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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 290, July 18, 1885 



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of Intercommunication 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 290, July 18, 18S5. 






tfu> S. Xt. JAN. 3, '85.) 




NOTES : Dr. Johnson's Penance, 1 Deaths in 1884, 2 
Bhakspeariana, 3 Grants of William III., 4 Errors in 
" Life of H. K. Browne "Euphuism, 5 Heraldic Anomalies 
Johnny Crapaud Eegimental Coincidences Catholic 
Peers To Vestrify " Staff of Life" Jnn Egyptian Her- 
cules -Place-Appellations, 6. 

QUERIES : " Marriage 3, la Mode" Oldest Existing Corpo- 
ration, 7 Sarah Booth Bony thon Heraldic W. Fleet- 
wood, D.D. Monosyllabic Letter Exon Minority Waiters 
Last King of Delhi Dr. Woodward Dr. Johnson's Red 
Ink Winspeare Family, 8 Sir R. Jackson Bure Homage 
Croiznoires Title of Novel Poem Wanted Carlyle as a 
Philologist Mount Nod-Excalibur, &c.-St. Devenick, 9. 

REPLIES : Episcopal Butying-places, 10 -Queries on Bishop 
Ken, 11-Carmichaels, 12 Pikelet-Spring Captain-R. W. 
Bridgman, 13 R. Crashaw Kilburn Priory Singular Epi- 
taphLuke's "Iron Crown," U Servius Tullius Barton 
Booth Bradsh aw, 1 5 Birthplace of Lord Beaconsfield 
Double Letters Italian Proverb, 16-" Untravelled Tra- 
veller "Charade by C. S. C. Candy: Berg Notes on 
" Folk- Etymology " Williams, Bookseller, 17 Marine 
Signalling A Vulgar Error Khedive George Boleyn 
Last Dying Speeches Arthur Young" Gette en molle," 18 
Kingston-on-Thames Authors Wanted, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Law's "Hamilton's Catechism" 

Gatchefs " Legend of Creek Indians " Palgrave's "Keats 
Notices to Correspondents, &c. 

In a recent note in " N. & Q." (6 th S. x. 384) 
I remarked on a singular inadvertence in a leading 
article on Dr. Johnson in the Times of October 10 
where his famous " expiatory penance " is referred 
to as having taken place at Lichfield instead oi 
Uttoxeter. In this I \vish to point out some 
uncertainty which seems to exist about its details 
and endeavour to determine its approximate date, 
Bos well's mention of it is, as is well known, very 
slight. He tells us that during Johnson's las 
stay at Lichfield, in the summer of 1784, he formec 
an intimacy with a young clergyman named Henry 
White, and that to him he said that, although h 
could not in general accuse himself of having been 
an undutiful son, yet on one occasion 

" I was disobedient; I refused to attend my father t< 
Uttoxeter market. Pride was the source of that refusal 
and the remembrance of it was painful. A few year 
ago I desired to atone for this fault. I went to Uttoxete 
in very bad weather, and stood for a considerable tim 
bare-headed in the rain, on the spot where my father' 
stall used to stand. In contrition I stood, and I hop 
the penance was expiatory." 

Croker has a note that this story is told in mor 
detail in the Rev. Richard Warner's Tour through 
the Northern Counties of England and the Border 
of Scotland, published in 1802. As this book i 
not very well known, it may be of interest t 

uote from it the account in question, which is as 

"During the last visit which the Doctor made to 
iichfiold, the frienda witk whom he was staying missed 
,im one morning at the breakfast table ; on inquiring 
fter him of the servants they understood he had set off 
rom Lichfield at a very early hour, without mentioning 

any of the family whither he was going. The day 
>assed without the return of the illustrious guest, and 
he party began to be very uneasy on his account, when, 
ust before the supper hour, the door opened and the 
)octor stalked into the room. A solemn silence of a 
'ew minutes ensued, nobody daring to inquire the cause 
>f his absence, which was at length relieved by John- 
son addressing the lady of the house in the following 
manner : ' Madam, I beg your pardon for the abruptness 
_f my departure from your house this morning, but I 
was constrained to it by my conscience. Fifty years ago, 

Madam, on this day, I committed a breach of filial piety, 
which has ever since lain heavy on my mind, and haa 
not till this day been expiated. My father, you recollect, 
was a bookseller, and had long been in the habit of 

attending market, and opening a stall for the sale 

of his books during that day. Confined to his bed by 
indisposition, he requested me this time fifty years ago 
to visit the market and attend the stall in his place. 
But, Madam, my pride prevented me from doing my 
duty, and I gave my father a refusal. To do away the 
sin of this disobedience I this day went in a post chaise 

to , and going into the market at the time of high 

business, uncovered my head, and stood with it bare an 
hour before the stall which my father had formerly 
used, exposed to the sneers of the standers-by and the 
inclemency of the weather, a penance by which, I trust, 

1 have propitiated Heaven for this only instance, I be- 
lieve, of contumacy towards my father.' " 

As Warner left the name of the town where this 
was done blank, it is to be presumed that he did 
not know it ; but there can be no doubt that it 
was, as stated by Boswell, Uttoxeter, the distance 
of which from Lichfield is about fourteen miles. 
The statement of the former, that Johnson 
was requested by his father to take his place 
there for the day, seems much more likely than 
that it was only to "attend him there," as Boswell 
says he told White. But Warner was certainly 
wrong in saying that the penance took place dur- 
ing Johnson's last visit to Lichfield ; for, fifty 
years before that, in 1734, Michael Johnson had 
been dead nearly three years, as he died in 
December, 1731. There can be, I think, very 
little doubt that the refusal took place whilst 
Johnson was residing with his father, after he left 
Stourbridge in 1725, and before he went to Oxford 
in 1728. He was at Lichfield for a short time in 
July, 1774, when it appears he stayed at the 
" Swan " inn. He was there again, but also for a 
very short time, in the summer of 1775, and he 
was there in the spring of 1776, when he went 
with Boswell to Oxford in March, and after visit- 
ing Stratford-on-Avon and Birmingham, proceeded 
to Lichfield, where Johnson heard of the death of 
young Thrale, and in consequence returned to 
London. He was again at Lichfield in the autumn 
of 1777, and I cannot help thinking that the 



. XI. JAfr. 3, '5. 

"expiatory penance" was most probably per- 
formed on that occasion. This would tally well 
with his statement to White, in 1784, that it had 
occurred " a few years ago." W. T. LYNN. 

DEATHS IN 1884. 

The following list contains the names and 
(where procurable) dates of birth and death of 
' men of light and leading " who have died during 
1884. In the compilation I have availed myself of 
the obituary notices of the Athenaum, the Aca- 
demy, "N. & Q-," the Graphic, and the Illustrated 
London News, exercising niy own judgment as to 
who should and who should not be included. In 
such a case it is, of course, exceedingly difficult 
to draw a hard and fast line ; but my rule has 
been to make mention of those especially eminent 
as authors whose works are considered valuable 
contributions to the world's literature. The list is 
obviously open to considerable extension, princi- 
pally from, the omission of clergymen, members 
of the aristocracy, and the like. 

Allenger, Johann, " the Barabbas of the Oberammergau 

Passion Play," wood carver; d. April 14 (aetat. 71). 
Balfour, John Button, botanist ; b. 1808; d. Feb. 11. 
Bates, William, B. A., bibliographer; b. Sept. 26, 1820 ; 

d. Sept. 24. 
Bauer, Vassily Vassilievich, Russian historian ; d. Nov. 

18 (aetat. 51). 
Behm, Dr., German geographer and statistician ; d. 

March 15. 

Bentham, George, botanist; d. Sept. 10 (aatat. 83). 
Blunt, Rev. John Henry, lexicographer, antiquary ; d. 

April 11. 
Bohn, Henry George, antiquary, bibliographer, " the 

Nestor of booksellers"; b. Jan. 4, 1796; d. Aug. 22. 
Bragge, William, antiquary, archaeologist, traveller ; d. 

June 6. 

Bright, Henry Arthur, essayist; b. 1830 ; d. May. 
Byron, Henry James, dramatist ; b. 1835 ; d. April 11. 
Cadell, Mrs. H. M., Orientalist ; d. June 17. 
Calverley, Charles Stuart, "C. S. C.," poetical parodist: 

d. Feb. 22. 
Chenery, Thomas, Orientalist, editor of the Times ; b. 

1816; d. Feb. 11. 
Colban, Adolphine Marine, Norwegian novelist : b 1814 

d. March 27. 

Corkran, J. Frazer, author, journalist, essayist ; d. Feb. 
Coata, Sir Michael, musician ; b. Feb. 4, 1810 ; d. April 29. 
Couch, Thomas Quiller, antiquary, naturalist ; b. 1826 ; 

d. Oct. 23. 
De' Souza, Pereira, Brazilian statesman, liiterateiir ; b 

Dec. 13,1839; d. July 16. 
Dumas, Jean-Baptiste-Andre, French chemist: b. July 

14, 1800; d. April 14. 

Dumont, Charles- Albert-Auguste-Eugene, French archaeo- 
logist ; b. Jan. 21, 1842 ; d. Aug. 13. 
Fawcett, Henry, statesman, political economist; b. 1833 

d. Nov. 6. 
Frere, Sir Bertie, K.C.B., colonial governor, &c. ; b.1815 : 

d. May 29. 
Fulin, Rinaldo, Italian theologian and historian ; b. 1824 ; 

d. Dec. 

Gaskell, William, author, &c.; b. July 24, 1805; d. June 11. 
Geibel, Emmanuel, German poet: b. Oct. 18. 1815: d. 

April 12. 

Gellibrand, W. C., a schoolfellow of Shelley's ; b. 1791 ; 

d. April 20. 

Gibson, T. Milner, statesman ; b. 1807 ; d. Feb. 25. 
GodhuntonC?), Robert, colonial newspaper proprietor, 

member Legislative Council; d. (Grahamstowri) 

May 30 (setat. 90). 

Godwin- Austen, R. A. C., physical geologist; d. Nov. 25. 
Goodford, Charles Old, D.D., Provost of Eton; b. 1812; 

d. May. 

Grant, Sir Alexander, historian and philosopher; Nov. 
Guyard, Stanislas, Semitic scholar; d. Sept. 6 (setat. 

Hadfield, Charles, Lancashire journalist, litterateur; b. 

1822; d. June. 

Harris, John. "Cornish poet"; b. Oct. 14. 1820 ; d. Jan. 7. 
Harrison, William, antiquary and bibliographer ; d. 

Nov. 22 (aetat. 83). 
Haussonville, Joseph-Othenin-Bernard de Cleron, Comte 

d'; b. May 27, 1809 ; d. May. 

Hayward, Abraham, essayist; b. Oct. 1802 ; d. Feb. 2. 
Heegaard, Dr. Sophus, Danish philosopher, novelist, 

statesman ; b. Jan. 19, 1835 ; d. March 28. 
Hildebrand, Bror Emil, Swedish antiquary; b. Feb. 12, 

1806 ; d. Aug. 30. 

Hillebrand, Karl, historian, critic; b. 1829; d. Oct. 18. 
Holl, Francis, A.R.A., artist; b. 1815; d. June. 
Home, R. Henry [Hengiat], poet ; b. 1802-3 ; d. April 12. 
Hullah, John Pyke, musician; b. 1812; d. Feb. 21. 
Hulme, F. W., landscape painter; b. 1816; d. Nov. 14. 
Hume, Rev. Abraham, antiquary; b. (about) 1815; d. 

Nov. 21. 
Jerrold, W. Blanchard, journalist, author, critic; b. 

1826 ; d. March 10. 
Kadri Pasha, Turkish politician and scholar; d. Feb. 

(aetat. about 50). 
Kapp, Friedrich, German author and politician ; b. 

April 13, 1824; d. Oct. 27. 
Kjerstrup-Rumohr, Theodor, " P. P." ; Danish novelist ; 

b. 1807 ; d. Oct. 15. 

Kolbe, Prof., German chemist; b. 1818; d. Nov. 26. 
Lacroix, Paul, " Le Bibliophile Jacob "; b. Feb. 27. 1806 : 

d. Oct. 18. 

Leifchild, Henry Stormont, sculptor ; d. Nov. 
Leopold, Prince, Duke of Albany ; b. April 7, 1853 ; d. 

March 8. 
Lepsius, Karl Richard, Orientalist; b. December 23 

1813; d. July. 

Leypoldt, Frederick ; American bibliographer and pub- 
lisher ; d. March. 

Lloyd, Ridgway R., antiquary; b. 1841 ; d. Junel. 
Longfield, Mountiford, lawyer, scholar ; b. 1801 ; d. 

Nov. 21. 

Lonnrot, Elias, Swedish-Finnish lexicographer, "the dis- 
coverer of the ' Kalevala "'; b. April 1802 ; d. Mar. 19. 
Makart, Hans, Austrian painter; b. 1840; d, Oct. 3. 
Manby, Charles, engineer; b. 1804 ; d. July 21. 
Martensen, Huns Lassen, Danish theologian and scholar * 

b. Aug. 19, 1808; d. Feb. 3. 
Merrifield, Charles Watking. mathematician, educational 

writer ; b. Oct. 20, 1827 ; d. Jan. 1. 
Meyer, Diethelrn, artist; b. 1840; d, Odt. 18. 
Mignet, Frari<jois-Auguste-Marie. French historian b 

May 8, 1796; d. March. 
Moigno, L'Abbe Francois- Napoleon - Marie, editor of 

Cosmos, Les Mondes, &c.; b. April 20, 1804; d. July 13. 
Munch, Andreas, Norwegian poet, translator of Scott and 

Tennyson into the Norwegian dialect : b. Oct. 19, 

1810 ; d. June 27. 

North, Thomas, antiquary; d. Feb. 27. 
Nother, Friedrich, German translator and commentator 

d. Feb. 15 (aetat. 84). 
Parker, John Henry, -antiquary ; b. 1806; d. Jan. 31, 

6'S. XI. JAN. 3, '85.] 


Pattison, Mark, scholar, Rector of Lincoln College; b. 

1813 ; d. July 30. 
Pfarrius, Gu4av, " the father of Rhineland poets " ; 

b. Dec. 20, 1800; d. Aug. 16. 

Rende, Charles, novelist, dramatist ; b. 1814 j d. April 11. 
Roberts, John Askew, bookseller, antiquary ; d. Dec. 10 

(setat. 58). 
Hoy. K. A., assistant keeper of the printed books in the 

British Museum ; b. 1820; d. Aug. 14. 
Russell, Rev. John Fuller, antiquary; d. April 6 (aetat 71). 
Sella, Quiritino, Italian politician, mineralogist; b. July?, 

1827; d. March 1'. 
Smith, Angus, Scotch chemist; b. Feb. 15, 1817; d. 

May 12. 
Stratmann, Dr. Franz Heinrich, lexicographer; d. Nov. 

(aetat. 62). 

Thomson, Allen, professor of surgery; b. 1809; d. Mar. 21. 
Todhunter, Isaac, mathematician; b. 1820; d. March 1. 
Towrisend, Rev. Richard, mathematician ; d. Oct. 
Triibner, Nicholas, Oriental and general publisher ; b. 

1817 ; d. March 30. 
Voelcker, Dr. Augustus, professor of chemistry ; b. 1823; 

d. Dec. 5. 
Walker, George Alfred, sanitary reformer and author ; 

d. July 6. 

Wallace, Rev. Edwin, philosophic writer, college libra- 
rian ;. d. Oct. 6. 
Watts, Henry, editor of the Dictionary of Chemistry ; 

b. Jan. 20, 1815; d. June 30. 

Wheatley, Benjamin Robert, bibliographer ; d. Jan. 9. 
White, Mrs. Meadows, musician and composer; b. May 

19, 1839; d. Dec. 4. 
Williams, S. Wells, Chinese scholar; b. 1812; d. (Con' 

necticut) Feb. 16. 
Wilson, Sir Erasmus, medical author, Egyptologist; b. 

Nov. 25, 1819 ; d. Aug. 8. 
Wink worth, Miss Susanna, translator of works from tbe 

German, friend of Mrs. Gaskell ; d. Nov. 25. 
Wright, Thomas, geologist, &c. ; d. Nov. 17. 
Wurtz, Charles-Adolphe, French chemist; b. Nov. 26, 

1817 ; d. May 12. 
Yakovlef, Vladimir Dmitrief, Russian author; d. Nov. 15 

(aetat. 63) . 

157, Camden Grove North, Peckham, S.E. 


" 2 HENRY IV.," III. ii. 337 (6* S. x. 443.) 
Falstaff's "good wit," like Touchstone's, 
requires to be " seconded with the forward 
child understanding." That a "plaine fellow" 
used "invincible" for invisible by a blunder 
is no proof that Falstaff, who was anything 
but a plain fellow, was not quite within his alle- 
giance to the king's English when he said of 
young Shallow, " A' was so forlorn that his dimen- 
sions to any thick sight were invincible." The 
substitution of invisible knocks the wit and the 
meaning together out of the sentence. Invincible 
implies more than simple invisibility, it implies 
that for a man of thick sight it was impossible 
even by a great effort to master the dimensions of 
the forlorn Shallow. Shallow was 'not invisible 
to any one, but the proportion of his dimensions 
(reckoned no doubt as three, Cambridge not hav- 
ing yet discovered the fourth) defied estimate 

except by the very clear sighted but this should 
not be the case with Falstaff's wit. 


I do not follow MR. ALDIS WRIGHT in his 
conclusions at 6 th S. x. 443. Falstaff is made to 
say, " A' was so forlorn that his dimensions to 
any thick sight were invincible'' (2 H. IV., III. 
ii. 337), the last word being used as a jocular form 
for invisible. To support this view we have only 
bo read the quotation adduced by the able Cam- 
bridge co-editor from Wits, Fits, and Fancies, 
" of improper speech," i. e. t not impossible but ad- 
missible and common, in an inaccurate way; thus, 
" One telling a plain fellow that divers were in 
such a place talking evil of him, he said, ' that 
I had now but an invincible cloak, that I might 
but stand amongst them and not be seen.' " The 
question then arises, Whose blunder it it ? Clearly 
the assumed blunder is only a joke, for our quota- 
tion shows that invincible was commonly used for 
invisible, and I fail to see why a marketable joke 
of that age should be fastened on posterity as a 
printer's blunder. A. H. 


IT," I. i. That is, What are you doing ? vul- 
garly, " What are you up to ? " Perhaps some of 
the readers of " N. & Q." may be glad to have a 
few examples of this phrase : 

" Who brought thee hither, and -what makest thou in 
this place] "Mat. Bible, 1537, Judges xviii. 8. 

"Whbtmakesl thou in the way to Assyria?" Id., Jer. 
ii. 18. 

" That they make no more in it." Id., Esdras, ii. D. 

" In the name of God, what make I here 1 " R. Scot's 
Witchcraft. 1584, p. 47. 

E. B. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

YAUGHAN, IN "HAMLET," V. (6 th S. x. 423). 
Most Shakspere students are familiar with the 
fact that commentators, when criticizing the words 
of certain characters, assimilate qualities of those 
characters' minds. DR. NICHOLSON when he writes 
notes on " Yaughan" surely borrows some of the 
Gravedigger's logic in the following passage : 
" Here lies the point : If I drovne myselfe wit- 
tingly, it argues an act ; and an act hath three 
branches. It is an act to doe and to performe : 
argall, she drown'd her selfe wittingly." We all 
know that the Elizabethans, like ourselves, when, 
they spoke of going or sending to a man's inn or 
shop put his name in the genitive case, but when 
to a village or place they left the name unchanged. 
Thus, in the instance DR. NICHOLSON cites, Inclina- 
tion rightly puts barber Ogle's name in the geni- 
tive when his shop is in question, " One of my 
fellowes is but run to Oagles for a long beard "; 
but when DR. NICHOLSON follows on with, "Argall, 
1 Go, get tbee to Yaughan, fetch me a stoupe of 


S. XL JAN. 3, '85. 

liquor,' means Yaughan's inn, and not the place 
Yaughan," one is obliged to shout out, " Grave- 
digger ! Here lies the point : If a genitive is 
a case and a nominative is a case, and there are 
six cases : aryall a nominative is a genitive, and 
Yaughan is the same as Yaughan's." " But is this 
law ? " " I, marry is 't. Em Dee's Quest Law." 

M. A. 


(Continued from p. 464.) 

Marcb, 1693. A Grant unto Charles ffrazier and 
Charles Bridgraan, Esq r in trust for Barbary Viscountess 
Fits-Harding, in consideration of a fine of 1,000^. to be 
pay d into y c Excheq r , of y c fourth part of y e Lordshipp 
and Barony of Kendall, in y County of Westmorland, 
and severall Lands, llents, and Heriditam ts in y c County's 
of Westmoreland and York, Haben'd for 99 years from 
the Death of y e Queen Dowager, part of whose joynture 
y Premisses are, concurrent w th such Termes as are or 
shall be granted therein by her s d Majesty or her Trustees 
under y e yearly Rent of 10s. 

March,"lG93. A Grant unto Anthony Meek, Gent., in 
trust for Thomas ffjlton, Esq r of ye Mannors, Parks, and 
Lands of Sumersham, Pedley, ffenton, Bluntsham, Colne, 
and Brith, in y e County of Huntington, for y e term of 
43 years, which was granted to Denzin Lord Hollis from 
y e Determina'on of a certain terme of 99 years, of 
w ch there is about 25 years yet to come, in trust for y e 
Queen Dowager for her life, and after in trust fur y e 

April!, 1C94. A Demize unto Edward Dazell, Cittizen 
and Stationer of London, at y e Nomina'on of S r Thorn 8 
Clergys and Henry Guy, Esq rs , of Severall Messuages 
and Hereditaments in y Parish of S l James's and S 1 
Martins in y c Fields, haben'd for 29 years, from 14 th 
Feb'y, 1693, under y c 'yearly llents of 11. 16,*. IQd. and 
51., and this contains a further lease to S r Thorn 5 Clergys 
and Henry Guy, in considera'on of 2,4QSl. 6s. to be p d 
into y e Excheq r , of severall pieces and parcells of Land, 
])art of y e Premisses before Demised to Edward Dazell, 
Haben'd for 99 years, 14 1 ' 1 Feb., 1722, under y e yearly 
Rents of 12^. 6*. 10d., which severall Termes of 29 and 
99 years are to be subject to Certain trusts appointed by 
y e last Will and Testam 1 of S r Will" 1 Poltney. 

A Grant unto S r Thorn 9 Clerges and Henry Guy, their 
Heirs and Assignes for ever, in considera'on of 2,498. 6.?. 
to be p a into y c Excheqr, of severall Parcells of Ground, 
Messuage?, Houses, Tenein 13 , Heredit 13 in y e Parishes of 
S l Martins in y c ffields and S l James's, except y several 
Rents reserved upon y aforegoing Leases of Parcell of 
ye Premisses, w th a proviso for them to convey Parcell 
of y c Premisses to Trustees for a bury ing-place to y e 
s d Parish of S 1 James's, and to stand seized of y c whole, 
except y c s' 1 Bur_y ing-place, in trust for y uses appointed 
to S r W m Poultney's Will under y c yearly Rent of 6.y. Sd. 

A Grant unto Henry Viscount Sidney and J no Glover 
of a Moeity of what they shall recover from y e Hudson's 
Bay Comp" of hia Maj tys Share or reserved parts of all 
prizes taken by y m and of all Fines and Forfeitures from 
persona trafficking within y Limits of their Charters yt 
have been concealed and not answer'd to his Majesty; 
this in Considera'on of their care and pains in and about 
y c same. 

May, 1694. A Release and Discharge unto Sir James 
Shaen and other ffarrners of y e Revenue in Ireland for 
seven years from Xmas, 1675, of 33,660^. 3s. 3^., due to 
his Maj'y on account of y c s d ffarm (w ch was declared in 
England 29"' Oct., 1691) in considera'on yt so much as 
shall countervail y e s d Debt is to be deducted and dia- 

count'd, to make good sev 11 allowances craved by them 
and not hitherto given. 

A Grant unto Henry de Nassau, Seign r D'auverquerq, 
his Heirs and Assignee, of y e yearly Rent of 8001. out of 
y e Revenue of y e Crow n in South Wales, and y e yearly 
Rent of 1,200^. out of y e Revenue of North Wales. 

June, 1694. A Grant unto S r Jos. Hern and others of 
y c Lycence and Authority of making farthings and half- 
pence of Copper for 7 years from Midsummer, 1694, pay- 
ing therefore to a Comptroller to be appointed by his 
Maj ty 200/. p. ami., and changing all y e Tin ffarthings 
and halfpence. 

Aug., 1694. A Grant unto Charles, Duke of S' Albans, 
and Dyana his Wife, of an Annuity of 2,OOOL per annum, 
payable as followeth, viz', 500. out of y e Revenue of 
Wales ; 5001. out of y e Profitts of y e Aliena'on Office, 
and 1,0001. more out of y e Revenue of first fruits and 
Tenths Haben'd from Midsum'er, 1694, for their lives 
and y e life of y e longer liver of them, w th a Grant of 
5001. payable immediately out of y e said Revenues. 

Aug., 1694. A Release and Discharge unto y e Heirs, 
Executors, and Administrators of J no Bence and S r 
Alexander Bence, Dece'd, off and from all Debts, Ac- 
tions, Seizure?, Process and demands, w l soever for or 
upon accot of y e s d S 1 ' Alexander Bence and John Bence, 
being ffarmers of y c Revenue in Ireland. 

Oc be '1694. A Grant unto y c Lord Keeper of y e Great 
Seal, Lord President of y e Council!, and sev 11 others, 
their Heirs and At-signes for ever of a Parcell of Ground 
at Greenwich and y c Capital Messuage called y e Palace 
of Greenwich standing thereupon, and other Edifices 
and Buildings there for y e Benefitt of y c Hospital to be 
erected at Greenwich. 

Jan., 1694, A Grant unto George Lord Carteret and 
his Heirs of License to convey sev 11 Fees and Mannors 
w th their Appartenances in y e Isle of Jersey, in Severall 
parts arid Proportions, unto Geo. Bodynal, Philip 
Durrell, and others, their respective Assignes, to be 
holden of his Majesty under y e same tenures, rents, and 
services as the same are held before this Grant and 
under a restraint not to alien y e Premisses or any part 
thereof without License. 

A Discharge unto Geo. Booth, E?q v of y e yearly Rent 
of 1851. 15<. 5%d., reserved upon a Grant lately made to 
him of y c Manner of Westham, in y e County of Esssx. 

A Grant unto Geo. Bradbury and Geo. Lovvin, Gent., 
their Heirs and Assignes for ever, of y e Reversion expec- 
tant upon a term of 99 years, to commence from Lady 
Day, 1695, granted by King Charles ye 2 d to Charles, 
Earle of Midd'x, of severall Tenements and Grounds 
thereunto belonging in y e Strand, at y yearly Rent of 
24J. 10s. id., w'li a Grant of y e s d yearly Rent and Re- 
serva'on of 13s. and id. per annum only for y e same. 

Feb'y 1694. A Grant unto Martha Jackson of 
4,524J. 16s. 1^., part of 10,164*. 16s. Ud. received from 
y e Dutys upon Barrillos, smalts, and pott ashes from y 8 
fifth of No be * 1688, to Xmas, 1694, w ch were alledged to 
belong to his Maj'^, notwithstanding y e Grant of y e s d 
Dutys made by King Charles y e 2 (l to y e Earle of Kinnoul 
and y e title of y say d Jackson derived from thence, y 9 
other part being deducted for a reserv d Rent of 940. 
per annum, w ch had been satisfied to y e said Earles Exe- 

March, 1694. A Grant to y e Treasurer of y e Hospital 
to be founded at Greenwich of 2,000. per ann out of y e 
Excheq r towards y c building, perfecting, and endowing 
y e said Hospital w th a Sallary of 2001. per ann. to y e said 
Treasurer, to be retained out of y e Moneys w ch he shall 
receive for y e Benefitt of y e s d Hospital. 

A Grant and Demise unto Richard, Earl of Rivers, of 
y 9 Lordship and Manner of Higham fferers, with its 
apparteuances, in y County of North'ton, for 99 years 

6'h s. XL JAN. 3, '85.] 


from y e Death of Queen Dowager, concurrent w th such 
termes as her s rt Majesty or her Trustees grant therein 
nnd under y e yearly Rent of 40*. 

A Grant unto Henry, Earle of Romney, and J no Glover 
of a Moeity of w l they shall recover of his Maj'y part of 
all prizes since his accession to y e Crown carryed into 
any his Golonys or Planta'ons in America, or into any 
Ports or Places in Italy, and there concealed. 

A Grant unto Mary Calf, her Heirs and Assignee, in 
considera'on of ISO/. p d into y e Excheq r , of 250 cartloads 
of charcoal and 30 loards [sic~\ of Wood w ch were reserved 
upon former Grants of y e fforest of S l Leonards, in 
y e County of Sussex, from y c Crow n for y e use of Iron 
Mills there, under y e yearly Rent of 36. 13s. 4d., with 
w ch Rent y e said Mary Calf doth charge y e s d fforest for 

Aprill, 1695. A Discharge to y e Heirs, Executors, Ad- 
min 1 ' 8 , and Assignes of S r Tho g Duppe and y e late Bishop 
of Oxon of 655. 11*. 8d., due to his Majesty for tenths 
within y e Diocess of Oxford, whereof S r Thorn 8 was Re- 
ceiver for y e year ended at Xmas, 1687. This in con- 
sideru'on of severall Assignem ts made by y c Executors of 
y e s d S r Thorn 8 to his Map. 

Ap., 1695. A Grant and Demise unto Thorn 8 Preston, 
Esq r in Considera'on of 300Z. p d into ye Excheq r of 
y e scite of y e late dissolved Monastery of ffarness, Com. 
Lancaster, for a further term of 15 years after y e Ex- 
peration of y e 21 years lately granted to him, and under 
y e same Rents and Covenants as in y e former Grant. 

A Grant unto Richard Newell and Geo. Davenant, at 
y c Nomina'on of Ralph Gray, Esq r in Considera'on of 
750J. p d into y Excheq r , of y e Light houses and Lights 
at Wintertonness and Orfordness haben'd for 60 years 
from y e Date, if a Grant of y e same Premisses heretofore 
made to S r Edward Turner, Knight, was then voyd, and 
if not voyd then to hold for 35 years, from y e 15 th Aprill, 
1720, under y e yearly Rent of 20J. 


(To le continued.) 

I have just seen a memoir of my late uncle 
Hablot Browne (" Phiz") in a work by Mr. D. C. 
Thomson entitled Life and Labours of Hablot 
Knight Browne, and I desire to correct several mis- 
statements therein. 

P. 17. The parish register of St. Mary's, Lam- 
beth, does not record that he was baptized at his 
father's house or that he was named "Hablob." 
It says he was baptized " Hablot " at the church on 
Dec. 21, 1815, and of course he could not have 
been baptized twice, as Mr. Thomson asserts. 

P. 18. There was no intention of naming him 
Nonas, and such an idea could hardly have been 
suggested by his brother bearing the name Octavius, 
which does not mean eighth. He certainly was not 
descended from the Brunets who came from France 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, 
nor was he of a family settled in Norfolk. His 
ancestors lived in London in the first half of the 
last century and bore the name Browne. There is 
a tradition nothing more of a male or female 
relation named Le Brun emigrating to England 
after the massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572. 
Browne's artistic talent was strictly English and 

hereditary. Far from there being nothing to account 
for its existence, his grandfather was no mean 
draftsman ; his father, though at one time a 
merchant, became a professional artist ; and his 
uncle, the Kev. John Henry Browne, Head Master 
of the Hingham Grammar School and Rector of 
Crownthorpe, not of Hingham, was of very excep- 
tional ability as a painter in oil and water colour. 
His mother's family lived at Cambridge, not at 

P. 19. It is true that he was not educated at St. 
Omer, but when a young child he livecl there some 
time with his mother. The late Mr. Elhanan Bick- 
nell possessed fourteen water-colour drawings by 
Turner; his collection, however, was chiefly famous 
for its splendid examples of Turner's works in oil, 
ten of which were sold at Christie's in May, 1863. 

P. 21. Mr. Bicknell was not " fond of dealing 
with engravings as commercial speculations," and 
on behalf of my father's family I give an absolute 
contradiction to this ungenerous slander. He was 
naturally annoyed that his brother-in-law refused 
to avail himself of the instruction in drawing which 
he over and over again offered to provide for him 
from the best teachers, and which he much needed ; 
nor is it strange that he disapproved of Browne's 
idlenesss and of his wilfully breaking his agreement 
with Finden. 

P. 32. If Browne complained in 1879 of the 
u cold-heartedness of certain rich relatives who 
declined to assist him," he did not do so justly. 
All his life he had been helped in one form or 
another in the most liberal manner, and I wish to 
believe that it was declining health and suffering, 
not pride, ingratitude, or the perverseness of his 
character, which caused him to fancy he had been 
neglected. The truth is that Hablot Browne was 
one of those men who are always being assisted, half 
against their will, but whom no amount of help 
could to use his own words keep from " being 
in a pickle." 

I think it a great pity that Mr. Thomson has 
published these details concerning Browne's do- 
mestic life. If they were correct they would 
not affect his position as a man of genius, nor 
in any way concern the public ; but being wholly 
incorrect, they not only give pain to many, but 
challenge unpleasant disclosures. 


Reform Club. 

EUPHUISM. The following passage from an old 
commentary on four verses of Genesis contains a 
stronger denunciation of the affected speech and 
manners of Queen Elizabeth's time than is usually 
to be found : 

"Hee returned more deformed then reformed 

as manie of our countrimen haue doone from the other 
side of the sea, feeding vaine mens fantasies with Italian 
graces, Spanish fashions, and french courtesies, and yerie 
seru'ceable in speach, A Voslre commandemente Monsieur : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. xi. JAN. 3, '85. 

& are therefore become a by-word vnto the worlde to bee 
called Deuils incarnate."- John Overtoil's Jacobs Trouble- 
tome lourney (Oxf., 1586, 12mo.), p. 8. 

r AMA. 


HERALDIC ANOMALIES. Owing to an accidental 
circumstance I have only recently seen the Church 
Times of November 7, and now that I observe 
a recrudescence of proposals to present a coroneted 
mitre to the Archbishop of Canterbury, I wish to 
remind your- readers that in the correspondence 
some time ago it was shown: (1) That not even the 
bishops of Durham wore coroneted mitres, and 
that such mitres were only used on their official 
seals in Chancery, not ecclesiastically. Bishop 
Trevor appears on his "great seal" in 1752 on 
horseback, in full suit of armour and coroneted 
helmet with plume?, brandishing a sword ; but we 
are not to suppose he was ever seen thus equipped, 
either in or out of church, any more than in a 
coroneted mitre. (2) That the coroneted mitre 
with archbishops' arms, &c., is only a last-century 
blunder and innovation. (3) That the coronet 
which encircled the representations of the mitres 
and helmets of the bishops of Durham in their 
secular capacity was not " ducal," but only some- 
times so called inaccurately. (4) That the arch- 
bishops' cross is not instead of the crosier or crook, 
but a processional cross, first assigned to all arch- 
bishops in the thirteenth century, as was the pall 
in the eleventh. (5) That for our archbishops to 
use processional crosses when and as they ought 
to use crosiers, or, still more, for them to wear palls, 
which distinctions were conferred by the Pope 
alone, or coroneted mitres, which have never been 
worn by any one, would most surely and rightly 
excite the ridicule of Roman Catholics and of 
archaeologists. However, I think that the com- 
mon sense of the one primate and the Pro- 
testantism of the other will preserve us from this 
so long as they two shall live. J. T, F. 

JOHNNY CRAPAUD. This, as we all know, was 
the common name given to the French during 
the last war by our sailors, in allusion, I suppose, 
to the fact then a reproach that frogs were a 
favourite dish in France. Crapaud, however, 
means toad. It is curious that Crapaud Franchos 
was applied to the French by the Flemings some 
centuries before, when the arms of France were 
toads (Millington's Heraldry}. " Toads, crescents, 
and spear-heads all in turn formed the original 
arms of Clovis, until replaced by the three angelic 
fleurs-de-lis, which have since been borne by all 
French kings, thus aptly contrasting the sable 
errors of paganism with the spotless purity of 
Christianity, for toads go without the praise of God 
and his blessing (Wisdom xx. 19)." Gwillim, on 
the other hand, observes that toads do communicate 
this natural property, that when they sit, they 

hold their heads steady and without motion, which 
stately action Spenser, in his Shepherd's Calendar, 
calls "the lording of frogs." The Cornish family 
of Botreux exchanged an honourable ordinary for 
a coat of toads, simply because the word botru in 
Cornish signifies a toad. EDWARD MALAN. 

talion of the Black Watch or Royal Highlanders 
was raised in 1780; it became the 73rd Regiment 
in 1786, and in 1809 its Highland dress was 
discarded. In 1882 it again became the second 
battalion of the Black Watch and resumed the 
kilt. The coincidence to be noticed here is_ that it 
was exactly for seventy- three years (the regimental 
numerals) deprived of the distinctive dress of 
Highlanders. The second coincidence is more re- 
markable. When this regiment paraded for the 
last time as the 73rd before the new territorial 
scheme came into operation, and before it became 
once again the second battalion of the Royal 
Highlanders, the Roman numerals LXXIII. on its 
regimental colour were blown away by the wind. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC PEERS. It is worth noting 
that William Joseph, thirteenth Baron Petre, who 
took his seat in the House of Lords on Nov. 3, 
1884, is the first Roman Catholic priest who has 
sat in Parliament since the Reformation. 

G. F. R. B. 

To VESTRIFY. In the debate in the House of 
Commons on the Redistribution of Seats Bill, 
Dec. 4, 1884, Mr. Chaplin said it would " tend to 
vestrify the House of Commons." Here is a new 
word for Dr. Murray. JAY DEE. 

" STAFF OF LIFE" INN. An inn sign not men- 
tioned in Hotten's History of Signboards is "The 
Staff of Life." It is to be found at Sutton, Notting- 
hamshire. CDTHBKRT BEDE. 

of the Times, writing from China, says that the 
British residents in that country, whilst they 
admire the Prime Minister, " no more understand 
him than if he was Hercules." Considering the 
relation in which Mr. Gladstone stands to Egypt, 
it is worthy of note that the name of the Egyptian 
Hercules was "Gorn" = "G. 0. M." = " Grand 

Hale Crescent, Farnham. 

PLACE - APPELLATIONS. A collection of the 
names applied to inhabitants of various places 
would prove of interest. I should be glad to know 
what (if any) rules govern the formation of these 
names, and why, for instance, we speak of a 
Londoner and a Brightonian, when both of the 
names, London and Brighton, end in on. In some 
cases L'Uinized names are used, and we find the 

6"- S. XI. JAN. 3, '85.] 


people of Newcastle styling themselves Novo- 
castrians. The inhabitants of Liverpool are Liver- 
pudlians ; Stornoway, Stornowegians ; York, 
Yorkers ; Oxford, Oxonians ; Cheltenham, Chel- 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

What is the true story of the sale of the pictures 
of " The Marriage a la Mode " to Mr. Lane, of 
Hillingdon, in June, 1750? That generally re- 
ceived was first told by Nichols in 1782, and was 
repeated by him in the edition of 1785, quoted by 
John Ireland in 1791, and again repeated, with 
additions, by Nichols and Steevens in 1808, and by 
nearly every writer since, down to the perhaps 

Greatest living authority on Hogarth, Mr. F. G-. 
tephens, in the Catalogue of Prints and Draw- 
ings in the British Museum, and the work of Mr. 
Austin Dobson, a microcosm of accuracy and 
minute research. 

This story is received as the one communicated 
by Mr. Lane to Nichols, to correct alleged errors 
in the latter's first edition, in 1781. After ex- 
plaining the peculiar mode of auction adopted by 
Hogarth the biddings by letter, the highest bid 
being 120/., and that Mr. Lane, the only bidder 
who attended the sale, "made the pounds guineas" 
a "scene of disturbance" is described, in which 
Dr. Parsons upbraids Hogarth for fixing the auction 
at too early an hour (noon) for the habits of the 
town, and Hogarth replies, "in a tone which could 
not but be observed, ' Perhaps it may be so.' " Then 
" Mr. Lane, after a short pause, declared himself to 
be of the same opinion, adding that the artist was 
very poorly rewarded for his lahour, and if he thought 
it would be of serrice to him, he would give him till 
three o'clock to find a better purchaser. Hogarth 
warmly accepted the offer, and expressed his acknow- 
ledgments for the kindness in the strongest terms. The 
proposal likewise received great encomiums from the 
Doctor (Parsons), who proposed to make it public. This 
was peremptorily forbidden by Mr. Lane, whose con- 
cession in favour of our artist was remembered by him 
to the time of his death." 

Nichols then adds on his own account, " The 
memory of this occurrence ought always to attend 
the work which afforded Mr. Lane an opportunity 
of displaying so much disinterested generosity." 

Such is the almost universally accepted version 
of this celebrated purchase, and the clear inference 
is that his own delicacy of feeling alone prevented 
Mr. Lane's generous conduct becoming known 
until he communicated it to Nichols thirty-two 
years afterwards, and eighteen years after Hogarth's 

Allan Cunningham, however, tells the same 
story in a very different way, and prints what 
purports to be a letter from Mr. Lane, which con- 
tains this passage : 

" I concurred in the same opinion, said he (Hogarth) 
was poorly rewarded for his labour, and if he chose 
might have till three o'clock to find a better bidder. 
Hogarth warmly accepted the offer, and Dr. Parsons 
proposed to make it public. 1 thought this unfair, and 
forbade it." 

If Mr. Lane only extended the time for rival 
bidding to his own on the condition that no steps 
should be taken to apprise competitors, his " dis- 
interested generosity " to Hogarth was not over- 
whelming ; for Lane was offered 200Z. for his pur- 
chase by a stranger a day or two afterwards, he 
refused three hundred guineas later, and the last 
time he ever saw Hogarth the artist was com- 
missioned by a friend to ask " the fortunate pur- 
chaser" to set his own price upon the pictures 
and he should have it. Still, as Nichols does not 
quote the actual words of a letter from Lane, 
and Allan Cunningham does, it seems pos- 
sible that the well-worn story of Lane's magna- 
nimity and Hogarth's lifelong gratitude may be 
susceptible of correction. 

It is true that Mr. Sala, in his admirable Essays 
on Hogarth, speaks of Allan Cunningham having 
given " a lively, agreeable adaptation of all who 
have come before him "; but it is difficult to believe 
that " adaptation " would extend to transcribing 
between inverted commas, and in the first person, 
an original communication only published by its 
recipient in the third person, or to giving a dis- 
paraging significance to an important passage by 
the interpolation of entirely new words. 

Can any of your readers tell me if the letter as 
given by Cunningham, and transcribed from him 
verbatim by Mrs. Oliphant in her Historical 
Sketches of the Reign of George 7Z, is in existence, 
or if it appeared in any work on Hogarth before th 
publication of British Painters, in 1830? 


23, Great George Street, Westminster. 

time since I sent you a note on the subject of the 
oldest existing incorporated company. I do not 
remember whether any replies came ; certainly 
the subject was far from exhausted. I have 
lately come upon an instance of a very remarkable 
character. In 1215 King John, by charter granted 
to the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, constituted 
therein a Society of Free Merchants, which became, 
by virtue of a later charter of Edward VI., in 1547, 
" The Governor, Assistants, Wardens, and Fellow- 
ship of Merchant Adventurers of the Town and 
County of Newcastle-upon-Tyne," and this re- 
mains its present corporate title. Before this event 
it had once assumed the title of "Merchant 
Venturers in the Ports of Brabant, beyond the 



[6th S. XL JAN. 3, '85. 

Seas." Later it became the " Merchant Ad- 
venturers of England," and for a time it joined 
operations with, or became known as, the " Russian 
Company and Eastland Company of Merchants "; 
while in the sixteenth century it seems to have 
been known as the "Newcastle Merchants to 
Zealand." How far these varying changes were 
within the law it is not necessary now to discuss. 
The corporation appears to have been one and the 
same all through, and still, after six and a half 
centuries of existence, flourishes. In 1823 its old 
hall or court was demolished and a new one erected. 
Is there an older corporation ? 

Belsize Park Gardens. 

SARAH BOOTH. The once famous Sally Booth 
died Dec. 14, 1867, aged, is is said, seventy-five, 
but query seventy-four ? Is it known when she 
last acted, or when she quitted the stage ? 

H. T. 

Illustrated Itinerary of the County of Cornwall 
the following passage occurs : " Of Hebrew words, 
proving an intercourse with the Jews, there are 
names of places strikingly in point Paranzabulon, 
Phillack, Menachan, Zephni, Bonithon, and Mara- 
zion." Is there any justification for including 
Bouython amongst these names ? DR. CHARNOCK', 
in a letter to <; N. & Q.," mentioned Bonthron as 
a form of Boujthon. I have never met with it, 
and I notice that Dr. Bannister (Glossary of Cornish 
Names) includes Bonthron amongst the names 
which he could not find in or connected with 
Cornwall. Is not Bonthron Scotch ? 


Adelaide, South Australia. 

HERALDIC. Can any reader of "N. & Q." 
inform me to what family the following arms 
belong ? Or, on a fesse wavy vert, inter three stags 
at speed, as many pheons arg.; on a chief azure 
three escallops of the third ; a three-pointed label 
for difference. They appear on a book-plate which 
is pasted in a book bearing the title of Christ's 
Passion, a Tragedy with Annotations, by George 
Sandys, printed by J. E. for T. Basset, in Fleet 
Street, 1G87. I should be glad to know whether 
this book is rare. W. A. WELLS. 

ASAPH AND OF ELY. I shall be much obliged if 
any of your readers can give me the names of the 
parents of this well-known prelate, and state what 
property he had in Lancashire. In the folio 
edition of his works published in 1737 it is stated 
that he " was born in the Tower of London, on 
New Year's Day, 1656, descended from an ancient 
family in Lancashire, where he had an estate, now 
in the possession of his son." He was educated at 
Eton School and went thence to King's College 

Cambridge, in 1675, where he became Fellow. 
He died in 1723, and was buried in Ely Cathedral. 
Whom did he marry, and what issue did he leave ? 

J. P. E. 

MONOSYLLABIC LETTER. Will any of your 
readers inform me the date of the appearance in 
the St. James's Gazette of a letter designed to 
show how much may be done by the use of mono- 
syllables alone? I think it appeared some time 

Arts Club, Hanover Square. 

EXON. I want to know the derivation of exon, 
a title applied to certain officers of the Yeomen of 
the Guard. You or one of your correspondents 
may be able to tell me. TJ. C. 

[Is it not an abbreviation of cxonerarius, one relieved 
from a burden of active service, and put in a position of 
dignity and comparative ease 1] 

II. i. "Fag. 0, sir, recruit will do surprisingly; 
indeed, to give the thing an air, I told Thomas 
that your honour had already inlisted five 
disbanded chairmen, seven minority waiters, and 
thirteen billiard markers." I presume " chairmen" 
were the men who carried the sedan chairs. I 
understand the wheeled Bath chair is an invention 
of later times (early nineteenth century). What 
are " minority waiters " ? H. DRYDEN. 

LAST KING OF DELHI. Thanks for your atten- 
tion to my query in your "Notices to Correspond- 
ents " (6 th S. x. 460), but Shah Aulum was not 
King of Delhi at the Mutiny in 1856. I shall be 
glad of further information. C. J. MULLER. 

DR. JOSIAH WOODWARD, D.D., Letters of, to 
Lady Archer, of Coopersale, in Essex, in 1682. 
Upwards of forty of his letters to this lady were 
sold by public auction by Messrs. Puttick & Simp- 
son on June 7, 1852, to a Mr. Clarke, whose 

Christian name and address they do not know. 
Can any of your readers inform me, also, where are 
these letters now, as I am desirous of inspecting 
them for a literary purpose ? C. MASON. 

29, Emperor's Gate. 

DR. JOHNSON'S RED INK:. In Bos well's Life 
of Dr. Johnson (Blackwood's ed., p. 243), under 
the year 1775, the following passage occurs : 

"He revised some sheets of Lord Hailes's Annals of 
Scotland, and wrote a few notes in the margin in red ink, 
which he bade me tell his lordship did not sink into the 
paper, and might he wiped off with a wet sponge, so that 
he did not spoil his manuscript." 

Can such ink be purchased now? and, if so, 
where? Can any of your readers furnish the 
recipe for its manufacture ? F. H. V. 

13, Doughty Street. 

WINSPEARE FAMILY. (See 2 nd S. xii. 327, 483.) 
Wanted information concerning a family of the 

S. XI. JAN. 3, '85.] 



above name hailing from co. Warwick, said to 
have emigrated with the Stuart family. If ANON. 
ever obtained any further information than ap- 
peared at the last of the two references above, will 
he kindly let me have the benefit of it ? 


SIR ROBERT JACKSON, KNT. The query which 
I addressed to your columns concerning Sir Peter 
Jackson, Knt., met with so favourable a reception, 
that I now venture to appeal for information about 
another knight of the same surname, who is men 
tioned in the following epitaph, recorded by Gent 
in his History of JKippon, and then (1733) in 
existence at Nun Appleton, York : 

"Here lieth the Body of George Payler, Esq., bus 
band to the Lady Maria Carey, d. & b. to Sir Robert 
Jackson, knight, and the lady Margaret bis wife, 
Relict to Sir Pelham Carey, second son to the Earl of 
Dover, by whom he had issue Five sons and two daugh- 
ters. His eldest son George is buried at Berwick. His 
eldest daughter, Maria, with Samuel, Robert, and Pere- 
grine her brothers, are all buried in our Tomb, in the 
Church of the Tower of London : Himself deceased 
31 Oct., 1678, aged 71 years and 5 months, is buried in 
thia Vault, with his youngest daughter Mrs. Bethia 
Darcie and bis youngest son Nathaniel Payler, Esq. And 
in this Vault also lieth the Body of the Lady Maria 
Carey, deceased 9th March, 1679," &c. 


BURE HOMAGE. In the neighbourhood of the 
New Forest, Hants, there are a gentleman's seat 
and small estate which bear the above singular 
name. I have asked two or three different friends, 
but can get no trustworthy information as to its 
meaning or origin. Can any reader kindly explain ? 

H. Y. P. 

CROIZNOIRES. Can any of your correspondents 
kindly tell me if there were such days as " Black- 
cross days " in England, such as are mentioned in 
Goinville's Saint Louis (p. 22 in Michel's edition, 
published by Firmin-Didot) 1 They occurred on 
St. Mark's Day, and, as the chronicler tells us, it 
was the custom to carry crosses in processions. 

TITLE OF NOVEL. Can you give me the name 
of a _ novel, published from fifteen to twenty years 
ago, in which the heroine became Lady Mayoress 
of London ? The hero was a civil engineer, who 
drove a railway engine in, or rather through, a 
collision. C. HEATH. 

POEM WANTED. May I ask your help in finding 
the source of a poem or passage in which the word 
beautiful frequently recurs, and is applied in turn 
to several of the members of the body in the same 
sense as it is used in the Bible in " How beautiful 
upon the mountains are the feet"? &c. 


Life in London, vol. ii, p. 78, Mr. Froude says, 

" Had Carlyle turned his mind to it, he would 
have been a great philologist." In support of this 
he quotes a note of Carlyle's on the use in English 
of the present participle as a substantive, instead 
of the infinitive used in other languages: " Build- 
ing is good. Batirestbon. -^Edificare bonum est. 
Bauen ist gut." The reason, he says, is this : 
"All infinitives ended in en; our beautiful Lindley 
Murray, alarmed at a pronunciation like ' buildin,' 
stuck a g to the end of it; and so here we are, with 
one of the most perfect solecisms in our mouths 
a participle where a participle cannot be. " May 
I ask your learned philological readers if this 
wonderful specimen of philology is correct ? 

A. R. F. 

MOUNT NOD. Can you help me, through any 
of your correspondents, to explain the name of 
Mount Nod ? There is a road and farm of that 
name at Streatham ; and here in Clapham we 
have the thing itself still existing, in the shape of 
a mound of considerable size in No. 17, The Cedars, 
garden, and I find in old deeds, over one hundred 
years old, that this part of the world was called 
Mount Nod Fields, which would seem to imply 
an important position and character for the mount, 
and not a mere garden erection for pleasure pur- 
poses, as has been supposed. Tradition here seems 
to make it a Roman tumulus, and about twenty 
years ago an attempt was made to explore it, with- 
out much success, and we are thinking of digging 
again; but before doing so I should be glad if you 
can throw any light upon it. I may mention that 
the Huguenot burial ground at Wandsworth has 
often the name of Mount Nod Cemetery, which, 
without doubt, must be connected with our mount, 
being, no doubt, formerly in the same line of fields. 

Would you kindly tell me the meaning, in your 
valuable paper, of King Arthur's sword " Exca- 
libur"; " Pendragon," his helmet; "Ron," his 
broad lance ; " Priven," his shield ? I have 
looked over every book of Arthurian legend or 
poems that I have met with unsuccessfully; the 
words occur without meaning being given them. 
You will greatly oblige me if you can give me the 
information I much need. 



["Pendragon," generally supposed to mean chief 
dragon, is discussed 4 th S. i. 413.] 

ST. DEVENICK. There is at present a ship 
lying in our repairing dock here called the St. 
Devenick. Neither I nor any of my friends have 
been able to find out who this person is or where 
the place, if it be a place, is situated. Perhaps 
you will kindly ask the question in your valuable 
paper. W. U. B. 




[6th S. XI. JAN. 3, '85. 

(6 th S. x. 449.) 

Win. Lyndwood, buried, 1446, in St. Stephen's 
Chapel, Westminster. In January, 1852, his 
supposed remains were removed from the crypt of 
St. Stephen's, and were buried in the north cloister 
of the Abbey on March 6 following (Willis's St. 
David's, 112; Col Chester's Meg. Westminster; 
Stanley, Mem. Westminster. Portrait, J. K. 
Smith's Catalogue, 1875). 

John Langton, " consecrated in King's College 
Chapel in Cambridge, May 7, 1447, and died 
within fifteen days after consecration, and buried, 
as I suppose, at Cambridge " (Willis's St. David's, 

Thomas Langton, died 1501, buried in the 
cathedral of Winchester, near the tomb and 
shrine of St. Swithin, in the chantry he built at 
the east end, still culled after him, under an altar- 
tomb which is stripped of every brass or other 
ornament for which money could be obtained 
(Cassan's Bishops of Sarum, 265 ; Milner's Win- 
chester, ii. 63 ; Le Neve's Fasti, 286). 

Richard Foxe, died 1528, buried in a chapel he 
had erected at Winchester. There is no inscrip- 
tion to his memory. The chapel is immediately 
behind the high altar on the south side. For 
description and view see Winkle's Cathedrals, i. 
138; Cassan's Winchester, i. 322 ; Hutchinson's 
Durham, i. 377; Granger, Biog. Hist. Eny., i. 
09) Portrait in Fiddes's Life of Wolsey by Vertue, 
others by Glover, Sturt, Faber, and in Hutchin- 
son's Durham. 

Roger Laybourne, " By his will dated July 17, 
1507, he desired to be buried in the parish church 
of St. James, near to Charing Cross, by London" 
(Wood, Ath. Oxon., i. 562). 

William Smith, buried in a stone coffin on the 
south side of the nave of Lincoln at the west end 
of Bishop Gynwell's grave. No tomb was erected 
over him, but a marble gravestone richly adorned 
with brass, bearing an inscription which was 
fortunately secured by Dugdale just before the 
destruction of the brass. At the head : 

"Sub marmore isto tenet hie Tumulus ossa Venera- 
bills in Christo Patris et Domini Domini Willielmi Smyth 
quondam Coventriensia et Licbneldien^is ct deinde Lin- 
colniensia Preaulia qui obiit secundo die mensis Januarii 
Anno Domini Milleaimo quingentesimo tertio cujus 
animae propitietur Deu?. Qui pius et rnisericora, et in 
die tribulationia misericors peccata reinittit. Eccle- 
eiaatici, ii do ." 

At the foot : 

"Cestrensis Presul post Lincolniensis ; amator 
Cleri, nam multoa cis mare trans-que aluit : 

Quique utriusque fuit Praefectua Prmcipis Aulae, 
Fundavitque duas perpetuando Scolas. 

Aulaque sumptu hujua renovata eat Enea. Cribte 
Hie situs est, aniinae parce benigne auss." 

On the original stone is now engraved, "D s . D 8 . 
W. Smyth, Episcopus, ob: Jan. 2 do , 1513 lis . Si 
plura velis, Lector, adi vicinum marmor," alluding 
to a mural monument of white marble near the 
great west door, erected by Dr. Cawley in 1775 
(Churton's Life of Smyth ; Le Neve's Fast i ; 
Wood, Ath. Oxon'; Granger, Biog. Hist, i. 76). 
Portraits and bust in the hall of Brasenose Col- 
lege. Engraved in Churton's Life, 4to., mezzotint, 
by J. Faber, also by Ackermano, Nugent, and 

Nicholas Eidley, burnt Oct. 16, 1555, at Oxford. 
Portrait by Van der Werff in Biog. Evangelica, 
others by Marshall, White, Houston, Lodge, and 

Richard Cheyney, buried in Gloucester Cathe- 
dral, near Abbot Parker's monument, on the north 
of the choir, without any inscription. 

John Younge, buried in the church of Bromley, 
in Kent, May 14, 1605. Wood says that "Soon 
after a comely monument was put over his grave, 
with an inscription thereon, wherein 'tis said, that 
he was c non minus varia doctrina, et prudentia, 
quam vitse sanctimonia clarus,' &c." (Wood, Ath. 
Oxon., 591 ; Le Neve, Fasti, 251). 

Lancelot Andrewes, buried in the upper aisle of 
the parish church of St. Saviour in Southwark. 
A monument of marble and alabaster was erected, 
with the following inscription in Roman capitals : 

"Lector, Si Christianus es, siste : moras pretium erit, 
non nescire te, qui vir hie situs sit. Ejusdem tecum 
Catholicae Ecclesias membrum, sub eadem fclicis re- 
surrectionis spe, eandem D. Jesu prsestolans Epipha- 
mam, sacratissimus antistes, Lancelotus Andrewes, 
Londini oriuridua, educatus Cantabrigiae Aulae Pein- 
broch : Alumnorum, sociorum, praefectorum unus, et 
nemini secundus. Linguarum, artiurn, scientiarum, 
bumanorum, divinorum omnium inh'nitus thesaurus, 
stuperidum oraculum ; crthodoxse Christ! eccles ; ae 
dictit?, scriptis, precibua, exemplo, incornparabile pro- 
pagraculum: Reginae Elizabethae a sacria, D. Pauli 
L mdini residentiarius, D. Petri Westmonast. Decanu, 
Epi-copus Cicestrensi--, Eliengis, Wintoniensis, llegique 
Jacobo turn ab eleemosyriis, turn ab utriusque regni 
consiliis, decanus denique Sacelli regii. Idem ex in- 
defessa opera in studiis, summa sapientia in rebus, assidua 
pietate in Deum, profusa largitate in egenos, rara 
amaenitate in suos, spectata probitate in omnes, aeternum 
admirandus : annorum pariter, et publicae famae satur, 
sed bonorum pas-im omnium curn luctu denatus, casleba 
bine migravit ad aureolam coelestem anno regia Caroli 
11 aetatis suae LXXI Christo MDCXXVI. Tantum eat, 
lector, quod te maerentea poster! nunc volebant, atque 
ut ex voto tuo valeas dicto Sit Deo Gloria." 

During the progress of repairs in the month of 
July, 1830, the remains of Bishop Andrewes were 
discovered in a state of great preservation, in a 
leaden coffin, walled up with bricks, within his 
monument in Bishop's Chapel. Portraits by J. 
Payne in Exposition of the Ten Commandments, 
R. White, Vaughan, Hollar, Vertue, S. Pass, and 

Thomas Dove, died Aug. 30, 1630. Buried in 
the north aisle of Peterborough Cathedral. Over 

S. XI. JAN. 3, '85.] 



his grave a monument was erected with a large 
inscription thereon, but destroyed in 1643. 

Roger Dod, died July 26, 1608, at Ardbraccan, 
and is buried in that church (Sir James Ware, 
Commentary on the Prelates of Ireland). 

Randolph Barlow, died at Tuam, Feb. 22, 1637, 
and was there buried in the cathedral church of 
St. Mary (Sir James Ware, Commentary on the 
Prelates of Ireland). 

George Coke, died Dec. 10, 1646 ; buried in 
Hereford Cathedral, " where there is a long, 
obscure, and almost unintelligible epitaph to his 
memory" (Biog. Brit., 676 ; Walker's Sufferings, 
34 ; Le Neve, Fasti). 

Theophilus Field, died June 2, 1636 ; buried in 
Hereford Cathedral, where is his bust on the north 
of the shrine of Bishop Cantilupe, in the eastern 
aisle of the north wing of the transept (Wood, Ath. 
Oxon., 783 ; Le Neve, Fasti, 112). 

Ralph Brownrigg, buried in the Temple Church, 
Dec. 17, 1659. The following epitaph was in- 
scribed by Dr. Gauden : 

"Sumptibus et auspiciis Honorab. Societat. Templi 
Subtus positae aunt Reliquiae Radolfi 
Brownrici S.T.D. Cant, reverendiss. Bpisc. 
Exon. quern honorem optime meruit, et per 
Annos xix tenuit, malo tamen seculi fato, 
bellis, schismatibus, sacrilegiis et Regicidiis fero- 
sciente, nunquam exercuit. Tandem anno 
letatis LXVII, Provinciam terrestrem nondum 
visam deserens. ad ccelestem migravit, 
serss Christi MDCLIX illuscescente CAR. ii dl 
faelicissimo redditu L.M.P.I.G. Episc. 
Exon. Electus." 

(Wood, Ath. Oxon., 863; Oliver's Bishops of 
Exeter, 148 ; Walker's Sufferings, 23 ; Le Neve, 
Fasti, 84 ; Granger, Biog. Eist. England.) Por- 
trait by Faithorne as frontispiece to his sixty -five 
sermons ; another without engraver's name. 

Edward Story (in " N. & Q.," 6 th S. x. 449, 
misprinted " Stone "), buried in Chichester Cathe- 
dral on the north side of the south aisle of the 
choir, immediately behind the high altar (Winkle's 
Cathedrals, iii. 92 ; see plan). 

John Christopherson, buried Dec. 28, 1558, in 
Christ Church, London (Strype, Annals R?f., i. 
32 ; Stephens's Mem. Chichester ; Le Neve, Fasti). 

Anthony Watson, buried Oct. 3, 1605, at Cheam, 
in Surrey, of which church he was rector. 


Clayton Hall, Manchester. 

467). A reply was given to a portion of DEAN 
PLUMPTRE'S query in the Guardian of Decem- 
ber 10, which accounts for the story of the Monk 
and the Bird, and also for the statement respect- 
ing the authority relied upon by Bowles. I will 
not, therefore, repeat these; but in reference to the 
ordination of clergy during the Commonwealth 
I will add the instance of Bishop Bull's ordination 

by Bishop Skinner under exceptional circumstances, 
which is related in the Life of Bull by Robert 
Nelson, p. 25, Lond., 1714: 

"He applied himself to Bishop Skinner, the ejected 
Bishop of Oxford, by whom he was ordained Deacon and 
Priest in one day. This suffering prelate hail the courage, 
even in these times of usurpation, to send many labourers 
into the Lord's vineyard, according to the Liturgy of the 
Church of England, when the exercising this power was 
made penal." 

The clause in BUbop Skinner's epitaph which is 
recorded by Wood (Ath. Oxm. t t. ii. col. 673, Lond. 
1692), and which was placed in his cathedral at Wor- 
cester, may also be cited in illustration of such a 
practice. Upon noting his death it is: " Postquam 
Presbyteris Sanciendis assuetam dextram. suffici- 
endis Praesulibus mutuam dedisset," &c. The 
conferring holy orders both during the time of 
the usurpation and after the Restoration was 
eminently a part of Bishop Skinner's work for the 

As regards this, and also his practice as to con- 
firmation, which DEAN PLUMPTRE further mentions, 
Bishop Skinner's justificatory letter to the Bishop 
of London, preserved in Bodley (Tanner MS., 
vol. xlviii. fol. 25), should be consulted. Possibly 
DEAN PLUMPTRE may not have seen the recent 
privately printed translations of the Morning, 
Evening, and Midnight Hymns (Oxon., anon., but 
by Rev. W. J. Copeland, of Farnham), of which the 
first stanzas are: 

" Surge, anima, soils semula 

Diurnum obire circulum; 

Pigrum veturnum discute, 

Fer mane laudis hostiam. 

* # * 

Jam nocte laudo Te, Deus, 
Patrem benignum lurninum; 
Me protege, O Altissime, 
Almis sub alls* protege. 

* * * 

Somno, Deus, nunc excituin 
Tu rite solus suscipe, 
Ne noctis illudat pavor, 
Sordesve pectus inquinent." 

I will also venture to mention, on the chance of 
its being unknown, a selection from Ken's poems, 
in two parts, with life by J. R., printed by Combe, 
Leicester, and sold by Hamilton, Adams & Co., 
n.d., but my copy was acquired in 1837. It is 
a neat, small edition. 

I presume it is unnecessary to specify the article 
in No. Ixiii. of the Quarterly Review containing 
a criticism on Ken's poems, or the notice in 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. The Reports of the Historical 
MSS. Commission contain numerous references to 
Bishop Ken. Report ii., p. 10, mentions a letter 
of Sept. 23, 1688, preserved at Patshull. Re- 
port iii., p. 200, Ken's letters to Lord Wey mouth, 
preserved at Longleat ; conge d'elire for -Thomas 
Ken, 36 C. II., p. 363, at Wells. Report v., p. 308, 

* Sic, cor. MS. auct. pro " umbris." 



s. XL JAN. 3, 

letters preserved at Queensbury Place, Ken- 
sington; draft of petition, A.D. 1691, p. 319; copy 
of inscription for his tomb by Bp. Keu, ib. Re- 
port vii., p. 197, news letter, Lond., May, 1691, 
in the possession of the Earl of Denbigh : 

F " On croit que quelqu'un luy a fait peur sur ce qu'on 
dit que 1'ancien Eyeque, le docteur Ken, ge veut main- 
tenir dans 1'eveche centre 1'authoritie du Roy et 1'acte 
du Parlement, ayant pour cct effect assemble son clerge 
pour le faire entrer dans ses interests. Voila une marque 
qu'il a la conscience fort delicate s'il se met en train 
de Rebellion. Les Jacobites par des mains tierces 1'ani- 
ment," &c. 

June, 1691, p. 198, "sur tout le docteur Ken," &c. 
(the reference in the index to p. 218 should be to 
Mr. Ken, " un Holondois"); p. 481, letter in the 
possession of Sir H. Verney, 1683, mentions Ken 
as chaplain to Lord Dartmouth at Tangier. 


I am glad to be able to give DEAN PLUMPTRE 
the information he desires respecting the author- 
ship of Oblectamenta Pia, ab Ecdesice Catholicce 
Saardote Anachoreta. This little book of Latin 
rhyming hymns on the services and festivals of 
the Church, "in gratiam juventutis," is by Lewis 
Southcomb, Rector of Rose Ash, Devon. The first 
edition, containing only a part of the hymns, was 
printed in 1696, and published by H. Bouwicke, 
at the sign of the Red Lion, in St. Paul's Church- 
yard. Of this there is a copy among Bp. Ken's 
books in the library of the Marquis of Bath ut 
Longleat, which is no doubt the copy to which 
DEAN PLUMPTRE refers, as it contains a presenta- 
tion inscription to Ken (which I was kindly per- 
mitted to copy in 1882), addressed as to one 
" afflictissimoe matris ecclesite cru y u~aSo{Wi, Dom. 
Jesu crriy/xacrtv ornatissimo, Doctori seraphico 
angelico," and signed " Timotheus +." I believe 
that the signature simply implies that the author 
was Ken's " own son in the faith," as having been 
probably ordained by him, while the cross declares 
what the faith is. The second edition, " altero 
[sic] tauto auctior quce festa ecclesite, evangelista- 
rum et apostolorum vitas, acta, mores, refert, ex- 
plicat, applicatque," was printed at Exeter in 1716, 
and published by Philip Bishop. Of this there is 
a copy in the library of the Right Hon. Lady Rolle, 
at Bicton, Devon, which was given by the author 
(from whose inscription therein I learned his name) 
to John, the younger son of John Rolle, Esq., of 
Stevenstone, Feb. 11, 1728/9. I saw this volume 
in 1849, and was much interested by it, and for 
thirty-two years kept watch in vain over book- 
sellers' catalogues for a copy, securing one at last 
in 1881 at a sale in London of books brought from 
a seat of the late Earl of Clare, in Devonshire. 
My copy of the little book has in the inside of the 
cover the following words, "Quippe quod yueya 
pip\iov /zcya KO.KOV ait Callimachus apud 
athenaeum/' m the hand of the writer of the in- 

scription in Ken's copy. This second edition con- 
tains 138 pages of text. The author, as appears 
from Rawlinson MS. C. 735, fol. 188, is the 
"Mr. S.," a letter to whom from Kettlewell is 
printed in (Lee's) Memoirs of Keltleivell, pp. 358- 
364, and whose consequent Penitential Confession, 
Retractation, &c. t in 1693, for having taken the 
oaths, is also printed there, pp. 367-382. Of 
another small publication by him, viz., A Sermon 
Preach'd at the Funeral of the Reverend Mr. John 
Culme, by Lewis Southcomb, Rector of Rose-Ash, 
there is mention in a list of books sold by Henry 
Bonwicke, advertised at the end of Hope and 
Peace, in Two Letters, 1701. It would seem that 
he retained his living in spite of his Nonjuring 
recantation of the oaths, or else that he again re- 
canted. In the former case his retaining the living 
would probably be owing to his being both squire 
and patron of Rose- Ash, as I believe members of 
the same family are to this day. He is noticed in 
Lysons's Devonshire, p. 350. 

Of a curious and interesting little book written 
by "Lewis Southcomb, Jan.," and therefore pro- 
bably by his son, and published at Exeter in 1726, 
I also possess a copy. It is entitled, Render to 
all their Dues ; or, a Dialogue between Timotheus 
and Pleonectes concerning the Converting Tithes 
and Offerings to Secular Uses. 

Of Dr. John Fitzwilliam, the trusted friend of 
Lady Rachel Russell, about whom DEAN PLUMPTRE 
also made inquiry in the Guardian newspaper, the 
fullest account is to be found in Dr. Bloxam's 
valuable Register of St. Mary Magdalen College, 
" Demies/' vol. ii. pp. 223-9, 8vo., Oxford, 1876. 
Many volumes of Dr. Fitzwilliam's writings are 
among Rawlinson's MSS. in the Bodleian, and a 
portrait of him is preserved in the president's lodg- 
ings in Magdalen College. W. D. MACRAY. 

Ducklington Rectory, Witney. 

(6 th S. x. 350, 396,477). I have already been so 
frequently drawn into the expression of my views 
in " N. & Q." on various points connected alike 
with the Carmichaels of that ilk and with their 
successors, the Earls of Hyndford, that I was 
somewhat inclined to leave ZETA in the excellent 
hands of MR. BOYLE. There is, however, a point 
not directly touched by MR. BOYLE, and in which 
I am interested as he, of course, cannot be. At 
the back of ZETA'S query there lay the undoubted 
implication of the illegitimate origin of the Hynd- 
ford family. MR. BOYLE has amply shown, I 
conceive, how impossible it is to drag in the baton 
of the dexter supporter of that line as an argument 
for such an origin. I may, perhaps, without 
attempting any dissertation on the baton in Scot- 
tish heraldry, take this opportunity of remarking 
that in the 1878 edition of Burke's General 
Armory ZETA wouldiiaye found the baton blazoned 



not as a " baton royal," as in the older books, bu 
as a " marischal's baton"; and this latter form i 
in strict accordance with the blazon of the firs 
earl's arms on the Lyon Register. There is, there 
fore, no argument deducible from the armorial bear 
ings of the Hyndford family. It remains thatZETA 
should be in possession of some special information 
not known to Scottish genealogists. I shall be gla( 
to know the nature of this information, as it migh 
give a new direction to my own researches, and '. 
think that I have a right to ask for the ground 
on which ZETA'S implied allegation was based 
But as I do not find that ZBTA distinguishe 
between the old house of Carmichael and the new 
house of Hyndford, I venture to doubt whethei 
there is much in the background. 

I must say a word to F. C., whose communica 
tion contains a somewhat phenomenal statemeni 
of cousinship. James, first Lord Carmichael, was 
indeed though the circumstance, it has amply 
been shown, had nothing to do with the " baton" 
third cousin to James VI. The genealogists o 
the Hyndford line always make this their piece d\ 
resistance. But it is certain that the pedigree 
stated by F. C. would not have made Lord Car- 
michael the king's cousin: the consanguinity would 
have existed only in his children. As a matter 
of fact, the first lord married Agnes Wilkie, and not 
Marian Campbell of Loudoun. Marian was his 
grandmother, not his wife, and it is through this 
ancestral marriage that he derived the descent 
which F. C. proceeds to state as a descent, if such 
exists, jure uxoris. It maybe remarked, in con- 
clusion, that it was the first earl, not the first lord, 
who registered the supporters which have been the 
subject of the present discussion. The first Lord 
Carmichael was never chief of his name. He was, 
of course, entitled to supporters as a peer, but not 
to the supporters, if any, borne by his chief. 

New University Club, S.W. 

PIKELET (6 th S. x. 448). Pikelet or piclate is 
(or was in the early part of the century) a familiar 
delicacy of the midland counties. The fuller form 
bara-pyclid, as it was formerly written, shows that 
the name (together, doubtless, with the preparation 
itself) was borrowed from the Welsh. Cotgrave, 
in his French and English Dictionary, explains 
the word popelins as signifying " soft cakes made 
of fine flour, kneaded with milk, sweet butter, and 
yolks of eggs, and fashioned and buttered like our 
Welsh Barra-pydids." Bailey (1737) spells it 
bara-picklet. The first half of the word is, of 
course, the W. bara, bread. The second element 
is to be explained from the W. peillio, to searce or 
bolt flour ; whence peillied, bolted or fine flour, 
and bara-peilliaid, fine flour bread (Owen's Welsh 
and English Dictionary). The insertion of the 
k, which does not appear in the Welsh word, is in 

order to represent the aspirated sound of the 
Welsh II, which cannot be correctly conveyed to 
an English ear. It is usually sounded as thl or tl 
in the English pronunciation of Welsh names, as 
in Mallwyd, pronounced MatfMewyd, or Machyn- 
lleth, pronounced Mahun^etb. 

31, Queen Ann Street. 

My worthy and venerable housekeeper tells mo 
that when she was young crumpets were called 
pikelets in Yorkshire, and that the name probably 
still survives there. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

In Webster's Dictionary pikelet is derived from 
the English pike } or peak, or point , and therefore 
means properly a very thin cake. The equivalents 
of English pike in other languages are, Fr. pique ; 
Span, pica; Ital. picca; H.Ger. picke ; L.Ger. 
pick ; and Danish and Swedish, pik. In Latham's 
Dictionary it is derived from baccles or backles, 
provincial and archaic for pancake ; and also men- 
tions that at Eton Shrove Tuesday was called 
Bacchus, which perhaps is rather connected with 
bakehouse than with Father Lyseus. He also 
quotes an extract from Cotgrave, as follows : 
" Popelin, m., a little finicall lady. Popelins, soft 
cake, made of flower, kneaded with milk, sweet 
butter, and yolks of eggs, and fashioned and 
buttered, like our Welsh barrapyclas "which 
latter word, referring to Bacchus, he says equals 
bread-backles. ANSER. 

This word is given in Latham (1876), vol. ii., 
. i. pp. 510-511, where MR. OVERTON will find 
a long note on the question of its derivation. It 
is also to be found in Wedgwood's Dictionary of 
Etymology, p. 509, where it is stated to be "ap- 
parently of Welsh origin." G. F. R. B. 

SPRING CAPTAINS (6 th S. x. 89, 233, 315). In 
he Prussian army the officers of the Landwehr and 
f the Reserves, summoned for duty in their re- 
pective regiments during six weeks in summer, 

loorl frt Ka ,>..!u.jl " n m mar Tiipnf.Ann.nfs." 

B. F. 

used to be called " Summer Lieutenants.' 

It would appear from the old Law Lists that 
his gentleman was by profession an attorney. In 
he Law Lists of 1700 and 1795 he is described 
s one of the clerks of the Grocers' Company. His 
ddress in the Law List for 1803 is given as " Fune 
)ross, Fulhaui,"aud in that for 1817 as " 8, Church 
street, Lambeth." In the preface to the third 
dition of An A nalytical Digest of the Reported 
lases in the Courts of Equity (1822), his son, 
1. 0. Bridgman (a barrister and member of Lin- 
oln's Inn), states that his father "had made con- 
iderable progress in the preparation of a third 
dition of the work when his hand was arrested 
y a sudden malady which in a few weeks proved 



XI. JAN. 3, '85, 

fatal." In the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xc. 
pt. ii. p. 477, under the date Nov. 16, 1820, is the 
following announcement, " At Bath, in his 59th 
year, Richard Whalley Bridgman, Esq." The 
preface to his edition of Sir Francis Buller's In- 
Production to the Law Relative to Trials at Nisi 
Prius was written at "Bath, January, 1817." 
A list of his works will be found in Watt, the one 
in Allibone being very imperfect. G. F. K. B. 

RICHARD CRASHAW (6 th S. x. 447). Possibly 
MR. CANN HUGHES does not know of Peregrine 
Phillips's edition, 1785, of his poetry, " with an 
account of the author." He is there styled Canon 
of Loretto. A letter from Queen Henrietta Maria, 
recommending him in Italy, got him a secretaryship 
with a cardinal at Rome and the canonry followed 
immediately. It is commonly said that Pope bor- 
rowed thoughts from him but improved on them. 
Trashaw is very unequal, but when he has ex- 
pressed anything at his best neither Pope nor 
anybody else could much improve upon him. His 
style, though not so uniform, is much better, 
purer, and more direct than the Frenchified 
Augustan Watteauism of Pope. Pope spoiled 
English verse for a century as Johnson spoiled 
English prose for half a century. 

C. A. WARD. 

Poole's Index to Periodical Literature refers to 
the following articles : viz., Retrospective Review, 
vol. i. p. 225 ; Christian Disciple, vol. v. p. 81; 
Catholic World, vol. xxxii. p. 138; American 
Catholic Quarterly, vol. vi. p. 445. 

G. F. R. B. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxxviii. 
pf. i. p. 201, Crashaw is mentioned as belonging 
to Peterhouse College, Cambridge. I can find no 
r Terences as to his portrait. J. E. THOMPSON. 


In reply to MR. HUGHES'S inquiry, there is an 
article upon this poet in the Cornhill Magazine, 
vol. xlvii. (January to June, 1883), p. 424. 

J. P. H. 

KILBURN PRIORY (6 th S. x. 447). This priory 
originated as follows : One Godwyn, a hermit, 
possessing land at Kilburn, retired thither, for the 
purpose of seclusion, in the reign of the first Henry, 
jnd built his hermitage on the banks of the rivulel 
Kule-Bourne, or Coal-Brook. The site was sur- 
rounded with wood, and was similar to the place 
described by Spenser in his Faerie Queene, viz.: 
" A little lowly hermitage it was, 

Downe in a chile, hard by a forests side ; 

Far from the resort of people that did pass 
In traveill to and from ; a little wyde 

There was an holy chapelle edifyde, 

Wherein the hermit dewly wont to say 

His holy things, each inorne and eventyde : 

Thereby a chriatall streame did gentle play, 

Which from a sacred fountaine welled forth alway " 

Jodwyn soon became weary of the solitude of 
iilburn, now a large town, and between 1128 and 
.134 made over his cell and lands to the church 
if St. Peter, Westminster, " as an alms for the 
edemption of the whole convent of Brethem." 
immediately after the grant the Abbott of West- 
minster, the Bishop of London consenting, at 
Godwyn's request, conveyed the property in ques- 
ion to three virgins, named Emma, Griselda, and 
Christina, who were maids of honour to the queen 
f Henry I., who herself was a most religious 
icrsonage, and probably for this reason the cell 
)f the anchorite was converted into a nunnery. 
Grodwyn was the first master of this nunnery. 
There is an engraving of " Old Kilburn 
Priory" in Hewitt's Heights of London, and 
nother of the priory in 1750 in Old and New 
London. Vide Timbs's Abbeys and Castles, Old 
and New London, and Hewitt's Northern Heights 
>/ London. HENRY G. HOPE. 

Freegrove Road, N. 

SINGULAR EPITAPHS (6 th S. x. 124, 317, 414). 
" Here lies Robert Trollop, 
Who made yon stones roll up, 
When death took his soul up, 
His body filled this hole up." 

Some time since a correspondent asked for the 
name of the churchyard in which these lines were 
to be found. Annexed I give a quotation from 
Local Records of Remarkible Events which have 
occurred in Northumberland and Durham, &c., 
by John Sykes (1833) : 

' Robert Trollop, the architect of the exchange and 
town court, was, Sept 25, 1657, presented with the fran- 
chise of the corporation of Newcastle, for his ingenuity, 
skill, and abilities. At the east end of Gatcshead church- 
yard, stands a heavy square pile, the lower part brick 
and the upper part stone, sometime ornamented with 
golden texts beneath the cornice, built by Robert Trollop 
for the place of bis interment. It ia said there stood 
formerly a statue of the said Trollop, on the north side 
of it, pointing to the town court of Newcastle, and under- 
neath the following lines." 

Here follows the epitaph. PONS Mm. 

VELLER" (1 S. ix. 57; 3 rd S. i. 364, 419; iii. 
513 ; 6 th S. i. 366, 385 ; x. 66, 155, 231, 295, 
416). When L. L. K. remarked (p. 231) that 
szekerce is " the modern Magyar word for battle- 
axe," I really understood him to say that szekerce 
has to-day the specific meaning of an axe for 
battle. This, it would appear, he did not mean 
to assert ; accordingly, I am rather at a loss for 
the point of a comparison with crayapt?, which 
certainly is a weapon of war, and nothing else. 
No doubt b&rd anciently was a battle-axe, and 
now is an axe or bill ; and harcbard may be a 
hybrid (like battle-axe itself), though Dankovszky 
reckons bard as Slavonic as well as hare. But, 
hybrid or not, it is, I think, " the modern Magyar 

6ths.xijAN.3/85.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


word for a battle-axe," unless vivobdrd, fighting 
axe, be preferred. 

I referred to the well-known fact that fzekerce i 
of Slavonic origin, simply as a means of replyin 
indirectly to L. L. K.'s suggestion that Magya 
writers, if its resemblance to o-ayapt? happenec 
to strike them, would no doubt be stupid enoug 
to use such resemblance as a proof of their much 
prized Scythian descent. Magyar writers, wit 
all their love for old tradition, are not quite s 
ignorant as this. 

MR. DIXON can defend himself; but I entirely 
agree with him that a slovenly compilation, givin 
no authorities, is " not of much historical value." 

I hope, with L. L. K., that some one will dis 
inter the passage from the Geographic Curieuse 
Brunet gives the title of Le Curieux Aniiquaire 
ou Recueil Geographique et Historique, &c., pa 
P. L. Berkenmeyer, Leyde, 1729, 3 vols. 8vo. 


SERVIUS Tr/LLius (6 th S. x. 447). Following 
the recommendation often given in " N. & Q.' 
of verifying a reference, I turned to Preston's 
Masonry on seeing the query of MR. 0. A. WARD 
when I found that the assertion of Preston refers 
to Pythagoras, not to Servius Tullius. Pytha 
goras, according to some authorities, was the son 
of Mnesarchus, an engraver of gems. 

BARTON BOOTH (6 th S. x. 518). In reply to 
URBAN'S query, T would say that in the anony- 
mous Memoirs of the Life of Barton Booth, Esq., 
1733, it is said that the subject of those memoirs, 
born in 1681, u was put to Westminster-school in 
the ninth year of his Age." I have it in Booth's 
own handwriting that he remained there six years, 
and then, " instead of going to either University to 
pursue his studies, his folly led him to the profes- 
sion he must now stick to, while he lived," &c. 
He states that he has (Dec. 16, 1712) " been thir- 
teen years an actor"; and it will be seen that 
these dates do not agree. I am, therefore, in- 
clined to believe the account given by his anony- 
mous biographer, according to whom Booth spent 
some time in Ireland before joining Betterton's 
company, though this is not mentioned by Booth 
himself. Probably the explanation is that he did 
not reckon himself "an actor" during that novi- 
ciate. I shall be glad to show my documents to 

13, Belsize Avenue, N.W. 

The following is from Their Majesties' Servants, 
by Dr. Doran : 

" In 1690 a handsome, well-bred lad, whose age did 
not then amount to two lustres, sought admission into 
Westminster School. Dr. Busby thought him too young ; 
but Barton Booth was the son of a gentleman, of the 
family of Booth, Earl of Warrington, and was a remark- 
ably clever and attractive boy. The Doctor, whose acting 
had been commended by Charles I,, perhaps thought of 

the school plays, and recognized in little Barton the 
promise of a lover in Terence's comedies. At all eventa, 
he admitted the applicant. Barton Booth, a younger 
son of a Lancashire sire, was destined for Holy Orders. 
He was a fine elocutionist, and lie took to Latin as 
readily as Erasmus ; but then he had Nicholas Rowe as 
a schoolfellow ; and one day, was cast for Pamphilus in 
the Andria. Luckily, or unluckily, he played this pro- 
totype of young Bevil in Steele's Conscious Lovtrs with 
such ease, perfection, and charming intelligence, that 
the old dormitory shook with plaudits. The shouts of 
approbation changed the whole purpose of his sire ; they 
deprived the church of a graceful clergyman, and gave 
to the stage one of the most celebrated of our actors. 
He was but seventeen when his brilliant folly led him 
to run away from home, and tempt fortune by playing 
Oronooko, in Dublin. The Irish audiences confirmed 
the judgment of the Westminster critics, and the in- 
telligent lad moved the hands of the men, and the hearts 
of the women, without a check, during a glorious three 
years' probation." 

Freegrove Road, N. 

Barton Booth was undoubtedly educated at 
Westminster School, but he was not on the 
foundation. His name does not occur in the 
Alumni Westmonasterienses, which contains a list 
of all elections to St. Peter's College since 1663. 
Mr. Mackenzie Walcott, again, in his Westminster, 
excepts his name from his list of some eminent Old 
Westminsters formerly in college, but includes 
him amongst some others who received their 
ducation at the school, but who were not on the 
foundation. Acting in the " play " is now (and I 
thought it always was) restricted to the Queen's 
Scholars or those on the foundation, and I do not 
snow, therefore, how he came to act in it, as he is 
stated to have done in the Andria in 1695, when 
le was fourteen years old. At the age of seven- 
teen namely, in 1698 (he was born in 1681) he 
an away from the school just, according to Mr. 
Walford (Old and New London, vol. iii. p. 470) 
as he was " about to proceed to the University " 
ind joined a company of strolling players at Dublin 
The Public Schools, by the author of Etoniana ; 
Davenport's Diet, of Biog., 1831). Assuming the 
ibove statements to be correct, he could not have 
gone to Trinity College, Cambridge, at all, though 
is name might have been entered there. Will 
ome one kindly refer me to the best biographical 
ccount of this actor 1 ALPHA. 

BRADSHAW (6 th S. viii. 45, 92, 338). I have 
ad a letter from the secretary of the Manchester 
^ree Library, directing my attention to the notes 
n which reference is made to Bradshaw's Railway 
de. I hope I am not too late to say a word. 
, and not Bradshaw, was the originator of that 
aluable public benefit. I proved this several 
ears ago in a correspondence I had in the Man- 
hester Courier, and I now proceed to give you 

I commenced business in Manchester as a 
rinter in 1834, and in 1839 I issued my first 



. XI. JAN. 3, '85, 

number of Gadsby's Monthly Eailivay Guide. 
Mr. Abel Heywood, the well-known publisher of 
Manchester, Mr. Alderaian King, and others still 
living well remember this. Bat I have yet in 
my possession the letters I received from the 
Manchester and Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool, 
and Grand Junction. I enclose copies. Now, 
Bradshaw did not begin his until 1841, in the 
doing of which he copied from me. And some 
time after that I was made the printer and pub- 
lisher to the Anti-Corn Law League. This 
so filled my hands, and head too, that I gave up 
to Bradshaw. Two or three years afterwards I 
met Mr. Blacklock, and said to him, " I ought to 
have copyrighted my guide." " Ah," he replied, 
"it is too late now." Mr. Blacklock's widow is 
still living. But in 1841 Bradshaw was not in 
its present form. I have a copy for 1842, price !., 
in which the preface says, " The time-tables form- 
ing this little work are arranged as a sheet, and 
published on the 1st of every month, price 3d" It 
was not until 1842 that Bradshaw began to pub- 
lish monthly at all, and then it was on a broad 
sheet ; whereas I began in book form in 1839, 
and published monthly from the first, price 3cf., 
Bradshaw copying from me a couple of years or so 
after. Bradshaw originated the foreign railway 
guide and also maps. I never gave maps. 

I am now seventy-six, and every circumstance is 
as fresh in my mind as if it had occurred last week. 
If you would like to see the original letters, I shall 
be happy to show them to you, or to give any fur- 
ther information. I supplied all Manchester, Liver- 
pool, Leeds, and minor towns before Bradshaw 
began. The forenamed secretary of the Manchester 
Free Library says, " What a pity you did not stick 
to Gadsby's Monthly Railway Guide ! " 


x. 309, 352, 457, 473). As your correspondenl 
H. R. G. has passed on from Lord Beaconsfield's 
birthplace to the place of his school, I may, perhaps 
be allowed to supply the following particulars 
which I record in Greater London and in my Lift 
of Lord Beaconffield, on the authority of one o 
his schoolfellows, who gave them to me only a few 
years since : 

" The future Prime Minister of England, Benjamin 
Disraeli, was partly educated at a private school, kep 
by a Unitarian minister, Mr. Cogan, at Higham Hill 

Walthamstow As a boy young Disraeli was not re 

markable for his attention to his lessons, or for bis fond 
ness for classical or mathematical studies ; but he wa 
a great dandy, and also a devourer of curious and oul 
of-the-way literature, old romances, plays, and histories 
and he would often keep the other boys awake at nigh 
by telling them all sorts of stories, which he would in 
vent as lie went along. 'The child,' in his case, ' wa 
the father of the man.' He was shy and reserved, an 
would wander by himself in the glades of the fores 
hard by, his only companions being a book and h 
master's favourite dog." 

may add that my informant was Mr. Philip Le 
,reton, of Hampstead, late a member of the Board 
f Works, who also stated to me that one of Mr. 
bgan's other pupils was the late Mr. Milner 

ibson. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hyde'park Mansions, N.W. 

. 328). My official duties have made me a close 
tudent of the handwriting and orthography of 
ast centuries, and so far as the English MS. 
ecords of this State are concerned, I can say that 
om the beginning of the seventeenth century no 
ther letter than the / is found duplicated at the 
ommencement of a word. I suppose the ff is 
leant to represent our modern capital F. To 
ecide that point, somebody must first discover 
he rules applying to the use of capital letters in 
he seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. I give 
, few instances : " Vpon Aplicac'on of Christians 
,nd Indyans for the settlement of Cow neck in 
lempsteed bounds the Indyans Desireing"; or, 
"' shee may proceede on her Intended voyage with- 
ut any manner of Lett, Hindrance or molestac'on 
whatsoever Shee having cleared " (from an Order- 
iook of Governor Sir Edmond Andros, 1679-80); 
r, " long before the present members were of his 
Majesty's Council, which after being Enacted into 
^aws, we doubt not have been duly Authenti- 
cated " (from an address by the General Assembly 
10 the Governor, Nov. 6, 1753). The Governor's 

inswer has, " the Welfare of the Province 

shall be objects of my Attention. I am obliged 

? or the Assurances of your Cheerful concur- 
rence and I shall rely on your advice and 

Assistance." As to how it came about that a 
double/ was made to stand for a capital, I have a 
theory, and believe that some man of high station, 
and not a great calligraphist, perhaps writing 
rapidly, drew the left end of the cross stroke in 
the F too far down with a flourish, and brought it 
alongside the upright stroke, and as this would 
look like a double /, he set the fashion among his 
followers to use a double / for a capital. Many 
double /'s are only badly made capital F's. 

State Library, Albany. 

ITALIAN PROVERB (6 th S. x. 495). 
<f Aspettare e non venire ; 
Star in letto e non dormire ; 
Far 1' amore e non gradire ; 
Son tre cose da morire." 

Of. Strafforelli, La Sapienza del Hondo (Torino, 
Nigro), vol. i. p. 133. 



[The third line is given as " Servire e non gradire " 
by O. A. H., E. G., THOMAS STRATTON, and A. L. S. 
" Ben servire e non gradire " is the reading of ST. JOHN 

, XI. JAN. 3, '85.] 



heard " Star a tavola e non mangiare "; A. H. E., 
" Salire e non gradire "; R. C. A. P., " Far la corte e 
non gradire"; NKLLIE MACLAGAN, "Ben studiar e non 
empire." P. N. 11. gives " Amare e non gradire," and 
substitutes in the second line " Ammalare " for " Star 
in letto." Other alterations in different lines are made 
by correspondents. F. N. R. sends a translation by an 
English lady. H. GAIDOZ, 22, Rue Servandoni, Paris, 
suggests that the third verse is not always acceptable to 
English taste; arid G. G. H. furnishes the following 
different specimens of the same kind of verse : 
" Non v' e prato senza fiore ; 

Non v' 6 donna senz' amore ; 

Non v' e stampa senz' errore." 
" Sono Donne tanta basta, 

Sono tutte d' una pasta."] 

518). These lines, written on the recovery of 
Prince Leopold, appeared in Macmillaris Maga- 
zine, March, 1875. E, W. 


CHARADE BY C. S. C. (6 th S. x. 516). Drug- 

[Answers to the same effect are received from MR. J. 
MR. J. H. ELLIS.] 

CANDY: BERG (6 th S. x. 429). N. Condy, not 
Candy, was a naval officer before he became an 
artist. He resided, I believe, at Plymouth, and 
was well known in the West of England from 1832 
to 1841. He chiefly painted small pictures in 
water colours on tinted paper, about 8 in. by 5 in. 
They were very spirited, and sold readily at fifteen 
shillings to a guinea each. 


[Nicholas Condy, of Plymouth, exhibited, between 
1830 and 1845, two landscapes at the Royal Academy, 
four at the British Institution, and one at the Suffolk 
Street Gallery. Nicholas Matthews Condy, also of Ply- 
mouth, exhibited, between 1842 and 1845, three sea- 
pieces at the Royal Academy. See Mr. Algernon 
Graves's excellent Dictionary of Artists.] 

ETYMOLOGY" (6 th S. ix. 303,391, 437, 497; x. 38, 
172, 276). Cunning Garth. In the town- 
ship of Mirfield, Yorkshire, is a field called 
the Coney Garth, adjoining an old moated 
mound, called Castle Hill in the township survey, 
but generally known as the Danish Mount. 
This mound is very similar to the one at Laughton- 
en-le-Morthen, and has probably been used for 
defensive purposes. A house called Castle Hall 
adjoined it for at least three hundred years, and 
tradition has it that there has been a house on the 
site from the year 1022. The church is close by, 
as is also the hamlet of Towngate, containing the 
rectory, the vicarage, and other very old buildings. 
It seems, therefore, improbable that the field in 
question has been a rabbit warren, particularly as 
the warren of the lord of the manor was in quite 
another part of the parish. The mound and field 

have evidently been the centre of the parish from 
a very early date, and there has probably been 
some connexion between the two. It seems at 
least probable that in this case Coney Garth 
means king's enclosure. S. J. CHADWICK. 


WILLIAMS, BOOKSELLER (6 th S. x. 429). John 
Williams, who reprinted the North Briton in a 
folio volume, was on Thursday, Feb. 14, 1765, 
taken in a hackney coach to Palace Yard, West- 
minster; he arrived there about 12 o'clock, and 
was at once placed in the pillory, holding a branch 
of laurel in his hand, and greeted with the loud . 
acclamations of more than ten thousand spectators. 
During the hour of his elevation a collection was 
made for him amongst the crowd, and more than 
200Z. was presented to him. An account may be 
found in the St. James's Chronicle of February 14; 
the Annual Register for 1765, p. 65; Gentleman's 
Magazine, vol. xxxv. p. 96 ; Horace Wai pole's 
Letters, iv. 325; and, in fact, in most of the papers 
and magazines of the time. In the Chronicle of 
the day was the following: 

" Martyrs of old for truth thus bravely stood, 
Laid down their lives, and shed their dearest blood 
No scandal then to suffer in her cause, 
And Nobly stem the Rigour of the Laws. 
Pulpit and Desk may equally go down, 
A Pillory's now more sacred than a ." 

The next week there was another epigram on 
Williams : 

" Inflam'd alike by W kes, the son and sire, 
See how the vulgar rage, like headstrong fire ; 
By Gin (the Father's poison) first undone, 
Now with false British spirit by the son ! " 


Williams, the publisher of the North Briton, 
stood for an hour in the pillory at New Palace 
Yard, Westminster, on Feb. 14, 1765, and a fall 
account of the remarkable proceedings that took 
place on the occasion will be found in the follow- 
ing publications of that year : Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, p. 96 ; Annual Register, p. 65 ; and London 
Chronicle, Feb. 14-16. We possess no information 
as to whether the engine of punishment was a fix- 
ture in New Palace Yard or not. Probably it was 
capable of being removed after each exhibition, 
and was refixed on the same site when required. 
Certain it is that the sentence was frequently 
carried out there. In the previous century Prynne 
and Leighton were pilloried there ; and coming 
down to a later date to the time of Williams 
the volumes of the Annual Register for the years 
1763 to 1767 relate instances of the punishment 
taking place in the same locality. It is somewhat 
remarkable that the sentence of the Court of 
King's Bench (as recorded in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for 1765, p. 45) mentions Old Palace Yard; 
but this is probably an error. This latter was 
more frequently the scene of executions, and it 



[6th g. xi. JAN. 3, '85. 

was here that the Gunpowder Plot conspirators and 
Sir W. Raleigh suffered death. 

Badleigh Salterfcon, Devonshire. 

MR. 0. A. WARD will find the pillorying of 
John Williams, a bookseller of Fleet Street (at 
No. 38, next the Mitre Tavern, " for republishing 
the North Briton, No. 45, in volumes," not in 
forty-five volumes), represented with force and 
spirit in " 1765," British Museum Satirical Print, 
No. 4114. Likewise in " The Pillory Triumphant," 
No. 4115 of the same collection of engravings. 
In addition see Nos. 4116 and 4117. New Palace 
Yard, Westminster, was the scene of this event. 

F. G. S. 

The sentence of the King's Bench upon Williams, 
the bookseller, was that he should pay a fine of 
100Z., should be imprisoned six months in the 
King's Bench prison, should stand once in the 
pillory in Old Palace Yard, and should give 
security in 1,OOOZ. for his good behaviour for seven 
years. The sentence of the pillory was carried out 
in New Palace Yard, at midday. He stood there 
for an hour in the presence of a large crowd, who 
collected two hundred guineas for him on the spot. 
See Annual Register, 1765, pp. 59 and 65. 


The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

According to the Gentleman's Magazine, vol.xxv. 
p. 96, the pillory in which Mr. Williams stood 
was in New Palace Yard, Westminster. 

G. F. R. B. 

MARINE SIGNALLING (6 th S. x. 309, 417). 
The following list may be of service to MR. 

Telegraphic Signals, or Marine Vocabulary. By Sir 
Home Popham. London. 1803. 4to. 

Description (if Boaz's Diurnal and Nocturnal Patent 
Telegraph. (Patent No. 2564 of 1801.) Glasgow, 1804. 

Telegraphists' Vade Mecum. Joseph Conollv. London 
[1818]. 4to. 

Ward's Ocean Marine Telegraph. (Letters Patent 
No. 1600 of 1859.) Fourth Edition. London, 1861. 8vo. 

He will also find articles on the subject of flag- 
signalling in 

Falconer's Dictionary, enlarged by Burncy. London, 
1815. 4to. 

Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers. Vol. i. 
p. 61. Article by Capt. Colornb. 
And in 

Hamersley'a Naval Encyclopaedia. Philadelphia, 1881. 

Patent Office. 


LIVE OR DIE (6 th S. x. 382, 451). I think most 
people will agree with your correspondent that the 
experience of life is in favour of the latter version, 

as the favourite saying that mankind is " glace 
pour la ve"rite" et feu pour le mensonge " further 
testifies. In Italy, however, notwithstanding that 
we are not credited with truthfulness above other 
people, we are fond of congratulating ourselves, on 
the other hand, that " la bugia ha la gamba corta." 

E. H. BUSK. 

KHEDIVE (6 th S. ix. 449 ; x. 13, 335, 417) is 
spelt jK/ia-kesrah, dal-kesrah, yd,, waw, yd. But 
few people here would write the first Kesrah, and 
fewer still the second. Transliteration I do not 
attempt, as a transliterator should be at hand to 
transliterate his transliteration. KILLIGREW. 


GEORGE BOLEYN (6 th S. ix. 406, 457; x. 34). 
The origin of the title Viscount Rochford is terri- 
torial. The Boleyns owned Rochford House, 
Essex, where, by some accounts, Queen Anne was 
born. It is an ancient manor, head of the hundred, 
and has an open-air court known as " lawless," 
and conducted at night in whispers only. The 
Boleyns were well descended, and Burke, General 
Armory, quotes two coats for Rochford, both " Ar., 
a lion sable, crowned," &c. Such coat could be 
granted or confirmed by the heralds to the first 
viscount. A. HALL. 

LAST DYING SPEECHES (6 th S. x. 69, 153, 257, 
474). I must offer my very humble and sincere 
apologies to NEMO for having given him so much 
trouble through a mistake of mine a mistake the 
blame for which I am afraid I cannot lay upon 
any one else. How I came to make it I cannot 
conceive. The paragraph referring to the sale of 
" last dying speeches" is to be found at p. 57, and 
not at p. 70, and is the last paragraph of an article 
on Jonathan Wild. So far as I can find out, only 
twelve numbers of Fennell's Antiq. Chron. and Lit. 
Adv. a publication which, dealing largely as it 
did with extracts from old newspapers, promised 
to be very useful have been issued, and to all 
appearance it has come to a premature end. 


ARTHUR YOUNG (6 th S. x. 469). The name of 
his son was Rev. Arthur Young. He bought ten 
thousand acres in the Crimea, and died in Russia, 
1827 or 1828. He wrote, like his father, on agri- 
culture and on enclosures. See Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, 1828, i. 274. It was in 1805 he went to 
Russia, at the request of the Russian ambassador, 
to make a survey, and was liberally paid; with this 
he bought the land in the Crimea. There is a 
fair account of the father in the English Cyclo- 
pcedia, but nothing of the family. 

C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

> " GETTE" EN MOLLE " (6 th S. x. 466). A very 
similar phrase appeared in a volume printed at 

6'h S. XI. JAK. 3, '85.] 



Burgos (I think in 1485), and shown at the Caxton 
Exhibition. The phrase was "Escrivano da 
xnolde," or "printer by moulds" (or types). The 
volume at that time belonged to my friend the 
late Mr. William Bragge, and was afterwards 
sold. ESTE. 

KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES (6 th S. x. 429). The 
last in the list of " charitable benefactions as 
returned to Parliament, 1786," given on p. 67 of 
Anderson's History and Antiquities of Kingston- 
upon-Thames (1818), is, viz., " William Nicoll, by 
will, Nov. 10, 1726, 200?. Money since laid out 
in lands. To buy coals with the rent, and sell 
them to the poor in winter, at cost price. (Annual 
produce) 14Z." Is this the Aleppo merchant after 
whose name MR. WARD is inquiring 1 

Further particulars concerning "Nicholl's 
Charity" will be found in Biden's History and 
Antiquities of Kingston-upon-Thames (1852), p. 84. 

G. F. R B. 

389, 419). 

In reference to the quotation from Last Words, 
queried by MR. WALFORD, it is worth while to note the 
evidence of authorship afforded by parallel passages in 
this poem and that of Tannhauser, written by the same 
author, in collaboration, under another pseudonym. I 
quote in both instances from memory : 
" All my life, looking back on it, seems like a broken 

Which winds round a ruined tower, and never will 

lead anywhere." Last Words. 
" Whose way of life is like a broken stair 
Which winds and winds around a ruined tower 
And leads nowhither." Tannhauser. 


(6th S. x. 497.) 
"And seas but join the regions they divide." 

Pope, Windsor Forest, 1. 400. 
G. F. S. E. 


The Catechism of John Hamilton, Archbishop of S. An' 
drews, 1552. Edited, with Introduction and Glossary, 
by Thomas Graves Law. With a Preface by the Right 
Hon. W. E. Gladstone. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
FROM the short preface which, in the midst of his labo- 
rious political career, the Prime Minister has found time 
to prefix to this important volume, it appears that a 
quarter of a century ago, whilst Rector of the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, Mr. Gladstone suggested the republi- 
cation of Archbishop Hamilton's Catechism. Two years 
ago a facsimile black*letter reprint, limited to 140 copies, 
was produced at Edinburgh, with an introduction by 
Prof. Mitchell ; and now the Clarendon Press has issued 
this excellent edition, in clear ordinary type, with an his- 
torical introduction by Mr. T. G. Law, who has greatly 
increased the usefulness of his work by adding a copious 
glossary, no unnecessary addition when it is remembered 
that the text of the Catechism is in the Scottish verna- 
cular of the middle of the sixteenth century. Mr. 
Gladstone points out, as a very noticeable feature of the 
document, that whilst it is authoritative and strictly 

synodical, it "sets forth a system of Christian instruction 
within the limits of the Roman obedience, and imme- 
diately before the clang of the Scottish Reformation, 
which from beginning to end does not so much as make 
mention of the Pope or of the Church of Rome." 

Archbishop Hamilton was a true Scotchman. Born in 
1512, a natural son of the first Earl of Arran, he was 
elected in his thirteenth year Abbot of Paisley, and in 
1547 succeeded Cardinal Beaton as Archbishop of St. 
Andrews and Primate of Scotland. He seems to have 
laboured hard to promote religious learning and holy 
living reconstituting and endowing St. Mary's College 
at St. Andrews, for the training of theologians, and issu- 
ing this Catechism for the instruction of clergy and 
people. Few of the clergy were able to preach, and in 
consequence the rector or his curate, vested in surplice 
and stole, was directed to read aloud from the pulpit for 
half an hour before High Mass consecutive portions of 
this Catechism. Jt was to be read audibly, intelligibly, 
reverently, articulately ; and to this end the reader was 
directed to rehearse it carefully beforehand. He was 
not permitted to enter into controversy about its teach- 
ing, but was commanded to refer to the Ordinary any 
question that might arise. 

The document itself will well repay careful study. It 
is " almost the solitary monument of the doctrinal and 
devotional language of Catholic Scotland." The homi- 
letic and hortatory character of the work and the ab- 
sence of polemics give it a special interest. It was a 
step to a religious reformation. A dense mass of ignor- 
ance needed to be removed. Some of the clergy are 
said, by one of their own number, to have been so igno- 
rant as scarcely to know the alphabet, others were men of 
known profligacy ; the rich abbacies were bestowed upon 
courtiers and most unworthy persons, " quha levit 
courtlyke, secularlye and voluptuoslye," as John Leslie, 
Bishop of Ross, bears witness. Meanwhile the play and 
the ballad and the popular song were preparing the ground 
for the sweeping changes that were at hand. The moral 
and intellectual status of the ordinary clergy was low 
and degraded. The monastic houses absorbed great part 
of the parish livings, and served the cures by starveling 
vicars. At such a time the preparation of a Catechism 
not in Latin, but in the vulgar tongue in which the 
Decalogue, the Creed, and the Pater Noster might be 
expounded clearly and simply, with abundance of 
homely illustrations could hardly fail to benefit both 
clergy and laity, and to pave the way for better days. 

Mr. Law's introduction is admirable. Carefully pre- 
pared, very condensed, pleasant in style, it forms a brief 
but excellent sketch of the beginning of the great re- 
ligious movements of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries in Scotland. 

A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians. By Albert S. 

Gatchet, of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology. (Trubner 


THIS volume is the fourth of the valuable series of 
American-Indian literature projected and published by 
Dr. Brinton, of Philadelphia. The legend which gives 
its title to the book occupies a very small portion of its 
space, and the remainder is made up with a detailed and 
highly interesting account of the social polity, language, 
and customs of the Creek Indians, which tribe had its 
range from the Gulf of Mexico northwards, but chiefly 
among the swamps and creeks of Florida, a circumstance 
which caused this name to be given them by the early 
English explorers. The chapter on language is one of 
the most noteworthy in the volume, the practice of 
avoiding the use of separate words by an elaborate sys- 
tem of prefixes and suffixes being especially remarkable. 
There is also an amusing account of the annual festival 


NOTES AND QUERIES. IB* a xt. JA. s, -86. 

of the "busk" or green-corn dance. Altogether the 

minute and painstaking research with which all the 

works of this series are compiled cannot bo too highly 


The Poetical Works of John Keats. Reprinted from the 

Original Edition, with Notes by Francis T. Palgrave. 

(Macmillan & Co.) 

IN an elegant and portable form we have here an edition 
of Keats in which the rare original texts are faithfully 
reproduced. Every line has been thrice collated with 
the primary issue, and variations in spelling and even a 
few trifling errors or omissions are respected. Such an 
edition cannot fail to be welcomed by lovers of the 

IN the English Illustrated Magazine appear the com- 
mencement of Mr. H. A. Jones's essay on " The Dramatic 
Outlook," delivered before the Playgoers' Club, and de- 
scriptive essays on "Calvados" and " Shakspeare s 
Country " " The Great Baxtaira Scandal" in Mac- 
nillan's is one of the brightest of H. D. T.'s bright con- 
tributions. The Cornhill contains "Reminiscences of 
Foochow," and " Charles Dickens at Home " by his eldest 
daughter." Servants Old and New," which appears in 
Longman's, is outside the lines of ordinary magazine 
contributions. All the Year JRound gives a very readable 
account of " Wife Selling, 1 ' together with " Older Switzer- 
land " and a chapter of " Chronicles of English Counties.'' 
Some articles of unusual interest appear in the Gentle- 
man's. Such are Mr. Henry Trollope's essay on " Le Bon- 
homme Corneille," Mr. G. Barnett Smith's "More Views 
of Jane Austen," and a paper on " Jouffroy, the Inventor 
of the Steamboat." Temple Bar contains some personal 
"Recollections of Mark Pattison " and one of the gos- 
siping articles, half essay, half review, which are an 
iigreeable specialty. The subject of this is Lord Mal- 
mesburv's Memoirs.' "Charles Lamb and George 
Wither," by Algernon Charles Swinburne, is a pleasant 
collocation of names to be found in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury. The promise is fulfilled, and the article is delight- 
ful. " The Centenary of the Times " also appears in the 
January number. In the Fortnightly, Principal Tulloch 
writes on " Coleridge as a Spiritual Thinker," and E. B. 
de Fonblanque on " Caroline Bauer." Among the valu- 
able contents of the Contemporary are the essay of Sir 
Arthur Hobhouse on " The City Companies," and that of 
Augustine Birrell, the author of Obiter Dicta, upon " Dr. 

THE December numbers of Mclusine and of the Folk- 
lore Journal curiously illustrate each other on some 
points of sea-lore. The story of how the eea became salt, 
contributed to Mclusine from Brittany, and noted by 
the editors as given in a German version from the Norse, 
might have been noted as also given, under the title of 
the "Wonderful Quern," in the second series of Powell 
and Magnus.sen's Legends of 1 'aland, as well as in S:r G. 
Dasent's Popular Tales from the Norse. We observe that 
the Folk-lore Journal is henceforward to be published 
as a quarterly, commencing with January. This will, 
we hope, enable subjects to be treated at greater length, 
and therefore promises to be a change for the better. 
" Miscellaneous Superstitions in Foula," in the Decem 
her number, seems to be a rather misleading heading, 
as several of them are expressly stated in the article 
itself (a cutting from the Glasgow Herald of Nov. 10) to 
belong to Tiree, one of the western isles, and no evidence 
is given of their being common to Tiree and Foula. 

PUBLICATION of the Christmas number of Le Livre has 
been almost driven into the new year. The long and 
highly interesting " Bibliographic de Paul Lacroix," witl 
which the number opens, is accompanied by an admirable 

portrait. " Les Accessoires d'un Livre " is also a valu- 
able portion of the contents. Under the admirable 
directorship of M. Octave Uzanne, Le Livre holds up its 
bead as the foremost work in its class. 

WITH Part XI F. the first volume of the Encyclopaedic 
Dictionary is completed. The volume, in 768 closely 
printed pages of three columns, carries the alphabet 
from the beginning to " Cabiritic." Leaving out of the 
question the Philological Society's dictionary, the com- 
pletion of which will probably be seen by the twentieth 
entury, the present is the most cDmprehensive lexicon 
the English student can consult. 

Parodies of the Works of English and American 
Authors, collected and annotated by Mr. Walter Hamil- 
ton, has now appeared in book form. The first volume 
consists of nearly two hundred pages in double columns. 
We have, a propos of various numbers, called attention 
to the progress of the collection. It is interesting to 
hear its success has been such that what was commenced 
with the intention of extending to a few parts is likely 
to be carried into volumes. Messrs. Reeves & Turner 
are the publishers. 

Whital-er's Almanack remains unrivalled for conve- 
nience of reference and value and extent of information 
supplied. Its progress since its iirst establishment has 
been rapid, and there are now few facts concerning Eng- 
lish life and administration and other like matters that 
may not be found in the edition for 1885. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

E. R. VYVYAN. 1 ("First Employment of Abbrevia- 
tions A.M. and P.M."). The question was asked 6 th S. ix. 
369, and answered 6"' S. ix. 431, 516. The earliest re- 
corded use was 1741, but the abbreviations do not appear 
to have come into general use until near a century later. 
2. Giglel, a wanton, a jade. Cotgrave gives it as an 
equivalent for Fr. gadouillelte. Coles's Lat. and Encj. 
Diet, translates it '' fcemina petulans." Schmidt's Shake- 
speare-Lexicon says *' giylti& lewd woman." 

S. A. ("Centenarians"). This subject has such a 
tendency to spread over our pages, we have been obliged 
long ago resolutely to close our columns against it. 

V. (" Friel Family r '). Will appear in turn. 

Tnos. RATCLIFFE (" Boon Work "). Under such titles 
as " Boon Days," &c., you will find proof that this sub- 
ject has been exhaustively treated in our columns. See 
t>t>' S. iii. 449; iv. 13, 55, 358, 545; v. 37; ix. 433, 517. 

H. W. P. (" Site of Hell ") .Information anticipated. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
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to this rule we can make no exception. 

. XI. JAN. 10, '85.] 





NOTES :-Lincoln's Inn Fields, 21 Finnish Folk-lore, 22 
Unpublished Letter of Turner Ireland in 1641, 25 
Franklin and Wollaston Ship-shape "Robinson Crusoe," 
26 Comparative Bibacity, 27. 

QUERIES : I Gelosi-King Charles I.'s Miniature-Hugo 
G. de Scoca Copperhead Delia Crusca Genealogical, 27 
Temple of Peace " Fly Leaves" VVilley Church A Poli- 
tical Toast-To Grudge Ivory Ferrar, 28 Dallas General 
Monk Cowell Hogarth's "Sleeping Congregation" Old 
Print Middle Temple Hutchinson's "Massachusetts" 
Coin of Charles I. Ado Early Emigrants C. Lynegar 
Authors Wanted, 29. 

REPLIES : Bust of Cicero Records of Change of Name, 30 
Works on Gardening Burning of Witches The "Sphinx " 
Ross Family, 31 Talmudic Proverb Names of Authors 

' Reference Wanted Thong from back, 32 Arms Wanted 
Falls of Niagara G. Guinicelli Caricatures of Mulready 
Envelope Lady Howards-Scotch Proverb -" Main Truck " 
Author of Orations, 33 Amy ot Portraits of Dr. Busby- 
Letter on Madrigals Wood Pigeon Continuous Pagination 
Burke's "Landed Gentry," 34 Dick Turpin Dean Hall 
El Dorado Shakspearian Question Prize Essay Peni- 
coke Glamis Mystery Calling Churches, 35 Horn Old 
London Bridge Death of Richard II." Two Left Legs," 36 
Shrine of St. Thomas a Beckett Relative Value of Money 
Sir I. Brock-Coyote Penny Post, 37 Passage in Pindar 
"Snaith Peculiar "Oil on Troubled Waters Date of 
Book, 38 Monk Lewis John Washington Authors 
Wanted, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: -"Dictionary of National Biography" 
Burke's "Peerage" Gibbs's " Courtenay Mantelpiece." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


In the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth is a 
folio volume lettered " French Protestants, &c." It 
contains twenty-nine separate pieces, ranging in 
date from 1680 to 1717. The very curious broad- 
side of which I send a literal transcript is the 
twenty-eighth article in the collection, and the 
volume itself bears as its press mark ** 66, A. 5." 
I am not aware that the paper has ever been 
printed, and as it may possibly be unique, and 
therefore acceptable to London collectors, many of 
whom are diligent readers of " N. & Q.," I think 
that it may find a fitting place in these pages, 
which have done so much to illustrate the history 
of London. 

The broadside is without date, but it will not 
be very difficult to. fix, within tolerably narrow 
limits, the period at which it was issued. In 
Abbey and Overton's English Church in the 
Eighteenth Century, a work which forms a valu- 
able addition to our stores of ecclesiastical history, 
we find some reference to the subject of the 
French prophets, vol. i. pp. 565-8. The writers 
tell us that early in the eighteenth century, when 
Quakerism was just beginning to lose its influence, 
its wild assumptions of an earlier date were paral- 
leled by a new form of fanatical enthusiasm. In 
1706 there arose, says Calamy (Life, ii. 71), " a 

mighty noise as concerning new prophets." These 
were certain Camisards, as they were called, of 
the Cevennes, who, after the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, had risen in the cause of their 
religion, and had been suppressed with great 
severity by Marshals Montrevel and Villars. 
Their sufferings and persecutions seem to have 
wrought up illiterate and undisciplined minds into 
the wildest fanaticism, which rapidly degenerated 
into mere imposture. 

