Skip to main content

Full text of "Notes and queries"

See other formats



of Intercommunication 



When found, make a note of," CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Index Supplement to the Note and Queries, with No. 30, July 24, 1886. 






7S. I. JAN. 2/86.] 




NOTES : History of the Thames, 1' Decameron ' in Eng- 
lish, 3 York Minster, 4 Sheaf of Misprints " Ifs and 
Ands "Keats, 6 Social Clubs" Filius Populi "Seventh 
Daughter The Josepbins A Drowned Corpse Suggested 
Press Error" Sitting on both sides," 6. 

QUERIES : Tunisia Bell of the Hop-PlatformBelgium, 
7 Highland Kilt Hon. Mrs. Norton ' Lothair 'MS. of 
Game of Chess 'Proverbial Phrase Scotch Names of 
Fishes Irish Parliament Pigott Racket's 'Life of Wil- 
liams' "Hang sorrow" 'Multiply s Merry Method,' 8 
' Rapids of Niagara ' J. Thurloe W. Harries Cogers' Hall 
Scotch Traders in Sweden Latin Poem Carisbrook Castle 
" The Eight Braves "-Classical Jingle, 9. 

REPLIES : Coronation Stone, 9 Burgomasco Venetian 
Glass Peerage of Scales, 11 ' Horse Nausese 'Clerk of the 
Kitchen W. H. Swepstone Double Tuition Fee Abp. 
Augustine, 12 Josselyn Feet of Fines Pope's ' Iliad,' 13 
Els Shields of Twelve Tribes 'Paradise Lost 'in Prose 
Bosky Nuremberg Nimbus Author of Pamphlet Hol- 
bein Become: Axes, 14 R. \Vharton Inscriptions on 
AVells Coligny Tyrociny When was Burns born ? 15 
" Morrow-masse preest " W. Longsword Billament 
Father and Son Bishops " Pull Devil" Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, 16 Seal of Grand Inquisitor Scochyns Act 
of Union- Cronebane Halfpenny, 17 Jury List Arms of 
Halifax Bartolozzi: Vestris, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Uzanne's 'La Francaise du SiScle' 
Hulbert's ' Supplementary Annals of Almondbury ' 
Grove's ' Dictionary of Music.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream 
My great example as it is my theme 
Though deep, yet clear, though gentle, yet not dull, 
Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full. 

Sir J. Denham. 

Among the " chief things of the ancient moun- 
tains and the precious things of the lasting hills " 
preserved in the British Museum is a certain 
rudely chipped flint, which once formed part of 
Sir Hans Sloane's collections, bequeathed by him 
to the nation at his death in 1752. In the Sloane 
Catalogue it is thus described : 

" No. 246. A British weapon, found with elephant's 
tooth, opposite to black Mary's near Grayes inn lane 
Conyers. It is a large black flint, shaped into the figure 
of a spear's point, K." 

The references to " Conyers " and " K." are, for- 
tunately, fully explained in a letter on London 
antiquities written by Mr. John Bagford to 
Thomas Hearne, the antiquary, and printed among 
the introductory matter to Hearne's edition of 
Leland's 'Collectanea.' The whole passage runs 
thus : 

" And here I cannot forget to mention the honest 
Industry of my old Friend Mr. John Conyers, an Apothe- 

cary formerly living in Fleet-Street, who made it his 
chief Business to make curious Observations, and to 
collect such Antiquities as were daily found in and about 
London. His Character is very well known, and there- 
fore I will not attempt it. Yet this I must note that he 
was at great Expence in prosecuting his Discoveries, and 
that he is remembered with respect by most of our 
Antiquaries that are now living. 'Tis this very Gentle- 
man that discovered the Body of an Elephant, as he was 
digging for Gravel in a Field near to the sign of Sir 
John Old-Castle in the Fields, not far from Battlebridge, 
and near to the River of Wells, which tho' now dryed up 
was a considerable River in the time of the Romans. 
How this Elephant came there? is the Question. I 
know some will have it to have layn there ever since the 
Universal Deluge. For my own part I take it to have 
been brought over with many others by the Romans in 
the Reign of Claudius the Emperour, and conjecture (for 
a liberty of guessing may be indulged to me as well as to 
others that maintain different Hypotheses) that it was 
killed in some Fight by a Britain. For not far from the 
Place where it was found, a British Weapon made of a 
Flint Lance like unto the Head of a Spear, fastned into 
a Shaft of a good Length, which was a Weapon very 
common amongst the Ancient Britains, was also dug up, 
they having not at that time the use of Iron or Brass, as 
the Romans had. This conjecture, perhaps, may seem 
odd to some ; but I am satisfied my self, having often 
viewed this Flint Weapon, which was once in the Pos- 
session of that Generous Patron of Learning, the Reve- 
rend and very Worthy Dr. Charlett, Master of University 
College, and is now preserved amongst the curious Col- 
lections of Mr. John Kemp, from whence I have thought 
fit to send you the exact Form and Bigness of it [a coarse 
woodcut of the flint occupies the next page]. This dis- 
covery was made in the presence of the foresaid Mr. 
Conyers, and I remember that formerly many such bones 
were shown for Giants-Bones, particularly one in the 
Church of Aldermanbury which was hung in a Chain on 
a Pillar of the Church ; and such another was kept in 
St. Laurence's Church, much of the same Bigness. All 
which bones were publickly to be seen before the dread- 
ful Fire of London, as it appears to me from the Chro- 
nicles of Stow, Grafton, Munday, &c."* 

Who or what the " black Mary " referred to in 
the Sloane catalogue may have been I know not ; 
but although she has long since been topographic- 
ally dead and buried, her silent ghost still per- 
petually revisits its former haunts. In Gary's map 
of London in 1792 "Black Mary's Hole" appears 
as part of an unnamed continuation of Coppice 
Kow, immediately before it passes Bagnigge Wells, 
a spot identifiable in the London of to-day as that 
part of Cross Street fronting the Clerkenwell 
House of Correction. " Black Maria " for at least 
some five-and-twenty years has been a favourite 
London synonym for a prison van, and it seems 
difficult to avoid the conclusion that the first 
vehicle to which the name was applied was the one 
which conveyed its duly qualified passengers to 
this establishment at Clerkenwell, situated exactly 
" opposite black Mary's." I note here, moreover, 
two other etymologies. The House of Correction 
is known to its frequenters as " The Steel," a fact 

* Leland'a ' Collectanea,' Hearne, second ed., vol. i. 
p. Ixiii. 


8. 1. JAN. 2, '86. 

duly recorded in Dickens's ' Dictionary of London,' 
s.v. "Prisons"; but I do not know of its having 
been placed on record that the word is one formed 
from " Bastille," on the same principle as bus from 
" omnibus." Since the taking of the original Bas- 
tille, indeed, the word has passed into common 
use as a synonym alike for a prison and a work- 
house. The other derivation is a little less obvious, 
but hardly less certain. " The Steel " is generally 
known as Coldbath Fields Prison, and the history 
of this particular cold bath is thus related : 

" The most noted and first about London was that near 
Sir John Oldcastle's, where, in the year 1697; Mr. Bains 
undertook and still manages this business of Gold Bath- 
ing, which they say is good against Rheumatisms, Con- 
vulsions in the Nerves, &c., but of that those who have 
made the Experiments are the best judges. The Baths 
are 2$. 6d. if the Chair is used, and 2s. without it. Hours 
are from 5 in the Morning to 1 Afternoon." * 

Bagnigge Wells, which a hundred years later 
had altogether eclipsed the fame of Mr. Bains's 
establishment, are not mentioned, though they 
were almost within a stone's throw of " the Cold 
Bath," which I believe still exists. It is tolerably 
certain, therefore, that the name was given after 
1708, when the ' New View of London ' was pub- 
lished, and it seems highly probable that Bag- 
nigge Wells were originally a rival establish- 
ment, to which the enterprising proprietor gave 
the more ambitious name of "The Bagnios" a 
word which, not being generally understanded of 
the people, gave rise to the later appellation, in 
which, by the way, the double g was always 
sounded soft. Battle Bridge lay a little to the 
north-west of " Black Mary's," but the only record 
of it left in modern topography is the Battle 
Bridge Road, which runs at the back of King's 
Cross and St. Pancras stations. 

Whether the " Eiver of Wells," the Fleet brook 
or river, and the Old Bourne were, as Pennant 
seems to think, three different streams which 
united about the bottom of Holborn Hill, or 
whether the Fleet brook is simply an alias of the 
Old Bourne, of which the River of Wells was a 
tributary, may perhaps form the subject of a 
future chapter on the buried affluents of the 
Thames. In the meanwhile, the particular gravel 
pit where the flint weapon was found " in the 
presence of the foresaid Mr. Conyers " may safely 
be localized within a few yards of the northern 
corner of the House of Correction, where Calthorpe 
Street joins Cross Street. 

The date of the discovery is not so definitely 
determinable as the place. Prof. Boyd Dawkinsf 
assigns it to "about 1690," which may be correct, 
but requires confirmation. Bagford's letter is 

* 'A New View of London' (2 vols. 8vo,, 1708, com- 
piled, says a MS. note in my copy by a Mr. Christopher 
Hatton, an agent for a fire office), s.v. " Cold Bath " 
vol. ii. p. 785. 

t ' Early Man in Britain,' p. 159. 

dated "Charter-House, 1714/15"; and that Con- 
yers had then been dead for some time is evident 
from a passage on p. Ixviii. Until the date of 
Conyers's death is ascertained, which would give 
the latest limit, the nearest safe approximation to 
the date of the discovery is " about the end of the 
seventeenth or beginning of the eighteenth century." 

I have entered into these details because this is 
by a whole century the earliest recorded discovery 
of any of those implements to which Sir John 
Lubbock has given the name of " palaeolithic," the 
rediscovery of which in our own time has vindi- 
cated for our race an antiquity beyond the dreams 
of Egyptian chronology. 

This flint, in fact, though chipped instead of 
worn, is considerably older than the one on which 
the Ousel of Cilgwri sat when the Eagle of 
Gwernabwy came to consult him before marrying 
his second wife, the Owl of Cwmcawlwyd, as related 
in the tale of the Ancients of the World.'* " The 
Eagle," says the story, " found the Ousel sitting 
on a small bit of hard flint, and he asked him the 
age and history of the Owl, and the Ousel an- 
swered him thus : ' See, here, how small this 
stone is under me ; it is not more than a child of 
seven years would take up in his hand, and I 
have seen it a load for three hundred yoke of the 
largest oxen, and it never was worn at all except- 
ing by my cleaning my beak upon it once every 
night before going to sleep, and striking my wings 
upon it every morning.'" Save the backbone of 
the world itself, the historian goes on to say, there 
is nought older of the things that had their be- 
ginning in the age of this present world than the 
Eagle of Gwernabwy, the Stag of Rhedynvre, the 
Salmon of Llyn Livon, the Ousel of Cilgwri, the 
Toad of Cors Vochno, and the Owl of Cwmcaw- 
lwyd. Yet the senior resident of these zoological 
antiques was, it is probably safe to assert, unborn 
and unthought of at the time when our nameless 
granduncle chipped this flint weapon and inad- 
vertently bequeathed it, first to Mr. John Conyers, 
then to Dr. Charlet, then to Mr. Kemp, then to 
Sir Hans Sloane, and through Sir Hans Sloane to 
the British nation. Thousands of tools like it 
have since been found, not only in Britain, but 
France, Italy, Greece, Palestine, India, and a 
whole atlasful of other countries ; and likely 
enough any day still earlier traces of man may 
turn up, possibly have already turned up, in lands 
more likely to have been the cradle of our race. 
But in the meanwhile science cannot point to one 
single monument of the existence of man on our 
planet which is known to ba older than thin 
worked flint found opposite Black Mary's. It is 
the first found of the earliest kno?en records of 
humanity. BROTHER FABIAN. 

(To le continued.) 

lolo MSS., p. 601. 

7 th S, I. JAN. 2, '86.] 



A year or two ago I remember seeing a question 
asked in the Athenceum whether there does not 
exist, or ever has existed, in Middle English a 
translation of Boccaccio's novels. The question 
was founded upon a statement in an old Italian 
writer, and I think the conclusion arrived at was 
that the allusion in the Italian writer was to 
Chaucer, with whose works that writer was im- 
perfectly, or not at all, acquainted. 

The Italian writer may not, after all, have 
intended to refer to Chaucer, and I think there 
is a good deal of evidence pointing to the former 
existence of a translation now, perhaps, lost. 

In 1741 Charles Balguy, M.B., a physician 
practising in Peterborough, published anonymously 
a translation of the * Decameron.' This he dedi- 
cated to his friend Bache Thornhill, of Stanton, in 
Derbyshire, and in the preface he says : 

"Two translations there are in French that have 
come to my knowledge, and the same number in our own 
language, if they may be styled so ; for such, liberties 
are taken everywhere in altering everything according to 
the people's own taste and fancy, that a great part of 
both bears very little resemblance to the original." 

Now here is a distinct reference to two English 
translation?. But what were they? What else 
was there except the edition printed by Jaggard 
in 1620-5 and the subsequent reprint or reprints 
thereof ? An anonymous edition of ' The Novels 
and Tales of the Ren owned John Boccacio,' printed 
for Awnsham Churchill in 1684, lies before me. 
It is described on the title-page as "the fifth 
edition, much corrected and amended." I have 
no copy of the edition of 1620-5, but as this 
edition of 1684 contains a dedication to Sir Philip 
Herbert, Earl of Montgomery, I take it to be a 
slightly altered reprint of the edition of 1620-5. 
I do not understand why this book is called " the 
fifth edition." I never saw or heard of a second, 
third, or fourth edition, and Lowndes does not 
mention them. The writer of the dedication to 
the Earl of Montgomery thus speaks of the 
novels : 

"I know, most worthy Lord, that many of them have 
long since been published before, as stoln from the first 
original author, and yet not beautified with his sweet 
stile and elocution of phrase, neither savouring of his 
singular moral applications. For as it was his full scope 
and aim by discovering all vices in their ugly deformities 
to make their mortal enemies, the sacred vertuea, to shine 
the clearer, being set down by them and compared with 
them, so every true and upright judgment, in observing 
the course of these well-carried novels, shall plainly per- 
ceive that there is no spare made of reproof in any degree 
whatsoever where sin is embraced, and grace neglected." 

An English edition of the ' Decameron,' without 
date, and somewhat altered from that of 1741, has 
been lately published by Messrs. Chatto & Windus, 
"with Introduction by Thomas Wright, M.A., 
F.S.A.," in which are the following words : 

" Before the year 1570, William Paynter, clerk of the 
office of arms within the Tower of London, and who 
seems to have been master of the school of Sevenoaks in 
Kent, printed a very considerable part of Boccaccio's 
novels. His first collection is entitled '" The Palace of 
Pleasure," the first volume, containing sixty novels out 
of Boccaccio. London, 1566.' It is dedicated to Lord 
Warwick. A second volume soon appeared, ' " The Palace 
of Pleasure," the second volume, containing thirty-four 
novels. London, 1567.' This is dedicated to Sir George 
Howard, and dated from his house near the Tower, as is 
the former volume." 

The reader is thus led to believe that Paynter 
translated and published no fewer than ninety-four 
of the hundred novels which make up the c De- 
cameron.' But what are the facts ? I have no 
copy of the edition of 1567, but I have that of 
1575, which is dedicated to the Earl of Warwick 
from "nere the Tower of London, the first of 
lanuarie, 1566." After referring, in an epistle to 
the reader, to the authors from whom his novels 
are derived, Paynter goes on to say : 

" Certaine haue I culled out of the Decamerone of 
Giouan Boccaccio, wherein be conteined one hundred 
Nouelles, amonges whiche there be some (in my Judge- 
ment) that be worthy to be condempned to perpetual 
prison, but of them such haue I redemed to the libertie 
of our vulgar as may be best liked, and better suffered. 
Although the sixt part of the same hundreth may full 
well be permitted. And as I my selfe haue already done 
many other of the same worke yet for this present I haue 
thought good to publish only tenne in number, the reste 
I haue referred to them that be able with better stile to 
expresse the authours eloquence, or vntil I adioyne to 
this another tome, if none other in the meane time do 
preuent me, which with all my heart 1 wishe and desire : 
because the workes of Boccaccio for his stile, order of 
writing, grauitie, and sententious discourse, is worthy of 
intire promulgation." 

Thus, although this edition of 1575 contains 
sixty-six novels, only ten of these and not sixty 
are taken from the ' Decameron.' The second 
volume of ' The Palace of Pleasure ' in my posses- 
sion is that known as the third edition, said to 
have been printed about 1580. It has no title- 
page, but it contains an " epistle " to " Sir George 
Howard, Knight, Maister of the Quene's Maiesties 
Armarye," dated " from my pore house besides the 
Towre of London, the iiij of Nouember, 1567." It 
contains thirty-five novels. Following an address 
to the reader is a list of " authorities from whence 
these Nouelles be collected and in the same 
avouched." Including Boccaccio there are twenty- 
four of these authorities, and, so far as I can make 
out, only two or three of the tales are taken from 
the 'Decameron.' Either, then, the editions of 
1566 and 1567 are entirely different books from 
that of 1575 and that of circa 1580, or else Wright 
made a mistake which in such an able and scholarly 
writer is quite unaccountable. 

Considering the great rarity, even in an im- 
perfect state, of copies of ' The Palace of Pleasure,' 
it is not unreasonable to suppose that prose trans- 
lations of many of the novels have been altogether 


[7 th S. I. JAN. 2, 'S6, 

lost, or yet remain to be unearthed. A novel o 
romance is more than any other book liable to bi 
damaged by excessive use, and to require frequen 
rebinding. Hence the binder durus arator, as 
Mr. Lang calls him ploughs the book down to 
the quick, and in the end it perishes as though i 
had never been. Paynter himself gives us reason 
to suppose that romances were carried by travellers 
on foot or on horseback for amusement. 

" Pleasaunt [they be] so well abroade aa at home, to 
auoyde the griefe of winters night and length of sommers 
day, which the trauailers on foote may vse for a staye to 
ease their weried bodye. and the iourneors on horsback 
for a chariot or lesse painful meane of trauaile in staade 
of a merie companion to shorten the tedious toyle of 
wearie wayes." 

The small size of the two volumes of 'The Palace 
of Pleasure ' would make them suitable to be car- 
ried in the pocket. My copy, in an old binding, 
is strongly perfumed. As the leaves are turned 
over a fragrance as of bergamot arises from them. 

I forget where I have seen it stated that Burton, 
in ' The Anatomy of Melancholy,' first published 
in 1621, alleges that Boccaccio's novels were com- 
monly related at English firesides. I have not 
been able to find the passage, as the various 
editions are imperfectly indexed. If found it would 
add weight to the evidence that, either in the time 
of Paynter or before his time, there existed in 
English translations of the novels other than the 
few which are contained in 'The Canterbury Tales' 
and ' The Palace of Pleasure,' and other than the 
metrical versions of one or two tales which ap- 
peared in the time of Elizabeth. It will have been 
seen above that Paynter declares that he himself 
had in 1566 " done many other " of the novels. 
It is interesting to note that he speaks of his 
collection as " these newes or nouelles." 

S. 0. ADDY. 

In the year 1802 William Colquett, of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, published at Chester a quarto 
volume of poems, one of which poems is, I 
believe (for I have not seen the book), a de- 
scription of York Minster. I do not know, but 
doubtless all really well-informed schoolboys know, 
whether any other poem on York Minster exists 
in print. Even such a boy, however, cannot be 
expected to have heard of the MS. poem now in 
question, a neatly written volume of about a 
hundred pages, dated 1808, and marked " Second 
edition," as if to show that it had been circulated 
in manuscript, for certainly it was never published. 
It is a mock epic, with mock criticisms at the 
end, such as those which long afterwards were 
made popular by Mr. Hosea Bigelow and others. 
It deals mainly with the people and the doings of 
York and its neighbourhood as they were at the 
end of the last century and at the beginning of 

this. And in deference to the feelings of some 
masculine contributors of ' N. & Q.' (for as to the 
women, they are not so sensitive) I respectfully 
suppress what my author says on those subjects. 
It is, I regret to say, very far from favourable. 
There are, however, two episodes in the poem 
which may be of some slight general interest, and 
therefore may deserve place in ' N. & Q.' One 
of these is an attempt, evidently sincere, to de- 
scribe the effect of mediaeval architecture upon 
minds familiar, indeed, with Gray and Walpole, 
but ignorant of the "revival" that was yet to 
come. It is this : 

Whoe'er thou art, whom torturing griefs molest, 
Or Care's dull weariness despoils of rest, 
Whom blighted hopes and wither'd joys have made 
A moody wanderer in a world of shade ; 
Or whom the Muse invites to seek, resign'd 
To heav'nly contemplation, solace kind 
That cheers the ruffled soul, and drives away 
All tedious irksome jarrings of the day : 
If thou would'st lull awhile thy woe or care, 
Or taste calm joy, with lonely step repair 
At midnight, when the full-orb'd moon rides high 
And light-wlng'd clouds skim fleetly o'er the eky, 
To where St. Peter's solemn temple stands 
In Gothic pride, unmatch'd in other lands ; 
Where nought is heard, save the slow soften'd swell 
Of distant watchdog's long long moaning yell ; 
Or the shrill hoot of owl, that moping sits 
In loophole lone, or through dim shadow flits; 
Or, loudly pealing from the western tower, 
The deep-voiced warning of the midnight hour. 
When all is hush'd, then in thy thrilling gaze, 
'Mid silence audible and sweet amaze, 
The vast and varied pile survey, and o'er 
Thy soul will steal a bliss unknown before : 
Grey walls and buttresses in masses deep, 
On which soft gleams of ivory splendour sleep, 
And, mildly breaking 'cross that tranquil scene, 
Smooth gulpbs of ebon shadow intervene ; 
On purple windows silvery moonbeams shine, 
Where climbing wreaths of tracery gently twine ; 
Niches and tabernacles rang'd around, 
With clustred canopies aspiring crown'd, 
Mellow'd in rich variety of grace ; 
While tow'rds the azure cope of heav'nly space, 
The towers and pinnacles in hoary light 
Rear their fair heads on high, serenely bright. 
A scene so meek, so holy, so sublime, 
Would awe to peace the sullen soul of crime ; 
E'en o'er the dimmest eye bland lustre spread, 
And gladness on the saddest spirit shed. 

The other episode describes, in strains quite as 
ood as it deserves, the valley of the Ouse, one 
of the dullest and tamest of English rivers. The 
author is pleased to speak of it thus : 
low sweet the change, from harsh forensic broils, 
''rom crowded haunts of busy men. and toils 
3f anxious litigation's bootless feuds, 
Po Nature's ever-grateful solitudes, 
)r temp'rate pleasures of the rural life, 
lemote from Cities and exempt from strife ! 
^air shines the stream, where lazy craft amuse 
^heir leisure on the sleepy tide of Ouse ; 
ligh in mid-heaven, light purple clouds o'ershado 
^e fields and auburn woods beneath display'd : 
n distant sunny gleam, a golden haze 

7> S. I. JAN. 2, '86.] 


Veils the blue champaign and the slanting rays 
Through hazel thickets, far from public road, 
Young errant pillagers their satchels load : 
Here, ruddy peasants, strong with gladd'ning toil, 
In gabled stacks the ripen'd treasures pile ; 
There, screen'd with venerable trees, appears 
That decent mansion,* where smooth glide the years 
Of wealthy Margaret, f justly-honour'd dame : 
On nearer foreground, mark, in search of game, 

J himself, in fowler's sober guise, 

With gun across his shoulder, blithely hies 
O'er the brown stubble ; while, not far astray, 
His cautious pointers sniff their stealing way : 
Through all the scene, with sweetly mingled hues, 
Woods, plains, and sky, refreshing calm diffuse. 

I make no comment on the merits or demerits 
of these verses. They are composed in the spirit 
of the later eighteenth century, and the literary 
sources of their inspiration are not far to seek. 
They seem to have been written in mature life, for 
the author of them died in 1816, at the age of fifty- 
three. It may be worth while to add, as an 
approximate test of his " culture," that in his 
Preface, Address to the Header, and mock criticisms 
he quotes or refers to the following authors : 
Homer, Horace, Dante, Tasso, Camoens, Shake- 
speare, Milton, Schiller, Southey, Scott, and 
Byron ; and he does not mention Wordsworth or 
Coleridge or Keats. A. J. M. 

ing press errors are culled from Emerson's ' Poems ' 
(Routledge, 1850) : 

The Sexton tolling the bell at noon, 
Dreams not that great Napoleon 
Stops his horse, and lifts with delight 
Whilst his files sweep round yon Alpine height. 

.P. 7. 
Corrections : Deems, lists. 

And all the hours of the year 
With their own harvest hovered were. P. 37. 
Cor. : honored. 
Where feeds the mouse, and walks the surly bear. 

P. 53. 
Cor. : moose, stalks. 

Let the starred shade which mighty falls 
Still celebrate their funerals. P. 68. 
Cor.: nightly. 

Trendrant time behoves to hurry 

All to yean and all to bury. P. 69. 
Cor.: Trenchant, i.e., disposed to "slit the 
thin- spun life." 

Up ! where airy citadel 

O'erlooks the purging landscape's swell. P, 73. 
Cor. : surging. 

Gentle pilgrim, if thou know 
The gamut old of Pan, 
And how the hills began. P. 82. 
Cor. : of old. 

Beningbrough Hall, on the Ouse. 
f- Margaret Earle, nee Boucher, widow of Giles Earle. 
J The author. 

I cannot leave 
My buried thought. P. 93. 
Cor.: honied. 

And worship that world-ivarning spark 
Which dazzles me in midnight dark. P. 98. 
Cor. : world-warming. 

The flowers, tiny feet of Shakers, 
Worship him ever. P. 114. 
Cor.: sect. 

VfQpour New England flowers. P. 115. 
Cor. : poor. (I am afraid there are more errors 
between p. 115 and p. 162, but I have not de- 
tected them yet). 

On thine orchard's edge belong 
All the brass of plume and song. P. 162. 
Cor. : To, birds. 

Hither Tiring the veiled beauty. P. 167. 
Cor. : bring. 

May the sovran destiny 
Grant a victory every morn. P. 172. 
Cor. : Thee may. 

Who his friends shirt, or hem of his shirt, 

Shall spare to pledge. P. 174. 
Cor. : skirt. 

Shy then not hell, and trust thou well 
Heaven is secure. P. 174. 
Cor.: Shun thou. 

Or bow above the tempest pent. P. 199. 
Cor. : bent. 

The fact that Emerson's style is obscure and 
unpicturesque may help to account for these almost 
unparalleled blunders in a reputable edition of a 
popular author. Such errors as " lifts " and 
" feet " (for lists and sect) suggest, strange to say, 
the use of the long s in the copy. I add one from 
' Eight Essays,' by Emerson, of same date, whence 
more may be found for the seeking : 

" Nature is erect and serves as a deferential thermo- 
meter." P. 148. 
Cor. : differential. 

Athenaeum Club. 

C. M. I. 

"!FS AND ANDS." At col. 2, p. 317, of the 
' New English Dictionary,' the earliest quotation 
given for the use of this expression is 1638. The 
expression occurs in T. Nash's introduction to 
R. Greene's ' Menapton,' 1589 : 

" Sufficeth them to bodge vp a blanke verse with ifs 
and ands, and other while for recreation after their 
caudle stuffe, hauing starched their beardes most 
curiouslie, to make a peripateticall path into the inner 
parts of the Citie." Arbor's reprint, 1880, p. 10. 


KEATS. In the Athenceum, p. 709, for Dec. 12, 
Mr. W. Rendle gives some interesting researches 
into the hospital books as to Keats at Guy's 
Hospital. He shows that Keats was a dresser, 
March 3, 1816. This is an indication that Keats 
was entered for the higher study of the profession, 
and he must have paid an extra fee for the dresser- 



L th S. I. JAN. 2, '6. 

ship. This was, in those days, a perquisite of the 
hospital surgeon, and not, as now, a competitive 
prize for the school. It is clear that he was in a 
fair position, with the prospect of a respectable 
professional career. Some have chosen to regard 
him as in a low position. HYDE CLARKE. 

pamphlet which treats of the higher grades of 
Freemasonry, published in Dublin towards the 
end of last century, I find, in a collection of 
Masonic songs, several relating to the strange asso- 
ciations which then existed for social purposes. I 
was not aware that these clubs had any possible 
relation to Freemasonry, but the collection of songs 
appended to this pamphlet makes me desirous of 
ascertaining any particulars which may be known 
to your readers with reference to such a possible 

There are three songs relating to the " Society 
of Bucks"; two for the "Honorable Order of Select 
Albions"; one for the "Honorable Lumper Troop"; 
two for the "Ancient Corporation of Stroud 
Green"; one for the "Corporation of Gray's Inn 
Lane " (this society is stated to have been founded 
in 1740) ; three for the " Laudable Corporation 
of Southwark"; four for the " Ancient Family of 
Leeches "; one in honour of the " Worthy Court 
of Do-Right"; one for the " Free and Easy Coun- 
sellors under the Cauliflower "; one for the " Birth 
Night Club at the Harrow in Grey Friars, New- 
gate Street "; one for the " Bright Stars of Isling- 
ton." W. FRAZER, F.R.C.S.I. 

" FILIUS POPULI." While the phrase " Filius 
Dei" is being discussed in ' N. & Q.' it may be 
as well to note that John Kington (vicar of 
St. Danstan's, Canterbury, 1606-1613) designated 
a child "who had EO father" as "filius populi." 
For instance: "Johannes filius patience & filius 
populi (1608); Maria filia populi (1611); Henry & 
beneta fillij populi (1612)." I may add, for the 
information of the readers of ' N. & Q./ that I am 
copying these registers with a view to their pub- 
lication. Afterwards I hope to edit the registers 
of St. Peter's, Canterbury. J. M. COWPER. 


xii. 204, 501, are several communications on the 
supposed healing powers of seventh sons ; but no 
mention is made of seventh daughters. From the 
following paragraph, from the Post Man, Oct. 6-9, 
1711 (cited inFennell's.4n<. Chron. andLit. Adv., 
p. 190), it would seem that the seventh sons are 
not to have a monopoly of this power, but that 
seventh daughters share the same honour : 

"There is lately come to town Martha Sneath, a 
gentlewoman who is the seventh daughter, who hath 
eured the evil for this twenty years, both ia town and 

country; she uaeth medicines, but toucheth seven 
mornings; likewise a diet drink that cures the dropsy; 
she is to be spoken with any time of th day at Mrs. 
Smith's, in Black Horse Yard, in Nightingale Lane, 
East Smithfield." 


THE JOSEPHINS. A correspondent of the Times 
newspaper proposes the adoption of this name, 
instead of Jacobins, for the followers of Mr. Joseph 
Chamberlain. The term is already in use in the 
political nomenclature of the Austrian empire, 
where it has much the same meaning as Era&iian 
with us. Josephinismus denotes, since the days of 
Joseph II., the oppression of the Church by the 
State, and may still be met with in the Koman 
Catholic newspapers of Vienna and Munich. 

A. K. 

lowing extract is from the Stamford Mercury, 
Dec. 18, 1885: 

''At Ketton, on Tuesday, an inquest was held by 
Mr. Sheild, coroner, touching the death of Harry Baker, 
aged twenty-three, who was missed on the night of the 
27th of November, after the termination of the polling 
for the county election, and was believed to have walked 
into the ford near the stone bridge during the darkness. 
The river at the time was running strongly, and deceased 
had no companions with him. The dragging irons from 
Stamford were obtained, and a protracted search was 
made in the river, but without result. However, in 
obedience to the wish of Baker's mother, a loaf charged 
with quicksilver (said to be scraped from an old looking 
glass) was cast upon the waters, and it came to a standstill 
in the river at the bottom of Mrs. Lewin's field. Here the 
grappling hooks were put in, and at four o'clock on 
Monday afternoon last the corpse was brought to the 
surface, having been in the water seventeen days. The 
river at this spot had been dragged several times before. 
The jury returned a verdict in accordance with the 


Amoretlo. Father shall I draw? 

Sir RadericJce. No sonne keepe thy peace, and hold the 
peace." ' The Returne from Pernassus,' 1606, IV. ii. 

Is not there a transposition here of the words thy 
and the in Sir Radericke's reply? I think we 
should read 

No sonne keep the peace, and hold thy peace. 

C. M. I. 
Athenaeum Club. 

It is not a little curious that this Transatlantic 
phrase, which we have heard often of late in con- 
nexion with the elections, should not only embody 
the same idea as the Latin prcevaricatio, viz., 
" straddling with distorted legs" (see Trench, 
' English Past and Present,' tenth ed. p. 300), but 
should also carry with it almost exactly the same 
figurative meaning as the classical word. 



. I. JiH. 2, '66.J 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

TUNISIA. I seek the aid of your contributors 
in forming a list as ample as possible of what has 
been written on Tunisia. I know already the 
books of Ibn-Hancal, El-Bekri, Shaw, Peyssonuel 
et Desfontaines, Hebenatreit, C. T. Falbe, Sir 
Grenville Temple, Dr. H. Earth, Dr. L. Frank, 
E. Pellissier, Tissot, Berbrugger, Beule, V. Guerin, 
Le"on Michel, Thomas Macgill, Madame de Voisins, 
Pierre Giffard, Prince J. Lubomirski, Victor Cam- 
bon, Boddy, Albert de la Berge, Madame Barbe- 
Paterson, Prof. G. Perpetua, Lieut.-Col. Playfair. 
There should be much to add to these, especially 
Spanish, Italian, and German. I request also 
references to magazine articles, &c., not to be 
found in Poole's ' Index to Periodical Literature.' 
A note of any existing pictures, engravings, or 
good photographs would be welcome. 

In the work of Thomas Macgill above men- 
tioned, * An Account of Tunis ' (London, Long- 
mans, 1816), we read : 

" The Dutch engineer (who went to Tunis for the 
purpose of draining the lake) has a very valuable col- 
lection both of medals and of stones, and also several 
curious inscriptions, which he intends one day to lay 
before the public. His work will be very interesting, 
for, from a residence of ten years, with the intention 
from the beginning to publish, he has collected a great 
deal of very curious information. Another work will 
also shortly appear, written by the Danish Consul, Mr. 
Lunby, a man of great classical knowledge, which will 
contain many interesting details, both regarding the 
ancient and modern state of Tunis : and should Mr. 
Tulin, his Swedish Majesty's Consul-General, be per- 
suaded to publish the h'ne views which his pencil has 
drawn, during a residence of thirty-five years in Tunis, 
the public will receive a gratification of no ordinary 

Have the proposed works of Mr. Lunby or of 
Mr. Tulin ever appeared, or that of the Dutch 
engineer, whose name I should be pleased to 
learn? H. S. A. 

BELL OF THE HOP. Can any one say what the 
"bell" of the hop exactly is, and why it is so 
called? In Bradley's 'Fam. Diet.' (1772), s. v. 
" Hop," we read, " About August the Hop will 
begin to be in the Bell or Button "; and Plat (1594) 
* Jewel House,' i. 43, has " his hops are more 
kindly, and the bels of them much larger." There is 
also a cognate verb, of still earlier appearance : thus, 
in the 'Perfite Platforrne of a Hoppe Garden' 
(1578), p. 33, we have, " Commonly e at Saint 
Margarets daye Hoppes blowe, and at Lammas 
they bell"; and similarly Worlidge, * Systema 
Agriculturse ' (1681), p. 150, says, under the 
heading "When Hops Blow, Bell, and Kipen," 
" Towards the end of July Hops Blow, and about 

the beginning of August they Bell, and are some- 
times ripe at the end of August, but commonly at 
the beginning of September." This is quoted in 
many subsequent encyclopaedias. The expression 
"in the bell " above recalls the expression used by 
Burns in 'The Cottar's Saturday Night,' " how 'twas 
a towmond auld sin' lint was in the bell." This is 
usually taken, I suppose, as meaning " in flower," 
flax having a blue campanulate flower ; if so, it 
must be distinct from the phrase " in the bell " 
applied to the hop. But bollen is an old pa. pple. 
from a vb. to bell, meaning swollen; and a cognate 
boiled is used of flax in Exodus ix. 31, in the 
sense, apparently, of in seed. Can any " man of 
Kent " or Sussex tell us what the bell of the hop is ; 
or even if it is still in use ? J. A. H. MURRAY. 
The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

PLATFORM. I want early examples of this in 
the ordinary modern English sense of a raised 
structure for a number of speakers, a sense unknown 
to dictionaries forty years ago. 1 think it ought to 
be found in accounts of Anti-Corn-Law or early 
teetotal meetings, or even, possibly, of political 
meetings at the time of the Reform Bill of 1832. 
It may be noted, in passing, that the sense of a 
political or party programme, which we are indebted 
to the United States for preserving, and which 
many people, I find, think to be derived from the 
modern wooden platform at a public meeting, was 
very common in England more than three hundred 
years ago. In 1547 the Bishop of Winchester 
urged on the Lord Protector " that the Bishop of 
St. Davids laid a platform for confusion and 
disturbances in the state" (Strype), while the 
programme of the former was described by Foxe as 
" Winchester's devillish platform." So we find " the 
Puritan platforme " and " the Genevan platforme." 
But English examples are rare from 1688 until 
they reappear in reference to American politics, 
one of which I find in 1837 ; this must have been 
about the time that the material " platform " at a 
public meeting was also coming in. Examples of 
the " platform " at a railway station would also be 
useful. Many people still alive must well remember 
the first use of both. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

BELGIUM. I have seen it stated that this 
was a brand new name invented for the southern 
Netherlands in 1830, with reference, of course, to 
the ancient Belgse. But I find in the London 
Gazette, No. 4584, anno T709, the advertisement 
of " a neat and large new Map of Modern Belgium 
or Lower Germany," and I find Btlgian and Belgic 
common in English since 1600. H. Cockeram, 
by the way, in his ' Dictionarie ' of 1621, has the 
curious entry in part in., under the heading 
" People of Sundry Qualities," " Belgeans, People 
of the Low Countries Somersetshire, Wiltshire, 
and Hampshire." Are Wiltshire men, &c., any- 



[7"' S. I. JAN. 2, '86. 

where else called Belgians ? The next " people " 
are Androgynie and Centaures, and a preceding 
one is Antipodes, so that the company is rather 
mixed. One almost expects to find Moon-rakers, 
but that would have been too conscious. There is 
plenty of unconscious fun conscientiously earnest. 

The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

HIGHLAND KILT. At a private dinner table, 
a short time since, a great authority said that the 
Scotch kilt was a garment of comparatively recent 
introduction into Scotland, and that he did not 
know of any instance of the use of the kilt before 
the year 1700. Perhaps some of your readers can 
give the names of works which can be referred 
to on the subject. W. A. P. 

THE HON. MRS. NORTON. Could any of your 
readers whose taste is for contemporary memoirs 
inform me where I should be likely to find par- 
ticulars about the late Mrs. Norton and her 
family ? I am familiar, of course, with all the 
official Sheridan literature ; but there are many 
little-known memoirs in which there is much 
curious information, and which I should like, in 
Lamb's phrase, "to pickaxe open" if I knew 
where to look for them. All will be fish, however, 
to this Sheridan net. What is common can be 
thrown back into the sea. 


Athenaeum Club. 

'LOTHAIR.' Can any reader of * N. & Q.' 
furnish a key to the characters in Lord Beacons- 
field's ' Lothair,' similar to that given some years 
ago in your columns to ' Endymion ' ? 


121, Chorlton Road, Manchester. 

Some twenty years ago the late Mr. Stewart, 
bookseller, of King William Street, advertised in 
a Supplement to ' N. & Q.' a list of MSS. that 
he was offering for sale. On the list was a MS. 
of Middleton's * Game at Chess,' which (according 
to Mr. Stewart) differed widely from the printed 
copies and the other MSS. I am very anxious to 
trace this MS., and shall be greatly obliged to 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' who will aid me in the 
search. I have tried in vain to find the Supple- 
ment. Mr. Stewart's account - books were un- 
fortunately destroyed after he retired from busi- 
ness. A. H. BULLEN. 

17, Sumatra Road, West Hampstead, N.W. 

obliged if I could be informed where is to be found 
the origin of " If the mountain will not come to 
Mahomet, Mahomet must go to the mountain." 

Percy Lodge, Winchmore Hill, N. 

art's metrical translation of Hector Boece's 
' Scotorum Historia ' the following passage occurs. 
The writer is speaking of the early traffic between 
France and Scotland : 

Quhair mony schip of merchandice thair wes, 
Quhilk in the tyme wer earning out of France 
With qubeit and flour and wyne of Orleance, 
And for till by thair merchandice agane, 
As selch and salmone, scuir, pellat, and pran. 

What do the three italicized words mean ? I 
cannot find them in Jamieson. Stewart has para- 
phrased the original very freely. Boece simply 
speaks of Frenchmen " qui mercatus causa advene- 
rant." P. J. ANDERSON. 

2, East Craibstone Street, Aberdeen. 

[Scuir is probably sturgeon (Germ. Stur^). Pran may 
be brandling=parr, samlet ; and it is possible that pellat 
is powan, or some member of the charr or salmon 

THE IRISH PARLIAMENT. It is stated in the 
Times of Saturday, December 19, 1885, that if an 
Irish Parliament were granted we should still be 
hampered with eighty hostile votes in the House 
of Commons. During the period of the indepen- 
dent Irish Parliament of 1780-1801 were there 
any representatives of Irish constituencies in the 
English House of Commons ? W. A P. 

PIGOTT FAMILY. Was Sir William Pigott, 
Bart., of Dublin, descended from the Huguenot 
family of Picquett, Marquess de Majanes of 
Picardy, and are their arms and motto at all 
similar ? Smiles, in his ' Hist, of the Huguenots,' 
mentions a family named Pigott, who settled in 
Ireland. Who are the present descendants of 
this family ? PICQOETT. 

(]) Who is "Dr. Bishop, the new Bishop of 
Chalcedon, who is come to London privately" 
(i. 94)? Is it Dr. Eichard Smith? (2) In 
part ii. p. 49 (fourth line from foot) he says, " Let 
him bite a bay leaf," &c. What does this mean ? 
(3) In the paragraph placed over the " Errata": 
"This manuscript was writ by the reverend author 
about forty years since, in a small white letter." 
What is " a small white letter " ? 


"HANG SORROW." There was a song sung 
publicly in alehouses and other places about 1764, 
in connexion with the poor law enactments of 
George III.'s reign, which ran thus: 
Hang sorrow, cast away care, 
The parish is bound to maintain ua. 

Where can the entire song be met with ; and is 
the authorship ascertained ? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

I shall be obliged for information with regard to 

7<> S. I. JAN. 2, '86.] 



the authorship of a 16mo. book entitled " ' Mar- 
maduke Multiply's Merry Method of making 
Minor Mathematicians ; or, the Multiplication 
Table illustrated by sixty-nine appropriate en- 
gravings.' I. F. C. London : printed for J. 
Harris." The work is without date, but belongs, 
apparently, to about 1820. It would be difficult to 
exaggerate the interest and charm of the " sixty- 
nine appropriate engravings," which are well calcu- 
lated to drive home wholesome mathematical and 
other truths in the mind of the dullest child. 

A. W. R. 

your correspondents favour me with the author- 
ship of a piece with the above title, thought to be 
by J. B. Gough, the American temperance lecturer, 
and say also where I may find it in full ? 


8, Ossington Villas, N. Sherwood Street, Nottingham. 

CROMWELL. Whom did he marry, and what 
children had he by each wife ? 


Walla Walla, W.T., U.S.A. 

WILLIAM HARRIES. Can any of your readers 
inform me what was the relationship of William 
Harries to Sir Thomas Harries, Bart., of Tong 
Castle, co. Salop, one of the Cruckton Hall 
Harrieses ? In the Public Record Office of Ireland 
mention is made of William Harries in Roll 2, 
Forty-nine Officers' Roll (skin 123), as a commis- 
sioned officer in the service of Charles I. up to his 
death, and had a Government debenture for a 
certain sum of money granted to him after the 
rebellion of 1641. He died in 1685. His de- 
scendants in Ireland have since borne heraldic 
arms, same as those of the Baronet of Tong 
Castle. And is there to be found anywhere in- 
formation of the now extinct family of Harries, of 
Cruckton Hall, prior to the year 1463 ? 


42, Lady Lane, Waterford. 

COGERS' HALL. Cunningham says it is in 
Bride Lane ; Mr. Walford says Shoe Lane, formerly 
at No. 10. Who is right ; or has it been removed, 
and so both are right, or half right ? It is pre- 
tended that coger is from cogitare ; Hotten says 
from cogitators, and not from codger or cadger. 
Mr. Walford says it is not from codger, which 
means " a drinker of cogs." What is a cog in this 
sense, if sense it have ? Code is cobbler's- wax. A 
codger's-end is the end of a shoemaker's thread, 
according to Halliwell ; but I don't think it is ; it is 
rather what a cobbler works with, a bristle and 
waxed thread, commonly called a wax-end, which 
does not mean the end of a thread, but the whole 
thread used by a leather-stitcher. Cunningham 
says it was established 1756, Walford says 1755. 

Will readers help to put all these bent pins 
straight ? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

I read an account of Scotch traders in Sweden and 
North Germany in the seventeenth century. The 
author mentioned the existence of numerous Scotch 
names in the cemeteries of the Baltic towns of that 
date. Can any of your readers supply the name 
of the work ? J. P. 

LATIN POEM. Who was the author of the 
hexameters beginning with the well-known line 

Propria quae maribus tribuunter raascula dicas, 
and concluding with 

Et valeo, caleo ; gaudent hsec namque supine? 

T. W. R. 

WIGHT. Where can I see plans (to scale, if pos- 
sible) of all the buildings in this castle and plans 
of this town of any date prior to 1700 ? 

C. A. J. M. 

was applied at the time of the mutiny to certain 
Englishmen. I am. anxious to know by whom ; 
and also who were the eight braves. 


17, Clarendon Cresent, Edinburgh. N.B. 

Quid sit honos, rogitas ? Onus, aut ovog, aut, si ita 

Est ovap : hoc certum est, dvdtiroT' lariv o vovq. 

A friend requests me to say whence comes the 
above bilingual post-classical jingle. In my friend's 
cause and my own ignorance I appeal to 'N. &Q.' 
Its atrocious puns might seem to claim for it a 
place in some classical burlesque. Did such a 
thing exist ? If Sir John Falstaff had but " small 
Latin and less Greek," and could not have been 
himself its author, he would, I think, at any rate 
(if one may judge by his "catechism" on the 
subject in '1 Henry IV.,' V. i.), have given it his 



(6 th S. xii. 449.) 

Keating's 'History of Ireland' (arranged for 
students of Celtic, and a literal translation), gives 
the story of the Stone of Fate and of Eochaidh, 
King of Erin, as follows. 

