Skip to main content

Full text of "Notes and queries"

See other formats

Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 212, Jan. ID, 1884. 



:$le&tum of Kntercommutttcatton: 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 212, Jan. 19, 18S4. 

< b 







NOTES : Venezuelan Folk-lore, <fcc., 1 Letter from Sir John 
Lawson to Sir H. Vane, 3 Robert III. of Scotland An 
Attribute of Fame, 4 Julius Caesar's Comet Employment 
of Women Jews and Greeks in London, 1677, 5. 

QUERIES : Norwich Mantua and Montferrat University 
Fund, 6 Black-joke Snape Family" L'homme propose," 
&c. Name of Inn An Old Viola Polyglot Vocabulary, 7 
Jennings of Shiplake Arnold Candlemas Offerings 
S. Tilston William III. English Prosody Authors 
Wanted, 8. 

REPLIES: Cotton's "Horace," 8-Cowper's Pew, Olney 
John Kenrick, 10 Portraits of Hampden Cromwell and 

Russell, 11 The Acre Lord Buchan and Washington- 
Johannes de Temporibus Heraldry, 12 Death of Socrates 
Surrey Folk-lore Paigle Governor Dinwiddie, 13" He 
frieth in his own grease " Suffix " -some," 14 Old English 
Mortar, 15 Welcher Three-way Leet Nuns of Gidding, 
16 Pitcho : Fiasco Regimental Precedence, 17 Tennyson 
and Lockhart Stewart of Lorn Glastonbury Lecomta 
Family Discharge Shillitoe Family Smockhold, 18 
Marke-tree : Wainscot Names of Manors Horn Fair, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Faucon's " Mariage de Louis d'Or- 
Ifians " Mackay's " Poetry and Humour of the Scottish 
Language" Ingle's "Parish Institutions of Maryland" 
" Journal of the Derby Archaeological Society." 

Notices to Correspondents. 


On Thursday, June 28, the anniversary of his 
father's death, Henry Frederic Turle, Editor of 
Notes and Queries, passed away from among us, 
ere the pages of that week's number had received 
their final revision. Those of his friends who had 
seen him but shortly before, full of life, and of 
interest in life and in his work, can even yet scarce 
believe that they have lost him. 

An " Old "Westminster " by education as well as 
by long residence and association, Henry Turle 
felt strongly the historic attractions of the royal 
church and college within whose precincts he had 
spent so many happy years. Very fitly, he lay in 
another church full of historic memories, the 
Chapel Royal, Savoy, before being taken to his 
last home in Norwood Cemetery. And no less 
fitly, in the case of one whose reverence for things 
ancient was so deep, the service commenced by 
the Dean of Westminster and the clergy of the 
Savoy was concluded at Norwood by a canon of 
Westminster, Canon Prothero, a personal friend 
of the late Editor of "N. & Q." Among those 
who had known Henry Turle long and inti- 
mately, there followed him to Norwood where 
he lies with his father, known for such long 

years to the musical world as the Organist of West* 
minster Abbey the publisher of Notes and Queries, 
Mr. John C. Francis, for whose father the late 
Editor had felt a very strong regard ; the Organist 
of the Chapel Royal, St. James's, an old assistant 
of Henry Turle's father ; the Editor of the Athe- 
rueum; and the Foreign Secretary of the Royal 
Society of Literature, who had been entrusted 
with the temporary charge of Notes and Queries 
last week. 

Of such a one as Henry Turle, taken from 
among us in the full activity of his powers, it 
seems only possible to sum up his career in the 
words, " Consummatus in brevi, explevit tempora 

Our valued correspondent A. J. M. writes : 
" I ask leave to say a word, prompted only by 
private friendship and private sorrow, about the 
sad and sudden death of our genial Editor. His 
judgment and tact and temper in the conduct of 
' N. & Q.' were singularly fine and accurate, and 
the loss of them is grievous to us all. But there 
are many, and I am one of them, who will feel 
even more deeply than this. They will feel, as I 
do now, that they have lost a friend ; a man whose 
hearty cheerful kindness and personal regard were 
always at one's service and were always welcome. 
His memory will live with that of 'N. & Q.,' 
which is no light nor trivial touch of fame." 


I have recently been reading again a book 
written with much ability, and giving a bright 
and interesting account of some very varied 
scenes. No author's name is given on the title- 
page, which reads: 

"Campaigns and Cruises in Venezuela and New Gro- 
nada and in the Pacific Ocean from 1817 to 1830 ; with 
the Narrative of a March from the River Orinoco to San 
Buenaventura on the Coast of Choc6 ; and Sketches of 
the West Coast of South America from the Gulf of 
California to the Archipelago of Chilb'e. Also Tales of 
Venezuela : illustrative of Revolutionary Men, Manners, 
and Incidents. (London, Longman & Co. Printed by 

H. E. Carrington, Chronicle Office, Bath, 1831.)" 
3 vols. 

The information as to the leaders of the revolu- 
tion in South America is often interesting. Simon 
Bolivar, the " Liberator," had- it seems, a dislike 
of the Indian weed of which so many of his com- 
patriots were votaries: 

" After supper he encouraged a brisk circulation of 
the bottle ; for although Bolivar was in general remark- 
ably abstemious, he was far from being rigid in enforcing 
temperance at his own table. From thence cigars alono 
were banished, as (strange to say of a Creole and a 
soldier) he had an unconquerable dislike to the smell of 
tobacco." Vol. ii. p. 244. 

The primitive character of the agriculture may 
be estimated from the following : 


" The plough used in the interior of South America is 
of a very primitive construction, as are all the imple- 
ments of agriculture and mechanics. It is of wood, and 
in one piece, being made of the crooked limb of a tree 
selected for the purpose. It is sometimes, although 
rarely, strengthened in the share part with iron ; but 
this is not essentially necessary, as the ground is usually 
rather scratched up than ploughed. As it has but one 
handle, the ploughman is enabled at the same time to 
steer it and to use the goad ; he therefore requires no 
assistance in guiding his oxen or mules, which are har- 
nessed in a very old-fashioned manner. The costume of 
the husbandmen, and the appearance of the ploughs, 
drawn generally by a yoke of oxen, strikingly resemble 
those in the vignettes which are sometimes to be found 
in old editions of Virgil's works. The harrows are even 
more simple in their formation than the ploughs. They 
are often nothing more than long branches of thorns, 
fastened together, and rendered sufficiently heavy by 
large blocks of wood tied across." Vol. i. p. 189. 

That the people were superstitious need not be 
said : 

"The existence of apparitions is firmly maintained 
by them, in common with the natives of every other 
part of South America. They also believe in various 
classes of supernatural beings, as duendes, or dwarfs, 
who are said by them to haunt particular persons, to 
whom alone they are visible. These are represented as 
capricious fairies, lavish in the favours they confer when 
pleased, but excessively prone to jealousy, and, when 
enraged, capable of inflicting any injury, short of death, 
on the former object of their affection. Vultos, also, 
are dreaded as malicious spectral appearances, haunting 
deep glens and lonely hills, usually seen towards day- 
break, very much resembling a wreath of cloud or mist, 
and are said to be sure precursors of misfortune to those 
by whom they are seen. Brujas, too, or witches, are uni- 
Tersally and firmly believed in." Vol. i. p. 306. 

It may not be out of place here to quote from 
another author the description of a place that holds 
an important position in the Venezuelan folk-lore : 

" At twenty leagues further inland, on entering the 
range of the Bergantin .Mountains, near that of Tu- 
rimiquiri, is the famous grotto of Guacharo, in which 
are millions of a new species of Caprimulgus, that 
fill the cavern with their plaintive and dismal cries. 
In every country the same causes have produced similar 
effects on the imagination of our species. The grotto of 
Guacbaro is, in the opinion of the Indians, a place of 
trial and expiation ; souls when separated from bodies go 
to this cavern ; those of men who die without reproach 
do not remain in it, and immediately ascend, to reside 
with the great Manitou in the dwellings of the blessed : 
those of the wicked are retained there eternally; and 
such men as have committed but slight faults of a venial 
nature are kept there for a longer or shorter period, 
according to the crime. Immediately after the death of 
their parents and friends the Indians go to the entrance 
of this cavern to listen to their groans. If they think 
they hear tbeir voices, they also lament, and address a 
prayer to the great spirit Manitou and another to the 
devil Muboya; after which they drown their grief with 
intoxicating beverages." Lavaysse, Description of Vene- 
swla (London, 1820), p. 119. 

My present object, however, is chiefly to call atten- 
tion to the account given by the former writer of 
a race bearing very striking analogies to that mys- 
terious Romany race which has provided so many 
puzzles for ethnologists of the Old World ; 

"He was one of that class of Mestizo natives who are 
called, in many parts of South America, Gitanos and 
Chingane'ros, in allusion most probably to the wandering, 
vagabond way of life they have adopted ; for there would 
seem to be no reason to believe that they really belong to 
that singular race of outcasts from whom they derive 
their name, and who are supposed to be as yet confined 
to the Eastern quarters of the globe. These people are 
held in utter contempt and abhorrence by all true 
Indians ; and not even the meanest tribes among them 
will hold any intercourse with the ChinganSros, whom 
they consider degraded by their buffoonery to the level 
of monkeys. Their agility and humour, nevertheless, 
rendered their occasional visits always welcome to the 
light-hearted Criollos ; and even the supercilious Spa- 
niards deigned at times to relax from their haughty gra- 
vity, and to smile at their unpolished gambols. At the 
hottest periods of the guerra a la muerle the Chin- 
ganeros were considered as privileged exceptions to the 
general rule, which admitted of no sort of neutrality in 
the sanguinary contest, and were freely permitted to 
visit the encampments of both patriots and royalists, for 
the diversion of the soldiery. As they belonged to no 
party, so they could scarcely be looked on as spies; 
and although they had not the least scruple in conveying 
such intelligence as lay in their way, or even occasionally 
becoming bearers of private messages from one side to 
the other, still they atoned for this conduct, or rather 
neutralized its effects, by the perfect impartiality of 
their communications. In a word, they were considered 
too despicable and insignificant a race for anger, or even 
for serious attention." Vol. iii. p. 162. 

In another place he says: 

" The Chinganeros are a peculiar race of wandering 
Oriole minstrels, whose habits, and even whose appella- 
tion, strikingly resemble those of the Zinganees, or 
Eastern gypsies. They claim for themselves pure Indian 
descent ; but this is denied by the aborigines. They are 
all good dancers and musicians, and, above all, fortune- 
tellers, supposed sorcerers, and improvisatori" Vol. ii. 
p. 324. 

Of their power as minstrels he gives two ex- 
amples, with translations : 

" La Montonera, 
Montonera soy, senoras ! 
Yo no niego mi nacion, 
Mas vale ser Monton6ra 
Que no Porteno pintor : 
Montonera en Buenos Ayres 
For las Pampas he pasado ; 
Montonera por las nieves 
I'o las Andes he baxado. 

En su curso por el cielo 
Quien atajara al Lucero? 
Mas atreve quien pretiende 
Atajar al Montonera. 
Libres vuelan los Condorea 
Por la cana Cordillera ; 
Y no menos por los valles 
Libre va la Mpntonera." 

" A Montonera's life I lead 
I '11 ne'er disown the name, 
Though village maids and city dames 
May lightly hold our fame. 
Prom Buenos Ayres' boundless plain 
The Montonera comes, 
And o'er the mighty Andes' heights 
In liberty she roams. 


What hand e'er tried in empty space 

To arrest the morning star 1 

The Montonera's freeborn mind 

To enslave is harder far. 

Free o'er the Cordillera's peaks 

The lordly Condor stalks ; 

As freely through her native wilds 

The Montonera walks." 

La Za.mlullid.6ra. 
" Nino ! tomad este anillo, 
\ llevadlo a la muralla, 
Y dfle & la centinela, 
Este nino va de guardia. 
Vamo'nos, Chinas del alma ! 
Vamo'nos a rambullir ; 
El que zambulli se muere, 
Yo tambien quiero morir ! 

Huid la pompa del poblado, 
Nino, huid a la savanna ; 
Alf gozareis quieto, 
En salud, hasta manana. 
Vamo'nos, Chinas del alma ! 
Vamo'nos a la caleta. 
Para ver los guacamallos 
Con fusil y bayoneta. 

Piensan luego en difpertarse 
Los temblores ya dormidos ; 
Volvad nino la muralla, 
Salgad, 6 serais perdido. 
Vamo'nos, Chinas del alma ! 
Vamo'nos & la laguna, 
A ver si en la zambulli da 
Encontremos una pluma, 
Con que efcriba la cbata mia 
Las cartas de Montezuma." 

" Youth ! this magic ring receive, 
The Chingane'ra's fairy spell ; 
Swift the city ramparts leave. 
Nor heed the wakeful sentinel. 
Come ! beloved of my soul, 
To the depths of ocean fly ; 
Where the dark blue billows roll 
Fearless plunge, nor fear to die. 

To the wild savanna fly ! 
Empty pomp of cities scorning ; 
There, beneath the vault of sky, 
Rest in safety till the morning. 
Come ! beloved of my soul, 
To the sands of ocean come ; 
There no sounds shall meet thine ear 
Save curlew's pipe or bittern's drum. 

Hark ! the wakening earthquake's cry 

Echoes on the startled ear ; 

To the city ramparts fly, 

Youth ! for death awaits thee here. 

Come ! beloved of my soul, 

Fly we to the desert waste; 

There, where the lake's blue waters roll, 

A fairy pen, by wizards placed, 

Lies for thee to write a scroll 

Such as Monteiuma traced." 

Whether these wandering minstrels are really 
gipsies or not, the resemblance between the mon- 
taneros and the gitanos is sufficiently striking to 
be worthy of notice, and of fuller investigation 
by those having the opportunity for making further 
inquiries, WILLIAM E. A. 


HENRY VANE, 1652. 

It has been my good fortune, whilst making 
some researches into the naval history of the 
Commonwealth, to light on the followio <j most 
interesting letter from Sir John Lawson to Sir 
Henry Vane. The short notice of it in the Calen- 
dar of State Papers (Domestic), 1652-3, p. 529, 
scarcely hints at its great value as an autobio- 
graphical sketch of Lawson's early career, of which 
nothing has hitherto been known, and what little 
has been guessed at proves now to be erroneous. 
(Compare GranvUle Penn's Memorials of Sir Wil- 
liam Penn, vol. i. p. 111). I will only add that 
the writing is that of a fairly well educated 
man ; the spelling (which I have not attempted to 
copy) is not abnormally irregular, and the grammar 
which speaks for itself is, on the whole, pretty 
good ; the form of the letter quite bears out the 
inference that Lawson's origin was by no means so 
low as it has been generally represented. 

Right Honourable, It pleased the Lord in the be- 
ginning of these times to convince me of the justice of 
the Parliament's proceedings, for that in the year 1642, 
I voluntarily engaged in their service, and ever since the 
Lord has kept my heart upright to the honest intereifc 
of the nation, although I have been necessitated twice 
to escape for my freedom and danger of my life, at the 
treacheries of Sir Hugh Cholmley and Col. Boynton at 
Scarborough in the first and second war ; my wife and 
children being banished two years to Hull, where it 
pleased God to make me an instrument in discovering and 
(in some measure) preventing the intended treachery of 
Sir John Hotham, having met with other tossings and 
removals to my outward loss, suffering many times by the 
enemy at sea, my livelihood being by trade that way : 
during part of the first war I served at sea in a small ship 
of my own and partner s, in which time receiving my freight 
well I had subsistence ; since that I commanded a foot 
company at land near five years, and about three years last 
past was called to this employment in the State ships, 
at which time my foot company was disposed. In the 
aforesaid service at land and this last at sea, by reason of 
the treacheries and revolutions ashore and emallness of 
salary at sea, I assure your honour myself and family has 
not had maintenance from the public, nor I have not 
used those ways of plundering that others have. At my 
return from the Straits the last summer I resolved to have 
left the sea employment and to have endeavoured some 
other way to provide for my family ; but this difference 
breaking out betwixt the Dutch and us, I could not 
satisfy my conscience to leave at this time being very 
well satisfied that this service is in order to the design 
of God in the exaltation of Jesus Christ, and therefore 
with much cheerfulness shall spend myself in this cause 
where the glory of God and the good of his people is so 
much concerned. May it please your honour, I have 
one suit I shall humble beg for favour in, which is, that 
if the Lord shall have appointed my course to be finished 
and shall take me to Himself while I am in this employ- 
ment (which at the appointed time I trust through His 
rich mercy & free grace in Jesus Christ He will dp) that 
your honour will become instrumental that my wife and 
children may be considered in more than an ordinary 
manner, for they have suffered outwardly by my em- 
bracing this sea service last : my wife is dear to me, and I 
have good ground to believe she is dear to God^and there- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6'" s. vm. JOIY 7, '83. 

fore I assure myself your honour will be more willing in 
such a case to take the trouble upon you. I beg pardon 
for this presumption, beseeching the Lord to preserve 
your honour and all faithful ones at land, and that His 
presence may be with, and providence over us at sea. My 
most humble and bounden service presented, I crave leave 
to gubscribe myself, Right Honourable, 

Your Honour's and the Interest of God's people's 
faithfull Servant whilst I am 


On board the State's frigate Fairfax in Dover Road, 
12 th of the 12"' month, 1652 [Feb. 12, 1652/3J. 


number of Blackwood contains an able refutation 
of recent attempts to rehabilitate the character of 
Robert, Duke of Albany, in connexion with the 
death of his nephew David, Duke of Rothsay. To 
those who wish to study the question a short note 
about the family history of the royal house of 
Scotland at that period may be interesting. 

Robert II. (son of Walter the Steward and the 
Lady Margery Bruce) was born on March 2, 1316, 
ascended the throne of Scotland on the death of 
his uncle, King David (Bruce), on March 27, 
1370, and died on May 13, 1390. His two mar- 
riages and the mystery attending them will always 
involve questions of much difficulty. His eldest 
son, John (afterwards Robert III.), was the eldest 
of the three sons of his first wife, Elizabeth Mure. 
The dates of his parents' marriage and of his birth 
are not stated, but as Robert II. was born in 1316, 
and as Robert, Duke of Albany, the youngest of 
the three sons, was born in 1338, the date of John's 
birth may be assumed at 1335. He married in 
1357 (age twenty-two). On his father's accession 
he became Prince of Scotland and Earl of Carrick 
in 1370 (age thirty-five). David, his eldest son 
(and probably his eldest child), was born in 1375 
(age forty). James (afterwards James I.), his 
youngest son (and child), was born in 1394 (age 
fifty-nine). He succeeded his father as Robert III. 
in 1390 (age fifty-five), and reigned for sixteen 
years, dying in 1406 (aged seventy-one). 

Queen Anabella (Drummond) was married in 
1357, and died in 1401. Besides David and 
James she had one son, who died young, and three 
daughters, who married and left issue. 

It will be seen from the above dates that Robert 
(John) and Anabella had no children for the first 
eighteen years of their marriage, and that their 
youngest child (James) was not born till the thirty- 
seventh year of their marriage. 

Robert (John), unlike his father and his succes- 
sors in the dynasty, had a very limited number of 
natural sons. By a lady whom tradition connects 
with the house of Campbell of Lochawe he had 
two sons, John and James. Very little is known 
about James of Kilbryde, but to John, the eldest 
son, he gave the lands of Auchiugown, a few 

months after his accession to the crown, by a 
charter dated July 20, 1390. This John was 
probably much older than his half-brothers David 
and James. The Auchingown charter was the 
first of a series by which the patrimony was built 
up of the family now represented by Sir Michael 
Robert Shaw-Stewart, Bart., the last being given on 
May 5, 1403, shortly before King Robert's death. 
We seem here to see the materials of a strange 
and romantic history. The son of his father's 
boyish and dubious marriage, John, himself 
married very young, but had no family for eighteen 
years. His succession to the crown depended on 
King David's dying without issue and on the 
marriage of his parents being admitted. When at 
length, in the fifty-fifth year of his age, he suc- 
ceeded to the throne, he had to change his name 
from John to Robert, and to entrust the reins 
of power to that brother, Albany, whose name he 
had assumed. He had to condone and pardon the 
death of his own eldest son while in Albany's harsh 
custody. He had to seek a foreign asylum for his 
youngest son, whose life was threatened by the 
same too powerful prince. However much he 
failed in protecting his own legitimate sons, we 
find him during his retired reign of sixteen years 
steadily watchful over the interest of his son by 
that unknown mother to whom, notwithstanding 
his early marriage, his heart seems to have beep 
given. SIGMA. 

AN ATTRIBUTE or FAME. In The Tragedy 
Sir John Van Olden Barnevelt, lately reprinted 
by Mr. A. H. Bullen, occur the lines, 

" Read but ore the Stories 
Of men most fam'd for courage or for counsaile, 
And you shall find that the desire of glory 
Was the last frailty wise men ere put of : 
Be they my presidents," 

but with the intrusion after the third of them of 
Milton's line (Lycidas, v. 71) 

" That last infirmity of noble minds." 

On this, as "a coincidence," Mr. Swinburne 
addressed a communication to the Athenceum, 
which appeared in its issue of March 10 last, 
p. 314. In reply, Mr. Bullen explained in the 
same periodical (March 17, p. 342) that the 
insertion was due to the printer. He agreed 
with Mr. Swinburne as to the possibility of an 
Italian original for the thought, citing after Warton, 
from the Lettere of the Abbate Grillo, " Questa sete 
di fama e gloria, ordinaria infirmita degli animi 
generosi"; and expressed his expectation that "a 
closer parallel " would " yet be found." 

The concetto in question seems traceable up, as 
to its fountain head, to a saying of Plato's, which 
is preserved to us, on the authority of Dioscorides, 
by Athenaeus, xi. p. 507 d : co-^arov TUV 
a fi> rot davdro) avna 
, (V K/co/uScus, (V 

6<bs.vm.jTTLY7,'83.) NOTES AND QUERIES. 

We next find it in Tacitus, Hist., iv. 6 : " Erant 
quibus adpetentior famae videretur, quando etiam 
sapientibus cupido gloriae novissima exuitur." 

Then in Fronto, Ad M. Antonin. de Eloquentid, 
i. p. 144 (ed. Lips., 1867) : " Tametsi Plato 
ita diceret itaque te compellaret : O javenis, 
periculosa est tibi praepropera placendi fuga : 
novissimum namque homini sapientiarn colenti 
amiculum est glorias cupido. Id novissime exuitur. 
Ipsi ipsi, inquam, Platoni in novissimum usque 
vitas finem gloria amiculum erit." 

Then in Simplicius, Comm. in Epictet. Enchirid., 
p. 106 a (=170 Schweighaeuser): xprjcri/zos yap 
Trpos rriy rtav aAAwv 7ra$u>v Stopdiacrw rj <tAo- 
Ti/ua. oto Kal ecr^aros Aeyercu XITMV rtav iradtav 
f) </>iAoTt/ua* OTI TO. aAAa Trddrj crvvepyovays 
avT?}s cxTroSvcra/xevTj ^ ^X 1 ) co^aVr 
eis at'To Aowrov TO aya^ov 

And again, p. 277 b (=440): So/cet 8f TOIS 
e^ovcriv aAAa irddi] ^p^o"t/xov. TroAAtav yotp 
Kal <T(f>o8p(av iraOwv KpaTOVfJLev 8ia <iAoSoiai/' 
Kal TO. erriTrovtoTepa Si' avrrjv alpovjJLeOa TroAAa- 

Kt?, ttVep Kttt TWV (Tff)o8piaV KO\dcT(DV Ol<8fV (TTl 

fjLfTpiu>Tepa. Sio Kal ecrvaros Aeyerai TWI/ Tra^cov 
yirwi/ ?} <iAoSoia' OIOTI, TWV dAAwi/ TroA- 
AaKis Si' avn)v aTroSvo/tevcov, aun) Trpocrio-^eTai 
fj.a\\ov TTJ ^ V XQ' 

Lastly, Evagrius Scholasticus, Hist. Eccles., i. 21, 
gives it, with a slight variation of the phraseology 
attributed by Dioscorides and Athenoeus to Plato: 
fieri 8' ovv o/icos, ot e7rav 810. rrj? apcr^? TOV 
airaOeis eivai rvvwa-iv, Is KOCT^OV In-avtacrt, ev 

/M6(TOt? TOtS 6opvf3ot<S. Kal TTCpK^OpOVS (TOOL'S 

7rayyeAAovTS, OU'TWS T^v KevoSoiav KaraTra- 
Tovtriv, ov TeAei'ratov ^traJva /cara IIAaTcova 

TOV <TO<f>QV T! faxy TT((f)VKfV d.lTOTld((rda.l. 

Among the moderns, we have it in Massinger, 
A Very Woman, V. iv. : 

" Sucli false glories 

(Though the desire of fame be the last weakness 
Wise men put off) are not the marks I shoot at," 

a passage than which a closer parallel to that 
from Barnevelt if, indeed, the two are inde- 
pendent could not very well be found. 

Athenaeum Club. 

DEATH op JULIUS CAESAR. In view of the 
beautiful picture called " The Ides of March," by 
Mr. Poynter, in the Royal Academy this year, 
representing Caesar and Calpurnia gazing at a 
splendid comet, and referring to the two well-known 
lines in which Calpurnia, after urging Caesar not 
to " go forth " that day on account of the portents 
in the sky, says, in answer to his objections, 
" When beggars die there are no eomets seen ; 
The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of 

it is as well, perhaps, to make a note that the 
artist, and not Shakespeare is responsible for giving 
the erroneous impression that the comet was seen 
before the death of Caesar. Calpurnia, in Julius 
Caesar, endeavours to alarm Caesar with a recital 
of a number of strange portents which she says bad 
been seen : 

" Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds, f 

The noise of battle hurtled in the air, 
Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan," 

and it is only when Caesar despises these things as 
not having any prophetical significance that she 
exclaims that celestial appearances (merely taking 
comets as an instance) do not attend upon the 
deaths of "beggars" or ordinary people, but do 
come into view when anything threatens the life 
of the " princes " or great ones of the earth. This 
is the meaning of her remark in the two lines first 
quoted, and no reference is implied to any comet 
then supposed to be visible. 

As a matter of fact, the comet which Suetonius 
tells us was connected with the death of Caesar 
appeared in September, B.C. 44, six months after 
his death, in the idea of March of the same year, 
Octavius had recently come to Rome, and, as the 
heir of Julius, was giving a great festival in honour 
of Venus, when we are told this fine comet was 
seen during seven days, and was supposed to in* 
dicate the admission of the soul of the murdered 
dictator into the abode of the immortal gods. 

This comet was at one time supposed to be 
identical with the brilliant comet of 1680 to which 
Newton first applied the principle of universal 
gravitation, and also with others seen in A.D. 53 land 
1106, the period being considered to be about 570 
years. But later investigations have shown that the 
period of the comet of 1680 is probably very much 
longer than that, and that the comet of 531 (some- 
times called Justinian's, from having been seen in 
the reign of that emperor) was really a return of 
the famous comet of Halley, which acquired that 
name after its return in 1682, and returned, accord- 
ing to his prediction, in 1759, and subsequently in 
1835, the period being about seventy-six years. 
There are no means of identifying the comet seen 
six months after the death of Julius Caesar with 
any other comet seen before or since. 

W. T. LYNN. 

burgh Chronicle for 1759, vol. ii. p. 121, there is 
an article strongly advocating the employment of 
women and girls as saleswomen and clerks in shops 
in the place of men, who might thus be free to 
undertake more manly pursuits. J. D. C. 

JEWS IN LONDON IN 1677. The London Direc- 
tory of this year contains several names of mer- 
chants, apparently Jews : Isaac Alvarez, St. Mary 
Axe ; J. J. Alvarez, ditto ; A, Decosta ; Mr. 

NOTES AND QUEEIES. ce* s. vm. JULY 7, '83. 

Decostus ; R. Deluna ; S. Francia ; D. Francia 
Solomon Deniodina ; Alvah. Deperta ; Dermedo (?) 
St. Mary Axe ; John Israel ; Moria (?) ; Moses 
Mocate [Mocatta], Camomile Street ; Peter Ole 
verez, Duke's Place ; M. and L. Perrera, ditto 
Gomez Rodriguez, Bury Street ; Robulus (?), ditto 

GREEKS IN LONDON IN 1677. David Demetrius 
(two) appear to be Greeks in London. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

doubted fact that a charter was granted to Norwich 
some time during the reign of Henry I. ; and, in 
the absence of any record or tradition to the con- 
trary, we may fairly assume that this was its first 
charter. No copy of it is extant, nor any record 
which enables us to fix the year in which it was 
granted. Blomefield supposes that it was con- 
sequent on Henry's visit to the city in 1122 ; for 
after mentioning the fact recorded in the English 
Chronicle, that the king was at Norwich at Christ- 
mas in that year, he adds : 

" And it is plain he much liked the accommodation and 
treatment of the citizens, for he then granted them by 
charter the same franchises and liberties as the City of 
London had. And from this time they were governed 
by a Praepositus, Provost, or Portreve, chosen by the 
king, who was to collect the king's dues, and govern the 
city ; and this was the first grant or charter the city had ; 
by which the government of it was severed from the 

catle and the king's two parts became the citizens', 

who by this charter exercised all jurisdiction that the 
king did, in reference to those parts, and returned their 
fee-farm or annual profits, by the hands of their Provost, 
who accounted for them yearly to the king." 

For all this Blomefield not only gives us no 
authority whatever, but, strangely enough, con- 
tradicts himself on the very next page ; for after 
giving us (vol. iii. p. 23) the particulars which I 
have just quoted (with others which I omit as not 
immediately concerning the object of this note), 
he ends the chapter on p. 24 by saying that " for 
want of the records no one can say exactly what 
were the liberties granted and exercised by the 
city in this king's reign," "but, whatever they 
were, they enjoyed them peaceably to his death in 

There being no copy extant of the charter itself, 
nor any record, whence did Blomefield get all this 
information about its contents, especially about its 
conferring "the same franchises and liberties as 
the City of London had " 1 What these franchises 
and liberties were we do know, and, unfortunately 
for Blomefield, they do not agree with what he 
tells us. about the Norwich charter. What are the 

" many evidences " (p. 24) which, in addition to 
the charter of Henry II., which is still extant (and 
about which I shall have something to say here- 
after), confirm the fact of a charter having been 
granted by Henry I.? All that we can learn from 
the Pipe Boll is contradictory to his statement 
that the payments to the king were made by the 
hands of the Provost, for we there find that " Vice- 
comes reddit computum de auxilio de Norwico" 
(Mag. Bot., 31 Hen. L). FRED. NORGATE. 

7, Ring Street, Covent Garden. 


AND MEDAL FUND. In the Times of June 16 
appears a report of the " annual meeting of the 
council " of the above fund, held the previous day 
in Exeter Hall, the president, the Prince of 
Mantua and Montferrat, occupying the chair. The 
report of the council includes " a list of persons to 
whom contributions of money or scientific instru- 
ments had been sent to aid them in research, and 
letters from recipients of gold medals from the 
council." Among the latter appear the names of 
Prof. Owen, Ruskin, Tennyson, the Duke of Argyll, 
Cardinal Manning, Prof. Tyndall, &c. Transla- 
tions from extraordinary letters, stated to have 
been received from eminent medallists of the 
" Medal Fund," were also read, among them from 
Michael Angelo, Raphael, Dante, Milton, and 
from " Gulieltnus Shakespeare," and many others. 
It was not, however, " convenient " to gratify the 
curiosity of those present by a sight of the originals, 
they being " pasted in a very large scrap book." 
Then an account is given of proposals for dis- 
posing of an accumulated sum of 750,OOOZ. ; and 
those present were informed that it had been 
decided to appropriate scholarships to 350 youths, 
taken in certain numbers from various countries. 
On being asked that the names of the council 
might be stated, the prince said that the council 
preferred remaining unknown until the university 
is established. Then the claims of certain towns 
(in Wales) to be the seat of the university were 

Never before having heard of the " Mantua and 
Montferrat University and Medal Fund," I should 
be glad to obtain information on the following 
joints. 1. When, and by whom, was the fund 
nstituted, and under what circumstances ? 2. To 
what persons have contributions of "money or 
scientific instruments " been made, and in aid of 
what branches of research 1 3. Under what cir- 
umstances, and when, have the gold medals been 
awarded to the medallists ; and is there any 
record in the public journals of such awards? 4. 
"s the letter from " Gulielmus Shakespeare " 
mown to Shakespearean authorities ? If not, and 
f genuine, it might go a long way to settle the 
disputed spelling of his name. 



BLACK-JOKE. In Pope's imitation of Horace, 
epistle i. bk. ii. 1. 309, we read, " Call for the farce, 
the bear, or the black-joke." In no edition of Pope 
which I can lay my hands on can I find any ex- 
planation of "black-joke" but "i.e., black pud- 
ding." Surely this is wrong. The whole context 
describes the public in the pit of a theatre, dis- 
satisfied with the drama and calling for the vulgar 
amusements of a broad farce, or bear-baiting, or 
the amusement known then but unknown now 
to any of the editors of Pope whom I have con- 
sulted as the " black-joke." This must have 
meant some sort of bodily amusement as distinct 
from the refined action of the drama probably a 
popular dance, just as we see now the ballet at 
the opera, and clog-dancing or hornpipes at the 
music-halls, are more enjoyed by some of the 
audience than the more cultured singing. In 
support of this I have recently come across the 
word the only place save Pope's line above 
where I have seen the word in the introduc- 
tion to Byron's Waltz. This poem is pretended 
to be written by an honest country squire who 
had come up to town with his wife and had gone 
to a ball, where he saw the waltz danced for the 
first time in his life ; and he writes that he was 
horrified to see his wife and her partner dancing, 
" turning round and round to a d d see-saw, up- 
and-down sort of tune, that reminded me of the 
'Black Joke,' only more affettuoso." Surely this 
explains Pope's allusion, and is much more to the 
point than the "black pudding." Perhaps this 
same idea may have struck some of your readers, 
or some more recent editors of Pope than those 
whom I have consulted. And I am curious to 
know how the editor of the new three-volume 
edition of Pope which I have not seen and have 
no opportunity of seeing explains it. 


Lucknow, India. 

FAMILY OF SNAPE. From what part of the 
country did the family of Snape come 1 One of 
them was Serjeant-farrier to Charles II., and 
another, his son, Dr. Andrew Snape, a well-known 
divine, for several years head master of Eton Col- 
lege. Had the family any grant of arms, and is any 
pedigree of the family known 1 I shall be very 
grateful to any genealogist who will glance through 
his indices of registers, wills, &c., and see if he 
can supply me with any notes concerning this 
family. CHARLES T. GATTY. 

The Museum, Liverpool. 

[See Burke's Peerage, 1883, s.v. Hamond-Graeme, Bart., 
the descendant of a Snape heiress, niece of Dr. Andrew ; 
but no coat occurs either in Peerage or Armory, except 
Snappe of Standlake, Oxon.] 


any one tell me the author of this maxim ? 
Thomas a Kempis has, " Nam homo proponit, sed 

Deus disponit " (De Imit. Christi, lib. i. c. 19,s. 2). 
The saying is, however, usually cited in French, 
as if of Gallic origin. M. E. 

NAME OF INN WANTED. Can any one tell me 
the name of the hostel referred to in the following 
extract from an article in a daily paper, the date 
and name of which I am not aware of ? " On a 
solitary hostel by the river side in the Cambridge- 
shire fens one reads in large letters above the 
door, ' Five miles from anywhere, no hurry ! ' " 


AN OLD VIOLA. I have an old viola upon 
which the following words are carved. Can any 
of your readers tell me what they mean ? I may 
mention that an inspection of the viola has not 
helped the scholars to whom I have shown it : VIVA 


kindness of a friend, an inveterate old book- 
hunter like myself, I owe the pleasure of perusing 
the well-thumbed pages of a small, handy pocket 
volume, which he has lately acquired, and which 
bears the following title-page : 

"Le dictionaire des huict Languages: c'est acauoir 
Grec, Latin, Flamen, Francois, Espagnol, Italien, 
Anglois, & Aleman. Nouuellement imprime a Paris, 
corrige & reueu. Auec priuilege. Chez lehan Ruelle 
libraire, demourant en la rue S. Jacques, a 1'Enseigne de 
la queue de Renard, 1548." 
And further described, on the third page, as 

"A vocabulary in eyght la'guages, Grecque, Latyn, 
Dutsch, Franch, Spanish, Italy, English, and hie 

It is divided into chapters, of which the following 
headings, taken from the English columns, are 
fair specimens : 

"The first chapter ia of god, of the trinite, of porter 
a'd of richesses." 

" The ii ch. is of the sayntes and of their names." 
" The thyrd is of the Pater noster & of Ave Maria." 
" The vi ch. of man and of all the partea of him." 
" The xxi cha. of breade & wyne and other thynges 
to be eaten." 
" The xxvii cha. of wood and his appertenaunce, &c. 

Some of the English renderings are most amusing, 
and show that want of exactness with regard to 
the spelling of foreign words is by no means a 
modern characteristic of French lexicographers. 
The other languages fare badly, too, in this respect; 
but the " hie Aleman," or, as it is elsewhere termed, 
the " Hoch teuth," seems to have puzzled the com- 
piler most of all, until, in the end, he becomes 
positively reckless in his endeavours to convey to 
his countrymen the harsh sounds of the Teutonic 

The book is probably one of the earliest attempts 
at a polyglot vocabulary of the modern European 
languages, and certainly affords a most interesting 
study to word-hunters. From the fact that the 
title-page states that the work has been reprinted 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. JUIY 7, 

and corrected (save the mark !), the copy referred 
to is, at least, one of the second issue. If any of 
your numerous book-loving correspondents could 
give some information on this point, or state who 
was the compiler of the little volume in question, 
they would greatly oblige 

18, Aytoun Street, Manchester. 

Henry Constantine Jennings was born in 1731 ; 
married Juliana Atkinson about 1760 ; and had a 
son, John Henry, in or about the same year. John 
Henry married Comfort Matilda Dufaur, daughter 
of Antonine Dufaur, formerly of Shooter's Hill, 
Kent, and had a son in 1789. Can any one tell 
me where these two births and two marriages took 
place 1 Any information will greatly oblige 


Gauden Lodge, Lower Norwood. 

ARNOLD. I have an engraved portrait, oval, 
" Monteyne del.," " Grainger sc.," with the name 
" Mr. Arnold " in open letters under. The face is 
firm and intelligent, wig with queue, hat cocked, 
with the points at the sides, and a black cockade 
over the left brow ; frilled front to shirt, and 
small necktie. Can any of your readers tell me 
Trho this " Mr. Arnold " was 1 I do not find this 
described in any of the ordinary lists of engraved 
portraits. There is at the Museum of Architectural 
Casts at Westminster an impression of a beautiful 
seal of John Arnold, Esq. I think it is of the 
early part of the fifteenth century, but cannot pre- 
tend to much accurate knowledge on such matters. 
The shield shows a chevron between four square 
blocks, whatever they are intended for, and the 
crest is a unicorn's head. I can find no trace of 
any arms of Arnold at all corresponding with these, 
nor learn who John Arnold was. I should be 
pleased if any of your readers who have special 
knowledge on such matters would help me. 


of Port-Glasgow (Renfrewshire), thirty years ago, 
it was a custom of the scholars on February 2 to 
make a present, varying in amount from half-a- 
crown to half-a-sovereign, to the head master, and 
this was called the "Candlemas offering." The 
presentation was made at the hour of assembly in 
the morning, and for the rest of the day a holiday 
was granted. Can any of your readers tell me (1) 
whether this custom still prevails ; (2) whether it 
extended or extends to other schools in Scotland 
or elsewhere 1 S. S. L. 

S. TILSTON. Who was S. Tilston, whose Royal 
and Noble Pedigrees, an autograph manuscript 
(No. 201), was recently sold at Sotheby's in the 
Towneley Collection ? I have a MS. pedigree of 
the Montagu, Wriothesley, and Lee families com- 

piled by him, dated 1679-80. Are others known ? 
He adds after his signature, " Student in Anti- 
quities." When and where did he die 1 H. M. 

WILLIAM III. A friend has recently lent me a 
small book in his possession, entitled : 

"A | Complete History.) of the | Life, | Glorious 
Actions | and | Reign | of the High and Mighty Prince 
| William III. | Kinj? of England, Scotland, Prance, 
and | Ireland, &c. Who departed this Life | at his 
Palace at Kensington March 8th | 1701, in the 51 Year 
of his Age. | Giving ft Satisfactory Account of all 
Memorable Transactions in Church and State, Abroad 
and Home. | By J. S. Gent, I London, Printed for Tho. 
Ballard at the Rising Sun in Little Britain, 1702." 

Opposite to the title-page is a very rough wood- 
cut representing the king on horseback in the fore- 
front of a battle-field, and beneath are the words, 
" Gulielmus D. Gratiae, Anglise, Scotiae, Fran- 
cise, et Hibernise Rex, Fidei Defensor, Ob. 
Mar. 8, 1702. JEta. 51. F. H. Van Hove 
sculp." Size, 3 by 5j in. Whoever J. S. was, he 
writes very loyally of his sovereign, whom he de- 
scribes as " a Person whose Fame and Glory has 
reached the utmost limits of the known World." 
I should feel much obliged to any reader of 
" N. & Q." who would enlighten me as to the 
authorship of this curious little book. 


ENGLISH PROSODY. What is the best book on 
English prosody and versification ? 

Emanuel Hospital, S.W. 

" Curved is the line of beauty, 
Straight is the line of duty ; 
Follow the one and you will find 
The other follow you." 



(6 th S. vii. 227.) 

The query addressed to book-loving readers 
of "N. & Q.," concerning the existence of an 
edition of this work said to have been published 
in 1677, having failed to elicit a reply, I will, if 
permitted, give reasons for asking the question 
and at the same time introduce a curious biblio- 
graphical puzzle to the notice of those who are in- 
terested in such matters. 

In Mr. Hazlitt's Hand -Boole (p. 123, s.v. 
" Corneille ") will be found a register of two edi- 
tions of Charles Cotton's translation of Corneille's 
Horace, the one dated 1671, the other, " with a 
frontispiece," dated 1677; both in quarto and in 
modern bindings. During a rather lengthened 
search after a complete series of Cotton's various 
works, I have only been able to meet with two 

6'h S. Vfjfl. JtriT 7, '83.] 



copies of his Horace, viz., one, formerly Mr. Hesel- 
tine's (now in the possession of Mr. Edwin Cooling, 
of Derby), and Mr. Thomas Westwood's, which 
has passed into my own possession. The former 
copy is in good condition ; prefixed is a frontispiece 
engraved by W. Dolle upon a copper about 6i by 4i 
inches (and therefore suitable to embellish either 
a crown octavo or a post quarto), representing a 
curtained stage upon which the scene Horatius 
killing the first of the Curiatii is in action, and it 
has this title: 

" Horace | A | French Tragedy | of | Monsieur Cor- 
neille. | Englished | By Charles Cotton, Esq. | [The 
printer's "mark" of Richard Johnes, a garter, with 
motto HEB . DDIM . HEB . 1>DIKV., encircling a carnation 
or pink.] London, | Printed for Henry Brome, at the 
Gun | at the West end of St. Pauls, 1671." 42 leaves. 

My copy has been ruthlessly "slaughtered" by 
the binder or binders (it must have undergone a 
series of croppings ere it was brought down to its 
present poor estate), and has lost the frontispiece, 
together with the corner of the title-page containing 
the final numeral of the date ; but a bit of paper 
has been pasted at the back upon which a cipher 
has been written, making 1670, whilst above it 
this date is corrected in manuscript to 1677. A 
careful technical comparison of the two copies con- 
vinces me, however, that they belong, title-page 
and all, to one and the same impression. 

During the compilation of Mr. Hazlitt's latest 
volume of Collections and Notes (London, B. 
Quaritch, 1882) I mentioned to him the doubts 
that had arisen in my mind respecting the exist- 
ence of a 1677 edition, and he has made a note of 
the case on p. 685 ; but a new circumstance has 
lately arisen which induces me to ask the invaluable 
assistance of " N. & Q.," some one or other of whose 
readers I hope may be in a position to solve the pro- 
blem authoritatively. No reply to my former query 
being forthcoming, the case is now more fully stated; 
and I may add, by way of recommending an appa- 
rently trivial subject to attention, that Horace is not 
a mere translation, but a work containing a number 
of original songs and choruses which appear no- 
where else in Cotton's published poetry. 

About the 1671 edition there can be no doubt. 
Was'there, in 1677, either a new edition or a re- 
issue of the former impression with a new title- 
page ? Affirmative evidence is found in the sale 
catalogue of the library of Richard Wright, M. D., 
F.R.S., 1787: "No. 1694. Cotton, Charles, 
Horace, French Tragedy. 1677"; and in the sale 
catalogue of the Duke of Roxburghe's library, 1812 : 
"No. 4667. Corneille, Horace, T., trans, by C. 
Cotton, 4to. Lond. 1677." This copy produced 
half-a-crown, but the purchaser's name is not given 
in my priced catalogue. Lowndes (Bohn's edit., 
i. 524), from whose crude columns Mr. Hazlitt's 
information appears to have been primarily 
derived, quotes also " Rhodes, 827, 4s.," a reference 

I have not been able to verify. Here, then, are 
three copies of Cotton's Horace, each said to 
bear the 1677 date ; and, for aught I know, more 
may be recorded. On the other hand, Oldys, 
in his "Account of the Life and Writings of Charles 
Cotton, Esq.," prefixed to the second part of the 
first edition of Hawkins's revision of The Compleat 
Angler, 8vo., 1760, says that .Horace "was pub- 
lished in quarto, 1671, being perhaps a more 
correct edition than that printed in a smaller form 
the year before"; and the amended memoir sub- 
stituted for that of Oldys in subsequent editions 
follows the same line, thus: "In the same year 
(i. e., 1670) and also the year after, more cor- 
rectly he published a translation of the tragedy 
entitled Les Horaces, i. e., the Horatii, from the 
French of Pierre Corneille." This loose statement 
has arisen evidently out of the fact that the 
author's preface to his work is dated from " Beres- 
ford, October 8, 1670." The preface, indeed, con- 
tains full internal evidence that prior to 1671 the 
translation (which was made, circa 1665, at the 
request of Cotton's sister, Mrs. Stanhope Hutchin- 
son) existed only in manuscript ; the notion of an 
edition in 1670 may therefore be dismissed with- 
out more ado. Concerning these manuscript copies 
of Cotton's verses, &c., I may perhaps have a future 
word to say ; but now I come to the circumstance 
which is the chief cause of the present communi- 

Quite recently, and in the course of a morning's 
prowl amongst the bookstalls, I "picked up "a crown 
octavo, in the original sheep binding, entitled The 
History of the Grand Visiers, " Englished by John 
Evelyn, junr.," and " Printed for H. Brome at the 
Gun at the West-end of St. Pauls, 1677." The 
first thing that caught my eye was an impression 
of the identical plate, signed "W. Dolle Scl.," 
altered in only one respect from that which forms 
the frontispiece to Mr. Cooling's copy of Horace. 
The word "Battels" has been engraved above the 
curtain, in order, as I suppose, to give the picture 
a spurious sort of status in a volume which cer- 
tainly treats of fighting and of " battels " incident- 
ally. Now, as L'Estrange's licence is dated Nov. 24, 
1676, the publication of the younger Evelyn's 
book must have taken place early in 1677; and 
the plate having thus been diverted from the pur- 
pose for which it was originally designed, I think it 
is fair to believe that Brome, finding little reason to 
expect that a second edition of Horace would ever 
be called for by the public (and having in 1676 
abandoned all idea of republishing it), was econo- 
mically bent upon employing Dolle's copper for 
another venture, where it may be said to figure as 
appropriately as "a brass knocker on a pig-sty 
door." In the absence, therefore, of direct evidence 
in favour of the existence of a second edition I am 
disposed to think that this circumstance disposes of 
it entirely. The question will, of course, be set at 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. vm. JD 7, -as. 

rest if any librarian can produce a copy of Cotton's 
Horace with a genuine title-page bearing any 
later date than that of 1671. What has become, 
for instance, of the Wright, Roxburghe, and Rhodes 

605). It is unfortunately too true that the old 
pulpit of Olney Church and the gallery which 
contains Cowper's seat are threatened with destruc- 
tion. The case, as I heard it on the spot the other 
day, stands thus : Olney Church is a fine and 
Bpacious fabric of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries ; Sir Gilbert Scott, after the manner of 
his time, prepared plans for " restoring " it to its 
mediaeval aspect ; and the chancel has already 
been restored accordingly; all traces (save a few 
mural monuments) of the three intervening 
centuries have been obliterated. Also the floor 
of the nave and aisles has been reseated, and an 
interesting western gallery, which bore an inscrip- 
tion showing that it was erected by an eighteenth 
century parish clerk, has been destroyed. For the 
present the pulpit and the Cowper gallery remain; 
and why ? Because the cost of destroying them 
is not yet provided. But a new pulpit a beauteous 
production of native talent, in what an old person 
of my acquaintance used to call the " medsevial " 
style is a - preparing ; and the gallery, too, is 
doomed, unless the S.P.A.B. can save it. It is a 
small and modest gallery in the north aisle ; it 
rests on simple Ionic pillars ; its handsome un- 
broken front, which runs free from end to end, a 
yard or so behind the columns of the nave, bears 
this inscription in gold letters : " This was built 
by Subscription of the Parishioners, 1765." It is 
about the best and most harmless eighteenth 
century gallery I ever saw, and it contains, I 
believe, 120 sittings, which can ill be spared, for 
the church is popular and full. But, say the men 
of Gotham, " it cuts the aisle windows in two," 
therefore it must go. As for the pulpit, it is a 
large and plain, but handsome octagon, of early 
Georgian mahogany. Cowper's pew in the gallery 
used to face it ; but about eighty years ago some 
earlier Scott, some mute inglorious Gilbert, re- 
moved it, and placed it where it now is, on the 
south side of the chancel arch. The same 
" restorer" broke up the carved chancel screen 
with axes and hammers ; but he did not destroy 
it, he made out of it the sides of a curious low 
octagon platform, on which he placed the pulpit, 
and a small lectern, and an arm - chair for the 
minister, all which things are about to be carted 
away. The pulpit is, I believe, the same in which 
John Newton and other famous divines used to 
preach, Sir Gilbert's own great-grandfather for 
one, the man to whom Cardinal Newman has said 
that he " owes his own soul." I, at least, have no 

sympathy with John Newton, whose coarse and 

Brutal " gospel " helped to drive Cowper mad ; 
jut the Cowper- Newton tragedy is the one fact 
of general interest in Olney annals, and the 
parishioners ought to cherish every record of it. 
Judge, then, of my surprise when one of the chief 
men of Olney, the very man who should most 
:are for these things, said to me that " if anybody 
wants to buy the gallery and the pulpit now is 
their time ! " Marry, here is a chance for our 
American cousins. They are the only people who 
care much for Olney. One of them not long ago 
offered two hundred pounds for Cowper's little 
summer house, desiring to take it away and rebuild 
it in America. " And it 's a pity they did not let 
him have it," said a lady of Olney to me ; " it 's 
a wretched little place ! " So it is, my dear 
madam ; and so is the " umile casa" at Florence, 
which even modern Florence holds so dear. 

A. J. M. 

JOHN KENRICK, ESQ. (6 th S. vii. 209, 335). 
He was a merchant of London, and possessed the 
estate of Flore, in Surrey. He married a daughter 
of Perient Trott, of London, merchant, and had a 
daughter Martha, who married Sir William Clay- 
ton, first baronet. John Kenrick died in 1730, aged 
seventy-one. Bromley, in his Catalogue, states 
that Vertue's engraving was done when John 
Kenrick was thirty-nine, not twenty-nine as A. E. 
quotes. There were two baronets in Berks of the 
name, but the baronetcy became extinct about 
1699. There were also two doctors of the name, 
whose portraits were engraved in 1685, and an 
author who died in 1772. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

" John Kenrick, Esq., an eminent and respectable 
merchant of London, was father of the rery worthy Dr. 
Sea wen Kenrick, late sub-dean and prebendary of West- 
minster, minister of St. Margaret's, and rector of Ham- 

bleden, in Buckinghamshire Dr. Kenrick had a sister 

named Martha, who married Sir William Clayton, baro- 
net. John, their father, as I am informed, died in 1730. 
His picture, whence the print was taken, was burnt in 
the piazza, in Covent Garden, in 1709, baring been sent 
thither to be cleaned by Anderson, a painter. It should 
be observed that the memorable John Kenrick, or 
Kendrick, who left the poor of Reading and Newbury 
above 20,000/., was of the same family ; as was also, most 
probably, John Kendrick, who was sheriff of London in 
1645, and lord mayor in 1652." Granger's Biog, Hist, 
of England, v. 187. 


A Hamburgh merchant, probably fourth son of 
Thomas Kendrick, of Reading, baptized at Sfc. 
Giles's, 1641. Grandson of John Kendrick, citizen 
and draper of London, honourably known at Reading 
as " the benefactor," who bequeathed large charit- 
able legacies to be bestowed in releasing poor 
prisoners, to Christ's Hospital, and to the poor of 
Reading and Newbury (Strype's edition of Stow). 
John Kendrick died unmarried ; his eldest brother 
was created a baronet on March 29, 1679 (Herald 

6* s. vm. JULY 7, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and Genealogist, 7-550 ; Burke's Extinct Baro- 
netcies). H. M. VANE. 
74, Eaton Place, S.W. 

The portrait is that of John Kenrick, nephew 
of Sir William Cranrner, pedigree as under : 
John Kenrick. 

Mathew, m., 1724, Elizabeth Willcocks. 
Cranmer, 1st son. 


Mary, m. George Geill. Ann. 


PORTRAITS OF JOHN HAMPDEN (6 th S. vii. 188). 
1. There is one in oil belonging to Lord St. 
Germans at Port Eliot, in Cornwall. 

2. Another, which came from Hampden's death- 
place, Thame, once belonged to me; it represents 
Hampden with long hair and in armour, and is 
now in the possession of Mr. G. J. R. Gordon, of 
Ellon Castle, Aberdeenshire. 

3. A third, also in oil, is at Hampden House, 
co. Bucks, with an inscription behind it, testifying 
that it was once the property of a member of the 
noble family of Russell. It now belongs to Lord 

4. An excellent bas-relief representing Hamp- 
den's profile remains in a house at Thame, formerly 
occupied by Sir Francis Knollys, Bart., of that 
town. The house was subsequently owned by the 
family of Wakeman, and is now used as a middle- 
class school. 

5. The late Dr. John Lee, of Hartwell Park, 
had a locket engraved with a portrait of Hamp- 
den ; and so well engraved that impressions have 
been printed from it. I believe it was of red 
carnelian mounted in gold, with a rhyming in- 
scription at the back offering an excuse or apology 
for rebellion. I possess two impressions of it 
which Dr. John Lee gave me. 

All Saints' Vicarage, Lambeth. 

In Evans's Catalogue of Portraits, vol. i. p. 155, 
No. .4864, there is John Hampden, " from Sir 
R. Ellys's picture, Houbraken." 

There are traditional portraits of Hampden at 
Great Hampden House, Bucks. But the tradition 
appears in respect of one of them a recent as well 
as an uncertain one. In the Beauties of England 
and Wales, vol. i. p. 355, 1801, it is said, " This 
mansion contains several good pictures and family 
portraits ; but the names of the persons whom they 
represent appear to be forgotten." In Murray's 
Handbook, Berks, Bucks, Oxon., p. 110, 1860, it is 
stated that the house " contains many historical 
relics. Among them are a small bust and two 
portraits of John Hampden, one of them by 
Jansen, brought from Strawberry Hill, both of 

doubtful authority." It would seem that the one 
from Strawberry Hill cannot come within the earlier 
description ; while the other, provided that it 
was in the house at the beginning of the century, 
was not then named. ED. MARSHALL. 

There is a fine portrait of Hampden, after a print 
by J. Houbraken, in vol. ii. of the Pictorial History 
of England. Another engraving appeared in the 
Illustrated London News, with a drawing of his 
sword. The date I do not know. In the Loan 
Exhibition of Miniatures at South Kensington in 

1865 there was a miniature of John Hampden by 
the younger Petitot, sent by Mr. Samuel AddinK- 
ton ; another by Samuel Cooper, sent by C. W. 
Reynolds ; also a miniature in oils on copper by 
Samuel Cooper, sent by Earl Spencer. 


The portrait of this statesman has been en- 
graved (at the very least) twice, once by M. 
Vander Gucht in Clarendon's History, and again 
by J. Houbraken in Birch's Lives of Illustrious 
Persons. Either of these can be easily obtained 
from any dealer in old prints at a moderate price. 
Both can, of course, be seen in the British Museum 
or any other collection of portraits. 


A portrait of John Hampden was exhibited in 

1866 in the Loan Collection of National Portraits 
at South Kensington, which was lent by the Bishop 
of Hereford. See also Granger's Biographical 
History of England, vol. ii. pp. 212, 213. 

G. F. R. B. 

A portrait of John Hampden, painted by Robert 
Walker, was lent by Lord St. Germans for the 
first Exhibition of National Historical Portraits 
in 1866 ; and Sir Francis Boileau, Bart., has a 
medallion portrait which formerly belonged to 

Swallowfield Park, Beading. 

There is a good portrait of Hampden, by Dob- 
son, at Halswell, Somerset. D. K. T. 

CROMWELL AND RUSSELL (6 th S. vii. 368, 413, 
457). The reply to the question about the camp 
kettle of the Protector, Oliver Cromwell, received 
by Sir C. Reed from Mrs. Elizabeth Oliveria 
Cromwell Russell, of Cheshunt Park, Herts, has 
surprised me ; for the antiquities, which are many, 
were and still are heirlooms, and at the period 
spoken of, the death of Oliver Cromwell, 1821, 
continued with Mrs. Cromwell, his widow, till 
her death ; they were then taken and remained 
under charge of their only daughter, Elizabeth 
Oliveria Cromwell, then Mrs. Russell (having 
married Thomas Art. Russell, of Cheshunt, in 
1801), who had such a tenacious respect for these 
heirlooms that it would have been death to have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. JY vs 

touched a particle of them. My parent, T. A. 
Russell, always asserted that he was connected with 
the Russell family, how and when I do not know. 
Then, in reference to the succession to the estate 
of Theobalds (correcting first to Cheshunt, for the 
other property belongs to the family), there is an 
evident error. I have before me the original draft, 
signed by counsel, May 2, 1785, for rearrangement 
of property of the Cheshunt Park estate and manor 
of Theobalds (a curious fact, the Cheshunt manor 
appertaining to the Prescotts), in which the parties 
appear as Elizabeth Cromwell and Letitia Crom- 
well, both of Hampstead, spinsters, surviving 
children and coheiresses of Richard Cromwell, late 
of Hampstead, and Sarah his wife, heretofore 
Gatton, spinster, both deceased, and also surviving 
sisters and coheiresses of Robert Cromwell, late of 
Cheshunt, deceased, who was the only son of the 
said Richard Cromwell and Sarah his wife. In 
another original draft settlement, June 14 and 15, 
1801, occur Oliver Cromwell and Mary his wife, and 
John Russell and Thomas Artemidorus Russell 
his son, and Elizabeth Oliveria, spinster, in which 
is mentioned Mrs. Elizabeth Morland, wife of 
Francis Morland, theretofore widow of Richard 
Hinde, being possessed of part of the property : so 
that Anne is not correct, and Dorothy I have 
never heard of. The Cromwells have intermarried 
into the Russell family. Frances, the daughter of 
the Protector, first married Mr. Rich, afterwards 
Sir John Russell of the Chequers. 0. C. 

THE ACRE A LINEAL MEASURE (6 th S. vii. 287). 
If MR. ELLIS will refer to the Winter's Tale, 
I. ii., he will see Hermione uses the word acre as a 
lineal measure when she says of good wives : 

" Our praises are our wages : you may ride ua 
With one soft kiss a thousand furlongs ere 
With spur we heat an acre." 

In prosaic arithmetic, 220,000 yards against 22 
yards. Recently there were in use acres of various 
lengths : in Beds and Bucks equal to a statute 
chain, that is, 4 poles or 22 yards ; in Derbyshire 
to 4 roods, each of 7 or 8 yards ; in Yorks to 28 
yards. As ten chains or acres of 22 yards squared 
make a statute acre, so ten Derby acres of 32 yards 
equal a Cheshire acre ; and ten of the Yorkshire 
acre of 28 yards a churchland acre. 

The measuring chain is believed to have been 
first divided into links by Gunter, who lived at 
the close of the sixteenth century and the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth. Before chains were 
adopted their place was supplied by cords, and the 
name acre means simply a statute cord, from eidh, 
law, ordinance, and coir, a cord. 

In Derbyshire a cord or meer is used in mining ; 
it is 29 yards long for rake veins, and contains 
14 square yards for pipe or flat veins. In Devon- 
shire a rope of cobwork or masonry is 20 feet 
in length, 1 foot high, and 18 inches thick. 

Cords have been used in the measuring of pieces 
of conacre in Ireland. If your correspondent 
wishes to pursue the subject further, I must refer 
him to my communication to the Liverpool Archi- 
tectural and Archaeological Society in 1871. 


P.S. I think it may be assumed that the names 
of all superficial measures are derived from those of 
lineal measures. 

INGTON (6 th S. vii. 249). Can MR. NEILL tell us 
who the Henry Washington was who married 
Eleanor Harrison 1 I have a deed of the year 
1698 by which the Hon. Henry Fairfax and Anne 
his wife convey a small piece of land in Reed ness, 
co. York, to a maternal ancestor of mine, and the 
signature of Henry Washington appears on it as a 
witness. In 1869 I wrote to the late Col. Chester 
on the subject, hoping that my deed might afford 
him a clue in his investigations ; but in answer he 
writes : " Your Henry Washington has given me 
an infinity of trouble heretofore, and I have never 
yet been able to affiliate him." Then, after a 
number of interesting facts concerning this Henry, 
which I shall be glad to communicate to " N. & Q." 
in Col. Chester's own words, should it be thought 
desirable, he concludes : "I am certain that his 
connexion with the American Washingtons, if any, 
was not direct." Col. Chester in later years may 
have discovered more facts relating to the Wash- 
ington pedigree than those already published, 
and for these, if they are to be found amongst hia 
papers, many are, no doubt, looking forward 
eagerly. J. H. CLARK, M.A. 

West Dereham. 

JOHANNES DE TEMPORIBUS (6 th S. vii. 289). 
Capgrave, in his Chronicle, under the year 1138, 
mentions this worthy: 

"In his dayes [Conrad II.] deied a knyte, they cleped 
him Jon of the Tymes, wbech lyved, as thei sey, ccc 
}ere Ixi ; for he was a werrioure in the tyme of Gret 
Charles." P. 135. 

The Eulogium Historiarum tells us that " Hoc 
anno [1148] quidam Johannes qui fuit Armiger 
Karoli Magni obiit, a quo Karolo fluxerunt anni 
CCCLXI "(vol. i. p. 386). I think I have met with 
notices of this old man in other chronicles. The 
legend is most probably of foreign origin. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Two references to this personage are given in 
my Folk-Etymology, s.v. "Temps, John du " 
(p. 561). His name is said to be a corruption of 
John d'Etampes. A SMYTHE PALMER. 

Chelmsford Road, Woodford. 

HERALDRY (6 th S. vii. 308). It does not seem 
improbable that the religious motto which R. S. 
quotes as on a book in his collection was employed 



somewhat frequently by the binders of the early 
part of the fifteenth centuy. I possess a copy of 
the Textus Biblie with Nicholas de Lyra's notes, 
printed at Basle in 1506-8, in highly ornamental calf 
binding. It is in six volumes, and there are slight 
differences among them. I describe the first 

The first board is ornamented with a device six 
times repeated, consisting of what seems to be a 
beggar. The figure is dressed in torn clothes, with 
a long stick in his hand of the sort heralds would 
call a ragged staff ; at his left side hang a sword 
and a wicker basket; over the shoulder is flung a 
long tag which seems to contain apples. The feet 
are not shown, as the figure is represented as if 
walking behind a hedge of wattles. On the last 
board there is a device four times repeated, con- 
sisting of six animals which it is not easy to 
identify enclosed in a border formed of the inscrip- 
tion, " Deus det nobis suam pacem et post mortem 
vitatn eternam." EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Botteiford Manor, Brigg. 

The arms, or rather badges, here described seem 
clearly to indicate Catherine of Aragon. The rose 
and the fleur-de-lys are for England and France, 
which she used in right of her husband, the pome- 
granate and the castle Granada and Castile, in 
her own. Similar devices are to be seen on the 
vaulted ceiling of the choirof Winchester Cathedral. 

T. W. 

THE DEATH OF SOCRATES (6 th S. vii. 304). 
Do not the last words of Socrates imply that he 
considered himself, now on the eve of death, as at 
length fairly cured of the disease of life ? 


SURREY FOLK-LORE (6 th S. vii. 305). This 
saying is more completely quoted thus : 
" When the cuckoo comes to the bare thorn, 
Sell your cow and buy you corn : 
But when she comes to the full bit, 
Sell your corn and buy you sheep." 

Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

PAIGLE (6 th S. vii. 405, 455). I think it was 
the greatest of living statesmen who on one occa- 
sion divided subjects into matters of opinion and 
matters of fact. In regard to matters of opinion 
on such points as the above, I should be sorry to 

Eut mine in competition with that of PROF. 
KEAT. But in regard to matters of fact, I may 
mention that I have been long enough in Cambridge 
to notice how the country people in the neighbour- 
hood pronounced the only name by which they 
seemed to know the cowslip a name which I 
never heard till I went into that neighbourhood. 
Now my memory is very distinct that they called 
that well-known flower not paigle, but peggle. It 
difficult to see the connexion between peggle and 

paille ; but I only say this to invite further in- 
quiry, as the question can only be settled by 
ascertaining, if possible, when peggle was first 
used, and how the pronunciation varies, if it does 
vary, in different localities. W. T. LYNN. 


GOVERNOR DINWIDDIE (6 th S. vii. 164) was the 
second son of Robert Dinwiddie and Elizabeth 

Robert Dinwiddie was a merchant in Glasgow 
and owner of the lands of Germistown (which he 
bought in 1690) and of certain parts of the lands 
of Balornoc (which he bought in 1692). He died 
before October 6, 1712, of which date there is in 
possession of the Merchants' House of Glasgow a 
Decree Arbitral between his eldest son, Matthew, 
and Elizabeth Gumming, who is therein described 
as the widow of the deceased Robert Dinwiddie. 

Elizabeth Gumming was of an old family of 
Glasgow merchants, of whom Matthew Gumming 
(apparently her father) was baillie in 1691, 1696, 
and 1699, and was owner of the lands of Carderock, 
in the parish of Gadder, near Glasgow. 

Robert Dinwiddie and Elizabeth Gumming 
had (beside a posthumous child, name unknown) 
Matthew, Robert, Jean, John, Mary, Lawrence, 
Sarah, Janet, and Christian Dinwiddie.* 

Matthew Dinwiddie, merchant in Glasgow, 
succeeded as eldest son to the Germiston and 
Balornoc lands, but he had fallen into difficulties 
in 1725, and in 1725 and 1726 there were three 
" adjudications " of his lands for debt. These three 
adjudications (of which one was at the instance 
of Elizabeth Gumming, the mother) subsequently 
centred in the Merchants' House of Glasgow, and 
by " expiry of the legal " the House became abso- 
lute proprietors. In 1738 the unfortunate Matthew- 
was put on the roll as a hospitaller of the Merchants' 
House, to which in 1681 his father (or his grand- 
father ?), Robert Dinwiddie, had gifted 56Z. Scots. 
A year before, 1737, Sarah Gartshore, relict of 
Lawrence Dinwiddie, had been put on the roll of 
Hutcheson's Hospital. This Lawrence Dinwiddie 
seems to have been brother of Robert, Matthew's 
father. Both he and Matthew are among the 
"Merchants in Glasgow and forraign Traders 
connected with Shipping," who in 1718 entered 
into an agreement for the relief of poor decayed 
mariners.f The two may have been partners and 
have been ruined together. Trade in Glasgow was 
very bad in 1725. 

Of the younger sons of Robert Dinwiddie and 
Elizabeth Gumming: 

1. Robert, b. 1692, d. 1770. This was Governor 
Dinwiddie (line extinct). 

2. John, b. 1694, d. (merchant ?) in Virginia 

* See Decree Arbitral above referred to. 
t See History of the Merchant? Home of Glasgow, 
p. 602. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. jow 7, >ss. 

(male line extinct, but numerous Virginian de- 
scendants in the female line). 

3. Lawrence, b. 1697, d. 1764, merchant in 
Glasgow; baillie 1734, 1738, 1741; provost 
1742/43 ; one of six commissioners chosen to treat 
with the rebels in 1745;* left 200 merks Scots 
to the Merchants' House of Glasgow, t In 1748 
he bought back from them the Germistown and 
Balornoc lands, and these are now in possession 
of General David Blair Lockhart of Germistown 
(his representative but not his descendant). Law- 
rence Dinwiddie bad twenty-one children. His 
fifth son, William, married Miss Anne Hamilton 
of Cramond, and was the father of the late Com- 
missary-General Gilbert Hamilton Dinwiddie, who 
has left three sons and two daughters Robert, 
Lawrence, Gilbert Craigie, Mary, and Anne 
Hamilton the only descendants of Lawrence Din- 

Of the daughters of Robert Dinwiddie and 
Elizabeth Gumming: 

1. Mary married Rev. J. Stewart. 

2. Janet married Rev. W. McCullocb. 

3. Christian married Rev. Hamilton. 


The name Dinwiddie (sometimes spelt Din- 
wooddie) is not uncommon in the south of 
Scotland. There is a station of the name on 
the Caledonian Railway between Lockerbie and 
Moffat, and some of the best farmers in the dis- 
trict are Dinwiddies. Lawrence Dinwiddie of 
Germiston, in Lanarkshire, married, about 1770, 
Margaret, daughter of Sir James Campbell, third 
baronet of Aberuchill, and his daughter Elizabeth 
married, about 1790 (as his first wife), Rev. Dr. 
John Lockhart, and was mother of Col. Lockhart 
of Wicketshaw (Dr. Lockhart's son by his second 
wife married Sir Walter Scott's daughter and 
heiress). I have asked several persons in Dum- 
friesshire of the name of Dinwiddie if they knew 
anything of the Governor of Virginia, but none 
of them seemed to have heard of him. The follow- 
ing entries in the Gentleman's Magazine may pos- 
sibly bear on the subject: 

" 1768. Rev. M' Stacey, of Bristol, m" Miss Dinwood." 
" 1783. M r Dinwoodie, of Queen's Sq re , London, m d 
M" Cobb." 


The following letter, lately received from Mr. 
R. A. Brock, of Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 
should form a sequel to what has already ap- 
peared :-r- 

" You have done me a tnoat kindly office, and I feel 
very grateful for it. You will be gratified to learn that 
tty inquiries have elicited a response from the widow 

* See Cochrane Correspondence (Maitland Club), 
p. 132. 
t History of Merchants' House, p. 588. 

of General Dinwiddie, of London, with the promise of a 
photograph of the portrait of Governor Dinwiddie, and of 
copies of documents illustrating the early part of his life. 
These last, with what has been, and I hope may be, addi- 
tionally gleaned by you, will afford, I doubt not, all 
essential data for the biography desired. From a brief 
letter of GoTernor 'Dinwiddie, for which I am indebted 
to my friend Dr. Benson J. Lassing, it appears that he 
was in the colony of Virginia in 1744 as Surveyor-General 
of the Royal Customs. He may have accompanied 
Governor Gooch to America, but must have preceded 
him to England, as he came thence again to succeed 
him in the government. From familiar allusions in the 
letters of Dinwiddie it is intimated that he resided for 
a time in the province of North Carolina. Of this I 
have no confirmation." 


" HE FIUETH IN HIS OWN GREASE " (6 th S. vii. 

229). This proverb occurs one hundred years 
before Clarke's Paroemiologia. It is to be found 
in John Hey wood's Proverbs, printed in 1546: 
" She frieth in her owne grease, but as for my part, 
If she be angrie, beshrew her angrie hart ! " 

Chaucer, in the Wyf of Bathe, has : 
" But certeynly I made folk such chere 
That in his owne grees I made him frie." 


Fuller used this proverb more than once, a year 
or two after John Clarke: " He laid heavy imposi- 
tions on the people : the Duke affirming that these 
countreys were fat enough to be stewed in their 
own liquor " (Holy and Profane State, 1642, life 
of Duke d'Alva). And again, in his Church 
History, 1655, p. 136. Here is a later example: 
" My Father's Ghost comes through the door, 
Though shut as sure as hands can make it, 
And leads me such a fearful racket, 
I stew all night in my own grease." 

Virgil Travestie, 1771, p. 104. 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

THE SUFFIX -SOME (6 th S. vii. 267). When 
Miss BUSK writes that her Italian friend has 
coined the word bothersome she may be right as 
far as he is concerned, but the word is not a new 
one I have known it as a North Yorkshire ex- 
pression all my life. The word is used also in 
Lincolnshire vide Mr. Peacock's Glossary (E.D.S.) 
and I have no doubt that it will be found em- 
ployed in many another county. Bartlett gives 
the word in his Dictionary of Americanisms (ed. 
1877), and quotes the Winstead Herald, Oct. 1, 
1861 : " The great naval expedition has been a 
laughably bothersome subject to the New York 
press." ion^some=tedious, is also a North Country 
term, being pronounced langsum. The following 
passages illustrate Margaret Caton's use of the 
word : 

" But yet nae cuintray in her sight appears, 
But dens an' burns, an' bare an' lanysome moors." 
Ross's Ifelenore, first edit., p. 54. 

Cf. Jamieson's Diet, of the Scottish Language. 

e s. viii. JUIY 7, >83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The word is pure A.-S. and is given in Bosworth's 


Both bothersome and longsome are in common 
use in Scotland. A " bothersome creatur' " is one 
who is apt to prove rather exasperating to his 
neighbours, while a lingering cold in the head or 
a smoky chimney is a "real bothersome thing." 
Longsome is, in certain districts, very common in 
the sense of late, especially in reference to school. 
Abothersome laddie may report to some fond mother 
of an afternoon that her " Johnnie was langsome 
for the schule this rnornin'." In the Fortunate 
Shepherdess of Boss of Lochlee (1768) langsome 
occurs frequently with reference to both space and 
time. The English reader will understand this 

" Heigh hey ! she says, as soon as she came near, 
There 's been a langsome day to me, my dear ! " 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

OLD ENGLISH MORTAR (6 th S. vii. 288). The 
extract given by Mr. North from the church 
accounts of St. Martin's, Leicester, is of much 
interest. Our forefathers believed, whether rightly 
or not I am unable to determine, that beer, eggs, 
and various other such like things, if put into 
mortar made it stronger. In Eastwood's History 
of Ecclesfield there is, I believe, mention of beer 
used for this purpose at p. 221. In the church 
accounts of South Lincolnshire, at present un- 
printed, there is an entry under the year 1616 
"for ix quartes of ale to make his [Craven's] 
morter strong, xviii d ." Craven was evidently a 
master mason. He and two of his men were em- 
ployed at this time in repairing the steeple and 
the " chancell end." In the same accounts, under 
the year 1714, there occurs the following: " For 2 
quarts of ale & 2 pound & a half of cheese for 
Simond morter, I 1 1' 1 ." 

In a bill for the repair of the steeple of Newark 
Church in 1571, printed in The Midland Counties 
Historical Collector, vol. i. p. 263, we find: 

" 6 Strike of Malte to make worte to blende with the 
lyme & temper the same, 7* 2 d ." 

" three hundreth and a halfe eiggs to temper the same 
lyme with, 4 s 8 d ." 

" for bruing the Malte, 1' 2 d ." 

There was formerly a notion that mortar was at 
times mixed with blood. Whether there exists 
any satisfactory evidence I know not, but the 
following passages point to the tradition: 

" The besieged take refuge in a tower, stabling their 
horses underground. The Tower is Saracen work, all its 
mortar was boiled with blood ; it fears no engine." 
Ogier of Denmark, quoted in J. M. Ludlow's Epics of 
the Middle Ages, ii. 283. 

Clement Walker, in his History of Independencie, 
among other rhetorical flourishes has the follow- 

"When usurped Tirrany layea its foundation in bloud, 
the whole Superstruction must be built with Morter 
tempered with bloud." Part Hi. p. 3. 

Wine seems to have sometimes been used for this 
purpose on the Continent as beer was here. The 
following passage is from Sir John Forbes's Sight- 
Seeing in Germany and the Tyrol, 1856. He is 
speaking of the Stephanskirche at Vienna: 

" The completed tower was founded with the rest of 
the church in 1359, and, after being advanced under 
several architects, was finally completed by Hans Buchs- 
baum in the year 1433. The second tower was founded 
by the same architect in 1450 (the mortar on the occa- 
sion, according to tradition, being mixed with wine), but 
was never carried beyond its present height." P. 87. 

Oil also appears to have been used for the same 
purpose in the East. In the Hon. Fred. Walpole's 
The Ansayrii, 1851, this passage occurs: 

"Merkab is two miles inland There are several 

remains of buildings about, which probably once joined 
the mina to the castle. In a field near* may be seen a 

huge reservoir of water There is likewise a story that 

the mortar was mixed with oil instead of water, and that 
the huge tank to be seen near the walls was full of it. 
They allude to an inscription which says, ' We 15,000 
men, well paid, well treated, worked at this. Every 
stone was cut and brought, every stone was set with oil, 
oil one para the bottle.' " Vol. iii. p. 386. 

It has been suggested to me by one whose opinion 
I value highly that the using such things as blood 
or eggs in mortar may possibly have been intended 
symbolically to replace the ancient practice of 
burying a living victim beneath the foundation 
of a new building. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

That the old mortar was infinitely better than 
that of the present day there is no question. I 
have had occasion to pull down old walls in which 
the mortar was so hard that the bricks themselves 
would break in many cases before it would give 
way, and I have had modern walls pulled down 
where the bricks came out almost clean, and the 
mortar itself crumbled into dust. Builders are 
rather puzzled to know what processes the old 
mortar passed through in order to give it this 
superior hardness and tenacity, but MR. NORTH'S 
interesting note gives us a clue. An examination 
of old mortar shows that the lime is not so inti- 
mately blended with the sand as we now mix it, 
but it remains in small lumps about the size of 
peas. It is always said and I think this much 
;s really known of it that our forefathers did not 
slack their lime in pits as we do, pouring water 
over it and making it into a uniform soapy mass, 
aut that they put the solid lime in heaps amongst 
sand and let it fall and mix gradually it was thus 
slacked with very much less water. It appears 
from MR. NORTH'S extracts that equal parts of 
ime and sand were used. Nowadays we put a 
;reat deal more sand for common building mortar 
_B proportion to the lime ; but the mortar described 
was for pointing, not building, and was probably 



of an extra strength. For pointing builders still 
use a much stronger mortar than they do for mere 
building purposes, and our forefathers very likely 
did the same, and would not have used quite such 
an elaborate mixture for building their ordinary 

The addition of albumen, gelatine, and mucilage 
furnished by the eggs, the " peeces," and the malt 
was no doubt an important feature. Their use is 
still known to a certain extent, for alum and size 
are often put into whitewash. The size renders 
the lime hard and prevents it rubbing off. What 
the effect of the alutn is I do not know. Again, 
rosin and sand are known to make a very hard 
cement, which is used for fixing knives into 
handles, but it requires fire heat to blend it. The 
"peeces" mentioned are, I have no doubt, the 
rough trimmings from the edges of skins, but 
would hardly include feet. I live in a district 
where tanning is one of the staple industries, and 
I constantly see heavy loads of these trimmings 
going from the tan-yards to the glue-works. 
"Smythie coine" I take to be the ashes from a 
smithy fire, which are very frequently used in 
Cheshire, under the name of smithy ess, for 
making mortar for pointing. Such ashes are 
almost as fine as sand, and contain a large propor- 
tion of small scales of iron. Lime mixed with 
them instead of with sand makes an extremely 
hard mortar. I cannot suggest any derivation for 
the word coine. EGBERT HOLLAND. 

Frodaham, Cheshire. 

WELCHKR (6 th S. vii. 189). Dr. Brewer, in his 
Diet, of Phrase and Fable, with reference to this 
word, says, " It means a Welshman, and is based 
upon the nursery rhyme ' Taffy was a Welshman, 
Taffy was a thief.'" Mr. E. Edwards, in his 
Words, Facts, and Phrases, says, "The term is 
understood in sporting circles to have originated 
in the old nursery ditty," as above. Let us hope 
that the Cyniri have nothing to do with the origin 
of the invidious name. 


I believe the origin of this term to be found in 
the ancient poem which begins with the words 
"Taffy was a Welshman," the continuation of 
which I forbear to quote for fear of wounding the 
feelings of natives of the Principality. I cannot 
prove the credibility of my conviction on this 
subject, but I think it is very commonly felt. 


In justice to Hotten's Slang Dictionary, allow 
me to state that in the new edition of that work 
there are no less than three explanations given of 
this term. I leave it to more competent authorities 
than myself to determine which of these is the 
correct one. G. F. R. B. 

Under this heading in the latest edition of Ogilvie's 
Dictionary appears the following entry : " York- 
shire, welch, a failure, a form of welk ; see welk, to 
fail." It may, however, interest CDTHBERT BEDS 
to hear that in at least one village in South- West 
Wiltshire, Wales was, as recently as twenty-five 
years ago, regarded as a kind of Alsatia. To the 
family of one individual who took refuge there from 
the hand of the law (which sought to exact punish- 
ment for the misappropriation of a ham) their 
flight into Wales formed on their return a veritable 
Hegira, " two (three, four, &c.) 'ear avore vaather 
went to Wales," being the common form for giving 
a date ; whilst if any member of the community 
disappeared under circumstances considered sus- 
picious, it was ordinarily surmised that he must 
have gone to Wales. F. W. D. 

THREE-WAY LEET (6 th S. vii. 229). The word 
led is given in Ray's Collection of South and East 
Country Words, 1691 (ed. 1874, p. 85, E.D.S.): 
" Ltd, s. a three [-way] or four-way leet ; trivium 
vel quadrivium ; where three or four ways meet 
[now corrupted in Essex into three releet and four 
releet]." The reprint is edited by Prof. Skeat. 
The origin of leet is obviously the A.-S. ge-la-.te, 
a going out, meeting, &c., cf. St. Matthew xxii. 9 
(The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, &c., Bos- 
worth, 1865): " Ga> nu witodlice towegageldetum, 
and clypia}? to fcisuui gyftutn, swa hidylce swa ge 
geme'ton." This is rendered by Wycliffe, 1389, 
" Therefore go }ee to the outgoyngis of weyes, 
and whom euere 30 shulen fynde, clepe to the 
weddyngis." It is worth noticing that in Cornwall 
the word leet means a water-way, a mill-stream, or 
a gutter. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 


THE NUNS OF GIDDING (6 th S. vii. 209). 
MR. WOOLLEY will find what he inquires about 
in the Memoirs of Nicolas Ferrar, by Dr. P. 
Peckard (1790), quoted by Maoaulay in chap. i. 
of his History ; also in the more modern mono- 
graph by Prof. Mayor, published by Maomillan. 
My ancestor was born Feb. 22, 1592, and died 
Dec. 2, 1637, a young man. The nunnery was at 
Little Gidding, and Mr. Ferrar, although head of 
it, was never ordained a priest, but remained a 

Lucknow, India. 

There is a minute and interesting, though 
hostile, account of a visit to their house in a con- 
temporary tract entitled: 

"The Arminian Nunnery; or, a Briefe description 
and Relation of the late-erected Monasticall Place at 
little Oidding, in Huntingdonshire. Humbly recom- 
mended to the wise Consideration of the present Par- 
liament. The Foundation is by a Corps of Farrars at 
Gidding," 1641. 

A quaint nun holding a stiff rosary, and a badly 
drawn belfry adorn the title-page. The tract 



winds up with wondering " that the Primate 
should connive at such canting between the barke 
and the tree." A eulogistic life of Nicholas 
Farrars, or Ferrar, the originator, was written by 
Dr. Turner, one of the Nonjuring bishops, which 
contained a good deal about the institution, and has 
been once or twice reprinted. Dr. John Kaye, 
well known for his connexion with Caius College, 
to which he gave his name, and for his controversy 
with his namesake of Oxford, also, I believe, 
wrote something on the subject. 

R. H. BUSK. 

See Sir J. Hawkins's " Life of Isaac Walton " 
in The Complete Angler, 1792. In a note he gives 
the following authorities: 

" Preface to Peter Langtoft's Claron. edit. Hearne ; 
Papers at the end of Caii Vindicice ; Racket's Life of 
Archbishop Williams, part ii. p. 50; Biogr. Brit., Sup- 
plement, art. " Mapletoft "; " Life of Mr. Nicholas 
Farrar," written by Dr. Turner, Bishop of Ely, in the 
Christian's Magazine for the months of July, August, 
September, and October, 1762." 

D. C. 

If MR. WOOLLEY will refer to the Annals of 
England, Parker, Oxford, 1869, vol. iii., p. 345, 
he will find a very interesting account of the estab- 
lishment of the Ferrar family at Little Gidding, 
in Huntingdonshire. Nicholas Ferrar and his 
family settled there in 1625, but the establishment 
of the so-called " nuns " was broken up some time 
before 1657. W. P. W. PHILLIMORE. 

MR. WOOLLEY will find an interesting account 
of this religious establishment in the life of George 
Herbert. H. A. C. 

See Wordsworth's Ecclesiastical Biography, 
rol. v., under the " Life of Farrer." P. P. 

PITCHO: FIASCO (6 th S. vii. 289). The follow- 
ing passage, from a leading article in the Daily 
News, May 17th, with reference to South Africa, 
will explain the former word: 

"A piito bad been held in Basutoland, but old 
Masupha and other chiefs kept aloof, and the meeting 
was attended only by loyal natives, who accepted the 
Government proposals, as they Lave done more than 
once before." 

With regard to fiasco, an Italian has informed me 
that the word is regularly used in the Italian 
theatres to express disapprobation when a singer 
has made a false note or when an actor has failed 
to please his audience. 


Your correspondent writes as if he thought a 
fizsco only meant a ridiculous failure in French 
and English and not in Italian. But " suo pro- 
getto fece fiasco," " riesci ad un fiasco complete," 
are phrases of daily occurrence among Italians ; 
and this use has, of course, only been borrowed by 

us from them. Though the word is occasionally 
quoted in French, it is not naturalized into the 
language so as to have found its way into any of 
the ordinary dictionaries. The common deriva- 
tion is that the Italian flask (as any one can see 
by untwisting the rushes of an oil flask) is so slender 
that a slight tap will break it, so that metaphoric- 
ally it becomes equivalent to our " bubble." But 
I have a better note on the subject among papers 
in Rome, which I will send you when I get back 
there, unless some one else contributes it in the 
mean time. I think the story of the expression 
having originated with the bottle conjuror who 
failed is one made up " after the event." 

R. H. BUSK. 

This word is used in the Venetian dialect for a 
failure. Its derivation completely puzzled Lithe", 
who gives it from the Italian fiasco, a bottle, and 
adds: "Mais 1'origine de la locution et le sens 
primitif ne sont indiques nulle part. L'ltalien 
ne parait pas avoir fare fiasco, du moins on ne 
trouve dans laCrusca que appicare il fiasco, attacher 
le grelot." In Giuseppe Boeris's Dizionario del 
Dialetto Venexiano, far fiasco is given as equal to 
" far un buco nell' acqua, abortire," a vulgar way 
of speaking of one who undertakes to do something 
and fails. Ross O'CONNELL. 

The proverbial expression "To make fiasco," 
which is also commonly used in German (" Fiasko 
inachen "), already occurs in Italian, " Far fiasco ' 
having the same meaning of a ridiculous failure. 
" It is said of some one who does not succeed in 
what he proposes to do " (" Dicesi del non riescire 
in quello che si proponeva"). Cf. Tommaseo e 
Bellini, Dizionario della Lingua Italiana, vol. ii. 
(Torino, 1865, 4to), p. 768, where the Latin saying, 

too, is quoted: "Amphora oepit urceus exit." 



To the explanation given in "N. & Q.," 3 rd S. 
vi. 306, may be added: In Italian theatres the 
audience frequently express dissatisfaction with 
an actor or singer by shouting out " Ola, ol, 
fiasco "! even when a singer has made only one 
false note. The origin of its use in this sense is 
unknown. WILLIAM PLATT. 

Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

Probably fiasco has been mistaken for the 
Spanish chasco, which, according to Neurnan and 
Baretti's Dictionary, means foil, frustration, dis- 
appointment, an unexpected contrary event, &c. 

S. vii. 308). The precedence of the 5th and 
6th Regiments gave rise to considerable disputes 
in the early part of William III.'s reign. The 
point of precedence was, however, finally settled 
by a board of general officers in 1694 (see Cannon's 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [-s.viii. JULY 7/88. 

Records, Gth foot). As far as I know the inver- 
sion of precedence of the 8th and 9th Regiments, 
as mentioned in the new Records of the 8th Foot, 
stands alone in its singularity. Some years ago, 
when examining the work entitled A Representa- 
tion of the Cloathing of His Majesty's Household, 
1742, British Museum, I noticed with surprise 
that the representations of these two regiments 
had evidently been crossed, the 9th standing in 
the place of the 8th. At the time I attributed it to 
a binder's error. Last year, however, when the pages 
of the earliest printed army list (1740) were being 
examined in my library, it was noticed that al- 
though the regiments were unnumbered and simply 
placed in succession, Read's, now the 9th, stood 
before Onslow's, now the 8th Regiment. Millan's 
Succession of Colonels, 1742, gives all the regiments 
properly numbered, and in the recognized order 
which obtains up to the present time. This seems 
to point to the fact that the 9th Regiment was for 
some time, previous to 1742, considered senior to 
the 8th. Possibly there may be documents at the 
Record Office or the War Office throwing light on 
this singular case. S. M. MILNE. 

TENNYSON AND LOCKHART (6 th S. vii. 325). 
I cannot think that Tennyson borrowed his 
" famous line " from so poor a writer as Lockhart. 
Tennyson was quite capable of inventing it for 
himself, and the thought is common. The same 
idea has been expressed in slightly varying 
forms innumerable times, one of the earliest of 
which is: 

" For a day in thy courts is better than a thousand. 
I had rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God, 
than to dwell in the tents of wickednes.'." Psalm 
Ixxxiv. 10. 

Whether Tennyson regularly read Blackwood or 
not I cannot say; his lines to Christopher North 
prove that he read him at least occasionally. But 
he appears to have read Fraser, for I have, and 
value very highly, several pen-and-ink copies of 
the portraits by Maclise which appeared in that 
magazine done by Alfred Tennyson when a boy. 
They are very clever and spirited indeed, and 
show more than ordinary artistic ability. If 
Tennyson borrowed the line from Lockhart, from 
whom did Lockhart borrow ? Or are we to under- 
stand that he really was able to make it for him- 
self? R. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

STEWART OF LORN (6 th S. vii. 248). Sir Colin 
Campbell of Glenurchy, first Lord Campbell, 
married, secondly, Janet or Margaret Stewart, 
eldest of the three daughters and coheiresses of 
William (John) Stewart, Lord of Lome, with 
whom he got the land called the Brae of Lome, 
and at the death of her father the greatest part of 
the lordship of Lome, and quartered the galley of 
Lome with* his paternal achievement, Sir Colin 

being " tutour " to his nephew Colin, afterwards 
first Earl of Argyll, he married him to Isabel 
Stewart, second daughter and coheir of William 
(John) Stewart, Lord of Lome, and afterwards 
gave up to him his own share of Lome. Walter, 
Lord Lome, Isabel Stewart's uncle, resigned the 
title of Lome, which was confirmed to the Earl of 
Argyll by charter in 1470, and he added the 
"galley" to his own achievement. It is thus that 
the Earl of Breadalbane and the Duke of Argyll 
descend from the ancient Lords of Lome. 

Swallowfield Park, Eeading. 

Will MR. CALDER kindly specify the page and 
edition of Burke's Extinct Peerage from which he 
makes his quotation ? It is opposed to a state- 
ment that occurs at p. 782 of the edition before 
me (first ?), and to the account given by Douglas 
(i. 138). But Crawfurd, at p. 232 of his History 
of the House of Steivart (1710), gives an account 
that differs from all three. SIGMA. 

GLASTONBCRY: YNYSVITRIN (6 th S. vii. 301). 
May I be allowed to offer a protest against the 
preposterous proceeding of deriving the name of 
Glastonbury, in the A.-S. Chronicle " Glaestinga- 
burh," from the British name " Ynysvitrin " ? In 
the first place I would observe that Ynysvitrin is 
not a British, i. e. a pure Celtic, word at all, the 
latter element being clearly of Latin origin, namely 
from vitrum, glass. Secondly, as applied to 
Glastonbury the word is comparatively modern. 
I should be very much surprised if an instance 
could be adduced from any Cymric author before 
A.D. 1200. A. L. MAYHEW. 


LECOMTE FAMILY (6 th S. vii. 307). Philippa 
Le Comte, "an heiress," married, circa 1780, John 
Bellew, of Stockleigh ; and Mr. Le Conte, of New 
York, married, about 1680, Grace, daughter of 
George Walrond, of Barbadoes, ancestor of Mr. 
Walrond, of Dulford. SIGMA. 

DISCHARGE WARN OFF (6 th S. vii. 248). 
During the hearing of a case in the Towcester 
County Court on June 11, a witness said, "I 
should have finished the job, but the defendant 
discharged me off the ground." H. C. W. 


SHILLITOE FAMILY (6 th S. vii. 329). Wm. 
Ryland, of Birmingham (ancestor of the Rylands 
of Bearley), married, Feb. 27, 1726, a daughter of 
the Rev. W. Shillitoe, of Birmingham. John 
Cutler, of Darfield, eldest son of Egerton Cutler, 
of Yorkshire, married, about 1730, Hannah, dau. 
of John Shillitoe, of Barnsley, but died s.p. 1756. 


SMOCKHOLD (6 th S. vii. 329). Mr. Archibald 
Brown, in hia edition of Screen's Lav; of Copy-. 

. viii. JOLT 7, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


holds, p. 65, says that " in manors governed by 
the tenure of gavelkind, as at Canonbury and 
in other places in Middlesex, the wife takes a 
moiety for her widowhood." G. FISHER. 

MARKE-TREE : WAINSCOT (6 th S. vii. 347). 
The word wainscoi was frequently used in the 
manner in which it is cited by MR. BOUND. To 
give two examples taken from Nicolas's Testa- 
menta Vetusta in the will of Sir William Walde- 
grave, dated Feb. 26, 1524-5, we find: "Also I 
will that about the said tomb there shall be made 
a grate of wainscot "; and in Dean Colet's will, 
dated Aug. 22, 1519, " Item as touching my 
lodging at the Charterhouse, I will that all my 
board-work made of wainscot, as tables, tresshills, 
great coffers, cupboards, and all painted images 
upon the walls, remain in that lodging in per- 
petuum." See Prof. Skeat's remarks in his Ety- 
mological Dictionary, on the changes in the mean- 
ing of this word. G. F. E. B. 

It cannot, I think, be doubted that this is 
merely the French marqueterie. I find in the 
inventory of the property of Catherine de' Medici 
in 1589, edited by Mr. E. Bonnaffe (Paris, Aubry, 
1874) many articles, chiefly tables, described as 
"marquet4e" (vide Nos. 164, 166, 167, &c.). 
The inlaying of one sort of wood into another, 
which we often call marquetry, is no doubt of 
great antiquity ; it was practised in Italy in the 
fifteenth century and probably in the fourteenth. 
About A.D. 1500 it was, perhaps, at its best, and 
in many Italian churches most beautiful work 
dating from about that time may be found, as in 
the cathedral of Pisa, Sta. Maria Novella in Flo- 
rence, the sacristy of Sta. Maria in Organo at 
Verona, &c. In the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries marqueterie was largely used in the 
Tyrol, and probably elsewhere in Germany. I 
have a chess and backgammon board of Tyrolese 
work dated 1594, and large wardrobes dated 1645 
and 1656 of very original style. 


THE NAMES OF MANORS (6 th S. vii. 308). 
Polton Mynch Maured : Minch=a, nun, see Halli- 
well. Bosworth gives minicen, mynicen, a nun, 
a minikin. Possibly minx is derived from mini- 
ten. Skeat (in Concise Etym. Diet.) places both 
minikin and minx under " Mind," but says that 
the final x is difficult. For the local name cf. 
Minchin Hampton (Glos.). F. W. WEAVER. 

Milton-Clevedon, Evercreecb, Somerset. 

HORN FAIR, CHARLTON, KENT (6 th S. vii. 329). 
Mr. Thome, in his excellent Handbook to the 
Environs of London (vol. i. p. 85), says that the 
" burlesque procession in which every person wore 
horns" was abolished in 1768. "The fair it- 
self," he adds, " after being tolerated for another 

century, was finally suppressed, by an order issued 
by the Home Secretary, in March, 1872." The 
date of this order is March 18, and J. R. D. will 
find it in the London Gazette for 1872, vol. i. pt. i. 
p. 1504. G. F. K. B. 

See Hone's Every-day Book, 1831, vol. i. col. 
1388. Although the passage does not fully answer 
the question, it has some bearing on the subject, 
and may, therefore, be useful to J. R. D. 


14, Holford Square, W.C. 


Le Manage de Louis d 1 Orleans etde Valentine Visconti: 
La Domination Francaise dans le Milenais de 1387 a 
1450. Rapport de deux Missions en Jtalie. Par M. 
Maurice Faucon. (Paris, Thorin.) 
M. MAURICE FAUCON, a distinguished member of [the 
French school established at Rome, had been entrusted 
in 1879 and 1880 by the Minister of Public Instruction 
with a twofold mission in Italy. 1. He was directed to 
visit the public libraries and record offices of Turin, 
Asti, Milan, Florence, and Venice, for the purpose of col- 
lecting documents relating to the history of Yalentina 
Visconti, daughter of John Galeazzo II. Visconti; to the 
preliminaries, celebration, and immediate consequences 
of her marriage with Louis, Due d'Orleans, brother of 
Charles VI., King of France ; to the cession of Asti, and 
to the occupation of Upper Italy during the fifteenth 
century. 2. He was also requested to complete, by fresh 
investigations, his previous studies on the pontificate of 
Clement VI., whose policy towards the Italian States 
and the kings and princes of Europe was fraught with 
so much importance for the general conduct of the Hun- 
dred Years' War from 1342 to 1352. All the documents 
referring to this last-named subject hare been incor- 
porated by M: Faucon in a disquisition which he com- 
posed in 1879, and which is to appear shortly under the 
title Clement VI. et la Guerre de Cent Ans. The pieces 
which form the brochure we are now noticing refer ex- 
clusively to the marriage of Valentina Vieconti and to 
the consequences of that union. They are divided into 
two chronological groups : 1. ThoEe belonging to the 
Milan libraries ; 2. Those transcribed from the originals 
preserved at Turin and Asti. The Venice papers are 
added as a supplement to the former documents (Milan); 
the Florentine ones have been set aside as containing 
nothing of real importance on the French rule in Italy, 
although they throw considerable light upon the history of. 
the lords of Milan. M. Faucon introduces his extracts by a. 
brief account of the marriage of the Duo d'Orleana in 
1389,andof the political results to which it led. Theyactjfck 
conquest, as he calLdt, of Upper Italy has not yet received 
from historians the attention it deserves, and it compares 
favourably with the rash adventures which took place, 
during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and whicb 
ended by the disasters of Francis I. and the unfortunate 
Treaty of Cambrai. The Milan documents are forty- 
three in number, a few of them being transcribed I'M 
extenso, whilst for the others a mere summary has been 
thought sufficient; a connecting narrative gives a kind 
of unity to the whole work, and elucidatory notes are 
added whenever necessary. Amongst the pieces quoted we 
must mention one dated February 13, 1429. It is the 
reply made by the Duke of Milan to certain proposal^ 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. JOLT 7, -as. 

Submitted to him by Bartolpmeo Mosca, ambassador of 
the Emperor of Germany ; its importance is extreme, as 
illustrating the policy of the duke and his attitude to- 
wards Sigismund. The Turin-Asti papers, amounting to 
upwards of thirty, and printed on the same principle as 
those we have just been enumerating, have supplied, 
inter alia, M. Faucon with the marriage contract between 
Valentina Vieconti and Louis, who was then Duke of 
Touraine. This document, drawn up on the 27th of 
January, 1386, was confirmed only December 20, 1387. 
From what we have said our readers will observe that 
the work noticed here is really a calendar of materials 
rather than a history properly so called. 

The Poetry and Humour of the Scottish Language. By 

Charles Mackay, LL.D. (Paisley, Gardner.) 
WK are sorry to be unable to commend this very 
amusing and, in a certain way, instructive book. It is, 
however, manifestly impossible to do so. The very first 
page contains the startling paradox that the tongue 
spoken in Scotland is not a dialect of English, but " the 
Scottish language." When this was contended for in 
the beginning of the century, the true method of study- 
ing language was unknown ; guesses, if they were but 
clever, passed for reasons. Now we know the true 
method of work, and it is simply grotesque error to call 
the Scottish folk-speech a language, unless we mean 
something different by the word from the interpretation 
that is in ordinary persons' minds. If by language Dr. 
Mackay means a dialect only, and is prepared to talk of 
the language of Lancashire or of Kent, we have nothing 
to say, except that he strangely misuses words. If he 
means that the northern English spoken over the Border 
is or ever has been a separate tongue from that on the 
southern side, he is manifestly in error. 

We apprehend that Dr. Mackay is a Gaelic scholar. He 
has given us many derivations of words from that 
tongue which to our unenlightened minds are of purely 
Teutonic origin. The derivation of words is no easy 
matter. They are not among the wisest of men who 
use it as a pastime such as guessing riddles was to our 
forefathers. Though we do not accept many of Dr. 
Mack-ay's derivations, we are bound to say that he has 
given us many interesting quotations and anecdotes 
illustrative of the meaning and history of the words he 
has had occasion to notice. The part of the book which 
is a select glossary is in most places very amusing, and 
few can read it through without gaining some new 
knowledge. Dr. Mackay seems to be under the impres- 
sion i\-&lpeel, in the sense of a tower, is a word confined 
to the Borders. This is an error ; we have traced it into 
South Yorkshire, and believe that it occurs much further 
from Scotland than that. Skelp, too, is good eastern 
counties English. We assure our readers that the good 
vrives of Holderness and Lindsey much oftener tl-elp 
their bairns than they smack, slap, beat, or thrash 

Parish Inftitutions of Maryland, with Illustrations from 
Parish Records. By Edward Ingle, A.B. Part VI. 
of Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and 
Political Science. (Baltimore, published by the Uni- 
versity; London, Triibner & Co.) 

THE sample which has reached us of the " Johns Hopkins 
University Studies " is one likely to be read with interest 
on both sides of the Atlantic. The parish is a micro- 
cosm in the New World as in the Old, and in both cases 
it is beginning to receive the attention which it deserves, 
and to draw forth the descriptive powers of the rising 
generation of historical students. The picture which 
Mr. Ingle paints for us of olden Maryland is, mutatis 
mutandis, voy like what would be the picture of many 

an eighteenth century English country parish. The 
Maryland churches were generally, indeed, very humble 
structures, but they had a reading-desk, or "pew," and 
" a place for the dark to sit in." And the worshippers 
had "high-backed " pews, with seats around three sides, 
which sometimes had doors, " locked against intruders " 
so great in America, as in England, was the eighteenth 
century fear of Lazarus as an " intruder " upon the 
prayers of Dives ! Even the nineteenth century has, 
perhaps, something still to learn. The extracts which 
Mr. Ingle prints from the parochial records of Prince 
George's, All Saints, St. John's, and other parishes in 
the province, contain many curious details of life and 
manners in old Maryland days. We sincerely echo Mr. 
Ingle's hope that their publication may excite sufficient 
interest to promote a general movement towards the 
printing of such records. In the meanwhile we thank 
him and his university for the Parish Institutions of 

Journal of the Derbyshire Archceological and Natural 

History Society. Vol. V. (Bemrose & Sons.) 
THERE is always plenty of interesting matter to be found 
in the annual volume of this Society, and the number 
just issued is no exception to the general rule. Mr. J. C. 
Cox, the well-known Derbyshire antiquary, contributes 
" Notes on the Rectors of Staveley," and a paper on the 
" Ancient Documents relating to the Tithes in the Peak." 
Mr. George Bailey has written another interesting article 
on the " Stained Glass at Norbury Manor House." The 
coloured plates which accompany Mr. Bailey's article we 
cannot praise too highly, and we hope his suggestion 
that all heraldic glass should be carefully copied and 
preserved, for the benefit of succeeding genealogists, 
will meet with the attention that it deserves. We are 
glad to learn from the report that the Society has not 
this year been called upon to protest against any acts of 
vandalism in the county, and we heartily congratulate 
it upon the good work it has already done in the interest 
of archaeology. 


We must call special atlenlionlo the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

C. L. W. To our thinking Prendergast is a name of 
local origin ; however, Mr. Ferguson (Surnames as a 
Science, p. 114) takes the opposite view. He says: "The 
most common phonetic intrusion is the r, and one of the 
ways in which it most frequently occurs is exhibited in 
the following group of names : Prendgast, Prendegast, 
Prendergast, Prendergrass. Prendgast is, I take it, an 
ancient compound, from the stem bend [A.-S. band, bend, 
crown, chaplet] (p. 44), with gast, hospes. It first takes 
a medial vowel between the two words of the compound 
and becomes Pend-e-gast. Then e naturally becomes er, 
passing the very slight barrier which English pronun- 
ciation affords, and the name having become Pendergast 
finds the need of a se.cond r to balance the first and 
becomes Prendergast." 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

vin. Jaw 14, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Camden Roll, 21 Names of Parishes, Somerset, 23 
Old Scotch Session Records, 24 Wentworth Place of 
Keats Ancient Custom Pleck=Meadow Contemptible= 
Contemptuous, 25 Perform, Verb Active, 26. 

QUERIES:- Gray's Elegy English Song, 1672-Gratten 
Scanale Marine Aquaria Unusual Dating of Charters 
Fanteague Rickaby=Goulton, 26 Imitating Birds Effer: 
Effet New Zealand's First Monument Petertide Bonfires 
Elegy in Carthusian House, 1775 Authors Wanted, 27. 

REPLIES: Ruthven of Freeland Peerage, 27 Broker, 29 
Sign, 31 MS. History of Princes of Wales Hedgehogs 
sucking Cows, 32 Solomon's Seal Bp. William Barlow, 33 
Catspaw, 34 General Alex. Walker The Mantuan Marble 
Rev. John Strype D. Alais a Miguel deTobar, 35 Domes- 
day Book Sir James Reynolds Black Money Ancona 
Carling=Carlovingian, 36 Easter Monday Lifting MS. of 
Tasso, 37 Headcorn : Mortlake Heraldic " Luxury of 
Woe" W. Browne's "Britannia's Pastorals," 38 Aureole, 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Gardiner's "History of England, 
1603-42 " Goadby's "Baptists and Quakers, Northants, 
1650-1700" Axon's "Lancashire Gleanings" Jordan's 
" Standard of Value." 

Notices to Correspondents. 



The following is a copy of an ancient parchment 
roll of arms in colour, containing 270 shields, 
which I fancy, from the coincidence of names, 
must be either the original or a very early copy of 
the roll known as the Camden Koll. 

The roll, of which an exact description is here 
given, was copied by me in 1876 from the MS. in 
the Department of MSS., British Museum, where it 
figures in the Catalogue as Cottonian Boll xv. 8. It 
consists of forty-five rows of six shields painted on a 
long narrow strip of parchment, and attached to 
each shield is the name of the bearer. On the back 
of the parchment many of the shields are described 
in blazon, which I have appended to my own 
description of the painted shields, and which in 
some instances will be found of use in filling up 
deficiencies where the shields have been either 
wholly or partly defaced by exposure or other 

From the fact that several shields have certainly 
at no period had names attached, and that in some 
cases the artist has been uncertain of the correct 
drawing of the shield, I assume that this, although 
an ancient copy, is, nevertheless, not the original 
document. On comparison with the copy tricked 
in Harl. MS. 6137, we find many coats preserved 
there which have totally disappeared in the painted 

copy ; but, inasmuch as many of the shields which 
were perfectly distinct even when copied in 1876 
are altered both in treatment and colour in the 
Harleian copy, it is doubtful whether we can rely 
on that authority with any certainty. The date 
of the original compilation of the roll is nearly 
settled by the appearance of the coat of Prince 
Alphonso (No. 26), elder brother of Edward II., 
who, according to Sandford, died August 19, 1284, 
in his eleventh year. I have contented myself 
with merely describing the state of the roll as I 
copied it in facsimile (with the aid of a powerful 
magnifying glass), and have not attempted to 
supply any deficiencies, although I have myself 
made copious notes on the names which appear in 
the roll, especially on those which are foreign, and 
therefore more difficult to identify. 

I may add, lastly, that the peculiarities of 
drawing in this roll are as follows : 1 . The label 
is always of five pendants ; 2. Mullets are always 
of six points ; 3. Vair is of the ancient undy 
form ; 4. The eagle is drawn without legs and vol 

1. Key de ier'l'm. Blank. (Le rey de ier'l'm ports 
lescu de argent a une croiz de or crusile de or.) 

2. Emperur de Rome. Blank. (Emperur de Rome 
porte lescu dor a un egle od deus testes de sable.) 

3. Rey de espayne. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Argent, a 
lion rampant sable; 2 and 3, Gules, a castle triple* 
towered or. (Rey de Espayne. Blazon obliterated.) 

4. Eraperur de Alarn'. Blank. (Emperur de Alam', 
Blazon obliterated.) 

5. Rey de franco. Blank. (Le Rey de france. Blazon 

6. Rey de Aragoen. Or, four pallets gules. (Le Rey 
de Aragoen, lescu pale dor & de gules.) 

7. Rey de engletere. The tincture gulea alone 
remains. (Le rey de engletere, lescu de goules od treia 
leopars dor.) 

8. Rey de Cezile. Blank. (Le rey de Cezile, lescu 
de azur fiorette dor a un label de gules.) 

9. Rey de escoce. The field is or, with remains of a 
treasure gules. (Rey de escoce. Blazon obliterated.) 

10. Rey de Nauarre. Gules, an escarbuncle of eight 
rays or, dimidiating Azure, a bend argent, cotised or. (Le 
rey de nauare, lescu parte de azur & de goules od 
demy charbocle dor a une bende darget od deus cotices 

11. Rey de Cypres. Blank. (Le rey de cypre, lescu 
de azur od treis targes dor.) 

12. Rey de bealme. Blank. (Le rey de bealme, 
lescu de azur od treis barges dargent.) 

13. Rey de griffonie. Blank. (Le rey de griffonie, 
lescu de azur od un griffun dor.) 

14. Rey de Norweye. Gules, a lion rampant or, 
holding in his front paws an axe argent. (Le rey de 
norwey, lescu de goules a un leuu rampant de or od une 
hache dargent.) 

15. Rey de Ermyne. Ermine, on a cross gules a crown 
or. (Le rey de ermenie, lescu de ermine a une croiz de 
goules od une corone dor.) 

16. Rey de denemarch. Gules, three hatchets erect, 
2 and 1, or. (Le rey de denemarche, lescu de goulea od 
treis baches dor.) 

17. Seynt Edeward. The tincture azure alone remains). 
(Seynt edward le rey, lescu de azur od une eroiz dor a 
quatre merloz dor.) 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6'" s. VIH.JUIT 14, '83. 

18. Key de Man. Gules, three human legs in ring 
tnail, conjoined at the thighs in fess point, and flexed in 
triangle proper ; no spurs. (Le rey de man, lescu de 
gules a treis iambes armez.) 

19. Due de Braban. Sable, a lion rampant or. (Due 
de breban, lescu de sable a un leun dor.) 

20. Due de loreyne. Blank. (Due de loreyne, lescu 
dor od une bende de gules a treis egles dargent.) 

21. DucdeVenise. Gules, a castle triple-towered argent. 
(Due de uenise, lescu de gules od un chastel dargent.) 

22. Due de brusewic. Blank. (Due de brusewic, 
lescu dor od deus leuns passans de gules.) 

23. Due de lamburg. Blank. (Due de lamburg, 
lescu dargent a un leun rampant de goules od la couwe 

24. Due de Beyuere. Apparently, Argent, five bars 
aiure, a bend gule?. (Due de beyuere, lescu burelee de 
azur & de argent a une bende de goules.) 

25. Cunte de Nicole. Quarterly or and gules, a bend 
sable, a label argent. (Cunte de Nichole, lescu esquar- 
tele dor & de goules od une bende de sable a un label 

2b'. Sire Aunfour. Traces of azure only visible. (Sire 
Aunfour porte les armes le rey de englete' a un label de 

27. Cunte de gloucestr. Or, three chevronels gules. 
(Cunte de glocestre, lescu dor od treis cheueruns de 

28. p'nce de gales. Apparently, Quarterly or and 
gules, four lions rampant counterchanged. (Prince de 
gales, lescu esquartele dor & de gules a quatre lepars 
del un en lautre.) 

29. Cu'te de hereford. Shield defaced, only Azure, a 
bend argent, visible. (Le Cunte de hereford, lescu de 
azur od sis leuncels dor a une bende dargent od deus 
cotices dor.) 

30. Cunte de oxeneford. Quarterly gules and or, 
slight traces of a mullet argent in the first quarter? 
(Cunte de oxeneford, lescu esquartele dor & de gules 
a une molecte dor.) 

31. Cunte de Bloys. Gules, three pallets vair, a chief 
or. (Cunte de blois, lescu pale de veir & de gules od 
le chef dor.) 

32. Cunte de puntis. Bendy of six or and azure, a 
bordure gules, (Cunte de puntis, lescu bende dor & 
de azur od la bordure de gules.) 

33. Cu'te de seynt pol. Gules, three pallets vair, on a 
chief or a label azure. (Cunte de seynt pol, lescu pale 
de veir & de gules od le chef de or a un label de azur.) 

34. Cu'te de Cornwaile. Argent, a lion rampant gule?, 
crowned or; on a bordure sable eleven bezants. (Cunte 
de Cornwaile, lescu dargent od la bordure de sable 
besante dor a un leun ra'pant de goules corone dor.) 

35. Cu'te de flaundres. Or, a lion rampant sable. 
(Cunte de flandres, lescu dor a un leun rampant de 


36. Cu'te de richemu'd. Checquee or and azure, a bor- 
dure gules, a quarter ermine. (Cunte de richemund, 
lescu escheckere dor & de azur od le q a rter dermine od 
la bordure de gules.) 

37. Cu'te de Wareyne. Checquee or and azure. (Cunte 
de Wareyne, lescu escheckere dor & de azur.) 

38. Will' de Sey. Quarterly or and gules. (Munsire 
Will' de sey, leecu esquartele dor & de gules.) 

39. Thorn' de Clare. Or, three cuevronels gules, a 
label azure. (Munsire thorn' de clare, lescu dor od treis 
cheueru's de gules a un label de azur.) 

40. Will' de vescy. Or, a cross sable, a label gules. 
(Munsire Will de vescy, lescu dor od une croiz de sable 
a un label de gules.) 

41. Otes de gransun. Azure, three pallets argent, a 
bend gules, much defaced. (Muneire Otes de Graneun 

escu pale de [azur, written above] & de arge't od une 
jende de gules a les eecalops dor.) 

42. Joh'n de Vescy. Or, a cross sable. (Munsire 
Joh'n de vescy, lescu dor od une croiz de sable.) 

43. Gerard del Ildle. The tincture gules alone remains. 
.Munsire Gerard del Ildle, lescu de gules cd un leopard 
de argent corone dor. ) 

44. Sire de botresh'm. Or, three mascles, 2 and 1, 
azure ; on a chief gules three pallets argent. (Sire de 
Botresh"m, lescu dor od treis losenges p'ce de azur od lo 
chef pale de arge't & de gules.) 

45. Sire de Waudripun. Or, with traces of charges 
ules. (Sire de Waudripun, lescu dor a deus leuns ram- 

mns de gules dos a dos.) 

46. Sire de hundescote. Ermine, a bordure gules. 
[Sire do hundescote, lescu de ermine od la bordure de 

47. Sire de viane. Blank. (Sire de viane, lescu de or 
a un leun rampant de gules bilectee de gules.) 

48. Name omitted. Argent, three mullets of six 
points, 2 and 1, gules. (This shield is not described in 

49. Cunte de gelre. Azure, with traces of charges or. 
(Cunte de gelre, lescu de azur a un leun rampant dor 
bilectee dor.) 

50. Aunsel de guyse. (fules, three pallets vair, a 
quarter or. (Munsire aunsel de guyse, lescu pale de veir 
& de goules od le quart' dor.) 