In Malcolm's Anecdotes of the Manners and 
Customs of London (vol. ii. pp. 210-215) is an 
account of some of the more notorious of the 
French prophets who arrived in England in 1706. 
Elias Marion, a native of Barre", in the Upper 
Cevennes ; John Cavalier, born at Sauve, in the 
Cevennes ; and Durand Fage, a native of Aubais 
in Languedoc, are selected for special notice. 
These men are supposed to have visited England 
with a view to obtain military employment, but, 
failing in this object, entered upon a remarkable 
course of fraud and imposture. A certain Betty 
Grey appears to have been one of their proselytes, 
and the account (which Malcolm transcribes from 
Enthusiastic Impostors no Divinely Inspired Pro- 
phets, published by Morphew in 1 707) of a certain 
stance held " at Sir Richard Bulkeley's chamber 
in Great Kussell Street," might fairly suggest to 
us that Betty Grey herself was the heroine of the 
discreditable episode which forms the subject of 
the broadside. 

Malcolm illustrates his account by a plate, copied 
from a sheet published by J. Applebee in 1707, 
entitled " The English and French Prophets mad 
or bswicht at their assemblies in Baldwin's 
Gardens, &c." Many persons appear to have 
been deluded by these miserable fanatics; but the 
imposture seems to have received its death-blow 
when three of the worst of the fraternity " were 
sentenced to stand on a scaffold at Charing Cross 
and the Eoyal Exchange, with papers on their 
breasts explaining the nature of their offence, and 
to pay 20 marks each." This punishment, we are 
told, made the remainder of the brethren more 
cautious in their proceedings, and their private 
meetings were gradually discontinued. 

Whiston, in his Boyle Lectures for 1707, in- 
sisted that the convulsive agitation of the French 
Prophets must be caused not by good but by evil 
spirits ; and certainly, if their vagaries at all re- 
sembled those of the fanatic whose conduct is 
recorded in the following paper, we need scarcely 
marvel at the view which he expressed. The 
broadside is printed exactly as it stands in the 
original : 

The French Prophetess turned Adamite. 
Being a True and Comical 


of a 

Pretended French Prophetess, who on Sunday the 16th 
f Noyember, did in a, very Immodest and Indecent 


. xi. JA. 10, 

manner (being inspired with a pretended Spirit) undress 
herself stark Naked at the Popish Chapel in Lincoln's- 
Inn Fields, and forced her self thro 1 the Croud up to the 
A Itar, in order to preach her new doctrine. 

On Sunday last, being tbe 16th of November, one of 
these sort of People pretending to be Inspired, and stiling 
themselyes Camisar Prophets, (or Prophetesses) as she 
was going by the Popish Cbappell in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, about 11 a Clock in the Forenoon, who pretended 
to be mov'd by the Spirit, went in amongst the Crowd, 
and got behind the Outer Door, where the People not 
minding her, she strip'd herself stark Naked as ever 
she was born; and as soon as the Ceremony of Mass 
was over, and the People going out at the other Door, 
she gets from behind the Door, and runs into tbe 
Chappel, directly up to tbe Altar, where she appeared 
in several Strange and Indecent Postures, and being 
seemingly full of the pretended Spirit, she did hold 
forth in a Powerful manner ; and could by no means 
be prevail'd upon to desist ; but on the contrary, told 
them she was come to Rtforin the People, and bring 
them to a right understanding. 

Whereupon several of the Ladies and Gentlewomen 
there present, being asham'd of the Immodesty of the 
Action, arid thinking her to be a poor distracted Person, 
took Compassion of her, and would have cover'd her 
with their Clothes, but the Spirit being warm within, 
caused her to feel no cold without, she refused their 
Civility and would not bo cover'd, saying, That the Lord 
commanded her to come in ihut manner as his Messenger, 
to set forth the true Doctrine. She continued in that 
Posture holding forth the space of a Quarter of an 
Hour, till at last the Spirit began to grow cool in her, 
ehe thereupon dress'd her self, and went away, having 
put the Congregation into a great Consternation. 

Too many of these Frensical Persons have we in this 
Kingdom, of different Sexes and Countries, who under 
pretence of their being Inspired, use many Blasphemous 
Expressions in their holding forth, to the great Scandal 
of Religion, and abuse to the Kingdom in general. 
London : Printed for E. H. near Ludgate. 
The " Popish Chapel in Lincoln's Inn Fields " is, 
I suppose, the Sardinian Cbapel in Duke Street, 
plundered and demolished in the Lord George 
Gordon riots in 1780. Malcolm tells the story 
in a few words : 

" There were thousands of them on Wednesday at the 
Spanish Ambassador's, they not leaving any wainscot 
withins-ide the House or Chappel, taking away great 
quantities of plate, with much money, household goods 
and writings, verifying the old proverb, All fish that 
came to the net. The spoil of the house was very great, 
divers papists having gent their goods in thither, as 
judging that the securest place." Malcolm, Anecdotes, 
i. 377, quoting the Mnyliuli Courant and London Mer- 

The readers of Barnaby Rudge will not need to 
be reminded how the Protestant lambs sought to 
lead the benighted Papists into the true fold : 
" From the chapels they tore down and took away 
the very altars, benches, pulpits, pews, and floor- 
ing : from the dwelling houses, the very wains- 
coting and stairs" (chap. lii.). 

The chapel was originally built in 1648, as a 
chapel to the residence of the Sardinian ambas- 
sador. It was rebuilt and enlarged after the 
Gordon riots. A short but interesting notice of 
the chapel will be found in Old and New London 

(vol. iii. p. 47, "Westminster and the Western 
Suburbs," by Edw. Walford). 


(Continued from Q^ S. x. 404.) 
Sicknesses and their Cures. Most diseases are 
brought upon us by our enemies, and therefore 
cannot be cured except by incantation?.* By means 
of bones of the dead, bits of winding-sheets, mould 
from the churchyard, and consecrated soilf people 
can bring all manner of evil to their enemies, such 
as falling sickness, idiotcy, consumption, &c. Not 
so much as a pinch of mould must be taken from 
the churchyard without paying for ir, as, if this 
were done, the dead would torment the offender ; 

* Amongst the Hungarians diseases are grouped 
under two heads, viz., those which are due to 
natural causes and those whose origin is attributed 
to some enemy. To the latter belong ?uch diseases 
as madness, which is said to be caused by an evil 
spirit having taken up its residence in the patient; 
lunacy, when the patient is said to be carried off by 
goblins, or "white women," who make liitn dance every 
night ; convulsions, which are due to the maliciousness 
of evil spirits. "The folk medicine" is a collec ion of 
strange and grotesque ceremonies (vide " Szekely Folk 
Medicine," Folk-lore Journal, April, 1884). Some few- 
examples may be found of interest. When the cholera 
broke out in one of the villages the people attributed the 
outbreak to an old woman who had died shortly before, and 
who was said to have been a witch in her lifetime. The 
corpse was dug up and replaced in the grave face down- 
wards. When the rinderpest broke out in another 
village the same remedy was tried; but as it had no 
effect, the shirt of the corpse was turned inside out and 
put on again. The plague still continued, go the corpse 
was unearthed again, and the heart taken out and divided 
into quarters, one quarter being burnt at each of the 
four corners of the village, and the stricken herd driven 
through the smoke. Varga Janos says that he has an 
old MS. in his possession (which formerly belonged to a 
celebrated medicine man who practised over three 
countries), from which he quotes the following piece 
of folk medicine. Jaundice is contracted by looking 
through the window into a house where there is a corpse 
laid, out (the corpse must be seen). Cure: take nine 
"creepers" from the head of a person with the same 
Christian name as the patient ; the nine insects are to 
be put into an apple and the whole baked. This the 
patient was to devour. This being done, the fseces (in- 
gredients of this class occupied an important place in the 
pharmacopoeia of the medigeval physicians; *ee Liber 
Secundus, Practicce Haly, cap. li., " De Stercoribus et 
Fines," p. 178, Leyden, 1623) of a person bearing the same 
Christian name as the afflicted one must be placed ill 
a hard-boiled e.s-g, the yolk being first removed; the egg 
must then be sewn into a small bag and placed secretly 
under the altar, and three masses said over it. It waa 
then to be hung round the patient's neck, who was to 
wear it for nine days. This performance is to be re- 
peated nine times. It appears that one "doctor" had 
altogether six cases under his care, but it does not seem 
as if one of them got beyond the first stage. Vide Mit- 
ford's Tales of Old Japan, p. 268. 

t The soil the priest throws on the coffin. (Vide 
Black's Folk-Medicine, p. 97; " N. & Q.," 6> S. viii, 443.) 

6> S. XI. JAX. 10, '86.) 



they are not, however, particular as to the value 
of the coin, but are satisfied with a pin, an old 
button or coin in compensation for a finger or 
suchlike. Love charms and troll drinks are often 
used, and are said to be of great value and to have 
great power over people.* 

Books on the black art exist in the popular 
belief, and contain, besides the Lord's Prayer 
backwards, all manner of instruction in witchcraft; 
they are written in red letters on black leaves t 
Such a book is to be got from the devil when one 
gives him a contract, written in one's own blood, 
assigning him the soul for time and eternity. In 
order to got this book one must go to the church on 
All Saints' night with a wizard, who opens the 
door by blowing in a human bone. The man who 
seeks the book must then jump over the threshold 
with both feet at once, because the church doors 
shut again so soon as the person has passed, and 
so if any one goes in as usual he will lose for ever 
that part which is last.t The man receives before 
the altar the book, which from that time can 
never bo got rid of. If the volume be torn leaf 
from leaf, burned, drowned, or in any other way 
destroyed, it will always return and be found 
in its owner's pocket. It is, however, said that 
an old man by creeping on his knees to the church 
on Good Friday night and there putting the book 
under the foundation stone will get rid of the 
black book, when penance and remorse forbid 
him to use it again. 

When one has a slight sprain, called " knarr," 

* Of. Mitf orcl's Tales of Old Japan, p. 28 ; " N. & Q.," 
6h S. viii. 324. 

f Hylten-Cavallius states that a man in Varend knew 
of these so-called "black books," ''The Great" and 
"The Small." The first was generally known by the 
name ju*t given, whilst the second was often called 
simply " The Book," or " Cypriani Formatting " (warn- 
ing), or "Kristi He'gedom" (sanctuary), and contained 
troll formulae " to prottct N. N., a servant of Christ, 
from the devil and all other evil spirits," " to protect 
N. N., a servant of Clirist, his calves, cows, &c., from the 
trolls and evil men." The book seema to have had a 
foreign origin; from the number of Danish words 
scattered through the incantations it probably came 
from Denmark. 

$ Thia is a common incident in Lapp tales. 

Knarr (in German Knirrband) is a complaint 
which is generally to be found during the harvest amongst 
those who are not used to the reaping-hook. Amongst its 
symptoms are curious crackings of the wrist. In East 
Bothnia it is treated in the following way. The afflicted 
asks some healthy person " to chop his knarr" for him, 
which ia done as follows. The man lays his knarring 
hand upon a chopping - block, and three pieces of 
three-jointed straw are laid across it, so as to corre- 
spond joint for joint. Then the doctor takes an axe 
and chops with nil his might into the block through 
the first joint of the straw. Whereupon the patient 
asks. "What are you chopping? " " I am chopping the 
knarr out of your joint into the wood," is the reply. 
The fame questions and answers are given after the 
next blow of the axe, when the straw is divided at Another 

he seeks for some one who is noted for curing 
" knarr." A small log of wood is placed on the 
threshold ; the doctor chops the log with an axe, 
and the sick one says, "What are you chopping ? " 
The answer comes, " I chop the knarrin, taking the 
pain out of your joint into the wood." The sick one 
must then go away without thanks or payment, 
and is said to be convalescent. Another cure for 
" knarr " is " knarrbandet " (knarr-band). This is 
made of nine sorts of wool thread, and is bound 
round the joint, the binder at the same time saying, 
" As soon out as in." The " knarr " will then be 
cured so soon as the band is worn out. To cure 
sprains and such-like a compound is made of butter, 
or lard, and corn brandy, while a magic formula 
is repeated, the sprain is then smeared and rubbed 
with the mixture. Over the milk with which it 
is customary to rub the joint is read the formula, 
"Twisted or stretched, broken or cracked, all 
round in a ring. Better, better. Amen," or " Out 
of the joint, in the joint ; out of the flesh, in the 
flesh ; out of the sinew, and in the sinew." 

Whitlows, boils, and eruptions* proceed from 
elf-shot, and are cured by bathing them with corn 

joint. When the last blow is given the chopper cries, " He 
fdr nu ! " that is, " He 's gone now ! " This is called chop- 
ping the knarr. In North Germany the same ceremony 
is enacted with this difference : the patient there lays his 
sick hand on the threshold of the door, and the ceremony 
ends by the sick hand being signed with the sign of the 
cross in God's name. This curious rite is said to be derived 
from the Saviour's words to his followers, " If thy hand 
or thy foot offend thee, cut it off and cast it from thee "; 
the hand being in this disease regarded in a certain 
sense as an offence, as it cannot be used during the all- 
important harvest time. The cutting is, of course, only 
symbolical, and falls upon the straw of the field, which 
is regarded as the origin of the evil. The threefold 
questioning may be compared with the Nyland way of 
curing spring ague. The sick one, with his band full 
of ashes, marches three times round a stone " against 
the sun," sowing the contents of his hand as he goes. 
As he is going round, some one sayg, " What are you 
sowing ? " " Spring," is the reply. " Why are you doing 
so?" "To cure myself." The action in this case is 
entirely symbolic, and the solemn questioning and 
answering is said to be used because the persons who 
enact the ceremony believe the spirits who caused the evil 
to be present, and by a bold and emphatical declara- 
tion of " I chop " and " I sow " show the invisible ones 
the determination to defeat them. After the straw haa 
been chopped, or the ashes sown, the sick one is sup- 
posed to recover. Cf. A. Kuhn and W. Schwartz, N. D. 
Sagen und Gelrande, i. 443 ; Finska. Fornminnes Fore- 
ningens Tid*krift, v. 1882; Black's Folk Medicine, cap. ii. 

* There are numerous formulae for diseases of this 
class. I may instance one sent to me by Prof. Freuden- 
thai from Helsingfors : 
" The Virgin Mary went out for a walk, 

So there came a pain shot shooting 

Ten of Jesus'a fingers, and twelve of God'a angela 
took it away, 

To heal men. 

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 

Holy Ghost. Amen." 
Cf. Henderson, 16.0, 166, 171, 185 ; Black, 123, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6 th & XL JAN. 10, '85. 

brandy, over which the following has been read, 
" God protect thee from shot, from elf-shot, and 
all shot," or " Givest thou blood shot, givest thou 
gut shot, givest thou all shot ? Then go away to 
where you came from." 

When an animal's stomach begins to swell very 
fast then it is shot through by trolls, and may be 
cured by putting a dung-beetle in salt, spitting* 
three times and saying, " I put you between the 
yard and the gate from sunrise till sunset." 

For viper bitef the following is read over milk 
or liquorice, "Virgin Mary, she gave me a swad- 
dling cloth; she bade me bind the viper from head 
to tail, and after that it was never to smart or 

When any one is bleeding to death$ the blood 
can be stopped by putting the " nameless " finger 
(third on the right hand) on the place and saying, 
" Jesus and John were standing in the river, John 
stopped the water and Jesus the blood. Believe 
in the Lord's name." This formula is considered 
so holy that it is only used in the most dangerous 
cases, when life is in danger. 

Fastna is a kind of rash|| that is brought on by 
drinking hard water, and may be cured by throw- 
ing as much water as has been drunk into the 
spring or well from which the water has been 
taken, whiht the sufferer mentions his own 
name and his father's, continuing, "I want my 
health back." If this fails, one must take filings 
and shavings of nine metals, and from a north wall 

* Cf. Mitford, Tales of Old Japan, 32. 

f Cf. Beauvois, La Magieckez les Finnois, iii.2 1," Contra 
la Morsure du Serpent ":_" Noir reptile qui ressembles 
a la terre, ver livide comme la mort, vesicule qui te 
tiens dang le gazon, miserable qui vis sous la racine de 
1'herbe, qui penetres dans les tombeaux, qui te glisses 
au pied des arbres, qui t'a fait sortir du gazon 1 
qui t'a eveille de dessous 1'herbe pour tamper sur la 
terre, pour tortiller sur le chenim? qui t'a fait 
lever le nez ] qui t'a commande, qui t'a excite 
a dresser la tete, a roidir le cou, malgre la defense 
de Jumala 1 ? Ton createur t'a present de ramper sur le 
ventre, de ronger la pierre. Est-ce ton pere qui t'a 
excite, ou tea ancetres qui t'ont pousse a cette vilaine 
besogne, a ce grand mefait, a tuer avec ta langue, ou 
avec tes venirneuses gencivea] Ou bien le fais-tu de ton 
propre ^chef, en vertu de ton propre instinct? Mora 
tes petits, mechant, ta propre progeniture, et non la 
peau de 1'nomme, non le duvet de la creature ! " 

J Cf. Black's Folk Medicine, pp. 62, 76, 139; Hen- 
derson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, 153. 

The finders on the right hand are called turn, pek- 
linysr (point finger), lang finger, namnlotfinyret, and lill 
Knyer. On the left hand the same, with' the exception 
of the third finger, which is called gidlbrand or ring- 
finger. See a beautiful Gotland folk-tale called " De t'io 
tjenstandarna." In Holderneas "fuzz balls " are used 
for the purpose of stopping the blood. 

|! In Hungary external sores, wounds, and sore nails 
are cured by placing a live frog over the place ; and a 
rash called St. Anthony's fire is healed if a man whose 
Christian name is Anthony strikes fire from a flint and 
steel. Flint and steel are still extensively used by 
smokers in the rural districts. 

three stones, which must be made white hot and 
put, together with the filings, in water from a 
stream which flows northward. The stones must 
be allowed to cool, and then put back in the wall 
from which they were taken. With the water 
that has been prepared in this way the sufferer 
must wash on three Thursdays, after which the 
water must be poured out towards the north, with 
the prayer, " I beg my health back again.' 7 * 

No thanks must be returned for any medicine, 
but the receiver must rather act as if the one 
from whom he bought or received the medicine 
had reason to be thankful. 

If a charm-maker teaches witchcraft to one older 
than himself, he loses all his power ;f but he may 
teach one younger than himself ; yet the learner 
must be very careful never to thank his teacher. % 

The following items were collected in the neigh- 
bourhood of Abo : 

It is the custom for the poor people (especially 
in the villages) to take cloves with them to church, 
which they eat during the service. Sometimes 
they take ginger or cardamom, and in the shops 
there is a mixture sold called kyrkokrydder, i.e., 
(f church spices." This the peasants buy to eat 
during service. 

When the bark of the spruce fir (tall) is taken 
off, there is a sort of thin white skin found in the 
inner side of the bark. This is very sweet, and is 
chewed by the peasants. 

It used to be the custom to cut a hole in the 
bark of the birch, under which a cup was placed 
to collect the juice as it oozed out, which juice 
was made into mead, and drunk on May 1. 

If it begins to rain on Friday, it will not cease 
till the priest has said " Amen " in the pulpit on 

If a man wears his hat on the back of his head, 
he will be kind to his wife ; if over his forehead, 
he will be a bad husband. 

A man who does not like cats will behave 
badly to his wife. 

If you pull the cat's tail you will make her a 

If you feel a cold shiver down your back, death 
is walking over your grave. 

Winter comes sooa after " Sidenswans.'ll 

* Cf. Henderson, 107 ; Black, 106. 

f Cf. Black, p. 81, where there is an extract from tha 
Pall Mall Gazette of Nov. 23, 1868 : <f A man may tell a 
woman a charm, or a woman may tell a man, but if a 
woman tell a woman, or a man a man, I consider it won't 
do any good at all." 

J I am deeply indebted to Froken Alma Solfverarm 
for the above Petalak lore. I ought to have said that 
Petalax (or Petelaks) is a parish in East Bothnia, about 
twenty miles from Waa, with a population of 2,037 
persons, of whom six speak Finnish (Dec. 31, 1881) and 
the rest Swedish. 

8 Vide"N. &Q.,"6'hS.viii.44J, 

f " Chatterer." 

6* 8. XI. JAN. 10, '85.] 


Fourteen days after you see the goldfinch, the 
ice will break up. 

If a raven croaks, or a magpie flies three times 
over the house, it is a sign of death. 

If you meet an old woman when you go out of 
the bouse for the first time during the day, you 
will hear of something unpleasant before long. 

It is very unlucky to say " Lycka till >; * to a 
hunter or fisher when he is going oat. 

If a black spider with a white cross on it comes 
upon you, a relation will die ere long. If a grey 
spider spins a web in a young lady's room, it is 
a sign of her speedy engagement. Spiders must 
never be killed. If you put your waistcoat on 
inside out, you will be lucky that day. 

The person who sits longest at any meal will 
live longest. 

If a house is 'set on fire by lightning, it can 
never be put out. 

If a woman is the first customer in a shop, the 
tradesman will have ill luck that day. 

Sailors will not sail on Friday. 


York House, Skirbeck Quarter, Boston. 
(To be continued.) 

I was called up to London early in January, 
1830, on the sudden death of Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, P.R.A., as one of his nearest relatives, a 
nephew, to take charge of his house in Russell 
Square, with all its valuable art treasures. I con- 
tinued to reside there till after his funeral. In his 
sitting-room was a waste-paper basket full of 
letters, most of little or no consequence. Amongst 
them, however, I found a letter from Rome, from 
the celebrated artist J; M. W. Turner, which, as 
containing observations on the "Last Judgment," 
by Michael Angelo, in the Sistine Chapel, may, I 
think, be of interest to your readers. It has 
hitherto been unpublished. 

I was with Sir Thomas Lawrence only a few 
days before his death, and I am the last of his 
relatives who saw him alive. Mr. J. M. W. 
Turner made a sketch in water colours of his 
funeral, in which the coffin is represented being 
carried in at the west door of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
The first group of mourners are depicted following 
the coffin; these were the relatives in blood of the 
deceased, my five brothers and myself. Of the 
former only one survives, the Rev. J. R. Bloxam, 
D.D., of Beeding Priory, Sussex. 

Of the notabilities I have at different times met 
with at No. 65, Russell Square one was the veteran 
artist Thomas Stothard. This was in June, 1829; 
he was then in his seventy-fourth year. It was in 
the evening, and the party consisted of Sir Thos. 
Lawrence, Mr. Stothard, and myself: 

* "Good luck," 

Piazza Mignarilli. 

DEAR SIR THOMAS, Allow me to thank you for your 
casting vote in favour of Charles Turner, and the kind 
and flatting [c] notice of his talent with which you 
bestowed it. 

I have but little to tell you in the way of Art, and 
that little but ill calculated to pive you pleasure. The 
Sistine Chapel Sybils and Prophets of the ceiling are 
as grand, magnificent, and overwhelmingto contemplation 
as ever, but the " Last Judgment " has suffered much by 
scraping and cleaning, particularly the sky in the lower- 
most part of the subject, so that the whole of the front 
figures are in consequence one muddle ; and it will dis- 
tress you to hear that a Canopy (for the Host, the chapel 
being now fitted up for divine service) is fixed by 4 hoops 
in the picture, and altho' nothing of the picture is ob- 
literated by the points falling in tho [unreadable] part, 
yet the key note of the whole sentiment is lost; for 
Charon is behind the eaid canopy, and the rising from 
the dead and the Inferno are no longer divided by his 
iron mace driving out the trembling crew from his 
fragile bark. 

Before quitting the subject it is but justice to a de- 
parted Spirit, whose words and works will long dwell in 
your remembrance, and I hope so in mine, to acknow- 
ledge my errors in thinking his remark, viz., To my eye 
it doth possess some good color of Flesh. That a second 
look at the "Last Judgment " I must admit of, for there 
are some figures in the Inferno side worthy of our friend 
Fuseli's words. Orvieto I have seen and Signorelli threo 
ehiny [unreadable] father of the rising of the dead in 
Inferno, and Michael Angelo has condescended to borrow 
largely and not in the case of the demon flying away with 
the [unreadable] improved it. Mr. Ottley will call me 
to account for so daring an opinion, but I must defend 
myself with all due humility in person, I hope about the 
beginning of February, when I shall feel truly happy to 
pay my respects to you in Eussell Square. In the mean, 
time, Believe me most truly yours, 


Excuse haste. 
(Addressed) Sir Tho 1 Lawrence, P.R.A., Russell Square, 


(Post Mark) Roma F PO DE 15, 1828, NoV 27, 12, 
Piazza Mignarelli. 



IRELAND IN 1641. Among the MSS. of the 
British Museum is an account and note book of a 
certain Dr. Arthur, who settled as a physician at 
Limerick in the spring of 1619. He had been 
educated at Paris, and was evidently a man of 
letters as well as a physician, for he gives in his 
note-book the catalogue of a rather extensive library. 
In 1630 he migrated to Dublin, but was accus- 
tomed to go to Limerick for some months in the 
summer, with a view to visiting his old patients. 
His register of cases and fees is continued till near 
the Restoration, but his practice fell off seriously 
after the Irish troubles in 1641. He seems to 
have been a Roman Catholic, for while every year's 
account is summed up with a pious ejaculation of 
thankfulness, the head of every year commences 
with the words " Jesu, Maria," a cross being inter- 
posed between the two names. The whole book is 
well worth the care of a student of leechcraft, It 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. XL JAN. 10, '85. 

is the following passage to which I wish to call 
attention : 

" f Af er June 13, 1641.] Abhinc nnllam honorariorum 
certain rati-i.e-i i"i<" '2 Septemt.ri*. Dublmio 
cessi ru8, et lerris tneii <1e Jn-himore nrptis, forefo et 
epibii* cirauiimiuiiiemlis diUtienlem [sic] nperam uavavi, 
tutandi fnndi causa, ne infe^tis vicmi* furlbui ft pecori- 
bu pervius foret, quum tandem repentino linjus belli 
ex-Ttu frequent! praedonum palataa res meas infVs- 
tuntium et depopulantmm incursu, deerere et Lyme- 
ricam in civitatemrefugii me cum uxore Hterig et familia 
omnibus bonis destitutuin recipere coactua sum, ubi 
aliqui segri salubrium beneficiorum a me acceptorum 
memores r'censenda deinceps honoraria mihi detulerunt 
quorum tenuitas et paucitas rectam seriem averaantur. 

House of Commons. 

LIGION OF NATURE." It is generally asserted that 
Benjamin Franklin was engaged as compositor on 
the second printed edition (1724) of this book. A 
comparison of dates, however, shows that the 
"Franklin" edition was that of 1725 (the second 
published edition), the 1724 edition having been 
published about two months before Franklin 
reached London. 

To the sixth, seventh, and eighth editions of 
The Religion of Nature a memoir of the author is 
prefixed, the writer of which had evidently access 
to Wollaston's private paper?. From this memoir 
I take the following brief quotation (the italics are 

" He [Wollaston] had, in the year 1722, printed off a 
few copies of it [Tke Religion of Nature} for private use, 
and as soon as he had 'done BO, he began to turn his 
thoughts to the third question : as appears by a manu- 
script intitled Heads and Materials for an answer to 
question 3, set down rudely and any how, in order to be 
considered, &c., after they are got into some order. 
July 4, 1723 However, in this design he had oppor- 
tunity to make but a very small progress. For it was 
just about this time that, at the instance and persuasion 
of his friends, he set about revising and publishing the 
following work, wherein he had answered the two first 
of the proposed questions : Resolving, aa soon as that 
should be done, to return to and finish his answer to the 
third question. But in this he was disappointed. For 
immediately after he had compleated the revised and pub- 
lication of the following treatise, an accident (of breaking 
his arm) increased his distempers and accelerated his 
death, which happened upon the 29th of October, 1721" 

It is clear from this passage that the 1724 edition 
was published before Wollaston's death in October 
of that year, and this is confirmed by a printer's 
note in the edition of the year following, to the 
effect that " some more [small alterations] of the 
same kind were made by the author a few days 
before his death, which are inserted in this im 

Turning now to the autobiography of Benjamin 
Franklin, we find his statement to be as follows 
(the italics are mine) : 

"We arrived in London the 24th December, 1724 

For myself I immediate^ got work at Palmer's., a famous 

printing office in Bartholomew Close, where 1 continued 
tear a year A.t Palmer's I wg employed in com- 
posing for the eeound edition of Wollaston's Reliyion of 
Nature, &o." 

It follows from a comparison of these dates that 
franklin c-mld not have been employed on the 
second printed edition. It also follows that while 
he was at Palmer's the 1725 edition (the second 
published edition) must have been passing through 
,he printing office ; from which, also, the conclu- 

ion is irresistible that this is the edition to which 
le refers. There is nothing on the title-page to 
show whether it was second or third. 

The mistake I am endeavouring to correct has 
been due, no doubt, to the imperfect character of 

he current editions of the autobiography, from 
which the first date in the quotation given above 
was omitted. Until republished from the Ameri- 
can edition by Bohn in 1850, no verbatim transcript 
from the original MS. had been printed in this 
country, that which was published being a retrans- 
tation from a French version. 

I should like to add that I have not been able 
to examine a copy of the 1724 edition of The 
Religion of Nature. It is neither in the British 
Museum nor in Dr. Williams's Library. 

J. T. Y. 

phrase, which is quite new to me, and probably 
also to many of your readers, seems worth being 
introduced to their notice. The special correspon- 
dent of the Daily News, writing about the " great 
mass meeting at Bristol," on Saturday, Oct. 18, 
1884, remarks, in the issue of that paper for 
Oct. 20: 

" There is a well-understood phrase in this part of the 
West, ' Ship-shape, and Bristol fashion.' It signifies re- 
spectability, steadiness, stolidity, and, some would per- 
haps say, a tendency to the slowness that is based upon 
deliberation. The route, of little less than three miles, 

was lined on either side by unbroken lines of people 

Yet there was little shouting or cheering en route I 

remarked on the absence of the running roar of applause, 
which has been my experience of other demonstrations 
in different parts of the country, but the gentlemen 
riding with me explained that this was their way 
' Ship-shape and Bristol fashion.' " 


"ROBINSON CRUSOE." In the MS. collections 
of the Rev. John Rippon, D.D., relating to Bun- 
hill Fields churchyard, the following appears with 
regard to Daniel Defoe in the doctor's own hand- 
writing : " His MS. of Robinson Crusoe ran 
through the whole trade, and no one would print 
it. The bookseller who at last bought it cleared 
one thousand guineas by it." Dr. Rippon, who 
was sixty years a London minister of the Baptist 
denomination, and whose fame as a hymnologist 
will long survive, formed the collection in the 
early decades of this century, and it is a mine of 
valuable biography and of incidental literary 

6ti S. XL JAN. 10, '86.] 



notices. The Baptist Annual Register from 1793 
to 1802 was edited by him. He was brother of 
Thomas Rippon, chief cashier of the Bank of 
England, who had his financial training under the 
famous chief cashier Abraham Newland. The 
British Museum purchased several bulky volumes 
of these biographical pieces, alphabetically ar- 
ranged, from "Mrs. Rippon, 23rd July, 18YO." 
This lady must have been his daughter-in-law, his 
wife being dead many years before. The relations 
of so important a member of the body of which 
Mr. Spurgeon is now the ornament must be well 
known in the denomination. It would be inter- 
esting to hear of the above " Mrs. Rippon," and 
of any other of the reverend author's family. One 
of his sons is mentioned in a collection of corre- 
spondence which he made, several volumes of 
which are also in the Museum. T. S. 

the following from an old French song, in MS. 
and anonymous. No doubt, however, it exists in 

" Boire a la Capucine 
C'est boire pauvrement j 
Boire a la Celestine 
C'est boire largement; 
Boire a la Jacobine 
C'est chopin a chopin ; 
Mais boire en Cordelier 
C'est vider le cellier." 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

I GELOSI. In " The Courtiers Academie, trans- 
lated from the Italian of Count Haniball Romei 
by J. Kepers, London, 1598," mention is made of 
these comedians in the following passage: 

" Evening beeing come, his highnesse caused a most 
pleasant Comedie to bee recited by the Gelosi. These 
bee certain Comedians, who requested everie yeare by 
his highnesse, are wont to come in the end of Autumne, 
and hee taketh them along to the sea side, as also the 
whole Carnevale or Shrovetide, to their great gaine, 
and contentment of all the Cittie. They employ them- 
selves in Cominicall representations, and are verie apte 
in imitating all manner of persons and actions humane, 
but especially those, which are fittest to procure 
laughter, in which poynte they are so prompt and ex- 
cellent, that they would make Heraditus himsdfe to 
laugh." Of Humane Love, p. 76. 

Were these an. imaginary body of actors ; or if really 
existing is anything known about them ? 


TO HENRY FIKEBRACE. (See 6 tb S. x. 208, 278, 
391.) Your correspondents have given valuable 
information as to some of the clothing and trinkets, 

&c. , worn by Charles I. on the day of his execu- 
tion, and by mentioning the persons into whose 
possession they have since passed. Would it not 
be as well to obtain once for all, now the subject 
is on the tapis in " N. & Q.," every information 
relating to all the clothing and trinkets, &c., worn 
by the king upon that ill-fated day ? Will your 
readers, therefore, give the most precise informa- 
tion possible (quoting authorities) in regard to the 
gift of his miniature by the king to Henry Fire- 
brace on the day of his execution ? Burke, in his 
Peerage, sub " Denbigh," says: 

" Basil, fourth Earl of Denbigh and third Earl of Des- 
mond, married Hester, daughter of Sir Basil Firebrace, 
Bart., son of the devoted Royalist Sir Henry Firebrace, 
who attended King Charles I. to the scaffold, and received 
from His Majesty at the moment of decapitation his 
miniature set in diamonds in a small ring, which has 
descended to, and is still possessed by, the present Earl 
of Denbigh," &c. 

This is the only authority I have hitherto found 
for this statement. Surely there must be others. 
Which are they ? I am most anxious to know, as 
I am writing an account of the Firebrace family. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

HUGO GRANDO DE SCOCA is entered in Domes- 
day as an under-tenant in Berkshire. Can any 
of your readers tell me anything about him, or 
explain the meaning of de Scoca ? C. L. W. 

COPPERHEAD. Whence and what? Is it an 
Americanism ? I have heard the plural applied 
to the anti-jingo party I mean those who grudge 
the taxes necessary to carry on a war. 

C. M. I. 

Athenaeum Club. 

[In Dr. Brewer's Reader's Handbook the name is said 
to have been applied to the members of a faction in the 
North during the Civil War. The copperhead snake is 
a poisonous reptile (Tieyonocephalus contortrix), which 
gives no warning of its approach, and so is a type of a 
secret foe.] 

DELLA CRUSCA. Can any of your readers refer 
me to a satisfactory definition of the " Delia 
Cruscun school of writing"? It is briefly men- 
tioned in " N. & Q.," 1 st S. xi. 302, but no ex- 
planation of the term is given there. 


Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

GENEALOGICAL. Gilbert, Earl of Clare, Glou- 
cester, and Hertford, the last of his line, who was 
slain at Stirling in 1313, is said to have married 
Matilda, daughter of John, son and heir of Richard 
de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. Upon Gilbert's death, 
with failure of issue, his large estates were 
divided between his three sisters, coheiresses, of 
whom Elizabeth, the youngest, is said to have 
married John, son and heir of Richard de Burgh, 
Earl of Ulster. To my mind there is confusion 
here, which requires explanation. She could not 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. XL JA*. 10, '85. 

have been the mother of Matilda, her brother's 
wife, as she (Elizabeth) was married in 1308, only 
fire years before her brother's death. There seem 
to be two ways out of the difficulty: first, that 
Matilda was a daughter of John de Burgh by a 
former marriage ; or, secondly, that the name of 
Elizabeth's husband was not John, but, as may 
be, William de Burgh. She had by her marriage 
one son William, and a daughter Elizabeth, 
who carried her honours to Lionel, Duke of 
Clarence, and the Mortimers. The only book to 
which I have access for reference is Vincent's 
JDiscoverie of Errovrs in Raphe Brooke's Catalogue 
of Nobility, 1622, which seems to be a work of 
standard authority on these subjects ; but I do 
not find this difficulty noticed. In a genealogical 
table of descents, purporting to be taken from W. 
Oamden, in A Eeview of YorJce's Second Edition, 
p. 669, it is stated that Elizabeth de Clare, who 
had successively three husbands, if not a fourth, 
had for her first William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster; 
but this statement is set aside in another table of 
descent, wherein she is given to John de Burgh. 
Vincent shows that she was not the second 
daughter, but youngest of the three daughters of 
Gilbert de Clare, the " Red Earl," who died in 
1295. There is a notice of the De Burgh family 
in "K & Q.," 4 S. x., but I do not think that 
the difficulty which presents itself to my mind re- 
ceived particular notice. I shall be obliged to any 
one of your correspondents who will help me out 
of it. 

It may not be devoid of interest to lovers of old 
books to add that my copy of Vincent's Discoverie 
of Errovrs, &c., has on the title-page " J. Somers " 
in a small and very distinct handwriting, and the 
same in several short marginal notes, and in a table 
of contents evidently written by a lawyer. I am 
inclined to think it formerly belonged to Lord 
Chancellor Somers. T. W. W. S. 

TEMPLE OP PEACE. In his Diary, p. 88 (F. 
Warne & Co., London), Evelyn says of the Temple 
of Peace, completed by either Vespasian or his 
son: ''This goodly structure was, none knows 
how, consum'd by fire the very night, by all com- 
putation, that our Saviour was born." Can it be 
that Evelyn was ignorant of the fact that Vespasian 
died 79 A.D., about ten years after his accession to 
the throne ? W. J. B 

"FLY LEAVES." I have in my possession 
twenty-one numbers of a royal octavo periodical 
entitled Fly Leaves; or, Scraps and Sketches, 
Literary, Bibliographical, and Miscellaneous 
(Jan., 1853, to Sept., 1854). All the numbers are 
consecutive from the beginning, but there are con- 
siderable gaps in the pagination between each part 
leading me to think that it served as a supplement 
to some periodical, in the same way as Willis's 
Current Notes (which it resembles in character) 

was subordinate to the Price Current. Am I right 
in my supposition; and were any more than twenty- 
one numbers of this interesting little miscellany 
published? C. ELZIN MATHEWS. 

2, Dix's Field, Exeter. 

of your readers give me any information about 
this church ? On one of the beams of the nave 
roof are the initials 1*0 and E'R, and date 1678. 
It was apparently re-roofed then. In the restora- 
tions now going on we found a very good thir- 
teenth century flat tomb of a lady, whose figure 
is carved in bold relief, with her bauds clasped in 
prayer ; the figure is lying on its back, and rests 
behind three quatrefoil panels. The figure had 
been built over the south doorway as a lintel, 
doubtless in the repairs of 1678. No information 
can be gleaned from the parish registers, and the 
only entry of interest, a very frequent one, is 
burials " in wollen according to the Act." One 
entry, 1679, says "according to the late Act." 

A POLITICAL TOAST. I found it stated in an 
old magazine (the Working Bee for 1822) that 
during Cromwell's usurpation the Cavaliers usually 
put a crumb of bread into a glass of wine, and 
before they drank it would exclaim, with cautious 
ambiguity, " God send this crumb well down." 
Is there any real foundation for this story? It 
sounds to me ben trovato. 


Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

To GRUDGE : GRUGER. Is there any connexion 
between the English verb to grudge and the French 
gruger ? I find in Littre* that when the Canons 
of the Chapter of Paris sold a house and divided 
the profit they were said to gruger that property. 
When the Ancients of Staple Inn gruger (French) 
their property we grudge (English) them their 
profits. L. A. E. 

[Prof. Skeat gives O.F. grocer, yroucer, growhtr, to 
murmur; later gruger, to grudge, repine.] 

IVORY FERRAR. I was shown lately an im- 
pression of a copper plate, which seems to have 
been a trade advertisement of the person named 
above. I should say from the style that the plate 
belongs to the first half of the last century. The 
inscription is " Ivory Ferrar, at the Indian Queen, 
near Surry Street, in y e Strand, Makes and Sells 
all Sorts of Hats, Wholesale and Retail, at Rea- 
sonable Rates." At the top of the paper, which 
is altogether about half the size of a bank note, 
there is a picture of a group of people. The prin- 
cipal figure is the Indian queen, proceeding in a 
stately manner ; she holds a sceptre and is crowned. 
Five Indian boys surround her majesty, some of 
whom bear up her, train while others hold a 
circular canopy over her head. All the faces are 

6th S. XI. JAN. 10, '35.] 



black. Is anything known of this Ivory Ferrar 
either as to what family he came of, or whether h 
left any descendants who are still alive ? I have 
spoken of Ivory Ferrar as "he," but there is a 
legend in the Ferrar family that there once was an 
Ivory Ferrar who was a very lovely girl. 

W. H. P. 

DALLAS OF CANTRAY. Some twelve years ago 
I came across a statement in (I think a folio) 
history of the Highland clans, to the effect thai 
Dallas- of Cantray married the widow of John 
Shaw (Na Sia'ich), and that he was murdered by 
his stepson, Alan Shaw. The date was, I think 
about the close of the sixteenth century. Can 
any reader of " N. & Q." give me the reference or 
throw any light upon the question as to the name 
of the unfortunate Laird of Cantray, the parentage 
of the widow, and the exact date 1 

21, Wonford Road, Exeter. 

obliged if any of your correspondents can answer 
the following questions. Had George Monk, 
Duke of Albemarle, any other wife than Ann 
Clarges; if so, did he marry her before or after 
his marriage with Ann Clarges; and what was the 
lady's name ? Did Christopher Monk, second 
duke, marry a lady named Mann 1 J. C. 

COWELL. The Interpreter, by Dr. John Cowel, 
1637, is said to have been suppressed "as a per- 
nicious book, made against the prerogative of the 
King." It was supposed to attack the principles 
of common law, and was publicly burned. Where 
can I find more about it ? The name is commonly 
spelt CoweW, but it is given as " Dr. CoweZ " in 
edition 1672. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

considerable research I am unable to find any 
trace of the original picture. Can any reader help 
me to ascertain its present whereabouts? The 
engraving is, of course, well known. E. W. C. 

[The latest news we have of this picture is given by 
J.B.Nichols in 1839. That it was purchased by Sir 
Edward Walpole, and "lately" (before 1839) in the 
possession of John Pollett, Esq., of the Temple, London. 
John Gage, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, is stated by the same 
excellent authority to have a version of the subject. It 
will be noticed that the publication line of " The Bleep- 
ing Congregation " is " Invented, Engraved, and Pub- 
lished Oct. 26, 1736, by Wm. Hogarth." Nothing is 
said about the painting.] 

OLD PRINT. Death Preaching to a Sleeping 
Audience. Where can this old print be obtained ? 

H. T. E. 

MIDDLE TEMPLE. Can any of your correspon- 
dents inform me the best method of arriving at 

information concerning individuals who were pro- 
bably members of the Middle Temple in the six- 
teenth century ? I have found no difficulty in 
getting information from the other Courts, Inner 
Temple, Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, &c., but the 
Middle Temple appears to be a sealed book to 
outsiders. . D, G. C. E. 

of your readers inform me where the third volume 
of Hutchinson's Massachusetts, 1828, the only 
edition printed in London, is to be had, and its 
price ? S. V. H. 

COIN OF CHARLES I. Among my coins I have 
a siege piece (?) of Charles, of which I can find no 
mention. It is a crown rudely made and ham- 
mered. Obverse, C. E. under a crown in a circle ; 
reverse, a large V in a circle, with a small s above 
the V, but also in the circle. Where was it coined ; 
and is it known, or unique ? 


ADO. Can any of your correspondents explain 
the meaning and illustrate the use of this word in 
the following passage 1 

" To say somewhat of his haviour, his coat was of the 
colour of a well burnt brick (I mean not black), and 
well worth twenty pence a broad yard. It was prettily 
fresed, half with an ado; and hemmed round about 
very suitably with pasmain lace of preen caddis." The 
Expedition into Scotland in 1547, by W. Patten, January, 
1548, p. 92 ; Arber's English Garner, vol. iii. 

[ have not found this word in Dr. Murray's New 
English Dictionary. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

wblished lists of those persons who emigrated to 
America from England between and during the 
ears 1620 and 1685, in addition to those already 
iven by John Camden Hotten ? A reply will be 
esteemed a favour by WILLIAM H. CHAFFEE. 
Post Office Box 3068, New York City, U.S. 

CHARLES LYNEGAR. I should be obliged if 
any of your Irish readers could give me informa- 
ion concerning one Charles Lynegar, who in 
729 drew out a pedigree for one of his ancestors, 
n which he speaks of his own ancestors as being 
' successively chief antiquaries of Ireland. 

17, South Villas, Camden Square, N.W. 


" Breaks the long wave that at the Pole began." 


" The Honours of a Name 'tis just to guard : 
They are a Trust but lent us, which we take, 
And should in Reverence to the Donor's Fame, 
With Care transmit them down to other Hands." 

A. X. 

" Procul Armis et Discordia Curum." 

X. Y. Z. 



[6th s. XI. JAN. 10, '85. 

(6* S. x. 449.) 

There is no authority for saying that Cicero had 
a wart on his nose ; and if it has been so repre- 
sented on any bust or statue, the error is traceable 
to a mistaken reading of a passage in Plutarch's 
Life of Cicero referred to by Middleton. Plutarch, 
in tracing Cicero's pedigree, says : 

" He who, first of that house, was surnamed Cicero, 
eeems to have been a considerable person, because they 
who succeeded him did not only retain, but were fond of 
that name, though vulgarly made a subject of laughter. 
For the Latins call a vetch, deer, and a flat excrescence 
in the resemblance of a vetch on the tip of his nose, 
gave him the surname of Cicero." 

Middleton, in quoting this passage from Plutarch, 
has the following note : 

"This has given rise to a blunder of some sculptors 
who in the busts of Cicero have formed the resem- 
blance of this vetch on his nose ; not reflecting that it 
was the name only, and not the vetch itself which was 
transmitted to him by his ancestors. 1 ' 

Bernoulli, in his elegant work Romische Ikono- 
graphie, gives a portrait of Cicero copied from a 
bust in the Royal Museum at Madrid, which he 
pronounces to be the most authentic known, and 
perhaps taken from life. A plaster cast of tnat 
bust is now to be seen in the exhibition room of 
plaster casts just opened at the South Kensington 
Museum ; and there is certainly no appearance of 
a wart or verrucosus excrescence of any kind on 
that exquisitely intellectual face. Pliny thinks the 
family surname was acquired by skill in the culti- 
vation of the vetch, in the same manner as the 
names of Fabius, Lentulus, Piso, &c. 


This is what Erasmus wrote on the subject : 
" Marcus Tullius (for as moche as he was moche iested 
on for the surname of Cicero*) being warned by his 

'* As touching the surname of Cicero, it is to be 
noted, that this Marcus T^Ul^us, right well knowing his 
owne petigree and auncestrie, resumed the surname of 
the stucke, from whiche he was descended. For the 
firste Tuliius was surnamed Cicero, of a little piece of 
fleshe growing in the side of his nose, like to a cicer, 
whiche is a little pultz, moche like to a pease, some 
there been that call it the Fatche, but I doubt whether 
truely or not. But in the time of old antiquitee, a 
common thing it was, that families wer surn&med ol 
diuerse eoche thinges (saieth Plinius in the third chap 
iter of the 18 booke) as the familie of those, whiche wer 
in Roome called Pilumni, was first surnamed of the in- 
uenting of Pilum, whiche is a pestell, soche as thinges 
are braied withall in a mortare, and in olde time the: 
hadde none other waie to grinde their corne. Also 
Pisones wer surnamed, a pisendo, of grinding with a 
querle, because it was their inuencion. Those also 
(saieth he) whiche wer called Fabii, Lenluii, & Cice 
ronet had their surnames at the first of soche thingei 
in the sowing and housebandrie, whereof thei excelled 

riendes to chose and take unto him loxne other surname, 
answered that he would ere he died make the name of 
Cicero more noble and famous, then was the name 
ither of the Catons, or of the Catules, or els of the 

U For these houses were of especiall fame and re- 
noume emong the Eomains, wher as Tullius was a man 
mt newly come to Rome, and as yet vnknovven there. 
And as for the surname was a readie thyng to be iested 
at, because it appered to haue been deriued of the moste 
vyle Poultz called Cicer. Yea iwysse, as though the 
amilie of those Romainea whiche wer called Fabii, 
semed not to haue had that surname first of Benes 
whiche are in latine called Falfie) and they that were 
culled Lentuli. to haue been surnamed of an other Poultz 
which the latine men do cal, Lentem. B it to this pre- 
sent purpose, of slendre nobilitee & renoume is that 
manne, whiche huth none other poinct of nobilitee in 
lym besides the lineall descent of his auncestours and 
ris surname. The moste honorable kynde of nobilitee 
s that which euery man doeth purchace to himself by 
iis own propre vertues and good qualitees. Neither 
proued Marcus Tullius a false man of his worde, for the 
name of Ctcero is at this present daye more con-imen in 
eche mans mouthe, then are thre hundred soch as the 
Catules, and the Scaures with all their garlandes, their 
images of honour & their petigreea." Apopldhegmes of 
Erasmus. 1512, ff. 3C3-4. 

R. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

RECORDS OF CHANGE OF NAME (6 lh 3. x. 348, 
452). Most of the changes of name announced by 
advertisement whether by virtue of royal licence 
or the later invention of deed-poll will be found 
recorded in the now extinct Herald and Geneal- 
ogist, which has good indexes. For France there 
is a publication which would supply the desired 
information, namely, Dictionnairt des Families 
qui ont fait Modifier leur Noms par V Addition de 
la Particule [de, &c.] ou Autrement, en Vertu 
d'Ordonnances ou de Decrets, depuis 1803 jusqua 
1867. Paris, Libraire Bachelin-Deflorenne, 3, Quai 
Malaquais, 1867." It gives the names, prenoms, 
professions, and birthplaces, and dates of change in 
most cases, and contains in its thirty-one royal 
8vo. pages about 3 ; 500 entries. It includes only 
those persons who obtained Government authoriza- 
tion to change or alter their names, for in France 
the law on such matters is justly strict. The 
dictionary was the work of M. Baffin, Secretary 
of the Mairie of Beaujeu, though his name is not 
allowed a place in the title. 

As the book may not be easily procurable, I 
shall be pleased to supply information as to any 
name respecting which inquiry may be addressed 
to me direct. JOHN RIBTON GARSTIN. 

Braganstown, co . Louth. 

In many cases where parties have executed a 
deed-poll declaring their change of name, these 
deeds have been enrolled in Chancery (as any deed 
can be which is required to be permanently re- 
corded). I think the books into which these 
deeds are copied are still termed the " Close Roll." 

6d> S. XI. JAN. 10, '85.] 



They are kept at the Public Record Office, Fetter 
Lane. No enrolment ia compulsory, but it is done 
in most cases to preserve evidence of the change 


WORKS ON GARDENING (6 th S. x. 467). I should 
advise MR. BAILLIE to refer to the files of the Gar- 
deners' Chronicle from its commencement for reviews 
of the works on gardening as they appeared. An 
examination of the following may be to some 
extent useful : Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum 
Britannicum (in one volume), pp. 1123 to 1136 ; 
Hortus Britannicus, pp. xiii to xxi ; Encyclopaedia 
of Gardening, pp. xxiii to xxxix ; Don's General 
History of the Dichlamydeous Plants, vol. iv. 
p. 875 to end of vol. The Gardeners' Chronicle 
of 1867, p. 1308, quotes a " full list of the agri- 
cultural and horticultural publications of the last 
four years" (i.e., 1864, 1865, 1866,1867). The 
same journal of 1871, pp. 667 and 735, contains a 
couple of very interesting and exhaustive articles, 
which originally appeared in the Bookseller, on 
" Garden Literature." See also Cottage Gardener, 
vol. ii. p. 31, the article on " John Gerard e," 
passim. The catalogue of Mr. Wheldon, of Great 
Queen Street, invariably contains the names of a 
number of works on gardening and collateral sub- 
jects. The following publishers issue works on 
gardening : E. H. May, Journal of Horticulture 
office ; Macmillan ; Routledge & Sons ; L. Upcott 
Gill ; F. Warne & Co. ; Houlston & Sons ; Crosby 
Lockwood & Co.; and Blackwood & Sons, to 
whom Ma. BAILLIE should apply for catalogues. 


157, Camden Grove North, Peckham, S.B. 

[In addition to the above, ESTE and Miss KATE 
THOMPSON advise MR BAILLIE to consult a long list in 
the Country Gentleman's Reference Catalogue (Bumpus& 
Co., Oxford Street), p. 123. MR. JNO. CLAEl HUDSON 
recommends the Index to the English Catalogue of Books 
published during the Years 1837-57, 1856-76, 1874-80, 
3 vols.,and 1883-84, 1 vol. 8vo. (London, Sampson Low); 
also Mr. B. D. Jackson's Guide to the Literature of Botany 
(Index Society, 1881). G. F. R. B. adds : The Book of 
the Garden, by Charles Mclntosh (Blackwood, 1853); 
Mrs. Loudon's Amateur Gardener, edited by W. Robin- 
son (Warne) ; Gardening at a Glance, by George Glenny; 
The Flower Garden, by E. S. Delamer; The Kitchen 
Garden, by the same author ; Window Gardening and 
The Cottage Garden, by A. Meikle; Town Gardening, 
by B. C. Ravenscroft (all published by Routledge) ; 
Popular Gardening, edited by D. T. Fish, and now in 
course of publication by Cassell ; and a long article 
on " Horticulture " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
vol. xii. pp. 211-295 (last edition)'. SIR HERBKRT MAX- 
WKLL refers to the editor of the Garden, in which paper 
an exhaustive modern bibliography of gardening has 
been published.] 

BURNING OF WITCHES (6 th S. x. 468). On 
July 9, 1649, a warrant was granted by the Scotch 
estates of Parliament for the trial of Margaret 
Henderson for witchcraft upon the supplication of 

the General Assembly. The king's advocate was 
instructed to prosecute her before the Justice 
General and his deputies, and gave power to them 
" if shoe be guiltie of the said cryme of witchcraft 
to convict and condemne hir, pronunce sentence 
of death against cause strangle hir and burne hir 
bodie and doe everie requisit in sic caices" (Acts 
of the Parliament of Scotland, vol. vi. pt. ii. 
p. 490). In the same volume will be found the 
commission granted to certain persons to try three 
women accused of witchcraft., and if they be found 
guilty, to " pronunce and give furth the sentence 
of death against them cause strangle them and 
burne their bodies to death " (pp. 732-3). 

G. F. R. B. 

I believe that there is no question but that the 
authority to burn witches was taken from an 
extension of the powers of the Act of A.D. 1400 
(2 Henry IV. c. 15) " touching heresies." This 
was repealed by 29 Charles II. c. 9. 


"THE SPHINX" (6 th S. x. 248, 378, 475). I 
suppose some interest may conceivably attach to 
Mr. Silk Buckingham's Sphynx, but it was a sur- 
prise to me to find two correspondents of " N. & Q." 
remembering the existence of my poor frivolous 
Sphinx of 1866, which was simply a Long Vacation 
pastime. As it has been mentioned, it may give 
occasion for a note on the origin of the fashion 
of double acrostics. This, I believe, began with 
the success of a brilliant little society paper 
called the Owl, published during the London 
seasons of 1865 and 1866, in which the clever 
double acrostics, referring to topics of the day, 
formed an attractive feature. The Owl well de- 
serves to be remembered. It was charmingly got 
up, and the good taste and breeding of the writers 
gave an agreeable flivour to their presiflage. Al- 
though it must have paid well, it was not a com- 
mercial speculation, and it was thrown up so soon 
as the novelty had a little worn off. 

In reply to MR. ATTWOOD, I may mention that 
the provincial Sphinx only survived a month or 
two in the hands of my successor. If MR. ATT- 
WOOD had No. 4, he may have been amused at the 
expense of my grammar. Having scribbled some 
doggerel for the new editor, I at first headed it 
"Sphinx rediviva." Then, remembering that the 
Sphinx was more of a monster than a woman, and 
not having my dictionary at hand, and the thing 
having to go to press at once, I substituted 
" redivivum " ! C. C. MASSET. 

Ross FAMILY (6 th S. x. 307, 455). -The Ad- 
vocates' Library in Edinburgh contains prints of 
all the important lawsuits heard in Edinburgh. 
The House of Lords will probably contain prints 
of Monro (not Mungo) Ross's claims to the earl- 
dom of Ross, which claims were ruled in his favour. 


NOTES *AND QUERIES, [* a xi. JAN. 10, '85. 

Some pedigree lawyers do not agree with this find- 
ing of the Lords. Euffen Boss succeeded her 
father, William, eighth earl ; married first a Leslie 
of that ilk, secondly Alexander, Earl of Buchan, 
son of King Eobert II., and was succeeded by her 
son Alexander Leslie, and he by his daughter 
Euffen. This second Euffen became a nun, and 
resigned the earldom in favour of an Earl of 
Buchan ; whereupon Donald of the Isles marched 
up with a mighty force and claimed it in right of 
his wife Margaret, aunt of Euffen. Some say the 
succession now vests in the Macdonalds of Slate, 
his heirs, and failing that line it would fall to the 
heirs of Margaret and Joanna, younger daughters 
of William, eighth earl, among whom are Lord 
Saltoun, thus rendering it unnecessary to seek for 
an heir in the Baluagowan line. In 1755 Col. 
Lockhart, Sir Alex. Gilmour, Lord John Murray, 
Ross of Pitcalnie, and Ross of Invercharron not 
the last family, an earlier one all claimed Balna- 
gowan. It was absurd there should have arisen a 
law plea on the subject, for the entail was clear 
and well supplemented. At present there is no 
known chief. I am sorry I cannot give references 
at present for the above, such as charters or royal 
signatures, but they exist for great part of it. 

Rose Villa, Burnbam, Bucks. 

FINDKST THE PEARL" (6 th S. x. 266). With re- 
ference to the Talmudic proverb quoted lately 
by your correspondent MR. ABRAHAMS, which in 
purport is no other than the trite classical " Sic 
vos non vobis," I observe that he gives n^3"lD 
and fTOJID a s corruptions of the Latin Margarita. 
Can he or any other of your correspondents inform 
me whether the Latin ris ever transmuted into the 
Hebrew &, and whether the form D^JHD for pearl, 
ever occurs in Talmudic Hebrew? The form is 
found in Austro-Gallician family names. The 
change of the final n into D (samech) may be ac- 
counted for by the fact that both letters are simi- 
larly pronounced in Polish-Hebrew. The differ- 
ence, by the way. in the pronunciation of the n bv 
the Spanish and by the Polish Jews seems some- 
what analogous to the shibboleth and the sibbokth 
of Judges xii. 6. MARGARITA. 

Christopher Smart is, of course, best known by 
his excellent prose rendering of Horace j but his 
bong of David contains some noble passages which 
he wrote in a madhouse. When, after the cruel 
custom of those days, writing materials were 
denied -him, he would write on the walls with 
charcoal or scratch with a key on the wains- 
cot. All I can find about his death is that he died 
in the rules of the King's Bench Prison, of liver 

r? P J a l nfc - The life P refixed to his Poimi, pub- 
lished by his family, 1791, in two volumes, at 

Reading, gives the date of May 18, 1770. This 
is repeated by Chalmers, Cunningham, Gilfillan, 
and the English Cyclopaedia. Peter Cunningham 
gives 1771 as the year of his death. Chambers, in 
his Book of Days (i. 622), gives May 12, 1771. 
Phillips, in his Biog. Diet., leaning on Watt and 
Chalmers, adheres to 1770. Thomas Campbell 
gives 1770, but I suppose he took it for granted. 
Rees's Cyclopaedia, which generally, I think, has 
more of original research devoted to its compila- 
tion than other cyclopaedias, gives 1771, but none 
of them produces any authorities, so the memoir 
prefixed to the edition of Posms, 1791, as emanat- 
ing from the family, furnishes, presumably, the 
most trustworthy tradition. But not one of the lives 
mentions the burial-place. I wonder if MR. SOLLY, 
out of his vast repertory of London facts, so often 
and in so interesting a manner placed at our 
disposal, can say what was the customary burial- 
place for those dying within the limits of the 
King's Bench Prison. Wherever that might be 
would be one likely spot, and Reading, where the 
family lived, another. The life of Smart, with a 
suitable criticism on his works, has yet to be written. 
He is too much neglected. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

Christopher Smart died within the rules of the 
King's Bench Prison, and was, in that case, pro- 
bably buried there. J. WASTIE GREEN. 


REFERENCE WANTED (6 th S. x. 408). The story 
is told of Xenocrates by Valerius Maximus as 

" Quid? Xenocratis responeum quam laudabile ! cum 
maledico sermoni quorundam summo silentio interesset ; 
ufio ex his qussrente cur solus ita linguam cohiberet : 
Quia dixisse me, inquit, aliquando poenituit, tacuisse 
nunquam." Lib. vii. cap. ii. Externa, 6. 

Plutarch, however, attributes the saying to Sirno- 
nides in his treatise De Sanitate Tuenda : 

fvoL's ert, KaOdtrep 6 2i//,con%?? e'Acye, 


Se 7roAAa/as. Opp. Mor., fol., p. 125 d. 
There is a Latin couplet also, which contains the 

" Rumorem fuge, ne incipias novus aucfcor haberi; 
Nam nulli tacuisse nocet, nocet esse loquutum." 
Cato, De Morfais, I., xii. 74, Amst., 1754. 

S. x. 308,456). Allow me toprotest against the won- 
derful interpretation of Psalm cxxix. 3, propounded 
by A. D. in " N. & Q." for December 6, '' Israel is 
compared to an ox, and the oppressor to a merci- 
less ploughman, who increases the severity of the 
labour by riding upon the back of the animal 
as he ploughs the furrows long." The passage, 
according to the Hebrew, can only mean what it 
is commonly understood to mean, " The plowers 

. XL JAN. 10, '85.] 



plowed upon my back, and made long furrows 
(upon it) ; as Gesenius explains, " in dorso me< 
ararunt aratores," i.e., " dorsum verberibus, quas 
solum aratro, prosciderunt." E. B. 

ARMS WANTED (6 th S. x. 408, 476, 523). 
William Perkyns was one of the gentry of Berks 
returned by the Commissioners 12 Henry VI. 

William Perkins was a knight of the shire 9 
Henry V.; also 8 and 13 Henry VI. 

Francis Perkins, of Ufton, in the Commission 
of the Peace 1601, 43 Elizabeth. 

Anne Perkins, a recusant in 1715. 

Arabella Fermor, who married Mr. Francis 
Perkins, was the heroine of The Rape of the Lock. 

Ufton Court is an interesting old mansion house 
about seven miles from Reading, in the Old English 
style of domestic architecture, with, large gable ends 
and a terrace on the south front. 



THE FALLS OF NIAGARA (6 th S. x. 449). There 
is a pamphlet entitled An Account of a Journey to 
Niagara, Montreal, and Quebec in 1765 ; or, 'Tis 
Eighty Years Since. It was published at New 
York in 1846. Watt gives An Account of the 
Falls of the River Niagara, which was published 
in 1722. G. F. K. B. 

GUIDO GUINICELLI (6 th S. x. 469). There is an 
account of him in the Biographie Universelle, and 
one in Didot's Nouvelle Biog. Universelle. He is not 
mentioned by Bayle or Moreri. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

(6 th S. ix. 508; x. 98, 234, 373, 478). I remember 
to have been shown by the late Sir Henry Cole 
an original and curiously realistic caricature of the 
Mulready envelope by Mr. Thackeray. I am 
afraid I can scarcely describe it here, but should 
any of your correspondents care I will furnish 
them with the details. I believe the caricature is 
still preserved by one of the members of the family. 

K. C. B. 

LADY HOWARD (6 th S. x. 467). It is possible 
that she was the widow of Lord Thomas Howard, 
who was drowned Nov. 9, 1689, on his way from 
Ireland to France to join James II. If so, she was 
Elizabeth Maria, daughter and sole heir of Sir 
John Savile, of Copley, co. York, and died Dec. 10, 
1732. See peerages. Their son Thomas, on the 
death of his uncle Henry, April 2, 1701, became 
eighth Duke of Norfolk. D. G. C. E. 

266, 315, 472). DR. NICHOLSON is unquestion- 
ably right. All the authorities for claw are Eng- 
lish authorities, who did not know the Scotch 
word to ca\ used for any rough, violent action. A 

Scotch lady assures me that to this day washing 
up the house linen is called ca'ing the linen ; and 
Burns uses it in Tarn o' Shanter : 
" That ilka naig was ca'd a shoe on 
The smith and thee gat roaring fou' on." 

Caird, a tinker, may be from the same root. 


Mutuum Muli Scabunt, which is the title of 
one of Varro's lost writings, appears to have been 
a proverbial expression among the Romans equi- 
valent to the modern " Claw me, claw thee." 
" Senes rnutuum fricant "and "Fricantein refrica" 
are given by Erasmus in his Adagia. To the 
latter Erasmus ascribes a Greek origin. 

G. F. S. E. 

(6 th S. x. 469). This will probably be found in 
one of the volumes of Capt. Basil Hall's Frag- 
ments of Voyages and Travels, a popular book of 
fifty or sixty years since. It illustrates the presence 
of mind in a father, who makes his son leap into 
the sea, rather than fall on deck from a great 
height, by the threat of shooting him if he does not 
do so. ED. MARSHALL. 

The author of Tres Oratiunculce habitce in Domo 
Convocationis Oxon., London (1743), was Dr. 
William King, Principal of St. Mary Hall, 1719- 
1764, a person to be carefully distinguished from 
Dr. William King, an Irish prelate (1650-1729), 
and Dr. William King (1663-1712), whose works 
were published in 1778. In the preface Dr. King 
alludes disparagingly to a certain canon (" Quod 
oratiunculas hasce, subitas quidem et pene ex- 
temporales, edendas curavi, non ex judicio aut 
voluntate mea factum est ; sed plan6 ut obviam 
rem malevoli cujusdam Canonici injuriis") who 
seems to have personally attacked the author. 
To keep up public interest in the affair Dr. King 
limself wrote Epistola Objurgatoria ad Guilielmum 
King, LL.D., Lond., 1744, to which is attached 
T, fictitious and doggerel "Epistola Canonici 
'everendi admodiim ad Archidiaconum reve- 
endum admodiim." In this latter occurs the 
bllowing passage: "Unus amicus scripsit mihi ab 
Oxonio quod scholares emebant eas [Oratiunculas] 
ta avide, ut Bibliopola vendidit totam impres- 
ionem in una die, non pro ullo merito in opere, 
ed pro iis scaudalizationibus quse continentur in 
)rsefatione." Last appeared A Letter to a Friend 
occasioned by Epistola Objurgatoria, &c., by 
S. P. Y. B.," Lond., 1744, which pretends to be 
rom a reputed author of the Epistola, who dis- 
laims the authorship. It is quite possible that 
his, too, is by Dr. King, who would then have 
reated and written the whole of the literature of 
he quarrel. But several points in the affair are 
till obscure : can any of your correspondents 



(^ s. XL JAN. 10, 

help to set it in its true light ? The groundwork 
is undoubtedly Dr. King's Jacobite tendencies. 


These orations were written by Dr. Wm. King, 
of St. Mary's Hall, author of the Toast, and will 
be found in the quarto volume of his works. 

K. S. T. 

[MR. P. J. P. GAKTILLON and G. F. R. B. supply the 
same information.] 

AMTOT (6 th S. x. 469). The following passage 
from the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. i. 1851, p. 5, 
is an answer to MR. WARD'S query: 

"Mr. Amyot died on Saturday, the 28th September, 
1850,athi8 residence, No. 13, James Street, Buckingham 
Gate. He had attained the age of 75, having been born 
on the 7th January, 1773." 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

In the list of the deaths in the Times of Oct. 3, 
1850, is the following announcement: 

"On Saturday, the 28th ult., at his residence, 13, 
James-street, Buckingham-gate, Thomas Amyot, Esq., 
F.R.S., F.S.A., in the 76th year of his age." 
The same announcement is given in the Times of 
the previous day, with the exception that Amyot 
is misspelt " Aymot." Has MR. WARD any reason 
to doubt that Mr. Amyot died in James Street, 
that he asks this question ? G. F. R. B. 

oblige with the same information.] 

PORTRAITS OF DR. BUSBY (6 th S. x. 428). Some 
twenty years since there was and very likely at 
the present moment there still is a small picture ol 
the head of Dr. Busby in the dining-room at Willen 
Vicarage, near Newport Pagnell, Bucks. It was an 
heirloom lefc in perpetuity to the incumbents. Dr. 
Busby built the church there, and left funds for 
the endowment of some catechetical lectures to be 
preached in it. The portrait was, I remember, very 
like the face of the well-known effigy of Busby in 
Westminster Abbey, to which Addison has alluded 
in No. 329 of the Spectator. The monument 
also forms the subject of one of the poems in 
Carmina Quadragesiinalia (1723): 
"An Sensus ladatur al Oljecto nimis excellenli ? Affr. 
Qua fanum augustum sublimi vertice surgit, 

Et fido Regurn contegit ossa sinu ; 
Hie Busbeiaid Purio tie marmore vultus 
Spirant, Phidiacae gloria piirna inanus. 
Forte hospes sacra haec lustrans monumenta magistrum 

Ut vidtt, attonitus stat, revocatque gradum. 
Horrescit faciem vel adhuc in morte minacem 

Iratumque oculum, terribilemque manum. 
JBusbeius quanta pueruui formidine vivus 
Perculerat ficto qui quatit ore senem." 

Vol. i. p. 86. 

ftewbourne Rectory, Woodbruige. 

MR. LEE, who asked the query at 6 th S. iii 
167, states in his Diary and Letters of Phili 

Henry (1882), p. 10 note, that, "There is a por- 
rait by Riley in the hall of Christ Church, Oxford, 
f Dr. Busby with the young Philip Henry stand- 
ng beside him. A partial copy of this is among 
he pictures at Westminster School." According 
o Bromley there were two portraits of Busby, one 
>y Riley, which was engraved by Watson, and 
mother which was " taken after his death." The 
atter picture was engraved by R. White, but the 
lame of the painter is not given. See Bromley's 
Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits (1793), 
179. G. F. R. B. 

469). Though I cannot refer your correspondent 

a copy of Dr. Burney's letter on this subject, I 
hink he will find all that Burney had to say about 
t in his General History of Music, especially at 

p. 529, vol. iii. In a note on p. 101 Burjiey 
nakes an absurd mistake, worth noting ; he says 
that the idea of employing composers to set the 
Triumphs of Oriana, seems to have been sug- 
gested to Morley by Padre Giovenale, afterwards 
Bishop of Saluzzo, who employed thirty-seven of 
the most renowned Italian composers to set Can- 
zonetti and Madrigals, in honour of the Virgin 
Mary, which were published as Tempio Armonico, 
&c., 1599 ; whereas the notion clearly was taken 
from the Trionfo di Don, a collection of madrigals 
by different authors, in praise of some Italian lady, 
and published before 1597 (see Oliphant's Musa 
Madrigalesca } 1837). JULIAN MARSHALL. 

WOOD PIGEON (6 th S. x. 328, 434). Yet another 
version of the popular rhyme : 

" Coo-rookity-coo ! Coo-rookity-coo ! 
If you '11 love me, then I '11 love you ! 
Coo-rookity-coo ! Coo-rookity-coo ! " 

1 have been acquainted with this rhyme for more 
than a quarter of a century. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

CONTINUOUS PAGINATION (6 th S. x. 466). As a 
printer, I may be allowed to say that it is very 
unusual to page a work continuously through two 
or three volumes, and suggest that in the case of 
Bayard Taylor it may arise from having the work 
divided into two volumes after it was all in type ; 
or with a view to stereotyping for a future single 
volume cheap edition. GEORGE UNWIN. 

BURKE'S " LANDED GENTRY " (6 th S. x. 226). 
TRUTH has made a useful suggestion, which may 
be easily carried out by copying the list pub- 
lished by Mr. Charles Bridger in his Index to 
Printed Pedigrees, 8vo., 1867, pp. 178-257, or by 
selecting from the lists the names which are not 
repeated in the new edition of the Landed Gentry. 
The value of the record will appear from the 
following statement. Here, where I write, some 
editions of Burke- are in the Parliamentary Library, 
some in the Public Library, and others in my 

6th s. XI. JAN. 10, '85.] 



possession ; the whole may be seen separately, but 
not at one time. J. McO. B. 


DICK TURPLN'S RIDE to YORK (6 th S. x. 68, 317, 
390. 502). Although Hempsteud ma y not be found 
in Keith Johnston's map of Easex, there certainly 
is a parish in that county (with about eight hundred 
inhabitants) so named. It lies about half-way 
between Braintree and Saffron Walden. F. N. 

DEAN HALL OF DURHAM (6 th S. x. 469). Dean 
Hall was, I imagine, the father of the present 
Eector of Hanton, near Maidstone, John Robert 
Hall, who was formerly a student of Christ Church, 
Oxford. ED. MARSHALL. 

EL DORADO (6 th S. x. 448). The story is quoted 
from Sir Walter Raleigh by A. von Humboldt, in 
his Personal Narrative, vol. v. p. 390 of Miss H. 
Williams's translation, 8vo., 1827. 


Bishop's Hall, Taunton. 

A SHAKSPEARIAN QUESTION (6 th S. x. 29, 77). 
The writer of this note, who signs M. A. S. M., 
dating from Blackheatb, has overlooked one very 
positive link with our great dramatist. Lady 
Southampton, the mother of our poet's noble 
patron, was married thrice ; her last husband 
being William Hervey, who afterwards married 
the heiress Cordelia Auslye, and so became of 
Kidbrooke, from which place he took the title of 
baron ; he was also Baron Ross in Ireland, and a 
baronet. He married Lady Soton [?], Jan. 31, 1599, 
O.S., and was left a widower in 1607, surviving 
till 1642. This hero of the Armada was already a 
knight in 1599. so could not be the plain " Mr." 
of Thorpe's dedication to the Sonnets in 1609. 
He was of the same family as the Marquises of 
Bristol, who inherited the estates, but not in 
lineal succession. A. HALL. 

x. 449). Apply to the Society of Arts, John 
Street, Adelphi. Westgarth prize ; but it is 
chiefly for housing the poorest class. 

W. M. C. 

PENICOKE OR PENICOCK (6 th S. x. 447). It is 
asked if the name is a variety of Pynnock or Pin- 
nock, and if it is connected with Peacock and 
Pocock. Penicoke has nothing to do with these 
four names ; it is a misspelling of the family name 
Penicuick. This is from the parish and village of 
Penicuick in Midlothian. It is said that the 
derivation is from the Gaelic Beinn-nacuach, or 
the Kymric Pen~y-coc, both of which mean the 
hill of the cuckoo. THOMAS STRATTON. 

Devonport, Devon. 

GLAMIS MYSTERY (6 th S. x. 326, 475). This 
Was a human being above the waist formed as a 

frog, below as a man. He was kept in a con- 
cealed chamber in the house, and his existence 
was only known to the reigning earl, the factor, 
the family lawyer, and the next heir on his 
attaining mnjoriry. One countess, counting more 
windows than she could account for, ferreted out 
the mystery, saw the monster, and pined to death 
through terror. He was the earl ; but by what 
legal fiction others bore the title during his life- 
time I know not. After his death there appeared 
in one of the magazines a relation of the whole 
matter. Some years ago a friend of mine, visit- 
ing at Glamis, had just stepped into bed \vhen 
a glowing brightness arose upon the wall, out of 
which protruded a goblet held by a hand. After 
remaining stationary for a few seconds, first the 
hand, then the goblet, and then the brightness 
effaced themselves, but, strange to say, the ghost 
left not the slightest mark on the wall to attest 
his proceedings. M. GILCHRIST. 

Burnham, Bucks. 

(6 th S. ix. 486 ; x. 32, 152, 233, 372, 413). Will 
you allow me to point out to MRS. CHARLOTTE G. 
BOGER and your readers generally that the second 
oldest existing church in Plymouth is not named 
Charles the Martyr, but simply Charles. It never 
was so called until the days of a former parish 
clerk, who introduced the reference to "the 
martyr," presumably on account of his own views 
in favour of the "divine right of kings." The 
error grew, however, and it was long supposed 
popularly that the church really had the longer 
name. The late vicar, on his arrival, altered the 
designation, and in 1868 an Order in Council, 
dated September 24, signed, " Devon, President," 
required the original name to be henceforth used 
by the Registrar General's Department, to which 
the wrong name had been furnished in connexion 
with the Registration Act of 1836. The matter 
having been long set at rest locally, I was sur- 
prised to see MRS. BOGER'S note, and trust the 
present information will prevent the error being 
perpetuated in your pages. W. S. B. H. 

St. Patrick's Church, Hove, was originally 
licensed as St. James's, after the late Rev. James 
O'Brien, D.D. About 1866 or 1867, when St. 
James's Church, Brighton, was becoming a scene 
of riot, owing to the ritual carried out by the well- 
known Rev. John Purchas, Dr. O'Brien (being 
an Irishman) got the Bishop of Chichester to add 
St. Patrick, and it was then known as " the church 
of St. Patrick and St. James. Gradually the 
atter name was dropped. The church is still un- 
consecrated. Dr. O'Brien figures in your corre- 
spondent Cuthbert Bede's clever novel Mattins 
and Muttons as " Dr. O'Lion." 




NAMES (6 th S. ix. 28, 98, 279 ; x. 433).-We have 
a township in the Fylde called Hardhorn, but it 
does not answer the description as to a poiut of 
land stretching into water. The township of 
Thornton, which lies at the narrow point separating 
the sea from the Wyre, does answer the de- 
scription given. EDWATID KIRK. 


OLD LONDON BRIDGE (6 th S. x. 462, 509). I was 
astonished to see your correspondent NEMO accuse 
Kichard Thomson (who knew the old bridge as 
well as his A B C) of having put the two very 
different buildings, Stow's Tower of 1577-79 and 
Nonesuch House, on the same site. Such a con- 
fusion was absolutely impossible to Thomson. I 
have since had the pleasure of meeting NEMO in 
the British Museum, and hearing from him an 
interesting account of his forthcoming work on 
the walls, gates, and towers of old London. He 
has willingly admitted that he was wrong about 
Thomson, and that that excellent antiquary did 
not confuse the different sites of the two bridge 
buildings in question. Stow's Tower of 1577-79 
Thomson figures at p. 290 of his excellent Chronicles 
of London Bridge, second edition, and calls it " a 
second Southwark Gate and Tower," facing the 
Southwark Traitors' Gate ; he pictures both of 
these Southwark buildings at his p. 260, as they 
stand in the Pepys view which I have reproduced 
for the New Shakspere Society. Nonesuch House 
Thomson rightly puts on the site of the original 
Traitors' Gate on the north of the drawbridge. 
He figures it on his p. 251, and says of it, "It 
stood at some distance beyond the edifice which I 
last described to you [Stow's Tower, p. 250], nearer 
the City, at the northern entrance of the Draw- 
bridge; and its situation is even yet pointed out 
to you, by the seventh and eighth arches of London 
Bridge from the Southwark end, being still called 
the Draw Lock and the Nonesuch Lock." Both 
buildings are well shown in the New Shakspere 
Society's reproduction of the Pepysian view of the 
Bridge. F. J. FQRNIVALL. 

THE DEATH OF RICHARD II. (6 th S. x. 513). 
It must, I think, not be forgotten that there are 
contemporaneous writings in support of all the 
three accounts of the death of Richard II.;- but all 
these writers could only describe what they heard, 
not what they knew. In 1819, the Rev. Mr. 
Webb read before the Society of Antiquaries a 
very interesting memoir on the deposition of 
King Richard, which is printed in the Archceologia, 
vol. xx. pp. 1-423. In this, at pp. 282-92, he 
gives a full and fair account of the whole subject 
of his death as then understood ; and this was 
followed by a letter from Mr. Amyot, pp. 424-42, 
in which, amongst other things, it is shown that 
the examination of the tomb in Westminster 

Abbey in the last century, as it proved that the 
king's skull showed no mark of injury, disposed 
of the assassination legend. The tomb was again 
examined in 1871 by Dean Stanley (see Archceo- 
logia, vol. xlv. p. 309), who also bears testimony to 
this fact, but deems it right to speak guardedly, 
saying, "whether the king really reposes in the 
sepulchre which he had constructed is open to 
grave doubt." When Mr. Tytler drew attention to 
the old Scotch story, and with much labour and 
ingenuity collected from old records all the state- 
ments which he thought tended to establish its 
probability, Sir James Mackintosh at once declared 
that the story was impossible, whilst Sir Walter 
Scott, if he did not altogether believe it, thought 
the matter worth grave observation, which it had 
not hitherto received. Mr. Tytler's arguments 
were fully and carefully examined by Mr. Amyot 
(Archceologia, 1831, pp. 277-96), whose conclusion 
is, that the tale can only be considered a fable. 
There is also a further letter on the subject from 
Mr. Amyot in 1834 (Archceologia, xxv. 394-7). 
From all the evidence, so minutely discussed in 
these papers, the conclusion to be drawn is clear 
that the assassination account, and the story that 
King Richard survived his deposition many years, 
are both without foundation. All the evidence 
seems to show that he died at Pontefract, prac- 
tically from want of nourishment. Whether he 
chose to starve himself, or whether proper food 
was intentionally withheld from him in a word, 
whether he committed suicide or was murdered 
in still an open question. There is, however, an 
intermediate solution which is quite possible. 
When the king, enfeebled by imprisonment, was 
told how utterly his party was destroyed, he was 
naturally overwhelmed with grief and refused all 
food. After three or four days, and when he felt 
himself sinking, he was persuaded to take food ; 
but food was then too late, his vital power was 
unequal to the task, and he died of exhaustion. 
Of Richard's last days there seems to be no in- 
formation, but it is quite fair to suggest that he 
died in this manner. EDWARD SOLLY. 

Two LEFT LEGS (6 th S. x. 514). The lines to 
which MR. ROBERTS has referred are by Dryden ; 
but the date when they were written does not 
appear. Malone has recorded the fact that on 
some occasion when Dryden wanted money he 
sent for some to Tonson, who declined to advance 
him any more on account. Dryden was much 
displeased, and sent his messenger again with this 
triplet : 

" With leering look, bull-fac'd and freckled fair ; 
With two left legs, with Judus coloured hair, 
And frowsy pores, that taint the ambient air "; 

adding, " Tell the dog that he who wrote these 
lines can write more." This had the desired effect ; 
Tonson sent the money required; but somehow 

6> S. XI, JAN. 10, '85.] 



the triplet got into circulation, and it stuck to 
Tonson for the rest of his life. When that bitter 
satire against the Whigs, Faction Detected, was 
published in 1704, the writer added these lines in 
describing the appearance of Tonson at the Kit- 
Cat Club. It is not very certain who wrote this 
satire, which went through several editions, and 
was very popular with the Tories. It used to be 
attributed to William Shippen ; Davies, in his 
Miscellanies, iii. 249, doubts this greatly. On 
one copy I have there is written in an old hand, 
" By Bertram Stote, Esq." Now Shippen married 
Frances Stote, daughter of Sir Richard Stote, 
Knt., and sister of Bertram Stote. Was Bertram 
really the author? The writer brought out the 
same year Moderation Displayed, London, 4to., 
1704. There was also a Whig parody, entitled 
Faction Displayed, part ii., 4to., 1704. The copy 
to which MR. EGBERTS refers is one of H. Hills's 
pirated reprints. EDWARD SOLLY. 

This is certainly an equivoque for limping gait. 
The great Duke of Wellington was a good horse- 
man, but when I saw him walking I think his 
head bobbed a little. However, O'Connell merely 
meant a stiff corporal a man of red tape, who did 
not move easily to meet the times. LYSART. 

x. 486). Writing at a distance from my own 
books and from any other library, I do not here 
attempt any detailed notice of the imperfect 
account of St. Thomas of Canterbury appearing 
at this reference. As soon as I return home, which 
I do not expect to do immediately, I will ask room 
for what I have to say. The writer says : " It is 
a common custom even in the present day for 
Catholics, principally from France, to make what 
is termed a pilgrimage to the ' shrine/ and to kneel 
beside the death-place of the saint." Yes, " what 
is termed a pilgrimage " continues after seven cen- 
turies to " the present day." But St. Thomas of 
Canterbury finds among the Catholics who visit 
what was his cathedral a large number of his 
countrymen and countrywomen. His shrine has 
ceased to exist for more than three hundred years. 
I propose to tell the story of ib by-and-by. On 
December 29 his festival was observed in Eng- 
land, and in every church in Christendom, with 
the accustomed honour of centuries, D. P. 

Stuart's Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

Your correspondent may like to know that in 
The Church of our Fathers } vol. ii. p. 126, by the 
late Daniel Eock, D.D., there is a learned and 
interesting essay on the pall which is worn by 
Eoman Catholic archbishops. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

It does not seem to be generally known that 
the site of the shrine is paved with pieces of red 

and grey marble that formed the substructure of 
the shrine represented in the contemporary windows 
hard by, even to the peculiar markings of the 
marble. This portion of the original woik could 
be partially, if not entirely reconstructed, as at St. 
Albans, unless I am very much mistaken. 

J. T. F. 
Winterton, Doncaster. 

EELATIVE VALUE OF MONEY (6 th S. x. 517). 
According to Mr. Froude ( Hist, of England, ch. i. 
p. 20 of the cheap edition), II. ia 1530 would be 
equal to 121. at the present time. Mr. Froude 
gives full data for this conclusion at the place 
indicated. WILLIAM SYKES, M.E.C.S. 


SIR ISAAC BROCK (6 th S. x. 495). Major- 
General Sir Isaac Brock was a native of Guernsey, 
belonging to a family long established in .that 
island. One of his nephews, the late Mr. Ferdi- 
nand-Brock Tupper, published in 1845 a life of 
his celebrated uncle, in which he would certainly 
have mentioned any engraving depicting his death 
if such had been known to exist. None of the 
general's relations and they are still numerous in 
Guernsey knows anything of such an engraving. 



COYOTE (6 th S. x. 428). The spelling of the 
English magazines and newspapers is correct. The 
Indian (Nahiiatl) form is coyott ; the Spanish form. 
coyote (Vide Glosario de Voces Castellanas, deri- 
vadas del Idioma Nakuitl 6 Mtxicano, por Jesus 
Sanchez, Mexico, n.d.). The corruption of the 
word into cayote by miners and cowboys has no- 
thing strange, for if there is an etymology that 
answers Voltaire's description perfectly " Une 
science ou les voyelles ne font rien et les consonnes 
pas grand' chose" it is the Spanish spoken by the 
lower classes in Spanish America. Cf. belduque, 
representing the Castillan vcrdugo, a sheath knife, 
and many other words. H. TALLICHET. 

University of Texas. 

x. 386). An earlier allusion to a penny post occurs 
in a pamphlet entitled " A Penny Post. A Vin- 
dication of the Liberty of every Englishman in 
carrying Merchants' and other Men's Letters 
against any Eestraint of Farmers of such Employ- 
ments. By John Hill. London, 1659," which is 
also interesting for supplying an account of the 
vicissitudes through which the establishment of a 
regular post office passed. It would seem that a 
cheap post had been already started by private 
lands before 1642, as this namesake of Eowland 
Hill complains that "in the month of August 
which was in the year of our Lord 1642 " certain 
Dersons were restrained and imprisoned for carry- 
ng other men's letters. But Parliament then 



[6> S. XI, JAN. 10, '85. 

(< confirmed the right of all men to choose who 
they should send their letters by." " The Council 
of Oliver, late Lord Protector," however, he com- 
plains later on, " let the carriage of letters to a 
man who had laid out no money on the matter, 
and forcibly compelled all others to desist." (His 
pamphlet was published a year after Cromwell's 

In the following extract the invention of the 
penny post is ascribed to a different person 
the same who is named in the poem cited at the 
above reference, but a quarter of a century 
earlier,* though still called a " late invention " in 

" II y a lieu de a'etonner qu'on n'aifc pa? etabli dans les 
grandes Viiles de tousles Pal's policez uue poste semblable 
a celle qu'on appelle Peiiy-Post a Londres; c'est une 
chose excremement utile. II y a deux grands bureaux 
et 600 petita. De deux heures en deux heures on peut 
6ciire dans tous les quartiers de la Ville. Deux fois le 
jour dana lea Qunrtiers et Fauxbourga eloignez et tous 
lea joura en 148 Bourgs ou Villages dans 1'enceinte d'un 
circuit de 10 rnilles autour de Londres. Quarid la lettro 
ne va pas plus loin quo la Ville ou le Faubourg, celui qui 
la regoit, paye un sou et on ne donne rieri en la mettant 
a la Poste ; mais quand on eorit hors de Londres celui 
qui ecrit et celui qui re^oit p iyent cbacun un sou. II ne 
coute pus plus pour un paquet d'une livre, que pour une 
simple lettre pourvu que le paquet ne vaiile pas plus de 
10 Shillings. On peut envoyer de 1'argent avec surete et 
toutes sortes de chores de prix moyennrint qu'on ait soin 
d'en charger le regitre. Ce fut un nomine M. Guill. 
Dockura qui etablit cette nouvalle Poste dans le com- 
mencement du regne do Charles II. et il e:i tira d'abord 
les emolurnens. Mais le Due d'York qui avait ulors le 
revenu des Postea, lui fit un Procez et reiinit la petite 
Poste aux grandes." Memoires el Observations faites par 
un Voyageur en A ngleterre, a la Haye, 1698. 

In spite of the facility for transmitting money and 
valuables here mentioned at this date, Lackington the 
bookseller, in his Autobiography (pp. 224-5), writing 
in 1790, speaks of tha difficulty which hampered 
him in his early business days in getting in money 
owed to him in the country. " Now," he adds, 
" this is done away, as all postmasters receive small 
sums of money and give drafts for the same on the 
post office in London." R. H. BUSK. 

PASSAGE IN PINDAR (6 th S. x. 347). Pindar, 
Pyth., iv. 98. I think I have shown that Pelias 
was insolent to Jason. See my note on the passage, 
I might have further drawn attention to the sar- 
castic formula Kal rt's...; C. A. M. FJENNELL. 

Trumpington, Cambridge. 

PECULIAR" (6 th S. x. 496). " His 
tory of the Priory and Peculiar of Snaith, in iht 
County of York By the Rev. Charles Best Robin 
son, M.A. London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co 
York: E. H. Pichery. 1861." 8vo. Preface i-viii 
pp. 1-182. The Rev. Ch. Best Robinson wa 
assistant curate of Snaith in 1856-7. He read i 

* Though the book ia dated 1698, the visit it narrate 
took place several years before. 

ery valuable paper, entitled "Chronicon Pretiosum 
Snathense," before the Statistical Society Nov. 16, 
858, which paper appeared in the Quarterly 
r ournal of the Statistical Society of Dec., 1858 
vol. xxi. pp. 369-420). If the writer will commu- 
nicate direct, I shall be glad to give any further in- 
ormation. GEO. WEST. 

The Field, Swinfleet, Yorkshire. 

The Rev. Charles Best Robinson, who later 
issumed the name Norcliffe, a well-known living 
Yorkshire antiquary, is the author of (1) a paper 
n the Journal of the Statistical Society, 1858, 
ntitled " Chronicon Pretiosum Snathense," being 
ists of prices taken from the probate records of 
he Peculiar of Snaith, in Yorkshire ; and also of 
X 2) a History of the Priory and Peculiar of Snaith, 
mnted at York and published by Simpkin, Mar- 
shall & Co., London, 1861. Mr. Sampson, of 
York, or Mr. Ball, of Barton-on-Humber, might 
)e able to report copies. W. C. B. 

The book which MR. A. HARRISON inquires 
about is, I think, History of the Priory and 
Peculiar of Snaith, in the County of York, by the 
Rev. Charles Best Robinson, M.A. (Simpkin & 
Marshall, 1861). EDWARD PEACOCK. 

[In addition to the above information, R. H. H. (Pon- 
tefract) states that " Snaith Priory was a cell to Selby 
Abbey, from which it was distant about twelve miles, 
and the 'Peculiar' was one of the many independent 
iuriadictions that grew up in the ancient diocese of York 
during the centuries preceding the Reformation."] 

OIL ON TROUBLED WATERS (6 th S. iii. 69, 252, 
298; iv. 174; vi. 97, 377; x. 307, 35 L). In 
reference to this subject, perhaps it may not 
be amiss to point out that the influence of oil in 
calming the waves is mentioned in the Pilgrimage 
of Antoninus Martyr. On pp. 33, 34 of the trans- 
lation just issued by the Palestine Pilgrims' Text 
Society there is an account of "The Island of 
Rock -Oil," from which I quote the following 
extracts : 

" Now within the aea, about eleven milea away [from 
the modern Suez], is a small island, in which ia living 
rock. From this hang down soft, finger-shaped things, 
like dates, which pour forth the unguent called rock- 
oil, which ia collected for an especial blessing Aa 

many nek persona, especially those possessed by evil 

spirits, as can get to thia place are healed Whatever 

may be the strength of a storm at aea, it always remains 
as calm as a pond along that shore." 

W. S. B. H. 

DATE OF BOOK REQUIRED (6 th S. x. 516). 
1759 is much more likely than 1659. But see 
" N. & Q.," 6 th S. v. 486 ; vi. 16, 34, 57, 154. 

[This question, under the head " Robert Rusaell, 
of Wadhurst," haa been fully discussed at the references 
supplied by MR. DREDGE. In the present congested 
state of our columns we are unable to reopen it. 
G. F. R. B., MR. C. A. WARD, and MR. C. L. 
are thanke<J for their contributions. ^ 

6"' S. XI. JAN. 10, '85.] 



MONK LEWIS (6 th S* x. 516). " The Captive : 
a Scene in a Private Madhouse,'* will be found in 
Poems, by M. G. Lewis, Esq., London, 1812, 
pp. 89-92. The advertisement to the book is 
dated from the Albany, Dec. 9, 1811. 

G. F. K. B. 

S. x. 368). Some recently published documents 
connected with the Washington and Pargiter 
families in Miscel. Genealogica et Heraldica (Nov., 
1884) led me to investigate the possible bearing 
of the account of the Washington family in Baker's 
Northamptonshire upon the question raised by 
NOMAD and by the editor of the N. E. Historical 
Genealogical Register (October, 1884) in his note 
cited by NOMAD. The conclusion to which I have 
come is that, in all probability, the John Wash- 
ington, cousin of Theodore Pargiter, of whom we 
now have evidence in Barbadoes in 1654, was the 
John Washington of South Cave, Yorkshire, great- 
grandson of Lawrence Washington, of Sulgrave, 
and Anne Pargiter, his wife, and who is put forth 
by Baker as the President's ancestor. Whether 
the evidence of this John Washington's presence 
in the West Indies about the date given by Baker 
for his emigration ("about 1657," Baker) may be 
held by experts in the Washington pedigree, which 
I do not profess to be, adequate to lead to the re- 
consideration of the late Col. Chester's assumed 
demolition of the Sulgrave descent, I must leave to 
such experts to determine. The descent, if now 
or hereafter substantiated, would probably still 
require the identification of Lawrence Washington, 
of Bridge's Creek, Westmoreland co., Va. who 
died, according to Baker, basing professedly on 
American monumental inscriptions, &c., in 1697 
with the possible son of John Washington, the 
emigrant to the West Indies, 1654, second son of 
Lawrence Washington, buried at Brington 1616, 
and grandson of Robert Washington, who sold 
Sulgrave 8 Jac. I., and who was the eldest son 
of Lawrence Washington, grantee of Sulgrave, 
30 Hen. VIII., and Anne, daughter of Kobert 
Pargiter, of Gretworth. 


New University Club, S.W. 

P.S. There must have been, I think, at least 
two intermarriages between the Washingtons and 
Pargiters, by the funeral certificate of Lawrence 
Washington, 1619, in Misc. Gen. et Her., cited 



The Perfect Way ; or, the Finding of Christ. I know 
for certain that this book Was a joint work, I am not 
sure, but have reason to believe that the names of the 
writers are Edward Maitland and Anna Kingsford, 
M.D., " graduates respectively of Cambridge and Paris." 
The former is the author Of the Pilgrim and the Shrine 

(1869), Higher Law (1870), By-and-By (1873), Jewish 
Literature and Modern Education (1872), Keys of the 
Creeds (1875), England and Islam (1877), and The Soul 
and How it Found Me (1877). I may be mistaken about 
the latter, who bus written a work entitled The Perfect 
Way in Diet (1881). A. M. 

The Perfect Way. It is no secret that the authors of 
this book are Dr. Anna Kingsford and Mr. Edward 

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie 

Stephen. Vol. I. Albadie Anne. (Smith, Elder & 


WITH the appearance of the first volume of the new 
Dictionary of National Biography a signal reproach ig 
wiped from English letters. In the Dictionary of Music 
and Musicians of Sir George Grove, now rapidly ap* 
preaching completion, in the enlarged edition of Bryan's 
Dictionary of Painters, in Foss's Lives of the Judges, and 
other similar woi ks, important contributions to biography 
have been made. For almost all biographical particulars, 
however, scholars have had to turn to foreign compila- 
tions, such as the dictionaries of Bayle, Moreri, and 
Chaufepie, IS Art de Verifier les Dates, and the Bio- 
qraphie Vniveisdle of Dr. Hoefer or that of M. Michaud. 
We may now claim to possess the first instalment of the 
best dictionary of home biography that any nation has 
yet obtained. As its title indicates, it is a dictionary of 
Britons. To these limitations we must perforce submit, 
seeing that had the scheme included all other nations 
few houses could have made room for the thousand or so 
volumes that would have been requisite. So far as the 
work has progressed the treatment is admirable. What is 
to be feared in the case of a publication of the class is that 
long biographies of men concerning whom everything is 
practically known that w, concerning whom informa- 
tion is easily accessible will swell the book to the exclu- 
sion of names concerning which a dictionary of this 
description should be an ultimate appeal. In this ic- 
ppect the new-comer is almost a model. The life of 
Queen Anne, with which the volume concludes, occupies 
too much space. This, however, is almost the only 
article of which the same can be said. Turning to lives 
of primary importance, not a word too much is said by 
Mr. Leslie Stephen in his admirable account of Addison, 
and the judiciously written estimate, by Sir Theodore 
Martin, of Prince Albert seems almost brief. In the 
case of a biography such as that of Gilbert Abbott 
A'Beckett, in which the information supplied from pri- 
vate sources constitutes all to which hereafter the student 
can turn, it would be an advantage to have a few more 
dates, such as those of the production of his more im- 
portant plays, &c. The Anglo-Saxon biographies are 
principally due to the Rev. Wm. Hunt. The familiar 
initials A. B. G. appear against many lives of poets; 
those of Mr. Bullen, A. H. B., are also pretty fre- 
quently seen in connexion with miscellaneous writers 
of the Elizabethan epoch ; and Mr. S. L. Lee bestows 
full attention on the rearward names. Much admirable 
work is crowded into the pages, and the whole makes an 
excellent start. 

A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage 
and Baronetage, together with. Memoirs of the Privy 
Councillors and jnighls. By Sir Bernard Burke, 
C.B., LL.D. (Harrison & Son.) 

THE forty-seventh edition of Sir Bernard Burke's Peerage 
and Baronetage is now before us. The features in it 


NOTES .AND QUERIES, [6 th s. XL JAN. 10, '85. 

which have given it the ascendency it enjoys, and ren- 
dered vain all attempts to displace it, are maintained. 
Its account, succinct yet ample, of the vicissitudes that 
have befallen successive wearers of the proudest titles, 
and the light thus cast upon the bypaths of history, 
render the work indispensable to the genealogist and the 
historian, for whose benefit Sir Bernard primarily caters. 
During the year with which the volume deals eight new 
peerages Lave been added to the House of Lords, viz., 
Hampden, Strathspey, Tennyson, Monk Bretton, Herries, 
Northbourne, Sudley, and De Vesci. Three new baro- 
netcies have also been created, and three-and-twenty 
peers and thirty-two baronets have ditd. His obliga- 
tions to his brother kings-at-arms, Garter and Lyon, Sir 
Bernard once more owns. Once more also his indebted- 
ness is confessed to Mr. C. H. E. Carmicbael, M.A., 
Foreign Secretary to the Royal Society of Literature, to 
whom readers of " N. & Q." are under constant obliga- 
tion. The contents of tins work, indispensable to all who 
follow certain lines of study, are too well known to call 
for description. It is enough to say that the work is 
true to its past, and that its authority is not likely to be 
called in question. 

A Delineation of the Courtenay Mantelpiece in the Episco- 
pal Palace of Exeter. By Roscoe Gibbs. With a Bio- 
graphical Notice of the Eight Reverend Peter Courte- 
nay, D.D., to which is added a description of the 
Courtenay Mantelpiece compiled by Maria Halliday. 
(Printed for private circulation.) 

WE gladly welcome this beautiful book on two grounds. 
In the first place, anything which throws light on the 
history of a race so illustrious as that of Courtenay 
must be of interest to every one who reads history for 
any motive higher than that of mere pastime; and 
secondly, the Courtenay mantelpiece is one of the most 
lovely pieces of secular mediaeval sculpture which time 
has spared to us. The only fault we have to find, indeed, 
with the volume before us, is that the title-page is too 
long, and that it is unsafe, if not absolutely incorrect, to 
style any mediaeval bishop " right reverend." Ecclesi- 
astical titles were before the Reformation and for some 
time after in a most unsettled state ; " reverend," " right 
reverend," and "most reverend" can be shown to have 
been at times applied to lay-folk, and there seems to have 
been absolutely no settled form by which ecclesiastical 
dignitaries were to be addressed. As a representation 
of the fireplace nothing could be better. The text con- 
tains a sketch of the life of Bishop Peter Courtenay, 
which is the best we have ever seen. The engravings of 
the various forms which the Courtenay arms have 
from time to time assumed are most instructive. We 
wonder how many of our readers know that the dol- 
phins which were often used as supporters of the Cour- 
tenay shield were intended to commemorate the fact 
that three of the lace had been emperors of the east. 
The dolphin was one of the badges of the Greek empire. 
The sees of Exeter and Winchester each bear on their 
arms the keys of St. Peter and the sword of St. Paul. 
From time to time the arrangement of these charges 
has varied. Examples of every known form are given 
here. They are an interesting heraldic study, proving as 
they do that when heraldry was a real living thing the 
fixed rules which are now considered of its essence had 
no existence. 

The Antiquary. Vol. X. (Stock.) 
THE most generally attractive portion of the contents 
of the Antiquary consists of Mr. Wheatley's account of 
the Adelphi and the illustrations with which it is liber- 
ally supplied. "Lanarkshire Folk-lore," by Mr. W. G. 
Black ; Mr. Peacock's essay on " The Griffin "; " The 
Eulea of the Carthusian Order, illustrated by the Priory 

of Mount Grace," by the Rev. Precentor Venables; and 
successive essays, " Celebrated Birthplaces," are note- 
worthy portions of an excellent volume. 

WE lose another old and valued contributor by the 
death of Major-General Gibbes Rigaud, which took place 
at Oxford suddenly on New Year's Day. General Rigaud 
had been seized with illness at dinner on the previous 
day, and sank rapidly. For many years h.e had resided 
in Oxford with his brother the Rev. John Rigaud, B.D., 
one of the Senior Fellows of Magdalen College. He waa 
one of the sons of Stephen Peter Rigaud, Savilian Pro- 
fessor of Geometry and Astronomy at Oxford, a man of 
great scientific attainments ; and his eldest brother was 
the late Rt. Rev. Stephen Jordan Rigaud, D.D.,. Bishop of 
Antigua, and formerly Head Master of Ipswich School. 
He was an hon. M.A. of Magdalen College, and took a 
lively interest in all matters connected with the Oxford 
of the past, the fruits of which he so often placed at the 
service of our readers. The portly form of the general 
will be missed from the High Street and from the 
Bodleian Library, of which he was a constant frequenter. 
These few facts concerning General Rigaud are obligingly 
communicated to us by our friend the REV. J. PICK- 

The Church Heraldry of Norfolk is to form the subject 
of a work by the Rev. Edmund Farrer, Curate of Brea- 
singham, Diss, which is to be completed in four volumes, 
and published by subscription. The first part issued will 
contain the hundreds of Earsham, Diss, Guiltcross, 
Shropham, and South Greenhoe. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

H. S. B. Ratcliffe, Radcliffe, or Ratcliff is a manor 
in the parish of Stepney. Dryden, Miscellaneous Poems, 
speaks of Ratcliff Cross. Ratcliffe Highway was a place 
of notoriously evil reputation, the scene of the murders 
of Marr and Williamson. Stowe speaks of Radcliffe as 
having "taken hold of ...... Lime house some time, dis- 

tant a mile." 

J. W. HOWELL. We have a letter for you. Please 
send address. 

E, G. HARVEY (House of Commons Library). The 
extra charge of which you complain is imposed by the 

A. S. ELLIS (" Cecil Family "). Shall appear. 
EKRATA. P. 9, col. 1, 1. 40, for " Goinville " read 
Joinville. P. 12, col. 1, 1. 36, for " avfnradovvTt " read 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6th 8. XI. JAN. 17, '85.] 





NOTES : Date of the Epiphany, 41 Mottoes on Houses, 42 
" I/Art de Terre" Lord Lytton's Inaccuracies, 45 Church 
Music United States : Currance- Funeral Rites among the 
Cabendas Warwickshire Words Surrey Superstition 
Christmas Saying, 46 Buridan's Ass Dowzer, 47. 

QUERIES : A " Ballet " in Prose Church-door Eugene 
Aram Christmas Carol Topical Poems by Seth Ward- 
David Cox, 47 Authors Wanted Old Clock Powell Ulla- 
thorns Freell Family Jerusalem Artichokes Short His- 
torical Tales Heiress of Betton Arms of Piggott Mo- 
nument to Alexander III. Clients of John Thorpe, 48 
Motto for Ladies' College Musical Stones StrodesL. 
Guzzardi Virginia Colony Ladies Waldegrave " Stuck 
his spoon "Arms of Anne Boleyn Computation of Church 
of England, 49. 

REPLIES : Cardinals, 49-Bacon at Highgate, SO The Hay- 
market Theatre Haunted Houses Differenced! Arms, 51 
" In Memoriam" Stewart and Somerset, 52 Title of Novel 
First Idea of Penny Post Houses with Secret Chambers- 
Memorials to Servants Hutchinson's "Massachusetts" 
Works on Gardening Bogatzky Theosophical Society, 53 
Knights of the Wheatsheaf-Poem Wanted Epigram- 
matic Epitaph Battle of Worcester King Arthur, 54 
Deaths in 1H84 Bacon and Coke Dean Hall Lodam Re- 
jected Stanza, 55 Minority Waiters Sarah Booth, 56 St. 
Winefred Stone Davis, Clockmaker Shakspeare's Bible, 
57-Folk-lore of Birds Scottish Proverb Carmichaels, 58 
Hogarth's "Sleeping Congregation" Authors Wanted, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Hill's "Registers of Thorington"- 
Lane-Poole's "Selections from Swift" and "Swift Biblio- 
graphy" Smiles' s "Men of Invention." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 

It is hardly worth while to recur again to the 
vexed question of the " star of the Magi," and the 
exploded notion that we are to understand by that 
term a conjunction of planets. (But I must 
parenthetically point out two lapsus plumes of 
my own in the article on the subject in " N. & Q.," 
6 th S. vii. 4. When speaking of the planetary 
conjunctions of B.C. 7 and 6, 1 referred to those 
years as corresponding to the years of Eome 748 
and 749, which should be 747 and 748.) Kepler 
suggested that the conjunction of Jupiter and 
Saturn in B.C. 7 was, in fact, the celestial ap- 
pearance that led the Magi to undertake their 
journey to Jerusalem two years before the date 
which has lately been usually accepted as that 
of the nativity of Christ, The Eev. C. Pritchard, 
now Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Ox- 
ford, some years ago recalculated the positions 
of the planets at that time, and found that they 
never approached each other on that occasion 
within a distance of one degree, or about twice 
the apparent diameter of the sun or moon. And 
whereas some might imagine that this proximity 
would suffice for supposed astrological significance 
(see Dean Alford's note on Matt. ii. 2), Prof. Prit- 
chard pointed out that a planetary conjunction of 

the same kind took 'place in February of B.C. 66 
(A.U.C. 688, the year of Pompey's expedition 
against Mithridates), closer than the one in 
December of BC. 7, so that "if astrological 
reasons alone impelled the Magi to journey to 
Jerusalem in the latter instance, similar con- 
siderations would have impelled their fathers to 
take the same journey fifty-nine years before." 
Indeed, close planetary conjunctions are not very 
infrequent phenomena. 

It is known to some of your readers that I have 
recently been contending for B.C. 2 as the year of 
the Nativity, believing that Herod's last illness 
and death took place in January of B.C. 1. It 
must, of course, be admitted that we have no 
means of concluding positively from the sacred 
record how long a space of time intervened be- 
tween the Nativity and the death of Herod. As 
I mentioned at the end of the note in " N. & Q.," 
6 th S. vii. 4 (see also the shorter communication 
at p. 512), it is now generally considered that the 
flight into Egypt took place after the presentation 
in the Temple, so that the visit of the Magi must 
have been during a stay in Bethlehem later than 
that when the Nativity occurred there, and 
therefore some months after the birth of Christ. 
Perhaps in this connexion it will be interesting 
to refer to that (in its day) excellent commentary 
of Dr. Henry Hammond, A Paraphrase and Anno- 
tations upon all the Books of the New Testament, 
of which the first edition was published in 1653, 
and the second in 1659, the year before the 
author's death, which occurred early in that 
of the Restoration. Amongst other sugges- 
tions there offered as to the traditional date of 
the Epiphany being only twelve days after the 
Nativity is one that it was not twelve days, but 
twelve months, which would better explain, Dr. Ham- 
mond seems to think, the fact of Herod's including 
in the massacre of the innocents all " from two 
years old and under, according to the time which 
he had diligently inquired ["carefully learned," 
Revised Version] of the wise men." But, surely, 
this is very fanciful, and can hardly be accepted. 
Nor, it appears to me, is there occasion for any 
such hypothesis. Herod's anxious inquiry was 
induced by a desire to ascertain whether it was 
quite certain that the child of whose birth he was 
jealous was still only an infant at the time of 
the arrival of the Magi, so that by destroying all 
those near his birthplace he might make sure of 
including him who had been "born king of the 
Jews." His fears would doubtless extend the age 
to which his order applied sufficiently to make, 
as he supposed, assurance doubly sure ; nor would 
any considerations of the additional cruelty in- 
volved restrain that bloodthirsty tyrant from such 
extension. The Magi would probably set out so 
soon as they noticed the celestial appearance 
(whatever it was) which impelled them to under- 


NOTES. AND QUERIES. [6<* s.xi. JA*. 17, 

take the journey ; and it could hardly have 
occupied them more than a few months. 

Upon the whole, then, whilst it seems most 
probable that the Epiphany (taking the applica- 
tion of the word in its usual special sense) oc- 
curred a few months after the Nativity, it being 
immediately succeeded by the flight into Egypt 
(very shortly after which took place the death of 
Herod), I do not think we need assign an earlier 
date for it than the winter of B.C. 2 ; accepting, 
that is, the view which I have been supporting in 
"N. & Q.," that the Nativity occurred in the 
autumn of that year. W. T. LYNN. 



(Continued from Q^ S. x. 513.) 

No. 43, Via San Salvatore in Campo was built 
by a certain Alexander Lancia, and out of homage 
to the Pope (Paul III.) he wrote upon it, under 
the Pontifical arms, the last eight words of a verse 
which had been written for a triumphal arch in 
honour of Leo X., " Vota Deum Leo ut absolvas 
hominumque secundes, vive pie ut solitus, vive 
diu ut meritus." Antonio San Gallo the younger 
similarly wrote under the arms of Paul III. on 
his house in Via Giulia (now Palazzo Sachetti), 
" Tu mihi quodcumque hoc rerum est." On another 
house in Via Giulia (No. 79) is, " Cosmo Medici 
duci Florentine II. pacis atque justicise cultori." 
On the south front of Palazzo Giustiniani, " Lari- 
bus tuum miscet numen,' : * under a blank tablet 
of marble, on which it had doubtless been in- 
tended to carve the arms of the Pope of the time, 
who possibly died before it was completed. In 
Via della Vignaccia is a house built by the head 
of the family from which sprang Flaminio Vacca, 
the sculptor, and on it he left this memorial, 
" Ossa et opes tandem partas tibi Eoma reliquara," 
and this, "Nihil tutum in miserabili seeculo." 
The same sentiment is found 22, Via Salara, 
" Omnium rerum vicissitudo est." (In connexion 
with it Monti mentions "Vanitas vanitatem 
omnia vanitas " on the palazzo of the Conventati 

Deus "; 39, Vicolo del Teatro Pace, " Dei auxi- 
lio "; on the architrave of two doors in the interior 
of Palazzo Vaccari, Via dell' Angelo Custode, " Nil 
sperandum nisi a Deo Nil timendum prseter 
Deum." The physician of Paul III. had inscribed 
over three windows in the fa9*de of his house, 164, 
Borgo Nuovo, "Deo, et Paulo III., et laborious." 
(In connexion with these the writer mentions 
having seen at Foligno, " Quodcumque egeris Deo 
refer," "A Deo Opt. Max. omne bonum," and 

* Hor., Cam., lib. iv, od. y. 

"Non nobis laus, opifici maximo"; at Spello^ 
" Scientia inflat, Karitas sedificat, 1502," and " A 
Deo omnia"; at Fermo, on Casa Giannini, "Nulla 
major pestis quam familiaris inimicus"; at Ra- 
venna, " Deesse nobis terra in qua vivatnus in qua 
moriamur non potest.") 

At No. 46, Via de' Pontefici was formerly an 
inscription, which was recklessly destroyed when 
the house was renovated in 1874 : " Pontificum 
dicor domus : baec mihi nomina prsestat inter 
primates hinc memoranda vias." It is supposed 
that the name of the street was taken from a 
house in it where were portraits of several of the 
Popes, but the tradition of it is lost. No. 104, 
Via del Governo Vecchio has nineteen marble 
medallions, each bearing the portrait of some 
legal worthy. No. 63, Via del Mascherone is the 
humble house where Cancellieri, the antiquarian 
writer, lived ; over the entrance he had inscribed, 
" Sum Francisi Cancellierii, utinam celeber fidis 
ego semper amicis, parva licet et nullo nomine 
clara domus." No. 10, Vicolo del Collegio Capra- 
nica, " Virtute et fortitudine invidiam odiumque 
superabis," &c. No. 114, Via in Arcione, " Domine 
libera animam raeam a labiis iniquis." (As another 
instance of an inscription taken from the Psalms, 
the writer here mentions " Redime me Domine a 
calumniis hominum ut custodiam mandata tua," 
on the house in the Eomagna where Vincenzo 
Monti was born.) On the Hospital of the German 
Nation, adjoining the Chiesa dell' Anima,<are the 
following (besides others giving the date of the 
foundation and its uses, &c.). The first is a hyper- 
bolical augury of its permanence, "Hsec domus 
expectet lunas solesque gemellos, Phcenicas natos 
corruat ante duos." The others are short sen- 
tences concerning the Germans, the first two 
from Julius Caesar, and the others from Tacitus : 
1. "Ab parvulis labori student"; 2. "Hos- 
pites sanctos habent"; 3. " Victus inter hos- 
pites comis"; 4. "Plus ibi mores valent quam 
alibi leges." On the church of S. Luigi de' 
Francesi are two medallions with the salamander ; 
under one Francis I.'s motto, "Nutrisco et ex- 
stinguo," and under the other, " Erit Christianorum 
lumen in igne," in allusion to the French king's 
title of " most Christian," and his corresponding 
duty of enlightening his people. Cardinal Dom co 
della Rovere (nephew of Sixtus IV.) had inscribed 
on his house near the Chiesa Nuova, " Stet domus 
hsec donee fluctus formica marines ebibat, et 
totum testudo perambulet orbem "; but this has 
disappeared long since. The same cardinal had 
the favourite motto " Soli Deo " carved over every 
window of the Palazzo de' Penitenzieri, near St. 
Peter's. On the fagade of the so-called "Sapi- 
enza," the University of Rome, is " Initium Sapi- 
entise timor Domini " (indeed, it was from this 
motto that it got its name) ; and on the southern 
side, "Urbano VIII. Pont. Opt. Max. ob 

6 th S, XI. JAN. 17, '85.] 


sapientiae gloriam et patrocinum. " On 35, Via 
Orbitelli is an inscription never completed, sup- 
posed to have been intended to set forth the 
various advantages of Eome, " Pietas virtutis, 
Principum gloria, Populi hylaritas, Cceli benignitas 
aurea *' 

The following are modern, or, at least, have 
been put up within the last fifty years : 11, Via 
della Purificazione, a nest of studios, " Fa belle le 
arti, la sapienza, le rende immortali"; 19, Via de' 
Cappucini, " Procul negotiis "; 149, Via Sistina, 
" Cito hac relicta aliena quam struxifc manus, 
jEternam inibimus ipsi quam struimus domum "; 
at 118 in the same street, "Nee temeritas semper 
felix, Nee prudentia ubique tuta." The motto on 
18, Via Trinita de' Monti, commending its pure 
air and extensive prospect, is too familiar to need 
citation. On the side of the house of Sinim- 
berghi (the well-known chemist) at the corner 
of Via Condotti, which is numbered 22, Via 
Bocca di Leone, "Arslonga vita brevis"; "Na- 
tura in minimis admiranda"; "Pictura frontes 
olini ornabat rediurn, praetermeantes detinens 
spectaculo "; " Morem vetustum gratum quod 
sit civibus suo novarit sere Sinimberghius." There 
are several others, but they bear reference to the 
pictures with which the whole exterior walls are 
decorated. On No. 9, Via del Babbuino, when 
Prince Torlonia first erected it as a handsome 
house replacing squalid dwellings, was inscribed, 
" Hie ubi triste solum et rarus fuit incola vulgus, 
nunc domus ampla, quies, porticus, umbra, lacus "; 
but the motto was destroyed when the house was 
made into an hotel. 