The tribe of Danann, on leaving Greece, where 
they had learnt necromancy and other arts, went to 
Norway, where they settled professors in four cities 
to teach the Norwegians, and from there went to the 
North of Alban, taking with them from Norway 



. I. JAN. 2, : * 

"four precious jewels," namely, the Stone of 
Virtue, also called the Stone of Fate, Lia Fail, so 
called from the city of Falias, whence it was 
brought, the spear and the sword of Lugh, and the 
caldron of Dagda. These they took to Erin, where 
they settled, having conquered the Firbolgs at the 
Battle of South Moytura. The Stone of Fate had 
for its particular virtue that in whatever country it 
should be, a man of the Scottish or Irish race, " of 
the seed of Milidh of Spain," would be king. 

In ' The History of Alban,' by Hector Bcetius, is 
the rhyme : 

Cinuidh Scuit, noble the tribe, 

Unless the prophecy was a falsehood, 

Where they find the Lia Fail. 

They have a right to take sovereignty. 

Fergus Mor, King of Alban, having conquered 
that country, sent to borrow Lia Fail to be crowned 
upon, being of the Scottish tribe ; Muirtach Mac 
Earca, King of Erin, lent the stone, but it was never 
returned, and fell into the hands of Edward L, 
who sent it to England from the monastery of 
Scone, "so that the prophecy of that stone 
was vorified in the king we have now, namely, the 
first King Charles, and in his father King James, 
who both came from the Cinuidh Scuit, who took 
the title of Kin'g of the Saxons on the stone 

Eochaidh, son of Ere, was the last king of the 
Firbolgs, and was defeated at Moytura by the 
Dananns, after he had reigned ten years ; his wife 
Taillte, daughter of Madhmor, King of Spain, mar- 
ried, after his death, Eochaidh Garbh, son of Donach 
Dali, a chief of the Tuatha De Danann. 

It is a pity the reign of Eochaidh was disturbed, 
for Keating says : 

" There was no destructive rain nor tempestuous weather 
during his time, nor a year without great produce and 
fruit. It is in his time that all the injustice and un- 
lawfulness of Erin were suppressed, and sure and excellent 
laws were ordained in it.'' 

It is satisfactory to learn that "injustice and 
unlawfulness " were indigenous to the soil of Erin, 
and are not, as we have been since told, a later 
importation of " the Saxon." B. F. SCARLETT. 

The amplest and best account is probably in 
Stanley's * Historical Memorials of Westminster 
Abbey' (London, 1868). A very long and inter- 
esting account will be found in Neale's ' History of 
S. Peter's, Westminster' (1818). An historical 
and critical resume, of the subject, especially as to 
the stone's antiquity, may be seen in Skene's * The 
Coronation Stone' (Edinburgh, 1869), which is 
reviewed in Banner of Israel (Guest, London, 
1877), Nos. 6, 7. See also Planches ' Royal Re- 
cords' (1838), and the Gentleman's Magazine (1779), 
p. 452. The most singular and original suggestions 
concerning this famous stone are found in Glover's 
* England the Remnant of Judah.' In a periodical 
by H.ine, the Glory Leader (London, Guest, 1875-7), 

are collected sixty-nine extracts upon the corona- 
tion stone, from the above and other authors. 

A. B. G. 

There is a long article by an Indian subscriber, 
accompanied by an editorial note, on the history of 
the coronation stone, in ' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. ix. 123-4 ; 
a similar query to that of MR. E. MALAN occurs 
at 2 nd S. v. 316 ; its geological character is investi- 
gated, with an editorial reference to Dean Stanley's 
' Memorials of Westminster Abbey,' pp. 499-500. 
at 4 th S. i. 101; and at p. 209 of the same volume 
MR. S. REDMOND remarks : 

( During the last quarter of a century many elaborate 
and learned articles Have been published in reference to 
the Liah Fhayl (so pronounced), or " stone of destiny," 
and much logic has been expended on both sides of the 
vexed question, but the mystery of the tradition attached 
to the atone has uot received any illumination." 

And he closes his note with " a hope that these 
facts " (such, that is, as are stated in the note) 
" may elicit some further information on this inter- 
esting question." So the subject remains as far as 
'N. & Q.' has taken part in the discussions 
respecting it. ED. MARSHALL. 

Probably MR. EDWARD MALAN will find all he 
requires about the Lia Fail and coronation chair in 
the ' Diet, of Miracles,' pp. 206-8. 


The Lia Fail, the celebrated coronation stone of 
the ancient Irish kings, is composed of granular 
limestone, and is at present about six feet above 
the ground ; but its real height is said to be twelve 
feet. At its base it is four feet in circumference, 
and is not unlike in shape the Round Towers. 
At p. 124 of the late Sir W. R. Wilde's delightful 
'The Beauties of the Boyne' is an engraving of the 
supposed Lia Fail, and from the same book the 
following is quoted: 

"Between the house of Cormac and the rath of the 
Forrath existed, it is supposed, the ruins of Tea-Mur, 
from which 'femur, or Tara, takes its name, in memory 
of a Milesian queen called Tea. In the centre of the 
internal mound of the Forrath stands an upright stele, or 
circular pillar-stone, which was formerly on the top of the 
Mound of Hostages, but was removed to this spot in the 
year 1798, and erected as a headstone to the grave of 
thirty-seven of the insurgents who were killed in a 
skirmish with the military in this neighbourhood. Dr. 
Petrie supposes this stone to be the celebrated Lia Fail, 
on which the early Irish kings were crowned, and which 
has been generally believed to have been carried to 
Scotland for the coronation of Fergus Mac Enrk, and 
afterwards removed by Edward I. from Scone to West- 
minster Abbey. The Lia Fail was the stone so famed 
in ancient history, which was said to have roared beneath 
the Irish kings at the time of their inauguration. For 
the various authorities bearing upon this point we 
must refer our readers to the * History and Antiquities of 
Tara Hill.' We fully acknowledge the force of the 
reasoning of Dr. Petrie on this subject, and admit the 
validity of his arguments with respect to the history 
of the Stone of Destiny, and we must believe that it is 
not that now in Westminster Abbey ; but at the same 

. I. JAN. 2, '86.] 



time we are not by any means convinced that this round 
pillar stone now placed over the croppies' grave is the stone. 
Perhaps the fiat sculptured stone, latterly called the Cross 
of St. Adam nan, may have been it. This opinion was 
likewise held by O'Donotan in his valuable and volumi- 
nous letters on Tara." 

Freegrove Road, N. 

DUCTOR (6 th S. xii. 468). 1. Burgomasco = Bur- 
gomaster, is the etymological blunder of an igno- 
ramus. The Burgomask (dance), ' Mids. N. D./ 
V. i. 350, Ital. lergamasca, was a grotesque rustic 
dance, adopted from the inhabitants of Berga- 
masco, a canton or district of the Lombardo- Vene- 
tian kingdom, of which Bergamo was, or it maybe 
is, the chief city. The Italian buffoons also, as 
stated by Hanmer, imitated and burlesqued the 
clownishness and uncouth dialect of these Berga- 
mascos. Marston's Balurdo, Ital. balordo, " a fool 
or noddy, or giddy-pated fellow," as Matzagente is 
" a man queller " the fool of the play, represents 
himself as the son and heir of a wealthy mounte- 
banking buffoon; or, if one likes to take it liter- 
ally, though " mountebanking " is against this, 
the son of a mountebanking Bergamasco clown. 

2. F. S. Letters are commonly affixed as private 
marks of the price ; but as an outsider is not sup- 
posed to know these, even if they were used at 
that day, it is more likely, as the gloves were deli- 
cate and " whipt about with silk," that F. stood 
for fine, or for some other word, and S. for silk, 
and that 3*. 2d. was known to the girl of the period 
and to many of the audience to be the selling price 
of such. 

3. Bumbo Fair I take to be a feigned name, 
for bombo in Italian is " a humming, a buzzing, a 
resounding hoarse noise" (Florio), an excellent 
epithet for a fair. Bumbo, a snail or cockle, would 
hardly suit. 

4. Conductor I can only guess at. From " His 
Majesty's service," from the unfrequency of his 
journeys, and from the name Chester [Castle], I 
would conjecture that he was the guide or com- 
mander of a convoy of military or other stores. 
The rank or title still exists, or until very lately 
did exist, in the Royal Artillery. 


VENETIAN GLASS (6 th S. xii. 88, 138, 311). 
" The second Duke of Buckingham has the merit 
of much improving the manufacture of British 
glass by means of certain Venetian artists whom 
he brought to London in 1670 " (see Dr. Lardner's 
' Cabinet Cyclopaedia,' "Useful Arts, Porcelain 
and Glass Manufacture," 1832). 


xii. 426). The name of the fifth Lord Scales was 
certainly Robert (not Thomas), and it is so given 

both in his inquisition and in Sir H. Nicolas's 
' Calendar of Heirs.' His wife was Elizabeth, 
d. of Sir Matthew Bruce of Gower ; she m. 
secondly Sir Henry Percy of Athole, arid d. 
Jan. 21, 1440. That Lord Scales was the first 
husband is plainly shown by the ages of her 
children Robert, sixth Lord Scales, b. in 1396 ; 
Thomas, seventh Lord, b. in 1400 ; Elizabeth 
Percy, b. 1412/3 ; and Margaret Percy, b. 1415/6. 
I can see no evidence that Lord Scales married a 
Bardolf, nor that William, fifth Lord Bardolf, had 
a daughter of the name of Elizabeth or Joan. It 
is, however, quite possible that there was such a 
contract, if not a marriage, in the childhood of 
both, and the bride may have died so young as to 
account for her non-appearance in the Bardolf 
pedigree. HERMENTRUDE. 

1. Robert de Scales, Chivaler, was summoned 
to attend the Parliament which met on Saturday, 
Sept. 30, 1402, and was adjourned to Monday, 
Oct. 2. 

2. An inquisition was held at Stoke Ferry on 
Feb. 19, 1403. before Will. Appleyard, the 
Escheator for the county of Norfolk, when the 
jury found that Sir Robert Scales died on Dec. 7, 
1402, and that Robert, his son, was his heir, aged 
six years d amplius. 

3. By an inquisition held at Lynn Episcopi, 
before Sir John Ingaldesthorp, Knt., on Friday, 
April 26, 1415, it was found that Joanna, late wife 
of Sir Roger Scales, died on Jan. 7, 1415, and that 
Robert, son of Robert Scales (i. e., grandson of Sir 
Roger), was her heir, aged eighteen years et 

4. By an inquisition held at Lynn Episcopi on 
Wednesday, July 14, 1418, it was found that by 
the death of Johanna aforesaid the reversion of 
certain manors, &c., belonged to Robert, son of Sir 
Robert Scales, Knt., as heir of Sir Roger, his 
grandfather ; that is, Robert Scales, son of Sir 
Robert, was still alive. 

5. By a precipe of Henry V., dated Feb. 28, 
1421, the Escheator of the county of Norfolk is 
ordered to give seisin of certain estates to Thomas, 
brother and heir of Robert, son of Robert Scales, 
Chivaler, who had lately died dum infra etatem et 
in custodia nostra fuit. 

6. By an inquisition held at Lynn Episcopi on 
Thursday, Oct. 1, 1460, it was found that Thomas, 
Dominus de Scales, Miles, died July 25 of that 
year, and that Elizabeth, late wife of Henry 
Bourghier, Esq., was his daughter and heir, aged 
twenty-four years et amplius. 

7. By the Patent Roll of 2 Ed. IV., dated 
Leicester, May 27, 1462, a grant of the wardship 
of certain lands, &c., in South Lynn is made to 
Anthony Woodville and Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter and heir of Thomas, late Lord Scales. 

8. By an inquisition held at Hertford, Oct. 28, 



7* S. I. JAN. 2, '86. 

1485, it was found that Elizabeth, daughter and 
heir of Thomas, Lord Scales, died on Sept. 2, 1473, 
and that Anthony, her husband (Lord Rivers), died 
June 20, 1484, that there was no issue of the 
marriage, and that a great deal else had happened. 
Two claimants for the lordship and estates ap- 
peared, viz., William Tindale, who claimed descent 
from Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Scales and 
sister of Sir Roger, who was father of No. 1, and 
John de Veer, Earl of Oxford, who claimed 
descent from Margaret, daughter of the said Sir 

Almost all the above may be found in the 
minutes of evidence in the petition of Sir Charles 
Tempest claiming the style and title of Lord de 
Scales, which was presented in 1857. One 
difficulty presents itself which I cannot ex- 
plain : Robert Scales (No. 2), son of Sir Robert, 
was six years old in February, 1403, that is he 
was born not later than January, 1397; also he 
was declared to be eighteen on January 7, 1415 
(No. 3), that is he was probably born in 1396 ; 
also by No. 4 in 1418 he was alive and heir to his 
grandmother, and he must have been of age. 
Nevertheless, by No. 5 it is expressly said that he 
died under age, his estates being then in the king's 
hands, ratione minoris etatis. 


* HOB^E NAUSEA* (6 th S. xii. 408). 'Debrett 7 for 
1884, p. 635, has : 

" Peel, Right Hon. Sir Laurence, P.O., D.C.L., son of 
Joseph Peel, Esq., of Soutbgate; b. 1799; ed. at St. John's 
Coll., Camb. (B.A. 1821, M.A. 1824) ; called to the Bar at 
the Middle Temple, 1824 ; was Advocate-Gen, in Bengal 
1840-2; Chief- Justice of Calcutta 1842-55, and Vice- 
Pree. of Legislative Council at Calcutta 1854-5; is a D L 
for City of London; Hon. D.C.L. of Oxford 1858; cr. 
K.B. 1842, P.C. 1856. Bonchurch, I.W.; Athenreum 

From the account of the family of Peel of Peele 
Fold in Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' ii. 1017 (ed. 
1853), it appears that the above Joseph Peel was 
the sixth son of Robert Peel of Peele Fold, and 
brother of the first baronet. This Joseph, of 
Bowes, near London, m. Ann Haworth, and had, 
with other issue, "Lawrence (Sir), Knt., Chief 
Justice of Bengal." In Burke's 'Peerage,' 1868, 
p. 868, the entry is simply " Joseph, d. leaving 
issue in 1820." Burke (* Landed Gentry 7 ) spells 
the Lawrence with a 10, and this name seems to 
have come into the family in 1712, by the marriage 
of William Peele to Anne, d. of Lawrence Walms- 
ley, of Upper Darwent, in Lancashire. Sir Lau- 
rence Peel died July 22, 1884. I think there was 
an obituary notice of him in the Times. 


I also have a copy of this work, and have 
always understood that its author was the late 
Sir Lawrence Peel, who from 1842 to 1855 was 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at Calcutta. 

Sir Lawrence, who died in 1884, was the son of 
Joseph Peel, a younger brother of Sir Robert 
Peel, first baronet, and uncle of the great 
statesman. H. W. FORSYTH HARWOOD. 

12, Onslow Gardens, S.W. 

[Other correspondents are thanked for information to 
the same effect.] 

CLERK OF THE KITCHEN (6 th S. xii. 409, 475). 
According to Chambers 's Journal (1882, p. 153), 
art. 'The Queen's Household,' the Clerk of the 
Kitchen receives a salary of 700Z., with his board. 
Under him are four clerks, who keep the accounts, 
check weights and measures, and give orders to the 
tradesmen ; a messenger ; and a " necessary woman." 


This office exists in the royal household at 
present. SEBASTIAN. 

W. H. SWEPSTONE (6 th S. xii. 493). If MR. 
EBBLEWHITE will apply to Mr. William Henry 
Swepstone, solicitor, Guardians' Office, York Street 
West, Ratclifie, I think he will obtain all the in- 
formation which he requires. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

DOUBLE TUITION FEE (6 th S. xii. 388). A 
double tuition fee was required by Isocrates, not 
because his pupil had been under another master, 
but because he was too loquacious, as appears from 
the following notice : 

" Isocrates orator a Cbarseone loquace, in schola ejus 
vergari capiente, duplicem petebat mercedem ; cumque 
causam Charaeon percunctaretur : unam peto, respondit, 
ut loqui, alteram ut silere discas." Abbas Maximus, 
' Serm.,' xlvii., De Loquacitate, p. 242 (Tigur., 1546). 

See also Stobseus, * Anthologia,' xxxvi. 


(6 th S. xii. 89, 313, 357, 414). Lingard (no 
mean authority on such subjects) says : 

" It was pretended that miracles had been wrought at 
his [Earl of Lancaster] tomb, and on the hill where he 
was beheaded. In consequence a guard of fourteen men- 
at-arms was appointed to prevent all access to the 
place (Lei. ' Coll.,' ii. 466). Soon after the coronation of 
the young king, a letter was written at the request of 
the Commons in Parliament to the Pope, to ask for the 
canonization of Lancaster, and of his friend Robert, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. The request was not noticed 
(Rym., iv. Rot. Parl., ii. 7)." 


I venture to ask of the Editor as early an oppor- 
tunity as suits his convenience to correct an un- 
fortunate blunder in my reply on p. 414, by which 
I am made to say what I did not at all mean. It 
was the Earl, not the Archbishop, whose saintliness 
I called in question ; and who is responsible for 
the mistake I know not. If I am in fault, I beg 
leave to offer an apology. HERMENTRUDE. 

7ti' S. I. JAN. 2, '86.] 




267, 453; iii. 96; vii. 207). As a descendant of 
John Josselyn, M.P. for Buckingham, through 
Lady Wentworth, sister to Sir Thomas Josselyn, 
I write to notice a statement by one of your corre- 
spondents that "New Hall was built by one of 
the Jocelyns over two hundred years ago." Surely 
longer than that ! Lady Wentworth, who was 
left a widow in 1557, and who is buried at Burn- 
ham Church, Bucks, is described as the daughter 
of " John Josselyn, of New Hall Josselyn, in the 
co. of Essex " in an old pedigree, and John Jos- 
selyn of New Hall Josselyn, must have been so 
described at the date of his wedding. D. 

FEET OF FINES (6 th S. xii. 449). The latest 
and best authority on the character of the several 
public records has this account of the feet of fines : 

" Fines, feet of : Common Pleas, Henry II. to 1834 
(in which year they were abolished): 

" There were five essential parts to the levying of a 
fine : (1) The original writ of right, usually of covenant, 
issued out of the Common Pleas against the conusor and 
the praecipe, which was a summary of the writ, and upon 
which the fine was levied, (2) The royal license (licentia 
concordandi) for the levying of the fine, for which the 
Crown was paid a sum of money called king's silver, 
which was the post-fine, as distinguished from the pro- 
fine, which was due on the writ. (3) The conusance, or 
concord itself, which was the agreement expressing the 
terms of the assurance, and was, indeed, the conveyance. 
(4) The note of the fine, which was an abstract of the 
original contract or concord. (5) The foot of the fine, 
or the last part of it, which contained all the matter, 
the day, year, and place, and before what justices it had 
been levied. A fine was said to be engrossed when the 
chirographer made the indentures of the fine and de- 
livered them to the party to whom the conusance was 
made. The chirograph or indentures were evidence of 
the fine." Alex. Ch. Ewald, ' Our Public Records : a 
Brief Handbook to the National Archives,' Lond.. 1873, 
P. 72. 

Blackstone observes that the foot of the fine is 
" the conclusion of it, which includes the whole 

matter usually beginning thus, ' Heec est finalis 

concordia'" (bk. ii. ch. xxi. 5). 


A fine is a sum of money paid to the Crown for 
permission to alienate or convey land. The foot 
of the fine is the portion of the deed which recites 
the final agreement between the parties ; that 
which contains an abstract of the proceedings 
(which were of the nature of a fictitious suit) is 
called the note of the fine. Originally the feet 
were kept in the King's Treasury and the notes in 
the Common Bench. Owing to several cases of 
embezzlement or substitution of these documents, 
it was ordained by statute in 1403 (5 Hen. IV., 
c. 14) that all such writs of covenant and notes of 
the same were to be " inrolled in a roll to be a 
record for ever, to remain in the safe custody of 
the chief clerk of the Common Bench." The foot 
of the fine usually begins with the words " Hsec 

est finalis concordia," and recites the whole pro- 
ceedings at length, including the " parties, the day, 
year, and place, when, where, and before whom 
the fine was acknowledged or levied " (Stephen's 
* Commentaries,' i. 570). By a statute 23 Eliz., 
c. 3, an office was appointed, to be called the 
Office for the Inrolment of Writs for Fines and 
Kecoveries (see Thomas's * Handbook of Public 
Eecords,' p. 129). J. H. WYLIE. 

Fines were a very ancient class of conveyances 
by matter of record, consisting of fictitious suits in 
the Court of Common Pleas, commenced and then 
compromised by leave of the Court. They were 
called fines because they put an end not only to 
the pretended suit, but also to all claims not made 
within a certain time. The foot of a fine was its con- 
clusion, of which indentures were made and de- 
livered to the parties, reciting the whole proceedings 
at length. Fines were abolished by 3 & 4 Will. 
IV., c. 74. See Steph. ' Com.,' ninth edition, vol. i. 
pp. 562 sq.- 2 <B1. Com./ 348 sq.; 'Co. Litt./ 
121a, n. (1); Williams's ' Keal Property,' twelfth 
edition, pp. 48 sq. ; 2 ' Eoll. Abr.' 13, &c. 



"Pedes Finium"and similar records are fully 
explained in * How to Write the History of a 
Parish,' by J. Charles Cox (London, Bemrose & 
Sons) ; see pp. 40-42. ESTE. 

The foot of a fine is the fifth or last part of it, 
containing all the matter, the day, year, place, and 
names of the justices by whom it was levied. 


xii. 467, 503). The ' Iliad' was originally pub- 
lished in six volumes, 1715-20, quarto and folio. 
The quarto edition contains eight pages on which 
the names of the subscribers are given. This list 
immediately precedes the preface. The copy of 
the folio edition which I have seen did not contain 
any list of subscribers, and differed in many re- 
spects from the quarto edition. The authority for 
the statement in Lowndes to which F. D. refers is 
the following extract from Johnson's ' Life of 

" Of the quartos it was, I believe, stipulated that none 
should be printed but for the author, that the subscrip- 
tion might not be depreciated ; but Lintot impressed the 
same pages upon a small folio, and paper, perhaps, a little 
thinner; and sold exactly at half the price for half-a- 
guinea each volume books so little inferior to th 
quartos that by a fraud of trade, those folios, being 
afterwards shortened by cutting away the top and 
bottom, were sold as copies printed for the subscribers. 
Lintot printed 250 on royal paper in folio for two 
guineas a volume ; of the small folio, having printed 
1,750 copies of the first volume, he reduced the number 
in the other volumes to 1,000."' The Works of Samuel 
Johnson, LL.D.,' 1825, vol. viii. p. 251. 

G. F. R. B. 



. I. JAN. 2, '6. 

ELS IN PLACE-NAMES (6 th S. xii. 269, 330). 
Elsass, about = " settlement on the El or Al." 
From same root, rivers Els, Elsa, Olsa, Hz. 


208, 315, 417). These are to be seen on the walls 
over the piers of the nave (six on either side) of niy 
parish church of Prestbury, Cheshire, underneath 
paintings of the twelve apostles, and probably 
painted at the same time (1719). 


[Many other similar records Lave reached us.] 

" PARADISE LOST " IN PROSE (6 th S. xi. 267, 
318, 492 ; xii. 296). Isaac D'Israeli, in his de- 
lightful ' Curiosities of Literature,' has the follow- 
ing on this subject : 

" Two singular literary follies have been practised on 
Milton. There ia a prose version of his ' Paradise Lost,' 
which was innocently translated from the French version 
of his epic ! One Green published a specimen of a new 
version of the ' Paradise Lost ' into blank verse ! For this 
purpose he has utterly ruined the harmony of Milton's 
cadences, by what he conceived to be ' bringing that 
amazing work somewhat nearer the summit of perfec- 
tion.' "Vol. i. p. 305, 1867 edition. 


Teheran, Persia. 

[The permission reputedly given Dryden by Milton 
to " tag bis verses " is. of course, recalled.] 

BOSKY (6 th S. xii. 389, 435). It may interest 
PROF. SKEAT to know how " Busk as a surname " 
(to which he alludes) came into being. It was 
reduced to that form of spelling by my great-grand- 
father, Jacob Hans Busk. The family had for 
generations been designated in Normandy as Du 
Busc, having for bearing a tree ppr. on a field 
argent. My late brother's papers have not come 
into my hands, but he had evidence of the exist- 
ence of the name in Norman records so far back 
as the year 1315. Nicolas du Busc was sent to 
Sweden as French ambassador in 1659, ultimately 
settling and residing t here till his death, about 1708. 
Either he or his son Hans Hanssen added a final k, 
probably out of conformity with local fondness for 
that letter, making it Busck. Hans Hanssen 
Busck's son, Jacob Hans Busk (at that time Busck) 
above named, came to England in 1712, and was 
naturalized 8-9 George I. Being both a practical 
and a humorous man, he said he would save his 
descendants the trouble of writing two letters 
henceforth where one answered all the purpose, 
and accordingly reduced the spelling to Busk. 
If PROF. SKKAT'S researches have brought him 
across any earlier instance of "Busk as a sur- 
name," so spelt, it would interest me much if he 
would kindly tell me of it. R. H. BUSK. 

"NUREMBERG NIMBUS" (6 th S. xii. 467). 
This name was given by the late Mr. Holt to the 

common ornamental cruciform nimbus with termi- 
nations to the cross resembling fleurs-de-lis. He 
might as well have called it the London or West- 
minster, as it occurs in Wynkyn de Worde's 
4 Sermo pro Episcopo Pueroruin,' &c. It was 
common in paintings, illuminated MSS., and 
printed books in many parts of Europe. It is 
surely not worth while to revive this question, 
which was disposed of at the time that the foolish 
assertion was made, especially by Mr. T. Fuller 
Russell and myself, in the * Ecclesiologist ' (" Fair- 
ford Windows") and before the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institution of Great Britain, at one of the 
meetings of which my old friend showed an ex- 
ample of this form in a MS. Sarum missal of the 
middle of the fifteenth century. I have two ex- 
amples in German pictures of the same date oppo- 
site me as I write. J. C. J. 

409). I should be much obliged if MR. COPE 
would give me the Italian recipe for capillaire. 

C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

HOLBEIN (6 th S. xii. 429). There is a note re- 
specting Holbein in Add. MS., British Museum 
Library, 1106, p. 13, in the " Collection relating 
to London," by J. Bagford, annotator of Stowe, 
circa 1703. It contains nothing that is not found 
elsewhere, and gives incorrectly the date of Hol- 
bein's death as " 1554, in the 65 yeare of his 
age"; but adds the curious statement that "he 
painted with his left hand." Is this correct ? 

J. M. 

BECOME : AXES (6 th S. xii. 288, 392). DR. 
NICHOLSON'S query, referring to the word axes as 
employed by Reg. Scot in the 'Discouerie of Witch- 
craft,' does not appear to have elicited a reply. 
The passage in question runs thus : " He shall 
not be condemned with false witnesse, nor taken 
with fairies, or anie maner of axes, nor yet with 
the falling euill" (first edition, p. 232). Elsewhere 
(p. 271) Scot specifies " More charmes for agues," 
one of which contains this sentence: " So let neuer 
the hot or cold fit of this ague come anie more vnto 
this man." 

Turning next to * A Goode Booke of Medicines, 
called the Treasure of Poore Men,' printed by 
Thomas Colwell, circa 1558, I find the following 
formula : 

" For the Fever Tertian. 

Take the ioyce of plantan and temper it with wine, 
or with iii sponefull of water, and drynke it a lytle 
before the Axes come, and lay thee to slepe and couer 
thee warme. Or take the lease sperewort and Betaine 
and temper the ioyce tberewytb, with wyne or water, or 
drynke a cup full before the Axes come : and this will 
swage the coldnes." 

Again : 

" Take a good handfull of wormewodde, and grynde it 
as small aa grenesauce, and put therein broun bread, and 

7* S. I. JAK. 2, '86.] 



pouder of Comine, and temper it with Asell made thycke 
as grene sauce, and when thou feleet the axes come go to 
thy naked bed and make thee ryght warme, and laye it 
to thy stomake," &c. 

From these illustrations it is clear that axes = 
access, accession of the paroxysm of intermittent 
paludal fever, either of the quotidian, the tertian, 
or the quartan type " anie maner of axes" which 
commences with " the cold fit." In the " ' Homish 

Apothecarye translated out of the Almaine 

speche into English by Jhon. Hollybush.' Im- 
printed at Collen by Arnold Birckman. In the 
yeare of our Lord M.D.LXJ.," the same idea is con- 
veyed by the word "assaulting": "When ye 
know the houre of the assaultinge, then take of 
thys drinke followvnge," &c. Philip Barrough,. in 
his 'Method of Physick' (1590, 1596, 1601), de- 
scribes the accession and remission of intermittent 
fevers as "fits and slakings." His book was, how- 
ever, written for the use of students rather than 
for the Lady Bountifuls of the period. 



RICHARD WHARTON (6 th S. xii. 447). In idly 
turning over the pages of Guillim's * Heraldry/ of 
date 1679, the other day, singularly enough I 
happened to stumble across the name and armorial 
bearings of a Lord Philip Wharton, Baron Whar- 
ton, of Wharton, in Westmoreland. Arms thus 
described : Sable, a maunch argent within a bor- 
dure or, an orle of lions' paws in saltire gules by 
the name Wharton. His lordship I find married 

twice, firstly, to , by whom he had three sons ; 

secondly, to Ann, daughter to William Oarr, Esq., 
of Fernihast, in Scotland. This second wife's 
bearings appear with his own. By his second 
marriage he had a son William, whose armorial 
achievements as an esquire are found in the same 
volume. Unfortunately from this source no clue 
to names or deeds of the three eldest sons is de- 
rivable. The knowledge that there were such 
representatives, however, with the facts above de- 
tailed, may, I believe, prove of some service to 
American genealogists. A. CAMPBELL BLAIR. 

349, 394). The Greek inscription J$i\ov t K.T.\., 
given by F. G. from " the old font which formerly 
belonged to the church at Melton Mowbray," may 
also be found on the font in the parish church of 
Dedham, Essex. Will some one tell me which is 
the older ; and what is their common origin ? 

[See 5'h S. viii. 77.] 

COLIGNY (6 th S. xii. 448). H. 0. will find 
Coligny one of the principal characters spoken of 
in Voltaire's 'Henriade,' chant 2. The notes 
accompanying Hachette's edition of Voltaire's 
' Works,' vol. xv. (' CEuvres de Voltaire,' 
tome xv.), are very ample. I know of no Eng- 

lish translation of the poem, which I fancy would 
lose its force if rendered in another language. 


H. C.'s friend will find many references to 
Coligny in the second canto of the ' Henriade.' 
There are several English translations of the poem. 

G. F. E. B. 

TYROCINY (6 th S. xii. 130, 255, 358). 

A Discourse of the Terrestial Paradise aiming at a 

more probable Discovery of ye True Situation of that 

Happy Place of our First Parents Habitation. By 

Marmaduke Carver, Rector of Harthill in ye county of 

York London : printed by James Flesher 1666. 

8vo. Pp. 34, map, 168. 

In the above curious work, at signature A 7, p. xiii, 
occurs the following passage : " In my younger 
years and first Tyrociny in Divinity." 


387, 473.) Burns's published writings are not so 
pure as they might be, and I believe it is now 
understood that those unpublished are still coarser. 
Probably, therefore, the " freedom " of the ten 
songs or ballads mentioned by MR. THOMPSON is 
no reason for doubting their authenticity. 

Moore's 'Life of Lord Byron,' though I read it 
when I went through my attack of Byron-madness 
at about twenty, has only just come in my way 
for a second time. I find almost at this moment 
the following in the journal, dated December 13, 
1813 : 

" Allen has lent me a quantity of Burns' unpublished, 
and never to be published, letters. They are full of 
oaths and obscene songs. What an antithetical mind ! 
tenderness, roughness, delicacy, coarseness, sentiment, 
sensuality, soaring and grovelling, dirt and deity, all 
mixed up in that one compound of inspired clay ! " 

C. S. F. WARREN, M.A. 
Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

" Yestreen I got a pint of wine " is referred to 
in the ' Correspondence ' (Currie's ed., 1801). The 
postscript is probably Burns's also. " The Patri- 
archs " was, it is believed, from Burns's pen. " Ye 
hae lien wrang, lassie," is in the poet's published 
works, but is not so free as a song of the same 
title. " Supper is not ready " is not, so far as I 
am aware, attributed to Burns. " The Union " 
I know not. " Wha'll kiss me now" I think is not 
Burns's. "The Fornicator" is said to be the 
production of the poet named. " The Case of 
Conscience" is not known to have been written 
by Burns. "Jacob and Rachel" I am not ac- 
quainted with. " Donald Brodie ' is to be found 
in the poet's works. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. 


The most singular thing about this matter is 
the variations that have crept into Dr. Ourrie's 
'Life' of the poet. In the first edition (1800) 
January 29 is, I believe, given as the date, though 



7* S. I. JAN. 2, '86. 

Gilbert Burns says the 25th. I think I am correct 
in stating that all subsequent editions up to 1819 
give January 29, while the edition of 1819 gives 
July 29. In the " Diamond Edition " of Dr. 
Carrie's ' Life,' published in 1835, the date is again 
made January 29. The probable explanation is 
that the alteration arose from a misprint, which 
Dr. Currie, amid the varied occupations of an 
active professional career, had overlooked. Eead- 
ing his preface to the first edition, we must not 
be uncharitable. It is more difficult, however, to 
acquit him of blame in permitting January 29 to 
appear at all when we reflect that almost certainly 
he must have read the poet's celebrated lines 
quoted by MR. E. H. MARSHALL, which I agree 
with that gentleman in thinking entirely settle 
the point a conclusion which modern custom 
and editors universally concur in. 

4, Cleveland Road, Baling, W. 

"A MORROW-MASSE FREEST" (6 th S. xi. 248, 

338 ; xii. 91, 270). This expression occurs in 
* The Life of Long Meg of Westminster,' 1635, 
reprinted in ' Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana,' 
1816 : 

" On a day when ghee was growne more strong, it 
chanced that Frier Oliuer who was one of the morrow 
Masse Priests, called to remembrance that Meg was 
eicke : whereupon taking his Portuce by his side, hee 
thought to fetch some spending money from her, and 
walkt to her house, where he came very grauely," &c. 
Pp. 27-28. 

The inference of your correspondent E. H. H. 
with regard to the position of these priests is no 
doubt correct. ' Long Meg ' was probably com- 
piled in the early part of Elizabeth's reign. 

W. F. P. 

WILLIAM LONGSWORD (6 th S. xii. 246, 396, 
478). Will HERMENTRUDE be kind enough to 
give me her authority for a statement (made in 
' N. & Q. ; many years ago) that William Long- 
sword died at the age of seventy-three ? I have 
seen the same age assigned to him in more 
than one book, and should like to track it back 
to its source, if possible. Of course I need 
hardly say that, if this assertion be true, it is 
almost impossible for him to have been Fair Eosa- 
mond's son. The objections to admitting this 
maternity are more than one ; but, on the other 
hand, no one objection is at all conclusive. If 
HERMENTRUDE or any other of your readers could 
supply an exact reference to the letter of Henry III. 
in which he recommends the marriage of Maud 
Clifford with William Longsword (III.) some light 
might be thrown on a very puzzling subject. As 
it is (and I should be ashamed to confess how much 
time I have spent upon this question) I cannot 
find any allusion to William Longsword's maternity 
earlier than the sixteenth century ; and even then 
it is only part of a very confused account which 

makes Geoffrey of York his full brother a state- 
ment that is demonstrably wrong. 

May I again ask for any information from our 
early literature that bears upon the Eosamond 
legend? T. A. A. 

BILLAMENT (6 th S. xii. 208, 299). Planche, in 
his ' History of British Costume' (1846), p. 249, 
writes of the head of a female of the time of 
Henry VIII. being "attired with a billiment 
[habiliment] of gold." GEO. H. BBJERLEY. 


467). Another case is John Gregg, Bishop of 
Cork, consecrated 1862, and Eobert Gregg, con- 
secrated Bishop of Ossory in 1875, in the lifetime 
of his father. Cotton's * Fasti Eccles. Hib.,' Supp. 

C. E. 

"PULL DEVIL, PULL BAKER" (2 nd S. iii. 228, 
258, 316). No very early date, nor much authen- 
tic history, has been found for this proverbial 
phrase. The Philological Society's Dictionary has 
no earlier authority than the first gentry above 
noted, an epigram then (1857) current at Hong- 
Kong. The second and third contributions alike 
assume for its origin some legendary struggle be- 
tween that familiar object of popular hatred, the 
dishonest baker, and the devil come to fetch him 
to his doom. The third, indeed, which is signed 
"Anon.," and gives no date or pretence of authen- 
tication for the wonderful vision recorded, has 
very much, to my eye, the appearance of a joke 
played off on the editor. However, I have found 
that the proverb in some shape was known to Sir 
Walter Scott, for in ' Old Mortality,' chap, xxxviii., 
he makes Cuddie say that he was " pu'ed twa ways 
at anes, like Punch and the Deevil rugging about 
the Baker at the fair." Did such an incident ever 
form a scene in the Punch drama ? I do not my- 
self remember it. If the devil and the baker 
were struggling, and Punch rescued the baker, I 
am afraid that in the eyes of the multitude this 
would make one more in the catalogue of sins for 
which Punch himself was doomed. 


xii. 408, 502). There is a portrait at Castle Ashby 
of John Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury, which is 
copied in outline and forms a frontispiece to a 
paper on Talbot's tomb in part iii. vol. viii. of the 
Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological 
Society, June, 1885, by the Eev. W. H. Egerton, 
Eector of Whitchurch. This paper contains an 
account of the finding of the earl's bones and their 
reverent inhumation for the last time on Friday, 
April 10, 1874. There is not sufficient informa- 
tion given in this account to determine the stature 
of the hero. " The bones generally were remark- 
ably well developed, and had evidently belonged 

7th s. I. JAN. 2, '86.] 



to a muscular man. Bath the femurs were per- 
fectly sound"; and then in a foot-note it is added 
" The figure when erect must have been of an average 
size ; not that of a giant, and certainly not that of a 
diminutive man, aa the sneering remarks of the Countess 
of Auvergne would lead us to suppose' 1 Hen. VI., 
II. iii." 

The twenty-six pages which Mr. Egerton's paper 
occupies seem to contain much interesting infor- 
mation respecting the life, death, and burial of 
this remarkable general. There is, besides the 
outline portrait, a sketch of his tomb and another 
of his skull and jawbone, in the former of which 
may be seen the fatal fracture which caused his 
death. BOILEAU. 

Ten or twelve years ago the bones of John 
Talbot were discovered. They were remarkably 
well developed, and were such as had belonged to 
a muscular man. Probably a search among the 
newspapers about that time would give further 
details. C. 

Westminster, S.W. 

SEAL OF GRAND INQUISITOR (6 th S. xii. 387, 
438, 472). MR. WOODWARD is right in supposing 
that Eoman Catholic prelates arrange their armo- 
rial devices according to their individual tastes. 
A friend informs me that prior to the Reformation 
diocesan sees had coats armorial assigned to them 
in England as now, but this was not the case in 
Scotland. When Episcopacy held its brief sway 
an attempt was made to imitate the English 
custom in this respect, hence a few post-Reforma- 
tion coats to which MR. WOODWARD alludes. 

But who is, or was, " Bishop Herbert, of the 
Roman Catholic See of Plymouth " ? Since this 
see was created by Pius IX., in 1851, there have 
been two bishops, Dr. Errington and Dr. Vaughan ; 
and from 1585 to 1850 1 can find no Roman Catholic 
prelate named Herbert in England. 

The Presbytery, St. Andrews. N.B. 

On the subject of the impalement of arms of 
sees by bishops, mooted by MR. ANGUS, there are 
numerous references, s. v. "Bishops, impalement 
of their Arms," in the General Index, 5 th S. of 
1 N. & Q.' The places named are iv. 327, 352, 
378, 391, 437; v. 74. There may be earlier as 
well as later references, for which I have not 
looked, as the above list shows the discussion to 
have been considerable. NOMAD. 

SCOCHYNS : SCOCHYN MONEY (6 th S. xii. 148, 
191). I fear my query on these terms was not 
clearly expressed. I have referred to Prof. Skeat's 
' Etymological Dictionary,' but that only tells me 
what I knew before that Scochyn, or scutcheon, 
means escutcheon. Why should a small parish 
like St. Dunstan's, with, perhaps, five hundred 
inhabitants, possess over nine hundred escutcheons, 

which were " all paid for " ? And what was " es- 
cutcheon money," and why was it so called ? 


THE ACT OF UNION (6 th S. xii. 468). The four 
royal fortresses which, by the articles of the Union 
between Scotland and England, are to be kept 
constantly garrisoned are Edinburgh, Blackness, 
Stirling, and Dumbarton. Blackness Castle is on 
the south bank of the Forth, a few miles west of 
Queensferry. ROBERT TAYLOR, Jun. 

I believe the fourth castle named in the Act of 
Union between England and Scotland to be pre- 
served by the Government is Blackness Castle, 
on the Firth of Forth, about five miles above 
Queensferry. It was formerly used as a State 
prison, and at present is doing duty as a powder 
magazine. A. W. B. 

CRONEBANE HALFPENNY (6 th S. xii. 469). 
With regard to the above token, mentioned by 
your correspondent R. B., may I be allowed to 
inform him of three varieties (there may, of course, 
be more) of this coin? (1) That which he men- 
tions. (2) Similar : the bishop has no crosier. 
(3) One (with crosier) bearing the inscription 
u Associated Irish Mine Company/' I have never 
heard of a place called Cronebane, but (3) has round 
its edge the following, " Payable at Cronebane Lodge 
or in Dublin," while (2) has " Payable at Birming- 
ham, London, or Bristol." Each token bears the 
date 1789. Could the name " Cronebane" refer 
to the bishop ? I shall be happy to lend the coins 
to R. B. if they will be of service. 


This is a token issued by a mining company, and 
was (as it should bear on the rim) " payable at 
Dublin, Cork, or Belfast." Cronebane is in co. 
Wicklow, and the head is that of St. Patrick. 

C. E. 

The Cronebane and Ballymurtagh Mines are in 
the slate district of Wicklow, in the Vale of Avoca, 
six miles above Arklow. These mines were largely 
worked and yielded much copper, from which 
tokens were made. Conder describes nineteen 
varieties, of which I possess examples of the 
greater number. The mitred head is a fanciful 
representation of St. Patrick. In addition to the 
cross reference to Conder's ' Tokens,' an accessible 
work, I would refer your correspondent to any 
*ood map for Cronebaue. 


Cronebane is a mountain in the county of Wick- 
ow, noted for its copper-mines (Rees's ' Cyclo- 
paedia '). Conder, ' Provincial Coins/ 1798, p. 196, 
;hus describes the halfpenny about which R. B. asks 
? or information : " 0. A bishop's head in profile, 
and crosier; 'Cronbane halfpenny.' R. Arms; 



I. JAN. 2, '86. 

crest, a crank ; date on the sides, 1789; ' Associated 
Irish Mine Company.' E. Payable at Cronebane 
Lodge or in Dublin." There are twenty-six 
varieties of the Cronebane halfpenny, on one of 
which is a whole-length figure of Bishop Blaize. 
The profiles on the other examples are probably of 
the same bishop. W. D. PARISH. 


[G. F. R. B. says descriptions of this coin are given 
in James Gender's ' Arrangement of Provincial Coins ' 
(1798), vol. ii. ; and ALPHA supplies a portion of the in- 
formation anticipated above. ] 

JURY LIST (6 th S. xii. 513). The list of so- 
called Puritan names given by DR. BRUSHFIELD 
has long been consigned to the limbo of hoaxes. 
It was either invented by Brome, or accepted by 
him without investigation. Hume quotes it in his 
' History of England,' in a note under "Common- 
wealth,'' anno 1653. The absurdity of it was 
pointed out long ago in ' N. & Q.' (4 th S. vii. 430), 
by MR. PEACOCK, than whom few are more inti- 
mately acquainted with all that relates to the 
Puritan period of our history. I followed up MR. 
PEACOCK'S reply (4 th S. viii. 72), and other replies 
appeared, proving that during the time of Charles I. 
and the Commonwealth Puritans bore the ordinary 
names of Englishmen (4 th S. vii. 430, 526 ; viii. 72, 
134, 381, 467; ix. 287; xi. 533). Of course it 
would have been illegal for a man to change his 
baptismal name. No doubt Scriptural terms were 
sometimes given as Christian names during the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James L, and these would 
appear among adults during the succeeding reigns ; 
but eighteen consecutive names of that kind, such 
as Hume quotes, could never have been found 
grouped together in the same jury list. 


The amusing jury list reprinted by DR. BRUSH- 
FIELD cannot possibly be anything more than a 
satire. Those who are acquainted with the 
manners of the Puritans know that absurd names 
like those which occur therein were at all times 
very uncommon. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

ARMS OP HALIFAX (6 th S. xii. 426, 526). 
Your correspondent F.S.A.Scot. says, " A repre- 
sentation of Our Lord might be crowned, the 
other [i.e., St. John Baptist] certainly not." 

A most distinguished art critic was once kindly 
showing me some of the leaves of a much-treasured 
illuminated Bible, and directing my attention to 
the manner in which the face had been treated of 
one of the figures limned upon the margin. It 
was of a man, seated and crowned, with two dogs 
at his feet. We were not observing the text, as it 
was a passing glance, but I suggested that it was 
a figure of Lazarus. " No," he replied ; " it is o 
a king ; he is crowned." To this I remarked that 
the figure was in proper tinctures, whilst the crown 
was in burnished gold. The crown did not form a 

>art of the historical painting, but was symbolical 
)f his beatification. He thanked me for the expla- 
nation, which he acknowledged was new to him. 
So also it appears to be to your correspondent. 
The title to the crown is concurrent with that to 
he prefix of " Saint " to the name. 


The borough of Halifax has no arms, and the 
device adopted by the Corporation for their seal is 
modern, having been designed by a gentleman 
now living (to whose ingenuity the Dewsbury 
Corporation are indebted for their seal). No argu- 
ment, therefore, can be based upon the authority of 
the seal. G. W. TOMLINSON. 


495). The celebrated actress Madame Vestria 
was the granddaughter of the eminent engraver 
Francesco Bartolozzi and the daughter of his 
eldest son, Gaetano Stefano Bartolozzi, by his 
wife Miss Jansen, daughter of a dancing master 
at Aix-la-Chapelle. The mistakes in contem- 
porary memoirs probably arose from the fact of 
the son having also taken to engraving for a 
short time ; and his father, in order to encourage 
him, allowed him to publish under his name 
many of his own works. 

