gums, &c. 
Indigo merchants and dye manufacturers are not 
classified in the Directory as drysalters, and would 
object to be so called. WM. H. PEET. 

A drysalter is not a dye merchant alone. He 
is, according to the dictionaries, a dealer in salted 
or cured meats, pickles, sauces, &c., besides being 
a vendor of drugs, dye stuffs, and chemicals gene- 
rally. Johnson's reference is to Sir W. Fordyce. 


See"N. & Q.," 3 rd S. xi. 381. 

79, Carlton Hill, N.W. 

EOGER MAINWARING, D.D. (6 th S. ii. 447).- 
Siins's Index to the Heralds' Visitations gives the 
following references to the Harl. MSS. in the 
British Museum for the arms and pedigree of 
Manwaring, of Ightfield, Shropshire : 1241 fol. 81, 
102, 107B, 144B, and 6172 fol. 16 ; these in the 
Visitation of 1584 : and 1396 fol. 235B, 295B, and 
1982 fol. 20, in the Visitation of 1623 ; the latter 
occurring in the lifetime of Bishop Roger Mayn 

waring, whom I believe to have been "a member of 
he family seated at Ightfield, but I am not 
certain. Theophilus Jones gives some account of 
[/his prelate in his History of Brecknockshire. He 
states his burial to have taken place at Brecon, 
though it is unknown whether he died (1653) there 
or at Caermarthen. E. H. M. S. 

446), was born at Burghausen, in Bavaria, in 1473,. 
and died in Styria at the age of about seventy. 
For some account of him, and of his prophetical 
works (one, the Prognosticon, " dont on ne connaib 
qu'un seul exemplaire") see Larousse's Grand 
Dictionnaire Universel, and Michaud's Biographic 
Universelle; the latter is very full on the subject 
of his bibliography. 


6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

The Biographic Portative Universelle gives the 
following brief particulars : " Gruenpeck. Jo. : 
Pretre, astrologue, me'decin, secretaire de 1'Empe- 
reur Maximilien. N6 Burghausen (Baviere), 

VELASQUEZ (6 th S. ii. 427). The following is 
from Miss K. Thompson's Handbook to the Public 
Picture Galleries of Europe : 

" Madrid, Royal Museum. Velasquez, No. 1060, ' The 
Surrender of Breda.' The best portrait known of the 
master himself is found in the figure with a plumed hat 
to the extreme left. 

"No. 1062, 'Las Minimas.' The figure of Velasquez 
himself at his easel is prominent. 

" Munich, The Pinacothek. Velasquez, No. 366, his 
own portrait." 

E. S. 

The Earl of Ellesmere possesses a fine portrait 

of this painter in the collection at Bridgwater 
House, London. G. D. T. 


BELL (6 th S. ii. 447). These are Bishop Jewell's 
words : 

"But M. Hardinge for ease and expedition hathe 
diuised a shorter way to teach the people by a belrope. 
He turneth his backe unto his brethren and speaketh but 
two words alowde, Pater Noster, and causeth the sanctus 
bell to play the part of a deacon to pufc the people in 
remembrance that now they must pray." 

I copied this passage from a folio copy of Jewell's 
Works formerly chained to a desk in the north 
aisle of our church. When the restoration of this 
edifice took place, in 1842, the parish clerk took 
the volume into his keeping ; but his wife dealt in 
sweetstuff, so she served her juvenile customers 
with lollipops wrapped in leaves torn from Jewell,, 
and the whole book gradually perished. 

Steeple Aston, Oxford. 

6th s. in. JAN. 22, -si.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" And for that purpose we have commonly seen 
the priest, when he sped him to say his service, to 
ring the saunce bell." Controv. with Harding, 
Art. iii. Div. 16 ; vol. L p. 292, 1845, Parker Soc. 


CONACRE (6 th S. ii. 428). Conacre has no more 
to do with " corn-acre " than it has to do with 
" candleacre." It implies a partnership in cultiva- 
tion in the cultivating of an acre of potatoes. 
One man has a lot of seed potatoes and no land 
another has land and manure, but no seed potatoes. 
The two join for the produce of a crop, and then 
divide it. But the more general and the more 
pernicious form of conacre is making it a payment 
for the year's work of a farm labourer. In 1776 
the rent of an acre of potato land was six pounds, 
and the labourer's wages fivepence per day. In 
1846 the conacre rent was ten pounds, and the 
average rate of wages eightpence. So the progress 
of the farm labourer in Ireland is backward. 
Easily proved, but here it would be out of place 
to extend the statement. 

The word con is Gaelic of ancient use, but joined 
to acre it is a modern term, the outcome and the 
representative of the great poverty of the small 
farmers and of the labourers of Ireland. Congilda 
and congla and congelt and congilt all represent 
a partnership for co-grazing. Confled describes a 
collective feast. Conn Conda Secha means a 
collective attendance of chiefs at court who give 
a testimony for the members of their fine, and that 
each one is ready to be bail for those who may 
have a judgment registered against them. 

W. G. WARD. 

The origin of the word is " coney-acre," some- 
times written " conager," a place abounding with 
coneys, or rabbits. H. T. E. 

427). The following is the correct title of the 
above work : 

"Historic van all e Ridderlyke en Krygs-Orders; be- 
helrende haar instellingen, plegtelykheden, gebruyken, 
voormaamste daden, en levens der Meeeters; nevens 
desselfs Dragten, Wapena, en Zinteekenen. In t' Koper 
gesneden door Adriaan Schoonebeek. T' Amsterdam, 
by Adriaan Schoonebeek, 1697." 2 vols. small 8vo. 

Collation : Vol. i. engraved title ; printed title ; 
Voorreden, 18 leaves ; text and plates, pp. i-288, 
containing 34 plates, the pages after 281 not being 
numbered. Vol. ii. engraved title (different from 
that in vol. i.) ; title ; text and plates, pp. i-327, 
inclusive of the two titles, and containing 
plates 35-113 ; Tafel, 5 pages ; Index Figurarum, 
4 pages. The plates are printed on same leaves with 
the text. On the printed title of each volume there 
is the same engraved vignette. A companion work, 
on the Geestelyke Orders, male, was published by 
Schoonebeek in 1688, and on the female orders in 
1691, the former with 73, the latter with 90 plates 

and descriptive text and indices. There were 
subsequent editions of both these works, which 
are mentioned by Brunet under "Histoire des 
Ordres," vol. iii. pp. 195-8. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

GALATIANS in. 19, 20 (6 th S. i. 253). Of this 
text, which MR. SPENCE says is " one of the most 
difficult passages of the New Testament," I beg to 
submit the version with notes of the admirable 
Father Simon (1638-1712), from " The New Testa- 
ment of our Saviour Jesus Christ according to the 
Ancient Latin Edition. With Critical Remarks 
upon the Literal Meaning in Difficult Places. 
From the French of Father Simon. By William 
Webster, Curate of St. Dunstan's in the West." 
London, 1730, 4to. : 

"19. Why therefore was the law given after the pro- 
mise i it was given to make known sin till such time as 
the 'seed came for whom the promise was made. It is 
the b angels who gave the law by the "ministry of a 
d Mediator. 

" 20. Now a Mediator* ia not of one alone ; but f God 
is one. 

" Ver. 19. I.e. Jesus Christ or the Messias, with his 
spiritual posterity. 

" b I.e. angels in the name of God, and representing 

" L. in the hand. 

" d This Mediator is Moses, who was between God and 
the Israelites : for this is the proper signification of the 
word Mediator. St. Cyril has, with great judgment 
remarked, that the name of Mediator agrees very pro- 
perly with Moses, as type of Jesus Christ. God had 
established him a Mediator to declare his will to the 
Israelites, and to give them his law, and therefore he 
was a Mediator in another manner than Jesus Christ, 
of whom he was only the figure. 

" Ver. 20. I.e. when people agree, there is no neces- 
sity for a Mediator, but only when the parties disagree ; 
and it is in this sense that Moses was a mediator between 
God and the Israelites. St. Paul explains himself after 
a very concise manner, insinuating, by a mystical expli- 
cation, that Jesus Christ, who is the true Mediator, of 
whom Moses was only the type, was the Mediator, not 
of one people only, but of the Jews and Gentiles, whom 
he reconciled with God. 

" { I.e. altho' the parties are opposite one to the other, 
nevertheless, God, who is one, and always like himself, 
has reconciled them by Jesus Christ, making them but 
one people ; so that St. Paul in this place obviates an 
objection that might be made to him, upon his seeming 
to gay, that God had altered his design, making the 
Gentiles enter into the covenant ; they who were not 
of the seed of Abraham, and who by consequence were 
not to share in the promises that had been made him." 


FLAMINGO (6 th S. ii. 326, 450, 478 ; iii. 35). 
I shall be much obliged if any .one will tell me 
the name of a good Portuguese and English dic- 
tionary, better than that by Vieyra. The state- 
ment that flamingo is Portuguese does not explain 
the word, as such a form gives no sense in Portu- 
guese. The Portuguese word must have been 
borrowed from the same source as the English one, 
viz., from the Span, flamenco, as aforesaid. The 
word flame is flama in Spanish, with one m, bub 



[6> S. III. JAN. 22, '81. 

in Portuguese it is always flamma, which makes 
all the difference. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


THE MS. OF GRAY'S "ELEGY" (6 th S. ii. 222, 
356, 438, 474 ; iii. 35). Referring to MR. PLATT'S 
remarks (ante, p. 35) it is not impossible that the 
copy spoken of in Messrs. Sampson Low & Co.'s 
1869 edition of this poem, as being "at Pembroke 
House, Cambridge," may be the copy in MS. sold 
by auction, in Aug., 1854, to Mr. Wrightson, of 
Birmingham. Will any of your Cambridge corre- 
spondents ascertain if a MS. copy can be seen now 
anywhere in Cambridge ? H. PAYNE. 

Woodieigh, Southsea. 

This MS., sold at Messrs. Sotheby & Wilkin- 
son's in 1854, was again sold (lot 384) at the same 
house, on Friday, May 28, 1875, and was, I think, 
bought by Mr. Ellis, of Bond Street. J. M. 

A few years ago Sir William Fraser showed the 
MS. of Gray's Elegy to a relation of mine, and it 
is no doubt still in his possession. LAD. 


Can I be mistaken in supposing this MS. 
to be in the British Museum ? I certainly have 
a note to this effect, made when visiting the MSS. 
Department some two years since, and the small, 
neat hand of the poet particularly struck me at 
the time. Surely it cannot turn out to be a case 
of deceptio vistis. Nous verrons. F. D. 


FRANCESCO BARTOLOZZI (6 th S. ii. 408, 494). 
Referring to the variety of dates assigned by 
different books of reference for the birth-year of 
Bartolozzi the engraver, it may be of interest to 
note that a ticket for the benefit of Mr. and Mrs. 
Banti, engraved by the artist, is inscribed, "F. 
Bartolozzi, inv*, sculpsit, 1797, etatis suse 69." 
This gives 1728 as the year of his birth, and is in 
agreement with Haydn, who adds the day and 
month, September 21, and, as far as I know, is 
the only person who gives this year. 


P.S. It is curious how many authorities state 
that Madame Vestris was the daughter of Bar- 
tolozzi the engraver. She was his grand-daughter, 
as is testified by her tombstone at Kensal Green. 

SHOTLEY SWORDS (6 th S. ii. 433 ; iii. 17). I 
have in my collection a sword, bearing on one side 
of the blade the name Shotley, and on the other 
the word Bridg. The hilt and guard are of brass, 
and the handle of oak, which is very much worm- 
eaten - W. A. WELLS. 

in. 16, 58). MR. PYNE is certainly wrong in his 
impression that this artist "died about the year 

1855." He is still in the flesh, and, I have e very- 
reason to believe, lithe and hearty, as I was with 
him very recently. Mr. Marshall now resides at 
No. 22, Lewisham Road, Highgate Road. If 
appealed to, I dare say he would courteously furnish, 
any details W. F. may desire to know about the- 
drawings in question. Jos. J. J. 

WILLIAM PITT (6 th S. iii. 48). 

1. The British Gallery of Portraits. 2 vole. fol. 
London, 1822. Vol. ii. 

2. National Portrait Gallery. By Wm. Jordan. 5 vola. 
imp. 8vo. London, 1830-1. Vol. i. 

3. The Gallery of Portraits. S.D.U.K. 7 vols. imp.. 
8vo. London, 1833-7. C. Knight. Vol. vi. 

4. Lodge's Portraits. 12 vols. imp. 8vo. London.. 
1823-34. Vol.xii. 

5 Phisiognomical Portraits. 2 vola. imp. 8vo. London,. 
1824. Vol. ii. 

Designer 1, Jackson; 2, 3, 4, Hoppner. 

Ashley House, Epsoni. 

"ROUTOUSLY" (6 th S. ii. 366, 398, 525). 
Sixty years ago, when I was fond of going into 
courts, persons prosecuted for rioting used to be 
charged with having " riotously and routously as- 
sembled," &c. W. W. 

Carshalton, Surrey. 

SPANISH PROVERBS : " GARIBAY " (6 th S. ii. 513 ; 
iii. 55). Quiso is right. It is the third sing. pf. of 
Querer, to wish, to desire to possess. The sense 
is, " Whom neither God nor the Devil would have.'* 
Quisto is the past participle, and means beloved, 
which would not construe. HENRY H. GIBBS. 


"THE LAMPLIGHTER'S POEM "(6 th S. ii. 505). 
This was in use in Nottingham quite into the- 
present century. P. P. 

REV. J. T. J. HEWLETT (6 th S. ii. 268, 396, 414, 
456). It may interest your readers to know that 
I have in my possession four letters of his, written 
from Little Stambridge to my father, the late Mr. 
William Shore, of Wantage. They were great 
friends, and Mr. Hewlett was, I believe, my god- 
father. Letcombe Regis, Mr. Hewlett's former 
curacy, is two miles from Wantage, and Abingdon 
School, of which he was head master, nine miles. 
My father and he interchanged visits after he- 
removed to Little Stambridge. 

My father died in 1845, two years before Mr. 
Hewlett, and the friendship between them, in 
regard to Mr. Hewlett's authorship, and the diffi- 
culty he had in finding a publisher, was of a very 
confidential kind. In one of the letters I have 
he speaks of " Master Colburn having thrown me 
over by not coming to my terms for Dunster 

I should be very glad if any reader of 
" N. & Q." would help me in procuring a copy of 

S. III. JAN. 22, '81.] 



Dunster Castle, which I have reason to think 
from the circumstances I have stated, is, as an 
historical romance of the Great Kebellion, partly 
founded upon the family history of my father' 
ancestors, the Shores of Derbyshire, who took par 
in that struggle. 

Hartley Institution, Southampton. 

"EIGHT AWAY" (6 th S. ii. 223, 416). This 
appears to be used as the technical expression for 
the final order to start a goods train, at least on the 
Great Eastern Railway, when the tedious process 
of shunting is completed. This seems to involve 
the idea of continuity of distance. VEBNA. 

374). That in England the accent is usually on 
the first syllable of sojourn and sojourmr, is borne 
out by the following quotations : 
"And this is why I sojourn here, 

Alone and palely loitering, 
Though the sedge is wither'd from the lake, 
And no birds sing." 

Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci, at. 12. 
" Wherein were wont to sojourn in all peace, 
Lamb, lion, eagle, ox, dove, serpent, goat, 
And snow-white hart." 

T. J. Bailey (Author of Festus) The Angel World, 
p. 8, ed. 1850 (Pickering). 

"Yet mixed with these are kindlier sojowners, 
Seekers of peace, whose souls excel their fate." 

PWestland Marston, A Lost Life,r>. 353, vol. ii., 
ed. 1876 (Chatto & Windus). 


ii. 347, 377). This proverb, with a difference, is 
frequently heard in South Devon and South- 
eastern Cornwall. The South-western version is 
" No more use for it than a toad has for a side- 
pocket," or " About as much use to him as a side- 
pocket to a toad." WM. PENQELLY. 


A man in Staffordshire once said to me, speak- 
ing of a youth who had married imprudently, 
"Why, sir, he didn't want a wife any moor'n 
[more than] a toad wants a side-pocket." Could 
any simile be more conclusive ? It is possible to 
conceive cases in which a side-pocket would be 
very useful to a dog, but to a toad impossible ! 

X. P. D. 

To have no more use for a thing " than a toad 
has for side-pockets," is the form in which this 
saying is familiar to me ; but whether it has be- 
come so by means of eye or ear, I am not able to 
say. One would think that a monkey would 
quickly appreciate the powers of side-pockets, and 
use them freely. In "Proverbs, English and 
Keltic," &c. (Folk-lore Record, vol. iii. p. 75), Mr. 
Long credits Lancashire with the comparison " No 

more use [for 

a book than a 

duck has for an- 

An aged of relative mine, whose memory carries, 
him back some eighty odd years, tells me that in- 
his native county, Northamptonshire, it was a. 
common saying, "You have no more use for that 
than a toad has for a side-pocket." FLEECE. 

The saying, " You have no more use for that 
than a dog has for a side-pocket," is known in the 
East Eiding. It was quoted thence, apropos of a. 
new Methodist meeting-house, a few years ago, 
in " N. & Q.," 5* h S. vii. 385, under the heading 
" A Fisherman's Sermon." A. J. M. 

In Lancashire the same idea is given in the 
following saying : " You have no more use for it- 
than a cow has for a ruffled shirt." 


EDGE INSCRIPTIONS ON COINS (6 th S. i. 514 ; ii., 
173, 297). MR. SAMUEL has quite misunderstood 
my meaning. I drew attention to the coin merely 
because it had an edge inscription not, indeed, 
suspecting that it had any monetary value. I trust 
this explanation will suffice. HEPATICUS. 

A BILLY-COCK HAT (6 th S. ii. 224, 355). There 
may have beeen a person of the name of William 
Coke, well known in Melton Mowbray, a quarter 
of a century ago, who wore a billy-cock hat, as 
K. C. alleges, but that the name of the head- 
dress in question was derived from his, is highly 
mprobable. Cocked hats were used in England 
at least a couple of centuries since possibly for- 

much longer time. Coc is a Gaelic or Celtic 
word, which signifies to stand or cause to stand 
up erect and is used in this sense in cockade and 
n the English phrase, " cock up your beaver," also 
n the Scotch phrase, " cock up your bonnet." 
Che Gaelic word bile, pronounced billy, signifies. 
a broad brim, a rim, an edge, a border ; and 
urvives in the slang word for a pocket-handker- 
hief with a border of a different colour, and also- 
n that of blue-billy, which, according to the Slang 
Dictionary, 1874, is a peculiar pattern of hand- 
terchief used by prize-fighters and their patrons, 
lue with red or white spots, and with a broad 
>order. Billy-cock hat thus resolves into a 
ocked hat with a large brim, without reference 
o Mr. Coke of Melton Mowbray. 

Fern Dell, Mickleham. 

[Of the substantive existence of William Coke, or 
Melton fame, there in, and can be, no doubt.] 

Where is it mentioned that on the first appear- 
ance of a European in Algiers the Arabs dubbed 
him Abu tanjera, or "Son of a cooking- pot," 
because of the long-shore or " pot " hat which he- 
wore ? " Son of a sea-cook " is a favourite 
appellation in nautical phraseology. Now as Cok& 



III. JAN. 22, '81. 

is pronounced cook, it appears to me that a link is 
found between billy-cock, or coke, or cook, and the 
Arabs' graphic description. J. B. WILKINSON. 
Lavender Hill. 

<6 a S. ii. 367, 520). Mrs. Bingham's maiden 
name was Ann Willing. She was the daughter of 
Thomas Willing, Esq., of Philadelphia. Mr. 
Willing's lineal ancestor, Joseph Willing, of 
Bristol, married (May 24, 1676) Ann Lowle, 
an heiress, whose arms (sa. a hand, couped at the 
wrist, grasping three darts, one in pale and two in 
isaltire ar.) he seems to have assumed in place of 
his own. (Vide pedigree of Willing, Balch's 
Shippen Papers, p. ciii. vol. No. 23651 D, Philad. 
Library. Griswold's Republican Court, Appleton 
& Co., New York, 1855.) R. R. R. 

" JINGO" (5 th S. x. 7, 96, 456 ; 6 th S. i. 284 ; ii. 
95, 157, 176, 335).-This word has been under 
discussion in " N. & Q.," but I do not think that 
attention was directed to the following example of 
its use, which is to be found in John Eachard's 
Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of the 
Clergy, eleventh edition, 1705 : 

" He that in his Youth has allowed himself this Liberty 
of _ Academiok Wit, by this means he has usually so 
thinn'd his Judgment, becomes so prejudiced against 
sober Sence, and so altogether disposed to Trifling arid 
Jingling, that so soon as he gets hold of a Text he pre- 
sently thinks that he has catch'd one of his old School- 
questions ; and so falls a flinging it out of one hand into 
another, tossing it this way and that ; lets it run a little 
upon the Line, then, Tanutus, High Jingo, come again 
here catching at a Word, there lie nibling and sucking 
at an and, a by, a quit or a quid, a sic or a si cut and 
thus niinces the Text so small, that his Parishioners, 
until he rendezvouze it again, can scarce tell what's 
become of it." P. 28. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Wa?-e=spend is not exclusively a Lincolnshire 
expression. I have heard it from a Nottingham- 
shire man. Halliwell gives the word as North, 
with the comment : " This term is an archaism." 
He also gives " Agg, to incite, provoke. Exmoor." 



"Amo, amas, I love a lass." 

This sons: waa written by John O'Keefe for his play of 
The Agreeable Surprise, 1781, and sung by Edwin, in the 
character of Lingo, in Act II. sc . ii. It is printed in The 
Roundelay, p. 141 ; The Bullfinch, p. 298 ; Syren, p 186 
Vocal Enchantress, p. 316 ; 'in The Festival of Momus, 
p. 138, and also a few other song bookg. I will send 
a copy to JOSEPHUS if he will forward me his address. 


Molash Vicarage, by Ashford, Kent. 

-/,'' R yal edition of the Sony* of 

England, published by Boosey & Co. 


How pure the joy when first my hands unfold 
The small, rare volume, black with tarnish'd gold." 
Such is the couplet, and the reading of the latter line. 
John Ferriar, a physician, born at Chester, 1764, is the 
author, and the lines occur in his "Illustrations of 
Sterne," Bibliomania, 11. 136-7, in which it is said he 
has displayed much research in tracing that eccentric 
author's obligations to Burton, Hall, and other satirical 
moralists. Ferriar was a miscellaneous writer in prose 
and verse. FREDK. RULE. 

' Ut Angelus," &c. The reference required by S. is 
S. Jerome, "in Dan.," cap. iii. (Op., vol. v. p. 643, 
Veronje, MDCCCXXXVI.) . The reference is correctly given 
in the Oxford University Press edition of Bishop Pear- 
son's Exposition of the Creed. 

[E. M. Next week.] 


Demonology and Devil Lore. By Moncure Daniel Con- 
way, M.A. Second and Revised Edition. 2 vols. 
(Chatto & Wiridus.) 

THIS is a valuable addition to folk-lore literature, and 
will long rank as the leading authority on the important 
subject with which it deals. All praise is due to the 
author for the fearless and straightforward manner in 
which, whilst disproving many a familiar object of belief, 
he has with an equal impartiality upheld the integrity 
of others. In the nine hundred pages of these two large 
volumes a mass of carefully weighed matter has been 
brought together which, under Mr. Conway's skilful 
treatment, has been classified and analyzed; and al- 
though in many cases -we cannot accept his inferences 
as conclusive, yet his theories are always suggestive. 
The marked earnestness, too, which characterizes the 
pages of this exhaustive work, shows that Mr. Conway's 
desire has throughout been, whilst separating the ele- 
ments of truth from those mythical conceptions in which 
it is so often veiled, to trace the history universal and 
continuous of that "Evil Power" which from the 
earliest times, in a variety of ways, has been represented 
as thwarting and opposing the purest and highest aspi- 
rations of man. Hence, it must be acknowledged, Mr. 
Conway's ta;k has been no easy one. In collecting out 
of many countries the almost countless shapes under 
which savage races have conceived of evil in its struggle 
against good, we are shown how ignorance coupled with 
superstition has only too often invented a phantasmal 
creature, whose influence has laid the heavy hand of 
slavish fear upon the minds of uncivilized communities. 
Those evil spectres, too, which have haunted mankind 
are so numerous that any attempt to catalogue them is, 
as Mr. Conway remarks, "like trying to count the 
shadows cast upon the earth by the rising sun." As far 
as possible, therefore, he has endeavoured to ascertain 
the leading principles that have pervaded these human 
conceptions, and, by a process of evolution, to trace the 
science of demonology from the physical to the spi- 
ritualized struggles ot humanity. Beginning with the 
phantasms which man has conjured up from obstacles 
encountered in his progressive adaptation to the con- 
ditions of existence, he shows how these obstacles, so 
long as they were not comprehended by intelligence or 
mastered by skill, have been imaginatively associated 
with preternatural powers. These, too, in course of 
time developed and became in themselves a considerable 
host, of which our author has given a careful classifica- 
tion, showing how the evils against which man had to 

6' s III. JAN. 22, '81.] 



contend were personified in the demons of hunger, heat, 
cold, &c., besides demons which arose from natural 
objects, such as mountains, and from illusions, such as 
the will-o'-the-wisp. As, however, man passed from his 
primitive state into one more civilized having in the 
mean time mastered many of what were once insur- 
mountable difficulties it was only natural that these 
demons should decline from their terrible proportions 
and make way for more general forms, expressing com- 
paratively abstract conceptions of physical evil. Thus 
Mr. Conway traces the decline of demon worship, and 
shows how physical evil in its complex aspect was linked 
with the symbolical form of the dragon that fabulous 
monster who figures so conspicuously in the superstitions 
and traditions of most countries in the world. He then, 
by a further process of evolution, describes how the 
dragon, as the natural offspring of demon worship, at 
last itself became the embodied idea of the devil the 
generalized expression for an active, powerful, and in- 
telligent enemy of mankind, " a being who is antagonism 
organized, and able to command every weapon in nature 
for an anti-human purpose." The distinction, therefore, 
which Mr. Conway draws between the demon and the 
devil is this, that the latter was the outcome of the 
former, the world having been haunted by demons for 
many ages before there was an embodiment of their 
spirit in any representative form, much less of a prin- 
ciple of evil in the universe. And whereas the early 
demons had no moral character, it required a much 
higher development of the moral sentiment to give rise 
to the conception of a devil. Such is, in brief, an out- 
line of the way in which, by an elaborate chain of well- 
gifted evidence, Mr. Moncure Conway reviews the his- 
tory of demonology and devil lore. Those who have 
been in the habit of accepting unquestioningly many an 
old religious dogma will necessarily dissent from much 
that he advances, but all students must thank him for so 
valuable a contribution to scientific research. 

Shakespeare and Classical Antiquity. By P. Stapfer. 

Translated by E. J. Carey. (C. Kegan Paul & Co.) 
THE literary monument which loving, though some- 
times whimsical, industry has reared to Shakspeare's 
memory already reaches such colossal proportions as to 
touch the confines both of the sublime and the ridiculous. 
There was, however, still a place for M. Stapfer's work, 
and the addition of this tribute from a distinguished 
Frenchman rather lightens than encumbers the struc 
ture. The volume before us is full of interest, and con 
tains much thoughtful and discriminating criticism 
M. Stapfer's general attitude towards Shakspeare is 
that of a dispassionate critic, who indulges neither in 
blind rhapsody nor carping depreciation. Yet he is 
keenly alive to the merits of his author; and ournationa' 
pride will be soothed by the frequent comparisons, always 
in favour of Shakspeare, which he institutes between the 
English dramatist and his great French rivals. He has 
selected a subject which can be thoroughly treated within 
a comparativly small compass. He offers a detailed 
examination of only seven of Shakspeare's plays, Th, 
Comedy of Errors, Troilus and Cressida, Timon Oj 
Athens, Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Julius Caesar, Anton* 
and Cleopatra, and Coriolanus. But he prefaces hi 
careful criticism of these plays and the sources whenci 
they are derived with some interesting chapters on thi 
state of classical learning in the latter half of the six 
teenth century, the classical examples and precepts o 
Elizabethan writers, the extent of Shakspeare's know 
ledge of Latin and Greek, his anachronisms, and hi 
attitude towards the unities. In the discussion of a 
these questions he adopts the middle course between th 
two extremes. He does not see in Shakspeare's ana 

ironisms the blunders of untaught genius, nor in his 
eglect of the unities a wanton defiance of the classical 
hool. Nor, on the other hand, does he discover from 
hakspeare's writings that he was at once a soldier, a 
awyer, an ethnologist, and a poacher, or elevate the 
oet into a rival of Dr. Pancrace, who knew all things, 
om fables to " oneiro-criticism and physics." The 
ranslation, which is excellent throughout, preserves 
auch of the grace and charm of the original. We hope 
he book will obtain such success as to induce the trans- 
,tor and the publisher to give to the English-reading 
ublic the second part of M. Stapfer's work, Shakespeare- 
nd the Greek Tragedians. 

British Mezzolinlo Portraits. Described by John 
Chaloner Smith. Part III. (Sotheran & Co.) 
'HE third volume of this thoroughly useful work brings 
s nearly to the conclusion of the range which the 
uthor had undertaken to deal with. The list of en- 
ravers' names here extends to Vispre, and only those of 
, few more, including the two Watsons, remain to be 
isposed of. The number of John Smith's works in the 
iresent volume amounts to 287, and that of John 
laphael Smith to 200. In Part I. the works of Faber, 
iun., amounted to 419, and in Part II. those of Mac 
Ardell to 201. The present instalment betrays no diminu- 
ion of spirit, precision, and copiousness ; in fact, it con- 
;ains even more matter than the preceding ones. The 
author announces that the fourth and last part will be 
ssued in two divisions, the first containing the remainder 
f the engravers, and the second additions and cor- 
rections, with an index of painters and an index of per- 
onages, with references to the pages. These supple- 
mental branches will be of the utmost utility, and will 
render the book to a certain class of students a work of 
every-day necessity. It has already, within our own 
cnowledge, served on important occasions to identify 
missing pictures, and to supply names to portraits that 
lad hitherto been wanting. 

The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage of the British 
Empire for 1881. By Joseph Foster. (Nichols & Son.) 
[p there be one book to which the denunciation of 
Callimachus, Mgya ]3t/3Xiov jusya jca/coV, does not 
apply, it is assuredly a Peerage and Baronetage, pro- 
vided that the amount of information to which it owes 
ts greatness be accurate and complete, although such 
information be concerning the less important members 
of the aristocratic families recorded in it, like the well- 
known Lady O'Looney, " first cousin of Burke, commonly 
called the Sublime." But to speak seriously and a Peerage 
is a serious book, for is it not the recognized record of 
the families of those men whose genius, valour, and talents 
have won for England her proud position among the 
nations of the world? Mr. Foster's Peerage, Baronetage, 
and Knightage, which in the volume before us is brought 
down to the close of December last, includes notices of 
the recently created earldoms of Lytton, Lathom, and 
Sondes; the viscounty of Sherbrooke; the eleven 
baronies of Shute, Watson, Haldon, Wimborne, Ardilaun, 
Lamington, Donington, Trevor, Rowton, Mount Temple, 
and Brabourne ; of Lord Amherst, summoned to the 
House of Lords in his father's barony ; also of the 
eleven baronetcies conferred, and the numerous 
additions made to the ranks of the various Orders of 
Knighthood. The names of the several statesmen, 
warriors, and civilians thus honoured will be found, 
accompanied by an account of their services, in the 
pages devoted to the record of the members of the 
various ranks and orders to which they belong, be they 
members of the peerage, baronetage, or knightage. 
Woodcut illustrations of the armorial bearings of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [0 th s. in. JAN. 22, -si. 

'peers, baronets, &c., whose descents are recorded are 
profusely scattered throughout Mr. Foster's pages, 
^and add to the value and utility of the large and 
handsome volume which they illustrate. Do not let the 
reader be startled by this second allusion to the size of 
the volume. The book, be it remembered, is a record of 
facts, and Sir Egerton Brydges no mean judge of the 
value of such facts did not hesitate to extend his 
edition of Collina's Peerage to nine octavo volumes; 
and those nine volumes do not contain much more than 
Mr. Foster has contrived to incorporate in the goodly 
octavo before us, which is printed in double columns, in 
a rather small but beautifully clear type, each column 
containing nearly as much matter as two pages of Sir 
Egerton Brydges's edition" the last and best," a? it is 
generally described in booksellers' catalogues. Mr. Foster's 
Peerage, with its sixteen or eighteen hundred double- 
columned pages, contains, therefore, nearly as vast an 
array of facts and dates as are to be found in the last 
Collins. We do not venture to assert that there are no 
errors of omission or commission discoverable in this 
enormous array of such materials, but so far as we have 
tested the book it is as correct as such a book can reason- 
ably be expected to be ; the few errors that critical eyes 
may detect and kindly communicate to the editor will 
gradually get eliminated, so that, if a Peerage with- 
out errors or blunders be possible, Mr. Foster may 
reasonably hope within a very few years to exhibit to 
the British public 

" That faultless monster which the world ne'er saw," 
a Peerage rivalling in accuracy the best-edited classic 
that ever issued from the press. 

THE Rev. Digby S. Wrangham, M.A., Vicar of Dar- 
rington, Yorkshire, proposes, if sufficient encouragement 
be given by the number of subscribers, to produce a new 
edition of The Liturgical Poetry of Adam of St. Victor. 
We are sure that many of our readers will be glad to 
assist a movement that has for its object to extend the 
circle of readers and admirers of one who has been 
described by Archbishop Trench as " the foremost among 
the sacred Latin poets of the Middle Ages," and by Dr. 
Neale as " the greatest Latin poet, not only of mediaeval, 
but of all ages." The price of the work will be 11. Is., 
and intending subscribers' names will be received by 
the Rev. Digby Wrangham, Darringtou Vicarage, Ponte- 

Chapters from the History of Old Saint Paul's is the 
title of a new work by the Rev. Dr. W. Sparrow Simpson, 
editor of Documents Illustrating the History of St. Paul's 
(Camden Society). It will be published shortly by Mr. 
Elliot Stock. 

THE name of Henry Sotheran & Co. is a sufficient 
guarantee for the interest of any list issued by that firm. 
Their first Manchester catalogue, on acquiring the busi- 
ness of Mr. Thomas Hayes, should be carefully scanned 
by all lovers of literature and art. 

WE are glad to learn that our friend, Mr. E. H. Mar- 
shall, M.A., has been appointed librarian to the library 
at Hastings founded by Mr. Brassey, M.P. 

WE have to record the death at Bath, on January 7, 
aged seventy, of an accomplished scholar and a great 
friend of the late Lord Lytton, the Rev. Charles B. Pear- 
son, late Rector of Knebworth, Hertfordshire, and 
formerly vicar of Chiddingfold, Surrey. He held for 
many years a prebendal stall in Salisbury Cathedral. He 
was a son of the late Very Rev. Hugh N. Pearson, many 
years Dean of Salisbury, and a brother of the Rev. Pre 
bendary Jervis (formerly Pearson), the learned author of 

The History of the Cfallican Church. Mr. Pearson was 
the author of an English verse translation of the Se~ 
quences from the Sarum Missal. 


We must call special attention to the folloioing notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

V. M. 1. The point is one on which practice 
seems to vary. The marks of cadency were primarily 
intended to difference the sons from their father 
in his lifetime. Yet " in actual practice in our 
own times," as the late Mr. Boutell his remarked 
(Heraldry, Historical and Popular, 1864) "these 
differences are rarely used by brothers of the same 
family during their father's lifetime, but they are almost 
universally regarded as the hereditary marks of the 
junior branches of the same family." We have italicized 
those words of Mr. Boutell which seem to bear most 
lirectly upon the point you raise. If the marks are to be 
taken as hereditary, it is obvious that the family history 
would only be confused by such a shifting use as you 
suggest. And we incline to think it would be wrong, 
on any theory of their character, so to vary the bearing 
of marks each of which has a distinct meaning. We 
ourselves agree with Dugdale, Nisbet, Mackenzie, and 
other authorities cited by Mr. Seton (Law and Practice 
of Scottish Heraldry, 1863), against the proposition of the 
hereditary and permanent use of what were only in- 
tended as temporary marks of difference. We should 
prefer in the case you put to difference by change of 
tincture, or by a bordure, &c., as is usual in Scottish 
heraldry. 2. Royal cadency, for which you should 
consult Boutell, Seton, &c., is governed by special laws, 
based on the special circumstances of the case, i.e., as 
Mr. Seton says, that the arms of the sovereign are those 
of the State, and that, therefore, none of the children of 
the blood-royal are entitled to arms by descent. 

J. C. M. (Liverpool). Their interest would not justify 
the insertion of the epitaphs you forward ; moreover, 
they are of too recent a date. She was the daughter of 
a land agent. 

F. W. GREGORY (" Gregory Family "). Please draw 
up the query in the form in which you wish it to appear, 
and we will endeavour to insert it. 

R. & .... The subject is quite exhausted. We shall be 
glad to renew acquaintance on some other matter. 

A. W. T. We shall be glad to have it. We are not 
awaro of the periodical to which you refer. 

W. M. B. Hampshire. The full text of the inscrip- 
tion might be of interest to genealogists. 

H. R. H. GOSSELIN. Havnia is the Latin form of 

W. F. (Dover). We shall be glad to forward prepaid 
letters to our correspondents. See ante, p. 76. 

F. H. (Linden Gardens). As soon as possible. 

H. W. (New Univ. Club).- It shall appear. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, /or any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6> S. III. JAN. 29, '81 J 





NOTES: A Rare Engraving of Burley-on-the-Hill House, 
Kutland, 81 John Wilson Creker-Parish Clerks, 84-The 
"Harcourt Papers" Tennyson s "Ballads and other 
Poems " Cheese-making at Cheddar, 85 "Boot and 
Saddle "Crows and Fir Cones A Surname made easy 
Wrexham Organs Mnemonic Lines The Three F's, 86. 

QUERIES : The Collar of SS., 86 The late Snowstorm- 
Dean Swift" Pilgrim's Progress' 1 Illustrations Angling 
Described -Sprye's Devonshire Collections Jodocus Crull, 
M.D. Mace Family-Lenton, co. Notts-E. Hull "Weeds 
and Onfas ' Darvell Gadarn, 87 Cambridgeshire M.P.s 
Esher " Systema Horticulturse " " Windlestrae" Lincoln 
Bell Foundry - Rev. W. Herbert, 88 " Zoedone " Pyanot 
"Bilwise and Polmad" Authors Wanted, 89. 

REPLIES :" Cut off with a shilling," 89 "Fog" The 
Temporal Power of Bishops. 90 The "White Quey" C. 
Marshall, 91 Miss Drax Two Letters from Teresa Blount 
The House of Keys, 92 The Gender of Death Suicide : 
Imagination, 93 -" Carminative" John Pinkerton Cutts 
Family Hall Marks Friday an Unlucky Day for Marriages 
" Guffin " Numismatic The " Religio Medici" 
"Bushy." 94 The Bagpipe in Lincolnshire Edmund Curll 
A Key to " Endymion" "Ttoe grey mare," <bc., 95 
" Rickets "Lucy (?) Wentworth, <fec. Old Houses with 
Secret Chambers Josselyn of Horksley. 96 "Whom" for 
"Who"-Morice of Werrington-A Widow's Signature- 
Sorts of Ales, 97 "The land o' the leal" "Brag" "A 
bobbin of thread" " Wrap" Tablet in Ilfracombe Church 
The Bells of King's College, Cambridge" Boycotting," 98 
Authors Wanted, 99. 

NOTES OX BOOKS : Carnota's "Memoirs of the Duke of 
Saldanha " " Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft " 
Longman's "Frederick the Great and the Seven Years' 
War"" The Genealogist," &c. 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 

The small county of Kutland is wholly agricul- 
tural, and contains many houses of the nobility 
and country gentry. Of these the chief are Nor- 
znanton Park, one of the seats of Lord Aveland ; 
Stocken Hall, another of Lord Aveland's seats, 
but now occupied by Lord Francis H. P. Cecil ; 
Exton House, the seat of the Earl of Gainsborough, 
lord lieutenant of the county ; and Burley-on-the- 
Hill House, the seat of Mr. George Henry Finch, 
one of the members for the county. 

^ Burley is rightly termed " on the hill," for it is 
situated on the brow of the lofty ground overlook- 
ing the town of Oakham and the Vale of Catmos. 
From its grand position, as well as from the beauty 
of its surroundings, it has been called " a second 
Belvoir." It would be out of place on the present 
occasion to give the long but interesting history of 
the estate, from the time of Gilbert de Gant, one 
of the favourites of William the Conqueror, till the 
days of Queen Elizabeth, when it was sold to the 
Harringtons. It was bought from that family 
by King James I.'s favourite, " Steenie," Sir George 
Villiers, afterwards Duke of Buckingham. He 
entertained the king and his court at Burley, 

and Bishop Andrews preached before them in 
the ancient church which is at the west end of 
the mansion, and connected with it by a covered 
way.* Ben Jonson's masque of The Gypsies was- 
also produced at Burley for the entertainment of 
the king. Prince Charles, and the court, the per- 
formers being all members of the nobility. The 
Duke of Buckingham spent large sums of money 
on the improvement of the mansion and grounds. 
Fuller says that Burley " was inferior to few for 
the house, and superior to all for the stables, where 
the horses were the best acc.ommodated in England." 
Wright also says of these stables that they are 
" the noblest (or at least equal to any) in England." 
The eastern portion of these stables remains to this- 
day, the western stables being built to correspond 
with them. 

Charles I., with his Queen Henrietta Maria, 
also visited Burley in 1626, on which occa- 
sion Jeffrey Hudson, the Oakham dwarf, who 
had been taken by the Duchess of Buckingham 
as her page, was served up in a cold pie at dinner 
before the king and queen. He was then seven 
years of age and scarcely eighteen inches high. 
This ludicrous introduction to royalty led to the 
dwarf being afterwards taken into the service of 
the queen. A full-length, life-size portrait of 
Sir Jeffrey Hudson hangs in the western cor- 
ridor at Burley. After the murder of the Duke of 
Buckingham by Fen ton in 1628, George Villiers, 
the second duke and favourite of Charles II. 9 
took possession of Burley. In 1646 the Parlia- 
ment army, in order to protect their County 
Committee, being then in power, seized Burley 
and garrisoned it. But when the army re- 
tired from the neighbourhood, the garrison, find- 
ing themselves unable to cope with the larger 
force of the Royalists by whom they were sur- 
rounded, set fire to the furniture and all the 
contents of the house, and retreated, leaving it to 
its fate. The mansion in consequence was totally 
destroyed ; but the stables (already spoken of), 
being at some distance, escaped. After this de- 
struction the duke was too much involved in 
debt to bear the expense of rebuilding the house ; 
lie therefore sold the estate to Daniel Finch, 
second Earl of Nottingham, a descendant of Sir 
Henry Finch, author of Nomotechnia and Ser- 
jeant at Law in the reign of James I. Other 
members of this family were Sir Heneage Finch, 
Recorder of London in the reign of Charles I., 
and Sir John Finch, Queen's Attorney and Speaker 
of the House of Commons. He was the Speaker 
who was forcibly held in his chair when he refused 
bo countenance the proceedings of the House in 

* The church Tra we'l restored a few years since at 
the expense of Mr. Finch. Among other monuments it 
contains an exquisite 1 fe-aize marble female figure, by 
Chantrey (dated 1820), in rnamory of Lady Charlotte 


NOTES AND QUERIES. EC* s. in. JAN. 29/81. 

the debates on the ship money ; and to him we 
owe the axiom, "Authority must be vindicated 
from contempt, since the life of Government is 

Daniel Finch, son of Heneage Finch, the first 
Earl of Nottingham, was born in 1647, two years 
after the burning of Burley. At the age of thirty- 
two he was appointed First Commissioner of the 
Admiralty, and at the Eevolution was made 
Secretary of State, after declining the offer of the 
Lord Chancellorship. He resigned office in 1694, but 
resumed the same post in the reign of Queen Anne, 
again resigning it in 1704. On the accession of 
George I. he was made President of the Council, 
was created Earl of Winchelsea, and died Jan. 21, 
1729/30. He distinguished himself in literature 
by writing a work on the Trinity against Whiston. 

It is this Daniel Finch, Earl of Winchelsea and 
Nottingham, who renewed the glories of Burley, 
after the mansion had remained for many years 
an unsightly heap of charred ruins. The stone for 
the building of the new mansion was not quarried 
on the spot, but was brought from Ketton and 
Clipsham, two places at opposite extremities of 
the county, and about eight miles distant from 
Barley. The house, which still remains, and is in 
the possession of Mr. G. H. Finch, M.P., was 
greatly improved and renovated by the ninth 
Earl of Winchelsea early in the present century. 
It is in the Doric style, with elaborate ornamenta- 
tion; the south and north fronts are similar in 
elevation and treatment, and are 196 feet in length 
and lighted by sixty-six windows. On the south 
front is a magnificent terrace, 290 yards in length 
by 12 in breadth, from which there is a widely 
diversified view over the distant country and the 
well- wooded park beneath the terrace. The chief 
feature of the north front, which faces to the high 
road between Oakham and Cottesmore, is the wide 
sweep of lengthy colonnades on either side, leading 
to the stables and offices. The distance between 
the two blocks of stables and other buildings is 
about 300 yards, along which is carried a range of 
ornamental iron railings, having in their centre 
handsome iron gates. The distance from these 
gates to the flight of steps at the entrance is 270 
yards. The space thus enclosed is said to be the 
largest courtyard in England. Besides several 
wide gravel walks and drives, it has five level grass 
plots, which are sufficiently large to be marked in 
the Ordnance Map. A stretch of the park, which 
was surrounded by Daniel Finch with a stone wall 
six miles in circuit, comes between the courtyard 
and the high road, whence the passer-by has 
a view of Burley-on-the-Hill House that cannot 
fail to attract and please him. 

It is of this north front of Burley-on-the-Hill 

* Burke said that "All Government is founded on 
compromise and barter." 

House that a fine engraving came into my pos- 
session some six years ago. It is not only remark- 
able, but I believe it also to be rare. During the 
ten years that I have been " collecting " on the 
county of Rutland I have neither heard of nor seen 
another copy. Its existence was not known to the 
present possessor of Burley, and I have therefore 
begged him to accept the engraving, which has 
been framed and hung in the east corridor, im- 
mediately over the old oil painting on panel which 
would appear to have formed the original for the 
print, although the contrary is possible. The 
painting, which has been preserved at Burley as 
long as can be remembered, corresponds with the 
engraving in nearly every particular, though there 
are a few figures in the print that are not in the 
painting. The latter is also much smaller than 
the former. The dimensions of the picture are 
3 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 6| in. deep ; those of the 
engraving are 6 ft. 10 j in. long by 1 ft. 9J in. deep, 
exclusive of margin. It has been printed in three 
parts, joined together, and the view is slightly 
isometrical in its treatment, so that the tops of 
the roofs and chimneys can be looked down upon. 
It shows the north front of the mansion, with the 
two semi-circular colonnades, the two blocks of 
stables, the walks, and five grass plots, a low wall 
between the outer four and the fifth inner grass 
plot, and a high wall on either side the iron en- 
trance gate. This outer wall was removed some 
time in the last century (the exact date is not 
known) by the advice of "Capability" Brown,* 
who thought that the view from the house and 
courtyard would be improved by a fuller sight of 
the fine trees in the park ; and, accordingly, the 
stone wall was taken down, and a light, open-work 
railing was substituted. With the exception of 
these two walls, the engraving faithfully represents 
the mansion as it now stands. 

In the upper part of the left-hand portion of 
the engraving is the following inscription, placed 
within an ornamental border, and surmounted by 

* Lancelot Brown Avas also employed at the other 
Burghley, the seat of the Marquis of Exeter, near Stam- 
ford, ten miles, as the crow flies, from Burley-on-the-Hill. 
He may have directed the works at these two places at 
the same time. He was making the alterations at 
Burghley about the year 1775, when he substituted 
a green circular lawn for the pond that had been in front 
of the chief entrance, laid out the lake, covering thirty- 
two acres, spanned by a stone bridge of three arches, 
and effected several improvements in the park and 
gardens. There is a fine three-quarter length of L. Brown 
in the Pagoda Room at Burghley, where there are so 
many valuable portrait*. It was painted by Sir N. 
Dance, who also painted the portraits of David Garrick 
and Angelica Kauffman that hang in the same room. I 
may note that in Murray's Handbook to Northampton- 
shire, after the mention of this picture, it is stated that 
Brown died in 1773, at which date he was in full employ- 
ment at Burghley. He died Feb. 6, 1783, being then 
head gardener at Hampton Court. 

6th s. III. JAN. 29, '81.] 



the arms of the Earl of Nottingham : " A North 
Prospect of Burley on the Hill, in Eutlandshire, 
the Seat of the R' Hon ble the Earl of Nottingham, 
Baron Finch of Daventry, and Baronet," &c. Be- 
neath this is the monogram " D.N.," which, with an 
earl's coronet, is also carved over the entrance door, 
and may stand for " Daniel Nottingham." In the 
upper part of the right-hand portion of the print 
is the following inscription, placed within an orna- 
mental border surmounted with armorial bearings : 
" Nobilissimo Viro Danieli Domino Finch, Hunc 
suse paternre sedis Prospecturn Borealem, D.D.D. 
Anton. Twyman, Armig., arnicitise simul et obser- 
vantire pignus." I need hardly say that these, 
and the other inscriptions and letterings on the 
engraving, do not appear in the oil painting. 

Beneath the print is marked a scale of feet, up 
to 210 on either side from the centre 410 feet in 
all, with the following instructions : 

"The Use of the Scale of Feet. To measure the 
breadth of any part of this Building, draw two Lines 
from the Point of View to the Scale, passing them over 
the Extremities of the Part you desire to measure, and 
the same Measure you find on the Scale, will give you 
the Measure you demand. Ex. gr. If you would find 
the Breadth of the Pediment, a line drawn from the 
Point of View to the Scale, passing over the Extremities 
of the Base of the Pediment, will fall upon 25 in the 
Scale, which is half the Measure; in like manner on 
t'other side it will fall again on 25, w ch is the Breadth of 
the Pediment. To measure the Height of any part of 
the Building, take it with your Compasses, and bring on 
a Line at the Base of the Building you measure, parallel 
to the Scale, and then drawing the Lines from the Point 
of View as before directed, will give you the Height 
demanded. Ex. gr. If you would find the Height 
of the House from the Balustrade to the ground, having 
taken it with your Compasses, and measured a line 
parallel to the Scale at the foot of the Building, you will 
find it measure 60 Feet by the Scale. I might have added 
a Scale of distance in Perspective, by the sides of these 
Plates, but it suffices to let the Reader know, that the 
Distance from the Gates to the House is 800 feet, and 
the Stables are in Front 200." 

The plate is subscribed " Ant. Twyman Arm. 
delin."; " I. van Lintz cognom. studio Rom se fig. 
fecit"; "Grave par frangois Blondel a Paris.' 
Although there is no date to the engraving, yel 
this signature of Francois Blondel, the French 
architect and author, who died in 1686, together 
with the inscription to the Earl of Nottingham 
the date of whose title is 1681, fixes the production 
of the plate somewhere about the year 1683. I 
was, doubtless, to display the glories of the new 
house that this large plate was produced and in- 
scribed to the new possessor, " his paternal seat ' 
being a figure of speech. The Roman artist ha; 
enlivened the prospect of the house by the intro 
duction of an unusual number of figures. There 
are no less than 138 figures of men (including a 
few boys), 10 women, 1 baby, 23 horses, 4 carriages 
12 dogs, 2 mules, 1 donkey, and 1 horned sheep 
The figures are disposed in various parts of th 

ravel walks, and they are as careful to keep off 
he grass as though they were in a college quad. 
ven the dogs do not transgress in this particular, 
^he figures are costumed in the fashions of the 
atest part of Charles II.'s reign. The ladies wear 
oose-flowing dresses, cut low in the neck, with 
wide sleeves, showing the arms bare from the 
elbows. Each lady carries a fan. The gentlemen 
wear loose square-cut coats with lappets, and lace 
iravats tied under the chin and hanging down 
quare in front. All wear huge periwigs and bear 
swords ; a few in addition have walking-sticks. 
[*he majority carry their square flapped hats in 
heir hands or under their arms ; and in a few of 
he hats are feathers. Nearly all wear stockings 
,nd shoes, but a few have jack-boots, including 
wo who are mounted on prancing horses, in front 
>f the stables to the right. A coach, drawn by a 
>air of horses, has driven up to the flight of four- 
;een steps in front of the mansion, and the servants 
are receiving the visitors. Up the central drive i 
proceeding a stately coach, drawn by six horsess 
i postillion being seated on one of the leaders. 
The coach is accompanied by two mounted ser- 
vants, each leading a horse, and followed by a 
servant on foot, carrying a long staff. Another 
servant is closing the iron entrance gates. A third 
carriage, drawn by a pair of horses, is coming 
through the colonnade on the left. 

A remarkable circumstance about the figures in 
the immediate foreground, outside the wall, is that 
the greater portion of them are purely Italian figures, 
and might well be supposed to have been peasants 
suddenly transported from the neighbourhood of 
Rome into Rutland. There is a singular carriage, 
which the Roman artist had evidently studied on the 
spot, as also two mules with plumes and trappings, 
and a classical-looking woman, carrying on her 
head an equally classical watering-pot. The figure 
of this woman does not appear in the oil painting. 

I imagine that this old engraving throws some 
light on the question, Who was the architect of 
Burley-on-the-Hill House? The name of the 
architect is unknown, and also the exact date of 
the erection of the mansion. The family tradition 
is that Daniel Finch, Earl of Nottingham, always 
boasted that he was " his own architect " of the 
new mansion. This seems highly improbable, 
except in the sense that he gave general directions 
as to the form and plan of the house. There is 
also a family tradition that the roof of the house 
was finished with the century that is to say, it 
was not finally completed until the year 1700. 
This is compatible with the engraving having been 
made about the year 1683, because it could have 
been executed from the drawings of the architect, 
whoever he may have been. The Burley of the 
Duke of Buckingham is said to have been built 
by John Thorpe, who built the other Burghley, 
between the years 1575-87 ; but, beyond the tra- 



III. JAN. 29, '81. 

dition that Daniel, Earl of Nottingham, was " his 
own architect," the real architect of the modern 
Burley-on-the-Hill is unknown. 

I would suggest that this old engraving helps 
us to a solution that the architect was no other 
than Francois Blondel, the French architect and 
author, who engraved the plate. Both it and the 
oil painting may have been made from his designs. 
Daniel, Earl of Nottingham, is known to have 
travelled much on the Continent, and he may 
have procured from Blondel the designs and plans 
for his new mansion. I have no knowledge, nor 
have the family, who was the Koman artist who 
put in the figures, nor who was the Antony Twy- 
man who dedicated the plate to the new Earl of 
Nottingham. Perhaps he was connected with the 
Heralds' College? These are points which some 
reader of " N. & Q." may be able to clear up. 

One significant fact has yet to be mentioned. 
Along the tops of the two colonnades are a number 
of ornamental stone vases, which give a great 
finish and elegance to the effect of the whole. 
These vases appear both in the oil painting and 
engraving, but were never seen until the present 
possessor of the mansion placed them in position. 
He was induced to do so from seeing them de- 
picted in the oil painting. There was no trace to 
show that such vases had been placed there, and 
that subsequently they had been removed. 



3. The following letter was written by the Hon. 
Edmund Phipps, a General Officer in the army, 
and Colonel of the GOth Foot. He was uncle of 
the late Marquis of Nornianby, and was born 
April 7, 1760 ; lie died unmarried, September 14, 

Mount St, Saturday, 18th July, 1835. 


" I was very sorry not to meet you yesterday 
at Sir Francis Burdett's dinner. I hope the sore 
throat complaint that prevented you from coming 
was slight, and that prudence has relieved you of 

" As I hear you are still occupied on the subject 
of Dr. Johnson, I will give you a saying of his, 
which I heard him make. When I was very 
young my eldest Brother took me to dine at 
Streatham I was placed at table next to Mrs. 
Thrale, and opposite to Dr. Johnson. She, seeing 
me looking at him with amazement, said, * You 
need not be afraid of Dr. Johnson, he is very 
good humoured 'The Dr. said, "Yes, Madam, 
I am good humoured, I am pleased with little 
things, & not displeased with little things." I 
was so much struck with this Definition of Good 
humour, that now, in my 76th year, I have a 

perfect recollection of it, and shall have 'dura 
spiritus hos reget artus' I hope next time you 
come to Town I shall not only have the pleasure 
of meeting you at Dinner, but that of having your 
company to dine with me 

" Believe me 

" Very truly yours, 

" To " E. PHIPPS." 

" The Eight Hon. John W. Croker." 

PARISH CLERKS. A writer in the November 
number, 1880, of All the Year Bound has given 
two amusing chapters on the history and eccen- 
tricities of parish clerks. The history of this 
church dignitary might, I think, be enlarged, and 
the anecdotes which the genial writer has recorded 
admit of being increased almost without limit. 
Some of these are old and traditional ; some are 
old with new features ; and some are new, at least 
to me. But there must be a vast store of such 
anecdotes floating about in the parochial world, 
embedded in scattered books and treasured in the 
memories of the older clergy, and it appears very 
desirable that these should be collected and stereo- 
typed before they go the way of the parish clerk 
himself, and pass into oblivion. I would therefore 
suggest that the pages of "N. & Q." should be 
open to receive contributions of this kind, and I 
feel sure that the result would be both curious 
and amusing. 

As regards the history of parish clerks, we are 
told that towards the close of the sixteenth ceja- 
tury they were sometimes made the subject of 
inquiry in the Articles of Visitation. By Grin- 
dall's Injunctions they were required to " read 
the first lesson, the epistle, and the Psalms." In 
1577 Aylmer asks the question whether they were 
sufficiently qualified for such a duty. In the 
present century, in Devon and Cornwall, it was 
the custom in some places for the parish clerk to 
read the first lesson. (See Lathbury's Book of 
Common Prayer, p. 87.) I know of an instance 
in Norfolk where the vicar within the last few 
years used often to pass the Bible to the clerk, 
who sat beside but below him in a desk, for him 
to read the lessons. I also knew of a female clerk 
some years ago at Shelley, in Suffolk. 

Towards the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury this statement is made by Lathbury, 
pp. 405-6, in regard to the dress of parish 
clerks. The inquiry is made in Visitation 
Articles : " Have you a large and decent surplice 
(one or more) for the minister to wear, and another 
for the clerk, if he hath heretofore been accus- 
tomed to wear it, when he assisteth the minister?" 
That the parish clerk was here intended, and not 
a clerk in orders, is clear from another question 
under the heading "Parish Clerks." "Doth he 
wear a gown when he so attendeth, and a surplice 

6'h S. III. JAN. 29, '81.] 



over it, if heretofore the custom has been among 
you ? " It would appear, says Lathbury, that the 
parish clerks in some churches wore a surplice, as 
is the case with singing men and choristers in 
cathedrals, and I may now add in many of our 
parish churches. Amongst these the parish clerk 
sometimes sits, wearing a surplice like the rest, and 
so reverts to a custom of the seventeenth century. 
The " vestment " of a parish clerk within our own 
memory, where a parish was willing to go to the 
expense of buying one, was a black cloth gown, 
with bows of cloth or ribbon decorating the sleeves. 
Perhaps interesting anecdotes are to be obtained 
on these points, as well as on the conduct of parish 
clerks in the performance of the duties of their 
office. HUGH PIGOT. 

Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

VERIFIED. In the Harcourt Papers, vol. iii. 
p. 146, is the following account of the strange 
foreboding Lady Nuneham had of her father-in- 
law's death : 

" On the morning of Sept. 16th, 1777, Lady Nuneham 
found the party at breakfast, with an unwonted sadness 
of expression on her countenance. Lord Harcourt 
rallied her upon it and jokingly asked her what miser- 
able dream she had had. After breakfast she confided 
to her husband that she had dreamt that she had seen 
Lord Harcourt's dead body extended upon the kitchen 
dresser at four o'clock that very day. Lord Nuneham 
treated the matter lightly; she could not, however, 
ehake off her gloomy forebodings. 

Lord Harcourt had a favourite dog, which generally 
accompanied him on his rambles ; on this particular day 
the occupation he was engaged on was that of marking 
trees in the Park and setting out plots for planting. He 
had arrived at a spot which is now occupied by a yard 
behind the Head Keeper's house, when his dog leaped 
over some bushes, and fell into a well which they con- 
cealed. The well was not deep, and was full of mud at 
the bottom. 

Lord Harcourt leant over the side of the well and 
endeavoured to extricate the dog; in so doing he lost 
his balance and himself fell in. The thick mud in 
which his head became imbedded quickly smothered 
him. The dog made its way on to his master's heels 
which were leaning against the side of the well. The 
piteous wailing of the dog in time attracted attention ; 
some labourers heard the sounds, and on approaching 
the well perceived a hat and a right hand glove; a 
further search soon revealed the dreadful nature of the 
accident; a ladder was procured, and the body having 
been extricated was placed upon a gate and conveyed to 
the house. The offices were first approached, and 
accordingly the bearers deposited the corpse upon the 
kitchen dresser ; where, in exact accordance with Lady 
Nuneham's dream, it was lying at four o'clock on Sept. 
16th, 1777 " 

As the Harcourt Papers are not published, and 
only fifty copies printed, as I understand, the 
above extract may prove acceptable to the many 
readers of " N. & Q." ECLECTIC. 

It is always interesting to know something about 

the history of the raw material which a great poet 
elaborates ; and those who make the works of 
Tennyson their especial study may like to note 
the fact that the incident of the little suffering 
child " In the Hospital " giving a sign to the 
Lord Jesus to show Him where His tender care 
was needed, was first told in S. Cyprian's Banner, 
a localized magazine, published by Hodges, at 
2, Park Street, Dorset Square, in December, 1872. 
It there appeared as "Alice's Christmas Day/ 
and was said to be "a true story related by a 
Sister of Mercy." Later on I met with this touch- 
ing narrative in pamphlet form ; and have also 
seen it pp. 289-91 of the third volume of New 
and Old, a parochial magazine, under the same 
editorship as the now defunct S. Cyprian's Banner, 
that of the Eev. Charles Gutch, B.D. New and 
Old is now published by Hayes, but when " Alice " 
came out in it, A. K. Mowbray & Co. were respon- 
sible for its production. 

The saying of the latter-day Rizpah (v. xvi.), 
" Do you think I care for my soul if my boy be gone to 

the fire ? " 

reminds one of the resolve of Eathbod, who 
refused to be baptized when assured by Bishop 
Wulfram that his heathen forefathers had "re- 
ceived the sentence of damnation," " I will go to 
hell with my ancestors rather than be in heaven 
without them." 

Carefully as the Laureate trims his lines, he has 
unawares compounded some phonic difficulties 
which there is reason to regret. 

" Now follows Edith echoing Evelyn," 

The Sisters, 

almost deserves, as a friend suggests, to be placed 
in the same category as Peter Piper's peacock ; 
and the first line of the fifth verse of that grand 
ballad, " The Revenge," is calculated to bring many 
an impassioned reader to grief : 
"Sir Richard spoke and he laugh'd and we roar'd a 

hurrah, and so 
The little Revenge ran on sheer into the heart of the 


With her hundred fighters on deck and her ninety 
sick below." 


from Archdeacon Denison, which went the round 
of our periodical press, reflected strongly on the 
modern mode of making cheese at Cheddar. The 
subjoined (second - hand) quotation from Defoe 
shows that, after all, the co-operative system which 
is in use at the present day has existed for nearly 
two centuries. Defoe died in 1736 : 

"In the low country, on the other side Mendip Hills, 
lies Chedder (in Somersetshire), a village pleasantly 
situated under the very ridge of the mountains ; before 
the village is a large green, or common, on which all the 
cows belonging to the village do feed ; this ground is 
exceeding rich, and as the whole village are cow-keepers, 
they take care to keep up the goodness of the soil by 



[6th s. III. JAN. 29, '81. 

agreeing to lay on large quantities of dung, for manuring 
and inriching the land. 

" The milk of all the town cows is brought together 
every day, into a convenient room, where the persons 
appointed, or trusted for the management, measure every 
man's quantity, and set it down in a book ; when the 
quantities are adjusted, the milk is all put together, and 
makes one cheese, and no more : so that it is bigger or 
less, as the cows yield more or less milk. By this method 
the goodness of the cheese is preserved, and without all 
dispute it is the best that England, if not the whole 
world, affords. 

"As these cheese often weigh a hundred weight, 
sometimes much more, so the poorer inhabitants, who 
have but few cows, are obliged to stay the longer for the 
return of their milk ; for no man has any such return 
till his share comes to a whole cheese ; and if the quantity 
of his milk delivered in comes to above a cheese, the 
overplus rests in account to his credit till another cheese 
comes to his share ; and thus every man has equal justice, 
and though lie should but have one cow, he shall in time 
have one whole cheese. This cheese is often sold from 
sixpence to eightpence per pound, when the Cheshire 
cheese is sold but from twopence to twopence half- 



"BOOT AND SADDLE." I append a cutting, as 
to the above expression, from the pleasant gossippy 
column of " Occasional Notes " in the Illustrated 
Sporting and Dramatic News (Oct. 2, 1880), where 
matters of interest to the readers of " N. & Q." 
are frequently taken notice of : 

" Here is an interesting fact which is not generally 
known. ' When cavalry are to prepare for the march, 
" Boot and saddle " is sounded. It might easily be 
imagined that it originally meant that the men were to 
put on their riding boots and saddle their horses. Such, 
however, is not the origin of the phrase. We have bor- 
rowed many of our military technical terms from the 
French, and among others "Boot and saddle." This is 
a corruption of " Boute-selle, ' which means simply 
saddle, " boute " being an old Norman word still used by 
the peasantry, signifying place. " Boute-selle " is, there- 
fore, " place the saddle." ' 


CROWS AKD FIR CONES. When in Fife last 
November I noticed about fifty crows busily en- 
gaged flying off with fir cones, or " tops," from a 
strip of plantation into a neighbouring field. It 
was a fine autumnal day, with bright sunshine, 
and the birds were cawing lustily, in evident en- 
joyment both of the weather and their work. I 
was told, by one who has been from youth up- 
wards a close observer of nature in her varied 
moods, that it was a habit of the crows to do this 
every autumn, and that they were planting the 
cones with as much diligence as they would build 
their nests in spring. The birds were certainly 
pulling the cones from the trees, and their con- 
tinuous activity to and fro made it quite apparent 
that they were not eating them. Probably the 
matter is familiar to naturalists ; but the fact that 
he crow is considered an instinctive forester seems 
worthy of particular notice. THOMAS BAYNE. 

A SURNAME MADE EASY. A German pork- 
butcher, whose lot is cast in a city in the north of 
England, found the name Steigmann on his sign- 
board a very shibboleth in the mouths of the 
people. He resolved to hold out phonetic help to- 
his patrons, and forthwith had himself painted up- 
as Stykman, which, his wife says, is now properly 
rendered Stikeman by the public. I must confess 
that I had pronounced it Stickman, and had 
thought it an unusually appropriate name for a 
pig-killer. ST. SWITHIN. 

WREXHAM ORGANS. Extract from the diary of 
Thomas Davies, who was evidently an old Welsh- 
man : 

'' Ruthin in ye heart of ye Countie of Denbigh ia a- 
castle, being a marquet Towne, & in Wrexham is ye 
Rarest Steeple in ye 3 Nations & Hath had ye Fayrest 
Orgaines in Europe till ye Late Warr in Charles ye 1st 
his Raigne, whos Parlement Forsses pulled Him & Them 
downe, with other Ceremoniall Ornaments, & made ye 
Blackcoates \\eare Swordis rather than surplus, & 
Drum'es were lodged where Orgaines stood, & pikea 
instead of Pipes." 