On a villa on the Aventine is the first half of 
the inscription on Lord Brougham's villa at 
Cannes, " Inveni portum ; spes et fortuna valete ; 
stat me lusistis; ludite nunc alios," which, it seems, 
is to be found elsewhere also in the following 
form, " Inveni requiem ; spes et fortuna valete ; 
Nil mihi vobiscum est ; ludite nunc alios." On 
the house of the Consalvi family, in Piazza San 
Claud io, along with their arms (a ship with set 
sails) and other device?, are several mottoes allu- 
sive to the patronymic : " Artes sapientia salvat "; 
"Salvat sapientia cunctos-"; "Salvat religio 
cunctos"; "Leges justitia salvat"; "Navis com- 
mercia salvat"; " Cultus agrorum salvat," The 
architect Busiri has inscribed No. 122, Via del 
Pozzetto with " Probato rebus asperis, fidens Deo, 
virtus perenni luctum mutat gaudio"; in the 
architrave of two of the windows, " Abstine sus- 
tine " and " Attende tibi." The same architect 
has inscribed the following on 51, Via della 
Mercede, "Per varias heic estates et tempora 
vitae, yEternaui aeque omnes tendimus in patriam." 
In four medallions are figures representing four 
stages of human life, and over three windows 
"Omnia vanitas." 9, Borgo Vecchio, "Super 
astra nobia domua heic diversorium, "; 89, Via dei 

Sediari, "Utenda nobis hses datur, non propria 
seternitatis nostrse quos manet domus"; 13, Via 
Muratte, u Ne gloriari libeat alienis bonis "; 69, 
Piazza Pasquino, on a very small house, "Satis 
ampla quse securitate rideat," Oatside Porta del 
Popolo, on a house near the lane leading to the 
Palazzo Papa Glulio, " Parva domus magna quies"; 
74, Via de' Saponari, "Dulce cordi solitudo"; 11, 
Vicolo d' Ascanio, this verse from Horace, bk. ii. 
carm. x.: 

" Auream quisquis mediocritatem 

Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 

Sordibua tecti : caret invidenda 

73, Via in Arcione, on a house ornamented with 
a number of medallion portraits illustrative of the 
history of art, " Altrix scientiarutn atque artium 
religio u-Vem Romam principatu in cseteras auxit"; 
33, Via Sforza, " Non domo dominus, seddominus 
domo honestanda est." 

On the four sides of the Casino of the Pincio 
are four lines from Latin poets in honour of the 
four seasons, the first two from Ovid : 1. " Omnia 
tune florent, tune est nova temporis setas" 

2. " Transit in sestatem post ver robustior annus " 

3. "Excipit autumnus posito fervore juventae" 

4. " Inde senilis hiems tremulo venit horrida 

Over the Camposanto de' Colerosi, outside 
Naples, devoted to the purpose by Ferdinand II. 
in 1836, is an inscription which, after recording 
that 18,000 urnane spoglie lie there, "consumate 
dall' ineluttabile flagello dalle indie venuto," and 
which "il bell mo giardino d' Italia disertava," 
adds :- 

" tu che muove alia magione del pianto 
Guarda il termine d' ogni cosa mondana 
Ed alle ceneri de' tuoi fratelli 
Prega requie geterna." 

On the ceiling of the library of the Museo Bor- 
bonico : 

" Regiis virtutibus fundata felicitas "; 
and under the effigies of Fame and Glory on the 
same, which testify to the liberality to the institu- 
tion of Ferdinand and his Queen Caroline : 

" Jacent nisi pateant." 
On the house of charity of the SS. Nunziata: 

" Lac pueris, dotem innuptis velumque pudicia 
Datque medelara aegris, hsec opulenta domua 
Hinc merita sacrum est illi quae nupta, pudica 
Et lactans orbia vcra medela fuit." 
On a gate of the royal villa of Capodimonte, near 
Naples, was at one time inscribed " Miratodos," 
to denote the extensive view it commanded. The 
gateway has disappeared, but the spot is still 
called Miradois. On the architrave of a gateway 
in the garden of the palazzo of the Carafa family : 
" Hie habitant nymphae dulces et suada voluptas ; 
Siste gradum atque intrans ne capiare cave " 

(in allusion to the treacherous giuochi d' acqua). 



XL JAN. 17, '85. 

When the foundation stone was laid of the 
Palace of Oaserta, Vanvitelli had this verse in- 
scribed on another, which was laid beside it : 

" La reggia, il solio, il real germe regga 
Finche da &e la pietra il sol rivegga," 

The following is an unwritten inscription which 
the satirist Capasso declared ought to be inscribed 
on all the barocco though handsome buildings with 
which Sanfelice had adorned Naples, " Scosta-ti ! 

And this is a beautiful memorial to a faithful 
and favourite mare : 

" Questa fu Palombina, svelta, sagace, che ferita a 
morte da notturni ladroni pur vivacemente portato fuor 
di pericolo il suo signore cadde ansabonda, e sicura della 
vita di lui quasi col diletto d' umano senso spird. Paolo 
Baronti voile personata la spoglia della sua generosa, a 
memoria del v Febbraio, 1837," 

B. H. BUSK. 
(To be continued.) 

After extending the contractions, the first distich 
of the inscription of the Pisa Cathedral reads thus : 
" Quod vix mille bourn possent juga juncta movere, 
Et quod vix potuit per mare ferre ratis," &c. 

What is busJceti ? a machine, or a man ? 

A few years ago, the German Vogesen-Club (of 
Strasburg) published a quite exhaustive collec- 
tion of similar " Haus - Inschriften " of Alsace, 
which fills a number of the periodical issued by 
the club. There is often much quaint philosophy 
in these old inscriptions, and they may throw light 
on the wit and wisdom of past centuries. It 
would be worth while collecting them in a kind of 
corpus. H. GAIDOZ. 

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

Three or four years ago, when this subject was 
being canvassed in " N. & Q.," an inscription was 
quoted as occurring on several old buildings in 
Scotland in slightly different forms. That upon 
the ancient house of the Mareschal of Scotland 
ran thus : " Thay haif said ; quhat say thay ? 
let them say." In the Museo Borbonico at Naples 
(now, I believe, called Museo Nazionale), in the 
room where the gems are kept, I noticed, some 
years back, two signet rings. The inscription on 
one was : 

Aeyov(rii/ a deXovcnv. 
Aeyerworav. Ov jueAei JJLOI. 

Then followed a word which baffled me, the stone, 
which was an agate, being chipped or worn. 
The other ring's inscription was similar. I have, 
unfortunately, lost my note-book, but I am con- 
fident I am correct, so far as I have given the 
inscription. This idea, " They say, let them say," 
&c., thus appears to be at least two thousand 
years old. 

The inscriptions given by Miss BUSK (6 th S. 
x. 512) from the facades of San Vitale, Venice, 

and of San Francesco della Vigna, though clearly 
not classic, may be explained. I will suppose the 
fagade of San Vitale to have been rebuilt in 1676 
at the advice of P. Theodore Thessier ; in which 
case it reads : 

" For tbe love of S. Vitale, 

After the custom of tbe most pious, 

At the request of P. Theodore 

The (ajdificatum), 1676." 

The inscription on S. Francesco della Vigna 
begins by describing Moses and St. Paul as types 
of the older and the newer law. The Old Testa- 
ment foreshadoivs those promises which are more 
fully given in the New. Accordingly, Moses is 
described as Minister Umbrarum, in contradis- 
tinction to Paul, who is the Dispenser of Light. 
The nouns are in the dative case, the words 
"sacred to" being understood. The rest of the 
inscription is addressed to all. Christianity has 
been described as a yoke to be borne, and also as 
a war against sin. The honest writer, to make 
sure of his mark, uses both these metaphors, how- 
ever discordant ; but in matters of taste of what 
is not an old monk capable ? This premised, the 
inscription reads thus : 

" Abandon not spiritual things : 

Approach hither : 

Waging the internal and external 

Warfare of the yoke." 

That is, the war which the yoke of Christianity 
imposes against wicked thoughts and wicked acts. 

The passion for covering the walls of buildings 
with mottoes and inscriptions extends in Switzer- 
land to the insides of houses. The following say- 
ings may be read in the guest-room of a tavern at 
Basle : 

" Wer vill borgen, Komme morgen." 
" Schiirt Bachus das Feuer 
Sitzb Venus beim Ofen." 

"Wer einen lobt in Praesentia 
Aber schimpft in Absentia 
Den hole die Pestilentia." 

" Alte Affen 
Junge Pfaffen 
Wilde Baren 
Soil niemand 
In sein haus begehren." 

" Wein und schone Madchen 
Sind zwei Zauberfadchen 
Die auch die erfahrnen 
Vogel selbst umgarnen." 

In the Lombard Alpine valleys and the Trentino 
the churches and ossaries often bear illustrations 
of the " Dance of Death " with appropriate 
mottoes; of these last several collections have 
appeared in print. A wall on the way to the 
cemetery of G-alliate is inscribed with this singular 
direction, " Via al vero Comunismo." 

I thought once of making a collection of the 
sometimes very curious mottoes one reads on old 

6'"' S. XI. JAN. 17, '85.] 


Italian sun-dials ; but at this moment I can re- 
member but two. The first I think I saw on 
the Col di Tenda, " Son figlia del sole e pur son 
ombra." The second is in the Val Mastallone, 
" lo ti do 1'ora se il sol risplende." 


In St. Agnes, a village pitched near the top of 
a steep, abrupt peak surmounted by the ruins of an 
interesting old castle, there is a churchyard, now 
closed, consisting, in fact, of a cave of twenty square 
yard?, receiving through an aperture the corpses 
of the parish. Oyer the door of this strange 
cemetery is still to be seen this inscription : 
" Vede, o Mortal, tu che vivi giocondo, 

Q?e finisce la scena del mondo ! " 
Which I venture to turn into : 

"Behold, oh mortal, still full of mirth, 

Where endetk your last scene on earth "; 
or, less literally : 

" Remember ye the solemn fact, 
Here endeth our poor life's last act." 


M. Fillon, the learned author of L'Art de Terre, 
to whom we are indebted for so much information 
respecting the " faiences d'Oiron," commonly called 
Henri II. ware, will learn with pleasure that there 
exists in the British Museum a copy of Le Premier 
Lime, d' Architecture de Julien Mauclere, printed 
at La Rochelle by Hierosme Haultin, MDC. 
consequently forty-eight years earlier than the 
edition to which M. Fillon refers at p. 139 of 
L'Art de Terre. The title-page of this folio 
volume, which is in excellent preservation, and 
contains superb impressions of Robert Boissard's 
splendid engravings, runs, "Le Premier Livre 
d 'Architecture de Julien Mauclere, Gentilhomme 
Poitevin, Seigneur du Ligeron Mauclere, La Bros- 
sadiere et Remanguis, pres Aspremont sur Vie, 
Paroisse de Coex et du Fenoiller." This is fol- 
lowed ^ by a long description of contents ; the 
printer's device, an angel leaning on a cross, and 
motto in Hebrew; and "A la Rochelle, par 
Hierosme Haultin, MDC." After the title-page 
comes the dedication to the king, next a list of 
contents and a poem by Prevost, Seigneur de la 
Barroiiere, and then the engraved sheet, "L'Art 
Rustique," containing the portrait, below which is 
the following inscription, u Premiere planche des 
CEuvres d 'Architecture de Julien Mauclere, Gentil- 
homme Poitevin, Seigneur du Ligneron Mauclere, 
contenant sa devise et effegie en Tan de son age 
LIII de son invention, depeint de sa main et para- 
chevee d'estre taillee au burin au mois de Sep- 
tembre, 1596"; and in the right-hand corner 
Robert Boissard's monogram, " B. F.," in reverse, on 
a tablet, Besides the letterpress the volume con- 

tains the title-page, "L'Art Rustique," forty- 
four page engravings of the five orders of architec- 
ture, and some beautiful vignettes. It appears, 
therefore, that the date when Robert Boissard 
finished the engravings was 1596, but that the 
letterpress was printed, according to the title- 
page, at La Rochelle in MDC. And it is also 
evident that the author intended to give a second 
book, as almost at the end of the volume is the 
following notice : " Avertissement aux Mathe- 
maticiens et Architectes, Ingenieux du moyen de 
parachever mon osuvre, ou de mes jours ; je ne 
pourrois du tout atteindre, et du lieu et plasse que 
ce devront asseoir et mettre les membres particu- 
liers : enrichis de chacune ordre de colonnes, 
comme les portes, Croize'es, Lucernes, Cheminees, 
Toist, entablement et couverture de chacun logis," 
&c. And he concludes : " Par laquelle se accom- 
pliront ainsi les diets cinq livres de ce second 
Thome, par ceux qui continuent mon dessein, 
voudront despendre, et travailler au bien et 
utilit^ de la posterity. Avecques beaucoup moins 
de peine et depence, au moyen de 1'adresse et 
conduite de ce diet premier livre, si Dieu me faict 
la grace d'en pouvoir venir a bout." It is possible, 
therefore, that the MS. of the second part is still 
in existence. 

As the engravings have been attributed to Rene 
Boyvin, it may, perhaps, be useful to point oub 
that, although their monograms are sometimes the 
same, in Boyvin's prints the figures are better 
drawn and the engraving is more delicate ; while 
in Robert Boissard's there is a boldness in the 
execution more suitable to architectural ornaments. 

been reading some of Lord Lytton's earlier novels, 
and am struck with the wonderful inaccuracy of 
his renderings both of Latin and of French. 
Here are a few specimens. 

Ernest Maltravers, bk. vi. ch. i. : 

" L'adresse et 1'artifice ont passe dans mon coeur, 
Qu'on a sous cet habit et d'esprit et de ruse." 

"Subtilty and craft hare taken possession of my heart, 
but under this habit one exhibits both shrewdness and wit." 

Ibid., bk. vi. ch. v. : 
" Sine me vacivum tempus ne quod dem mihi 


" Suffer me to employ my spare time in some kind of 

A " free translation," it may be alleged ; but I 
am afraid the author understood "vacivum tem- 
pus " to mean " spare time." And who that felt 
the nicety of the original would content himself 
with so slovenly a paraphrase 1 
Devereux, bk. iv. ch. ix. : 
" Quisquis amore tenetur, eat tutusque sacerque 
Qualibet : insidias non timuisso decet." 

The last words are rendered, " It becomes not him 
to fear snares "; and sacer=holy ! 


NOTES AND QUERIES. i* s. XL JAN. 17, '85. 

Alice, bk. iii. ch. iii.: 

< anlmum nunc hoc celerem nunc dividit illuc." 

" Now this, now that, distracts the active mind." 
Hoe illuc, this and that ! 

Ibid., bk. x. ch. i: 

" pars minima est ipsa puella sui." 

" The girl is the least part of himself." 
This last is, perhaps, of all the most amazing. I 
had thought at first that "himself" must needs 
be a misprint. But I found that it is needed for 
the subject. The motto introduces no description 
of a showy girl, the creature of her attire (which 
was Ovid's meaning). The chapter tells of a 
shameful cheat practised by the villain of the 
story upon the heroine, whom he wants to marry 
for her money, the girl herself being the smallest 
part of his ambition. 

That a man of Lord Lytton's mental capacity 
should have these classic authors at his fingers' 
ends, even so secondary a classic as the Bemedia 
Amoris, and be able to summon a quotation at 
will, may not seem a very strange thing. But 
that he should know them by heart without being 
able to construe them, that all his enthusiasm and 
all his industry should not have raised him above 
this "fourth-form scholarship "this is a real 
curiosity of literature. C. B. M. 

CHURCH Music. In a paper on this subject 
(Guardian, December 17, 1884) it is stated that 
the author had written to " N. & Q." to verify an 
assertion that a certain Council had anathematized 
" those who presumed to join in the musical per- 
formances of the choir." The reference was pro- 
bably to the second Council of Laodicea, c. 59, bub 
sadly misapplied ; it is, in fact, a decree as to what 
should be sung in church, and not as to who may 
sing. Of the two editions one is unmistakable, 
Non oportet ab idiotis Psalmos composites et 
vulgarea, in Ecclesiis did, nequ& Libros qui sunt 
extra Canonem, legere. The misapprehension 
arose, probably, from a wrong construe of another 
edition, where the word plebeios (=vulgares), in 
the sentence " Non oportet plebeios psalmos in 
ecclesia cantare," was mistaken for a noun. In 
neither is there any anathema. 


Temple Ewell, Dover. 

Morant, Essex, ii. 232, states the manor of Worin- 
ingford was held by Thos. Waldegrave to John 
Currants, or Currance, 1702. His son was 
Clements. "The last heir died somewhere in 
America." The arms are given. 


writing from that country (eight and a half degrees 
south of the Equator), says ; j 

" My cook having died, the Cabendas kept up a wake 
over him, covered his coffin with a gold and silver cross 
and blue cloth, sang, danced, shouted, drank, and cried. 
Outside the place the dead man was dressed in white 
sheets, his body was shaved all over, and then he was 
blown up with wind till his cheeks were puffed out. He 
was placed in a sitting-up position, his eyes were opened, 
and candles were kept burning day and night. The row 
they made outside my place was simply horrible." 

As this custom is not well known, it may per- 
haps be entitled to be recorded in " N. & Q." 


WARWICKSHIRE WORDS. The following words 
were heard by me among the villagers around 
Warwick in 1884 : 

Borning. Speaking of the extreme healthiness 
of his village, " We J ve no deaths to speak on, but 
we 've a deal o' bornings," said John Gibbs. 

Disbeliked. 11 Aye, he 's very much disbeliked," 
said John Gibbs of an unpopular squire. 

Roomthy: Housen." These housen is very 
roomthy," said Mary Boney, speaking of her own 
cottage and the neighbours'. 

Givish. "They wasn't so very givish," said 
Hannah Cull, of some close-fisted persons. 

Noggan. "Her's a noggan wench," said the 
same Hannah. Noggan = clumsy. It is also a 
Shropshire word. 

Of the foregoing words, roomthy and housen are 
to be found in Prof. Skeat's South Warwickshire 
Glossary, issued by the E.D.S. in 1876. Unked 
and peart, too, which also I heard in 1884, are to 
be found there. A. J. M. 

SURREY SUPERSTITION. As I was passing a 
large holly tree by a roadside the other day, an 
old labourer, who was with me, remarked, " I 
never go by that tree without thinking of Nurtey 
being passed through it, and you may see the 
mark on the bark now." He then told me of the 
following occurrence, which took place rather more 
than sixty years ago, and said that in those times 
if an infant were badly ruptured, they would pass 
it naked through the stem of a holly tree, and 
this they called a charm. He then described how 
in Nurtey's case a slit was made in the tree, how 
the parts were held asunder by two persons, while 
two women, the one holding his head, and the 
other his feet, passed him stark naked several 
times backwards and forwards through the open- 
ing. He added, " I don't know that it was any 
good, but the old women at that time used to hold 
with it." The child, who v/as a native of Limps- 
field, by name Tom Wolf, lived to grow up, and 
travelled with a carrier for some years. 


Titsey Place, Limpsfield. 

A CHRISTMAS SAYING. Standing under the 
bright moon and stars on the night of last Christ- 
mas Day, an old South Lincolnshire bell-ringer, 
who had just finished his peal in the ohureh belfrv, 

6'" S. XI. JAN. 17, '86.) 



said to me, "There's an old saying, 'Light Christ- 
mas, light harvest.' I've known it come true 
a-many times. Last Christmas was a dark Christ- 
mas ; and, accordingly, we had a good harvest. If 
we live to see the next harvest, you '11 see that 
it '11 be a poor one." I put this saying on record, 
so that the prophecy may be noted, whether it be 
fulfilled or no. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

BURIDAN'S Ass. A variation of this occurs in 
"The Courtier's Academie, translated by John 
Kepers from the Italian of Count Haniball Komei, 
London, 1598," at p. 69 : 

" John Baccone, a Philosopher, and most learned 
divine, was wont to say that if the horse were in a way 
equally distant from two barly fieldea of like goodnesae, 
he should be in danger to die for hunger, for his appetite 
would not be moved more to the one than to the other 
corne. Hee, therefore, who were in the presence of 

two women equally faire would love neither the one 

nor the other."" Discussion of Humane Love." 


DOWZER. I had occasion the other day to 
inquire at one of the great London stores whether 
they have any rule against giving Christmas boxes 
to their men. The superior official, of whom I 
asked this, at once replied that there was no such 
rule, " But," he added, " nobody is allowed to 
take dowzers." Dowzers, eh? I was just about 
to ask what he meant, when a happy thought (for 
once) occurred to me, downer = douceur. And 
why shouldn't it? The Scots have their vivers, 
and the southern English their bever; and this 
word is just such another. But the distinction 
between a dowzer and a Christmas box remains 
obscure to me. A. J. M. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

A " BALLET " IN PROSE. Warton (H. K P., iv. 
302, Hazlitt) says, " Sometimes a ballad is a work 
in prose. I cannot say whether ' a Ballet intitled, 
the incorragen of all kynde of men to the reedy- 
fying and buyldynge Poules steeple againe,' printed 
in 1564, was a pathetic ditty or a pious homily, 
or both"; and with no better evidence to support 
it, the assertion may be thought perilous. How- 
ever,^ Warton obtained his ballad title from 
the Stationers' Register, on inspection of which I 
find the distinction between a boke and a ballet so 
plainly marked as to suggest that the word ballet 
may have been about the time indicated a sort of 
trade name for broadside, in which form the multi- 
farious popular songs of the period almost in- 
variably appeared ; and it is quite conceivable that 
if a prose composition was ever brought out in the 
same shape, it may, for that reason, have been 

included under the general name, and called a 
ballet. Can any one adduce positive proof of the 
word being so employed ? C. B. MOUNT. 

14, Norham Road, Oxford. 

church-door, now placed aside in the town of 
Eastone Church, there is a large number of small 
nails. A considerable portion of the door is 
covered by them. The common sense explanation 
is that these are the nails used in affixing notices. 
But a Koman Catholic priest one day observed 
that they signified so many special prayers offered 
in church. Can any one oblige by an illustration 
of this, if, at least, there is such a significance 
attaching to them ? ED. MARSHALL. 

EUGENE ARAM. Will any reader of " N. & Q." 
oblige me with a list of books containing any 
account of the above ? Traditions and letters 
would also be very acceptable. I judge from Lord 
Lytton's novel that much traditionary matter con- 
cerning Aram existed, and probably still exists. 

[See 6th g.x. 400.] 

CHRISTMAS CAROL. If I am not travelling over 
an old path, may I ask for any information as to a 
Christmas carol formerly much in vogue in New- 
castle-upon-Tyne ? It began : 

" On the first day of Christmas 
My true love sent to me 
A partridge on a pear tree." 

A. H. D. 

TOPICAL. Is this an English word? We are 
accustomed to hear of " topical songs " and " topical 
allusions " in the slang of the music-halls, but I 
see that Mr. John Morley, in his memoir of Burke 
(" English Men of Letters " series), makes use of 
the phrase " branching into topical surprises " when 
referring to Burke's conversational powers (p. 122). 
Is there any warrant for this adjective among our 
older classics 1 Philologically it would appear to 
be a kind of monstriim informea, Greek head 
with a Latin tail. W. F. P. 

POEMS BY SETH WARD. I am informed that 
there was living about 1710 a person called Seth 
Ward, a friend and, as I surmise, a relation of the 
bishop of those names. Some twenty years ago 
certain MS. poems of his were sold by auction. I 
shall be glad to know if these poems still exist, and 
if so, in whose hands they are at present. 


DAVID Cox, THE PAINTER. In Ottley's sup- 
plement to Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and 
Engravers, p. 40, it is stated that David Cox " was 
apprenticed to a maker of lockets and brooches, 
which he adorned with miniature designs." I want 
to know the name of this person. He was doubt- 
less resident in Birmingham, in which town Cox 



. XI. JAN. 17, '85. 

was born. The St. Martin's mentioned in Ottley's 
memoir was St. Martin's, Birmingham, and ought 
to have been identified there; but as the whole 
appears to be carelessly written, and no authorities 
are given for the assertions contained in it, there is 
no cause for surprise." G. W. M. 

AUTHORS WANTED. Who were the authors 
respectively of the two treatises of which I give the 
titles in full below ; and who wrote the Considera- 
tions to which the first is a reply ? 

" A Calm and Sober Enquiry concerning the Possibi- 
lity of a Trinity in the Godhead : in a Letter to a Person 
of Worth. Occasioned by the lately published * Con- 
siderations ' on the Explications of the Doctrine of the 

Trinity, by Dr. Wallis, Dr. Sherlock, Dr. S th, Dr. 

Cudworth, &c. Together with certain Letters (hitherto 
unpublished) formerly written to the Rev. Dr. Wallis on 
the same subject. 1694." 

The letters are signed " Anonym." 

" An Impartial Enquiry into the Existence and Nature 
of God : being a modest Essay towards a more intelli- 
gible Account of the Divine Perfections. With Remarks 
on several Authors, both Ancient and Modern, and parti- 
cularly on some Passages in Dr. Clarke's ' Demonstration 
of the Being and Attributes of God.' In Two Books. 
With an Appendix concerning the Nature of Space and 
Duration. By S. C . 1718." 

The author professes to be " a layman." 


of mine has just purchased an old " grandfather's " 
clock, bearing on the face the name "Richard 
Boyfield, Great Dalby." Can any one tell me 
when Richard Boyfield flourished, that I may 
ascertain the probable date of the clock ? 


POWELL, OF EWHURST. Can any of your 
readers inform me who is the Nathaniel Powell, 
of Ewhurst, Sussex, that sold Perryton Court to 
William Chapman? The estate is situated at 
Westwell, Kent, and the sale is stated by Hasted 
as having taken place at the early part of 1700. 
On what authority is his statement based ; and is 
the William Chapman mentioned the son of 
William Chapman who died at New Shoreham in 

tion concerning the above, situated near Kirkby 
Lonsdale, would oblige. W. G. ULLATHORNE. 

46, Elm Park Road, S.W. 

the best and most ample information about the 
Huguenot colony in Dublin in the eighteenth cen- 
tury ? The family in whom I am interested is that of 
Freell or Friell. Information is only wanted prior 
to the year 1780. j. y. 

correspondents say when the term "Jerusalem 

artichokes " is first used in any English book 1 
Lord Bacon, in his essay Of Plantations (pub- 
lished about 1597), calls them "artichokes of 
Jerusalem," which shows that even then the name 
was familiar in English, the fanciful derivation 
from girasole being probably much later, as well 
as apocryphal. What connexion the plant had 
with Jerusalem is difficult to trace. A. C. B. 

help me to form a list of short and interesting 
tales serving to illustrate periods of history ? It 
is easy to do so if one admits historical novels, 
but I want to occupy a couple of hours' reading to 
a class of workers by interesting, well-written 
narratives, which will serve the double purpose of 
amusement and instruction. I would beg the con- 
tributions named to be given in the order, title, 
author, period. A. E. P. R. D. 

[Lists with which we are favoured shall be forwarded 
to our correspondent.] 

HEIRESS OF BETTON. Can any of the Salopian 
antiquaries and genealogists in communication 
with " N. & Q." give me any information as to 
the Christian and family name of the heiress of 
Betton, co. Salop, who is stated in the Scott 
Memorials, by James Renat Scott, to have married 
Antony Scott, son of Charles Scott, of Godmers- 
ham, co. Kent (son of Sir Reginald Scott, of 
Scott's Hall, co. Kent, by Mary, his second wife, 
daughter of Sir Bryan Tuke, Knt), who married 
Jane Wyatt, daughter of Sir Thomas Wyatt, of 
Allington Castle, co. Kent, beheaded temp. Mary 

Trappe de Melleray, Loire Inferieure, France. 

ARMS OF PIGGOTT. Miss SMITH states, in the 
number of "N. & Q. ; 'of July 10, 1880, that her 
sister was in possession of a silver cup having the 
arms of Sir William Piggott, Bart., engraved 
thereon. Would she object to give me a descrip- 
tion of the arms ? J. P. 
[If this is sent to us we will forward it to J. P.] 

Is it the case, as stated by DR. STRATTON, 
6 th S. x. 433, that "about fifteen years ago a 
monument was put up to mark the spot" where 
King Alexander rode over the cliff at Kinghorn 1 
The newspapers quite recently recorded the fact 
that, under the direction of the genial historian of 
Lindores Abbey, Dr. Alex. Laing, of Newburg-on- 
Tay, a movement had been started for the erection 
of such a monument. THOMAS BAYN-E. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

Can any of your readers give any information 
respecting the following people, who lived at the 
end of the sixteenth century or the beginning of 

6> S, XI. JIN. 17, '85.] 



the seventeenth, and seem to have employed Joh 
Thorpe, the architect, to design houses for them 
Sir Wm. Euffden ; Mr. Johnson, ye druggist 
Sir Thos. Dorrell, Lincolnshire ; Sir Jo. Bagnall 
Sir Geo. Set. Poole ; Sir Geo. Coppin ; Mr 
Keyes ; Mr. Denman ; Sir Wm. Haseridge ; Si 
Perceval! Hart ; Mounsier Jammet ; Mr. Panton 
Mr. Ate ; Mr. Wm. Fitzwilliam ; Sir Hen. Nevile 
Mr. Taylor, Potters Bar ; Mr. Wm. Powell. 


vited to suggest a motto for an institution o 
advanced education for women, I could think o 
nothing better at the time than the following, from 
Virgil, ^n.,i. 493: 

" Audetque viris concurrere virgo." 
Subsequently I remembered the motto of Maria 
Theresa : 

" Sexu foemina, ingenio vir." 
I suppose the lines in Cowley's Ode to Orinda are 
scarcely suitable, although they might pass in a 
classical dress : 

" Than man more strong, and more than woman sweet." 
Can any correspondent suggest a better ? 


MUSICAL STONES. I wish to obtain as much 
information as possible about " singing stones," or 
"musical stones," as mentioned in Chambers's 
Journal, Dec. 29, 1883. I send this to you as 
being the surest way of obtaining the desired 
information, and trusting to your kindness to 
insert the question. BENJ. H. MULLEN. 

in 6 th S. x. 331 fully answered a query relative 
to this family, kindly say what is the connexion 
between the above and the Somersetshire Strodes, 
now represented by Edward Chetham Strode, 
Esq., of Southill, near Shepton Malet, descended 
from that Strode who was one of the five members 
Charles I. went to the House to seize ? The coat 
of arms and crest are the same as M. G. S. gives 
for Strodes of Chepsted. S. V. H. 

> LEONARDO GUZZARDL Can any particulars be 
given respecting a person of this name, who painted 
a Jull-length portrait of Admiral Lord Nelson in 
1799 at Palermo ? I have heard that the ordinary 
works of reference contain no information about 
him - ALEKTOR. 

VIRGINIA COLONY. I am writing a history of 
the founding of the colony of Virginia, and wish 
to correspond with any one having contemporary 
manuscript data relating to this colony during 
1606-1619. Replies addressed to the care of 
W. Cabell, 12, Sydenham Road, Guildford, Surrey, 
will oblige. ALEXANDER BROWN. 

Norwood Post Office, Nelson County, Virginia, U.S.A. 

the goodness to inform me in " N. & Q." if Allan 
Ramsay painted a picture of the three Ladies 
Waldegrave ? If so, was it, or the picture by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, exhibited in- the old masters at 
the Academy a few years ago ? AMATEUR. 

who died last June, was a native of Downham, in 
Norfolk. On hearing of the death of a friend he 
exclaimed, "So, poor fellow, he 'has stuck his 
spoon in the wall.' " I do not know any words to 
the like effect but those in Cruikshank's Omni- 
bus, " Frank Heartwell; or, Fifty Years Ago," p. 20, 
edit. 1870, where Ben Brailsford says, "To my 
thinking a poor dev , that is I means an onforti- 
nato as sticks his spoon in the becketts for a full due 
and loses the number of his mess," &c. Can any 
of your readers say if the phrase is common to the 
Eastern Counties ? W. G. P. 

ARMS OF ANNE BOLETN. In Friedmann's 
Anne Boleyn, recently published, the arms of that 
queen are referred to once or twice as "apocry- 
phal," or " invented by the heralds/' I quote from 
memory. Now, to the best of my recollection the 
arms of Anne Boleyn are duly recorded and ex- 
emplified in the Heralds' College. The curious 
point is this, there is a royal augmentation, then 
other quarterings, duly marshalled, but the paternal 
coat of Boleyn is altogether omitted. Does this 
throw any light on another point mentioned by 
Friedmann, namely, that she is styled not, as is 
customary, Lady Anne Boleyn, her family name, 
but Lady Anne Rochfort, or Rochford, her father's 
title ? These quotations are from memory only, 
so any slips will, I think, be excused. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

[n a Bedfordshire will of January, 1675, it is de- 
scribed as so dated " according to the computation 
)f the Church of England." A Manchester friend 
;ells me he has met with the same expression in 
wills of about 1710. Can any of your readers tell 
me its precise force ? JOHN BROWN. 

(6 th S. x. 617.) 

MR. BLAYDES inquires, "When did the term 
Cardinal (as a name of office in St. Paul's Cathedral) 
jorne into use ? " I cannot tell him. I can only say 
hat there were two such officers in the cathedral 
rom very early times, " a longis retroactis tem- 
poribus." King Richard II. granted the minor 
sanons of St. Paul's a Charter of Incorporation in 
394 (I have printed it at length in my Eegistrum 
Statutorum et Consuetudinum Ecclesia Cathedralis 



[6* 8. XI. JAN. 17, '85. 

Sancti Pauli Londinensis), and mention is made 
of the Cardinals in this document, " quorum duo 
dicuntur Cardinales." It is an office not met with 
in any other cathedral in England. 

Amongst the Harleian MSS. is a volume en- 
titled " Fragmenta Historipolitica Miscellanea 
Successiva, collected by one Thomas G-ybbons, 
Esq. (Harleian MSS., No. 980, fo. 179A), who 

" The Church of S. Paule had before the time of the 
Conquerour two Cardinatls, which office still continue 
[st'c]. .They are chosen by the Dean and Chapt. out of 
the number of the Twelve Petty Canons, and are called 
Cardinales Chori. Their office is to take notice of 
the absence or neglect of all the quire, and weekly 
to render account thereof to the Dean and Chapter. 
They administer likewise ecclesiastical sacraments to 
the ministers of the Church and their servants, &c. 
Not any Cathedral Church iu Engl. hath Cardinalls 
besids this, nor are any beyond seas to be found to 
be dignified with this title, sauing the Churches of 
Rome, Eauenna, Aquileia, Millan, Pisa, Beneuent, in 
Italy, and Compostella in Spayn." 

These Cardinals are called respectively the Senior 
Cardinal and the Junior Cardinal. Certain duties 
of the Junior Cardinal are defined in the thirty- 
fifth statute of the minor canons: 

" xxxv. Of the Junior Cardinale.Note, that it ys 
and hath byn a custome alway, yea, euen tyme oute of 
mynde, that the Junior Cardinale in the Cathedrale 
Churche of S. Paule in london for that tyme beinge doo 
continually visit the sicke as the maner ys, and ministre 
the sacramentes vnto them, as often as shalbe nedfull, 
whether it be in his weke or no." 

These statutes were drawn up in 1396; the English 
version here cited is considerably more modern. 
The instruction and catechizing of the choristers 
also devolved upon the Cardinals. 

In^Walcott's Sacred Archeology the Pauline 
Cardinals find special mention : 

" The word Cardinal, when applied to an Altar 
means the High or Principal Altar, and from their 
attendance upon it two Minor Canons at S. Paul's are 
still called the Senior and Junior Cardinals Their 
duties were to take charge of the Choir, to present de- 
faulters to the Dean on Fridays, to act as rectors of the 
Choir, to administer sacraments, enjoin penances hear 
confessions, bury the dead, aud receive oblations." 
The whole article " Cardinal" may be read with 
advantage. See also Ducange. 

MR. BLATDES further asks, "When did the 
term Cardinal die out?" It has never died out. 
I held the office of Cardinal from 1878 till my ap- 
pointment as Sub-dean, December 16, 1881. The 
present Senior Cardinal is the Rev. W. H. Mil- 
man, and the present Junior Cardinal is the Rev 
W- J. Hall. I may mention that the author of 
the Ingoldsby Legends was appointed Senior Car- 
dinal on Dec. 9, 1833. Some editions of the 
Legends bear the Cardinal's hat upon the title-page. 

MR. BLAYDES is evidently not aware that the 
title of Cardinal is still in existence in St. Paul's 

Cathedral. Dr. W. Sparrow Simpson, himself 
"Junior Cardinal in St. Paul's Cathedral," de- 
scribing the staff of the old cathedral, states that 
two of the minor canons " were called Cardinals, 
Cardinales Chori, an office not found in any other 
church in England " (Chapters in the History of 
Old St. Paul's, 1881, p. 35). E. S. D. 

This dignity is still maintained. There are two, 
viz., a Senior and a Junior Cardinal, who both rank 
as minor canons. If my memory serves me cor- 
rectly, my namesake, known as the compiler o 
Wix's Hymns, was a Cardinal for many years. 
A. H. 

BACON AT HIGHGATE (6 th S. x. 515). It can- 
not be said that Bacon " ever lived at Highgate," 
but he certainly died there, and in Arundel House, 
the suburban residence of the Earls of Arundel. 
The mansion referred to stood higher up the hill 
than Cromwell House, still standing, but was re- 
moved long ago, and on its site some modern 
houses have been built. The cause of -Bacon's 
presence and death at Highgate is recorded in 
William Howitt's The Northern Heights of Lon- 
don, Longmans & Co., 1869, and the following is 
a quotation: 

"In the spring of 1626 his strength and spirits re- 
vived after the weakness brought on him by the winter. 
On April 2, when making an excursion into the country 
with Dr. Witherborne, it occurred to him when ap- 
proaching Highgate, the snow lying on the ground, that 
it might be deserving consideration whether flesh might 
be preserved as well in snow as in salt ; and he resolved 
immediately to try the experiment. They went into a 
poor woman's house at the bottom of Highgate Hill, and 
bought a hen, and stuffed the body with snow, and my 
lord did help to do it himself. The snow chilled him, 
and he fell so extremely ill that he could not return to 
Gray's Inn, but was taken to the Earl of Arundel's House 
at Highgate ; a messenger was immediately sent for his 
relation Sir Julius Ceasar, in whose arms he died on the 
morning of April 9, 1626, and was buried, by direction of 
his will, in St. Michael's Church, St. Albans, and near 
his mother." 


Freegrove Road, N. 

Bacon never had a house of his own at Highgate, 
but he died at the Earl of Arundel's house there. 
I extract the following account of the circum- 
stances from Johnson's Life of Sir Edward Coke 
(London. Colburn, 1837): 

" According to Aubrey, Bacon was one of the martyrs 
of science; an experiment was the cause of his death. 
'As he was taking the air in a coach with Dr. Winter- 
bourne (a Scotch physician to the king) towards High- 
gate, snow lay on the ground, and it came into my lord's 
thoughts why flesh might not be preserved in snow as well 
as in salt. They were resolved they would try the experi- 
ment presently. They alighted out of the coach, and 
went into a poor woman's house at the bottom of High- 
gate Hill, and bought a hen and made her exenterate it, 
and then stuffed the body with enow, and my lord did 
help to do it himself. The snow so chilled him that he 
immediately fell so extremely ill that he could net re* 

6> S. XL Jin. 17, '86.) 



turn to his lodgings, I suppose then at Gray's Inn, but 
went to the Earl of Arundel's house at Highgate, when 
they put him into a good bed, warmed with a pan ; but 
it was a damp bed, which had not been laid in for a 
year before, which gave him such a cold that in two or 
three days, as I remember Mr. Hobbes told me, he died 
of suffocation.' " 

This event happened on April 9, 1626. 

W. E. TATE. 
Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

Bacon never lived at Highgate, but he died 
there April 9, 1626, says Kawley, "in the early 
morning of the day then celebrated for our 
Saviour's resurrection, in the 66th year of his age, 
at the Earl of Arundel's house in Highgate, near 
London." He caught cold stuffing a fowl with 
snow, as an experiment whether that would pre- 
serve it, and it did, but it cost England the life 
of its philosopher, as Pliny lost his life in trying 
an experiment about the other extreme of tem- 
perature, the burning of Mount Vesuvius. Aubrey 
says it was a damp bed, but I think not. Arundel 
House stood on the East Hill, Highgate, on what 
is called the Bank, a little higher up than Crom- 
well House, opposite Andrew MarvelFs cottage. 
It was partially pulled down in 1825, but some of 
the old walls are said to be remaining still, dese- 
crated by the perpetual click of the tram-car. 

0. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

x. 487). In MR. PICKFORD'S kindly and interest- 
ing notice of Mr. Henry Holl he remarks that he 
was " probably the last survivor of his contem- 
poraries of that date, now thirty-eight years ago." 
We have still, happily, amongst us one of the 
Haymarket veterans, Mr. Henry Howe, who, 
when the old Haymarket company broke up, some 
half-dozen years ago, had been connected with it 
for forty years. It seems scarcely fair to draw 
attention to the age of a man who until within 
the last five or six years took young men's parts, 
and at the present time represents a hale and 
hearty middle-aged man (to wit, Antonio in Mr. 
Irving's production of Twelfth Night). Mr. Howe 
has been on the stage so many years that some old 
playgoers think there have been two generations 
of Howes, father and son. One such, in talking 
with me on theatrical matters, remarked, " I am 
old enough to remember the old Howe at the Hay- 
market, long before your time." And I replied, 

I am young enough to have the honour of being 
a friend of the gentleman you term * old.' " It was 
with some difficulty I persuaded my companion 
(who had not been to the theatre for a quarter of 
a century) that the fine, vigorous-looking man we 
saw before us on the stage was the Howe of forty- 
five years ago. Perhaps Mr. Howe's vigour and 
youthfulness are due to the fact that he has spent 
his days in gardening. No doubt some of the 

readers of " N. & Q." know the pretty garden at 
Isleworth which represents the loving labour of 
the actor's own hands for thirty years, where 
roseries and arches and rustic seats and summer- 
houses show his taste and skill in carpentering. I 
remember going to see him some four years ago and 
finding him working hard at repairing a summer- 
house, the seat of which, as he reverently pointed 
out, was made from a beam taken from Garrick's 
room. He had been on the previous evening to a 
supper given by Mr. Irving, which lasted through the 
small hours of the night, and going down to his 
home by the early morning train he thought it a 
shame to go to bed by sunlight, so went on with 
his work as usual, without sleep. That he is still 
as strong as ever may be gathered from the follow- 
ing fact. When the Irving company returned 
from America last spring, Mr. Howe visited a rela- 
tive of mine who had just built himself a house 
in a patch of wild country. As he looked round 
at the rugged ground which had to be converted 
into a garden he said, " Dear me, what a splendid 
lot of work to be done ! How I envy you ! My 
fingers itch to be at the soil." Let us hope that 
the veteran actor (who is now with Mr. Irving in 
Chicago) may be with us many more years yet. . 

Pine Tree Hill, Camberley, Surrey. 

Is not MR. PICKFORD in error in speaking of 
" Their Majesties' Servants " in connexion with the 
Haymarket Theatre in 1846? That nomination 
was confined, I fancy, to the patent houses, and 
did not include " the little theatre in the Hay- 
market." In any case why "their" Majesties' 
Servants? J. J. S. 

[The title Their Majesties' Servants was given by Dr. 
Doran to his annaU of the English stage.] 

HAUNTED HOUSES (6 th S. x. 349) As your 
correspondent F. S.A.Scot, does not appear to have 
received any answer to his inquiry respecting 
Ewshott, Hants, I may refer him to Haunted 
Houses, by John H. Ingram, Second Series, 1884, 
p. 124, for an authentic account, written in 1841, 
and may add that the curious and inexplicable 
noises which the writer describes himself to have 
heard have continued to be occasionally heard 
down to the present day. But it is needless to 
suppose anything in the remotest degree super- 
natural connected with them. They are probably 
in some manner connected with the position of the 
house on the verge of 'the great chalk formation, 
and to ill-understood acoustic properties of the 
structure. TESTIS. 

DIFFERENCED ARMS (6 th S. x. 349, 523). There 
would seem no reason, as MR. SALTER says, why 
a fess should not be used as a means of differenc- 
ing arms, though I imagine that to difference a 
coat by changing the principal ordinary is not 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [6* s. XT. JAN. 17, 

often done in later or modern heraldry. That it 
was done in more ancient times we have the 
authority of Sir William Dugdale in his Antient 
Usage in Arms, 1682, wherein he quotes from 
Glover's De Origine et Antiquitate Armorum, in 
which that writer, in distinguishing the differences 
appertaining to consanguinei (e. g., crescents, 
mullets, &c.) from those of cxtranei, classes fesses 
amongst those which strangers might adopt. In 
the instance, then, given by MR. SALTER it is, 
perhaps, less unlikely that the coat may be a 
differenced one of the St. John family (more espe- 
cially as MR. SALTER avers he has a reason for so 
adjudging it) than either that of the family of 
Bracy or Poer, given by MR. WOODWARD (p. 523) 
from Pap worth's Ordinary, wherein, again, the 
tinctures differ from those accorded them by 

^ MR. SALTER asks for an example in support of 
his query. Perhaps the arms of two families of 
Beauchampe, as given by Edmondson, may afford 
a fair parallel to MR. SALTER'S case, as the 
ordinary differenced (a chief) is the same in both 
instances : (1) Ar., on a chief indented sa., three 
mullets of the field ; (2) Gu., a fesse or, in chief 
three mullets of the second. J. S. UDAL. 

Symondabury, Bridport. 

TENNYSON'S " IN MEMORIAM " (6 th S. x. 366). 
I have many interesting classical notes on various 
passages in In Memoriam which PELAGIUS might 
like to see. If he has any to send me, I shall be 
much obliged. EDWARD MALAN. 

Broadwindeor, Dorsetshire. 

PELAGIUS might have quoted more appositely 
., Agamemnon, 431-437: 

\o,piv fJiaraiav. 



yap^evr av 
So/cwv opav, 
7rapaAAaacra Sta 


Trrepois OTraSoFs VTTVOV 
A remarkable parallel. 

617). King James I. of Scotland was married to 
Jane Beaufort at the church of St. Mary Overy 
Southwark (Fabyan's Chronicle), in February 
(Fabyan, Stow, Moreri), 1424, not 1423, as often 
stated. She was the eldest daughter of John 
Beaufort, first Earl of Somerset, the legitimated 
(but not legitimate) son of John of Gaunt by 
Katherine Swynford, who was afterwards John of 
Gaunt's third wife. Katherine was the daughter 
of Sir Payne le Koelt, a Picard Knight, and 
widow of Sir Hugh (not Gates) de Swynford. The 
mother of Jane Beaufort was Margaret de Holand, 
second Daughter of Thomas, Earl of Kent, and 
Alesia de Arundel. The authorities named by 

your querist have, as most did till lately, confused 
two daughters of James I. Jean, who was the 
third daughter, and was dumb, was contracted, 
but never married, to James Douglas, third Earl 
of Angus. She probably died unmarried circa 
1445-6, aged about eighteen ; but some say that 
she married near 1456, James, Earl of Morton, 
and died 1487-8. Annabel was her sixth and 
youngest sister ; she was first married at Stirling, 
Dec. 14, 1444, to Luigi of Savoy, Count of Geneva, 
from whom she was divorced at Ganat March 23, 
1456, for political reasons ; she married, secondly, 
about 1457, George Gordon, Earl of Huntley, who 
also divorced her, it is said without any fault on 
her part, July 24, 1476, and she did not long sur- 
vive that event. Annabel was mother of eleven 
children, of whom one was Katherine Gordon, wife 
of Perkin Warbeck, surnamed the White Kose of 

So far as the birth of the first Duke of Somer- 
set is concerned, I think it is pretty clear that he 
was an illegitimate son of John of Gaunt. But 
both he and his brother, Cardinal Beauford, were, 
so far as possible, legitimized by their father. 
Even the possible chance of accession to the throne 
was left undebarred ; but this contingency was 
ultimately provided against by Henry IV. in the 
confirmation. Before his death John of Gaunt 
did apparently legally marry their mother. Then, 
as regards also the legitimate birth of that daughter 
of James I. of Scotland and Joan Beauford who 
married a Douglas, the following considerations 
surely offer the strongest suggestions of legiti- 
macy. The date of their marriage is said to 
have been about 1400 or so. In 1424, after 
James's long imprisonment in England, they were 
crowned king and queen of Scotland. The date of 
birth of their only son (James II.) seems to 
have been about 1430. Assuming that the five 
daughters, who completed the family, were born 
for the most part previously to this, ten years are 
allowed, and Joan (Douglas) was not even the 
eldest of these ; therefore the probability seems 
to be that she was born after the coronation, or 
certainly in honest wedlock of her parents. 

A. C. B, 

This, of course, starts with John of Ghent, which 
prince did marry Catherine Swynford, and thereby 
legitimated the previous issue. This was confirmed 
by Act of Parliament 15 Kic. II. John de Beau- 
fort, Earl of Somerset and Marquis of Dorset, who 
died 1410, married Margaret Holland, daughter 
of Thomas, second Earl of Kent, and this lady 
remarried Thomas, Duke of Clarence. Lady Jane 
Beaufort, their daughter, did certainly marry the 
captive king of Scots the historical annals of 
Windsor are replete with the circumstance ; and no 
doubt, though I have never read the book, full de- 
tails are given by the late Hepworth Dixon in his 

6th S. XL JAN. 17, '85.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


elaborate work on Windsor. The legitimacy of 
the Scottish family has never been questioned ; 
the eldest son, James, Duke of Rothsay, on his 
father's murder, became king as James II.; Lady 
Jane or Joanna, the princess who married in suc- 
cession an Earl of Angus and of Morton, seems to 
be confounded with a possible sister named Anna- 
bella, who is alleged to have married, as first or 
second husband, George, second Earl of Huntley. 


TITLE OF NOVEL (6 th S. xi. 9). C% and 
Suburb, by the author of George Geith of Fen 
Court, Too Much Alone, &c. (Mrs. Riddell), pub- 
lished in 1861, appears to be the novel referred to. 

J. A. 

[The REV. E. MARSHALL supplies the same informa- 
tion ; MR. JAMES POLL assigns the authorship to F. G. 

x. 386; xi. 37). I have letters of 1768 stamped 
with the triangular mark of the "Peny Post." 


248, 312; 6 th S. ii. 12, 117, 295, 433, 523; iii. 96; 
iv. 116, 217; v. 397, 478 ; vi. 76; viii. 238; x. 37, 
158, 393, 507). In the old manor house at Dins- 
dale-upon-Tees, now the residence of the Rev. 
Scott F. Surtees, at the top of the staircase is a 
secret chamber, to which access is gained from 
above. The compartment is small, and lies between 
two bed-rooms and alongside of the fireplace of one 
of them. It would be a very snug place when the 
fire was lighted, and very secure, as it is necessary 
to enter the cock-loft by a trap-door at the extreme 
end of the building, and then crawl along under 
the roof and drop into the hiding-place by a second 
trap- door. R. B. 

MEMORIALS TO SERVANTS (6 th S. ix. 378 ; x. 
46, 194, 295, 430, 498). The following epitaph is 
the earliest memorial to a servant of any that I 
myself have seen. It is incised on a stone slab 
fixed against the inner wall of the narthex (if I am 
right in calling it so) of the lower church of St. 
Clement at Rome. I copied it on the spot, in 
October, 1882, and I believe that the letters as 
given below are placed as they are on the stone : 



Your readers are aware that pientus is a late 
Latin form of pius. It is duly entered as such in 
Ducange, with the following quotation, amongst 
others, in support of it : " Pientissimus autem Im- 
perator Justinus." One may notice, too, that 
Sabinianus's epitaph on his excellent nurse is 

pagan, not Christian, in form, though it is placed 
in a Christian church, and looks as if it had been 
always there. A. J. M. 

This epitaph is in Ripon Cathedral : 
" Here lyeth | John Jamea, | the old cook of Newby, 
who was a faithful servant to | hia master, and an up- 
right, downright, honest man. 

Banes among stancs 

Do lie fou still, 
While the soul wanders 
E'en where God will. 


29). After a long and unsuccessful search for the 
third volume, I asked Triibner to look for it for 
me in America, and he speedily got me thence 
(for, I think, II.) a copy of the English edition. 
America has, I suspect, absorbed nearly all the 
copies of this very important book. 

W. E. H. L. 

WORKS ON GARDENING (6 th S. x. 467; xi. 31). 
A most valuable list of books, with brief dis- 
sertations and useful references, will be found in 
A History of English Gardening, by George W. 
Johnson, published by Baldwin & Cradock, in 
one volume, 8vo., 1829. A few dates and other 
particulars of the horticultural periodicals are 
given in a lecture on " The Horticulture of Fifty 
Years," reported in the Gardeners' Magazine, 
April 7, 1883. It should be noted that at the 
present time there are published in London eight 
weekly horticultural papers. 



BOGATZKY (6 th S. x. 515). The exact dates of 
Bogatzky's birth and death are not given in 
Rose, so I venture to supply them. He was born 
at Jankowe on Sept. 7, 1690, and died at Halle 
on June 15, 1774. " The Life of Charles Henry V. 
Bogatsky, written by himself, and translated from 
the German by Samuel Jackson" (London, 1856), 
will probably be of interest to F. L. It forms the 
seventh volume of "The Library of Christian 
Biography" edited by the Rev. Robert Bickersteth. 

G. F. R. B. 

THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY (6 th S. x. 480, 521). 
Those interested in this society will find a curious 
account of its aims, together with a slight sketch 
of its founder (Col. H. S. Olcott), in the Topical 
Times of April 26 last, under the heading of 
"Crystallised Moonshine." By it I gather that 
the society has an established organ in the press, 
viz., The Theosophist, published monthly in 
Madras. I am sorry the communication (signed 
" Cigarette ") is too long for insertion in "^N. & Q.," 
as the information it contains is very curious. 


3, Heathfield Road, Mill Hill Park, W 



[6* S. XI. JAN. 17, '85. 

508). In "Notices to Correspondents" at the 
last reference, X. Y. is told that information 
is apparently lacking with regard to the knights. 
I have not at present the means at hand of giving 
full information, but what I am able to say may 
be the means of putting your correspondent on 
the right track for obtaining the information he 
desires. There is an order of knighthood, which 
I have an impression is Swedish, whose insignia 
is an heraldic wheatsheaf or garb. It is probable 
that knights wearing this form of decoration would 
be commonly called after it, although the official 
title of the order was something very different. I 
do not at present remember what that name is ; 
but if X. Y. cannot ascertain for himself, I would 
be happy to do so. E. STEWART PATTERSON. 

Hale Crescent, Farnbam. 

POEM WANTED (6 th S. xi. 9). The poem with 
the word beautiful often repeated may be found 
in Great Thoughts. So far as I remember it is 
anonymous. I forget the date, but Great Thoughts 
is a new publication. E. G. H. 

[Miss KATE THOMPSON lias obligingly copied out the 
poem from Public Opinion, Sept. 31, 1878. As it is too 
long for our columns, crowded as they are. we forward it 
to MR. E. W. THOMPSON.] 

EPIGRAMMATIC EPITAPH (6 th S. x. 385, 505). 
This epitaph, with the word " father," I copied 
from a stone in the old abbey churchyard, 
Whitby, with the date 1769, a much earlier date 
than any yet given in " N. & Q." 


BATTLE OF WORCESTER (6 th S. x. 496). It 
is almost certain that there is no list of the 
Royalists who fought at Worcester in any collec- 
tion, public or private. The pamphlet the title 
of which I give below probably contains a list of 
nearly all the prisoners taken there whose rank 
was higher than that of a private soldier: 

"A List of the Prisoners of War who are Officers in 
Commission in Custody of the Marshall-General 
London Printed by John Field, Printer to the Parlia- 
ment of England. 1651." 

There is a copy of this in the British Museum. 
It is the only one I ever heard of. In a news- 
paper called Stverall Proceedings in Parliament, 
Thursday, 4 Sep.- Thursday, 11 Sep., 1651, is a 
similar list, with many variations in the names. 
A copy of this is also in the British Museum. 

,, .. , , MABEL PEACOCK. 


KING ARTHUR (6* S. x. 448).-There are now 
few who believe that this personage (whose 
father, by aid of the magician Merlin, it is 
said, approached his mother as Jupiter ap- 
proached Alcmena) ever had existence. Geoffry 
of Monmouth's History is purely fabulous, and 

the stories of the "Knights of the Round Table" 
emanated from the brains of the romance writers 
of much later periods. However, with reference 
to the myth of King Arthur's death and burial, it 
may be mentioned that after the third battle with 
his cousin Modred, who had usurped the crown, 
and who was defeated and slain, the king, himself 
being mortally wounded, was carried to the famous 
Abbey of Glastonbury, where, notwithstanding the 
efforts of the physicians, he died, and was interred 
" amongst the saints reposing there since the be- 
ginning of Christianity." 

The following quotation perhaps will show 
that the statement (" N. & Q.," 6 th S. x. 448) that 
" Arthur's tomb " is at a place near Camelford is 
erroneous, viz.: 

" This account of the grave of Arthur, in the reign of 
Henry II., 640 years after he was buried, is taken from 
Camden's Britannia, as he gives it on the authority of 
Giraldus Cambrensis, f an eye witness.' When Henry II., 
King of England, had learned from the songs of the 
British bards, that Arthur, the most noble heroe of the 
Britains, whose courage had so often shattered the Saxons, 
was buried at Glassenbury between two pyramids, he 
order'd search to be made for the body ; and they had 
scarce digg'd seven foot deep, but they light upon a 
cross'd stone (cippus), or a stone in the back part 
whereof was fastened a rude leaden cross, something 
broad. This being pulled out, appeared to have an in- 
scription upon it, and under it, almost nine foot deep, 
they found a coffin made of hollow'd oak, wherein were 
deposited the bones of the famous Arthur. The letters 
have a sort of barbarous and Gothic appearance, and are 
a plain evidence of the barbarity of the age, which was 
involved in a fatal sort of mist, that no one was found to 
celebrate the name of King Arthur." Timbs's Alleys 
and Castles. 


Freegrove Road, N. 

Borlase, Antiquities of Cornwall, 1769, fol., 
p. 395, gives this account of the stone, of which 
there is a picture, plate xxxv., fig. vi.: 

" This inscribed stone, nine feet nine inches long, and 
two feet three inches wide, was formerly a foot bridge 
near the late Lord Falmouth'a seat of Worthyvale, about 
a mile and a half from Camelford. It was called Slaughter 
Bridge, and as Tradition says, from a bloody battle fought 
on this ground, fatal to the great King Arthur. A few years 
since, the late Lady Dowager Falmouth, shaping a rough 
kind of hill, about 100 yards off, into spiral walks, removed 
this stone from the place where it served as a bridge, and, 
building a low piece of Masonry for its support, placed it 
at the foot of her improvements, where it still lies in one 
of the natural grots of the hill. 

" This stone is taken notice of by Mr. Carew in the fol- 
lowing words : ' For testimony of the last battle in which 
Arthur was killed, the old folkes thereabouts (viz. round 
Camelford) shew you a stone bearing Arthur's name, 
though now depraved to " Atry." ' This Inscription has 
been lately published ; but so incorrectly that it may 
etill be reckoned among the non-descripts. It is said 
there, that ' this stone lay at the very place where Arthur 
received his mortal wound.' 

" All this about King Arthur takes its rise from the 
five last letters of this Inscription, which are by some 
thought to be Mvguri (quasi magni Arthur!), and from 
taence others will have it, that a eon of Arthur was 

6* a. xi. JiH . IT, '850 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


buried here; but though history, as well as tradition, 
affirms that Arthur fought his last battle, in which he 
was mortally wounded, near this place, yet that this In 
gcription retains anything of his name is all a mistake, 
The letters are R >man, and as follows : Catin hie jacit 

filius magari. By the I in hie being joined to the H ; 

'by the H wanting it's cross link, the bad line of the 
writing, the distorted le ining of the letters ; I conclude, 
that this Monument cannot be so ancient as the time oi 

The incorrect description referred to by Borlase 
is by Joseph Pomeroy, in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for Jane, 1745. I will send it, with Porneroy's 
letter, to A. J. if he cares to have it, but being in 
correct it is not suitable for " N. & Q." 


The inscription at Oamelford has received the 
following notice : 

" About a mile and a half from Camelford is a stone 
nine feet nine inches long, and two feet three inches 
wide. It was formerly a foot bridge, and was called 
Slaughter Bridge, according to tradition, from the bloody 
battle fought near it, in which King Arthur lost his life. 
But this, as Mr. Borlase observes, is a vulgar error, it 
having this Latin inscription, 


whence it evidently appears to have been a funeral 
monument, besides the manner in which it is written 
shows that it cannot be so ancient as the time of 
Arthur." Description, of England and Wales, vol. ii. 
p. 233, London, Newbery & Carnan, 1769. 

There is also " at Lanteglos, near Camelford, ' an 
illegible inscription in Saxon characters ' " (Blight 
in Haddan and Stubbs's Councils, vol. i. p. 699, 
Oxf., 1869). ED. MARSHALL. 

The article entitled "An Attempt to Explain 
the Inscription on what is called Arthur's Tomb 
Stone near Camelford'' is printed in Dr. Adam 
Clarke's Theological and Miscellaneous Works 
(1836), xi. 67-77. For other accounts of the 
Slaughter Bridge inscribed stone A. J. is referred 
to the Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, pp. 262, 1036, 
1317, and to Emil Hiibner's Inscriptions Bri- 
tannia (1873), pp. 12-13, 207. 


15, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. 

DEATHS IN 1884 (6 th S. xi. 2). In the list of 
" men of light and leading " who have passed from 
our midst during the year 1884 I would mention 
the name of one not included by MR. W. ROBERTS. 
It is that of Mr. Cornelius Tongue, the author of 
an interesting work, Records of the Chase and Me- 
moirs of Celebrated Sportsmen, published in 1854 
under the name of " Cecil " by Messrs. Longmans 
& Co. Mr. Tongue also contributed, under the 
pseudonym of " Cecil," many spirited articles to 
the old Sporting Magazine of some sixty years since. 
During the closing years of a long life he lived 
at Trysull, in Staffordshire, where he died rather 
suddenly on November 3 last, being upwards of 
eighty-five years of age. In early life, when he 

resided with his mother near Bridgnorth, and his 
aunts lived at Gatacre Park, he hunted with the 
Albrighton hounds. His life was devoted to sport- 
ing in all its details, and he was well known to the 
best hunts of former days. Mr. Tongue had out- 
lasted his friends and sporting contemporaries, and, 
living in much retirement, his name had become 
forgotten in the sporting world. 


LORD BACON AND LORD COKE (6 th S. x. 389, 
502). With due respect to MR. EDWARD H. 
MARSHALL, I venture to suggest that an inquiry 
when Sir Edward Coke was first called Lord 
Coke would be fruitless. The fact is, that in old 
days it was customary to refer to a chief of the 
Common Law Courts as Lord So-and-so. Bacon 
and Coke were not the only judges who enjoyed 
this title. " My Lord Hobart " is a very common 
reference in legal text-books and reports. The 
opinion of Sir Edward Coke would have been 
generally cited in court as that of " My Lord 
Coke," and that because he was a chief justice. 
A trace of this custom is to be found in the modern 
usage of the puisne judges of the Common Law 
Division of the High Court. If in their judgments 
they have occasion to refer to the Lord Chief 
Justice of England, they refer to him as "My Lord." 
This they do not because the present Chief Justice 
happens to be a peer of the realm, but because it 
is the proper way in which to refer to the Chief 
Justice. F. S. WADDINQTON. 

12, New Court, Lincoln's Inn. 

In Pepys's Diary for March 14, 1666, Pepys says, 
" To walk alone in the fields behind Grayes Inne, 
making an end of reading my dear Faber Fortunce 
of my Lord Bacon's." J. WASTIE GREEN. 

DEAN HALL, OF DURHAM (6 th S. x. 469; xi. 35). 
Major Byng Hall, who is, or was, one of Her 
Majesty's Foreign Office Messengers, is, I believe, 
a son or grandson of Dean Hall and the Hon. A. M. 
Byng. G. 

LODAM (6 th S. x. 289, 418, 524). This card- 
game is alluded to in the prologue of The Eeturne 
from Pernassus, printed in 1606 : 

' Momus. It's euen well done, here is such a stirre 
about a scuruy English show. 

" Defensor. Scuruy in thy face, thou scuruy iack, if 
his company were not, you paultry Crittick Gentleman, 
rou that knowe what it is to play at primero, or passage. 
You that haue been student at post and paire, saint and 

This passage will explain why the game has been 
called " Saint Lodam " (vide 6 th S. x. 418). 


x. 495). In the first place, let me reply to MR. 
VIUNDEN'S inquiry. Dodsley, in Pali Mall, pub- 
ished the first edition of the Elegy in 1751; but 



[6h S. XL JAN. 17, '85. 

it was not called the Elegy ; the title of the poem 
in quarto was simply Stanzas written in a Country 
Churchyard, and that is still its best title. Some 
of the books give it (edition 1821, for instance) 
Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. " I per- 
suaded him first to called it an elegy," says Mason. 
Well, that may pass. Elegy is convenient, because 
it is short ; but it ought to beheaded " An Elegy : 
Stanzis written in a Country Churchyard." The 
original is the true and proper title, and I, for one, 
could dispense very well with the mock Grecizing 
of the word elegy ; for though the poem is melan- 
choly it is not a lament, neither is it elegiac ; a 
metre consisting of alternate hexameter and penta- 
meter. Mason played the busybody, as friends of 
poets will do, with results sufficiently damaging. 

MR. MUKDEN is surely wrong about the 147th 
line; I only make 128 lines in all. This is of small 
consequence. The edition 1751 does not contain 
the four lines beginning, 

" Him have we seen the greenwood side along," 
neither is it in the edition of 1754, also published 
by Dodsley at sixpence, and called the ninth edi- 
tion. Mitford says of this stanza that it was in 
the first MS. ; he does not say it was in any edition 
printed, and I do not think it has been. You 
would think from this that Mitford had in his 
minute verbalism gone to the original MS.; but 
no, he has simply copied it, without acknowledg- 
ment, so far as I see, from Mason's edition of Gray's 
Works with notes. 

" While o'er the heath we hied, our labour done," 
is Mason's version. 

Gray had another lovely verse interposed 
between the last line and the epitaph, which he 
omitted because it delayed the sense too much by 
too long a parenthesis. This really ought to be 
printed with every copy of the poem, if not in. the 
body, still as an inseparable appendage: 

" There scattered oft, the earliest of the year 
By hands unseen are showers of violets found 
1 he redbreast loves to build and warble there 
And little footsteps lightly print the ground."' 
The 127th line runs : 

" They there alike in trembling hope repose." 
Mason refers to Petrarch's 114th sonnet, Paventosa 
8pme; but Stephen Collet, in his folios of Litera- 
ure p. 182, says itoccurs in Dante. I suppose that 
is only a slip for Petrarch. 
H C( ^ et Po^ts out also that Gray took his first 

" The curfew tolls the knell of parting day," 
from Dante (probably the greatest poet of all time), 
and quotes Gary's translation, of course withou 
reference so that you may have to read three 
octavos through to find it: 

" TS d -i? iI ?'i! nf i newly on hi8 road with lo^, 
Thrills if he hear the vesper bell from far 

That seems to mourn for the expiring day '" 

It comes from the opening of canto viii. of the 
Purgatory, 1. 5. Gary's version reads repulsively 
to me. Collet further says that, 

"And leave the world to darkness and to me " 
is from the Beggar's Petition, 

11 And leaves the world to wretchedness and me." 

Gray's plagiarisms are most delightful things to 
men of taste ; the passages taken are generally im- 
proved by him in intrinsic quality, and they are 
so entirely naturalized that, like the Asiatic oranges 
in Spain, any one not a consummate botanist would 
swear they were indigenous. If all plagiarists 
were like Gray, and could better the originals, 
stealing would become a test of the highest literary 
merit ; with Gray it becomes an evidence of 
literary skill. Johnson said he was "not a poet 
of first rate excellence." No, indeed, he is 
not Milton ! But you can read his Elegy after 
the Lycidas, and I know little in English that will 
bear that test so well. 0. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

In the MS. bequeathed by Gray to Mason, his 
biographer, which has been in my possession for 
some years, the stanza is written as follows : 
" Him have we seen the green- wood side alon?, 
While o'er the heath we hied, our labours done ; 
Oft as the woodlark piped her farewell song, 
With wistful eyes pursue the setting sun." 
The lines which precede these are in the MS., 
" With hasty footsteps brush the dews away 

On the high brow of yonder hanging lawn." 
As you have at the least one correspondent of 
my name I sign myself 

WILLIAM FRASER of Ledeclune, Bt. 
Carlton Club. 

This stanza does not appear in the 1751 edition 
vt An Elegy wrote, in a Country Churchyard. In 
the copy of the eighth edition (1753), in the British 
Museum, the following manuscript note appears : 
"N.B. The underwritten stanza it seems sho d 
have been added in the printed Ed n , but wag 
omitted thro' some mistake. See Gent. Mag., 
June, 1771, p. 287. 'Him have we seen the 
greenwood side along : While o'er the Heath we 
hied our labour done : Oft as the woodlark pipd 
her Farewell song, With wistful eyes pursue ye 
setting sun ': " I am unable to verify this refer- 
ence to the Gent. Mag., as I can find no mention 
of the poem at the place indicated by the writer. 

G. F. K. B. 

m MINORITY WAITERS (6> S. xi. 8). -It may 
interest SIR H. DRYDEN to know that the explana- 
tion of Capt. Dillon is " 'Minority = out of office, out 
of place; an expression derived from the House of 
Commons." URBAN> 

. BOOTH (6 s> xi 8 )._ Miss Booth died 
on Monday, Dec. 30, 1867, at No. 39, Queen's 
Square, Bloomsbury. She was born at Birming- 

6*h S. XI. JAN, 17, '85.] 



ham in 1793. Her first appearance on the stage 
would seem to have been at the Manchester 
Theatre, then under the management of Macready 
She was then but eleven years old. After a suc- 
cessful career she retired about the year 1828, 
Her last appearance on the stage was in 1841, at 
the Marylebone Theatre, on the occasion of a 
benefit to Mr. Attwood, when she played Kate 
O'Brien in Perfection and Lisette in the Sergeant's 
Wife. It is said that she was a descendant of the 
famous Barton Booth. See Era for January 5, 
1868, p. 11 ; and Gent. Mag., 1868, fourth series, 
vol. v. p. 259. G. F. R. B. 

ST. WINEFRED (6 th S. x. 268, 374, 415). The 
following references may be of use: 

Bp. Fleetwood's Works (Oxford, 1854), vol. iii. pp. 225- 

Pennant's Tours in Wales (ed, by Prof. Rhys), vol. i. 
pp. 40-52. 

Gibson's Edition of Camden's Britannia. 

Polychronicon Ranulphi HSgden Monachi Cestrensis, 
Edited by Babington (London, 1865), Vol. i. pp. 428- 

Examinations and Writings of John Philpot, B.C.L. 
(Parker Soc. Publications), p. xxvii, 

Rogers on the XXXIX Articles (Parker Soc.), p. 226, 

Syke's British Goblins. 

Farrer's Primitive Manners, p. 306 et seq. 

The silence of Giraldus is noteworthy. See his 
Topogr. Hibern., ii. c. 7, and Itin. Cambr., ii. 
c. 10 (Bohn's Library). Bp. Fleetwood gives a 
life, a poem, prayers, and litanies. 


MASONS (6 th S. x. 448). In Sidbury Church, 
Devon, in the chancel, is a tablet, on which, 
scattered over its dark surface, is an inscription, 
all running on in a most extraordinary manner, 
without punctuation or division in any way to aid 
the reader. A little arrangement gives us the 
following : 

"An epitaph upon ye life and death of John Stone, free- 
mason, who departed this life 1st January, 1617. 
" On our great corner stone, this Stone relyed 

For blessing to his building, loving most 
To build God's temple, in which workes he dyed, 

And lyved the temple of the Holy Ghost, 
In whose loved lyfe is proved an honest fame, 
God can of stones raise seed to Abraham." 

In the wall of the chancel outside is a plain 
canopied tomb, with the initials J. S. and 16 , 
the other figures gone. Tradition says he rebuilt 
the church after Cromwell's days ; but this one 
more slander sought to be affixed to the memory 
of the redoutable Oliver refutes itself by the date 
of the old freemason's death, who, however, in his 
lifetime, from certain indications in the structure, 
may have helped to rebuild or re-edify it, as is 
alluded to in his epitaph. Apart from the interest 
in this old freemason's inscription, is it not very 

probable he belonged to the renowned family 
of Stone, the sculptors, one of whom, Nicholas 
(his brother ?), died in 1647, and was buried in 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields he sculptured many of 
the monuments in Westminster Abbey while a 
descendant was Grand Warden to Sir Christopher 
Wren when erecting St. Paul's in 1717. In the 
Buildtr of 1859 I believe there is an interesting 
notice of the Stones Nicholas and his three sons, 
all buried in St. Martin's. Nicholas in the notice 
is described as coming from " Wandbury," near 
Exeter. Is not this a mistake for Sidbury ? I know 
of no place called " Wandbury." 

The subject has much interest, and I shall be 
greatly pleased to see such notes as the readers of 
" N. & Q." can put on record, or to know where 
information can be procured, and if the inscriptions 
to the Stones are still visible in St. Martin's. 


DAVIS, CLOCKMAKER (6 th S. x. 408, 525). I 
have taken the advice offered by M. A.Oxon. to 
ELL, but it has not advanced me an inch. I have 
written to Wm. Pollard, North Street, Exeter, but 
his reply cannot be considered satisfactory. He 
tells me that " Mr. C. 0. Morgan's paper on the 
* Clockmakers' Co.' appeared in the Archaeological 
Journal, and only a few copies were printed 
separately. Possibly he may have some left. Mr. 
Pollard has not his present address." Can 
M.A.Oxon. help us a little further in this direc- 
tion? Can one get at any printed list of the 
members of the Clockmakers' Company ] 


SHAKSPEARE'S BIBLE (6 th S. ix. 487, 516; x. 
75, 177, 370). By the permission of the owner 
I am able to give the following extracts from this 
Bible, printed at London in the year 1611 by 
Robert Barker. I will first give the names of the 
possessors and other matter from the date of the 
autographs of Shakspere, referring to these after- 
wards : 

'John Pox off Warw ck was the owner off this Bible, 
Ano. Dom. 1633. 

' W m Bradshaw, the son off John Bradshaw, off Brad- 
shaw, Esq., is the true owner off this Bible, Ano. 1666. 
I was born the 22nd of Sep r , Ano. Dom. 1630. My 
Honourable father departed this life the 24th Jan y , 
about six in y e morning, being Monday, A.D. 1665. 

" I was married to Ellinor, my second wife, the 15th 
day of July, 1666. Alice, my daughter, was born the 
23rd of May, 1667, and departed this life the 17th of 
April, 1672. And Mary, my wife's daughter, departed 
this life the 13th of Jan?, 1672. My son William was 
born tlie 28th day of Aug st , 1675 ; he departed this life 
April 21st, 1681. 

" My brother John Bradshaw, Esq., departed this life 

he 14th of 9 br , about half an hour past nine in the 

ivening, A.D. 1666. My brother George Bradshaw de- 
parted this life the 13th of Feb*, 1664, in the morning, 
tfy brother Henry Bradshaw departed this life 9 br y c 10">, 
1664. My brother Thomas departed this life, and my 
>rot'> Mr. Edward Rostorn, of Lum upon Andors Eave, 




" William and Ellynor Bradshaw 

They are soe one, that none can justly say 

Which of them rules or whether doth obay, 

Hee rules beecause shee will obay, yet shoe by 

Thus obayinge rules as well as he. 

Lord grant unto us peace eternally. 

The next date recorded is by James Dawson, 
who was born " Aug" y 8th, 1702. Mary, his 
wife, was born Feb? 12th, 1703." Then the follow- 
ing entries appear : 

" Thomas Hall is the true owner off this Bible, Ano. 
1727 Robert Hall, May 26th, 1734. James Hall, his 
book 1743. Sons and daughters born to James Hall in 
Failsworth: Ann Hall, born Jan^ 31st, 1744/5; James 
and John Hall, born Feb? 27th, 1747 or 48. John Hall, 

lor groups 01 young vinogcio j j 

adorned with ribbons, and having many wrens depend- 
ing from it. This is carried from house to house with 
some ceremony, the ' wren-boys ' chanting several verses, 
I the burthen of which may be collected from the follow- 
ing lines of their song." 
He adds these two verses : 

" My box would speak, if it had but a tongue, 
And two or three shillings would do it no wrong ; 
Sing holly, sing ivy sing ivy, sing holly, 
A drop just to drink, it would drown melancholy. 
And if you draw it of the best, 
I hope in Heaven your soul may rest ; 
But if you draw it of the small, 
It won't agree with the wren-boys at all." 
r. Dyer refers to Croker, Researches in the South 
4, p. 233. For the folk-lore about 

John Holt, born " Dec r 30, 1811," also a signature 
of John Bradshaw. 

At the beginning of the Book of Psalmes the 
following verses are written : 
" Blest are the sons of peace whose hopes and hearts are 

Whose kind desines to love and please throw all their 

actions run ; 
Blest is the pious hous whore zeal and friendship 


Their songs of praise, their mingled vows, make their 
communion sweet.'" 

" Awake my soul, awake my eyes, awake my drousie 

Awake and see y e new-born light spring from y e dark 

some wombe of night ; 
Loock up and see y e unwery d sun already has his race 

Y e pretty lark is mounted high and sings his matins 

in y e sky 

about hunting the wren on St. Stephen's Day in 
the Isle of Man. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

x. 266, 315, 472 ; xi. 33). The expression " Kaw 
me, kaw thee " occurs in Lodge's A Fig for Momus, 
originally published in 1595. I have not the 
work at hand, and therefore cite the extract given 
in Beloe's Anecdotes of Literature, 1807, vol. ii. 
pp. 117-8: 

Then in this world, who winks at each estate, 
Hath found the means to make him fortunate, 
To colour hate with kindness, to defraud 
In private those in publique we applaud. 
To keepe this rule, kaw me and I kaw thee, 
To play the saints, whereas we divels bee." 

I cannot agree with MR. BAYNE in thinking that 
there would be greater strength and compactness 

early rejoice ; 

grate Creator, heavenly king, thy praises let me ever 
sing " 

On a leaf is this inscription to a binder, " M r 
John Heywood, calfe plain to take y e comon 
prayer out." 

n e 

Arise m/soVand thou my voice in songs of prais jj B y ron ' s line3 were the epithet royal repeated. 

On the contrary, I think the force of the Latin 
would be greatly lessened. For the " royal bird " 
to have scratched himself would have been nothing 
out of the way. It was the " loyal Sawney's " sub- 
serviency in this respect that Byron meant to 
satirize. As PROF. SKEAT has pointed out, the 

The autograph of the poet occurs in two places sense of mutual adulation indicated in the pro- 
of the Bible, viz., " William Shakspere, 1614," verb is quite clear, and the emendation of " Claw 
being on the title-page of the New Testament, me, claw thee " is not required. W. F. P. 

and " Will- Shakspere off-f-S+0+A, his Bible, 
1613," on the cover at the end of the book. 

The autographs having been compared with a 

copy of the one in the Montaigne of Florid" in the * fc was J ames Carmichael, son of Gavin, viv. 1547, 
British Museum, and bearing a remarkable re- who marri ed Marion Campbell, and not his de- 
semblance to it, it is intended, when the oppor- scendant James, created Lord Carmichael. If 
tunity occurs, to compare it with the original. ^. .0- will kindly give the full pedigree of Lady 

396,477; xi. 12). Will F. C. permit me to say that 

45, Blackfriara Street, Manchester. 


Elizabeth Stewart, or Campbell, I shall be greatly 
obliged. By the marriage of William, Master of 
Carmichael, 06. 1657, with Lady Grizel Douglas 
the Earls of Hyndford were descended from Lady 

(6 th S. x. 492). The lines quoted by your corre- Mary Stewart, second daughter of Robert III. 
spondent, with the exception of the last two, are | F, N. R. 

xi. jA S .it, -as.) NOTES AND QUERIES, 


xi. 29). A few years ago this picture was at 
Messrs. Colnaghi's, in Pall Mall. Application to 
Mr. McKay, of that firm, will probably lead to a 
knowledge of its present whereabouts. URBAN. 


" It 's dogged as does it." 

From Mr. Trollope's Last Chronicle of Barset, vol. ii. 
c. 18, Baid to Mr. Crawley by the old man Giles Hoggett 
from Hoggle End. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

Anthony Trollope, in Last Chronicle of Barset, vol. i. 
p. 201 : " It 's dogged as does it. It ain't thinking about 
it." J. L. 


The Registers of the Parish of Thorington, in the County 
of Suffolk. With Notes of the different Acts of Par- 
liament relating to them, and Notices of the Bence 
Family. Edited by Thomas S. Hill, Rector of Thoring- 
ton. (Mitchell & Hughes.) 

MR. HILL has laid all those who value accurate know- 
ledge of the past under a deep debt of obligation. The 
parish register of which he is the legal custodian seems 
to have been well kept and carefully preserved, and he 
has edited it in a manner which, for all practical pur- 
poses, renders access to the original needless. Not con- 
tent with this, which must have been a serious labour, 
he has added a series of notes which will convey much 
new knowledge to most persons as to the laws relating 
to marriage. 

The law courts commonly receive the testimony of 
parish registers as conclusive. Those among us who 
have studied them the longest know that they not in- 
frequently contain errors. That 

" Some falsehood mingles with all truth " 
is not mere poetic pessimism is proved by almost every 
parish register in England if it be carefully examined. 
We have a curious example here. Among the christen- 
ings for the year 1581 occurs, " July 20. Nicholas Reve, 
sonne unto Robert Reve and Anne his wife." To this is 
added the note that the entry " cannot be true, for his 
mother died the yeare before. There is mention made 
in the ould booke of this Nicholas birth the 19th of 
Julye, but no yeare of our Lorde is sett downe : onelye 
it is sett after the yeare 1578." 

There is little to remark as to the surnames. Few, 
if any, are of a noteworthy character, except that of 
Seppens, which occurs in many differing forms of 
spelling. The name is very uncommon. It may 
interest the editor to know that a Thomas Sippence was 
one of the eighteen gentlemen of the ordnance who 
served under the Earl of Essex in the Parliamentarian 
army of 1642-3. We have carefully examined the Chris- 
tian names of the seventeenth century portion of the 
register, and do not find that those of a distinctly 
Puritan cast occur more frequently than in modern 
or more ancient times. In 1672 "Judah daughter of 
William and Mary Blowers," was baptized. This is very 
possibly a clerical error for Judith. Many persons seem 
to be unaware that names taken from characters in the 
Old Testament were in use before the Reformation. 
The book before us gives conclusive evidence on this 
point. Mr. Hill has enriched his work by a carefully 
compiled list of the rectors of Thorington from 1332 to 
the present day. In 1505 we find Eliseus Aynesworth 
presented on the death of a former rector, Had a person 

bearing this name filled the post one hundred and fifty 
years later, it would have been taken as decisive proof 
of the " Puritanism " of bis parents. The name Vere 
occurs as a female Christian name in 1643. " Vere, 
daughter of Tho. and ffrances ffiske," was baptized on 
June 16 and buried on Dec. 22. It has commonly been 
thought that when Vere occurs as a Christian name it 
marks some connexion of blood or alliance with the 
great Norman house of which the Earls of Oxford were 
the head. In this case it is difficult to think that it does 
so. It is probably an English form of the Latin Vera. 
It may not be out of place in this connexion to remark 
that Sir Edward Rosseter, the Parliamentarian com- 
mander who fought at Naseby, and who won the battle 
of Willoughby, near Newark, had a daughter named 

The Thoringtcn registers bear testimony to the fact 
that double Christian names have been uncommon until 
quite recent times. The editor notes that the first in- 
stance that occurs in these records is in 1770. 

Selections from the Prose Writings of Jonathan Swift. 

With a Preface and Notes by Stanley Lane-Poole. 

(Kegan Paul & Co.) 
Notes for a Bibliography of Swift. By Stanley Lane- 

Poole. (Stock.) 

IF ever there was a writer who may with advantage be 
seen by the majority of readers in a volume of selections, 
it is Swift. Some knowledge of Swift is necessary to 
every soi-disant student, yet to read the whole is a task 
outside the powers of the majority of busy men. While, 
accordingly, agreeing with Mr. Lane-Poole, when in his 
clever preface he says he belongs to the book-lovers, and 
an edition that spreads along a whole shelf has no terrors 
for him, we are glad to welcome this edition of Swift 
that may be commended to all readers, of whatever age 
or sex. From The Tale of a Tub, Gulliver, The Battle of 
the Books, &c., Mr. Lane-Poole has made an excellent 
selection. His book will be none the less valued for 
forming a portion of the admirable Parchment Library 
of Messrs. Kegan Paul & Co. Mr. Lane-Poole has also 
reprinted from the Bibliographer his notes for a biblio- 
graphy of Swift. 

Men of Invention and Industry. By Samuel Smiles, LL.D. 


ALL Dr. Smiles's books are pleasant reading, and his last 
volume is no exception to the rule. Though the subjects 
which are treated are heterogeneous, and are somewhat 
randomly strung together, the simple and vigorous style 
of the author, and the endless quantity of interesting 
and carefully collected pieces of information which he 
gives us, disarm criticism. As a number of the ques- 
tions on which Dr. Smiles touches have from time to 
time formed subjects of inquiry and discussion in our 
columns, we cannot do better than briefly indicate to 
our readers the contents of the volume. In the first 
chapter we have a description of the rise and progress 
of English shipbuilding with a life of Phineas Pett, the 
designer of those famous ships the Prince Royal and the 
Sovereign of the Seas. Readers of " N. & Q." will re- 
collect the account which Evelyn gives us in his Diary 
of this last-named ship, " the richest that ever spread 
cloth before the wind." In the second chapter Dr. 
Smiles tells the history of the invention of the screw 
propeller, and relates the manner in which Francis 
Pettit Smith's indefatigable perseverance triumphed 
over all obstacles. The third chapter is devoted to a 
biography of John Harrison, the inventor of the marine 
chronometer; and the fourth to an account of John 
Lombe, the introducer of the silk industry into England. 
The life and inventions of William Murdock, best known, 
perhaps, by his application of gas for lighting purposes, 

NOTES 'AND QUERIES. ^ & XL JiN - " ' 85 - 


form the subject of the fifth chapter. The next three 
Sters deal with Frederick J&enig, the inventor of 
thesteam printing machine the Walters and the .inyen- 
tion of the Walter press, and William Clowes, the prince 
of printers," who introduced look printing by steam. 
We P are next told the history of Charles Biancom the 
famous car proprietor. Then comes a chapter in which 
,uch useful information concerning the industries of 
Ireland will be found ; and this is succeeded by another, 
written by Mr. E. J. Harland, giving an account of the 
origin and 7 progress of shipbuilding at Belfast In the 
twelfth and last chapter Dr Smiles recounts ^latest 
dicoveries of astronomers and students in humble life, 
including his interviews with John Robertson, the astro- 
nomer and railway porter, who is to be seen any day 
at Coupar Angus Station, and John Jones, of Bangor, 
astronomer, philologist, and bard, who in the daytime is 
employed in loading ships with slates, and in the even- 
ing devotes his time to perfecting his astronomical in- 

MR. MATTHIAS MULL has published, through Messrs. 
Kegan Paul & Co., an edition of the first six books of 
Paradise Lost, in which " numerous mutilations ot the 
text" are amended and the "obnoxious punctuation 
lias been revised. We appreciate his zeal for the great 
poet, but can approve of few of his emendations. The 
more we consider some on which he prides himself the 
more " obnoxious," to use his own word, do they appear. 

THE Red Dragon (Cardiff, Owen ; London, Kent) de- 
serves to maintain its ground as the national magazine 
for Wales. The articles in recent numbers before us cover 
a varied field, including accounts of travel in Brittany and 
Mexico, a criticism of the sleep-walking scene in Mac- 
beth, Wales as Carlyle saw it, &c., together with notes and 
queries relating to Wales and biographies of notable men 
of Wales. Among the last figures Admiral Mathew, con- 
cerning whom there has recently been some discussion 
in our own pages. 

Northamptonshire Notes and Queries continues its 
useful career under the editorship of Mr. Sweeting. The 
number for the last quarter (October, 1884) contains, 
amongst other items of interest, extracts from North- 
amptonshire briefs, a note on the Cecil genealogy (a sub- 
ject on which much light has been cast in " N. & Q." 
by the researches of Mr. A. S. Ellis), and a good en- 
graving of the bay window of the hall at Fawsley, illus- 
trating a careful account of the history of the manor 
and of the family of Knightley, contributed by Lady 

Bedfordshire Notes and Queries, edited by Mr. F. A 
Blaydes, has contained during the last quarter of 1884 
some interesting notes on the history and arms of the 
Lorings of Chalgrave, an ancient family which has long 
passed away from Bedfordshire, but whose name is stil 
to be found on both sides of the Atlantic. Dr. G. W 
Marshall has put together some notes on Bedfordshire 
Marshall?, and we have also useful lists of the Bedford 
ehire gentry who contributed to the defence fund agains 
the Spanish Armada, and a reprint of Fuller's list of th 
nobility and gentry of Bedfordshire in 1433. 

The Midland Review Almanack, Vol. I., for 1885 (Bir 
mingham, Cooper & Co.), contains a mass of useful in 
formation concerning the events of the past year inter 
esting to others than natives of or residents in the Mid 
land Counties. The obituary in particular has a genera 
interest ; and when a literary review is added, as it i 
hoped next year's issue will see, the field covered, whic 
already comprises art, politics, music, the drama, educa 
tion, and other factors of social life, will render the Mit 
land Renew Almanack a valuable book of reference fo 

ie genealogist as well as for the man of letters and for 
ultured readers generally. 

Shakespearian* (Philadelphia, Leonard Scott Pub Co.) 
nnounces in the number for October, 1884 a welcome 
hange which promises to develope its usefulness as an 
rean of Shakspeare research and criticism, by an vn- 
rease of space in each number of the new year. We 
hall look forward with interest to the result. 

THE familiar initials H. C. C. will not again be seen 

n our columns. After a long illness Mr. Henry Charles 

~oote, F.S.A., died on Sunday, Jan. 4, at the age of 

eventy. A learned antiquary and a thorough scholar, 

e placed all his eminent gifts at the service of " N. & Q.," 

nd until disabled, three years ago, by an attack of para- 

ysi?, was a constant contributor. So late as vol. ix. a 

eply from him showed that his interest in " N. & Q." was 

unabated. As a legal writer Mr. Coote ranked very high, 

nd his principal historical work, The Romans of Britain, 

von him solid reputation. To the Transactions of the 

lociety of Antiquaries he contributed many important 

oapers, and he was an active member of the Folk-Lore 

Society. Mr. Coote's death will be much regretted in 

mtiquarian circles. 

The Foreign Monumental Brasses of the Rev. W. F. 
Greeny, M.A., Vicar of Michael-at-Thorn, Norwich, is 
eady for publication. It is a superb work, in imperial 
folio, with over eighty illustrations. Application must 
3e made direct to the author. 


We must call special attentionto the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
s a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

QU^STOR. 1. "Though lost to eight," &c , is from a 
song by George Linley, lived 1798-1865. See " N. & Q.," 
5 th S. x. 417 and passim. 2. " Great wits to madness," 
&c., will be found in Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel, 
pt. i. 1. 163. 

I. C. W. (" Good-bye "). The accepted spelling is 
that we employ, the omitted letters being apparently so 
numerous as to justify the absence of any signs of con- 

F. C. RAT (" A Monograph of the Ramphastidae "). 
If complete the val'ue is considerable. Ask Mr. Wheldon, 
natural history bookseller, Great Queen Street, W.C. 

R. W. CARLETON ("Gil Bias "). The name, invented 
by a Frenchman, is intended to be Spanish. It is pro- 
nounced Hil Bias, with a guttural accent to the initial 
letter and the final s sounded. 

E. M. H. The Old Woman of Berkeley is by Robert 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

. XI. JAS. 24, '85. 3 





NOTES :-Cambridge Periodicals, Cl Notes by White Ken" 
nett, 62 Dr. Johnson's Will, 64 Illness and Death of 
Tope -Coleridge and Leigh Hunt Reckan, 65 Hallam's 
Grave New System of Noting Time- Queen Jane Seymour 
Bewray A work Iledon and Kirk Ella, CO Biblical Mis- 
printGhetto, 67. 

QUERIES : Thrasonical Fragment of Ballad Lord's Day- 
Letter of Warren Hastings, 67 Tradesmen's Signs Pim- 
lico : Chelsea" Marriage of Cock Robin " Eobert Meggott 
Peerage Summonses Chronograms " The Spikes" 
Eotcher Gavilliger, 68 Magna Charta Barons Camel 
Corps Michael Tyson Prize Essay on Hydrophobia 
Heraldic Bewsolas Warley Camp, 69. 

REPLIES : Cecil Family, 69 Younglings Trajan's Column 
Omen in Pocket-picking Cruikshank Bibliography, 71 
Literary Craze Colour in Surnames Cannibalism Religion 
of Shakspeare Oil on Troubled Waters -Rev. Samuel John- 
sonDelia Crusca, 72 Fern in Church, 73 Caricatures of 
Mulready Envelope Russet-pated Choughs Burns's " Joy- 
ful Widower" Fylfot-True Date of Birth of Christ, 74- 
Memorics of St. Matthew's Dedications of Parish Churches 
Loch Brandy Death of Richard II. "Patet janua cor 
magis" Dr. Richard Stuart, 75 Bible in Shorthand Sir 
Thomas Ingram, 76 Italian Proverb A.M. and P.M. 
Turpin's Ride to York Mottoes and Inscriptions Matri- 
arch, 77 Rev. Robert Taylor Turner's Pictures "Tales of 
an Indian Camp" Euphuism Giglet- Grass- widow, 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Bramley's" The Psalter ""Diocesan 
Histories" Orby Shipley's " Annus Sanctus." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



The following list of university periodicals will, 
I think, be found complete. Some periodicals 
which are edited by members of one college for 
their members exclusively are not included. The 
periodicals of a graver nature are also excluded ; 
but perhaps it is best to mention them here rather 
than omit them. The Cambridge Mathematical 
Journal, started in 1839, was edited by Duncan 
Farquharson Gregory and Robert Leslie Ellis, and 
expired in 1846. In 1846 Sir William Thomson 
and Norman Macleod Ferrers started the Cam- 
bridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal, which 
existed until 1854. This was followed in 1858 
by the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, which 
still issues from a Cambridge printing house. In 
1862 was commenced the Oxford, Cambridge, and 
Dublin Messenger of Mathematics, edited by 
jnnior members of the three universities, which 
was published until 1871, when a new series 
commenced, with title altered to the Messenger of 
Mathematics. This is still published. I think 
I am right in saying that these are the only Eng- 
lish magazines entirely devoted to the science of 
mathematics. The Journal of Physiology, edited 
by Dr. Michael Foster, was commenced here, and I 

think the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology also, 
with which Dr. Humphry is connected. Classics 
and philology are represented by the Trans- 
actions of the Cambridge Philological Society. 
We have also an Antiquarian Society and a Philo- 
sophical Society, which issue transactions and pro- 
ceedings. I hope before long to follow this with 
a list of our town magazines. At the request of 
Mr. Pink, our Public Librarian, I have placed a f 
against those periodicals which are in the Public 
Free Library : 

t 1750-1. The Student; or, the Oxford and Cambridge 
Monthly Miscellany. Nineteen numbers issued. No. 1, 
Jan. 31, 1750; 19, July 3, 1751. 8vo. Oxford. "A 
miscellany of great merit, by Thos. Warton, Chris. 
Smart, Bonnel Thornton, Geo. Colman, and Dr. Sam. 
Johnson" (Lowndes). 

1819. The Cambridge Monthly Repository ; or, Lite- 
rary Miscellany. No. 1, December, 1819. Pp. 44. 8vo. 

f 1824. The Cambridge Quarterly Review and Acade- 
mical Register. Three numbers issued. No. 1, March ; 
2. July; 3, October, 1824. 8vo. London, John Letts, 

1825-6. The Metropolitan Quarterly Magazine. Three 
numbers issued. No. 1, Nov., 1825; 3, April, 1826. 8vo. 
Although not really a Cambridge periodical, it must find 
a place in this list, because it was edited by two under- 
graduates of the university, Frederick Denison Maurice, 
of Trinity Hall, and Charles Shapland Whitmore, of 
Trinity, with the aid of other undergraduate friends (see 
Maurice's Life, 1884, vol. i. p. 62. 

f 1829. The Snob : a Literary and Scientific Journal, 
not conducted by Members of the University. Eleven 
numbers issued. No. 1, April 9, 1829; 11, June 18, 1829. 
Camb., printed by W. Hatfield and published by W. H. 
Smith. Thackeray was connected with this journal; the 
parody on Tennyson's Timbuctoo is accepted as his, but 
nothing else is known of his connexion with it. Each 
number was printed on paper of different colours. 

f 1829-30. The Gownsman (formerly called) The 
Snob : a Literary and Scientific Journal, now conducted 
by Members of the University. Seventeen numbers 
issued. No. 1, Nov. 5, 1829, continued weekly during 
term ; 17, Feb. 25, 1830 (with title-page to vol. ii., vol. i. 
being the Snob). Camb., printed by Weston Hatfield, &c. 
In our Public Free Library Reading-Room is a painted 
board representing a university man in his academicals. 
There is a slit for contributions between, " Contributions 
for the Gownsman." This was really used for the purpose 
of receiving contributions. 

f 1833-4. The Cambridge Quarterly Review and 
Magazine of Literature, Arts, Sciences, &c. Three 
numbers issued. No. 1, July, 1833 ; 3, January, 1834. 
Camb., printed by Weston Hatfield. "Conducted on 
strictly liberal principles, by members of the university, 
with the assistance of the most distinguished writers of 
the day " (J. Sheridan Knowles, Douglas Jerrold, C. 
Whitehead, Rev. H. Stebbing, and others). 

f 1836. The Freshman. Six numbers issued. No. 1, 
March 5 (continued weekly) ; 6, April 9, 1836. Camb., 

t 1836. The Fellow. Eleven numbers issued. No. 1, 
October; 11, Dec. 15, 1836. Camb., printed for W. H. 
Smith. No. 9 of the Individual announced that the 
Fellow was discontinued, and that all papers had been 
transferred to the Individual. "The Editor of the 
Fellow takes the liberty of requesting that the patronage 
hitherto extended to the Fellow may be transferred to 
the Individual" 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. ii. JAN. 21, -as. 

t 1836-7. The Individual. Sixteen numbers issued 
No. 1, October, 25, 1836, psblisbed only in term time 
16, April 11, 1837. Camb., W. H. Smith.* Each numbe 
was printed on a paper of different colour. 

f 1838-9. The Tripos. No. 1, Dec. 19, 1838 ; 2, Feb. 9 

1839-42. The Cambridge University Magazine. 
Twelve numbers issued. Np. 1, March, 1839, publishec 
once a term ; 12, October, 1842. Camb., printed by 
Metcalfe & Palmer for W. P. Grant. 

1845-7. The Oxford and Cambridge Review. Twenty 
four numbers issued. No. 1. July, 1845; 24, June, 184 
(?the last). Published in London by Wm. Pickering 
afterwards by James Olliver. " The Organ of the ' New 

Generation' honoured with the confidence of those 

who are the acknowledged heads of the ' New Genera 
tion ' in the Senate." 

t 1856. The Oxford and Cambridge Magazine. Con 
ducted by Members of the Two Universities. Twelve 
monthly numbers issued. No. 1. January ; 12, December 
London, Bell & Daldy. Edited by (Rev.) Wm. Fulford, 
of Pembroke College, Oxford; Wm. Morris, Vernon am 
Geoffrey Lushington, and Rossetti (? which) are among 
the unsigned contributors. Our Free Library has a copy 
with the authors' names appended to the articles. 

1858. The Lion University Magazine. Three numbers 
issued. No. 1, May term, 1858 ; 2, October, 1858 ; 3 ft). 
Edited by (Rev.) Hugh Reginald Haweis, of Trinity 
College. See note to the Bear, 1858. 

1 1858. The Bear University Magazine No. 1, October, 
1858. Reprinted by request, the last being third edition, 
February, 1862. Edited by (Right Hon.) George Otto 
Trevely;.n, of Trinity College. This was a parody and 
an attack upon No. 1 of the Lion. Mr. Trevelyan, upon 
the publication of the Lion, No. 2, published the squib 
llie Cambridge Dionysia," now included in his Ladies 
m Parliament and other Pieces, which see ; also Haweis's 
1S83 G >" Genilema ^s Magazine, October, 

. 1860-72. College Rhymes. Thirty-nine numbers 
issued No. 1, Lent term, 1860; 39, October, 1872. Ox- 
ford, Shrimpton. 

1866-71. The Light Blue: a Cambridge University 
Magazine, published twice a term.-First number, Lent 
" 7, 1871. ' 

A new series commenced M 



1869. Momus : a semi-occasional University Periodical 

-Three numbers issued. No. 1 (!) ; 2 (?) ; 3, March 15 

1870 C ge ' h P t ted by - W - Nay ' 0r f ^ Johns n! 

a firm has no connexion with Messrs W H 

numbers being issued when necessary. The Rev. George 
Forrest Browne is the present editor. 

1870-1. The Moslem in Cambridge : a Liberal and 
Advanced Journal of the Scope, Views, and Tendencies 
adapted to the Tastes of all Nations. Conducted by 
Hadji Sievad and a talented Heathen Staff No. 1, 
May 1, 1890 (November, 1870) ; 2. May 1, 1890 (Decem- 
ber, 1870) ; 3, 1890 (April, 1871). Illustrated cover and 
comic illustrations. Edited by Gerald Stanley Davies 
B.A., Christ's College. 

f 1871-2. The Tatler in Cambridge. Published 
weekly during term. May and Michaelmas terms, 1871 ; 
Lent and Easter terms, 1872. Cambridge, Johnson. 

f 1872. The Light Green. A superior and high-class 
periodical, supported by well-known and popular writers. 
No. 1, May, 1872; 2, November, 1872. Cambridge, 
Metcalfe. Known to the present undergraduates by 
" Reprints from Light Green," Nos. 1 and 2. 

1875. The Oxford and Cambridge Undergraduates' 
Journal. First number (No. 192), Oct. 21, 1875, and is 
still going on. An amalgamation of the Cambridge 
Undergraduates' Journal (1868), and the Oxford Under- 
graduates' Journal. 

1875. Light Greens : a Freshman's Diary, &c., by 
A - B. CD. E. F. G., &c., Esquires."-No. 1 (July, 
1875). Cambridge, Metcalfe. 

1877. The Cambridge Tatler. No. 1, March 6, 1877, 

?' 1( ^ May 29 ' 1877 (No ' 10 specially reprinted, July, 
1877). Cambridge, J. Palmer, for Johnson. 

1879. The Cambridge Review : a Journal of Univer- 
sity Life and Thought. No. 1, Oct. 15, 1879, and is 
still published weekly during term. Cambridge, Fabb, 
for Johnson. 

i 882 'JF h ? Cambridge Meteor. Published daily during 

7 ^ ee . k : , No - 1. Je 7, 1882, to No. 7, June 14, 
1882 with illustrated covers, varying with each number. 
Cambridge, Fabb & Tyler. 

1883. The True Blue : Occasional Jottings of 'Varsity 
Vagaries. Edited by Philcosmo.-Vol. i. pt. i. (March, 
1883). Jones & Piggott. Contains a skit upon the "Ajax " 
performance. A characteristic photograph of the Uni- 

ioS C m ew ' 1883 > vvas g^en with the number. 

1884. The Blue 'Un : a Journal of University Life. 

ififik n L May S 1 ' 1884 ' Cambrid S*> C. W. Naylor. 

1884. The May Bee. Published daily during the 
. M , ay ^k No. 1, June 4 , No. 7, June 11, 1884 Cam! 
bridge Fabb & Tyler. The only illustrated (!) daily " 
A boat-race card was given with each number. 

The periodicals still in course of publication 
are the Cambridge University Reporter (1870), 
the Oxford and Cambridge Undergraduates' Jour- 
nal (1875), and the Cambridge Review (1879). 

5, Downing Place, Cambridge. 



Some MS. notes have been found in an old 
e bearing the book-plate of Wh. Kennett 
, Decan. Petrib," of whose life a short S 
may be interesting. The initials W. K. identify 
e1bemg in the dean ' s handwriting I have 
he notes seriatim, with the original spelling 
and arrangement, and will give them /subse? 

first ;T7 mCati0n -. The ^ are written on ^ 
wt pages of a quarto interleaved Bible published 

6<" s. XI, JAN. 24, '85.] 



by "Charles Bell and the Executrix of Thomas 
Newcomb, deceased," 1702.* 

White Kennett was born at Dover on Aug. 10, 
1660 ; two months previously Charles II. had 
landed there on his way to London, when " the 
king came back to his own again." Kennett was 
educated at Westminster, where Atterbury must 
have been one of his schoolfellows ; he was then 
entered at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, and under 
the Principal, Andrew Allam, he early developed 
a taste for antiquarian pursuits. Allam employed 
him in collecting materials for the Athena Oxoni- 
enses of Anthony a Wood, and in making transla- 
tions from classical authors ; Kennett also wrote 
occasionally on the political questions of the day. 
In 1682 he took his degree of B.A., and received 
holy orders as curate of Burrester. In 1685 he 
was presented to the living of Ambrosden and 
took his degree of M.A. In this year James II. 
came to the throne, and soon caused great indig- 
nation at Oxford by his interference with the 
ancient rights of Magdalen College in the election 
of their President, Bishop Hough. There were at 
this time two singularly dissimilar occupants of the 
same rooms at Magdalen, Joseph Addison and 
Henry Sacheverel), who for some years were great 
friends, and Addison dedicated his Farewell to 
the Muses to Sacheverell as " his dearest friend and 
colleague." It is difficult to account for so strong 
a bond of fellowship between the refined and re- 
verent nature of Addison and the very opposite 
disposition of Sacheverel]. Kennett was probably 
acquainted with both, and in after years we find 
the following allusion to him in the Spectator of 
Sept. 4, 1711. The writer of the paper, signed 
X. (Eustace Budgell, a relation of Addison), tells 
the editor that if he had stayed a few days longer 
at Sir Roger de Coverley's he would have had the 
opportunity of seeing a " country wake," " which," 
Bays he, " you know, in most parts of England is 
the Eve Feast of the dedication of our Churches"; 
and he concludes in the words of " the learned 
Dr. Kennett." " These wakes," he adds, 
" were in imitation of the ancient ' Agapse ' or love 
feasts ; and were first established in England by Pope 
Gregory the Great, who in an Epistle to Melitus the 
Abbot gave order that they should be kept in Sheds or 
Arbories made up with Branches and Boughs of trees 
round the Church." 

He adds 

" that this laudable custom .of Wakes prevailed for 
many ages, till the nice Puritans began to exclaim 
against it as a Remnant of Popery; and by degrees the 
precise Humour grew so popular that at an Exeter 
Assizes the Lord Chief Baron Walter made an order for 
the Suppression of Wakes : but on Bishop Laud's corn- 
plaining of the innovating Humour, the King com- 
manded the order to be reversed." 

* This edition does not appear to have been repre- 
sented in the Caxton Exhibition in 1877, Although, those 
of 1701 and 1703 were so, 

In 1691 Kennett became tutor and vice-prin- 
cipal of his college, and was chosen lecturer of St. 
Martin's, Oxford. He was subsequently presented 
to the living of Shottesbroke, but continued to 
reside at Oxford, devoting his time to theological 
and antiquarian studies, and to the acquirement 
of the Saxon and Northern languages. Amongst 
other works he wrote the life of William Somner 
of Canterbury, a great antiquary and linguist of 
the time of Charles I. In 1695 he published his 
Parochial Antiquities* He was admitted B.D. 
in 1694, and D.D. in 1699. In 1701 he was ap- 
pointed to St. Botolph, Aid gate, and in 1701 
became Archdeacon of Huntingdon. In 1702 
Queen Anne came to the throne, and Dr. Kennett 
undertook to complete the history of England 
from the reign of Charles I. up to that date. This 
book was published in 1706 in 3 vols. folio, and 
is still a work of reference of that period (Green, 
&c.). In 1707 Dr. Kennett was made a royal 
chaplain, and in the same year he was elected 
Dean of Peterborough. 

I have already spoken of Henry Sachevereli 
when at Magdalen College, of which he became 
fellow. Having taken holy orders he was ap- 
pointed preacher at St. Saviour's, Southwark. 
Two violent political sermons which he preached 
in 1709 the one at the assizes at Derby, the other 
at St. Paul's before the Lord Mayor gave great 
offence to the Ministry, and especially to Lord 
Godolphin, who thought himself alluded to under 
the title of " Volpone." The circumstances of his 
impeachment and trial in Westminster Hall are 
well known. The trial continued for three weeks, 
the queen herself attending and taking great 
interest in it ; but although skilfully defended by 
Atterbury and others, Sacheverell was sentenced 
to be suspended for three years and his sermons 
to be publicly burnt. Dean Kennett published 
at the time A Vindication of the Church and 
Clergy of England from some late Charges brought 
against Them, also A True Answer to Dr. Sache- 
verell's Sermon, which brought on him the odium 
of the partisans of Sacheverell; but he heeded not 
their ' devices (see English Cyclopcedia, 1801, 
"Kennett"), and in his work at Peterborough 
found a happy relief from the heat of controversy. 
" Clerus Anglicanus stupor mundi " was a proverb 
to which the learning of the seventeenth century 
had given rise, and White Kennett was a worthy 
example of its truth. 

The dean was a warm supporter of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, which was estab- 
lished in 1701, and presented to it some valuable 

* Kehnett's Parochial Antiquities attempted in the 
History of Ambrosden, Burcester, and other Adjacent 
Parts 'in the Counties of Oxford and Bucks. Portrait, 
2 vols., 4to., cloth, 38*. Oxford, 1818. W. H. Gee, Book, 
seller, 28, High Street, Oxford. Advertised in the Ox- 
ford Magazin,e, Jan. 24, 1883. 



books and maps. la 1713 he published hi 
Bibliotheca Americana Primordia, and founded 
the library at Peterborough. Good Bishop Cam 
berland at this time held the see, a man of whom 
it has been said that " there was scarcely a blemish 
in his character." He was the originator of the 
saying that " it is better for a man to wear out 
than to rust out," a principle which he carried into 
practice by studying Coptic in his eighty-fourth 
year. On his death in 1718 White Kennett was 
chosen as his successor, and held the bishopric for 
ten years. He died in his house in St. James's 
Street on December 9, 1728, "translated to a 
better life."* His character has been weU 
summed up in the following words : 

"Bishop Kennett is described as having been 
courteous, bountiful, and communicative. His appli- 
cation was intense, Ids judgment solid, his style easy, 
and Lis elocution impressive. As a prelate, his conduct 
appears to have been exemplary ; but before his eleva- 
tion to the episcopal bench he certainly on some occa- 
sions displayed more zeal as a partisan than dignity as a 
divine." Georgian Era, vol. i. 

White Kennett had a brother Basil, a Fellow 
of Corpus Christi College, and author of several 
learned works, who went to Leghorn as chaplain 
to the English Factory, and was in great danger 
from the Inquisition. He is said to have been a 
man of exemplary integrity, generosity, piety, and 
modesty. He died in 1714. 

Bishop Kennett's manuscripts were purchased 

by the Marquis of Lansdowne ; they are now in 

the British Museum. A. A. 

( To ~be continued.) 

DR. JOHNSON'S WILL. The following extract 
from Berrows Worcester Journal of Dec. 16, 1784, 
appears in Truth of Dec. 18 last : 

"London, Dec. 14. Yesterday afternoon, about ten 
minutes before five of the clock, died, at his house in 
Bolt-court, Fleet-street, in the seventy-sixth year of his 
ago, that great ornament of literature, and firm friend of 
virtue and religion. Dr. tiamucl Johnson." 

" When the blanks of his last will were filling up by a 
gentleman at the Doctor's request, he asked what he 
should leave his honest old black servant, that had lived 
with him about forty years. He was informed that a 
man of the first quality usually bequeathed no more to a 
faithful servant than an annuity of fifty pounds. ' Why, 
then,' eaid the Doctor, ' tell Frank (meaning his negro) 
that I will be above a lord; for I will leave him seventy 
pounds a year.' 

" Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir John Hawkins, and Dr. 
bcott of the Commons are appointed his executors." 

Some interest attends the question who it was 
that assisted in filling up the will. Dr. Brocklesby 
was, I believe, Johnson's interlocutor in the con- 
versation about Barber's annuity ; but in no ac- 
count of the death-bed scene that I recollect is Dr. 
Brocklesby or any other person mentioned as 
performing the above service. I have some reason 

* Note on Dr. Reynolds, p, 22. 

to think it may have been another of Johnson's 
friends, whose name, curiously enough, has been 
omitted from the list of those who came to take 
their last farewell of the venerable author. The 
person I allude to was Philip Metcalfe, M.P. for 
Horsham, F.R.S., &c., a signatory of the well- 
known round robin on Goldsmith's epitaph, and 
whose " excellent table and animated conversation " 
were, according to Boswell, much appreciated by 
Johnson in his latter days. (See Boswell's John- 
son, ed. 1835, in 10 vols., vol. viii. 145.) I am led 
to think so by the following note in the same 
Philip Metcalfe's handwriting, which I have lately 
seen on the fly-leaf of an old edition of South's 

" The Gift of Dr. Samuel Johnson as a kind token of 
affection & remembrance, eight & forty hours before he 
died. Sat. 11 th Xber 1784 : when we tog executed the 
deed making me his Trustee for an Annuity to his 
Serv* Fran. Barber of 701. p. Annum. 


The book is now in the possession of Philip's 
great - grand - nephew, Mr. Walter C. Metcalfe, 
F.S. A., who kindly permitted me to copy the above 
note. I was not previously aware that Mr. Met- 
calfe was a trustee. Mr. George Stubbs, the 
celebrated animal painter, is the only person 
mentioned in that capacity in the codicil to the 
will as well as in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1784 (p. 946), where the circumstances of the 
doctor's liberality are related with some minuteness. 
I have since, however, discovered in the Public 
Record Office a " memorial " of the annuity to 
Barber, enrolled on Dec. 14, 1784, which confirms 
:he MS. note. From this document it appears 
ihat the annuity was secured by a bond dated 
Dec. 11, 1784, entered into by " Bennet Langton, 
of Langton, in the county of Lincoln, Esquire, to 

Philip Metcalfe, of Savile Row Esquire, and 

George Stubbs, of Suffolk Street, Charing Cross 

gentleman," whereby Langton, having received 

rom the doctor 7571 10s., bound himself to pay 
701. per annum to Metcalfe and Stubbs during 
;he lives of "Samuel Johnson, of Fleet Street, 
London, Doctor of Laws, and Francis Barber, now 
n the service of the s d Samuel Johnson," the execu- 
;ion of the bond by Langtou being attested by 
John Des Moulius, of Bolt Court, Fleet Street, and 
William Fynmore, of Suffolk Street. Payment of 
the annuity by Langton was further secured on 
certain profits from the navigation of the river 
Wey, in Surrey, by a deed of Dec. 11, 1784, made 
between Langton of the one part, and Metcalfe and 
stubbs of the other part. 

Writing from the very site, as some suppose, 
yhere these events were enacted a century back, 
'. trust that the interest I naturally feel in the 
enius loci may excuse a curiosity which might 
therwise appear excessive. G. J. W. 

Dr, Johnson's Buildings, Temple. 

6<n 3. XI. JAN. 24, '85.J 



DEATH. I find the following in Archbishop 
Herring's Letters to IV. Duncombe, published in 
1777, p. 67: 

"Dated Frith Street, June 30, 1744. 
"A report is spread about town that during Mr. Pope's 
illness a dispute happened in his chamber between his 
two Physician?, Burton, who is since dead himself,* and 
Thompson ; the former charging the latter with hasten- 
ing the patient's death by the violent purges he had 
frescribed, and the other- retorting the charge. Mr. 
'ope at length silenced them by saying, ' Gentlemen, I 
can only learn by your discourse that 1 am in a very 
dangerous way, therefore all I have now to ask is that 
the following epigram may be added after my death to 
the Dunciad, by way of postscript : 

" Dunces, rejoice, forgive all censures past ; 

The greatest dunce has killed your foe at last." ' 
However, I have been since told that these lines were 
really written by Burton himself; and the following 
epigram, by a friend of Thompson, was occasioned by the 
foregoing one : 

'As physic and verse both to Phoebus belong, 
So the college oft dabble in potion and song ; 
Hence Burton, resolved his emetics shall hit, 
When his recipe fails, gives a puke with his wit.' 
Dr. Thompson is going to publish Pope's case." - 

I have failed to discover any publications on this 
topic by either of the physicians named. The 
facts are briefly referred to in Carruthers's Life of 
Pope, Bonn's edition, p. 383 : 

" The poet himself had consulted a quack practitioner, 
Dr. Thomson [sic], a man who had, according to John- 
son, by large promises and free censures of 'the common 
practice of physic, forced himself into sudden reputa- 
tion. Thomson recommended the use of waters, and the 
regular medical attendants conceived that such a pre- 
scription was unsuited to a patient suffering under 
dropsical asthma." 

In a note is added : 

"Thomson's prescriptions were satirized in a poem 
published immediately after Pope's death, entitled One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty-Four, by a Great 
Poet lately deceased." 