Gaetano Bartolozzi had one other child, Joseph- 
ine, who married Mr. Anderson, a singer. See 
Mr. Tuer's 'Bartolozzi.' 

With regard to the date of F. Bartolozzi's birth, 
there can be, as Mr. Tuer says, no doubt that it 
was 1727, as the engraver in many instances 
added his age when he signed his engravings ; on 
a ticket is engraved, " F. Bartolozzi inv. & sculpt. 
1797, setatis suse 69"; on a portrait of Pope 
Pius VII., engraved in 1809, his age appears 
as eighty-two ; and on that of Lord Wellington, 
engraved in 1810, as eighty-three ; the latest 
example seen by Mr. Tuer being " engraved by 
F. Bartolozzi when 87 years of age, in Lisbon, in 
1814." See Tuer. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

Had NEMO taken the trouble to ask Mudie or 
Smith for a copy of the second (revised) edition 
of 'Bartolozzi and his Works' (noticed in your 
columns a week or two ago), wherein every one of 
his questions is answered and his generally in- 
correct assumptions are disposed of, the space 
occupied in the congested columns of * N. & Q.' 
would have been usefully available. I do not 
care to repeat information so easily accessible. 


The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

On consulting Tuer's ' Bartolozzi and his Works ' 
I find that Madame Vestris was the granddaughter 
of the celebrated engraver Francesco Bartolozzi, 
whose eldest son, Gaetano Stefano, married, in 

7"" S. I. JAN. 2, '86.] 


1795, Miss T. Jansen, the daughter of a dancing 
master of Aix-la-Chapelle. Of the two children 
(daughters) from this marriage, the elder, Lucy 
Elizabeth, born in January, 1797, became the wife 
of Armand Vestris in 1813. On the decease of her 
husband, Madame Vestris married, in 1838, the 
celebrated comedian Charles Mathews the younger. 
She died at Gore Lodge (Holcrofts), Fulham, in 
1856. H. 0. MILLARD. 

Madame Vestris was the daughter of Gaetano 
Stefano Bartolozzi, the son of Francesco Barto- 
lozzi. See * Dictionary of National Biography/ 
vol. iii. G. F. K. B. 

Madame Vestris was the granddaughter of Bar- 
tolozzi, the celebrated engraver. 


f A reply from MR. JULIAN SHARMAN received too late 
for insertion.] 

La, Franqaise du Siecle: Modes, Mceurs, Usages, Par 

Octave Uzanne. (Paris, Quantin.) 
WITH this wonderfully sumptuous volume M. Octave 
Uzanne completes the series of richly illustrated studies 
be has written on the physiology and frippery of the 
female sex. Though works of erudition aa well aa of 
fancy, the four volumes respectively headed ' L'Eventail,' 
' L'Ornbrelle, le Gant, le Manchon,' 'Son Altesse la 
Femme,' and ' La Franyaise du Siecle ' are in concep- 
tion and in execution as un-English as they can well be. 
The blending with archaeology of the imaginative and the 
sensuous in art is essentially Parisian, and is carried in 
these productions to the highest point. No more bril- 
liant series of illustrated works has seen the light. With 
the first three volumes, all of which, though recently pub- 
lished, are already classed as rarities, the art and litera- 
ture loving public is probably familiar. In the fourth 
volume, which is on the same lines as the third, advan- 
tage has been taken of the experience obtained; and the 
designs in colour and the illustrations, especially the 
coloured vignettes at the head of each chapter, are the 
most delicate in workmanship and the most successful 
in result that have yet been obtained. In treating of 
female caprice M. Uzanne brings to light much emi- 
nently curious matter. Very striking are the excesses 
committed by the pleasure-loving Parisians after the 
removal of the horrible yoke of the " Terror." Among the 
fashionable balls described is a bal des victimes, held at 
the Hotel Richelieu. On entering each visitor bent his 
neck in salutation, in the manner in which in the hands 
of the executioner the man about to be beheaded had to 
bend it to its place in the fatal groove. The hair was 
shaven close at the back, as though to make preparation 
for the knife. To complete the costume the daughters 
of those who had been guillotined wore a red " schall " 
(ehdle), similar to those which the executioner had 
thrown over the shoulders of Charlotte Corday and " les 
dames Sainte-Amarante " before they mounted to the 
scaffold. Those whom these and other painful and 
hideous proceedings repel will do well to recall that the 
extravagances of English loyalty after the Restoration 
were nowise more seemly. The literary execution of the 
volume is worthy of M. Uzanne's graceful and polished 
pen, while in all bibliographical respects the volume is 
the most beautiful yet published by the spirited and 
enterprising house to which it is due. 

Supplementary Annals of the Church and Parish of 
Almondbur'y. By Charles Augustus Hulbert. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

THE notice we gave of Mr. Hulbert's Annals in our 
issue of June 30th, 1883, would, if reprinted verbatim, 
answer almost exactly as a criticism of the supplemen- 
tary volume before us. The representation of the old 
hall at Longley is one of the rudest things of the kind 
we remember to have seen. The engravings which used 
to adorn the broadsides issued in the neighbourhood of 
the Seven Dials are interesting works of art compared 
with this rude sketch. The book is, however, useful, as 
it preserves in a permanent form some biographical 
sketches of persons whose names have not found a place 
in popular books of reference. The account of Prof. 
Cocker, of Ann Harbour, in the State of Michigan, who 
was born at Almondbury in 3821, is worthy of notice. 
We trust that if ever Mr. Hulbert should be called upon 
to revise his labours, he will modify the statement he 
has made with regard to the Puritans in his memoir of 
Cornet Blackburn. We can assure him that at no 
period during the great Civil War which desolated our 
country in the seventeenth century was there ever a 
determination on the part of the Puritan leaders " to put 
to death every Royalist officer whom they took prisoner." 
We have no doubt Mr. Hulbert can find some partisan 
authority for the statement ; but we are none the less 
sure that it is absolutely untrue. 

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. A.D. 1450-1885. 

Edited by Sir George Grove, D.C.L. Part XXI. 

(Macmillan & Co.) 

THIS excellent work approaches completion. Part xxi. 
carries the alphabet from " Verse " to " Water-music," a 
short distance it might be thought were it not borne in 
mind that the letters V and W are more important, pro- 
bably, in music than in any science or art. In the pre- 
sent instalment there are included, for example, " Violin " 
and "Violin Playing," which, in the excellent articles of 
Mr. E. J. Payne and Herr Paul David, occupy thirty- 
two pages, and " Wagner," whose life by Mr. Dannreuther 
is scarcely inferior. Viola, violoncello, voice, Vogler 
Volkslied, and virginal are a few only of the remaining 
subjects. Contrary to the wont of similar publications, 
the work expands aa it progresses. Vol. i. thus includes 
A to " Impromptu," and vol. iv. will only embrace from 
" Summer " to the end of the alphabet. 

Book-Lore. Vol. II. (Stock.) 

THE second volume of Book-Lore is likely to commend 
it further to bibliographers and antiquaries. It contains 
a variety of interesting and valuable contents. Con- 
spicuous among these are the papers on ' Sham Almanacks 
arid Prognostications/ by the late Cornelius Walford, of 
which many successive instalments are given ; * Shake- 
spearean Rarities,' by Mr. J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps ; ' The 
First Teetotal Tract,' by W. E. A. A.; and contribu- 
tions concerning libraries by Mr. W. Roberts and Mr. 
Carl A. Thimm. 

The East Anglian. Part XII. (Ipswich, Pawsey & 

Ha>es; London, Redway.) 

THE latest number of the East Anglian, which, under 
the management of the Rev. C. H. Evelyn White, F.R.S., 
occupies a deservedly prominent place among local Notes 
and Queries, has au excellent article on the ' Boy 
Bishop ' in East Anglia, and some highly interesting 
extracts from the earliest book of churchwardens' ac- 
counts, &c., St. Stephen's, Ipswich. 

IN an excellent number of the Nineteenth Century, Mr. 
Swinburne's powerfully written, keen, and judicioua 
essay on Middleton first arrests attention. Mr. Lang'a 



[7 th S. I. JAN. 2, '80. 

characteristic paper on * Myths and My thologists ' is 
another assault in his brilliantly conducted war on Prof. 
Max Miiller. Dr. Augustus Jessopp writes thoughtfully 
on ' The Little Ones and the Land,' and Mr. Frederic 
Harrison wisely on A Pedantic Nuisance/ otherwise 
an affected method of spelling proper names. In Temple 
Bar is a brilliant review of ' The Greville Memoirs,' in 
which an experienced hand turns the memoirs inside 
out, shows all that is best in them, and supplies illustra- 
tions indicating a wide range of curious political and 
social knowledge. ' Charles Lamb in Hertfordshire,' by 
the Key. A. Ainger, which appears in the January number 
of the English Illustrated Magazine, is unusually readable, 
and is ably and profusely illustrated. Like praise may 
be accorded Mr. H. D. Train's A Month in Sicily,' of 
which the first part only appears. A good engraving of 
Sir John Millais's picture of Sir Henry Thompson also 
appears in the number. To the Gentleman's Mr. Percy 
Fitzgerald contributes an account of Sheridan and his 
wives, and Mr. H. Schiitz Wilson an interesting study of 
Goethe as an actor. Mrs. E. Lynn Linton has also ' A 
Protest and a Plea.' In Longman's Mr. Lang commences 
some pages of gossip on new books and things, to be con- 
tinued under the title of ' At the Sign of the Ship ' ; 
Mr. Charles Hervey describes the actors in the Reign of 
Terror. The Cornkill contains two or three eminently 
readable papers. One is ' A Novelist's Favourite Theme,' 
which casts a clear light of illustration upon the method 
of workmanship of Scott and Dickens ; a second, ' Sama- 
nala and its Shadow,' a curious record of travel ; and the 
third, ' In the Rekka Hb'hle/ a description of adventure 
which we fancy and hope is imaginary. Mr. George 
Saintsbury contributes to Macnultari's an excellent 
paper on George Borrow, Mr. Mowbray writes on ' The 
' Eumenides " at Cambridge,' and Cavendish defends the 
' American Leads at Whist.' Dr. JBrinsley Nicholson 
concludes in Watford's Antiquarian his papers on ' How 
our Elizabethan Dramatists have been Edited,' and lays 
the whip hard across shoulders already well used to 
castigation ; Mr. Solly writes on ' Francis Hoffmann, 
1711 ' ; Mr. Greenstreet on The Ordinary from Mr. 
Thomas Jenyns's " Booke of Armes '"; Mrs. Boger con- 
tinues her ' King Inain Somerset '; and the Editor ' Our 
Old Country Towns.' Red Dragon remains of interest 
to others besides Welshmen, and ' The Oscotian ' gives 
interesting information on the family of Ferrers. The 
articles in the Fortnightly, which reaches us at the 
moment of going to press, are chiefly political. Mr. 
Courtney's excellent paper on ' Mr. Irving's " Faust " ' 
is an exception. 

MR. WALTER HAMILTON begins a new volume of 
Parodies the third with parodies of Oliver Goldsmith 
and Thomas Campbell, notably * The Deserted Village.' 
'The Vicar of Wakefield,' 'Lord Ullin's Daughter/ 
* Hohenlinden/ and ' The Soldier's Dream.' 

THE last livraison of Le Lime did not reach us till 
close upon the New Year. It was largely occupied with 
gift-books of the season, but has a curious pedigree of 
La Dame aux Camelias, otherwise Alphonsine Plessis, 
and ' Le Journaliste Lebois et 1'Ami du Peuple/ which 
furnishes some striking revelations of life in revolu- 
tionary times. 

WE are desired by URBAN to convey his thanks to MR. 
J. W. M. GIBBS and MR. J. SHARMAN for useful infor- 
mation supplied him with regard to the brotherslBrough. 

WITH the New Year Mr. Walford promises tpj add 
to the attractions of his Antiquarian a series of 
biographical essays on our leading old English anti- 
quaries. The series will commence with Elias Ashmole, 

and will embrace Dugdale, Speed, Strype, Nichols, Sir 
Egerton Brydges, &c. 

THE Rev. Canon Charles Page Eden, Vicar of Aber- 
ford, near Leeds, a valued but occasional correspondent 
of ' N. & Q./ died on the 14th of the past month. 
The Oxford Herald of December 26 has a friendly 
obituary notice of some length, to which we beg to refer 
our readers. 

otfre to Correspondent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

A. C. B., Glasgow ("Munchausen"). The authorship 
of ' The Singular Travels, Campaigns, Voyages, and 
Adventures of Munchausen/ written as a satire on the 
memoirs of Baron de Tott, is unknown. In ' Fifty 
Years' Recollections of an old Bookseller/ by West, it 
is attributed to Mr. St. John, of Oxford ; by Sir Charles 
Lyell, Principles of Geology/ 1850, p. 44, to Rudolph 
Eric Raspe, the editor of Leibnitz. The edition cited 
by Lowndes, the third, was published in London, 1786. 
The English translation of De Tott's memoirs was 
issued in 1785. The first edition of Munchausen, the 
date of which our correspondent seeks, appears to have 
been Oxford, 1786. Consult N . & Q./ 1" S. passim, and 
Gent. Mag, for January, 1837, p. 2. 

J. M. (" Short Account of the Life of Jules Simon.") 
A book exactly such as you want was published by 
M. A. Quantin in 1883, as a number of the series known 
as " Celebrites Contemporaines," price, with portrait 
and facsimile of letter, seventy-five centimes. It can be 
got through any foreign bookseller. (" Chouan.") This 
was a name given to the bands who, in the west of 
France, fought against the Revolution. The name is 
supposed to be a contraction of chat-huant, pronounced 
cha-u-an, a species of owl, the cry of which the insur- 
gents imitated in signalling to each other. (" Blancs et 
Bleus.") The first name was given in France to the 
partisans of the ancient monarchy of the Bourbons, 
whose emblem was the drapeau Uanc; the second to 
the Republican soldiers, whose uniform was blue. 


I see a hand thou canst not see, 
That beckons me away, 

is from ' Colin and Lucy,' by Tickell. " He heard but 
listened not, he saw but needed not. His eyes," &c., is a 
misquotation of the famous verse on the gladiator in 
Byron's ' Childe Harold/ 

M. D. (" Lillibullero "), The words of this song have 
already appeared in 'N.&Q./ 2 nd S. i. 89. They are 
to be found in Percy's ' Reliques.' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print j and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7 lil S. I. JAN. 9, '86.] 





NOTES : History of the Thames, 21 Shakspeariana, 22 
J. Horrox, 24 Pronunciation of Wind' Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography' Devil's Causeway, 25 Reading Cover, 

QUEEIES : Mazers -Commonplace Book, 26 Penny Family 
Old St. Pancras Churchyard Conquer Homer, 27 
Ashton Werden Heraldic General Armstrong Dumb 
Barge Bamboo Devil-names Author of Verses Admiral 
Sir C. Knowles T. Pringle, 28 Ludgate Minor Works of 
Scott Sir F. Gorges Churchwardens Illustrations to 'Don 
Quixote ' Surname of Bunch " Preces Paulinse " Woldiche 
Rotherham Church Garter Brasses Mugwump New- 
port, 29 Authors Wanted, 30. 

REPLIES :-Bed-staff, 30 -Rev. E. Neale, 31-Smoking in 
Church, 32 Basilisk Catalogue of Almanacs Nuts at Feasts 
Bartolozzi Dout Mislested, 33 Pope's ' Iliad 'Napier's 
Bones Esquire, 34 O'Donovan's ' Merv 'Wedding Cus- 
tom Medicean Escutcheon, 35 ' Memoirs of Grimaldi ' 
Simulation in Art Scottish Fast Days-Bloody Hand, 36 
Jane Clermont Baxter's Connexions Colchester Castle- 
Christmas as a Surname Sedan Chairs Pyewipe " Sepelivit 
nuptam," 37 " He knows how many beans" 'Lothair' 
Trinity Monday Godchildren of Queen Elizabeth Molinos 
Dumps, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:- 'The New English Dictionary' 
'Dictionary of National Biography" Crane's 'Italian 
Popular Tales ' Sieveking's ' Praise of Gardens.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 




The real antiquity of the chipped flint weapon 
found opposite Black Mary's was not so much as 
surmised indeed, could not have been surmised 
in the days of its discovery. Mr. Bagford, as 
we have seen, dismisses with contempt the notion 
of its being as old as the days before the Flood, 
and suggests what he doubtless considered a far 
more plausible theory that it was the identical 
weapon with which a large-hearted Londoner of 
the period attacked and slew an elephant imported, 
regardless of expense, by the Emperor Claudius. 
To do Mr. Bagford justice, however, he did not 
evolve that elephant out of the depths of his own 
moral consciousness. He found him ready sheathed 
in scale armour and with a howdah on his back in 
the pages of Polypous, and caught a further fleet- 
ing glimpse of him in the narrative of Dion Cassius. 
I do not believe even that Polysenus, imaginative 
Macedonian as he was, really invented the animal. 
He only inferred it. " In a brick-field near London," 
writes Mr. Tylor in 1871, " there had been found 
a number of fossil elephant bones, and soon after- 
wards a story was in circulation in the neighbourhood 
somewhat in this shape : ' A few years ago one of 
Wombwell's caravans was here ; an elephant died 

and they buried him in the field, and now the 
scientific gentlemen have found his bones and 
think they have got hold of a pre-Adamite ele- 
phant."' At Oxford also the late Mr. Frank 
Buckland " found the story of the Wombwell's 
caravan and the dead elephant current to explain 
a similar find of fossil bones. Such explanations 
of the finding of fossils are easily devised, and used 
to be freely made, as when fossil bones found in 
the Alps were set down to Hannibal's elephants."* 
In exactly the same way, I fancy, it was some 
story of big bones found near the Thames which 
formed the nucleus of Polyaenus's myth, and it 
was certainly the finding of such bones which 
inspired Mr. Bagford's conjecture. 

With this elephantine flight of fancy ends the 
first chapter in the history of the find opposite 
Black Mary's. Palaeolithic discovery went to sleep 
for a hundred years, 

To wake on knowledge grown to more, 
though even then only able very partially and 
inadequately to interpret the phenomena set before 
it. On June 22, 1797, a letter was read before the 
Society of Antiquaries from Mr. John Frere, F.R.S., 
F.S. A. ,t giving an account of a number of flint 
implements then lately found in a brick-pit at 
Hoxne, in Suffolk. So far as he or any other then 
living antiquary was aware, they were the first of 
the kind ever brought to light, and he regarded 
them as " evidently weapons of war, fabricated 
and used by a people who had not the use of 
metals." What struck Mr. Frere most strongly, 
however, was that they were found twelve feet 
deep in a bank of undisturbed and stratified soil 
abruptly abutting on a tract of lower ground. 
The things, he knew, were neither rich nor rare: 
He wondered how the devil they got there. 

And well he might. The pit, so far as subsequent 
diggings allow its exact situation to be determined, 
lay just a mile due south of the Ked Bridge over 
the Gold-brook, a tributary of the Waveney, a 
bridge with a history. If the tale be true which 
is said to have been told by St. Dunstan, who is 
said to have heard it from the king's own sword- 
bearer, St. Edmund, king of both Norfolk and 
Suffolk, suffered the same martyrdom as St. 
Sebastian at the hands of a son of Eagnar Lodbrok 
and his Danish archers. If local tradition, more- 
over, is to be trusted, the Ked Bridge received its 
name as being the spot where this tragedy was 
enacted in or about A.D. 870. Now obviously a 
mythic element enters largely into the details 
given with regard to the martyrdom of his majesty 
of East Anglia by Yngvar, son of Ragnar Hairy- 
breeks ; but equally obvious is the fact that during 

* Tylor, ' Primitive Culture,' i. 334. A later example 
of the ease with which such explanations are made is to 
be found in a leading article in the Daily Telegraph of 
Nov. 21, 1885. 

f Artluxologia, xiii. 204, 



S, I. JAN. 9, '86. 

the thousand years which have elapsed since the 
event no considerable change has taken place in the 
general conformation of the country round. Hill and 
dale have remained unaltered, and the Gold-brook 
then, as now, flowed along its valley in the lower 
ground overlooked by the bank in which the im- 
plements were found. Mr. Frere probably knew 
the local tradition of the Red Bridge ; but whether 
he did or not, he saw distinctly, first, that the 
weapons had been deposited where they were found 
by the action of water, and, second, that it was 
absolutely impossible for them to have been so 
deposited had not the general contour of the 
country round been widely different at the time. 
The inference he drew from what he saw was 
strictly scientific. "The situation," he writes, 
" in which these weapons were found may tempt 
us to refer them to a very remote period indeed, 
even beyond that of the present world." The 
surmise has since been proved to be as accurate as 
it was sagacious ; but if it commended itself to any 
archaeologists of the day they were too wise to say 


On the whole, it was well for Mr. Frere's peace 
of mind that his paper attracted no public atten- 
tion at the time. That gentle religionist William 
Cowper had some years before (1782) launched his 
little thunderbolt against those who 

Drill and bore 

The solid earth, and from the strata there 
Extract a register, by which we learn 
That He who made it and revealed its date 
To Moses was mistaken in its age. 

But in 1797 scientific controversy itself had adopted 
the barbaric weapons of political and theological 
warfare, and the Armageddon of geology was being 
fought out to the bitter end by the rival hosts of 
the Neptunian Werner and the Plutonic Hutton. 
The waters of the great deep had burst into the 
crater of a volcano, and the earth was reeling under 
a sky black with vapour. Orthodoxy espoused the 
cause of Werner and water, apparently taking it 
for granted that the Saxon philosopher's specula- 
tions about the "chaotic fluid" somehow supported 
the " sublime tradition " of the Deluge. Hetero- 
doxy sided with Hutton and fire, and comforted 
itself with the evidence afforded by the granite 
veins of Glen Tilt in favour of the general con- 
flagration. Hutton himself died in this very year, 
but the warfare was carried on as bitterly as 
before. How, indeed, was scientific equanimity 
possible with a mutiny at Spithead and the Nore, 
cash payments suspended, Consols at 47, and a 
Lepaux announcing to the Directory that "the 
Army of England " under Bonaparte was about to 
dictate peace in London ? 

Clearly, it was not a time when speculations 
like Mr. Frere's were likely to meet with welcome 
or appreciation. They fell on evil days, and if not 
on evil tongues, it is probably only because the 

discovery on which they were founded told as 
much on one side of the controversy as the other. 
The Wernerian might have rejoiced over the new 
confirmation of the Mosaic account of the Flood, 
but the Huttonian would at once have retorted 
that the weapons were part of the ruins of an older 
world, which his master taught were visible in 
the present structure of our planet. As it was, 
neither faction cared to patronize Mr. Frere, who 
consequently passed quietly into oblivion without 
being denounced as an atheist or even as a jacobin. 
But even then the better day had dawned. 
William Smith had been for years already busy 
with his geological map of England, though the 
work was not to be complete till the year of 
Waterloo. Cuvier, too, had by this time begun 
those researches in the neighbourhood of Paris, the 
publication of which during the early years of the 
present century dates a revelation at once and a 
revolution in natural science. When Frere wrote, 
few geologists knew of the former existence of any 
extinct animals, and fewer were aware that more 
than two or three species of mammals were ex- 
tinct, and for many years later none ventured to 
suggest that man was a contemporary of any but 
the now existing fauna. Pallas, indeed, had lately 
announced his discovery of the celebrated Wiljui 
rhinoceros, with its skin and flesh still preserved 
entire, embedded in Siberian ice; but what sensible 
Briton in 1797 would for a moment believe Pallas ? 
John Bull stoutly denounced Bruce's Abyssinian 
marvels as a pack of lies was it likely he was 
going to be taken in by a Frenchman ? So palaeo- 
lithic discovery dozed drowsily off again, not, 
however, this time for a hundred years, but barely 
for a generation. It was a fitful and troublous 
slumber, moreover, much broken towards the 
close by the whinny of careering nightmares and 
the clatter of rival hobby-horses rampant in pur- 
(To be continued.) 


/ V. i. 16 : " BUT IMOGEN is YOUR 
OWN" (6 th S. xii. 342). At this reference MR. 
W. WATKISS LLOYD assigns to Pisanio a soliloquy 
which is in all editions given to Posthumus, to 
whom only can it belong. He further asserts that 
" the phrase * But Imogen is your own,' if not non- 
sense, at least will bear no interpretation which 
blends happily with the tenor of Pisanio' s reflec- 
tions." On the contrary, I maintain that the 
phrase is right in itself and in its surrounding!?, 
and what is most important forms an integral 
part of Posthumus's argument. But the intrusion 
[in no bad sense) of the four lines in which Post- 
humus attempts to explain to himself the apparent 
anomaly of Imogen having been appropriated by 
the gods, and his own life having been spared, 

7 th 8. I. JAN. 9, '86.] 


perplexes the argument and obscures the sense ; 
besides which, that explanation is itself so obscure 
that no commentator has hitherto satisfactorily 
explained or amended it. To show this concisely, 
let us suppose the text had stood thus : 

Gods, if you 

Should have ta'en vengeance on my faults, I never 
Had lived to put on this : so had you saved 
The noble Imogen to repent, and struck 
Me, wretch, not worth your vengeance. But alack ! 
Imogen is your own : do your best wills, 
And make me blest to obey. 

Had this been the text of the folio, I ask. Would 
it have entered the head of any rational being that 
the phrase " Imogen is your own" did not " blend 
happily with the tenor of Posthumus's reflections" ? 
Would it not have been self-evident that it an- 
swered to the foregoing clause, "So had you saved 
the noble Imogen to repent," and meant just this, 
that the gods had taken her to themselves and left 
Posthumus to expiate his crime in this life? 
Nevertheless, I think MR. LLOYD'S conjecture of 
" Judgment " for Imogen not only exceedingly 
clever, but sustained by a clearsighted argument. 
All I contend for is, that in the text, with the 
omission of the four extraordinary lines, "You 
snatch some hence," &c., down to " thrift," the 
suspicion of a corruption would have no locus 
standi ; and I fail to see that the insertion of 
those lines ought to shake our confidence in the 
passage which is the subject of MR. LLOYD'S sug- 
gested alteration. C. M. INGLEBY. 
Athenaeum Club. 

425). I think that I have met with the practice 
earlier, but in George Giffard's * Dialogue concern- 
ing Witches/ &o., first published in 1593, and 
reprinted by the Percy Society from the edition of 
1603, we find, at p. 11 of the reprint : " Some 
wish me to beate and claw the witch, untill I fetch 
bloud on her, and to threaten her that I will have 
her hanged. If I knew which were the best, I 
would do it." See also pp. 13, 32. So at p. 46 a 
story is narrated how " the man made no more 
ado, but even laid his clowches upon her [the old 
woman] and clawed her until the blood ran downe 
her cheek?, and the child was well within two days 
after." There is a similar story on p. 47. I note 
more than one instance to show how the supersti- 
tion was generally believed in, and for this pur- 
pose also would refer to a very curious belief and 
statement made on p. 64. Dr. J. Gotta, 1616, 
Bays, pp. 113-4, " Concerning the other imagined 
trials of witches, as by beating, scratching, draw- 
ing bloud I think it vaine and needlesse 

to confute." BR. NICHOLSON. 

This doctrine is fully investigated in Hatha- 
way'd trial, published in the 'State Trials.' The 
following passage is in * Arise Evan's Echo to the 

Voice from Heaven ' (1652), p. 34 : " I had heard 
some say that when a witch had power over one 
to afflict him, if he could but draw one drop of 
the witch's blood, the witch would never after do 
him hurt." In Glanville's ' Account of the Demon 
of Tedworth,' speaking of a boy that was bewitched, 
he says : " The boy drew towards Jane Brooks, 
the woman who had bewitched him, and put his 
hand upon her, which his father perceiving imme- 
diately scratched her face and drew blood from 
her. The youth then cried out that he was well " 
(Blow at 'Modern Sadducism,' 12mo., 1668, 
p. 148). In Butler's ' Hudibras ': 

Till drawing blood o' the dames like witches, 
They 're forthwith cur'd of their capriches. 

Part ii. canto i. page 9. 

In Cleveland's 'Rebel Scot': 

Scots are like witches ; do but whet your pen, 

Scratch till the blood come, they '11 not hurt you then; 

and Shakespeare alludes to this belief in 
'Henry VI.' Talbot, upon Pucelle's appearing, 
is made to speak as follows : 
Here, here she comes ; I '11 have a bout with thee ; 
Devil or devil's dam, I '11 conjure thee : 
Blood will 1 draw on thee. thou art a witch, 
And straightway give thy soul to him thou serv'st. 
Swallowfield Park, Reading. 


' OTHELLO,' I. i. (6 th S. xii. 202). Is not the cor- 
rect reading "life"? Shakspeare knew almost 
everything, and surely was not unacquainted with 
the denunciation in the Gospel, " Woe unto you 
when all men shall speak well of you !" Theobald 
sets up an ingenious theory that the passage is 
wrongly pointed, and that lago, who rambled some- 
what, really spoke as follows : 

" Certes," says he, 
" I have already chose ray Officer." 
And what was he 1 
Forsooth a great Arithmetician, 
One Michael Cassio ; ("the Florentine, 
A Fellow almost damned in a fair Wife "); 

and argues that Othello was then a bachelor, and 
objected to having a married man placed in autho- 
rity about him. There is something to be said for 
this theory, inasmuch as lago was certainly a 
Florentine^ not Cassio. J. STANDISH HALT. 

The use of wife meaning woman simply is not 
infrequent in English literature. See Chaucer, 
' Wif of Bath's Tale,' 142 ; Morrice, ' Outlines of 
English Accidence,' p. 86 ; and lago calls Bianca, 
who is evidently unmarried, 

A housewife, that by selling her desires 
Buys herself bread and clothes. IV. i. 

Taking the word in this sense, therefore, it does 
not seem improbable that lago alludes to Cassio's 
intrigue, or rather entanglement, with Bianca, when 
he describes him as 


[7<b S. I. JAN. 9, ; 86. 

A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife, 
meaning that his miserable passion for thi 
courtezan is so despotic as almost to ensure 
damnation. A like explanation of the passage i 
given in Knight's edition of * Othello.' 


'HAMLET' (6 th S. xii. 423). MR. WILMSHURST 
states, in reference to the proverb, " The mills o 
the gods grind to powder," that " it has probably 
come down from antiquity." The limitation " pro 
bably " may be displaced by " certainly " on refer- 
ring to Gaisford's ' Parremiogr. Grsee.,' Ox., 1836 
p. 134, where there is : 3 0^e $eaiv aAeovo-t /xvAot 
dXeovcri Se ACTTTO. : J E7T6 TWV o^iatrara /cat /3pa- 
Sews Trapexovrtav SiKrjv, wv ijrXrjfJifj^X^cr 
(' Prov. e Cod. Coislan,' 396). ED. MARSHALL. 

PLAYS. In looking over some old play-bills I was 
forcibly struck by the following remarkable bit of 
moralizing upon * The Merchant of Venice,' an- 
nounced to be performed at the Blackburn New 
Theatre : 

" Monday evening, June the llt h , 1787, | will be pre- 
ented Shakespeares Celebrated Comedy of | ' The Mer- 
chant of Venice, | or the Cruel Jew.' 

" This inimitable play is founded on a fact and recorded 
in an Italian Novel, among many beautiful, interesting 
and amusing incidents. We are gladly led to the trial, 
of the Merchant Antonio, by the Jew, Shylock, who de- 
mands the forfeiture of his bond which carries with it, 
the penalty of a pound of the Merchant's flesh, with a 
force and conduct of dramatic action which so strongly 
marks the genius of Shakespeare. The Audience feels 
united, the various distinct passions of pity, horror, 
detestation and joy. In the Catastrophe of this singular 
scene, even the merciless, obdurate, and bloodthirsty 
jew, meets with commiseration. As every play must be 
justly deemed useless that leaves us no lesson for our 
moral conduct, Shakespeare (as in every play he has left 
us an useful moral) has here pointed out, the danger of 
suffering severe passions to become habitual, as by in- 
dulging resentment, we naturally imbibe revenge, and 
decline, stage by stage, to a pitch of savage cruelty that 
must end in scenes of misery, shocking to humanity, and 
fatal to ourselves. 

Shylock Mr. Caulfield." 

Without entering further into the cast, it is 
amusing to read that at the end of the first act a 
song is announced to be sung called ' Ye Cheerful 
Virgins,' followed with songs between the succeed- 
ing acts. This is the only example of the kind 
of comment I have seen. J. W. JARVIS. 

Avon House, Manor Road, N. 

DREAM '). As it is to be presumed that Shake- 
speare selected this curious name with some reason, 
it may be worth noting that the term bottom 
was then and is, I believe, still applied by 
weavers to a ball of thread. The fusil, apart from 
its ordinary lozenge shape, is variously represented 
in old arms, and is sometimes blazoned as a 

"spindle." It is also called a bottom in the 
quaint blazon of the coat of Badland (formerly 
quartered by Hoby, but now used as their paternal 
coat), i.e., " Argent, three bottoms in fess gu., 
the thread or " (Clark's ' Heraldry '). 

74, King Edward Road, Hackney. 

Any notices of this person are worth recording. 
He was one of the very few in England who, 
November 24, 1639, eagerly scanned the heavens to 
observe the passage of Venus across the sun. He 
was brother of the accomplished astronomer, the 
Eev. Jeremiah Horrox, then a young clergyman 
at Hoole, Lancashire, who there succesfully ob- 
served that striking phenomenon, and whose 
memory in connexion with it has been perpetuated 
by an inscription in Westminster Abbey from the 
pen of the late Dean Stanley. I have, in the 
Palatine Note-book for December, 1882, given 
reasons for supposing that these young men were the 
sons of William Horrocks, of Toxteth Park, near 
Liverpool. This branch of the family was con- 
nected with the well-known Puritan John Cotton, 
minister of Boston, co. Lincoln. According to 
Cotton Mather (' Magnalia Christi Americana,' 
ed. 1702, bk. iii. p. 17), as soon as John Cotton 
bad settled at Boston, about 1613, "his dear 
friend, holy Mr. Bayne, recommended unto him a 
pious gentlewoman, one Mrs. Elizabeth Horrocks, 
:he sister of Mr. James Horrocks, a famous 
minister in Lancashire, to become his consort in 
a married estate." This Mr. Horrocks, who is 
not (as I once supposed) the Rev. Alexander 
Eorrocks, minister of Dean, near Bolton-le-Moors, 
s also as precisely and distinctly noticed by Oliver 
Heywood as " that auncient and eminent servant 
of God," well known to his mother before her 
marriage in 1615, viz., in the neighboorhood of 
Bolton. Other members of the Horrocks family 
lad the acquaintance of Mr. Cotton, particularly 
one who was, perhaps, a pupil, viz., Thomas Hor- 
rocks, M.A., of St. John's College, Camb., 1631, 
fter wards the ejected minister of Maiden, Essex. 
3e belonged, says Calamy, to the Horrockses of 
Elorrocks Hall, in Bolton-le-Moors, being the only 
son of Mr. Christopher Horrocks of that place, 
who for greater religious liberty went with his 
'amily (excepting Thomas) into New England 
with Mr. Cotton. The latter was so important an 
mmigrant that in his honour the name of the town 
f Trimontain was changed to that of Boston. He 
was the ancestor of some remarkable men. 

Connected with these clues a trace of Jonas 

lorrox has turned up in an unexpected quarter. 

~ome friend in America has been good enough to 

end me a most excellent compilation, entitled 

Genealogical Gleanings in England,' by Henry F, 

7'h S. I. JAN. 9, '86.] 


Waters, A.B., for which please allow me here to 
express my best thanks. This work contains an 
abstract of the will of Frances Hanham, of Boston, 
co. Lincoln, widow, dated April 4, and proved June 
13, 1631. After making bequests to her relatives, 
she gives " to Jonas Horrax, nephew to Mr. Cotton, 
10s., to be presently paid after my decease." 
This entry seems to show that Elizabeth Horrocks 
and the Rev. James Horrocks were sister and 
brother of William Horrocks, of Toxteth, father 
to the astronomer. 

Jonas was residing in Liverpool at the time of 
the transit of Venus ; and his brother, having 
supplied him with data and instructions, earnestly 
requested him to view closely what came into his 
ken. There is the following allusion to the request 
in Horrox's famous treatise * Venus in Sole Visa,' 
who directs a by-blow against those who in that 
favourable month were following the pleasures of 
the chase in a favourite hunting country, the Lanca- 
shire Fylde : 

" De hac conjunctione admonui & fratrem natu 
minorem, qui turn Liverpoliae degebat, ut ille pro suis 
viribus aliquid praestaret, quod quidem conatus est : sed 
incassum die enim 24, nubibus interclusus, observare non 
potuit, et si diligenter attenderit, sequent! autem sere- 
niori die, eaepe intromissa solis specie per telescopiura, 
nihil vidit, scilicet quia Venus jam solem peragrasset. 
Alios quod non admonuerim, veniam mereor; paucos 
enim novi hujusmodi nugas non derisuros, utpote canibus 
suis & avibus, ne graviora dicam, post habitas : et quam- 
vis habeat Anglia nostra Syderum etiara venatores, & 
mihi notos ; invitare tainen ad hujus spectaculi jucundi- 
tatem non potui, quippe sero nimis 4 me ipso animad- 
Tersi." Ed. folio, Hevelius, p. 118. 

The name of Jonas Horrox appears upon the 
list of those who took the national Protestation 
in Liverpool in February, 1641-2, along with his 
relatives James and William. He seems to have 
had some occupation in Ireland, or a family tie 
with that country. One of his relatives, James 
Horrocks, of Toxteth Park, was a watchmaker in 
1631 ; and Jonas himself must have developed 
the mechanical instinct of the family, for he prac- 
tised as a land-surveyor. In some proceedings 
relating to leases of the common lands of Liverpool, 
or " The Common," then being enclosed, there was 
an order, November 2, 1653, that James Chorleton 
and Jonas Horrox should have payment and satis- 
faction for their pains for surveying the new en- 
closures upon the town's common, at the discretion 
of the mayor (Sir J. A. Picton's * Municipal Re- 
cords,' p. 173). Horrox seems to have died in 
Ireland ('Opera Posthuma Horroccii,' 4to., 1672, 

Stretford, Manchester. 

PRONUNCIATION OF WIND. All who have felt 
the inconvenince of the substantive wind being 
pronounced long for the special purpose of rhyme 
will rejoice to notice that the Poet Laureate has 
had sufficient courage in his recently published 

volume of poems (" The Wreck," st. vii. 1. 3) to 
make the word rhyme with " sinn'd." I believe 
this is the first time that Tennyson has assimilated 
the poetic use of the word with social custom ; at 
least I find fourteen cases in his earlier poems in 
which it is made to rhyme with " mind," " blind," 
&c. ; thus following the example of Shakespere, 
Swift, Pope, and Dryden, and, so far as I know, 
all poets of eminence. Poole's ' English Parnas- 
sus ' (1637) also thus tabulates the word. This 
pronunciation by the Laureate in mature years 
may probably prove an epoch in the word, espe- 
cially as it is contrary to his own previous usage. 
The authorities have for some years anticipated 
this result, for although Walker, Sheridan, Scott, 
Knowles, and Cooley give the long as alternative, 
Webster, Ken rick, Barclay, Perry, Smart, Wor- 
cester, and Cull allow only the short pronuncia- 
tion. Perry, however, admits the long in dramatic 
scenes, and Nares in poetry; while Cooley declares 
its use on other occasions as pedantry. It may be 
observed that, with the doubtful exception of wind- 
pipe, all its compounds (such as windmill, wind- 
fall, windbound, and windy) are short ; but the 
effect of this similarity is weakened by the pre- 
vailing rule that the long vowel of the simple is 
usually changed into a short one of the compound. 
Although Smith describes the short pronunciation 
as against analogy, and Walker the long one as the 
true sound, surely its Saxon origin is more de- 
finitely displayed by present usage. 



P. 58, col. 2, 1. 16, for "1547 " read 1597. 

P. 83, col. 1, 1. 6 from end, for "Al Ravni" read Al 

P. 120, col. 1, 1. 17. for 1732 " read 1632. 

P. 190, col. 1, 1. 9, for " Sept." read Aug. 

P. 245, col. 1, 1. 26, for " polyclinic " read policlinic. 

P. 245, col. 1, 1. 3 from end, for "Institute " read insti- 

P. 245, col. 2, 1. 34, for " at the Institute " read of the 

P. 278, col. 2, 1. 3, for genus " read genius. 

P. 279, col. 2, 1. 17, for ' Wolesely " read Wolsely. 

P. 340, col. 1, 1. 1, for "probably a Norman castle had 
been built at Berkeley ; for Henry spent Easter there," 
read, A small castle built at Berkeley by William Fitz- 
osbern (' Domesday,' 163) had probably given place to 
one of greater size, when Henry spent 

P. 363, col. 1, 1. 28, for " earl " read baron. 

P. 408, col. 1, 1. 12, and p. 409, col. 1, 1. 26, for "lord 
high admiral " read admiral of the shipmoney fleet. 

P. 409, col. 2, 1. 15, for " Hanover " read Honor. 


occasion to consult the useful map at the end of 
Dr. Collingwood Bruce's new edition of 'The 
Roman Wall,' I was struck by the mention of 
the Devil's Causeway at the point where it 
branches off from Watling Street. I recollect 



[7"' S. I. JAN. 9, '86. 

that near Conisborough, close to Strafford sands 
(Strata-ford), where the Dearne and Don form a 
junction, the point is called Devil's Elbow ; and 
also at Newmarket a double ditch called Devil's 
Dike. Why these names wherever there is a 
twofold or double ditch or road or junction of 
two rivers? Newmarket mi^ht lay claim to the 
patronage of bis satanic majesty; but why Wat- 
ling Street and the two Yorkshire rivers ? So I 
turned to Bosworth's ' Anglo-Saxon Dictionary,' 
and there found, " Twyfeald, twofold, double ; 
Twyford, Tvdford, the name of places near a 
river where two branches had to be forded." 
Note also the word causeway or causey, as it is 
generally pronounced. Stukeley mentions in speak- 
ing of the military way through the township of 
Hedley, in Northumberland, "It comes next to 
Causey, a village which owes its name to it" 
(vol. ii. p. 140, Surtees Society). See Ash's an- 
cient dictionary, " Causey, s., from Fr. chausste, a 
way pitched with stones, a way raised above the 
rest of the ground." S. F. S. 

HEADING COVER FOR * N. & Q.' I have found 
Slade's patent self-binder, "The Eclipse," the 
most useful reading cover for the half-yearly 
volume of ' N. & Q.' There are twenty-six thin 
steel bands on which to receive the weekly issue, 
these are tightened by means of a buckle. There 
is no mutilation of the papers, and they are kept 
clean and sound for the binder at the end of the 
half year, I certainly advise a trial of this very 
useful self-binder. It can be obtained of Messrs. 
Slade Brothers, 169, Great Portland Street, W. 

Thornton, Horncastle. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

MAZERS. At the ordinary meeting of the Society 
of Antiquaries on January 21 it is intended to bring 
together all the known examples of the mediaeval 
silver-mounted maple bowls known as mazers. I 
shall be much obliged if any one knowing of the 
existence of any such, either in private possession 
or in use in churches, will communicate with me 
as soon as possible. 


Burlington House, London, W. 

COMMONPLACE BOOK. It is proposed to print 
extracts from a commonplace book kept by a 
citizen of Aberdeen about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century which has lately come into my 
hands. A considerable portion of the contents are 
in verse. Can any of your readers inform me 
whether the following pieces have appeared before 

in print ; and, if so, where ? I quote the first few 
lines in each case, sufficient for identification if they 
have been printed : 

The breuitie of Mang lyff. 
Lyke to the Damask Rose you sie, 
Or lyk the blossome on the tree, 
Or lyk the dainty flower of May, 
Or lyk the morning to the day, 
Or lyk the sone or lyk the pchade, 
Or lyk the gourd wbiche Jonah hade, 
Even such is man whois threid is spun, &c. 
There are other four verses of similar doggerel. 

A Ridell. 

The moir I seik the less I find, 
The less I find the moir I get. 
The less I get the moir behind, 
The moir behind the grytter det, &c. 
Other eight lines. 

Ane a b c. 

The starkest fooll give he marke, 
This skool of skill provis greatest clarke, 
Their foir come ye that wyse wold Be 
And learne of new This a b c. 


A god begin omnipotent 
In everie place he is present, &c. 
This is a very long piece, and goes through the 
whole alphabet. 

The Morning Muse, 
To be thought upone in the morning. 
My bed itself is like the graue, 

My echeitts the winding scheit, 
My clothes to muilles* that I must have 

To cover me most meit. 
The hungrie flais that friskes so fast 

To wormes I mon compair, 
Who greidilye will gnaw my flesche 

And leave my bones full bair. 
There are other two verses of the above. 

Ane godlie Instructione for old and young. 
On yeir begines one other endis, 
Thus Tyme doeth come and goe ; 
All thus to y or Instructione tends, 
Give we could tak it BO. 
The sommeria heat, ye winters cold, 
Whois seasonis lets us sie, 
Quhen youth is gone and we wax old, 
Lyk flouris we fade and die. 
There are other seven verses. 

Of ye birth of Chryst. 
Jurie came to Jerusalem, 
All ye world was taxit then, 
Blessed Marie brought to Bethlem 
Moir than all the warld againe. 
A gift so blist, 
So goode, ye best 

That ever was sein, was hard, or done; 
A King, A Chyrst, 
Prophet, A Preiat 
A Jesus God, a man, a sone. 

There are four more verses of the first part, and 
then comes 

The second pairt, The Passione. 
Turne yo r eyes which ar affixed 
On this worlds deceiving things, 

* Otherwise mools or muldit^fhe earth of the grave. 

7* S. I. JAN. 9, '86.) 



And with joy and sorrow mixed , 

Look upone the King of Kings, 
Who left his throne 
With joys unknown, &c. 
There are five other verses of the second part. 

Off ane Contented mind. 
My mynd to me a Kingdom is, 
Such porfyt joyis therein I find ; 
It doth excell each other bliss 
As warld affords or grows by kynd. 
Tho h much I want that most men halve, 
Yitt mor my mynd forbiddes to craive, &c. 

Seven similar verses follow. BON ACCORD. 