M. D. K. 

MNEMONIC LINES whereby to know the order of 
the books of the New Testament, from St. Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans to Revelation, given me by a- 
fair friend whose brother was at Rugby. I do- 
not know who is the author : 
11 Rom, Cor, Cor, Gal, Ephe, 
Phil, Col, Thess, Thessale, 
Timy, Timy, Tit, Philemon, 
Hebrews, Jacobus, Pet, Pet, John, 
John, John, Jude, Revelation." 

M.A., Oxon. 

THE THREE F's. I remember, some fifty year& 
since, a lady telling me with dismay that a cook 
coming to be hired demanded the three F's. 
" What are they 1 " said the lady. " Oh, fat, fur, 
and feathers, ma'am, of course." I believe the 
phrase came from the kitchen. P. P. 

We must request correspondents desiring information- 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

THE COLLAR OF SS. The subject of the collar 
of SS has often engaged the attention of readers 
of "N. & Q." I venture, therefore, to ask how,, 
in the event of the suppression of the offices of 
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and 
Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, it would be 
proposed to dispose of those two interesting his- 
torical memorials the collars of SS worn formerly 
by these great legal functionaries. T. S. 0. 

LORD TORRINGTON. Did George Byng, fourth 
Viscount Torrington, hold any office in the house- 

"is.iii.jAK.29,'8i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


hold of William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, abou 
the year 1768 ; or was he in any way officially 
connected with that royal duke ? L. T. I). 

THE LATE SNOWSTORM. A friend informs me 
that, whilst crossing Westminster Bridge in the 
height of the snowstorm on Tuesday, the 18th insf. 
the drift snow which penetrated into his mouth 
had a distinctly saline taste. Did any of your 
leaders notice the phenomenon ? G. H. H. 

DEAN SWIFT. Can any of your readers give me 
information respecting a book relating to the last 
days of Dean Swift, and to that portion of his life 
chiefly ? I should be glad of the correct title, &c., 
and for a hint where I am likely to obtain it. 

G. H. H. 

have six small prints, " Pub. as the Act directs 
1 Dec r 1791 by C. Sheppard, N 10 Lambert Hill 
Doc 8 Com 8 London." The subjects are 1. Chris- 
tian giving his Eeasons for turning Pilgrim ; 
2. Christian asleep in the Arbour ; 3. Christian's 
First Meeting with Evangelist ; 4. Christian's 
Second Meeting with Evangelist ; 5. Christian 
loses his Burthen ; 6. Christian admitted at the 
Wicket Gate. I want to know if these six com- 
plete the series ; whether they were printed to 
illustrate some particular edition of the book. One 
often finds that prints have been torn out of books 
and framed. H. A. W. 

ANGLING DESCRIBED. A cynical writer, who 
evidently knew nothing of the pleasures of angling, 
and seems to have had a great contempt for what 
he did not understand, once described the occupa- 
tion of fishing as " a stick and a string, a worm 
at one end, and a fool at the other." It has long 
been the custom to attribute this rather foolish 
saying to either Dr. Johnson or Dean Swift. 
Some years since MR. PINKERTON pointed out 
{" N. & Q 3 rd S. x. 472) that the thought was 
due to a French writer of the seventeenth century 
named Guyet, who quoted an old saying : 

" La ligne avec sa canne est un long instrument, 
Dont le plus mince bout tient un petit reptile, 
Et dont 1'autre est tenu par un grand imbecile." 
It would be of some interest to know when and 
where these lines are to be found, and who was 
the writer, as there were several of the name of 
Guyet ; but it would be still more interesting to 
know upon what grounds the saying is so con- 
stantly attributed to Swift and Johnson. 


quiry as to the present whereabouts of the above 
collections was made thirteen years ago (" N. & Q." 
3 rd S. x. 331), but I cannot find that any reply 
was obtained. May I be allowed to repeat the 
query ? Capt. R. S. Sprye was second son of the 

Rev. John Sprye, of Ugborough, and seems to 
have supplied some genealogical matter to Burke's 
History of the Commoners, ed. 1838. I should be 
very glad to know if these collections are still in 
existence, and at all accessible. 


JODOCUS CRULL, M.D., F.R.S., author of 
Antiquities of the Abbey Church of Westminster, 
870. 1711. When did he die ? L. L. H. 

MACE FAMILY. -In the pedigree of James 
Mace Gigger, of Eeading, in Hutchins's Dorset, 
vol. i. p. 122 (edition 1861), Rebecca Wace is 
stated to have married a Sutton, at West- 
minster, 1803. Among the marriages at St. Mary's, 
Newington, co. Surrey, the following is registered : 
" 1803, January 18, Richard Sutton, of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, and Rebecca Mace, by 
License." I shall be glad if any correspondent 
of " N. & Q." will give me a reference to any 
member of this Mace family of Newent, West- 
minster, and Walworth. R. HOVENDEN. 
Park Hill Road, Croydon. 

LENTON, co. NOTTS. Does not the small river 
Dene, if I spell it rightly, give its name to the 
township of Lenton 1 P. P. 

EDWARD HULL, artist, executed, 1828-31, a 
considerable number of military drawings on stone, 
representing various costumes of the British army ; 
hese prints were coloured and published by 
ingelrnann & Co. I know of some forty, out of a 
probable number of seventy or more, so published. 
kVhere could I see a complete set ? The British 
Vtuseum has only a single specimen. S. M. M. 

"WEEDS AND ONFAS." Can any of your 

orrespondents give the origin of these words 1 

They occur in the following passage from W. 

Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, 

.. 20, ed. 1879 : 

" Scotch nurses note with which hand a child first 
akes up a spoon to sup. If it be the left you may be 
ure tluit lie will be an unlucky fellow all his life. So 
ays the author of the Wilkie MS. He adds that the 
women who live on the banks of the Ale and Teviot 
lave a singular custom of wearing round their necks 
>lue woollen threads of small cords till they wean their 
hildren. They do this for the purpose of averting 
phemeral fevers, or, as they call them, 'weeds and 
nfas.' " 


DARVELL GADARN. In HalliwelFs Dictionary, 
>. 960, there is printed, as a specimen of the early 
English language, a letter, temp. Henry VIII., 
ddressed to the Bishop of St. Asaph, by his 
ommissary - general, Elis Price. Having taken 
redit to himself for diligence in expelling certain 
uperstitions in the diocese, the writer proceeds to 



S. III. JAN. 29/81, 

say that there is still therein an image of Darvell 
Gadarn, whereto pilgrimages were made daily, as 
many as five or six hundred pilgrims offering to 
the said image on April 5th. The people believed 
that Darvell Gadarn had power to deliver his 
pilgrims out of hell "when they be dampned." 
Can any of your readers give me any further 
information about Darvell Gadarn ? Was the com- 
missary-general successful in the end in rooting 
out his cultus ? A. L. MATHEW. 

M.P.s. May I ask for the aid of "N. & Q." in 
identifying any of the under-mentioned M.P.s? 

For the County : Sir Francis Hynde, Knt., 
1559 to 1589 ; John Hutton, Esq., 1563 and 1572 ; 
William Hynde, Esq., 1597 ; John Sadler and 
Thomas French, 1653 ; Edward Partherich or 
Petherick, Esq., 1679. 

For the University: Nicholas Steward, LL.D., 
Henry Mountlow, LL.D., 1603 ; Barnaby Goche, 
LL.D., 1604-24 ; Thomas Eden, LL.D., 1625-40 
(was a Master in Chancery) ; Henry Lucas, Esq., 
1640-53 ; Thomas Slater, M.D., 1659 ; Thomas 
Crouch, A.M., 1660-78 ; Eobert Brady, A.M., 
1681-87 (was Eegius Professor of Physics); Ed- 
ward Finch, Esq., 1690-5. 

For the Town : Robert Chapman, 1547-55 ; 
Richard Brakyn, 1547-54 ; Alexander Raye, 
1552-5 ; John Rust, 1554 ; Richard Brassey, 
1554 ; Lawrence Hawes, 1555 ; Thomas Ventryss, 
1558 ; Roger Slegge, Alderman, 1563-86; Robert 
Shute, Recorder, 1571-83; John Edmonds, Mayor, 
1586 ; Nicholas Gaunt, Alderman, 1589 ; Thomas 
Goldsborough, Alderman, 1593 ; Christopher Hod- 
son, Alderman, 1593-1614 ; Robert Wallys, Mayor, 
1597-1611 ; John Yaxley, Alderman, 1601-11 ; 
Richard Foxton, Mayor, 1621 and 1640; Francis 
Brakyn, Recorder ; Robert Lukyn, 1624 ; Thomas 
Purchase, Alderman, 1628 ; John Lowry, Esq., 
1640-59 (was one of the judges of Charles I., but 
did not sit) ; William Fisher, 1656 ; William 
Wren, Esq., 1685 (? if younger son of Bishop 
Matthew Wren, who is said to have received 
knighthood Feb. 20, 1684). W. D. PINK. 

' eigh, Lancashire. 

ISHER. This village is by no means an obscure 
one, being, as is well known, mentioned by Shake- 
speare, Thomson, and other poets. But I have 
not been able to meet with any probable deriva- 
tion of the name. In Domesday Book it is called 
Aissela or Aissde. It seems impossible to make 
anything of this ; but no doubt the authors of the 
Great Survey made rather free with the spelling 
of the names of English places. In the Rot. 
Cur. of the first year of the reign of John it i* 
spelled Ashal, the monks of St. Leofrid's Cross 
undertaking to pay twelve broches of eels an- 
nually for their mill there. But in the following 

reign Robert de Watevile is stated in the Testa de 
Nevill to have held (under the abbot of Chertsey) 
one-fourth part of a knight's fee in Assere, as it is- 
there called ; and I am inclined to suspect that 
that spelling is nearer the original form of the 
name. May I venture to suggest that the place 
was known even before English, i.e. in British 
times ; and that the name is connected with the 
Welsh word asserw, meaning sparkling or glitter- 
ing, in allusion to the river Mole in the vicinity ? 
In the reign of Henry VIII. it was spelled Ashsr, 
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, conveying his- 
manor there to the king ; and so the name appears, 
as all the world knows, in Shakespeare. ID 
Thomson's Summer it has its present form : 

" Esher's groves, 

Where in the sweetest solitude, embraced 
By the soft windings of the gentle Mole, 
From courts and senates Pelbarn found repose." 
W. T. LYNN. 

"Systema Horticulturae ; or, the Art of Gardening, 
in three books. By T. W. Gent. London, Printed for 
Tho. Dring, at the Harrow, over against the Inner 
Temple Gate in Fleet Street, 1683. Illustrated by P. H. 
Van Hous." 

Is this little book of any value 1 The illustrations 
are finely executed and very quaint. E. F. 

" WINDLESTRAE." I find this highly poetic 
word in two very different works. First, in 
Shelley's A lastor : 

" Tall spires of windlestrae 
Threw their thin shadows down the rugged slope." 

Secondly, in St. Ronan's Well, where Meg Dods 
says, " It 's the wanton steed that scaurs at the 
windlestrae." To my intense disgust, I have just 
discovered it to be described in a glossary as the 
crested dog's-tail grass ; that, I presume, known to- 
botanists as Cynosurus criatatus. From my own 
consciousness I had always interpreted the word 
as the wind-strewn leaves of the forest, though 
Shelley's use of the word forbids such a definition. 
Is the word Scotch, or of common provincial use ? 
I do not find it in ordinary dictionaries. 

Denmark Hill. 

LINCOLN BELL-FOUNDRY. There was a bell- 
foundry in Lincoln in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries (1676-1707), worked by 
Humphrey Wilkinson. Any particulars as to it 
locality, history, &c., will be very acceptable. 


Ventnor, I.W. 

to ascertain the parentage and ancestry of the 
Rev. William Herbert, Vicar of Normanton and 
Prebendary of York, collated April 3, 1722. He 
married marriage settlement dated Sept. 17, 

6*s.m.jAN.2V8i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

1692 Elizabeth, eldest sister of Edmund Bunny ; 
she died June 5, 1720 ; he on February 5, 1726-7. 
Amongst other children, they had a daughter 
Mary, who married at Skipton, September 8, 1724, 
Rev. Kokeby Scott, Kector of Arthingworth, 
Northants (he was there buried October 3, 1767), 
and had issue, Rokeby Scott, Lieut, of Marines 
(died October 28, 1773), having married at St. 
Ethy, co. Cornwall, May, 1764, Grace, daughter 
of Richard Blake, of Trelogan, co. Cornwall (relict 
of John Dade), and had a daughter, Emma Anne, 
who married at Holy Trinity, Chester, the Eev. 
Thomas Maddock, M.A., Prebendary of Chester, 
who was buried in Chester Cathedral, Feb. 19, 
1825, leaving issue. 

Beaconsfield Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

" ZOEDONE." What is the correct pronunciation 
of this word? F. W. J. 

PYANOT. Magpies in Lancashire are called 
pyanots. What does that termination mean ? 
Is the termination anots an exhibition of the long 
form which we see contracted in the word pyet, 
also meaning magpie ? C. A. WARD. 


" BILWISE AND POLMAD." Stanyhurst (see 
Holingshed's History of England) says the 
Romans became " bilwise and polmad " for learn- 
ing the Greek language. The words are curious 
and worth the attention of all English-speaking 
philologists, none of whom has ever attempted to 
explain them. CRUX. 

" Scorn no one even the vilest ! Who art thou, 
That, with sour purity, dost proudly mouth, 
And look contempt on folly or on vice 1 " 



(6 th S. ii. 389.) 

The origin of the expression is thus noticed by 
Blackstone : 

*' The Romans were wont to set aside testaments, as 
being inofficiosa, deficient in natural duty, if they dis- 
inherited or totally passed by (without assigning a true 
and sufficient reason) any of the children of the testator 
(Just., Inst., ii. xviii. 1). But if the child had any legacy, 
though ever so small, it was a proof that the testator 
had not lost his memory or his reason, which otherwise 
the law presumed, but was then supposed to have acted 
thus for some substantial cause; and in such case no 
querela inofficiosi testamenti was allowed. Hence pro- 
bably has arisen that groundless vulgar error of the 
necessity of leaving the heir a shilling or some other 
express legacy in order to disinherit him effectually : 
whereas the law of England makes no such constrained 
suppositions of forgetfulness or insanity ; and therefore, 

though the heir or next of kin be totally omitted, it 
admits no querela inojficiosi, to set aside such a testa' 
ment." Comm., bk. ii. chap, xxxii. sect. 3. 

The famous instance of bad feeling of a father 
to a son in the Scotch case of Ross v. Ross, decided 
by the Court of Session, March 2, 1770 (Hume's 
Decisions, p. 881), in which the testator by his 
will appeared to have left his son " one shilling, to- 
be paid him yearly on his birthday, to remind him 
of his misfortune in having come into the world," 
is mentioned in " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. i. 244. 

The question, as arising under powers which 
come under a court of equity for interpretation, for 
the decision of what is a substantial share, is dis- 
cussed by G. 0. E. in "N. & Q.," 5 th S. iv. 333. The 
enactment of statute 1 Will. IV., c. 46, provided 
that no appointment should be set aside on the 
ground that the share was insufficient, and the 
statute 37 & 38 Viet., c. 37, provided further that 
no appointment should be invalid in law or equity 
because of the exclusion of any one or more of the 
objects of a power. ED. MARSHALL. 

I would refer MR. ALGER to Sir H. Sumner 
Maine's lectures on Village Communities (Lec- 
ture VI. on " Price and Rent "), in which he says 
that such communities originated in the associa- 
tions of kinsmen united by the assumption (doubt- 
less very vaguely conceived) of a common lineage, 
as is found to be the case in India. Every in- 
habitant felt he had a certain right in the produce 
of the township, and could claim to buy what a 
neighbour might be disposed to sell at a tariff 
fixed by custom. He then goes on to compare 
this village right with the popular idea that each 
member of a family has a certain claim on the 
property of a near relative, the extent of which 
claim depends on the will of the owner. Thus, he 
says, when a near relative is cut off with a shilling, 
the claim is admitted, and the proportion being 
fixed, there is left no ground for dispute ; whereas 
if he is not mentioned in the will, the law, it is 
believed, may step in and decide the extent of the 

A few years ago a bachelor of good property, 
whom I knew very well, was much displeased with 
a nephew taking an opposite side from him in an 
election. One day the old gentleman called his 
nephew, and, holding out his closed hand to him, 
said, " Thomas, what have I got in my hand 1 " 
On the reply, " I don't know, uncle," the hand 
was opened, disclosing a shilling. " There," said 
the old fellow, " I will leave you that and no more 
in my will if you vote for Mr. J." 

P. F. S. A. 


The matter is well summed up in Lord St, 
Leonards's Handy Boole on Property Law, as- 
follows : 

' The civilians carried the doctrine of presumption so 
far as to hold every will void in which the heir was not 



[6'h S. III. JAN. 29, '81. 

noticed, on the presumption that his father must have 
forgotten him. From this, as Blackstone reasonably 
conjectures, has arisen that groundless vulgar error of 
the necessity of giving the heir a shilling, or some other 
nominal sum, to show that he was in the testator's 
remembrance. The practice is to be deprecated, as it 
wounds unnecessarily the feelings of a disinherited child. 
This you may say does not always happen. An assembled 
family, as the legacy to each was read aloud, sobbed 
and wished that the father had lived to enjoy his own 
fortune. At last came the bequest to his heir. f I give 
my eldest son Tom a shilling to buy him a rope to hang 
himself with.' ' God grant,' says Tom, sobbing like the 
rest, ' that my poor father had lived to enjoy it himself."' 
P. 251, eighth ed. 

The references in which literary necessities Lord 
St. Leonards's invaluable little book is sadly 
deficient are to Justinian, Institutes^ ii. xviii. 1, 
and Blackstone's Commentaries, bk. ii. c. vii. and 
bk. iii. c. iii. The story with which his lordship 
concludes is to be found in Goldsmith's Bee, No. 2. 

6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

The will of a certain widow was proved at 
Bristol, April 13, 1620, in which she leaves goods 
to her daughter provided she marry not with a 
certain man. '' If she should do so she shall have 
but xii d ." In this case it was evidently an "angry 
shilling." E. H. C. F. 

On this subject let me refer your correspondent 
to A Practical Introduction to Conveyancing, by 
Mr. Elphinstone, p. 361. G. F. K. B. 

" FOG" AS A NOUN AND A VERB (6 th S. ii. 406). 
Fog as a noun, in the sense of the second crop of 
grass after mowing, is of common occurrence in the 
Yorkshire dales and in Mid- Yorkshire. Fog- 
cheeses are those made from the milk of cows fed 
upon fog, as differing from those made when the 
cows are fed upon pasture land. The word fog is 
to be found in Thoresby's Letter to Ray, &c., 1703, 
and in Mr. Peacock's Lincolnshire Glossary. I 
have heard the word used hundreds of times, but 
never for the second crop of hay. In Ray's Col- 
lection of North- Country Words, 1691, " fogge " is 
defined as " long grass remaining in pastures till 
winter," whilst in Lieufc.-Col. Egerton's Cheshire 
Glossary it is "the uneaten, sour grass of a pasture 
avoided by cattle." Nares has the word in his 
Glossary, and quotes from Drayton : 

" One with another they would lie and play. 
And in the deep/o^ batten all the day." 

Query, has this word any connexion with 

fogg'd off," as quoted by your correspondent? 
Has the Scotch fog, moss, any connexion with 
either? F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 


The following is extracted from Latham's edition 
of Johnson's Dictionary (4 vols.) : 

"Fog,B. (L. Lat. fogagium}, aftergrass; grass which 
grows in autumn after the hay is mown : 


The thick and well grown fog doth mat my smoother 

sladea.' Drayton, Polyolbion, xiii. 

" Fog, v.a., render misty, dark, or obscure : 
' Fog not thy glory with so foul eclipse.' 

Tragedy of Soliman and Perseda (Ord. MS.). 
" Fog, v.n., make-shift : 

' Wer 't not for us, thou swad, quoth he, 
Where wouldst thou/o^ to get a fee V Dryden" 
I may add that it is a very frequent occurrence 
to hear the word used in the sense of to balk or 
mislead, as " I believe he did it to fog me." 


In Scotland the word fog is very generally used 
for moss of the sort commonly found amongst grass. 
"Fog-house" is synonymous with "summer-house." 
The word is also to be found in this or a similar 
sense in writers of the seventeenth century, e.g., in 
Drayton's Polyolbion, xiii. 

It is probably connected with the late Latin 
fogagium, and perfectly distinct in philological 
origin from the word fog, meaning mist, which is 
undoubtedly derived from the Norse. 


Fog, as used to mean the aftermath or second 
rop of hay, is commonly so used in West Lan- 
cashire. I have a copy of Johnson's Dictionary, 
edition published in 1760, and the word and 
meaning are there : "Fog, s. (fogagium, Low Lat.), 
aftergrass." B. C. 


The use of this word in the sense of aftermath 
is very old ; see Alliterative Poems (E.E.T.S., ed. 
Morris, B. 1683) : " Fogge wat} his mete." It 
also occurs in Levins's Manipulus Vocabulorum, 
1570 (B.E.T.S., ed. Wheatley), col. 157 : " Fogge, 
postfrcenium" See the glossaries of Mid- Yorkshire 
and Whitby published by the English Dialect 
Society. In the sense of wither, droop, it is simply 
another form of fag, which itself is a corruption of 
flag. See "Fag" in Prof. Skeat's Etymological 
Dictionary. S. J. H. 

This word is the usual name for all kinds of 
moss in Scotland (Jarnieson, sub voce). It may 
be of use to note a meaning of the word used as 
a verb not given in Jamieson to acquire wealth 
(usually by one's own industry), as, " The aul' 
carl's beginnin' Vfog noo." 


The Manse, Pitsligo. 

This word signifies in North Lincolnshire the 
latter grass, aftermath or eddish. The Crowle 
Advertiser of October 19, 1878, contains an ad- 
vertisement of "fog for sixty head of cattle." 


S. ii. 442, 495 ; iii. 15). I do not see any 
difficulty in believing that a bishop may in old 
days have had " power of life and death," as lord 

6* S. III. JAN. 29, '81.] 



of a manor. There is no doubt but that sue] 

a power existed in, and was exercised by, the forme 

rectors of St. Peter's-in-the-East in this city. In 

Peshall's Wood, p. 242, will be found an accoun 

of Holywell parish. The whole originally be 

longed to Kobert D'Oyly. From him it passed t( 

H. de Oxenford, who lived in the reign of Hen 

1 1., and was called H. de S. Petro. From him i 

descended to his son, then Bishop of Norwich, wh< 

let it to farm to J. de Brideport, rector of the church 

-and, the bishop dying without heir, the manor re 

mained in the hands of J. de Brideport and his sue 

-cessors, except the advowson, which belonged to th< 

king. In the first year of Eic. II. the right of th( 

Warden and Fellows of Merton was disputed al 

Westminster, and the Warden of Merton said, inter 

alia, that the plot of ground in dispute was no 

within the suburbs of Oxford, but was within the 

manor of Holiwell, and that king Hen. III., being 

seized of St. Peter's Church in the East, presented 

thereto Bogo de Clare, to whom he gave also, for 

the Warden and Scholars of Merton College, the 

advowson of the said church with its appurtenances, 

And Bogo, as lord of the manor, held his halimot 

or court baron there. The city had several suits at 

law with Bogo de Clare for not permitting the 

-coroner's inquisition on the body of one drowned 

in the Cherwell : 

" And, furthermore, in the same pleas the Jury pre 
rented that R. Everarde, and Walter de Chansey or 
Chancy, the bailiffs of Bogo de Clare, had erected about 
ten years before a Gallows within the Manor of St. Cross, 
within the Liberty of the King in the suburbs of Oxon ; 
and T. de Bensington being taken in the same manor 
with an Ox that he had stolen was carried to the court 
-of Bogo de Clare, and there by Judgement given was 
hanged on the said gallows." 

Bogo de Clare plainly proved that he " held his 
Church of St. Peter-in-the-East by the gift of 
Hen. III., and that he found the same Church seized 
of the aforesaid Liberties ; and that all his Pre- 
decessors who were Parsons of the said Church 
were seized of them time out of mind." The jury 
found that the " Parsons of the said Church of St. 
Peter used in full the said Liberties, and had them 
all entire to them, saving the Right of the King." 

From 1266 to 1667 the rights of the parson of 
St. Peter's-in-the-East continued. But in May of 
the latter year the case was again tried at West- 
minster, where " Merton College, though it had 
always overthrown the City before (for which they 
had divers Exemplifications to shew) yet upon ill 
Management of the cause on the Mertonian side 
the cause fell to the Citizens." Doubtless the 
antiquary, who is naturally conservative, grieved 
over the loss of a right connected with his college 
for four hundred years, but for the past two cen- 
turies the vicars of St. Peter's-in-the-East have 
done very well without it. I am sure that during 
the past fifty years the vicars, who form an aurea 
catena, Denison, Hamilton, Adams, Capel Cure, 

and our present excellent incumbent, would not 
have wished for it; such a right would have been, 
as a rule, unexercised certainly. But the tempta- 
tion might have been too great to hang the 
"people's churchwarden" or a Nonconformist 
vestryman had they at any time offered obstruction 
to parish business. GIBBES RIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

THE " WHITE QUET " (6 th S. iii. 8). Quey is a 
Scotticism, equivalent to English heifer, a young 
cow, " juvenca, quse nondum peperit." It is found 
in Scottish literature from the earliest period. 
Thus, in Gawain Douglas's translation of Virgil we 
read : 

" Of an untamyt young quay, quhite a3 snaw." 
In Allan Ramsay : 

" Ten lambs at spaining time as lang 's I live 
And twa quey caivfs 1 '11 yearly to them give." 

In Burns's Halloween : 

" Amang the brackens on the brae 

Between her and the moon 
The Deil or else an outler quey 
Gat up an' gae a croon." 

It is variously spelt quy, quoy, quyok, qwye. In 
the north of England, and particularly in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire, the aspirate assumes a 
different form, and the word becomes whye or 
whey. Quey must be distinguished from quie, 
which in the west of England is used as a collec- 
tive term for a herd of cows ; A.-S. cy, Scot. kye. 
There can be no doubt that the word is of Norse 
origin. It is found in Danish qvie, Swed. qwiga, 
with the same meaning. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

ii. 16, 58, 76). I have a cabinet painting in oil 
3y this artist, measuring about 17 in. by 15 in. 
The subject is " View in the Vale of Llangollen, 
Drow Castle in the distance " ; and an engraving 
'rom it by B. Sands will be found (vol. ii. p. 39), 
n a collection entitled " The Gallery of One Hun- 
dred British Engravings, a Series of Interesting 
and Attractive Subjects from Paintings by Forty 
)/ the Most Eminent Modern Artists. London, 
ublished for the Proprietor," 4to., no date. Most, 
f not all, of the plates in these volumes had 
appeared elsewhere and before. Indications of 
his have, in most cases, been erased from the 
oppers ; but some duplicates in my possession 
lave at foot, " London, published, May 1, 1834, by 
limpkin & Marshall, &c." In the text illustrative 
f the engraving to which I have specially referred 
we read : 

This beautiful view is from the pencil of Mr. Mar- 
hall, a young artist of great promise in the art of land- 
cape-painting, and who may be ranked among the first 
ainters in that branch of the pictorial art. In the 
ubject before us, which is well adapted for the burin 
f the engraver, a very brilliant, rich, and harmonious 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. m. j. 29, -si. 

effect is produced. In the distance the romantic castle, 
called 'Crow Castle,' is happily introduced." 

The same collection includes four other engrav- 
ings from pictures or designs by the same artist, 
viz., (1) " A Mill on the Llanberris side of Snow- 
don "; (2) " Caudebec on the Seine "; (3) " War- 
wick Castle"; (4) " Title and Vignette." ' 



Miss DRAX (6 th S. iii. 48). Henry Drax, Esq., 
of Ellerton Abbey, York, was secretary to 
Frederick, Prince of Wales. He married Eliza- 
beth Ernie (daughter of Sir Edward Ernie, Bart., 
and Frances Erie, of Charborough). Mr. Drax 
died in 1755, and had then four daughters alive. 
The eldest, Elizabeth Drax, who was lady-in- 
waiting to the Princess of Wales, married 
Augustus, fourth Earl of Berkeley, in 1744. The 
three younger daughters were Mary Drax, who 
married John Durbin, Esq., of Bristol, in 1761 ; 
Harriot, who married Sir William Hanham, Bart., 
in 1765 ; and Susannah, who married William 
Calcraft, Esq. It must have been one of these 
three ladies to whom Lady Harcourt referred. 
Horace Walpole refers to this affair in his letter to 
George Montague, under date Nov. 16, 1754 : 
" A propos, there is a match certainly in agitation, 
which has very little of either Solomon or Hesther 
in it. You will be sorry when I tell you, that 
Lord Waklegrave dis-Solomons himself with the 
Drax." At this time Lord Waldegrave (Walgrave 
was the old mode of spelling the name) was the 
governor of George, Prince of Wales, and doubt- 
less had been a good deal thrown into the society 
of Mr. Drax, as secretary to the prince's father, 
and also into that of Mrs. Drax's daughter, the 
Countess of Berkeley, lady of the bedchamber to 
the princess, and of course must have seen a good 
deal of her younger sisters, the Misses Drax. 
The flirtation, however, came to nothing, and 
Horace Walpole again refers to it when mention- 
ing Lord Waldegruve's marriage to his own niece, 
Miss Maria Walpole (daughter of Sir Edward, and 
afterwards Duchess of Gloucester). Writing to 
G. Montague, he says, May 16, 1759 : 

" I had liked to have demolished the solemnity of the 
ceremony by laughing, when Mr. Keppel read the words 
Bless thy servant and thy handmaid ; it struck me how 
ridiculous it would have been, had Miss Drax been the 
handmaid, as she was once to have been." 

It may be observed that it is evident from this 
marriage that Lord Waldegrave did not consider 
purity of blood at all essential in a wife. 


i. 71, 90 ; iii. 52). MR. BOYLE certainly gives 
very good reasons for supposing that the Lady 
Kildare mentioned in Teresa Blount's letter is 
Elizabeth, widow of John, the eighteenth earl 

The volume of Houbraken's heads is an interesting 
relic. Pope by his will allowed Mrs. Martha 
Blount to choose three score volumes from his 
ibrary of printed books. The volume in MR. 
BOYLE'S possession is probably one of these, but 
he inscription is not quite accurate. Mrs. Blount 
must have given (not bequeathed) the book to 
Lady Frances Coningsby. Lady Frances, who 
was married in 1732 to Sir Charles Hanbury 
Williams, died on May 2, 1757 (London Magazine, 
1757, p. 259). Mrs. Martha Blount survived till 
July 12, 1763. In her will, moreover, there is no 
mention of Lady Frances Coningsby. Mrs. Theresa 
Blount, who died in 1759, left no will. F. G. 

THE HOUSE OF KEYS (6 th S. iii. 28). In 
Wood's Account of the Tsle of Man (1811) he 
writes : " Bishop Wilson derives their [the Keys'] 
name from their office of unlocking the difficulties 
of the law." The passage referred to is probably 
the following, in Bishop Wilson's history : 

" The twenty-four Keys, so-called (it is said) from un- 
ocking, as it were, or solving the difficulties of the law, 
represent the Commons of the land," &c. 

In Camden's Britannia, under " Isle of Man n 
[edition of 1695, with additions by Bishop Gibson), 
occurs this passage : 

' The Keys of the Island are so called because they 
are to lay open and discover the true ancient laws and 
customs of the island." 

And in Coke's Institutes the following : 

' If any case be ambiguous and of greater weight, it 
is referred to twelve, which they call Claves Insidee, 
the Keyes of the Island." 

In Mill's Lex Scripta of the Isle of Man (p. 16, 
edition of 1819) is this passage : 

"Also we give for Law, that there was never xxiiij 
keys in certainty, since they were first that were called 
Taxiaxi," &c. 

In Shaw's Tourist's Picturesque Guide to the Isle 
of Man (p. 9, fourth edition) the same derivation 
is given in these words : 

" The name 'Keys ' is said to have originated in their 
being frequently called upon to unlock or explain to the 
reigning sovereign the old customs and unwritten laws 
governing the island ; and twenty-four were so appointed 
by King Orry in the tenth century." 

In the face of such a consensus of opinion, it 
may be presumptuous to hint that the origin 
assigned seems a somewhat fanciful one. I must 
leave it to more able etymologists to decide 
whether a key to the mystery may not be found 
in the following extract from a case prepared by 
the Attorney-General for the island for the opinion 
of Crown counsel in England, which case appeared 
in a local Almanack and Companion for 1878 : 

" For several centuries the Southern Hebrides were, 
with the Isle of Man, united in one kingdom Man and 
the Isles a designation which has been retained to the 
present time. During such union, the Scotch Isles 
returned eight members to the House of Keys, the Isle 

6'h S. III. JAN. 29, '81.] 



of Man furnishing sixteen members. After the separa 
tion of the Scotch Isles the whole number of member 
were elected from the Isle of Man, such number having 
been from the earliest times twenty-four. The designa 
tion of the House in the Manx language is Yn Chiare 
as-feed, Angl. the four-and-twenty." 

The following extracts as to the derivation o 
the word " Tynwald " may be interesting to you 
correspondent. From Bishop Wilson's history 
above quoted : 

" This Court is called the Tinwald, from the Danish 
word Ting, that is, Forum judiciale, a court of justice 
and wald, that is, ' fenced ' ; it is held on a hill near the 
middle of the island, and in the open air. 

From the Eev. J. G. Cumining's Account of th 
Isle of Man (1848) : 

" The term Thing is a Scandinavian equivalent of th< 
Saxon mote, signifying a court or judicial assembly 
Thus we have the Moot or Motehall for the Miners 
Court in Derbyshire, and also the term Barmote, as wel 
as the Witenagemots of more ancient days. May we no' 
connect the English word hustings with the Scandinavian 
Thing ? Again, Wald is by some said to mean ' fenced ' 
by others to be the same as the Saxon weald, a woody 
place; thus we have the Wealds of Kent and Sussex 
The monks of Rushen, in their chronicle, wrote the 
word 'Tingualla.'" 

From Grose's Antiquities of England and Wales: 

" The word Tin or Ting, in the /syndic (sic) language, 

signifies an assembly of the people, and Wald, a field or 


It may be proper to add that several of the 
above extracts are taken from reprints appearing 
in the publications of the Manx Society, which 
has done, and still is doing, so much to illustrate 
the history and antiquities of the island. 

0. B. S. 

THE GENDER or DEATH (6 th S. ii. 448). There 
is no more striking illustration of the subject of 
H. K/s query than that presented by Don Fran- 
cisco de Quevedo in his Visions. As a masterpiece 
of word painting it is well worthy of reproduction. 
The author is describing "the apparition of a 
creature which looked as though it were of the 
feminine gender " : 

" It was a person of a thin and slender make, laden 
with crowns, garlands, sceptres, scythes, sheep-hooks, 
pattens, hob-nailed shoes, tiaras, straw hats, mitres, 
caps, embroideries, skins, silks, wool, gold, lead, diamonds, 
shells, pearl, and pebbles: she was dressed in all the 
hues of the rainbow : she had one eye shut, and the other 
open : was young on one side, and old on the other. I 
thought, at first, she had been at a great distance, when, 
in truth, she was very near me ; and, when I fancied 
her at the door of the chamber, she was at the head of 
my bed. The mystery seemed past finding out ; for I 
could not understand the meaning of so unusual a fashion 
of dress, or so grotesque a style of deportment. I was 
however not frightened ; on the contrary, I could not 
help laughing, remembering that I had seen, in times 
past, an Italian comedy, wherein Harlequin, feigning to 
return from the infernal regions, was similarly attired. 
Nothing could possibly be more ridiculous. Restraining 
myself to the best of my power, I at last asked what she 
was ? She answered, I am Death.' Death ! I trembled 

at the word. 'Signora,' said I, most humbly and re- 
spectfully, 'Whither is your ladyship going 1 ?' 'No 
farther,' she replied ; ' in finding you I have found my 
journey's end,' " &c. 

The author goes on to narrate his colloquy with 
the apparition ; particularly he notices that all the 
painters have depicted Death as a skeleton, " clean 
picked by the crows," and bearing a scythe, but 
Death cuts him short, telling him that artists are 
fools, and that what is called death is but the 
period of life, one's bones being no more than 
Death's leavings. The works of Quevedo are not 
read nowadays as they deserve. They were trans- 
lated into English several times in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. The best edition is that 
published at Edinburgh, 1798, in 3 vols., royal 
12mo., which Lowndes calls " sm. 8vo." 


In Orcagna's great painting, the " Triumph of 
Death," the figure of Death is represented as that 
of an old woman. 


SUICIDE : IMAGINATION (6 th S. ii. 487). I have- 
not read Endymion, and cannot, therefore, say 
whether there may be in the work itself anything 
to throw light on the passage quoted by CLARRT. 
As it stands, however, in your pages, its meaning 
is, I think, pretty clear, but a commentary thereon 
would necessarily introduce subjects which it 
behoves all your correspondents to avoid in your 
pages. Thus much, however, may be said without 
offence. The word " imagination " in the passage 
extracted is used not, as it commonly is by in- 
accurate people, as the equivalent of fancy, but to- 
denote that faculty, or group of faculties, which is 
employed when we direct our attention to those 
objects of thought which stretch beyond mere 
physical well-being. It includes all artistic and 
Doetic feeling, religious faith, and spiritual aspira- 
;ion what the author of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews may have meant when he defined faith 
as " the substance of things hoped for, the evidence 
f things not seen" (xi. 1), and what we cannot 
>ut believe was in the mind of Shelley when he- 
poke of 

" The desire of the moth for the star, 

Of the night for the morrow, 
The devotion to something afar 

From the sphere of our sorrow." 

?here cannot be much room for controversy as to- 
he truth of the statement that persons who possess- 
n any high degree the faculty of imagination, in 
his sense of the word, would not (except they 
were suffering from disease of the brain) take their 
wn lives. Reason teaches us thus much, and the 
xperience of those who have had occasion to study 
his painful subject gives, I am informed, the 
ullest confirmation of the a priori conclusion. 

K. P. D. E. 



. III. JAN. 29, '81. 

"CARMINATIVE" (6" 1 S. ii. 467). The quota- 
tions sent in for the Philological Society's new 
English Dictionary show that this word goes 
much further back than 1700. It occurs in 
W. Salmon's Synopsis Medicince, 1671, book ill, 
ch. xvi. p. 366, where the author says : " Carmina- 
tives are such as by a heating, rare and Anodyne 
quality expell winde." Holland, in his translation 
of Pliny's Naturall Historic, 1601, gives in the 
"Explanation of the Words of Art": "To Car- 
minat is to make more fine and thin the grosse 
humours, by such medicines as by their heat are 
apt to cut and dissolue them ; wherupon they 
likewise be called Carminatiue, a terme receiued by 
Apothecaries, and borrowed from those that card 
wooll." The verb occurs in his text, book xxvi. 
ch. viii. : "To appease the wringing paines in the 
belly, and to carminate or dissolve ventosities." 
I have not a copy of Pliny at hand to refer to, but 
no doubt the word in the original is carminare, 
which occurs elsewhere in the same author in the 
sense of to card, or teaze wool, and is, no doubt, the 
source from which the English word is derived. 

S. J. H. 

This word is, at least, a few years older than 
1731. It is to be found in Coles's Dictionary 
,(ed. 1713) : " Carminative (medicines) breaking 

JOHN PINKERTON, ENGINEER (6 th S. ii. 488). 
His shilling copper token is described in Batty 's 
Catalogue of the Copper Coinage, of Great Britain 
Ireland, British Isles, and Colonies, Local anc 
Private Tokens, Jettons, &c., published by D. T 
Batty, 10, Cathedral Yard, Manchester (see 
" N. & Q.," 4 th S. iv. 208) ; "Provincial Tokens 
halfpenny size," p. 99, Hampshire, Basingstoke 
No. 296. Obv.,abarge sailing, "Basingstoke Canal. 3 
Ex., "1789." Rev., a spade and pickaxe in a wheel 
barrow; " John Pinkerton." Ex., "value one shil 
ling." E., engrailed leaves. No. 297, the sain 
in bronze. It is also engraved in Provincia 
Copper Coins or Tokens, by Charles Pye of Bir 
mingham, 1795, plate 34, No. 2 ; die executed b) 
Wyon. H. G. C. might be able to obtain one o 
these tokens from Mr. Batty. 


79, Carlton Hill, N.W. 

CUTTS FAMILY (6 th S. ii. 488). Many of th 
Cutts family lived in Cambridgeshire, at Swavese 
and Childerley. Both manors belonged to then 
and in Swavesey Church there are several Cutt 
monuments. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Farnborough, Banbury. 

HALL-MARKS (6 th S. ii. 488). The plate 

Birmingham, 1795-6, if the head is that of Georg 
III., and 1821-2 if George IV. See Cripps 
Tables (Old English Plate, p. 414). C. E. M. 

6 th S. ii. 483). The following rhyme bears on 
lis subject : 

" Monday for health, 
Tuesday for wealth, 
Wednesday the best day of all, 
Thursday for losses, 
Friday for crosses 
Saturday no luck at all. 

do not think this rhyme is very common here- 
bouts. I do not know exactly where it comes 
'roni. Perhaps some of your correspondents can 
ell, and perhaps they could also give some account 
f Sunday, which I have never heard included in 
le rhyme. J. B. FLEMING. 


" GUFFIN " (6 th S. ii. 448). This word, under 
,he form of " Guff," is given in the Dictionaries of 
Messrs. Wright and Halliwell as a Cumberland 
word, signifying "an oaf or a fool." 


6, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

NUMISMATIC (6 th S. ii. 468). The medal, " Caro- 
us XII. D.G., Rex Sve.," was struck, with others, to 
commemorate the victory won by the Swedes on 
?eb. 28, 1710, under Count Maurice Stenbock at 
lelsingborg, in repelling the attack of the Danes 
under Frederick IV. upon the coast of Schonen, 
opposite to Zeeland. The stone on reverse is a 
nemorial stone, with a crowned griffin's head 
nscribed thereon, being the arms of the duchy of 
Schonen. W. S. CHURCHILL. 


(6 th S. iii. 31). 2. This question can scarcely be 
entered into fully. Sir Thomas Browne may, 
however, refer to the division of the body into 
twelve parts, according to the twelve signs of the 
Zodiac, which astrologers make, in which one 
twelfth part, comprising the organs of reproduction, 
is assigned, I think, to Scorpio. 

3. The Religio Medici having been published 
in 1642, if Archbishop Usher's chronology is 
accepted, the then date, A.M. 6546, would require 
a man to be of the age of ninety-three to attain 
the wisdom of one who had lived the sixtieth part 
of past time. If Sir Thomas Browne had not 
repudiated (Vulgar Errors, bk. vi. p. 277, Lond., 
1646) the Jewish tradition, which appears also in 
St. Augustine and others, which supposes the 
world to last for six thousand years, he might have 
been supposed to refer in a general way to that, in 
round numbers. ED. MARSHALL. 

" BUSBY " (6 th S. ii. 247, 455). Before explor- 

ing Hungary in search of this word, may we not 
look nearer home 1 Busby is an English proper 
name, and perhaps there may have been some 
officer so named, who introduced the fur cap, and 

. in. J AN . 29, '81.] 



whose name became used for it, just as we say a 
mackintosh, or a spencer. Or the thing might 
have been called after the maker. In 1793, at 
399, Strand, there was a firm of hatters, Busby & 
Walker, and it existed, under modifications, till 
1812. Busby & Son were hatters (possibly also 
army accoutrement makers) in 1831, at 70, Old 
Bond Sreet. Of course, the thing now called 
busby is as old as the days of the Ziethen Hussars 
in Frederick the Great's time. I presume the 
word has never been officially used, but merely 
employed in conversation among military men. 


iii. 52). I can furnish E. E. with the name of a 
player on the bagpipe in Lincolnshire, and I am 
by no means the " oldest inhabitant " in that 
county. John Hunsley, of Manton, near Kirton 
in-Lindsey, was a player on the bagpipe up to a 
short time before his death, which took place 
between twenty and thirty years ago. The music 
emitted from John Hunsley's instrument was 
certainly most unmelodious, but it pleased him 
and many of the people amongst whom he lived. 

E. E. also says that the Jew's harp, or Jew's 
trump, is now never seen. I beg to say that I 
heard one played only two nights ago, while passing 
a cottage in this town, and well played too. 

W. E. H. 

EDMUND CURLL, BOOKSELLER (6 th S. ii. 484). 

F. G. notes that it is " very remarkable that no 
portrait or caricature of Curll is known to exist." 
May I say that it is regrettable your correspondent's 
inquiries for a portrait of the subject of the "horrid 
and barbarous murder " have not been more suc- 
cessful than my own 1 There is, however, besides 
the engraved satire in Hogarth's The Distressed 
Poet, second state, another print of which Curll 
is the hero. It is the frontispiece to " NecJc or 
Nothing ; a Consolatory Letter from Mr. D nt n 
[Dunton] to Mr. C rll," 1716, British Museum 
Library, 164, rn. 8., described as Satirical Print, 
No. 1606. This engraving is in three compart- 
ments, each representing a chastisement inflicted 
on Curll by the Westminster boys the blanketing, 
the cobbing, the asking pardon. As to the first, 
it is but justice to the convict that his declaration 
should be made known, to the effect that he was 
tossed from a rug, not from a blanket. The text 
of Neck or Nothing is edifying ; it refers to one of 
CurlFs " rogueries " thus : 

" What makes you keep in Garret high 
Poor Bards ty'd up to Poetry 1 " 

See "N. & Q.," 2 nd S. ii. 21. F. G. S. 

The following letter is taken from The Miscel- 
laneous Works of Bishop Atterbury, 5 vols. 8vo., 
vol. ii. p. 35 : 


" King's College, Westminster, Aug. 3, 1716. 
" Sir, You are desired to acquaint the publick, that a 
certain Bookseller near Temple-bar (not taking warning 
by the frequent drubs that he has undergone for his 
often pirating other men's copies) did lately (without the 
consent of Mr. John Barber, present Captain of West- 
minster School) publish the scraps of a Funeral oration, 
spoken by him over the corpse of the Rev. Dr. South. 
And being on Thursday last fortunately nabbed within 
the limits of Dean's Yard by the King's Scholars, there 
he met with a College salutation ; for he was first pre- 
sented with the ceremony of the blanket, in which 
when the skeleton had been well shook, he was carried 
in triumph to the School, and after receiving a gram- 
matical correction for his false concords, he was recon- 
ducted to Dean's Yard, and on his knees, asking pardon 
of the aforesaid Mr. Barber for his offence, he was kicked 
out of the yard, and left to the hurra's of the rabble. 
I am, sir, yours, &c. T. A." 

" It is very remarkable that no portrait or cari- 
cature of Curll is known to exist." As to this I 
would refer to the following note in Welch's List of 
Queen's Scholars, Westminster (8vo., 1852), where 
it is related, at p. 270, that 

" a print was engraved, in three compartments, repre- 
senting the three separate punishments which Curll 
underwent. Under the engraving, a copy of which 
kindly shown to the editor by the Right Hon. Ch 
William Wynn, are the lines 

' Ibis ab excusso missus ad astra Sago, 
-^Ethereas, lascive, cupis volitare per auras, 
I, fuge, sed poteras tutior esse domi." " 

L. L. H. 

A KEY TO "ENDTMION" (6 th S. ii. 484; iii. 
10, 31). The key to Endymion which appeared 
at the first of the above references has excited sa 
much attention, that the following one, from the 
Literary World (Boston, U.S.), will probably have 
some interest for the readers of " N. & Q." : 

"As with all Disraeli's novels, the characters in Endy- 
mion are to be taken as representing eminent public 
personages under assumed names. In Lord Roehampton, 
we have Lord Palmerston ; in Zenobia, Lady Blessing- 
ton ; in Neufchatel, Lionel Rothschild ; in Count de 
Ferrol, Bismarck ; in Prince Florestan, Louis Napoleon; 
and in Agrippina, his mother, Queen Hortense ; in Mr. 
Wilton, Sidney Herbert; in Jorrocks, Milner Gibson; 
in Thornberry, Mr. Cobden ; in Penruddock, Cardinal 
Manning: ; in Montford, Lord Melbourne ; and in Comely, 
Bishop Wilberforce. The novel may, indeed, be said to 
be mainly interesting on two accounts ; first, because it 
gives Disraeli's characterizations of these noted contem- 
poraries; secondly, because it glitters through and! 
through with bright maxims and brilliant epigrams." 

8, Oxford Road, Kilburn, N.W. 


S. ii. 207, 279). This proverbial saying, instead 
of being Flemish, is more likely of British origin, 
and may have taken its rise from the following 
circumstance. A gentleman having married a lady 
of considerable beauty and fortune, but whose 
domineering temper and disregard of marital 
authority on all occasions made his home wretched, 
entreated her father to take back his daughter,. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [" s. in. JAN. 29, >si. 

.and her dowry into the bargain. " Pooh, pooh ! " 
said the old gentleman ; " you know not the 
world. All women govern their husbands, and it 
is easily proved. Harness the five horses in my 
stable to a cart, in which I will place a basket 

.containing one hundred eggs ; leave a horse in 
every house where the husband is master, and an 
egg only where the wife governs. If you should 
find your eggs gone before the horses, you will 
think your case is not so uncommon ; but if your 
horses'are disposed of first, I will take my daughter 
home again, and you may keep her fortune." 

At the first house the son-in-law came to he 
heard the wife, in a shrill and angry voice, bid 
her husband answer the door ; here he left an 
egg, without any inquiry. He visited a second 
and a third house, with the same result. The eggs 
were nearly all gone, when he arrived at the seat 
of a gentleman of position in the county. Having 
asked for the master, who happened not to be yet 
stirring, he was ushered into the presence of the 
lady. Humbly apologizing for the intrusion, he 
put the question of obedience ; and on the lady 
replying she was proud to obey her husband in all 
things, the husband entered the room, and con- 
firmed his wife's words ; upon which he was 
requested to choose which horse he liked. A black 
gelding struck his fancy, but the lady desired he 
would choose the grey mare, as more fit for a side 
saddle. Notwithstanding the substantial reasons 
given why the black horse would be more useful, 
the wife persisted in her claim for the grey mare. 
" What ! " said she ; " and will you not take her, 
then ? But I say you shall ; for I am sure the grey 
mare is much the better horse." "Well, well," 
my dear," replied the husband ; "just as you please, 
if it must be so." " Oh," quoth the gentleman- 
carter ; " you must now take an egg, and I must 
take all my horses back again, and endeavour to 
live happily with my wife." WILLIAM PLATT. 
115, Piccadilly. 

Has this proverb always an " application to the 
henpecked husband " 1 I have always understood 
it to intimate that the wife was more able, or 
gifted, than her husband, without any allusion to 
the terms on which they lived. 



It did not, apparently, occur to Macaulay that 
the proverb appears in Ray's Proverbs, first pub- 
lished in 1670 earlier, that is, than the period, 
1689, of which he is more specially making 
mention as : " The grey mare is the better horse, 
i.e. the woman is master." There is another story, 
which may be seen in Brewer's Diet, of Phrase 
and Fable. ED. MARSHALL. 

THE ETYMOLOGY OF " RICKETS " (6 th S. i. 209 
318, 362, 482; ii. 219). The following passage 

from Aubrey's Natural History of Wiltshire, 
. 74, written between 1656 and 1691, has some 
scaring upon this question : 

: Mr. Wm. Montjoy of Bitteston hath an admirable 
secret for the cure of the Ricketts, for which he was 
sent to far and neer ; his sonne hath the same. Kickettie 
children (they say) are long before they breed teeth. I 
will, whilst 'tis in my mind, insert this remarque ; viz. 
about 1620, one Ricketts of Newbery, perhaps corruptly 
from Ricards, a practitioner in physick, was excellent 
at the curing children with swoln heads and small legges j 
and the disease being new and without a name, he being 
so famous for the cure of it they called the disease the 
ricketts ; as the king's evill from the king's curing of it 
with his touch ; and now 'tis good sport to see how they 
vex their lexicons, and fetch it from the Greek Pa^ef, 
the back bone." 


LAND (6 th S. ii. 408 ; iii. 50, 72). Surely when 
a lady's identity is so uncertain as to admit 
of a doubt whether her name be Lucy or 
Catherine it is worth while to be very exact in 
giving her her right title. Why does MR. SOLLY 
speak of " Lady Lucy " Wentworth, the daughter 
of Sir John Wentworth, Bart. 1 MR. CARMICHAEL 
says that Lucy, Countess of Cleveland, was not 
Lady Lucy Wentworth, according to modern usage. 
Was there ever a time when the daughter of a 
baronet or the wife of an earl would have been 
described as Lady Lucy Wentworth ] 


S. xii. 248, 312 ; 6 th S. ii. 12, 117, 295, 433, 523). 
In Carew Castle (called by the people living in 
the neighbourhood Carey Castle) there is a secret 
passage and chamber built between the outer and 
inner walls of one of the dining halls. Carew 
Castle is five miles from Tenby. 


[For Carew Castle, see "N. & Q.," 6> S. ii. 327, 377, 


267, 453). By the aid of ancient Court Rolls and 
other documents relating to the manor of Little 
Horksley, inspection of which has been very kindly 
afforded me by the lord of the manor, I have suc- 
ceeded in ascertaining beyond possibility of doubt 
the descent of the James Josselyn who died in 
1712, from Thomas Josselyn, the secondary in the 
office of the Remembrancer in the Court of Ex- 
chequer, who died in 1636. The object of my 
query is consequently attained. 

The house on the north side of Little Horksley 
Church, mentioned by MR. SAVILL, is still called The 
Priory ; it was purchased, between 1703 and 1712, 
by my grandfather's great-grandfather, the James 
Josselyn above named, and is stilt owned by the 
lineal descendant of his (James Josselyn's) eldest 

6'h S. III. JAN. 29, '81.] 



son, my kinsman, John Josselyn, Esq., of St. 
Edmund's Hill, near Bury St. Edmunds. 


In Dean Hook's Lives of the ArchbisJiops of 
Canterbury there is an interesting account of 
Archbishop Eeginald Fitz- Jocelin, son of Jocelin, 
Bishop of Salisbury. 


"WHOM" FOR "WHO" (6 th S. ii. 183, 290). 
I note a grammatical solecism, in which this 
relative pronoun is involved, on the part of Mil- 
ton. From its intrinsic curiosity I cite the entire 
passage : 

" From Stories of this nature both Ancient and 
Modern which abound, the Poets also, and some Eng- 
lish, have been in thia point so mindful of Decorum, as 
to put never more pious Words in the Mouth of any 
Person, then of a Tyrant. I shall not instance an 
abstruse Author, wherein the King might be less con- 
versant, but one whom we well know was the Closet Com- 
panion of these his Solitudes, William Shakespeare ; 
who introduces the Person of Richard the Third, 
speaking in as high a strain of Piety, and mortification, 
as is uttered in any passage of this Book; and some- 
times to the same sense and purpose with some words in 
this Place. / intended, saith he, not only to oblige my 
Friends, but mine Enemies. The like saith Richard, 
Act 2, Seen. I. 

I do not know that English Man alive, 
With ichom my Soul is any jot at odds, 
More then the Infant that is born to night ; 
1 thank my God for my Humility. 

Other stuff of this sort may be read throughout the 
whole Tragedy, wherein the Poet us'd not much License 
in departing from the Truth of History, which delivers 
him a deep Dissembler, not of his Affections only, but of 
Religion." Eikonoklastes, in Answer to a Book Intitul'd 
Eikon Basilike, &c., by John Milton, &c., Amsterdam, 
Printed in the Year 1690, p. 9. 


The grammatical inaccuracy in Matt. xvi. 13 has 
been already noted and discussed in " N. & Q.," 
<5 th S. iv. 98, 131. The opposite error, the nomina- 
tive for the objective, occurs in one familiar pas- 
sage where it has escaped the notice of most 
readers, and it has never, so far as I have seen, 
been noticed in print ; it is in the Cantate Domino, 
the eighth verse : " The round world, and they 
that dwell therein." In both cases a reference to 
the classical construction explains the rendering. 


"Whom" (Matt. xvi. 13) is perfectly correct, 
and no wonder that Canon Liddon quoted the 
passage without alteration. In the Latin version 
the word is quemnam, and in the Greek rivet, and 
the English must be whom. If who were correct, 
the Latin would be " quinain esse me dicunt 
Vinm^oc. T?;I;,, u~.~:~:,, i And then how is 

homines Filium hominis ? 
quinam governed ? 

T. W. E. 

MORICE OF WERRINGTON (6 th S. ii. 48, 174). 
An account of Sir William Morice will be found 
in Prince's Worthies of Devon. 1701, p. 603. 

K. H. C. F. 

A WIDOW'S SIGNATURE (6 th S. i. 475 ; ii. 194). 
In France a widow usually signs herself " Veuve 

N ," and a tradesman's wife, if she gives a 

receipt for her husband, signs herself " Epouse 

N ." I believe it is usually the custom for 

husbands to assume their wives' names in addition 
to their own ; thus, if Monsieur A. marries Mdlle. 
B., he signs himself A. B. This leads, sometimes, 
to amusing combinations. A friend of mine in 
France (now, alas, an exile) bears the name of 
L'Eveque. He is a father of the Society of Jesus, 
consequently he is le R. Pere 1'Eveque. Should 
he be raised to the episcopacy, he would become 
Monseigneur PEveque, Eveque de, &c., or 
L'Eveque, Arche"veque de, &c. Curiously enough, 
his brother married a young lady of the name of 
L'Abbe", and consequently signs himself, more 
Gallico, L'Eveque 1'Abbe. 


PONY" (6 th S. ii. 308, 334, 523). MR. SOLLY, in 
quoting from Chamberlayne's Present State of 
England (1671), notices " Stepony Ale," and he 
adopts the suggestion of the editors of Nares's 
Glossary (1859), that Stepney is meant by Stepony. 
It is rarely, indeed, that MR. SOLLY is mistaken 
on any point connected with antiquities, but I do 
not think that Stepney was ever called Stepony. 
Stebonheath, or Stebunhethe, was the ancient 
name of the parish. Of course, if Stepony merely 
meant Stepney, as the editors of Nares believe, 
cadit qucestio ; but the quotation which the editors 
bring forward to support their assertion seems to 
tell precisely the other way : 

" Now syder, bottle ale, sack, and Stepony, 
To Islington inviteth many a crony." 

Poor Robin, 1713. 

Stepony, observe, has the accent on the o, which 
makes the word still more unlike Stepney ; and 
again, why go to Islington for that which was to 
be had at Stepney ? 

Might not Stepony have been the origin of the 
word "Stewpony," which, twenty years ago, 
puzzled the readers of " N. & Q." (2 nd S. x. 35), 
and had puzzled me for many years before 1 

Nowadays, when our French neighbours have 
taught us to eat horseflesh, " Stew-pony " might 
prove an appetizing sign ; but it would not have 
been so formerly. If the inn were famous for the 
ale known as Stepony (whatever that may mean), 
and, therefore, called " the Stepony house," this 
might have become abbreviated into " the 
Stepony," and then corrupted into the Stewpony. 
If my explanation be wrong, it is at any rate not 
absurd, like that of Mr. Noake, who, in his Ram- 



S. III. JAN. 29, '81. 

bier in Worcestershire, suggested that the sign was 
" derived from stour and ponte, being close to a 
bridge over the river Stour." PROF. SKEAT will 
appreciate this derivation. SIR THOMAS WIN- 
NINGTON might well hesitate to accept it (3 rd S. 
vi. 298). J. DIXON. 

"THE LAND o' THE LEAL" (6 th S. i. 18, 137; 
ii. 51, 116, 350, 409, 477). As there is some 
difference of opinion about this expression, and 
whether it was ever usually applied to Scotland, 
would it not be well to start afresh, and to say that 
it has the meaning in which it is used by our poet 
Robert Burns, when he says, 

" We are a' wearing awa' to the land of the leal '"? 
and, secondly, that it is an affectionate designa- 
tion given to Scotland by her sons ? The context 
would always show in which of the two senses it 
was being used. Also, his admirers will be able 
to pay a delicate compliment to Mr. Gladstone, 
who by the rapid current of his eloquence was 
happily carried into the employment of this 
admirable expression. 



"BRAG" (6 th S. ii. 425; iii. 54). I consider 
that if a word can be traced to a natural and 
existing source we ought to be satisfied, and not 
to resort to fanciful and far-fetched etymologies, 
similar to those in Dean Swift's satirical deriva- 
tion of cucumber. We have the representatives 
of to brag or boast in old Ger. braughen, Belg. 
braggheren or braggeren, Fr. se bragarder. Brag- 
gart in Fr. is bragard, Belg. bragaerd. I can- 
not find it in Welsh as bragio it is ymffrostio. 
Its primary source may possibly be from Suio- 
Goth. brigd-a, exprobrare, Isl. bregd-a, oppro- 
brare. PROF. SKEAT is on the right track. 
Bragues and many of the other derivative terms 
in MR. TERRY'S note relate to breeches or their 
belongings. Hence Ir. broages, Scot, breiks. 


Ashley House, Epsom. 

" A BOBBIN OF THREAD " (5 th S. xii. 406 ; 6 th 
S. ii. 495). I have heard the name "bobbin" 
applied to what is now generally called a cotton 
reel by a gentleman hailing from Manchester, and 
on putting the query to him, he informed me that 
it was a term in general use amongst the people of 
Manchester. I have recently heard the name 
"spool" applied to the same kind of reel by a 
youth in this town, and he told me that it was 
very often called so. I inquired if he had heard 
the name " bobbin " applied to the same use. He 
had not heard an ordinary reel called a " bobbin," 
but the reel of a sewing machine he informed me 
was always called by that name. 

Free Library, Doncaster. 

"WRAP": "WRAPPER" (6 th S. i. 297, 423 ; ii. 
196, 477). There can be little doubt that the 
pronunciation of many words that now strikes us 
as singular was at some time in general use. One 
example quoted at the last reference above is 
tossel for "tassel," and the following extract shows 
that it was not only pronounced but written in 
the former way at the close of the last century. 
Speaking of Mrs. Jordan's return after having 
achieved success in London, Tate Wilkinson states: 
She came splish, splash, dish, dash, to the Leeds 
playhouse, and tossels dangling," &c. (The Wan- 
dering Patentee, 1795, vol. ii. p. 265). Spa was 
formerly pronounced and written spaw, under an 
impression, probably, that if not German it had a 
good foreign sound about it. When was the first 
pronouncing dictionary published ? The want of 
such an authority would account for many in- 
accuracies becoming general. 


(6 th S. ii. 163, 229). I regret that my absence 
from home for some weeks prevented my revising 
the proof of the inscription sent to me for correc- 
tion. Let me add that in 1854-6, when I was 
curate of Ilfracombe, the tablet was on the wall of 
the south aisle, a little to the right of the south- 
east door. I never heard the story of its having 
been dug up under a window. The sepulchral 
slab in the churchyard (removed very many years 
ago from the interior of the church) is that of 
" Henri Daniel," probably a former vicar. Some 
thirty years back, when the inscription was legible, 
a full-sized drawing (of which I have a photograph) 
was made by the Rev. C. Crump, which I believe 
is in the possession of the present vicar. 

T. F. R. 

(6 th S. ii. 443 ; iii. 54). 

" It is a common tradition that the Bells of King's 
College Chapel, in the University of Cambridge, were 
taken by Henry V. from some church in France, after 
the battle of Agincourt. They were taken down some 
years ago, and sold to Phelps the bell-founder in White- 
Chapel, \vho melted them down." Hawkins, History of 
Miisic, vol. ii. p. 616, n. (Novello's ed.). 

' R. C. HOPE. 

"BOYCOTTING" (6 th S. ii. 511 ; iii. 33).-MR. 
BRITTEN is right in objecting to the interpretation 
of this new-coined word given by MR. HOLLAND ; 
but is his own definition satisfactory 1 Ostracism, 
which he considers an equivalent term, means 
banishment by the popular voice ; whereas by 
Boycotting, as I understand it, is meant cutting 
off an individual from the rest of the community, 
and preventing him from having any dealings or 
communication with them. The object may, no 
doubt, be to "banish" him, or drive him from the 
country ; which may succeed, as in Capt. Boycott's 
case, or may fail, as in Mr. Bence Jones's. But 

6th S. HI. JAN. 29, '81.] 



the latter, though he still remains in his home, 
lias been none the less " Boycotted." 

G.;F. s. E. 


49, 78). 

" Ut Angelas," &c. 

The passage from St. Jerome is not quite accurately 
given ; it should be : 

" Cajterum in typo praefigurat iste angelus sive filius 
Dei Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, qui ad for- 
uacem descendit inferni, in quo clausae, et peccatorum 
t justorum animse tenebantur, ut absque exustione, et 
noxa sui eos qui tenebantur inclusi mortis vinculis 
liberaret." S. Hieron., Com. in Dan., cap. iii. v. 92, 
torn. T. coll. 611-12, ed. Migne. 

This passage from St. Jerome is verified in Dr. Burton's 
edition of Pearson, vol. ii. p. 208, 01. Pr., 1843. 

(6th s. iii. 49.) 

7//i\\ yap rj QtoTtiQ Tt\novv TO. TrdvTa, TO. Kara 
TO [jivffrripiov TOV -jrdOovq, Kal ffvv ry 4 /v X 1 ) KctT\9tlv 
tirt TO. KaTaxQovia [ETTI TO ipydaaaQai rr\v tKti T&V 
7rpOKKoi/J7j/iva)v a<t)Tr)piav, <f)rjfj,i Se ayfwv Trarpi- 

. Epiphanius, Hcer., Ixix. p. 337, Basil. 1543. 

(6th s. iii. 49, 78.) 
" The small rare volume," &c. 
Compare Crabbe, in The Library : 
"On the broad back the stubborn ridges rolled, 
Where yet the title stands in tarnished gold," 
which Scott quotes in Guy Mannering. Did Crabbe 
borrow from Ferriar 1 C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Memoirs of the Duke of Saldanha. By the Conde da 

Carnota. 2 vols. (Murray.) 

FOR English readers the brilliant career and sterling 
^character of the Duke of Saldanha offer an unusual 
number of interesting features. Born in 1790, he served 
with distinction in the Peninsular War, from which he 
emerged with the rank of brigadier, was present at many 
of its battles and sieges, several times earned the appro- 
bation of Wellington, and gained the lifelong friendship 
of Beresford. As leader of the cavalry in the Monte 
Videan War, and as governor of the vast province of Rio 
Grande, he did good service to his country, but he was 
too loyal a citizen to accept the proffered crown or retain 
the governorship of a revolted colony. To his exertions 
Queen Maria owed her throne, and his heroic and skil- 
ful defence of Oporto, which is graphically described in 
the first volume, deserves to rank with the defences of 
.Saguntum and Saragossa. His influence and his talents 
preserved to the queen the throne which he had won for 
her, and in the hurly-burly of intrigues, civil war, and 
revolution, he stood out pre-eminently as the defender of 
the reigning dynasty and of constitutional liberty. In 
fact, throughout his long life he held the high position 
in Portugal which in England was conceded to Welling- 
'ton during the twenty years succeeding the battle of 
Waterloo. No difficulty, civil or military, could be solved 
without his asiistance, and his services were in constant 
demand as minister, general, or diplomatist. In his 
character he displayed many of the best of those qualities 
which we prize as national characteristics. In war he 
showed that coolness combined with daring which are 

essential to military success, and he possessed a remark- 
able power of winning the confidence of his troops. As 
a statesman, his practical common sense equally revolted 
from the wild theories of the republicans and the abso- 
lute absurdities of the monarchists. In private life he 
exercised that peculiar fascination which belongs to a 
truly manly character, and his uprightness, tact, and 
geniality made him countless friends. The man himself, 
the stirring times in which he lived, and the active part 
which he played in history are faithfully portrayed in 
these volumes. The author, already well known for his 
life of Pombal, the duke's grandfather, is peculiarly 
fitted by his pei'sonal acquaintance and relationship with 
Saldanha for the task of his biographer. He has done 
his work carefully and well, and in tracing the life of 
his hero has written a valuable history of Portugal in 
the present century. 