The lines said to be by Burton, as quoted above, 
are given as the last couplet of this poem, a copy 
of which I have searched for in vain. Ib was 
probably projected, but in consequence of Dr. 
Burton's death never given to the public. 


over Leigh Hunt's London Journal for 1834 the 
other day, I was somewhat surprised to find no 
mention of the death of Coleridge, which took 
place on July 25 of that year. On searching the 
column headed " To Correspondents," I found, on 
August 20, the following : " In our next number, 
we shall have the pleasure of paying our acknow- 
ledgments to various kind notices in magazines and 
newspapers. We also hope to say something on 
Mr. Coleridge." Neither in the next number nor 
in any other did anything on Mr. Coleridge appear, 

* He survived Pope not above ten days. 

but in that for September 17 the following answer 
to a correspondent is printed : 

" If the correspondent who sent ua an extract from 
our columns, accompanied with the mention of a late 
eminent poet, is an honest man, we are sorry both for 
the mistake under which he labours and for the deduc- 
tion which he implies from it. It has been contradicted 
repeatedly, especially by the Editor ; and as to what 
bitterness might still remain from his treatment by the 
critics, our correspondent overlooks the whole tone of 
this Journal and the objects which it manifestly has in 
view. Besides, we have thoroughly discussed the spirit 
of that matter elsewhere, and distinctly settled it on a 
footing which would have been approved by the ex- 
cellent and generous poet himself." 

The " late eminent poet " I assume to have been 
Coleridge, and on that assumption I should like to 
have some light thrown on the note. It suggests 
that Coleridge was once suspected of having un- 
favourably criticized Hunt ; that the suspicion 
being unfounded, it had been contradicted by 
Hunt ; that the correspondent had suspected 
Hunt of taking his revenge on Coleridge without 
naming him ; and that Hunt indignantly repelled 
the insinuation. But why all this mystery, whether 
Coleridge was the late eminent poet or not 1 and 
why did Hunt neither record the fact of Cole- 
ridge's death nor say anything over his grave] 
They were by way of being friends, but the notice 
of Coleridge in Hunt's Autobiography is not 
cordial, and indeed its tone, as regards both the 
man and his works, is, all things considered, hardly 
becoming. J. D. C. 

KECK AN. This Northern word is duly ex- 
plained in Atkinson's Cleveland Glossary as " an 
iron crane, on which are suspended the pot-hooks, 
and which, being hinged at one end to the masonry 
of the chimney, will move in any direction over 
the fire." Mr. Atkinson gives it under the form 
reek-aim, but observes that it is pronounced reckon 
or reckan. His reason for spelling it reek-airn is 
that he supposes this to be the etymological spell- 
ing, and that the sense is reek-iron, i.e., "iron in 
the smoke." It is rather hard that words should 
be quoted under an assumed etymological spelling ; 
but it is the old, old way, and the source of end- 
less trouble. 

I think it is quite certain that the above ety- 
mology is wrong ; for I find in a will, 1454, the 
following entries: "j. craticula ferrea, j. par 
tanges de ferro, ij crassetes et j. rekand de ferro," 
&c., in a list of cooking utensils Testamenta 
Eboracensia, ii. 194. Obviously the modern 
reckan is the old Yorkshire rekand, which cannot 
stand for reek-iron, and has to be described as 
being " de ferro," because the word rekand in 
itself does not already contain the idea of iron. 

The etymology is easy and obvious, viz , from 
the Icel. rekendr, a chain, a derivative of the verb 
reka. The A.-S word is racenta, a chain, which 
is sufficiently common, from the same root as 


i* B. . JA.. a*. 

rack and reach. This explains the modern pro- 
nunciation, which happens to be quite correct. 

This is one more example of the danger c 
guessing without sufficient evidence. We learn 
also that the true sense of recto was chain ; it 
was doubtless at first applied to a simple plan ot 
{suspending pot-hooks from the links of a chain, so 
as to regulate the height ; and the name was re- 
tained when the apparatus became more complex. 
This is much more satisfactory than the popular 
etymology from reek WALTER W. SKEAT. 


HALLAM'S GRAVE (See 6 th S. viii. 221). The 
sixteen black horses which I mentioned m this 
article are explained by the fact that the hearse 
and the three mourning coaches were drawn by four 
black horses apiece. Lord Tennyson, to whom I 
forwarded the article, was kind enough to reply : 

" It is news to me that the remains of A. H. H. were 
landed at Dover. I had always believed that the ship 
which brought them put in at Bristol. As to his being 
buried in the chancel, Mr. Hallam, in a printed memoir 
of his son, states that it was so. I myself did not see 
Clevedon till years after the burial, and then in later 
editions of In Memoriam altered the word chancel to 
dark church, I can assure you I am innocent, as far as 
I am aware, of knowing one line of Statius ; and of 
Ovid's Epicedion I never heard. I have searched for 
it in a little three-volume edition of Ovid which I have 
here, but that does not contain this poem ; nor have I 
ever heard of the Sorrow of Claiidius Etruscus nor of 
the Spring Stanzas to Domitian" 
May I say that what I wrote was written from 
no wish to flatter my barn-door wings in the pages 
of " N. & Q."? I had a long interview at Cleve- 
don with Augustus Hare, the sexton, who was 
present as a boy at Hallam's funeral, and whose 
father dug the vault. The poems to which I 
referred can be found in the Corpus Poetarum 
Latinorum. I should be much obliged if any 
correspondent could tell me the name of the ship 
and its subsequent career. EDWARD MALAN. 

Wight local railway and steam-packet service is 
early in adopting the new system of notation. 
Its time-tables run to twenty-four o'clock. 



QUEEN JANE SEYMOUR. This certificate from 
the physicians attending upon Queen Jane Sey- 
mour at the birth of Edward II., addressed to the 
Lords of the Council, was found in an old Oxford 
magazine for 1768 : 

" These shall be to advertise your lordships of the 
queen's estate. Yesterday afternoon she had a natural 
laxe, by reason whereof she began to lighten, and, as it 
appeared, to amend, and so continued till towards night. 
All this night she has been and doth rather apparte 
than mend. Her confessor hath been with her grace 
thia morning, and hath done that to his office apper- 
taineth, and even now is preparing to minister to her 

grace the sacrament of unction At Hampton Court, 
fhis Wednesday morning at eight o 'c lock. Your hord. 
ships at commandment, Thomas Rutland, Robert Har- 
hold, Edward Baynton, John Manby, priest, William 
Butts, Geo. Owin/' 

" This Wednesday morning " was Oct. 24, 1537. 

M. S. 

BEWRAY. An earlier example of this word than 
any given by Matzner or myself is in Robert of 
Brunne's Handlyng Synne, 3621: "That y ne 
wylle telle ne bewrey," i.e., disclose. Matzner well 
compares it with the 0. Friesic biwrogja, which, 
indeed, I have already cited. This 0. Friesic verb 
preserves the original o (long), which passed into 
, (Ug) in A,S., by the **%^ 


AWORK. I have derived this from on work, 
though I have hitherto failed to find such an ex- 
pression. It occurs, however, in the following : 
" As for the wagges that set us on worlce " (Lyly, 
Mother Bombie, V. iii.). WALTER W. SKEAT. 


OTHER ENTRIES. In October, 1884, I had occa- 
sion to search the eighteenth century parochial 
registers at Hedon and Kirk Ella, in Holderness, 
and by the way I noted down a few items of other 
than private interest, which may, perhaps, be 
worth printing in " N. & Q." All the following 
entries are from Hedon, except the last three, 
which are from Kirk Ella : 

1739. April y a 4, Elizabeth, daughter of James Flem- 
ing, Ale-draper, baptized. 

1747. James Watson, Ale-draper and Horserider, 

1763. Elizabeth Nuttbrown, buried. 

1763. Watson, Ale-draper and Heckler, buried. 

1742. } Base son of Mary Tennison, baptized. 

1747. George, son of Mr. Michael Tennison, apothe- 
cary, baptized. [This gentleman's name is spelt Tenny- 
son in 1748. He seems to have had a large family, and 
to have practised in the town all his life ; the entry of 
his burial occurs late in the century.] 

1758. Dorothy Tennyson, spinster, buried. 

1772. Ralph, son of Ralph Tennyson, labourer, buried. 

1809. Hannah Coates, servant, buried July 13. 

1739. Easter Haronton, servant, buried May 14. 

1738. Elizabeth Atkinson, servant, buried July 12. 

1733. Margret Fowtil, servant, buried November 28. 

These are but a few out of many. The name of 
Tennyson, for instance, goes back in the Hedon 
books almost as far as the year 1552, in which 
year the registers of that parish begin. The earliest 
book, which is a tall, narrow folio with parchment 
leaves, is a beautiful example of neat workman- 
ship and cunning script. It was compiled and 
written fair (as he himself tells us) in or about 
1584 by the then vicar whose name I unhappily 
forget being taken by him from still earlier 

6"" s. XI. Ji. 24, '85.] 



Perhaps I need hardly add that Hedon Church 
is called the King of Holderness, as Patrington is 
the queen ; and that Hedon (pronounced Heddon) 
was the mother-town and port of Hull the Torcello 
of that muddy Venice. It still has a mayor and 
corporation, though its market-place is now merely 
a village green. A. J. M. 

BIBLICAL MISPRINT. In a cheap English edi- 
tion of the Jewish Service for the Eve of the Pass- 
over, verses 10 and 11 of Psalm cxxxvi. (which 
occurs in the service) are inverted, with the result 
that the Israelites are represented as being rescued 
from the stars ! I. ABRAHAMS. 

London Institution. 

GHETTO. The Jewish Chronicle furnishes a 
paragraph concerning Kome, including the follow- 
ing extract from an alleged document of 1458 as 
to the origin of the word ghetto : 

" ' Ideo [that locality] vocabatur el getto, quia erant 
ibi ultra duodecim fornaces,' from which we are to under- 
stand ' it was so called because there were of old more 
than twelve furnaces placed there.' " 

Getto, from Italian gettare, to cast in a mould ; 
fornace, Italian, a kiln. This document should 
be authenticated, because of its great interest. 
._ A. H. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
On family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

THRASONICAL. Bacon, in a Charge against 
Robert, Earl of Somerset, describes Sir Thomas 
Overbury as "being of an insolent Thrasonical 
disposition "; and in As You Like It, V. i., Csesar's 
" I came, I saw, and overcame," is described as a 
" thrasonical brag." Can any of your readers 
inform me if the word u thrasonical " had been 
used by any previous author ? Caesar's ejaculatory 
speech is usually construed " I came, I saw, I con- 
quered." By substituting "overcame" for "con- 
quered " the poet wittily connects the commence- 
ment and the conclusion of the sentence in a manner 
which savours of the style of Francis Bacon. Mac- 
aulay says, " In wit, if by wit be meant the power 
of perceiving analogies between things which ap- 
pear to have nothing in common, he never had an 

Warburton, commenting upon the passage in 
As You Like It, V. i., where the Clown says, " Or, 
Clown, thou perishest ; or, to thy better under- 
standing, diest ; or, to wit, I kill thee, make thee 
away, translate thy life into death, thy liberty into 
bondage ; I will deal in poison with thee, in 
bastinado, or in steel," suggests that the words 
" deal in poison " may refer to the murder of Sir 
Thomas Overbury. Theobald, in a letter to War- 

burton, dated Sept. 26, 1730 (Nichols's Illustra- 
tions of Literature, vol. ii. p. 612), writes : 

" Here you say you fancy the author had a mind 
to touch upon Sir Thomas Overbury's affair. With sub- 
mission I am apt to think not. Sir Thomas, you may 
please to remember, was not poisoned until 1615. Shake- 
speare died in April, 1616 ; and had quitted the stage and 
retired to a country life some time before his decease. 
So that if there is the hint that ycu imagine in these 
words, we must account for it from a subsequent inter- 
polation of the Players, who did not publish this Comedy 
till the year 1623." 


FRAGMENT OP BALLAD. May I say to your 
correspondent PRECENTOR VENABLES, who commu- 
nicated (6 th S. vii. 275) a fragment of a ballad 
which was " tagged on to the close of a curious 
version of ' Hugh of Lincoln,' " that he would do 
me a great kindness if he would send me this frag- 
ment of " St. Hugh "; and, indeed, the whole thing 
as sung by the Buckinghamshire nursemaid ? 


Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

LORD'S DAT. Does the expression KvpLaKrj 
r) occur in any Greek writing before the 
Christian era, and where ? W. M. JONES. 

15, Mill Yard, Goodman's Fields, E. 

an ancestor of mine, Joseph Price, Commodore of 
the Bengal Marine (b. 1726, d. June 3, 1796, in- 
terred in St. Mary's Church, Monmouth), from 
Warren Hastings, are one or two points of interest. 
The letter is as follows : 

Benares, 20 Sept., 1784. 
Joseph Price, Eeq., Commodore of the Bengal Marine. 

Dear Price, I have too long delayed to express to you 
the pleasure which I have received in the news of your 
return to Bengal, and I am now impelled to it chiefly by 
the impatience which I feel to see you, having heard 
that you designed me a visit in company with our friend 
Halhed. Whereever this may find you, whether on the 
Water or yet in Calcutta, I request that you will not 
disappoint the hope that has been given to me, for you 
have not a friend in India to whom you will be more 
welcome, perhaps to none equally. 

I shall remain at this place till the middle of next 
month, and proceed downwards but slowly, though I 
hope without interruption. 

You have astonished me, as you have the World, by 
your publications, which, with uncommon strength of 
argument, possess a peculiar originality of manner & 
spirit that will excite imitation, but remain a single 
genus without a species to class under it. You have been 
one of the great pillars of my Fame, and I have a proper 
sense of the support which it has derived from you. 
I am, My Dear Price, 

Your affectionate & sincere friend, 


I have received both your letters with Scotts of the 
24th April, and your list of the new Members, & I 
thank you for both. 

I am curious to know what are the publications 
to which allusion is made, which justify Warren 
Hastings speaking of them as a pillar of his fame. 


NOTES* AND QUERIES. [> h s. XL JAN. 2*, 

TURY. The Dreame of Domesday was " Im- 
printed at London by Gabriel Cawood, dwelling 
in Paules Church Yard, at the signe of the Holy 
Ghost, 1576. 4to." Is there such another trade 
sign on record 7 GEORGE ELLIS. 

St. John's Wood. 

PIMLICO: CHELSEA. May I ask for information 
as to the origin of these names ? I am, of course, 
acquainted with the theories of Norden, Faulkner, 
Bryan, and other topographers. What evidence is 
there to show that Chelsea means " Chalk-hythe "? 

[See 6'h s. ix. 148, 253, 295, 357, 418.] 

find a nursery rhyme, " The Marriage of Cock 
Robin," which tells how he, having married Jenny 
Wren, was shot by a sparrow and cured by Dr. 
Drake. Ib begins : 

' A feast upon the grass is spread, 

And birds with plumage gay 
Have met, that they may celebrate 
Cock Robin's wedding day." 

Perhaps some of your readers can help me. 


ROBERT MEGGOTT. At Lord Hervey's house 
in St. James's Square, May 21, 1713, Amy or 
Ann Elwes was married to Robert Meggotfc, Esq. 
I am desirous of discovering what place in the 
pedigree of the Meggott family this gentleman 
occupied. The pedigree given in Harl. Soc. pub., 
vol. viii. p. 435, runs : 

Meggott, of St. Olave's parish, in 

Southwark, brewer. 

[Richard] Meggott, D.D., Canon of Windsor, &c.. 
d. 1692, aged sixty. 

Sir George Meggott knighted Oct. 9, 1690, of St. Olave's, 
Southwark, Lieut.-Col. of Trained Bands there, d ? 

George Meggott, of St. Olave's parish, Esq., d. 1723. 
Was Robert a brother or a son of the last-men- 
tioned George, who died in 1723? Also, is the 
date of death of Sir George Meggott known, and 
was he M.P. for Southwark 1710-13? Any in- 
formation on these points quickly bestowed will 
be of great service for literary purposes 

9, The Crescent, Bedford. D ' ' ^ 

year 1812 Hugh, third Duke of Northumberland 
of the present line, was "summoned to the House 

?ooof 1'- u Patrl8 > aS Baron Perc y> a title (cr. 
1299) which was then erroneously supposed to be 

ested in his grace ; and ho sat in the Upper 
Mouse by that title until his accession to the duke- 
dom m 1817. Did not such summons, though 
roneous, operate as the creation of a new barony 

of Percy in the duke's favour 1 I ask this because 
in the account of Lord Derby's family Sir Bernard 
Burke writes : 

"James, seventh Earl of Derby, K.G., had been sum- 
moned to Parliament in 1627 as Baron Strange, under 
an impression that such a barony was enjoyed by his 
father; that, however, not being the case, the summons 
amounted to the creation of a new peerage, which even- 
tually devolved on the ducal house of Atholl." 

If this is sound peerage law in the one case, surely 
it must hold good in the other also. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

CHRONOGRAMS. The following does not appear 
in the volume on chronograms printed by Mr. J. 
Hilton in 1882. It is from An Elegy upon the 
most Incomparable K. Charles the I., Persecuted 
by two Implacable Faction?) Imprisoned by the 
One, and Murthered by the Other, January '30th, 
1648, quarto, ten leaves, with broad black border 
round the title, and is printed on the last page : 

" From my sad Retirement, March 11, 1648. CARoLVs 


This elegy is not mentioned by Lowndes, but 
seems to be No. *134 in Hazlitt's list, Popular 
Literature, under "Charles I.," to which, however, 
Mr. Hazlitt appends no reference as to the locality 
of the copy from which he derived the title. In- 
formation as to the existence of a copy will be 
acceptable, as that from which the chronogram is 
transcribed wants one leaf, pp. 5, 6. Is the author 
of the elegy known ? W. E. BUCKLEY. 

" THE SPIKES." There seems to have been an 
inn at Hampstead called '"The Spikes." Where 
was it ? Is it still in existence ? 

C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

ROTCHER : PILDACRE. In the township of 
Marsden, near Huddersfield, is a piece of land 
described in the title deeds as " all that freehold 
Rotcher now used as a kitchen garden, and con- 
taining an area of one rood and four perches." 
The land abuts on the river Colne on one side, 
and on a rocky precipice fifteen or twenty feet high 
on the other, and terminates in a point at each 
end. Is the word likely to be derived from the 
French word roclur ? I have never met with it 

I have recently met with the word Pildars 
as a field-name in Dewsbury parish ; a close 
of land being called Pildars or Pildacre Close, 
and an adjoining lane being called Pildacre Lane. 

Mir field. 

GAVILLIGER. I shall be glad to know the 
exact nature of the office held by this individual. 
Perhaps some reader of " N. & Q." can enlighten 

6ti< S, XI. JAN. 24, '85.] 



me. In Monro His Expedition with the Worthy 
Scots Regiment called MacKeyes Regiment there 
is an observation on military punishment. One of 
the punishments mentioned is 
"the Loupegarthe, when a Souldier is stripped naked 
above the waste, and is made to runne a furlong be- 
twixt two hundred Souldiers, ranged alike opposite to 
others, leaving a space in the midst for the Souldier to 
runne through, where his Camerades whip him with 
small rods, ordained and cut for the purpose by the 

Monro's book was published in 1637. Kegiments 
were then divided into musketeers and pikemen. 
Gavelock means a javelin, hence we may have 
gavelocJcer or gavilliger (?), a javelin man or spear- 
man ; or perhaps the word may mean the maker 
or repairer of the pikes or spears in a regiment. I 
merely hazard this, but should like to be certain. 


MAGNA CHARTA BARONS. The following para- 
graph appeared in Truth, Oct. 2, 1884 : 

" We hear so much of the action of the lords of the 
time of King John in connexion with the present struggle 
for the existence of the House of Lords, that it is just 
worth noting that there is no descendant in the present 
House of Lords of the twenty-five barona who signed 
Magna Charta." 

Surely this statement cannot be correct. In 
Burke's Peerage the descent of Alfred Joseph 
Stourton, Baron Mowbray, Segrave, and Stourton, 
is shown from William de Mowbray, who, it is 
said, joined the rest of the barons in their resist- 
ance to King John, was present at the signing of 
the Magna Charta, and was one of the twenty-five 
barons of the realm appointed to superintend its 
observance. I believe that the Duke of Norfolk ; 
the Earls of Berkeley, Effingharn, Suffolk, and 
Carlisle ; and Barons Petre and Howard of 
Glossop, are all descendants of William de Mow- 
bray. Did the barons sign the Magna Charta? 
I think not. H. H. 

CAMEL CORPS. It is worthy of note that the 
camel corps formed for the Nile expedition has 
been called the ** Camelry " and the " Camelcade." 
Are not these new words ? G. P. CRAVEN. 

MICHAEL TYSON, Dean of Stamford, Hector of 
Gretford, Lincolnshire, and of Wittering, North- 
amptonshire, died at Stamford, Feb. 22, 1794, 
at. eighty-four. He was of St. John's, Cam- 
bridge, B.A. 1732, M.A. 1736. I should like to 
learn from the admission books of St. John's his 
father's name, &c. JUSTIN SIMPSON. 


prize of, I think, 100?. was given by Mr. V. F. 
Bennet Stanford for the best essay on hydro- 
phobia ; this was said to have been obtained by 
M. Bourrel. I should be much obliged for any 

information as to the publication of this essay or 
where it is to be obtained. DELTA. 

HERALDIC. To what family do the following 
arms, &c., belong? They are engraved upon a 
curious old seal, three-sided, and set upon a pivot ; 
by touching a spring in the handle the seal turns, 
so as to bring either side into use. On one side 
is engraved a monogram either two a's and two c's 
combined, or two a'a and two I'a surmounted by 
an earl's coronet. On the second side are the follow- 
ing arms, which I have described as accurately as 
I can, though not, I am afraid, as a herald would : 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, cheeky, a chief vair ; 2, a 
chevron (I think engrailed) between three roundles ; 
3, two wings conjoined and inverted; tinctures un- 
distinguishable, the whole surmounted by an earl's 
coronet. On the third side is a man kneeling, 
with his arms outstretched, apparently worshipping 
the sun ; in dexter chief the sun in his splendour, 
in sinister base (and immediately behind the man) 
a tall soucy or sunflower ; the whole surmounted 
by the motto, " Je ne voudrois suivre moins." 


BEWSOLAS. There is a manor in the neighbour- 
ing parish of Sutterton called Bewsolas. Will 
some one kindly tell me what Bewsolas means ? 
Skirbeck Quarter, Boston, Line. 

WARLEY CAMP, ESSEX, 1778. Two paintings, 
one representing the encampment and the other a 
sham fight in the year 1778, are said to have been 
painted by M. De Southeby in that year. Can 
any one inform me if such exist ; if they were 
ever engraved ; and where they can be seen ? 

K. H. 

(6 th S. vii. 384 ; viii. 69.) 

Since my former note was written I have met with 
new and interesting particulars about the Cecills 
of Howdenshire which may be worth recording in 
the pages of " N. & Q." These have been found 
and noted without any special research on my 
part, while, instigated at the time by finding these 
to pursue the- subject, my investigations have re- 
sulted in nothing a common experience. My 
kind friend Dr. Sykes looked for any early wills 
in York, and by Mr. Hudson's permission I care- 
fully went through the act books of the peculiar 
of Howden, for wills do not exist before the Ke- 
storation. Nothing was found. 

The following, I submit, confirm my suggestion 
that the noble house of Cecil was of this Yorkshire 
stock, as good a one as the very obscure Welsh 
'ainily on which they were unskilfully grafted. 
[t is remarkable that so shrewd a man as Lord 
Burghley should have been imposed upon by 



[6th s. XL JAN. 2*, '85. 

the heralds, seeing that "he tooke great pames 
and delight in pedegrees, wherein he had great 
knowledge, and wrote whole books of them with 
his own hand."* These, however, I suspect, were 
rather tables, that he might for political purposes 
see at a glance the relationship which existed 
between the royal families of Europe in his day 
and the kinship of the great and influential families 
in England. 

Stephen Cecile, of Howden, 1313. In the reign 
of Edward II. and pontificate of Richard de Kel- 
lawe, Bishop of Durham, Stephen Cecile was re- 
ceiver of the bishop's manor or lordship of Howden, 
a post of great trust and emolument. How long 
he held this office is uncertain, but he had given 
place to Hugh de Lokington in 1313. Further, by 
letters patent dated Rykale,t Wednesday after 
the Purification B.V.M., 1313 (i.e., 1314), the 
bishop made known the defeasance of the bond 
for 200?. sterling given by five obligors for Stephen 
Cecile, formerly " our " receiver of Howden, unless 
he renders his official account before Ash Wednes- 
day, which that year would fall on February 20 
(liegist. Palatinum Dunelmense, vol. i. p. 503). 
Before that day arrived, viz., on February 9, we 
find the bishop, still at Eichale, issuing a commis- 
sion to Adam de Midleton and four other trusty 
persons to audit the accounts of Stephen Cecile, 
late "our" receiver of Howden, receive arrears, and 
power to give him letters of acquittance (ib., 505). 
We learn nothing more of the matter; but thirty 
years after we find a Stephen Cecil! and Stephen 
his son at York on June 17, 1343, with other 
Howdenshire folk, witnessing the charter of Kichard 
(de Bury), Bishop of Durham, granting lands for 
certain lives to one Thomas Benet, paying into 
the bishop's exchequer of Howden 4s. 2d. per 
annum (ib., iii. 363). Whether we have two or 
three generations of Stephens here there is nothing 
to indicate. 

Stephen Cecil, of Howden, 1379. We come to 
another Stephen, who is probably the son who 
witnessed the above deed of 1343. He occurs in 
the Poll Tax Returns for Howden and Howden- 
shire of 2 Ric. II. This fragment is about to be 
printed by the Yorkshire Archaeological Associa- 
tion in their Journal, and is in some respects more 
interesting even than the Returns of the West 
Riding, which have already appeared. 

Stephen Cecil is described as a " Fraunkel(eyn) 
and Hosteller" of Houeden^ and rated at xld. 

Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. i. ch. xxi., 10. 
The bishops of Durham had a " manor," 'i.e., manor 
house in Riccall parish called Le Welhalle. It was built 
by Bishop Kellawe, who was often there, and is now a 
farm-house called " Wheel " Hall. It was on the banks 
! Ouse, and had, it is said, three moats. Founda- 
tions of considerable extent can be traced. 

: Howden, t. ., Hoveden, obtained its name when it 
was an insular site in the marsh or fen, and the head or 

There were only two others (both Franklins) in 
that town of prebendaries rated so highly, and 
none higher. He paid the same as a landless esquire 
at arms (Rolls of Parl., iii. 57), and no doubt was 
much better off. He would be a considerable 
landholder in socage and kept the chief hostel in 
Howden. Only one other hosteller is named in 
the roll, and he is rated at xiid. Stephen Cecil 
had a servant named William, who paid iiiid., a 
groat; also another, apparently a cousin, sister, or 
even daughter, named Cecil Cecil. Chaucer's 
"Frankeleyn" no doubt would have described 
him well, " Seynt Julian he was in his countreV' 
Unfortunately we know no more about this 
Stephen, except that he was either a bachelor or 
widower, as no wife is named, and had no children 
above sixteen, or none at home. One of Lord 
Burghley's traducers asserted that his grandfather 
was an innkeeper at Stamford, which at least is 
incorrect. If this Stephen was a young man in 
1379, which is not likely, and a bachelor, then he 
might have been the Stephen Cecill of Howden 
who with Alice his wife in 1390-1 sold or con- 
veyed to certain trustees two houses in the town, 
which were apparently hers (see former note). The 
Poll Tax Returns, which are very full, give us one 
other Cecil, and only one, viz., Robert Cecil, of 
Howden, 1379, a brewer, and rated at iis. There 
was only one brewer, but no less than twenty 
braciatrices, or ale-wives, brewing for the thirsty 
husbandmen, craftsmen, and labourers, and for 
the many prebendaries. Robert may have been 
brother, or son, or even father of Stephen, but he 
had no wife in 1379. He, however, must have 
been a young man if he was the Robert Cecil who, 
with Isabel his wife, by fine dated 1404-5, settled 
two messuages and eleven acres of land in Thorpe 
on their issue, and in default on her heirs, showing 
that this property came through her. Four years 
after he bought a house and lands in Thorpe and 
Belby, just outside the town. A house and land 
in Belby belonged to the second ivife of David 
Cecill, Lord Burghleifs grandfather, as I showed 
in my former note. There are now only two farm- 
houses in Belby. The Court Rolls of Howden 
would reveal much if they go so far back. The 
last of this family at Howden appears to have 
been George Cecill, gent., an inquest after whose 
death was taken at Wetherby, Sept. 16, 1539 
(Inq. p.m. 31 H. VIII., No. 52). The date of his 
decease is, most unusually, omitted. He was found 
to have died seised of 6 messuages, 4 cottages, 100 
acres of land, 60 acres of meadow and pasture, a 

chief of a group of similar sandhills. Near Christiana, in 
INorway, are some islands, the largest of which bears the 
name of Hoved-oen. On it certain monks from Lincoln 
founded a Cistercian monastery in 1147. " Hedon," 
which occurs more than once in my former note, is an 
error of the MS. quoted for Howden, and evidently does 
not mean Hedon in Holderness 

6". 8. XI. JAK. 24, '85.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


windmill, and an annual rent of 13s. 4d. in 
Howden, Skelton, Laxton, Knedlington, and 
Asleby, which by deed, dated July 20, 16, he 
had settled on Juliana, his daughter, and William 
Grave, her husband. She was his sole heiress, and 
then aged twenty-eight. 

I have found nothing more. The name of Cecil 
Cecil is interesting as confirming the suggested 
origin of the surname as a matronymic, not more 
than a generation or two before the earliest, i. e., 
Stephen of 1313. It is remarkable that it should 
be so uncommon a name, as Cecil or Cecilia was 
a favourite Christian name in Yorkshire. I have 
only met with one instance of the name in more 
recent times in Yorkshire. William Nicholson, 
of Cawood (afterwards of York, and one of the 
chamberlains of the city in 1743), married in York 
Minster, Aug. 1, 1738, Mary Cecil, of Cawood 
(Yorks. ArchcBol. Journal, vol. iii. p. 86). 

I notice that, according to a pedigree in Mis- 
cellanea Gen. et Her., new series, iii. 286, David 
Cecill was younger son of a Philip Cecill of Stam- 
ford. A. S. ELLIS. 


YOUNGLINGS (6 th S. x. 496). On the roof of 
the nave of the church of All Saints, Garboldis- 
ham, Norfolk (dilapidated about 1740), was 
painted : 

" Betwex syn 313 and 
Ye Rode Loft' }e yongling 
han payd for }ia cost 
}at Lord }at deyid for alle mankynde 
nave mercy upon hem at her ende." 

Blomefield thought yongling meant the patron and 
read " han" han't. He accordingly fixed the date 
at 1450, because the then patron, John de Vere, 
Earl of Oxford, was a young man, and petitioned 
in that year for a consolidation of the rectory with 
that of St. John. It seems to me unreasonable 
that the parishioners should have gone to the 
trouble of commemorating and asking a blessing 
upon a person who had not helped in a good work. 
The more likely interpretation is that youngling 
meant the young people of the place (the hem and 
her of the last line being plural), and that han was 
really hau or have, the old English n and u being 
so nearly alike. The chancel roof was inscribed : 
" Alle alle hevir holpe to 313 good dede 
God send hyer sowle helpe to hyer mede." 


In Shakspere's Taming of the Shrew, II. i., G-remio 

" Youngling, thou canst not lovo so dear as I." 
Tranio replies, 

" Graybeard, thy love does freeze ! " 
Here it is evidently used for juvenis, or young man. 
Also in Titus Andronicus, II. i., Demetrius to 
Chiron says: 

" Youngling, learn thou to make some meaner choice." 
And at IV. ii Aaron exclaims : 

11 1 tell you, younglings, not Enceladus," &c., 
and afterwards he calls them "sanguine, shallow- 
hearted boys." Shakspere only uses the word three 
times, and always accompanies it with some degree 
of contempt. C. A. WARD. 

Haveratock Hill. 

This word is used in the sense given by your 
correspondent in St. Mark's Gospel, xvi. 5 : 

"And thei yeden in to the sepulchre, and sayn a 
yonglyng, hilide with a white stole, sittynge at the 
riglithalf; and thei weren afeerd." John Wydies 
Version, about A.D. 1380, and Revised by John Purvey 
alout A.D. 1388. 

Other instances of this usage are given in Dr. 
Stratmann's Dictionary of 'the Old English Lan- 
guage. F. 0. BIRKBECK TERRY. 


TRAJAN'S COLUMN (6 th S. x. 516). Sixtus V. 
was a great beautifier of the city of Rome and of 
the Vatican. In the course of his improvements 
he placed the statues of St. Peter and St. Paul on 
the columns of Trajan and of Antoninus Pius in 
the early part of his pontificate. His doing so is 
thus described by Cicarella in his History of the 
Popes. After noticing a certain work in A.D. 
1586, the second year of the pontificate of Sixtus, 
he proceeds: 

" Statuam deinde S. Petri ex sere conflatam et pul- 
cherrime deauratam fecit, eamque in colurana Traiana 

constituit: earn eidem sancto cousecrans Erecta haec 

olim columna est a Romania, et dicto Imperatori dedi- 
cata. In columna Antonina Sixtus imaginem D. Paulo 
erexit ex sere deaurato factam, eamque columnan D. 
Pauli nuncupavit. Erat ea primo dedicata Antonirio 
Pio, a M. Aurelio genero." Cicarella, De Vilis Pontiff., 
Greg. XIII.-Leon. XI., ad calc. Platin., De Vitis Pond- 
ficum Romanorum, p. 466, Colon. Agripp., 1626. 


(6 th S. x. 409). Not aware of any such omen, I 
would suggest that Sir A. Mendicant was think- 
ing of the saying, "Misfortunes never come singly," 
or possibly of the experiences which gave rise to the 
saying. BR. NICHOLSON. 

362, 413, 522). It is a mistake to suppose that 
any edition of Robinson Crusoe illustrated by Geo. 
Cruikshank was issued among the Koscoe novels. 
Cruikshank did illustrate one in two volumes, 
known as Major's. It was published in 1831, 
" London : Printed at the Shakespeare Press, by 
W. Nicol for John- Major, Fleet Street." The 
Bibliotheca Sussexiana was a.descriptive catalogue 
of the library of the Duke of Sussex at Kensington 
Palace, compiled by T. J. Pettigrew,jF.R.S., &c., 
librarian, 2 vols. 1827. This gentleman, whom I 
formerly knew, was the same who wrote the 


NOTES 'AND QTJEKIES. ie>>. s. xi. JAK. 21, 

History of Egyptian Mummies, also illustrated 
by Geo. Cruikshank. I think MR. WHEELER is 
in error in attributing some of the books in his 
list to George, e.g., The Adventures of a Gentle- 
man in Search of a Horse, A History of Card 
Playing, and Hibbert's Tales of a Cordillier. 


A LITERARY CRAZE (6 th S. x. 21, 61, 101, 181, 
274,389, 455). Not to confirm DR.INGLEBY'S con- 
clusion, but to unburden my mind, I would say 
that, about to answer the Spenser Willy = Tarleton 
conjecture, other matters made me defer it. Now, 
imitating the honourable member who spoke after 
Burke, " I say ditto to DR. INGLEBY." I cannot 
conceive how any one having read Spenser's lines 
could have supposed, even for a moment, that 
Tarleton was either meant or described. 


COLOUR IN SURNAMES (6 th S. x. 289, 438, 520). 
I also, as well as PROF. SKEAT, am riot among 
the number of "most people" who "have never 
yet met with a Mr. Red." In the little church- 
yard of Oulbone, Somerset, there are two or three 
tombstones (some going back to the middle of last 
century) on which are inscribed the names of Red, 
fathers and sons, formerly farmers in the parish. 
At the present moment there is a farmer in the 
neighbouring parish who rejoices in the name of 
Red, and, curiously enough, another in the adjoin- 
ing farm who signs his name Ridd. The latter, 
as your readers are aware, is the spelling of the 
famous Jan Ridd in Lorna Doone, but, so far as 
I know, the earlier spelling of the name (very 
commou in North Devon and West Somerset) is 
Red, and not Ridd. W. H. HALLIDAY. 

CANNIBALISM (6 th S. x. 409, 500). I have met 
with another reference to the cannibalism of the 
ancient Brazilians, besides that cited from Osorio. 
In the Hermans of Bishop Beveridge there is this 
notice of it : 

"And though they believed the immortality of the 
sou], tliut after death the virtuous lived in fine gardens, 
and the vicious in torments ; yet they were so far from 
understanding the truo nature of virtue and vice, that 
the most vicious wretches in the world were reckoned 
by them to be the must virtuous, even such as had taken 
most of their enemies captives, and had afterwards, in 
cold blood, killed ar;d eaten them; as one (Johannes 
Lerms) who c ,nver,ed a great deal with those who 
.ved upon the coast of Brazil assures us upon his own 
knowledge. -Beveridge'a Sei-mom, vol. iii. sermon iii. 
1>. 66, London, 17u9. 


THE RKLIGION OF SuAKSPEARn(l s t S. x 85- 5 th 
S. vni. 502 ; 6 th S. x. 334). MR. MASKISLL may 
have an aim unknown to me, but the answer to 
the question, To what communion did he belong ? 
seems to me to lie in a nutshell. That during 
t least the greater part of Shakespeare's life he 
was a Protestant, a member of the Church of Eng- 

land, is sufficiently shown by three things. First, 
by his sentiments being in especial clearly set forth 
in King John, so clearly that the swiftest runner- 
over of the play must be struck with them. 
Secondly, by this, that he a layman frequently 
quotes or refers to Biblical thoughts and phrases, 
and that when he quotes, it is in the terms of the 
Protestant versions. Thirdly, and most especially, 
by his making the Dauphin, in a supposedly Eng- 
lish translated scene, where he converses with his 
French lords (Henry V., III. vii.), quote, " Le chien 
est retourne"," &c., from a French Protestant ver- 
sion, though as Roman Catholics both the Dauphin 
and Shakespeare should have quoted the Vulgate. 
The unconfirmed statement, made in the MS. an- 
notations of the Rev. Rich. Davies on W. Fulman's 
Adversaria, that " he died a Papist " a statement 
made at least seventy-two years after Shakespeare's 
death (see Cent, of Prayse, second edition, p. 
405) is shown to be an absurdity by these con- 
siderations. Had he so died the Church of Eng- 
land authorities would not have allowed his corpse 
to be buried within the chancel, nor his monument or 
bust to be erected in the body of the church of Holy 
Trinity. Nor would that corpse have been allowed 
to be buried either with the rites of the Romish 
Church or without the performance over it of the 
Church of England Burial Service. Again, the 
Roman Catholic priest or priests who received him, 
would not have allowed him to be buried where he 
was, nor have omitted the use of their own rites, 
nor have allowed the performance of the Church 
of England Burial Service over the body. 


OIL ON TROUBLED WATERS (6 th S. iii. 69, 
252, 298 ; iv. 174 ; vi. 97, 377; x. 307, 351; xi.' 
38). To the references already given add Pliny, 
Nat. Hist., lib. ii. c. 103. Holland's translation 
has, " All seas are made calrne and still with oile." 
I gave this quotation some two years ago to a 
friend, and I believe it found its way into print. 


REV. SAMUEL JOHNSON (6 th S. x. 495). Readers 
of Anglican church history are aware that the date 
of ordination cannot safely be relied upon as a 
pi-oof of age. In times of necessity, as during the 
Commonwealth, and in times of slackness, as dur- 
ing the eighteenth century, the canonical age was 
disregarded. Thus, to name only two who happen 
to come into mind, Bishop Bull and George 
Whitefield were ordained at twenty- one. 

W. C. B. 

DELLA CRUSCA (6 th S. xi. 27). The Delia 
Crusca School of Poetry is described by Gifford in 
the introduction to the Baviad. He says, "In 
1785 a few English of both sexes, whom chance 
had jumbled together at Florence, took a fancy to 
while away their time in scribbling high-flown 

6'hS. XI. JAN. 24, '85.] 



panegyrics on themselves, and complimentar 
canzonettas on two or three Italians, who under 
stood too little of the language in which they wer 
written to be disgusted with them." The Englis 
writers were Mrs. Piozzi, Bertie Greathead 
William Parsons, and Kobert Merry ; and th 
poetical trifles in question were privately printei 
at Florence, for the amusement of friends, by Mrs 
Piozzi, as The Florence Miscellany, 1785. Mr 
Eobert Merry (1755-1798) had resided some year 
in Florence, and had been admitted a member o 
the Delia Crusca Academy; from, this he obtainec 
the name of " Delia Crusca," and the little mis 
cellany came to be spoken of as the " Delia Orusci 
Miscellany.'' There was at that time a newspape 
in London called the World, and Mr. Merry anc 
Borne of his friends introduced into its columns 
short poems, pretty much in the same style as 
those which had amused the little coterie at 
Florence ; but for the newspaper they were 
flavoured with spiteful allusions and persona 
attacks on well-known public characters. Those 
which Merry wrote were signed ft Delia Crusca "; 
there became quite an epidemic of scandalous 
epigrams and poetic tales ; and, as Gifford says 
" The fever turned to a frenzy : Laura Maria, 
Carlos, Orlando, Adelaide, and a thousand name- 
less names, caught the infection ; and from one 
end of the kingdom to the other, all was nonsense 
and Delia Crusca." The key-note of the subject 
is shortly given in the Baviad, 1. 39 : 
" Lo, Delia Crusca ! In his closet pent 
He toils to give the crude conception vent : 
Abortive thoughts, that right and wrong confound, 
Truth sacrificed to letters, sense to sound, 
False glare, incongruous images, combine ; 
And noise and nonsense clatter through the line." 

" Delia Crusca's " poems in the World were replied 
to in the true Delia Cruscan spirit by "Anna 
Matilda," who was afterwards known to be the 
celebrated Mrs. Robinson, and they carried on for 
some time a poetic flirtation, which was afterwards 
reprinted in two 12mo. volumes, entitled The 
Poetry of the World. Horace Walpole, writing to 
Miss Berry, Nov. 11, 1790 (Letters, ix. 262), says, 
Delia Crusca has published a new poem, called 
The Laurel of Liberty, which has confounded and 
overturned all ideas; there are gossamery tears, 
and silky oceans the first time to be sure that 
anybody ever cried cobwebs, or that the sea was 
made of paduasoy." Gifford has selected many 
examples of Delia Cruscan fine writing, such as 

" And o'er my lids the scalding tumours roll." 
Robert Merry was severely punished by Gifford 
for his affected and silly poetry; but he was quite 
able to write, and did write, some things far above 
mediocrity. He married the celebrated actress 
Miss Brunton, with whom he retired to America. 
He died at Baltimore in 1798. See Gentleman's 
Magazine, Ixix. 252-4. EDWARD SOLLY. 

The Accademia delta Crusca was founded in 1541, 
with the object of purifying Italian by separating 
the chaff (crusca) from the wheat. It published 
an Italian dictionary, and was resuscitated by 
Napoleon in 1811. A similar society existed in 
Paris in the early part of the seventeenth century 
the Hotel de gRambouillet. The term Cruscan 
was applied in the last; century to sentimental 
poetry. MR. WALFORD may be referred to Byron's 
Childe Harold, c. iv. st. 38, as thus explained by 
Mr. Hiley. J. WASTIE GREEN. 


[MR. WALTER HAMILTON refers to the introduction to 
the Baviad and Mceviad, and G. F. R. B. supplies 
an explanation from Smith's Glossary of Terms and 
Phrases. ALPHA has been good enough to send the pith 
of an article on this subject in the Standard newspaper 
of Jan. 7. MR. J. W. HOWELL refers to Ghambers's 
Cyclopaedia of English Literature, vol. ii. p. 20, arid the 
Dictionary of English Literature of Mr. W. Davenport 
Adams. MR. W. ROBERTS sends a full account, dealing 
principally with Gifford's introduction to the Baviad and 
Mceviad. M. A.Oxon. quotes from the National Encyclo- 
paedia. MR. E. H. MARSHALL, MR. H. G. BURNETT, 
M.R.C.S. (Rome), send also communications, any one of 
which we shall be glad to show to MR. WALFORD.] 

FERN IN CHURCH (6 th S. x. 496). The seeds of 
the fern are so minute that they were said to be 
non-existent by the older botanists, or, at any 
rate, only to be detected, if at all, at the precise 
lour of the night on which St. John the Baptist 
was born, and whoever possessed them became 

" We have the receipt for fern-seed ; 
We walk invisible." Henry IV. 

Midsummer Day is the nativity of John the 
Baptist, and Midsummer night was always cele- 
brated in towns by keeping a marching watch 
hroughout it. Henry VIII., in 1510, heard of 
he watch in London, and visited it privately; he 
was so pleased that on St. Peter's Eve, a few 
nights after, he brought Queen Catherine and a 
rain of nobles to it. 

There were numerous other customs, amongst 
hem that of gathering the fern-seed on Midsummer 
Eve. At twelve at night it was thought that if you 
aid a cloth with bread and cheese on the table, and 
cup of best beer, leaving the street-door open, the 
)erson a woman was to marry would come, and, 
owing to her, drink the glass, bow again, and 
etire. Then came the gathering of the mysterious 
ern, which was constantly unsuccessful, as it had 
o be caught in a plate, which must not touch the 
lant. Many details relating to this may be seen 
n Chamber^ Book of Days, i. 816. 

Brand says, i. 315, that the custom of catching 
ern-seed had been followed in his youth by a 
ountryman at Heston, who gave him an account 
f it so recently as June 1793. Now, as Throsby 
mentions the crop of fern in the church as being 
here in the month of June, it would be grown, I 

NOTES AND QUERIES. W s. xi. j. . <*. 

3, Nott Square, Carmarthen, South Wales. 


imagine, in connexion with this almost universal PhUipot, Somerset ^HeraW 
country practice, on Midsummer Eve, St. John the London 1674. 
Baptist's Day, and Midsummer night. I appeared m an 

The Irish believe that the souls of persons on 
this night leave their bodies and wander to the 

place, by land or sea, where death shall finally I FYLFOT /gth g. Xi 468). The old German name 
attack them. The marching watch was very ^ pe v ntagram i s Drudenfuss. The word 
likely introduced on this account, to prevent the | ^^ . Goettie g Faust, in the first inter- 
soul from taking this premonitory journey. It was 
thought, too, that if you sat in the church porch 

the spirits of those about to die in the next twelve I *" "'wassailed "also Alfenfuss. We have here 
months would be seen to pass in funereal sad pro- e idencej which MR. MAYHEW asks for, of the 
cession. , termination fuss in the name of a complicated 

There is no need to specify any particular fern ; Thg et ' logVj Viel-fuss for Fylfot is,there- 

any of the Filices would answer the symbolic pur- 
poses of these strange but beautiful superstitions. 

C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

S. ix. 508; x. 98, 234, 373,478: xi. 33). Having 

L. A. R. 


fore, not improbable. 
Athenaeum Club. 

This mystic symbol is not infrequently met with 
as a founder's mark on church bells in Yorkshire 
and neighbouring counties, and sometimes the 
initials " G. H." are connected with it on Eliza-. 

recently purchased a copy of the " Leech" litho- 1 j^an bells. Can any campanologist Dreader ^of 
graph, I am now able to compare it with the etch- 
ing I had before, and find that they are not 
entirely the same design, although nearly so. The 
lithograph (\'3\ in. by 8|- in.) appears to be the 
earlier, and has, at the top corners, a servant in 
curl-papers, writing, to the left, and a fat boy, 

' N. & Q." state what foundry adopted this mark ? 

R. H. H. 


301, 379, 413, 438, 471 ; x. 497). In discussing 

y nruu c* J.LVU *s\sj ) I Q\_/ j.. Ml 7j ^t+>Wy TEWWJ -* i a. j .. v^ ~r 

dancing with delight on receiving a letter, to the this point MR. LYNN makes mention of the calcula- 
right. These figures have been altered to a " heavily tions of Dr. Greswell, a man whose name carries 
laden postman " and " a dustman reading a letter" weight from his prodigious industry and learning. 

respectively. Another important variation is, that I w i s h to point out a singular error that Dr. Gres- 
i i i-i ^ -ii ., i i , ? j_ - _ i. _c u:~ 

iu the etching there is a monkey, wearing a cocked- 
hat, on the lion's back ; this does not appear in the 
lithograph. The sign-posts at the bottom corners 
have no writing on them in the etching, but in the 
lithograph they are inscribed "Clapham" and 
* 5 Hainpstead." ALGERNON GRAVES. 

lloslyn House, Finborough Road, 8.W. 

RUSSET-PATED CHOUGHS (6 th S. ix. 345, 396, 
470 ; x. 499). Another instance of confusion be- 
tween grey and browu is the dress of the Fran- 
ciscans. These most conservative of mortals seem 
to have passed insensibly from the one colour to 
the other. They used to be called Greyfriars, and 

well has fallen into, which vitiates much of his 
argument. His conclusion is that our Lord 
was born about the vernal equinox. He brings 
aU his learning to prove that the Incarnation 
must have taken place at that time ; but he con- 
founds the Incarnation with the Nativity. The 
Incarnation took place when the Virgin con- 
ceived, not when she brought forth. If, therefore, 
the Incarnation took place at the vernal equinox, 
the Nativity would happen on or about Decem- 
ber 25, our Christinas Day. 


MR. LYNN may, I think, find some valuable and 

the early painters gave St. Francis and St. Ber- closely reasoned information as to the identifica- 

nardino of Siena grey habits, but the tint wo " : f tu " fl "" <- **""'" " f +u " -'*- - ^ 

has long since become brown. R. H. BUSK. 

late Mr. John J. Bond's Handy Book for veri- 
fying Dates with the Christian Era, at p. 316. This 

BURNS'S "JOYFUL WIDOWER " (6 th S. x. 409, book is published by George Bell & Sons, and was 

502). Since entering my query I have seen all issued in 1875. It appears from this that Decem- 

the best editions of Burns's works, and am now in ber 25, when Christ is said to have been born, fell 

a position to state that no note has been made of in the year variously known as 750 A.u.c., as 

the previous appearance of the greater part of that 4 B.C. (according to the present system of reckon- 

poem. For the benefit of your readers I may state ing the Julian form of year), as the forty-second 

that the last sixteen lines (with very slight varia- year of the Julian era, as 1 Anno Christi of the 

tion) appeared in p. 542, of " Camden's Eemaines Gospels, and as the fourth year before the year 

concerning Britain seventh impression, much 1 A. D., according to the reckoning made by Diony- 

amended, with many rare antiquities never before sius Exiguus in A.D. 533. Mr. Bond points out, 

imprinted. By the industry and care of John amongst other facts relating to this matter, that 

6t> s, XI. JAN. 24, '85.] 



the annus verus, or 4 B.C., was called by eccle- 
siastical writers 3 B.C., by the omission of 1 B.C., 
marked " 0." ALAN S. COLE. 

South Kensington. 

(6 th S. x. 425, 477). In reply to your correspon- 
dent E. J. S. A., I would say that the inscriptions 
quoted by me in the above article should have 
read as belonging to the old church destroyed by 
the Fire, and not to the church since pulled down. 
The epitaph was to Anthony Cage, not " Page." 

17, Hilldrop Crescent, Camden Road. 

496). Dr. Geo. Oliver's Monasticon Dioecesis 
Exoniensis, 1846, fol., contains a " Catalogue of the 
Parish Churches and the Saints to whom they are 
dedicated in Cornwall and Devon " (pp. 436-445). 
This catalogue was prepared with great care, 
assisted by the Episcopal Eegisters, and is en- 
riched with valuable remarks. The arrange- 
ment of parishes for each county is alphabetical. 
To the Transactions of the Devonshire Associa- 
tion for 1882 Mr. J. Brooking-Kowe contributed 
"Dedications of the Antient Parish Churches, 
Chapels, and Eeligious Houses in Devon" (pp. 
93-104). Here the arrangement is an alphabetical 
one of saints. J. INGLE DREDGE. 

Buckland Brewer Vicarage, Bideford. 

LOCH BRANDY (6 th S. x. 515). So printed in 
map of Stat. Ac. Scot., but in body of work 
written Loch Brany. It doubtless had its name 
from the Brany stream, from Gaelic bran, brain, 
a mountain stream, from braigh-an, corrupted 
down from braigh-amhainn. According to Stat. 
Ac. Eum Island was so called "from its magni- 
tude and extent in comparison with the three 
other islands" (Eigg, Muck, and Canna), from 
rum, " signifying in Gaelic roominess or capacity "; 
but Armstrong renders rum, " room or chamber," 
and the name is more probably from Dan. rum, 
wide, large. Conf. Anc. Brit, rum, great, high. 

THE DEATH OF RICHARD II. (6 th S. x. 513; xi. 
36). Perhaps the strongest argument against the 
theory that Richard " voluntarily stabbed himself 
in a fit of despair " may be derived from the fact 
that if such had been indeed the case the new 
king might easily have produced evidence to esta- 
blish the truth. For it ought not to be forgotten 
that, in whatever way King Richard died, and 
during the whole of his course from castle to 
castle, whether at Pickering, Leeds, Knares- 
borough, or Pontefract, he was at the time in the 
charge of Henry's own private servants; that in 
each of these castles he was the lord, as hereditary 
proprietor, not merely as king; and that he could 
therefore, had be been so minded, have produced 

with ease exact proof of the way by which the un- 
fortunate king came by his end. In other words, 
he could have cleared himself of complicity, or 
worse, had he willed it. That he did not is a 
strong presumption against his innocence. 
Richard's marriage to his second and child-wife 
(whom Shakspeare incorrectly represents as a full- 
grown woman, patronizing her maids) when con- 
summated would, in all human probability, have, 
furnished direct heirs to the throne, and increased 
the chances against the family of Lancaster. It 
therefore seems to have provided Henry with a final 
inducement for the king's murder. R. H. H. 

" PATET JANUA, COR MAGIS " (6 th S. x. 27, 74, 
158). At the second of these references I gave an 
example of this inscription as occurring on the 
doorway of Bishop's Court, near Exeter, and 
referred to Dr. George Oliver's Lives of the Bishops 
of Exeter as a probable authority. I had no access 
to that work at the time, and having since ex- 
amined it, as also the doctor's Ecclesiastical Anti- 
quities in Devon, I find that the inscription, with 
the transposition of the first two words, is men- 
tioned both in the Lives and the Antiquities, 
but that it was attributed to Bishop Bronescombe, 
and not to Bishop Grandisson, who was about a 
half-century later. Bishop's Court, also, is in the 
parish of Farringdon, and not in Sowton ; and Mr. 
Garrett, the proprietor, informs me that the door 
or gateway on which the motto was inscribed 
was destroyed before his day. 


DR. RICHARD STUART (6 th S. x. 493). In Bp. 
Kennett's Register, 1728, fol. p. 261, on the inner 
margin, will be found the doctor's epitaph : 

" An inscription near the place where he ivas interred 
in France : Hie jacet RICARDUS STEWARD, Sacrae Theo- 
logiae Professor, Decanus Sacelli Regii in Anglia. Qui 
morions nihil aliud hie inscribi voluit Epitaphium, quara 
quod vivens assidue oravit pro pace Ecclesiae. Idem 
nunc facit in Coalis, ad quoshinc abiit. Obiit 14 Novemb. 
1652. ^Etat. LVIJI. [it should be 1651]." 
This correction is not mine, but the bishop's. The 
epitaph is also given in Wood's Hist. Antiq. Univ. 
Oxon., lib. ii. p. 182. 

Dr. Bliss (Ath. Oxon., iii. 296, note 9) corrects 
an error of Ant. & Wood as to the time when Dr. 
Stuart was made Dean of St. Paul's, thus : " Not 
at that time made dean, but design'd, and by the 
king confirm'd in 1641." To this he appends: 

" 1641. 21 Mar. Ric. Steward, LL.D. confirmatus fuit 
in decan. S. Pauli per promotionem Tho. Winniffe in ep. 
Line. Reg. London, KENNET." 

I have a small 12mo. volume with the following 
title: - 

" Trias Sacra, a Second Ternary of Sermons preached, 
Being the last (and best) Monuments that are likely to 
be made publique, of that most learned, pious, and 
eminent Dr. Richard Stuart, Deau of St. Paul's, after* 



[6> S. XI. JAN. 24, '85, 

wards Dean of Westminster, and Clark of the Closet, to 
Lis late Majesty King Charles. Being Dead be yet 
speaketli. London, Printed by T. L. for Hen. Brome at 
the Gun in Ivy-lane. 1659. Pp. [ix] 167." 
Then a catalogue of some books printed for Henry 
Brorne, &c. The address " To the Reader," which 
is not signed, begins thus curiously : 

" I have almost protested against Printing, in such a 
Time as this, wherein a most ingenuous invention was 
never more abused; and 'tis doubtful, whether this or 
that of Powder have hurted the modern world most : I 
dare believe, had the Pounders of them had so much of 
Providence as Invention, they had stifled their tvptKas 
in the birth, and never bequeathed such dangerous 
Weapons into the hands of such mad men as we are, who 
abuse both the Powder and the Press (as that cursed 
Assasine) to kill body and soul too." 
The texts of the three sermons are Philip, iv. IV, 
Mark vi. 20, and Hebrews x. 1-2. 

In a list of books and papers published in 
December, 1660 (Kennett's Register, p. 349), ap- 
pears : 

"Golden Kemains by that most learned R. Stuart, 
D.D., Dean of Westminster and Clerk of the Closet to 
King Cliarles I. Being the last and best Monuments of 
his that are likely to be made publick. London, for 
Hen. Brome, 1661, 12mo." 

On p. 554 mention is again made of this book, 
thus : 

"Golden Remains of Doctor Richard Stuart; or, his 
three Sermons. Tiie first on Phil. iv. 17, the second on 
St. Mark vi. 20, and the third on Ihb. x. 1, 2. London. 
1661, 12mo." 

It thus seems that Trias Sacra and Golden Re- 
mains were both published by Henry Brome, that 
each consists of three sermons, and in each the 
sermons are on the same texts. I infer that in 
the Golden Remains we have an issue of the un- 
sold copies of Trias Sacra, with a new title-page. 
Will some reader of " N. & Q." who has the 
volume dated 1661 determine this ? I will gladly 
place my volume of 1659 in the hands of such 
reader for a few days, for the purpose of compari- 

Buckland Brewer Vicarage, Bideford. 

THE BIBLE IN SHORTHAND (6 th S. x. 516). 
In 1695 one William Addy published a system of 
shorthand, under the title of "Stenography; or, the 
Art of Short Writing. Completed in a far more 
Compendious Method than any Extant." Sub- 
sequently he issued the Bible, printed entirely 
according to this system, from engraved plates. 
Of Addy personally next to nothing is known ; 
but he has certainly no claim to be styled a short- 
hand inventor, and can hardly even be designated 
an improver. The system to which he appended 
his name i<, with a few trilling variations, not 
amounting even to a change in the form of the 
alphabetic signs, an exact reproduction of that of 
Jeremiah Kich, first published some forty years 
previously, and perhaps the most extensively used 

of all the seventeenth century stenographies. 
Addy's shorthand Bible must, however, in those 
days have been a formidable undertaking. It has 
long been regarded as a literary curiosity, and 
copies are now but rarely met with. 

Barn si ey, Yorks. 

The Bible alluded to in the editorial note is a 
much tinier volume than that described by MR. 
G. H. THOMPSON. My copy (formerly in Thorpe's 
catalogue at 16s.) is bound in old smooth-grain 
morocco, with silver clasps, and only measures 
2| in. by ! in., and 1 in. thick. The text (en- 
graved throughout) measures lin. by 1]| in. ex- 
clusive of border. The volume corrsists of 576 
pages, and contains the New Testament oniy. 
Pp. 571-4 are occupied with a list of subscribers. 
A portrait of Jeremiah Rich, by Cross, faces the 
title, which is partly in shorthand. The book was 
" printed and sold by Samuel Rosley, Teacher of 
y e said art, over against Vintners Hall, in Thames 
Street, and no where els " [sic]. I have many 
portraits of writing masters (five of Jeremiah Rich), 
but have not seen one of William Addy that I 
remember. J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

I have also a Bible in shorthand, almost identical 
with that described by MR. THOMPSON. The 
note at foot of what appear to be the contents 
runs as follows : 

" Printed for the Author and Peter Story, and sold by 
Tho. Fabian at the Bible in Paul's Churchyard. Dorman 
Newman at y e Kings Armes in the Poultry. W m Mar- 
shall at the Bible in Newgate street. Thomas Cockerill 
at y 3 Leggs over against y e Stocks Market. I. Lawrence 
at y e Angel in y e Poultry." 

There is no date. Can any of your readers tell 
me whether this is an earlier or later edition, of 
what date, and if of any particular value ? The 
volume is bound in old green morocco, and is in 
perfect condition. GEORGE UNWIN. 

Chihvorth, Surrey. 

G. F. R. B. state that the author of the Bible in short- 
hand is William Addy. MR. S. W. Rix refers to his 
note on a shorthand New Testament which appeared 
2 nd S. i. 192. MR, WALLIS says that a portrait of Addy, 
by Street, is prefixed to Addy'a Stenographer.] 

SIR THOMAS INGRAM (6 th S. x. 408). Perhaps 
STATIST may find the following extract useful: 

''1672, Feb. 17th. Sir Thos. Ingram, son of Sir 
Arthur Ingram, of Temple-Newsam, near Leeds, by his 
second wife, Alice Ferrers. He suffered greatly for hia 
loyalty and after the Restoration was made Chancellor 
of tho Duchy of Lancaster and one of the Privy Council. 
He died February 13th. Ilia will, as Sir Thos. Ingram, 
Knt., of Isleworth, Midx ., was dated the 9th, and proved 
the 27th of the same month." OM Yorkshire, vol. iii. 
p. 82, article, "Yorkshire Dead in Westminster Abbey." 

Cnchton Club, 

fi* S. XI. JAN. 24, '85.] 



ITALIAN PROVERB (6 th S, x. 495; xi. 16). 

"Melius eat petere fontes quam sectari rivulos." 

On referring to the earliest printed collection o 

Italian proverbs (c. 1530), I find that it opens wit) 

" Aspettar e non venir 

star in letto e non dormir 

eervir e non gradir 

e una doglia da morir." 

FJorio follows this closely in his First Fruits, 1578 
and in his Giardino di JRecreatione, 1591; bu 
in the Second Frutes, also published in 1591, tin 
proverb is expanded thus : 
" Aepettar' e non venire 
etar' in letto e non dormire 
ben servir' e non gradire, 
liaver cavallo che non vuol ire, 
e servitor ch6 non vuol' ubedire, 
esser in prigione e non poter fuggire, 
et ammalato e non poter guarire, 
smarrir la strada quand un vuol gire, 
Btar alia porta quand' un non vuol aprire, 
et haver un amico che ti vuol tradire, 
son dieci doglie da morire." 

The fatal facility of Italian rhyme which has 
created the improvisatore here breaks forth. It 
is noteworthy that the two largest and amplest col- 
lections in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
of the proverbs of Italy were made by Anglo- 
Italians and published in London, an evidence ol 
the activity with which the study of the language 
was pursued in this country during that period. 
Windham Club. 

A.M. AND P.M. (6 th S. ix. 369, 431, 516; 
xi. 20). In your "Notices to Correspondents" 
at the last reference you state that the earliest 
recorded use of these abbreviations was in 1741. 
There is, however, a much earlier instance of the 
use of P.M. than this, viz., in vol. i. of Philo- 
sophical Transactions, temp. Carol. II. (No. 14, 
p. 242, July 2, 1666), where, in an astronomical 
table, the abbreviation P.M. is used in its present 
sense. The words are " March 28th, 3h. P.M., much 
the same kind of air." I supplied the quotation 
to Dr. Murray for his dictionary. 


317, 390, 502; xi. 35).-Hempstead (pron. Hamp- 
stead) is a small village in North Essex, about six 
miles east of Saffron Walden. In October and 
November, 1883, 1 visited its ruined church first 
to attend the removal of the celebrated Dr. 
Harvey's remains from the family vault into the 
sarcophagus provided by the London College of 
Physicians in the Harvey Chapel above, and 
afterwards principally to examine the parish 
registered copy the inscriptions on the numerous 
coffins in such vault and on the Harvey monu- 
ments, for the purpose of my history of the various 

important branches of the family and during 
my stay inquired for the house in which Dick 
Turpin was born, finding it to be what is now 
known as the Crown Inn, near the church. I 
also met with the entry of his baptism (apparently 
hitherto unknown), as well .as that of his elder 
brother and two sisters, as below : 

1699 (1700), Feb. 28. Christopher fil Johannis Turpin 
and Marise ux. 

1702, Ap. 28. Maria fil a Johanni9 and Maria ur. 

1705, Sep. 21. llichardus Filius Jolianriis et Marlse 
Turpin, "p " (in margin=poor). 

1707 (1708), Feb. 10. Dorothea Filia Joliannis efc 
Mariae Turpin. 

There are also other Turpin entries, which I ex- 
tracted. The present sextoness's maiden name was 
Turpin ; but she refused to acknowledge any con- 
nexion with the highwayman's family. 

W. I. R. V. 
[W. M. contributes a reply to the same effect.] 

MOTTOES AND INSCRIPTIONS (6 th S. x. 441, 511 ; 
xi. 42). M. GAIDOZ asks what bitshti is. Bus- 
keti, in the Pisa inscription, as was apparent from 
the context, if not from the most moderate previous 
acquaintance with art history, stands for Buschetti, 
the architect of Pisa Cathedral. The inscription 
is easy to understand, and, with the contractions 
extended and otherwise emended, is a well-known 
record of his skill in mechanics so well known 
that I did not burden the columns of " N. & Q." 
with its repetition. I only introduced the original 
form of it as an example of how the mediaeval 
stone-cutters sometimes mutilated the words they 
had to inscribe. R. H. BUSK. 

I am a little puzzled to know whether Miss 
BUSK refers to an inscription accidentally omitted 
or to the one quoted as being " a complete conun- 
drum." The doggerel following may render the 
lues beginning " Qd vix mille bou," &c.: 
" What scarce a thousand oxen joined might move, 
And what on rafts might scarcely float at sea, 
Busketti's crane, a wondrous thing to see, 
By ten weak maidens poised the weight above." 

W. F. H. 

The following inscription was to be seen two 
years since on a garden wall in a road leading 
rom the eastern side of Nice to the villa of Mr. 
Harris, the British Vice- Consul : 
Guardami Dio : 
Di chi non mi fido 
Mi guarderd io." 


MATRIARCH (6 th S. x. 514). ALPHA'S extremely 
/ague reference to the occurrence of this word in 
Mr. Francillon's novel, Eopf.s of Sand, "now 
ppearing in the Illustrated London News,'' might 
ive trouble to Dr. Murray. However, I can give 
n earlier instance. Prof. Hales, writing in the 



[6* S. XI. JAN. 24, '85. 

Athmamm of Feb. 24, 1883, p. 248, about Mother 
Hubbard, referred to her as the " matriarch." 


This word is given in my Supplementary Glossary, 
with a quotation from Southey's Doctor, ch. 117. 

KEV. ROBT. TAYLOR (6 th S. x. 367, 472). 
While it is perfectly true that the Annual Register, 
1844, made the statement that "Taylor renounced 
his errors, and returned to the doctrines (not com- 
munion) of the Established Church," there is not, 
so far as I am aware, any public evidence of this 
anywhere, nor any authority for it. The Annual 
Register notice, which is very incorrect, is clearly 
hostile to Taylor, for it describes him as having 
beaten a retreat when confronted by a Mr. Calvert 
at Leeds, while the record made at the time of 
the visit of Taylor and Richard Carlile to Leeds 
in the Lion gives rather an opposite view. So 
far as I have been able to trace, Mr. Taylor, after 
his retirement from freethought speaking and up 
to the time of his death, made no public statement 
of any kind, either for or against a change of 
opinions. The date of Taylor's birth as 1792 is 
wrongly given, he was born on August 18, 1784, 
and about 1801 was articled to a surgeon at 
Birmingham. It was not until he was twenty- 
three years of age that he was induced by the Rev. 
Thos. Cotterell to study for the Church. His 
Diegesis was written in Oakham Gaol in 1827-8. 


x- 408, 505). Kindly allow me to correct a mis- 
take (pointed out to me by a friend) I fell into 
in my reply to MR. GRAVES anent the above. 
In the autumn of 1883 I was at Abbotsford, 
and after inspecting Scott's study and library 
was ushered into the breakfast-room. Whilst ] 
was occupied with some relics of the poet the guid 
was pointing out to the other visitors where the 
eight (not six, as I stated in my note) water- 
colours of Turner (as seen in some photographs o 
the room) hung. Misunderstanding his meaning 
and not being particularly interested in them, '. 
glanced casually in the direction pointed out, saw 
some other pictures near it, and concluded they 
were Turner's ; hence my error, which I feel it m" 
duty to rectify. Fortunately I escaped falling 
into the same misconception in an article I con 
tributcd to the Manchester City News on im 
return home, not having had occasion to refer t 
this matter. The friend alluded to above (wh 
accompanied me) informs me that what the guid 
did say was that Turner's pictures were sold som 
years back for a thousand pounds each; where the 
have gone to was not explained. Editors anu 
writers of guide-books would do well to note thi 
fttct J. B. S. 

These water colours of J. M. W. Turner at 

Abbotsford are very small in point of size, were 

et in one very large frame, and were, so far as I 

emember, some half-dozen in number. These 

ave, with others by the same celebrated artist, 

een beautifully engraved, chiefly by Edward 

*oodall, as frontispieces and vignettes to Sir 

Walter Scott's Poetical Works, 12 vols., Edin- 

urgh, A. & C. Black, 1861. At Farnley Hall, 

ear Otley, Yorkshire, is a very fine collection of 

rawings by Turner, more than fifty in number, 

xecuted for his early patron Mr. Fawkes, of 

'arnley. They are chiefly of the fine scenery in 

A^harfedale and Richmondshire. Some of these 

ave, I think, been engraved in Whitaker's 

History of Craven, and in the Richmondshire of 

he same author. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" TALES OF AN INDIAN CAMP" (6 th S. ix. 69). 

Written by James Athearn Jones. A biogra- 

hical sketch of the author, by Rich. L. Pease, is 

ublished in Memorial Biographies of the New 

England Historic Genealogical Society, vol. ii., 

Boat., 1881, 8vo. X. X. 

EUPHUISM (6 th S. xi. 5). The strong denuncia- 
ion of foreign manners, that travelled Englishmen 
became " devils incarnate," is very usually to be 
bund in Elizabethan writers. Ascham, Scholl- 
master, pp. 77-81 (ed. Arber), has a long and 
strong passage, and quotes a proverb, " Englese 
Italianato e un diabolo incarnato " (" The English- 
man Italianate is a devil incarnate"). Cf. Lyly, 
Euphues, p. 314, Arber. 0. W. TANCOCK. 

GIGLET (6 th S. xi. 20). MR. VYVYAN may be 
interested to see the following illustration of the 
use of this word: 

" But what if some young giglit on the green, 
With dimpled cheek and twa bewitching een, 
Should gar your Patie think his half-worn Meg 
And her kenned kisses, hardly worth a feg 1 " 

Allan Ramsay, The Gentle Shepherd. 

(6 tb S. viii. 268, 414; x. 333, 436, 526). In his 
note on " Grass-widow " MR. THOS. RATCLIFFE 
makes mention of the phrase " Putting out the 
besom," and he explains it in a very different way 
from that which I have always understood was the 
meaning of the expression, or its equivalent, 
" Hanging out the broom." I have been under 
the belief that this meant a party given to his 
gentleman friends by a husband whose wife was 
temporarily absent from home. The house had 
been swept clear of her presence, and the males 
could enjoy themselves as they pleased, without 
fear of interference or reproof from the mistress of 
the house, I remember to have seen an invitation 

6U> S. XI. JAN. 24, '85.] 






" The honours of a name 'tis just to guard : 
They are a trust but lent us, which we take, 
And should in Reverence to the Donor's Fame, 
With care transmit them down to other Hands." 
James Shirley (floruit 1594-1666). 

card on which was engraved the hung-out broom, I labour; some of them For forjnstance-reach a very 
with the motto, " When the cat 's away the mice 

will play." I cannot find any reference in Hotten's I Antf ian^dioceae who'sTannals he h^inustrated^clnnot 8 , 1 
Slang Dictionary to the phrase Hanging out the from the very nature of things, be presented as pictu- 
broom " or to its equivalent, " Putting out the resquely as some of the others have been. If we do not 

"^ ' mistake, also, its records have not been so'carefully pre- 

served. As a picture, however, we have seldom met with 
anything that gives us more pleasure than Dr. Jessopp's 
account of the building of the cathedral. It is as solemn 
and stately a piece of English as any modern can pro- 
duce, and is, at the same time, entirely untainted with 
the prevalent vice of "fine writing." Dr. Jessopp's 
estimates of men and things are always temperate. On 
the Independents and the Nonjurors he is, we think, 
unduly hard ; but it is unfair to criticize a mere differ- 
ence of opinion in a book where love of freedom and 
hatred of religious persecution is shown on almost every 
page. We are glad to find that attention is drawn to the 
illage of the property of the guilds. Historians have 
usually passed over this act in the Tudor reign of terror 
as one of little consequence. It was, in truth, one of the 
most criminal deeds in English history. Had it not been 
for that act of theft, it is probable we should have been 
able to get on without a poor-law, and that the labourer 
would be in a far better condition than he is at present. 
Mr. Benham's Winchester is, perhaps, the more inter- 
esting volume of the two, though, as regards style, wo 
much prefer Norwich. The mediaeval history of Win- 
chester is, however, especially well done. The list of 
churches consecrated in the diocese in the nineteenth 
century is very useful. It shows how great the progress 
of religion has been in the course of little more than 
eighty years. 

Annus Sanctus: Hymns of the Church for the Ecclesias- 
tical^ Year. Translated from the Sacred Offices by 
Various Authors, with Modern Original and other 
Hymns, and an Appendix of Earlier Versions. Selected 
and arranged by Orby Shipley. (Burns & Oates.) 
WE gladly welcome this collection of Hymns of the 
Church for the Ecclesiastical Year. It consists of a 
double selection, the first part containing translations 
from the Latin arranged under three heads the seasons 
of the Church, the Canonical Hours, and Hymns of our 
Lord ; the second part, modern and original hymns, 
some of which are now published for the first time. The 
solemn dignity of the religious poems of the Christian 
fathers can certainly not be surpassed, if equalled, in 
the present age, and that these should be rendered into 
English is most desirable. The principle of selecting 
from many writers has enabled the editor to form a kind 
of golden treasury, including the best and happiest trans- 
lations of celebrated hymns. It will rarely happen to the 
same translator to represent all his originals with equal 
felicity; but such a volume as that before us may well 
embrace many of the best, since it gathers them from 
many sources. At the same time we cannot agree with 
the editor in giving several versions of Adeste Fideles in 
place of the well-known form in which (pp. 32, 36, 40) 
it generally appears. It seems certainly better to decide 
in favour of one version and omit the rest; and although 
the compiler states that he had two objects in view 
while writing, the one being to produce a devotional 
manual, the other a literary collection, these two objects 
are not infrequently found to be mutually destructive. 
But the volume is clearly a labour of love, and will be 
interesting to all who reverence the early Latin hymns 
of the Church. The reader will probably be attracted 
to the original hymns by modern writers which are 
placed at the close of the book. They are selected from 


The Psalter, or Psalms of David, and certain Canticles, 
~ with a Translation and Exposition in English by 
Richard Rolle, ofHampole. Edited from Manuscripts 
by the Rev. H. R. Bramley, M.A., with an Introduc- 
tion and Glossary. (Oxford, Clarendon Press ) 
HAMPOLE is a village about four miles from Doncaster, 
on the road to Pontefract, and here died and was buried 
the famous preacher and hermit Richard Rolle. His 
death occurred on September 29th, 1349, and after his 
decease an Office was drawn up, in anticipation of his 
canonization, the lessons of which supply some curious 
details with regard to his life and acts. The story is well 
told in the introduction which Mr. Bramley has prefixed 
to the volume ; he has collected from the Office and from 
the writings of Richard himself all the facts that can be 
ascertained as to the career of the author. Richard's pa- 
rentage, his education at Oxford, his withdrawal as a her- 
mit to a neighbouring wood (wearing a sort of monastic 
dress which he had made for himself from two kirtles 
given to him by his sister), his eloquent preaching, his 
temptations, his progress in the contemplative life, his 
travels, his miracles, and his death, are graphically 
related and form a welcome addition to English hagiology. 
Hampole's Psalter eeems to have been in high esteem, 
and to have been widely diffused in the century after it 
was composed. The text of the present edition is taken 
from a manuscript, the property of University College, 
Oxford, which exhibits the purest dialect of North 
Yorkshire. The glossary has had the advantage of the 
revision of Prof. Skeat. Apart from the theological 
interest attaching to the present work, its value to 
students of the English language of the fourteenth 
century is sufficiently obvious. Prof. Skeat has 
carefully defined the dialect of no less than fourteen 
manuscripts which have been collated, ranging generally 
over the northern and midland districts, though two are 
of southern origin, one of these exhibiting the Wiltshire 
dialect. The Latin text of each verse of the Psalter is 
followed by a brief exposition, taken mostly from ancient 
authors : "in expounynge . i . fologh haly doctors," says 
the compiler. The editor's task of collation and tran- 
scription has been very labourious; few save those who 
have themselves transcribed literatim Early English 
writings will be able to appreciate the care and intelli- 
gence that have been expended upon this volume. 

Diocesan Histories. Norwich. By Rev. Augustus Jes 
sopp, D.D. Winchester. By Rev. William Benham, 
B.D. (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.) 

WE gladly welcome two more volumes of this most use- 
ful and carefully written series. All the diocesan his- I Faber, Procter, and AuberydeVere, as well as from MSS. 
tories that have yet appeared show signs of well-directed of unpublished poems by Mr. Robert Campbell and 



Father Aylward. The poems of Faber are too classical 
to need recommendation here j but some of the compo- 
eitions now first published, although of a very different 
order from the deep pathos of his well-known hymns, 
will be admired for their grace and sweetness. One object 
of the editor is to offer a contribution towards a future 
hymnal for the Church ; and in an age like the present, 
when the value of hymns in mission work and in the 
more regular services is strongly felt, this object de- 
serves hearty welcome. We hope that the success of the 
volume will be such as to encourage Mr. Orby Shipley to 
cany out his intention and publish a second scries. 

IN Le Lime for January commences a history of " Le 
Magazine Anglais: Notes pour servir a 1'Histoire du 
Journalieme Contemporain." A full account of the 
ori-Mii of the Gentleman's is followed by a satisfactory 
history of the Monthly, the New Monthly, the London 
Fraser't, Blackwood's, &c. The whole constitutes an 
interesting chapter on periodical literature. The illus- 
tration presents the library of Don Quixote. To the 
"Bibliographic Moderne " M. Octave Uzanne contri- 
butes " Causeries d'un Curieux." 

AMONG the varied features of recent correspondence in 
the columns of our contemporary L' Intermediate des 
C/tercheurs et Curieux (Paris, Rue Cujas, 13), we may note 
a list of the historical and archaeological societies in 
France, many of which publish interesting transactions. 
It would bo well if some of these societies gave us the 
opportunity of appreciating the light thrown by them 
upon the history of the United Kingdom. The " His- 
torical Value of Ancient Traditions ' is discussed by 
"Alphonse R." in a recent number with a fairly 
balanced judgment, claiming for the subject all the 
more reauily the attention it deserves. The inedited 
letters of Lamennuis and of the Chancellor de 1'Hopital 
form the basis of inquiries which many of our readers 
will follow with interest, and which we shall hope 
to see productive of valuable information. 

THE Report of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1884 
contains, besides interesting biographical notices of men 
of mark in the world of Orientalists, such as Sir Edward 
Clive Bayley, Mr. Chenery, and Dozy, the distinguished 
hi-torian of the Mussulman power in Spain, an elaborate 
digest, by the secretary, Mr. W. S. W. Vaux, M.A., of 
works and articles which appeared during 18S3-4 on 
subjects connected with Oriental studies. 

MR. T. FISHER UNWIN is about to publish a treatise on 
The Art of War in the Middle Ages, which obtained the 
Lothian Prize at Oxford last year. The author is Mr. 
C. W. C. Oman, B.A., Fellow of All Souls' College, and 
Lecturer in Modern History at Oxford. Mr. Blackwell is 
the Oxford publisher. 

DR. MARSHALL has in the press a second edition of 
The (jfe/teloyisCs Guide, which will be ready in February. 
The work has been carefully revised, and references to the 
principal works on the peerage and baronetage, " N. & Q.," 
nnd to many books omitted from the first edition have 
been added, and current publications brought down 
to date. This new edition will contain nearly seven 
hundred pages of references to printed pedigrees, and 
may therefore be considered aa nearly exhaustive as it is 
po.-si'ile to render a book of the kind. 

Jolting A on the Jteyal Coinage and Token Currency of 
Guildfoid, in Sumy, by Mr. George C. Williamson, is 
ai.nounced by Mr. Elliot Stock. 

THE February number of the Antiquarian Magazine 
will contain, inter alia, a paper by Mr. J. H. Round on 
" A Fourteenth Century Library "; a continuation of Mr. 
C. A. Ward's " Forecastinga of Nostradamus "; and also 
a large amount of valuable and interesting information, 

hitherto unknown, concerning the gilds of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, by Mr. Cornelius Walford. 

cttce* ta C0rre4patrteuttf. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of Ike sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

C. S. K. is anxious it should be known that the Rev. 
Dr. Thompson (after whom he inquires 6 11 ' S. x. 496) 
was master of a school the Grammar School or other 
at Kensington. In his question as it stands no place is 

ENQUIRER ("Sir Boyle Roche's Bird "). Sir Boyle 
Roche, quoting from The Devil of a Wife, by Jevons, 
said, in the House of Commons, " It is impossible I could 
have been in two places at once, unless I were a bird." 
A reference to Dr. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and 
Falle would save nine-tenths of the inquiries of this sort 
which present themselves with painful regularity. 

QUIDNUNC (" Patron Saints of Various Places "). A 
list such as you seek will be found in Dr. Brewer's 
Header's Handbook. 

F. C. 1. Lady Geraldine's Courtship is by Mrs. Bar- 
rett Browning. 2. Orion, a great hunter, was blinded 
by CBnopion. His sight was restored by exposing his 
eyeballs to the sun. His hunger for the sunlight is 
indicated in the line you quote. 

PHIL (" Gingerly "). The origin of the word is Scan- 
dinavian. Prof. Skeat says cf. Swedish dialect gingla, 
gdngla, to go gently, totter. Stormonth, latest edition 
(Blackwood), has Anglo-Saxon gyng, young, tender; 
gyngre, younger, more tender; Provincial Swedish, 
gingla, to go gently. 

H. W. MOORE (" Says Plato why should man be vain "). 
Your question has been asked before. Nothing is 
known on the subject. 

FRANCIS NEVILE REED. Please repeat query, which, 
cannot be traced. 

INQUIRER ("Bubble and Squeak "). The name is 
characteristic of the conduct of the ingredients in the 

" When 'midst the frying-pan, in accents savage, 
The beef, so surly, quarrels with the cabbage." 
See 2 n " S. x. 371. 

J. H. SHARPE. The Greek palindrome with which 
you favour us has more than once appeared in " N. & Q." 
See 4th s. xi. 198. 288, 313, 410, 495; xii. 58; 5"' S. vii. 
372; viii.77. 

THOS. BIRD (" Computation of Church of England "). 
The question was asked last week (p. 49). Answers 
will doubtless appear in due course. 

CORRIGENDUM. P. 47, col. 2, 1. 5, for " Church Door: 
Eastone " read Church Door : Enstone. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to < The Publisher "-at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
mumcations which, for any reason, we do not print : and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

fi> S. XI. JAH. 31, '85.] 





NOTES r-Shakspeariana, 81 Grants of William III., 83 
Washington's Ancestry, 85 Predecessor of Poe's " Haven" 
Jarvis's " Don Quixote," 86. 

QUERIES : Gray and Antrobus Bail-Dock Bail Baston 
Bagatelle Dauntsey House "Aureus de Universe," 87 
Gibraltar Medal Hardinge's " Poems " Reading-Rooms 
Domesday Book Koyal Family Privateers T, Channell 
Garmelow Lord Smock-frock" Experimentum," &c. 
Lead Stains Church Heraldry, 88 Definition of Genius 
Green's "The Spleen "Queen Anne's Farthings Wm. 
Johnson "Le Suicide Abjure " Homer "Travestie" 
Brennan Hannah Brand Bibliography of " Edwin Drood" 
English Families in Russia, 89 Proverbs and Sayings 
I. W. Chauncey Arms of Cork Marble Authors Wanted, 

REPLIES : Scotch or Scots, 90-Dr. Johnson's Penance, 91 
Janissary Franklin and Wollaston Croiznoires Eras- 
mus on Kissing Victory of Duncan, 92 Heraldic Bishop 
Ken Nicholls Pikelet Exon Queries on Bishop Ken- 
Double Letters, 93 Damages in Breach of Promise Peter 
Pindar's Degree Middle Temple Lady Howard Coin of 
Charles I., 94 Memorials to Servants Sarah Booth In- 
scriptions in Books Law of Gravitation, 95 Heraldic 
Anomalies Ado " Pfy-leaves "I Gelosi Lynegar Falls 
of Niagara, 96 Bust of Cicero Colonial Bishops, 97 
Women in Action, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Blackburne's "Algernon Sidney" 
Dolby's " Charles Dickens "Fuller's " Commentary on the 
Bible " " Helps to the Bible." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


I. i. The passage is this : 
" Ten thousand bold Scots, two-and-twenty knights, 
Balk'd in their own blood, did Sir Walter see 
On Holmedon's plains." 

The word balked is explained to mean ridged or 
heaped up, a balk being a ridge. But how strange 
and unlikely is the sound of the expression, 
" Heaped up in their own blood," as if the blood 
were so abundant as to help in the heaping. 
Doubtless it was the sense of this incongruity 
which led Steevens to suggest the reading bak'd, 
and this conjecture is supported by two passages 
which he quotes from Hey wood's Iron A ge : 

" Troilus lies embak'd 
In his cold blood," 

" Bak'd in blood and dust "; 

as also, perhaps, by a passage in Hamlet's Pyrrhus 
speech : 

Horridly trick'd 

With blood of fathers, mothers, daughters, sons, 
Bak'd and impasted with the parching streets." 

But no one, that I can find, has proposed to read 
bark'd, which would yield the same sense ; and 
which has, to my thinking, one or two advantages 
over Steevens's conjecture. 

1. It is used by Shakspeare in the same, or 
very similar, sense. The ghost in Hamlet says : 

" And a most instant tetter lark'd about, 
Most lazar-like, witk vile and loathsome crust, 
All my smooth body." 

This is the reading of the quartos, and is, I 
believe, universally accepted, though here again 
we get the alternative bak'd from the first folio. 

2. The authority for the word in this sense is 
not that of one or two literary passages, but of 
persistent and living usage. Dandie Dinmont 
says, "The best way's to let the blood barken 
upon the cut ; that saves plasters, hinney." And 
in the glossaries of the E.D.S. I find as follows : 
Lancashire : Barken'd, caked, encrusted. Holder- 
ness : Bark-on, to adhere by incrustation. Swale- 
dale : Bark'd (baa-kt), encrusted, as blood or dirt 
encrusted or dried on the skin. 

3. The substitution of one liquid for another is 
a much slighter change than Steevens's omission of 
a letter. Looking at the Swaledale note of pro- 
nunciation baa-kt, and comparing the familiar 
wa-ak, ta-ak (for walk, talk), one is disposed to 
suggest that a scribe writing from dictation may 
haye set down the idem sonans " balked," when 
the poet intended barked. C. B. MOUNT. 

TER'S TALE," IV. iii. (See I 8t S. vii. 567). Has 
this curious expression ever been explained ? It 
is wonderfully tempting. At first sight it seems 
to be a good instance of oxymoron, or that well- 
known significant figure of speech whereby the 
natural and principal meaning of a word is changed 
into another meaning quite the reverse. Then, I 
presume, it would be a translation of the familiar 
phrases eix^juetre and favete linguis, which fluc- 
tuate between the meanings of sacred silence and 
tumultuous applause. But is it so ? Just let us 
see. The fact is, apparently, that clamour is one 
of those harp-string words that vibrate between 
two extremes. I believe there are four meaning?. 

1. The first meaning is one of noise, natural, 
pure, and simple, only in accumulation a babel 
of sound, an unmusical din, a strife of tongues, 
such as geese, Greeks, and other flocking water- 
fowl make while settling on a secluded mere 
(Iliad, ii.), or huntsmen and hounds in the echoing 
wood ( Winter's Tale, III. iii.). 

2. For the second meaning ; as vehement noise 
is naturally expressive of anger, in Rich. IL, I. i. : 

" The bitter clamour of two eager tongues " 
well suits the trial of no woman's war between 
Thomas Mowbray and Hnry Hereford. 

3. In this meaning the string vibrates, and we 
catch the rebound idea. All anger ^has dis- 
appeared, and vociferous applause is intended. 
Milton uses the word in this sense : 

"The people with a shout 
Rifted the air, clamouring their god with praise." 


[6* S. XI. JAN. 31, '85. 

4. Lastly, there is the meaning before us, silence 
This is a leap. How is it attained ? So far as I 
can see, the choice lies between a sort of a trinoda 
necessitas : 

(a) The tempting oxymoron already mentioned 

(6) A corruption of the archaic French wore 
chdmer, to refrain, which here appears as chaumer 
chaumbre, chamour, or clamour. The word i: 
used by Nicolas Udall in his Apophthegmes, p. 76 
in the same sense, " From no sort of men what 
ever did he refraine or chaumbre the taunting o 
his tongue." And Mr. Hunter has cited a passage 
from Taylor the Water Poet, in which the word is 
thus again perverted : 

" Clamour the promulgation of your tongues." 

(c) Quite a different idea altogether, taken from 
the phraseology of bell-ringing. Clamouring bells 
= multiplying the strokes at the end of a peal, so 
as to produce a final clang. 

Would Shakespeare put a classical expression 
into Clown's mouth ? Then (6) and (c) seem more 
likely. EDWARD MALAN. 


V. iii. 216. Where so much has been so ably 
written about so distressing a crux as that in All 's 

" Her insuite comming with her moderne grace, 
Subdu'd me to her rate" (V. iii. 216) 

a novice, a " pricket " of the second year, may 
well hesitate to canter into the enchanted wood of 
critical conjecture. But I trust you will pardon 
a suggestion a trifle less wild than some of those 
heretofore offered. 

Mr. W. Sidney Walker (Crit. Exam., vol. iii. 
pp. 77-80) has very conclusively proved that " the 
erratum comming for cunning is not infrequent " 
in the writers of Shakspere's time, and most of the 
commentators admit that cunning is probably the 
correct word. Insuite has been generally emended 
to infinite; but the word moderne still stands in 
need of a satisfactory gloss to adapt it to the con- 
text, as Mr. W. W. Williams showed in his note 
in the Parthenon for Nov. 1, 1862, quoted in Dyce's 
last edition. 

In Bacon's essay On Cunning (edition of 1625) 
the following passage occurs : 

"It is a p.oint of Cunning; to wait vpon him. with 
whom you speake, with your eye ; As the lesuitea giue 
it in precept : For there be many Wise Men, that haue 
Secret Hearts, and Transparant Countenances. Yet 
thia would be done, with a demure Abasing of your Eye 
sometimes, as the lesuites also doe use." 

This so aptly describes the way in which Diana 
did angle " for Bertram, that it might almost be 
made ^use of as an argument to prop up the 
Lacoman theory of authorship by one who, unlike 
myself, believes in that rank heresy. It may, 
however, be open to legitimate argument that 
insuite is a misprint for iesuite, employed as an 

adjective, as the want of a capital I indicates. 
This would give us the following reading : 
" Her Jesuit cunning with her modern grace 
Subdu'd me to her rate." 

If any instance of such adjectival use could be 
found in any of the writings of Shakspere's time, 
conjecture would become certainty ; but I can 
recall no instance. Perhaps some of your readers 
may be more fortunate, especially those who have 
been for many years gleaning examples of early 
uses of words for Dr. Murray's great dictionary. 
To my mind the original use of iesuite appears 
quite Shaksperian, when I consider the reputation 
the Jesuits won for craft in making proselytes 
even in the first years of the operations of their 
order. Very soon after 1540, the date of the 
Pope's bull of confirmation, they became a dreaded 
power within the state, and before Shakspere 
wrote the statute punished their presence in Eng- 
land with death. Possibly the statute of 3 James 
against the profane use of the Redeemer's name 
on the stage may have prevented even the em- 
ployment of the adjective Jesuit or Jesuitical. 

This conjecture serves also to harmonize the 
words modern grace with the context. The most 
obvious Elizabethan sense of modern is familiar t 
and it is well known that the favourite mode of 
attack of the Jesuits has always been by ingratiat- 
ing themselves into the confidence and intimacy 
of those they sought to proselytize. Indeed, it is 
to this very " precept " that Bacon alludes. 

I put this suggestion forward with diffidence, 
and shall be glad to be corrected by those of higher 
authority. A. A. A. 

Washington, D.C. 

[The editors of the Old Spelling Shakspere maintain 

he Folio reading, and hold that insuite is from a French 

noun ensuite (urgency, importunity for Bertram's ring), 

rom ensuivre, like poursuite, from poursuivre. Dyce 

wished to read " Her infinite cunning, with her modest 


II. ii. 337 (6 th S. xi. 3). That Falstaff was a wit 
have no need to be told, and if A. H. will quote 
mother instance of such a poor jest of his inven- 
ion as lies in the intentional misuse of invincible 
for invisible, 1 shall be content to believe that it 
may not be a printer's blunder. But Falstaff, 
although out at elbows both in purse and cha- 
acter, was a gentleman by birth and education, 
and never made "fritters of English"; so that 
what would have been perfectly in keeping if 
poken by Mrs. Quickly, or Launcelot Gobbo, or 
speed, or Feste, is out of place, in my judgment, 
f put in the mouth of Falstaff. I have no faculty 
or seeing into millstones, and therefore the ela- 
)orate explanation by which MR. WATKISS 
LLOYD seeks to defend the reading invincible, as 
ssential to the .point of the jest, only convinces 
me that a word which requires to be so distorted 

6* S. XI. JiH. 31, '85.] 



from its meaning cannot be right. We should do 
well sometimes to remember the old Spanish 
proverb which warns us against endeavouring to 
find more than four legs on a cat. 

It is always dangerous, as MR. LLOYD has 
shown, to attempt to analyze humour, and I will 
therefore only add that when a classification of 
jokes shall be made, this of FalstafFs may very 
well be placed with the old Cambridge story of a 
certain University official, who, like Shallow, was 
lamentably thin, and of whom it was reported 
that he had been taken up by the police " because 
he had no visible means of support." 


IT," I. i. (6 th S. xi. 3). If the collocation of 
authorities is not too undignified, this idiomatic 
expression ^ might be farther illustrated from a 
modern writer : 

" It was at Margate last July, I walked upon the pier, 
I saw a little vulgar boy, I said, What make you 

The gloom upon your, youthful cheek speaks anything 

but joy,' 

Again I said, ' What make you here, you little vulgar 
boy ? '" R. H. Barham, Ingoldsly Legends. 

"YAUGHAN," IN "HAMLET," V. i. (6" S. x. 
423; xi. 3). The intelligent reader will have 
observed, I believe, that a few years ago I pub- 
lished in "N. & Q." the conclusion that I had 
come to, that Vaughan, alias Johan, was the name 
of the keeper of the public-house attached to the 
Globe Theatre. Also that that conclusion was 
arrived at wholly independent of the example of 
Ogle's in the play of Sir Th. More. This example 
was quoted not, as M.A. would have it, in proof 
of my conclusion, but as confirmatory of my pre- 
vious conclusion, in so far as it gave an instance 
of a then existing theatrical hairdresser's name 
being introduced in a play the true action of which 
was of a much anterior date. He will, too, have 
observed that another confirmation was then 
adduced one not alluded to by M.A. namely, 
the gradually altered readings of the editions of 
1603, 1604, and 1623; the reading of 1604, "Get 
thee in," proving the meaning of the 1623 phrase. 
I now add that the Lindley Murray-like rule 
" when speaking of going to a man's inn or shop, 
his name^ is put in the genitive, but when to a 
place it is left unchanged " is, to my certain 
knowledge, not an invariable colloquial rule. I 
have not infrequently heard it infringed, and but 
the other day I who, spite of M.A.'s sneers, 
think myself a little above the Gravedigger in in- 
telligence and education told our servant to 
" take the cheque to Rice," the said Eice being a 

As to M,A. himself, bis views on the manner 

in which a discussion on literary points should be 
conducted are so different from my own that I 
cannot hereafter take any notice of his opinions or 
comments on this or on any other subject. 

" RICHARD II.," I. ii.: 
" One vial full of Edward's sacred blood, 
One flourishing branch of his most royal root 
Is crack'd, and all the precious liquor spilt, 
Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded." 

The above lines as they appear in the various 
editions of Shakespear do not convey so clear a 
meaning as they would if arranged thus : 

" One vial full of Edward's sacred blood 
Is crack'd, and all the precious liquor spilt ; 
One flourishing branch of his most royal root 
Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded." 

Dr. Bucknill, in his ShaJcespear's Medical 
Knowledge, makes this suggestion, and considers 
that the lines were transposed by an error of the 
printer, which appears likely, considering the 
great superiority of the proposed reading of the 
passage. I venture to think this important 
emendation may be thought worthy of a place in 
" N. & Q ," and may thus invite the consideration 
of future editors of Shakespear. T. F. F. 

(Continued from, p. 5.) 

Ap.,1695. A Grant unto y e Earle of Romney and S r 
Charles Lodowick Cotterell, their Heirs and Assignes for 
ever of y e Reversion of a Rent charge, 5501., out of y e Man- 
ners of Hilton and Bradbury, Com. Durham, whereof y e 
Lady Ester Eland was seized after y e Death of y e Queen 
Dowager and late Marquess of Hallifax, accrewed to his 
Maj ty by y e sayd Lady Eland, being an Alien Born and 
Dyeing without Heirs, and making no legall Disposition 
of y e same. 

A Grant and Assigne 4 unto Tho Wilkins, to his own 
use without account, of severall sums of Money oweing 
to his Maj ty from Richard Beer and many other persons 
concerned as Collectors of y e Customes. 

A Grant unto Eliza Tillotson, Widdow of y e late Arch- 
bishop, of 400J. p' ann. out of the 4 per cent, from 
Mich'as, 1694, during her life, w th a discharge to y e s d 
M rs Tillotson of 2,682J. 12*. 2d. due for y e first fruits of 
y e s d Bishoprick. 

May, 1695. An Assignem 1 unto W m Lowndes, Esq r , 
his Heirs and Assignes for ever, of his Maj'y Right in y 
Stock of the Bank of England by reason of a subscrip- 
tion of 10,00(M. for his use, w ch stock was sold and 
applyed as his Maj ty had directed. 

A Grant unto ffrancis, Earle of Bradford, and bia 
Heirs for ever, in consideration of 916Z. p d into y e Receipt 
of y e Excheq r , of a See farm Rent of 661. 13*. 4d. issuing 
out of Bridstock Park in y e County of Oxon, and all 
Arrearages of y e same. 

A Discharge to Eliza, Countess of Derby, of 2,457 ounce 
of Guilt and White -Plate delivered out of y 8 Jewell 
Office for y e service of y e late Queen, w th a Grant to y e 
Earle of Pembrook and others, as well of y e said Plate 
aa of 1,569 ounces not in charge in y e Jewell Office, and 
400 Ounces of White Plate, and one Pair of Diamond 
Ear rings worn by her s d Maj ty , In trust for y e sole use 
of y e 8 d Countess, 


NOTES' AND QUERIES. [6 th s. XL JAN. 31, 

A Grant unto George Petty, Michaell Godfrey, an 
Kichard Harrison of y Office of Surveyor of y e petty 
Customes in y e Port of London, to hold from y e Death 
or avoydance of S r J no Stapley Interest therein during 
y severall Lives of Richard and W m Lunley, younge 
souns of y Earle of Scarborough, with y e Salary of 30(M 
p' ann. 

A Grant unto William de Nassau, Seigneur de Zule 
stein, of 1,0001. per annum out of y e Post Office, from 
Lady Day, 1695, dureing his Life. Marginal note 
Zulestein's Grant. 

A Grant unto James Gibbons of all the persona. 
Estate of Paul Buren, late of London, Mercht, w ho 
dyed without issue, Relations, or Will. 

A Grant unto Henry de Nassau, Seign*- d'Auverquerq, 
his heirs and Assignes for ever, of 2,OOOJ. per ann. out of 
> Revenue of y e Dutchy of Cornwall, from Lady day 
1695, AY"' a Clause for carrying y e same on y e Excise if 
it cannot be paid out of y e Revenue of Cornwall. 

June, 1695. A Grant unto Lord Cutta and Ralph 
Highgate, Esq r ., of y Real and Personal Estate of 
William Meeres, late of Berbadoes, who dyed without 
issue, Kindred, or Will. 

A Grant unto Laurence, Earle of Rochester, his heirs 
and Assignes, of Killingworth woods, in y County oJ 
York, and of y Arrears and Mesne Profitts of y e same 
under y yearly Rent of 6s. and 8d. 

July, 1695. A Grant unto Thorn 3 , Lord Coningsby, 
his Heirs and Assignes for ever, of y e Manners of Marden 
and Kingsland in y e County of Hereford, w th their 
Appartenances after y e Death of Queen Dowager. 

Augt, 1695. A Grant unto William, Earle of Rochford, 
and his Heirs, of y c Estate found by Inquisition to be 
forfeited to his Maj 1 * in y e County of North'ton and 
Montgomery by y attainder of y e Marquess of Powys, 
and seized into his Maj tys hands. 

A Grant to William, Earle of Portland, his Heirs and 
Aesignes for ever, of y c Lordshipp and Mannour of Den- 
bigh, Brumlield, and Yale, in North Wales, under y e 
yearly Rent of 6s. Sd. Mem d , This Grant never passed 
y c Great Seal. 

A Grant and Confirma'on unto Deborah Demaresque, 
of y Island of Jersey, of a fee called ffaizants in y c s d 
Island, then in his Maj tys hands, under y e yearly Rent of 
9 sols w th a grant of y e Tithes of Corn growing on her 
Fees, under y c yearly Rent of six Cabbolets of Barley 
and sev 11 other Rights and Priviledges belonging to her 

Feb'T, 1695. A Grant unto W m Bridgman and Josiah 
Burchctt, their Heirs and Assignes for ever, of a piece 
of Ground lying in old Spring Garden, in Trust for ye 
Lord High Admiral or Commissioners of y e Admiralty 
for y c time being. 

March, 1695. A Grant unto S. Johnson, Clerk, of 300. 
per ann. out of y e Post Office, haben'd for 99 years if y c 
t^'Sam 11 or Benj" his son shall so long live. 

A Grant unto J ao Poultney of sev 11 Pieces and Parcells 
of Ground lying near S 1 Jamess street, upon part whereof 
lie hath lately Built a house, haben'd for 99 years 
from y c Expira'on of a terme granted to him therein by 
King Charles y 2 d to S r W m Poultney under ye yearly 
Rent of 105. 

A Grant unto W m , Earle of Portland, of ye Lodgings 
now in his Possession at Whitehall for 42 years at 6s. 
and Sd. per annum Rent. 

Aprill, 1696. A Grant unto Mary Milburn of his 
Maj'>" Title to 68L, being y Mor.y of Thorn" Wansell 
who was outlaw'd at y c suite of y s d Milburn, 

A Grant unto W m , Earle of Rochford, his Heirs and 
Assignes for ever, of y Manner of Hendon and all y e 
Estate found by Inquisition to be forfeited to his Maj'^ 
in y County of Midd'x by y Attainder of y e Marquess 

of Powys (except y e House called Powys House), at j 9 
yearly Rent of 13s. 4d. w* a Grant of y e Arrears and 
Mesne Profitts arisen to his Maj'y out of y sayd Mar- 
quesses forfeited Estates in y e Countys of North'ton and 
Montgomery, before granted to y e s d Earle. 

Aprill, 1696. A Grant unto W ra Saunderson, Esq r of 
y e yearly Rent of 25 Loads of Hay and 50 Q rs of Oatea 
reserved on sev 11 Leases from y e Crown of y e scite of y e 
Tenemt called Nethercomb, and other Lands in y 
County of Kent, Haben'd during y e continuance of y e s d 

May, 1696. A Grant unto W M , Earle of Portland, of 
y e Mannour of Granthum in Lincolnshire, Honnour of 
Parish in Cumberland, Mannour of Drachlow and Red 
Heath, Com. Chester, Mannour of Terrhigton in y e County 
of Norfolk, Mannor of Batterington, Bristoll, Garth, 
Hornsey, Thwyng, Burnsley, and Leven, in y e County of 
York, all part of y c Antient Revenue of y e Crown, and of 
y e Mannor of Pevensey, Com. Sussex, and of all other 
Tenem ta and Hereditam 18 thereto belonging, Haben'd to 
him and his Heirs for ever under y e Rent of 13s. 4c?. 

A Grant unto Thorn 8 Hall, Esq r of a piece of Ground 
with y e Buildings thereon erected where S 1 James's 
Market is now held, Haben'd for 99 years from y e Ex- 
pira'on of y e Termes on y e Leases in being at 10s. per 
ann. Rent. 

A Discharge as well to y e Com" 8 of y e Excise as to 
Charles Duncomb, their Cashire, and sev 11 Collectors of 
Revenue (in considera'on of a Competent summ' of 
mony p d to his Maj^by y e s d Duncomb of 6,130U9s,5fcZ. 
reserved by Joseph Reynoldson upon Bills of Exchange 
returned from y e s d Collectors for his Maj tys use, the s d 
Reynoldson having Imbezled y same. 

A Grant unto Edward Lee of 500/., bequeathed by his 
sister to Edward, Lord Griffin, who was outlaw'd for 

A Grant unto Charles Bertie, Sam 11 Travers, James 
Herbert, and Rich'd Powys of a farme called Nether 
Comb farm, w th sev 11 Lands Tenem ts and Rents in y e 
County of Kent, the Mannor of East Molsey, Hampton 
Court and Richmond faryes, w th y e scite of y e Monastery 
of Shean and other Hereditam ts in y c County of Surrey, 
the Lands called Northey hoo and Bernard's Castle, and 
other Lands and Tenem ts in ye County of Sussex ; the 
Rents of Ampthill Park in > e County of Bedford, Lands 
n Shotover and S to wood, and other Lands in y e County 
of Oxon and of Marribone Mannor and Park in y 8 
Uounty of Midd'x, and of a part of y e Demesne of y e 
forest of Gillingham, Com. Dorset, and of y e Assigne mt 
Herbage, and Pennage of y forest of Marra, and eev u 
3ereditam ts in y c County of Chester, w th the Tithes of y e 
Vicar idge of Hallifax, Com. York, Haben'd for 31 years 
rom y Death of y e Queen Dowager, at 3. 18s. and id. 
>' ann. rent. 

June, 1696. A Grant unto Allexander Johnstone, 

qr of 300. p' ann of y e forfeited Estate of S r Roger 
Strickland, in y c County of York, haben'd for 31 years 
from Lady day, 1696. 

A Grant unto Rowland Woodgare (in Considera'on of 
275;. 11s. ld. of all y e Arrears due on a Grant made by 
iing Charles 2 d to S r Joseph Wagstaff) of y e Power of 
ransporting Lamprairs to Holland, &c., with a Grant 
f y e like power to y e s d Woodgeare for 31 years, from 
lib Sepber 1694, at 17s. Qd. per ann. Rent. 

July, 1696. A Grant unto Richard, Earl of Ranelagh 
f y e house and Lands of Chelsea he now lives in for 99 
ears from y e 5"' April, 1696, at 51. per ann. Rent upon 
urrender of a former Grant made to him for y e same 
or 58 years, from y e 15 th Aprill, 1696, at 30J. 4s. Qd. p' 
nn. Rent. 

A Grant unto Thorn' 8 Lord Raby of y e Revenue of the 
ost fines, Haben'd for 48 years from Mich'as, 1708, 

6" S. XI. JAK. 31, '85.] 



under y c yearly Rent of 2,276J. to be p d from y Com- 
ence nt of this Term. 

A'Grant unto Thorn 8 Agar, Esq r at y e nomina'on of y e 
Earle of Torrington of y e scite of Otalands bouse and 
y c Chambers in Serjeant's Inn in Fleetstreet, being y e 
forfeited Estate of 8 r Edward Herbert, Outlaw* for 

A Grant unto Thorn 8 Philipps of w* he shall recover 
and take up of y Wreck of y e Shipp Beedaugh, then 
lying in y c River of Cork in Ireland, reserving one-tenth 
part to his Maj^. 

A Grant unto J no Lord Cutts of y e hundred of Dum- 
ford and all other y e Estate, both real and personall, 
found by Inquisition to belong to J no Caryll, Esq r who 
was outlaw 3 for Treason. 

Jan. 1697. A Grant unto John Hill and Ralph Hard- 
wick of y e fforest or late fforest of Arkingartheale, in 
y e County of York, for 51 years from y e date at y e yearly 
Rent of 6s. 8d., w'h a Clause that this Lease shall be 
voyd as to such part of y e Premisses as shall not be re- 
covered in 7 years. 

Jan. 1690. A Grant or Demise under y e Great Seal by 
Warr'to y e Clerk of y e Pipe unto Will ra Harbord of y e 
Manner of Stoughton Magna w th its appartenances, and 
y e reserved Rent of 200J. p' ann. before payable for y e 
Eame, Haben'd for 99 years from y e date at 51. per ann. 

A Grant or Demise unto Edward Russell, Esq r , in 
Considera'on of his Eminent Services, of a certain piece 
of ground, houses, and other things in y e Parish of S l 
Martins, Westminster, parcell of y Balywick of S l 
James's, haben'd for 99 years (in reversion of a terme 
Granted by King Charles y e 2 d to y Duke of S l Albans 
and others, at 20s. per ann. Rent). 

June, 1693. A Grant or Demise unto S r Matt. 
Andrews, in considera'on of 1,200^. to be p d into y e Ex- 
cheq r of ye Mannor of Meer, Com. Wilts, w^ y e De- 
mesnes Warren and Park there, for 23 years from Lady 
day, 1701, at sev 11 Rents amounting to 45J. per annum, 
as also of sev 11 wood Grounds belonging to y s d Mannor 
called Deverlongwood and Knowlewood for 99 years, 
Determinable upon three such lives as hee shall nomi- 
nate, reserving y e autient yearly Rent. 

FebT, 1694. A like Grant' or Demise unto Gabriell 
Armiger, Esq r of a Rent of 201. per ann. issuing out of 
y e Mannor of West Deveham and certain Lands, Coin. 
Norfolk, and all Arrears of y e Eame, Haben'd for 31 
years at 40s. per ann. Rent, the same being long con- 
cealed and determined from y e Crown. 

Ap. 1695. A Wari-t s i gn ed to y e Trustees for sale of 
ffee farm Rents for conveing diverse fee farm and other 
Rents unto William, Earle of Portland, amounting to 
1,536. 14s. Id. per ann. upon paying 24,571. 5s. 4d. for 
y e Purchase thereof. 

Aug', 1695. A Grant and Release unto Thorn 8 Seaman 
(who purchased under W m Betts) of sev 11 Messuages and 
Tenem ts in Norwich, part of y e extended Estate of 
Thorn" Price granted by y e late King James to y e s d 
Betts upon trust to sell y e same to y e best Purchaser for 
y e purposes in y" Grant mentioned. 


(To be continued.) 

To explode fictitious history that has once got 
into print is, indeed, a difficult task. After all 
Col. Chester's masterly researches into the Washing- 
ton pedigree, the mistake of tracing the President 
from the Washingtons of Northamptonshire is still 

from time to time repeated ; and in the latest 
edition of Murray's Handbook for Northampton- 
shire and Rutland (1878, p. 167) we read that in 
the chancel of Great Brington Church there is " a 
slab for Lawrence Washington, d. 1616, the great- 
great-grandfather of George Washington. This 
Lawrence Washington, with his father, came to 
Brington from Sulgrave, and his second son John 
emigrated to America." 

Now, in the short synopsis of Col. Chester's 
immense genealogical labours, reprinted by him 
from the Herald and Genealogist, in 1866, as A 
Preliminary Investigation of the alleged Ancestry 
of George Washington, &c., it is shown that of the 
two brothers, John and Lawrence Washington, 
who are stated in Baker's pedigree to have emi- 
grated to America " about 1657," John was 
knighted, and Lawrence became a clergyman in 
Essex, the former being in 1657 about sixty-two, 
and the latter fifty-five years of age. " If," says 
Col. Chester, " they were the Virginian emigrants, 
the one must have abandoned his knighthood, and 
the other rejected his surplice and bands ; for the 
actual emigrants were never known in Virginia 
except as 4 esquires' or 'gentlemen,' and by the 
latter appellation they described themselves in their 
wills. For either of these rejections there could 
have been no possible cause, as Virginia was then 
a loyal colony, and the established religion that of 
the mother-country. Sir John Washington had 
at least two wives. The first, named Mary, 
was buried at Islip, in Northamptonshire, while 
the name of his widow was Dorothy, and she 
was buried at Fordham, in Cambridgeshire. 
John Washington, gentleman, the Virginian 
emigrant, states distinctly in his will, dated 
Sept. 27, 1675, that he brought his first wife from 
England with him ; that she died in Virginia, and 
was buried, with two children, on his own planta- 
tion ; and that his second wife's name was Anne, 
whom he appointed his executrix." 

In Harper's Magazine (vol. lyiii., No. 346, p. 521) 
there appeared an article entitled "The English 
Home of the Washingtons," the writer of which gave 
an account of his visit to Brington, and described 
the church and the Washington memorials, illus- 
trating them with engravings. He assumed as 
true history the story which Mr. Simpkinson, in his 
tale The Washingtons (1860), had founded on the 
parish registers, the monuments in the church, and 
entries in the Althorp household-books. Mr. 
Simpkinson afterwards became intimate with 
Col. Chester, learned from him the results of 
his laborious investigations, and was anxious to 
disclaim for the tale the authority of actual history. 
This he accomplished in a letter printed, I believe, 
in the New York World, which was reissued in an 
abridged form in the Magazine of American His- 
tory, Aug. 1, 1881. 

But all has been in vain. People still go on 

NOTES "AND QUERIES. [* & XL JAN. 31, -sa. 

quoting Mr. Simpkinson against himself, either 
ignoring his disavowal or misunderstanding the 
clear proofs of Col. Chester's discoveries. During 
fifteen years Col. Chester. was trying to trace the 
pedigree of the president back to England. Ine 
Virginian emigrants have been identified, and their 
wills examined ; but the missing link between 
England and Virginia cannot be found. 

" Washington " has never been an uncommon 
surname in England, and it is still to be met with 
in all parts of the country. As a place-name it 
occurs to the north in Durham, and to the south 
in Sussex. I thought that perhaps the first 
emigrant might have gone from Westmoreland. 
Henry Washington was mayor of Kendal 1657-8. 
Eichard Washington filled the same office 1685-6. 
Col. Chester endeavoured to take up this clue, bub 
unfortunately the Kendal register-book for the 
years 1632-79 is lost the very period during 
which the first emigration is supposed to have 
taken place. 

Too much stress must not be laid on what 
President Washington wrote in his letter to Sir 
Isaac Heard. He says : " I have often heard others 
of the family, older than myself, say that our 
ancestor who first settled in this country came 
from one of the northern counties of England ; 
but whether from Lancashire, Yorkshire, or one 
still more northerly, I do not precisely remember." 
As Col. Chester observes, " Taking the tradition 
for what it may be worth, it is quite certain that 
Northamptonshire cannot be accounted one of the 
northern counties of England." 

At the close of his Preliminary Investigation 
(1866), Col. Chester says that " he has accumulated 
a large amount of information from almost every 
source accessible to him, and believes that it 
embraces the real history of the family ; but he 
yet lacks the positive clue that would solve the 
mystery, and enable him to reduce the chaotic 
material to order." 

Who can now hope to succeed, when such a man 
has failed ? J. DIXON. 

following artless narrative may, perhaps, be found 
amusing by the readers of " N. & Q." It is taken 
from a rare little book, to which it gives the sub- 
ject of 166 pages of edifying preachment, and of 
course is firmly believed in by the author. The 
book has a rough woodcut representing Master 
T. K. whittling his stick by the wood-pile, and the 
raven prophesying on the church tower. The fol- 
lowing is the title : 

" Vox Corvi : or, the Voice of a Raven, that Thrice 
Bpoke these words distinctly: Look into Colossians the 
3rd and 15th. The Text it self looked into, and opened, 
in a Sermon, Preached at Wigraore, in the County of 
Hereford, To which is added, Serious Addresses to the 
People of this Kingdom ; shewing the use we ought to 
make of this Voice from Heaven. :.By Alex. Ologie, 

Minister of Wigmore, &c. Licensed according to order. 
Matth. 21, xviii. London, 1694." 
The copy from which I take it is now on its way 
to America. 

" On the 3d. of February, 1691, about Three in the 
Afternoon, this Reverend Divine, a person of the 
venerable Age of 80 years, and 40 of those a Laborious 
Teacher of God's Word, in the Parish of Wigmore, in 
the County of Hereford, being in the Hall of his own 
house, being with the Pious Matron, his Wife, some 
Neighbours and Relations, together with two small 
Grand-Children of his, in all to the number of Eight 
Persons; Thomas Kinnersley, one of the said Grand- 
Children, of but Ten Years of Age, starting up from the 
Fireside, went out of the Hall-Door, and sate himself 
down upon a Block by a Wood-pile, before the Door, 
employing himself in no other Childlike Exercise than 
cutting of a Stick, when in less than half a quarter of an 
Hour, he returned into the Hall in great amazement, his 
Countenance pale, and affrighted, and said to his Grand- 
father and Grandmother, LOOK IN THE THIRD OP THE 
COLOSSIANS, AND THE FIFTEENTH, with infinite Passion 
and Earnestness, repeating the words no less than three 
Times, which Deportment and Speech much surprising 
the whole Company, they asked him what he meant by 
those words ; who answered with great Ardency of Spirit, 
That a RAVEN had spoken them Three times from the 
Peak of the Steeple, and that it look'd towards W. W.'s 
House, and shook its HEAD and WINGS thitherwards, 
directing its Looks and Motions still towards that House. 
All which words he heard the RAVEN distinctly utter 
three times, and then saw it mount and fly out of sight. 
His Grandfather hereupon, taking the Bible, and turning 
to the said Text, found these words. ' And let the Peace 
of God rule in your Hearts, to the which you are also 
called in one Body ; and be ye thankful.' Upon reading 
whereof, the Child was fully satisfied and his Counten- 
ance perfectly composed agen [sic]" 

H. 0. S. 

Sir John Hawkins, in the very ill - printed 
second " revised and corrected " edition of his 
Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D., speaking of 
Jarvis's rendering of Cervantes's ever-living Don, 
says : 

" The fact is that Jarvis laboured at it many years, 
but could make but little progress, for, being a painter 
by profession, he had not been accustomed to write, and 
had no style. Mr. Tonson, the bookseller, seeing this, 
suggested the thought of employing Mr. Broughton, the 
reader at the Temple Church, the author and editor of 
sundry publications, who, as I have been informed by a 
friend of Tonson, eat himself down to study the Spanish 
language, and in a few months acquired, as was pre- 
tended, sufficient knowledge thereof to give to the 
world a translation of Don Quixote in the true spirit of 
the original, and to which is prefixed the name of Jarvis." 