51. Sire de louayne. Sable, a lion rampant argent 
crowned or. (Sire de louayne, lescu de sable a un leun 
rampant de argent corone dor.) 

52. Will' paynferer. Argent, three fleurs de-lys 
sable, 2 and 1. (Munsire Will' peynferer, lescu dargent 
od treis flurs de glagel de sable.) 

53. Will' de betune. Argent, a fess gules, in dexter 
chief a lion passant Fable. (Munsire Will' de betune, 
lescu dargent od une fesse de gules a un leun passant de 

54. Sire de ramerne. Argent, a lion rampant sable, 
a bendlet gules. (Sire de Ramerne, lescu darge't a un 
leun rampant de sable od une bende de gules.) 

55. henr' de penebruge. Barry of six or and azure. 
(Henr' de penebrugge, lescu barre dor & de azur.) 

56. P'nce de la Morree. Azure, three chevronels 
argent. (Prince de la Morree, lescu dor od un fer de 
molyn de sable.) 

57. Sire Oude Narde. Barry of six gules and or. (Sire 
de Oudenarde, lescu barre dor & de gules.) 

58. Sire de Asclie. Argent, a fess azure debru^scd by 
a saltire gules. (Sire de Asche, lescu de argent od une 
fesse de azur a un sautur de gules.) 

59. Louwis bertout. Gules, three pallets arrant. 
(Munsire Louwis Bertout, lescu pale dargent & de gules.) 

60. Sire de beyuere. Barry of twelve argent and 
azure, a saltire gules. (Sire de Beyuere, lescu burele de 
azur & de argent od un saut' de gules.) 

61. Sire de gaure. The tincture gules alone remains. 
(Sire de gaure, lescu de gules a treis leuns rampans 
dargent corone dor.) 

62. Tebaud de verdun. Blank. (Munsire tebaufc de 
Verdun, lescu dor frette de gules.) 

63. Will' Marmiun. Vair, a fess gules. (Munsire 
Will' marmiun, lescu verre de azur & dargent a une 
fesse de gules.) 

61. Peres Corbet. Blank. (Munsire peres corbel, 
lescu dor a deus corbyns de sable.) 

65. Joh' v n giffard. The tincture gules alone remains. 
(Munsire Joh"n giffard, lescu de gules a treu leuus pas- 
sans de argent.) 

66. Joh a n de Cantelo. The tincture azure alona 
remains. (Munsire Joh'n de Cantelo, lescu de azur o4 
treis flurs de glagel dor.) 


67. Robt de Munteny. Azure, a bend argent between 
six martlets or. (Munsire Robt de Munteny, lescu de 
azur a une bende darge't od sis esmerloz dor.) 

68. Robt da Quency. Gules, a cinquefoil pierced 
argent. (Munsire Robt de quency, lescu de gules od une 
q'ntefoille dargent.) 

69. Joh"n de Eyuile. Blank. (Munsire Joh^n de 
Eyuile, lescu dor od une fesse de gules od le flurs de 
glagel del un en laut'.) 

70. Robt typotot. Argent, a saltire engrailed gules. 
(Munsire Robt typotot, lescu dargent a un sautour 
engrasle de gules.) 

71. Cunte de guynes. Vaire or and azure. (Cunte 
de guynes, lescu verre dor & de azur.) 

72. Sire de Antoyne. Gules, with traces of a lion 
rampant. (Sire de Antoyne, lescu de gules od leun ram- 
pant dor bilecte dor.) 

73. (No name.) Or, traces of some charges gules. 
(This shield is not described in blazon.) 

74. Joh"n le estrange. Argent, two lions passant 
gules. (Munsire Joh'n lestrange, lescu dargent od deus 
leuns passans de gules.) 

75. Ernaud de guyne". Vaire or and azure, a bordure 
gules. (Munsire Ernaud de guynes, lescu verre dor & 
de azur od la bordure de gules.) 

76. henr' de basores. Gules, three pallets vair , on a 
chief or a demi fleur-de-lys gable. (Munsire henr' de 
bnsores, lescu pasle de veir & de gules od le chef dor od 
demy flur de glag' de sable.) 

77. Will* de Rodes. Azure, a lion rampant or de- 
bruised by a bendlet gules. (Munsire Will' de rodes, 
lescu de azur od un leua rampa't dor a une bende de 

(To le continued.) 



(Continued from 6 th S. vii. 463.) 

The names in parentheses are from Eyton's 
Domesday Studies and from Domesday Book in 
Collinson's Somerset. 

Authorities quoted. Taylor's Words and Places, 
T. Edmunds's Names of Places, E. Bosworth's 
Anglo-Saxon Diet., B. Skeat's Concise Etymo- 
logical Diet., S. 

Babcary (Babecari). 1. This seems to be a purely 
Celtic word. S., under "Babe" (C.), M.E. bab, 
earliest form biban, mutation of maban, a son ; 
Gael. mac. The name Babe has been found in an 
old terrier. Bardsley says the Hundred Rolls give 
three pet forms of Barbara as surnames : Babbe, 
Barbot, Barbelot. Cf. Lyte's Gary. For Babba, 
a chief's name, cf. E., p. 169. 2. Of the river Gary 
three derivations may be given as equally pro- 
bable : (1) C. carreg, a rock, E., p. 92 ; (2) C. garw, 
rough (see Ferguson's River Names)', (3) same as 
the yare in Yarmouth. 

Babington (Babbingtona). The town of Babba's 
descendants, E., p. 169. See B. under "Ing"; 
also T., pp. 82-90. 

Back well (Bacoila). M.E. laic, A.-S. bcec, a 
ridge resembling the back of an animal (E., 169). 
Back- well=ridge- well. 

1, Badgworth (Bagewerra)j 2. Bagborough 

(Bageberga). It is best in the case of these names 
to follow E., who (p. 170) derives No. 2 from Bega, 
the owner's name. l=Bega's worth ; 2=Bega's 
fortified town. T. derives Bagshot from badger, 
but this word is M.E. (see S.). A.-S. for badger 
is broc. Concerning the suffix worth, in the north 
of England we find worth, in the south ivorth and 
worthy. B., weorZig, worZig, wur%ig, wor&, a close, 
field, farm, manor, estate. On the change of 
ivorZig into worthy see Morris's Historical Eng. 
Gr., p. 20. E., p. 131, says, " Originally wyrth 
meant a well-watered estate, although in course of 
time its meaning was extended so as to mean any 
estate ; and the worths of England, like the worths 
of Germany, are still the well-watered spots which 
the word implies." We find an instance of icorlhy 
in Clatworthy (Somerset). 

Ban well (Banuella). E., p. 170, says that the 
A.-S. Chronicle gives Beran-burh for Banbury, 
which therefore means Bera's fortified town ; but 
the form Banuella does not justify a similar expla- 
nation for Banwell. 

Barrington (Barintone). The town of Bera's 
children, E., p. 170. 

1. Barrow Gurney (Berua); 2. Barrow North 
(Berua) ; 3. Barrow South (Berrowena). B. bearo, 
beam, a barrow, high or hilly place, a grove, wood, 
a hill covered with wood. 

Barton St. David (Berton). T. says, p. 79, 
" The enclosure for the bear or crop which the land 
bears." S. gives A.-S. bere, barley, and Hn, an 

Barwick. E., p. 171, from bar and wic, the 
barred or fenced village. 

Batcombe (Batecomba) with Upton Noble (Ope- 
tona). The most likely derivation is from Badda, 
Bieda, Bseda, or Beda, a man's name ; or it may 
be from the same root as Bath (see Bath). E., 
pp. 169 and 174, gives the following examples of 
places derived from this man's name : Badley 
(Suffolk), Badsworth (Yorks), Badnage (Heref.), 
Betley (Staff.), Bettiscomb (Dorset). Combe, 
Celtic, a hollow in a hill-side, W. cwm, S. 

Upton Noble (Opetona). Up is a corruption of 
hope (E., p. 228) : " hwpp (Celtic), a sloping place 
between hills." Noble, a corruption of Lovel : it 
used to belong to the barony of Gary, which was 
held by the Lovels. 

1. Bath (Bada or Bade) and Walcot ; 2. Bath- 
ampton (Hamtona) ; 3. Bathealton (Badehelton) ; 
4. Batheaston (Estona); 5. Bathford (Forda); 6. 
Bath wick (Wica). 

1. T., p. 319, " Mineral springs are often denoted 
by some corruption of the Latin word aqiue, e.g., 

Aix The misunderstood name Aquae Solis or 

Aquae probably suggested to the Anglo-Saxons the 
name of Ake-mannes-ceaster, the invalid's city, 
which was changed at a later period to Bath, from 
a root which also supplies names to Bakewell 
(anciently Badecanwylla), in Derbyshire, and tq 

NOTES AND Q UERIES. [e* s. vm. JULY u, -83. 

the numerous Badens on the Continent." This 
may be the root of Batcombe (see above). 

Walcot. Wai, E. says, p. 306, nearly always 
indicates a Roman fortification. Cote, T., 333, 
A.-S., a mud cottage. 

2. Bathampton (Hamtona). T., p. 81. The 
suffix ham, which is very frequent in English 
names, appears in two forms in A.-S. documents. 
(1) Ham, that which hems in, an enclosure, a 
meaning not very different from that of ton or 
worth. See S. under " Hem," G. hamme, a fence, 
hedge. (2) Ham, the home. S., A.-S. Mm, G. 
heim, a village, Gk. KCO^. 

3. Bathealton (Badehelton). This place is near 
Wellington. Probably from ./Ella, who founded 
the South Saxon kingdom, A.D. 477. E., p. 225. 

4. Batheaston (Estona), Bath-east-town. There 
is a village on the other side called Weston. 

5. Bathford (Forda). A. -B. ford, a ford. 

6. Bathwick (Wicaj. A.-S. wic, Latin vicus. 
Bawdrip (Bagatrepa). This is a very difficult 

name ; I can only suggest (1) from Bega, the 
owner's name ; (2) drip. E., p. 296, gives thraps, 
threp, and throap, from throp, the meeting of cross 
roads : in Somerset dialect thr becomes dr. Of. 
Islip (Oxon), Eastrop (Hants). 

Beckington (Bechintona). From bcecen, the 
beeches. B. gives bece, beech tree. 

Beercrocombe (Bera). To distinguish it from 
Thurlbear, a neighbouring village, and from Crow- 
combe, a more distant village. Probably A.-S. 
bere, barley. Cro, A.-S. craw, the crow, often 
adopted as an heraldic sign (E., p. 33). Combe, 
W. cwm, a hollow. 

Berkley (Berchelee). B. gives berce, birce, a 
birch tree. 

Berrow. See Barrow, of which it is another form. 

1. Bickenhall (Bichehall); 2. Bicknoller. B., 
bece, beech tree ; 2=beech-knoll, A.-S. cnoll. 

Biddisham. Probably from Bieda, the owner's 
name Bieda's-ham. 

Binegar. I have been told that Begenhanger is 
n.n old form of this name ; this would be from 
Bega, the owner's name, and hanger, a hill. Cf. 
Angersleigh. In an old map in a book called A 
Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World, 
London, 1646, the name is spelt Benager. 

Bishop's Lydeard (Lidiarda). E., p. 245, de- 
rives this from British Hid, country or district. 
Llid-iart, a country gate, and thence a farmhouse. 
He adds, "Lydget, Lytchett, Lydgate, Liddiard, 
are corrupt forms of Llidiart." E., p. 320, yate, 
British, from iat, a gate. Murray says, " King 
Alfred had the lands of Lydeard, which he gave 
to Asser. They afterwards passed to the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells. Bp. Barlow exchanged them 
away with Edward VI. for other lands." 


Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath. 

( To le continued.) 

MR. WEAVER may like to know that Brettell 
Lane (6 th S. vii. 463), in the parish of Kingswinford, 
Staffordshire, derives its name not from being a 
bridle road, but from an ancient family of Brettell 
who were long resident there, and owned the pro- 
perty through which the lane passed. B. E. 

6 th S. i. 393; ii. 64, 144, 203, 286). At the period 
the extracts particularly relate to many customs 
were in vogue, which in later years fell into 
desuetude. It was a common practice to bury. 
It was the frequency and the open manner in 
which persons threshed corn, wove, drove cattle 
to distant markets, went to be hired, cursed and 
swore in kirk, bought and sold, &c., on the Lord's 
Day that obliged the Sessions to bring the offenders 
before their eourts and make suitable Acts and fix 
the penalties, &c. These Session meetings were as 
frequently held on the Lord's Day as any other. 
Although MR. FEDERER'S interpretation of the 
extract referred to may be correct, yet it is not 
improbable that marriages did take place on 
the Lord's Day, which, with their consequent 
festivities, would become a public scandal and 
necessitate the interference of the Kirk Session. 
If, on the other hand, a person only invited his 
friend or friends on the Lord's Day for, say, the 
marriage which was to take place on Wednesday, 
little observable scandal could be the result. In 
1644 at a Session meeting the following appears: 

" The qlk day James Ross in Whythill being accused 
for breck of the Saboth day in mawing and scheiving of 
grassis confest ye samen and theirfore is ordained to give 
publict satisfactne before ye congregatioune and pay 
ane mark conform to the acts of ye session," &c. 

At the same meeting: 

" The qlk day Ro b Murchland in Grie and Alex' 
Wallace y r being accused for brecking of ye Saboth day 
it being the Comunioun day in goeing to the Kirk of 
Mernss to be hyrd againe hervest confest ye samen," &c. 

At a session meeting in Jan. 3, 1645: 

" The qlk day Jonet Torrens being accust for ordiner 
breck of the saboth in making of butter and cheesia 
confest the samen and also being acust for working on 
y e fasting Wednisday confest y" samyn also y r fore is 
ordained to stand two Saboth dayes on ye publict place." 

A curious feature of the day showed itself at these 
Kirk Session meetings. Offenders, with the ac- 
quiescence of the Session, often fixed their own 
punishment, which not uncommonly was more 
severe than their judges would have fixed. Session, 
May 30, 1047: 

" The qlk day compeired James Smyt and confest re- 
lapse in drunkennes and y'fore is ordained to satisfie 
accordingly. The qlk day the sessioune finding the said 
James to be ordinerly overtaken in drunkennes. Thair- 
fore w' his own consent that gif heirafter he sal be found 
guiltie of ye said fault, In y l case he sail stand at the 
Kirk door in the jogges on ane saboth day and to confes 
the same from off the publick place of repentance w'iri 

6*s. viii. JULY u, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

the Kirk and pay 40.s.s. for ye first fault and y'after to 
be doublit toties quoties as lie falls." 

At the Session held July 1, 1646, among other 
cases the following is peculiar in more respects 
than one : 

" Heilling Henrisoune was detailed for setting doune 
vpone her knies and curseing her ny'bo* and saying 
Echoe sould deive heaven bot schoe sould haue amends 
of her ny'bo r an 1 give god wold not tak amends shoe 
sould cause man doe it/' &c. 

There is something rich in this. Dean Eamsay, 
had he known it, would certainly have given it 
a place in his most readable of books. 


The pages of " N. & Q." should contain a record 
of the identification, during the past year, of a 
house, assuredly the most interesting in Hamp- 
stead, which Mr. Howitt sought for in vain when 
writing his Northern Heights of London. Went- 
worth Place where John Keats, after his brother's 
death in Well Walk, became " domesticated " (as 
he phrased it) with one who has been justly termed 
his " amiable and most admirable friend," Charles 
Armitage Brown, where he wrote the Ode to a 
Nightingale and other poems, and the scene of 
his own pathetic love story is now called Lawn 
Bank and stands near the foot and on the south- 
west side of John Street on Downshire Hill. The 
external structure remains unaltered, save by addi- 
tions, though the house, now one, was formerly 
two residences. Mr. Thome, in his excellent 
Handbook to the Environs of London, 1876, first 
mentioned this fact, but he produced no authority 
for a statement which was strenuously denied by 
many old residents in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. Mr. Walford, also, in Old and New London, 
indicated the house as being the long-lost Went- 
worth Place. To Mr. H. Buxton Forman, how- 
ever, we are indebted for the removal of all doubt 
on the subject. The steps taken to ascertain the 
truth are stated with his accustomed care and 
acumen in the appendix to Letters of John Keats 
to Fanny Brawne, 1878, and since the publication 
of that book the courtesy of the present tenant of 
Lawn Bank has enabled Mr. Forman to satisfy 
the most sceptical by the discovery of the name 
" Wentworth Place " still remaining on the left 
hand corner of the house, covered with the paint 
and whitewash of half a century. I possess a 
photograph of this " immortalized " residence, and 
shall be happy to present a copy to any admirer 
of " the poet's poet " who cares to ask for it. It 
may be added that the field upon which the 
gardens of Wentworth Place and the other houses 
in John Street abut has remained open until the 
present day (soon it will bear the usual London 
crop !), and that some of the wilder natives of the 
" country green " still linger on the hill, for the 

ringed snake is found in the gardens of the house 
from which I write, and one fine yard-long speci- 
men had her home last year, and probably dwells 
still, within a dozen paces of my chair. 

Downshire Hill House, N.W. 

the weekly supplement of the Leeds Mercury of the 
30th ult. says that at Bainbridge, in Wensley- 

" the forest horn is to this day blown every winter's 
night at ten o'clock, commencing with the feast of Holy- 
rood and ending with that of Shrovetide. In olden time 
when all Semerdale and most of Wensleydale was wild 
forest land devoted to the service of the wild boar and 
of deer both red and roe, and infested with herds of 
wolves, the nightly horn served to guide travellers to a 
place of safety and refuge." 

The writer laments the disappearance of the old 
horn (a cow's) which had been so many years in 
use, although a fine South African buffalo-horn 
supplanted it in 1864. It should have been at least 
preserved there as a relic, and he hopes that if in 
private hands it may be restored. The inn there 
is said to have existed in 1445. Bainbrigg gave 
name to a family, one of whom was Cardinal Lord 
Archbishop of York, another a professor of astro- 
nomy at Oxford, and a third the purchaser of 
Fountains Abbey. A. S. ELLIS. 

CLOCK-LORE. In my great-grandfather's house 
there was, as I have heard my mother say, a clock 
which had this verse inscribed: 

" Here I stand both day and night 
To tell the time with all my might; 
Do tliou example take by me, 
And serve thy God as I serve thee." 
I cannot vouch for the literal accuracy of these 
lines. I give them as they are in my memory. 


PLECK=MEADOW. Halliwell gives this as a 
Warwickshire word. It is used in a similar way 
in Worcestershire and in Herefordshire, as I have 
ascertained from plans of estates made in 1772 and 
1795, on which are meadows named Little Pleck, 
Hither Pleck, and Ferther Pleck. Duncomb, in 
his Herefordshire Glossary, reprinted by the 
E.D.S. No. 5, Series B.I 2, p. 63, has it in the 
form " Flock, a small meadow." 


Florio's Worlde of Wordes (ed. 1598), the 
following entries : " Dispregieude, comptempt- 
ible, skornefull, base, abject ; Disprezzabile, as 
Dispregieuole ; Sdegnoso, angrie, disdainefull, 
irefull, moodie, furious, wrothfull, skornefull; 
Sprezzabile, contemptible." The definition con- 
temptuous is not used for any of the set of clipped 
( J sp) words. In the first example above there 
would seem to be a confusion between contemptible 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. JOLT 14, 'as. 

and contemptuous. In Cotgrave (E.-F., 1672 ; 
F.-E., 1673) the senses are clearly distinguished 
in both languages. J. DYKES CAMPBELL. 

years ago one of the troupe of a travelling 
menagerie told me he had been sent for from Lon- 
don " to perform the lions," as no one could per- 
form them but himself. This was the first time 
I had heard the word used in this way. I believe 
it is a technicality in the profession, and the fact 
is perhaps worthy of being recorded in " N. & Q." 
if it has not already been noted. 

ALEX. FERGUSSON, Lieut. -Col. 


W muit request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

GRAY'S ELEGY. Yet another query concerning 
Gray, about whose life and writings there are 
many valuable hints and notes in " N. & Q." (e.g., 
3 rd S. i. 112, 197, 220, 225, 339, 355, 398, 432 ; 
ii. 17, 55, 199 ; 4 th S. ix. 339, 396, 436, 515 ; x. 
18, 282, 343, 360, 418, 440, 505 ; xi. 234, 354 ; 
5"> S. iii. 100, 313, 398, 414, 438 ; v. 25, 397, &o.). 
My query is, There are in the British Museum 
Library three copies of the poem, published 
separately from the collected editions of his works. 
They bear the dates of 1751, 1753, and 1754. 
The last two are described respectively as the 
eighth and ninth editions. The first mentioned is 
evidently one of the four editions which were pub- 
lished during 1751; but is it the first of all? It 
has some of the crude errors corrected in the 
(eighth) edition of 1753, and to which Gray refers 
in his letter to Wai pole, No. xxxiii., but I want 
to know if it is the first edition alluded to in 
Letter xxxii. (Mitford's edition, p. 79). 


Emanuel Hospital. 

AN ENGLISH SONG OF 1672. Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." furnish the words of the song of which 
I give four lines ? An old man, who would be 
upwards of ninety were he alive, told me that it 
was frequently sung in his childhood : 
" Oh, dear, my good masters, pray what shall we do 

In this year sixteen hundred and seventy-two ? 

For since Queen Elizabeth mounted the throne, 

Sure, times like the present scarce ever were known." 


GRATTEN. A few days ago a Greenwicn boy 
(not highly educated, but observant) told me that, 
being lately in the neighbourhood of Kochester, 
and asking the way somewhere, he was directed to 
go in a path over the gratten ; he did not know 
the word before, but found that it was used to 

mean a field cleared of a crop and covered with 
stubble. Having also never heard the word be- 
fore, I looked it out in Halliwell, and found " Grat- 
ten, stubble, South. Ray says it means sometimes 
after-grass "; and then a quotation from Aubrey's 
" Wilts," Royal Society MS., p. 121, " The north 
part of Wilts adjoyning to Stonebrush Coteswold, 
and is part of Coteswold, the arable gretton-grounds 
beare an abundance of wyld tansie." Perhaps 
one of your readers who is learned in etymology 
will kindly give me that of gretton or gratten, 

W. T. LYNN. 

SCAN ALE. This is given by Florio in his 1598 
and 1611 Italian dictionaries as "a kind of fish." 
I have been unable, however, to find the word in 
Italian or Italian-English dictionaries of the present 
day, and would ask what fish it is. My attention 
has been the more drawn to it by remembrance of 
the " young scamels from the rock " in the text of 
the Tempest, 1623. BR. NICHOLSON. 

MARINE AQUARIA. Which is the oldest of the 
modern marine aquaria now existing in England 
and on the Continent ? The aquarium movement 
has done much for popularizing ichthyology, and 
perhaps the present International Fisheries Ex- 
hibition is in some degree a result of that move- 
ment. In the reign of Elizabeth the Cornish 
historian Carew constructed a rude marine 
aquarium at Wilcove, on his estate near Plymouth, 
an account of which he gives in his Survey of 
Cornwall. Is this the oldest English marine 
aquarium on record ; if not, what others were in 
existence before A.D. 1600 ? 


quite satisfy myself about converting the following 
into an ordinary date, and should be glad of assist- 

Charter of Roger, fil.Walteri de Witewode, made 
" proxima secunda quadragesima postquam d'us 
Henricus secundus Rex accepit crucem." Henry II. 
on Sept. 27, 1172, at Avranches swore to take the 
cross from the Christmas ensuing. There were 
formerly lents to Christmas and Whitsuntide as 
well as Easter. A. S. ELLIS. 

FANTEAGUE. I have a childish recollection of 
being warned not to get into a fanteague, but 
have never heard the word used since I was a 
child. Halliwell explains it to mean " A worry 
or bustle ; also ill humour. Various dialects." 
But what is its derivation ? W. T. LYNN. 


RICKABY=GOULTON. In Bridlington Church 
registers, under date 1700, is recorded the marriage 
of Mr. Francis Rickaby and Mrs. Bertha Goulton. 
In Poulson's HoW r erness, pt. i. p. 230, 1 find that 


Francis Eickaby married Elizabeth Jackson, who 
was buried in 1767. I should like to know if 
Mrs. Bertha Goulton was Francis Eickaby's second 
wife, or whether there were two Eickabys of the 
same name. In 1763, the name of the minister of 
Bridlington was Eickaby. I should like to know 
what place he occupied in the Eickaby pedigree. 
Can any of your readers tell me anything of the 
birth and parentage of Mrs. Bertha Goulton ? 

Walcot, Brigg. 

IMITATING BIRDS. St. Guthlac, we are told, 
was in his youth of a sweet disposition. One of 
his traits is that he does not imitate the voices of 
birds, like most youths of that period. "Non 
variorum volucrum diversas crocitus, ui adsolet 
ilia etas, imitabatur." This is quoted by Mr. W. 
de G. Birch in the Transactions of the Eoyal 
Society of Literature, New Series, vol. xii. p, 643. 
This seems a curious circumstance to be mentioned. 
What was it supposed to imply ? 


EFFER OR EFFET. So was named to me by 
three persons a reptile that had been killed in my 
garden. It was said to be like a lizard, and to 
have four legs, but was not scaly ; its colour a 
light yellow brown. All also declared it to be 
very poisonous, which fact one may, I presume, 
class with the jewel in the toad's head, though the 
belief may have given rise to its name, from the 
Latin ffferus. What is the more ordinary name 
of it, and what its species ? BR. NICHOLSON. 

of your antipodean readers confirm or contradict 
the story which is told in the Life of James Mont- 
gomery, the Poet (iii. 248), that in the present cen- 
tury a Wesleyan missionary in New Zealand found 
a rock upon which Capt. Cook had cut his name and 
the date of his voyage to that then unknown land 1 
If the story be true, is the inscription still known, 
and is it protected as it deserves to be ? 


PETERTIDE BONFIRES. Are there any dis- 
tricts in Europe besides West Cornwall where 
bonfires are usually lighted not only on Mid- 
summer (St. John's) Eve, but also on St. Peter's 
Eve ; if so, are they inland or maritime places ? 
It has been suggested that the custom of the 
fishermen of Mount's Bay lighting fires at Peter- 
tide (as they still do even now in 1883) may be 
connected with the fact that St. Peter was a fisher- 
man. W. S. LACH-SZYRMA. 

Who was the authorof an Elegy ivritten in a Carthu- 
sian Monastery in the Austrian Netherlands, Lond., 
printed for Mr. Folingsby, near Temple Bar, 1775 "? 
It possesses much poetical merit, and, without 

being an imitation, is decidedly an echo of the 
famous elegy of Gray. It begins : 
" The pensive train of Contemplation sweet, 

Rise with the beamy fires of Vesper's star; 
The dying Gales in softer whispers greet 

The shadowy night, throned in her silver car." 
It has in all forty-five stanzas. J. MASKELL. 
Emanuel Hospital, S.W. 

" The eternal fitness of things." 




(6 th S. vii. 87, 109, 153, 168, 198, 229, 290, 389, 


It is to be regretted that MR. CARMICHAEL, who 
is well known to be learned in matters of Scottish 
genealogy, should have espoused so hopeless a 
cause as the defence of this pseudo-barony. As 
its previous champions appear to be hors de combat 
and unable to reply to my case, it is unfortunate 
that MR. CARMICHAEL similarly shrinks from 
joining issue on the main question, and takes 
refuge in lateral points as a means of diverting 
our attention. 

MR. CARMICHAEL begins by taking exception 

" a thesis which is advanced by Mr. Foster in his Perag, 
that there is no indefeasible nobility of blood in Scot- 

As I am responsible for the " thesis " in question, 
which is applied by Mr. Foster to the case of 
Euthven (as proving that this assumption may 
still be challenged), I here give its exact words : 
" The English doctrine of the indefeasibility of peer- 
age, and of the blood being indelibly ennobled by sitting 
in Parliament, does not obtain in Scotland, where the 
right is always traversible." Foster's Peerage, 1883, 
p. 611. 

If your readers will turn to Eiddell's Peerage Law, 
pp. 829-30, they will learn that the above " thesis " 
has the full sanction of his authority ; that even 
in the case of Scottish representative peers, who 
have sat in the House of Lords, such sitting is 
held to constitute no right of peerage that could 
enure to their descendants, should their title be 
proved to have been wrongful'y borne ; that Lord 
Lauderdale, in the Moray case, "rejected the 
plea of prescription in honours altogether "; that 
Lord Eosslyn declared, in the Errol case, that 
while anxious " to give every possible presump- 
tion to long possession, I cannot admit it against 
evidence" and, in the Moray case, that " when 
honours are usurped from the Crown, no length of 
time can justify the possession,"" thus evincing," 
says Eiddell, " the existing legal understanding, 
to which I do not demur, as it seems not at 



variance with our law." Will MR. CARMICHAEL 
kindly explain how the above question is affected 
by his contention (vii. 471) that 
" tbe lesser barons did not cease to be an integral por- 
tion of the baronial order by reason of their eventual 
acceptance of the principle of representation"?* 

MR. CARMICHAEL'S next point is that 
"MR. ROUND casts doubts upon the burning of the Place 
of Freeland." 

He must, indeed, I fear, be at a loss for arguments 
if he is reduced to attributing to me a suggestion 
which I never made. Here are the words I used : 

" As to T. T.'s assertion that the report was made ' be- 
fore the patent was burnt,' let me remind him that he 
has not produced one shred of evidence for the persistent 
but unsupported assumption that 'the original patent 
perished when Freeland House was burnt in 1750.' Nay, 
what evidence have we for its having ever been pre- 
served there, at least after the extinction of the male 

line in 1701? Is it not quite as likely that all this 

confusion sprang from the early loss of ' the original 
patent,' possibly in the very troubles which followed 
close upon its grant ?" 

I still ask for contemporary evidence, not that 
Freeland House was burnt, but that the patent 
was in it when it was burnt. Till that evidence 
is forthcoming, there is nothing to prove that the 
patent was existing at the time, or, indeed, at any 
time after 1651. 

MR. CARMICHAEL'S third point is that he 
" can only come to the conclusion that there has been 
no suppression, either in the Public Archives of Scotland, 
or in the historical accounts of Scottish hereditary titles 
edited by Ulster King of Arms." 

As to the " Public Archives of Scotland," I need 
hardly say that I never even hinted at any sup- 
pression in them. As to Ulster's Peerage, I repeat 
that if, as T. T. maintains, " the succession to this 
title has been much discussed " in Scotland, it is 
unfortunate that the Scottish authorities, whom 
Ulster announces as his advisers, have not appended 
a word of warning to its recognition in his Peerage, 
instead of devoting their energies to bolstering up 
the pretensions of a self-styled earl. MR. CAR- 
MICHAEL cannot deny that the two facts which 
make havoc of the hypothesis that the limitation 
was to heirs of line are significantly suppressed in 
Ulster's Peerage, where that very hypothesis is 
(apparently) put forward. These are, (1) that on 
the death of the second lord the title was assumed, 
not, as alleged, by his niece Isabel, but by his 
sister Jean, who was not the heir of line ; (2) 

* It may be noted, by the way, that MR. CARMICHAEL 
speaks of " the commissioners for the shires " as " the 
representatives of the lesser barons," apparently for- 
getting that they were the representatives of "the 
freeholders" as well. It was ordained in 1587 that 

"the compearance of the said commissioners shall 

relieve the remanent small barons and freeholders of the 
xhires of the suit and presence," &c. Were, then, all the 
freeholders also, after 1587, " an integral portion of the 
baronial order"? 

that the title was not assumed by Sir William 
Cunninghame, though he was the undisputed heir 
of line (and also, eventually, heir of tailzie). In 
the first of these cases the suppression is older 
than Ulster's work, and has probably been un- 
wittingly copied by him, and passed over in 
silence by Lyon. But, in the second, Ulster, as 
we are reminded by MR. CARMICHAEL, is well 
acquainted with the facts of the case, and his 
omission of the very existence of this troublesome 
Sir William who was unluckily too scrupulous to 
assume the title just where that fact is of most 
importance, will speak volumes to all those readers 
who are not, like MR. CARMICHAEL, " unable to 
As to the fourth point, 

" MR. ROUND seems to wish us to believe that a resolu- 
tion of a single house has the force of statute law." 

I merely quoted, without note or comment, the 
words of the present Lord Chancellor, spoken in 
the House of Lords. MR. CARMICHAEL is, doubt- 
less, a better authority, but he should not have 
represented the opinion as mine. 

As for the fifth and last point advanced by MR. 

" I can only say that I certainly think that the Lords 

of Session [the Scottish judges of 1739-40] would 

have made some remarks upon the Freeland peerage had 
they felt it necessary to do so," 

I can only say that MR. CARMICHAEL is clearly 
unacquainted with the genesis of this much- 
cherished" report, and of the value to be attached 
to it in the opinion of those best qualified to 
judge. I have already pointed out (6 th S. vii. 291) 
the failure of this " elaborate report," as T. T. 
proudly terms it, but I presume that the verdict of 
Lord Crawford will be accepted by Scotsmen as 
conclusive. His words are : 

" The difficulty found by the Lords of Session in 1740 

merely shows the extraordinary ignorance that 

existed on the question at that time in Scotland I 

may add that the report was drawn up exclusively by 

Duncan Forbes, of Culloden better acquainted with 

constitutional law than with matters of genealogy; 

that he had no power to call for evidence, but drew up 
the report from his own knowledge, practically single- 
handed, and during the intervals of official work ; and 
that his colleagues of the Session, in whose joint names 
the report was sent, had nothing to do with it except 
adoption, signature, and transmission to England, while 
the report possesses no judicial character."* 

" I have shown that the report of the Court of Session in 
1740 was the work merely of one man, and has no judicial, 
or even official, authority" t 

So much for " the Scottish judges of 1739-40." 
But as we have been assured by T. T. that " the 
important points in the Kuthven case " are the 
retention of the title on the Union Roll and its 
appearance in the report of 1739-40, it is needful 
to point out that the Union Roll, the highly 

* Earldom of Mar, ii. 26-7. 

t M; " 94, 

6">s.viiLJtriTiv83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

vaunted rex rotulorum, on the one hand retained 
such titles as Abercrombie and Newark the 
former notoriously extinct for more than twenty 
years, the latter also extinct, but assumed through 
a fraud eventually exposed by the House of Lords 
on the title being fortunately challenged and, on 
the other, omitted such extant titles as Somerville, 
Dingwall, and Aston of Forfar. This last was 
also omitted in the report of 1740, though it con- 
trived wrongfully to retain the titles of Newark 
and Lindores. 

But even had the Roll and the report been 
alike free from error, their retention of a title, 
as I have pointed out, was merely an admis- 
sion that its extinction had not been proved, and 
was not a " recognition " that it had been validly 
assumed by any particular person. Thus the 
retention on the Union Roll of the titles of 
Oohiltree and Spynie did not " recognize " their 
assumption by the Aytons and the Fullartons, any 
more than the similar retention of Ruthven 
" recognized " its assumption by the so-called 
" baroness." As a matter of fact both those 
assumptions were, when tested, disallowed. I 
have already shown (vii, 292) that such assump- 
tions could only be checked by the existence of 
a counter claimant, or by the vote happening 
to be challenged. Of the former and more usual 
case we have an excellent instance in Duffus, so 
lately as 1827. The title was created within a 
few months of that of Ruthven, and the patent 
was similarly non invent. On the death of Lord 
Duffus without issue in 1827, the title was as- 
sumed by his heir of line, and also by his heir 
male. Had he left no heir male, there would 
have been no check upon his heirs of line, who 
might, as in the case of Ruthven, have borne the 
title to the present day. 

I have before me the fourth edition of the 
British Compendium (1741), which affords inter- 
esting, because contemporary, evidence. Though 
issued subsequently to the report of 1740, it does 
not admit the existence of any " Lord Ruthven," 
though it recognizes the assumption of Newark by 
the Anstruthers and Lyle by the Montgomeries, 
and admits the right of the male claimant to the 
keenly contested Rutherford title. These instances 
do but illustrate the looseness which prevailed in 
the assumption of Scottish titles, and in the 
acceptance of those assumptions by the public a 
looseness of which it is to be hoped that Ruth- 
ven is the solitary survival. 

" Deeds show " is the suggestive motto of 
the Lords Ruthven of Freeland. What are their 
deeds, I ask, which show their right to the title 
they have assumed ? a right against which, as we 
have seen, there is the strongest possible presump- 
tion. That this unproved and more than ques- 
tionable barony should be allowed, unchallenged 
by the peers of Scotland, to figure among their 

ancient and historic titles is, I repeat, pace MR, 
CARMICHAEL, "surely little less than a discredit 
to the whole Scottish peerage." 


BROKER (4 th S. xii. 143, 195, 377; 6 tt S. vii. 
349, 394). If, as it appears, I have given offence 
to PROF. SKEAT, I am very sorry for it. Yet 
my charge against him is almost identical with 
that which he brought against me (see note on 
"Beefeater," 6 th S. vi. 432) when he accused 
me of " straining the supposed points " in favour 
of the common derivation of that word "rather 
beyond the fair interpretation of the known facts." 
But I took no offence. Everybody who has a pet 
theory or a pet derivation strains a point or two 
in favour of it, in order to make others believo 
what he himself believes, and this is all that I 
have charged PROF. SKEAT with doing. 

I did not, however, say that PROF. SKEAT had 
added the senses of " employ, have the use of," to 
the acknowledged meanings of the O.E. verb 
broken (viz., to use, &c.); I said that he had 
" added them more or less," which is not quite the 
same thing, and I still maintain that opinion. 
" To use ' money is not at all the same thing as 
" to employ " it, when this latter verb is applied 
to the use that a broker makes of the money en- 
trusted to him for investment ; nor can PROF. 
SKEAT persuade me that "to have the use of" has, 
when applied to money, at all the same meaning 
as when it occurs in the expression " to have the 
use of one's eyes." But I need scarcely go any 
further into the question of the meanings of the 
rerb broken, as PROF. SKEAT now admits that I am 
probably right, and consequently that broker does 
not come from broken. 

I have discovered a few misprints in the list of 
nouns in our, &c., given in my last note (6 th S. 
vii. 349), and they are, no doubt, due to my bad 
handwriting. They are lumenour, pillour, some- 
nour, soudeour, and tormentor, which should have 
been spelled luminour, pilour, somonour, soudiour, 
and tormentour. And in going through Stratmann 
again, in order to verify this list, I came across 
about forty additional words which I had not 
noticed. They are : apechour (=impeacher), ac- 
cusour, achatour (catour), ancessour, arbitrour, 
armour (armure), auditour, autour, harbour, 
blasfemour, bourdour (t=j ester, joker), bribour, 
changeour, cisoure, clamour, colour (colur), criour, 
curteour, defender, deshonur, desturbour, dettur 
(dettour), favour, flour (flur, flor=flower and flour), 
foundeor, freitour ( =*= refectorium), gigour (^gig- 
player), gunfaneur, humour, meinpernour, meinte 
nour, odur (odour, odor), plaidur,precbur(prechour), 
stor (0. Fr. estor, estour=tumultus, prcelium), 
successour, sucurs (socurs, sucur), tur .(t<mr= 
tower), traitour (treitur), tresor (tresur), tregettour, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. JY u, 

trespassour. And there are very likely others, 
as I went over the dictionary in rather a cursory 
manner. But I have found many more in a 
very useful list of Anglo-French words used in 
Old English* (chiefly of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries), made by PROF. SKEAT himself, 
and published in the Transactions of the Philo- 
logical Society for 1880-81. They are as follows: 
abettour, abrocour (= broker), amour, armour 
(armure),t arraiour,J assaylour, assaiour, auditour, 
angurer (augurour), auultere (avoutour=adulterer,) 
bacheler, barettour,barbour,cariour (in Stratmann 
cariare), chanceler, clamour, coadjutour, colour 
(colur), confederatour, confessour, conservatour(of a 
river), conspiratour, countrerolleour, conseiller, 
countour (pleader), coureour (curreour = currier), 
creatur, creditour, criour (criur), daubour ( = Lat. 
dealbator, in Stratmann dauber), dettur (dettor), 
deshonour (deshonur, deshonure), devynour (divin- 
our), dolour (dolur), donour, emperur (empereur), 
enchantur (enchanteor), end i tour ( = indictor), en- 
fourmour ( = informer), errour (error), eschetur 
(leschetor, leschetour),|| estur ( = O.E. stpur, 
Battle), executour (executor), ferrour ( = farrier), 
fautour (= flatterer), favour, feffour, flour, 
fundur (foundour), fullour (in Stratmann fullere, 
fullare), forbizor, gaugeour, gaungleor (=jangler, 
i.e., scoffer), gillour (= deceiver), governour, grosser 
(grossour = grocer, in Stratmann grosser), guer- 
rayour (= warrior), hat-ardour ( = dice- player), 
honour (honur), humur ( = moisture), jugleur 
(jugleor, joglere), juror (jurour, jurur), labur, lan- 
gour (langur= languor, i.e., illness), lecheur 
= lecher, i. e., glutton), lessour, meynoure (taken 
with the, taken in the manner, i.e., taken with 
the goods in one's possession ; see SKEAT, s.v. 

* He prefers to call them " English words in Anglo- 
French," though most people would, I should say, under- 
stand this to mean words of English origin used in 
Anglo-French, and a few, very few, such words there 
are, but they are almost entirely Anglo-French words. 
PROF. SKBAT'S meaning is probably words that are now 
English found in Anglo-French. 

f I put the form or forms following the first form in 
parentheses, but I do not always give all the forms. 

J This is arraiours in PROF. SKEAT'S list, and he gives 
many forms in the plural only, but these I have altered 
into the singular, as though the singular may not now be 
found, in the vast majority of cases it must also have been 
in use. 

I have given these words, bacheler, chanceler, eonseiller, 
and tormenler, simply because they are now written with 
or in English. With regard to the first three, er is the 
only strictly correct ending, inasmuch as the Latin forms 
are in arius, and this regularly=er in French. As for 
tormenter, or is more correct, as the Mid. Lat. form, 
if it existed, would be lormentator. See note f, p. 31. 

|| So I find also in PROF. SKEAT'S list "entrails 
(lentraille) " and " space (I'espace)/' If, as I presume, the 
I is not the article here (for if it is, it should have been 
left out), then these forms are instances of the well- 
known coalescence of the French article I with the fol- 
lowing noun, as In Unde/nain, lie) re, &c. 

" Manner"), mainpernour (= surety), minour, mir- 
reur ( = mirror), moneour, odour (odur), peyntour, 
pastour, pavour, pledour (in Stratmann plaidur 
and plaitere), portour (porter, pi., in Stratmann 
porter), prechour, predecessour (predecessur), 
priour, procuratour, progenitour, provisour, pur- 
chasor (purchasour), purveour, rancour (rancur), 
ravisour, recevor (receivour), recordour, rectour, 
regrater (regratier, regratour), riotour, robeour 
(robbere), rumour, saveur ( = saviour), senatour 
(senatur), seniour (seynur), serchour, suppriour, 
( = subprior), successour, succour (soccour, souccour, 
sucure, sucur),* sutor (suitier), sumenour, surveour, 
taillour, tannour (in Stratmann tannere), tenur 
(tenure), termor, testator (testatour), tormenter, 
tour,t traitur (traiture), tresor (tresour), tremour, 
trespassour, valour, vavasur (vavasour), vendour, 
vultur, wastour. 

I have thought it better to give all the words 
with these endings (our, or, ur, &c.) which I found 
in PROF. SKEAT'S list, and not those only which 
are not to be found in Stratmann. We have thus 
two independent lists made up from very dif- 
ferent sources, and it is interesting to compare 
them. PROF. SKEAT'S is the more complete, but 
then he was looking exclusively, or almost exclu- 
sively, for Anglo-French words. We see, more- 
over, that a dictionary (Stratmann's) which has 
been very carefully prepared, and which is gener- 
ally looked upon as very good, is really very im- 
perfect ; for here I am dealing with only one class 
of words, and yet I find about sixty words in 
PROF. SKEAT'S list which I do not find in Strat- 
mann. On the other hand, however, there are 
between thirty and forty words in Stratmann 
which are not in PROF. SKEAT'S list. 

Besides all this, PROF. SKEAT'S list has especial 
interest for me, inasmuch as, curiously enough, it 
contains a word, abrocour If. ( = broker), which 
completely establishes my case, that broker has 
come to us from the French. 1 had hitherto met 
with the Latin form abrocarius only, and that but 
once, so that I had felt doubt as to its genuine- 
ness ; but this form abrocour, which I find also in 
Kelham spelled abroceur, quite satisfies me as to 

* It is a pity, I think, that PROF. SKEAT did not 
arrange his examples according to the dates of the books 
in which he found them. In this case succour datea 
from 1307, sucurs from about 1150, and sucur from before- 
1250. Yet PROF. SKEAT puts succour first, sucurs second, 
and sucur last. In the text I have put succour first, 
because it is also the present English form, and PROF. 
SKEAT seems to have gone upon the same principle. The 
word ought to have kept its second s, as recourse (O.E. 
recours) has done. 

t I have given tour (=tower), although the our is 
not a termination, and the same may be said of flour 

J S.v. "Broker," for PROF. SKEAT has arranged his list 
according to the modern English form, which always 
heads each article. 



the genuineness of the form abrocarius. PROF. 
SKEAT himself admits that abrocour is the same 
word as abrocarius, which he quotes, and it is quite 
impossible that either of them should have come 
from the O.E. verb broken. I think now, too, 
that I can show how abrocarius was formed from 
abrocare. In Low Lat. nouns in arius seem to 
have been formed not only from primary nouns, 
as in classical Latin, but also from secondary 
nouns, which were themselves probably derived 
from the supines of their respective verbs. Thus 
from curare (curatum) we have curatarius* a 
broker (Fr. courtier), more commonly written 
corratarius and curaterius ; and similarly from 
baratare, to exchange or to cheat, we have (see 
Ducange) a subs, baratum, and a secondary sub- 
stantive baraterius. Now baratum must stand 
for baratatum, and baraterius ( = baratarius, as 
curaterius = curatarius}^ for baratatarius, and, 
indeed, we find in Ducange both baratator and 
barator. Similarly, tormentor must be a short- 
ened form of the Low Lat. tormentator, which, 
however, does not seem to exist. Abrocarius 
would thus be a shortened form of abrocatarius 
from abrocare (abrocatum). At all events, now 
that abrocarius and abrocour may be regarded as 
genuine words, we must, I think, look upon bro- 
carius and brocour as shortened forms of them, 
although I showed in my former note that bro- 
carius might be formed from broca. 

And again in PROF. SKEAT'S list (also s.v. 
" Broker," but in a different article) I find the verb 
abroke, which he explains to " act as broker for." 
It may be thought from the appearance of abrocour 
and abroke in PROF. SKEAT'S list that at the time 
he wrote it, which was apparently before his dic- 
tionary was finished, he regarded broker as of 
French origin. This may be so, but it is not 
certain, as though his list is composed almost 
entirely of Anglo-French words, still there are, as 
he himself states, a few English ones. 

With regard to my list of words in -ere, which 
PROF. SKEAT says would be useful, I must reserve 
it for another note. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

SIGN (6 th S. vii. 402, 454, 512). I am far from 
desiring any controversy on this or any other word, 
and hope in future to avoid replying to any ques- 
tion more than once, whenever such a course is 

* Brachet derives curatarius from the subst. " curatws, 
qui prend eoin"; or it might come from the subst. 
cnratum (=Fr. cure). Whether in Low Latin nouns in 
arius were ever derived directly from the Saxon I do not 

t These forms in erius show us how the Latin term. 
arius usually became (i)er with inserted i in French, 
though it sometimes became aire, as in adversaire, and 
eur or mir (in old French at least), as in barateur, bara- 
tour (Godefroy), and the word I am no>v considering, 

possible. I regret that token should have been 
allied with signum in Gabelenz ; I do not think 
any German would venture on such a suggestion 
now. The advance in etymology made in Ger- 
many since 1843 is considerable ; I wish I could 
say that the advance made is as great in England. 
As to what is said in Smith's Latin Dictionary, 
I have been assured by our best Latin scholars 
that we need not regard it as of any authority. 
The only real point worth notice is, that I ain 
quite sure that any one who is at all well ac- 
quainted with Fick's book and method will see 
that SIR J. A. PICTON has attributed to hiui 
opinions which he never expressed. Careful 
examination of any one page will convince any 
reader of this, unless he is determined not to be 
convinced. Now, what does Fick really say? 
He gives a certain root sak, vol. ii. p. 476 ; next, 
at p. 259, he considers a secondary root sekw, 
which is a mere development of it. He explains 
this root by sagen, aeigen. This is a mere explana- 
tion, apart from etymology. As I have said, a 
careful inspection of any page will show this. 
For the preceding word is another sekw, which he 
explains by folgen, without at all implying (I 
should hope) that sekw and folgen are etymolo- 
gically related. Above that again is a form send, 
which he explains by ruhen ; and so on, through, 
three whole volumes ! So, again, he merely explains 
signum as Zeichen, on which SIR J. A. PICTON 
remarks that " there is no indication of this." To 
a careful reader there are tens of thousands of in- 
dications. It is his method throughout the 
whole work. On p. 261, 1. 11, he gives us the 
Lat. subsessa, and against it the G. Hinterhalt. 
Now, can it be seriously said that subsessa and 
Hinterhalt are from the same root ? 

Poor Fick has done his best. He has ranged 
Lat. signum, G. sagen, Lith. sakau, Gk. ev-veire, 
all under a root sekw or sak in one place ; and he 
has arranged G. Zeichen (E. token), Lat. dicere, Gk. 
SeiKWfj.1, all under a root dik in another place, in 
the very same word-list, vol. ii. p. 129. I should 
understand from this that he totally dissociates 
the words. He repeats these distinctions over 
and over again, and keeps them up all through 
his volume of indices. It is hard upon him to 
charge him with the contrary. I do not under- 
stand the question, " Where shall we look for the 
equivalent in Latin which signum supplies ? " If 
it means, What Latin words are from the same 
root ? I would say that Fick gives the list, viz., 
0. Lat. insece, insectiones, insexit, Umbrian pro- 
sikurent. If it means, What are the cognate words 
in other languages? then again I say that Fick 
gives the list, viz., Lith. sakau, G. sagen, and the 

There are some exceptions to Grimm's law, but 
they are all to be regarded with suspicion. Every 
exception must be satisfactorily explained. The 

NOTES AND QUERIES. w* s. vm. JUM u, -as. 

chief exception is that in words of obviously 
onomatopoetic origin no change at all takes place, 
but the root remains unaltered. This is quite a 
different thing from the fancy that initial can 
become t. The sole illustration offered is that 
Skt. cirsru represents E. tear, which I utterly 
fail to comprehend. On the one hand, I suppose 
the word meant is Skt. apra, a tear, in Benfey, 
p. 62. But this is divided by Benfey as af-ru, 
and we all ought to know that this particular Skt. 
8 or p represents an original k (not t), and that the 
root of the word is ok. Or, if we start with E. 
tear, Goth, tagr, then we come to Gk. 8a.Kpv, and 
a totally different root dak. The argument that 
signum and token may be connected words, be- 
cause Skt. agru and E. tear are connected, really 
works the other way. The former pair are dis- 
connected precisely because the others are so too. 
The appeal being to Fick, let us see what he says 
about these four words. It is sufficient to turn to 
his indices. He gives signum from sekw (p. 265); 
G. Zeichen from dik (p. 335) ; Skt. ap ru from ak 
(p. 124) ; and Goth, tagr from dak (p. 302). That 
is, he takes the view that all four words are from 
different roots a decision in which I should be 
glad to be allowed to rest. 


(6 th S. vii. 507). Perhaps the following informa- 
tion may help your correspondent J. F. B. a little 
in his search for the above work. On several 
occasions in February, 1848, 1 met with the author, 
G. P. Harding, who was at that time making a copy, 
with the Queen's permission, at Buckingham Palace, 
of a miniature of the present Prince of Wales, then 
about seven years of age, from one just executed 
by Sir W. C. Ross, R.A. Harding told me he 
had already made miniature copies on vellum of 
all the known portraits of former Princes of Wales, 
which he had had bound in a volume with MS. 
memoirs of the princes, and the one he was then 
doing was to complete the work as far as he would 
ever be able to do. G. P. Harding had in his time 
made copies on vellum of a great part of the his- 
torical portraits of England which are in different 
mansions all over the country, and I believe 
Lodge's portraits were engraved from his copies 
of the originals. The old man was full of com- 
plaints of the altered times, and said it had been 
his misfortune to outlive all his patrons. Three 
of his copies of historical portraits were in the 
"Special Exhibition of Portrait Miniatures on 
Loan" at South Kensington in 1865, and in the 
catalogue it is stated that he died in 1853, but his 
age is not given. He must have been over eighty 
at the time I met with him. I never saw him 
more than three or four times, and where he was 
residing at the time I know not, but probably in 

Lambeth. His miniature copies of portraits on 
vellum were considered admirable. I certainly 
never saw the volume in question, but one would 
think it would not be difficult to trace a work of 
so much value and importance as this " History of 
the Princes of Wales," so profusely illustrated as it 
must be with the beautiful miniatures of G. Per- 
fect Harding. JOHN HASLEM. 

HEDGEHOGS SUCKING Cows (6 th S. vii. 309). 
On the bents at South Shields one day last summer 
I entered the shanty of an Irish squatter, and 
found penned under a chair, in a cage made within 
the four legs by the aid of a few bricks, an old 
tea tray, and a small square of wire netting, a 
hedgehog and two young ones, which the house- 
wife told me her husband had caught outside. 
After praising their beauty and their usefulness in 
a house, she added: "But they are dreadful things 
when they take to sucking the cows. My man 
when first he came to England, before he came 
over for me, was employed by a large dairy farmer 
nearer Sunderland than this, and the poor master 
was in sore distress because one of his best cows 
gave no milk. ' Perhaps it 's bewitched,' said my 
husband. ' It 's the byre that 's bewitched,' said 
the master ; ' for always my best cow gives no 
milk, and when I get rid of her the next best takes 
her place and gives no milk, and I can't find out 
what 's amiss.' 

" He was a kind master, and my husband 
thought he would like to find out what harmed 
the cows ; perhaps some one stole the milk at 
each meal. So one summer's night, without say- 
ing a word to any one, my husband hid himself in, 
the cowhouse, where he could watch the best cow ; 
and after all was still, and the cows were all laid 
down, he heard a great squeaking, and looking up 
saw twelve hedgehogs, big and little, come run- 
ning from a drain hole in the wall, and the four 
biggest began to suck the best cow, the others 
sitting patiently by; and there she lay peaceful- 
like and pleased, chewing the cud. When the 
four had finished, the others began to fight for the 
next turn they didn't have that respect amongst 
themselves they had for the big ones ; and in time 
they all sucked her and emptied her bag and ran 
squeaking away. And all the time they never 
touched another cow. 

"The next night my husband persuaded the 
master to watch with him, and he was soon satis- 
fied as to what bewitched the byre. My husband 
never looked back after that, the master was that 
pleased with him." WM. STRANGEWATS. 

59, Westmoreland Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Thirty years ago the greater part of this parish 
was open common. On it the cows were fed, and 
in summer lay out all night. My tenant's wife, 
since deceased, told me that when she used to go 

vin. JULY 14, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


down with others to milk the cows in the morn- 
ing it was frequently discovered that they had 
been sucked by a hedgehog. The scarcity of milk 
and the marks of prickles on the cow's udder 
showed that the hedgehog had been at work. It 
is accused of sucking eggs also. 

Springthorpe Rectory. 

The belief that- hedgehogs are mischievous 
vermin and suck cows lingered long, and I doubt 
whether it is yet extinct. Certain it is that a 
reward was formerly paid for their destruction. 
In the churchwardens' accounts of my former 
parish, Otterhampton, in Somerset, a not unfre- 
quent entry is "P d for a Hedgehog, 4 d "; and in 
the churchwardens' accounts of my present parish, 
Roplev, Hants, which are now before me, I find : 
" 1822. Sept. 10. P d for Sparrow Heads & Hedge- 
hogs up to this time, U. 5s. 8|d." Even now 
hedgehogs are persecuted and killed without com- 
passion, probably for the same reason. 


I think if your correspondent C. were to make 
inquiries among rural folk in almost any part of 
England he would find that this venerable super- 
stition is still vigorous. I am sorry to say that 
almost every one believes it in the neighbourhood 
where I live, and the consequence is that these 
interesting and useful animals are almost always 
killed when found. That it is mere folk-lore I 
myself have no manner of doubt; but I have met 
with more than one person of credit who has 
asserted that he has seen a hedgehog engaged in 
the process of cow sucking. I am sure my in- 
formants did not endeavour to deceive me. It was 
all a matter of false interpretation. Hedgehogs are 
fond of warmth, as any one who has domesticated 
them knows. I believe that when the nights are cold 
hedgehogs may occasionally have been seen warm- 
ing themselves against the udder of a sleeping cow, 
and that imagination has done the rest. If milk 
were exuding from the cow's teats the hedgehog 
might perhaps lick it up. He is very fond of 
milk when in captivity. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

SOLOMON'S SEAL (6 th S. vii. 268). The legend 
of Solomon's seal (Khatiin Sulimanl) is connected 
with the superstitions and religious belief of the 
Mohammedans. This signet ring is said to have 
come down from heaven to Solomon, the son of 
David, and on it was engraved " the most great 
name " (ism-i-azam) of God. It was partly com- 
posed of brass and partly of iron. With the brass 
Solomon stamped his written commands to the 
good genii, with the iron those to the evil genii or 
devils, of which metal they were supposed to have 
great dread. Over both these orders, by virtue of 
this talisman, he had absolute power, as well as 
over the winds, the birds, and even wild beasts. 

Hexagonal in shape and resembling a six-pointed 
star, it was formed by two equilateral triangles 
intersecting each other. See the Koran, Sale's 
translation and notes, chap. xxi. 80, 81; xxvii. 
16, 17; xxxiv. 11, 12; xxxviii. 33, 35, 37. 

Callia Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

The following passage, from the notes to the 
introduction of Lane's translation of The Thousand 
and One Nights, ed. 1839, explains the meaning 
of the passage quoted from Bishop Heber's Pales' 
tine : 

" No man ever obtained such absolute power over the 
Jinn as Suleyman Ibn Daood (Solomon the son of David). 
This, he did by virtue of a most wonderful talisman, 
which is said to have come down to him from heaven. 
It was a seal-ring, upon which was engraved the most 
great name ' of God, and was partly composed of brasa 
and partly of iron. With the brass he stamped his 

written commands to the good Jinn ; with the iron 

those to the evil Jinn, or Devils. Over both orders lie 
had unlimited power ; as well as over the birds and the 

winds, and, as is generally said, the wild beasts By 

virtue of this name, engraved on his ring, Suleyman 
compelled the Jinn to assist in building the Temple of 
Jerusalem, and in various other works." Vol. i. p. 35. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. . '^'' 

See Finger-Ring Lore, by Wm. Jones, F.S.A., 
pp. 92, 93. HENRY G. HOPE. 

Freegrove Road, N. 

Your correspondent will find some allusion to 
Solomon's signet ring in Dr. Barclay's edition of 
the Talmud, p. 27. H. E. WILKINSON. 

Anerley, S.B. 

BISHOP WILLIAM BARLOW (6 th S. vii. 329). 
This divine was not the Dean of Chester who was 
afterwards Bishop of Rochester. The person in 
question was William Barlow, Bishop of St. 
Asaph, St. David's, Bath and Wells, and Chi- 
chester. He was of Welsh extraction, born in 
Essex, and received his education in the Monastery 
of Austin Canons at St. Osyth and at Oxford, 
where he was made D.D., became a canon of 
the order at St. Osyth, and in 1527 was prior of 
Bisham Abbey, near Maidenhead, Berks. At the 
dissolution he resigned his house, and persuaded 
other abbots and priors to follow his example. 
His character and many of the events of his life 
are recorded in Stephen's Memorials of the See of 
Chichester (246 sqq.). By the influence of Anne 
Boleyn he was made prior of Haverfordwest 
in 1535. On January 7, 1536, he was elected 
Bishop of St. Asapb, and on April 10 of the same 
year translated to St. David's. Whilst presiding 
over this see he urged its removal to Carmarthen, 
but without success. In February, 1549, he was 
translated to Bath and Wells. The date of his 
marriage is not known, but it was one of the 
oflences for which he was deposed soon after Mary a 



. YIII. JY u, 

accession in 1553. On the accession of Elizabeth 
he wag appointed to the see of Chichester, 
where he died in 1568, and in the cathedral of 
which see he lies buried. His wife was Agatha, 
daughter of Humphrey Wellesbourne, by whom 
he had two sons and five daughters. By a very 
singular coincidence these five daughters were all 
wedded to bishops. The following inscription, on 
a mural monument on the south side of the church 
at Easton, Hants, records the fact. I have extracted 
it verbatim, from Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of 
Winchester, ii. 56: 

The righteous shall be had in everlasting remembraince. 
Agatha Barlow, widow, davghter of Hvmfrey Welsborne, 

late wife of William Barlow, Bishop of Chichester, 
who departed this life the 13 of Avgvste. Anno Donvi 

1568 i 
and liethe bvried in the cathedrail chvrche of Chi- 


By whom she had seven children that came vnto men 
and women's state, too svnnes, and five davghters. The 
svnnes : William and John ; the davghters : Margarite, 

vnto William Overton, Bishop of Coventri and Litch- 

feeild ; 
Anne, wife vnto Herbert Westfayling, Bishop of 

Hereforde ; Elizabeth died Anno wife vnto 

William Day, now Bishop of Winchester; Frances, wife 

vnto Toby Mathew, Bishop of Durham ; Antonine, 
late wife vnto William Wickam, disceased, Bishop of 

Winchester : she 
being a woman godly, wise, and discreete, from her 

most fay thevil vnto her hvsband, bothe in prosperite and 

rsite, and a companione with him in banishement for 

the gospeil 
sake ; moste kind and loving vnto all her children, and 

beloved of them all for her ability of a liberail mynde, 


pitifvl vnto the poore. Shee haveing lived abovte Ixxx 
yeares, died in the Lorde, whom shee dayly served, the 

on Ivne, Anno Domini 1595, in the hovse of her svnne 


being then person of this chvrche, and prebendary of 
Winchester. Rogatv et svmptibvs, filise dileetse 

Francisas Mathew. 

Over all a shield of arms between the date 1595. 
There is some confusion as to the date of his ap- 
pointment to St. Asaph. Further particulars 
may be found in Wood, Athen. Oxon.; Willis, St. 
Asaph; Biographia Britannica ; Godwin, De 
Frees. Angl; Tanner, Br. Hib.; Strype, Annals 
Eef.; Burnet, Hist. Eef. W. H. BURNS. 

Clayton Hall, Manchester. 

There are three of the name of William Barlow 
who have attained distinction : 

1. William Barlow, an Augustinian canon and 
prior of the house of his order at Bisbam, was 
Bishop of St. Asaph in 1535, of St. David's in 
1536, and of Bath and Wells in 1537. Being 
deprived of his see on account of his marriage by 
Queen Mary, he left the country, but returned on 

the accession of Elizabeth, and was made Bishop 
of Chichester in 1559, in the possession of which, 
as well as of a canonry of Westminster, he died in 
1568. He is a familiar character in the contro- 
versial history of the Anglican succession. 

2. William, son of the above, became prebendary 
of Winchester and archdeacon of Salisbury. He 
was a writer on various subjects connected with 
magnetism. He died in 1625. 

3. William Barlow, of a Lancashire family of 
the same name, became Dean of Chester in 1603, 
Bishop of Rochester in 1605, and of Lincoln in 
1608, in the possession of which see he died in 
1613. He must be kept separate from confusion 
with Thomas Barlow, who was Bishop of Lincoln, 
1675-91; who was also provost of Queen's College, 
Oxford, and a benefactor to the Bodleian. 


He married Agatha, daughter of Humphrey 
Welsbourne, who survived him many years; by 
her he had two sons and five daughters. On her 
tomb are the following lines, as translated by 
Fuller ( Worthies of England) : 

" Barlow's wife Agathe doth here remain : 
Bishop, then Exile, Bishop then again. 
So long she lived, so well his children sped, 
She saw five Bishops her five daughters wed." 

CATSPAW (6 th S. vii. 286). Richardson, who 
remarks this expression, and connects it with the 
story of the monkey, the chestnuts, and the cat, 
observes that it is more common in vulgar speech 
than in writing, and I agree with him, so far as 
uiy observation of the writings of old authors ex- 
tends. It finds a place in Webster's and other 
modern dictionaries, and is not unknown in com- 
positions that pass for good English in the leading 
columns of newspapers. The earliest reference I 
can bring to bear upon MB. MARSHALL'S subject 
is to be found in the Emblemata of John Sam- 
bucus, first printed by Plantin at Antwerp, 1564. 
The sufferer is here, however, a little dog (not the 
proverbial cat), whom the monkey is actively " per- 
suading " to extract the chestnuts from the blazing 
fire, as depicted in the masterly little woodcut to 
be found above the following lines in the 16mo. 
edition, Antwerp, 1584, p. 102 : 

" Bergae (est oppidura mari propinquum 
Ad pingues patet unue iter Zelandos) 
Nuper simiola edidit notandum 
Exemplum, simul et dolo iscosum. 
Nam cum castaneos foco sepultas 
Vidisset, cinerem institit movere 
Prunas sed metuens, statim catelli 
Stertentis pede surripit coacto." 

Here the story has a Low-Country flavour, and a 
moral is pointed therefrom against the practices of 
rulers who scruple not to involve an innocent com- 
munity in disaster for the attainment of their own 
selfish ends. 

e* s. vin. JY u, -88.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The idea is expressed in another shape in Scott's 
Newesfrom Pernassus, 1622, thus: 

" take example and learne what it is for a man 

to suffer himselfe to be carried to such simplicitie, as to 
plucke Crabbes out of their holes with his owne hands, 
for the benefit of another." 

In 1657 Col. Silas Titus, under the pseudonym 
" William Allen," published the famous diatribe 
against Cromwell, Killing no Murder, to which a 
laboured reply was attempted the same year in 
an anonymous pamphlet, attributed to Michael 
Hawke, entitled Killing is Murder. The latter 
writer, accusing Allen of cowardice in engaging 
others to do that which he dare not himself 
attempt, says of his work that 
" the greatest influence it is like to have must be upon 
(the TO 7To\i>) the multitude, and these he useth as the 
Monkey did the Cat's paw, to scrape the nuts out of the 
fire ; and having put them in the head thstt they are the 
Geese that must preserve the Capitol, he perswades 
them to put their shoulders to that which himself knows 
to be too hot to touch with his finger." 

I have not observed any reference to catspaiv in 
Ray's Proverbs, but in A Collection of many Select 
and Excellent Proverbs, by Robert Codrington, 
attached to The Second Part of Youth's Behaviour; 
or, Decency in Conversation amongst Women, &c., 
12mo., 1664, on p. 216 is found: " The Ape some- 
times makes use of the Cat's foot to get the 
Chestnut out of the fire." Elsewhere the fox is 
the crafty agent in the affair, and an apple the 
object to be attained by aid of the cat's paw. In 
Humane Prudence; or, the Art by which a Man 
may raise Himself and his fortune to Grandeur 
(first printed about 1680), 12mo., 1717, p. 214, it 
is observed that the politic man " makes use of 
others, as the Fox did of the Cat's Foot, to pull 
the Apple out of the Fire for his own Eating." 

I have now been able to verify the reference to 
" Maiol. Coll. vii.," scil., Simon Maiolus, Astensis, 
Episcopus Vulturariensis, Dies Caniculares, h.e., 
Colloquia xxm. Physica, Colloq. vii. p. 249, 
Ursellis, 1600. He states that the occurrence 
took place while the chamberlains of Julius II. 
were waiting for the Pope to retire to rest, and 
that the monkey held the cat with his left arm 
and took the paw in his right. 


A portrait of this distinguished officer by Rae- 
burn (life size, kitcat) is in the possession of his 
son, Mr. William S. Walker of Bowland, Chair- 
man of the Board of Supervision in Scotland. 
R. H. K. should communicate with him at the 
Board of Supervision, Edinburgh. A. C. S. 

THE MANTDAN MARBLE (6 th S. vii. 208). I 
reproduced in my journal the above query, and, 
thanks to the indications sent me by Mr. A. 

Mainardi, Librarian of the Town Library of 
Mantua, I can give the inscription as found in 
fol. 336 of the 

" Monumento- | rum Italiae | Quae hoc nostro seculo 
& a Cbristianis | posita aunt | libri quatuor | editi a | 
Laurentio Schradero | Halberatadien : | Saxone | Cum 
gratia et Priuilegio Caesareo | Helmaestadii | Typis 
Jacob! Luij Transyluani | MDXCII.": 

Doming eece quern amas infirmatw. 

Rex tremendas majestatis, 
Qui saluandos saluas gratis, 
Salua me fons pietatis. 

Recoivlare, Jesu pie, 
Quod sum caussa tuae viae : 
Ne me perdas ilia die. 

Quaerens me sedisti lassus, 
Redemisti crucem passua : 
Tantus labor ne sit caasus. 

Juste judex ultionis, 
Donum fac remissionis 
Ante diem rationis. 

Ingemisco tanquam reus, 
Culpa rubet vultus meus : 
Supplicanti parce Deus. 

Qui Mariam absoluisti, 
Et latronem exaudisti, 
Mini quoque spem dedisti. 

Preces meae non sunt dignse, 
Sed tu bonus fac benigne, 
Ne perenni cremer igne. 

Inter ones locum praesta, 
Et ab haedis me sequestra, 
Statuens in parte dextra. 

Confutatis maledictis, 
Flammis acribus addictis ; 
Yoca me cum benedictis. 

Oro supplex et acclinis, 
Cor contritum quasi cinis : 
Gere curam mei finis. 

Lacrymosa dies ilia, 
Qua resurget ex fauilla, 
Judicandus homo reus : 

Huic ergo parce Deus, 
Pie Jesu Domine, 
Dona eis requiem. 

I think no more is possible to be known, the 
monuments of the church of San Francesco, in 
Mantua, having been destroyed and the stones 
mutilated or transferred to other churches. 



REV. JOHN STRYPE (6 th S. vii. 309) was 
born at Stepney, Nov. 1, 1643. 


328) was born at Hoguera, near Aracena, in 1678, 
and died at Madrid in 1758. He was a copier of 
Murillo, and his copies often passed as originals. 
In St. Isidore, at Seville, are two pictures, " The 
Good Shepherd " and " St. John," which are copies 
of those belonging to Baron Rothschild and the 
National Gallery. He was a " familiar " of the 
Inquisition. In 1729 he succeeded Ardeinans as 



vm. JULT H, -as. 

painter to Philip V., and removed to Madrid. The 
best copy is in Santa Maria la Blanca de Sevilla, 
a Virgin and child, St. Joseph and St. John. 
There is a long account of him in Bryan. 


Tobar and Villavicencio were the chief pupils of 
Murillo, and many of their works pass commonly 
for the works of their master. 


DOMESDAY BOOK (6 th S. vii. 327). Sir Henry 
Ellis, in his Introduction to Domesday, after 
speaking of socmen, says : 

" Of thia description of tenantry also were the Racken- 
islres, or Radchenistres, who appear likewise to have 

been called Radmanni,or Radmans It will be seen 

that like Sochmen some were less free than others 

Dr. Nash conjectured that the Radmanni and Rad- 
chenistres were probably a kind of freemen who served 
on horseback." P. xxii. 

Kelham, in his Domesday Book Illustrated, says 
that they were " a kind of Sokemen ; but some 
of them were less free than others " (p. 308). 

K. P. D. E. 

By the term " Radchenistres hertes " is meant 
a kind of sokemen, who held their land in socage, 
an ancient tenure, by which the tenants of the 
manor were obliged to cultivate the land of the 
lord. See Robert Kelham's Domesday Book Illus- 
trated, London, 1788, p. 308. 0. L. PRINCE. 

8. vii. 328). Sir James Reynolds, of Castle 
Camps, oo. Cambridge, was the great-grandfather 
of Sir James Reynolds, Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer in the reign of George II. Consult Foss's 
Judges, vol. viii. p. 160 ; Gentleman's Magazine 
(1832), vol. cii. i. pp. 109-10 ; Col. Chester's West- 
minster Abbey Registers, p. 19; "N. & Q.," 3 rd S. 
i. 467. L. L. H. 

See Lysons's Cambridgeshire, p. 157. 


BLACK MONEY (6 th S. vii. 329). Ruding, in 
his Annals of the Coinage, London, 1817, vol. i. 
p. 405, having mentioned black money, appends 
this note, " Qu. Turonenses Nigri ? Copper money 
struck at Tours." It is introduced in his account 
of the Statute of Money, passed at York, 1335, 
9 Edward III., which recites that all manner of 
black money which had been commonly current in 
the king's realm and obeysance should be utterly 
excluded, so as not to be current in one month 
after proclamation, on pain of forfeiture of the 

Later on, in 1339, a certain black money 
called " turneys " was made by certain persons 
in Ireland, who circulated it to the injury of 
the king's sterling money, and to his no little 
loss and prejudice. Proclamation had, there- 
fore, been ordered to be made to prohibit the 

circulation of it, on pain of forfeiture of money 
and goods. But the king having been informed that 
great inconvenience had arisen from this prohibi- 
tion on account of the scarcity of sterling money, 
it was therefore commanded that, provided it 
should be found on due inquiry more advan- 
tageous to the public to allow the currency of the 
said black money, proclamation should be made to 
authorize it until a sufficient quantity of other 
money was provided (p. 409). 

Lastly, in the year 1341, the mayor and bailiffs 
of Dover were ordered to make proclamation for 
the better observance of the statute of York re- 
specting black money. As this writ is directed 
to the persons in authority at that port only, it is 
to be presumed that some extraordinary importa- 
tion of base coins had been effected about thia 
time (p. 411). W. E. BUCKLEY. 

Black money was base coin brought into Eng- 
land from foreign countries. The term was also 
applied to jettons and counters. 


Camden says, " Black money (what that was I 
know not, if it were not of copper, as rnaile and 
black maile) was forbidden by King Edward III. 
upon pain of forfeiture thereof " (Remains, p. 202, 
Lond., 1870). Blount observes, s.v. black mail : 

" Black mail (Pr. maille, i.e., a link of mail, or small 
piece of metal or money) signifies in the counties of Cum- 
berland, Northumberland, and Westmoreland, a certain 
rent of money, corn, cattle, or other consideration, paid 
to some inhabiting upon, or near the same border, being 
persons of name and power, allied with certain moss- 
troopers, or known robbers within the same counties ; 
to be thereby by them freed and protected from the 
danger of those spoil-makers. Anno 43 Eliz. cap. 13. 
Black money also mentioned 9 Edw. III. cap. 4." 

" Black rents (redditus), the same with black 
maile " (Law Diet., Lond., 1671). Jacobs adds of 
these black rents that they were " formerly paid 
in provisions and flesh" (Law Did., Lond., 1762, 
s.v.). May the term "black" denote the use 
rather than the quality of the money ? 


ANCONA (6 th S. vii. 329). Conf. Bailey's Dirt. 
under " Ancones"; and Littleton's Lat. Diet, under 
"Ancon." R. S. CHARNOCK. 

" CARLING " FOR CARLOVINGIAN (6 th S. vii. 329). 
I think the adoption of the word Carling is due 
to a desire to introduce or revive purely English 
terms instead of those formed on French or Latin 
models. The word has the authority of Mr. Free- 
man, who spells it Karling ; and the termination 
-ing is said by Prof. Earle (Philology of the Eng- 
lish Tongue, p. 299) to be " the formative of the 
Saxon patronymic." The instances there given 
are JEj^elwulfing, son of ./Eihelwulf ; Ecgbryht- 
ing, son of Egbryhtj and JESeling, the Saxon/ 

. viii. JULY j4, 



title equivalent to crown prince. A word so well 
established is likely to hold its own. T. W. 

Bating the digamma, Carling and Carlovinger 
would seem to be the same name. Carlian is a 
Cornish local surname. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

EASTER MONDAY : " LIFTING " (6 th S. vii. 308). 
See Cambrian Popular Antiquities, by Peter 
Roberts, A.M., Rector of Llanarmon, &c., 8vo., 
1815, p. 125, for a description of this custom and 
a coloured illustration of its performance. The 
author says : 

" On Ea?ter Monday and Tuesday a ceremony takes 
place among the lower orders in North Wales which is 
scarcely known, I believe, elsewhere. It is called Lift- 
ing, as it consists in lifting a person in a chair three 
times from the ground. On Monday the men lift the 
women, and on Tuesday the women lift the men. The 
ceremony ceases, however, at twelve o'clock each day. 
The lifters, as they are called, go in troops and with a 
permitted freedom seize the person whom they intend 
to lift ; and having persuaded, or obliged, him (or her) 
to sit on the chair, lift, whoever it is, three times with 
cheering, and then require a small compliment. A little 
resistance, real or affected, creates no small merriment ; 
much resistance would excite contempt, and perhaps 
indignation. That this custom owes its origin to the 
season needs no illustration." 

See also Hone's Every-Day Book, vol. i. col. 422, 
&c., for lifting as practised at Shrewsbury (with 
an animated illustration by T. Williams) ; and 
notices of the same custom " in Lancashire, Staf- 
fordshire, Warwickshire, and some other parts of 
England." Glover, in his unfinished History of 
Derbyshire, says that the custom prevailed at 
Buxton, and gives a description thereof (copied, 
almost verbatim, from the Rev. Peter Roberts's 
Cambrian Popular Antiquities, quoted above). I 
do not think, however, that it is, properly speak- 
ing, one of our Derbyshire customs ; Glover as an 
authority is not very trustworthy, and in this case 
he receives no corroboration from other writers 
who have mentioned rush-bearings, well-dressings, 
sugar-cuppings, &c., and have not alluded even 
remotely to lifting amongst Peak eccentricities. 

I can respond affirmatively as to " Easter Mon- 
day and Tuesday lifting " fifty years ago in what 
is popularly designated "the Black Country," that 
is, Staffordshire and adjacent parts of Warwick- 
shire, &c. Driving over and traversing those dis- 
tricts at that time, I have personally witnessed the 
rough jocularity of lifting at West Bromwich, 
Tipton, Dudley, &c. It was part of the diversion 
of the nailers, colliers, and others, of both sexes, 
to resort to a variety of stratagems and means, 
semi-furtive and otherwise lifting or letting alone 
being varied according to the " black mail," or 
lack of it, dispensed by the victims, the Bac- 
chanalian revellings of those days at lifting time 
often rendering the lifting a "let down" more 

amusing than agreeable. Old residents inva- 
riably avoided certain localities on those days, 
unless heedless of their " elevating " prospects, or 
the alternative of coin scattering for the diversion 
and benefit of the scramblers. G. T. 

Brady, Clavis Calendaria, i. 286, gives a very re- 
prehensory account of this custom, adding that it 
was at his time chiefly confined to the Northern 
counties. He also says that in Durham there was 
added the ceremony of taking off each other's shoes, 
" retaining them until redeemed by some token of 
amity." He further mentions, without describing 
it, that " another custom is yet continued, termed 
blazing, which still alludes to our Saviour's rising 
from the tomb, though without the gross profanity 
of lifting." R. H. BUSK. 

This is a common custom in Warwickshire, and 
in some other Midland counties. 


See Brand's Popular Antiquities, Charabers's 
Book of Days, Hone's Every-Day Book, Hender- 
son's Folklore of the Northern Counties of Eng- 
land, Clavis Cakndaria, and Harland's Lanca- 
shire Folk-lore. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The custom of lifting lingered on at Leominster, 
in Herefordshire, till about 1840, perhaps later. 
I have some faint recollection of it ; and I think 
that on Easter Monday the men lifted the women, 
and on Easter Tuesday the women lifted the 
men the lifting being performed by'means of an 
arm-chair, decorated with flowers, and carried 
about from house to house for the purpose. 


A MS. OF TASSO (6 th S. vii. 308). We have in 
our possession a valuable MS. of Tasso, but we 
doubt whether it is the one A. J. M. inquires 
about as being owned in 1870 by the late William 
Lilly. This is a copy of Prose di M. Pietro 
Bembo, folio, bound in vellum, and printed " per 
Gio. Tacuino, in Vinegia, 1525." It was pur- 
chased by the late Sir William Tite at Sotheby's 
at a sale of " historical books," sold June 15-17, 
1858. Although the name of the owner was not 
given on the title-page of the sale catalogue, the 
collection is known to have belonged to Mr. Sains- 
bury. This formed lot 798, and was sold on 
June 17, but for what sum we have not found out 
yet. In the catalogue was given the following 
note on this lot : 

" Few men varied theirhandwriting at different periods 
of their lives more than the renowned poet of Italy, 
and in no other volume probably will be found that fact 
so remarkably illustrated as in the present. Not a page 
is without marginal notes in the autograph of Tasso, the 
text itself having evidences of its having been most care- 
fully studied by him. These notes are occasionally 
written in the large, coarse, an<J straggling hand, similar 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. JOH u, -a 

to two undoubted manuscripts in the British Museum. 
Many of the more early ones are more in the round 
Italian hand, while others, of a later period, are in a 
cursive style, similar to that used by the poet in his 
letter writing; of which, though a little smaller, the 
four verses on the reverse of the last leaf form a beauti- 
ful example. An extraordinary and most interesting 
literary relic." 

From examination it has been found that the 
numerous MS. notes in this volume were made 
by Tasso at various periods between the years 
1579 and 1586, when confined in the Hospital of 
St. Anna, Ferrara by the order of Duke Alfonso, 
because of Tasso's professed attachment to his 
sister, the Princess Eleonora where this very 
eminent poet and author was visited by many of 
the most learned men in Italy. It was formerly 
Prof. Rosini's copy, Bishop of Pozzuoli, Naples, 
editor of Tasso's works. Though from Sir William 
Tite's library (it has his autograph) it was not sold 
with his collection. B. AND J. F. MEEHAN. 
82, Gay Street, Bath. 

HEADCORN : MORTLAKE (6 th S. vii. 309). The 
name Headcorn was anciently written "Hedcrone"; 
and a tradition exists that when Queen Elizabeth 
was passing through this part of the weald in 
August, 1573, on her way from Sissinghurst to 
Boughton Malherb, her attention was drawn to 
some standing corn of unusual growth. She in- 
quired the name of the place, and, on an answer 
being returned, said that the place should for the 
future be called " Head-Corn." That the great 
queen passed through the neighbouring village of 
Smarden is a well-known fact, and to the truth 
of this the churchwardens' books bear the follow- 
ing testimony : " 1573, laid out for the ringers 
when the queues grace was here, ij". x d ." For 
further particulars I would refer to The Anti- 
quities of Smarden (p. 4), and a paper in Archceo- 
logia Cantiana (vol. xiv. p. 33), both by 



1. Headcorn (Kent), Euncorn (Cheshire). E. 
Hum cofan, the wide cove or inlet, see Bosworth 
and Edmunds. This suggests Heafodcofan, the 
head of the cove. 

2. Mortlake (Surrey). I suggest mart, E., con- 
tracted from market. Lake in the south means 
running stream, hence " the market by the river." 
Of. Martock (Soms.) " the market oak." 

Milton-Clevedon, Evercreech, Somerset. 

HERALDIC (6 th S. vii. 328). Judge Hankford's 
arms occur twice in Monkleigh Church, Devon, 
the place of his burial. One example is on the 
screen which divides the Annery Chapel from 
the south aisle ; the other is carved on a bench 
end. Both being in wood, no tinctures are shown. 
Messrs, Dysons, in their Hi& of Hewn, thus 

describe the coat : " G., a chevron barry wavy, 
a. and s." On an engraving of the Grenville quar- 
terings (a reduced facsimile from Harl. MS. 1164), 
prefixed to the Visitation of Cornwall, 1620 
(Harleian Society), Hankford appears as " Sa., a 
chevron barry wavy ar. and g." 


[Burke, Gen. Arm., 1878, gives four forms of the 
Hankford coat. 1. Co. Devon, "Sa., on a chevron arg. 
another wavy gu." 2. Exeter Coll., Oxford, Sir Rich. 
H., founder's kin, Via. 1574, " Arg., two bends nebulee 
sa." 3. Quartered by GreinVille, of Cornwall, Vis. 1620, 
" Sa., a chevrou vaire arg. and gu." 4. " Gu., billettee 
a fesse arg."] 

" THE LUXURY OF WOE " (6 th S. vii. 387). 
The little poetical tract entitled The Perils of 
Poetry was, I believe, written by the Rev. James 
Scott, 1733-1814. He was the son of James 
Scott, of Leeds, domestic chaplain to Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, and graduated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, B. A. 1757, being chosen Fellow in 1758. 
He took Seaton's prize in 1760, 1761, and 1762. 
In 1763 he was beaten by Hey, but published his 
poem Redemption as an appeal against the judges. 
The poem for 1760, Heaven, was very favourably 
noticed in the Monthly Review, vol. xxiv. p. 355. 
That for 1762, Hymn to Repentance, was rather 
severely criticized, vol. xxvii. p. 426. The un- 
successful poem for 1763 was sharply "cut up," 
vol. xxix. p. 556. In 1766 he printed the little 
tract referred to by MR. BUCKLET, which is thus 
mentioned by the Monthly Review, vol. xxxiv. 
p. 403 : " Art. 32. The Perils of Poetry : an Epistle 
to a Friend, by J. H. Scott, Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 4to. Is. Griffin. The grievous 
lamentations of a da d, disappointed author." 
It is mentioned in somewhat more favourable 
terms in the Scots Magazine for March, 1766, 
vol. xxviii. p. 145: "The plan is very classical, 
and the execution of the poem is in general well 
conducted." Thfe Gentleman's Magazine, xxxvi. 
145, says, "Not without merit." This poem is not 
mentioned as being by Dr. Scott in his memoirs 
(Nichols, Literary Anecdotes, ix. 125 and 724; also 
Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxxiv. 601); but I presume 
that he was the author, as there was no other 
fellow of Trinity College of the same name at that 

" The luxury of woe " are the concluding words 
of eight Anacreontic lines on the vine written by 
the poet Moore in 1801: 

" Weep on; and, as thy sorrows flow, 
I '11 taste- the luxury of woe." 

In citing Shakspere as the author of the phrase 
" there is a luxury in grief," Farquhar Shaw is, I 
think, mistaken (see Diet, of Quotations, p. 144). 


S, vii. 369). "Britannia's Pastwals ; a thlr4 

6*8. vm. JULY 14, -83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


book. Now first edited from the original Manu- 
script preserved in the library of Salisbury 
Cathedral, by T. Crofton Croker," was one of the 
publications of the Percy Society. The date on 
the title-page is 1852. E. F. S. 

AUREOLE (6 th S. vii. 343). MR. A. SMYTHE 
PALMER begins his note on this word as follows : 
"This word, which in some cases is merely an 
altered form of French areole, Lat. areola (Folk 
Etymology, p. 15)." On turning to this reference, 
I find that MR. PALMER gives this derivation of 
aureole as entirely his own. I think it right, 
therefore, to point out that it has been given by 
me twice in " N. & Q.," in two notes which I wrote 
on " Oriel," the first in 1872 (4 th S. x. 413), and the 
second in 1881 (6 th S. iv. 252) ; and that at the 
time I wrote the first note this derivation had, as 
far as I am aware, never been given by any other 
person, or if it had, had been rejected by the most 
eminent French etymologists (Brachet, Littre", and 
Scheler), who, one and all, derive the word from 
aureola, sc. corona. 

MR. PALMER is evidently now a constant reader 
of " N. & Q.," and such, no doubt, he also was in 
September, 1881, if not in 1872. I cannot help 
thinking, therefore, that he must have seen one at 
least of my two notes. He may, indeed, very 
likely, have forgotten where he got the notion 
from, or even very possibly think that it came 
entirely out of his own head, for mental assimila- 
tion is extremely rapid sometimes ; but now that 
I have shown him that I have a prior claim, I hope 
that, if his work reaches a second edition, he will 
no longer take the entire credit of this derivation 
of aureole to himself alone. F. CHANCE. 

MR. A. SMYTHE PALMER states, " I cannot find 
that aureola was used in classical or mediaeval 
Latin." If he will refer to the Supplement of the 
Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas, he will see that 
" Qusestio xcvi." is " De aureolis, iu tredecim arti- 
culos divisa," and that the first " article " begins, 
" Videtur quod aureola non sit aliquod aliud pre- 
mium a prsemio essentiali, quod aurea dicitur." 
It was a common theological term to express the 
coronet or special reward which was given to cer- 
tain saints above their essential reward. As such 
it is discussed by Ludolph of Saxony ( Vita Christi, 
pars ii. cap. Ixxxviii. 7), who refers to some earlier 
lines, among which is this, "Aureolam martyr, 
doctor, virgoque meretur." ED. MARSHALL. 


History of England, from the Accession of James 1. to the 

Outbreak of the Civil War, 1603-1642. By Samuel R. 

Gardiner, LL.D., Professor of Modern History, King's 

College, London. Vol. I. (Longmans & Co.) 

MR. S. B. GARDINER'S historical work is so widely known 

and so highly appreciated that we need do little more, 

as far as the students of history among our readers are 
concerned, than announce the commencement of his 
new undertaking. But, for our own satisfaction, there 
are one or two points to which we should like to taka 
this opportunity of drawing attention in the columns of 
" N. & Q." 

Mr. Gardiner's estimate of the character of James tj 
alike as man and as ruler, seems to us both a fairer and 
a truer estimate than that which has for some time past 
been presented to us. We have had enough, and more 
than enough, of James's outward defects; for it has 
appeared impossible for the modern generation of his- 
torians to touch upon James without bringing forward 
his ungainliness, and his "slobbering," even ad nau- 
seam. Mr. Gardiner, on the other hand, gives James 
full credit for his real, and, as is justly remarked, " by 
no means contemptible" learning. He also gives him 
full credit for being " honestly desirous of increasing 
the prosperity of his subjects." His vanity and his self- 
complacency were the personal faults which undid so 
much of the good in James I.'s character, by laying him 
open to the influence of persons less moral and less 
scrupulous than himself. This view is, of course, not in 
itself novel. It comes back, we think, very much to the 
same lines as Sir Walter Scott's portrait of the successor 
of the " bright Occidental Star." It is, nevertheless, a 
view which comes upon us almost with the force of 
novelty from having been so long thrust into the back- 
ground, and it derives additional force from the calm 
and judicial language in which it is set forth by Mr. 

The present volume, the first of a series of ten, carries 
us back, in its opening pages, to the Middle Ages and to 
the Renaissance for the better understanding of the 
events of the early years of the seventeenth century. 
We are taken up into the serene atmosphere of Hooker, 
we thread the mazes of the fascinating allegory of 
Spenser, we are amused by the refined extravagance of 
Ariosto and the keen satire of Cervantes ere we are in- 
troduced to Raleigh, "left of all men, though he had 

done good to many." Mr. Gardiner's judgments on 
these great leaders of the world of letters are always in- 
teresting, though we cannot always agree with them. 
With regard to Dante and Ariosto we differ entirely 
from his views. To a student of the Middle Ages there 
is no difficulty in understanding Dante's appeal to a 
" German Prince " to restore order and unity to the 
disordered and disunited world of his day. It belonged 
to that prince to do the task which the great poet of the 
Middle Ages called upon him to carry out. But it be- 
longed to him as, in the belief of the poet and the men 
of his day, the heir of all the ages of the Roman world, 
not, save accidentally, as the chief of the Teutonic 
world. Of Ariosto, we have only space to say here that, 
in our opinion, he simply laughed at chivalry, and his 
entire series of poems h in the nature of an extravaganza 
a mere burlesque of chivalry, which, indeed, we be- 
lieve neither Ariosto nor the Italian people ever accepted 
or understood. Though we have thus our points of 
difference from Mr. Gardiner, which we have not 
attempted to conceal, we have also many and strong 
points of contact with him ; and we shall look forward, 
with deep interest to the future volumes of his new and* 
important history of England. 

The Baptists and Quakers in Northamptonshire, 165C- 
1700. By the Rev. J. Jackson Goadby. (Xorthamp- 
ton, Taylor &. Son.) 

THIS is a lecture delivered in the College Street Chapel, 
Northampton, on October 24 of last year. It shows 
very considerable research among the fugitive literature 
of the seventeenth century, and i8 written iu a mannec. 


a. vni. JULY u, -g 

calculated to disarm prejudice. There are one or two 
expressions in the earlier pages which we should have 
been glad to have seen modified. It is surely not well 
to speak of Henry VI Il.'a elder daughter as "Mary of 
infamous memory." Mr. Goadby is, however, well aware 
of a terrible truth that many of us have received but 
imperfectly that religious persecution was not a crime 
Confined to one or more bodies of people, but was until 
recent days practised by almost everybody who had the 
power. It would be interesting to find out who was the 
first Englishman who attained to the knowledge that it 
was wrong to kill or torture for theological misbelief. 
The cruel laws against Quakers, Baptists, and other 
separatists produced the sad effect of making the pro- 
fessors of those forms of faith violent and narrow- 
minded. Their sufferings are sufficient to explain this. 
We have a pretty complete history of the Quakers who 
were done to death at this time, but the Baptists pro- 
duced no contemporary historian of mark. They were 
probably treated with as little mercy as the followers of 
George Fox. Their rigidity with regard to things of 
small moment was as stern as that of the Quakers. 
The Independents in the latter years of the century 
were little less stern. At the Kothwell meeting we 
find that men were under discipline for playing at 
ninepins, for having no conjugal affection, for en- 
couraging fiddling and vanity, for pride, and for 
dancing. One piece of church censure is remarkable 
as having evidently been a tradition from mediaeval days. 
We find a man in trouble " for riding over mown grass." 
There was in former times, when fears of famine were 
ever present, a horror of destroying or injuring crops in 
the field out of all proportion to the money wasted. 
Myrc (circa 1450), in his instructions to parish priests as 
to their inquiries concerning sins of the lesser sort, bids 
them inquire : 

" Art thou I- wont ouer corn to ryde 

When thou mygtest haue gone by side 1 " 
And in the Finder of Wakefield and Robin Hood we 
read : 

" Now turn again, turn again, said the Finder, 

For a wrong way you have gone ; 
For you have forsaken the king's highway, 

And made a path over the corn." 
The appendix contains useful lists of early Baptist and 
Quaker tracts. 

Lancashire. Gleanings. By W. E. A. Axon. (Manchester, 
Tubbs, Brook & Chrystal : London, Simpkin, Marshall 

OCR old correspondent Mr. Axon, whose signature is so 
well known in these pages, has produced an olla podrida 
of good things concerning Lancashire which should 
rejoice the hearts of all students of local history and 
folk-lore. The author has gleaned from many a field 
heavy with corn ready for the ingathering. We have 
here pictured for us " Sunday in the Olden Time," when 
the Popish recusants, "in whom," as King James testi- 
fied, "the county of Lancashire abounded more than 
any county in England," made merry, and the bishops 
doubted whether they would not entice persons over to 
their fold by such means. Of family history and tradi- 
tion, the story of the Mosleys of Rolleston and Ancoats, 
the famous estate of Sir Andrew Chadwick, and the 
ilegend of the Black Knight of Aehton furnish varied 
samples, whose interest is principally local; but the 
'"Sherburnes in America" enow us a Transatlantic im- 
portance in Lancashire genealogy, while the story of the 
" Lindsays in Lancashire " is the story of the recent 
history of a great Scottish house whose late distinguished 
chief gave it a memorable place in literature and art. 

We hope Mr. Axon will give us further gleanings from 
hia well-filled stores of Lancashire archaeology and 

The Standard of Value. By William Leighton Jordan. 

Third Edition. (David Bogue.) 

THIS is a well-written book on a difficult subject. Mr. 
Jordan is a strong advocate of what is popularly known 
by the ugly new word, bimetallism. For this opinion, 
which many orthodox economists look upon as a heresy 
deserving no toleration, Mr. Jordan makes out a good 
case, though clearly a partisan writer. We should, of 
course, advise no one to receive his deductions without 
reading what is to be said on the other side. 

A CORRESPONDENT informs us that a descriptive cata- 
logue of the charters, minute-books, &c., of the Borough 
of Weymoutb. and Melcombe Regis, 1252-1800, anno- 
tated by H. J. Moule, M.A., is nearly ready for publica- 
tion, under the direction of the Mayor and Corporation. 


We mutt call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

H. KIRKHAM. We do not find the book named by 
you in the latest printed catalogue of the London 
Library ; but the following, which are there, will pro- 
bably meet your wants : " Fishwick, Lt.-Col., History of 
the Parish of Kirkham, Lancashire (Chetham Soc., 
1874). Do., The Lancashire Library, 1875. Barlow, 
T. W., ed. by, Cheshire and Lancashire Historical Col- 
lections, 1855. Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, 
Transactions of, 1854-62." Lewis, Topog. Diet., s. v., 
derives the name, very simply, from the church. Cf. 
Kirkby, Kirkton, &c. 

J. E. The peacock is not confined to the architecture 
of Italy, but is to be found in otber countries, and is 
employed as a symbol of immortality. See Notes on. 
Symbolism (Hodges). 

P. P. ("Retzsch's Chess-Players"). W. J. writes that 
he has a print of this outline, and will be pleased to 
offer it on hearing from P. P. We will forward a pre- 
paid letter sent to our care. 

L. E. W. You evidently mean Frederick of Nassau 
Zuylestein, General in the service of the States General, 
illegitimate son of Henry Frederick, Prince of Orange, 
and father of William, first Earl of Rocbford. Tho 
general married Mary, daughter of Sir William Killi- 
grew of Arwennack, Chamberlain to Catherine of Bra- 

C. "The D'Abrichcourt Family." in Antiquarian, 
Magazine and Bibliographer for June, by our corre- 
spondent Rev. J. Maskell. 

MR. C. S. KENNY, Downing College, Cambridge, in- 
quires whether the Systematic Beneficence Society is 
still in existence, and what is its address. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com* 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

0* & vin. JULY 21, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : The Camden Roll, 41 Irish Version of the Legend 
of Will-o'-the-Wisp, 43 Surnames Tidd and Todd Funeral 
Rites in Cochin Chins, 44 Dorsetshire Vocabulary Lord 
Byron and the Eton and Harrow Match Bradshaw's Rail- 
way Guide, 45 Modern Bell Inscriptions St. Swithin 
Superstition Benedict Arnold a Mason Spanish Sword- 
makers, 46. 

QUERIES : Latin Inscription at Apothecaries' Hall Man 
changed into a Bull English Wake Hilcot, Staffordshire 
Ann in Place-names Barry, the Cloien Coldstreara 
Guards in 1708-9, 47 Giants and Dwarfs Bouchier Family 
" Gil Bias "A Curious Coin Carved Stone at Wing 
Church" Wooden Walls," 48. 

REPLIES: Gunning Mystery, 48 Wentworth Place of John 
Keats Rev. John Blackadder, 49 Napoleon Prophecy- 
Parallel Passages A many Old Clocks Hon. George Wm. 
Fairfax, 51 Miners' Terms Roman Milestone at Llanfair- 
fechan Rev. Thomas Pentycross " Osm6 " Urqnhart of 
Cromarty, 53 Thele Nun's Cross Rev. William Peters 
Abp. Tillotson Southern Cross George Darley Virgata 
Worple Marmotinto, 54 Fuller's " Church History " 
Blackall Family Maypoles, 55 Portrait of Wm. Austin 
Whip-Lane Oliver Bromskill, 56 William Gambold Sir 
Philip Jackson Admiral Sir John Hawkins Barony of 
Stafford Anglorum Speculum, 67 "Once and away" 
Erasmus on Kissing Ballyragging Sclem B. Cole, 58 
The Squire Papers Eglantine Leather Wall Decoration, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Walford's "Fairs, Past and Present" 
Halkett and Laing's " Dictionary of Anonymous Litera- 
ture "Fleet's "Glimpses of Our Ancestors in Sussex," &c. 
Allnatt's "Cathedra Petri "Clark's "The Transvaal 
and Bechuana Land." 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(Continued from p. 23.) 

78. Joh*n le bretun. Quarterly or and gules, a bordure 
azure. (Munsire Joh*n le bretun, lescu esquartele dor 
& de gules od la bordure de azur.) 

79. henr de percy. The tincture azure alone visible. 
(Munsire henr' de p'cy, lescu de azur od une fesse dor 

80. Joh*n de gaure. Or, a lion rampant gules, crowned 
vert, within a bordure indented sable. (Munsire Joh a n 
de gaure, lescu dor a un leun ra'pant de gules corone de 
vert od la bordure de sable endentee.) 

81. Joh a n de la haye. Argent, a mullet of thirteen 
points gules. (Mifhsire Joh a n de la haye, lescu dargent 
od un ray de solail de gules.) 

82. Elm'i de lucy. The tincture azure alone remains. 
(Munsire Almari de lucy, lescu de azur od treis luz dor 
crusile dor.) 

83. Sire de dist. Or, two bars sable. (Sire de dist, 
lescu dor a deus barres de sable.) 

84. Name omitted. Argent, three lions passant in 
pale sable. (This shield is not described in blazon.) 

85. Roger de Clifford. Checquee or and azure, a fesse 
gules. (Munsire roger de Clifford le pere, lescu escheckere 
dor & de azur a une fesse de gules.) 

86. Joh'n giffard. Gules, three lions passant in pale 
argent, and perhaps a label azure, but very indistinct. 
(This shield is not described in blazon.) 

87. Gefrey de picheford. Checque or and azure, on a 
fesse gules three lioncels rampant argent. (Munsire 
gefrey de picheford, lescu escheckere dor & de azur a 
une fesse de gules a treis leunceua darge't ra'pant.) 

88. Cunte de Chalun. Or, a bend gules. (Cunte de 
chalun, lescu dor a une bende de gules.) 

89. Robt le fiz Roger. Quarterly or and gules, a 
bendlet sable. (Munsire Robt le fiz Roger, leeeu 
esquartele dor & de gules a une bende de sable.) 

90. Robt de Offord. The tincture sable alone remain?. 
(Munsire Robt de Offord, lescu de sable a une croiz en* 
grasle dor.) 

91 . Name omitted. Gules, a saltire engrailed argent, 
(This shield is not described in blazon.) 

92. Name omitted. The shield is much defaced, but 
apparently is Or, a mullet of eight points gules. (Not 
described in blazon.) 

93. Rog de Clifford le fiz. Checquee or and azure, on 
a fesse gules three cinquefoils argent. (Munsire Rog 
de Clifford le fiz, lescu escheckere dor & de azur a une 
fesse de gules od treis roses darge't.) 

94. Rey de hungrie. Gules, a lion rampant or. (Rey 
de hungrie, lescu de gules a un leun rampant dor.) 

95. Robt le fiz Walt. Or, a fesse between two chevrons 
gules. (Munsire Robt le fiz Walter, lescu dor od une 
fesse de gules a deus cheueruns de gules.) 

96. hue turbernile. Argent, a lion rampant gules. 
(Munsire hue turberuile, lescu dargent a un leun rampant 
de gules.) 

97- Name omitted. The tincture of the field, yellow, 
alone remains. (Not described in blazon.) 

98. Name omitted. Argent, a cross sable. (Not 
described in blazon.) 

99. Name omitted. Or, three crescents, 2 and 1, gule?. 
(Not described in blazon.) 

100. Name omitted. Gules, a cross or. (Not in 

101. la Souche. Azure, eleven bezants, 3, 2, 3, 2,1. 

(Munsire Will' la Zouche, lescu de azur besante dor.) 

102. Cunte de Cessun. Gules, on an inescutcheon or 
a lion passant of the field. (Cunte de Cessun, lescu de 
gules a un escuchun dor od un leun passant de gules.) 

103. Name omitted. Sable, no charges visible. (Not 
in blazon.) 

104. Name omitted. Or, no charges visible. (Not in 

105. Aleyn la Zouche. Gules, eleven bezants, 3, 2, 3, 2, 1. 
(Munsire Aleyn la Zouche, lescu de gules besante dor.) 

106. Joh a n tregoz. Or, two bars gemelles, and in chief 
a lion passant gules. (Munsire Joh a n tregoz, lescu dor 
od deus listes de gules a un leopard de gules.) 

107. Jorge de Cantelo. Gules, three fleurs-de-lys, 
2 and 1, or. (Munsire Jorge de kantelo, lescu de gules a 
treis flurs de glagel dor.) 

108. Name omitted. Or, with traces of charges gules. 
(Not in blazon.) 

109. Baudewyn Wake. The field or alone remain'. 
(Munsire baudewyn Wake, lescu dor a deus barres de 
gules od treis pelotes de gules.) 

110. Will' de Audelee. Gules, fretty of six pieces or. 
(Munsire Will 1 de Audelee, lescu de gules frette dor.) 

111. Rog' de Mortimer. Barry of six or and azure, 
on a chief of the first two pallets between two gyrons of 
the second, an inescutcheon argent. (Munsire Rog da 
Mortim', lescu pale barre & geroune dor & de azur od 
un escuchun darge't.) 

112. Robt del ildle. Or, a fesse between two chevrons 
sable. (Munsire Robt del Ildle, lescu dor a une fesse de 
sable od deus cheueruns de gules.) 

113. Geffrey de lucy. Gules, three lucies haurient, 
2 and 1, between nine cross-crossleta or. (Munsire 
gefrey de lucy, lescu de gules od treis luz dor crusile 

114. Nich de Seyg*ue. Sable, three garbs, 2 and 1, 
argent. (Munsire "Nicholas de Seygraue, lescu de sabl* 
od treis garbes de aueyne dargent.) 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6u-s.vm.JuLt 21, 'as. 

115. Cunte de Warewic. Gules, a fesse between six 
cross-crosslets or. (Cunte de Warewic, lescu de gules 
od unc fesse dor crusile dor.) 

116. Hog de leyburne. Blank. (Munsiro Rog' de 
leyburne, lescu dor od sis leuncels rampans de sable.) 

117. Cunte de Anegos. Gules, a cinquefoil pierced 
between seven cross-crosslets or. (Cunte de Anegos, 
lescu de gules od une q'ntefoile dor crusile dor. ) 

118. Peres de Munfort. Traces of or. (Peres de Mun- 
f ort, lescu bende dor & de azur.) 

119. Joh'n de Seynt ioh a n. Argent, on a chief gules 
two mullets of six points or. (Munsire Joh"n de seynt 
Joh"n, lescu dargent od le chef de gules od deus molectes 

120. Rog de tru'pynton'. Blank. (Munsire Roger de 
trumpynton', lescu de azur od deus tru'pes dor crusile 

121. Will' de leyburn'. Blank. (Munsire Will' de 
leyburne, lescu de azur od sis leuncels rampans 

122. Robt' agilun. Gules, a fleur-de-lys argent. (Mun- 
sire Robt Agilun, lescu de a un [e added above] flur de 
glagel dargent.) 

123. Joh*n de armenters. Or, a lion rampant gules. 
(Munsire Joh*n de Armenters, lescu escheckere dor & de 
azur od un leun rampa't de gules.) 

124. Steuen de penecestr. Gules, a cross argent. 
(Munsire Esteuene de penecestre, lescu de gules a une 
croiz dargent.) 

125. Phelip Marmiu'. Sable, a sword erect argent. 
(Munsire phelip marmiun, lescu de sable od une espee 

126. Joh'n de Cameys. Gules, three plates, 2 and 1. 
(Munsire Joh"n de Cameys, lescu de gules od treis gastels 

127. Joh'n de vaus. Checque'e argent and gules. 
(Munsire Joh a n de Vals, lescu escheckere de argent & de 

128. aleyn de plokenet. Ermine, a bend engrailed 
gules. (Munsire Aleyn de plokenet, lescu de ermine a 
une bende engrasle de gules.) 

129. Rauf basset. Gules, three pallets or, a quarter 
ermine. (Munsire Rauf basset de drayton, lescu pale 
dor & de gules od le quart' dermine.) 

130. hue le fiz otes. Bendy of six or and azure, a quar- 
ter ermine. (Munsire hue le fiz Otes, lescu bende dor 
& de azur od le q*rter dermine.) 

131. Will' de munchensy. The field or alone visible. 
(Munsire Will' de Munchensy, lescu dor od treis escu- 
chuns verrez de azur & de argent.) 

132. reynaud de grey. Barry of six argent and azure, a 
label gules. (Munsire Reynaud de grey, lescu barre de 
azur & de arge't a un label de gules.) 

133. Cu'te de Wyncestre. Gulea, ten mascles, 3, 3, 3, 1, 
or. (Cunte de Wyncestre, lescu de gules od les losenges 
dor perces. ) 

134. Cunte del ildle. The field or alone visible. 
(Cunte del Ildle, lescu dor a un leun rampant de azur.) 

135. Reynaud le fiz pers. Gules, three lions rampant, 
2 and 1, or. (Munsire Reynaud le fiz peres, lescu de 
gules od treis leuns rampans dor.) 

136. Wari' de bassingb'ne. Gyronny of ten or and 
azure. (Munsire Warin de bassingeburne, lescu geroune 
dor & de azur.) 

137. Sem de Munfort. Gules, a lion rampant, queue 
fourchee, argent. (Munsire Symu' de munford, lescu de 
gules a un leun rampant darge't od la cue furche.) 

138. Phelipe basset. Barry undy of six or and gules. 
( Munsire phelipe basset, lescu undee dor & de gules.) 

139. henr' de hastinge. Or, a manche gules. (Mun- 
sire henr' de hastinge, lescu dor od une manche de 

140. Johan de Burg. Gules, ten lozenges, 3, 3. 3, and 1, 
vair. (Munsire Joh"n de burg, lescu mascle ae veir & 
de gules.) 

141. Robt de Creuker. Or, a cross voided gules. 
(Munsire Robt de creuequer, lescu dor od une croiz p'ce 
de gules.) 

142. Cunte de Aubemarl. Gules, a cross patonce vair. 
[Cunte de Aubemarle, lescu de gules od une croiz patee 
verre de azur & dargent.) 

143. Robt de brus. Or, a saltire and a chief gules, in 
dexter chief a mullet of six points argent. (Munsire 
Robt de brus, dor od le chef de gules a un saut' de gules 
od une molecte darge't.) 

144. Alex de baylol. Gules, an orle argent. (Mun- 
sire Alisander de bailol, lescu de gules a un escuchun 
dargent perce.) 

145. hue le despencer. Quarterly argent and gules 
fretty of six or, a bendlet sable. (Munsire hue le de- 
spenser, lescu esq'rtele darge't & de gules frette dor a 
une bende de sable.) 

146. Will' de Valence. Argent, four bars azure, an 
orle of nine martlets gules. (Munsire Will de valence, 
lescu burele de azur & de arge't od les merloz de 

147. Joh'n del boys. Argent, two bars and a quarter 
gules. (Munsire Joh"n del boys, lescu dargent od deu 
barres de gules od le q a rter de gules.) 

148. Will' de breouse. Azure, a lion rampant be- 
tween ten cross-crosslets or. (Munsire Will de breouse, 
lescu de azur odun leun rampant de or crusile dor.) 

149. Pat'c de cbawurht. Barry of twelve argent and 
gules, an orle of eight martlets sable. (Munsire patrik 
de chawurtb, lescu burele darge't & de gules od les 
m'loz de sable.) 

150. Ric le fiz ioh"n. Quarterly or and gules, a bor- 
dure vair. (Munsire Richart le fiz joh'n, lescu eaq'rtele 
dor & de gules od la bordure uerre dazure & darge't.) 

151. Adam de Creting. Argent, a chevron between 
three mullets of six points pierced gules. (Munsire 
Adam de Cretinge, lescu de arge't a un cheueru' de gules 
od treis molecte' de gules.) 

152. Cute de fereres. Vair6 or and gules. (Cunte 
de ferers, lescu verre dor & de gules.) 

153. hue sanzaueir. Azure, three crescents, 2 and 1, 
between nine cross-crosslets or. (Munsire hue sanzaueir, 
lescu de azur od treis cressante" dor crusile dor.) 

154. Giles de Argentu'. Gules, three covered cups, 
2 and 1, argent. (Murisire giles de Argentun, lescu de 
gules a treis cupes dargent.) 

155. Will de ecbingh"in. Azure, fretty of six argent. 
(Munsire Will' de Echingh a m, lescu de azur, frette dar- 

15t>. Gilbt pecche. Argent, a fesse between two chev- 
rons gules. (Munsire Gilbt pecche, lescu darge't a une 
fesse de gules od deus cheueru's de gules.) 

157. Guy de rocheford. Quarterly or and gules, a 
label azure. (Munsire Guy de Rocheford, lescu esq*rtele 
dor & de gules a un label dazur.) 

158. Name omitted. Gules, a lion rampant between 
nine cross-crosslets fitchees argent. (This shield is not 
described in blazon.) 

159. Name omitted. Gules, three pallets vair, a quar- 
ter of the field. (Not described in blazon.) 

160. Earth' de Sulee. Or, two bars gules. (Munsire 
barthol de sulee, lescu dor a deus barres de gules.) 

161. Robt de Mprtim'. Gules, two bars vair. (Mun- 
sire Robt de Mortim', lescu de gules a deus barres uerres 
dazur & dargent.) 

162. Dauy de Jarkanuile. Quarterly or and azure, in 
the first quarter n lion rampant gules. (Munsire dauy 
de Jerkanuile, lescu esqMele dor & dazur a un leuucel 
ru'pa't de gules.) 

vin. JULY 21, 83.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


163. Will' de fereres. Vaire or and gules, on a bor- 
dure sable nine horseshoes reversed argent. (Munsire 
Will de ferers, lescu verre dor & de gules od la bor- 
dure de sable od les fer 1 darge't.) 

164. Nich' malemeyn'. Gule?, three dexter hands 
couped at the wrist, 2 and 1, argent. (Munsire Nich 
malemeyns, lescu de gules a treis meyns dargent.) 

165. liobt de Mu'ford, Bendy of six or and azure, a 
label gules. (Munsire Robt de Munford, lescu bende 
dor & dazur a un label de gules.) 

166. Will' bardouf. Blank. (Munaire Will bardouf, 
lescu dazur a treis q'ntefoiles dor.) 

(To le continued.) 


I have taken some trouble to try and collect 
any scattered information about the ignis faluus 
known as " Will-o'-the-wisp," but without much 
success. Perhaps some of the readers of " N. & Q." 
may be able to enlighten me. In John Inglesant 
it is called " Kit-of4he-candlestick," a name point- 
ing, perhaps, to some varying form of the received 
legend, according to which a man called Will is 
condemned to wander over hill and dale with a 
lighted wisp of straw fixed on his back, and is 
doomed, like the Wandering Jew, to perpetual 
motion until the end of time. An old Irish 
servant related his version of the legend to me, 
and I tell it as nearly as possible in his own 

There was a young fellow once and he got 
married at eighteen years of age to a young girl 
of sixteen, and before a year passed over their 
heads they had a fine young son. Well, Willie 
(for that was his name) worked away at his trade 
he was a blacksmith, you must know harder 
than ever. Next year his wife had twins, and 
soon there was a " tremendous " family around 
them. One day a man came in, and, said he, 
" I 'm a messenger from heaven, and can grant you 
three wishes." 

" Well/' says Willie, " one thing I 'd like 'ud 
be when any one comes in I could keep him blow- 
ing the bellows ; for when I ask the lads to blow 
for me they stop only a few minutes." 

" All right," was the answer ; " you shall have 
that wish, and the power to keep them at whatever 
you want them to do as long as you like. But you 
have still two more wishes." 

"Another thing I'd like," says Willie, "'ud 
be the power to prevent Mary taking any little 
change out of my pocket when I 'm drunk ; for if 
I 've a sixpence at all she '11 take it." So the second 
wish was granted. 

" Now for the third," says the messenger. 

" Well, I 'd like always to have lots of work, 
for, God help me, it 's getting very slack wid me 
entirely." So that wish was granted, and the 
messenger disappeared. 

Some time after another man comes in, and who 
should he be but the devil himself ! 

" Oh ! " says Will, " if I had only lots of money 
to feed and clothe the childer ! " 

"I can give you money and lands, too," saya 
the devil ; " but if I do you must come with me 
at the end of seven years." 

"All right," says Will ; " it 's a good long time; 
I '11 be ready for you." 

At the end of the seven years the devil comes 

" Come on, now, Willie," says he; " time 's up." 

"All right," says Will ; "but wait till I shoe 
this ass ; just blow the bellows for me a bit." 

And so he set the devil to blow the bellows, 
and kept him there for four days. Then the devil 
ups, and he cries, " Och, murther ! let me go, let 
me go, I say." 

" No," says Will, " I won't, that 's flat." 

"Well, then," says the devil, "I'll give you 
another seven years if you '11 let me off this time." 
So Willie let him go, and away he went. 

At the end of the next seven years (fourteen) 
back he comes, and Will spoke up quite friendly 
to him, and, says he, " I'll be ready in a minute ; 
but just go to the anvil and hammer that bit of 
iron for me." Away the devil worked at it, and 
then he cries, " It 's done now, let me off ! " 

"No," says Will ; " you must stay there, so you 
must." And he locked the door, took the key, and 
went off for the night. 