Jahresbericlite der Geschichtswissenschaft, im Auftrage 
der Historischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin. Herausgegeben 
von F. Abraham, J. Hermann, Edm. Meyer. I. Jahr- 
gang, 1878. (Berlin, Mittler & Sohn.) 
THIS is the first volume of a work which will be abso- 
lutely necessary to all historical students who, while 
devoting themselves to a special period, desire to gain 
some idea of what is being done in other divisions of the 
same great field. It includes the historical literature of 
Europe published in 1878 (over 2,300 works), divided 
under three heads ancient, mediaeval, and modern. 
Under each head separate sections are devoted to the 
works relating to the several countries in Europe, 
though Germany, as is but natural, claims the lion's 
share. Unfortunately, the section on mediaeval English 
history was not completed in time to be included. 
The history of England in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries is treated by Dr. v. Kalckstein, the 
learned historian of the Capetians, and from the 
Revolution of 1688 to 1800 by Dr. Herrlich, of 
Berlin. The first issue of such a gigantic work cannot 
fail to be defective in certain points, for which the three 
editors apologize in the preface. The idea of the book 
(which will be more completely carried out in future 
volumes) is to point out the exact gap filled by each 
historical treatise, and to show briefly what new views, 
facts, or methods it contains. Its aim is thus quite 
different from that of the many historical reviews now 
published (though, alas ! not in England), which look at 
each book as a whole, and not in relation to the mass of 
literature on the subject. All personal details and 
minute criticisms are to be excluded, and the strictest 
Objeciivitdt aimed at. There are sixty-nine sections in 
the book, and nearly as many writers; consequently 
there are considerable varieties in the nature and length 
of the summaries. As far as we have been able to test 
it, we have found it marvellously full and accurate, and 
it is specially valuable to English students, who scarcely 
have any idea of the enormous amount of historical 
activity prevailing at the present day on the Continent. 
The editors promise that future issues will be more com- 
plete and uniform, and even if they are only on the 
level of the first volume they cannot fail to meet with 
the hearty approbation of all who desire to keep abreast 
of recent historical literature. The works noticed are 
infinitely better selected than in that very useful, yet 
somewhat ill-digested, semi-annual omnium gatherum, 
Dr. Miildener's Billiotheca Historica (Gottingen, Van- 
denhoeck & Ruprecht). 

Epochs of Modern History. Frederick the Great and the 
Seven Years' War. By F. W. Longman. (Longmans 

MR. LONGMAN has not been content with merely sum- 
marizing Carlyle, but has also consulted and profited by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. m. JA*. 29, -si. 

the works of the best and most recent foreign writers 
on the period Von Arneth, Schafer, Von Ranke, &c. 
With the help of these he has produced a most readable 
account 01 the life cf his hero, and brought out clearly 
the real importance of the war, scarcely realized in full 
at the time, as giving to Protestant Prussia the influence 
and power in Germany which had for many decades 
been exercised by Catholic Austria. Nor, while properly 
making it subsidiary to his main subject, does Mr. Long- 
man neglect the struggle between England and France 
for various colonial possessions. He gives a short and 
excellent account of the rise of the Hohenzollerns and 
of the gradual growth of the Prussian monarchy, arid has 
also escaped the common error of confounding Austria 
and the Empire. The book contains two clear maps 
and four plans of battles and sieges, and may be con- 
fidently recommended to any one who wishes to have 
in a compact and popular form the latest results of 
historical research on the age of Frederick the Great. 

The Genealogist. Vol. IV. (Bell & Sons.) 
THE volume for 1880, now before us, aifords good 
evidence that, under the able guidance of our friend and 
correspondent, Dr. G. W. Marshall, the pursuit of 
genealogical studies continues to attract zealous and 
honest workers, who are, what they ever should be, 
seekers after truth. We would notice, as likely to 
interest many of our own readers, an article on the 
Cannings of Foxcote, by Rev. T. P. Wadley, who has 
since contributed additional information on the subject 
to our columns, a carefully annotated pedigree of 
Rooke, communicated by Mr. Henry Wagner, M.A., 
who brings together in his notes some very interesting 
extracts from wills, one, in particular, bequeathing a 
mathematical instrument "composed by one Gallileo 
Gallilei, a famous mathematician in Italy." The Visita- 
tion of Lincolnshire, printed in the Genealogist, is 
remarkably full in the number of generations which it 
embraces; but does any one seriously believe in the 
fifteen or sixteen generations of paternal descent not 
unfrequently given there 1 And, more especially, can 
any one believe in " Thomas Quadring, of Quadring, in 
Holland, co. Line." as the father of " Toland, Lord of 
Quadring, 1077 "1 Credat Judceus is all we can say to 
such a pedigree. Still, the publication of Visitations is 
a much-needed work, were it only to draw attention to 
the many wild statements which in bygone days have 
passed muster with Kings of Arms. 

WE have received the following books : From Messrs. 
Longmans, the third edition of Mr. Cates's capital Dic- 
tionary of Gtneral Biography, many of the notices in 
which have been rewritten. Also Prof. Max Miiller's 
Selected Essays on Language, Mythology, and Religion. 
From Mr. Murray, the second edition of Lady East- 
lake's Mrs. Grote: a Sketch. Also Mr. Hayward's 
Sketches of Eminent Statesmen and Writers, with other 
Essays. Reprinted from the Quarto In, with additions 
and corrections, it will be no small satisfaction to many to 
know that they are now able to possess themselves of the 
two handsome volumes that contain these essays. From. 
Messrs. Macrnillan, anew and cheaper edition of White's 
Selbome, edited by Frank Buckland : the preface, dated 
December 17, 1880, must be one of the very last things 
written by the naturalist whose loss we all so deplore; 
Essays of Joseph Add-on, chosen and edited by J. R. 
Green (Golden Treasury Series) ; and The Year's Art, 
1881. From Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton, Fuller's 
Good Thoughts in Bad Times, and other Papers. From 
Messrs. Cassell, the twelfth edition, revined and corrected, 
of Dr. Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fahle; and from 
the office <.f A It the Year Round, Dickens's Dictionary of 
Days, of which it may be said that it is at once most 

useful for purposes pf reference and originally conceived- 
The St. Allans Diocesan Church Calendar, 1881 (Dur- 
rant, Chelmsford), has also reached us. 

THE first volume of The History of the Parish of 
Bitton, Gloucestershire, by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, 
M.A., F.S.A., Rector of Clyst St. George, Devon, 
formerly Vicar of Bitton, is now ready for delivery. 
Only 125 copies are printed, and from the author alone- 
can the volume be obtained. 

MB. W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, B.A., has in preparation 
A History of the Seals and Armorial Bearings of the 
University and Colleges of Cambridge. 

THE February number of the Law Magazine and 
Review will contain an article on the vacant Chiefships r 
by a distinguished Q.C., in reply to Sir James Stephen'* 
paper in the Nineteenth Century. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

ST. FELIX. We are not aware of the existence of the- 
" Fraternity of Genealogists." Can it be another form 
of the Genealogical and Historical Society] But last 
year's Whitaker did not contain the latter. We observe 
that a society called the British Genealogical Institute 
was amalgamated in 1876 with the Royal Historical: 
Society, as stated in the Report of Council, Trans., 
vol. vii. 

J. C. M. Original death warrants of Charles L, like 
heads of Cromwell, are not uncommon (see " N. & Q.,' r 
passim}, the latter having the advantage of being pro- 
ducible as evidence of their existence (except, perhaps, 
the head of Cromwell when a boy, which a lady professed 
to have seen in some foreign museum) ; but we believe no 
one has yet seen any other original death warrant than- 
that which Mr. Thorns and Mr. Palgrave (see last Satur- 
day's Athenaeum) have made the subject of investigation, 

MERVARID. Three Courses and a Dessert, 1830, i 
attributed, in the Bookseller of March 2, 1878, to- 
" Charles Clarke, a journalist." Thackeray spells the- 
name " Clark." 

G. B. (Manchester). If you will place yourself in 
communication with A. Granger Hutt, Esq., 8, Oxford' 
Road, Kilburn, London, N.W., that gentleman will 
advise you. 

F. L. S. ("The two kings of Brentford"). See the 
note on the subject in Davenport Adams's Dictionary of 
English Literature. 

W. GLTN. You should consult an experienced picture 

H. T. E. Heartily reciprocated. 

C. W. (Leytonstone). Under consideration. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The- 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we de not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6th S. III. FEB. 5, '81.] 





NOTES: Eton College Library, 101 Lincolnshire Field" 
Names, 104 Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton Wolves 
in England 105 The Lincolnshire Wolds "The Insatiate 
Countess": "The White Devil " Curious Epitaph 
Copious Sonneteers, 106. 

QUERIES : Mysterious Disappearance of a Public Statue 
from Dublin Some Poetical Pamphlets Campbell's "Lives 
of the Chancellors "The Lord Advocate for Scotland 
"Chiefty" A Wiltshire Poll Book "Panmure"" Papa ': 
"Mamma "-"Sprayed "-The Last Man's Club 107-A 
Square Head Hussars First Raised in England Cicero on 
the Greeks A Shene Bible in Paris -Sir Martin Frobisher 
Collett Family- Hartley: Montague: Copley, 108-' Tne 
ass laden with books" Conway Barony " The Vision of 
Mirza" Authors Wanted, 109. 

REPLIES : Swift's Verses on his own Death, 109 Flamingo 
Camoens Early Roman Catholic Magazines, 110 The 
Mystery of Berkeley Square-Mr. Upcott, 111" Sic transit 
gloria mundi" Milton's " Animadversions," &c. 1 he 
Premier Baron of England, 112-Tbe " British Amazon "- 
The Endurance of Cromwell in the Popular Memory, 113 
Pigott of Brockley Margaret Russell" Hare-brained, ' &c. 
Conundrum "-" Exta," 114 - S.P. Q.K.- Lucy (?) Went- 
worth-William Cruden A Hymn by Charles Wesley, 115 
"Punch," the Drink The Physical Club Alleged 
American Counterfeit Coins "The Worthy Sayings of Old 
Mr. Dod," 116-Burial on Sunday in Scotland Lincolnshire 
Provincialisms " The Fortunate Blue-coat Boy" Mrs. 
Newby's Novels -"Pricked" Music-" Bedford" Hessian 
Boots Tom Brown, 117 "Pudding and Tame "Authors 
Wanted, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Swainson's " History and Constitution 
of a Cathedral of the Old Foundation " Phear's " Aryan 
Village in India and Ceylon " Fenton's "Early Hebrew 
Life " " The Bibliography of Thackeray " " Lancashire 
and Cheshire Genealogical Notes," &c. 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 

A place devoted to learning, and where reverence 
for the past is enshrined, ought, as far as possible, 
to contain some reminiscences of its origin and 
later history, at once to arrest the eye and appeal 
to the imagination. Nor are these wanting in the 
library of Eton College. Through the care of the 
present Provost may be here seen arranged in glass 
cases a collection of curious relics, which carry us 
back some centuries even before the foundation of 
the College, and yet are closely connected with its 
fortunes. In addition to the charter of Henry VI. 
and his confirmation of all gifts and charters, there 
are here set out, together with several Papal bulls, 
the original title-deeds of the estates which, by the 
suppression of the alien priories under Henry V., 
had passed into the hands of the Founder, and by 
him were granted to the College. The largest of 
these was from the great Benedictine house at Bee. 
The fine seals attached to them, though reaching 
back to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, are in 
good preservation, comprising an almost complete 
set from the time of William Rufus, with his mark 
for a signature, down to the time of the Tudors. 
More than one stage in the history of the College 
may thus be traced. There is the wages book, or 

specification of the clerk of the works for the 
Chapel, with sundry other contracts. There is a 
still more striking record of the critical period 
through which the College passed under Edward IV., 
when it was on the verge of being abolished and 
having its revenues transferred to the Dean and 
Chapter of St. George's, Windsor. Its preservation 
was due to Provost Westbury, whose appeal to 
Pope Paul II. was successful. The latter remitted 
the case to Cardinal Bourchier, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, whose final decision, Aug. 30, 1476, in 
favour of Eton, adorned with an illumination of 
the assumption of the Virgin, is one of the most 
beautiful among these interesting deeds. Speci- 
mens of general pardons, obtained for the College 
on the accession of a new sovereign, may here, too, 
be seen, and one other similar curiosity may be 
noticed a transfer of land near St. James's Palace, 
formerly the property of the College, to the Crown, 
with a fac-simile of the signature of Henry VIII. 
used when, like George IV., during the latter part 
of his reign, he was no longer able to write. 

But to come to the proper subject of this paper. 
It must be premised that the college library and 
the school library are entirely distinct, the latter 
being modern in its origin and dating only from 
the time of Dr. Keate. It was established, mainly 
through the exertions of Winthrop Mackworth 
Praed, in 1821, and at first was over Mr. Williams 
the bookseller's shop. The present spacious room 
was devoted to its use on the completion of the 
new buildings in 1846, under the head mastership 
of Dr. Hawtrey, who, with his well-known liberality,, 
contributed to it largely from his own books. The 
College library, which now occupies the south side 
of the cloisters, was formerly situated at the north- 
east end of the great quadrangle, in a line with 
the room which old King's scholars will remember 
as Lower Chamber. That this was its position 
occupying what was afterwards known as the Lower 
Master's Chambers at the time of Sir Henry Sa- 
vile, is proved by two incidental notices in the 
audit book for the years 1611-12. This, however, 
was not the site intended for it in the first in- 
stance, since it is probable that the large room 
now known as Election Hall was originally built 
to serve as the library. Savile appears to have 
been the first during the 150 years since the 
library had been founded to turn his attention 
seriously to its improvement. We learn from 
Mr. Maxwell Lyte (History of Eton College, 
p. 190) that it had of late years been sadly 
neglected. The building was in a ruinous con- 
dition, and the shelves had received few additions 
since the reign of Edward VI. A carpenter was 
therefore despatched to Oxford "to view the 
Liberary " lately founded by Sir Thomas Bodley, 
and new presses were ordered. It was not till the 
first part of the last century, during the provost- 
ship of Henry Godolphin, that its situation was 



[6^8.111. FEB. 5, '81. 

altered, and the present building" was erected in 
1728, at the cost of about 4,OOOZ. 

So much for the site. We may next recall the 
principal epochs in its history, two of which coin- 
cide with the changes just described. 

Six years after the foundation of the College, 
William of Waynflete, then Provost, together 
with the Fellows of Eton, combined with the 
Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge, 
in a petition to the King, begging that he would 
commission his chaplain, Richard Chester, in 
common with the King's Stationer, "to inquere 
and diligently inserche and gete knowledge where 
bokes onourments and other necessaries for the 
said colleges may be founden to selle." They 
were anxious that he should " have ferste choise 
of alle suche goodes afore eny other man," with 
special mention of Humphrey, " the good Duke " 
of Gloucester. That encourager of learning and 
collector of ecclesiastical treasures had some years 
previously bequeathed to the University of Oxford 
a part, if not the whole, of his library, what he 
presented varying, according to different accounts, 
from 600 to 129 volumes. Their intrinsic value, 
considering the backward state of literature at 
that time, may have been slight. Poggio, writing 
from England about thirty years before, saya that 
he could find no good books there ; that there 
were few works of the ancients there ; and that 
those in Italy were much better. But no doubt 
they were highly treasured by men like Waynflete, 
who for a genuine love of learning would not yield 
to any of our own age, with its plethora of litera- 
ture past and present. Of the earliest Fellows of 
the College during the reign of the Founder, one 
deserves to be mentioned in connexion with the 
^library, William Weye, who died a monk in 
1476, having resigned his Fellowship. He is said 
to have given some MSS., but all of them, with a 
single exception, have disappeared. His curious 
Itineraries, published by the Roxburghe Club, 
describe his successive pilgrimages to Compostella 
(1456), to Rome and Venice, and thence to the 
Holy Land (1458), and another journey to Venice, 
undertaken at the age of seventy, in 1462. At 
the close of the fifteenth century Herman, who 
was Head Master, and afterwards Vice-Provost, 
contributed to the library some illuminated 
MSS., a few of which remain. In the middle of 
the next century another benefactor may be men- 
tioned, the Provost, Dr. Bill, who bequeathed to 
the College a quarter of his theological library. 
Some of the books were probably lost about this 
time, when the Reformers set five men to work for 
six days at "purifying" the shelves. "Whether 
it was a moral or a material one," Mr. Lyte 
remarks, " is not clear, whether it was intended 
to get rid of superstitious books or merely of the 
spiders." The penalties of fine and imprisonment 
to which the collectors of old missals and breviaries 

were by a recent Act of Parliament then liable, 
may, perhaps, have been dreaded, and some 
volumes appear by the audit-book (1550-1) 
to have been sold to a Cambridge dealer ; and 
there is in the Cottonian Library of the British 
Museum a MS. Vulgate, which had been pre- 
sented by Provost Lupton to the college library. 

The next epoch of importance is that of the 
provostship of Savile, 1596-1622. We have 
already seen him profiting by the newly founded 
Bodleian to introduce improvements into the 
Eton Library. Other points of interest suggest 
themselves in connexion with this period. Savile 
had been employed as one of the forty-seven 
selected for the revision of the English Bible (1604 
-1611), and many of the theological books 
procured about this time may have had reference 
to the work of translation. In the next place his 
magnificent edition of Chrysostom, in eight folio 
volumes, the labour of three years the first work 
of learning on a great scale published in England 
issued from the Eton press established by Sir 
Henry in the house at present occupied by the 
Head Master. The particulars have often been 
told : how he spared no expense (the whole cost 
amounting to 8,OOOZ.) ; how he procured from 
Holland his fount of type called the "silver 
letter"; how he was helped by English ambas- 
sadors abroad and by learned men like Casaubon, 
apart from his own purchase of MSS. in the course 
of his travels. The few other works subsequently 
produced by the Eton press, the Periegesis of 
Dionysius (of which the library contains a MS. 
with Eustathius's commentary) ; the Cyropwdia of 
Xenophon, and a Christmas Oration of Gregory 
Nazianzen, were probably intended for use in the 
school. We may picture to ourselves Casaubon, 
who speaks of the Chrysostom as edited " privata 
impensa animo regio," and Savile meeting, if not 
actually in the present library, yet still with some 
portion of the same environment as it now pos- 
sesses. On three occasions Casaubon, who had 
a son on the foundation, was the guest of the 
Provost, in 1611 and in 1613, both before and 
after their joint visit to Oxford. 

Some further insight is afforded into the ar- 
rangements and growth of the library at this time 
by the entries in the Audit Books, which are 
tolerably numerous under the head of " Librarie," 
for the years 1603-22. In 1603 there is an 
entry for "bynding Bonaventura." In 1609 the 
sums spent amount to 10Z. 3s. ll%d., including 
payments to Joyce the waterman, and sums for 
wharfage and custom, the books being conveyed 
from London by river. Among them were Cyril 
on the Minor Prophets, Catena in Psalmos, Con- 
cordant. Vet. Test. Eebr. Gr. Lat. A few classical 
books Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, a Polybius, 
folio, a Julius Pollux, and a Greek exposition 
of Aristotle, in thirteen volumes figure in the 

6th S . III. FEB. 5, '81.] 



next year ; with Isidore, a monk of Pelusium, an 
exegetical writer of the fifth century, whose 
favourite author was Chrysostom. There is fre- 
quent record of payments "for ryvitinge of chaines," 
and one for " bynding a Chrysostom given by M r ye 
Provost." But the largest and most interesting 
entry, as illustrating the theological character of 
the works purchased at this period and the dif- 
ferent nationality of their authors, is that for the 
year 1615. We may mention, from a list of above 
twenty, Platina, the academician, one of the 
Italian scholars who incurred the persecution of 
Paul II. in 1468; Sigonius, or Sigone, of Modena 
(1550), the author of a De Consolatione which 
long passed for a work of Cicero ; Molina, the 
Spanish Jesuit (ob. 1600); Soto, the Spanish 
Dominican, whose De Justitia et Jure was pub- 
lished at Antwerp, 1568, and another less-known 
Spaniard, the Franciscan, Juan de Pineda, whose 
Commentary on Job (2 vols. fol., Madrid, 1597) 
is highly esteemed by Schultens. Works of 
Thuanus (de Thou), the friend of Casaubon, 
Baronius, Bellarmin, Budseus, are also mentioned 
as purchased during this year, after which no 
entry occurs till 1620. The sum total spent in 
1615 was 23Z. Os. 34&, equivalent to 76Z. 13s. 4d. 
of money at the present value. Of these authors 
some may be little read now, but if any would on 
that account underrate them, let them ask how 
much of the literature of our own day is likely to 
survive and hold an equally honoured place in the 
pages of its future historian 300 years hence with 
that assigned by Hallam to almost every one of 
the writers in the above group. 

For the century after the time of Savile, whose 
portrait used to hang in the library, there is 
not much to detain us. We may, however, 
feel tolerably sure that some of the Italian MSS. 
of which there is no account and several 
rare Italian books were contributed by Sir 
Henry Wotton, the next provost but one. For 
the curious in heraldry there is a MS. entitled 
"Venetorum nobilium insignia," with numerous 
coloured coats of arms, probably brought by him 
The original copies of his letters written from 
Venice during his embassy are here preserved 
They extend from 1617 to 1620, many of them 
addressed to James I., whose favour he first won 
by apprising him of the plot against his life 
Bound up with them are some letters of Gregorio 
di Monte, 1619-20. It is to be regretted that 
of the many distinguished alumni of Eton during 
the latter part of the seventeenth century am 
throughout the eighteenth, there are fewer charac 
teristic relics than one could wish to see. Neithe: 
the " ever memorable " John Hales, called b} 
Wotton "our bibliotheca ambulans," nor Henr; 
More, nor Eobert Boyle, nor Pearson , nor Hammom 
were specially associated with the library. There an 
copies of their chief works, but no other 

?he now obsolete disquisitions of Jacob Bryant 
lumber on the shelves ; but though he ended his 
lays at Cippenham, near Eton, his own books 
went to King's College, Cambridge, of which he 
was a Fellow. The portrait of Person and speci- 
mens of his exquisite Greek handwriting are not 
lere, but in the Boys' Library. The College 
jibrary, however, received much attention at the 
>eginning of the eighteenth century, and it was, 
is we have seen, from 1728 that the present build- 
ng dates, and by contributions and purchases its 
;ontents were again brought up to the standard of 
he age. The next stage in its existence, and the 
ast important accession which it has received, 
was in 1799, when it was enriched by the very 
valuable legacy of Anthony Morris Storer, of 
Purley, which we shall afterwards treat, as it 
deserves to be treated, at greater length. 

It will be convenient to conclude this portion 
of our subject with a list of some of the miscel- 
.aneous donations during the last hundred years, 
[n 1788 a collection of Oriental MSS., amounting 
;o more than 550 volumes, was presented to the 
:wo colleges of Henry VI., half of them being at 
King's and the other half at Eton. The Asiatic 
Society had been founded four years previously at 
Calcutta by Sir William Jones, from which year 
European Sanskrit philology may be said to date. 
The catalogue comprises most of the celebrated 
works of the Arabian and Persian authors in 
mythology, natural history, poetry, and fiction. 
As smaller contributions on the same subject, two 
Buddhist books, written on the palmyra Leaf, and 
a grammar of Singhalee, presented by W. Johnson 
and Bishop Chapman respectively, may be here 
noticed. Henry Godolphin (Provost, 1695-1732), 
brother of Sidney Godolphin, the well-known 
Minister, gave the library one of the two Florentine 
Homers which it possesses, and left 200Z. to be 
spent on books. But the most munificent bene- 
factor of this period was Edward Waddington, 
Bishop of Chichester and Fellow of Eton. A large 
proportion of the theology is due to him, as well as 
a vast collection of political and theological tracts, 
of sermons, miscellanies, and ballads bearing on the 
latter part of the seventeenth century and the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth. Lord Berkeley de Strat- 
ton presented several Aldines, one of them the fine 
editio princeps of Aristotle, 1495, in six volumes. 
The names of Nicholas Harding and Nicholas 
Mann (Master of the Charterhouse, 1737), of John 
Reynolds, William Hetherington, and Thomas 
Evans often occur as donors. To come to the 
present century ; in 1818 a very interesting little 
volume, Ralph Eoyster Doyster, without a title- 
page, was presented by an old Etonian, the Rev. 
T. Briggs, the authorship of which was traced 
to Udall (Head Master, 1534-43), whom Hallam 
calls the father of English comedy. It was pro- 
bably written before 1540, and printed in 1565. 



[6th s. III. FEB. 5, '81. 

The last fifty years have seen numerous presents 
made. Among them may be mentioned, from 
Mr. Wilder the Baskett Bible and the Book o 
Common Prayer, by the same printer, as well as 
an jEsop (Basle, 1501), edited by Sebastian Brandt 
author of The Ship of Fools." It contains some 
very quaint woodcuts. To the late Provosl 
Hawtrey the library is indebted, among other 
things, for (1) a copy of CatholicJc Charitie (London 
1641), by Francis Eous, the Provost who was 
Speaker of the " Barebones Parliament "; (2) a MS 
Supplement to Historic Doubts on the Life and 
Reign of Richard IIL, in Lord Orford's hand- 
writing, unpublished ; (3) a handsome copy oi 
Gray's Complete Works (2 vols. 4to.), including 
the Letters and the Memoir by W. Mason, edited 
by Mathias in 1819. It contains a fac-simile oi 
the MS. of the "Elegy," the original being at 
Pembroke, Cambridge, of which proof can be 

Another interesting reminiscence of Gray is a 
copy of one of the least common of the variorum 
editions of Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius. In 
it are numerous references to, and apposite quota- 
tions from, the Greek poets, written out in the 
delicate clear handwriting of the poet. This 
volume, once in the possession of Mr. Penn, of 
Stoke Pogis, who purchased all Gray's MSS., has 
been presented within the last few years by a late 
Etonian, Mr. G. Macmillan, an example which it 
is to be hoped may lead to the contribution of 
other similar objects of interest. An equally 
appropriate gift from the Bishop of Limerick is 
the Marquis of Wellesley's own copy of the Musce 
Monenses (1795), with his MS. notes and correc- 
tions of sundry misprints and dates. Some of the 
latter are noteworthy. We thus learn that the 
lovely address Ad Genium loci, " levis Fauni et 
Dryadum sodalis," with which few Sapphics of our 
day could compete, was composed by him when 
he was but sixteen years old. A book sent 
by the late Prince Consort, Geschichte der Buch- 
druckerUunst (the History of Printing), by Dr. 
Falkenstein (Leipsic, 1840), and two extremely 
handsome presents from Frederic William, the 
late King of Prussia, must not be passed over. 
One _ is the Denkmaler aus ^Egypten und 
jEthiopien, by Lepsius, a magnificent work in 
twelve volumes. The other was in memory of the 
king's visit in 1842. He remarked at the time 
that the foundation of the college was very nearly 
coeval with the invention of movable types, and 
two years later sent one of the two superb im- 
pressions of the Nibelungen, printed on vellum 
(gt. folio), as a monument of typography and a 
memorial of the jubilee of the four hundredth 
anniversary of Gutenberg's invention. The other 
copy is at Berlin, and only 100 copies were taken 
on paper. Accompanying it is an autograph letter 
from Bunsen. 

We have thus far sketched in outline the history 
of this library. In a future number we propose 
to enter into more detail respecting its interesting 

Eton College. 

(To be continued.) 

I have recently had in my possession a list of 
the names of the enclosed grounds and lands in 
the open fields in the parish of Scotton, near Kirton- 
in-Lindsey. It was compiled about forty years 
ago. As I think some of these names are inter- 
esting, I send you an alphabetical catalogue of all 
that are in any way noteworthy. I have seen 
documents which prove that some, at least, of the 
names here given were in use in the sixteenth 
century. That part of the parish of Scotton which 
lies near to the river Trent forms the township, 
or hamlet, of East Ferry. The names in this part 
of the parish I have distinguished by a letter F. 

Ash Holt Close, P. 

Balaam Hill Dale. 

Barlings Close. 

Belfry Close. It is not probable that this place had any 
connexion with the belfry of the church. Belfry 
means, in our dialect, a shed made of wood, sticks, 
furze, or straw. From some such erection it may be 
assumed that this close acquired its name. 

Black Alells. 

Black Mells Dale. 

Bracken Hill. 

Burnt House Yard. 

Bull Piece. This Bull Piece was about an acre in extent. 
It was the place where the parish bull was kept. In 
the spring, when he ran in the Cow Pasture, this 
parcel of land was thrown to it. There was another 
Bull Piece in the Low Field, where hay was grown for 
the bull's winter food. The bull was bought by the 
parish officers out of the public funds, and was under 
their care. 

Butts upon Stow Mere. Probably this place took ita 
name from having been the spot where the butts stood 
when archery was practised, 
ilf Holme. 

Carr Close, F. 

Dheese Close. 


Dollombine Close. 

Cotterell Dale. 

Cow Pasture. This was what is called a stinted pasture, 
on which the Scotton householders turned their cows 
until a certain fixed day in the autumn. Then the 
pasture became what was called open, and all the 
householders of the parish had a right to run sheep 
and geese thereon, 
rakethorn Dale, 
roshams Close. 

Cross Dale. 
Drake Garth. 
Elaa Tree Dale. 
First Walk. 


'ox thorns Dale. 

'roth Close. 

'urze Dale. 
Galfholme Corner. 

6th S. III. FEB. 5, '81.] 



<3old Ridges. 

Gossbill Close. 

Hardwick. This is a large sand-hill on the common, 
which is a prominent object from nearly every point 
of view. 

Hermitage, F. 

Ings Close. 

Intake. Intake signifies, in the dialect of North Lincoln- 
shire, a portion of land taken in or enclosed from a 
common. The Manorial Records of the adjoining 

Sirish of Scotter inform us that in 1629 Richard 
ugget surrendered to Thomas Stothard land there 
called " le long Intakes." 

Lady Close, P. 

Lady Furze. One of the Manors in Scotton was known 
by the name of Lady Garth in the sixteenth century. 
See Duchy of Lancaster Records, class xxv. p. 29; also 
Special Commissions, 1238, both of which are in the 
Public Record Office. 

Maw Green. 

Milking Close. 

Moody Close. 


Oak Tree Close. 

Old Acres. 

Party Close. 

Pepper Stile. In the hamlet of Holme, in the parish of 
Bottesford, there'was, in 1815, a piece of land called 
Pepper Close. 

Finder's Piece. 

Pingle. Pingle signified a small enclosure, but the word 
seems to have become obsolete. In 1619, John Chipsey 
and his wife Ellen surrendered lands in Scotter at 
" le Clowehole,"and "apingle at the woodside," Manor 
Eecords, sub anno. There was a place called Pingle 
Dump in the parish of Messingham in 1825, and there 
is at present a spot in the parish of Gainsburgh known 
as Pingle Hill. 

Pin Hill, F. 

Ploughshare Field. 

Popple Spring Dale. 

Reuben Yard. 

Rails Close, F. 

Husling Close. 

Screed in the North Field, F. Screed, in the local 
dialect, means a long and narrow strip of anything. 
At Ashby, in the parish of Bottesford, there is a long 
and narrow field called the Screeds. 

Seg Croft, F. 

South Ridges. 

Staplin Galfholme. 

fitow Mere. 

Stow Mere Dale. 

Swallow Hill. 

Twenty Lane Dale. 

Whin Furze. 

Urn Close, F. 

Walks Bridge. 

Webster Yard. 

West Dales. 

Wester Sykes. 

Wicklaws Dale, 

Willows Close, F. 

York Hill. 

The word dale, which frequently occurs in the 
above list, does not signify a valley. It means a 
division in the open field. Norden's Survey of 
the Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, which was taken 
in 1616 (MS., Public Lib., Cambridge, Ff. iv. 30), 
mentions many such dales. The word was not 

obsolete in 1787, when the manor of Kirton-in- 
Lindsey was again surveyed. There are places 
with the name Dale attached in Cleatham, Willough- 
ton, and several other neighbouring parishes. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

In a short and interesting leader in the Daily 
News (Jan. 18) are narrated the results of an inter- 
view by a New York reporter with the now 
venerable Mr. Thurlow Weed, in which certain 
characteristics of Burr's influence with women are 
illustrated, and of which we shall probably hear 
more. In connexion with this it may not be 
without interest to place on record in " N. & Q." 
an anecdote of Burr, as illustrating the innate 
audacity of the man. 

When on an official visit to the United States 
in 1853, 1 spent a day or two at Mr. Stuart Browne's 
place on the New Jersey shore of the Hudson 
river, above Hoboken. General Taylor, of Ohio, 
was another guest, and as the house was at no 
great distance from the spot where the fatal duel 
between Burr and Hamilton took place (July 12, 
1804), a conversation arose on the event, and the 
characteristics, public and private, of the two men. 
General Taylor told us that when a very young 
man, studying at West Point, he was one day on 
board a river boat, and amongst the passengers 
were Mrs. Hamilton, widow of Alexander Hamil- 
ton, and Aaron Burr, who had returned to the 
States after his enforced absence in Europe, in 
consequence of his proved treasonable practices. 
Burr was then an old man, but still retained much 
of his former confidence and manner, especially 
with ladies. To the astonishment of those who 
knew him, on discovering that Mrs. Hamilton 
was on board the steamboat, he approached her, 
took off his hat, and bowing, said, " Mrs. Hamilton, 
I believe ? My name is Burr." The effect upon 
the lady, now well stricken in years, was electric. 
Rising from her seat, she gathered up her dress, as 
if to touch Burr with it would be contamination, 
drew herself up, and, looking at him from head to 
foot, swept away with a dignity and grace worthy 
of her best days, and left him standing abashed, if 
he were capable of feeling so, before the spectators. 
Burr replaced his hat upon his head, and slowly 
moved back to the seat he had left purposely to 
make this experiment upon the feelings of the 
widow of the man he had slain, for one cannot 
suppose that he had any intention to apologize or 
explain, since this was impossible. 


South Kensington Museum. 

WOLVES IN ENGLAND. It has often been a 
moot point when the last wolf disappeared from the 
three kingdoms. Edward I. issued a mandamus 



[6th s. in. FEB. 5, '81. 

to his " faithful and beloved " Peter Corbet, com 
manding him to destroy all wolves in the countie: 
of Worcester, Gloucester, Hereford, and Salop 
and a grant from King John, quoted by Pennan 
from Bishop Lyttelton's collections, mentions the 
wolf among the animals which the men of Devon 
are authorized to kill. So lately as 1577 th 
flocks of sheep in Scotland appear to have suffered 
from the ravages of wolves, and Sir Ewen Cameron 
is said to have killed the last wolf in Scotland in 
1680. In Ireland wolves lingered as late as th< 
year 1710, about which date the last presentment 
for killing them in the county of Cork was made 
The wolds, or wilds, of Yorkshire would appear to 
have been the last part of England infested by 
wolves ; and in the parish registers of Flixton 
Hackston, and Folkston, in the East Eiding, are 
to be seen memoranda of the seventeenth century 
recording payments made for their destruction at 
a certain rate per head. In these districts they 
used to breed in the " cars " below, among the 
rushes, ferns, and furze of the boggy lands, and in 
the night to come up to the farms from their dens 
and unless the sheep had previously been driven 
into their folds, and the folds themselves been 
well guarded, great destruction would always be 
the consequence. In the reign of Athelstane 
a retreat was built at Flixton, in Yorkshire, to 
save benighted travellers from being devoured by 
wolves. Perhaps some of your readers may be 
able to furnish more accurate dates. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

a copy of the inscription on Pelham's Pillar, situate 
in the parish of Cabourn, near Caistor, Lincoln- 
shire, said to be the highest part of the Earl of 
Yarborough's estate on the Lincolnshire wolds. 
The pillar is built of granite, and is about 150 feet 
in height. There is a room at the top, lighted by 
four large windows, from which may be seen the 
German Ocean and extensive views of the sur- 
rounding country, north, south, east, and west. The 
entrance-door, which is towards the east, is flanked 
on either side by huge figures of a lion and lioness. 
The woods and plantations around add much to 
the sylvan beauty of the place. 

" This Pillar 
was erected to commemorate the Planting 

of these Woods by 
Charles Anderson Pelham, Lord Yarborough 

who commenced Planting in 1787 
and between that year and 1823 planted on his Property 

12,552,700 Trees. 

The foundation of this Pillar was laid in the year 1840 
by his Son and the building finished by his Grandson 
in 1849." 

DEVIL." Since writing my note ("N. & Q.," 

5 th S. xii. 226) I have found some confirmation 
of my views in the Stationers' Registers. It 
is almost needless to say that there is no 
entry of The Insatiate Countess in 1602-3, though 
all Marston's other plays were entered, and 
though there was nothing at that time in 
politics or at the Court which could have been 
aimed at, or be supposed to have been aimed 
at, by the play if it were then published. Nor is 
there any entry of The White Devil in 1612, nor 
of The Insatiate Countess in 1613. But, curiously 
enough, there are transfers of both, Feb. lOy 
1630/1, previous to their republication in 1631. 
By an inadvertence the transfer of The White 
Devil is assigned in the printed transcripts to a 
sermon presently to be noticed. I call these 
things confirmatory, partly because the omission 
to register them in 1612-13 appears to me to have- 
arisen from this that, as they pointed at a lady 
well known and powerful at Court, it was thought 
more prudent not to risk a prohibition. The in- 
stance, too, is curious, because it shows that books 
unregistered in 1612-13 were in 1630 allowed to- 
be registered as transfers from one publisher to 

On April 28, 1613, is an entry of "a booke 
called the white Devill or the Hypocrite vncased in 
A sermon preached at Paules Crosse Marche the 
vij th , 1613 "(note the year-date as showing that 
the reckoning from March or April was neither 
universal nor, as I believe, common). This title 
was taken from that applied by Luther to Judas 
quasi-whited sepulchre and the sermon has no- 
reference to the Countess of Essex. But the 
title may have been chosen from the popularity of 
Webster's play, and as some evidence of its own 
popularity it may be noted that it was twice 
"assigned," the last time on June 26, 1617. 


CURIOUS EPITAPH. I do not think the follow- 
ng epitaph, on a tombstone in the churchyard at 
Leighton, has yet appeared in print. The date is. 
Aug. 18, 1824 :- 

'' Cease weeping Parents twas my makers will 
That I should fall by Lightning in the field 
At God's command it struck, & then I fell 
1 had not time to bid my friends farewell 
My Father ran, though he could scarcely stand 
When he saw me lay burning on the Land 
Then with his hands he put the Fire out 
Saying dear Lord my Son is dead I doubt." 

Hockliffe Lodge, Leighton Buzzard. 

COPIOUS SONNETEERS. A reviewer, in a recent 
notice of Charles Tennyson, in one of the leading 

ournals, spoke of him as being, with his 342; 

onnets, " the most copious sonneteer since sonnets 
were." This is to overlook Wordsworth, whose 

tated compositions of that kind, together with 

hose stealing out at unexpected corners among 

6'>S III. FEB. 5, '81.] 



his works, reach a grand 


total of something over 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

STATUE FROM DUBLIN. The Personal Recollec- 
tions of John O'Keefe, published in 1826, notice 
(vol. i. p. 16) the frequent visits to Dublin of Van 
Nost, a celebrated sculptor, and that " he did the 
fine pedestrian statue of Lord Blakeney erected in 
Sackville Street." The Gentleman's Magaxine, in 
its volume for 1759, records the fact of its erection, 
adding that the statue was of brass, and furnishing 
an elaborate description of the general design and 
n copy of the inscription. Mr. J. C. O'Callaghan, 
in his History of the Irish Brigades, supplies 
numerous references to General Lord Blakeney 
(pp. 423, 429, 432, 505). He was the defender of 
Stirling Castle against Prince Charles, and of 
Fort St. Philip against the Duke de Richelieu. 
To whose iconoclastic hands may we ascribe the 
expulsion of this fine work of art, so calculated to 
adorn Dublin and to preserve it from a stigma 
which, until a few years ago, certainly rested on it ? 
TJntil the year 1857 there was hardly one statue 
of an Irishman to be seen in the streets of Dublin. 
We are told by the Gentleman's Magazine of the 
day that " Lord Blakeney 's statue was erected by 
the Antient and most Benevolent Order of the 
Friendly Brothers of St. Patrick." This old club 
still flourishes. Perhaps its secretary would kindly 
inform us whether the archives of the brotherhood 
possess any record regarding the removal or the 
fate of the statue. W. J. FITZ- PATRICK. 

Pembroke Road, Dublin. 

garding the author of the undernoted poetical 
pamphlets would oblige : 

" Fame, let thy Glorious Trumpet Sound ! A Martial 
Eulogy Written on the Victory and Death of Lord Nelson. 
By Richard Perry Ogilvie, Esq., Author of ' The Battle's 
Hot Hour.' Edinburgh, T. Oliver, 1805." 8vo. 8 pp. 

" Poems by Richard Perry Ogilvie, Esq. Edinburgh, 
Oliver & Co., 1806." 18mo. 56 pp. 

Ogilvie appears to have occupied a good social 
position, and had resided at Ghent in 1792. These 
pieces were presentation copies to Mr. Alexander 
Cunningham, jeweller, Edinburgh, the steadfast 
friend of Robert Burns, and subsequently the 
benefactor of the poet's widow, who in gratitude 
presented him with her husband's punch-bowl and 
portrait. C. R. R. 

Amongst the Correspondence of the late Macvey 

Napier, Esq., recently edited by his son, is given 
a letter of Lord Jeffrey's, in which the writer, 
under date March 31, 1846, says : " Empson has 
just heard that Knight is about to publish a fierce 
and formidable attack on Campbell's Chancellors, 
long lists of gross blunders," &c. (p. 526). Was 
such a paper ever published 1 If so, where may it 
be met with ? A. F. 

true that this high official has, with other privi- 
leges, that of pleading in court with his hat on if 
he wishes ; and, if so, to what is the strange privi- 
lege due 1 ABHBA. 

[So stated recently in a leading article in the Times, 
and there attributed to a Lord Advocate, temp. Car. I., 
having had two sons on the bench. But of such a privi- 
lege we find no notice in Lorimer's Handbook of the Law 
of Scotland; Barclay's Digest of ike Law of Scot- 
land; nor in Mackay's Practice of the Court of Session.] 

"CHIEFTT." I have met with this word in 
Hooker, but cannot find it in Johnson (old ecL) 
Worcester, Wedgwood, Chambers, to signify 
being chief: "A bishop's function must be defined 
by that wherein his chiefty consisteth"; "A power 
of chiefty in government" (E. P., vii. ii. 3); " their 
chiefty in regiment over others" (ib. 4). Are 
there other instances 1 ED. MARSHALL. 

FOLIO, 1713. I am very anxious to obtain a sight 
of, or to purchase a copy of, the above, if such 
exists. I have made local inquiries of the Clerk 
of the Peace, &c., and of London booksellers, and 
can ascertain nothing. My only authority that 
such has existed is Mr. Colnell, bookseller, Devizes. 
Can you help me ? W. L. KING. 

terly Review, vol. cxxxix. p. 476, Panmure, in 
Forfarshire, is said to mean " the Church of St. 
Mary." Can any Gaelic scholar enlighten me on 
the etymology of the prefix Pan ? A. L. M. 

I should like to know at about what date 
" father " and " mother " were replaced by " papa " 
and " mamma." Were the latter in use in Eng- 

land at the Jacobite period ? 

T. W. 

" SPRAYED." Is this word, expressing the 
effect of cold on the skin, a provincialism, and 
only heard in the western counties 1 I am told 
that it is, and shall be glad of the authority of 
" N. & Q." to maintain or contradict the assertion. 

H. V. 

THE LAST MAN'S CLUB. About fifty years ago 
an article appeared in a British magazine respect- 
ing a club of young men who met annually until 
only one of their number was left, who died sitting 
at the supper-table. The story was admirably 



[6th g. in. FEB. 5, '81. 

written, and was extensively copied into the news- 
papers of this country. There is a club of 
journeymen printers in this city, founded on this 
melancholy plan, which has lasted for several years. 
In what periodical did this tale appear 1 Was it 
in Blackwood's Magazine ? BAR-POINT. 


A SQUARE HEAD. During a walking trip, many 
years ago, in France, a countryman (in Normandy) 
once remarked, " Mon pere avait la tete carree," 
meaning, apparently, that his father knew what 
he was about, and gave him (according to his 
ideas) a good education. I have once only heard 
a similar expression in England, " He has a good 
square head upon his shoulders "; but it was used 
by a Jesuit who had been much abroad. Is the ex- 
pression originally French ; and is it habitually used 
in any part of England 1 W. T. LYNN. 


LAND 1 They do not appear in the Army List 
until 1813 ; though regimental records state that 
the 10th and 15th Dragoons were clothed and 
equipped as Hussars in 1806. I think that I 
have read in some book of memoirs that the 
writer remembered seeing " the Hussars " charge a 
mob at Manchester in seventeen hundred and 
ninety something. What Hussars would these 
have been? Were they Germans or Hessians 
in our pay? Were they volunteers equipped 
Hussar fashion ? Since I wrote thus far my eyes 
have fallen on the following paragraph in the 
Royal Military Kalendar for 1815 : " Lord Com- 
bermere purchased in 1794 a Majority in the 
59th Foot, and immediately after the Lieut. - 
Colonelcy in a regiment of Hussars then raising 
by General Gwynn." What Hussars were these F 

W. W. F. S. 

CICERO ON THE GREEKS. Where does Cicero 
say that the Greeks have quickness of intelligence 
and knowledge of many arts, but that they are 
deficient in truth and honesty ? M. N. G. 

New London, vol. ii. p. 382, Mr. Walter Thornbury 
writes : " One of their [the brethren's] chief 
treasures, an illuminated Bible, given to the Shene 
Monastery [at Richmond] by Henry V., was in 
existence in the Tuilleries at Paris in 1847." May 
I venture to ask if any of your correspondents can 
help me to verify the above statement, and tell 
me whether, and where, the book is still kept ? 


Hampstead, N.W. 

SIR MARTIN FROBISHER. To what county did 
this eminent seaman belong ? He has been classed 
amongst the worthies of Devon, Yorks, and Notts, 
la most biographies he is said to have been born 

near Doncaster. Was not Fenningley (Notts) his 
real birthplace 1 He certainly possessed property 
there. C. B. 

COLLETT FAMILY. In 1683 James Collet t 
settled in Norway, where he married and left- 
issue. It is known that he was born in London- 
on August 18th, 1655, but no particulars of his. 
parents or of the family he belonged to are extant 
in Norway. A history of his descendants, who- 
have always held honourable positions, has been 
privately published, a copy of which, entitled 
Familien Collett } by Alf. Collett, is in the British 

The author, being naturally desirous of tracing 
the connexion of his ancestor with the English 
Colletts, visited England with this object in 1878- 
and sought my assistance, but I regret to say that 
I was unable to help him much. 

The Heralds' Visitations of Middlesex in 1664,. 
in which two families of this name are enrolled, 
threw no light upon the point, although it seems 
most probable that James Collett was descended 
from one of them, seeing that the arms he bore 
are identical with those of Collett of Highgate ; 
nor did reference to some of the other ordinary 
sources of such information in the British Museum,, 
and to some notes of the name in the College of 
Arms, yield better results. Equally fruitless was 
an advertisement in the Times, asking for a copy 
of the certificate of birth or baptism of James- 

Mr. Alfred Collett contemplates publishing, for 
private circulation, an enlarged edition of his 
work, and I ask the kindly assistance of any of 
your genealogical correspondents, who may have 
notes relating to this family, in another attempt to- 
establish the connexion. J. C. 

12, Fopstone Road, S.W. 

obituary of the Times I lately observed the 
following : 

" On the 23rd inst. [Nov.] at 3, Stony Villas, Plaistow, 
Essex, Mary Anna Hartley, widow of Major-General 
Humphrey Robert Hartley, of the 57th. Regiment of 
Foot, daughter of the late Admiral Robert Montague, of 
the Red Squadron, and great-grand-daughter of the lates 
Sir Godfrey Copley, of Sprottisburghe, Yorkshire, aged 

As a matter of local genealogy, I am desirous of 
knowing what proof there is for the latter portion* 
of the above statement. Admiral Montague, I 
believe, married, in 1792, Mary Elizabeth, bora 
1774, daughter of Thomas Copley of Nether Hall, 
in Doncaster, a natural son of Kobert Copley of 
that place, whose family originally branched off 
from the same stock as that which settled at 
Sprotborough, but at a point long anterior to the 
time of the last or " the late Sir Godfrey Copley,'* 
who died in 1709, leaving an only daughter, wife 

6"' S. III. FtD. 5, '81.] 



of Joseph Moyle, Esq., ancestor of the presenl 
Sir J. W. Copley, baronet. (See Hunter's South 
Yorkshire, vol. i. pp. 51, 52, 342.) 


Ixii. of the Koran it is written : " The likeness ol 
those who are charged with the law and do not 
discharge it, is as the likeness of the ass laden with 
books." This was a taunt levelled against the 
Jews. I should be glad to know if this simile was 
used before Mohammed's time. In an old edition 
of the Dunciad which I possess the frontispiece is 
an ass laden with heavy tomes, inscribed Oldmixon- 
Tibbald Plays, &c., with the motto " Deferor in 
vicum vendentem thus et odores." 


CONWAT BARONY. Sir Arthur Rawdon is 
stated to have claimed the English Barony ol 
Conway in right of his mother, whose father was 
so created in 1628 by writ of summons, directed 
"Hseredibus suis." When was that claim made ; 
and where can I see it, and the decision thereon ? 
I can find no mention of it in the Lords' Reports. 


" THE VISION OF MIRZA." Is an oil painting 
known, the subject of which is as above ? 

C. W. T. 


The History and Fate of Sacrilege. By Sir Henry 
Spelman. Edited... by Two Priests of the Church of 
England. Second Edition. London, 1853. 8vo. Who 
were the editors ? C. W. S. 

" He made the desert smile." 

In Lord Shrewsbury's gardens at Alton Towers is a 
pedestal supporting a bust, under which is inscribed the 
above. K. J. 


(6 th S. iii. 47.) 

The first edition of this celebrated poem was 
a spurious one. It was published by J. Roberts, 
early in 1733, under the title of The Life and 
Character of Dr. Sivift, with a dedication to 
Alexander Pope, Esq., signed by L. M. (whom I 
am unable to identify), and dated "From my 
Chambers in the Inner Temple, Lond. Apr. 1, 
1733." The poem consisted of 201 lines. It was 
published without the Dean's knowledge, and 
caused him great annoyance. He wrote to Pope 
from Dublin, a letter dated May 1, 1733 (Roscoe's 
Sioift, 1870, vol. ii. p. 703), indignantly denying 
the authenticity of the poem, in which he states 
" There is not a single line, or bit of a line, or 
thought, any way resembling the genuine copy." 

Swift's anger led him to exaggeration. There am 
at least fifty-four lines which are word for word 
the same as those in the genuine edition, besides 
others with merely verbal differences. Further on 
he writes, " But even this trick shall not provoke 
me to print the true one, which indeed is not 
proper to be seen until I can be seen no more." 

The resolution not to publish the poem was 
adhered to till the end of 1738, when the publica- 
tion of it was entrusted to Dr. William King, 
Principal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, whose political 
opinions were in accordance with those of Swift. 
Dr. King writes from Oxford, Jan. 5, 1739 (vol. it 
p. 805), to say that the work is at last in the press. 
" But I am in great fear," he adds, " lest you 
should dislike the liberties I have taken. Al- 
though I have done nothing without the advice 
and approbation of those among your friends in 
this country, who love and esteem you most," &c. 
On January 23rd, King writes again (vol. ii. p. 
812), to say that none of Swift's works had been 
so well received by the public, which is his 
(King's) only consolation for having dissatisfied 
the Dean by the suppression of parts of the poem. 
The story of the medals, he says, was omitted 
with a very ill will ; likewise the part of the poem 
which mentions the death of Queen Anne. 

Writing to Mrs. Whiteway on January 30 (vol. ii. 
p. 812), Dr. King again alludes to the omission of 
many lines in Rochefoucault, to which he consented 
in deference to Mr. Pope's judgment. In another 
letter to the same lady, dated March 6 (vol. ii. p. 
813), the announcement is made that two editions 
have been already sold off ; but he acknowledges 
that he is mortified at having received from 
Faulkner a copy of the Dublin reprint. The 
letter, which is a long one, contains some interest- 
ing details about the work. 

The London edition contained 381 lines. There 
were 484 lines in the Dublin one, in which the 
famous verses on the medals are given, but not in 
full. The words in italics were omitted. 

" He 's dead you say : then let him rot 
I 'm glad the medals were forgot 
I promised him, 1 own ; but when ? 
I only was the princess then. 
But now as consort of the King, 
You know 'tis quite a different thing." 

The Dublin reprint had a great success, I have 
Defore me a copy of the fifth edition, printed 
within the year of its first appearance. It is now- 
rare. There is only a copy of one edition in the 
British Museum, and none in the Bodleian. I 
lave never seen it occur in any bookseller's 

In Scott's edition of Swift's Works, second 

edition, vol. xiv. p. 347, is a copy of the verses on 

he death of Swift, and a foot-note which states 

hat the poem stands exactly as in Faulkner's 

:opy. Roscoe follows Scott, and gives the same 



. III. FEB. 5, '81. 

note. The piece is not, however, the same as in 
the Dublin reprint. Many of the asterisks and 
dashes are filled in, and there are some slight 
differences, one of which I regret. In the Dublin 
reprint, line 179 stands, 

" Kind Lady Suffolk in the Spleen." 
In Scott's copy it is changed to "And Lady 
Suffolk," &c. There are still several points for 
your contributors to clear up. (1.) Who was 
L. M. 1 (2.) Why should Swift have published 
the poein at such a long interval after the appear- 
ance of the spurious edition, at a time when his 
intellect was rapidly failing, and he was sinking 
into that state of unconsciousness in which he 
passed the last years of his life ? (3.) On the 
title it states that the poem was written in Nov. 
1731. Is there any particular reason why the 
poem should have been written at that date 1 (4.) 
When did an edition of the poem first appear with 
the complete lines referring to the medals, and 
with the asterisks filled in ? 

There is some interesting information about the 
poem in the Aldine edition of Swift, edited by 
the Eev. J. Mitford ; but this and other remarks 
which I have to make on the subject must be 
reserved for a future occasion. F. G. 

FLAMINGO (6 th S. ii. 326, 450, 478 ; iii. 35, 75). 
I can answer the question of your correspondent 
PROF. SKEAT by saying that the Portuguese and 
English Dictionary by J. D. de Lacerda (Lisbon) 
is far more copious than that by Vieyra. But it 
will not help him much as to flamingo ; nor will 
the Portuguese Dictionary by Moraes do more. 
These simply give the word with a description of 
the bird, while Constancio, in his dictionary, 
does not give the word at all. Bescherelle, in his 
dictionary, under the word "Flarnant," objects to 
this spelling, and on the authority of Buffon writes 
it fl'imbant or flammctnt. Speaking of the bird 
itself, he says, " On lui supposa meme des rapports 
avec les habitants de Flaudre, oil il n'a jamais 
paru." Now, in Portuguese, Flamengo means 
Flemish. I should never have referred to the 
Portuguese for the origin of the word. Not only 
is there an ra wanting for what would be the 
necessary Portuguese root, flamma, but in that 
language chamma is the word generally used for 
flame, flamma being poetical. The Italians follow 
after the Greek, and call the bird fenicotero. 


33, Duke Street, St. James's. 

Luis DE CAMOENS (6 th S. ii. 147). The follow- 
ing extract from the review of Mr. Aubertin's 
Lusiads of Camoens in the Athenceum for May 18, 
1878, gives the exact date of the death oi 
Camoens : 

"We have, however, an observation to make with 
regard to the poet's death, which is stated by Mr, 

Aubertin, who repeats the coinmon opinion, to have 
taken place in 1579, whereas the authentic date of his 
death was ascertained more than sixteen years ago. It 
occurred on the 10th of June, 1580, some months before 
Philip II. entered Portugal (see the Archivo National, 
Book III. of Corrections, fol. 137)." 


43). May I take the liberty of supplementing the 
information which MR. WALFORD has given to 
your readers on the above subject 1 

The earliest publication (periodical) that I know 
of was issued in June, 1813. It was entitled the 
Orthodox Journal, and was conducted and pub- 
lished by Mr. William Eusebius Andrews, a native 
of Norwich, who had taken up his abode in 
London a little time before that. He continued 
to conduct this monthly magazine in Catholic 
interests, and in hostility to the " Veto " pro- 
posals whilst they lasted, until December, 1820, 
when he published the first Catholic newspaper, 
stamped in those days. This did not receive due 
support, and ceased in nine months. 

The Catholic Miscellany, which MR. WALFORD 
marks No. 2, was then projected, to be published 
by Cuddon, but edited by Andrews under another 
or pseudo name, and, at the same time, the 
People's Advocate (Catholic and political), to be 
openly edited by him. This arrangement lasted 
for a short time only. The Miscellany passed into 
other hands. The Advocate ceased, and in 
January, 1823, he returned to his original title, 
the Orthodox Journal. This continued until 
September, 1824, in the very heat of some of the 
most earnest disputes and dissensions about 
Catholic Emancipation, when he commenced 
another Catholic weekly newspaper, the Truth- 
teller. This, too, had only a short life. Limited 
in his capital and inefficiently supported, owing 
to our internal dissensions at the time, I think it 
was published for about one year, or, perhaps, 
until the close of the session of Parliament. On 
Saturday, October 1, 1825, he returned to the 
octavo form, and issued the Truth-teller, new series, 
fortnightly during October, and weekly from 
Nov. 5. I am enabled to be minute here as I 
not only remember the circumstances, but have 
vol. i. of this Truth-teller on the table beside me. 
This is four years before Catholic Emancipation. 
I find it stated that fourteen volumes of the Truth- 
teller were published. Subsequently, the Orthodox 
was revived under the title London and Dublin- 
Orthodox Journal. Andrews died in April, 1837. 
But your point is the pre-Emancipation periodicals. 
I know there are some others, and my friend 
Mr. Joseph Gillow, of Dudley House, Bowden, 
near Manchester, has, I think, some other pub- 
lications of that period. 


St. Wilfrid's, Hulme, Manchester. 

6"' S. III. FEB. 5, '81.] 



THE MYSTERY OF BERKELEY SQUARE (4 th S. I Collegiate Institution in Liverpool, in 1844, there 
x. 373, 399 ; xi. 85 ; 5 th S. xii. 87 ; 6 th S. ii. 417, | was a room devoted to his autographs, and I used 

to enjoy standing over the large cases to read the 
interesting specimens. Here Mr. Upcott saw me, 
and most kindly encouraged my enthusiasm, and 
promised to give me some help. On his return 
home to Islington, I think he sent me several 
letters from celebrities. I still possess them, and 
never look at them without recalling pleasantly 

435, 452, 471, 514 ; iii. 29, 53). Had I known 
there would be such a run on ghosts, even in such 
a prosaic locality as Berkeley Square, I would 
have furbished up for the Christmas Number of 
" N. & Q." some of the stories I have collected. 
At any rate, I would ask, Why talk about Berkeley 
Square, where it is probable there is nothing in 
the case but an eccentric old miser and an imagina- 
tive public, when there are so many authentic 
ghosts to be raised ? 

I am writing in France, and have a horror of 
leaping le mur de la vie privee, and of subjecting 

the Editor to an action for libel by giving names ad b d 

the kind and genial manner of the old collector to 
a young girl just beginning to work in the same 

" Liverpool, Aug. 1, 1844. 
" Dear Miss C - , It affords me much pleasure to 

few autographs to 


sincere wish of 

and places, or I could "tales unfold." At any tell you that a long line begina at a p point an dtuata 
rate, it is no secret that Bishop Wilberforce and giant was once a dwarf; therefore you may reasonably 
Sir Frederick Ouseley never concealed the fact hope by perseverance to increase your stores, and at no 
that each had spoken to a ghost, and, what is more, distant P eriod exhibit to your friends an assemblage of 
had exorcised him. The details of each case are ' name8 trul ? &&***,. _ That this may be realized is the 
known to most people. Then there are the ghosts 
of a famous old Surrey house, which Sir George 
Dasent has immortalized in his "one only" 
novel, to be raised. There are also the ghostly 
and " creepy " traditions of Glamis, Traquair (vid. 
the World, Sept., 1880, "Lord Eeay at Stow"), 
and other old Scotch houses. In London, too, in 
such a populated thoroughfare as Sloane Street (I 
dare not say the number), there is a far more sub- 
stantial ghost than that of Berkeley Square, for it can 
squeeze you as if in an iron vice. I would suggest, 
therefore, a new departure, as the Berkeley Square 
phantom appears somewhat mythical, and that 
some one who knows should give us a really authen- 
ticated apparition of these latter days. 

To add iny mite to the Berkeley Square dis- 
cussion, I may say that the last story was this. 
In the season of 1880 a ball was given at No. 49. 

" Your faithful friend, 


" Liverpool, August 1, 1814. 
To Miss M. A. M. C. 
" May life's choicest blessings await my fair friend 

Unpolluted by sickness or care, 
May sweet cheering Hope to the future extend, 
And the prospect still brighter appear. 

At length, when old Time shall the temple deface, 

May the mind remain firm and serene : 
In pleasing remembrance past moments retrace, 
And reflection enliven the scene. 

" A Collector of Autographs." 

Under the title "The Father of a Fashion" 
lere will be found in Temple Bar for May, 1876 
(vol. xlvii. pp. 89-104), an interesting account of a 

of William Upcott's wonderful collections, as 

A lady and her partner were sitting against the 

partition wall of No. 50, when on a sudden she , - . TT 

moved from her place and looked round. The gen- JJ 11 as many particulars about Upcott himself. 

tleman was just going to ask the reason when he Tfelt The portion there described is now m the pos- 

impelled to do the same. On comparing their im- sessi a f Mr. Joseph Mayer, F.S. A., of 

pressions. both had felt verv ld. and had fanp.ipd I ton ' Cheshire. In the same volume of 

r (pp. 315-35), under the designation of The 
t of the Grand School of Connoisseurs," there 
is described the career of another remarkable 
collector, Thomas Dodd, the picture-dealer, and 

pressions, both had felt very cold, and had fancied 
some one was looking over their shoulders from the 
wall behind ! From this it would appear that 
"brick walls do not a prison make "for these un- 
comfortable ghosts, who can project themselves 
right through them, to the great discomfort of 
their next-door neighbours. The inhabitants of 
No. 49, who very likely never gave a ball last 
season, could say what ground there is for this 
story unless the ball-givers lived on the other side 
of No. 50, in Charles Street. K. H. B. 

Eepertorium, who 

Aug. 17, 1850, in Mr. Mayer's house, leaving 
to that gentleman a collection which is described 
as filling two hundred folios. C. W. S. 

"A large series of autograph letters, chiefly 
obtained at Upcott's sale," forms part of the col- 

TV T TT ,_.. ,., , i lection bequeathed to the Bodleian in 1863 by 

MR. UFCOTT (6* S. m. 48) -Perhaps it may Cap( , Montagu Montagu, K.N., who died at Bath 
amuse COL FERGUSSON to read the accompanying on P July 3 of g the same fear (Macray's Bodl Libr., 
note from Mr. Upcott, and the verses which were p 2 99) ED MARSHALL 

sent as an autograph for the then small collection 
alluded to in it. At an exhibition held at the | Mr. Upcott died on Sept. 23, 1845, at the age 



[6ih S. III. FEB. 5, '81. 

of sixty-six. The sale of his collections took place 
in June, 1846. EMILY COLE. 


" SlC TRANSIT GLORIA MUNDI " (1 st S. VI. 100, 

183 ; vii. 164 ; xi. 495 ; 2 nd S. i. 503 ; xii. 215, 
280, 483 ; 3 rd S. i. 36 ; 6 th S. i. 252). Few 
quotations can have been much more frequently 
noticed in " N, & Q." than this. But it was not 
shown before the last reference that it occurs in 
the first line of an old couplet. I have seen in a 
book recently published (Curiosities of the Search 
Room, 1880, pp. 119-20) an earlier instance of the 
occurrence of the lines than was then apparent. 
Amongst the wills to which reference is made is 
that of Robert Fabian, the author of the Chronicle, 
who died in AD. 1511, and was buried in St. 
Michael's Church, Cornhill. In this will he left 
an injunction that certain figures should be placed 
on his tomb, and further enjoined, 
" And at the feet of the said figurys I will be graven 
thes ix verses folowing : 
' Preterit ista dies [ins. nescitur] origo secundi, 
An labor, an requies; sic transit gloria mundi. 

Like as the day bys cours doeth consume, 

And the new morrow spryngith agayn as fast, 

So man arid woman by naturys costume 

This lyfe doo pass, and last in erth are cast, 

In joye and sorrowe in [om. in] whiche here theyr tyme 

did wast 

Never in oon state, but in co's [course] transitorey, 
Soo full of chaunge is of this worlde the glory.' 

Testa. Vttusta, p. 498." 

Weever (Fun. Mon. p. 416, 1631) states that 
in his time the epitaph was " now altogether 
defaced." He has the English, but omits the 
Latin lines, as is also the case in Pettigrew's 
Chronicles of the Tombs (Bohn, 1857), p. 64. 


(5 th S. ix. 208, 254). It is, I think, desirable for 
future readers of " N. & Q." that no subject 
should appear in its index as a query without an 
answer when it is possible to supply an answer. 
I shall therefore take the liberty of replying to 
my own query from the information courteously 
sent me at the time it appeared by two of 
" N. & Q.'s" most esteemed contributors MR. 

1. " Mystical man of Sturbridge." Sturbridge, 
near Cambridge, used to be the scene of the 
largest and most important fair in England. It 
originated about 1417, and "in the time of its 
glory was not only the greatest trade exchange oi 
the country, but also the greatest gathering of 
drolls, rope-dancers, play actors, and sleight-of- 
hand men." The allusion is therefore clear. 

2. " Old wife's tale of a certain queen of Eng- 
land that sunk at Charing Cross, and rose up ai 
Queenhith." As HERMENTRUDE (5 th S. ix. 254 

joints out, the reference may be to " a popular 
allad which confused the two queens of Henry III. 
and Edward I., both named Alianora, of whom 
he one was very unpopular for the exaction of 
ler dues payable at Queenhithe, and the other was 
tnown to the masses by her memorial at Charing 
Dross." This ballad is, I presume, " A Warning 
Piece to England against Pride and Wickedness : 
Being the Fall of Queen Eleanor, wife to Edward 
-he First, king of England, who by her Pride, by 
God's Judgment, sunk into the ground at Charing 
ross and rose at Queen Hithe," " To the tune 
of * Gentle and Courteous.' " Copies are in the 
Pepys, Roxburghe, Miller, and Rawlinson collec- 
:ions. MR. CHAPPELL has reprinted the ballad in 
the Ballad Society's Publications, vol. ii. part i. of 
the reprints. It appears to have been popular 
about the time of the proposed Spanish match of 
Prince Charles, and it may have been a recollection 
of Milton's boyish days. But the legend appears 
in an earlier literary form. In Peele's Chronicle^ 
Play of Edward the First, printed 1593, the end 
of the title runs : " Lastly the sinking of Queen 
Elinor who sunke at Charing Cross, and rose again 
at Potters' hithe, now named Queen hithe." In 
the play, where the king accuses his queen, she 
replies : 

" That if upon so uile a thing 

Her Heart did euer think, 
She wish'd the ground might open wide, 

And Therein she might sink. 