Sir John Hawkins, if his own rambling and 
verbose Life of Johnson is to be regarded as a 
specimen, must have been a very poor judge of 
style ; but setting the question of style aside, one 
would like to be assured on some better authority 
than that of Hawkins or the unnamed " friend 
of Tonson " that Jarvis's (so-called) translation is 
rather the work of a reverend reader of the Temple. 
The latter was a somewhat voluminous as well as 
miscellaneous writer, and, but that a regard for 

6th s. XI. JAN. 31, '85.] 



his sacred calling may have led him to refrain 
from publicly connecting himself with the transla- 
tion of the racy Spanish mock romance, it would 
seem that his name would have furnished as ac- 
ceptable a passport to it as that of Jarvis. His 
acknowledged works extended to many volumes 
folio, octavo, and duodecimo and embraced, 
besides his various theological and controversial 
exercitations, a musical drama, the Olynthiacs and 
Philippics of Demosthenes, a translation of the 
mottoes to the Spectator, Taller, and Guardian, 
many articles in the Biographia Britannica, &c. ; 
and his church preferments kept pace with his 
literary activity, for he was not only Eeader at 
the Temple, but Vicar of Bedminster and St. 
Mary Eedcliffe, Bristol, at the very time poor 
Chatterton was rummaging among the parchments 
in the muniment room of the last-named venerable 
edifice, and he subsequently attained to a stall in 
Salisbury Cathedral. HENRY CAMPKIN. 

112, Torriano Avenue, N.W. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
On family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

are one or two obscure points in Mr. E. W. Gosse's 
excellent memoir of Gray ("English Men of 
Letters " series) which require clearing up. There 
seem to have been (p. 2) five members of the 
Antrobus family: Mary, who died unmarried, cet. 
66, on Nov. 5, 1749 (p. 95); Dorothy, who 
married Philip Gray, and died, at. 67, on 
March 11, 1753 (p. 112); Anna, who married 
Jonathan Eogers, and died in September, 1758 
(p. 139) ; Eobert, a Fellow of Peterhouse, who 
lived at Burnham ; and John, or, probably more 
correctly, Thomas (see pp. 3, 9, and 18), who was 
a Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. It was 
from this uncle that I presume the poet derived 
his Christian name. Mr. Jonathan Eogers is said 
on p. 46 to have died on October 21, 1742, and 
on p. 66 to have died on October 31 of that 
year. Which is the correct date? At p. 180 
Gray is stated to have obtained the office of post- 
mistress at Cambridge for his cousin, Miss Dolly 
Antrobus, and he was attended on his death-bed 
(p. 206) by his niece, Miss Mary Antrobus. Mary 
Antrobus had a sister, Mrs. Dorothy Comyns, the 
wife of a shopkeeper at Cambridge (p. 207), who 
I presume was the former post-mistress. Was 
this the case; and, if so, how could these two ladies 
be described by Gray in his will as his nieces ? 
None of his brothers or sisters attained maturity. 
Were Mary and Dorothy the children of either of 
his uncles, Eobert or Thomas 1 If so they would 
be the poet's cousins, not his nieces. At p. 202 

the Antrobuses are described as the nieces of 
Gray's paternal aunt, Mrs. Oliffe, which seems to 
be an error. Mr. Gosse's memoir is, in all essential 
points, such a satisfactory piece of work, that it 
seems a pity these little blemishes should be left 
to puzzle the reader. W. F. P. 


"A noisome, filthy hole, into which prisoners, for con- 
tempt of the Court at their trials at the Old Bailey, 
were sometimes cast by way of chastisement. Perm and 
Mead, for their stout defence at their trial, were dragged 
into the bale-dock, and the Recorder proceeded to charge 
the jury during their detention there, urging for an ex- 
cuse, that they were still within hearing of the Court. 
Soe ' Trial of Penn and Mead,' in Phenix, i. 312." 

What is known of the Bale- or Bail-Dock (for 
which I have many quotations for the Dictionary^ 
What is the proper spelling and origin of the name 1 

Mill Hill, N.W. 

BAIL BASTON. What is the meaning of this 
term, sometimes coupled with main-prise in early 
English law 1 I have not yet found it in any of 
the law dictionaries. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

Mill Hill, N.W. 

BAGATELLE. When was this game introduced ? 
I do not find it in dictionaries before 1847. Does 
any reader of " N. & Q." remember it before that 
date? The name is not to be found in French 
dictionaries. Is it of English origin ? 


Mill Hill, N.W. 

[We can trace in personal reminiscences with which 
we are favoured the existence of bagatelle as a game to 
a period many years antecedent to 1847.] 

DAUNTSEY HOUSE. Would any of your readers 
kindly let me know in what book there is a view 
of Dauntsey House, or Dantsey House, Dauntsey, 
Wilts ? It is not in Sir E. Colt Hoare's Ancient 
and Modern Wilts. E. F. AUGUSTUS SPRATT. 

" AUREUS DE UNIVERSO." Will you allow me 
to appeal to the wide circle of your readers for 
information which I have not as yet been able to 
find? Caxton, when continuing Higden's Poly- 
chronicon, apologizes for his work, and says he can 
get no books of authority from which to draw, 
only one named Fasciculus Temporum, and 
another called Aureus de Universo. The former 
is well enough known, but for the latter I have as 
yet sought in vain. Caxton's continuation em- 
braces English and French history between 1358 
and 1460. It seems to me that Aureus probably 
means Liber Aureus, but of this I am not sure. 
Doubtless it was some early printed book. There 
is a note in Dibdin's edition of Ames's Topogra- 
phical Antiquities which states that by Aureus 
is meant Petrus Aureolus ; but any who looks at 
the writings of that author will see that he could 


(6th s. XT. JAN. 31, '85. 

not be Caxton's authority on the history of Eng- 
land and France. J. RAWSON LUMBY. 
St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. 

GIBRALTAR MEDAL, silver, diameter 2f in., 
commemorating siege 1799-83. One side repre- 
sents the rock and bay, with the blockading fleets, 
and the reverse has the following inscription: 

" By a zealous exertion of patience, perseverance, and 
intrepidity, after contending with an unparalleled suc- 
cession of dangers and difficulties in the defence of 
Gibraltar during a blockade and siege of almost four 
years, the garrison under the auspices of George III. 
triumphed over the combined powers of France and 

This medal has been handed down to me from a 
great uncle, who was present at the siege in the 
12th Regiment. Information is requested of the 
circumstances under which it was struck; whether 
any distribution thereof was made to the officers 
who took part in the siege ; and, if so, by whom. 


EARDINGE'S "POEMS." In Burn's History of 
Parish Registers, ed. 1862, p. 7, it is said that so 
late as 1750 parochial plays were acted at Tis- 
sington, co. Derby, Hardinge's Poems, p. 185, 
being cited as an authority. One volume so called 
has been searched without success. What work 
of Hardinge's can be referred to ? H. 

admirable institutions, now general and common, 
are of comparatively recent origin. The first 
that I ever heard of was started by some ladies 
named Bell, at Wandsworth, about 1841 or 1842. 
Is any earlier instance known; and are any parti- 
culars to be ascertained respecting that one ? 


DOMESDAY BOOK. Will any of your readers 
inform me whether or not any guide to Domesday 
Book exists, either in a separate shape or included 
in other works, which makes its language intelli- 
gible by explaining the numerous abbreviations 
and signs which compose a large portion of its 
text ? I have Kelham's work, but find it quite 
inadequate. T. F. 

, Walker > Es q-> formerly Commander- 
m-Ohief of the Royal Family Privateers ' ; (Gentle- 
man's Magazine, 1777). Were the Privateers the 
royal body guard, or what ? J. J. g. 

THOMAS CHANNELL. In a paper on New Year's 
customs I find the following as the subject of a 
work of art in the Louvre gallery : " Massire 
Ihomas Channelle, Chevalier trenchant de Roy 
ll^ngleterre, lequel est venu apporter TEstraine 
du Koy d'Engleterre du jour de 1'an." Can one 
of your correspondents, with a good catalogue of 

e Louvre at hand, or from some other source, 

afford me any information as to the above Thomas 
Channell, and the probable date of the incident 
represented ? F. J. HARDY. 


GARMELOW. Can any of your readers tell me 
the derivation of Garmelow, the name of a place ? 

F. S. 

LORD. I wish for information concerning a 
Mr. Lord, who probably lived in London or in 
the county of Essex, early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, who had a wife Catharine, and children 
Robert and Grace. HENRY DUTCH LORD. 

13, Lyman Street, Boston, Mass. 

SMOCK - FROCK. Can any of your correspon- 
dents state from what period the smock-frock 
dates ? As smok is Saxon, the origin is doubtless 
of some antiquity. I should also be grateful for 
a reference to any contemporary prints, &c., re- 
presenting the dress of the peasantry of England 
during the reign of James II., and, if possible, the 
smock-frock of that period. ALLAN FEA. 

Highgate, N. 

learned correspondent the REV. E. MARSHALL, or 
any one else, give the first use of this well-known 
proverbial expression ? The form in which it 
appears might lead one to suppose that it is part 
of a hexameter line. It is used by Edmund 
Burke in his " Speech on moving Resolutions for 
Conciliation with the Colonies," 1775: 

" JSzperimentum in corpore vili is a good rule, which 
will ever make me adverse to any trial of experiments 
on what is certainly the most valuable of all subjects, 
the peace of this empire." Burke, Select Works, vol. i. 
p. 224, Clarendon Press Series. 

In a note it is stated that the phrase owes its 
origin to an anecdote of Muretus: 

" He was attacked by sickness when on a journey, and 
two physicians, who attended him, supposing him some 
obscure person, agreed to use a novel remedy, with the 
remark, ' Faciamus periculum in anima vili.' Muretua 
tranquilly asked, ' Vilem animam appellas, pro qua 
Christus non dedignatus est mori ? ' (Menagiana, third 
edit., p. 129.)" 



method of removing the stains caused by the 
blackening of old water-colour pigments contain- 
ing lead which have been used to colour old prints 
and caricatures 1 G. F. B. 

CHURCH HERALDRY. Will any one tell me 
whether in the brasses of the sixteenth century 
any recognized method was adopted in marshal- 
ling the respective shields of arms around the epi- 
taph in regard to the relationship of the bearers of 
such to the departed ] In the brass to Paul Iden 
and his wife, dated 1564, at Penshurst, printed in 

6"' S. XI. JAN. 31, '85.] 



the Antiquary of February 1881, four shields are 
depicted. I should feel indebted to any one who 
could explain the association of these arms. 

W. L. KING. 

Watlington, Norfolk. 

DEFINITION OF GENIUS. What English author 
defines genius as " the capacity for taking infinite 
pains " ? In what work is this definition given ? 
Buffon is credited (in an English dress) with a 
remark having much the same meaning. Can any 
correspondent give his words in the original French, 
and the work from which they are taken ? 


[" Genius is a capacity for taking trouble " (Leslie 
Stephen) ; " Genius is only protracted patience " (Buffon); 
" Genius is an intuitive talent for labour" (Jan Walasus); 
" Genius is nothing but labour and diligence " (Hogarth); 
" In the exact science, at least, it is the patience of a 
sound intellect when invincible -which truly constitutes 
genius" (Cuvier). See also 6"> S. x. 389, 419.] 

GREEN'S POEM "THE SPLEEN. "What are the 
allusions in 

" Green apron'd Pythonissa's rage "; 

" A Queenborough mayor behind his mace " 1 
What earlier instance of the word stoker is to be 
found than in these lines ? 

" A prince's cause, a church's claim 
I 've known to raise a mighty flame, 
And priest, as stoker, very free 
To throw in peace and charity." 

What sects are aimed at in 

" That tribe whose practicals decree 
Small beer the deadliest heresy; 
Who fond of pedigree derive 
From the most noted w alive " 1 

And in the contrasted ascetics, who 
" Did never me as yet provoke 
Either to honour band and cloak, 
Or deck my hat with leaves of oak " ] 

W. W. LL. 

[The comic scenes from Middleton's Mayor of Quin- 
borough were converted into a farce, and acted by Bullock 
at the Haymarket so late as 1710. Something in the 
acting of this may have suggested- the second quotation, 
or may put our correspondent on the track.] 

coins I find that several varieties of farthings were 
struck as patterns in this reign, in addition to that 
bearing, obv. bust to the left, Anna Dei Gratia ; 
rev. figure of Britannia, the word Britannia above, 
the date 1714 below. Can any one give me an 
account of these? In Dr. W. Smith's Smaller 
History of England, p. 270, a variety is engraved, 
one with, on the reverse, the figure of a charioteer 
driving, which is stated to be highly prized by 
collectors. I should like to know if it is now ob- 
tainable, and its present value. 


[Much information on the subject will be found 1 st S. 
x. 429 and elsewhere in " N. & Q."J 

WILLIAM JOHNSON, of Barnard's Inn, signs a 
deed in the year 1701, on April 21. Possibly 
some of your correspondents can inform me who 
he was. The question is merely historical, but 
may possibly prove of interest. 


" LE SUICIDE ABJURE"." In the Vie privee du 
Marshal de Richelieu, Paris, 1792, is mentioned 
an English play, Le Suicide Abjure, produced or 
printed probably about 1780, in which a certain 
Lord Catesby praises the old marshal and com- 
pares him to Columbus. Can any of your readers 
inform me what play can possibly be meant ? 


HOMER "TRAVESTIE" (see 4 th S. viii. 479). 
An editorial note at this reference states that 
particulars concerning the author of this, Thomas 
Bridges, can be obtained from C. Frost's Address 
at Hull. I shall be greatly obliged by informa- 
tion where this Address can be seen. URBAN. 

BRENAN. A man of this name published in 
Dublin, in 1756, according to Egerton's Theatrical 
Remembrancer, a dramatic satire entitled The 
Painter's Breakfast. The Biographia Dramatica 
says he was a painter, and wrote a comedy called 
The Lawsuit, which Edmund Burke once designed 
to publish by subscription. Is a statement to 
this effect to be found in any life of Burke ; and is 
further information with regard to Brenan obtain- 
able ? S. E. I. G. 

HANNAH BRAND. Is the date of death known 
of this remarkable woman, who was a school- 
mistress before she was a dramatist, and who in 
1792 acted at' the Haymarket with the Drury 
Lane Company in her own tragedy of Huniades ? 
She attributed the failure of this to the influence 
of John Kemble, and, according to Tate Wilkin- 
son, always regarded herself as kept down by Mrs. 
Siddons. A volume of poems and plays by her 
appeared in 1798 in Norwich. Any information 
concerning her subsequent to this date will be 
valued. H. T. 

36 much obliged by a list of everything relating 
;o the great master's unfinished work, i.e., not so 
much a catalogue of different editions though 
this, I imagine, would not be extensive as of 
magazine articles or pamphlets having reference 
;o the fragment. I specially seek the exact title 
and particulars of the conclusion published in 
America, and asserted to be done by " spiritual " 
aid, and a proper reference to a series of articles 
in recent numbers of Knowledge, which completes 
the novel scientifically from internal evidence. 

jlad of some account of English families which 



The History of John de Castro and his Brother Bat, 
commonly called Old Crab. lu 4 vols. The Merry 
Matter by John Mathers, the Grave by a Solid Gentle- 
man. London, 1815. HENKI VAN LAUN. 

A Discourse concerning the Rise and Antiquity of 
Cathedral Worship. In a Letter to a Friend. [Signed 
at end N. N.] London, 1699. 4to. pp. 36. 


have settled in Russia many centuries ago, and 
whose English names are Russified and nearly 
forgotten. A Russian family named Olenme 
claim to descend from the English or Irish family 
of O'Lynn, O'Lein, or O'Brien O'Lein, as they 
old me. In the peerages of Burke, Lodge, De- 
brett, and Forster, which I possess, no family 
O'Lynn or O'Lein is to be found. If such family 
existed, what are its arms ? Moscow. 

PROVERBS AND SAYINGS.!. "Pro nobis ex 

nostris." Was this, two hundred and fifty years . QmTTrqw qroTPR AND SCOTS 

ago, the motto of the United Provinces, of the SCO *' S V 

Netherlands, of Holland, of any one of the States (6* S. x. 308, 353, 526.) 

of the Union, of any city or political party within MR J>AYNE i s no t quite correct; in his his- 

them ; or, indeed, of any European state or city ? torv O f these variant forms. The final s of the 

2. "Jactaest alea." This no doubt originated a dj ec ti v e Scots has nothing whatever to do with 
with Caesar. Henri IV., of France, said, I believe, the gen itive case and nominative plural of the 
that Paris was worth a mass, that he would make noun; this is the modern Scottish form of O.E. 
the great plunge, &c. Did he, when he resolved co ^ sc> O f w hich Scottish or Scotch is the modern 
to submit to the Pope, say also, " Jacta est alea, E n gii s h form. Anglo-Saxon adjectives in -isc 
or words to that effect ? or did any other dis- Became, by regular phonetic change, -is in Scot- 
tinguished personage of that period of history use land> and .^ in England. Thus Englisc became 
this proverbial expression ? j n Scotland Inglis, in England Inglish, English ; 

3. " First catch your hare." This proverb is #rectsc is in Gawain Douglas Grekis,'iu Caxton 
commonly said to be taken from Mrs. Glasse, but ^mfcisk From the fifteenth century onward the 
neither in her cookery or other books, of any edition ^ became mute (first in prose), and in process of 
that I have been able to meet with, can I find it. time cease <i to be written ; hence Scottis became 
Whence is it? J. F. STREATFEILD. \gcots, Inglis came to be pronounced Ingls, and 

[Query 3 baa been previously asked, 2 nd S. xi. 264, fo e O id e r forms Danis, Eris (Danish, Irish), be- 
without, however, eliciting any response.] came Dms ^ ^ offcen wr i fcten Dense, Dence, Erse 


anxious to obtain information respecting him for adjective : Whiles crooning ower some auld Sootg 

a Transatlantic friend, and having failed to glean sonnet." On the other hand m England the 

any from local antiquaries and publications ven- termination - M fc is contracted to -sh (sometimes 
turp to innlv to "NT ftr O" Thp nhiprf of mv written -ch) when pronunciation allows it; 
^.2tod a?'Ha?^rd, T and b tfe , &o* is oon^ted to Scotch, Wealisc, 
Bristol between 1730 and Wdvh, to Welsh Welch; Frencise, French to 

13, Northernhay Place, Exeter. 

these ? Moscow. 

ticulars are desired. The family is slid to have contracted to Bntch, so m the word Scottish the 
owned property at "Lambeth, near Bristol." Can P roc f f f f contraction has never been completed, 
this locality be identified, or is it a mistake for the ful1 ScoU h and the contracted Scotch, live on 
Lambeth, near London? Keplies direct or through side b ? s j de > as a more literar ? J nd stat T el y' ^ 
your columns will oblige. J. S. ATTWOOD a more familla ^ and every-day form. L cannot 

1 say, without further reference, exactly when the 
contraction began, evidently not long before 1600 ; 
Hammond L'Estrange, in 1650, still recognized it- 
as a contraction by writing Scot'sh ; Shakspere 
used all the three, Scottish, dignified (1 Hen. IV., 
t MARBLE. There are different sorts of marbles, I. iii. 259 ; III. i. 85 ; Merch. Ven., I. ii. 83 nob 
sienna, rouge royal, ecossais, &c. Marble masons in first folio); Scotch, familiar, contemptuous, " a 
generally only know the names of a few, which Scotch jig^e" (Much Ado, II. i. 77); Scots 
makes ordering for decorative purposes very diffi- (Hen. V., III. ii. 79) ; Gower, loquitur, " Here 
cult. Is there any published list, or any book a comes, and the Scots captaine, Captaine lamy 
which treats of them? It would be still more valu- with him," where " Scots," like " Jamy," is for the 
able if^ it gave some descriptive account, such as sake of national -colouring. I think that the con- 
would identify them as geological specimens. traction of Scottish to Scot'sh, Scotch, was largely 

HAVEN STREET. | due to the influence of the native contraction 

6th S. XL JAN. 31, '85,] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" Scots "; if in Scotland Scottis was by 1600 always 
pronounced Scots, in England the corresponding 
Scottish might well be pronounced Scotfsh. Now 
for the compound ; the sixteenth century forms 
were in England Scottishman, in Scotland Scottis- 
man, instances of which may be found in abun- 
dance in the writers of the period. The modern 
forms, shortened from these and found in the 
seventeenth century, are Scotchman and Scotsman 
respectively. Neither of these is older or newer, 
better or worse than the other. In speaking Eng- 
lish we should naturally use Scotchman, in speak- 
ing Scotch we should as naturally use Scotsman. 
Since, however, local custom always exercises 
considerable sway in the matter of local names, 
Scotsman is also often used by natives of Scotland 
even in speaking or writing English, and from 
them is more rarely adopted by Englishmen. Sir 
Walter Scott's " Scottishmen " was, of course, a 
conscious archaism, which he imitated from Eng- 
lish (not Scottish) writers of the sixteenth and early 
seventeenth centuries. From the earliest periods in 
the vernacular the final t of Scot has been doubled 
in inflexions before a vowel, as plural Scottas, geni- 
tive singular Scottes, and the derivative Scottisc 
and its descendants Scottis, Scottish. The Scotish 
of some modern writers is,, therefore, only a 
factitious spelling, intended, I suppose, to approxi- 
mate more closely to the Latin forms Scoti and 
Scoticus. In my Dialects of Southern Scotland I 
have myself used Scotish in the ethnological sense 
of " pertaining to the ancient Scoti," and Scottish 
or Scotch in that of " pertaining to the political 
Scotland of later times," to the composition of which 
the ancient Scoti contributed only a small part. I 
demur to Burns's indifferent use of Scottish, Scotch, 
and Scots being spoken of " as somewhat irregular." 
If I have three walking-sticks, or three hats, or 
three ways of going to town, there is nothing 
" irregular " in my using the one which suits my 
purpose best at the time ; to do this would, indeed, 
be my rule, i. e., my " regular " practice. Doubt- 
less, Burns, like rhymers in all ages, found it very 
convenient to have double forms of words, differing 
in their number of syllables, to use as his verse 
suggested, as well as a distinctly vernacular form 
to deepen the local colouring when required. In 
MR. BAYNE'S sentence beginning " The famous ode, 
Scots wha hae," there is some mixing up of the 
noun plural with the adjective; perhaps, I may 
here give the historical forms of each, adding the 
centuries in which they are found : Noun plural, 
Scottas (10), Scottes (12-13), Scottis, -ys (14-16), 
Scots (16-19) ; genitivz singular, Scottes (10-13), 
Scottis, -ys (14-16), Scot's (17-19) ; adjective, 
Scottisc (10), Scottisch (12-13), Scottis (14-16), 
Scots (16-19). Scots noun, and Scots adjective, 
11 are the same combination of letters, but they are 
not the same word." The asker of the original 
query will now, I hope, see that he may use 

"Scotchman " or " Scotsman," just as he pleases, 
and be thankful, as I am, for the agreeable liberty. 

DR. JOHNSON'S PENANCE (6 th S. xi. 1). It is 
well that attention should just now be drawn to 
the circumstances of this " penance," which does not 
appear to have been yet discussed in "N. & Q." 
It is a matter of some interest, and if any fresh 
information is to be obtained, we may now expect 
it. There are, as MR. LYNN says, two accounts in 
printthat of Mr. H. White, the Canon of Ltch- 
field, who, when a young man, knew Dr. Johnson, 
and who died in 1836 ; and that by the Kev. K. 
Warner, who published it in his Tour, &c., in 
1802. Warner's account is often quoted ; but does 
any one consider it authentic ? Mr. Napier, in 
his recent edition of Boswell's Life of Johnson, 
1884, iii. 451, says, "The story is transparently 
incoherent, and if Mr. White's version be accepted 
as true, then Warner's must be regarded as a 
version with embellishments." Now, Mr. Warner 
was a very pleasant writer, but he thought far 
more of writing telling anecdotes than he did of 
recording facts. There is a good deal of truth 
and force in the criticism on his Tour in the 
Gentleman's Magazine (Ixxiv. 1135) : "We wish 
that his narrative had been less infected with the 
bombast and fustian of modern tourists, who affect 
a style of modern novelists, who sacrifice ink and 
paper to the momentary reputation of fashionable 
writing." Mr. Napier points out the obvious 
error in Mr. Warner's account which fixes the 
date of the penance in 1784, a blunder which in 
itself seems to invalidate the whole story. I 
believe the general opinion now is that Mr. 
White's short account is probably correct, and 
that Mr. Warner's longer and more circumstantial 
story is little better than an ingenious picture. 

The main great fact is, that comparatively late 
in life Johnson went to IJttoxeter and stood for 
an hour bare-headed in the market-place over 
against the site of his father's stall, in memory of, 
and as a kind of penance for, having many years 
previously rudely refused to go to that stall in 
accordance with his father's desire. The question 
whether Johnson said " To attend my father," or 
" To attend for my father," is, perhaps, not very 
important ; probably it was the latter ; but to be 
a bookseller's porter would have been more de- 
grading than to act as his deputy. There are two 
dates to consider ; first, the time of disobedience, 
and secondly, the time of penance. Of course, the 
first must have been prior to 1731, when the father 
died, and probably, as MR. LYNN suggests, be- 
tween 1725 and 1728. As to the date x>f the 
penance, it was clearly not in 1784, but some 
years previously ; and here I would venture to 
ask whether there is any evidence as to the term 
of fifty years. The day of disobedience Johnson 


[6th S. XI. JAN. 31, '85, 

would clearly remember, but why should he desire 
to wait fifty years before he atoned for the act ? 
It would be of interest to have a list of the books 
published by Michael Johnson ; Mr. Napier men- 
tions one of his earliest, namely, Shaw's Syncritical 
Grammar , 1687, which was "printed for Michael 
Johnson, bookseller; and are to be sold at his 
shops in Lichfield and Uttoxeter in Staffordshire, 
and Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire." This 
seems to suggest the question, Had he three dis- 
tinct shops, or were the two latter really stalls, 
and only opened to the public on market-days ? 


"Dr. Johnson's Penance" forms the subject of 
a poem by Walter Thornbury, which appeared in 
Once a Week of Dec. 28, 1861, vol. vi. p. 14, con- 
sisting of eighteen stanzas, and having prefixed 
to it a woodcut illustration by Mr. J. Lawless. 
The scene certainly was Uttoxeter, and the date 
1784. " The sin of fifty years agone," mentioned in 
the poem, would, therefore, make the date of its 
commission 1734. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A, 

Newbourne Kectory, Woodbridge. 

JANISSARY (6 th S. x. 246, 315, 473). It is 
strange how philologists go out of their way to 
invent ^impossible derivations for words whose 
origin is clear to the ordinary layman. Any 
person with even a smattering of the Persian lan- 
guage _ knows that Janissary is merely a trans- 
literation of Jdn nisdri, i. e. t one who throws away 
his life by exposing it in battle, like the Ghdzis of 
Afghanistan. The Jannisaries when first raised 
(by Orchan, I think) were a picked guard of one 
thousand men, always in the van of battle, emulous 
of death. 

I am surprised to find Mr. Skeat in his dic- 
tionary giving your Scilly correspondent's deriva- 
tion for this simple word a derivation I find in 
gibbons Decline and Fall (the yengi cheri deriva- 
tion). The Janissaries were, of course, yengi cheri, 

new soldiers," just as, for instance, " the Buffs" 
when first raised were "new soldiers." But no 
person will contend that the title " the Buffs " is 
derived from the words " new soldiers." 

It should be noticed that we have, as usual 
thrown the accent back from the penultimate! 
Ihe word should be pronounced so as to rhyme 
with Mary, or, more correctly, with the French 


Etab, India. 

LIGION OF NATURE" (6- S. xi. 26).-The facts about 
this matterare, I think, correctly given in iheBiblio- 
graphgr for December, 1882, p. 3. Franklin did not 
work at the second edition (the first one published) 
which bears on the title-page, London, Re-printed 
m the Year 1724 by Sam! Palmer ; and Sold by 
Bernard Lintott, at the Cross Keys between the 

Temple Gates ; J. Osborn, at the Oxford Arms in 
Lombard Street ; and W. and J. Innys, at the 
West-End of St. Pauls." The third edition (the 
second one published) has on the title, "London : 
Printed by S. Palmer, and sold by B. Lintott, W. 
and J. Innys, J. Osborn, J. Batley, and T. Long- 
man, 1725." This was the edition on which Ben- 
jamin Franklin worked. The edition of 1724 has 
218 pages ; that of 1725 has 219 pages. Of the 
former I have two copies, and I shall be happy to 
show the book to any friend of the Editor who 
desires to see it. EDWARD SOLLY. 

CROIZNOIRES (6 th S. xi. 9). Strype, in his 
Annals of the Reformation, informs us, "St. 
Mark's Day, April 25, 1559, was a procession in 
divers parishes of London, and the citizens went 
with their banners abroad in their respective 
parishes, singing in Latin the Kyrie Eleeson, after 
the old fashion." GEO. H. BRIERLEY. 


In Brand's Popular Antiquities various St. 
Mark's Day customs are mentioned. There is a 
quotation from Strype's Annals that the day was 
observed with " a procession in divers parishes 
of London, and the citizens went with their 
banners abroad in their respective parishes, singing 
in Latin the Kyrie Eleeson, after the old fashion." 
This was in the year 1559. 


The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

ERASMUS ON KISSING (6 th S. vii. 69, 93, 116; 
viii. 58). The excellent custom mentioned by 
Erasmus is also alluded to by John Selden, in a 
tract entitled Jani Anglorum fades Altera, as 
" that officious kiss, the Earnest of welcome, which 
is so freely admitted by our Women from strangers 
and guests, which some take particular notice of as 
the custom of our Country." He defends the 
custom at some length. This tract was published 
in 1610. I quote from the translation by Westcot, 


VICTORY OF DUNCAN (6 th S. x. 497). The 
large engraving commemorating the victory off 
Camperdown in 1797, to which A READER desires 
reference, was published, with three others, by R. 
Bowyer, of the Historic Gallery, Pall Mall, in 1803, 
large folio. The title of the publication was, 
" Commemoration of the Four Great Naval 
Victories obtained by the English during the late 
War. In Emblematical Engravings from Designs 
by R. Smirke, R.A." The four engravings are for 
Ushant, 1794; St. Vincent, 1797; Camperdown, 
1797; and the Nile, 1798, and each is accompanied 
by one or two pages of letterpress, containing the 
Gazette letter announcing the victory. The Camper- 
down design is, I think, a fine one. Britannia rides 
the waves in a sea- chariot with a pair of horses, up- 

6 S, XI. JAN. 31, '85.] 



lifting with her left hand the trident, and bearing 
in her right an olive branch. Neptune's satellites 
attend her, one guiding the horses, another, behind 
the chariot, blowing his conch, with a nymph 
swimming in the foreground. Above the chariot 
a winged herald blows a trumpet held in his right 
hand, having another trumpet in his left. In the 
background clouds of battle-smoke just reveal the 
top-masts of a fleet. Below the emblematical 
group are the eighteen miniatures of the flag officers 
and captains arranged borderwise on a sort of en- 
tablature, which bears the name and date of the 
battle. If A KEADER cannot find a copy at the 
British Museum, I shall be very pleased to com- 
municate with him, and can promise to show him 
fine proof engravings of the four designs, which 
are under my care. ALEKTOR. 

HERALDIC (6 th S. xi. 8). The arms inquired 
for are those of Twiss, of Kerry, and might have 
been found in Pap worth's Ordinary, p. 835. 

C. R. M. 


BISHOP KEN (6 th S. x. 426, 456, 473, 526). 
In pronouncing elsewhere upon the probable 
authority of the so-called letter of Ken to Teni- 
son, DEAN PLTTMPTRE may not have had before 
him the statement of the doubt as to this ex- 
pressed by the archbishop himself upon the 
appearance of the letter. Archbishop Tenison, 
in a letter dated from St. Martin's Churchyard, 
April 20, 1695, and addressed to John Evelyn, 
expressed himself as follows : 

" I have with this sent you my sermon at the Queen's 
funeral : though I ordered one long ago, yet I fear it was 
not sent ; you will excuse the plainness of it. There is 
come forth an answer to it, said to be written by Bishop 
Kenn ; but I am not sure he is the author : I think he 
has more wit and less malice. THOMAS CANTUAR." 
Evelyn's Diary and Correspondence, vol. iii. p. 345, 
Lond., 1852. ' 

The late A. W. Haddan has some remarks on The 
Expostulatoria, and the passage from Archbishop 
Bramhall contained in it, near the end of the pre- 
face to his edition of BramhalPs Works, vol. v. 
A.C.L, Ox., 1845. Among the subscriptions to 
the rebuilding of St. Paul's was one of 100Z. from 
Ken (Groome's Dignity and Honour of the Clergy, 
p. 225, Lond., 1710). ED. MARSHALL. 

NICHOLLS (6 th S. x. 168, 237, 315, 416). The 
late Rector of Haddiscoe, Norfolk, was a son of 
Dr. Nicholas, of Baling. I have heard him say 
that Thackeray was a pupil at his father's school 
there, and hence " Dr. Tickleus, of Baling School," 
to whom we are introduced in one, if not more, of 
his novels. T. DANBY PALMER. 

Great Yarmouth. 

PIKELET (6 th S. x. 448 ; xi. 13). Your corre- 
spondents do not give the form pikelin, which is 

the one my ears have been accustomed to. The 
editors of the Glossary of the Lancashire Dialect 
give it as used about Cartmel, in Furness ; but it is 
(or at any rate was) to be found further south, 
near Bolton-le-Moors. J. H. STANNING. 

Leigh Vicarage, Lancashire. 

EXON (6 th S. xi. 8). The following extract from 
Mr. Thoms's Book of the Court (1844), p. 370, will 
interest U. 0. : 

"The Exempts, or Exons. These four officers, who 
are styled in their Commissions ' Corporals,' were also 
additions made at the period before referred to. Their 
name of exempt is manifestly borrowed from those 
officers of the French Gardes du Corps, who are styled, 
in their Commissions, Capitaines Exempts des Gardes 
du Corps. Richelet, in his Dictionary, tella us that the 
Exempt is an officer who commands in the absence of 
the Lieutenant or Ensign, and it is further said that the 
French Exempt has charge of the night watch. In 
both cases, the two offices are completely parallel. The 
Exempt of the Yeomen of the Guard is a resident officer, 
who sleeps at St. James's, as Commandant of the Yeomen 
on duty, which no other officer of the Corps does ; and 
he has, in this manner, a delegated authority, which he 
exercises in the absence of his superior officer. The 
appointment of the Exons belongs to the Captain, by 
whom they are sworn; and from whom they receive 
their Batons of office." 

Mr. Hunter, in his new Encyclopaedic Dictionary , 
derives exon from " O.Fr. exorn6=excused." 

G. F. K. B. 

Is not this word borrowed from the French 
Garde du Corps 1 Mr. Daniel confesses that he 
does not know the meaning, unless it be that the 
officer is exempted from certain ordinary duties. 
With ourselves the title was introduced at the 
Restoration, and used in the Horse Guards. There 
were four exempts in the two troops, who were 
esquires by their commissions. The term is now 
confined to the officer who sleeps in the palace as 
Commander of the Yeomen of the Guard, and 
hence Pegge seems to deduce the name. 



467; xi. 11). It will interest MR. MACRAT to 
know that the copy of the second edition of Oblec- 
tamenta Pia : sive Sacra Modulamina, which 
is in the British Museum, has the following in- 
scription on the fly-leaf, " Ex dono Auctoris Ludo- 
vici Southcomb Rectoris Ros-Ascensts ; Hoc est 
Ludovici tertii, filio suo Ludovico quarto. Sept. 2, 
A.D. 1717." There is a sad jumble in consequence 
of this want of originality in the Christian name 
of the Southcombs, as the pages of Watt, Allibone, 
and the Catalogue of the British Museum bear 
witness. From Crockford for 1884 it would appear 
,hat a Southcomb is still rector of Rose Ash. 

G. F. R. B. 

DOUBLE LETTERS (6 th S. x. 328 ; xi. 16). 
Some of the correspondents of " N. & Q." have 



been lately discussing the use as a capital F of 
the symbol sometimes misinterpreted as denoting 
ff, and in connexion with that discussion I would 
like to ask whether any of them ever met with the 
symbol y (for th) as a capital letter whether, in 
fact, "Ye good woman," "Ye olde house," and 
similar expressions, are not misrepresentations of 
the seventeenth century use ? It appears to me that 
the y represented th, not Th; and I shall be glad if 
any of your correspondents who may have access 
to much seventeenth century MS. will kindly 
search for confirmation (or otherwise) of my view. 
It is proverbially difficult to prove a negative, and 
a single decided indisputable example would settle 
the point against me. I have not come across one. 

R. H. H. 

It may be worth noting that the family of Lord 
Ffrench, in Ireland, and that of the Ffolkes, 
Baronets, of Hillington, Norfolk, have kept up 
this form of spelling from time immemorial. In 
Wales we have, of course, no dearth of Lloyds, 
Llewellins, &c. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

S. x. 466). This extract, from the Penny Post, 
No. 640 (from Friday, June 5, to Monday, 
June 8, 1747), p. 3, may be thought worthy of a 
corner in " N. & Q." as a supplemental note to 
the one at the above reference: 

"On Friday came on at the Court of Common Pleas 
m Westminster -Hall before the Lord Chief Justice 
nilles, a great Cause, wherein Miss Davids was Plaintiff 
and the Rev. Dr. Wilson, Prebendary of Worcester,' 
Cannon of Lincoln, and Vicar of Newark-upon-Trent, 
Defendant. The Action was laid for 10,000. for Breach 
of Promise of Marriage, when after a Trial, which lasted 
almost all the Day, the Jury gave a Verdict for the 
Plaintiff and 7,0001. Damages." 

See also Gent. Mag., 1747, vol. xvii. p. 293. It 
is not reported in Willes. It may be noticed that 
the damages are heavier than any cited in the 
extract from the Law Journal. G. F. R. B. 

151). At the page above quoted MR. S. JACK- 
SON says : 

" He left Jamaica and returned to England with the 
baronet a Widow, Lady Trelawney. He then obtained 
a physician s degree, and practised at Truro. I cannot 

'cover whe ,re he got his diploma. It was ' ' 

In the register of Doctors of Medicine of Univer- 
sity and King's College, Old Aberdeen-now pre- 
served in the Library of the University of Aber- 
deen-I find the entry, 1767, Sep. 8, Dr. Joannes 
Woolcot. No other name occurs under the same 

da it' , P. J. ANDERSON. 


MIDDLE TEMPLE (6* S. xi. 29).-Information 
like that which D. G. C. E. wishes to obtain I 

btained in this way. I wrote to a member of the 
Middle Temple, although he was a perfect stranger, 
enclosing a stamped envelope, and by almost re- 
turn of post I received the date of admission of an 
ancestor of mine. Does not D. G-. C. E. know any 
one who belongs to the Middle Temple ? 


LADY HOWARD (6 th S. x. 467; xi. 33). I think 
t more probable that this is the portrait of Eliza- 
Deth, daughter and coheir of George Brydges, Lord 
Dhandos, widow of Lord Inchiquin and Lord 
Berbert of Cherbury, and wife of Lord Howard of 
Escrick, who died in 1715, The difficulty in this 
case would be the date 1721. Mary Chandos 
would be, if I am correct in my supposition, the 
wife of James Brydges, Lord Chandos, afterwards 
Duke of Chandos. She died in 1714, Lady 
Howard in 1717. In 1721 there was no Mary 
Ohandos in existence, as Lord Chandos became 
Earl of Carnarvon in 1714, and not Duke of 

handos till 1729. The supporters on the seal 
point to the fact of her husband being a peer. If 
1721 is misread for 1711 all difficulty would vanish. 
She would not be wife of Lord Thomas Howard, 
as in that case she would not be called Lady 
Howard. H. S. W. 

COIN OF CHARLES I. (6 th S. xi. 29). MR. 
LOVEDAT'S coin is known as the Ormond crown, 
and is not very rare. It was coined in Dublin, 
1643, for circulation in Ireland. For a full de- 
scription see Ruding's Annals of the Coinage or 
Simon's Essay on Irish Coins. H. S. 

This coin is one of the Ormond five-shilling pieces. 
It is well known, and described by Dr. A. Smith 
in the Kilkenny Archaeological Journal, 1854. 
There are seven varieties, distinguished by the 
size of the crown and the shape of the letter s. 
Some of these varieties are not very common, but 
the coin is of rather frequent occurrence. 


The silver piece described by MR. LOVED AT is a 
siege piece, usually called the " Ormond " crown, 
being the largest of a series down to the penny 
struck in the year 1643 at Dublin, and so called 
in consequence of a proclamation establishing 
their currency by the Duke of Ormond, then Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland. These pieces were struck 
by noblemen and gentlemen in King Charles I.'s 
service during the civil war cut from their plate 
for the relief of their men. These obsidionary 
Ormond coins may be called scarce, the only rare 
and probably unique piece is the penny. A re- 
presentation of the whole set may be found in 
Ruding's Annals of the Coinage of Britain, 
plate xxvii. of the silver coins. W. CHAFFERS. 

New Athenaeum Club. 

This is " The Rebel Crown " struck at Kilkenny. 
It is far from unique, but a specimen has fetched 

. XI. JAS. 31, '85.) 



as much as IQl. 10s. There is a plate of one in 
the Earl of Pembroke's Numismata Antigua, 
1746, 4to. pt. iv. table 11. Can any reader re- 
commend a modern handbook on medals ? 


This is one of a set of coins supposed to have 
been struck by the authority of the Duke of 
Onnond immediately after the death of the king. 
The large V is the numeral of value. A descrip- 
tion of these coins is to be found in a little work 
written by Mr. W. L. Nash. The title of the 
book is An Account of the English Coins of 
Charles L, published by E. J. & F. Blackwell, 
Reading. EMILY COLE. 

MEMORIALS TO SERVANTS (6 th S. ix. 378 ; x. 
46, 194, 295, 430, 498; xi. 53). The copy of the 
epitaph in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, 
which MR. MACRAY quotes from a MS. in the 
Royal Library at Copenhagen, is not quite correct. 
It was legible enough a few 'years ago, when I 
copied it from the stone, and is as follows : 
" With diligence and trvst most exemplary 
Did William Lavrence servo a prebendary; 
And for his paines now past before, not lost, 
Gain'd this remebrance at his masters cost. 
O Reade these lines againe : you seldome find 
A servant faithfull and a master kind. 
Short hand he wrot : his flowre in prime did fade, 
And hasty death short hand of him hath made. 
Well couth he nubers, and well he mesvred land, 
Thvs doth he now that groud wheron yov stand, 
Wherin he lyes so geometricall 
Art maketh some but thvs will Natvre all. 
Obiit Decemb. 28, 1621. 
^Etatis svaj 29." 

F. N. 

The following inscription is on a stone in the 
churchyard of Catterick, Yorkshire, erected by the 
Rev. A. J. Scott, D.D., formerly vicar, to the 
memory of two servants who died in his service. 
The lines were composed by his daughter, Miss 


to the Memory of 

Jane, daughter of James and 

Elizabeth Pelton, who departed 

this life March 13th, 1833, 

Aged 67 years. 

Also Mary, daughter of Solomon 

and Isabella Orton, who departed 

this life Feb. 17th, 1835, 

Aged 60 years. 

Two faithful servants, pious and sincere, 
Lamented, honoured, loved, lie buried here ! 
On earth they served one master kind and just ; 
And in one heavenly Master placed their trust. 
The hope of Christians cheered their latter end, 
And when the Servant died, we mourned the friend ! 
And now, the fight is fought, the race is run ; 
' Ye good and faithful Servants. 'tis well done ! ' 

H. S. S. 

' Let me die the death of the righteous, 
And let my last end be like his.' Numb, xxiii. 10." 

H. K. F. G. 

DR. JOHN WILSON (6 th S. x. 289, 455). I 
wrote to the Dean of Westminster respecting the 
gravestone, and he has had the inscription recut. 

SARAH BOOTH (6 th S. xi. 8, 56). In a bill of 
the Tottenham Street Theatre, dated Sept. 10, 
1830, I find, " Miss S. Booth (her second appear- 
ance at this theatre)," where she appears to have 
been one of the chief attractions. I have a por- 
trait of Miss Booth, published May 1, 1815, by 
John Bell. Is this Sarah Booth, or was there 
another Miss Booth 1 AMBROSE HEAL. 

INSCRIPTIONS IN BOOKS (6 th S. vi. 45). I 
possess, by gift of the last owner mentioned below, 
the 1692 edition (qy. editio princeps) of Aldrich's 
Logic, the long academic career of which, as testi- 
fied by the autographs on the title-page, implies 
singular care on the part of its successive owners, 
a list not uninteresting in itself: 

' P. Manaton, ^Ed. X u Alumn. e dono G. Le Hunte." 
T. Skynner, ^Ed. X<* Al. e dono P. Manaton." 

< R. Barnes, ^Ed. X tl Al. e dono T. Skynner." 
P. Barnes, ^Bd. X li Al. e dono R. Barnes." 

' R. Michell, e dono F. Barnes." 

For George Le Hunte, see Westminster Alumni, 
p. 326. Pierce Manaton, ibid., p. 271 ; he took 
degrees as follows : B.A. 3723; M.A. 1726; D.M. 
1732. Thomas Skynner, B.A. 1750; M.A. 1753; 
D.O.L. 1772. Ralph Barnes, B.A. 1757; M.A. 
1768. Frederick Barnes, B.A. 1794; M.A. 1797; 
B.D. 1805; D.D. 1811. Richard Michell, B.A. 
1824; M.A. 1827; B.D. 1836; D.D. 1868. 

A. T. M. 

THE LAW OF GRAVITATION (6 th S. vi. 348). 
In DR. INGLEBY'S communication under this head 
is a sentence with respect to which I should be 
glad to put to him a query. It runs thus: 

" The fact that bodies, projected from the earth's sur- 
face, return to it, and that the force with which they do 
so is independent of the mass and is uniformly accele- 
rated, was as well known to the Greeks as to Newton." 

I take for granted that the word " accelerated " 
here (like the word " inapplicable " for applicable 
in the next sentence, though the latter is marked 
at p. 380 and the former is not) is a lapsus plumce, 
or a misprint. The force is certainly not accelerated, 
but its constant action produces a uniformly acce- 
lerated motion, so that it is often called an acce- 
lerating force. But what I wish to ask DR. 
INGLEBY is, What evidence has he obtained that 
the Greeks were acquainted with the fact of this 
" uniformly accelerated," not force, but motion 
under the action of a constant force like that of 
gravity? For most certainly if bodies had a pre- 
ference, as the ancients supposed, for the state of 
rest over that of motion, they would not be thus 
accelerated, or, indeed, accelerated at all, but it 
would require the action of a constant force to 
keep them iu uniform motion. Yet one would 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t6ehs.xi.jAK.3i/85. 

think that the ancients must have noticed the 
greater rapidity of the motion of falling bodies 
after they had been falling from a considerable 
than from a smaller elevation. They would pro- 
bably impute this to some fanciful cause, such as 
greater love for their natural place the nearer they 
approached it ; but I should be glad to be referred 
to some passage or passages showing that they 
had noticed it. I need hardly remark that in the 
establishment of his law of gravitation Newton 
was as much indebted to Galileo's experiments and 
discoveries on the laws of motion as to Kepler's 
discoveries of the laws according to which the 
planetary motions are performed. Although most 
people probably identify the great Italian philo- 
sopher with his telescopic rather than with his 
mechanical discoveries, the latter really form a 
much grander contribution to the progress of 
science. With regard to Newton's law of gravita- 
tion, it is certainly strange that even recently it 
has been so frequently misunderstood, and that 
any one should suppose that it was anticipated in 
the Ved'.u or by Cicero, confounding the tendency 
of an apple or a stone to fall to the ground (one of 
the (fftds of gravitation) with the law itself. The 
fact is the only real rival claimant to the discovery 
of that law is Robert Hooke ; but the honour of 
so working it out as to establish it is one which 
appertains to Newton alone, and of which he can 
never be deprived. The utter collapse of the claim 
set up a few years ago on behalf of Pascal will 
probably be in the recollection of most of your 
readers. W. T. LYNN. 


HERALDIC ANOMALIES (6 th S. xi. 6). Perhaps 
J. T. F. will kindly explain how it is that if, as 
he says, our archbishops ought not to use " pro- 
cessional crosses when and as they ought to use 
crosiers," in the Bell-founder's Window in the 
r.orth aisle of York Minster there is represented 
"an Archbishop, who is nimbod, seated on a rich 
cushioned throne or stool, fully vested with mitre 
p:>llium, embroidered sandals, &c., and holding a crozier 
in his left hand ; his right hand is uplifted in the act of 
b!c?sing the person kneeling." Letts of the Church 
Ilev. II. T. Ellacombe, p. 490. 

This crozier (see coloured plate, same work) is a 
most unmistakable cross, and is held, plainly 
enough, in the archbishop's own hand. The bless- 
ing of the bell-founder, too, probably took place 
exactly as portrayed, and is in no sense emblema- 
tical, if we except the halo, which, no doubt, was 
only visible to the " red and raging eye of imagiua 
tion." So far as I ani aware, this window has no 
been noticed in previous correspondence on the 
subject. Jos TOM AS. 

ADO (6 th S. xi. 29). The Dictionary (illus 
trated) of Words used in Art and Archaeology 
(edited by J. W. Mollett) gives Adobes = bricks 

manufactured by ancient Peruvians, &ndAdol)are = 
,o dub a knight (Meyrick). May not " the colour 

of a well-burnt brick fused half with an ado" 

e traced to the words I have quoted 1 


" FLY-LEAVES" (6 th S. xi. 28). I have two 

volumes of this little book, dated respectively 

1854 and 1855, the second volume being labelled 

Second Series." They were given to me many 

ears ago by the compiler, John Miller, formerly 

bookseller in Chandos Street, Trafalgar Square. 

They were intended by him as " something of a 

iterary relief to his monthly lists." 


The numbers MB. MATHEWS has are detached 
'rom the monthly lists of second-hand books 
ssued by John Miller, of Chandos Street, to which 
/hey were supplemental in the way he conjectures. 
VIr. Miller republished the same matter 1855, in, 
;wo small octavo volumes. W. H. 

I GELOSI (6 th S. xi. 27). Henri III. of France 
sent for a celebrated troop of Italian comedians, 
who acted chiefly in Venice, where they received 
the name of " I Gelosi," as they were anxious to 
please. They acted first at Blois in 1577, and then 
in Paris. In 1588 a fresh company of Gelosi 
appeared at Blois, and afterwards at Paris, where 
hey acted until 1604, when they bade farewell to 
France. Other companies of Italian actors made 
also their appearance. For further details let 
me refer MR. W. E. BUCKLEY to an article on 
" La Comedie Italienne " in A. Pougin's Diet. 
Historique et Pittoresque dn Theatre, &c., Paris, 
Didot, 1885. HENRI VAN LAUN. 

LYNEGAR (6 th S. xi. 29). I have in my posses- 
sion a family pedigree, dated July 17, 1731, and 
signed by Charles Lynegar, who therein states 
that " his ancestors were successively Chief Anti- 
quarians of the Kingdom of Ireland." This Charles 
Lynegar I believe to have been a brother of John 
Lynegar. Archbishop of Dublin from 1734 to 1756. 

4, Hume Street, Dublin. 

FALLS OF NIAGARA (6 th S. x. 449, xi. 33). 
The first European visitor seems to have been 
Father Hennepin, when beginning the same mis- 
sion wherein he discovered and named the chief 
fall of the Missisippi, in 1680, after his favourite 
saint, Antony of Padua. (How lucky for us that 
the pious idea did not seize him a few months 
earlier, and deprive the world for ever of the fine 
name Niagara !) His monstrous exaggerations of 
the height as " 100 toises " and " more than 600 
feet " continued current till 1721, when Vaudreil, 
Governor of Canada, had it measured (Phil. Trans., 
v. 32). Before 1740 occurred the heroic rescue of 

. xi. JAN. si, '85.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


two tippling Indians by two of their comrades 
described by Kalm in Gent. Mag., 1751. But the 
plate in that magazine can prove nothing. It is 
plainly only copied from Hennepin's, then sixty 
years old, reducing the height and omitting the 
flying fall that Kalm said had disappeared. Hi 
description, however, is so excellent, so nearly 
equivalent to a map, that it may be plotted on 
any of the late surveys (down to that of 1875), and 
must convince any one, I think, that the falls had 
not begun to touch Goat Island ; that the only 
isle of these writers' accounts, or from which the 
Indians were rescued, was a straight narrow reef, 
whose S.S.E. end only now remains as "Luna 
Island." Since the great fall has touched Goat 
Island it has left a mere driblet of itself between 
that and Luna, while its main body has worked 
on south-west above a quarter of a mile, scarping 
Goat Island from its north to its west corner, and 
is now turning south-eastward. That branch 
(always deepening its bed and getting more and 
more of the river) must have enlarged the gorge 
by somewhat like one hundred acres, while the 
American Fall (always growing weaker) has been 
excavating barely five acres. The time must now 
be approaching when the American rapid and fall 
will have dried up, when all the islands (perhaps 
without even the last relic of Luna disappearing) 
will become part of New York State, and the only 
fall will be the " Horse-shoe." That will restore 
the normal state of things the present century 
being quite exceptional for the fall has doubtless, 
during the ages of its seven-mile journey, been 
generally single (in width), and always concave 
or a horse-shoe, and the upper stream always 
thrice as wide as the gorge. Another inference 
from the three early accounts, not yet drawn, I 
think, is that the constancy (or slight increase) of 
height in the American, if not both falls, has re- 
sulted from the levels just above and below having 
both fallen, the latter the most. "He (Borassaw) 
acknowledged," says Paul Dudley, F.R.S., in 1721, 
" that below the cataract for a great way, there 
were numbers of small Ledges or Stairs, cross the 
River, that lowered it still more and more," &c. 
Again, Kalm says of the gorge: 

" Canoea can go yet half a league above the beginning 
of the carrying-place but higher up it is quite im- 
possible, the whole course of the water, for two leagueg 
and a half up to the great Fall, being a series of smaller 
falls, one under another." 

Surely that is an extinct condition. E. L. G. 

BUST OF CICERO (6 th S. x. 449 ; xi. 30). The 
bust to which I allude has a wart on the cheek, 
not on the nose. It is modern, and I believe from 
the hand of a clever Roman sculptor. An intel- 
ligent artist would hardly dream that a wart on 
the face was hereditary in Cicero's family, and it 
would be poor art to introduce it merely as indi- 

cative of the name, according to a supposed deriva- 
tion. There might be some authority to show 
that Cicero the orator had a wart on his cheek ; 
and this is the point on which information is 

The Madrid bust, it is true, has no wart ; and 
there are many busts and portraits of Oliver Crom- 
well in which no wart appears. But are we bound 
to accept the claims of the Madrid bust to be an 
original or to be authentic ? The bull neck would 
go far to prove that it was not intended for Cicero 
at all. We know that Cicero had a long, narrow 
neck, and he is thus represented on the medals of 
his time. Take, for instance, the likeness in For- 
syth's Life of Cicero, copied from a contemporary 
medal, find compare it with the plaster cast in the 
South Kensington Museum. The two are totally 

There is a profile of Cicero in Lavater's work, 
which the physiognomist describes as " an almost 
perfect model of congeniality. The whole has the 
character of penetrating acuteness an extraordi- 
nary, though not a great profile." This outline is 
taken from a bust, and bears no resemblance to 
that in the Madrid Gallery. 

The great diversity among the existing busts of 
Cicero seems to point to the conclusion that no 
bust taken from life was handed down to succeed- 
ing generations. We have medals of undoubted 
authority to give us an idea of the man ; and 
when that is not enough we look to the evidence 
of history, if personal details can be found, to 
attest the truth of a likeness. R. W. 


COLONIAL BISHOPS (6 th S. x. 409, 520). The 
Acts of Parliament providing for the jfoundation of 
additional bishoprics in England, commencing with 
Manchester in 1847, have all provided that the 
number of " lords spiritual " shall not thereby be 
increased. The two archbishops and the Bishops 
of London, Durham, and Winchester continue to 
be (x officio members of the House of Lords, but 
the remaining bishops, not including suffragan 
bishops, are called to that House by writ of 
summons in the order of their appointment to the 
spiscopate. At present, when all bishoprics are 
filled up, the seven junior bishops have thus to 
wait their turn for admission to the peerage. _ Arch- 
i)ishops and bishops, being Peers of Parliament, 
aave been styled " lords," and archbishops have been 
addressed by the ducal appellation of " grace," from 
time immemorial ; but I am not aware that this 
practice has any other foundation than that of 
traditional usage, or that such bishops have been 
styled " lords " in any other sense than that in 
which the members of the House of Peers are 
called " the Lords," or than that in which the title 
of "lord" is frequently applied to any individual 
peer below the rank of duke, e. g., Lord Salisbury 



[6* g. XL JAN. 31, '85. 

(Marquis), Lord Derby (Earl), Lord Canterbury 
(Viscount), Lord Annaly (Baron). However that 
may be, bishops of English sees are described in 

is to be inferred they have no kind of right before 
they become members of the House of Lords. 
Suffragan bishops are appointed simply by the title 

of " Bishop Suffragan of ," and do not become 

entitled to seats in the House of Lords ; conse- 
quently they never legally acquire the title of 
" Lord Bishop." The history of colonial bishoprics 
furnishes a curious exception to the above-men- 
tioned rule. The first created colonial bishopric was 
that of Nova Scotia, in 1787. In the letters patent 
appointing the first Bishop of Nova Scotia he is 
described simply by the title of Bishop of Nova 
Scotia ; but from quite early in the present century 
it became usual, so long as colonial bishops continued 
to be appointed by letters patent, to appoint 

them by the title of " Lord Bishop of ." The 

practice probably had its origin in an oversight ; 
but colonial bishops so appointed, of whom only a 
few now survive, have had the right to be styled 
"lord bishop," and have been the only bishops 
who have had that right under their patents. For 
reasons which it is not necessary to explain here 
colonial bishops have ceased to be appointed by 
letters patent for many years, being consecrated by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury under a short and 
simple form of licence from the Queen directing 
him to consecrate them with the intent that they 
shall exercise the office of bishop in Her Majesty's 
possessions abroad, without any territorial or other 
title. Colonial bishops so consecrated have not 
the right to be styled " lord bishop." Their 
proper designation is "Right Reverend Sir" or 
" The Right Reverend Bishop M. or N." 

Kensington Square. 

ROYAL NAVY (6> S. x. 67, 196, 276, 330, 438). 
. believe the inquiries as to the presence of 
women on board our men-of-war referred, in the 
first instance, to Maelise's picture of the death of 
Nelson, in which women are shown on the 
Victory s quarter-deck. That the picture is in 
error that there were not any women on board 
the Victory, would appear almost certain from i 
passage in Nelson's Letters to Lady Hamiltor 
(i. 161), where he says (Oct. 18, 1803), " I hav< 
given orders to carry no women to sea in thi 
Victory It is not likely that the commander 
in-chief s order was disobeyed in such an unblush 
ing manner as the picture represents. But, on the 
other hand, the order seems to afford a strong pre 
mmption that women were sometimes carried to 
sea by men-of-war a presumption which i 

trengthened into something akin to certainty by 
tie statement made by Sir Thomas Hardy to Mr. 
Locker, to the effect that 

Horatia's father was Thompson, sailmaker of the 
Elephant, in which Nelson hoisted his flag in the bora- 
ardment of Copenhagen. Thompson's wife was with 
iim on board, and being taken in labour during the 
ction, gave birth to this child in the sail-room." Nd- 
on's Despatches, vii. 386. 

Sir Harris Nicolas has shown " complete and 
rresistible proof that Sir Thomas Hardy was en- 
irely mistaken in his account of the child's 
>arentage." But leaving that question on one 
ide, Sir Thomas Hardy could not have made the 
mistake had the presence of women on board our 
hips at sea and in time of action not been within 
lis own knowledge and experience ; and a memo- 
randum of Sir John Jervis, dated January 14, 
.796, puts the matter beyond all doubt. In it he 
ays that " a number of women have been brought 
clandestinely from England in several ships." They 
ire to be admonished upon the waste of water and 
ther disorders committed by them, and it is to 
e made known that " on the first proof of water 
Deing obtained for washing from the scuttle-butt 
or otherwise under false pretences in any ship, 
every woman in the fleet who has not been ad- 
mitted under the authority of the Admiralty or 
the Commander-in-Chief will be shipped for Eng- 
and by the first convoy " (Tucker's Life of Earl 
St. Vincent, i. 193). 

MR. HOOPER has spoken of such a thing as being 
impossible, because the printed instructions very 
positively forbade it. But, in point of fact, the 
printed instructions forbade many things which 
were not only frequently but very commonly done. 
They forbade swearing and cursing ; but it would be 
scarcely safe to argue that swearing and cursing 
were unknown in the navy. They forbade a com- 
mander to " inflict any punishment upon a seaman 
beyond twelve lashes upon his bare back with a 
cat-o'-nine-tails "; but we know, on positive 
evidence, that in ordinary practice the number 
was limited only by the discretion of the captain. 
And they forbade any persons to be made 
lieutenants unless " they have served six years at 

sea and are in all respects qualified for that 

employment, and not under twenty years of age." 
This rule was, I think I may say, systematically 
set at nought by most commanders-in-chief all 
through last _ century and through the war time ; 
by no one with more unblushing assurance than 
by Sir George Rodney, who, as MR. HOOPER pro- 
bably knows, tried Capt. Coffin by court martial 
for refusing, on his order, to accept three lads- 
mere boys as lieutenants of the Shrewsbury; and 
who passed his own son John through the several 
grades of midshipman, lieutenant, and commander 
to captain in about ten months from his first entry 
into the navy, and before he was seventeen years 

6"- S. XI. JAN. 31, '85.J 



of age. When in a matter so important as this, 
and necessarily so public, the printed instruc- 
tions were thus commonly and flagrantly violated, 
we may be quite sure that they offered no insuper- 
able obstacle to the presence of women on board, 
if the captain chose to permit it. That some cap- 
tains, and probably many captains, did so choose, 
there can, I think, be little doubt. 

Koyal Naval College, 


Algernon Sidney: a Review. By Gertrude M. Ireland 

Blackburne. (Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.) 
THOUGH the name of Algernon Sidney is a household 
word, the books which have been written about him 
are comparatively few in number. Miss Blackburne's 
review of 267 pp., unencumbered as it is with either 
references or an index, cannot be considered as a work 
of historical importance. With regard to the writer's 
statement in the preface that "the Life of Algernon 
Sidney by Dr. Meadley will always be the standard 
book on the subject," we must remind her the Sidney 
Papers were discovered after the publication of that 
book. So far as it goes, Meadley's Memoirs of Algernon 
Sidney, which was published in 1813, is certainly an 
authority of considerable weight, but his book, though 
carefully written, was, of necessity, incomplete. There is 
one other point to which we may call Miss Blackburne's 
attention. There is no necessity, as she seems to think, 
for guessing " the reason why Sidney did not act as one 
of the King's Judges " (p. 25). In a letter written from 
Venice, and dated October 12, 1660, which will be 
found amongst the Blencowe Papers, Sidney distinctly 
states that in opposing "Cromwell, Bradshawe, and others 
whoe would have the triall to goe on," he drew his 
" reasons from theis tow points : First, the King could le 
tried by noe court ; secondly, that noe man could be tried 
by that court." We regret that we cannot speak in more 
favourable terms of Miss Blackburne's book, as she has 
spent a considerable amount of labour upon it ; but her 
method and style of writing are both capable of much 

Charles Dickens as I knew Him : the Story of the Heading 
Tours in Great Britain and America (1866-1870). By 
George Dolby. (Fisher Unwin.) 

IT was in 1866 that Mr. Dolby was first brought into con- 
tact with Dickens. Early in that year Dickens had 
engaged with Messrs. Chappell to give a series of thirty 
readings, and Mr. Dolby was chosen by them to act as 
their representative and manager throughout the tour. 
Mr. Dolby's duty was not light, for the whole burden 
of the arrangement was thrown upon his shoulders, in 
order that Dickens might be released from any trouble 
on that account. From that time until the last reading, 
which took place at St. James's Hall on the 15th of 
March, 1870, when from those " garish lights " Dickens 
vanished for evermore, Mr. Dolby remained the 
manager of the readings and in close intercourse with 
his " chief." No one, therefore, is better qualified to 
give the story of these later readings, and Mr. Dolby has 
produced a thoroughly interesting book, which, though 
it contains much that is already known, will be read with 
pleasure by the numberless admirers of Dickens. The 
etory has, alas ! its sad side, for it is impossible for any 

one before laying down the book not to regret that 
Dickens allowed his health to be sacrificed by the con- 
stant strain of these public readings. After the murder 
scene from ' Oliver Twist,' which always exhausted him 
more than any other reading, Mr. Dolby tells us that 
Dickens was obliged to rest on the sofa for some minutes 
' before he could speak arational or consecutive sentence." 
Had it not been for his indomitable will and wonderful 
recuperative powers he must have broken down long 
before. With regard to Dickens's birthplace, Mr. Dolby 
relates how they were walking together in Southsea one 
day, when, turning the corner, they suddenly came upon 
Landport Terrace, whereupon Dickens exclaimed, " By 
Jove, here is the place where I was born ! " But though 
he walked up and down the terrace for some time, and 
indulged in many humorous conjectures on the subject, 
he failed to settle to his own satisfaction which was the 
particular house in which he was born. As Mr. Forster 
has also been unable to clear up this point, it remains 
for the readers of " N. & Q." to solve the mystery. 

The Student's Commentary on the Holy Bible, founded on 
ike Speaker's Commentary, Abridged and edited by 
J. M. Fuller, M.A. New Testament: Vol. I. Gospels 
Acts. (Murray.) 

PROF. FULLER has undertaken a very arduous but useful 
task to condense into a small octavo volume of 537 
pages the elaborate expositions upon the Gospels and 
the Acts of the Apostles contributed to The Speaker's 
Commentary by many eminent theologians. It is con- 
fessedly a difficult undertaking to condense the work of 
such men as the Archbishop of York, Dean Mangel, 
Canon Westcott,' Canon Cook, and others; but the editor 
will doubtless be rewarded for his labour by the thought 
that he has placed in the hands of students unable to 
afford the large and costly volumes of the original com- 
mentary its pith and marrow. The work of compression 
and condensation seems to have been carefully and 
judiciously performed. 

Helps to the Study of the Bible. With a General Index, 
a Dictionary of Proper Names, a Concordance, and a 
Series of Maps. (Frowde.) 

THIS modest title-page gives little idea of the solid value 
of the volume before us. It is a reprint, in a handy 
form and in a larger type, of matter originally presented 
in the Oxford Bible for Teachers. It would be difficult 
to find within so moderate a compass such a mass of 
valuable information, closely condensed and conveniently 
arranged, upon the subjects of which the work treats. 
The volume contains brief notes upon the canon of Holy 
Scripture and upon the principal versions, Greek, Syriac, 
Latin, and English. These are followed by short sum- 
maries of all the books of the Old and New Testament 
and the Apocrypha, with a statement of the best critical 
opinions as to their date and authorship. Copious lists 
of mountains, rivers, animals, birds, reptiles, insects, 
trees, precious stones, and musical instruments men- 
tioned in Scripture; lists of obsolete and ambiguous 
words ; lists of proper names, carefully accented ; a 
brief but excellent concordance and a subject index ; all 
these, together with a convenient little atlas, are con- 
tained in a portable volume of about 600 pages. This 
excellent little book ought to find a place on the study 
table of every clergyman and of every student of the 
Holy Scriptures. It is a condensed library. 

The Encyclopedic Dictionary. Vol. IV. Part I. and 

Part XVIII. (Cassell & Co.) 

OF the two reimpressions of this excellent periodical the 
earlier has reached the first part of vol. iv., Glot to Int, 
the second is at part xviii., Cable to Cardinal, In the 



[Gth S. XI. JAN. 31, '85. 

volnme the characteristics of the work which commend 
it to popular use are, of course, more conspicuous. Such 
words as " Canon " and " Calabash " in the latter show, 
however, its special significance. To the merits of the 
book we have frequently drawn attention. 

THE Quarterly Review opens its January number with 
an appropriate article on Henry Longueville Mansel, 
which cannot fail to arrest the attention of old Oxford 
men and recall to them one who was " bright and good 
everywhere." Of the " Prophet of Chelsea," as unveiled 
to us by Froude, the reviewer concludes that he was 
" hardly the stuff for a teacher of men "; yet it is ad- 
mitted that he was a power in his day. The West 
African Conference suggests a paper on the Congo, with 
a sketch-map and account of the vast territories, with 
ail their unknown potentialities, now being fought over 
by the diplomatists and jurists at Berlin. Samuel John- 
son has his cairn added to by an article, in the course 
of which his memory is defended from the misreading of 
his utterances by Macaulay and others, not excepting 
Carlyle, who did strive to reach after him. 

THE Edinlurgh Review for January carries us far 
away from bleak, busy London to the ever interesting 
Eternal City, whose name is a name to conjure by. As 
we read of the House of the Vestals, and of the strangely 
mingled relics of pagan and mediaeval Rome; of the 
statues of Flavia Publicia, " Vestulis Maxima," with her 
" sweet and gentle face, and noble demeanour," and of 
the hoard oi Anglo-Saxon silver, of Alfred's mintage, 
discovered " sandwiched in between the upper and lower 
pavements of the House of the Vestals," we feel how 
true it is that the history of the seven-hilled city is the 
history of the Western world. For the lover of English 
letters we have an essay on " Spenser as a Philosophic 
Poet," who treated of " the ordinary life lived wisely, 
and lived unwisely, and of the life spiritual." Recent 
French history supplies food for two articles, which 
bring us down to the army, " without rations, and without 
maps," which started gaily to the cry of "& Berlin," 
and ended sadly at Sedan. 

UNDER the head " Experts in Handwriting " the 
CornkilL furnishes some startling revelations, and is 
otherwise interesting. Mr. Brander Matthews contri- 
butes to Longman's a readable essay on " The Antiquity 
of Jests." In addition to " Chronicles of English Coun- 
ties," All the Year Round deals with "Coptic Monas- 
teries in the Eighteenth Century," and has an essay on 
" Gilray's Boney." Mr. II. A. Jones concludes, in the 
English Illustrated, " The Dramatic Outlook "; " Shake- 
speare's Country " is also concluded, and some fine illus- 
trations are supplied of Naworth Castle. 

THE Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects during the last quarter of 1884 have con- 
tained a long and interesting discussion on the decora- 
tion of the dome of St. Paul's, and an appreciative 
paper, by Mr. Laurence Harvey, A.R.I.B.A., with 
discussions on the theories and teaching of the late 
Prof. Semper, concerning whose life-work Prof. Gordon 
Watson, of Edinburgh, has lately been lecturing at South 

PART XV. of Mr. Hamilton's Parodies (Reeves & 
Turner) is principally occupied with travesties of The 
Raven. It is difficult to conceive of one subject being 
BO frequently burlesqued. 

MESSRS. SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & Co. have published 
The Beauties of Washington Irving, with twenty-three 
illustrations by George Cruikshank. It is a convenient 
little duodecimo volume, containing much mirthful and 
some solid matter. 

THE Supplement to Gates' 1 s Biographical Dictionary 
(Longmans & Co.) carries this valuable companion to the 
student down to 1884. The claims of the book to a 
place at the elbow of the worker is conceded. 

To the newspapers furnishing a column of local notea 
and queries must be added the Boston Guardian, in 
which appears " The Lincolnshire Garner," edited by 
our contributor Mr. J. Potter Briscoe, of the Nottingham 
Free Library. 

UNDER the title of The Adelphi and its Site Mr. 
Wheatley is about to publish, through Mr. Elliot Stock, 
a reprint of his articles which appeared in the Antiquary 
in a separate form. The edition will be supplied to 
subscribers only, and is limited to 350 copies. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

HARRY HEMS ("Centenarianism"). A notice to the 
effect that discussion of this question, the interest of 
which seemed exhausted, was closed in " N. & Q.," ap- 
peared some time ago in our columns. With the strong 
pressure of novelty upon us, we are always reluctant to 
reopen old questions unless special information is ob- 

B. EVESON CHILD ("Medicse Artis principes," &c.). 
Perfect and in good condition, the book after which 
you inquire will fetch in France from one to two pounds. 
It is not common. Such works are little in demand in 
England, and you will not obtain readily a purchaser. 

JAMES CAREY ("Plaster of Paris Picture"). This 
satire upon the legal profession is common, and belongs 
to the early part of the present century. It refers to no 
story, but indicates the customary fate of those who go 
to law. 

S. 0. ADDY ("Kermesse"). The word is not Eng- 
lish. It is an abbreviation of two German words, Kirche 
and Messe=t\iQ church mass. It is constantly applied 
to the fair held on the anniversary of the consecration of 
the church, and so stands in Germany and the Nether- 
lands for a fair or village feast. 

J. E. T. (" Kirk-mead "). Your conjecture is right. 
The two words are correctly conjoined with a hyphen. 

convey his thanks for copy of poem which was forwarded 
to him. 

M.A.Oxon. ("Short Historical Tales"). Your obliging 
communication has been forwarded to A. E, P. R. D. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com' 
munications which, fx>r any reason, we do not print j and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6i" S. XI. FEB. 7, '850 





NOTES : -Double Acrostic Charades, 101 Notes by White 
Kennett, 102 Three Counsels of Solomon, 104 Noted Eng- 
lishmen in Tenth Century Wonderful New Reading 
" Dictionary of National Biography," 105 Parallel Passages 
Early English Chalice Hakluyt's "Navigations "Suffolk 
Couplet Love-Letter of Seventeenth Century, 106. 

QUERIES : Thomas Lodge and the Stage Early Work on 
Calais " Foxing " in Books Jeremy Taylor on Life 
Radnor Peerage Mendham Priory Joseph Stevens 
Admiral Hosier, 107 List of Early English Combatants 
F. Newbery W. Owen, Bookseller Name of Book Mous- 
taches in the Army" Rejected Addresses "Indexes to 
Books Burial of General Fraser Macaulay's "History of 
France," 108 Barr Castle Bronze Medals Heraldic 
Croker Papers" Diagrammatic co-ordination," &c., 109. 

REPLIES :-Jerusalem Artichokes, 109 Cruikshank Biblio- 
graphyVitrified Fortifications, 110 Grudge, Gruger, 111 
Excalibur Domesday Book Arms of Cork Lead Stains- 
Musical Stones, 112 Middle Temple Computation of 
Church of England Rowlandson's " Hunting Breakfast," 
113 Khedive Squandering General Monk Dr. Johnson's 
Will Davis, Clockmaker-Ballad Ireland in 1641 Willey 
Church Christmas Carol, 114 Homer "Travestie" 
Hogarth's "Sleeping Congregation " Hannah Brand 
David Cox" Le Suicide Abjure 1 "Ladies Waldegrave, 115 
Poems by S. Ward Standard in Cornhill Powell Bishop 
FJeetwood, 116 Dedication of Parish Churches Caricatures 
of Mulready Envelope St. Devenick Cowell, 117 Johnny 
Crapaud " Ship-shape "United States : Currance Source 
of Story Hutchinson's "Massachusetts," 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Dowell's "History of Taxation in 
England " Lawson's " The Nation in the Parish." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


Your correspondent MR. C. C. MASSEY, in his 
note on " The Sphinx " (6 th S. xi. 31), says that 
he believes " the origin of the fashion of double 
acrostics began with the success of a brilliant little 
society paper called the Owl, published during the 
London seasons of 1865 and 1866, in which the 
clever double acrostics, referring to topics of the 
day, formed an attractive feature." I beg to inform 
your correspondent that he is in error, as I myself 
happened to be the introducer to the public of 
double acrostic charades, first published in an 
article, nearly two columns long, signed " Cuthbert 
Bede, B.A.," in the Illustrated London News, 
August 30, 1856. By the time that the Owl was 
published the fashion of introducing these new 
charades into papers had become very general. 
As he has quoted the Owl, I may quote another 
clever weekly satirical paper, the Hornet, which, 
like many other journals, gave five-guinea prizes for 
double acrostics. In an article (the author is un- 
known to me) printed in the Hornet, Sept. 22, 1875, 
is the following passage : 

" We have ample reason for the great popularity which 
this pastime has attained since 1856. At this date, double 
acrostics were first published in the Illustrated London 
News, under the well-known nom, de plume of ' Cuthbert 

Bede.' He calls them 'novel and ingenious riddles 
lately introduced,' and praises them as vehicles of in- 
struction and as affording harmless and rational amuse- 
ment. One of the earliest of these (Illustrated, August 30, 
1856) on the late lamented Mark Lemon, for many years 
editor of Punch, is so very good a specimen that it may 
be quoted : 


I 'm a Mark of judgment, taste, and wit, 
O'er a crowd of pages I rule the roast; 
I mix with choice spirits, while choicer ones sit 
Around, -while I give them full many a toast. 
Of my two words my first is squeezed into my second. 
Although at my head it is commonly reckon'd. 


(1) I brighten even the darkest scene. 

(2) I very nearly an Ostrich had been. 

3) I with a Hood once passed all my days. 

4) I am a fop in the play of all plays. 

5) To its greatness the city of Bath I did raise. 

" ' The subject words having been told, the solution of 
the lights is easy.' " 

One of the answers sent to this. charade by a 
correspondent was published in the Illustrated 
London News, Sept. 13, 1856, and was as follows : 


'Tis dark 'tis drear 'tis chill 'tis damp ; 
Betty, my good girl, light the Lamp; 
Pile on more fuel, while I read 
Mysterious lines from Cuthbert Bede. 
* * * * 

I 've seen an Emu (tailless ostrich) good. 

I 've seen (was it in early Maiden-hood 1) 

I 've seen fop Osric limn'd in Shakspeare's page ; 

Had he known Bath he 'd gNash his teeth with rage. 


Attention, please ! when you would sup or lunch 
Mark I Lemon 's indispensable to Punch." 

I may observe that I meant the third line to apply 
to Maid Marian, the companion of Robin Hood. 
The first double acrostic charades that I wrote for 
the Illustrated London News were on the follow- 
ing subjects : The Lord Mayor : Mansion House 
Victoria Regia: Crystal Palace London: Thames 
Waterloo : Napoleon Miss Nightingale : Scutari 
Hospital Charles Dickens : Pickwick Papers. I 
wrote a copy of the last-named charade, and gave 
it to Charles Dickens, with whom I had the honour 
of a personal acquaintance ; and as he expressed 
himself as being both amused and pleased with 
the production, I may perhaps be here allowed space 
to quote it : 


The cricket merrily proclaims my name. 

The brethren three who fought for Roman fame. 

Me as their home the needy poets make. 

When 1 'm ahead the stoutest hearts will quake. 

The monster that sets up John 'gainst Thomas. 

Eusebius when he was taken from us. 

The man who won't believe unless he sees. 

When I am dead, I sweetly rest in peas. 

'Mid fiends* and goblins I now take my place. 

The sculptor loves me for my clear white face. 

Unfortunately misprinted " friends " in the original. 



. xi. FEB. 7, 

Unto the castle's stronghold now I glance. 
And now I see a beauteous Queen of France. 
At winter's misty threshold I remain. 
A pair that part to quickly meet again. 

Master of Tears and Laughter ! High Arch-priest 

Of the great mysteries of this Life's fane ! 
Great Wizard of the North, South, West, and East, 

We ne'er shall look upon thy like again ! 
We will not wreathe your head with bays, 

To be a laughing-stock for all the gapers J 
But, when to thee a monument we raise, 

Around your hair we '11 curl your own fam d Papers. 

The fourteen letters that form the words " Charles 
Dickens : Pickwick Papers," are from the words 
Chirp, Horatii, Attic, Kock, Law, Eusebi(us), 
Sceptic, Duck, Imp, Carrara, Keep, Eugenie, 
November, Scissors. 

Regarding the origin of these double acrostic 
charades, I may say that I and other friends had 
received so much amusement from their composition 
that I proposed to Mark Lemon to introduce them 
into the special Christmas supplement that he was 
about to edit for the Illustrated London News for 
1856. He had given me a page drawing by E. 
Morin (an allegory of " The Christmas Tree ") to 
" write up to " with some verses for that supple- 
ment, and I had also invented some riddles for it ; 
and I knew that he was glad to get for the Christ- 
mas supplement any real novelty in the shape of 
a game or pastime. As all this had to be arranged 
in the summer preceding publication, it was in 
July, 1856, that I first mentioned the subject to 
him, and snowed him specimens of the new charade, 
with the needful explanation " how it was done." 
Mark Lemon seized upon the idea without a mo- 
ment's hesitation, and was convinced that it would 
as readily be accepted by the public. It is to his 
shrewdness and sagacity that the public are in- 
debted for the introduction of that new pastime 
which, after an interval of nearly thirty years, still 
maintains its original popularity. 

But he would not wait for Christmas ; and as he 
had at that time much to do with the Illustratec 
London News he advised the late Mr. Ingram to 
let these new charades appear in the paper as soon 
as possible. I therefore prepared them for publica 
tion, with the explanation of their composition 
and the article appeared, as already mentioned, on 
August 30, 1856. Mark Lemon's prophecy con 
cerning them was immediately fulfilled ; they a 
once hit the public taste, and answers from corres 
pondents were sent to me (from the office) by 
hundreds. These replies continued to come, weei 
after week, literally from all quarters of the globe 
Mark Lemon entrusted to me their editorship 
and further charades, with answers and remarks 
were published in the issues of the paper fo 
Sept. 13, and Sept. 27. They were then allowed 
to rest till the Christmas number should appear on 
Dec. 20, where two columns are taken up by them 

with an introduction signed by my name. Mark 
jemon then, very wisely, determined to " let well 
alone "; and the double acrostic charades, having 
>een well introduced and well received, were left to 
lourish elsewhere than in the pages of the journal 
hat had first printed them. I may add that I re- 
)ublished them, with other articles from Bentley's 
Miscellany, Punch, Once a Week, The Months, &c., 
n a six-shilling volume called The Curate of Cran~ 
ton: with other Prose and Verse, published by 
Messrs. Saunders, Otley & Co., in 1862 which was 
three years before the Owl had an existence. 



(Continued from p. 64.) 

I heard from a very great Prelate that old Dr. 
Pocock,* the great Master and Professor of the Oriental 
;oijgues in Oxford, would often take occasion to say that 
our English Translation of the Old Testament was better 
aerformed than that of the New, and came nearer by 
;he Hebrew than this did unto the Greek, Adding that 
as fan* as he could judge of all Translations whatsoever 
from the Hebrew, the English came nearer to the 
Original, the Hebraisms being generally better suited to 
our Language than to any other. This Truth had been, 
indeed, observed by Mr. William Tyndall, a plain Trans- 
lator of the Bible, in several parts conducing very much 
to the opening of our English Reformation.! When he 

* Dr. Pocock was born in 1604 in Berkshire, and was 
admitted Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 
1620. He devoted his attention to the Oriental languages 
under Rev. Win. Bed well, Vicar of Tottenham (see note), 
who was the first to promote the study of Arabic in 
Europe, and at the age of twenty-four he had completed 
a version of the Syriac New Testament. He took holy 
orders, and was appointed English Chaplain at Aleppo, 
but returned to England after six years at the request 
of Archbishop Laud, and was made Professor of Arabic 
at Oxford. He again went to the East to collect Oriental 
MSS. for the university library. On his second return 
to England the troubles of the times prevented his 
resuming his appointment at Oxford, and he accepted 
the living of Chiltry, in Berkshire. Here his great 
learning was so little estimated that, on a friend one 
day inquiring from some of the villagers how they liked 
their minister, " Our parson is a plain honest man," 
said they, "but no latiner! " On the death of the Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew at Oxford Pocock was confirmed in 
the appointment to which he had been nominated by 
Charles I., then a prisoner in the Isle of Wight, and waa 
allowed to hold it with his Professorship of Arabic. 
His writings raised him to the highest point of fame, 
and he had no rival but his friend John Selden, the 
learned lawyer and linguist, who was called by Grotius 
" the glory of England." Dr. Pocock died in 1691. 

f " Within the first ten years as many as fifteen dis- 
tinct editions of Tyndale's New Testament in English, 
of not less than 3,000 copies each, were printed and sold. 
Tyndale himself, living abroad, ran the gauntlet of per- 
secution as few men have done The public demand 

for his Testaments was very great, and no power could 
check their importation, sale, and consumption ; edition 
after edition appeared silently in England, but from 
whence nobody cared to inquire." Catalogue of Caxion 
Exhibition, 1877. ' 

6th S. XL FEB. 7, '5 ] 



had finisht the work w h he did in a manner foretell 
would be seald w' h his own blood, He did in hia Pro- 
hame to the obedyence of a Christen man write thus, The 
Greke tonnge agreeth more w th the Englyshe than w th 
the latyne Th the properties of the Hebrue tongue 
agreeth a thousande times more with the Englyshe than 
with the latyne. The maner of speakinge is both one : 
so that in a thousand places thou nedest not but to 
translate into the englyshe, worde for worde, whan thou 
may seke a compasse in the latyne and yet shall have 
much worke to translate it well favouredly so that it 
have the same grace and swetnesse, sense and pure 
understanding withi in the latyne as it hath in the 
Hebrue. A thousande partes better may it be trans- 
lated into the Englyshe then into the Latyne. 

And what if the Welsh tongue does still come nearer 
to the Originals, especially to the Hebrew than the 
English of a later age can do ! This alone can be the 
reason why the Welsh Translation of y e Bible as re- 
viewed and corrected some years after the last English 
version does exceed it very much in a more exact 
correspondence w th the original idiome of speech, espe- 
cially the Hebrew. Hence Dr. Humphrey Humphreys, 
B p of Bangor, one of y e most perfect Masters of his own 
and those other tongues, did in a letter to M r Ant a 
Wood, dated in May, 1692* (of w ch I have the Original 
now by me), inform him after the Publication of his 
Aihen. Oxon., vol. L, that D r Henry Parry, Bishop of 
S. Asaph, w th the assistance of D r Davies, did review 
and correct B p Morgans translation according to the 
Originals, and new published it Anno 1620, w^ an 
Epistle Ded to K. James, wherein he tells him he had 
retained some of the former translation, and translated 
anew in other places ades ul difficile dictu sit num vetus 
an nova Morgani an mea discrida sit Versio, This 
(saith BP Humphreys) is the Translation now used in 
Wales, and is one of the best Translations extant, and 
Much Better than the English. 

1563. The Bible translated into Welsh, Strype's 
Eliz.y 301, Th Geneva Bible read often in Churches 
till it was made one of the Articles allowed by the Queen 
in 1583 that one kind of the Translation of the Bible be 
only used in Publick Service as well in Churches as 
Chapels, and that to be the same w ch is now authorised 
by consent of the Bishops. Strype's Whitgift, 116. 

1624, 22 Ju. 1. Rowland Heylin was one of the 
Sherifs of London, who, being sprung from Wales, 
charitably at his own cost and charges in the beginning 
of King Charles his Reign caused the Welsh Bible to 
be printed in a more portable bulk, being only printed 
in a large volume before for the use of Churches. He 
also caused the Book called The Practise of Piety to be 
printed in Welsh, for the use of the Welsh people : 
and a Welsh or British Dictionary to be made and 
published for the help of those that were minded to 
understand that ancient Language. Strype's Survey of 
Lond., vol. ii. p. 142. 

D r John Dove, in his Persuasion to the English Re- 

* "When shall we have a history of Oxford? At 

present we have only the history of Anthony Wood. In 
his own department as an antiquary, Wood's work is 
admirable, and his quaint humour and vivacity will 
always commend his history to the student : but as he 
is an annalist in the strict sense of the word, his narra- 
tive is not suited to the general reader. Besides, the 
point at which his history closes leaves the story of 
Oxford life in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
embracing as it does the Methodists and Tractarian 
movements, still to be told." Quarterly Review, October, 
1882 ; Burrows's Register of the Visitors of the University 
of Oxford from 1647 to 1658, 

cusants to reconcile themselves, &c. t 1603, 4to., p. 23, says : 
' In times past the English Testament was printed w th 
;he English in one page and the Latino in the other, and 
icensed to be printed and publickly sold by King Philip 
and Qu. Mary." 

This consideration moved the reverend Father Doctor 
Morgan, now Bishop of Saint Asaph, and D r Goodman, 
;he late Dean of Westminster, to take pains for the trans- 
ating and publishing of the Bible in y e Welsh tongue, 
3 y w ch their travells and godly endeavours they have ad- 
vanced the Gospell in their own country. Ibid., p. 24. 

D r William Morgan, author of the first Translation of 
all the Bible (since printing was used) into the antient 
and unmixed language of the Britains. The Translation 
10 dedicated w th a Latin Epistle prefixed to Queen 
Elizabeth, and was printed in 1588, for w ch work he was 
rewarded w th the Bishoprick of Llandaff first and after- 
wards with that of S' Asaph. Wood, Ath. Ox., 615. 

Mr. Ambrose Usher, Brother of AB? Usher, a Man of 
great parts and excelling much in the Oriental languages, 
translated the Old Testament out of the Hebrew into 
bhe English from Genesis to the Book of Job, and is still 
preserved under his own hand, but he desisted from pro- 
ceeding upon the New Translation coming forth in K. 
James' time. Bernard's Life ofABP Usher, 8vo. 

AB P Usher* was the first that procured the Samaritan 
Bible (w ch is only the Pentateuch) to the view of these 
Western parts ; as Mr. Selden acknowledgeth, it was sent 
him from Syria by the way of Aleppo, anno 1625. He 
had four sent him by a factor he employed for the search 
of things of that nature, and were thought to be all could 
be had there. He gave one to the Library of Oxford, 
a second to Leyden, for which Ludovicus do Dieu gave 
him public thankes in a book dedicated to him, a third 
to Robert Cotton's Library, and the fourth (having, as 
I take it, compared it with other) he kept himself. The 
Old Testament in Syriack, a rarity also in these parts, 
was sent to him from thence not long after. Ibid. 

Injunctions of Queen Elizabeth, 1558, in the first year 
of her reign. Numb. 6. Also that they shall provide 
within three months next aftar this Visitation, at the 
charges of the parishe, one booke of the whole byble of 
the largest volume in Englyshe, and within one xii 
monetha the Paraphrases of Erasmus, also in English, 
upon the Gospels ; and they shall discourage no Man 
from the readinge any parte of the Byble either in 
Latino or Englyshe. Numb. 16. Also that every Parson, 
Vicar, Curate, and Stipendiary Priest being under the 
degree of a Master of Artes shall provide and have of 
his own, within three moneths after this visitation, the 
new Testament both in Latino and in Englishe, w"> 
Paraphrases upon the same, conferring the one w th the 

Most of the old Engh bibles had been burnt m the 
reign of Qu. Mary, and hence an Article of visitation 
in the 1 of Q. Eliz., Art. 46. Item, what bookes of 
holy Scripture you have delivered to be burnt, or other- 
wise destroyed, and to whom ye have delivered the same. 

Miscell. 1. Dangerous errours in several late printed 
Bibles : to the great scandal and corruption of sound 
and true Religion : Or an Animadversion to all good 
Christians of this Commonwealth, discovering (amongst 
many thousands of others) some pernicious, erroneous, 
& corrupt Erratas, Escapes, and faults in several Im- 
pressions of the Holy Bible and Testament w'hin these 
late years, commonly vented and dispersed to the great 
scandal of Religion, but more particularly in the Im- 

* Archbishop Usher " every year devoted a fixed por- 
tion of his income to the purchase of rare and valuable 
MSS. The Bodleian Library at Oxford contains several 
thus obtained by him" (Life, R.T.S.). 



XL FEB. 7, '85. 

pressions of Henry Hills and John ffield, Printers, to 
the intent that either in reading of any such already 
bought or buying the like hereafter they may be wel 
advised for the good of their own souls, and the Genera 
tions that shall succeed. By Will. Kilburne, Gent., 1659 

Richard Davies, Bp. of St. Asaph, consecrated Jan. 21 
1659-60, wa employd with others that year to translate 
the Bible into English, and translated all from the Be 
ginning of Joshua to the end of 2 d Samuel. He also 
translated part of the New Testamt into Welsh, parti- 
cularly some of the Epistles. The original MSS. of w cl 
translation are in the custody of that worthy studious 
Gentleman, Robert Davies, of Llanerch, E?q. 

William Salesbury, the famed British Antiquary, trans 
lated and first published in print the Epistles and 
Gospels for the whole year in K. Ed. VI. time. He 
published also the whole New Testament at the com 
mand and by the direction of the Bishops of AVales 1567. 
to which BP Richard Davie?, of S. Davids, premised a 
large Prefatory Epistle. Letter of Bp. Humphrey to 
Ant. a Wood, MS. 

William Morgan, Bp. first of Llandaf and then of S 
Asaph, that incomparable Man for Piety and Industry, 
Zeale for Religion and his Country, and a conscientious 
care of his Church & Succession. Educated at S e John's 
Coll., in Caiubr., instituted to the Vicarage of Welsh 
Pool, in Com. Montgom., Aug. 8, 1575; from thence he 
removed to the Vicarage of Llanrhaiadr. in Mochnant, 
& Dioc. of S. Asaph, Octob. 1, 1578, where he finished 
that excellent work of translating the Bible into Welsh. 
Letter of Bp. Hump. Humphrey, of Bangor, to Ant. a 
Wood in addition to what he had observed in his Ath. 
Ox., I vol. 615. 

1566. This year the Great Bible was printed again for 
the Use of Churches, being nothing but the old Trans- 
lation of Coverdale, not yet corrected, ffor though the 
ABp. had much in his thoughts a carefull Review 
of that Translation, and seems allready to set about it 
together w"' the assistance of other Bishops and Divines, 
yet it being not yet ready for the present necessity, the 
old English Bible was now MDLXVI printed again. 
Strype's Parker, 232. 

The old Engl. Translation used in Qu. Eliz ths time 
vindicated ags' the Papists, and equalled w th Paginus 
version of the old Testamt and Erasmus of the New, &c. 
L> r Edward Bulkley, Apoloyiefor Religion, an. 1602, 
p. 45. 

In Parl. 1660. Ordered that D" Hodges shall attend 
ie Lords to receive from them such voluntary Contri- 
butions as their Lorships shall to M r Ogilvy in recom- 
pcnce of bis great pains and charge he hath been at in 
printing a Bible w'' he hath presented & dedicated to 
this House Journ. of Dv. 

Le Nave. Here lies interred the Body of Margaret 
Clark, the wife of John Clark Clerk, B.D. Here lyes 
likewise interred in this Chancell y Body of M' 
William Bedwell, her iruher, sometimes Vicar of this 
Church [of Cottenham, in Midleaex] and one of King 
James his Translators of the Bible, and for y e Eastern 
Tongues as learned a Man as most lived in these modern 
times, aged 70 ; died May 5, 1632. 

A. A. 

(To le continued.) 


The Greek colony of Terre d'Otranto is said to 
be exceptionally rich in folk-stories, proverbs and 
ballad?. Vito D. Palumbo, who has been gleaning 
with great industry, intends to publish a collection 

of these quaint old-world echoes, and in a recent 
number of the Museon he has given as a sample a 
tale in the dialect of Calimeria. This, in its 
mingled simplicity and sense, is a good type of 
the folk-story. The massive anachronism by 
which King Solomon is made to play the leading 
part is not the least interesting feature in the 

A serving-man of King Solomon, desiring to 
leave his master's service, asked that his wages 
might be paid to him. Three hundred ducats 
were due, and having received them, he pre- 
pared to leave ; but remembering that all the 
world came to his master for advice, he decided 
that he also would apply for counsel. " Master," 
he said, " give me a piece of advice before I leave." 
Then his master answered, and said, " That will 
cost a hundred ducats. Are you willing to give 
this, like the others 1 " " I will give it," replied 
the serving-man ; and he counted out the hundred 
ducats. Then said the master, " Never leave an 
old road for a new one." The serving-man did 
not feel very well satisfied with this reply, and 
said to himself, " Just see what a counsel he has 
given me ! " So he went back to his master, and 
said, " I am not well satisfied with the counsel 
you have given. Pray, give me a better." The 
master said, "That will cost another hundred 
ducats. Will you give them \ " The serving-man 
answered, " I will give them "; and he counted out 
another hundred ducats. Then said the master, 
" Never put off till to-morrow what you can do 
o-day." But this advice pleased the serving-man 
as little as the first, and returning, he said, 
" Master, this counsel does not please me. Give 
me one more." " In that case thou must give me 
yet another hundred ducats," said the master. 
'' I will give them." He counted out the remaining 
hundred ducats, and the master said, " Think first 
of that which thou shouldst do, and then do it." 

Having no more money to spend in buying 

,dvice, the serving-man was going, when the 

master said to him, " How wilt thou do in going 

away without money ] Wait, and I will give thee 

a little bread." He gave him a piece of bread, 

and the serving-man went on his way. On the 

road he overtook a man who was going to buy oil. 

They came to two roads, one new and the other 

)ld. " Shall we not go by the new road 1 " asked 

he man who was buying oil. " No," said the 

erving-man, " I have paid a hundred ducats for 

.he advice, and I shall go by the old road." So 

he oil merchant went by the new road, and 

he serving-man by the old one. They had not 

?one far when the merchant had reason to weep, 

'or thieves fell upon and robbed him. Then the 

erving-man was satisfied with his master's counsel. 

He arrived at home in the gloaming, and found 
he door of the house.fastened. He peeped through 
he keyhole, and saw that they were dining, and 

6* S. XI, FEB. 7, '85,] 



that there was a priest seated at the table. " By 
thunder ! " said he, " my wife is dining with a 
priest. Let me get a gun and shoot them." Then 
he remembered the third counsel of his master, 
" Think first of that which thou shouldst do, and 
then do it"; and he said to himself, " Let us see 
who this priest is." He knocked at the door. 
"Who is there?" asked his wife. "It is me," 
he replied. " Oh," said his wife, "it is my hus- 
band ! " She opened the door, and he entered. 
" Who is this priest ? " he asked. " That ! " said 
his wife ; " that is our son. Don't you see we have 
dressed him up like a priest ? " " By thunder ! " 
said the serving-man ; " but that was good counsel 
my master gave ! " 

So they all sat down to eat. The serving-man 
took the piece of bread that his master had given 
him, and, as he cut into it the three hundred 
ducats fell on to the floor. " Ah," he said, " the 
master who took from me has returned all." Then 
they were full of joy. " Wait," said the wife of 
the serving-man, " whilst I tell the harvestmen 
not to come to-morrow, for I shall not know what 
to do, with my head in this confusion." " No," 
decided the serving-man ; " never put off till 
to-morrow what can be done to-day. Let them 

So next day they all went to gather the harvest ; 
and when they had tied the grain and were storing 
it, the hail began to fall. All the grain of the 
neighbouring farmers was destroyed. Then said 
the serving-man, " How good were the counsels of 
my master ! Without them I should have lost all." 

Higher B rough ton, Manchester. 

The book of confraternity (Verbruderungsbuch) 
of the abbey of St. Gallen, in Switzerland, written 
in the course of the ninth and tenth centuries, and 
preserved in the Stifts-Bibliothek of St. Gallen, 
contains, on p. 77, the following names of English 
prelates and men of note : Adalsten rex., Wolf- 
helmus archiepisc., Elwinus ep., Eotkarus ep., 
Wunisge, ep., Sigihelm ep., Oda episcopus, Fri- 
dosten ep., Cunifrid ep., Kenod abba, Albrich 
abba, Cudret, Erdulf, Fridolef, Wulfun, Ortgar, 
Osfred, Elfsie, Adalvierd, Elwin, Adalwin, Berect- 
win, Vulfilt, Wighart, Oonrat, Kenvun, Vundrud, 
Keonwad ep., Kenolaf, Keondrud, cum ceteris. 
Seven of these names are also mentioned in an- 
other codex (" Historise de Fratribus Conscriptis ") 
preserved in the same library, and I proceed to 
quote the passage referring to them : 

" Anno ab incarnatione domini Dcccoxxviin., indic- 
tione II., Keonwald venerabilis episcopus profectua ab 
Anglis omnibus monasteriis per totain Germaniam cum 
oblatione de argento non modica et in id ipsum a rege 
Anglorum eadern sibi tradita visitatis in Idibua Octobris 
venit ad monasterium sancti Galli ; quique gratissime a 
fratribus susceptus et eiusdem patroni nostri festiyitatem 

cum illis celebrando quatuor ibidem dies demoratus est. 
Secundo autem postquam monasterium ingressus est, 
hoc est in ipso depositionis sancti Galli die, basilicam 
intravit et pecuniam copiosam secum attulit, de qua 
artem altario imposuit, partem etiam utilitati fratrum 
onavit. Post haec eo in conventum nostrum introducto 
omnis congregatio concessit ei annonam unius fratris et 
eandem orationem, quam pro quolibet de nostris sive 
vivente sive vita decedente facere solemus, pro illo 
facturam perpetualiter promisit. Hsec sunt nomina 
autem, quae conscribi rogavit : rex Anglorum Adalstean, 
Keonowald episcopus, Wighart, Kenvun, Conrat, Keono- 
laf, Wundrud, Keondrud." 

As Eotkar is stated to have flourished A.D. 880- 
901, and as his name was the earliest entered, 
simultaneously with that of Elwinus (Archbishop 
Wolfhelm, and subsequently King Athelstan, were 
entered out of their chronological order and in- 
serted at the top of the column, evidently out of 
respect to their dignity), we are enabled to fix 
the date of entry of the whole series as between 
A.D. 880 and 929. The following scanty notices 
are, however, the sole materials I can gather for 
establishing the identity of the persons mentioned 
in the list : King Athelstan, who died Oct. 27, 
940 ; Archbishop Wolfhelm, of Canterbury, 923- 
942 ; Bishop Eotkar, 880-901 ; Bishop Wunisge, 
909-926 ; Bishop Sigihelm, circa 930 ; Bishop 
Fridosten, 910-931; Bishop Cunifrid, circa 930; 
Keonwald, Bishop of Worcester. Some of your 
correspondents may, perhaps, be able to supply 
further particulars. CHARLES A. FEDERER. 


years ago (see " N. & Q." 4 S. xi. 48) of the 
correct reading in Childe Harold, canto iv. st. 182, 
"Thy waters washed them power," &c.; but the 
following, which I copy from a Cheltenham 
newspaper, is undoubtedly one of the most extra- 
ordinary variants that I have ever seen : 

" The house in Piccadily (once the residence of Lord 
Byron, and in which 'Ada Sale, daughter of my house 
and heart,'* was born) is now a sort of rallying place for 
all that is distinguished in the world of fashion and 
Is not this a real curiosity of literature ? 


VOL. I. All readers of " N. & Q." will welcome 
this new biographical dictionary to their store of 
working books. In many cases they will see the 
fruit of their own labours. I have really only one 
complaint to make. For my part I would gladly 
have seen much of the space taken up by such 
lives as Queen Anne and one or two more devoted 
to smaller folk of the type of Thomas Eastoe Abbott 
(p. 30) and Thomas Ainger (p. 188). Surely the 
rule which includes these must have demanded the 
admission of many others. When it is observed 
how large a share falls to Lancashire and Noncon- 

* The italics are my own, 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [6*s.xi.F EB .v85. 

formity it will be thought that the help of more 
specialists was needed. I subjoin a list of mis- 
prints, which may be useful (a and b = left and right 
columns) : 

Pp. 110 b, 111 b, for " Quillatmn " read Quillinan. 

Pp. 181 b, 182 a, for " Dalraida " read Dalriada. 

P. 182 a, for " Dalraid " read Dalriad. 

P. 384 a, for ' Bursley " read Bensley. 

P. 405 b, for " Holton " read Hopton. 

P. 458 b, for " Trimmel " read Trimnel. 

Did Alison (286 b) really take the degree of 
LL.B. at Oxford ? It may be of service in fixing 
Borne of the dates concerning Edward Allde (299 b) 
to note that in 1631 "Eliz. Allde" printed an edition 
of John Denison's Heavenly Banquet. Sir James 
Alderson's early teacher was not Dr. Lee, but the 
Kev. George Lee, Unitarian minister, editor of 
the Roclcingham newspaper, and keeper of a 
classical academy at 4, Postern Gate, Hull. Dr. 
John Alderson is stated in one of the inscriptions 
to his memory in Hull to have been born June 4, 
1757 ; the Dictionary simply gives 1758. Mr. 
Charles Frost, F.S.A., who was personally ac- 
quainted with Dr. Alderson, in his valuable account 
of Hull authors (1831, p. 57, n.), corrects the mis- 
take of the Gent. Mag., which has been unfor- 
tunately copied into the Dictionary. He was not 
the author of Orthographical Exercises. 

W. C. B. 

PARALLEL PASSAGES. Writing on the tendency 
of modern society to avoid vindictiveness in the 
treatment of criminals, Sir James Stephen re- 
marks : 

" In cases which outrage the moral feelings of the 
community to a great degree, the feeling of indignation 
and desire for revenge which is excited in the minda of 
decent people is, I think, deserving of legitimate satis- 
faction." History of the Criminal Law of England 
(1883), vol. i. p. 478. 

Compare this with some remarks of Mr. Euskin : 
" Take, for example, one usually thought of as wholly 
evil that of Anger, leading to vengeance. I believe it to 
be quite one of the crowning wickednesses of this age that 
we have starved and chilled our faculty of indignation, 
and neither desire nor dare to punish crimes justly." 
Lectures on Art (1870), p. 83. 


examples of ecclesiastical and other early English 
plate still preserved in Norfolk, and especially 
noted in the sixth edition of my Hall Marks on 
Plate (1883, p. 146), is a chalice, dated 1567, at 
North Creake Church, in that count}'. It bears 
(or bore) the Norwich assay marks of the date- 
letter C and a cross-mound in a lozenge. This 
interesting chalice, with its paten, I am informed, 
exists no longer, and I am requested to delete the 
notice in any future edition, for the following 
reason. " When the present incumbent succeeded 
to the living, in 1870, he found the communion 
plate inscribed as the gift of the, former rector. 

The paten was absurdly small, not much bigger 
than a five-shilling piece, and so disproportioned to 
the chalice that he paid a sum of money sufficient, 
when added to the existing plate, to make a really 
good and suitably proportioned chalice and paten." 
The weight of these precious relics was doubtless 
allowed for as old silver and deducted from the 
gross weight of the new substitutes at so much per 
ounce, for which a sum of money was paid by the 
rector. It is not likely any silversmith would 
consign to the melting pot sixteenth century plate. 
We may, therefore, at some future period hear of its 
ehange of ownership ; but for the present the 
result is non est inventus. W. CHAFFERS. 

New Athenaeum Club. 

According to Lowndes (Bohn's ed., p. 972), the 
reprint of the Voyage to Cadiz (vol. i. pp. 607-619) 
is distinguished from the original by having only 
seven paragraphs on p. 607 instead of eight, and by 
ending on p. 620, without a woodcut, whilst the 
original ends at p. 619, with a woodcut followed 
by a blank page. There is a copy of Hakluyt in the 
library of the Bengal Asiatic Society at Calcutta, 
which, considering the climate, is in very fair 
condition. In this copy, which is dated 1598, the 
Voyage to Cadiz ends at p. 619 with a woodcut, 
and so far answers to Lowndes's description of the 
original, but there are as many as ten separate para- 
graphs on p. 607. The paper is of a stouter descrip- 
tion than that of the rest of the volume, and the 
watermark is a hunting-bugle within an escutcheon 
surmounted by a coronet, above the letters G-. R. 
It would therefore seem to be a different reprint 
from that described by Lowndes, executed in the 
time of one of the Georges. W. F. P. 

SUFFOLK COUPLET. The following couplet is 
worth reprinting and indexing in " N. & Q." I 
quote from Frederick James Lloyd's Science of 
Agriculture, 1884, p. 287: 

" The laying down of land to permanent pasture is an 
expensive and tedious proceeding, and the old Suffolk 
couplet, if true in the past, is too often true in the 
present : 

' To break a pasture will make a man, 
To make a pasture will break a man." 


TURY. In the delightful correspondence of the 
Oxinden family, preserved among ^he MSS. of the 
British Museum, the following epistle, in clear 
u print" handwriting, occurs: 

" Deare Heart, I am heartilie sorry, that some occa- 
sions haue hindered mee, from coming to see you, all this 
while ; I desire you to impute my absence, not to want 
of loue, but leasure : & I beseech you, to bee assured, 
that there Hues not a more constant, faithfull, and affec- 
tionate lover, uppon the face of the whole earth, then I 
am, of your most worfchi'e SELPB, whose VERTUE & BEAVTY 
is such, that I haue uerie good cavse to belejue there 

6th . XL FEB. 7, '85.] 



Hues not a second, .to bee paralell'd w l h you. I haue here 
sent you a small token, w c h I desire you to accept of; I 
haue allsoe sent you a copie of uerses, made by him, who 
is, The admirer, & adorer of your djvjne beautje ; HENRJE 
OXJNDEN. Barham : Feb : 26 : 1641. An jEtat : luce. 

The initial letter is beautified after the monkish 
manner, the globe with its sea and land, on 
which the D is placed, being probably the pictorial 
analogue to the protestation in the love-letter about 
" the face of the whole earth." Unfortunately there 
is no address to give a clue to this paragon of virtue 
and beauty, aged seventeen, by whose years the 
date is so quaintly fixed. T. S. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

reason be assigned why Mr. J. A. Symonds, in 
his recently issued volume Khakspere's Predecessors 
in the English Drama, ch. ix. p. 567, in enumerat- 
ing the various pursuits of Thomas Lodge, gives 
" perhaps an actor " 1 One might suggest " per- 
haps a butcher." Why not, since Ben Jonson was 
" perhaps a bricklayer " ? It is but too well known 
that the late Mr. J. P. Collier, in his edition of 
Dodsley's Old Plays, asserted that Lodge was an 
actor ; and, not being able to prove his assertion, 
manufactured a proof by foisting into his tran- 
script of a memorial of Philip Henslowe (two 
copies of which are among the MS. collection of 
Dulwich College) a passage supporting the allega- 
tion. Meanwhile there is not never was any 
evidence that Lodge, who was a very meagre 
dramatist, ever trod the boards. Mr. Symonds's 
words are only calculated to revive a false state- 
ment, which has been over and over again ex- 
posed. C. M. INGLEBY. 

Athenaeum Club. 

of obtaining some information concerning an Eng- 
lish work, entitled "A Warning to England to 
Repent, and to turn to God from Idolotrie and 
Popery by the Terrible Example of Calice, given 
7 March, A.D. MDLVIII. Printed M.DLVIII." 8vo. 
Bishop Tanner mentions it in his Bibliotheca 
Britannico-Hibernica as the production of Outis 
Benthalmay, and gives as its first words, " If God 
almost by miracle." No copy of the work is, so 
far as I can learn, in the British Museum or Lam- 
beth Library, and I should be glad to know where 
one is extant. I can find no mention of the book 
or the author's name, as Tanner gives it, in any 
likely book of reference. In Hazlitt's Collections 
and Notes I find a notice of An Admonition to 
the Towne of Callays [Col]. From Exile the 12 

of April R. P. 8vo. 8 pp. black letter. Mr. 
Hazlitt states that the only copy known of this 
work was purchased by Mr. H. Pyne at Dr. Bliss's 
sale in 1858. It is possible that the Admonition 
and the Warning have some connexion with one 
another. SIDNEY L. LEE. 

" FOXING " IN BOOKS. Can any one give any 
information as to the cause, prevention, and cure 
of " foxing " in books and engravings ? The ques- 
tion was asked " N. & Q.," 4 th S. xi. 216, bub never 
noticed. I was told some time ago, by an engraver's 
packer, that there is a method known of curing it, 
but that it is a trade secret. This may or may not 
be true. B. W. S. 

Croker's Correspondence and Diaries, states : 

" What Jeremy Taylor said of life generally may cer- 
tainly be applied to that part of life which is passed on 
the political stage one is bound to play out the game. 

We are in the world like men playing at tables ; the 
chance is not in our power, but to play it is ; and when 
it is fallen, we must manage it as we can.' " Ch. xvii. 
vol. ii. p. 184. 

In which of the works of Jeremy Taylor is this 
remark to be seen ? ED. MARSHALL. 

KADNOR PEERAGE. Some century or so ago a 
minister bearing the name of Richard Jones 
officiated in the parish of Biggies waide, in Bedford- 
shire. The first Earl of Radnor married a Miss 
Pleydell, who was, I understand, a near relation 
of the above-named Richard Jones. Can any 
reader of " N. & Q." substantiate this latter state- 
ment, giving authorities ? GEORGE BIRCHALL. 

5, Mark Lane. 

undated deeds (apparently of the early part of the 
thirteenth century) relating to this priory, in 
which the following names, amongst others, occur: 
Sir Gilbert de Walsham ; Sir Hugo Burt ; Sir 
William de Metefeud (Mutford ?) ; Sir Adam de 
Mendham ; Sir John le Enweyse ; Avicia fii' 
David de Thikebrom ; Nicolas fii 1 Avicia de 
Thikebrom. I should be glad of any information 
respecting these persons, and especially as to the 
dates of their death. ALF. T. EVERITT. 

18, High Street, Portsmouth. 

JOSEPH STEVENS was Mayor of St. Albans, 
Herts, in the year 1752. Information as to the 
place of his birth, and where he lived previous to 
his mayoralty, or any particulars respecting the 
date or place of his death I should be very glad to 
receive. C. J. STEVENS. 

Ravenscourt, W f 

ADMIRAL HOSIER. In 5 th S. vii. 249 I asked 
where Admiral Hosier was buried, and at p. 346 
there was a reply, which was, however, not correct. 
I found in a newspaper of Feb. 10, 1728, that the 



[6" s. XI. FEB. 7, '85. 

corpse of Admiral Hosier was carried with grea 
funeral pomp from his house at Blackheath anc 
interred at Deptford. Five hundred pounds was 
ordered to be expended on this solemnity. I also 
found the name of Francis Hosier entered in the 
register of burials of St. Nicholas Church, Dept- 
ford, on Feb. 8, 1728. Hosier entered the navy 
as midshipman in the Neptune Feb. 24, 1691/2 
and died at half- past midday, August 25, 1727, 
The body was brought to England in His Majesty's 
sloop Happy, which sailed Oct. 1, 1727, and ar- 
rived at Plymouth Dec. 13, 1727, and was ordered 
up to Deptford, where the body was buried as 
before stated. Hosier was survived by his wife 
Diana and their daughter Frances Diana, who 
married Richard Hart. The last named died in 
1761, Reaving three daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, 
and Diana Hosier Hart, who, as coheirs, possessed 
in 1782 the patronage of the rectory of Warden, 
in Kent. Can any of your readers say where 
Admiral Hosier was born, or in what year? I 
believe he was born at Corfe Castle, Dorset, but 
have no sufficient proof. ROB. H. BAKER. 

Bombay Club, Bombay. 

there a book published giving the names of those 
who served in ancient English wars ? If not, can 
such names be found on record, and where ? 

P.O. Box 3008, X 

of your readers tell me who was F. Newbery at 
the Crown in Paternoster Row 1 I have A Con- 
cist > Hutory of Philosophy, by M. Formey, 
M.D.S.E., date 17C6, issued with his imprint, 

Leytonstone. HARLES WELSH ' 


bilged for information concerning the above who 

was prosecuted in 1752 for a libel on the House of 

minions. I wish to know his birthplace, and 

where any biography of him may be found. 


to Taf E f BO K K RANTED.- A ver ? similar work 

n^ 'fV C3CnblDg hfe on a farm and the adven- 

tures of the men on their deer-stealing and poach- 

ing expeditions, was published about 1850 Tarn 

b n 6 T 3 h t0 l,, tak , e , baCk a C Py to Texas > a d shaH 
)e much obliged for the correct title. 

105, Islington Street R BRUCE< 


SSW^* claims to "r 

in the British army to have introduced and 
worn the moustache, which they adopted in 1798 
Bto D / d a . b , Blatch ^ton Barracks, near 
1 ? C P l ^ d from the Austrians, at that 
for their high discipline and miliary 



appearance. Can any one supply any information 
on the subject ? The cavalry wore them about 
Waterloo time ; the Horse Artillery, I believe, 
next ; and the British army generally between 
1850 and 1858. R. HOLDEN, Capt. 

United Service Institution, Whitehall Yard. 

"REJECTED ADDRESSES," 1812. Can you in- 
form me for whom the following papers were 
intended ? 

3. An Address without a Phoenix. S.T.P. 
8. Drury's Dirge. L.M. 

14. Drury's Hustings. 

15. Architectural Atoms. Dr. B. 

16. Theatrical Alarm Bell. M.P. 

18. Macbeth Travestie 

19. Stranger Travestie 

20. Geo. Barnwell Travestie, 

21. Punch's Apotheosis. T.H. 

Waterloo Crescent, Nottingham. 

[3. "An Address without a Phoenix." Horace Smith's 
genuine rejected address. 

8. " Drury's Dirge." The authors always refused to 
give the name of the lady whose style is here carica- 

14. " Drury Lane Hustings." This was a skit on the 
comic songs of the day. 