Next morning, when he opened the door, the 
anvil was nearly wore away, and the devil had 
made quite a hole in the floor, and he looked about 
the size of a torn-tit, he had sunk so far into the 

" Let me go, Will," he says, quite melancholy. 

" Not a bit of me," says Will. 

" Oh ! " says the poor devil, " if you do I '11 
grant you any wish you like, and let you off for 
another seven years." 

" Well," says Will, " I 'd like more money." 

" You shall have it," says the devil ; " but mind 
you 're ready this time seven years." 

" All right," says Will. And so at the end of 
another seven years (twenty-one) back comes the 
devil again. 

" Come on now, Will," he says ; " I '11 wait for 
you no longer." 

" All right," says Will. And he went with him 
quate and aisy till they passed a public-house. 

" Well, now," says Will, " I 'm very dhry, and 
hell is such a mighty hot place, it 'ud never do to 
go there thirsty ; let 's go in and get some porter." 

" All right," says the devil ; " but, mind, I Ve 
no change." 

" Nor I ayther," says Will ; " but such a great 
fellow as you are can turn yourself into a sixpence, 
and when they 're putting you into the till you can 
leap out and astonish them." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ie s. vm. JCLY 21, -83. 

" Faix ! I can do that ! " says the devil. So h 
turned himself into a sixpence; and what did Wil 
do but never spent a halfpenny of him, but claps 
him into his purse, and he buys the porter with a 
fourpenny bit of his own. For twenty years the 
devil remained in Will's purse. Often and often 
he begged to be let out, but " Whisht ! will you,' 
was all the answer he got. 

And so, when Will died he thought to get into 
heaven ; and they wouldn't let him in on account 
of his rubbins with the devil. He got so unaisy 
wandering about that at last he kicked at the door 
of hell with his hobnailed shoes. 

" Who 's there ? " asks the old devil. 

" It 's me Willy, the smith." 

" Oh ! don't let him in," says the old devil ; 
" he's too able for us; he '11 kill us all." 

The young devils were rather inclined to open 
the door, but the old devil would not let them, 
and told Will to go off and get a sheaf of corn. 
As soon as he came back with it they clapped it 
to his back and set fire to it, and there he is 
wandering about still. But Will-o'-the-wisp had 
got money enough from the devil to fortune off all 
his daughters, and he left fine estates to his sons, 
and they 're all raal quality to this day. 


[Reference may t e made to 5'h S. iv. 209, 235 ; v. 56 ; 
x. 405, 499; xi. 55. The good-humoured contempt with 
which the devil is treated in this Irish legend reminds 
us strongly of similar treatment in Scandinavian folk- 
lore, and this tends to give force to ME. HENSLEIGH 
WEDGWOOD'S suggestion in our own pages, 5 th S. x. 
405, that the name Will-o'-the-wisp maybe of Scandi- 
navian origin. In the Legends of Iceland, edited by our 
late correspondent, George E. J. Powell, of Nant Eos, 
and Eirikr Magnusson, there is a story of the devil's 
attempt at creation, resulting only in the jelly fish, 
"which, is useless as useless can be," presenting just 
the same feature as that which we note in the legend 
here presented to our readers.] 

of Mr. Ferguson's Surnames as a Science, in the 
Alhenasum, July 7, the reviewer says : " Mr. Fer- 
guson does not, as far as we can find, mention 
Tidd. It is an old Eastern Counties name not yet 
extinct. A man who bore it was involved in the 
Cato Street Conspiracy." The surname Tidd is 
still to be met with in Rutland and its 
neighbourhood. Mr. William Tidd is a farmer 
at Cottesmore, Rutland, and Tidd is a 
cottager at Teigh, Rutland. Miss Tidd is the 
schoolmistress at Blatherwycke, Northants; Mr. 
W. Tidd is a linendraper at Loughborough ; Mr. 
John Tidd is a farmer at Dalby Magna, Leicester- 
shire ; and in the same county Charles Tidd is a 
beerhouse-keeper at Belgrave. George H. Tidd 
is a butcher and innkeeper at Barkestone ; and 
in Leicester itself Mrs. Ann Tidd lets lodgings in 
Richards Street, Herbert Tidd is a milliner in 
Welford Road, and Mrs. Mary Ann Tidd is a 

milliner in Wellington Street. In Leicester also 
are three families named Todd, who are hosiers and 
commercial travellers. John Todd is a Wesleyan 
Home Missionary at Melton Mowbray. Another 
John Todd is a farmer at Maxey, Lincolnshire ; 
and at Duddington, in the same county, Mrs. 
Todd is a grocer and draper. At Stretton, Rut- 
land, Wm. Todd is postmaster, shoemaker, and 
parish clerk, and the Stretton registers show that 
his family have lived in the village for many 
generations. His son, Edwin Todd, is coachman 
to C. T. S. Birch-Reynardson, Esq., Holy well Hall, 
Lincolnshire, having lived with me in the same 
capacity for some years previously, during which 
time my housemaid was Elizabeth Tidd, of Teigh. 
Thus two of my indoor servants were named Tidd 
and Todd. Some seventeen years ago my four 
indoor servants were named Plowman, Sheerer, 
Carter, and Shepherd. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

lowing account of superstitions which prevail 
amongst the natives of Annam, Cochin China, ig 
perhaps worth recording in " N. & Q." It is taken 
from a recently issued Government report on the 
trade, commerce, and navigation of Saigon and 
Cochin China for 1882. 

"Funerals. The respect with which the Annatnese 
treat their dead gives to this ceremony considerable 
importance; as its numerous rites are not written law, 
they are easily neglected, to the prejudice of and danger 
to the family. The ceremony naturally varies according 
to the position the deceased held in the family, and the 
wealth of the mourners. The method of determining 
death is by means of a flake of cotton, which the least 
breath would move. When death is assured, the visage 
is covered with three leaves, ordinary paper, a red hand- 
kerchief covering all. This operation is called ddp mat; 
and it is an imprecation in general use to wish an enemy 
so poor that this expense cannot be afforded him. Next, 
three grains of rice are placed in the mouth of the 
deceased, three bowls of cooked rice are arranged in 
half circle about the head, and two candles placed there. 
From the moment of death a relative is put in charge of 
the body, to see that no cat passes over it, for it is the 
cat that seeks to steal the soul. Coffins are often ready 
years in advance, and are made of valuable woods that 
remain intact for a long while. They may easily cost 
401. The laying out is usually done by a stranger. If 
any member of the family happens to have been born 
mmediately after the deceased he must leave the house, 
for fear of contagion of death. The body is bathed 
n perfumed water, dressed in its best clothes and a 
)lack turban, nails are cut and deposited about the head. 

When the various bandages are in order, a favourable 
lour is awaited, which must not be the hour of birth of 

any near relative ; then the body is placed in the coffin, 
;his is placed in the centre of the house for a father or 

mother, but at the sides for a son or daughter. Various 

offerings are exposed and renewed at the usual hours for 
neals. Three days afterwards the coffin is varnished, 
;o prevent the attacks of white ants. Mourning habits 

are of unbleached and unhemmed cotton of native manu- 
acture. Various inscriptions are placed upon the doors, 

and a lantern with blue characters hung in front ; these 

are allowed to remain until they decay, but are not 

s. viii. JULY 21, 83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


renewed. The coffin remains in the house sometimes for 
three months, during which time the eldest son sleeps 
at the foot upon the ground. Should the wife of the 
heritor during the period of mourning (two or three 
years) become enciente, the relatives may demand her 
condemnation for impiety. Order of procession two 
lanterns; a banner of silk or paper; a sheet of white 
silk suspended between two poles, representing a door ; 
gongs; table with candles and other offerings; gong; 
model of a house ; lanterns ; the bier ; lanterns ; tables 
of offerings. The coffin is sometimes placed in and 
sometimes above the ground. The tombs are of all sizes 
and stages of ornamentation, and are of various forms ; 
those of priests are pyramidal. The coffin once depo- 
sited in the tomb, the relatives and friends throw a 
handful of earth over it, verses being recited by the 
usual paid mourners ; then the relatives salute the 
friends who have assisted, and offer them wine and 
betel. An altar is placed before the tomb with offerings ; 
a tablet is put in place with the name and titles of the 


Rev. John Poynter. (Continued from 6 th S. vii. 

Lamiger, a cripple. 

Leary, empty. 

A loose, cart rout. 

To link, to ly in y e sun. 

A lizzon, a crack in a stone. 

Linsing, large. 

Lavage, rank. 

To lumper, to stumble. 

As lare, as lieu (sic) do so and so. 

Maundy, proud, saucy ; or resty if apply 1 to a horse. 

^Helling, sneaking. 

A moor, root of a tree. 

To mogg, pout or grow sullen. 

A mawn, great basket. 

A murr, great cold in the head. 

A mampus, multitude. 

To mammy, eat slowly w"' little appetite. 

Otherwise, now and then. 

A pecky, pick-ax. 

A pawd, a fat tun-belly. 

A patt, a crab. 

A pinswill, a boil. 

A pinginnet, a pimple on Hie face. 

To point, appoint. 

Pitcherveere, in great haste. 

A pane, a parsnip. 

A proctor, one that rents titlie. 

To proctor, to scold or lord it. 

A plough, a team. 

A puxy, a quagmire. 

A pook, cock of corn or hoy. 

To quirk, to complain. 

To be quert, satiated. 

To chew the quid, chew the end. 

To be in a quiddle, in a quandary. 

Rigg, ravenous. 

Read, thatch. 

A rice, long rod. 

Sail, seldom. 

A sull, a plough. 

Snocking, a snuffling fellow. 

Spray wood, brush wood. 

Sprithe, nimble. 

Speal, to spare one and take his place. 

Shanty man, genteel man. 

Suant, even and all of a piece, 

Stickle, steep. 

To skife, kick up one's heels. 

To go sloading, thwart a hill. 

Since, already. 

To suit, court a lady. 

Seemtb, it seems. 

A squat, a bruise. 

To squail, to throw a stick or stone. 

Spars, sticks to fasten the thatch, 

A swather, slumber. 

A silt, poudring tub. 

To go tallage, go softly. 

Tilty, angry. 

A tack, a shelf. 

A tacker, a shoemaker's wax-end. 

Teary, faint. 

To trise, throw up one's heels. 

Tho, then. 

Tall eater, walker, or worker, is spoken ironically. 

Toil of a hill, top of a hill. 

To vang to a child, stand gossip, 

To vang money, receive money. 

Vang hither, reach hither. 

Vinny, mouldy. 

To up, to rise. 

Whileer, not long ago. 

To whibble, to lye. 

Whilaim, at a venture. 

To wim, to winnow. 

To whicker, to laugh. 

To make wees, to make believe. 

To year away, to be backward in the year. 


MATCH. The following paragraph is taken from 
Mr. J. C. Jeaffreson's new book, entitled The 
Real Lord Byron, vol. i. pp. 97-8: 

" One would like to know what grounds the poet had 
(if he had any) for writing in February, 1812, to Master 
John Cowell, on that young gentleman's departure for 
Eton : ' As an Etonian, you will look down upon a 
Harrow man ; but I never, even in my boyish days, dis- 
puted your superiority, which I once experienced in a 
cricket match, where I had the honour of making one of 
the eleven who were beaten to their hearts' content by 
your college in one innings.^ Though cricket eighty 
years since was no such arduous sport as the cricket of 
this year of grace, it is scarcely credible that Byron, 
whilst 'leading' his school, took the part his words 
imply in the match. If he did, it is not surprising that 
Harrow was badly beaten in a single innings." 

Had Mr. Jeaffreson referred to Lillywhite'a 
Public School Matches, he would have found that 
this was not " a bit of bounce," but an undoubted 
fact. The match was played at old Lord's Ground 
(the site of the present Dorset Square) on Aug. 2, 
1805. Lord Byron made seven runs in the first 
innings and two in the second. He also bowled 
one wicket. Eton won the match by one innings 
and two runs. G. F. E. B. 

signed " George H. Verney," informed the readers 
of the Times on the 3rd of July that Bradshaw's 
Railway Guide completed its fiftieth year of pub- 
lication on the 1st of July. "Bradshaw" is so 



vm. JOLT 21, 

much a household word, and any facts on the pro- 
gress of railways are so generally interesting, that no 
upology seems necessary for troubling "N. & Q." 
with a notice of this statement. I think Mr. 
Verney must be misinformed, for the only line of 
any importance open in 1833 (except, of course, 
the Stockton and Darlington) was the Liverpool 
and Manchester Railway, opened in September, 
1830 ; and before 1840 the only other long lines 
completed were the London and Birmingham 
(1838), the Grand Junction (1837), the Birming- 
ham and Derby (1839), the Newcastle and Carlisle 
(1839), and the Midland Counties from Rugby to 
Nottingham (1839). I doubt, therefore, if Brad- 
shaw began to be published much, if at all, before 
1843, i.e., ten years later. I possess a copy of 
Uradshaw's Railway Companion^ dated 1843, 
which contrasts curiously with the Guide of the 
present day ; it bears no sign of being a reprint, 
and I suspect it to be the first issue of that 
popular series. It contains thirty-three folios of 
letterpress, the time-tables extending across two 
pages ; a small map of England and Wales ; ten 
railway maps on a larger scale ; and plans of Lon- 
don, Birmingham, Bristol, Manchester, and Liver- 
pool. All these maps and plans are well and 
clearly engraved on copper or steel, and the volume 
is bound in cloth, the price Is. The size of the 
book is 4J by 3 inches, just half that of the con- 
temporary Bradshaw. JOHN RIVINGTON. 
Babbacombe, Torquay. 

The following inscriptions, which occur on the 
ring of eight bells at St. Mary's Church, Sheffield, 
solemnly blessed by the Right Rev. Robert Gorn- 
thwaite, Bishop of Beverley, on the feast of our 
Lady of Mount Carmel, July 16, 1874, seem 
worthy of record in " N. & Q.": 

1. Falve nobilis Regina, 
Regis sponsa Catharina. 

2. Purgatos Aulae 

Caeli nos jungito, Paule. 

3 Tu, Petre, pulsatus, 
Perversos mitiga flatus. 

4. custos matris Domini, 
Derotos tuo nornini, 
Joseph Alme, per aspera 
Salva eernper et prospera. 

5. Missi de caelis 

Ilabeo nomen Qabrielis. 

6. Musa Raphaelis 

Sonet auribus Emanuelis. 

7. Adjuvat nos Sanctus Michael 
Diebus ac noctibus, 

Ut noa ponat in bonorum 
Sanctorum conBortibus. 

8. Eat mihi collatum 

Cordis Jesu nomen amatum. 

The angelus bell, blessed by the Right Rev. 
John Briggs, Bishop of Trachis and Vicar Apostolic 

of the Yorkshire District, afterwards first Bishop 
of Beverley, on Tuesday, July 30, 1850, bears the 
angelic salutation, 

Ave Maria, Gratia plena, 
DominuB Tecura. 

Reform Club. 

shire superstition as to St. Swithin's Day which I 
think deserves recording in your pages. An old 
woman, living not far from Shrewsbury thirty 
years ago, used to gather a quantity of rain-water 
as it fell on this day, and mixed it in the making 
of certain little cakes, which she afterwards dis- 
tributed among the neighbouring people. These 
cakes were grated by the recipients into their beer 
or over their food, and were supposed to be a 
remedy against bowel complaints. My informant 
tells me that this was always done when rain fell 
on St. Swithin's Day ; but if no rain fell the old 
lady was very much troubled, and predicted all 
sorts of diseases during the coming year. 



the agnomen of " Brother Jonathan " as of Masonic 
origin in " N. & Q.," !* S. v. 149, W. W., writing 
from La Valetta, Malta, says, " George Washing- 
ton, commander-in-chief of the American army in 
the revolution, was a Mason, as were all the other 
generals, with the solitary exception of Arnold the 
traitor, who attempted to deliver West Point, a 
most important position, into the hands of the 
enemy." I wish to correct this statement, having 
only recently come into possession of the first 
volumes of "N. & Q ," and at this late day dis- 
covered the error of the writer who made the said 
statement so far back as Feb. 14, 1852. Benedict 
Arnold was made a Mason in Hiram Lodge, No. 1 
of Free and Accepted Masons, at New Haven, 
Connecticut, U.S., and signed the bylaws of the 
lodge April 10, 1765, the said lodge having been 
instituted Aug. 12, 1750. And W. W. was further 
mistaken in saying " all the other [American] 
generals were Masons." There were several others 
who were not members of the order. 


Toledo, Ohio, U.S. 

interest some of the readers of "N. & Q." to know 
that in Travels through Spain, by John Talbot 
Dillon, Knight and Baron of the Sacred Roman 
Empire, 8vo. Dublin, 1781, there is a list of the 
names of Spanish sword-makers. It is introduced 
by the following passage: 

"As many of the most capital workmen of Toledo, 
quitted that city on the decline of their trade, and 
settled in different parts of the kingdom where they 
supported the reputation of their art; and as their 



blades have since been dispersed all OTCF Europe, those 
who are curious in these matters will, perhaps, not be 
displeased to see a list of their names : as by this means 
they may know them, whenever they fall in their way." 
P. 145. 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

In the Dispensing Room at Apothecaries' Hall 
ia a mural tablet, on which, in ancient characters, 
is the following verse : 

" Ni Deus Affuerit Viresq. Infuderit Herbis, 
Quid Rogo Dictamnum, Quid Panacea Judas?" 

which translated means, I suppose, " Unless 
God shall assist or teach men, and pour the 
spirit of nature into the herbs of the field, what 
avail the virtues of the dictamnus, or the all- 
healing plant of Juda 1 " Can any of your corre- 
spondents connected- with the Apothecaries' Com- 
pany trace the date of this inscription, and say 
whether it is original or quoted ; and, if the 
latter, whence ? The present Apothecaries' Hall 
dates, I believe, from the time of Charles I., but 
the character of the inscription is, I suspect, more 
ancient, and probably three hundred years old. It 
was, I am informed, formerly in the hall, and 
perhaps is the survival of some more ancient 
building. To dictamnus, ditany, or marjoram, 
it is well known, were attributed specific healing 
qualities. Thus Virgil (^Eneid, xii. 412) says 
Venus plucked some of its young leaves on Mount 
Ida to heal the wound of ^Eneas. Shakespeare, 
also, makes Edgar use it as a talisman (King 
Leo,r, IV. vi.) : "Lear. Give the word. Edg. 
Sweet marjoram. Lear. Pass." The "panacea 
Judse " (if I read the latter word aright) was, I 
suppose, the balm of Gilead (Diacocephalum cana- 
riense), gathered on Mount Lebanon, and, in the 
form of a gum, of universal healing property, was 
an article of commerce between the Jews and 
Egyptians. G. G. HARDINGHAM. 


ROMETH. In a deed of conveyance dated 
February, 1622, Henry Fulcis and Alice his wife, 
" in consideration of the summe of tenne poundes 

of lawfull Inglish money doebargaine, sell, and 

graunte unto John Nixon all that oulde howse or 
romdh with a chiveny in the same." The chiveny, 
I presume, is a chimney ; but what is the meaning 
of rometh ? The word occurs four or five times in 
the body of the deed, and again in the endorse- 
ment, which certifies that "seasin & peacable 
possession of & in the oulde howse or rometh & 

the yarde or entry adjoyning within specified was 
given & delivered," &c. The same word appears in 
another document, dated March, 1690, viz., a 
deed of conveyance of certain premises in the same 
parish (St. Peter of Mancroft in Norwich), w to- 
gether with a yard or garden & a fioometh now or 
late used for a smyths shopp." 


Does the story of a man who was changed into 
a bull for twelve hours every day occur in any 
collection of fairy tales 1 I have never met with 
it in print, and I am anxious to learn whether it 
is an old folk-tale or a German introduction which 
has only reached England in late years. As the 
well-known glass mountain appears in the story, 
it is probably of foreign origin. 


"THE ENGLISH WAKE." I shall be glad of 
further information concerning a picture which ia 
in the possession of one of my friends. It is 
painted by W. Hamilton, E.A., and is called 
" The English Wake." I am told that the subject 
is taken from a poem by Sir William Jerning- 
ham [sixth baronet of Costessey, b. 1736, 
d. 1809] (? Edward) [brother of Sir William, re- 
corded in Burke's Peerage, 1883, as a " man of 
letters "], and that it represents the return of 
Agatha to her father from the Holy Land. Will 
anybody who possesses a copy of the above poem 
kindly give me an outline in prose? for I am quite 
at sea both as to the story and the author. 

FRED. W. JOT, M.A., F.S.A. 

Cathedral Library, Ely. 

readers of " N. & Q." inform me how the property 
at Hilcot, in Staffordshire, passed from the last 
representative of the Noel family living there into 
the hands of the present owners ? Philip Noel, 
of Hilcot, living A.D. 1583, was the son of Robert 
Noel, who was the elder brother of Andrew Noel, 
the ancestor of Noels, Earls of Gainsborough. The 
property at Hilcot had been in the hands of the 
Noels for four hundred years when Philip Noel 
inherited the estate. LELAND NOEL. 

ANN IN PLACE-NAMES. What is the meaning 
of this word in local nomenclature ? We have in 
Hampshire, " Abbot's Ann "; and in Wilts, "Little 
Ann " and " Glory Ann." J. E. J. 

[Qy.='Mm, river," Morris, Etyn, of Local Names.} 

BARRY, THE CLOWN. I wish for a few par- 
ticulars of Barry, the clown at Astley's. I have a 
drawing of him in a tub, being drawn along the 
Thames by geese. J. F. B. 

This regiment was serving, I believe, in Flan- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* B. vm. Jm 21/33. 

ders during those years. Where can a list of its 
officers, and especially of those killed in action, be 
found ? LAC. 

GIANTS AND DWARFS. I should be much 
obliged to readers of " N. & Q." for references to 
books, &c., on these subjects. HOMEROS. 

BOUCHIER FAMILY. A family of this name was 
located at Handborough, in the county of Oxford, 
and owned the old manor house at Long Hand- 
borough, in that parish. It would appear to have 
been one of some importance in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, for there used to be, and 
perhaps are still, several mural monuments of 
different members of the family on the south wall 
of the chancel of the church of that parish. One 
of its members, Thomas Bouchier, D.C.L., was 
Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, Regius Pro- 
fessor of Civil Law in that university from 1672 to 
1735,* and Principal of St. Alban Hall from 1678 
to 1723, and another James Bouchier, who suc- 
ceeded him in the last-named office, was Principal 
from 1723 to 1736. Handborough is a rectory in 
the gift of St. John's College, Oxford, about eight 
miles distant from that city, and has been usually 
held with the presidentship of that college. Is it 
known when this family became extinct ; and was 
it in any way allied to or descended from the 
great family of Bourchier, though the orthography 
of the name is slightly different ? 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" GIL BLAS," vol. i. bk. ii. chap, iii. 
" On ne pent trop admirer la sage prevoyance de ces 
anciens maltres de la vie civile, qui avoient etabli des 
lleux public ou Ton donnoit de 1'eau a boire & tout venant, 
et qui renfermoient le vin dans lea boutiques des apothe- 
caires, pour n'en permettre 1'usage quo par 1'ordonnance 
des medicines." 

Who were those ancient masters of civil life 
who so early regulated the sale of alcohol ? Dr. 
Celsus is the only known name mentioned in the 
same chapter, but he was a physician, not a states- 
man. Dr. Sangrado speaks of the above law as 
worthy the Golden Age, but he (or Le Sage) does 
not tell when the law was in force. H. S. 

t A CURIOUS COIN. Perhaps some of your readers 
will have the kindness to enlighten me on the sub- 
ject of a copper coin I recently met with. It is 
nbout the size of a penny, with the following quaint 
devices. Obv., a tortoise passant to the right, on 
its back a mast erect with a sail extended by the 
wind from a yard ; above, FESTINA LENTE ; below, 
WOLF . LAVFER . RECH : PE : Rev., figure of a man 
in shaggy garments carrying on his shoulder a 

* If this is correct, his tenure of the professorship 
was for the unusually long period of sixty-three years. 
An Oxford University Calendar for 1862 is my authority 
for the statement, 

bullock, horned and tailed, as the heralds say, head 
down and feet uppermost, recalling Mr. Armitage's 
picture of " Samson and the Lion " in the Royal 
Academy ; round the figure, ASSIDVITATE ET 


porch of Wing Church, Bucks, there is a largo 
piece of carved stone, which may be the capital of 
a pillar or else a font or holy water stoup inverted. 
Was any light thrown on it by the Archaeological 
Institute on its recent visit to the church ? 


"WOODEN WALLS." Does the phrase occur 
earlier than 1659 1 Edward Leigh, England 
Described, p. 6: "Our wooden Walls, the Ships, 
are a great safety to this Nation. The English 
Navy is the strongest in the world. What service 
did our ships do us in 88 ? " 




(6 th S. vii. 407.) 

General Gunning, who owed his position in life 
mainly to the high marriages of his sisters, the 
beautiful Misses Gunning, Countess of Coventry, 
and Duchess of Hamilton and afterwards of 
Argyll, married Miss Minifie. There were two 
sisters of this name, Susannah and Margaret, and 
they were known as joint writers of fiction, His- 
tories of Lady Frances S and Lady Caroline 

8 , by the Miss Minifies of Fairwater, in Somer- 
setshire, 1763, and other tales, of which it is 
impossible to speak with praise. After the mar- 
riage of Susannah to General Gunning she laid 
aside the pen, but her sister Margaret continued 
to write and published several tales. Mrs. Gun- 
ning had one daughter, named Elizabeth, after her 
aunt the " double duchess," as Horace Walpole 
termed her ; and Mrs. Gunning, with the grand 
marriages of her husband's sisters ever before 
her, was very anxious that her daughter should 
do likewise, and marry a duke. She was either 
to marry her cousin, the Marquess of Lome, or 
the Marquess of Blandford ; but before either of 
these gentlemen proposed it became known that 
certain letters on the subject were forgeries ; both 
of the intended bridegrooms withdrew, the mother's 
schemes came to an untimely end, there was a 
family break up, and the whole affair was a nine 
days' scandal in high life. An amusing account 
of the matter, which he calls the " Gunninghiad," 
may be seen in the Walpole Letters (Cunningham's 
edition, ix. 284). There seems to have been no 
doubt but that the letters were forgeries ; though 
who was the forger, and with what object they were 

6* s . vin. JCLT 21, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


forged, was by no means clear. Gossips and 
scandalmongers were in their glory, and many 
squibs and satires were written and handed about. 
One of these, which is a fair illustration of the dis- 
agreeable story, is preserved in Nichols's Illustra- 
tions, vii. 716, commencing : 

" Here is the note that nobody wrote ; 
Here is the groom that nobody sent 
To carry the note that nobody wrote ; 
Here is Minifie Gunning, who in her great cunning 
The groom to prevent from going where sent 
To carry the note that nobody sent," &c. 

On the family break up Mrs. Gunning published 
A Letter to the Duke of Argyll, 1791, 8vo. pp. 147. 
This led to a reply, A Statement of Facts, 
by Capt. Bowen, 1792, 8vo.; A Narrative of the 
Incidents, 1791; A Friendly Letter to the Marquess 
of Lome, 1791, &c. But the game was played out, 
and Mrs. Gunning took to her old occupation of 
novel-writing. For a list of her later works see 
Literary Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, i. 
230. The daughter, too, following the example of 
her mother and aunt, became a writer, publishing 
in 1795 Memoirs of Madame de Barneveldt, from 
the French ; in 1797, The Orphans of Snowdon; 
in 1799, The Gipsey Countess, and also The Packet, 
The Foresters, The Farmer's Boy, The Exiles of 
Erin, Dangers through Life, and Memoirs of a 
Man of Fashion. In 1803 she married Major 
Plunkett, " an officer of slender circumstances " 
(Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 

I have never seen the musical drama The Wife 
of Two Husbands, which was brought out at 
Drury Lane in 1803, attributed to Miss Gunning. 
According to The Biographia Dramatica it was 
adapted from the French of Pixe're'court by James 

| Gene 3 1 also assigns it to Cobb.] 

The Gunning affair was a fertile source of 
gossip. The following note from the Biographical 
Dictionary of Living Authors (London, 1816) will 
probably give COL. FERGUSSON the clue he desires : 

" Plunkett, Mrs., formerly Miss Gunning, and daugh- 
ter of the General of that name, by his wife, who, be- 
fore her marriage, was named Minifie, and distinguished 
herself as a novel-writer of eminence. The present 
lady obtained a patronage of the late Duchess of Bed- 
ford, till she and her mother became the objects of dis- 
pleasure, in an endeavour to promote an alliance with a 
noble family, by an artifice which occasioned much 
noise, and some publications. The young lady after- 
wards married Major Plunkett, an officer of slender cir- 
cumstances. She has written Gipsey Countess, 4 vols. 
l'2mo., 1799; The Farmer's Boy, from the French 
of Dumesnil, nov., 4 vols. 12mo. 1802; The Exile 
of Erin, nov., 3 vols. 12mo.l808; Dangers through Life, 
3 vols. 12mo.; Memoirs of a Man of Fashion, 12mo., 

There were two, if not more, pamphlets issued. 
One by Mrs. Gunning, A Letter to the Duke of 
Argyll, which went through four editions, and 

was replied to in A Statement of Facts, by Capt. 
Essex Bowen, who had been severely handled by 
the lady. Some letters by Miss Gunning appear 
in this pamphlet, and if orthography is an essential 
of the novelist's art her success would be more 
than doubtful. She was supposed to be engaged 
to the Marquess of Blandford, but the letters 
relating to the matter proved forgeries. Miss 
Gunning was regarded as the fabricator. 


The "mystery" alluded to was the supposed 
correspondence between Miss " Betty " Gunning 
and Lord Blandford (fourth Duke of Marlborough). 
I say " supposed," because it was said that the 
letters nominally from Lord Blandford were all 
written by the young lady herself, with the object 
of bringing about her marriage with Lord Bland- 
ford. It was a subject of great notoriety at the 
time in London society, and is frequently alluded 
to in Horace Walpole's Letters. A Letter from Mrs. 
Gunning, addressed to His Grace theDuke of Argyll, 
giving her version of the affair, was published in 
March, 1791 ; and A Statement of Facts in Answer 
to Mrs. Gunning's Letter addressed to His Grace 
the Duke of Argyll, by Capt. Bowen, was pub- 
lished in April, 1791. CONSTANCE KUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

A Letter from Mrs. Gunning, addressed to His 
Grace the Duke of Argyll, published in 1791, gives 
a complete account of the " mystery." I shall be 
happy to lend COL. FERGUSSON my copy should 
he care to see it. WALTER HAINES. 

Faringdon, Berks. 

S. viii. 25). Your Hampstead correspondent is 
mistaken in supposing that the Wentworth Place 
of John Keats was ever lost, still less " long lost." 
Mr. Dilke, of Chichester, son and brother of 
Keats's friends, Charles Wentworth Dilke, of 
Chichester, and Charles Wentworth Dilke, of 
Wentworth Place, Hampstead, and others who 
knew the houses in the days of Keats and Brown 
and Dilke, have never lost sight of the place, and 
Mr. Dilke, who is still one of our valued fellow 
correspondents of " N. & Q.," has often been to 
the house in later years. 


BASS (6 th S. vii. 408). A tolerably full account 
of the life and family of this leading Covenanter, 
the friend of Welsh, Peden, and Cargill, may be 
found in Anderson's Scottish Nation (A. Fullarton 
& Co., Edinburgh and London, 1865), condensed in 
the main apparently from Dr. Andrew Crichton'a 
Memoirs of the Rev. John Blackadder (pub. 1823), 
and the Life and Diary of Colonel Blackadder, 
the minister's fifth and youngest son. From the 
statements made in the Scottish Nation it would 



seem that the Rev. John Blackadder, minister of 
Troqueer, Dumfriesshire, was grandson and repre- 
sentative of Adam Blackadder, of Blairhall, a cadet 
of Tulliallan, and that on the extinction of the 
male issue of Sir John Blackadder of Tulliallan, 
first baronet, cr. 1626, he became heir to the title 
and the chiefship of the name. The male line of 
the Rev. John Blackadder is not extinguished in 
the account published in the Scottish Nation. 
The eldest son, William, b. 1647, who became 
physician to William III., is stated to have died 
g.p. circa 1704. The second, Adam, a merchant in 
Sweden, is mentioned as grandfather of the " late 
Mr. Blackadder, Accountant- General of Excise." 
The third, Robert, died at Utrecht, where he was a 
student of theology, in 1689, presumably unmarried. 
The fourth, Thomas, was also a merchant, and 
emigrated to Maryland, where he died, vitd patris. 
The fifth, John, became a lieu tenant- colonel in the 
army, having entered the service in his twenty- 
fifth year, we are told, in 1689, the very year of his 
brother Robert's death at Utrecht. Colonel Black- 
adder was at Blenheim and Ramillies, and died 
deputy-governor of Stirling Castle in 1729. As 
the estate of Tulliallan had been wasted by Sir 
John, first baronet, no successor in line appears 
ever to have assumed the title, though it would 
seem that any heir male, if such there be, of the 
minister of Troqueer and prisoner of the Bass 
must be the heir also alike of the baronetcy of 
Tulliallan and of the representation of Blackadder 
of that ilk. C. H. E. CARMICHAEL. 

New University Club, S.W. 

G. F. R. B. is referred for a brief notice of John 
Blackadder, and an etching of his tombstone in 
North Berwick churchyard, to a little work pub- 
lished by Dunn & Wright, Glasgow, entitled In- 
icriptions on the Tombstones aad Monuments 
erected in Memory of the Covenanters, by James 
Gibson. He was one of the most distinguished 
Presbyterians in the twenty-eight years' persecu- 
tion of the Scottish Covenanters, a lineal descendant 
and representative of the ancient family of 
Tulliallan, from whom he inherited the title of 
knight baronet, which he never assumed. He was 
minister of Troqueer, in the presbytery of Dumfries, 
from 1652 to 1662, when by the Act of Council 
at Glasgow he was compelled to abandon his 
charge for his adherence to Presbyterian principles. 
He continued to preach, and great multitudes 
flocked to hear him; but in 1666 letters of Council 
were directed against him and other ministers for 
presuming to preach, pray, baptize, and perform 
other acts of ministerial function. He then went 
to Holland to place his eldest son at Leyden to 
study for a physician; on returning to Scotland 
he was apprehended on April 5, 1681, taken before 
the Council, and sentenced to be imprisoned in the 
Base. The cell in which he was confined is still 

shown to visitors, with its three small iron-barred 
windows to the west. After an incarceration 
four years his health became seriously impaired; 
an application was made for his removal, which 
was refused ; a second application was more 
successful, but before it could be carried into 
effect death came to him as a messenger of peace. 
His remains were taken from the Bass Rock to 
the churchyard of North Berwick, where a large 
table stone marks his grave. It was repaired and 
relettered in 1821 at the expense of several gentle- 
men in the neighbourhood. He had a family of 
six children, five sons and one daughter. The 
youngest and last surviving son was Lieut.-Col. 
John Blackadder, born in Glencairn, Dumfriesshire, 
Sept. 14, 1664. After the revolution of 1688, 
when the tide of affairs changed in Scotland, he 
joined the army as lieutenant in the Cameronian 
Guard, chiefly formed of Glasgow inhabitants. He 
was in active service on the battlefields of Dun- 
keld, Steinkirk, Blenheim, and Ramillies. He 
served twenty-two years as lieutenant, captain, 
major, and lieutenant-colonel. He retired, on 
petition to his commander-in-chief, the Duke of 
Marlborough, in 1712, returned to Scotland, and 
fixed his residence in Edinburgh. At the out- 
break of the rebellion in 1715 he did good service, 
for which he, unsolicited, received the appointment 
of deputy-governor of Stirling Castle, which he 
held to the time of his death. He married a 
daughter of James Callendar, Esq., of Craigforth, 
but left no family. His remains were interred in 
the West Church, Stirling, where a marble tablet 
bears this inscription: 

" Near this place are deposited the remains 
of a brave Soldier and derout Christian 

John Blackadder. Esq., 

Late Lieutenant Colonel of the Cameronian Regiment. 

He served under the Duke of Marlborough in 

Queen Ann's Wars, and was present at 

most of the engagements in that reign. 

He died Deputy Governor of Stirling Castle 

in August, 1729, aged 65 years. 

The tablet was erected by Mr. John Young, Edin- 
burgh, a grand-nephew, in August, 1789. His 
widow became the wife of Sir James Campbell, 
of Ardkinglas, bart. J. G. 

See Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of 
Eminent Scotsmen, vol. i. pp. 222-225. 

L. L. H. 

See The Bass Rock, its Civil and Ecclesiastic 
History, Geology, Martyrology, Zoology, and 
Botany, Edinburgh, 1848. W. L. 

Robert Blackadder, a Scotchman, son of Sir 
Patrick Blackadder, adopted the ecclesiastical pro- 
fession, and in 1480, being then at Rome, was 
consecrated bishop of Aberdeen by Pope Sixtus IV. 
In 1484 he was translated to the bishopric of 
Glasgow. He had so much influence at Rome 
that be obtained from the Pope the erection of 



the see of Glasgow into an archbishopric. He was 
much employed in public affairs, and died 1508, 
while on a journey to the Holy Land (Cooper's 
Biog. Did. sub. n.). WILLIAM PLATT. 

Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

[There were several other dignitaries of the name in 
the mediaeval Scottish Church.] 

A NAPOLEON PROPHECY (6 th S. vii. 404) is un- 
questionably noteworthy. Will not the ordinary 
fall of coincidences account for it, however, as for 
most events which are set down as supernatural 
because at first sight they seem unaccountable? 
Amid the number of predictions continually given 
to the world it could not but be that some should 
coincide with some following event which appears 
to bear them out. Useless and unimportant co- 
incidences are happening all day long, but no 
note is taken of them, and when one which seems 
to have a purpose occurs it is treated as a thing 
apart, which must have happened under some sort 
of direction. I hare convinced myself of this by 
long making it a practice to take notice of useless 
coincidences, and these are so continually occurring 
that it follows as a necessary result that " once in a 
blue moon " one must happen which should appear 
to fit into something important. Instances are 
too numerous and the subject is too vast to pursue 
on this occasion ; but I believe there is such a thing 
as a science of coincidences, the key to which may 
some day be found through close and combined 
observation, just as has heretofore been done with 
all other groups of phenomena which have been 
gathered, and grammared, and ranged into 
sciences. For, after all, what is any science but 
the observation of coincidences ; and what do we 
know of "cause and effect," but that they are 
more or less frequently occurring coincidences ? 

In the present instances, however, might not 
examination reveal that the prophecy was actually 
printed after Napoleon's career had justified the 
presage and ante-dated to give it greater effect by 
some Napoleon-worshipper ? 

There is a remarkable passage in the "Frag- 
ment Historique" from Joseph Bonaparte's own 
pen, prefixed to Du Casse's Memoires of him, to 
the following effect : 

" La longue et cruelle maladie de mon pere arait sin- 
gulierement affaibli sea facultes. C'est au point que, 
peu de joura avant sa mort, dans un complet d61ire, il 
s'ecria que tout secours etranger ne pouvait le sauver 
puisque ce Napoleon, dont I'epee devait unjour triompher 
de V Europe,* tenterait yainement de delivrer son pere 
du dragon de la mort qui 1'obsedait." 

This was in 1785, while Napoleon was still quite un- 
distinguished, and pointing directly to its man, is 
as much of a prediction as that of the " Samari- 
taine "; but it is impossible not to suppose that 
Joseph (who says he wrote the " Fragment '' in 
which it occurs after he was advanced in years) 

* The italics are in the original. 

was carried away by his enthusiasm and his know- 
ledge of events to over-colour the speech of his 
dying father. 

The following prediction is equally remarkable 
(though less incredible, as it may be accounted for 
by exceptional individual penetration). Alfred 
von Reumont (Geschichte der Stadt Rom, Berlin, 
1870, iii. 674) relates that when the Bishop of 
St. Malo brought to Pius VII. the news of Napo- 
leon's escape from Elba and his first successes on 
the Continent, the Pope replied, " Besorget nichts, 
dies ist ein Sturm der drei Monate wahren wird." 
Reumont adds, " Die ' 100 Tage ' konnten nicht 
richtiger bezeichnet werden." R. H. BUSK. 

PARALLEL PASSAGES (6 th S. vii. 325). The 
passage adduced by MR. BUCKLEY is not where 
he says it is, in the first number of Blackwood, 
but in the second ; and he does not give it ver- 
batim. Lockhart wrote, "The duration of free- 
dom and the glory of Greece was short " (not were) ; 
and the sentence in which MR. BUCKLEY sees a 
resemblance to a line in Locksley Hall runs thus : 
" But a few such years are worth myriads of ages 
of monkish slumber" (not short). But I fail to 
see the asserted parallel, beyond what is found in 
Psalm Ixxxiv., "A day in thy courts is better 
than a thousand." C. M. I. 

Athenaeum Club. 

The germ of the famous line in Locksley Hall 
may be seen in a still earlier source. In the Book 
of Wisdom, iv. 13, the Septuagint version is, 
TeAeicofleis ev oAiyw eTrAfjpwcre \povous juaKpovs, 
of which the Vulgate translation is, " Consummates 
in brevi, explevit tempora multa." 


A MANY (6 th S. vii. 502). I protest against the 
explanations here given of the prefix a-, which are 
all wrong. A-thirst is for of -thirst; a-courting is 
for on-courting. Many a is many on (many one) 
in Layamon. I am disheartened to see such a 
mixing up of different things. Verily, Middle 
English is a thing almost unknown. 


OLD CLOCKS (6* h S. vii. 165, 237, 257, 371, 417, 
456, 516). It may save some needless correspond- 
ence in " N. & Q." respecting the age and dates of 
old clocks if it is mentioned that a list of members 
of the Clockmakers' Company uf London, from the 
period of their incorporation in 1631 to the year 
1732, extracted from the books of the company 
and arranged alphabetically and chronologically 
by Mr. Octavius Morgan, will appear in the next 
number of the Archaeological Journal. This will 
be obtainable in pamphlet form at the office of the 

vii. 228). The descent of George William Fairfax 
runs thus : 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6*s.vm.jutY2V8s. 

Henry, fourth Lord Fairfax, b. Dec. 20, 1631, d. April 13, 1688=Frances Barwick, of Towlston. 

Thomas, fifth Lord= Anne Harrison, dau. and co-h. of=Henry Fairfax, of Towlaton, Yorkshire, 
Fairfax,1657-1710. I Rich. Harrison, of S. Cave, Yorks. | 1669-1708, High Sheriff in 1691. 

Thomas, sixth Lord, of Robert, seventh Henry Fairfax, of Towlston, 
Greenway Court, Va., b. Lord, 1707-93, b. Sept. 15, 1685, d. NOT. 22, 
1690, d. Dec. 9, 1781, s.p. s.p.s. 1759, unmarried. 

Col. Wm. Fairfax, of Belvoir, Va./ 
President of the King's Council, &c., 
b. Oct. 30, 1691, d. Sept. 3, 1757. 

Hon. George Wm. Fairfax, of Belvoir, Virginia, b. 1724; suc- 
ceeded his uncle Henry at Towlston in 1759 ; married, Dec. 17, 
1748, Sarah, eldest dau. of Col. Wilson Gary, of " Ceelys," on 
James River, near Hampton, Virginia. Being a loyalist, he 
went to England in 1773, and died there, at Bath, April 3, 1787, 
leaving his American estates to his nephew Ferdinando. His 
widow survived him until Nov. 2, 1811, when she died, at Bath, 
in her eighty-second year. Both buried at Writhlington. 

Bryan, eighth Lord Fairfax, 1737-1802, of= 
"Toulston " and " Mount Eagle," Fairfax co., 
Virginia; married in 1759 Elizabeth, youngest 
dau. of Col. Wilson Gary, of Ceelys (Burke erro- 
neously calls him Jeffereon Gary). His claim to 
the Barony of Fairfax was allowed by the 
House of Lords in 1800. He died at Mount 
Eagle Aug. 7, 1802. 

1. Sally, b. 2. Thomas, ninth= 3. William, 
1760, d. be- lord, 1762-1846, d. infans, 
fore 1779. had ten children. after 1782. 

4. Ferdinando, b. 1765 (about), d. 1820, 
mar. Eliz. Blair Gary (firat cousin), dau. 
of Col. Wilson Miles Gary, of Ceelys, &c. 

5. Robert, 6. Elizabeth, 
d. young. M re. 


1. Albert, b.= 2. Henry. 3. Orlando, of Richmond, Va., &c., b. Feb. 14, 
April 15, 1802, 1806, d. Jan. 11, 1882, mar. his cousin Mary 
d. May 9, 1835. Randolph Gary, dau. of Wilson Jefferson Gary, 
of Carysbrooke. ,-J-, 

Monimia, 1820-1875, mar. her cousin 
Archibald Gary, younger son of Wil- 
son Jefferson Gary, of Carysbrooke. 

Charles, tenth lord. John, eleventh lord. 

The dates in the foregoing I can vouch for, as 
well as the genealogy. I have found Burke in so 
many instances inaccurate that I scarcely think of 
taking his statement of dates or other genealogical 
matter as unquestionable. ABHBA will find in 
Burke (ed. of 1882, p. 493) George William Fair- 
fax entered in the family history as "William 
George of Belvoir." Upon comparison you will 
see that I have corrected in my little pedigree the 
numerous errors of dates, &c., in Burke. 

In the same issue MR. NEILL asks for the rela- 
tionship between Bryan, eighth Lord Fairfax, and 
the then eleventh Earl of Buchan, David Stewart 
Erskine (1742-1829). The Earl of Buchan's 
grandmother, Frances, was a Fairfax of the Walton 
line ; the connexion, therefore, was very remote, 
their common ancestor being Kichard Fairfax of 
Walton, who died in 1432. 

As for the relationship between General 
Washington and the Earl of Buchan, the con- 
nexion is about as tangible as the shadow of a 
shade. Bryan eighth Lord Fairfax's grand- 
mother, Anne Harrison, had a sister Eleanor, who 
married in 1689 a certain Henry Washington, 
whose relationship to General Washington's an- 
cestor John, the emigrant of 1657-9, is the merest 
conjecture, being based on nothing but similarity 

Baltimore, U.S. 

According to Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, 

vol. i. p. 565 (Wood's revised edition, 2 vols. folio, 
Edinburgh, 1813), George William Fairfax, of 
Tolston (not Fowlston), in Yorkshire, who married 
Miss Sarah Gary, and died without issue in 1787, 
was son of William Fairfax, Esq., grandson of the 
Hon. Henry Fairfax, and great-grandson of Henry, 
fourth Lord Fairfax of Cameron. At the time of 
his death in 1787 he was heir presumptive to his 
father's first cousin Kobert, seventh Lord Fairfax, 
but had no sort of right to the designation " Hon." 
given him in the Writhlington register and in the 
inscription on his monument. His younger brother 
Bryan became eighth Lord Fairfax on the death 
of the seventh lord in 1793. R. M M. 

See Herald and Genealogist, vol. vi. p. 605. 


George William Fairfax was the son of William 
Fairfax and Sarah Walker, of the Bahamas, where 
his father once lived. He was born in Salem, New 
England, where his father was collector of customs 
for several years before he removed to Virginia, 
and where he married after his first wife's death. 
Archdeacon Burnaby, in his book of Travels in 
North America, gives an interesting sketch of 
the father and the son. 

Sarah, the wife of George W. Fairfax, was the 
daughter of Wilson Gary, long collector of customs 
for the lower district of James River, Virginia. 
Another daughter, Elizabeth, married Rev. Bryan 
Fairfax, a brother of George, who was recognized 

flftB.vm.juiY a, -as.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


as the eighth Lord Fairfax, but lived and died in 
Virginia. EDWARD D. NEILL. 

St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S. 

516 ; vii. 510). See under "Cope and Bergh- 
moth " in Blount's Law Dictionary, where an 
"ingenious treatise" on the customs of miners 
by Mr. Manlove is cited. BOILEAU. 

(6 th S. vii. 345). MR. NORTH, in speaking of this 
stone, notices that the name of the Emperor 
Hadrian is in the nominative case, and asks, " Is 
there any significance in this, or is any inference 
to be drawn from it 1 " A few words on these 
milestones generally will, therefore, be suitable. 
The Llanfairfechan milestone is the sixty-third 
recorded as having been found in Britain in modern 
times. Of these, sixteen at the time of their 
discovery did not bear the name of an emperor, 
some of them being mere fragments. Of the 
remaining forty-seven there are seven which bear 
the name of the emperor in the nominative case, 
i.e., two of Hadrian, one of Marcus Aurelius, one 
of Caracalla, one of Gordian, one of Diocletian, 
and one of Maximinus Daza. Of two others 
(both of Hadrian) the case cannot be known, owing 
to every word being abbreviated. There then 
remain thirty-eight. In my recently published 
Roman Lancashire, in a note at p. 183, I have 
stated that, following other antiquaries, including 
Dr. Hiibner, I have expanded the inscriptions on 
the Lancashire milestones in the ablative, though 
I had a strong opinion that the dative was in- 
tended. Except in one instance there is no ter- 
mination which will not suit both dative and 
ablative. The exception is, that on a milestone 
of Decius found at Lancaster we have the word 
FELICI in full, which I think is strong evidence 
that the dative was meant in all these inscriptions. 
But wherever Dr. Hiibner gives an expansion of 
F. or FEL. he renders it FELICE, thus making it 
appear that the stones were erected " by " the 
emperor instead of being dedicated " to " him, as 
I opine they were. My view seems confirmed by 
the fact that out of the sixteen stones bearing no 
emperor's name about half a dozen are inscribed 
BONO . REIPVBLICAE . NATO (To one born for 
the good of the republic), clearly the dative, and a 
frequent compliment paid to emperors. From the 
two milestones bearing the name of Hadrian in 
the nominative it is only a fair inference that the 
inscriptions on the other two of that emperor were 
in the same case, and as they all seem to be of 
about the year A.D. 120, they were most probably 
erected when the emperor was in Britain in that 
year. This may be the reason of the inscription 
occurring in the nominative, and thus the answer 
to MR. NORTH'S query, though it is only fair to 
add that of the remaining five, only one could be 

erected when the emperor named upon it was in 
Britain, t. e., that of Caracalla. 


REV. THOMAS PENTTCROSS (6 th S. vii. 367). 
Among the recollections of my youth is this sur- 
name, in connexion with the following amusing 
anecdote. A clergyman of that name was once 
requested to officiate in a village church, I rather 
imagine in Berkshire, in which, as was too pos- 
sible in those days of neglect, there was a hole of 
some size in the floor of the pulpit. Before he 
commenced his discourse he was unfortunate 
enough in some way to drop it, and see it dis- 
appear in the hole, beyond the possibility of 
recovery. The only alternative seemed to be to 
communicate his loss to the parish clerk, who 
occupied a seat immediately beneath him ; so, 
leaning over, he informed him in a whisper that 
his sermon was in the hole. The clerk was said 
to have looked up with much surprise, but so little 
comprehension that the statement was repeated. 
On which that functionary got up, or turned round, 
and gave public notice doubtless in very audible 
tones that there was a sarpent in the hole in the 
pulpit, with the immediate effect of dispersing the 
whole congregation. T. W. WEBB. 

There is a very full memoir of him in Wilson's 
History of Christ?* Hospital, pp. 200-209. 

L. L. H. 

vii. 368). This clever and original little book was 
written by my old friend John Bolland, M.A., 
University College, Durham, son of Mr. Justice 

URQUHART OF CROMARTT (6 th S. vii. 368). 
Christian, daughter of Sir Alex. Urquhart, mar- 
ried, firstly, Thomas, first Lord Rutherford of the 
Hunthill line, but he died s.p. in 1668. A charter 
was granted, August 5, 1668, to Christian Urqu- 
hart, relict of Thomas, Lord Rutherford, of an 
annual rent out of the lands of Nether Chatto. 
She married, secondly, James, second Viscount of 
Frendraught, by whom she had one son, William, 
third Viscount of Frendraught, who died un- 
married in his minority. She married, thirdly, 
Alexander (or George) Morison, to whom she con- 
veyed, after the death of her son William, the 
valuable estate of Bognie and other lands. By 
him she had, late in life, a son Theodore, who was 
served heir to his father, 1699, in the lands of 
Bognie, the dominical lands of Frendraught, the 
lands of Auchingoull, and others in the counties 
of Aberdeen and Banff. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Beading. 

Two of the daughters of Sir Alexander Urqu- 
hart, and the names of their husbands are men- 
tioned in Burke's History of the Commoners, vol. n. 
p. 296. SlGMA - 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. JWY 21, - 

THELB (6 th S. vii. 369). As a place-name it 
goes back to antiquity, if it be the same with 
Toliapis, the ancient name of the Isle of Sheppey, 
of which the meaning was probably " pine island "; 
and Ultima Thule, if rightly identified with 
Sweden and Norway, may likewise have received 
its name from its pine forests. That the kind of 
wood meant was pine appears from the fact that 
oak-wooded districts had a special designation, as 
Derwent and An-derida=the forest, the first 
syllable being the article. J. PARRY. 

THE NUN'S CROSS (6 th S. vii. 389). Siward's 
or Nun's Cross is one of the boundary points 
named in the ancient perambulations of the royal 
Forest of Dartmoor from the year 1240 downwards. 
In the Albert Memorial Museum at Exeter is 
preserved one of the oldest maps in existence a 
map of Dartmoor very similar in daughtsmansbip 
to the Mappa Mondo, presented by the late Baron 
Heath to the Society of Antiquaries, and probably 
dating from the fifteenth century, in which this 
cross is delineated and marked as "Crux Sywardy," 
whilst on the back of the map is this sentence, 
"Hit is to be noatid that on one syde of the 
cross above seid their is graven in the stone Crux 
Sivxtrdi, and on the other side is graven Roolande." 
The letters which your correspondent MR. WARD 
read as BOD and LORD may have been the 
remains of these inscriptions. It is conjectured 
that the cross was erected as a memorial of 
Si ward, the great and valiant Earl of Northum- 
berland, who governed the country between the 
Humber and the Tweed in the reigns of Canute 
and Edward the Confessor, the father of whom he 
was instrumental in establishing on the throne. 
In 1043 he accompanied Edward to Gloucester, 
and in 1050 he witnessed the installation at Exeter 
of Leofric, its first bishop. He died shortly before 
the Conqueror, and was buried at York. MR. 
WARD will find more on the subject of the cross 
in Howe's Perambulation of Dartmoor, and in 
several papers in the Transactions of the Devon- 
shire Association, notably that by Mr. Spence 
Bate, F.K.S., in vol. v. for 1873. 


REV. WILLIAM PETERS (6 th S. vii. 389) was 
Fellow Commoner of Exeter College, Oxford, and 
B.C.L., Oct. 10, 1788. He gave Exeter College a 
picture of Bishop Walter de Stapledon, painted 
by himself, 1780. He became Chaplain to the 
Prince Regent ; Rector of Knighton, Leicestershire, 
Jan. 25, 1788 ; and Rector of Wolsthorp, Lincoln- 
shire, by dispensation, in October in the same year ; 
Rector of Eaton, Leicestershire, 1783 ; and Pre- 
bendary of Crackpole St. Mary, Lincoln, July 8, 
1791, resigned 1795; Prebendary of Langford 
Ecclesia, June 11, 1795, to decease ; and Pre- 
bendary of Leighton Ecclesia, April 9, 1796, His 

diploma painting can now be seen in the Diploma 
Gallery of the Royal Academy. He died at 
Brasted Place, Kent, March 20, 1814. He mar- 
ried a niece of Dr. Turton, the bulk of whose 
great fortune descended to the second son of Mr. 
Peters. Further information about the Rev. Wil- 
liam Peters, his parentage, his wife, and his family 
are desired. Cf. History of Leicestershire, ii. 83 ; 
Gent. Mag., Ixxxiv. pt. i. 417 (1814) ; Rev. C. W. 
Boase's Exettr College, pp. Ixv, 113. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. 

ABP. TILLOTSON (6 th S. vii. 404). It is be- 
lieved that Wren's Parentalia states natus renahts 
denatus to be on the tomb of Bp. Wren's son. A 
modern instance of it (1872) is in the English 
cemetery at San Remo. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

" THE SOUTHERN CROSS " (6 tb S. vii. 387). A 
poem bearing this title is in a little book, pub- 
lished in Columbia, S.C., in 1882, entitled A 
Sequence of Songs. This may not be the poem 
noted by Mr. Davis, as the author states in his 
preface that several of his poems appeared in the 
(Charleston) News and Courier, and that both 
parts of the poem called " The Southern Cross " 
were composed in 1867 ; but this collection is 
noticeable for the strong Southern feelings of the 
author, and his hopes that " she yet shall rise." 

W. J. H. S. 

GEORGE DARLBY (6 th S. vii. 348). 
" Darley, George, poet (b. about 1800, d. 1846), wrote 
Errors of Extasie (1822) ; Sylvia ; or, the May Queen 
(1827) ; Thomas a Beckett ; Etkelstan, and other poems ; 
besides the introduction to an edition of Beaumont and 
Fletcher, numerous contributions to the Athenaeum, and 
several popular manuals of astronomy, geometry, algebra, 
and the like.'' Adams's Dictionary of English Literature* 
p. 169. 


VIRGATA (6 th S. vii. 348). In Mr. W. D. 
Macray's valuable Notes from the Muniments of 
St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford, p. 89, a page 
is devoted to measures of land. The author has 
seen evidence which shows that in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries the virgate varied be- 
tween eighteen and thirty-six acres. 


WORPLE (6 th S. vii. 348). I think that the 
Worple Roads at Isleworth and elsewhere must be 
near of kin to the Whapple ways of Sussex, which 
are bridle roads through the fields. Near Chichester 
there are some meadows called the Whappel fields. 



348). In a volume edited by X. Monte"pin and 
called Souvenirg d'un Garde du Corps, &c., the 
author, in describing the dinners at the Tuileriea 



in 1818, mentions that " le peintre Sableur' 
(whose name he does not give) used to design a 
different picture every night. The pictures were 
executed on the glass base of large silver plateaux. 
If the Court had been out hunting, the death oi 
the stag or the prettiest bit of the forest would be 
the subject chosen. At the banquets given for 
the Emperor Alexander, the King of Prussia, &c, 
the Kremlin, Potsdam, and the Castle of Schwerin 
were each reproduced in turn before the delighted 
eyes of their royal owners. The author says the 
effect was equal to that of a paintiug by a great 
master, and that an hour or so was all the time 
the artist employed in their production. 

K. H. B. 

The invention of this process is certainly attri- 
buted to Zobel in the English Encyclopedia, Bio- 
graphy, vol. vi. p. 942. It is there explained 
what led his attention to the subject. No mention 
is made of any one else pactising the art of marmo- 
tinto. G. F. R. B. 

HAM (6 th S. vii. 366). According to Fuller's 
Church History, bk. ix, p. 219, Richard Greenham 
died in London of the plague in 1592, and this is 
generally adopted by all subsequent writers. It 
is, however, probably not correct. A note in 
Cooper's Athena Cantabi^igienses, vol. ii. p. 546, 
states that he visited John Penry in the Poultry 
Compter on the 2nd of April, 1593 ; and a 
passage in Strype's Annals, on the authority of H. 
Holland, who published Greenham's Works in 1599, 
renders it probable that he did not die till 1594. 
Speaking of the peace and calm of the Church 
and people, and the late happy deliverance of the 
Queen from dangerous conspiracies (Lopez and 
others), Holland says, " Yea this matter so affected 
him that the day before his departure out of this 
life his thoughts were much troubled for that men 
were so unthankful." Now, as the date of the 
trial of Lopez was the last day of February, 
1593/4, it seems clear that Greenham must have 
lived till the spring of 1594. EDWARD SOLLY. 

BLACKALL FAMILY OP DEVON (6 th S. vii. 369). 
Christopher Blackall, of Hempstead, Devon, died 
August 21, 1633, and was buried in Totnes Church, 
where there is a monument, in black and white 
marble, to him and his four wives. His first wife 
was Elizabeth Stanning, who died in 1608; second, 
Penelope Hele, died 1616; third, Susan Hals well, 
died 1623; and fourth, Dorothea Norris, died 1634. 
The old black board, with the inscription to him 
and his wives in gold letters, has been recently 
removed from the church and placed in the public 
library at Totnes. Perhaps somebody interested 
in this old family will see to its restoration, or 
communicate on the subject with the Society for 
Preserving the Memorials of tho Dead, The Rev. 

Samuel Blackall for whom MR. FLETCHER in- 
quires was probably of this family, and this may 
be a clue to what he wants. D. K. T. 

Rev. Samuel Blackall, B.D., Rector of Lough- 
borough, co. Leicester, was the great-grandson of 
Thomas Blackall, alderman of London, and was 
buried at Hackney. He was the grandson of Right 
Rev. Offspring Blackall, Bishop of Exeter, and the 
son of Rev. Theophilus Blackall, B.D., Chancellor of 
the Diocese of Exeter. Rev. Sam. Blackall, B.D., 
died May 6, 1792, and was " buried in the cemetery 
at Sidmouth by his own desire, it being a place in 
which he had taken great delight when living." 

L. L. H. 

In addition to the pedigrees mentioned under 
" Blackall " and " Blackball" in Marshall's Genea- 
logist's Guide, reference may be made to a foot-note 
at p. 74 of Burke's History of the Commoners, 
vol. iv. SIQMA. 

MAYPOLES (6 th S. vii. 347). The following 
quotation, from my English Church Furniture, 
may be of service to the REV. W. S. LACH- 
SZYRMA. As it was written in 1866 it is possible 
that some of the maypoles mentioned aa then, 
existing may have disappeared : 

" The shaft or May-pole waa in former times con- 
sidered part of the public property of the parish, and as 
such repaired by the churchwardens. Popular amuse- 
ments were, in those days, under the patronage of the 
Church and had in many cases a half religious character. 
May games, though much older than the Christian 
Church, were connected with some of its mopt pleasing 
rites. The May-pole at Waddingham [Lincolnshire] had, 
before the Elizabethan spoliation, a sacring bell hanging 

from its top May-poles seem to have existed in most 

of our villages until the time of our great civil war. 
By an ordinance of the Long Parliament, April 6, 1644, 
all May-poles were ordered to be removed, as heathenish 
vanities, ' generally abused to superstition and wicked- 
nesse.' A May-pole still exists at each of the following 
places : Aldermaston, co. Berks ; Bayton, co. Worcester ; 
Dean. co. Wilts; Aysgarth, Ovington, Nayburn, Slingsby, 
and Barwick. co. York ; and Hemswell, in this county. 
In Castle Bytham church tower is a ladder, on one of 
the sides of which is an inscription setting forth that 
this was the village May-pole, 1660.' 

" In 1717 Sir Isaac Newton obtained the Strand May- 
pole to make a support for his large telescope. It stood 
a door or two to the west of Catherine Street. Brand a 
Popular Antiq., 1813, i. 193; Hone's Every-Day Book, 
i. 284 ; Notes and Queries, 2 nd S. xii. pauim." P. 179. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

A maypole still stands on Longdon Green, an 
open space in the parish of Longdon, on the high 
road from Lichfield to Rugeley. I believe it was 
erected on the accession of Her Majesty, and re- 
placed an earlier may-pole. HIRONDELLE. 

If Ma. LACH-SZYRMA is curious as to the fate 
jf maypoles, here is one which, placed on a noble 
site, had a wojrtby end: 


NOTES AND QUERIES. l*" s. vm. JOLT 21, 83. 

" The maypole in the Strand stood somewhat to the 
east of the ancient cross, opposite to Chester Inn, close 
to the church of St. Mary -le- Strand. In 1717 it 
was begged by Sir Isaac Newton and removed to Wan- 
stead, where it was used in raising the largest telescope 
then known." Pennant's " London," in Pepys's Diary, 
vol. iii. note, p. 365, Lon. 1848. 


I do not know of any list of existing may- 
poles, but it is stated in The Book of Days (1869), 
vol. i. p. 577, that " a maypole still does duty as 
the supporter of a weathercock in the churchyard 
at Pendleton, Manchester." G. FISHER. 

(6 th S. vii. 367). This is cut out of the frontis- 
piece of a folio volume entitled Devotionis Augusti- 
niance Flamma; or, Certaine Devout Godly and 
Learned Meditations, written by William Austin, 
and "set forth, after his decease, by his deare 
Wife and Executrix, Mrs. Anne Austin, as a sur- 
viving Monument of some part of the great worth 
of her ever-honoured Husband, who changed his 
life Jan. 16, 1633." The book was printed in 1635, 
and the frontispiece, which is very elaborate, was 
engraved by G. Glover. It is divided into twelve 
compartments, one for each of the following twelve 
meditations. Thus the first, which is for Lady- 
Day, represents the Annunciation; and the last, 
which is on his own funeral, a meditation on Isaiah 
xxxviii. 12, is illustrated by the small portrait of 
the author surrounded by emblems of mortality. 
Of William Austin there does not seem to be much 
known ; he was evidently a man of high religious 
feeling, and fond of music and poetry. He wrote 
ft poem on The Passion of Christ, which he sent 
to his friend James Howell in 1628, who in reply 
strongly urged him to print it. There is, or was, 
a monument in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, to two 
brothers, John Austin, who died in 1659, aged 
thirty-three, and Thomas Austin, who died 1658, 
aged thirty-six ; they are described as of Lincoln's 
Inn, and were probably of the same family, pos- 
sibly sons of William Austin. The Meditations 
are far above the average style of the theological 
writings of the period. EDWARD SOLLY. 

WHIP-LANE : WHIP-LANER (6 th S. vii. 348). 
Wright's Provincial Diet, has : " Lainer, s. (A.-N.), 
a thong or strap. ' Of other mennys lethyr men 
makyt large laynerys' (Proverb, MS. Fifteenth 
Century)." I would refer your correspondent also 
to the Promptorium Parvulorum, s.v. " Lanere " 
(Camden Soc. ed.), where there is a long note 
with reference to the word. Mr. Way says: 
" In Norfolk the lash of a whip is called the 
lanner, or lanyer, which in Suffolk denotes only 
the leathern lash." In the glossary reprinted from 
Marshall's Rural Economy of Norfolk, 1787 
(E.D.S.), lanniard is given as " the thong of a 
whip"; whilst in Old Country and Farming Words, 

edited by Mr. Britten (E.D.S), I find: " Lanner 

;Norf., &c.), all of a whip but the whip-cord." 

Prof. Skeat says, s.v." Lanyard": -. 

" 'Lanyer of leather, lasniere.' Palsgrave; O.P.laniere, 

a long and narrow band or thong of leather,' Cot.; 

origin uncertain, but prob. Latin; yet it is not clear 

iow it is connected either with Lat. lanarius, woollen, 

made of wool, or with laniarius, belonging to a lanius, 

or butcher." 

The laner, lanner, or layner did duty as a lace or 
strap, as is seen from : 

" Lordes in paramentz on her coursers, 
Rnightes of retenu, and eek squyers 

Is it possible that the French form latniere (Pals- 
grave) is due to some confusion of the word with 
Pr. Zafe, Sp. and Pg. lazo, It. laccio, L. laqueus, E. 


The following paragraph is taken from Forby'a 
Vocabulary of East Anglia (1830), vol. i. p. 190: 

"Lanner, lanyer, s. the lash of a whip. C.II. has 
lainere, G.L.A. explains it by small ropes. In Suffolk 
' the lanner ' is only used for the leathern laah, ami does 
not include the whip-cord attached to it ; Fr. laniere.'' 

G. F. E. B. 

I have been familiar with the word laner (used 
in this part of Essex instead of lash) from child- 
hood. When a small boy I went to stay at Peck- 
ham, in Surrey, and having some money given me 
to purchase a whip I went to a harness maker's 
and asked for one with a laner. The puzzled shop- 
man consulted his master, who explained that it 
was " Essex talk." This happened thirty years 
ago, but I believe the word is still in use. 

E. L. 


The word whipline is used by the coastguards 
and life-brigadesmen here, and I dare say on the 
north-east coast, for the small rope or line which is 
attached to the rocket fired over a wrecked vessel 
to establish communication with the shore. By it 
the hawser on which is the cradle is pulled by the 
crew from the shore. E. B. 

South Shields. 

OLIVER BROMSKILL (6 th S. vii. 388). I can 
give no information about Bromskill, but desire 
to note that he was not ejected, as stated by your 
correspondent, in 1662, but simply made way at 
the Eestoration for the lawful incumbent of the 
rectory, the Eev. Nicholas Hall, B.D. Calamy, in 
his anxiety to swell the number of those who 
suffered deprivation in 1662 by the Act of Uni- 
formity, has included in his list all ministers who, 
from any cause whatsoever, had to quit the pre- 
ferments they held during the Commonwealth 
period, and has classed them all as sufferers for 
conscience sake, The case of a man compelled by 

e* s. vin. JULY 2i, 83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


law to restore a living to its rightful owner and 
that of a man ejected under the Act of Uniformity 
manifestly have nothing in common. I add 
Nicholas Hall's epitaph from his monument in 
the chancel of Loughborough Church, inasmuch as 
it mentions Hall's restoration, and hence gives, 
by implication, the ground of Bromskill's depriva- 

Nic Hall S.T.B. 

Coll. Eman. Socius 

Hujus Ecclesiae Rector 

Mails temporibus ejectus 

Melioribus restitutus ; 

Hie tandem requiescit. 

Meliorem exspectans 

Obiit 12 Mail an Dom. 1669. 

Pallion Vicarage. 

WILLIAM GAMBOLD (6 th S. vii. 407). An 
account of the Rev. William Gambold, the com- 
piler of a manuscript Welsh and English dictionary 
and a Welsh grammar, the third edition of which, 
published at Bala 1833, I possess, and also of his 
son, the Rev. John Gambold, who resigned his 
vicarage of Stanton Harcourt, in Oxfordshire, em- 
braced the tenets of Moravianism, and was con- 
secrated a bishop of that sect in 1754, wilt be 
found in Enwogion Cymru, a biographical dic- 
tionary of eminent Welshmen, by the Rev. Robert 
Williams, priuted .and published at Llandovery 
1852; a copy of which can now be obtained from 
Mr. John Pryse, the editor and proprietor of the 
Mid-Wales Telegraph, at Llanidloes, Montgomery- 
shire. A short memoir is also prefixed to the 
tragedy of The Martyrdom of Ignatius, by the 
Rev. John Gambold, published after his death by 
the Rev. Benjamin La Trobe in 1739. 


The Rev. W. Gambold is perhaps best known 
to Welsh scholars as the author of A Compendious 
Welsh Grammar ; or, a Short and Easy Introduc- 
tion to the Welsh Language. I have before me 
the fourth edition of this work, published at Bala 
in 1843. In the preface to his first edition, dated 
April 14, 1724, Mr. Gambold confesses himself 
" much beholden to those two great oracles of the 
British language, both the Dr. Davies'; whose 
learned grammars furnished me with some rules 
and many excellent hints"; and until superseded 
by more recent publications, especially Dr. Row- 
land's, the grammar of which I am speaking was 
among standard works on the language. One of 
the paragraphs on gender is still known as " Gam- 
bold's rule," viz., that the feminine gender may be 
known by the natural change of a mutable initial 
consonant (except II and rh) into its light [soft] 
sound when the article is prefixed, as melin, yfelin, 
&c. This rule is, of course, useless, except to 
those who ape well acquainted with the spoken 

language, and who therefore know what the 
"natural" change would be in such particular 
instance. The same chapter is remarkable for its 
division of genders into five classes, " the mascu- 
line, the feminine, the common, the doubtful, and 
the epicene"! although Mr. Gambold afterwards 
admits (p. 24) that all these five genders are 
"reducible to two prevailing ones, viz., masculine 
and feminine." Appended to the grammar is " A 
Short English and Welsh Vocabulary, and Familiar 
Dialogues." C. S. JERRAM. 

SIR PHILIP JACKSON, KNT. (6 th S. vii. 429). 
Sir Philip (erroneously called by Burke Sir Peter) 
Jackson, who was knighted at Hampton Court 
Oct. 27, 1717, was son of Philip Jackson, a London 
merchant, whose will was proved in the P.C.C. ia 
June, 1684, and who was son of Miles Jackson, 
of Comb Hey, co. Somerset. The portraits of Sir 
Philip and Lady Jackson by Sir Godfrey Kneller 
are extant at Coombs Place, Sussex, the seat of 
their descendant, the Rev. Sir George Shiffner. 
Dame Jackson, whose will was proved in the 
P.C.C., Aug. 17, 1731, was daughter of Sir Peter 
Vandeput, knight, and sister to Sir Peter 
Vandeput, the first baronet, who, by will proved 
in the P.C.C. May 10, 1748, left property and 
reversionary interest of considerable value to John 
Jackson, merchant and oylman of St. Anne's, 
Westminster, nominating as trustees John 
Jackson's son-in-law, Henry Godde, and Josias 
Deponches. This John Jackson's pedigree, or 
rather that of his descendants, will be found in 
Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, new series, 
iv. 74. I aui anxious to ascertain whether, as the 
fact just stated leads one to suspect, he was of Sir 
Philip Jackson's family. He bore for arms, as 
appears from a monument to his son in St. Anne's, 
Soho, Arg., on a chevron sable between three 
eagles' heads erased, as many roses or cinquefoils. 
Sir Philip's arms I have failed as yet to discover. 
But it may afford a clue to mention that his family 
was somewhile possessed of Pontrilas Court, in 
Herefordshire. H. W. 

New University Club. 

ADMIRAL SIR JOHN HAWKINS (6 th S. vii. 429). 
It is stated in Burke's Extinct Baronetage, 
p. 253, that a pedigree of William Hawkins, of 
Plymouth, "descendant and heir of the great 
admiral," is to be found in Prince's Worthies. 


BARONY OF STAFFORD (6 th S. vii. 448). SAL- 
TIRE will find all the proceedings reported in vols. 
xxii., xxxi., Ivii., and cxcvi. of the House of Loraif 
Papers. There was no other petitioner before the 
House on this particular claim. G. F. R. B. 

" ANGLORUM SPECULUM " (6 th S. vii. 407). Mr. 
J. E. Bailey, in his bibliography of the life of 
Thomas Fuller (p. 743), says Anglorum Speculum 



viu. JULY 21, 

was an abridgment of Fuller's Worthies of Eng- 
land, with additions. The preface is signed 
" G. S.," who remarks, " Dr. Fuller, in his large 
history in folio, did go a great way in this matter ; 
but here is included the lives of many more 

eminent heros and generous patrons this being 

done with that brevity which may be more bene- 
ficial to the reader." The work appeared with 
two different imprints, though the title is the 
same and of the same date, as below : 

"London, printed for Thomas Passinger at the Three 
Bibles on London Bridge, William Thackary at the 
Angel in Duck Lane, and John Wright at the Crown on 
Ludgate Hill. 1684." 8vo. 

" London, printed for John Wright at the Crown on 
Ludgate Hill, Thomas Passinjrer at the Three Bibles on 
London Bridge, and William Thackary at the Angel in 
Duck Lane. 1684." 8vo. 

Another work, rare and little known, was also 
compiled from Fuller's Worthies with the follow- 
ing title : 

"The History of the Worthies of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland. By Thomas Fuller, D.D., Prebendary 
of Salisbury, author of The Church History of Britain, 
&c., &c. To which are added, Memoirs of the Author. 
Carlisle, S. Jefferson, 34, Scotch Street ; London, J. B. 
Nichols & Son, 25, Parliament Street ; Newcastle, E. 
Charnley. M.D.CCC.LXI." 8vo. 



Lowndes describes this book as " an abridgment 
of Fuller's Worthies with a continuation." The 
authorship is assigned by Messrs. Halkett and 
Laing's Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonym- 
ous Literature of Great Britain to George Sandys. 

G. F. E. B. 

"ONCE AND AWAY" (6 th S. vii. 408). I would 
humbly suggest that " once and away " and " once 
in a way" are not synonymous terms. By the 
expression " once and away " I understand Carlyle 
to have meant " immediately " a contraction 
from the familiar formula of " Once, twice, thrice, 
and away," used by boys in starting a race. 


"Gadao!" ejaculated Oldbuck, "these great 
men use one's house and time as if they were their 
own property. Well, it 's once and away " (Anti- 
quary, chap, xxxvi.). 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

ERASMUS ON KISSING (6 th S. vii. 69, 93, 116). 
The "mos nunquam satis laudatus," as friend 
Desiderius justly calls it, certainly prevailed in 
England in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies to a very pleasing extent. There is a story 
I think it is retailed in the Broad Stone of 
Honour of an English knight riding through 
France to the Field of the Cloth of Gold. His 
horse cast a shoe at a certain village, the seigneur 
whereof had departed to the same rendezvous ; 
but the seiQu'g }ady hospitably entreated the 

traveller. She came forth of her castle, attended 
by twelve damsels fair to see ; " And," said the 
dame, " forasmuch as in England ye have such a 
custom as that a man may kiss a woman, therefore 
I will that ye kiss me, and ye shall also kiss all 
these my maidens." Which thing the knight 
straightway did, and rejoiced greatly thereat, for 
they were "nymphae divinis vultibus," though 
they were not English. At present the good and 
innocent game of kiss-in-the-ring preserves among 
the humbler classes that custom which was so 
dear to the Beformer ; and in a new book I 
have just read the reverend author congratulates 
the modern peasantry of Devon for that they live 
in "more osculatory days" than their forbears. 
It is curious that among negroes who are so well 
equipped by Nature for this form of salutation 
the "mos laudatus" is not understood. A late 
distinguished African traveller once told me that 
he offered a kiss, under favourable circumstances, 
to a young lady of King Mumbo Jumbo's court, 
and that she recoiled in mere alarm, observing 
that she was not yet worthy to be eaten. 

A. J. M. 

BALLYRAGGING (6 th S. vi. 428 ; vii. 156). This 
term occurs in Hotten's Slang Dictionary, 's.v. 
" Bullyrag, to abuse or scold vehemently ; to 
swindle one out of money by intimidation and 
sheer abuse, as alleged in a late cab case (Evans 
v. Robinson)." To my knowledge it has been in 
recent times in use at Westminster in the sense 
of constantly teasing and annoying anybody. I 
should have thought it was an expression pretty 
generally in use at public schools. ALPHA. 

Having always heard this word here as bullyrag, 
I thought it was a compound formed from bully. 
A man will say, " He bullyragged me like a pick- 


SCLEM (6 th S. vii. 206, 413). I owe an apology 
to MR. PEACOCK for having unintentionally mis- 
led him. When he mentioned the title I at once 
perceived that Wallington's Historical Notices 
was the book to which I had referred ; but not 
having seen it for perhaps seven or eight years, 
my memory deceived me, and I affixed the 
epithet skettum to Davis instead of Grenville. 
It is so far satisfactory to find that only one 
editor, instead of two, has fallen into this " laugh- 
able error," as MR. PEACOCK justly describes it. 
My own mistake would have been sooner cor- 
rected had I not lent my copy of " N. & Q." to a 
friend at a distance. T. W. WEBB. 

B. COLE, ARTIST (6 th S. vii. 308, 356). This 
engraver is mentioned by Strutt in his Biogra- 
phical Dictionary of Engravers, London, 1785, 
4to., vol. i. p. 211: "B. Cole, by whom, among 
other things, is the portrait of Mrs. Behn," Ho 

8*8. VIM. JOLT 21, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


thinks that he was of the same family as J. Cole 
and N. P. Cole, also engravers, but of no great 
repute, and of whom he records little beyond the 
names. B. Cole engraved the plates to Fifty 
Fables of Phadrus, in Latin, French, and Eng- 
lish, by Daniel Bellamy, of St. John's College, 
Oxford (London, 1734, 8vo.). He also published, 
in 1746, in two vols. 12mo., "Select Tales and 
Fables, embellished with Three Score Original 
Designs, engraved on Copper-Plates by B. Cole, 
Engraver." Bryan, in his Dictionary Appendix, 
vol. il p. 677, records J. Cole, but does not 
mention the other two. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

THE SQUIRE PAPERS (6 th S. v. 448; vi. 75, 
112). A copy of Harris's Life of Cromwell has 
recently come into my possession, purporting to 
have belonged to one William Squire, of West- 
gate, Peterborough, in 1772, who was the grand- 
son of Samuel Squire, a captain in the Lord 
General's Regiment of Horse. The book contains 
many interesting notes, said to be from the papers 
of Samuel Squire, and the following copy of a 
letter from Cromwell to him : 

" Dear friend, Wee have secret and sure hints that a 
meeting of the malignants takes place at Loweastof in co. 
Suffolk on Tuesday now I want your ayd so come with 
all speed on getting this with your troop and tell no one 
your route but let mee see you ere sundown. 

From your friend and commander 

For Capt. Squire at his quarters Oundel. 

Of course I know of the enterprising bookseller 
who indulges in this kind of thing, and am some- 
what dubious of the genuineness of the whole of 
the memoranda ; but our bookseller is not such 
an idiot as to base his pranks on groundless ideas ; 
therefore I should like to know something con- 
cerning the Squire papers, when they turned up, 
and anything else about them. 

I would further say that I bought the book not 
of a bookseller, but of a private individual, amongst 
many others on various subjects, which un- 
doubtedly belonged to a family named Squire. 


EGLANTINE (3 rd S. iv. 305, 379; 4 th S. ii. 607; 
iii. 43.) Some years ago much learned discussion 
took place in the pages of " N. & Q." as to the 
derivation and meaning of the word eglantine, used 
by Milton in the well-known lines, 

" Through the sweet briar and the vine, 
And the twisted eglantine." 

The fact seems to be that Milton miscalled the 
plant he was thinking of. The honeysuckle is 
twisted, the eglantine is not. F. C. H. (3 rd S. iv. 
379), our lamented nota-querist, remarked, " Poets 
are not always botanists, and the probability is 
that he made a mistake, and confounded one 
plant with another. I think," he added, " that we 
should search in vain for any period when the 

word eglantine was first used for the honeysuckle." 
The learned Eector of Lincoln College, in his 
charming essay (" English Men of Letters " series), 
says that Milton was not " a close observer of 
things around us"; and he notices, among other 
instances, that the pine is not " rooted deep as 
high " (P. R., 4416), but sends its roots along the 

I have not seen Tusser quoted as an authority 
on the word eglantine. His dictum as to the name 
of a plant may be accepted as conclusive. In his 
Five Hundred Pointes of Good Husbandrie (Eng- 
lish Dialect Society's reprint of the ed. of 1580, 
p. 95), under " Marches Abstract," among " Herbes,, 
branches, and flowers, for windowes and pots," he 
mentions " Eglantine, or sweet brier." 

J. DlXON. 

LEATHER WALL DECORATION (6 th . rii. 167, 
417). There are very beautiful leather hangings 
or wall decorations at Dunster Castle, Somerset- 
shire. The painting of the faces I am told is 
singularly riussi. E. H. BUSK. 

Fain, Past and Present: a Chapter in the History of 

Commerce. By Cornelius Walford, F.S.A. (Stock.) 
MR. WALFORD has produced an interesting book of 
materials which will be very helpful to any one who 1 
shall hereafter undertake a history of fairs. Such a 
work it does not pretend to be. It covers a Targe space : 
but the details on many matters require filling in, though 
we have found no errors of importance. In 1448 an 
Act was passed against holding fairs and markets on 
Sundays. Like more modern laws, it was in many places 
utterly disregarded. A weekly market was, we believe, 
held at Bradford on Sunday until days quite recent, and 
there is evidence from the otber side of England that a 
Sunday market existed at East Budleigh until the very 
end of the sixteenth century. The account of the great 
fair at Stourbridge is the best part of the book. In 
1655 there was an officer connected with it called " Lord 
of the Taps," whoso function it was to taste the ale in 
the booths at the fair. A new coat was provided for 
this functionary at that time, made of crimson, "gaily 
decorated with taps." We do not understand from this 
whether taps were hung ahout him, or whether his coat 
was embroidered with them -seme of taps, to parcdy 
the language of heraldry. In the last century there still 
survived, doubtless from much earlier times, a mock 
service of initiation or making free of the fair. It seems 
to have been a sort of parody of the sacrament of bap- 
tism ; lighted candles and a bell were used. Mr. WalforJ 
gives some verses of the jingle that was repeated on the 
occasion. We wish he had printed the whole of it. 
Though without claim to be considered poetry, even of 
the lowest soi t, it has yet an interest when compared 
with similar things which have existed in places very 
far apart. In 1571 the Corporation of Cambridge passed 
an ordinance for planting willows on waste lands. 
Every alderman might set six score and every burgesa 
four score. This reminds us of manorial orders we havq 
met with of about the same dite, the difference being 
that at Cambridge the order was permissive; in th^ 
cases we refer to it was compulsory. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6' s. vm. JULY 21, '83. 

A Dictionary of the Anonymous and Pseudonymous 
Literature of Great Britain. By the late Samuel 
Halkett and the late Rev. John Laing, M.A. Vol. II. 
(Edinburgh, Paterson.) 

WE have received the second instalment of this most 
valuable book of reference. In a work of such magnitude 
much care necessarily has to be taken in the final revision 
of the almost numberless entries. This, coupled with 
the untoward deaths of Messrs. Halkett and Laing, is 
quite sufficient to account for the delay in the publication 
f these volumes. The work has now been brought 
down to the letter N, so that we may hope to hear before 
long of the completion of the dictionary. Mr. Wheatley, 
who so generously abandoned his own intention of pre- 

Earing a similar work of this kind, still continues to give 
is valuable assistance to Messrs. Paterson. We may 
mention that one of the more noticeable features of the 
present volume is Mr. Wheatley's interesting article on 
Juniu?, in which he gives a list of the various claimants 
to the authorship of the Letters, accompanied by critical 
notes on some of the more important claims. A word of 
praise is due to the publishers for the manner in which 
they are producing this dictionary ; both type and paper 
leave nothing to be desired. 

Glimpses of our Ancestors in. Sussex, and Gleanings in 
East and West Sussex. Second Series. By Charles 
Fleet. (Lewes, Farncombe.) 

WHEN the first series of this work appeared we spoke 
highly of it, as it well deserved. The second series is, 
however, in many ways an improvement upon the first. 
It is better and more carefully written, and the illustra- 
tions are of a higher order. The volume consists of 
nearly thirty papers, every one of which deals with 
some subject of permanent interest. That on the Pel- 
hams, with which the volume opens, is a well-considered 
piece of family history, which, if it contains nothing 
absolutely new, will be conceded by the most captious 
critic to be a very useful condensation of our knowledge 
regarding a noteworthy race. The same praise may be 
given to the articles on the Shirleys and the Percies. The 
article on the Quakers in Sussex might well hare been 
longer. Short as it is, it cannot but prove useful to those 
who are interested in religious history. Mr. Fleet gives 
a short account of the Knights Templars, in which he 
produces a deed unhappily in an English version only 
by which it seems that an elderly married woman named 
Johanna Chaldese was on one occasion admitted into the 
order. This is a fact which, as the author remarks, would 
have drawn down ridicule if it had appeared in the pages 
of a modern historical novel. Sussex has, it seems, the un- 
enviable notoriety of being the last county in England 
where the atrocious punishment of peine forte et dure 
was carried out. In 1736 a man was indicted at Lewes 
for murder and robbery. There seems to have been 
little doubt as to his guilt. The prisoner, however, 
when brought up for trial, pretended to be dumb. That 
it was a pretence only is rendered almost certain by the 
fact that several persons in court swore to having heard 
him speak. As he continued mute, he was carried to 
Horsham Gaol. " They laid on him first 100 weight; 
then added 100 more, and then made it 350 lb.,yet he 
would not speak. Then adding 50 Ib. more, he was just 
about dead, having all the agonies of death about him, 
when the executioner, who weighs about sixteen or 
seventeen stone, laid himself upon the board which was 
over him, and, adding to the weight, killed him." Thus 
Bays the old account. One wonders how many poor 
wretches were tortured to death in this manner in 
the "good old times," which some dreamers think to 
have been so much happier than those in which our lot 
is cast Our Yorkshire readers will remember the case 

of Margaret Clithero, who was pressed to death because 
she refused to plead to an indictment of having harboured 
priests. Mr. Fleet gives a curious witchcraft story of 
the seventeenth century. In some of its incidents it ia 
much like events which simple folk have thought to be 
supernatural, which hare come to pass in our own 

Cathedra Peiri; or, the Titles and Prerogatives of St. 

Peter, and of his See and his Successors. By C. F. B. 

Allnatt. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 

(Burns & Gates.) 

WE have already spoken of Mr. Allnatt's work with the 
favour which his industry and research warrant, apart 
from any theological bias as to the view which his 
catena of excerpts and translations is intended to 
support. To this praise he is additionally entitled for 
the increased usefulness of the third edition now before 
us. As to the relative value of many of Mr. Allnatt's 
authorities, both as to person and time, readers of 
different communions will necessarily hold different 
opinions. But it is a very convenient vade mecum for 
the student of ecclesiastical history, who can in no case 
dispense with the consideration of that very interesting 
and important factor in the story of the Western Church, 
the Petrine claims as involved in the traditions and 
history of the Roman See. It is obvious, of course, 
that Mr. Allnatt's book should serve as an introduction 
to, not as a substitute for, the original authorities whom 
he cites. 

The Transvaal and Bechuana Land, by G. B. Clark, 
M.I >. (Juta, Hcelis & Co.), which has reached a second 
edition, contains much information on a question of the 
day, and embodies the texts of the Sand River Conven- 
tion of 1852 and the Pretoria Convention of 1881, 
which would otherwise have to be sought for in a 
wilderness of Blue-books. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

E. WALFORD. We are indebted to the Rev. Eric W. 
Leslie, S.J., for a reference to the Third Report Hist. 
MSS. Com., p. 337, showing that there is an autograph 
of the poet at Stonyhurst. A tracing sent to the rector 
would probably settle the question at once. 

A. GYLES ("Pouring oil on troubled waters"). See 
" N. & Q.," 5th s. vii. 89 ; 6"> S. iii. 69, 252, 298 ; iv. 174 ; 
vi. 377. 

J. E. T. L. No. Please describe them to the best of 
your ability. 

HUBERT BOWER. Please forward address. We have 
a letter for you. 

C. G. MOREN. Apply to the Professor of Sanskrit, 
Oxford or Cambridge University. 
Ha:c OLIM (6th s. vii. 474). Please send full address. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6th S . VIII. JULY 28, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


NOTES : Derivation of Calder, 6t Norwich in Time of 

Stephen, 62 Exhibited Portraits, 63 Number of Ancestors 
- Smoking Booms Buckenham Pedigree, 65 New Way of 

telling Time Assassin Bold Deity for Sale Crowflower 

Peers' Titles Why as a Surname, 66. 

QUERIES: "Aright mitre supper" Villikins-Arnndel 
"A Robinson" Mrs. Serres, 67 23rd Royal Welsh 
Fusileers Velocemen Lady Grace Edham Verses by 
Voltaire" Pynson " Volume Sir Walter Tirell's Burial- 
place White Pigeons Heraldic, 63 Paul Herring 
Accociation Club Authors Wanted, 69. 

REPLIES :-St. M6dard Cecil Family, 60 Name of Inn, 71 
" Sir Hornbook " Effer or Effet, 72 Barry the Clown- 
Westminster School Pronunciation of Whole Cowper's 
Pew, 73" Golden Grove "Brass Token Smallest Parish 
Church River Name Isis Caterways Bnngay French 
Words in South Devon, 74 Russell Worsted Cross on 
Loaves Armiger Family Lombardy Poplars" The Calling 
of a Gentleman," 75 Etymology of Lymington Decipherer 
to the King, 76 Gambetta Quarterings Salisbury Street, 
Strand, 77 Antiquity of " Kriegsspiel " Standing at 
Prayers Cromwell and Russell " Divine Breathings," 78 
Ducking a Scold Burreth Authors Wanted, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Bugge's "Northern Mythology" 
Sawyer's "Sussex Folk-lore" Caxton's " Chesse-Playe " 
" New Facts relating to the Chatterton Family " " The 
Annual Register." 

Notices to Correspondents. 


The derivation of this word has continued to be 
a matter of controversy ever since antiquaries have 
written on the subject. 

The Calder, one of the most beautiful of northern 
rivers, rises near Cliviger Dene, in Lancashire, and 
enters the county of York through a wild gorge at 
Todmorden. The valley along which it winds its 
irregular way is very lovely and romantic, and 
associated with no little poetic legend and romance. 
The Kev. Thomas Wright, who published a work 
on the antiquities of the parish of Halifax, where 
he was curate for more than seventeen years, 
noticing the Calder, stated that the spring is 
called Gal or Col, and is joined by the river Dar. 
This is a purely fanciful supposition, and, I be- 
lieve, not borne out by facts. Another historian 
surmised that the original Celtic name was Dur, 
and that the Saxons on settling here added the 
adjective ceald, or cold. But this is very impro- 
bable, the river in question being no colder than 
any other. Dr. Whitaker suggested a Danish 
derivation, Kaldur. An able writer in a recent 
work on Yorkshire gives the derivation from two 
Celtic words, coll, the hazel-tree, and dur, water. 
There is nothing to be urged against this except 
the fact that hazel-trees never grew in such abund- 

ance in this valley as to be a distinguishing feature. 
Place-names with the Celtic coll, or the Saxon 
haesel, are very rarely found. Had copses or 
shaws of hazel-trees flourished to such an extent 
as to give a name to the river, their former exist- 
ence would still be traceable in the abiding 
nomenclature of the country through which the 
Calder runs its course. To these conjectures of 
the derivation of Calder I venture to add another, 
viz., from two Celtic words, caoill, a wood, and 
dur, water, the river winding through the woods. 

A great deal may be brought forward in support 
of Whitaker's suggestion. The Danes unques- 
tionably won and maintained a lasting hold on the 
hills overlooking the Calder. As soon as thia 
mountain-born stream assumes the dignity and 
proportions of a river at Todmorden, it washes on 
the one hand Langfield, the Long Range of Hills, 
and on the other Stansfield, the Stony Range, 
whilst a few miles lower down it flows at the 
foot of Norland, the Northland all Danish, or 
more correctly Scandinavian, terms. Then, on 
the slopes rising from the south banks, we have 
Sowerby and Fixby, two ancient " by's," where 
families of predatory Danes took up their abode. 
Other nomenclature traces of the same nation, of 
the great Canute himself possibly, might be men- 
tioned in favour of the argument on this side of 
the question ; though (I write from memory) I 
believe Dr. Whitaker himself did not point out 
the surrounding Danish indications I have here 

But more, I think, can be urged in support of 
the derivation from the Celtic caoill and dur. 
That Celts, the Brigantian clan, lived in this 
locality, is a certainty, the proofs of which 
need not be here adduced. The Calder beck so 
soon as it issues from the spring in Cliviger Dene 
flows by a long stretching sweep of woodland, 
and further on among the hills of Yorkshire, a 
broader and a nobler stream, pursues its course 
for miles and miles through dense primaeval forests, 
among which may be noticed the once famous 
forest of Hardwick. Its precipitous banks were 
clothed with no mere hazel coppice, but with vast 
masses of the more majestic oak and ash and 
birch, woodland in its wilder and more imposing 
form. Even to-day, though most of the primaeval 
forest has been cut down and manufacturing 
villages have sprung up on the ancient sylvan 
sites, the tourist starting above Todmorden would 
not, in a walk of thirty miles by the river side, be 
able to lose sight of the picturesque and far- 
stretching belts of woodland scenery. It is yet 
emphatically the Caoill-dur, the water winding 
through the woods. Of course in this case the 
Saxons took up the word as they found it in use 
among the conquered Celts. Then, to strengthen 
this conjecture, the very first tributary brook on 
the north of size and importance, at least, to give 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6<>- s. viu. J OM 23, . 

a name to the valley joining the parent stream is 
the Golden or Caldene, which probably is the 
Caoill-dene, the woodland valley. The reader will 
judge how accurately the word describes this 
lonely mountain glen when he is told that at a 
distance the eye can scarcely catch a flash of the 
waters of this stream as they hurry down this wild 
eylvan region, so thickly is it overshadowed by a 
forest of ash and birch. A topographical word 
derived from two languages is rare in this part, 
and when we come across one it is generally a 
Saxon grafted on the more primitive Celtic name 
of mountain or river. Golden or Caldene is pro- 
bably an instance to the point. 

That caoill was contracted to, or commonly 
pronounced cal may be pretty safely supposed 
when we know that in the Latinized form or 
transformation it became cal, as in Caledonii that 
is, Caoill daoin, the people inhabiting the woods. 
The reader will perceive that caoill is evidently 
closely akin to the Greek /caAov, which also sig- 
nifies a wood. Some authorities derive Celt from 
the same root, that is, the people inhabiting the 
woods. It is only fair to state that traces of 
Celtic nomenclature in the neighbourhood through 
which the Calder runs are scarce, a subject I treat 
more fully elsewhere. F. 

Blomefield's account is as follows. After a brief 
notice of Stephen's accession, and of his friendly 
relations with Hugh Bigod, he goes on to say that 
" the citizens took this opportunity to make in- 
terest with the king to have a new charter, and to 
be governed by coroners and bailiffs instead of their 
provost or portreve "; but that before the close of 
the year (1136), on a report that the king was 

" Hugh Bigod came to his castle here and refused to 
render it up to any but the king only : the bottom of it 
wae, he found that William de Blois, natural son to King 
Stephen (1), was about supplanting him, and getting the 
castle for himself; so that instead of being able to carry 
the point for the citizens, he could not long hold out his 
own : for under pretence of Hugh's holding it in this 
manner, he [_'. > Stephen] seized the castle and all that 
belonged to it, and all the liberties of the city from the 
citizens, and then took them into his own hands; and 
soon after he granted to his natural son William for an 
appennage or increase of inheritance, the town and 
borough of the city of Norwich (2)." 

For all this story about William de Blois he gives 
us only two references, viz., (1) Camden, fo. 387, 
and (2) Dugdale, Bar., vol. i. p. 75 ; (Gurdon's) 
Essay, p. 22 (the latter being little more than a 
repetition of Camden). But for his statement 
about the petition for a new charter he gives no 
authority at all, nor can I find any. 

The facts of Stephen's illness and reported death, 
and of Hugh's taking possession of the castle and 
Defusing to give it up to any one but the king 

himself, we know from Henry of Huntingdon ; 
but of all the rest of the story this author says 
not a word, nor does either of the writers to whom 
Blomefield refers. The name of William of Blois 
does not appear in the passage quoted afterwards 
from Camden ; and as for Dugdale, he distinctly 
states that the town and castle of Norwich were 
granted to William by the treaty made between 
Stephen and Henry FitzEmpress, i.e., in 1153, 
which can hardly be called " soon after " the revolt 
of Hugh Bigod in 1136. (The grant " appears," 
as Camden says, " in the public records," i. e., in 
the copy of the treaty itself, which may be seen in 
Bymer, i. 18.)* But whatever may have been the 
exact nature of William's connexion with Nor- 
wich in 1163, he certainly can have had nothing 
to do with Hugh's proceedings there in 1136, for 
the way in which he is mentioned by all the con- 
temporary historians shows that he was not what 
Dugdale (following Matthew Paris) calls him, but 
the second (or third) son of Stephen and his queen 
Matilda, and consequently must in 1136 have 
been a mere child. 

The story of the grant of the city and castle to 
William of Blois is followed by a detailed account 
of the number of citizens, revenues of the city, &c., 
all apparently copied either direct from Gamden 
or through the medium of Gurdon's Essay. But 
what was Camden's authority ? 

The next quotation from Camden is as follows : 
" In the seventeenth year of King Stephen (as 
we read in ancient records) Norwich was built 
anew, and was populous for a village, and was 
made a corporation?" What are the "ancient 
records " here referred to ? Blomefield is not con- 
tent with this bare statement of Camden, but 
adds, "In 1152, by his [i. e., Hugh Bigod's] interest 
with the king, the citizens were restored to all 
their liberties, and had a new charter granted 
them ; but I imagine they had no enlargement of 
privileges, for they were now governed by a pro- 
vost, as heretofore"; and that "their provost 
paying the yearly fee-farm to the king, they peace- 
ably enjoyed all their liberties to his death." 
Again I ask, What is the authority for all this i 

One error in Blomefield's account of Norwich 
under this king remains to be noticed. His story 
of the restoration of the liberties of the city in 
1141 rests solely on the authority of what he, in 
common with all antiquaries of his day, calls the 
Pipe Eoll of 5 Stephen, but which is now known 
to belong to 31 Henry I. We must not blame him 
for this mistake as to the date of the Pipe Roll ; 
but he has totally misunderstood the meaning of 
the entry to which he refers, and which runs as 
follows : " Et idem Vicecomea reddit compotum 

* The expression in Eymer is castra et villas, which 
seems a strange way of describing the castle and city. 
Why is the plural used instead of the singular] 



de Norwico. In thesauro xxv li. et in perdono 
per breve Kegis Burgensibus de Norwico c. a. et 
quieti sunt." Misled, apparently, by the word 
perdono, he thus interprets it: " The citizens paid 
into the hands of the sheriff 251. as a composition 
aid to the king, for their pardon and restoration 
of their liberties." If any such meaning could be 
extracted from the original we should have to 
insert into the history of the city under Henry I. 
a circumstance hitherto unknown, viz., the loss of 
its liberties and their restoration in 1131, and 
therefore in direct contradiction to his former 
statement, as quoted in my note on the charter of 
Henry I. (6 th S. viii. 6), that whatever may have 
been the privileges granted by that king, the 
citizens "enjoyed them peaceably till his death in 
1135"; but I need scarcely add that the record in 
question refers only to the "aid" due from the 
city, irrespective of any charter in short, has 
nothing whatever to do with it. 


Mr. Algernon Graves, whose valuable investiga- 
tions as historiographer of pictures and engravings 
are well known and appreciated, has recently com- 
pleted a catalogue of all the portraits exhibited at 
the principal exhibitions during the 120 years 
from 1760 to 1880." From this he has compiled 
the following shorter list, which gives the names 
of all those persons whose portraits have been 
exhibited six times or more. Serving as it does 
to indicate the most popular characters during 
the period embraced, and also, in a minor degree, 
to show what portraits are rare and what are not, 
it cannot fail to be of interest to the readers of 
"N. &Q.":- 

Arthur, Duke of Wellington ... ... 138 

Queen Victoria ... ... ... ... 117 

King George IV. ... ... ... 115 

King George III ... ... 87 

Frederick, Duke of York ... ... ... 69 

Prince Consort ... ... ... ... 61 

King William IV. ... ... ... 51 

Lord Nelson ... ... ... ... 45 

Mrs. Siddons ... ... ... ... 43 

Duke of Sussex ... ... ... ... 41 

Lord Brougham ... ... ... ... 40 

Albert, Prince of Wales ... ... ... 38 

Benjamin West, P.R. A. ... ... ... 38 

Sir Walter Scott... ... ... ... 37 

Princess Charlotte ... ... ... 37 

David Garrick ... ... ... ... 30 

Queen Charlotte... ... ... ... 29 

Alexandra, Princess of Wales ... ... 29 

William Pitt ... ... 27 

Charles Kemble ... ... ... ... 25 

J. P. Kemble ... ... ... ... 25 

Henry, first Marquess of Anglesea ... ... 24 

John Gibson, R.A. ... ... ... 24 

Lord Palmerston ... ... ... 24 

Charles James Fox ... ... ... 23 

Napoleon I. ... .,. ... 23 

J. Northcote, R.A. 

Sir Robert Peel ... 

Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A. 

First Earl of Eldon 

Second Earl Grey 

George, Lord Byron 

Sir Joseph Banks 

Lord John Russell (Earl) ... 

Prince Alfred (Duke of Edinburgh) 

Charles Dickens ... 

Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone 

William, Duke of Gloucester 

Sir Francis Burdett 

William Wordsworth 

Thomas Carlyle ... 

J. Flaxman, R.A. 

Charles Kean ... ... .., 

Duchess of Kent 

W. C. Macready ... 

Dr. Parr 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R. A. 

James Watt 

Charles Mathews 


George Canning ... ... ... ... 18 

Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester ... 18 

Napoleon III. ... ... ... ... 18 

Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge ... ... 16 

Prince Leopold (King of the Belgians) ... 15 

Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. ... ... 15 

John Munden (actor) ... ... ... 15 

Richard Cobden ... ... ... ... 14 

Ernest, Duke of Cumberland ... ... 14 

Edward, Duke of Kent ... ... ... 14 

General Sir C. J. Napier ... ... ... 14 

Marquess Wellesley ... ... ... 14 

Mra.Yates ... ... ... ... 14 

Henry Bone, R.A. ... ... ... 13 

Rt. Hon. John Bright ... 

Marquess Cornwallis ... ... ... 13 

Thomas, Lord Erskine ... ... ... 13 

Dr. Samuel Johnson 

Victoria, Princess Royal ... ... ... 13 

Robert Southey ... ... ... ... 13 

Miss Ellen Tree ... ... ... ... 13 

E. V. Vernon, Archbishop of York ... 13 

Princess Augusta Sophia ... ... ... 12 

E. H. Bailey, R.A 12 

Dr. Blomfield, Bishop of London ... 

Thomas Coke, Earl of Leicester ... ... 12 

Sir Peter Laurie ... ... ... ... 12 

Thomas Moore ... ... ... ... 12 

Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury ... ... 12 

Thomas Stothard, R.A ... 12 

Princess Mary, Duchess of Teck ... ... 12 

Samuel Whitb read ... ... ... 12 

John Bannister ... 

Shute Barrington, Bishop of Durham ... 11 

Henry Fuseli, R.A. 

Mr. Johnston (actor) 

Dr. Livingstone ... 

Princess Louise (Marchioness of Lorne) 

Lord Melbourne ... ... ... H 

General Paoli ... ... ... " 

Miss Paton (actress) ... ... H 

Miss Taylor (actress) ... ... ... " 

Lady Clementina Villiers ... 

Sir David Wilkie, R.A 

Cardinal Wiseman 

General Wolfe ... ... ... ... H 

Princess Amelia... 

Mrs. Billington ... 10 

Antonio Canova ... ... ... ... '* 



Sir William Chambers, R.A. ... ... 10 

Peter Coxe ... ... ... ... 10 

Sir Humphrey Davy ... ... ... 10 

Princess Helena (Princess Christian) ... 10 

Dr. Edward Jenner ... ... ... 10 

Edmund Kean ... ... ... ... 10 

Lord Lyndhurst ... 

George Peabody ... ... ... ... 10 

General Sir Thomas Picton ... ... 10 

Sir William Ross, R.A. ... ... ... 10 

Sir John Soane, R.A. ... ... ... 10 

Princess Sophia ... ... ... ... 10 

George Washington ... ... ... 10 

Princess Sophia of Gloucester ... ... 9 

Princess Alice (of Hesse) ... ... ... 9 

Henry Bathurst, Bishop of Norwich ... 9 

Princess Beatrice ... ... ... 9 

T. P. Cooke (actor) ... ... ... 9 

Lord Duncan ... ... ... ... 9 

Earl of Egremont ... ... ... 9 

Miss Helen Faucit ... ... ... 9 

Lord Grenville ... ... ... ... 9 

Sir John Cam Hobhouse (Lord Broughton) ... 9 

Joseph Hume ... ... ... ... 9 

MM. Jordan ... ... ... ... 9 

Mr. Knight (actor) ... ... ... 9 

Miss Mellon (actress) ... ... ... 9 

EarlMoira ... ... ..: ... 9 

Joseph Nollekens, R.A. ... ... ... 9 

Daniel O'Connell ... ... ... 9 

William Roscoe ... ... ... ... 9 

Capt. Sir John ROPS ... ... ... 9 

J. B. Sumner, Archbishop of Cantei bury .. 9 

Alfred Tennyson ... ... ... 9 

Queen Caroline ... .. ... ... 9 

James Wallack ... ... ... ... f) 

James Ward. R A. ... ... ... 9 

Benjamin Webster ... ... ... 9 

Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford ... 9 

Prince Arthur (Duke of Connaught) ... 8 

Henry Betty ... ... ... ... 8 

Countess of Blessington ... ... ... 8 

Sir Benjamin Brodie ... ... ... 8 

Miss Brunton (actress) ... ... ... 8 

Sir Thomas Powell Buxton 8 

Lord Camden ... ... ... 

Anne, Duchess of Cumberland ... 8 

Allan Cunningham ... ... ... 8 

W. Fairbairn ... ... ... g 

Prof. Faraday ... ... 3 

John Fawcett (actor) ... 8 

Marquess of Granby ... 8 

Sit- Rowland Hill 8 

Dr. Howley, Archbibhop of C iiiterluiry ... 8 

Miss Fanny Kemble 

Sheridan Knonles ... 

J. List on (actor) 

Louis Philippe, King of the Frenc 

Daniel Maclise, R.A. 

W. Mulready, R.A. 

R. Palmer (actor) 

Sir Frederick Pollock 

Earl St. Vincent 

George Stephenson 

Signora Storace ... ... ... ... 8 

James Thomson (poet) ... ... ... 8 

Lord Thurlow ... ... ... ... 8 

Prince Blucher ... ... ... ... 7 

Alderman Boydell ... ... ... 7 

Thomas Campbell ... ... ... 7 

George, Duke of Catnbiidge ... ... 7 

Samuel Cartwright ... ,.. .,, 7 

Lord Chatham ... 

Lord Clyde 

J. P. Curran 

Miss Foote (actress) 

King George II. ... 

Lord Gough 

Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A. 

Right Hon. Henry Grattan 

Dr. Latham 

Mr. Lewis (actor) 

Lady Lyndhurst ... 

Mrs. Maberley ... 

Cardinal Manning 

Dr. Markham, Archbishop of York 

Mr. Moody (actor) 

Miss O'Neil (actress) 

Henry Phillpotts, Bishop of Exeter 

General Sir George Pollock 

Alderman Salomons 

Paul Sandby, R.A. 

Dr. Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury 

Thomas Telford ... 

Prince Albert Victor of Wales 

Miss Wallis (actress) 

William Wilberforce 

Prince Leopold (Duke of Albany) ... 

Queen Adelaide ... 

Sir W. Beechey, R.A. 

Lord George Bentinck 

Sir Mark Isambard Brunei 

Lady Caroline Campbell ... 

Madame Catalan! 

Lord Combermere 

Sir Astley Cooper 

Lady Burdett Coutts 

George Cruikshank 

Sir William Curtis 

Mr*. Davenport (actress) ... 

Lord Den man 

Count D'Orsay ... 

Right Hon. G. Ai>ar Ellis... 

Sir Henry Enjjlefield 

J. Farinuton, R.A. 

Oliver Goldsmith 

Maria. Duchess of Gloucester 

Lady Claude Hamilton 

Lady Hamilton (Emma Hart) 

Sir William Harness 

Warren Hastings 

Lord Heuthfield ... 

Rev. Rowland Hill 

Frederick Huth ... 

Henry Irving 

John Jackson, R.A. 

Mrs. Harry Johnston (act re?*) 

Dr. G. II. Law, Bishop of Chest-. r ... 

Miss Jenny Lind .... 

Miss Lin wood 

Marquess of Lome 

W. Manning M.P. 

Lord Melville 

Sir Roderick Murchison ... 

Mrs. Nisbett (actress) 

Hon. Mrs. Norton 

Thomas Phillips, R.A. ... 

Sir John Rermie 

David Roberts, R.A. 

Lord Rodney 

Henry Sass (artist) 

Miss Smithson (actress) ... 

Albert Thorwaldsen 

Benjamin Travel's .., ,.. 





































































Miss Vandenhoff 
Eev. J. Wesley .. 
Count Woronzow 

vestigations into the phenomena of heredity have 
brought into prominence the interesting question, 
" How many ancestors has a man in any given 
degree ? " or, in other words, " How much has the 
ancestral blood of any particular line been diluted 
in the course of centuries 1 " Dr. Farr has shown 
the absurdity of Justice Blackstone's assumption 
that because a man has two parents and four 
grandparents, therefore he has eight great-grand- 
parents, sixteen great-great-grandparents, and so 
on. If so we should get the following remarkable 
numbers : In the eighth degree, 256 ancestors ; 
in the sixteenth degree, 65,536 ancestors ; in the 
twenty-fourth degree, 16,777,216 ancestors. Taking 
three generations to a century, this would mean 
that at the time of the Conquest each of us had, on 
an average, a number of ancestors several times as 
numerous as the then population of these islands ! 
Of course the paradox depends on taking no 
notice of intermarriages. Four persons can law- 
fully propagate their race for any number of 
generations, since cousins of all degrees are 
allowed to marry, and conversely a man need 
have no more than four ancestors in any lineal 

It would, I am sure, be a matter of some 
interest if correspondents in the happy possession 
of full and detailed pedigrees would let us know 
how many ancestors they actually had in the 
different degrees. I do not imagine that very 
many people could name all their ancestors in even 
the seventh or eighth degree; but an approxima- 
tion within certain limits could be given. Wher- 
ever a new surname is brought in by a marriage 
there must necessarily be at least one new ancestor 
brought in at any rate, this would be true in 
most cases for at least 500 years back. 

In my own case the information accessible is 
very meagre ; but reckoning from my children 
backwards, four intermarriages are known of 
within six degrees, and we get the following 
limiting numbers : 

Firat degree 2 parents 

Second degree 4 grandparents 

Third degree 6 great grandparents, &c. 

Fourth degree 910 

Fifth degree 13-20 

Sixth degree 15-38 

Seventh degree 18 76 

The figures at any rate clearly show how rapidly 
the uncertainty as to one's ancestry increases with 
each generation. 

Primd facie intermarriages must have been 
commoner in times past than now, owing to 
difficulties in locomotion, which were in many 
cases increased by statutes of labourers. I have, 

however, been reminded by a high authority in 
such matters that before the Reformation the laws 
of the Church must have done much to stop such 
marriages. Be this as it may, canonical law did not 
prevent marriages of fourth and fifth cousins, &c. 

At no very remote period I fancy that in 
country places brides and bridegrooms were 
almost invariably related in some degree or other, 
and very frequent marriages between distant 
relatives would have the same effect in limiting 
the number of ancestors as occasional marriages 
within nearer degrees. Then, again, at any rate 
among the poorer folk, it is likely that illegitimate 
unions between cousins were not uncommon (fop 
the purpose in hand, obviously, the legitimacy or 
otherwise of the children is immaterial). Mar* 
riages of cousins in the fourth and fifth degrees 
can, of course, only be proved where an un- 
usually complete pedigree is available. 


SMOKING ROOMS. A smoking room is con- 
sidered a modern improvement in country houses. 
Sir John Cullum, in his History and Antiquities 
of Haiosted, describing Hawsted Place, which was 
rebuilt c. 1570, says : 

" Having crept through the wicket before mentioned, 
a door in the gateway on the right conducted you into a 
small apartment, called the smoaking room; a name ifc 
acquired probably soon after it was built ; and which ifc 
retained, with good reason, as long as it stood. There 
is fcarcely any old house without a room of this deno 
mination.* In these our ancestors, from about the 
middle of the reign of Elizabeth, till within almost 
every one's memory, spent no inconsiderable part of 
their vacant hours, residing more at home than we do, 
and having fewer resources of elegant amusement. At 
one period at least, this room was thought to be the 
scene of wit; for in 1688 Mr. Hervey, afterwards Earl 
of Bristol, in a letter to Mr. Thomas Cullum, desires ' to 
be remembered by the witty smoakers at Hausted,' 
Adjoining to this was a large wood closet, and a passage 
that led to the dining room, of moderate dimension!, 
with a large buffet." P. 132, Lond., 1781. 


of great interest to me to be assured of the original 
spelling of this name. Old documents and old 
historians turn it many ways : Bokenham, Bocken- 
ham, &c., ad infinitum, but on the old seal of the 
priory in Norfolk it is inscribed BUKE'HAM ; and 
as the result of prolonged investigations in this 
country and in Germany generally point to the 
family having descended from the Bucenobantes, 
a" tribe of the Alamanni, who were sent by the 
Emperor Valentinian, A.D. 371, to the east of 
Britain and settled in Norfolk (vide Isaac Taylor's 
Words and Places), I shall be glad if any of your 
readers can give me confirmatory evidence. The 

" * If modern houses have not a room of thi sort, 
they have one (perhaps several) unknown to the ancient 
ones, which is, a powdering room for the hair." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. vm. JULY 25, -83. 

consensus of opinion now is that these old place- 
names were called after the original settlers, and 
were tribe names, and not derived from accidents 
of locality, such as trees, animals, or peculiarities 
of country. Bucenobantes means the country of 
the Buccen. The Bucenobantes came to Eng- 
land. In "Codex Diplomaticus Mvi Saxonici, 
opera Johannis M. Kemble, tomus iv., Londini, 
1846," a place named Bucham is mentioned, which, 
from the context, is, in all probability, one of the 
Buckenhams in Norfolk ; and as the document 
dates from a period before the Conquest, it proves 
that one of those villages must have been founded 
in very remote times, and cannot have received 
its name from the Normans. So, till better in- 
formed, I shall abide by the u. 