["My mind to me a Kingdom is " is slightly altered 
from a poem in Byrd's ' Psalms, Sonnets,' &c., ]588, re- 
printed in Percy's ' Reliques.' " Lyke to the Damask 
Rose you see " ia also familiar, and is given, if we re- 
collect rightly, as an illustration, in Pickering's edition 
of the ' Poems ' of H. King, to the poem beginning " Like 
the i'alling of a star." Most of these verses are, we fancy, 
traceable ; some may be found ia ' N. & Q. 1 ] 

PENNY FAMILY. I am anxious to discover the 
ancestry of the Rev. John Penny, who was on 
Sept. 4, 1662, instituted to the Rectory of Bratton 
St. Maur, co. Somerset, but resided at the neigh- 
bouring town of Bruton. In his will (dated 
March 2, 1680, 33 Charles II.) he mentions his 
daughter Margaret, the wife of Gabriel Fellen, 
his sons Edward and James Penny, and his 
cousins Ann Hayden and Edward Churchill. 
Edward and James Penny, his two sons, were 
both of Christ Church Coll., Oxford. James 
became chaplain to the celebrated Earl of War- 
rington at Dunham Massey,and subsequently held 
the college living of Great Budworth in Cheshire. 
By the parish registers of Bruton it appears that 
Robert Penny and Rebecca Capper, both of that 
parish, were married June 9, 1656. A Gyles 
Penny married, circa 1650, Silvestra Capper, widow 
of George Luttrell, Esq., of Dunster, and of Sir 
Edmund Story. This Gyles was probably a 
member of the family of Penny, or Penne, of East 
Coker, co. Somerset, and Toller Welme, co. Dorset, 
whose pedigree is given in the third edition of 
Hutchin&'s ' Dorset,' for Gyles was a common name 
in that family. The descendants of the above- 
mentioned James Penny, vicar of Great Budworth, 
were long settled at Knutsford, in Cheshire, and 
frequently spelt the name Pennee, as appears from 
the parish registers of that town. In the * Man- 
chester Grammar School Register,' published by the 
Chetham Society (vol. i. p. 118), it is stated that 
the Pennys of Knutsford were descended from a 
Protestant minister said to have come over from 
France at the time of the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, and that the name was originally 
Penned. But the fact that their undoubted 
ancestor, the Rev. John Penny, was instituted to 
the living of Bratton so early as the year 1662 
is sufficient to prove that some mistake has here 
been made. Penny was, and is still, a common 

name in the West of England, and in the seven- 
teenth century was undoubtedly often spelt Penne. 
The present vicar of Bruton, who has most kindly 
and courteously given me his aid in this matter, 
assures me that there were numerous persons of 
the name settled in that town as early as the year 
1554, when the registers commence. On the other 
hand, a Solomon Penny was a director of the 
French Protestant Hospital in 1718, and in the 
* Lists of Foreign Protestants and Aliens resident 
in England 1618-1688,' edited for the Camden 
Society by Mr. Durrant Cooper, there appears 
(p. 55) the name of John de Penna, a form of 
spelling which to the English officials of the time 
would represent the sound of De Penne'e. If any 
reader of " N. & Q." can suggest to me the best 
mode of tracing the pedigree of the Rev. John 
Penny I shall be greatly obliged. 

12, Onslow Gardens, S.W. 

(which the Midland Railway branches now cut into 
three) the only parochial churchyard I know con- 
taining Roman-catholic tombs ? (I object, by the 
way, to dividing that compound word into two, with 
two capitals.) The name Le Maire (p. 449) struck 
me as like that of a French noble there buried, 
beside two cardinals ; but his stone (which was 
newer and far more legible than either of theirs) 
has vanished since the summer, and as the adjacent 
cardinal's is La Marche, I probably confusedly re- 
membered that. Hardly a word but this name is 
decipherable ; and on the other cardinal's stone, 
which has a very Italian-like escutcheon, supported 
by two angels, not a trace of either arms or inscrip- 
tion remains. E. L. G. 

CONQUER. How should it be pronounced ? 
I wonder how many clergyman or laymen 
reading the second lesson on the fourth Sunday 
in Advent, said " He went forth conquering and to 
conquer" (Rev. vi. 2) as conjuring and to 
conker" or " conkwering and to conkwer." Many 
years ago, when I was a grammar-school boy, I 
was taught by the head master (afterwards examin- 
ing chaplain to a bishop) to pronounce conquer as 
conkwer, and ever since I have adhered to the rule. 
But, although I sometimes hear others pronounce 
the word and its cognates in the same way, yet 
I think quite as often I hear the harsher pronun- 
ciation conker, and recently I heard Mrs. Langtry 
so pronounce the word in ' She Stoops to Conquer.' 


HORNEK. The panorama of London was, says 
Cunningham, sketched by Mr. Homer, a land 
surveyor, and finished by Mr. E. T. Parris. The 
panorama of " London by Day and Night " was, 
Mr. Walford says (ii. 227), painted by Danson, 
and Gliddon, the singer and clever com poser of the 


[7 th 8. 1. JAN. 9, '86. 

* Literary Dustman/ used to paint with him all 
day and sing his songs at the Eagle, City Road, 
at night. Are there two panoramas by different 
hands; and, if not, is Cunningham right or Mr. 
Walford ? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

ASHTON WERDEN, curate of Lytham, in Lanca- 
shire, in 1741, afterwards curate of Btspham, in 
the same county, where he died in 1767. His 
name does not appear in the Oxford or Cambridge 
lists of graduates. Information about him is 
wanted. H. FISHWICK, F.S.A. 

The Heights, Rochdale. 

HERALDIC. Quarterly, 1 and 4, a chevron be- 
tween three escallops ; 2 and 3, a sword. These 
arms on a lozenge appear on some silver, dated 
1691, in the possession of Sir Thomas White, Bart., 
of Wallingwells, Notts. I am unable to discover 
to whom they belong, and shall be glad of assist- 
ance. M. H. WHITE. 

17, Clarendon Crescent, Edinburgh. 

GENERAL ARMSTRONG, DIED 1742. Information 
as to following will oblige. 1. There is a painting 
by Kneller, at Blenheim, of General Armstrong 
showing a plan of Bouchain to the Duke of Marl- 
borough. Is it a full-length or three-quarters ? 
2. Are there in any London church mural tablets 
to the memory of General Armstrong and his 
daughters Mary and Priscilla? M. H. WHITE. 

17, Clarendon Crescent, Edinburgh. 

A DUMB BARGE. In the Times of December 3, 
1885, p. 3, col. 4, there is a report of an action 
brought by the owners of the dumb barge Kate 
against the owners of the steamship Odiel, in 
respect of a collision in the lower pool of the 
Thames. What is a dumb barge ; and why is it so 
called? "W. E. BUCKLEY. 

[A dumb barge used to signify a barge used as a pier, 
and not for the conveyance of merchandise.] 

BAMBOO.- Can any of your readers tell me who 
is the author of a poem in pidgin English on the 
bamboo tree? Each verse ends with the word 
" Bamboo." The last verse is as follows : 
And now, man man, my talkee done, 
And so my say chin chin to you, 
My hope you think this number one 

W. M. M. 

DEVIL-NAMES. In 'The Toilers of the Sea' 
Victor Hugo, mentioning Satanic ambassadors, says 
Belphegor was sent to France, Hutgin to Italy, 
Belial to Turkey, Tharung to Spain, and Martinet 
to Switzerland. He adds that Satan's grand 
almoner is Dagon ; Succor Benoth, the chief of the 
eunuchs ; Asmodeus, gambling banker ; Kobal, 
theatrical manager; Verdelet, master of cere- 
monies; and Nybbas, court-fool. Is it to be 

believed that these names are Hugo's invention ? 
If they are older than his time, where did he find 
them ? What do the words mean 1 In what work 
can I read the best account of the diabolical hier- 
archy ? Bayle (vol. v. p. 511) alludes to such an 
infernal nobility as existent, and mentions the 
names of eleven devils who possessed the nuns of 
Loudun in 1632, none of which corresponds with 
the list in Victor Hugo. JAMES D. BUTLER. 
Madison, Wis., U.S. 

[Belphegor is, of course, mentioned by Machiavelli. 
Dagon and Belial are classed among the supporters of 
Satan in ' Paradise Lost.' Asmodeus is the name, taken 
from Tobit, assigned a fiend by Lesage. Many of these 
names are from the Bible, the Apocrypha, and the 

AUTHOR OP VERSES. The verses a specimen 
of which I subjoin seem to have been commonly 
repeated about forty years ago. I should be glad 
to know who was the author of them, and where I 
can find the piece entire. It begins in the 
character of one Lady Doubtful issuing her orders to 
the footman thus : 

If Ensign Charles Sinclair should come, 

Remember, John, I 'm not at home ; 

For though first cousin to a lord, 

He does not yet befit our board. 

In course of time "despised Sinclair became a 
lord " and a " lion " of fashion. He is asked to 
Lady Doubtful's to dine ; but though the dinner- 
hour is long past, still " no Earl Clare" makes his 
appearance. " John " is summoned, and assures his 
mistress that no lord has been to the house, only 
"Mister Sinclair, that ensign chap," had the 
audacity to present himself, but had been sum- 
marily ejected, according to her ladyship's orders : 

He'll never come no more to tease you. 

I hope, my lady, now I 've pleased you ! 

I do not know whether the piece has been 
published in any collection of poems ; it may 
possibly have appeared in same magazine or annual, 
and not have been reprinted separately. 


Farnborough, Hants. 

RUSSIA. Has this officer who was appointed by 
the Empress Catharine II. of Russia Chief Presi- 
dent of Her Imperial Majesty's Admiralty, with a 
seat in the Russian Council, a post which he filled 
for some years left any memoirs concerning his 
residence at the Imperial Court of Russia; and, 
if so, have such documents ever been published ? 


THOMAS PRINGLE. Mr. Ruskin, in part v. of 
his ' Prseterita,' refers to this man as editor of 
' Friendship's Offering,' in which his early poetical 
essays appeared. He gives a few details about 
him, but doubtless more is known concerning his 
history. Can any correspondent give a further 

I. JAN. 9, '86.] 



account of his birthplace, writings, and other 
matters? T. CANN-HUGHES, B.A. 


LUDGATE. The statues of King Lud and his 
two sons, when the gates were taken down in 1761-2, 
were given by the City to Sir Francis Gosling, to 
set up at the east end of St. Dunstan's Church ; 
but this never got done, and the stones were 
deposited in the parish bone-house. Where are 
they now; at Guildhall, or lost 1 C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

have a copy of the Keepsake for 1829. It con- 
tains, inter alia, two stories, both professing to 
be "by the author of 'Waverley.'" Are they 
generally printed among the acknowledged mis- 
cellaneous works of Sir Walter Scott ? 


2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

SIR FERDINANDO GORGES. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.' inform me if any letters of or docu- 
ments relating to Sir Fredinando Gorges not printed 
or mentioned in the reports of the Royal Manu- 
scripts Commissioners are in existence ? Is any 
portrait of him known ? JAMES P. BAXTER. 

CHURCHWARDENS. Both churchwardens for the 
parish of Ealing are chosen by the vestry. Many 
years ago the then vicar attempted to establish 
his right to choose one of them before a court of 
law, and lost his suit. Is not this a very uncom- 
mon state of things; and does it obtain in any 
other parish ? H. DELEVINGNE. 


notice on Mr. John Ormsby's translation of ' Don 
Quixote ' in the Times of Dec. 25, we read : " The 
most effective illustrations of 'Don Quixote 7 we 
ever saw were designed by a Spanish artist on a set 
of Sevres china." What is the name of the artist 
in question ? Have these designs ever been en- 
graved and reproduced on paper? Is the set of 
Sevres china to be seen in England ? If not, is it 
preserved in the museum of the factory at Sevres ? 
I was there some months ago, but did not notice it. 

H. S. A. 

SURNAME OF BUNCH. Can any of your readers 
give information regarding the origin, derivation, 
and localization of the above surname ? I cannot 
find it mentioned in ' Debrett,' Walford's County 
Families,' Foster's * Peerage,' &c., or ' Clergy List.' 
What are the crest and arms ? 


33, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

" PRECES PAULINA. "If any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
is aware of the existence of a copy, of earlier 
date than 1705, of the little book entitled 'Preces, 

Catechismus et Hymni, in usum antiquse et Celebris 
Scholse juxta Divi Pauli Templum apud Londi- 
nates/ I should be much obliged by a communi- 
cation from him. The copy of an edition of 
1655, referred to in the 'Sacra Academica' of 
the Rev. J. W. Hewett (see ' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. ix. 
228), cannot now be found. J. H. LUPTON. 
St. Paul's School, West Kensington, W. 

WOLDICHE. Ricardus Shakspere is mentioned 
as dwelling at Woldiche, a place no doubt either in 
or near Warwickshire, in or about A.D. 1460. This 
fact is gathered from the Knolle register, now at 
Birmingham; but where was Woldiche? It is 
not mentioned by Dugdale nor in any of my 
numerous Warwickshire books. 


ROTHERHAM CHURCH. I have seen in ' N. & Q.' 
(though not at a very recent date) a reference to 
Rotherham Church. Can the writer or any of your 
readers state what has become of the old canopy or 
cover for the font ? which I believe has been re- 
placed with modern work. I have a sketch of the 
ancient font and cover, a beautiful and elaborate 
piece of carving, black with age. The pulpit, which 
was doubtless of the same age, black as ebony, has 
been scraped or modernized, so that on visiting 
the church a year ago I could not recognize it. The 
galleries, likewise black oak, which are now done 
away with, were sufficient to repew the entire 
church. I have a special interest in this fine old 
structure. A. G. DANVERS TAYLOR. 


[We know of no reference to Kotherham Church. The 
chapel on Rotherham Bridge is discussed 6 th S. xi. 325, 

GARTER BRASSES. I have seen it stated that 
the celebrated memorial (A.D. 1413) in Felbrigge 
Church, Norfolk, of Sir Symon Felbrigge, K.G., 
standard-bearer to King Richard II., is one of the 
five Garter brasses in England. Will any of your 
correspondents kindly say where are to be found 
the other four ? JOHN ALT PORTER. 


MUGWUMP. In the Daily News, November 27, 
a mugwump is defined as a " superior person, who 
commonly holds aloof from politics." The Pall 
Mall Gazette of the same date stigmatizes this 
definition as egregiously mistaken, and says, " The 
truth is exactly the opposite. The mugwump 
is a person who presumes to introduce into politics 
considerations higher than mere party success." I 
should like to know (a) the true meaning of mug- 
wump ; (b) whence derived ; (c) when, where, and 
under what circumstances it originated. 


24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea, S.W. 

NEWPORT, ISLE OF WIGHT. Where can I see 
any representation of the Bugle Inn and of the 


[7 tn S. I. JAN. 9, 't6. 

George Inn, both in the High Street of this town, 
as they were in the time of Charles L, during his 
imprisonment in the island 1647-8? 

C. A. J. M. 

" Like the madman in Le Sage, some libellers scatter 
their firebrands in sport." EDWARD MALAN. 

To catch the eel of science by the tail. 
I find the verse quoted in an article in the A rchceo- 
logical Journal, rol. iv. p. 165, 1847. Is it known whence 
the poet took the expression, and if he attached a par- 
ticular meaning to it 1 Of course it calls to my mind the 
" salmon of knowledge " of Irish legends. H. GAIDOZ. 

(6 th S. xii. 496.) 

My query on this having been written and 
ready to post, I may be allowed a word or two. 
Most certainly the bed-staves quoted by Nares 
from Armyn's will were bed-rungs, or bed-laths. 
Their number, six to each bedstead, proves this. 
But the reverse reason as certainly proves that 
Bobadill's bedstaff ('Every Man in his Humour/ 
I. iv.) was not a bed-rung, for his bed had but 
one, and he was obliged to call to his hostess to 
bring another before he could show his fencing 
feat. This intention also shows that the John- 
son-Nares bed-staff, if it ever existed, was not 
his bed-staff, for he could not show an opponent a 
fencing feat when both had clumsily stout poles, 
each six feet, or at the least over five feet and a half 
long ; broom handles would have been far more 
easily managed and as easily obtainable. Besides, 
our ancestors must have known the easy process of 
"tucking in," and neither Bobadill nor Cob, his 
landlord, was likely to go in for luxuries. Hence 
Miss Emma Phipson's suggestion seems most pro- 
bable, that Bobadill's bed-staff was a stick, used when 
in bed to-summon attendance, instead of the modern 
bell. Invalids still use such a staff, and I, though 
no invalid, have so used a poker or hearth-brush 
handle. A passage in Reg. Scot's 'Witchcraft,' 
p. 79, seems to me to confirm this. A pretty 
wench, wishing to get rid of her incubus-devil, 
went to St. Bernard, " who took hir his staffe, and 
bad hir laie it in the bed beside hir. And indeed 
the divell, fearing the bed-staffe or that S. Bernard 
laie there himselfe, durst not approch." Here a 
walking or pastoral staff, by mere position and by 
laying in the bed (not under it like a bed-rung), 
became a bed-staff. It has been suggested to me 
that Scot here used bed-staff by way of joke. 
Doubtless he jocularly named it a bed-staff, either 
from its being able to summon assistance or be- 
cause there may have been an undercurrent refer- 
ence to its being used as a cudgel, as a bed-staff, 
that could be used in fencing, very likely was at fit or 

unfit times ; yet the word staff, if the word had not 
the meaning I would assign it, would have been 
sufficient ; and it is, I think, an insult to Scot, and 
wholly at variance with his excellent manner and 
style, to suppose that he could have made so miser- 
able, so senseless a joke one that cannot even be 
dignified with that name as to liken a pastoral 
staff to a flat four-foot or three-foot bed-rung. 
Again, in * Albumazar,' II. iii., Trincalo says 
Now do I feel the calf of my right leg 
Twingle and dwindle to th' smallness of a bed-staff. 

It is not his leg, but the calf of his leg ; and surely 
a broad bed-stave is not a telling or appropriate 
simile, though a stick for knocking on the floor 
would be humorously exaggerative, appropriate, 
and likely to tell. So in * A Match at Midnight,' 
II. i., old Ear-lack is described as " the old man ; :i 
foot like a bear, a leg like a bed-staff, a hand like a, 
hatchet, an eye like a pig, and a face like a winter 
pigmie." And here I would remark, notwithstand- 
ing the next quotations, that, in accordance with 
Bobadill's one bed-staff, the sentences are so framed 
in the last two quotations as to allow of the sin- 
gular, bed-staff a leg, not two legs, being spoken of. 
Lastly, in Middleton's ' A Trick to Catch the Old 
One," IV. v., we have Dampit the usurer in bed, 
of whom Lamprey and Spichcock thus speak imme- 
diately on their entry 

" Lam. Look you : did I not tell you he lay like the 
devil in chains, when he was bound for a thousand 

" Spi. But I think the devil had no steel bed-staffs; 
he goes beyond him for that," 

And afterwards Gulf says 
" What, hung alive in chains ? spectacle ! Bed-staffs 

of steel ? monstrum [&c.] here 's a just judgment 

shown upon usury, extortion, and trampling villany ! " 

What caused Dampit to be in chains and steel 
bed-staffs, and how they were affixed to him is be- 
yond me ; but this at least is evident, that the bed 
and bedding did not conceal these bed-staffs, as they 
must have done had they been bed-rungs, bed- 
laths, or bed-staves. 

I have since been told that a gentleman has 
published his belief though I know not on what 
authority that the bed-staff was a staff for beat- 
ing up the bed. BR. NICHOLSON. 

This word seems to have two meanings. There 
cannot be a doubt, I think, that sometimes it sig- 
nifies the pieces of wood commonly, though not 
always, I understand, flat which support a bed, 
and which fit into holes prepared for them in the 
bed- frame, or " bed-stocks" as we call them here. 
The more common meaning of the word was a 
stick, like a long walking-stick, used by servants in 
making beds. They used to be very common, and 
are, I believe, still in use. Their modern name is 
bed-stick. They are needed more especially when 
one side of a bed is close to a wall, or when the 
bed stands in a recess. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

7">S. I. JAN. 9/86. j 



My reply to this query is offered with some diffi- 
dence not because! doubt its accuracy, but because 
I am not able to give authority for it. When the 
bedstead was a mere box filled with straw, this 
straw required to be turned over and worked about 
every day; and the use of the bed-staff was to rake 
up aod turn the straw. The bed-staff, therefore, 
was an article in constant use, and had to be 
always at hand : hence its convenience as an offen- 
sive or defensive weapon. HERMENTRUDB. 

As to the precise manner in which the bed- 
staves were " stuck " I cannot say, but Dr. John- 
son's description of them seems to be correct. 
To judge from the following passages, the bed- 
staff can scarcely have been " a weapon of 
mickle might," with which (vide 'Ingoldsby 
Legends') Lady Rohesia punished her faithless 
husband. In Halliwell and Wright's edition of 
Nares's ' Glossary ' the following quotation is made 
from < Alleyn's Will,' 1626 : " All the furniture 
in the twelve poor schollars chamber, that is to say, 
six bed-steads, six matts, sixe mattresses, six feather 
beds, six feather bolsters three dozen of bed- 
staves, &c." Apparently there were six bed-staves 
for each bed, three for each side. In Ben Jonson's 
1 Staple of News,' V. i., Pennyboy, the uncle, is 
represented as almost having killed his maid by 
" throwing bed-staves at her." In ' Albumazar,' 
1615, Trincalo says : 

Now do I feel the calf of my right leg 

Twingle and dwindle to th' smallness of a bed-staff." 

'0. Bug. Plays ' (ed. Hazlitt), vol. xi. p. 337. 
Of. also, "But I say, Master Ear-lack, the old 
man ! a foot like a bear, a leg like a bed-staff." 
4 A Match at Midnight,' 1633, ibid., vol. xiii. p. 35. 


Frequently the ancient bedstead was provided 
with a bed-staff, which was a round wooden pin in- 
serted in the sides of bedsteads to keep the 
clothes from slipping out ; but whether it was 
placed horizontally or upright does not appear. If 
horizontally, ic must have been about six feet long. 
It seems to have been used as a weapon sometimes, 
for Chaucer tells us that the "scolere Johan," 
although a stranger in the bedroom, tried to find a 
staff by moonlight, and the miller's wife, finding 
one, unwittingly knocked her husband down with 

This Johan stert up as fast as ever he might, 

And grasped by the walles to and fro, 

To find a staf ; and scbe sturt up also, 

And knewe the estres bet them than dede you, 

And by the wal ache took a staf anon. 
In the reign of Edward I. (1272-1307) Sir John 
Chichester, as he was playing with his man-ser- 
vant, killed him in the following way: Sir John 
made a pass at him with a sword in the scabbard, 
and the servant parried it with a bed-staff, but in 
so doing struck off the chape of the scabbard, 
whereby the end of the sword came out of the 

scabbard, and the thrust not being effectually 
broken, the servant was killed by the point of the 
sword. The frontispiece of a work entitled 
1 luniper Lecture, with the description of all sorts 
of Women, good and bad,' published in 1639, re- 
presents a woman entering a bedroom to punish 
her husband, who is in bed, and who grasps the 
bed-staff as a foil to protect himself. In a wood- 
cut in Wright's 'Domestic Manners, &c., in the 
Middle Ages, 7 we see a chambermaid of the seven- 
teenth century using a bed-staff to beat up the bed- 
ding in the process of making the bed. The staff 
must have been a light and portable article, for we 
find its rapid movements passing into a proverb, 
" the twinkling of a bed -staff," or bed-post. Shad- 
well, in his * Virtuoso,' 1676, makes Sir Samuel 
Hearty to say, " Gad, I '11 do it instantly, in the 
twinkling of a bed-staff." Rabelais also says, " He 
would have cut him down in the twinkling of a 
bed-staff." Colruan puts similar words into the 
mouth of Lord DuberJy in the * Heir-at-Law.' And 
Bobadill, in ' Every Man in his Humour,' uses the 
same phrase to illustrate his skill with the rapier. 
('Concerning Beds and Bedsteads,' St. James s 
Magazine, 1866.) EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

(6 th S. xii. 465). As I have some interest in the 
late Mr. Neale and his writings, I aoi glad to be 
able to mention the following particulars, partly in 
the hope that the obscurities therein may be cleared 

On Aug. 10, 1824, the Rev. Erskine Neale, 
described as of Magdalen College, Cambridge, 
married at Sculcoates, Hull, Mary, only daughter 
of George Fielding, M.D., surgeon, Hull (Gent. 
Mag., 1824, ii. 272, 464). In February, 1828, the 
late George Hunsley Fielding, M.D., F.R.S., of 
Tonbridge, son of Mr. George Fielding just men- 
tioned, dedicated his ' Observations on the Human 
Structure,' Hull, 1828, to his "friend," 'The 
Reverend Erskine Neale, B.A." Now 'The 
Living and the Dead, 7 published in 1827, but 
dated June 10, 1825, which the Editor of ' N. & Q. 7 
(3 rd S. v. 106) and Olphar Hamst in his * Handbook,' 
p. 178, unhesitatingly assign to the Rev. Ersktne 
Neale, Vicar of Exning, and author of other known 
and acknowledged books, contains passages which 
imply that the writer knew and lived in the 
neighbourhood of Hull. York is mentioned, p. 11; 
Wilmington, p. 22, possibly stands for Sculcoates; 
the Rev. John Scott, of St. Mary's, Hull, p. 211 ; 
Hull and Gainsborough, the Hull Imfirmary (of 
which Mr. George Fielding was the senior surgeon), 
&c., pp. 226-9. Moreover my own copy of the 
book is inscribed *' To Miss La Marche With the 
cordial remembrances & best wishes of the Author, 
March 7th, 1827." She was the daughter of Mr. 
John Bernhard La Marche, a well-known 
Hull merchant, whose old-fashioned clerk and 



[7" S. I. JAJN. 9, ' 

counting-house, the last of their kind in Hull, 
remained in High Street there until a few years 

But in Crockford's ' Clerical Directory ; it is 
recorded, presumably by Mr. Neale himself, that 
he, the Vicar of Exning, was of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, B.A. 1828, M.A. 1832, and that he was 
ordained deacon in 1829, and priest in 1830. 
Were there two Erskine Neales ; or had the deacon 
of 1829 been a minister in some other body before 
entering the Church of England ? If this latter 
supposition be true, how came he to write his 
experiences as " A Country Curate " early in 1827, 
two whole years before he was in orders ? The 
use of such a title, as of " A Coroner's Clerk " and 
"A Gaol Chaplain," and others which Mr. Neale 
adopted, might be a mere ordinary literary 
expedient under which an author who was really 
none of these might record so-called experiences 
that were purely imaginary. However that may 
be, the person of whom I write was indisputably 
called "Reverend" in 1824 and 1828. Men so 
often changed their colleges that a migration from 
Magdalen to Emmanuel is not impossible ; but 
MR. PICKFORD removes him to St. John's. 

Before he was Rector of Kirton, Suffolk, Mr. 
Neale was Vicar of Adlingfleet, near Howden, 
Yorkshire. Olphar Hamst (p. 208) says he was born 
in 1805 (?), and refers to ' Men of the Time/ He 
died at the vicarage, Exning, of which place he had 
been vicar twenty-nine years, on Nov. 23. 1883. 

The following is a list of some of his books 
not mentioned by MR. PICKFORD. Some of the 
titles are taken from Olphar Hamst's 'Handbook for 
Fictitious Names,' 1868, pp. 4, 6, 139, 178, 188 ; 
those marked (*) are acknowledged in Crockford's 
' Clerical Directory,' 1870, 1879, together with 
* The Life of the Duke of Kent/ * The Life-Book 
of a Labourer/ and ' The Old Minor Canon,' already 
mentioned : 

The Living and the Dead. By A Country Curate. 
London (Windsor), Charles Knight, 1827. 8vo. 4 leaves, 
+pp. 379. Ded. to Dr. Pearson, Dean of Sarum. Second 
series, 1829. 

The Subaltern. 

The Country Curate. By the Author of ' The Subaltern.' 
2vols. 8vo. 1830. In 1 vol. 8vo., Colburn's " Standard 
Novels," 1834. 

*Sermons on the Dangers and Duties of a Christian. 
8vo. 1830. 

The Village Poor-house, an attempt to illustrate the 
state of feeling amidst the rural Pauper Population. 
By A Country Curate. 12mo. 1832. 

*The Bishop's Daughter. 

*The Closing Scene; or, Christianity and Infidelity 
contrasted in the last hours of remarkable persons. By 
the Author of The Bishop's Daughter.' London, 1848 ; 
12mo. 1849 ; two series, 2 vols. 12mo., 1850-3. 

*The Earthly Resting Places ot the Just. 8vo. 1851. 

The Summer and Winter of the Soul (Sterling, Irving, 
&c.). 12mo. 1852. 

The Riches that bring no Sorrow. 8vo. 1852. 

Self Sacrifice ; or, the Chancellor's Chaplain. 12mo. 

Sunsets and Sunshine; or, varied Aspects of Life 
(Lola Montes, Neild, Sterne, Hone, Cobbett, &c.). 8vo. 

The Blank Book of a Small Colleger. 
The Note-book of a Coroner's Clerk. Reprinted from 
Bentlei/s Miscellany. 

* Reasons for supporting the S.P.G. 
*The Landlord's Duty to the Labourer. 

Many articles in magazines. W. C. B. 

SMOKING IN CHURCH (6 th S. xii. 385, 415, 470). 
I must say I feel a great deal of sympathy with 
A. J. M. in regard to the refreshment and relief 
which one side of one's nature feels in the interior 
of a Dutch church. All is calm and restful, and 
one has no apprehension of any " restoration " 
impending. The only place I know in England 
where one has the same feeling is the chapel of the 
Foundling Hospital. If A. J. M. does not know 
it, I should advise him to go and see it some week- 
day when next in town. Last autumn I spent a 
few hours at Edam, one of the so called " Dead 
Cities of the Zuyder Zee," though, as it seemed to 
me, a quietly active and bustling little place, and a 
great centre of the Dutch cheese trade. My friend 
the burgomaster, being engaged on some municipal 
business when I arrived, put me in charge of the 
minister for half an hour or so, and we went to the 
church. The good man kept his hat on all the 
time that he was showing and explaining to me 
various matters of interest about the interior, 
having on entering lighted a cigar and offered me 
one. From what I saw of him, I should think that 
he was the very last person to mean any irreverence. 
I have never seen any smoking during service, 
though hats are freely worn, as they used to be in 
Holland during banquets, if the fine pictures by 
Frans Hals and others represent matter of fact. 

J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

I send you a copy of a note which I made nearly 
thirty years ago, of my own experience on this 
subject. It refers to the frontispiece of a little 
book, ' Forms of Prayers used by K. William III. 
at the Sacrament/ 1704 : 

" The countrymen of King William, at the present day, 
not only walk through their churches wearing their hats, 
but a clergyman was lately seen smoking a cigar in one of 
the principal churches. The congregations in that country 
generally wear their hats throughout the preformance of 
Divine Service, and it has been asserted that K-. William 
persisted in this formulary when he attended at churches 
in England ; but this must have been a Jacobite slander, 
for in the frontispiece of this little book he has nothing 
on his head but an ample flowing wig, and the crown 
[called in Bowbellia " the King's best hat "] and sceptre 
are reverently laid upon a cushion before him." 

The distinguished Baptist minister, the Eev. 
Kobert Hall, was said to be another English 
example of profuse smoking in the intervals of 
public worship and preaching. 

I saw the smoking chair of Dr. Sam. Parr, in 

7*8. 1. JAN. 9, '86.] 


which he has been engraved engaged in insensing, 
also his wig and gambadoes, at Hatton Rectory, 
after the death of his son-in-law and successor, the 
Rev. Mr. Lym, about 1845. 


I remember three instances of smoking in church 
in Lima, Peru. (1) In the church of La Merced I saw 
a layman surreptitiously enjoying his cigar while 
service was going on. (2) In the vestry of the same 
church I saw a full-robed bishop smoking before 
going into the pulpit to preach. In his case a 
friendly layman put a handkerchief under the 
episcopal chin, to keep the ashes from falling 
on the smoker's robes. (3) In the cathedral 
vestry I saw the " Master of the Ceremonies " 
(an Englishman) smoking a cigar. A spittoon is 
placed in the stall of each cathedral dignitary. 
Are these a " survival" of a time when smoking in 
church was not uncommon ? J. M. COTVTER. 


THE BASILISK (6 th S. xii. 225). In Bishop 
Lowth's * Translation of Isaiah/ published in 1778, 
the expression ^1^5 V is translated " basilisk": 

And the suckling shall play upon the hole of the aspic ; 
And upon the den of the basilisk shall the new-weaned 
child lay his hand. Chap. xi. 8. 

This is instead of " cockatrice," as in the A.V., 
and one creature is quite as fabulous as the other. 
The cockatrice, according to heralds, possesses the 
head of the cock with the body and tail of the 
dragon, whilst the basilisk is supposed to be an 
animal like a lizard, whose very look was fatal to 
life. The meaning, of course, of the text and con- 
text in the chapter is quite clear, and the passage 
is an instance of Oriental metaphor. In ' Zadig ; 
or, the Book of Fate,' by Voltaire, some Eastern 
maidens are represented as in quest of the basilisk. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

CENTURY (6 th S. xi. 221, 262, 301, 382; xii. 
203, 397). In the above, referring to Anthony 
Askham's * Almanac,' printed in the year 1555, 
I gave it as my opinion that Thomas Marshe was 
the printer. From some interesting titles sent me 
by your correspondent P. P., I find that it was 
printed by William Powell, and I shall be glad if 
you will insert this correction. 

I take this opportunity to thank P. P. for the 
trouble he has taken, and to assure him I shall be 
very pleased if we can mutually assist one another 
in the same way at some future time. 


9, Torbay Road, Willesden Lane, N.W. 

NUTS AT FEASTS AND IN GAMES (6 th S. xii. 513). 
The Hebrew is not quite correct in the reference 
quoted by W. C. B. In the Talmud Pesachini (Pass- 

over) the custom of giving the children nuts is re- 
ferred to more than once. It was then not so much 
on the feast itself as on the day preceding that the 
nuts were used. The children had to be kept awake 
for the service which is performed in every Jewish 
home on the Passover Eve (the Holy Communion 
is derived therefrom), and the nuts were given 
for the purpose of keeping the children occupied. 
The nuts, I should say, were eaten rather than 
played with. I. ABRAHAMS. 

BARTOLOZZI AND HIS WORKS (6 th S. xii. 439, 
466). Probably the finest collection in the world 
of Bartolozzi's prints is that in the library of the 
Vienna Albertina, The collection was made during 
the early part of the century by Bartolozzi himself, 
and in forty-four folio volumes contains, in addi- 
tion to his first essays, specimens in various states 
of all his works engraved while living in London. 
Bartolozzi disposed of this magnificent collection to 
M. Vonder Null, of Vienna, and by him it was re- 
sold to the Archduke Albrecht, who added it to the 
Albertina collection of prints. There is an account 
of this collection, described as the property of 
M. Vonder Null, in Ackermann's ' Repository of 
Arts ' for 1815, vol. xiii. pp. 364-5. It was only 
quite recently that I discovered what had become 
of it. ANDREW W. TUER. 

The Leadenhall Press, B.C. 

DOUT (6 th S. xii. 494). I believe that I also 
have heard this word in Dorset, and I well re- 
member hearing it. many years ago, in Shropshire. 
So the range of its habitat must be fairly extensive. 
Douse is perhaps a commoner form. C. B. M. 

To dout the fire or the candle is an expression in 
common use among the lower classes in my native 
county, Devonshire. I. E. C. 

Dout is commonly used in Devonshire. 


[In addition to the foregoing M.A.Oxon knows the 
word dout, in the sense of do out fire or candle, as a 
provincialism in Gloucestershire and Radnorshire ; MB. 
GANTILLON heard it used by a housemaid from Coleford, 
in the Forest of Dean ; ESTE says it is used by elderly 
unlettered people in Warwickshire and Staffordshire; 
W. C. B. heard recently " one of the youngest of the 
pensioners in a well-known Gloucestershire workhouse 
sa,j ' hQ douted the gas'"; in Lancashire he has heard 
don used by working people MR. BRIERLY quotes from 
Edwards, ' Damon and Pythias,' " The porters are drunk, 
will they not dup the gate to-day]" P. J. has heard 
dout in Worcestershire. M. D. knows it, and unked= 
lonely, sad, in Oxfordshire. MR. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY 
says dout is used in Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, North- 
amptonshire, and the West of England, and is heard in 
Cardiff. ALPHA gives extracts, in which dout occurs, 
from Henryson, ' A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hood,' and 
from ' Henry V.,' IV. ii., and says Bailey, Eng. Diet., 
1775, has douter for extinguisher, but not dout.~\ 

MISLESTED (6 th S. xii. 514). A corresponding 
word to mislested is of common occurrence in our 



S. I. JAN. 9, 'c6. 

London police courts, where a complainant will often 
say, " So-and-so assulted me," the word being a 
confusion between assaulted and insulted, and 
generally used of threatening abuse when no blows 
are struck. A less happy '' logogamy " was per- 
petrated in my hearing some time ago by a man 
who pointed out his residence with the words, 
"That's my house on the hill, envenomed in 
trees ! " the word being a confusion between en- 
vironed and embosomed. It is a very common 
thing in our courts to hear a policeman say, "I saw 
he was the worse for drink, and I persuaded him 
to go home, but he refused /" J. P. 

Mislesi is a good Lindsey word for molest, and 
as such occurs in my ' Glossary of the Dialect of 
the Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham.' I 
hear it used constantly, and am far from sure 
that, when occasion seems to call for it, I do not 
use it myself. A person said to me not long ago, 

"You must see that sumtnut's done about C- 's 

bull, squire, he mislests everything. It was nobbut 
last Setterda' that he trod doon haaf George 

T 's wheat, an' to-da' he's scared a lot o' 

bairns so as they dursn't goa doon th' laan to th' 

This is a very general dialectal word. It is in- 
variably used in Cheshire, and on reference to the 
glossaries of the English Dialect Society I find it 
is also in use in Antrim and Down (where the form 
is mislist), in Cumberland, Leicestershire, Lincoln- 
shire, and Yorkshire (Mid- Yorkshire, Holderness, 
Whitby). A. J. M. will also find the word in Halli- 
well (var. dial). EGBERT HOLLAND. 

Frodsham, Cheshire. 

M-islest and misle&tedwere common words in the 
Midlands sixty and seventy years ago, and were 
never supposed to have any other meaning than 
molest and molested. ELLCEE. 

"'But you have done wrong, sailor, in mislesting 
him,' says one of the bigwigs " (Bentley's Miscel- 
lany, April, 1838). The above is taken from 
1 Nights at Sea,' where some curious words will be 
found for Dr. Murray's Dictionary, e. g., 4 * to bain- 
boxter," " flusticated," " bamblustercated," if they 
are not disqualified as slang. K. B. 

[Many communications have been received subse- 
quently to the above. MR. THOMAS RATCLIFFE refers to 
mislested as common in the Midlands, and meslested as 
occasionally heard. MR. GEORGE RAVEN refers to the 
special use of mislested in the East Riding of Yorks, 
ESTE has heard it and ill-convenient commonly in War 
wickshire. MR. P. C. BIRKBECK TERRY refers to such 
analogous terms as indisgestion and digestion. W. M. M 
hears mislested frequently in Worcestershire. J. T. F 
is familiar with it in Lincolnshire. FATHER FRANK has 
heard it hundreds of times in the Midlands. MR. ALFRED 
WALLIS has known it used in Derbyshire for forty years/ 

xii.467, 503; 7 th S.i. 13). I thank MR. SOLLY for 

its reply. It may interest him to know that I have 
jefore me a copy of the above book in quarto form, 
which corresponds with his description of the 
genuine first edition, save that it has the name of 
ilichard Buckby, of Lincoln's Inn, Esq., among 
hose of the subscribers. F. D. 

NAPIER'S BONES (6 th S. xii. 494). In ' The Art 
>f Numbering by Speaking- Rods, vulgarly termed 
Napier's Bones,' by W. L[ey bourn], 1732, there is a 
ilate giving the additional piece as described by MR. 
&ABONE. The headings C. and S. are on this plate 
'Cube" and "Square." It is most likely de- 
scribed in the text. Macmillan & Bowes, of this 
;own, have a copy. G. J. GRAY. 


ESQUIRE (6 th S. xii. 495). The following is 
from Edwards's 'Words, Facts, and Phrases': 

" Esquire. This word, in the primary meaning, Sa 

shield bearer.' In the early Middle Ages this was called 

scutifer, from the Latin scutum, a shield, and/m>, 1 bear. 

This, in the old French, became escuyer, from which its 

transition to its English form was easy and natural. 

'Esquires maybe divided into five classes; he who 
does not belong to them may or may not be a gentleman, 
jut is no esquire. 

1. Younger sons of peers, and their eldest sons. 

2. Eldest sons of knights, and their eldest sons. 

3. Chiefs of ancient families (by prescription). 

4. Esquires by creation or office, as heralds and ser- 
jeants-at-arms, judges, justices of the peace, the higher 
naval and military officers, doctors in the several faculties, 
and barristers. 

5. Each Knight of the Bath appoints two Esquires to 
attend upon him at his installation and at coronations. 

No estate, however large, confers this rank upon its 
owner.' Wharton." 


I fear that your correspondent has not read his 
Shakspeare recently, or he would have remembered 
that " Kobert Shallow, Esquire, in the county of 
Gloster, was Justice of the Peace, and coram, and 
wrote himself Armigero in any Bill, Warrant, 
Quittance or Obligation, Armigero ! " This was 
in Elizabethan times, and no doubt all Shallow's 
" Successors gone before him" did it, and " all his 
Ancestors that come after him may." 

None are esquires de facto but the following : 
viz., all in her Majesty's Commission of the Peace; 
all members of and appertaining to her Majesty's 
Government ; all officers in the navy down to a 
lieutenant, and all officers in the army down to a 
captain, both inclusive. Barristers are also esquires 
by "ancient usage, and also by office," having taken 
the oath and signed the roll with justices and all 
members of her Majesty's Government. 



Mr. Hunter's statement rests upon no less 
an authority than Blackstone, who mentions 
(book iv.): "Esquires by virtue of their 
offices ; as justices of the peace, and others who 

7" S. I. JAN. 9, '86.] 



bear any office of trust under the Crown, and 
who are named esquires in their commission or 
appointment." The leading case on this point 
is Talbot v. Eagle, 1 Taunt., 510. 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

A justice of the peace is legally entitled to 
the rank of esquire. " In the fifth and last place be 
those ranged and taken for Esquires, whosoever have 
any superior publicke office in the Commonweale or 
serve the Prince in any worshipfull calling " (Cam- 
den, * Britain,' ed. 1610, p. 176). Chamberlayne 
(' Present State of England,' twelfth ed., 1679, pt. i. 
p. 285) speaks of justices of the peace as " reputed 
esquires or equal to esquires." Blount ('Law 
Dictionary,' 1717, s. v. " Esquire "), commenting 
on Camden, I.e., says that "he who is a Justice of 
the Peace has the title of Esquire, during the Time 
he is in Commission, and no longer, if not other- 
wise qualified to bear it." 


The following seems to answer the first part of 
DR. BR. NICHOLSON'S query. Of the four kinds 
of esquires enumerated by Camden, the fourth 
kind is : " Esquires by virtue of their offices, as 
justices of the peace and any who bear offices of 
crust under the Crown, and are named esquires by 
the Crown in their commission or appointment." 
See Stephen's ' Commentaries/ vol. ii. p. 655, 1868 

O'DONOVAN'S 'MERV' (6 th S. xii. 516). MR. 
BUTTLER has been misinformed as to the late Mr. 
O'Donovan's ' Merv Oasis.' I knew Mr. O'Dono- 
van well, and saw the manuscript from under his 
hand. It was entirely original matter. Many 
times have I seen him at work upon it, consulting 
tiny little books containing notes made by him in 
lead pencil when on his travels. Messrs. Smith, 
Elder & Co., I happen to know, paid a very large 
sum for the copyright of the book, and this would 
hardly have been the case had it been simply 
" made up " from letters in so widely circulated a 
paper as the Daily News. A comparison of the 
letters and the book, however, would make the 
matter sufficiently clear. In the second edition, 
in one volume, Mr. O'Donovan, I believe, had no 
hand, but this was simply a condensation made 
after his departure on the expedition in which he 
lost his life. F. M. THOMAS. 

71, Torrington Square, W.C. 

Edmund O'Donovan was not the man to do things 
by halves. He devoted much time and attention 
to his book. While writing it he secluded himself 
for some time in a remote Gloucestershire village, 
and for the remainder in a quiet little town in 
Brittany, where his exuberant spirits secured him 
the wondering attention of the local police, who 
could make nothing of the Irishman who amused 

himself and his English friend and helpmate Mr. 
Carey Taylor by appearing in public in the 
striking costume of a Mervian prince. 

O'Donovan's career was a romance from begin- 
ning to end. Dangers and difficulties were a joy 
to him, and he feared nothing so much as the 
humdrum life of cities. I knew him well enough 
to know that he was of the true chivalric breed. 


Oak Cottage, Streatham Place, S.W. 

492). The description of the marriage ceremony 
given by your correspondent can hardly be re- 
garded as unique. Mr. Chester Waters, in his 
' Parish Registers of England,' pp. 33-4, ed. 1883, 
gives the following entry : 

" Chiltern All Saints, Wilts, 1714. ' John Bridmore 
and Anne Selwood were married, Oct. 17. The afore- 
said Anne Selwood was married in her smock, without 
any clothes or head-gier on.' " 

He remarks that " this was done from the vulgar 
error that a man is not liable for his wife's debts 
if he makes it patent to all the world, by marrying 
her with nothing on except her shift, that she 
brings no personal estate." The custom is thus 
commented on in Chambers's ' Book of Days,' 
vol. i. p. 259 : 

"Some of the most remarkable marriages that have 
ever taken place are those in which the brides come to 
the altar partly, or in many cases entirely, divested of 
clothing. It was formerly a common notion that if a 
man married a woman en chemise he was not liable for 
her debts ; and in Notes and Queries (2 nd S. iv. 489) there 
is an account by a clergyman of the celebration of such 
a marriage some few years ago. He tells us that ag 
nothing was said in the rubric about the woman's dress, 
he did not think it right to refuse to perform the mar- 
riage service. At Whitehaven a wedding was celebrated 
under the same circumstances, and there are several 
other instances on record." 


Compare Sir Thomas More's ' Utopia,' second 
book, the well-known chapter on "Bondemen, 
sicke persons, wedlocke, and diuers other matters." 

W. M. S. 

xii. 75, 237, 313, 356, 470). The plate charged 
with a plain cross gu., to which I have alluded at 
the last reference as sometimes appearing among 
the roundels of the Medicean escutcheon, was not 
(as I suggested it might be) derived from the 
city arms either of Padua or Genoa. An exami- 
nation of some of my Florentine heraldic notes 
makes it clear that this roundel was temporarily 
assumed, as an addition to their arms, by several 
noble families of Florence as an indication of their 
sympathy with the common people, or of their 
derivation from them. " Ella comunemente signi- 
fica chi la porta essere fatti di popolo." 

In no place were political sympathies so fre- 
quently marked by heraldic assumptions or muta- 



. I. JAN. 9, ; 

tions as in Florence, and I may hereafter be able 
to supply some curious notes on this subject. 