With that at Charing Cross she sunk 

Into the ground aliue, 
And afcer rose with life again 

In London at Queenhithe." 

Probably, as MR. CHAPPELL suggested to me, the 
reference to Queen Elinor is a blind. It would 
have been dangerous to name Queen Mary, bub 
the reference seems obvious. Queen Mary was 
half a Spaniard, and Queen Elinor was a Spaniard ; 
Queen Mary was childless, and so was the queen 
in the street ballad. 

3. "A wizard of Modena." Perhaps this is a 
memory of Milton's Italian days. Modena may 
have been just as celebrated for varnished paper 
masks as Cremona was celebrated for violins. 
This is a conjecture which some reader of this note 
may be able to support or make away with. 


47). Has the abeyance of the barony of Segrave 
ever been terminated in favour of .Lord Mowbray 
and Stourton ? I saw the extract from the London 
Gazette which announced the determination of the 
barony of Mowbray ; but there was no allursion to 
Segrave in what I saw, and I need not tell your 
readers that the revival of the one title would not 
necessarily carry with it the revival of the other. 
Will some one answer my question ? 


6th g. in. FEB. 5, '81.] 



THE "BRITISH AMAZON" (6 th S. iii. 9). 
Would not the representation so entitled be the 
portrait of the woman whose marvellous adventures 
form the subject of a volume known as 

" The Life and Adventures of Mrs. Christian Davies, 
the British Amazon, commonly called Mother Ross, who 
served as a Foot-Soldier and Dragoon in several 
Campaigns under King William, and the late Duke of 
Marlborough, &c. Second edition, &c. London, MDCCXLI." 

For a discussion as to the authorship of this 
curious book, which is often attributed to Defoe, 
see"N. & Q.," 5 th S. vii. 92. 

I have an equestrian portrait of this remarkable 
personage in 8vo., with the epigraph, " Christian 
Davis (otherwise Mother Ross)." As frontispiece 
to the volume described above is a copper-plate 
engraving in two compartments ; one, a reduction 
of the equestrian portrait which I have mentioned ; 
the other, our heroine in female habiliments, act- 
ing in the capacity of cantineer, or sutler. 

An account of her, but without portrait, will be 
found in the Wonderful Characters of Henry 
Wilson (London, 1821, 3 vols. 8vo.), vol. ii. 
pp. 190-6. 

But Mother Ross is not the only Amazon in 
British military annals, though I am not aware 
that any other has received the designation. I 
have before me a curious book entitled : 

"The Female Soldier; or, the Surprising Life and 
Adventures of Hannah Snell, Born in the City of 
Worcester, &c. The whole containing the most sur- 
prising incidents that have happened in any preceeding 
Age ; wherein is laid open all her Adventures in Men's 
Cloaths, for near five Years, without her Sex being ever 
discovered. London, 1750." 8vo. pp. 187. 

Here, in addition to other curious plates, we 
have for a frontispiece a full-length representation 
of the heroine in male habiliments, with the inscrip- 
tion at foot, " Hannah Snell, the Female Soldier, 
who went by the name of James Gray." 

This female worthy, having been deserted by 
her husband, adopted male attire and travelled to 
Coventry in search of the runaway. She there 
enlisted in Col. Guise's Regiment of Foot, and 
inarched therewith to Carlisle, at the time of the 
Scotch Rebellion of '45. She afterwards enlisted 
in Fraser's Regiment of Marines, and proceeded 
to Portsmouth, whence she sailed in Admiral 
Boscawen's squadron for the East Indies. There 
she assisted at the siege of Pondicherry, when she 
received twelve wounds. Through all her ad- 
ventures, including a couple of whippings, she 
managed to preserve the secret of her sex ; and 
even when this was made public she continued to 
wear the garments to which she had so long been 

Her military occupation gone, Hannah cast 
about for means of subsistence, and presently 
entered into an engagement with the manager of 
the New Wells, in Goodman's Fields, for the 

exhibition of herself in the character of a tar and 
a marine, in her successful enactment of which 
she/ entertained the company with a variety of 
appropriate songs. 

In addition to this, under the belief that " such 
an Amazonian Lady as Mrs. Snell was, deserv'd 
some encouragement, and that her heroic Atchieve- 
ments should not be altogether buried in Oblivion," 
a petition for some provision for her was drawn 
up and presented to the Duke of Cumberland ; 
the result of which was that " our Female Soldier 
will have by the Indulgence of his Majesty's 
Letter, the allowance of One Shilling per Diem, 
for and during the Term of her natural Life, 
which amounts in the Whole to 181 5s. per 

Besides this, she entertained the idea of em- 
barking in business by taking "some noted 
Publick House, either in some conspicuous Part of 
the City, or else within the Bills of Mortality ; 
where she proposes to assume a new Character, I 
mean that of a jovial Publican, in which it is our 
opinion, she will be as well able to shine as in 
that of a Tarpaulin or a Marine." We are further 
informed that " to draw in her Customers, and 
distinguish herself from the rest of her Brother 
Publicans," she " determined to hang up a 
whimsical Sign," and " has already, for that Pur- 
pose, agreed with a very able Painter to delineate 
her in her Regimentals on one Side of her intended 
Sign, and in her Jacket and Trowsers on the 
other ; and underneath each, it will be proper to 
be written in large Capitals, THE WIDOW IN 

Just one last Amazon occurs to me, but I must 
not do more than merely indicate the title of the 
book in which her doings are chronicled : 

" The Female Warrior : a True History, very delight- 
ful, and full of pleasant Adventures in the Campaigns 
of 1676 and 16/7. Translated from the French. London, 
1678." 12mo. 

I do not know that there is any portrait of the 
last-mentioned lady. WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 

Is not this Gildippe, the heroic wife of Edward, 
an English baron, whom Tasso describes in La, 
Gerusalemme Liberata as fighting side by side 
with her husband until they are both killed by 
Soliman ? 

" Nella guerra anco consorti 
Non sarete disgiunti ancor che morti." 

She is represented as the Christian Amazon, 
whilst Clorinda plays the part of the pagan 
Amazon. B. D. MOSELEY. 


MEMORY (6 th S. ii. 485 ; iii. 46). Some years ago 
a brother officer of mine an Irishman, who, while 
snipe-shooting in the wilds of Conneinara, had 



[6th s. III. FEB. 5, '81. 

picked up many curious sayings, scraps of Zosimus, 
and such like trifles, which he would reproduce 
with effect would on occasion (albeit we were not 
serving " in Flanders " at the time) give out one 
of these" The curse uv Crom'ell on ye." This 
he believed to be a relic of the rigorous sway of 
the Protector in Ireland. 

By the way, it surprises me that none of the 
sayings of Zosimus, the singer of Dublin Bridge 
his metrical version of " The Finding of Moses," for 
-example have, if I remember rightly, found their 
way to " N. & Q." Now that it seems established 
that there never was in the library of Glasgow 
University a whimsical version of the Old Testa- 
ment in metre, from the pen of the Kev. Zachary 
Boyd, the verses of Zosimus must be unique in 
.style. ALEX. FERGUSSON, Lieut.-Col. 

Lennox Street, Edinburgh. 

PIGOTT OF BROCKLEY (6 th S. iii. 69). If MR. 
PIGGOT will write and inform me for what pur- 
pose he requires information about this family, 
I think that I can answer his queries. 

A. E. W. Fox. 

16, Gay Street, Bath. 

8). The only Russell whose Christian name 
begins with E, mentioned in Wiffen's history, 
after the year of the marriage of Margaret Russell 
with the Earl of Cumberland, is Robert, fifth son 
of the first Duke of Bedford, and brother to 
William, Lord Russell, the patriot. But as 
Robert Russell was appointed Clerk of the Pipe 
in 1689, he could not have witnessed a deed in 
1603. The years of his birth and death are no 
given by Wiffen. L. A. R. 

Atheneeum Club. 

" HARE-BRAINED " : " HAREBELL " (6 th S. i. 155 
402, 424, 502 ; ii. 472). Now that hare-brainec 
is allowed to be connected with a hare, I hope 
harebell may be allowed to be so connected also 
The etymology from the Welsh is, of course 
absurd ; the suggestion hairbell has been mad 
foefore, but is too clever to have originated in 
early times. The word is as old as the fifteenth 
century : " Hec bursa pastaris, hare-belle" (Wright' 
Vocabularies, vol. i. p. 226). In those days a har 
meant a hare. The difficulty about it belongs t 
the present day, when a spade is no longer under 
stood. CELER. 

" CONUNDRUM " (6 th S. ii. 348, 470). I have 
further light on this word. S. J. H. gives as hi 
earliest example a quotation dated 1615. But i 
occurs in 1611 : 

" We old men have our crotchets, our conundrums, 
Our figariea, quirks, and quibbles, 
As well as youth." (1611) Ram Alley, III. i. 2. 
It is possible that the word may be Latin, just i 

uillet is a corruption of quidlibet. If so, there is 
ut one Latin word that could have produced it, 
iz., conandum. And it is remarkable that conan- 
um, a thing to be attempted, will give the double 
ense of problem or puzzle, and an invented story 
ade to see how much people would believe. This 
uggestion has the merit of giving the accent on 
ae right syllable. The vowel-change is not extra- 
rdinary, since an and on were then pronounced 
early alike (at least, the a was the Italian a), and 
n easily becomes un, as in son., ton. As for the 
nsertion of r, we say cartridge for cartouche, and 
ridegroom for bridegoom. 


When PROF. SKEAT says, " I am also reminded 

f Dutch kond rondom, known round about," does 

le mean that he has seen this phrase in any Dutch 

>ook ? I ask because it seems to me very doubtful 

whether it is good Dutch, or, at any rate, the 

Dutch of ordinary life. I do not profess to be a 

?ood Dutch scholar, but I have some knowledge 

f the language, and it is so like German, with 

vhich I am well acquainted, that I think I 

m capable of forming some opinion on the 

subject. In this case, too, the two words have 

heir equivalents in German, and I feel pretty 

sure that if a German were asked to render 

known round about " into German, he would not 
say kund rundum. At the very least, it would 
be rundum kund* Kund is, indeed, an adjective, 
but it is used only as a predicate, generally with 
certain verbs, as sein, werden, thun, or machen, and 
so it comes to be treated more like a participle 
(such as the similar bekannt} than an adjective, 
and commonly, therefore, finds its way to the end. 
Thus in Hilpert's Diet. I find, "Es wurde Nichts 
von dieser Verhandlung kund." And so it seems 
to be, so far as I can make out, with kond in 
Dutch, which is also used with almost exactly the 
same special verbs as in Germ., viz.,sijn, doen, and 
maken. But if rondom kond would be the usual 
order in Dutch, and not kond rondom, then PROF. 
SKEAT'S " desperate " conjecture (to use his own 
word) falls at once to the ground. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

DERIVATION OF " EXTA " (6 th S. ii. 428 ; iii. 5.7). 
The letter of your correspondent has not removed 
my objections to Corssen's view, from which I 
venture to dissent. 

In the first place, the exta are in no sense 
extreme or outermost, but rather central or inner, 
organs. It may be sufficient to say that the idea 
of " prominence " or " importance " does not appear 
in extents, &c., with which Corssen affiliates the 

* In this note I merely consider the order of the two 
words used by PROF. SKEAT ; I leave entirely on one 
side the question, on which something might be said, as 
to whether kond and rondom are the words which would 
be usually employed in this case. 

III. FEB. 5, '!.] 



word. Besides, if the size of the objects examined 
constituted their importance in the eyes of the 
" haruspices " it is strange that the stomach did 
not rank among the " important " organs. 

Again, Corssen, in selecting exta as an analogue 
ofjuxta, seems to have overlooked or ignored the 
difference in quantity of the final vowel in each 
case. This may be only a " curious accident." It 
is worthy of remark that in some of these Latin 
superlatives in st, the root-ideas do not readily 
admit of comparison. Juxta, for example, if a 
superlative, seems to convey a very redundant 
idea. Philologers would add much to our stock 
of knowledge if, instead of indulging in laboured 
refinements, they would give themselves to the 
examination of weightier matters ; such, for 
instance, as the connexion between ou/os, vena, 
(om, which appear to be colour-words. And 
what is TToivrj but the crimson streak on the 
executioner's knife ? But to return to exta. May 
I ask, in conclusion, whether it is not natural to 
suppose that these organs owed their important 
position in connexion with the science of divination 
not to their mere dimensions but to the fact that 
as outlets of the vital issues they might be held 
to give some clue to the issues of fate ? 


S.P.Q.R. (6 th S. ii. 426 ; iii. 34). The list of 
interpretations accorded to these letters in the 
curious Amusemens Philologiques of G. P. Phi- 
lomneste, B.A.V. (Gabriel Peignot), Paris, 1808, 
differs from that supplied by MR. MARSHALL, 
and includes one or two others. It is as follows : 
" Senatus Populus Que Romanua. 

Salva Populum Quern Redemisti. 

Sono Poltroni Quest! Romani. 

Sancte Pater Quid Rides ? 

Rideo Quia Papa Sum. 

Salus Papse, Quies Regni. 

Salvasti Populum Quern Regis. 

Solidavit Pace Quietem Regni. 

Salvavit Pacavit Que Regnum. 

Si Peu Que Rien." 

The same authority (Amusemens Philologiques) 
says that the five vowels a, e, i, o, u, appeared on 
the keystone of the door of the ancient palace 
of the emperors in Vienna, signifying " Austria- 
corum Est Imperare Orbi Universe." It would 
be easy for Englishmen by a slight change to 
give an interpretation flattering to our own 
national pride, were not such indulgence out of 
fashion. JOSEPH KNIGHT. 

LAND (6 th S. ii. 408 ; iii. 50, 72, 96). The ques- 
tion asked by MR. BLATDES was headed by him 
" Lady Lucy Wentworth." It was, therefore, 
hardly an error to place that name at the head of 
a reply. It may be presumed that all readers of 
" N. & Q." are well aware of the fact that the 
unmarried daughters of a baronet have no claim to 

the title of " lady," and that any minor designa- 
tion which a young lady might have would wholly 
cease on her marrying an earl. It is evident, in 
the case in question, that the lady was Mistress- 
Lucy Wentworth till she became the Rt. Hon. the 
Countess of Cleveland. MR. BLAYDES appears to- 
have quoted the designation of "Lady Lucy 
Wentworth " from a coffin-plate, a thing con- 
fessedly of no authority, and in this case probably 
an undertaker's error. The same may also be said 
of another coffin-plate (Miscellanea Gen. et Her. 
iii. 450), namely, that of the Countess of Strafford, 
who died in 1754, and who is described on her 
coffin-plate as " wife of Thomas, Earl of Cleveland." 
Now, the only Earl of Cleveland died in 1667, 
just seventeen years before this lady was born. 

Though the daughters of a baronet are never 
entitled to the rank of "ladyship," yet under 
certain circumstances they may obtain it as a 
kind of title of courtesy. This is sometimes the 
case when a baronet dies and leaves a single 
daughter and heir ; then, and especially if she 
holds landed property and is lady of the manor, 
she may obtain the local title of " lady " in con- 
versation, letters, and print. A few years since,, 
passing near the residence of a wealthy and bene- 
volent old lady thus situated, I asked whether 
Miss Blank was at the hall ; and received the 
reply, "Eh? Oh, you mean her ladyship? No; 
Lady Mary Blank is in London now." The coffin- 
plate of this lady, if made by a local undertaker, 
will probably show titles very puzzling to future 
genealogists. EDWARD SOLLY. 

WILLIAM CRUDEN (6 th S. ii. 269, 394, 435). 
In the Monthly Magazine of Jan., 1818, there is 
a short letter from Dr. Crombie, written at 
Greenwich, relative to Alexander Cruden, author 
of the Concordance. The latter was Dr. Crombie's 
paternal grand-uncle. If Alexander had been 
nearly related to William, I think Dr. Crombie 
would have mentioned it. In this letter Dr. 
Crombie mentions that, " By his last will the 
magistrates of Aberdeen have a right to claim six 
copies of every new edition of the Concordance." 
This claim, the writer observes, " has never been 
made, and now perhaps cannot be enforced." 


A HYMN BY CHARLES WESLEY (6 th S. iii. 9 r 
73). The hymn quoted by MR. MACKINTOSH was 
first published in Charles Wesley's Short Hymns 
on Select Passages of the Holy Scriptures, 2 vols., 
Bristol, 1762 ; it is headed, "The fire shall ever 
be burning upon the altar, it shall never go out " 
Leviticus vi. 13). In this original edition the 
last line is 

" And make my sacrifice compleat." 

[ cannot just now find my copy of the second 

dition (1794), but I presume it has the same 

reading, since Dr. Osborn's reprint (London, 1870) 



[6th s. III. FEB. 5, '81. 

also reads " my." In the Collection of Hymns for 
the Use of the People called Methodists, first pub- 
lished in 1780, this reading was altered by substitut- 
ing "the sacrifice" for "my sacrifice" (hymn 318), 
and this alteration was continued in all the editions 
until that of 1797, called " a new edition," which 
has the original word " my." This is not the 
place for saying it, but special interest is attached 
to this edition of 1797. I have three different 
editions following that of 1797, which read "my," 
viz., a new edition, 16mo. (no date), another in 1800, 
and yet another in 1801. The earliest edition I have 
found which reads " the " is one called once again 
"a new edition," 8vo. 1803, and all subsequent 
editions have continued this reading, and all other 
reprints also, so far as I have seen (Dr. Osborn's 
cxcepted), until the one quoted by your corre- 

I ought to mention that, in addition to the 
numerous hymns, tracts, and volumes published by 
the brothers Wesley, and the collection made by 
John, first published in the year 1780, they also 
compiled two distinct pocket hymn books, one in 
1785 and one in 1787. I believe that the former 
was never reprinted, and it is now very scarce. 
The latter was frequently reprinted, and of this 
I have eleven distinct editions. All these have 
the reading "the," not "my," and the same applies 
to the publication of 1785. 


B<nvdon, Cheshire. 

"PUNCH," THE DRINK (6 th S. ii. 47, 235). I 
have often heard ponche used by Spaniards for 
punch, but I do not think it is a Spanish word, 
or has any meaning of its own in that language. 
My Spanish friends certainly thought that they 
had borrowed both name and thing from England. 


THE PHYSICAL CLUB (6 th S. ii. 309, 473). I 
am obliged to Mr. BURNIE for his information and 
reference to the Memoires Secrets sur la Russie. 
People are naturally inclined to distrust informa- 
tion conveyed in works calling themselves secret 
histories ; thus I am enforced, like Pyrrho, to be still 
doubtful of the value of such evidence. Never- 
theless I thank your correspondent for his in- 
formation, and will endeavour to get a view of 
the volume in question. The printed rules shown 
to me two years ago in France were in the English 
language, and compiled in pamphlet form. So 
far as I remember them, they had no pretensions 
beyond being a candid exposition of the statutes 
of a society founded by the Empress Catherine in 
1762, and ultimately suppressed by her in conse- 
quence of its baneful influence on public morality. 
On the death of Peter III., which occurred one 
week after his deposition, Catherine deemed it 
expedient to establish something like a " society " 
in Moscow. Social gatherings had been, for State 

reasons, hitherto discouraged ; but Catherine 
resolved to show a more liberal spirit by bringing 
men and women of the upper classes into social 
intercourse. With this object she founded the 
Physical Club, and I desire to know whether we 
have any authentic details in connexion with its 
proceedings other than those given, from French 
sources, in at the best a doubtful history. It was not, 
I think, in consequence of the French Ee volution that 
Catherine suppressed the Physical Club, but rather 
on account of the scandale to which its proceedings 
gave rise, not only in Kussia, but all over the 
civilized world. I cannot agree with Mr. BURNIE 
in reference to his allusion to the ninth canto of 
Don Juan. There is nothing in that particular 
canto which is not in keeping with the reputa- 
tion nay, the known character of Catherine ; 
nor does Byron therein allude to the society of 
Moscow, clubable or otherwise, but solely to 
Catherine's reception of an emissary to the Court 
of St. Petersburg. If any one will help me to 
trace the records of this society along the open 
paths of impartial history I shall be grateful. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

(6 th S. ii. 226, 274, 375). MR. STAVENHAGEN 
JONES has overlooked the fact that between the 
intrinsic and the nominal value of the bronze 
currency there is a great gulf fixed, into which he 
has plunged headlong. It seems to me that on 
forty-seven tons of pence there is ample margin 
for a profit of 5,0001. ; but why forty-seven tons 
are brought into the question I do not see. MR. 
FRAZER simply asked if sufficient coins were 
circulated to leave such a profit. It is true the 
Mint made forty-seven tons in the year mentioned 
in addition to Heaton's quantity ; but what has 
that to do with the question put by MR. FRAZER] 
Whether any pence were forged in 1874 I know 
not, but I can vouch for one, in my possession, 
dated 1866 ; and that halfpence have been forged 
quite lately is a fact proved by a conviction in 
London in July last. E. T. SAMUEL. 


(6 th S. ii. 327; iii. 13). A. Wood and Tho. 
Fuller are mistaken in fixing Dod's age at eighty- 
six, as at the British Museum, among the Ays- 
cough MSS., No. 4275, are some original letters 
by Dod, addressed to Lady Vere. In one of them, 
dated Dec. 20, 1642, he says he is "not far off 
ninety-seven years old." He lived until August, 
1645, and on the 19th of that month was buried 
at Fawsley. Many of his sayings became pro- 
verbial, and were frequently printed, either in a 
small pamphlet or on a broad sheet, and suspended 
in every cottage. He was silenced or suspended 
twice for nonconformity, first by Dr. Bridges, 

C'i> S. III. FEB. 5, '81.] 



Bishop of Oxford, and secondly by Archbishop 
Abbot, at the command of King James. 


115, Piccadilly. 

[The sermon " upon the word Malt" ia well known.] 

197, 275). Despite assertions to the contrary, I 
still hold that, in many places in Scotland, it is as 
much the custom to bury the dead on Sunday as 
it is on Monday or any other day of the week. 
The practice may not be general, but, neverthe- 
less, it is customary in several Scottish counties, 
including Edinburghshire, Lanarkshire, and Fife- 
shire, where, to my own knowledge, Sunday 
funerals are of frequent occurrence. " When one 
says it is not now the practice to do so-and-so, the 
statement does not imply that so-and-so never 
takes place." Of this to me strange explana- 
tion, all I shall say is, that it is one I cannot 
accept. That burial on Sunday in Kilmarnock 
should not be allowed without the permission of 
the local authority, appears to me to be a forcible 
illustration of the truth of Byron's words, 
" How deathless is error." 


iii. 78). I always thought that the word was wear 
that when a man spends his money he wears it 
away, and that at length it came to be applied 
to the sum worn rather than to the original 
amount. See Peacock's Glossary, s.v. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

ii. 514 ; iii. 18). My only knowledge of this book 
was derived from Lamb's essay on Christ's Hos- 
pital, wherein he describes it as one of his school- 
boy " classics," in conjunction with Ptter Wilkins, 
&c. I could neither obtain a copy of the work nor 
find it in the British Museum, but with the title 
given by K. L. shall doubtless discover it. 

J. H. I. 

MRS. NEWSY'S NOVELS (6 th S. iii. 28). The 
name of the work referred to by B. is Kate Ken- 

J. H. I. 

" PRICKED " Music (6 th S. ii. 428 ; iii. 57). 
Prides for notes, and pricking for copying them, I 
have heard in country places all my life. I may 
illustrate the use of pricks by a story I heard 
nearly fifty years ago from several persons, some 
of whom were actually present on the occasion. 
At Peak Forest Church, in Derbyshire, one Sun- 
clay, the clerk gave out an anthem to be sung. 
On this the leader of the singers exclaimed, in loud 
tones, from his gallery, " An onthem, mon ! why 
there's nobbut Jim Oakes and me here, and we ha' 
not brote ar pricks." The clerk said, also aloud, 

"Yo should ha spokken"; and the rejoinder was, 
" Yo mit ha seen if yo 'd list." ELLCEE. 


THE ETYMOLOGY OF " BEDFORD " (6 th S. i. 173, 
460; ii. 249, 334, 474). Let me remind those 
who are puzzling over the etymology of this name 
that there is another Bedford, viz., Bedford Leigh, 
in Lancashire. Also to reflect that Bed is the 
first syllable in the names of a great many places 
in both England and Wales, Bed minster, Bed was, 

HESSIAN BOOTS (6 th S. ii. 468 ; iii. 73). I am 
old enough to remember their introduction. They 
were the acme of dandyism in the first, and the 
beginning of the second, decade of the present 
century. They were worn over tight-fitting pan- 
taloons, the up-peaking front, sometimes almost 
touching the knee, bearing a silk tassel, the back 
part sloped to the calf, being full below and with a 
high heel. It was the universal costume till the 
introduction of Wellington trousers, made loose 
below, looped ingeniously for opening, so as to 
cover the boot, which, being stripped of the upper 
useless ornaments and cut, was called the Wel- 

High-lows were a vulgar imitation the slovenly 
upper part being concealed by the loose trousers 
never worn by well dressed men. Before the 
introduction of the hessian and Wellington 
gentlemen wearing breeches turned out in top 
boots. Half-boots for walking were a very inferior 
article in make and appearance to the dandy 
hessian worn over tight pantaloons. 


TOM BROWN (6 th S. i. 133, 316, 337; ii. 158, 
210, 228). At least one other volume was pub- 
lished by this writer, mention of which has not 
been made at any of the above references, and a 
copy of which is now before me. Some notion of 
the contents of this volume may be gathered from 
its title : 

"Miscellanea Aulica: or, a Collection of State Trea- 
tises, Never before publish 'd. Containing : Letters by 
K. Charles and K. James II. in their Exile; from the 
E. of Arlington to Sir Bern. Gascoign, about the intended 
Match of the D. of York with the Archdutches of In- 
spruck; from the E. of Arlington to the Dukes of 
Ormond and Buckingham; by the famous A. Cowley. 
A Description of Germany, its Government, &c., by Sir 
B. Gascoign. The ancient Method and Custom of Duels 
before the King An Account of the State of Affairs in 
Scotland, Jan. 1661. By the E. of Middleton. An Essay 
upon the Disorders of Scotland. A Discourse upon the 
Union of England and Scotland. The Grievances of 
Scotland in Relation to their Trade. A Proposal for an 
Union between England and Ireland. The L. Lauder- 
dale's Charge against the E. of Middleton. The E. of 
Middleton's Answer. The King's Propriety in the Sea 
Lands and Salt Shoara. The King's Prerogative in 
making Wars and Alliances. A Treatise of Leagues and 
Alliances, and Nature of their Obligation. Faithfully 
Collected from their Originals, by Mr. T. Brown. Ipsa 



[6"' S. I II. FED 5, 81. 

varietate tentamus efficere, ut quaedam nonnullis, quae- 
dam fortasse omnibus placeant. Plin., London, 
Printed for J. Hartley, next Door to the King's-head 
Tavern; Rob. Gibson, in Middle Row; and Tho. Hodg- 
son, over against Gray's-Inn Gate, in Holborn. 1702." 
Small 8vo. 

Prefixed to this curious collection of State 
documents is a preface of ten pages written by 
" Tom," as also a table of contents. The text 
extends to four hundred and forty pages. 


"PUDDING AND TAME" (6 th S. i. 417; ii. 55, 
277). In the Sussex Archceol. Collect., 1861, there 
is a paper by Mr. M. A. Lower on the Sussex 
dialect. He says (p. 230) that " thirty or forty 
years ago there was a kind of proverbial dialogue 
in a 'lurry' like this : 
" ' What 's yer naiim ? 

Pudden and taiim; 

Ax me agin, and I '11 tell ye de saiim.' " 
A foot-note suggests that " pudden and taiim " 
may mean food and drink, " to tame " meaning 
to broach or taste liquor. But this explanation is, 
I think, very improbable. A. L. MAYHEW. 

The version that I heard in my youth concluded 
thus : 

" If you don't believe me, ask my dame." 
This, I suspect, came from Rugby school. 

T. W. WEBB. 
AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (6 th S. iii. 49). 

Thoughts on Nature and Religion, &c. Dr. Patrick 
Blair (Michael Servetus), the author of the above work, 
was a Scotch physician, who settled in Cork about the 
second quarter of the last century. At first he opened a 
shop in Millerd Street, now a decayed locality, where by 
vending certain medicines he accumulated a large for- 
tune. He subsequently built Blair's Castle, a lofty 
structure, in the Dutch style, on the top of the hill over 
Sunday's Well road, from which there is a magnificent 
prospect of the city and country all around, the river 
view towards Passage Reach being particularly fine. In 
the book here referred to, under the pretext of vindi- 
cating the conduct of Servetus in his controversy with 
Calvin, the writer attacks the several articles of the 
Christian creed. This work was attacked by the Rev. 
Arthur O'Leary, who was frequently engaged in con- 
troversy with Dr. Blair, who was an avowed Deist, and 
denied the immortality of the soul. Singular to say, the 
Rev. Arthur O'Leary was encouraged by Dr. Isaac Mann, 
Protestant Bishop of Cork, to defend the principles of 
Christianity against the attacks of Blair. For a full 
account of the nature and contents of this book and the 
entire controversy see Life and Writings of Rev. Arthur 
O'Leary, by Rev. M. B. Buckley, R.C. Curate of SS. 
Peter and Paul, Cork (Dublin, Duffy, 1868). Phineas 
and George Bagnell were celebrated Cork printers, and 
publishers of the Cork Evening Post, the eighth volume 
of which appeared in 1762. R. C. 

389, 479, 525). 

" When last I attempted," &c. 

The authorship of these lines was a subject of dis- 
cussion in your earlier series. According to an editorial 
note, " The lines are not in Bickerstaff a comedy 'Tis 

W ellit's no Worse, 8vo., 1770; but they occur in The 
Panel, Act. I. sc. i., by J. P. Kemble, who seems to have 
quoted them from An Asylum for Fugitive Pieces, 1785, 
vol. i. p. 15, where they appear without any name, 
entitled 'An Expostulation'" ("N. & Q.," 2 nd S. vii. 
177). G. F. S. E. 

(6th s. iii. 49, 78, 99.) 
" The small, rare volume," &c. 

MR. WARREN suggests that Crabbe had borrowed tha 
phrase " tarnished gold " from Dr. Ferriar, but the 
reverse is most probably the case, as The Library of 
Crabbe was first published in 1781, and Dr. Ferriar's 
Bibliomania in 1809. Is it not, however, a common 
colloquialism ] C. R. R. 


The History and Construction of a Cathedral of the Old 
Foundation, illustrated from Documents (hitherto almost 
entirely Unpublished) in the Registry and Muniment 
Room of the Cathedral of Chichester. Collected and 
Edited by C. A. Swainson, D.D. (London, Bell & 
Sons; Chichester, Wihnshurst.) 

THE Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity presents us ia 
this volume, which is the first fasciculus of the work, 
with an important contribution to English ecclesiastical 
history. As Lincoln has given us its Registrum it, 
Laudum, as St. Paul's has given us its Regislrum S>ta- 
tutorum et Consuetudinum, as Chichester has given us its 
Statutes, to name only three recent contributions to this 
field of research, so also the "inner history of Chichester 
in the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries ia 
set before us in the present work. Dr. Swainson presents 
to us a long series of abstracts of ducuments, and in 
many cases the entire documents themselves, bearing 
upon what may be called the domestic history of the 
cathedral. The documents are arranged in chronological 
order, whilst very full marginal notes give ready refer- 
ence to the matters treated of in the text. The Intro- 
duction, which cannot fail to be of interest, has yet to 
be supplied. 

The documents themselves range over a large field. 
The history of the Communa, or Common Fund, occupies 
a very prominent place, with the statutes passed from 
time to time relating to its distribution. In about 1189 
Hylary, Bishop of Chichester, grants a prebend to supply 
the bread which was to be distributed to the canons ; in 
1197, and again in 1247, statutes are enacted directing 
that this bread be given only to those canons who were 
present at the service ; in 1232 there are rules as to the 
distribution of the bread when the canon or vicar is 
absent without leave of the dean ; in 1249 the Pope 
allowed the Archdeacon of Lewes to be non-resident, and 
yet to receive his share of the Communa as if he had 
been present, thus leading to grave apprehension that 
others also would desert their posts and the services of 
the cathedral be seriously crippled. 

The vexed question of residence is very fully illus- 
trated. The duties of a residentiary are purposely 
made very arduous, with the intention, it would appear, 
of lessening the number, and so of augmenting the sura 
to be divided amongst those who did attend. In the very 
earliest statutes, however, residence is made obligatory. 
Canons cannot be excused from residing "nisi causa 
Bcholarum et servitium Regis " : the king or the arch- 
bishop might appoint one of them as his chaplain, whilst 
the bishop of the diocese might appoint other two to. 
a similar dignity in his own household. A canon could 
be absent for two days only without the dean's leave. 

S. III. FEB. 5, '81.] 



A very valuable series of Visitation records in 1340, 
1397, 1402, 1409, 1441, and 1478, will well repay careful 

In 1239 there is a contract for glazing the cathedral. 
If plain glas.3, "absque pictura magnitudine circiter liij 
pedum," be inserted, the maker is to receive twelve 
shillings; but if glass is inserted "cum pictura et 
historia," he is to be paid according to a just and true 
estimate of its value. 

In 1249 the cathedral seems to have made rather a 
good bargain, for the brothers and sisters of the Hospital 
of St. Mary agree, for a rent of twelvepence a year, to 
cleanse every Friday (if it be not a feast-day) " totam 
aream capituli ecclesiae": if the terms only mean the 
floor of the chapter house, the brothers and sisters can 
hardly have been overpaid. 

In 1314 the Dean and Chapter had passed some 
statutes without consulting the bishop, and had gone so 
far as to suspend two vicars for disobedience to their 
BCW statutes : they are compelled by the bishop to 
declare these statutes to be void, and to restore the 
suspended vicars. 

Many glimpses of local customs are obtained. At 
pages 29 and 30 we have the ritual used at the installa- 
tion of a dean or of a canon. Mention is made of leper 
houses, pp. 19, 24 ; and of the Inclusi at Lavant and at 
Wyke, p. 19. Buying and selling in the church and 
churchyard, especially trafficking in candles, are strictly 
forbidden, p 27. On the Epiphany two vicars made 
tlie circuit of the church, 'cum signo Spiritus Sancti 
sive imagine/' which they offered to the dean and to 
the canons in succession. This is in 1478. In the 
following year occur some regulations about pilgrimages 
to the shrine of St. Richard, and it is ordered that the 
pilgrims may have crosses and standards, but not long 
or painted rods. In 1280 the Dean and Chapter had 
been ordered by the king to replace in the shrine jewels 
which had been stolen from it. In 1497 the Prebendal 
School is founded, in the hope that it may dispel, at any 
rate in the following generation, the " ignorant! am 
sacerdotum non modicam." 

We had noted many other passages for reference, but 
our notice is already somewhat extended. May we ven- 
ture to suggest that it would be well to add occasional 
notes to explain unusual words, such as " capam cum 
gorjuris" p. 7 ; marrantia, p. 15 ; and emologatio, p. 57 : 
it may be fairly assumed that every reader does not know 
that the gorjura was a hood fitting like a collar (gorge) 
round the neck ; that marrantia signified, first, " dolor, 
qui concipitur ex aliquo damno," and then the fine or 
penalty itself; nor that emologare = confirmare. It 
should certainly be added that the book* abounds in 
graceful allusions to the labours of our late friend and 
frequent contributor, the Rev. Mackenzie Walcott, 
Precentor of Chichester. All students of English church 
history should consult the volume. 

The Aryan Village in India and Ceylon. By Sir John B. 

Phear. (Macmillan & Co.) 
Early Hebrew Life : a Study in Sociology. By John 

Fenton. (TrUbner & Co.) 

ALTHOUGH these two books bear such apparently dif- 
ferent titles, they both belong to the game division of 
historical research, namely, that which relates to the 
early history of institutions. Sir John Phear's Aryan 
village is not exclusively Aryan, however, as indeed 
Mr. Fenton's book shows, because its main features are 
discovered among the Semitic races, and notably among 
the Hebrews. Thus we feel disposed to quarrel with 
the title assumed by the first-named book; but there 
our quarrelling ends. The book gives such an in- 
teresting group of details connected with the primitive 

village community details that are not given in Sir 
Henry Maine's works that it will be found exceedingly 
valuable for those who, like Mr. Fenton, go outside the 
restrictions of race for their researches. The chapters 
on the ins and outs of the villages and on domestic life 
are especially valuable, and if space permitted we could 
group many interesting parallels between the customs 
recorded here and those extant in our own country and 
eliewhere. The cultivating community in India is the 
unit of social and political life, and to its discovery we 
owe the key to much that was wholly inexplicable in 
European history. Mr. Fenton has applied the self- 
sama key to the unlocking of some strange passages and 
incidents in Hebrew life and in the Biblical narrative. 
With some masterly touches of historical comparison, 
we have such stories as those of Judah and Tamar and 
Lot's daughters reduced, or rather, we should say, ele- 
vated, to historical incidents of the most important 
description. Mr. Fenton has laboured to be brief in his 
exposition of his theories, and occasionally, we fear, he 
has become somewhat obscure ; for the steps between 
one group of examples and another a Teutonic group, 
say, and the Hebrew group are not always made clear 
without reference to the notes in the margin. To both 
works, however, if they do contain such slight faults 
as those we have mentioned, we cordially give our 
endorsement of their great value to the student of early 
social life. Both Hindoo and Hebrew history present 
wonderful pictures of the past. The Hindoos have pro- 
gressed to a certain point, never reaching civilization, 
and have then crystallized. The Hebrews have progressed 
through some phases of civilized life and then broken to 
pieces as a nation, but leaving behind a wonderful lite- 
rature, embodying the survivals of a primitive society. 

The Bibliography of Thackeray. A Bibliographical List, 
arranged in Chronological Order, of the Published 
Writings in Prose and Verse and the Sketches and 
Drawings of William Makepeace Thackeray (from 
1829 to 1880). (Elliot Stock.) 

THE lengthy title-page of this handsome book, to the 
preface of which the name of Mr. R. H. Shepherd is 
appended, sufficiently describes the first part of its 
contents, which begins with the Cambridge Snob of 1829 
and ends with the University etchings published by 
Sotheran & Co. in 1878. To this succeeds a short section 
entitled " Thackerayana." Those who know the steady 
patience and conscientious inquiry entailed by such 
undertakings will not under-estimate the value of Mr. 
Shepherd's labours. Much that he has painfully col- 
lected here, especially with regard to the Punch and 
Fraser periods, will probably be new to the lovers of 
Thackeray, and should earn him their genuine gratitude. 
Having said so much, we may safely make such minor 
suggestions as ' occur to us. It should, we think, be 
added that the original sketches for Jerrold's Men of Cha- 
racter are now in the Forster collection at South Ken- 
sington, and the pleasant legend recorded in the notes 
to Locker's London Lyrics respecting The Rose and the 
Ring might fitly find a place under that title. The 
"Thackerayana" (as Mr. Shepherd admits) are by no 
means exhaustive. No reference is made to Mr. Nassau 
W. Senior's excellent article in the Edinburgh of 1854, 
or to Taine's remarkable study in the Histoire de la 
Litterature Anglaise, 1864, vol. iv. pp. 71-149, a paper of 
infinitely more authority and importance than one or two 
others that are here carefully chronicled. There are also 
articles in the Revue des Deux Mondes, the Home and 
Foreign Review, the Edinburgh again, and Temple Bar, 
which are well worth recording. If fuller details of 
these are desired by Mr. Shepherd, we shall be happy 
to supply them. 



[6 S. III. FEB. 5, '81. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Genealogical Notes. Reprinted 
from the Leigh Chronicle. Edited by Josiah Hose. 
Vol. I. (Leigh, Chronicle Office.) 

THE present reprint is one of the outcomes of the atten- 
tion which has of late years been given to the study of 
local antiquities, the popularization of which by the aid 
of newspapers was due, we believe, to Dr. Kendrick of 
Warrington, a diligent investigator into the history of 
his own neighbourhood. Leigh is a market town and 
parish in the hundred of West Derby ; and of the 
numerous places of that name in England this of 
Lancashire is the only place where the old pronunciation 
of the name by the natives approaches that peculiar 
guttural sound which is an indication of their descent 
from a pure Teutonic stock. The sound of the ancient 
appellation is still to be detected in the old orthographies 
of the name. In the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas, 1291, it 
is called Leithe, and subsequently Lethe, L*gth, Leyht. 
In the Inquisitio Nonarum, 1341, it is spelled Leeyh; 
and later forms were Ley, Legh, and Leigh. Nearly all 
the early references to the place centre round the 
church, the advowson of which was in the hands of the 
De Westleighs and Urmestons. The registers, which 
begin in 1560, are being reprinted by the present vicar. 
The modern development of the town dates from the 
introduction of canals. The manufacturing enterprise of 
the county itself derived considerable impetus from the 
ingenuity of Thomas Highs, a reed-maker of Leigh, who 
in 1764 is said to have constructed the first spinning 
jenny, and in 1767 to have invented the water frame, 
afterwards improved and more extensively introduced 
by Sir Richard Arkwright, the quondam Lancashire 

In addition to many church notes the volume before 
us contains numerous abstracts of local deeds, lists of 
Lancashire sheriffs and Members of Parliament, and the 
accounts of the Lancashire registers from the Blue-Book 
of 1831. Not a little space is devoted to scraps of town 
lore. We peruse with much pleasure the appraisers' 
inventory of the books of Miles Standish, of the Lanca- 
shire family of that name (p. 129), from which it is seen 
that the American poet had good authority for the 
selection of the three prominent books : 

" Bariffe's Artillery Guide, and the Commentaries of 

Out of the Latin translated by Arthur Goldinge of 

And, as if guarded by these, between them was stand- 
ing the Bible." 

A singular case of cursing in Leigh Church by bell, book, 
and candle in 1474 is described at p. 149. In the account 
of William Ryley, Lancaster Herald, Milton's inter- 
course with that person is referred to (p. 249). It 
appears that the depositions quoted by Froude (Hist. 
Eng., i. 468-9, ed. 1872) were taken at Ley (i.e. Leigh) 
in 1533, and that it was a vicar of Leigh who gave 
evidence against a "naughty" brother for slanderous 
words about the new Queen Anne (p. 99) : " And Sr. 
Richard Clerke vyker of Leegh deposith & saith that the 
xx day of July last past he rede a proclamacion at 
Croston in the Howse of John Blakestons concerning 
Lady Katharin Princess-dowager, whiche Sr. Jamys 
Harrison priest hering the said proclamacion said that 
Quene Katharyn was Quene,. And that Nan Bullen shuld 
not be Quene, nor the King to be no King but on his 
bering." The last word, it is noticeable, is printed 
bearing by Froude, and lerying (as if burying] by others ; 
but it seems to be the Anglo-Saxon word for behaviour. 
The chief family names of the parish of Leigh are 
Atherton, Bradshaw, Culcteth, Hindley, Holcroft, 
Mather, Harkie, Tyldesley, Willoughby, concerning 

whom we have here much information, made readily 
available by an excellent index. 

Das Magazin (Leipzig, Wilhelm Friedrich), under the 
editorship of Eduard Engel, entered upon the jubilee 
year of its existence with the number for Jan. 1, 1881. 
Founded by Joseph Lehmann, under the inspiration, as 
we are told by Berthold Auerbach. of the two cardinal 
ideas, " humanity and universal literature," this well- 
known organ of culture remains true to the key-note 
struck at its foundation. The names of Auerbach, Paul 
Heyse, Felix Dahn, and others among the contributors 
for 1881 , guarantee the maintenance of its old reputation. 
Italy, England, and France, as the subject-matter of some 
of the principal articles, mark the cecumrnicity of the 
field of thought opened to its readers. We do not doubt 
that the jubilee year will be one of successes to Das 

Modern Thought for January contains the first instal- 
ment of Dr. Eduard von Hartmann's series of articles on 
" Religious Development in India." The account there 
given of Brahmanic Acosmism and of the development 
by the Hindoo mind of an objective into a subjective- 
Monism contains some very hard reading. So far as we 
can yet judge, Dr. von Hartmann's view of Brahmanism 
is a considerably higher one than that usually taken. 

AMONG Messrs. Longmans' announcements are : The 
Historical Geography of Europe, by Edward A. Free- 
man, D.C.L , LL.D., A Cabinet Edition of Mr. J. A. 
Froude's The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth 
Century, History of Ancient Egypt, by Prof. Rawlin- 
son, English Authors; specimens of English Poetry and 
Prose from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, with 
references throughout to the fourth edition of his 
Manual of English Literature, by Thomas Arnold, 
Biographical Studies, by the late Walter Bagehot, 
M.A., Greek and Roman Sculpture, by Walter C. 
Perry, Vol. III. of Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca 

MR. R. C. HOPE has in preparation A Collection of 
A ncient Carols, previous to the Eighteenth Century, with 
Accompanying Tunes. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

R. S. B. (Dublin). The person referred to is Aaron 
Hill. Vide Carruthers's Life of Pope, second edit., 1857, 
p. 283. 

A. F. ("Betwixt the stirrup and the ground"). See 
"N. &Q.,"4thS. viii. 559. 

E. M. ("The Tears of the Cruets "). You will find 
the text of the above in " N. & Q.," 4* S. viii. 300. 

INQUIRER. The Indexes to the First, Second, and 
Third Series of " N. & Q." are out of print, but those for 
the Fourth and Fifth Series may be had on application 
to the Publisher. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements ard 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to thia rule we can make no exception. 

6*s. in. FEB. 12, 





:KOTES : Llturgia Anglicana : Latin Common Prayer, 
S P. O.K. Records of the Baptists of Cork, 121 Brasses in 
Loughborough Church, 123 -An Afghan War Dinner Menu 
Cure of Disease by Metastasis Peterborough Cathedral 
Library, 124 " Commentarie on Titus " Stonehenge : 
Cor Gawr Quaint Epitaph at Yazor Literary Compliments 
A. W. Elmore, R.A. French Pronunciation "Elgin- 
brod"=Awlbore, 125 Longevity A Wren's Nest in 
January, 126. 

O.UER1ES : Letters of Dr. Johnson : Charles Congreve 
Swimming "Charnico" Old Caricatures "Married by 
the Clog and Shoe" "Never out of the Fleshe," &c. 
Arms on a Book-plate, 126 An Enlightened Bishop Roman 
Inscription A Hell Fire Club " Letters from England " 
" Rawdon Papers " " Lady Lift Clump " Nevin " To 
Rule the Roast "Bacon's Ideas as to Heat, 127 Foreign 
Descriptions of England The Ten Tribes "Head" and 
" Type " Cowley and Sprat Naval Tactics Charles II. 's 
Hunting Box Authors Wanted, 123. 

HE PLIES : Darvell Gadarn, 128 Arms of the See of York, 
129 Sorts of Ales Book-plates, 130 -Flamingo, 131 Ger- 
many, why so called " Give Grass," 132 Salamanders in 
Armorial Bearings Crows and Fir Cones Obituary Verses 
"Miser" St. Mary's, Dover, 133-F. Mosley A. Twy- 
man St. Godwald "Sprayed" Historic Doubts on the 
Life and Reign of Richard III., 134-Luiz de Camoens 
Lincoln Cathedral Bells Mummy Wheat Lyne Family, 135 
Hogarth's Residence in Cirencester Books published by 
Subscription Manslaughter=Man's laughter What is a 
Mountain? 136 Ancient Portraits "Commentary vpon 
Du Bartas,' 137 "Cock Robin " a Substitute for "Robert"? 
Mrs. Windimore Authors Wanted, 13S. 

^"OTES ON BOOKS : Croft's Elyot's " Gouernour " Tenny- 
pon Turner's "Collected Sonnets " Delaborde's " Chartes 
de 1'Abbaye de N.D. de Josapbat" Chambers s "Threip- 
lands of Fingask," &c. 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


In the interest of literature, if from no higher 
motive, I venture to note the little Latin Prayer 
now on sale at the depot of the Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge as a book of false 

It has no Proper Lesson nor Psalm Table, no 
'Tables of any kind, no Calendar, no " Order for 
Morning and Evening Prayer daily to be said and 
used throughout the year," that is, no " Ornaments 
Rubric " whatever. 

These are among the book's sins of omission ; 
its sins of commission are many and great. 

Take the Collects of Morning and Evening 
Prayer with those for Sundays, Holy-days, At, and 
After, Communion. Sixty-four of these, translated 
^frorn the Latin of Sarum into the Book of Common 
Prayer, are here rendered back from the English 
into a Latin which is not that of Sarurn nor of the 
English Church at all, but of the translator only ; 
while that of the Versicles, the Litany, and several 
other collects is more or less gratuitously tampered 
with. Only four come within the scope of fair 
and honest treatment, and even they are meddled 
<with needlessly. 

I have not taken into account the prayers in the 
Occasional Offices, as they are called, though they 
offer as great a divergence from their Latin 
originals in the old English Manual as do the 
Daily Collects from those of the Portiforium and 
Missal. This, in a book so issued, ought not to 
be. W. J. B. 


(Concluded from, p. 43.) 
''Chapter IV. Concerning the Methodists. 

" About 1746 one Williams came here from Dublin ; at 
his first landing in this kingdom he dll not bear any 
commission from John Wesley, yet from his success in 
Dublin this gentleman was so far induced to become his 
patron, that he directed Mr. Swindel to accompany him, 
and 'tis certain that in this city he was accounted a 
Methodist preacher; his delivery was very popular. 
Their novelty of preaching in the fields and seeming 
zeal gained them a multitude of hearers; this gave 
umbrage to the magistrates ; besides there was some 
reason to think that the working people were interrupted 
from their labour, and while they ran after such 
preachers, their families at home were left destitute. 
But the more they were persecuted the m> re they in- 
creased. A few instances of their behaviour to the 
Baptists shall suffice : 

"Mrs. Mary Francis, who continued her communion 
with us to the last, died Oct. 18, 1749. The Methodists 
had possession of the body, and would reply to no 
messages, tho' brother John Austin wrote, and six mem- 
bers proposed to attend the funeral and hold up the pall ; 
however, as she was to be buried in the Baptist grave- 
yard, Mr. Gibbons had notice of the funeral, attended 
the corpse to the grave, where he gave a rhort discourse, 
as usual; a large company of Methodists attended with a 
mob, who threw stones and beat one or two women. 

"Mrs. Wilson, after baptism, July 28, 1749, on her 
return home was hated by her husband, a zealous 

"Mrs. Bentley requested Mr. Charles Wesley, of whom 
she had a high opinion, to be the administrator, to which 
he consented, being of opinion, as he said, th>it it looked 
more like primitive practice to perform it in a river than 
in a baptistry, and desired Mr. Gibbons to go with him 
to look out for a convenient place, which they found 
about a mile beyond Carrigrohan. Mr. Wesley, however, 
left Cork without having performed the ceremony." 

At this time the Methodists seem to have com- 
pletely absorbed the Baptists in Cork. 

"A list of members in Cork under Rev. Ebenezer 
Gibbons, Oct. 26, 1757. [Men, 44; women, 26; names, 
&c., given.], 

"March 14, 1758. John, second son of Freeman, 
Rogers, of Bally- Navin, co. Tipperary, E?q., departed ; his 
mother was eldest daughter and heiress to the late John 
Falkiner, of Dublin, Esq.; he served his apprtnticeship to 
Riggs Falkiner, of Cork. Funeral sermon preached by 
Mr. Gibbons. 

"June 4, 1758. Mrs. Lucy Rose, daughter of Mr. 
George Woods, departed ; she lived with her daughter at 
Bailinhassig, co. Cork, and was past ninety years. 
Funeral sermon by Rev. Morgan Edwards. 

" June, 1758. A general meeting at Waterford ; minis- 
ters attending, Mr. James North, Mr. William Bolton, Mr. 
Morgan Edwards ; principal business, ordination of Mr 
Philips to be their pastor." 

Here follows a letter from the Church of Cork. 



[6th g. in. FEB . 12, '81. 

" June, 1759. The association was held in Dublin; 
ministers attending, Daniel Mum, William Bolton, 
Samuel Edwards, James North, Philips, and Morgan 
Edwards, who was dismissed from Cork for decline of mem- 
bers, ascribed to his heavy preaching. It happened Mr. 
John Knight visited Cork, invited on trial by the Presby- 
terians, who had but one pastor since the death of Mr. 
Bryan. Not knowing he was a Baptist his preaching 
was generally acceptable to that people; he was strongly 
recommended by Mr. Eliaz Edwards, of London. Ob- 
jecting to the smallness of 501. yearly, he accepted QOL, 
and arrived here Nov. 30, 1759. 

"April 12, 1760. Elinor, wife of John Rogers, clothier, 
was interred in the Baptist burying-ground. Funeral 
sermon preached by Mr. Gibbons. 

"May 11. Miles Crowley, a youth about twenty years, 
baptized by Mr. Knight, who preached. He was son of a 
farmer, and nephew to Rev. Mr. Crowley, P.P., near 
Bandon ; he was educated at Poitiers, in France, for the 
priesthood, where his family had a right to send two 
from an ancient donation, but the air of the place prov- 
ing prejudicial to his health, he was removed, by the 
advice of physicians, to Bordeaux, when he got acquainted 
with some French Huguenots. On his return to Ireland 
having a difference with his uncle he supported him- 
self by teaching French in Bandon. He came to Cork 
in great distre?s, and meeting Mr. Knight in the Baptists 
graveyard, he persuaded him to join their body. 

" Friday, May 23, 1760. A general association of the 
Baptists at Cloughkeaton, in Lower Ormond ; messengers 
from Cork, Rev. John Knight, Stephen Mills, and Joseph 

" July 8. Dr. John Devereaux, baptized. 

"June 17. Mary, wife of James Reins, clothier, and 
daughter of James Mayberry, Waterford, and Mary, 
only child of Mr. Joshua Harman, clothier, baptized. 

"July 20, 1761. Thomas Harman, apprenticed to 
John H , baptized. 

"July 31. Matthew Mason, aged forty, buried in the 
Baptist ground, close to E. wall, near the middle, son 
of Rev. Giles, member of the church of Swift's Alley, 
Dublin. About two years ago he came to Cork as book- 
keeper to Mr. Rigsrs Falkiner. 

"August 17. Mr. Thomas Barrett, hosier, baptized. 

" Jan. 24, 1761. Mr. John Allen, deacon, deceased, 
buried 26th, near Mr. Falkiner's tomb. Feb. 1, his funeral 
sermon preached by Mr. Gibbons, Heb. iv. 12. He was 
born in the West of England ; his brother Francis in- 
herits his fortune ; he left 100Z. to the use of the church. 

"Jan. 7, 1761. Frances Francis, buried in the 
Baptist ground, aged seventy-four. Her father was a 
clergyman of the Church of England ; she left three sons. 

"Feb. 19, ] 761. Elinor Packer departed, aged eighty- 
eight ; buried in the Baptist ground. 

"April 19. Miles Crowley, who had 51. yearly from 
the education fund, lodging and diet gratis, and eight 
scholars at 405. each per quarter, was 201. in debt, and 
bound for 10/., for which he was put in prison. He 
enlisted in the army to secure himself, but is now re- 
leased and sent to his regiment." 

Here follows a lamentation and warning about 
putting trust in converts. 

"June 7, 1761. Mr. Knight was charged with certain 
misdemeanours, and June 14th it was resolved that it 
was inconsistent with the honour of this Christian 
Church to admit Mr. Knight to preach till he clears 
himself. Mr. Knight replies that he declines being 
determined by the church, and that hia connexion is 

"June 28, 1761." 

Here follow several pages relative to the charges 

against Mr. Knight, his complicity with Miles 
Crowley, and departure from Cork. 

" May 28, 1762. The elders and brethren chose Mr. 
James North to be moderator. 

"June 5, 1762. Sarah Reins departed (honest but 

"June 6th. Ann Fowke,* sen., departed, aged seventy- 
one ; widow of Rev. Samuel Fowke ; daughter of James 
Geale, co. Kilkenny; grand-daughter, by mother's side,, 
of Col. Lawrance, one of Cromwell's officers. 

"Feb. 29, 1764. Rev. Ebenezer Gibbons departed. 
He was born in London, 1699 ; came to Ireland at four- 
teen years of age, recommended by Mr. Noble ; educated 
in Dublin under Mr. Patrick Fenton ; at an early ag& 
assisted the Rev. Abdiel Edwards, Swift's Alley, Dublin ; 
supplied the congregation of Rahue, co. Westmeath ; in 
1729 invited to Cork. His body lies interred in the 
Baptist burying-ground, near the corner of the north- 
west wall. He never married. On his demise, the Rev. 
James North was approved of, though others mentioned? 
Mr. Needham, of Bristol, who declined the invitation. 

"April 8, 1764. Stephen Mills wrote to Mrs. Mary 
Wilkinson, of London, who recommended Mr. Walter 
Richards, referring to Rev. Mr. Stennett for a 
character, who approved of Mr. Walter Richards ; he- 
was invited to Cork. Mr. Mills enclosing a draft on Mr. 
George Wilkinson for ten guineas expenses, he arrived in 
Cork August 11, 1764. 

"Oct. 28, 1764. Samuel Coe, and month following 
Susanna, his relict ; both interred in the Baptist burying- 

" March 24, 1765. Daniel Jones, James Emerson, and! 
Noah Francis, baptized September 14. Thomas Jones, 
brother of above Daniel, baptized. 

" December 7. Susanna, wife of Joshua Harman, an 
eminent clothier, departed. She left a daughter, married 
to Mr. Thomas Hoskin. 

" November 10. Sarah, daughter of John Rogers, 

"June 15, 1766. Mrs. Duggan and Hannah, her 
daughter, baptized. 

"November. William, son of Joshua Nunn, and' 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Emerson, baptized. 

" Jan. 17, 1768. Mr. S. Mills received a letter from 
Mr. Samuel Weymouth, of Exeter, relating to Mr. John. 
Knight, now a prisoner in Coventry gaol, accused of" 
scandalous offences. Answer : they never gave a testi- 
monial to Mr. Knight, and enclosing some letters from 
Miles Crowley. Signed : Stephen Mills, J. Fowke, Tho. 
Cassey, Tho. Trayer, Fran. Tidd, John Austin, F. Francis,. 
John Osburn, Stephen Sikes, John Thompson Rogers. 
Present, Walter Richards, pastor. 

"Jan. 29, 1769. Frances, daughter of Thomas Pilsorv 
and Susanna, his wife, baptized. 

"May 20, 1770. John Devereaux, M.D., departed. 

"June 6. Stephen, son of Thomas Mills, banker, of 
Cork, and Hannah, now married to Rev. James North, 
departed, aged fourty-one. He married Mary, daughter 
of Francis Taylor, and left by her two sons, Thomas and 
Stephen, and two daughters, Hannah and Mary. He 
was partner with Riggs Falkiner, Esq. Funeral sermon 
preached from Eccles. ix. 10. His eldest son died in 
Bristol, 1771, and is buried with his father. 

"Jan. 10, 1771. Mrs. Frances North, daughter of" 
Susanna Pilson, wife of Eli North, departed, aged nine- 
teen. Funeral sermon from Job xiv. 2. 

" Jan. 20. John, son of Michael Lewis, of Inch, near 
Kilkenny, by Mary, daughter of Col. Minchin, departed, 

* Anne Fowke. A diary kept by this lady is in the- 
possession of the writer. 

6th s. III. FEB. 12, '81.] 



aged twenty-six. He was a partner with Thomas Jones, 
ol this city. 

" March 24. George Young, jun., bred a Presbyterian, 

"May 11. Susanna Pilson departed, aged sixty-five. 
She left three children : John Osborn, Daniel Jones, and 
Thomas Jones. Funeral sermon by Rev. Mr. Richards. 

" Sep. 30, 1772. Mrs. Ruth Ellis departed." 

employed in speaking to various themes, chosen by 
themselves. The pastor, after examining them, gave a 
lecture on each. 1798, lectures were given on the 
British constitution, ontology, the corruption of Chris- 
tianity, &c. These lectures were well attended by 
persons of different religious denominations, in number 
about forty." 

This register contains notices of all events that 

Members of the Baptist church, Cork, 1774 : took place in the community ; such as accounts of 

.men, 34 ; women, 24. 

"April 2, 1775. Whereas the wall of the burying- 
ground belonging to this church is in a ruinous condition; 

the meetings of the body, names of those who 
attended, lengthy abstracts of funeral sermons, 
notices of unworthy members. There is now no 

for preserving same Resolved, that no person shall in regular Baptist congregation in Cork, the remain- 

"S ?". havio,, attached themselves to other 

for opening the ground : For every member, 2. 8d. religious sects. The chapel with its baptistry is 
For husbands, wires, children, &c., deemed nominal occupied from time to time by different Christian 

Baptists, 2s. 8d. For relations who may be desired to 
be buried in said ground, with the consent of the church, 
5s. 5d. Poor members to be buried gratis. 

"June 2. An association in Dublin. Pastor Richards 
and Deacon Fowke attended from Cork, who carried a 
letter to observe the last Friday in July as a day of fast- 
ing and prayer for the distressed state of our brethren 

denominations for religious meetings. 

K. C. 



LEICESTER. Since the restoration of this grand 
old church in 1864, the few remaining brasses 

oo , have been fixed to tiie sout h wal1 of th tower. 

"July 23. The church met, and after mature dehbe- mi a f u 

ration it was resolved, that in the present state of public inv are as 1 
affairs it would be highly imprudent to observe such a 1. On the upper side is a greatly worn and 
day, as our enemies might misrepresent it as abetting almost illegible inscription, in three lines, to Giles 
*he Americans, whom the Government deem rebels and J or dan and Margaret his wife, 1455 not 1415, 

*" -^ Nichols. In 1803 Nu.hols give, 
reading : "Here lieth Giles Jordan ...... and 

Marg'et his wife under this stone, late fischmong* 
of Londo' fundour ap ...... " The centre part of 

reasons for non-observance. 

"April 24, 1777. Noah, son of Joseph Francis and 
Mary Packer, departed. 

"Jan. 25, 1779.-Eliza, wife of Henry Warril, and 

March 7.-Joseph Francis departed. 

his figure, and the whole of hers remain. Burton, 
j 1 fi. *" arms: Quarter.y, Argent, 
three mullets gules ; and Sable, a chevron or be- 
" May 25, 1780. Joseph, son of Rev. Samuel Fowke, tween three garbs argent ; but they were gone in 

pastor of the church of Waterford, by Anne, daughter 1803. 

of Joseph Geale, Esq , co. Kilkenny, departed, aged Qn the back of the above inscription is this to 

sixty-seven years. He married Anne Hendnck. He 

accepted an invitation from his brother Laurence, a 

merchant in Lisbon. He published an account of the 

" Orate p' aiabua Elizabeth lisle nup fihe Joh is 


great earthquake in 1755, when he was in England, Cerff vni e Rememorator de Sccio Regis He'rici Sexti j 

from a letter he received from his brother. In 1765 Otuelis lisle filij et Joh'ne filie d'ce Elizabeth q e obier'nt 

ie succeeded to Laurence's fortune, and assigned his t'mino s'ci Hillarij Anno XVII . ejusdem Regis.' 1 

business to his two elder sons, devoting his time to his p roDa bly this contained some error, and so the 

wL used by the founder for another cus- 

made. He was always thin in flesh, so that he was tomer. Giles Jordan's tomb formerly stood near 

active, and could bear fatigue a few days before his the old vestry door, in the south transept. I 

death much better than many who were not half his mu ch wish that some experienced person would 

.age. His hair, before it was silvered by time, was dark; 
his complexion fair, or, rather, a kind of fair sallow ; his 
eyes grey ; and his whole countenance composed of 
gravity and thoughtfulness. He was the originator of a 
fund for a free debating society, of which he was the 
principal speaker. 

Members in Cork, 1780 : men, 74 ; women, 32. 

uTelemlts 1 o1' 

geography, lectures on the seasons, &c. In 1793 lectures 
on astronomy were given. 1794-5, a compendium of 
ethics was committed to memory ; lectures on vegeta- 

geometry was drawn 
animated nature, &c 

try and decipher the worn inscription. 

2. An inscription in two lines to Thomas Mar- 
chall, as follows : 

" Hie jacent Thomas Marchall marchand de loght- 
borht & agnes ux' ejus qui quid' | Thomas obiit XXXI . 
die mens' Julij a'no d'ni MCCCCLXXX quor' aia'ba 
,' deus." 

are two figures, and two groups of children, 
brass was formerly at the upper end of the 
nave, in a cross aisle facing the south. 

3. The fragment of an inscription to Robert 
^ Fry, rector of Loughborough, and deputy keeper 

n "up. 'Bio g raph7riecture7 on I of the king's privy seal, 1435: " cessionem 

. 1797, the young people were gloriose j virginis marie p'piciet' deus. AmeV 1 



[6th s. HI. FEB. 12, 81. 

Below, on a second oblong plate, are these 

lines : 

" Nomine Frye dictus subtus jacet ecce Robertas 
Puluere constructus, quondam dictamine certus 
Priuati fuit is subcustos nempe sigilli 
Lughtburgi Rector, paradisum det deus illi." 

This brass was formerly on the south side of the 
chancel. Kalph Sheldon, in his church notes 
(Bibl. BodL, A. Wood MS., C. 11. 8550), gives 
this fuller inscription : 

"+ Hie jacet D'ns Robertus Frye quondam rector 

istius ecclesiae qui quidem Robertua obijt 1435, cujus 

aise p' intercessionem," &c., as above. 

His figure was gone before 1790, and a portion of 
Sheldon's inscription ; another portion has dis- 
appeared since 1866. 

4. The matrix alone remains of a handsome 
brass, which formerly lay near the entrance to the 
chancel, to Kobert Lemington, merchant of the 
staple, and his wife, 1512, but not a fragment of 
the brass remains. In 1790 a portion of the 
canopy was in existence, also a shield of the 
merchants of the staple ; in 1622 there was 
another shield of the arms of Lemington. 

In 1790 there was an inscription to William 
Goodwine, Iu92, which may be found in Nichols. 
Also a tomb to Gilbert Mering, 1481. But there 
is now no trace of either. 



fare of a dinner given to Major-General Sir 
Frederick Roberts, on his return from Afghanistan, 
seems to me ingeniously worded, and worthy of 
a place in " N. & Q." : ' 

Diner du 20 Octobre. 

Pot ages. 

Consomme au soldat victorious-. 
Puree & la Kurrum. 

Hors d'CEuvres. 
Petites Bombes a la Peiwar Kotal, sauce Goorkha. 


Mouton roti 1' Afghan. 
Poules de Charasiab a la blanc. 


Le Hachis de Sherpur a la Mahomed Jars. 
Galantine a la General Roberts. 
Cotelettes sans culottes a la quatre-vingt-douze, 


Faisans et Perdreaux rotis a la Ayoub. 
Asperges en branches. 

Pudding de Marza. 
Pains de Kandahar a la Ghazi blanc. 
Officiers Russes en paille." 