A NEW WAY ov TELLING TIME. The follow- 
ing description of an ingenious device of a Nevada 
miner deserves a record in "N. & Q.": 

"A man who was appointed watchman at a mine on 
the Comstock had no watch. He did not wish to buy 
one, yet was desirous of knowing how the time was 
passing. He borrowed the watch of a friend for one 
night. On returning the watch the next day he told 
his friend that he was all right now, that he had a time- 
keeper of his own. He then unrolled a strip of paper, 
some four inches in width, from a stick and exhibited it 
as his clock. On this strip of paper he had marked 
down, as they rose above the horizon, all the stars and 
constellations within a narrow belt. Opposite each star 
was the time of its making its appearance hour and 
minute. The watchman says his watch is a fine time- 
keeper. He has recently improved it somewhat. The 
slip of paper now runs on two small rollers that are 
placed in a small box, which has a sliding lid of glass. 
As the night wears away and the stars pass over, he now 
turns the crank of his watch and looks at the time 
marked by the side of each. To wind up his watch he 
runs the tape back upon the initial roller." Virginia 
City (Nev.) Enterprise. 


New York. 

ASSASSIN. I do not know whether in " the 
fierce light that beats" upon the Revised New 
Testament the word assassin, introduced into 
Acts xxi. 38, has been noticed. It is, I think, 
Archbishop Trench who has remarked that words 
should be considered in their history as well as in 
their present meaning. Few words in our lan- 
guage have so marked and interesting a biography 
as assassin. The poisonous qualities of hashish 
(retained in modern pharmacopoeias as Indian 
hemp or bhang) were known to the Moham- 
roedan tribe, whose chief was the " old man of 
the mountains," dwelling in Persia and Syria, 
and using weapons poisoned with this drug upon 
numerous unsuspecting victims. The crusaders 
of the twelfth century brought the word into Eng- 
land, and assassin became a recognized name for 
a secret murderer. But surely it is not a happy 

translation even when adorned with a capital of 
o-i/captos ? They, at all events, used daggers, not 
necessarily poisoned, in their warfare ; and assas- 
sin is as bad a word to express them by as would 
be " Thugs," " garotters," or " burkers." When a 
word has a history, as no doubt O-IKCI/HOS has, it is 
not much good to translate it by a similar word 
having a totally different history, and to spell it 
with a capital A to call attention to the trans- 
lator's cleverness. 


BOLD. A peculiar Anglo-Irish use of this word 
deserves to be noted. In all parts of Ireland a 
naughty, fractious child, however timid, shy, and 
devoid of spirit it may be, is described as " a bold 
child," and is exhorted "not to be bold." The 
synonymous English word " naughty " has a 
mincing finical sound in the ears of a native of 
Ireland, and is seldom, if ever, used. 


Chelmsford Road, Woodford. 

" A DEITY FOR SALE." An advertisement in 
p. 1, col. 6, of the Times of Nov. 6, 1882, offers 
for sale " the original Lingam God from the 
Temple of Delhi," and states that " it is estimated 
that 5,000 millions of Hindoo women have wor- 
shipped at the shrine of this god." The idea of a 
deity being offered for sale in an English news- 
paper will probably appear as incongruous to 
some of your readers as it does to me, and I think 
the fact worthy of a corner in your columns. 



are crowflowers ? " asks a writer in the A thenceum 
(June 30) in a review of The Shakespere Flora, 
by Leo H. Grindon. Most likely they are what 
we call crowsfeet in Lincolnshire, which is the 
country name for the wild hyacinth. I have 
heard say that they only come up in grass fields 
where the crows tread. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

PEERS' TITLES. In these days, when even 
well-edited newspapers write of "Earl Derby," 
" Earl Shaftesbury," &c., it may be well to note 
that Horace Walpole, in spite of his courtly 
tastes, writes of "Duke Hamilton," though per- 
haps he writes half in jest. But the vulgarity 
is of still earlier date. In a list of articles sent 
free by the post in 1703 is mentioned "one littel 
parcel of lace to be use in clothing Duke Schom- 
berg's regiment." E. WALFORD, M.A. 

2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

WHY AS A SURNAME. Mrs. Elizabeth Why ia 
a grocer at Glen Magna, near Leicester. This 
must be a very unusual surname. 





We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

"A RIGHT MITRE SUPPER." Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." furnish an explanation of this phrase, 
occurring in A Mad World, my Masters, by 
Middleton (Dodsley, vol. v.) ] Will there be any 
connexion with the once famous Mitre Inn at 
Oxford, or any such hostelry 1 Richardson and 
Wedgwood give no information. 



[The reference is assumably to the Mitre Tavern in 
Cheap. To this house Middleton refers again in hia 
Tour Five Gallants, a piece which, though without a 
date, appears from the registers of the Stationers' Com- 
pany to ha?e been printed in 1608. The quotation is as 
follows : 

" GOLDS-TONE (The Cheating Gallant). Where sup we 

PURSENET (The Pocket Gallant). At Mermaid. 

GOLD. Sup where thou list, I have foresworn the 

FOLK (Goldstone's Servant). For the truth is this 
plot must take effect at the Mitre. 

PURSENET. Faith, I 'm indifferent. 

BUNGLER. So are we, gentlemen. 

PDRSENET. Name the place, Master Goldstone. 

GOLDSTONE. Why, the Mitre, in my mind, for real 
attendance, diligeni, boys, and push, excels it far. 

ALL. Agreed. The Mitre, then." 

Allusions to the Mitre are also found in The Miseries 
of Enforced Marriage of George Wilkins, included in 
some editions of Dodsley's Collection, and in Sir Thomas 
More, an anonymous play, edited by Dyce for the Shake- 
speare Society.] 

"ViLLiKiNS AND HIS DINAH." Can you or 
any of your contributors or correspondents inform 
me, as the author of The Wandering Minstrel, 
in what county or about what year the old song 
of Villikins and his Dinah was first printed and 
published? As Mr. Robson sang the song, the 
words were those originally given by Mr. Mitchell, 
the first low comedian who appeared in the part, 
AD. 1831. He brought the country version to me, 
and I had to condense and interpolate it, so as to 
make it " go " with a London audience. If you 
can help me as to the original authorship, I shall 
be once more obliged to you and your multiform 
readers. HENRY MAYHEW. 

ARUNDEL, ARUN. The old plan of guessing at 
the origins of place-names is, perhaps, nowhere 
more amusingly illustrated than in Horsfield's 
History of Sussex, published in 1835, in a note to 
which (vol. ii. p. 122), speaking of Arundel, we 

"Derivation 1st, 'Hirondelle,' a swallow, but why? 
[why, indeed 1] ; 2nd, Hirondelle or Orundele, the name 
of the horae of Bevis, who was warden of the castle 

here; and 3.d, the dell or valley through whidi tlie 
A run flows. It has never been surmised that Arundel 
derives its name from arvmdo, a reed, although from 
its situation the marshes formerly must have produced 
nothing eke." 

From the tone of the last phrase I cannot help 
thinking that Horsfield himself had a hankering 
after deriving the word from the Latin arundo, 
which is, of course, utterly inadmissible. The word 
appears to have undergone far less change than 
most place-names ; for though in Domesday Book 
it is spelt Harrundel, that form was probably 
peculiar to those who drew up the Great Survey. 
Before and after their time it was called Arundel, 
and it can hardly be doubted that Horsfield's third 
derivation is correct, and that it was so named 
from being situated in the valley of the Arun. 
But I should like to put a query with regard to 
the name of that river itself, which I presume is 
Celtic. Is it connected with the Welsh arivyn= 
gwyn, meaning happy or blessed ? If so, the 
two parts of the word, taken in order and each 
translated, would indicate the existence of one 
happy valley here, though not that of Rasselas : 

" Rid en tern dicere verum 
Quid vetaU" 

And surely the beauty of the line of the Aron, 
particularly at Arundel, makes the above Welsh 
word appropriate to the situation. 

W. T. LYNN. 


"A 'Robinson' or rustic garden-party is the lates 
fancy of Parisian hostesses, reviving an old fashion of 
the days of Marie Antoinette, who often gave ' Robin- 
sons ' at the Trianon or St. Cloud. The visitors must 
come in simple cotton dresses and coquettish sun-bonnets, 
and are feasted on homely country fare served by girls 
got up as inn maidens. The garden itself is arranged to 
represent a village fair, with merry-go-rounds, swing?, 
lotteries," &c. Graphic, July 7, p. 7. 

Whence the name ? GEO. L. APPERSON. 


[In Parisian argot Eobinson is an umbrella, the 
term being derived from the famous umbrella of Robin- 
son Crusoe. The name Robinson applied to a garden- 
party may well be taken from the necessity for that form 
of protection likely to be experienced.] 

MRS. SERRES. Can the whereabouts during 
the early part of 1821 of this personage, who 
has formed the subject of repeated articles in- 
" N. & Q.," be traced ] In that year a volume was 
printed by C. and J. White, Doncaster, entitled 
"Poetry and Prose. By Elizabeth. Including 
some Original Correspondence with Distinguished 
Literary Characters "; the preface is dated 
" Spring Gardens, Doncaster, June, 1821," and a 
copious subscribers' list contains names from every 
part of England. The poetry consists altogether 
of 188 lines, and takes up rather less space than 
the preface and subscribers' list, the greater 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* a vm. JULY 28, '83. 

part of the volume being occupied with anony- 
mous letters, written in adulation of the mys- 
terious compiler and her equally mysterious 
brother " Dianthus," whom she appears to have 
in her keeping, and who is a great artist and 
blind. In the preface the compiler alludes to 
herself as " a stranger, who dare not even disclose 
her name to her benefactors." A few prayers and 
meditations form the close of this curious book. 
Now, although this volume does not appear in 
MR. THOMS'S list of Mrs. Serres's works (5 th S. ii. 
141), yet the perusal of it inclines me strongly to 
believe that it is a production of that lady. Can 
any of your correspondents help in elucidating the 
mystery surrounding this publication 1 


great-grandfather's brother, William Potter, held 
a commission as either captain or major in this 
regiment, and was killed in the Peninsular War 
at the storming of Badajoz so I have been told. 
I shall be glad if any correspondent can inform 
me whether he was major or captain at the time 
of his death, and also if it is correct that he fell 

Broomfield, Fixby, near Huddersfield. 

VELOCEMEN. Is this the Belgian equivalent of 
bicyclists ? I read in L'Echo du Parlement of 
Aug. 30, 1882, "De la province Mons seul avait 
envoye^ des velocemen aux courses de Bruxelles." 


LADY GRACE EDHAM. In an account of Hurst- 
monceaux that appears in the Echo of July 16 
the following sentence occurs. Can any genea- 
logist identify the Lady Grace referred to I 

"That beautiful bay window looking put upon the 
ancient keep, with its delicate stone mullions complete, 
let in light upon a sad tragedy so late aa 1727, when 
Grace, the daughter of the Lady Grace Edham, was 
slowly starved to death behind those mullions by a 
jealous and malignant governess so runs the story." 

I may point out that the writer in the Echo names 
the owner of Hurstmonceaux as Herbert Maxivell 
Curteis, his proper name being Herbert Mascall 
Curteis. SIGMA. 

VERSES BY VOLTAIRE. I distinctly remember 
having read many years ago some verses in Eng- 
lish, addressed by Voltaire to an English young 
lady ; but not having followed at the time the 
precept inculcated in every number of " N. & Q.," 
" When found, make a note of," I am now unable 
to find them. May I have the good fortune to 
obtain the reference through your medium ! 

H. S. A. 

A " PYNSON " VOLUME. Living far away from 
any large library, or means of satisfying inquiry 

except through your ever-open pages, I should like 
to know something of a little volume in my 
possession. It is unfortunately without title-page, 
but has Richard Pynson's well-known book-mark. 
It begins with a calendar of saints' days in black 
and red type, with a motto at the head of each 
month. Then follows, " Capitula Magne Charte, 
Magna Carta Edward," and ending with the colo- 
phon, "Impresse in civitate London, per Richardum 
Pynson Regis Impressore." On the fly-leaf is 
written, in an Elizabethan hand, the following : 
" A littile grounde well tilled, 

A litel house well filled, 

A litel wife well willed, 

Would make him live that weare lialfe killed. 

Wordes are alluring winde ; 
Wishes are vnine thoughts ; 
Hope, decevinge humour; 
And love is a prettie moris dance. 

Greve note an afflicted soul, 
Nor boste of thy 

Troble note a wouded Consience and be 
patiente in thy one misfortune. 

" Poure thinge to be much made of; ahorse that will 
travel well ; a hawke that will flie well ; a servaunte that 
will waite well ; and a knife that will cut well." 

T. Q. C. 

you allow me to ask in " N. & Q." if any of its 
readers can give information as to the locality of 
the burial-place of Sir Walter Tirell, who is be- 
lieved generally (although disputed by Suger in 
his life of Louis le Gros) to have been the cause of 
the death of William Rufus 1 In the church of 
Michaelmarsh, Hampshire, not far from the New 
Forest, is the recumbent effigy of a knight, in 
chain mail, with a stag at his feet and bearing on 
his shield (some think) two chevrons, the arms of 
the Tirell family. So far as I have been able to 
learn these arms do not appear to belong to any 
of the holders of knight fees (in the Black-book of 
the Exchequer) holding under the Bishop of 
Winchester, of which fees Michaelmarsh was one. 

A. W. 

TION-STONE CEREMONY. Is it the custom to set 
white pigeons at liberty when the foundation- 
stone of a church is laid ? In Un Cure de Pro- 
vince, by Hector Malot, part i. ch. x., the release 
of a dozen doves takes place while the maire is 
filling his trowel and preparing to take his share 
in the ceremony of setting the stone. 


HERALDIC. I should be much obliged if any 
one would give me the name of the family whose 
arms are blazoned as follows : " Argent, gutte"e de 
larmes, in chief a human eye, in base a human 
heart (presumably gules) pierced by two crossed 
arrows." These arms are roughly but cleverly en- 
graved on an old bronze seal, of the sixteenth or 

6. s. viir. JULY 28, 'S3.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


early seventeenth century, now in my possession, 
which was found in the mud of the Thames. 


[The nearest we can find are coats of Yeoman. Pap- 
worth, Ordinary, s.v. Heart, gives "Arg., goutty de 
sang two darts, points upwards, gu., feathered of the first, 
piercing a heart of the second. Yeoman." Burke, Gen. 
Armory, 1878, s. v. Yeoman, Scotland, 1680, gives " Arg., 
a heart gu. pierced with two darts, points upwards, ppr., 
the wounds distilling gouttes de sang," and for Yeoman 
of Dryburgh, 1672, the same with the darts " in saltire, 
points downwards." This last is, perhaps, the coat 

PAUL HERRING. I shall be glad if any thea- 
trical reader of " N. & Q." can give me an account 
of this famous pantaloon, who died in Lambeth, 
three or four years ago, at an advanced age. 

J. F. B. 

" ACCOCIATION CLUB," 1717. A friend of mine 
has a two-handled silver cup, with the plate-mark 
of Britannia, and therefore of the Queen Anne 
period. It is described as having belonged to the 
" Accociation Club " in 1717, and there is a naked 
figure, with the cap of liberty on a staff, and an 
inscription, " King George and Liberty." Can 
any of your readers inform me to what club this 
refers? F. LOCKER. 


" Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty." 
Will some reader of "N. & Q. "give the author of the 
above? Bartlett seems to think there never has been 
any special authorship acknowledged. Supposing that 
to be true, it will at least be gratifying to receive in- 
formation as to the earliest known use of the expression, 
and by whom employed. MARSHALL 0. WAGGONER. 

" Tempera mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis." 

[See " N. & Q.," 5 th S. i. 372 ; vii. 140. J 
" But Time and sad experience hand in hand 
Led him to death, and made him understand, 
After a toil so wearisome and long, 
That all his life he had been in the wrong." 

W. T. KATE. 

" I hear a voice you cannot hear, 
Which says I must not stay ; 
I see a hand you cannot see, 
Which beckons me away." 

What other lines from the poets convey the same mean- 
ing ? HOMEROS. 
[Thomas Tickell, Colin and Lucy.'] 


(6 th S. vii. 467.) 

Touching the meteorological influences of my 
confrere St. Me"dard, the French assert : 
"S'il pleut le jour Saint Medard [June 8] 

II pleuvra quarante jours plus tard." 
" S'il pleut le jour Saint Medard 
Le tiers des biens est au hazard." 

" Du jour Saint Medard en juin 

Le laboureur se donne soin, 

Car les anciens disent s'il pleut 

Que trente jours durer il peut, 

Et s'il est beau soit tout certain 

D'avoir abondance de grain." 
Also : 

" His qui est de Saint Medart 

Le coeur n'y prend pas grant part." 

How his rainy reputation arose I know not. Mr. 
Baring-Gould (Lives of the Saints, " June," p. 80) 
tells us of a legend of the eleventh century which 
makes an eagle spread its wings to serve as 
umbrella to the saint, and the representation of 
this incident is his distinguishing mark in art. 


I had always imagined that St. Medard was 
the rainy saint of France, and St. Godelieve the 
St. Swithin of Flanders. In France the popular 
saying is : 

" S'il pleut le jour de la aint Medard 
II pleut quarante jours plus tard." 

St. Me"dard, however, unlike St. Swithin, has not 
absolute control over the weather at this season, 
his decision being subject to that of St. Barnabe", 
whose fete day falls three days later, the llth of 
June; and even should these two saints combine 
to bring terror to the heart of the agriculturist, 
there is a forlorn hope left, for Saints Gervais 
and Protais, whose fete day is on the 19th of the 
month, may yet ordain that the weather shall be 
fine. The Journal de Roulaix of the llth of 
June quotes the following lines anent this super- 
stition : 

" Quand il pleut a la Saint Medar J, 

Prends ton manteau sans nul retard : 

Mais s'il fait beau pour Barnabe, 

Qui va lui couper 1'herbe sous le pied, 

Ton manteau chez toi peut rester. 

Enfin, s'il pleut ces deux jouiv, 

Si Medard et Barnabe, comme tonj >urs, 

S'entendaient pour te jouer des tours, 

Tu auras encore Saint Gervaig, 

Accompagne de Saint Protais, 

Que le beau temps va ramener." 

The legend runs that St. M6dard was one day 
crossing a plain when a drenching shower fell. 
Every one was wetted to the skin except the saint, 
over whom an eagle spread its wings as a shelter. 


MR. MASKELL'S friend, St. Medard, is well 
enough known, and I have been one of those who 
referred to him. The saying is more like "S'il 
pleut le Saint Medard, il pleuvra quarante joura 
tot ou tard." HYDE CLARKE. 

THE CECIL FAMILY (6 th S. vii. 384). I am 
enabled to add to the pedigree of this family, and 
also to point out a few errors that have crept in by 
reason of MR. ELLIS retaining the mistakes of his 
predecessors. I have taken my notes from wills, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 16'" s. vm. JULY 23, -33. 

parish registers, and the municipal records of the 
borough of Stamford, formerly the capital of North 
Lincolnshire. David Cecil was a parishioner of 
the same parish wherein I was born, St. George, 
and resided in a house, recently pulled down, 
on the south side of the church, which, according 
to tradition, was a school appertaining to the Car- 
melite Friary. David Cecil paid 6s. 8d,, and was ad- 
mitted to the freedom (or rights of citizenship) of 
the borough Nov. 27, 1494; elected a member of 
the second twelve (common councilman) in 1495, 
being designated as a yeoman ; in 1496 elected 
a member of the first twelve (comburgesses 
or aldermen); and served the office of alderman 
(or mayor) in the years 1503-4, 1514-15, and 
1524-25. He took the customary oath the first 
time of holding office before "John Husy, 
Senescalli, in Castro Stamfordise "; elected to 
represent the borough in 1511, 1513-14, and 
1520-21. His only daughter by his second wife, 
Johanna or Joane, married Edmund Browne, of 
Stamford (alderman in 1525), third son of Christ. 
Brown, of Stamford and Tolethorpe, co. Rutland, 

Esq., and his second wife, , daughter of 

Bedingfield, of Norfolk. Christopher's first wife was 
Grace, daughter and coheir of John Pinchbeck, of 
Lincolnshire, Esq., endowed 20 Edw. IV. (Blore's 
Rutland, p. 93). Eobert Brown, elk., Rector of 
Thorpe Achurch, Northamptonshire, third son of 
Ant. Brown, of Tolethorpe, Esq., and Dorothy his 
wife, was the founder of the religious sect that 
was in the reigns of Elizabeth and James 
named Brownists. Master Robert's vigorous 
and abusive style of preaching frequently 
led him into scrapes with both the ecclesiastical 
and civil authorities of his time, and while he 
lived his relative the Lord Treasurer Cecil fre- 
quently helped him out of the serious consequences 
of his folly. Robert died in 1636, aged about 
eighty, in Northampton gaol, to which he had 
been committed for assaulting the parish constable 
who had called to demand a rate of him. 

Richard Cecil, eldest son of David Cecil and his 
first wife, was buried at St. Margaret's, West- 
minster. By the kindness of Mr. T. C. Noble I 
am enabled to give a copy of his burial from the 
register of that parish: "March, 1552/3, the xxij 11 
day, Mr. Rychard Sycell." He married Jane, 
daughter and coheir of Wm. Heckington, of Bourne, 
co. Lincoln. At the time of her death, March 10, 
1687/8, Jane Cecil was eighty-seven. She was 
buried at St. Martin's, Stamford Baron, on the 
27th (1588, Mrs. Jane Cicell, mother to the 
right honourable Sir William Cicell, Knight, Lord 
Burghley, 27 March). The funeral was attended 
by Somerset Herald, and " the proceedinge to the 
Churche for the funereall for S r W m Cecill lord 
burghley his mothe r 1. treasurer of England," is 
given in a little volume of heraldic tracts, Harl. 
MS. 1354. 

William (not Sir) Heckington had two wives, 
as is evident by his will ; whose daughters they 
were I am unable to say, and can only give the 
Christian name of the first. In his will he 
simply designates himself as William Heck- 
ington : 

"beyngin good helth & of hole mynde made [it] the 
ffriday before Whitsonday The yere of our lorde 
Mv c viij"',ffurst I bequeth my aoule to our lady seynt Mary 
& to all the company of heven, my body to be buried iu 
the chore w'in the p'isshe church of Burne vnder the 
Stone there as my wif lyeth & my best beste for my 
mortuary after the custome of the countie." 

He gives 3s. 4d. to our lady of Lincoln; to the 
Trinity guild, 6s. 8d.; to SS. John's, Margaret'^, 
and Anne's guilds, the two former 3s. 4d., and the 
latter one 10s.; to the parish church of Burne, 
20s. All my tenements with their appurtenances 
in Stokton that were John Galloway, and my 
lands in Surflet and Pynchebek the which were 
John Waynflet, and also all my lands and tene- 
ments in Morton and Harmston which were Richard 
Happs, be to the " supportacon & the fynding of 
a preest to pray for my soule & all christen soules 
& to syng masse in o r lady chapell w l in the pisshe 
church of Burne duryng the space of xxx li yeres "; 
and at the end of that time the said lands were 
to be restored to the right heirs of John Mane, 
John Waynflet, and Richard Happ. I will that 
the Trinity guild have my house by the lane called 
Steirelane (Starlane), that I bought of William 
Moll, to have for a " dirige " song on Trinity Sun- 
day after evensong and mass on the morrow for 
all brethren and sisters' souls of the said guild. 
"And I will that eu' prest belongyng to the same 
pisshe of Burne haue iiijd., the Decon ijd., ij pisshe 
clerks of the same churche iiijd. & iij children iijrf." 
Item. I give to the convent of Burne an house lying 
by Pottes Lane, that some time was Richard 
Palmer's, upon condition that they shall keep an 
obit for me and my friends yearly for evermore. 
Item. I give all my copy lands in Burne, Dyke, 
Calthorpe, Morton, and Harmethorpe, or else- 
where, and all my messuages, tenements, and 
lands, with their appurtenances, to my wife for the 
term of her life, except the house that Margaret 
Butler dwelled in; and that I will my daughter 
Jane have; and to enter in the same the day that 
it shall please God that she shall be married, with 
all the lands, pastures, and meadows to the same 
belonging. Also after the decease of her mother she 
to have all my freehold lands and to the heir of her 
body lawfully begotten, and all my copyholds and 
nine acres of Thake, in Goobulpark, two gardens in 
Tremheyes, a pingle at Burne wellhead, and another 
at Baby style. If daughter dies s. p., all the lands, 
after decease of her mother, shall remain to the 
churchwardens of Burne for 100 years save one, 
and they to find a priest in St. John's guild to 
sing at St. John's altar, in the town church of 
Burne, or in the Abbey church for my soul, my 


wife's, and all Christian souls, and for the 
brethren and sisters of the said guild. If they 
find not a priest, that then I will the said lands 
to remain to the right heirs of John Boyse for 
evermore to find one; and if he fails, then I give 
it freely to the convent of Burne Abbey, there to 
be prayed for for evermore. Item. I give and will 
that Jane, my daughter, have the day of her 
marriage 5Ql. of money and her chamber made 
worth 10Z. ; also I give her my best salt of silver, 
a dozen of spoons, and a " masur," two harnest 
girdles, one of the best and another of the second, 
her mother to have them during her life. Should 
daughter die before she be married, I will that my 
executrix shall take 20. of the aforesaid 501. that 
I gave her, and she shall buy a suit of vestments 
and give them to the parish church of Burne, and 
the residue to remain to her mother. Testator 
makes bequests to Alice, Elizabeth, and Eichard 
Boyse, but does not state their relationship to him. 
Gives G$. 8d. each to the four orders of Friars at 
Stamford. To Dame Margaret Wai cot, a nun at 
Sempringham, 6s. 3d.; the prior and convent of 
Newstead, 6s. 8d.; and the abbot and convent of 
Vauvde (Vaudey), to have to pray for me, 101. of 
the debt that they owe me besides the obligations. 
To the glazing of Burne " Clostre & to begynne at 
the lauers & soo to goo as fore furth as V 11 will to 
praye for me & S[ir] Thomas Borouth." To the 
churchwardens of the Eygate 20s., to make the 
highway in the Eygate aforesaid and Osterby. I 
will that the bailly of Maxey have a pair of 
brygyndyne with complete harness. Residue of 
goods unbequeathed to wife Alice Hekington, sole 
executrix, and Master Humphrey Walcot, super- 
visor, and gives him five marks for his labour in that 
behalf. Proved at Lambeth Nov. 23, 1509, by 
Tho. Mercer for the relict. Another probate was 
granted to Humphrey Walcot Feb. 14, 1509-10 
(Bennett, 24). It is said that David Cecil founded 
a chantry in the church of St. George; if he did, 
it is not named in the certificate of the commis- 
sioner for this county. 

Aa Wm. Hekington quartered with his the 
arms of Walcot, it seems probable that his second 
wife and executrix was of that family. If Wm. 
Hekington had any issue by his first wife he has 
not named them in his will. Jane Cecil, mother 
of the Treasurer, was born about the year 1500, 
and married c. 1519. William, her son and heir, was 
born at Bourne Sept. 13, 1520, most probably at 
the house of his grandfather. 

Blore says Jane was daughter and coheir of her 
father Wm. Heckington. I have among my col- 
lections extracts from many parish registers both of 
Stamford and the neighbourhood, and also wills. 
In those of the parish of St. George I found the 
following entry : "1574. John Heckynton y sonne 
of John Heckynton was buryed xviij Oct." 
Whether he Was kin to the family of William 

Heckington named above I am unable to say. 
His being buried in this church gives colour to 
the supposition that the father was of kin. The 
arms of Heckington are Arg., on a bend, between 
two cottizes gu., three cinquefoils or. Of Walcot, 
Arg., a chevron between three chess rooks ermines. 

277, Strand. 

NAME OF INN WANTED (6 th S. viii. 7). " Five 
Miles from Anywhere " is an old inn at Upware, 
a hamlet if an inn, a farmhouse, a windmill, 
and a ferry can be held to constitute a hamlet 
on the right bank of the Cam, about a dozen 
miles from Cambridge and six or seven from Ely. 
Just before reaching it from Cambridge there is a 
loop in the river into which Burwell Lode and 
Reach Lode discharge their sluggish waters after 
joining about a mile away in Burwell Fen. The 
hamlet itself lies in a corner of Wicken Fen, just 
at one end of a raised bank, partly artificial, 
although even the artificial work is of immemorial 
antiquity, which, stretching for some miles along- 
side the river, sometimes near it and sometimes 
a mile away, divides this part of the Cambridge- 
shire Fens from what is still called Soham Mere. 
Some two or three and thirty years ago the land- 
lord of the house a certain Tom Appleby had 
the old inn painted and repaired. It was at 
that time nameless, being known only as " the 
inn at Upware "; but the landlord, anxious to 
advertise his adventurous outlay in so God-for- 
gotten a spot, desired that a sign should be given 
it which should distinguish it from ordinary hostels 
built among the busy haunts of men. It happened 
that there existed in those days two societies 
among the Cambridge undergrads, one of which 
was called " The Society of Idiots," and the other 
" The Honourable Company of Beersoakers." I 
do not remember which was the elder of the two, 
but one was an offshoot of the other, and many 
members were common to both. These confrater- 
nities generally engaged " the inn at Upware " for 
the Easter vacation, and high jinks were held dur- 
ing the whole time. Sparring, wrestling, leapfrog 
through the river, skittles, singlestick, and other 
games, many of them invented for the occasion, 
occupied the day; and a fine idiotic character was 
imparted to the proceedings by a rule which for- 
bade any member of the society to say what he 
meant under pain of forfeiting a quart of ale. In 
the evenings the whole country- side assembled at 
the inn, and from the lips of East Anglian suc- 
cessors of the old minstrels and jongleurs I have 
heard there songs which carried one far back into 
the Middle Ages ; ballads of the Blind Beggar's 
Daughter of Bethnal Green, and the adventures of 
Robin Hood and Little John ; songs of " A bunch 
of may " and " A jug of this ! " and one marvellous 
ditty about a huge pie into which, when opened, 


ninety men fell and were drowned, " which took 
away their appetite." Revels of this kind cried 
aloud for a master, and the need, as usual, evoked 
the man. We had among us an undergraduate 
one 11. R. Fielder, I think, of John's the best of 
good fellows, whose admirable vein of idiocy 
amounted to real genius in that direction, and we 
unanimously crowned him " King of Upware," 
with despotic power over his willing subjects. To 
him naturally the landlord presented his petition 
when in want of a sign for his renovated hostel, 
and his majesty, after due consideration, solemnly 
decreed that the inn should thereafter for ever be 
known as the " Five Miles from Anywhere." The 
name does not express a precise topographical 
verity, for the hamlet of Wicken lies within three 
miles ; but it conveys a truth beyond and above 
mere local and concrete accuracy. It may be said, 
with perfect and literal regard for fact, that if there 
be on the face of this planet a single hostel of 
which ntore than of any other it can be predicated 
that it is five miles from anywhere, it is this inn 
in the Cambridgeshire fens. AN OLD IDIOT. 

" SIB HORNBOOK " (6 th S. vii. 407). This was, 
indeed, " a charming book for children," and I 
am happy in the possession of the copy which was 
given to me as a child, and which is still in perfect 
condition. It is a thin book of twenty-nine pages, 
size, 5 in. by 4 in., in a salmon-coloured stiff 
paper cover. Its proper title is " Sir Hornbook | 
or | Childe Launcelot's Expedition | a | Gram- 
matico- Allegorical Ballad." Mine is the fifth edi- 
tion, printed 1818, by C. Whittingham, Printer, 
Goswell Street, London, for N. Hailes, Juvenile 
Library, London Museum, Piccadilly. The stanzas 
are not numbered, but there is a division of sub- 
jects, Nos. i. to vii. The illustrations are six 
in number, including the frontispiece, and are 
early lithographs, I fancy. The frontispiece shows 
the young Childe Launcelot leaning on his spear, 
in his right hand, whilst he blows the bugle-horn, 
held in the left hand, which hangs by a chain from 
the outer door of a castle. The first stanza runs : 

" O'er bush and briar Childe Launcelot sprung 

With ardent hopes elate, 
And loudly blew the horn that hung 
Before Sir Hornbook's gate." 

There is a parley, and Sir Hornbook answers 
the challenge. Then the second illustration, to the 
commencement of part ii., shows Sir Hornbook and 
the Childe outside the castle. On Sir Hornbook's 
back hangs his shield, with the alphabet on it. 
Pouring out from the castle-gate come the troops 
to aid the Childe in the conquest of learning. 
Each has a letter on his shield. The stanzas are : 

" And out, and out, in hasty rout, 

By ones, twos, threes, and fours, 
His merry men rush'd the walls without, 
And stood before the doors. 

Full six and twenty men were they, 

In line of battle spread, 
The first that came was mighty A, 

The last was little Z." 

I feel inclined to copy it all, but you would not 
wish that ; so I will only add that the pretty pic- 
ture of a female figure sitting with a book under 
a tree is the fifth illustration, where part vii. 
begins at p. 25, and the verses are : 

"Sir Syntax dwelt in thick fir-grove 
All strown with scraps of flowers, 
Which he hadpluck'd to please his love, 
Among the Muses' bowers. 

His love was gentle Prosody, 

More fair than morning beam ; 
Who liv'd beneath a flowering treo 

Beside a falling stream. 

* * * * * 

They reach'd the tree where Prosody 

Was singing in the shade ; 
Great joy Childe Launcelot had to see, 

And hear that lovely maid." 

"Singing" suits Prosody better than sitting. I 
should like much to know who was the author ; 
perhaps some other correspondent may tell us. 

If MR. HARTSHORNE would like to see and 
touch this treasure he can write to me, for he 
speaks kindly of it, and I am sure would treat it 
tenderly. GIBBES RIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

EFFER OR EFFET (6 th S. viii. 27). The above 
name is the usual one in all parts of the country 
for the two harmless Batrachian reptiles Triton 
cristatus and Triton punctatus, which are some- 
times called newts, and which abound in almost 
every piece of stagnant water. Both species often 
leave the water at this time of year (June and 
July), and retire to moist and cool situations on 
land, as, indeed, they are sometimes forced to do 
by the drying up of the ponds. It was evidently 
Triton punctatus, the smaller species, which was 
found in DR. NICHOLSON'S garden. Full descrip- 
tions of each species will be found in Bell's British 
Reptiles, or in Our lieptiles, by Dr. Mordecai 
Cooke, London, Hard wick e, 1865. 

W. R. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

Eft, or evet, the common lizard, or Lacerta vul- 
garis, is the smallest of the British lizards, and 
commonly seen in gardens near dunghills, and, 
like the slug and toad, occasionally creeps into 
cellars. Thomson, in his Etymons, derives evet 
from the Gothic vale, humidity or water. The 
lizard kind " are all amphibious," observes Gold- 
smith in his Animated Nature (vols. i.-viii.; 
vol. vii. p. 145, ed. MDCCLXXIV.). 


Callia Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

[We have received other replies, far too numerous for 
insertion, to the query of DR. WICHOLSO.V. | 

6ts.vm.jcLY28,'83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


AN ENGLISH SONG OF 1672 (6 th S. viii. 26). 
This date is an error for 1572, so " sixteen " should 
be fifteen. I am an old man, over ninety; I have 
heard it sung at a theatre. The only lines I can re- 
ineniber are these: 
" No sheep at three shillings sure now can't be found, 

And a very fat ox why, 'twill cost us a pound." 

H. T. E. 

BARRY, THE CLOWN (6 th S. viii. 47). Tom 
Barry, the equestrian clown, was of Hibernian 
origin, and began his professional career in 1843 
with Samwell's circus. He soon after joined Batty 
at Astley's, where he remained as clown to the 
ring for some years, playing Irish characters in the 
equestrian spectacles produced on the stage, and 
appearing at Vauxhall in the equestrian entertain- 
ments given in the summer. In 1848 his strong 
objection to Wallett, a rival clown to the ring, 
having the first " wheezes," or jests, during the 
pauses of the circus-riders, induced him to throw 
up his engagement and take a tavern in the vicinity 
of Astley's. Tom Barry, however, returned to his 
old position in 1851 and 1852, and vainly endea- 
voured to recover his early popularity. He died 
at the age of forty-seven, March 26, 1857. Tom 
Barry's chief qualification for a circus clown was 
the power of exhibiting extemporaneous humour 
when unexpectedly called upon to make a speech 
on some subject proposed by the audience. Most 
circus clowns have to study and rehearse orations 
written for them. E. L. BLANCHARD. 

WESTMINSTER SCHOOL (6 th S. vii. 505). The 
Ministry of the Duke of Newcastle is not unlikely 
to be that inquired for, as he was a Westminster 
man, and seems to have entertained a regard 
for his schoolfellows. Vincent Bourne, for in- 
stance, dedicates his Poems to the duke as a 
" condiscipulus," and was offered valuable Church 
preferment by him if he would take orders. In 
the early part of the eighteenth century West- 
minster School was very flourishing, both in the 
number and rank of its scholars, so that it is pro- 
bable that many educated there would be in a 
position to hold office. Bishop Newton, himself a 
Westminster scholar, speaks with pride of the 
school during his time in his very interesting 
autobiography. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

PRONUNCIATION OF " WHOLE " (6 th S. vii. 466). 
In the remarks upon whole, I find my opinion 
quoted that the spelling of the word with w does 
not date before the beginning of the sixteenth 
century ; to which MR. LYNN adds, " The analogy 
of one shows that the sound of an initial w may 
have existed without the letter itself in the written 
word." But it may be said, on the other side, that 
the old sound of one was precisely own, a sound 
which is still preserved in the derivatives only, 
alone, and atone, as I have often observed before. 

Now my opinion has always been that the w 
heard in one dates, just like the spelling whole, 
from the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
Accordingly, we ought to find occasional examples 
of the spelling won or ivoon at that date, when 
spelling was, for the more part, still phonetic. 
After much search I have found an example of 
undeniable "king's English," for the writer is 
no other than Henry VIII. himself. In Ellis's 
Original Letters, i. 236, he writes hole for whole ; 
in the same, i. 239, he has oon for one, and again 
in ii. 30. But in ii. 130 he writes to Katharine 

Parr as follows: "For as thys day we begynne 

thre bateryse [i. e., begin to make three batteries], 
and have three mynys goyng, by-syd icon whyche 
hath done hys execution in scakyng and teryng 
off woon of theyre grettest bulwarks." I repeat 
that there is no trace of whole with w, or of one 
with 10, before the year 1500. 


505; viii. 10). May I be respectfully allowed to 
urge that in a periodical of the type of " N. & Q.," 
which is read by men of all theological and political 
classes, such expressions ought not to be indulged 
in by your correspondents as A. J. M. has per- 
mitted himself to use concerning John Newton's 
preaching ] He must surely know that to a section 
of the Church of England, to say nothing of the 
great Nonconformist body, the Gospel as preached 
by John Newton is the one dear and sacred thing 
which they cannot bear to hear profaned. Would 
not his feelings be outraged if such terms were 
applied by another correspondent to that which 
he deems the true Gospel ? I say no more, lest 
I should transgress my own limits, or give as much 
pain to your correspondent as he has given to me. 
As to the matter of fact, I have not at this moment 
a collection of Cowper's letters at hand ; but I feel 
certain that I am right in saying that the poet 
himself did not share your correspondent's opinion, 
and that he has left on record sentiments which 
show that in his own belief the society of Newton, 
and the Gospel as preached by him, had far more 
to do with the cure of his insanity than with its 

It is grievous to hear of what is going on at 
Olney under the plea of "church restoration," 
which there, as in numerous other churches, is 
sweeping away with the besom of destruction 
many of our time-honoured relics. Who is not 
indignant at the fact that the pulpit of John 
Newton, Thomas Scott, and other celebrated 
divines of the last century is threatened to be 
supplanted by a modern abortion of " mediaeval " 
taste, worse than the " churchwarden architecture " 
which has so often deformed the edifices it pretended 
;o transform and beautify ? Let us hope that your 



vm. JULY 23, 

correspondent's remarks may yet have a good effect 
on the conscience of Olney. But A. J. M. will 
excuse me if I point out a phrase in his communi- 
cation which will give pain to many a sympathetic 
mind, he himself having, as he says, no sympathy 
with John Newton, " whose coarse and brutal 
' gospel ' helped to drive Cowper mad" The writer 
is not justified in using that language, and I think 
that, on further reflection, he will regret that he 
did so. It is a fact that if one thing more than 
another helped to retard the progress of that in- 
sidious malady which became the bane of poor 
Cowper's life, it is to be found in the intimate 
friendship which subsisted between him and 
Newton at Olney. Has A. J. M. ever read 
Newton's Cardiphonia? If not, and he will do 
so, and after the perusal term Newton's " gospel " 
" coarse and brutal," my astonishment and regret 
will be infinitely greater than they now are. 

T. W. W. S. 

" GOLDEN GROVE" (6 th S. vii. 405). It was 
first pointed out in Eden's edition of the Golden 
Grove, in vol. vii. p. 618 of Taylor's Works, that 
" many sentences in the Via Pads are taken from 
& Kempis, Delmit. Christi" (note, p. 618). It might 
have been said that by far the greater part of the 
little work is so derived, for such appears to be the 
case from a copy of an earlier edition (1846) which 
I possess, annotated in MS. by a late occasional 
contributor to the earliest series of " N. & Q.," 
and which I saw previously to the appearance of 
vol. vii. u. s. It would not be amiss if the several 
passages were specified in a fresh issue. Now that 
attention is directed to the subject some further 
points might come out, as, for example, " vir- 
tuously," at the close of the Golden Grove (vol. vii. 
p. 617), is " fructuose " in the original ; but these 
two are the only passages which are specified by 
Mr. Eden. ED. MARSHALL. 

A BRASS TOKEN (6 th S. vii. 408). I do not 
suppose that MR. SLATER'S token has any history 
in particular. It is simply a specimen of one of the 
twenty thousand tradesmen's tokens issued in the 
seventeenth century. Mr. Boyne, in his work on 
tokens, describes seventeen different ones issued 
by the various towns bearing the name of Wy- 
combe. The initials described as "T. L. A." 
should be read " T. A. L.," as the initial of the 
surname was usually placed above the initials of 
the husband and wife. T. B. 

(6* S. vi. 514 ; vii. 392, 472). The Rector of 
Chilcombe has courteously supplied me with the 
dimensions of his church, to which reference has 
been already made. Its total length is 35 ft. 3 in. 
The nave is 21 ft. 8 in. long by 13 ft. wide, and 
the chancel 13 ft. 7 in. long by 11 ft. 2 in. wide. 


THE RIVER NAME Isis (6 th S. vi. 409 ; vii. 
156, 450). That the Thames above Dorcbestcr 
was anciently called Ose or Ouse is proved by the 
Isle of Oseney, near Oxford. The name was after- 
wards corrupted to Isis and Ox, which squares 
with the river names Ax, Ex, Ix, and Ux. Ety- 
mologically considered, such names as Thames and 
Ouse might be applied to any river name. 


CATERWAYS (6 th S. vii. 88, 354, 396, 476). I 
look upon the remarks at the last reference as 
unfortunate. It seems such a pity that the most 
elementary principles of etymology still remain as 
unknown to the multitude as caviare was to the 
Elizabethan public. Two principles are here 
stated, and both of them are transparent fallacies. 
The first is that "popular words should have a 
Teutonic source." I have already exploded this 
fallacy in my remarks on the Wiltshire dialect 
published for the English Dialect Society. Any 
one who knows anything about our dialects, espe- 
cially those of the South, knows that words of purely 
French origin are quite common. Examples are 
needless. I am aware that the glossarists are never 
tired of printing in their prefaces that our pro- 
vincial words are " of Saxon origin "; but they com- 
monly put themselves out of court by misspelling 
Anglo-Saxon words in the most hideous manner, 
at once proving that they do not know what they 
are talking about. The other fallacy is that cater 
can be derived from G. quer, because the F. mere 
is derived from Lat. mater that is to say, we 
know water can run up hill because we constantly 
see it running down hill ! 



BUNGAY, SUFFOLK (6 th S. vii. 408). In Lewis's 
Topographical Dictionary of England, vol. i. 
p. 431, will be found the following explanation, 
which I am afraid C. A. S. will hardly consider 
satisfactory : " This place is said to have derived 
its name from the term le-bon-eye, signifying ' the 
good island,' in consequence of its being nearly 
surrounded by the river Waveney, which was once 
a broad stream." G. FISHER. 

"Bun [doubtful], but perhaps, from b6n, B., 
the trunk of a tree. Ex. : Bun-gay [Suff.], the ga 
or place of some noted tree-stump " (Edmunds'a 
Traces of History in the Names of Places, 1869, 

p. 145). HlRONDELLE. 

447). MR. MIDDLETON may derive assistance in 
compiling a list of these by consulting the Reports 
of the Committee on Verbal Provincialisms in the 
annual volumes of Transactions of the Devonshire 
Association from 1877. He may also usefully 
refer to a paper on ancient Exeter and its trade 
in the volume for 1872. In this the late Sir Johu 



Bowring furnished a list of words, many of evident 
French origin, used within the writer's recollection 
by workmen employed by his father in the woollen 
trade. Suent was one of these words, and it is 
still in frequent use in Devonshire, though, accord- 
ing to my experience, MR. MIDDLETON'S defini- 
tion of it is not so applicable as that given by 
Halliwell, " smooth, even, regular, quiet, easy, 
insinuating, placid." Thus, a piece of well-oiled 
machinery is said to work suent. 


RUSSELL WORSTED (6 th S. vii. 468). See Rus- 
sells, in the Draper's Dictionary, by S. W. Beck. 
He appears to trace the manufacture to end of 
fifteenth or beginning of sixteenth century. 

H. A. S. J. M. 

THE CROSS ON LOAVES (6 th S. vii. 427). In 
Hungary and in Austria a kind of small round 
loaf in ordinary use always has a cross cut on it. 
These loaves are called " emperor's loaves " 
(Kaiser-semmel). In old-fashioned houses in 
Hungary before the large flat loaves are cut the 
sign of the cross is made upon them with the point 
of the knife. These loaves are round, and about 
two feet in diameter. W. HENRY JONES. 

Thornton Lodge, Goxhill, Hull. 

ARMIGER FAKILY (6 th S. vii. 428). The 
Armigera of Suffolk were formerly seated at 
Ottley. Some lands called Armigers in that parish 
were held by Robert Armiger in 11 Richard II. 
(1386). John Armiger died in 1539. Thomas 
was father of a Thomas Armiger, of Bury St. 
Edmunds. Some of the Armigers were lords of 
Monewden, co. Suffolk. C. GOLDING. 


The following notes about the Armiger family 
may be interesting to M. DE P. Sir Clement 
Armiger (styled of Cople, Bedfordshire) married 
Mary, second daughter of Sir Edward Gostwick, 
second baronet of Willington, and widow of Wil- 
liam Spencer, of Cople. 

William Armiger, of North Creak, Norfolk, was 
the first husband of Elizabeth Lucie, who after- 
wards remarried (as second wife) Jeremy Black- 
man, ancestor of Sir Henry George Harnage, 

Thomas Armiger married about 1540-50 Eliza- 
beth Heigharn, of the family of Heigham, of Hun- 

Marshall's Genealogist's Guide refers to the 
Armiger pedigree as follows : " Harleian Society, 
viii. 76." SIGMA. 

When in search of a supposed marriage be- 
tween a Knyvett and an Armiger, I found a very 
good account of the latter family in vol. i. of 
Davy's Su/olk Pedigrees, Additional MS. No. 

19,115, f. 150 ; but, not finding the intermarriage, 
did not copy the pedigree. Le Neve says that 
Clement Armiger, of Bloomsbury, was knighted 
at Whitehall June 18, 1660 (vide Harleian MSS. 
No. 5,801). Blomefield's History of Norfolk 
(1739-75), with its continuation by Parkin (1805- 
1810), has a pedigree, also much information con- 
cerning the name, well indexed. J. S. 

A branch of this family appears to have settled 
at Cople, co. Beds, as in the Visitation of 1664 
for this county, in the Heralds' College, there is a 
pedigree of Armiger, of Cople. For pedigree see 
Harl. MSS. 891, f. 32; 1449, f. 44b; 1560, f. 275; 
1820, f. 33b, in British Museum. Also Visita- 
tion of Suffolk, 1612, p. 108, ed. W. 0. Metcalfe, 
F.S.A., 1882; and Le Neve's Pedigrees of Knights, 
p. 76, ed. Harleian Society. I have a few notes 
relative to the above family, which I shall be 
pleased to send to M. DE P. if he will communi- 
cate with me. F. A. BLAYDES. 

Tilsworth, Leighton Buzzard. 

LOMBARDY POPLARS (6 th S. viL 429). It has 
been an old custom in my county (Warwick) to 
plant a poplar tree on the birth of a child ; I be- 
lieve on the principle that the tree growing 
quickly will be fit to cut in twenty-one years, 
and prove of some value when the child comes of 
age. HENRY 0. KNIGHT. 

P.S. The poplar was principally used in War- 
wickshire for the manufacture of pattens. 

I copy the following from Mr. C. A. Johns'a 
Forest Trees of Britain : 

"The white poplar is a tree of very rapid growth 

Crely n recommends it as a tit tree to be planted by ' such 
late builders as seat their houses in naked and un- 
sheltered places, and that would put a guise of antiquity 
upon any new inclosure ; since by these, while a man is 
on a voyage of no long continuance, his house and lands 
may be so covered as to be hardly known at his return.' 
The black poplar is a tree of very rapid growth, and 
attains a great size. It is consequently often planted as 
an ornamental tree, though within the last thirty years 
its place has been much usurped by foreign species." 
Pp. 163-5. 


469). I have an edition of The Gentkman's 
Calling, which I presume is the book A. S. P. 
refers to. My copy was printed in 1672, and has 
bound along with it The Lively Oracles given 
to us ; or, the Christian's Birth-right and Duty, 
&c.; as also Private Devotions. A catalogue of 
some books printed by, or rather for, Robert 
Pawlet, which follows the Private Devotions, tells 
the reader The Gentleman's Calling [is] written by 
the author of the Whole Duty of Man ; while in 
a few introductory lines to The Gentleman's Catt- 
ing we learn Mr. Garthwait was the publisher of 
both books. The latter book is divided into nine 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. JULY 23, vs. 

sections. The first is headed, " Of Business and 
Callings in General"; the second, "Of Varieties 
of Callings"; the third, "The Particulars of the 
Gentleman's Advantages above others "; the 
fourth, " The Branches of his Calling founded in 
the first Advantage, that of Education "; the fifth, 
"Of the Second Advantage, Wealth"; the sixth, 
" Of the Third Advantage of Time"; the seventh, 
" Of the Fourth Advantage, that of Authority "; 
the eighth, "The Last Advantage, that of Reputa- 
tion"; the ninth, "The Conclusion." My copy 
has two extraordinary engravings, one a figure of 
a man sitting apparently in a prison-cell, in which 
is a small window, with some sort of circular 
building in the distance. On a table lies a closed 
book, showing the leather ties, loose ; the figure's 
eyes are turned upward, while unmistakable tears 
are falling down his cheeks ; his hands are clasped, 
and a mantle covers the figure, including the back 
part of the head. Under all is " Jeremiah xiii., 
17," and the words, " Mine eye shall run downe 
with teares, because the Lords flock is carried away 
captive." On the opposite page is the other engraving, 
the figure of a man again. Similar small window, 
with a building, through the windows of which 
flames are issuing. This figure wears a crown. The 
eyes are evidently out, but we have the tears in 
greater abundance. A chain is round the neck 
attached to the wrists, and evidently connected 
with the legs. From what is under it all (Zedekiah, 
Jer. xxxix.), the figure is intended to represent 
Zedekiab. The author of The Gentleman's Call- 
ing seems to have been rather prolific, at least 
from the little I have seen and read of his pro- 
ductions ; thus, The Whole Duty of Man, The 
Causes of Decay of Christian Piety, The Ladies' 
Calling, &c., with those named at the beginning 
of these jottings. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. 


vii. 427). CollinsoDjin his History of Somerset, vol. 
iii. p. 218, explains it by writing, "The town on 
the torrent (Lim in the old British, from the Greek 
word Xipvi), signifying as much), lies, &c., on the 
river Yeo or Ivel." I question if he is altogether 
correct in his surmise. Whatever the derivation 
of Lim, it would appear to have reached us through 
a Teutonic medium. In full, the word means, of 
course, the abode of the Limings. In a not wide 
neighbourhood we find Speckington, Ashington, 
Horsington, Pointington, Alvington, Barrington, 
Puckington, &c. One only parish near here do I 
know with a similar termination which would 
seem to have a different origin, Seavington, which 
was formerly Seofenempton, or Sevenhampton. 


South Petherton, Somerset. 

" Lyme, E., anciently Liming, from lim, lime or 
mud. Ex., Lyme (Dorset), Lyming-ton (Hants.), 

Lymm (Ches.), Lyminge (Kent)" (F. Edmunds's 
Traces of History in the Names of Places, 1869, 

p. 214). HlRONDELLE. 

This names translates " the enclosure at or near 
the river Len or Lin " (from the British Zen, lin, 
lyn, ?an=water). It grew after this fashion : 
Lentun, Linton, Liniton, Limnton, Liminton, 
Lymington. The name in Domesday is found 
written Lentune. Conf. the synonymous names 
Lynton and Plympton. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

This must be searched for in the Celtic, as it is 
clearly of the same root as the Portum Lemanis of 
the Antonine Itinerary of Britain. The root is 
closely allied to our English word limit, which 
Prof. Skeat marks as of doubtful etymology, though 
Littre 1 gives it from the Latin limitem. The 
following places in England derive their names 
from the same source: Lymm, in Cheshire, close 
to the Irwell, the boundary between that county 
and Lancashire ; Lympne (Portum Lemanis), in 
Kent, set down as Limes in Domesday ; Lymps- 
ham, in Brent Marsh, Somerset ; Lympston, near 
Exmouth, Devon ; Lyme Regis, Dorset ; and 
Lymington, Hants. On examination of the map 
it will be found that all these places are end towns 
or .villages, i.e., the ends or limits of ways or roads, 
or were originally so. Lympne, Lymington, Lyme 
Regis, and Lympston, on the south coast, are more 
or less so now. Lympsham was at the end of the 
firm land in the marsh, and I believe the situation 
of Lymington, of which MR. LYNN seeks the ety- 
mology, to be similar, or to have been so formerly. 



DECIPHERER TO THE KING (6 th S. vi. 408 ; vii. 
95). There is another mention of this office to be 
found in The Remains of Thomas Hearne, which 
may be worth quoting as an illustration of it3 
duties : 

" 1723. May 13. A sham plot having been contrived, 
and the bishop of Rochester (Dr. Francis Atterbury) 
being accused as one in it (they having forged three 
letters in his mime in cipher, which Wills, the decipherer, 
hath interpreted), last week his lordship was upon his 
tryal, but was hindered making his defence. However, 
he spoke a most excellent speech of more than two hours 
long, in delivering which he is said to have fainted twice, 
having been strangely harassed and insulted." Second 
edition, vol. ii. p. 160. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Surely one cannot be far wrong in guessing 
that in the good old days of intrigue and melo- 
dramatic " priceless packets " the duties of this 
official were to translate for his royal master the 
cipher-writing of intercepted letters and papers. 

Is there an allusion to this office in the follow- 
ing passage ? 

6ts.viii.jniT28,'83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" In consideration of which, it is finally agreed, by the 
aforesaid hearers and spectators, That they neither in 
themselves conceal, nor suffer by them to be concealed 
any state-decipherer, or politic picklock of the scene, so 
solemnly ridiculous as to search out who was meant by 
the gingerbread-women, who by the hobby-horse man, 
who by the costardmonger, nay, who by their wares." 
Ben Jonson, Bartholomew Fair, The Induction. 


GAMBETTA (6 th S. vii. 25, 97, 297). The 
ordinary meaning of this word is a wooden leg. 
If, as is generally supposed, surnames mostly come 
from nicknames, it is probable that Ganibetta got 
his patronymic from one of his ancestors wearing 
a wooden leg. I doubt if " Gianbattista " would 
rub down into "Gambetta," though the Italian 
transformations of names, particularly double names, 
are often surprising. But in that case there is no 
need for the bearer to be born on St. John's Eve. 
"John-Baptist" and "Baptist" are common 
names in most Christian countries except Eng- 
land. R. H. BUSK. 

QUARTERINGS (6 th S. vi. 246, 521 ; vii. 276). 
I do not think N. quite appreciates that your full 
shield tells, in a great measure, your pedigree, or 
he would not speak of shields with many " quar- 
ters" (by which he means quarterings, quite a 
different thing from quarters) having a bad effect. 
What artists call " breadth " has no place in 
heraldry. Your quarterings show the heiresses 
from whom you are descended, and, if it is your 
full shield, the heiresses also from whom they are 
descended, which are often far too numerous to get 
into a seal. One way of doing the thing correctly 
is to use only your paternal coat. Another way, 
if you wish to put in your quarterings, is to add 
each heiress's paternal coat in due chronological 
order after your own coat. Many of these heiresses, 
however, have a right to quarterings themselves ; 
therefore, if you wish to display your full shield, 
take the third way, and after each heiress's paternal 
coat add her quarteriugs in due order before you 
come to the next heiress and the quarterings she 
inherits. It is not every one who can be per- 
suaded that your pedigree regulates your shield, 
and that your family history it is which regulates 
both of them. P. P. 

SALISBURY STREET, STRAND (6 th S. vii. 390). 
Among my MSS. I have a deed of two skins 
entitled " Articles of Agreement," dated the 8th 
of June, 1765, and made between the Right Hon. 
James, Earl of Salisbury, of the one part, and 
James Paine, of the parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, of the other part. In consideration of a 
lease, &c., the said Paine agrees to erect upon 
" All that piece or parcel of ground situate on the south 
side of the Strand, in the parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, called Salisbury Street, abutting north against 
several areas belonging to bouses in the Strand, being 

the estate of the said Earl of Salisbury and now occupied 
under agreements with Joseph Pearse, Samuel Sanders, 
Edward Dickenson, and George Veal, south against the 
River Thames, bounded east by a passage leading from 
the River Thames towards the Strand, reserved for the 
use of the inhabitants of Salisbury Street and Cecil 
Street, and west by Ivy Lane," 

the same ground being from the said areas north 
to the Thames south 277 feet 8 inches long, and 
at the north end 83 feet 9 inches wide, and at the 
south end 73 feet wide (as shown on the plan ac- 
companying the said articles). To hold, &c., to 
said Paine for the term of seventy-five years from 
the 24th day of June instant at the rent of a 
peppercorn the first year and 139?. for every year 
after during the same term. The said Paine, his 
heirs and assigns, to take down all the existing 
buildings on the said grounds and to erect 
within four years from the date hereof, others 
in their place, to the satisfaction, &c., of the said 
earl on the east and west side of the said street, 
" leaving a space or opening at the south-east end, 
between the buildings and the river Thames, of 
24 feet at least for the use of turning carriages," 
&c. Then follows the description of the materials 
to be used in the same buildings, and the follow- 
ing clause, which is certainly worthy of a little 
study so far as regards a right of way from the 
Strand to the present Embankment: 

" And also the said James Paine, his executors, ad- 
ministrators, or assigns, are to make a new and sub- 
stantial abutment against the River Thames, with a 
parapet wall or other sufficient fence. And also to make 
a good and commodious causeway from the stairs at the 
end of the said street (which the said Earl of Salisbury 
hath agreed to rebuild at his own cost and charge) down 
to low water mark, which stairs and causeway shall be 
used at all times in common by the inhabitants of Salis- 
bury Street and Cecil Street, and other of the said Earl's 
tenants and occupiers in the Strand, and that the said 
Earl's tenants or occupiers in Cecil Street and the Strand, 
or any person acting for or under them, and all other 
persons now having a right to and using and enjoy- 
ing the same shall have liberty of coming into, through, 
or upon the said street and foot paths thereof, to and 
from the Strand to the River Thames, and of landing or 
relanding goods for their own purposes, and that a com- 
modious way by steps or otherwise shall be made from 
the street to the intended new stairs to accommodate the 
said Earl's tenants and others as aforesaid." 

And that all persons not privileged and not 
tenants of the said earl who shall use such stairs 
and landing-place hereby allowed shall pay a pro- 
portionate part of the expenses in keeping the said 
passage from the north end to the Thames in 
proper repair. And no other wharf or landing- 
place is to be made or used there during the said 
;erm; the said Paine binding himself in a penalty 
of 2.000Z. for the due performance of the agree- 
ment here entered into. This agreement is dated 
1765, and expired in 1840. It is signed by the 
arl, and has a wood impression of his armorial seal. 

110, Greenwood RoaJ, Dalston. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. I6'"s. viii.juw28,'8!.. 

vi. 387; vii. 112). The Rev. T. Wilson, in his 
Archceological Dictionary, 1783, says this, s.v. : 

" Latrunculi, a game amongst tbe Romans, of much 
the same nature with our chess. The latrunculi were 
properly the chessmen, called also Lalrones and Calculi. 
They were made of glass, and distinguished by black 
and white colours. Sometimes they were made of wax, 
or other convenient substance. Some give the invention 
of this game to Palamedes when at the siege of Troy ; 
Seneca attributes it to Chilon [sic], one of the seven 
Grecian sages ; others honour Pyrrhus with the inven- 
tion ; and others again contend that it is of Persian 
origin but is not this Lis de land caprind ? Frequent 
allusions to this game are met with in the Roman classics, 
and a little poem was written upon it addressed to 1'iso, 
which some say was the work of Ovid, others of Lucan, 
in the end of some editions of whose works it is to be 
found. This game expresses so well the chance and 
order of war, that it is, with great appearance of pro- 
bability, attributed to some military officer as the in- 
ventor. One Canius Junius was so exceedingly fond of 
chess, that after he was sentenced to death by Caligula, 
he was found playing, but interrupted in his game by a 
call to execution ; he obeyed the summons, but first 
desired the centurion who brought the fatal order to 
bear witness that he had one man upon the board more 
than his antagonist, that he might not falsely brag of 
victory when his adversary should be no more." 

Ashford, Kent. 

STANDING AT PRATERS (6 th S. vi. 367; vii. 32, 
477). In the early ages of the Church it was 
doubtless the custom to stand during the celebra- 
tion of the Liturgy. The bishop, the archpriests, 
and the officiating clergy had their appointed 
seats, but the rest of the clergy, as well as the 
laity, stood throughout the service. Guillois, in 
his Catichisme Theologique, states that seats for 
the laity were not introduced into the churches 
before the twelfth century. The praying figures 
painted on the walls of the Eoman catacombs are. 
if I recollect aright, always represented as stand- 
ing. Even now in the Latin rite this posture is 
the ordinary one for the priest when officiating or 
assisting at the solemn offices of the Church. At 
Mass the celebrant stands all the time that he i 
reciting the prayers, though, as an external mark 
of adoration, he makes a genuflection in silenc 
at certain parts of the service. The clergy who 
are officially present kneel only for the consecra 
tion. At the offices of Matins, Vespers, Compline 
&c., they say all the prayers standing. In Catholic 
countries I have sometimes seen ordinary laymen 
retain the same posture during the most solemn 
parts of divine service such, for instance, as th 
benediction given with the Holy Sacrament. Thes 
people merely bowed their heads. The clergy an 
laity of the Greek Church always stand at prayer 
except once a year, at Vespers on the feast o 
Pentecost, when they kneel during the long prayer 
that are then recited. They also kneel at confes 
sion, Those of the Russian Church frequent! 

lake use of the kneeling posture, which, together 
rith certain other forms, they have probably 
orrowed from the Latins. At the Liturgy, how- 
ver, or Mass they stand. In the Catholic churches 
f the Greek rite the priests and servers do not 
end the knee during the Mass. Like the other 
rreeks, they make profound bows, bending the 
ody almost double. But though standing is the 

more ancient custom at the ordinary services of 
le Church, kneeling also has come down to us 
rom the time of Christ himself. He knelt during 
lis prayer in the garden (Luke xxii. 41). St. 

"'aul also and his companions knelt (Acts xx. 36, 
nd xxi. 5). St. Jerome, writing of St. Paula, 
ays: "Prostrate ante crucem, quasi pendentem 
)ominum cerneret, adorabat " (Epist. ad Eustoch.). 
'he Council of Nice orders the kneeling posture, 
xcept on Sundays and during Paschal time ; and 
he genuflections that follow the reading of the 

Passion on Good Friday may be found in the 
.ncient Sacramentary attributed to Pope St. 
Jelasius. C. W. S. 

It is the custom in Scotland, both in the Esta- 
blished Kirk and in the Free Kirk, for the wor- 
shippers to stand at prayers and to sit while sing- 
ng. Has this been adopted to make the Scotch 
)rotest against the Church of Rome at the Re- 
brmation all the more emphatic 1 



CROMWELL AND RUSSELL (6 th S. vii. 368, 413, 
457)._I can only refer 0. C. to the edition of 
Burke's Landed Gentry published in 1880 for the 
genealogy of the family of Cromwell-Russell. The 
whole of the extract from Burke cannot have been 
printed in " N. & Q.," or it would have been seen 
that Elizabeth, Anne, and Dorothy, mentioned as 
cousins of the late Oliver Cromwell, were, in fact, 
the daughters of Richard Cromwell, the son of the 
Protector. They lived far on into the eighteenth 
century. Two of the sisters were married, but 
died childless ; the third sister died a spinster. 
The London Library contains a work, in one 
volume, called The House of Cromwell, in which 
might probably be found some interesting in- 
formation on this subject. There must be a copy 
of it in the Library of the British Museum. 


Wickham Market. 

"DIVINE BREATHINGS" (5 th S. xi. 240, 336, 
418, 433, 478). I have lately met with, in a 
cottage in this parish, a duodecimo copy of this 
very scarce little book. The title-page, un- 
fortunately, is missing, but otherwise the book is 
perfect and in good condition. It consists of : an 
address " To the Christian Reader," signed " Thy 
Cordial Friend, Christopher Perin "; " The Con- 
tents of the Several Meditations," 4 pages ; a 


hundred " Divine Breathings," 127 pages ; and 
" Pious Keflections of a Devout Eeader," 5 pages. 
I take the date of the edition to be about 1780. 

W. E. TATE. 
Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

DUCKING A SCOLD (6 th S. vii. 28, 335): 
" In 1824 a woman was at Philadelphia, in America, 
sentenced ' to be placed in a certain instrument of cor- 
rection called a clicking or ducking stool, and plunged 
three times into the water '; but the Supreme Court of 
Pennsylvania rescinded this order, and decided that ' the 
punishment was obsolete and contrary to the spirit of 
the age.' " " N. & Q.," 1" S. ix. 232; Old Yorkshire, \. 
p. 134. 


BURRETH (6 th S. vii. 168, 376). The present 
Burgh-on-Bain (pronounced Bruff-on-Bain) is in 
early records Burreth. In Domesday Book it is 
indeed Burgrede and Burg, but in Inqu. Non. it 
is Burreth and Burgh-super-Bayn ; in Taxatio 
Ecclesiastics Boreth, and in Testa de Neville 
Burret ; in Cal. Rot. Chart. Burreth. There is a 
Eoman camp close by, which accounts for the 
prefix of the older name, while the suffix rede 
(Domesday Book), and reth, in later records, may 
refer to some forest clearing (North of England 
rod, Dan. rod), which are still frequently known 
in Lincolnshire as redings (cf. Yorkshire ridding], 
probably from O.N. ry^ja, to clear land. Of. 
Scotch red and redde. G. S. S. 

viii. 27). 

"The eternal fitness of things." 

An expression frequently in the mouth of Square, the 
"philosopher," in Tom Jones. See, e.g., bk. iv. ch. iv. 

Pro/. S. Bugge's Studies on Northern Mylholygy shortly 

Examined. By Prof. Dr. George Stephens. (Williams 

& Norgate.) 

THIS valuable paper is a portion of the Memoires de la 
Socicle Royals des Antiquaires du Nord, for 1882-1884, 
and has been printed at Copenhagen. A short time 
ago Prof. S. Bugge startled the world by propounding a 
theory that the Teutonic mythology as we know it was, 
for the most part, not what we have conceived to be an 
ancient faith but in a great measure a corruption of 
Christianity. The legends it is confessed on all hands 
bear in parts a striking likeness to some facts recorded 
in the Gospel histories and in the fables that have grown 
up round them, and it was endeavoured to be demon- 
strated that these Christian ideas had in a corrupted 
form been received by the Northmen. The opinion was 
not absolutely new, but it has been worked out by Prof. 
Bugge with great zeal and learning. It was judged on 
purely d priori arguments highly improbable thut the 
rich dream-world of northern mythology, as we know it, 
should have had such an origin. A not dissimilar line 

of argument has been used in a hundred forgotten books 
;p show that the mythology of Greece was but a reflec- 
tion of the history of the Old Testament; that Hercules 
was Samson, Bacchus Noah, and Goliath one or other 
of the Hellenic giants. This is now known to be mere 
dreaming, and it seemed to those who had no deep know- 
ledge of northern lore that Prof. Bugge's speculations 
were but a higher type of the same class. It was not, 
however, clear to most of us until Prof. Stephens entered 
the field how very little there was to be said in favour 
of this new departure. It will be conceded at once by 
all persons who know anything of old northern literature 
that many of the tales have been to some degree affected 
by contact with Christian ideas ; but this is very widely 
different from believing that the mythology as we know 
it is not a genuine relic of heathendom. Prof. Stephens 
is probably the greatest authority we have on heathen 
Scandinavia and its people. His great book on runic 
inscriptions is a monument of learning and industry 
which has few equals. Students naturally looked for an 
expression of opinion by him as to these new views. 
He has very decidedly condemned them, and has brought 
such an array of facts to bear on the subject that we 
question whether any persons in this country or in 
America will for the future have doubts as to the 
genuineness of that picturesque mythology which we 
have long believed enshrouded the religious faith and 
the scientific knowledge of our forefathers. His paper 
on the Balder myth seems to us quite conclusive. That 
there is a certain likeness between it and the history of 
our Redeemer must strike every one ; but that Balder is 
a distorted reflection of Jesus Christ is, we hold, 
proved by Prof. Stephens to be utterly impossible. 
Whether the likeness can otherwise be accounted for 
we are not in a position to eay. We dp not ourselves 
believe that it can, without travelling into regions of 
thought which are outside the realm of history. Prof. 
Stephens holds " the great outlines of our northern god- 
lore to be as relatively old and independent as that of 
any other ancient race." This is undoubtedly true, and 
is in no conflict with the view that some details we find 
may have come from classic fables or from the teaching 
of the Church. The work, though mainly controversial, 
contains much that will interest those who have no call 
to take sides in the conflict. The account of the Gos- 
forth cross occupies several pages, and the engravings 
by which it is illustrated are everything that could be 
wished for. A cast of this precious relic is, we believe, 
now in the South Kensington Museum. We trust that 
those of our readers who doubt the accuracy of Prof. 
Stephens's interpretation of its sculptures will, before 
making up their minds, take his book with them and 
study the details line by line. 

Sussex Folk-lore and Customs connected with the Seasons. 
By Frederick Ernest Sawyer. Reprinted from the 
"Sussex Archaeological Collections." (Lewes, Wolff.) 
THIS book does not contain much that is new, but is, not- 
withstanding, a most useful compilation. In folk-lore, 
as in other studies, it is not only important to know what 
a thing is but where it has come from. A collection of 
fossils would have small value if we were not informed 
of the places whence they came. So if folk-lore is 
to be made of real service in the interpretation of the 
history of man it is of the utmost importance that local 
classification shall not be neglected. At the Red Lion 
Inn, Old Shoreham, a custom called "the bushel" is 
still kept up, which seems to us very ancient. A vessel 
holding a bushel is decorated with flowers, paper, &c., 
and on New Year's Day is filled with beer, from which all 
comers may drink free. It seems that on the Sunday 
in the middle of or preceding Brighton races a fair was 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* B. vm. JULY ss, -as. 

held called White Hawk Fair. Its origin is said to be 
lost in antiquity. Mr. Sawyer says that it is hardly yet 
stamped out. 

Caxton's Game and Playe of ike Chesse, 1474. A ver- 
batim reprint of the first edition. With an Introduc- 
tion by W. E. A. Axon. (Stock.) 

THIS is by far the most convenient reprint of the book 
which was long considered to be the first work printed 
in England. The supposition that it is the first book 
from the press of Caxton may be a mistake, and 
we think it such, though there are persons, whose 
judgment is worthy of respect, who hold fast the ancient 
opinion. Whether it be the first of English printed 
books or not is a matter of small consequence. It is 
certainly one of Caxton's earlier efforts, and has an 
interest of its own apart from its position in biblio- 
graphical science. As a treatise on chess its value is 
email ; but as a work on ethics in the vulgar tongue, by a 
fervent believer in the mediaeval Church at a time when 
the Reformation was not dreamt of, it possesses great 
value to students. Mr. Axon's introduction is well 
written and useful. He does not repeat what has been 
told over and over again, but gives a clear compendium 
of what is necessary to be known for a right under- 
standing of the book. The account of the more remote 
foreign sources from which Caxton's text is taken is 
remarkably well done. There is, moreover, a service- 
able index. 

New Facts relating to the Ckatterton Family, gathered 
from Manuscript Entries in a "History of the Bible " 
which once belonged to tiie Parents of Thomas Chatter- 
ton, the Poet, and from Parish Rfgislers. (Bristol, 
George & Son.) 

THIS little pamphlet of fifteen pages has a title dis- 
proportionately long. It is almost a table of contents 
of what is to follow. We hope, however, the sample 
will not prejudice our readers against the bulk; for these 
few pages are well worth reading, if only as an example 
of how documentary' evidence is sometimes set on one 
side because it clashes with foregone conclusions. An 
imperfect History of the Bible was discovered some 
time ago at Bristol, containing memoranda of the bap- 
tisms of Thomas Chatterton the poet, and of a brother 
and sister. There was also a cancelled entry of the mar- 
riage of the poet's father. These entries did not tally 
exactly with facts as before interpreted they, indeed, 
contradicted the inscription on the Chatterton tomb- 
stone and a correspondent in a contemporary, with too 
great haste, denounced them as a palpable fabrication. 
We have here a reprint of the correspondence on tlie 
subject. Without examining for ourselves the newly 
discovered memoranda, and comparing them with the 
parish registers and other documents, manuscript and 
printed, that ought to be called upon as evidence, we 
can give no positive opinion. It seems to us, however, 
judging only from the statements made in these pages, 
that the entries in the " Bible History " are genuine. 
We trust that the compiler will endeavour to identify 
"the Reverend Wm. Williams" and "the Rev. Mr. 
Giles," as well as the godfathers and godmothers who 
are mentioned. 

The Annual Register: a Review of Public Events at 
Home and Abroad for the Year 1882. New Series. 

WE are glad to record the appearance of this annual 
Tolume. It contains, in addition to a full chronicle of 
the chief events, a retrospect of the literature, science, 
and art of the past year, and an exhaustive obituary of 
the eminent persons whom we have lost during that 
period, If any one wishes to revive his recollections of 

the political events of last year we recommend him 
to read the nine chapters of English history with 
which the volume commences. As a book of reference 
the usefulness of such a chronicle is incontestable. The 
unbroken series of Annual Registers from 1752 forms a 
storehouse of facts to which every historical inquirer has 
at some time had occasion to refer. 

INTERNATIONAL copyright, though somewhat languish- 
ing at present in the diplomatic world (at least as re- 
gards Great Britain and the United States), is being 
actively taken up by several societies which are interested 
in the promotion of conventions. A draft model of a 
literary and artistic copyright convention has been pre- 
pared by a committee of the International Literary Asso- 
ciation, sitting in Paris under the presidency of the 
Minister from San Salvador, M. Torres Caicedo. This 
draft it is proposed to submit first to a conference of 
representatives of literary and artistic societies at Berne 
before the close of August, and subsequently to the 
International Literary Congress at Amsterdam in Sep- 
tember. In the meanwhile, the scheme initiated by 
M. Torres Caicedo has been carefully considered by the 
English Committee of the International Literary Asso- 
ciation, under the presidency of Mr. Blanchard Jerrold, 
and by the Council of the Royal Society of Literature, 
both of which have devoted special meetings to the sub- 
ject. It is also hoped that the Milan Conference of the 
Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law 
of Nations, in September, will discuss the proposals, so 
that the ground may be well prepared before any official 
action is sought to be taken in the matter. The original 
text of the draft will be printed as a special report to 
the Council by the Foreign Secretary in the forthcoming 
Report of the Royal Society of Literature. 

MR. SULM AN, of Upper Holloway, who is now occupied 
with photographing old bits of Highgate before they dis- 
appear, has sent us views of the residence, tablet, and 
tomb of Coleridge. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

C. S. I. (Edinburgh). The initial you took was 
already in use by an old contributor. AVith regard to 
your remarks, we can only say to you, as to MR J. C. 
MooiiE and others, that we have no control over the 
philology, or want of philology, of our contributors. No 
doubt the case in point would be described by some as 
" disheartening." 

J. F. B. We have already, we believe, given such 
particulars as we can find concerning the engraver 
Simon Fransois Ravenet (not Ravenat). Born 1706, 
he came to England circa 1750, and died in 1774. A 
short list of his works is supplied in Stanley's edition of 
Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. 

C. G. MOREN. We are sorry it is impossible to make 
the requisite inquiries in time to be of service. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception, 





NOTES: A Visit to Orkney, 81 The Camden Roll, 83 
Essay by Shelley, 85 Visits to the Dead, 86-Early English 
Saying Carlyle on Wordsworth Spanish Proverb, 87. 

QUERIES : Galileo : " Middleburgo " and "I Figliuoli di 
Jausen "Butler Service, 87 Old Line Engraving Pur : 
Chilver History of Birds Blue Ink Putney : Puttenham 
Scotch Sponsors Chain Cables Scott and the Roll of 
Honor Free Chapels, 88 Andrew Hervey Mills Kirk 
Session Records Sqnail " Secret History of Charles II." 
Luther and the Reformation Sheridan Letters Authors 
Wanted, 89. 

REPLIES: Paigle A MS. of Tasso, 90 While =TTn til 
" Wooden walls " " Will-o'-the-Wisp " Marshalsea, 91 
Virtu " Bradshaw's Railway Guide," 92 Solomon's Seal, 
93- Curious Coin Easter Monday " Villikins and his 
Dinah " 23rd Fusileers Why as a Surname Paul Herring, 
94 A Robinson Peculiar Method of Impaling Arms, 95 
By-and-by Lincolnshire Field-names Lass Bometh 
"Nothing succeeds like success" Marmotinto Maypoles 
Imitating Birds, 96 Hair turning White" L'homme 
propose" Wooden Effigies Hebrew Motto Squire Papers 
MS. History of the Princes of Wales, 97 Ann in Place- 
namesRaymonds and Davenants Headcorn : Mortlake 
Pleck= Meadow Philip Jackson Catspaw, 93 John 
Kenrick Kyrton Family Shillitoe Family Family of 
Eyles, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Burke's "History of Dormant 

Peerages "Peacock's " Church Ales." 
Notices to Correspondents. 



From boyhood a visit to an old cathedral, church, 
or hall, or a ramble over a battlefield, like Tow ton, 
Maraton Moor, or Naseby, has had an inexpres- 
sible charm. Mouldering castles as Conisborough, 
Middleham, Richmond, and Pomfret have been 
often visited ; day-dreams indulged in amid ruined 
abbeys, like Fountains, Bolton Priory, and Jervaulx. 
Like " the touch of a vanish'd hand and the sound 
of a voice that is still," reminiscences of such visits, 
and of the days that have gone rise within us when 
a return has taken place to a solitary dwelling, 
where the pleasures of literature stand in stead of 
other delight. Though the neighbourhood possesses 
a large infusion of the literate element it can 
scarcely be said to consist of literary people. It 
would be difficult to find a copy of Shakspere or 
of Sir Walter Scott. 

On the present occasion, after leaving an "Ultima 
Thule" residence in Suffolk, as it was aptly styled by 
a learned friend of mine, a little time was pleasantly 
spent at Moffat, and then a voyage to Orkney was 
decided upon in order to see the cathedral of St. 
Magnus and some of the places mentioned by Sir 
Walter Scott in the excellent novel The Pirate, 
Minna and Brenda, Norna and Cleveland, Magnus 
Troil and Triptolemus Yellowley had been " house- 

hold words" for many a year; and though their 
residence was chiefly in Shetland, yet the conclud- 
ing scenes of the story are laid in Orkney. 

A berth was secured on board a steamer plying 
from Leith to Kirkwall on a lovely evening towards 
the end of June, just when the sun was thinking 
of going down at Edinburgh, " where the huge 
castle holds its state, and all the steep slope down." 
Well, indeed, might Sir Walter speak of " mine 
own romantic town," for a better and more descrip- 
tive epithet was never applied to " auld Reekie " 
than this. The night, or rather twilight, wore 
away, and after leaving Aberdeen, the " granite 
city," in the early morning under the rising sun, 
the steamer pursued her course, flinging aside the 
waves and leaving them moaning and lamenting. 
Though she rolled like a ball through the heavy 
sea, yet, with Childe Harold, we could be say: 

" But dash the tear-drop from thine eye, 

Our ship is swift and strong, 
Our fleetest falcon scarce can fly 
More merrily along." 

She held on her course well, leaving only for a 
moment a trace behind : " All those things are 
passed like a shadow, and like a post that hasteth 
by : as a ship that passeth over the waves of the 
water, which when it is gone by the trace thereof 
cannot be found, neither the pathway of the keel 
in the waves." On the left hand, some thirty 
miles from Aberdeen, on a lofty rock, was seen 
Slains Castle, the home of the Earl of Errpl, who 
holds the proud office of Lord High Constable of 
Scotland. Here in 1773 came on a visit to the 
earl of that day Dr. Johnson and his friend 
Boswell, as it has been duly chronicled. Boswell 
tells of their being unable to sleep on account 
of the beds being stuffed with sea-fowls' feathers, 
and how they inspected the wonderful Bullers o' 
Buchan, which are situated not far from Slains. 
Their host was a man of gigantic stature, six 
feet four inches in height, of whom Walpole 
speaks as " the noblest figure I ever saw, the 
High Constable of Scotland, Lord Errol." This 
was at the banquet which succeeded the corona- 
tion of George III. in 1761, in Westminster 
Hall, where, some fifteen years before, the father, 
Lord Kilmarnock, had been tried and condemned 
to the block for the part which he had taken 
in the rebellion of 1745. Then came in sight the 
Rock of Dunbuy, crowded with sea-fowl; and 
the Bullers o' Buchan ; and Peterhead renowned 
in whaling annals, and Fraserburgh the scene 
of the ministerial labours of the excellent Bishop 
Jolly, were soon left on the lee. As the long 
summer afternoon glided away the supposed site 
of John o' Groat's house was seen in the distance 
as Caithness was passed. Then, anchoring at St. 
Margaret's Hope whilst a portion of the cargo was 
being unloaded, tea was enjoyed. After so much 
rolling about it was delightful to get into calm 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. vm. Ana. 4, 

water, amongst a kind of archipelago of little 
islands, where the water was as smooth as a mill- 
pond and the sea-gulls flew lazily by. At mid- 
night we arrived at our destination, " the haven 
where we would be " the Pomona or mainland of 
Orkney when it was so light that the smallest 
print might have been read, and the horizon was 
quite red, as though the sun had thought it 
scarcely worth while to go to bed for so short a 
period. Be it remembered that we were now 
almost in the same latitude as Norway. 

Terra firma was now gained with pleasure it 
must be admitted and the comforts of a bed were 
much appreciated after a rather shaking passage. 
Comfortable quarters were secured at an old- 
fashioned inn in the old-fashioned town of Kirkwall, 
apparently, from the arms over the front door and 
their date, the abode of an Orcadian family of con- 
sequence in the seventeenth century. The building 
consisted of a centre with two wings, forming three 
sides of a square, and the old pannelled dining- 
room did duty in the present day as a coffee-room, 
looking out upon a gar den- orchard. Perhaps who 
can tell ? even there were " the tea-cup times of 
hood and hoop, or while the patch was worn," in 
the days of Queen Anne, for imperious fashion had 
to be obeyed even in those days at Kirkwall, though 
it was long before its last edicts and modes arrived 
in Orkney. The streets of Kirkwall are of the 
narrowest kind, and though they do not, perhaps, 
admit of shaking hands, across them, yet conver- 
sation might be easily carried on. The legend runs 
that the news of the landing of William, Prince 
of Orange, at Torbay in November, 1688, did not 
reach the metropolis of Orkney until the May of 
the next year. "Nous avons change" tout cela,"for 
in these days of submarine telegraphy the result 
of the Hastings election was exhibited in a book- 
seller's window at Kirkwall in a very short period 
indeed after its termination. 

Proudly dominating over the little town, and 
conspicuous from far, the Cathedral of St. Magnus 
the Martyr rears its lofty head, a lasting monu- 
ment of the piety and zeal of former ages. A 
noble Norman pile, indeed, cruciform in shape, 
and dating primarily from 1138, when it was 
built by Ronald, Earl of Orkney, as Scott aptly 
Bay?, " it is grand, solemn, and stately, the work 
of a distant age and a powerful hand." It was 
much enlarged by Bishops Steward and Read 
in the sixteenth century. The length is 226 
feet, and the windows, though long and narrow, 
by being splayed throw down quite a suffi- 
ciency of light in the structure. Many curious 
old monuments are placed against the walls, 
showing, however, that Orcadian sculpture had 
not attained a high standard of excellence, 
and the ancient emblems of mortality, the skull, 
cross-bones, and hour-glass, are prominently and 
frequently depicted. One or two modern monu- 

ments are worth noting ; those of Malcolm Laing, 
the Scottish historian, and William Balfour 
Baikie, the African explorer, a raised tomb with 
a coped lid between two pillars of the nave. A 
beautiful air of quiet pervaded the cathedral, and 
my eye roamed over and was entranced by its 
grand though severe and stately beauty. On. 
Sunday, after assisting in the morning at the 
pretty little Episcopal church on the outskirts of 
the town, the afternoon service was attended in. 
the choir of the cathedral, now used as the parish 
church, and where service is performed according 
to the manner of the Kirk of Scotland. No organ, 
no harmonium, no musical instrument was heard, 
merely the unaccompanied human voice, and yet 
the 'old Scottish paraphrase of 1 St. Peter i. was 
very devotionally and congregationally sung : 

"Blest be the everlasting God, the Father of our 


Be His eternal mercy praised, His majesty adored. 
When from the dead He called His Son. and raised 

Him to the sky, 

He gave our souls a lively hope that they should 
never die," &c. 

An excellent sermon was preached a really good 
exposition of Christian faith and doctrine though 
no longer does the loud hosanna or the " Venite 
exultemus " or " Jubilate Domino," ring through 
the aisles of St. Magnus' Cathedral at Kirkwall. 
Where the altar once stood are pews of every 
conceivable shape and size, and a towering pulpit 
of great dimensions forms now the most pro- 
minent object. " Simplex munditiis " would be 
an appropriate motto for its present internal con- 
dition, for no one could now say that either its 
condition or service is gorgeous or aesthetic. 
Will Cleveland Coxe's wish ever be realized : 
"From Berwick to the Orkneys, 

How each old kirk shall gleam, 
In beauty and in brightness, 

With thy returning beam ! 
One heart in Gael and Saxon, 

In cotter and in thane ; 
One creed, one church, in Scotland, 

From Caithness to Dumblane ! " 

South of the cathedral are the interesting ruins 
of the earl's palace and also those of the Bishops 
of Orkney, and upon the outer wall, or rather 
round tower of the latter, is the roughly carved 
effigy of Bishop Eead, who made this addition 
in 1540. The earl's palace was built in 1600 
by Patrick Stewart, Earl of Orkney, who was 
beheaded in Edinburgh in 1615.* As is well 
known, the Orkney and Shetland isles came as a 
dower with Margaret, daughter of the King of 

* See Chamlers's Encyclopaedia, s.v. "Orkney," from 
which it would appear that these islands were given up 
more as a security for the dower. In 1596 Denmark 
formally renounced all claim to them on the marriage 
of James VI. to the Danish Princess Anne. See also 
|'N. & Q.," 1" S. vii. 105, 183, 41;2; xii. 254, for some 
interesting information on the point. 

6*8. viii. AUG. V83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Denmark, on her marriage to James III. of Scot- 
land, in 1497. They were afterwards mortgaged 
to the Earl of Morton in 1707, and then sub- 
sequently passed to an ancestor of the present 
proprietor, the Earl of Zetland ; this, of course, 
not affecting the sovereign rights of the monarchs 
of England in them. The banqueting hall in the 
earl's palace has been a noble room, and has at 
the end the remains of a fine window. Here, 
according to Sir Walter Scott, took place the 
meeting of the pirates Cleveland and Bunce, and 
it needed little stretch of the imagination to sup- 
pose the schooner Fortune's Favourite lying in the 
bay of Kirkwall below, right under the fire of the 
six-gun battery. What an inimitable scene is the 
quarrel of the pirates on board concerning the 
command, and the escape of the involuntary 
hostage, Triptolemus Yellowley ! Beneath is the 
kitchen, and in it a fire-place where an ox could 
be roasted whole, and probably was, many a time, 
before a peat-fire, as wood must have been difficult 
to procure in Orkney. 

Another day was devoted to the exploration of 
Maes How, a most remarkable tumulus, not far 
from the road from Kirkwall to Stromness, where, 
after creeping along a narrow passage, an immense 
chamber is entered, lined with stone, and only 
opened some thirty years ago. A charming 
walk from it, bounded in the distance by the lefty 
cliffs of Hoy, leads to the Stones of Stennis, 
perhaps the most remarkable relic of the kind in 
Great Britain, excepting Stonehenge, which is 
much grander. Let Sir Walter Scott's graphic 
pan describe it : 

''Behind him [i.e. Cleveland], and fronting to the 
bridge, stood that remarkable semicircle of upright 
stones, which has no rival in Britain, excepting the 
inimitable monument at Stonehenge. These immense 
blocks of stone, all of them above twelve feet, and 
several being even fourteen or fifteen feet in height, 
stood around the pirate in the grey light of the dawn- 
ing, like the phantom forms of antediluvian giants, who, 
shrouded in the habiliments of the dead, came to re- 
visit, by this pale light, the earth which they had 
plagued by their oppression and polluted by their sins, 
till they had brought upon it the vengeance of long- 
suffering Heaven." The Pirate, ch. xxxviii. 

The approach to them was along a narrow 
causeway, called the Bridge of Broisgar, con- 
necting two beautiful lochs. It was a lovely 
summer afternoon, and the Stones of Stennis, like 
Hector's spear, cast long shadows. The greater 
and more perfect circle was surrounded by a deep 
foss or moat, now grass-grown, in which the 
Eriophorum polysticum, or cotton sedge, flourishes 
in great abundance, and on many of the stones 
people had scratched their names or initials, 
as is invariably done on all public monu- 
ments to which access is permitted. One of 
them, which was perforated, called the Stone of 
Odin, and through which lovers used to plight 

their troth by grasping each other's hands, is sup- 
posed to have been destroyed in 1814. The Loch 
of Stennis is very beautiful and extensive, though 
it needs hills dipping down to its margin. Strom- 
ness, a little fishing town, not containing much 
either pleasing or interesting, was then visited, 
and with this the visit to Orkney ended. Just 
so much was seen as to make me desire to see a 
little more of its scenery and explore the many 
ancient relics and customs of the past, which must 
even now have an existence. Dulse, a kind of 
sea- weed, is still largely eaten by the aborigines. 

A passage was now made homewards, though a 
sea-fog, which detained us some six hours off Inch 
Keith, hindered us from seeing much of the beauties 
of the Edinburgh coast. Gladly I stepped on shore 
at Leith, and, just catching a southern train, pro- 
ceeded to Carlisle, my Brundusium. The next 
day morning service was attended at the fine 
cathedral, and the beautifully carved pulpit to 
the memory of Paley was inspected, as was 
the bust of that good man George Moore, whose 
wealth was as great as his liberality was un- 
bounded. His valuable life was, as is well 
known, lost owing to an accident which befell him 
at Carlisle. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

(Concluded from p. 43.) 

167. Joh a n de sandwiz. Or, a chief indented azure. 
(Munsire Joh-'u de saudwis, lescu dor od les endente 

168. Gefrei de langel'. Argent, a fesse, and in chief 
three escallops, sable. (Munsire de Langel', lescu dar- 
gent od une fesse de sable a treis escalop' de sable.) 

169. Will de Orlanston'. Or, two chevrons gules, on 
a quarter of the second a lion rampant argent. (Mun- 
sire Will' de Orlauston', lescu dor a deu s cheu'uns de 
gule" od la q a rt' de gule 8 a un leuncel rampa't dargent.) 

170. Robt de la Warde. Vaire argent and sable. 
(Munsire Robt de la Warde, lescu verre darge't & de 

171. Nich' de haulo. Or, two chevrons gules, on a 
quarter of the second a crescent argent. (Munsire Nich 
de haulo, lescu dor a deus cheu'uns de gule" od le q a rt de 
gule 8 a une cressante dargent.) 

172. Gefrei de geneuile. Azure [no trace of charges], 
on a chief ermine a demi-lion rampant gules. (Mun- 
sire Gefrey de Geneuile, lescu de azur od treis bayea 
dor od le chef de ermine a un leun recoupe de gules.) 

173. Ric' syward. Sable, a cross fleurettee argent. 
(Munsire Richart Syuward, lescu de sable od une croiz 
dargent florecte.) 

174. Rog' de Leukenore. Azure, three chevrons 
argent, a label or. (Munsire Roger de Leukenore, lescu 
de azur od treis cheu'uns darge't aun label dor.) 

175. Ric de grey. Barry of six argent and azure. 
(Munsire de grey, lescu barre dazur & dargent.) 

176. Walran de mu'sels. Argent, a bend sable. (Mun- 
sire Walran de muncels, lescu darge't od une bende de 

177. Will grandin. The tincture azure alone remains. 
(Munsire Will' grandyn, leacu dazur od treia molectej 



vm. AUG. 4, '83. 

178. Cute de Assele. Sable, three pallets or. (Cunte 
de Assele, lescu pale dor & de eable.) 

179. Gu'te de karrik. Sahle, three cinquefoils pierced, 
2 and 1, or. (Cunte de Karrik, lescu de sable od treis 
q'ntefoiles dor.) 

180. Walt le fiz hunfrie. Quarterly argent and sable. 
(Munsire Walt le fiz hunfrey, lescu esqTtele darge't & 
de sable.) 

181. Cunte de Jungi. Gules, an eagle displayed 
argent, crowned or. (Cunte de Jungi, lescu de gules a 
un egle dargent corone dor.) 

182. Will' chamberlens. The tincture azure alone 
remains. (Munsire Will' le chamberlens, lescu de azur 
od treis clefs dor.) 

183. Joh a n comyn. Gules, three garbs, 2 and l,or. 
(Munsire Joh a n Comyn, leseu de gules a treis garbes 

184. Sire de brussele. Or, a aaltire gules. (Sire de 
brussele, lescu dor a un sautur de gules.) 

185. Name omitted. Argent, fretty of six gules. (Not 
described in blazon.) 

18(5. Nich' de kuggeho. Gules, a fesse between three 
crescents argent, a bordure or. (Munsire Nichol de 
Kuggeho, lescu de gules a une fesse darge't od treis 
losenges darge't.) 

187. Robt de muscegros. Or, a lion rampant gules. 
(Munsire Robt de Muscegros, lescu dor a un leun ram- 
pant de gules.) 

188. Moris de berkele. Gules, a chevron argent. 
(Munsire Moris de berkel', lescu de gules a un cheuerun 

189. Guncelyn de badele'me. Argent, a fesse between 
two bars gemelles gules. (Munsire guncelyn de badeles- 
inere, lescu dargent od une fesse de gules a deus listes de 

190. Rauf de Sei't leger. Azure, fretty of six argent, 
a chief or. (Munsire Rauf de seynt leger, lescu dazur 
frette darge't od le chef dor.) 

191. Joh a n louel. Barry undy of six or and gules. 
No trace of a label. (Munsire ioh a n louel, lescu undee 
dor & de gules a un label de azur.) 

192. Rauf de Normanuil. Gules, a fesse between two 
bars gemelles argent. (Munsire Rauf de Normanuil', 
lescu de gules a une fesse darge't od deus listes 

193. Godefrei de brabant. Sable, a lion rampant or, 
debruised by a bend gules. (Munsire Godefrey de 
breban, lescu de sable a un leun ra'pant dor od une 
be'de de gule".) 

194. Will de flandres. Or, three pallets azure, a lion 
rampant sable, debruised by a bend gules. (Munsire 
Will de flandres, lescu dor a un leun rampa't de sable od 
urie be'de de gules.) 

195. James de tru'pi'ton'. Gules, two trumpets in 
pile between ten cross-crosslets or. (Munsire James de 
Trumpynton', lescu de gules a deus tru'pes dor crusile 

196. Moriz le fiz geroud. Argent, a saltire gules. 
(Muneire moris le fiz gerouJ, lescu de argent a un saut' 
de gules.) 

197. Robt de Ros. Gules, three water-bougets, 2 and 1, 
argent. (Munsire Rob't de ros, lescu de gules a treis 
bussels dargent.) 

198. henr' tregoz. The tincture azure alone remains. 
(Munsire henr' tregoz, lescu dazur od deus lystes dor a 
un leun passant dor.) 

199. Robt de cokeseud. Gules, a fleur-de-lys ermine. 
(Munsire Robt de Cokesend, lescu de gules a une flur de 
glagel dermine.) 

200. Will' heringaud. The tincture azure alone re- 
mains. (Munsire Will' heringaud, lescu dp azur od sis 
harangs dor crusile dor.) 

201. Will' de heuere. Gules, a cross argent, a label 
azure. (Munsire Will' de heuere, lescu de gules od une 
croiz darge't a un label dazur.) 

202. Will' de valoynes. Argent, three pallets undy 
gules. (Munsire Will' de valoyne?, lesou undee de lung 
darge't & de gules.) 

Here the blazon on the back of the parchment 

203. Robt de seuane. The tincture azure alone re- 

204. Werreis de valoynes. Gules, fretty of six ermine. 

205. Will' de detlinge. Sable, six lions rampant, 
3, 2, and 1, argent. 

206. Ric' le Waleys. Gules, a fesse ermine. 

207. Sire de breda. Sable, a lion rampant argent, a 
label gules. 

208. Sire de fenes. Argent, a lion rampant sable. 

209. Rauf de badelesm'e. Ermine, a fesse between 
two bars gemelles gules. 

210. henr' de breban. Sable, a lion rampant argent. 

211. Joh a n de munceus. Gules, a manche or. 

212. Nich' de la hese. Argent, three human legs 
couped at the thigh, 2 and 1 (hose ?), gules. 

213. Will' de bastinge. Argent, a fesse between three 
lozenges azure. 

214. Cunte del ildle. Or, a lion rampant azure. 

215. Earth' de briancun. Gyronny of ten argent and 

216. Robt de betune. Or, a lion rampant sable. 

217. Will' de Northie. Quarterly argent and azure. 

218. Boges de knouile. Gules, three mullets of six 
points, 2 and 1, or, a label azure. 

219. Cunte de cestre. The tincture azure alone re 

220. Joh a n de Repinghal'. Sable, two bars argent, in 
chief three plates. 

221. Cu'te de Salesbire. Azure, six lions rampant, 
3, 2, and 1 

222. Robt de munteny. Azure, a bend argent. (No 
trace of further charges.) 

223. Rog de Scirlande. Azure, five lions rampant, 
2, 2, and 1, argent, a quarter ermine. 

224. Gerard le giable. Sable, on a chief argent a lion 
pas-ant gules. 

225. hamun de gatton'. Checque argent and azure. 

226. Sire de Sascliant. Sable, on a chief argent a 
demi fleur-de-lys gules. 

227. Joh a n de horbire. Barry of six argent and azure, 
a bend gules. 

228. Rog de Munhaut. Azure, a lion rampant argent. 

229. Cunte de Prouence. Paly of eight or and gules. 

230. Sire ernold de guines. Vaire or and azure, a label 

231. Cliastelein de louain. Bendy of six gules and or. 

232. Will de basoges. Gules, three pallets argent, on 
a chief or a lion passant of the field. 

233. Bertout de bredan. Gules, three pallets argent, 
on a canton sable a lion rampant argent. 

234. Will' de guynes. Vair6 or and azure, on a bor- 
dure gules eight bezants (plates?). 

235. Joh^n de guyues. Vaire or and azure, a bend 

236. Cunte de bar. The tincture azure alone remain?. 

237. Wiot de guynes. Vaire or and azure, a quarter 

238. Cunte patrik. Gules, a lion rampant argent, on 
a bordure of the second eight cinquefoils pierced (roses) 
of the field. 

239. Baudewin de ekont. The tincture azure alone 

240. Cute de boloyne. The field or only visible. 



241. Phelipe burnel. Argent, a lion rampant sable 
debruised by a bend gules. 

242. henr' de ekout. Gule?, three crescents, 2 and 1, 
between nine cross-crosslets fitche'es or. 

243. Sire de cochi. Barry of six vair and gules. 

244. Joh*n lousl le fiz. Barry unJy of six or and 
gules. (No trace of any surcharge.) 

245. Will' de Ekout. The tincture azure alone re- 

246. Sire de florence. Or, six fleurs-de-lys, 3, 2, anl 1, 

247. Race de lyuecarke. The tincture azure alone 

248. Walt de Redesh^m. Checque" argent and gules. 
219. hue Wake. Gules, two bars or, and in chief three 


250. Joh a n de lyuecarke. Or, three lions rampant, 
2 and 1, sable. 

251. henr' de Sauueye. Argent, an eagle displayed 

252. amys de Sauueye. Or, an eagle displayed sable, 
beaked gules. 

253. Aubrey de Witlebire. The tincture azure only 

254. Rauf de oty'ngden'. Ermine, a cross gules, 
voided argent. 

255. Will' Maufe. Argent, a lion rampant sable be- 
tween seven escallops gules. 

256. henr' de lucenburg. B.irry of twelve argent and 
azure, a lion rampant gules. 

257. Sire de rode. The tincture azure alone remains. 
253. Joh"n de Asse. Or, a fesse azure, debruised by a 

sal tire gules. 

259. Sire de parueis. Gules, a fesse argent. 

260. phelip de bruoorg. Or, a lion rampant between 
seven escallops sable. 

261. Ernaud de wisemale. Gules, three fleurs-de-lys, 
2 and 1, or. 

262. Sire de Creseikes. Traces of or. 

263. J a nc de Wisemale. Gules, three fleura-de-lys, 
2 and 1, argent. 

264. Cunte de gulg. Gules, an inescutcheon argent. 

265. Cunte de Cliue. Or, a lion rampant, queue four- 
cbee, sable. 

266. Cu'te de estr^erne. Gules, two chevrons or. 

267. Chastelein de gant. Sable, a chief argent. 

268. Rauf de otingbu'. Argent, with some indistinct 
charges sable. 

269. eymon de Mu'tagu. The tincture azure alone 

270. Sire de Wingan. Argent, a chevron gules. 


AN ESSAY BY SHELLEY. The following short 
essay, by the poet Shelley, is buried in a forgotten 
annual, the Keepsake, for 1829 ; and no apology 
is necessary for placing it en permanence in the 
columns of " N. & Q.": 

By Percy Bysshe Shelley. 

What is Love t Ask Mm who lives what is life ; ask 
him who adores what is God. 

I know not the internal constitution of other men, nor 
even of thine whom I now address. I see that in some 
external attributes they resemble me, but when, misled 
by that appearance, I have thought to appeal to some- 
thing in common and unburthenmy inmost soul to them, 
I have found my language misunderstood, like one in a 
distant and savage land. The more opportunities they 
have afforded me for experience, the wider has appeared 

the interval between us, and to a greater distance have 
the points of sympathy been withdrawn. With a spirit 
ill-fitted to sustain such proof, trembling and feeble 
through its tenderness, I have every where sought, and 
have found only repulse and disappointment. 

Thou demandest what is Love. It is that powerful 
attraction towards all we conceive, or fear, or hope be- 
yond ourselves, when we find within our own thoughts 
the chasm of an insufficient void, and seek to awaken in 
all things that are, a community with what we experi- 
ence within ourselves. If we reason we would be under- 
stood ; if we imagine we would that the airy children of 
our brain were born anew within another's ; if we feel 
we would that another's nerves should vibrate to our 
own, that the beams of their eyes should kindle at once 
and mix and melt into our own ; that lips of motionless 
ice should not reply to lips quivering and burning with 
the heart's best blood : this is Love. This is the bond 
and the sanction which connects not only man with man, 
but with every thing which exists. We are born into the 
world, and there is something within us, which from the 
instant that we live, more and more thirsts after its like- 
ness. It is probably in correspondence with this law 
that the infant drains milk from the bosom of its mother ; 
this propensity develops itself with the development of 
our nature. We dimly see within our intellectual nature, 
a miniature as it were of our entire self, yet deprived of 
all that we condemn or despise, the ideal prototype of 
every thing excellent and lovely that we are capable of 
conceiving as belonging to the nature of man. Not only 
the portrait of our external being, but an assemblage of 
the minutest particles of which our nature is composed : * 
a mirror whose surface reflects only the forms of purity 
and brightness : a soul within our own soul that de- 
scribes a circle around it* proper Paradise, which pain 
and sorrow and evil dare not overleap. To this we 
eagerly refer all sensations, thirsting that they should 
resemble and correspond with it. The discovery of its 
antitype ; the meeting with an understanding capable of 
clearly estimating our own ; an imagination which should 
enter into and seize upon the subtle and delicate pecu- 
liarities which we have delighted to cherish and unfold 
in secret, with a frame, whose nerves, like the chords of 
two exquisite lyres, strung to the accompaniment of one 
delightful voice, vibrate with the vibrations of our own ; 
and a combination of all these in such proportion as 
the type within demands : this is the invisible and un- 
attainable point to which Love tends ; and to attain 
which, it urges forth the powers of man to arrest the 
faintest shadow of that, without the possession of which, 
there is no rest nor respite to the heart over which it 
rules. Hence in solitude, or that deserted state when 
we are surrounded by human beings and yet they sym- 
pathize not with us, we love the flowers, the grass, the 
waters, and the sky. In the motion of the very leaves 
of spring, in the blue air, there is then found a secret 
correspondence with our heart. There is eloquence in 
the tongueless wind, and a melody in the flowing brooks 
and the rustling of the reeds beside them, which by their 
inconceivable relation to something within the soul 
awaken the spirits to dance of breathless rapture, and 
bring tears of mysterious tenderness to the eyes, like the 
enthusiasm of patriotic success, or the voice of one be- 
loved singing to you alone. Sterne says that if he were 
in a desert he would love some cypress. So soon as this 
want or power is dead, man becomes a living sepulchre 
of himself, and what yet survives is the mere husk of 
what once he was. 


* These words are ineffectual and metaphorical. 
Most words are so, no help ! 



S. vii. 161). The interesting accounts given in 
previous numbers of "N. & Q." under this 
heading remind me of a statement, in reference 
to the unburied body of a Duke of Croy, which 
I found in a well-written book, bought by me 
years ago at Stockholm. I have ventured to 
translate the narrative, which will be found in 
the chapter on " Re" val," at p. 508 of La Baltique, 
by L. Le'ouzon le Due (Paris, Hachette, 1855). 

" The greatest curiosity of the Church of St. Nicolas 
is a mummy-corpse. The sacristan who acts as cicerone 
to strangers shows it last of all, as the bouquet of the 
visit. You enter a chapel and see on a platform a sar- 
cophagus, or rather an open box of wood painted in 
imitation of white and black marble. 'Approach !' says 
the sacristan. You then see extended within the box 
a corpse of gigantic stature, entirely enveloped in a 
mantle of black velvet. The head is covered by a 
huge wig with long curls. Hound the neck is a 
cravat of fine Dutch linen, embroidered, and the feet 
are in white silk stockings. The hands are crossed on 
the breast. The expression of the face is startling ; it 
is that of a man who died suddenly in a paroxysm of 
fever. The complexion is grey. The extremity of the 
nose is slightly injured, and the lips are thin and pain- 
fully drawn. The colour of the skin of the body is 
a yellowish brown. This singular corpse is that of 
Charles Eugene, Duke of Croy, Prince of the Holy 
Roman Empire, Marquis of Monte Cornetto and of 
Renti, &c. How did he get to Reval and to this place? 
The story is curious. 

" The Duke of Croy was the descendant of an ancient 
and illustrious family of Belgium, whose ancestors were 
derived from the kings of Hungary. His father was 
Philip, Duke of Croy, his mother, Isabella, Countess 
of Bronkhorst. He was born in 1651. At twenty-five 
years of age he entered the service of Christian V., King 
of Denmark, who nominated him lieutenant-general 
and commandant of the fortress of Helsingborg. Den- 
mark was then at war with Sweden. At the conclusion 
of peace the Duke of Croy took leave of King Christian 
and offered his services to the Emperor Leopold I., who 
irave him the Id/on of field-marshal and put him at the 
head of his armies. Croy carried on the war with the 
Turks and won numerous victories. Falling into disgrace, 
on account of having prematurely raised the siege of 
Belgrade, he went to Poland, thence to Saxony, and 
at last to Russia, where he was employed by Peter 
the Great against Charles XII. Here was to terminate 
the adventurous career of this cosmopolitan warrior. 
He was wounded at Narwa and made a prisoner. The 
Swedes sent him into the interior, to Reval, where he 
died on the 20th of January, 1702. 

"The Duke of Croy had loved magnificence and ex- 
penditure. He contracted enormous debts which he 
liad been unable to pay. The burgomasters of Reval, 
in conformity with existing laws, and no doubt with a 
view also of provoking the intervention of the family of 
the defunct in favour of the creditors, decided on de- 
priving him of the rites of sepulture until such time as 
his debts should be acquitted. They placed him, covered 
with the robe of his rank, in a corner of the mortuary 
chapel in the Church of St. Nicolas. Years passed. 
Neither his family nor any one in the world appeared 
disquieted on account of this man, who during his life 
had lived so gorgeously and possessed such fine domains. 
He remained there, woise off than the poorest, not 
having a corner of earth to cover his remuins. This 

continued up to 1819, the period when the Marquia 
Panlucci was appointed Governor of the Baltic pro- 
vinces and came to Reval. Feeling compassion for the 
illustrious corpse, he caused the wooden box to be made 
at his own expense in which the Duke of Croy now 

I will add the query, Is the corpse of the Duke 
of Croy still exhibited in the Church of St. Nicolas 
at Recall P. S. H. 

34, Abingdon Villas, Kensington. 

There is a very interesting account of the open- 
ing of the tomb of Edward I. in a letter from Mr. 
Gough to Tyson, in vol. viii. p. 612 of Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes. It is probably well known to 
most readers of "N. & Q."; but I copy it, in case 
it should not have been already noticed in these 
pages : 

" The opening of the tomb of Edward I., and the 
actual view of the dead conqueror of Scotland, enshrined 
in robes of royalty, his crown on hia head and two 
sceptres in his hands, his visage so well preserved as to 
exhibit a likeness to an able draughtsman, a mantle of 
red paned with white, and at every square a jewel of 
chased work, besprent with pearls and red and blue 
stones; a superb fibula fastening the mantle on the right 
shoulder, studded with pearls and twenty-two joints, 
headed and screwed in by a brilliant sapphire; hia hands 
bare and entire (bone with tanned skin, but no nails), 
holding, the right, a sceptre surmounted by a cross 
fleure ; the left, another, longer, surmounted by three 
clusters of oak leaves diminishing, and terminating by 
a dove. These sceptres were of gilt metal, as also the 
crown of fleur-de-lis. The feet were enveloped; but the 
toes, planta, and talus might be felt, distinct and fleshy, 
and the whole body of 6 ft. 2 in. long. Over the mantle 
was a wrapper or two, one strongly cerated." 

Harnpden's grave, in Great Hampden Church, 
was opened by his biographer, Lord Nugent, 
" and the body was found in such a perfect state 
that the picture on the staircase of the house was 
known to be his from the likeness" (Timbs's 
Abbeys, Castles, and Ancient Halls of England 
and Wales). STRTX. 

In 1796 the bodies of Lady Kilsyth (widow of 
Viscount Dundee, the celebrated Claverhouse, 
and wife of the last Viscount Kilsyth) and her 
infant son were exhumed, and found in the most 
extraordinary state of preservation. They met 
their death in 1717 in Flanders by the falling 
in of the roof of a house in which they and a 
number of other Scottish exiles were assembled. 
Their bodies were embalmed, and sent over to 
Scotland, where they were buried with great pomp 
at Kilsyth, in the family vault. The minister of 
Kilsyth thus describes their appearance in 1796 : 

" The body of Lady Kilsyth was quite entire ; every 
feature and every limb was as full as the day she was 
lodged in the tomb. The features, nay, the very ex- 
pression of her countenance, were marked and distinct. 
The body of her son lay at her knee. His features were 
as composed as if he were asleep ; his colour was as 
fresh, and his flesh as plump and full as in the perfect 
glow of health. Perhaps the most singular phenomenon 
was that the bodies seemed not to have undergone the 



smallest decomposition, and they retained their elasti- 
city even after being exposed to the open air for many 
months. Several medical gentlemen examined them, 
mid an incision was made into the arm of the infant. 
The bodies seem to have been preserved in a liquid of 
the appearance of brandy, and the head inclined on a 
pillow containing strong scented herbs. Balm, sage, 
and mint were easily distinguished." 

Swallowfield Park, Beading. 

The following account of the tomb of Edward I. 
in Westminster Abbey is taken from Dean 
Stanley's Memorials of Westminster Abbey, p. 142: 

" In the middle of the last century it was opened in 
the presence of the Society of Antiquaries, and the king 
was found in his royal robes, wrapped in a large waxed 
linen cloth. Then for the last time was seen that figure, 
lean and tall, and erect as a palm tree, whether running 
or riding. But the long shanks, which gave him his sur- 
name, were concealed in the cloth of gold ; the eyes, with 
the cast which he had inherited from his father, were 
no longer visible ; nor the hair, which had been yellow, 
or silver-bright in childhood, black in youth, and snow 
white in age, on his high, broad forehead." 

The body was measured, and found to be six feet 
and four inches. ARTHUR RICKARDS. 

of the last leaf of the Cotton MS., Vitellius, 
E. xviii., a Latin psalter with Anglo-Saxon gloss, 
are these four fifteenth-century lines : 
" Wei were hym J>at wyste 
To warn he mytte tryste ; 
Beter were hym bat knewe 
pe false fro be Trewe." 

F. J. F. 


" An honest rustic fiddle, good and well handled, hut 
wanting two or more strings, and not capable of much." 
Carlyle according to Fronde. 

" Goethe studied how to live and write with a fidelity, 
an unwearied earnestness, of which there is no other 
living instance ; of which, among British poets especially, 
Wordsworth alone affords any resemblance." Carlyle 
according to himself, Miscellanies, popular ed., i. 180. 


A SPANISH PROVERB. The following Spanish 
proverb and English rendering occurs in John 
Tulbot Dillon's Travels through Spain, 1780, 
p. 358 : 

" Donde hai yeso y cal, no hai mineral. 
Where of gypse and lime there 's store, 
Don't expect to meet with ore." 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

pi JAUSEN." In the year 1852 Felice de Mon- 

nier published at Florence a letter written by Prof. 
G. Frascheri, Sulla Statua di Galileo eseguita da 
Emelio Demi, in which occurs the following pas- 
sage : 

"0 Galileo, i poveri fanciulli di Middleburgo assai 
piii ti largivano che i tuoi signori : senza quei poveri 
fanciulli forse tu non trovavi il telescope, e le vie del 

firmamento ti rimanevano clause I miseri fi^liuoli 

di Jausen, io lo ripeto, fecero piu per la tua gloria che 
non tutti i potent! delta terra." 

I should be glad if any of your readers conversant 
with the subject would explain the author's allu- 
sion to " Middleburgo " and " i miseri figliuoli di 

BUTLER SERVICE. Is butler service an extinct 
tenure 1 Is there nowadays any recognized chief 
butler at the coronation ceremony who owes his 
position to his being a tenant by "bottery" or 
butlery ? In the course of my investigations re 
the Buckenhani (Bokenham) pedigree, I found 
that William d'Albini, of Normandy, was granted 
the manor of Buckenham, in Norfolk, by the 
Conqueror, u by the Grand Serjeantry of the 
Office of Chief Butler at his Coronation." In 
1454 (vide Harrod's Castles and Convents of Nor- 
folk), it is stated, on the authority of the Calendar 
of State Papers, that Hugh Audley, of Bucken- 
ham Castle, who had purchased the property from 
the Knyvets, the last holders, claimed to act as 
butler at the coronation of Charles II., but his 
claim was rejected, and the duty was performed 
by the mayor of Oxford. From Buckenham to 
Oxford is a far cry. Can any of your readers 
enlighten me, both as to the general question, and 
as to why Audley, the owner of Buckenham, was 
rejected, and the Mayor of Oxford, so far as 
appears a mere official, and a stranger to the 
tenure, was chosen ? According to Burke, " at 
the nuptials of Henry III., 1236, the Earl of 
Warren served the Royal Cup, as the Earl of 
Arundel was but a youth, and not yet knighted " 
(vide Extinct Peerages, D'Albini). 