' MEMOIRS OF GRIMALDI ' (6 th S. xii. 427, 500). 
G. F. R. B. states at the last reference that in 
the edition of Grimaldi's 'Memoirs' published in 
1846 " all Cruikshank's plates are reproduced, but 

another portrait of Grimaldi is substituted for 

the one which appeared in the original edition." 
This is somewhat misleading, as it seems to imply 
that the portrait which embellished the edition of 
1838 is not in that of 1846. As a matter of fact 
the new portrait (which is coloured, and represents 
Grimaldi in character) faces the title of the 1846 
edition, and the original portrait is also given ; but 
instead of facing the title of vol. i., as in the 
original edition, it is removed to p. 1 of part ii., 
and the plate of "Grimaldi's Kindness to the 
Giants," which in the first edition formed the 
frontispiece of vol. ii., is in the 1846 edition trans- 
ferred to face p. 150 of part ii. 

As I am on the subject of the illustrations to 
Grimaldi's life, I would like to put a query through 
your columns. Mr. Dexter, in his 'Hints to 
Dickens Collectors' (p. 18), says that the gro- 
tesque border which in some copies of the first 
edition appears round the plate of "The Last 
Song" is not by Cruikshank. What authority 
exists for this statement ? And if the border is 
not by Cruikshank. who is the designer ? 

J. M. M. 

S. xii. 441, 524). In the private chapel at Lart- 
ington Hall, Yorkshire, on the banks of the Tees, 
the seat of the Rev. Thomas Witharn, the last 
male of the ancient line of Witham of Cliffe, is a 
very fine representation of the Saviour on the 
Cross. It is in imitation of sculpture, and was 
painted by Le Brun. The illusion is so perfect 
that it stands out apparently from the wall above 
the altar. Perhaps it may be worth remarking 
that much scenery on the stage is painted in a 
similar manner. Going back to a very remote 
period, the practice would seem to be of great 
antiquity, for we read of Zeuxis deceiving the 
birds by the natural manner in which he painted 
the grapes, and he, in turn, being deceived by 
Parrhasius, who painted the curtain which Zeuxis 
vainly attempted to draw aside. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I have, in common, I dare say, with many reader- 
of ' N. & Q.,' read with much interest the note 
with this heading. Will Miss BUSK refer me t( 
the legend of the " Madonna of Toledo," to whicl 
she alludes 1 I think it cannot be generally known 
At all events I, for one, do not recognize it. 

L, R. W, 

SCOTTISH FAST DAYS (6 th S. xii. 517). The 
est work for reference is ' Collections and Obser- 
ations, Methodized, concerning the Worship, Dis- 
Ipline, and Government of the Church of Scotland,' 
ublished, Edinburgh, 1709, by Walter Steuart. 
ee p. 161, " On Observing Fast and Thanksgiving 
)ays." Should your correspondent wish for any 
pecial information I shall be happy to supply 
; in case he is unable to consult this book ; but 
he subject is scarcely suitable for ' N. & Q.' 


20, Harcourt Street, Dublin. 

BLOODY HAND (6 th S. xii. 514). Living, as I 
lo, far away from a great library, I cannot turn to 
he original authorities, but I am pretty sure that 
here is no trustworthy evidence that when Con- 
tantinople fell into the hands of the children of 
slam the mosque of St. Sophia was defiled with a 
lideous slaughter such as Mr. Robinson describes. 

What did take place there is described by Gibbon 
vol. viii. p. 173, ed. 1862). It is horrible enough, 

without importing fabulous crimes into the nar- 
ative. It may be useful to quote a few lines 
rom the historian of 'The Decline and Fall' 
p. 175):- 

" Amidst the vague exclamations of bigotry and hatred, 
the Turks are not accused of a wanton or immoderate 
effusion of Christian blood ; but according to tbeir 
maxims (the maxims of antiquity), the lives of the van- 
quished were forfeited ; and the legitimate reward of 
the conqueror was derived from the service, the sale, or 
the ransom of his captives of both sexes." 

Long centuries of hate have so embittered Chris- 
tians against the Moslem that it is never safe to 
receive evidence against the followers of the great 
prophet of Arabia which falls short of proof. From 
the earliest wars waged by the prophet himself 
down to the days of the " Bulgarian atrocities " a 
systematic course of misrepresentation has been 
pursued, for which it would not be easy elsewhere 
to find a parallel. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

I have lately seen the mark of the bloody hand 
on the wall of St. Sophia at Constantinople. It is 
not a painted representation, but just such a mark 
as a man's hand dipped in blood would make. 
As to blood having flowed up to any such a height, 
it is, of course, a physical impossibility. For 
blood, though metaphorically thicker than water, 
is still liquid ; and however many people were 
killed at the terrible massacre, their blood cer- 
tainly ran out through the doors and other open- 
ings in the huge building. What we were told 
was that the conqueror rode on horseback over the 
piled-up heaps of the slain, and dabbed or rested 
one bloody hand on the wall and with the other 
made a frantic blow with his scimitar at the por- 
phyry column close by, knocking off a great 
splinter from it. This story is quite possible, and 
fairly probable. J. C. J. 

7'h S.. I. JAN. 9, '86.] 


JANE CLERMONT (6 th S. xii. 468, 503). If MR. 
EDGCUMBE will refer to my ' Greater London,' 
vol. i. p. 134, he will find the date of the death of 
" Mary Anne Clermont " recorded, and it is quite 
possible that I may have been misled as to her 
Christian name. But whatever her Christian name 
may have been, I have no doubt that the sextoness 
at Hampton, if still alive, would tell MR. EDG- 
CDMBE, as she told me when I was writing my 
account of the parish of Hampton, the place of 
that lady's death. I am sorry that I did not 
" make a- note of it " at the time. 


2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

467). Richard Baxter had a brother living at 
Llaniugan, Shropshire, whose son William was 
born there 1650. This nephew was educated at 
Harrow, and in after years became a master of the 
Mercers' School. He married late in life, and left 
two sons and three daughters. He died May 31, 
1723, and was buried at Islington. William Baxter 
was a man of considerable learning. In 1679 he 
published a Latin grammar ; in 1695 an edition of 
* Anacreon,' with notes (this is the one Moore 
mentions in his 'Remarks on Anacreon,' 1804, and 
not the reprint in 1710, with improvements) ; in 
1701 his first edition of Horace appeared ; the 
second, published by his sou John after his death 
in 1725, was held in such esteem abroad that 
Gesner gave a new edition in 1752 at Leipzig, with 
additional notes ; and it has been again printed in 
the same place in 1772 and 1778. William Baxter 
appears to have kept a correspondence with most 
of the learned societies (see 'Glossarium Antiquita- 
tuni Romanorum' and the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, &c.). Prefixed to his * Glossarium Anti- 
quitatum Britannicarum ' (1719, 8vo.) is a fine 
head of him by Vertue, from a picture by High- 
more when Baxter was in his sixty-ninth year. 
He wrote his own life (its exact title I cannot give), 
which may have some genealogical information. 
34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

No children resulted from Baxter's much-talked- 
of marriage with Margaret Charlton. He left the 
bulk of his property to his nephew William Baxter, 
who was born in Shropshire in 1650, was head 
master of the Mercers' Company's School, and died 


See 'Reliquiae Baxterianae' and the articles 
on Richard and his nephew William Baxter in the 
third volume of the 'Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy.' G. F. R. B. 

495). I should read it, " All that for Roger 
Chamberleyn -+- and for his wife, God give them 

all good life ! " There is a break where I place 
the cross; it would mean "pray" or invoke a 
blessing. I suppose in Catholic times it would be 
done by each person making the sign of the cross. 

A. H. 

CHRISTMAS AS A SURNAME (6 th S. xii. 489). 
Bernard Jansen and Gerard Christmas were the 
architects to Hy. Howard, Earl of Northampton, 
who built the central stonework in the facade of 
Northumberland House. This Christmas was a 
Dutchman, I suppose. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

[The name Christinas is now quite common.] 

SEDAN CHAIRS (6 th S. xii. 308, 332, 498). I 
well remember how the Dowager Lady Boynton 
used to come to church at Winterton, in Lincoln- 
shire, about 1840, borne in a sedan chair by two 
footmen. The " chair" was black, parcel-gilt, and 
lined with silk. Sunday school was at that time 
kept in the chancel, and the good old lady, who 
always came in very good time, would sometimes 
stop on her way from the priest's door (by which 
she entered) to her curtained and well-lined square 
pew, and stand by the stove to have a chat with 
the vicar or my father or other of the teachers, 
and would sometimes say a kind word to us chil- 
dren, for which we always looked out. The two 
Miss Staniforths, who lived with Lady Boynton, 
came on foot from the hall, not five minutes' 
walk. " In dem days," as Uncle Remus would 
say, the Christmas decorations consisted solely of 
green boughs and sprigs stuck about the church 
by Tommy Nassau, the old clerk (everybody is 
" Mr." nowadays), and the psalms and hymns, 
sung "to the praise and glory of God," were 
accompanied by a bassoon played by Lady Boyn- 
ton's coachman, a "tramboon" (as it was called), 
a clarionet or hautboy, and a flute. So far as I 
remember and I have a vivid recollection both 
of the music and of the smell of the fresh ever- 
greens on a Christmas Day morning the effect 
was extremely good. J. T. F. 

Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

[An overwhelming correspondence upon sedan chairs 
has reached us. Further investigation into the subject 
seems, however, needless.] 

PYEWIPE INN (6 th S. xii. 487). CDTHBERT BEDE 
does not explain the word; so I ask, Does it mean 
the peewit or lapwing ? A. H. 

448, 504). The well-known English epitaph seems 
apposite : 

Here lies my wife, and Heaven knows 
As much for mine as her repose. 


The book sought for, in which these words 
occur, is ' The Early Registers of Halifax Parish 
Church,' by Walter James Walker, 1885, published 



[7 th S. I. JAN. 9, '86. 

by Messrs. Whitley & Booth, Crown Street, 
Halifax. THOS. S. PAYNE. 


(6 th S. xii. 209, 313). Writing of the Stadhuis at 
Kampen, Henry Havard says : 

" Among the archives the box of leans of the ancient 
municipality is still preserved. This hox of beans is 
nothing more nor lees than a small loribonniere holding 
twenty-four haricot beans, six silver-gilt and eighteen 
polished silver. When it was a question of deciding 
which of the members of the council should be chosen 
for the administration, the beans were put in a hat and 
each drew one out by chance, and those who drew forth a 
silver-gilt bean immediately entered on their new func- 
tions. This custom was not confined especially to 
Kampen, aa it was formerly in vogue in the province of 
Groningen (Leclerc, ' Histoiro des Provinces-Unies ') ; 
but these antique relics ought always to be very precious 
to an old town." 'The Dead Cities of the Zuyder Zee,' 
chap. xxv. 

This is a " variant " of the number. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

' LOTHAIR ' (7 th S. i. 8). The following key to 
Lord Beacon sfield's * Lothair ' appeared in one of 
the periodicals some few years ago : 
The Oxford Professor ... Prof. Goldwin Smith. 

Cardinals Manning and Wise- 

Marquis of Bute. 
Monst-igneur Capel. 
The Duke and Duchess of 


Bishop Wilberforce. 
Either of the Ladies Hamil- 

21, Endwell Road, Brockley, S.E. 

TRINITY MONDAY (6 th S. xii. 167, 234, 523). 
The fair at South Cave, in East Yorkshire, is held 
on this day, which is so called in Best's * Farming 
Book/ 1641 (Surt. Soc.), p. 113 ; in Storr's 'Be 
marks,' 1711; Yorksh. Archceol. Jour., vii. 53, 
and in White's ' Directory,' 1840, p. 182. A short 
title, convenient and intelligible, would be needed 
for a day that had to be often mentioned. Thus 
the Friday after Whit Sunday has become by 
custom a popular festival in Lancashire. People 
who think to be precise sometimes print it in their 
excursion-bills " Friday in Whit Week "; but it is 
commonly known by no other name than Whi 
Friday, although the Church of England does no 
go beyond Tuesday in Whitsun Week. 

W. C. B. 

517), Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry Mor 
daunt, was baptized at Lowick, Northants, the 
parish church of Drayton, the seat of the Mor 
daunts. " Elizab th Mordaunte filia Henr Mor 
daunte armig' bap erat 14 Augustii anno dn 
1594" (par, reg., Lowick), According to Hal 


Lothair ... 


The Duke and Duchess 

The Bishop 
Corisande ... 

lead's * Genealogies ' which, being compiled by 

he Earl of Peterborough, may be safely presumed 

o be the most trustworthy account of the Mor- 

aunt family she died young and unmarried. 

Dollins's ' Peerage,' Sir Egerton Brydges's edition, 

under "Earl of Peterborough" (vol. Hi. p. 217), 

makes her the wife of Sir Thomas Nevill, K.B., 

Idest son and heir of Henry, Lord Bergavenny, 

who died in his father's lifetime and was buried 

at Birling, co. Kent, on May 7, 1628, and this 

itatement is made by other writers. The same 

Peerage,' however, under " Lord Abergavenny " 

vol. v. p. 169), states that it was Frances Mor- 

daunt, her sister, who married Sir Thomas Nevill, 

nd this, which is confirmed by Edmondson in his 

Peerage,' both under "Peterborough " and "Aber- 

javenny," seems to be the correct statement. 

There is no entry of her burial in the Lowick 

registers, neither is the date of her death given in 

my of the Peerages which I have consulted, nor 

n Halstead's ' Genealogies.' G. L. G. 

In the register of Petwortb, Sussex, is the follow- 
ng entry: 

"1596. Mem. that on the 20 1 ' 1 of June was borne 
Henry L. Percie, who was baptized on the 8"" day of 
July in the private chappell in my L. his house. The 
witnesses were first for the Queen's Mat' 6 the Lady Buck- 
tiurst, then the Earl of Shrewsburie, lastly for the L. 
Treasurer (Lord Burleigh) the Earl dela Warr." 

Further particulars may be found in Sussex Arch. 
Coll., xxvii. 230. My inquiry as to any other 
Sussex godchild of the queen has proved fruitless. 

MOLINOS (6 th S. xii. 496). The following works 
on Molinos may possibly be of service to G. L. F. : 

Burnet (Gilbert, Bp.) Three Letters concerning the 
Present [1687] State of Italy. N.p., 1688. 

Benzenberg (J. F.) Nachrichten von M. de Molinos. 
Dusseldorf, 1844. 

Bigelow ( J.) . Molinos the Quietist. New York, 1882. 

Golden Thoughts from The Spiritual Guide ' of 
Miguel Molinos the Quietist, with Preface by J. 
Henry Shorthouse. Glasgow, 1883. [This latter con- 
tains a brief life of Molinos, pp. 7-25]. 

Hodgson (W.). Lives, Sentiments, and Sufferings of 
the Reformers and Martyrs. Philadelphia, 1867. 

Thornton, Horncastle. 

Does the lady on whose behalf G. L. F. is in- 
quiring know John Bigelow's ' Molinos the 
Quietist' (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 
1882, 8vo.)? G. F. R. B. 

DUMPS (6 th S. xii. 166, 273). I cannot refer to 
the volume, but some years ago I gave informa- 
tion upon "ring dollars " and dumps, which came 
into use in Sydney about the years 1810 and 1812, 
the dollar then passing for five shillings and the 
dump for one shilling and threepence, while the 
defacement had the effect of keeping the coins in 
Australia, It is generally believed that coins of 

7"> S.I. JAN. 9, '86.] 



this character were first used in the West Indies, 
of course not taking into account China and Japan, 
where pierced coins have been known for centuries. 

J. McO. B. 


A New English Dictionary, on Historical Principles* 
Edited by Jamea A. H. Murray, LL.D. Part II., 
Ant Batten. (Clarendon Press.) 
THE second part of the new dictionary gives an ap- 
proximate idea of the nature of the task undertaken by 
Dr. Murray and his assistants. It completes the letter 
A and extends nearly to the end of Ba. Under A, then, 
it appears 15,123 words in all are included. Of these 
12,183 are main words, 1,112 combinations and com- 
pounds, 1,828 subordinate words and forms with syno- 
nyms. A little over 28 per cent, of these are obsolete, 
and about 4 per cent, are foreign or imperfectly 
naturalized. Taking A, then, as representative of one- 
sixteenth of the alphabet, as from English dictionaries 
generally it appears to be, the total number of words to 
be dealt with in the dictionary is upwards of 240,000, of 
which the main articles are 195,000. These figures are 
naturally supplied by Dr. Murray, since the task of 
computation for an outsider would be not a little weari- 
some. The editor points also with justifiable pride to 
articles of great length and special difficulty, such as 
"Ante" and its compounds (occupying thirteen columns), 
"Anti " (forty-two columns), " Book " and its compounds 
(twenty-four columns), " Arch," "As," "At," "Ark," 
" Bail," " Band," " Bank," " Bar." A glance at these 
shows, indeed, how arduous has been the work, and how 
exemplary the patience of those concerned in this great 
undertaking. Space and opportunity to go through the 
important contribution now set before the public are 
alike denied, and the task of criticism is naturally aban- 

We have tested the dictionary by means of a collec- 
tion of archaic words which represents the labour of 
half a lifetime, and have found nothing omitted, even 
when, as in the case of ' argling " for arguing, no other 
quotation than that which appears in both collections had 
been seen for two centuries and a half; or when, in that 
of " aser," an obsolete form of Pr. acier, the instance of 
use is unique. Faults, since human work is imperfect, 
will necessarily be found, but the task of looking for 
them is painful and unremunerative. The work is, in 
fact, as it claims to be, national, and will long 
stand as the highest product of English philology. 
Ample acknowledgments are made by Dr. Murray to 
those by whom he haa been assisted, and his indebted- 
ness to many valued correspondents of ' N. & Q.' is 
frankly stated. The publication of the work will now, 
it is hoped, be continued at the rate of one number in 
each six months. 

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie 
Stephen. Vol. V., Bicheno Bottisham. (Smith, 
Elder & Co.) 

VEKY few names of the first or the second magnitude are 
included in the newvolume of the Dictionary of National 
Biography.' Wm. Blake, to which many will naturally 
turn, is the subject of a biography by Mrs. Gilchrist, 
which is well written and adequate, though shorter than 
might have been expected. Robert Blake is treated at 
greater length, and is the subject of a vigorously written 
biography by Prof. J. K. Laugh ton, who also supplies 
the life of Edward Boscawen. James Boswell is the only 

biography of importance taken by the editor, who gives 
a vivacious history of his career arid sums up his cha- 
racter favourably, asserting that " Macaulay's graphic 
description of his absurdities, and Carlyle's more pene- 
trating appreciation of his higher qualities, contain all 
that can be said." Sir William Blacketone is the subject 
of an appreciative life by Mr. G. P. Macdonell. Among 
shorter biographies there are many interesting contribu- 
tions by Mr. A. H. Bullen, Mr. S. L. Lee, and other well- 
known and efficient writers. Mr. W. E. A. Axon supplies 
a curious life that of Joseph Boruwlawski the dwarf. 
Mr. E. Maunde Thompson writes of the Bigods, Earls of 
Norfolk ; Dr. A. B. Grosart supplies lives of divines ; 
and many interesting articles have the signatures of Mr. 
Thompson Cooper and Mr. Russell Barker. The work 
maintains its high claims to consideration, and remains 
the best of its class that has seen the light. 

Italian Popular Tales. By Thomas Frederick Crane, 

A.M. (Macmillan & Co.) 

IT is remarked by Sir John Malcolm that " he who de- 
sires to be well acquainted with a people will not reject 
their popular tales and local superstitions." The work 
before us comprises, not the literary tales of Italy, but 
stories " which, with few exceptions, are presented for 
the first time in English, translated from recent Italian 
collections, and given exactly as they were taken down 
from the mouths of the people "hence they are " popu- 
lar" tales in the strictest sense of the term. As the 
stories are unembellished by literary art, they may be 
considered as faithfully reflecting the ideas, fancies, and 
superstitions of the Italian people. The author possesses 
peculiar qualifications for the laborious and important 
task which he has successfully executed. Mr. Crane is 
Professor of the Romance Languages in Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, U.S., and has long made a special study 
of the folk-tales of Italy. His object in composing this 
book " has been simply to present to the reader unac- 
quainted with the Italian dialects a tolerably complete 
collection of Italian popular tales. With theories as to 
the origin of popular tales in general, or of Italian tales 
in particular," he adds, " I have nothing to do at pre- 
sent." He has done wisely in not loading his book with 
an elaborate dissertation on a vexed question; and a 
mere introductory essay, in which some general features 
of the controversy could be only outlined, would be worse 
than useless, inasmuch as it might mislead readers who 
are ignorant of the whole question. As it is this book 
is precisely what is wanted by English students of com- 
parative folk-lore ; and, since " popular tradition is 
tough," the stories here collected may be supposed to re- 
present, more or less accurately, fictions which have been 
the heritage of the people of Italy time out of mind. 

An interesting introduction gives an account of the 
several collections which have been made of Italian tales 
as they are preserved by oral tradition. Then follow 
two chapters appropriated to fairy tales ; next a very 
important chapter of stories of Oriental origin, and 
one of legends and ghost stories; next comes a chap- 
ter of nursery tales ; and finally one of stories and jests. 
The collection comprises stories from Bologna, Basilicata, 
Istria, Mantua, Milan, Naples, Otranto, Tuscany, the 
Tyrol, Venice, Vincenza, Sicily, &c. (The folk-lore of 
Rome has already been presented to English readers by 
Miss R. H. Busk.) A more pleasing and at the same 
time representative selection of fairy tales could not be 
desired. The reader familiar with the folk-tales of other 
European countries will recognize among them many 
old acquaintances, more especially parallels to the 
charming fairy tales of Germany and Scandinavia. Of 
stories of Eastern origin there are some the exis- 
tence of which among the common people of Italy 



[7 lh S. I. JAN. 9, '?0. 

will probably surprise those who have not hitherto 
considered the close connexion there was between that 
country and the Levant in former ages; the most re- 
markable being several versions of the frame-story of 
the Persian ' TutfNama' (' Parrot-Book ') and its Indian 
prototype the ' Suka Saptati,' (' Seventy Tales of a Parrot ') 
the only instances yet discovered in Europe. Regarding 
the legends and ghost stories, in the former ot which 
the Lord and St. Peter are often the chief characters, 
we need merely say that they present interesting ex- 
amples of popular superstition, and have their parallels 
in the folk-lore of Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Ger- 
many. In the selection of nursery tales we find equiva- 
lents to our own " accumulative " rhymes and stories, 
such as the * Old Woman and the Crooked Sixpence ; 
but the majority, we should say, are altogether unknown 
to our nurseries. The concluding chapter contains 
diverting stories of foolish people, among whom Giufa, 
the typical noodle of Sicily, is pre-eminent. In the 
notes copious references are given to other collections of 
tales, in which analogues or variants of the stories in 
the text are to be found. Altogether Prof. Crane's 
work is a charming story-book as well as a scholarly 
production, and cannot fail to prove a valuable aid to all 
who are interested in tracing the genealogy of the 
popular fictions of Europe. 

The Praise of Gardens : a Prose Cento. Collected and 

in part Englished by Albert F. Sieveking. (Stock.) 
GARDENS are abundantly treated of by prose writers as 
well as by poets, and a selection from what has been said 
in their praise cannot be otherwise than interesting. From 
writers so wide apart as the author of an Egyptian MS. 
of the nineteenth dynasty, B.C. 1300, and Mr. Ruakin, 
Mr. Sieveking has obtained enough praise of gardens to 
fill upwards of three hundred daintily printed pages. 
An introduction, or "a proem," by E. V. B., affixed 
to the volume is too ornate in style even for the 
subject, and is more likely to frighten the reader from 
the book than to attract him to it. ' The Praise of Gar- 
dens ' is well suited for a gift-book. 

A DOUBLE issue of Messrs. Cassell's publications comes 
to us with the new year. In it are comprised the follow 
ing works : The Encyclopaedic Dictionary, Parts XXIII. 
and XXIV., completing vol. ii. and carrying the alphabet 
as far as " Destructionist." More than half the space 
is taken up by the words compounded with " De-," 
such as "Deduce," "Degenerate," ''Denounce," "De 
ride," in which the information conveyed is principally 
historical. In the scientific terms introduced and in 
such words as "Decorate," "Dean," &c., the encyclo- 
paedic character of the work is shown. A second volume 
of Our Own Country begins with Parts XI. and XII., 
which deal with Chester, Charuwood Forest, Bedford 
and John Bunyan, St. Andrew and the coast of Fife, anc 
Durham. A steel frontispiece, giving a view of the 
beautiful cathedral of Lichfield, is affixed to the firsi 
number. Other illustrations include the cathedrals of 
Chester and Durham, the bridge over the Ouse at Bed 
ford, and the ruins of St. Andrew's Castle. Parts V. and 
VI. of Mr.Walford's Greater London conduct the reade 
to Uxbridge by way of Harlington, Harmondsworth 
West Drayton, &c., of all which views are given. The 
westernmost point being now apparently reached, the 
course, keeping to the north and quitting the Thames 
passes by Pinner and Harrow (the latter fully illus 
trated) to Kingsbury, Stanmore, and so on to Edgware 
and Hendon. Of the country formerly part of the fores 
of Middlesex, but now rapidly being swallowed up in 
London, Mr. Walford has much that is interesting to say 
The reader is left at Canons. Egypt, Descriptive, His 
torical, and Pictiwesque, Parts VIII. and IX., deals wit" 

Jairo and the Island of Roda. The illustrations are 
umerous and elaborate. Both engravings and letter- 
ress in the History of India, Parts III. and IV., are 
argely occupied with battle-scenes, in which may be 
ncluded the duel between Francis and Warren Hastings. 
elections from Popular Authors, Parts IV. and V., in- 
lude some very miscellaneous extracts. 
THE Kendal Mercury for January 1 supplies a full 
ndex to the local notes and queries which appeared in 
ts columns during the last year. 

THE next volume of Mr. Elliot Stock's "Popular 
Bounty Histories " will be issued early in the year. It 
will be The History of Devonshire, by Mr. R. N. Worth, 
.S., author of The Western Garland.' 

ta Correspondent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
"gnature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

T. A. (" Marks on China"). The marks you describe 
are those of Crown Derby porcelain. It would not be 
easy to ascertain the precise year to which your speci- 
mens belong. They have a certain value, only to be 
estimated by an expert. 

F.S. A.Scot. (" Varangian Guards"). Fora full account 
of these guards, principally Danish or English in extrac- 
tion, who, with broad double-edged battle-axes on their 
shoulders, attended the Byzantine emperors in public and 
watched over them in private, see Gibbon, ' Decline and 
Fall,' chap. Iv. vol. x. pp. 221 et seq., ed. 1811 : ' The Fall 
of Constantinople,' by Edwin Pears (Longmans, 1885), 
pp. 149-55; and ' N. & Q.,' 4th g. x ji. a nd;5h S. i. and 
ix. passim. 

J. D. (" Works on Pronunciation by Ellis and Sweet 
referred to by Prof. Skeat"). The former of these was 
published by Mr. Henry Frowde, Clarendon Press, London 
and Oxford. Mr. Ellis's work on sound appears to be 
privately printed. Some correspondent will doubtless in- 
form you under what conditions. 

JAMES HOOPER (" Aum or Aam "). The word aum is 
the wine merchant's equivalent for the German ohm, a 
measure of about thirty gallons, by which all Rhenish 
wines were formerly sold. Since the introduction into 
Germany, some ten or twelve years ago, of the French 
system of weights and measures, the hectolitre, a measure 
of one hundred litres, is the only one which can be 
legally used, so it is to be presumed that the ohm is now, 
or shortly will be, obsolete. 

ERRATA. 6th g. x ii. 475, co i. i t j t 3 f rom bottom, for 
"1634" read 1623; col. 2, 1.15, for "jet." read May. 
7 th S. i. 5, col. 2, 1. 14 from bottom, for " R. Greene's 
' Menapton ' " read R. Greene's ' Menaphon.' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Oflice, 22, 
'look's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery LanCj E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7" 1 S. I. JAN. 16, '86.J 




NOTES: History of the Thames, 41 Byron Bibliography, 42 

Folifate Family, 44 Easter Day Public Men of 1782, 45 

Knox's Clock "It's all very well" Meric Casaubon's 
Haunted Parish, 40. 

QUERIES : A Missing Mazer Must Westminster and 
Music Army Lists Armorial Bearings on China Trapp, 
47 Portrait of Rev. J. Livingston Apostate Nuns 
Rickards: Maitland, &c. An Allegory Old Terms used by 
Tanners C. Patch Society of Hatters, 48 Prowse Family 
Chained Bibles Pigeons and Sick People Knoxis : Wimes 
Curran's Historical Fleas Kelly G. Way J. Armetrid- 
ing, 49-' Ame des Betes,' 50. 

REPLIES: De Courcy Privilege, 50 Highland Kilt, 51 
Earl of Angus Imary Cogers' Hall, 52 Heraldic, 53 
Waits and Mummers Bell of the Hop Sign of the Swan, 54 
Eton Montem Mertona, &c. Scotch Names of Fishes- 
Avenues of Trees Nostoc, 55 Weathercocks Ichabod 
Exteme Seal of Grand Inquisitor Tangier Toot Hill, 56 
Crest -Wreaths Sign-Painting Artists W. Powell 
Tunisia Carisbrook Castle Carew Raleigh, 57 Inscriptions 
on Wells Holbein ' Marmaduke Multiply's Merry Method' 
Molinos Visitation of Londou Origin of Saying Hokey 
1'okey, 58 Suicide of Animals Oxford Catalogue Minor 
Works of Scott, 69. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Pears's ' Fall of Constantinople ' 
Cuthbert Bede's ' Fotheringay and Mary, Queen of Sects' 
Plenderleath's 'White Horses of the West '' Antiquary,' 
Vol. XII. Rye's ' Murder of Amy Robsart.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



In the first decade of the present century 
British geology came to the wise conclusion that 
the time was not yet ripe for generalizations on the 
Titanic scale of Werner and Hutton. It accord- 
ingly set itself patiently to work to accumulate 
facts, to observe, study, and transcribe the record 
of the rocks, leaving its interpretation to those 
who should come after. Caution was the order of 
the day, and prompt was the snubbing inflicted on 
all unlicensed hawkers of cosmogonies and theories 
of the universe, whether of home manufacture or 
smuggled from abroad. This was as it should be, 
and, as one of the unscientific, I reverently take off 
my hat to those wise fathers of the Geological 
Society who, believing that Nature had written 
her gospel in a living language, through faith for- 
bore to attempt to read it until sufficient fragments 
of the text had been recovered to justify conjecture 
as to its general scope and meaning. But the 
authors of self-denying ordinances are as a rule 
somewhat tyrannical legislators, and the lapse of a 
single generation is often sufficient to fossilize 
sound, conservatism into cold obstruction of a dis 
tinctly dangerous tendency. Here is a case in 
point. It was not till towards the end of 1858 

that any British geologist with a scientific cha- 
racter to lose could be induced to admit the 
validity of the evidence adduced in favour of the 
co-existence of man with the animals whose re- 
mains were found associated with his own. Yet at 
least five-and- twenty years earlier, in 1833, if not 
before, all of them were well acquainted with a 
long series of researches which any geologist of to- 
day would have considered more than enough to 
convert the most sceptical. MM. Marcel de 
Serres, Tournol, and De Christol appealed to 
their cavern explorations in various parts of 
Languedoc. English geology placed their dis- 
coveries carefully on record, but declined to accept 
their conclusions. Dr. Schmerling appealed to the 
testimony of some two score caverns near Liege. 
Mr. Lyell, nob yet Sir Charles, at once made a 
special pilgrimage to Belgium to visit Schmerling's 
collection, duly registered Schmerling's conclusions 
in the next edition of the 'Principles, 7 and declined 
to accept them. Father McEnery brought under 
Buckland's notice his explorations in Kent's 
cavern near Torquay. Mr. Buckland,not yet Doctor 
and Dean, was profoundly interested, encouraged 
McEnery to draw up a joint memoir with himself 
on the subject, but induced his colleague to sup- 
press the conclusions at which he had arrived.* As 
one of the unscientific I find no difficulty in under- 
standing this imperturbable repugnance to admit- 
ting an obvious inference. What puzzles me is 
that men of science should ever have thought it 

It had at least one unexpected result. The first 
Englishman who frankly planted man face to face 
with the mammoth was not a geologist, but a 
novelist. I am not quite sure in what year Bulwer 
Lytton not yet baronet, much less baron wrote 
" The History of a False Religion," which appears 
in ' The Pilgrims of the Rhine,' but I rather think 
it was as early as this very year 1833. At any 
rate, this is how " the Author of ' Pelham ' " therein 
discourses of Morven, the son of Osslah, the 
prophet of the False Religion aforesaid. Morven 

" heard a great noise in the forest, and ascended one 

of the loftiest pine-trees, to whose perpetual verdure the 
winter had not denied the shelter he sought, and, con- 
cealed by its branches, looked anxiously forth in the 
direction whence the noise had proceeded. And IT came 
[the capitals are the novelist's own] it came with a 
tramp and a crash and a crushing tread upon the 
crunched boughs and matted leaves that strewed the 
soil it came it came, the monster that the world now 
holds no more the mighty Mammoth of the North ! 
Slowly it moved in its huge strength along, and its burn- 
ing eyes glittered through the gloomy shade; its jaws, 
falling apart, showed the grinders with which it snapped 
asunder the young oaks of the forest ; and the vast tusks 
which curved downwards to the midst of its massive 
limbs glistened white and ghastly, curdling the blood of 
one destined hereafter to be the dreadest ruler of th 
men of that distant age. The livid eyes of the monster 

* See Lyell, * Antiquity of Man,' first ed., p. 97, not*. 


[7 th S. I. JAN. 16, '* 

fastened on the form of the herdsman, even amidst 
the thick darkness of the pine. It paused it glared 
upon him its jawa opened, and a low deep sound, as of 
gathering thunder, seemed to the son of Osslah as the 
knell of a dreadful grave. But after glaring on him for 
some moments, it again, and calmly, pursued its terrible 
way, crashing the boughs as it marched along till the 
last sound of its heavy tread died away upon his ear." 

To this passage the author appends a note : 
" The critic will perceive that this sketch of the 
beast whose race has perished is mainly intended 
to designate the remote period of ihe world in 
which the tale is cast." 

Both the sketch and the note are eminently 
characteristic of the writer and the time ; but if 
the latter-day reader is justified in thinking that 
the creature would have negotiated all its crashing 
and crunching much more effectively had it taken 
off its stilts, the naturalist has no right to find fault 
with its anatomical structure. Science should not 
have left it to literature to trace the first outline of 
the mammoth as the contemporary of man. 

The discovery which finally drove English geo- 
logy out of a position which had long been unten- 
able was made by a fluke.* In 1838 M. Boucher 
de Perthes, an antiquary and geologist " arch^o- 
geologiste " he called himself of Abbeville, pub- 
lished the first volume of a work entitled 'Creation, 
Essai sur la Progression des Etres,' containing cer- 
tain reflections which had been maturing in his 
mind for a dozen previous years. In this work 
he advances an argument which the author of 
' Reliquiae Diluvianse ' would have found it hard 
to answer. Reduced to its lowest terms, it runs 
nearly thus : The last of the great fossil mam- 
malia whose remains have been described by 
Cuvier and Brongniart were destroyed by the 
Deluge. But man was created long before the 
Deluge ; ergo, man was contemporary with these 
extinct animals. Some of the works of man, 
perhaps even his bones, are as durable as the 
bones of these other creatures ; ergo, it is almost 
certain that some of the works of antediluvian 
man, and probably some portions of his skeleton, 
will sooner or later be found in the same geological 
formation as these lost quadrupeds. 

Happily unconscious of any flaw in his theory, 
M. Boucher de Perthes set to work, accordingly, 
day after day, with exemplary patience to ransack 
the gravel- pits near Abbeville for any memorials 
they might contain of his antediluvian brother. 
" Qui cherche, trouve." The number was legion of 
amorphous lumps of flint in which his imaginative 
intuition was able to discern the first rude efforts 
of primeval art to imitate the shapes of birds of 

* This much-needed word has not yet, I believe,found 
its way from the billiard-table to the dictionary. The 
sooner it does so the better. Piquet gave " discard " to 
the language, why should billiards be forbidden to con- 
tribute ' fluke," a far better word as regards form, and 
one absolutely without a synonym ? 

the air and beasts of the field, the fishes of the deep, 
and creeping things innumerable ; and when he 
came across a mass of a form too grotesquely 
fantastic for even his own ingenuity to detect in 
it the likeness of anything on earth, he bore it 
home in triumph as an indubitable idol of 
archseogeological fetish-worship. Certain marks, 
indeed, on the white surface of some of the 
flints were so obviously the relics of primal 
caligraphy that in one of his later works he 
asks, with full conviction : " Puisque nous avons 
eu un Ohampollion pour les hi^roglyphes Egyp- 
tiens, pourquoi n'y en aurait-il pas un pour les 
hi^roglyphes ante-diluviens ? " 

(To le continued.) 

Having collected the following articles on Lord 
Byron and his works, I forward the list in hope 
that it may be of aid towards a bibliography of 
the subject. 

Personal Character of Lord Byron, 11 pp., London Maga- 
zine, October, 1824. 
Lord Byron's Character and Writings, 60 pp., North 

American Review, October, 1*>25. 
Lord Byron and his Contemporaries, 47 pp., Blackwood, 

March, 1828. 

Gait's Life of Lord Byron, 24 pp., Fraser. October, 1830. 
3 pp., Edinburgh Review, October, 1830. 
14 pp., Monthly Review, December, 1830. 
Moore's Life of Lord Byron, 28 pp., Edinburgh Revitw, 

June, 1831. 

36 pp., Mirror, No. 411. 
3 pp., Monthly Repository. December. 1830. 
56 pp., Quarterly Review, February, 1831. 

6 pp., Monthly Review, April, 1830. 
16 pp., Fraser, March, 1831. 

Jeaffreson's Real Lord Byron, 2 cols., Saturday Review , 

June 16, 1883. 
Id cols., Athenceum, Aug. 18, Sept. 1, 22, 1883. 

3 cols., Guardian, Aug. 15, 1883. 

40 pp., Quarterly Review, July, 1883. 

4 cols., Academy, March 26, 1883. 

Dr. Kennedy and Lord Byron, 9 pp., Fraser, August, 

Kennedy's Conversations with Byron, 14 pp., Monthly 

Review, August, 1830. 

Life of Lord Byron, 67 pp., British Critic, April. 1831. 
Dallas's Recollections and Medwin's Conversations, 

34 pp., Westminster Review, January, 1825. 
Lord Byron, 18 pp., Universal Review, November, 1824. 
24 pp., Blackwood, July, 1872. 
11 pp., Asiatic Journal, N.S., vol. i. No. 2. 

7 pp., G. Gilfillan, Tail's Magazine, vol. xiv. 

28 pp., W. Howitt, ' Homes and Haunts of British 

40 pp., Monthly Review, February, 1S30, and 

February, 1831. 

8 pp., Temple Bar, 1869. 

Lord Byron and his Calumniators, Blaclwood, January, 

Lord Byron and his Times, Hon. Roden Noel, 43 pp., 

St. Paul's, vol. xiii. 
Fashionable Life in the Time of Byron, 14 pp., Tinsley's 

Magazine, October, 1870. 

7 th 8. 1. JAN. 16, '86.] 



Byron, 23 pp., Fortnightly Review, vol. viii. N.S. 
4 pp., ' Poetic Companion,' p. 120. 
11 pp., M. Arnold, Macmillan's, March, 1881. 
10 cols., ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' eighth ed. 
10 pp., Cunningham's ' Lives of Eminent English- 
men,' 1837. 
Lady Blessington's Conversations of Byron, 10 pp., 

Monthly Review, 1834. 

22 pp., Gentleman's Magazine, April, May, 1834. 
Byron and Tennyson, 39 pp., Quarterly Review, No. 262. 
Medwin's Conversations of Byron, 9 pp., Gentleman's 

Magazine, November, 1824. 
Life of Lord Byron, 18 pp., with steel portrait, Mirror, 

No. 85. 
Recollections of Lord Byron, with various elegies, 8 pp., 

Mirror, June 26, 1824. 
Lord Byron in Greece, with genealogical table, 18 pp., 

Mirror, No. 99. 

Pilgrimage to Byron, 4 pp.. Mirror, Feb. 25, 1837. 
Bucknall Church, where Byron was buried, with cut, 

Mirror, No. 99. 
House in which Byron died, with cut, 2i pp., Mirror, 

May 14, 1825. ' 

Newstead Abbey, with cut, Mirror. January 24, 1824. 
W. Irving's ' Sketch Book.' 

7 cols., Eliza Cook's Journal, May 1, 1851. 

8 pp., Broadway, vol. iv. p. 145. 

5 cols., Athenceum, Aug. 30, 1884. 
Proposed Byron Memorial, 15 pp., Fraser, February, 


Byron Monument, 2 pp., Fraser, May, 1879. 
Recollections of Lord Byron, 10 pp., Blackwood, July, 

On Sir A. Alison's Views of Lord Byron, Fraser, August. 

Last Record of Lord Byron, 4 pp., Chambers^ Journal, 

March 27, 1869. 
Dr. Evans on Lord Byron's Infidelity, 6 pp., Monthly 

Repository, January, 1825. 
Lord Byron's Theology, 8 pp., Monthly Repository, 

January, 1830. 
Trelawny's Recollections of Shelley and Byron, 19 pp., 

Westminster Review, April, 18(58. 
Byron and his Biographers, 14 pp., Fortnightly Review, 

vol. xxxiv. 
Byron in Greece, 38 pp., Westminster Review, vol ii,, 1824. 

9 pp., Temple Bar, May, 1881. 
Byron, Goethe, and Mr. Arnold, 7 pp., Contemporary 

Review, August, 1881. 
Expostulatory Epistle to Lord Byron, Jos. Cottle, 

Monthly Review, vol. xciv., 1821. 

Burns and Byron, 2 pp., TaiCs Magazine, 1844, p. 621. 
Byron at Work, 9 cols., Chambers' 's Journal, Oct. &, 1869. 
Byron, H. T. Tuckermari, ' Thoughts on the Poets,' 1850, 

J. Devey, 13 pp., ' Estimates of Modern English 

Poets,' 1873. 
Engraving of Tablet to Memory of Lord Byron, Sophia 

Hyatt, the White Lady, 3 pp., Mirror, Oct. 25, 1825. 
Fiction Fair and Foul : Byron, J. Ruskin, Nineteenth 

Century, September, 1880. 
Lord Byron and some of his Contemporaries, 12 pp., 

Monthly Review, 1828. 
Psychological Study of Byron, Karl Bleibtreu, Weekly 

Scotsman, June 21, 1884. 
Byron and the Countess Guiccioli, 22 pp., Bdgravia, 

vol. vii. 
Was Byron or Scott the greater Poet 1 ? 17 pp., British 

Controversialist (ed. S. Neil.) 

Lord Byron, 74 pp., New Monthly Magazine, Nov. 1, 1819. 
Character and Poetry of Lord Byron, J. H. Wiffen, New 

Monthly Magazine, May 1, 1819. 

Byron's Unpublished Poems on Mr. Rogers, 4 pp., 

Fraser, January, 1833. 
True Story of Lady Byron's Life, H. B. Stowe, 10 pp., 

Macmillan, September, 1869. 
Byron Mystery, 50 pp., Quarterly Review, No. 254. 
Lord Byron's Married Life, 29 pp., Temple Bar, June, 

Character of Lady Byron, 21 pp., Temple Bar, October, 


Lord and Lady Byron, 16 pp., Argosy, October, 1869. 
Byron's Daughter, 4 pp., Argosy, November, 1869. 
Vindication of Lord Byron. Alf. Austen, pamphlet, 

67 pp., Chapman & Hall, 1869. 
Byron's Letters, 14 cols., Athenceum, August, 1883. 
Arnold's Poetry of Byron, 2pp., Westminster Review, 

October, 1881. 
Lord Byron's Hours of Idleness, 5 pp., Edinburgh Review, 

January, 1808. 
3 pp., Eclectic Review, vol. iii. p. 289. 

7 pp., Monthly Review, vol. liv. 1807. 

Lord Byron's Juvenile Poems, 21 pp., Fraser, September, 

New Monthly Magazine, February, 1819. 

Lord Byron's English Bards, &c., 4 pp., Eclectic, vol. v. 
p. 481. 

Lord Byron's Poetry, 3 pp., Christian Observer, Novem- 
ber, 1819. 

Tendency of Byron's Poetry, 16 pp., Broadway, vol. iv. 
p. 54. 

Lord Byron's Poems, 4 pp., Monthly Review, September, 

13 pp./ Eclectic, N.S., vol. vii. p. 292. 

8 pp., Eclectic, N.S., vol. x. p. 46. 

Lord Byron's Poetry, 33 pp., Edinburgh Review, Decem- 
ber, 1816. 

2i pp., Monthly Repository, December, 1827. 
Lord Byron's Poems, 47 pp., North American Review, 

January, 1825. 
Siege of Corinth, Parisiana, 7 pp., Eclectic, N.S., vol v. 

p. 261. 
Siege of Corinth, &c., 11 pp., Monthly Review, February, 


Siege of Corinth, 17 pp., British Review, vol. vii. p. 17. 
Manfred, 5 pp., Eclectic, N.S., vol. viii. p. 82. 

14 pp., Edinburgh Revieio, August, 1817. 

8 pp., British Review, vol. x. 

10 pp., St. James's Magazine, December, 1875. 
Lament of Tasso, 2 pp., Eclectic, 1807. 

3 pp., Monthly Review, August, 1817. 
Mazeppa, 8 pp., Eclectic, 1819. 
Mazeppa and Don Juan, 12 pp., Monthly Review, vol. xix. 


Mazeppa. 4 pp., New Monthly Magazine. August, 1819. 
Marino Faliero, 10 pp., Eclectic, N.S., vol. xv. p. 518. 

7 pp., Monthly Review, May, 1825. 

15 pp., Edinburgh Revieic, July, 1821. 
Cain, 20 pp., Fraser, April, 1831. 

9 pp., Eclectic, N.S., vol. xvii. 

8 pp., Monthly Review, June, 1822. 

17 pp., Cases of 1 \Valcot v. Walker, &c., Quarterly 

Review, vol. xxvii. 1822. 

Bride of Abydos, 7 pp., Eclectic, vol. xi. p. 187. 
8 pp., Monthly Review, 1813. 
31 pp., Temple Bar, vol. xxviii. p. 61. 
Bride of Abydos and Corsair, 31 pp., Edinburgh Review, 

July, 1813. 
Childe Harold, 14 pp., Eclectic, 1818. 

10 pp., Eclectic, vol. viii. p. 630. 