15. " Architectural Atoms." Thomas Busby, Mus.Doc. 

16. "Theatrical Alarm Bell." Editor of Morning 

18. "Macbeth." ~) , T . 

19. ".Stranger " (Merely parodies of the several 

20. "Geo. Barnwell." J storie3 - 

21. <f Punch's Apotheosis." Theodore Hook.] 

INDEXES TO BOOKS. Which is the first book 
that contained an index, made in the manner in 
which we now understand the expression ? Many 
of the seventeenth century books contained ela- 
borate tables of contents, in some cases even more 
useful than badly compiled indexes. The sixteenth 
century books frequently contained a very good 
summary of their contents on the title-page. My 
inquiry points to a fairly complete alphabetically 
arranged index. CORNELIUS WALFORD. 

Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 

one inform me where the original painting of a 
picture describing the burial of General Fraser 
after the action of Stillwater, Oct. 8, 1777, during 
the American War, can be seen ? Is it in a public 
gallery or in that of a private collector, and when 
was it painted ? jj. E. 

i5S /- th ? Histry of France, by E. E. Crowe, 
published in Lardner's Cyclopedia " in 1831, is an 
advertisement of another volume of that library, 
to be published during the present year." It is 
X? S i A . View of the History of France from 
fi5?n ' t( ? ratlon of the Bourbons to the Revolution 
of 1830, m one volume, by T. B. Macaulay, Esq., 
M.r. Was this work ever published ? It cer- 

6"' S. XI. FEB. 7, '85.] 



tainly did not appear in " Lardner's Cyclopaedia." 
It strikes me that a most interesting paper might 
be written on " books that were never published," 
particularly if it could be supplemented by the 
reasons why they never saw the light. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

BARR CASTLE, AYRSHIRE. Any particulars 
about Barr Castle, Galston, Ayrshire, will greatly 
oblige. J. H. 

BRONZE MEDALS. Can any of your corre- 
spondents give me information about the bronze 
or copper medals described below-? 

1. A large medal 2j inches diameter. Obverse, 
bust with flowing hair, in armour ; legend, " Leo- 
poldus, I.D.G., Dux Lot. Bar. Kex. Ter." Re- 
verse, man armed on horseback ; landscape with 
trees; legend, "Providentia Principis. Vise 
Munitae"; MDCCXXVII. 

2. Medal ij inches diameter. Obverse, bust, 
bare headed ; legend, " Moriendo restituit rem 
Godfrey." Ke verse, hideous -head ; legend, 
"Ecclesia per versa tenet faciem Diaboli." 

3. Medal 2? inches diameter. Obverse, bust 
with flowing hair ; legend, " Joannes Freind Coll. 
Med. Lond. et Keg. S.S." Reverse, two draped 
figures, shaking hands ; legend, " Medicina Vetus 
et Nova. Unam facimus utramque." 

4. Medal, halfpenny size. A king crowned, 
kneeling, with a harp above a crown ; legend, 
"Floreat Rex." Reverse, a bishop with mitre 
and staff, and a church ; legend, " Quiescat Plebs." 

5. Medal, halfpenny size. Obverse, a cross on 
a shield ; legend, " London, God preserve." Re- 
verse, an elephant. J. E. T. LOVEDAT. 

HERALDIC. Will some one kindly inform me 
what alliance is signified by the fourth quarter in 
the following shield? The four quarterings are 
taken from an old carved escutcheon in wood, 
which has the crest of Blount above it, viz., " an 
armed foot in the sun," and their motto beneath, 
" Lux tua via mea." The tinctures are much 
faded in the third and fourth quarters, but they 
appear to be as below. The shield evidently be- 
longed to one of the families of Blount, but I am 
unable to say whence it came. Possibly the fourth 
quarter will give a clue to the date, and the branch 
of the family for whom it was set up. 1, Barry, 
nebulae of six, or and sable (Blount) j 2, Argent, 
three leopards' faces, jessant of fleurs-de-lys, sable 
(Sodington) ; 3, Argent, a lion rampant sable, 
crowned, within a bordure of the second, bezantee 
(Cornwall) ; 4, Argent, a fesse gules between three 
birds (? peacocks). H. N. 

THE CROKER PAPERS. Can any of your corre- 
spondents give information as to the origin and 
meaning of the words " Up to the altar," in the 

letter of Mr. Croker to Sir Robert Peel of Jan. 12, 
1847, with which a correspondence of seven-and- 
thirty years is closed by Mr. Croker ? See vol. iii. 

I notice in the Graphic for December 6, in a 
review of a book entitled Destiny; or, Man's 
Will-Means and Will-Ends, that mention is made 
of hints to be found in Elizabethan writers upon 
" the diagrammatic co-ordination of morals." Can 
any reader of " N. & Q." furnish me with par- 
ticulars of the names and works of such writers ? 



(6 th S. xi. 48.) 

Lord Bacon's Essays were first printed by Windet 
in 1597, but in this first edition there were only ten 
essays, and that " On Plantations" was not included. 
I have not his second enlarged edition, that of 
1612, but I believe that the essay in question did 
not appear till the third and last enlarged edition 
of the Essays, bearing date 1625. The "Jeru- 
salem artichoke " was introduced into England in 
1617; originally it came from America to Spain 
and Italy, and in the former country the plant 
was called girasdl, in the latter girasdle. It cer- 
tainly did not come from Jerusalem, and it is 
probable that those first planted in England were 
brought by a Frenchman from Canada, to which 
place they had already been introduced. Parkin- 
son describes them as "Battatas de Canada or 
Hierusalem artichokes." Although the plant was 
only introduced into cultivation here in 1617, it 
is quite possible that the tubers had been brought 
over from Italy or Spain some years earlier as a 
dainty article of food, and, if so, the question 
arises, By what name were they known ? Lord 
Bacon's mention of them is in reference to colonies 
and plantations ; and he says, " See what esculent 
things will grow speedily and within the year." 
This must, I think, have been founded on the 
great rapidity with which they grew and spread 
in England after 1617. (See a note by MR. 
MATCHWICK, 5 th S. xi. 217.) EDWARD SOLLY. 

A. C. B. is rather out in his chronology. A re- 
ference to Mr. Arber's edition of Bacon's Essays 
would have shown him that " Of Plantations " was 
written in 1625. The Helianthus tuber.osus^ or 
tuberous-rooted sunflower, a native of tropical 
America, was introduced into Europe about 1617, 
and first cultivated in the Farnese Garden at 
Rome, whence it was distributed under the name 
of Girasole artieiocco, i.e., "sunflower artichoke, 
to other parts of Europe. We can hardly, there- 
fore, expect to find an earlier English reference to 



[6th S. XI. FEB. 7, '85. 

it than that in Venner's Via Recta, 1620, where 
it is introduced to notice as the " Artichock of 
Jerusalem." The connexion with Jerusalem, which 
puzzles A. C. B., will now explain itself, and 
perhaps even a further and more recondite con- 
nexion with Palestine. Lest it should not, I add 
a quotation (from R. Peacock, Gryll Grange, 
chap, i.) which puts the matter in a form hardly 
to be improved upon : " From this girasole we 
have made Jerusalem, and from the Jerusalem 
artichoke we make Palestine soup." It may be 
added that this vegetable seems to have leaped at 
once into immense popularity; hundreds of re- 
ferences to it may be found in the ordinary litera- 
ture of the seventeenth century, after which they 
become rare ; the growing recognition of the more 
valuable qualities of the potato gradually threw 
into the shade those of the girasole, or Jerusalem 
artichoke, or, as it was subsequently also called, 
Jerusalem potato. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

For the very reason that the plant has no con- 
nexion with Jerusalem, the *' fanciful derivation " 
of girasole becomes all tho more likely, and less 
apocryphal. When you know that its Linnsean 
name is Helianthus tuberosus, the girasole begins 
to take the shape of a certainty. It comes from 
North America, as you may see in Alphonse de 
Candolle's priceless little book on the Origin of 
Cultivated Plants, p. 43. Lescarbot brought them 
to France, about 1603, and they were sold as 
toptnambaux. Topinambour is the present name. 
Littre gives topinamboux as the origin, and says it 
is the name of a people of Brazil from which it 
was brought; but this is undoubtedly wrong, as 
De Candolle proves there is no such plant in 
Brazil. Topinamboux is used to designate gross, 
savage, or ignorant persons, and Boileau makes an 
adjective of it : 

" Et 1' Academic, entre nous, 
bouffrant chez soi de si grands fous, 
Me semble un peu topinamboue." 

Epigram 25. 

From this it would seem likely that the French 
word is an endeavour to imitate phonetically the 
red Indian name of the plant, a process for 
which the French usually show an extraordinary 
ineptitude. Even if we knew the Indian word 
familiarly, it would probably be in vain to try and 
identify it with topinarnbour ; so that the French 
for artichoke may go to Jericho instead of Jeru- 


413, 522; xi. 71).-Looking over M? WiSlSS 

ist, I was surprised to see such evidences of hastv 

workmanship as "Tales of a Cordilier" and 

Lockyrf* London Lyrics." No mention is made 

of the privately printed edition of these poems 

which contains one of Cruikshank's finest etchings' 

entirely different from that which formed the 
frontispiece of the first edition, and originally 
designed, I believe, to decorate a catalogue which 
Mr. Locker intended to print of his drawings. 
There are several other omissions and inaccuracies 
in the list, which will probably have been pointed 
out by your correspondents before this note can 
reach England. A new and complete catalogue 
of Cruikshank's works, is a desideratum. Mr. 
G. W. Reid's book is scarce and expensive, and 
the bibliography in the second edition of Mr. 
Jerrold's Life, though a great advance upon that 
in the first edition, is very far from being exhaus- 
tive. For the benefit of bibliophiles, a note should 
be made when the plates have been issued in more 
than one state. It would also be useful to add, 
not fancy valuations, but the prices which the 
books or plates have fetched in recent auctions, 
as these form the best criteria of the value of the 
illustrations. Of course they depend greatly on 
the state of the plates. The Italian Tales, 1824, 
are valued by MR. WHEELER at 11. 5s.; but a copy, 
containing india proofs of Cruikshank's sixteen 
etchings, fetched 81. 2s. 6d. at Mr. Beckford's sale 
in November, 1883. Again, an ordinary copy of 
Scott's Demonology and Witchcraft, 1830, is, 
perhaps, hardly worth ll. 5s.; but the india proofs, 
which are separately issued, are certainly worth 
more, as they contain some of Cruikshank's most 
delicite work. I should also be glad to see an 
appendix, giving a list of Robert Cruikshank's 
principal works. Not possessing the vigorous per- 
sonality of his brother, he has fallen somewhat in 
the background, but at the zenith of his powers, be- 
tween the years 1820 and 1830, his work was scarcely 
distinguishable from that of George. Some of his 
early theatrical portraits are very good, but through 
the mania for Grangerizing dramatic biographies 
they have become extremely rare. It would be 
desirable to catalogue them before all record of 
them is lost. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 


The subject of vitrified forts has received much 
attention. The article under this heading in the 
Penny Cyclopaedia gives references to many works 
treating the topic. It states that about fifty such 
forts have been found in Scotland. Prof. Ferriar, 
inhiaMenippean Essay on English Historians, ii. 
103, has two lines, 

" Or on the seeming steep and shadowy plain, 

Hunt the glass-castle or Phenician fane "; 
and in a note remarks that " glass-castle " relates 
to the vitrified forts of Scotland, and the " Pheni- 
cian fane " to the celebrated ship-temples in Ire- 
land. I do not know what these ship-temples are, 
but cite the passage, as they may be vitrified struc- 
tures, and if so furnish examples out of Scotland; 
out they would also be Gaelic. Macculloch re- 

6'th S, XI. FEB. 7, '85.] 



marked that the material of these walls had evi- 
dently been selected with vitrification in view, such 
as granite, moorstone, limestone, sandstone, and 
pudding-stone, and not the material at hand. The 
walls are generally about twelve feet high ; no 
doubt coffering would be employed, but it would 
hardly furnish sufficient substance of fuel for the 
complete vitrification of the surfaces. In the third 
volume of the Archceologia, p. 112, there is an ac- 
count of the curious house of the Gateacres, of Gate- 
acre, near Bridgenorth, extracted from Brereton's 
Tour through South Wales. The walls are, or were, 
of dark grey freestone, coated with a thin green 
vitrified substance, about the thickness of a crown 
piece, without the least appearance of any joint or 
cement, so that the building seemed one entire 
piece, and it was a most effectual preservation 
against all bad weather. It is a pity that money 
should have been wasted in experimenting on 
the Houses of Parliament with German silicates, 
when the whole might have been rendered 
imperishable by the application of the old 
Gateacre process to its surfaces. Science often 
prefers to go round the globe, like Capt. Cook, 
rather than sail direct from Dover to Ply- 
mouth coastwise. The Gateacre process seems 
lost now, and I conclude that the house has long 
ago been pulled down, so that we have only got 
Brereton's report from which to elicit the lost 
secret. Still the idea is worth a good deal, and if 
this should set any rational human being to work, 
the vitrifying barbarians might yet help the stupid 
civilized (so called). C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

There are remains of several of these in Gallo- 
way. The best I have examined is in the parish 
of Mochrum ; it is called the' Doun of May. It 
has been much mutilated by persons carrying off 
pieces of the structure as curiosities, and little re- 
mains now but an amorphous mass. Galloway 
was the territory of the Southern Picts, or Cruithne, 
as delimited by the ancient fosse now called the 
Devil's Dyke, which may be traced from Loch 
Eyan across the Kirkcudbright Highlands, through 
Nithsdale. The latter part of its course lay 
through land long since brought under cultivation, 
and is obliterated, but it probably joined the Sol way 
near Langholm. From the occurrence of vitrified 
forts in Galloway and in the territory of the 
Northern Picts (Cruithentuath) and nowhere else, 
it may be considered not improbable that they 
were the handiwork of this hardy and warlike race. 
Some years ago I assisted in the experiment of 
making a miniature vitrified fort. A mound of 
stones and sand having been made, we lighted a 
bonfire over it and threw in quantities of seaweed 
to form potash. The result was that the stones 
were firmly fused in a vitreous matrix, and the 
modern imitation was not to be distinguished from 
the ancient work. HERBERT MAXWELL, 

The remains of one of these forts may still be 
seen at Tullyard (the high hill), near Drurnbo, in 
the county of Down, about seven miles south of 
Belfast. In May, 1879, this place was visited by 
the members of the Belfast Naturalists' Field 
Club, and the following is an extract from their 
report : 

" The principal object of interest in this place is the 
old fort, some traces of which still remain. The struc- 
ture is to a great extent demolished and the site partly in 
crop ; however, the greater portion of the central ' lis ' 
is still intact, and though the remains are much obscured, 
yet the stones found in a vitrified or slaggy state are 
sufficient to attest that this was one of those structures, 
so rare in this country, which are known as vitrified 
forts. Though no portions of the stonework are now 
visible in situ, yet such were to be seen within a com- 
paratively recent period." 

I cannot refer to any other vitrified fort in Ireland ; 
but it should not be forgotten that in modern 
times these hill forts have frequently been _the 
scenes of great bonfires, the results of which might 
be the occasional vitrification of some of the stones, 
which were subjected to intense heat. There are 
some interesting notes upon Scotch vitrified forts 
in Loch Etive and the Sons of Uisnach, Macmillan, 
London, 1879, written (anonymously) by the late 
Dr. E. Angus Smith, F.E.S. 



These structures are generally ascribed to the 
so-called Picts. Strolling recently about Somer- 
setshire, I found reason to think that the pre- 
historic hill fort known as Cadbury Castle, Win- 
canton, was once vitrified. It is ascribed to King 
Arthur; it has Eoman remains, but must be Celtic 
in its origin; if so, this vitrification, a solitary 
instance in south Britain, will explain the mythical 
splendour ascribed to it in mediaeval romance. 


There are several of these fortifications in the 
neighbourhood of Bala, North Wales. They were 
visited by the members of the Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Society on the occasion of their meeting 
there in August last, and an account of them was 
to appear in the September number of the Archceo- 
logia Cambrensis. E. H. WOOD. 


To GRUDGE, GRUGER (6 th S. xi. 28). To 
derive E. grudge from Fr. gruger may afford a fair 
opportunity for a joke at the expense of the 
Ancients of Staple Inn, but such an etymology 
stands in need of explanation ; at least a sugges- 
tion might be made that I have not seen in any 
English dictionary concerning that difficult word, 
namely, that there are two different verbs to 
grudge, both derived from French. (1) To grudge 
= to grumble, to murmur (O.E. grucchen, very, 
common and very early, see O.E. Horn., i. 275), 
from O.F. grocer, groucher, grower, to grumble. 



XI. FEB. 7, '85, 

Oroucer is still commonly used in Normandy. 
(2) To grudge=to gnaw, to craunch ; Fr. gruger, 
same meaning. For instances of this word see 
Nares's GL, s.v. "Grudging," (X. gr. "Grudging 
stomachs," 1 Utn. VI., IV. L; Halliwell's Diet 
" Grudgings = tine bran"; Prompt. Parv,, p. 217, 
note, &c. (2) appears much later than (1) both m 
English and in French. The etymology of grudge 
= groucer, is O.H.G. grunzen, to grunt; that of 
0rw<tye = gruger, O.L.G. grusen, to crush. 

This solution of the difficulty has at least the 
merit of doing away with the clumsy links needed 
to connect the idea of gnawing with that of mur- 
muring. F. J. AMOURS. 

EXCALIBUR (6 lh S. xi. 9). In reply to CON- 
STANT READER'S query as to the meaning of King 
Arthur's sword Excalibur in your issue of Jan. 3, 
which I have only just seen, I would refer him 
to the late Kev. Robert Hawker's Quest of the 

" Excalibur, a Hebrew name signifying champer of 
the steel : 

' Arthur belted with the sheathed Excalibur, 

That gnash'd his iron teeth and yearn'dfor war.' 
The name is variously rendered Escalibur, Excalibur, 
Excalibert, Caliburn." 

Merlin's romance explains the name, " Ex- 
calibert est un nom Ebrieu qui vault autant 
a dire en Frangais comme tres cher fer et 
acrer, et aussi dissoyent il vrai." At p. 258, 
vol. i., of Dr. Kenealy's very curious Book of 
Enoch, the sacred sword Excalibar is spoken of as 
the sword of the shining spirit Cali, Arthur of Eng 
land, its owner, being regarded as a type of the 
Messenger, Arthur being the Cymric name for the 
Messiah. Under his name of St. George he has a 
magical sword called As-kal-on, the Fire of Cali, 
the sun. In the Mabinogion Arthur's sword is 
called Caledvwlch: 

" Rhongomyant is the name of his lance, Wynebgwr- 
thucher his shield, and Carnwenhau his dagger. The 
similitude of two serpents was upon Caledvwlch in gold 
And when the sword was drawn from its scabbard, if 
eeemed as if two flames of fire burst forth from the jawi 
ol the serpents, and then, so wonderful was the sword 
that it was hard for any one to look upon it." 

I am ignorant of the meaning of these words. 

Excalibur may probably mean the heroic grea 
sword, abraded or changed from euchdail claid 
heamh mhor, and pronounced something liki 

Pendragon, the dragon head, so called from it 
bearing the dragon crest that he wore on his head 

Ron is simply a spear, roibhne. 

Priven, the glittering mountain, priobach ben 
pronounced like preeovain. J. R. HAIQ 


DOMESDAY BOOK (6 th S. xi. 88). A General 

'ntroduction to Domesday Boob, by Sir Henry 

:ilis, F.R.S., originally published in 1813 and 

eprinted in 1832, 2 vok, will probably assist T. 1. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

FDR. COBHAM BREWER states that the best book con- 
erning Domesday Book is Eyton's. Reeves & Turner, 
n the Strand, have some publications of the kind T. F. 

ARMS OP THE CITY OF CORK (6 th S. xi. 90) 
re as follows : Or, an ancient ship between two 
astles in fesse gules. The motto is " Statio bene 
da carinis." H. S. 

LEAD STAINS ON OLD PRINTS (6 th S. xi. 88). 
Slothing is easier than to remove these. You have 
jnly to apply with care, by means of a camers- 
lair brush, a little oxygenated water, called also 
)eroxide of hydrogen, to the blackened patches. 
Che blackening is due to the conversion of white 
carbonate of lead into black sulphide of lead, 
. wing to the presence in the atmosphere of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. The liquid in question, the 

pplication of which to the purpose was first sug- 
O ested fifty years ago by the celebrated French 
chemist Baron The"nard, changes the black sul- 
phide of lead into white sulphate of lead. This 

iquid, which is quite innocuous, was much used, 
[ believe, some time ago for bleaching human hair. 
[t may, I fancy, be purchased at BeU's in 
Oxford Street, URBAN. 

MUSICAL STONES (6 th S. xi. 49). In reply ^to 
MR. MULLEN'S inquiry I send the following in- 
formation. Mr. Peter Crosthwaite, founder of 
Crosthwaite's Museum, Keswick, discovered the 
first musical stones on June 11, 1785, on the 
sand-beds of the river Greta, near Keswick. Thirty 
years later Mr. Todhunter, of Kendal, collected a 
set from the limestone of that neighbourhood. 
In 1837 Mr. Joseph Richardson collected a large 
set from a quarry at the back of Skiddaw, which 
he called the rock band. He also added steel 
plates and a set of bells, and introduced drums to 
aid in the performance on them. He travelled 
through England, Ireland, and Scotland, and on 
the Continent. After this Mr. Wm. Bo we, a stone- 
mason, collected an excellent set, which he called 
the rock harmonicon. After him his cousin, Mr. 
Wm. Bowe, guide and boatman of Keswick, col- 
lected a splendid set, and exhibited them, and 
performed, with the aid of two other friends, for 
many years. Other sets have been found at dif- 
ferent times. The last set of importance was 
collected by Messrs. Daniel Till & Sons, about 
thirteen years ago. They have exhibited them 
with great success in many places in England and 
Scotland, and they are shortly going to exhibit 
them in America. This set has five octaves. 

6'i> S. XI. FEB. 7, '85.] 



The original set is now in the possession of Mrs. 
Tickell, the Oaks, Keswick, a granddaughter of 
the first discoverer, Peter Crosthwaite. This set 
consists of sixteen in number, upon which any 
tune in the natural key can be played. They are 
composed of horblende slate and gneiss, two of the 
lower rocks of the Skiddaw strata. 

Bank, Keswick. 

MIDDLE TEMPLE (6 th S. xi. 29, 94). Every- 
body does not know a member of the Middle 
Temple through whom to apply. An application 
to the steward of the Middle Temple, accompanied 
by a search fee of 2.s. 6d., will, however, obtain any 
information concerning an individual the books 
are able to convey. Experto crede. URBAN. 

(6 th S. xi. 49). There seems little difficulty in 
this it is what is now known as " the Old Style "; 
and by the New, or present style, the dates will 
be 1676 and 1711. If MR. BROWN can refer to 
any Prayer-book printed before 1752, he will find 
among the tables a note distinctly stating " that 
the Supputation of the year of our Lord in the 
Church of England beginneth the Five and 

"Jan. 1, 1710-11," or "Jan. 1, 1710/11," the 
latter year being the right one according to present 
computation. HERMENTRUDE. 

This expression occurs in two deeds relating to 
land in this parish, dated May 29 and 30, 1682. 
To understand it, it is necessary to bear in mind 
that the " New Style " was adopted by the Church 
of Rome so early as 1582, by a decree of Pope 
Gregory XIII., which caused ten days to be struck 
out of the current year between the 4th and 15th 
of October ; while the Church of England retained 
the old uncorrected "style" until September, 
1752, when, by Act of Parliament (24 George II., 
c. 23), eleven days were dropped between the 
2nd and 14th of that month. Therefore, between 
the years 1582 and 1752, a date "according to 
the computation of the Church of England" is 
eleven days behind the more correct computation 
of the Church of Rome. 

The Church of Greece, which prevails through- 
out Russia, still retains the Old Style, and is now 
consequently twelve days and soon will be thir- 
teen, owing" to the want of an additional day in 

ap Year behind the rest of the Christian world 
in its computation of time. W. R. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

introducing the New Style in 1752. 

This query of MR. BROWN 
former correspondence in " N. & Q." At 


nn - 

f w i 

* S% 


nd I can con- 
fidently say that it does not exhibit the slighest 
of being a " print mounted on canvas and 
painted orer." I am much obliged to your corre- 
spondent for his varied information in reply to 

of his picture by attributing it to Rowlandson ? 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

This means reckoning the year from Easter to 
Easter, the part of the year previous to Easter 

two years mentioned, as Easter fell in 1675 on 
April 4, and in 1676 on March 26, the year 1675 
would be considered to run from April 4, 1675, 
to March 26, 1676 ; and as Easter fell on April 9, 
1710, and April 1, 1711, the year 1710 is reckoned 
from April 9, 1710, to April 1, 1711. The shorter 
way of indicating this reckoning is by writing 

might be stag-hounds. Their heads rest 
on the table. Over the large hall-window at the 
back of the picture hangs the skull of a stag, with 
J large antlers. All the figures, the parson included, 

- _ r are English in feature and costume; the two full- 
being always accounted to belong to what we length paintings on the wall represent two gentle- 
should consider the preceding year. Thus, of the men in English costume, the furniture is of 

English pattern, and the great joint on the table 
is an excellent representation of the roast-beef of 
old England. With regard to the similar " large 
curly French horns " shown in the hunting designs 
on my Worcester china punch-bowl, I scarcely 
think it probable that the designer for Hancock's 
transfer would borrow German designs for his 


16* S. XI. FEB. 7, '85. 


, has and George Stubbs the animal painter i 
yet to be cleared up. CUTHBERT BED'E. ^ ^^ ^ 

KHEDIVE (6 th S. ix. 449 ; x. 13, 335, 417; xi. CLOCKMAKER (6 th S. x. 408, 525 ; xi. 

18). In Persian dictionaries the points are given, __^ ^ information of otn ers interested in 
and the last letter is <waw, not ya. ol( f clockS) I wis h to say that, on application to 

R. S. CHARNOCK. ^ 8ecreta ' ry of the Eoyal Archaeological Institute, 

SQUANDERING (6 th S. x. 494). In the sense of Oxford Mansion, Oxford Street, I have obtained a 
guf, irregular, random, this adjective occurs in of Mr> Q. S. Morgan's List of Members of the 

ClocJcmakers' Company, reprinted from the Archceo- 
logical Journal, vol. xl., 1883, price 2s. 6d. 


I have, like your correspondent MR. JULIAN 

MONK, DUKE OP ALBEMARLE (6 th S. xi. 29). MARSHALL, taken the ad vice offered by M. A. Oxon, 
Monk married in 1652 his only wife, Anne, and my ex p er i ence is exactly the opposite to his. 
daughter of John Clarges, farrier to the duke, j nstea( j_ O f no t having " advanced me an inch," the 
and wife or widow of John Radford, also a | re p ly j rece i ve d from Mr. Wm. Pollard told me 

all I wanted to know, viz., where to find Mr. 
Morgan's paper on the Clockmakers' Company. 
I referred to the Archaeological Journal, vol. xl. 


As You Like It, II. vii.: 

" The wise man's folly is anatomized 
Even by the squandriny glances of the fool.' 


farrier. According to her contemporaries, " a 
more dirty, vulgar, and disagreeable woman than 
the Duchess of Albemarle it would be difficult to 
conceive. She was seldom without rage in her 
countenance, and a curse on her lips." Lord 
Clarendon wrote : " Monk was cursed to marry a 
woman of the lowest extraction, the least wit, and 
less beauty. She was a woman with nothing 

p. 194, where MR. JULIAN MARSHALL will find 
what he wants. GEORGE W. MARSHALL. 

BALLAD (6 th S. x. 408). There is a ballad en- 
D titled " A Songe made in Edwarde the Fourthe 

feminine about her but her form." However, the hys tyme of ye Eattele of Hexhamme in Northern- 
duke was said to have been more afraid of her \berlonde, anno M.CCCC.XIV., which contains the 
than of a large army. Her father, when she be- incident of Queen Margaret and the robber. It 
came a duchess, raised a maypole in the Strand to wa s published as a pamphlet by M. A. Richard- 
celebrate her good fortune. The duke died Jan. 3, S on, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and forms one of a series 
1670, in his chair, which gratified the many who known as " Richardson's Tracts." 
had long prophesied he would never die in his KATE THOMPSON. 

bed. By his duchess who, by the way, did not Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

long survive him he had one son, Christopher, , ... . _. 

IRELAND IN 1641 (6 th S. xi. 25). 

" Dr. Thomas Arthur, a Catholic physician, was born 
in Munster in 1593. He studied on the Continent, and 
subsequently became the leading practitioner in Ireland. 
His fee-book, published in The Journal of the Kilkenny 
Archaeological Society, is an interesting and valuable 

born in 1653, who married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Lord Ogle, afterwards Duke of Newcastle, and 
died in Jamaica, where he had been Governor, 
in 1688, childless. His widow declared she 
would marry no one under the rank of a sovereign 

-, 7 oj - I each case. Once we find him attending Archbishop 

w , v HENRY U MOPE. Ussher, curing him of a severe disease, and receiving 

511. for his services, at Drogheda and Lambay Island. 

There is an interesting paper on the Duchess of His usual fees ap P ear to have been f 2 T ?- and , 10 . 5 ' -JJ 
Albemarle in Mr. Timb& Romance of London. \ ^ tb V r .^on through the siege of Limerick in 1651 

- I The date of his death does not appear to be known.' 
Anne Clarges ^survived the first duke a few days. | From Webb's 7mA Biography, 1878. 


Freegrove Road, N. 

Christopher, the second duke, married Lady Eliza- 
beth Cavendish, granddaughter of the Duke of 



WILLEY CHURCH (6 th S. xi. 28). The initials 
would probably be those of the churchwardens. 
Similar "churchwardens' marks" are on a beam 
of the roof in the south aisle of Glatton Church, 

* oi, unarms urosj. was doubtless a I Huntingdonshire. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

solicitor. My grandfather, Wm. Fynmore, was 

DR. JOHNSON'S WILL (6 th S. xi. 64). The 
George Stubbs mentioned in this article as of 
Suffolk Street, Charing Cross, was doubtless a 

articled to him, and married a Jane Stubbs, CHRISTMAS CA-ROL (6 th S. xi. 47). Your corre- 
daughter of Capt. Thos. Stubbs, 52nd Regiment, spondent will find the whole carol given in Folk- 

6th s. XI. FEB. 7, '85.] 



lore of the Northern Counties, by W. Henderson, 
p. 71, edit. 1879. Another version is supplied in 
Halliwell's Popular Rhymes, pp. 73-4, in which 
twelve days of good things are mentioned, whereas 
the former version has only ten. I shall be glad 
to send your correspondent a copy of the carol if 
he desires to have one. 


This carol will be found in a book entitled 
Songs of the Nativity, edited by William Henry 
Husk, published by Hotten, Piccadilly. 

S. M. P. 

HOMER " TRAVESTIE " (6 th S. xi. 89).-Frost's 
Address can be seen at the British Museum. It 
was delivered to the Literary and Philosophical 
Society at Kingston-upon-Hull on Nov. 5, 1830, by 
Mr. Charles Frost, F.S.A., and published in the 
following year. To save URBAN trouble I tran- 
scribe from p. 35 of the pamphlet the notice of 
Thomas Bridges, " who is described by Baker in 
his Biographia Dramatica as a native of York- 
shire, and at one period a wine merchant in Hull, 
was a brother of the late Dr. Bridges, an eminent 
physician in this town; he was also a partner in the 
well-known but unfortunate firm of Sill, Bridges 
& Blunt, bankers here, who failed in January, 
1759. Mr. Bridges was the author of a humor- 
ous travestie of Homer's Iliad, in 2 vols. 12mo., 
under the facetious title of 'A New Translation 
of Homer's Iliad, adapted to the Capacity of 
Honest English Roast Beef and Pudding Eaters, 
by Caustic Barebones, a broken apothecary.' 
The first volume, which appeared in 1762, pro- 
fesses to give some small account of the author 
under his pseudo-title of Barebones.* He also wrote 
an entertaining novel, entitled The Adventures of 
a Bank Note, besides a comic opera called Dido, 
and a musical entertainment called The Dutchman." 
In the Gent. Mag. for 1759, p. 47, the last names 
in the list of bankrupts are, " Joseph Sill, Thomas 
Rogers [sic], and Roger Blount, of Kingston-upon- 
Hull, merchants." URBAN is doubtless aware that 
the Travestie has also been attributed to F. Grose. 

G. F. R. B. 

S. xi. 29, 59). The original picture, size about 
16 in. by 13^ in., is in my possession, and is, I 
believe, that referred to by Nichols as having be- 
longed t6 Sir Ed. Walpole and afterwards to Mr. 
John Follett, of the Temple, London. Mr. A. 
McKay (Colnaghi's) kindly informs me that some 

gsars ago he had a version of the subject " by 
ogarth's hand, a beautiful work, differing some- 
what from the engraving," which was bought at 
Cheltenham at public auction. This work he has 
sold, and he has kept no memorandum of the size. 

* See Monthly Review, vol. xxvi. p. 454. 

He has, however, applied to the purchaser to enable 
me to see it and obtain further particulars, but this 
gentleman, rather discourteously, " declines to take 
any trouble in the matter." This is probably the 
other picture, mentioned by Nichols as having 
belonged to Mr. John Gage, of Lincoln's Inn. It 
would be absurd to believe, as stated in the publi- 
cation line, that the engraving was " Invented, 
Engraved, and Published " in one day. 

W. I. R. V. 

HANNAH BRAND (6 th S. xi. 89). It may save 
H. T. some little trouble in his search for the date 
of Hannah Brand's death if he is aware that her 
name appears in the Biographical Dictionary of 
the Living Authors of Great Britain and Ireland 
(1816). According to this authority she was 
formerly an actress and afterwards a schoolmistress 
at Norwich. G. F. R. B. 

DAVID Cox, THE PAINTER (6 th S. xi. 47). In 
Mr. N. N. Solly's Life of David Cox (1873), p. 5, 
G. W. M. will find that " David, at the age of 
fifteen, was apprenticed to a locket and miniature 
painter in Birmingham, of the name of Fielder." 
An apprenticeship of rather more than eighteen 
months was brought to a sudden close by the 
suicide of his master. That Cox made good use of 
his time under Fielder is satisfactorily proved by 
the photograph of a locket painted by him in early 
life, which will be found opposite to p. 1 of the 
book. G. W. M. will also find some mention of 
Mr. Fielder in Mr. Hall's Biography of David Cox 
(1881), pp. 6,7. G. F. R. B. 

The name of the person to whom young David 
Cox was apprenticed was Fieldler, for whom the 
young artist painted " subjects for lockets and the 
lids of snuff-boxes." For a full description of 
these subjects, see A Biography of David Cox, by 
William Hall (Cassell & Co., 1881), who was an 
old friend and near neighbour of the famous Har- 
borne painter. I had the great pleasure of a 
personal intimacy with David Cox and William 
Hall. It was consequent upon Fieldler's suicide 
that the elder Macready offered employment to 
young David Cox as an assistant to M. de Maria, 
the scene-painter of the Birmingham Theatre. 
See Hall's Biography, chap. i. 


LE SOICIDE ABJURE" " (6 th S. xi. 89). G. 
Colman's comedy in four acts, The Suicide, was 
acted at the Haymarket, 1778, but was not printed. 

THE LADIES WALDEGRAVE (6 th S. xi. 49). Sir 
Joshua Reynolds's celebrated picture of these three 
ladies was exhibited last year at the Grosvenor 
Gallery. It was exhibited also at the Royal 
Academy in 1781, at the British Institution in 
1823 and 1856, and also at the National 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6 th s. XL FEB. 7/85. 

Exhibition of 1867. See Mr. F. G. Stephens's 
Catalogue. This picture has also been discussed 
in "N. & Q. ," 6 lb S. ix. 268, 297. 

G. F. K. B. 

The only record I can find to prove that Ramsay 
painted the three Ladies Waldegrave is that the 
picture, 60 in. by 55 in., was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy (Old Masters) in 1879, No. 246, 
by the Countess Waldegrave. The Eeynolds 
picture was at the Grosvenor Gallery last year, 

6, Pall Mall. 

Their picture, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, was 
exhibited by Lord Carlingford at the Grosvenor, 
and was painted in 1781 for eight hundred guineas. 
I remember no such picture by Allan Ramsay. 


Burnham, Bucks. 

POEMS BY SETH WARD (6 th S. xi. 47). As a 
boy, some forty years ago, I knew a very old man 
at Tarn worth who was a prolific " poet," and who 
wrote literally reams of MS. poems, the fate of 
which I never heard. It is just possible that these 
were the poems sold " twenty years ago." Will 
ANON, give date and place of sale ? ESTE. 

STANDARD IN CORNHILL (6 th S. x. 149, 198, 
255, 297, 398). A gentleman residing in the 
vicinity of Dorking, having perused my article on 
this subject with admitted interest, readily falls in 
with my statement that " Freeman's Court is in 
Cheapside," and admits that no other Freeman's 
Court is mentioned in any modern Post-Office 
Directory; but states that, nevertheless, during a 
many years' residence in the City in his younger 
days, he knew of a Freeman's Court in Coruhill, 
and that he finds due mention made of it in two 
old directories printed more than a century back. 
From early recollections, therefore, he takes an 
interest in any circumstance connected with the 
old city. It would seem from his statement that 
the Freeman's Court last mentioned had an exist- 
ence down to so late a period as forty-five years 

I duly thanked MR. DIXON (the gentleman in 
question) for his intelligence ; and, feeling quite 
as interested as himself in the topography of our 
renowned metropolitan city, I cheerfully accord 
him this respectful mention in " N. & Q. " of 
which (I believe) he is a constant reader. 


POWELL OF EWHURST (6 th S. xi. 48). I note the 
will of a Nathaniel Powell, gent, who may be the 
person inquired for by your correspondent MR 
WAKE. His will is dated Aug. 10, 1770, and 
proved by his sister, Sarah Powell, in P C C 
April 5, 1773 (177 Stevens). He mentions brother 

Benjamin Powell, late of Peckham, Esq., and his 
daughter Ann Powell, spinster ; freeholds in the 
parish of St. Luke, Old Street ; sister Sarah 
Powell, of Bath, spinster, executrix. 

G. W. M. 

" Nathaniel Powell, Esq., of Ewhurst, was created 
a baronet by Charles II. at the Restoration, and 
he, or his son of the same name, subsequently to 
1664, purchased Bodiarn " (Sussex Arch. Colls., ix. 

BISHOP FLEETWOOD (6 th S. xi. 8). Chalmers's 
Biographical Dictionary (on the authority of 
Powell's Life) states : 

" Born in the Tower of London, in which hia father, 

Jeffery Fleetwood, had resided He left behind him 

an only son, Dr. Charles Fleetwood, who inherited his 
paternal estate in Lancashire, and had been presented 
a few years before by his father, as Bishop of Ely, to 
the great rectory of Cpttenbam, in Cambridgeshire, 
which he did not long enjoy." 


The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

William Fleetwood was the son of Jeffery 
Fleetwood by Anne his wife, daughter of Richard 
Smith, Prothonotary of the Poultry Compter. 
His only son was Dr. Charles Fleetwood, Rector 
of Cottenham, Cambs. It seems neither his widow 
nor his son survived him long. See Biog. Brit. t 
vol. iii. (1750), pp. 1966-1978, and Chalmers 
(1814), vol. xiv. pp. 375-380. G. F. R. B. 

In reply to your correspondent J. P. E., I refer 
him to Biographia Britannica, where he will find 
that Bishop Fleetwood was descended from the 
Fleetwoods of Lancashire, and inherited an estate 
there. His widow, Mrs. Anne Fleetwood, has a 
monumental inscription on black marble in Ely 
Cathedral. His father was Jeffery Fleetwood, and 
his mother Anne, daughter to Richard Smith, 
Prothonotary of the Poultry Compter. He left an 
only son, Charles Fleetwood, LL.D., who inherited 
his paternal estate, and was Archdeacon of Corn- 
wall, Canon of Ely and Exeter, and Rector of 
Cottenham. W. L. 

It is somewhat surprising that no biography 
exists of this excellent man and distinguished pre- 
late, beyond the brief notice prefixed by his 
nephew, Dr. W. Powell, Dean of St. Asaph, to 
the collected edition of his works published in 
1737. He is said to have been born in the Tower 
of London on New Year's Day, i.e., March 25, 
1656. But what brought his mother there ? The 
answer is probably found in a quotation in Peck's 
Desiderata, from some obituary notices written by 
a Mr. Richard Smith, Prothonotary in the Poultry 
Compter, and antiquary : " MDCLXV. April 17. 
Died my son Jeffery Fleetwood in the Tower, 
leaving my daughter Ann, his wife, and six little 
children behind 'him: God preserve them!" As 
there is no record of any other Fleetwood being in 

6"> S. XI. FEB. 7, '8S.] 



the Tower as a prisoner, except Col. George Fleet- 
wood, the regicide, who was committed August 25, 
1660, but subsequently released, it is probable 
that Jeffery Fleetwood had some cfficml connexion 
with the fortress, and resided there. Reference to 
the civil and ecclesiastical muniments of the Tower 
might give light on this point. Jeffery Fleetwood 
belonged to the branch of that family seated at 
Rossal, Lancashire, other branches being settled 
at Hesketh in that county, and in several other 
counties. The estate, which devolved upon the 
bishop, passed, on his decease, to his son and only 

surviving child (by his wife Ann ?), Dr. 

Charles Fleetwood, Fellow of King's College, 
Cambridge, Prebend of Ely, Canon of Exeter, 
Archdeacon of Cornwall, and Rector of Cotten- 
ham, Cambridge decidedly a pluralist. The 
latter, who married in 1718 Anne, daughter of Dr. 
Stephen Weston, Bishop of Exeter, died July 27, 
1737, and was buried in his father's vault in Ely 
Cathedral, where monuments to father and son, 
erected by their respective widows, may be seen. 

The Rossal estate passed, not long after, to the 
Hesketh family, by the marriage of Roger Hes- 
keth, Sheriff in 1740, with Margaret Fleetwood. 
In 1831 their descendant, Peter Hesketh of 
Rossal, assumed by royal licence the name and 
arms of Fleetwood. It was this gentleman who, 
in 1836, founded the port which bears his name, 
about two miles north of Rossal ; in 1838 he was 
created a baronet (the first Fleetwood baronetcy 
of 1611 having become extinct in 1802) ; in 1850 
he sold the Rossal estate to the trustees of the 
public school lately founded there, and died 
April 12, 1866, when the baronetcy expired. The 
present representative of the Fleetwoods and Hes- 
keths of Rossal is Edward Fleetwood Hesketh, 
Esq., of North Meols Hall. I hope this informa- 
tion will satisfy your correspondent J. P. E. 

0. H. D. 

496; xi. 75). The dedications of churches in Wilts 
have been collected by the Rev. Canon Jackson, 
and recorded in vol. xv. of the Wiltshire Archceo- 
logical Magazine, p. 99, 1875. 0. H. MAYO. 

Long Burton. 

The dedications of all the parish churches in 
England and Wales, arranged according to dioceses 
and deaneries, so far as the dedications can be 
ascertained, are given in two books in common 
use. In the Thesaurus Rerum Ecclesiasticarum, 
by John Ecton, Lond., 1742, it is stated in the 
preface, p. iii: 

" As a further advantage, the names of the saints to 
whom the churches or chapels are dedicated are placed 
immediately after the Rectories, Vicarages, &c. For this 
the editors are obliged to that learned and communica- 
tive antiquary, Browne Willis, Esq." 

The Liber Regis, vel Thesaurus Rerum Ecclesias- 
ticarum, by John Bacon, Lond., 1786, is more 

complete, from its reference to the Valor Ecclesias- 
ticus of Henry VIII. The Valor itself was printed 
by the Record Commission, 1810-36, in 6 vols. 
fol. The divisions of the volumes may be seen in 
Lowndes, s.v. "Valor." ED. MARSHALL. 

A list of dedications for the county of Somerset 
is given in the Proceedings of the Archaeological 
Society in that county, and the same is done for 
co. Wilts, by Canon Jackson, in the Wilts Archceo- 
logical Magazine, vol. xv. p. 98. J. 

(6 th S. ix. 508; x. 98, 234, 373, 478; xi. 33, 74). 
Would some reader of "N. & Q." having access 
to a file of the Leisure Hour kindly supply me 
with the date of the article spoken of MR. J. P. 


Has your correspondent seen those in Moens's 
Catalogue of Stamps ? If not I shall be happy to 
lend them to him. E. A. FRY. 

172, Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

ST. DEVENICK (6 th S. xi. 9). According to 
Baring Gould, St. Devenick was a Scotch saint, 
of Caithness, colleague of the early preachers in 
Scotland, St. Columba and St. Mauricius. He is 
described as "a very old man," and called Devinicus, 
and is buried, according to Aberdeen Breviary, at 
"Banquhory, Devynik." A fair at Methlick (co. 
Aberdeen) is held in his honour (November), and 
a well, " St. Devenick," is found in the neighbour- 
hood. 0. BLAIR. 

The name of this Scotch saint is given in Smith 
and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography. 
Very little is known of him. He flourished in 
the ninth century, and is supposed to have died 
887. He was either a bishop or an archdeacon; 
laboured as a preacher in Caithness, and was 
buried in the church of Banchory-Devenick, near 
Aberdeen. He is known also as St. Davneck. 

May not this be a corruption of Devynock ? 
There is a parish of this name in the county of 
Brecon, and the church is dedicated to two saints 

Cynog and Dyfnog. Is not Devynock the same 
as Dyfnog 1 St. Dyfnog flourished between 600 
and 634; February 13 is his festival. There was 
also a saint of the name of Dyfnig, who accom- 
panied Cadfan from Armorica to Britain in the 
sixth century. . M.A.Oxon. 

"November 13. In Scotland the deposition of St. 
Devinike, bishop in the ninth century." A Memorial of 
Ancient Britisk Piety; or, a British Martyrology, p. 158, 
Lond., 1761. 


Co WELL (6 th S. xi. 29). For 1637 read 1607. 
A good account of the circumstances connected 
with the condemnation of Dr. Cowell's book will 



[6* S, XI. FEB. 7, '85. 

be found in the Biographia Britannica, vol. iii., 
] 494-7. This mainly rests on a fuller statement 
by Bishop White Kennett, contained in his pre- 
face prefixed to the edition of The Interpreter pub- 
lished in 1701. To make the relative value of 
this edition better known, I will add the full title 
from my copy, and an important note by Dr. Bliss: 

The Interpreter or Words and Terms, used either in 
the Common or Statute Laws of this Realm, and in 
Tenures and Jocular Customs : with an Appendix, con- 
taining the Antient Names of Places in England, very 
Necessary for the Use of all Young Students, that con- 
verse with Antient Deeds, Charters, &c. 

First Published by the Learned Dr. COWEL, in the 
Year 1607, and continu'd by THO. MANLEY of the 
Middle Temple, Esq., to the Year 1684. 

Now further Augmented and Improv'd, by the Addi- 
tion of many Thousand Words, as are found in our His- 
tories, Antiquities, Cartularies, Rolls, Registers, and 
other Manuscript Records, nob hitherto Explain'd in 
any Dictionary. 

London : Printed for J. PLACE at Furnivals-Inn-gate 
in Jlollorn, A. & J. CIIURCHIL, at the Black-Swan in 
Pater-nosier-Row, and. 11. SAKE, at Grays-lnn-riale in 
ffolborn, 1701. Folio. 

Title and preface to the last edition by Mr. 
Mauley, two leaves ; [Kennett's] preface, four 
leaves. Sig. B to Z in fours, then Aaa to Ccc in 
twos, then Dd to Zz in twos, then again Aaa to 
Ooo in twos, then Pppp to Ssss in twos; no num- 

" I think that it is not generally known that the first 
really improved edition of this very useful book is in 
folio, Lond., 1701. This was superintended by Bishop 
Kennett, who made many additions, and wrote the 
preface. I learn this from a manuscript note of Bishop 
Tanner's, in his o\vn copy, which was given him by the 
editor, and ia now in the Bodleian. It has a great num- 
ber of valuable notes by Tanner in MS., which have 
been transcribed by Mr. Ellis into a copy of the same 
lition in the British Museum." Note by Dr. P. Bliss 
in Reliquiae Hearniance, second edit., vol. i. p. 307.' 


In the first edition, which I have before me, 
published at Cambridge in 1607, the name is 
spelled Cowdl. The book appears to have 
cltended all parties. The common lawyers were 
hurt, so that Sir Edward Coke dubbed the author 
Dr. Cowheel." One side said that the king's 
prerogative and the power of the Crown were 
attacked, while another accused the writer of be- 
traying the liberties of the people. He was com- 
mitted to prison and the book burned He died 
at Cambridge in 1811, but there were many sub- 
sequent editions of the work. 


The history of Cowel's Interpreter is to be seen 

i??j <M**M* and Quarrels of Authors, 

pp. 193-197, London, Warne, s.a., "Chando< 


- .. ill find the reason for tL. 
[of ^eInterpreUrin the preface to the edi- 
tion of 1727, m vol, in. of Biographia Britannia 

1750), and vol. x. of Chalmers's Biographical Dic- 
ionary, sub nom. u Cowell." In the preface re- 
erred to above, the proclamation of James I. 
' touching Dr. Cowel's Book called The Inter- 
preter " is given at length. G. F. E. B. 

JOHNNY CRAPAUD (6 th S. xi. 6). With refer- 
nce to the adoption of a coat of toads by the 
Cornish family of Botreux, would it not be more 
natural to connect it with the Old French boterel, 
a toad, plural botereaus ? The word is of frequent 
occurrence in French, and is also found in The 
Ayenbite, p. 187. It has survived in France in 
lome names of places, as Les Bottereaux, a village 
n Normandy. The existence of a Cornish word 
wtru might help to elucidate the etymology of 
boterel, which, in Burguy at least, is anything but 
clear. F. J. AMOURS. 

xi. 26). This phrase is used by Americans. It 
occurs in Dana's Two Years before the Mast, 
h. xx. : " They said her decks were as white as 
snow holystoned every morning, like a man-of- 
war's; everything on board 'ship -shape and 
Bristol fashion.' " GEO. L. APPERSON. 


(6 th S. xi. 46). In all probability the correct 
orthography of this name is Corrance, an old 
county family at the present time resident at Par- 
ham Hall, co. Suffolk. See for pedigree Burke's 
Landed Gentry, s.v. The arms as given there are 
" Arg., on a chevron between three ravens sable, 
three leopards' faces or." Wormingford is a parish 
in Essex, near Colchester, on the river Stour ; and 
on the opposite side of it is Smallbridge, in the 
parish of Bures, Suffolk, an old manor of the 
Waldegraves in the fifteenth century. The old 
manor-house, now occupied by farmers, is still 
remaining. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

368 ; ix. 497 ; x. 53, 138, 214, 357, 504). As my 
rejoinder to MR. MASSE Y would occupy too much 
space in " N. & Q." for a subject not quite its 
own, allow me to say that it is embodied in an 
article that I have been asked to contribute 
(though not quite on all fours with what I take to 
be the opinions of the Society) to the current 
number of the Journal of Psychical Research, in 
reply to numerous letters brought me by my note 
6 th S.x.357. K. H.BUSK. 

53). This book is out of print, but might be got 
through some second-hand bookseller. Smith, in 
Soho Square, Stevens, in Trafalgar Square, or 
Sabin, in Hart Street, could be applied to. A 
few years ago I saw a copy priced at five shillings. 

M, N, G. 

6">S. XI. FEU, 7, '85.] 




A History of Taxation and Taxes in England, from the 
Earliest Times to the Present Day. By Stephen 
Powell, Assistant Solicitor of Inland Revenue. 4 vols. 
(Longmans & Co.) 

A HISTORY of taxation is a work of more importance 
than at first sight appears. Oppressive or unjust taxa- 
tion has been the prime motor in most popular outbreaks. 
Our own history, with its record of successive rebellions 
under leaders like Jack Cade or Wat Tyler, with the 
resistance to ship-money, ending in revolution, and the 
loss by taxation of our American colonies, offers abun- 
dant proof of this fact, which is corroborated by the 
history of neighbouring countries. Nothing is more 
remarkable in the history of the development of freedom 
in the Netherlands than the manner in which the 
Flemish and Dutch cities watched almost, as it seemed, 
unmoved the extinction of their liberties and the perse- 
cution which took toll of the lives of their citizens, and 
filled the land with the scent of rapine and murder. 
The question of over - taxation, however, had power 
to focus in one centre of resistance all scattered elements 
of revolt and to bring about the removal of the rule of 
Spain. In England, indeed, the outbreak of revolt 
against taxation goes back to the time of the Iceni, and 
Queen Boadicea harangued her followers against Roman 
imposts. Far more than a mere technical work is, 
accordingly, the History of Taxation and Taxes in Eng- 
land Mr. Dowell has written. To the philosopher, the 
student, and the political economist the book is invalu- 
able. It has, however, strange as such an assertion 
may seem, great attraction for the general reader, and 
the labour of reading through the four goodly volumes 
is more of a pleasure than a task. Some repetition is 
unavoidable under the conditions which Mr. Dowell has 
imposed upon himself. This, however, is the only defect 
in his volumes. The treatment of the subject is philo- 
sophical, the style is concise and luminous, and the illus- 
trations, sparingly employed, are well selected, and show 
the possession of learning outside the subject treated. 
The four volumes may almost be treated as separate 
works. Vol. i. deals with taxation in England from the 
levy of the Scriptura of the Romans, through the ship- 
geld, danegeld, and fumage, or hearth-tax, of the Saxons, 
the tollage, scutage, and carucage of Norman monarch 
to the first establishment of the Customs and of direct 
taxation, the benevolences and monopolies and other 
forms of levy, and ends with the Civil War. With the 
establishment of the Commonwealth taxation as now 
understood may be held to have commenced. The in 
crease of this through various wars, until in the period 
of struggle against Bonaparte, in the present century 
taxation was carried to its utmost limits, is dealt with in 
vol. ii. In the third volume the history of direct taxa 
tion and stamp duties is followed, and in the fourth 
the history of indirect taxation and all articles deal 
with under Customs and Excise. Not easy is it to believ 
how much interest and how much food for reflection there 
is in the work. Few who commence the perusal wil 
abandon it until the whole of the four volumes hav< 
been mastered. The growth of taxation has, indeed 
many features of a romance, and the history of th< 
removal of imposts is not less stirring. Mr. Dowell'i 
reflections are concisely phrased, and stand out as modeli 
of sententious speech. Here is an instance : " The oath 
of the taxpayer never has proved the basis of fai 
taxation, except in connexion with some power of veri 
tication." It is not easy to overpraise the execution o 
this book. 

n he Nation in the Parish ; or, Records of Vpton-on~ 

Severn. With a Supplemental Chapter on Hamley. 

By Emily M. Lawson. (Houghton & Gunn.) 

IRS. LAWSON has produced a book of much local interest. 

We once heard a farmer's wife say that a book on the 

heory of evolution was very " amusing." Though we 

igreed with the lady in question in estimating the book 

lighly, we thought that she used the word amusing" 

n a non-natural sense . So we should do if we said we 

lad gained entertainment from Mrs. Lawson's labours. 

"Ve have, however, obtained what is much better, a clear 

,nd distinct picture of the old town in the medieval 

ime and of the scenes that took place there during the 

tormy fights between the king and the Long Parliament. 

We have detected but very few mistakes. It is an error 

;o speak of Cromwell as being " at the head of the army " 

n 1647, and he was not Lord Protector at the time of the 

>attle of Worcester. Considering the way history is 

ommonly written and taught, these are, perhaps, not 

ery grave errors. Mrs. Lawson has discovered a 

curiosity in Christian names which is new to us. Had 

he not the pariah register to support her, we should have 

.bought it a well made jest. We give it in her own words : 

' Perhaps no more unusual and significant name was ever 

given than that of a Hill Croome bachelor, who wedded 

in Upton maiden on June 13, 1716. His surname being 

jyes, he was given the Christian name of ' Tell no '; and 

t is to be hoped that, with this perpetual memento 

mpressed upon him, he did tell no lies throughout his 


The Upton -on -Severn folk were, it seems, not 
Sabbatarians. Parish meetings were held there on Sunday 
afternoons in the beginning of the last century. We know 
that this custom was prevalent in many places in the 
reign of Elizabeth, but did not think that it had lingered 
so long as the time of Anne or the. Georges in any part 
of England. It is not uncommon for those who do not 
understand the ritual customs of the unreformed Church 
of England to make the rash assertion that blue was not 
one of the colours employed in mediaeval vestments in 
this country. We have an example in disproof of this 
in Mrs. Lawson's book. At Upton-on-Severn there was 
a blue cope of satin of Bruges and a suit of blue vestments 
of branched silk. The Rev. Robert Lawson has added a 
useful glossary of words and phrases which he has 
gathered at Upton-on-Severn. 

An Antidote against Melancholy. Compounded of Choice 
Poems, Jovial Songs, Merry Ballads, and Witty Pa- 
rodies. Most pleasant and diverting to Read. (New 
York, Pratt Manufacturing Co.) 

THOUGH intended as a book advertisement, this volume 
deserves recognition. It is admirably got up and printed, 
and includes a series of lyrics, &c., by Lodge, Drayton, 
Breton, Sidney, Herrick, Shirley, Sedley, Jonson, Hey- 
wood, &c., down to such modern writers as C. S. C., Mr. 
Austin Dobson, and Mr. F. Locker. The selection 13 
judiciously made, tha slight preliminary information is 
agreeably conveyed, and the book is really a desirable 
possession. If all advertising were of this nature it 
would rapidly establish itself in public favour. 

MR. IRVING'S essay on "The American Audience" 
arrests attention in the Fortnightly. According to the 
writer its distinguishing characteristic is impartiality. 
"A Pious Legend Examined," by H. D. Trail!, is a valu- 
able added chapter to that bright writer's biography of 
Coleridge. To the Contemporary Mr. Bryce, M.P., con- 
tributes a paper on " M. Sardou's Theodora" dealing less 
with M. Sardou than with his latest heroine. Mr. Roden 
Noel writes on " The Poetry of Tennyson." A short 
but interesting account of "A Fourteenth Century 
Library " is contributed to the Antiquarian Magazine 



* s. XI. FEB. 7, '85. 

by Mr. J. H. Round. Mr. C. A. Ward's " Forecasting 
of Nostradamus " are continued. Temple Bar contains 
" A Week with George Eliot" and a chatty and brilliant 
article upon John Wilson Croker. In a large and mis- 
cellaneous list of contents, embracing every variety of 
interests so-called Imperial, the only article of quasi- 
literary interest in the Nineteenth Century \* Mr. Archer's 
essay on " The Duties of Dramatic Critics." Mr. Mat- 
thew Arnold's " A Word More about America," even, is 
political. Mr. Percy Fitzgerald writes in the Gentle- 
man's on " Shakespeare Folios and Quartos " and Mr. 
Schiitz Wilson on " Another Goethe Correspondence." 
Time has a paper by Miss A. Mary F. Robinson on " The 
Bequines and Weaving Brothers." 

PART I. of a reissue of Our Own Country has been 
published by Messrs. Cassell & Co. The value of this 
record and illustration of all that is most picturesque 
and interesting in the British Kingdom has received full 
recognition. The firsc part contains a full description 
of Salisbury Plain and Stonehenge, a satisfactory account 
of the history and growth of Leeds, and the commence- 
ment of an account of the Cinque Ports. It is accom- 
panied by a steel engraving of the Port of Liverpool. 

MR. GEORGE GRIFFITHS has written a serviceable guide 
to the fine church of Tong, Shropshire. It is illustrated 
by photographic designs. 

INQUIRERS after the Theosophical Society may be 
interested to know that the idyll of The White Lotus, by 
M. C., a fellow of the society, has been published by 
Messrs. Reeves & Turner. 

MESSRS. GRIFFITH, FARRAN & Co. have issued The 
Altar Hymnal, a book of song for use at the celebration 
of the Holy Eucharist. 

DR. GEO. A. MULLER lias published at Nice Laguet or 
Laghetto, an Historical Sketch of its Shrine, a portion of a 
MS. account of Mentone past and present. 

RECEIVED The Opening of China, by A. R. Colquhoun, 
six letters reprinted from the Times (Field & Tuer); 
Helps to Health, by Henry C. Burdett (Regan Paul & 
Co.); Aids to Lony Life, by N. E. Davies, L.R.C.P. 
(Chatto & Windus). 

THE example set by the Rev. Edward William Relton, 
M.A., Vicar of Ealing, is worthy of imitation. During 
tlie past yeur he has issued in monthly leaflets analyses of 
the parish registers, which date back to 1582, the twenty- 
fifth year of Elizabeth. These are accompanied by 
illustrative extracts from the registers, many of which 
are very curious and of signal interest. 

_ ON the 4th insfc. Mr. F. J. Furnivall completed his 
sixtieth year. The occasion was marked by the receipt 
of a doctor's degree, granted honoris causd by the Philo- 
sophical Faculty of the University of Berlin. It is plea- 
sant to find euch recognition on the part of a foreign 
university of the deserts of one of the most fervent and 
able of writers, students, and antiquaries. 

AT the meeting of the Royal Society of Literature on 
January 28, the Foreign Secretary, Mr. C. H. E. Car- 
michael, M.A., communicated the terms of the Bressa 
Prize, of the value of twelve thousand francs, open to 
authors and inventors of all nations, and to be adjudged 
by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin in 1886'. 

BY the death of Count Giovanni Cittadella, Senator 
of the Kingdom of Italy, which was reported to the 
meeting of January 28, the Royal Society of Literature 
loses a distinguished Foreign Honorary Fellow. Count 
Cittadella was president of the Petrarch centenarv 
festival, held at Padua and Arqua in 1874, and was 
author of one of the essays on Petrarch in the centenary 
Tolume published by the Padua committee. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

M.A.Oxon. (" The Three Jolly Butchers "). No legend 
is attached to this sign. Three, supposed to be a mystical 
number, is constantly used in tavern signs. You will find 
jolly bakers, jolly fishermen, jolly carpenters, &c., accord- 
ing to the trades which are carried on in the neighbour- 
hood, or some special circumstance in connexion with 
the support to be hoped for the house. In Larwood and 
Hotten's History of Signboards, however, reference is 
made to a North-country ballad concerning three 
butchers who slew nine highwaymen. 

R. C. BARKER ("Novum Testamentum"). The edi- 
tion has no special value. It is a reprint of an edition 
published fifty years earlier. 

E. P. H. 

" That place that doth contain 
My books, the best companions, is to me 
A glorious court," &c. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Elder Brother, I. ii. 
W. H. PEEL ("The noblest object of the work of 
art," &c.). These verses were quoted 1st S. iv. 153. 
From an answer published 1st g. i v . 197, it appears 
that the rebus is found in the poems of Dr. Byrom, and 
that the authorship was ascribed to Lord Chesterfield. 
Dr. Byrom supplies an answer, some passages of which, 
insufficient without labour to indicate the reply, ^ are 
quoted. It is obvious, as you conjecture, that the solu- 
tion is not quite proper. 

J. WASTIE GREEN (" Plum=100,000"). The origin 
of the word is supposed to be the Spanish phima= 
plumage. The expression is kindred to that " he has 
feathered his nest." Some very curious information 
concerning the phrase will be found 2 nd S. iv. 13, 99. 

F. H. ARNOLD (" Great Bed of Ware "). This bed. 
in 1865, was still at the " Saracen's Head " inn, at Ware'. 
It was put up for auction with a reserve bid of 100. 
No advance upon that was made, and it was bought in. 
It was reported, inaccurately as it seems, to have been 
purchased for Mr. Charles Dickens and removed to Gad's 
Hill. See 3^ S. viii. 167, 276. What claims to be, and 
may be, the Great Bed of Ware is now shown at the 
Rye House. 

AN INQUIRING MIND ("Squaring the Circle "). No 
such Act was ever passed, and no reward was ever 

J. W. JARVIS ("Isle of Wight Railway "). Antici- 
pated. See ante, p. 66. 

T. W. WEBB (" Cathedrals ").-Anticipated. See 6h S. 
x. o76. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
mumcations which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6th s. XI. FEB. 14, '85.] 





NOTES :-Holderness, 121 The Prefix "Cold," 122-Ghelen's 
"Eutropius," 123 Notes on Skeat's "Etymological Dic- 
tionary," 124 Lions v. Leopards "Anonymous and Pseudo- 
DJ mous Works" Burial Customs Dog, 125 Old Envelope 
James Hogg New Theory of the Weather A Veteran 
The Birthplace of Dickens, 126 Anorthoscope, 127. 

QUERIES: Was Cromwell a Foot Soldier? Statistics of 
Gaelic "Three holes in the wall" "The incomparable 
Orinda," 127 Duty on Artists' Canvas Bishopric of Sodor 
and Man Books on Emigration Edward Howard Rev. H. 
Eamsden "Corona Spinarum" Wm. Guidott Unsized 
Paper Ancient Princes of Wales Bishop Godwin German 
Proverb, 128 A City called " Nairn "Political Ballad- 
Earl Beaconsfleld's First Novel Diary of Dr. Twiss Orte- 
lius Proverb -Great Flood Heraldic -Authors Wanted, 

REPLIES : Colour in Surnames, 129 -Old Expressions, 130 
Eugene Aram, 131 Topical, 132 A "Ballet" in Prose- 
Oldest Family in England Monument to Alexander III. 
Carmichaels Warley Camp Cambridge Periodicals, 133 
Royal Family Privateers -r- Hannah Brand Burial of 
General Fraser Mottoes and Inscriptions, 134 Rejected 
Stanza Peerage Summonses Political Toast Authors 
Wanted, 135 Battle of Worcester Rotcher Knights of the 
AVheatsheaf Dick Turpin Death of Sir C. Shovell, 136 
King Arthur Arms of Anne Boleyn, 137" The Main 
Truck" Calling Churches Janissary, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Mullingers "University of Cam- 
bridge "Burton's " Book-Hunter " Waters' s " Gundrada 
cle Warrenne" Hays's " Women of the Day." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


Anthony Trollope thought that "few English- 
men know the scenery of England well" (The 
Belton Estate, 1866, i. 2). It is no less true than 
strange that Englishmen do not know the geo- 
graphy of England well, nor even Yorkshiremen 
that of Yorkshire. Ours is a great county ; an 
epitome of the whole country, a kingdom or a 
province by itself (see Drayton, Fuller, Sharp, 
and others). The districts natural, historical, 
legal, and otherwise into which it is divided, are 
many, mostly peculiar to itself, and therefore not 
easily known or remembered. As a native of 
Holderness, I write to remove an old and wide- 
spread misunderstanding about that division. 

Dwellers in East Yorkshire are often uncertain 
about the western border of their county. A 
professional gentleman, of considerable culture, 
whose occupation makes him to travel much and 
who has filled an important public office in the 
county, once told me gravely that Rochdale was 
in the West Riding. In the same way those who 
live outside the East Riding seldom grasp the 
identity and individuality of Holderness. They 
seem to think that it consists of all the compara- 
tively level stretch of country lying on the north 
of the Humber, and from the foot of the Wolds 
to the coast. Yet Holderness is a wapentake, a 

division, a deanery, and a seigniory by itself, with 
three bailiwicks and a coroner of its own. From 
the Conquest till late in the last century it gave 
title to an earl. It includes more than a third of 
the whole sea-coast of the county. It and its 
people have strongly marked characteristics, 
physical and ethnological. Its folk-lore has been 
often brought before us by Mr. Jones, and its 
dialect has been recorded by the English Dialect 
Society. Its history was printed in two quarto 
volumes in 1840-1, and there are smaller books 
on Ravenspurn, Swine, and Hornsea. It includes 
the borough town of Hedon, which preserves its 
mayor and corporation, and which, from temp. 
Edward I. to 1832, returned members to Parlia- 
ment, one of whom for many years was no less a 
man than William Pulteney. It also held within 
its borders the great abbey of Meaux, eldest 
daughter of Fountains, whose Chronicles have 
been issued in three volumes by the Master of 
the Rolls. It is clear, then, that Holderness has a 
separate legal and historical existence, distinct and 
well defined. There should be no difficulty in 
apprehending it. 

The mistake which makes it almost conter- 
minous with, and its name a synonym for, the East 
Riding seems partly to have arisen from a false 
etymology. The name of the kingdom or territory 
of Cava Deira is thought to be found in Hol-der- 
ness, as if Hollow-Deira-ness.* 

Holderness (in Chaucer's time known as "a 
mershly lond ") is that part of the East Riding 
which lies east and south of the river Hull, having 
the German Ocean on the east and the Humber 
on the south ; its northernmost parish is Barm- 
ston, the next place on the coast below Bridling- 
ton. No place lying west or north of the river 
Hull, or above Barmstpn, is in Holderness. Thus 
its boundaries are not imaginary lines, but natural 
ones (for the exception at Barmston is apparent, 
and not real), and one would have thought them 
to be unmistakable. Perhaps we may excuse a 
writer in the Guardian, April 2, 1884, p. 496, 
col. 3, who describes it as an isle, for it is sur- 
rounded by water. But A. J. M., who, at 6 th S. 
xi. 66, puts down "Hedon and Kirk Ella" as 
both lt in Holderness," is only the latest (let him 
be the last) of many offenders. + The latter place 
is about five miles west of Hull. The author of 
an interesting and amusing little book, Holderness 
and the Holdernessians, 1878, is jocosely indignant 
that Holderness is altogether unknown by out- 
siders. Yet the compilers of the Holderness 

* St. Austin's Stono at Drewton (i.e., Druid-town), 
near Cave, the name Cave itself, and the Ella of Kirk 
Ella, are claimed in the same way, to fill up a pleasing, 
but fanciful picture. On Ella I may refer to a note of 
my own in the Yorksh. Arch. Jour., vii. 58. 

f By the way, what does he mean by calling Hedon 

the mother-town and port of Hull " ] 


[6 th S. XI. FEB. 14, '85. 

olossary themselves include in a list "of the names 
of the towns and villages of Holderness "Bever- 
ley, Burlington, and Driffield, which are all out- 
side of it (pp. 16, 17). 

This ignorance of the whereabouts of Holder- 
ness generally shows itself in a confusion of Hedon 
with Howden, as has been recently illustrated by 
MR. A. S. ELLIS, 6 th S. xi. 70 n. The seventeenth- 
century spelling of Howden was Howlden or 
Holden, which to a hasty and inexact mind 
suggests Holderness. Leland, in his Itinerary, 
says, " Babthorpe is, as I remember, in Holder- 
nesse," whereas it is in Howdenshire (Plumpton 
Correspondence, cxxvi). In the Life of John 
Kettlewell, the Non juror, 1718, we are told that 
his ancestors belonged to " Headen, commonly 
called Howden, scituate in Holdernesse, on the 
winding shoar of the mouth of Humber." Howden 
is almost certainly the right place ; there is no 
record of any Kettlewells at Hedon, but the name 
was common in the neighbourhood of Howden. 
See, e.g., YorTcsh. Arch. Jour., vii. 59, 61. 

The Rev. Francis Brokesby, writing from 
Rowley (Ray's English Words, 1691), points out 
(in a pissage which reappears without acknow- 
ledgment in The Praise of Yorkshire Ale,\>y George 
Mericon, of Northallerton, third edition, York, 
1697, p. 80), that by the Wolds was sometimes 
meant the lidgo of hills in the East Riding, some- 
times the country adjoining, " tho' some call all 
the Eist-Rtding besides Holderness, and in dis- 
tinction from it, the Woulds" (Reprint by E.D.S., 
p. 7). Tha Rev. William Jesse, father of the 
naturalist, held the benefice of Hutton Cranswick, 
near Driffield, and seemed " appointed to evange- 
lize the Wolds" (Venn's Life, 1835, p. 170) ; but 
the member of the houses of Shirley and Hastings 
who wrote the Life of the Countess of Huntingdon, 
1839, imagined that Malton and the Wolds are 
south of Hull " in Lincolnshire " (i. 487). 

W. C. B. 


Mr. Way, in his edition of the Promptorium 
Parvulorum, discussing the word herbereioe, or har- 
bour, says : 

" The remarkable name Cold-harbour, which occurs 
repeatedly in most counties at places adjacent to Roman 
roads, or lines of early communication, seems to have 
been derived from the station there established ; but of 
the strange epithet thereto prefixed no satisfactory ex- 
planation has yet been suggested." 

The question has been much discussed in 
" N. & Q." and elsewhere, and, so far a-i I know, 
without any good result. Perhaps the latest con- 
tribution to the subject is that of tho Rev. Isaac 
Taylor in Words and Places. Mr. Taylor says 
(sixth edit., p. 170): 

" Tho ruins of deserted Roman villas were no doubt 
often used by travellers who carried their own bedding 

and provisions, aa is done by the frequenters of khans 
and serais in the East. Such places seem commonly to 
have borne the name of Cold Harbour. ' 
And further on (p. 322) he says: "Caltrop, 
Colton, Caldecote, and Cold Harbour are all cold 
places." In the absence of evidence, this was the 
best guess which could be offered. But I propose 
to give evidence which leads to quite a different 

Shakespeare describes the course of true love as 

" Brief as the lightning in the willed night 
That in a spleen unfolds both heaven and earth."_ 
Midsummer NiyhCs Dream, I. i. 

In Othello (II. iii.) we have, " Passion having my 
best judgment collied." In both passages the 
sense is black or blackened. Shakespeare might 
as well have written coaled, which would have 
been the same as coal'd. Earlier instances of the 
word as used by Shakespeare could no doubt be 
given, but I know of none. 

I spent some years of my boyhood at a place 
called Cold Aston, in North Derbyshire. This was 
the sixteenth and seventeenth century spelling; 
but about a hundred years ago it began to be called 
Cole Aston, and now it is called Coal Aston. The 
Arcadians called it Cowde Aston (cowdefrigidus}. 
Bat the air of the place is not cold, and the soil 
in most places is rich and fertile ; and it is im- 
possible to believe that the numerous places in 
England which bear this name can have derived 
it from the coldness of each particular neighbour- 
hood. Before the fourteenth century the Cold 
Aston with "which I am acquainted was called 
simply Aston. This is proved by the chartulary 
of the neighbouring monastery of Beauchief, which 
had lands in the township. Cold first appears 
about the middle of the fourteenth century. Cold 
Eaton is another place in Derbyshire whose ancient 
name was Eitune. Various spellings of my Cold 
Aston in the seventeenth century are Could and 

About three years ago the late Mr. Charles 
Jackson published in the Reliquary an old 
" Memorandum Book " of Arthur Mower, of 
Barlow Woodseats. This place and Cold Aston 
are in Dronfield parish, and they adjoin each other, 
la this book occurs the following entry: "Mem. 
that the Rose Hedge was coaled the yeer of 
our Lord God 1563, and had xi dozen of coal in 
it." By another entry in the same year we are 
informed that the coal that is, the charcoal made 
from this Rose Hedge (also called Roweshagge) 
and in Roweswood was sold for 501. 6s. 8d. 
about 600Z. of our money. And later on in the 
same document mention is made of " the smithies 
and coal delles." It also appears that the manu- 
facture of iron was largely carried on, the iron 
being doubtless smelted by charcoal. I have lately 
met with further documentary evidence in the 

6* 8. XI. FEB. 14, '85.] 



same neighbourhood. In 1652 Godfrey Shaw, 
alias Black Shaw, of Cold Aston, yeoman, made 
his will. Blackshaw is, of course, black wood. By 
agreement dated 1687 Sfcrelley Pegge, of Beau- 
chief, sold to John Eotherham, of Dronfieldjlead 
merchant (inter alia) a wood called the Lady 
Spring, and " the wood in Beauchief called the 
Gullet, with the hedgerows," excepting all " lord- 
ings " and great timber trees, and "all the 
kindliest oake trees and ashes in the hedge rows." 
Rotherham was also to reserve fifty of the 
"kyndliest weavers "in each acre. It was also 
agreed that " whatever black bushes there are in 
little Park Banke," &c., should be reserved. By 
another agreement of 1699, made between the 
same parties, certain woods, " customary weavers " 
being excepted, were sold to Rotherham, he 
covenanting to "cord," coale, &c., the trees, 
" under wood, white coale, charcoal/' &c. Liberty 
of ingress for coaling is given, and to get clods, 
covers, and earth for " coaleing the said woods." 
Weavers occurs in Halliwell's Diet, as wavers, a 
North-country word. A gentleman skilled in 
woodcraft tells me that he knows the word well, 
and that these young timberlings are so called 
because they wave in the wind ! 

The best charcoal was made of oak. The woods 
appear to have been coaled at intervals of about 
twenty years, or even less. The charcoal fires 
were scattered about in the woods by hundreds, 
and the ground was blackened everywhere. We 
know that much oak grew in the neighbourhood 
of Sheffield, and much iron and lead were smelted 
by means of charcoal. There were many lead mills 
in the Abbeydale valley. The registers of Norton, 
an adjoining parish, show that in the sixteenth 
century the occupation of the charcoal burner, or 
wood collier, called carbonarius liguarius in the 
register, was the most frequent occupation of all. 
The manor of Norton comprised the township of 
Cold-Aston. It is not likely that the lord would 
make charcoal on his demesne lands. I think the 
facts here stated settle the etymology of the Cold 
Aston with which I am acquainted. Perhaps 
they will settle the etymology of all the others. 

I come now to Cold Harbour. Mr. Isaac Taylor 
says, " In the neighbourhood of ancient lines of 
road we find no less than seventy places bearing 
this name, and about a dozen more bearing the 
analogous name of Caldicott, or ' cold cot.'" 
There must have been some reason for the frequent 
occurrence of this name on the old roads. And it 
appears to me that, with the evidence before us, 
the reason is not far to seek. We know that in 
this country the trade of the charcoal burner is 
very ancient. It was a charcoal burner who 
found the body of William Rufus in the New 
Forest. la the Taill of Ra.uf Coilyear, edited 
by Mr. Herrtage in 1882 for the Early English 
Text Society, we read how this wood collier met 

with Charles the Great at a distance of seven 
miles from his own " harberie." He is described 
as carrying his charcoal ia baskets swung over his 
horse, and taking the king to his " harberie," or 

1 1 wait na worthie harberie heir neir-hand 
For to serve sic ane man as me think the : 
Nane but rains awin house, maisfc in this land, 
Fer furth in the Forest, among the fellis hie." 
These Cold Harbours by the side of old roads 
were, I take it, either the cottages of charcoal 
burners, or, more probably, storehouses for heaps 
of charcoal in transit to large towns, or to places 
where wood was scarce. 

In the woods near Barnsley are great numbers 
of heaps of ashes and other debris left by the 
charcoal burner. In these the earth is soft, and 
rabbits love to burrow in them, so that the 
sportsman knows where to find his game. In 
the fields about Cold Aston the ploughshare turns 
up bits of charcoal everywhere. 

Since the above lines were written, I have 
observed that Halliwell gives Coal Harbour as " a 
corruption of Cold Harbour, an ancient messuage 
in Dowgate Ward, London, frequently alluded to 
by old writers." He also gives coal hood as a West- 
country word for the bullfinch, so called, doubt- 
less, from the lustrous blackness of its head. It 
is possible that " harbour " in Cold Harbour may be 
herbere = <t a, grene place" (Prompt. Parv.). The 
Medulla gives herbere as locus pascualis virens. 
Taking this view, cold harbour would be a coaled 
" grene place" in a wood; but I incline to the 
former suggestion. That it means one of these 
two things I am certain. S. 0. ADDY. 


[See !* S. i. 60; ii. 159, 340; vi. 455; ix. 107 ; xii. 
254, 293; 2 nd S. vi. 143, 200, 317, 357 ; ix. 139, 441 ; x. 
118; 3 rd S. vii. 253, 302, 344, 407, 483; viii. 38, 71, 160 : 
ix. 105; 4'h S. i. 135.] 

That celebrated Bohemian editor Sigismund 
Ghelen (the Latinized form of the name is Gele- 
nius) published at Basle in 1532 what purports 
on the title-page to be a complete compendium of 
Roman history, founded chiefly on Eutropius, with 
additions by later writers. The principal part of 
the title runs thus "Eutropii insigne volumen 
quo Rornana historia universa describitur, ex 
diversorum authorum monumentis collecta." The 
volume contains also the Lombard history of Paul 
the Deacon, sometimes called Warnefridus. As 
the title is certainly misleading, I am desirous of 
pointing out that . the work is, in fact, an edition, 
of the Historic Miscellce, usually (though pro- 
bably erroneously) attributed to this Paul ("a 
Paulo Aquilegiensi Diacono primum collects"), 
who wrote in the reign of Charlemagne. This is 
a compilation formed from Eutropius, Floras, 



[6th s. XL FEB. 14, '85. 

Aurelius Victor, Eusebius, Kufinus, Orosius, 
Jornandes, and others, and is stated to have been 
continued to the year 806 by Landulphus Sagax. 
No part of it is in any sense an edition of the 
Breviarium of Eutropius ; in the earlier portions 
some sentences are, indeed, extracted from that 
work, but much more is taken from the Epitome 
which bears the name of Aurelius Victor (though 
it is not now considered to have been written by 
him), and the authority of Orosius seems to be 
preferred in the matter of dates, several of which 
are certainly erroneous. Thus, the accession of 
Nerva is stated to have taken place m A.U.C. 846= 
A.D. 93, whereas Eutropius makes it A.U.C. 850= 
A.D. 97, and the true date is in all probability 
A.U.C. 849=A.D. 9G, the year in which Valensand 
Vetus were consuls. 

The Delphin editor of Eutropius, speaking of 
this "insigne volumen," which he, too, had noticed 
to be only the miscellany above referred to, says, 
" Opus indignum certe, quod in tenebris tamdiu 
delituerit." I was led to examine the work by 
a letter from a friend who has in his possession a 
copy of it, which he, not unnaturally, thought 
was, at least in the earlier portion, an edition of 
Eutropius. Ghelen, however, would seem to have 
had some very erroneous ideas about the writings 
of that historian. The latter probably did not 
live to carry out his intention of giving the 
world an account "stylo majore" of the reigns of 
Valentinian and Valens ; and the Breviarium 
is, in fact, the only work of his which is ex- 
tant. Of this it is to be presumed that Ghelen 
is speaking when he says, " Superiora tempora 
Eutropius in compendium redegit "; but he cannot 
have been acquainted with it himself, or he would 
hardly have called his edition of Paul's miscellany 
" Eutropii insigne volumen." He afterwards says 
of Eutropius, " Fertur nonnulla composuisse opus- 


E quibus extant ista, nobis duntaxat titulis 

' Ad virgines duas eorores.' Libri ii. 

'Chronicorum usque ad sua tempora.' " 

Liber i. 

In speaking of these works, he must have been 
misled by confusion with some other writer of the 
same name. He says that Eutropius was " mona- 
chtis et presbyter," although there can be little, if 
any, doubt that the historian Flavius Eutropius, 
who was secretary to Julian the Apostate, was not 
a Christian ; and adds that he was considered by 
some to have been a disciple of Augustine, whereas 
the latter must really havo been very much the 
younger of the two. W. T. LYNN 




(s.v. '-Wheat"). I am surprised to find that Prof. 

bkeat has not abandoned his suggestion that this 

name for the bird saxicola cenanthe is of imitative 
origin, as if a whitterer, the bird that whitters, or 
complains. Surely it is a corruption, as I have 
maintained (Folk- Etymology, p. 433), of an older 
form t white-ears (hwit-ears\ i.e., "white-rump" 
(its distinctive feature), which was mistaken as a 
plural. Other names for the same bird are 
"white-rump," " white-tail," "whittaile" (Cot- 
grave), Fr. cul Uanc, blancukt; compare Greek 
Trvyapyos, " white-rump," the name of a species 
of eagle. 

2. Skate, standing for skates, Dut. schaats, 
O.Dut. schaets, probably from Low Ger. schake, a 
shank. The sliding implement was so called not 
because it is a contrivance for lengthening the leg 
(which it does only to an inappreciable extent), as 
if that which gives one a new shank, like a stilt 
(so Wedgwood), but because the first skates 
actually consisted of the shank-bones (tibia) of 
horses and other animals, which were tied under 
the shoes. See the extract from Fitzstephen (ab. 
1190) in Folk- Etymology, p. 604. Mr. Tylor say?, 
" Split shank-bones fastened under their shoes for 
going on the ice delighted the London 'prentices 
for centuries before they were displaced by steel 
skates" (Anthropology, p. 307, 1881). A woodcut 
of a pair of these primitive bone skates, preserved 
in the British Museum, is given in Chambers';* 
Book of Days, vol. i. p. 138. 

3. Spalpeen (Addenda), an Anglo-Irish term for 
a labourer, is from Ir. spailpin, a mean fellow, a 
rascal, a common labourer (O'Reilly), apparently 
an ironical diminitive of spailp, a beau. Compare 
spdlpaire, a spruce fellow, spalpaim, I obtrude. 

4. Baffle. Prof. Skeat in deducing this word 
from Scot, bauchle, bachle, does not take account 
of the old forms ba/ull and ba/oule, and severs it 
from Old Fr. ba/ouer (in Cotgrave), its exact 
synonym (also ba/oler (?) Nares). This I have 
proposed to connect with Old Fr. bas foler (bas- 
f outer), to trample down, comparing Fr. baculer, 
baccoler, basculer (for which see Cotgrave), from 
bas and cukr. It is from the word last indicated, 
I think, that Scot, bachle, bauchle, to treat con- 
temptuously, may be derived. In Norfolk to 

still means to trample down corn or grass. 

5. Jade. Prof. Skeat considers that the verb 
jade, to tire, meant originally to treat as one would 
(or behave as might) a jade, or sorry nag. With 
this we might compare to hack (one's clothes, &c.), 
i. e., to treat without care, as one might a hack, or 
hackney, or hired horse. It seems more likely, I 
think, to be from Sp. ijadear, to pant, as a horse 
doth after running (Minsheu, Span. Diet., 1623), 
properly to work or heave the flanks, from ijada, 
the flank, which is from Lat ilia, the flank (see 
ijar in Diez). The word may have been intro- 
duced by the Spaniards who came over to England 
in the reign of Mary. Bacon, writing in 1625, 
notes it as a new word, " It is a dull Thing to Tire, 

6">S. XI. FEB. 14, '85.] 



and, as we say now, to lade, any Thing too farre " 
(Essays, " Of Discourse," p. 17, ed. Arber). This 
sentence does not occur in the editions issued in 
1612 and earlier years. An over-driven, broken- 
winded horse was said in Latin dacere (or 
trahere) ilia, like Ff. u batre les flancs, to pant 
hard for want of breath" (Cotgrave). Compare: 

* ' Their poore Jades 

Lob downe their heads, dropping the hides and hips" 
Shakspere, Henry V., IV. ii. 40 (1623). 

Mr. Wedgwood ventures to attribute the same 
origin to jade, a worn-out horse, which Mr. Fer- 
guson, Cumberland Dialect, p. 174, and Prof. 
Skeat derive from Icelandic jalda, a mare. In 
that case the mineral jade, Sp. jade, for piedra de 
ijada, stone for the side, a supposed remedy for 
the iliac passion, would be substantially the same 

Woodford, Essex. 

LIONS VERSUS LEOPARDS. It has been much 
discussed whether or not the animals on the royal 
standard, up to the fourteenth century, repre- 
sented lions or leopard?. All the writers during 
the early period designate them as leopards. In 
the romance of Eichard Cceur de Lion the king is 
said to have borne 

" On his schuldre a schield of steel, 
With three lupardes wraught fill weel." 

A writer in the time of Richard II. speaks of that 
king as " le roy qui les liepars porte en blason n 
(Archceologia, vol. xx. p. 99). Chandos Herald, 
who ought to be an authority on such matters, in 
his Life of the Black Prince reports the following 
in a speech of that prince on the eve of his cam- 
paign in Spain : 

" Et auxi ai-je ay center, 

Que li leoperds et leur compaigne 

Le deployerent en Espaigne." 

Chronicle of the Black Prince, 1. 1902. 

In the Memoirs of Lefcbvre, p. 196, in the de- 
scription of the battle of Najera, among the ensigns 
spoken of are " les lys de la France et les leopards 
d'Angleterre." On the other hand, it is main- 
tained that the term " leopard," as thus employed, 
did not mean the animal of that name, but was 
merely a term applied to the lion when repre- 
sented passant gardant, or as on the royal shield 
of England. While lately looking over an old 
Norman chronicle I found the following passage, 
which accounts in a very plausible manner for 
the use of the leopard. Perhaps some reader may 
be able to produce something in corroboration of it : 
" Toutes lesquellea chartes tirees des Memoires manu- 
scrits de M. de la Caille da Fourni, prand antiquaire, 
disent aussi que la Comtesse Lesseline, femme de 
Guillaume, Comte d'Hiemes, portait au chef de son 
inari ecu de gueules ou d'azur, mais plutot de gueules 
au leopard d'or ; autres lui attribuent de gueules au 
leopard d'or qui est de Normandie; le leopard ayant 
etc pria par ces princes et seigneurs Normands qui 
etaient souvent sortig hors manage, ainsi que Guil- 

laume, Comte d'Eu et d'Hiemes; Eichard II. et 
Guillaume IT., Dues de Normandie ; Godefroi, Comte 
de Brione; Robert, Comte d'Evreux et Archeveque de 
Rouen ; Mauger, Comte de Mortain ; Robert dc Kent, 
Comte de Glocester, et ses freres, Renault, Comte de 
Cornouailles, Robert, Gilbert et Guillaume do Traci, 
pour representer leur naissance par le Leopard, batard 
du Lion, ensemble leur naturelle gene'rosite, dont Tun 
et 1'autre de ces animaux est le symbole." MSS. de M. 
de la Caille du Fourni, grand antiquare, ap. De la Roque, 
Hist, de Harcourt, t. ii, liv. xix. cu. xcvi. 


Having had occasion recently to examine Messrs. 
Halket and Laing's work very thoroughly, during 
the compilation of my own book, Masques, I have 
found numerous minor " flaws," shall I say 1 and 
thinking that those of your readers who possess a 
copy of the work may wish to make any corrections 
therein which may be discovered, I submit the 
following list: 

Col. 76. 1. 29, for "Calton " read Colton. 

Col. 192, 1. 11, for " Cope " read Coxe, 

Col. 786, 1. 30, " Epitolarium " should, I think, be 

Col. 941, 1. 43, and col. 1193,1. 37, for "Leversou " read 

Col. 1201, 1. 43. This is altogether incorrect. Marj 
Langdon is the author's true name, and " Sydney A. Story, 
Jr." her pseudonym. 

Col. 1556, 1. 32, " Massachusettensia," &c. I do not 
see why the preference should be given to Daniel Leonard. 
John Adams wrote, "On my return from Congress in 
November, 1774, I found the Massachusetts Gazette 
teeming with political speculations, and Massachusettensis 
shining like to the moon among the lesser stars. I 
instantly knew him to be my friend Sewall, and was told 
he excited great exultation among the Tories, and many 
gloomy apprehensions among the Whigs." 

A. Pv. FREY. 

Astor Library, N.Y. 

BURIAL CUSTOMS. A correspondent writing to 
the Guardian of Jan. 14, from Winvvick, South 
Lancashire, upon "Burial Customs," in reference 
to a note from a previous correspondent, saying that 
a custom exists amongst the Eurasians at the words 
" ashes to ashes," &c., for every one present to cast 
in earth upon the coffin, and that "quite little 
children do this," adds that in Winwick this is 
invariably done at funeral?. I think the custom 
is so rare and so apt that it is worthy of a place in 
" N. & Q." I have long felt that this rite should 
not be left, as it is almost universally, to the 
sexton, but that, if not performed by the clergyman, 
some loving hand amongst the mourning friends 
should do it as a last office. T. ALLEN. 

Faversham . 

DOG. In Skeat's Etymological Dictionary the 
derivation of this word is said to be unknown. la 
Farrar's Families of Speech the strange suggestion 
is made that the Icelandic doggr shows an onomato- 
poetic connexion with the " canine letter." I do 


NOTES * AND QUERIES. [6 th s. XL FEB. u, 

not know thab anyone has tried the simple process 
of transliterating the word according to Gmmnis 
law We thus get thoch, forms, of which exist m 
Greek with the usual dentalization and assimilation 
as 0uk=jackal, and 0o>iWw (e7rt0<ov<nrc>) = (i; to 
bay like a dog (Homeric Hymn), (2) to hound on, 
urce The inferences seem to be (1) that dog is as 
old a word as hound in the Gothic speech, though 
perhaps not in English, and was used rather of the 
wild than of the domesticated animal; (2) that it IB 
probably onomatopoetic, imitating the voice of the 
oWtribe in a natural state, not the artificial bark 
later acquired ; (3) that the English in respect of 
the final guttural is more faithful to the original 
than the Greek forms. H. H. 

OLD ENVELOPE. It may interest some of the 
readers of " N. & Q." to know that I have just seen, 
among the papers of an old Yorkshire family, an 
envelope of thin paper, just like those of the modern 
square kind now in use. The letter enclosed is 
dated Geneva, 1759. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

is a queer mistake in Bohn's edition of Lowndes 
(s.v. " Hogg, James," p. 1083), where the follow- 
ing register occurs : " A Green Book, Edinb., 
1832, Svo." The correct title is "A \ Queer Book \ 
By | the Ettrick Shepherd. | William Blackwood, 
Edinburgh ; and J. Cadell, Strand, London. | 
MDCCCXXXII.," crown Svo. pp. 379. The dedi- 
cation is as queer as the rest of this Queer Book 
It runs thus : 

" This Motley Work, made up of all the fowls' feathers 
that fly in the air, from the rook to the wild swan, and 
from the kitty wren to the peacock, as the Shepherd's 
vade mecum, as the varied strains in which his soul 
delighteth, he dedicates most respectfully to Christopher 
North and Timothy Tickler, Esquires." 

The entry does not occur in the first edition of 
the Bibliographer's Manual. Is it curious enough 
to be entitled to a corner amongst the odds and 
ends of " N. & Q." ] ALFRED WALLIS. 

lowing opinion was given by an a^ed man-servant 
to his mistress as ho was removing the breakfast 
things : " Weather very different from what it 
used to be. No use people saying it ain't. It is ! 
I can't say why. May be it is the taking such a 
quantity of minerals out of the earth has altered 
its balance ! I can't believe any indications now. 
A.nd then, with emphasis,- he added, "I used to 
Know if it was going to rain, or not." 

A. H. (2). 

A VETERAN. There appears in the Army and 
Nary Register, published in Washington, D.C., 
U.S.A., Jan. 17, 1885, the following obituary : 

"Charlea Burch, aged 106, died last Monday at 
Lowellville (Mahoning county), Ohio. He waa born in 
a soldier's camp in England, and becoming a British 

regular, he helped to fight the Americans in 1812. Re- 
;urning home he marched against Napoleon, was wounded 
m the hip at Waterloo, making him a cripple, and he 
aas ever since been a British pensioner. His pension 
always came in gold, and during the war the old man 
sold it, getting at one time 260$ for it. He came to 

AmoYM/^n in 1 ftfil . 

America in 

E. S. K. 

In your notice of Mr. Dolby's Charles Dickens as I 
Knew Him (6 th S. xi. 99) you lay some stress on 
the remark, attributed to Dickens, that he was 
born in Landport Terrace, Southsea. Although I 
do not for one moment doubt the veracity of Mr. 
Dolby's statement of what Dickens said, still any 
one should see at a glance how easy might be the 
confusion of " a terrace at Landport " and " Land- 
port Terrace." I was talking a short time since to 
one of the oldest inhabitants of the borough of 
Portsmouth, who remembered the building of Land- 
port Terrace, and he was of opinion that, if built, it 
was doubtful whether it was fit for occupation at the 
time of Dickens's birth. As another factor in the 
argument of confusion I might mention that the 
houses in Landport Terrace, Southsea, and those of 
the terrace in which Dickens was actually born are 
very similar in appearance, having gardens in front, 
with the low kitchen windows spoken of by Mr. 
Forster. The fact of Dickens nob being able to 
satisfactorily settle upon the house in Landport 
Terrace is almost proof of something being wrong. 
Again, supposing Dickens to have been born in 
Landport Terrace, Southsea, it is reasonable to 
suppose that he would have been, baptized at the 
parish church of Portsmouth, only half a mile 
distant, instead of that of Portsea, nearly a distance 
of two miles, but much nearer to the place where it 
is believed he was born. 

I now come to what I think may be termed a 
satisfactory settlement of the place of birth. Mr. 
William Pearce, a solicitor of Portsea, writing to 
the Hampshire Telegraph on Sept. 26, 1883, says : 

"Charles Dickens was born at No. 387. Mile End 
Terrace, Commercial lload, Landport, Portsea. The 
house belonged to my late father, William Pearce, and in 
proof of the above statement I have his rent-book, which 
shows that Mr. John Dickens, the father of the said 
Charles Dickens, routed the house from Midsummer, 
1808, to Midsummer, 1812, which includes the date 
of his son's birth, viz., 7th February, 1812. Beside 
this, I have often heard my father mention the cir- 
cumstance. The above statement has also been cor- 
roborated by the late Mrs. Purkis (monthly nurse), who 
pointed out to my sisters (who still occupy the house) 
the room in which this much appreciated author was 

Though this letter points out the place of birth, 
it also seems to point out that Dickens must have 
resided elsewhere in the town than at Mile End 
Terrace, seeing that his father, according to Forster, 
did not leave Portsmouth for London till 1814. 


6th S. XI. FEB. 14, '35.] 



ANORTHOSCOPE. This little machine, whicl 
came, I think, from Germany, is an optical con 
trivance for seeing crooked figures straight. Web 
ster's English Dictionary, edited by Goodrich am 
Porter, describes it correctly, but derives it from 
"Gr. dv priv., 6p66s, straight, and O-KOTTCLV, tc 
see." This is not the case. It is from dvopOoeiv 
to straighten, and O-KOTTOS, a mark or marksman, 
and the av in dvopOotiv is not privative, but the 
preposition dvd. 0. M. I. 

Athenaeum Club. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct, 

[2 nd S. xii. 285). In 1861 M>. WEBSTER printed 
in "N. & Q." a receipt by Cromwell, dated 
December 17, 1642, for money due upon a warrant 
of the Earl of Essex, in which he is described as 
" Captain Oliver Cromwell, Captaine of a Troope 
of Eightie Harquebuziers." MR. WEBSTER stated 
that he printed the two documents on the advice 
of Mr. Carlyle, who held that they 
" now first make it clearly known that Cromwell was 
at one time a harquebusier or foot soldier, and that he 
did not change into the Horse or into a Colonelcy till 
after December, 1642, and that consequently he must 
have fought at Edgehill (October, 1642) as a captain of 

Knowing as I did that Cromwell did not fight as 
a captain of foot at Edgehill, and feeling therefore 
very sceptical about Mr. Carlyle's whole state- 
ment, my first idea was that the receipt might have 
come from the younger Oliver, the son of the 
future Protector, who, having been a cornet of 
horse at Edgehill, might possibly have been pro- 
moted to a captaincy in an infantry regiment. 
On applying to MR. WEBSTER he most obligingly 
placed the two documents in my hands, and a 
comparison of them with letters of Oliver the 
father showed that not only the signature but the 
whole of the receipt is in the handwriting of the 
greater man. The examination, however, though 
it seemed to have come to nothing, was not thrown 
away. My eye was struck by the word troop, 
which I ought to have noticed before, and which 
is most unlikely to have been used of a division 
of a regiment of foot. A little further inquiry 
produced the following passage from Sir James 
Turner, Pallas Armata,ed. 1683, p. 231: 

"The heavy armed [cavalry] are called cuirassiers, 
gens d'armes, and men at arms, from their defensive 
armour, but the light armed are now called Harque- 
busiers, from their offensive weapon, the harquebuss, 
which, before the invention of the musket and pistol, 
was a weapon only differing in length common to both 
the foot and the horse, and they had both the denomina- 

tion of harquebusiers from it. And though none of them 
now use the harquebuss, and that the foot firemen are 
called musketeers from the musket, yet the light horse 
though they use pistols, keep still the old name of 

Cromwell, therefore, remained in December what 
he had been in October, and what he continued 
to be till he became a colonel, a captain of a troop 
of horse. 

I have told the story at some length, as being a 
good example of the way in which the authority 
of a great name often prevents an inquirer from 
asking the bona qucestio which is dimidium 
scientice, even when the question seems to rise 
upon the surface of the evidence. 


SCOTLAND. A French magazine, quoting "an 
English parliamentary paper," without any further 
reference, and probably at second or third hand, 
says that the number of Gaelic speakers in. Scot- 
land in 1881 was 231,602. The same number is 
given in The Statesman's Year-Book for 1884 (now 
edited by Mr. Scott Keltie), p. 247. Mr. Keltie 
does not advance his authority for the statement. 
A few years ago Mr. Kavenstein, in his exhaustive 
paper " On the Celtic Language in the British 
Isles " (Journal of the Statistical Society for Sep- 
tember, 1879), had given the figures 301,000 
(besides 8,000 Gaelic speakers in England and 
Wales). If the foregoing figures be right, the 
decrease in numbers is rapid. 

But what I want to ascertain is this. (1) What 
is the^ " parliamentary paper " alluded to ? (2) 
Have inquiries been made concerning the language 
of the people (as is usually done in Ireland) in 
the Scotch census of 1881 ? On what scale, and 
by what way of inquiries, direct or indirect ? If 
such be the case, in what volume of the census are 
;he results to be found, and are the figures given 
'or each county ? H. GAIDOZ. 

22, Hue Servandoni, Paris. 

you favour me with an answer to the enclosed, 
ffhich reaches me from a correspondent at Berlin : 
Macaulay, in his Speeches on Parliamentary 
Reform (Sept. 20, 1831), makes use of the following 
expression in allusion to the House of Lords, 
Tell the people that they are attacking you in 
ittacking the three holes in the wall, and that they 
ihall never get rid of the three holes in the wall 
ill they have got rid of you.' If you could tell 
me what he can mean by those ' three holes in the 
wall' I should feel thankful." 


dnd reader of " N. & Q." oblige me by the loan for 
j, few days of the volume of Mrs. Katherine Philips's 
poems containing her portrait by Faithorne (only to 



[6"' S. XI. FEB. 14/85. 

be found, I believe, in the second edition). I will 
take every care of the book, and will willingly 
defray cost of carriage from and to the owner. 


repealed? Wiis it included in the repeal of the 
taxes on cotton yarn, raw silk, thrown silk not 
dyed, and hemp dressed or undressed, in Peel's 
revision of taxation, 1845 ? T. W. 

is Sodor, and when was the addition to the title 
made? In the last century it was alluded to 
always as the bishopric of Man, and the incum- 
bent as the Bishop of Man. In an old school 
atlas of the year 1804 I see Sodor marked in the 
island on the spot where in modern maps Castle- 
ton is indicated. But I am led to believe this is 
entirely untrustworthy, and that Sodor really is a 
separate island. If so, which ? J. J. S. 

BOOKS ON EMIGRATION. What books have 
been published in England relating particularly 
to emigration from England to America between 
and during the years 1620 and 1680; and can 
such books be purchased to-day ? 

P.O. Box 3068, New York, U.S. 

EDWARD HOWARD. Can any of your readers give 
me any information concerning Edward Howard 
who resided in or near the Marsh, Lambeth in the 
years 1722 to 1735, and who in 1722 married 
Katharine Askul ? Was he in any way connected 
with the Howards of Norfolk ? Do any of your 
readers possess autograph letters of Edward or 
Katharine Howard, supposed to be living in Lam- 
oecn i/zz-i/oz I J T? 

Xorthwood Cottage, Chislehurst. 

ir? ENR w R 1 M8 - DEN ' VlCAR OF HALIFAX 1629- 
lG38-Wood, m Athena Oxon., says that in 
.ondon he was much resorted to for his edifying 
and puritanical sermons." Can any one tell me 
where ; or anything about him, besides what Wood 

T. C. 
"CORONA SriNARU.-I n the Icelandic Die- 

5. of Chrutia. Antiquities. 


wnp 1 ^ 017 ' TREASU ? EU F LINCOLN'S 
k~*u"**"' v mem bers of the family of 

be identical with William Guidott, who was agent 
to Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, and against 
whom she brought an action 1 C. T. 

UNSIZED PAPER. Why do the French and 
German printers almost invariably use unsized 
paper? Many years ago I asked this question, 
and was told that they did it to save expense ; but 
now that the French publishers issue works so 
beautifully printed and got up, editions de luxe, 
almost regardless of cost, they still keep to this 
sort of paper. It is much less durable than when 
sized, is more easily torn, readily absorbs moisture, 
and it utterly defies any attempt to correct misprints 
with the pen or to write a few lines on a fly-leaf. 
A new French book is no.w lying before me, beauti- 
fully printed on the finest papier velin, but it is un- 
sized. Quite lately, indeed, this kind of paper has 
been used in some English illustrated publications, 
for the sake of a softer surface for printing off deli- 
cately engraved wood-blocks ; but as regards the 
ordinary kind of books, the rule is that English and 
Dutch printers have always used sized paper, even 
for the cheapest and commonest books, while the 
French and Germans, with rare exceptions, have 
used it unsized. J. DIXON. 

that Gladys, daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn, 
Prince of North Wales, married Walter Fitz- 
Otho, the ancestor of the FitzGeralds ; also that 
his son, Gerald FitzWalter, married Nesta, the 
daughter of Ehys ap Gruffyd, Prince of South 
Wales. In another pedigree I have seen of the 
Princes of Wales, Gladys, daughter of Khywallen 
ap Corvyn, is said to have married Ehys ap Tudor, 
and no mention is made of Walter FitzOtho; also 
that Nesta, daughter of Griffith ap Llewelyn, 
Prince of South Wales, married Traherne ap 
Caradoc, Prince of South Wales, and not Gerald 
FitzWalter. Which is the right version? If 
Burke is wrong, the line of FitzGeralds must begin 
at Maurice (ob. 1177), and leave out the two wives, 
daughters of the Princes of Wales. STRIX. 

BISHOP GODWIN. Where can I find an account 
of the ancestry of Thomas Godwin, Bishop of Bath 
and Wells temp. Elizabeth? Bedford, in his 
Blazon of Episcopacy, gives the bishop's arms, " Or, 
two lions pass, sa., on a canton of the second three 
bezants." From this I infer that the Godwyns of 
Kent were his progenitors. Fuller, in his Worthies, 
gives^a "Hugonis Godwyn in the list of the 
Kentish gentry, 12 Hen. VI. The biographical 
notices of the bishop which I have seen, including 
that by his son, say nothing of his family. 

, South Eighteenth Street, Philadelphia. 

What is the origin of the German ex- 





pression " Streiten um des Kaiser's Bart," lit. 
*' disputing over the Emperor's beard," meaning, to 
contend about trifles 1 Does it refer in any way 
to Barbarossa 1 Also, what is a " Turkopolier " 1 
Does it mean a polisher with Tripoli stone ; and 
what is Tripoli stone 1 Did it come from Tripoli, 
in Syria (now Trablus), or from Africa ? It should 
derive its name from the former if Turkopolier 
means Tripoli polisher. E. A. M. LEWIS. 

A CITY CALLED " NAIM." Have your readers 
noticed the error in some copies of the Prayer-book 
by which Nain in the Gospel for sixteenth Sunday 
after. Trinity is printed Nairn? Since remarking 
it I have examined a number of copies, and in all 
cases where this misprint occurs the book was 
printed at the Oxford University Press. 

W. S. B. H. 

POLITICAL BALLAD. Can any contributors to 
or readers of " N. & Q." supply any more verses 
than the following to a West-country ditty, which, 
to have full force, must be said or sung in Zomerzet 
style ? 

" We '11 bore a hole thro' Crumwell's nose, 
And there we '11 put a string ; 
\Ve '11 hang un up in middle of th' house 
For killing of Charles our king." 

S. V. H. 

time since I bought a small publication, entitled 
"Earl Beaconsfield's First Novel, The Consul's 
Daughter, hitherto unpublished," publishing office 
44, Essex Street, Strand, price one penny, with a 
portrait and other illustrations on the title. Is 
this a bond fide "first novel"; and, if so, is any- 
thing else known of it; or is it merely a thing to 
sell? ED. MARSHALL. 

DIARY OF DR. WILLIAM Twiss, 1638. Can 
any one inform me as to the whereabouts of the 
small original MS., or of a copy thereof? It 
relates mostly to Dr. Twiss's preaching, travels, 
and public news. W. I. R. V. 

left by this famous author been preserved ? If so, 
where and what are they ? THORP. 

PROVERB. "She swept Broomfield clean," i.e., 
she inherited as heiress the entire property. I 
heard this proverb to-day for the first time, and 
should be glad to hear if its origin be known. 


Yaxley, Suffolk. 

GREAT FLOOD IN 1647. Will any correspon- 
dent kindly refer me to an account of the great 
rain and floods which prevailed this year? I have 
a rare sermon, preached upon the subject at 
Coventry on December 23, "being a day of 
Publique Humiliation appointed to be observed 

for the removing of the said judgment," by John 
Bryan, Batchelor in Divinity, and Minister of 
Trinity, in Coventry. But he gives no record of 
the actual facts of the occurrence. 


HERALDIC. May I request the favour of some 
assistance in discovering the families for whom the 
following arms were intended 1 They exist in an 
old church window of the middle of the sixteenth 
century. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gules, a bend argent ; 
2 and 3, Sable, a fleur-de-lys argent ; quartering, 
Sable, a chevron engrailed between three owls 
argent. Also, quarterly, 1, Sable, six swallows 
argent, 2, 2, 2 ; 2, Argent, a fess sable ; 3, Chequy, 
or and sable, a chief argent, goutte d'or ; 4, Azure, 
a bend or. There is another quartering of four 
similar to the last, save that the second quarter is 
Or, three torteaux, a label of three points, arg. 
These latter quarterings probably indicate marriages 
of heiresses with the Arundels of Cornwall, as the 
first quarter is evidently for Arundel ; but I should 
be glad to know for whom precisely they were 
intended, and a reference to a good pedigree of 
this family would be acceptable. H. N. 

Our Public Schools, 8vo., published by Kegan Paul & 
Co. in 1881. No name appears on the title-page. 



" Trust the spirit, 

As sovran Nature does, to make the form; 
For otherwise, we only imprison spirit, 
And not embody. Inward evermore 
To outward." ALEKTOK. 

" Whose changing mound and foam that fades away 
Might mock the eye that questioned where 1 lay." 


" Like Dead Sea fruit, bitter," &c. A. G, 
" And hearken what the inner spirit Tings, 
There is no joy but calm ! 
Why should we only toil, 
The roof and crown of things 1 " VIOLET. 

(6 th S.x. 289,438, 520; xi. 72.) 
I hardly like to trespass on your space by add- 
*ng to the replies already elicited on this subject, 
but onomatology is in its infancy as a science, and 
I am glad to seize this opportunity of urging the 
necessity of comparing, where possible, English 
personal names with those of other nations. Such 
i comparison will prove how very common the 
assumption, or rather the application, of names from 
colour of hair, complexion, and dress has always 
been : English, White, Whitehead, Whitman, 
Lillywhite, Snow, &c. ; French, Blanc, Blanchet, 
Blanchard ; German, Weiss, Weissmann, Schnee- 
weiss (vide Pott); Dutch, De Witte, Wittel, Witt- 



[6 S. XL FEB. 14, '85. 

kopp ; Italian, Bianchi ; English, Reed, Reade, 
Redman, Redhead, Ruddiman, Rouse ; French, 
Roux, Rous, Roussel, Rousseau, Rouget ; Ger- 
man, Rothe; Italian, Rossi, Rossini; Welsh, Gough; 
Scotch, Reid, Roy. To these we may add the 
Latin, Rufus, Rutilus, Albinus, &c. Similarly 
for Black, Blond, Grey, Brown ; compare with 
which such well - known names as Schwartz, 
Tchernitchef, Dibdin, Quin, Blondin, Griset, 
Moreau, Lloyd, &c., the equivalents, with little 
variation, in other languages. In India, too, colour 
is admitted to form proper names. Vide Capt. 
Temple's Proper Name* of Panjabis, and Prof. 
Monier Williatns's Sanskrit Dictionary. There 
is a Yellowhair mentioned byBardsley; this corre- 
sponds to Gelbhaar in German. The English 
Green would usually be a local surname, though 
we have Griin in German, and Verd, Verdeau, 
Vertot in French. A greenman is pictured in 
Strutt's tfports; he used to take part in festival 
processions as a sort of wild man of the woods, 
being covered with foliage and garlands. Mr. 
Bardsley, in his most interesting English Sur- 
names, quotes with approval Horace Smith's 
assertion that surnames " ever go by contraries," 
and asks, ' Who ever saw a Whytehead who was 
not dark ; or who ever saw reddish hair on a 
Russell, or a swarthy complexion on a Morell ? " 
This paradoxical remark suggested to me, some 
time ago, that it might be worth while to find out 
what proportion of persons bearing these eolour- 

still exhibit the original peculiarity. So 
far as I have gone I find that Mr. Bardsley's 
vivacity hus misled him, and that the "law of 
inheritance" has received confirmation. 

Westward Ho. 

Red is vulgarly pronounced in this town Reed 
The surname is spelt Heed, Reid, Read. There 
is a Redhead in this town who is commonlv called 
"Reedheed." i> P 

South Shields. 

With reference to MR. HALLIDAY'S note, visitors 
to Cheater in:y have observed that there is upon 
one of the houses in Abbey Building,, skirting the 
Uithedral Close, the following notice " Mrs Red 
Registry Office for Servant?." 


From]842 till 1872, in a Gaelic-speaking country, 
I' knew three crofters .,s D.ivid ISayne, or Bain 
James Bine, and David McR.b, meaning respec- 
tively Fan: David, or White David, Yellow-haired 
David, and David son of Robert. Their sons, our 
under gardeners, were also called John Bain and 
John Buie. Another family was styled Davie 
Din, or Doo or Dow, grandfather, son, and grand- 
son that ,s Black Davie, they being very swarthy. 
a fact however, these names were only descrip- 
tive, the whole set being Rosses and Mackays 

which names were so common that they required 
some further distinction, and many persons knew 
them only as Bain, Buie, and the Dhus. Roy, 
which means red, is a common name. That Reed 
does not always mean red, witness the Reeds qf 
Reedsdale, and the proverb, "Short Rede guid 
Rede " = " Short speech good speech," where the 
derivation is German. There is nothing in which 
misderivation is more rampant than in surnames, 
e. g., Macknight, said to be son of the knight a 
Celtic prefix and an English substantive. Track 
it through record, and it unfolds itself to Mac- 
kneight, Macneight, MacNecht, MacNachfc, and 
Nachtan, where it rests as the soa of Nachtan 
or Nechtan, the Pictish warrior. 

Burnham, Bucks. 

OLD EXPRESSIONS (6 th S. x. 410). The ex- 
planations of these words would be facilitated 
considerably if ROYSSB would give more of the 
context. Who can tell, without the context, 
whether bermandry be an offbe or a piece of land \ 
There is an A.-S. word beer-man, a porter (bear- 
man), which gives M.E. ler-man (Ma f zaer, A. E. 
Wb'rterbuch, i. 209). Some interesting regulations 
for her men may be seen in The Black Book of the 
Admiralty, ii. 179, from the Domesday Book of 

3. Argud is a chemical substance mentioned by 
Chaucer, C. T., 12,740 ; M.E. argal, crude tartar. 

4. I have somewhere met with an instance of 
cratera being used instead of cratis, which latter 
word was often applied in the Middle Ages to 
the causeways across fields that are frequently 
mentioned. These causeways were commonly 
made^ with hurdles ; hence the usual word to 
describe them is deia. When builo of stone these 
causeways were knowu as calcetce. Can cratera 
be a misreading for calceta ? 

0. Tai-/i',e) tenter (see Skeat, s.v.), A.D. 1408, 
John Loudon presented for occupying a crofo 
"cum taynters" (Kccords of the Borough of Not- 
tingham, ii. GO). 

7. Dosstr, also written dorsur (Catholicon 
Anglicum, p. 104), wall-hangings. There are 
ample quotations in the Catholicon as above ; 
Promptorium Parvulorum, pp. 125, 127: Matz- 
ner, i. 658. 

9. Is nob sociary a misreading for focarii (the 
last ^ being, as usual, written j) 1 The context 
would soon settle the question whether or not a 
genitive be required here. Focarium means a 
hearth or hearthstone. See Wright Wiilcker's 
Vocabularies, 657, 1 ; 779, 9 ; Prompt., 161 ; 

fiSK\ The meanin g seems to be louvre or 

(M.L.) fumerell, which might possibly be repre- 
sented by focarium. 

12. Bobbets seems to be an easily explained 
misreading for bokkets (buckets). 

6"' S. XI. FEB. 14, '85.] 



15. tiMaZ/s=abuttal3, boundaries ; hence the 
meaning here is that the boundaries of the land 
shall be surveyed and marked out. 

17. Steek eels (what date ?). The meaning is 
probably eels that were sold by the stick, for which 
measure see the Statute of Weights and Measures 
and Liber Custumarum, 119, where the word is 
Latinized as stikum. 

21. A little more of the context might show us 
if there be any connexion between this expression 
and the small sail known as a bonnet, upon which 
see Matzner, 316 ; .Stratmann, 85 ; Prompt., 43 ; 
Riley, Memorials of London, 369. 

23. /Sjoorie? spurrier, maker of spurs. 

24. Stronger must be an error for strenger= 

25. Has this anything to do with a defendant 
who has waged his law ? It is impossible to answer 
this without the context. 

26. Kepper or shedder salmon means salmon 
that has shed its spawn. The first word is repre- 
sented by the modern kipper ; see Skeat, s. v. , and 
Jamieson, Scottish Diet., s. v. "Kipper," who 
states that the kipper is the male salmon and the 
shedder the female. Jamieson refers to a statute of 
Henry VII., wherein the expressions " kepper 
salmons or kepper trowtes, shedder salmons or 
shedder trowtes " occur. In the Kolls of Parlia- 
ment, ii. 3316, A.D. 1376, is an enactment that 
salmon shall not be taken in the Thames between 
Gravesend and Henley Bridge, "en temps q'il 
soit kiper? which time is denned as extending 
from the Invention of the Holy Cross (May 3) to 
Epiphany (January 6). Oa the Trent a salmon is 
said to be kipper when it is seriously out of condi- 
tion and has lost about half its weight. The fish 
are mostly found in this condition after the spawn- 
ing season, but I have not hitherto been able to 
learn satisfactorily whether or not there is any 
connexion between the spawning and kippering. 
From this has arisen the slang kipper = to die. 