Since writing the above I have read in Agnes 
Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England that 
this office " has descended by hereditary custom 
to the Duke of Norfolk, his, William d'Al- 
bini's, rightful representative and heir"; and 
in the History of East Dereham, by the late G. A. 
Carthew, F.S.A., a statement that there is in the 
church at that place a fine carved oak chest, pre- 
sented by Samuel Rash, Esq., Jan. 1, 1786, a 
portion of the inscription on which reads, " tradi- 
tion says this curious chest and lock is upwards of 
400 years old, and was taken out of the ruins of 
Buckenham Castle, many years since the property 
of the noble family of the Howards, Dukes of 
Norfolk, and vsed by them for depositing their 
money and other valuables." What were the 
dates of the Howards' acquiring and parting with 
the castle ? M, CATHROW TURNER, 


. vm. A. 4, m 

AN OLD LINE ENGRAVING. I should feel much 
obliged if any of the readers of "N. & Q." could 
throw any light upon the subject of an old line 
engraving which has been in our family for many 
years, and which we have an idea is curious or valu- 
able. It is a very clear, well-cut steel engraving, 
size 8 in. by 5| in. The subject is a man leaning 
against an oak tree. Very little of the upper part 
of the tree is seen, only a small branch or two, 
with acorns on them. On the trunk of the tree, 
above the man's head, are the words, " Robur 
Brita'nicum," and at the foot of the tree is a 
scroll, with the words, " Heic tutus obumbror," on 
the inside; on the outside are the words, " Symbol. 
Auth." On the ground on the left hand, " C. 
Melan et Bosse sculp." The man's figure is very 
well designed ; he is leaning in a very easy attitude, 
one leg crossed; his elbow against the tree supports 
his head. His hair falls over his hand. He wears 
moustaches and the short pointed beard of 
Charles I.'s time. His expression is very earnest 
and thoughtful. A low-crowned broad-brimmed 
hat, short full cloak, a plain broad collar falling 
over the cloak, rather open sleeves, very wide tops 
to his boots, large spurs, and a long plain sword, 
make up his costume. In the far distance is seen 
his horse, held by his servant, who also wears a 
sword, and has what looks like a spear or lance in 
his left hand. The dress too nearly approaches that 
of a cavalier for the figure to be Oliver Cromwell, and 
yet there is a resemblance. Apparently the scene 
is in an avenue, and the figure which fills up the 
centre of the picture is in deep thought. All the 
margin has been cut off, but on the back of the 
frame is pasted a paper, on which is written, in 
very old-fashioned writing, "Sold by Humphry 
Moseley at his shop at the Prince's Arms, St. 
Paul's Churchyard, 1650." Y. A. K. 

PUR: CHILVER. What is the origin of these 
country words, used by " A Dorset Landowner," 
writing to the Standard, April 21, 1883 ? 

" Moreover, the lambs that are slaughtered are nearly 
all purs, and could not assist in the increase of our 
flocks. If restrictions are necessary, the chilver (or 
breeding lamb) might be protected from the butcher's 
knife for a year or two." 


Chelmsford Road, Woodford. 

["Pur, a male sheep one year old" (Wright's Pro- 
vincial Dictionary). " Chilver, an ewe sheep " (/&.).] 

HISTORY OF BIRDS. Is there any sixteenth or 
seventeenth century history of birds similar in 
character to Topsell's History of Four- footed Beasts 
and History of Serpents, and to Mouffet's History 
of Insects? A. SMYTHS PALMER. 

Chelmsford Road, Woodford. 

BLUE INK. I should be much obliged to any 
reader of " N. & Q." for a receipt to make good 
rich permanent blue ink. HOMEROS, 

PUTNEY : PUTTENHAM. Has the word Putney 
anything to do with the Dutch put, a well] 
Although in Domesday Book it is called Putelei, 
yet it would appear that Puttenheth was the 
original designation, and by that name the place 
was known till the time of the Tudors. I have 
never seen any etymology of Putney, but the above 
conjecture arose from reading a note in the fifth 
volume of Brayley's History of Surrey, where, 
speaking of Puttenham, a village at the southern 
foot of the Hog's Back, about four miles west of 
Guildford, the author tells us that a Surrey friend, 
writing to him about the etymology of that place- 
name, said : 

" There is near Ghent a village called Piilienheim, ; in 
that name I recognize our Puttenham, for which a deri- 
vation has hitherto been wanting:. We gain it from 
the Flemish word. Piittenheim signifies the village of 
wells, and true enough at our Puttenham no drinkable 
stream (generally the attraction of the original settle- 
ment of a village) exists. In Flemish, or Low Dutch, 
a well is Piilte, in the plural, Piitlen." 

There is another Puttenham in Hertfordshire, near 
Tring, on the road to Aylesbury ; but I do not 
know the nature of its situation. With regard to 
Putney, it is only the fact of the first part of the 
word meaning " well," in its original form " wells " 
(of which the n in the modern word is doubtless 
a remainder), that leads me to ask whether any 
one can point out a probable connexion between 
the two. W. T. LYNN. 


SPONSORS IN SCOTLAND, 1628-37. I have a 
record of the births of a family in Scotland from 
1628 to 1637, where there are four godfathers and 
four godmothers for each child. Can any of your 
readers give me an explanation of this unusual 
number? J. A. 

CHAIN CABLES OF IRON. We know that the 
" Veneti '' used iron chains for cables, and for 
parts of the rigging of their barks ; but can any 
one point out an earlier use of chain cables, suitable 
for ships of 500 or 600 tons, than 1787, or an 
earlier manufacturer of them than William Grif- 
fiths, anchor smith, Bristol 1 In short, was he 
not the re-inventor 1 J. F. NICHOLLS. 


Can you or any of my fellow readers of 
"N. & Q." give me any answer to the following 
inquiry ? I have a miniature portrait of Sir W. 
Scott painted on silver, at the back of which are 
some forty-three names engraved, and these are 
members of the " Roll of Honor." Where can I 
obtain or find any record of this society or its 
origin 1 PHILIP BETTLB. 

FREE CHAPELS. Collier, in his Eccl. Hist. 
(vol. v. p. 227, edit. 1845), speaking of chantries 

6"> S. VIII. AUG. 4, '83.] 



and free chapels confiscated temp. Edward VI., 
says that there were 2,374 of them, and that they 
were commonly united to some parochial, colle- 
giate, or cathedral church. Can any of your 
correspondents do me the favour to tell me how 
many free chapels there were as distinguished 
from the chantries united to some church as afore- 
said ? H. W. COOKES. 
Astley Rectory, Stourport. 

ANDREW HERVET MILLS. There is a small 
volume of poems entitled Bagatelles, published 
in 1767, London, 12mo., pp. 226, the author of 
which has often been inquired after. From a note 
in the European Magazine for March, 1795, 
p. 149, we learn that it was written by the Rev. 
Andrew Hervey Mills, not very distantly related 
to the Earl of Bristol, and that he was then dead. 
It is said that he was chaplain or private secretary 
to the Duke of Marlborough whilst commander of 
the British forces in Germany, and that he was 
travelling companion or tutor to Peter Vallette, 
Esq. In 1767, when he published this little 
volume, he was living at Kingston-on-Thames. I 
am unable to find any obituary notice of him, but 
a mention of him in Nichols's Illustrations of 
Literature seems to suggest that he died abroad ; 
it is said in vol. iv. p. 680, that he was a professor 
in the University of Gottingen. Any further in- 
formation about him would be of interest. 


KIRK SESSION RECORDS. Attracted to this sub- 
ject by the perusal of the life of the poet Burns, I 
have found in " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. viii. 325, some 
records of the parish of Hutton, Berwickshire, 
which give me a desire to get insight into those 
of other parishes throughout Scotland. Can 
any of your readers help me with a reference to 
any publication containing such 1 They serve to 
illustrate the morals and manners as well as to 
throw light on the history of the last century. 

J. S. G. 

SQUAIL. What ia the history of this word? 
About twenty years ago, when I was at school in 
Wiltshire, a piece of cane about two feet long, 
heavily loaded with lead at one end, and used for 
throwing at squirrels, was called a squailler or 
squailer. In the play Dick of Devonshire, about 
1620, I find, " Not soe much as the leg of a Span- 
yard left to squayle at their own apple trees." 
Halliwell gives " Squail, to throw sticks at cocks ; 
squailer, the stick thrown. West" 


II." I have in my possession a small book of 
214 pages, the full title of which is as follows : 
" The | Secret | History | of the | Reigns | of | 
K. Charles II. | and | K. James II. | Printed in 
the year 1690," I seek the authorship of the 

above, and am also curious to know if the book is 
of any value. ALPHA. 

[Concerning this work Lowndes writes : " A vile pub- 
lication, by some supposed to have been written by John 
Phillips." He gives the price as 4s.] 

learn what author made a remark to the following 
effect, that " Luther put back the clock of the 
Reformation a hundred years." 


SHERIDAN'S LETTERS. Having undertaken a 
bibliographical list of the writings of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan, and being desirous of including 
all Sheridaniana, I shall be gratified to receive 
any hints which may help me. I am especially 
anxious to complete a list of such of Sheridan's 
letters as may have been printed here and there. 

Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall. 

" You cannot tell to me 

What the lilies say to the rose?, 
Or the songs of the butterflies be.'' 

E. C. C. 
" Jactabunt alii perfusa papavera spmno, 

Aut quas Lethaeus proluit amnis aquas. 
Hie tibi Nepenthe blandissima munera praebet, 
Hinc tibi fragrant! tempora nube tegas." 



(6 tt S. vii. 405, 455.) 

PROP. SEEAT seems to think that the fact (if it be 
a fact, for it wants confirmation) that paigle in the 
Eastern counties means a spangle&s well as a cowslip, 
whilst the French paille also means a spangle (and 
does not mean a cowslip), well nigh " clinches " his 
derivation of j>at0Ze=cowslip from paille=3tra.\r. 
But surely this evidence, though it is an argument, 
is not in itself nearly strong enough to establish 
his derivation. I myself gave(6 th S. iii. 12, 413) very 
similar, though stronger evidence in favour of the 
connexion of tram with the Fr. train;* but PROF. 
SKEAT, notwithstanding, did not hesitate to reject 
my derivation, and I now think properly, though 
I am of opinion that there are some mistakes in 
the article on tram in his dictionary. 

My principal objection to this derivation of 
paigle from paille is that there is no evidence 
whatever that the Fr. termination aille ever did 

* I showed, e.#.,that the Mod. French train has a 
meaning very much akin to that of tram or rather tram- 
truck as used in mines, and that train in Eng. also means 
a train or succession of things (Halliwell); whilst I 
proved also that the Fr. form train could readily be- 
come tram in Eng. by comparing grogram (=gros grain) 
and other words. 


NOTES AND QUERIES, [6* s. vm. A, vs?. 

become aigle in English. Such a change is a priori 
exceedingly improbable, because it is an almost 
invariable rule that in Old English (and the same 
rule applies to other languages) a word which is 
derived from the French becomes shorter rather 
than longer. It is true, no doubt, that a letter is 
in some rare cases inserted ; but it is very much 
more common for a letter or letters to tumble out, 
and this has in English been the rule with g when 
coming before I in words derived from A.-S. 
Corup. hail, nail, sail, tail with the A.-S. hayal, 
ncegel, segel (and segl), tcegl (and tcegel). And the 
same thing has also happened in some French 
words derived from Latin which have been intro- 
duced from French into English. Thus we have 
flail=Q\di Fr. flael and Lat. flagellum (cf. Germ. 
Flegd), and frail=0. Fr. fraile, and Lat. fragilis. 
What has really taken place in these cases is, 
therefore, exactly the reverse of what PROF. SKEAT 
would have us believe has taken place in the case 
of paigle from paille ; a g has fallen out before I, 
but not been inserted. 

But now let us see what the Fr. ending aille 
has really become in English. Bataille=ba.ttle 
(O.E. bataille, bataile), ccuWe=quail, maille== 
mail, railler=ko rail and to rally, saillir=to 
sally, taille=tsi[ly. Paille might, therefore, have 
produced pail (or in O.E. paile or payle), but 
why should it have produced piigle ? Can PROF. 
SKEAT give us any example of such an introduc- 
tion of g before I ? Till he does, I must decline 
to accept his derivation. In his first note, indeed, 
he cites the Ital. pagliato ; but this is most mis- 
leading, as the g is neither radical nor has it been 
inserted in the true and strict sense of the term; for 
it is used merely conventionally, as a symbol, to 
show that the I has a liquid sound, or is mouille, 
as the French call it. Paille, again, has produced 
words in English, viz., pallet (subst.)=a mattress 
(properly of straw), pallet (adj.)=" pale or straw 
colour" (Florio, quoted by PROF. SKEAT), and 
palliasse, a straw mattress. And where is the g 
in these words ? 

Another objection, though a minor one, is that 
a cowslip is not of what is usually called a straw- 
colour. This term is now chiefly applied to pale 
yellow kid gloves, and so is the word paille in French. 
The yellow of a cowslip is much brighter. And 
besides this it would be very funny if the English 
had been the first to discover that a French word, 
which never became thoroughly domesticated 
among them, was applicable to the colour of a 

It may be asked now whether I myself have 
anything to suggest. Well, no ; I can offer two 
mere conjectures, and nothing more. I find 

" paighled overcome with fatigue" in Jamie- 

Bon, and it is just possible that this word may 
have been applied to a cowslip which droops upon 
its stalk. Comp. flag (the plant), so called from 

its hanging down (Webster). My second is the 
Danish pcegel (Low Germ. Pegel, and cf. Icelandic 
peli), a small measure for liquids=perhaps a 
quarter of a pint. In this case the plant would 
have been so named from the resemblance in shape 
of the flower to this measure. Cf. cuckoo-pint (if 
pint in this word means the measure), and also 
buttercup and bluebell. The great objection to 
this derivation is that which I have given above, 
viz., that the g would most likely have fallen out, 
and pcegel have become pail, as, indeed, it seems 
to be pronounced at the present time" in Den- 
mark itself ; still paigle is used in the Eastern 
counties, where Danish had influence upon the 
language, and it is just possible that my rule does 
not apply there to Danish words. F. CHANCE. 
Sydenham Hill. 

Is PROF. SKEAT prepared to contest the state- 
ment found in Bailey's Diet., that this word is 
used in the Eastern counties as a synonym for 
paralysis 1 Perhaps the Dialect Society can help 
us. I take this word paigles, used for the cowslip, 
as=pallard, i.e., a little pale thing, a little 
wanton (from wan, colourless) ; we find the g in 
paglia, the Italian form of paille, French for 
straw, i.e., pale, Latin pallidus, Sk. pala. The 
traditional connexion with palsy is shown in the 
old form pasle=pdle, the Mid. English palesy. Cf. 
Sk. sphal, to tremble, hence to fall, Greek o-<aA- 
Xea-dai ; sphal will give us spark and spangle, and 
is allied to Sk.phal, to burst, hence bloom, blossom, 
flower. All these bear on the cowslip, but do not 
explain paigles satisfactorily. LYSART. 

A MS. OF TASSO (6 lh S. vii. 308; viii. 37). 
No doubt the MS. inquired for by A. J. M. is one 
which was formerly in the possession of Dawson 
Turner, Esq. The following is the account of it, 
which I have cut out of Lilly's catalogue, and 
which will be interesting to many readers of 
" N. & Q.": 

"Tasso (Torquato) ; Letters and Poems by tins great 
Italian poet, the greater part in his own handwriting, 
fol. consisting of about 500 written pages, half morocco. 

' ' Of the three hundred and thirty-five pieces, in 
prose and in verse, contained in this volume, by far the 
largest number have never been printed : or, where they 
have been so, it has only been done inaccurately, and the 
republication of them in a perfect form is altogether to 
be wished. Most of them are transcripts, and the work 
of several copyists. Some are by the hand of the poet 
himself, which may be considered remarkable. What 
can hardly fail to appear still more so, is that he has 
written upon them "copie": for their being, however, 
really autographs, I have the best authority, that of 
Professor Rossini, of Pisa, who has published the most 
valuable edition of Tasso's collected writings. By him 
the book was carefully examined when I passed through 
that city in the winter of 1825, and he certified the 
originality of many of the contents by subscribing to 
them " questa e di mano di Tasso "; adding, occasionally, 

6"' S. VIII. Arc. 4, '83.] 



" scritta in fretta," or " quando scriveva meglio." Serasai, 
in his Vila di Tasso, makes mention in three places 
(pp. 290, 533, and 537) of the existence of certain of his 
manuscripts in the library of the Falconieri Palace at 
Rome ; and it was thence that this volume was brought. 
It bears on several of its pages the stamp of that collec- 
tion ; and it is still in the same red silk covering, the 
whole loosely put together, as when there. Abundant 
further proofs of its authenticity may be found in Serassi. 
Thus, to take one example from many, he says, in the 
last of the pages just quoted : " Tra componimenti 
incditi di Tasso, debbono, in primo luogo, annoverarsi 

le sue Poesie Latine Oraqueste Poesie si conservano 

in un MS. della Libreria Falconieri Oltre alle accen- 

nate Poesie Latine, si trova altresi presso i medesimi 
Sigg. Falconieri, qualche numero di Rime Toscane, 
tutcavia inedite, e due volume in foglio di lettere cellis- 
sime e molto importanti." 

" ' Now, one of those volumes is, evidently, the present, 
which contains the Latin poetry, and likewise wholly 
agrees with what is said of the Italian verses and the 
letters. The latter are truly very interesting : they ex- 
tend throughout the poet's life, and enter into minute 
particulars concerning his writings, his feelings, his 
honours, and his misfortunes. Of the last of these some 
idea may be conceived from the following extract from 
one of them to Sig. Jacopo Buoncotnpagno, written from 
the Hospital of Santa Anna, in Ferrara : " Sono stato 
oltra quattordeci mesi infermo in questa spedale, senza 
havere alcuna di quelle commoditade che si sogliono 
concedere a plebi, non ch' a' gentilhuomini par miei : 
nemeno mi sono state negate le medicine dell' animo, che 
quelle del corpo ; per cioche tutto che qui sia un cappel- 
lano, persona, per quel ch'io immaggino, assai intendente, 
non e mai nella mia infirmit& venuto a visitarmi, 6 ad 
u-ar rueco alcun atto di misericordia ; e, se ben io ne 
1" ho pregato, non ha voluto mai o confessarmi o com- 
municarmi : e se pur egli mi judicava indegno di sedere 
alia mensa degli angeli, e di cibarmi del corpo di Christo, 
doveva almeno meco procedere in convertendo." 

" ' Among the individuals here addressed by Tasso are 
the Grand Duke and Grand Duchess of Tuscany ; the 
Cardinals Medici, Santa Severina, Aldobrandino, San 
Giorgia, and Spinelli ; the Dukes of Urbino, Guastalla, 
and Ferrara; the Princess of Mantua and Conca, and 
the Prince and Princess of Avellino ; together with 
Aldus Manutius, and his own sister, Cornelia. The 
volume also contains letters from his father, Bernardo, 
evidently holograph, and others to him from the Duke 
of Urbino, and some addressed to different persons, but 
of which the contents relate to the poet. 

" ' It may be well to close the account of this book 
with an anecdote in connexion with it, which may be 
considered to throw light upon the manners and feelings 
of modern Rome. On the evening of the day on which 
I had purchased it of a bookseller on the Corso, I went 
into one of the largest coffee-houses in the city, and 
stopped in a room where a considerable number of gentle- 
men were seated round a large table, playing at a game 
that was new to me. I had not been there long, when 
a man at the top of the table pronounced in a loud solemn 
voice, " La bocca sollevo dal fiero pasto." As this did 
not concern me, I paid little attention to it ; but presently 
another, at a distance from him, said, in a tone equally 
sonorous, " c' e lui," to which a third responded, " si, c' 6 
lui," and the eyes of the party began to be directed to 
me. I was surprised and confused, but supposed the 
speakers must be labouring under some mistake, for I 
was but recently arrived at Rome ; I knew nobody there ; 
and I was not conscious of having done anything to 
attract attention. All doubt, however, was soon re- 
moved, for "questi Milordi Inglesi," and "non sanno 

quel che far o' lor denari," succeeded each other rapidly; 
and. after a brief pause, came the key to the mystery 
in the exclamution "dacento luigi per un libro ! " This 
truly was the very sum I had given for my manuscript. 
The extraordinary part of the story was that the fact 
should have been regarded as so strange and important as 
within five or six hours to have attracted general notice 
and to have been the subject of conversation at the 
coffee-houses of Rome, and to have made my person 
known. Had I paid five times the sum for a 
Raphael, well known as a copy, or for a statue, carved 
thirty years ago, and then buried and recently dug up 
and sold as an antique, there would have been no wonder, 
" insanivissem solemnia "; but that a man should have 
spent two hundred louis d'or on a manuscript was quite 
inconceivable ! ' 

" Such is the very interesting account of the contents 
and acquisition of this most precious manuscript by the 
late owner of it, Dawson Turner, Esq." 

E. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

WHILE=UNTIL (6 th S. iv. 489 ; vi. 55, 177, 
319 ; vii. 58, 516). In a letter from Mr. William 
Sherard (the distinguished botanist) to Dr. (after- 
wards Sir Hans) Sloane, dated Leicester, March 1 9, 
1693/4, after asking his advice respecting his 
mother's illness, the writer concludes, " I want to 
be at Oxford, but cannot well leave her whilst 
better." H. W. S. 

"WOODEN WALLS" (6 th S. viii. 48). Spenser 
(1552-99) gives an example of the expression 
" wooden walls" in his Faery Queene, I. ii. 421. 
(See N. & Q.," 6> S. iv. 478). 


Surely this phrase, as applied to ships, dates 
from 480 B.C. See Herodotus, vii. 141, 142. 


" WILL-O'-THE-WISP (6 th S. viii. 43). This 
tale bears a strong resemblance to the story of 
" Jacky-my- Lantern," No. 32 of Uncle Kemus's 
Legends of the Old Plantation (Routledge, 1881). 
The editor of that book says " it is popular on the 
coast and among the rice plantations, but it seems 
to me to be an intruder among the genuine myth 
stories of the negroes. Nevertheless it is told 
upon the plantations with great gusto, and there 
are several versions in circulation." VIGORN. 

MARSHALSEA (6 th S. vii. 506)." Marshell se," 
as quoted above, is evidently a clerk's blunder, 
for almost a century earlier we find Marshalsey 
in Howell. Speaking of the gaols in the Bridge 
Ward Without, Howell says : 

" Then is the Marshalsey another Gaol or Prison, so 
called, as pertaining to the Marshals of England, of 
what continuance in Southwark it appears not; but 
likely it is that the same hath been removeable at the 
pleasure of the Marshalls." 

At least 250 years before Howell, Froissart spoke 
of " les prisons du roi que on appelle mareschaus- 
sees." Is not marshalsea to mareschausste even 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. AUG. 4, -ss. 

as marshal is to mareschal? (For the latter see 
Skeat, s. v. " Marshall.") ALPHONSE ESTOCLET. 
St. Mary's College, Peckbam. 

VIRTU (6 th S. vi. 536 ; vii. 235, 379, 457). As 
an illustration of the use of this word in English, 
the following passage seems to me deserving of 
being quoted : 

" Enter SRD PLAYER. 

SRU PLATER. Sir, Signora Crotchetta says, she finds 
her character so low that slie had rather die than sing it. 

IST PLAYER. Tell her, by her contract I can make her 
eii g it. 


CEOTCHETTA. Barbarous tramontane ! Where are all 
the lovers of vertu ? Will they not all rise in arms in 
my defence? Make me sing it ! Good gods ! should I 
tamely submit to such usa^e, I should debase myself 
through all Europe." Gay, PMy, an Opera. (Introduc- 


45). As the writer of all Bradshaw's descriptive 
guides published in 1844 and subsequent years, 
and afterwards arranging and compiling the first 
British and Continental Guide, published in 1847, 
I may be allowed to have some personal know- 
ledge of the origin of the useful sixpenny book 
first printed by Messrs. Bradshaw & Blacklock, 
and published by Mr. W. J. Adams at 59, Fleet 
Street in 1842. How the idea came to be de- 
veloped was fully recorded in the pages of the 
Athenceum some seven years since, by writers who 
severally vindicated their claims to the suggestion 
of a certain tabular method ; but it is freshly 
impressed on my memory that the railway com- 
panies then existing strongly opposed such a pub- 
lication, on the plea that these time-tables would 
enforce the necessity of trains starting punctually 
at a particular time, and thus render the com- 
panies liable to penalties for inconvenience from 
delay. By taking a large number of shares, Mr. 
George Bradshaw honourably succeeded in conjur- 
ing this opposition, and he finally made the work 
in which he was so greatly interested both profit- 
able and popular. Mr. Bradshaw died nearly 
thirty years ago, at Christiania, in Norway, 
whither he had gone to obtain for Bradshaw's 
Guide some steamboat information. 


I possess an earlier issue of Bradshaw's Railway 
Companion than that described by MR. KIVING- 
TON. It is dated 1842, and contains plans of 
London and the other towns which occur in the 
issue of 1843. The title-page says that a plan of 
Leeds is given, and makes no mention of that of 
Bristol. My copy does not seem to have been 
mutilated, but it contains no plan of Leeds. 
There is a small map of England, very well en- 
graved, showing the railways open and in progress. 
There are also ten other railway maps on a larger 

scale ; the maps are paged along with the letter- 
press; there are seventy pages exclusive of the 
index. The little book contains no advertisements. 
I remember reading a year or two ago a flippant 
article on the Library of the British Museum, in 
which fun was endeavoured to be made by direct- 
ing attention to the fact that the authorities there 
preserved and catalogued the successive issues of 
Bradshaw's Raihvay Guide. I apprehend that 
future historians of the industrial development of 
our time will be very thankful to them for doing 
so. If full sets of the Companion and the Guide 
exist, the maps will of themselves furnish a pretty 
complete picture of railway growth. 


There seems to be much doubt as to when 
Bradhaw's publications began. There was an 
article evidently semi-official in Chambers' 's En- 
cyclopaedia which says, 

"It derives its name from George Bradshaw, originally 
an engraver and printer in Manchester, who in 1839 
issued an occasional work called the Railway Com- 
panion, which was corrected by means of another 
work, in the form of a broad sheet, styled the Monthly 

Time Tables The first number of the Railway Guide 

was brought out in December, 1841, and the second 
number on 1st month (January), 1842." 

MR. RIVINGTON'S copy (1843) shows that the 
Companion was then in existence, and I have a 
copy like his, dated 1842, and also two copies 
dated 1840, which are similar, but not identical, 
in contents and form. Neither of my copies has 
any indication of the month, and doubtless were 
meant to be useful all the year. The Pall Mall 
Gazette (March 1, 1881) refers to a copy with the 
date "4 th mo. 1, 1840." The maps in all my 
copies are slightly coloured. ESTE. 


I have before me as I write a little volume 
which is, I believe, the first edition of a work now 
more famous for the amount than for the clearness 
of the information it contains. It is a green cloth 
covered volume, measuring barely 4| inches by 3, 

" Bradshaw's | Railway Time Tables | and assistant 

to | Railway Travelling | with | illustrative Maps & Plans. 

| Price Sixpence. | London. Shepherd and Sutton and 

Wyld, Charing Cross, and sold by all Booksellers and 

Railway Companies. | 10th Mo. 19th, 1839." 

It opens with the following modest " Address": 

" This Book is published by the assistance of tbe 
several Railway Companies, on which account the in- 
formation it contains may be depended upon as being 
correct and authentic. The necessity of such a woi k 
is so obvious as to need no apology; and the merits of it 
can be best ascertained by a reference to the execution 
both as regards the style and correctness of tbe Maps 
and Plans with which it is illustrated. 

" The next edition of this work will be published on 
the 1st of 1st Mo. 1840; and succeeding Editions will 
appear every three months, with such alterations as have 
been made in the interva 1 ." 

6th s . viii. AUG. 4, '83.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Next comes a map of the railways in Lancashire, 
showing the lines from Manchester to Liverpool, 
and to Bolton, Preston, and Lancaster, with a table 
of the fares between those stations, outside places 
being less expensive than those inside. Two page 
maps (on a very small scale) of Liverpool, Man- 
chester, and Leeds follow, with time tables of the 
trains, lists of the fares, and general notes, one item 
being that 

" Each Pas?enger'a Lugrgage will be placed on the roof 
of the Coach in which he has taken his place ; Carpet 
Bags and small Luggage may be placed under the seat." 

The last page contains a list of hackney coach 
fares from Lime Street station, Liverpool, to various 
places in that city. The pages are not numbered, 
but there are in all twenty-six ; and the print, 
both in maps and letterpress, is excellent, whilst 
the tables are clearly arranged and easy for refer- 

The first number of Bradshavi's Monthly General 
Railway and Steam Navigation Guide was, I 
believe, issued in December, 1841, in the form 
now so well known. There was a monthly issue 
or edition, and the issues for 1842 are numbered 
2 to 13. The type was kept standing, and altera- 
tions were made each month. Bradshaw's Railway 
Companion was first issued in January, 1842, and 
the matter was identical with the printing of the 
Guide. The same misprints are to be found in 
each. Thus in the Great Western Railway table 
of fares Pangbourne and Clevedon are in both 
printed Pnagbourne and OeZvedon. The number- 
ing of the monthly issues of Bradshaio went on 
consecutively and steadily for four years, but in 
1844 or 1845 it suddenly advanced 100. Thus 
September, 1844, was No. 34, but September, 
1845, which should have been No. 46, was issued 
as No. 146. Why this change was made I am 
unable to say, but of course it tended to make 
the Guide appear about nine years older than it 
really was. I shall be glad to see this explained. 


Having some old numbers of this work by me, 
I referred to them to ascertain if possible the date 
of the first issue. The numbers I have are No. 20, 
for July, 1843 ; No. 26. for January, 1844 ; and 
No. 147, for October, 1845. The Guide in its 
present form, therefore, dates back probably 
to 1841, and there seems to have been an 
advance of a century in the number in 1844 or 
1845, as the succeeding copies appear to follow on 
all right. R. B. 

Upton, Slough, Bucks. 

I have in my possession a copy of No. 144 of 
Bradshaw's Monthly Railway and Steam Naviga- 
tion Guide, published in July, 1845, at Bradshaw's 
Railway Information Office, 59, Fleet Street, con- 
sequently the first number must have been issued 
in July, 1833. Bradshaw's Railway Companion 

and Bradshaw's Kailway Guide were different 
publications. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I have a copy of Bradshaw dated 1841; MR. 
RIVINGTON'S cannot, therefore, be the " first issue." 
In addition to what he records it contains an in- 
teresting sheet showing the sectional elevations of 
the chief railways then made. W. SYMONS. 


SOLOMON'S SEAL (6 th S. vii. 268; viii. 33). Seals 
and rings were at an early period used as pledges and 
emblems of authority (Gen. xxxviii. 18), and, like 
letters to the savage, gave to the ignorant a super- 
stitious belief in their magical powers. Notwith- 
standing the authority of Smith's Dictionary, I 
cannot find any passage in the Old Testament to 
the effect that Solomon had a magic ring or a seal 
upon which the great name of God was engraven. 
The Mohammedans adopted many of the Jewish 
fables, and the Koran describes a wonder-working 
seal of Solomon. The Talmud relates how the 
devil stole this seal, and by its magic powers 
reigned until it was restored to Solomon by a 
miracle. Josephus, who wrote five hundred years 
before Mohammed, gives a marvellous account of 
the wisdom of Solomon and of the power of his 
seal, or rather of a root with a ring. " God enabled 
him," says Josephus (Antiq. of the Jews, viii. 2), 
" to learn that skill which expels demons, which is a 
science useful and sanative to men. He composed such 
incantations also by which distempers are alleviated. 
And he left behind him the manner of using exorcisms, 
by which they drive away demons, so that they never 
return, and this method of cure is of great force unto 
this day ; for I have seen a certain man of my own 
country, whose name was Eleazar, releasing people that 
were demoniacal in the presence of Vespasian and hia 
sons and his captains and the whole multitude of his 
soldiers. The manner of the cure was this : He put a 
ring that had a root of one of those sorts mentioned by 
Solomon to the nostrils of the demoniac, after which he 
drew out the demon through his nostrils ; and when the 
man fell down immediately, he adjured him to return 
into him no more, making still mention of Solomon and 
reciting the incantations which he composed." 
Now Solomon lived a thousand years before 
Josephus, whose histories were compiled from 
other sources besides the Old Testament such, 
probably, as the Book of Nathan the Prophet, or 
the Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, or the 
Vision of Iddo the Seer, all mentioned (2 Chron. 
ix. 29) as writers of the rest of the acts of Solomon, 
and from some of these Josephus may have got 
this story. Josephus, it is to be observed, calls 
it " a ring that had a root," not a seal nor a signet 
ring ; perhaps it was the root of some medicinal 
plant applied skilfully and successfully which gave 
rise to the legend. The convallaria, or lily of the 
valley, in botany is called Solomon's seal, but its 
root has no particular healing quality that I am 
aware of. G. G. HARDINGHAM, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 16* a. vm. A, 

EARLY MARRIAGES (6 th S. vii. 134). Several 
instances of early marriages have lately been re- 
corded in " N. & Q.," but I do not remember any 
recent cases being mentioned. Early marriages, 
however, appear to be still occasionally solemnized. 
I cut the following paragraph from the Mid-Che- 
shire Examiner of July 21, 1883: 

" A Wife at Thirteen. At an inquest held at Oldham 
on the body of a child burned to death, the mother, 
Bridget Clarke, made an extraordinary statement. She 
said she was 25 years of age, vas the mother of seven 
children, and had been married 12 years. Several jury- 
men were incredulous, but Clarke firmly adhered to her 
statement, saying that she was married at 13." 


Frodsham, Cheshire. 

A CURIOUS COIN (6 th S. viii. 48). The piece 
in question is a German Bechen- Pfennig, or 
counter, such as used to be given by carriers and 
porters (Ldufer) as a kind of receipt or token for 
the parcels which were entrusted to them. " Wolf " 
is the name of the particular carrier to whom this 
counter belonged. The device of Milo and the 
bull on the reverse, and the vessel on the obverse, 
plainly inform the public that " goods are removed 
by land or by water to any distance." 



EASTER MONDAY : " LIFTING " (6 th S. vii. 308 ; 
viii. 37). The custom of Easter Monday and 
Tuesday lifting, if such the not too seemly act can 
be called, is still in force in Durham, but Brady, 
Clavis Calendaria, is not correct in saying that 
in Durham they take off each other's shoes. The 
fact is, the men take off the women's boots only 
one as a rule but the women on the Tuesday 
simply take off the men's hats or caps. In each 
case, as a rule, " black mail " is paid ere restora- 
tion takes place, but sometimes, if she be willing, a 
pretty girl is permitted to redeem her boot or shoe 
" by some token of amity." As I have personally, 
on more than one occasion, witnessed this lifting 
in the old city noted for old maids and mustard, 
wood and water, law, physic, and gospel, there 
can be no mistake. One Easter Sunday (!), on 
Durham racecourse, I should say I saw over half 
a dozen young women thrown down, and either 
seized in a manner which suggested desperate pre- 
parations for the " frog's march," or held almost 
upside down until their boots were dragged off. If 
the women will not pay to get their boots again, 
they have to go home in a state as regards shoes 
not unlike that young gentleman in the nursery 
rhymes who " went to bed with his trousers on." 


" VlLLIKINS AND HIS DlNAH " (6 th S. viii. 67). 

This song was written many years ago by a 

Smng man, a native of Birmingham, named Harry 
orton. He used to sing it nightly at an amateur 

theatrical meeting held at the Red House, New 
John Street, in this town. Horton removed to 
London, where he soon after died. He sang the 
song at some of the London music rooms. It was 
very popular, and was soon brought upon the 
stage. But before it was heard at all in London, 
it was popular about the streets of Birmingham. 


viii. 68). I have gone carefully through the 
returns of killed and wounded at the storming of 
Badajos, from March 31 to April 2, 1812, but do 
not find the name of Potter amongst the officers 
of the 23rd Regiment. Their losses were heavy, 
and are as follows : " Killed, Capt. Maw and 
Lieut. Collins. Wounded, Capts. Leckey and 
Stainforth, severely ; Capt. Hawtyn, slightly ; 
Lieuts. Johnstone, Harrison, Tucker, G. Brown, 
Farmer, Brownson, Walker, Fielding, Whaley, 
Holmes ; Second Lieuts. Winyates and Llewelyn, 
severely." There is also the following : " 28th 
Foot, Capt. Potter, brigade major, severely, not 
dangerously." A search in the Army Lists of 1812 
and future years would show whether his name 
appears, and when he was gazetted out ; he may 
have died of his wounds. He was, presumably, 
present at the siege in bis staff position, as the 
28th Regiment were not employed there. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

Brevet-Major Potter of the 23rd was wounded 
in repelling the sortie from Badajos on March 19, 
1812, and died of his wounds. 


William Potter had risen to the rank of major 
in the 23rd Fusileers when he was killed in Spain 
in 1812, but not at the storming of Badajos. I 
have a note of casualties that occurred in the regi- 
ment during the following few years, including 
Waterloo, which, if of interest to your corre- 
spondent, I shall be happy to forward to him, if 
he will apply to me by letter. W. DILKE. 


WHY AS A SURNAME (6 th S. viii. 66)." An in- 
ventory (1556) includes 3 kye, item, one whye. 
This latter term was commonly used at this period 
for a heifer. Our ' Whymans ' and ' Wymans ' 
will, we may fairly surmise, be their present 
memorial" (Bardsley's Eng. Surnames, p. 272). 
Halliwell does not give this word whye. What is 
its derivation, and where is an instance of its use 
to be found ? F. W. WEAVER. 

Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath. 

PAUL HERRING (6 th S. viii. 69). Paul Herring, 
the " famous pantaloon," should rather be called 
the famous clown. I remember him well in the 
pantomimes of my schoolboy days as an excellent 

flfts.vm.Aro.v8s.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


clown rather too tall for that part, but wonder- 
fully agile, and also fertile in "gags," which delighted 
the groundlings. He was for some years engaged 
at the Albert Saloon, a place of dramatic enter- 
tainment in Shepherdess Walk, City Road, once 
very prosperous, but now gone and forgotten. In 
later years he subsided into the lean and slippered 
pantaloon, simply, I fear, because age had robbed 
him of his old strength and nimbleness. Paul 
Herring died Sept. 18, 1878, and I doubt not that 
a memoir of him will be found about that time in 
that faithful chronicle of dramatic events the Era 
newspaper. MOT THOMAS. 

This veteran pantomimist died, at the age of 
seventy-eight, Sept. 18, 1878, at his residence, 32, 
North Street, Lambeth. In his early years he played 
clown in Richardson's show, often going through a 
dozen performances in one day. In 1841 he was a 
prominent member of the excellent company 
engaged by Mr. Henry Brading at the Albert 
Saloon a spacious place of theatrical entertain- 
ment, originally known as the Royal Standard 
and Pleasure Gardens, in the Shepherd and 
Shepherdess Fields, lying northward of the Eagle 
Tavern, City Road. He was afterwards a popular 
clown at the Victoria Theatre, under Mr. Osbal- 
diston's management. The last time Paul Her- 
ring played clown was at St. James's Theatre in 
1859. After this his Christmas engagements 
were made for pantaloon, and his final appearance 
on the stage was in 1877 at Drury Lane, in the 
harlequinade of the White Cat. During his long 
and chequered career Paul Herring preserved the 
respect of the public and the regard of his asso- 
ciates. E. L. BLANCHARD. 

A "ROBINSON" (6 th S. viii. 67). There is a 
curious village, composed entirely of tea-gardens 
and houses connected with them, on a hill between 
Sceaux and Plessis, in the beautiful southern 
environs of Paris. This favourite resort of Parisian 
holiday-makers will give a better idea of what 
Frenchmen mean by a " Robinson " than any 
description could well convey. In most of the 
gardens there are swings and other village fair 
entertainments ; but the essential feature is rude, 
rustic, but picturesque contrivances for the accommo- 
dation of visitors seeking refreshment and repose. 
Primitive tables and seats high up in the branches 
of trees, with cords and pulleys for raising baskets 
containing the dishes and wines or the cakes and 
milk served to the little parties, are indispensable. 
The connexion of these ideas with De Foe's hero 
(whom it is the French custom to refer to by his 
Christian name alone) and his rude and homely 
modes of sheltering and providing for himself is 
sufficiently obvious. The suggested association be- 
tween a garden fete and a " Robinson"=umbrella, is 
more likely to occur to an English than a French 
holiday-maker. This pleasure village wa,s certainly 

an old-established institution forty years sinca, 
and may, for aught I know, be the prototype of 
all "Robinsons," not excluding those of Marie 
Antoinette in the gardens of the Trianon and St. 

The origin of the title " Robinson," as applied 
to a garden party, is simply this. Some twenty 
or twenty-five years ago an enterprising restaura- 
teur in Paris hit upon the idea of taking an 
island in the Seine (somewhere, I think, near 
St. Cloud). On this island grew a tree of such 
gigantic dimensions that a table, with seats for 
five or six persons, could be placed among the 
branches. This novel dining-room became a great 
attraction to the boating population of the Seine, 
which flocked in crowds to the new restaurant. 
To this retreat the proprietor gave the name of 
" L'ile de Robinson " (Crusoe), and the word 
" Robinson " is now applied to any open-air enter- 
tainment of a simple and inexpensive kind. 

E. S. B. 

S. vii. 207, 297, 453). In the Ancient Parish of 
Presibury, in Cheshire, by Frank Renaud, M.D., 
there is the following mention of some peculiar 
impalements of arms on the tower of Gawsworth 
Church, once a chapelry in that extensive parish, 
but long ago made a separate rectory and parish: 

" The heraldic difficulty arises out of the five remain- 
ing impalements of Orreby (i. e., Fitton of Gawsworth) 
with Fitton of Pownall, Grosvenor, Egerton, Davenport 
of Bramall, and Wever. These will be found to represent 
a singular and very interesting departure from the pre- 
scribed rules of heraldry, customary before the establish- 
ment of the Heralds' College in the reign of Richard 1 1 1., 
and absolutely fixed afterwards. In each instance the 
prescribed order has been reversed, the female members 
of the Fitton family having appropriated to themselves 
the dexter half of the shields, and relegated their 
husbands to the sinister half. They represent, there- 
fore, the alliances of four sistera of Thomas Fitton with 
their respective husbands, and the marriage of Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Thomas Fitton and Ellen Mainwaring, 
with Thomas Wever." P. 232. 

The above instances are figured in " trick " in the 
book, and also several others from the Savage 
Chapel annexed to St. Michael's Church, Maccles- 
field, on which occur, with other shields, the arms 
of Thomas Savage, Archbishop of York (1501-8), 
the see of York, the pallium impaling Savage, 
four fusils. This indicates that the "pallium" 
was once borne by the see of York prior to the 
Reformation. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Eectory, Woodbridge. 

I have a book-plate in my collection of Henry 
Gore Clougb, M.D., F.A.S., which has in the 
dexter Clough and Gore quarterly, and on the 
sinister Argent, a griffin segreant (tincture not 
given). On an escutcheon of pretence in the 
middle of the shield there are the following arms: 
Sable, a fess or between three flowers (roses?), 


vm. AW. 4. -as. 

Dr. Clough seems thus to have married twice, his 
second wife being an heiress. I do not think that 
I have seen any other coat like the above. I have 
John Baldwin's book-plate also. The arms on the 
dexter side seem those of Prescott. R. 0. W. 

BY-AND BY (6 th S. vii. 486, 518). When the 
Promptorium gives " By and by, sigillatim," the 
latter word may, as DR. HESSELS remarks, be 
merely the mediaeval form of singillatim, and so the 
English phrase may stand for " by (one) and by 
(one) " (see Richardson, . v.). Still the fact remains 
that the Medulla glosses sigillatim by " fro seel 
to seel," where the coincidence suggested between 
Lat. sigillum, a seal, and O.Eng. seel, a seal (if, 
indeed, it is only a coincidence), is curious. DR. 
HESSELS'S postscript that seel here may mean soul 
is not a happy thought. Even if it did, " from 
soul to soul " could scarcely mean singly. But is 
seel ever used in English for soul 1 I think not. 
" Fro seel to seel " appears to signify from time to 
time, occasionally (A.-S. seel, time, occasion), and 
traces of this usage may be found, I think, in old 
writers perhaps, e.g., in the following: 

" In your armure must ye lye, 

Euery nyght than by and by; 

And your meny eueryclnne, 

Til seueri yere be comen and gone." 

The Squyr of Lowe Degre, 11. 182-5. 
" He bethought him nedely, 

Euery daye by and by, 

How he might venged be 

On that lady fayre and fre." 11. t 293-6. 

By-and-by was also formerly used in the sense of 
immediately, forthwith rather a contrast to the 
modern usage as presently, after a little time ; e.g., 
A.V., Matt. xiii. 21," By and by he falleth "(Tyn- 
dale, 1534); and A.V., Luke xxi. 9, "The ende 
foloweth not by and by " (Tyndale). Some further 
elucidation of the phrase would be welcome. 

Chelmsford Road, Woodford. 

Hildlands. May not the first syllable of this 
word be /7<i(A.-S.)=battle, &c.? 

Stechtas. In Mr. Britten's Old Country and 
Farming Words, 1880, p. 110 (E.D.S.), steatch is 
given with this explanation : " A steatch is a broad 
land ; a narrow one we call a ridge. Suff. iv. 
238." The reference is to Annals of Agriculture, 
i.-xlvi. (1784-1815). 

Methlinghirne. Has this name anything to do 
with meaning " drinking corner" 1 Is it not from 
A.-S. me$el-ern, a speaking-place ? Of. maZelian, 
to speak, harangue, &c. 


LASS (6 th S. vi. 366 ; vii. 277). I can assure 
MR. JACKSON that lass in Lancashire has nothing 
disrespectful about it. A lass is simply the 
feminine of a lad. Even the coarser term ivench 

means nothing worse than a young girl. '' That 'a 
a fine stout wench of yours " would please any 
parent here. P. P. 


ROMETH (6 th S. viii. 47). Rome = room ; 
rome-#i=roomth, i. e., space, apartments, accom- 
modation ; A.-S. r$mth; Du. ruimte. 



189; vii. 376). The French proverb runs thus: 
" Rien ne rdussit comme le succes." Is not the 
original idea identical with that in Matthew xiii. 
12: "Whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and 
he shall have more abundance " 1 J. MASKELL. 

Emanuel Hospital, 8.W. 

348; viii. 54). I remember that in the year 1826, 
when my father was Lord Mayor, I witnessed 
sand pictures being executed at the Mansion 
House for the decoration of the table at the grand 
Easter Monday banquet in the Egyptian Hall. 
The pictures, like those named by K. H. B. were 
executed on large plateaux, supporting plate or 
china vases. The artist, whose skill was such as 
to deserve so high a name, had sands of different 
colours and shades in long slips of paper, which 
he took up one after another as he needed them, 
shedding the sand out on its proper place with the 
most marvellous accuracy. The effect of the 
pictures when finished was exceedingly beautiful, 
and I remember, as a child, lamenting that they 
should necessarily be so short lived. I have never 
again seen or heard of these sand pictures until I 
found them referred to in your journal. 


MAYPOLES (6 th S. vii. 347; viii. 55). The 
maypole at Aldermaston, Berks, mentioned by 
Mr. Peacock in his English Church Furniture as 
standing in 1866, is still in situ. I saw it there 
recently. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Cawood, Yorkshire, may be added to the list of 
places with maypoles. I saw one there when pass- 
ing through the village, or " town," a few days ago. 


Chapel Allerton, Leeds. 

IMITATING BIRDS (6 th S. viii. 27). St. Guthlac's 
abstaining in his boyhood from frivolity of this de- 
scription is no doubt recorded to his credit. Thus 
Bede relates that St. Cuthbert, being reproved by 
another child for indulging in ordinary children's 
games as being unsuitable to one destined to be a 
bishop and a saint, at once lefc off such vain 
amusements. I think there are similar examples 
in the lives of other saints, but I cannot recal them 
just now. It was an early mediaeval idea ; but 
when the Apocryphal gospels were compiled it 

6.s.vm.A.V83.] NOTES AND QUERIES, 


seems to have been thought quite fitting that our 
Lord and the Apostles should while children not 
have " put away childish things." I can hardly 
refrain from quoting the couplet under a picture 
in Carlisle Cathedral, representing St. Cuthbert 
standing on his head and the child rebuking him : 
"Her Cuthbert was forbid layks and playg 

As S. bede in bys story says." 

The same subject is represented in the St. Cuth- 
bert window at York Minster in a very remark- 
able manner. See Yorks. Archceol. Journal, iv. 
282. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

Surius states the account of St. Guthlac's fami- 
liarity with the birds as follows : 

"Ad sanctum Gutblacum Confessorem inhabitantem 
horridam insulam circa Angliam, cujuscumque generis 
aves eremi alacriter accedebant vocatae. Illae vero ejus 
humeris familiariter inddentes quodam gratulationis 
applausu sancti viri humanitatem praedicare videbantur. 
Cumque ab illo sciscitebatur vir quidem, unde esset 
tanta illarum avium confidentia, et intrepida apud ipsum 
habitatio, respondit : Qui toto corde fugit consortia 
bominum, ei non solutn ferae, efc volucres, sed caetera 
quoque omnia solatio sunt, atque ei insuper nunquam 
deerit blanda consolatio angelorum." Surius, " Vita S. 
Gutblac," De Sanctt. Histt., torn. ii. ai April, d. 11. 

I have only the extract from Surius, but not the 
context ; nor have I the context of the citation in 
the query. Both are requisite for a full explanation ; 
but it appears that St. Guthlac had the power of 
calling the birds to him. And perhaps it may 
mean that he was able to effect this without 
imitating their various cries, as boys will in mere 
play. ED. MARSHALL. 


86, 134, 329 ; vii. 37). Apropos of this subject, 
Mr. C. A. Ward, in his article on the human hair, 
in FennelFs Antiquarian Chronicle and Literary 
Advertiser (p. 166), gives the following instance : 
" When the Duke of Alva was in Brussels, besieging 
Hoist, the provost-marshal had put some to death by the 
duke's secret commission. There was a Captain Bolea, 
a friend of the provost's, and he went to him one even- 
ing to his tent, and brought a confessor and an execu- 
tioner, and said he was come to execute martial law 
upon him. The captain started up, with bis hair on 
end, and asked how he had offended the duke. I cannot 
expostulate, said the provost, but must execute my com- 
mission. He fell on his knees before the priest, and the 
hangman put the halter round his neck, but the provost 
threw it away, laughing, and said he had done it to try 
his courage. ' Then, sir,' returned the captain, ' get you 
out of my tent ; for you have done me a very ill office.' 
The next morning, though a young man, he was per- 
fectly grey." 

Another instance I get second-hand from the 
Penny Magazine, 1834: 

" Guarino Veronese, ancestor of the author of Pastor 
Fido, having studied Greek at Constantinople, brought 
from thence on his return two cases of Greek manu- 
scripts, the fruit of his indefatigable researches; one of 
them being lost at sea, on the shipwreck of the vessel, 

the chagrin of losing such a literary treasure, acquired 
by so much labour, had the effect of turning the hair 
of Guarino grey in one night. Sismondi." 



S. viii. 7). Has M. E. seen the notes on " Man 
proposes but God disposes" (!' S. viii. 411, 552; 
ix. 87, 202, 384; 4 th S. ix. 537; x. 95, 323, 401, 
480; xi. 45; 5 th S. x. 306, 436; xi. 206; 6 th S. v. 

WOODEN EFFIGIES (6 th S. vii. 377, 417, 451). 
Many years ago I used to see a wooden figure 
lying utterly neglected in the old barn-like church 
of Ouseby, Cumberland. If my boyish recollec- 
tions are correct it was the effigy of a knight, and 
was said to belong to the Fleming family. 


HEBREW MOTTO (6 th S. vi. 409 ; vii. 439). I 
have referred to several peerages and baronetages, 
each of which gives Jehova Jireh as one of the 
mottoes of Monymusk. CELER ET AUDAX. 

THE SQUIRE PAPERS (6 th S. viii. 59). The 
letter signed " 0. Cromwell," and quoted by 
TINY TIM, is No. 11 of the "Squire Papers," 
printed by Carlyle in the third and subsequent 
editions of Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches. 
Carlyle's accompanying remarks on the subject 
are reprinted from Fraser's Magazine for De- 
cember, 1847. D. BARRON BRIGHTWELL. 


(6 th S. vii. 507 ; viii. 32). The Grenville Cata- 
logue (British Museum) has the following entry : 
" Harding, G. P. A Description of a Series of 
Illustrations of G. P. Harding's Manuscript His- 
tory of the Princes of Wales from the time of 
Edward of Caernarvon to the present Sovereign 
of England. London, 1828, 8vo." Thus much is 
printed. Unfortunately, when one looks for the 
press-mark, one finds, in MS., "Not received." 
This, no doubt, means that the MS. was catalogued 
as belonging to the Grenville collection, but that 
when the collection was transferred to the British 
Museum, the authorities there did not receive the 
M3. The above catalogued MS., however, it 
will be observed, is not the MS. history J. F. B. 
asks about, but merely a description of " illustra- 
tions" to the latter. The Additional MS3. 
catalogues of the Museum do not disclose any 
such MS. as that inquired for, under either " Hard- 
ing " or " Princes of Wales." 

G. P. Harding was, no doubt, one of the pub- 
lishers (there seems to have been a family of them) 
of several elaborately erot-up series of portraits, as 
of the ShaJcspere Illustrated (Shakspere's his- 
torical characters, his editors, contemporary actors, 
&c.), the Bioqraphical Mirrour, 1795, &c. 

J, W. M, G, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6-. s. viii. A, 

ANN IN PLACE-NAMES (6 th S. viii. 47). Abbot's 
Ann (Hants) is on the river Anton. Ferguson 
(River Names of Europe) derives the river names 
Ant (Norfolk), Anton (Hants) from Celtic and or 
ant. This is a distinct word from ain, which he 
says is equivalent to aon, the Manx form of avon. 
He classes the Celtic and or ant with Sanskrit ud, 
water. See Skeat's list of Aryan roots, No. 339, 
wad, also ud, to well or gush out. Skt. ud-an, 
water ; und, to moisten ; Gk. v8-(ap ; Lat. und-a ; 
A.-S. wcet-er, water, and ot-er, an otter. Ex., wet, 
water, otter ; perhaps winter. 


Milton Vicarage, Evercreecb, Bath. 

An, on are found in composition of river-names ; 
corrupted down from Brit, amon (now avon), or 
Gaelic amhainn (Irish, amhan). 


227, 475). In the Visitation of Essex, published 
by the Harleian Society at pp. 95, 475, and 
476, appears Raymond, and also at pp. 696 and 
697, bringing the family down to this date. In 
Burke's Landed Gentry there is an account of 
Raymond of Belchamp Hall, and Walford's 
County Families also gives the present owner. Is 
nob the present Mr. John Raymond Raymond- 
Barker descended from an Essex Raymond ? 


SIGIL (6 th S. vii. 402, 454). Sir Walter Scott, 
in the Bridal of Triermain, has the following 
couplet and note : 

" Sign and &igil* well doth he know, 

And can bode of weal and woe." 
And again : 

" Sign and sigil, word of power, 
From the earth raised keep and tower.' 1 

G. L. F. 

San Remo. 

HEADCORN : MORTLAKE (6 th S. viii. 38). 
Most English geographical names ending in lake 
are from A.-S. leag, a meadow. 


AUREOLE (6 th S. vii. 343 ; viii. 39)." Pereant 
qui post nos nostra dixerunt." I really did not 
know that my "nostrum" as to this word was 
already DR. CHANCE'S "nostrum." Long before 
1881, when his last note appeared, I had worked 
out the theory for myself and published it in my 
Word-Hunter, 1876. As to his earlier note in 
1872, 1 have no recollection of having seen it; but 
it is impossible to say when and whence our 
mental germs have found a nidus. De Quincey, 
I imagine, had anticipated both of us ( Works, xv. 

" * A charm which was formerly worn for the cure of 

39). MR. MARSHALL points out that aureola is fre- 
quently used by the schoolmen. When I said I 
could not find it in mediaeval Latin, I meant that 
[ could not find it in Du Cange, and it is certainly 
strange that he overlooked it. 

Chelmsford Road, Woodford. 

PLECK = MEADOW (6 th S. viii. 25). Fleck 
conies from A.-S. leag, a meadow. Cf. the river 
names Lym and Plym. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

PHILIP JACKSON (6 th S. vii. 429 ; viii. 57). 
This matter was rather unfortunately treated by 
Seymour in his Survey of London (1734-5), it 
being omitted from the index, and the surname is 
given in the epitaph as " Lackson." However, 
under " Saint Dionis, Backchurch," Philip Jackson 
appears as a considerable benefactor to that parish 
in his lifetime ; and at p. 419 of bk. ii. of the 
said Survey, his epitaph is given, which should be 
read as follows : 

' Near this Place, in the Chancel, lieth interr'd the 
Body of Philip Jack?on, of this Parish, merchant, Son 
to Miles Jackson of Combehay, in the County of Somer- 
set, Esq. He married Elizabeth, Daughter to John 
Brown, of Sutton Saint Clare, in the same County, Esq. 
By whom be had three Sons, Edward, and two Philips; 
and two Daughters, Elizabeth and Eleanor. He was 
constantly devout in the Duties of Religion, according 
to the Church of England, truly loyal to the King, loving 
to his Relations, Neighbours, and Acquaintance, faithful 
in Friendship ; just in all his Dealings, and charitable to 
the Poor. In memory of whom Elizabeth, his Relict, 
caused this monument to be set up, A. D. 1686." 

Arms : Argent, on a chevron, between three eagles' 
heads erased sable, as many cinquefoils of the 
first ; impaled with Sable, a chevron per pale 
argent and or, between three griffins' heads erased 
of the second. The above was on a white marble 
monument " south of the altar." 

Among the arms of citizens, A.D. 1664 (Harleian 
MS. No. 1086, fo. 20), those for " Phillip Jack- 
son, m'chant (from) Som'setshere," are shown as 
being Argent, on a chevron sable between three 
eagles' heads erased azure, as many cinquefoils of 
the first, with a fleur-de-lys in the centre chief 
point. The latter is not mentioned by Seymour ; 
but it may mean that Philip Jackson, of St. 
Dionis, was a sixth son, and if so, leaving a wide 
area for consanguinities. J. S. 

CATSPAW (6 th S. vii. 286 ; viii. 34). The sub- 
joined is from Fennell's Antiquarian Chronicle 
and Literary Advertiser (p. 47): 

" ' Making a Cat's-paw.' A story of an ape using a 
whelp's foot to get chestnuts out of the fire is met with 
in Geffrey Whitney's Emblems, 1586, p. 58. A similar 
anecdote is thus related by Dr. John F. Gemelli Careri 
in his Voyage Round the World (1695) : ' D. Antony 
Machado de Brido, admiral of the Portuguese fleet in 
India, told me that having ordered a cocoa-nut to be put 
on the fire, he hid himself to see how his monkey would 
take it out without burning his paws. The cunning 

6.s.vm.AcG.V83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


creature, finding its beloved food on the fire, looked 
about, and seeing a cat by the chimney, held her head 
in his mouth, and made use of his [? her] paws to take 
off the cocoa-no t, and then cooling it in water, ate it ; 
the Portuguese laughing to see the cat mewing about all 
day with the pain it had beeti put to.' " 


JOHN KENRICK (6 th S. viii. 11). John Kenrick 
was the eldest son of Edward Kenrick, a merchant 
of Rotterdam, by Susanna, sister of Sir William 
Cranmer. His father died in 1654, and his will 
is printed in the Memoirs of Chester of Chicheley, 
by R. E. Chester Waters (vol. ii. pp. 409-12), 
where a full account will be found of John Ken- 
rick and his brothers and sisters. E. Y. P. 

KYRTON OR KIRTON FAMILY (6 th S. vii. 448). 
The following notices, though sporadic, may be 
of service. In Testaments Vetusta, edited by Sir 
N. Harris Nicolas, p. 209, John Kirton occurs as 
a legatee of 10J. under the will of Thomas Beau- 
fort, Duke of Exeter, KG., dated Dec. 29, 1426, 
and proved Jan. 28, 1427. 

Kymer's Fwdera supplies cases of both Kirton 
and Kyrton, which are, of course, mere variations 
uf every-day occurrence in orthography. Thomas 
Kirton, of the county of Leicester, is mentioned, 
Feed., vol. vii. pt. iii. p. 160, as one of the wit- 
nesses to a marriage, unlawfully celebrated with- 
out banns or licence, between Robert Thorneton, 
of East Newton, co. Ebor., and Elizabeth Darley, 
" now his wife," for which pardon issued A.D. 
1620, Pat. 18 Jac. L, p. 14, m. 4. 

Gilbert Kyrton, "dilectus Servitor Regis," 
formerly valet of the buttery of the late King 
Henry, has letters of protection " ad partes ultra- 
marinas," May 17, 1415, 3 Henry V., Franc. 3, 
in. 21 (Foed., vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 122). 

In the Visitation of London, 1568 (Had. Soc.), 
p. 12, s.v. " Wodroff," mention is thus made of 
Stephen Kyrton. Grisild, dau. of Stephen Kyr- 
ton, late Alderman of London, married Nicholas 
Wodroff, Esq., Alderman of London, son of David 
Wodroff, Sheriff of London, 1554. 

The coat, quarterly of four, of Kyrton is given, 
the fourth quarter being " Arg., a fesse between 
three hawks' hoods gules." It might not seem 
plain at first sight that this is the same coat as in 
Burke's Gen. Arm., 1878, with a slight verbal 

It may be remarked that in the Visitation of 
Notts,l6U (Had. Soc.), s.v."Whalley" (of Kirton), 
the sixth quartering of Whalley is, " Arg., a fesse, 
and in chief a chevron, gu., Kirton." This, appa- 
rently, comes through Leake of Kirton (Notts), 
quartered as 4. 

Three generations of Kirton are entered, through 
the marriage of the heiress, in the Visitation of 
Lincoln, 1592, printed in the Genealogist, iv. 189. 
They are thus recorded, s.v. "Littlebury ": 

1. Peter Kirton, married Elizabeth, dau. and 
heir of Sir William Woodthorp, Knt. 

2. Sir Robert Kirton, Knt., son of the above, 
but whose wife's name is not given, had issue 

3. Sir John Kirton, Knt., whose daughter 
Elizabeth (called in the pedigree the " sister and 
heir of Sir John Kirton, Knt.," though shown in 
the tabular descent to have been his daughter) 
married Sir Humphrey Litlebury, Knt., only son 
of " Sir Raphe Littlebury, Knt., 1346." 

The only date given throwing any light on the 
period of the match between Littlebury and 
Kirton is that appended to the description of Sir 
Ralph Littlebury; I have, therefore, inserted 
it above. It is probable that the Thomas 
Kirton of the county of Lincoln mentioned by 
Rymer in 1620 was of the same stock as the 
family incidentally named in the Visitation of 
1592. Whether there was any relationship be- 
tween them and the Somersetshire family I cannot 
at present say, and I find nothing in Collinson 
or Phelps. Before quitting the Lincolnshire 
Kirtons, I should mention that " Joane, dau. of Sir 
John Kirton, Knt.," is recorded in the Visitation 
of Lincoln, 1592 (Genealogist, v. 41), as having 
married John Thetoft, son of Alexander Thetoft, 
with whom commences a pedigree of fourteen 
generations entered at that Visitation. 


New University Club, S.W. 

SHILLITOE FAMILY (6 th S. viii. 18). Shillitoe 
of Barnsley would be the same as of Heath ; the 
two places are within a few miles of each other. 
Shillitoe of Heath was flourishing at the close of 
the sixteenth century. In an old, but undated, 
manuscript in the British Museum I find : 

"Francis Shillitoe of Heath, near Wakefield, bore 
Argent, on a fesse between three cocks' heads erased 
sable, crested, beaked, and jolloped or, a mitre of the 
third. George Shillitoe of Heath, near Wakefield, son 
and heire of ffrancis, was one of the Attorneys of the 
high court of Starr chamber at Westminster, Justice of 
the peace in the Westriding of Yorkshire in the third 
year of the Raigne of King James of famous memory," 
&c. " Pedigrees of Yorkshire Families," Harleian MS. 
4630, fol. 560. 


FAMILY OF EYLES (6 th S. vii. 268, 454). 
Above the " Corporation pew " in the church of 
All Hallows, Barking, London, there are three 
elegant sword-rests of painted iron, the one on 
the south side having been erected to commemo- 
rate the mayoralty of Sir John Eyles, Bart., 
Alderman of Vintry Ward, but resident in the 
Ward of Tower, and Lord Mayor in 1727. It 
bears upon two shields (1) Sir John's own arms, 
Argent, a fess engrailed, and in chief three fleurs- 
de-lis sable ; (2) the arms of the Haberdashers' 
Company, Barry nebule of six argent and azure, 
on a bend gules a lion passant gardant or. Above 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6"- s. vm. AW. 4, >83. 

these are the arms of the City of London, and 
higher still the royal arms of England. 

Emanuel Hospital, Westminster. 


A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, For 
feited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire. By 
Sir Bernard Burke, C.B., LL.D., Ulster King of Arms. 
New Edition. (Harrison.) 
TiiiE works changes even in the Dormant, Abeyant, and 
Forfeited Peerages of the United Kingdom, though its 
operation is necessarily slower than in that branch of 
the Peerage which has never fallen on sleep. It was long 
since Sir Bernard Burke had brought out an edition of 
his Dormant and Extinct Peerages, and there was much 
that called for a new issue. The want has been acknow- 
ledged by Ulster, and the result is now before us. 
While we welcome what he gives us, we sincerely wish 
he could have spared the time to give us something 
more, and so have filled a want which the present issue 
does not adequately fill. No one at all acquainted with 
the intricate questions involved in the history of the 
earlier summonses to the English Parliament can for a 
moment doubt the time and the labour which a full 
revision of Sir Bernard Burke's Dormant and Extinct 
Peerages would involve. We do not wonder that he has 
not been able to carry out such an undertaking in his 
revision for 1883, but we do hope that he has the under- 
taking itself in hand, and that we shall yet see the 
fruition of his labours in this very special and very 
interesting branch of genealogical history. There are 
many points to which our attention has been drawn in 
the course of our own studies in the field of baronial 
genealogy, on which we should have been glad to have 
found some indication of Sir Bernard's views in the 
present volume. For there are few things more remark- 
able than the paucity of readily available materials for 
anything like a connected story of even great old An:lc- 
Norman houses, whose very memory seems to Lave 
perished out of the land. Only here and there do we 
find such zealous workers as Mr. R. E. Chester Waters 
and Mr. A. 8. Ellis, who recall to us the departed glories 
of some of those doughty knights of old whose swords 
are rust. We look in vain for some record, such as Sir 
Bernard Burke's pen could so ahly set before us, of De 
Moreville, and we cannot but think that St. Thomas of 
Canterbury is all too well avenged. For there are yet 
churches in England dedicated in his name, but not a 
line to carry down to posterity in the record of the 
Dormant and Extinct Peerages the memory of one of 
the most powerful of the houses concerned in the deed 
of blood that gave the church of Canterbury a fresh 
martyr. Other titles there are which need ampler treat- 
ment, of which we trust Sir Bernard ia but making 
note for his next issue. -Mr. A. S. Ellis lately called 
attention in the pages of " N. & Q." to certain interest- 
ing problems connected with the old Yorkshire baronial 
house of De Longvillers. It lies outside Ulster's pro- 
vince to discuss whether the American poet Longfellow 
was in truth a descendant cf this Norman house ; but 
the history of that house and its branches is worthy of 
being disentangled from conflicting statements, and of 
being gathered together in Sir Bernard's pages from the 
various sources where it has at present to be sought. 
Such titles as Damory, Luttrell, and Everingham call for 
more consideration of the very varying existing accounts, 
which it is easier to find than to reconcile. Cressy 
should certainly have its place in a future edition, and, 

indeed, can scarcely be separated from Everingham and 
Longvillers, so interwoven are the early histories of the 
three families. We have but touched upon a few points, 
but we have said enough, we hope, to induce Sir Bernard 
Burke to give us more frequent editions of his valuable 
and interesting Dormant and Extinct Peerages. 

Church Ales. By E. Peacock, F.S.A. 
WE have read with much pleasure Mr. Peacock's in- 
teresting paper on this subject, which was communicated 
by him to the Antiquarian Section of the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute at the Carlisle meeting of last year. The 
thanks of all those who are interested in the social habits 
and customs of our forefathers are due to the author, 
for his trouble in collecting all that is known on this 
interesting but somewhat obscure custom. Mr. Peacock 
is not far wrong in tracing the origin of these church 
ales to the drinking bouts of our Scandinavian ancestors. 
We are inclined to think, however, that in all probability 
their more immediate origin is to be found in the custom 
of scot ales. At the same time it is important that 
these scot ales should not be confused with the subject 
of Mr. Peacock's paper. Their purposes were entirely 
different. The scot ales were secular drinkinga, and the 
money raised by them formed the emoluments of the 
sheriff. Shocking as the idea must be to every member 
of the Church Temperance Society, there can be no 
doubt that in olden days much money was obtained for 
the purposes of the Church by means of the church ale. 
They were held generally in the church house, which 
was always close to the church, and sometimes in the 
very churchyard, and were attended by persons of all 
ranks. In some cases, even, fines were inflicted on ab- 
sentees. The more they drank the merrier they became, 
and the more they contributed to the wants of the parish. 
Though church ales lingered on long after the Refor- 
mation, their peculiar character soon became lost, and 
the custom degenerated into a mere excuse for a vulgar 

THE August number of the Antiquarian Magatine 
contains an article on the old franking privilege, under 
the title of " A Very Old Parcel Post." It is illustrated 
by a facsimile of Nelson's last frank, addressed to Lady 

attrcg to CamjpantteuM. 

We must call special attention to (he following nolicet: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 
W. P. SHEPARD. The lines 

" Though lost to sight, to memory dear 

Thou ever wilt remain," 
occur in a song by George Linley. 

ALPHA. The lines said to be on a jug are taken, with 
slight alteration, from Shakspeare's Comedy of Errors, 
III. i. See 5ti> S. viii. 319. 
JOHN W. WALLACE. Not within our province. 
H. SOULTHORP. You have neglected to send address. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6th s. vm. AUG. n, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : " Notes on Phrase and Inflection," 101 Royalty at 
Eastwell Park, 103 Norwich : the Chaiter of Henry II., 104 
DelamaynethePoet-St. Mildred's Church, Poultry Story 
of "the pound of flesh," 105 Moore: " Exemplary Novels " 
To " go it "Healing Power of Saliva Death of a Gipsy 
Queen, 106. 

QUERIES : " Coningsmark Broadswords," 106 The Title of 
" Monseigneur " Parody on Gray's " Elegy " Tintern 
Abbey, Ireland Barlaam and Palamas John Gascoign, of 
Chiswick, 107 Reference Wanted Frankincense Hercules 
Hall, Lambeth Miles Corbet Count of Nassau Darling 
Family, 108. 

REPLIES :- Constitution Hill, 108 Lyte of Lytes Cary, 109 
Cowper's Pew in Olney Church, 110 Lady Grace Edham 
Giants and Dwarfs William Parsons Portrait of Prince 
Eugene, 111 Napoleon Prophecy Ghosts in Catholic 
Countries Lymington, 112 Tidd and Todd Cure by Touch 
Arundel, Arun Bnngay "The Luxury of Woe" 'Ihe 
Poet Mason Harvest Custom Basque, &c., 113 Derivation 
of Calder " Smythie coine" Triforium Fiasco, 114 Hops 
in Kssex Maypoles -Engraved Portrait of Win. Austin 
"Sir Hornbook " Kitchingman Family Number of An- 
cestors, 115 Sqnarer " Dies Irae "Ann in Place-names- 
Hole Family Fissure in Church Walls, 116 Clock-lore 
Archbishop Tillotson's Baptism" Devill in a red cappe * 
Dr. John James Newbery, the Publisher Burying in Coal 
Hedgehogs sucking Cows, 117 Pronunciation of Forbes 
Foin : Foinster Wooden Tombs Tennis Tagge and 
Ragge Heraldic, 118 Quarterings A Spouter Early 
American Shilling, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Picton's " Notes on the Liverpool 
Regalia " Smith's " Glossary of Terms and Phrases " 
John Dennys's " Secrets of Angling " Pattison's " Milton's 
Sonnets," &c. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 6 th S. vii. 501.) 

I continue my remarks on the article with the 
title as above in Good Words for June. It will 
occur to many readers that " le jeu ne vaut pas 
la chandelle "; but the phraseology and idiomatic 
forms in which our thoughts habitually clothe 
themselves affect, as well as are affected by, the 
ideas which underlie them, and present occasion- 
ally interesting glimpses of the mental action 
struggling for expression. 

Under: Beneath: Underneath. Mr. Turner says, 
" I will remind my readers that under and be- 
neath meet in the Scandinavian on neder ; and 
little as the sound would lead us to suspect an 
identity, or even a connexion, beneath and under 
are the same." As Dominie Sampson says, " Pro- 
digious ! ' Such etymology is enough to take away 
one's breath. One has heard or read of cucumber 
being derived from, or identical with, " Jeremiah 
King," which has been supposed to be a whimsical 
joke. Probably the identity of under and be- 
neath is an attempt at poking fun. It is scarcely 
possible to imagine the maintenance of such an 
absurdity to be serious. Under, beneath, under- 
neath are pure Anglo-Saxon words. They are 
common to all the Teutonic languages, and can 

be traced back to the primitive Aryan tongue. 
Under answers to Sanskrit antara, be-neath to 
Sansk. nitardm. The be is merely an augment. 
The primitive meanings are slightly different, 
antar, under, being in contrast with upar, over, 
whilst nitar is the comparative of ni, down, and 
signifies " further down." 

Execution: Executed. Mr. Turner says, "'Exe- 
cution at Maidstone gaol ' is intelligible enough, 
but ' Execution of the murderer Nokes ' is non- 
sense. The plain English is that the executioner 
hangs Mr. Nokes, and thereby follows out (which 
is the meaning of executes) the sentence of the 
law. An execution does not necessarily imply 
banging anybody." Who ever supposed that it 
did ? It seems, as Hamlet says, " we must speak 
by the card, or equivocation will undo us." A 
piece of music, a legal deed, a last will and testa- 
ment, a commission may all be executed, but not 
a human being. Common sense and common usage 
reject such pedantry. If we were to say, " Last 
Monday John Nokes was hung at Maidstone 
gaol," we should only give half the informa- 
tion. He might, like Porteous, have been hung in 
defiance of the law by a riotous mob, but when 
we say he was executed we imply in one word that 
he was dispatched according to law. 

To open up. This is not a happy form of ex- 
pression, and, I should imagine, ia very little 
employed. To open out is graphic enough, imply- 
ing the simplification of an involved or mysterious 

Appreciate: Estimate. Mr. Turner says, " The 
genteel vulgar are much given to appreciate all 
sorts of things, without saying how or which way 

the appreciation is determined In nine cases 

out of ten where appreciate is used, the word 
should have been estimate, though even this is 
often vaguely uttered." These two verbs are as 
nearly synonymous in their origin as it is possible 
to conceive. To appreciate is to set a price on, 
to estimate is to set a value on a person or thing. 
Appreciate and appreciation are not found in 
Shakespeare, but esteem and estimate are frequent. 
If a man complains of not being appi-eciated, he 
means that he is not sufficiently valued, whilst his 
enemies might say that he was really appreciated 
at his true worth. So to say that a man is not 
estimated, usually means that he is not valued 
highly enough, or in other words not esteemed, but 
there is a subtle difference between esteem and 
estimate, which is more readily felt than ex- 

The English Infinitive Mood. Mr. Turner gives 
a long dissertation on this subject, the results of 
which are novel and rather startling. He says, 
" So far as the researches of philology have dis- 
covered, our language is absolutely unique in the 
formation of its infinitive mood. This peculiarity 
has never been quite accounted for," &c. I have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. AUG. n, -as. 

always been under the impression that the A.-S. 
infinitive was common to all the Teutonic tongues, 
the earliest form being found in the Gothic of 
Ulphilas, with the termination an in the strong 
verbs, and yan or ian in the derivative or weak 
ones. The loss of this suffix does not in the least 
affect the meaning or application of the infinitive 
mood, which is precisely the same as it has always 
been. Mr. Turner continues, " The prefix to was 
used to mark the future infinitive only." Where 
is the authority for any such statement ? Bos- 
worth (A.-S. Grammar) says, "The infinitive 
mood expresses the action or state denoted by the 
verb in a general manner, without any reference 
to number, person, or time." Pickbourn (Dis- 
sertation on the English Verb} says, " That it [the 
infinitive] has, in itself, no relation to time, evi- 
dently appears from the common use we make of 
it ; for we can say with equal propriety, ' I was 
obliged to read yesterday,' ' I am obliged to read 
to-day,' 1 1 shall be obliged to read to-morrow.'" 
Mr. Turner refers to Grimm as showing the future 
infinitive to be a dative case. Grimm does nothing 
of the kind. I have his Deutsche Grammatik 
open before me. The passages in which he refers 
to the infinitive are too long to quote, but may be 
found in the first and third chapters of the fourth 
book. In substance he treats the infinitive as 
a kind of substantiving (substantivierung) of the 
verb which has lost all marks of person and 
number. There is only a single preposition which 
can be prefixed to it, du, zu, to. From the use of 
this preposition in a dative sense, equivalent to 
Lat. ad, grew up a modification of the infinitive 
in 071716, anne, which answers exactly to the Latin 
gerund. Thus, zi minnone is equivalent to ad 
amandum. This, of course, carried with it a 
future sense : bcernan, to burn ; bcernenne, about 
to burn. In A.-S. both forms are used together : 
" Drihten, a'yfe me ae'rest to farenne, and be- 
byrigean miane fsoder." "Lord, let me first go 
and bury my father." This is the substance of 
Grimm's view, which certainly does not justify 
the statement in the article. 

"But now I come," says Mr. Turner, "to the 
marrow of my note To as the sign of the Eng- 
lish infinitive is as much a part or particle of the 
verb as it would be if placed at the end as an in- 
flection. Though identical to eje and ear with 
the preposition to, it is not used as a preposition. 
We should not do amiss, I think, were we to join 
it on with a hyphen, thus, to- think, to-write," &c. 
The writer is here confounding two things which 
have no connexion whatever. That to, zu, du, 
when used before an infinitive, is an ordinary pre- 
position will be found laid down in every gram mar 
and dictionary of every Teutonic language. There 
is, however, an enclitic to, which in A.-S. is used 
as a prefix to a numerous list of verbs, giving 
hem an intensive, and frequently a destructive, 

meaning : tobrecan, to break down ; toiourpan, 
to destroy ; toslcean, to dash to pieces. This pre- 
fix was originally tor, Goth, tur, Old Ger. zer t 
which are found in German and Icelandic as 
prefixes with the same meaning at the present day. 

Mr. Turner's bile appears to have been greatly 
disturbed by a practice, " beginning," as he says, 
" in the low and humid wilds of tenth-rate jour- 
nalism, and spreading its corruption to the pas- 
tures and orchards of critical and philosophic 
thought, morality, and religion, and to the flower 
gardens of poetry." What does the reader guess 
is the offence so vehemently denounced? It is 
simply the insertion of an adverb between the to 
and the infinitive : " to elegantly write," " to 
cogently say." The insertion of adverbs and even 
nouns between the preposition and the infinitive 
is not foreign to the genius of the Teutonic 
tongues. In German it is in common use : " sich 
zum Gelachter machen," " zu mit jemandem gehen," 
&c. In English, in ordinary discourse, we bring 
the preposition and infinitive together. In poetry 
licence is admitted, and with good effect. Such a 
line as " Who dares to nobly live, or boldly die," 
would hardly be improved by transposition. 

On: Upon. This scarcely needs remark, Mr. 
Turner having abandoned any distinction be- 
tween the two. There is, however, considerable 
difference in their origin, up being traceable to 
Sansk. upa, super ; whilst on, Ger. an, can only 
be found in Zend. Our word upon seems a com- 
bination of the two. 

Numerous as compared with Many. I was not 
previously aware that numerous had banished 
many. It would take numerous instances to 
prove it. Numerous, of course, refers primarily 
to things which are susceptible of being counted. 
Many is vague and indefinite. Mr. Turner says, 
" Thus we have, in frequent imitation of Homer, 
'the numerous voice of the sea.'" If, as I sup- 
pose, he refers to the oft-recurring refrain in the 
Iliad, diva. 7roAi;<Aor/3oio ^aAaoxnjs, the 
translation is unfortunate, as TroAvs does not 
mean numerous. No one would think of count- 
ing the roaring of the waves. Pope translates 
the phrase simply " the sounding main "; Cowper, 
" the loud murmuring shore "; Lord Derby, " the 
many dashing ocean's shore." 

Commence: Begin. Mr. Turner is very hard 
upon the " dandies " and " mincing misses " who 
commence instead of begin their remarks, but the 
word would not have been introduced except 
there had been a use for it. We have an advan- 
tage in English to some extent of a duplicate 
vocabulary, classical and Teutonic, which gives a 
copiousness and variety to our literature not 
possessed by any other modern tongue. Begin 
will, of course, apply to every topic of human 
thought ; commence usually is restricted to an 
undertaking with human agency. The sun begins 



to shine, the rain begins to fall, but the aca- 
demical term commences on a certain date. I am 
going to build, and shall commence operations 

Lay: Lie. Mr. Turner says, "Custom has 
established a difference in the meaning of these 
words, and has made lay a transitive, and lie an 
intransitive verb." This would imply that they 
were originally one and it is only custom which 
has separated them. This empirical explanation 
is unsatisfactory. The solution lies much deeper, 
and throws considerable light on the formation of 
our language. The circumstances are parallel in 
all the Teutonic tongues, but I will take the 
Gothic instance as probably the clearest. A large 
number of the strong verbs, i. e. } those which form 
their preterites by vowel change, are intransitive ; 
ligan, to lie, being one of them. The preterite is 
lag. The want of a transitive verb was supplied 
by the insertion of y or i and adding the usual 
termination an. Thus ligan, to lie, a neuter verb, 
was converted into lagyan, to lay, an active verb. 
The preterites were formed by adding the in- 
flexions of the auxiliary didan. Thus lag, I lay, 
became lag-ida, I laid. 

While: Whilst: Whiles. Of these Mr. Turner 
says, "The first and third are legitimate; the 
second is a vulgarism." Let us see how this 
stands. Prof. Skeat's note on the word in his Dic- 
tionary is very clear. While is a noun substan- 
tive signifying a space of time. It is used adverbi- 
ally both in the singular and in the plural whiles 
in several of the cases. Whilst, whether it be a 
vulgarism or not, has followed the normal develop- 
ment of similar words. There is a tendency in most 
European languages in forming adverbs and par- 
ticles to give them a sibilant termination. Thus, 
in Latin, bis, abs, intus, satis ; Greek TTWS, rpts, 
a^ ; French envers, jamais, alors, sans. Hence, 
in English, perhaps, towards, besides, unawares, 
whence (whennes), yes (yea), betimes, ivhiles. The 
t is added by way of emphasis. Once (ones) is 
vulgarly pronounced onest (Ger. einst}. Spenser 
has both ivhiles and lohilest. The Old English 
agens, ayens is now against. Among has deve- 
loped into amongst, amiddes into amidst. Along 
has had a very narrow escape, and has not un- 
frequently been given as alongst. 

This terminates all that it is necessary to say 
about the article in question, which, at all events, 
will have the effect of stimulating inquiry and 
reflection. JAS. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 



In a collection of tracts dating from 1715 to 
1745 I have met with a curious story, by which it 
would appear that Eastwell Park had a royal 

occupant three centuries before its present owners. 
The particular tract from which it is taken seems 
to be called (on the half-title) " The Parallel," but 
the title-page with date is wanting. The writer 
says that he has been led to write it because " We 
have lately seen a certain Transaction in Ireland 
become the common Topic of Conversation, on 
accountof some surprising Incidents ; that is natural 
enough, but it seems to me yet stranger than the 
Story that in most Companies you find People 
ready to determine upon a Matter of Fact inde- 
pendent of Evidence, just as their Cast of Mind 
leads them," &c.; therefore he prints a collection of 
" parallel " cases that had come under his notice, 
the first of which is the one relating to Eastwell. 
The story opens with a dissertation on the cha- 
racter of Richard III. and the various ways in 
which it has been drawn by different authors, and 
then it goes on : 

" This Richard D. of Gloucester, in the year 1469, in tba 
8th Year of the Reign of his Brother Edward the Fourth, 
had an Amour, or for aught I know contracted a private 
Marriage, with some Lady of Quality, for the three Royal 
Brothers were equally given that way ; and towards the 
latter end of the same Year this Lady brought him a 
Son. His Father took care to have him sent privately 
to nurse at a Country Village, where he lived till he was 
seven Years old, taking the good Woman who brought 

him up for his Mother, knowing no name but Richard 

When he was seven years old he was removed 

from the Care of his Nurse to the House of a Latin 
Schoolmaster near Lutterworth in that very Year when 
the Succession to the Crown was restored to the House 
of York by Act of Parliament. Here the Boy continued 
8 or 9 Years, still unacquainted with his Descent and 
knowing nothing more either of his Lineage or Fortune 
than that once a Quarter a Gentleman who told him he 
was no Relation discharged his Board and put some 
Money in his Pocket. In this Situation, his Master 
having a Taste for the Classic Writers, took pains to 
instruct him both in the Historians and Poets; and 
Richard himself having a Genius for Learning applied 
himself so diligently that before he left School he began 
to relish as well as understand them, particularly Horace; 
which then, and ever after, was his favorite Author, and 
the chosen Companion of his melancholy Hours. When 
he was about 15 the Gentleman carried him to a very 
fine House, where he passed through several Stately 
Apartments, till at last he was introduced to one Avhere 
a Person richly habited, and adorned with the Ensigns 
of the Garter, waited for him, asked him abundance of 
Questions, examined not hia Features only but his Limbs, 
enquired into the Progress he had made in Learning, 
spoke kindly to him, and when he went away gave him 
ten Pieces of Angel Gold worth ten Shillings apiece. 
Some Months after his Guardian came again and brought 
him a Horse, and other Accoutrements, and carried him 
from the Place where he was at School to the King's 
Camp at Leicester, where he was soon introduced to the 
Royal Tent of Richard the Third, who embraced him 
with great Tenderness, and told him he was his son, 
adding soon after these remarkable Words : ' To-morrow, 
Child, I must fiuht for my Crown, and assure yourself if 
I lose that I will lose my Life also ; but I hope to pre- 
serve both. Do you Stand in such a Place (naming a 
Spot out of Danger) till the Battle shall be over, and if 
I am victorious, come to me ; I will then own you and 
provide for you, But if I should be so unfortunate as to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ie* s. vm. A. 11, -as. 


lose the Battle, then shift as well as you can for yourself ; 
but be sure never to mention your being my Son, for 
there will be no Mercy shown to one so nearly related to 
me.' " 

The writer here explains that the former interview 
coincided with the death of the Prince of Wales, 
" which naturally inspired the King with greater 
Tenderness of his only surviving Offspring," and 
that the death of the queen happening before the 
last interview determined him to disclose the 

" Young Richard Plantagenet was a spectator of this 
decisive Battle from an Eminence near Leicester Bridge, 
till he heard the News there of the King's losing the 
Field and being himself mortally wounded. He then 
made all the haste he could to London, where he sold 
his Horse and fine Clothes, and the better to conceal 
himself and at the same time secure an honest Liveli- 
hood, he bound himself Apprentice to a Bricklayer. By 
this prudent Contrivance he escaped all Danger during 
the suspicious and sanguine (sic) Reign of Henry the 
Seventh, who cut off without Mercy, as King Richard 
foresaw, all who were in any degree related to the House 
of York. But as the Remembrance of his birth filled 
the Breast of Richard Plantagenet with many Cares and 
Apprehensions he studied Privacy and Retirement as 
much as possible ; and as the Tincture he had received 
of a Liberal Education enabled him to converse with the 
best Authors he chose rather to amuse his melancholy 
Hours with a Book than to mingle in the Discourse of 
those with whom he was obliged to work. 

" He spent in this manner the Days not only of his 
Youth but those of his Manhood, nay even of his Old 
Age ; for he was drawing towards Fourscore before he 
found a Person to whom he thought it safe to confide 
his Secret. The manner of his divulging it was thus : 
About the Year 1544 Sir Thomas Moyle bought the 
Estate of Eastwell in the County of Kent, where he de- 
termined to build a new Seat, and by some recommenda- 
tion or other Richard Plantagenet was employed there 
as Bricklayer. When this House of Eastwell Place was 
finished Sir Thomas Moyle came down to see it, and ob- 
serving that the old Bricklayer retired whenever he had 
a moment's Leisure, with a Book in his hand, which he 
read till, being quite spent, he fell asleep, Sir Thomas had 
the Curiosity to take up this Book while the old Man was 
f ist (sic), and was very much surprized to find it the Works 
of Horace. He questioned him thereupon very strictly 
as to his skill in Latin, and finding him better versed 
in that Language than in those times usual, he showed a 
strong inclination to be acquainted with his Story. As 
eo many Years were run since the fatal Battel of 
Leicester and as Richard Plantagenet was under no great 
fears from so mild an Administration as that of Edward 
the Sixth, he at last consented and ran over ingenuously 
the moving Tale of his Misfortunes in the manner in 
which I have related it. Sir Thomas, touched with Pity 
by so unexpected a Recital of the Miseries endured by a 
Plantagenet, and withal having a deep Respect for the 

venerable Person of the good old Man comforted him 

under his hard Lot and assured him that he should have 
the use of his House freely as long as he lived. 

" ' I am infinitely obliged to you, Sir,' replied the un- 
happy Richard ; ' but as you have a large Family and 
many Dependents, and as I have been long used to 
Silence and Retirement.permitme tospend the last linger- 
ing Moments of my Life in that Privacy I love. There is 
behind your Outhouses a Field where with your Leave I 
might build an Apartment, of a Single Room, near 
enough to enjoy your Bounty, which I thankfully accept, 

and yet at such a Distance as may secure that Peace 
wherein all my Pleasure lies.' 

"The Knight willingly granted his Petition, and 
Richard soon raised his Palace of a single Room. There 
he spent the Short Remainder of his Days in Quiet, and 
having passed through a long and innocent life, expired 
when he was upwards of Fourscore ; and as he had lived 
upon the Kindness of Sir Thomas Moyle so the same 
charitable Care attended him to his Grave, and took care 
to leave an authentic Memorial of his Birth and Misfor- 
tunes. This House of Eastwell Place came afterwards 
into possession of the eldest Branch of the noble Family 
of Finch, and it is to the laudable Curiosity of the late 
Heneage, Earl of Winchelsea, a Nobleman whose Virtues 
threw a Shade on the Age in which he lived, that we 
owe the several Particulars I have given the Reader. 
They were frequently the Topics (sic) of that good man's 
Conversation, who would sometimes show that Spot in 
his Park upon which the House of old Richard stood, 
and which had been pulled down by the Earl's Father. 
1 But I,' said that most worthy Lord, ' had it reached my 
Time, would sooner have pulled down that,' pointing to 
his own House. As a testimony of the Truth of this re- 
markable History he was wont to produce the following 
Entry in the Register of the Parish Church of Eastwell : 
' Anno Domini 1550, Rychard Plantagenet was buried 
the 22nd December, Anno ut supra.' " 

E. H. BUSK. 

earliest extant charter granted to Norwich is that 
of Henry II. This king, we are told, on the autho- 
rity of Camden and others, took the city, castle, 
and liberties into his own hands in the very first 
year of his reign ; and, according to Blomefield, 
no attempt was made to recover the franchise till 
1182, "and then," he says, "the citizens peti- 
tioned the king for their liberties to be restored, 
to which he consented for a fine of 80 marks 
(" Gives Norwici dant 80 marc, pro libertatibus 
suis habendis," Mag. Rot., 29 Hen. II.), and 
granted them a charter of the same liberties as 
they enjoyed in the time of Henry I., his grand- 
father, and in the time of King Stephen." The 
text of this charter is given by Blomefield, " word 
for word as in the original" (which may be 
seen to this day in the Guildhall at Norwich), 
with the following remark : " There being no date 
to show at what time this was granted, if the 
evidence before quoted had not helped us out, we 
should have been at a loss to have known it, as 
we now are as to the precise time of the year, 
though by its being granted when the king was 
at Westminster it must be about August." 

The " evidence " here referred to, viz., the Pipe 
Roll of 29 Hen. II., would give 1183-4 as the 
date ; but Blomefield has overlooked the positive 
evidence afforded by the signatures of some of the 
witnesses, showing that this date is impossible, 
for the attesting clause is as follows : " Testibus 
Willielmo fratre Regis, Henrico de Essexia Con- 
stabulario, Ricardo de Humes Constabulario, 
Manasse Biset Dapifero, Warino filio Geroldi 
Camerario, apud Westmonasterium," NOW it is 

es.vni.Auo.ii,t3.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


well known that Henry's brother William died in 
1164, and that the next witness, Henry of Essex, 
resigned his office of Constable in April, 1163 ; 
moreover, since the king was in France from 
August, 1158, to January, 1163, the charter 
cannot have been granted later than April, 1163, 
and being dated from Westminster, it must have 
been given either between January and April of 
that year, or before August, 1158 ; and the pay- 
ment of eighty marks mentioned in the Pipe Roll 
of 29 Hen. II. must have reference to some trans- 
action of which we have no other record. What- 
ever it may have been, it can have had nothing to 
do with a charter which, as we have seen, must have 
been granted at least twenty years earlier, for we 
may be quite sure that, however high the good 
citizens may have risen in the king's estimation, 
he would not have waited till 1183 or 1184 for 
payment due for "value received" in 1163, or 
possibly some years earlier. FRED. NORGATE. 

P.S. It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to point 
out a slight error in my note on the charter of 
Stephen (6 th S. viii. 6), viz., in the quotation from 
the Pipe Roll, 31 Hen. I., which should have been 
" V.C. reddit comp. de auxilio de Norwico." The 
words de auxilio were accidentally omitted. 

DELAMAYNE THE POET. Amongst the poetical 
writers of the last century of whom little or no- 
thing is now known may be noted the name of 
Thomas Hallie Delarnayne. Probably he was 
born about the year 1720. The following pub- 
lications are attributed to him ; possibly the list 
is far from complete : 

1. The Oliviad. 1762. A poetical account of the late 
wars between France and England, and the hoped-for 

2. An Ode to Mr. Bindon, the Artist, on his Portrait 
of Archbishop Boulter. 1767. Said to have been written 
about the year 1741. 

3. The 'Banished Patriot. 1768 In honour of Mr. 

4. The Rise and Practice of Imprisonment, by a 
Barrister. 1772. 

5. The Senators. 1772. This poem the Monthly Re- 
view designates " a virulent abuse of some of the most 
distinguished members of the House of Commons." It 
went through four editions at least in the year. It is 
probably never read now, but it always " sells," on 
account of the engraving of the ghost of Oliver Cromwell 
on the title-page. 

6. A Review of the Poem entitled the Senators. 1772. 

7. The Patricians. A Candid Examination of the 
Principal Speakers in the House of Lords. 1773. 

8. A Review of the Poem entitled the Patricians. 1773. 

9. An Essay on Man. In his State of Policy. 1779. 
The first three Epistles ; to be completed in twelve. 

There is nothing to show that Nos. 6 and 8 were 
by Mr. Delamayne, but they are confidently 
attributed to him in the Monthly Review. I 
have not found a reference to any of these nine 
publications in the Gentleman's Magazine; in 
fact, the writer's name appears only once in the 

general index ; the reference is to vol. li. p. 596, 
December, 1781, where, under the heading of 
" Bankrupts," appears " Thos. Halle de la Mayne, 
of Carlisle House, Soho, dealer." In the intro- 
duction to the Oliviad the author refers to old 
friends in Ireland ; I therefore presume he was 
the Thomas Delamaine who proceeded B.A. in 
Dublin University in 1739. He also mentions his 
legal studies. This, taken in conjunction with hia 
designation as a barrister in the title-page of No. 4, 
renders it probable that he was a lawyer by pro- 
fession ; but the notice of him in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, where in 1781 he is described as "a 
dealer," seems to throw some doubt on his occu- 
pation. Under the name Delamayne, Watt only 
mentions No. 9, Allibone does the same, whilst 
Lowndes does not give the name at all. 


phlet just issued by the City Church and Church- 
yard Protection Society, president the Earl of 
Devon, records an interesting anecdote, related to 
the secretary by Mr. J. Fytche, of Thorpe Hall, 
near Louth, as follows : 

"Walking, one fine summer morning in June, 1872, 
down to the Mansion House, on reaching the Poultry I 
was surprised to see a man on the top of the tower of 
St. Mildred's Church, hammering away at the stones 
with a crowbar ; so, finding the door open, I went up 
the stairs of the tower, and said to my friend of the 
crowbar, ' Why, you are pulling the church down ! ' 
'Ay,' says he, 'it 'a all to be down and carted away by the 
end of July.' 'I suppose it's going to be rebuilt else- 
where ? ' ' Built anywhere ? no : my master has bought 
it.' 'Who is your master?' 'Don't you know him? 
Mr. So-and-so, the great contractor.' ' What's he going 
to do with it?' 'Do with it? why, he's twenty carts and 
forty horses to lead it away to his stoneyard, and he 'a 
going to grind it up, to make Portland cement.' So I 
asked him of the crowbar to show me round the church. 
' Would your master sell the stones, instead of grinding 
'em up ? ' I asked. ' Sell 'em ? yes ; he '11 sell his soul for 
money ! ' So I made an appointment for his master to 
come up to the Langham Hotel the next morning, and 
we agreed about the purchase he to deliver the stones 
at a wharf on the Thames ; and they were brought down 
in barges and landed at the head of a canal on the coast 
of Lincolnshire, and are now lying in a green fie'd, neir 
my house, called ' St. Katharine's Garth,' from an ol J 
priory of St. Katharine which formerly stood there, and 
which I hope some day to rebuild as my domestic 

Perhaps both the fate of St. Mildred's and this 
reverent and genial act of Mr. Fytche's may be 
thought worthy of record in the pages of "N. & Q." 

not know whether it has been pointed out that 
the story of " the pound of flesh," in the Merchant 
of Venice, occurs in the Cursor Mundi,\l. 21,413- 
21,496. I suspect this to be the earliest version 
of the tale in the English language. 





vm. AUG. n, -as. 

Exemplary Novels of Cervantes, in two volumes 
(Cadell, 1822). They were given by Peter Moore, 
M.P., whom I knew, to my father. My remem- 
brance is that they were translated by one of his 
daughters. I believe this is the lady who died 
about 1880. HYDE CLARKE. 

To " GO IT." This expression, which is familiar 
to us in " Go it, you cripples, Newgate 's on fire," 
and Artemus Ward's " Go it, my gay and festiv 
cuss!" (The Shakers), appears at one time not to 
have been slang. At all events, I have met with 
it in A Relation of the Great Suffering and Strange 
Adventures of Henry Pitman, Chirurgeon to the 
late Duke of Monmouth, 1689 : 

" When these had shared her cargo, they parted com- 
pany : the French with their shares went it for Petty 
Guavas, in the Grand Gustaphus ; and the English being 
informed by those other privateers of our being on Sal- 
tatudos, came thither with their man-of-war, as is before 
expressed." Arber, English Garner, vol. vii. p. 365. 


I have a curious old book. It is not unknown to 
book-worms, as it is mentioned in Brunet (vol. iii. 
p. 26). The title is as follows: 

" Liber Totius Medicinae a Stephano Antiocheno ex 
Arabica lingua in Latinum reductus ; necnon a Michaele 
de Capella fecundis synonymis illustratus. Lugduni 
typis Jacobi Myfc. A.D. 1523." 

The Arab original was written by Ali ben El 
Abbas Alaeddin al Madschousi (see back of p. 8, 
" De Auctore Libri "). The translation was made 
by the above-named " Stephanus philosophise dis- 
cipulus in Anthiochia Anno dorninicse passionis 
MCXXVII." (see back of p. 318, under "Finis"). 
I doubt, however, whether it has ever been ex- 
amined by collectors of folk-lore and students of 
folk-medicine. The book, especially the second 
(practical) part, literally teems with quaint old 
cures as practised in early centuries by Arab 
doctors, in comparison with whom our modern 
" medicine-men " are mere quacks. As a specimen 
I will supply the description of the healing 
faculties of the human saliva as given by our 
" sapientissimus " author in his book, which " quia 
omnia medico necessaria continet, ideo artis 
medicine liber completus nuncupatur." On the 
back of p. 177 in the second column, near the end 
of capitulum 49 of "Liber secundus practicse Haly," 
I find: 

" De Sputo. Sputum hominis petigini prodest si cata- 
plasmetur eo. Maturat autem emissionea si misceatur 
cum tunso tritico maculasque ulcerum leves elimat ; 
adversaturque omni veneno animali si spuit super ilium 
homo in saliva." 

There is a copy of the book in the British Museum. 

L, L. K. 

DEATH OF A GIPSY QUEEN. So many of the 
readers of " N. & Q." are interested in all that 
concerns the Komani race in this country that it 
would be, I think, a pity were the following para- 
graphs, which appeared in Edinburgh papers of 
July 13 and 16, not put before them: 

"Yesterday forenoon there died, in a second story 
room of a dilapidated house at the foot of Horse- 
market, Kelso, Esther Faa Blythe, Queen of the Yetholm 
Gipsies. The Queen usually resided in a tiled house 
in Kirk Yetholm, but a year ago, when repairs on 
"the palace" were deemed necessary, she removed 
to Kelso, where she died. Esther, who may be termed 
the last Queen of the Gipsies, was born in Yetholm, and 
at her death was close upon eighty-six years of age. 
She was the eldest daughter of Charles Blythe, who 
succeeded as king, in 1847, ' Wull ' Faa, a noted 
smuggler and poacher. By birth the ' crown ' devolved 
upon David Blythe, Esther's eldest brother, but he 
waived his right in favour of his sisters. There then 
arose a dispute between Helen and Esther, the two 
sisters, as to the succession, the result being that Esther 
became queen, her coronation taking place on her birth- 
day, November 19. Long previous to this Esther had 
been married to John Rutherford, chief of one of the 
many gipsy tribes. John died upwards of thirty years 
ago, and Esther was left with twelve children, eight of 
whom five sons and three daughters survive. For 
many years the " Queen " has been well known on the 
Borders, her visitors frequently including members of 
the aristocracy. Only a few minutes before her death 
yesterday, a note of inquiry regarding her health, actom- 
panied by a sum of money, was received from a mar- 
chioness who for many years has taken an interest in the 
gipsies. Esther was a woman of great shrewdness. In 
her habits she was most exemplary, and her cottage at 
Kirk Yetholm was a model of neatness. She will be 
buried in Kelso Cemetery on Sunday next." 

" The funeral of Esther Faa Blythe, Queen of the 
Gipsies, took place yesterday, Sunday, July 15. The 
hour was fixed for 1 30 P.M., between the forenoon and 
afternoon church services. Devotional exercises were 
previously performed in the house of the deceased in 
Horsemarket, Kelso, by the Rev. G. S. Napier, in 
presence of a number of relatives and one or two friends. 
The coffin bore the inscription, " Esther Faa Blyth, 
Queen of the Gipsies, died July 12, 1883." It was 
covered with flowers and evergreens, including a wreath 
of white roses from Lady John Scott of Spottiswoode. 
When the procession moved off, the streets of the town 
on the way to Kelso Bridge were crowded by spectators, 
while a large number followed the hearse. There was 
a great crowd at Yetholm to follow the procession to the 
grave in the churchyard there." 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

somewhat puzzled by the following lines in 
D'Urfey's prologue (spoken by Joe Heyns or 
Haines) to Lacy's Qornedy of Sir 

. viii. AUG. 11, -as.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Buffoon. Alluding to " some sparks that late 
went out for glory," the poet continues : 
" No wonder, too, for who could stand their rage 

Since they with Coningnnark broadswords engage? 

I fancy you '11 turn butchers the next age. 

For these new weapons look, that guard your lives, 

Like bloody cousins german to their knives." 

Lacy's comedy (a posthumous work) was first 
produced in 1684, and the author had died in 
September, 1681. In February of the year last 
mentioned Charles John, Count Coningsmark, 
George Bowski, alias Boratzi, Christopher Katz, 
and John Stern were tried at the Old Bailey for 
the murder of Thomas Thynne, Esq. Conings- 
rnark was acquitted. The other three prisoners 
were convicted and duly hanged in Pall Mall. 
Turning to the report of the case in Hargrave's 
State Trials (vol. iii. p. 486), I find Thomas 
Hewgood (an appropriate name for a cutler) 
deposing that he had sold a sword to Count 
Coningsmark on the day before the murder ; and 
he describes the weapon as " a horseman's sword, 
as broad as two fingers, such as the Gentlemen of 
the Guards wear." Why should D'Urfey have 
spoken of the swords in use among the troopers 
of the king's Life Guards as " new weapons " ? 
Wiseman, surgeon-general to Charles II., speaks, 
in his Surgery, of one who, " fighting a duel, was 
run through the thigh with a broadsword." I 
was inclined at first to surmise that a " Conings- 
mark broadsword " might have been a cant term 
for a bayonet, which in 1681 was a very new- 
fangled weapon indeed ; but the evidence of the 
cutler as to the kind of sword supplied to Conings- 
mark is clear. G. A. SALA. 

P.S. The broadsword is not specifically men- 
tioned by Shakspeare, although he makes a multi- 
tude of allusions to cutting swords. An abun- 
dance of what are practically broadswords are 
figured by Strutt in the Sports and Pastimes, but 
" broadswords " as such are not cited in the index. 
Still, mention is frequently made in Strutt of the 
" backsword," and Shakspeare (2 Henry IV., III. 
ii.) speaks of " a good backsword man." Your 
readers will doubtless be able to quote many 
writers who, earlier than Wiseman, have men- 
tioned the " broadsword "; but that which I want 
to know is why D'Urfey should have called this 
very old-fashioned sword a " new weapon." 

this title first given to the princes of the Church of 
Rome ? I find that Fenelon and Bossuet are 
always styled " Monsieur." It is " Monsieur de 
Cambrai," " Monsieur de Meaux," never " Mon- 
seigneur." In Kenan's Souvenirs, p. 267, 1 read: 

" On s'est habitue, de notre temps, mettre mon- 
reigneur devant un nom propre, a dire Monseigneur 
Dupanloup, Monseigneur Affre. C'est une faute des 
Francais; le mot monseigneur ne doit e'employer qu'au 
vocatif ou devant un nom de dignite. En s'adreesant 

a M. Dupanloup, a M. Affre, on devaitdire : monseigntur, 
En parlant d'eux on deyait dire Monsieur Dupanloup, 
Monsieur Affre, Monsieur ou Monseigrneur 1'Arclieveque 
de Paris, Monsieur ou Monseigneur 1'ETeque d'Orleans." 

Like "Reverend" in England, I fancy "Mon- 
seigneur " grew up by mere custom, and not by 
legal right. 

Connected with this topic I remember that a 
worthy clergyman of the old school, now deceased, 
always bitterly resented the custom of inferiors 
addressing deans and archdeacons as " Mr. Dean" 
and " Mr. Archdeacon." He asserted that no one 
had a right to use such formula but the bishop of 
the diocese ; in any one else it was a piece of 
impertinence. " Monseigneur " was forbidden by 
the ordinances of the Convention, July 15, 1801, 
and even after the Concordat. When was it 
revived'? J. MASKELL. 

Emanuel Hospital. 

PARODY ON GRAY'S "ELEGY." Is the parody 
from which these two lines are taken commonly 
known ? 

" Full many a rogue is born to cheat unseen 
And die unhanged for want of proper care." 

It is not all equally good, but clever throughout in 
parodying metre, style, and words. 

R. H. BUSK. 

Tintern Abbey, in Monmouthshire, is said to be 
the parent of an abbey of the same 'name in the 
county of Wexford, in Ireland, the foundation of 
which, according to tradition, came about as fol- 
lows. William Mareschal, a relative of that Roger 
Bigod who was a great benefactor to the English 
abbey, was caught in a great storm, and, being in 
danger of losing his life, vowed that if he escaped 
in safety he would found a monastery and dedicate 
it to the Virgin Mary, both of which events came 
to pass. What is known of the abbey in Ireland 1 


BARLAAM AND PAL AM AS. We are told that 
the Council of Constantinople held in 1341 con- 
demned Barlaam, the opponent of Palamas, and 
that the Council of Constantinople held 1345 con- 
demned the doctrine of Palamas, subsequently 
made patriarch of the Eastern Church. What was 
the special doctrine of Palamas, and what was the 
offence of Barlaam ? It could hardly be his denial 
of the dogma of the monks of Mount Atlios that 
the light of Mount Tabor was the " light of God." 
If one of your correspondents will throw light on 
these two queries he will much oblige. 


is described in the monumental inscription as " of 
Gawthorpe, in the county of York, late inhabiting 
this [Chiswick] parish," and as dying in 1682, 
aged eighty. Four or five years back the entry of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. A, n, sa. 

his baptism, in the month of May, 1602, was 
obtained from a parish register belonging, it is 
thought, to either Norfolk or Suffolk, though, 
possibly, the evidence may have come from one of 
the counties contiguous to them. Can any of the 
clergymen who read " N. & Q." assist me with a 
clue to the whereabouts of the entry ? It is stated 
that it is in a register which is indexed a circum- 
stance, I fancy, of uncommon occurrence, and 
which, if true, ought to lead to its ready discovery. 

KEFERENCE WANTED. About three years ago 
" N. & Q." gave some account of a literary man 
who was in the habit of tearing out the leaves of 
books as he read them. I have lost my note of 
this, and the indexes do not help me. I shall be 
thankful for the reference. CALCUTTENSIS. 

FRANKINCENSE. The churchwardens' accounts 
for St. Mary, Ulverston, contain the following : 
"1768, Aug. 20. To Doctor Moss for 4 oz. of 
Frank-incense burnt in the Church, Is. ; for char- 
coal, 2d." Will one of your readers explain this 
to me ? C. W. BARDSLEY. 

Vicarage, Ulveraton. 

HERCULES HALL, LAMBETH. This hall stood 
in Hercules Buildings, and was surrounded by 
some farm land, a row of shops being built in the 
Kennington Road to screen the hall from observa- 
tion. I should be glad of any particulars about 
the building, now pulled down. Does a view of it 
exist? J. F. B. 

MILES CORBETT. I should feel very grateful to 
any one who would give any information concern- 
ing Miles Corbett, the regicide, and state how he 
was connected with the family of Corbet of More- 
ton Corbet, Salop. EDWIN CORBETT. 

COUNT OF NASSAU. I am very much obliged 
for your answer (ante, p. 40) to my question about 
the Count of Nassau ; but the one you mention is 
not the one I mean, for I find he married Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir Charles Wheler, Bart. Her pic- 
ture by Kneller is still in the family, and Mr. 
Vernon Wentworth has a picture of John, Count 
of Nassau, by the same artist ; so I conclude he is 
the one about whom I want information, and shall 
be greatly obliged if you can assist me. 

L. E. W. 

DARLING FAMILY. I shall be exceedingly 
obliged for any reference to a mention of the 
Darling family, especially between the years 
1600 and 1750. We possess a copy of the mar- 
riage licence of a Richard Darling, Gent., of 
Dublin, dated Jan. 20, 1678. He had three sons 
the Rev. Ralph Darling, B.A., of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, 1701; Adam Loftus Darling; and 
Richard from whom we are descended. Others, 

concerning whom I should also be glad to get 
information, are Edward Darling, of London, and 
Daniel, sons of a Thomas Darling, of Coventry, 
mentioned in the Heralds' Visitation of London in 
1635. Edward married Susan, daughter of 
William Moulton, co. Gloucester, Gent.; but we 
know nothing of his or his brother's family. We 
have also discovered a Thomas Darling, of Essex, 
Gent., with two brothers, Edward (whose eldest 
son was named Henry) and Richard (whose eldest 
son was named John). Further information as 
to the families of the said Edward and Richard 
will be acceptable. Irish annals mention an 
Edward Darling, Gent., in about 1700 (in 
Richard's time), and both Edward and Richard 
held property in co. Fermanagh, the latter also 
in neighbouring counties. Arms, Argent, a chev- 
ron ermes, between three flagons, with handles 

Hillsborougli, Monkstown, co. Dublin. 


(3 rd S. xi. 455 ; 6 th S. vii. 487). 
There are two distinct localities which have 
gone by this name ; firstly, a rising ground 
south of Hyde Park Corner ; and secondly, the 
road from the west end of St. James's Park to 
Hyde Park Corner. It is fair to assume that 
Constitution Hill, as applied to the rising ground, 
and quite irrespective of any roadway, is the 
older of these two. In 1642, when the citizens of 
London surrounded London and Westminster 
with a circle of forts, one was erected on this 
site ; and is described in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for 1749, xix. 251, as " a small redoubt and 
battery on Constitution Hill." This fort was 
destroyed three years subsequently ; but the 
hill remained as an elevated place, from which 
the surrounding country could be well seen, and 
in Ralph's Critical Review of the Publick Build- 
ings, &c., 1734, when describing the Duke of 
Buckingham's new house, amongst the advantages 
mentioned are the vista along the Mall, the pro- 
spect of Chelsea fields, and " the air of Constitu- 
tion Hill." There is a very interesting view of 
the fireworks in the Green Park in 1748 in the 
Universal Magazine, iv. 138, which shows dis- 
tinctly the passage or roadway from the Mall up 
to Hyde Park Corner, and the rising ground at 
the end of it described as " Constitution Hill." 
Perhaps the City records may throw some light 
upon this question It is not stated in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1749 whence the map 
of the forts in 1642 was taken, and some informa- 
tion respecting the making of the fort is very 
desirable. If it was then called "Constitution 
Hill," we have, perhaps, to seek for a yet earlier use 

0*8. viii. AUG. 11, -as.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of the name. It must have been at a later period, 
and after the hill had ceased to be a feature in 
the district, that the roadway acquired the name. 
I remember some fifty years ago hearing Sir Henry 
Halford, speaking of the importance of regular 
daily exercise, say, that some one used every day 
to walk from St. James's Park up to Hyde Park 
Corner and back again, no matter what the weather 
was; adding, "he used to call it his constitu- 
tional walk, and his taking it certainly prolonged 
his life." The roadway has undoubtedly been 
called Constitution Hill 150 years, for it is so 
designated in Pine's map, 1746 ; but the half 
medical expression of " constitutional " is, I think, 
only of the present century, and probably not 
derived from either the hill or the roadway. 


I cannot for a moment think that the hill is so 
called for the reason introduced by Noorthouck, 
whose remark your correspondent quotes. What the 
origin of the name may be I know not, but it 
existed in the seventeenth century, and probably 
earlier. Mr. Walford, in his Old and New London, 
vol. iv. p. 178, writes : " We read that when, in 
1642, it was resolved by the Parliament to fortify 
the suburbs of the metropolis, 'a small redoubt 
and battery on Constitution Hill' were among 
the defences ordered to be erected." And again : 

" Dr. King, in his Anecdotes of his Own Time, tells an 
amusing story about the ' witty monarch ' and his satur- 
nine brother James, which we may as well tell in this 
place : ' King Charles II., after taking two or three 
turns one morning in the Park (as was his usual custom), 
attended only by the Duke of Leeds and my Lord 
Cromarty, walked up Constitution Hill, and from thence 
into Hyde Park." 

May not the hill have been called so after the 
English Constitution, just as we have Parliament 

Constitution Hill was so named in the seven- 
teenth century, as we read in Old and New London 
(vol. iv. p. 178) "that when, in 1642, it was re- 
solved by the Parliament to fortify the suburbs of 
the metropolis, ' a small redoubt and battery on 
Constitution Hill' were among the defences 
ordered to be erected." To take a constitutional, 
or exercise for health's sake, was a common ex- 
pression at Oxford in 1823. WILLIAM PL ATT. 

Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

[Constitution Hill is marked on a map published in 

vii. 469). The heiress of the Lytes of Lytes Gary 
married Dr. Blackwell, Hector of St. Clement 
Danes, London, whose only daughter married 
James Monypenny, of Kent. A short time ago a 
descendant of James Monypenny placed in my 
hands a very curious set of verses inscribed on 
vellum, enriched with coats of arms, setting forth 

the antiquity of the family of Lyte of Lytes Gary, 
and ending "Viuat Eegina Elizabeth" which 
I enclose. 