11 pp., Edinburgh Review, February, 1812. 
Canto iv., 33 pp., Edinburgh Review, June, 1818. 
21 pp., Quarterly Review, vol. vii. 1812. 

Canto iii., 23 pp., British Review, February, 1817. 



[7* S. I. JAN. 16, '86. 

Childe Harold, canto iv., 33 pp., British Review, August, 


Canto iii., 36 pp., Quarterly Review, vol. xvi., 1816. 
Canto iv., 18 pp., Quarterly Review, vol. xix., 1818. 
Canto iii., 8 pp., Monthly Review, November, 1811. 
Canto iv., 13 pp., Monthly Review, November, 1818. 
Lamartine's Pilgrimage of Harold, 7 pp., Monthly 

Review, November, 1825. 
Childe Harold's Monitor, 3 pp., Monthly Review, 

November, 1818. 
Canto iv., 9 pp., New Monthly Magazine, Sept. 1, 

Address to the Ocean, 16 pp., Blackwood, October, 


Canto iii., 13 pp., Christian Observer, 1817. 
Corsair, 10 pp., Eclectic, vol. xi. p. 425. 

12 pp., Monthly Review, 1814. 

13 pp., Christian Observer, 1814. 
10 pp., British Critic, March, 1812. 

Corsair and Lara, 30 pp., Quarterly Review, No. 22, 1814. 
Giaour, 9 pp., Edinburgh Review, July, 1813. 

9 pp., Eclectic, vol. x. p. 528. 

Giaour and Bride of Abydos, 33 pp., Quarterly Revieiv, 
vol. x., 1814. 

7 pp., Christian Observer, 1813. 

2^ pp., British Critic, 1813. 

Prophecy of Dante, 4 pp., Colburn's New Monthly, vol. i. 
The Island, 5 pp., Colburn's Netv Monthly, vol. i. 
Hebrew Melodies, 7 pp., Christian Observer, 1815. 
Beppo, 9 pp., Edinburgh Review, February, 1818. 
Heaven and Earth, 8 pp., Colburn's New Monthly, vol. i. 
Doge of Venice, 12 pp., British Review, vol. xvii. 

20 pp., New Edinburgh Review, July, 1821. 
Sardanapalus, &c., 32 pp., British Preview, vol. xix. 
Fare thee well, a Poem, British Review, vol. vii. 
Beppo, 6 pp., British Review, vol. xi. 

7 pp., Monthly Review, March, 1880. 
Deformed Transformed, 8 pp., Universal Review, vol. i. 

Prisoner of Chillon, with Notes, 8 cols., Casquet, vol. ii. 

4 pp., Monthly Revieio, December, 1816. 
Bonivard the Prisoner of Chillon, 6 pp.,Fraser, May, 1876. 
Dramas, 48 pp., Quarterly Review, vol. xxvii. 
Tragedies, 39 pp., Edinburgh Review, February, 1822. 
Werner, 11 pp., Monthly Review, December, 1822. 
Don Juan, 20 pp., British Review, December, 1821. 

Monthly Review, October, 1819 ; August, 1821 ; 
October, 1823 ; April, 1824. 

9 pp., New Monthly Magazine, August, 1819. 
The Rest of Don Juan,' 8 cols., Bibliographer, July, 1883. 
The Vampyre, a Tale, by Lord Byron, 10 pp., New 
Monthly Review, April, 1819. 

9 pp., Monthly Review, May, 1819. 

City Library, Bristol. 

JOHN TAYLOR, Librarian. 

Hargrove, in his * History of Knaresborough,' 
says, " A family of this name anciently resided here 
[Folyfoot, in the parish of Spofforth] till the reign 
of Henry V. , when the heiress, Oliva de Folifaite, 
married John, ancestor of the Earls of Moira." 
The first statement appears to be incorrect, the seat 
of the family having been at " Follithwaite, a 
division of Walton township, but in the parish of 
Wighill," about seven miles east of the place 
indicated by Hargrove. In the West Riding poll 
tax of 1379 these two places are distinguished as 

East and West Folyfayt. In a terrier of the 
parish of Wighill in 1716 it is stated, "There are 
several hundred acres of ground known by the name 
of Follifoot, which was formerly a park, but now 
mostly arable ground, being disparked time out of 
mind" (Surtees Soc., vol. xlix., p. 25). I have 
sought somewhat widely for a pedigree or any 
account of the genealogy of this family, but have 
found none. The following collected notes may be 
useful to future inquirers. In the account of the 
Rawdons, Earls of Moira (Lodge's ' Irish Peer- 
age'), it is stated that John de Rawdon, mentioned 
in deeds of 1376 and 1391, married Aliva or Alice, 

daughter and heir of Folifate, and had issue 

John, who was living in 1450 and 1464. In the 
pedigree of Rawdon in * Ducatus Leodensis ' 
(p. 171) the first-named John is called of Brere- 
haugh (Brearey). Alan de Folifate is among the 
benefactors to Kirkstall Abbey, granting " all his 
meadow and arable land lying between the ditch 
or Foss and Wharfe in the territory of Foli- 
fait, reserving a right of passage to and from this 
GM~~ an( j t h e river Wharfe" (Burton, ' Mon. 

Ebor.,' p. 293). It appears probable that there 
were three or more generations of this family who 
bore in succession the name of Alan. Alan de 
Folifate was a witness to the foundation grant of 
Helaugh Priory by Bertram Haget before A.D. 1203 
(* Mon. Ang.,' vol. vi. p. 438) ; witnesses a charter of 
Jeffrey Haget, son of Bertram, to the same priory 
(ibid., p. 438), and also, circa A.D. 1218, the charter 
of Jordan de Sancta Maria and Alice his wife, who 
was granddaughter of Bertram Haget ; his name 
also appears to the confirmatory charter by Alice 
in her widowhood (ibid. , p. 439). According to a 
MS. in the College of Arms Alan de Folyfayt was 
among the founders or benefactors buried in the 
church of Greyfriars at York (' Coll. Top. et Gen.,' 
vol. iv. p. 78). Alan, son of Alan de Folifate, 
married Ivetta, daughter and heiress of Robert de 
Eskelby, and had issue Henry, who appears, as his 
mother's heir, to have assumed her surname. His 
son Alan de Eskelby, grandson of Alan and Ivetta, 
was living in A.D. 1278 (De Banco Roll, Easter, 
6 Edw. I., m. 54). For the mother's descent see 
' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. ix. 447. There is a grant (n. d.) 
by this Alan and Ivetta to the hospital of St. 
Peter of York of land in Eskelby and Crosby, 
which was witnessed by Ralph, son of Alan de 
Folifate (Dodsworth, Harleian MSS., 793, p. 80); 
and a grant by the same persons (by a transcriber's 
error styled De Folisedt) of land in Leeming to the 
abbey of St. Mary, York, is among the charters in 
the Bodleian Library (Oat Chart, in Bodl. Lib., by 
Turner and Coxe). In Fine Roll, 23 Hen. III., m. 7 
(A.D. 1239), Cambridgeshire, "Alan de Folifet 
gave the king 20 shillings to have four justices to 
take an assize of ' novel disseisen ' against Alex- 
ander des Esscalers and Alice his wife respecting 
tenements in Parva Linton." Thomas, son of 

? 8. I. JAN, 16, '86.] 



Robert Folifait, grants (n. d.) to the priory of New- 
burgh all his lands in Follifoot (Harl. MSS., 799, 
p. 60). In 1284/5 Alan de Folifayt held one-half 
of the manor of Folyfayt of the Mowbray fee 
(Kirkby's Inq., Sur. Soc., vol. xlix. p. 25), and he 
appears as holding the same in A.D. 1301, 1302, and 
1315 (ibid., pp. 290, 220, 343). In 1301 he was 
one of the jurors for the Ainsty at the inquiry as to 
knights' fees (ibid., p. 206). License from the 
Archbishop of York was granted in 1313/14 to 
Alan de Folyfait to have an oratory within his 
manor of Folifoot (ibid., p. 25); and on Feb. 22, 
1351, an Alan de Folifate was witness to the 
charter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, to Kirkstall 
Abbey (<Mon. Aug.,' vol. v. p. 538). In the 
Hundred Rolls, Edw. I., complaints are made 
against Henry de Normanton, Sheriff of York, and 
Henry, son of Ralph de Folyfayt, appears, and the 
jury say " that he detained a writ of the lord the 
king which is called ' quoniam vi et armis,' to 
attach certain persons of Wighill that they should 
come to the Bench, and he never could have return 
of the writ to the Bench from the said Sheriff, to 
his damage 20 shillings," and further "that he 
detained a writ of the lord the king to the said 
sheriff, to raise a certain sum of money from 
Robert de Egglesclyf, dwelling in the fee of Rich- 
mond, and he could not have return of the writ 
until he had given the sheriff half a mark." Henry 
Folifet and John his brother were living in 1252 
(Sur. Soc., vol. Ivi. p. 269); and in 1376/7 Edmund, 
son of Alan de Folifayt, quitclaims to his uncle 
Edmund Lorence, son of John Lawrence of Asshe- 
ton, his right to the manor of Folifayt, near Tad- 
caster, and also the lands in the said manor held 
in dower for Elizabeth, widow of his brother John 
de Folifayt ('Dep. K. Rep. Pub. Rec.,' xxxii. p. 361). 

The family was evidently of importance at an 
early period, and I trust that some of your readers 
may be able to refer me to further information 
relating to it, particularly anterior to A.D. 1300. I 
should also be obliged for information as to the 
arms of the family. In Foster's ' Yorkshire Visita- 
tions ' there is a charter of Ingram, or Ingelram, 
Falefaunt ; it is undated, but there is internal 
evidence that it was executed about 1254. The 
seal of the grantor bears, On a fess, three crosses 
patee. These are ancient arms, which it is in- 
teresting to compare with those of Follefait or 
Folifoot given by Burke (' General Armory ') as 
quartered by Sir George Rawdon, Bart, (funeral 
entry A.D. 1684), Ar, a fess between two lions 
pass, reguard., sa. These latter arms appear to 
have been borne by no other family. 

That the family was of Norman extraction there 
can be no doubt. Hubert Folenfant in 1066 held 
Gouberville, Dainonville, and Couverville, in Nor- 
mandy, from Adelais, daughter of Turstan Halduc 
(Wiffen, 'Mem. Russell,' i. 17); Ralph Folefant 
held by knight's service in Bedford from Simon 

de Beaucharnp, 1165 (' Lib. Niger'); and Hugh 
Folenfaunt was of England 1272 (< The Norman 
People '). H. D. E. 

the daily papers recently returned to the some- 
what threadbare subject of that " singular person- 
age " (as the ' Penny Cyclopaedia,' for want of a 
better term, calls him) Nostradamus, who died in 
1566 whilst court physician to Charles IX., of St. 
Bartholomew infamy, and amongst whose prophe- 
cies is one that the end of the world will take 
place when Easter Day falls on St. Mark's Day, as 
it does in the present year. The subject is dis- 
cussed in * N. & Q.,' 5 th S. ix. 416, where MR. SOLLY 
sarcastically remarks that we need not have any 
special anxiety on this subject for 1886, since the 
prophecy undoubtedly was put forth with reference 
to the old style of the calendar, by which, had it 
been still observed, Easter Day would not fall this 
year on St. Mark's Day. That day (April 25) is 
the very latest on which Easter Day, according to 
the complicated mode in which it is reckoned, can 
fall. It falls, of course, very seldom on that day, 
and has not hitherto done so once since the re- 
formation of the calendar in England. It fell so, 
.however, twice by the Gregorian style between 
the dates of the reformation on the Continent 
and in England, viz., in 1666 and 1734. The 
former of those years was the one called the " annus 
mirabilis " by Dryden, and was certainly a memor- 
able one in the annals of London ; the latter was 
not remarkable for any special event in this 
country. According to the old or Julian style 
(then still observed in England) Easter Day fell 
during that period on St. Mark's Day, in 1641 
(the year after the assembling of the Long Par- 
liament and the year before the actual outbreak 
of the civil war in England) and in 1736. These 
were all the occasions on which Easter so fell 
since the death of Nostradamus. After the 
present year, the next time on which it will 
fall on St. Mark's Day (unless a simpler and 
better rule for the observance of Easter be in 
the mean time adopted) will be fifty-seven years 
hence, in 1943. W. T. LYNN. 


PUBLIC MEN OF THE YEAR 1782. The follow- 
ing summary of the amusements followed by the 
nobility and gentry in 1782 is from the Morning 
Herald of August 6 of that year. It seems to me 
just one of those little bits of information which 
historians like and know how to make use of. It 
is pleasant to hear of Lord North as liking a festive 
board ; that Lord Weymouth knew a good glass of 
Burgundy when he came across it ; that the Duke 
of Dorset threw off his coat to enjoy his game at 
cricket ; that Lord Sandwich could enjoy to hear 
Lord Maiden on the violoncello and Lord Abingdon 



[7* S. I. JAN. 16, '86. 

on the flute ; whilst Lord Grosvenor stuck to the 
turf and Lord Berkeley to hare hunting, Sir 
William Draper to his tennis, and Sir John Lade 
to gig-driving. One can picture Lord Bucking- 
hamshire going about town in an old coat, and 
turning into the Christie's of that day with Lord 
Besborough to look at objects of vertii. In fine, 
the doors of conjecture once open, the imagination 
expands the bints of the newspaper, and lends us 
some of the ingredients which go to make history. 

" Amusements that y e following Men of fashion princi- 
pally delight in, viz. 

Duke of Norfolk toping. 

Duke of Dorset cricket. 

Duke of Cumberland freshwater. 

Earl Darmouth the Tabernacle. 

Earl Hillsborough a nap. 

Earl Cornwallis military glory. 

Earl Pembroke ... .. ... the Menage. 

Sandwich ... 

Lord Camden 

Egmont ... 


Orford ... 


Earl Besborough 
Viscount Weymouth 
Mr. Rigby 
Earl Effingham 

ancient Music. 
. Agriculture. 
Fox hunting. 
.. Menageries, 
dirty Scirt. 

Mr. Fox popular tumults. 

Lord Maiden 
Earl Egremont ... 
Duke of Devonshire 

Earl Berkley 

Lord Grosvenor 

Lord North 

Earl Buckinghamshire 

Lord Westcote 

Lord Hamilton 

Street Riding. 
... retirement, 
hare hunting, 
the turf, 
a festive board. 
... an old coat, 
a parenthesis, 

Sir W. Draper tennis. 

Earl Aylesford pistol shooting. 

Sir J. Lade gig driving. 

Lord Townsbend caricature. 

Sir W. W. Wynne acting. 

Viscount Keppel a warm Cot. 

Howe Naval practice. 

G. B. 

Upton, Slough. 

JOHN KNOX'S CLOCK The following is a cut- 
ting from the Toronto Weekly Globe of Decem- 
ber 25, 1885. Further information in regard to 
the clock to test its authenticity is desirable. 
" John Knox's Clock. 

" Mr. W. H. Woods, of Huntingdon, Pa., is the owner of 
a clock which he values so highly that he could not be 
induced even to put it on exhibition at the Philadelphia 
Centennial, for fear it should meet with some accident. 
It was made at Paisley, Scotland, by Evan Skeoch in 
1560, and was owned by Knox, the great Reformer. It 
was handed down from generation to generation of bis 
descendants, coming after nearly one hundred and fifty 
years into the possession of John Winterspoon, father of 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
When the son left Scotland in 1768 to come to America, 
he brought the old clock with him. He prized it very 
highly, cleaning it himself at regular intervals, and 
taking pleasure in showing it to his friends and members 

of Congress. Since his death in 1794 it has descended 
to the first-born of each succeeding generation. The 
first who held it was his daughter Marion, who married 
Rev. Dr. Jas. S. Woods, of Lewiston, Pa., who died in 
1862. Mr. Woods died shortly afterwards, when the 
clock came into possession of its present owner. It is 
still a good time-keeper, is eight feet high, built of rose- 
wood, and has brass works." 

A. G. REID. 


you CAN'T LODGE HERE." In a recent communica- 
tion to the Daily Telegraph Mr. Sala, writing from 
New Zealand, says : 

" This, for a wonder, is the sunniest and balmiest of 
mornings in Wellington. Never mind the ' chockablock ' 
plethora at the hotels. I forget now that for many 
hours I was a houseless wanderer on the Te Aro flat, 
disdainfully repulsed by Boniface after Boniface, and 
ruefully recalling that famous but inscrutably mysterious 
utterance of the very first year of the Victorian epoch : 
' It 's all very well, Mr. Ferguson ; but you can't lodge 
here.' How strangely do these unbidden memories rise, 
after a long lapse of years, before us ! Who was Ferguson, 
and where did he seek to lodge, and on what ground was 
he denied shelter? It were as bootless, perhaps, at this 
distance of time, and with so many thousands of milea 
between Wellington, New Zealand, and the office of 
Notes and Queries, in Wellington Street, Strand, London, 
as to ask who Walker was, and why, nearly fifty years 
ago, he was derisively connected with a certain coat, 
some ' tin,' and the New Penny Post. ' Coelum non 
animam,' &c. I shall not descend contented to the 
tomb until I have solved the mysteries of Ferguson and 
of Walker." 

I should not like Mr. Sala to " descend to the 
tomb " until one of his queries, at least, has been 
solved. In case, accordingly, you have nothing 
better, I send the following. It is very fresh 
in my memory. About the time to which Mr. 
Sala alludes the celebrated Marquis of Water- 
ford was in full swing, and had a friend, a Capt. 
Ferguson. At the end of one of their " sprees " 
they had become separated, and the Marquis found 
his way home to the house of his uncle, the 
Bishop or Archbishop of Armagh, a large mansion 
at the south corner of Charles Street, St. James's 
Square. The marquis had gone to bed when a 
thundering knock came at the door. The marquis, 
sespecting who was the applicant, threw up the 
window and said, "It is all very fine, Ferguson ; 
but you don't lodge here." For many years the 
saying became popular, and the particulars took a 
deep hold on my memory, which still retains them. 

As to " Walker " I am not clear ; but I suppose 
it may have had something to do with letter-carriers, 
as an old song had it, " Walker, the Twopenny 
Postman." THOS. EARWAKER. 

Meric Casaubon's preface to his remarkable folio 
on the intercourse between Dr. John Dee and the 
spirits, called ' A Relation/ published in 1659, he 
refers on leaf 11 (verso, top line) to a haunted 

7* a I.JAK.16,'86.] 



parish of which he was incumbent by right, though 
then deprived of it. His words are that he him- 
self " had a Parish, that is, right to a Parish as 
good as the Laws of the land can give me, which 
hath been grievously haunted this many years, to 
the undoing of many there ; but I must not come 
near it, nor have the benefit of the Law to recover 
my right, though never told why." In the margin 
of my copy, once Horace Walpole's, there is de- 
fectively printed what appear to be the letters 
" B.V. of T." I should be glad to know if these 
initials are clearer in any other copy, and whether 
the names can be extended. Casaubon was pre- 
sented to Bledon, co. Somerset, by Bishop An- 
drews, and to Ickham, co. Kent, by Laud ; and 
from the latter living Walker (ii. 8) says he was 
ejected. A note by Kennet in * Athen. Oxon./ 
ed. Blis?, iii. 939, states that Casaubon was pre- 
sented by Laud in 1634 to the livings of " Men- 
stre (Minster, in the Isle of Thanet ?) and Monk- 
ton ; and it is also added that he was thence 
ejected during the troubles, but came into posses- 
sion again in 1660. JOHN E. BAILEY. 
Stretford, Manchester. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

A MISSING MAZER. Can any one tell me the 
whereabouts of a beautiful mazer sold at Win- 
chester in December, 1853, which bore the legend, 
" Potum et nos benedicat agyos " ? 

Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House. 
Piccadilly, W. 

[Replies should be sent direct.] 

MUST. I have a dispute with a friend and 
grammarian as to the powers of our auxiliary verb 
must, and I feel compelled to appeal for informa- 
tion to your readers. The following, briefly stated, 
are the facts. Grammarians are divided in opinion 
as to whether must has a preterit tense. All are, 
however, agreed that it has no perfect tense, for 
"I have must" would be out of the question. 
But those grammarians who give must in their 
grammars as a preterit stop short and omit telling 
us why we may not say, " I must go there yester 
day," or "He did not come yesterday; he must 
work all yesterday." Nor do they, on the other 
hand, tell us under what circumstances the word 
conveys the meaning of a past time. It must be 
observed that sentences like the following, " I 
must have done it," " He must have forgotten it,' 
are not evidences of any preterit power of must, for 
the past is conveyed by the words " have done " 
and " have forgotten." This becomes evident by 

substituting can, as " Can he have forgotten it ? " 
Here can, like must, is a present tense. If I re- 
member right, there are instances of must appear- 
ing with the powers of a past tense, but I am quite 
unable to call to mind where I met with them. 
Perhaps some of your readers will kindly ventilate 
the question, and oblige 


[In our opinion no idea of past time can be attached 
to the word must. The explanation is that of all the 
tenses of the German verb miissen, the present was the 
only one which passed into English. A German can 
say, " Ich miisste," " I musted," and can use the infini- 
tive " to must," while we are restricted to the present 
alone. The same thing occurred with the infinitive of 
the verb " to can " (konneri) , which is common in 
German, but was never employed in English.] 

WESTMINSTER AND Music. Will any obliging 
student of musical history aid me in preparing a 
correct statement of all musical societies con- 
nected with the ancient city now borough of 
Westminster since about 1675 Purcell's time ? 
Information on this subject will be much value< 

Sec. Westminster Orchestral Society 

33, Great Pultenev Street. 

ARMY LISTS. What printed lists of the Eng- 
lish army are there prior to 1754, when the first 
edition of the * Annual Army List ' was printed ? 

0. M. 

are these arms: Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gules, three 
heads with white caps; 2, Ermine, three bars 
vert; 3, Sa., three swans arg., with crest a swan; 
all coats of Fazakerley, impaling Or, a lion statant 
regardant. I have carefully examined the lion, 
and all his four paws are resting on the ground, 
which, I believe, entitles him to be described as 
"statant." No such coat is given by Papworth. 
" Or, a lion passant gu.," is assigned to Gaynes 
of co. Brecon and to Charlton. 

On a plate are the arms of Duberley, On a 
fess an arrow between two mullets, two garbs in 
chief, a reaping hook in base; and crest, a hand 
holding three ears of corn, impaling Gu., a swan or 
goose or. There is no question that the bird is 
" or," and this coat is not given by Papworth. 

Can any of your readers give me the name of the 
alliance in each of these cases, and of the member 
of the family respectively whom they represent 
Both specimens belong to the first half of the last 
century; the latter is Oriental china. G. L. G. 

TRAPP. In Christ Church, Newgate Street, lies 
Dr. Trapp, for twenty-six years vicar. He died 
1747. He translated Virgil into blank verse 
very blank, it is said; critics say the only value of 
the book is in the notes, which are copious. Cun- 
ningham says it occasioned a well-known epigram. 
What was it ? I know of the epigram that he 



S. I. JAN. 16, '86. 

himself wrote upon George I.'s sending troops to 
Oxford and Bishop Moore's library to Cambridge: 
The king, observing with judicious eyes 
The state of both his universities, 
To Oxford sent a troop of horse ; and why ? 
That learned body wanted loyalty: 
To Cambridge books he sent, as well discerning 
How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

This was repeated to Sir Wm. Browne, the 
eccentric physician of Lynn, who answered im- 
promptu (Nichols's ' Lit. An./ viii. 439). 

C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

AND HIS WIFE. Can any Scottish readers of 
' N. & Q.' inform me if any portraits of the above 
couple are still in existence ? The Rev. John 
Livingston was minister of Ancram, and banished 
to Holland for nonconformity in 1663. From the 
following extract from ' The Ladies of the Cove- 
nant, 7 by the Rev. James Anderson, published by 
Messrs. Blackie & Son in 1851, it appears that 
there used to be a portrait of Mrs. Livingston (nee 
Mary Fleming) at Gosford House, but I believe 
that it is not now to be found : " There is a por- 
trait of Mrs. Livingstone in Gosford House, be- 
longing to the Earl of Wemyss, as we learn from a 
footnote in Kirkton's 'History/ by the editor, 
p. 345." P. 233, note. E. B. L., F.S.A.Scot. 
7, Orford Villas, Walthamstow. 

APOSTATE NUNS. I shall be obliged if any 
readers will favour me with names of works in 
which the practice of immuring apostate nuns is 
fully noticed. Its antiquity and the forms of the 
attendant ceremony are the points I especially 
want notes upon. Are there any known instances 
in late Anglo-Saxon times of more severe punish- 
ment than excommunication, forfeiture of dowry, 
&c., as Lingard relates ? 


Whips Cross, Walthamstow, Essex. 

MOGGRIDGE. I seek for the names of the 
two wives of Samuel Rickards (son of Thomas 
Rickards by Elizabeth, daughter of John Read, of 
Great Washbourn, Gloucestershire), of Fenchurch 
Street, London, merchant. He died January 18, 
1771, aged seventy-two, and was buried, as was 
his second wife, at Bunhill Fields. By his first 
wife he had a daughter Hannah (died September 18, 
1782), who married Alexander Maitland (died 
February 20, 1775), and they had a daughter 
Sarah, who married March 26, 1776, at St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields (as his first wife) John Sin- 
clair, of Ulbster, Caithnessshire, created a baronet 
February 14, 1786, and had issue a daughter 
Janet, who married, June , 1799, Sir James 
Colquhoun, Bart., and had issue. Samuel Rickards, 
by his second wife Susannah, daughter of 

(she died August 22, 1775, at Clapham, aged 
sixty-six), had Elizabeth, who married John Yer- 
bury (son of William Yerbury, of, I believe, Brad- 
ford, Wiltshire, by his wife Ann, daughter of 

Wereat), of Gracechurch Street and Clapham 
Common, and had issue a son John Yerbury, of 
Shirehampton and Clifton, both in Gloucestershire, 
who by his wife Mary Ann Clutterbuck had two 
daughters. Eliza, wife of Charles William Jebb, 
and Marianne, second wife of Major John Blood. 
John Yerbury, junior, had a sister Susannah, who 
married William Towgood, of London, and after- 
wards of Cardiff, banker (son of Matthew Towgood, 
of London, banker), and had issue. Yerbury, 
Moggridge, and Towgood intermarried. This 
family of Moggridge is now of Woodfield Park, 
near Newport, Monmouthshire. Can any corre- 
spondent give me any information as to the 
ancestry, &c., of the above family of Yerbury ? 

Beaoonsfield Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

AN ALLEGORY. ' Seven Boys, an Allegory of 
the Pleiades, or Seven Stars,' by Frances Floris, a 
print of which appeared in the Graphic, Decem- 
ber 26. Where is the original painting ? 


St. John's Wood. 

of your readers can explain any of the following 
terms, which occur in the Manchester Court Leet 
Records, 1624 to 1631, 1 shall be much obliged. 
A certain skin " called peeche hide/' "half a 
peech of Leather/' and " the said half peech of 
Leather." A piece of skin called "a butt," and 
two skins called " butts " (is not this the skin off 
the buttock of the animal?). One little skin 
called "peache hide/' and two pairs of articles 
called " ossles " (" duo paria implement' vocat' 
oseles "). These articles called " ossles," it was re- 
turned by the jury specially empannelled to 
examine them, were lawfully tanned, &c. I can- 
not find these words in any of the ordinary 
books of reference. J. P. EARWAKER. 

Pensarn, Abergele, N. Wales. 

C. PATCH. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' in- 
form me at what date writing paper bearing this 
name as a water-mark was in use ? I have reasons 
for believing that it was prior to the latter part of 
the seventeenth century, but do not know of any 
work on the manufacture of paper likely to give 
the desired information. E. B. L., F.S.A.Scot. 

7, Orford Villas, Walthamstow. 

SOCIETY OF HATTERS. I am anxious to identify 
the author of a sermon of the time of George II., 
which between the years 1746 and 1748 seems 
to have proved a useful stock one to the preacher, 
whose handwriting I am told resembles that of 
Bishop Sherlock. It is from the text Eccles. xi. 9, 

7 th S. I. JAN. 16, '86.] 



and is noted as having been delivered on the fol- 
lowing occasions : " Before ye Society of Hatters, 
8 Jan., 1746"; " M. L. (17)46, Funeral of Mr. 
Fenton at Prestwich"; " Eccles, (17)47"; "Mrs. 
Scholes's Sermon, (17)46"; " Oldham, (17)46"; 
"Wid. Cook's Funeral, (17)47-8"; "Mr. James 
Wilson's Funeral, (17)48." What is known of the 
Society of Hatters ; and when did it cease to be a 
recognized company ? 

74, King Edward Road, Hackney. 

PROWSE FAMILY. In 10 Geo. III. an Act of 
Parliament was passed to confirm and render valid 
and effectual a partition of divers lands, manors, 
&c., in the several counties of Somerset, Wilts, 
Worcester, Surrey, Middlesex, and in the City of 
London, late the estates of Thomas Prowse, Esq., 
deceased, and which upon the death of George 
Prowse, Esq., his only son, devolved upon and 
vested in the two daughters and coheiresses of the 
said Thomas Prowse, deceased. Will one of your 
correspondents kindly assist me by taking a few 
notes from the Act, which I presume is to be found 
in the British Museum ? 


Axbridge, Somerset. 

CHAINED BIBLES. In Chambers's 'Book of 
Days/ and under the date January 25 (vol. i. 
p. 164), "Authorized Version of the Bible," is the 
following paragraph : 

"A copy of the Authorized Version was, as before, 
placed in each parish church that it might be accessible 
to all ; and usually it was chained to the place. A 
sketch of such a Bible, remaining in Cumnor Church, 
Leicester, is given in the preceding page." 

Will you kindly inform me if this subject, chained 
Bibles, has been fully treated in * N. & Q.,' and 
where any list of such still remaining is to be found 1 ? 


PIGEONS AND SICK PEOPLE. I shall be glad if 
some reader of ' N. & Q.' will tell me the origin 
and meaning of the custom of putting pigeons to 
the feet of persons very ill. It seems to have been 
usual in Pepys's time (' Diary,' October 19, 1663, 
and January 21, 1668), and there is still a super- 
stition in some parts of the country that a person 
cannot die easily if lying on a pillow containing 
pigeons' feathers. H. ASTLEY ROBERTS. 

KNOXIS : WIMES : WRAT. Will some reader 
of * N. & Q.' be good enough to help me to identify 
the following three names, which occur in the 
itinerary of Prince Lewis of Anhalt, who came to 
England in 1596 ? 

(a) A " ritter Knoxis," who had probably some 
official connexion with Whitehall, as he showed 
the visitors over the palace (end of June, 1596). 
Not finding the name of Knoxis, I tried Knollys ; 
but from what follows in the itinerary Knollys 

cannot be right. The wife of "ritter Knoxis " was 
of Dutch extraction. Sir Francis Knollys died on 
March 22, 1596 (' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. iii. 449), and Sir 
William Knollys's first wife (who died in 1606) was 
the daughter of Lord Bray. 

(6) In Cambridge the prince was hospitably 
received by Herr Wimes, who must have been a 
head of a college, for the itinerary goes on to say 
he drew up specially well the rules of discipline, 
&c., and was made "freyherr" by James I. ("ea 
ward auch dieser mann zum freyherrn drauf er- 
hoben durch Konig Jacobs hand zu Sie " Sie for 
Sir?). The records of Cambridge University have 
no notice of this visit of the prince, and a certain 
Ludovicus Weems, of Queen's, was S.T.B. 1621, 
S.T.P. (by royal mandate) 1624, and held later on 
one of the Corpus livings. 

(c) One German mile from Ware the prince 
visited an Edelmann Johann Wrat, who spoke 
German very well and had spent a long time in 
Venice. This is, I suppose, John Wroth, who 
was sent on the queen's special service to the 
Count Palatine and other princes of Germany 
(State Papers, 1599, July 4), and he probably 
belonged to the Wroth family who held in 
possession "the manor of Durants, now Durance, 
with a mansion on the high road between Ware 
and Edmonton, opposite Enfield" (Dan. Lysons, 
' The Environs of London/ vol. ii. p. 299). 

H. H. 

on the new Parliament in the weekly edition of the 
Times it is said that the Irish electors seem to have 
voted " with the unanimity of Curran's historical 
fleas." I should be glad' to know to what this 
refers. JAMES HOOPER. 

[Is not the reference to the assertion that the fleas 
were so numerous if they had been unanimous they 
would have pulled him out of bed ?] 

KELLY. Where was Michael Kelly's saloon ? 
" C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

COUNTY. This man was one of the subscribers 
to the fund which sent the Massachusetts colony 
to America, and June 16, 1632, in partnership 
with Thomas Purchas, was granted a patent for 
" a Plantation at Pechipscot." Can any particulars 
of Way be given? Possibly some Dorset anti- 
quary may know something of him. 


JOHN ARMETRIDING. Entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 1727; curate of Bispham, Lancashire, 
1767, where he died in 1791, aged eighty-three 
years. His father's name was Kichard, and he 
was a Lancashire man. Information wanted about 
the father and son. H. FISHWICX, F.S.A. 

The Heights, Rochdale. 



[7"' S. I. JAN. 16, 

*AME DES B&TES.' Who wrote 'L'Histoire 
Critique de 1'Ame des Betes'? C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 


(6 th S. xii. 270, 336, 391, 415, 474, 504.) 
It seems desirable that the number of times 
this hag been asserted should be recorded ; and 
a perfect list is nowhere more likely to be ob- 
tained than from your columns. [ cannot find 
more than five instances, viz., (1) Alrnericus, 
Lord Kingsale, 1669-1720, " by walking to and 
fro with his hat on his head" in the presence 
chamber of William III. (no exact date is given to 
this exploit) is said to have attracted that king's 
attention, to whom he explained his conduct by 
stating that he did so to assert the ancient pri- 
vilege of his family, u granted to John de Courci, 
Earl of Ulster, and his heirs, by John, King of 
England." (2) His successor, Gerald, Lord King- 
sale, 1720-1759, executed the movement June 19, 
1720, before George I., and again (3; June 22, 
1727, before George II. (4) The next peer in 
succession, John, Lord Kingsale, 1759-1776, per- 
formed the (now fast becoming) celebrated "hat 
trick" September 15, 1762, before George III.; 
and that, too, notwithstanding the prophecy of 
George Montagu, in a letter to Horace Walpole, 
dated February 6 in the same year, that " our 
peers need not fear him assuming his privilege of 
being covered, for, till the king gives him a pen- 
sion, he cannot buy the offensive Hat." See 
* Eighth Report of the Royal Commission on His- 
torical MSS.' (1881) second appendix, p. 115; and 
see also Archdall's edition of Lodge's * Peerage of 
Ireland ' (1789), vol. vi. p. 156, &c. 

After the lapse of about a century (during which 
period we hear from your correspondent, 6 tn S. xii. 
336, of the non-performance of this ceremony before 
George IV. when in Ireland in 1821) one is somewhat 
surprised to find it reproduced (5) June 25, 1859, 
before the Queen, though apparently without 
notice, which, in these days of more accurate in- 
vestigation, would probably have been fatal to its 
performance. The exhibitor of this date was the 
great-great-grandson, and the fourth peer in suc- 
cession, to the (once hatless) " Hatter" of 1762. 

The matter of this somewhat questionable 
" right " would be greatly elucidated if answers 
could be furnished to the following queries, viz., 
(1) Is there any trustworthy documentary evidence 
of the wording of King John's grant (i.e., to the 
earl " and his heirs "), or even of the existence of the 
grant itself ? (2) Is there any evidence whatever 
that the first Lord Kingsale was " the heir" of the 
Earl of Ulster? (3) Was not "Johannes de 
Courci, Junior" (who was father of Milo, first 

Lord Kingsale), a bastard son of the said earl, 
who is stated by Giraldus Cambrensis to have 
died without lawful issue ? (4) Supposing 
"Young John" not to have been such son, whac 
proof is there of his parentage being such as 
would entitle him and his issue to be the heirs of 
the said earl ? (5) Can any instance be produced 
of any Lord Kingsale claiming this right prior 
to the last decade of the seventeenth century? a 
somewhat modern date for the commencement of 
the exercise of such a mediaeval privilege. 

It may be observed that the pedigree of the 
family leads one to suppose that since 1642, and 
apparently since 1599, no Lord Kingsale was the 
heir (i.e., heir general, though doubtless he was 
heir male) of the first lord, and, a fortiori, not of 
the Earl of Ulster. G. E. C. 

I am sorry that SOMERSET H. should imagine 
that I have taken an " undeserved attitude to- 
wards him," or that I have " indulged in per- 
sonalities"; he should bear in mind that he 
commenced the attack on me in his letter of 
November 21, to which I have only fairly re- 
sponded. So far from making any personal attack 
on him, I was not, nor am I now, aware that the 
Stephen Tucker of Henry VIII.'s time was an 
ancestor of his ; so I cannot fairly be charged with 
" personality" towards SOMERSET H.; but if he will 
show that he is descended from that person, and 
feels that any of my remarks have aggrieved him, 
I shall be ready to make the amend. 

It is refreshing to think that after John Forester 
and Stephen Tucker had obtained the " privilege " 
from Henry VIII., in feeble imitation of the 
"grand privilege" of the De Courcys, given them 
by King John, they found some other " notion of 
enjoyment" than attempting to claim their pri- 
vilege from any sovereign since that time. 

SOMERSET H. is certainly a great sceptic in such 
matters, if tradition, custom, and admitted claims 
are not enough proof for him that King John did 
accord the De Courcy privilege as stated. 

In all probability the privilege was granted by 
word of mouth only, as that was enough in such 
remote times, without calling in the aid of any 
Herald. John Constantine, Lord Kingsale, was 
no doubt wise on this point, and did not think it 
necessary to take any counsel of members of the 
Heralds' College on such a very simple matter as 
the making his claim to his splendid family " pri- 
vilege." I quite agree with SOMERSET H. that it 
would certainly have been better if Lord Kingsale 
had consulted the Lord Chamberlain before attend- 
ing the levee on June 25, 1859, and claiming his 
undoubted privilege. 

This correspondence has been carried on by me 
in the best of tempers, and I hope SOMERSET H. 
will permit other people to hold an opinion upon 
a very interesting historic question, and express 

?tf-S. I. JAK. 16, '86.] 



their belief in the existence of the De Courcy 
right to wear the hat in the royal presence with- 
out fear of any refusal of such privilege, and I 
hope ere long this question will be put to the test. 

There is in the possession of the Rev. Henry 
Hill, of Buxhall, Suffolk (the present representa- 
tive of the English branch of theCopinger family), 
the following curious grant, given to Walter 
Copinger, of Buxhall, by Henry VIII. : 
" Henry R. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England and 
of France, and Lord of Ireland. 

'' To all manor our subjects, as well of the spiritual 
pre-eminence and dignities, as of the temporal auctority, 
these our Letters hearing or seeing, and to every of them 

" Whereas we be credibly informed that our trusty and 
Avell beloved subject Walter Copinger is so diseased in 
his head that without his great danger he cannot be 
conveniently discovered of the same : In consideration 
whereof we have by these presents, licensed him to use 
and wear his Bonet upon his said head, as well in our 
presence as elsewhere, at his liberty Whereof we will 
and command you and every of you to permit and suffer 
him so to do, without any your challenge, disturbance, or 
interruption to the contrary, as ye and every of you tender 
our pleasure Given under our signet, at our manor of 
Greenwych, the 24 ttl day of October, in the fourth year 
of our reigne. ' 

L. H. 

Lord Kingsale attended the levee, as related. 
He was a very tall man, and wore a deputy- 
lieutenant's uniform, which, in those days, ex- 
hibited a high cocked hat with a long straight 
feather ; so that when he had his hat on he could 
scarcely enter the door without touching the top 
of it. Some of the courtiers rushed to stop him, 
but were prevented from interfering by those who 
knew him. SEBASTIAN. 

HIGHLAND KILT (7 th S. i. 8). This question 
has been discussed before in the pages of *N. & Q.' 
See 1" S. ii. 62, 174, 470; iv. 7, 77, 107, 170, 445. 
According to the second edition of 'Notes to assist 
the Memory in Various Sciences/ quoted by one 
of the many correspondents, " Thomas lUwlinson, 
an iron-smelter and an Englishman, was the person 
who, about or prior to A.D. 1728 introduced the 
pheliebeg, or short kilt worn in the Highlands." 
Planche 1 , however, in his ' Cyclopaedia of Cos-? 
turne' (1876), vol. i. p. 396, states that "the period 
of the separation of the ancient feile-beag into a 
waistcoat and kilt is at present unknown, but I 
imagine about the accession of James VI. to the 
throne of England." G. F. E. B. 

W. A. P. will find a very good account of the 
origin of the kilt in Dr. James Browne's ' History 
of the Highlands and of the Highland Clans' 
(Glasgow, 1835), vol. i. p. 101. Although in its 
present form, as worn by our Highland regiments, 
the kilt is only an adaptation of the ancient dress, 

still the philabeg is probably of much earlier date 
than the beginning of the eighteenth century. The 
original form was the breacan feile, or chequered 
clothing, " consisting of a plain piece of tartan 
from four to six yards in length and two yards 
broad." This " was adjusted with great nicety, 
and made to surround the waist in great plaits or 
folds, and was firmly bound round the loins with a 
leathern belt in such a manner that the lower side 
fell down to the middle of the knee joint, and 
then, while there were the foldings behind, the 
cloth was double before. The upper part was then 
fastened on the left shoulder with a large brooch 
or pin, so as to display to the utmost advantage 
the tastefulhess of the arrangement, the two ends 
being sometimes suffered to hang down ; but that 
on the right side, which was necessarily the longer, 
was more usually tucked under the belt." 

This was the " belted plaid " out of which General 
Wolfe's tailors are said to have devised the mili- 
tary kilt and plaid as the two separate articles 
now worn by our Highland regiments. The 
modern plaid is simply an encumbrance, that of 
the officers being wound under the right and over 
the left arm, and having no connexion with the 
kilt below ; while that of the men, worn only on 
full-dress parades, is a scrap of tartan brought 
from the waist to the left shoulder, and hanging 
thence in meagre folds. The plaid, both of men 
and officers, is dressy and picturesque, but useless ; 
representing as it does the free end of the old 
belted plaid (the folded end of which made the 
kilt), it is a part of the dress which soldiers clad 
in doublets might very well dispense with. In 
1884, when the feather bonnets of Highland regi- 
ments were condemned on the score of economy, I 
ventured to advocate in the House of Commons the 
discontinuance of the modern plaid, rather than the 
abolition of the bonnet whose feathers had waved 
on so many continental battle-fields. The ostrich 
plumes are the military development of the feathers 
(whether of eagle or exotic birds) which the duine 
uasal (man of gentle birth) had the right to wear. 
It was from this class that the Black Watch was 
originally composed. 

The belted plaid had no pockets, so the sporan 
originated in the leathern pouch or purse which 
was suspended to the belt in front. 

If W. A. P. has access to Pont's maps of Scot- 
land in Blaeu's magnificent atlas (1662), and will 
turn to the chart of Aberdeen and Banff (p. 90), he 
will there find engraved beside the scala milia- 
rium the figure of a native in belted plaid. 


I think Burton's * History of Scotland ' contains 
a statement that the kilt in its present form was 
made by Field Marshal Wade's military tailor. 


W. A. P. may be assured that his authority 



[7 lh S. I. JAN. 16, 

was, at least, hasty in assertion, as there is ample 
evidence of the use of the kilt before 1700. A 
portrait of the Regent Murray at Taymouth 
Castle (circ. 1560) represents him in the kilt and 
belted plaid. A good deal may be gathered on 
the subject from Campbell's ' Popular Tales of the 
West Highlands,' vol. iv. Your correspondent 
might also find something to the purpose in a 
series of letters to the Scotsman by Lord Archi- 
bald Campbell, either in 1882 or 1883; I think in 
the former year. Their dates, I see by a note 
made at the time, were Jan. 31, Feb. 2, 3, 19, 24, 
25, 28, and April 19. But references will be 
found in the 'Popular Tales' to the principal 
authorities on the subject ; see especially pp. 368 
and 371-4. Browne's ' History of the Highlands ' 
might also be consulted. 


The subject of the antiquity of the Highland 
dress and the reticence of historians respecting it 
is discussed in chap, xxiii., "On the National 
Costume of Scotland," in the ' History of British 
Costume,' by J. R. Planche (Knight's u Library of 
Entertaining Knowledge," Lond., 1834, pp. 332- 
351). The kilt is noticed at pp. 340-1. 


Many of the figures sculptured on Sweno's stone, 
near Forres, appear to wear the kilt. The stone is 
thought to commemorate some battle with the 
Danes. G. B. LONGSTAFF. 

[This subject is fully discussed by Lord Archibald 
Campbell in his ' Records of Argyll ' (Blackwood & Sons), 
reviewed 6"' S. xii. 79.] 

EARL OF ANGUS (6 th S. xii. 494). Archibald 
Douglas, sixth Earl of Angus, was son of George, 
Master of Angus, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of John, first Lord Drummond. The said George, 
Master of Angus, was son of Archibald, fifth Earl 
of Angus, by Elisabeth, daughter of Robert, Lord 
Boyd. He fell at the battle of Flodden, 1513. 


This is not a query concerning the history of 
the earls of the Red Douglas line generally, as 
the heading would naturally indicate. If your 
correspondent MR. C. H. SANDARS is in pos- 
session of any documents by which he thinks he 
can establish a different parentage for Archibald, 
sixth Earl of Angus, from that given in the 
peerages, readers of ' N. & Q.' will doubtless be 
glad to know the nature of the documents. Other- 
wise I almost feel that I am taking up valuable 
space unwarrantably in order to state such a well- 
known descent. Archibald, sixth earl, grandson 
and heir (1514) of Archibald " Bell-the-Cat," fifth 
earl, was son of George, Master of Angus who fell 
at Flodden, vita patrisby Elizabeth, second 
daughter of John, first Lord Drummond (cr. 

1487-8). These facts are given in Burke's l Peer- 
age,' in Anderson's ' Scottish Nation,' and in that 
portion of the ' New Peerage,' by G. E. C., published 
in vol. i. of the new series of the Genealogist, for 
1884. As G. E. C. mentions certain points in 
the earlier history of the descent of the earldom 
of Angus in the Douglas line which have suggested 
matter for doubt to the present Jearned Lyon in his 
valuable edition of the Exchequer Rolls of Scot- 
land, it may be taken that neither authority was 
aware of doubts or difficulties concerning Archi- 
bald, sixth earl. C. H. E. CARMICHAEL. 
Sew University Club, S.W. 