H. A. ST. J. M. 

a story told of an American physician who, sum- 
moned to visit a variolous child, frankly admitted 

that he was "not posted up in pustules." He- 
was, nevertheless, equal to the occasion. "Give 
the little cuss," said he, " some of this ar powder ;. 
I reckon it '11 throw him into convulsions. When 
he 's in 'em you '11 send for me I 'm a stunner at 
fits ! " The medical attendants of Louis XI. had 
possibly found themselves in a similar predica- 
ment, as may be inferred from certain letters, in 
the monarch's handwriting, said to be preserved 
at Bruges, in the Collegiate Church of our Lady 
of Sales. They are addressed to the prior, and 
the first runs as follows : 

" Maitre Pierre, mon ami, je vous prie, comme je puis, 
que priez incessamment Dieu et Notre Dame de Sales, que- 
leur plaisir soit de m'envoyer la fievre quarte, car j'ai 
une maladie, dont les physiciens disent, que je ne puis- 
guerir sans 1'avoir; et quand je 1'aurai, je vous le ferai 
savoir incontinent. Fait a Tours le 6 Decembre. 


The prayer of faith appears to have had the ex- 
pected effect of the American's powder, for a few 
months later the king wrote once more to Maitre 
Pierre : 

<{ Monsieur le Prieur, je vous prie quo veuilliez encore 
prier de nouveau Notre Dame de Sales pour moi, qu'elle 
me donne guerison parfaite. Au surplus, ecrivez moi, 
combien il faut d'argent pour faire un beau treillia 
devant Notre Dame. Ecrit & Paris le 6 Avril." 

It may interest the reader to learn that, ac- 
cording to my authority (Selections from the most 
Celebrated Foreign Literary Journals and other 
Periodical Publications, London, 1798, 2 vols. 
8vo.), the king, when cured, did not neglect to 
pay his sostrum to his kind intermediatrix, " our 
dear Lady of Sales." The silver grating was made, 
and remained in the church till the year 1562, 
when it was " carried off" by the Huguenots. 



haps it may not be known to some of your readers 
that this library contains some exceedingly precious 
specimens of Elizabethan literature. 

I saw there Greene's Groatsworth of Wit and 
Meres's Wit's Treasury, so well known to Shak- 
sperian students ; Sir David Lindsay's poems, a 
book of great price ; and Euphues' Shadow, also, I 
believe, very rare. There is an early copy of 
Chaucer, with very incorrect spelling, and many 
other works which I had not time to inspect. I 
believe this collection was made by Bp. White 
Kennet, the celebrated antiquary. 

The value of this library appears to have been 
unknown to the cathedral body till quite lately. 
It is kept in a cold room over the porch, but is, T 
understand, shortly to be moved to more suitable 
quarters. F. B. B. 

[We hope some good friend will enable us to add a 
paper on the library of Peterborough Cathedral to the- 
series now appearing in these columns.]; 

. III. FEB. 12, '81.] 




T. TAYLOR. The following two curious passages 
are from this work : 

" For let a man read and stvdie all his dales, all Arts 
and Sciences; let him bee exquisite in tongues, lan- 
guages, and all commendable literature, (which are 
things excellent), yet let him neglect this knowledge 
which beareth the bell in making men wise vnto Saluation, 
such an one can neuer haue his heart framed vnto God- 
liness." P. 22. 

" And how Pavl was extraordinarily pressed into this 
field, euen against his heart, and (as we say) the haire, 
appeareth in that he must bee beaten downe to the 
ground, strucke starke blinde, eat and drink nothing in 
three daies, that of an extraordinary waster of the 
Church he might become an extraordinary chosen uessel 
to pvblish the doctrine he had persecvted." P. 51. 

F. A. ToLE. 

STONEHENGE : COR GAWR. The Welsh name 
for Stonehenge is Cor Gawr, the Circle of the 
Giants. Cp. Higden (Rolls ed., No. 41) : " Uther 
Pendragon ope Merlini vatis adduxit de Hibernia 
Coream Gigantum quoe nunc in planis Sarum 
Stanhenges dicitur" (vol. v. p. 312). "Arturus 
sepultus est juxta fratrem suum Aurelium in Corea 
Gigantum " (p. 314). A. L. MAYHEW. 

The following epitaph is stated, in a magazine 
published in 1785, to have been " copied literally 
from an old tombstone in Yazor churchyard" 
(? near Bristol). Does this epitaph still exist 1 

" Neare to this Place 
Interrd are laid five 
little and one larger 
Maid who lived Sweet 
Babes but little Space 
But Martha lived seaven 
Years at least thrice happy 
They to die so soun for had 
They lived its ten to one what 
others do they would have 
done their names in verse I 
cant compose therefore Ive 
put them down in Prose 
Lucy Mary Suky Sarah 
Elizabeth and Martha 
the Children of Thomas 
Watkins & Sibil his Wife 
of this Parish of Yazor." 

J. P. E. 

Descartes, pp. 78-9, there is an interesting account 
of enthusiastic disciples of the philosopher. An 
English translator, William Molyneux, in his 
preface to the Meditations, says that the work of 
creation as recorded in Genesis is the only worthy 
parallel he can find to the wonderful achievement 
of Descartes. " At last," he says, after duly re- 
cording the preliminary steps " At last by a six 
Days Labour he establishes the Fair Fabrick (as I 
may call it) of the Intellectual World on founda- 
tions that shall never be shaken. Then sitting 
down with rest and satisfaction he looks upon this 

his Off- spring, and Pronounces it Good" Reneri, 
an early and warm adherent, wrote to Mersenne, 
" Is est rnea lux, meus sol ; ille mihi semper 
Deus." A recent parallel to this is in Mr. Swin- 
burne's enthusiastic tribute to Mazzini in Studies 
in Song, where the Italian is spoken of as 
" God only, being of all mankind 
Most manlike "; 

as being great " as very Christ," and as 

" God, clothed upon with human hours." 
The parallelism is curious, and comment is un- 
necessary. THOMAS BAYNE. 

A. W. ELMORE, R.A. There are several ex- 
hibits by A. W. Elmore, whom I take to be the 
same artist as the late Academician. The fol- 
lowing are the numbers of pictures exhibited by 
him: Royal Academy, 1834-80 (72 works); 
British Institution, 1835-45 (10 works); Suffolk 
Street, 1836-77 (9 works). His largest pictures 
seem to be " Christ crowned with Thorns" (1838), 
9ft. by 6ft., and "Christ Crucified" (1839), 
10ft. Sin. by 7ft. (both at the British Institution). 
He sent one picture to the British Institution after 
he was A.R.A., and one to Suffolk Street (summer 
exhibitions) after he was R.A. 

If any of your readers know A. W. Elmore not 
to be the Academician, I should be glad of the 
information. He lived at the following places : 
1835-7, No. 9, New Cavendish Street ; 1838, 
No. 36, Rowland Street ; 1839-43, No. 7, Cleve- 
land Street; 1843-7, No. 19, Charles Street, 
Middlesex Hospital ; 1848-56, No. 31, Devon- 
shire Street ; 1858-80, No. 1, St. Albans Road, 

FRENCH PRONUNCIATION. I do not remember 
to have seen in any French grammar a list of those 
words in which well-educated Frenchmen fre- 
quently pronounce the final consonant. I allude 
to such words as vis, tourneirs, fils (sing, and 
plural), tour, sue, Us, &c. The list would not be 
a long one, and if some person competent to do it 
would give one in "N. & Q.," it would be very 
useful to many foreigners. RALPH N. JAMES. 

Ashford, Kent. 

"ELQINBROD"=AWLBORE. Those (and their 
name must be legion) who have read George Mac 
Donald's novel, David Elginbrod, will remember 
the learned disquisition of the tutor, Hugh Suther- 
land, on the etymology of the name Elginbrod. 
The word is shown to have been corrupted from 
Elsinbrod, and it is further shown that the name 
in that form would go far to prove that the first 
who bore it was a disciple of St. Crispin. The 
disquisition ends with the translation of the term 
into the English Awlbore. The reader acquainted 
only with classical English will no doubt be power- 
fully impressed, as it is probably meant he should 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [e* s. in. FEB. 12, '8i. 

be, by the seemingly great difference between the 
English term and its Lowland Scotch equivalent. 
I cannot speak of the dialects south of the Humber, 
but I think it worthy of note that in Yorkshire an 
awl is still called an elsin both terms are in fact 
in use an elsin signifying a small awl. It is still 
common to use the verb to brod, meaning to bore, 
or more especially to prick sharply. 


and Corners of English Life, second edit., p. 295, 
this sentence occurs : " In this year, 1 856, Mr. Sidney 
Gibson, F.S.A., showed, as above, that a person 
living in 1786 conversed with a man that fought 
at Flodden Field" (1513). The two most im- 
portant factors in proof of the above statement 
are that a certain Henry Jenkins died cet. 169 and 
a certain Peter Garden at the age of 127. I am 
not aware whether this statement has ever been 
challenged ; but it would be of extreme interest 
to the antiquary and to the medical profession 
could the proofs of two such long tenures of life be 
verified. W. L. KING. 

Watlington, Norfolk. 

month ago (Jan. 13) was found, not far from here, 
a wren's nest, containing seven recently laid eggs. 
It would be interesting to know if a similar take 
in January is anywhere else on record. The 
weather had for some time been most unusually 

Queemvood College, near Stockbridge, Hants. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix tlieir 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

GREVE. I have eight original letters of Dr. John- 
son to his friend Mr. Hector, for whom he seems 
to have had a great regard. Amongst other 
characteristic passages occurs the following. Is 
anything particular known about the Charles Con- 
greve mentioned ] 

" Our schoolfellow Charles Congreve is still in town, 
but very dull, very valetudinary, and very [word illegible], 
willing, I am afraid, to forget the world, and content to 
be forgotten by it, to repose in that sullen sensuality, 
into which men generally sink, who think disease a 
justification of indulgence, and converse only with those 
who hope to prosper by indulging them. This is a 
species of Beings with which your profession must have 
made you much acquainted and to which I hope 
acquaintance has made you no Friend. Infirmity will 
come but let us not invite it; indulgence will allure us, 
but let us turn resolutely away. Time cannot be always 
defeated, but let us not yield until we are conquered." 

H. P. 

SWIMMING. Lord Macaulay, in his essay on 
Milton, has the following : 

' Many politicians of our time are in the habit of 
laying it down as a self-evident proposition that no 
people ought to be free till they are fit to use their free- 
dom ; the maxim is worthy of the fool in the old story, 
who resolved not to go into the water till he had learnt 
to swim." 

What " old story " is alluded to 1 


" Then fill vs Boy one quart of Charnico, 
To drinke a health to Diclce before we goe." 

Rowland's LooJce to it : For, lie Stabbe ye, 1604, 
p. 21, of Hunterian Club's reprint. What kind of 
wine is meant by " Charnico " 1 


OLD CARICATURES. A friend of mine has 
recently acquired some forty of the Political 
Drama, published by Drake. Who are the 
authors of the unsigned drawings ? Is there any 
key to this remarkable series 1 Some of them are 
in bad condition, and I have advised my friend to 
mount them on canvas ; but what can he do to 
three or four which have been daubed by children 
with water-colours 1 Is there any way of remov- 
ing the colouring without injuring the prints 1 


Mr. J. Horsfall Turner's Haworth, Past and 
Present, p. 50, there is this short paragraph : 

" The register states ' These following were married 
by the clog and shoe in Lancashire, but paid the minister 
of Haworth his dues.' Mr. Smith then adds sixteen 

What is the meaning of the phrase here 
employed ? ABHBA. 

IN THE BONE." From the " Breviary of Healthe ; 
by Andrew Boorde of Physyche Doctoure, an 
Englysnian, anno 1557 " : 

" This fever doth come naturally, or els by evyll and 
slouthfull bryngyng up. If it do come by nature, then 
the fever is incurable ; for it com never out of the fleshe 
that is bred in the bone." 

Is there an earlier instance in which this phrase 
is used ? WM. FREELOVB. 

Bury St. Edmund's. 

ARMS ON A BOOK-PLATE. In an old book I 
have recently purchased is a book-plate with the 
following arms : Argent, a cross fleurettee sable, 
in chief two cantons dexter and sinister, gules ; on 
the dexter a griffin's head caboshed, on the 
sinister a lion rampant ; on an escutcheon of 
pretence the badge of L T lster. Motto, "Suum 
cuique." A baronet, and age of plate about a 
century, probably. Can any of your corre- 
spondents say who he was ? W. H. H. R. 

6* S. III. FEB. 12, '81J 



AN ENLIGHTENED BISHOP. In the preface to 
his Anglia Sacra, p. iv, Henry Wharton says, 
" Comperi enim Episcopum quendam ante centum 
et quod excurrit annos, avitse superstitionis delendse 
prsetextu, omnia Ecclesise suse monumenta et 
Registra igni tradidisse." Can any one rescue from 
oblivion a name that ought to go down to pos- 
terity 1 ? AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D. 

A EOMAN INSCRIPTION. Will some one among 
your readers kindly translate the following inscrip- 
tion, copied from a wall close to the Roman amphi- 
theatre at Ventimiglia? 
D H 









A HELL FIRE CLUB. I have heard from what 
seems to me unquestionable authority that about 
1827 there existed at Oxford an association called 
the Hell Fire Club ; that it very soon collapsed, in 
consequence of the awfully sudden death of the 
chairman, who fell from his chair, having broken a 
blood-vessel. At the very same time (as it was 
afterwards proved) there was seen by a member 
of the University, accidentally passing through 
Brasenose Lane, a horrible apparition. Can any 
correspondent of " N. & Q." tell us more about it ? 


Alvarez Espriella. Translated from the Spanish." 
In three volumes. Can you tell me anything 
about this work ? It was printed by Longman, 
and the copy I possess is of the second edition, 
1808. It is a most interesting account of English 
life at the time, and professes to be by a young 
Spaniard staying with an English family. He is 
present at the illuminations for the Peace of 
Amiens, and visits the chief towns of England. 
It appears to me to be genuine, but I have never 
seen any mention of the book, and the " Don " 
may possibly be a nom deplume. F. B. B. 

"RAWDON PAPERS." The Rev. E. Berwick, 
the editor of these interesting papers, states, in his 
preface to the collection he edits, that those were 
only a small portion of the collection the re- 
mainder having been sent to the then (first) 
Marquis of Hastings. Where are they now? 
Everything belonging to his grandson and eventual 
heir, the fourth marquis, was sold in 1869 by 
auction, and I can find no trace of such letters in 
the catalogues. ECLECTIC. 

"LADY LIFT CLUMP." Not far from Bred- 
wardine, Herefordshire, is a high hill, on the top 

of which is a clump of trees called "Lady Lift 
Clump." What is the origin of " Lady Lift " ? I 
wonder if the "Lady" in this name=" Law-day," 
and marks the spot where a folk-moot was held in 
old times (see Gomme's Primitive Folk-Moots, 
p. 122). Or does the hill take its name from the 
Blessed Virgin ? As is observed by the reviewer 
of Mr. Gomme's work in the Athenceum (Nov. 6, 
1880), " in almost all our churches the Virgin had 
before the Reformation a special altar, and many 
of these altars were endowed with small portions 
of land for supplying them with lights." 


My name is the same as Nevin, and in Ireland is 
seen in Glasnevin ; also in Nevin, a seaport town 
in N. Wales. Bishop Strossmayer, at the Vatican 
Council, told the Rev. Dr. Nevin of Rome that 
the name was common in his part of the world 
(Servia). Joyce, in his book on Irish names, says, 
on Glasnevin : 

" In far remote ages, beyond the view of history, long 
before St. Mobhi established his monastery there in the 
sixth century, some old pagan chief named Naeidhe 
[Nee] must have resided on its banks ; from him it was 
called Glas-Naeidhen [Glasneean: Four Masters'], i.e., 

Naeidhe's streamlet This ancient name is modernized 

to Glasnevin by the change of dh to v." 

If the root be the same, as I suppose it is, in Nevis 
(Ben Nevis, &c.), can my name come from the old 
pagan Mnevis ? I am not aware of so distinctly 
pagan a name as my own, and should be glad if 
I could learn anything about it. 

8, Oxford Parade, Cheltenham. 

" To RULE THE ROAST." Dr. Brewer, in his 
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, says of this 
expression : " It is a corruption of raadst, mean- 
ing ' the council.' * Thou, duke of Burgoyn, ruled 

the rost, and governed both kyng Charles and 

his whole realme.' Hall, Union, (1548)." 

The quotation proves nothing. Whence is 
raadst obtained ? We have Dan. raad, G. rath, 
Sw. rdd, D. raad, all cognate and meaning 
council; but with raadst I am unacquainted. I 
have always understood the phrase to have 
primarily had reference to presiding at dinner, 
being at the head of the table, and so able to 
assign to those present whatever portion you like. 
Am I mistaken ? Do any of your correspondents 
know of any earlier quotation than the above, 
which I find given also in Nares? The phrase, 
apparently, is a homely one, and old. 



In his Sylva Sylvarum, cent. i. 31, and in other 
places, Bacon states the result of some of his 
experiments on heat. He says that " Flame doth 


NOTES AND QUERIES. c^s. in. FEB. 12/81. 

not mingle with flame," and speaks of " one heat 
being mixed with another"; of its being "pushed 
farther," and so forth, as if heat were matter, or 
one of those bodies of which two cannot be in 
the same place at the same time. Can any of 
your scientific readers inform me whether such 
ideas of the nature of heat were original with 
Bacon, or whence he derived them ? C. M. P. 

there any foreigners, anterior to A.D. 1500, who 
have written a description of England, in addition 
to Leo de Rosmital, A.D. 1465-7, and Francesco 
Capello, the Venetian ambassador, to whom is 
attributed the Italian Relation of England, circa 
A.D. 1500, which was published by the Camden 
Society in 1847 1 EDMUND WATERTON. 

THE TEN TRIBES. What ia the origin of the 
notion that the ten tribes of Israel, as distinct 
from the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, are 
lost, or, as Dean Prideaux expresses it, " absorbed 
and swallowed up in the heathen nations among 
whom they were dispersed at or after the Assyrian 
captivity J> ? JOHN JAMES. 

Highfield, Lydney on Severn. 

[Answers direct to our correspondent.] 

" HEAD " AND " TYPE." In the minutes of the 
trustees of a chapel of ease during the last century 
the following items occur : 

1. "A Pall or Carpet for the Communion-table and 

2. "Agreed that a Type be sett up over y e Pulpit on 
two iron bars." 

Will any of your correspondents kindly explain 
the expressions " head " and " type " as here used? 

A. G. J. 


" Cowley was at one time rather a lady's man, but 
Leonora did not treat him well, and married the brother 
of Dean Sprat." Globe, September, 1879. 
Who was Leonora, and what was the Christian 
name of Dean Sprat's brother ? SPERO. 

NAVAL TACTICS. What is the earliest time at 
which, mention is made of ships sailing " on a 
wind," or close-hauled, as part of an ordinary 
voyage? J. CORYTON. 

[As to the construction to be put on Acts xxvii. 15, 
you should consult Smith's Voyage and Shipwreck of 
SI. Paul, a new edition of which has just been issued by 
Messrs. Longmans.] 

CHARLES II. 's HUNTING Box. There have just 
been cleared away the last remains of an old 
wooden house called Lausanne, that stood in 
the Edgware Road at Kilburn, opposite the com- 
mencement of Willesden Lane. It fell down 
some time since, after standing for years unin- 
habited. Locally it was known as Charles II.'s 
Hunting Box. Was there any foundation for 
this rumour ? E. C. C. 

"Pectus facit theologum." 

" Birds are singing, 
Flowers are springing, 
May (]) is bringing 

Gifts to men." 

" Sunt pueri pueri, pueri puerilia tractant." 

" The muffled drums rolled on the air." 


Fie on the pelf for which good name is Bold, 
And honour with indignity debased ; 
Dearer is love than life, and fame than gold, 
But dearer than them both your faith, once plighted, 

M. G. 


(6 th S. iii. 87.) 

MR. MAYHEW has anticipated a query which I 
have been intending for some weeks past to address 
to you. I can, it is true, add a little information 
about Darvell Gadarn, and can partly answer 
MR. MAYHEW'S question ; but a much fuller 
reply than mine is greatly to be desired. 

The letter sent by Elis Price to Secretary 
Cromwell was " writen in Northe Wales, the vj 
daye of this presente Aprill," 1538. The full text 
of it may be read in the Letters relating to the 
Suppression of Monasteries, edited for the Camden 
Society by the late Mr. Thomas Wright, pp. 190, 
191. I extract the part relating to the image 
called Darvell Gadarn : 

" There ys an image of Darvellgadarn within the saide 
diosece [of St. Asaph], in whome the people have so 
greate confidence, hope, and truste, that they cumme 
daylye a pillgramage unto hym, somme with kyne, other 
with oxen or horsis, and the reste withe money, inso- 
muche that there was fyve or syxe hundrethe pillgrames 
to a mans estimacion that offered to the saide image the 
fifte daie of this presente monethe of Aprill. The 
innocente people bathe ben sore aluryd and entisid to 
worshipe the saide image, insomuche that there is a 
commyn sayinge as yetamongist them that whosoever will 
offer anie thinge to the saide image of Darvellgadarn, he 
bathe power to fatche hym or them that so offers oute 
of hell when they be dampned." 

He asks Cromwell's pleasure concerning the image. 

Another letter, in the same collection, written 
by Bishop Barlow to Cromwell, and dated Llanfey 
Castle (in Monmouthshire, one of the residences 
of the Bishops of St. David's), August 16, 1538, 
makes mention of " Dervelgadern, Conoch, and 
soch other Welsch godes, antique gargels of 
ydolatry " (ibid., p. 208). 

The image was sent up to London, and in May, 
1538, was publicly burnt in Smithfield, at the same 
time that Friar Forest, of Greenwich, suffered. 
Mr. Wright quotes from Hall's Chronicle some 
account of the transaction : 

"A little before the execution, a huge and great 

fill- S. III. FEB. 12, '81.] 



image was brought to the gallows, which image was 
brought out of Wales, and of Welshmen much sought 
and worshipped. This image was called Darvell 
Gatheren, and the Welshmen had a prophecy that this 
image should set a whole Forest afire, which prophecy 
now took effect, for he set this friar Forest on fire, and 

consumed him to nothing Upon the gallows that he 

died on was set up in great letters these verses follow- 

' David Darvell Gatheren, 
As saith the Welshmen, 

Fetched outlawes out of hell. 
Now is he come with spere and shilde 
In harnes to burne in Smithfelde, 

For in Wales he may not dwell. 
And Forest the frier, 
That obstinate Iyer, 

That wilfully shalbe dead, 
In his contumacie 
The Gospell doth deny, 

The Kyng to be supreme head.' " 

As Mr. Wright observes, " it would seem by these 
verses that the image represented a man in armour, 
or, at least, armed." 

Fox, in his Acts and Monuments (octavo edition, 
1857, vol. v. pp. 179, 180, 397) gives an account 
of the burning of Friar Forest and of the destruc- 
tion of " a certain old idolatrous image in Wales 
named Darvell Gatheren," and quotes the verses 
-cited above, which form part of the poem called 
The Fantasie of Idolatrie (ibid., pp. 404-9), though 
in the poem itself the name is printed as Delver 

Bishop Latimer preached the sermon on this 
occasion (see Sermons of Hugh Latimer, Parker 
Society, p. xi) ; but I do not find any allusion to 
Darvell Gatheren in his works, nor indeed in the 
very copious Index to the publications of the 
Parker Society. 

Several interesting questions remain to be 
solved. 1. Who was Darvell Gatheren? 2. 
Where, in the diocese of St. Asaph, did the image 
stand? 3. Why is he called David Darvell 
Oatheren in the verses cited ? 4. Is any painting 
or image of him still extant ? 5. Are the words 
Darvell Gatheren Welsh, and have they been in- 
terpreted ? Will some learned Welshman help us 
here? I have long wished to know something 
more about this famous image and the pilgrimage 

This letter of Elis Price (which was addressed 
not to the Bishop of St. Asaph, but to Cromwell) 
is included in Three Chapters of Letters relating 
to the Suppression of Monasteries, printed for the 
Camden Society in 1843. A note prefixed by the 
editor (Mr. Thos. Wright) supplies the information 

Notices of Darvell Gadarn, an image to which 
pilgrimages were made daily, and as to which the 
people believed that this image had power to 
deliver his pilgrims out of hell " when they be 
dampned," and of other parallel instances of the 

superstitions of the North Wales folk at this 
period, temp. Henry VIII., are to be found in the 
Rev. D. R. Thomas's able and learned History of 
the Diocese of St. Asaph (James Parker & Co., 
London, 1874), pp. 76-7. With relation to Darvell 
Gadarn, Murray's Handbook of North Wales (ed. 
1874), p. 27, tells us that "on the bank of the Dee, 
in the village of Llanderfel, the church of the 
parish was once remarkable for a vast wooden 
image of Derfel Gadarn, its patron saint. The 
Welsh had a prophecy that this image would set 
a whole forest on fire. On the condemnation of 
Dr. Forest for treason, in 1538, it was sent for and 
placed under him as fuel when he was burned in 
Smithfield." This extract comes to the North 
Wales Handbook from Nicholson. It may be 
added that the church has a good screen and a 
curious wooden horse in a recumbent position, 
known as St. Dervel's horse, which, with the saint's 
staff, still preserved, used to be held in great 
veneration. The superstition doubtless died out 
after the suppression of monasteries, though vestiges 
of it still survive in a little populated district. 

JAMES DAVIES, M.A., Preb. of Hereford. 
[Do not the above render E. R. M.'s reply unnecessary?] 

ARMS OF THE SEE OF YORK (6 th S. ii. 448). 
In a paper on Lincoln Minster, read before the 
Lincolnshire Diocesan Architectural Society in 
May, 1857, by the Rev. George Ayliffe Poole, the 
remark is made : 

" The inscription on this chapel (that of Bishop Long- 
land) is curious, and contains as base a piece of syco- 
phancy as any like inscription in the kingdom. With 
reference to the name of the bishop the inscription runs, 

'Longa terra, mensuram ejus Dominus dedit.' 
' Great are my domains, their bounds were appointed 
by the Lord,' one naturally reads it ; but, lo ! before the 
Dominus are the royal arms ! So it is, ' Great are my 
domains, their bounds are appointed by King Henry VIII.' 
Wolsey, also for a while bishop here, had already per- 
petrated a like piece of heraldic subserviency, exchanging, 
on his translation to York, the ancient coat of that see 
for one in which the keys, the symbols of ecclesiastical 
authority, are surmounted by a royal crown. No wonder 
that Henry a little forgot his relation to the church 
when he was surrounded by such ecclesiastics." 

If Mr. Poole be right, and I for one should be 
sorry to question his accuracy, the arms of the see 
of York were not only not changed in Savage's 
time, but remained untouched until Savage's suc- 
cessor, Bainbridge,had run an archiepiscopal course 
of six or seven years, and had ended in giving 
place to Wolsey in 1514. This proud prelate died 
on Nov. 28, 1530, so if he relinquished the pall 
for the keys he must have done it before " about 
A.D. 1540," which is the date given for the change 
in Aveling's Heraldry Ancient and Modern 
(p. 362), where we are told that the former arms 
of the see of York were like those of Canterbury, 
which, by the way, are thus described : 



in. P EB . 12, -si. 

"Az., an archiepiscopal staff in pale, or, ensigned 
\vith a cross pattee arg., surmounted by a pall of the 
last, fimbriated and fringed gold, and charged with four 
crosses formees fitchees sa. In the old examples the 
crosses are not always fitchees." 

It will be observed that this blazon differs in some 
respects from that which F. W. J. ascribes to 
York ; but for all that, he may be correct. I 
notice, however, that in a lithographed sketch 
appended to Poole and Hugall's York Cathedral 
one of the two sculptured shields on the east side 
of the interior of the lantern tower shows only 
four crosses on the pall, and those not fitchees. 

The arms on Archbishop Savage's tomb require 
a better herald than I can pretend to be to blazon 
them satisfactorily, though I have looked on them 
in stone as well as in the engraving to be found in 
Drake. His paternal bearing is represented by a 
shield charged with lozenges conjoined in pale ; 
and there are three other shields in which this is 
impaled respectively with two keys in saltire, with 
the pall, and with a cross saltire charged with 
something in fesse point which I could not make 
out. I confess that I am quite unable to explain 
what the keys betoken in the position assigned to 
them on Savage's monument. The Dean and 
Chapter of St. Peter's at York had long borne the 
Petrine attributes ensigned by a mitre. A repre- 
sentation of this blazon is still to be seen inside 
the central tower. Is it possible that by impaling 
the keys with an archbishop's paternal arms the 
sculptor strove to indicate some closer union be- 
tween archbishop, dean, and chapter than these 
later times are able to recognize 1 

If I remember rightly, there are heraldic sculp 
tures on the canopy of Savage's monument (which 
canopy is not shown in Drake), but I know no 
what they are. ST. SWITHIN. 

The following quotation from my Introductorj 
Notice to the Arms of the Episcopates of Grea 
Britain and Ireland, 1867, will supply F. W. J 
with some of the information he needs : 

" The present arms are allusive to St. Peter, to whon 
York Minster is dedicated. It is not quite clear whei 
they were first assumed, but the old arms were identica 
with those of Canterbury. The change has been erro 
neously attributed to Wolsey's jealousy of Canterbury 
for the arms used at present appear on the seal of Arch 
bishop Bowet (1407-1423), although in a window of th 
cathedral, apparently contemporary with that prelate 
the pall and pastoral staff on a field gules are impale 
with his personal arms. In the Parliament Roll of 151 
the present arms are impaled by Wolsey. Still later, o 
the seal of his successor, Archbishop Lee (1531-1544 
the arms are identical with those of Canterbury, excep 
that the pall has five crosses patees fitcbees, and th 
number of these may have formed the distinction, just 
in the parallel case of Armagh and Dublin." 

F. W. J. does not blazon the old coat accurately 
for he has not perceived that the cross " in chief 
is simply the head of the crozier placed behin 
the pall. JOHN WOODWARD. 

The present arms of this see are, Gu., two keys 
L saltire ; arg., in chief an imperial crown of 
ngland. The change was made about A.D. 1540. 
his is stated in Aveling's Heraldry Ancient and 
Modern, published in 1873, by Wurne & Co. 


SORTS OF ALES (6 th S. ii. 308, 334, 523 ; iii.. 
7). I regret if my reply has been misunderstood. 

do not for a moment suggest that the village of 
tepney (the name of which is said to be a cor- 
uption of Stephen-hythe) was ever called Stepony.. 
Vhat I do suggest is that the drink, or beer, 
:nown as Stepony took its name from the village 
f Stepney. It is certain that much beer was 
>rewed and drunk at Stepney, and that the 
Stepney breweries were celebrated. In London 
ind its Environs Described, 1761, vi. 67, we are 
old that Stepney consists chiefly of "houses of 
mblic entertainment, vast crowds of people of 
>oth sexes resorting thither on Sundays, and afc 
Easter and Whitsun holidays, to eat Stepney buns, 
ind regale themselves with ale," &c. It is clear r 
herefore, that Stepney was noted for its ale ; and 
hat being so, I thought " Stepony " ale probably 
neant Stepney ale. Further, if Stepney or 
Stepony ale (whether real ale or, as Grose states, 
a fermented drink of the ginger-beer class) was a 
mown London drink, it would be advertised at 
fslington and other places of entertainment much' 
n the same way as " Romford " is now. I still think 
that Stepony ale meant Stepney ale, and shall not 
feel myself mistaken till I hear a better, that is, a 
more probable, explanation. EDWARD SOLLY. 

Stepony might be a summer drink, but could 
scarcely be termed an ale. Vide, Blount's Glosso- 
graphia: "Stipone, a kind of sweet compound 
liquor, drunk in some places of London in summer 
time." This, in my opinion, fixes not only its- 
composition, but its derivation. Like borage and 
other concotions and decoctions made from semi- 
medicinal plants, still to be found in some of the 
public-houses of the present day, and in which the- 
stipules of the plants are the main ingredient, may 
it not have taken its name thus 1 If a French 
introduction, which is very probable, nothing more 
likely. W. PHILLIPS. 

28). After considerable experience, I have come 
to the conclusion that the best plan is to have 
loose sheets of stout paper cut to an exact size 
(mine are folio, about 18 in. by 13 in.), on which, 
the book-plates are fastened alphabetically, ac- 
cording to their nationality or subject. On the 
back, at the top of the book-plate, I paste a strip 
(or two if necessary) of very thin tough paper, 
half of which only is pasted on the book-plate, 
the other half being doubled down level with the 
top of the book-plate and pasted on the loose sheet.. 

. in. FEB. 12, 'si.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 


By this means it is easy to change any book- plat 
from, one sheet to another, and also to turn it 
look at, or write anything on it at the back, whic 
is a great advantage ; whilst, being alphabetical, i 
is easy to refer to and make an index, which I als 
make on separate slips of paper cut to a con 
venient and exact size. From eighty to on 
hundred sheets of paper with the book-plates ca 
be laid into a wooden box, or one covered wit 
leather made to look like a book, fastened with 
spring or lock, as may be desired. The catalogu 
slips may be kept in the same way in a box with 
three or four divisions the size of a quarto book 
but thick enough for the slips to stand on thei 
edges for convenience of reference or the insertion 
of others. C. I. M. Z. 

FLAMINGO (6 th S. ii. 326, 450, 478 ; iii. 35, 75 
110). In reply to PROF. SKEAT'S inquiry, I think 
he will find that the best Portuguese dictionary is 
that of the Jesuit Dom Eaphael Bluteau, Portu 
guese and Latin, 5 vols. fol., imprinted at thi 
Jesuit College of Coimbra, 1713. Sub voc 
" Flamengo," he gives two interpretations : one, 
" Flamengo ou Framengo, natural de Flandes", 
the other, " Flamengo ou flamenco, ou (como 
escreve Fr. Thomas da luz na sua Amalthea 
Onomastica, pag. 14) framengo, ave, assi cha- 
mada a flammeo alarum, et pedum colore, ou 
porque as primeyras vierao de Flandes. Tern 
alguma semelhansa com a Cegonha no compri- 
mento do collo, e das pernas, tern as azas e os pes 
vermelhos, e a carne muyto gostosa (Vejase Aldo- 
vrando no torn. 3 da sua Ornithologia, pag. 323). 
'Ayes Lusitanis flamencos dictas' (Hist. Indice 
Oriental, part iii. 127)." 

The Ornithology of Aldrovandus was published 
in 1599. The European flamingo, Phcenicopterus 
ruber (Linn.), has been known from ancient times 
as abundant in Sicily and Calabria and the marshy 
coasts of the south of France and Spain. The 
name is perpetuated in Ital. fenicontero or feni- 
cottero, the appellation flamingo being there un- 
known. It is singular that in every country of 
Europe except Italy, whether Teutonic or Eomance, 
the term flamingo, or some cognate word, has been 
adopted to describe the bird : Spanish, flamenco ; 
Portuguese, flamengo ; Provencal, flammant ; 
French, flamand ; High and Low German, flam- 

Although abundant in the south of Italy, there 
is no native Latin name for the bird, Pliny in 
his description having adopted the Greek <om- 
KoVrepos, red-winged or red-feathered. It is 
found in the same form in Juvenal, Sat. ii. The 
modern appellation has grown up since the fall of 
the Roman empire and the decay of the Latin 
language. It is scarcely likely that a word 
essentially the same should have been adopted 
simultaneously all over Europe. It must have 

originated in some one country, and been bor- 
rowed or adopted by the others. The date and 
place of its origin is a curious subject of inquiry, 
and can only be determined by the analysis and 
history of the word. I have no means of ascer- 
taining when it first appeared in Spanish. In 
Portuguese it is traced by Bluteau to the end of 
the sixteenth century. 

In French we have probably its earliest ap- 
pearance ; but in the Langue d'Oc, rather than in 
the Langue d'Oil. Rabelais (1483-1553) writes : 
" Et estoit le pennage rouge cramoisi, comme est 
celui d'un phcenicoptere qui en Languedoc est 
appele flammant" (Pantagruel, iv. 41). From 
this it would appear that the Latinized Greek 
name had still survived, but was being superseded 
by the Provencal term derived from the plumage. 
Gassendi, in his Fie de M. Peyrese (1612), speaks 
of the Phcenicopterae " ob pulchritudinem alarum 
rubore flammantium (unde Nostrates, ce sont les 
Provengaux, flammantem vocant)." 

Labat, Voyage aux Antilles, says : "Les^/fom- 
ants, que le pere du Tertre appelle flambants, sont 
des oiseaux fort haut months." 

Cotgrave (1600-50) gives the several forms of 
flaman, flamman, flambant, which he explains, 
'A certaine reddish, long-bild, and long-legd sea- 
? owle ; of the bignesse of a stork or somewhat 
Digger, and indifferent good meat." In the corre- 
sponding Anglo-French dictionary by Sherwood 
no English equivalent is given ; the word had not 
been naturalized in our own language. It is 
not in Minsheu's Ductor in Linguas (1617). It 
s singular that it is not to be found in either 
Johnson, Richardson, or Ogilvie, edit, of 1866, 
>ut is to be found in Ogilvie of 1871 and Wor- 
cester of 1860. Bailey, edit. 1747, has " Flam- 
nant, a large water-fowl," and Webster quotes 
t as Spanish and Portuguese flamenco, from Lat. 

On the whole the evidence seems to point to 
'rovence as the birthplace of the word in the 
orm of flammant or flambant, whence it spread 
tforth and South to the other countries of Europe 
xcept Italy. It remains to be explained how in 
Spain and Portugal the suffix co and go came to 
>e attached. It is not a thing to dogmatize upon, 
ut it is not improbable that it arose from the 
onfusion of ideas in the double meaning of the 

The Provencal flambant or flammant became 

onfounded with French Flamand, sometimes 

written Flamanghe, English Fleming, a native of 

""landers. The addition of the adjectival termina- 

on o in Spanish and Portuguese formed the word 

amenco or flamengo, which equally signify a 

leming or a flamingo. Bluteau gives both 

leanings, and is evidently confused in his mind 

hen he writes that notice of the bird was perhaps 

rst derived from Flanders. Cotgrave^gives flaman 



. III. FEB. 12, '81. 

for the bird and Flamend for a Fleming. The 
omission or insertion of the second ra does not 
seem of much consequence, as in Provencal and 
old French it is spelt indifferently in either way. 

A similar play of words exists in the Italian 
vstriche and Austriaci, oysters and Austrians, 
which during the Austrian occupation gave rise to 
many bad jokes and ludicrous blunders. 

J. A. PlCTON. 
Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

GERMANY, WHY so CALLED (6 th S. ii. 409). 
Probably MR. PICTON will be pleased to see what 
was said on this subject 400 years ago : 

" Wei nyghe all y londe that lyeth northwarde ouer 
the see occean of brytayne is called germania. For it 
bryngyth forth so moche folke. Germania comyth of 
germinare that is for too borge and brynge forth." 
Polycrow'con, P. de Treveris, 1527, f. 184. 

" Ail the countree and londe from the Ryuer Thanays 
vnto the west is called Germania, For it gendreth and 
brynge th forth mo men and chylderen than it maye Avell 
susteyne. Therefore it is that soo often goondyuerse men 
out of the syde of the worlde in to other londes by lotte 
or agaynst theyr wyll or theyr good wyll for to gete 
other londes/ So dyde Gothy. wandaly. Saxones. Wynnyly 
and Longobardi. " Id., f. 26 rerso. 

K. E. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

MR. PICTON is not quite accurate in his ex- 

(1.) Teut or Diot never meant the earth or land ; 
Diut-isc ^(whence Deutsch), never meant "earth- 
born," aurox^oi/os. If he had referred to Skeat's 
Etym. Die., s.v. "Dutch," he would have been 
preserved from this curious mistake. The base 
diut or Hut is cognate with Goth, thiuda, Ir. 
iuaih, Wei. tud, a people, nation, from a root tu, 
to be strong ; see Fick, i. 602, Curtius, No. 247. 
It will be seen that it is only in the Lettic group 
namely, in the Lithuanian and Old Prussian lan- 
guagesthat the words cognate with diut took the 
secondary meaning of " land." 

(2.) Cymry does not mean avTo^Oovos. The 
word cymru is generally taken to = cym + bro. 
The Cymry (or Welsh), therefore, would mean the 
con terranei, the people who, expelled from divers 
parts of Britain by the English, came to a new 
-country, Wales, and there formed a new people. 
Cymry seems to be a post-Eoman word. See 
Lord Strangford's Philological Papers, pp. 164 and 
187. A. L. MAYHEW. 

"GiVE GRASS" (6 th S. ii. 448). If a very primi- 
tive use of a phrase identical in meaning with that 
employed by Bishop Hall will satisfy your corre- 
spondent, I can offer one of an age sufficiently 
venerable. Dr. John Muir, the distinguished 
Sanscrit scholar, has recently printed Further 
Metrical Translations, with Prose Versions, from 
the Mahabharata, a supplement to his larger 
published work. In this the following occurs 

imongst many similar passages impressing upon 
;he noble Kshatriyas (Eajputs) the duty of fair 
ighting, of sparing the vanquished, and many 
other such doctrines as have been supposed to be 
peculiar to Christian chivalry: "xii. 3659. Old 
nen, children, and women are not to be slain, nor 
s any one to be smitten from behind, nor is any 
one to be smitten whose mouth is filled with grass, 
or who cries, ' I am thine.' " This allusion is not 
explained, as are some others occurring in the 
ancient Sanscrit original, by a native commen- 
tator ; but Prof. Co well points out certain words 
of a similar import as appearing in an inscription, 
"' blades of grass are perceived between thy adver- 
sary's teeth," and mentions that the allusion is to 
" the Indian custom of biting a blade of grass in 
token of submission and asking for quarter." 

But pray let it not be supposed that all this is 
put forward as an explanation of the origin of 
Bishop Hall's phrase. I believe PROF. SKEAT will 
bear me out in affirming that there is a mighty 
difference between an early use and an origin. 
The two cases are only " comparable," which I 
think is PROF. SKEAT'S word. With these in- 
stances may fitly be compared the parallel case of 
Fluellen and his leek : 

" Flu. Bite, I pray you : it is goot for your green 

" Pistol. Must I bite ] 

" Flu. Yes, certainly, and out of doubt." 

K. Hen. V., V. i. 

United Service Club, Edinburgh. 

In his note upon this line Mr. Singer says, " To 
give grass was probably to yield the palm, but I 
have found no instance of its use." He might 
have spoken more decidedly as to the meaning of 
the phrase on the authority of Festus (viii.) : 

" Herbam do, cum ait Plautus, significat vie turn me 
fateor : quod est antique et pastoralis vitae indicium : 
nam qui in prato cursu aut viribus contendebant, cum 
superati erant, ex eo solo, in quo certamen erat, de- 
cerptam herbam adversario tradebant." 

Pliny also says : 

" Summum apud antiques signum victorias erat por- 
rigere herbam victos, hoc est terra et altrice ipsa humo 
et humatione cedere, quern morem etiam nunc durare 
apud Germanos scio." Lib. xxii. 4. 

Andrew Dacier adds, in his note on Festus : 

"Et ego hunc morem etiam mine (1681) durare in 
Vasconia certe scio. Et inde originem traxisse arbitror, 
quod cum primum pugnse genus apud antiques, utpote 
pastores, lucta fuerit, victus ut se terram tetigisse os- 
tenderet, et ita se plane minorem fateretur, victori 
herbam ex eodem loco dacerptam porrigebat. Postea 
herbam dare pro se victum fateri dictum est. Inde 
Nonius : Herbam veteres palmam vel victoriam dici 

Servius also, on ^Eneid, viii. 128: 

" Hinc est illud proverbium herbam do, id est, cedo 
victoriam, quod Varro in antiquitatis libris ponit ; cum 
in agonibus herbam in modum palmse dat aliquis ei cum 
quo contendere non cupit, et fatetur esse meliorem." 

6^ s . m. FEB. 12, 8i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Parallel passages from other English writers an 
still a desideratum, neither Peter Hall nor Dr 
Grosart having adduced any in their respectiv 
editions. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

Is not this simply the same as "to give grace" 
gras or grass being a not uncommon form of the 
word ? Wiclif uses the expression, " And Felix 
wolde give grace to Jewis, and left Poul boundun ' 
(Dedis, c. xxiv.). EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

6. ii. 468). The brass of Thomas Salle, at Ste 
Tenton, Beds, is engraved in the Gent. Mag. fo: 
July, 1812 (Ixxxii. 17). The arms are described 
-(p. 9) as crocodiles ; but the suggestion that they 
are salamanders in saltire, in punning allusion to 
the name of Salle, is very admissible. They are 
certainly not lions. Six .different coats are given 
in Burke's General Armory to the name Sail or 
Salle, but the crocodiles or salamanders are nol 
among them. I can contribute an eighth from 
a brass seal with a quatrefoiled handle, date 
c. 1400, in my possession, found at Grantchester, 
Cambridge. It is inscribed * s' . IEHAN . SALLE 

. ESCVER, and has a shield with arms of a bird, 
apparently an eagle, with a little bird under its 
feet, between three estoiles of six points. 

C. R. M. 


The arms of Salle, from the brass at Stevington 
Church, Beds, are two crocodiles, not salamanders, 
in saltire. In heraldry a salamander is a fabulous 
creature, represented as a quadruped in form of a 
dog, and sometimes as a lizard, but surrounded by 
flames. In August last I obtained a rubbing of 
the brass in question, by kind permission of the 
vicar. On examination of the shields there is no 
representation of flames, which clearly proves them 
not to be salamanders. In the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, 1812, part ii. pp. 9-10, D. G. C. E. will find 
an account of Stevington or Steventon Church, 
with illustrations of the building and brass. The 
arms as given there are two crocodiles. At that 
date no information about this family could be 
obtained. W. A. WELLS. 

CROWS AND FIR CONES (6 th S. iii. 86). The 
<;rows were probably rooks. Crows are not con- 
gregationalists ; and feed on carrion. Whether or 
no, they were not planting the cones, but had 
carried them off to knock out the seeds, which 
they could do more easily on the ground than on 
the tree. H. T. E. 

_ OBITUARY VERSES (6 th S. i. 34, 84, 225, 287 ; 
ii. 97, 291). I have a strong impression that 
Zachary Boyd translated much, if not all, of the 
Old Testament into doggerel verse. I remember 
being taken through the library of Glasgow 
College by one of the professors nearly sixty years 

ago. He pulled down a volume of Zachary Boyd's 
MS., opened upon the Book of Job, and there, 
amongst much strange stuff, I read some extra- 
ordinary passages, which I could never forget. 
I was also shown a choice bit of Jonah's complaints 
while in the fish's belly. But any reader of 
" N. & Q. " residing in Glasgow can decide the 
point in a moment. J. C. M. 

"MISER" (6 th S. ii. 469). There can be little 
doubt that our word miser is a pure Latin word, 
just as pauper is. Had the word come from 
micher, why should the i have been pronounced 
as it is at present ? Micher is still in use here in 
the sense of a truant, and is pronounced mitsher; 
formerly the word would seem to have been pro- 
nounced meecher and moodier as well. Both 
micher and miser are to be found in Minsheu 
(ed. 1617) : "Micher, vi. Truant; a. Miser, a 
miserable wretch ; b. Miser, niggard, churle, 
penie-father, or pinch-penie." The original use 
of miser in English seems to have been the former 
(a). I find the word in Barnabe Googe's Eglogs, 
1563, Egloga Octava (Arber's Eeprint), 
" (Vnthankfull mysers) what do we ? 
What meane we thus to straye ] " 

This is the earliest quotation of the word which 
I have met with. In Shakespeare I find both 
senses of the word as given by Minsheu : 
a. (( Decrepit miser, base, ignoble wretch." 

1 H. VI., V. iv. 7. 

1. "And for the peace of you I hold such strife 
As 'twixt a miser and his wealth is found." 

Sonnets, 75. 

The latter use of the word appears to have sup- 
planted the former, the niggard being regarded as 
miser \ par excellence. As Archbishop Trench says, 
in his Select Glossary, " There was a time when 
the ' miser ' was the wretched man, he is now the 
covetous." Does micher ever mean " a penurious 
person," and not a petty thief, a pilferer, a truant, 
&c. ? The word occurs in the Romaunt of the 
Rose, 11. 6542-4 : 

"How shulde I bi bis word hym leve? 

Unnethe that he nys a mycher, 

Forsworne, or ellis Goddes Iyer." 

Dr. Morris, in his glossary to the Aldine edition 
of Chaucer, explains mycher as niggard ; but is he 
not mistaken, as may be inferred from the con- 

In Lancashire miserable is sometimes used for 
mean and stingy ; for instance, " He is always so 
miserable." " Nonsense ! you can afford it well 
nough ; don't be so miserable." P. P. 

ST. MARY'S, DOVER (6 th S. ii. 427). The 
heory is ingenious as stated by MR. WESTON, bufc 
he statement in support of it requires examina- 
ion with the known facts. The date of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. m. FEB. i v 

execution of the Duke of Suffolk is May 2, 1450, 
not 1461, and the expression, "the body was 
washed on shore in the bay of Dover, where, after 
a long exposure, it was buried by some fishermen," 
is in want of confirmation. There is a contem- 
porary account in the Paston Letters (" From Mar 

STAFFORDSHIRE (6 th S. iii. 48). This clergyman 
was descended from the family of Mosley of 
Ancoats Hall, Manchester, his father, the Rev* 
Francis Mosley, Rector of Wilmslow, Cheshire, and 
Fellow of the Collegiate Church of Manchester, 

garet Paston, by W. Somner, amanuensis, to John being the fifth son of Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats 
Paston, Lond., May 5th, 1450"), which is as Hall, Esq. This Francis Mosley married, on 
follows : December 19, 1655, Katherine, daughter of 

One of the lewdest of the ship bade him lay down John Davenport, of Davenport, co. Chester, Esq., 
his head, and he should be fairly ferd with, and die on a by whom he had four sons and three daughters, 
d and smote off his head I His eldest daughter, Anne, married Richard 
Whitworth, of Adbaston, co. Stafford, Esq.. and 
was the mother of the first Lord Whitworth, the 
celebrated diplomatist. (See Earwaker's East 
Cheshire, i. 93, and notes.) Francis Mosley, 
Rector of Wilmslow, was buried in the Collegiate 
Church of Manchester on August 14, 1699, and 
his wife was buried there September 7, 1702. 

May I propose a query to your correspondent 
J. L., and ask, Did the Rector of Rolleston_ leave 
any male descendants, and, if so, are their de- 
scendants in the male line still living ? K. T. 

J. L. should refer to Burke's History of the 
Commoners (1838, iii. 579), where the descent is 
traced from Edward Mosley, Esq., of Houghend, 
in the county of Lancaster (descended from 
Oswald, second son of Ernald de Moseley, Lord 

sword ; and took a rusty sword and smote off his head 
within half a dozen strokes, and took away his gown of 
russet, and his doublet of velvet mailed, and laid his 
body on the Sands of Dover : and some say his head was 
set on a pole by it; and his men set on the land by 
great circumstance and prey. 

" And the sheriff of Kent doth watch the body, and 
sent his under-sheriff to the judges to weet what to do ; 
and also to the King what shall be done." 

In another letter (" From J. Crane to John 
Paston, Leicester, May 6th, 1450") there is : 

" First most especial, that for very truth upon Saturday 
that last was, the Duke of Suffolk was taken in the sea, 
and there he was beheaded, and his body with the 
appurtenance set at land at Dover ; and all the folks 
that he had with him were set to land, and had none 
harm." Paston Letters, by A. Ramsay, vol. i. pp. 19,20; 
cf. vol. ii. p. 125, note (London, C. Knight, 1840). 

That it was " washed ashore " is contained in 

., . -. -TTT / T-f 11 IT ** i- n T ~\ \ V/OVfLVlLA. QC/WUVt WWAJ. V^JL J-IJ. u tfc-kvt v*w AJ.VW^A^T -M-.V. 

the account by Weever (Fun Hon., p. 758, Lond., of Mos ' el tempm King Jonn) who marrie d Mar- 
1631), but without any authority for the state- t daughter of Alexander Elcock, of Hilgate, 

TY> or*r Mn a st/tnii n f a Trine* frkn r.ria Kvivi o I f\r r Via rw\H TT I v 3 ^..' . _ -.- 

ment. He accounts thus for the burial of the body. 
Under the notice of the collegiate church of Wing- 
field, after the circumstances of the death, he says : 
"And his body cast into the sea, which was after 
found, and taken up againe at Douer, brought to this 
colledge, and here honourably interred, saith Hall, 
also the Catalogue of Honour by Brooke." 

The continuance of the head with the body is 
implied in Shakespeare's 

" There let his head and lifeless body lie 
Until the queen his mistress bury it." 

2 Hen. VI., IV. i. 

In reference to the original edition of the Paston 

in Cheshire. If your correspondent has not access 
to the History of the Commoners, I shall be glad 
to forward him a copy of what he requires. 


ANTHONY TWYMAN (6 th S. iii. 83). I think he 
was the same person as he who took his B.A. at 
Cambridge in 1696, and M.A. in 1700. 

A. J. K. 

ST. GODWALD (6 th S. iii. 68). If he was not a 
local anchoret who had a cell " outside Sidbury 
Gate at Worcester," I would suggest that his name 

in : D tne original r < ne ,^ l is only one of the many forms of St. Gudwall, 

Letters, the remark of Lingard must be kept in Gurwa r 11 Gulval Quduol, Guidgall, a Welshman, 
mind : It may be observed that there are many | bfe f ^ Qn ^ of g pl ^ cit and after ! 

mistakes in the remarks of the editor on these 
(two) letters" (Hist., vol. iv. c. i. p. 47, note, Lond., 
1855). Some such expression as " cast upon the 
shore " (Complete Hist, of E., vol. i. p. 402), to 
represent the action of the men who " laid " it, 
may have led to the statement that the body was 
" washed ashore." As a popular account, the con- 

wards Bishop of St. Malo, where, according to 
Butler, he died, at the close of the sixth or early 
in the seventh century, on June 6. T. F. K. 

" SPRAYED " (6 tb S. iii. 107). The word used 
in Wiltshire is spreathed, and is applied to the 
, , harsh state of the skin before it is chapped. 

tmuance of the head with the body is fairly stated Sprayed is the West Somerset term for it. One 
in Baker's Chronicle: "And there had his head J the other should be adopted into standard 
chopt off, on the side of the long-boat, which, j) D gii sn P. 

together with the body, was left there on the 

sands." Sir J. Mackintosh observes of the first of HISTORIC DOUBTS ON THE LIFE AND KEIGN OF 
the Paston Letters that it is " evidently from the EICHARD III. (6 th S. iii. 104). MR. F. ST. JOHN 
words of an eye-witness" (Hist. o/jEJ.,vol. ii. p. 11, THACKERAY, in his interesting notice of the Eton 
note, 1831). ED. MARSHALL. | Library, speaks of the supplement to Historic 

. III. FEB. 12, '81.] 



Doubts as unpublished. This is correct, but the 
work was printed and edited by Dr. Hawtrey 
for the Philobiblion Society. It is included in 
vol. vi. of the Society's Miscellanies. F. G. 

Luiz DE CAMOENS (6 th S. ii.,147 ; iii. 110). 
There is no doubt I was in error in dating the 
cleath of Camoens as of the year 1579, in the 
sketch of his life which I published with my 
translation of his Lusiads with his Original Text. 
I erred in following old authorities, not then 
possessing, as I do now, the work of iny friend, 
the Visconde de Juromenha. At p. 172 of his 
first volume he incontestably proves that the 
death took place on June 10, 1580, by the exhibi- 
tion of a then lately discovered official document 
in the Archivo National, Liv. iii., de Ementas, 
fl. 137. A miserable pension of 15,000 milreis, 
or dollars, had been granted to Camoens (dating 
from the year 1572, when he first published his 
Lusiads) by the king D. Sebastian, to whom he 
dedicated his famous epic ; and the document 
above referred to as fixing his death is an order 
on the Portuguese Treasury to pay to his mother 
the proportion of this splendid pension, at the 
rate of 15,000 milreis a year, from Jan. 1, 1580, 
to June 10 in the same year, " on which day he 
died" (em que falleceo). Consistently with the 
munificence of this gift, the document conceding 
it is dated only Nov. 13, 1582. By a further act 
of munificence a pension of 6,000 milreis was 
granted to the mother, as from May 22, 1582, by 
Philip II., who, by a yet further act of munifi 
cence, increased this pension to the 15,000 milreis 
enjoyed by her son, by decree dated Feb. 5, 1585 ; 
the pension to count from Nov. 17, 1584. The 
tercentenary of the death of Camoens was cele- 
brated on the 10th and two other days of June, 
1880, at which I was present. 


33, Duke Street, St. James's. 

432). Mr. Freeth, of Duportb, St. Austell, Corn- 
wall, has kindly furnished me with the following 
information : 

" The bells in the Minster at the time of Henry VIII. 's 
plunder were probably seized and sold, for there is a 
tradition that Great Tom No. 1 was taken to Lincoln 
from Beauchef Abbey. Tom No. 2 was cast in the 
Minster Yard by Oldfield & Newcomb. Oldfield sue 
ceeded the Mellars, who were bell-founders at Notting. 
ham, and one of the family, who settled at Leicester 
was, I believe, succeeded by Newcombe. I had an aun 
(one of the Swan family of Lincolnshire), who died some 
forty-fire years since at the age of ninety-two or ninety 
four, who told me that tradition ran that at the time o 
the casting silver was collected, avowedly to be put into 
the furnace to improve the sound of the bell. Mos 
probably stannum was used and the argenlum preserved 
I was introduced to Great Tom No. 2 about the yeai 
1807, and saw Great Tom No. 3 when just raised out o 
the sand bed at Myers's (or Hears) foundry in White 

hapel. I went with the late Robert Swan, the Lincoln 
legistrar, and the workpeople made the bell sound." 


MUMMY WHEAT (6 th S. ii. 306, 415, 452). In 
he year 1839 an exhibition, which was, I believe, 
he first of its kind ever attempted in England, 
was held upon the premises of the Mechanics' 
[nstitution, then recently established, in Derby. 
Amongst the specimens illustrative of natural 
listory, a very fine Egyptian mummy was shown 
3y the late Mr. Joseph Strait, and I well remem- 
3er being interested in the statement that grains 
of wheat had been found (either in the hand or 
within the cerements of the mummy), with which 
it was intended to try experiments. Some of 
these grains were planted by Mrs. Jedediah 
Strutt ; they germinated, and at a second exhibi- 
tion, held in the Athenaeum Buildings, Derby, for 
the benefit of the Town and County Museum, in 
1843, the growing corn was shown. The entry in 
the catalogue reads thus : " 320. Wheat (in ear) 
growing from grain recently found in the coffin of 
an Egyptian mummy Mrs. Jed. Strutt." I saw 
the wheat, and distinctly recollect that the ears 
were bearded, and that more than one ear grew 
upon each stalk. Perhaps some reader of 
" N. & Q." may remember the circumstances 
better than myself, more especially those which 
relate to the finding of the original grains, their 
situation in the mummy case, &c. 


LYNE FAMILY (5 th S. xii. 107, 275 ; 6 th S. i. 
503). I send, for the information of R. E. L. and 
others, a list of persons of this name from 1261 to 
1804, whose names I have met with lately. I 
have omitted the names of those mentioned before 
in"N. &Q.": 

Johannes de Lyne, Mayor of Bristol, 1261. 

Cecilia Lyne, held land from the Crown in 1272. 

Richard Lyne, an assessor and collector in the "West 
Riding of Yorkshire, connected with the confirmation of 
charters, 1297. 

William de Lyne, Professor of Civil Law, 1354. 

William Lyne, of London, 1522. 

Robert Lyne, Rector of Holbeche Cantaria, 1529. 

Richard Lyne, Vicar of Mere, Wilts, 1529. 

Sir Philip Lyne, of Lyne Grove, London, 1553. 

Cuthbert Lyne, of Highbury Manor, London, 1558. 

John Lyne (Generosus), of Herefordshire and the 
Marches of Wales, 1559. 

Richard Lyne, of Loughton Manor, Bucks, 1560. 

Randulph Lyne, of Fordingbridge, Hants, 1562. 

John Lyne, of Downton, Wilts, 1562. 

Alice Lyne, of Parkshall Manor, Essex, 1565 

William Lyne, of Flytton Manor, Bedfordshire, 1566. 

Cuthbert Lyne, of Highbury Manor, London, 1596. 

Elizabeth Lyne, widow, of Long Buckley, Northamp- 
tonshire, 1602. 

Richard Lyne, Free Brother of the East India Com- 
pany, invested January 13th, 1619. 

Thomas Lyne, of Bradford Bryant, 1621. 

Mary, daughter of Sir Humphrey Lyne, born May 
29th, 1629. 



[6"> S. III. FEB. 12, '81. 

Sir Humphrey Lyne, married Margaret, daughter of 
H. Hook, of Branshot, Hants, 1634. 

Christopher Lyne, Mary Lyne, Phoebe Lyne, left Eng- 
land for Barbadoes, 1635. 

F. Lyne, or Line, at Stonyhurst College, 1641-94 

"William Lyne, will proved by Catherine, his relict, in 
the Court of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 1643. 

Matthew Lyne, appointed surgeon to H.M.S. Kent, 

Kichard Lyne, of Ireton, Northamptonshire, 1666. 
Josephine Lyne, buried in the parish church of '. 


mondsey, Oct. 12, 1680. 

William Lyne, of the Custom House, Southampton, 

Edward Lyne, of Saltford, Esquire, Sheriff for County 
of Devon, 1795. 

Mrs. Lyne, of Grantham, Lincolnshire, ob. Feb., 1804. 

The writer has the pedigree of the Cornish 
branch of the Lyne family complete from 1658 to 
the present time, and before that, through the wife 
of one John Lyne, to William Wadham, Lord of 
Edge, in Branscomb, Devon, temp. Edward III., 
but none of the names above mentioned appears in 
it, and further particulars about them are requested. 

J. M. G. 

34, Alexandra Road, Bedford. 

iii. 25, 71). I omitted to add to my previous 
reply a note from the Anecdotes of J. B. Nichols, 
1833, p. 335, which I fear will not be very accept- 
able to MR. WARNER. Nichols says that the 
Worlidge portrait " is the likeness of Ashley, the 
keeper of the punch-house on Ludgate Hill." It 
would have been more satisfactory if he had been 
less indefinite, or given his authority ; but he 
possibly did not care to say too much about a 
picture which had figured so prominently in the 
Genuine Works published by Nichols the elder. 



68, 117, 150, 198, 417; 6 th S. i. 125, 526; ii. 
255). I have a fine large-paper copy of the fourth 
edition, but the first folio, of Milton's Paradise, 
Lost, published with engravings in 1688. At the 
end of my copy is bound up the original list of 
subscribers. They number about five hundred 
and fifty, amongst whom are one duke, one mar- 
quess, eight earls, two bishops, twenty-one lords, 
and forty-six baronets. Poetry and the drama 
are represented by Betterton, Creech, Dryden, 
Duke, Flatman, Southern, Waller, &c. The 
clerical element is conspicuously absent from the 
list. Only two names of note occur, Mr. Francis 
Atterbury and Mr. Geo. Smalridge; these after- 
wards became bishops of the English Church. 
The Jacobite divines could not yet see the poet 
Milton otherwise than as the republican, anti- 
ecclesiastical controversialist. ADIN WILLIAMS. 

" Poems on Several Occasions. By Stephen Duck. 
London : Printed for the Author, M.DCC.XXXVL," 
4to., contains a list of 598 subscribers, among 

whom are six members of the royal family, a 
large number of lords and ladies, the Archbishops 
of Canterbury and York, the Speaker of the House 
of Commons, Sir Robert Walpole, " Alexander 
Pope, Esq." and " The Rev. Jonathan Swift, Dean 
of St. Patrick's." C.'D. 

I have " A Collection of Poems, chiefly MSS. 
and from living Authors, edited for the Benefit of 
a Friend by Joanna Baillie, 1823," containing 
thirty-six pages of subscribers (averaging forty- 
five in a page), commencing with the king. 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

248 ; ii. 158). 

' The following curious string of puns is taken from 
a scarce work, published in the reign of James I. A 
divine more willing to play with words than to be serious 
in expounding his text spoke thus in his sermon : ' This 
dial shows that we must die all ; yet, notwithstanding, 
all houses are turned into ale-houses ; our cares are 
turned into cates; our Paradise into a pair o' dice; 
matrimony into a matter o' money ; and marriage into 
a merry age. Our divines have become dry vines; it 
was not so in the days of Noah Ah no ! ' " Salad for 
the Social, "Pulpit Peculiarities." p. 299 (London, 
Bentley, 1856). 

Probably this is the list E. E. alludes to. 

F. W. T. 

WHAT is A MOUNTAIN 1 (6 th S ii. 27, 54, 291). 
It is certainly not very easy to answer the question, 
What is a mountain ? and to say at what altitude 
a hill ends and a mountain begins. In the fenny 
portions of England it takes a small amount of 
earth to be dignified with the name of a hill. The 
Cambridgeshire Gogmagog hills are gently rising 
fields. Mr. Boyd, in the first series of his Recrea- 
tions of a Country Parson (p. 126), says, " I am 
writing north of the Tweed, and the horizon is of 
blue hills, which some Southrons would call moun- 
tains." Christopher North, when speaking of the 
" mountains " of his boyhood, says, " Mountains 
they seemed to us in those days, though now we 
believe they are only hills." When an Englishman 
boasted to a Scotsman that England was in every 
respect superior to Scotland, which the Scotsman 
altogether denied, the Englishman said, " You 
must, at any rate, allow that Scotland is smaller in 
extent than England 1 " " By no means ! " was 
the reply. " Yours is a flat country, ours is a hilly 
one, and if all our hills were rolled out flat we 
should beat you by hundreds of square miles ! " 
The West- Highland prefix to a hill greatly helps 
us to an idea as to its altitude ; thus, the prefix 
Croc signifies a small surface, eminence, or little 
hill ; Sliabh, a hill of considerable elevation ; and 
Beann, Beinn, or, as it is more commonly written, 
Ben, a mountain of the largest magnitude. Beinn- 
an-Tuirc, " the Mountain of the Wild Boar," in 

6">S. III. FEB. 12, '81.] 



the peninsula of Cantire, Argyllshire, is 2,170 fee 
high ; although its name is omitted in the table 
of the Scotch mountains and hills, that give alti 
tudes down to that of Arthur's Seat, 823 feet high 


In "going to and fro in the earth" I have often 
been perplexed to make proper distinction be 
tween a hill and a mountain. It is well, as a rule 
to follow local usage; but the trials are many 
Not long since, I had the company of a Welsh 
gentleman in a walk out of Merthyr Tydfil, and 
he took me to an eminence some few hundred fee 
in height. " Do you call this a hill, or a nioun 
tain ? " I asked. The answer was, " A mountain/ 
Therefore, to avoid contention, I called the mole 
hill a mountain, and shall hope to do so again 
But, for my own convenience, and to establish 
something like a rule for conversational purposes 
I have since determined that a mountain musl 
have an altitude of one thousand feet, at least 
above the surrounding plain, or whatever table- 
land or level it rises from. I should like to have 
the opinion of a few experienced travellers as to 
the propriety of this rule. SHIRLEY HIBBERD. 