A discription of the Swannes of Carie 
that came first vnder mightie Brutes protection 

from Caria in Asia 

to Carie in Britaine. 

The noble nature of the Swanne, is moche extolde by 

And Poetes penn in verse diuine, hathe well exprest the 


Philosophers, Astronomers, and eke the learned traine, 
Of greate Apollo, for this byrde, haue taken vort hie paine. 
The Swanne to whome, the greatest praiese dothe any 

waie resounde 

In Riuer faire Maeander calde, of Caria land : is founds. 
Of whiche browde sprang, those singing Swannes, nere 

to Mseonia landes 

By Tmolus, and Pactolus streames that runn on golden 

This birde is valient of greate force, and truths thereof 

so spreade, 
That withe the Eagle fighting long, both haue downo 

fallen dead. 

In signe of honor by his kind, he couettz moche to be, 
About faire Castells, fortes, & Townes & thence will 

seldome flee 
But as a watchman doth attend, against the enemies 

So to disclose theim, he is prest, when blackest be the 

On surging seas when mariners : are tost withe stormie 

If they maie se Apollos byrd, good lucke they trust to 


And after many passed daies that ho in floodes hath spent, 
It shuld appeare he knowes howe long, the rest to hym 

are lent. 

For he this Caria siluer Swann, not long before his end, 
Will vse suche sugred harmonic as fewe can it amend 
Whereby the wise Pythagoras, opinion plaine did take 
That sprites of Swannes immortull lyue in the Elisian 

A matter strange, that by his song, he shuld his death 

Such foresight seldome dothe appeare, to man of any age. 

Descripcion of these sacred birdes, is sett forthe. cause 

to proue, 
Why theim to geue in stately armes, it might some 

nobles moue. 
Like as it did that worthie wight : Don Leitus by his 

Who to the aide of Troian warres against the Grecians 


This Leitus was of Caria aoyle, a valient knight in fielda 
And so by sea: and for his armed, did beare the Swann 

in shielde. 
Which did induce the Poetes Muse, a surname hym to 

Of Cygnus : Leitus Cygnus cald, as Latinos do contnue. 

The Greekes ioyne Care to the birde, and Care Cignos, 


And Troie Cygnus, for the warre, he well be termed may. 
Mseander riuer dulie giues the swimming Swann his 

foode, . , 

And by Achill the Swann in fielde, was s-gnd with 

Menet'B blood. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6"> s. vm. A, n, 

Thus Leitus, Cari, Cignus, set with reasons good pretence, 
Do plainlie sound Litescarie Swann, in perfect english 

Of which pretence in english frame : the end will shewe 

From whence it came, and to what course, Lyte, dothe 

it all direct. 

When Greece had ended tenn yeares warres, and Troye 

had lost her force, 
Which Sinons treason brought to pasae by sleight of 

hollowe horse. 
Than Grecians, to theire natiue soyles, repaired as thei 

And Troians that aliuo were left : and aiders of theire 


Dispersed were in sundrie coastes, as writers do declare : 
And for some future happie state, most redie was theire 

The foresaid Leitua, had at Troie, right manie of his 

Which Chieftaines, and good souldiors were, and so 

receiued place. 

Of which : som'e parte returned home, some went to 

Latium lande, 
And parte to Grecia captiues led, withe Agameranons 

But after these, nere fourtie yeares (it strangely came to 


From Italie Duke Brutus stowt, by dome exiled was. 
To Grece he sped, withe race of some that came from 

Troy towne, 
Where he suche Annie did procure, aa gott hym highe 

So furnisht : thence with nauie greate, he into Albion 

Which by hym selfe was Britane calde, that yet retains 

the same. 

And in that Armie withe him were of Leitus name some 

Which sure by choyce of Brute did come, from Caria 

said before. 

Or from the line of Leit, that were in Italie disperst 
Which withe Aeneas thither saild, as is aboue reherst. 
The Caria men good Archers were most fierce against 

theire foo, 

And in the fronte of Brutus warres, assigned still to goo. 
From theim the vse of long bowes here, beginning lirst 

did take, 
A speciall weapon that in field could make the enemye 

As many battailes, witnes beare, in Scotland, and in 

The force was suche, as gaue no place, to halberd, 

sworde, nor launce. 

At Totnes, Brutus landed first, and thence to Brutport 

From thence vnto a pleasant place, that Bruton hathe 

to name. 
Which for the worthines of soyle : and for his better 

staie : 

He called by his proper name : as it remaines this daie. 
And nere about bym did he place, some Captaines of his 

As dothe appeare by names thei gaue, to Sheires, to 

townes, and lands. 
Next hym, was one of Leitus blood, that had a charge 

Of Caria men : most apte to serue, as Brutus will inclynde. 

Where : by resemblance of his name, and Countreio 

whence he came, 

Vnto his dwelling place he did : a title aptly frame, 
And termed it. Leitscarie howse, whose coate of armes 

doth weare, 
Three syluer swannea, as from the shield, which Leit at 

Troy did beare, 
In fielde of Quells resembling blod, and myxt wit'a 

flamyng fyre, 

A figure of suche wonted force, as conquests do require. 
Whose creast adioynd therto agrees : the Swann on Lituus 

Resounding howe, from Leitus lyne, Lyte dothe possesse 

the lands. 

From Asia came, of diuers soyles, good soldiors many moo 
With Captaines of greate worthines, as stories playnly 


As those of Ltscia, Caria, and Samoseta land, 
Of Glazomena, Doris eke, with some of Caunus band 
Milsetura, Hi on, Tenenos. whose names are left behind, 
By suche as Brute, for seruice best, had nerest hym 

The briefe comparisons whereof, some lynes do after 

Whiche vnder due correction maie be applied well. 

Countries and Citties in Asia minor, and Phrigia, com- 
pared with Countries 
and Townes in Englande to proue that the newe Tro'ana 


valiaunt Brittanes sprang from the noble Greekes 
and Latynes the remnant of the Troians that 
came first vnder mightie Brutes pro- 
tection from Caria in Asia 
minor and other parts of 
Greece to Caria by Brutes- 
towne and other parts 

of Brittaine. 

Asia. Brillaine. 

Caria ~] f Carie, by Bruton, or Brutestowne. 

T) .,._ Dorisshiere, &, Dorischester,& Brute 

porte there. 

Samosata Somersett. 

Milaetum Milton. 

Glazomena > < Glazonburie. 
Caunus Caunus, in Willshiere. 

Licia Caria Lytescarie & Lescar in Cornwall. 

Ilion Ilion Chester. 

Tenedos & Tenett. & 

_Troy. J l^Troia noua, now called London. 

Viuat Regina Elizabeth. 

The first three stanzas refer to the three black 
swans in the coat of arms emblazoned at the top 
of the document, with the motto " Fuimus troes " 
presumably the arms of the Gary family. 

Numerous notes and references which occur in 
the margins are omitted. W. D. PARISH. 


COWPER'S PEW IN OLNEY CHURCH (6 th S.viii. 73). 
Perhaps I may be permitted at once to express 
my regret that I should have given pain to a lady, 
or, indeed, to any one, by stating bluntly and un- 
necessarily my own very decided feeling about the 
Rev. John Newton's influence on Cowper. It is 
better to drop the subject ; but before doing so I 
would remind HERMENTRUDE and T. W. W. S. 

8*s. vin. AM. ii, 



that Cowper's insanity, i. e., his morbid Calvinism, 
was not cured, but, on the contrary, increased 
towards the end ; although, as Hayley puts it, 
" the deplorable inquietude and darkness of his 
latter years were mercifully terminated by a most 
gentle and tranquil dissolution." I cannot at this 
moment verify (though I have looked into Hayley 
and into Grimshawe) my recollection of the fact 
that Cowper, gentlest and tenderest of Christian 
souls, exclaimed at the last that he was " Lost, 
lost, lost ! " but, as is well known, the final stanza 
of his last poem expresses only blank and utter 
despair. A. J. M. 

LADY GRACE EDHAM (6 th S. viii. 68). The 
Echo's printer has turned Lady Grace Pelham 
into Lady Grace "Edham." She was Grace, 
sister to Thomas Holies Pelham, Duke of New- 
castle ; married, 1705, George Naylor, Esq., of 
Hurstmcnceaux, and died 1711, leaving an only 
daughter Grace, born 1706, died 1727, said, 
as SIGMA remarks, to have been starved by 
her governess, " the fact probably being," thus 
says Mr. Augustus Hare, " that, in order to give 
her one of the slim waists which were a lady's 
greatest ambition in those days, she was so re- 
duced by her governess that her constitution, 
always delicate, was unable to rally " (Memorials 
of a Quiet Life, i. 74). 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

At the period to which the writer in the Echo 
refers, Hurstmonceaux belonged to the family of 
Naylor. Mr. George Naylor, of Lincoln's Inn, 
purchased the old seat of the Barons Dacre of the 
South in 1708. He married Grace, daughter of 
Thomas, first Baron Pelham, and sister of Thomas, 
first Duke of Newcastle. His wife died in 1710, 
leaving one daughter Grace, who died in 1727 
unmarried. Miss Grace Naylor must, therefore, 
have been the heroine of this tragic story. None 
of the authorities, however, which I have ever 
seen make any mention of it. G. F. R. B. 

GIANTS AND DWARFS (6 th S. viii. 48). Hake- 
will, in his Apology, gives an account (bk. iii. 
p. 208) of a good many giants and of the authors 
who give account of them. 

Buffon, ii. 552 (ed. 1839) gives a list of several 
giants and dwarfs, and cites a paper of M. Le Cat 
from the memoirs of the Academy of Rouen. 

Cassanione, 1580, wrote De Gigantibus eorum 
que Eeliquiis, &c., written against Becanus. 

In the Journal de Physique, xiii. 167, Changeux 
wrote a paper on dwarfs and giants. 

The Hon. John Byron's Voyage describes the 
Patagonian giants, 1773. 

Sir Thomas Molyneux, 1699, gives an account of 

Then there are the fabulous giants, such as 

Briareus, Ephialtes, Orcus, Gration, to be read of 
in Apollodorus and the Metamorphoses of Ovid. 

There is a book by Fairholfc on Gog and Magog. 

Then there are the Scripture giants. Philo- 
Judseus has devoted a whole chapter to giants, 
commenting on Gen. vi. 1. 

Plutarch, Caesar, Pliny, and Tacitus all say 
something about giants. 

St. Augustin at the port of Utica saw a tooth of 
a giant twenty times as large as that of a man, and 
Moreri says that at the church of his order at 
Verceil Torniel reports a tooth of St. Christopher 
of the same size. 

Calmat, in his Diet. Bible, cites proofs of giants 
in all ages. He makes Goliath 10ft. 7in., but Park- 
hurst, computing by Josephus's cubit, makes him 
only 9ft. 6in., or 14in. taller than Charles Byrne, 
whose skeleton is in the museum of the College of 

Bangius has written on giants. 

It is said that the Celtic race produces more 
giants than any other. Adam Clarke, who was 
born at Magherafelt, near Londonderry, says on 
1 Sam. xvii. : " Men of uncommon size are known 
in this our own day. I knew two brothers named 
Knight in my own township who were 7ft. 6in. in 
height, and another of the same place, Chas. Burns, 
8ft. 6in." The latter individual is no doubt the 
same man whose skeleton is in the College of 
Surgeons, though Adam Clarke makes him 2in. 
taller. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

HOMEROS should see E. Wood's work so entitled, 
published by Bentley in 1868. 

Bicknor Court, Glouc. 

Cesare Taruffi, " Delia Microsomia " in Eivista 
Clinica (Bologna, Fava & Garagnani, 1878). 

Cesare Taruffi, " Delia Macrosomia " in Annali 

Universali di Medicina (Milano, 1879, vol. ccxlvii.). 



PARSONS, THE COMIC Roscius (6 th S. vii. 507). 
William Parsons, the actor, died at his house 
in Mead's Row, Lambeth, on February 3, 1795. 
There is a brief memoir of him in the European 
Magazine for that year, xxvii. 147-9, with a por- 
trait by Harding ; also some account of his thea- 
trical life in the Thespian Dictionary, with a pretty 
little head engraved by Ridley. In Evans's cata- 
logue of engraved portraits several other prints 
are mentioned ; three after Hayter, Zoffany, and 
De Wilde; and six in some of his favourite 
characters. EDWARD SOLLY. 

PORTRAIT OF PRINCE EUGENE (6 th S. vii. 488). 
A fine portrait of Prince Eugene, by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, was exhibited at South Kensington in the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. vm. A, n, -as. 

second collection of National Portraits in 1867, by 
the Duke of Marlborough. It is an oval, on 
canvas, 30 in. by 25 in., and represents the prince in 
a suit of rich armour, wearing the order of the 
Golden Fleece. It is engraved, and I think is to 
be found in many of the lives of the prince, such, 
for example, as the folio Military History published 
by Paul Chamberlen in 1736. 


A NAPOLEON PROPHECY (6 th S. vii. 404 ; viii. 
51). A book ought to be written about prophecies; 
but to be worth anything it must be written by 
one who has no faith in the infidelity of " the 
science of coincidences," no belief in " statisticali- 
ties " and the infirmity of Buckle-ism. The author 
must rather take the spirit of what Miss BUSK 
puts forth most justly, " What is any science but 
the observation of coincidences ; and what do we 
know of 'cause and effect '?" If "cause and 
effect " are but " frequently occurring coincidences," 
obviously there can be no such thing as science, in 
the sense of solidly knoiving anything, but only a 
sort of more or less probability. It is all summed 
in a chance saying of Philo-Judeeus : " It is neces- 
sary that the air also should be full of living 
beings [mind, I don't see that it is]. And these 
beings are invisible to us, inasmuch as the air 
itself is not visible to mortal sight. But it does 
not follow, because our sight is incapable of per- 
ceiving the forms of souls, that for that reason there 
are no souls in the air." The basis of all good 
deduction is, in all human philosophy, that 
" There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio," 
poor mole ! than ever meet your talpish eye. 

Not to waste more time, let us take two qua- 
trains from Nostradamus, viii. 57 : 

" De souldat simple parviendra en empire, 
De robe courte parviendra a la longue, 
Vaillant aux armes, en eglise ou plus pyre, 
Vexer les prestres comrne 1'eau fait l'e"ponge." 

This was interpreted of Napoleon so far back as 
1806. De Garencieres, of the College of Physi- 
cians in London, in his translation, 1672, inter- 
preted this of Cromwell, but then he did not 
realize nominally the empire. To treat the priests 
as water does the sponge is to purify it. 

The Abbe* H. Torne"-Chavigny, in 1858, applied 
this quatrain to Napoleon III. and his son : 

Par le decide de deux choses bastars, 

Nepveu du sang occupera le regne ; 

Dedans Lectoyre seront les coups de (lards, 

Nepveu par peur pliera 1'enseigne." 
The Orleanists and Republic having fallen as two 
bastard establishments, Napoleon III. occupied the 
throne, but furled the standard at Lectoyre, which 
they say is an anagram for Le Torcy, a faubourg 
of Sedan. He also applied, " Prise du grand 

neveu neveu et son fils seront chassis 

neveu a Londres," but this I do not find in my 
copy of Nostradamus. There is one that I have 

never seen applied to the first Napoleon that I 

think fits him : 

" Un empereur naistra pres d'ltalie, 
Qui a PEmpiro sera vendu bien cher ; 
Dirons avec quels gens il se ralie, 
Qu'on trouvera moins Prince que Boucher." 

" You would say from the people with whom he 

surrounds himself, he was more butcher than 
prince." C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

One of the most singular of the Napoleon pro- 
phecies may perhaps be recalled a propos of Miss 
BUSK'S letter, though it has reference to the 
nephew, and not to the uncle. The figures com- 
posing one of the votes either for the president- 
ship or the re-establishment of the empire when 
held up in reverse to the light spelt the word 
empereur. I have not the particulars, unfortu- 
nately, by me now, but I find by reversing the 
word Empereur that the following figures occur, 
"7437391113," but these do not seem 'to be a 
correct combination of the votes in question. 
While on this subject, reference may be made to 
" N. & Q." 3 rd S. xi. 195 ; 4 th S. xii. 183. 

R. B. 

Upton, Slough, Bucks. 

243, 294, 386). Surely K. H. B.'s assertion that 
" Ghosts are an unknown quantity, almost, in 
Roman Catholic countries, while they favour every 
old house in Protestant lands," is somewhat rash. 
Certainly in Brittany, that eminently Roman 
Catholic province, in Normandy, in Picardy, and, 
I believe, throughout France, the belief in ghosts 
is universal. The reappearance of disembodied 
spirits is intimately connected with the doctrine 
of Purgatory. The spirits of the dead come back 
to earth to atone for some evil done in their life- 
time, to see to the accomplishment of vows or pro- 
mises which their sudden death had prevented 
them from performing, to bring their murderers 
to justice, to ask for Christian sepulture for their 
unburied bodies, and to beg that masses may be 
said for the repose of their souls. Numberless 
stories of this kind, all bearing a strong family 
likeness, are to be found in the writings of French 
folk-lorists. Ghosts should not be confounded with 
the household spirits, of which the Scotch brownie 
and the Spanish duende are types. 



LYMINOTON (6 th S. vii. 427; viii. 76). At the 
last reference it is stated that I mark limit as 
being of doubtful etymology ! Of course I never 
said anything of the sort. Any one who consults 
my dictionary will find that I mark it as French 
from Latin, viz. F. limite, from Lat. ace. limitem. 
After which I say of the Latin word limes, " etyrn. 
doubtful ; see Curtius, i. 456; but prob. allied to 

a* s., -as.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Lat. limus, transverse." I cannot be answerable 
for the wonderful mistakes which can be thus 
thrust upon me. As to Lymington, it is the town 
of Lymings, a tribe also commemorated by the 
village of Lyminge, in Kent. In some A.-S. 
charters Lyminge is called Limming, so that the 
first vowel is short. Hence the Lymings took 
their name from Liinm; but what was the sense of 
Limrn I will not undertake to say. To my mind 
the modern attempts at guessing at the sense of 
names, the meanings of which are, in most cases, 
lost past all recovery, are childish and unprofitable 
in the extreme. I know of no book on place-names 
which bears any evidence that its author knows 
anything of phonology. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

TIDD AND TODD (6 th S. viii. 44). Tidd is a 
local surname, Tydd St. Giles, in Cambridge- 
shire, and Tydd St. Mary, Lincolnshire. Todd 
is not an uncommon name in the north of England. 
Todhunter is not so common. Both are derived 
from tod, a fox, the arms of Todd being three foxes' 
heads couped. J. S. 

CURE BY TOUCH (6 th S. vii. 448). In the Bath 
Field Club Proceedings, just published, there is a 
paper on this subject, with especial reference to 
cases in Somerset. It is therein noted that the 
last official day for touching was April 27, 1714. 


ARUNDEL, ARUN (6 th S. viii. 67). Ferguson, 
in his River Names of Europe, derives A run from 
Sanscrit ar, ir, or ur ; Latin ire, errare ; Basque 
ur, water ; errio, river ; Hung, e r, a brook. He 
adds that a sense of swiftness (Sans. a7 - a=spoke 
of a wheel) may perhaps intermix ; and also the 
Gaelic root ar, slow, from which probably comes 
the ardr or Saone, a river noted for its slowness. 
As other instances he gives the two Arrows (Radn. 
and Wore.) and the Ore, which joins the Aide. 
The Aryan root ar seems a very complicated one ; 
Prof. Skeat gives four roots ar, Nos. 16-19. It 
is desirable to read the above extract from Fer- 
guson in conjunction with what Prof. Skeat says. 
See also Words and Places, p. 144. 


Milton Vicarage, Evercreecb, Bath. 

BUNGAT (6 th S. vii. 408; viii. 74). Both the 
guesses given at the last reference are not merely 
absurd, but phonetically impossible. Guesses 
should be made on some better principles. For 
example, if Bungay be assumed to be French, it 
may answer to bon gue, good ford. We have, 
however, yet to learn (1) whether it is French ; 
and (2) whether "good ford" is suitable to the 
place. Goodford is still extant as a personal name. 


" THE LUXURY OF WOE " (6 th S. vii. 387: viii. 

" There is a solemn luxury in grief " 
occurs in book iv. of Mason's English Garden, 
I. 596. James Montgomery also has a poem headed 
" The Joy of Grief : Ossian." CLK. 

THE POET MASON (6 th S. vii. 388). In a note 
at p. 218 of The Diary of Abraham de la Pryme 
(vol. liv. of the publications of the Surtees Society) 
there is a pedigree of the Mason family carried 
back to the great-great-grandfather of the poet. 


HARVEST CUSTOM (6 th S. iv. 218; v. 56). At 
the former reference I described the Cheshire 
harvest custom called " shutting," but I was then 
unable to remember the correct words of the 
" nominy," or oration, given out by the spokesman. 
By the help of an old inhabitant of the neighbour- 
hood of Wilmslow I have been enabled to recover 
the lost words. The first nominy was as follows: 

" Oh, yes ! Oh, yes ! Oh, yes ! This is to give notice 


Mester 'Olland 'as gen th' seek a turn, 
And sent th' owd hare into Mester Sincop's standin' 


Seek is the Cheshire pronunciation of sack, and 
" to give the sack a turn " is the Cheshire equiva- 
lent of the expression to " turn the tables." The 
word shutting, I take it, refers either to getting 
shut, or quit, of the harvest, or more probably to 
getting shut of the old hare, which, being deprived 
of all cover in my field, takes refuge in the nearest 
standing corn belonging to my neighbour. I may 
also mention that Sincop (whose name I have in- 
troduced because he actually was my next neigh- 
bour) is the Cheshire pronunciation of the ex- 
tremely common patronymic Simcock. Other 
nominies frequently followed, but they related to 
local circumstances, such as the master and his 
family, the amount of drink that had been given, 
&c., and they varied according to the taste and 
oratorical powers of the spokesman. The first 
nominy, however, was a recognized form. 

Frodsham, Cheshire. 

BASQUE, &c. (6 th S. vii. 226, 516). At the 
latter reference exception is taken, without stating 
reasons, to considering certain words as connected 
with each other, and which I still so regard. By 
" familiar examples " of interchange I did not 
mean generally known, but of common occurrence 
and to be met with in familiar words. I was well 
aware that they were not generally known, which 
was, indeed, my reason for pointing them out. If 
still simpler instances should be required, I would 
mention we, us, nos, ^futs ; you, o-^wiy ; with, 
G. mit. Here we are, or are not, dealing with 
words which are the same. If we are, there is 



vra. AW. 11, 

nothing to prevent our supposing the same of the 
instances referred to. Not only do I regard these 
now given as valid, but the explanation appears to 
me to be obviously simple. In each case the 
initial letter is originally w. Now this, according 
to circumstance, may interchange with any of the 
labials, and through m with n. It may also be 
vocalized, and again reinforced by s, st, &c., with or 
without the other modifications. Of. Sombre, 
Severn, Stour, Quiver with Eure ; the prefix Os-, 
seen in proper names with Deus, Zeus, Djaus ; 
i}/iepa, 7rap0vos, opvis with dies, mcegden, bird, 
and so on. Such are the changes, with their 
explanation, upon which my conclusions were 
founded, and till the contrary is proved I shall 
regard them as perfectly valid. To suppose that 
linguistic roots are not very many, but compara- 
tively few, is strictly in keeping with the teach- 
ings of geology and botany. I would add that it 
is a good rule to assume that the same ideas are 
generally expressed by the same words in the 
classical and the other languages, and that the 
contrary is the exception. Take the group 
better, a/>teivwv, mehor. We know that n and I 
may stand for d, aud tha initial changes have been 
already explained. Tne other "familiar examples" 
may be similarly treated. Again, if wet and nass 
are not the same, where are their analogues ? So 
we might ask of vcu'w and vivo, mens and voos, 
perd and nach, and scores of other equally self- 
evident examples, that is, when the phonological 
changes are understood. J. PARRY. 

The name Berlin is of Slavonic and Basle of 
Greek origin. The only etymological part of the 
name Silures is the third letter, whilst Osct has 
been corrupted down from Opici. Dr. Webster 
says the Basque or Cantabrian, the Gaelic, and 
the Hiberno-Celtic are the purest remains of the 
ancient Celtic. According to Borrow, " the Basque 
abounds with Sanskrit words to such a degree that 
its surface seems strewn with them." He adds : 
" A considerable proportion of Tartar words is 
likewise to be found in this language, though 
perhaps not in equal number to the terms derived 
from the Sanskrit." Having compared Larra- 
mendi's Basque Lexicon with the Celtic anc 
Tartar languages, I have not been able to find any 
Basque words derived from those languages, whilst 
the Sanskrit words found in Basque have, without 
doubt, come in through the Greek and Latin 
The Basque is no doubt an original language 
It has, however, borrowed some words from the 
Hebrew or Phosnician, and some from the modern 
European languages, but one half at least of its 
vocabulary has been derived from Latin am 
Greek. It is not indebted to the Celtic at all 
Humboldt endeavoured to show the migrations o 
the Basque people through Greece, Italy, and th 
islands of the Mediterranean by means of tb 

geographical names. He would have done well 
iad he first looked out the earliest orthography 
of such names. It is, for instance, very easy to 
compare Latin names commencing with ir, or, vr 
with Basque uri (a word, by-the-by, probably 
derived from *V^, *))7)> but Orvieto was origin- 
ally Urbs Vetus. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

viii. 61). The use of Calder as a river name in 
England cannot be separated from the identical 
usage in Scotland, where it is common. In N. 
Britain it varies to Gadder and Cawdor : we have 
N. and S. Calder Waters in Lanarkshire ; E. and 
Mid Calder, Edinburghshire ; there is a Calder in 
Nairn and Inverness, also in Caithness. The Gael 
of Scotland derive the word, as a compound, from 
coil and dwr ; this is nothing new. A. H. 

Ferguson, in his River Names of Europe, de- 
rives Calder, which he says is the name of three 
rivers in England, from Sanskrit cat, to move. 
This root is No. 52 in Skeat's list of Aryan 
roots : Skt. char, chal, to move ; leal, to impel ; 
Gk. /3ov-KoA,-o?, a cattle-driver ; KeA-rjs, a racer ; 
Lat. cur-rere, to run ; cel-er, swift. Ferguson 
remarks that the English word cold may intermix 
with the above root in river names ; he gives as 
from the same root the Gelt (Cumb.), the Caldew 
(Cumb.), and is doubtful about the Chelt (Glos.). 
From the char form of the same root he derives the 
ancient Garrhuenus, now the Yare. 


Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath, 

" SMYTHIE COINE" (6 th S. viii. 16). "In Kincar- 
dineshire the ashes of a blacksmith's furnace had 
the peculiar name of smiddy-coom* (Fr. ecume, 
i.e., dross)." Dean Ramsay's Reminiscences of 
Scotch Life and Character, p. 259, ed. 1862. 


TRIFORIUM (6 th S. vii. 507). Does not the 
characteristic feature of the triforium, viz., its 
repeated sets of three openings on the nave, 
afford very strong evidence in favour of tres 
fores? The through-fare hypothesis is certainly 
not strengthened by the fact that triforium 
exists in French, side by side, too, with trifoire, 
the name of a certain mollusc, the peculiarity of 
which is that it has three openings. 


St. Mary's College, Peckham. 

FIASCO (6 th S. vii. 289 ; viii. 17). In 1547 
John Lewis Fiesco, Count of Lavagna, entered 
into a conspiracy, the object of which was the 
assassination of Andrew Doria and his family, who 
then held the reins of power in Genoa. When 
everything was prepared for the attempt, but 

* The italics are mine., 83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


before a blow was struck, Count Fiesco, while 
crossing on a plank to a galley in the harbour, 
missed his footing, fell into the sea, and was 
drowned. His confederates failed in their attempt 
on Andrew Doria, his brother Jerome was de- 
serted, and the whole family paid the penalty of 
the ambition of their head by ruin and proscrip- 
tion. Is it not possible that fiasco may owe its 
origin to the unfortunate count, and be one of the 
class of words derived from proper names of which 
burke, godfrey, and boycott are English instances ? 
At any rate, it cannot be charged against this 
derivation that it is made up " after the event," 
unless instances can be given of the use of the 
word before 1547. WALTER HAINES. 

Faringdon, Berks. 

Among the many replies to the original query, 
there is none which attempts to explain how the 
word has come to have the meaning of a failure. 
I remember to have seen somewhere this explana- 
tion of it. Beginners in the art of glass-blowing, 
if they do not succeed at the first essay in mould- 
ing the lump of molten glass into a drinking or 
other vessel, blow it into a flask a feat which 
may be accomplished by the merest bungler in the 
art. Far fiasco, to make a flask, became thus 
equivalent to failure. It appears from one of the 
replies that the expression is borrowed from the 
Venetian dialect, and we all know that Venice 
was renowned for its manufacture of glass. It may 
be an adaptation of the Latin saying quoted in 

another of the replies, " Amphora coepit urceus 



HOPS GROWN IN ESSEX (6 th S. vL 389 ; vii. 76, 
118). Whilst perusing Wilson's Histwy of Up- 
minster (1881) the other day I came across the 
following passage : " The small piece of ground 
west of Oak Place is still known as the ' Hop 
Ground.' Here Sir James Esdaile grew hops a 
century ago." K. C. STONEHAM. 

MAYPOLES (6 th S. vii. 347; viii. 55). To the list 
of places that possess maypoles should, I think, be 
added the Gloucestershire village of Staunton, 
situated half-way between Coleford and Mon- 
mouth. I remember seeing one there when I 
passed through the place a few years ago. 

C. W. S. 

Maypoles still stand in the three villages of 
Otley, Burnsall, and Coniston, in Wharfedale. The 
two former have been re-erected within recent 
years, their predecessors having been destroyed by 
tempestuous weather. CHARLES A. FEDERER. 


(6 th S. vii. 367). The frontispiece of Austin's 
jpeuotionis Augustiniance Flamma; or, Certayn 

Deuout, Godly, & Learned Meditations, Lond., 
1635, is engraved by George Glover in twelve 
compartments, with the title in the middle, and 
contains in the lower centre a small portrait of 
the author, which in the case of X.'s copy has 
evidently been cut out. The inscription which 
accompanies the portrait formed a part of the title. 
A second edition of this work was published in 
1637. Lowndes (Bohn's ed., p. 89), has, in a 
curious way, mixed up this writer with another 
of the same name, who wrote " heroick " verses 
under Charles II., and who belonged to Gray's 


"SiR HORNBOOK" (6 th S. viii. 72). This poem 
was written and published by Thomas Love 
Peacock in 1818, and was reprinted by Felix 
Summerly (Sir Henry Cole) in his Home Treasury, 
1846. It will be found in the collected edition 
of Peacock's Works, 1875, vol. iii. p. 146. 



KITCHINGMAN FAMILY (6 th S. vii. 486). In 
the Diary of Abraham de la Pryme (Surtees 
Society), p. 178, mention is made of one " Mr. 

Kitchingman, Minister] of. by York," as 

having written "a larg Chronology, mighty in- 
genious and accurate, in fol. MSS. at Mr. Hall's 
of Fishlake." This is under date of April 23, 
1698, and therefore within the period specified by 
MR. J. GOULTON CONSTABLE. I may add that, 
in a recent Catalogue of Mr. C. Golding, of Col- 
chester, I find, *. v. " Greame Family," a marriage 
settlement, on the marriage of James, son of Henry 
Greame, of South Woome, co. York, with Ann, 
daughter of William Kitchingman, of Skircoate, 
dated 1700. C. H. E. CARMICHAEL. 

New University Club, S.W. 

NUMBER OF ANCESTORS (6 th S. viii. 65). 
With reference to the note on this subject, which 
calls attention to the fallacy of Blackstone's calcu- 
lation of the number of ancestors possessed by an 
individual, some researches which I made many 
years ago seem to me to be of interest. It was 
my intention to compile a pedigree of the royal 
families of England and Scotland, showing also 
such persons of royal descent as had in any way 
left their mark in history. That such well-known 
names as Warren, Talbot, Clare, Howard, Neville, 
and the rest should readily be added to the 
English, and such names as Douglas, Hamilton, 
Stewart, Campbell, and Lindsay should also be 
attached to the Scotch genealogy, was not sur- 
prising. But presently I found that there were 
few peers or baronets who at some point could 
not be added to the lists of descendants from 
royalty, and ultimately it seemed to me that but 
a small number of families possessed of any pedi- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ s. viu. A. 11, . 

gree at all could claim exemption from the 
of royal blood. It also seemed to rue that persons 
knowing their pedigree could generally trace some 
illegitimate blood amongst their ancestry, and 
this was, I think, more marked in the case of 
Scotch than of English families. I think the con- 
clusion at which I ultimately arrived was this : 
that a very large proportion of our nobility and 
gentry could, if they took the trouble, trace their 
descent from Malcolm III., King of Scotland, and 
from his daughter Matilda, wife of Henry I. of 
England ; that by no means a trifling proportion 
of these were entitled to quarter the royal arms 
either of England or of Scotland; and that, 
judging by what was observable in families of 
higher social standing, it was doubtful whether 
any family was entirely free from the taint of 
illegitimacy. JAMES DALLAS. 

Bristol Museum. 

SQUARER (6 th S. vii. 449). I offer this sugges- 
tion for what it is worth. Is it not possible that 
the word, as used in Much Ado about --Nothing, 
I. i., means a dandy, a " masher," or some such 
sort of creature ? Beatrice's remarks are, of course, 
in any case exaggerated. R. Green, in his Quip 
for an Upstart Courtier, says (p. 9, Hindley's re- 

" At last as it drew more nigh unto me, I might per- 
ceive that it was a very passing costly pair of Velvet- 
Breeches, whose panes, being made of the chiefest 
Neapolitan stuff, was drawn out with the best Spanish 
satin, and marvellous curiously overwhipped with gold 
twist, interseamed with knots of pearl; the nether-stock 
was of the purest Qranado silk; no cost was spared to 
get out these costly Breeches, who had girt unto them 
a rapier and dagger gilt, point pendant, as quaintly as if 
some curious Florentine had tricked them up to square 
it up and down the streets before his mistress." 


S. vii. 208; viii. 35). The version of the last eight 
verses given at the last reference is absolutely 
identical with that in use in the ritual, with the 
single exception of the line 

" Tantus labor ne sit cassus " (for nori). 
I am reminded of a hymn which was given me as 
peculiar to the diocese of Lisieux, and which reads 
like an imitation of the "Dies Irse "; but tradition 
says, I know not with what amount of truth, that 
it is of earlier origin, and that it was written in an 
inspired moment by a German monk at Lisieux, 
who died immediately after. It used to be sung 
there at the first vespers of All Souls' Day : 
" Lsetis juvat pro cantibus ; 

Audire feralem tubam, 

Quae sub sepulcris mortuos 

Cojlo recludet hospites. 

" Tune mors inermis et tremens 
Surdis ab an trU audiet : 
Et jussa reddet lumini 
Pefuncta luce corpora. 

" Ruent ab alto sidera : 
Obscura nox lunam premet : 
Lux deseret solem suum 
Et cuncta miscebit chaos. 

" Turbata clade public;} 
Natura dissipabitur : 
Suia soluti legibus 
Rumpentur orbis cardines. 

" Flammis rubens ultricibus 
Iras Dei coelum pluet : 
Tellus suo quae pondere 
Immota stat, movebitur. 

"Fac, Christe, quando splendid^ 
. De nube, Judex, veneris 
Furoris oblitus tui 
Ne nos nocentes punias. Amen." 

An interesting article on the "Dies Irae" has run 
through the last three numbers of the Dublin 
Review, in which appears to be collected all that 
is known of the Mantuan marble. It tells also 
where various printed versions of it may be found. 

R. H. BUSK. 

ANN IN PLACE-NAMES (6 th S. viii. 47). It is 
perhaps the Euskarian suffix signifying district, 
country, as in Brit-an, Lusit-an, Mauret-an, pliice 
of the moors, &c. This would make Abbot's 
Ann=Abbot's Place. The only thing is the word 
seems to stand alone and is not a suffix. 

C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

HOLE FAMILY (6 th S. vi. 208; vii. 111). Notes 
from an old family Bible formerly belonging to 
Mr. Richard Lewis Hole, of Great Torrington : 

" Peter Hole, of Hole, in Exbourne, made his heir 
Joshua Hole, Minister of South Molton, who died about 
1690, at. 81. 

'' Joshua Hole had four sons : Nicholas, Vicar of Bar- 
rington, d. cet. 86; John, Rector of Romanslegh and 
Washford Pyne, cet. 80 ; Joshua, of Trinstone, near South 
Molton, cet. 97 ; William, Archdeacon of Barun, cet. 85. 

" Nicholas Hole had issue: Joshua, d. 1814 ; Nicholas 
d. at Port Royal 1799 ; Ann, d. 1769, cet. 6 ; Mary, .1. 
1842, cet. 75; John, d. 1848. cet. 83 ; Richard Lewi-, d. 
1860, cet. 87 ; William, d. 1863, cet. 86." 

The family seal, with arms, is now in my posses- 
sion. F. T. C. 

246). Allow me to refer to an old query, by II. 
D'AVENEY, Sept. 29, 1860, which I think has 
never been answered. I also am much puzzled 
by these interior slits, aumbries, or whatever they 
are, in the churches of Great Plumstead, Hassin.<- 
hani, Hovergate, St. John's, Sepulchre, Norwich, 
&c. I shall be glad if any one can explain their 
use. If the original querist is still " to the fore," 
I hope he may be able to enlighten us. Perhaps 
they were where the iron or wooden rods were 
kept, from which hangings, &c., were suspended 
at certain seasons, Lent, Holy Week, funerals, &c. 
I scarcely think the processional cross was kept 
there, unless there was fifteen inches space for the 

6- s. viii. AUG. ii, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


head of it ; besides, it seems an unlikely place to 
keep it. May I also ask if the funeral cross was 
different from the processional one ; and was either 
it or the Lent one usually painted red, at least the 
staff or upright ? F.S.A. 

CLOCK-LORE (6 th S. viii. 25). In the Life of 
John Berridge, Vicar of Everton, Beds, by the 
Rev. Richard Whittingham, formerly his curate, 
another, and I think a better, version of the lines 
given by BOILEATJ is found: 
" Lines written by Mr. Berridge and pasted on ?i,is Clod: 
Here my master bids me stand 
And mark the time with faithful hand : 
What is his will is my delight, 
To tell the hours by day, by night. 
Master, be wise and learn of me, 
To serve thy God, as I serve thee." 

St. Thomas, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

404). At Mantby, Norfolk, there is a slab in- 
scribed : 

" T. H. Nata 24 Aug. 1664 

Renata 2 Sep. 

Denata 25 Apr. 1666 

J. J. RAVEN, D.D. 
School House, Great Yarmouth. 

"THE DEVILL IN A RED CAPPE" (6 th S. vii. 
290). Probably no particular tale is alluded to 
in this expression. It is well known that all the 
various tribes of elves, fairies, dwarfs, brownies, 
&c., were supposed to be more or less allies of the 
devil, if not partaking actually of the diabolic 
nature ; and in the popular tales related of them 
they are frequently described as wearing a red cap. 

E. McC 


DR. JOHN JAMES (6 th S. vii. 188, 416). The 
following list of works by the Rev. Dr. James 
will be a useful addition to the biographical 
notices which have already appeared in " N. & Q.": 

A Sermon preached in the Parish Church of Oundle, 
Nov. 9, 1817, on Death of the Princess Charlotte. Oundle. 

A Sermon preached in the Parish Church at Brig- 
stock. Being the First Anniversary of tbe Brigstock 
Independent Club. Nov. 4, 1824. Oundle, 1824. 

A Comment upon the Collects. Dedicated to the 
Parishioners of Oundle. Oundle, 1824. Second edition, 
1826; third edition, 1830; fourth edition, 1833; fifth 
edition, 1835 ; sixth edition, 1837; seventh edition, 
1839; new edition, 1840; ninth edition, 1840; new 
edition, 1843 ; tenth edition, 1843 ; new edition, 1845 ; 
twelfth edition, 1847; new edition, 1848 ; new edition, 
1851; fourteenth edition, 1852; new edition, 1855. 

A Sermon at the Visitation of Right Rev. Herbert, 
Lord Bishop of Peterborough, at Oundle, July 11, 1831. 

Christian Watchfulness in the Prospect of Sickness, 
Mourning, and Death. 1839. Second edition, 1840; 
new edition, 1840 ; fourth edition, 1841; fifth edition, 
1843; new edition. 1843; new edition, 1845; new 
edition, 1848 ; new edition, 1851; new edition, 1855. 

Proper Lessons, with Practical Commentary and 
Explanatory Notes. Dedicated to His Royal Highness 
Prince Albert. 1840. 

The Mother's Help towards Instructing her Children 
in the Excellencies of the Catechism, &c. 1842. 

The Christian Temple : a Sermon at the Visitation of 
the Ven. Owen Davys at Peterborough, May 14, 1844. 

A Practical Comment on the Ordination Services. 1846. 

The Happy Communicant. 1849. 

Certainty of the Judgment a Comfort to the Faithful. 
Farewell Sermon, preached at Peterborough Jan. 6, 1850. 

A Devotional Comment on the Morning and Evening 
Services in the Book of Common Prayer. 1851. 

Evangelical Life as seen in the Example of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 1855. 

Sermon on Death of His Royal Highness the Prince 
Consort. Preached at Peterborough Deo. 22, 18(51. 
1862. Second edition, 1862. 

Spiritual Life. 1869. 



NEWBERY, THE PUBLISHER (6 th S. vii. 124, 
232, 336). In 1762 Newbery published, in two 
volumes,' The Art of Poetry on a Neiv Plan, with 
a frontispiece by Ant. Walker. In his advertise- 
ment prefixed to the book he " begs leave to re- 
commend these and the subsequent Volumes to 
the young Gentlemen and Ladies who have read 
his little Books. In those he attempted to lead 
the young Pupil to a Love of Knowledge, in these 
he has endeavoured to introduce him to the Arts 
and Sciences, where all useful Knowledge is con- 
tained." By these "little books" Newbery 
evidently refers to the small volumes collectively 
called The Circle of the Sciences. Goldsmith is 
said to have assisted him in the compilation of 
The Art of Poetry, which has now become a rare 
book, and is a useful one of its kind ; it is, there- 
fore, very possible that he may have had a hand 
in the other little books, which seem also to have 
included a work of the same description (vol. iv.). 


BURYING IN COAL (6 th S. vii. 408). I re- 
member when a boy, some sixty years since, that 
the pavement of my parish church was taken up 
with a view to the entire renovation of the pews. 
Even to within a very short time before that 
event it had been customary to bury within the 
church. When the pavement was taken up 
many bones mingled with fragments of charcoal 
were exposed, and old people told me that the 
charcoal had been placed in the coffins and graves 
in order to absorb the unpleasant effluvia arising 
from the bodies. E. McC 


HEDGEHOGS SUCKING Cows (6 th S. vii. 309 ; 
viii. 32). Notwithstanding the incredulity of 
those who call belief in hedgehogs sucking cows a 
superstition, I avow my own belief in it. My 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ie* s. vm. AUG. 11, 


father, when a boy, had to fetch up cows to be 
milked at a farm in Derbyshire ; he asserts that 
once he saw a hedgehog hanging at the teats of a 
cow, and the cow kicking and plunging to shake 
it off ; he further asserts that he has many times 
seen the teats of cows marked with the teeth of 
the hedgehog, a peculiar mark which, he says, no 
one can mistake. Now, as my father is "dead 
set" against all superstition, and as he is not by 
any means alone in his testimony, I shall continue 
to believe as a fact the statement that hedgehogs 
suck the teats of cows until some better explana- 
tion of the united testimony of many country 
people of good sense can be given, and the wit- 
nesses shown to be under an illusion. A popular 
natural history book speaks of the " physical im- 
possibility " of the matter in question, but does not 
condescend to explain that phrase in this con- 

Let not our scientists be too dogmatic, lest they 
bring discredit on science. Let them remember 
the abuse that was heaped upon farmers for be- 
lieving that the presence of berberry bushes in the 
fences of cornfields produced rust in wheat, and 
take warning. That ignorant superstition has 
been shown to be positive fact, and is now accepted 
by all botanists as such. JNO. J. OGLE. 

Free Public Library, Nottingham. 

PRONUNCIATION OF FORBES (6 th S. v. 269, 316, 
397, 417, 498 ; vi. 35, 157, 437, 476 ; vii. 37, 
477). The puzzle, popular in my schooldays, 

Captain BBBB 

Led his CCCG 

Into the DeDaDsDtD, 

was founded on the dissyllabic rendering of Forbes 
It reads, 

Captain For-bes 

Led his for-ces 

Into the East In-dies (dees). 


I am acquainted with the "country of the 
Forbses " in Aberdeenshire. All Scots pronounce 
the word as a dissyllable ; those who affect th 
English pronunciation, as a monosyllable. H. 

FOIN : FOINSTER (6 th S. iii. 328 ; vii. 97). 
Mistress Tearsheet seems to direct us to look foi 
foin in Prof. Skeat's derivation of fond and fur 
(q.v.), already referred to by the professor himsel 
in connexion with "Funster" (6 th S. ii. 393) 
Foinster's origin, if thus established, would- giv< 
additional weight to his dictum at the above re 
ference, and throw a new light on funster (6 th S 
ii. 204, 356). ALPHONSE ESTOCLET. 

St. Mary's College, Peckham. 

To the various notices of wooden effigies I be 
to add one of a fifteenth or sixteenth centur 
knight, in plate armour, in Slindon. Church, nea 

Irundel. It is said to be Irish oak, and has been 
ilt and coloured. It used to lie in a stone Tudor 
icess, or Easter sepulchre, on the north side of the 
tiancel ; but, alas, was cut out by an organ chamber, 
nd is now in the south aisle. There was no in- 
iription or means of identifying who it was. 


TENNIS (6 th S. vii. 214.). In a column headed 

Omnibus Box" in the People of August 4 

ppears the following explanation of a word the 

rigin of which has often been discussed. I corn- 

nend it to MR. JULIAN MARSHALL : 

By the way, the derivation of the word tennis seems 
o have bothered the etymologists, most of whom tell us 
hat it is 'from the French tenez, take, a word which the 
Drench, who excel in this game, use when they hit the 
>all.' If this statement were true, which it is not, it 
would not afford any satisfactory explanation of the 
word, and the other derivations usually given are even 
wider of the mark. 

" Tennis, however, is the old English form of tens, the 
plural of ten, and as we have another closely related 
;ame called Fives, there can, it seems to me, be no doubt 
about the origin of the word. The game, I apprehend, 
went out of fashion about the time when the old plural 
ennis was giving way to the modern plural lens in popular 
speech, and when the game was revived, some time, say, 
n the fifteenth century, it still retained the old form, 
which in other cases had fallen out of use." 


TAGGE AND KAGGE (2 nd S. xii. 110 ; 3 rd S. v. 
519). The proverb "tag rag and bobtail" is com- 
mon enough, but I have only once seen the alterna- 
tive "long tail" in connexion with it: 

" If players can promise in woordes, and performe it 
in deedes, proclame it in their billes and make it good 
in theaters ; that there is nothing there noysome too the 
body, nor hurtfull to the soule : and that euerye ona 
which comes to buye their iestes, shall have an honest 
neighbour, tagge and ragge, cutte and long tayle, goe 
thither and spare not, otherwise I aduise you to keepe 
you thence, my selfe will beginne to lead the daunce.'' 
Gosson, The Schoole of Abuse (1579), Arber, 1868, 
p. 44. 


HERALDIC (6 th S. viii. 68). Though unable to 
assign the arms described by your correspondent 
to any particular family, it may be worth while to 
state that all the component parts are made pro- 
minent features in the old ballad called The Gen- 
tleman of Thracia; the arrows, the heart, and the 
tears those " pendants of the eyes," as Marvell 
terms them all are there. Concerning the eye 
as a charge in heraldry, it is remarkable that it 
is so rarely met with. It seems to have been left by 
the College of Arms to poets, painters, and rebus 
makers. Still, it has not been entirely ignored. 
Thus Delahay of Ireland is said to bear " Barry of 
six, az and ar., on a chief of the second three eyes 

Early in the reign of James I. an Exchequer 
Commission was held at a house in the Strand 
known as "The Weeping Eye." Whether tbia 

6b S ., '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


singular sign was adopted in reference to the tears 
of the penitent Magdalen, or was derived from the 
old legend of Eos, daily renewing her grief for the 
loss of her son Memnon ; or whether, being 
neither Scriptural nor classical, it had some other 
origin, in fact or fable, it is difficult to determine 
at this distance of time. 

In one of Ben Jonson's plays, The Poetaster, 
there is a whimsical allusion to a coat of arms, 
described by one of the characters named Crispinus 
(Cri-spinas) as made up of three thorns pungent 
between a crying face and a bleeding toe. For 
such a coat, if it existed, "Hinc illse lachrymse " 
would be a very suitable motto. 


City Club, Ludgate Circus. 

QUARTERINGS (6 th S. vii. 418, 496). I cannot 
agree with P. P. that a full shield " tells in a great 
measure your pedigree." For, first, it omits the 
arms of all ancestresses not heiresses ; and 
secondly, when the quarterings brought in by 
heiresses are inserted, a "full shield" will lead 
to the most erroneous conclusions as to descents, 
unless a written pedigree accompany and ex- 
plain it. No distinction is apparent between the 
arms of the heiress who was the wife of a male 
ancestor and those brought in by such heiress. 
The system of grand quarters would meet the 
second objection ; but there are obvious difficultie 
in using it. The system of selection of quarterings 
when a shield is to be painted on a carriage or 
engraved on plate or on a seal is universal ; and 
is so far sanctioned by heralds that peerages anc 
the like works are full of instances of it. Occa- 
sionally, even, a coat brought in by an heiress i 
selected for insertion, while the heiress's own coat 
is omitted. This, I must admit, is rather like, in 
P. P.'s phrase, " making a mull," as it is likely to 
lead to false inferences being made. P. P. is 
wrong in supposing that when I used the won 
" quarters," I meant quarterings. The difference is 
not very important ; the first word is used bj 
heralds in the sense of areas, the second in tha 
of arms placed in those areas. N. 

A SPOUTER (6 th S. vi. 389 ; vii. 75, 516). Th 
use of this word as given at the last reference maj 
be exemplified by the following passage fror 
Dryden's adaptation of Moliere's L'Etourdi Si 
Martin Marr-all, IV. i.: " Jack Sauce ? If I sa 
it is a tragedy, it shall be a tragedy, in spite of you 

teach your grandam how . What I hope 

am old enough to spout English with you, sir ? " 


473). The shilling which your corresponden 
J. C. J. describes is the well-known "pine-tre 
shilling " issued by the (then) colony of Mass 

husetts, or " Masathusets " as on the coin. Of 
s rarity and value J. C. J. can judge when I say 
lat I had in my hands very recently a fine clear 
pecimen which the holder sold a few days later for 
I. An earlier and ruder piece of the same size and 
alue, but struck only on one side with " N.E. xiL," 
: I remember rightly, was sold at the same time 

New York. 

Notes on the Regalia and Plate "belonging to the Corpora- 

tion of the City of Liverpool. By Sir James A. Picton, 

F.S.A. (Liverpool, Walmsley.) 

?HIS in teresting pamphlet has been ordered to be printed 
>y the Liverpool Finance Committee. Sir James Picton 
s well known as a scholarlike antiquary by his Memorials 
if Liverpool. The present tract is a most useful addi- 
ion to that work. Liverpool cannot vie in the magni- 
icence of its gold and silver with some of our old cities 
and boroughs, whose history is lost in the night of the 
Vliddle Ages, but it has some treasures of much local 
nterest. The Corporation records show that many 
valuable things have been lost or exchanged as useless. 
[n 1656, during the mayoralty of Gilbert Formby, it was 
ordered that " whereas dyvera pieces of Plate belonging 
to the towne are much decayed and bruysed, and some 
cups are broken and not fashionable," they should 
je exchanged for new plate. No doubt Mr. Gilbert 
Formby and his fellows thought they were taking a wise 
step, for which their successors would thank them. We 
apprehend that the present Corporation would be glad 
to possess the old plate which they parted with, how- 
ever much it might be " decayed and bruysed." Sir 
James Picton's little book is very well compiled and 
excellently printed. 

Glossary of Terms and Phrases. Edited by the Rev. 

H. Percy Smith, M.A. (Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.) 
WE must confess that we have experienced considerable 
disappointment with Mr. Smith's book. The principle 
on which some terms and phrases have been inserted 
and others omitted appears to us to be inexplicable. To 
give a few instances, we find " Adullamites," but no 
" Rupert of debate "; the " Three L's," but no " Three 
R's"; "Wranglers," but no "Wooden spoon." Mrs. 
Gamp is here, but Mr. Pecksniff is nowhere to be found. 
Humphry Clinker has been remembered, but Peregrine 
Pickle is ignored. Almack's is mentioned, but not so 
Crockford's ; and though there is an explanation of 
Kit's Coty House, there is none of the Wansdyke. In 
the preface the editor " indulges the hope that this 
glossary may supply all the information needed by 
general readers, who may wish to have a fair under- 
standing of the text of any work in ordinary English 
literature." We are sadly afraid that this hope will 
not be realized. Unless a glossary of this kind is 
thoroughly comprehensive, it is not only useless tor tha 
practical purpose of reference, but it also becomes a 
source of perpetual irritation to the unsatisfied inquirer. 

The Secrets of Angling. By J[ohn] D[ennys], Esquire, 
1613. A Reprint, with Introduction by Thomas 
Westwood. (Satchell & Co.) 

WE congratulate Mr. Westwood on his charming repro- 
duction of this old and rare angling poem. Concerning 
its authorship there has been considerable doubt. Isaac 
Walton attributed it to a certain John Davors, Esq., 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* B. vm. A. 11, 

while Robert Hewlett, in his Angler's Sure Guide, 
assigned it to that "great practitioner, master, and 
patron of angling," Dr. Donne. In the beginning of tbe 
century, however, all doubt as to the real name of the 
author was set at rest by the discovery of the entry in 
the books of the Stationers' Company, which describes 
the book as having been written by John Dennys, Esq. 
This John Dennys, as Mr. Westwood points out, was 
probably the great-grandson of Sir Walter Dennys, of 
Pucklechurch, and not his son, as Sir Harris Nicolas 
asserts in his edition of Walton. Though the poem 
passed through four editions, it became so rare that 
Beloe said of it that "perhaps there does not exist in the 
circle of English literature a rarer book than this." 
Indeed, Sir John Hawkins confessed that he could never 
get a sight of the book. It was reprinted by Sir Egerton 
Brydges in the second volume of the British Biblio- 
grapher, and a hundred copies were separately struck 
off. Mr. Arber also reproduced the poem in the first 
volume of his English Garner. The present reprint, 
unlike the last which we mentioned, is a literal tran- 
script of the first edition. Mr. Westwood has done well, 
we think, in refraining from all interference with the 
text, and anglers now will be able to read this quaint 
poem as it was first presented to the world in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

The Sonnets of John Milton. Edited by Mark Pattison. 

(Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.) 

MILTON has been fortunate in his commentators. Unlike 
Shakspeare, Dante, and Petrarch, who lie buried beneath 
endless tomes of disquisition and controversy, he has 
been treated with judgment, taste, and forbearance, and 
the notes and illustrations supplied to his works are, as 
a rule, an assistance, and not an encumbrance. Warton's 
edition of the minor poems of Milton is indeed, in its 
class, one of the most delightful works in the language. 
In the edition of the sonnets now included in the 
" Parchment" series of Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co., Mr. 
Pattison has benefited by the labours of his predecessors, 
from whom he has made a few satisfactory excerpts. 
He has. however, furnished some judicious comments 
and illustrations of his own, the moat important of 
which is a thoughtful essay on the structure of the 
Bonnet. Mr. Pattison's style is clear and agreeable, 
though the use in English of such words as "intran- 
sigeant " is scarcely to be justified. The Milton is worthy 
of its place in the " Parchment" series, which may claim 
in elegance of appearance to approach most closely to 
the Elzevir editions of any works published in England. 

THE City News Notes and Queries (Manchester, re- 
printed from the City News) has reached its fifth 
volume, and clearly deserves the success to which it has 
attained. We observe many points of contact with 
ourselves in " Shakespeariana," " Folk-lore," &c., as 
was naturally to be expected. But the range taken is 
wide, and the matters treated are often of great general 
interest. The account (p. 5) by Mr. J. Z. Bell of the 
frescoes in the Sixtine Chapel as they can only be seen 
by a very special mode of inspection, involving the use 
of a silver key is an instance in point. Mr. Bell has a 
strong appreciation of the genius of Michael Angelo, 
and his remarkable pilgrimage only confirmed his pre- 
vious views. We wish a long life to our Manchester 
brother, but should be glad if he did not wind up in the 
middle of a sentence (p. 93). Oddly enough, in view of 
the great Hungarian case, the break occurs at a question 
in court as to whether Lord Beaconsfield was a Jew or a 

MR. W. DE GRAY BIRCH, F.S.A., announces his 
intention of commencing in September the publication, 

through Messrs. Whiting & Co., Limited, Sardinia Street, 
W.C., of a Cartularium Saxonicum, or collection of 
charters relating to Anglo-Saxon history, by way of a 
new recension of Kemble's Codtx Diplomaticus. He 
proposes, in this important work, to arrange all the 
documents in a chronological series, prefixing to each a 
short precis, and accompanying it with collations of the 
best texts, MS. and printed, and a summary of the sources 
of the various readings. It is expected that the whole 
will be completed in about twenty-five parts. 

MR. FREDERICK POLLOCK has reprinted in MacmUlan's 
Magazine the discourse on " The Forms and Origin of 
the Sword" he delivered in June last at the Royal 
Institution. Mr. Walter Copland Perry contributes to the 
Nineteenth Century a paper on " The Sirens in Ancient 
Literature and Art." Merry England, No. 3, contains 
an essay by the Rev. J. F! Coruish, " In a Berkshire 
Village a Hundred Years Ago." 

BY the death of Mr. James Crossley, which took place 
on the 1st inst., at his residence, Stocks House, Chetham, 
England is deprived of an eminent bibliophile and man of 
letters. His literary career dates back to the appearance 
of the Retrospective Review, 1820-7, to which he con- 
tributed on article on Sidney's Arcadia. He also wrote 
in Blackwood and other periodicals, became a friend of 
Talfourd, and was taken, as he was proud to recall, to a 
reunion of Charles Lamb. He was during sixty years a 
well-known figure in Manchester, and took an active 
part in the organization of the Chetham Society and that 
less robust institution the Spenser Society. A long and 
appreciative biography of Mr. Crossley occupies between 
two and three columns of the Manchester Examiner and 
Times for August 2. He was an old contributor to our 
columns. We hope next week to furnish a few personal 
recollections of him. 


We must call special attention to the following noticti: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

G. B. TORFIELD. The line " Who drives fat oxen 
should 1 imself be fat" is found in Boswell's Life of 
Johnson, vol. iv. p. 329, ed. 1799. It was probably 
written in 1754, as it appears in memoranda collected 
concerning that year. 

E. P. WOLFERSTAN (Arts Club). The phrase " Throw- 
ing the hatchet," is commonly understood in the sense 
of drawing the long bow. 

CHAS. JAS. FERET. Faulkner's Histories of Fulham, 
&c., may be seen at Messrs. Reeves & Turner's, in the 

ALPHA. The paragraph on " Fatal Saturdays " 
appeared in " N. & Q.," 5th g. x i. 287. 

T. WESTWOOD (Brussels). Please send full address, 
We have a letter for you. 

WALTER J. METCALFE. Please send changed address. 
We have a letter for you. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6*s. vra. AUG. is, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : "Wellington Statue, 121 Reminiscences of James 
Crossley, 122 Names of Parishes, Somerset, 123 "Five 
Miles from Anywhere," 124 " Cock " Tavern Passion 
Week Chaucer Unpublished Letter of Paley, 125 Gali- 
leans : Galileeans Jonathan Wild and the Freedom of 
London Mahometan Prayers for the Queen Disrated A 
Parallelism, 126. 

QUERIES : Madame Campan, 126 Instantly Engraved 
Common Prayer Book Ligonier Longest Royal Speech 
Cowley and Milton Pigott of Dellbrook Custom at New- 
castle, 127 Smo'r-gas-bord "More prevailing sadness" 
Shaw, Dobbs, and Joyce Families Lawsuits "Papa" and 
" Mamma "George III. Guinea " Margaret Lessamore " 
" Curfew " Arden of Feversham, 128. 

REPLIES: "Notes on Phrase and Inflection," 129 George 
III. and the Toll-gate Keeper Turning the Key and the 
Bible A Yard of Beer, 130 Old Viola Folk-lore of the 
Looking-glass Anne Boleyn Madame Roland Gratten 
Latin Couplet Yokel, 131 Churches of St. Cuthbert 
Coldstream Guards in 1708-9 Fanteague Singleton, 132 
"Once and away" Pronunciation of Whole Aurora 
Borealis " English Wake," 133 Thrymsa Gambetta 
Joan of Arc, 134 Armiger Family Effer or Effet Peter- 
tide Bonfires, 135 Otamy Peers' Titles Man tuan Marble 
" Early to bed," Smoking Rooms Family of Snape Guy 
Fawkes, 136 " Pynson " Volume Supporters Caterways 
Rue on Sundays Velocimen, 137 Roman Milestone at 
Llanfairfechan Dunmow Flitch Bagmere Portent, 133 
Rev. Cyril Jackson Candlemas Offerings Entirely 
Prendergast French Preposition ii, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Ellacombe's " Shakespeare as an 
Angler " Sawyer's "St. Wilfrith's Life in Sussex" 
Black's " Folk-Medicine." 

Notices to Correspondents. 

Whilst turning over a bundle of old play-bills 
at a shop in St. Giles's I lighted on a folio sheet 
covered with illustrations and poetry, on one side 
headed " September Statue Month," on the other 
" October." Although not otherwise dated the 
contents prove that the sheet was issued in 1846, 
in which year Mr. Wyatt's statue of the Duke was 
placed on Mr. Decimus Burton's arch, much to 
Mr. Burton's displeasure. Of the October side of 
the sheet little need be said. It contains some 
punning allusions to Auber, the composer ; to 
Alfred Bunn, the librettist and manager of Drury 
Lane; and to Madame Bishop; also the following 
epigram on the statue: 

" ' Hail to the Statue ! ' people cry 

In justice there they fail ; 

But let it have the Burton Arch 

If we 've the Burton Alel" 

On the September side the sheet is headed by the 
Duke's statue, supported on one side by Nelson's 
column, on the other by the Duke of York's column, 
whilst below are the statues of James II., Canning, 
Queen Elizabeth, Charles I., George III. and 
George IV., Pitt, C. J. Fox, and Queen Anne. 
Nelson blows through a speaking-trumpet, York 
through a cornet-a-piston; James plays on a fife, 

Elizabeth on a guitar; Charles blows a trumpet, 
George III. has a fiddle, George IV. is violently 
beating a pair of kettle-drums; Anne, with an ex- 
pression of ridiculous gravity, is turning a barrel- 
organ, Fox strums a harp, and the Northumber- 
land House lion is roaring in the background. 
In the centre of the sheet is the following : 

' September is a great month for Guns little and great 
Sporting Guns it has exhausted, and left the Sons of the 
Guns who made them scarcely a shot in the locker. It 
won't do now to say that every ton man shoulders his 
Manton, nor to wonder that a bird should be shot with 
an Egg. September has more to do with guns than with 
music ; nevertheless, in the year departed (or dear de- 
parted) they did essay a festival at Hereford. But the 
festival was nothing to the Great Gun at the end of the 
month, although it went off very well. 

" The month was emphatically the month of the 
Statue. It was a month of Guns the Duke the greatest 
Gun dubbed LL.D. at Oxford for his knowledge of 
Cannon Law; a statue was made with great guns he 
had taken and the Duke (the greatest) was placed upon 
them : and an immense deal of ramming and cramming 
and jamming was enacted before the explosion of the 
statue at the top of the arch. 

"The procession was great; it was on Michaelmas 
Day, so all the geese in London went forth to see the dux* 
As to taking it down again, if the statue is to be really 
more lowered than it has been his Grace will have been 
more put up and more put down than any other man in 
England. Yet the nation would willingly bestow upon 
him a thousand pedestals, and as for the press, it has 
given his arch as many columns as he himself has led 
against the arch enemies of England. The other statues 
of the metropolis behaved better than either the people 
or the press they did get up a concert in honour of the 
Duke, beautifully sustained and beautifully described 

" The Concert of the Slatue. 
" The statue of Wyatt is up on the Arch, 
With the Duke in the act to vociferate ' March ! ' 
If he have to march up, or he have to march down, 
Here 's a welcome from all other Statues in town. 
It was stirring to hear how the nation's old sons 
With their trumpets of brass hailed their hero of 

bronze ; 

And Britannia herself could find nought to rebuke 
In the Concert they got up to honour the Duke ! 

" Rough Nelson roared out, through his trump : ' Duke 

ahoy ! 

I hope you don't find it too cold there, old boy : 
I 'd drink your good health in stiff grog but ain't able, 
For I 'm tied to my pillar and this cursed cable ! ' 
Blows York, through his cornet-a-piston : ' I say ! 
They 've put you in the skies, up along with us, eh? 
If you ever go down there 's a noble old bloak, 
Pay my tailor, and tell him to send me a cloak.' 

"Sings Canning the Green Man and Still who up 

looks : 

' I fear, Duke up there, you '11 be hard up for books, 
But just now I '11 play you, by way of reminder, 
My own sharp set song of "The Needy Knife 

Grinder ! " ' 
Cries Fox : ' You 're Commander-in-Chief with th 


So I '11 play you the latest of Downing Street Jigs, 
Or if something more Tory you think would befit, 
There 'a a pit down below : I refer you to Pitt,' 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. vm. A is, 

" Then up got the Royalty, strong in its ' nous,' 
When the Lion that roars from Northumberland House 
Bellowed, ' Arthur Duke, listen ! you can do no less 
To King George and King Charles, and Queen Anne 

and Queen Bess ! ' 

' You '11 catch cold, my lieges,' he answered, ' I fear, 
If you play any tune that can find its way here '; 
And then the Duke added, with part of a frown, 
' I beliere, please your Majesties, I 'm Boon coming 

down.' " 

Now that the prophecy contained in the last line 
has come true, and that it seems likely the bronze 
duke will be melted down, the sheet I have 
described becomes an object of interest, far greater 
than at the time it was originally published, nearly 
forty years ago. 

64, Bromfelde Road, Clapham. 


The grave has just closed over the remains of 
one who was, perhaps, as regards mental power 
and personal appearance, the best known man 
in the large and busy city of Manchester one 
whose portly form will now often be conspicuous 
by its absence James Crossley. Let me not, 
however, be supposed to be speaking too familiarly 
in this simple mention of his well-known and 
honoured name. Crossley was, indeed, a remarkable 
man one into " whose company," as Dr. John- 
Bon said of his friend Bishop Percy, of Dromore, 
" it was impossible to go without learning some- 
thing not known before," possessing equally the 
power of acquiring information and of imparting it 
qualifications rarely combined in one individual. 
Jonathan Oldbuck, quoting King Alphonso of 
Castile at what he styled a " coenobitical sym- 
posium " at Monkbarns, observed, " Old wood to 
burn, old books to read, old wine to drink, and old 
friends, Sir Arthur ay, Mr. Lovel, and young 
friends, too to converse with." In many respects 
Crossley strongly resembled the Antiquary, and was 
in some others like Dr. Johnson. He was born in 
Yorkshire in 1800, and after receiving a portion of 
his early education at the Grammar School of 
Hipperholme, near Halifax whither the late Sir 
Kobert Peel was sent prior to going to Harrow 
came when but a boy to Manchester, which city 
always continued his home. " Non ubi nascor sed 
ubi pascor," observes Fuller ; and therefore Lan- 
cashire, endorsing this saying, may enrol him on 
the list of her worthies. He was articled to an 
eminent firm of solicitors in Manchester, and for a 
long period practised with much success ; but he 
always kept alive his love of learning and taste for 
book collecting, which his large income enabled 
Mm freely to indulge. His library, which was 
ever increasing, amounted, it is said, at the time 
of his death to 60,000 volumes. He had besides 
pictures and engravings in great abundance. 

My own acquaintance with him goes back nearly 
twenty years, and was made through a friend of 
mine and a far older one of his, the late Thomas 
Jones, who was for thirty years librarian of 
Chetham College, and a well-known contributor to 
"N. & Q." as "Bibliothecar. Chetham." The 
reading of the latter was most extensive, and, in a 
word, he was not only a librarian, but a library. 
He died in 1875. 

The celebrated Dr. Byrom has spoken of literary 
stances in the Chetham Library in his time, the 
days of George II., or, as he would have called 
him, the Elector of Hanover. History is said to 
repeat itself, and they were renewed in mine ; for 
many reminiscences arise of conversations within 
the same old room some ten or a dozen years ago, 
when I was one of the trio of which I am now the 
sole survivor. We discussed subjects " From grave 
to gay, from lively to severe "; in particular the 
Manchester of the days of James L, when the penal 
laws against the Roman Catholics were strict ; 
when John Dee, learned in occult sciences, whose 
life has yet to be written, was warden of 
the Collegiate Church. Sometimes we " called 
spirits from the vasty deep," and discussed witch- 
craft, for which, in the days of James I., the 
county of Lancaster had an unenviable notoriety; 
and then reference would be made to the writings 
of the Norwich knight Sir Thomas Browne, or 
the huge folio of the works of King James I., or 
to Potts's Discovery of Witches in the County of 
Lancaster ; and we did not disdain a look into 
works of fiction, as, for instance, The Lancashire 
Witches and Guy Fawkes of William Harrison 
Ainsworth, an entire collection of whose novels, 
some thirty in number, was in the library. Some- 
times we found ourselves surrounded by a break- 
water of books, and the conversation, it is to be 
feared, took rather a desultory turn and flew off at 
tangents. Occasionally we discussed Manchester 
celebrities of a more recent date, of about a cen- 
tury and a half ago, and their deeds and words, as 
John Byrom, the well-known author of the hymn 
" Christians, awake," the great carol of the North, 
whose books had recently come into the possession 
of the Chetham Library. Dr. Deacon, the Non- 
juring bishop, whose sepulchre is with us unto this 
day, for his tomb may yet be seen in St. Ann's 
churchyard, at Manchester, on which he is de- 
scribed as " the greatest of sinners and the most 
unworthy of primitive bishops," was also a subject 
of debate. The head of his son, executed at Ken- 
nington Common for his share in the rebellion of 
1745, was fixed on the Exchange at Manchester ; 
and it is recorded that the bereaved father used to 
stand with his head uncovered in front of it, either 
out of respect to the memory of his son or in silent 
prayer for the departed. How much does this 
resemble the conduct of Rizpah, the daughter of 
Aiab, the concubine of Saul, as recorded in the 

a* s. vni. AUO. is, -83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


second book of the prophet Samuel. The learned 
high master of the adjacent Grammar School of 
that day, Charles Lawson, whose carved oak stall, 
with " Archididasculus " inscribed upon it, may yet 
be seen on the decani side of the choir of what 
was then styled the Old Church, now the Cathe- 
dral, was not omitted. On one occasion a former 
librarian, noted for his pleasant, genial nature, old 
Campbell Hulton, to whom his old Oxford sobriquet 
ever clung " Hulton of Brasenose " one " whom 
Yorick honoured and Eugenius loved," joined the 
coterie. Of him, as of the others, there now only 
remains " the touch of a vanished hand and the 
sound of a voice that is still." Alas ! to continue 
the quotation, " The tender grace of a day that is 
dead will never come back to me." 

For very many years a visit to Manchester has 
been almost an annual occurrence in my life ; but 
it never was paid without entering the Chetham 
Library, where about noon the portly form of the 
president of the Chetham Society always appeared. 
In the June of last year occurred, in the old room, 
my last conversation with him ; and he then, in 
reference to the fine full-length portrait of Ains- 
worth before which we stood, told me that the 
novelist was once the handsomest man in London 
except Count D'Orsay. With pleasure and pride 
he showed me his own portrait, which, with that 
of our late friend Thomas Jones, hung in the old 
oak-panelled council chamber. On saying good- 
bye he remarked, " May you, sir, be spared to 
write, and may I, sir, be spared to read, your con- 
tributions to 'N. & Q.,'" for to its pages we 
both had been contributors. 

When in Manchester some weeks ago news 
of the accident which brought about his death 
reached me from many quarters, showing, in 
that large bustling city, the respect in which he 
was held, and how much sympathy is yet remain- 
ing. He died, and the living link that connected 
us with the past is broken, and in vain do we ask 
who shall bend the bow of Ulysses. 

" He was a man, take him for all in all, 
We shall not look upon his like again." 

On Monday, August 6, his remains were laid in 
a grave in the churchyard of St. Paul's, Kersal, 
Manchester, near those of his old friend Miss 
Eleanora Atherton, the descendant of John 
Byrom, who died in 1870, aged eighty-eight. 
Let this little tribute to his honoured memory 
be laid as a chaplet on his grave. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


(Continued from p. 24.) 

Authorities quoted. Taylor's Words and Places, 
T. Edmunds's Names of Places, E. Bosworth's 

Anglo-Saxon Diet., B. Skeat's Concise Etym. 
Diet., S. 

1. Blackford (Blacheford); 2. Blagdon (Blache- 
dona). A.-S. blcec, black. This was assumed as 
a personal name under the forms of Black and 
Blake (Bardsley's Eng. Sur., p. 445). Don or 
down, a hill (Celtic) ; A.-S. dtin, a hill, from Irish 
dtin, a fortified hill (see Joyce's Irish Names, vol. i. 
p. 277) ; W. din, a hill fort. Skeat says it is 
cognate with A.-S. tun : it is the same as the 
termination dunum, common in the old 
Latinized names of many of the cities of Great 
Britain and the Continent. Joyce says the Irish 
dun is represented in English by the word town ; 
but this is not quite correct, as in English we have 
the two distinct suffixes don and ton : it is allow- 
able, however, to say that they are cognate forms. 
See Skeat under " Down." 

Bleadon (Bledona). E., p. 176, says it is from 
St. Blaize or Blasius. Two other possible deriva- 
tions are : (1) Celtic blith, giving milk, dairy hill; 
(2) A.-S. bledan, to bleed, the hill of blood. 

1. Bradford (Bradeford); 2. Bradon, S. (Brade); 
3. Bradley, W. A.-S. brad, broad,- A.-S. leag, 
lea, meadow. 

Bratton Seymour (Broctuna). A.-S. broc, a 
badger. Seymour from the family of St. Maur. 
Murray, p. 246, says the St. Maurs had a seat at 
Marsh Court, three miles south of Wincanton. 
Brockley (Brocheleia) is from the same. 

Breane (Brien). The Welsh bryn, a brow or 
ridge, T., p. 146 ; Irish bri (bree), Joyce, vol. i. 
p. 390 ; Scotch brae ; Cornish and Breton bre. 
T. compares Sanskrit bhrft, eyebrow. See S. under 
" Brow." Breandown is a high ridge near Weston- 
super-Mare. Bray, which is the name of several 
places in Ireland, is another form of the same word. 
Cf. Bryngwyn (Radnorshire), the white hill. 

Brent, East and South (Brentamersa). There 
is a Brent Tor in Derbyshire. I suggest that 
Brent Knoll is named from the beacon fires. See 
S. under " Burn." M.E. brennen. Cf. brant-fox 
and brent-goose. The original sense is " burnt " 
with the notion of redness or brownness. A.-S. 
mersc, a marsh, fen, bog, B. 

1. Brewham (Briweham) ; 2. Burnham ; 3. 
Bruton. All on the river Brue. Bruton is spelt 
Brewton in Collinson's Sommef (1791). In Domes- 
day it appears under the forms Brauetone, Briwe- 
tone, and Brumetone. There is a Bruton in 
Glamorganshire which is explained by E., p. 180, 
as anciently Tal-pont-britwn, the foot of the 
Britons' bridge ; but in the Somerset Bruton we 
are face to face with a more difficult problem, viz , 
the meaning of the river name Brue. There is, I 
believe, a river Brow in Galway, and there is a 
passage in Joyce's Irish Names, second series, 
p. 205, which may give a clue to the meaning of 

" Bru and its derivative bruach both signify a bord 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s, vm. AUG. is, '83. 

brink, or margin; but it is commonly applied to the 
brink of a stream or glen. The latter of the two is the 
term generally found in names ; and its most usual 
Anglicized form is Brough, which is the name of a place 
near Doneraile in Cork." 

A fact- that lends weight to this theory is that a 
house and grounds in Bruton called the Glen, 
through which the river runs, was at one time the 
chief feature of the place. 

There are two hamlets of Bruton : (1) DUcove 
(Digenescova); cf. Discoed (Rad.)=below a wood, 
K, p. 198. (2) Redlynch (Reliz). K, p. 187, 
explains Charlinch (Som.) as ceorl's lenes, i.e., 
husbandman's land held on fee farm. B. gives 
Icenland, loan or leased land. 

Bridgewater (Bmgia). T., p. 267, says it= 
Burgh Walter, the castle of Walter of Douay. 
Worth, Guide to Somerset, p. 65, says that there 
has been much controversy concerning the etymo- 
logy, but that the above derivation is generally 

Brislington. E., p. 179, from St. Brice, on 
whose festival, Nov. 13, 1002, the Danes in Eng- 
land were massacred. Bris-lene-tun, now Bris- 
lington (Som.), the town of Brice's lene or fee-farm 
land. MR. KERSLAKE (6 th S. vii. 302) discusses 
this word in a paper headed " Ing=Ynys Inch," 
and adduces Brislington as an example of his theory, 
and makes it=Bristol-ing-ton, where iny=island. 

1. Brompton Ralph (Burnetona); 2. Brompton 
Regis ; 3. Broomfield (Brunfella) ; 4. Brympton 
(Brunetona). A.-S. brdm, the plant broom; M.E. 
Irome, broom, allied to bramble (S.). This gives 
the meaning of places beginning with Brain, Bramp, 
Broom, Brom, Bromp. 

Brushford (Brucheford). See S. under " Brush." 
M.E. brusche, a brush, also brush-wood, which is the 
older sense, the original brush being made of twigs. 

1. Buckland Dinham (Bochelanda) ; 2. Buck- 
land St. Mary. See S. under " Book." A.-S. 
boc, of which the original sense was a beech-tree. 
The original books were pieces of writing scratched 
on a beechen board, cognate with L. fagus. 
Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 294, says: 

" Lands are commonly supposed to have been divided, 
among the Anglo-Saxons, into Iceland and folkland. 
The former was held in full propriety, and might be 
conveyed by boc or written grant ; the latter was occu- 
pied by the common people, yielding rent or other ser- 
vice, and perhaps without any estate in the land, but at 
the pleasure of the owner." 

It is, however, a disputed point, and Hallam has 
a long note on the subject, vol. ii. pp. 406-10. 
Murray, p. 399, "hard by Durston station is 
Mynchin Buckland or Buckland Sororum, the site 
of a priory and preceptory." B. gives minicen and 
mynecen, a nun. 

Burnet. Bourn, a brook, and et, dim. suffix= 
little stream. Bardsley, Eng. Sur. , p. 454, derives 
the surname Burnet " from the fabric of a brown 
mixture common at one period," 

Burrington. From Burra, a man's name=the 
town of Burra's children. According to E., p. 181, 
there are three places called Burrington. 

Burrowbridge. This may be the same as Berrow, 
Barrow, from bcerw, a grove. 

Burtle. I suppose burh, a fortified hill, enters 
into this name, but it is a difficult one to deal with. 

1. Butcombe (Budicomba) ; 2. Butleigh (Boduc- 
cheleia). From butt, a mark for archera ; the 
word is discussed by S. under " Beat." Many 
parishes have a field called the Butts. 


Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath. 
(To le continued.) 

viii. 71). In connexion with this subject the 
following extract from my Cambridge note-book, 
under date June 21, 1852, may perhaps be of 
interest : 

" We pulled quietly down to Upware in time for 
dinner, and after dinner had in the ' Last Minstrel,' who 
sang us sundry capital old lays, ' The Blind Beggar's 
Daughter of Bethnal Green,' ' The Branch of May,' and 
a Freemason's song, of which I can only recall two lines : 
' When I thinks about Moses it makes me for to blush, 

How he saw the Almighty all in the burning bush.' 
Then we had ' Put your Nose in a Jug of This ! ' ' Aa I 
was a-turning my Asses to Grass,' and the real old 
genuine ' John Barleycorn,' with 
' Put brandy into glasses, put gin into a can, 
Put John Barleycorn into a brown jug, and he '11 prove 

the strongest man.' 

Some of the old wanderer's toasts were peculiar ; e.g. : 
' Here 's a health to the world that 's as round as a 


A health to Old England, a health to the Queen. 
If life were a thing that money could buy, 
The rich might live but the poor must die.' 
What business the last two lines have here it would be 
hard to say. They are the end of the epitaph 
' The world 's a city full of crooked streets, 

Death is the market-place where all men meet ' 
which is to be found at Froxfield, Wilts, and elsewhere. 
" Besides our nameless ' Last Minstrel,' a weather- 
beaten old Peninsular campaigner gave us sundry war 
songs, and Tom Appleby, the landlord of the ' Five 
Miles from Anywhere," where we dined, gave us the 
following in a harsh treble : ' " Ground for the Flure," 

' I have lived in the fens for a many long years, 
With my dog and my gun to drive away cares, 
In a neat little cottage, and the roof it is secure, 
An'd look where you will, you '11 find ground for the 


Ground for the flu-ure, ground for the flu-ure ' 
(' Chorus, gentlemen, if you please, for the 'armony ' ) 
' And look where you will, you '11 find ground for the 

' This cottage is surrounded by brambles and thorns : 
Oh, how sweet it is to hear the birds in the morn ! 
I' ve a guinea in my pocket, and plenty more in store, 
And a sweet little cottage that 's got ground for the 

Ground for the flure, &c. 

eg. vm. AUG. is, -83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


' God bless my old father, though he is dead and gone ; 
I hope his soul 's in heavan never more for to return, 
For he left me all his riches that he had laid up in 


And a sweet little cottage that's got ground for the 

Ground for the flure, Sec' 

" We all started together in the barge homewards, taking 
our boat in tow. There are low stiles across the towing 
path at the divisions of the fields, and the barge horses, 
stopping a little before they reach them, to allow the 
rope to slack, take a short run and leap them with un- 
gainly agility." 


Ashton, in his interesting work on Social Life 
in the Reign of Queen Anne, states that this famous 
old tavern, where our friend Pepys used to enter- 
tain Mrs. Knipp, " has only jusfc been demolished." 
It will be as well, therefore, to put on record in 
the pages of " N. & Q." that this is a mistake. It 
is true that the houses on each side have been 
pulled down and that the superstructure of part of 
the tavern has been demolished, but the familiar 
old dining-room is in statu quo ante, and the con- 
sumption of chops and steaks therein proceeds as 
usual. Within the last few months, however, the 
well-known sign of the cock has disappeared from 
its perch over the doorway. There was a tradi- 
tion that this same cock was the work of that 
famous master carver Grinling Gibbons, but there 
was probably little enough reason for the supposition. 
However that may be, does any one know whither 
this same bird has flown ? G. F. E. B. 

PASSION WEEK. There was much contro- 
versy in some of the papers last spring respecting 
the propriety of calling the week following the 
fifth (instead of that following the sixth) Sunday 
in Lent, Passion Week. Procter says (History of 
the Hook of Common Prayer}: " The fifth is called 
Passion Sunday, because the commemoration of 
our Lord's passion then begins," and there is no 
doubt an appropriateness in beginning the com- 
memoration some time before its most special 
period ; but to call the week of which that Sunday 
is the first day Passion Week, in contradistinction to 
the one following it, seems to me to be little less 
than absurd. The fact is, I believe, that in the 
Anglo-Saxon Liturgy the fortnight containing 
both those weeks was called Passion-tide, an ex- 
pression to which there can be no objection. The 
Rev. J. H. Blunt, in his Annotated Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, says, " The name of Passion Sunday 
has been given to the second Sunday before Good 
Friday from time immemorial, because on that 
day the Lord began to make open predictions of 
His coming sufferings." He refers, I presume, 
to Matt. xx. 17-19, and Luke xviii. 31-33. The 
predictions in question are related as having 
been uttered during the last journey to Jeru- 
salem (prooaoly in Peroea) before reaching 

Jericho; but there is nothing to indicate the 

actual day or precise time when they were first 
spoken. ' W. T. LYNN. 


Parson's Prologue, I. 43, we have the well-known 
lines : 

" I can nat geste, rom, ram, ruf, by lettre, 
Ne, god wot, rym holde I but litel bettre." 

Compare the curious use of rim ram in the 
Walloon dialect. Sigart gives two examples : " Ca 
n'a ni rim ni ram, it has neither rime nor reason ; 
Jest toudi I'mdme rim ram, it's always the same 
song." WALTER W. SEEAT. 


The following letter, in my possession, of Dr. Paley, 
who died as rector of this parish in 1805, may 
deserve a place in " N. & Q." It is addressed " The 
Lord Bishop of Killalla, St. Stevens Green, Dublin, 
By Port Patrick- 
Dec. 18, 94. 

My Dear Lord, We have had a death here as unex- 
pected as my poor cousins, and in its circumstances not 
unlike it. Mr. Hodson died last mon lay of a putrid sore 
throat after five days illness. There is nothing of the 
kind in the country. It is a happiness that the family 
is provided for by Mr. Hewitt. He was at the time in 
dispute with a man about a lease, he insisting upon 31 
years and the man only gave him 21. Mrs. Paley wrota 
to desire that one of her brothers would come for her to 
Killalla. Now they are both men deeply and constantly 
engaged in busyness and cannot without great incon- 
venience be absent from horns. Could Watson conduct 
her to the water side ? He talked when my cousin wa 
here of paying a visit to England; if he continue to have 
any such intention he might bring his journey to the 
time of hers. We understand she intends to fix at 
Leeds, which is certainly the wisest step she can take, 
as she will thereby put her children under the protection 
of their uncle, who both has much in his power and is a 
very kind-hearted man. 

The British Review has got hold of " thuri," but I can t 
understand his criticism, nor does it appear to me that 
be understood either the epigram or the emendation. To 
me your conjecture appears a very probable reading. Thii 
review, except that it has hit the blot about cicero, 
corrected in the new edition, is but trifling civil and 
panegyrical, but has taken no pains with the article ; the 
other reviews I have not seen. 

The Belfast papers have made you Primate, which 
merits confirmation, as your Father used to say, but 
I think it impossible but that they must make you 
something; no other Bishop belongs to the present L 
Lieutenants set which is the Duke of Porlands so strictly 
as yourself, to say nothing of better reasons. It is said 
here that Lord Fitzwilliam wanted Serjeant Adair to 
be chanceller, but Fitzgibbon stuck close. I suppose 
Waller King will come with him; our Bishop had heard 
that the primacy was offered to the Dean of Clmat 

Another campaign is now resolved upon. We are to 
join the Jacobins and try to pull down the convention 
thro' them. Rose told our Dean that the real difficulty 
of making peace was this that it would be unsafe to 
disarm whilst France was in its present powerful 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. YIH. AUG. is/as, 

and that the nation at large would never endure the 
vast peace establishment which it would be necessary to 
keep up; they will more easily keep their patience under 
the moat unfortunate war. Your brother has got off 
with L d Abingdon in his seat. 

D r Grisdale resigns the school in June chapter. 
Stanger, to whom we have offered it, declines accepting 
jt, We are seeking and I wish we may find a good man. 
I am, my Dear Lord, 

Yours ever aff., 

Carlisle, Dec. 18th, 94. 

The italics in the above letter are my own, being 
names and words about which I am not sure, as 
they are not very legibly written. 



spelled this word in the former way, but my atten- 
tion was called a day or two ago to the latter spelling. 
I defended the former as being not only usual, but 
better on principle. To my astonishment I found the 
latter in nearly a score of Bibles to which I referred, 
of various dates, though two dated respectively 
1825 and 1828 have the former spelling. I found 
in most Prayer Books, under " Whitsunday," Gali- 
leans, though in one Galilceans. Cruden's Con- 
cordance gives the former. The edition of the 
New Testament which I daily use employs the 
former in Acts ii. 7, but in the six passages of the 
Gospels, strange to say, the latter. I have looked 
into a number of books and find e, though in 
Trench and Farrar ce occurs. When was the latter 
form introduced ? So Judaea, Itursea, Caesar, 
Caesarea, &c., have ousted the forms with e. I have 
not time to examine all such words. But in a 
Bible of 1865, with these forms in the New Testa- 
ment, I find in the Old Testament Grecia, Chaldea, 
Chaldeans, Sabeans. In the New Testament the 
same edition has Chaldeans in Acts vii. 4, and 
Berea (though here e=ce). The edition of the 
New Testament mentioned above has Chaldeans. 
There is no date to this, though I bought it about 
ten years ago. Why are not dates put to the 
various editions of the Bible ? Those published 
by the S.P.C.K. seem now to dispense with them. 

T. C. 

LONDON. The following extract is from the 
Birmingham Daily Gazette of June 15: 

"What is the real value, asks the Echo, of the 'free- 
dom of the City of London/ so much coveted by many 
persons? Even Jonathan Wild, who might have been 
supposed to be careless in such a matter, having regard 
to his excellence in his own particular line of business, 
was not above the temptation to endeavour to secure the 
City's freedom for himself. Witness a petition of his 
which is now in the hands of the City authorities, and 
which we have recently seen. The petition is dated 
1723, and runs thus: 'To the Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor and the Court of Aldermen. The humble 
petition of Jonathan Wild, sheweth : That your peti- 

tioner has been at great trouble and charge in appre- 
hending and convicting divers felons for returning from 
transportation since October, 1720 (the names of whom 
are mentioned in an account hereto annexed). That 
your petitioner has never received any reward or 
gratuity for such his service. That he is very desirous 
to become a freeman of this honourable city, wherefore 
your petitioner most humbly prays that your Honour 
will (in consideration of his said services) be, pleased to 
admit him into the freedom of this honourable city. 
And your petitioner will ever pray, &c, JONATHAN 
WILD.' Princes of the blood, statesmen, warriors, and 
others will be glad to know that there is no record that 
the coveted freedom of the City was given to Wild, 
although satisfactory evidence is adduced that hia 
petition was read by the Court of Aldermen." 


The morning papers state that since the conclusion 
of the trial of Arabi prayers have been offered on 
behalf of the Queen in mosques in Cairo and in 
the provinces of Egypt, her Majesty being referred 
to as " the Mirror of Justice." It is curious to 
observe that this title is given to the Virgin Mary 
in some Koman Catholic litanies, she being 
addressed as " Speculum Justitiae." 



DISRATED. This is a new word to me, express- 
ing the capitis deminutio, or alteration in the 
rating, of a sailor. I notice it in the Daily News 
of January 2nd, where, in an account of an inquiry 
into some misconduct on board a ship, it is stated 
that " the ship's corporal in charge of the party 
was disrated to able seaman." E. H. M. 


[The word disrate appears in Annandale's edition of 


" Men are but children of a larger growth." 

Dryden, All for Love, IV. i. 

" Women, then, are only children of a larger growth." 
Chesterfield, Lttlers, Sept. 15, 1748. 

E. H. M. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Campan, in her Memoirs, says that while Louis 
XV. was dying, a lighted candle was placed in a 
window, and was extinguished when the king died, 
as a signal to the stables, the new king intending 
to depart the moment his grandfather expired. 
Carlyle, in his French Revolution, sneers at this as 
untrue, because the death, occurred at two o'clock 

6As.viii.ADG.i8,'83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of a May afternoon. Is there anything in con- 
temporary works to corroborate or to disprove 
Madame Campan's statement 1 Carlyle was pro- 
bably not accustomed to large blocks of buildings. 
A candle placed in a dark or darkened room would 
be seen for some distance, especially across a court, 
and would form a signal less likely to be mis- 
taken, or, what is more important, less likely to be 
accidentally copied, than most contrivances which 
could have been carried out without calling atten- 
tion. It is very difficult to manage such signals, 
as any one who has tried can probably bear wit- 
ness. But the candle plan would be quite prac- 
ticable in many buildings. Madame Campan, it 
should be remarked, says nothing to imply that 
the death was in the night. R. W. P. 

INSTANTLY. What was the meaning of the 
word instantly in the sixteenth century ? Cover- 
dale uses it in his preface to the Bible ; and in 
Christopher Fetherstone's address " to the reader " 
of his translation of Calvin's Commentary on St. 
John (1584) we have, " Being instantly requested 
(Gentle Reader) by my godlie friendes," &c. 

J. R. DOEE. 

[Johnson's Dictionary gives as a second meaning of 
instantly, "with urgent importunity." It bears that 
signification frequently in early literature. Flugel's 
German and English Dictionary, excellent as a reference 
for shades of meaning, translates instantly by " Dring- 
end," which it retranslates "pressingly or urgently."] 

There lies before me a beautiful specimen of the 
great cost which was occasionally bestowed on the 
production of books during the eighteenth cen- 
tury. There is no. type used ; the whole book is 
engraved on silver plates, illustrated with 166 
plates, besides vignettes and borders, by John 
Sturt, "engraver in Golden- Lion Court in Alders- 
gate Street." Prefixed to the book is a portrait 
of George I., the lines being expressed throughout 
by writing so small as to require a magnifying 
glass, and consisting of the Lord's Prayer, Apos- 
tles' Creed, Decalogue, Prayers for the royal 
family, and the 21st Psalm. Opposite are the 
effigies of the Prince and Princess of Wales (after- 
wards George II. and Queen Caroline), with the 
motto, "Flammse felices quas mutuus excitat 
amor " (whence is this unprosodiacal line ?), fol- 
lowed by a dedication signed "John Sturt." At Sir 
H. Saville's sale, 1860, this book fetched 12J. 12s. 
What is now its value ? How many copies were 
issued? G. L. FENTON. 

LIQONIER'S HORSE. I have in my possession a 
standard of "Ligonier's Horse," which was taken by 
the French at the battle of Dettingen in 1743, and 
immediately retaken from them by Cornet Richard- 
son of that corps, to whom it was presented by 
King George II. after the battle. Of this incident 
I have seen an account in a book about the 

Guards, in, as well as I can remember, a " rail- 
way edition." I also saw mention of it in an older 
book many years ago, giving a more detailed 
account, in which Cornet Richardson is stated to 
have replied, " like a true Hibernian," to the king, 
on his Majesty's observing that the standard was 
without its staff, " Your Majesty, if the wood had 
been made of iron it had been cut through." I 
believe the other cornet also had his standard 
awarded him. I am anxious to learn the title of 
one or both of the books I refer to, or of any other 
record giving an account of the incident. Mr. 
Richardson held later on a commission as lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the 29th Regiment. 


longest royal speech on record delivered by a King 
of England or by a Prince of Wales 1 It struck 
me, when listening to the long paper of the Duke 
of Edinburgh read by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 
at the International Fisheries Exhibition, that 
probably this was the longest speech on record 
delivered by an heir apparent to the English 
throne. Also, what are the longest speeches on 
record delivered by foreign kings? 

W. S. L. S. 

COWLEY AND MILTON. Thomas Oowley, the 
poet's father, in 1618 made his brother-in-law, 
Humphrey Clarke, one of his executors. Thomas, 
the poet's brother, left (1667) 200Z. to the children 
of his cousin Humphrey Clarke. Is it possible 
that Abraham Clarke, the Spitalfields weaver, who 
married Deborah, the youngest daughter of Milton, 
was one of these Clarkes ? CLK. 

PIGOTT OF DELLBROOK. In a list of sub- 
scriptions in the Times of Sept. 14, 1878, in aid of 
the sufferers by the loss of the pleasure steamer 
Princess Alice, "Sir William Pigott, Bart.," 
appears as a contributor to the fund ; and in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ccliii. p. 732, " The 
late Sir William Pigott, Bart., of Dellbrook and 
Tencurry, co. Dublin," appears. When did his 
death take place, and where ? Sir Robert Pigot, 
Bart., of Patshull, died in 1841, and Sir Thomas 
Pigott, Bart., of Knapton, died Oct. 7, 1847. 


On the rising of the Courts at the Newcastle 
Assizes for luncheon, on the afternoon of the 12th 
ult., the mayor, accompanied by the town clerk 
and several aldermen, attended the judges in their 
private room for the purpose of carrying out a 
very old custom. This was the presentation to 
their lordships of two ancient coins (a Jacobus to 
Mr. Justice Hawkins as senior judge, and a Caro- 
lus to Mr. Justice Cave) in lieu of the daggers 
which were formerly presented by way of com- 
mutation for the body guard which, in still earlier 



. vm. AUG. is, -as. 

times, the Corporation provided for the judges of 
assize on their way to Carlisle, then the next town 
on their circuit. The acquisition of the old gold 
coins of the reigns of James II. and Charles I. and 
Charles II. cost the Corporation a good round sum, 
these coins being now very scarce. What is 
known of the origin of this custom 1 


71, Brecknock Road. 

SMOR-GAS-BORD. Why should bread-and-butter 
be called in Swedish " butter-goose " 1 


numerous readers inform me from what author 
is the expression, " More prevailing sadness," 
quoted by John Bright in one of his great 
speeches on the " Eastern Question " some four or 
five years back ? MORRIS HUDSON. 

to ascertain the parentage of Ann, wife of Francis 
Shaw, Esq., of Carrickfergus, co. Antrim. She 
was married twice, her first husband being, I 
believe, a Mr. Joyce. She had issue by her second 
husband, Mr. Shaw, four daughters, viz., (1) Mary; 
(2) Elizabeth, who married William Eyder Dobbs, 
Esq., of Oakfield, Carrickfergus, third son of the 
Very Kev. Eichard Dobbs, D.D., Dean of Connor, 
but had no issue ; (3) Frances ; and (4) Helen, 
who married the Eev. John Dobbs, Eector of 
Clonmany, co. Londonderry, second son of the 
Dean of Connor, but had no issue. He died about 
1839, and was buried at Carrickfergus. His wife 
died about 1847, and was also buried at Carrick- 
fergus. Were either of the other two daughters 
of Mr. Shaw ever married 1 Dean Dobbs was 
nephew of Arthur Dobbs, Esq., of Castle Dobbs, 
co. Antrim, sometime Governor of North Carolina. 
Francis Shaw in his will, dated Jan. 25, 1800, 
mentions his " step-grandson Charles Joyce, son of 
Valentine Joyce, of Belfast," and " Marg* Joyce, 
daughter of said Valentine Joyce." Francis Shaw 
and his brother Arthur were the sons, by a second 
wife, of Henry Shaw, Esq., of Ballytweedy, co. 
Antrim. What became of Arthur Shaw ? I have 
no particulars of him? I have been told that 
there are some cases reported in the Irish Law 
Eeports which would throw some light upon the 
above questions. Any copies of tombstones, re- 
gisters, or other information relating to the families 
of Shaw, Dobbs, or Joyce, and especially to those 
persons mentioned above, will be gladly received. 

Broomfield, Fixby, near Huddersfield. 

LAWSUITS, 1 COR. vi. 7 (E.V.). Is not the in- 
troduction of the word lawsuit an alteration of 
doubtful advantage ? It was used, I suppose, for 
the sake of greater accuracy in legal language, but 

it seems inapposite now that suits are no longer a 
part of our nomenclature, all such proceedings, 
whether in the Chancery or the Queen's Bench 
Divisions, being now styled actions. If a technical 
word was wanted it would have been better to 
have employed one which should convey some 
meaning at the present time. 


" PAPA" AND " MAMMA." What is the influence 
that has driven papa, and mamma out of the 
mouths of our boys and girls during the last 
decade ? It must be very strong, as they were so 
familiar, but it is much to be regretted. Father 
and mother sound precocious and pedantic in the 
mouths of children of seven or eight, and are not 
so euphonious. I hope mamma and papa will not 
be banished entirely out of juvenile mouths. The 
aboriginal British dad and mammy are very com- 
mon among the poor in some districts. 

[See " N. & Q.," 6 S. passim.] 

GEORGE III. GUINEA. I should feel obliged if 
some of your readers could give me the signification 
of the inscription on a George III. guinea : 1790. 

M . B . F . ET . H . REX .F.D.B.ET.L.D.S.R. 

i . A . T . ET . E. I have seen one authoritative 
reading which makes it refer to various kingdoms 
and principalities over which George III. claimed 
or had sovereignty. That appeared to me to be 
a very unlikely interpretation. Another reading 
I have seen is : " 1790. Magnarum Britanniarum 
Franciae et Hiberniae Eex. Fidei Defensor. Beati- 
tude et Laus Deo semper redduntor, jam ad tempus 
et eternitatem." C. W. 0. 

"MARGARET LESSAMORE." An old drama* 
Margaret Lessamore ; or, the Wife of Seven Hut~ 
bands, is said to be founded on the case of a 
woman who was really spouse to that number of 
men, whom she removed seriatim, by pouring 
melted lead in their ears. Is there any truth in 
the story, which dates from Lambeth 1 COLON. 

" THE CURFEW." Can you inform us where a 
poem The Curfew, or The Curfeio Bell, is to be 
found ? BARNICOTT & SON. 

[Longfellow has written a poem called Curfew. The 
first stanza is as follows : 

" Solemnly, mournfully, 

Dealing its dole, 
The Curfew bell 

Is beginning to toll." 

It is on p. 465 of the edition of Longfellow in " Moxon's 
Popular Poets."] 

"ARDEN OF FEVERSHAM." Can any of your 
readers throw any light upon the words I quote 
below from a letter in my possession ? I may say 
that the play named is not mentioned by Halli- 
well : " Shakspeare was indirectly related to the 
family of Arden, and one, his first, play was a 

6-s. viii. AUG. is, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

tragedy called Fatal Curiosity, in which one Mr. 
Arden committed murder." L. E. ARDEN. 

[Look in Halliwell tinder the head " Arden of Fever- 
sham." This play, first published in quarto in 1592, 
was reprinted by Edward Jacob in 1770 with a preface 
attributing it to Shakspeare. Consult Holinshed's 
Chronicles and Jacob's History of Faversham for the true 
story on which it is founded.] 

(6 th S. vii. 501; viil 101.) 

The precise meaning of the small words, such as 
conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions, in all languages 
has always appeared to me so subtle as to transcend 
all possibility of precise grammatical definition 
especially in English. As soon as the keenest in- 
vestigatorlet him be, if you will, Priscian himself 
has set down a rule, that instant can be shown 
a case to which it cannot be accommodated ; so 
that all niceties become useless and encumber 
future writers in lieu of aiding them. 

As to the phrases " in respect to," " in respect 
of," I should feel inclined to say the reverse of 
Fleming and Marsh, that there is no such phrase 
as " in respect to," but there is a correct phrase 
" with respect to." As for Mr. Godfrey Turner's 
distinction, I confess I do not know what it 
means. Neither is SIR JAMES PICTON'S remark 
intelligible to me. If there be a rule at all in a 
matter of such nicety, I should lay down that the 
preposition in when used should be followed by 
of. When with is employed it should be followed 
by to. You would say " with regard to," " with 
respect to "; " in regard of the difficulties to be 
encountered," " in consideration of the difficulties," 
&c. ; " in respect of the difficulties," &c., or " with 
respect to with regard to the difficulties," &c.; 
and " with consideration to the difficulties to be 
encountered " would, I apprehend, be gramma- 
tically correct, though it has never been so em- 
ployed, and therefore forms no part of the idiom 
of the English language. In " With consideration 
of the difficulties to be encountered," we employ 
a sentence which is correct, but conveys a separate 
and altogether different meaning. 

Terrorism is, perhaps, not a very good word, 
but the termination ism does not seem to mean, 
as Webster gives it, a slate of being. Hood as 
priesthood, manhood, &c. seems to mean that. 
You could not say " His violence threw me into a 
terrorism." On the contrary, if you wished to 
employ the objectionable word you would pro- 
bably say, " His conduct keeps me in a state of 
terrrorism "; and this proves that the idea of 
" state of being " does not enter into the meaning 
of the word. To terrorize is to influence by terror ; 
and terrorism is the act of one who terrorizes, as 

criticism is the act of one who criticises. A bar- 
barism is the act of one who barbarizes. A state 
of barbarism is where such acts are frequent. 
Despotism conies through the Greek, which has 
Seo-TToret'etv, though we have no verb to form it 
from. Catholicism and Protestantism strictly mean 
the act of association as Catholic or Protestant. 
Dr. Johnson does not give Protestantism in his 
Dictionary, but he does give Catholicism, and 
calls it " adherence to the Catholick Church," 
which I think is a loose gloss, and not a defini- 
tion. The fact is, that these vicious abstract 
terms, when they have been used long enough, 
lose all strict signification, and so suit all the 
better the loose, wrangling, slovenly talk of man- 
kind. Witticism is a little piece of mean wit. 
It might puzzle a conjuror, I think, to say why it 
means any such thing. L'Estrange uses it. 
Dryden says, " A mighty witticism (if you will 
pardon a new word)." As a term of contempt it 
passes well enough, and no mistakes can arise; 
but the termination is troublesome, as it invites 
thought and yet is without reason. 

Later on. If Mr. Turner is going to fight against 
every marriage of particles in the English lan- 
guage that it may seem possible to do without, 
he will have a divorce court full of cases. Later 
on is more beautiful, frequently, than later; it 
means a something more than is expressed. "In 
the day," " in the month," " in time," is under- 
stood, and all poets will appreciate the charm of 
the ellipsis. 

SIR JAMES PICTON'S remarks on Purist are 
capital. Why should you not make a noun substan- 
tive out of a raw adjective, as kings are cut out 
of carrots in Covent Garden ? Was it never done 
before ? What does Mr. Turner say to justice, that 
most sublime of all nouns substantive, formed out 
of the raw radish, or radix, just ? Surely it is better 
than that American novelty rapidly generat- 
ing amongst us like a Colorado beetle 
scientist, misbegotten upon science, another noun 
substantive. Even badly constructed words, if 
they are wanted, must be accepted, if not wel- 
comed ; but novelties that are not wanted are a 
real pest, because there is danger they will dis- 
place some better word that supplied the want 
before them. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

SIR JAMES PICTON is inaccurate in stating 
that the insertion of an adverb or other part of 
speech between the preposition to and the infini- 
tive governed by it is in common use in German 5 
on the contrary, it never occurs in that language, 
and I challenge SIR JAMES PICTON to produce a 
single example of it out of any printed German 
book, either in prose or in verse. In the phrase 
quoted by him, "sich zum Gelachter rnachen," 
xu governs the substantive, and has nothing what- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. viii. A, is, 

ever to do with the infinitive. The second phrase, 
" zu mit jemandem gehen " is not German at all. 
So far as the German language is concerned, it 
fully bears out Mr. Turner's contention in Good 


The Abbe" Girard, b. 1678, d. 1748, was the author 
of a celebrated work, entitled Synonymes Francois, 
which has run through many editions. The work 
was translated into English in 1766 by an author 
who withholds his name. Of the words on, upon, 
he says this : 

" These two words are indiscriminately used, one for 
another, on all occasions, but with great impropriety. 
On rather signifies by ; as on, my word, on my honour, 
&c.; whereas upon means up on the top of, and is 
applied to matter ; as upon the table, upon the house. 
The absurdity of a contrary diction is evident from the 
following change of words, it was his honour upon 
which he swore. 

" Indeed the word upon is used with elegance, even 
detached from substance when the sense is figurative ; 
as, for instance, he relied upon the promise of his friend; 
intimating that that promise was the staff upon which 
he leaned: but on other occasions the impropriety is 

Ashford, Kent. 

fi. vi. 510 ; vii. 217). The story of the king and 
Bob Sleath, so genially told by CUTHBERT BEDE 
in your Christmas number last year, contains a 
query, " Is this story founded on fact ? " Now, I 
have within the last week picked up a curious 
little book, entitled Relics of Royalty, by Joseph 
Taylor, printed for Dean & Munday in 1820, and 
founded upon the sayings and doings of King 
George III., whose recent death evidently called 
the publication into existence. The toll-bar story 
is told as follows (p. 76): 

" The king, like all keen sportsmen, felt vexed at being 
interrupted in the pleasures of the chase. An odd in- 
etance of this occurred many years ago. A man named 
Feltbam, who first came about Hampton Court as a 
cobbler, succeeded so well in fortune that he acquired a 
long repairing lease of the bridge. On this he proceeded 
to alter its form, and removed some old pavilions from 
the ends, erected to make it look pretty from the gardens. 
As he was to thrive by his tolls, he kept his gate locked 
when nothing was passing. One morning the royal hunt 
came across from Hounslow Heath to the bridge, where 
the stag had taken water and swam across. The hounds 
passed the gate without ceremony, followed by a large 
party crying, ' The king ! ' Feltham opened his 
gate, which he closed again after they had rushed 
through without paying, when a more showy and 
numerous party, came up, vociferating more loudly, 
* The king ! the king ! ' Feltham stood with his 
key in his hand, though menaced by horse- 
whips. ' I '11 tell you what,' said he ; ' hang me if I 
open my gate again till I see your money! I pay 400. a 
year for this bridge, and I laid out 1,0001. upon it. I 've 
let King George through, God bless him ! I know of no 
other king in England. If you 've brought the King of 
France, hang me if I let him pass withoul the Hunt. 

Suddenly the king himself appeared amongst his attend- 
ants. Feltham made his reverence, opened his gate 
again, and the whole company went over to Moulsey 
Hurst, where the hounds were at fault. The king, 
chagrined for the moment, sent back Lord Sandwich to 
know the cause of the interruption. The man explained 
the mistake ; and added that when royal hunts passed 
over this bridge a guinea had always been paid, which 
franked them all, and that this had been ' his first good 
turn.' Lord Sandwich returned to the king, but his 
Majesty hastily desired him to pay for all his attendants, 
who amounted to less than forty of the whole party. 
Fcltham's lessor told him that the ladies at court called 
him a rude fellow ; but he replied that he only took the 

best means to pay his high rent Having occasion to 

use this bridge again, his Majesty pulled down the car- 
riage window and laughed heartily at Feltham at the 
toll-gate, observing, ' No fear of the King of France 
coming to-day ! ' The old bridge-renter was preud to 
relate this story." 

Huish made use of a part only of this material 
for his Memoirs of George III., published in. 1821, 

495). In the county of Somerset this curious 
custom obtains ; but the favourite verses for repe- 
tition are in Solomon's Song, viii. 6, 7: "Set me 
as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine 
arm : for love is strong as death ; Jealousy is cruel 
as the grave : the coals thereof are coals of fire, 
which hath a most vehement flame. Many waters 
cannot quench love, neither can the floods drown 
it: if a man would give all the substance of his 
house for love, it would utterly be contemned." 
These verses are repeated, the front door key having 
been placed upon them in a Bible, the handle 
being left outside; the Bible is then fastened with 
a garter, and two people hold the key suspended 
on their forefingers, and one of them begins the 
alphabet, saying: "If A's my husband's name to 
be, turn, Bible, turn." The letter at which the Bible 
turns is said to be the beginning of the Christian 
name of the future husband. This practice is very 
common in this county. 

Kuth i. 16, 17, is sometimes used. The reason 
why Solomon's Song, viii. 6, 7, is chosen is to be 
found in the words, " Jealousy is cruel as the 
grave." It is the custom for " a lover and his lass " 
to be set to turn the Bible by the company present, 
who are anxious to see whether the Bible turns at 
the proper capital letter. If it does not, there is 
supposed to be some other more favoured lover. 
The poetical form of the words is also a reason for 
their being used as an incantation. 

Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath. 

A YARD OF BEER (6 th S. vii. 476.) Did 
W. C. B., when at Kempsey, notice whether the 
inn at which ale was " sold by the pound " was 
anywhere near the village pound ? I suspect this 
to be a resuscitation of an ancient joke. 


6th S .viii.AnG.i8,'fc3.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


AN OLD VIOLA (6 th S. viii. 7). The inscription 
seema to form an hexameter line. The beginning 
and the end are plain enough, 

son os being understood. The meaning is clear 
enough: "I was alive in the woods, but (even) 
dead I furnish sweet (sounds)." If L. will send 
me through the editor a rubbing of the four or five 
letters between sylvis and mortua his perplexity 
may be relieved. BOILEAU. 

108). That the superstition regarding infants and 
mirrors is prevalent amongst Gibraltarians is mani- 
fest from the following occurrence. A few days 
ago a lady was showing her baby its reflection in 
the looking-glass when the arrival of the nurse put 
an end to the amusement, as she seized the child 
and said : " It is not good, senora, to show the 
ninas their faces in the mirror." On being asked 
why it was not good, the answer was returned that 
children who were allowed thus to see themselves 
would not be able to speak for a very long time. 
This terrible consequence of infantile self-admira- 
tion is quite new to me, as doubtless it will be to 
most of your readers. 



ANNE BOLETN (6 ll) S. vii. 428). Perhaps the 
idea that Anne Boleyn had a superfluous finger 
may come from an extract in the Diary of 
Margaret More, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas 
More, where she says, Anne is " a brown girl, with 
a wen or perthroat, and an extra finger," with 
other rather spiteful remarks; but the portraits of 
Anne do not bear out the accusation of the " wen 
or perthroat," so perhaps the " extra finger " may 
have no more solid foundation. On the contrary, 
all Anne Boleyn's portraits represent her with a 
remarkably small throat (particularly the engrav- 
ing from the one formerly in the Walpole collec- 
tion at Strawberry Hill, in Grose and Astle's 
Antiquarian Repository), which agrees with her 
own account of it, or rather the reported speech 
of hers when about to he beheaded, putting her 
hand round her throat and saying that it would 
not take long or give the headsman much trouble, 
as it was so small. I do not know where the 
whole of Margaret More's Diary is to be seen, but 
the extract I have quoted I have taken from 
Timbs's account of Hever Castle, in his Abbeys, 
Castles, and Ancient Halls of England, vol. i. 
p. 294 (1872 ed.). STRIX. 

486). Carlyle, in the three - volume edition of 
1871, gives as his authority on Madame Roland's 
execution Memoires de Madame Roland (Introd.), 
i. 68. In a note on p. 44, vol. i., of the 1821 
edition of the Memoires (Paris) the story is given 

as told by Alison, Lamartine, Lacretelle (Histoire 
de France pendant le \8eme Siecle), and most 
historians of the Revolution ; the note, however, 
goes on to say: "Ce fait est veritable, mais un 
autre e'crivain le raconte diffe'rement," and gives 
the Carlyle version. The "autre e'crivain" is 
Helene Maria William's Letters containing a 
Sketch of the Politics of France, Lond. 1795. 


GRATTEN (6 th S. viii. 26). This word is very 
commonly used in Sussex for a stubble field where 
pigs or geese are sent to scratch up the fallen 
grains. (French gratter, to scratch.) 



This word is spelt gratlon in Bailey's Dictionary, 
and is described as grass which comes after 
mowing, stubble, an ersh or eddish; and for deri- 
vation we are told that it is a country word. 
Might I suggest the French gratter, to scrape, 
scratch, rub ; the equivalent of the German 
kratsen ? Bailey gives ^rs=bitter vetch, a sort of 
pulse ; and ^rs4=stubble after corn is cat ; and 
Eddish=thQ latter pasture or grass which comes 
after mowing or after reaping. 



I fancy this ia the same word as A.-S. 
grit, sand, dust, earth. Boaworth, in his Com- 
pendious A.-S. Diet., gives four forms of the word: 
Grcetta, great, gretta, gritta. Any one who has 
walked over a field of stubble will agree that 
gratten is a very appropriate name for it. See 
Skeat under " Grit, gravel, coarse sand." A.-S. 
greot, grit, dust, closely allied to grout. 


Milton Vicarage, Evercreecb, Bath. 

A LATIN COUPLET (6 th S. vii. 449, 474, 496). 
The former of your correspondents at the last re- 
ference may be interested to know that the Latin 
lines quoted by him are given in the Arundines 
Garni, p. 35, ed. 1865, and are followed by the 
initials R. S., which are those of the late Richard 
Shilleto, the well-known classical coach. _Your 
correspondent, however, omits two words in the 
second line of his Latin quotation. After " sitias 
post " read " rape quamvis." The English version 
from which the translation is made ia as follows: 

" Excuses for a Draught. 
Good wine, a friend, or being dry, 
Or lest you should be by and by, 
Or any other reason why. 




YOKEL (6 th S. vii. 488) in many counties ia 
applied to a clumsy, awkward countryman, pro- 
bably from yoke, representative of his occupation, 


NOTES AND QHERIES. C6A s. vnr. AUG. is, -83. 

Some think it was originally yowkel, in imitation 
of the broad pronunciation of country labourers. 
It may be mentioned, however, that in gipsy 
language it signifies a dog. (See H. M. C. Grell- 
man'a Dissertation on the Gipseys, 1807, p. 176). 

Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

OTHERS (6 th S. vii. 493). There was till recently 
a church dedicated to St. Werburgh in the centre 
of Bristol. It was lately pulled down, to be re- 
built in the suburbs. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

The parish church of Hayward's Heath, Sussex, 
is dedicated to St. Wilfrid. 


(6 th S. via. 47). Consult the Origin and Services 
of the Coldstream Guards, by Col. Daniel Mac- 
kinnon, 8vo. 2 vols., Bentley, 1833. At pp. 314- 
329, will be found details of their services at the 
period required, and much interesting information 
and letters and references to gazettes and other 
authorities. I do not think there is a complete 
nominal roll of officers, but many names are men- 
tioned. Among the casualties at Malplaquet there 
were Lieut.-Cols. E. Rivett, Robert Bethell, John 
Arundel, and Capt. John Phillips of the Cold- 
stream killed, and Ensign Chudleigh wounded. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford, 

Mackinnon's history of the Coldstream will give 
the information required. Six companies of the 
regiment went to Flanders in April, 1708, forming, 
with four companies of the First Guards, a second 
battalion of Guards in Flanders. These were pre- 
sent at Oudenarde and the Siege of Ghent, where 
Col. Gorsuch was killed, and at Malplaquet in 
1709, where Lieut. -Cols. Rivett, Robert Bethell, 
and John Arundel, Capt. John Phillips, Ensign 
Chudleigh, and ten Serjeants, with many private 
soldiers of the Coldstream were killed. 


Your correspondent will find every information 
about this regiment in a book written by the late 
Col. Mackinnon, and entitled Origin and Services 
of the Coldstream Guards, published by Richard 
Bentley, New Burlington Street, 1833. 


The information sought on this point may be 
found in Col. Mackinnon's Origin and Services of 
the Coldstream Guards, vide vol. i. p. 325, and 
vol. ii. p. 472. J. M. 

FANTEAGUE (6 th S. viii. 26). This is a very 
common expression in Sussex for worry and 
anxiety. When Sam Weller addressed Mr. Winkle 
in a tone of moral reproof for the trouble he had 

caused Mr. Pickwick, he spoke of him as "in- 
wolwing our precious governor in all sorts o' fan- 
teegs " (Pickwick, chap, x.) W. D. PARISH. 

This word was common in Lancashire thirty or 
forty years ago, and meant a feeble kind of anger, 
a petulant. humour. As other dialectic words that 
express emotion, it must be referred to a Celtic 
source. It seems to be compounded of the Celtic 
fann, weak, and taoig, a fit of passion. Miss 
Jackson, in her excellent Shropshire Glossary ex- 
plains it as "a fit of ill-temper, a pet." In the 
N. Hamp. Glossary it is said to mean " irritability, 
ill-humour." J. D. 

Belsize Square. 

This word occurs, with a slight difference in 
spelling, in Mr. Henry Kingsley's story, The Hill- 
yars and the Burtons. See ch. ix., where Mr. 
Compton, the family lawyer, says to the baronet, 
" Upon my word, Hillyar, this fantague of yours 
approaches lunacy." J. H. CLARK. 

SINGLETON (6 th S. vii. 487). I have never be- 
fore seen this word used in English, but in French 
it has been familiar to me for nearly forty years. 
I have frequently played at whist with French 
people, and one cannot do this long without hear- 
ing the word singleton, which means a single card 
of a suit. Whether this explanation will help MR, 
SMY.THE PALMER to understand the passage in the 
Saturday Review of May 12 to which he refers I 
cannot say, as he does not quote the passage word 
for word, and, besides, I have not got Letts's 
Popular Atlas, the book with reference to which 
the word was used. 

With regard to the derivation of the word, 
Littre" derives it from the Eng. single, and the 
word single certainly does not exist in French. 
The ending (e)ton, however, appears to be French, 
as Prof. Skeat shows it is in simpleton. This word 
may be a " unique formation " in English, as MR. 
PALMER says, but the double termination is not 
so very uncommon in French. Prof. Skeat quotes 
mushetoon=Fr. mousqueton, in which the t (or 
rather et) is a diminutive, and the on is also, appa- 
rently, a second diminutive.* So Littre 1 , for the Fr. 
mousqueton, seems to have been merely a short 
(and therefore small) musket, and not a kind of 
blunderbuss, as, I believe, musketoon was in Eng. 
In Ital, however, the corresponding moschettone 
is, of course, an augmentative. 

Other examples of similar double terminations, 
or I think we may say double diminutives, in 
French are molleton, a sort of stuff, from mou, 
soft, dim. mollet, second diminutive (or is it here 

* The ending on in French is, perhaps, occasionally 
augmentative (as in Italian), but more commonly, I 
think, diminutive, as in carafon=& small carafe, Loui- 
son, Julian, in which latter cases it is also endearing, 
See Diez, third edit., ii. 344. 

6*8. viii. AW. is, -83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a mere termination T)mol leton; Jeanneton (=little 
Jenny, from Jeanne, Jeannette), caneton (duckling, 
from cane, canette, Littre' says wrongly canet),* and 
hanneton (cockchafer, from Germ. Hahn, cock, or 
O.F. hane, a hook, or a double diminutive 
of J"oAanne=Jean, Johannet, Johanneton, the Jo 
being cut off as in the German Hans). See Lar- 
chey's Did. des Noms, s.vv. hanne and the follow- 
ing article. Hanneton, the insect, is generally 
considered to come from the G. Hahn (cock, comp. 
our cockchafer), but Larchey thinks it may well 
be connected either with Johanne=Jea.v, or with 
O.F. hane=& hook. In any case, however, hanne- 
ton would be a double diminutive. 

If the word singleton arose in France, it is odd 
that the French should have added a French 
termination to an English word ; but if the word 
was originally English, it is equally odd that the 
English should have added on the French termination 
(e)ton. They seem, however, to have done this in 
simpleton ; at least, no record is before us of the 
word's ever having existed in French. 


Sydenham Hill. 

"ONCE AND AWAY" (6 th S. viii. 58). This 
phrase is still common in my native county (Lan- 
cashire). It does not mean immediately, but for 
this one time or occasion only. It is much used 
by superiors (or was used in my youth) to limit a 
grant or permission to one particular occasion, so 
that it should not become a precedent at some 
future time. A father would say to his son, " You 
may have a holiday to-day, for once and away," 
meaning that the grant would not be renewed. 

J. D. 

Belsice Square. 

PRONUNCIATION OF WHOLE (6 th S. vii. 466 ; viii. 
73). I am glad that PROF. SKEAT has discovered the 
authority of a king (although a bluff one) for whole 
being spelt without a w in the sixteenth century. 
The difficulty, of course, is to explain how the word 
ever came to have that initial letter. It seemed 
to me that his own suggestion must be the right 
one, and that it was taken from some dialectic 
form in which the w was pronounced. Therefore 
it was that I thought the Lancashire servant's 
pronunciation of the word might be of some value, 
and perhaps lead to a solution of the difficulty. 
If, indeed, it emanated from that county, it would 
be an odd illustration of the expression, now so 
often used in a very different sense, " What Lan- 
cashire thinks to-day England will think to- 
morrow." My reference to the reverse case of 

* The word canel does not exist, whereas canetle does, 
and is given by Littre. He seems to have imagined, for 
the moment, that a masc. in on must be formed from 
another masc. subst., but this is certainly not necessarily 
BO. Thus from salle (f.) we have salon; from carafe 
(f.), cara/o?i y from Jeannette, Jeanneton, &c. 

one pronounced with a w, but spelt without it, 
was taken from Prof. Skeat's Etymological Dic~ 
tionary. It is certainly very remarkable that the 
spelling of w in the one word and the sound of it 
without the spelling in the other, should have 
been introduced at the same time the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, as Prof. Skeat has now 
proved. Of course, messieurs les compositeurs 
have much to answer for in modern English spell- 
ing. May I be forgiven for hazarding a guess? 
Can a fancied analogy from similarity (indeed 
almost identity at that time) of meaning with well 
(Germ, wohl) have anything to do with the w in 
whole ? In Tyndale's version of the New Testa- 
ment (anno 1534) the word is spelt whoale. Can 
any of your correspondents say whether the sound 
of w in the word is common in any part of Lan- 
cashire ? W. T. LYNN. 

AURORA BOREALIS (6 th S. vii. 415). Canon 
Tristram, Land of Moab, ch. ii. p. 34, ed. 1873, 
speaks of seeing this while at Sebbeh, on the Dead 
Sea, Feb. 4, 1872, and that it was seen at the 
same time in Europe, and " in Egypt, far up the 
Nile." D. C. 

" THE ENGLISH WAKE " (6 th S. viii. 47). The 
text of this poem is briefly the following. Agatha, 
the only daughter of the Earl of Chester, is be- 
trothed to young Eodolphus, a vowed Crusader. 
On the eve of their nuptials he dies suddenly, and 
with his last words bequeaths his vow to Agatha. 
She, telling no one, disguises herself and goes to 
the Holy Land and joins the host of Christian 
warriors disguised as a knight, carrying with her 
the heart of Rodolphus in an urn. The Christiana 
triumphant and the crusade over, she returns to 
England, and arrives at her native village on the 
day of the "wake" or festival of the patron saint, 
in the disguise of a pilgrim. She asks her father's 
blessing, shows the urn which has been her talis- 
man, and tells her story. Finally she returns 
with her father to his castle, amidst the general 
rejoicing of the villagers. 

The writer of this poem was Edward Jerning- 
ham, third son of Sir George, fifth baronet, and 
brother of Sir William Jerningham, the sixth 
baronet. He was educated at the college of Douay, 
and spent his early years at Paris under the care 
of Dr. Howard. In 1762 he came to England 
and published his first poem, The Nunnery, a 
parody on Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard. 
This was well received, and he subsequently pub- 
lished many poems. He died in London, Nov. 17, 
1812, at the age of seventy-four. There is an 
obituary notice of him in the Gentkman's Maga- 
zine for March, 1813, p. 283. Several editions of 
his Poems and Plays, in four volumes, octavo, were 
printed, but I do not think they contained all his 
published works. His last poem, The 



. vra. AUG. is, 8. 

Farewell, printed a few months before his death, 
is mentioned with grave but kindly courtesy in 
the Monthly Review, Ixiv. 321, as showing that 
he had at last wholly left the seductive paths of 
infidelity, into which in early life his admiration 
for Voltaire had led him. EDWARD SOLLY. 

In answer to this query, I may mention that I 
have a small volume of poems by " Mr. Jerning- 
ham " (sic in title-page), published in London for 
J. Robson, New Bond Street, 1774. In it I can 
find no reference to a wake, or to Agatha. How- 
ever, in the advertisement or preface, the author 
mentions that " out of respect to the public opinion " 
he has excluded some poems from this collection. 
Possibly the one in question may have been among 
those excluded. 

One of the above collection is a poem called 
The Funeral, &c., the subject of which is thus 
described in the advertisement, " Arabert, a young 
ecclesiastic, retired to the convent of La Trappe in 
obedience to a vow he had taken during a fit of 
illness. Leonora, with whom he had lived in the 
strictest intimacy, followed her lover, and by the 
means of a disguise, obtained admission into the 
monastery, where, a few days after, she assisted 
at her lover's funeral : 

" With trembling hand 

She now the veil withdrew, 
When, lo, the well-known features 
Struck her view," &c. 

Can this be the subject of Hamilton's picture ? 

A THRTMSA (6 th S. vi. 408 ; vii. 98). Your 
correspondents' observations are noted with 
thanks, but they do not settle the point: Was 
a thrymsa a coin or a mere measure of value, and 
is any specimen extant? I now find there are 
several specimens in the magnificent collection of 
coins in the British Museum, one of gold, about 
the size of a silver penny, and said to have been 
worth about tenpence, and several of silver. 
Keeves (Hist. Eng. Law, vol. i. p. 15), in speaking 
of the criminal laws of the Anglo-Saxons and the 
Weregild, says every man's life had its value, called 
a were, or capitis estimatio. The king was rated 
at 30,000 thrymsse ; an archbishop or earl at 
15,000 ; a bishop or ealderman at 8,000 ; belli 
imperator or summut prcefectus at 4,000 ; a priest 
or thane at 2,000 ; a common person at 267 
thrymsse, and that this were varied in different 
parts of the country; and in a note he adds, a 
thrymsa, according to Du Fresne, was worth four- 
pence. G. G. HARDINGHAM. 


GAMBETTA (6** S. vii. 25, 97, 297 ; viii. 77). 
It is so thoroughly an Italian custom to form 
diminitives of such names as easily admit of them, 
that Gambetta would be readily formed from 
Gamba, the name of an old Italian family. Many 

persons besides myself may well remember a Count 
Gamba, who was one of Byron's followers to 
Greece. George Eliot, in Theophrastus Such, in- 
timates that Joseph Gambetta was of Jewish ex- 
traction. It is true he had somewhat of a Jewish 
physiognomy ; but that is not sufficient proof. I 
hope the other notion, that the patronymic of one 
of the greatest of modern Frenchmen arose from 
one of his ancestors having had a wooden leg, may 
be found equally difficult to substantiate. 

Wickham Market. 

Is not the more probable origin of this name 
"Gambetta, a spindle-shank, a small leg" (Tor- 
riano, Vocabolario Italiano, &c., 1688)] With 
such a derivation we may compare our Longsbank, 
Cruikshank, Sheepshank, &c., and Bellejambe, 
Foljambe, &c. 

It may not be inappropriate to quote the follow- 
ing passage from Mr. Ferguson's recently issued 
Surnames as a Science, p. 153 : 

"This name is of Italian origin, and I venture to 
think may be one of those given to Italy by the Germans, 
and perhaps, most probably, by the Lombards. There 
was a Gambad who ruled over Ticino in the ancient 
duchy of Milan, and was subsequently driven out by 
Pertharit, who thereupon became the ruler of the whole 
of Lombardy. Gambad seems to be probably a Lom- 
bard form of Ganbad (gan, magic or fascination, and 
bad, war), or it might be of Gandbad (gand, wolf), both 
ancient German stems. This name Gambad would in 
French take the form of Gambette* and in Italian of 
Gambetta. It would be curious if this name were one 
left behind by the Lombards (or possibly even the 
Franks) in their invasion of Italy, and restored to France 
to rouse her to a gallant though unavailing attempt to 
stem the tide of another German invasion. And very 
suitable, too, would be the name, in the sense of magic 
or fascination, to one whose energy and eloquence acted 
as such a potent spell to revive the drooping courage 
of his countrymen. 



JOAN OF ARC (6 th S. vi. 407; vii. 113). The 
following papers on Joan of Arc may be appended 
to those already named in your several notices. 

Universal Review, 1824, vol. ii. pp. 96-104 (a 
notice of Bistoire de Jeanne d'Arc, par M. Lebrun 
de Charmettes, 4 yols. 8vo., Paris ; Memoirs of 
Jeanne d'Arc : with a History of Her Times, 
2 vols., London, Triphook, 1824). 

Eclectic, vol. xi. pp. 177-210 (notice of The Life 
and Death of Jeanne d'Arc, by Harriet Parr, 
2 vols., Smith, Elder & Co.). 

English Review, vol. vi. pp. 227-284 (review of 
Quicherat, Soumet, and Schiller). 

Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1865, pp. 386-390; 
January, 1857, pp. 28-38. 

The Atlantis, vol. i. pp. 245-284. 


* As in the French names Otrbet and Herlette, repre- 
senting the Old Prankish nnmeg Gerbad and Herbad, 

6* s. viii. A, is, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Modern Thought, vol. iv., 1882, p. 500, contains 
an article by Dr. C. Carter Blake, advocating Dele- 
pierre'8 view that Joan was not executed May 31, 
1431, but that she was living as late as 1444. 


Witliernsea, near Hull. 

The following may be added to the lists already 

Disraeli's Curiosities of Literature, s.v. "Joan 
of Arc." 

Hase (Karl), Die Jungfrau wn Orleans : Neue 
Propheten erstes Heft, 1861. 

James (G. P. K.), Celebrated Women, vol. i. 

Parr (Louisa), Life and Death of Jeanne d'Arc, 
2 vok, 1866. 

Stanhope (Lord), Joan of Arc, 1852. 


There are two interesting portraits, one in female 
and the other in male attire, of Joan at pp. 318 
and 354 of vol. ii. of Guizot's History of France, 
published by Sampson Low & Co. 1873. 


Freegrove Road, N. 

ARMIGER FAMILY (6 th S. vii. 428 ; viii. 75). 
Concerning this family I have a few notes, and 
also a letter from my friend the late CoL Jos. L. 
Chester, in whose collections, wherever they may 
be, no doubt a full pedigree of the family is to 
be found. I venture to give a copy of the letter, 
feeling that whatever comes from the pen of such 
an eminent genealogist will be welcomed by all 
readers of "N. & Q.": 

124. South wark Park Road, London, S.B. 
June 18, 1881. 

My dear Mr. Elwes, You are quite right ; the burial 
entry of Clement Armiger, Jan. 6, 1690/1, was exactly 
what 1 wanted (though you gave me his baptism in 1647 
and now in 1648). 

The Armigers were Norfolk people, and had nothing 
to do with Cople until Clement (afterwards Sir Clement) 
married the widow of Nicholas Spencer; they had three 
BODS, Edward, Clement, and William, and two daughters, 
Bridget and Anne. I already had the burial of Edward 
at Cople, June 29, 1654, and you gave me his baptism 
on the 21st of same month, which shows that he died 
an infant. As to Clement, I only had the authority of 
Le Neve that he died s.p., and was always afraid that 
he might have left issue. You have killed him for me 
under such circumstances that I feel convinced he had 
no family. 

William now alone remains as the last male of his 
race, as I had already worked out the other lines of the 
family to their extinction. Sir Clement in his will, 
1694/5, does not name William as living, but does name 
William's daughter Frances, so I take it he married and 
had issue, but I hare never been able to find who he 
married or when he died. 

I suppose you took the Luke entries at Cople. 

I suppose you saw in the newspapers what they are 
going to do with me at Oxford next Wednesday. 
Sincerely yours, 


The baptism of Clement mentioned in the letter 
was April 12, 1647, and not 1648, which was a 
mistake in copying from my own extracts. The 
last paragraph in the letter alludes to his being 
about to receive the honorary degree of D.C.L. at 

SIGMA, I see, states that Sir Clement Armiger 
married Mary, second daughter of Sir Edward 
Gostwick, and widow of William Spencer, of Cople. 
This is a mistake, as her first husband was Nicho- 
las Spencer, who was baptized at Cople, Nov. 15, 
1611. D. G. GARY ELWES. 

EFFER OR EFFET (6 th S. viii. 27, 72). With 
regard to the second correspondent at the latter 
reference it may be as well to observe that effet ia 
from the A.-S. efete. Wycliffe uses the word: " An 
euete enforsith with hondis, and dwellith in the 
housis of kingis " (Proverbs, xxx. 28). Of course 
the word is the same as newt, which, as Prof. 
Skeat says, "has taken to itself an initial n, 
borrowed from the indef. art. an." He says the 

" word is to be divided as ef-eta (Bosworth and Toller 
give the word as fern, efete), where -eta is a suffix due 
to Aryan suffix -to; see March, A.-S. Grammar, p. 120. 
The base /- for a/- answers to Aryan ap, signifying 
river; cf. Skt. ap, water (whence aptcJiara, living _ in 
water"), Lithuan. uppis, a stream." Etymological Diet., 
s.v. " Newt." 



PETERTIDE BONFIRES (6 th S. viii. 27). There 
is in Hone's Every -Day Book, vol. i., an engraving 
which represents a rejoicing formerly common to 
midsummer ; it is from a French print, inscribed 
" Le Feu de St. Jean Marriette ex." The " summer 
solstice " has been celebrated throughout all ages 
by the lighting up of fires, and hence on "St. 
John's Eve," or the vigil of the festival of St. John 
the Baptist, there have been popular ceremonials 
of this kind from the earliest times of the Eomish 
Church to the present. Mr. Brand notices that 
Mr. Douce has a curious French print, entitled 
" L'este le Feu de la St. Jean," Mariette ex. _ In 
the centre is the fire, made of wood ^ piled 
very regularly, and having a tree stuck in the 
midst of it. Young men and women are repre- 
sented dancing round it hand in hand. Herbs are 
stuck in their hats and caps, and garlands of the 
same round their waists, or are slung across their 
shoulders. A boy is represented carrying a large 
bough of a tree. Several spectators are looking on. 
The following lines are at the bottom: 
" Que de Feux brulans dans les airs ! 
Qu'ils font une douce harmonic ! 
Redoublons cette melodie 
Par nos dances, par nos concerts ! 
It may be stated, on the authority of Mr. Brand's 
collections, that the Eton scholars formerly had 
bonfires on St. John's Day ; that bonfires are still 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. A, is, . 

made on Midsummer Eve in several villages of 
Gloucester and also in the northern parts of Eng- 
land and in Wales ; to which Mr. Brand adds 
that there was one formerly at Whiteborougb, 
a tumulus on St. Stephen's Down, near Launceston, 
in Cornwall. A large summer pole was fixed in 
the centre, round which the fuel was heaped up. 
It had a large bush on the top of it (Hone's Every- 
Day Book, vol. i.). CELER ET AUDAX. 

OTAMT (6 th S. iii. 430; v. 435; vi. 96). I have 
recently met with the following illustration of the 
use of this word, which will probably be acceptable 
to your correspondent at the first reference : 

" Poor brother Tom bad an accident this time twelve- 
month; and so clever made a fellow he was, that I could 
not save him from those fleaing rascals, the surgeons ; 
and now, poor man, he is among the otamys&t Surgeon's- 
hall." Gay, The Beggars' Opera, act ii. (1727). 



PEERS' TITLES (6 th S. viii. 66). The Duke of 
Hamilton, who was defeated at Preston in 1648, 
was usually spoken of as Duke Hamilton in con- 
temporary literature. Here are two examples. I 
could, were it needful, furnish many others : 

" Saturday, January 8 [1647} A. message was thi 8 

day sent from the Lords, desiring the concurrence of th 
House of Commons to an order for the restoring of th 
Lord Duke Hamilton his Pictures and Goods remaining 
in the Hands of an Honourable Peer of this kingdom." 
Rushwortb, Historical C'ollec., pt. iv. vol. ii. p. 978. 

" The principal part whereof, with Duke Hamilton, is 
on south side Eibble and Darwen Bridge." Letter of 
Oliver Cromwell, Aug. 17, 1648, in Carlyle, vol. i. 
p. 282, edit. 1857. 


Not only "well-edited newspapers," but even 
official documents sometimes err in this respect. 
In the London Gazette for May 4, 1880, it is 
stated that the " Earl of Fife " was sworn a member 
of the Privy Council ; and again in the very next 
number we find that the " Earl of Fife " "was ap- 
pointed captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms. 


THE MANTUAN MARBLE (6 th S. vii. 328 ; viii. 
35). Not having by me the query, I am not able 
to say how much of the answer has been anti- 
cipated. But it should be appended to the lines 
that they are part of the hymn of Thomas of 
Celano, " Dies irse, dies ilia." ED. MARSHALL. 

" EARLY TO BED," &c. (6 th S. vii. 128). I re- 
member having this variant given me some years 

" Early to bed and early to rise 
Makes woman healthy, wealthy, and wise. 
Live while you live, and live to grow old, 
And so keep the doctor from getting your gold, 
And the sexton from putting you under the mould." 

$. H. BOSK. 

SMOKING BOOMS (6 th S. viii. 65). MR. WATER- 
TON and others interested in this subject may like 
to know that some information concerning old 
smoking rooms is already stored up among the 
archives of " N. & Q." See 4 th S. xii. 286, 396. 

G. F. E. B. 

FAMILY OF SNAPE (6 th S. viii. 7). Snape only 
occurs in three counties in the Heraldic Visitations, 
namely, in Devonshire, Oxfordshire, and Essex. 
Those in the two latter are of the same family, 
Snape, of Maldon, Essex, being an offshoot from 

Snape, of Devon, is recorded in the Heraldic 
Visitations of that county in 1623, but only the 
surname is given, and without pedigree. The 
arms are, Argent, a lion rampant sable. Har- 
leian MS. 1538, fol. 17. 

Snape, of Oxfordshire, dates back to about 1450, 
when there lived " Richard Snape of ffall in com 
Oxford." In the Heraldic Visitation of Oxford- 
shire, 1574, four generations are given, the young- 
est living at the time of the visitation. The three 
last generations lived at Stanlake. The arms of 
this family are, Ermine, on a chief azure three 
portcullises ringed and lined or ; crest, a buck's 
head cabossed per pale or and vert, attires counter- 
changed. At the time of the visitation, Snape 
quarterly-quartered the arms of two heiresses, 
first, Gules, two bars or, for Harcourt ; second, 
Azure, a sun in splendour or, for St. Clair. Har- 
leian MSS. 808, fol. 76, and 1095, fol. 126. 

Snape, of Maldon, Essex, was " from Stanlake 
in com Oxon." In the Heraldic Visitation of 
Essex, 1634, a pedigreee is given of four genera- 
tions, Robert Snape then living cet. thirty-two. 
Harleian MSS. 1083, fol. 406, and 1136, fol. 1216. 

As regards the spelling of the name, in every 
instance that I have seen there has been but 
one p ; the double p in Burke's Armory is pro- 
bably a printer's error. 


Basingfield, near Basingstoke. 

This now somewhat uncommon name is to be 
found at Melbourne, in Derbyshire ; at Lower 
Darwen, Walton-le-Dale, and Newton-Mottram, 
in Lancashire ; at Wem, in Salop ; Milwich, Pel- 
sail, and Wolverhampton, Staffordshire ; and at 
Haverhill, in Suffolk. The British Herald (Sun- 
derland, 1830) gives for Snape, "same arms as 
Snappe" viz., "Erm., on a chief az. three port- 
cullises or, lined and ringed of the last." Crest of 
Snape (different from Snappe), " Between two 
wings an escallop ppr." W. SHANLY. 


GUY FAWKES (6 th S. vi. 516; vii. 233). In the 
official report, entitled A True and Perfect Rela- 
tion of the whole Proceedings against the late most 
barbarous Traitors, Garnet a lesuite, and his 
Confederate, &c., London, Barker, 1606, 4to. ? 

8*8. viii. A, is, >83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Fawkes is indicated as " Guy FawTses, Gentleman, 
otherwise called Guy lohnson" which is a mistake ; 
for it does not appear that he was ever described 
as Guy Johnson, although Sir Edward Coke laid 
stress upon the danger the Crown had run of hang- 
ing the right man in the wrong name. "We 
should," he said, when excusing the delay in bring- 
ing the traitors to trial, " otherwise have hanged a 
man vnattainted, for Guy Fawkes passed for a 
time vnder the name of lohn lohnson : So that if 
by that name greater expedition had beene made, 
and he hanged, though wee had not missed of the 
man, yet the proceeding would not haue beene so 
orderly or iustifiable." Nowhere in this narrative 
in his Christian name spelt Guido; but it is re- 
markable that the spelling of his surname varies 
thus : Fawks, Fawkes, Fawlkes, Faukes, Faux, 
Fowks. In 1679 a reprint of the above relation 
(with additional matter) was issued by the king's 
printers in octavo, The Gunpowder- Treason : with 
a Discourse of the Manner of its Discovery, &c. ; 
and on p. 33 the conspirator is introduced in a 
side-note as " Guido Fawkes, bearing the name of 
Percy's man," and as Guido Fawkes his " declara- 
tion " or confession is here printed. But see the 
relation preserved in the State-Paper Office (cor- 
rected in the handwriting of the Earl of Salisbury, 
then Secretary of State and one of the Lords Com- 
missioners at the trial of the conspirators), wherein, 
referring to the apprehension of Fawkes, it is re- 
corded that " the wretch gave himself the name of 
John Johnson, which synce he hath confessed to 
be false and his true name to be Guy Fawkes (a 
gentleman borne near Spofforth, in Yorkshire)." 
There is no evidence whatever in favour of the 
far-fetched suggestion that " he was of Italian 
origin, and his name properly (!) Guido Foschetti, 
except the fact that he passed from Flanders to 
Italy on his way to London ; although it is very 
probable that Guy may have become converted 
into " Guido " during his military service in Spain. 

A "PTNSON" VOLUME (6 th S. viii. 68). 
T. Q. C.'s description of his little book tallies 
almost exactly with that given by Dr. Dibdin of 
Pynson's edition of the Magna Charta and ofher 
statutes (1514). See Dibdin's Topographical Anti- 
quities (1812), vol. ii. p. 454. G. FISHER. 

SUPPORTERS (6 th S. vi. 309, 520 ; vii. 254). 
In the Lyon Register, about the year 1712, the 
Hon. W. Fraser, second son of Lord Saltoun, re- 
gistered his arms, and had as supporters two 
angels. On May 22, 1775, his only son, William 
Fraser, of Fraserfleld, made a fresh matriculation, 
with supporters. His granddaughter and heir, 
Margaret Fraser, married Henry David Forbes, of 
the Craigievar family, and had issue two sons. 
These two sons bear the coat of 1775, quarterly 
with that of Forbes of Craigievar (with a border 

argent), but no supporters have been granted. I 
take these items from a privately printed history 
of the family of Fraserfield, printed in 1869. 

While on this subject may I ask, What right 
have the eldest sons of peers bearing courtesy 
titles to use coronets or supporters ? So far as I 
can see, no right at all. Thus, the Marquis of A. 
has a son John Jones, by the queen's courtesy 
styled Earl of B.; I find this Earl of B. uses his 
father's supporters, and ensigns his shield with an 
earl's coronet. By what authority ? Supporters 
belong to a person, not to a family, and unless a 
man is a peer how can he bear a coronet 1 I shall 
be glad to be corrected if my ideas on this subject 
are erroneous. GEORGE ANGUS. 

1, Alma Terrace, Kensington, W. 

The device used by Peter Treveris, printer at 
Southwark, is a wild man and woman, called by 
him " the Wodowes," being the supporters of the 
family of Treffry, Cornwall, of whom he must have 
been a cadet. ' THOMAS KERSLAKE. 

CATERWATS (6 th S. vii. 88, 354, 396, 476 ; viii. 
74). It is worthy of remark that in Lincolnshire 
cross-3ttar(=cross-corner, vide Mr. Peacock's Glos- 
sary (E.D.S.). I tender my thanks to PROF. 
SKEAT for having exposed the absurd fallacy which 
appeared 6 th S. vii. 476. 


HUE ON SUNDAYS (6 th S. vi. 408 ; vii. 193). 
Bunches of rue used to be placed before prisoners 
in the dock at the Old Bailey. I do not know if it 
is still done ; but was this not in allusion to the 
meaning of the herb " repentance " as well as for 
the original reason to prevent gaol fever, of which 
aromatic herbs were supposed to be a preventive 1 


" The Seed of Rue is made in the fashion of a 
Crosse, and this peradventure is the reason that it 
is of so great Vertue in the case of those that are 
Possessed, and that the Roman Church useth it in 
their Exorcisms " (Vnheard-of Curiosities, Jacques 
Gaffarel, Englished by Edmond Chilmead, 1650). 

R. H. BUSK. 

VELOCIMEN (6 th S. viii. 68). Singer's Price 
List for 1882 of the Coventry bicycles and tricycles 
has this notice of the velociman : 

"The Velociman (hand tricycle). (2nd gear. Charles- 
ley's patent.) The demand for a good hand tricycle 
has induced us to arrange with the inventor of t 

' Velociman' for the sole use of his patent The tricycle 

is propelled by two levers bent forward working timul- 
taneously as in rowing," &c. P. 23. 
The specialty consists in the tricycle admitting of 
being worked either by the hands or the feet or 
both, together with certain improvements in con- 
struction. The inventor is the Rev. Robert Harvey 
Charlesley, of Oxford, and residents there are 
familiar with his appearance in using ir. It w 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. AUO. is, -83. 

possible that the patent may be worked abroad, 
or that the tricycle may be exported, or that the 
name may be borrowed by foreign makers. 


This is one of those words connected with sport 
which have been adopted by the French-speaking 
peoples, often, as in this case, incorrectly. The 
proper word in the Belgian speech would be 
velocipediste ; but that is too long. I have seen 
somewhere a list of English words adopted into 
modern French without alteration; they are chiefly 
connected with sport. J. MASKELL. 

Lou vain. 

(6 th S. vii. 345 ; viii. 53). Thanking MR. W. 
THOMPSON WATKIN for his reply, I will complete 
my note upon this stone by stating that it and 
another stone with a Roman inscription upon it 
have been removed to the British Museum, where 
they now are. The second stone I now mention 
was found a few weeks ago, at about ten yards' 
distance from the Hadrian stone ; it was un- 
fortunately broken, the conclusion of the inscrip- 
tion being apparently missing. I did not see this 
second stone myself, being away from the neigh- 
bourhood, but I have been allowed to see Mr. 
Franks's reading, which is this: 


P . P . ET . M . AVB 



The stop is certainly after the first P, but should, 
of course, be after the second. Mr. Franks extends 
the inscription thus: "Imperatores Csesares L. 
Septimus Severus pius pertinax et M. Aureliu 
Antoninus Auguati et P. Septimus Geta nobiles 


THE DUNMOW FLITCH (6 th S. vi. 449; vii. 135) 
I have in my possession a curious wood engrav- 
ing of the awarding of the Dunmow flitch in 1701 
It is on a demy single sheet, and also contains 
" The names of the persons who have received the 
Same from its Institution in the Year 1230 to 1751. 
According to this only eight " worthies " had " been 
bold enough to take the oath and obtain the bacon ' 
up to the latter date. The engraving is a ver_ 
quaint production, showing, on an elevated dais 
the mixed jury, consisting of six men and sis 
" spinsters "; the names of five of the spinsters ar 
given. The full heading of the engraving is a 

" A Representation of the Antient Custom of Deliver 
ing the Gammon of Bacon at the Priory of Dunmow 
Parva in Essex ; with the Names of the Persons wh 
have received the same from its Institution in the Yea 
1230 to 1751." 

It bears the following imprint : " London, Cu 
Printed, Painted, and sold by William and Clue 

>icey in Bow-Church-Yard ; Sold also at their 
iVholesale Warehouse in Northampton." If a 
ufficient number of your correspondents desire to 
ossess a copy, I would have the engraving repro- 
uced by the photo-lithographic process. 


I remember to have heard another version of the 
rigin of this custom, and I give it from memory, 
iz.: Robert Fitz waiter, a powerful baron in the 
eign of Henry II., instituted a custom at Dunmow, 
n Essex, that a man and wife who did not quarrel 
or a year and a day after marriage might go to 
)unmow and claim a flitch of bacon. But they 
were required to kneel on two hard pointed stones 
et up in the churchyard for that purpose, and 
ake an oath in the presence of the steward of the 
manor. The form of the oath was in substance as 
ollows, although the versification is evidently by 
j, modern hand: 
" You shall swear by the custom of your confession, 

That you never made any nuptial transgression 

Since you were married to your wife, 

By household brawl, or contentious strife ; 

Or since the parish clerk said, Amen ! 

Wish'd yourselves unmarried again ; 

Or for a twelvemonth and a day 

Eepented not, in thought, any way ; 

But continued true, and in desire 

As when you joined hands in holy choir ; 

If to these conditions, without any fear, 

Of your own accord, you will freely swear 

A gammon of bacon you shall receive, 

And bear it home with love and good leave, 

For this is our custom at Dunmow well known, 

The sport is ours the bacon's your own." 



THE BAGMERE PORTENT (6 th S. vi. 511; vii. 
215). Allow me to send the following extract 
from a volume of MS. collections made _by me 
many years ago. The passage is from the Itinerary 
of Northwich Hundred, written by William Webb 
in 1621, before the elevation of Sir William Brere- 
ton to the peerage of Ireland as Baron Brereton of 
Leighlin, which occurred in 1624, and it gives a 
very plain and sensible account of the portent : 

" So we pass along to that famous mere, called the 
Bagmere, being very large and very deep, and from it 
runs a water called the Croco, which quickly hastens to 
increase the Dane. If here I should either pass in 
silence, or call in question that common report of trees in 
the pool, which are said to lift themselves into sight 
above the water before such time as any heir of the 
house of the Breretons, the owner therof dieth, I should 
be thought too nice and strict in giving way to the 
current of all writers, and too injurious to the wonder- 
tellers of all ages. But I profess a love to truth, and by 
such enquiry as I have made, I could never learn that 
the worthy knights and owners themselves of that great 
seat have much regarded that observation, but rather 
thought (as for my own part I do) that the rising some - 
time of those trees, is for the time merely accidental, 
and for the signification nothing at all, but even as other 

6th S .viii.AuG.i8,'83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the like bulks and bodies of wood, or earth, or other 
substance, that lie floating in deep waters, which by 
winds or other natural motions do stir, are diversely 
raised or depressed: so these, at some time, are so 
carried by some natural cause, not so fully appearing to 
man's understanding. And if once or twice in many 
ages such an accident fall out, at, or before the death 
of an heir, as easily it may come to pass, this hath more 
force to give wings unto such a flying report than ten 
experiences to the contrary shall ever call in again." 

There are engravings of Brereton Hall in Nash's 
Mansions of England and in Ormerod's History 
of Cheshire & fine structure, the foundation stone 
of which is said to have been laid by Queen 
Elizabeth. It has been supposed by some to have 
been the original of Bracebridge Hall in The 
Sketch-Boole of Washington Irving, and it certainly 
was once the property of the family of that name 
at the beginning of this century. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

REV. CYRIL JACKSON (6* S. vi. 488; vii. 216). 
I think I can throw some light on the descent 
of Dr. Cyril Jackson, Dean of Christ Church. 
His father, Cyril Jackson, M.D., of Stamford, was 
the eldest son of the Rev. Robert Jackson, Rector 
of Ad el, Yorkshire, from 1703 until his death in 
1730, when he was aged sixty-nine. This Robert 
Jackson appears, from a matriculation entry at 
Christ Church, Cambridge, dated Nov. 20, 1678, 
when he was aged fifteen, to have been the son of 
Robert Jackson, and to have been born " apud 
Coates Hall inter perbienses " (stc), and taught by 
Mr. Baskerville, of Wakefield, York. In 1737 
the Rev. William Jackson (d. 1766, eel. fifty-two), 
second son of Rev. Robert Jackson, was inducted 
to Adel. He had an only son, William Jackson, 
of no profession (b. 1750, d. at Leeds 1773), who 
was father of an only child, Elizabeth. She 
married the Rev. George Hutchinson, and had 
issue. In Adel Church there is a memorial 
window to the son, Rev. William Jackson, the 
grandson, William Jackson, and the great-grand- 
daughter, Elizabeth Hutchinson, of the Rev. 
Robert Jackson. Coates is, I believe, in the 
parish of Barnoldswick, Yorkshire. From the 
matriculation paper of Dean Cyril Jackson, oi 
Trinity College, Oxon, dated June 20, 1764, he 
appears as " Cyrillus Jackson, 18, Cyrilli de 
Civit. Eborac. Doctris fil." This probably 
accounts for no entry of his birth being found a! 
Stamford by MR. JUSTIN SIMPSON. 

W. H. M. J. 

CANDLEMAS OFFERINGS (6 th S. viii. 8). In the 
High School of Glasgow, in 1826, the scholars, o 
whom I was one, were informed shortly befon 
Candlemas by the head master of the class tha 
they were expected to bring him an offering on 
that day ; and if my memory serves me well, i 
was further given out by the master that the offer 

ng was not to be less than half-a-crown. The 
cholars numbered over one hundred. 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ENTIRELY (6 th S. vii. 208, 275).Thi3 word in 
e Shakesperian sense is of constant occurrence in 
old wills. The Lord Treasurer Dorset, in his will, 
1608, speaks of the Lady Cicely as his "most 
vertuous, faithfull, and intirely beloved wife "; and 
3ir William Uvedale, in his will, dated Dec. 17, 
1651, mentions his "entirely beloved wife the 
Lady Victoria Uvedale." 


PRENDERGAST (6 th S. viii. 20). This is the 
name of a parish adjoining to and forming part of 
;he borough of Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire. 
' The place derives its appellation from an ancient 
Family of the same name, to whom the whole parish 
formerly belonged. The last member of that 
Family who enjoyed this property was Maurice de 
Prendergast, who accompanied Strongbow, Earl of 
Clare, to Ireland " (Lewis, Top. Diet., s.v.). The 
name has a Norman-French look. Mr. Ferguson's 
derivation is, to my thinking, sheer nonsense. 


THE FRENCH PREPOSITION A (6 th S. vii. 108). 
Surely the word h after such verbs as oter, pren- 
dre, soustraire, may be identified with the Latin 
preposition ab. E. McC 

Guernsey. __ _ 

Shakespeare as an, Angler. By Rev. H. N. Ell&Jombe, 

M.A., Vicar of Bitton. (Stock.) 

IN this charming little book Mr. Ellacombe has reprinted 
his two papers which originally appeared in the pages 
of the Antiquary. It is evident that the author ia 
both an enthusiastic angler and an ardent admirer of 
Shakspeare. Having in a former essay claimed the 
poet as a brother gardener, Mr. Ellacombe was anxious 
to claim him also as a brother angler. We must confess 
that, after reading the arguments which are so per- 
suasively put by Mr. Ellacombe, we are not quite satisfied 
that he has conclusively proved his case. The writer 
himself very candidly confesses that Shakspeare could 
never have practised the noble art of fly-fishing, and 
only attempts to prove that the poet was a " bottom- 
fisher." On the questions whether bottom-fishing is a 
noble art, or whether it is an occupation that we should 
expect a poet to indulge in, we will not enter. To tell 
the truth, though we are almost ashamed to confess it, 
we own to having a strong impression that our great 
poet was at times given to a little bit of poaching by way 
of relaxation. However that may be, it is a curious 
fact that whenever the trout is mentioned by him it is 
in conjunction with the unsportsmanlike art of " tickling " 
and "groping." We sincerely hope that we are mis- 
taken in accusing the poet of so gross a crime. A charge 
of such magnitude should perhaps be grounded on more 
than a deduction from four lines collected from the whole 
of Shakspeare's writings. But though we are not quite 
persuaded by Mr. Ellacombe's argument, we find it im 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [<* s. vm A, is, 83. 

possible to quarrel with him. He has argued his brief 
so pleasantly, and with so much ingenuity and research, 
that we hope before long he will find another phase of 
the poet's habits yet to illustrate. 

S. Wilfrilh's Life in Sitssex and the Introduction of 
Christianity. By Frederick Ernest Sawyer. Reprinted 
from the " Sussex Arcbzeological Collections." (Lewes, 

MUCH has been written, wisely and foolishly, about the 
great Saint Wilfrid. His moral force and intellectual 
power none can doubt ; but his life was cast in troubled 
times, and his career lends itself, unhappily, far too 
easily to modern religious controversy, so that the work 
of a great and good man has been to some extent ob- 
scured by senseless janglinga concerning matters of 
which he could never have had the slightest fore-know- 
ledge. Mr. Sawyer keeps clear of controversy, and has 
given us a lucid biography of the saint so far as he was 
connected with Sussex. There are but four (perhaps 
we should say three) original authorities for Wilfrid's 
life. The more important passages in these are given 
in a translated form in parallel columns. This is a useful 
arrangement, as we can thus take in the whole picture 
at a glance. Sussex was converted to the faith of Christ 
by Wilfrid, and it is therefore natural that to Sussex 
men his career should be of extreme interest. Mr. 
Sawyer gives a list of those places in the county the 
names of which he believes to be taken from the divini- 
ties of the old religion. It is an obscure subject, and it 
is not unlikely that some of his identifications may be 
wrong, but his catalogue will be servicable to future 
inquirers in this most interesting and obscure field. 

Foil-Medicine: a Chapter in the History of Culture. 

By William George Black. (Folk-lore Society.) 
MR. BLACK has produced a useful, but by no means an 
exhaustive book on a very interesting branch of folk- 
lore. The place that folk-medicine holds in the history 
of science is an important one. We are accustomed to 
put well-nigh implicit trust in our medical advisers, 
knowing that their practice is based on carefully con- 
ducted experiments. Our forefathers had probably 
quite as firm a belief in the doctors of their time, who 
knew nothing of experiment at all, but were guided in 
their treatment of sickness almost solely by traditions 
handed down from man to man, and by observing the 
outward characters of plants and other objects which by 
their likeness to parts of the human body were thought 
to indicate their use in medicine. Though the folk-lore 
element in medical practice has nearly died out among 
professional men, we find it still current among persons 
who would be offended if it were implied that they were 
superstitious or ill educated. We know a lady who 
always carries a potato in her pocket as a charm 
against rheumatism, and another the wife of a clergy- 
manwho gave her children fried mice to eat as a 
specific for the whooping-cough. Mr. Black quotes 
from an ancient leachbook an account of a certain drink 
which was to be given to "fiend-sick" patients, and tells 
us that the preparation should be drunk out of a church 
bell. It would have been better if it had been explained 
that this must have meant the small bell rung at mass, 
commonly in old times called the sackering bell ; not the 
large bell in the church tower, out of which it would be 
well-nigh impossible for any one to drink. 

THE dates of the Berne Conference on International 
Copyright and of the Amsterdam International Literary 
Congress have been postponed since the publication of 
our paragraph on the subject. The Berne meeting is 
pow fixed for September |10 to 17, and the Amster- 

dam Congress for the remarkably long period Sep. 
tember 25 to October 20. How far those who are 
charged with the arrangements for the Congress of the 
International Literary Association can be considered 
wise in proposing to extend their deliberations to such 
an unusual length we must leave to tima to prove. We 
remember thinking a fortnight, and rather more, devoted 
to the foundation meeting at Paris, in 1878, in excess of 
what was desirable. We believe, however, that at 
Amsterdam the sessions are to be alternated with a local 
congress, so that the International Literary Congress 
itself will probably not extend beyond the normal 

ME. FENNELL, of Fitzwilliam Street, Cambridge, is 
anxious to receive offers of assistance in the compilation 
of the Stanford Dictionary of Anglicized Words and 
Phrases. The names of those who aid him will be men- 
tioned in the work. Mr. Fennell's scheme is praise- 
worthy, and his book, which will be comprehensive, is 
likely to be highly serviceable. 

THE sixth annual meeting of the Library Association 
of the United Kingdom will be held at the Free Public 
Library, Liverpool, with Sir James Picton, F.S.A., in 
the chair. The Council will be glad of the offer of 
papers. The address of the Hon. Sec. is Ernest C. 
Thomas, 13, South Square, Gray's Inn. 

THE English Illustrated Magazine, the first number of 
which will appear in October, under the direction of 
Mr. J. W. Comyns Carr, seems likely to be an im- 
provement upon anything of the kind yet attempted. 
The opening number will contain thirty illustrations. 

ftotiretf to 

We must call special attention to the following notictt: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

NEMO. The sonnet of which you speak is No. xl. of 
Wordsworth's "Miscellaneous Sonnets," included in 
Poems of the Imagination, and is addressed to the Rev. 
Christopher Wordsworth,' D.D., Master of Harrow 
School, after the perusal of his Theophilus Anglicanus, 
recently published. It is dated " Rydal Mount, Dec. 11, 
1843." You should ascertain if the lines are in the 
autograph of the poet, or are simply copied into the 

T. B. WILMSHTTEST. The derivation of silo and 
ensilage is fully explained in "N. & Q.," 6<t> S. vi. 
pp. 413-4, by PKOF. THOKOLD ROGERS and other con- 

QUAVER. Full information concerning Madame 
Storace is supplied in Sir George Grove's Dictionary of 
Miisic and Musicians, vol. iii. p. 719. 

A CORRESPONDENT writing from King's Langley con- 
cerning Tintern Abbey, Wexford, Serres and Squire 
Family, has neglected to give any signature or address. 

F.S.A. ("The Lawson Baronetcy") has sent neither 
name nor address. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " Tho 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Ofljce, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 25, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : House of Glanville, 141 Fordwich : Taper Axe- 
Chamber in Abbey Church for Sale, 143 "A barren rascal" 
American Folk-lore General Index to "N. & Q." 
Erratum in Index to "N. & Q.," 144 Points of the Com- 
pass Elf-locks Printers' Paper London Gardens for the 
Poor Opoponax Cat, 145 Letter of Moore, 146. 

QUEEIES : Anglo-Saxon Translation of Bible Berkeleys 
and Fitzhardings Macaulay on Kean Mead's Row, Lam- 
beth, 146 Fnlvius Agricola and Lentil Pudding Heraldic 
Edgar Atheling Masher: Mashippe Wedding Custom 
" Coward's corner " Ancient Coffins, 147. 

REPLIES: Col. Alexander Eigby, 147 Ghosts in Catholic 
Countries, 150 Buthven Peerage, 151 Parsons, the Comic 
Eoscius, 152 West Indian Folk-lore Heraldic Vanes- 
Washing Machines "Joining the majority" True Date 
of Easter Double Chris ian Names Pronunciation of 
"Either" Miles'Corbett, 153 Armorial Bearings of Border 
Families Yule=Lammas Halsham Family Bnngay Old 
English Mortar, 154 Devotional Processions Title of 
Monseigneur Portrait of Charles I., 155 Cnff at Confirma- 
tion Virgata Colours in the Army Bezoar Stones, 156 
Dorsetshire Vocabulary Solomon's Seal Ariel's Song- 
Apple-tree Folk-lore, 157 Causal " Do "Numbers Cur- 
few Sir E. Wai pole Bally ragging " Wooden walls * 
"Better to wear out than to rust out" Arundel, Arnn, 
158 Sonnet of Macready Abbreviations Glastonbury 
Thorn Dixon of Eamshaw Christopher Moor Samuel 
Dale, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Wilson's " Duke of Berwick "Field's 
" Landholding ""The Camden Miscellany," Vol. VIII. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



la " N. & Q.," 6 th S. vii. 379, the recent work 
by Mr. Glanville-Eichards, Records of the House 
of Glanville, is noticed, and the writer of the note 
says he has " the fullest confidence in the facts and 
results which the author sets before us." 

All persons who are interested in family history 
must gratefully acknowledge the author's industry 
and enterprise in collecting and printing so much 
interesting matter connected with this name. But 
without some qualification I can hardly agree with 
that portion of the notice in " N. & Q." which I 
have quoted above. For of the results and con- 
clusions arrived at by the author and stated in 
this book there are many affecting important ques- 
tions, which ought not, I think, in the absence of 
further information, to be accepted as finally 
settled. I ask leave to mention some of the posi- 
tions which I consider not proved, and which I 
think raise questions worthy of the attention of 
the author and of any correspondents of " N. & Q." 
who may be able and willing to attempt their 

Between 1066 and 1190 there flourished as 
barons in England Eanulph de Glanville, temp. 
Will. Conq.; William de Glanville, who died 1168; 
and Hervey de Glanville, the last two being pro- 


bably sons of Eanulph; and a second Ranulph, son 
of the said Hervey, which last-mentioned Eanulph 
was a very celebrated man. He was Chief Justice of 
England temp. Hen. II. He died before Acre 
1 Eic. I., having accompanied Eichard I. in hia 
first crusade. The principal object of Mr. Glan- 
ville-Eichards's book is to trace from this E. de 
Glanville, C.J., or from some known member of 
his family, the descent of several families of the 
name of Glanville, some of which are now extinct 
and some of which happily still flourish. It is 
upon his success or failure in this attempt that I 
wish now to comment. But before so doing it may 
not be out of place to remark that Mr. Glanville- 
Eichards styles this E. de Glanville, C. J., " Earl 
of Suffolk," and states that he left a son, whom 
he styles second Earl of Suffolk, and whose son he 
styles third Earl of Suffolk. Neither Dugdale, nor 
Sir Harris Nicolas, nor any other writer on here- 
ditary dignities makes mention of any person of 
the name of De Glanville as enjoying this dignity; 
and, in fact, during the period when the persons 
lived whom Mr. Glanville-Eichards styles Earls of 
Suffolk, the only Earl of Suffolk for the time 
being was the earl at that time of Norfolk or 
Norwich, Hugh or Eoger Bigod. It becomes, 
therefore, a question whether our author has not, 
with certain other writers, been misled by a false 
inference, perhaps from the occasional use of the 
word "comes"; just as, at p. 179, he styles Sir 
Eoger de Glanville, temp. Hen. II., Viscount, 
instead of Sheriff of Northumberland. 

The next remark I would make refers to the 
fact of our author's attributing to the said Eanulph 
de Glanville, 0. J., a son William de Glanville, whom 
he styles second Earl of Suffolk, and through whom 
and his descendants he carries the supposed earldom 
of Suffolk to the family of Ufford by an heiress 
of De Vesci, which marriage is not mentioned 
in the most authentic accounts of the Ufford family 
hitherto compiled. He himself recognizes in his 
appendix that Dugdale, and, in fact, all writers 
of any authority, give the Chief Justice only three 
daughters, his coheirs, between whom he divided 
his estate when he set out for the crusade ; and 
without doubt the house of Neville has usually 
quartered the Glanville arms as belonging to 
one of these daughters. The principal reasons 
given by our author for affiliating this William 
on the Chief Justice seem to be, first, that 
among the witnesses to certain charters occurs 
the name of one William fil. Eandulphi, from 
which he assumes that the witness was the 
son of Eanulph de Glanville, the Chief Justice. 
But it must be remarked that the name of the 
witness is Wil. fil. Eandulphi, not fil. Eandulphi 
de Glanville ; so that, in fact, the probability ia 
that this witness was the son not of Eanulph de 
Glanville, but of some other distinguished person 
of the name of Eanulpb, who had not as yet 



. vm. AUG. 25, '83, 

assumed any distinctive surname. For when once 
the surname was thoroughly established in any 
family the members of the family were usually 
known by that surname, and usually employed it 
in their signatures ; and in the case of this very 
William Mr. Glanville-Eichards himself mentions 
one document attested by him as William de 
Glanville. The other reason is a short pedigree 
by some unknown hand, which he quotes in his 
appendix from Harl. MS. 6595, and which, as it 
contains many obvious errors, cannot be taken as 
of any authority. 

I now proceed to comment upon the pedigree 
which Mr. Glanville-Bichards gives of the existing 
family of Glanville of Suffolk, now of Wed more, co. 
Somerset. Our author professes to trace this family 
from the Chief Justice through William and Gilbert, 
whom he styles second and third Earls of Suffolk, 
and of whom I have written above, and through 
the family of De Glanville of Sutton, of which the 
first known member is Nicholas, and the last was 
Sir Eichard, who died before 1361, when his 
widow presented to the benefice of Sutton. Our 
author states, on the strength of a " ped. of the 
ancient family of Glanville" (of the date and 
authorship of which we know nothing), that 
Nicholas was the son of this Gilbert, "Earl of 
Suffolk "; and however slender this authority may 
be, no objection can be raised to the statement on 
the score of dates, and perhaps the pedigree from 
William, "second Earl of Suffolk," to Sir Eichard 
may be accepted as probably correct. But it is 
otherwise when we come to tack on to the old 
family of Sutton the existing family of Suffolk and 
Wedmore. In order to do this Mr. Glanville- 
Eichards states that Sir Eichard, who died before 
1361, had one son Eobert, whose grandson, also 
Eobert, was grandfather of Eichard Glanville, 
Mayor of Hadleigh, whose eldest son was born in 
1602, as appears from his tombstone. But our 
author tells us that his sister and brother by the 
same parents were born in 1622 and 1625 re- 
spectively. From this Eichard the mayor the 
pedigree of the existing family is no doubt easily 
proved to the present time. But Mr. Glanville- 
Eichards gives us absolutely no proof whatever of 
the descent of this Eichard No. 2 (the mayor) 
from the Eichard No. 1 (Sir Eichard of Sutton), 
who died before 1361; although without convincing 
proof the pedigree scarcely commends itself to 
ready belief ; for if we accept it we must believe 
that the family exhibited the peculiarity that 
during five generations each successive head of 
the family became the father of his first child or 
of his son and heir at the average age of forty- 
nine years or more. 

Again, he states that the family of the name 
of Glanville residing at Holwell, in county 
Devon, from which sprang Glanville of Broad 
iliaton, co, Wilts, the latter branch, founded 

by Sir John Glanville, Speaker of the House 
of Commons temp. Charles I., was descended 
from one John de Glanville, an uncle of John 
de Glanville, the last lord of Wotton Glanville, 
in co. Dorset. But he gives no kind of proof 
or reason for so connecting these Devonshire 
and Broadhinton families with that of Wotton 
Glanville. Yet for this statement no less con- 
clusive evidence is required than in the case of the 
Suffolk branch ; for if the said John was in truth 
uncle of John de Glanville of Wotton Glanville, 
we should have presented to us the singular in- 
stance of a family continued during five genera- 
tions by gentlemen each of whom must have 
averaged the age of fifty years at the birth of his 
eldest child or heir. For Sir Henry de Glanville, 
who was on this supposition the father of the first 
John of Devonshire, was dead before 1325, and 
Elizabeth Glanville, the eldest child of Thomas 
Glanville, who was the grandson of the grandson 
of the said first John of Devonshire, was born 1572. 

It is also noticeable that these Suffolk 
and Devonshire families, so soon as they come 
within the operation of authentic sources of family 
history, revert to the ordinary rule of mankind, 
and their heirs are born to them at the usual 
interval of thirty years or thereabouts; though 
even as regards these more recent pedigrees 
there is a certain absence of citations and ex- 
tracts from, or reference to, the usual sources, 
such as deeds, wills, parish registers, &c., and in' 
his treatment of these later families our author's 
work seems to be marked by characteristics similar 
to those which I think are to be regretted in his 
treatment of the earlier families. 

For instance, he claims to be descended from 
one Eichard Glanville of Ashburton. He states, 
no doubt correctly, that this Eichard, born 1735 
and married 1755, was father of Mary Glanville, 
who was born in that year, 1755. His further 
statements are that this Mary Glanville married a 
Capt. Sullivan, and that her granddaughter, Anne 
Maddock, married Admiral Searle in 1796, and 
was in 1803 mother of her third child, our author's 
grandmother; the result being that Mary Glan- 
ville, afterwards Mary Sullivan, must have been a 
great- grandmother at the early age of forty-five ! 
One would expect that any one advancing a pedi- 
gree involving facts so unusual would be careful to 
support his statements by convincing proofs. But 
here, as in so many other instances, we must 
accept the pedigree on the authority of the writer's 
unsupported statement, or we must reject it. 

Pending the production of further authority, 
our author's statement as to the connexion of the 
families of Glanville of Holwell with that of 
Wotton Glanville is further lessened in value by 
the circumstance that he has fallen into error in 
bis statements as to the issue of the last John de 
Glanville, lord of Glanville's Wotton. His state. 

6<b S .vin.AiTo.2V83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


meat is to the effect that Joan de Glanville, his 
daughter and " heiress general," married Robert 
More, of Marnhull and Mansion, Esq., " Lord of 
the Manors of Marnhull, &c."; that her daughter 
Edith More married John Newburgh, of East 
Lullworth, " in whose family Wotton Glanville 
continued to the time of Ric. III., when it was 
alienated from the Newburghs to the Leighs." 

The facts are as follows : John de Glanville had 
two daughters, Joan, the wife of Thomas Manston, 
whose issue by her are represented at the present 
day, and Alice, not Joan, the wife of Robert More 
or Attemore. Robert More was not lord of 
the manor of Marnhull or Manston, but owner of 
More, in the manor of Marnhull. The only 
daughter of Alice by this Robert, Edith, had by 
her husband John Newburgh two daughters only, 
Agnes, from whom, as appears by part ii. of his 
Hist, of the House of Arundel, Mr. Pym Yeatman 
is, among others, descended, and Joan, who 
married John Lye, of Stanton Fitzherbert, co. 
Wilts. It was through this marriage, and not 
by alienation, that the manor of Wotton Glanville 
came to the Lyes or Leighs on the death of John 
Newburgh aforesaid, husband of Edith More or 
Attemore ; which John Newburgh held that pro- 
perty from the death of his first wife, before 1430, 
to the time of his own death in 1483/4, 1 Ric. III., 
when it passed by descent to John, afterwards Sir 
John, Lye, in right of his grandmother. 

Before leaving the family of Glanville of Wotton 
Glanville, it may be as well to observe that this 
family seems to have borne for its arms, Az., 
crusilly or, three lozenges arg., for in the Visitation 
of Dorset, 1565, the second quartering in the 
shield of Percy of Manston is this coat, given for 
Glanville, the lozenges being in pale ; and on the 
tomb of John Slade, in Spetchley, Worcestershire, 
the same arms are carved, the lozenges being in 
fesse, Percy and John Slade's wife, Christina 
Leweston, being representatives of Joan above 
mentioned, the daughter of the last John de 
Glanville of Wotton Glanville. This coat is not 
mentioned by Mr. Glanville-Richards. Indeed, 
the references he makes to the armory of Glan- 
ville by no means display the attention which 
the subject to some minds might seem to deserve. 

Moreover, our author states that the family of 
Glanville of Wotton Glanville descended from one 
Gerard de Glanville, whom he describes as having 
been a younger son of Sir Hervey de Glanville. 
The dates agree very well with this statement, 
which perhaps represents the truth of the descent 
of the Glanvilles of Wotton Glanville ; but our 
author gives us absolutely no proof whatever for 
his statement. On the contrary, at p. 26, where 
he professes to enumerate all the issue of Sir 
Hervey, he makes no mention of any son of the 
name of Gerard. 

I should esteem it a very great favour if Mr. 

Glanville-Richards or any other correspondent of 
" N. & Q." would supply further information on 
this or any other of the questions which, as I 
think, I have shown cannot be taken as finally 
settled by Mr. Glanville-Richards's otherwise very 
useful volume. A. S. M. 

FORDWICH : TAPER AXE. I think that this 
cutting from the Guardian of May 30, giving 
interesting particulars of the ancient borough of 
Fordwich, one of. the members of the Cinque Port 
of Sandwich, deserves a place in " N. & Q.": 

" Mr. Stuart Sankey, of the Inner Temple, baa been 
appointed Recorder of Fordwich, in Kent. The borough 
is one of the three most ancient in the United Kingdom. 
Its charter was granted by King Edward the Confessor, 
subsequently confirmed by Henry II., Edward III., and 
Charles II., the consideration being that the town, aa a 
member of Sandwich, one of the Cinque Ports, should 
furnish one ship of war and men when required. The 
tide flowed as far as Pordwich quay, and it is recorded 
that men-of-war used to be moored there. The juris- 
diction, as of yore, extends twelve miles down the river, 
as far on either side as a man standing in a boat in mid- 
river can throw a 7 lb. taper axe. The Guildhall is of 
the most ancient description. There is also a ducking 
chair for scolds, and two drums with the borough arms 
emblazoned upon them, which were beaten to summon 
the commonalty to see the immersion." 

In the A.-S. Chronicle, Parker MS., A.D. 1031, 
where we have an account of King Cnut giving to 
Christ Church at Canterbury the haven at Sand- 
wich and all the dues arising therefrom, from 
either side of the haven, we find the same expres- 
sion taper cex used in describing the mode of 
denning the limits of jurisdiction. What is the 
meaning and what is the etymology of taper in 
this passage of the Chronicle ? I cannot agree with 
Prof. Skeat, who in his Diet, (s.v.) says it means 
" tapering," and suggests a Celtic origin. It should 
be noted that tapar-ox is not of uncommon occur- 
rence in old Norse literature. The passage in the 
Chronicle refers to the gift of a Danish king. I 
think it likely that the expression taper cex came 
to us by the Baltic, and that taper is of Slavonic 
origin, being no other than the O.Slav, topor, an 
axe, a well - authenticated word still in use in 
Russia. A. L. MAYHEW. 


FOR SALE BY AUCTION. In the Worcester Herald 
of June 16 is an advertisement of the sale by 
auction, at the Swan Hotel, Tewkesbury, of the 
Great Abbey House, and lands and cottages ad- 
joining, at Tewkesbury, including the abbey gate- 
way, &c., on July 18 next ensuing. But what is 
rather curious is that one of the lots offered for 
sale is " a stone-builfc chamber with groined roof, 
situated on the south side of the west window of 
the Abbey Church." 

This chamber is in fact a portion of the fabric 
of the church, but access to it is gained by an 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ s. vm. AUG. 25, -sa, 

exterior stone stair, which is connected with the 
Abbey House, where the abbots of Tewkesbury 
resided in the monastic times, and was possibly 
used by the abbots as an oratory or for some special 
purpose. Being thus accessible only from the 
garden of the Abbey House, it has been em- 
ployed by the inhabitants for various purposes 
but it may be questionable by what right it is sole 
by auction, being really a portion of the church 
though attached to the exterior. 

Now, it is stated in Bennett's History of TewJces- 
lury that 

"King Henry VIII. in the thirty-fourth year of his 
reign, in consideration of the sum of 4832., granted anc 
sold to the bailiffs, burgesses, and commonalty of the 
borough and town of Tewkesbury, the choir, aisles, 
chapels, vestry, steeple, bells, roof, slates, lead, stone 
iron, timber, images, tombs, gravestones, glass, &c., anc 
also the soil, ground, site, precinct, and circuit of the 
church, as well as the churchyard, and all other things 
appertaining to the church, which at the time of the 
dissolution belonged to the abbot and convent." 

No reservation of this stone chamber appears to 
have been made to any one ; and if it was, as is 
almost certain, in use for some purpose by the 
abbots of Tewkesbury, it would pass with what 
" belonged to the abbot and convent." Whether 
the continuous and undisturbed possession of this 
chamber, without interference from the church- 
wardens, would give a legal right to its disposal is 
for the committee connected with the restoration ol 
the Abbey Church, only recently finished, to inquire 
about ; but it seems strange for any portion of an 
existing church to be put up for sale by auction. 

I can find no notice of this chamber with groined 
roof, which is placed within the exterior wall of 
the nave, on the south side of the west window of 
the church, in Bennett's detailed history of the 
abbey and town of Tewkesbury ; but the right of 
its sale should be seen into. 


"A BARREN RASCAL." Whenever I find a 
startling false criticism on any writer fathered on 
Dr. Johnson, I know that it is some splenetic effu- 
sion vented by him in his talk. Johnson's opinions 
of writers are to be collected from his works. He 
called Fielding a "blockhead." This was after 
dinner, in conversation with, amongst others, 
Erskine and Boswell. Feeling that "blockhead "and 
Fielding could never go together, the doctor hastens 
to correct himself, and says, " I mean he is a barren 
rascal." He then goes on to show that by the 
phrase he merely means that Fielding had described 
a limited class, consisting principally of low persons. 
His real opinion of Fielding oozes out naturally 
enough elsewhere. He tells us of the effect of 
Amelia on himself. He writes to Miss Burney 
praising her Evelina. " What a Holborn beau you 
have drawn! Harry Fielding could not have drawn 

a better character." Again, in his comparison 
between Fielding and Richardson he always allows 
Fielding merit, though he treats Kichardson as the 
higher writer, having a deeper knowledge of the 
human heart. The life of Gray in the Lives of the 
Poets did not satisfy Gray's admirers, but it is a 
very different picture of Gray from that which 
Johnson's loose talk with Mrs. Thrale and Boswell 
one summer afternoon at Streatham presents. 

S. L. P. 
[See 6'h S. vii. 504.] 

AMERICAN FOLK-LORE. The Beading (Pennsyl- 
vania) Times says that a number of white robins 
have made their appearance in the woods at the 
back of Earlville in Berkshire, and are looked upon 
with superstitious dread. Perhaps some naturalist 
or folk-lorist will further explain this matter. 


Fern Bank, Higher Broughton. 

"N. & Q." In the preface to the General Index 
to the First Series the Editor said : 

"At the end of every successive half-year we have 
endeavoured to make these materials available by adding 
to every volume a copious Index. But Time soon renders 
unavailing the means we use to defeat his influence. A 
search through our separate Indexes has become a work 
of time and trouble ; and therefore, when we determined 
to bring our First Series to a close with the Twelfth 
Volume, we at the same time resolved to make tho 
literary riches accumulated during the first six years of 
our existence permanently and easily available by the 
publication of a complete Index." 

I am disposed to think that the same case can 
now be made out for a general index to the whole 
so soon as the current (sixth) series shall have 
been completed. "A search through our separate " 
general " indexes has become a work of time and 
trouble," and I cannot but believe that a resolve 
" to make the literary riches accumulated during 
the first" thirty-six "years of our existence per- 
manently and easily available by the publication 
of a complete index " would meet with the grateful 
appreciation of the literary world. Another reason, 
if one were needed, is that some of the series in- 
dexes are very rare and hard to be procured ; so 
much so that the first three of those indispensable 
volumes fetch from one to two pounds each. If 
my suggestion meet with acceptance, the work of 
making a general index might be begun forthwith, 
and be ready for issue very soon after the com- 
pletion of the current series, and simultaneously 
with the general index to it. 

29, Albert Hall Mansions, S.W. 


SERIES. An error in the indices to " N. & Q." 

s a thing of such rare occurrence that I may 

pardoned for noting one. Under the head of 

Chatham, Earl of," are mentioned some circura? 

8. s. viii. A. 25, >88.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


stances which refer not to his death at Hayes, but 
to the death of his son, the younger William Pitt 
(who never became Lord Chatham), at Putney 
Common. The mistake is a very pardonable one, 
and can be easily corrected in case of the index 
being reprinted. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

this matter is of vital importance in descriptions 
of places and movements, and yet instances, more 
or less conspicuous, of inaccuracy are not un- 
frequently found, even in works of travel and 
geography. The following quotations illustrate 
the point, viz. : 

"The main chain of the Caucasus crosses obliquely 
from E.N.E. to W.S.W. the great isthmus which lies 
between the Black Sea and the Caspian, separating 
Europe from Asia." Gallenga's Summer Tour in Russia, 
p. 297. 

" Over the north-west portion of the African continent 
stretches an immense zone of earth formed by the Nile 
and fertilized by it alone." The Khedive's Egypt, by 
B. de Leon, p. 360. A quotation from Mariette Bey. 

" In their [the Bulgarians'] south-eastward march 
from Asia." Turkey in Europe, by Lieut.-Col. James 
Baker, second edition, p. 21. 

A little more care would avoid such slips, which 
no doubt are easily explicable, but are none the 
less sadly misleading to readers. E. A. B. 

ELF-LOCKS. These, known to us more especially 
from the occurrence of the phrase in Romeo and 
Juliet (I. iv. 91-2), have, at all events since War- 
burton's time, been supposed to denote the matted 
locks of plica polonica. The writer of a paper in 
the New Shakspere Society's Transactions for 
1875, without reference to Warburton, takes the 
same view. But I would remark that, while a 
felting or inextricable interlacing of the hair a 
result of neglect and want of cleanliness was 
doubtless known in England (a state called by 
Dr. Copland " false plica "), there is not, so far as I 
am aware, any recorded instance of the occurrence 
of the true plica polonica in England so early as 
Shakespeare's time. We sadly want Elizabethan 
English references to elf-locks. 


PRINTERS' PAPER. Much has been said about 
MS. ink in "N. & Q.," but I think publishers 
ought to have their attention called to the paper 
employed. I have two books which break away 
like egg-shells every time I open them, and the 
appearance they present when closed is just as if 
black-beetles had been devouring the edges of the 
leaves. One of the books I refer to is the En- 
cyclopcedia of Chronology, by Woodward and Gates 
(Longmans & Co.); the other is Stormonth's Dic- 
tionary (Blackwood & Sons). I find the edges get 
a brownish yellow and become quite brittle. For 
a long time I was puzzled how to account for the 
broken leaves ; but I soon found, on touching 

hem, that they broke away as I state. These are 
;he only two I have at present noticed. Some 
French paper becomes discoloured in a shocking 
manner, but this friable paper is a new evil, due, 
[ suspect, to bleaching. I am certain that Messrs. 
Longman and Messrs. Blackwood are not aware 
of this, but I am quite willing to send them the 
books I refer to for inspection, and I am convinced 
they will deplore as much I do such a lamentable 

History of London is an interesting work, but it 
contains some strange mistakes, to a few of which 
attention has already been called in " N. & Q." 
[n vol. ii. p. 88, speaking of the National Gallery, 
Mr. Loftie says : 

"It was unfortunate for Wilkins that he was chosen 
to design it. His powers as an architect were remark- 
able. His design for the University of London, in Gower 
Street, has been only partially carried put, but we can 
judge of him by St. George's Hall, at Liverpool, one of 
the most beautiful modern buildings in Europe." 

Mr. Wilkins had nothing to do with St. George's 
Hall or any other building in Liverpool. The 
Hall was designed by Harvey Lonsdale Elmes, a 
young architect of great promise, who died before 
the completion of the building, which was carried 
out by the late Prof. Cockerell and opened in 
1854, long before which date, if I mistake not, 
Wilkins was deceased. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

volent intention of laying out as a garden for the 
poor the disused burial-ground of the parish of 
St. Andrew, Holborn, brings to the surface the 
curious remark of John Tinibs on this particular 
churchyard (Curiosities, p. 163). " A strong pre- 
judice," he observes, "formerly existed against 
new churchyards, and no person was interred here 
till the ground was broken (1715) for Kobert 
Nelson, author of Fasts and Festivals, whose 
character for piety reconciled others to the spot ; 
people liked to be buried in company, and in good 
company." Nancy Dawson, the celebrated horn- 
pipe dancer, lies here ("N. & Q.," 6 th S. iv. 205). 
Here also are buried the upright and amiable 
judge Sir John Richardson and Zachary Macaulay 
(1759-1838). WILLIAM PLATT. 

OPOPONAX. This word should be opopanax, 
being derived from OTTOS and Trava. 


CAT." Try that wine ; it 's from the cask 
where the black cat sat," is an Hungarian expres- 
sion denoting that it is the best wine. Has it any 
connexion with " Old Tom" and the cat one so often 
sees in connexion with gin ? W. HY. JONES. 

Thornton Lodge, Goxhill, Hull. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. AOQ. 25, -ss. 

Bhort but characteristic letter of Thomas Moore 
may interest some readers of " N. & Q.": 

April 3 rd , 1829. 

MY DEAR SIB, Pray, forward the inclosed packet 
for me. It is to one of those poetesses that wear my 
heart out, not with lore. Yours, &c., 

Thomas Davison, Esq. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Can any of your readers refer me to any work 
wherein it is proved that the Anglo-Saxon trans- 
lations of portions of the Bible are taken from the 
Vulgate ? This is taken for granted by such great 
authorities as Westcott and Scrivener. It must, 
therefore, be presumed to be true. Yet other 
learned men have expressly stated that they are 
from the Vetus Itala, which, as most people know, 
was corrected by Jerome. Thus the late Prof. 
Bosworth, in his Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels 
(1874), has the following title : " Da Feower 
Cristes Bee on Engliscum gereorde : translated 
from the Vetus Italica," &c. ; and in p. xi of his 
preface he takes some pains to prove that the 
Anglo-Saxon was not from the Vulgate of Jerome, 
and that, in fact, it may be useful in ascertaining 
the readings of the oldest Latin version. 

The same view is taken in the well-known " In- 
troductory Remarks " to the English Hexapla, 
published by Bagster (p. 2). I can only conclude 
that this view has become antiquated, and that 
what Bosworth and others believed to be the 
Vetut Itala was some particular MS. of the Vul- 
gate. Dr. Davidson's Text of the Old Testament 
Considered, &c., was published long before Bosworth 
and Waring's book (1856), and he ascribes the 
Anglo-Saxon version of the Old Testament to the 
Vulgate, and does not mention the old Italic. The 
same view is, I think, taken in the Dictionary of 
the Bible (Dr. Smith). But it ought, I think, to 
have been clearly and decisively shown somewhere 
that the old Italic is not a source from which the 
Anglo-Saxon versions have been directly derived. 
Has this been done ? H. F. W. 

P.S. I asked the question of Francis Procter, 
the learned author of the History of the Book of 
Common Prayer, and he replies, " I wish I could 
polish off your question about the Latin (Vetus 
Itala or Vulgate) from which the A.-S. version 
was made, deciding between Bosworth and 
Westcott. But I cannot enter upon it, and must 
take what is said by great clerks as ex cathedra." 

But there are many who would like to know the 
real facts ; and no doubt some of those who read 
your publication can solve the difficulty. 

of the parentage of Robert Fitzharding having 
been, apparently, of some interest to several 
valuable contributors to " N. & Q./' might it not 
be found equally interesting to discover who was 
the father of Koger de Berchelai, or Berkeley, who 
was the possessor of Dursley Castle and of a large 
portion of the manors representing the Berkeley 
estates in Gloucestershire at the coming of the 
Conqueror, and therefore long before Berkeley 
Castle was built by Maurice Fitzharding ? Roger 
de Berkeley was said to be a cousin of Edward, 
son to the Norman Queen Emma, who was sister of 
Robert, second Duke of Normandy, wife of 
Ethelred and of Canute, therefore mother of 
Edward the Confessor, and the indirect cause of 
the Norman Conquest. As yet I have been un- 
able to discover the degree of cousinship between 
Roger de Borchelai and Queen Emma, but it is 
most probable that his father was one of the Norman 
barons who came over in her train when she 
married a Saxon king. Roger had no son, and a 
daughter entered a nunnery. His manors and 
castles therefore descended to his nephew 
William, whose son Roger was despoiled of them 
by Henry II., who afterwards restored part of 
the large estates to his children, on condition that 
they should make alliances with the Fitzhardings, 
upon whom they had been bestowed. The ques- 
tion arises, Who was the father of the first-named 
Roger and his brother Ralph ? E. BARCLAY. 

Wickham Market. 


"He [George Savile, Marquess of Halifax] left a 
natural son, Henry Carey, whose dramas once drew 
crowded audiences to the theatres, and some of whose 
gay and spirited verses still live in the memory of hun- 
dreds of thousands. Prom Henry Carey descended that 
Edmund Kean who in our own time transformed him- 
self so marvellously into Shylock, lago, and Othello." 
Macaulay's History of England, vol. viii. ch. xxi. 

What is Macaulay's authority for the statement 
of Kean's descent ? R. L. 

Arundel Club. 

MEAD'S Row, LAMBETH. This narrow street (to 
which reference was made in "N. & Q.," ante, p. 
Ill), which contained many quaint houses, amongst 
them " Strawberry Hall," runs from the Kenning- 
ton to the Westminster Road. A row of good 
houses has been built in the street. I shall be 
glad to know who " Mead " was, and if the pkce 
has any curious associations. I am told J. G. 
Pinwell, the artist, and a celebrated actor, Par- 
sons, lived there. J. F. B. 

[This query, in a slightly different form, appeared in 
6 th S. iii, 149, without calling forth any answer.] 

ffH8.viii.Aw.2V8s.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



lam asked to inquire (1) if any contributor to 
"N. & Q." can supply a reference to a Latin 
authority for the fact that a statue was erected to 
a certain Fulvius Agricola for inventing lentil 
pudding. It is so stated in a Dissertation on 
Dumpling, dated 1726, which contains also a 
quotation from an author represented by the 
abbreviate " Meeb."; the reference is to " De Farto- 
phagis, lib. iii. c. 2." (2) Can any one identify 
" Mseb."? The use of certain Grseco-Latin words 
(. g. " energia ") indicates a date not earlier than 
the fourth century. The questions have been sub- 
mitted to two eminent Latin scholars in vain. 

K. H. BOSK. 

HERALDIC. I should be very grateful to any 
reader who would furnish me with the arms of 
any of the following eminent scholars of Bury St. 
Edmunds Grammar School, either direct or through 
the columns of "N. & Q.": John Gauden (Bishop 
of Worcester, 1623) ; Archbishop Sancroft ; Lord 
Keeper Guildford ; Sir Thomas Hanmer (Speaker 
about 1700) ; John Warren (Bishop of Bangor) ; 
Chief Baron Reynolds ; Thomas Thurlow (Bishop of 
Durham) ; G. Pretyman Tomline (Bishop of Win- 
chester); E. Cumberland ; Baron Alderson ; John 
Brandish. E. F. COBBOLD. 

Bury St. Edmunds. 

[Burke, Oen. Arm., 1878, gives the following: Bp. 
Gauden (M. I., Worcester Cathedral), Az., a chev. erm. 
between three leopards' faces or, a border of the second. 
The Lord Keeper was second son of the fourth Lord 
North of Guilford ; arms in Peerage, s.v. "Guilford, Earl 
of." For Sir Thos. Hanmer, Bp. Thurlow, see Peerage, 
t.v. "Hanmer, Bart.," and " Thurlow, Lord." Bp. Tomline, 
Gu., a lion pass. gard. between three mullets arg. 
Bp. Cumberland (M. I., Peterborough Cathedral), Arg., 
a chev. and in chief three wolves' heads erased sa.] 

EDGAR ^ETHELINO. Allow me to reproduce 
this query by ^, 2 nd S. x. 3, which, so far as I 
know, has not yet been answered. The object is 
to find the date and place of Edgar ^Etheling's 
death and burial, and any other particulars of his 
latter years. I have searched Lingard, who gives 
a few more items than Eapin, but loses sight of 
him at last. I am interested in the history of St. 
Margaret's family, and in connexion with the above 
I may note that in a visit lately to Dunfermline 
I was sorry to see the proprietor of the grounds 
immediately adjoining the abbey, that is, the 
Laird of Pittencrieff, is demolishing the venerable 
boundary wall and replacing it by an iron railing 
and gate with stone pillars. The object is to show 
the view of the beautiful glen below the palace; 
but, to my mind at least, the old wall restored, and 
with the old doorways reopened and properly re- 
fitted in oak, would have been more in keeping. I 
was told the Dunfermline newspaper had " come 
down heavy" on the laird's proceedings, and I 
claim the privilege of a word also, because (1) my 

ancestor was one of St. Margaret's suite ; (2) 
because I have the honour to be an 

F.S. A.Scot. 

MASHER : MASHIPPE. Is there to be taken 
to be anyconnexion between masher and mashippe? 
In S. Gosson's Apology of the School of Abuse, 
there is: 

" And because his mashippe would seeme learned, he 
heyred him seruauntes with great stifaedes, of which 
one bad Homer without booke, another Hesiod, and nine 
fidlers heads to make him an Index, of every one of 
them taking some seuerall names of his acquaintance 
too bee remembred." P. 74, Arber's edition. 


WEDDING CUSTOM. What is the custom of an 
elder unmarried sister carrying a broom at the 
wedding of a younger one? A cousin of mine, 
now staying in Gloucestershire, was informed the 
other day by some people in the village that she 
would have to undergo that penalty for allowing 
her younger sister to get engaged and married 
before her. Where else does it obtain ? 


"COWARD'S CORNER." This epithet seems to 
be in use, not inaptly, for a pulpit. Is it new, or 
an old name revived ? E. H. BUSK. 

WESTMINSTER. Some peculiar shaped ones were 
found a year or two ago. A description will oblige. 
I wish also to note that when one reads of such 
being found wooden or lead ones, that is the shape 
or form is never mentioned. It is generally thought 
they were not of the form now used; and, by the 
way, when did the present form come into fashion ? 



(6 th S. vii. 229, 517.) 

This prominent member of the Long Parliament 
belonged to the Eigby family of Wigan, Lanca- 
shire, descended from Adam Eigby, of that town, 
and Alice Middleton, of Leighton. He was son 
of Alexander, of Wigan and Middleton Hall, 
Goosnargh, and Alice, daughter of Leonard As- 
shawe, of Shaw Hall, near Flixton, Lancashire ; 
not, as Foss says, the son of the Clerk of the Peace 
for Lancashire of that name, for the latter be- 
longed to the Eigbys of Burgh, and was one of 
the patrons of Eichard Brathwaite. The colonel, 
one of the most notable persons in Lancashire 
during the Civil War, was one of the active, 
daring, and versatile characters who were brought 
into notice at that crisis. He was lawyer, justice 
of peace, legislator, committee-man, colonel, judge 
of assize, and president of a colony. Notices 
of him will be found in the following volumes of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ s. vm. AU. 25, '83. 

the Chetham Society : Heywood'a Moore Rental, 
pp. viii-ix ; Ormerod's Civil War Tracts, passim ; 
Beamont's Discourse of the Warr, passim ; Har- 
land's Lane. Lieutenancy, pp. 275-8 ; Dugdale's 
Visitation, p. 145. Of. also Foss's Judges, iv. 
470; "N. & Q.," 4 th S. viii. 247; Whitaket's 
Eichmondshire, ii. 438 ; Fishwick's Hist, of Goos- 
nargh, pp. 140 seqq.; the Reliquary, ix. 247; 
and the Palatine Note-Book, iii. 136 seqq. 

Eigby was connected with several families of 
consequence in the two counties of Lancaster 
and Chester. About 1619 he married Lucy, 
second daughter of Sir Urian Leigh, of Adlington, 
Cheshire ; and when that knight died in 1627 
the herald recorded at the funeral on July 6 that 
four children were the issue of the marriage, viz., 
Alexander, Urian, Edward, and Lucy (Fun. Certif., 
Record Society, p. 126). Alexander (a lieutenant- 
colonel in the Civil War) was baptized at Prest- 
bury, Cheshire, Aug. 20, 1620 ; Urian was bap- 
tized at Eccleston, where Adam Eigby, his uncle, 
was beneficed, Feb. 2, 1621/2 ; and Edward was 
baptized at Preston, April 15, 1627. When Sir 
William Dugdale recorded the pedigree of the 
family at Preston, in September, 1664, he de- 
scribed Col. Eigby as an esquire of the body to 
King James ; but perhaps in this case the Clerk 
of the Peace for Lancashire (before mentioned) is 

A similar case of mistaken identity occurs on 
the part of the editors of the Iter Lancastriense 
of Eichard James, the librarian of Sir E. Cotton, 
and son of Dr. Thomas James of the Bodleian. 
Eichard James, who wrote his poem about the 
year 1636, describes his going from Speke, near 

" To Rigby of the Hut, where to our cheere 
We plenty had of claret, ale. and beer." 

LI. 381-2. 

The Rev. Mr. Corser, the first editor of James's 
poem, who is followed by Dr. Grosart, the last 
editor, was inclined to identify James's hospitable 
entertainer with the subject of this note. But it 
seems certain that the latter, who was not a man 
in whom social qualities were very marked, could 
not be the person meant. The Eigby celebrated 
in the Iter was more properly Hugh Eigby " of 
the Hutt," so described in his inventory at Chester, 
dated 1642. He was of Lincoln's Inn, younger 
brother of Alexander Eigby of Burgh, already 
named, and at the time of James's visit was 
Eecorder of Liverpool. 

Alexander Eigby came into public notice on the 
calling of the Short Parliament, when he was 
returned for Wigan, April, 1640, being styled an 
esquire "of Eigby in Amounderness." His 
colleague was Orlando Bridgeman, son of the 
Bishop of Chester. These two lawyers like- 
wise sat for the same borough in the Long Par- 

Eigby was one of the most busy members of 
that body, and he served on nearly all the import- 
ant committees. His reputation with his party 
was raised by his action in the debate, Dec. 21, 
1640, concerning the Lord Keeper Finch, who was 
chiefly obnoxious on account of the support he 
bad given to ship-money. A great speech which 
Alexander Eigby made was twice printed. 
"Shall not some of them be hanged," said he, 
" that have robbed us of all our propriety [pro- 
perty], and shear'd us at once of all our Sbeep, 
and all we have away, and would have made us 
all indeed poor Belizarios to have begged for 
Half-penies, when they would not have left us 
one peny that we could have called our own ? " 
(Eushworth, iii. i. 129.) In 1642 Eigby was busy 
amongst his neighbours making arrangements 
for the defence of the county. Speedily return- 
ing to his parliamentary duties, he gave unre- 
mitting attention to public business ; and it is 
to be inferred from the important matters com- 
mitted to his care, as well as from the prominence 
given to his name, that he was one of the most 
trusted members of the House. He was, besides, 
a member of all the Lancashire committees. 

Before midsummer of 1643, "Mr. Alexander 
Eigbie, of Preston, lawier, a Parliament man, 
came down into the Country [Lancashire] with 
Commission from the Parliament to be Colonell, 
to raise Forces, to put the Hundreds of Laylond 
and Amonderness into a posture of Warr, which 

he was diligent to do within a litle tyme And 

before July Colonell Eigbie began to shew him- 
self to bee a Warrior." His great exploit was the 
reduction of Thurland Castle, near Lancaster, held 
for the king by Sir John Girlington, and besieged 
seven weeks. This feat of arms Eigby described 
in a letter to Speaker Lenthall, and Whitelocke 
particularly notes that a lawyer was the hero of it. 
When in Lancashire, Eigby interested himself in 
the appointment of ministers of the Independent 
sect to vacant benefices. Episcopalianism and 
Presbyterianism were alike distasteful to his views 
of churchmanship ; and in regard to the former a 
disgraceful charge was brought against him, which 
it is to be feared is too true : " One Eigby, a 
scoundrel of the very dregs of the parliament 
rebels, did at that time expose these venerable 
persons [some of the heads of the University of 
Cambridge] to sale, and would actually have sold 
them for slaves if any one would have bought 
them" (Life of Barwick, p. 42 ; Walker's Suffer- 
ings, i. 58 ; " N. & Q.," 1" S. ii. 253 ; Dugdale's 
Short View, p. 577; Querela Cantab., p. 184). 

About this time Eigby acquired the right to an 
old patent for a large tract of country in Casco, 
now Portland, Maine, U.S.A.; and over this 
plantation, of which he became president, he 
set a deputy who out-monarched King Charles. 
Winslow, Governor of New Plymouth, writing 

6* s. vm. A. 25, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts, 
Nov. 7, 1643, thus complained : 

" As for Mr. Rigby, if be be so honest, good, & hope- 
full an instrument as report passeth on him, he hath 
good hap to light on two of the arrantest known knaves 
that ever trod on new English shore, to be his agents 
East and West, as Cleves & Morton ; but I shall be 
jealous on him till I know him better, & hope others 
will take heed how they trust him who investeth such 
with power who have devoted themselves to the ruine 
of the countrey as Morton hath." Winthrop Papers, 
p. 175. 

Rigby's reputation as a military commander 
was lost at Lathom House, the mansion of the 
Earl of Derby, which the loyal countess of that 
nobleman had secretly garrisoned, and heroically 
and successfully defended with three hundred 
soldiers. The siege lasted about eighteen weeks 
(Whitelocke, i. 175) ; and the Fairfaxes, Col?. 
Rigby, Ashton, Moore, Holcroft, Egerton, and 
others, took part in it. The undertaking was very 
costly, much ammunition was wasted, and the 
loss of life was large. An account of the siege is 
to be found in the Journal published at 
Leeds in 1823, and in Seacome's History of the 
House of Stanley. " To give him [Rigby] his due," 
says the latter authority, " though a rebel, he was 
neither wanting in care or diligence to distress the 
house. He denied a pass to three sick gentlemen 
to go out of the house, and would not suffer a mid- 
wife to go in to a gentlewoman in travail, nor a 
little milk for the support of young infants, but 
was every way severe and rude beyond the bar- 
barity of a Turkish general." On April 25, 1644, 
a furious summons was sent to Lady Derby, who, 
calling the " drum " into her presence, and tearing 
his message into pieces, threatened to hang him up at 
the gates, saying, " Tell that insolent rebel, Rigby, 
he shall neither have person, goods, nor house ! " 
The approach of Lord Derby and Prince Rupert 
in May broke up the siege, and the Parliamentary 
colonels dispersed, Rigby retreating to Bolton, 
and on the attack on that place he escaped into 

After this disaster we lose sight of Rigby for a 
time, during which he, or his son, joined Sir 
Wm. Waller in the west, with Sir Win. Brereton 
(Whitelocke, i. 268). We again meet with the 
colonel in London, where his former activity as a 
legislator was not forgotten. On July 12, 1644, 
the House of Commons referred it to the Com- 
mittee of Sequestrators of Middlesex, London, and 
Westminster to provide a convenient house for 
Col. Alexander Rigby and his family (Journals, 
iii. 559). Rigby's devotion to the revolution in- 
duced the House of Commons, from March 25, 
1645, to allow him -il. weekly for his maintenance; 
and about seventy other members received the 
same gratuity, on the ground that all had lost or 
been deprived of the benefit of their estates, or 
were in such want that they could not without 

supplies support themselves in the service of the 
House. The order, which was originally drawn 
up for the House by Rigby himself, was discharged 
on Aug. 20, 1646 (Journals, iv. 141, 161, 649). 
On Dec. 20, 1648, Col. Rigby signed the remon- 
strance against making a treaty with the king in 
the Isle of Wight (Walker's Indep., ii. 48). To 
prevent the treaty the king's person was seized, 
and when it was decided to bring him to trial 
Cromwell nominated Col. Rigby as one of the 
judges. Much as R'gby hated the king, he declined 
to act. On May 29, 1649, he was named a com- 
missioner in the Act for draining the Great Level 
of the Fens (Scobell's A cts, p. 38 ; Journals, vi. 
218). The Mystery of the Good Old Cause adds 
that he was governor of Boston (Walker's Iiide- 
pendency, i. 171). 

Amongst the legal promotions in 1649 Col. 
Rigby comes into notice. On June 1 the " merits 
and deserts " of Mr. Serjeant Bradshaw were 
ordered to be considered by the House. It was 
next resolved that the House approved of Peter 
Warburton, Esq., to be one of the judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and of Alexander Rigby, 
Esq., to be one of the barons of the Court of the 
Exchequer. Writs were then ordered to be issued 
for calling Warburton and Rigby to the dignity 
and degree of a serjeant-at-law; and an Act was 
brought in for making the writs returnable imme- 
diately (Journals, vi. 222, 229; Whitelocke, iii. 43). 

Henceforth the quondam colonel is called Baron 
Rigby, and the remaining events of his life are 
connected with his judicial duties. He sat at some 
assizes in Lancashire and the northern counties. 
In August, 1650, he was at Chelmsford in Essex, 
where the assize sermon was preached before him 
on Luke xvi. 2. Soon afterwards he fell sick, and 
the assizes were adjourned, promise being made to 
come back and finish them there after the Croydon 
assizes were over. Rigby sat at the latter place, 
where his sickness so much increased, and where 
Judge Gates, his colleague, was also attacked in 
the like manner, as well as the High Sheriff of 
Surrey, that "all three were speedily conveyed 
away thence to London, where they all three died 
immediately after, even within a seven nights' 
space or thereabout, of a most violent pestilential 
fever ; and very many more of their clerks, officers, 
and attendants on the said assizes died also at the 
same time, as was generally and most credibly in- 
formed and reported." This relation is taken from 
John Vicars's Dagon Demolished, 4to. 1660; and 
cf. Fuller's Church Hist., iv. 402, ed. Oxon. The 
date of Rigby's death was August 18, and Baron 
Gates died on the following day (Peck's Desid. 
Curiosa, vol. ii. bk. xtv. p. 532, fol. ed.). Gates 
was interred at the Temple Church. Rigby's re- 
mains are said to have lain in state at Ely Place, 
Holborn, and the interment took place at Preston, 
in Lancashire, on September 9. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. vm. AUG. 25, -SB. 

An interesting account of the connexion of Col. 
Kigby and his son Edward with his American 
province, named Lygonia, appeared in the Palatine 
Note- Boole for August, 1883, from the pen of Dr. 
Charles E. Banks, of 18, Grand View Avenue, 
Somerville, Mass., U.S. A. Any further particulars 
of Kigby would be welcome to Dr. Banks or 
myself. JOHN E. BAILEY. 

Stretford, Manchester. 

Many thanks to STRIX. The Sir Alexander 
Rigby of whom I desire information was the 
grandson of John of Wigan and M.P. for Wigan, 
colonel in the Parliamentary army, baron of the 
Exchequer, and besieger of Lathom House. He 
left sons Alexander and Edward, the latter of 
whom succeeded to his father's interests in Maine 
about 1650. The correspondence of Col. Alexander 
and his son Edward with their agents in New 
England would be of great value to me, as I am 
gathering materials for Maine history, and I was 
hoping to reach his descendants, who might 
possess these valuable documents belonging to 
their ancestor. 

I am greatly disappointed in getting no replies 
to my queries respecting George Cleeve, the founder 
of Portland, and still hope that some " patient and 
loving antiquary " will pick up something for me 
which may make him better known to posterity. 

Portland, Maine, U.S. 

242, 294 ; viii. 112). What little experience of the 
subject I have had while collecting folk-lore in 
Italy and Spain quite agrees with that of K. H. B. 
(the incognito of whose initials I am sorry that 
my memory fails to penetrate). There does seem 
to be much less familiarity with ghost superstitions 
(just as with witchcraft) in these than in our own 
or other Protestant countries. But I am unable 
to trace the fact to any special influence of Catho- 
licity. ^ No doubt perfect Catholicity casteth out 
superstition; but most things are imperfect; and it 
is patent that not only other most egregious super- 
stitions are firmly clung to by ignorant Southern 
populations professing Catholicity,* but in Tirol, 

* I have had servants in Rome who seemed to have 
no idea what a haunting spirit could be who yet would 
come to me with a beaming face, and, fully possessed 
by a most absurd superstition, say, " I am happy to be 
able to announce to you that something very lucky is 
shortly going to befall you, for I have just broken a valu- 
able piece of china." I think also that treasure-stories, 
which are rife all over the south of Europe, are very little 
known among our own people. The observation quoted 
from a Roman on this subject (Folk-lore of Rome, p. 270) 
could not be emphasized too strongly. Dream supersti- 
tions, again, are equally common in the two countries, and 
in Italy have a special development of connexion with 
the lottery, of which there are various established and 
printed codes in daily use. 

which is the most Catholic country in the world, 
ghosts are not uncommon. Again, many of the 
most highly educated Catholics in Northern 
countries are devoted to a belief in ghosts, and 
seem to think that the possibility of seeing them 
is almost an article of faith, while Italian 
Catholics of the same class are generally quite in- 
different to the subject. 

At one time I fancied that the discrepancy was 
governed by climate; not that, as K.H.B. facetiously 
puts it, the ghost liked coming back to Northern 
fogs, but that the Southerner had no temptation 
amid his bright atmosphere to gloomy apprehen- 
sions and fancies ; that the peculiar beauty of the 
Italian and Spanish nights, " when the deep skies 
assume hues that have words," gave no occasion 
to that fear of the dark which so many Northerners 
entertain fear which peoples misty solitudes with 
apparitions. But, if I mistake not, haunting spirits 
are not unknown to India, and India, I suppose, 
has lustrous nights too. 

Some few ghost stories do, however, exist in 
Italy; but I will not repeat here the instances and 
local opinions I have already published in Folk- 
lore of Borne (pp. xii and 259-87). The only 
locally characteristic one I have met with (unless 
it be an instance I have given pp. 275-6) is the one 
with which Hare has made most people familiar, 
of the cardinal who is to be heard trailing his 
marble train over the marble floor of a certain 
palazzo. As one goes further north in Italy ghost 
stories seem to become less infrequent. My notes 
of the few I collected are not at the moment 
attainable; but I can remember the outline of one, 
rather good, because told me in the greatest detail 
by the person whose experience it was,* and offer 
it in answer to K. H. B.'s challenge, though I am 
sorry that the note-book in which I wrote it down 
from her lips was stolen in a Naples Carneval. 

When she was a very young girl, she said, she 
had been devoted to San Pasquale ; his feast she 
kept as if it had been one of the great ones, his 
image was always before her at her devotions, his 
invocation ever on her lips in every need. Her 
mother often said, "Why do you choose such a 
gloomy saint? He is not an appropriate patron 
for a young girl"; but in the lightheartedness of her 
gioventii spensierata she continued to cultivate 
him all the same. " Mark my words," her mother 
would say, " he will bring you bad news some day." 
But she persisted in never minding. 

This went on for some years ; then at last one 
night, as she was saying her prayers, all of a sudden 
there stood San Pasquale before her, in mitre and 
cope, just as he looked in his picture. She did not 

* My landlady in a Tuscan town, the wife of one of 
the principal tradesmen, a person of ordinary education 
and more than ordinary intelligence, and who was most 
useful in beating up numerous bits of antiquity and old 
local customs unperceived by the ordinary traveller. 

6ts.vm.A.25,'83.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


feel at all frightened, as she had grown quite familiar 
with him. Then he moved on and beckoned to her, 
and she seemed bound to follow him by a kind of 
fascination. He went before her till he came to 
her mother's room ; there he did something, I forget 
what, which impressed her as a token that her 
mother would die on the third day after. She was 
then in mortal terror, but said no word for fear 
that mentioning the prediction should induce its 
accomplishment. On the third day, however, her 
mother actually did die. "But how?" I asked; 
and with some persuasion I elicited that it was 
by suicide. Though she had some powerful reasons 
for the act, the girl herself had not anticipated 
anything of the sort. 

The most delightfully quaint invention for 
accounting for apparitions and ghost stories is to 
be found in Gaffarel's Unheard-of Curiosities. He 
first tells the tale that if the ashes of certain plants, 
e. g. t roses and nettles, are put in a glass and held 
over a lamp, they will rise up and resume their 
original form, 

"Secret, dont on comprend, que, quoyque le corps 

Les Formes font pourtant aux cendres leur demeure"; 

and hence he proceeds to draw the conclusion that 
the ghosts of dead men, which, he says, are often 
seen to appear in churchyards, are natural effects, 
being only the forms of the bodies which are buried 
in those places, and not the souls of those men, nor 
any such like apparition caused by evil spirits. 

For my own part my bedroom for years was one 
(in Kent) where a lady was supposed to walk with 
her head under her arm. I have occupied for 
months together (in Italy) a habitation of dispos- 
sessed Cistercians, and gone to post my letters at 
midnight across the cloister where the monks of 
old lay buried, and altogether have been in some 
of the finest situations for seeing ghosts, but never 
could succeed in meeting " the ghost of" one. 

K. H. BUSK. 

K. H. B. would seem to be of opinion that ghost- 
lore is in some sort an outcome of Protestantism. 
But surely a belief in ghosts prevailed throughout 
Europe before the Keformation took place. Malta 
is an island where more of the inner life of the 
Middle Ages survives than in most countries, and 
the inhabitants of which are well known for their 
staunch adherence to the ancient creed and cultus. 
But in Malta ghosts of the genuine type abound. 
One old street in Valletta, Strada Sant' Orsola, is 
noted for the number of its haunted houses. Most 
of the readers of " N. & Q." who have been to Malta 
will remember on the steps of this quaint street an 
imposing house with a large entrance, over which, 
on a scroll, is the legend " Omnia Somnia," and 
the date, I think, 1690. This inscription has 
puzzled many ; and as the story of its origin is 
little known, perhaps I may be allowed to record 
it. In this house lived a certain wealthy baglivo 

of the order of St. John, who retained an Arab 
slave captured in some knightly expedition. The 
slave had been baptized and was a devout Chris- 
tian, despising the luxury with which the some- 
what degenerate Hospitallers of the higher grades 
surrounded themselves. It was his habit, when 
dusting his master's splendid apartments, to mur- 
mur the while, " Omnia somnia, omnia somnia." 
The knight once overheard him, and asked what it 
was he kept repeating. "I think," replied the 
slave, " that all these luxuries in which you delight 
are mere worthless nothings, unreal as dreams ; 
therefore I say ' Omnia somnia.' " The baglivo 
was struck with this notion, and had the Arab's 
favourite motto carved in stone over his door. To 
this day the inmates of the house hear the words 
" Omnia somnia " softly uttered, as though in 
warning, through the vast rooms at candle-lighting. 

Derreenalamane, co. Cork. 

S. yii. 89, 107, 153, 168, 198, 229, 290, 389, 470; 
viii. 27). MR, ROUND'S compliments are so much 
in the nature of the traditional character of angelic 
visits that I accept them, when offered, with the 
greatest pleasure. But I must confess that the 
language of compliment has been very materially 
qualified by other language the reverse of com- 
plimentary as to which I desire to say as little as 

But I must, in limine, decline having had any 
idea of " bolstering up a pseudo-barony " in writing 
to " N. & Q." on some of the questions which had 
been raised in regard to the peerage of Ruthven 
of Freeland. A peerage which was sufficiently 
created and sufficiently extant for proofs of sitting 
under it to be of record, and which had other re- 
cognition in the Acts of the Parliament of Scotland 
down to 1693, is, for me at least, sufficiently 
created and sufficiently extant (unless proved to 
be extinct, which is not the case) to be still a 
peerage in 1883. 

I am glad to accept MR. ROUND'S assurance that 
he did not intend to express any doubts as to the 
burning of the Place of Freeland, though his lan- 
guage certainly seemed to convey such doubts. 
Assuming the fact of the fire, I remain of opinion 
that the house so destroyed was of all places the 
most likely place of deposit of the patent. It ia 
really a mere accident that other seventeenth cen- 
tury Scottish patents, as to the existence of which 
there has never been any doubt expressed, were not 
similarly lost to us. The Breadalbane patent one 
which might be thought to call for particular care, 
from the very extensive and special powers granted 
therein was not registered for years after it had 
passed. Just a little carelessness among servants, 
and we might have been told to-day that Breadal- 
bane was a " pseudo - earldom." I, of course, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. A, a, , 

simply suggest these points as cautions, and not 
because I consider that the case here supposed 
would justify such language. 

Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh seemed 
to me at the time of writing, and seems to me 
still, an adequate authority, as an institutional 
writer, for the description of the parliamentary 
position of the Commissioners for the Shires in 
Scotland before the Union. It so happens that 
Sir George was also an heraldic text- writer of con- 
siderable note. I cited his words from his Insti- 
tutions of the Law of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1684), 
and his language is most formal and precise in his 
identification of the Commissioners for the Shires 
with the barons. I do not see that this identifica- 
tion is in any way contradictory to the representa- 
tion by the said Commissioners of the freeholders 
not barons as well as of the barons. 

I must decline altogether to argue from Ruthven 
of Freeland to Rutherford, or to any of the other 
peerages mentioned by MR. ROUND. I did not 
introduce any of those cases, because I did not 
and do not hold them to be relevant. On the 
Rutherford peerage I have, indeed, expressed 
some portion of my views in an earlier series 
of " N. & Q." But I see so little benefit to 
be derived from discussing these questions with 
a school which seems to assume that where any 
Scottish peerage case presents some apparent 
difficulties, the existence of such difficulties is 
to be ascribed to grave moral faults in the peers 
themselves suppression and destruction of docu- 
ments, and the like that I have no induce- 
ment to conclude my paper. With regard to the 
constitutional point to which I took exception, I 
may say that I purposely abstained from intro- 
ducing the author of the expression cited, because 
MR. ROUND appeared to me to indorse it, and I 
am irreconcilably at issue with the view embodied 
therein. The expression itself, I must take this 
opportunity of remarking, I considered, and still 
consider, to be in no sense a judicial utterance, 
therefore I do not feel that in differing from its 
author I am in any way setting myself up as a 
" better authority." On a constitutional question 
which I hold to be one of very grave importance, I 
am entitled at least, if not bound, to express my 
dissent from a view which appears to me to be out 
of harmony with the spirit of the Constitution. 
But, having recorded that dissent, I do not propose 
to follow up the point in the pages of " N. & Q." 

I shall, however, I hope, not be overstepping 
due limits if I venture to remind MR. ROUND that 
I am a good deal his senior as a student both of 
constitutional history and genealogy. 

More than twenty years have elapsed since I 
first summoned " N. & Q." to my aid for the solu- 
tion of problems some of which yet await their 
full solution. I have frequently written, as many 
of us who contribute to these pages must write, 

in the midst of other demands upon my time 
far more imperative than correspondence with 
" N. & Q.," and it is not safe for MR. ROUND to 
assume either myself or any other correspondent to 
be hors de combat for want of the appearance of 
a reply such as he may have thought likely to be 
forthcoming. And it is quite possible that others 
may, like myself, feel it a waste of power to 
carry on controversies which seem likely only to 
serve the opposite side as vehicles for the expres- 
sion of foregone conclusions, couched in language 
which is happily rare in the pages of " N. & Q." 
My farewell words to MR. ROUND in the present 
discussion shall be taken from the motto of one 
of his own queens, Mary of England, and they are 
words which every student of history and of genea- 
logy should lay to heart : " Veritas temporis filia." 

New University Club, S.W. 

PARSONS, THE COMIC Roscius (6 th S. viii. 111). 
Parsons lived at Bow Lane, Cheapside in fact, 
was born there, his father being a builder in Bow 
Lane. He was christened William. Cunning- 
ham gives Bow Lane as his birthplace, but men- 
tions neither Frog Hall nor Parsons as of Lam- 
beth. Baker's Biog. Dramatica may, perhaps, 
furnish fuller particulars, but I am not able to 
refer at present. This famous Dogberry and the 
original Sir Fretful Plagiary died 1795. 

"He science knew, knew manners, knew the age," 
his epitaph says, and he now lies quietly in the 
churchyard of St. Margaret's, Lee, Kent. There 
is a portrait of him in the Garrick Club collection 
by Vandergucht, as he appeared with Moody in 
The Committee, in which he played Varland. This 
has been engraved. There is also a small mezzo- 
tint by R. Laurie. An oval of him, by G. Harding, 
in the character of Alscrip, was engraved by 
J. Parker ; and another oval, in profile, by 0. 
Hayter, was engraved by J. Wright, 1792. There 
is also a further print of him playing with Bransby 
in Lethe, dated 1792, three years before his death. 

C. A. WARD. 

[Further particulars concerning Parsons may be of 
interest. He died in February, 1795, at the age of sixty 
or thereabouts, having before his death suffered much 
from asthma. He was very thin, and had a singularly 
mobile face. Column the Younger, in his New Hay at 
the Old Market subsequently known as Sylvester Dagger- 
wood with which, on the 9th of June, 1795, the 
Haymarket summer season commenced, introduces a 
dialogue between the Prompter (Waldron) and the Car- 
penter (Benson) : 

" Prompter. Poor Fellow ! Poor Parsons ! The old 
cause of our mirth is, now, the cause of our melancholy. 
He, who so often made us forget our cares, may well 
claim a sigh to his memory. 

" Carpenter. He was one of the comicalest fellows I 
ever see. 

" Prompter. Aye, and one of the honegtest, Master 

Oilliland, who speaks of the father as a carpenter, saya 

6fr8.viiLATO.2B/8s.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


tmithycoom, or smithycum. Coom or cum is a 
term applied likewise to other kinds of dust or 
refuse, aa sawcoom, sawdust ; maltcoom, or maut- 
eunt, the offshoots from barley in malting; cart- 
coom, the black matter that gathers at the naves 
of wheels. Bailey, in his Dictionary, gives us, 
" Coom, soot which gathers over the mouth of an 
oven." In Scotland, and in the northern counties 
of England, coom or cum, is a name generally 
given to soot or coal dust. Coom and coine are 
probably corrupt forms of the A.-S. cund, an adj. 
termination denoting kind, sort, nature, origin, or 

^likeness of a thing, as eorthcund, heofoncund, &c. 

' As cement in ironwork, smithycoom, and also iron 
filings, moistened with some acid, are in common 
use. OZMOND. 

vi. 221, 352, 529). I received recently a very 
cordial invitation to visit Mons, the capital of 
Hainault, and to assist as a spectator at the re- 
markable annual procession which takes place 
there on Trinity Sunday. Prevented by duties at 
home, I received an interesting account of it 
from an eye-witness. It was founded in memory 
of the deliverance of the town from the ravages of 
the Black Death. During the prevalence of that 
terrible pestilence, on Oct. 7, 1349, the clergy and 
the inhabitants went in procession, carrying the 
relics of their patron, Ste. Waudru, from the church 
through the town. The plague being stayed, the 
procession was made annual, and transferred in 
1352 to the first Sunday after Pentecost. Except 
during the French Revolution the custom has been 
continued, with some important changes, to the 
present day. It is now partly a religious festival 
and partly a joyful anniversary. The chief feature 
is the gilded car, on which the ancient and curious 
chest containing the relics of Ste. Waudru is drawn 
by brewers' horses through the town. The car is of 
the age of Louis Quatorze, although it has fre- 
quently been repaired and redecorated. The pro- 
cession starts about 10.30 from the beautiful 
collegiate church of Ste. Waudru, after a grand 
mass, and attended by all the clergy and choirs in 
the town. At the head of the procession march 
the children of the different hospices and orphan- 
ages, and then deputies from each parish, carrying 
banners and images. A band of music follows, 
and then the char d'or, drawn by six of the finest 
brewers' horses, mounted by lads in the costume of 
the last century. The clergy of the chief church 
follow, with the dean holding in his hand " 1'an- 
tique croix abbatiale du chapitre noble de Mons." 
The cortege ends with the sapeurs-pompiers, who 
have charge of the procession, which, after travers- 
ing the whole town, returns to the church, where 
a Te Deum is sung. 

There is a supplementary cortege of St. George 
and the Dragon, followed by the combat, called 

the lumecon, between the saint and his enemy, of 
ancient origin. This is enacted in the Grande 
Place, before the site of the chapel of St. George, 
now destroyed. 

Thus, although the procession retains many of 
its ancient features, it only faintly recalls the 
splendour of the old times, when the now sup- 
pressed college of noble ladies, the canonesses of 
Ste. Waudru, had charge of it, and the nobles and 
burgesses of Hainault vied with each other to give 
eclat to the fete. 

In the brochure which has been sent to me, 
tracing the history of this curious procession, I 
find the following note, which is worth preserving : 

" Le saint sacrament n'est point porte a la procession, 
ce qui en prouve 1'anciennete. En effet, avant le XVI m * 
siecle, on ne portait pas 1'eucharistie dans les processions 
qui se faisaient en dehors de 1'eglise." 


Emanuel Hospital. 

THE TITLE OF " MONSEIGNEUR " (6 th S. viii. 
107). The following is from M. Bouillet's Die- 
tionnaire des Sciences, &c., p. 1072 : 

" Dans le moyen age, il [i. e., the title Monseigneur] 
se donnait & tout chevalier ; on le donnait aussi a toua 
les saints, en les invoquant* Jusqu'en 1789 il fut 
accorde en France a un tres-grand nombre de person nes, 
princes du sang, princes de I'eglise, hauls fonctionnaires. 
L'Assemblee Cons tituante 1'abolit ; maia il reparut sous 
1' Empire et sous la Reatauration. II utait alors donne 
aux ministres. Apres 1830 cette qualification n'a plus 
guere etc donnee qu'aux princes du sang, aux cheques, 
archeveques, et cardinaux." 

Of course it will be remembered that Louis XIV. 
limited the title to Louis his son, as Philippe, Due 
d'Orleans, the king's brother, was Monsieur and 
his wife Madame (without any proper name being 
appended). Monsieur (without a proper name) 
was the title of the king's brother in the sixteenth 
century, if not earlier. E. COBHAM BREWER. 

Your correspondent will find in St. Simon's 
Memoires much information as to this title when 
applied properly to French prelates, who might 
also be great feudatories possessing seigneuries. 
He treats of this matter at the close of the reign of 
Louis XIV. I am sorry I am unable to give a 
more exact reference. Such prelates were " pairs 
de France." S. L. P. 

A PORTRAIT OF CHARLFS I. (6 th S. vi. 430 ; 
vii. 135). The portrait from which the engraving 
was taken is at All Souls' College, Oxford : half 
length, seated, high black hat, ribbon and badge, 
K.G. On the back is written : "K. Charles the 
first as he satt at his tryall in Westminster Hall, 
1648. An original. G. 0." This picture was 
exhibited at Kensington, 1866. About fifty or 
sixty years ago a portrait similar to the above was 

' This may be the vocatif, but it is very doubtful, tig 
the phrase would be " Plaise a Monseigneur," &c. 



i. VIII. Auo. 25, '83. 

at Eastwell Park (then the property of Finch 
Hatton, Esq.), with the following inscription, 
written by the painter, on the background : 
" Edw. Bower, Att Temple barr, fecit 1648." The 
one at Belvoir,Castle has the same inscription. 

A CUFF AT CONFIRMATION (6 th S. vi. 48, 175 ; 
vii. 278). The following passage illustrates the 
custom : 

"He doth confirme the children yong, without ex- 

Or tryall of their fayth, or of their woonted handling. 

He teacheth that the holy ghost may be rcccyude, and 

At haiulcs of euery Priest, that is, as well of good as 

Not putting difference betwixt Christes Legates truly 

And wicked Simon, damned for his mischieuous in- 

With Creame their foreheads doth he mark, the people 
laughing there, 

And those whome thus he marked hath he striketh ou 
the eare." 

The Popish Kingdome, Englyshed ly Barnale 
Googe, 1570 (p. 84, reprint 1880). 


VIRGATA (6 th S. vii. 348; viii. 54). Philip 
Hore, in his Explanation of Ancient Terms, &c., 
says it is supposed to be the same as the yardland, 
i.e., from twenty to thirty acres, but it differed at 
different periods. Dr. Nash states that in the 
time of Henry V. it was fifteen, twenty-four, and 
thirty acres ; and Eandle Holme says generally 
twenty, though sometimes twenty-four and thirty. 
White Kennett says, in his Glossary, that the 
Wimbledon virgate was fifteen acres, on the autho- 
rity of Spelman ; but in 24 Henry III. two vir- 
gates in Chesterton contained ninety acres. 