The sixth Earl of Angus was eldest son of 
George Douglas, Master of Angus, and Elizabeth 
Drummond, who were married circa 1488, the 
year in which James, ninth and last Earl of 
Douglas, died at Lindores Abbey. George, the 
Master, was slain at Flodden a few months before 
the death of his father, Archibald " Bell-the-Cat," 
the fifth earl. His mother, Bell-the-Cat's first 
wife, was Elizabeth Boyd, elder daughter of 
Robert, first Lord Boyd (ancestor of the Earls of 
Kilmarnock and Erroll). His wife was Elizabeth, 
second daughter of Sir John Drummond, first 
Lord Drummond (ancestor of the Earls of Perth, 
of Viscount Strathallan, and of Lady Willoughby 
D'Eresby). Archibald Douglas, the fifth earl, 
having received an affront from the King of Scot- 
land before the battle of Flodden, left the field 
" in tears of indignation," but his sons, George 
and Sir William of Glenbervie, and two hundred 
gentlemen of the name fell in that fratricidal 
struggle. SIGMA. 

Archibald, sixth earl, was the son of George, 
Master of Angus (killed at Flodden in the lifetime 
of his father, old Archibald " BelUhe-Cat ), and 
Margaret, daughter of John, Lord Drummond. 


[Similar information is supplied by F.S.A.Scot. and 

IMARY (6 th S. xii. 187). This ware is china. 
EBORACUM might consult 'Japanese Potteries' 
/u South Kensington Museum Descriptive Cata- 
ogue Series "), by A. W. Franks ; * Me"moire sur 
a Porcelaine du Japon,' by Dr. Hoffman, appended 
;o Julien's ' Histoire de la Porcelaine Chinoise,' 
Paris, 1856 ; or 'Keramic Art of Japan,' by Auds- 
.ey and Bowen, 1881, might possibly assist him. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

COGERS' HALL (7 th S. i. 9). The present es- 
:eemed County Court judge of Cavan tells me that 
Rogers' Hall was certainly in Shoe Lane, not 
Bride Lane, as alleged by Cunningham. He often 
took part in its debates, and once invited the 
'reat pulpit orator Fr. Tom Burke to accompany 
in disguise. Fr. Burke gave his old school- 

7< h S. I. JAN. 16, '86.] 



fellow, Mr. J. J. Brady, C.E., Galway, an account 
of a visit made by him " to a debating club in 
London how he quietly listened until two orators 
had delivered themselves of some ponderous plati- 
tudes and then smashed them into smithereens." 
I find some reference to these incidents in ' The 
Life of Father Thomas Burke/ by your corre- 
spondent Mr. W. J. Fitzpatrick, F.S.A., lately 
published by Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., vol. ii. 
p. 263, and fully reviewed in the Morning Post 
of Dec. 25 last. JOVERNA. 

I have so many errors and blunders to answer 
for that I hope my good friend MR. C. A. WARD 
will excuse me if I decline to be made responsible 
for any statement on this subject. I never wrote 
a line about either Cogers' Hall or Shoe Lane, and 
I am quite ignorant of the locality of the former. 
It is well to put the saddle on the right horse. 

2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

If MR. WARD had read Mr. Parkinson's sketch 
of the Cogers' Hall given in the first volume of 
'Old and New London,' which, I believe, was 
written by the late Mr. Thornbury, and not by 
Mr. Walford, he would have found the following 
paragraph : 

" ' Established 1755 ' ia inscribed on the ornamental 
signboard above us, and * Instituted 1756 ' on another 
signboard near." Vol. i. p. 125. 

With regard to the locality of Cogers' Hall, the 
following extract from an editorial answer to a 
query concerning the Coachmakers' Company (3 rd 
S. vii. 496) will probably explain the difference 
between Mr. Thornbury and Mr. Cunningham : 

" The Society of Cogers, founded in 1755, ia nothing 
more or less than a political debating club, meeting 
sometimes in one place and sometimes in another. Its 
present Discussion Hall is at Mr. G. Walter's house of 
refreshment in Shoe Lane, Fleet Street." 

This was written in June, 1865. G. F. R. B. 

[MR. E. H. COLEMAN supplies the same reference as 
G. F. R. B., and says that the " political debating club 
known as Cogers' Hall met sometimes in one place and 
sometimes in another."] 

HERALDIC (6 th S. xii. 516). In the hall at 
Broughton Castle, Oxfordshire, the seat of Lord 
Saye and Sele, is a portrait of the famous Lord 
Burghley, the father of Kobert, Earl of Salisbury. 
He is represented as riding on a white ass (or 
mule), with short docked tail, on a side saddle, but 
on the off side. He wears a short robe of gold 
tissue, with a short cloak over it of the same 
material, lined and fringed with scarlet, a black 
cap on his head coming down over the ears, a 
white frill round his neck, and white cuffs round 
the wrists. His hands are bare ; the left hand 
holds the reins, and in the right is a rose and 
a honeysuckle. Bound his neck is the chain and 
order of the Garter. Suspended by a red ribbon 

from the trunk of a tree in the left-hand corner of 
the picture is a shield of arms within the ribbon 
of the Garter, and on it six bearings, the same, 
doubtless, as those which T. W. W. S. mentions : 
1 and 6, Cecil. 2, Per pale, gu. and az., a lion 
rampant, arg., supporting between the paws a tree 
eradicated vert (Wynston). Sir Thomas Cecil, 
circa Kic. II., married Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Sir Gilbert Wynston, Kt. 3, Sa., three 
castles triple- towered, arg., in fessoint an annulet 
of the second (Casteleine). 4, Arg., on a bend gu. 
cotised or, three cinquefoils of the third (Ecking- 
ton). Richard Cecil, who died May 19, 1552, 
married Jane, daughter and heiress of William 
Eckington, of Bourn, co. Lincoln. 5, Arg., a 
chevron between three chess-rooks ermines (Walcot 
or Pinchbeck). Below is the motto, " Cor unum 
via una." G. L. G. 

1 and 6, Cecil. 2, Per pale, gules and azure, a 
lion ramp, holding a tree vert (Winston). Sir 
Thos. Sitselt = Margaret, d. and h. of Sir Gil- 
bert Winston. 3, Sable, a plate between three 
castles argent (Carleone, ? Castleton). 4, Argent, 
on a bend cotised gules, three cinquefoils or 
(Eckington). Kich. Cyssel = Eliz. , d. and h. of 
Wm. Eckington, of Bourn, co. Lincoln. 5, Ar- 
gent, a chevron between three chess-rooks ermine 
(Walcote). See Bray and Manning's * Surrey, ' 
vol. iii. p. 274 ; also Misc, Gen. et Herald., May, 
1885. H. S. W. 

The quarterings of Kobert, first Earl of Salis- 
bury, are as follows: 1 and 6, Barry of ten argent 
and azure, over all six escutcheons sable, on each 
a lion rampant of the first (Cecil) ; 2, Per pale 
gules and azure, a lion rampant argent, holding in 
both paws a tree eradicated vert (Winston) ; 3, 
Sable, a plate between three towers triple-towered 
argent (Cairleon) ; 4, Argent, on a bend cotised 
gules three cinquefoils arg. (Heckington or Eck- 
ington) ; 5, Argent, a chevron between three 
chess-rooks ermines (Wallcott). 

The alliances may briefly be explained thus : 

Thomas Sitsilt (Cecil) mar. Margaret, d. and h. 
of Gilbert Winston (2), who brought in Cairleon 
(3). _Vis. Glou., 1623. 

Kichard Sitsilt, fourth in descent from the said 
Thomas (although the Gloucestershire Vis. makes 
him third), mar. Jane, d. and h. of William Heck- 
ington (4), of Bourn, Lincolnshire, who, I suppose, 
brought in Walcott (5). Collins's 'Peerage/ 
vol. iii. This Kichard was father of William 
Cecil, Lord Burleigh, whose arms are given quar- 
terly of six as above in the ' Book of Knights/ by 
Mr. Metcalfe. CHARLES L. BELL. 

Chesterton Road, Cambridge. 

The correct blazon, &c., are as follows : 
1, Barry of ten arg. and az., over all six 
escutcheons (3, 2, 1) sa., each charged with a lion 
ramp, of the first (Cecil) ; 2, Parted per pale gu. 


[7 th S. I. JAN. 16, 

and az., a lion ramp. arg. sustaining a tree vert 
(Winston of Hereford) ; 3, Sable, a plate between 
three towers triple-towered, with ports disp. arg. 
(Cairleon) ; 4, Arg., on a bend between two cot- 
tises gu. three cinquefoils or (Heckington of 
Bourne, co. Lincoln) ; 5, Arg., a chev. between 
three chess-rooks ermines (Walcot of Walcot, co. 
Lincoln, quartered by Heckington of Bourne). 



P.S. To my query (6"> S. xii. 517) I may add 
that Mildred Erniin proved her husband's will at 
Lincoln August 16, 1693. 

I believe the three roses are for Carey, viz., 
three roses argent on a bend sable. 


If T. W. W. S. will drop me a line I will send 
him a rubbing of the Salisbury coat in question, 
which I hope to take in a few days. 


157, Dalston Lane, E. 

[MR. J. RADCLIFFE sends an answer corresponding 
with that of MB. JUSTIN SIMPSON.] 

WAITS AND MUMMERS (6 th S. xii. 
" Mummers " were inquired about recently in the 
' Local Notes and Queries ' of the Birmingham 
Weekly Post. Numerous answers were received, 
and many various versions and details given from 
Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Oxfordshire, Glou- 
cestershire, &c. If J. B. S. would like to have a 
copy I shall be glad to send him one of nearly all 
that appeared in print. ESTE. 

BELL OF THE HOP (7 th S. i. 7). Surely the 
* bell " is the fruit of the hop, which may be said 
to resemble a bell in shape. Reynolde Scot, in 
his ' Perfite Platforme* of a Hoppe Garden/ &c. 
(1574), states that "the good and the kindely 
Hoppe beareth a great and a greene Stalke, a large 
and a harde bell" (p. 8) ; and in speaking of the 
wild hop says that " the fruite is eyther altogither 
seede, or else loose and light belles " (p. 9). In 
the passage quoted by DR. MURRAY from the 
edition of 1578, which, by the way, does not ap- 
pear in the edition of 1574, I understand Scot to 
mean that commonly about St. Margaret's Day 
hops came into flower, and that about Lammas 
the fruit or bell appeared. G. F. R. B. 

In the beginning of the fifteenth century I have 
twice come upon the above as a sign for houses 
in London. In the Patent Rolls for the year 
1400 (1 Henry IV., 8, 17) "The Bell on the 
Hope" is the name of a house in Friday Street. 
In Additional Charters (Brit. Mus.), 5313, dated 

* Another of Dr. Murray's words, used in the sense of 
plan or model. 

February 14, 1402, a messuage called the " Belle 
on the Hoop," with four shops annexed, situate in 
the parishes of St. Marie de la Stronde and St. 

lement Danes, passes into the possession of the 
Prioress of Kilburn. I have always thought that 
the sign meant the bell on the hoop, but DR. 
MURRAY'S note makes it probable that it may 
mean the hop-bell J. H. WYLIE. 


SIGN OF THE SWAN (6 th S. xii. 515). Blome 
says : 

' As touching the antiquity of these signs which we 
call arms, Diodorus Siculus maketh mention that Oeyris, 
son to Cham, as well as his sons and others, did paint 
certain signs upon their Shields, Bucklers, and other 
weapons. And we find in Homer and in Virgil that the 
Hero's had their Signs or Marks whereby their persons 
were distinctly known and discerned in Battel." 

And he goes on to say that 

" in the first assumption of these Signs, every man did 
take to himself some such Beastr, Bird, Fish, Serpent, or 
other creature as he thought best fitted his Estate, or 
whose nature and quality did in some sort quadrate with 
his own or wished to be resembled unto." 

And furthermore he says that "after long 
tract of time these tokens became remunerations 
for service, and were bestowed upon Martial men, 
Learned men, or such as had performed any ex- 
cellent work"; and "the Heralds had to devise 
with discretion arms correspondent to the desert 
of the person." " The Swan," Blome also says, 
" was called by the Ancients Apollo's Bird, because 
those that are learned know best how to contemn 
this life, and to die with resolution and comfort." 
This, of course, is an allusion to the fable that 
swans sing from joy before they die. 

Dr. Brewer says that the swan, like the peacock 
and pheasant, was an emblem of the parade of 
chivalry. Every knight chose one of these birds, 
which was associated with God, the Virgin, and 
his lady-love in his oath, and hence their use as 
public-house signs. 

In the ' British Apollo,' 1710, the following lines 
occur : 

I 'm amazed at the signs, 

As I pass thro' the town 
To see the odd mixture, 
A Magpye and Crown, 
The Whale and the Crow, 

The Razor and Hen, 

The Leg and Sev'n Stars, 

The Bible and Swan. 

The last odd combination may bear the same 
allusion mentioned by MR. CAREY. 

King Edward III. made use of a white swan as 
one of his badges ; and, according to Ritson, the 
motto displayed upon his shield and wrought upon 
his surcoat at a celebrated tournament at Canter- 
bury ran thus : 

Hay, hay, the wyth swan, 
By godes soule I am thy man. 

Thomas of Woodstock, Edward III.'s sixth son, 

7th S, I, JAN. 16, '86.] 



adopted the swan for his cognizance, and both 
Henry IV. and Henry V. had it as one of their 


The swan argent, collared and chained or, one 
of the badges of the house of Lancaster, is derived 
from the family of the De Bohuns, Henry Boling- 
broke, Duke of Lancaster, afterwards Henry IV., 
having married Mary de Bohun, youngest daughter 
aud coheir of Humfrey, Earl of Hereford, Essex, 
and Northampton. The De Bohuns derived the 
swan as Earls of Essex from the Mandevilles or 
Magnavillas, whom they through marriage suc- 
ceeded in the earldom. The Mandevilles appear 
to have been related to Adam Fitz Swanne or 
Swanus (perhaps originally Sweyn or Swayn, a 
common Danish name), who was seised of large 
estates in the north of England temp. William the 

The swan was also borne by the Nevils, 
and formed the crest of the Staffords, the 
Buckinghams, the Beauchamps, the Bouchiers, and 
many other noble families. 


A swan was one of the badges of King Henry V. 
It is not improbable that this bird, used as the sign 
of an inn, may in some cases have been taken from 
this royal symbol. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

ETON MONTEM (6 th S. xii. 494). The last Eton 
Montem was in 1846. H. S. W. 

Montem was originally an annual festival, but 
after 1775 was only celebrated once in three years. 
It was finally abolished in 1847, as it interfered 
greatly with school work, and after the opening of 
the railway the crowds of sightseers became in- 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The Montem wai last performed at Salt Hill in 
1846. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates' says, "The 
Montem was discontinued in 1847," so that the 
last performance must have taken place in 1844. 


The last Montem was celebrated on May 28, 
1844. See H. C. Maxwell Lyte's * History of Eton 
College' (1875), pp. 467-73; Annual Register, 
1844, Chron.. p. 59 ; ibid., 1847. Chron., p. 65. 

G. F. K. B. 

495). Is it possible that for Belaga should be read 
" Helaga," i. e., Healaugh, near Tadcaster ? 

W. C. B. 

William Fossard the elder gave Akeberga and 
Belaga to the canons of Merton, near London, 

These lands the canons afterwards exchanged with 
the monks of Meaux, near Beverley, for others at 
Wharrom. Belaga, "near Lockington," was a 
grange built by the said William Fossard, which 
subsequently belonged to the nuns of Swine. As 
to Akeberga, no wonder J. S. was unable to find 
it, as the monks of Meaux themselves were un- 
certain about this " vaccary so called," unless the 
manor of Berge, near Ake, in the parish of Lock- 
ington, or a portion of the grange of Belaga in the 
same parish. Thus the ' Chron. Monasterii de 
Melsa' answers J. S.'s queries fully (vol. i. pp. 103 
and 110). Lockington, Swine, and Meaux are all 
near Beverley. A. S. ELLIS. 

SCOTCH NAMES OF FISHES (7 th S. i. 8). My 
solution is certainly the right one. Scotch MSS. 
confuse i with c, and e with o. Hence scuir is an 
error for stuir, sturgeon. Pellat is for pollac, i. e., 
a whiting, which Jamieson calls a gwiniad, mean- 
ing thereby the Welsh gwyniad. And pran is the 
correct spelling of prawn, not connected with 
either brandling or parr. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

I take it that pdlat is pellock, the common name 
amongst Scottish fishermen for the porpoise, being, 
in fact, its Gaelic equivalent. Can pran be prawn, 
the vowel being pronounced with the broad open 
sound, as it almost certainly would have been in 
Scotland at that period ? Scuir passes me. On 
the West Highland coast scuither means a jelly- 

Pellat resembles pellock, the name still given to 
the porpoise by the Scotch fishermen (Gaelic 
peileag). Pran suggests prawn, M.E. prane 
(* Prompt. Parvulorum ; ). 


AVENUES OF TREES (6 th S. xii. 495). 
" The custom of making avenues of lime trees was 
adopted in the time of Lewis XIV., and accordingly the 
approaches to the residences of the French as well as 
the English gentry of that date were bordered with lime- 
trees. It subsequently fell into disrepute for this pur- 
pose, on account of its coming late into leaf, and shedding 
its foliage early in autumn, and was supplanted by the 
Hornbeam and Elm." Rev. C. A. Johns'a ' Forest Trees 
of Great Britain,' s. v. " Lime." 


The querist will find the information he wants 
in London's * History of Gardening.' Most books 
on trees and arboriculture generally give historical 
accounts more or less extensive. W. EGBERTS. 

NOSTOC (6 th S. xii. 496). The dictionaries, so 
far as I know them, pass over nostoc, sicissimis 
pedibus. In London's ' Cyclopaedia of Plants ' it 
is mentioned as "a name first used by Paracelsus, 
without an explanation of its meaning." 





[7'h S. I. JAN. 16, '86. 

WEATHERCOCKS (6 th S. xii. 515). Brand says : 

" Vanes on the tops of steeples were anciently made 
in the form of a cock, and put up, in Papal times, to 
remind the clergy of watchfulness." 

" In summitate crucis, quse companario vulgo im- 
ponitur, galli gallinacei effugi solet figura. quae ecclesia- 
rum rectores vigilantiae admoneat." Du Cange, Gloss.' 

In ' A Helpe to Discourse ' (1633) is the follow- 
ing query and answer : 

" Q . Wherefore on the top of church steeples is the 
cocke set upon the crosae, of a long continuance ? 

"A. The flocks of Jesuits will answer you. For in- 
struction : that whilst aloft we behold the crosse and the 
cocke standing thereon, we may remember our sinnes, 
and with Peter seeke and obtaine mercy, as though 
without this dumbe cocke, which many will not hearken 
to untill he crow, the Scriptures were not a sufficient 



Thomas Delafield leffc an account of weather- 
cocks, the manuscript of which is described briefly 
in 5 th S. vi. 165. W. 0. B. 

ICHABOD (6 th S. xii. 496). A. R.'s Bible 
(1 Sam. iv. 21, 22) would have enabled him to 
answer his query, at lease as to the meaning. The 
word means " Where is the glory ? " or " The glory 
is departed," literally " No glory," and it is quite 
easy to conceive a more or less lax interjectional 
use of it. As to the origin of this use, historically 
speaking, that is another question. I am not able 
to answer it; it is, perhaps, a matter for DR. 
MURRAY. I can only remember that Scott puts 
it into the mouths of David Deans (1818) and 
Isaac the Jew (1819). 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

EXTEME (6 th S. xii. 495). This is, no doubt, 
the Latin extimus. The following passage, which 
I find in Lewis and Short, will explain both the 
word and its connexion: "Novem orbes, quorum 
unus est ccelestis, extimus, qui reliquos omnes 
complectitur " (Cic., 'Rep.,' vi. 17). "Heaven 
exterae " is, according to the old astronomy, the 
last supercelestial sphere ; the abode of God 
and of the blessed. C. B. M. 

SEAL OF GRAND INQUISITOR (6 th S. xii. 387, 
438, 472; 7 th S. i. 17). MR. WOODWARD has 
blazoned quite correctly the arms of the Catholic 
see of Plymouth. I have the bishop's seal before 
me. The coat was designed shortly after the 
restoration of the Catholic hierarchy. It was 
given to the see, no doubt, in the same way, and 
certainly by the same authority, as those of the 
ancient sees of England and elsewhere. On the 
bishop's receiving from the Holy See the admi- 
nistration of the new diocese all details would be 
settled by him. The coat of the see would be one. 

The family arms which MR. WOODWARD saw 

mpaled with Plymouth are the arms of Herbert, 
as he says. But they misled him as to the name 
of the bishop. The name of the bishop is not 
Herbert. He is a Vaughan of the ancient race of 
Vaughan of Courtfield, who carry Herbert first, in 
virtue of a Herbert descent, Vaugban (Three 
child's heads, each encircled with a serpent) fol- 
"owing. D. P. 

Stuart's Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

The personal arms of the Roman Catholic pre- 
ate, which are impaled on his episcopal seal with 
;hose assumed for his see of Plymouth, are those 
of Vaughan, not Herbert. Both these families 
bore the same coat Per pale az. and gu., three 
[ions ramp. arg. a fact of which I was not mind- 
ful in attributing the coat to the better-known 
name. MR. ANGUS confirms my suspicion with 
regard to the assumption of arms by Roman 
Catholic prelates in Great Britain. Can he kindly 
inform me if foreign prelates do the same 1 Some 
of the episcopal seals which I have seen in Spain 
are wonderful compositions from an heraldic point 
of view. JOHN WOODWARD. 

TANGIER (6 th S. xii. 447, 522). My attention 
has been drawn to a passage at the second of the 
above references, where mention is made of " Miss 
Boyd, F.S.A." Will you please allow me to state 
that the initials F.S.A. are universally allowed to 
mean " Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries," and, 
as we have no lady fellows, Miss Boyd is not a 
member of our society. It is also officially notified 
in the Journal of the Society of Arts for Nov. 22, 
1867, that the members of that society "neither 
by charter, by the by-laws, nor by custom " have 
any authority for placing the letters F.S.A. after 
their names. 

W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Assist. Sec. 

Soc. Antiq. Lond. 

[Our correspondent should doubtless have put the 
abbreviation " Newc." after the letters F.S.A.] 

TOOT HILL (6 th S. xii. 491). I fear the state- 
ment that " Toot Hill means the place of a folk- 
mote " will not bear critical examination. The 
word has no connexion, etymologically, with a folk- 
mote or popular assembly, such as appears in the 
Danish Thing-wall or the Saxon Burh. The 
corresponding term in Cymric is Caer. We must, 
therefore, look elsewhere for an explanation ; 
and that is not very difficult to find. Toot, Tot, 
Tut, are very common English prefixes. We 
have Toot-ing in Surrey; Toote Hill or Tuthill 
Fields, Westminster; Tot-hill, Lincoln; Tot-ley, 
Derbyshire; Tot-nes, Devon; Tot-tenham, Middle- 
sex; Tot-teridge, Herts; Tut-bury, Stafford; cum 
multis aliis. It will be found that in the majority 
of cases they indicate an eminence, not rugged or 
precipitous, but a gentle swelling from a plain. 

Ingenious persons have troubled themselves to 
discover far-fetched etymologies. Mr. Edward 

7'h S, I. JAK. 16, '86.] 



Walford (' Old and New London,' iv. 14) derives 
it " from the Welsh word Twt, a spring or rising "; 
the simple answer to which is that there is no such 
word in the Welsh language with that meaning. 
There is a word Twt, but it signifies something 
quite different. Another antiquary, quoted by 
Mr. Walford, derives the name from Teut, " the 
chief divinity of the Druids, and the equivalent of 
Thoth, the Egyptian Mercury." The Druids and 
the Egyptians offer an inexhaustible source to 
those whose only idea of etymological inquiry is 
that of idle guesswork. Canon Taylor ('Words and 
Places') quotes Lucan for the Celtic divinity Teu- 
tates, or Taith, and considers that Tot-hill, &c., 
may possibly have been seats of Celtic worship. 

It happens not unfrequently that inquirers roam 
abroad in search of information which lies at their 
feet if they will only stoop to pick it up. 

The old English or Saxon verb Totian means 
to lift up, to elevate; "eminere, tanquam cornu 
in fronte." It has its equivalent in Old Ger. 
Tuttel, Tutta. Hence the idea of watching and 
surveying. Tote-hylle is given in the 'Catholicon 
in Lingua Materna,' the oldest English-Latin 
dictionary, with the Latin equivalent specula, a 
height, eminence, look-out. Hence the verb to 
toot, anciently to tote, to spy, look carefully, to 
pry. Toot-hill is the English "Look-out." 

The fullest information on this subject will be 
found in Mr. Albert Way's notes to the edition of 
the ' Promptorium Parvulorum' published by the 
Camden Society. Sub voc. " Totehylle " he gives 
a note with an exhaustive list of quotations and 
references, leaving not a shadow of doubt as to 
the origin and application of the term Toote-hill. 


Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

514). I think I am right in saying that when 
there is metal in the arms and surely there 
generally is the wreath should be twined of a 
strand of that metal and of one which is of the 
tincture of the field. I have the impression that 
not more than six alternations of metal and tinc- 
ture should be shown in the representation of a 
wreath, and that the metal should be first in the 
series. Engravers, carriage-painters, and other 
workmen usually know so little of heraldry that 
we cannot wonder their performances are fertile in 
examples of errors which may come to be cited as 
precedents. ST. SWITHIN. 

In Scotland the latter are always given gules 
and argent. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrew's, N.B. 

SIGN-PAINTING ARTISTS (6 th S. xii. 494). One 
the best-known signboards painted by an artist is 
that of " The Royal Oak," at Bettws-y-Coed, by 
David Cox. It is now, after much stormy weather 
and litigation, safe in the possession of the Wil- 

loughby d'Eresby family. Many of the signboards 
were done by some " limner, who travelled the 
country and took likenesses for fifteen shillings a 
head," like the nameless wanderer whose fame 
lives in the pages of ' The Vicar of Wakefield.' 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

(6 th S. xii. 493). Powell held a situation in the 
Treasury, but he was unfortunately lucky in gain- 
ing a prize of 500/. in a lottery, from which time 
he neglected his official duties and never ceased 
wandering after lottery speculations. He soon lost 
not only the 500Z., but his situation, which he was 
permitted to resign upon a very small pension. 
He lived in Sloane Street, at the expense of some 
friends, until Aug. 15, 1803, and was buried in 
the burying-ground, King's Road, Chelsea, at the 
age of sixty-four. For several years, in all seasons 
and weathers, he walked early in the morning 
from Sloane Street to the foot of Highgate Hill, 
then, raising his hands to heaven as in the act of 
devotion, would start off in a run, and never 
stopped or looked back till he had reached the 
top ; but if stopped, would return to the spot 
whence he started, and recommence his running 
till he had accomplished his purpose. When 
asked the cause of this practice, he replied that 
when he ceased to ascend the hill in that manner 
the world would be no more. This gained him 
the appellation of " the prophet," by which he was 
known at Highgate. 

71, Brecknock Koad. 

TUNISIA (7 th S. i. 7). The list of works on 
Tunis given by H. S. A. does not include * Tunis, 
the Land and People/ by the Chevalier Ernest von 
Hesse Warteg, published by Chatto & Windus 
some three years ago. J. WOODWARD. 

9). 0. A. J. M. would find all the principal early 
engravings of places connected with the period 
comprised in Clarendon and, of course, therefore, 
of Carisbrook and Newport in the Sutherland 
collection in the Bodleian. There is a complete 
catalogue, in two quarto volumes, which must be 
in the British Museum. ED. MARSHALL. 

CAREW RALEIGH (6 th S. xii. 448, 527). Car- 
lyle's list of Long Parliament members is probably 
based chiefly upon that given in the l Parl. His- 
tory,' and is far from exhaustive as to names 
or conclusive as to the constituencies represented. 
The " Recruiters " for Kellington (or Callington), 
brought in to replace the "disabled" members, 
were, as I have already shown (6 th S. xii. 448) 
Edward, Lord Clinton, and Thomas Dacres, who 
were elected circa September, 1646, Conse- 



[7 ih S. I. JAN. 16, '86. 

quently, if Carew Raleigh represented this Cornish spondent is quite right in his estimate of the worth 

of the book. It was one of the greatest delights of 
one's childhood, and it is a pity it has never been 
exactly reproduced. 


borough, he must have been returned later on in 
the place of one of these. Thomas Dacres was 
one of the "secluded" members in December, 
1648. Lord Clinton ceased to be a member about 
the same time, or possibly a little earlier, but 
whether from death or seclusion has not been 
ascertained. If from the former, Raleigh may 
have been elected in his stead, retaining his seat 
like Prynne in the case of Newport but a few 
weeks till expelled by the "Purge." The date of 
decease of Lord Clinton (who was eldest son of 
Theophilus, Earl of Lincoln) would, could it cor- 
rectly be ascertained, possibly help to solve the 
difficulty. W. D. PINK. 

xii. 349, 394; 7 th S. i. 15).- 


FONTS (6 th S. 
a font in Cat- 

MOLINOS (6 th S. xii. 496 ; 7> S. i. 38). See 
the brief life of Molinos prefixed to " ' Golden 
Thoughts from the Spiritual Guide of Miguel 
Molinos, the Quietist.' With Preface by J. Henry 
Shorthouse, Author of ' John Inglesant.' Glasgow, 
1883." See also a short sketch of Molinos and his 
doctrine in R. A. Vaughan's 'Hours with the 
Mystics/ vol. ii. p. 242, third edition (undated). 

A. J. M. 


VISITATION OF LONDON IN 1687 (6 th S. xii. 
4 95 ) i _ Tnis Visitation has never been printed, nor 

terick Church York, is an inscription around the . ^ , t b th 5 inal ig . ^ Q^ 

nprlpRhil t.Vip. Ifitl.ers T. A. T?,. or PL in Old En or- -V , ' , T , ~x ft , . ,- L 

pedestal the letters I. A. R. or C., in Old Eng- 
lish, and above, in panels, are shields of arms of 
the local gentry. On one shield are the arms of 
Fairfax (?), on another the letter B, on a third the 
arms of Cleborn of Killerby, near Catterick, and 
several other shields on other panels that I cannot 
recall. Will some correspondent oblige me with 
the meaning of the inscription and date of this 
font 1 It seems to be of the fifteenth century. 



[R. P. G. supplies an inscription which has already 

HOLBEIN (6 th S. xii. 429; 7 th S. i. 14). Pil- 
kington says : 

" It is observed by most authors that Holbein always 
painted with his left hand; though one modern writer 
objects against that tradition (what he considers as a 
proof) that in a portrait of Holbein painted by himself, 
which was in the Aruridelian collection, he is repre- 
sented holding the pencil in the right hand. But, with 
great deference to the opinion of that ingenious connois- 
seur, that evidence cannot be sufficient to set aside so 
general a testimony of the most authentic writers on 
this subject ; because, although habit and practice might 
enable him to handle the pencil familiarly with his left 
hand, yet, as it is so unusual, it must have had but an 
unseemly and awkward appearance in a picture ; which 
probably might have been his real inducement for repre- 
senting himself without such a peculiarity. Besides, the 
writer of Holbein's life at the end of the treatise by De 
Piles mentions a print by Hollar, still extant, which 
describes Holbein drawing with his left hand.'" 

giving the 
the age of 

(7 th S. i. 8). A. W. R. might probably get all the 
information he wants from Mr. Charles Welsh, of 
Messrs. Griffith, Farran & Co. I am almost cer- 
tain he once told me that a copy of the book 
was in the possession of the firm. Your corre- 

of Arms, London (K. 9), and no transcript (it 
believed) exists elsewhere. The pedigree of Upton, 
Billingsgate Ward, Love Lane Precinct, is the 
second therein contained, and your correspondent 
should apply to one of the heralds respecting the 
fee for a copy. I may add that the names of 
Henry Upton, Dukes Place; Hugh Upton, ditto; 
Mr. Upton, Newington Town ; and Gilb. Upton, 
Cloak Lane, appear in the first ' London Directory 
of Merchants,' 1677, and that my vast collections 
from parish registers would doubtless furnish 
further information as to the family, if desired. 

W. I. R. V. 

Ray compares this with a Spanish proverb : 

" ' If the mountain will not go to Mahomet, let Maho- 
met go the mountain.' Si no va el otero a Mahoma, 
vaya Mahoma el otero. Since we cannot do as we 
would, we must do as we can." Bohn, 'Proverbs,' 
p. 117. 


HOKEY POKEY (6 th S. xii. 366, 526). The de- 
rivation of hocus pocus from " Hoc est corpus " is, 
I believe, Tillotson's. He says : 

" In all probability those common jugling wordg of 
hocus pocus, are nothing else but a corruption of hoc est 
corpus, by way of ridiculous imitation of the priests of 
the church of Rome in their trick of Transubstantia- 
tion." ' Works,' vol. i. Ser. 26. 

Nares thinks that the expression is taken from 
the Italian jugglers, who said Ochus Bochus, in 
reference to a famous magician of those names. 
Is this gentleman apocryphal ? If not, when did 
he exist ? Prof. Skeat, in his 'Dictionary,' regards 
the expression as a reduplication. He mentions 
that Hokos-Pokos is the name of the juggler in 
Ben Jonson's ' Magnetic Lady,' licensed in October, 
1632. Ben Jonson has the word in an earlier 

play, 'The Staple of News,' first acted in 1625 : 
" Iniquity came in like hokos-pokos in a jugler's 
jerkin, with false skirts like the knave of clubs " 

7" S. I. JiS. 16, '86.] 


(II., sub finem). Is there no earlier instance of 
the use of the word 1 F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

In the twenty-first volume of the Mirror I find 
the following origin for these words, and one 
would be glad to think they were not a piece of 
Puritan profanity: 

" Ochus Bochus was a magician and demon among the 
Saxons, dwelling in forests and caves, and we have his 
name and abode handed down to the present day in 
Somersetshire (viz., Wokey Hole, near Wells). Thus it 
appears that modern conjurors, in making use of the 
words, are invoking the name of their powerful pre- 

This is taken from a note to the ' Dragon King ' 
in Pennie's ' Historical Drama.' 


St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

227, 354 ; xii. 295, 454). Mr. Frederick Whym- 
per is communicating some interesting papers on 
' Travellers' Snake Stories ' to Good Words. In 
the second of these papers (December, p. 786) he 
has this notice of a snake suicide: 

"An Australian gentleman some years ago was the 
cause of a venomous snake committingsuicide by poisoning 
itself. (Communication to the Launceston Examiner, Tas- 
mania, quoted in Nature, May 13, 1880.) He had pinned 
a black snake to the ground by means of a forked stick, 
and unintentionally by his haste in the middle of the 
body. No sooner had he done this than the snake got 
in a violent rage, and instantly buried its fangs in itself, 
making the spot wet either with viscid slime or the 
deadly poison. It had hardly unburied its fangs when 
its coils round the stick suddenly relaxed, a perceptible 
quiver ran through its body, and in much less time than 
it takes to write this, it lay extended and motionless, as 
though gasping for breath. Jn less than three minutes 
from the time it bit itself it was perfectly dead." 


OXFORD CATALOGUE (6 th S. xii. 516). In the 
English edition of Bayle (5 vols., folio, London, 
1736), iii. 528, the passage queried by MR. C. A. 
WARD is given thus : " I know the Latin version 
only by means of the Catalogue of the Bodleian 
Library. It was printed in the year 1622 in 8vo., 
and translated by ^Esch. Major." Huarte's book, 
to which this paragraph refers, has been translated 
into English by Richard Carew (with an Exeter 
imprint, 1596, 4to.), or, as some say, by Thomas 
Carew; and by Mr. Bellamy (8vo., 1698), &c. 

i. 29). Can the Keepsake for 1829 be a slip of. the 
pen for 1828 ? Because in the latter were origin- 
ally published 'My Aunt Margaret's Mirror,' 'The 
Tapestried Chamber,' and ' The Death of the 
Laird's Jock.' All three of these short stories are 
certainly by Sir Walter Scott, and may be seen in 
any collected edition of his works. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


The Fall of Constantinople : leinq the Story of the Fourth 
Crusade. By Edwin Pears, LL.B. (Longmans & Co.) 
THE second title of Mr. Pears's volume is necessary to 
explain the first. What is generally known as the fall 
of Constantinople, that is, its subjugation beneath Moslem 
rule, Mr. Pears mentions incidentally as a remote con- 
sequence of agencies the working of which he describes. 
Less than half his very interesting and scholarly volume 
is, indeed, occupied with the fourth crusade and with the 
conquest and sack of the seat of the Eastern Empire. The 
first and longer portion is concerned with a description 
of persistent attempts at invasion of imperial territory 
on the part of the Turks arid Tartars, which, though 
resisted with almost unbroken success, sapped the 
strength of Constantinople, and with the internal causes 
which led to decline and ultimate defeat. Sur- 
rounded on all sides by hostile and aggressive populations, 
the Byzantine empire needed for its preservation forti- 
tude and energy on the part of rulers and people such as, 
unfortunately, these did not possess. Noteworthy alike 
for the splendour of its treasures of art and erudition 
and for the private wealth of its rulers and citizens, it 
stood an object of universal cupidity. Its destruction 
was brought about by the licentiousness of its rulers, by 
internecine feud, by luxury, effeminacy, and vice such as 
have ruined many empires. So quickly did emperors 
succeed each other in later times that a change passed 
almost unnoticed by the people. Mr. Pears, indeed, in 
some striking passages shows how something answering 
to the fatalism of the modern Turk existed in Con- 
stantinople in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 
Illustrations of this kind the information obtained 
by Mr. Pears while president of the European Bar at 
Constantinople enables him to make with signal gain 
to his work. Mr. Pears over-estimates the effect 
of Turkish attempts at invasion. Those countless 
hordes which he picturesquely describes fell off 
broken and beaten from the empire which was so 
long the bulwark of Christianity. At the period when 
the fourth crusade was diverted from its specific purpose 
and sent to the destruction of a Christian capital, he 
shows that the Turkish power waa broken. The real 
causes of decline were, as has been said, luxury.vice, and 
effeminacy, aggravated by domestic discord. Upon these 
things supervened the invasion from the West, brought 
about by the ambition and envy of Venice, and assum- 
ably by the wrongs of Dandolo, and the doom of Con- 
stantinople was sealed and the city was weakened until 
it became the prey of the Moslem. Upon the manner 
which the leaders of the fourth crusade were led to 
adopt the policy of Venice, and to direct, in the face of 
Papal prohibition, against Constantinople a force raised 
for the conquest of Palestine, Mr. Pears has written some 
admirable chapters. Of the fidelity and service of the 
Warings or Varangian guards he gives a striking 
picture. His book is, in short, an eminently satisfactory 
product of researches not only in Villebardouin and 
Nicetas and the Byzantine historians, but in modern 
French and German literature upon the subject. 

Letters and Journals of Jonathan Swift. Selected and 
edited by Stanley Lane-Poole. (Kegan Paul, Trench 

Asa companion volume to the selection from Swift's 
prose writings, included in that delightful series the 
' Parchment Library," has ndw been issued a selection 
from Swift's journal to Stella and from his letters. The 
task, far from easy, of foraging in correspondence so volu- 
minous, has been admirably accomplished, and the 



S. I. JAN. 16, '8 

letters given are in all respects representative. In 
these things we see Swift at his best, and those who 
know the great master of English only in his imagina- 
tive works, or in the biographies of him that have been 
written, will do well to have the volume by their side. 
To those who read the passages on the death of Mrs. 
Johnson, pp. 168 et seg., it will be difficult to believe all 
the evil that has been written about Swift. The whole, 
indeed, besides being delightful reading, is calculated to 
raise our estimate of the man. It is pleasant to hear 
that Mr. Lane-Poole has had no call to bowdlerize these 
letters. The editor's notes are brief and to the purpose, 
the prefatory matter is satisfactory in all respects, and 
the volume is an acceptable addition to a series that 
has established itself in public favour. 

Fotheringay and Mary, Queen of Scots. By Cuthbert 

Bede. (Simpkin, Marshall & Co.) 
OUR brilliant and versatile contributor Cuthbert Bede 
has collected into a volume the papers on Fotheringay 
which he contributed twenty years ago to the Leisure 
Hour. These interesting chapters have, however, been 
considerably revised and corrected, and have been 
adorned with fresh illustrations. Thus improved they 
constitute a pleasant and valuable contribution to topo- 
graphy, and, indeed, to history, as well as an agreeable 
companion to those who may visit the spot. It is need- 
less to say that Cuthbert Bede espouses warmly the 
cause of Mary Stuart, of whose fortitude and resignation 
under the most trying circumstances he gives a graphic 
account. Very attractive reading is the volume, and 
the appendices contain much valuable matter. The 
illustrations, principally by the author, have a value of 
their own, and the book deserves the welcome it is sure 
to get from a large class of readers. These illustrations 
include a reproduction of an original portrait in the 
possession of the author, which goes far to justify the 
reputation of the unfortunate queen for beauty. 

The White Horses of the West of England, with Notices 
of some other Ancient Turf Monuments. By the Rev. 
W. C. Plenderleath, M.A. (A. R. Smith.) 
ON those curious turf monuments of which this country 
possesses, so far as is known, a monopoly the rector of 
Cherhill has written a brief and valuable dissertation, 
giving a full account of all which are known to exist, and 
putting forward some ingenious theories as to their 
origin. The work is scholarly and constitutes a desir- 
able possession. Much information is cast upon the 
subject from ancient coins, engravings of which and of 
the monuments themselves are afforded. On p. 11 Mr. 
Plenderleath speaks of the authorship of the pamphlet 
entitled ' The impertinence and Superstition of Modern 
Antiquaries displayed by Philalethes Rusticus,' being 
apparently assigned to Mr. Bumstead, while a copy in 
the Devizes Museum gives the name of Esplin as author. 
The pamphlet in question, which consists of a letter, is 
by the Rev. William Asplin, M.A., vicar of Banbury, 
author of ' Alkibia : a Disquisition upon Worshipping 
towards the East.' The preface is by Bumpstead, or 
Bumstead, to whom the letter is addressed. 

The Antiquary. Vol. XII., July-December, 1885. 


IN an excellent volume of the Antiquary & few papers 
stand prominently forward. Amongst these are Mr. 
Wheatley's review of Miss Toulmin Smith's volume ' Tiie 
York Plays'; Mr. Ordish's account of the London 
theatres in Tudor and Stuart times; Mr. J. H. Round's 
paper on ' The Attack on Dover '; Mr. Price's ' Notes 
on London Wall '; Mr. Peacock's ' Scotter and its 
Manor '; Steele's " Christian Hero," ' by Mr. Solly ; 
'Extracts from Diaries of Early Travel,' by Mr. J. 

Theodore Bent ; and Miss Toulmin Smith's ' The House 
of Lords.' In a valuable contribution by Mr. Wheatley 
on ' The Fairies in Literature ' there is no mention of 
the fairy poems, which are exquisite, of Sir John Mennis. 
In the " Antiquary's Note-Book " there is some useful 
information. Perhaps the funniest thing in the volume, 
which might almost serve to give it some day a place as 
a curiosity, is a memoir of W. J. Thorns in which no 
mention of ' N. & Q.' is made ! 

The Murder of Amy Roosart: a Brief for the Prosecu- 
tion. By Walter Rye. (Elliot Stock.) 
IN behalf of the view that Amy Robsart was murdered 
by Leicester with the cognizance of Elizabeth Mr. Walter 
Rye writes convincingly and well, though avowedly as 
an advocate. His known erudition is brought to bear in 
this admirable pamphlet, which brings forward much new 
evidence, and is.full of scandal against Queen Elizabeth. 
A more important contribution to history has seldom 
been made in pamphlet form. The whole is worthy of 
Mr. Rye's high reputation. 

IT is proposed to reprint the index or * Table Book ' 
to the Brotherhood and Guestling of the Cinque 
Ports. This republication will provide a key to records 
of great historical importance. Two hundred and 
fifty copies only will be printed for subscribers by Mr. 
Elliot Stock. 

$otfrnf to 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

J. J. STOCKEN (" ' Hamlet,' II. ii. 861 "). Anser, as 
the generic name for our domestic waterfowl, is sug- 
gested, instead of " hand-saw," in ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. xii. 3. 

A. B. G. ("'La Metamorphose d'Ovide Figuree,' a 
Lyon, par Jan de Tournes, 1557"). The designs in this 
are attributed to Bernard Salomon, known as " Le Petit 
Bernard." See a full account in the ' Manuel du 
Libraire ' of Brunet. The book should have 90 pages 
in all and 176 illustrations. It sells, when perfect, for 
twenty to forty francs. Turreau is probably the name 
of a possessor. 

ALICE R. ("Quotations Wanted"). !. "Cabined, 
cribbed, confined," ' Macbeth,' III. iv. 2. " Flown with 
insolence and wine," Milton's ' Paradise Lost,' book i. 
3. " Bloody with spurring, fiery hot (red) with haste " 
we must leave to others. 

REV. OSWALD BIRCHALL (" Proportion of Ulster Pro- 
testant Emigrants who return to Ireland from Ame- 
rica"). No statistics from which such a return can be 
obtained are, we believe, anywhere accessible. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7'!' S. 1. Jus. 23, '86.] 





NOTES : History of the Thames, 61 Black Mary's Hole, 62 
Deaths in 1886, 63 Robin Hood's Chapel New Words in 
1808, 64 Wyclif Society's * De Civili Dominio 'Early 
Mention of Book-plates- Curious Surnames, 65 Burning for 
Heresy Bird-loreJohannes Adamus Transylvanus Par- 
liamentary Trains Jaw, 66. 

QUERIES : Collegium Grassinseum Ordinance for Suppres- 
sion of Stage PJays ' Choice Notes 'Stock Author of 
Story CafflingR. Mead and Jno. Wilkes- Welsh Fair, 67 
W. WooJlett " Tabard " Inn Wentworth Marriage 
Dinners at Town Halls Stangni Standing at Prayers 
Browne Fictitious Names Scotch Religious Houses Dr. 
Henry King Manors in England Company of Mines A 
" Shepster" Mrs. Parsons, 68 Bristol Pottery Symonds : 
Hakluyt, &c. Volume of Sermons Dunstanborough Castle 
' Bridge of Sighs ' ' Vathek ' A. Colquhoun " Leaps 
and bounds" Castles Sir T. Cornwallis, 69 Origin of 
Saying Prayer of Mary, Queen of Scots Memoirs of D. 
O Connell Almanac Pentameters ' Valor Ecclesiasticus ' 
Authors Wanted, 70. 