The Rev. John Mitford was not without an 
authority for his choice of Prior's Poems as a 
present to a lady friend. Johnson was no great 
admirer of Prior, and does not hesitate to say that 
Hans Carvel is "not over decent"; but he said 
to Boswell, when the latter was posing as a guar- 
dian of public morality, " No, sir, Prior is a lady's 
book. No lady is ashamed to have it standing in 
her library." (Boswell's Life, vol. vii. pp. 10, 11, 
Murray, 1835.) EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

(5 th S. xii. 324, 455; 6 th S. ii. 150, 290). A 
whole page engraving, said to be by R. Cooper, of 
the so-called "Monster," Eenwick Williams, 
exactly resembling the portrait described at the last 
reference, may be found facing p. 265 of Wonder- 
ful Characters, published by John Camden 
Hotten. There is no date of publication on the 
title-page of the book, but in all probability it 
was issued about 1870. The book in question is 
chiefly an abridgment of, and compilation from, 
two larger works, James Caulfield's Portraits of 
Remarkable Persons, and Henry Wilson's Wonder- 
ful Characters. There is a short account of him 
given, and very likely the engraving was executed 
originally from a sketch taken at the time of his 
trial, in 1790. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

A T ewbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

iii. 69). Curiously enough, at the time of the 
publication of this query I was reading the book in 
question. While, however, I had independently 
made the conjecture that the T. L. part of the 
initials might stand for Thomas Lodge, I am by 

no means so certain of the fact as A. S. seems to- 
be, who, not having seen the book, says, " I have 
not the slightest doubt that it was by him."' 
Neither do I think that Euphues' Golden Legacie 
and the like, or a Treatise on the Plague, or his 
translations of Josephus and Seneca, show that 
" such a work was quite in his way." The copy 
in the British Museum (12202, h. 5) is "A learned 
summary [not "Comentary" as in the Stationers' 
Registers] upon .... Translated out of the French 
[of Goulard de Senlis] by T. L. D. M. P. [Sold] by 
J. Grismand. 1621." At the ends of the "Dedi- 
cation " and the " Address to the Reader " these 
initials are printed as T. L. D. M. P. and 
T. L. D. M. P. respectively. 

Now, Lodge's lighter and lesser works, those 
written earlier in his life, bear on their title-pages 
" by T. L. Gent ," and even their later reprints, as 
of Euphues' Golden Legacie in 1616 and 1634,. 
have the same, though occasionally we find 
"Thomas Lodge" at the end of the dedication or 
preface. But in his later and more serious works- 
(enumerated above) the title-pages bear " by 
Thomas Lodge, Doctor of Physicke." Secondly,. 
D. M. may stand for M.D., and P. for Paris, 
Pavia, or Padua. But Lodge graduated at 
Avignon, as witnessed by the note of his entry 
into the University of Oxford. Thirdly, in 1620 he 
was revising his Seneca, and in it he speaks to the 
reader of his being then busy in a manner which 
rather suggests that he was doing more in his pro- 
fession than he had previously done. Lastly, I 
would repeat the Rev. Joseph Hunter's words. 
Speaking in his New Illustrations of Shakespeare, i. 
334, of a Thomas Lodge, M.D., of those times, who- 
married the widow of one Solomon Aldred, he says : 
" But there is still something wanting ; some better 
proof than we yet possess that the scholar, lawyer, 
soldier, poet, translator of the classics, and phy- 
sician, was one and the same Thomas Lodge."" 
While echoing these words, I would add that,. 
:hough they were the same, the T. L., even if he 
be M.D. of P., may well have been a T. L. other- 
wise unknown to fame ; also that the four verse 
ines (evidently by the writer) which close Thomas 
Lodge's "Address to the Reader" before the 
Oountesse of Lincolns Nurserie, 1603, do not read 
;o me like the verses of Thomas Lodge the poet. 
Other copies of the Summary are " Printed for 
Andrew Crooke, 1637," but whether these we're a 
new edition, or a reissue of unsold copies of 1621 
with a new title-page, I have not yet ascertained, 
["here is no entry of "assignment" in the Sta- 
ioners' Registers. A copy of the date 1637 is in. 
he London Library. B. NICHOLSON. 

P.S. I have just found that Lodge, in his 

)edication and Address to the Reader before his 

'eneca, has " Tho. Lodge, D.M.P., or Doctor- 

ledicus Phisicus." The Summary is therefore by 




[6th s. III. FEB. 12, '81. 

(6 th S. ii. 27, 155, 495). Robin may have become 
a term of " affectionate endearment," but at first, 
as I shall endeavour to show, it meant a country 
fool, or at least a simpleton. 

In Barclay's translation of The Ship of Fools, 
Cawood, 1570, under the head of " Olde fooles, 
that is to say, the longer they Hue, the more they 
are geuen to foly," is given an illustration of an 
old man on crutches, with one foot in the grave, 
and over his head is written "robin y e foule," 
f. 11. This inscription appears to have been put 
there by the translator's instructions, for it is not 
in the copy of the much earlier Latin version 
which I have. But I cannot speak confidently on 
this head, for there were so many early editions of 
this book in German and Latin that I have not 
seen them all. 

In The Academy of Compliments is the follow- 
ing dialogue : 

"Robin. Metliinks I never saw a better platter face 
than thine in my life. 

Doll. Ay, is this your courting 1 

Robin. Nay, be not angry; for I swear by my in- 
genuity, 'tis true. 

Doll. What, that I have a platter face ] 

Robin. Ay, and a brave one too. 

Doll. I think thou art a Robin by nature as well as 

Robin. Why, if I did not take you for a fool, I could 
not think you could love me ; for I am as lanthorn-jaw'd 
as you are platter-fac'd." Academy of Compliments 
(about 1660). 

I wished also to give a passage from Chaucer of 
somewhat the same meaning, but am not able, 
because in a weak moment I allowed a friend to 
wheedle my favourite copy out of me a few weeks 
ago. " He would value it so much, and it would 
be such a help to him, because it was full of my 
marks and marginal notes, and I had an old folio 
edition, so I could easily spare it." I did " spare 
it," and got a new one, and can't find anything I 
want in it. 

There 's Robin Goodfelloiv. I should not sup- 
pose he was a particular "dear" of anybody's. 
" There was also Robin Hood," some one may say. 
So there was ; and whatever we may think about 
him now, Robin Hood was decidedly " low " three 
or four hundred years back. I do not know one 
complimentary allusion to him by a person of 
education or position, but many much the reverse. 

" When Diogenes on a certain time treatyng, and 
making a declaracion of an earnest and saige matter of 
Philosophic, had not one hearer, that would giue 
diligente eare vnto him, he begun to sing soch another 
foolish song as (Robin Hood in Barnsdale stode, &c.) 
and sembleed as though he would daunce withall. And 
when a verie greate multitude of people had now 
gathered together and swarmed about him, he tooke 
them all vp for stumblyng, because that to thinges 
foolish, & seruyng to no good purpose, thei came 
rennyng by whole flockes, and as merie as Pies, where 
as to serious matters, and thesame moche auailable vnto 

good liuyng, thei neither would resort or approch or 
diligently giue eare." Apophthegmes of Erasmus, 1542. 
reprint 1877, p. 83. 

This threatning and forbidding the laye people to 
reade the Scripture is not for loue of your soules (which 
they care for as the Poxe doth for the Geesse) is euident 
and clearer then the Sunne, in as much as they permitte 
and suffer you to read Rollin Hode & Beuis of Hampton, 
Hercules, Hector, and Troylus, with a thousand histories 
and fables." Tyndale's Works, 1573, f. 104. 

I write no ieste ne tale of Rolin Hood, 

Nor sowe no sparkles ne sede of viciousnes ; 

Wise men loue vertue, wilde people wantonnes." 
Barclay's Ship of Fooles, 1570, f. 259. 

Plenty of other instances could be given from Sir 
T. More, Coverdale, Erasmus, &c. 

Thomas Hey wood, writing a few years after 
Robert Toffc, has left evidence, in his often-quoted 
lines, that he did not consider it a compliment or 
" an affectionate term of endearment " to be called 
" Robin" instead of Robert : 

" Greene, who had in both Academies ta'ne 
Degree of Master, yet could never gaine 
To be call'd more than Robin ; who, had he 
Profest ought save the Muse, serv'd and been free 
After a seven-yeares' prentiseship, might have 
(With credit too) gone Robert to his grave." 

R. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 


OP WILLIAM III. (6 th S. i. 277). 

" There is now living in lady Dacre's' alms-houses, in 
Westminster, one Mrs. Windimore, whose maiden name 
was Hyde ; she was grand-daughter of Dr. Hyde, bishop 
of Salisbury, brother of the great lord chancellor Hyde, 
earl of Clarendon, and lost her fortune in the south-sea 
year, in 1720 ; she is also a distant cousin of their late 
majesties queen Mary and queen Anne, whose mother 
was lately Anne Hyde, Dutchess of York ...... She retains 

her senses in a tolerable degree : and her principal 
complaint is, that she has outlived all her friends, being 
now upwards of an hundred years of age." Annual 
Register, 1765, p. 7b\ 


AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (6 th S. iii. 109). 
The History of Sacrilege. The two priests were, I 
believe, the Rev. J. M. Ne'ale, and the Rev. 11. F. Little- 
dale. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

The two clergymen who brought out the new edition 
of this book were, I believe, the Rev. Benjamin Webb, 
now Incumbent of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, and Dr. 
John Mason Neale, late Warden of Sackville College. 



" He made the desert smile." 

I may be mistaken, for I was a guest at Alton Towers 
more than forty years ago, but I fancy that I recollect 
the line under the bust of a former Earl of Shrewsbury, 
who laid out the gardens, was, 

" He made the barren wilderness to smile," 
evidently taken from the line in Addison'a beautiful 
hymn, " The Lord my pasture shall prepare," &c. 
" The barren wilderness shall smile." 

J. R. B. 

6"' S. III. FEB. 12, '81.] 




The Bole named the Gouernour. By Sir Thomas Elyot, 
Knigbt. Edited by H. H. S. Croft. With Por- 
traits of Sir Thomas and Lady Elyot after Holbein's 
original Drawings. 2 vols. (C. Kegan Paul & Co.) 
THE first edition of the Gouernoiir was published in 
1531, and in the succeeding fifty years it was seven times 
reissued. The subject of the book is described in the 
author's " Proheme " as treating of " the education of 
them that hereafter may be deemed worthy to be gouer- 
nours of the publike weale," and the rapidity with which 
it reached its eighth edition attests the popularity it at 
once attained. It was one of the most valued educational 
works during the youthful years of the brilliant crowd 
of statesmen and courtiers who adorned the court of 
Elizabeth, and of the still more illustrious group of 
writers who imparted to her reign its most enduring 
glory. Many of the distinguished men, in whom the age 
was prolific, presented living examples of that type of 
character which the training inculcated by the Gouer- 
nour was specially designed to form. The time at which 
it was written, and the influence it may once have 
exercised, should alone secure for the book a hearty 
welcome. But it claims attention on a variety of other 
grounds. Imbedded in a mass of quaint pedantry are to 
be found valuable hints on educational questions which 
modern teachers have but lately appreciated, and some 
suggestions which they may yet utilize. Elyot urges on 
gentlemen the advantages of acquiring a knowledge of 
music, and of cultivating a taste for painting and sculp- 
ture, while Philistines will applaud his strenuous ad- 
vocacy of dancing and manly exercises. The chapters 
which deal with these subjects, illustrated by the mass 
of curious information which the editor has collected, 
will probably prove of the greatest general interest. 
But the book also throws light on a variety of points 
connected with social life in the sixteenth century; 
affords materials for an estimate of the extent of classical 
learning at a time when the revival of letters worked 
such momentous changes; possesses, from a linguistic 
point of view, an especial value, since Elyot wrote in 
English to prove the capabilities of the language at an 
interesting stage in its development ; and, lastly, is the 
original source whence is derived the time-honoured 
story of the committal of Henry V., then Prince of 
Wales, to prison by Judge Gascoigne. The intrinsic 
value of the book, now reissued in two handsome quarto 
volumes, is enhanced by the very successful labours both of 
the editor and the publishers. Mr. Croft, with an industry 
which deserves the highest praise, has collected a number 
of new facts concerning the hitherto obscure parentage 
and life of Elyot. He has traced to the original source 
the learned references with which the book is crowded, 
and illustrated the text from his own copious acquaint- 
ance with English and French literature of the sixteenth 
century. He has supplied ample indices and an ad- 
mirable glossary of the many rare and curious words 
used by his author. The value of his lengthy extracts 
from modern authors is open to doubt, and they largely 
contribute to the great bulk of the book. With this 
possible exception, this edition of the Gouernour leaves 
nothing to be desired, and it may be cordially recom- 
mended as offering many points of interest to every class 
of reader, and especially to tho antiquary and the 

Collected Sonnets, Old and New. By Charles Tennyson 

Turner. (C. Kegan Paul & Co.) 

THERE is a something abnormal, and even a suggestion 
of limitation, in the work of a poet who during a long 

lifetime has confined himself to utterances in a single- 
form of verse, the more so when the form selected is 
one of strictly defined extent. But whatever the cause 
may have been in this case, Mr. Turner appears to have 
contentedly accepted the fact. "Let lyrics be," he 
says in 1863 to a friend who had asked him to " write an 
Ode " : 

" Let lyrics be ; 

For though I do not love to say thee nay, 
For my poor muse it is too late a day 
To mell with strophe and antistrophe" ; 

an art, he declares a few lines earlier, "beyond his scope 
and pitch." Setting this question aside, however, as well 
as that larger question of laxity of form which presents 
itself somewhat persistently in this volume, we have 
little but admiration for Mr. Turner's poems. No reader 
can fail to acquire respect for the alma leata e bella (as 
his nephew styles it) which is manifested in these pages 
as well as for their genuinely poetical spirit. To read in 
them is to desire some personal knowledge of the author 
(a thing, alas ! no longer possible), and there can be 
no surer sign of the effect of poetry. The picturesqueness 
and purity of diction are, moreover, remarkable. It 
would be easy to select hundreds of lines like 

" Th' incessant brazen flash of Homer's war," 

which exhibit a suggestive felicity only to be matched 
by some of the Laureate's ; and if, here and there, the 
writer has for a moment nodded, it must be borne in 
mind that minor blemishes are more obtrusive than 
elsewhere in the " sonnet's scanty plot of ground." For 
close and loving pictures of nature, for noble sympathies 
and lofty aspirations things which have played a con- 
siderable part in the equipment of the greatest poets we 
can recall no recent book of verse which will at all 
compare with Mr. Turner's, hampered as he was by a 
restricted and uniform vehicle of expression. 

Chartes de la Terre Saint provenant de I'Ablaye de -iV.ZX 
de Josaphat. Publiees par H. F. Delaborde. (Paris,. 

M. DELABORDE, one of the most distinguished members 
of the French Archaeological School established at Rome, 
has just published a collection of charters relating to the 
history of the Crusades. It is well known that as early 
as the ninth century there existed in Palestine a church 
built on the spot where the Blessed Virgin was supposed 
to have been buried. " In valle Josaphat," says an old 
chronicler, " in villa quae dicitur Gethsemane ubi Sancta 
Maria sepulta fuit, ubi sepulcrum ejus est venerabile inter 
presbyteros et Clericos XII L, Monachi VI.. Deo Sacrata 
inter inclusas et ibidem Servientes XV." After the- 
taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, a Benedictine 
monastery was founded on the spot occupied by that 
church, and a diploma of King Baldwin I., bearing date 
1115, names Hugh as the first Abbot of Jehoshaphat. 
The sacredness of the locality and the traditions 
which connected it with the death of the Virgin Mary 
tended, of courae, to make the Benedictine monastery 
extremely popular, and to secure for it the liberality 
of kings and queens, patriarchs and barons. Hence the 
extensive domains which it possessed both in Sicily and 
in Southern Italy; hence the rich donations bestowed 
upon it by the princes of the Hohenstaufen family. 
Most of the fifty-nine charters published by M. Delaborde 
refer to these grants or concessions; they are copiously 
illustrated with notes, and the biographical indications 
they contain will prove extremely valuable in correcting 
a good many blunders to be found either in the old his- 
torians of the Crusades or in Ducange's Families 
d'Outremer and other works of the same kind. The first 
document printed here is dated 1112, and contains a 


NOTES . AND QUERIES. i*n s. in. FEB. 12, 'si. 

grant made to the Church of our Lady of Jehoshaphat 
foy Arnoul de Rohes, Patriarch of Jerusalem ; the last 
one, dated October 17, 1289, is a letter from Nicholas, 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, authorizing the abbot of the 
monastery to return to Europe for the purpose of putting 
in order the monastery's estates in Sicily and Calabria. 
All these pieces form part of the State papers at Palermo, 
and are, with a few exceptions, the original deeds. M. 
Delaborde has published photographic fac- similes of two 
of them, and the volume is completed by a good alpha- 
betical index. 

The Threiplands of FingasTc. A Family Memoir, written 
in 1853 by Robert Chambers, LL.D. (W. & R. 

AT a time when the last page, eo to speak, of the Stuart 
romance has been closed by the recent passing away of 
the last survivor of the two brothers who claimed to be 
legitimate heirs of " Bonnie Prince Charlie," a book 
so full of Jacobite memories as the one now before us 
has more than ordinary interest. The Threiplands of 
Fingask, whose chequered story is here so graphically 
told by the late Robert Chambers, have a history which 
is' practically unique in that it is so exclusively bound 
up with the vicissitudes of the later generations of the 
House of Stuart. Distinguished by the " king over the 
water ' : as of an entirely different temper from those of 
his adherents who were "over solicitous about them- 
selves," the title of Lord Fingask was destined for the 
head of the house, had the "Right Steward come back 
to rule the Land o' Cakes." Instead of this, the Threip- 
lands lost all, and only kept their honour. That remained 
to them throughout, and it is pleasant to know that 
they, at least, are " enjoying their ain again." 

Tie First Quarto Edition of Hamlet in 1603. Two 
Essays by C. H. Herford and AV. II. Widgery. (Smith. 
Elder k Co.) 

IN the beginning of 1602 the play of II amid was acted ; 
in the following year the first quarto was printed and 
published ; and in 1604 was issued the second quarto, 
containing the "true and perfect" copy of the tragic 
' Hystorie of Hamlet." Those facts have given birth to 
a famous and well- contested controversy, of which the 
main point is the relation of the first quarto to the final 
play. The question, speaking shortly, is whether the 
first quarto contains an early sketch from the hand of 
Shakspeare of the final play, or the final play itself 
corrupted by the blunders of a reporter. This was the 
subject of the Harness prize in 1880, for which the 
authors have written two able and painstaking essays, 
adjudged by the examiners to be equal in merit. Both 
essays present the chief features of the discussion in a 
clear and not unattractive form ; and those who are 
interested in the subject will find that this little volume 
contains the main arguments in a compact and intel- 
ligible shape. 

The Palatine Note-Bool. Vol. I., No. 1. (Manchester, 

Cornish ; Chester, Mitchell & Hughes.) 
The Bradford Antiquary. (Bradford Historical and 

Antiquarian Society.) 

CuR North-country friends are very active in their carry- 
ing out of the maxim of the immortal Captain Cuttle. 
They are making notes everywhere and printing them, 
so as to secure the permanent record of much that might 
otherwise be lost to later generations, perhaps even to 
our own. The name of our old and valued correspon- 
dent, Mr. John E. Bailey, as editor, is an ample gua- 
rantee for the care and knowledge with which The 
Palatine Note-Book will be conducted, and we wish him 
all success in his undertaking. 

The Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society has, 

we think, from the specimen of its work now before us, 
decided wisely in bringing into general circulation much 
matter of interest more than local which the zeal of 
local antiquaries has from time to time accumulated. 
The illustrations of the first number are remarkably 
good, and add to the value of The Bradford Antiquary. 

Ye Old Style Valentines. (Manchester, Falkner & Sons.) 
'Tis pleasant to see what store of Valentines there be 
nowadays, for them that like of such Vanities. Truly, 
time was when y e Maiden herself was Valentine unto 
her Sweetheart; and did ofttimes cost him a pretty 
penny thereby : but now, to speak of Valentines, 'tis but 
some little Card or Book (yet not so cheap neither) 
showing Fancy and Favour, or else desiring the same. 
Poor Innocents ! Yet, if any will have these things, 
here be twelve Cards, aptly writ with good Verses out 
of Master Dray ton, and Mr. Dean of Paul's, and Carew 
that served His late Majesty, and that worthy Knight of 
the Queen's days, Sir Philip Sidney. Mighty pretty 
toys are they all ; and pictures therewith wherein we 
do spy the Grecian figure avaxpovivfuoQ. But Lord, 
what good pictures Mistress Kate Greenaway do make ! 

THE January number of the New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register contains a paper by Col. 
Chester, of great interest to genealogists on both sides 
of the Atlantic, clearing the history of Margaret Locke, 
third wife of Governor Francis Willoughby. 

MR. HENRY GRAY, Cathedral Yard, Manchester, has 
issued No. 2 of his catalogues of second-hand books. .On 
account of the numerous titles of historical and topo- 
graphical works which it contains, the catalogue deserves 
the attention of the general as well as the antiquarian 

" N. & Q." cannot appear this week without regretting 
the loss sustained by English literature in the death of 
Thomas Carlyle, on Saturday, February 5. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

G. J. B. Your question does not lie within our pro- 
vince, nor are we able to refer you to the source whenco 
the information might be derived. 

G. S. B. Send the query to the Illustrated London 

P. R. (" 'Tis better to have loved and lost," &c.). 
See Tennyson's In Memoriam, section xxvii. 

T. W. S. (Southampton). You should consult Eadie's 
English Bible (Macmillan) on the subject. 

L. L. H. We are informed that there are no letters 
in the collection bearing the name of your namesake. 

R. E. M. Read Macaulay's essay on Warren Hastings. 

HENRY WARING. Apply at the Heralds' College. 

WE cannot answer queries privately. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make uo exception. 

6'hS. III. FEB. 19, '81.] 





NOTES : Early English Dictionaries, 141 The Croker Cor- 
respondence, 142-The Bibliography of Skating, 143-Female 
Soldiers and Sailors, 144-Rev. W. Jones and the Arch- 
deaconry of Carmarthen, 145 Verses in Fantastic Forms 
"The Corsican Brothers," 146 Petroleum The Daisy in 
Pliny Bouvier Family Ancestors for Sale, 147. 

QUERIES : Joannes Samblancatus C. Parnham, B.D. 
Englishmen at the Irish Bar, 147 Attwood Family Uglow 
"The Christian Year "-Tndor Mull Jean Leclerc-Eoys 
Executed in England Sixty Years ago" A Liverpool gentle- 
man " <fec "Legenda Aurea" A Norwich MS. Sermon- 
General Sir S. Poyntz Arms Wanted-Prophet of Sussex 
Lampadius Plantagenet (Earl of Warren), 148 -" To make 
a leg" Mershell. Watchmaker Mead's Row "Jack Sprat" 
Whalley and Joyce, the Puritans-Conundrum Wanted 
"At Bay" "Sarsaparilla,"149-Bp Pownham Valentine's 
Day Straw Capes worn by Spanish Peasants Authors 
Wanted, 150. 

REPLIES : Letters of Dr. Johnson: Charles Congreve 
Brasses in Churches, 150 The Mystery of Berkeley Square, 
151 Pickering Lythe-Cowley and Sprat, 152-Lucy Went- 
worth, &c., 153 "The Tablet of Cebes," 154 "Persii 
Satirse" S.P.Q.R. Genealogy in the Law Reports Forth 
Arms, 155 A Puritan Hymn T. Harrison, tbe Regicide- 
Hogarth's Residence in Cirencester "To tumble upstairs" 
Cervantes, 156 Portrait of John Jackson Charles Dickens 
and the New " First Rate" The Man of Ross, 157 N. C. 
Scatcherd Tennyson's "Ballads and other Poems" 
Mummy Wheat Ormond Street Chapel, 158 Authors 
Wanted, 1C9. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Charteris's " Canonicity " Bent's 
" Genoa " Birds's Goethe's " Faust " " Biographies of the 
Great Artists," &c. 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


Two lists of early English dictionaries, including 
some bilingual and trilingual works in which the 
English language forms a part, have been issued 
by Mr. Wheatley (Phil Tr., 1865) and Prof. 
Skeat (Eng. Dial. Soc.), the latter list being based 
upon the former. As the subject is interesting to 
all who study English philology, I propose to offer 
in " N. & Q." some corrections and additions to 
these lists. Prof. Skeat's will be referred to chiefly. 
The dictionaries mentioned are in my own pos- 
session unless otherwise described. 

1. " Catholicon of Jacobus Januensis (Trin. Coll., 
Cambridge)." It is stated that "Mr. Aldis Wright 
has transcribed such words from this Latin dic- 
tionary as have English explanations." The work, 
then, cannot be the Catholicon that was written by 
John of Genoa, for this is wholly in Latjin. It must 
be the Catholicon Anglicum, which was doubtless 
based upon the Italian work. My copy of the 
former is of the undated edition, and has the date 
1460 on the binding, which is contemporaneous 
with the book, or nearly so. The same date is 
assigned to it on a copy in the British Museum. 
This is probably the year in which it was printed, 
though M. Martin (Lettres d\in Bibliographe, iv. 

110) assigns it to a rather later period, 1465-70. 
If English words appear in any work bearing this 
name, it must belong to some other author. The 
name, too, is not given correctly. Under the 
heading of " Janua " the author adds : 

" Item a janua, porta, dicta eat Janua, quasdam civitas 

potens, nobilis, pulcra Hujua civitatia oriundus fuit 

compilator hujus libelli, qui dicitur prosodia vel ca- 
tholicon. Compilator siquidem hujus operis dictus frater 
iohannes januensia de balbis, de ordine fratrum praedi- 
catorum modicus." 

The Balbi family seems to have inherited a taste 
for philology and ethnography. Gasparo Balbi, 
in the sixteenth century, was one of the earliest 
writers on India, and Adrien Balbi, in the last 
century, was the author of the Atlas Ethnogra- 
phique du Globe. 

2. Vulgaria. By William Horman. 1519. 
No mention is made of the more popular Vulgaria 
of Robert Whitinton, the first edition of which 
was published by Wynkyn de Worde in 1520. 
The title is Vulgaria Eoberti Whitintoni Lich- 
feldiensis, et de Institutione Grammaticulorum 
Opusculum. I have a copy of this work printed 
in 1520 by Thomas Bercula, apparently an un- 
known printer. There is a copy of it by the same 
printer in the British Museum, but the date is 
1525. It is not a dictionary, but a collection, under 
different headings, of English sentences, which 
are translated into Latin. They contain much 
interesting information for the philologist and the 

3. A Shorte Dictionarie. By J. Withals. 
The first edition of this work is said to have been 
" imprinted in the late house of William Caxton 
(by W. de Worde) [London, n.d.]," and to have 
been reprinted by Berthelet in 1554. Herbert ha* 
assumed the existence of an edition by W. de 
Worde, but Dibdin was undoubtedly right in- 
questioning this statement. The edition printed 
by Berthelet in 1553 (not 1554) was certainly the 
first. This is proved by the preface, called the 
Prologue. It is dedicated by the author " To- 
the right worshipfull Syr Thomas Chaloner [not 
Chalmer, as in Lowndes], knight, and clerke of 
the kynges maiesties priuie counsayle." Now Sir 
T. Chaloner was knighted in the year 1547, and 
W. de Worde died in 1534. In the preface, too r 
the author suggests that his patron should follow 
the example of " Sir Thomas Elyote, that worthie 
knight," by putting a " helpynge hande to the 
finishyng of this litle booke"; but Elyot's dic- 
tionary first appeared in 1538, four years after 
W. de Worde's death. In the colophon of the 
first edition the name is spelled Whithals. Lewis 
Evans afterwards edited the work, omitting the 
name of Withals, and substituting for the dedi- 
cation to Sir T. Chaloner (who died in 1565) 
another "To the Right Honorable Earle, his onely 
good Lord and Mayster, the Lord Robert Dudley, 



[6th s. III. FEB. 19, '81. 

Earle of Leycester, Baron of Denbigh, Maister of 
the horse to the Queene's Maiestie," &c. It is in 
the usual fulsome style of the age. There was an 
edition published in 1584 by Thomas Purfoot 
(this edition is not mentioned by Prof. Skeat), and 
edited by Abraham Fleming, who states in the 
preface that the work is " nowe lastlie augmented 
with more than six hundred rythmical verses," &c. 
He retains Evans's dedication, and adds one of his 
own : " Ad Philomvsos de isto Dictionariolo nunc 
recens aucto Abraham! Flemingi Londinigense 
praefatiuncula," The last editor was William 
Clerk, who edited an edition in 1602, and prefaced 
it by a dedication to the schoolmasters of England, 
all the other dedications and prefaces being omitted. 
The work in this last form was printed again in 
1608, 1616, 1623, and 1634, the last being the 
latest edition of the work that is on record. 

4. Dictionary (Latin and English}. By Sir 
Thomas Elyot. I have only a copy of the edition 
published by Berthelet in 1545. The title is 
Bibliotheca Eliotce Eliotis Librarie. It is dedi- 
cated thus : 

"The Proheme. To the moste roiall and puisant 
prince, and his moste redoubted soueraigne lorde kyng 
Henry the eight, kyng of Englande, France and Irelande, 
defender of the feithe, and of the Churche of Englande 
and also of Irelande in eartlie the supreme head : his 
humble servaunt, Thomas Elyot knight, desyreth per- 
petuall felicitee." 

It is evident that the king felt much interest in 
the work, for Sir Thomas says in his preface, after 
acknowledging "the comfortable words" of the 
king with regard to it : 

" I therefore most feruently stirred by your gracis 
comforte in pervsying my saied Dictionarie have pro- 
ceded to the correction and amplificacion thereof in 
suche fourme as hereafter foloweth. First sequestryng 
my selfe from all other businesse (that onely except, 
wherein I was bounden to serue your highnesse) I 
assembled all suche authours as I thought shulde be 
necessarie for the achieuyng of that whiche I toke in 

The business to which he was bound was that 
of Clerk of the Privy Council. The book was 
printed by Berthelet, who calls himself " typo- 
graphus regius." There was a folio edition in 
1542, not mentioned in Lowndes, which was also 
printed by Berthelet. 

5. An Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionarie. By 
John Baret. Folio, 1580. This, the second, 
edition of Baret's work was published after his 
death. Mr. Wheatley has noticed that the pre- 
face to the index is signed by Abraham Fleming ; 
but it is evident from this preface, though not 
expressly asserted, that Fleming was the editor. 
In the title-page the work is said to be " newlie 
enriched with varietie of Wordes, Phrases, Prouerbs 
and diners lightsome observations of Grammar." 
It is dedicated in Latin to Cecil, Lord Burghley, 
" Summum Anglise Thesaurarium . . . ac Canta- 
brigiensis Academioe Cancellarium." To the latter 

office he had been appointed in 1558, on the death 
of Cardinal Pole. 

6. Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words, 
or Dictionarie of the Italian and English Tongues. 
Folio. Prof. Skeat does not mention an edition of 
this work which appeared in 1688, " revised and 
corrected by J(ohn) D(avies), M.D.,"by whom it is 
dedicated in an Italian preface "alia sacra ed 
augustissima Principessa, Maria d'Este, Eeina 
d'Inghilterra." To Florio's work is appended 
Torriano's Eng.-Ital. Dictionary (of which this was 
the second edition), but dated 1687, and printed at 
another press. There are some errors in the 
account of Florio's work by Lowndes. He men- 
tions four editions, in 1595 or 1597, 1598, 1611, 
and 1659 ; but Torriano says that " in the year 
1611 John Florio set forth a second edition of his 
Italian and English dictionary . . . intending (if he 
had lived) a third edition ; which he left behind 
him in a very fair Manuscript, perfected and ready 
for the press " (preface to second edition). There 
was, however, certainly an edition of Florio's 
work in 1598, " printed at London by Arnold 
Hatfield for Edw. Blount," and dedicated to 
"Eoger, Earle of Rutland" (Hazlitt's Coll. and 
Notes). This, then, must be the first edition, and 
that of 1659, to which Torriano's work was ap- 
pended for the first time, was the third. The 
edition of 1688 is a fine folio, and was printed by 
R. Holt and W. Horton. 

7. An English Expositor. By J(ohn) B(ullokar), 
Doctor of Physicke. Small 8vo. 1616. Prof. 
Skeat states that " the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
editions were printed at Cambridge. Still later 
appeared a twelfth ed. (London, 1719) and a thir- 
teenth ed. (Dublin, 1726), both revised by R. 
Browne." A copy of the fourth edition is now 
before me. The title-page shows that it was 
printed at Cambridge by John Field, printer to 
the University, in 1667. It is said to be revised 
and very much augmented by one who calls him- 
self "a Lover of the Arts" : he adds a preface to 
the work, in which he speaks highly of it, even in 
its original form. The thirteenth was not the last 
edition ; there was a fourteenth, printed in London 
in the year 1731. T. Longman appears as one of 
the publishers. It is edited by R. Browne, but 
the preface is that which is prefixed to the Cam- 
bridge edition of 1667. J. D. 

Belsize Square. 

(To le continued.) 


4. The writer of the following letter was Arthur 
Saunders Gore, third Earl of Arran. At the time 
of his dining with George III. at Kew, his father, 
the second earl, was alive ; consequently he was 
then by courtesy styled Viscount Sudley. Lord 

6'l> S. III. FEB. 19, '81.] 



Sudley was M.P. for Donegal, and married in 
1787 Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Tyrrell, of Heron Hall, Essex, Bart. He succeeded 
to the earldom of Arran on the death of his father 
in 1809, lost his wife in 1832, and died in 1837, 
the titles descending to his nephew and heir, 
Philip Yorke Gore. The Colonel Fitz Koy men- 
tioned was probably the Hon. Charles Fitz Koy, 
second son of the first Baron Southampton, who 
was gazetted colonel of the First Foot Guards in 
1797. He was subsequently appointed aide-de-camp 
to the king, and became a lieutenant-general in 1810. 

[We are indebted to the kindness of one of our best 
friends for the above introductory note.] 

"Arran Lodge, Bognor. 

" I have great pleasure in giving you all the 
information in my power on the subject of your enquiry 
respecting the habits of our late great and good King 
George the Third. 

" I had the honor of receiving three commands to dine 
with their Majesties at Kew ; tis now, one, or two, and 
thirty years ago. The King came from Windsor once a 
fortnight to hold a Levee, and Her Majesty had a Draw- 
ing room once a month, on which occasions the Family 
came to Kew on the Wednesday and staid till Friday. 
On three of those Wednesdays Lady Sudley and I 
received their Majesties' commands conveyed in a note 
from the Princess Elizabeth to attend at Kew Houae at 
4 o'clock to have the honor of dining with them ; that 
Lady Sudley was to come in a hat or bonnet as they 
intended driving out in open carriages after dinner, and 
that I was to wear the Hussars uniform. We arrived 
therfe in due time and were ushered into a room down- 
stairs next to the eating room ; in a few minutes the 
King leading the Queen, the princesses Augusta and 
Elizabeth attended by two ladies in waiting entered, 
and after the usual How do! do! proceeded to dinner. 
The dinner, including desert, lasted aa near as possible 
one hour; returned to the room whence we came, had 
coffee, then all the party, myself excepted, left the room 
and I remained alone for near an hour when a pag< 
came to announce the carriages were at the door. Wher 
I got into the Hall you may judge of my surprise to find 
Col. Fitz Roy, equerry in waiting, who had dined alone 
The King drove the Queen in an open carriage, th( 
ladies follow'd in others, and Fitz Roy and I were driven 
by a postillion, through Richmond Park, to the Duchess 
of Buccleuch to Tea, returned to Kew ; and from thence 
we went to town. Our second invitation was the same 
only the Duke of Kent was there, and after tbe coffee 
H.R.H. retired with the King and Queen for some time 
and then came and sat with me, till we were summonei' 
to the party at 8 o'clock which lasted till ten, when w 
were dismissed ; the third invitation was the same, 
was the only man, and neither of the last times wa 
there an equerry. I was not invited on any specia 
occasion, and was told 1 was the first commoner who hac 
had that honor ; it was certainly most gratifying. 

" When the Royal family went to Cheltenham, and th 
first three or so years at Weymouth, the male attendant 
did dine with the King ; but he got three houses adjoin 
ing Gloster Lodge, and then they had their own dinin 
room. I have heard some of his attendants say an hou 
was not enough for dinner &c, and now that I am 3 
years older, 1 think I should say the same, for 32 year 
makes a sad difference in one's feelings and ideas i 
many points. 

" I am sorry I cannot send this free for my nephew ia 
one out of town for some days; I should have had 
reater pleasure in repeating to you what I have written, 
hould it please God I live for another year and that I 
ave the good fortune to see you at Bognor, I may be 
ble to name some other interesting circumstances of 
aat most excellent man. I beg to present my best 
espects to M ri Croker, and believe me 

" to be very faithfully 

" and sincerely yours 

" Arran Lodge " ARRAH. 

" No\ r first 1836." - 


The titles collected under this heading during 
he last ten years number over 240. Of these, 
ome 200 are titles of books which only relate in 
part to skating. To treat them in groups histo- 
ically, 34 relate to snow-skates, 11 to blunt-skates, 
126 to blade-skates, 11 to alum floors for blade- 
kates, and 19 to roller-skates. 

The other 40 odd titles are of books devoted to 
kating, 34 to blade- skates, and 7 to roller-skates, 
in 1874 I asked, under the heading "Skating 
Literature" (" N. & Q.," 5 th S. ii. 107, 156, 318, 
379 ; iv. 177, 437 ; v. 136 ; x. 155) for titles, and 
;hus obtained half a dozen, for which I am grate- 
!ul, but I still hope for more. Although the 
works relating to the early history of skating 
are of interest from many points of view, the 
list is so long that the readers of " N. & Q." 
would probably not thank me for asking the 
Editor to print it, so I refrain. The United States 
and Canada have probably produced some works 
which I have failed to know of. Will interested 
skaters thereaway kindly forward me any pamph- 
lets, articles, and verses on the art or history of 
skating, or notes of them ? Those who are in- 
terested in roller-skating may like to know that a 
list of works on and relating to roller-skating 
appeared in the English Mechanic, London, April 
16, 1880. The title-notes do not agree with the 
title-pages, as the compositor altered many of the 
notes, and transposed their parts. The following 
titles are numbered for ease of reference. I shall 
be glad of opportunities of viewing those works 
imperfectly described below : 

1. Jones (Robert). A treatise on skating ; founded 
on certain principles deduced from many years' expe- 
rience ; by which that noble exercise is now reduced to 
an art and may be taught and learned by a regular 
method, with both ease and safety. The whole illustrated 
with copper-plates, representing the attitudes and graces. 
By R. Jones, Lieutenant of Artillery... London, printed 
for the author; and sold by J. Ridley in St. James 
Street, 1772. 8vo. pp. 16+64. 4 plates. 2s. 6rf. British 
Museum Library. 

2. Anonymous. Cursus glacialis ; or, seating, a poetical 
essay. Inscribed to the [Skating ]J Club. 

Ocyor Euro. Hor[ace]. 

[Edinburgh?] Printed in the month of January, 1774. 
4to. pp. 16. Without names of author, place, printer, or 
publisher. Brit. Mus. Lib. " The following little piece 
[196 lines] was chiefly designed as an imitation of the 



. III. FEB. 19, '81. 

Cursus Glacialis of Philip Frowde of Magdalene College, 
Oxford, printed in the second volume of the Mu&ce 
Anglicance." P. 3. 

3. Vieth (Gerard Ulrich Anton). Ueber das schlitt- 
schuhlaufen. Leipzig, Reinicke in Halle ; Wien, Horling, 
1790. 8vo. (Kaiser, v. 159a ; vi. 806 ; Zindel, p. 78 ) 

4. Garcin (J.). Le vrai patineur, ou principes sur 1'art 
-de patiner avec grace, par J. Garcin. Paris, Deles- 
pinasse ; Delaunay; Nepveu; 1'auteur. 1813. 12mo. 
figures. 1 fr. 50 c. (J. M. Querard, La France Litter aire, 
ii\. 256 ; " N. & Q.," 5"' S. iv. 437.) 

5. Maier (or Mayr). Das schlittschuhlaufen. Ein 
taschenbuch fiir freimdeder edlen vergniigens. Salzburg, 
1814. Mahr, 8vo. (Kaiser, iv. 136). 

6. Anonymous. The skater's pocket companion ; an 
original work : containing plain and easy directions by 
which ladies or gentlemen may attain a thorough know- 
ledge of this healthy winter amusement. London, 
printed & sold by Dean & Munday, Threadneedle Street. 
Price sixpence. Water mark, 1821. Eights, 2.! by 4 in., 
pp. 62. Plate and fore-title (The Skaiter's Manual) 
engraved, arid twelve woodcuts (white lines on black 
block) with the text. South Kensington Museum. 

7. Zindel (Christian Siegmund). Der eislauf oder das 
schrittschuhfahren, ein taschenbuch ftir Jung und alt. 
Mit gedichten von Klopstock, Gothe, Herder, Cramer, 
Krummacher, &c., und kupfern von J. A. Klein. He- 
rausgegeben von Christian Siegmund Zindel. Niirnberg, 
1824, bei Friedrich Campe. 8vo. 6 plates. (Kaiser, vi. 

8. Zindel (Christian Siegmund). Der eislauf oder das 
schrittschuhfahren, ein taschenbuch ftir Jung und alt. 
Mit gedichten von Klopstock, Cothe. Herder, Cramer, 
Krummacher, &c., und kupfern von J. A. Klein. He- 
raugegeben von Chris. Siegm. Zindel. Niirnberg, 1825, 
bei Friedrich Campe. 8vo. pp. 4 + 1SO, 6 plates. Brit. 
Mus. Lib. 

9. Fergar (F. E.). Das schlittschuhfahren, eine prakt. 
anleit. zum gchnellen und richtigen selbstlernen dieser 
kunst. Mit kupfern. Wien, 1827. Haas. 8vo. (Kaiser, 
ii. 2046 ; v. 97a.) 

10. Clay (Thomas). Instructions on the art of skating, 
containing useful lessons to learners. By Thomas Clay 
[of Liverpool]. Leeds : printed by Robinson, Hernaman 
and Wood, and sold by all booksellers. Price one shilling 
and sixpence. 1828. 8vo. pp. 24. Dedicated to Colonel 
Nicholson of Liverpool, " the most elegant skater in 
England." Brit. Mus. Lib. 

11. Anonymous. The art of skating, containing di- 
rections for beginners, learners, and good skaters, and 
explaining all the movements and figures. By a skater. 
London, Basil Stewart, 139, Cheapside, 1832. P. White 
& Son, printers, 25, New Street, Bishopsgate. 8vo. 
pp. 16, 7 plates. Plate 1 was designed and lithographed 
by A. Gordon, 145, Strand. Brit, Mus. Lib. 

12. Anweisung schlittschuh zu laufen mit holzschen. 
Leipzig, Steinacker, before 1833. 8vo. (Kaiser, i. 89a.) 

13. [Whitelaw (James).] The skater's monitor, in- 
structor, and evening companion. With engravings... 
Edinburgh, John Menzies, 61, Princes Street, 1846. 
16mo. pp. 12 + 76, 2 plates. Preface subscribed " Walter 
Dove," and dated 20th October, 1846. The etchings 
are by Joseph W. Ebsworth. ("N. & Q.," gth g. v. 136. 

1 am indebted to the writer of the note for a view of 
this edition.) 

14. Whitelaw (James). The skater's monitor, in- 
structor, and evening companion. Bv James Whitelaw. 
With engravings. Second edition. ."Edinburgh, John 
Menzies, 61, Prince's Street, 1846. 16mo. pp. 12+76 

2 plates. G. Moir, printer, St. Andrew Street, Edin- 
Imrgh. The " notice " to the second edition is dated 
9th Nov., 1846. Wrapper title, An easy guide to good 

figure skating as taught in the skater's monitor... Price 
one shilling. (" N. & Q.," 5& S. x. 155. I am indebted 
to the writer of the note for a view of this edition.) 

15. [Anderson (George), M.P. for Glasgow.] The art 
of skating ; with plain directions for the acquirement of 
the most difficult and elegant movements. By Cycles, 
a member of the Edinburgh Skating Club. Glasgow, 
Thomas Murray & Son, Argyle Street; London, David 
Bogue ; Edinburgh, John Menzies, 1852. John Neilson, 
printer, Trongate, Glasgow. 8vo. pp. 4+8+80, 4 plates. 
Brit. Mus. Lib. 

16. [Anderson (George).] John Cyclos, mitglied des 
schlittschuhfahrer-clubs zu Glascow, die kunst des schlitt- 
schuhfahrens,.. Weimar, 1854, B. F. Voigt. 8vo. (Not 

17. Jones (Robert) and W. E. Cormack. The art of 
skating, practically explained, by Lieut. R. Jones, R.A., 
with revisions and additions by W. E. Cormack, Esq., 
with plates... London, Bailey Brothers, 3, Royal Ex- 
change Buildings, 1855 (?) 8vo. pp. 40, 5 plates. Brit. 
Mus. Lib. 

18. Silva (Alphonse). Sur le patin par Alphonse Silva. 
Glissez,mortels, n'appuyezpas ! [Device.] Paris, librairie 
d' Alphonse Taride, Rue de Marengo, 3, 1857. Droit de 
traduction reserve. Typ. de Ch. Lahure. 8vo. pp. 
10+132. Brit. Mus. Lib. (For the history of the quo- 
tation, see " N. & Q.," 5th s. x. 389, 419, 439, 527; xi. 79.) 

19. [Anderson (George).] John Cyclos, mitglied des 
schlittschuhfahrer-clubs zu Glascow, die kunst des 
echlittschuhfahrens, mit deutlichen anweisungen zur 
erlernung der schvvierigsten urid graziosesten bewe- 
gungen. Zweite vermehrte aufl -ige. Mit 4 erHiuternden 
tafeln. Weimar, 1858. Verlag, druck und lithographie 
von B. F. Voigt. 8vo. pp. 8+60, 4 plates. Brit. Mus. 

20. Anonymous. Physiologic du patineur, ou definition 
complete des principes et des regies qui s'appliquent a 
1'exercice du patin, par un ancien patineur. Paris, 
Dentu, libraire-editeur, Palais Royal, Galerie d'Orleans, 
1862. Tous droits reserves. Typographic Monnoyer 
Freres, Au Mans (Sarthe). 12mo. pp. 4 + 16, 5 plates. 
Brit. Mus. Lib. 

(To le continual?) 

heading of "The British Amazon" (ante, p. 113) 
Mr. BATES gives the well-known cases of Chris- 
tian Davies and Hannah Snell, and seems to 
think that these two women are the only "British 
Amazons" on record. But there are other such. 
There is Mary Anne Talbot (a fine, comely young 
woman, to judge by her portrait, which I have) 
who served four years as a soldier and as a sailor, 
and took part in Lord Howe's victory on the 1st 
of June. She died at the age of thirty, in 1808. 
There is Mary Dixon, who was nearly sixteen 
years in the army, and was at Waterloo, and was 
still " a strong, powerful old woman " in 1865. 
Above all, there is the remarkable, if not unique, 
case of Dr. Barry, who died at Corfu about fifteen 
years ago, and who at the time of his or, rather, 
her death, was the senior Inspector- General of 
Hospitals in the British Army List. Her case is 
mentioned by Lord Albemarle, in his Fifty Years 
of my Life, published in 1876. 

Female soldiers are, or at any rate have been, 

ni S. III. FEB. 19, '81.] 



qnore numerous in foreign armies than in ours. I 
may mention a few. In the French army, for 
instance, there were (among others) Louise 
Houssaye de Bannes, who served from 1792 
to 1795, and was at Quiberon : Angelique 
Brulon (nee Duchemin, for she was married), 
sous-lieutenant of infantry and decoree with the 
Legion of Honour, who was born in 1772, and 
died, I believe, in the Invalides about 1859 : 
Therese Figueur, who served as a dragoon for 
fourteen years, from 1798 to 1812, and had four 
horses killed under her ; she died in 1861, at the 
age of eighty- seven, in the Hospice des Petits 
Menages at Paris : Virginie Chesnieres, who served 
during the Peninsular War as a sergeant in the 
27th Regiment, and died in 1873. Louisa Scana- 
gatti was a lieutenant of infantry in the Austrian 
or the Sardinian army during the Napoleon wars. 
Marietta Giuliani and Herminia Manelli fought 
under Garibaldi in 1866 ; Herminia was at the 
battle of Custozza. Augusta Kriiger fought in the 
War of Liberation against the French as a 
subaltern in the 9th Prussian Regiment, and was 
decoree with the Iron Cross and the Russian Order 
of St. George ; she (after leaving the army) 
married a brother officer in 1816, and in 1869 her 
.-grandson received a commission in his grand- 
mother's regiment. Bertha Weiss is said to have 
fought at Spicheren in 1870, but I am not sure 
.that her case is genuine. 

The most recent instances I know of are the 
following three : " A young Russian officer " (her 
name is not given), whom the Times correspondent, 
on Sept. 29, 1877, reported to have fallen at Kacel- 
jevo, after displaying the most brilliant gallantry 
in rallying her men against the Turks ; Sylvia 
Mariotti, a private in the llth Battalion of Ber- 
saglieri, who served from 1866 to 1879, and who 
fought at Custozza ; and Dolores Rodriguez, cor- 
poral (at the age of eighteen) in the 1st Regiment 
of Peruvian Sappers. She, it appears, fought in 
the present South American war, and is still in 
the service. A portrait of her will be found in the 
illustrated London News of May 1, 1880. For 
other cases than these MR. BATES may be referred 
-to an article in Chambers' s Journal of Oct. 5, 
1872, and to a recent book, called Female Warriors, 
4by Mrs. E. C. Clayton. 

"Female sailors are much less uncommon than 
female soldiers. I have particulars of at least six- 
teen cases, nearly all of them recent, of English and 
Scotch women who have been sailors ; and one of 
these women is described (in 1867) as " one of the 
smartest hands in the ship." 

I may add that there are scores of women in 
recent years who have taken to men's work and 
.men's clothing, as bricklayers, grooms, navvies, 
.and what not, in- order to obtain that fair wage 
and that freedom of labour to which they know 
(themselves entitled, though the "women's rights" 

folk do not seem to know as much. And as to 
soldiers and sailors, let us remember what De 
Quincey says, in his paper on Joan of Arc : " We 
have such ardent females amongst us, and in a 
long series : some detected in naval hospitals, 
when too sick to remember their disguise ; some 
on fields of battle ; multitudes never detected at 
all ; some only suspected, and others discharged 
without noise by War Offices and other absurd 

I have taken no notice of the many female 
soldiers who were reported to us from the United 
and Confederate States during the Secession war. 
And why ? Politeness forbids ine to answer. 

A. J. M. 

petition (unsigned) is preserved amongst the State 
Papers, Charles II. , voL vi. p. 3. The calendarer 
dates it in June, 1660. It was successful in its 
object, for Wm. Jones was installed archdeacon 
Aug. 28, 1660 (Le Neve, i. 313), his successor 
being collated May 2, 1677. His predecessor 
was Henry Mellin, who was in the office early in 
1644 (qy. the same person as Henry Mellon, 
minister of Aberede, or Aberdon, and Llan- 
vareth, Radnorshire, mentioned in Walker's 
Sufferings, ii. 315, as sequestered for being a 
common swearer and adhering to the king). 
" To the Kinge most excellent Maiesty. 

"The humble Petition of William Jones of the 
Diocesse of S l Davids Cleark M r of Artes. 

" May it please your most excellent Majesty to con- 
ferre the Archdeaconry of Carmarthen now vacant and 
appertaining to the immediate donation of your Majesty 
uppon your Petitioner who hath beene for many yeares 
persecuted for his loyalty to his Soveraigne and his 
conformity to the Church of England as by Certificate 

" And your Petitioner shall ever pray &c.' 

As to the persons who sign the annexed certi- 
ficate, Dr. William Fuller was of Westminster 
School, and Magdalen and St. Edmund Halls, Ox- 
ford, Rector of Ewhurst, Surrey, and afterwards a 
schoolmaster at Twickenham. He told Pepys, 
June 22, 1660, of his grant to the Irish deanery ; 
and he subsequently became Bishop of Limerick, 
and finally Bishop of Lincoln. Jeremy Taylor, the 
eminent author of The Great Exemplar, who was 
well known in Carmarthenshire, where he wrote 
his Liberty of Prophesying, had not yet received 
his bishopric of Down and Connor. Dr. Evan 
Owen : one of his name was Rector of Narbotb, or 
Narboath [Narberth], and Robeston, in Pembroke- 
shire, whom Walker, ii. 325, takes to be the same 
person as Evan Owen, of Jesus College, Oxford, 
created D.D. there 1643. Aug. 25, 1647, fifths of 
Narboath were assigned to Elizabeth, wife of Dr. 
Owen, from whom the rectory had been sequestered 
to Mr. Townson (Baker MS. 27, pp. 409, 410). 
I am anxioas to ascertain whether this William 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6 th s. m. FEB. 19, *8i. 

Thomas, Vicar of Laugharne, co. Carmarthen 
(which is near Llandilo, the retreat of Jeremy 
Taylor, on the estuary of the Taf in Carmarthen 
Bay), is the same person as one or more of his 
name who, mentioned by Walker, held prefer- 
ments as follows : of Trinity College, Oxford (ii. 
134) ; Rector of Llanwarn, Monmouthshire (ii. 
380) ; Rector of Irton, Monmouthshire (ibid.) ; 
Vicar of Penrhyn, Cardiganshire (ii. 385) ; Pre- 
centor of St. David's, Aug., 1660-1666-7 (Le Neve, 
i. 316). The ejected minister of Dinas, co. Pem- 
broke, was Henry Miles (Walker, ii. 314). Is 
this William Owen to be identified with any one of 
those of the same name mentioned by Walker as 
of Magdalen College, Oxford ; postmaster of 
Merton ; and Rector of Powderbach, Salop (ii. 124, 
127, 324) ? One of the same name was Treasurer 
of St. David's, Aug. 9, 1660 ; Archdeacon of Car- 
digan, September, 1688. 

Their certificate, enclosed with Jones's petition, 
was as follows : 

" We -whose names are hereto subscribed doe certifye 
That William Jones Clearke is a Learned Divine of a 
sober vnblamable life firmly devoted to y c intereste of 
y e King and y c Church who hath beene imprisoned and 
Sequestred for his Loialty to his Soveraigne. 

W m Fuller Deane of S* Patricks Dublyn 

Jer Taylor D.D. 

Eva Owen D.D. 

William Thomas V of Laugharn 

W m Owin Rector of Dinas 

" Upo' most Credible Information I do certify the 
Truth of this Testimoniall Geo Wilde 

" This is verily beleeavd by me Tim Thurscrosse." 

For George Wilde, of St. John's College, Ox- 
ford, and subsequently Bishop of Derry, see Athen. 
Oxon., iii. 720 and iv. 830. The best notice of 
Timothy Thnrscross is to be found in vol. Ixv. of 
the Surtees Soc. Series, pp. 420, seq. 


Stretford, Manchester. 

of the practice of making verses in curious forms 
have lately been noticed in " N. & Q.," e.g. in a 
late review (6 th S. ii. 299). There is an essay 
in D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature, " On 
Literary Follies," which treats of this and similar 
fancies in verse writing. I have met with some 
instances which are not noticed there, but which 
extend to great length, and are otherwise more 
remarkable than several to which reference is 
made, and these I beg to mention. 

In Anth. Grcec., Lips., Tauch., 1872, Div. xv., 
torn. iii. pp. 209-21, there are epigrams in the 
forms of a pan-pipe, hatchet, wings, altar, and egg. 

The panegyric addressed to the Emperor Con- 
stantine by P. Optatianus Porphyrius consists of 
short pieces written in various devices. No. ii. 
is in the form of an altar ; subsequent ones are in 
other forms, and the last, xxvi., consists of the 

" Ardua componunt felices carmina musae, 
Dissona connectunt diversis vincula metria, 
Scrupea pangentes torquentes pectoi a vates, 
(Jndique confusis constabunt singula verbis," 

which are next transposed in such a manner as to 
form seventy-two lines, with no two the same 
(Migne, Patrolog., s. i. t. xix. coll. 387-432). 

Venantius Fortunatus (lib. v. 6, 7) has a poem 
addressed to the Bishop of A.utun, the intricate 
composition of which he describes at length. As- 
the note expresses it (ad 1., Ven. Fort. Carmina,. 
Mogunt., 1617, p. 149) : 

" Bxornandi Syagrii (ep. Augustidun.) caussa, versus 
triginta tres, vitas Christi aetatem numero representantes, 
mittit, stoechorum schemate, litteris et vario apicum 
ductu morose contextos et interpunctos. Describit 
hujus poematis artificium sane subtiliter illudque sine 
veterum exemplo se in primis fatetur meditatum." 

Other instances are referred to, and among them 
a composition of Rabanus Maurus (" Vetus scrip- 
turn de S, Cruce," Rab. Maur. Poemata de Diversis,. 
Mogunt., 1617, p. 101). 

In Herbert's Temple there are " The Altar," in/ 
lines in the form of an altar, and " Easter- Wings," 
in the form of wings (pp. 8, 34, 35, London, 1660). 


" THE CORSICAN BROTHERS." I extract the- 
following from Men of the Time (ninth edit., 
1875), s.v. "Blanc (Jean-Joseph-Louis)." This 
book is indeed, or ought to be, in the hands of 
everybody ; still it is only a book of reference, 
and as such is not read straight through, so that I 
suspect my extract will be new to most of the 
readers of " N. & Q.," as it was to me till a few- 
nights ago, though I have had the book five years.. 
My extract runs as follows : 

" As he [Louis Blanc] was returning home one evening 
in Oct., 1839, he was suddenly assailed from behind by 
some ruffian, who inflicted a violent blow with a stick, 
on his right eye. The author of this cowardly attempt,. 
Avhich was made the day after M. Louis Blanc had 
published a review of Louis Bonaparte's work Les Idees 
Napoleoniennes, was never discovered. M. Louis Blanc- 
had a brother one year younger than himself, who was- 
at that time at Rodez, in the department of 1'Aveyron,, 
and who entertained so strong a conviction that his-- 
brother was being assaulted at the precise moment when. 
it really occurred, that he was induced to write at once 
for information to Paris. This incident was the origin 
of M. Dumas' Corsican Brothers, the main subject of 
which is the preternatural sympathy between two- 

This explanation of the origin of the piece, whether 
true or not, is infinitely more plausible than that 
which I read in a newspaper some months ago, 
when the piece, now being acted with success at 
the Lyceum Theatre, was first brought out with,. 
Mr. Irving in the parts of the two brothers, and in 
which Dumas was said to have borrowed the idea 
from some incidents in the lives of two brothers 
(twins), who were said to have lived some two 
hundred years ago, but of whom I was unable to 
find any account. F. CHANCE. 

i6th S. III. FEB. 19, '81.] 



PETROLEUM. Now that the preparation known 
.as "vaseline" is passing into common use, it may 
be interesting to note that the curative powers 
of petroleum have long been recognized in the 
eastern as well as in the western hemisphere. In 
Travels in Africa, Egypt, and Syria from the 
year 1792 to 1798, by W. G. Browne (London, 
1806, 4to.), at p. 388, it is stated that "petro- 
leum, which is brought from the western shore of 
the Arabian Gulf, near to Suez, is taken inwardly as 
well as outwardly applied, and is much esteemed." 

24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea. 

THE DAISY IN PLINY. In Mr. Earle's delight- 
<ful little book on English Plant Names (a book 
for enjoyable reading as well as for reference) 
mention is made of the " earliest extant notice of 
the daisy" as in the Historia Naturalis, xxvi. 13. 
The "prophet and teacher of the heathen" 
describes the daisy in xxi. 8, and treats of its 
medical properties in xxvi. 5, but does not men- 
tion it in xxvi. 13. SHIRLEY HIBBERD. 

Bouvier has recently died, the following particulars 
of this family of artists may be worth preserving : 
Augustus Bouvier Koyal Academy, 1852-79 
(9 works); British Institution, 1845-59 (7 works); 
Suffolk Street, 1845-58 (6 works). A. Bouvier 
Koyal Academy, 1875 (1 work). A. J. Bouvier 
British Institution, 1848 (1 work). G. A. Bou- 
vier Eoyal Academy, 1869-79 (11 works). Joseph 
Bouvier Koyal Academy, 1839-73 (25 works); 
British Institution, 1845-67 (17 works); Suffolk 
Street, 1841-74 (61 works). Jules Bouvier 
.British Institution, 1845 (1 work); Suffolk Street, 
1845-65(53 works). U. Bouvier Koyal Academy, 
1854-6 (4 works); Britfsh Institution, 1855-6 
(3 works); Suffolk Street, 1854-6 (8 works). Miss 
Bouvier Koyal Academy, 1871-4 (3 works). 


6, Pall Mall. 

In the second act of The Pirates of Penzance 
General Stanley weeps bitterly, and laments that 
he has tarnished the fair fame of his ancestors by 
deceiving the Pirate King. On being reminded 
that he has only recently bought the estate, and 
that consequently the dead around him are not 
his ancestors, he replies that he bought them with 
the estate. In " N. & Q.," 6 th S. i. 508, it was 
mentioned that Turret House, South Lambeth 
Koad, was about to be sold. The following 
extract forms the pendant to that announcement, 
and is a striking illustration of the proverb, 
"Truth is stranger than fiction," as applied to 
Messrs. Gilbert and Sullivan's opera : 

" Mr. G. W. Aylen has received instructions to sell by 
auction, on Tuesday and Wednesday, Feb. 15 and 16, 

1881, at 1 for 2 o'clock, the whole of the building 
materials of the above estate [called " Turret Lodge 
Estate " in the placard], which was formerly the resi- 
dence of the ' Trandeatants,' the gardeners to King 
Charles the First, comprising the tomb of the above- 
named ' Trandestants.' " 

I am told that there is an inscription on the 
tombstone, but I should not think it warrants this 
peculiar spelling of the name. If I can obtain a 
copy of it, I will forward it to " N. & Q." I may 
mention, in conclusion, that the late owner of the 
estate was named Thome, but there is no relation- 
ship between him and the present writer. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Library is a small book whose title-page is : 

" Joannis | Samblancati | Sylvarum | Liber Primus [ 
eiusdem | Rerum. Gallicarum | Liber Primus | ad Jo- 
annem Berterium | Senatus Tolosani Principem. | Tolosse 
| apud Joannem Budaeum Typographum | Regium 6 
regione Collegii Fuxensis | M.DC.XXXV." 
Who was this Samblancatus ? He is not to be 
found in the Biographie Universelle, being a 
different person from the Samblancui there men- 
tioned. His book Rerum Gallicarum describes 
"res ab excessu Henrici quarti." I suppose he 
and his book are of little or no importance, but I 
should be glad to know any little that is to be 
known of him. 0. W. TANCOCK. 


CALEB PARNHAM, B.D., OB. 17C4. In Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes, viii. 378, mention is made of 
Caleb Parnham, B.D., Kector of Ufford, North- 
amptonshire, and formerly Fellow of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, who died May 11, 1764. It 
is stated that " he kept, all the time he was rector 
there, a most exact account of the variations in his 
hydrometer, which he had fixed in his garden. A 
short history of those various changes, for about 
twenty- five years, was published in one of the 

be very glad if any of your correspondents can 
discover the "short history" that is mentioned 
here : the actual diaries I imagine will not exist, 
as Parnham's papers were burnt after his death, in 
accordance with his orders. JOHN R. LUNN. 
Marton Vicarage, Ouseburn, York. 

ago it was stated in an article in the Echo that 
only one English barrister had ever transferred his 
practice to the Irish bar, and that he became a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tf* s, m. FEB. 19, -si. 

judge. This was Mr. Justice Burton, an intimate 
friend of John Philpot Curran, and celebrated as 
having presided at the trial of O'Connell in the 
Court of Queen's Bench. Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." refer me to the date of the Echo in 
which the article appeared, and, furthermore, say 
whether the statement is correct? Mr. Justice 
Burton was brother to my great-grandfather, and 
as a matter of family history I should like to 
know whether this distinction may be claimed for 

Library, Claremonfc, Hastings. 

you kindly afford me any pedigree of, or informa- 
tion about, this family previous to the year 1500 ; 
also as to its connexion with the De Montforts ? 

S. A. C. A. 
[See Vis. Wore., 1634.] 

THE SURNAME UGLOW. Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." tell me anything regarding this sur- 
name 1 I think it is a very uncommon one. I 
have consulted several peerages, directories, &c., 
but I am unable to gather any information. 

A. B. C. 

" THE CHRISTIAN YEAR." The connexion of 
waves of sound and light is, I believe, a discovery 
of modern science. Has it ever been remarked that 
Keble, writing some fifty or sixty years ago, anti- 
cipated this in his hymn for Christinas Day ? 
" What sudden blaze of song 

Spreads o'er tli' expanse of Heaven? 
In waves of light it thrills along, 
Th' angelic signal given." 

W. M. M. 

can I find any account of his fiscal operations 
He is not given by name even in Phillips's Bio- 
graphical Dictionary. 

JEAN LECLERC. When he was in England 
in 1682, he preached in London. In what church i 

C. A. WARD. 



AGO. I have somewhere read that, as lately as 
sixty years ago, boys under twelve years of age 
were executed in England. Although we know 
how severe was our code of law even during the 
reign of George III., it is difficult to believe that 
such a thing as this could have taken place, j 
shall be glad to know if it were really so. 


"A LIVERPOOL GENTLEMAN," &c. There is f 
common saying in Lancashire : " A Liverpoo 
gentleman, a Manchester man, a chap fra' Bought'n 
(Bolton), and a fella fra' Wiggin (Wigan) 
Whence the origin of these distinctions 1 


"LEGENDA AUREA." I have a beautiful copy 
f this work, in perfect preservation, printed at 
STuremberg in 1474. Are copies of this date very 
are 1 What is the date of the earliest edition 1 

H. P. 

A NORWICH MS. SERMON. I have an original 
MS. sermon with the following title : " Moses old 
quare for Judges, delivered in a sermon in the 
Grreen-yard in Norwich, July the 17, 1631. By 
Tho. Reeve." This sermon, which was preached 
Before the judges, is in a good state of preserva- 
tion, and is a fine specimen of caligraphy. On 
the cover are the following autographs : Joseph. 
Barnes (?), 1676, and Jo. Tayleur, A.M., Pernb. 
Doll. Cantab. I shall be glad to know any 
particulars concerning the author of the above- 
sermon. Perhaps DR. JESSOPP can help me. 



tion is requested as to where General Sir Sydenham 
Poyntz (a distinguished cavalry general under the 
Commonwealth) died, and as to the names of his 
wife and children. W. H. POYNTZ, Major. 

ARMS WANTED. At Alcombe, Kent, is a stone 
with a coat of arms on it, St. Leger impaling 
Warham ; Warharn 1 and 4, quartering 2 and 3 a 
blank shield with two bars. I should be much 
obliged if some one would tell me how to blazon- 
this quartering. 

PROPHET OF SUSSEX. What were the arms- 
borne by this family ? E. F. ST. LEGER. 

19, Bedford Circus, Exeter. 

LAMPADIUS. Johnstone, in his valuable work,. 
Agricultural Chemistry, p. 581, ed. 1844, men- 
tions a very interesting experiment made by 
Lampadius, which will well bear repeating. He 
mingled lime with the soil of a piece of ground 
till it was in the proportion of 1^ per cent. (1*19' 
per cent.) of its whole weight, and he ascertained 
subsequently by analysis the proportion of car- 
bonate of lime it contained in each of the three 
succeeding years : The first year, 1'19 per cent.;; 
the second year, 0'89 per cent. ; the third year, 
52 per cent. ; the fourth year, 0'24 per cent. 
Johnstone therefore concludes that there can be 
no question that the lime gradually disappears, or 
is removed from [the soil. Who and what was 
Lampadius, and when and where did he live 1 


Astley Rectory, near Stourport. 

[W. A. Lampadius was a German chemist, born 
Aug. 8, 1772, died April 13, 1842.] 

Anjou, the first of the Plantagenets, appears to have 
been married twice. By his marriage [A.D. 1128], 

e* s. in. F*B. 19, -si. ] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

with the Empress Maud, heiress of our King 
Henry I., he gave to England a long line of warrior 
kings, commencing with his son, Henry Plantagenet, 
known as Henry II. of England. From his former 
marriage I assume his other espousal to have 
been the earlier one sprang the Plantagenets, 
Earls of Warren and Surrey, the first of whom 
was Hamelin, who married Isabel, the heiress of 
William de Warren, the second Norman Earl 
of Surrey. Hamelin was succeeded, first, by his 
son, William ; next, by his grandson, John Plan- 
tagenet. A daughter (Alianore) of Earl John 
married Henry de Percy, eighth feudal Baron 
Percy, and father of Henry de Percy (first Baron of 
Alnwick), great-grandfather to the first Earl of 
Northumberland of that family. 