2. Bermen is given in Halliweli's Dictionary of 
Archaic Words as signifying " Barmen, porters' to 
a kitchen (A.-S.)." Tuis term is found in Layamon 
and in Havelok : 

" Two dayes ther fastinde he yede 
That non for his werk wolde him fede ; 
The thridde day herde he calle : 
' Bermtn, Hermen, hider forth alle ! ' " 


( 3. Argud, argaile, or argoile (Fr. argille), signi- 
fying potter's earth or an article used in alche- 
mical operations. See Wright's Diet, of Obsolete 
English. Chaucer says : 

" Cley made with hora and marines here and oila 
Of tartre, alum, glas, berme, wort and argoile." 
Ben Jonson mentions 

" Arsenic, vitriol, eal tartar, 
Argaile, alkali, ciaoper," 

as part of the stock of an alchemist ; and in the 
Archaeological Journal, i. 65, there is a very early 
receipt which says, " Tac argul, a thing that 
deyares deyet with, ant grin 1 ; hit stnal," &j. 

7. Estrich-boards are defined by Halliwell as 
"Deal- boards exported from the Eastern countries" 
(Austria ?). 

15. Buttal, a corner of ground (HUH well). 

19. Sulche, sulsh, Somersetshire word for foul or 

23. Sporier, a spurrier or spur maker. 

27. Tholons wood, tholes and thole pins, the 
pins against which the oars bear in rowing, com- 
monly made of ash. 

30. Pennd, a pen-slock, was a floodgate erected 
to keep in or let out water from a mill-pond 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

EUGENE ARAM (6 th S. xi. 47). A correspondent 
of the Gentleman's Magazine, September, 1837, 
writes : 

" In March I was at Wisbeach, and happening to hear 
that an old woman in the alms-houses had been present 
wlren Eugene Aram was apprehended at Lynn, in the 
year 1757, I paid her a visit. She informed me that, at 
the time of his being apprehended, she was a girl of 
eleven yeara of aga, that he was put into the chaise 
hand-cuffed, and that the boys of the school were in 
tears; that he was much esteemed by them, having 
been used to associate with them in their play-hours. 
She said that the picture of his person in the Newyate 
Calendar is the express image of him ; and she men- 
tioned (what I had heard before, but not with her 
peculiar phrase) that he always wore his hat bangled, 
which she explained 'bent down, .or slouched.' One 
remark she made, which I think Very interesting an 1 
worthy of record. She said that it had been observed, 
that in looking behind him, he never turned his head 
or his person partly round, but always turned round at 
once, bodily. I give you her very words. Has any poet, 
any observer of nature, ever depicted this instance of 
fear mustering up resolution 1 ? I do not remember any 
description of the kind. How thankful wouli Mr. 
Bulwer have been for the anecdote had he received it in 
time ! Few people in a morning gossip learn a new 
anecdote of human nature ; and, grateful for it, I record 
the old lady's name Beatley." 

The Gentleman's Magazine is also responsible 
for a sketch of the life of Eugene Aram, but at ' 
what date this appeared I cannot say. 


I have the following books, pamphlets, cuttings, 
&c., which may, perhaps, be useful to FRANCESCA : 

The Trial and Life of Eugene Aram, several of his 
Letters and Poems, and his Plan and Specimen of an 
Anglo-Celtic Lexicon, &c. Richmond, printed by and 
'or Mr. Bell, 1842. Tp. iv 124 (with facsimile of his 
landwriting when in prison, and a two-page portrait). 

Ditto. Probably first edition, dated 1832 (with a one- 
iage portrait). 

The Trial of Eugene Aram for the Murder of Daniel 
Clark, of Knaresborough, who [szcj was Convicted at 
York Assizes, August 5, 1759, &c. Knaresborough, G. 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [* a XL n. 11, 

Wilson. (Not dated, but as it contains Hood's Dream of 
Eugene Aram it must be 1830-1840.) 

A Genuine Account of the Trial, &c., of Eugene Aram, 
&c. With engravings. (A very long title.) Pp. 48. 
(Circa 1840.) Durham, G. Walker, jun. 

Gleanings after Eugene Aram at Knaresborough, in 
Yorkshire, and Lynn, in Norfolk, &c., by Norrison Scat- 
cherd, E?q. London, Simpkin & Marshall, 1836. 
(Pp. vii 72.) 

Memoirs of the Celebrated Eugene Aram, with some 
Account of his Family and other particulars, collected for 
the most part above thirty years ago by Norrison Scat- 
chord, Esq. Second Edition. Improved by the Author. 
London, Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1838. (Pp. 63.) 

Phrenological Observations on the Skull of Eugene 
Aram, with a Prefixed Sketch of his Life and Character, 
by James Inglis, M.D. Illustrated by Lithographic 
Representations of the Skull, and a Portrait of Eugene 
Aram. London, Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 18-38. 
(Pp. S3.) 

The Life and Execution of Eugene Aram, &c. (A 
Chap- Book.) March & Co., Clerkenwell, E.G. (8vo. 
Pp. 21.) 

The Life, Trial, and Remarkable Defence of Eugene 
Aram, &c. (Chap-Book.) R. March & Co., St. James's 
Walk, Clerkenwell. (Folio title-page, but made up 
into twenty-four pages.) 

Memoir of Eugene Aram, &c. (Cut from Universal 
J\fa<jaiiiic, July, 1778. Pp. 53.) 

The most Extraordinary Case of Eugene Aram, &c. 
(Pp. 131-147. From some volume of Trials ) 

Eugine [sic] Aram, &c. (Pp. 12-23. With profile 
portrait, 1810, from New Newgate Calendar.) 

The Trial of Eugene Aram. (With sensation woodcut. 
Pp. 129-136. Double columns. From some book of 

Eugene Aram. (Pp. 45-53. With woodcut portrait. 
From tome book of Trials, circa 1840.) 


The following works have interesting details of 
the above : 

The Biographical Dictionary, vol. iii. 1843. Long- 

Gorton's Biographical Dictionary. 1851. H G 

Curiosities of Biography; or, Memoirs of Wonderful 
and Extraordinary Characters. Edited by R. Malcolm. 
J> .7 V (jl>lfiin * (Contains his portrait and memoir. 

Rose's Biographical Dictionary. 1857. Rivington & 


^ Cooper's Biographical Dictionary. 1873. Geo. Bell 

Doubtlessly if FKANCKSCA would also consult 
Ouullie Id 3 Portraits, Memoirs, and Characters of 
Remarkable Men, 1813, aud Chalmers's Biographi- 
cal Dictionary, bhe might find notices in both. 


. James CaulBeld, a very industrious compiler, 
m his Portraits, Memoirs, and Characters of Re- 
markable Persons, vol. iii., 1820, gives a portrait of 
this murderer, and an account of his case extend- 
ing to twenty pages. This is not mentioned in 
the list given at 6 ttt S. viii. (not x.) 400. 


Is FRANCESCA acquainted with the Trial and 
J*/e of Eugene Aram ; several of his Letters and 

Poems, &c. (Richmond, 1832) ; and Gleanings 
after Eugene Aram, &c., by Norrison Scatcherd, 
Esq. (London, 1836) 1 G. L. FENTON. 

I have a book entitled 

The Trial and Life of Eugene Aram; several of hia 
Letters and Poems, and his Plan and Specimens of an 
Anglo-Celtic Lexicon; with copious notes and illustra- 
tions, and an engraved facsimile of the handwriting of 
this very ingenious but ill-fated Scholar. Richmond, 
printed by and for Mr. Bell. 1832. 

J. L. 

The name of "Mr. Eugenius Aram" appears 
among the subscribers to the History of Hull, 
written by the extraordinary printer Thomas Gent, 
and printed by him at York in 1735. Many 
editions of his Trial, from 1759 and downwards, 
have been printed at York and elsewhere ; for 
some of them, and a notice of Eugene's father, see 
Davies's York Press, 1868, pp. 172, 338. ^ Mr. 
Norrison Scatcherd collected many facts in his 
Memoirs of Eugene Aram, 1838 ; Boyne's York- 
shire Library, 1869, pp. 252-3. W. 0. B. 

TOPICAL (6 th S. xi. 47). I cannot tell W. F. P. 
whether topical is an " English word," not knowing 
the particular sense in which he uses this phrase. 
To most people this means, I find, a word which 
they themselves use. I did not know that topical 
belongs to the slang of the music-halls, having no 
acquaintance with the latter; but I may suggest 
to YV. F. P. that a glance at Johnson's Dictionary, 
before penning his query, would have shown him 
the word used by Hale, Holyday, Arbuthnot, 
White, and Sir Thomas Brown, and add that it 
may also be met with in Fuller, Burton, Boyle, 
Evelyn, Addison, Johnson, Burke, Disraeli, and 
probably every one of "our older classics," and 
younger ones too, who has needed to use it. By 
the way, is there some occult joke in describing 
topical as a kind of monstrum informe; and are we 
to supply cui lumen ademptum ? Most of us who 
have our eyes, have seen comical, tragical, logical, 
musical, critical, physical, political, astronomical, 
and the thousand other words in -ical, which fill 
nearly eight pages in Webster's Rhyming Dic- 
tionary. E. N. D. 

This word hardly deserves the condemnation 
which W. F. P. pronounces upon it. Bailey, in 
his Dictionary (1736), gives *' Topic, topical, be- 
longing to or applied to a particular place." And 
Johnson's Dictionary supplies examples of topical 
from White, Brown, Hale, Holyday, and of its 
use in medical literature from Arbuthnot. 



This word has been in use in England for more 
than a century and a half, and your correspondent 
W. F. P. may like to have the advantage of know- 
ing that it is thus recorded : " Topical, applied to* 
a particular place or part " (Kersey's English Die- 

G"< S. XT. FKC. 11, '85.] 



tionary, date 1715) ; " Topical remedies, what we 
otherwise call external remedies, such as applied 
outwardly " (Middleton's 

"distinguish between the old house of Carinichael 
and the new one of Hyndford." My query was 

's English Dictionary, date suggested by the folio wing considerations: (1) That 
1778). Other extracts I could give, but I think according to heraldic authorities, "the baton royal 

the above will fill less of your valuable space. 


See Latham's Dictionary, 1870, vol. ii. pt. 
s. n. "Topical," where quotations are given of the use 
of this adjective from Sir Matthew Hale, Holyday, 
and Arbuthnot. G. F. R. B. 

A " BALLET" IN PROSE (6 th S. xi. 47). An 

early instance of the use of the word ballet for 

ballad is afforded us in Douglas's Eneados : 

" In gudeley ordour went thay and array, 

And of tbare kyng sang balteitis by the way. 
The term was applied by older writers to the Song 
of Solomon, as " The Ballett of Ballettes of Salo- 
mon," called in Latin Cantica Canticorum. 


is frequently used to express illegitimacy " (MR. 
BOYLE has, I think, disposed of my difficulty in 
this respect) ; (2) that, according to Scottish story, 
James V. had a daughter Jean, by the Lady 
Elizabeth Carmichael, daughter of Sir John Car- 
michael. Jean was at supper with her sister, 
Queen Mary, when Rizzio was murdered ; Jean 
afterwards stood sponsor for Queen Elizabeth at 
the baptism of James VI., and was buried in the 
royal vault of Holyrood. 

Assuming, as I did, that a baton royal was a 
mark of illegitimate connexion with royal blood, 
I thought it not improbable that its existence in 
the arms of Carmichaels of that ilk and Hyndford 
might be accounted for by the circumstance I have 
mentioned. ZETA. 

WARLEY CAMP, ESSEX, 1778 (6 th S. xi. 69). 
I have a small engraving, lettered " View of the 

OLDEST FAMILY IN ENGLAND (6 th S. ix. 503 ; I Camp at Warley Common," of about the date given, 
x. 113, 159, 210, 350, 376, 475). SIR J. A. It has been unfortunately so clipped that the 

PICTON has stated at 6 th S. x. 210 that " Wapshot I artist's name, if it ever existed, has disappeared, 
of Wapenshot, meaning The print, however, is intact, and I should be 
a distinction gained at the periodical Wappen- happy to show it to B. H. if he considers it of 

is evidently a contraction 

schaw, or assembly of arms." But the name s 
English, and a more obvious derivation would 

n/n tW A /8 lo - Saxoa 7 rds > f f^. P> 
and hoU a wood or grove. In provincial (and, in 

"*]*&* *V 1S 

inAM \ hl 

, A dersn . > 


and other local 


, Green Street, Grosvenor Square. 

- J- de Loutherbourg painted "a Land- 
8 in whicU are represented the manoeuvres 

of an attack performed before their Majesties on 
Lifctle Warley Common, under the command of 
Gen> p ier8(m on the 20 h of October, 1778," and 
at Warley Camp, Keviewed by his 

the other for the antiquity of the family which 
bears it. \\r. 'F. P. 

HORN (6 th S. xi. 48). No mention of this monu- 
ment is made in Mr. Groome's exhaustive 
Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, vol. iv. (1883), 
pp. 399 and 400, s.n. "Kinghorn," though the 
story of how Alexander III. met his" death on 
March 12, 1286, is duly recorded." 

G. F. K. B. 


1 B, x. 350, 396, 477; xi. 12, 58). MR. CAR- 

CHAEL is quite mistaken in supposing that at 
the back of my query " lay the undoubted irnpli- 
cation ^of the illegitimate origin of the Hyndford 
I am not " in possession of any special 

ormation not known to Scottish genealogists " 
m respect of the Hyndford branch of the house of 

.rmichael prior to its ennoblement ; nor do I 

6, Pall Mall. 

I have a small engraving of a "View of the 
Camp at Warley Common," but no engraver's or 
printer's names are appended. It is poorly ex- 
ecuted, the view consisting of a few tents and 
several figures; from the dress of the latter the date 
may be that suggested. THOMAS BIRD. 


CAMBRIDGE PERIODICALS (6 th S. xi. 61). I do 
not know whether MR. GRAY has overlooked an 
Oxford and Cambridge magazine, Ye Eounde 
Table, or considered it beneath his notice. I have 
five copies of this periodical, the first being pub- 
lished on Feb. 2, 1878, and the last (in my posses- 
sion) on June 1 in the same year. Whether it 
collapsed, or was continued after this date, I cannot 
say. Published three times in term. Lent and 
Easter Terms, 1878, Cambridge, J. Hall & Son. 
" Antiprofessorial, antiproctorial, and generally 



[6'h s. XI. FEB. 14, '85. 

liberal in its opinions." Written, I fancy, chiefly 
by Oxford men, bub circulated in both univer- 
sities. My copies are at MR. GRAY'S disposal if 
he would like to see them. W. M. S. 

P.S. I have a vague impression that MR. GRAY 
has made another omission between 1877 and 1879, 
for I know I used to subscribe to another periodical; 
but perhaps I am thinking of the Tatter. 

lu MR. GRAY'S interesting list of these, I note, 
from personal knowledge, a slight error, under the 
year 1856. Geoffrey Lushington should be God- 
frey Lushington, the present Under- Secretary at 
the Home Office. And to MR. GRAY'S query as 
to which of the two Rossetti brothers is meant, I 
answer Gabriel, not William Gabriel, for so he 
was to his family and his intimates, though he 
was Dante to the world. 

I believe it was in that very year, 1856, that 
"The Blessed Damozel" and the sonnet now 
called " Mary's Girlhood" were circulated in MS. 
([ have my copy of the latter still), and showed us 
how much was yet in store for those who knew 
and loved their author. 

Has MR. GRAY intentionally omitted what I 
venture to call the most important Cambridge 
periodical of our time, the Cambridge Essays, 
issued annually for the years 1855, 1856, 1857, 
and 1858 ? A. J. M. 

MR. GRAY'S list of Cambridge periodicals is 
incorrect in one particular. The Oxford and 
Cambridge Undergraduates' Journal, after assum- 
ing the additional title of the "Oxford Review," 
is now extinct, and its place will be taken by 
the new Oxford Review, which has bought up tho 
Oxford connexion of the Undergraduates' Journal. 
As for the Cambridge connexion, there was, 
imagine, none left, to buy up. The last number of 
the Undergraduates' was published in the October 
term of 1884. ARTUUR R. ROPES. 

This was the name given to a squadron of priva- 
teers fitted out by a company of London mer- 
chants in 1746. Individually, the ships were 
named King George, Prince Frederick, Duke 
Prince George, and Prince Edward. They cruisec 
mostly from Lisbon during the years 1746-8, and 
icted great damage on the enemy's commerce 
A pretty full history of their achievements is con 
tained in the Voyages and Cruises of Commodon 
Walker durmg the lite Spanish and French War 
LSino , Dublin, 1762); and in less detail, but witl 
some corrections, in an article which I contributec 
to Fraser's Magazine, November, 1881. 


HANNAH BRAND (6 th S. xi. 89, 115). Th 
statement in the Biographical Dictionary (1816 
that this lady became a schoolmistress after havin 

een an actress is unquestionably wrong. ^ She 
vas keeping a school in Norwich (with her sister) 
n 1783, and did not appear on the stage until 
ome eight or nine years after. I could give H. T. 
ome further particulars in proof of this, but they 
re not worth writing about in " N. & Q." She 
ied in March, 1821. FRED. NORGATE. 

d. 108). The large original painting is at Farra- 
ine House, in Stratherrick, the residence of Capt. 
Fraser, of Balnain. It was for some years at In- 
verness, where the varnish received injury from 
he scorching of the sun's rays; in other respects 
he picture is in a good state. 

WILLIAM FRASER of Ledeclune, Bfc. 

OTHER BUILDINGS (6 th S. x. 441, 511 ; xi. 42, 77). 
In a novel called Meadow-Sweet, written to 
llustrate Lincolnshire rural life, the conversations 
n the Lincolnshire dialect, the writer mentions a 
house with the following inscription : " Hsec dooms 
dat, amat, punit, conservat,, honorat, fquitiam, 
pacem, crirnina, jura, bonos. 1620." On some 
.ilmshouses, "Deo et Divitibus. Ao. Do. 1620." 
Has not Miss BUSK miscopied one of her mottoes, 

Non dorno dominus, sed dominus domo hones- 
tanda est," p. 43? Ought it not to be "Non 
domus domino, sed dominus domo honestanda 

The inscription on the triumphal arch in honour 
of Leo X. is not u a verse," but a pair of verses, or 
distich, of the second line of which "Vive" is the 
first word. In the motto, also a distich, over the 
entrance of Cancellieri's house, "Parva" is the 
first word of the second line, and the "et" is 
superfluous. Obviously, this line should read: 

" Parva licet, nullo nomine clara domus." 
The inscription " on a villa on the Aventine " is, 
again, a couplet, and the first word of it, as quoted, 
" Stat," is rnanifestly wrong, for it makes absolute 
nonsense. It should, of course, be " Sat." Is the 
stone-cutter to be blamed for these mistakes ? 


Over the door of the house in which I write ia 
the inscription, " Parvi beatus ruris honoribus." 

G. L. F. 
Villa Carli, San Remo. 

On old houses in Hexham are the inscriptions 
above the doors : 


W * S ANO DOMINI 1638. 




M D. 

R. B. 

S. XI. FEB. H, '85.) 



It may interest your querists to know that a 
complete collection of these inscriptions has 
been published at Berlin, and that the fourth 
edition, much enlarged, has appeared. The title 
of the book is Deutsche Inschriften an Haus und 
Gerdih, Berlin, Verlag vom Wilhelni Hertz, 1882, 

Athenaeum Club. 

x. 495 ; xi. 55). What does MR. WARD mean by 
saying (at the last reference) that Gray's poem 
" was not called the Elegy ; the title of the poem 
in quarto was simply Stanzas written in a Country 
Churchyard, and that is still its best Title"? I 
have a quarto copy of the poem before me, and it 
bears the following words on the title-page : " An 
Elegy wrote in a Country Church Yard. London : 
Printed for R. Dodsley in Pall-Mall ; And sold by 
M. Cooper in Pater-noster-Row. 1751. [Price 
Six-pence.] " Mr. Gosse, too, in his Gray (" Eng- 
lish Men of Letters "), P- 104, says that " on 
Feb. 16, 1751, Dodsley published a large quarto 
pamphlet, anonymous, price sixpence, entitled An 
Elegy wrote in a Country Church-Yard." 

G. F. R. B. 

" Trembling hope " looks very like a literary 
crib from Petrarch; and if it be one, Wordsworth 
committed the same " literary larceny," as in the 
Excursion, bk. v., " the Pastor," ad fin., there is 
this line : 

" These that in trembling hope are laid apart." 
This only by way of obiter. F. R. 

The first publication of Gray's famous poem 
having been in the Magazine of Magazines for 
January, 1751, was apparently before the Dodsley 
quarto of the same year. On pp. 160-161 the 
lines are thus introduced : 

" ' Gentlemen,' said Hilario, ' give me leave to sooth 
m/ own melancholy, and amuse you in a most noble 
manner, with a fine copy of verses by the very ingenious 
Mr. Gray, of Peter-house, Cambridge. They are 
Stump's written in a Country Church-yard.' " 


Referring to your issue of January 17, perhaps 
some of your numerous correspondents on this 
subject can say whether in the original manu- 
script, said to be at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, the line usually put, " Some Cromwell, 
guiltless of his country's blood," runs " Some 
Caesar, guiltless of his country's blood." In an 
illustrated copy of the Elegy, published by Messrs. 
Sampson Low & Co. some years ago, I recollect 
seeing that the latter was the original reading. 


xi. 68). In the year 1722 a writ of summons was 
issued to Algernon Seymour, afterwards Duke of 

Somerset, as Baron Percy, it being then thought 
that he was entitled to the ancient dignity created 
in 1299. This writ of summons to Algernon Sey- 
mour created a new barony in his favour, and such 
barony descended to his grandson Hugh, second 
Duke of Northumberland. Hugh, third duke, 
was, as MR. WALFORD says, in 1812 called to the 
House of Lords in his father's lifetime as Baron 
Percy. No new peerage was created by this 
summons, the modern barony dating from 1722, 
not from 1812. This dignity is now held by the 
Duke of Athole as heir general of Algernon Sey- 
mour. In Courthope's edition of Sir Harris 
Nicolas's Historic Peerage of England, under the 
title of " Percy," the whole question as to descent 
of the dignity is fully discussed, and in the intro- 
duction to the same work reference is made to the 
effect of a writ of summons issued by mistake. 

The summons vita patris to Hugh, third Duke 
of Northumberland, would, I apprehend, be 
deemed not a new creation, but a calling up 
under the barony of Percy created in 1722, the 
precedence of 1299 being a mistake. The barony 
of 1722 was held by all the Dukes of Northumber- 
land until, upon the decease of the fifth duke, 
it passed to the Duke of Athole. See Courthope's 
Peerage. W. D. PINK. 

A POLITICAL TOAST (6 th S. xi. 28). The story 
is told by the elder D'Israeli in Cariosities of 
Literature, chapter " Drinking Customs in Eng- 
land." J. J. FREEMAN. 


AUTHORS WANTED (6 th S. xi. 48). The work 
entitled Considerations on the Explications of the 
Doctrine of the Trinity, &c., 1693, was written, it 
is said, by the Rev. Stephen Nye, Rector of Hor- 
mead, Herts. The reply to it, called A Calm and 
Sober Enquiry, &c., 1694, was from the pen of the 
Rev. John Howe, a 'leading Presbyterian divine. 
The Impartial Enquiry into the Existence, &c., 
1718, was the production of Samuel Colliber. It 
came out in the first instance anonymously, but it 
was subsequently revised, and printed with the 
author's name. MR. FENTON will find much in- 
formation relative to these tracts, and the many 
other similar publications, from a Dissenter's point 
of view, in the Antitrinitarian Biography, by 
Robert Wallace, 3 vols. 8vo., 1850. 


The first treatise mentioned was written by 
John Howe, a prominent Presbyterian minister 
(see Wallace's Antitrinitarian Biography, vol. i. 
p. 265), who, in a subsequent stage of the con- 
troversy, is alluded to as Mr. H-w. The Con- 
siderations, &c., to which Mr. Howe replies, form 
one of a collection of Unitarian tracts known as the 
"Second Collection." For obvious reasons, the 



[6'h s. XI. FEB. 14, '85. 

authors found it expedient to remain anonymous, 
and are, it would appear, still unknown. The 
particular tract in question was written for, and 
published at the expense of, Mr. Firmin, the Anti- 
trinitarian philanthropist, who presented a copy to 
Archbishop Tillotson as a response to the arch- 
bishop's endeavours to change his views. Several 
other tracts in the epistolary form are believed to 
be by the samo hand. Respecting the second 
treatise referred to I have no information. 

S. R, F.K.S. 

BATTLE OF WORCESTER (6 th S. x. 496 ; xi. 64). 
The finest collection of the Civil War portraits, 
pamphlets, &c., I have ever seen was made by 
Mr. Granger, bookseller, Foregate Street, Wor- 
cester. He gave Curly le much material for his 
description of the battle, and he may be able to 
afford Miss PEACOCK the information required. 


ROTCHER : PILDACRE (6 th S. xi. 68). There 
are some wells in the parish of Bradfield, near 
Sheffield, called the Rocher. Halliwell gives 
rochcre as a rock, and quotes an authority. Pild- 
acre is more doubtful ; but see the note on pylled 
in Way's Prompt. Farv. S. 0. ADDY. 


MR. CIIADWICK will find some account of a 
rocker in the parish of Peniston, in Yorkshire 
Diaries, published by the Surtees Society (vol. Ixv. 
p. 352). CLK. 

508 ; xi. 54). For a very long and full account of 
the Swedish order of Vasa, or the Wheatsheaf, see 
Robson's Iltrald, vol. i. p. 151, &c. P. P. 

K TDRPIN'S RIDE TO YORK" (6 th S. x. 68, 
317, 390, 502 ; xi. 35, 7V). Your correspondent 
is certainly right in stating that there is such a 
place as Hempstead in Essex, but it does not lie so 
far from Walden as he states, neither is it "half- 
way between" (taking that term to mean on the 
direct road to and from) Braintree and Saffron 
Walden, and the population taken at the last 
census was 631, not 800. Should any one inter- 
ested in the romance of Mr. Richard Turpin visit 
this village for the purpose of satisfying his curio- 
sity, he will, it is true, find the inn that respectable 
thief frequented, and he will also, if he be in no- 
wise pressed for time, be able to visit the church 
which, although in partial ruins (the great tithe 
owners being the Ecclesiastical Commissioners) 
will, perhaps, afford him as much satisfaction as 
listening to tales of the celebrated knight of the 
road (which probably are locally manufactured) 
or sitting in the parlour of a road-side public- 
house, wherein the owner of Black Bess never sat 
for in the chapel called the " Harvey Chapel " in 
the parish church, lie the remains, enclosed in a 

marble sarcophagus, of one who, in a certain sense, 
was, even as the doughty Turpin, a "man of 
blood," and who was none other than the cele- 
brated Harvey, the discoverer of the system of the 
circulation of the blood. 


p.S. I ma y add that upon consulting the rate- 
book of Hempstead parish I find the name Turpin 
among the occupiers of small tenements. And I 
may further add that at the inn before spoken 
of, which goes by the name of the " Crown," 
there are holes in the ceiling, which are said to 
have been made to enable Turpin to overhear con- 
versations which might assist him in his unlawful 

S. x. 88, 150, 250, 334, 432, 518). The most 
circumstantial account that I have ever come across 
concerning the death of the above admiral is the 
following, taken from Naval Chronology, by Capt. 
Isaac Schomberg, 1802 ; this gives October 23, 
1707, as the date, and not October 22 : 

<: A. D . 1707. Sir Cloudesley Shovel felt great disappoint- 
ment at the failure of this expedition [an attempt made 
in the preceding August to destroy the greater part of 
the French fleet at that time in Toulon harbour]. He 
assigned Sir Thomas Dilkes a squadron of thirteen sail 
of the line for the Mediterranean service, and sailed 
with the rest for England. On the 23rd of October the 
admiral struck soundings in ninety fathoms, the wind 
then blowing strong from the S.S.W. with hazy weather, 
he brought the fleet to. At six in the evening he made 
sail again under his courses, whence, it is presumed, he 
believed he saw the Scilly light; soon after he made 
the signals of danger, as did several other ships. The 
Association struck upon the rocks, called the Bishop 
and his Clerks (some accounts say the Gilston rocks), 
she instantly went to pieces, and every soul perished. 
The Eagle, Capt. Hancock, of seventy guns, and the 
Romney, Capt. Cony, of fifty, shared the same fate. The 
Firebrand fireship was lost ; but Capt. Piercy and 
twenty-four of her crew saved themselves in the boat. 
The Phoenix fireship, commanded by Capt. Sansom, was 
driven ashore, but was fortunately got off again. Sir 
George Bing, in the Royal Anne, was saved by the 
presence of mind of the oflicers and men, who, in a 
minute's time, set her top-sails and weathered the rocks. 
Lord Dursley, in the St. George, actually struck upon 
the same rocks with the Admiral, but happily got off. 
The body of Sir Cloudesley Shovel was the next day cast 
on shore and stripped by some fishermen, who buried it 
in the sand ; but it was afterwards discovered and 
brought to Plymouth, from whence it was conveyed to 
London, and interred in Westminster Abbey, where a 
magnificent monument is erected by Queen Anne to his 

The above being probably the most accurate 
account of this unfortunate shipwreck anywhere 
to be found, the Editor may deem it of sufficient 
interest to take up some of the valuable space of 
"N.&Q." D. G.C.E. 

In a MS. in the Bodleian (Rawlinson, D. 383, 
f. 146), which contains some Jacobite verses, there- 
occurs the following curious note ; 

6'h s. XI. FEB. 14, '85.] 



"The Archbishop, in a printed form of prayer for 
success at sea, pray'd that God would be a rock unto our 
ships ; on which, for the loss of Sir C. Sliovell, was made 
what follows : 

" As Lambeth pray'd, so prov'd the dire event, 
(Else we had wanted Shovell's monument), 
That to our ships kind Heaven wou'd be a rock, 
Nor did kind Heaven the wise petition bauk. 
To what the Metropolitan did penn 
The Bishop and his Clerics reply'd Amen." 

I have cursorily looked through some of the forms 
of prayer of the time without finding this singularly 
infelicitous expression ; but perhaps some one of 
your correspondents may be able to trace it. It 
is hardly necessary to say that the "Bishop and his 
Clerks " is the well-known name of the rocks on 
which the shipwreck took place. 


Your correspondent A. J. M., in recording his 
account of the invisible ghost of Lady Shovel), 
says it seems she was drowned along with her 
husband. This statement, subsequently with- 
drawn, was, of course, contradicted by the ap- 
pearance of the work mentioned by Lowndes 
(Bonn's edition, p. 2389), A Consolatory Letter 
written to Lady Shovell on the surprising and 
calamitous Loss of her Husband and Two only Sons, 
by G. C., London, 1708, 8vo. Haydn, in his 
Dictionary of Dates, as cited by Streatham, speaks 
of Sir Cloudesley's lady being on board the Asso- 
ciation ; but Haydn is not infallible. If Lady 
Shovell had perished with her husband, some 
mention of the fact would naturally have been made 
in the contemporary narratives, if not upon the 
monument in Westminster Abbey. 

Persons interested in this subject cannot do 
better than refer to Mr. J. H. Cooke's valuable 
pamphlet, which not only contains an interesting 
and trustworthy account of the wreck, but one of 
the best reproductions by heliogravure of a mezzo- 
tint portrait that I ever remember to have met 
with. W. F. P. 

In the letter from Lord Romney to Capt. Locker, 
printed at 6 th S. x. 518, Ann, Daughter of Sir 
Cloudesley Shovell, is said to have first married 
Thomas Mansel, eldest son to Lord Mansel. But 
according to Nicolas's Historic Peerage of England, 
revised by Courthope, there were but four Lord 
Hansels : 1. Thomas, whose two eldest sons were 
Robert and Christopher ; 2. Thomas, son of the 
above Robert, died unmarried ; 3. Christopher, 
son of Thomas (1), died unmarried ; 4. Bussy, son of 
Thomas (1), died s.p.m. He, I believe, married 
Elizabeth Hervey, daughter of John, first Earl of 
Bristol. Who, then, married Ann Shovell ? 

S. H. A. H. 

KING ARTHUR (6 th S. x. 448 ; xi. 54). Very 
accurate engravings of the inscribed stones men- 
tioned in the replies to the query of A. J. at the 
first cited reference will be found in my History 

of Trigg Minor ; of that at Slaughter Bridge, near 
Camelford, vol. i. p. 353, and of that at Castlegoff, in 
the parish of Linteglas, in vol. ii. p. 281. I may 
remark that the first word in the former should be 
read LATIN instead of CATIN, and that on the 
latter the inscription is + ^KLSELTH & GENERETH 


SAVL & FOR HEYSEL. The inscription is in Saxon 
characters, and is read "jEiseth and Genereth 
wrought this family pillar for JElwyne's soul and 
for themselves." Those, however, who are in- 
terested in the subject should see the description 
at the reference given above. JOHN MACLEAN. 
Glasbury House., Clifton. 

ARMS OF ANNE BOLEYN (6 th S. xi. 49). Her 
arms were, as queen, quarterly of six. 1, England, 
differenced with a label of three points azure, 
charged on each point with as many fleurs-de-lys 
or (Lancaster). 2, France, ancient, differenced 
with a label of three points gules (Angouleme). 
3, Gules, a lion passant guardant or (Guienne). 
(These first three quarterings were specially granted 
by the king as augmentations when she was created 
Marchioness of Pembroke.) 4, Quarterly of four, 

1 and 4, Or, a chief indented azure (Butler) ; 

2 and 3, Argent, a lion ramp, sable, crowned gules 
(Rochford). 5, England, differenced with a label 
of three points arg. (Brotherton). 6, Chequy or 
and azure (Warren). This is from Cussans, and 
I think Boutell's Heraldry gives the same. Her 
own coat of arms was Boleyn, Arg. , a chevron gu. 
between three bulls' heads sable, quartering Butler, 
for her grandmother, who was daughter and coheir 
of Thomas Butler, seventh Earl of Ormond; Hoo 
and Hastings for her great - grandmother, the 
daughter and coheir of Thomas, Lord Hoo and 
Hastings ; and Bracton for her great-great-grand- 
mother, the daughter and heir of Bracton. 

Before her marriage Anne Boleyn was created 
Marchioness of Pembroke, and, so far as I re- 
collect, her name of Boleyn is not given in the 
State Papers in the grants of arms, estates, and 
other honours bestowed upon her. In Saxling- 
ham Church, Norfolk, in the chancel windows, 
are, or were, the arms of Boleyn impaling Lord 
Hoo and St. Omer quarterly, and St. Leger in 
an inescutcheon of pretence: this was for Anne 
Boleyn's great-grandfather, Sir Jeffrey Boleyn, 
Lord Mayor of London. Through the Butler 
alliance the Boleyns could claim royal descent 
from Edward I. ' B. F. SCARLETT. 

MR. ANGUS, who writes respecting the arms of 
Anne Boleyn, may like to see the following. On 
the death of a relative I became possessed of a 
table napkin, the design upon it being remarkable. 
It was taken to the College of Arms and sub- 
mitted to Mr. Planche", and after seeing it he gave 
this reply : " I am most happy in being able to 
give a perfectly satisfactory account of the coat 



XI. FEB. 14, '85, 

of arms on your napkin. It is the full achieve- 
ment of Queen Anne Bullen ; the sinister side 
of the shield of six quarterings being as follows: 
1, Lancaster ; 2, Angoulenie ; 3, Guienne, royal 
augmentations granted to Anne upon her creation 
as Marchioness of Pembroke by Henry VIII. ; 4, 
Quarterly, Butler and Rochford ; 5, Brotherfcon, 
Earl of Norfolk ; 6, Warren. The dexter supporter 
is not a lion, but the leopard of Guienne, and the 
monster on the sinister side what is called by 
heralds a male griffin, a badge of the Bullen family 
descended from the Ormonds. The Prince of 
Wales feathers within the coronet are accounted 
for by the fact that the title was at that time 
merged in the crown, Henry VIII. having been 
created Prince of Wales after the death of his 
brother Arthur." The arms are in duplicate at 
the bottom of the napkin. At the top, also in 
duplicate, is St. George and the Dragon ; the cross 
of St. George and the Tudor rose are also intro- 
duced. The napkin is on loan at the South Ken- 
sington Museum. H. PlNCKE LONSDALE. 

17, Waterloo Place, Southampton. 

(6 th S. x. 469 ; xi. 33). The story of The Main 
Truck; or, a Leap for Life was written by William 
Leggett, who was born in New York city, 1802, 
and died at New Rochelle, May 29, 1839. He 
was a midshipman in the U.S. navy, 1822-6. Two 
volumes of his collected tales, Tales of a Country 
Schoolmaster and Sketches of the Sea, were pub- 
lished. In 1823, he established in New York the 
Critic, a weekly literary periodical, which in six 
months was united with the New York Mirror. 
In 1829 he became associated with the poet Wm 
Cullen Bryant, of the New York Evening Post, of 
ich he was the chief editor in 1834-5. In 
336 he conducted the Plaindealer, a weekly 
devoted to politics and literature. In 1839 he 
was appointed diplomatic agent to the republic of 
Guatemala, and while preparing for his departure 
to that country he suddenly expired. After his 

i ( !r \ ^ his P litical essa ? s were collected 
and published in two volumes 

Tho story of The Main Truck; or, a Leap for 
* was located on board the U.S. frigate Con- 

7?' V; J d , Ir nsides '" in P't Mahon, and 

was first published in the New York Mirror and 

repnnted , The ^public of Letters, a coC 

of prose and verse, edited by A. Whitelaw, 

nd published by Blackie & Sons, Glasgow, in 

is there properly credited to Wm. Leg- 

gett, as are also two other stories by him viz 

both '? ^' y r d A N W at ** 

oth resulting from observation of sea life 

f thb ' with a - 

of a Ship, from her Cradle to 

, m The Hi 

her Grave (no date, but published about thirty years 
ago, apparently), pp. 47-56. The story is intro- 
duced as, " The following circumstance, mentioned 
in Capt. Basil Hall's works." Jos^ TOMAS. 

(6 th S. ix. 486; x. 32, 152, 233, 372, 413; xi. 
35). W. S. B. H. has entirely misunderstood 
me. On referring to rny communication in 6 th 
S. x. 372, he will see that I call the church in 
question " Charles Church, Plymouth." Perhaps, 
instead of " by the name of," I should have 
written, "after King Charles the Martyr," by 
which title he was known in our Prayer-book 
for more than one hundred and fifty years, thereby 
giving a sort of sanction to his recognition as a 
saint by churches being dedicated in his name. 
Churches are dedicated to God in honour of, or by 
the name of some saint. Having Worth's History 
of Plymouth, I was not likely to fall into the 
error W. S. B. H. supposes. 


St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

JANISSARY (6 th S. x. 246, 315. 473; xi. 92). 
I am surprised to find that I am quoted as giving 

j " *v*j I^.KJ AU J..J v/oi ILVJ.JU J y iJ^iiu. ju 

most unfortunately quoted the wrong Turkish 
form for "soldier," and it was just because I did 
so that the subject has been discussed. As I have 
already been corrected several times, and I accept 
the correction, I think the subject may be allowed 
to drop. 

At the last reference, however, the old "popular 
etymology" from Persian jdn nisdri, one who 
throws away his life in battle, is trotted out once 
more. There is not a tittle of evidence for it ; but 
we are, forsooth, to accept it because it is obvious 
to a layman who is no philologist. We are not 
even offered any proof that the compound jdn- 
nisdri was ever used in Turkish to express "a 
janissary," nor any proof that it was ever used at 
all. The Turkish word is not jdn-nisdri, nor any- 
thing like it ; it is yenkheri, with the specific 
meaning of "janissary," as may be seen in Zenker's 
Turkish lexicon. No one says that the English 
form janissary is derived from yini and cheri; but 
every one says that the Turkish word for janissary 
is so derived. The English word is merely an 
English spelling of the Italian ianisszsri (Torriano), 
and the identity of the Italian with the Turkish 
word is very much closer. The English form is a 
mere travesty of the original, after passing through 
Italian and French. The Italian preserves the 
true Turkish y sound at the beginning and the e 
sound in the penultimate. But the English initial 
letter badly expresses this Italian sound by j, thus 
producing an accidental coincidence with the Persian 
j, which is quite misleading, I am quite contented 

6. s. xi. FEB. ii, '85.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


with the explanations of such scholars as Devic 
and Zenkef, and I should think others are the 
same. Meanwhile we have one more example of 
the uselessness of an " obvious " etymology to any- 
body but the inventor of it. 



The University of Cambridge. From the Royal Injunc- 
tions of 1535 to the Accession of Charles I. By James 
Basa Mullinger, Lecturer on History and Librarian of 
Sfc. John's College, Cambridge. (Cambridge, University 

THE second portion of Mr. Mullinger's history of Cam- 
bridge, carrying the work from the Royal Injunctions of 
1535 to the accession of Charles I., covers ninety years. 
A period of equal length in the life of a university so 
crowded with events of importance, or offering so many 
obstacles to the calm and profitable pursuit of letters, is 
not easily conceived. The first event Mr. Mullinger has 
to chronicle is the election of Cromwell to the Chan- 
cellorship of the University. At that time no matter of 
greater importance than the chronic dispute between 
thn town and the university disturbed the pleasant 
reflections of the new Chancellor upon the fate he had 
been the means of bringing to his predecessor. Already, 
however, scholasticism had been ousted from Oxford 
and Cambridge, Papal authority had been overridden, 
the public reading of the canon law and the granting 
of degrees utriusque juris had been prohibited, and the 
acceptance of King Henry as supreme head of the 
Church had been rendered imperative. The dissolution 
of the monasteries comes within Mr. Mullinger's present 
contribution, as does the final rupture between the 
universities and the Pope. It is, of course,, impossible 
to accompany the historian of Cambridge over all the 
ground he treads. A thoroughly stimulating account is 
given of the controversy respecting the pronunciation of 
Greek. Then come the foundation of Magdalen College 
and that of Trinity, in which fine pile the new system of 
teaching, as opposed to the old, was to find full develop- 
ment. A description of the college plays follows. 
Mean time the record shows diminishing influence and 
declining numbers in the colleges. Ascham, Latimer, 
and Lever bear evidence to the causes which hinder 
the advancement of learning. The career at Cambridge 
of Peter Martyr and that of Martin Bucer are followed. 
The munificent schemes of Edward VI. with regard to 
Cambridge, never to be carried out, are dealt with, and 
after the short reign of that monarch the historian 
comes to the period of storm and stress under the rule 
of Mary. Norfolk and Gardiner are restored to power, 
and Watson, the delegate of the latter, is appointed to 
the mastership of St. John's. Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley, 
and John Hullier perish at the stake. Sir John Cheke 
dies, and the bodies of Bucer and Fagius are exhumed 
and burned. After the foundation of Gonville and Caius 
College come the death of Mary and the election of Sir 
William Cecil to be Chancellor. With the accession of 
Elizabeth and the return of the Marian exiles the nature 
of the trouble changes, but the trouble remains. Cal 
vinism, with its offshoot Puritanism, becomes the source 
of constant offence to authority, and of varying forms of 
domestic broil. With the foundation of Emmanuel 
College, 1584, and that of Sidney Sussex, 1596, our brief 
recapitulation of a few of the incidents with which the 
author has to dal must terminate. No less than thirty- 
six preliminary pages are occupied by a mere synopsis 

f the contents of the six hundred pages which follovv. 
The entire work is a model of accurate and industrious 
scholarship. The same qualities that distinguished the 
earlier volume are again visible, and the whole is still don- 

picuous for minuteness and fidelity of workmanship and 
Breadth and toleration of view. Specially interesting 
are the portions which establish a comparison between 
the state of Oxford and Cambridge and that of the prin- 
cipal universities on the Continent, and the picture of 
the undergraduates and of life in college. In a different 
line, but not less interesting, is the account of Peter 
Ramus and his Dialectica. It is to be hoped that Mr. 
Mullinger will find leisure to continue his labours, and 
complete a work which is a credit to English scholarship, 
forms an indispensable portion of every historical library, 
and is worthy of the noble seat of learning with which 
it deals. 

The Book-Hunter. By John Hill Burton, D.C.L., LL.D. 

New Edition. (Blackwood & Sons.) 
WITH the appearance of the present edition The Boole- 
Hunter of John Hill Burton passes out of the domain of 
bibliographical rarities into the possession of the ordinary 
reader. During many years the first edition of The Book- 
Hunter has been one of the scarcest of modern books, 
vying in respect of price with the early works of Dickena 
or Mr. Ruskin. A recently printed edition de luxe, 
costly in price and limited in number, did little to re- 
duce the price of the editio princeps. Whether in pre- 
sence of the handsome, convenient, and attractive edi- 
tion now issued by Messrs. Blackwood the early copies 
will maintain their price is a matter of little significance. 
What is of importance is that one of the pleasantest, 
most humorous, and most gossiping books ever written 
about books is now within reach of all readers. While 
specially dear to the bibliophile, The Book-Hunter is not 
a work to repel the general public. Every man who 
cares anything about books can read it with pleasure. 
Unencumbered with technical details or with superfluous 
display of erudition, it holds a place as much among 
memoirs as among strictly bibliographical works. In 
this respect it differs from the works of Dibdin, who, 
almost alone among English writers on books, has won 
a European reputation. For one person who will read 
through Dibdin's Bibliomania, a score will delight in 
The Book-Hunter. It covers, of course, ground less wide 
than is occupied by some of the French bibliographer-:, 
who write for a public more tolerant, as well as more 
educated, than the English. In saying this we refer to 
the writers of the older school the successors of Gabriel 
Peignot and the precursors of M. Octave Uzanne. Peig- 
not himself is top omnivorous, and his works which deal 
with special subjects, valuable as they are and some of 
them laid the foundation of bibliography as it is now 
understood have a class interest. Against the modern 
French bibliographer, meanwhile, it may be urged that 
the works which Burton is compelled to glide over or 
omit are those in the description of which he revels. 
Writers like M. Monselet even, or M. Gustave Brunet 
of Bordeaux, are not seldom happiest in dealing with 
subjects prohibited by the mass of English readers. 
As brilliant in style and as amusing as these, and en- 
dowed with a humour that should for ever wipe from 
his countrymen a familiar reproach, Burton has written 
a book that may be put in all hands, and that most 
who open will finish. His sketches of the biblio- 
philes of his own day, of the great libraries, and of the 
foundation of the printing clubs are as pleasant as any- 
thing in this class of literature. A view of a picturesque 
nook in the author's library, drawn and engraved by 
two Miss Burtons, is an agreeable addition to the 



. XL FEB. u, '85. 

Gwidrada de Warrenne, Wife of William de Warrenne 
of Domesday. A Critical Examination of the Received 
Stories of her Parentage, &c. By R. B. Chester Waters, 
B A. (Printed for the Author.) 

IN this very condensed essay on a highly thorny genea- 
logical problem Mr. Chester Waters has shown much 
patient research, and has, we think, a good claim for 
holding that he has disproved the received theories that 
Gundrada was either the daughter or the stepdaughter 
of William the Conqueror. The testimony of St. 
Anselm appears conclusive on this point. Who Gun- 
drada really was still remains a problem, to which we 
hope Mr. Chester Waters may address himself, in 
common with other English arid Continental genealo- 
gists. The author suggests the ducal houses of Bur- 
gundy and Aquitaine as the most likely stocks. The 
question raised is worthy of the careful investigation of 
all students of history. 

Women of the Day. A Biographical Dictionary of 
Notable Contemporaries. By Frances Hays. (Chatto 
& Windus.) 

THIS well-conceived and well-executed little work does 
something to make up for the notable shortcomings of 
Mtn of ike Time. Of the long list of female names it 
contains the majority are naturally English. A fair 
number of foreigners are, however, mentioned, and so 
uncuifying a writer even as Marc de Montifaud (Marie 
AmOlie Chartroule de Montifaud) finds a place. The 
idea is happy, and the biographies are in the main 
satisfactory. A short list of pseudonyms is offered. 

PEOSE fiction, like modern verse, is outside our pro- 
vince, and calls for no notice in columns on the space of 
which too many demands are made. We are content, 
however, to draw attention to the striking pictures 
afforded in Royal Faiour, translated from the Dutch of 
Mits A. C. S. Wallis by Mr. E. J. Irving (Swan Sonnen- 
schcin &, Co.). The rehabilitation, partial though it be, 
of the character of Goran Person, arid the description of 
Eric XI V. of Sweden, of Duke John, of Melanchthon, 
and other historical characters, are very striking, and 
the look, though the workmanship is too elaborate and 
the whole is, so to speak, too set, is a piece of solid 
literature and a work of high mark. 

FROM Messrs. Griffith, Farran & Co. we have received 
an interesting novelty, consisting of a handsome birth- 
day book, compiled wholly by Myra Marbron from the 
writings of the poets of New South Wales, Victoria, 
South Australiii, Queensland, Tasmania, and New Zea- 
land. It is called The Australasian birthday Book, and 
is hand>omely got up. The name of R. H. Home is of 
most frequent occurrence in the extracts. 

A Catalogue of the Halifax Public Library, Lending 
and Reference Departments, has been forwarded us by 
the kindness of Mr. J. Reed Welch, the secretary and 
librarian. It is divided into two classes, the first con- 
sisting of prose romances, tales and sketches, and juvenile 
literature ; the second of philosophy arid religion, science 
and art, history, biography, and miscellaneous literature. 
Such a classification is convenient rather than scientific. 
The cross-references are numerous, however, and the 
work, which we have tested, is convenient. The cata- 
logue contains about twenty-five thousand volumes and a 
hundred thousand references; 

Mu. THOMAS MASON, Librarian of Stirling's and Glas- 
gow Public Library, Glasgow, will shortly publish by 
subscription Public and Private Libraries of Glasgow 
In this, apart from other matter of public interest, 
sixteen Glasgow libraries, public and private, will be 


We must call special attentionlo the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
;o head the second communication " Duplicate." 

J. DYKES CAMPBELL ("A few broth"). This is a 
cnown English provincialism, current in districts so far 
apart as Yorkshire and Devon. In a sermon preached 
n 1556, 'by Thomas Lever, Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and preserved by Strype in his Eccles. Mem., 
are the words, " At ten of the clock they go to dinner, 
whereat they be content with a penny piece of beef 
imong four, having a few pottage made of the broth of 
;ho same beef." See 6 th S. iii. and iv. pas&im. 

S. L. is anxious to know when and where Mr. Glad- 
stone asked a curious long division sum, as to what is the 
result of dividing a certain sum of money by a certain 
number. '/S 

ALPHA (2) ("Ouida"). This is the pseudonym of 
Madame Louise de la Rame. See Women of the Day, 
by Frances Hays (Chatto & Windus), or the Dictionary of 
Anonymous Literature of Halkett and Laing (Ferguson, 
Edinburgh). Further information we cannot supply. 

EDWARD J. CHAFFEE (" Chaffee Family"). We cannot 
possibly undertake commissions such as those with which . 
you charge us. 

OMEN ("Order' of Knighthood "). We fail to find the 
query to which your communication is intended as a 

C. M. I. (" Macaulay's New Zealander Anticipated"). 
The quotation from Shelley you supply appeared 5 th 
S. v. 214. In the same and the following volume the 
subject is fully discussed. 

D. FREDERICIUS ASTIUS (" Bartholinus de Inauribus 
Veterum "). Neither this nor any other treatise of 
Caspar Bartholin has, we believe, been translated into 

M. H. I. ("Hussar Uniform "). The dress of Hussar 
regiments was originally nothing more than a copy of the 
Hungarian national costume, as the Lancer uniform was 
of that of the Poles. The jacket over the left shoulder 
still forms a part of the Hungarian full dress, and waa 
worn by all British Hussar regiments until its abolition 
some five-and-twenty years ago. It is, we believe, still 
in use in some German corps. 

GEORGE INGLE COOPER. Without permission we never 
supply the address of a correspondent. A stamped letter 
directed to the individual you seek to reach shall be 

A. L. MAYHEW (" Sherry "). Received. 
R. R. (''Apocrypha"). Please send. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

6'k S. XL FEB. 21, '85.) 




NOTES :-The Washington Masonic Bible, 141 Grants of 
William III., 142 -Trial by Wager of Battle, 144-Byron's 
Letters Name of " Ote," 145 Bp. Ken a Plagiarist Hour 
of Expulsion from Eden Royd Lamartine on English 
Poetry, 146 Desdemona in the Flesh, 147- 

QUERIES : I. Basire, D.D.-C. Burnaby, 147-Italian Gram- 
marHereditary Badges Happy by Act of Parliament 
"Salmagundi" St. Michael's, Crooked Lane Roquefort 
Sars field, Earl of Lucan Wills of Axminster Ambury, 143 
"Green baize road "Burning of Bait Bait of Hemp 
Bp. Thomander D. Middleton Chaucer's "Drye Sea" 
Maids of Honour Portraits of Csesars, 149 Probate of 
Shakspeare's Will Queries on Bp. Ken Preservation of 
Armour Authors Wanted, 160. 

REPLIES : Canting Inscriptions, 150 First Idea of Penny 
Post, 152 Hedon and Kirk Ella Reading-RoomsCam- 
bridge Periodicals Duty on Artists' Canvas, 153 Topo- 
graphia Infernalis Holderness Bronze Medals, 154 In- 
dexes to Books " Parliament Captain " Fylfot, 155 
" Stuck his spoon " Genealogical, 156 " Ego sum " 
Riversdale Peerage Russet-pated Choughs -Tradesmen's 
Signs Reckan, 157 A Literary Craze Memories of St. 
Matthew's, 158 Authors Wanted, 169. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Rawdon Brown's " Calendar of Vene- 
tian State Papers " Ebsworth's "Roxburghe Ballads" 
Telfer's " Chevalier d'Eon "Cable's " Creoles of Louisiana" 
Heath's " Tree Gossip." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


The 2nd Battalion, Duke of Cornwall's Light 
Infantry, formerly the 46th Kegiment, is in pos- 
session of a Bible on which it is stated that Wash- 
ington was obligated as an entered Apprentice 
Mason on Nov. 4, 1752. A description of this 
book may be interesting, especially to the 
American and Masonic readers of " N. & Q." 

From the title-page we learn that it was printed 
" in London by the Assigns of Thomas Newcomb 
and Henry- Hills, deceas'd, Printers to the Queens 
most Excellent Majesty in the year 1712." It 
appears to have been the family Bible of the 
Wests, Hathaways, and Jenneys, as may be 
gathered from the following entries. 

The first record is written on the back of the 
title-page, and reads as follows: 

Mother Mercy West, deceast, Nov. 21, 1733, in ye 77th 
year of her age. who was ye daughter of John Cook, ye 
first ordained Minister in Dartmouth. 

Father Stephen West, deceast, Augt. ye 12, 1748, in 
ye 94th year of his age, who was ye son of Bartholomew 
West, of East Jersey. 

(H])annah West, daughter of Stephen West and 
Susannah his wife, was born ye 21st April, 1720, old 

Mercy West was born July ye 7th, 1722, and died ye 
23rd day of April, 1762, in ye 40th year of her age. 

Samuel West was born April yo 8th, 1725, old style. 

Anne West was born Oct. ye 9, 1727, old style. 
Henry West was^born Jany. ye 11, 1729, old style. 
Stephen West was born March ye 14, 1732. 
Bartholomew West was born Nov. ye 8th, 1734, old 
eana West was born Dec. ye 29, 1737, old style. 

The second entry appears on the last page of 
the Prophets, and runs as follows: 

In the year 1746-7, A Hard Winter, the horses began 
to pass over the river the 20 of December, as I was in- 
formed by William Peckhara and his wife, and to my 
knowledge Continued passing with horses and oxen on 
the river from Joseph Russell's to the Head of Accos- 
hamet River until ye 11 of March, ye snow being then in 
ye woods knee deep upon a level Adjudged by credible 
persons, further it is credibly Reported by them yt say they 
keep ace* yt there was 30 Snows this Winter and they 
continued riding until 23rd day of March, Benj. Akin 
Rid over against his father Tabors, viz. Jacob Tabors, 
and on the 23rd day in the morning it began to snow and 
continued snowing for Forty-Eight hours, it wafting as 
the fall Gat to a great debth, and they could now journey 

on the ice from Capt. (?) to Tabors side until ye 27th 

of March. 

Reuben Packhom, Born July 15,1709. 

Patience Hatherlay, Born April 27, 1710. 

They were married Dec. 10th, 1730. 

Their daughter Rachel was born on ye first day of 
week, between 5 & 6 in ye Morning, Sept. 5, 1731. 

Their daughter patience was born third day of ye 
week, between 8 & 9 in ye Morning, Feby. 13, 1732-3. 

Their son Timothy was born Before one o'clock in ye 
Afternoon, Nov. 6, 1734. 

The third entry is on the back of the last page 
of the Apocrypha: 

Stephen West, deceast Jully 7th, 1769, in the 75 year 
of his age. 

The fourth is written on a page containing the 
Thirty- nine Articles: 

Thomas Summerton, eon of Thomas Summerton, 
deceast Oct. ye 1st, 1736, In ye 26 year of his age. 

Thomas Summerton, Son of Dan 1 Summerton, deceast 
March 24th, 1740, in ye 7th Month of his age, was born 
Sept. 16th. 

The last record is on the same page with the 
" Table of Kindred and Affinity ": 

George Hathaway, son of Jethro Hathaway, deceast 
on 7tb day of Nov., 1746, in ye 5th Month of his age. 

Mathew West, son of Samuel West, deceast Feby. ye 
17th, 1753, New Style, in ye 24th Month of his age. 

Father Samuel Jenney, deceast April ye 3rd, 1716, in 
ye 58 year of his age. 

Our Mother, Hannah Jenney, deceast Sept. 2nd, 1749, 
80 years of her age. 

The 46th Regiment was raised in 1741, and was 
frrst called the 57th. In 1748 it was renumbered as 
the 46th, and in the following year embarked for 
Ireland, where it obtained a charter from the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland in 1752 for a regimental lodge 
to be organized, under the name of the Lodge of 
"' Social and Military Virtue," No. 227. In 1757 the 
battalion proceeded to Nova Scotia, and remained 
in America until 1767, in which year it returned 
bo Europe, and was stationed in Ireland until the 
breaking out of the War of Independence. In 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. XL F**. 21. 

1776 the 46th landed once more in America, on 
the coast of North Carolina, and it was during 
this second visit that it became possessed of the 
Bible, for we learn from the entries that the book 
was in possession of the West family as late as 

From the regimental records it appears that the 
46th and three other battalions proceeded against 
Bedford on the Accushnet, which is evidently the 
river called " Accoshamet " in the entry contained 
in the Bible. On the evening of Sept. 5, 1778, 
these troops landed, overcame all opposition, and 
destroyed the place and seventy American priva- 
teers and other ships. It was most probable that 
after this action the Bible fell into possession of 
the regiment. 

There is a tradition to the effect that the book 
fell again into the hands of the Americans and 
was recovered before the regiment sailed for Eng- 
land in 1782 ; but I cannot find any confirmation 
of this statement. 

In 1792, after having been quartered in Ireland 
for several years, the regiment sailed for Gibraltar, 
whence it proceeded to the West Indies in 1794 
and returned to England in 1796. In 1804 it 
was ordered to Dominica, and distinguished itself 
in the defence of that island against an over- 
whelming French force. General Prevost was 
obliged to evacuate the town of Roseau, which 
fell into the possession of the enemy, and the 
Bible, together with the jewels and furniture of 
the lodges, had to be abandoned. The English 
general had made a stipulation with General La 
Grange that "private property should be re- 
spected, and no wanton or disgraceful pillage 
should be allowed," and under the terms of this 
agreement the regiment had the book and jewels 
returned under a flag of truce shortly afterwards. 
In 1811 the 46th returned home, and after serving 
a few months in Jersey and the Isle of Wight 
embarked in 1813 for New South Wales, where it 
remained until 1817, when it was ordered to India. 
Here it lost almost all its Masonic members, and 
consequently the regimental lodge became dormant 
in 1827. The jewels and Bible were brought to 
England in 1833, and the lodge was revived under 
the auspices of Col. W. Lacy, who became Wor- 
shipful Master in 1834, and who received the lodge 
property from the hands of Gen. Alex. Maxwell, 
in whose care it had been left. Col. Lacy was 
succeeded by Col. Catty as Worshipful Master, but, 
for some reasons of which I am not aware, the 
lodge has not worked for some years, and the Bible 
was kept carefully in a glazed case in the ante- 
room of the officers' mess until the regiment was 
ordered on active service to Egypt, where it is at 
present engaged in ascending the cataracts of the 

Margoliouth, in his Vestiges of Genuine Free- 
natonry, mentions that without doubt Washington 

was obligated on this book, and although there is 
no written testimony to this effect, yet as the 
statement has been handed down from Mason to 
Mason it has generally been received as a fact. 
At any rate, as the adventures which this Bible 
has experienced entitle it to be considered an 
historic volume, I feel assured that the foregoing 
account will be deemed of interest by many on 
both sides of the Atlantic. 


Chaplain H.M. Forces. 
Hale Crescent, Farnham. 


(Continued from #, 85.) 

An Account of all Grants since the 7 th Day of Dec 1 , 

Aprill, 1700. A Grant unto Edward Ambrose and 
Thomas Rowe, in trust for S r Thomas Cooke and John 
Cass, Esq r , of the Shares belonging to S r John Friend in 
the Phoanix Brewhouse, with the Stock in trade, debts, 
household goods, Linnen, Plate, Jewells, and other 
things forfeited to Ma tie by the conviction of the said 
S r John Friend. This in considerac'on of 1,000/. paid 
into the Exchequer, and of 4,900^. due from S r John to 
the said S r Thomas Cooke and M r Cass. 

A Grant to the Earle of Carlisle of all the personal! 
Estate forfeited to his Ma tie by the Attainder of S r John 
Fenwick in consideration of 5001. paid by his Ma tlei 
direction, w th a Clause directing his Lord p , after payment 
of 500. and 260L which was owing to himselfe, to apply 
the remainder (all charges deducted) to debts owing by 
the s d S r John Fenwick before his attainder. 

A Grant to the Mayor and Churchwardens of Windsor 
of 50. p' ann. out of the Excheq r in Liew of Lands in- 
closed by bis Ma tie lyable to the Publique Rates and 

May, 1700. A Grant unto George Hadley and others, 
Trustees in a certaine Deed of Conveyance made by S r 
Stephen Fox and S r Edward Hungerford of the Mannor 
of Farleigh, with its appurtenances in the County of 
Somersett and Wilts, of the Legall Estate w<* his Ma"" 
has in the premisses by the Outlawry for Treason of 
John Caryll, who was another of the said Trustees. 

A Grant and Confirmac'on vnto Anthony Sturt, Esq r 
and Dam'el Neale of the Sliares which they had in 
Partnership with S r John Friend in the Phenix Brew- 
house, which shares were in Strictness supposed to be 
forfeited by the Attainder of the said S r John 

June, 1700. A Grant unto John Worth and others of 
the arrears of the profitts of the Haveners Office of the 
?^ c hy of Cornwa11 lr m May, 1696, to the 18 of August, 
1698, the date of the Lease granted to them. This was 
done to rectitie a Mistake in their Lease. 

July, 1700. A Lease to the Earle of Jersey of a Lodge 
now in his possession in Hyde Parke with Gardens and 
Lands thereunto belonging, for 51 yeares from the date 
at 135. 4d. per Annum Rent, with a clause of Resumpc'on 
on paymt of what hath beene or shall be expended on the 

. A Lease to John, Viscount Fitz-harding, of the build- 
ings and Lodgeings now in fit James's Parke for 50 yeara 

Return c'on* 6 *" 13 *' U ' P ' ann '' with a like dause f 

A Grant unto Henry Lowman and Mary hia Wife, by 

Warrant under hia Maj" Signe-Manuall, of the Custody 

and Keeping of the Fields and pasture ground within 

xi. FEB. 2i, '85.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Walls of his Majestie's Palace at Kensington and 
Herbage of the same dureing pleasure without account. 
October, 1700. A Grant unto Nicholas Bradey, Do r 

in Divinity, of an old arreare of 2,572/. 2s. 9-9%d. re- 
5 maining due to his Maj tie from S r Henry Brabant and 
others for the Rents of Excise Farmes which they held 
in 1665 and 1668. 

Deer, 1700. A Grant unto D r Thomaa Bray of 
2.244J. 8s. 4d. which Ralph Hollingshead, Esq r stands 
indebted to his Ma tie as Rec r Generall for the County 
of Chester in the 30 ll > yeare of the Reigne of King 
Charles the 2 d . The Money to be received is to be em- 
ployed to erect Librarys in Maryland. 

A Privy Seale directing a defalcac'on or abatement to 
be made to the Farmers of the Lotterys of 1,000. per 
ann. out of the Rent of their Farme for the remainder 
of their Terme, which ends att Mich'mas, 1703, in con- 
eiderac'on of their loss in the late Act for suppressing 
of Lotterys, w ch takes away all Lotterys. Except that of 
the Royall Oake. 

Ap", 1701. A Grant unto John Farrar the younger 
and Edward Farrar of the Estate of John Mason, late 
Receiver Generall of the Taxes for the County of Cam- 
bridge and Isle of Ely, in trust for the benefitt of 
the purchasers thereof, the said Estate being seized 
into his Ma tle8 hands for the Sum'e of 9,79U Os. Id. 
oweing to the King on s d Mason's accounts, this in con- 
sideration of the said Mason's Securities having enter'd 
into New Bonds to his Ma tie for payment of the said 

A Grant unto Earnest Henry Ittersome, Esq r late one 
of the Equerries to the King, of a Penc'on of 1201. per 
Annum, payable att the Exchequer dureing his Maj ts 

A Grant unto Doctor John Wallis and W ra Blencow 
and the survivor of them of 100. per Annum, payable 
att the Excheq r during his Maj ts pleasure in con- 
siderac'on of the s d Doctor Wallisses Instructing the s d 
M r Blencow in the Art of Decyphering. 

A Lease to George London of a piece of ground, being 
part of the place called the Wilderness or Woodworke 
in S l James's Parke, for the terme of 50 yeares from the 
date att 6s. Sd. p' Annum Rent, with a Clause of Re- 
aumpc'on upon repaying of the Money he shall Expend 
in the necessary buildings and Improvements thereon. 

May, 1701. A Release and discharge unto Edward, 
Earle of Jersey, of all Proces, Seizures, Extents to which 
an Estate which his Lordship hath lately purchased of 
S r John Crisp in the County of Kent may be lyable by 
reason of any debts that are or may be contracted with 
the Crowne by S r Nicholas Crispe, John Crisp, and 
Thomas Crispe as late or present Collectors of the Cus- 
tomes in the Port of London. 

June, 1701. A Grant unto Henry, Earle of Gallway, 
of a Pension of 1.250Z. per Annum, payable att the Ex- 
cheq r during his Maj ties pleasure. 

A Grant unto Charles Osborne, Esq r of a Pension of 
200Z. p' annum out of the Revenue of the Post Office 
dureing his Maj t pleasure. 

A Grant unto W m Young of an Annuity of 249J. 3s. 4<Z., 
payable att the Exchequer, dureing his life in Considera- 
tion of a Surrender of his Interest in Certaine Offices, 
Lodges, and proffitts att Hampton-Court, amounting to 
that yearly value, which he made to his Ma tie . 

June, 1701. A Warrant under his Signe Manual for 
Granting unto Theobald Townson and others, for the 
Use of the Towne of Weymouth, the Walls and Stones 
of the old Blockhouse called Standfort Castle, the same 
to be applied towards the building or Repairing of the 
Bridge att Weymouth. 

A Lease unto Jasper English, as an Equivalent for 

certain Meadowlands by him Surrendered to his Ma tte 
att Hampton Court, of Sev 11 other small peices of land 
there, with the house called the Toy, for the terme of 
Seaventy One Years Concurrent with the Interest he 
has now in the same premisses by Assignement from 
the housekeeper at Hampton Court, att severall yearly 
Rents amounting to 20J. 10s. p' Annum. 

July, 1701. A Grant unto Samuell Travers, Esq r his 
Maj u surveyor Generall, and others, of a Small piece of 
ground lying near Greenwich Hospitall, Habend to 
them and their heires for Ever in Trust for the benefitt 
of the said Hospital, att 13s. 4d. p' annum Rent. 

A Discharge unto W m , Earle of Portland, of 1,066 
Ounces of Guilt plate and 5,893 Ounces of White plate, 
which he received from his Ma tie8 Jewell Office upon his 
Embassy Extraordinary to ffrance. 

A Lease unto Matthew Prior, Esq r of a small peice 
of Ground between the Wall of St. James's Park and 
the house he now lives in, for 45 years from the date 
at 6s. Sd. p' annum Rent ; this in Considera'on of 300J. 
paid Ant uny Row, Esq r the present housekeeper in St. 
James Parke, for his Interest in the premisses. 

Aug. 1701. A Discharge unto Edward, Earle of Jersey, 
of 5,071 Ounces of White plate and 1,192 Ounces of Guilt 
plate deliver'd to him out of the Jewell Office aa Em- 
basso 1 Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary for the Treaty 
of Peace, as also 1,082 Ounces of Guilt Plate received 
from the said Jewell Office upon his being sent Amb r 
Extraordinary to ffrance. 

A Like discharge unto Thomaa, Earle of Pembroke and 
Montgomery, of 5,543 Ounces and halfe of white plate 
of 1,316 Ounces of Guilt Plate delivered to him as 
Emba r Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary for the Treaty 
of Peace. 

October, 1701. .A Warrant Signed by his Ma tie for 
Granting unto Maynard, Duke of Schonberg and Lein- 
ster, and the heires Males of his body, 1,000^. per annum 
out of the Revenue of the Post Office in Addition to his 
former allowance of 4,000. p' annum out of the same 
Revenue by vertue of his Ma" Letters Patents in that 
behalfe, by way of Interest and reward until! 100,OOOJ. 
which his Ma tie resolved to bestow on Frederick, Duke 
of Schonberg, the ffather of the present Duke, for his 
great Meritts and Service, as a mark of his Grace and 
favour to him and his posterity, shall be paid. 

November, 1701. A Grant unto Peter King and 
Thomas Marriott and their heires, att the Nomination of 
Henry, Earle of Suffolk, and others, of the Mansion 
House called Audley end, Com' Essex, with the Park 
Lands and Tenements thereunto belonging, upon certain 
Trust in the said Grant menc'oned. This in Considera- 
tion as well of a Release made to his Ma tie of 20,000*., 
which remain unsatisfied of 50,OOOZ. Agreed by the late 
King Charles the second to be paid to James, Earle of 
Suffolk, for the Inheritance of the said House and Park, 
of a surrender of the Office of House Keeper and Under 
House Keeper and Wardrobe Keeper there, and a Re- 
lease of all Moneys due on account of repaires or for 
Sallary for keeping the same. 

A Grant unto Susanna Perkins, Widdow of S r William 
Perkins, Executed for Treason, of all the Estate forfeited 
to his Ma tie by the Attainder of the said S r W m , Subject 
to the payment of 200. owing by him to W m Somerville, 
Esq r as also the payment of 1IQI. 3s. lOd. for the charge 
his Ma tie had been att in finding and Seizing the said 

A Discharge unto Robert, Lord Lexington, of 5,983 
Ounces of white plate and 1,066 Ounces of Gilt plate , 
delivered to him from the Jewell Office, as one of the 
Em br Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary for the Treaty 
of peace, 



s. XL FEB. 21, '85. 

21 Jamiary, 170$ . W* Lowndes. 

Report of y" Commissioners of Enquiry into y e For- 
feited Estates in Ireland. To the Hono ble the Knights, 
Cittizens, and Burgesses in Parliam 1 Assembled. 

May it please your Honours, 

1. According to y e Power given us by a late Act of 
Parliam 1 made in y e tenth and Eleventh years of his 
Mj tyi Reign, Entituled an Act for Granting to his 
Maj'y ye Summ of One Million four hundred eighty- four 
thousand and fifteen pounds one shilling and elevenpence 
three farthings, for Disbanding the Army, providing for 
the Navy, and for other necessary occasions, we have 
enquired into and taken an Acco* of y e Forfeited Estates 
in Ireland, and do humbly lay before y r honours this our 
following Report as the result of our Proceedings. 

2. But first we most humbly crave Leave to represent 
to y r Honours the many difficulties we have met with, 
w ch we fear may render our Enquiry less Satisfactory 
then otherwise it might have been. 

3. It is usual for the Gen 11 Governors of this King- 
dome when they are removed from their employm 18 to 
carry away y e Books and Papers relating to their Pro- 
ceedings during their Governm 1 , w ch we apprehend may 
have been some hinderance to our Enquiry. 

4. Soon after y e Battle of y e Boyne Comm ers of For- 
feitures were appointed under y e Great Seal of Ireland, 
who substituted Comm rs in y e severall Countys of this 
Kingdpme then in his Maj^ 8 Possession. These Sub- 
Cumrnissioners acted very vigorously, and made returns 
of great Quantitys of Goods forfeited, but sev 11 of these 
Books we were not able to gett, w ch was a great dis- 
advantage to our Proceedings, these returns having been 
made whilst y e Mischiefs were fresh and the Resent- 
ments High between Protestants and Papists, and con- 
sequently w ll) less favour than hath been since shown. 

5. Many Commissions for taking Inquisitions have 
issued both from y e Chancery and Excheq r that are not 
eped, and many others have been imperfectly taken and 
worse drawn up, and some have never been returned 
not so much as y e Records by the Escheater. 

6. Great quantitys of Land found in y e Inquisitions 
have not been put in charge to his MajT, nor appear in 
y e Rent rolls, and many denominations appear in y e 
Rent Rolls of w ch no Inquisitions were taken, and a 
great many other parcells of Lands are menc'oned in y e 
Grants w ch are neither found in y e Inquisitions or Rent 
Rolls, and some in y" Sub-commissioners returns yt are 
found no where else, and there may be many more of 
wch WQ can trace no footsteps. 

7. As we cannot complain to y r Honours of any direct 
Disobedience to our Authority, so we must take notice 
y' we had from few officers y Dispatch w ch was necessary 
to y c Work we had y honour to be employed in, but 
whether this proceeded from any Unwillingness to obey 
us, the Multitude of other Business, or the Irregular 

ethoda of Keeping their Books we do not affirm 

8. Particularly y Books of y e Comm of y e Revenue 
relating to y e Forfeitures are so ill and confusedly kept 
is much delayed us in our Proceedings. But this we do 

not attribute so much to y c Comm ers of y c Revenue, as 
to y shifting this enquiry from one Commission to 
another, w ch has been done five times since y e Battle of 
y e Boyne, so yt no Cornm"", if they were disposed to it 
have been able to take any steady view of y e Forfeitures 
and digest y'" into Method. 

(To be continued.) 



(See 2 nd S. ii. 241, 433 ; 3 rd S. xi. 407, 463 ; 5* S. iv. 
180, 276 ; 6"> S. ii. 285, 312.) 

The trial by wager of battle has frequently given 
rise to discussion in " N. & Q.," and the subject 
is, I think, of sufficient interest to merit still 
further investigation, more especially as the general 
statements in books of history and legal practice 
are apt to mislead, and make it appear that the 
judicial combat was of more frequent occurrence 
in England than is in reality the case. 

The custom is not a native of this country, but 
was introduced by William the Conqueror, and is 
stated by legal writers to have been a usual mode 
of trial for a long period. The reports of these 
early trials are only to be found scattered through 
a mass of unpublished records, but Mr. Pike, who 
had access to most of the collections in London, 
speaking of approvers, observes with some surprise 
that they rarely appear as actors in the trial by 
duel (Hist, of Crime, i. 289) ; and the extravagant 
praise lavished by early writers on trial by jury 
suggests a query whether the judicial duel was ever 
very popular in this country. It is perfectly true 
that the trial by wager of battle was a form of 
judicial procedure even down to the present 
century, and we find in comparatively recent law 
books long descriptions of the ceremonies to be 
used. No actual appeal to arms appears, how- 
ever, to have taken place except in the earliest 

Mr. Henry Lea, in his little book Super- 
stition and Force (Philadelphia, third ed., 1878), 
goes fully into the history of trial by wager 
of battle in different countries, and it is rather 
odd that he does not give a single instance of a 
judicial battle actually taking place in England. 

Blackstone, speaking of this form of trial, ob- 
serves " that it was only used in three cases, one 
military, one criminal, and one civil" (Commen- 
taries, m. 337). The first was in the Court 
Martial or Court of Chivalry and Honour, where, 
as may easily be imagined, it was more frequently 
resorted to than in other courts ; and it is not 
always easy to distinguish such combats from non- 
judicial duels. The second was in appeals of felony, 
which were not abolished till 1819. Instances are 
not uncommon in the law reports ; but though 
the expression " He waged his battle " occurs, we 
find on investigation that, in the greater number 
of cases, no battle took place. The third in- 
stance in which wager of battle was used was 
in the civil suit upon issue joined in a writ of 
right, and in this instance the parties were allowed 
to appear by champion. 

Speaking of these civil cases, Blackstone observes 
(loc. cit.): 

" The last trial by battel that was waged in the Court of 
Common Pleas at Westminster (though there was after- 
wards one in the Court of Chivalry in 1631 and another 

6*S. XI. FEB. 21, '85.] 



in tho county palatine of Durham in 1638) was in the 
thirteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1571. as reported 
by Sir James Dyer, and was held in Tothill Fields, West- 
minster, ' non sine ma-ina juris consultorurn perturba- 
tione,' saith Sir Henry Spelman, who was himself a 
witness of the ceremony." 

Then follows a page and a half describing the 
battle. As a matter of fact, however, no battle 
was ever fought in this or in either of the other 
cases mentioned in the above paragraph.* 

Tho duel appears to have actually taken place 
most frequently in oases of treason, and two 
instances in the fifteenth century are recorded by 
Stowe. The first, in 1430, is thus described (Stowe's 
Chronicle, Howe's eoL, 1631, fol. 371): 

"The foure and twentieth of January a battel was 
done in Smithfield within the lists before the king 
[Henry VI. ] betweene two men of Feversham in Kent, 
John Upton, notary, appelant and JohnDowne, Gentleman, 
defendant. John Upton put upon John Downe that he 
and his compiers should imagine the king's death, the day 
of his coronation ; when they had long fought, the king 
took up the matter and forgave both parties." 

The other was in 1446. A servant accused his 
master of treason, and the master, though innocent, 
was unfortunately so plied with wine by his friends 
that he was unluckily slain by the servant 
(Stowe, same ed., fol. 385). The fight took place in 
Smithfield, and is the last instance of an actual 
combat in a judicial trial that I have been, able to 

Selden, in his little work on the Duello, 1610, 
chap, ix., mentions the last two cases, and two other 
appeals of treason in the preceding century in 
which combats took place. Two instances ol 
trial by battle in civil cases, in the time of Edward 
III., are mentioned by Dyer (Reports p. 301 b 
note) ; but in both the combat appears to have been 
prevented by the king, and the only instance of an 
actual fight in a civil case which I have met with 
is described in Pike's History of Crime in England 
(vol. L pp. 205, 206, 467, extracted from a patent 
roll of 55 Hen. III. m. 3). It was a trial of a 
right to an advowson, and the fight took place 
outside the walls of Northampton. The descrip- 
tion of this trial does not give a very high idea oi 
the dignity or fairness of the form of procedure. 
The parties were represented by champions, 
The fight lasted some time without result ; then 
the friends of one side, being much stronger than 
those of the other, interfered, took possession of 
the ground, caused their horses to trample on th 
champion of their adversary, and, when he had been 
rendered quite helpless, proclaimed him a recreant 
A complaint was subsequently made to the king 
and the champion was relieved from the disabilities 
attaching to his defeat. 

* The cases referred to are 1571, Lowe and Kymev 
Paramour (Dyer's Reports, 301 a); 1631, Lord Rea anc 
David Ramsay (3 State Trials, 483) ; lb'38, Claxtoa v 
Lilburn (Cro. (for,, 522), 

Mr. Pike gives this case merely as a good in- 
tance of the trial by battle, and seems to imply 
hat he had met with others ; but I cannot help 
doubting whether a form of procedure could be 
ery usual when it led to such a result as that I 
lave described. 

On the whole, further evidence seems to be 
required to show that the judicial combat was ever 
very common in this country. Possibly, however, 
notices of such combats are to be found in county 
records or histories, and perhaps readers of 
" N. & Q." who may have met with such will 
kindly communicate them. 



BYRON'S LETTERS. As it has long been known 
that when the letters of Lord Byron have been 
used in the various lives or memoirs which have 
been published of him many parts of his corre- 
spondence have been suppressed, the sale of the 
original letters that he addressed to his intimate 
friend Francis Hodgson, which will take place afc 
Messrs. Sotheby's on March 2, becomes of peculiar 
importance. These letters have never been out of 
the possession of the Hodgson family. With them 
will be sold others written by Lady Byron, the 
Hon. Mrs. Leigh, Thomas Moore to Mr. Hodgson 
relative to the use he was to make of Lord Byron's 
letters in his Life, and also by Samuel Kogers, 
Scrope Davies, and Lord Newburgh. At the 
same time many letters and documents "from the 
collection of the Rev. Canon Hodgson will be 
disposed of. Among them there are no less 
than seventy-four written by John Flaxman, the 
sculptor, to William Hayley, the poet, full of 
most interesting details relative to the works of 
the former, and several from Anna Seward, in one 
of which she says that Bosworth has written to her 
asking for anecdotes of Dr. Johnson, and also that 
she would write an elegy on Johnson. Another 
collection, which will be sold at the same time, 
comprises the original letters from Keats, the 
poet, to Miss Brawne, and four unpublished and 
amusing letters by Charles Lamb. 


GAMELYN." In Prof. Skeat's very useful edition 
of this interesting old lay, p. viii of the introduction, 
the following account is given of the name of the 
second son: 

" Ote appears elsewhere as Otes [cp. Percy Folio MS., 
ii. 455]. It is certainly a shortened form of Otoun, the 
name of a French knight vanquished by the famous Guy 
of Warwick; and Otoun is merely the French form of 
Othonem, the accusative of the Lat. Otho (cf. G. Otto). ' 

Might I point out that the two forms Otes and 
Otun occur in the Chanson de Roland, 795, 2432, 
and that Otes is there certainly not a shortened 
form, but the nominative of which Otun is the 



accusative ? Secondly, if Otes is cognate with G 
Otto, it follows that the French name has nothing 
to do with Lat. Otho. In the Lat. name the initia 
o is short, in G. Otto, 0. H.G. Oto, the initial i 
long. Oto stands for an older Audo, which i 
from a stem And, cp. O.S. 6d> wealth, A-S. edd. 
See, for various forms of this name, Forstemann 
and Heintze; cp. Weigand, also Larchey (s.v 
"Eudes"). A. L. MAYHEW. 


it noted before, although it is very probable it may 
have been, that Ken's well-known and admired 
Evening Hymn is an unblushing copy in main 
idea, and in many places in actual diction, of a 
hymn of Sir Thomas Browne, published in his 
Rdigio Medici. Thus Ken : 

" Teach me to live that I may dread 
The grave as little as my bed. 1 ' 

Browne : 

" And downe as gently lay my head 
On my grave as now my bed." 


" Let no ill dreams disturb my rest, 
No powers of darkness me molest." 

Browne : 

" Let no dreames my head infest, 
But such as Jacob's temples blest." 

Ken : 

" Oh may my Guardian while I sleep 

Close to my bed his vigils keep." 
Browne : 

" Thou whose nature cannot sleep 

On my Temples Gentry keep." 

" When in the night I sleepless He 

My soul with heavenly thoughts supply." 
Browne : 

" That I may take my rest, being wrought 

Awake into some holy thought." 
Ken : 

" Oh when shall I in endless day 

For ever chase dull sleep away ]" 
Browne : 

" Oh ! come that hour when I shall never 

Sleep thus againe, but wake for ever." 
One couplet at least of Ken's Morning Hymn is 
also copied from the same source. Ken :- 
" Awake, my soul, and with the sun 

Thy daily course of duty run." 
Browne : 

" And with as active vigour run 
My course as doth the nimble Sun " 


I venture to think that there is an error in the head- 
ing of page 65 of the first part of Cursor Mundi 

(E.E.T.S.), where it is said, " Adam was in Paradise 
but three hours ; he was turned out at noon." This 
statement is founded on the following lines, which 
occur in the Cotton and Fairfax texts respectively : 

" For he was wroght at vndern tide, 
At middai eue draun of his side, 
Thai brak the forbot alg sun 
That thai war bath don out at none." 


" for he wrogt was at vndorun tide 
at midday eue made of his Bide 
thai brae the forbode als gone 
at thai ware bath done out or none." 


" None," I believe, here means the ninth hour ; 
and if so, though Adam's experience of Paradise was 
short enough, it was longer by one-third than the 
E.E.T.S. has taught. He was made at nine o'clock 
and married at noon; he fell forthwith, and was 
sent into exile about three o'clock, at which hour, 
centuries afterwards, the seed of the woman con- 
summated the sacrifice that regained Paradise. 
As I only possess the first and second parts of the 
Cursor, I cannot tell whether this correspondence 
of time is noticed in its account of the Crucifixion. 
I am, of course, aware that there are other tra- 
ditions than that enshrined in the Cursor. My 
contention is not that its account of the matter in 
question is correct, but that none means three 
o'clock, and not twelve. I note this to keep your 
strait space from being assailed by exhaustive 
accounts of the creeds of Jews, Turks, and other 
)eoples concerning the time that Adam remained 
n a state of " innocency." ST. SWITHIN. 

KOYD. This termination is said to be Norse, 

and ~ clearing. It is almost, or quite, confined to 

he Lancashire and Yorkshire border, where it is 

very frequent, e.g., Mytholmroyd. In a local 

map I have of part of the Thiiringer Wald many 

lames end with -roda. All that I have visited are 

mall clearings in the forest. The frequent use of 

hese clear cognates in a limited part of this island 

ind (I believe) only in a limited part of the German 

ontinent is curious. The dictionaries connect 

oden = grub up with reuten and reissen. Can it be 

hat roden and -roda are Low German forms adopted 

nd preserved along with more characteristically 

High German words ? H. H. 


N. & Q." may be interested in the following 

srief excerpt from a letter of Lamartine to a friend, 

vhich I came across lately in the first volume of 

is published epistles. It is from a letter dated 

March 3, 1810, addressed to A. de Virien, the 

ooet s companion in his romantic sojourn in Italy, 

hronicled in the touching pages of his Graziella. 

However much one may diner from the opinions 

xpressed in the extract, it is curious to note the 

reference shown by the renowned author for 

inghsh to French or Italian poetry, Were 

6"> 8. XI. FEB. 21, '85.] 



Lamartine living now, and were he to read La, 
Legende des Siecles of his friend and brother poet 
Hugo, would he still adhere to that opinion ? 

"Tu vois d'aprea mon epigraphe que je lis Pope, et 
j'en suis on ne peut pas plus content. Voila un horame 
h. qui je voudrais resembler, bon poe'te, bon philosophe, 
bon ami, honnete homme, en un mot tout ce que je 
voudrais etre. Je le prefere de beaucoup a Boileau pour 
la po6sie. Quand pourrai je le lire en Anglais! J'ai lu 
cesjours-ci Fielding et Richardson, et tout ces gens-la 
me donnent une furieuae envie d'apprendre leur langue. 
Je crois vraiment la poesie anglaise- superieure a la 
franyaise et a 1'italienne ; au reste, j'en parle sans en 
rien savoir et sur des fragments de Dryden et d'autres." 

J. B. S. 


Vecchie Storie (Venice, 1882, p. 77), says : 

" II cav: Stefani, dotto studioso di cose veneziane, mi 
diede a leggere una lettera autografa, mezzo logora dal 
tempo, scritta a set Vincenzo Dandolo dal vescovo 
Domenico Bollani, teologo insigne. II Bolano finisce 
con queste precise parole : ' Un Sanudo che sta in Rio 
della Croce alia Giudecca fece 1'altro hieri confessare sua 
moglie ch' era Cappello, e la notte aeguente, su le cinque 
hore, li diede di un stiletto ne la gola, e la ammazzo : 
decesi perche non gli era fidele, ma la contrada la pre- 
dica per una santa.' " 

Molmenti adds that the letter is dated June 1, 
1602, the very time that Shakspeare was, in all 
probability, writing his Moor of Venice ; that the 
Venetian ambassador in London would speedily 
hear of such an event, especially as Sanudo and 
his wife were of "illustrious" family; that the 
sending to confession parallels (V. ii.) 

" If you bethink yourself of any crime 

Unreconciled as yet to Heaven and grace, 

Solicit for it straight "; 

that, in fine, the end of the gentildonna Sanudo 
may have suggested Desdemona's, or at least " fra 
tante ipotesi ci possa stare anche questa." 


Lakeview, Killarney. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

ISAAC BASIRE, D.D. Is anything known re- 
specting the present whereabouts of the collection 
of books and MSS. formerly in the possession of 
Isaac Basire, D.D., Archdeacon of Northumber- 
land, Prebendary of Durham, and Chaplain to 
Charles I., and later to Charles II.? It is well 
known that the learned archdeacon was for some 
years professor of divinity at Gyula-Feje"rvdr 
(Alba Julia), in Transylvania. On leaving this 
country for England he left behind him part of his 
^ggage, particulars of which are given in a list 
preserved in copy by a contemporary hand in 

the library of the chapter of Gyula-Fej4rva>. 
The list contains some valuable information re- 
lating to books and MSS., and as anything that 
throws a little additional light upon the literary 
activity of this extraordinary man must have great 
interest for the readers of " N. & Q.," I subjoin an 
extract from the list, omitting all items referring to 
carpets, garments, et hoc genus omne : 

Extract from " Regestrum Generate Bonorum perti- 
nentium ad Isaacum Basirium, S.S.Th.D."* 

3. Una altera cista lignea plena manuacriptia et aliia 
instruments scholasticis. 

4. Corbis magnus turcicua coriaceus vulgo sapet re 
fertua libria. 

14. Manuscripta praecipua : 

(a) Praelectionea theologicae in Vallebium. 

(b) Praelectiones hebraicse in paalmum 34 et proverbi- 
orum, cap. 1. 

(c) Tota metaphysica.f 

(d) Tractatus singulares duo de pulchro et ordine. 

(e) Problema, utrum liceat marito verberare uxorem 1 

(/) Orationea academicae variae. 

(0) Orationea funebres in parentatione Kereszturii et 

(A) Disputationes Albenses impresses. 

(1) Schema Albense impressum. 

(k) Itineraria manuscripta varia, in primis unum 
orientale variis linguis, codice viridi. 

Manuscriptus codex arabicus in 4. N.B. Particularia, 
quae memoriae praesentanese non obversantur, ex tempore 
facile dignosci possunt, vel ex forma vestitus, vel ex in- 
acriptione, vel ex aliis signis. 

Cautio : Libri alieni meis conjunct! ex inacriptionibua 
comperti, ut reddantur suis possessoribua, religio mihi 
est. In primis clarissimo domino Joanni Molnaro codex 
unus in folio, continens varias epistolas propria manu 

Calvini et aliorum proto-reformatorum exaratas ; et 

multa alia quae jam in rutuba mihi non succurnmt. 
veluti Codex manuscriptus in 8, continena collectionem 
variarum synodorum Hungaricarum. 

Disputatio manuscripta inter Isaacum Basirium D. et 
N. Krsykowsky Polonum D. jesuitam Albae Julias. 

There is no written evidence to show that the 
interesting collection did ever leave Transylvania, 
but it is more than probable that it was for- 
warded, as the powerful Nicolaus de Bethlen, a 
former pupil of Basire and an intimate friend of 
his (he addressed in his letters as " <tA,Tarov 
Kapa "), interested himself in the matter. 

L. L. K. 


CHARLES BURNABY. According to a list of all 
the English dramatic poets, which is affixed to 
Whincop's Scanderbeg, 1747, Charles Burnaby 
(flourished 1700), the author of four plays, was a 
member of the Inner Temple, and had a university 

* Published in the Magyar Konyvszemle for 1883, 
pp. 264 to 266. 

f Referred to by Basire in his letter to Bethlen, dated 
Durham, Feb. 20, 1664, as " metaphysica mea." 

J This dissertation on wife- beating must have been 
very interesting. 

Bisterfeld waa the predecessor of Basire in the 
cathedra at Gyula-Fejervr. 



education. The Biographia Dramatica says he 
was bred up at the university, and afterwards 
entered a member of the Middle Temple. His 
name is to be found neither in the Inner nor the 
Middle Temple. He was a man about town, and, 
to judge from the dedications to his plays, was on 
friendly terms with one or two noblemen. From 
internal evidence I should say he was at Cam- 
bridge probably about 1690-8. Any information 
concerning his family, his university life, or his 
connexion with the Inns of Court will be greatly 
valued. URBAN. 

ITALIAN GRAMMAR. Speaking of adjectives, 
Sauer, in his Italian Conversation Grammar 
(third edit.), says: 

" One and the same adjective or participle belonging 
to two substantives of different genders must be put in 
the plural masculine; when, however, belonging to more 
than two substantives of different genders, it agrees with 
the two last nouns." 

Whilst Bonfigli, in his Italian Grammar for Be- 
ginners (pub. 1873), says: 

"When an adjective qualifies two substantives of 
different gender and number, the adjective agrees with 
the nearest to it, as, il lavoro e la spesa impiegata ; if 
an adjective relates to two substantives, both of the 
singular number, ami is separated from them by a verb 
in the plural, that adjective must be plural and agree in 
gender with the substantive nearest to it, as la speranza 
ed il limore sono inseparabile." 

Both cannot be right. Which, if either, is correct; 
or what is the true rule ? DUNHEVED. 

HEREDITARY BADGES. It seems to be a com- 
mon custom with certain Nova Scotia baronets to 
wear at balls and other entertainments a distinc- 
tive decoration attached to a buff ribbon suspended 
from the neck. May I ask if such hereditary 
badges are sanctioned by Her Majesty ? 


Ween?, Hawick, N.B. 

Burnubys The Modish Husband, 4to. 1702, with 
these words, As if one could be happy by Act 
of Parliament." It see rns to have suggested a 
phrase current a few years ago concerning making 
people virtuous by Act of Parliament. Burnaby 
.ttle of an originator, and was probably anti- 
cipated in the employment of the phrase. Is any 
earlier use known 1 URBAN> y 

"SALMAGUNDI." -Who was the author of a 


There is no author's name on the title-page or at 

the end of the dedication, but the book is in- 
scribed, "To Richard Wyatt, Esq., of Milton 
Place, Surrey, in acknowledgment of the Editor's 
obligations to his liberal and long-experienced 
friendship "j and the first poem 'is addressed to 
Mr. Wyatt, " on leaving his mansion after Ascot 
Races." The author was evidently a classical 
scholar, from the wealth of quotations from the 
Latin poets which he introduces at the head of 
several pieces. Among the most noticeable of the 
contents are an " Ode to Whitsuntide," in imita- 
tion of Milton's L' Allegro, and an English version 
of the well-known Latin drinking song. of Walter 
de Mapes, the facetious archdeacon of Oxford. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

Can any of your readers tell me what became of 
the registers of this church when pulled down ? 
I have applied in vain to Somerset House. 

T. C. 

ROQUEFORT. Can any readers tell me whether 
the supplement to the Glossaire de la Langue 
Eomane of Flamericourt Roquefort, 1808, 2 vols. 
8vo., can still be procured separately? It was 
issued in Paris, 1820, at seven francs, and con- 
tained two dissertations of value, one on the 
origin of the French nation and the other on the 
genius of the French language. I saw the three 
volumes, bound in calf, quoted at two guineas in a 
catalogue and all dated as if issued in 1808, which 
could not be correct. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

desirous of obtaining more definite information 
regarding the youth, education, and early military 
career of Patrick Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan, than 
is usually found in the existent somewhat scanty 
memoirs of Ireland's favourite general. I should 
also like to know how long he was absent from 
Limerick on his famous ride to Ballyneedy, and by 
what route he returned to the city, two points on 
which there seems to be considerable diversity of 
opinion. Any light thrown on these matters, or any 
information, in the shape of ancedotes or local tradi- 
tion, illustrative of Sarsfield's life and character, 
would greatly oblige. LEONARD D. ARDILL. 

WILLS OF AXMINSTER. Can your readers give 
me any information respecting Mr. William Wills, 
who had a carpet manufactory at Axminster early 
in the present century? Was he the original 
manufacturer at that town ? I have heard that 
the trade died with him. Is that correct ? 

J. ST. K 

AMBURY. -There is a hill in Herefordshire, 
commanding a magnificent view, and crowned 
with a large and perfect camp, said to be British. 

fi'h 3. XI. FEB. 21, -85.] 




It is called Croft Ambury. What can be th 
meaning and the true spelling of the second word 
A local historian, with the daring inventivenes 
in such matters displayed by our forefathers o 
the early years of this century, gives its derivatioi 
with some confidence. He says it is named afte 
Aurelius Ambrosius, the Romanized Briton, who i 
said to have withstood the Saxon invasion. Bu 
can this be so ? EUSTICUS EXPECTANS. 

. " GREEN BAIZE ROAD." What is the allusion in 
this passage (to which I should also like a reference 
to the C. D. edition) ? " Gentlemen of the green 
baize road, who could discourse from persona 
experience of foreign galleys and home tread 
mills" (Dickens. Bleak House, Tauchnitz ed., ii 
Mill Hill, N.W. 

quotations for this agricultural operation, from 
Gervase Markham downwards, but none clearly 
showing what bait, beat, or bate is, or which is 
the etymological spelling. Can any one help us i 
The suggestion has been made that peat is the 
"same word, which is demonstrably wrong. Peat, 
old Scotch pete, is one of the earliest Lowland 
Scottish words which we can cite, for its Latinized 
form peta, and also petaria, a peat-bog, occur in 
the early charters, long before the date of any 
vernacular documents. It is to be noted that peat 
is not turf; peta and turba, petaria and turbaria, 
are carefully distinguished in Scottish charters and 
laws, where, also, we find beside them carbonaria, 
or coal-pits. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

Mill Hill, N.W. 

BAIT OF HEMP. Last century various writers 
say that hemp is bound up in bundles called baits 
when about to be steeped. Is this term still 
applied to bundles of hemp or flax ? Is anything 
known as to the origin of the word in this sense ? 

Mill Hill, N.W. 

BISHOP THOMANDER. In March, 1862, the 
Swedish prelate Thomander, Bishop of Lund, 
applied (through a Copenhagen architect) to cer- 
tain authorities in England for plans of English 
churches ; that is to say, for such plans as would 
show the design and arrangement of churches 
built here nowadays to seat a congregation of five 
hundred or so. By the courtesy of the Incor- 
porated Church Building Society, a set of no less 
than thirty-three plans and drawings was obtained, 
and was sent to Bishop Thomander through his 
agent, who acknowledged the gift with all due 
courtesy. The question I would now ask of any 
Swedish correspondent is, Were these plans used 
in Sweden ; and, if so, where and how ? 

A. J. M. 

DAVID MIDDLETON. There is a portrait in the 
present exhibition of the Gainsborough pictures at 
the Grosvenor Gallery, No. 203, of a Mr. David 
Middleton, lent by Miss Paton ; he is called 
"Surgeon-Major." I should like to ask if it is 
not the portrait of a Mr. David Middleton who 
was surgeon to St. George's Hospital from 1734 to 
1765, and was probably serjeant-surgeon. 

C. H. 

The well-known passage in Chaucer's Deth of 
Blaunche the Duchesse, 

" And byd hym faate anoon that he 
Goo hoodeles into the drye so 
And come home by the Carrenare," 

has long puzzled scholars. Mr. Brae, in his in- 
teresting edition of Chaucer's Astrolabe, argues, 
with plausibility, that the Carrenare is the gulf Ii 
Carnaro (now II Quarnero) in the Adriatic, between 
[stria and the coast of Croatia, said to be very 
dangerous to mariners. Of " the drye se," however, 
Mr. Brae can make nothing. If we accept this 
explanation of the Carrenare, why should not 
'the drye se" be the Adria Sea, or Adriatic? 
Chaucer would have written this " adrye," like 
'Walakye," " Surrye," "Arabye"; and the 
customary crasis of the article would give us 
1 thadrye se." This would leave only " hoodeles " 
to be explained. WM. HAND BROWNE. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Maids of honour in the present time must be 
granddaughters on their father or mother's side to 
a baron. Was this the rule in Queen Anne's 
reign ? Is there any record in existence of her 
maids of honour ? Does the name Moore occur 
among them ? If so, was she daughter or grand- 
laughter to a Marquis of Drogheda ? Any 
nformation on this subject will be gratefully 
eceived. (Miss) KATHARINE BATHURST. 

Holwell Rectory, Hitchin, Herts. 


Id family mansion, which was rebuilt in 1672, 

here is a series of portrait pictures of the twelve 

Caesars. The pictures are about 3 ft. 6 in. high by 

ft. 6 in. wide. They are on canvas, in narrow, 
at, black wooden frames, which seem to be 
riginal. The heads are of colossal size and boldly 
ainted, and, with a small portion of the neck, fill 
p the canvas. Over each head is painted the 
ame of the emperor, and from the size they seem 
o have been intended to be placed at a consider- 
ble height. Their history is not known. They 
re mentioned as the " 12 Caesars" in an inventory 
f the furniture of the house dated 1698, but they 
re not found in any earlier inventory. I shall be 
iuch obliged to any one who will inform me if any 
niilar sets of portraits are known to exist, and, 



XI. FEB. 21, '85. 

if so, where they are, and who is supposed to be 
the artist. I have always fancied them Italian, 
and I have some faint idea that I once saw some 
similar pictures in some great hall or palazzo in 
Italy when travelling there some fifty years ago, 
in 1828, but I made no note of the fact. I should 
like to know if any ancient artist is known to have 
painted a series of portraits of the twelve Caesars; 
and, if so, where they are. 


Rev. Thomas Greene, of Stratford-on-Avon, found 
there in 1747 a copy of Shakespeare's will, and 
his transcript of that copy is amongst the Lans- 
downe MSS. In my collection at Hollingbury 
Copse there is an earlier copy of the will in exactly 
the same form. The latter is, I believe, the earliest 
copy out of Somerset House known to exist. It 
is headed, " E registro Curiae Prerogatives Cant. 
Extract." Then follows a complete copy of the 
will. At the end, after the probate clause, is the 
following note : " Concordat, cum registro, facta 
collacione per me Gilbertum Rothwell, Notarium 
Publicum." Will you kindly allow me to inquire 
if this is a transcript of the original probate or 
merely that of an office copy ? When did Roth- 
well live ? He was no doubt one of the officials 
of the Prerogative Court. 


x. 467 ; xi. 11, 93.) Can any of your readers 
throw light on the following statement in the 
account of Bishop Kidder given in Granger's 
History of England, edited by the Rev. Mark 
Noble, vol. ii. p. 101, 1806? "It is well known 
that the Bishop [Kidder] always sent to Dr. Ken 
half the emoluments of the see." The " well 
known " fact is not mentioned by any of Ken's 
biographers, nor by Kidder in the autobiography 
published in Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Bath 
and Wells. It seems to me sufficiently improbable 
in itself, and absolutely incompatible with the 
tone in which Ken always speaks of Kidder in 

tters and in poems, both before and after his 
death. On the other hand, one can hardly suppose 
that Granger and his editor would have given the 
statement without something that at least looked to 
them like evidence. E. H. PLUMPTRE. 

Deanery, Wells, Somerset. 

PRESERVATION OF ARMoun.-Can any of the 
readers of N. & Q. tell me how to preserve 
from decay and ultimate ruin a very ancient iron 
helmet ? Even in a well-closed glass case in a dry 

3om it is mouldering away rapidly. I should think 
there must be some colourless varnish which might 

>e applied as a protection against the effects of the 
atmosphere, and which at the same time would 
not disfigure the object. W. H. PATTERSON. 

" The cat, the rafc, and Lovel the dog 
Rule all England under a hog." M. D. 


(6 th S. x. 406.) 

The concluding lines of the epitaph on Sir 
James Fuilerton, Gentleman of the Bedchamber 
to Charles I. , in a chapel on the north side of the 
chancel of Westminster Abbey, come under this 

" Fuiler of Faith than of Feares ; Fuller of Resoluc'on 
Then of Paines; Fuller of Honovr then of Dayes." 

In Westminster north cloister is one which 
puns on the attainments instead of on the name 
of the deceased, William Laurence, 1621.* 

So does Gay's short epitaph on himself, 

" Life's a jest," &c. 

Pope's longer one on him, beneath it, just misses a 
pun at the end. 

A certain J. Phillips, known, I believe, only for 
a poem in praise of cider, has also a monument in 
Poet's Corner, a medallion encircled with apple 
and laurel leaves, and the motto, 

" Honos erit huic quoque porno." 
There is a kind of play on the word harmony in 
Purcell's epitaph, itself too familiar to need more 
than passing mention, f 

There is an epitaph of similar character in St. 
Dunstan's, Fleet Street, put up in 1681 by a 
grateful pupil to his fencing master, " the famous 
Swordsman Alex. Laylor, M r [sic] of Defence." 
It ends thus: 
" His Thrusts like light/rung flew. More skillful Death 

Parr'ed 'em all and beat him out of Breath." 

On a painted glass light in St. Me"dard, Dijon, 
are, or were, some lines to Jean Baptiste Menestrier, 

* Since the above was written two versions of this 
epitaph have been sent to "JS. & Q." (x. 498 and xi. 
95). I therefore withdraw mine, remarking only that I 
scarcely ever saw two versions of any inscription agree 
exactly either with each other or with the original. In 
Ackermann's Hist, of the Alley Church of Westminster, 
its Antiquities and Monuments, 2 vols., 4to., 1812, only 
the name and date are given from this epitaph, and, 
even so, there is one error. Dean Stanley's reading put8 
" Lawrence " for Laurence, " wrote " for wrot, and makes 
nonsense of the third line by false commaing. The in- 
scription is still perfectly legible. F. N.'s version, ante t 
p. 95, is the nearest right, yet this has " Reade " for 
Read, " a master " for his master, and " well he mesured " 
for well mesured. He is correct in transcription of "Well 
couth he nubers." How is couth to be parsed 1 [Couth= 
could. He was well skilled in numbers.] 

t I do not know if the tradition of the firework 
maker's epitaph, emulating it by saying he was gone to 
the place where alone hia fireworks are exceeded, is 
equally familiar. 

6'h s. XI. FEB. 21, '85.] 



1634 (not the famous Jesuit of that name), a 

" Cy git Jean le Menestrier. 
L'an de sa vie soisante-dix 
II rait le pied dans 1'estrier 
Pour s'en aller en Paradis." 
In the Cathedral of Ravenna, let into a wall 
near the sacristy, is a monument to a bishop, in 
which occurs this line, punning on his character : 

"Hie quiescit qui nunquam bic quievit/'* 
At Padua is a quaint monument with an epitaph 
written for himself by Lovati in most involved 
style (notwithstanding that Petrarch called him 
prince of the poets of his time) and in bad Latin, 
into which enters a pun on his name : 

" Id quod es fui.f Quid sim post funera queris 1 ? 

Quod sum quicquid id eat tu quoque lector eris. 
Ignea pars ccelo, csesse pars ossea rupi 

Lectori cessit nomen inane lupi. 
Mora mortis morti mortem si morte dedisset 
Hie foret in terris aut integer aatra petisset : 
Sed quia dissolvi fuerat, sic juncta necesse 
Ossa tenet saxum, proprio mem gaudet in ease." 
The following quatrain was written by Giov. 
Battista Strozzi for Brunelleschi's tomb at Flo- 
rence, introducing a play on his own name as well 
as a humoristic reference to Brunelleschi's works: 
" Tal sopra sasso sasso 
Di giro in giro eternamente io struzzi 

Che cosi passo pa?so 
Alto girando al ciel' mi riconduasi." 

And this, from the churchyard of Bischofshb'fen, 
in Austria, has been given me as the epitaph of a 
" queer fish": 
"Matthaeus FiachlJ Vicariua quern utpote piaciculura 

Mora pisces longe gratior devorabit die 12 Aprilis 1755." 

The following, punning on circumstances, was 
given me from Brigmerston Churchyard, Wilts: 
" Thrice was she married ; 

Then she died, Alas I " 

And this, to the memory of a man named Par- 
tridge, I was assured had existed at Rugby and 
had been removed by a former rector, who fancied 
it a scandal || : 

* I copied this hastily, without noting the date, so I 
am not able to say if it preceded one which the Diet. 
Biog. says Rapin, the historian, wrote for himself: 
" Tandem Rapinus hie quiescit, ille qui 

Nunquam quievit," &c. 

f I have collected some twenty epitaphs with variants 
of this very obvious moral reflection. 
1 Fi8cklnn=\\Me fiah. 

Query a coincidence with, or plagiarism of the well- 
known one on Margaret of Austria : 

" Cy git M argot la gente demoiselle 

Trois foia mariee et morte pucelle." 
|| Also the following, which, though not strictly with- 
in the category, may deserve a place near the other : 
" Here lyes William Woodhen, 

Who was one of the beat of men. 

N.B. His name was Woodcock, but that would not 
rhyme." I believe there are other versions of this 

" Death, fye ! fye ! 
To kill a Partridge in July." 

I was also told as a fact that there was (still 
living in 1877) in Dorsetshire a clergyman named 
Waters who had buried five wives, and when he 
took his sixth wife to see their monuments he used 
to call it " the meeting of the Waters." 

The following was given me as copied verbatim 
in St. George's Churchyard, Somerset: 

" Here lies poor Charlotte, 
Who died no harlot, 
But in her virginity 
Though just turned nineteen, 
Which within this vicinity 
Is hard to be found and seen." 

This, from Blaenavon Churchyard, on a Mr. 
Deakin, underground surveyor, engraved on a 
piece of rock : 

" Beneath the rocks I toiled to earn my daily bread, 
Beneath this rock I rest my weary head 
Till rock and ages shall in chaos roll, 
On Resurrection's Rock I "11 rest my soul." 

This was copied from a broken tombstone which 
was removed from Portbury Churchyard (near 
Bristol) a few years ago. It commemorated a 
blacksmith : 

" My forge and anvil are reclined, 
My bellows they have lost their wind ; 
My sledge and hammer are decayed, 
And in the dust my vice is laid. 
My fire's extinct, 
My coal is gone, 
My nails are drove, 
My work is done." 

And this from St. Mary-le-Wisford, Lincoln : 

" Here lies one, believe it if you can, 
Who though an attorney was an honest man."* 

Not far from the entrance to Brighton Ceme- 
tery is a very handsome Gothic monument with 
inscription, comprising a text, running all round 
the chamfered polygonal edge in two lines. In 
one division, which first faces the passer-by leav- 
ing the cemetery, the words happen to fall thus: 

" I know that my Redeemer liveth 
In the Parish of , in the County of Kent." 

Among some papers of a deceased friend I find 
a variant of the well - known epitaph of John 
Elginbrod, which substitutes Grol Dod for that 
name,t Grol Dod being an anagram of the words 
Lord God, thus both pointing the moral and im- 
proving the rhyme. 

Following are other anagram epitaphs. At 

* Compare this in Abbots- Leigh Churchyard, Somer- 

' " This stone can say what few stones can, 

It covers the bones of an honest man. 
f ' Here in the grave lies poor Grol Dod ; 

Have mercy on my soul, Lord God ! 
E'en as I would on thine, Lord God, 
If it so were I were Lord God 
And thou wert only poor Grol Dod. 



Newnham, Northamptonshire, to William Thorn- 
ton, 1667: 

"William Thornton, 

little worth in man* 


Behold, man, thy motto is my name, 
This motto shows thy sin hath lost thy fame ,' 
It is the map of the great world and thee, 
This little world, sin's map of misery." 

From Canon's Ashby, Northamptonshire : 

A virgin's death we say her Marriage is ; 

Spectatour, view a pregnant proofe in this. 
Her Suitor 's Christ, to him her troth she plights; 
Being both agreed, then to the nuptiall rites ; 
Vertue 's her tire, prudence her wedding ring, 
Angells the Brideman lead her to the King 
Her Royall Bridegroom in the Heavenly Quire, 
Her Joincture 's Blisse, what more should she require 1 ? 
No Wonder hence soe soon she sped away : 
Her Husband called, she must not make delay." 

From a monument in Scarscliffe Church to an 
unknown lady and her child, supposed to be of 
the time of Henry III., written on a long scroll in 
the child's hand : 

" Hie sub humo strata 
Mulier jacet tumulata, 
Constans et grata, 
Constantia jure vocata. 
Cui genetrice data 
Proles requiescit humata; 
Quamquam peccata 
Capita ejus siat cumulata, 
Crimine purg.tta 
Cum prole Johanna beata, 
Vivat prefata, 
Sanctorum sede locata." 

R. H. BUSK. 

There is an inscription of this kind on a tomb 
of the seventeenth century at or near Chipleigb, 
Somerset, to an heiress of Chipleigb, whose mother 
was daughter and heir of E<i. Warre, Esq., of 
Chipleigh, beginning something like this : 
" This happy soul at her decease 

Exchanged the lands of Warre for the fields of Peace." 
I write from memory. Vide Colinson's Hist, of 

"Epitaph on Edward Richard*, an Idiot Boy, who died 

^n 1728, aged 17. In Edglaston Church. 
If innocents are the favorites of Heaven 
And God l.ut little askn where little 's given 
My yreat Creator has for me in store 
Eternal joy* ; what wise man can have more 1 

that it n w "r f ttacl n 8 t0 , thi8 CpUapl1 ' from the fa t 
it was cut on the tombstone by the celebrated 
typographer Baskerville, who was original!^ a stone 
cutter and aftcrwar 's kept a school at Birmingham?^ 
Vide Dodd's Epigrammatitlt, 1876. 

FreegroveRoad,*. H ENRY G . HOPE. 

--r P ST (6 th S. X. 

, xi. 37, 53).-The name quoted by the French 

" Voyageur en Angleterre" as " Dockura " is the 
" Mr. Dockwra, merchant/' mentioned by Delaune 
in his Present State of London, 1690, p. 348, who, 
conjointly with a " Mr. Murray," first adjusted the 
penny post for London and the suburbs. Delaune 
enumerates all the towns round London at which 
there were deliveries daily, and the circuit is extra- 
ordinary from Acton to East Barnet, from Putney 
and Richmond to Poplar, and from Rickmansworth 
to Woolwich and Eltham. In Charles II.'s reign 
there was a trial, he says, at the King's Bench, 
and it was there adjudged to the Duke of York as 
being a branch of the General Post Office, and by 
1 Jac. II. c. 12, it was made a part of the king's 
private estate for ever, and not to be accounted for 
to Parliament like other revenues. 

Prior to this Mr. Edmond Prideaux, Attorney- 
General to the Commonwealth, was a chair- 
man of a committee in 1642 to consider the rates 
on inland letters, and he conceived the idea of 
establishing a weekly conveyance of letters to all 
parts of the kingdom. This was brought into play- 
considerably before March 21, 1649, and Mr. Pri- 
deaux himself appears to have made a good deal 
out of it. The Commons Journals of this date show 
that the Common Council of London tried to erect 
an opposition post office for the emolument's sake, 
but the House of Commons checked it. It was 
afterwards farmed by one Manley in 1654, and in 
1657 the regular post office was set up, with rates 
of postage that continued till the ninth year of the 
reign of Queen Anne. Now John Hill's pamphlet, 
A Penny Post, appeared in 1659, two years after 
Manley got the contract, and was probably put 
forth as a feeler on the part of the Common 
Council of London to try whether their defeat of 
ten years previous could be reversed. It seems 
unaccountable that anybody should have been 
imprisoned for carrying letters before any govern- 
mental arrangement for a post had been established, 
and if the ( imprisonment is the fact there must 
have been a London and suburban post already 
working in Charles I.'s time. This, too, would 
almost follow from what Miss BUSK says. The 
Commonwealth and Cromwell had wavered about 
the question, and the Attorney-General was set to 
consider the matter in Committee, which he did, 
apparently, in those self-seeking days that Carlyle 
calls " God fearing," and settled everything on a 
footing very much to his own advantage. Then 
the Common Council made their effort, and pro- 
bably Hill in 1659 worked with the same views. 
But from Aubrey's MS. (M.n\one } 8 Enquiry, p. 387), 
quoted in Cunningham's Handbook, p. 390, the 
penny post as we have it was not set up till Lady 
Day, 1680, by Robert Murray first and then Mr. 
Dockwra. Murray was in the Excise and Dockwra 
in the Customs. They were to have been partners, 
but quarrelled. Roger North says that the merit 
belongs to Dockwra, who from his house in Lime 

6'hS. XI. PED.21,'85.) 



Street conducted it to the complete " satisfaction 
of all London for a considerable time," but when 
it was found to pay the Duke of York seized it (in 
1682). Dockwra would not submit, or he would have 
been made a commissioner for life. He was ap 
pointed comptroller later on, but dismissed for 
mismanagement in 1698. This, of course, is 
absurd. The Lords of the Treasury wanted to 
get rid of him. He was the first who stamped 
letters with the hour of leaving the office for 
delivery. He died in 1716, nearly one hundred 
years of age, says Cunningham, but I think eighty- 
three, if, as I understand Aubrey, he was born in 
the Strand 1633. 

According to Delaune the circuit in 1690 was 
fifteen miles out of London, and any one might 
send a letter or " packet not exceeding a pound 
weight " for one penny. This beats the present 
Parcel Post to nothing. It seems incredible 
that so bold an idea could be carried into execu- 
tion two hundred years ago and prove lucra- 
tive. It also proves that the roads must have 
been much more secure from robbers and footpads 
than is pretended by those who, like Macaulay, 
draw pessimist views of the past to glorify our 
thoroughly comfortless present condition. The 
hundred messengers daily traversing every high- 
road out of London, carrying money bills and 
valuables, ought to have fallen an easy prey. 

0. A. W; 


Haverstock Hill. 