C. A. WARD. 

Haverstoek Hill, N.W. 

COLOURS IN THE ARMY (6 lh S. vii. 286, 351, 
429, 497). MR. ROUND adds many to the number 
of coloured regiments already named, which I have 
been glad to add to my notes ; and with regard to 
the latter part of his communication, the question 
whether the buff coats or armour were worn over 
the coloured coats in the new model army, and 
also whether scarves were generally worn, or only 
with buff coats, perhaps Planches History of 
Costume may give a little information. I think 
that from what is said only armour was worn over 
the coloured coats, never the buff jacket ; when 
this is mentioned it is always put " to be worn 
under the armour," generally back and breast 
piece ; when these latter were discarded the buff 
coat was worn with only a gorget and open head- 
piece. The dragoons had a " buff coat with deep 
skirts and an open head-piece with cheeks "; they 
were not so well equipped, as a rule, as the rest of 
the cavalry, but in Military Instruction for the 

Cavalrie, published at Cambridge in 1632, direc- 
tions are given that the " harquebusier, lancier, 
and curassier " are each to wear armour besides the 
buff coat underneath ; the " curassier " is further 
directed to wear a scarf, which was the only sign 
of company at this time, " the buff coat and cuirass 
presenting no distinguishing colours." There seems 
to be reason to suppose that scarves were used 
whether the coats were coloured or not, and that 
the commanding officer changed the colour if he 
pleased. In the Fairfax Correspondence it is said 
that " blue was the colour selected as a badge by 
the Royalists." In The Civil Wars in Hampshire 
(Rev. G. N. Godwin) it is mentioned that the 
Royalist officers wore red scarves, whilst Col. 
Robert Lilburne, writing to Cromwell from 
Preston, August, 1651, just after the engagement 
there, says: "The enemy's word was ' Jesus ' and 
their signal a white about the arm ; our word wag 
' Providence ' and our signal the green." Plancho 
says also, " Scarlet had long been the prevailing 
colour of the clothing of the royal troops in Eng- 
land, and was retained by Cromwell, but his per- 
sonal guard of halberdiers were clad in grey coats 
welted with black" (Whitlock's Perfect Politician). 
In the Stuart Lieutenancy in Lancashire (Chatham 
Society) are many particulars as to the clothing of 
troops, cost of arms and armour, &c. 


BEZOAR STONES (3 rd S. vi. 338). In answer 
to the query on this subject I contribute the fol- 
lowing extract : 

" A friend of mine, an intelligent surgeon, on his re- 
turn to Chile fromMendoza, over the Cordillera, brought 
a number of rounded stones he had collected about the 
springs of the Inca's bridge, as well as at some distance 
from them ; these he supposed were Bezoar stones, 
voided by the guanacos, that frequently come down from 
the mountains to drink the mineral water, which, lie 
conjectured, must act upon them as an emetic. He 
therefore drank some of the water, which produced those 
effects on him. The fact appears continued by the cir- 
cumstance of these stones having been nowhere else dis- 
covered in the Cordillera except at this place, and that 
it is known only to a few native arrieros, who have kept 
the secret to profit by the sale of thd calculi, which they 
carry to Mendoza and Aconcagua. These stones are 
sought after by many, who believe that, having been 
placed upon the sacred altar, they become possessed of 
wonderful curative powers, in which respect they re- 
semble the famed Bezoar stones of the East, which, even 
to the present day, are highly prized for their alexi- 
pharmic virtues. The calculi my friend brought with 
him varied in size from that of a cherry to a ball of two 
inches in diameter; externally they were somewhat 
globular, slightly flattened or compressed in places, of 
an ochreous colour, having a smooth and very fine 
grained surface, and soft enough to be scratched with a 
knife ; internally they appeared composed of distinct 
laminar concretions, which are very difficult to separate. 
I sawed one through the middle ; its section was similar 
to other Bezoar stones I remember to have seen ; like 
them the concretions appear formed upon a blackish 
nucleus of extraneous matter; the first lamella are thin 
and scaly, the others increase in thickness as they attain 

6>s.vm.AuG.25,'83.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


a larger diameter ; they are, too, of various colours, so 
that the section of the stone presents an onyx-like con- 
figuration, the concentric shades being of various inter- 
mediate tints, between white and ochreous brown : some 
of the layers are compact and of a crystalline texture, 
while others are dull and porous. The calculi are com- 
posed apparently of carbonated lime, for they strongly 
effervesce in dilute common sulphuric acid, and I regret 
having no other acid at hand for a more minute exami- 
nation. Their specific gravity is 2-47." Travels in Chile 
and La Plata, vol. i. p. 310. by John Miers, 2 vola. 8vo., 
London, 1826. 

24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea. 

viii. 45). When a curate in Dorsetshire, nearly 
thirty years ago, I kept a list of such words 
spoken by the peasantry as were to me, fresh from 
another part of England, strange and peculiar. 
Some of these are identical with those given 
already ; others, no doubt, may be found in the 
poetical works of Mr. Barnes. Omitting those 
already given, perhaps the following are worth 
preserving : 

Aiggs, for eggs. 

Car", to carry. 

Crowner, coroner. 

Chetten, to kitten. 

To empt, to empty. 

Gert, for great. 

Ginning, the beginning. 

Leary, faint and hungry. 

Wink, a winch, or the handle of a grindstone. 

Plain, poorly. 

Hummick, sweat. 

Nar, never. 

Nippy, hungry. 

Puggy-nosed, big-nosed. 

Teery, weak and slender. 

Tilty, hasty in temper. 

Vurzen, furze. 

Slummocking, untidy. 

Sweale, to scorch. 

Sprack, lively. 

Of phrases I kept record of the following : 

To marry with, as, " I doan't wish my zon to marry 
wid she." 

Jee, to agree, as, "My dough ter doan't jae with her 
man " (f. ., her husband). 

An understanding (i.e., a clever) man, which was ap- 
propriate as applied specially to an intelligent shoemaker 
who was also a "bird doctor." 

" Doan'tee be in a flummocks," i e., in a hurry. 

All, in the sense of quite, as, "It's all two o'clock." 

Vinny, damp and mouldy ; hence Vinny- Cross, so 
called from a (now departed) decayed old cross at the 
corner of a road. 

Then, in the times to which I refer, the plural en 
was more common than I suspect it is now, since 
the schoolmaster's advent, and I heard daily of 
horsen, housen, fielden, as well as oxen and chicken 
(never chickens). The difficulty of understanding 
the plural in s led to such clumsy attempts as 
posteses and wopseses, and in parish churches, at 
the recitation of the Athanasian Creed, even " two 
Holy Qhosteses," 

The dissyllabic forms, as mentioned 6 th S. vii. 
107, 397, were also common, as veast, for feast ; 
vier, for fire ; leak, for leak ; ellum, for elin, &c. 


Emanuel Hospital, S.W. 

SOLOMON'S SEAL (6 th S. vii. 268 ; viii. 33). 
Richardson, in his Persian and Arabic Dictionary, 
says that it was two triangles interlaced. But the 
Talmudists say that this character was inscribed 
on the foundation stone of the temple. In Pal- 
mer's Quran, ii. 178, it is said the devil Sakhar 
got possession of the ring of Solomon, which he 
had entrusted to the concubine Aminah. The 
whole of his power lay in the ring, which was en- 
graved with the holy name, and for forty days 
Solomon wandered unrecognized. Then Sakhar 
flew away and threw the signet into the sea ; but 
the fish that swallowed it was brought to Solomon 
when caught, who by this was enabled to recover 
his kingdom. It would be interesting to bring 
together all the instances of stories in which a fish, 
as here, plays the part of restorer of things lost in 
Eastern Gaelic and European fable. The tribute- 
money in the Gospel found in the fish that was 
caught is another form of the same idea. 

C, A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

There is earlier authority than is mentioned 
u.s., if not exactly for the ring, yet for the assign- 
ment of magical power to Solomon. Josephus 
writes : 

" He obtained also the knowledge of the art of magic, 
for the profit and health of men, and the exorcising and 
casting out of devils; for he devised certain incantations 
whereby the diseased are cured, and left the method of 
conjuration in writing, whereby the devils are enchanted 
and dispelled." Antiquities, viii. 2, p. 201, trans. Lond., 


S. vii. 487). In Knight's Pictorial Edition of 
Shakspere (vol. ii. p. 449) ia given an exhaustive 
note on the several readings, and reasons are 
assigned for adopting the subjoined punctuation, 
of this song : 

" Where the bee sucks, there suck I ; 
In a cowslip's bell I lie : 
There I couch when owls do cry 
On the bat's back. I do fly 
After summer merrily.' 1 P. 450. 

Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

APPLE-TREE FOLK-LORE (6 th S. vii. 447, 496). 
The couplet quoted by MR. PLATT appears in 
Ray's Proverbs somewhat differently : 
" If you would fruit have, 
You must bring the leaf to the grave." 

Ray adds : 
"That is, you must transplant your trees just about 


NOTES AND QUERIES. ce* s. vni. A. 25, -ss. 

the fall of the leaf, neither sooner nor much later : not 
sooner, because of the motion of the sap ; not later, that 
they may have time to take root before the deep frosts." 

THE CAUSAL " Do " (6 th S. iv. 408 ; v. 53, 179; 
vL 117, 295). Here is an earlier instance, which 
occurs in the second of the " War Poems " (1346- 
1352) of Laurence Minot that on Nevil's cross : 
" The flowers are now fallen 
That fierce were and fell, 
A Boar with his bataille 
Has done them to dwell." 

The meaning is, " caused them to be as if dead." 
Prof. Morley's note in explanation of dwell, in his 
Library of English Literature (vol. i. p. 33), says : 

" Dwala, in old Swedish, was a state of life resembling 
death, as of the flies in cold weather. The root of the 
word is in all Gothic languages. In old German, livelan 
was to he torpid. Dualm is still Scottish for swoon." 

In the first poem, on the siege of Calais, I read 

" All on this wise was Calais won ; 
God save them that it so gat wan." 


THE NIMBUS (6 th S. vii. 407). In the Memoirs 
of Percival Stockdale the following occurs, and 
may interest K. H. B. Stockdale's father lay 
dying, and during one night of his illness the 
nurse, a Mrs. Sprody, went to the press-bed in 
which he lay to see how he did. She found him 
gently sleeping, 
" but she was struck with an astonishing sight ; with a 
pure and luminous glory at the head of his bed : it shone 
steadily ; and she surveyed it intensely for several 
minutes; undoubtedly with surprise; but as she often 
declared to me without any fear. After having sur- 
veyed this unaccountable lustre for a while, she calmly 
examined every part of the room to see if such unusua 
light could from any part be admitted. She was con- 
vinced of the impossibility of the supposition ; returnee 
and viewed it again. After she had beheld it uninter 
ruptedly, the second time, for about five minutes it dis 
appeared; and was succeeded by the darkness with which 
the head of the bed had been before shaded. " 

S. T. 

vi. 13, 177, 318 ; vii. 138, 158). The curfew ii 
etill rung here, from Michaelmas to Lady Day, a 
eight o'clock in the evening. J. K. W. 


On what ground is it stated that Alfred the 
Great presented a horn to Ripon ? J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

SIR ROBERT WALPOLE (6 th S. vi. 426 ; vii. 177) 
I find the following extract, which I made som 
years since from the parliamentary debates con 
tained in a weekly periodical called The Bee, pub 
lished in 1733-34, edited by Eustace Budgell 
As well as I remember, it ended with the eight 
volume, in consequence of a newly imposed news 
paper stamp ; " Ifc is an old Maxim, that ever; 

Vtan has his Price, if you can but come up to it " 
3ir W m W m, speech, Bee, vol. viii. p. 97). 
?his seems to exonerate Sir Robert Walpole from 
he authorship on two grounds: first, that it was 
' an old maxim " ; second, enounced by Sir Wil- 
iam Wyndham, and not Sir Robert Walpole. 

BALLYRAGGING (6 th S. vi. 428 ; vii. 156 ; viii. 
8). This word, I believe, in one form or other, is 
iretty generally used all over England. The Rev. 
W. Barnes, in his Dortet Dialed (Phil. Soc., 1863), 
las, " Bally wrag, or Ballawrag [N.C. bullirag ; 
Heref. bellrag ; A.-S. bealu, evil, and wre*gan, to 
accuse ?], to scold or accuse in scurrilous language." 
This quotation may prove of interest to your corre- 
spondent at the first reference. To rag a person 
s a phrase I hare several times heard in the North 
of England. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

In Brockett's Glossary of North-Country Words 
;he word ballerag, or bullerag, is given as mean- 
ing " to banter in a contemptuous way," and the 
author continues thus : " The Crav. Gloss, has 
bullokin, imperious. Query, if it be not a verb 
Formed from bully-rook, a word which is used by 
Otway in his epilogue to Alcibiades, and which 
Steevens calls a compound title, taken from the 
rooks at chess." ROBERT M. TnuRaooD. 

" WOODEN WALLS " (6 th S. viii. 91). Of course 
the phrase occurs earlier than 1659, because it 
must occur in North's translation of Plutarch's , 
Lives, 1579, and in Stocker, which I think was 
before that. The passage occurs in the life of 
Themistocles. It is a Greek phrase, of course as 
old as the time of Themistocles. Langhorne 
translates: "Moreover, by way of explaining to 
the people an oracle then received, he told them 
that by ' wooden walls ' there could not possibly 
be anything meaned but ships"; and Wrangham, 
the editor of Langhorne, adds that Themistocles, more 
suo, had evidently suggested this to the Pythoness. 
To which I say, Querv ! C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

REFERENCE WANTED (6 th S. viii. 108). I 
think your correspondent CALCUTTENSIS must 
have in mind my contribution respecting Hone, 
the editor of The Every-Day Book, which appears 
in 6 th S. ii. 31. GEORGE WHITE. 

Ashley House, Epsom. 


OUT" (6 th S. vi. 328, 495; vii. 77). Shortly 
before his death in 1770, George Whitefield said, 
" I had rather wear out than rust out " (Southey's 
Life of Wesley, 1858, ii. 170). W. C. B. 

ARUNDEL, ARUN (6 th S. viii. 67). This name 
seems to be Celtic see the word "Aeron " in Dr. 
Pughe's Welsh Dictionary the dell or the dale of 
the river Aeron. It gives name to tfye small 

th S . via AUO. 25, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


town of Aberayron in Cardiganshire, and Little 
Hampton town, at the embouchure of the Arun, 
might be so called. R. & . 

Arun is from Celtic yr-on, for yr-avon, the 
river ; or, perhaps, rather from rhyn, ryn, ran, 
ren, a channel, river ; whence also the Rhein or 
Bhine, name of more than one European river. 


S. vii. 504). Is not this written by Charles Lloyd 
himself rather than by Charles Lamb ? It does 
not appear to me to be in Lamb's style at all. A 
comparison with Lloyd's other sonnet might pos- 
sibly determine the point. C. A. WARD. 

Hayerstock Hill. 

ABBREVIATIONS (6 th S. vi. 427; vii. 154). 
With "Wil. super Ray." cp. "Guill' dictus 
durandi glosator Raimudi," in Sprenger's Malleus 
Maleficarum, fo. 85. W. C. B. 

THE GLASTONBTTRY THORN (6 th S. vi. 513 ; vii. 
217, 258). Warner, in his History of the Abbey 
of Glastonbury (1826), states that 
" there were divers trees from the Holy Thorn by graft- 
ing or inoculation preserved in the town and country 
adjacent ; amongst other places, there was one in the 
garden of a currier in the principal street of Glaston- 
bury ; a second at the White Hart Inn j and a third in 
the garden of William Strode, Esq. There is a nursery- 
man near Glastonbury who sells them for a crown apiece, 
or as much as he can get." 


Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

348, 499 ; 6 th S. vii. 255). Does MR. DIXON, of 
Fresno, know how his great-grandfatkei'd brother 
acquired the Christian name of Haldenby 1 If he 
does, I should be glad to hear from him on the 

West Dereham Vicarage, Brandon, Norfolk. 

CHRISTOPHER MOOR (6 th S. vi. 450 ; vii. 175, 
236). I am sorry that, being away from home, I 
have left many books and papers behind me, 
amongst them all the particulars of the More 

Sir Christopher More was of Loseley Place, 
near Guildford. One of his daughters, Anne, mar- 
ried John Scarlett, who was given by King Ed- 
ward VI. the post of head keeper of Shillinglee 
Park ; the family of More had property in that 
neighbourhood at this time. Sir Christopher is 
buried in Guildford parish church, where there is 
a monument to him, giving the various matches 
of his daughters. His son was Sir William More, 
and the male line became extinct, I think, in the 
last century, the present representative of the 
family being Mr. More-Molyneux, of Loseley Park. 

Nearly all particulars are in Manning and Bray's 

There are a great quantity of most interesting 
MSS. at Loseley. Some of them have been pub- 
lished by the Historical Commission, but many 
have not been arranged or printed. STRIX. 

SAMUEL DALE, M.L. (6 th S. vii. 408). "In 
1730 Mr. Dale obtained the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine [where?], became a licentiate of the 
Royal College of Physicians, and removed to 
Booking, in Essex, where he practised until his 
death, June 6, 1739 " (Memoirs of the Sotanio 
Garden of Chelsea, by R. H. Semple, 8vo., 1878, 
p. 65). He is said to have been P.R.S., but his name 
is omitted from Dr. Thomson's lists. He, however, 
contributed several papers to the Philosophical 
Transactions. See Chalmers's Diet., xi. 213. 

L. L. H. 

The following paragraph from Wright's History 
of Essex, vol. ii. p. 25, will probably be of interest 

" Samuel Dale, M.D., an antiquary and botanist, born 
in 1669, was originally an apothecary at Braintree ; in 
1730 he became a licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians in London, and a practitioner at Becking, 
where he died in 1739, aged eighty." 

I may add that in Allibone's Dictionary the year 
1659 is given as the date of his birth. 

G. F. R. B. 

Cambridge till 1858 granted licences in medi- 
cine apart from medical degrees. Whether Oxford 
also I know not. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 


The Duke of Berwick, Marshal of France. By Charles 

Townshend Wilson. (Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.) 
COL. WILSON is fortunate in having chosen a real hero as 
the subject of his biography. The dishonour of Berwick's 
birth was more than redeemed by his valour in the field, 
his counsel in the camp, his unselfish life, and the 
glorious death which terminated his career under the 
walls of Philipsburg. As a commander, the curious 
shufflings of fates and principles which are character- 
istic of the time brought him often into antagonism with 
his brilliant uncle of Marlborough. If he generally 
maintained the part of a Fabius Cunctator, this is to be 
attributed partly to inclination, pprtly also to the grow- 
ing feebleness of Versailles orders and the distracting 
presence in the camp of pious but incompetent princes 
of the blood. That he could on occasions assume the 
offensive is proved by the battle of Almanza, where his 
sword saved France from defeat and the Spanish suc- 
cession from extinction. In private life his virtues were 
equally conspicuous and still more rare. Social and reli- 
gious ties were little regarded in the reign of Louis XIV., 
but Berwick was always a devoted husband and a pious 
though unbigoted Catholic. The volume is of abundant 
interest throughout, and we have little but praise to 
bestow on the manner in which Col. Wilson has executed 


NOTES AND QUERIES. te" s. vm. A. 25, 

his task. To a civilian the minute details of "march 
and countermarch, redoubt and ravelin," may sometimes 
be slightly tedious, though to soldiers they will have 
a special value and attraction. Col. Wilson writes in a 
bright and lively style, and it is only rarely that his 
graceful biography is disfigured by efforts at smartness 
which are inconsistent with the general correctness of 
his literary taste. 

Landholding, and the Relation of Landlord and Tenant 
L iTi Various Countries. By C. D. Field, LL.D. (Thacker 


MR. JUSTICE C. D. FIELD has written an admirable and 
exhaustive work upon this important topic. Most of 
the last half of the work is devoted to the land tenures 
of India, upon which, owing to his long exercise there 
of judicial functions, he has been enabled to produce a 
most valuable essay. To the practical information 
derived from experience he has added the results of 
extended reading, in which he has studied the systems 
of the principal countries of the world. These are ex- 
ceedingly instructive in themselves, and they usefully 
lead up to the more important thesis upon our great 
Oriental empire. Of course the land question there, as 
in Ireland, is one of the utmost consequence, and a dis- 
quisition upon it is much enhanced by its being placed 
in juxtaposition with essays upon the general relations 
of landlord and tenant. Justice Field appropriately 
commences his work with a review of the creation and 
development of early property in land, the landholding 
of the Roman empire, and the appropriation of lands 
by the Celtic races by whom the Roman empire was 
broken up. He then proceeds to treat of the incidents of 
feudal tenures, grants of fiefs, &c., with the feudal 
system in England, villein tenures, copyholds, escuage, 
&c. In the following chapters the land tenures are 
described of Prussia and the other German states, 
France, Austria, Belgium and the Netherlands, Italy, 
Spain, the Ionian Islands, &c. The next division of 
this great and comprehensive book affords a distinct 
view, at once historical and of immediate interest, 
of the relation between landowners and cultivators in 
Russia. European and Asiatic Turkey and Egypt are 
subsequently introduced ; and then follow four chapters 
In which the land question in Ireland, in regard to the 
past, present, and future, is elaborately discussed. The 
author, who has evidently bestowed much attention 
upon this pressing topic, considers various proposed 
remedies for existing evils and questions of compensa- 
tion. He finally, before introducing the most exhaustive 
portion of his book, gives the history of landholding in 
America and Australasia. 

A work such as this was urgently required at the 
present juncture of discussions upon the landholding 
questions. Mr. Justice Field has treated his subjects 
with judicial impartiality, and his style of writing is 
powerful and perspicuous. India is chiefly studied. 
The essays supplied on landhol dings throughout the 
world are, however, absolutely sufficient to convey a 
complete idea of their general constitutions. 

The Camden Miscellany. Vol. VIII. (Camden Society.) 
THE detached papers in this volume are of much interest, 
especially to those who are students of the history of the 
seventeenth century. The papers relating to the de- 
linquency of Lord Savile, 1642-6, are important as 
illustrating the difficulty which moderate persons ex- 
perienced when they endeavoured to steer a middle 
course between the king and his Parliament. The evi- 
dence here is by no means conclusive ; but from what 
we know of the character of the Hothams, father and 
son, we think it not improbable that some of Lord 

Savile's troubles may have resulted from the trust he 
put in them. We were not aware that iron was worked 
at Kirkstall in 1646. We have here, however, a letter of 
April 4 of that year dated from the " Kerkstall Iron- 
workes." The secret negotiation with Charles I., 1643-4, 
edited from the Tanner manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library by Mrs. Gardiner, is a document of first-rate im- 
portance in the history of the great Civil War, as it 
enables us to read more clearly the character of the 
unhappy king. 

Mr. S. R. Gardiner has edited the Earl of Manchester's 
letter to the House of Lords, in which the earl gives his 
side of the question as to his quarrel with Oliver Cromwell. 
He affirms that Oliver had said " that he hoped to live to 
see never a nobleman in England," and that he had 
" expressed himself with contempt of the Assembly of 
Divines." The latter charge is probably true; the 
former we cannot credit as it stands. No doubt Oliver 
had said something of the kind, with the limitation of 
some such words as "in high places in the army." 
Oliver's whole career is evidence that he disbelieved in 
doctrines of equality, such as those taught by the Levellers. 
Of those more modern notions which came into being on 
the fall of monarchy in France he had, of course, no 
notion. Time brings strange changes. The Earl of 
Manchester lived long enough to receive from Oliver the 
Lord Protector a summons to sit in his newly created 
House of Lords. We wonder what he thought in 1658 
of the charges made in 1644. 

AN American Huguenot Society has, we are glad to 
learn from the New York Genealogical and Biographical 
Record for July, recently been founded in New York. 
There are not a few of our readers who will be interested 
in the proceedings of such a society, and we hope that 
when its publication of papers commences we may be 
able to give further details concerning the genealogical 
labours which it proposes to undertake. The first presi- 
dent of the society is Hon. John Jay, formerly U.S. 
Minister at the Court of Vienna. 


We must call special attentionto the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

HENRY C. KNIGHT. The edition of Petronius Arbiter 
concerning which you inquire is described by Brunet 
(Manuel du Libraire) as " assez recherchee." It should 
consist of two volumes in one. The second volume con- 
tains " Priapeia " (62 pp.), " Boschii Not* " (68 pp.), and 
4 pp. of table. In good condition it sells for about five 

E. GUNTHORP. A full answer to your query concern- 
ing the heart of Anne Boleyn will be found in " N & Q.," 
6<h S. iv. 329, 413, 477. 

EDW. T. DUNN is desired to communicate with the 
Rev. Harcourt Delafons, Tiffield Rectory, Towcester, 
concerning the volume mentioned 6 th S. vii. 329. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6th s. vin. SEW. V83.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Fieldingiana, 161 Shakspeariana, 162 American 
Military Freemasons, 164 Visits of Living to Dead 
Crashaw and Aaron Hill, 165 Origin of Amber End of 
Boscobel Oak John Milton Notice of Beacon in Parish 
Register Execution Folk-lore, 166. 

QUERIES: -Families of King and Meldrum, 166 Scribe's 
" Verre d'Eau" Scandalize: Drawcacsir McLeroth Fa- 
mily Lichen "Lege, lege aliquid bserebit" Dr. Burney's 
Collection for a Stage History Corduroy Preble, Prebble, 
&c., 167 Carboy Device of Eagle and Sow Spitting on 
Coins for Luck Fordrough Modern Rosicructans Ber- 
wickshire Sandy Compton Wynyates Pill Garlick Resi- 
dence of Sydney Smith Portrait of Capper John Clarke 
Wood Family, 168 Csesar " Indicem ab auctore," &c. 
Authors Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES :-Paigle, 169 Silhouettes, 170-Red-haired Men 
"Papa" and "Mamma," 172 Visit to Orkney Galileo- 
Name of Inn Die Sonne, 173 Skemmy: Skinnum Dela- 
mayne the Poet, 174 Pynson Volume Standing at Prayers 
Whip-lane Character of a Gentleman A Spouter 
Tennis, 175 Bruxelles Pur: Chilver Early Marriages, 
176 Latin Inscription at Apothecaries' Hall "Sir Horn- 
book," 177 Curious Inscription Pleck= Meadow Was 
Korah swallowed in the Earthquake? Libraries in Churches 
Verses by Voltaire Instantly Act of Unselfishness 
" More prevailing sadness '' Standards of Ligonier's Regi- 
ment, 178 Dr. Arbuthnot's Works Prince EugSne of 
Savoy Authors Wanted, 179. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Kegan Paul's " Biographical Sketches " 
I Hershon's "Talmndic Miscellany "" The Modern Re- 
view," &c. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


Few, perhaps, except the readers of " N. & Q." 
know how little finality attaches to literary inquiry. 
Not very long ago I would have given a great 
deal to be able to verify the statement made by 
Arthur Murphy, in his Essay on the Life and 
Genius of Henry Fielding, Esq., to the effect that 
Fielding " went from Eton to Leyden," and that he 
studied at the latter place for " about two years." 
At that time any direct confirmation of this seemed 
hopeless. Since then, however, it has been estab- 
lished (" Fielding and Sarah Andrew," Athenaum, 
June 2, 1883) that Fielding must have left Eton 
before November, 1725, when he was staying 
at Lyme Regis ; and, from a note among the 
late Mr. Keightley's papers, I find that evidence 
of his presence at Leyden was all the while lying 
perdu in an old volume of the Cornhill Magazine. 
It is contained in an article entitled " A Scotch- 
man in Holland," which appeared in November, 
1863, and consists of the following entry from the 
album of the University of Leyden, under the 
year 1728 : " Henricus Fielding, Anglus, Ann. 20. 
Stud. Lit."* The writer of the paper further says 
that he was living at the " Hotel of Antwerp." As 
his first play, Love in Several Masques,was produced 

* He was twenty-one on April 22, 1728. 

at Drury Lane in February, 1728, it must be pre- 
sumed that the record was made in the first weeks 
of that year. How he contrived to produce a 
comedy in London so soon afterwards is difficult 
to understand, except upon the supposition that 
his Leyden studies were intermittent, and that he 
spent part of his time in London. In any case, it 
is now clear that he had not left England in 
November, 1725, and that he was at Leyden in the 
beginning of 1728, when he made what was pro- 
bably his farewell entry in the college album. 
The intervening period " about two years " 
therefore exactly corresponds to that mentioned by 

Another minor fact respecting Fielding, which 
seems to have hitherto escaped notice, is hia 
residence at Barnes. Here, says Lysons, Environs 
of London, vol. i. pt. i. p. 11, he lived "in a house 
which is now (1810) the property of Mrs. Stanton, 
widow of the late Admiral Stanton." Whether it 
still exists I am unable to say ; but the fact receives 
a certain confirmation from the reference (Tom 
Jones, bk. iv. chap, ii.) to the " Toasts of the Kit- 
Cat," which was at Barn-Elms. The most inter- 
esting anecdote, however, which I have discovered 
is contained in J. T. Smith's Nollekens and his 
Times, 1828. It occurs as a note to chap. v. vol. i. 
pp. 124-5, and is as follows : 

" Henry Fielding was fond of colouring his pictures of 
life with the glowing and variegated tints of Nature, by 
conversing with persons of every situation and calling, 
as I have frequently been informed by one of my \_i. e., 
J. T. Smith's] great aunts, the late Mrs. Husaey, who 
knew him intimately. I have heard her say, that Mr. 
Fielding never suffered his talent for sprightly conversa- 
tion to mildew for a moment; and that his manners 
were so gentlemanly, that even with the lower classes, 
with which he frequently condescended particularly to 
chat, such as Sir Roger De Coverley's old friends, the 
Vauxball watermen, they seldom outstepped the limits 
of propriety. My aunt, who lived to the age of 105, had 
been blessed with four husbands, and her name had 
twice been changed to that of Hussey : she was of a 
most delightful disposition, of a retentive memory, 
highly entertaining, and liberally communicative; and 
to her, I have frequently been obliged for an interesting 
anecdote. She was, after the death of her second hus- 
band, Mr. Hussey, a fashionable sacque and mantua- 
maker, and lived in the Strand, a few doors west of tho 
residence of the celebrated Le Beck, a famous cook, who 
had a large portrait of himself for the sign of his house 
at the north-west corner of Half-moon-street, since 
called Little-Bedford-street. One day, Mr. Fielding 
observed to Mrs. Hussey, that lie was then engaged in 
writing a novel, which he thought would be his best 
production ; and that he intended to introduce in it tha 
characters of all his friends. Mrs. Hussey, with a smile, 
ventured to remark, that he must have many niches, 
and that surely they must already be filled. ' I assure 
you, my dear Madam,' replied he, ' there shall be a 
bracket for a bust of you.' Sometime after this, he in- 
formed Mrs. Hussey, that the work was in the press; 
but, immediately recollecting that he had forgotten hia 
promise to her, he went to the printer, and was time 
enough to insert, in vol. iii. p. 17 [bk. x. ch. iv.], where 
he speaks of the shape of Sophia Western' Such charms 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* B. vm. sr. i, 'as. 

are there in affability, and so sure is it to attract the 
praises of all kinds of people ' ' It may, indeed, be com- 
pared to the celebrated Mrs. Hussey.' To which obser- 
vation he has given the following note : ' A celebrated 
mantua-maker in the Strand, famous for setting off the 
shapes of women.' " 

There is no reason for supposing that this 
neglected anecdote should not be in all respects 
authentic. In fact, upon the venerable principle 


" There it stands unto this day 
To witness if I lie," 

the existence of the passage and note in Tom Jones 
is practically sufficient argument for its veracity. 
This being so, it surely deserves some considera- 
tion for the light which it throws on Fielding's 
character. Mrs. Hussey's testimony as to his 
dignified and gentlemanly manners, which does 
not seem to be advanced to meet any particular 
charge, may surely be set against any innuendoes 
of the Burney and Wai pole type as to his mean 
surroundings and coarse conversation. And the 
suggestion that " the characters of all his friends" 
by which I understand rather mention of them 
than portraits are to be found in his masterpiece, 
is fairly borne out by the most casual inspection of 
Tom Jones, especially the first edition, where all 
the proper names are in italics. In the dedication 
alone are references to the " princely Benefactions " 
of John Duke of Bedford, and to Lyttelton and 
Ealph Allen, both of whom are also mentioned by 
name in bk. xiii. ch. i. The names of Hogarth and 
Garrick also occur frequently. In bk. iv. ch. i. is 
an anecdote of Wilks the player, who had been one 
of Fielding's earliest patrons. The Burgeon in the 
story of the " Man of the Hill " (bk. viii. ch. xiii.) 
" whose Name began with a E," and who " was 
Serjeant-Surgeon to the King," evidently stands 
for Hogarth's Chiswick neighbour, Mr. Ranby, by 
whose advice Fielding was ordered to Bath in 
1753. Again, he knew, though he did not greatly 
admire, Warburton, to whose learning there is a 
handsome compliment in bk. xiii. ch. i. In bk. xv. 
ch. iv. is the name of another friend or acquaint- 
ance (also mentioned in the Journey from this 
World to the Next), Hooke, of the Roman History, 
who, like the author of Tom Jones, had drawn his 
pen for Sarah, Duchess of Marlborougb. Bk. xi. 
ch. iv. contains an anecdote, real or imaginary, of 
Eichard Nash, with whom Fielding must certainly 
have become familiar in his visits to Bath ; and it 
is probable that Square's medical advisers (bk. xviii. 
ch. iv.), Dr. Harrington and Dr. Brewster, both of 
whom subscribed to the Miscellanies of 1743,* were 
well - known Bathonians. Whether the use of 
Handel's name in bk. iv. ch. v. is of any significance 
there is no evidence ; but the description in bk. iv. 

* Mr. Willougliby, also a subscriber, was probably 
"Justice Willouffhby of Noyle" referred to in bk. v ii. 

ch. vi. of Conscience " sitting on its Throne in the 
Mind, like the LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR of this 
Kingdom in his Court," and fulfilling its functions 
" with a Knowledge which nothing escapes, a 
Penetration which nothing can deceive, and an 
Integrity which nothing can corrupt," is clearly 
an oblique panegyric of Philip Yorke, Lord 
Hardwicke, to whom, two years later, Fielding 
dedicated his Enquiry into the late Increase of 
Bobbers, &c. Besides these, there are references 
to Bishop Hoadley (bk. ii. ch. vii.), Mrs. White- 
field, of the "Bell" at Gloucester (bk. viii. 
ch. viii.), Mrs. Clive, and Mr. Miller of the 
Gardener's Dictionary (bk. ix. ch. i.) ; and closer 
examination would no doubt reveal further allu- 
sions ; but the above will be sufficient for the 
present to show that the statement of the " cele- 
brated mantua-maker in the Strand" respecting 
Fielding's friends in Tom Jones is not without 
foundation. AUSTIN DOBSON. 


"THE TEMPEST,"!, i. (6 th S. vii. 464). When I 
commenced reading this passage as quoted in the 
above note, I said to myself, with eager curiosity, 
'' A crux here, and I never knew of it or noticed 
it ! " But when I had finished it, my remark was, 
" I never saw, nor can I now see, even an idio- 
matic difficulty." 

Critics seem to me over-apt to read Shake- 
speare's plays as literary essays intended to be 
read ; forgetful of two facts, that they were written 
to be spoken by actors who gave point and some- 
times explanation to their words by gesture and 
movement ; and that Shakespeare wrote knowing 
by what gestures his words would be accompanied 
or explained. Next to actors seamen, I think, 
chiefly use the same. Here it is clear, from the 
words " command these elements to silence," that 
the boatswain points to them ; he again or still 
does the same when, continuing to speak of 
Miranda's mingled sea and sky, he exclaims, " Or 
if you can work the peace of the present [" instant " 
(Steevens), or possibly " state of things," '' turmoil "] 
we," &c. Thus taken, " the present " is but the 
idiomatic and natural synonym for " the tempest '' 
of MR. BRAE. 

As one somewhat accustomed to the sea and 
sea manners, I feel it impossible to conclude this 
note without expressing my admiration that one 
of whom it is, I think, proven that he could never 
have been even on a coasting voyage, should not 
only have handled his vessel so well under very 
difficult and trying circumstances, but have also 
portrayed his boatswain so naturally and so truth- 
fully that one could almost swear that he was the 
landsman who had witnessed the storm. The 
only other supposition I can form is that he 
must have written the scene after conversations 

. vm. SEPT. i, -as.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


with Strachy or some other seaman, and even have 
submitted his draft to him. BR. NICHOLSON. 

NOTES ON " THE TEMPEST " (6 th S. vii. 424). 
" Quot homines tot sententise "; nevertheless, it 
does not seem to me that what PROF. ELZE him- 
self styles his "guesses" will be accepted by 
critical readers. 

III. i. 61. I confess to not finding it " tame, 
very tame," to affix, as does Dyce, tamely, for it 
gives the very sense that seems to me to have been 
intended. I incline, however, either to place it 
after than, when there would be the concurrence 
of three initial t's leading to the casual elimination 
of one of the words, or to substitute as a final 
patiently, scanning slavery as a dissyllable, and to 
suffer as an iambic foot, suffer being slurred, 
as -er words not uncommonly were, into suffr. 
Moreover the at home gives, I think, rather an 
unmanly sound, making him say, " I 'm a cock on 
my own dunghill, when I 'm backed by my 
obedient friends and dependants ; but being by 
myself in another spot of ground I give in." 

IV. i. 22. Shakespeare, having properly used 
" Hymen's torch " as symbolized in the Koman 
ceremony by the torch-bearing boy immediately 
preceding the bride for the marriage ceremony 
itself, certainly would not have varied it by calling 
it within a few lines Hymen's lamp, for a lamp is 
not a torch. Prospero, in speaking of Hymen's 
lamps, does not speak of the lamps borne by 
Hymen, but of the lamps borne at the consum- 
mation of the ceremony over which Hymen 
presided, such lamps as were borne by the waiting 
virgins in St. Matt, xxv., such lights as were called 
in Roman marriage processions the five "Faces 
nuptiales," and which were at least commemo- 
rated, if not used, on the occasion of ceremonial 
English marriages. See Jonson's Hymencei, &c. 

IV. i. 37. " O'er whom I give thee power." 
What need is there for the change to gave ? Possibly 
Prospero may have been bound to give his orders 
for the rabble to obey Ariel, whenever he gave 
Ariel a specific order. Much more probably, as he 
was Prospero's manager and factotum in all magic 
doings, give was here used generally for a past, 
present, and to come time ; equivalent, that is, to, 
" O'er whom I customarily or habitually give thee 
power." Such use of the present is not unfrequent 
in English. 

Lastly, in IV. i. 124, I think that both my 
friend MR. ALOIS WRIGHT and PROF. ELZE have 
given instances of what I have just remarked on 
the over tendency to read a play as a literary 
essay, instead of reading it as a conversation eked 
out and explained by due (and, as Hamlet tells us, 
often by undue) gesture. When Ferdinand says, 
" So rare a wonder'd wife makes this place Para- 
dise," Miranda would have been more or less than 
a young woman, certainly nob Miranda, if she had 

not answered him. The stage action is of thi 
sort she replies, or rather appears to reply, in a 
low caressing voice, at the same time affectionately 
embracing, or semi-embracing him. Then Pros- 
pero, made anxious by Ferdinand's incautious 
words, only rendered ineffectual, apparently, from 
the fact that the spirits are mute and inactive for 
that moment, turns to Miranda, now a true offender, 
and repeats his former caution, " Sweet," &c. 

With regard to rack, the calling attention to the 
vapour of the Darius passage is good; but rack is 
so much more suitable to the passage than wreck 
that I have never doubted it, and have lately given 
from Armin's Italian Taylor and his Boy (1609), 
canto viii., the plural racks, which appears to me to 
allow of the disputed form " a rack." 


"TEMPEST," III. i. 13 (6 th S. vL 24, 65, 261). 
MR. HALFORD VAUGHAN'S preference for busiliest 
for busie lest agrees with what I wrote on the 
passage in 1874 or 1875 (Shakespeare Hermeneutics, 
pp. 137-8). But MR. VAUGHAN does not fully 
explain the misprint. This I did, to the following 
effect: Busielest was probably the compositor's 
spelling of our busiliest ; for in Cymbeline, iv. 2, 
fo. 1623, we find, as MR. VAUGHAN says, easiliest 
spelt easilest, and (I add) it occurs in a passage 
where the word occupies the same place in the 
verse that busielest does in the Tempest passage ; 
so that busie lest is merely a case of dislocation, 
like " for that " in the same play. I note, too, 
that we have iviselier and kindlier in the same 
play ; and proudlier in Coriolanus. If these, why 
not iviseliest, kindliest, proudliest, and busiliest, as 
well as easiliest ? So far I am with MR. VAUGHAN ; 
but I do not accept his punctuation or interpreta- 
tion of the passage. I understand by " Mosfc 
busiliest when I do it " that Ferdinand's '' sweet 
thoughts " were most busily at work when he was 
resting from his labours, and that he was excusing 
himself for his occasional forgetfulness of his work 
in favour of his mistress. C. M. INGLEBY. 

Athenaeum Club. 

P.S. The proposer of this conclusive restoration 
was no " Mr. Bullock," but a Scotch worthy, John 
Bulloch, of Aberdeen, author of Studies on the 
Text of Shakspere ; with numerous Emendations. 
He is at present in his seventy- eighth year. 

"HENRY VIII.," V. iii. 10-12 (6 th S. ii. 143, 

" But we all are men, 
fin our own natures frail, and capable 
Of our flesh." 

I do not think that your correspondent's emenda- 
tion, whereby he would substitute peccable for 
capable, is in the least degree tenable. Peccable 
is not found in Shakespeare's works. According 
to Prof. Skeat's Etymological Dictionary the word 


S. vm. SKW. vss. 

is " rare ; Eich. gives quotations for peccable an 
peccability from Cudworth, Intellectual Systen 
(drst ed. 1678, also 1743, 1820, 1837, 1845) 
pp. 564, 565." Does the word occur earlier ? 
would suggest that " and capable " is a printer' 
error for incapable or uncapable. The passag 
Beems to mean that we are naturally frail, am 
that at times our reasoning faculties are blinde 
by the grosser nature of the body. This interpre 
tation appears to be corroborated by lines 12-13: 

" Out of which frailty 
And want of wisdom," &c., 

words evidently referring to line 11. Both thi 
forms incapable and uncapable are found in Shake 
speare. For the use of incapable in the sense sug 
gested by me for the above passage, cf. Eich. III. 
II. ii. 18-19: 

" Jncapalli and shallow innocents, 
You cannot guess who caused your father's death." 

Here the word means lacking reason or under- 
standing. For " of our flesh " being equivalent to 
in consequence of, &c., cf. Hen. V., II. iv. 46-8: 
" Which o/a weak and niggardly projection 

Doth, like a miser, spoil his coat with scanting 

A little cloth." 



The commentators, in the little they have to say 
with any confidence about the latter word, seem 
agreed to derive it from the Spanish, and may or 
may not be right. As to its meaning there is, I 
suppose, no doubt. In Popular Rhymes, Fireside 
Stories, and Amusements of Scotland, p. 19 (Edin- 
burgh, Chambers, 1842), I find that when St. 
Columba refused to allow a cow or a woman to 
remain on his own island he gave as his reason for 
their exclusion two Gaelic lines : 
" Far am bi bo bidh bean 

'S far am bi bean bidh mullachadh," 
literally meaning, 
" Where there is a cow there will be a woman, 

And where there is a woman there will be mischief." 
I know nothing of Gaelic, and copy the words as 
there spelt. The resemblance of mallachadh to 
inallecho struck me as curious, and has not, so far as 
I know, been hitherto " made a note of." 

H. K. 

" HAMLET," III. i. 59." Take arms against a 
sea of troubles " is usually quoted as an example 
of mixed metaphor. May not " take arms against 
the sea " be a proverbial expression used to describe 
any irrational bravery ? It occurs in very nearly 
this sense in a treatise by a pupil of Aristotle, the 
Eudemian Ethics, III. i. 23 (Bekker), and pro- 
bably elsewhere. F. HAVERFIELD. 

Bath College, Bath. 

I have an American reprint of Wellins Calcott'a 
Candid Disquisition, a work very well and favour- 
ably known to the craft, the imprint of which runs 
thus : " London ; Printed : Reprinted and Sold 
by Brother William McAlpine in Marlborough- 
Street, Boston. A.L. 5772. A.D. 1772." Prefixed 
to the work is a list of subscribers' names in 
alphabetical order, with separate alphabets for the 
"Province of the Massachusetts-Bay, &c.," the 
"Province of New York, &c.," the "Province of 
Nova Scotia," and the " Colony of Connecticut." 
These are followed by a list of " Lodges held in 
the Town of Boston, and the Time and Place of 
their respective Meetings." Referring to the note 
of MR. WAGGONER (ante, p. 46) concerning the 
masonic status of Benedict Arnold and other 
American officers, the following excerpts of 
military subscribers may possibly be interesting 
to American readers, by whom, as it seems to me, 
" N. & Q." is intelligently and carefully studied. 

Province of the Massachusetts-Bay , &c. 
Capt. Samuel Andrews. 
Capt. James Arnold. 
Capt. Samuel Barrett, G.T. 
Capt. Zechariah Bunker. 
Capt. Joseph Cordis. 
Capt. Moses Doran. 
W. Capt. Theophilus Dane, of Portsmouth, P.S.W., No. 8 


Capt. John de Costa, 
"'apt. John de Silveer. 

apt. Shubael Folger, Nantucket. 

apt. Nath. Fellowes. 
R.W. Col. Richard Gridley, D.G.M. 
Dapt. Peter Hussey. 
W. Capt. Caleb Hopkins, G. Steward. 
Capt. Estes How. 

W. Mr. Thomas Herbert, P.\V., No. 106, 64th Regiment. 
Uapt. Henry Higginson, of Salem. 
l.W. Capt. John Joy, M., Master's Lodge. 
l.W. Col. Joseph Ingersol, P.M. 
2apt. Nehemiah Ingersol. 
)apt. Daniel Jones, 
/apt. Elnathan Jones, of Concord. 
kpt. Samuel Laha. 
/apt. Elijah Luce, 
/apt. Alexander Mackey. 
>apt. James M'Ewen. 
3apt. Thomas Michell. 
/apt. Fredrick Morth. 
/apt. David Mason, of Salem. 
2apt. Israel Ober, of Salem. 

V. Capt. Edward Procter, J.W., St. Andrew's Lodge, 
/apt. Joseph Pierpont. 
/apt. Samuel Perkins. 
V. Capt. John Robinson, J.W., No. 1, Falmouth, Casco 


l.W. Col. Jonathan Snelling, M., St. Andrew's Lodge, 
! apt. James Shepherd, 
'apt. Nehemiah Skilling. 
/apt. Stephen Smith, Sandwich. 

.W. Mr. William Steward, M., No. 106, 64th Regiment. 
i.W. Col. Simpson, M., First Lodge, North Carolina, 
apt. Daniel Turner, 
apt, Elisha Thatcher, 

viii. SEPT. i, >83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Capt. John Tilley, St. Michael's Lodge, Barbadoes. 

W. Capt. Job Wheelwright, P.S.W., Master's Lodge. 

Capt. William Wingfield. 

Capt. Nehemiah Webb, Sandwich. 

Capt. James White. 

Capt. Christopher White, Marshfield. 

W. Isaac Walker, J.W., St. Peter's Lodge, Newbury. 

Capt. Sbubael Worth. 

Capt. John Foster Williams. 

** Those Subscribers with no Town annexed to their 
Names are all of Boston. 

Province of New Tort, &c. 
R.W. Capt. John Harris Cruger, J.G.W. 
W. Capt. Thomas Doran, P.W., Trinity Lodge. 
W. Capt. Leonard Lispenard, jun., P.W., Union Lodge. 
Capt. Robert R. Randall. 
Capt. Pascal Nelson Smith. 
W. Capt. Samuel Tuder, G.D. 
W. Capt. James Wright, P.W., Trinity Lodge. 

Province of Nova Scotia. 
Lieut. John Clark, 59th Regiment. 
Mr. William Farris, Surgeon's Mate, 65th Regiment. 
Mr. Trotter Hill, Surgeon, 59th Regiment. 
R.W. Otho Hamilton, Esq., Lieut.-Col., 59th Regiment. 
Lieut. Thomas Hewitson, 59th Regiment. 
Robert Milward, Esq., Major, 59th Regiment. 
Capt. -Lieut. John Roberts, 65th Regiment. 
Lieut. William Speight, 65th Regiment. 
William Spry, Esq., Capt. of Engineers. 
Ephraim Stannus, Esq., Capt., 65th Regiment. 

There is no military subscriber from the 
colony of Connecticut, or, at least, none who has 
a military designation. The lodges represented 
are Hirani Lodge, Newhaven, and St. John's 
Lodge, Stratford. The volume has upon its title- 
page the autograph of " Nathl. Sims, 65th Eegt." 


88, Friar Gate, Derby. 

vii. 161 ; viii. 86). One of the stories relating to 
this subject is the following, which Jeremy Taylor 
thus relates : 

" St. Austin, with his mother Monica, was led one day 
by a Roman praetor to see the tomb of Caesar. Himself 
thus describes the corpse : ' It looked of a blue moulJ, 
the bone of the nose laid bare, the flesh of the nether lip 
quite fallen off, his mouth full of worms, and in his eye- 
pits two hungry toads feasting upon the remanent por- 
tion of the flesh and moisture ; and so he dwelt in the 
house of darkness.' And if every person tempted by an 
opportunity of lust or intemperance, would choose such 
a room for his privacy, that company for his witness, 
that object to allay his appetite, he would soon find his 
spirit more sober and his desires obedient." " Life of 
Christ," pt. i. sect. ix. 36; Works, vol. ii. p. 226, Eden's 

The reference to St. Augustine is " Ad Fratres in 
Eremo," serm. xlviii.; which is placed in the 
appendix of vol. vi. ed. Ben. as spurious ; and 
as to which Cave, in Hist. Lit., torn. i. p. 296, 
has this note, " Quos exclamatoris Gallo-Flandri 
olim suspicatus est Martinus Lipsius." 


One of the most remarkable instances of the 
preservation of human bodies is to be found in 

the Cathedral of Bremen. In a vault not wholly 
below the surface of the ground, lie in open coffins 
the bodies of (if my memory serves me correctly) 
some six or seven persons, which have not been 
embalmed, but have merely dried into mummies 
without undergoing putrefaction. Some, I be- 
lieve, are of the seventeenth century, and one, I 
think, was placed there some fifty or sixty years 
ago. The vault is called the " bleikeller " (lead 
cellar), and this name and the peculiar preserva- 
tive powers of the vault are accounted for by a 
tradition to the effect that during a fire which 
destroyed part of the cathedral a great quantity 
of melted lead ran into this vault. Perhaps a 
more probable explanation of the preservative 
power is the possible presence of carbonic acid 
gas. Bremen stands on flat ground by the side 
of the Weser, on alluvial soil, which very probably 
contains large quantities of carbonic acid gas. 

I have been led to this supposition by reading a 
passage in De Kossi's Roma Sotterranea, in which, 
when considering how it came to pass that thou- 
sands, even millions, of human bodies were laid in 
the receptacles hewn in the sides of galleries cut 
through strata of tufa in the vicinity of Rome, the 
so-called catacombs, without producing, so far as 
we know, pestilential effluvia, Sig. M. S. de 
Rossi comes to the conclusion that the presence of 
carbonic acid gas prevented putrefaction. N. 

following note some time ago, but I unfortunately 
omitted to record the source whence I took it. It 
is on the line : 

" The conscious water saw ita Lord and blushed." 
It is often quoted: 

" Vidit et erubuit lympha pudica Deum," 
and attributed to Dryden, and to an Eton boy 
but it is in reality from an epigram by Crashaw, 
an English poet, temp. Charles I., who was con- 
verted to the Catholic Church, and died a canon 
of the Church of Loreto, A.D. 1650. As originally 
written it stood : 

" Nympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit." 
In one of Bishop Heber's poems the line occurs : 

"The conscious water saw its Lord and blushed," 
but the idea seems to have originated with Cra- 

[This subject has been more than once raised in " N. 
& Q."; see 1" S. vi. 358; viii. 242 ; 4> S. iv. 198, 244. As 
full information has not yet been given, it is now supplied. 
In Crashaw's Poemata et Epigrammata appears the 
following : 

Joan ii. Aquae in vinum venae. 
Uude rubor vestris, et non sua purpura lymphis ? 
Quae rosa mirantes tarn nova mutat aquas 1 
Numen (convivae) praesens agnoscite Numen : 
Nympha pudica Deum vidit, et erubuit. 
This was translated without any acknowledgment by 
Aaron Hill, and included in his works (vol. iii. p. 241. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* B. vm. si. i. -as. 

ed. 1753) under the title of The Miracle at Cana. The 

following ia Hill's version : 

The Miracle at Cana. 

When Christ at Cana's feast by pow'r divine, 
Inspir'd cold water, with the warmth of wine, 
See ! cry'd they, while, in red'ning tide, it gush'd 
The bashful stream hath seen its god and blush'd.] 

ORIGIK OF AMBER. The enclosed, from the 
Times of the 27th July, should find a place in the 
columns of "N. & Q.": 

" Some very interesting researches have recently been 
made on the flora of the amber-bearing formations of 
East Prussia by Messrs. Goeppert and Menge. In ancient 
times there must have been in this part of Europe a 
group of conifers comprising specimens from almost all 
parts of the world. Among the splendid specimens of 
the Californian coniferae were the red wood, the sugar 
pine, and the Douglas spruce; and of the examples of 
the Eastern States were the bald cypress, red cedar, 
thuya, and the Pinus rigida ; from the eastern coasts 
of Asia were the Chilian incense cedar, the parasol fir, 
the arbor vitse, the glyptostrobus, and the thuyopsis ; 
and the Scotch fir, the spruce, and the cypress of Europe, 
and the callitris of Southern Africa. It appears that the 
deposits of amber for which the Baltic is noted are the 
product of generations of these resin-bearing trees. The 
richest deposits are situate along a strip of coast between 
Memel and Dantsic, though the real home of amber hus 
been supposed to lie in the bed of the Baltic between 
Bornholm and the mainland. It rests upon cretaceous 
rocks and consists chiefly of their debris, forming a 
popular mixture known as blue earth, which appears to 
exist throughout the province of Samland at a depth of 
80ft, to 100ft., and to contain an almost inexhaustible 
supply of amber. Immense quantities of amber are 
washed out to sea from the coast or brought down by 
rivulets and cast up again during storms or in certain 
winds. The actual yield by quarrying is 200,000 Ib. to 
800,000 Ib. a year, or five times the quantity estimated 
to be cast up by the wavea on the strip of coast above 


10, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

who have fondly imagined the oak in which 
Charles II. sheltered to be still existent at Bos- 
cobel cannot well maintain the idea if there 
is truth in the following extract from Dr. 
Burney's collection of newspapers in the British 
Museum, vol. cxvi., The London Post, with In- 
telligence Foreign and Domestic, Aug. 19-21, 
A.D. 1700 : 

" We have advice from Staffordshire that one Pen- 
drell (being last of the family [this, of course, is not so] 
that was instrumental in saving King Charles II. by 
hiding him in the oak ever after called the Royal Oak 
after the Battle of Worcester) has departed this life; 
but that which makes his death very remarkable is that 
on the very day and hour that he died the said Oak was 
blown down by a storm of Wind." 

T. J. M. 


JOHN MILTON. The following description of 
the author of Paradise Lost, which is to be found 
in Bates and Skinner's Rise and Progress of the 

late Troubles in England (1685), pt. i. p. 159, 
will perhaps interest as well as amuse some of 
the readers of " N. & Q.": 

"They [the Eoundheads] employ the Mercenary Pen 
of the Son of a certain Scrivener, one Milton, from a 
musty Pedant, vampt into a new Secretary, whose Talent 
lying in Satyrs and Libels, and his Tongue being dipt 
in the blackest and basest venome, might forge an 
EucovoK\aoiav or Image-breaking; and by his livid 
and malicious Wit, publish a Defence of the King's 
Murder against Salmasius." 

G. F. R. B. 

The following I found in the parish register of 
Rudstone, near Bridlington : 

" A note of such towns as are charged with the repair- 
ing of the Beacon at Many Hows in Rudstone Field as 
followeth : Rudston, Thorpe, and Carthorpe are to find 
the Standers. Langloft and Coltham, or Cplton, the 
Stakes. Burton Agnes, the Penns and the Whims. Kil- 
ham the Barrells and Brandriths. Thurnham and Hais- 
thorpe the fire and to keep it burning. THOMAS PEIR- 
SOH, Vicar of Rudstone, 1573." 


Walcot, Brigg. 

EXECUTION FOLK-LORE. A Bosnian gendarme 
was shot for desertion at Serajevo in November, 
1882; the mob crowded round his corpse, and 
tried to get a tatter of his clothes, which were 
still smoking with his blood, such pieces of rag 
being considered infallible charms against wounds 
on the battle-field. The week before two brigands 
were shot at Banjaluka ; the original sentence was 
hanging, but the military commandant, in defer- 
ence to their religion, changed the manner of the 
death. They, being Mohammedans, believed that 
no one who died on the gallows could enter Para- 
dise. W. HENRY JONES. 

Thornton Lodge, Goxhill, Hull. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

genealogy of a Scottish family of the name of King 
(after the Dutch pronunciation, often written 
Kieng and Kien). This pedigree was collected in 
1780. It is written in the Dutch language, and 
has been continued till now. I give some extracts 
from these papers: 

" One of the Kings, a younger son of the head of the 
Family, fled in the sixteenth century to the Netherlan Is, 
in the time of the Spanish troubles. 

" The family of King is a very ancient and noble family 
of Scotland ; the Scotts and the Kings are, indeed, among 
the oldest families in Scotland. In the counties of 
Aberdeen, Lanark, and Perth very many of the name 
of King survive. 

Tu 1602 cr before, a King was L,ord Ythan; he poa,. 



Bessed the eetates of Barra, near OL1 Meldrum, before 
the Sea- towns ('see Heden ' in the Dutch text) possessed 

" In 1723 a Peter King was created Lord [MC]. He 
was first greffier (in the Dutch) Recorder 1 Master of the 
Rolls? What? of London, afterwards Chancellor of 

"From a letter of Mr. King, of Newmiln, anno 1763, it 
appears that the last King of Barra was David King, 
who had seven sons and several daughters. 

" David King having surrounded a plantation, Mylady 
Meldrum caused a part of this enclosure to be destroyed 
and rode through it. King on seeing her took her horse 
by the bridle and led her out of his territory, saying that 
she should not pass into his enclosures and destroy his 
plantations, and adding that if it had been Mylord 
Meldrum and not Mylady, he should have been less 
polite. Mylady Meldrum answered that her husband 
should ride not only through his plantations, but over his 
body. Lord Meldrum came the same day by the same 
road. Upon seeing him David King returned home, 
girded his sword on his side, put two pistols under his 
coat, and went at once to Lord Meldrum. King took 
Lord Meldrum's horse by the bridle, saying that he did 
not allow him to ride in his enclosed ground. As Lord 
Meldrum struck King with his whip, King summoned 
him to alight from his horse and to give him satisfaction. 
Instead of answering, Meldrum continued to strike ; 
BO King took one of his pistols and shot Meldrum dead 
on the spot. After this issue King was obliged to retire 
to Bracmar (Braemar?) or Cromar (?), to the house of 
one of his married daughters." 

It is supposed that he transferred the ownership 
of his estates of Barra to his son-in-law Hied 
(Reed ?). Anno 1763 Alexander Eied, of Barra, 
wrote to King, of Newmiln, , 

" that if he [King] should visit him, he [Reed of Barra] 
could show him in his estate of Barra documents re- 
lating to the family of King as old as were possessed by 
any family in Scotland." 

I shall be glad to receive any information about 
the above families, Meldrum, Reed, and King, and 
about the places of Barra, Old Meldrum, Braemar, 
and Cromar. Is the origin known of the family of 
King ? What is the meaning of this, " before the 
Sea-towns possessed them " ? Which places are 
meant ? What is Ythan ? Is there at present an 
Earl of Ythan? Is the above legend concerning 
the Meldrum and King families known to any 
reader of " N. & Q." ? Moscow. 

SCRIBE'S "VERRE D'EATT." What is the origin 
of the story on which Scribe founded his comedy 
Le Verre d'Eau, published in 1842? It claims 
to be founded on English history, but I have been 
unable to find any book in which the incident is 
related. A friend writes that the Duchess of 
Magenta spilt a glass of water over Queen Anne's 
dress, that therefore war broke out, Marlborough 
being dismissed, and Bolingbroke taking his place 
in the ministry; but he cannot recollect in what 
book he read the story. T. D. 

from Walter Scott to my father, in which, after 
lamenting the interruption of his literary labours 

caused by the doctors laying an embargo on his 
pen, he says: 

" Which [the pen] the medical gentlemen scandalize 
as being in great measure the cause of my bad health. 
I cannot help it we scribblers are like drunkards, and 
like that prince of drunkards, Drawcaser. 

'He that dares drink, and for his drink dares die, 
And knowing this dares still drink on, am I.' " 

1. Is not this an unusual use of the word scan- 
dalize? (Perhaps he meant to say stigmatize.) 

2. In what work does the character of Drawcaser 
occur? R. H. BUSK. 

[Drawcansir is a character in The Rehearsal of the 
Duke of Buckingham.] 

McLEROTH FAMILY. I shall be glad of any 
information respecting the family of McLeroth, 
of co. Down, of which Col. Robert McLeroth, 
of Dunlady, co. Down, High Sheriff for that 
county in 1790, and Capt. William McLeroth, of 
Killynether Castle, co. Down, were members. I 
understand that Col. McLeroth married some 
relation of the second Countess Annesley. She 
was Ann, daughter and heiress of Capt. Robert 
Lambert, of Dunlady, and married Richard, second 
Earl Annesley, Sept. 25, 1771. Dunlady is now 
the property of the present Lord Annesley. Were 
Col. McLeroth and Capt. McLeroth officers in the 
North Down Militia ? 


Broomfield, Fixby, near Hudderstield. 

LICHEN. In a short lecture the other day on 
church architecture, touching on the word lich-gate, 
the lecturer happened to observe that the word 
lichen (the moss) was from the same root namely, 
lie, a dead body and was so called from its pale 
dead-like colour. On my return from the lecture 
I consulted several dictionaries, which all gave 
Gr. Aeix^v, Afi'xw, Sans, lih, to lick. Would 
some one kindly settle my doubts ? 


author of this injunction ? H. B. P. 

THE STAGE. Where can I inspect the late Dr. 
Charles Burney's collection for a history of the 
stage and particulars relating to actors and drama- 
tists, which I believe consisted of between 300 
and 400 quarto volumes, dating from 1660 to 
1818? J. R. D. 

CORDUROY. Can any reader of " N. & Q." in- 
form me when corduroy was first manufactured, and 
when first introduced into England as an article 
of wearing apparel ? Any other notes respecting 
its commercial and antiquarian history will also be 
acceptable. ARBACES. 

notes regarding the origin of this name, or of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. C6<" s. vm. SEPT. i, -83. 

persons bearing the above name in England, 
are desired by the subscriber. There was a 
Prebble among Wat Tyler's men ; and in the 
register of Canterbury Cathedral there is the 
marriage of a William Preble, Nov. 20, 1647, to 
Elizabeth Rutland. The American ancestor, 
Abraham Preble, emigrated to America with the 
" men of Kent," and settled in Plymouth colony 
in 1636. GEO. HENRY PREBLE. 

Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

CARBOY. I should be glad to know the origin 
and derivation of this commercial term. None of 
the dictionaries I have referred to gives any infor- 
mation on the subject. J. B. 

[Annandale's edition of Ogilvie gives carboy as from 
the Persian karald, large vessels for containing wine.] 

DEVICE OF EAGLE AND Sow. Can any reader 
interpret a very peculiar group upon an antique 
carnelian intaglio set in an old Italian finger-ring 
in my possession an eagle " rising," carrying off 
a sow in its claws. The device is not heraldic, is 
artistically designed, and the cutting is polished. 
The Lyncean Academy of Venice adopted in the 
fifteenth century the device of an eagle tearing a 
lynx, and a winged sow is found on the early coins 
of Clazomene. A sow is rather an exceptional 
subject in art, unless introduced with an alle- 
gorical or satirical signification. GRUS. 

Preston, Lancashire. 

or daily wages are paid, it is a very general custom 
in this neighbourhood to spit on the coin for luck. 
What is the origin of this ? 


Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath. 

FORDROUGH. We have in Birmingham a street 
called Fordrough Street. The other day I was 
asked the derivation of the word fordrough, and 
on confessing my entire ignorance of it save as 
the name of this street, I was told that it was a 
common word in the Midlands and in Lincoln- 
shire to indicate a short private road leading from 
a public road to a field, or sometimes to a house. 
I hare since looked in all the dictionaries and 
glossaries on my shelves without discovering 
anything like it, unless it be in Bosworth's 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, where I find the word 
fdrdrtffan. Am I right in supposing this to be 
the origin of the word, and does it occur anywhere 
in literature ? D. BARRON BRIGHTWELL. 

Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

MODERN ROSICRUCIANS. Can any one inform 
me if there are still any members of the society of 
the Rosy Cross (or Rosicrucians) ; and, if there 
are, how one could communicate with them ? 
Also if there are still any alchemists searching 
for the philosopher's stone and the transmutation 

of metals, as I have reason to think that there 
are still persons who follow the craft, and wish to 
know if I am right. 


BERWICKSHIRE SANDY. Can any of your 
correspondents tell me the name of the author of 
a volume of poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect, 
written under the above nom- de-plume, and printed 
about the beginning of this century ? 



COMPTON-WYNYATES. Can any reader of 
"N. & Q." afford any particulars concerning the 
origin of the name of the Marquis of Northamp- 
ton's seat, Compton-Wynyates, situated near 
Shipston-on-Stour, Warwickshire? How camo 
these names to be linked together, and what is 
the origin of the latter ? ENQUIRER. 

PILL GARLIC. Can any of your correspondents 
tell me the origin of the term Pill Garlic, or Phil 
Garlic 1 I think the place of its origin was Liver- 
pool. R. M. I. 

f A curious novel, describing the adventures of one 
Pill Garlick, is supposed to have supplied the origin of 
the name.] 

resided for a time at 18, Orchard Street, and 
later at 56, Green Street, Oxford Street. Can 
any of your correspondents say positively whether 
the houses in these streets are numbered now as 
they were in the time of Sydney Smith ? 

H. J. 

PORTRAIT OF CAPPER. Does any portrait 
exist of Capper, the eccentric, who died at the 
Horns, Kennington, in 1804 ? A memoir of him 
appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine for that 
year. ASTERISK. 

JOHN CLARKE, CIRCA 1640. Who was this 
scholar, to whose Paroemiologia reference has 
lately been made in " N. & Q." ? Was he master 
of the grammar school at Lincoln, and is anything 
known of his parentage or family connexions ? 


WOOD FAMILY. Information is wanted concern- 
ing the family of Wood. Is there any connexion 
between the now extinct family of Wood of Hollo- 
way and Wakebridge, in Derbyshire, and the 
families of Wood of Northumberland and of the 
Border ? More particulars can be sent if any one 
takes an interest. Also, can any one throw a light 
as to who was Gilbert Armstrong, who married 
Lsetitia Cokayne, of Ashbourne, about the year 
1640, or rather later? Was he of the Armstrongs 
of Whythaugh or Whyttock, near Castleton on 
the Border ? There is a Gilbert Armstrong whose 
daughter Jane married Anthony Luther, an Essex 



squire, but the dates do not admit of his being 
the man. Gilbert is a Border Christian name. 

E. D. 0. 

C.-ESAR. Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall, i. 
114, ed. 1816, says that the title of Augustus was 
always reserved for the monarch, whilst that ol 
Caesar was extended to his relations, and that from 
Hadrian's time it was appropriated to the pre- 
sumptive heir to the empire. Gibbon sometimes 
crowds his pages with authorities for every 
sentence, but here he gives none. I should be 
glad to know how to substantiate this or disprove 
it. He then calls Augustus "cowardly," but of a 
" cool head." These things seldom go together, 
and in the case of Augustus I should say there 
was very little cowardice, but a most consummate 
caution. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

an " oft-quoted saying " in a recent review of Dr. 
Guest's Origines Celtics. What is its source ? 


Selections from My Journal during a Residence in the 
Mediterranean. 12mo. 1836. Privately printed. 


(6 th S. vii. 405, 455 ; viii. 89.) 

PROF. SKEAT'S suggestion that this word is 
related to the Fr. paille = a spangle, is tempting. 
The Ital. pagliuola, Low Latin paglola, which is 
the equivalent of the Fr. paille, or rather paillette 
(Old Fr. paillole), no doubt means a spangle, and 
a cowslip flower is more like a spangle than most 
others. But DR. CHANCE'S objection to this ety- 
mology is fatal. It is useless to seek for the 
English paigle among the progeny or relatives of 
the Latin palea. 

As little hopeful would it be to try to connect it 
with padiglione, which, as Villani tells, was the 
name given to certain French gold pieces. The g 
in paigle refuses to be affiliated to the Lat. papilio, 
although the fire-fly, panigarola, might possibly 
have supplied the English word, if only fireflies 
had been common in England under their Italian 

Polygala, again, might have found its way into 
English as paigle but for its denoting the milk- 
wort or crossflower instead of the cowslip. 

There is a French phrase, too, unknown to me, 
but discoverable in Bellows's French Dictionary, 
en pagale = higgledy-piggledy, which might, per- 
Ups, appear promising to etymologists who would 
at -mce scout a derivation from the German pegel 

= a water-mark in paper. If the word had be- 
longed to the Welsh border instead of East Anglia, 
we should probably have heard that pasgle and 
pasgell mean a pasture in Welsh, and I must 
confess to some astonishment that nobody has 
been found to suggest so obvious a connexion as 
that between paigle and the Gr. TTOIK/AOS. The 
paigle, variegated by the pencil of Natural Selec- 
tion, has as good a title to the name as the poikile 
adorned with the pictures of Polygnotus. 

Or, again, the limitation of the word to the 
Eastern Counties might seem to suggest a deriva- 
tion from the Norse. If it is really of Scandinavian 
origin, the English piigle can hardly be other than 
the Icelandic boggull A little bag. The word 
(v. Cleasby's Icel. Diet , s.v. "Boggr") is in fre- 
quent use as a nickname, and is admirably 
descriptive of the peculiar and peculiarly con- 
spicuous calyx of the oxlip and cowslip. 

On the whole, however, it is safer to keep nearer 
home in searching for an etymology ; and, first of 
all, what is the word whose pedigree is wanted ? 
Tusser, in his Fine Hundred Pointes of Good 
Husbandrie (Eng. Dial. Soc., 1878, 21), enumerates 
in " Marches Abstract," 42, 5, under " Strowing 
herbes of all sortes," " Cousleps and paggles "; and 
again, under " Herbes, branches, and flowers for 
windowes and pots," 43, 25, bespeaks of "paggles, 
greene and yelow." On the former entry the 
editors note : 

' Paggles, spelt also Paigle, Pagle, Pagel, Peagle, 
Pegyll, and Pygil, a name now confined to the Eastern 
Counties, and generally assigned to the Cowslip, but by 
Ray and Moor to the Ranunculus bulbosus. The deri- 
vation is uncertain. ' Blake (yellow) as a paigle, 1 Ray. 
In Suffolk the name is applied to the Crowfoot, the 

To these varieties of the word may be added pagil, 
which may be found in Johnson's Diet., s.v. " Cow- 
slip," and peggles, the form noted by your corre- 
spondent W. J. D. as far back as April 26, 1862, 
and by MR. W. T. LYNN in the present vol., p. 13. 
In this form, peggles, the word was familiar to me 
in Cambridgeshire thirty years ago. 

There is yet one more variant to be found in 
Levins's Manipulus (Early Eng. Text Soc., 1867, 
27), " Pigil, for pigil, verbasculum" (col. 129, 35). 
The first word, however, is shown by the note 
mmediately preceding to be a misprint for pigle, 
'rom which it is evident that the g was pronounced 

MR. JAMES BRITTEN (" N. & Q M " 4 th S. iii. 
242) thought that he had once for all solved the 
question of the derivation by the discovery that cow- 
slips in Kent were called "horse-buckles," "the 
atter half of the word," he writes, "being evidently 
;he origin of paigle." This is specious ; but what 
s a "horse-buckle?" Horses and buckles are 
common enough, but until evidence to the contrary 
s adduced, I shall believe that the words in com- 
>ination mean nothing but the oxlip. The flower ia 


NOTES AND QUERIES. r_6. s. vm. SEW. i, 83. 

distinguished as coarser and larger than the cowslip 
by substituting the ox for the cow as qualifying it, 
and I fancy MR. BRITTEN'S Kentish "horse-buckle" 
is in reality only a " hotse-paigle," the word being 
applied to the oxlip, to distinguish ifc from the 
smaller paigle or cowslip (cf. "horse-chestnut"). 
Be this, however, as it may, the derivation is un- 
satisfactory, as accounting for a very common 
word, apparently once universal in England, by 
supposing it to be an arbitrarily separated frag- 
ment of a rare provincial compound. 

That the word paigle, or rather peggle, is a dimi- 
nutive, and that it is in some way descriptive of the 
flower, may probably be safely taken for granted. 
I once thought that it was one of the many variants 
of the marvellously plastic name Margaret, and 
that it denoted a little Peggy. But there are two 
objections to this derivation one, that, so. far as 
I know, " Peggie " has never been used' as a 
synonym for Margaret ; and the other, that often 
as the name of the saint of pearls and daisies has 
been used to denote creatures variegated with 
white as, for instance, the " peggy white-throat," 
" madge-howlet," " padge-owl," " padge-moth " it 
has not, to my knowledge, ever been used to 
denote colours otherwise variegated. 

There is, however, a word which seems to me 
to afford a perfectly satisfactory derivation. In 
Levins's Manipulus, besides " a speckle " and " to 
speckle," we find "a peckle, macula, e." and " to 
pecMe, maculare." Peckled is used both by Burton, 
in the Anat. of Mel., and by Izaak Walton ; and it 
is, moreover, or was, as I can testify, in universal 
use in Leicestershire among all who spoke the 
dialect, and even among many who would not 
willingly be thought provincial, instead of the 
more generally accepted " speckled." Here, then, 
I think, we have the real origin of peggle or paigle 
as applied to what Shakspere calls " the freckled 
cowslip." It was the peckled flower. Had the 
flowers been called " freckles," nobody would have 
been at a loss for the etymology, and to my mind 
at least the derivation is none the less certain 
because popular speech has chosen to describe 
them by the diminutive of the word " speck " 
instead of the diminutive of the word "fleck." 
The pickles are the distinctive feature of the flower, 
and were in Shakspere's mind when he wrote of 

" Mole cinque-spotted, like the crimson drops 
I' the bottom of a cowslip " 
On the left breast of Imogen. 

Of the connexion between cowslips and paralysis 
I must speak another time. 


Whilst the derivation of paigle is being dis- 
cussed, it may be worth while remarking that the 
name has been applied to another flower which 
differs from the cowslip. In the Sinonoma Bar- 
tholomei (a glossary from a fourteenth century 

manuscript), printed by the Clarendon Press, 1882, 
I find, at p. 34, " Pigle, i. stichewort." Again, at 
p. 27, " Lingua avis, i. stichewort i. pigle." The 
same glossary has, " Herba paralisis, i. couslop, 
alia est a primula veris." I have not found this 
name for stitchwort in the excellent Diet, of English 
Plant-Names by Messrs. Britten and Holland 

SILHOUETTES (6 th S. v. 308, 393, 458, 493 ; vi. 
57, 197, 355; vii. 195). It is curious that just 
at this time, when the question of the discon- 
tinuance of this kind of portrait has been under 
discussion in "N. & Q.," it should have received 
a sudden revival in a slightly new form in Italy. 
Pagliano e Kicordi, of Milan, have brought out a 
note-paper with one's silhouette in place of crest 
or monogram. It makes a very good device, and 
has been " all the rage " in Italy for a year past. 
I have seen many, both busts and full length, 
large and small, in every variety of attitude (many 
comic), and received some also as Christmas and 
New Year's cards, and in red as well as in black.* 

With regard to the origin of the name, the 
passage given by your correspondent C. T. B. 
(6 th S. vii. 393) from I. D'Israeli's Curiosities of 
Literature is nearly word for word the same as in 
the Dictionnaire Historique par une Societe de 
Gens-de-Lettres, 1789, and is doubtless taken from 
it ; but along with this account I have all my life 
been familiar with a tradition of the actual occa- 
sion by which the process was first suggested, of 
which I have in the mean time been searching for 
some record. Failing in this, I will briefly send 
you what I remember of it. It was said that some 
one returning, after a long absence, to his be- 
trothed, came home only to find her dead. His 
grief was increased by the consideration that he 
possessed no portrait or memorial of her. When 
he came into the room where she lay, the outline 
shadow of her face projected on the wall, by the 
taper burning beside the bed, was the first object 
that met his gaze, and suggested a means of 
obtaining a portrait to one unskilled to execute 
it according to the rules of art. The legend is 
plausible, because such is the mobility of life that 
the difficulty of obtaining a perfect outline from 
a living subject is enough to discourage any one 
upon a first attempt ; but the stillness of death 
made this first trial easy. 

In Swift's Miscellanies, ed. 1745, vol. x. p. 204, 
is a whole series of poems (full of the most eccen- 
tric rhymes) on silhouette portraits, e.g.: 

" On Dan Jackson's Picture cut in Paper. 
To fair Lady Betty Dan sat for his Picture, 
And defy'd her to draw him BO oft as he piqu'd her. 
He knew she 'd no Pencil or Colouring by her, 
And therefore he thought he might safely defy her. 

* They can be as well done from a photograph a< 
from the person. 



Come sit, says ray Lady, then whips out her Scissar, 
And cuts out his Coxcomb in Silk in a trice, Sir. 
Dan sat with Attention, and saw with Surprize 
How ehe lengthened his Chin, how she hollow'd his 


But flattered himself with a secret Conceit 
That his thin leathern (sic) Jaws all her Art would 


Lady Betty observ'd it, then pulls out a Pin 
And varies the Grain of the Stuff to his Grin ; 
And to make roasted Silk to resemble his raw-bone. 
She rais'd up a Thread to the jett of his Jaw-bone, 
Till at length in exactest Proportion he rose 
From the Crown of his Head to the Arch of his Nose. 
And if Lady Betty had drawn him with Wig and all, 
'Tis certain the Copy 'd out-done the Original. 
Well, that 's but my Outside, says Dan with a Vapour ; 
Say you so 1 says my Lady ; I 'ye lin'd it with Paper." 

Now, Swift died in 1745, and may be said to 
have died to literature some years earlier. Sil- 
houette's cheeseparing economy was, we are told, 
induced by the deficit entailed " by the ruinous 
war of 1756," consequently it could not have been 
before 1760 that his name would have become 
synonymous with cheapness. We thus have evi- 
dence that the art was in use at the least twenty 
years before his name could have been applied to it, 
and it does not at all appear that it was new then. 
This nomenclature must, therefore, have been 
caused by his adoption of it as a pastime, accord- 
ing to MR. PLAIT'S quotation (6 th S. vi. 356), and 
not by the reason given by I. D'Israeli and the 
Diet. Hist., and is also an instance of how easily 
false derivations may be published even within 
BO short a time of the events for which they 
profess to account. 

I do not know if other contributors on this sub- 
ject have observed that in taking one of these 
portraits, though the artist may work from the 
left side of the sitter's face, his cutting, when 
pasted down, represents the right side, and vice 
versa. As few people's faces are perfectly sym- 
metrical, this peculiarity must always act to the 
detriment of recognizing the likenesses. 

K. H. BUSK. 

I extract the following advertisements, verb, et 
lit., from a local newspaper, the dates being given 
in each announcement. They serve to show that 
the " profiles " were taken by means of an " in- 
strument " or " machine," and that, by an etching 
process, copies might be multiplied ; thus con- 
firming MR. ED. MARSHALL'S perfectly sound 
opinion that the silhouette likenesses occupied a 
similar position to the photographs of to-day as 
family portraits. The first is that of a person who, 
having attained the real or imaginary age of 101 
years, was feted in Derby, some fifteen years ago, 
as " the Derby Centenarian." Specimens of his 
work are by no means uncommon ; I have several. 
In some the hair is indicated by means of gold ; 
in others, no such relief obtains. One only is a 
full-length a characteristic figure which I have 

not been able to identify. It is so lifelike that 
one might almost certify the original to have been 
a schoolmaster, there is so dogmatic an air about 
the hat (from the same " block " as Froggy Dib- 
din's), the square-cut coat-laps, and the wrinkled 
gaiters, to say nothing of the action of the left 
hand, which looks as though "pointing a moral,'' 
whilst the right " adorns a tail," being concealed 
behind the aforesaid coat-laps. This is Mr. 
Edward Ward Foster's advertisement : 

E. Foster, 

Profilist (from London), 

Begs Leave to inform the Ladies and Gentlemen of 
Derby and its Vicinity that he has taken Apartments 
for a short Time at Mr. Abbott's, Trimmer, Friar Gate, 
where, by Means of his newly-invented Machine, he 
purposes taking Profiles of any Lady or Gentleman in 
a manner accurately precise in Resemblance, and per- 
formed in the short Space of One Minute. 

The Construction and Simplicity of this Machine 
render it one of the most Ingenious Inventions of the 
present Day ; as it is impossible in its deleneation, to 
differ from the Outlines of the Original, even the 
Breadth of a Hair. 

Mr. F. wishes the Public to understand that besides 
sketching Profiles, this Machine will make a complete 
Etching on Copper Plate ; by which means any Person 
can take any Number he thinks proper, at any Time, 
from the Etched Plate ; and for the further Satisfaction 
of the Public, he pledges his Word, that he will most 
respectfully return the Money paid if the Likeness is 
not good. 

Profiles in Black at 5s. and upwards, &c. 

Derby, Jan^ 1, 1811. 

The future " centenarian " must have been success- 
ful, for in a subsequent paper the following imita- 
tion of his advertisement occurs : 

Mr. West, 
Miniature and Profile Painter 

(from London), 

Respectfully informs the Ladies and Gentlemen of 
Derby and it's Environs that he has taken Apartments 
at Mr. Price's in the Market Place, where he intends 
for a short Time practising the above Arts, and where 
Specimens may be seen. 

Mr. W. requires only two short sittings, and will re- 
duce the Likeness with the greatest Exactness, to within 
the compass of Rings, Brooches, &c. 

Miniatures from two to six Guineas. 

Profiles taken correctly, in One Minute, by means of 
bis improved portable Machine. The construction and 
simplicity of this Instrument render it one of the most 
ingenious inventions of the present Day, as it is impos- 
sible in its delineation to differ from the outline of the 
Original even in the breadth of a hair. 

Profiles on card, in black, 5*.; in colors, 10s, 6d. On 
ivory, in colors, one guinea and upwards. 

Attendance from 10 in the morning to 5 in the even- 

%* Mr. W. never permits a Painting to quit his 
hands but what it 's a likeness. 

October 18, 1811. 

Then followed a "paper war," which is not 
worth chronicling. The chief points about these 
resuscitated advertisements are the machine, the 
time of sitting, and the cost of the portrait. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. vm. SEPT. i, ' 83 . 

Trench's Study of Words says, " An unpopular 
Minister of Finance, M. de Silhouette unpopular 
because he sought to cut down unnecessary ex- 
penses in the State lent his name to the slight 
and thus cheap black outline portrait called a 
silhouette." W. J. 

RED-HAIRED MEN (6 th S. vi. 426 ; vii. 155). 
Long before " Danish times " red-haired men were 
regarded with much disfavour by the ancient 
Egyptians. For one reason, such folk were almost 
sure to be foreigners ; for another, red was sym- 
bolical of Typho, a spirit of evil, about whose sex 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson has left the world in doubt. 
Anybody with a ruddy complexion, or with red 
hair, was suspected of being specially connected 
with the wicked one, and therefore the ass, which 
must have been redder of old time in Egypt than 
it is now, either here or there, was looked upon as 
being naturally an evil beast. The people 

" offered red oxen in their sacrifices; and in consequence 
of its supposed resemblance to Typho, those cakes offered 
in sacrifices during the two months Paiini and Phaophi 
had the impression of an nss bound, stamped upon them ; 
and for the same reason, when they sacrificed to the sun 
they strictly enjoined all who approached the god neither 
to wear any gold about them nor to give provender to 
an ass." Birch's Gardner Wilkinson's Manners and 
Customt of the Ancient Egyptians, vol. iii. p. 300. 

The sacrifice of the red heifer prescribed in the 
book of Numbers (xix. 2) is suggested to one's 
mind. Dr. Wordsworth, the present Bishop of 
Lincoln, commenting on the subject, says : 

"The heifer was red. So was Christ; red as the 
second Adam, as very man formed of the earth, and red 
in His own blood (Isa. Ixiii. 1 ; Kev. xix. 13). The 
heifer is red, and signifies the earthly body of Jesus 
Christ, the Second Adam ; the name of Adam signifies 
red earth. Theodoret, Bede, Qu. 16, ' Vitula rufa caro 
eat. Salvatoris rosea sanguine passionis, tetatis integrse.' 
Bed is also the colour of sin (Isa. i. 18), and in this re- 
spect may typify Him who was made sin for us (2 Cor. v. 
21; Horn, viii.3; Gal. iii. 13), St. Augustine, Qu. 33; 
Hengstenberg, pp. 177-8." 

In the translated Koranic version of the institu- 
tion of this sacrifice, found in the chapter entitled 
" The Cow," Moses is made to say that the victim 
is " a red cow, intensely red, her colour rejoiceth 
the beholders"; though Sale remarks, "The 
epithet in the original is yellow ; but this word we 
do not use in speaking of the colour of cattle." 
I suspect that it was yellow or orange, rather than 
what we now call red, that was the colour dedi- 
cated to Typho. Fashion has lately raised a rage 
for yellow, but in my young days it was no 
favourite ; 

" Green 's forsaken, yellow 'e forsworn," 
we used to say. Dr. Brewer (Diet, of Phrase and 
Fable) tells us that it " indicates jealousy, incon- 
stancy and adultery. In France the doors of 
traitors used to be daubed with yellow. In some 
countries the law ordains that Jews be clothed in 

yellow, because they betrayed our Lord," and so 

It is to be observed that in Leonardo da Vinci's 
" Last Supper," the hair of Judas is black the hue 
of the Christians' Typho instead of being of the 
traditional Judas colour, red. Rosalind (As You 
Like It, III. iv.) says of Orlando's hair that " it is 
of the dissembling colour," whereon Celia retorts, 
" Something browner than Judas's." In a note 
on that observation, Mr. Aldis Wright cites from 
Marston's Insatiate Countess, II. : " I ever thought 
by his red beard hee would prove a Judas ; here 
am I bought and sold." 

It is interesting to notice in connexion with this 
question of red hair that, in the letter said to have 
been written by Publius Lentulus to the Roman 
Senate describing our Lord's personal appearance, 
it is asserted : " His hair is of the colour of wine, 
and golden at the root." I think that Leonardo 
made it auburn. ST. SWITHIN. 

The author of Peter Plymley's Letters, published 
in 1808, touches upon the general dislike to red 
hair : 

" I have often thought, if the wisdom of our ancestors 
had excluded all persons with red hair from the House 
of Commons, of the throes and convulsions it would 
occasion to restore them to their natural rights. What 
mobs and riots would it produce ! To what infinite 
abuse and obloquy would the capillary patriot be ex- 
posed ; what wormwood would distil from Mr. Per- 
ceval, what froth would drop from Mr. Canning; how 
(I will not say my, but our Lord Hawkesbury, for he 
belongs to us all) how our Lord Hawkesbury would 
work away about the hair of King William and Lord 
Somers and the authors of the great and glorious Re- 
volution ; how Lord Eldon would appeal to the Deity 
and his own virtues, and to the hair of his children; 
some would say that red-haired men were superstitious ; 
some would prove they were atheists ; they would be 
petitioned against as the friends of slavery, and the 
advocates for revolt ; in short, such a corruptor of the 
heart and understanding is the spirit of persecution, 
that these unfortunate people (conspired against by their 
fellow subjects of every complexion), if they did not 
emigrate to countries where hair of another colour was 
persecuted, would be driven to the falsehood of perukes, 
or the hypocrisy of the Tricosian fluid." 


Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

"PAPA" AND "MAMMA" (6 th S. viii. 128). 
The words papa and mama are the last linguistic 
survivals of the distinction between Norman 
and Saxon between the conquering race which 
spoke French and the conquered race which still 
speaks English. The use of them marks off the 
" upper classes " from the "lower classes" in the 
England of to-day as it marked off the " gentil 
men children i-tau^t to speke Frensche from }?o 
tyme J?at jsey bee)? i-rokked in here cradel" from 
the children of the " vplondisshe men " in the 
times spoken of by John of Trevisa in his version 
of Higden. Nobody ever heard son or daughter 
of the soil salute labourer or yeoman father and 

viii. SEPT. i, 83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


mother as papa and mama, and few ever heard the 
children of baron or earl, in fireside converse, and 
before schooldays were over, address papa and 
mama as father and mother. 

Of late years, indeed, mainly in the great towns 
and cities, many of the " working classes " who 
" wil likne hyrn self to gentil men " have adopted 
papa and mama, but with a difference analogous 
to a heraldic difference ; papa has become pappa, 
and mama, mamma, with the accent on the first 
instead of the last syllable. On the other hand, the 
gentil families which have adopted the plain Eng- 
lish father and mother, not, perhaps, without a 
dash of the pride which apes humility, are con- 
tinually increasing in number. 

Papa and mama, the French appellatives, like 
the Welsh tad and mam, daddy and mammy, have 
never found their way into serious literary English 
as substitutes for father and mother. They are 
not, in fact, synonymous. They are, so to speak, 
the vocative cases of father and mother, just as 
puss is the vocative case of cat. Where they are 
not vocatives they are relative forms. Pater- 
familias is father of his family for all the world ; 
he is its papa for itself alone. 

The growing disuse of the words, and the sub- 
stitution in many cases of the Latin pater and 
mater are, I fancy, mainly due to the fact that 
schoolboys, and especially public schoolboys, re- 
gard the use of pa and ma,, and their reduplica- 
tions as connoting a molly-coddle. An eloquent 
countess in a southern shire at the last general 
election made an admirable speech on behalf of 
her eldest son, who was one of the candidates for the 
family borough. When his lordship appeared on 
the platform the next day to speak, I observed 
that he was extremely disconcerted by the greet- 
ing of a large and cheery yeoman, who disapproved 
alike of lady orators and the politics of the lord of 
the manor : " Good even in', my Lord ! 'Ow 's 
your Ma ? " Whether or not that one word sealed 
his lordship's fate I do not know, but it certainly 
damaged his chances of election, and I have never 
since been at any loss to understand why the 
words papa and mama are gradually falling into 
desuetude. FABIAN. 

A VISIT TO ORKNEY (6 th S. viii. 81). It may 
be as well to correct a small slip in this article. 
On p. 83 the cotton sedge is spoken of as Erio- 
phorum polytticum. The Latin specific name of 
this plant is not polysticum but polystachyon. 


Frodsham, Cheshire. 

GALILEO (6 th S. viii. 87). The " miseri figli- 
uoli di Jausen," referred to in the extract from 
the Italian work quoted by MR. PARKER, are 
evidently the children of the Dutch optician 
Jansen, of Middleboug (Middleburg), near Flush- 
ing, whose juvenile experiments with two lenses 

are said to have been the origin of the Galilean 
form of telescope. However, it seems rather hard 
to dub those young philosophers with the title of 
"miseri figliuoli." It is clear that " Jausen" is 
merely a misprint for " Jansen." 

18, Aytoun Street, Manchester. 

NAME OF INN WANTED (6 th S. viii. 71) May 
I remind AN OLD IDIOT that R. R. Fielder was of 
Jesus, not St. John's 1 Another prominent Up- 
ware man was H. Milford, of St. John's. 


DIE SONNE (5 th S. x. 513 ; 6 th S. vi. 520 ; vii. 
114). Many years ago, while seeking a reason for 
this anomaly, I came across, in the writings of 
Jacob Ludwig Grimm, this passage: 

" Mundifori had two children, a son, Mini, and a 
daughter Sol, married to Glenr; both were removed to 
Heaven (Snorra Edda, p. 12*), and in a popular riddle 
on the sun and snow, the former is named the mouth- 
lessH) woman (die mundlose Frau). 

" Ulphilas offers three types (of the word) in Mark 
i. 32; xiii. 24 (probably), neuter sau'fl ; Matth. v. 45, 
Luke iv. 40, femin. sunnv ; Mark iv. 6, xvi. 2, masc. 
sunna. We can discern nothing logical in the ancient 

sources of language A daughter of the Spanish Cid 

was called Doiia Sol. The Arabs likewise agree in mak- 
ing the sun feminine, and the moon masculine. Compare 
a poem by Montenebbi in Reiske's exercises, p. 88, or in 
Hammer's translation, p. 190." 

Some grammarians ascribe this irregularity of 
gender to the sun being personified by most 
nations as a male and the moon as a female being, 
but the Germans reversed it, in accordance with 
the idea originally conceived of the object. Most 
of the names of rivers are in German of the 
feminine gender, because the imagination pictured 
them as females. Accordingly the German language 
described them as goddesses where the Greeks, 
Romans, and others represented them as gods. 

Callis Court, St. Peter's, Isle of Thanet. 

What A. J. M. supposes I " seem to suppose " is 
unimportant, more especially since, so far as I under- 
stand it, it is erroneous; but the following passage, 
from a very distinguished writer, is a useful con- 
tribution to the study of the subject : 

" Iii unsern alteren Dialekten, gotischen sowol als 
Althochdeutschen, lauft neben der Auffassung der Sonne 
als weibliches Wesen auch eine Hiannliche her : selbst 
im Mittelhochdeutschen horte man noch bisweilen das 
Masculinum der sunne, des sunnen. Erst die Neuzeit 
hat diesen langen Kampf um das Dasein endgiltig zu 
gunsten des schbneren Geschlechtes entschieden und da 
die mythische Personification der Naturerscheinungen 
und das grammatische Geschlecht ihrer sprachhchen 
Bezeichnungen in Wechselwirkung atehen, so hat sich 
die Volksphantasie durchaus entwbhnt die Frau Sonne 
als Mann zu denken." W. Mannhart, in Sammlung 
Gemeinversiiindlicl<*n Witsentchaftliche Vortrage. 


That is, the Prose Edda, see " N. & CJ.," 6 lb S. ir. 



Another subject of changed gender is the queen- 
bee. In old French we find her called Eoi des 
abeilles (e.g., as late as Menestrier, La Science et 
I' Art des Devises, 1686, and later). Girard, Les 
Mitamorphoses des Insectes, 1879, says : 

" C'est Schwammerdam qui le premier, par un ana- 
iomie interne, etablit la verit a cet egard. L'individu 
unique est une mere ou femclle qui porte a tort le nom 
de reine, car elle n'exerce pas de commandement. Les 
anciens croyaient cet individu male et le nommaicnt roi 

R. H. BUSK. 

A. J. M.'s note is very interesting as showing 
that the people of Sussex and Surrey still retain 
the Anglo-Saxon gender of the sun. Is the moon 
with them masculine, as in Anglo-Saxon, or 
feminine ? The following remarks of Prof. Max 
Miiller may prove of interest to Miss BUSK: 

"In Sanskrit, though the sun is ordinarily looked 
upon as a male power, the most current names for the 
moon, such as Eandra, Soma, Indu, Yidhu, are mascu- 
line." Lectures on the Science of Language, vol. i. p. 7 
(ed. 1873). 

" Next in time is Surya, a female Stirya, i. e., the sun 
as a feminine, or, according to the commentator, the 
Dawn again under a different name. In the Migveda, 
too, the Dawn is called the wife of Surya (Suryasya 
Yosha, vii. 75, 5), and the Asvins are sometimes called 
the husbands of Sury& (Rigveda, iv. 43, 6). It is said in 
a Brahmana that Savitar gave Surya (his daughter ?) to 
King Soma or to Pragapati. The commentators explain 
that Savitar is the sun, Soma the moon, and Surya the 
moonlight, which comes from the sun. This, however, 
seems somewhat fanciful, and savours decidedly of later 
mythology." Ibid., vol. ii. p. 538. 


A remnant of these Saxon genders is found in 
Worcestershire, where the moon is always mascu- 
line. It would be interesting to ascertain from 
which branch of the Saxon family the impression 
of language was most permanent. Mr. Green, in 
his Making of England, attributes the colonization 
of the kingdom to various tribes. W. M. M. 

SKEMMY : SKINNUM (6 th S. vii. 469). Skemmy 
is related to the Old Norse skelmir, Dan. skjalm, 
knave, or worthless fellow (nequam, Hald.). It is 
connected with O.N. sJcalk, which has the same 
meaning, but primarily meant servant. In the 
Gothic version of Ulphilas we find, " Saei duk in 
thdim skalkinoth Christa'u " (" For he that in these 
things serveth Christ") (Rom. xiv. 18), and the 
German name Adelschalk means noble servant. 
The root of both words is skal, but there is no 
Teutonic word of the same form that bears an 
appropriate meaning. It seems to be related to 
the Celtic seal, a man; scalog for scaloc (oc being a 
suffix of dimintion), a servant. It is curious to 
note how many words that at first meant only 
servant have acquired an evil meaning. Varlet 
is the old form of the modern valet. Our English 
knave is the same in origin as the Germ, knabe. 

The word thief belongs, I think, to this class. 
Prof. Skeat says of it " root unknown," and sug- 
gests, after Fick, that it may be related to Lith. 
tupeti, to squat or crouch down. In the Gothic 
tongue thevis, or, as Prof. Skeat writes it, theivis, 
meant a servant or slave, and in O.H.G. diub 
meant both thief and young man, i. e. servant. 
"Diub, latro, tiro" (Graff. Althoch. Sprachshatz, 
vi. index, p. 33). In the version of Ulphilas, the 
command ".Servants, obey in all things " (Col. 
iii. 22) is rendered by " Thevisa, ufhiiusjaith bi all." 
If this view be correct, then Goth, thevis and 
thiubs, A.-S. theow (slave), and theof (thief) are 
only variants of the same word. It is curious to 
note how slavery destroyed or lowered the moral 
sense of its unfortunate victims. The name of the 
farm servant or serf (villanus) has given us one 
of our strongest terms of reproach. In the same 
manner we learn from the Sans, mushka, (1) strong 
man, (2) robber, that in old times the one who had 
the stronger hand in India would surely be the 
despoiler. " The good old rule, the simple plan " 
was followed: 

"That they should take who have the power 
And they should keep who can." 

Skinnum. This word is from the O.N. skina, to 
shine, be brilliant ; skin, light, splendour ; Goth. 
skeinan, to shine. The transition from this sense 
to that of goodness or beauty is very easy. Cf. 
Ir. ban, bright, white, fair. J. D. 

Belsize Square. 

DELAMAYNE THE POET (6 th S. viii. 105). I 
have several quarto volumes of ephemeral poetry 
which seem to have been put together by 
"Fullerton of Carstairs" (whose book-plate is 
pasted within the covers), between 1770 and 1790. 
They contain two of the works attributed by 
MR. SOLLY to Delamayne, the titles being as 
follows : 

" The | Senators : j or, | A Candid Examination | into 
the J Merits of the Principal Performers | of | St. 
Stephen's Chapel. | [Copper - plate engraving of Oliver 
Cromwell's ghost appearing in the House of Commons, 
with quotation from Otway.] London : | Printed for G. 
Kearsly, in Ludgate Street. | M.DCO.LXXII." 4to. pp. 36; 
or B to K, in twos. 

" The Patricians : | or, | A Candid Examination 
into the Merits of the Principal Speakers | of the 
House of Lords. | By the | Author of the Senators. . 
[Copper-plate engraving of a nobleman, in his robes, 
catching at a bag of gold held before him by the priest 
of the ' Temple of Corruption '; quotation from the play 
Mahomet.} London : | Printed for G. Kearsly, in Ludgate 
Street. | MD.CCLXXIII." 4to. pp. 34 ; or B to K 1, in twos. 

The recto of K 2 is occupied with an advertisement 
commencing: " This Day is published, Price 2s. 6d. t 
The Fourth Edition, with considerable Additions, 
The Senators," &c. The work, therefore, did not 
go through four editions in 1772. The same hand 
may, I fancy, be traced in " The | Chaplain. | A 
Poem. | ' My Lord, your Chaplain ! ' ] Orphan. 

es. vin. SEPT. 1,83.3 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


London : | Printed for J. Ridley, in St. James's 
Street. | M.DCC.LXIV. | [Price Is. Qd.] 4to. pp. 22." 
This is a violent diatribe directed against Kidgell, 
and his patron, the Earl of March (afterwards 
Duke of Queensberry, of infamous memory); and 
the allusions to Kidgell's notorious Narrative 
render a commonplace piece of abuse somewhat 
interesting. ALFRED WALLIS. 


A "PYNSON" VOLUME (6 th S. viii. 68). This 
rare little book appears to be a copy of the 
earliest known edition of Magna Charta, printed 
by Pynson, 1514, and, judging from T. Q. C.'s 
description, it is probably as perfect as it was sent 
out, without a title-page. Herbert (Typ. Antiq., 
ii. 260) describes Mr. Alchorne's copy thus : " It 
has no title-page, but begins with a calendar in 
red and black ; then a table of the heads of the 
chapters of such statutes as are divided into 
chapters, &c." The size, he adds, is "narrow 
twelves." It is No. 557 in Dibdin's edition of the 
Typographical Antiquities, ii. 454. The date will 
be found at the end of the table, Anno " Incarna- 
tionis diiice, Millesimo, quingetesimo xiiij. decimo 
sexto idibus MarciL" . ALFRED WALLIS. 

STANDING AT PRAYERS (6 th S. viii. 78). The 
twentieth canon of the Council of Nice is thus 
translated in the edition of the Canons of the first 
four General Councils, published by James Parker 
& Co., of Oxford : " Because there are some who 
kneel on the Lord's Day, and even in the days of 
Pentecost, that all things may be uniformly per- 
formed in every parish, it seems good to the Holy 
Synod that prayers be made to God standing." 
The Greek text runs thus : 

?7 rtves eto-iv iv TTJ KvpiaKij yovv 
KAtvovre? KCU ei/ rats T>Js TTCVT^KOCTT^S rjfj.epa.i's 
VTTfp TOV TravTa ev Trdcrr] TrapoiKta 6/iot'ws 
7rapa<vAaTTes$at eo-rwras eSoe rrj ayia 
<rvvo8<i) ra? cu^as aTroStSoVat TW $ew. 
In Bran's edition of the Councils the word o^oicos 
i& omitted. Brun quotes a " versio prisca " as run- 
ning thus : "Placuit ...... Synodo cunctos in omni- 

bus locis constanter et consentienter stantes 
dominum orare debere dominicam diem et diem 
Paschoe usque in Pentecosten." Even if this were 
the original text, I cannot see that it justifies 
C. W. S.'s assertion that the " kneeling posture " 
was ordered " except on Sundays and during 
Paschal time." It seems possible that Kvpia/o; 
may mean the church, and not the Lord's Day, 
though the context would seem to make the latter 
the more probable meaning. . A. N. 

WHIP-LANE: WHIP-LANER (6 th S. vii. 348; viii. 
56). I have not Prof. Skeat's Dictionary, but am 
rather surprised to see by MR. TERRY'S citation 
that he considers the word lany&r of uncertain 

origin. Lithe" does not settle it, but leaves it so 
that anybody may settle it for himself. He quotes, 
under the word laniere, Voltaire, as saying of Dido 
that she founded Carthage "en coupant un cuir 
debceufen lanieres"; and under the etymology 
of the word he gives, without approval, the 
lanarius, made of wool, from Scheler, and asks 
the question, "Mais ne pourrait on pas y voir 
le sens d'un lambeau de cuir, et le rattacher 
comme lanier, dont il a tout a fait la forme, au 
latin laniare, declarer?" Wedgwood, with his 
usual tact, has pointed out that it must not be 
confused with lanyel or langet, which come from 
lingula, a little tongue. Laniard and lanyer are 
as clearly derived from laniare as the old word for 
a shambles, laniary, is, or laniate, to tear in pieces 
or lacerate. Even Diez seems to mistake here, 
for he says "Laniere, a small falcon ; adj. lanier, 
greedy," if he means it is so called from its greedi- 
ness, for it is evidently named from laniare, be- 
cause it tears its prey to pieces and is a butcher 
bird. Its earliest meaning is evidently a thong, 
or strap of leather cut for a whip from cowhide ; 
after that any whip or lash of rope, as Forby gives 
it, or of string or whip-cord. Thus you reach the 
sea term laniard, the short ropes used to reeve 
the dead-eyes of a ship's shrouds. The whipline 
shot by rocket over a wreck has no relation to 
whip-lane. It is simply a thin line whipped to 
the hawser to haul it out to the ship in distress. 

C. A. WARD. 
Harerstock Hill, N.W. 

CHARACTER OF A GENTLEMAN (6 th S. vi. 489 ; 
vii. 234). The following is, perhaps, as striking 
an illustration of the Greek ideal of the /caAo/ca- 
ya#o? as can be found in the classic writers : 
Styav OTTOI; Set, KCU Aeyeiv, iV do-<aAes' 
opav 60, Set, Ka/i' ovy opav a firj xpewv' 
Kpareiv re yaorpos avopas euyems TrpeVec. 

Euripides, Ino. 

A SPOUTER (6 th S. vi. 389 ; viL 75, 516). The 
Rev. F. Mahony (Father Prout) was not educated 
at Stonyhurst, and his name does not appear on 
the college roll, which has been searched for me. 
According to Mr. B. Jerrold's Final Relics of 
Father Prout (Lond., 1876, p. 4), he was educated 
at St. Acheul, near Amiens. 


TENNIS (6 th S. iii. 495 ; iv. 90, 214 ; v. 56, 73 ; vi. 
373, 410, 430, 470, 519, 543 ; vii. 15, 73, 134, 172, 
214 ; viii. 118). Might I say that some time ago a 
conjecture of mine was in proof for " N. & Q." 
that, as the winning number of the score at the 
cognate games of fives and rackets was eleven, 
and that as each score was called an "ace," so 
tennis might originally have been 10+1, or ten? 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 16'" s. vm. SEPT. i, . 

ace, this last ace being separated from the rest, both 
because it was the commencement of another ten 
and because it was the deciding " ace " ? I, how- 
ever, withdrew my noting, as I could obtain no 
evidence that eleven was ever " game " at tennis ; 
though as it is at the simpler, and therefore in all 
probability prior, forms of hand-ball and rackets, 
I still think the conjecture a likely one. 


When reading the various notes iu "N. & Q." 
on this word, two things have struck me. That 
the use of the word tanner, in the sense of " to 
beat, to give a hiding," is still very common all 
over France. The same may be said of the ex- 
pressions "Je le tiens " in accepting a bet, in 
which the verb seems hardly equivalent to "I 
hold," but rather to our strike in "strike a bar- 
gain," the palm of the hand of one party being 
extended and struck by the other, which is the 
common action in such a case in France. Perhaps 
the idea of thinness in attenuer and tcnuite is also 
to be derived from being made thin by beating. 

Ashford, Kent. 

If, as seems probable, the word is French, it is 
not unlikely to come from the Latin contentio. 
There are other examples of the omission of the 
preposition to be found in the Romance dialects. 


BRUXELLES (6 th S. vi. 328 ; vii. 98). This 
place is variously written in ancient documents 
Bruolisela, Bruohsale, Brohsela, Brocele, Brosselle, 
Bursella, Brouxiele, Bruccellen in Old French ; 
Brusola, Brosella, Bruxellse, in Latin ; Brusele, 
Brussel, in Flemish, is most likely derived 
from the Teutonic Bru'hl, which is in Low Latin 
Bruolum, and in French Breuil, a wood where 
game is hunted. Brussels, through Bruohsale, 
is therefore sala du Briihl, demeure du breuil, 
the dwelling in the wood or park. The city of 
Brussels grew up around its cradle, the hunting 
chateau of the Counts of Louvain, afterwards 
Dukes of Brabant. Their first capital was 
Louvain, and Brussels is comparatively a modern 
place, never heard of till the eleventh century. 
There was, indeed, a Broselle, often confounded 
with it, but that was in Artois. St. Vindicien, 
Archbishop of Cambrai, was buried there in 712. 
(See L'Abbe Mann, Abrege de I'Histoire Eccle- 
siastique de Bruxelles, and Chotin, fitudes fitymo- 
logiques de Brabant.) J. MASKELL. 

Emanuel Hospital. 

_ PUR : CHILVER (6 th S. viii. 88). Halliwell 
gives, Pur, a one-year-old male sheep ; also a boy 
(Dorset). In M.E. the word pur meant pure ; 
hence thorough, complete, entire. (See Specimens 
of Early English, pt. ii. Gloss. Index). Bosworth 
gives the three forms cilfer-, til/or-, cylfer-, lamb, 

a female lamb. He also gives cielf and cealf, a 
calf. The form cielf suggests that chilver and 
calf may be connected. (See Skeat under " Calf.") 
Both the words are used in the Western Gazette 
(a local paper for this neighbourhood) in advertis- 
ing sales. F. W. WEAVER. 
Milton Vicarage, Evercreecli, Bath. 

The explanation of these terms as given in 
Wright's Provincial Dictionary is not quite 
correct. A pur in Dorsetshire is a castrated 
male lamb ; a chilver is a female lamb. They 
retain the names of pur and chilver until they are 
a year old, but no longer. ROBERT HOLLAND. 

Frodsham, Cheshire. 

EARLY MARRIAGES (6 th S. vi. 347; vii. 91, 
134). Lady Sarah Cadogan, daughter of William, 
first Earl Cadogan, was married at the age of 
thirteen to Charles, second Duke of Richmond, 
aged eighteen. It is said that this marriage was 
a bargain to cancel a gambling debt between their 
parents, Lady Sarah being a coheiress. The young 
Lord March was brought from college and the 
little lady from her nursery for the ceremony, 
which took place at the Hague. The bride was 
amazed and silent, but tHe husband exclaimed, 
" Surely you are not going to marry me to that 
dowdy." Married, however, he was, and his tutor 
then took him off to the Continent and the bride 
went back to her mother. Three years after Lord 
March returned from his travels, but having such 
a disagreeable recollection of his wife was in no 
hurry to join her, and went the first evening to the 
theatre. There he saw a lady so beautiful that he 
asked who she was. " The reigning toast, Lady 
March," was the answer he got. He hastened to 
claim her, and their lifelong affection for each other 
is much commented upon by contemporaneous 
writers indeed it was said that the duchess, who 
only survived him a year, died of grief. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

"August 1st, 1672. I was at the marriage of Lord 
Arlington's only daughter (a sweet child if ever there 
was any) to the Duke of Grafton, the king's natural son 
by the Duchess of Cleveland." 

"October 6th, 1679. Dined at the Countess of Sunder- 
land's, and was this evening at the remarriage of the 
Duchess of Grafton to the Duke (his Majesty's natural 
son), she being now twelve years old." Diary of John 

E. H. M. 

Few persons are, I believe, aware what is the 
English law as to age of parties on marriage. I 
therefore extract the following from The Manual 
of Common Law (Josiah W. Smith), fifth edit., 
1872, p. 112 : 

" If either party is under the age of 7 years the 
marriage is void. If the husband is above 7 and under 
14 years of age, or the wife is above 7 and under 12, the 
marriage is not absolutely void; but the husband on 

6th s . viii. SEPT. i, '83.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


attaining the age of 14, or the wife on attaining the age 
of 12, and not before, may disagree to and avoid it ; bul 
if at that age they agree to continue together they neec 
not be married again." 


"A youthful wedding recently took p'ace not one 
hundred miles from this parish [Deeping. St. James's], 
the united ages of the couple being thirty-five, the bride- 
groom twenty-one and the bride fourteen. It was some- 
what of a novelty to observe the interesting bride the 
following day exhibiting her skill on the skipping-rope 
on the pavement in the street." The Lincoln, Rutland, 
and Stamford Mercury, Feb. 16, 1883. 


In " Goodall v. Harris," reported in 2 Peere 
Williams' s Reports,pp. 560-1, and heard before the 
Lord Chancellor in 1729, H. will find a case where 
a girl of nine years and three months was taken 
from a boarding school by one of her guardians 
and married to his son, " who had no estate and 
was an apprentice to a peruke- maker." 

G. F. E. B. 

Philip Stubbes, in his Anatomie of Abuses, 
speaks of this practice. After commending marriage, 
he says: 

"But notwithstanding there is ouer greate libertie 

permitted therein ; for little infants in swadling cloutes 
are often marled by their ambicious parentes and 
freendes, when they know neither good nor euil, and this 
is the origene of much wickednes, and directly against 
the word of God, and examples of the primatiue age. 
And besides this, you. shall haue euery saucie boye, of 
tenne, fourteene, sixteene, or twentie yeares of age, 
catch vp a woman, and marrie her, without any feare of 
God at all, or respect hadde, eyther to he* religion, 
wisdome, integritie of lyfe, or any other vertue ; or, 
whiche is more, without any respect how they may Hue 
together, with sufficient mayntenance for their callinges 
and estate. No, no ! it maketh no matter for these 

thinges, so he haue his prettie pussie for that is the 

onely thing he desireth. Then build they vpp a cottage, 
though but of elder poales, in euery lane end almost, 
where they Hue as beggerg all their lyfe after." Ed. 
1836, p. 99. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

(6 th S. viii. 47). 

"Ni Deus affuerit Viresq' infuderit Herbis, 

Quid rogo Dictamnum, quid panacea jubae." 
Your correspondent has not transcribed quite 
correctly the inscription. The last half of 
the pentameter is " Quid panacea juice," not 
as he gives it " Judse." It is probable that the 
final letters of the last word have been acci- 
dentally mutilated, as the narrow piece of oak on 
which the letters are carved was without any 
frame when found, and that the word really is 
jitbet, the e and t having been conjoined like a 
diphthong, whilst the upper limb of the last letter 
has been knocked off. The translation of the 
inscription is somewhat difficult, and may serve to 

exercise the ingenuity of your readers. As yet 
we have not succeeded in identifying it as a quota- 
tion from any of the best known Latin authors, 
and possibly it is only a specimen of monkish 
Latin. The board bearing the inscription was 
discovered during the process of clearing away 
rubbish that had accumulated for many years past 
in the old laboratory, and as it was considered 
curious it was repainted in its original colours, of 
which traces still remained, and placed in a frame 
as it now appears. The authorities at the hall 
have no clue as to where it came from ; but as from 
the earliest incorporation of the society botany was 
much cultivated by its members, many of whom 
obtained great distinction in that science, the in- 
scription may have been put up in the library or 
some one of the other apartments. Of the " Dic- 
tamnum," or "Dittanie," Gerard thus speaks in 
his Herball : 

" It is reported that the wilde goates and deere in 
Candie when they be wounded with arrowes do shake 
them out by eating of this plant and it healeth their 

And of " Panaces " (Hercules alheale, or Wound- 
ivoort) he says : 

" The seede brought into powder anddrunke in Worm- 
wood Wine is good against Poison, the bite of madde 
dogs and the stinging of all manner of wilde beastes. 
The leaves or rootes stamped with honie and brought to 
the forme of an unguent or salve cureth woundea and 
ulcers of great difficultie and covereth bones that are 
bare or naked without flesh." 

Pliny, also, in his Historia Naluralis, mentions 
it in these words: "Panaces ipso nomine omnium 
morborum remedia promittit." And Virgil, in the 
passage from the twelfth ^Eneid, quoted by your 
correspondent, speaks of it as " odoriferam pana- 
cearn." H. W. STATHAM. 

"SiR HORNBOOK" (6 th S. vii. 407; viii. 72). I 
have a copy of this book, size 5$ in. by 4i in., in 
a dark grey paper cover; number of pages twenty- 
nine. Title the same as quoted 6 th S. viii. 72. 
After the title comes a small picture of the London 
Museum (afterwards the Egyptian Hall), then 
" London | printed for Sharp and Hailes, at the | 
Juvenile Library, Piccadilly, | 1814." The illus- 
trations are eight in number, including the frontis- 
piece. They are all coloured. At the foot of each 
s " Published 1 June, 1813, by Sharpe & Hailes, 
Piccadilly." The printers of the book are Whit- 
tingham & Rowland, Goswell Street, London. The 
whole title-page is reproduced on the cover with 
the addition of a border. At the end are two 
advertisements : 

1. "This day published, in two small volumes, price 
5s., ' A Visit to the London Museum ; Designed to con- 
vey, through the Medium of Familiar Conversation, a 
knowledge of Natural History acc