Can any fellow reader give me the name of 
Geoffrey Plantagenet's first wife, that of the 
mother of Isabel Plantagenet (nee de Warren), 
and that of the wife of each of the following 
noblemen : Earls William and John of Warren 
and Surrey, and Henry, first Baron Percy of 
Alnwick ? 

While on the subject of the Warren earldom, 
may I also ask who was the wife of Waleran de 
Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, who (the son, by her 
second marriage, of Lady Editha or Gundred de 
Warren, sister of the said William de Warren) 
succeeded to the earldom of. Warwick as heir to 
his elder brother ? French history tells me that 
Geoffrey Plantagenet died in 1151. 

C. T. T.-B. 

"To MAKE A LEG." In glossaries and dic- 
tionaries I find this phrase explained as " to bow" 
(the head). I confess I should like some proof 
of this. I should suppose it rather equivalent to 
" bow the knee," or, to use a phrase of that time, 
to salute " with cap and knee." In this last in- 
stance, as was of course common in those cere- 
monious times, the " bowing the knee " was often 
simultaneous with bowing the head. Can any of 
your readers give me a decisive instance of what 
it really meant? B. NICHOLSON. 


help me to identify a London maker of the above 
name ? I have been fortunate enough to obtain 
an exquisitely worked watch with his name, 
recording the day of the month in addition to the 
usual things ; it is, I should say, eighteenth cen- 
tury work. A. E. BOWLING. 

MEAD'S Eow. Another old spot of South 
London is about to disappear Mead's Kow : a 
row of houses running from Kennington Road to 
West Road, and forming the base of a triangle of 
which the Rev. Newman Hall's new church is the 
apex, standing as it does at the corner of West 
and Kennington Roads. It contains some quaint 
old houses, evidently built for a good class of 

people. Strawberry Hall is one, inhabited once 
by a justice (who ?). Any information about the 
place and its associations will oblige. SENIX. 


"Enthusiasts in Folk-lore Lave demonstrated that 
subtle allegories or abstruse theological dogmas are the 
basis of popular tales. That in the celebrated story of 
Jack Sprat, &c., it is possible to discern an emblem of 
a rapacious clergy and an equally greedy aristocracy 
devouring the substance of the commons." Daily Tele- 
graph, Dec. 18, 1880. 

Is there any foundation for the well-known nursery 
rhyme ? SPERO. 

what family were these two Parliamentary officers? 
What became of them finally, where did they 
settle, and did they leave any descendants ? 


["The Regicides and their Descendants," "N. & Q.," 
5ti> S. vii. 47, 196, 253, 276, 379,479; viii. 19, 118, 173. 
" Edward Whalley," " N. & Q.," 5 th S. vii. 81 ; viii. 29, 
118, 137, 177, 359.] 

A CONUNDRUM WANTED. The first line is 

" There was a man in days of yore." 
Can any reader of " N. & Q." give me a reference 
to it, or give it in full? It appeared in the 
Gentleman's Magazine some sixty years ago. 

H. T. E. 

"AT BAY." This phrase is explained in two 
different ways. First, it is connected with the 
Italian stare a bada, to stand agape, with mouth 
open. Cp. It. badare, Fr. bayer (O.Fr. baer). So- 
Wedgwood, see Diet, (second ed., p. 54). Secondly, 
the M.E. form abaye is derived from the Fr. abois, 
abbois, barkings, bayings, from Fr. abbayer 
(aboyer), fromLat. ad + baubari, to yelp. So Diez 
(Etym. Wtb., 1878) and Skeat (see Dicf., s.v. 
" Bay, 4)." Which is the correct explanation ? 


" SARSAPARILLA." Can any of your correspon- 
dents give me the date of the first introduction of 
this word into English, and corroborate or disprove 
the following derivation? Chambers's Etymolo-r 
gical Dictionary derives the word, which is Sp. 
zarzaparilla, from zarza, bramble, and Parillo, a 
physician who is said to have first used the shrub 
medicinally. Is there any authority for the state- 
ment about Parillo, besides what may be found 
also in Diez's Romance Dictionary ? When and 
where did he live? Minsheu, in his Guide into 
the Tongues, ed. 1617, has the word, but he says 
nothing about Parillo. He remarks : " Est deno- 
minatio Indica, quse significat radicem viticulse.' 7 
In the Spanish portion of his dictionary he has : 
" garga parilla, round bird-weed, a roote used of 
the apothecaries." The Fr. salsepareille, and It. 
salsapariglia, would lead one to suppose that 
Parillo has nothing to do with the formation of 
the word. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. c* s. m. PBB. 19, 'si. 

Is a portrait of this prelate known to be in 
existence 1 He was the son of William Downham, 
Bishop of Chester. JOHN E. BAILEY. 

Stretford, Manchester. 

VALENTINE'S DAY. It is the custom in this 
village for the girls to go about begging gifts of 
money and fruit early on this day. Is this 
in reference to the "charity" for which Wheatley, 
with scant authority, tells us St. Valentine was 
famous ? The boys have their eleemosynary inn- 
ings on Plough Monday. HUGH PJGOT. 

Stretham Rectory, Ely. 

I remember to have read, many years ago, I think 
in an early number of Fraser's Magazine, an 
account of the Spanish peasantry protecting them- 
selves in rainy weather by wearing straw upon 
their shoulders as a cape, to defend themselves 
from the wet. A reference to this passage, or to 
any such account in any travels in Spain, is much 
desired for a literary purpose. S. C. W. 


Plymouth in an Uproar. This musical farce was 
performed at Covent Garden Theatre in 1779, the music 
being by Mr. Dibdin. W. H. K. WRIGHT. 


" Whether you lead the patriot band, 

Or in the class of courtiers stand, 

Or prudently prefer 
The middle course, with equal zeal 
To serve both king and commonweal, 

Your Grace, my Lord, or Sir," &c. 
" Like leaves on trees the race of man is found, 
Now green in youth, now withering on the ground." 


" We drank the Libyan seer to sleep, and lit 
Lamp? which outburned Canopus. O my life 
In Egypt ! the daliance and the wit, 
The flattery and the strife ! " 

" The kisses were in the course of things, 
The bite was a needless addition." 

D. S. 



(6 th S. iii. 126.) 

These are probably some of those letters from 

Dr. Johnson to his early friend Mr. Hector whicl 

Boswell says (ed. 1791, i. 37) were lost. If H. P 

has been so fortunate as to recover any of thes< 

lost letters, their publication would be very de 

sirable, though the one he quotes from was no 

written in the time of Johnson's ushership, bu 

probably about 1776. 

Of Charles Congreve there does not seem to b 

much to say. In early life he attracted the notice 
f Archbishop Boulter, who gave him patronage, 
nd made him his chaplain. In 1738 the arch- 
>ishop, writing to Lord Granard, says (Boulter's 

Letters, ii. 197, 1770) : 

" My Chaplain, Mr. Congreve, who is of a good family 
n Staffordshire, has an uncle in New York in the ser- 

ice of the Government Capt. Charles Congreve, who 

bout thirty years ago was going for New York with 

, brevet for a Captain's commission in one of the in- 
ependent companies." 

?he captain was unfortunate, and Boulter requests 
jord " shew him countenance." John- 
on can have seen but very little of his old school- 
'ellow, Charles Congreve, for many years ; but in 
1776 the latter was living in London, when John- 
on mentions him to Mr. Hector (Boswell, ii. 33). 

" He obtained, I believe, considerable preferment in 
Ireland, but now lives in London quite as a valetudina- 
ian, afraid to go into any house but his own. He takes 
a short airing in his post-chaise every day. He has an 
elderly woman, whom he calls cousi.i, who lives with 
rim, and jogs his elbow when his glass has stood too 
ong empty, and encourages him in drinking, in which 
ic is very willing to be encouraged ; not that he gets 
drunk, for he is a very pious man, but he is always 
muddy. He confesses to one bottle of port every day, 
and he probably drinks more. He is quite unsocial ; his 
conversation is monosyllabical, and when at my last 
visit, I asked him what a clock it was, that signal of my 
departure had so pleasing an effect on him, that he 
sprung up to look at his watch, like a greyhound bound- 
ng at a hare." 

After this there cannot be much more of interest 
to be learnt. The death of " the Kev. Mr. Con- 
greve at Whitchurch " is recorded in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, July, 1782. Possibly this was 
Johnson's old schoolfellow. EDWARD SOLLY. 

(6 th S. i. 273, 294, 366, 401, 438). The inscrip- 
tion on the brass of Elizabeth Wingfield, 1616, 
was printed in " N. & Q." at the first of the 
references given above, in the hope that the brass 
might be identified and restored to its place. It 
was identified as having belonged to the parish 
church of South Weald, in Essex, and it has been 
restored to that church, or rather to the vicar and 
churchwardens. Mr. Gawthorp, of Long Acre, 
has, I find, sent back to South Weald not only 
this brass, which is perfect, but also nine frag- 
ments of other brasses from the same church which 
were sent to him, unasked for and unexpected, 
at the time of the so-called " restoration " of the 
building. I subjoin an inventory supplied to me 
by Mr. Gawthorp of what was sent, including 
these fragments : Kneeling figure, Lady Browne 
(circa 1550?), two pieces ; shield of arms, Sir 
Anthony Browne, one piece ; shield of arms, 
Sanders, one piece ; twelve children with 

horned head-dresses, one piece ; seven male and 
seven female children, two pieces ; inscription, 

e*s. in. FEB. 19, 'si.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Elizabeth Wingfield, 1616, one piece ; childre 
kneeling, 1634, two pieces. Now this inventor 
is, to my thinking, a very pretty document as i 
stands. No less than ten brasses were missinj 
from this one church of South Weald. By th 
aid of " N. & Q." one of these, and portions o 
other six, are found, after nearly twenty years, in 
the shop of a respectable tradesman, who hac 
acquired them fairly and preserved them carefully 
How many such records of English life and history 
are thus missing, stowed away in less reputabl 
quarters, and not recovered ? 

As to Mr. Gawthorp, it does not seem that any 
notice has yet been taken of what he has done 
He tells me that some months ago he requestec 
the vicar and churchwardens to acknowledge in 
* l N. & Q." that he had gratuitously returnee 
these brasses. No such acknowledgment, I be 
lieve, has yet appeared ; and, though I have 
nothing to do with South Weald, it perhaps be- 
comes me at least to record the fact that the Wing- 
field brass has gone back thither, and may some 
-day or other even occupy again that place in th 
church from which it ought never to have been 
taken. A. J. M. 

x. 373, 399 ; xi. 85 ; 5 th S. xii. 87 ; 6 th S. ii. 417 
435, 452, 471, 514; iii. 29, 53, 111). My re- 
searches into this mystery have, as I suspected 
they would, led to little real result ; nevertheless, 
it may interest the readers of " N. & Q." to hear 
how I have tried and failed. 

1. I began, of course, on the lines laid down in 
the letter to Bishop Thirlwall which MR. MEEHAN 
quotes at 6 th S. ii. 514. Here I got as far as 
l * Miss H.," and there ran aground. Miss H., it 
appears, is now in a sisterhood, and her sister 
states that she "knows" that for this reason Miss 
H. would refuse to give any information as to the 
story^ even if she remembered it, " which I am sure 
she does not" I pressed for the address of the 
sisterhood, that I might prove the matter for 
myself ; but this was refused me. The husband 
of "Mrs. P." hinted to me, not at all obscurely, 
that the story probably had no other source than 
the narrative published by Miss Broughton, which 
I shall come to directly; and Miss H.'s sister 
referred me to this same narrative as if it were a 
most unimpeachable authority, and all that could 
possibly be necessary. 

2. To investigations in this new direction I 
therefore betook myself. I ascertained from the 
publishers of Temple Bar that Miss Broughton's 
form of the story appeared in February, 1868, and 
was afterwards reprinted in her Twilight Stories. 
For this book I sent, and having read the story, 
and found it almost identical with that given in 
" N. & Q." (the differences are that the housemaid 
"is taken to the doctor's house instead of to the 

hospital, and certainly a very important one 
that the lover is killed instead of saved alive), I 
wrote to Miss Broughton to ask whether she could 
give me any information on the subject. Her 
answer was this, and I have her leave to publish 
it : 

"27, Holy well Street, Oxford, Feb. 2nd. 
" Dear Sir, You are mistaken in supposing that my 
story has anything to do with the so-called Berkeley 
Square Mystery. Its incidents happened, as I was told 
by my informant, in the country, and I clothed it in 
fictitious characters and transposed it to London, which 
I have since regretted, as so many people have thence 
assumed that it must refer to the house in Berkeley 
Square. The slip you enclose Is clearly my story mis- 
takenly applied to a wrong house. I am sorry to be 
unable to assist you in your search, but I can at least 
divert you from a wrong track. 

Yours faithfully, 


3. With regard to the general question of the 
house's reputation, I have the evidence of Mr. 
George Vincent, Head Porter of Brasenose College. 
He had already written to " N. & Q." (6 th S. ii. 
514) that while he lived in the house as servant 
to the Hon. Elizabeth Curzon, from 1851 till her 
death at a great age in 1859, he saw no ghost ; 
and in answer to a letter I addressed to him, he 
added to this that during that time the house 
(so far as he knew) was not said to be haunted in 
any way, and that about four or five years later, 
i.e. 1863-4, Lord de la Zouche, nephew to Miss 
Curzon, coming down to Oxford to enter his son, 
the present lord, at Christ Church, informed him 
that the reputation had then arisen. This date I 
thought too early, as the present lord was then 
about eleven or twelve years old ; but Mr. Vincent 
said men were often entered at Christ Church 
some years before coming into residence. 

4. Two others whom I addressed on the subject 
were the present Lord de la Zouche and Sir Charles 
Young, Bart., the latter of whom, Mr. Vincent 
;old me, succeeded Miss Curzon in the house ; 
the former letter remained unanswered, and 
;he other came back from the Dead Letter Office. 
I hardly think, however, they could have thrown 
much light on the matter. 

To sum up, therefore, since ^the only distinct 
egend (though the late LORD LYTTELTON, in 
' N. & Q.," 4 th S. x. 399, hinted at others) told of 
Berkeley Square has been shown not to belong to 
t, there remains only the general belief, to all ap- 
pearance unfounded, that the house is " haunted "; 
vhich it seems to me may be well accounted for 
y its neglected condition when empty, and the 
labits of the melancholy and solitary hypo- 
hondriac, already mentioned in " N. & Q.," when 
t was occupied by him. With respect to the 
tory, J undertook to inquire into it as connected 
dth Berkeley Square ; and as Miss Broughton, 
oubtless for that reason, has given me no evidence 
r authority for it, I have made no attempt to 



s. III. FEB. 19, '81. 

gain it from her or others. I think I have done 
ray part ; and to any one else who chooses to 
follow me I heartily wish good luck. 

Farnborougb, Banbury. 

Pickering Lythe had previously been called Die 
Wapentake, as we learn from Domesday Book. 
This district was in extent at the date of the 
survey (1086) nearly what it is now. The lands, 
however, which the abbey of Whitby had acquired 
round about it were subsequently withdrawn from 
this wapentake as well as from that of Langbarugh, 
and formed into the " Liberty of Whitby Strand." 
In the Ordnance 6-inch maps the boundaries are 
very carefully indicated, as also those of the town- 
ships which and not parishes are the component 
parts of hundreds and wapen takes. 

It seems, therefore, -until after 1086 this district 
was a wapentake, and that the trysting place of 
the men was some "dvke" one of those dykes, 
perhaps, up on the moors above Ebberston. At 
what subsequent date this wapentake came to be 
called Pickering Lythe I cannot exactly say ; but 
before the end of the reign of Henry I., as it is 
mentioned in the charter of Alan, son of Reginald 
Buschel, of Hutton, to Whitby Abbey. Possibly 
this change of name indicates the loss of hun- 
dredal constitution by reason of the great extent 
of the Crown lands more than half the area 
withdrawn from local jurisdiction. Pickering and 
its extensive appendent soke had been so in the 
days of King Edward the Confessor as a possession 
of the Earl Morkar. I believe these mostly are 
parcel of the duchy of Lancaster to this day. 

As to the meaning of " lythe " in this case, 
nothing satisfactory has been suggested so far as I 
am aware. It does not seem to be a correspond- 
ing term to the lathe of Kent, and the " lythe " 
J. L. cites from Morte Arthure is more reasonable. 
There are also for consideration LiS, folk, and 
Lei*, the court leet or law court of the hundred, 
held, at least in Iceland, at midsummer, and 
perhaps so called from LicSa, the A.-S. name for 
the double month (June and July) when it was 
held, as I read in Cleasby's Icelandic Dictionary. 
11 Lythe " is again a local name, for in this very 
neighbourhood, on the sea-coast north of Whitby, 
is a church village so called, lying snugly in a 
deep hollow between the hills, reminding one of 
the Scotch word " lythe," sheltered. 

I do not know whether it has been noticed 
before, but somewhere within the liberty of 
Whitby Strand mentioned above was I am not 
sufficiently acquainted with the neighbourhood to 
say whether the spot can be identified now a 
Thingwala (Jnng vollr, the field or close where the 
thing had sat), enumerated among the lands given 
to Whitby Abbey by William de Perci, the first 

Norman baron, and his son Alan (Dugdale's 
Mon. Angl, vol. i. p. 74). This is a particularly 
nteresting fact, because Worsaae (Danes in Eng- 
land, p. 70) could only find one in the whole of 
England after diligent -search, i.e., Thing wall, in, 
Cheshire. A. S. ELLIS. 


COWLEY AND SPRAT (6 th S. iii. 128). The- 
question here asked is one of considerable interest, 
though it is by no means new ; it certainly deserves, 
and I hope will obtain, a satisfactory reply. Shortly 
stated it amounts to this : Abraham Cowley was- 
in love with a lady named Leonora, who jilted 
trim and married Dean Sprat's brother ; and this- 
seems to resolve itself into three questions 1. Who- 
was Leonora 1 2. Who was Dean Sprat 1 3. Had 
he a brother 1 

It is to be observed that the foundation of the- 
whole story is to be found in Spence's Anecdotes,. 
pp. 13 and 285, and is contained in two memoranda- 
attributed to Pope : 

'In tbe latter part of his life lie showed a sort of 
aversion for women, and would leave the room when 
they came in : 'twas probably from a disappointment in 
love. He was much in love with his Leonora; who is 
mentioned at the end of that good ballad of his on his 
different mistresses. She was married to Dean Sprat's 
brother, and Cowley never was in love with any body 

It is plain that this refers to Cowley's ballad 
entitled The Chronicle, in which, after stating that 
he had been in love with nineteen ladies, all of 
whom had jilted him or he had jilted them, he 
ends by saying that now his heart is fixed on 
" Heleonora, first o' th' Name, 
Whom God grant long to reign." 

Taking all the circumstances of the case into 
consideration, it seems most probable that " Heleo- 
nora " was not any real individual lady, but a 
purely imaginary one, perhaps the type of some 
new occupation or motive in life. 

But here naturally arises the second question,. 
Who was Dean Sprat 1 Dr. Sprat, the poetical 
chaplain of the Duke of Buckingham, was a great 
friend of Cowley's, acted as his literary executor, 
and wrote his life ; but Dr. Sprat was not dean 
till 1683, sixteen years after the death of Cowley. 
There is a letter from Cowley to Sprat, dated 
May 21, 1665, printed by Peck, Collection of 
Historical Pieces, p. 81, 4to., 1740, in which Cow- 
ley uses the remarkable expression, " You, I, and 
the Dean," which appears to show that the dean 
could not be Sprat himself, unless, as Mr. Bell 
suggests (English Poets, i. 87, 1839), it was a jest, 
of Cowley's to make two persons of Sprat, and 
distinguish the intellectual from the convivial 
friend. It is plain, however, that Pope did not 
believe this, for he distinctly states (Spence, 13) 
that Cowley caught the fever which carried him 
off in 1667 from staying out all night, after being. 

6"' S. III. FEB. 19, '81.) 



too merry at a drinking bout, with " Dean Sprat" 
a statement directly contradicted by Bishop Spra 
himself, in his Lift of Cowley. Pope adds that 
the people of Chertsey still speak of the drunken 
dean. It is plain that if this was true, the so- 
called drunken dean of 1667 could not possibly be 
Sprat, who was only created dean in 1683 ; and 
the whole story is so vague and hazy that it is 
difficult to come to any other conclusion than that 
it is a tissue of baseless gossip. It is quite possible 
that Cowley and Sprat had some jovial friend 
whom they in sport called the dean ; but if this 
was the case, then all that relates to Sprat and his 
brother and Cowley's lady-love would fall to the 
ground. EDWARD SOLLY. 

[Thomas Sprat was Bishop of Rochester and Dean of 
Westminster 1683-1713. He (Cowley's biographer), says 
Dean Stanley, wrote the inscription on Cowley's monu- 
ment in Westminster Abbey. According to Col. Chester's 
Westminster Alley Registers, p. 276 note, Sprat "was 
installed a Prebendary of Lincoln 20 Oct., 1660, and of 
Westminster 22 Feb., 1668/9, and Canon of Windsor 
14 Jan. 1680/1."] 

LAND (6 th S. ii. 408 ; iii. 50, 72, 96, 115). I 
demur to the remark that an inscription upon a 
coffin-plate is " a thing confessedly of no autho- 
rity." It takes higher rank as evidence than a 
monumental inscription, and is on an equality at 
least with an official entry in a parish register. 
Modern scepticism is being pushed to extreme 
limits if we are to reject testimony of the highest 
class, when furnished by persons on the spot, 
who were eye-witnesses of the facts, and wrote 
them down at a solemn moment. The full titles 
of the deceased countess are not delivered in the 
inflated language of the herald; but, nevertheless, 
the words are sufficient. After all, this matter of 
style is of the smallest moment. The real gist of 
the inquiry is the identity of the person. Had 
there been doubt, it was at an end when COLONEL 
CHESTER came forward. MR. CARMICHAEL has 
more faith in Burke's Dormant and Extinct 
Peerages than most of us are able to boast, or the 
speculation as to the correctness of the name 
would never have arisen. 

It so chances that these inscriptions have been 
printed long ago ; and the one inquired about 
runs thus : 

"Lady Lucy Wentworth, wife of Thomas, Earl of 
Cleveland, who deceased November 23, 1651." 

Perhaps this version of the other will satisfy MR. 

" The Bight Honourable Anne, Countess Dowager of 
Strafford, wife of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, mother to 
William, the present Earl of Strafford, died September 
19th, 1754, Aged 70 years." 

A correspondent, J. P., writing to the editors 
of the Topographer, under date "30th June, 1790," 
says (Topographer, iii. 59) : 

" Gentlemen, Having been on a visit to Toddington, 
in Bedfordshire, and being fond of Antiquities, I collected 
what little I could find from the church, and if you can 
perceive any thing worth your notice, it is at your ser- 
Then, after sundry notes, at p. 62 : 

"The following are the Inscriptions* on the Coffins> 
in the Vault, at Toddington, taken Feb. 26, 1785, when 
it was^last opened." 

The occasion must have been the burial of Lady 
Strafford, for her plate (eleventh of the series) 
records : 

" Lady Anne Campbell, Countess of Strafford, died 1 
February the 7th, 1785, Aged 65 years." 

This lady, before Christmas in the preceding year, 
from sitting too near the fire, had sustained great 
shock and injury by burning. The accident 
resulted in fits which never left her, and proved 
the immediate cause of her death at Wentworth 
Castle, Yorkshire, whence her body was brought 
into Bedfordshire for interment (Gent. Mag., 
vol. lv., pt. i. 156). 

As MR. CARMICHAEL is so much in favour of 
verbal accuracy, he will not mind my telling him 
that the ancestor of the Nettlestead family was 
not Sir Eoger Wentworth. He was never more 
than " esquire." Witness his will (Norwich, Eeg. 
Betyns, f. 96a), "Ego Eogerus Wentworth armiger," 
and the inquisition taken after his death (4 Edw. 
IV., No. 63). Nor, if we are to be so careful about 
terms, did he marry Margery le Despenser, 
although his wife was the sole daughter and heir 
of Sir Philip le Despenser, because, as widow of 
John, Lord Eoos,f of Hamlake, she was then 
Margery, Lady Eoos, by which name she was- 
known for some sixty years. Apropos of her, I 
may point out an error by the late Garter in 
setting down her death as having occurred in 
20 Edw. IV. (Coll. Topog. et Gen., vii. 263). There 
is a twenty about the date, but it happens to be- 
in the month, not the year. The correction is 
20 April (1478), 18 Edw. IV. (Inq. 18 Edw. IV.,. 
No. 35). Sir Harris Nicolas was led into a very 
natural mistake by her will (Testaments Vetusta, 
346), hut a notice of that may fall more con- 
veniently for the index under her name. 


My description of this lady has provoked some 
criticism, but, as I was uncertain as to her 
dentity, I gave in my query the title I came 
across in the registers, viz., Lady Lucy Went- 
worth. That there is an error of description is 
obvious. I am unable to state by whom the notes,, 
which I published in Miscellanea Genealogies et 
Heraldica, vol. iii. p. 450, were made in the Tod- 
dington registers. One thing is evident they are 

* Eleven in number. 

f He fell at the battle of Beauge on Easter Eve 
22 March), 1420/1 (Inq. 9 Hen. V., No. 58). It will be^ 
een that his widow survived him fifty-seven years. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. in. FEB. 19, -si. 

not to be relied on, as they must either be incor- 
rectly copied or the inscriptions on the coffin- 
plates themselves are at fault. Ex gr., Thomas, 
Lord Wentworth, K.B. (son and heir apparent to 
Thomas, Earl of Cleveland), who died in 1643, is 
described as "Colonel of His Majesty's Guards, 
King Charles the Second," whereas King Charles I. 
was then reigning. Again, as MR. SOLLY points 
out, Anne, Countess Dowager of Strafford, is 
erroneously described as wife of Thomas, Earl of 
Cleveland. I have not consulted Morant's Essex, 
but in the Visitations of Essex published by the 
Harleian Society, part i. p. 316, I find a Lucy, 
third daughter and coheir of Sir John Wentworth 
of Gosfield, by Elizabeth, daughter to Sir Moyle 
Finche (MR. CARMICHAEL makes her fourth 
daughter, and the mother's name Catherine). This 
Lucy is apparently the one who became the second 
wife of Thomas, Earl of Cleveland. Unfortunately, 
the registers are defective at this period, and no 

to them only. Atheneeus (third cent. Chr. era), 
xiii. 53, p. 588 a, uses the same title as a well- 
known term, and probably intends the same philo- 
sophical sect by it, as he mentions Epicurus by 
name a few lines afterwards. And in bk. vii. 91, 
p. 31 2 f., he applies the term by way of joke to 
Archestratus, the poet of gastronomy, styling him 
6 'HSoviKos (tAoVocos, meaning apparently that 
he was, as Horace says of himself, " Epicuri de 
grege porcus." If, then, the word were never used 
except in reference to the Epicureans, the passage 
in Cebes is without doubt interpolated. Bufc 
Athenaaus, xiv. 57, p. 647 c, uses ^SoytKos as an 
adjective of more general signification in de- 
scribing a particular kind of flat cake TrAaKovs 
MovTiavos which when kneaded with wine and 
cheese becomes more palatable, fjSovLKtortpov 
And Creuzer, in his edition of Plotinus 
'de Pulcritudine, Heidelberg, 1814, 8vo., p. Iv of 
the " Proeparatio," proposes to correct a corrupt 

record of her burial is to be found. En passant, passage of Pausanias (ix. 31, 6), Geo-Trtewv ev ry 
- ' 

-on p. 124 of the Visitations above quoted, Henry 
Wentworth of Codham is made to appear as son 


AovaKwv (or 

HSova/cwv, Aid.) 
reading "i)8ovi.K<ov, volup- 

o/o/xao/zei/v/ ^nyt 

.of Richard Wentworth and Margery le Spencer, tariorum fons," as yielding a fitter meaning than 
Is not this match and descent a printer's error ? fons arundinuin, vel quidquid id est, ?}Soi/aKcoi/." 
for on p. 313 Henry appears as son of Roger and Be this as it may, the word 7/Soi/t/<os may fairly 

Margaret, which agrees with MR. CARMICHAEL'S 

Now as to the other point in 'my query. I 
asked which Earl of Cleveland was the husband 
of Lucy. When I wrote that query I was under 
the impression that there were two creations 
why I cannot tell, except that I have an indistinct 
recollection of having seen it mentioned soine- 

be assumed to have been a current term for 
" votaries of pleasure," without any reference to a 
particular sect of philosophers ; and if the passage 
of Cebes in question be looked at, it seems that 
he is speaking in the most general terms of the 
followers of ^euSoTrat'Scta, who nevertheless think 
that they are all the while in the company of the 
true TratSeta. The stranger then asks what they 


ot Se fwropes' ot 

e V\ 

ot oe 

/zerpaf ot Se 'Ao-rpoAoyof ot Sc 
ot Se IleptTraTiKOt' ot 8e KptrtKOt' KCU 6Vot 
aAAoe Tovrots etcrt 7rapa7r/V?;ortot. These are 
evidently whole classes of men, devoted to and 

where. Reference to proper authorities has, of are called, whereon the old guide replies, ot /u,i/ 

course, set me right on this point. Possibly it | Ilot'/yrat 1 ot Se T'/Jropcs' ** A.~>^-r.^/' 

was something like the following which gave me 

the wrong idea : " There are several fine Van 

Dycks ; one of these is a large canvas, containing 

portraits of Thomas Wentworth, first Earl of 

Cleveland, his wife and daughter (No. 90)." This 

I extract from an article in the February number of I absorbed by their own pursuits, which, however 

the Antiquary, lie&dQd. "Exhibition of Old Masters" interesting, useful, and even necessary, cannofc 
76). Again, in a letter I received last year per se make men morally good, as is shown after- 

from a connexion of the Wentworth family, certain wards in chaps, xxxiii. , xxxiv. I would suggest, 

" Jl therefore, that t]SoviKol here represents those 
whose lives are spent in the pursuit of amuse- 
ments or pleasures the Sybarites or Phseacians 
of the world at any period, " in cute curanda plus 
cequo operata juventus." With Schweighseuser I 
prefer the reading TLcpnraTiKoi to LUptTrar^TtKOc, 
and with him interpret it of those who are en- 
gaged in philosophical discussion, <! pro quo vis 
doctorum scholasticorum genere," while KpirtKot, 
in a similar way, would apply to all who are 
busied in literary labour, specially at that time 
to those " qui veteruni Poetarum monumenta cura- 
bant eb interpretabantur." Briefly, the passage 
has no reference to the distinctive appellations of 
the several sects of the philosophers, and the intro- 

children are therein described as children of the 
first Earl of Cleveland. If there was only one 
Earl of Cleveland it is surely misleading to de- 
scribe him as the first earl ; he is the earl. The 
use of the word " first " implies that there was at 
least another earl of the same name. 

Tilsworth, Leighton Buzzard. 

"THE TABLET OF CEBES" (6 th S. ii. 513). 
Late writers, as Simplicius (fifth cent. Chr. era), in 
his preface to the Pr&dicamenta of Aristotle, and 
Ammonius (sixth cent. Chr. era), in his scholia on 

-the Categories of Aristotle, expressly apply the 
title 'HSovtKot to the Epicureans, and apparently 

. III. FEB. 19, '81.] 



duction of the word ^SoviKos is no sure argumen 
against the genuineness of the passage. Schweig 
hseuser also shows that if any sect be meant 11 
might be the followers of Aristippus (better known 
as Cyrenaics), since he was a hearer of Socrates 
and might be alluded to as Plato is in chap, xxxiii 
S. Boyse, in his version, Glasgow, 1750, p. 18 
omits rjSoriKOi and TrepiTraT^rtKoi. 


The 'HSoviKot were the Cyrenaics, deriving 
their origin from Aristippus. Their tenets are 
stated in Kitter et Preller, Hist. Philosophy cap. v 
204-11, Goth., 1875. The place of r)8ovrj in 
their system is stated ( 207) in an extract from 
Diogenes Laertius (lib. ii. c. 87) : AOKCI S' avrois 
KCLI reAos v8atfjLOVia<s Siafapeiv, reAos fjikv yap 
etVcu TTJV Kara /xepos rjSovijv, evSat/xoviav 8e TO 
K TWV nepiKutv i^Sonov crvcrTrj/Ji.a, at? vvvapiO- 
fj.ovvTa.1 Kal ol Trapw^Kviat KCU at //,eAAovo"at. 


The 'HSovi/cot in chap. xiii. may be Cyrenaics, 
or both they and the Peripatetics may have been 
interpolated. Probably, however, the Tablet is 
not the work of the Theban Cebes, but belongs 
to a much later date. The whole question of 
authorship (as well as a consideration of the 
passage in chap, xiii.) will be found fully discussed 
in my edition of the Tablet, with introduction 
and notes, published in the Clarendon Press Series 
about two years ago. C. S. JERRAM. 

"PERSII SATIRE," 1789 (6 th S. ii. 486). MR. 
BUCKLEY is doubtless right in conjecturing that 
the 4to. edition of Persius published in London in 
1789 is one of the editions put forth by the Rev. 
Henry Homer. It appears from Chalmers's 
Biographical Dictionary, s.v. " Homer," followed 
by Rose's Biog. Diet., that Mr. Homer pub- 
lished an edition of Persius " ex editione Heninii" 
(a misprint for Henninii), and the same is stated 
in the Bibliographia Britannica (where it is 
printed Henicii). Now the book itself on its 
title-page professes to be " ex editione Casauboni 
ann. 1695 vulgata"; but on referring to Brunet 
and Ebert I find that this edition of Persius of 
1695 is appended to a reprint of an edition of 
Juvenal issued in 1685 by H. C. Hennin, of whom 
an account will be found in Michaud's Biog. 
Universelle. The statement, therefore, of Chal- 
mers, &c., is inaccurate, but may well be taken to 
point to the edition in question. Of this last a 
copy is in the King's Library at the British 
Museum ; it agrees closely in external appearance 
with the 8vo. editions of Caesar, Tacitus, and Livy 
published by Homer, and I can find no trace of 
his edition unless it be this one. The printer may 
no doubt be Bulmer, as MR. BUCKLEY suggests, 
but the three other editions I have mentioned are 
inscribed "excudebant M.Ritchie & J. Sammells," 

except the last volume (the index) of the Livy, 
which is printed *by Samuel Gosnell. The Livy 
was completed by a brother of Henry Homer after 
the death of the latter, which happened in 1791. 
At the end of the text of the Csesar in vol. ii. 
appears " Typis Jacksonianis," in spite of the 
above words on the title-page. 

Lincoln College, Oxford. 

S.P.Q.R. (6 th S. ii. 426; iii. 34, 115). Let me 
thank MR. KNIGHT for the reference to Phi- 
lomneste in 1808. But his list has no mention of one 
of the most curious interpretations, that assigned 
to Ven. Bede, for which, so far as I can ascertain, 
the earliest known authority is Bishop Jewell 
(vol. i. p. 421, Parker Soc.). Other letters, PPP. 
SSS. RRR. FEE, as on a column at Rome, have 
also a complement which is referred to Bede on- 
early authority (" Vit. Bed." ad calc. Hist. Eccl, 
Cant., 1722, p. 800). This is noticed also in the 
Gesta Rom. (tale xiii. vol. i. p. 152, Wright, 
Hotten, s.a.), where Helinandus wrongly states 
that the interpretation is from Valerius Maximus. 
What is the authority for Bede's and the other 
interpretations of S.P.Q.R. 1 is still a query. Bp. 
Jewell refers to it as follows (Controv. with 
Harding, art. iv. u.s.) : 

" The admiration of this glory (of Rome) drew such 
resort of people thither, that Beda, a learned man of 
this country, being there, and seeing the multitude of 
strangers that came only to gaze and to see news, 
expounded these four solemn letters, S.P.Q.R., in this 
wise : ' Stultus populua quserit Romam ' : ' Foolish folk 
fly (flee, 1565) to Rome.' " 

As Beda was not at Rome there is obviously 
some mistake. He refused to go there. 


264). I should like to add to MR. WADDINGTON'S 
note on this subject that in the Fortieth Report of 
the Deputy Keeper of Public Records, and in other 
reports, references will be found to numerous 
depositions taken by commission in various actions 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. No 
one interested in local archaeology should omit to- 
examine them. FREDERICK E. SAWYER. 


FORTH ARMS AND FAMILY (5 th S. v. 428). 
[ have an impression of the seal used by my great- 
grandfather, Capt. John Parker Forth, R.N., on 
ivhich are the arms the subject of MR. MYLES 
FITZ HENRY'S query. The arms on the seal are, 
Ermine, the royal harp of Ireland between three- 
martlets, 2 and 1 ; impaling Ermine, a saltire 
gules (or argent 1), on a chief azure three crescents, 
rest, out of a mural crown a dexter arm embowed 
jroper, the hand grasping a broken sword. Motto,. 
' Le fort ne [se ?] soumettra jamais." 

The legend in my great-grandfather's family 



. m. FEB. 19/81. 

was that permission to assume the royal harp of 
Ireland as an armorial bearing was granted by 
Charles I. to an ancestor, Samuel Forth, for 
service rendered at the battle of Edgehill, and 
that the king made him a knight banneret on 
the field. I doubt whether any existing record 
of the battle of Edgehill bears out the legend, but 
possibly it had reference to some other battle. 
I believe there are instances of monarchs granting 
subjects permission to assume some portion of the 
royal arms for such a service as saving the king's 
life, and if this Sir Samuel Forth were an Irish- 
man he would be not unlikely to select the Irish 


A PURITAN HYMN (6 th S. i. 45c8). -Your corre- 
spondent is not likely to find this hymn, for the 
simple reason that it has no existence. The 
wretched doggerel may be regarded as a specimen 
of American humour. I find the lines in a scrap- 
book of the year 1862, quoted from the Wisconsin 
Chief. They are there described as an " old 
Wesleyan hymn," but any one conversant with 
Wesleyan Methodist hymnology knows that it 
would be impossible to find such lines among the 
hymns of the Wesleys or other Methodist poets. 

133, Blenheim Crescent, Netting Hill. 

383). William Henry Harrison, who succeeded 
Martin Van Buren as President of the United 
States, and died one month after his inauguration, 
owing, as was asserted at the time, to " the visita- 
tion of the office-hunters," is said to have been a 
descendant of the regicide. Some time ago, when 
his son was mentioned as a candidate for the 
United States Senate, one of our newspapers gave 
a genealogy of his family in connexion with the 
regicide ; whether correct or not the writer of 
this note is unable to say. UNEDA. 


iii. 25, 71, 136). In my former communication I 
omitted to notice in the engraving, on a board below 
the balustrade, the name and date " W. Hogarth 
f fc 1719." The authority for the engraving is 
added as before stated. My picture was given by 
Mr. Tyler, about fifty years ago, to the person from 
whom I received it. When Mr. Tyler gave up 
the "Earn" to the Weavers, renovations and 
alterations were required, and a small back room, 
where suppers and the usual refreshments were 
formerly served, participated in the improvements. 
Mrs. Weaver, when she gave me the relics de- 
scribed, said there were a great many funny and 
queer faces and figures on the high-backed settle, 
chimney-piece, and walls, which were then all 
effaced and painted over, and this room wag con- 

verted into an ordinary tap-room. Mrs. Weaver's 
father told her he had heard that Mr. Hogarth 
was " very good company," and that he attracted 
many customers at the evening meetings ; and he 
used to relate one anecdote handed down to him 
connected with Hogarth. One rather obtuse, heavy 
sort of character was chaffed by one of the com- 
pany, a humorous, bon-vivant lawyer of the day, 
on his having made a poor supper, on which he 
said he had had enough, that he always left off 
with an appetite ; the lawyer replying, " I consider 
that a d d insult, for I never begin with one." 
Hogarth was much amused with this humorous 
incident. This is, of course, only traditional, bufc 
I have no reason to doubt its truth. 

I have three or four impressions left, and if MR. 
AUSTIN DOBSON will favour me with his address I 
will send him one, and will inform him where he 
may seethe picture I have described. 



" To TUMBLE UPSTAIRS " (6 th S. ii. 487)." He 
had heard of many kicked downstairs, but never 
of any that was kicked upstairs before," a jest of 
Lord Halifax on Lord Eoche.ster being made Lord 
President, which was a post superior in rank, but 
much inferior in advantage and credit, to that he 
held before, namely, that of First Commissioner of 
the Treasury (Burnet's Own Time, vol. ii. p. 445, 
ed. 1833). ' G. F. S. E. 

Is not MR. WALFORD confounding two distinct 
expressions ? " To tumble upstairs [that is, to 
stumble in going upstairs] is a sign the person will 
soon be married," is a common saying with us, 
and was so long before the indignant statesman 
expressed his contempt for the tools and noodles 
who had been " elevated " as a clown lifts straw 
with a pitchfork. E. E. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

This expression is ascribed to Lord Chesterfield, 
when speaking of the elevation of Pitt to the Upper 
House. E. C. STONEHAM. 

In the new catalogue of the printed books in 
the British Museum are two hundred and two 
titles of volumes under the heading of " Miguel 
de Cervantes Saavedra." the only legitimate name 
of that incomparable author. Cervantes, the 
surname of the Spanish family to which he be- 
longed, should have an acute accent on the 
penultimate (Cervantes). Some French writers 
incorrectly place a grave accent on the final 
syllable (Cervantes). WILLIAM PLATT. 

115, Piccadilly. 

Michaud's Biographic Universdle and Larousse's 
Grand Dictionnaire Universel agree in writing 
this name as Miguel Cervantes Saavedra. Mr. 

6^ S. III. FKB. 19, '81.] 



*H. E. Watts, in his article in the new edition *o 
*the Encyclopedia Britannica, writes De Cer 
vantes-Saavedra. Mr. Duffield writes De Cer 
vantes Saavedra in his new and magnificen 
edition of Don Quixote. 

There can be no doubt that the correct name o 
the author of Don Quixote is Miguel de Cervante 
Saavedra. It would be useless to multiply 
authorities on the question of the great Spaniard' 
name, and although for corroborative evidence '. 
have referred to upwards of twenty works, in six 
languages, and find all agree in orthography, I 
would refer F. W. C. to the various dedications o 
native editions of works by this author ; all those 
in my possession give the full name as written 
above. J. H. I. 

The name of the immortal author of Don Quixott 
is neither Miguel Cervnates Saavedra, nor Miguel 
Oervantes Saavedra, nor Miguel de Cervantes de 
.Saavedra, nor, as M. Emile Chasles styles him in 
his work often quoted in Mrs. Oliphant's Cer- 
vantes Michel de Cervantes, sa Vie, son Temps, 
&G. (Paris, 1866), Michel de Cervantes y Saavedrsu 
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra is unquestionably 
the correct name of the "Principe de los Ingenios 
Espaiioles." V. the list of documents given by 
Pellicer in vol. i. of his beautiful edition of Don 
Quixote (Madrid, 1797) ; the title-page, tassa, and 
dedication in the first part of the original edition 
-of D. Quix. (Madrid, 1605) ; Vida de Mig. de 
Cerv. Saav., by Navarrete (published by the 
Spanish Academy, Madrid, 1819) ; " Vida de 
Mig. de Cerv. Saav.," by Mayans y Siscar, in vol. i. 
of D. Quix. (London, Tonson, 1738, 4 vols.) ; 
Statutes of the Spanish Academia Cervantica, 
.art. i.; Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature, 


Paris, 103, Rue St. Lazare. 

ii. 488). I believe this to be the representation of 
John Jackson, Eector of Rossington, near Don- 
caster (son of John Jackson, Vicar of Doncaster, 
and also Rector of Rossington), born at Sessay, 
near Thirsk, in Yorkshire, April 4, 1686. He 
was for a short period master of the Grammar 
School at Doncaster, and the author of Chrono- 
logical Antiquities, 3 vols., 4to. See Hunter's 
South Yorkshire, vol. i. pp. 30, 36, 67 ; also 
anon Raine's hist. "Marske," in the Yorkshire 
Arch, and Top. Journal, 1880. C. J. 

The Gentleman's Magazine records the death of 
" Rev. Mr. Jackson, Master of Wigston's Hospital, 
Prebendary of Wherwell, Hants, and Rector of 
iRusington, Yorks " (1763, p. 257). 


See Watkins's Biog. Diet., 1825. 


RATE " (6 th S. ii. 510). I think there can be little 
doubt that the new " First Rate," alluded to in 
the letter quoted by CUTHBERT BEDE, was the 
Omnibus, started in April, 1841, by the late 
George Cruikshank. The design for the wrapper 
of Cruikshank's Omnibus was George himself, act- 
ing as conductor to an omnibus of the period (i.e. 
without a knifeboard). George Cruikshank was 
standing (or sitting, I forget which) on the little 
step beside the x door. I do not remember (so 
long is it since I saw the wrapper) if there were 
any other likenesses to be detected in the faces of 
the inside passengers. Probably the profile (which 
I think was shown) of the driver was that of 
Laman Blanchard, who edited the magazine. 

I will not venture to say whether the expression 
" too much whisker for a shilling " implies that 
Charles Dickens thought Cruikshank was too 
lavish of his illustrations for the low price at which 
the Omnibus was published, or whether he thought 
that George was too egotistical. The latter idea is 
possible, for the first number contained a steel 
portrait of the artist as a frontispiece, accompanied 
by an article entitled " My Portrait." There was 
also a reply to some anonymous and untruthful 
attacks, in which he gave several representations of 
himself; these are all highly diverting. 


It is probable that Dickens, writing in April, 
1841, alluded to the forthcoming Ainsworth's 
Magazine, the first number of which was published 
in February, 1842. Mr. Laman Blanchard, in his 
memoir of Ainsworth in the .Mirror (1842), says, 
"Mr. Ainsworth's engagement as editor of Bentky's 
Miscellany terminated with the year 1841, and in 
February, 1842, appeared the first number of 
Ainsworth's Magazine, a journal of romance, 
iterature, and art." In 1845 Mr. Ainsworth 
3ecame editor of a third serial, the New Monthly 
Magazine, which he purchased of Mr. Colburn. 

THE MAN OP Ross (6 th S. ii. 514). An article 

n Herefordshire in the Quarterly Review for 

July, 1879, pp. 143-86, mentions a third volume 

f Collections towards the History of Herefordshire, 

n continuation of Duncumb's work, by Mr. W. H. 

Cooke, Q.C., as being then in the press. If this 

volume has been issued it will doubtless contain 

many particulars about John Kyrle, as the parish 

of Much Marcle is " the first parish within its 

cope " (p. 183), and the Kyrle family obtained a 

rant of the manor in the reign of Elizabeth 

p. 184), of which old family was " John, the man 

f Ross "(p. 178). W. E. BUCKLEY. 

A very interesting notice and portrait of Kyrle 
rill be found in the European Magazine for 
eptember, 1786 ; and reference to the following 
ages of " N. & Q." will supply much additional 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. m. FEB. 19, >8i. 

information : l at S. v. 537 ; vi. 542 ; 2 nd S. xi. 
466, 519 ; xii. 72 ; 4 th S. vi. 154. 

Grove Road, Holloway, N. 

S. ii. 514), author of the History of Morley and 
its Surrounding Villages, 8vo., 1830. He died 
Feb. 16, 1853. Gent. Mag. (1853), vol. xl. p. 205 ; 
History and Antiquities of Morley, in West Riding, 
County of York, by William Smith (8m, 1876), 
pp. 107-12. L. L. H. 

(6 th S. iii. 85). Surely those characteristics of the 
Laureate's verse which ST. SWITHIN describes as 
" phonic difficulties " were not " compounded " by 
the poet "unawares." I have always regarded 
them rather as striking proofs of his elaborate care 
and finish, and as belonging to the class of onoma- 
topoeic phrases, where the words express by their 
sound the thing represented. Thus, in the example 
given by ST. SWITHIN, 

" Now follows Edith echoing Evelyn" 
the alliteration is clearly intentional, and expresses 
phonetically the sense of the line. 

So in 

" Sir Richard spoke, and he laughed, and we roared a 

hurrah, and so " 

the abrupt rugged introduction of the resonant 
vowels exactly conveys the sudden clamour of the 

These onomatopoeic conceits are" to be found in 
most poets, both ancient and modern, but Tenny- 
son is peculiarly fond of them. Scores of instances 
will occur to careful readers. Those who admire 
complete smoothness of rhythm may consider them 
blots, whilst others regard them as beauties ; but 
in any case they can scarcely be marks of in- 

Compare the following : 
" Shield-breakings, and the clash of brandg, the crash 

Of battle-axes on shattered helms, and shrieks." 
How the repetition of the same harsh vowels and 
consonants imitates in sound the sense ! 


" The sound of many a heavily-galloping hoof," 

"A promontory 

That had a sapling growing on it, slip 
From the long shore-cliffs' windy walls to the leach" 
where in both cases the irregularity of metre, 
clearly intentional, strengthens the idea. But all 
lovers of Tennyson can multiply instances. I will 
quote but one more : 

" Heard the great echo flap from Huff to lluj" 
Some may consider this unpleasing, but in my 

Eoor judgment it is one of the finest onomatopoeic 
.nes ever written. 
Numerous examples will also occur to readers 

of the classics, both Greek and Latin ; but as I 
am merely arguing that Tennyson seldom or never 
" compounds unawares," I will not occupy space 
by further quotation. H. P. 

MUMMY WHEAT (6 th S. ii. 306, 415, 452 ; iiL 
135). I perfectly remember the Egyptian wheat 
mentioned by MR. WALLIS. It was found, to the 
best of my recollection, in an earthenware vessel 
within the case containing the mummy shown by 
Mr. Joseph Strutt. A small packet of the grains- 
was given to each of the East India directors^ 
and my father, being one of them, received his 
portion, and took it with him to his place in 
Scotland, and had the treasure planted in a corner 
of the park, where we thought that only the 
gardener's eyes would watch its progress. I well 
remember how delighted we were to see it grow 
taller and taller, until at last I could measure its 
height by my own five feet six and I also dis- 
tinctly recollect that two or three fine bearded 
ears grew on each stalk. I think our share of the 
grains of wheat produced about six or seven stalks,, 
not more ; for a misfortune happened just as they 
were in their pride, that proves there were but a- 
handful of them. A friend was staying with us- 
who, on an evil day, was taking her walks abroad,, 
and suddenly discovered our treasure. She seized 
the " bearded grain," tore the whole patch up by 
the roots, and to this day I recollect the bitterly 
mortified feelings of my father and myself when 
we saw, destroyed in one moment, and held up in 
triumph before our eyes as " most extraordinary 
wheat," the priceless cluster of corn which we had 
so carefully tended for months and months. 

H. A. S. 

ORMOND STREET CHAPEL (6 th S. ii. 346, 392, 
456). The burial-ground of St. George's Chapel 
St. George the Martyr was, and is, behind the- 
Foundling Hospital. It was never desecrated, so- 
far as I am aware, but is, of course, disused. All 
this part was formerly called Lamb's Conduit 
Fields. " Here lies Nancy Dawson " is the in- 
scription on the tombstone of the famous hornpipe 
dancer, who was buried there in 1767 (vide, J. T. 
Smith's Book for a Rainy Day). G. F. B. 

The " Burying-Place in the Fields by Lamb's 
Conduit," appropriated to this chapel (now the- 
church of St. George the Martyr, Queen Square, 
Bloomsbury) still exists, though it has been dis- 
used for many years. It is overgrown with long 
grass, wild flowers, and shrubs, and the majority 
of the gravestones are in a dilapidated condition.. 
It is situated on the north of the grounds of the 
Foundling Hospital, the "large Brick- Wall" 
being the boundary of the two enclosures. Adjoin- 
ing and running parallel to it, and separated 
merely by a brick wall, is the old burial-ground of 
St. George's, Bloomsbury, which presents an equally 

. III. FEB. 19, '81.] 



deserted and melancholy appearance. It has been 
proposed to convert these two disused burial- 
places into public recreation grounds for the use 
of the neighbourhood, but it has not hitherto been 
found practicable to raise the necessary funds. 

H. W. S. 

109, 138). 

" He made the desert smile." 

The line is from Pope's Aoelard to Eloisa, line 133 : 
*' You raised these hallowed walls ; the desert smiled, 

And Paradise was opened in the Wild." 
As reference is made to Alton Towers, it may not be 
'unworthy of " N. & Q." to record a witticism that is 
generally attributed to an eminent statesman. The 
model buildings and general laying out of the gardens 
*re somewhat incongruous, and the wit has credit for 
reading the above inscription and remarking, " And a 
polite desert, too, not to laugh outright." 

W. M. P. 


Canonicity: a Collection of Early Testimonies to the 
Canonical Books of the New Testament, based on 
Kirchhoffer's " Quellensammlung." By A. H. Char- 
teris, DiD., Professor of Biblical Criticism and Biblical 
Antiquities in the University of Edinburgh. (Black- 
wood & Sons.) 

THE question which suggests itself first is the relation 
which this volume, prepared with so much thought and 
care, bears to a kindred work by Prof. Westcott, the 
General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New 
Testament. The writers of both are engaged on the 
same materials, with the same purpose ; but Dr. Char- 
teris, whose volume is the larger one, appears to have 
this advantage in the form of his work, he has been 
able to place the collateral information required for 
explanation in separate chapters at the beginning, 
which are followed by the testimonies themselves, 
arranged in order under the several books of the New 
Testament, in full type as the text, and not in the 
smaller type of the notes. By this method the autho- 
rities attain their due prominence, and their evidence is 
easily ascertained. There are, further, some interesting 
collections of the testimonies of the heathen, of heretics, 
and of the uncanonical Gospels, which render these 
divisions accessible at a glance. In noticing the oldest 
testimonies to collections of the sacred books, Dr. Char- 
teris assigns to the famous canon of Muratori a less 
important place than it has with some writers. He 
pronounces it, on the whole, an unsatisfactory document. 
It is certainly confirmatory, rather than a source of 
independent information; but it has its value. We 
miss under this head the list of St. Gregory of Nazian- 
zus; his name is cited at the second Epistle of St. 
Peter, but the catalogue which belongs to Ampbilochius 
is assigned to him, with a false reference, while his own 
is omitted. There is a difference between the two lists 
as to the omission or the insertion of the Apocalypse, 
and both of them should be inserted at length. 
.Again, there is a variance with high authorities as to 
the claim to be accounted the genuine epistles of St. 
Ignatius which attaches to the Syriac translation, the 
shortest of the three versions, which, together with the 
others, is abjudicated by Dr. Charteris; and a similar 
remark applies to his observations upon the Epistle of 
St. Polycarp. Despite his own protest, his judgment 
jnay, unconsciously to himself, have been influenced by 

his opinions as to this point. In noticing the close of 
St. Mark's Gospel, Dr. Charteris does justice to Dean 
Burgon's careful treatise. But he takes a further step 
when he pronounces that the question has now been 
placed beyond the region of dispute. Dean Burgon has 
certainly established a claim for the reconsideration of 
opinion upon this passage ; but it is something more to 
intimate that the controversy is virtually closed. There 
is a vindication of the position and character of the 
Gospel of St. John which will prove useful, in the light 
of modern controversy; but the separate note on the 
claims of the Apocalypse is too brief. We earnestly 
recommend this work to any student who desires to 
become acquainted with the testimonies for the canoni- 
city of the New Testament in their actual form. The 
table at the beginning and the indexes are so complete 
as to make the contents available with the greatest 

Genoa : how the Republic Rose and Fell. By J. Theodore 

Bent. (C. Kegan Paul & Co.) 

THE view which Genoa, clustering along the lower slopes 
of the Ligurian Alps, presents from the sea justifies the 
title of " the Superb," which she conferred on herself. 
Her eighty churches, which illustrate every combination 
of style, her labyrinths of steep and narrow streets, 
offering endless temptations to artists, and the sumptuous 
magnificence of her palaces, which recall the days of her 
departed glory, afford a picturesque confusion of archi- 
tectural, artistic, and antiquarian interest. Not less 
varied or striking are the historical associations which 
crowd up at the name of Genoa. Like other Italian 
cities, she extorted her charters of freedom from the 
wants of princes or of barons, and in the Saracenic wars 
laid the foundation of her powerful navy. A bank 
before she was a city, the Bank of St. George was the 
source of all her strength in the days when financial 
science was as yet unborn. She destroyed the power of 
Pisa, secured a share of the carrying trade of the 
Crusades, pushed her trade in every quarter of the known 
world, and lined the shores of the Black Sea and the 
banks of the Euphrates with cities whose fortified 
strength excited the admiration of Moltke half a cen- 
tury ago. She intimidated the feeble emperors of 
Byzantium, and disputed with Venice the markets of 
Constantinople. The whole weight of the Roman Em- 
pire in the East was scarce felt, as Gibbon says, in the 
balance of these two great and powerful republics. 
Intestine dissensions and external wars destroyed her 
independence, and she fell under the influence of France 
and the Visconti of Milan. D'Oria restored the old 
form of government, and from the middle of the six- 
teenth century down to the French Revolution the his- 
tory of the republic was uneventful, save for the dramatic 
episode of the Fieschi conspiracy. Mr. Bent's tale is 
full of attraction in itself, and he writes in a fresh and 
pleasant style. The book is full of information, yet 
never dull, and the history of the rise and fall of the 
republic preserves its interest to the end. 

Faust : a Tragedy oy GoetJte. Translated chiefly in 
Blank Verse, with Introduction and Notes, by James 
Adey Birds, B.A., F.G.S. (Longmans & Co.) 
WITHIN the memory of the " oldest inhabitant" German 
literature was represented to the English mind by the 
Faust of Goethe, the Rollers of Schiller, and those 
Ballads of Burger which had become known through 
the spirited translations of Walter Scott. Since that 
period Biblical commentators, as profound as they are 
heterodox, and novelists whose heaviness is but slightly 
relieved by their indelicacy, have almost driven the 
great German poets from the field, and it is, therefore, 
with pleasure that we hail the reappearance of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. i* s. in. FEB. 19, '8i. 

"greatest of the Teutons" under Mr. Birds' auspices. 
In his prefatory notes we follow the great poem from 
its first crude and grotesque form of legend and " pup- 
penspiel " to its full development into the Fa^t,st of 1808 
that Favist which at once perplexes the human intellect 
with the wildest and profoundest inquiries, and touches 
the human heart to the quick with its tale of error and 
of suffering. Through Mr. Birds' admirable notes we 
know not only the progress of Goethe's great work, hut 
also the real life of the poet, the names of the friends of 
youth, so touchingly alluded to in the dedication, his 
wonderful childhood delighting in the " puppenspiel " 
at Frankfurt, his eccentric youth dabbling in alchemy 
beneath the smiles of Fraulein von Klettenburg, and his 
short-lived passion for Lili Schonemann, immortalized in 
some of the most touching scenes between Faust and 
Gretchen. Mr. Birds' translation is generally excellent, 
and the prison scene is magnificently rendered. His 
Easter chorus gives that same impression of a Aveird and 
distant song which constitutes the peculiar charm of the 
original, and his interpretation of Faust's speculative 
speeches clothes with new form and life a part of the 
play which to the unlearned reader seems misty and 
heavy. He is less happy in some of Gretchen's exquisite 
solos, such as the Spinning-wheel Song, and the Address 
to the Virgin. These appear somewhat harsh and un- 
melodious, but the want of two German compound 
adjectives presents an almost insurmountable obstacle 
to a faithful translation in rhyme. On the whole, the 
severest judge of Mr. Birds' work will be constrained to 
admit that its faults are more than counterbalanced by 
its many merits, and will say of him, as of Gretchen, 
that, if " gerichtet," he is also " gerettet." 

Gainsborough and Constable. By G. M. Brock-Arnold. 

(Sampson Low & Co.) 
Fra Angelica. By Catherine Mary Phillimore. (Same 


Fra Barlolommeo. By Leader Scott. (Same publishers.) 
MR. BROCK- ARNOLD has evidently a genuine admiration 
for Gainsborough and Constable ; he can write brightly 
and vividly on occasion, and his sketches are cursive and 
clever. We are bound, however, to add that he does not 
impress us as a very trustworthy guide where authorities 
are in question. From minor indications it is clear that 
his reference at p. 7 to Foote's Taste, 1752, is made at 
second hand. A few lines further he introduces a quota- 
tion by saying that it relates to a subsequent period, 
whereupon he cites (and cites incorrectly) a passage 
from Mr. Sala concerning 1727. Blemishes of this kind 
are the more regrettable because the writer has evidently 
gone over a good deal of ground for his work. Bouquet's 
L' Etat des Arisen Angleterre, for example, is not a book 
that lies in every one's path ; but even the pertinent 
words from this source at p. 16 are not given with 
scrupulous accuracy. Of the two remaining volumes 
our space will not permit us to say much. Miss Philli- 
more's Italian studies in Macmillan and elsewhere are 
an earnest of the value of her account of Fra Angelico, 
Masaccio, and the other painters included in her volume ; 
while Mr. Leader Scott's opportunities and careful 
method specially fit him for dealing with Fra Barto- 
lommeo and Andrea del Sarto. 

Pencil and Palette. By Robert Kempt. (Chatto & 


OF this little volume of the " Mayfair Library" it is 
only needful to say that it contains much interesting 
and amusing anecdote about pictures and painters, 
lightly and pleasantly recorded. We have not been able 
to test its special pretensions to accuracy ; but being of 
Sainte-Beuve's opinion with respect to ana, we have 

found it perfectly readable, and have little doubt that it 
will thoroughly fulfil its modest mission. That it ha 
an excellent index is an additional point in its favour. 

WE have received copies of the first two numbers of" 
the Critic, a new American literary paper, which starts 
with a brilliant list of contributors. No. 1 contains an 
outspoken protest against the "pour parvenir" morality 
of Endymion, and No. 2 some highly interesting prose 
jottings from the note-book of Wait Whitman. The 
literary gossip, in particular, seems remarkably good. 
From it we learn that Helena de Kay's excellent version 
of Sensier's life of Millet, recently published in Scribnevs- 
Magazine, is to be republished here by Messrs. Mac- 
millan ; that Mr. Anthony Trollope (whom his admirers 
do not know sufficiently as a critic of verse) has written 
an article on Longfellow for the North A mericzn Review r 
and from another paragraph on Mr. W. M. Rossetti's 
account, in the February A tlantic, of Moliere's domestic 
affairs, we infer thPat the Wives of the Poets will find close 
critics in New York. The outlook of this new paper \ 
undoubtedly hopeful. It is young at present, but it is- 
remarkably healthy and vigorous. 

WE have received Vol. XVI. of St. Bartholomeio's Hos- 
pital Reports (Smith, Elder & Co.). 

THE Sacristy is about to be revived, under the editor- 
ship of Mr. E. Walford, M.A., assisted by Mr. George- 
Gilbert Scott, M.A., F.S.A. Part 10 will be issued in- 
April, and Mr. Hodges will be the publisher. 

MR. GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT, M.A., F.S.A., will sbortly 
publish An Essay on the History of English Church 
Architecture prior to the Separation of England from the' 
Roman Obedience (Hodges). 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

W. M. M. The arms of the deanery of Canterbury^ 
are blazoned by Mr. Boutell (Heraldry, 1864. p. 360),. 
" Az , on a cross arg. the letter X sa., surmounted by 
the letter I of the last." The arms of the city, op. cit., 
p. 366, are, " Arg., on a chevron gu.. between three 
Cornish choughs ppr., a lion of England." The seals of" 
arm?, " old " and " new," in Lewis's Topog. Diet., 1848, 
do not quite agree with this, having the lion of England! 
on a chief gu,, and the three Cornish choughs in base, 
which last are the arms attributed to St. Thomas of 
Canterbury (Hasted's Kent, 1799, iv. 701). 

C.-See N. & Q.," 2"" S. viii. 248 ; 5x. 67, 188, 295, 
Mr. Boutell says that the mitres of archbishops, '* though 
now generally represented rising from ducal coronets,"" 
as in his illustration, No. 307, p. 119 (Heraldry, Historical 
and Popular, 1864), "also,' 1 with "those of the bishops^ 
all rise alike from plain golden circlets," as in his No, 
306, loc. cit. He mentions the bearing of the coronet \>y 
the Bishops of Durham (No. 308) as "nominally Counts 
Palatine of the county of Durham," but without dates. 

DUBLIN. We believe that such is the case. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The- 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements ard 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20 r 
I Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
| munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; anJ 
\ to this rule we can make no exception. 

6'hs. m. FEB. 26/8ij NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NOTES : Early English Dictionaries, 161 The Folk-lore of 
Birds, 163 Metastasio's "Ode on the Indifferent" Hum- 
phrey Gower, Master of St. John's Coll., Cambridge : Bishop 
Dawson The Telephone indicated by Raphael Royal Arms 
in Churches, 164 Singular Marriage Customs Super- 
stitions about -Feathers The Mysteries of Glamis and Fyvie 
Eyre Crowe's "Execution of the Duke d'Enghien" 
Juvenile Pursuits, 165 Ancient Signs An Early Spelling 
Reformer " Can " Bp. Fisher's Sermon on Robert Barnes 
-Dwarfs, 166. 

QUERIES : Dawe's Portrait of Goethe, 166-Carlyle on 
Music Elias Daney Lady Ferrers Richard Baxter, &c. 
Turold Edge Pyne, Painter The Female "Worthies" 
Gervase Markham, 167 George Dyer Askew Family 
Acoustic Jars The Scotch in Poland Ingemann's Novels 
Registers of Essex Wills "Clere" Robert Patton Tem- 
pest Arms Waiblinger Family, 168 A Token Count 
d'Orsay's Pictures Authors Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES: "To rule the roast," 169 Rev. J. Serces Cen- 
tenarians Velasquez, 171 "Iron-mould" "Quod fuit 
esse," Ac., 172 "Pot-wall" "Cross," Ac. "Chalet," 173 
"Gale" "Cupboard" Prince Rupert's Paintings Bell 
Rhymes, 174 "Alk "TTglow Damsons Gibraltar Queries 
" Sprayed " H. F. Mosley Sansome, 175 "Holt," 176 
" Twinkle, twinkle" " Legenda aurea "A Norwich MS. 
Sermon Letters of Dr. Johnson Cowley and Sprat, 177 
Darvell Gadarn House of Keys Cutts Family Authors 
Wanted, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Eyton's "Domesday Studies" 
Gomme's "Primitive Folk-Moots " Clouston's "Arabian 
Poetry " " Calendar of State Papers (Ireland, 1615-1625)." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


(Concluded from p. 142.) 