In New Remarks of London ; or, a Survey, &c., 
Collected by the Company of Parish Clerks, 1732, 
will be found the full regulations of the 

" Penny-Post-Office, a very convenient Project, and prin- 
cipally under the Care and Inspection of a Comptroller ; 
and, by Act of Parliament made 9th of Queen Anne 
[1709-10], for establishing a general Post-Office, it is 
there enacted, That, for the Port of all and every the 
Letters and Packets passing or repassing by the Carriage 
called the Penny-Post, established and settled within the 
Cities of London and Westminster, and Borough of South- 
wark, and Parts adjacent, and to be received and de- 
livered within Ten English Miles distant from the said 
general Letter-office in London, One Penny [sic]." 

" The general and chief Penny-Post-Office " was 
" in S. Christopher's Church-yard in Threadneedle- 
street, near Stocks-market." A full list is given 
of all the urban and suburban offices for receipt 
and delivery of letters and parcels (not exceeding 
one pound in weight) within the named limits. 
It should be remarked that this, though called a 
penny post, was in reality a twopenny post, for it 
appears that it was " the Custom of the Office to 
receive one Penny upon the Delivery of every 

Letter or Parcel, over and above the one Penny 

which was paid at the time of putting in every 
Letter or Parcel "; and further, that " all Letters 
and Parcels, that were brought in, were registred," 
without extra charge. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

The triangular post-mark of the (London) Penny 
Post is on a letter now before me, written by Dr. 
" Sam. Johnson" to " Mr. Paul, at Brook's Green, 
n r Hammersmith," and dated "Jan. 6th, 1756." 


(6 th S. xi. 66). The name of Tennyson (or Tenni- 
son) is, and has been for centuries, one of the 
commonest in Holderness. From registers and 
wills belonging to that district I could furnish 
extracts of the name almost sufficient to fill a 
whole number of " N. & Q." But A. J. M. does 
not seem to be aware that George Tennyson, and 
his father Michael, the apothecary of Hedon and 
Preston (mentioned in his extract), are well known 
as direct ancestors of Lord Tennyson. I may 
refer to Collectanea Genealogica, pt. iv., and to 
Our Noble and Gentle Families of Royal Descent, 
pp. 20-24, both published by Mr. Foster, who 
had all the Holderness evidence before him. 

W. 0. B. 

88). Mr. G. R. Humphery; in his lecture on 
workmen's or factory libraries, delivered July 1, 
1881, at the London Institution, to the members 
of the Library Association of the United King- 
dom, states that the earliest factory library was 
founded in 1847 by Messrs. J. Broad wood & Sons; 
then follow those of Messrs. J. Penn & Sons, 
1857; Messrs. Huntley & Palmer, about the same 
date ; Messrs. Frederick Braby & Co., 1870 ; and 
Messrs. Tangye Brothers, 1877. 


CAMBRIDGE PERIODICALS (6 th S. xi. 61, 133). 
A. J. M. says "The Blessed Damoisel" was 
circulated in MS. in 1856, and that, with " Mary's 
Girlhood," it showed us how much was yet in store 
for those who knew and loved their author. 
"The Blessed Damoisel" was, it is true, published 
in 1856 in the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine, 
but D. G. Rossetti's friends knew it in manuscript 
in 1848-9, and it was published in the Germ in 
1850. F. G. S. 

DUTY ON ARTISTS' CANVAS (6 th[ S. xi. 128). 
This subject was discussed in " N. & Q." in 1871, 
under the heading of " Stamp on Picture Canvas," 
and I have since then made a copy of every legible 
stamp that has come under my notice. The latest 
I have found is 1828, and my father^says the duty 
on picture canvas was discontinued long before 
1845. The earliest I have seen is 1790; but I 
believe 1784 was the first date on which the stamp 
appeared, as the commissioners under the Act of 
24 Geo. III. are directed " to provide proper seals 
and stamps to denote the charging of such Duties 
on or before Oct. 21, 1784" (4 S. vii. 97). The 
late Mr. Roberson told me ten years ago that 
since 1820 the first large figures on the stamp 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [6* s. XL FEB. 21, m 

represented the consecutive number of canvases 
stamped for one firm during the year ; the second 
figures represent the length, and the third the width 
of each piece of canvas. ALGERNON GRAVES. 

S. x. 127, 219, 318, 524). I think I can supply 
a satisfactory reply to one of H. K.'s queries on 
this subject: 

" Hekelbere, Heckenfell, Heclebernie, Hekle-fell. The 
notion that the volcanoes of Iceland were the pita of 

hell i8 riot of yesterday In Sweden and Denmark 

'Go to Heckenfel ! ' was a favourite curse. In an old 
Danish hymn or song of the sixteenth century I re- 
member having read, horribile dictu, of a drove or hunt 
of condemned souls on the way to Mount Hecla from 
Denmark. Satan, the drover, called Lureman, sings 
out ' Come ! come ! come ! you must to Heckenfield 
[sic], to Hecken, to Hecken, to Heckenfield, with the 

swarm of souls into the black hole.' Observe that in 

the old Icelandic annals Mount Hecla is always called 
Heklu-fell, the full name. But, by the time of the Re- 
vival, Hecla, the shortened form, had obtained. The 
reader would bear this in mind, for Heckenfield, Hekel- 
berg, John of Heckle-bernie's house, must needs have 
sprung from Mount Hecla when it still bore its old name 
in full." 

The article from which I quote so much as seems 
necessary is signed " G. Vigfusson " in the 
Academy for Feb. 14, 1885, and is, I think, a 
sufficient answer to H. K. so far as Hecklebirnie 
is concerned. HARRY LEROY TEMPLE. 

P.S. H. K. does not seem to have been ac- 
quainted with John of Hecklebernie's house. 

HOLDERNESS (6 th S. xi. 121).-To be "the 
latest of many offenders," and perhaps the last, 
is a distinction which I owe to the native courtesy 
of W. C. B. The previous offenders are, I find, 
certain other persons of " hasty and inexact mind"; 
as, for instance, Leland the antiquary, MR. A. S* 
ELLIS of" N. & Q.," the author of the Life of John 
Kettlewdl and, strangest of all, the compilers of 
the Holderness Glossary, who might have been 
supposed to know their own business. Having 
taken my place, with due modesty, in the rear of 
this melancholy but respectable procession, I 
frankly confess that I did not and do not know 
so much about the exact- boundaries of Holderness 
as W. C. B. says that he himself knows. And if 
it be true that the river Hull is the western limit 
of Holderness, I must, with a sigh, give up Kirk 

1 t a w r r R E i la ls to the west of " Hull. 

tfut w. u. B. condemns me as an offender because 
I have put down " Hedon and Kirk Ella" as 
being in Holderness. This implies, if implication 
is worth anything, that Hedon also is not in 
Holderness. But Hedon lies east of the river 
Hul and it is situate (E quote from Lewis, Top 
Diet.)- m the Middle Division of the wapentake 
of Holderness "and its church, as I have already 
aid, is called the King of Holderness. If, there- 
fore, Hedon is not in Holderness, I am not to 

jlame. And so much for that part of my offence. 
But W. 0. B. asks what I mean by saying that 
Sedon was " the mother-town and port of Hull." 
Well, the expression, coming from a " hasty and in- 
exact mind," may be pardoned, seeing that I went 
on to call Hedon "the Torcello of that muddy 
Venice," Hull. W. 0. B., whose mind is neither 
hasty nor inexact, and who is instinct with topo- 
graphical lore, knows very well that Torcello is the 
place, or one of the places, to which the men of 
Aquileia, and afterwards those of Altinum, fled 
for safety. He knows that it is situate in a maze 
of sluggish channels like that of Hedon Haven. 
He is perfectly aware that, when peace came and 
traffic grew larger, the descendants of these men 
moved on from Torcello to the ampler haven and 
fairer isles where now is Venice. Why, then, should 
he be surprised to learn that whereas Kingston- 
upon-Hull dates only from the time of Edward I., 
Hedon goes back at least to the reign of Athel- 
stan ? and that the new town, at the junction of 
the Hull with the broad main stream of the 
Humber, gradually drew away the men and the 
trade from Hedon and its poor little "haven," 
just as Venice did from Torcello ? A. J. M. 

BRONZE MEDALS (6 tb S. xi. 109). In answer 
to MR. J. E. T. LOVEDAY'S queries about the 
identification of certain medals, &c., I have much 
pleasure in communicating to you the following 

No. 1. This is a medal of Leopold I. of Lorraine, 
whose titles were Duke of Lorraine and Bar and 
King of Jerusalem, the last title being derived 
from his ancestor Godfrey de Bouillon. This piece 
probably refers to the arrangements which Leopold 
made with France and other countries respecting 
the boundaries of his Duchy. 

No. 2. This medal relates to the murder of Sir 
Edmund Berry Godfrey in 1678. The reverse is 
copied from Dutch medals, which were common 
at the time of the Reformation, the object of 
which was to satirize the Koman Catholics. The 
Popish plot and the death of Godfrey contributed 
to excite great hostility to the Papal power and 

No. 3. John Freind was the eminent physician 
to Queen Caroline. He was imprisoned in 1722 
for supposed participation in Atterbury's plot. 
He died in 1728. The type of the reverse refers 
to Freind's History of Physic, published in 1726, 
in which a comparison is drawn between the 
ancient and modern practice of medicine. 

No. 4. This is a St. Patrick's farthing, struck in 
Dublin ; Simon says during the siege in 1641, 
but Dr. Aquilla Smith is inclined to ascribe it 
to a later date, i. e., some time during the reign of 

No. 5. This is a token struck in London about 
1694, and may have been issued by the African 

6* s. XI. FEB. 21, '85. j 



Company. This attribution is, however, uncertain* 
as the same elephant occurs on coins of that date 
struck for Carolina. The piece is undoubtedly the 
work of one of the Eoettiers, James or Norbert. 

No. 2 is one of the many satirical medals 
which were struck upon the occasion of the 
murder of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey in 1678. 
Others may be seen engraved in Evelyn's Dis- 
course on Medals, Lond. 1697, pp. 171-4. The 
satire was not confined to medals proper. The Rev. 
T. F. Burra, Rector of Kiddington, near Wood- 
stock, has a brass stamp with a handle, on the cir- 
cular end of which there is a profile of a man, which 
on being turned another way assumes an appear- 
ance such as that on the medal of MR. LOVEDAY. 
No. 3 is to commemorate a learned English 
physician, Dr. Freind, the author of a History of 
Physic, and other works, for which see Lowndes. 
He died in 1728. ED. MARSHALL. 

[H. S. says of No. 4 that James Simon supposes that 
the coin, with the halfpenny, was struck by the rebels, 
and intended to represent the expulsion of the Protes- 
tants. It is not rare. He also refers to the Guide to 
English Medals of our correspondent MR. HERBERT A. 

INDEXES TO BOOKS (6 th S. xi. 108). It would 
not be easy to give a definite reply to MR. C. 
WALFORD'S question, Which was the first printed 
book with an index, as the word is now under- 
stood 1 The subject has to a considerable extent 
been discussed in Mr. H. B. Wheatley's very 
interesting tract, What is an Index ? 1878. Very 
early in the history of printing it became evident 
that some assistance in finding readily the matters 
treated of in books was needed, and then various 
kinds of tables of contents were introduced. In 
some of the earliest books relating to special sub- 
jects the chapters were arranged alphabetically, so 
that the table practically formed an index. Thus, 
, for example, Arnoldi de Nova Villa, De Vistutibus 
Herbarum, Vincentia, 1491, has a preliminary 
table which at once indicates the chapter in which 
any required herb is to be found. In the same 
author's works, printed at Ley den in 1532, we have 
first a "Tabula Capitulorum," eight pages, and 
then a " Tabula Alphabetica," sixteen pages. This, 
though not an index, very certainly answers the 
purpose of one. In Mesuae, De re Medica, 1560, 
there is a distinct " index," eight pages, which is, 
in truth, a series of subject indexes. All these 
early indexes are practically guides where to find 
each separate subject treated of by the author, but 
they do not give any references nor incidental 
mentions. Polydore Vergil, in his Anglicce 
Eistorice, 1556, has what may fairly be called a 
good index, thirty-seven pages. This may be 
taken as a starting point as to date, and we may 
ask for earlier examples. EDWARD SOLLY. 

Button, Surrey. 

I venture to advise MR. CORNELIUS WALFORD 
to consult the following work, by M. Magne* de 
Marolles, JRecherches sur I'Oriyine et le Premier 
Usage des Registres, des Signatures, des Reclames, 
et des Chiffres de Pages dans les Livres Imprimis, 
Paris, 1783, 8vo. 51 pp., "Nouvelles Observa- 
tions," 8 pp. (Brunei's Manuel, vol. vi. Tab. Meth. 
No. 31,314); also vol. v. of the Catalogue of M. 
de la Serna Santander, Bruxelles, 1803, 5 vols. 8vo. 
(Home's Bibliography* 1814, pp. 317-18). 


Thornton, Horncastle. 

[G. P. R. B. refers to Mr. Wheatley's What is an 
Index? MR. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN says he has a 
translation of Josephus, 1640, with a " table " of twenty- 
seven small folio pages of two columns ; and MR. C. A. 
WARD, after asking if MR. WALFORD does not intend to 
confine himself to English books, mentions Hakewill'a 
Apology, 1635, as having a capital index. He also asserts 
that as a rule the earlier books have the better indexes. 1 

KING " (6 th S. x. 129, 318). In State Poems, vol. Hi. 
p. 239, a poem entitled " An excellent New Song 
call'd the Prince of Darkness," commences: 
" As I went by St. James's I heard a bird sing 

Of a certain the Queen will have a boy in the spring." 

This is, apparently, an imitation of the lines for 
which ANON, inquires, and may possibly help to 
fix the date. There is no date to this poem, but 
an allusion to the blood of Bst (Este) shows it to 
refer to James II., and fixes the period within the 
brief limits of his reign. URBAN. 

FYLFOT (6 th S. x. 468 ; xi. 74). Perhaps the 
following remarks, by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, 
will not be unacceptable to your correspondent 
E. H. H.:- 

"Bells were rung in the Middle Ages to drive away 
thunder. Among the German peasantry the sign of the 
cross is used to dispel a thunderstorm. The cross is used 
because it resembles Thorr's hammer, and Thorr is the 
Thunderer : for the same reason bells were often marked 
with the ' fylfot ' or cross of Thorr, especially where the 
Norse settled, as in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. Thorr's 
cross is on the bells of Appleby, and Scotherne, Wad- 
dingham, Bishop's Norton, and West Barkwith in Lin- 
colnshire, on those of Hathersage in Derbyshire, Mex- 
borough in Yorkshire, and many more." Curious Myths 
of the Middle Ages, p. 354, edit. 1881. 



This symbol was discovered by Canon Green- 
well last summer on the Koman wall near House- 
steads (Borcovicus). R. B. 

The curious shield bearing the letters G. H., a 
bell, a fylfot, and a sort of double cross, may 
possibly have belonged to Gilbert Heathcote, of 
Chesterfield, who died soon after Aug. 4, 1558 
(North's Lincolns. Bells, 82). The fylfot is also 
found within capital letters, and I think on another 
shield or two, but I do not know that these can 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. w s. xi. FEB. 21, 

be assigned to any particular founders. Mr. North 
had my notes, and I have not seen them since. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 


49). I found this phrase used in the parish of 

Upton-on-Severn, in Worcestershire, and inserted 
it in a glossary of words and phrases which I have 
lately printed as an appendfcc to a parochial his- 
tory. " Stuck up his stick " is also used in the 
same sense. R. LAWSON. 

Rectory, Upton-on-Severn. 

GENEALOGICAL (6 th S. xi. 27). I find great 
difficulty in arriving at a right conclusion on the 
same matter, owing to one family assuming a 
multiplicity of names. In the reign of King John 

a nunnery, for nuns of the order of St. Clare, was 
founded at Campsey Ashe, and attached to this 
nunnery was a chantry of five secular priests, 
founded by Maude de Lancaster, Countess of 
Ulster, to pray and sing mass for the souls of 
William de Burgh and Ralph de Ufford and their 
wives, a similar chantry being attached to Wood- 
bridge Priory Church (in which Henry, Duke of 
Lancaster, was buried, 1347, as also Robert de 
Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, 1369, and William de 
Ufford, 1382); and the wives are mentioned as 
Elizabeth, first wife of William de Burgh, Earl of 
Ulster, and Maude of Lancaster. See Taylor's 
Monasticon, 1821, p. 99; Fitch's MSS., Loes 
Hundred, Ipswich Museum; "Suffolk," Brit. 
Magna, 1730, pp. 238, 287. From these works 
and Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. i. p. 228, I ob- 
tain the following line of descent : 

Gilbert de Clare,=pJoan d'Acres=Ralph Mortimer, E. of Gloucester 
d. 1295. (during minority of son-in-law). 

Gilbert the= 
Re.), died 

:Maud, dau. of Eleanor, mar. 1. Hugh Margaret, mar. 1; Piers 1. John de=pElizabeth=2. Theobald 

de V. 

cester ; 2.' William de Audley, E. of Glo'ster. of Ulster. 3. Roger, 

la Zoucb. 


John, died young. 

1. Elizabeth ^William de Burgh, E. of=2. Maud, third dau. of Henry, 

Ulster, d. 1360-5. D. of Lancaster. 

1. Roger Damory=Elizabeth, b. 1361=p2. Lionel, Duke of Clarence. 

Philippa=Ed. Mortimer. 

Dugdale does not give the name of the father of 
Maud, wife of Gilbert the Red, and Weever, 
F. M. t p. 737, calls her " Maud from the Ulsters 
borne." I should think, seeing her son received 
the name John, that the following may be a correct 
tree of descent : 

Richard de Burgh, E. of Ulster. 

bably the daughter of William de Burgh by his 
first wife Elizabeth. V. B. REDSTONE. 


I think the following pedigree will help 
T. W. W. S. out of his difficulty : 

Richard de Burgh=f=Margaret de Burgo. 

John, E. of=pEliz. do 
Ulster. Clare. 

Maud=pGilbcrt de Clare, 
I d. 1314. 

1. Eliz. Wm. de Burgh,=2. Maud of John de Clare. 
I d. 1363. Lancaster. 

Elizabeth de Burgh,=f=Lionel of 
b. 1361. I Clarence. 


In the Brit. Magna, "Suffolk," Elizabeth is 
mentioned as the sole daughter and heir of William 
de Burgh, Eurl of Ulster. She came into posses- 
sion of Clare Castle, 1363. She was most pro- 

* It is curious that Collins, in his Baronetage, 1720, 
vol. 5., makes a similar mistake, naming Eleanor, wife of 
Hugh Spencer the younger, one of the three daughters 
of Gilbert the Red, Earl of Gloucester, where sisters 
should be used, 


^Elizabeth, Four Maud=Gilbert, E.of 
dau. of other Clare, Glou- 
Gilbert.E. sons. cester, and 
of Clare. Hertford. 



iam^pMaud, dau. of E. of Lancaster. 
Elizabeth=Duke of Clarence. 

H. S. W. 

T. W. W. S. may possibly like to know of the 
paper by the Rev. Thos. Parkinson (the substance 
of which was read before the Suffolk and Essex 
Archaeological Societies in August, 1868), which 
appeared in the Antiquary, under the title "Cla- 
rence : its Origin, and Bearers of the Title," for 
February, 1882 (vol. v. p. 60), though I am afraid 
it will not help him out of his difficulty. But per- 
haps T. W. W. S. is already acquainted with it3 
existence, ALPHA. 

' S. XI. FEB. 21, '85.] 



"EGO SUM, ERGO OMN1A SUflT >; (6 th S. X. 427). 

An almost identical epigram is recorded in the 
Talmud (treatise Succah, fol. 53 a) of the famous 
Hillel, " Where I am, there every one is." The 
phrase has received various interpretations from 
the commentators. The Hebrew runs as follows : 

London Institution. 

KlVERSDALE PEERAGE (6 th S. X. 190, 335). 

What does A. Z. mean by stating there was a bar 
sinister in the descent of the first Lord Riversdale ? 
There is nothing about it in the peerages. His 
ancestors were as under : 

Richard Tonson, of=j=Elizabeth, sister of Thos. 
Spanish Island, co. j Becher, of Sherkin, co. 

Cork, d. 1693. 

Cork, Esq. 

Henry Tonson, b.=f Eliz., second dau. of Sir Richard 
1666, d. 1703. Hull, Knt., mar. May 4, 1692. 

daughter of 

-jLviv/iiaiu J.UUBVU,= 

born January 6, 

-Lt. fvunif uitu. ui voi. 
Gates, and relict of 

Hen. Tynte, 

1695; died June 

Michael Becher, of Af- 


24, 1773. 

fadown, co. Cork, Esq. 


William Tonson, only- 
son, b. May 3, 1724 ; 

pRose, eldest dau. 
of Jas. Bernard, 


creat. Baron Rivers- 

Esq., of Castle 

ob. s.p. 

dale, Oct. 13, 1783; d. 

Bernard, co. 

Dec. 1,1787. See De- 

Cork. Esq. 

brett's Peerage, &c. 4- 

D. G. C. E. 

KUSSET-PATED CHOUGHS (6 th S. ix. 345, 396, 
470; x. 499 ; xi. 74). In the time of Erasmus 
there were grey-garbed as well as brown-garbed 
Franciscans, but the hues were not indifferently 
worn. The distinction indicated is noted in the 
Colloquies (Bailey's edit. vol. ii. p. 233), where in 
" The Sermon, or Mardardus," Hilary and Levinus 
thus discourse : 

" Lev. What house did he come out of? 

" Hil. The Franciscans. 

" Lev. How say you, a Franciscan ? What, one of that 
holy order ] It may be he is one of those that are call'd 
Gaudentes, that wear garments of a brown colour, whole 
shoes, a white girdle, and make no scruple (I tremble to 
speak it) to touch money with their bare fingers. 

"Hil. Nay, none of them, I '11 assure you ; but of those 
that call themselves Observants, that wear ash-coloured 
garments, hempen girdles, cut and slash'd shoes, and 
would rather commit murder thau touch money without 


TRADESMEN'S SIGNS (6 th S. xi. 68). The follow- 
ing note, throwing farther light on the history of 
the sign of the " Holy Ghost," quoted by your 
correspondent MR. ELLIS, may possibly prove to 
be of interest to some of your readers. I have 
taken it from a collection of " Decrees of Courts 
of Judicature erected by several Acts of Parlia- 
ment for tbe determination of differences touching 

Houses burnt down and demolished at the Fires 
of London, Southwark, and other places, temp. 
Car. 2" (Add. MSS. 5063-5103, Brit. Mus.): 

" 14 Dec., 1668. Between Humphrey Robinson, Citizen 
and Stationer of London (petitioner), and Humphrey, 
Bishop of London (defendant)." 

" Gilbert, former Bishop, by Indenture 27 May, 
13 Car. 2, demised to the Petitioner a messuage called 
the sign of the Iloly Ghost, and eiuce the Three White 
Pigeons, in St. Paul's Church Yard, parish of St. Faith." 
Vol. 5080, 28. 

A somewhat similar sign is mentioned (vol. 5063 
of the same series) in a dispute between "Thomas 
Thorold, Landlord," and "Henry Pinkney, Tenant," 
entered April 4, 1667, where it is stated that " a 
messuage called the Holy Lamb [adjoining the 
Three Squirrels in St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, 
Farringdon Without] was lately surrendered to the 
Petitioner by Thomas Langridge, its Tenant." 

The following extract may be of use to MR. 
ELLIS as regards tradesmen's signboards : 

"The Bible and Dove, i.e., the Holy Ghost, was the 
sign of John Penn, Bookseller, over against St. Bride's 
Church, Fleet Street, 1718 ; and the Bible and Peacock 
the sign of Benjamin Crayle, bookseller, at the west end 
of St. Paul's in 1688. If not a combination of two signs, 
the bird may have been added on account of its being 
the type of the Resurrection, in which quality it is found 
represented in the Catacombs, a symbolism arising from 
the supposed incorruptibility of its flesh. Various other 
combinations occur, as the Bible and Key." 
I have taken the above from Larwood and Hotten's 
History of Signboards, p. 255, and probably other 
pieces of information will be found in that work, 
which may be of use. JAMES E. THOMPSON. 


EECKAN (6 th S. xi. 65). This word occurs in 
Mr. Herrtage's edition of Catholicon Anglicam 
(1483) as a rekande. In a foot-note Mr. Herrtage 
quotes some various spellings from old inventories, 
and amongst others a " raking e crooke." In an 
inventory (28 Hen. VIII.) printed in my Historical 
Memorials of Beauchief Abbey, 1878, p. 140, 
occurs, amongst the things in the kitchen of the 
monastery, " on' rekynthe and ij cobber ts." This 
rekynthe is explained by Pegge as " a range." A 
friend tells me that in an old farmhouse in Derby- 
shire, once occupied by him, was a three-footed 
iron caldron suspended from a transverse iron bar 
in the kitchen chimney. On this transverse bar 
hung, with holes at regular distances, a vertical 
bar. The whole apparatus was called " t' reek iron 
to hang t' posnet on." The |C posnet " was the 
iron caldron, and by means of a hook put in the 
vertical bar it could be raised up or let down at 
pleasure. I suspect that reek iron is an interpre- 
tative corruption, for PROF. SKEAT'S derivation 
from the Icel. rekendr is unquestionably right. 

S. 0. ADDY. 




[6* S. XL FEB. 21, '85. 

In Lincolnshire we seem to differ a little from 
the good people in the North as to what is a recJcan. 
We call the hook from which the pot hangs the 
reckon-hook. Instead of the crane with hinges, 
as described by Mr. Atkinson, we have a strong 
iron bar across the front of the chimney, which 
bar is now usually called the galley-bawk ; from 
this hangs the reckon-hook. Yorkshire appears to 
agree with us; as I find in the "Clavis" of the 
Praise of Yorkshire Ale, 1697, " A Reckingcrewke 
is the Pot-hanger." Occasionally in poor houses 
may be seen a chain with a hook hanging from the 
galley-bawk. The crane and hook as described by 
Mr. Atkinson are represented in Bewick's Select 
Jfables, 1818. In a tailpiece at p. xvi there is 
pictured a man smoking his pipe by the kitchen 
fire, in the chimney of which is a crane with three 
kinds of reckon-hooks. The middle one (which is 
most generally used) can be made longer or shorter, 
as required. We call a shelf, or ledge, or bar on 
which things can be placed or hung " a rack," such 
as cheese-rack, gun-rack, hay-rack, boot-rack, &c. 
In old-fashoned kitchens the galley-bawk (? chim- 
ney-rack) is up the chimney out of sight, and I 
have heard of its being used for putting things 
away upon, as upon other racks, from which some 
unlearned people might jump to the conclusion 
that rackon-kook is only "rack and hook" just a 
little shortened, which, although wrong, is better 
than u reek-airn." B. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

The thing still survives in the form which jus- 
tifies PROF. SKEAT'S etymology. I have seen it 
to-day in an old Worcestershire cottage, to wit, 
a piece of chain consisting of several large and 
somewhat distended links, to one of which a long 
double hook is attached. Doubtless the "im- 
proved" apparatus more commonly seen is due to 
modern ironmongery. But is it not sometimes a 
modification of the ratchet ? W. C. B. 

"Unum rekande," 1451, Eipon Chapter Acts, 
208; " iij rakendes," 1485, ib. 370. PROF. SKEAT 
is doubtless right, as usual, and N.B. that a chain 
is the most primitive form of reckan. In Lindsey 
we have a traditional riddle, " What 's that that 's 
full of holes and holds water ? " Ans. " Reckan- 
hooks " (the term commonly applied to the whole 
construction). j y -p 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

A LITERARY CRAZE (6 th S. x. 21, 61, 101, 181 
274, 389, 455; xi. 72). Will DR. NICHOLSON 
write more definitely ? The point taken up is the 
purely speculative identification of "pleasant 
Willy" in Spenser's Tears of the Muses,}. 208 
DR. NICHOLSON says " Ditto to DR. INGLEBY " 

Dut what does the latter gentleman say ? There 
are three courses open and a desert beyond: (1 
Shakspere, (2) Lilly, (3) Tarleton the Clown. I 

is quite understood that the last-named claimant i 

Itogether out of the running, and if DRS. INGLEBY 
nd NICHOLSON both back Shakspere's candida- 
ure it behoves the latter to state his arguments 
gainst the very formidable claims of John Lilly, 
ramatist and euphuist. A. HALL. 


6 th S. x. 425, 477; xi. 75). The transcript of 

Anthony Cage's epitaph, given at the first of the 

,bove references, is somewhat unfortunate ; it 

ntirely omits two lines, and alters others. I 

ranscribe the following version of it from Stow's 

London, which is, I suppose, as authentic a source 

s may be had (sixth edition, London, 1754, vol. i. 

. 636): 

" A comely Monument in the Wall, on the ChanceVs 

South Side. 
Anthony Cage entombed here doth rest, 

Whose Wisedome still avail'd the Commonweale : 
A Man with God's good Gifts so amply blest, 
That few, or none, his Doings may impeale. 
A Man unto the Widow and the Poore 
A Comfort and a Succour evermore. 
Three Wives he had, of Credit and of Fame : 

The first of them, Elisabeth, that Hight ; 
Who, buried here, brought to this Cage by Name 

Seventeene young Plants, to give his Table Light. 
The second Wife, for her Part, brought him none ; 

The third and last, no more but only one. 
He deceased the 24th day of June, Anno Dom. 1583." 

The second epitaph, that to William Dane, has 
riven me no little trouble. I have been Kector of 
3t. Matthew, Friday Street, now some eight-and- 
wenty years, and I thought that I knew all the 
recorded epitaphs which were, or had been, in the 
church before and after the Great Fire. My note- 
books failed me, and I searched in vain through 
Stow, Maitland, Seymour, Skinner, Godwin, 
Allen, and Hughson. At last I thought that I 
would take down Walter Thornbury's Old and 
New London, and here, at vol. i. pp. 348, 349, 1 
found in close juxtaposition the epitaphs to Cage 
and Dane. Mr. Thornbury, however, states, quite 
accurately, that the epitaph to Dane occurred in 
the church of St. Margaret Moses, and on turning 
to Seymour, vol. i. 713-4, I discovered it there. 
I am afraid MR. HIPWELL must have copied from 
Old and New London, as the last two lines of 
Cage's inscription are omitted by Mr. Thornbury 
as well as by himself. The variations from Sey- 
mour's text in the inscription to Wm. Dane point 
to the same conclusion. 

The epitaph to Anthony Cage was in the old 
church of St. Matthew, destroyed in the Great Fire ; 
and the epitaph to William Dane was never in St. 
Matthew's at all, but in the church of St. Mar- 
garet Moses. It is extremely desirable to indicate 
in " N. & Q." the exact sources from which in- 
formation has been derived ; the absence of such 
reference in MR. HIPWELL'S paper has given me a 
tedious hour's search. 
It may be well to place on record in " N, & Q." 

, XI. FEB. 21, '80.] 



the fact that all the mural tablets from St. Mat- 
thew, Friday Street, have been placed upon the 
walls of St. Vedast, Foster Lane. 



ALEKTOR will find the lines beginning "Trust the 
spirit," &c., in Mrs. Browning's Aurora Leigh, bk. v. 
p. 189 (eighteenth edit., 1883); and the lines quoted by 
VIOLET occur in that most delightfully dreamy poem by 
Lord Tennyson, The Lotos Eaters. The first line quoted 
really runs thus : 

"Nor hearken what the inner spirit sings." 


" And hearken what the inner spirit rings," &c., 
incorrectly quoted from Tennyson, The Lotos Haters, 
stanza 2. The true reading is : 

" Nor hearken what the inner spirit singa, 
' There is no joy but calm ! ' 
Why should we only toil, the roof and crown of 

things'?" G. BUCKLEY. 

[K. N. also obliges us with this reference.] 

" Like Dead Sea fruit, bitter," &c. 
From Moore's La.Ua Rookh, " The Fire Worshippers," 
near the end of the second division : 

" Like Dead-Sea fruits, that tempt the eye, 
But turn to ashes on the lips." 



Calendar of Stale Papers, Venetian, 1557-8. Vol. VI 
Part III. With an Appendix of Documents of an 
Earlier Date. Edited for the Master of the Rolls by 
Rawdon Brown. (Longmans & Co.) 
THE papers calendared in this volume extend from 
November 4, 1557, to December 24, 1558, and include 
despatches of singular interest, for the Doge and Senate 
of Venice took care to be supplied with particular in- 
formation of all that took place at the Courts of Eng 
land and France. The year 1558 was marked by events 
which will never be forgotten in English history, for i 
began with the loss of Calais, the last of the English 
possessions in France, which was taken by storm on 
January 7 by a French army commanded by the Duke 
de Guise, and it ended with the deaths of Mary, Queen 
of England, and of Cardinal Pole, the last Catholic Arch 
bishop of Canterbury. This volume contains a ful 
account of the capture of Calais and of the irieffectua 
negotiations for its recovery, as well as a detailed de 
Bcription of the cardinal's pious and edifying death 
which was communicated to Venice and Rome by hi 
tried friend and executor Mgr. Priuli, Bishop Designat 
of Brescia. Amongst other notable events of this year i 
the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, to the Dauphin 
which was celebrated on April 24 at Paris, to the grea 
delight of the people of that city, because it was th 
first time for more than two hundred years that 
Dauphin had been married within the realm. Th 
documents in the Appendix range from 1363 to 1557 
and include several notices of Sir John Hawkwood, th 
English condoltiere general, and his free lances. Bu 
the paper in this collection which will be read wit 
most interest is the description of England and th 
English which was written to the Duke of Mantua i 
June, 1557, by his envoy Annibal Litolfi. It is to b 

oped that men, women, and horses in England have 
mproved since that time, for we read that Englishmen 
"d not hold honour in account, were proverbially in- 
ospitable to foreigners, and generally slothful ; whilst 
nglishwomen were wanting in continence, and English 
orses could not stand fatigue from having weak feet. 
Cngland was already known as " the realm of comfort," 
nd the climate had a better character than it has at 
resent, for no Italian would now say that the English 
limate " is so good and temperate that it could not be 

The Roxlurghe Ballads. Illustrating the Last Years of 
the Stuarts. Parts XIV. and XV. Vol. V. Edited 
by Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, M.A., F.S.A. (Ballad 

Two parts of the Ballad Society's publications are now 
ssued to the members. Though announced as parts, these 
re practically volumes, since, apart from prefatory matter, 
ach number contains from 250 to 260 pages. As hereto- 
ore, the work is under the care of the most diligent of 
.ntiquaries and unflagging of editors the Rev. J. W. 
Dbsworth, by whom is written the whole of the prefatory 
and explanatory matter, and who has also executed the 
whole of the illustrations. How necessary is explana- 
ion in works of this class the student of seventeenth 
century literature is aware. It is startling, accordingly, 
;o hear from the editor that the extent of illustration 
supplied to what, without explanation, is unintelligible, 
s. made in some quarters a cause of complaint. Dis- 
regarding such censure, Mr. Ebsworth continues a task 
to which we have frequently drawn attention, and in a 
spirit of uncompromising, if chivalrous partisanship, 
with a keen delight in his work, undaunted spirits, and 
riexhaustible erudition, he completes the fifth volume 
of the series. Of the two parts now issued, the earlier 
deals with the Rye House Plot, 1683, and the later with 
the last struggle between York and Monmouth. As a 
rule the historical value of the ballads given is greater 
than the poetical. Some of them, however, such as 
" The Country Innocence ; or, the Shepherd's Enjoy- 
ment," of which two verses only are given in Playford's 
Choice Ayres and in D'Urfey's Pills to Purge Melancholy, 
but which is now lengthened out to seven to suit the 
broadside, have genuine poetical merit. The illustra- 
tions, executed with signal care, have great interest. 
Especially noticeable are the representations of the 
death of Monmouth (p. 699) and the frost fair on the 
Thames and the Rye House, which form frontispieces 
to the respective parts. It is to be hoped that Mr. Ebs- 
worth will have strength enough, together with support 
from without, to carry through his task. Should it be 
otherwise, with him will be lost much erudition gained 
from oral tradition which is not likely again to be accu- 

The Chevalier d'Eon. By Capt. J. Buchan Telfer, R.N. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

CAPT. TELFER has in this volume brought together a 
large amount of interesting information about this sin- 
gular personage. One point may now be considered as 
decided and settled once for all, and that is, the question 
of his sex. D'Eon was undoubtedly a man, and had 
nothing of a woman about him, except, perhaps, some of 
the prominent weaknesses of the feminine character. 
Why he was compelled to assume female dress as a con- 
dition of obtaining his pension and the payment of his 
debts is tolerably clear. It is probable that on the 
occasion of his first secret mission to Russia his short 
stature and feminine appearance readily lent them- 
selves to a feminine disguise, and that Louis XV. took 
advantage of his knowledge of the fact to impose this 
restriction upon him. The object of the French court 



. XI. FEB. 21, '85. 

in insisting upon these hard terms is obvious They 
presumed, and apparently presumed rightly, that petti- 
coas would have the effect of taming the hasty im- 
perious, and almost unmanageable character of the man 
while at the same time rendering it dl ;cult for him to 
carry out his projects of revenge against the De Guerchy 
family Capt. Telfer, like moat biographers, has fallen 
Kie with P his subject; but the probability is that hw 
estimate of D'Eon's character is not nearly so correct as 
that of Horace Wai pole and the London society of the 
day who pronounced him to be nothing better than a 
hot-headed, impulsive, and crack-brained adventurer. 
The account of his character and conduct contained in 
this volume lead rather to the latter conclusion.^ Com- 
mendation is, however, due to Capt. Telfer for his 
industrious collection of facts and documents relating 
to the Chevalier. He has succeeded in bringing before 
his readers a vivid picture of the man and of the events 
among which he moved. 

The Creoles of Louisiana. By George W. Cable. (Nimmo.) 
THE stirring and picturesque history of New Orleans is 
told by Mr. Cable in very spirited style. In the chapters 
descriptive of the bayous or boyaus, "with the broad fields 

of corn, of cotton, of cane, and of rice, pushing back 

the dark pall like curtain of moss-draped swamp "; the 
foundation of the city by Jean Baptiste Lemoyne de 
Bienville ; the erection by Le Blond de la Tour of the 
palisade huts, to be used, according to their size, for 
church, hospital, government house, warehouse, or resi- 
dence ; and the gradual development of the city until, 
in 1728, " it was a place in which, without religion, 
justice, discipline, order, or police, men gambled, 
fought duels, lounged about, drank, wantoned, and 
caroused," a series of admirably vivacious pictures is 
afforded. The body of the work is of no less interest, 
and the illustrations, which are finely executed, add 
greatly to the attraction of the book. A better idea of 
the one picturesque city of the New World is not easily 
to be obtained. 

Tree Gossip. By Francis George Heath. (Field & Tuer.) 
MR. HEATH'S little book is hardly a fit subject for serious 
criticism. It is pleasant reading, and contains many 
interesting items of information about trees, and some 
picturesque descriptions of scenery. The author makes 
no pretence of treating his subject exhaustively, though 
he has adopted an alphabetical arrangement of the con- 
tents of his book. In an interesting note on the mistletoe 
he gives a list of trees on which that curious parasite 
has been found to grow. The institution of " arbor 
days " in California and Canada, the destruction of the 
American white pine forests, Devonshire lanes in June, 
the cedars of Lebanon, the various effects produced on 
trees by strokes of lightning, and the origin of the rib- 
ston pippin, are amongst the other subjects about which 
Mr. Heath gracefully and airily gossips. A word of 
praise must be given to the publishers for the excellent 
etjle in which the book is got up. The paper and print- 
ing leave nothing to be desired by the most fastidious 

Monsieur at Home. By Albert Rhodes. (Field & Tuer.) 
As an attempt at an answer to John Bull et Son lie this 
work, apparently by an American, has few claims on 
attention, it gives, however, a fair insight into some 
aspects of Parisian life. 

COHTINUING an interesting series of essays on English 
subjects, Le Lime gives this month a history of the 
Times, its origin and its transformations. A second 
essay, " Moliere Illustre," gives facsimiles of certain 
early illustrations to the plays. Under the care of M. 
Octave Uzanne Le Livrt maintains its high place. 

THE March number of Mr. Walford's Antiquarian 
Magazine will contain an article by Mr. E. Solly, F.R.S., 
on I)ean Swift's pamphlet on " The Conduct of the Allies 
in 1711." 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 


"Man? and for ever? wretch, what wouldst thou have?" 
Is not the meaning, " Art thou a man a creature born 
to uncertainty and insecurity and dost thou expect per- 
manency? Abject being ! what impossible boon wouldst 
thou crave of the gods ? " 

J. D. C. Watch papers of the kind you indicate were 
in common use. See 2 nd S. xi. 451 ; xii. 19 ; 3** S. i. 355 ; 
4"' S. viii. 451, 539; 5x. 83, 92, 167; 5 th S. ii. 47, 94; x. 

:, 135; xi. 19,56, 338. 

H. NEWELL ("Magpie Superstition"). The verses 
after which you inquire are given as follows 4 th S. xii. 

" One is sorrow, two mirth, 
Three a wedding, four a birth, 
Five heaven, six hell, 
Seven the de'il's ain sell." 

References to the subject are common throughout the 
five completed series of "N. & Q." 

F. C. C. CRUIKSHANKS ( w Pronunciation of Berkeley "). 

No rule applies to this. It is a mere matter of taste. 
The question of sounding er like ar, as in clerk and other 
words, has been fully discussed in u N. & Q." and else- 

GEO. W. PERRIGO (" Earliest Picture of Niagara Falls"). 

No such picture as you mention is in any department 
of the British Museum. 

EDWARD CHARRINGTON ("Standard in Cornhill"). 
We have forwarded to MR. SCULTHORP the tracing of 
Freeman's Court with which you favour us, and which 
we have no means of reproducing. 

A. B. ("Quarterly Magazine of Music"). The Or- 
ganisCs Quarterly Journal, by Dr. Spark, of Leeds, pub- 
lished by JSiovello, Ewer & Co., of London, is probably 
what you seek. 

A. DE WASGINDT (" Collusion ") .The use of the word 
" collusion " in the sentence you quote is justifiable. 

ELIZABETH HODGSON ( Marriage of Cock Robin "). 
Many thanks, but the version required differs from that 

E. T. M. ( Hammond Prophecy," &c.). Apply to a 
second-hand bookseller. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which-, for any reason, we do net print : and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

. XI. FEB. 28, '85.] 





NOTES: -Notes by White Kennett, 161 Sir W. Scott- 
Hunting Horns, 163 Lambeth Degrees Pascal Paoli Size 
of Books -Destruction of Ancient Monuments, 164 Dickens : 
" Pincher Astray" A New Grievance Psalmanasar 
Naivet6" English as She is Spoke " Wycliffe Notes, 165 
"He who will make a pun" Dante Misunderstood 
" Throw dust in the eyes "A " Scene " in Parliament An 
Unruly Tailor, 166. 

QUERIES: Ballow The Catholic Roll " Vicar of Bray" 
Major Jar vis-" A Dialogue in the Shades" Budah= Bogey 
Engraving by C. Child, 167 Heraldic " Luxdorfiana " 
Sublime Porte-Volvelles-Skillicorne Mortimer Collins - 
Mont de Pi6t6 Originall Smith Etymology of " Oubit" 
Lists of Sheriffs -Bishop Babington Sumptuary Edicts, 163 
Scotch University Arms Hundred Silver Mottoes of 
Foreign States Selenoscopia Curious Custom " The Pro- 
testaut Beadsman "Book Wanted Rooks in Italy His- 
tory of Levant Company Nell Gwyn's Birthplace, 169. 

REPLIED : Australasia, 170 Bishopric of Sodor and Man, 
172-Bail Baston "Foxing" in Books. Heraldic, 173 
Matriarch Finnish Folk-lore Burns's " Joyful Widower " 
H. Winstanley Marble, 174 Warwickshire Words Gar- 
melow Bagatelle Letter of Warren Hastings Croiznoires 
Travels in Holy Land Giglet, 175 -City called "Nairn" 
True Date of Birth of Christ Pimlico : Chelsea Queer v. 
Quiz, 176 -Younglings MagnaCharta Barons R. Meggott 
Folk-lore of Birds Thrasonical, 177 Grass-widow Daunt- 
sey House Burning of Bait Queries on Bishop Ken, 178 
Double Letters as Capitals Inventor of Steam Navigation, 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Minchin's " Dante ' Fryers "Aidan" 
Steel and Temple's "Wide Awake Stories." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



(Continued from p. 104.) 

1560. 3 Eliz. Elizabeth, by the grace of God, &c. To 
all maner of Prynters, booksellers, &c.: we give privi- 
ledge and lycense unto our well beloved subjects John 
Bodeleigh and his Assignes, for terme of seven yeares 
nexte ensuinge to imprint or cause to be imprinted the 
Inglyshe Bible with Annotations, faithfully translated 
and fynished in this present yeare of our Lord God a 
thousand fyve hundreth and threscore, and dedicated to 
us, straitly forbidding, &c. Witness the Quene at Westm. 
the viii. day of Januarye, Pal. 3 Eliz. part 13, m. 1. 

King James's Translation. D r Gilas Tompson, first 
Dean of Windsor and B p of Gloc., took a great deal of 
pains at the command of K. James I. in translating the 
four Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and the Apocalypse. 
Wood, Aih. Ox., I 618. 

D r John Boys, one of the Translators in 1604. Wood, 
Fasti Oxon., i. 777- 

In the Life of D r John Reynolds, written by D r 
ffearsley and inserted by M r ffuller in his Abel Redi- 
viws, p. 477. After the Conference at Hampton Court,* 

* The conference was summoned to Hampton Court, 
where the king (James I.) resided, for its first session 
on Jan. 14, 1604. The divines selected to represent the 
discontents were Dr. Rainolds, or Reynolds, and Dr. 
Sparkes, with Mr. Knewstub and Mr. Chaderton. The 
advocates of the Church were Archbishop Whitgift, 
eight bishops, two D.D.s, and one archdeacon. Dr. Rai- 
nolda was President of Corpus, Oxford, and was a strong 

it pleased his Majestie to set some Learned Men at 
worke to translate the Bible into the English tongue, 
among others D r Reynolds was thought upon, to whom, 
for his great skill in the Original languages, D r Smith, 
afterwards BP of Glocester, D r Harding, President of 
Magdalens, D r Kilbie, Rector of Lincoln, D r Bret, and 
others employed in that worke by his Majestie, had 
recourse once a week, and in his Lodgings perfected 
their Notes, and though in the midst of this work tho 
gout first took him, and after a Consumption, of which 
he dyed, yet in a great part of his Sickness the Meeting 
held at his Lodgings, and he lying on his pallet assisted 
them, and in a manner in the translation of the Book of 
Life he was translated to a better Life, 21 May, 1607. 

D r Miles Smith, BP of Glocester, for his exactness in 
those (Oriental) Languages, he was thought worthy by 
King James I. to be called to that great work of the 
last Translation of our English Bible, wherein he was 
esteemed the C/iief, and a workman that needed not be 
ashamed. He began w th the first, and was the last man 
in the translation of y e work, ffor after the Task of 
Translation was finished by the whole number set apart 
and designed to the business, being some few above 40, 
it was revised by a dozen selected from them, and at 
length referred to the final Examination of Bilson,* B p 
ofWinton, and this our Author, &c. Wood . A th. Ox. , 

This Preface was written by M r Smith, afterward 
D.D, and BP of Glocester. 

The Puritans in their Petition to the Parliament, in 
their intervall of Session, 1621, 19 Jag. I., say thus : 
The Indignitie done to Ministers is yet the greater 
because of y e disgracefull termes given to them in tho 
Prefacef * t ne New Translation of the English Bibles 
prefixed before the said Bibles ; and, therefore, to be 
read by every one that hath or shall have the said Bibles. 
410 penes me. W. K. 

Translations of y e Bible. Of y e Translation of y e 
Scriptures, and permitting them to be read in y e English 
Tongue, see D r Haylyn, Miscell. Tracts, p. 7 ; Strype, 
Memor., p. 81. The first Bible printed 1526. 

Tindal's Bible had just exceptions to it; the next 
was Mathew's Bible, w h was only Tindal's translation 
mended. In 1536 y e Convocation petitioned for a new 

supporter of Calvinistic doctrine. He died in 1607. 
See Locock's Studies in the Book of Common Prayer, 
and " Oxford under the Puritans," Quarterly Rev'iew, 
October, 1882. 

* Thomas Bilson was a native of -Winchester, and 
after being admitted Fellow of New College, Oxford, 
and taking his degrees of B.D. and D.D., became 
Master of Winchester, then Prebendary, and afterwards 
Warden. In 1596 he was consecrated Bishop of Wor- 
cester, and in the following yeur translated to Win- 
chester and made a member of Queen Elizabeth's 
Privy Council. He was one of the principal managers 
of the Hampton Court conference in 1604, and the 
English translation of the Bible was finally corrected by 
him and Dr. Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester. He 
died in 1616. 

f The following appears to be tbe passage objected to 
in the Preface : " So that if, on the one side, we shall 
be traduced by Popish Persons at home or abroad, who 
therefore will malign us, because we are poor instru- 
ments to make God's holy truth to be yet more and more 
known unto the people, whom they desire still to keep 
in ignorance and darkness ; or if, on the other side, we 
shall be maligned by self-conceited Brethren, who run 
their own ways, and give liking unto nothing, but what 
is framed by themselves, and hammered on their anvil ; 
we may reat secure," &c. 



[6"> S. XI. FEB. 28, '85, 

Translation. When finisht and prefact by A.B" Cranmer, 
the Kins enjoined it by proclamation, May 6, 1541. 
Ypt in v* next year 1542. An Act of Parl. restraining 
aU Engl TranslaUons, 34, 35 Hen. VIII. o. 1, restored 

ndeQu. Eliz. the Translation review'd by Bishops 
commission'd by the Queen (and thence called the 
Bishops Bible), and reprinted and enjomd by her eol< 

of y e Bible into Welch ordred by the 

VVainokilfat Hampt. Court moved hia Majesty that 
there might be a new Translation of y e Bible, because 
those w<" were allow'd in the reigns of K. Hen 8 and 
Ed. 6 were corrupt, &c. His Ma" wished that some 
especial pains should be taken in that behalf, &c. 
Barlow, Summ* of y* Confer., p. 47. 

M r J.-hn Bale, in his Apology against Priesthood and 
Vows Io50, 8vo. fol xxix, says he wolde wyshe with all 
]iia liarte, that the Englysh Byble should be translated 
into Welshe and Iryshe, if any good men wolde take 
such labours. 

The first Edition of the Bible was finished by Grafton 
in the year 1538 or 1539, when ABp. Cranmer pro- 
cured a Proclamation from the King allowing private 
Persons to buy Bibles and keep them in their Houses. 
About two or three years after they were reprinted and 
backed w"> y e King's authority, the former translation 
having been revised and corrected. To this Translation 
the A.B' 1 added the last Hand, rnen<Jirig it in divers 
places w" 1 his own Pen, and fixing a very excellent Pre- 
face before it. Strype, Memor., p. 444. 

The Edition in the year 1540 had a remarkable 
Frontispiece before it, w ch I will relate, c. Strype, 
Memor., p. 446. 

1534. The A.B" 1 from his first entrance on that Dignity 
having a mind to have y e Scriptures in the vulgar Lan- 
guage, the Convocation in this year was so well dis- 
posed by his influence, that they made a Petition to the 
King for it. Vid. Strype,f Memor. Cranm., p. 24. 

The method of Cranmer in beginning w" 1 the New 
Tetam l , and sending the several parts to several 
Bishops. Strype, Memor., p. 34. 

Of the first Edition of y e Holy Bible in English, ffolio, 
in Aug., 1537. Vid. Strype, Memor., p. 57. 

Of the Bible printed in the year 1532, as translated 
by Will. Tyndale, publisht by Grafton and Whitechurch 
ut Hamburgh. Vid. Strype, Memor., p. 53. 

Of y c other Bible in 1537, called Thomas Matthews 
Bible. Strype, p. 59. 

* " This Act provided ' that all manner of books of the 
Old and New Testament of the crafty, false, and untrue 
translation of Tyndal, be forthwith abolished and for- 
bidden to be used and kept ...... and, finally, that the 

Bible be not read openly in any church, but by the leave 
of the King, or of the ordinary of the place, nor privately 
by any women, artificers, apprentices, journeymen, hus- 
bandinen, labourers, or by any of the Servants of yeomen 
or under.' But through the interest of Cranmer a clause 
was inserted allowing ' that every nobleman and gentle- 
man might have the Bible read in their houses, and that 
noble ladies, gentlewomen, and merchants, might read 
it themselves, but no man or woman under those degrees,' 
which was all the Archbishop could obtain " Abp 

t John Strype, author of of the Reformation, 
Ecclesiastical Memoirs, and other works, was born at 
Stepney in 1643, elected Vicar of Leyton in 1669. He 
died in 1737 at the age of ninety-four, having, therefore, 
outlived his contemporary White Kennett nine years 
Hia life of Cranmer has been reprinted. 

Now, in 1538, the Bible again publisht w *h a Declara 
tion, &c. Strype, Mem., p. 63. 

Joannes Rogers. Witenbergiam ad aliquot anno s 
commoratus multo esse capit Eruditior in divinis illis 
Scripturam Sanctam mystery's contulitys industriam 
totam his in nativa regione propagandis Grande Biblio- 
rum opus Tindalum fecibus a vertice ad calcem, a 
primo Geneseus ad ultimum Apocalypseos vocabulum 
visitatis Hebraorum, Gra'coni, Latinorum, Germanori et 
Anglorum exemplaribus, fidelissima in idioma vulgare 
translatit. Quod opus laboriosum excellens, salubre 
pium ac sanctissimum adjunctia et Martino Luthers 
prefatioribus et annotationibus utilissimis Henrico octavo 
Anglorum Regi sub nomine Thoma' Matthew epistola 
prefixa dedicavit. Bale, Script. Brit. Cent., &c., p. 676. 

The Papists object that in the English Bible set out 
1560 the word Church is not once to be found, but Con- 
gregation allways in place of it. As in St. Mat. 18. 17: 
Tell the Congregation, and if he will not hear the Con- 
gregation, &c. 

The King's Bible (say they) still retains the word Elder 
instead of Priest, because under the name Priest they 
generally understood a Catholick Priest, not a Protestant 
Minister. Nor can their Ministers to this day stile them- 
selves Priests (unless when spoke with design), but Par- 
sons, Ministers, or Elders. 

In the Text of Malachy 2, 7, the true translation (say 
they) is the Priests lipps shall keep knowledge, and they 
shall seek the Law at his mouth, because he is the Angel 
of the Lord of Hosts. Queen Elizabeths bibles falsly 
turn the word shall into should, and Angel into Messenger. 
And King James's still retains the corruption. Suggest- 
ing by it that the Priests Lips should keep knowledge 
and teach the law, but do not. Their turning Angel into 
Messenger is done also to lessen the dignity of Priest- 
hood. ' Vid. Tho. Ward, p. 11. 

In Tim. 4. 14, and 2 Tim. 1. 6, King James's Bible 
still follows the old Corruption, Gift instead of Grace. 
And where S. Paul says, 1 Cor. 9. 51. Have not we power 
to lead about a woman, a Sister, They falsly turn the 
word Woman into Wife. And whereas Qu. Elizabeths 
Bibles of 1598 1599 say, Have we not power tolead about 
a Wife being a Sister, the Kings bible has it A Sister a 
Wife. They retain also the ridiculous corruption of 
Yokefellow instead of Companion. 

The Kings Bible still keeps that impious and spitefull 
corruption agst our blessed Lady, S 1 Luke 1, Hail thou 
that art highly favoured, w ch should be Hail full of 

Nor have they corrected that malicious corruption 
20 Exod. 4, Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven 
Image, w ch if truly translated according to the Hebrew 
should be Graven thing or graven Idol. 

See " Dangerous Errours in some late printed Bibles 
to the great Scandal and Corruption of sound and true 
religion, Discovered by William Kilburne, Gent., Printed 
at ffinsbury Anno 1659," tto.Miscellan. i. 

In the time of the Civil Warr, through the absence of 
the. Kings Printers, and cessation of Bible printing at 
London, many erroneous English Bibles were printed in, 
and imported from, Holland : which being diligently 
compared by the late Assembly of Divines were re- 
ported to the Parliament in 1643 to be corrupt and 
dangerous to Religion, exhibiting to them these three 
faults only, for w ch the Impression was suppressed and 
condemned to the fire, and a Prohibition made against 
the importation of any English Bibles for the future, Tiz. 

Gen. 36. 24, This is that Anna that found Rulers in 
the Wilderness, for Mules. Ruth 4. 13, The Lord gave 
her corruption, for Conception. Luke 21. 28, Look up, 
and lift up your Heads, for your condemnation drawetb. 
nigh, for Redemption. 

6'h s. XI. FEB. 28, '85.] 



This affair also occasioned the said Assembly by direc- 
tion of the Parliament (as is very well known to M r 
Philip Kye, &c.) to propose the Bible printing to several 
Stationers of London, who refusing that laudable work, 
the same was commended to M r William Bentley, 
Printer in ffinsbury, and his Partners, who have so 
exactly and commendably imprinted several volumes by 
authority of Parliament in 8 VO and 12 in the years 1646, 
48, 51, &c. (according to the Authentique corrected 
Cambridge Bible, revised Mandate Regio by the learned 
D r Ward, D r Goad of Hendley, M r Boyle, M r Mead, 
&c., and printed by the elaborate Industry of Thomas 
Buck, Esq re , and M r Roger Daniel in ffolio in 1638) 
That some small Remainders of them yet unsold are now 
daily exposed at 12 s per Book in quires unbound by the 
Stationers. For the fairness of the Prints and truth of 
the Editions, wh. Mr. Bentley affoarded heretofore at 2 s 
per book or thereabouts. Untill he hath been unjustly 
obstructed by Mr. Hills and Mr. ffield,who have endea- 
voured by abusing the authority of the State to Mono- 
polise the sole Printing of Bibles to themselves since 
the latter end of the year 1655, and have raised the 
prices to excessive dear rates, &c. 

A. A. 


In a little book published last year at Cin- 
cinnati there is a passing mention of Scott, which 
is of some interest, and may not in the ordinary 
course come under the notice of British readers of 
" N. & Q." The book is " Reminiscences of Army 
Life und&r Napoleon Bonaparte, by Adelbert J. 
Doisey de Villargennes, Cincinnati, Eobert Clarke 
& Co., 1884." The author held the offices of Vice- 
consul of France and of Italy at Cincinnati. 
Previous, however, to his settling in America, he 
lived for many years in Belfast, and published 
there, in 1823, a small volume of selections in 
prose and verse, from French writers, the preface 
to which is signed, "Adelbert Doisey, Maitre 
de Francais et d'ltalien a 1'Institution de Bel- 

In 1809 Doisey joined the 26th Kegiment of 
the line as a sous-lieutenant ; he was taken prisoner 
by the British in Portugal in 1811; he was shipped 
with other prisoners of war to Gosport, then sent to 
" Odiham, a small town in Hampshire," and finally 
to Selkirk, in Scotland. The colony of French- 
men, who seem to have been nearly all officers, at 
Selkirk numbered about one hundred and ninety. 
They were on parole, and had therefore a great 
deal of liberty. Doisey says : 

" On each of the four roads that converged into the 
town, and at the distance of one mile, a stone post was 
planted, and on it was painted the words, ' Limit of the 
prisoners of war.' A wag among us rooted up one of 
these stones, carried and transplanted it a mile further, 
to the amusement of the town's people, who, to their 
credit be it told, never in one instance availed them- 
selves of a regulation in virtue of which any person 
who could swear that he had seen any of us beyond the 
appointed limit was entitled to receive from the culprit 
one guinea as a fine. I have repeatedly gone fishing 
several miles down the Tweed, without ever being fined 
or in any way molested." 

It was at Selkirk Doisey made the acquaint- 
ance of Scott : 

" Mr. Scott became acquainted with one of our number 
named Tarnier, a young man of great talent, excellent 
education, and remarkable gaiety of disposition. Soon, 
without the supposed knowledge of the Government 
agent, or rather with his tacit approbation, Tarnier was 
invited to Melrose Abbey, and gave us grand accounts of 
his reception there. Presently, probably at the sugges- 
tion of our compatriot, he was authorized by Mr. Scotfc 
to bring with him three of his friends at each invitation 
to dinner at Melrose. Thus I was present on two or 
three occasions, invited, not by the host himself, but by 
my friend Tarnier. The period of the year was. to the 
best of my remembrance, about February, 1813, and our 
mode of proceeding was something like the following. 
Towards dusk we, the guests, repaired to the milestone 
already mentioned ; there a carriage awaited us, and 

soon conveyed us to Melrose We only saw Mrs. Scott 

for the few minutes which intervened before dinner was 

announced, as she was not present at the repast Our 

leading topic was not general politics; but minute details 
connected with the French army, and, above all, traits 
and anecdotes respecting Napoleon seemed to have an 
absorbing interest for our host, who, we remarked, in- 
cessantly contrived to lead back the conversation to the 
subject if it happened to have diverged from it. As 
may be imagined, we took care to say nothing unfavour- 
able to the character and honour of our beloved emperor. 
Little did we suspect that our host was then preparing a 
work, publishing ten years later, under the title of A 
Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. In this unfair production, 
which is a stain on the name of its otherwise illustrious 
author, Sir Walter Scott relates anecdotes and circum- 
stances connected with the emperor, many of which were 
communicated to him by us, but taking care to accom- 
pany each recital with sarcastic inuendoes, and self- 
invented motives of action, derogatory to the honour of 

Doisey gives an instance of this, but it is too long 
for quotation here. W. H. PATTERSON. 


HUNTING HORNS. In "N. & Q.," 6 th S. x. 
505, MR. S. JAMES A. SALTER, in speaking of 
hunting horns, states that the very large French 
horn was not used in hunting in this country. I 
am not sure of that, for when Sir William Morgan, 
of Tredegar, was created a Knight of the Bath by 
George I., on the revival of the order in 1725, he, 
being a great sportsman, both in the field and on 
the turf, chose for the supporters of his coat of 
arms two huntsmen fully accoutred ; and these 
are represented in their full and proper costume 
on the enamelled plate of his arms in his stall in 
Henry VII.'s Chapel in Westminster Abbey. 
They are shown wearing the large curved horns 
as a belt round their bodies, ever one shoulder. 
Sir William certainly had two such horns made, 
for they still exist. I think they were of copper 
with silver mounts, but whether he ever wore or 
used them I cannot say. He died in 1731. The 
costumes are of some interest. 

In a verse of an old hunting song one line is 

" And the huntsman winds his horn." 
This expression seems to convey some idea of 



[6h s. XL FEB. 28, '85. 

curvature, for I never in my younger days heard records, among them the following, which may 
of that expression being used concerning the well be preserved in the pages of " N. & Q." On 
guards of the old mail-coaches, who were always Sept. 13, 1771, Paoli and an ambassador from the 
said to blow their horns when they gave notice of King of Poland passed through Kilmarnock, and, 
the arrival of the mail-coach ; some of them had at a hastily called meeting, the council presented 
a musical turn, and at times essayed to produce a the illustrious visitors with the freedom of the 
tune. Their horns were simply straight tubes of burgh. The general's reply, given verbatim et 
tin, about three feet long, growing wider towards literatim, was as follows : 

the mouth. Similar horns used to be blown by J e recois, monsieur, cet affranchissement de la ville 
newsmen selling newspapers about the streets of de Kilmarnock avec le plus grand pleusir. Sensible de 

London. 1'honneur que vous m'avez faites une honneur que 

The curved French horns, which always bore J 9 ?' ai P as me . rit6 > J e m ' en sourviendrai toujours avec 
that name, showing their origin, need no/ neces- odss quandj^u 1 '"^ * """ * 
sarily have been very large to encircle the body, mu u j T j 

huh miaM h* hp/n wnrn nf. ih* B ,M uv I The ambassador replied : 

" La ville de Kilmarnock me fait beaucoup d'honner, 

la sorte que jai recu dans la grande Bretagne. Et je 
1'estime encore plus qu'on ma fait Burgeoise D'une ville 
fameuse par son industri et ces manufactures ingenieuses; 
je prendrai plaisir d'en rendre compte a mon maitre. 





In dealing with the com- 
panions of Rubin Hood, Dray ton thus says : 
"His fellows winded horn not one of them but knew.' ; 
Polyolltion, xxvi. 320.] 

but might have been worn at the side like the 

horns formerly worn and used by postilions on the 

Continent. Ib is possible that examples of these i cheris particu Uerement le compliment, etant le 

curved horns may be found in the collection of old ' ' 

musical instruments in the South Kensington 

Museum, if they are arranged. 


[Does not wind in the verse quoted refer to the breath 
or wind poured down the horn rather than to a curva- 
ture ] To wind a horn is, of course, familiar in seven- 
teenth century literature. In dealing with the com- i ~r> T f 

SIZE OF BOOKS. I often experience great diffi 
culty in determining the sizes of books, in conse- 
quence of the many and varied sizes of paper now 

LAMHETII DEGREES CONFERRED IN 1884. D.D. I manu factured ; the terms folio, 4to., 8vo., 12mo., 

The Rev. Madood Deeu, chief pastor of the and so on ' can no lon g er be relied upon. The 
native church at Amritsir, in North India, in associated librarians of Great Britain have, at a 
consideration of his literary services in connexion rec( ? nfc conference, decided upon a uniform and 
with missionary work among the Mohammedans of a . rary s . ca ^ e ^ or .measurement and description, 
India. which I give, hoping it may be of some use to 

B.D. The Venerable J. F. Browne, recently y ur readers : 
appointed Archdeacon of Madras. 

M.A. Mr. Arthur Charles, Q.C., at the request 
of the Lord Chancellor, the Bishop of Southwell, 
the Dean of Westminster, and Lord Justice Bowen' 
B.D. Rev. W. Thomas Satthianadhan, Fellow 
of the University of Madras and chaplain to the 
Bishop of Madras. 

B.D. Rev. Daniel Samuel, chaplain to tbe 
ishop of Madras, the chairman of the Church 
yonncil of the district of Tuticorin. 

r. Joseph E. Padfield, Principal of the 
framing College at Masulipatam, and I Liverpool. 
for some time one of the Government examiners 


1.UJJ. vir. Joseph Brigstocke Sheppard, of following extract from one of the " Literary and 

Urn ury, on the petition of the Dean and Art Notes" in the Salisbury and Winchester 

Chapter, supported by Sir Wm. Hardy, Sir James Journal of Feb. 7 may interest some of your 

jet and other eminent archaeological and scien- readers, and aid in preventing the destruction of 

lin m, au an ancient and historical tomb : 

confers the dltl^tT^ ^^f graduate, . The antiquarians of Dorset, and all who take an 

con egree of LLJ)., not D.C.L., which in interest in its history, will learn with indignation that 

a is peculiar to Oxford and Durham uni- ? e f the raosfc ancienfc and interesting monuments in 

M A Oxon the county has been desecrated and defaced by an in- 

p AO ' credible act of vandalism. In the parish church of 

JTASCAL i'AOLi. A few years ago the writer L f chet Mattravera lies buried Sir John Mattravers, 
made one or two notes from Kilmarnock tow ifa "S "" 

Large folio ... 

... La. fol. ... Over 18 inches. 

Folio ... . 

... Fol Below 18 

Small folio ... 

... Sm. fo. 13 

Large quarto 

... La. 4to. 

*** 37 



... 4to. ... 

11 ' 

Small quarto 

... Sm. 4to. 


8 , 

Large octavo 

... La. 8vo. 



... 8vo. ... 

9 ' 

Small octavo 

... Sm. 8vo. 

' s ; 

Duodecimo ... 

... 12rno. ... 

8 ' 

Decimo octavo 

... 18mo. ... 

" T, ft ' 


... Mo Below 6 , 


G. H. C. 

6th g. XI. FEB. 28, '85.] 



A.D. 1327. For upwards of five hundred years his tomb, 
an enormous slab of Purbeck marble bearing the Mat- 
travers arms, has been an object of interest, and espe- 
cially as being probably the sole remaining relic of the 
once powerful family of Mattravers, which has given its 
name to two places in the county. This tomb has now 
been virtually destroyed, on the plea of levelling the floor 
of the church for the purpose of laying down modern 
tiles. There was not the slightest reason for this, as the 
tiles could have been as easily laid down without any 
interference with the tomb ; but it is said that an illiterate 
and ignorant mason employed on some repairs under- 
taken by the lord of the manor reported the tomb to be 
decayed and not worth preserving, and on his report, 
without any communication with the rector, who has 
been exonerated from all blame in the matter, a thick 
bed of cement was laid down which buries the tomb, 
and, it is said, cannot now be removed. The monument 
turns out to be the property of the Duke of Norfolk, 
who is now the representative of the Mattravers family." 

C. C. 0. 

DICKENS : " PINCHER ASTRAY." Tfc is worth 
noting, I think, that Mr. Edmund Yates, in his 
Recollections and Experiences, vol. ii. p. Hi (note), 
says that " in Mr. J. 0. Hotten's Life, and in Mr. 
A. W. Ward's admirable monograph in the 'English 
Men of Letters' series, a paper of mine called 
'Pincher Astray' is attributed to Dickens." This 
error has also crept into Mr. E. H. Shepherd's 
Bibliography of Dickens (1880), p. 40, where the 
following reference is given for the article : All 
the Year Round, Jan. 30, 1864 (vol. x. 539-541). 

G. F. R. B. 

A NEW GRIEVANCE. As an " Old Collector " 
of " unconsidered trifles" from newspapers, and 
of many important articles from magazines and 
reviews, may I be permitted to protest against the 
modern " wire-stiching " ? When stitched with 
thread leaves are easily and neatly taken out to 
be " fixed " or bound, but wire-stitching prevents 
our serials opening well and makes it very difficult 
and troublesome to extract their more valuable 
papers for preservation. Some of our serials print 
all articles separately, so that each may be detached 
without damage to another. " 0, si sic omnes ! " 


PSALMANASAR. Although he professed to be 
very explicit in his autobiographical confession, 
he withheld the name of his family. One pro- 
perty of Psalmanasar was that of being a good 
Hebrew scholar, apparently beyond the standard 
of a lad in a Jesuit college. There is therefore a 
possibility that he was a Jew, trained as a boy in 
a Talmud Torah school, and that thence he went 
as a convert to a Jesuit school, where he got his 
Greek. It may be that Psalmanasar is to be 
transliterated Solomon Manasseh or Solomon 

NAIVETE. In David Hume's essay, Of Sim- 
plicity and Refinement in Writing (editions 1742 
and 1748), he speaks in the text of " the absurd 

naivete of Sancho Panza," and in a foot-note 
explains, " Naivete, a word I have borrowed from 
the French, and which is much wanted in our 
language." J. DYKES CAMPBELL. 

"ENGLISH AS SHE is SPOKE." Within the last 
few days I have come across two or three speci- 
mens of curious English. One is an Italian circular 
relating to a "Rimedio infallibile contro il inal di 
mare," in which the public are informed that the 
discovery is 

" The result of long study and accurate experience not 
accompanied by useless dazzling patents and decorated 
with any showy medal, do thou gallantly step forward 
inte the immense sea and brace the ailment of vomit it 
prepares to its travellers, and do likewise challenge all 
the vicissitudes thou wilt be liable to through the in- 
flux of envy ever rendy to blindly or malignantly under- 
rate all truth and utility emerging from some new 
discovery. Directions for use : For grown up persons, 
immediately after the first fits of nausea, from 10 to 12 
drops of the liquid will be poured upon a handkerchief 
folded up in the shape of a lambick (?) to be held in a 
natural way a smelling under the nose, and in lying 
down on the bed or couch." 

Others are the title of a book mentioned by Don 
Jos4 Navarrete, in his volume entitled Las Cldves 
del Estrecho, " Reason whit we ought any on any 
account to part with Gibraltar," and a chart which 
we are informed was "Republied by W. Faben- 
geographe of His Majesty and to H.R.H. the 
Premier of Wales." R. STEWART PATTERSON. 
Hale Crescent, Farnham. 

WYCLIFFE NOTES. I find the following articles 
on Wycliffe in niy collection of papers on the 
"English Reformation": 

Vaughan's Life of Wycliife. British Critic, April, 1829. 
18 pages. 

Le Bas's Life of Wiclif. British Critic, April, 1832. 
31 pages. 

Vaughan's Monograph on Wycliffe. Eclectic Review, 
N.S., vol. vi. 13 pages. 

Lives of Wycliffe. Edinburgh Review, October, 1832. 
24 pages. 

Wycliffe. Dublin Review, December, 1853. 58 pages. 

Wycliffe and his Times. Westminster Review, N.S., 
vol. vi. 29 pages. 

Wycliffe, his Biographers and Critics. British Quar- 
terly Review, No. 56. 42 pages. 

Wycliffe Manuscripts. Eclectic Review, January, 
1843. 29 pages. 

Life of Wyclife. Quarterly Review, vol. civ. 46 pages. 

Life of Wickliff. Edinburgh Theological Magazine, 
November, 1826. 13 pages. 

Wycliffe, Dr. Vaughan's work. North British Review, 
rol. xx., No. 39. 25 pages. 

John Wiclif. Dr. R. Pauli, " Pictures of Old Eng- 
land." Old England, 1861. 48 pages. 

Wyclif. Saturday Review, May 24, 1884. 

Review of WycUfs Place in History, by Montagu 
Burrows. Academy, May 6, 1882. 

At the present moment the above list (which, of 
course, is capable of much extension) may be 
serviceable. JOHN TAYLOR, City Librarian. 


NOTES * AND QUERIES. [6 th s. XL FEB. 28, '85. 


POCKET." This expression I have always heard 
attributed to Dr. Johnson. In An Epistle to Sii 
Richard Steele, by B. Victor, London, 1722, it is 
imputed to Dennis. The story is as follows : 

" Mr. Purcell and Mr. Congreve going into a tavern, 
by chance met D s, who went in with 'em; after 
glass or two had pass'd Mr. Purcell, having some private 
business with Mr. Congreve, wanted D s out of the room, 
and not knowing a more certain way than punning (for 
you are to understand, Sir, Mr. D s is as much surpriz'd 
at Pun laic] as at a bailiff), he proceeded after the follow- 
ing manner . He pulled the bell and call'd two or three 
tinier, but no one answering, he put his hand under the 
table, and looking full at D s, he said, ' I think this 
table is like the Tavern," Says D s, with his usual 
profane phrase (which I omit), 'How is the table like 
the tavern 1 ? ' ' Why,' says Mr. Purcell, ' because here 's 
ne'er a Drawer in it.' Says D s (starting up), ' Sir, the 
man that will make such an execrable pun in my com- 
pany as that will pick my pocket,' and so left the room." 
The letter is dated from Bridges Street, Nov. 18, 
1722, when Johnson was only thirteen years of 
age. URBAN. 

translation of Dante by J. C. Wright, M.A. 
(Bobn, fourth edition, 1861, p. 7), occurs a strange 
misinterpretation. The text (Inf. 11, 13) reads : 
"Thy verse [Virgil's] relates how Sylvius' parent 


Immortal realms, while yefe corruptible, 
And still in bonds of human flesh detained." 

On which is annotated thus : " Sylvius is another 
name for ^Eoeas [yf?n., vi. 768], whose father, 
Anchises, descended to the shades below, as de- 
scribed by Virgil." Now every schoolboy knows 
that Silvius was ^Eneas's son (posthumous), 1. 763 ; 
Silvius's parent is, therefore, JEaeas himself, whose 
descent to the Inferi, where he meets his father 
Anchises, forms the subject of the sixth dEneid; 
as also that yEneas Silvius (of 1. 768) was a sub- 
sequent King of Alba Longa; Procas, Capys, and 
Numitor, having followed in succession the first 
Silvius. I can find no notice of a descent to Hades 
by Anchises while yet alive. DEFNIEL. 


" THROW DUST IN THE EYES." Aulus Gellius, 
v. 21 : " Habebat nonnullas discipline gram- 
matics inauditiunculas, partim rudes inchoa- 
tosque, partim non probas ; easque quasi pulverem 
ob oculos, cum adortus quemque fuerat, asper- 



A "SCENE" IN PARLIAMENT, 1737.-Now that 
there is a dearth of "scenes" in the House of 
Commons, it may not be out of place to recall an 
incident which took place, during the administration 
of Sir Robert Walpole, in the Parliament of 1734- 
1/41 It ,s recorded in the shorthand journal of 
John Byrom, of Manchester, under date of May 4, 
1737 (Remains, ii. 143, Chethatn Society series) 

The Speaker who " behaved well" was Arthur 
Onslow, M.P. for the county of Surrey, famous for 
occupying his place for thirty-three years. The 
retort by the " Father of the Corporation " of 
London upon the " Father of Corruption " is very 

" Dr. Horseman comes in, while I write, to Abington'a 
[Coffee House], and tells me how Sir John Barnard [M.P. 
for London, Alderman and Knight] had like to have been 
sent to the Tower ; that he was talking upon the s-w-s (or 
s-w-t-s) and opposed the Bill, and said that the House 
had rejected a Bill with so high a hand that Sir William 
Young [of Escott, Devon, M.P. for Honiton, appointed 
May 9, 1730, Secretary at War] called him to order, 
that he called Sir William Young to order, that there was 
a great deal to do, that it was insisted to take down hia 
words, that Sir John f aid ' You may take down my words, 
or do what you will ; I perceive there is no freedom to be 
used bere,' that [Thomas] Winnington [M.P. for Droit- 
wich, one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury] 
upon this said that ' as he gave leave, let them take down 
his words,' that it passed over at last, that the speaker 
behaved well, that Sir Robert W[alpole] said that it wag 
an honour to be burnt in effigy, to which Sir John 
Barnard replied that he should have taken it for an 
honour if Sir Robert had not been burnt before him ! " 

The shorthand word for the Bill under discussion 
is not Stewarts, as suggested by the editor of the 
Remains, but Sweets, the revenue out of which was 
about 251. per year. On March 21, 1736/7, it was 
resolved in a Committee of Ways and Means that 
the duty of 36s. a barrel on sweets granted by the 
Act of 5 Anne for ninety-nine years, and since 
made perpetual, should after June 24, 1737, cease, 
and that a less duty of 12s. per barrel should be 

ranted to his Majesty. On April 21, 1737, the Bill 
was read a second time, and on May 4, when the 
altercation took place, the Bill was committed. It 
forms cap. 17 of the Acts of the session. 


Stretford, Manchester. 

AN UNRULY TAILOR. Having occasion a few 
months since to examine the old bundles of " Parish 
Eegister Returns" in the Diocesan Registry at 
Bangor, I came across a curious and interesting 
document relating to the above-named parish, 
which, in the hope that it may afford amusement 
to the readers of " K & Q.," I give verbatim : 

" The Presentment of the Churchwardens of Llannor 
;to the Bishop of Bangor] for the yeare 1682. 

"We present Maurice Hughes, of Llannor, Tayler, 
Tor disturbinge divine service and sermon severall times 
n the Church of Llannor. We present the said Maurice 
Hughes/or Irealcinge Robert Rowland his pate, on Sunday 
morninge being March the fourth, to thegreat Effusion of 
his lloud, who meetinge the minnister and others 
comminge towards Church they were all amazed. Fur- 
,her we present the said Maurice Hughes for dareing 
he minister at the Altar, haveing a staffe in his hand, 
hreatninge him w'th the s'd staffe neare his face, and 
ihreatninge us the Churchwardens, vilifyinge the whole 
ongregation May the 6'h being Sunday ; fighting and 

e Church or Churchyard when he is ait home ; and May 
he 29'h, t e i ng tbe nat i Y ity and reatauration of our 

6t> s, XI. FEB. 28, '85.] 



Gracious Soveraigne King Charles, when the minister 
was readinge of divine service the said Maurice Hughes 
was settinge of Doggs tofighte and laite one another at the 
Churchyard wall over against the door of the Church to 
the disturbance of divine service and the congregation 
there present. 

I have been unable to discover anything further 
concerning this unruly tailor, but he does not appear 
to have carried his obstruction so far as to oppose 
the christening of his child, for I find in the 

" 1682(-3). Johannes films Mauricii Hughes et Marga- 
rettse Wynne (uxor ejus) bapt. fuit 2 Feb." 

This was not the only occasion upon which the 
worthy churchwardens had occasion to complain 
of Hughes's misconduct, for in 1680 they similarly 
" presented " William Hughes and Mary Phillip 
for adultery. ERNEST A. EBBLEWHITE. 

31, Well Street, Hackney. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

" BALLOW," in Shaksp., Lear, IV. vi. 247 (First 
Folio), " Keepe out che vor' ye, or ice try whither 
your Costard or my Ballow be the harder ; chill 
be plaine with you." Halliwell glosses Ballow as 
" a pole, a stick, a cudgel. Northern." But I do 
not know any such word in Northern, nor, indeed, 
in any English dialect, nor do I find it in any 
glossary of the Eng. Dial. Soc. Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." vouch for its actual use in any part of 
England 1 It ought, of course, to be Kentish, or 
at least Southern. Bat, which is the reading of 
the quartos, is good Kentish and Sussex dialect 
for " stick, rough walking-stick." 


Mill Hill, N.W. 

THE CATHOLIC ROLL. Was it ever the 
custom, for each Roman Catholic member of the 
House of Commons upon taking his seat to sign 
a document known - as the Catholic Roll 1 If so, 
has the custom been abolished, and when ? 

A. B. S. 


[By the 29 & 30 Viet. c. 19 (1866), a single oath 
was prescribed for all members, and the Catholic oath 
thereby abolished, which had previously been subscribed 
by every Catholic member.] 

"THE VICAR OF BRAY." I should like to be 
allowed to ask in your columns whether any of 
your readers know anything definite about the 
author or the date of composition of the fami- 
liar song The Vicar of Bray. It is well known 
that the traditional Vicar of Bray was one 

Simon Aleyn, who lived in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth and her successors. Camden's Bri- 
tannia says of him, " This is he of whom is the 
proverb, 'The Vicar of Bray still.'" The song, 
however, refers to an entirely different period, 
commencing in the reign of Charles II. and last- 
ing until " the illustrious House of Eanover." 
Now it is not so well known that there was a 
Vicar of Bray, unknown to fame, who was vicar 
during the exact period covered by the song. His 
tombstone is in the centre aisle of Bray Church, 
and its record is that his name was Francis Cars- 
well, that he was chaplain to Charles II. and 
James II., Rector, of Remenhaui and Vicar of 
Bray forty-two years, and that he died in 1709. To 
judge by this, the composer of the song may very 
well, while taking up the old legend, have taken 
the vicar of that day for his type. I have seen, I 
think in Chappell's Popular Music of the Olden 
Time, but I have not the book by me, reference to 
a tradition that the song was written by a trooper 
of the Guards quartered at Windsor. It is obvious 
that if this were so he might have been a Bray 
man, with scant respect for the parson of his 
native village, and have intended the song as a 
lampoon upon him. G. II. PALMER. 

MAJOR JARVIS. In 1845 the Massachusetts 
Historical Society elected as corresponding mem- 
ber " Major E. B. Jarvis, of the British Army, 
Surveyor-General of India." Is he still alive ? If 
not, when and where did he die 1 M. H. S. 

MS. copy of a piece in rhyme, entitled, 

" A Dialogue in the Shades, between William Caxton, 
Fodius a Bibliomaniac, and William Wynken, Clerk, a 
descendant of Wynken de Worde. To which is added 
the story of Dean Honeywood's Grubs. With explana- 
tory Notes by W. W." 

It consists of one hundred and fifty lines, and has 
twenty-four notes. I am desirous to ascertain the 
authorship of the typographical curiosity, and to 
learn where it has appeared in print. 


be authenticated? Conversing with a Eurasian 
lady I was told that Budah is used colloquially in 
Bengal by nurses and children as equivalent to our 
word bogey, i. e., Old Nick. To me it seems a 
possible corruption of Buddah, i. e., the teacher, 
a wizard, it being the sectarian title of Gautama 
Sakyamuni, founder of Buddhism, a Hindu re- 
former whose adherents are extinct in Hindostan 
proper, whereby the term Buddha has fallen into 
contempt with modern Hindoos. Is it so; or has 
Budah an independent origin 1 LYSART. 

ENGRAVING BY G. CHILD. I shall feel much 
obliged by information relative to an engraving 
by G. Child, fourteen by eleven inches, inscribed 


NOTES 'AND QUERIES. [ s. XL FEB. as, -st. 

" Cyclopaedia." There are book-plates engraved 
by G. Child, published in 1747, and the design is 
apparently by Gravelot, who, owing to the war be- 
tween France and England, was obliged to leave 
this country in 1745. The composition is skilful 
and rich. It contains about two hundred figures 
engaged in explaining or studying the arts and 
sciences. I imagine that the engraving may have 
been prepared for some book which was not pub- 
lished, as I have failed to find any such work and 
any mention of such a print in books of reference. 
The paper is thin, and marked with the large fleur- 
de-lys. RALPH N. JAMES. 

HERALDIC. Biscione, or Bigsnake, was the 
name of my hotel in Milan. In that city and in 
the Certosa, near Pavia, that reptile with a child 
in its mouth is frequent on escutcheons. After a 
little inquiry I learned that this strange device or 
bearing was the Visconti coat of arms. It is not 
so easy to ascertain whether the child is going 
into the serpent's mouth or coming out. On the 
one hand, Tasso says, Jerusalem Delivered, i. 
stanza 55: 

" il forte Otton, che conquist6 lo scudo 

In cui dall' angue esce il fanciullo ignudo." 
"Or the brave Otto who captured the shield on 
which the naked child is issuing from a serpent." 
On the other hand, Moreri, in his account of the 
Visconti, says the founder of the family in the 
year 1056 made spoil of the helmet of a Saracen 
which bore a serpent devouring a naked infant. 
Which authority uhall I follow ? Is the escutcheon 
anywhere so made as to show unmistakably which 


[In Fairfax's translation the lines are thus rendered 
.Nor Otton's shield he conquerd on those stowres 
In which a snake a naked child devourcs." 

P. 12, ed. 1621] 

odiHnn f P S , f er b ? en Used in anv ^Plete 
edition of Plato ; and, if 80f by whom ? Luxdorf 

compares in parallel passages Platonic ideas with 
those in the Holy Scriptures. w. T 

K PORTE. -When was this name first 
given to the government of Turkey ? 
Bublimis" occurs in the sEneid, xii. 133. 

Madison, Wis., USA J ' D 

i Littre's dictionary. j; STE 

ailaD y Correspondent throw 
meaning of this curious surname^ 

which is said to be peculiar to the Isle of Man "? 
One would guess that it was derived from some 
place-name beginning with the word Skdlig, but 
I find no evidence that any locality in the island 
was ever called by a name which could be cor- 
rupted into Skillicorne. LEOFRIC. 

MORTIMER COLLINS. I should be glad to be 
famished with a chronological list of the writings 
of this thoughtful novelist and charming lyrist. 
Has a biography of him been published ? 

W. F. P. 

[A biography of Mortimer Collins has been published 
by his wife.] 

MONT DE PIE"TE". What is the meaning of 
mont in this name for a pawnbroker's ? Was it 
called mont because the first shop of the kind 
opened by Sixtus V. stood on a hill ; or is mont 
used figuratively for pile or fund, merely as an 
intensive to the charity ? J. D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S.A. 

ORIGINALL SMITH. On looking over an old 
volume of wills at Nottingham the other day I 
found the testament, dated 1605, of Originall 
Smith, of Eampton, in the county of Notts, yeoman. 
Does this curious Christian name occur elsewhere 1 

S. 0. ADDT. 


ETYMOLOGY OF "ODBIT." This word appears 
in Todd's Johnson as oubat, with the alternative 
spelling oubust, and is there explained to mean a 
sort of caterpillar. But C. Kingsley has a little 
poem on it, dated " Eversley, 1851," in which it 
is called " the oubit." The first two lines of the 
poem run thus: 

" It was a hairy oubit, sae proud he crept alang, 

A feckless hairy oubit, and merrily he sang." 
Will one of the readers of "N. & Q." kindly give 
the correct spelling and etymology of the word ? 

W. T. LYNN. 


LISTS OF SHERIFFS. Can any one kindly in- 
form me where I can find lists of sheriff deputes 
or notices of their appointments in the days of 
hereditary sheriffships, that is, previous to 1748, 
at which date the hereditary principle was abo- 
lished 1 M. GILCHRIST. 

Burnham, Bucks. 

BISHOP BABINGTON. Any particulars of 
ancestry or descendants of Bishop Brutus (?) 
Babington, temp. 1610, would be thankfully re- 
esived from the readers of " N. & Q." 


{( SUMPTUARY EDICTS. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q." inform me where I can find a copy of 
the frequently mentioned " edict " of George IV. 
which secured the banishment of hoop petticoats 

6*8. XI. FEB. 28, '85.] 



from the court ? James I. is also said to have 
issued a "decree "against farthingales, and Mary, 
wife of the third William, another against the 
wearing of fontanges or other towering head- 
dresses by the "city minxes." I should be greatly 
obliged by information as to where these ordin 
aiices can be found set forth in full. 

Bingham, Notts. 

some reader of *' N. & Q." favour me with a 
reference to any published account of the armorial 
bearings and seals of the Scotch universities ? 


HUNDRED SILVER. What is the nature of this 
impost, and in what localities is it still known ? 

T. W. WEBB. 
[See 5th S. ii. 488 ; iii. 73.] 

characters in an old printed caricature, temp. 
Charles I. or James I., which has lately been un- 
earthed, is depicted as giving utterance to the 
following motto, " Pro nobis et nostris." Is this 
the motto of any, and, if so, what, foreign state or 
city at that date 1 LA BELGIQUE. 

SELENOSCOPIA. In Black's Student's Manual, 
fifth ed., London, 1833, I find the following expla- 
nation of the word Selenoscopia. It professes to 
be taken from the Courier of July, 1824 : 

" An exhibition with this hard name has lately been 
opened in Soho Square. There are twelve views, which 
are curious and interesting on account of the manner in 
which the pictures are produced. At first the spectator 
supposes that he is looking at transparencies, but is 
informed that the apparent picture, behind which a light 
is placed, is nothing more than blank paper without any 
portion of colouring matter. The varieties of light and 
ehade are brought out, we presume, by the disposition 
of pieces of paper of different degrees of thickness, and 
the application in parts of oil, or some other unctuous 
material. The moonlight tints and lights are imitated 
with considerable felicity ; some of the figures stand out 
well from the landscape, and the whole performance is 
highly creditable to the inventor, who is, we are informed, 
a young lady." 

Can any readers of "N. & Q," say who the 
inventor was, and whether anything further is 
known of the exhibition ? E. B. P. 

A CURIOUS CUSTOM. The following is from 
the Sussex Daily News of Jan. 2, 1885 : 

"Watch Night services were held in many of the 
churches and chapels in Chichester, and Iho ancient 
custom of walking three times round the city cross at 
midnight was performed as usual. A crowd began to 
collect near the centre of the city about half-past eleven 
on New Year's Eve, and a band, which had been per- 
forming at intervals during the Christmastide, commenced 
playing. The Honorary Guild of Bell-ringers rang the 
old year out with a muffled peal. Just before twelve, 
God save the Queen was played, and then the cross clock 
struck the midnight hour, the crowd keeping intense 

silence, but no sooner had the last stroke chimed out 
than the band commenced playing a quickstep, and 
citizens of all classes and conditions linked arms and 
walked around the cross three times, the number this 
year taking part being very large, owing, probably, to the 
fine night. The principal streets were then traversed, 
and the worthy citizens did much hand-shaking, and, 
having wished each other a 'very happy and prosperous 
New Year,' betook themselves to their several abodes." 

It would be interesting to learn when this 
custom originated, why the space around the cross 
is perambulated thrice, and if a similar proceeding 
obtains elsewhere. JNO. A. FOWLER. 


the Monthly Review for March, 1823, a notice of a 
work bearing this title. It consists of a series of 
biographical notices and hymns commemorating the 
saints and martyrs of the Anglican calendar. Can 
you inform me who was the author, and where I can 
see a copy of the work ? K. B. P. 

BOOK WANTED. Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
assist me in finding a .book I want to consult, 
Locke's Western Rebellion ? It is quoted con- 
stantly by Macaulay in his description of the 
Monmouth rebellion. It is neither to be found 
in the British Museum nor the Guildhall Library. 
I shall be grateful to any one who will tell me 
where I can consult it, or who will kindly lend 
me his copy, which I will take every care of, and 
return in two or three days with very great grati- " 

St. Saviour's, South wark Bridge, S.E. 

HOOKS IN ITALY. Does not Shelley make a 
strange mistake when he writes : 
"'Mid the mountains Euganean 
I stood listening to the pasan 
With which the legioned rooks did hail 
The sun's uprise majestical " 1 
Are not rooks altogether unknown in Italy ? 

Lakeview, Killarney. 

any history of the Levant or Turkey Company 
published ? I am looking for information which is 
jertain to be found in the archives of the company, 
f I knew where to find them, either in print or 
otherwise. J 0. 

NELL GWYN'S BIRTHPLACE. It was stated in 
the Athenceum for Sept. .1, 1883, that the Bishop 
of Hereford had given his consent to the fixing of 
a memorial tablet in honour of Nell Gwyn on the 
outer face of his garden wall, so as to mark what 
is alleged to have been the site of the house in 
which the royal favourite was born. Can any of 
your correspondents report if this has been done, 
or communicate a copy of the inscription, if any, 
which has been engraved on the tablet ? Lord 



. xi. FEB. 28, '85. 

James Beauclerk, a grandson of Nell Gwyn, was 
Bishop of Hereford for forty years (06. 1787, ?t. 
eighty-five), and DR. DORAN, in "N. & Q.," 2 nd 
S. v. 56, remarked that his residence was very 
close indeed to the humbler one in which his 
" high-spirited and small-principled grandmother " 
is said to have been born. I presume the present 
bishop occupies the palace in which his predecessor 
dwelt; but is it known whether James Gwyn's 
cottage is still standing? From the wording of 
the paragraph in the Athenceum, I presume it is 
not- but it would be well to have the doubts ex- 
pressed on this subject in "N. & Q ," 2 nd S. v. 9, 
set finally at rest. The lease of the Gwyns' house 
was then said to be extant in the office of some 
solicitor in the city of Hereford. W. F. P. 


(6 th S. x. 514.) 

In reply to DR. MURRAY'S queries. The name 
" Australia " in its present signification was sug- 
gested by Capt. Matthew Flinders, but he retained 
the original " Terra Australia," as indicating its 
geographical position and as comprehending in its 
most extensive application the "New Holland" 
of the Dutch, the "New South Wales" of Capt. 
Cook, and the adjacent isles, including that of 
Van Diemen : 

" Had I permitted myself any innovation upon the 
original term it would have been to convert it into 
Australia, as being more agreeable to the ear and an 
assimilation to the names of the other great portions oi 
the Earth." Voyage to Terra Australis (1801-3), intro 
duction, vol. i. p. iii, foot-note (Lond., 1814). 

This suggestion was at once adopted in the 
colony. In a despatch dated April 4, 1817, 
Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledges re- 
ceipt of Flinders's charts of " Australia," and in a 
private letter to the Right Hon. Henry Goulburn, 
Dec. 21, 1817, referring to Lieut. King's expedi- 
tion into the interior of Australia, hopes that it 
" will be the name given to the country in future 
instead of the erroneous ' New Holland/ whicl 
applied only to the western half of the Conti 

Barren Field also adopted the name in hi 
not very meritorious verses: 

* Labilhere, Early History of the Colony of Victoria 
vol. i. p. 184 (London, 1878). New South Wales " ha 
m-V,. e offichtl designation before. Governor Arthu 
1 hilhp styled himself, " Ilia Majesty's Governor in Cliie 
and Captain-General of the territory of New Soutl 
Wales and its Dependencies," and his commission ex 
tended from Cape Y ,-rk (10" 37' S.) to the South Cape of 
Van Diem-n'g Land (43" 39' S.), inland as far a* 135 E 

d included all the islands adjdceut in the Pacific Ocean 
within the same latitudes. 

What desert forests and what barren plains 
Lie unexplored by European eye, 
In what our Fathers called the great South Land I 
When first I landed on Australia's shore " 
On this rock [Cook] first met the simple race 
Of Australasia." 
Kangaroo, Kangaroo ! 
Thou Spirit of Australia," &c. 
The author's motto, adapted from Bishop Hall, 

I first adventure. Follow me who list 

And be the second Austral Harmonist." 

First Fruits of Australian Poetry, Sydney, 1819. 

In 1823 the Cambridge Chancellor's prize medal 
or the best poem on " Australasia " was awarded 
o Praed. The following extracts are from William 
Dharles Wentworth's poem, now generally allowed 
o be a much better performance than Praed's: 

"Land of my birth! 

Dear Australasia, can I e'er forget thee] 

And shall I now, by Cam's old classic stream, 

Forbear to sing, and thou propos'd the theme 1 

Fortell the glories that shall grace thy name 1 

Forbid it, all ye Nine ! 

My Austral Parent, 

Proud Queen of Isles ! thou sittest vast, alone, 
A host of vassals bending round thy throne : 
Like some fair swan that skims the silver tide, 
Her silken cygnets strew'd on every side. 
So floatest thou, thy Polynesian brood 
Dispers'd around thee on thy ocean flood, 
While ev'ry surge that doth thy bosom lave, 
Salutes thee ' Empress of the Southern Wave.' " 

And so on for some three hundred lines. This is 

the finish: 

" And, oh Britannia ! should'st thou cease to ride 
Despotic Empress of Old Ocean's tide ; 
Should thy tam'd Lion spent his former might 
No longer roar, the terror of the fight : 
Should e'er arrive that dark, disastrous hour, 
When, bow'd by luxury, thou yield'st to pow'r; 
When thou, no longer freest of the free, 
To some proud victor bend'st the vanquished knee ; 
May all thy glories in another sphere 
Relume, and shine more brightly still than here : 
May this thy last-born Infant then arise 
To glad thy heart, and greet thy Parent eyes ; 
And Australasia float, with flag unfuti'd, 
A new Britannia in another world ! " 

Quoted from Barton's Poets and Prose Writers o 
N. S. Wales, 1866. 

On January 1, 1824, the Sydney Gazette and 
New South Wales Advertiser, having attained its 
majority, was "impelled to dash forward in true 
English style." From a half sheet it became a 
whole sheet, and " as liberal and impartial in its 

censorship as enlarged in its columns a mark 

of distinction no other colony could lay pretensions 
to -cin unprecedented honour r&isiug Austral- 
asia to consideration and importance in the world." 
At the same time the imprint was altered from 
" Sydney, printed by Kobert Howe " to "Australia, 
printed by Robert Howe." I have somewhere 
met with the statement that the motto " Advance 
Australia " originated with Eobert Howe. 

6* S. XI, FEB. 28, '85.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The late Thomas Kibble Hervey, in his poem Marquesans, and other allied groups to the South- 
Austraha (Lond., 1824) has these lines : East ; the other subdivisions being Micronesia to 

" Lo vast Notasia rises from the main 

In all her mingling charm of mount and plain 

Oh ! let me turn to trace that rising ray 
Which o'er Australia dawns a better day ! 
Look we once more upon Notasia's strand, 
And see its beauty break upon the land." 

Mr. Hervey adopted the title of Australia in pre- 
ference to Australasia as "more poetic" and as 
" more expressive of a division of the globe com- 
posed of distinct parts ": 
["Australia in her varied forms expands, 
And opens to the sky her hundred lands 
" Notasia " (or Notasie) is the name for Australia 
on many French maps of the early part of this 
century, and it crept into many English publica- 
tions. The " South Asian " Register was the title 
of a magazine issued in the colony in 1827. 
"North," "South," and "Western" Australia 


the North West, and Melanesia, including the 
black races of Australia, Papua, New Britain, the 
Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Tasmania, &c., 
to the south-west. 

The earliest official use of the term " Australian 
Colonies" is in a despatch from Lord Glenelg, 
dated July 10, 1837, to Governor Sir Richard 
Bourke, confirming the resolutions of the local 
government in reference to sales of land by 
auction: "A departure from that principle in the 
present case would involve a sacrifice of the best 
interests of the Australian colonies."* 
The word Australia was, however, in use long 
fc- Flinders's time. In Purchas his Pilgrimes, 
(Lond., 1625), and Dairy mple, 
to the South Pacific, p. 162 
., 1770), the " Tierra Austriales " and " Tierra 

, , A r, 

were, of course, suggested by their relative po Austnaha del. Espmtu Santo" of Pedro Fer- 

and de aort eihth "Memorial" are ren- 

for that part of the country (comprehending the 
Swan River Settlement and Australind) from the 
words of a song composed and sung by George 
Fletcher Moore* at the first ball given by Sir 
James Stirling, Perth, Sept. 2, 1831. I give one 

" Air ' Ballinamona oro. , 

'From the old Western world, we have come to explore (P- 

TK,-. ,.,;i,1,, ~c ii _ r--j. i i. , ~ I _ 

tions. When South Australia was founde'd I S^?*, " e VSairort eighth . "Memorial" are ren 
that name was not inappropriate, for the now ?. ered f ^ t f r . alia - Again, m the English transla- 
more southern colony of Victoria was then part tlon T of a fictitious work, La Terre Australe Connue, 
of New South Wales. The name " Western P ar . Ja( l ues Sadeur [Gabriel Foigni] (Vannes, 1676 ; 

Australia" appears to have been first suggested ? ar18 ' ^ 692 V *$*' A N *i Di !!? 0/ J^ 
*-"- ' TW/i/wnfo Austrahs; or, the Southern World 

, 1693), " Australia" and "Australians" are 
the descriptions of the country and its 
inhabitants. The author, who pretends to have 
lived there thirty-five years, says : " Australia 
represented itself to me with all its advantages, 
and the Island seemed extremely commodious ' 

The wilds of this Western Australian shore ; 

In search of a country, we 've ventured to roam, 

And now that we Ve found it, let 's make it our home. 
And what though the colony 's new, sirs, 
And Inhabitants yet may be few, sirs, 
We see them encreasing here too, sirs, 
So Western Australia for me." 

Of the two words Australia and Australasia, 

" It is easie to judge by all that I have 

said of the incomparability of the Australians with 
the people of Europe " (p. 163). 

Most German maps of Australia published at 
the end of the last and beginning of the present 
century bear the name " Ulimaroa," and I find in 
G. A. W immer ' s Australian (Vienna, 1832) the 
extraordinary statement that " when the Portu- 

the latter has now the widest significance, collo- 8 uese first touched there they called it by the 
quially, commercially, and officially, being synony- name of 'Ulimaroa. 7 " This statement is in- 
mous with " the Australian colonies," and with correct. When Capt. Cook was at the Bay of 
every new acquisition or protectorate, New Zea- Islands (New Zealand), in December, 1769, he 
land, Fiji, &c. is fast encroaching upon the inquired (by his interpreter Tupia) of the in- 
Pacific, overlapping and superseding De Brosses' telligent natives <: if they knew of any country 
old divisions of Australasia, Polynesia, and Magel- besides their own : they anssvered that they had 
lanica. The conjectured Antarctic continent of never visited any other, but that their ancestors 
the sixteenth century having shrunk into Terra nad told them that to the N.W. by N. or N.N. W. 
del Fuego, the last name has become obsolete and there was a country of great extent, called Uli- 
unnecessary. maroa," &c. Afterwards (February, 1770), at 

Polynesia is now subdivided, and the name Queen Charlotte Sound, a native was asked if 

applied ethnographically to the division compre- ne na ^ ever heard that such a vessel as Cook's 

hendingtheNewZealanders, Samoans, Hawaiians, na d before visited the country. He answered 

that his ancestors had told him that a small vessel 

Mr Moore is still living at Brompton, the honoured had come there from a distant country called 

centre of a large circle of friends, retaining at the Ulimaroa &c + 

glorious old age of eighty-six a thousand pleasant recol- a> c '~ 

ions of a ten years' residence in the colony, having * Labilliere, vol. ii. p. 229. 

of Sty ; ears original Diary after the lapse f Cook's First Voyage (Hawkeaworth), vol. ii. pp. 372, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6 th s.xi. FEB. 24 '85. 

According to Mr. Macgillivray, the naturalist 
(Voyage of the Rattlesnake, vol. ii. p. 4), the native 
name of Australia is Kei Dowdai, or Kai Dowdai 
(Great Country), and that of New Guinea, Muggi 
Dowdai (Little Country) ; but the Kev. Mr. 
Ridley (Kamilaroi, p. 117) says that Muggi is 
great, and Kai little. I have not given references 
to "Terra Australis," and other names which 
appear on old maps and charts, as they would 
lengthen these notes very considerably. 

Some years ago I sketched out the plan of a 
dictionary of Australasian nomenclature, to include 
names of countries, islands, capes, bays, rivers, 
mountains, towns, and cities, their meaning or 
origin, when and by whom they were given, &c. 
Bat I have never yet found time to begin. 


Brixton Ris3, S.W. 

BISHOPRIC OF SODOR AND MAN (6 th S. xi. 328). 
I gave two explanations of the title Sodor in 
"N. & Q." (6 th S. v. 109), viz., from Sodore, a 
village in lona in which the bishops resided ; or 
from a church at Peel dedicated to our Saviour 
(2<oT>7p), and called " Ecclesia Sodorensis." The 
latter theory is adopted by Archbishop Spotswood, 
following Hector Boethius. 

In Capgrave's Life of Joseph of Arimathcea men- 
tion is made of one Mordaius, King of the Isle of 
Man, who resided at a city called Sodora, and was 
converted to Christianity about A.D. 63; but this 
is probably a myth, as St. Patrick is held to have 
first planted Christianity in the island about 
A.D. 444. 

Spotswood's account will not bear examination. 
He says that Amphibalus was first bishop after 
Cratilinth founded the Church, but Matthew Paris 
says Amphibalus was buried at Radburn, near St. 
Albans, and no writers, except Hector Boethius 
and his followers, mention Amphibalus in the 
life of Cratilinth. Again, supposing there ever 
was a " Sodorense fanum," what authority has 
Spotswood for making it equivalent to " Salvatoris 
fanum" church of the Saviour when even his 
authority Boethius says, "Nunc vocant Sodo- 
rense fanum, cujus nominis rationem, sicutaliorum 
complurium rerum et locorum, vetustas ad posteros 
obcuscayit." George Waldron says Spotswood's 
theory is borne out " by the traditions of the 
natives themselves." When at Peel I tried in 
yam to get hold of any such native traditions. But 
.amden, Harrison, and Mercator all say that the 
Hebrides were called "Insuke Sodorenses." William 
Sachejerell, a governor of Man, says, " After the 

p *u S. W u aS nwde the 8eafc of thc Norwegian 
.Lace, the Bishopricks were united with the Titles 
odor, and Man, and so continued till con- 
quer d by the English, since which the Bishop of 
Man keeps his Claim, and the Scotch Bishop stiles 

himself Bishop of the Isles, antiently Episcopus 
Insularum Sodorensium." 

This seems the most probable explanation. 
Governor Sacheverell addresses Dr. Thomas 
Wilson as " Lord Bishop of the Isle of Man," 
omitting Sodor. Was Sodor ever dropped in legal 
patents and documents of the last century, and 
>nly resumed through ignorance 1 


The see of Sodor and Man signifies the see of 
he Southern Hebrides and of the Isle of Man. 
The Norsemen gave the name of Sudreyjar or 

the Southern Islands," to the Hebrides, as dis- 
tinguished from the Orkneys, or Northern Islands. 
The two sees of the Sudreyjar and of the Isle of 
Man were united in 1098 by Magnus of Norway 
on his conquest of the Isle of Man, and continued 
one till 1380, when, on the death of Bishop John 
Dunkan, the English having become masters of 
Man, the sees became once more severed, the 
clergy of the Isles electing for their bishop one 
John, and the clergy of Man electing Robert 
Waldby. The bishops of Man, however, still 
retained their titular supremacy over the Hebrides, 
the bishop being entitled " Manniae et Insularum 
Episcopus," or as now " Bishop of Sodor and Man." 
The error by which the island adjacent to Peel 
(not Castleton), on which the ruined cathedral of 
St. Germans stands, has been identified with Sodor, 
dates back at least so far as the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. It appears in a grant from 
Thomas, Earl of Derby, in 1508 to Bishop Huan 
Hesketh, of " Ecclesiam Cathedralem Sancti Ger- 
uiani, in Holm [the island] Sodor vel Fed vocata." 

The following was some time ago written by 
the Bishop of Sodor and Man, and sent to an 
inquisitive correspondent, who made the inquiry 
as to what was the real meaning of the word 

" What does the title ' Sodor ' mean 1 1 

Pray tell mo if you can, 
So strange are many facts we glean 

About the Isle of Man. 
Tli at all the cats are wanting tails 

AVe hear for evermore ; 
It may be this accounts for tales 
Which reach the British shore. 
Well ' Sodorenses ' Southern Isles 

Is what the title means ; 
Although, perhaps, you say with smiles, 

' Tell that to the marines ! ' 
For in the palmy days of old, 

When things went harurn-skarum, 
The bishop did the title hold 
Of Man ' et Insularum.' " 


The editor of " N. & Q." has twice given an 
explanation of the union of Sodor and Man, 2 nd S. 
iii. 129 ; 5 th S. xi. 140. In the former of these 



the authority relied on is a statement of Bisho] 
Wilson. I take from another source a portion o' 
the bishop's remarks, which may be sufficient foi 
the reply to the query of J. J. S. He states in 
substance that Sb. German, the first bishop o 
Man, from whom the cathedral is named, with his 
immediate successors, had the Island of Man alone 
for the diocese till the Norwegians conquered the 
Western Isles, and soon after Man ; and pro- 
ceeds : 

" It was about that time the beginning of the eleventh 
century that the Insulce Sodorenses, being thirty-two 
(so called from the bishopric of Sodor erected in one oi 
them, namely, the Isle of Hy), were united to Man, anc 
from that time the bishops of the united sees were 
styled Sodor and Man, and sometimes Man and In- 
sularum ; and they had the Arcbbishop of Drontheim 
(styled Nidorensis) for their metropolitan. And this 
continued till the island was finally annexed to the 
Crown of England, when Man had its own bishops again, 
who styled themselves variously, sometimes bishops of 
Man only, sometimes Sodor and Man, and sometimes 
Sodor de Man ; giving the name of Sodor to a little isle, 
before mentioned, lying within a musket-shot of the 
main land, called by the Norwegians Holm, and by the 
inhabitants Peel, in which stands the cathedral. For 
in these express words, in an instrument yet extant, 
Thomas, Earl of Derby and Lord of Man, A.D. 1505, 
confirms to Huan Hesketb, Bishop of Sodor, all the 
lands, &c., anciently belonging to the bishops of Man, 
namely, ' Ecclesiam Cathedralem S. German! in Holm, 
Sodor vel Pele vocatum [sic], ecclesiamque S. Patricii 
ibidem, et locum praefatum in quo praefatae ecclesiae sitse 
Bunt.' This cathedral was built by Simon, Bishop of Sodor, 
who died A.D. 1254, and was there buried." Bishop 
Wilson, in Chronicles of the Ancient JSriiish Church 
previous to the Arrival of St. Augustine, London, 1851, 
pp. 124-5. 


[Valued communications, principally repeating the 
information supplied above, have reached us from ST. 
SWITHIN; K. N.; REV. .0. F. S. WARREN, M.A.; H. S.; 
BREWER; W. P.; and E. G. YOUNGER, M.D.] 

BAIL B ASTON (6 th S. xi. 87). The words bail 
and baston as two distinct terms are common in 
law, but I never saw the two combined into one 
term. The word bail requires no explanation. As 
to baston, the meaning given in an old law-French 
dictionary, London, 1701, is as follows : " Baston, 
a staff, or club, or cudgel; also it is taken for a 
pledge or security, also a waiter upon a prisoner, 
P. Coke, rep. 9, 36." The reference should, I 
think, be 1 Coke, 44. The third meaning appears 
to be that in which the word is usually to be 
understood in English law (see Wisham's Law 
Diet., 8m, 1829). Thus in the statute 1 Richard II. 
cap. 12, the following passages occur : " Some- 
times by mainprise or by bail, and sometimes with- 
out any mainprise with a baston of the Fleet "; 
" To go out of prison by mainprise, bail, or by 
baston "; and in 5 Eliz. cap. 23, sec, 8 : " Without 

bail, baston, or mainprise." See also Platt v. 
the Sheriffs of London, Plowden's Reports, p. 35. 


" FOXING." IN BOOKS (6 th S. xi. 107). Foxing 
in prints and books is caused sometimes by damp, 
but often by rust. If due to the former cause, 
the blotches quickly enough disappear under the 
influence of water ; the paper should then be sized 
again, to restore the strength it will have lost in 
the bath. But when the stains are due to rust 
more drastic measures are taken. Had these re- 
mained a closer "trade secret" there would be 
many more sound prints and books extant than 
there are now in the world. The means employed 
only too commonly to kill rust and other stains 
are chloride of lime and strong acids and alkalis. 
Before the book or print which has been purified 
by these agents can be safely bound or restored 
to the portfolio every trace of their action must 
be removed or neutralized. Should this not be 
thoroughly and completely accomplished, decay 
begins at once, and continues slowly but without 
intermission ; the strength goes out of the paper, 
the colour from the ink, and the whole fabric 
fades, rots, and crumbles away, until nothing but 
a shadow of the original remains, soon to vanish 
altogether. This "trade secret" has been so 
generally abused by some modern French binders, 
that every collector must have seen, among old 
books rebound by them, a lamentable number of 
volumes which have undergone its pernicious in- 
fluence, and which will have ceased to exist before 
another century has passed, no matter how care- 
? ully they may be preserved by their owners. It 
s a " secret " which has done almost as much harm 
to books as moth, or rust, or worm; its propagation 
is to be deprecated, and one cannot help hoping 
most fervently that amateurs may never learn to 

In addition to " N. & Q ," 4 th S. xi. 216, see 1" 

5. ii. 103, 173, 236; iii. 29, for further informa- 
,ion on this matter. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

[MR. H. G. HOPE refers to Mr. Blades's recently pub- 
ished Enemies of Books.'] 

HERALDIC (6 th S. xi. 69). These arms belong 

q one of the Chichesters, Earls of Donegal, most 

probably to Arthur, first earl, who was born 

June 16, 1606, and died s.p.m. March 18, 1674/5. 

""he quarterings may be described thus : 1 and 4, 

ihequy or and gules, .a chief vair, for Chichester ; 

6 , Argent, a chevron engrailed gules between 
hree leopards' faces azure, for Coplestone ; 3, 
jules, a pair of wings conjoined in lure ermine, 
or Beigny. The descent is as follows: Sir Edward 
Jhichester (created Viscount Chichester of Carrick- 



XI. FEB. 28, '85. 

fergus April 1, 1625) married on July 4, 1605, 
Anne, daughter and heir of John Coplestone, of 
Eggesford, who was grandson and heir of Charles 
Coplestone, of Bicton, and his wife Anne, daughter 
and heir of Richard Reigny, of Eggesford (Cf. 
Westcote's Devon, edition 1845, pp. 239, 505-6, 
and Risdon's Devon}. Viscount Chichester died 
July 8, 1648, and by the heiress of Coplestone 
(who died March 8, 1616) he left an elder son 
and heir, Arthur Chichester (born June 16, 1606), 
who was created Earl of Donegal March 30, 1647, 
with limitations to the issue male of his father. 
On his death in 1675 without male issue, the title 
descended, according to the patent, to his nephew, 
Arthur Chichester, from whom the present Marquis 
of Donegal is direct lineal descendant. 


MATRIARCH (6 th S. x. 514; xi. 77). Will no 
one nail this word to the counter for the shocking 
bud coinage that it is ? If patriarch meant father- 
governor, then Abraham's wife might correctly be 
called a matriarch. But " every schoolboy " knows 
better. Southey, of course, knew better, and only 
used the word in joke ; but " hoe nugoe seria 
ducunt In mala," when on such authority such 
words demand a place in our dictionaries as genuine 
English. Only in one case can the word be properly 
applied, viz., in describing that prehistorical clan- 
ship where descent was reckoned in the female 
line. Such a clan would be correctly called a 
[j.YjTpLv., not a Trarpia, and the head or foundress 
of it a inetriarch (matriarch). So I saw the wore 
employed in the Saturday Review for Jan. 17, 
1835* C. B. M. ' 

_ Matriarchal is used in regard to primitive mar 
riage, denoting the mother as head of the family 
system, and relationship flowing through her atom 
and not through her husband (a system which migh 
with advantage be adopted by civilized savages o 
the present day). I think McLenan's Primitive 
Marriage and Mayne use this word, but I quote 
from memory. M. GILCHRIST. 

nose > ilia, Burnbatn, Bucks. 

FINNISH FOLK-LORE (6 th S. x. 401 ; xi. 22). 
A German ship carpenter, who has just been to se 
me, tells me that his mother cured "Knarr" ii 
the way indicated, viz, by placing her hand 01 
the threshold, & c . W . H< J ONES> 

502 ; xi. 74).-In 4 S. xii. 6, 56, 80, and in tw 

ibsequent communications one from myseli 
stating I had found the ' Epitaph" (so the lines 
p. 6, are headed) in the 1636 edition of Camden r 

P atriarch " 

Remains, the other from W. M., who had sug- 
ested (p. 56) that the lines were Burns's Joyful 
Vidower the question of his authorship is con- 
usively negatived. I have not the volume of 
N. & Q." by me, or I would be more exact. 

AsLford, Kent. 

HENRY WINSTANLEY (6 th S. x. 288, 410). I 
nd the following notice of Wiustanley in Victor 
lugo's L'Homme Qui Rit, Premiere Partie, Livre 
Deuxiktne XL: 

"Pax in Bello, disait le phare d'Eddystone. Obser- 
ons-le en passant. Cette declaration de paix ne dia- 
rmait pas toujours 1'Ocean. Winstanley la repeta sur 
in phare qu'il construisit a ses frais dans un lieu 
arouche, devant Plymouth. La tour du phare Achevee, 
[ se mit dedans et la fit esaayer par la terapete. La 
empete vint et emporta le phare et Winstanley." 

las M. Hugo any