8. Ductor in Linguas. By John Minsheu. 
Folio, 1617. The book is dedicated "Potentis- 
sirno Clementissimoque necnon omni Scientiarum 
Divinarum et Humanarum eruditione instruc- 
tissimo, Jacobo, Magnse Britannise Monarches, 
Francise et Hiberniae," &c. My copy has the 
Spanish dictionary at the end. Lowndes says that 
it is generally found there, but it appears to have 
been originally appended to every copy. Minsheu 
says in his preface : " Ad hoc opus augendum, in 
animo quidem habui sex ad minus Alphabeta 
Etyniologica in calcem hujus operis adjicere : unum 
tantum absolui, viz. Hispanico-Latino-Anglicum, 
et hoc copiosissinium priori meo Dictionario Hispa- 
nico nonnullis vocum millibus locupletatum." 
Lowndes does not mention this prior dictionary, 
nor have T ever met with a record of it, unless it 
is the same as R. Percivale's " Spanish- English 
and English-Spanish Dictionarie. with Grammar, 
&c., edited by John Minsheu, and published in 
London by E. Bollifant in 1599." The dictionary 
appended to the Ductor in Linguas extends over 
183 large folio pages, each page containing four 

closely printed columns. It is a valuable work 
for old Spanish words not often found in modern 

9. The Gate of Tongues Unlocked. By John 
Anchoran. Prof. Skeat mentions only three 
editions ; there was a fourth, much enlarged, 
edited by the author, and printed in 1640 by 
Edward Griffin for Michael Sparke, " dwelling at 
the Blew Bible in Green Arbor." This is the date 
on the Latin title-page, on the English it is 1639, 
but in both this edition is called the fourth. It is 
not a dictionary, but (as the work of Comenius on 
which it is founded) a compendium of the science 
of the age, adapted to young persons. It has two 
dedications : (1) to Prince Charles, and (2) to the 
clergy of the kingdom in their several grades. At 
the end of the second preface there is a friendly 
letter to the author, or compiler, from Comenius, 
"dat. Lessivas Polonorum, 11 Octob., 1632." 
Two other works of this class deserve notice : 

(a) Janua LinguarumTrilinguis,sive Johannis- 
Amos Comenii Janua Linguarum . . . adjunctu 
Metaphrasi Grseca et Anglicana versione. The 
learned editor has not given his name. The book was 
published in 1662 by Koger Daniel, and Comenius, 
in a letter prefixed to the work, gives permission 
to print it. The subscription runs thus : " Scribe- 
bam Amstelodami, hospes senili manu, Junii 8 
st. n. Anno Christi 1659, setatis rnese 68." 

(6) Indiculus Universalis, or The Universe in 
Epitome . . . Composed at first in French and 
Latine, For the use of the Dolphin of France, by 
the Learned F. Pomey, and now enlarged with 
the addition of the English Language. By A. 
Lovell, M.A. Printed in London by J. Macock 
for Robert Harford. 1679. Lowndes has not 
noticed any of the three preceding books. 

10. The New World of Words. By E. Phillips. 
The sixth is mentioned as the last edition. 
There was, however, a seventh edition, unknown 
to Lowndes, printed in London for J. Philips, H. 
Rhodes, and J. Taylor in 1720. It is said to have 
an addition of "near Twenty Thousand Words, 
from the best Authors, by J(ohn) K(ersey) Philo- 
bibl.," who also edited the sixth edition in 1706. 
It 'is a bulky folio, twice as large as the first 
edition in 1658. Phillips had dedicated his book 
(in Latin) to James, Duke of Ormond, whose 
various titles extend over a folio page, and also 
(in English) to the Duchess of Grafton, and added 
a long preface, " by way of Introduction to the 
right Knowledge of our Language." He had 
given a list "of those learned and ingenious 
persons, eminent in, or contributory to, any of 
those Arts, Sciences or Faculties contained in this 
following Work " (fourth ed., 1678). Among these 
appear the names of Sir W. Dugdale (Antiquities) ; 
Hon. R. Boyle (Chymistry) ; William Lilly 
(Astrology) ; Peter Lilly (sic) (Painting) ; R. Hook 
(Mechanicks) ; and Isaac Walton (Fishing). Ker- 



1 6*8. III. FEB. 26, '81. 

sey left out all this part, and substituted a short 
preface of his own. 

11. An English Dictionary. By E(lisha) Coles. 
In addition to the editions of this work men- 
tioned by Prof. Skeat, one appeared in 1685 and 
another in 1696, both printed for Peter Parker, 
"at the Leg and Star over against the Royal 
Exchange in Cornhil." 

12. A New English Dictionary. By J. K. 
1702 and 1713. These are the only editions 
referred to in Prof. Skeat's list ; but I have a copy 
of the fifth edition, " carefully Revised ; with 
many important Additions and Improvements. 
By J. K.," printed for J. and J. Bonwicke and 
C. Hitch in 1748. To this edition is prefixed a 
notice of the work by Dr. Isaac Watts, who says 
in his Art of Beading and Writing English, 
" The best Dictionary that I know of for this 
purpose [right spelling] is entitled A New English 
Dictionary, &c., by J. K." It is singular that 
this useful and popular work of Dr. Watts is not 
mentioned by Lowndes. It was first published' in 
1720, and is dedicated to the daughters of Sir 
Thomas Abney. My copy is of the third edition, 
published in 1726. I agree with Mr. Wheatley 
in thinking that the initials " J. K." are not for 
John Kersey, but I have not been able to deter- 
mine the author's name, which seems to have been 
unknown to Dr. Watts. In the fifth edition of his 
book only the initials are given. 

13. The Universal Etymological English Dic- 
tionary, vol. ii. By N. Bailey. In the sixth 
edition, published by William Cavell in 1776, the 
title-page is altered. The book is said to be 
" corrected and much improved throughout by the 
Addition of Great Variety of Examples." It 
appears to be edited by Bailey, who says in a new 
preface, "And for the satisfaction (but not the 
imitation) of the Curious, I have added a Collec- 
tion of Words, &c., used by the Canting Tribe." 
This dictionary of cant words occupies thirty-one 
pages. It appeared first, I believe, in the third 
edition (1737), but this I have not seen. 

14. A Compleat English Dictionary. By B. N. 
Defoe. 1735. Mr. Wheatley says that he has 
not seen a copy, and that he takes the title from 
Worcester's list. Prof. Skeat assumes doubtfully 
that it was published in London. The full title is 
as follows : 

" A Compleat English Dictionary, containing the True 
Meaning of all Words in the English Language : Also the 
Proper Names of all the Kingdoms, Towns and Cities in 
the World: Properly Explain'd and Alphabetically 
Dispos'd. Design'd for the Use of Gentlemen, Ladies, 
Foreigners, Artificers, Tradesmen ; and All who desire 
to Speak or Write English in its present Purity and Per- 
fection. By B. N. Defoe, Gent. Westminster, Printed 
for John Brindley, at the King's- Arms, in New- Bond 

Other publishers are united with Brindley, the 
last being " Charles Corbett, at Addison's-Head, 

without Temple-Bar." It is a small octavo. It is 
hardly necessary to say that the work does not 
fulfil the pretensions of the vain-glorious title- 
page. I have never met with any other edition of 
the book. 

15. A New General English Dictionary. By 
T. Dyche and W. Pardon. Prof. Skeat does not 
go beyond the ninth edition in 1758. It was a 
very popular book. The seventeenth edition, 
" considerably improved," was published in 1794. 
In this edition the name of Pardon is left out, and 
the work is said to have been originally begun by 
the Rev. Thomas Dyche, who was a schoolmaster 
at Stratford-le-Bow. There are many alterations 
of the other editions, but the work is not improved 
by them. The introduction and compendious 
English grammar prefixed to the dictionary are 
the same as in other editions. 

16. A Pocket Dictionary. With a commenda- 
tory preface by Dr. Bevis in a letter to the pub- 
lisher. 1753. There was a second edition of this 
work in 1758. It is far from being useless, as 
Prof. Skeat assumes. There are many words and 
meanings now obsolete in it ; for instance, the 
curious meaning sometimes attached to the word 
bargain in the last century, which is puzzling to 
an ordinary reader. It has also such words as 
" Coom, (1) the soot gathered over the mouth of 
an oven ; (2) a mixture for greasing the axle-tree 
of cart-wheels," &c., the latter meaning being still 
retained in our dialects ; and " Garnish, (1) a fee 
paid by a prisoner at his first coming to jail, to 
make his fellow-prisoners drink ... (4) Fetters, 

There was also a Pocket Dictionary, printed by 
John Baskerville, Birmingham, in 1765, omitted 
by Prof. Skeat, but mentioned by Mr. Wheatley. 
It is preceded by a grammar and a useful supple- 
ment pointing out some common grammatical 
errors. In one respect the anonymous author wUs 
in advance of his age. He says: "The dialects 
of particular Countries are likewise easily dis- 
tinguished from the standard Idiom of our Lan- 
guage, so that there is no Occasion to mention 
them in this Place, though there be several Things 
in many of them, which well deserves (sic) the 
Attention of a Critic in the Theory of Language 
and universal Grammar." As all Baskerville's 
productions, the book is beautifully printed. 

To these may be added, A New PocJcet-booJc 
for Young Gentlemen and Ladies, or a Spelling 
Dictionary of the English Language, by James 
Buchanan, London, 1757. 

As examples of a distinct class, the Gentleman's 
Dictionary, in three parts, London, 1705, and the 
Dictionarium Rusticum, London, 1704, may be 
added. They are very useful dictionaries for 
words connected with farming, horse-keeping, 
navigation, and military matters. 

Prof. Skeat has mentioned some bilingual and 

6'h S. III. FEB. 26, '81.] 



trilingual dictionaries. The list might be largely 
extended. The Latin-English and English-Latin 
dictionaries of Elisha Coles (1677), the splendid 
folio of Holyoke (1675), and the earlier dictionary 
of John Rider (1589), are mentioned by Lowndes, 
but he has no record of the following : 

(a) " Promptuarium Linguce Latince, seu Voca- 
bularium Tyronibus concinnatum, studio et opera 
Pauli P. Jasz-Berenyi, Transylvano - Hungari," 
printed in London, 1668. It is a Latin-English 
dictionary ; an abridgement of a larger work, 
called, Fax Nova Latince Linguce, or A New 
Torch to the Latin Tongue : " the most exquisite 
and easie way to write and speak Latine elegantly, 
now extant." Printed by J. W. for Nath. 
Brooke, " at the Angel in the second yard going 
into the Exchange from Bishopsgate street." 

(b) A Copious Dictionary in three Parts. (1) The 
English before the Latin ; (2) The Latin before the 
English ; (3) The proper names of persons, places, 
&c. By Francis Gouldman, M.A. The fourth 
edition was printed at Cambridge in 1678, under 
the editorship of Dr. Scattergood. 

(c) Linguce Romance Dictionarium Luculentum 
Novum. A New Dictionary in five Alphabets. 
Published anonymously at Cambridge in 1693. 
A very useful work ; the fourth and fifth divisions 
contain "the Law-Latin," and "the Latin-Bar- 
barous " words. 

(d) A Short Dictionary, English and French, 
with another French and English, according to the 

Sesent Use and Modern Orthography. By Guy 
iege, Gent. London, Printed for Tho. Basset, at 
the George in Fleet Street. The second edition 
was published in 1685. Lowndes mentions the 
large French dictionary by Miege ; a folio pub- 
lished in 1688, but not this work. 

Lowndes has also included in his work Cowell's 
Law Dictionary, but not The Law-French and 
Law-Latin Dictionary, " collected out of the best 
Authors" by F. 0., 1701 (the second part is an 
English- Latin dictionary, containing many words 
that are not connected exclusively with law). He 
does not mention, also, The Law Dictionary, by 
James Whishaw, Esq., of Gray's Inn, 1829. 

This is a department of English bibliography 
which has not hitherto received the attention that 
it deserves. The excellent Manual of Lowndes is 
both incorrect and defective with regard to works 
of this class. J. D. 

Belsize Square. 

LIGIOUS SYMBOLS. The appearance of doves in 
old Christian sculptures and paintings is easier to 
explain than that of peacocks, but the whole 
question of birds in connexion with heathen and 
Christian religious ceremonies is very curious 
and interesting. St. Patrick's ancient Irish hymn 

or creed makes him emphatically repudiate all regard 
for the ''voice of birds"; yet in the oldest Irish 
legends relating to Irish saints these latter are re- 
presented as conversing with miraculous birds on 
trivial as well as serious subjects, and receiving 
advice and reproof from them. A few years ago I 
noticed in " N. & Q." a curious musical instru- 
ment, resembling one used in Abyssinia, found 
many feet below the surface of the ground in the 
north of Ireland, having figures of birds attached to 
it, and pointed out that antiquaries supposed it to 
have been used in heathen religious rites. Survivals 
of this heathen superstition of thirteen centuries 
ago still linger in Ireland. The following curious 
instance of it lately came under my notice. A 
child was ill of a disease common enough amongst 
very young children an inflammation of the mem- 
brane lining the mouth, gums, and upper part of 
the throat and its poor Roman Catholic parents 
were advised by their neighbours to try the fol- 
lowing prescription. A goose which was being 
fattened for Christmas was brought to the little 
patient's side, and the bird's head was thrust into 
the child's open mouth, and held there for about 
five or eight minutes, for nine successive mornings. 
By that time the inflammation had disappeared, 
owing, probably, to the natural strength of the 
child's constitution ; but the parents and their 
friends are fully convinced that the cure is due to 
the goose, insomuch that they hesitated to kill it, 
and it remains a kind of consecrated bird instead of 
having been eaten at Christmas. Wilkinson, in his 
Ancient Egyptians, says that the goose signified in 
hieroglyphics "a child or son, from its love to its 
young, being always ready to give itself up to 
the hunter that they might be preserved," for 
which reason, he adds, " the Egyptians thought 
right to revere the creature." He further says 
that it was " the favourite offering to Osiris," and 
could only be "eaten at midwinter"; and he 
gives an engraving of the priest sacrificing it, and 
of the god Seb with the bird on his head-dress. 
As its defence of its young when pursued is surely 
nothing peculiar to the goose, can its hierogly- 
phical signification have been rather due to some 
old-world belief in its power of curing childish 
diseases, of which we have a survival in Ireland ? 
We know that the same "strong-minded bird," as 
it has been ironically called, was consecrated to 
Juno and to Bruhma, and I suppose its wide- 
spread worship or consecration amongst heathens 
had something to do with its being made a special 
type of foolishness amongst Christians. Has any 
survival of the reverence once paid to it been 
known in English country places, such as I have 
here described as occurring in Ireland 1 


[See " Birds under the Cross," " N. & Q.," 6th g. ii. 
186, 316. A white goose is mentioned in Henderson's 
Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, p. 328, as haunting 


NOTES AND QUERIES. w- B. m. FEB. 26, >si. 

Berry Well, near Melsonby, Yorkshire. See also Dyer's 
English Folk-lore, ch. iii., for the peacock. The fan 
borne before the Pope is, of course, well known.] 

Three versions of this ode are printed in 
the second volume of Dodsley's Collection of 
Poems, pp. 302-12, ed. 1766 ; and another in the 
sixth volume of Nichols's Select Collection of Poems, 
1780, pp. 313-16. This last is by Isaac Pacatus 
Shard, Esq., and to it there is appended this note : 

" Though the beauty of this ode has tempted several 
other ingenious writers to translate it, no one, it is pre- 
sumed, has traced the original with more spirit and 
closeness than Mr. Shard. There are no less than three 
versions or imitations of it in the second volume of 
Dodsley's Miscellanies. The first was by the Rev. Mr. 
Seward, Prebendary of Litchfield [sic] ; the second by 
an unknown writer ; the third by the late Kichard 
Roderick, Esq D." 

This note is apparently by the Rev. John Dun- 
combe, M. A., only son of William Duncombe, Esq., 
the poet, one of the six preachers of Canterbury 
Cathedral, to whom Mr. Nichols acknowledges 
himself " indebted for much useful information in 
this and other publications " (see note, vol. vi. p. 2 
of Select Poems). A note to the same effect is 
found in Letters from an English Traveller, by 
Martin Sherlock, Esq., London, 1780, vol. i. p. 58, 
on letter ix., in which is a valuable critique on 
Metastasio " read his Camonnettes, in particular 
that which begins ' Grazie all' inganni tuoi,' and 
say what Italian poet has written with so much 
purity, so much elegance, and so much grace 1 " 
The note is : 

" The Indifferent. See three good translations of this 
ode in the second volume of Dodsley's Collection, by 
Richard Roderick, Esq., the Rev. Mr. Seward, and an 
unknown hand. A fourth with still more spirit and close- 
ness, by Isaac Pacatus Shard, Esq., is in the sixth 
volume of Nichols's Collection.'' 

These notes would seem decisive of the author- 
ship of the version which begins " Thanks, Cloe, 
thy coquetting art," as it is assigned to Mr. Seward. 
But in Love and Beauty, a collection of poems, 
London, 1769, p. 56, it is headed, " by Richard 
West, Esq., son to the Chancellor of Ireland, and 
grandson to Bishop Burnet." R. West died 
Jan. 1, 1742. When was Metastasio's ode first 
published ? Was Seward or West the translator 1 


Cole says (Hist. St. John's, ed. Mayor, p. 991), 
" It is probable that his mother's name was Hyde." 
It may be as well to set this matter at rest by a 
couple of extracts from the parish registers of 
Chesterfield, co. Dub., which were printed in the 
Reliquary for July, 1867, but seem to have 
escaped the notice of Prof. Mayor. 

" 1590, Oct. 21. Francis Gower and Elizabeth Hyde, 

" 1600, March 29. Standley, son of Francis Gower of 
Spittle, bapt. It would seem, therefore, that it was the 
grandmother, not the mother, of the Master of St. John's, 
who was a Hyde." 

The connexion with Chesterfield is indicated in 
the will of Godfrey Foljambe, Esq., of W alton > 
Feb. 24, 1594, who mentions therein his very 
good friend Robert Hyde, of Northburie, co. 
Chester, and his good servant Francis Gower. 

I may add another note concerning my old 
college as to Bishop Dawson, of Clonfert. His 
biographer could give no account of his descen- 
dants, but his eldest daughter, Margery, as 
appears by Dugdale's Visitation of Yorkshire 
(Surt. Soc. vol. xxxvi. pp. 247 and 268), married the 
celebrated Col. John Morris, Governor of Ponte- 
fract Castle, and left issue by him, as well as by 
her second husband, Jonas Bulkeley, of South 
Emsall. CLK. 

recently going through my collection of prints 
I came across a circular engraving entitled 
" L'Hercule Gaulois," by Vincent Lesueur, from 
a pen-and-ink sketch by Raphael, from the 
Crozat collection (Receuil d'Estampes d'Apres 
les plus Beaux Tableaux, 1768, Paris, folio, 
vol. i. p. 15, No. xxxviii. See Dr. Ruland's Cata- 
logue of Raphael's Works, Windsor collection, 
p. 129, No. xiii.). This print may, perhaps, at 
the present time be specially mentioned in the 
columns of "N. & Q." in connexion with the 
telephone, which Raphael has therein clearly, 
though certainly unwittingly, indicated. The 
principal figure is Hercules, who is represented as 
the God of Eloquence, and as persuading people 
by its power rather than by force. Grouped around 
him are numerous figures in various attitudes of 
the closest attention. From the lips of Hercules 
proceed a number of golden strings or wires, each 
terminating in the right or left ears of the listeners. 
For a full account of this print, see translation of 
Perrot d'Ablancourt, tome iii. fo. 51. My copy is 
unfortunately cut close, and I owe its identifica- 
tion to the courtesy of the authorities in the 
Department of Prints and Drawings, British 
Museum. . ANDREW W. TUER. 

ROYAL ARMS IN CHURCHES. In " restoring " a 
church it is necessary, we all know, to obliterate 
the history and condition of the fabric as it was 
during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and. eighteenth 
centuries, and to bring it back to the style and 
taste of times as remote as possible from our own ; 
just as in " restoring " a man to second childishness 
oblivion has to wipe out of his mind all the ac- 
quisitions of his maturer years. This delightful 
object has often been very fully attained ; and 
ven in cases where the " restoration " is as yet, 
alas ! imperfect, we may be sure that the symbol 
of the royal supremacy, the Caroline or Georgian 

. in. p EB . 26, '81.J 



arms, painted quaintly on a board hung in front 
of the singing gallery, has long ago been cast out 
to the moles and to the bats. I, however, am a 
picker up of unconsidered trifles, and I should be 
only too glad to possess one of these obsolete and 
offensive blazons, in order that I may present it to 
a certain country church, which (like myself) still 
values the days of Sir Eoger de Coverley and of 
Dr. Johnson. If, therefore, there be any such 
relic still undestroyed, hidden away in the tent of 
:some civil or ecclesiastical Achan, let not the 
possessor thereof be dismayed, as thinking his spoil 
worthless, but let him come to me, or to our dis- 
creet and learned Editor (who will kindly give him 
my address), and offer to vend the same for a rea- 
sonable consideration ; and he need not fear, in 
these days of " restoration," that any unpleasant 
questions will be asked. This proposal, as the 
.advertisements say, " is genuine." A. J. M. 

February 3rd, at the Judicial Committee, judg- 
ment was given in an appeal from Ceylon, in which 
some curious marriage customs were under con- 
sideration. The parties are of the Zamil tribe, 
-and the question was whether a valid marriage 
had been performed, by which a large amount of 
property was involved. To constitute a legal 
marriage the wife had to " serve rice," prepared by 
her, to her husband and friends, including the 
" blacksmith and washerman " of the locality. The 
Judicial Committee held that the married pair were 
not bound to prove the validity of the marriage by 
the ceremony of serving rice by the wife, and the 
giving of cloth by the husband in token that he 
would clothe her. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road, N. 

piece of superstition has recently come under my 
notice. A lady of these parts tells me the follow- 
ing story (as a fact), which illustrates the point in 
question. A young man, having been for some 
time seriously ill, at length apparently arrived 
within " a measurable distance " of death, and was 
evidently in distressing pain, tossing from one side 
to the other in the greatest agony. Nothing that 
<;ould be done seemed to alleviate the pain. At 
length an old nurse of the family was called in, 
who, after looking at the dying youth, apparently 
detected the cause of pain. She left the room, 
and immediately returned with a flock pillow, 
which she substituted for the one being used by 
the dying man, which was made of feathers. He 
immediately became calm, and died in a few 
hours. I am assured that a person cannot die on 
a pillow of game feathers. 

I am also informed that it is very unlucky to 
keep peacocks' feathers in one's house. It would 
be interesting if any correspondents would com- 

municate the recurrence of these beliefs in other 
parts of the country. Can any suggestions be 
made as to the origin of either 1 

Agbrigg, near Wakefield. 

Kegarding Glamis, I should imagine it a ghosty 
sort of place. I have always heard that there is 
one chamber in which, for some centuries, two 
gamblers have been condemned to continue their 
ghostly play, and that the rattling of the dice, &c., 
is heard. The Earl of Strathmore and his eldest 
son, Lord Glamis, must each hear this once, and I 
was told by a Scotch lady of rank that the present 
lord has not forgotten the effect it had on him. 
She also told me some visitors tried to identify 
the window of the mysterious room, but failed, 
and that some went so far as to examine the 
house with a view to finding the door of the room, 
but were turned' back by the earl, who was very 
angry with his guests. 

The Fy vie room is supposed to contain evidence 
of some great crime. The late proprietor would 
never allow it to be opened, and I presume the 
present one will not either. So far as I know, it 
is a built-up, stone-vaulted place not a room in 
the ordinary sense and on the ground. 


In several criticisms on Mr. Eyre Crowe's picture 
of the "Execution of the Duke d'Enghien," 
fault is found because he has shown the lantern 
on the ground close to the newly prepared grave 
in the ditch of Vincennes instead of suspend- 
ing it, as often popularly stated, to the duke's 
breast, in order to procure a sure aim in the dark 
to his heart. Lanfrey, however, in his History of 
Napoleon, vol. ii. p. 339, expressly states that " a 
lantern, placed close to the grave, threw its dismal 
light on this scene of murder,' 1 and in a foot-note 
Lanfrey further adds, " The anecdote of the lantern 
placed upon the duke's heart is not true." Scott, 
in his Life of Napoleon, alludes to this, and says 
it is an inaccurate report. Neither Alison nor Haz- 
litt mentions the lantern at all ; so the accuracy of 
Mr. Crowe's picture, I presume, may be taken 
for granted. H. HALL. 

Lavender Hill. 

JUVENILE PURSUITS. "N. & Q." generally 
finds room to register curious contemporary 
fashions. So it seems to me worth its while to 
note two singular pursuits to which juveniles are 
just now much addicted. The collection (1) of 
post-marks cut from old envelopes ; (2) of used 
railway tickets, the difficulty of obtaining which 
much enhances their value in the eyes of the 
young virtuosi. H. C. DELEVINGNE. 


NOTES -AND QUERIES. [e- s. in. FEB. 26, -si. 

ANCIENT SIGNS. As many curious rhyme 
have been given in " N. & Q." appertaining to ol 
inns and taverns, I may mention one whicl 
formerly appeared under the sign of the " Duke o 
Cumberland " (the butcher of Culloden), an ol 
public-house upon my property, viz. : 

" Stop Traveller, your welcome, sit at your ease, 
Pay what you call for, drink what you please." 

And on the reverse of the swinging sign, 
" Stop Traveller, do not be in haste 
But call, and of my liquor taste." 

C. T. J. MOORE. 
Frampton Hall, near Boston. 

ing is worth a place in " N. & Q." A Quaker, who 
subscribes himself " John, the servant of the Most 
High God, the former and upholder of all things,' 
&c., wrote from a place called "Great Gomara, 
on a certain island in Hungary," a pamphlet 
entitled The Arraignment of Christendom. 
"Printed in Europe in the year 1677." In the 
preface he says he tries to spell as people speak, 
and three advantages are pointed out as likely to 
result from this. (1) Children would learn to 
read in less time ; (2) all would learn to write 
more correctly ; (3) foreigners would master our 
pronunciation more readily. He points out that 
" righteousness " has four superfluous letters, which 
he strikes out, and spells it " ryteosnes." Truly 
" there is nothing new under the sun." 


THE PRETERITE " CAN." In M.E. can is very 
frequently used as an auxiliary before verbs in the 
infinitive to express a past tense. Cp. Andrew of 
Wyntoun's Original Chron. Scotland, ed. D. Laing 
(1872, ii. 507): 

" He had bot sevyn yere and fourty 
Quhen he out of this liffe can pas." 

Two accounts have been given of this can. (1.) 
The writer of an article in the Quarterly (cxxxix. 
443) maintains that this ccm=:O.N. Jcann, one of the 
tenses of Jcunna. The objection is that O.N. kann 
is not a preterite in meaning, although it is pre- 
terite in form. The past tense of Jcunna is kunni, 
which could have hardly originated the Northern 
can=did. (2.) The editors of The Destruction of 
Troy (E.E.T.S.) explain this can as equivalent 
to gan, began. But it is an objection that this 
auxiliary is often used without any inchoative 
meaning, as, for instance, in the passage above 
cited. Perhaps some of your correspondents may 
be able to throw light on this grammatical form. 


having given the sermon of Bishop Fisher (ante? 
p. 21), it might interest some of your readers to 

have an abstract of this transaction, taken from. 
The Life and Death of that Renowned John Fisher,. 
Bishop of Rochester, &c., by Thomas Baily, D.D.,. 
published in 1655, London, no printer's name. 
This is the work which contains the allegation of 
Anne Bulleyn being a daughter of Henry VIII. 

" Upon the Quinquagesima Sunday (.which was in the. 
yeare of our redemption 1525-} this holy and most learned 
Bishop preached a most excellent Sermon at S. PauVs- 
Crosse; when Cardinal Wolsey, Legate a latere, with 
eleven Bishops and great resort of the Nobility and" 
Gentry were present, which was performed with such 
fervency of faith, zeale to the Catholique Church, and. 
force of arguments (grounded upon Scripture) that one. 
Robert Barnes, an Augustin Friar, and five more (in- 
fected with Lutheranism) were thereby converted and' 
abjured their Errors, and for their penance stood openly 
at S. Paul's Crosse." 

W. F. 

DWARFS. Authenticated instances of dwarfs 
having been exhibited of smaller size than the- 
" Midgets " are so rare that they deserve notice; 
when found. 

There are two prints in my portfolio of a man 
and his wife brought from Davis Straits and ex- 
aibited at Nuremberg in or about 1768. The rnaifc 
"s twenty inches high and the woman eighteen 
nches. They had a child, who lived to seventeen 
years of age and was not more than six inches 
ligh. the body being embalmed in the chemical 
aboratory at Kastadt. They appear only to have- 
Deen known as the " Strasse Davit Familie." The 
exhibitor of the Midgets, I believe, offers a bet of 
"iQOZ., which any visitor to Kastadt could win. 
hould the embalmed body still be preserved. 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
n family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
tames and addresses to their queries, in order that the- 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

. A valuable portrait of Goethe, painted by 
he English Academician George Dawe, is sought 
or. The known facts are as follows : George 
Dawe, E.A., having received from the Emperor 
Alexander a commission to paint numerous 
Russian officers, stayed at Weimar on his way to- 
t. Petersburg, and in 1819, while in Weimar, 
ook the portrait of Goethe. This portrait, be- 
ieved to be a drawing, was sent to England, and 
1821 engraved and published by Thomas, 
bright, of 22, Newman Street, the painter's 
rother-in-law. Subsequently it was engraved by 
'osselwhite, for publication by the Society for the 
)iffusion of Useful Knowledge. At that time the 
riginal was in the possession of Henry Dawe, 
ut since then it has apparently been lost sight of- 
'he Academician died in 1829, at the house of 

6"> S. III. PUB. 26, '81.] 



his brother-in-law, Thomas Wright, the engraver. 
The enthusiasm at this moment awakened in 
Germany for everything relating to Goethe has 
led to anxious inquiry for Dawe's portrait. Any 
one who will kindly give information as to its 
present ownership will confer a personal favour 
.and aid critical research. 

. Kensington. 

CARLYLE ON Music. In a little pamphlet of 
sixteen pages, measuring some 4 in. by 2| in., 
privately "imprinted for Sir Henry Cole at the 
-Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, MDCCCLXXIX.," 
containing passages from Carlyle, J. H. Newman, 
Ecclesiasticus, and others, occurs the , following 
passage from Carlyle, but no reference is given 
whence it came : 

" Nothing, among the utterances allowed to man, is 
felt to be so divine. It brings us nearer to the infinite ; 
we look for moments across the cloudy elements into the 
eternal sea of light, when song leads and inspires us. 
Serious nations, all nations that can still listen to the 
mandate of nature, have prized song and music as the 
highest ; as a vehicle for worship, for prophecy, and for 
whatsoever in them was divine." 

Will any reader of Carlyle say where this is to be 
tfound? F. S. 

ELIAS DANEY, advocate to the Parliament of 
Bordeaux, and Judge of the Lordship of Caumont 
and Taillebourge, married Anne Bouet, of 
Caumont, in Guienne, who was born in 1669, 
.and came to England about 1683 to avoid the 
persecution of the Protestants. This Anne died 
in 1721, and was buried at Camberwell. The 
only child of Elias and Anne was a daughter who, 
.according to Lipscombe's History of Bucks, be- 
came the wife of John Grubb, Esq., of Horsendon, 
in that county. Can any one afford further par- 
ticulars of Elias Daney or his relations ? Is there 
any French local or other history in which he 
might be met with 2 HUGUENOT. 

1520. Sir Eobert Poyntz, of Iron Acton, in his 
will, dated Oct. 19, 1520, leaves to his brother 
"Thomas the manor, &c., of Alderley, and continues 
""if my Lady Ferrers wife to my said brother 
should die," and so forth. The Visitation of 
Essex, 1612 (Harleian Society, 1878), says 
" Thomas Poyntz 2 1 sonne mar. the wydow to the 
Lord Ferrers of Chartley, obiit sine prole 17 of 
H. 7 th A 1501." Anne Ferrers, aged eleven, in 
1450, married Walter Devereux, who was sum- 
moned to Parliament in her right from 1461 to 
1483; and John Devereux, their son and heir, 
was summoned, as Lord Ferrers of Chartley, from 
1487 to 1497, and died in 1501. John, Lord 
Ferrers, who married Lady Cecily Bourchier, died 
in 1501, and their son was created Viscount Here- 
ford. This latter lady would seem to be the only 

widow of a Lord Ferrers likely to be alive in 
1520; and I presume had Thomas Poyntz married 
Anne Ferrers he would have been summoned to 
Parliament in his wife's barony, and I further pre- 
sume that Anne died between the years 1483 and 
1487, as her son was not summoned to Parliament 
till the latter date at any rate she would have 
been eighty-one in 1520. Did, therefore, Thomas 
Poyntz marry the great heiress of the Bourchiers ? 

HENRY. 1. Reference was made in " N. & Q." 
some years ago to six miniatures of Richard 
Baxter painted on copper. Of these one was 
given to Philip Henry. The name of the artist 
is requested. 

2. In the hall of Ch. Ch. is a picture of Dr. 
Busby and Philip Henry by - Riley. Any in- 
formation about this picture or the copy in 
Westminster School would be very acceptable. 

3. Philip Henry's diaries from 1656 to 1696 
are written with a crowquill in Goldsmith's 
Almanacks, which measure four inches by two 

Any one possessing one of these will much 
oblige by communicating with MATT. H. LEE. 
Hanmer, Whitchurch, Salop. 

EARL LEOFRIC. Is there any evidence that 
Thorold left issue ? If so, where can it be found ? 


half-length portrait of my great-grandfather, an 
excellent picture, much in the style of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. On the back is written, " Painted in 
America by Edge Pyne ; portrait of Sir Joseph 
Dacre Appleby Gilpin." What is known of this 
painter ? Sir Joseph was a friend of Washington, 
and stayed with him at Mount Vernon, where the 
picture was probably painted. H. P. 

THE FEMALE " WORTHIES." Can any brother 
or sister " N. & Q."-ite tell me where I may find 
the names of these ladies? I have seen them 
somewhere, and remember some of them, but I 
want the full list, and the authority for it. 
Chaucer gives us nine " good women," but they 
are all heathens, and the list I ask for is divided 
into three " hierarchies," like that of the men. 

J. T. M. 

6, Delahay Street. 

GERVASE MARKHAM. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me in which of Gervase Mark- 
ham's numerous works, and at what date, is to be 
found the comparison of different kinds of horses 
commencing, " For swiftness what nation hath 
brought forth that horse which hath the English?" 



. m. FEB. 26, 'si. 

He then illustrates his remarks by an account of a 
horse race which he saw at Salisburie, where a 
black hobbie of Maister Carlton's was " overrunne 
by a horse of Maister Blackstone's called Valen- 
tine, which Valentine, neither in hunting nor 
running was ever equalled." 

I want to trace out the date of this horse race, 
but cannot find the passage in Markham's Farrier. 

A. C. B. 


GEORGE DYER. Where was this well-known 
friend of Charles Lamb buried ? S. T. S. 

ASKEW FAMILY. I ask for any information as 
to the descendants of Sir William Askew (or 
Ascue), of Kelsey, Lincolnshire, father of Anne 
Askew, who was burned in July, 1546. He is 
spoken of as having joined the Pilgrimage of 
Grace. I should like also to know where his 
descendants settled, as the name seems to be very 
uncommon in this country at the present time. 


Ashwood House, Parkgate, Rotherham. 
[Answers to be sent direct.] 

ACOUSTIC JARS. I should like some informa- 
tion respecting the occurrence of these assistants 
to the passage of sound in churches. Are they of 
any real use 1 In what individual churches have 
they been discovered 1 In St. Clement's Church, 
Sandwich, there are three acoustic jars formed in 
the wall of the chancel, situate about twenty feet 
from the floor. They are all three at the eastern- 
most extremity of the chancel, overlooking the 
altar, two in the north wall and one in the south. 


" Poland swarmed with Scotch settlers. They under- 
stood business, and would work, while the Pole preferred 
a life of idle gaiety. They were succeeded in that part 
of the world by the Israelites. It is notable, indeed, that 
wherever we find that the Jews now gather the Scots 
supplied their useful services of old ; while in Scotland 
itself scarce a single Jew has found a living." John 
Hill Burton, History of the Reign of Queen Anne, 1880, 
ii. 7. 

Can the period be stated when the Scots 
flourished in Poland ? Are any of the present 
great Polish families descendants of these wander- 
ing merchants ? W. P. 
[The seventeenth century.] 

INGEMANN'S NOVELS. Where can I see a list 
of the novels of B. S. Ingemann, the Dane, and 
which of them have been translated into English ? 
Neither the originals nor translations seem to be 
in the London Library. The only one I have ever 
met with is " The Childhood of King Erik Menved : 
an Historical Romance . . . Translated from the 
Danish by J. Kesson. London, Bruce & Wyld, 
1846." ANON. 

known of the present whereabouts of the registers 
of Essex wills, beginning about A.D. 1440 and 
ending about A.D. 1550, known as Stodye, Bare- 
foote, Atte, Thompson, Beriff, Grey, Robinson,. 
Carter, Curling, and Pilgrim 1 Z. 

"CLERE" AS A LOCAL SUFFIX. What is the- 
meaning of the termination clere in Kingsclere,, 
Highclere, Burghclere names of villages on the 
northern border of Hampshire 1 This question- 
has been asked before (see " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. i. 
336), and has received the reply (p. 400) that the 
affix signifies a royal residence or episcopal palace ^ 
thus Kingsclere was a royal demesne in the reign 
of 'Queen Elizabeth, arid Burghclere was the 
residence of the bishops of Winchester. What 
authority is there for the statement that clere ever- 
meant a grand residence 1 A. L. MAYHEW. 

ROBERT PATTON. Where can anything be 
found about him 1 He wrote a Review of the 
Monarchy and Republic of Rome. Was he a 
brother of Capt. Charles and of Admiral Philip 
Patton ? Debrett published for him. His Asiatic 
Monarchies appears to me a very valuable book, 
though ill written. He also, I see by Allibone, 
wrote Effects of Properly on Society, &c. Is this 
a good book ? C. A. WARD. 


TEMPEST ARMS. In Burke's Gen. ^4rmon/, under 
the heading of " Tempest," the following arms are 
given : 1. Argent, abend sa., charged with three 
roses of the field, seeded or. 2. Or, on a bend sa.,,. 
three roses pierced of the field. 3. Argent, a bend 
between six martlets gules. 4. Sa., a cross between 
four martlets gules. What families of Tempest 
bear the above arms 1 A. TEMPEST. 

Colehy, Lincoln. 

[In the Armory, 1878, 3 is not given at all ; 1 and 4 
are given, but without description of the families, and 2 
is blazoned somewhat differently, as an alternative form 

WAIBLINGER FAMILY. In the kingdom of 
Wiirtemburg is a small town, Waiblingen, full of 
historical interest. It was after this place then 
one of the principal manorial possessions of the 
imperial house of Hohenstaufen that the famous 
Waiblingers (Italianized, Ghibellines), partisans of 
the emperor, took their name, to distinguish them- 
selves from their rivals, the Welfs (Italianized, 
Guelphs), followers of Welf of Bavaria, The 
royal house of Guelph is still represented in 
several " high places," but where are the German 
Ghibellines ? I find that a leading German poet, 
and a native of the then Duchy of Wiirtemberg,. 
bore the name of Wilhelm Waiblinger ; he died in- 
1830, aged twenty-six only. Again, that a family 
of the same surname and duchy held leading 
positions during the last century in the Church 

6i S. III. FEB. 26, '81.] 



of the Moravians or Herrnhiiters in Germany, a 
branch of which family (two generations of doctors) 
migrated into England, and here became extinct. 

Were these Waiblingers representatives of the 
old Ghibellines ; or did they derive their surname 
from an ancestor who became known by the name 
of his manor, or that of his birthplace simply ? 


A TOKEN. The following printed notice has 
been left at my house : 

" To the ivorthy inhabitants of St. John's Wood, 


Ladies and Gentlemen, We, the regular Dustmen of 
this District, in the employ of T. Hobbs, Jun., humbly 
make application to you for A Christmas Box, which 
you have hitherto been so kind as to give. 

We bring our Token, which, is a Copper Medal of 
Henry VIII., with Latin inscription on one side, and on 
the other side an Emblem with date, birth, coronation 
and death, 

John Turner and Fred Fox 
No Connection with the Scavengers : 
Caution. As there are persons who go about with 
intent to defraud us and impose on you, be so kind as 
not to give your bounty to any but those that can pro- 
duce the aforesaid Token. Please not to return this Bill." 

I have taken a pencil rubbing of this medal ; it 
is about the size of a five-shilling piece. Obv. : 
leg., "Henricus VIII. D.G. : Ang. Fr. Et. Hib. 
Eex. I. D." Field, full-faced bust of king in 
regal robes. Eev. : Field, (?) a temple with figure 
wielding what appears to be a hammer, another 
figure lying in foreground. Ex. : "Nat. 1491. 
Cor. 24. Jun. 1509. Mort. 28. Jan. 1547. 
I. D." What is known of this medal 1 Does this 
use of a niedal as a token for identification exist 
elsewhere for this or any other purpose 1 My 
dustman told me it was found in some rubbish 
taken away from a house some years ago, and has 
been used for the above purpose ever since. 


79, Carlton Hill, N.W. 

a catalogue or description of the pictures which 
belonged to Count d'Orsay ? I wish to identify 
some oil-paintings, chiefly of old masters, which 
are said to have been once in his possession. Un- 
luckily the pedigree of these has been lost. 

H. P. 

" Tom loves Mary passing well, 
But Mary she loves Harry, 
While Harry sighs for bonny Bell, 
And finds his love miscarry." 

Cross Purposes, a ballad, circa 1795. 
" She was become 

The queen of a fantastic realm ; her thoughts 
Were combinations of disjointed things ; 
And form, impalpable and unperceived 
Of others' sight, familiar were to hers : 
And this the world calls frenzy." 

E. V. 

; Who fears to speak of ninety-eight, 
Who blushes at the name 1 ?" 



(6 th S. iii. 127.) 

No doubt MR. TERRY is right in rejecting Dr. 
Brewer's explanation from a hypothetical raadst, 
council, not to be found in the Danish dictionaries. 
And 1 believe that most of us, when first we speculate 
on the origin of the expression, would agree with 
MR. TERRY in supposing that it had reference to 
the administration of the roast beef. But I think 
I have shown in my Dictionary that the figure is 
taken from an earlier sense of the word roast or 
rost, viz. a rod ; a sense very widely spread, and 
still preserved in the term hen-roost, Du. roest, 
pertica gallinaria (Kilian), a rod for fowls to perch 
on. It must be observed that the word perch 
itself has the same original signification, as shown 
in the use of the term perch, or pole, as a measure 
of length, a measuring rod. The G. rost is applied 
to various kinds of grating, i.e. assemblages of 
parallel rods or bars, viz. a gridiron, a fire-grate, 
the visor of a helmet. The O.Fr. rost (whence 
rostir, Fr. rotir, to roast) signified a spit or a 
gridiron : 

" La dame haste le mengier, 

Molt en a fait apareiller, 

Bons chapons en pot et en rost," 

Fabliaux et Conies, iv. 370, 

good capons boiled and roast in the pot and on 
the spit. 

" Char de cerf ou d'oysel volant, 
Qui vuet [veut] en rost, qui vuet en pot." 

Hid., iv. 177. 

Polish roszt, a grate, might be a mere adoption of 
the G. rost, but the dim. roszczka, a rod, twig, 
small branch, shows the original sense of the word. 
Now, the bearing of a rod is very generally 
taken as a symbol of authority. Thus verge (Lat. 
mrga) is explained by Johnson " a rod, or some- 
thing in the form of a rod, carried as an emblem 
of authority." And figuratively, " Verge is the 
compass of the king's court, bounding the juris- 
diction of the lord steward of the king's house- 

" The herauldis with thare awfull vestimentis, 
With maseris [macers] upon ather of thare handis, 
To rewle the preis, with burneist silver wandis." 
Lyndsay, Deploration of Q. Magdalene, 140. 

To " rule the rost," then, or to " rule the rod," 
would be merely a compendious expression for 
bearing legitimate rule, as symbolized by the 
carrying of a rod or wand : 

" This yeir sail richt and reason rule the rod." 

New Year's Gift to Q. Mary in Evergreen. 

To "fall down at the roist," in the Flyting of 
Kennedy and Dunbar, can only have the sense of 



[6'h S. III. FEB. 26, '81. 

bowing down to the rod or submitting to autho- 

" Thou raw-mou'd rebald, fall down at the roist 
Say Deo mircy, or I cry thee down ; 
And leave thy ryining, rebald, and thy rows." 

In more recent times this has been generally 
thought to refer to the table and sitting at the 
head of it, but I am strongly of opinion that this 
is a corruption from the original meaning, which 
was roost, and is an allusion to the hen-roost. I 
think that is the proper construction of the follow- 
ing passage : 

" Sylla rulynq the roste, & learyng all the stroke in 
Rome (saieth Plutarclms) was in minde and wille to take 
awaie from Caesar, Cornelia the doughter of Cinna the 
dictator (that is to saie, the lord great maister, or the 
lorde commaunder.) Whiche thing when he could 
neither for fear ne for hope, that is to saie, neither by 
foule meanea, nor by faire meanes bryng to pas?e, he 
stopped her dourie as forfaicted to the chamber of the 
citee." Apoph. Erasmus, 1542, reprint 1877, p. 294. 

And what other can be made of the following 1 ? 
a beggarly little cold town " roste" in the moun- 
tains. Not "roasted," surely, but roosted=peTcb.Qd. 
up. It can mean nothing else. 

" As he passed by a beggerie little toun of cold roste in 
the mountaines of Sauoye, his compaignie that were 
with bym, puttyng doubtes and questions, whether in 
that dog hole, also, wer sedicions & quereles for pre- 
eminence and superioritee, as there continually were in 
Rome, he staied and stonde still a pretie while musing 
with hymself, & anone, Well (quoth he) I promise you, 
I for my part had lieffer to bee the firste, or the chief 
man here, then the seconde man in Rome." Apoph 
Erasmus, 1542, reprint 1877, p. 297. 

So, also, in the following passage Wolsey is " cock 
of the walk,'' as we say now : 

" That in the Chambre of Starres 

All maters there he marres ; 

Clappyng his rod on the borde, 

No man dare epeke a worde, 

For he hathe all the sayenge, 

Without any renayenge ; 

He rolleth in his recordes, 

He sayth, How saye ye, my lordes? 

Is nat my reason <rood 1 

Good euyn, good Rol>yn Hood ! 

Some say yes, and some 

Syt styll as they were dom : 

Thus thwartyng ouer thorn,* 

He ruleth all the route 

With braggynge and with host ; 

Borne vp on euery syde 

With pompe and with pryde, 

With, trompe vp, alleluya ! " 

Skelton'a Why come ye nat to Courte ? (about 1520). 
And in Colin Clout : 

" But at the playsure of one 

That ruleth the roste alone." L. 1020. 
In those passages in Skelton where roast is cer 
tainly meant, the word is spelled without the final e : 

* Turning one thumb over another," twiddling his 

' Grimbaldus gredy, snatche a puddyng tyl the roxt be 
redy." Magnyfycence, 1. 1170. 

" Or pescoddea they may shyll, 
Or elles go rost a stone." 

Why come ye nat to Courte ? 1. 109. 

But I rely most on the following passage from 
he Polycronicon, first printed in 1482 by Caxton. 
Alexander is warned to stint his ambition, and is 
:old that although a big tree, which has been grow- 
ng many years, may be " rosted" in readily, yet 
ihe bird may be beaten down by the boughs and 
milled if the tree falls as I have heard my father 
describe a raven was which had built its nest 
many years in th,e same tree in the village where 
le was born. They felled the tree, and the raven, 
which would not forsake its nest, was killed by 
lie branches as the tree fell. 

" Meotydes sente a letter to Alysaunder in this manner* 
yf goddes wolde that the hauynge of thy bodye were 
euen to the coueyteyse of thy soule/ the worlde myghte 
not receyue the/ whether thou knowe not that trees that 
*rowe longe tyme be rosted in a lytell whyle/ than take 
icde and beware that thou falle not with the tree whyle 
thou takest to y e bowes. Oft the lyon is mete to smale 
beestes and to fowles and rust destroyed yron." Poly- 
cronicon, 1527, f. 120. 

All these instances are earlier than that quoted 
by Mu. TERRY, and prove that roost and roast 
were even then quite distinct words. E. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Hazlitt, in his English Proverbs and Proverbial 
Phrases, refers to Skelton's Why come ye nat to 
Courte? about 1520, for this expression; but ifc 
occurs still earlier in the Debate of the Carpenter's 
Tools, about 1500, printed by Halliwell in his 
Nugce Poeticce, p. 17 : 

" Whatsoeuer ye brage our boste, 
My mayster yet shall reule the roste.". 

In Andrew Kingesmyl's work entitled A most 
Excellent and Comfortable Treatise for all such as 
are in any Maner of Way either troubled in Mynde 
or afflicted in Bodie, 1577, p. 20, the phrase occurs 
in a noteworthy connexion, " Let us not look heere 
to rule the roste, but to be rosted rather of Kulers." 


As a suggestion in explanation of the word rost, 
I am inclined to think it is a contraction of 
rostrum or roster. Rostrum is explained by Todd, 
Webster, and Latham to mean " a common plead- 
ing place in Korne, where orations, funeral 
harangues, &c., were made. Also a platform or 
elevated spot from which a speaker addressed his 
audience." If one were living in those times, and 
a man had said to us, Cicero " ruled the rostrum," 
we should have understood the idiom to mean 
that he had carried away or ruled the passion of 
his audience by force of his eloquence. We have 
similar phrases " He commanded the attention 
of the House"; "His eloquence forced them to 
submit " by which we signify that the mass of a 

6"-S. III. FEB. 26, '81.] 



people or an audience become for the time being 
dominated, ruled, and made captive, as it were, b; 
the speaker. If this should be considered a little 
too far-fetched, MR. TERRY will find from the 
same authorities that Roster (German) = a list o 
persons liable to a certain duty. If this be so, then 
"the Duke of Burgoyne ruling the rost" mus 
have meant that he ruled the king's cabinet his 
immediate counsellors, his audience. They were 
""persons liable to a certain duty" toward the 
king, and this they forfeited by becoming tools o 
the duke. In the sense of "persons liable to a 
certain duty," they might have been spoken of as 
rosters; so, in the Koman sense, the duke's elo- 
quence, bribery, &c., ruled this rostrum. 


EEV. JAMES SERCES (6 th S. iii. 8). Through 
the kindness of a friend at Lincoln I have obtained 
an answer to this inquiry. Mr. Serces, although, 
as he records in his will, " born in the Church oi 
Geneva," took Anglican orders, and became Vicar 
of Appleby, in co. Lincoln, so far back as 1727-8, 
and died in London in 1762. I may further note 
what, were it anything more than an uncor 
rected printer's error, might have had an interest 
for Mr. Thorns that in Burn's History of the 
Foreign Refugees, at p. 157, this gentleman's name 
appears as Serres. That this, however, is no autho- 
rized variation, but a mere misprint, the beautiful 
writing of the original, of which the extract, where 
the signature occurs, professes to be a transcript, 
leaves not a shadow of doubt. He was " nearly 
related " (query, how) to another member of the 
great body of literati of refugee origin, the Rev. 
William Fraigneau, Regius Professor of Greek in 
the University of Cambridge during 1744-50. 

H. W. 
New Univ. Club. 

CENTENARIANS (6 th S. iii. 7). That the death 
of five reputed centenarians should be recorded in 
the one month of December, 1780, is hardly re- 
markable, for in fact it is a little below the 
average of the year, as sixty-seven are stated to 
have died in that year, which is rather more than 
five and a half per month. MR. HOLGATE will 
find a very full list of these deaths in James 
Easton's Human Longevity, 8vo., 1799, which 
shows that in the ten years from 1780 to 1789 the 
deaths of 372 centenarians had been reported. The 
ages of these were : of 100 years, 40 ; from 101 to 
105 years, 163 ; from 106 to 110 years, 97 ; from 111 
to 115 years, 38 ; from 116 to 120 years, 19 ; over 
120 years, 15. After reading the record of these 
very remarkable " facts," it will be well to refer to 
the work of Mr. Thorns, Human Longevity: its 
Facts and its Fictions. That one or more of these 
reputed centenarians really deserved the title is 

more than probable ; but that in most instances 
the age was considerably exaggerated is certain. 


Is it worth while to record such extracts from 
old obituaries ] It requires very little study of 
Mr. Thoms's book to make one refuse all faith to 
them. On reading MR. HOLGATE'S letter I went 
to my bookcase and took down a volume of the 
Annual Register; it chanced to be that for 1772. 
I spent a couple of minutes in glancing through the 
"Chronicle," and found no fewer than seventy 
deaths stated to be at a hundred years and upwards. 
This may show MR. HOLGATE how common was 
supposed centenarianism in the last century. 

C. k S. WARREN, M.A. 

Farnborough, Banbury. 

VELASQUEZ (6 th S. ii. 427 ; iii. 74). The best 
authorities in Spain are, beyond doubt, the Mad- 
razos and Ochoas, who have held a high and well- 
merited position in the world of arts and letters 
for three generations. El Senor Don Pedro de 
Madrazo, member of the Royal Academy of Fine 
Arts of San Fernando and Director-in-Chief of 
the Academy of History, Madrid, author of the 
well-known and appreciated Catalogo Descriptive 
e Historico del Museo del Prado de Madrid, 1872, 
says on p. 600, under No. 1060, " que pasa por 
retrato de Velazquez" (passes for a likeness of 
Velasquez) ; and in speaking of the figure in " Las 
Meninas," under No. 1062, he asserts positively 
that it is a portrait of the master himself ("el 
pintor D. Diego de Silva esta ejecutando en un 
*ran lienzo los dos retratos unidos," &c,). This 
ast portrait is the most important and authentic 
of the master. See note to the introduction of 
Memoire de Velazquez sur 41 Tableaux envoy es par 
Philippe IV. a VEscurial (Paris, 1874), by Le 
Baron Ch. Davillier, pp. 13-14 ("Le portrait de 
Velazquez le plus authentique est celui du celebre 
;ableau * De las Meninas,' oil le peintre," &c.); and 

then goes on to speak of another as also being 
most authentic : 

" Parmi ceux qui existent dans les collections publiques 
u privees, le portrait que possede le Musee de Valence 
iarait le plus authentique et rappelle bien, malgre son 
tat de deterioration, la figure ' De las Meninas.' C'est 
le ce tableau peu connu que s'est inspire mon excellent 
,mi Fortuny. No. 340 de ce Musee etabli dans 1'ancien 
ouvent del Carmen serait-ce le portrait que Velazquez 
icignit a Naples, et qu'il envoya a son geudre Bautista 
iel Mazo Martinez] " 

Fortuny, the celebrated painter, an acknow- 
edged authority (who died in 1874), said to the 

writer that it was after consultation with the best 
xperts in Madrid he determined to make the 
>eautiful etching which now adorns the Baron 
)avillier's work from the portrait in the Valencia 
Museum. There is another portrait of Velasquez 

mentioned as authentic by Don Pedro de Madrazo, 
ormerly owned by Don Jose, his father, which 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* S. III. FEB. 26, '81. 

was sold previous to 1840, and has been lost sight 
of since. Can this be the one owned by the Earl 
of Ellesmere, of which G. D. T. speaks 1 

A replica, or more likely a copy, of the " Me- 
ninas " is to be found in the gallery of Mr. Banks, 
Kingston Lacy, Dorsetshire. 


22, Cours la Reine, Paris. 

"IRON-MOULD" (6 th S. iii. 9). Yes, certainly. 
Two words have been confused, viz. iron-mole, a 
spot due to iron, or resembling rust ; and iron- 
mould, a yellow lump of earth or stone found in 
some chalk pits, a kind of ore (Phillips). Excre- 
scent d after I is nofc uncommon. The trees called 
alder and elder both bear names into which an 
intrusive d has found its way ; and Shakespeare's 
alderliefest is for allerliefest, dearest of all. MR. 
TERRY'S quotation is well worth having ; it is 
certainly "a find." Compare P. Plowman, B. xiii. 
275, 315. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


" QUOD FUIT ESSE," &c. (6 th S. ii. 468 ; iii. 73). 
The lines for which there is inquiry were written 
upon the tomb of John Wiles in Lavenham 
Churchyard, Suffolk, who died in 1694, and they 
appear in an English form on a tomb at Amwell, 
Herts, in 1773 :-4 

" That which a being was, -what is it 1 show : 
That being \vhich it was, it is not now. 
To be what 'tis, is not to be, you see : 
That which now is not, shall a being be." 

The Latin lines were first printed from the 
epitaph in J. Kirby's Historical Account of 
Prints of Monasteries, &c in Suffolk, 1748, p. 22. 
They are also examined in Gent. Mag. for 1787, 
vol. Ivii. p. 379 ; Mirror of Literature, Nov. 29, 
1828 ; H. M'Keon's Inquiry into Birthplace, 
&c., of Rev. W. Gurnall, Woodbridge, 1830, App. 
pp. 139-53 ; and " N. & Q.," 5 tSl S. iv. 280, 332 ; 
vi. 439. 

Some other lines may L be put in comparison 
with them : 

"Esse, fuisse, fore, tria florida sunt'sine flore ; 

Nam simul omne perit, quod fuit, est et erit. 
Quod fuit, est et erit, perit articulo brevis horse; 

Ergo quid prodest esse, fuisse, fore?" 

These are mentioned by Corn, a Lapide in his 
Commentary on Isaiah, ch. xxiv. v. 10. They 
also appear in Carm. Prov. Loci Comm., Lond., 
1588, p. 147. ED. MARSHALL. 

I venture to offer another translation of this 
most curious epitaph, equally literal with the 
" Toby Watt " rendering, yet conveying more 
solemn truth. Premising that esse, to be, implies 
existence or life, the quaint couplet may be con- 
strued thus : 

" The life which was, is what it is (sc. defunct) ; which 
life was not what is life (i.e. worthy of the name) : the 

ife which ia (i.e. the present or earthly) is not life ; 
what is not, is (and) will be life." 

The last clause asserts the reality of the spirit's 
ife in Hades, and also the more perfect and 
enduring life of the resurrection-state. 

I would express all in the following metrical 
version, in which I have attempted to retain the 
spirit as well as the epigrammatic and repetitive- 
ring of the original : 

" Soon life, frail life, doth lifeless close ; 
Life mock-life found, e'en whilst life flows i 
Hence life is not life, though life's seed, 
Life after life being life indeed." 

Stevington Vicarage, Bedford. 

P.S. Since penning the foregoing, the Rev. R. 
Parrott, Vicar of Great Amwell, has sent me a 
transcript of the inscription on a stone near the 
south side of the chancel of his church, obtained 
(he says) with difficulty, owing to obliterations, 
and bearing the date " 1773." This is in many 
respects nofc dissimilar to mine. 

[It is exactly the same as that given above by Miu 

This curious epitaph, which is formed out of 
two Latin words, might have been seen fifty years 
ago in Lavenham Churchyard, Suffolk, placed 
beneath the name of one John Wiles, a bachelor,, 
who died in 1694 : 
" Quod fuit es?e quod est, quod non fuit esse quod esse,. 

Esse quod est non esse, quod est aon, erit esse." 
It may be translated thus : 

" What John Wiles has been 

Is what he is ; [a bachelor] 
What he has not been 

Is what he is ; [a corpse] 
To be what he is, 

Is not to be ; [a living creature] 
He will have to be 

What he is not [dust]." 

115, Piccadilly. 

A correspondent of the Mill Hill Magazine, 
vol. ii. (1875), p. 220, gave the following epitaph, 
copied from a tombstone in the chapel-yard at 
Ansby, in Leicestershire, the birthplace of Robert 
Hall. It contains a translation of the Latin liues- 
in question, though even with the translation 
the construction is by no means clear : 

" Sacred to the Memory of Mr. Walter Overton, late 
Minister of the Gospel at Oundle, Northampton, died 
April, 1753. 

Quod fuit esse quod est, quod non fuit esse quod esse; 

Esse quod est, non esse quod est, non esse erit esse. 
That -which it hath been, is that which it is to be (i.e. a 
body) ; To be that which it hath not been is that which 
it is to be (i.e. it hath not been a spiritual body which it 
is to be). To be then what it is (viz. a body) and not to 
be what it is (a natural body) is not to be what it shall 
be (viz. a spiritual body which it shall be). Is to be and 
not to be (viz. not a natural body, but a spiritual body)." 

The lines compose two hexameters, and seem 

6th s. III. FEB. 26, '81.] 



to belong to the days of monkish Latinity. They 
can hardly have appeared first in the epitaph. 


A " POT- WALL " (6 th S. iii. 9). I suspect that 
pott-wall is a mere invention, or slang term, due 
to an undue shortening of pot-walloper, for which 
see Webster's Dictionary. It was a word of some 
political importance. Pot-wall stands for pot- 
walloper's chimney. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


MR. DYMOND tells us that a tenement with a 
pot-wall means a tenement with a chimney for 
dressing victuals. I am glad to know that, for 
it explains fully the meaning of the word pot- 
waller, often written in dictionaries pot-walloper. 
I knew that pot-waller was a man who had a 
room in which he could boil a pot, but that wall 
means chimney, is new to me. Before the first 
Reform Bill, in a few boroughs, Northampton and 
Preston, for example, pot-wallers voted for Members 
of Parliament. Oldfield, in his Representative 
Government, [says that in Preston all the inha- 
bitants had votes ; but here he is wrong. If an 
inhabitant lived in a room without a chimney he 
had no vote. Pot-wallers have no vote now, here. 
The rights of the old constituents were reserved, but 
they must surely have all died or removed. At 
Bedford, before the first Reform Bill, all house- 
holders had votes, even those who were not rated 
to the poor, and there is still a small list of men 
who vote under the old qualification. W, W. 

Carshalton, Surrey. 

The use of this word is illustrated by its 
derivative, pot-waller, one of the old classes of 
parliamentary electors, whose rights were con- 
tinued temporarily by the Reform Act. " Pot- 
wallers," 'says Serjeant Stephen, were " such as 
cook their own diet in a fireplace of their own " 
(Commentaries, ii. p. 386, ed. 1868). This word 
may serve as an instance of a perverted derivation. 
From their amenability to liquid influences, it is 
commonly supposed that pot-wallers are so called 
from the pots of beer which they imbibe at election 
times ; and thus an honourable name has fallen 
into discredit. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

"CROSS": "ACROSS": "BURY" (6 th S. ii. 429). 
We may safely conclude that cross is derived 
from F. croix, and that across is a hybrid, being 
from on and cross, just as we have aboard, around 
(a hybrid also), asleep, &c. Both the words cross 
and rood are found in The Vision of William con- 
cerning Piers the Plowman. The former seems 
gradually to have supplanted the latter. Dr. 
Stratmann, in his Old English Dictionary, quotes 
one crosse, across, from the Morte d'Arthure. Across 
occurs in Surrey's Complaint of the Absence of her 
Lover, &c. : 

" When other lovers in arms acrosse 

Rejoice their chief delight." 

The word is to be found several times in 
Shakespeare; cf., for instance, Winter's Tale, 
IV. iv. 15 (Globe ed.) : 

" When my good falcon made her flight across 

Thy father's ground." 

Bury is obviously Teutonic in its origin, being 
derived from A.-S. byrgan, -ean, -ian, to bury, or 
byrian, byrgian, &c., to raise a mound, bury 
(Bosworth). Cf. A.-S. version of St. Luke's Gospel 
(Bosworth), ix. 59 : " Drihten, alyf me serest 
byrigan minne feeder"; and Ormulum, 15,254 : 

" To bir^enn }uvv i kirrkegard." 
Burrow or barrow comes from A.-S. beorh. 


On reading your correspondent's query as to the 
derivation of across, I turned to Prof. Skeat's 
Etymological Dictionary. I find he states that 
" across is short for on-cross, like abed for on-bed." 
He adds, " I do not find the full form on-cross? 
and the word was probably formed by analogy." 
Curiously enough, I was yesterday reading Cax- 
ton's Lyf of Charles the Grete, and came across 
the following passage. Caxton, having related the 
disaster at Roncesvalles and the death of Roland, 
says that when Charles " came he fonde Rolland 
exspyred, hys hondes in crosse upon hys vysage, al 
stratched," sig. M iii, back, col. 1. Here the 
words in crosse are a translation of the original 
en croix. As perhaps the only instance of the 
full form, this passage is interesting. Your corre- 
spondent's derivation of bury from " the Basque 
obirata " I commend to Prof. Skeat. S. J. H. 

The word cross is certainly a derivation of croix 
from Latin crucem. The Italian form is croce 
and the Spanish cruz, from the same original. 
From the Low Latin crucea (formed from crucem) 
came It. croccia, Fr. crosse, a crosier a term which 
seems in the first instance to have designated the 
bearer, afterwards the pastoral staff itself (Welsh 
ffon esgob, not esgot, probably a misprint in MR. 
POPE'S query). Crook is probably a different word 
altogether ; its cognates, at any rate, are the French 
croc (whose diminutive is crochet), Gaelic crocan t 
Welsh crwg, and its origin seems to be Teutonic. 
The Welsh for cross is croes, which seems to be & 
loan-word from the English, and not native. 

Bury, burial, &c., is sometimes referred to the 
German bergen in the sense of hide in the 
ground, but the original idea seems rather to be 
that of a mound thrown up for purposes of defence, 
from A.-S. beorgan, to defend. Hence a sepulchral 
mound or barrow. Burrow is the same word, 
literally a place of shelter. C. S. JERRAM. 

" CHALET " (6 th S. ii. 512). Nugent writes this 
word chalet. Littre's derivation is no doubt 



in. FEB. 26/81. 

correct. The word may have come thus : casa, 
castra, castrellum, casteUum, casteltetum, chastelle- 
tum, chastelet, chdtelet; by contraction, chalet. 


"GALE" (6 th S. ii. 4S9).-Gale is decidedly 
English, in the ordinary sense of the word as 
English as duty, Bible, faith, and country. Of 
course I do not use " English " in the new-fangled 
and narrow sense of Germanic only, which would 
exclude two-thirds of the words in Shakespeare 
und our English dictionary. This would be 
neither patriotic nor logical. Gale is the Danish 
gal, furious, or possibly gal, blast, Irish ; anyhow, 
it is not Low Dutch. BRITANNICQS. 

CUPBOARD_" (6 th S. ii. 468). This query calls 
to my recollection an event in my early -childhood 
fay which I am able to give an instance of the use 
of this word in its etymological sense. 

When I was a boy there were few children's 
books, and those dear. Whenever I had any 
money I always spent it in books (which weakness 
has continued with me, to a great extent, up to 
the present time). On one of these occasions, 
about fifty years ago, when I had only one shilling 
to spend, I bought The Life of Sergeant Dale, 
by Mrs. Sherwood, I believe. The sergeant was a 
soldier in India, and had a little girl, whether his 
own or adopted, I forget. After a time, the good 
sergeant obtained his discharge and a pension. 
The furnishing of their little house was an excit- 
ing subject for the little girl, and is described at 
considerable length. I remember her delight with 
the new tea-things. She is represented as arrang- 
ing the cups and saucers on, or in, the cupboard 
in the corner against the return of the sergeant. 
I pondered over this word. I was always hearing 
it called cubboard. I made "a mental note that it 
should be cwp-board, because cups were put away 
in it, which reason 1 had never suspected before. 
I was about five years old then, and too shy to ask 
questions about such things. I had not many 
books, because I had not many people to give me 
the necessary shillings to buy them. This book 
was afterwards given to my younger brothers, to 
whom I was obliged to give all my childish 
possessions when I was considered to be too big 
for them, which causes me a pang even now, anc 
caused me agony at the time. They would quickly 
destroy it. I remember the book distinctly. I 
was a fcap. 8vo., with limp pasteboard covers, cu 
flush, covered with dirty red paper, with the titL 
printed on the outside. On. EL. MA. may be 
glad of this instance if he cannot meet with 
another. Probably a copy of the book might bi 
found, seeing that Mrs. Sherwood was a popula 
writer. I dare trust my memory, although it i 
fifty years since. 

This brings to my recollection a circumstance 

onnected with another of my childish treasures. 

tVhen about six or seven I had half-a-crown to 

pend. This gave me more scope in the choice of 
i book. I bought a small work, with roan back 
ind marbled paper sides, called New Year's Gift. 
"t had three or four engravings, and I remember 

ome of the contents now. The possession of such 
a treasure nearly turned my head, and I determined 

o commemorate