REPLIES : Primitive Wedding, 70" Ifs and Ands" Must 
" Sepelivit nuptam," &c. Golden Bottle Conquer, 71 
Colchester Castle Belief the Hop Freemasonry Duncan I. 
Lym Books dedicated to Princess Victoria Arms of Ox- 
ford Halls Velvet and Fustian* The Tempest,' 72 Scotch 
Names of Fishes Wharton " Our friend the enemy "Two 
Epitaphs Highland Kilt When was Burns born? 73 
Garter Brasses General Armstrong Washington's An- 
cestors Author Wanted Esquire, 74 Scales and Bardolf 
Docket" Speech is silver " Stilt=Crutch Coronation 
Stone, 75 Touch- Jane Clermont " Filius populi" Vene- 
tian Glass, 76 "He kept throwing," &C- Act of Union- 
Irish Parliament Commonplace Book Omitted Reference, 
77 St. Alkelda John Thurloe Church in Danger Brian 
Walton Campleshon Family Homer Fourteenth Cen- 
tury Lease, 78 Son of a Sea Coote Filius Dei Authors 
Wanted, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Cushing's 'Initials and Pseudonyms' 
Ashton's ' Dawn of the Nineteenth Century 'Shirley 
Hibberd's Golden Gates and Silver Steps.' 



Fortunately, "Qui cherche, trouve" is sometimes 
objectively as well as subjectively true. In 1841, 
while examining a bed of sand at the village of 
Menchecourt lez Abbeville, M. de Perthes found a 
flint implement really chipped by the hand of man, 
and closely resembling the then long-forgotten wea- 
pons found by Conyers and Frere. Shortly after- 
wards M. L. Cordier, of the Institute, wrote to him 
asking for a sample of the sand in the lowest bed 
of the Menchecourt drift. He accordingly had a 
barrow filled with sand from the undisturbed soil, 
some eighteen feet from the surface, and, examin- 
ing it to see whether it contained any fossils, 
found, embedded in a hard sandy concretion, 
another drift implement, as perfect and with its 
edges as sharp as when it was first chipped. 
These, with innumerable later finds, many of them 
attested by formal proces-verbal on oath, are duly 
chronicled in his magnum opus, * De 1'Industrie 
Primitive/ the printing of which began in 1844, 
but was not finished till 1846. This work re- 
appeared in the following year as vol. i. of ' An- 

tiquite"s Celtiques et Ante"diluviennes ' (Paris, 
Treuttel & Wiirtz), the second volume of which 
was not published till early in 1858. Unfortu- 
nately the lithographs with which the work was 
illustrated were on a small scale, and the outlines 
of the genuine works of art were accompanied by 
an overwhelming number of others representing 
purely natural forms of flints. English geology, 
accordingly, in taking stock of the unfinished 
work,* had no difficulty in rejecting the discoveries 
it announced as not less unsatisfactory than the 
theories it propounded. 

But " Facile est addere inventis" is a maxim of 
wide application. In 1854 Dr. Rigollot, of 
Amiens, learnt that similar implements had been 
found near that city, and in the following year 
published an account of them accompanied by 
good illustrations. f With the appearance of this 
memoir all the innumerable particles of evidence, 
so long held in solution in the minds of men, 
began to crystallize into solid and definite shape. 
But the process was far from instantaneous. The 
question raised had a special interest for the anti- 
quary and anthropologist, but the evidence could 
only be satisfactorily tested by the geological ex- 
pert. And, in England at least, the geological 
expert of the period as a rule objected to testing 
any evidence afforded by deposits so contemptibly 
modern as mere quaternary river-drifts. I am 
not aware that the members of the Geological Sur- 
vey ever actually formulated an anathema against 
the Glacial Period and all its works ; but, at any 
rate, they habitually spoke of the Boulder Clay 
with contumely, and cherished an inveterate 
animosity against all post-pliocene formations. 
These troublesome new-comers, it was generally 
felt, had no business to obtrude themselves above 
the heads of the " good old county family" groups 
of primary, secondary, and tertiary rocks, and 
hide them out of sight. Nor was the prejudice 
in any way abated when the antiquary began to 
assert his interest in these recent clays and gravels 
and sands. It was disturbing the old landmarks and 
breaking down the fences of geology in the interest 
of trespassers, who might possibly be poachers 
also, from the adjoining manor of archaeology. At 
all events, whether owing to any prejudices of the 
kind, or simply to the fact that the antiquary is 
generally a degree or two less sceptical than the 
geologist, the Amiens and Abbeville discoveries 
appear to have been carefully investigated by the 
former before the latter began to trouble his head 
about them. The names of Thomson and Wor- 
saae from Denmark, and of Dr. Thurnam, W. M. 
Wylie, and C. Roach Smith from England were 
duly inscribed in M. Boucher de Perthes's visitors' 

* Mantell, ' On the Remains of Man and Works of 
Art imbedded in Rocks and Strata,' 1851. 

'Memoire sur des Instruments en Silex Trourea 
& St. Aeheul pres d' Amiens,' 1856. 


[7* 8. 1. JAN. 23, '86. 

album considerably earlier than those of any 
foreign geological specialist. It was not long, 
however, before the evidence derived from cavern 
researches at home compelled English geology to 
reconsider its verdict as to the extremely recent 
origin of man, and when once it was shown that 
there was no antecedent absurdity in supposing 
him to be at least as old as the river- drift of the 
Somme, it was no longer possible to refuse M. 
Boucher de Perthes a hearing. 

In 1858 a suite of bone-caves, hitherto untouched, 
was discovered at Brixham, near Torquay, which 
was thoroughly and systematically explored and ex- 
amined by a committee of geologists, of which Mr. 
Prestwich and the late Dr. Hugh Falconer, then 
vice-president of the Geological Society, were mem- 
bers. While engaged in this work Dr. Falconer 
heard of the discovery of similar caverns at Mac- 
cagnone, near Palermo, in Sicily, and at once deter- 
mined to visit that island. On his way he halted 
at Abbeville, and satisfied himself that the hdches 
found by the French archaeologist were indubitably 
the work of human hands. Unable himself to 
make any detailed investigation of the circum- 
stances under which they had been discovered, 
Dr. Falconer wrote to his colleague Mr. Prestwich, 
urging him to undertake an early pilgrimage to 
Abbeville. Thither, accordingly, Mr. Prestwich 
repaired in April, 1859, and was shortly after- 
wards joined by Mr. John Evans. Both started 
on their errand as sceptics. The antiquary, M r. 
Evans, who had made stone implements one of his 
special studies, entertained grave doubts as to the 
true character of the hdches ; the geologist, Mr. 
Prestwich, the highest authority on all questions 
relating to post -pliocene formations, doubted 
whether the implements had been found in un- 
disturbed soil at the depths alleged. Both re- 
turned converts on both points. No qualified 
observer could doubt that the marvellous series 
of implements collected at Abbeville were fashioned 
by the hand of man, and their occurrence in un- 
disturbed strata was conclusively proved by Mr. 
Prestwich's picking one out of the matrix in which 
it was imbedded seventeen feet below the surface, 
in a gravel-pit near Amiens. On their return Mr. 
Prestwich laid the result of their investigations 
before the Royal Society, and Mr. Evans before 
the Society of Antiquaries. By a singular stroke 
of luck, just before ne read his paper, Mr. Evans 
went to the rooms of the Society to invite some 
friends to come and see the treasures brought home 
from France, and while waiting for his friends to 
come out of the council-room, happened to look 
into one of the glass cases in the window-seats. 
There, at once to his delight and dismay, he beheld 
four implements of flint, the very counterparts of 
those he has just procured at Abbeville and 
Amiens. It was no dream, no optical delusion ; 
there the things were, and there they had lain in 

the museum of the Society for more than three- 
score years. There was no label on them, but a 
reference to the books showed that they came from 
Hoxne, and that Mr. Frere had written the letter 
already quoted about them. A further reference 
to the Archceologia showed that the paper had been 
illustrated by two admirable engravings, which, 
had the history not been known, might well have 
passed as portraits of some of the new French find. 
This rediscovery led to further research, in the 
course of which the Black Mary implement was 
found in the British Museum by Mr. A. W. 
Franks, who also unearthed the account of it given 
in Mr. Bagford's letter. 

Thus it came to pass in 1859, a hundred and 
fifty years and more after John Conyers had 
been gathered to his fathers, that his discovery 
was recognized as the first link in the chain of 
evidence by which it was finally proved that man 
had inhabited the globe at a date indefinitely 
earlier than that which a mistaken chronology had 
assigned to his creation. This conclusion, im- 
plicitly assumed by Darwin in his ' Origin of 
Species,' first published in this year 1859, was 
explicitly accepted by Lyell at the meeting of the 
British Association, and thenceforward the onus 
probandi has rested not on the upholders, but on 
the impugners of the antiquity of man. 

Safe came the ship to haven 
Through billows and through gales, 

When once the Great Twin Brethren 
Sat shining on the sails. 

(To be continued.) 

BROTHER FABIAN is mistaken in supposing 
(p. 42) that fluke has not yet found its way into a 
dictionary. It is in Annandale's ' Ogilvie,' vol. ii. 
(1882), with a quotation from the Times. 



The true origin of this name does not seem to 
be known with certainty. Pink, in his * History 
of Clerkenwell,' has referred to the chief sugges- 
tions ; but he was unable to decide which of them 
was the true one. First there is an old tradition 
that the well was called " the blessed Mary's well," 
next that it was known as " Black Mary's well," 
and thirdly that it was called " Black Mary's 
hole." It is stated that the well was leased to 
a black woman named Mary Woolaston, who lived 
in a stone house or hovel, and sold the water to 
the neighbouring citizens ; that she died about 1685; 
the well was then enclosed and protected by the 
proprietor, Walter Baynes, Esq. Prior to this the 
place was known as "Black Mary's hole"; whether 
this name applied to the well itself or to the stone 
hovel in which Mrs. Woolaston lived is not clear ; 
but after her death the name was clearly used to 

7* S. I, JAN. 23, '86.] 



designate the entire road, the continuation north 
of Coppice or Codpiece Row. The exact place is 
distinctly shown in Rocque's map of 1746 as 
"Black Mary's well," in the White Conduit 
Fields. In Pine's map, published the same year, 
the conduit is marked, and about ten small houses, 
the road being described as " Black Mary's hole." 
There is an account in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1813, ii. 557, suggesting that the name was de- 
rived from a black cow belonging to the woman who 
leased the well ; but this is clearly " a pleasant 
fiction." There is great uncertainty as to dates in 
all the old references to this place. Thus, in 'London 
and its Environs Described,' 1761, i. 324, it is 
said that the " Blackmoor woman" called Mary lived 
in the circular stone hut " about thirty years ago," 
that is, about 1730, whereas from all other accounts 
she seems to have died at least forty years pre- 
viously. Perhaps the most clear and distinct date 
is that given by Mr. Pink (p. 561) ; he states that 
in the poor-rate book for 1680 John Giles is rated 
for " Black Maries." This note is interesting ; it 
seems to suggest that there was then one or more 
tenement so called, possibly the remains of some 
small religious foundation. A careful examina- 
tion of the parish books might perhaps throw 
further light on this matter. EDWARD SOLLY. 

This name, together with the " large black flint " 
and the tenor of the whole description, reminds 
me very forcibly of the black virgins, i. e. t " Les 
Vierges Noires," in the ' Encyclope'die des Sciences 
Religieuses,' par M. Gaidoz, from which I made 
the following extract : 

" Lea deesses Meres (Matres ou Matrse ou Matron* 
avec des epithetes generalement topiques, par exemple 
Matrebo Nemarsicabo, ' aux MSres de Nimes,' et Matribvs 
Treveris, ' aux M6res de Treves ') sembleut avoir etc' lea 
' bonnes dames ' ou lea ' dames blanchea ' de 1'endroit, et 
aont vraisemblablement le prototype de DOS fees. On 
les represente generalementassises, tenant un ou plusieura 
enfants sur leurs genoux. Plusieurs d'entre dies ont la 
meme attitude que plus tard la Vierge tenant 1'Enfant 
Jesus; et les statues miraculeuses de la Vierge Marie 
trouvees dans la terre a diverses epoques (telle est dans 
plus d'un cas 1'origine de ce qu'on appelle les ' Vierges 
JNoires ') etaient sans doute des statues des deesses Meres 
gauloises ou gallo-romaines." 

It is true there is no mention made of Black 
Mary, but since there were black virgins, why 
should there be no black Virgin Mary contracted 
Black Mary? The quotation may at least tempt 
some of your contributors to further researches. 

[See 7"' S. i. 1.] 

DEATHS IN 1885. 

The following list includes the names of the 
greater number of eminent persons who died 
during the past year, 1885. Divines and soldiers, 
unless eminent to some extent as literary men, are 

not included ; but it may not be out of place to 
mention that the mortality of these two classes 
during 1885 seems to have been very high. Scien- 
tific men, whose literary works were confined to 
the objects of their especial study, have also been 

I should like to point out the slipshod manner 
in which the newspaper and magazine obituaries 
are written. I refer to the frequency with which a 
biography is printed without mentioning either 
date of birth or decease. Sometimes the extremely 
lucid (?) " last week " or " the other day " is only 
out-distanced by very vague references to a " ripe 
old age" and the like. It is highly important 
that these matters of birth and death should be 
explicitly stated, without any evasion. The Times 
and more than one other leading journal are open 
to considerable improvement in this matter. When 
the demise of any particular person is current 
news, it is comparatively easy to ascertain the 
dates of his birth and death facts which in years 
to come will be difficult to obtain, if obtainable 
at all. 

About, Edmond, author, journalist; b. Feb. 14, 1828 

d. Jan. 17. 

Ansdell, Richard. R.A., artist; b. 1815; d. April. 
Barlow, Peter William, F.R.S., engineer; d. May 20. 
Benedict, Sir Julius, musician; b. (Stuttgart) Nov. 27, 

1804 ; d. June 5. 
Bodichon, Dr. Eugene, author ; b. (Nantes), 1810 ; d. 

Jan. 28. 
Cairns, Hugh MacCalmont (Earl Cairns), statesman, 

philanthrophist ; b. 1819 ; d. April 2. 
Campbell, John Francis, F.G.S., author, antiquary, b. 

1821 ; d. Feb. 17. 

Carpenter, Dr. W. B., author: b. 1813 ; d. Nov. 10. 
Cassal, Hagues Charles Stanislas, educationalist, author; 

b. April 1,1818; d. March 11. 
Colquhoun, John, author ; b. 1805 ; d. May 27. 
Coote, Henry Charles, antiquary, scholar; d. Jan 4 

Mat. 70). 
Corrie, Rev. George E., D.D., antiquary; b. April, 1793 ; 

d. Sept. 20. 

Davies, D. C., geologist, author ; d. Sept. 19. 
Ellacombe, Rev. Henry Thomas, antiquary ; d. July 30 

(aetat. 96). 

Ewing, Mrs. Juliana Horatia, authoress ; d. May 13. 
Falconer, Rev. William, scientist, linguist, author; b. 

1801 ; d. Feb. 
Fargus, Fred. J. (" Hugh Conway "), author; d. May 15 

(setat. 38). 

Farley, J. Lewis, author ; d. Nov. 12. 
Flight, Walter, scholar, scientist ; d. Nov. 6 (setat, 44). 
Gydry, Wilhelm, Hungarian poet ; d. April 14. 
Haghe, Louis, artist ; b. (in Belgium) 1806 ; d. March 9. 
Hood, Rev. Edwin Paxton, author ; b. 1820 ; d. June. 
Hugo, Victor, poet ; b. Feb. 26, 1802; d. May 22. 
Jackson, Right Rev. John, Bishop of Lincoln; b. Feb., 

1811 ; d. Jan. 6. 
Jackson, Mrs. W. S. ("H. H.") American authoress ; 

b. Oct. 18, 1831 ; d. Aug. 12. 
Jacobsen, J. P., " the De Quincey of Danish literature "; 

b. April 7, 1847; d. April 30. 

Jeffreys, Dr. Gwyn, scientist: b. Jan. 18, 1809 ; d. Jan. 24. 
Kaalund, Hans Vilhelra, Danish poet; b. 1818; d. 

April 26. 
Kalisch, Dr. M. M., Jewish scholar ; d. Aug. 23 (aetat. 57), 



I. JAN. 23, ! 86. 

Kavyelin, Konstantin Dmitrievich, Russian scholar 

b. Nov. 15,1818; d. May 15. 
Kingston, Alfred, antiquary ; b. 1829 ; d. April. 
Kostomarof, Nikolai Ivanovich, Russian historian ; b 

1817 ; d. April. 
Kozmian, Stanislas, translator of Shakspeare into Polish ; 

b. April 21, 1818; d. April 23. 
Milnes, Richard Monckton (Lord Hough ton), author, 

poet ; b. 1809 ; d. Aug. 11. 
Moberley, Rev. George, Bishop of Salisbury ; b. 1803 ; 

d. July 6. 
Montefiore, Sir Moses, philanthropist ; b. Oct. 24. 1784 ; 

d. July 28. 
Munro, Hugh Andrew Johnstone, scholar, author; d. 

March 30. 
Neuville, Alphonse Marie de, artist; b. (St. Omar) 1836; 

d. May 19. 

Primrose, Col. Everard Henry; b. Sept. 1848; d. April 8. 
Ralph, John, journalist ; d. Dec. 5 (aetat. 62). 
Richards, Brinley, musician ; b. 1819 ; d. May. 
Rigaud, Major-General Gibbes, antiquary ; d. Jan. 1. 
Rosenberg, Dr. C. P. B., Danish journalist; b. 1828; d. 

Dec. 3. 

Shairp, John Campbell, poet, critic ; d. Sept. 18. 
Siebold, Carl Theodor Ernst von, scientist ; b. Feb. 16, 

1804 ; d. April 7. 
Thorns, William John, antiquary, author, founder of 

'N. &Q.'; b. 1803; d. Aug. 15. 
Thorburn, Robert, A.R.A., artist; b. March, 1818; d. 

Nov. 7. 
Trumpp, Prof. Ernst, scholar ; b. CWurtemberg) March 

13, 1828 ; d. April. 
Vaux, William Sandys Wright, antiquary, scholar; b. 

1818 ;d. June 21. 

Walford, Cornelius, antiquary ; d. Sept. 
Warner, Miss Susan, authoress ; b. 1818 ; d. April. 
Webb, Rev. Thomas William, author, scientist ; d. May. 
White, Richard Grant, American journalist, author ; b. 

1822 ; d. April (?) (ajtat. 64). 
Wordsworth, Rev. Christopher, Bishop of Lincoln, 

scholar, author ; b. 18C6 ; d. March 20. 
Woreaae, Jens Jacob Asmussen, archaeologist ; b. (Kejle) 

March 14, 1821 ; d. Aug. 15. 


I built me a chapel in Barnisdale 

That seemly is to see ; 
It is of Mary Magdalene, 

And thereto would I be. 

I have never observed comment or attempt at ex- 
planation of the very definite phrase in the third 
line of this verse of the ' Ballad of Robin Hood,' 
and yet it seems to me very deserving of both. 
Barnsdale is more than a geographical expression, 
it is the name of a distinct district in South York- 
shire, between Doncaster and Pontefract. And 
the question deserves consideration, What was the 
position of the chapel in Barnsdale, the foundation 
of which is thus claimed by Robin Hood as having 
been built by him, and dedicated or connected 
with St. Mary Magdalene? Now it is remarkable 
that all the conditions of the verse are exactly met 
by just such a chapel in this district (now, however, 
the church of a new parish), and its date corre- 
sponds, as nearly as can be ascertained, with that of 
Robin Rood (temp. Rich. I.). 

The extra-parochial chapel of Skelbrook did not 
exist at the time of Domesday (1086), nor was it 
in existence when the townships of this and the 
neighbouring wapentakes were (about the time of 
Stephen or Henry II.) consolidated into parishes 
and allotted to the various churches then existent. 
But it certainly was in existence when the York 
Diocesan Records commence, about 1220. It was 
on the borders of three parishes, but belonging to 
none ; and, moreover, although dedicated to St. 
Michael, it was in the patronage of the nunnery of 
St. Mary Magdalene at Monk Bretton ; and the 
arms of that convent three covered cups, for- 
merly a part of the western window in the tower 
have been but recently (at a restoration about fif- 
teen years ago) removed and placed over the porch. 
In its immediate neighbourhood, behind Woodfield 
House, Campsalls, two hundred feet above sea- 
level, according to the six-inch Ordnance Survey of 
Yorkshire Robin Hood's well, on the Great North 
Road, close by, being but eighty feet there is a 
high land called to this day Sayles Wood, the view 
from which extends to beyond Market Weighton. 
It is this hill which is probably referred to in the 
poem at lines 76 and 830. As Robin Hood's men 
looked from the Sayles towards Barnsdale, the 
knight was coming by a dune way, just such a 
way as leads the traveller past the front of 
Woodfield House, as Sayles Wood is behind. 

This topographical note will, I trust, not be with- 
out interest to many who are already interested in 
the Robin Hood ballads. R. H. H. 


NEW WORDS IN 1808. The following extract 
from the Satirist; or, Monthly Meteor, 1808, vol. iii. 
p. 441, may be of service to Dr. Murray, if he has 
not already fallen in with it. It occurs in a critique 
of the Annual Review, a publication which seems 
to have been the object of the Satirist's deadliest 
animosity. A large proportion of the words it 
objects to are amongst the most familiar in our 
mouths at the present day : 

'Our first specification shall consist of words new- 
coined, new-modelled, or employed from an affectation 
of singularity; and of these the leading class comprises 
verbs engrafted on the fruitful stock of the termination 
ize t which stands so conspicuous among ' that myriad of 
new words,' to quote the Annual Review* itself, 'with 
which the French Revolution, and the French science- 
mongerp, have inundated European literature.' Of this 
description we find ' liberalized, solitarized, reprotestant- 
ized, peculiarizes, martializing, all-barbarizing, rebarbar- 
izing, demoralizing, Socinianizing, uniformalizing, and 
modernization': ' preconized,' though quite as uncouth 
as any of them, perhaps is not to be classed by its ter- 
mination. The rest, which we shall not take much 
trouble in arranging, are, ' by-gone, f tiffs, tomes, based, 

' " P. 660 of the volume last published (the sixth); to 
which, it is hardly necessary to mention, these observa- 
tions are applied." 

f " We beg to have it understood, that we by no means 
ntend to point out every one of the words in these lists 

7 th S. I. JAN. 23, '86.] 



motived, hatred?, apings, intercourses, proses, stabile, 
driftless, obtainal, retainal, correctional, ancestrial ['c], 
vaticinal, monopolous, euphonous, autonomous, autoch- 
thonous, autopsy, moratory, appendicatory, convul- 
sionary, denary, ponderosity, religiosity, paternity, 
senility, longanimity, consentaneity, rivality, localities, 
plasticities, antagonistic, monotheistic, liturgic, micro- 
logical, neologic, etymologikon, cosmopolitical, cohabit- 
ants, circulable, ornate, evulgate, registrators. con- 
frontation, expatriation, regnrgitation, oonvictive, 
descensive. subsecive. pervasiveness, incorrigibleness, 
statesmanship, connoisseurahip, pietists, provincialism, 
savagism, carnivorism, tyrannously, analogously, shrink- 
jngly, rememberably,* unpicturesque, unreluctant, un- 
drying, impatriotic, imprecision, inappropriate, inter- 
reign, interdeal, disadvise, discountenance (as a sub- 
stantive), influencing (as a mere adjective), pre-establish- 
ment (for previous religious establishment), remade, 
redaction, chorussed, chieftaincy, meddlesome, bepraise- 
ments, scriggling, glossology, obsolesce, reminiscences, 
diatribe, decennium. mimesis, nimbus, and lacunas.' To 
these we may add the sesquipedalian ' uncharacteristic- 
ally' and ' Constantinopolitan ': the compounds ' anti- 
catholics, anti-papistical, non-repeal, non-consultation, 
over-abhorred, over-utterance, fore-ordained, all-absolv- 
ing, all-involving, self-immolating, life-writing, fellow- 
creedsmen, tonguesmen. sccience-mongers, torture- 
mongers, business-like, ill minded, stem-tribes, branch- 
banks, street-banking, citizen-bankrupts, and robber- 
virtues'; -the orthographical improvements ' philan- 
throp&y (p. 276, 288), West/alia, and moss '; the 
comparative ' bitterer '; and the superlatives ' properest ' 
and ' though fullest.' " 

Of the verbs ending in ize, Little" observes of 
cUmoraliser that " Ce mot n'etait pas connu avant 
la Involution." The remainder, with the excep. 
tion of modernization (also a neologism in French) 
hardly appear to have struck root in English. 

W. F. P. 

I have noticed a very curious misapprehension 
on p. 54 of this book, which has, oddly, escaped the 
careful editor. The argument is that good fame 
cannot be taken away from a man by slander, 
because the good fame, or good name, is laid up 
safely in the presence of God. The Latin is : 

as essentially vicious. Our only object is, to expose the 
coxcombical pedantry of raking together, within such a 
compass, so many words distinguished by their singularity 
alone from multitudes of others that would have been at 
least equally well adapted for the particular purpose." 

* " ' A ce trait-la je te reconnois, Santillane ! ' cries 
Fabricio to Gil Bias on a very different occasion ; and 
this single word would have effectually served, if any- 
thing had here been wanting, to recall to our mind a 
grotesque genius whom we first noticed four or five years 
ago, figuring in the Critical Review at that time ; par- 
ticularly in translations from Klopstock and Wieland, in 
those numbers appropriated to foreign works,, We have 
since undeviatingly tracked him (for he always leaves a 
strong trail) in various periodical publications; but the 
last time we were led more peculiarly to notice him, was 
in the article on Mr. Southey's ' Madoc,' in a volume of 
the A nnual Review, where remember able, and unforgettable 
stood conspicuous among much other trash of the same 

" Quarto patet quod non est possibile diffamare jus- 
turn nisi peccando excidat a virtute. Patet sic : Omnis 
fama creature servatur aput Deum proporcionaliter ad 
virtutem ; sed non est possibile creaturam famam istam 
a Deo tollere, stante dignitate; ergo conclusio. Unde 
falsum est quod mencientes denigrant famam constants, 
cuna inscripta sit libro vite, qui est speculum fine macula 
(Sapiencie vii. 26) : sed, ad propriurn modum loquendi 
Verbi veritatis (Math. v. 11). mencientes scandalizati sunt 
in justo, et secundum Aristoteleui f sicut tetragous sive 

The editor has used the obelus according to his 
rule, p. xviii, as marking a "passage which 
appears to be corrupt, but in which he has been 
unable to propose any satisfactory emendation." 
And he gives a foot-note thus, " Tetragous. Can 
Wycliffe mean KaK-rjyopos 1 " 

The needful emendation is simple ; the passage 
is a reference to Aristotle, ' Nicomachean Ethics,' 
i. (10) 11, 11, 6 y' d)5 aA,?7#ws dya$os /cat 
Terpaywvos avev i/soyov, the truly good, man and 
"faultless cube"; which some one rendered "a 
regular brick. ' The text should be emended so as 
to read " tetragonus sine vituperio,"a square without 
a fault, which I have no doubt may be found in some 
Latin Aristotle. Tetragonus or tetragonum is found 
in late Latin, and vituperium may be seen in Scapula 
as a rendering of ^oyos, and in return in Facciolati 
vituperium is glossed by j/-oyos. The editor has 
read vitupero, a nominative, hence Ka/o?yopos, 
which I fancy is not a very good guess for Aris- 
totle. Possibly the writer of the MS. misunder- 
stood the expression, as others, cf. p. x ; but I have 
no doubt Wiclif was struck by the likeness to 
"speculum sine macula," the unspotted mirror, and 
he was very well acquainted with Aristotle, and 
constantly quotes him. The last sentence, then, 
reads thus : 

" It is untrue, therefore, that men, when they speak 
falsely, blacken the fame of a consistently good man, for 
that fame is written in the book of life, and the good 
man is ' a mirror unspotted ' (Wisdom vii. 26), but to use 
his manner of speaking who is the word of truth (Matt. 
v. 11), speaking falsely they speak evil against the man 
who is just, and, in the words of Aristotle, ' as it were a 
faultless cube.' " 


I hope this early mention of book-plates in Eng- 
land (the thing, at least, if not the name) may 
be interesting to collectors. I do not know an 
earlier : 

" I was led into this Comparison from the Curiota 
Felicitas of those, whose Way it is to paste their Arms 
and Titles of Honour on the Reverse of Title Pages, 
which shews the Affinity of the two."' The Right of 
Precedence, &c.,'written by Dr. Swift, printed at Dublin 
in the year 1720. 


CURIOUS SURNAMES. In 1753 administration 
was granted (P. C. Chester) to the effects of " John 
Brasskettle of Bowden, husbandman, deceased," 
which name is doubtless a corruption of Brace- 



[7'h S. I. JAN. 28, '86. 

girdle, spelt also Brassgirdle. Among the licences 
issued from the Vicar General's Office was one for 
the marriage of "Jeremiah Eightshilling and 
Susannah Aryier," dated July 25, 1666. 


" Mm, the xii Day of Apl Ano 1587, were brent at 
Smithfeld fyve Persons for Heresy & all of sondry 
Opynyons : One, holdyng that Chryst was not yet cum : 
Another, that He was not yet ascended : Another, that 
He was not equall with the Father in godhead. The 
fourth, that a child begotten betwene a christen man and 
woman was christened in the Mother's Bely & ought no 
otherwise to be christened : and the v th held that all 
men's wyveg ought to be comon to all men & no man to 
have a wyfe sevrall." Add. MS. (Cole) 5860, p. 284. 

If this note be historically accurate, there are 
other cases of burning for heresy since the Reforma- 
tion than those mentioned in Tomlin's 'Law 
Diet./ vol. i., sub " Heresy ": "There are instances 
of the writ de heretico comburendo being put in 
execution upon two Anabaptists in the seventeenth 
of Elizabeth and two Arians in the ninth of 
James I." J. MASKELL. 


When I went away at Michaelmas day, 
The barns were full of corn and hay ; 
When I came back at Ladyday, 
'Twas winnow-winnow-winnowed all away. 

This is the interpretation of the song of the 
" haying-bird," as given to it in Sussex fifty and 
more years ago, according to the information of 
a native of the county. On hearing it I was struck 
with the close resemblance of the words to those 
of the swallow's song, as current in Western and 
Central Germany (and probably in other provinces 
of the Fatherland), and made immortal by Ruckert 
in one of his best-known songs : 

Als ich Abschied nahm, als ich Abschied nahm, 

Waren Kisten und Kasten schwer ; 

Als ich wiederkam, als ich wiederkam, 

War Alles, Alles leer. 

It is remarkable that the close resemblance of 
the words is accompanied by a difference of sound, 
strikingly characteristic of the notes of the songsters 
to which these words are respectively attributed ; 
for whilst the English lines, with their rise of an 
octave on the accented words, are extremely melli- 
fluous, those of the German version of the swallow's 
song excellently imitate the twitter of that bird. 
It would be interesting if any of your readers 
could tell us if one of the above versions is an 
adaptation of the other, or whether we must 
assume that both, much changed, it may be, form 
part of the common stock of Saxon speech, and 
date back to a time previous to the settlement of 
the " South Saxons " in England ; for an inde- 
pendent development of the same idea in almost 
identical words seems highly improbable. 

W. B. 

Finchley Road. 

author of a Latin poem entitled 'Londinum Heroico 
Carmine Perlustratum,' which in Allibone's ' Dic- 
tionary of English Literature ' is erroneously 
ascribed to John Adams, the topographer and 
author of 'Index Villaris.' The few biograph- 
ical particulars we possess about him are contained 
in a letter of Dr. Basire to Dr. Barlow, dated 
July 10, 1670. The writer recommends the 
" bearer, Mr. Joannes Adami, an Hungarian, once 
my boy, when I had the Divinity Chaire in 
Transylvania for seven years," to his friend's 
"wonted <iAoen'a." Dr. Basire also informs 
us that he has procured his prot&ge, "a place 
among the King's guards, till it please God to 
open to him a door of hope for an honest post- 
liminium into his own country, Transylvania, 
harassed by Turks and Tartars." Lowndes, too, 
calls our author "John Adams"; it should be 
" A'dami," with two acute accents. I am glad to 
see that the new 'Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy ' has not copied the blunder. L. L. K. 


FRANCE. Parliamentary trains exist, so it seems, 
in France as well as in England, but the meaning 
is very different. In England a parliamentary 
train is a train established by Act of Parliament 
for the benefit of third-class passengers, and by 
which they can travel at the rate of a penny a mile 
(I say this for the benefit of future generations, as 
the expression is sure to lapse). In France a par- 
liamentary train (traine parlementaire) is a train 
specially reserved for the use of members of both 
houses of Parliament, or chiefly used by them. 
Thus, in the Figaro of December 29 I find the 
special trains reserved for the use of those deputies 
and senators who went down on the 28th to Ver- 
sailles to take part in the congress convoked for 
the purpose of electing a new president, called 
" traines parlementaires sp^ciaux." 


Sydenham Hill. 

JAW. Prof. Skeat, in his article on the word 
jaw in the ' Etyrn. Diet./ gives the weight of 
his authority to the view that the word is of 
English origin, and that it is a development of 
the word chaw (spelt also chtwe\ which he derives 
from the verb chaw or chew. This account of tho 
relation of the form jaw to the form chaw appears 
to me to be in conflict with the evidence furnished 
by the history of the words. So far as I know, 
chaw, mandibula, is a word unknown to Middle 
English; it is not to be found in Matzner; 
the dictionaries give no earlier citation for the 
form than a passage from Udall's 'Erasmus,' 
written about the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. See Wright's 'Bible Word Book.' The 
M.E. forms of jaw are iowe,jawe, also geowe; see 

7<> g. I. JAN. 23, '86.] 



Skeat (I.e.), where citations are given from the 
' Prompt. Parv.,' Chaucer, and Trevisa. How can 
these early M.E. forms be held to be later de- 
velopments of the Tudor chaw ? I believe that 
the word jaw is not of English, but of French 
origin, and that it is identical with the mod. F. 
joue. Two very common forms of this word in 
O.F. were joe as in the ' Chanson de Roland,' in 
' Aucassin,' and in the Metz Psalter and iowe ; 
cp. Ps. cxviii. 103 of the same Psalter. From the 
form joe would come the M.E. jawe (found in 
Trevisa), just as paw comes from an O.F. poe. 
The O.F. iowe occurs in M.E. in the ' Prompt. 
Parv.' and in Chaucer's 'Boethius.' For the 
etymology of O.F. joe see Brachet's ' Dictionary.' 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

and when was this institution ? The name is 
found stamped on the back of a copy of the 
' Noctes Atticse ' of Aulus Gellius (belonging to 
my father), printed " Apud Seb. Gryphium, 
Lugduni, 1555." On the title-page is written, 
by an eighteenth century hand, "Tho. Strat- 
ton." The book is a small octavo, bound in 
brown leather, stamped with fleurs-de-lys within a 
floriated border. In the centre of either face is an 
oval device (occupying about a third of the area) 
consisting of a shield bearing three branches of 
lily; over the shield is a label, with the words 
"Lilium inter spinos"; and below it is another 
label bearing the words "Collegium Grassinaeum." 
Round the shield and outside the labels is a crown 
of thorns. I should be glad to know what is the 
explanation of this device as illustrating the his 
tory of the volume. . A. F. HERFORD. 


PLAYS. I have an eight-page pamphlet (sm. 4to.), 

1 A Declaration of the Lords and Commons .for 

the appeasing and quietting Unlawfull Tumults 
and Insurrections in the Severall Counties of Eng- 
land and in Wales. Also An Ordinance of Both 
Houses for the suppressing of Stage Plays,' signed 
by John Brown, Clerk Parliament, dated Sept. 3 
1642. Donne gives the date as 1641. Can any 
of your readers inform me if this was issued and 
printed as an Order of Parliament before 1642 ; or 
is my copy the first form in which it was printed ' 


Avon House, Manor Road, Holloway. 

* CHOICE NOTES.' In 1858 ' Choice Notes from 
Notes and Queries,' on * History,' and in th< 

bllowing year a companion volume on ' Folk-lore,' 

were published by Bell & Daldy, similar volumes 

n biography, literature, proverbs, ballads, &c., 

being stated to be "in preparation." Were any 

of these latter volumes ever issued ; and, if not, 

why was the publishing of them discontinued? 

Dhe two above-mentioned volumes were selected 

rom, and on the completion of, the first series of 

N. & Q./ and are convenient for reference. 

[The issue was confined to two volumes.] 

STOCK. Can anything be learned relative to 
John Stock, a painter at the Royal Dockyard ? He 
died 1781, and has a tablet in Christ Church, 
Newgate Street. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

AUTHORSHIP OF STORY. A troop of cavalry 
was charging through a village street, and there 
was a little child in the way, who would have been 
ridden over but that one of the foremost soldiers 
stooped down, caught him up, placed him before 
him, and went through the engagement unhurt. 
I have read of the incident somewhere, but cannot 
remember where. A. P. D. 

24, Penn Road Villas, N. 

[We fancy we read this in a poem concerning the 
American Civil War.] 

CAFFLING. I find this word, which is new to 
me, in a letter to a Lincolnshire newspaper, having 
reference to some squabble at an election meeting. 
The phrase in which it occurs is as follows: "Mr. 
W , after some oaffling, declared he did not say" 
so and so. I presume that it is used in the sense 
of "evasion," or (colloquially) "shuffling." Pro- 
bably some of your readers may know more about 
it. ' C. B. S. 

JOHN WILKES. Information is wanted concerning 
the daughter of Dr. Richard Mead, who married 
the celebrated John Wilkes. There was one 
daughter of that marriage. Did she marry, and 
whom did she marry ? Had she a family, and to 
whom did she leave her property ? S. W. H. 


Spa Fields, is mentioned, according to Mr. Thorn- 
bury (ii. 302) quoting Pink, 'Camberwell/ p. 152, 
I suppose, though he does not say so as early 
as 1744, "about which time," he adds, "it was 
removed to Barnet." Now in what way was it 
removed ?. What kind of fair was Welsh Fair ? 
There ought to be some mention of it long before 
1744, when it was on the point of removal to 
Barnet. There was a fair at Chipping Barnet 
granted to the abbots of St. Alban's by Henry II., 
which is to this day a great cattle and horse fair. 
Was the Welsh Fair a horse fair ? Has Pink any 



I. JAN. 23, '36. 

authority for saying it went to Barnet ? Suffice 
it to say he gives none. C. A. WARD. 

Haveratock Hill. 

WILLIAM WOOLLETT. This famous engraver is 
said to have been born at Maidstone in 1735. Is 
this certain ? I ask the question because in the 
registers of St. Dunstan's, Canterbury, I find the 
following entry : " 1736. William, son of William 
& Eliz. Woolett, was baptised May 2." If there is 
any record in the Maidstone registers relating to 
him, I have no more to say ; but if there is no 
record, I should feel inclined to claim him as a 
Canterbury man. J. M. COWPER. 


THE "TABARD" INN. I should like to put a 
question to some of your readers concerning the 
view of the " Tabard," in Southwark, prefixed to 
Urry's 'Chaucer.' I think it can scarcely be 
received as a picture of the inn of 1721. Urry, 
however, makes no mention of the source whence 
he had it. My supposition it is nothing more 
is that perhaps he saw some sketch of the "Tabard" 
as it existed before the fire of 1676, and adopted it 
for his ' Chaucer.' It can scarcely be a mere fancy 
sketch. WM. KENDLE. 

worth, Bart., of Gosfield, co. Essex, died in 1631, 
s.p.m., having dissipated his estate. He is not 
buried in the Wentworth Chapel of Gosfield Church. 
Does any reader know where he died, and where 
buried ? W. L. K. 

looking over some corporation records, I found it 
stated that towards the end of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth it was resolved that marriage dinners 
should not in future be held at the Moot Hall 
without the special licence of the bailiffs and the 
majority of the portmen. Was it usual in other 
towns to celebrate marriage festivals at the Town 
Hall; and, if so, where can I see an account of such 
a custom ? G. J. H. 

STANGNI. May I ask an explanation and the 
derivation of this term ? It occurs in a charter, 
circa 1260 : " Et de dono meo ut capiant terrain 
ad reparationem stangni molendini inter viam de 
Buttriscote et molendinum usque ad pontem de 
Thame." I should be glad also to know the pro- 
bable derivation of the first part of the name 
Buttriscote. In 1218 it was styled Budescote, in 
1524 Bitturscote, and has now become Bitterscote. 

H. N. 

[la not this for stagni=pool. See Ducange, s.v. 
" Stangnum."] 

STANDING AT PRAYERS. In our parish church, 
Sunday morning, January 10, the congregation all 
with one accord stood up during the reading of 

the Lord's Prayer in the second lesson. It occurred 
to me it would have been more reverent had we 
all knelt down, as we do when the prayer occurs in 
the service. There must be some reason for this. 
Is it a relic of the old days of the Commonwealth, 
when the Liturgy now in use was suspended ? 

BROWNE. In what museum is the skull of Sir 
Thomas Browne to be seen, since the desecration 
of 1840? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

FICTITIOUS NAMES. Mr. Edward Denham, of 
Massachusetts, U.S., has asked me to insert in 
' N. & Q.' the following question:" In the ' New 
Kepublic,' by W. H. Mallock, what are the real 
names of the fictitious characters introduced ? " 
If any correspondent will answer this question, he 
will greatly oblige Mr. Denham, who is a member 
of fourteen or fifteen historical societies. 


spondent inform me whether Paisley was one of 
the Scotch Benedictine cells, and if it was sup- 
pressed at the time of John Knox ? W. 

OF CHICHESTER. Are there any now existing ? He 
was son of John King, Bishop of London. Henry 
King's sister, Elizabeth, became wife of Edward 
Holte, of Aston (see ' Extinct Baronetage '). Dr. 
Henry King was executor to John Donne, Dean 
of St. Paul's tempo James I. C. COITMORE. 

The Lodge, Yarpole, Leominster. 

MANORS IN ENGLAND. Is there any printed 
book or MS. which gives a complete list of them, 
showing also the parish, hundred, and county in 
which they are situated ? C. M. 

BATTERY WORK. Can any of your readers say 
where the ancient records of this company now 
are? X. Y. Z. 

A "SHEPSTER" IN 1552. An indenture of 
apprenticeship, dated 1552, is thus worded: 
" Hsec Indentura testatur qd ffranciscus D , 
filius Richardi D , armigeri, posuit se ipsam 
Apprent* Rogero Myners, civi et Cloth worker 
Lond' et Johanna uxor' eius shepst' ad arteni 
ejusdem Johanna qua utit' erud', " &c., from the 
Feast of St. James the Apostle (July 25) to Ed- 
ward VI. (1552), for the term of seven years. 
Does " shepster " here mean " a sheep-shearer," as 
given by Halliwell; or does it mean "a worker in 
wool " ? and is it not unusual for a man to bind 
himself apprentice to a woman ? Can other in- 
stances of " shepster " be given ? J. P. E. 

MRS. PARSONS. In 1798 a novel in three 
volumes was published by Longman, Paternoster 

7* S. I. JAN. 23, '86.] 



Row, entitled "' Anecdotes of Two well-known 
Families/ Written by a Descendant, and De- 
dicated to the First Female Pen in England. 
Prepared for the Press by Mrs. Parsons, Author of 
'An Old Friend with a New Face,'" &c. The 
principal feature of the story is that a nobleman of 
large property, having no male heir, and having 
two children born to him at the same time one, a 
son, illegitimate, and the other a daughter, by his 
own wife by bribery and influence effected an 
exchange of the infants. The son, however, dying 
before the father, the daughter was restored to her 
proper rights and position. Does any reader of 
' N. & Q.' happen to know what families ure re- 
ferred to ? The scene appears be in Scotland. 
And who was Mrs. Parsons ? J. E. J. 

BRISTOL POTTERY, including Stoneware. When 
and by whom first introduced 1 


Where shall I most probably find the literary 
remains (manuscripts, &c.) of the Rev. Wm. 
Symonds ' (died 1613?), Eev. Richard Hakluyt 
(1616), Rev. Samuel Purchas (1628), and of the 
Rev. Peter Peckard, D.D., Master of Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, in 1790? If any of their 
remains are still in existence I shall be glad to 
correspond with the present owner, or owners, 
with especial reference to early Virginia data. 

Norwood P.O., Nelson County, Virginia, TJ.S. 

VOLUME OF SERMONS. In the library of 
Harvard College, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
there is a volume containing farewell sermons 
preached by Nonconformists after the passing of 
the Act of Uniformity in 1662. Only a fragment 
of the title-page remains, on which can be made 

out the following: u [b]ein[g] collection] of 

farewel sermo[ns] preached by divers non-con- 

formi[sts] in the count [ry] " The names of 

the writers have been filled in in MS. They are 
Whitlock, Barrett, Hieron, Cross, Shaw, and 
others. In Calamy's * Nonconformists' Memorial ' 
the book is referred to as the "Country Collec- 
tion "; but the full title is not given, and I have 
not been able to find it in bibliographical sources, 
though the titles of similar collections are given 
in several catalogues. I shall be much obliged to 
any one who can furnish the full title, with imprint. 

W. C. LANE. 
Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass., U.S. 


Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' give me informa- 
tion regarding the following extract from the 
Universal Magazine of October, 1754 ? " Dun- 

stan Borough Castle now in ruins. The soil 

is not remarkably fruitful, nor are any diamonds 
found there, as has been lately asserted." It is 

quoted in the Gentleman's Magazine of February, 
1756. E. R. W. 

Bradford, Yorka. 

HOOD'S 'BRIDGE OF SIGHS.' Can you kindly 
inform me, through the medium of your journal, 
in what magazine or periodical Hood's ' Bridge of 
Sighs ' first appeared, and the date of the year and 
the month ? A BOOK LOVER. 

BECKFORD'S ' VATHEK.' The author of this 
most remarkable book says, in the preface to his 
(French) edition, published in June, 1815, that the 
translation (in English), as we know, appeared 
before the original ; that it is easy to believe that 
this had not been his intention ; and that it was 
brought about by " circumstances of little interest 
to the public." What were those circumstances? 
I think it would be now very interesting to know 
their nature. In the case of a wealthy author 
like Beckford, it is not probable that the pressure 
of a publisher's influence or obstinacy can have 
been the cause of such a departure from his original 
plan. The English translation appeared in London, 
1786. I have a copy of the French (original) 
edition, Paris, 1787, 8vo. Beckford says, in the 
1815 preface quoted above, that the editions of 
Paris and Lausanne were (already) extremely 
rare. Is the Lausanne edition the same book as 
that of Paris, with a different title ; or in what 
respects does it differ ? JULIAN MARSHALL. 

GISTER. Will any reader of ' N. & Q.' kindly 
tell me (1) the date of Colquhoun's birth ; (2) the 
date when he assumed the name of Colquhoun in 
lieu of Campbell ; (3) the place of his burial ? 

G. F. R. B. 

"LEAPS AND BOUNDS." Mr. Green, in his 
' Short History of the English People ' (chap. x. 
section iv.), speaking of Pitt's administration, 
says, " The public debt rose by leaps and bounds." 
Is not this mere tautology ? Is there any difference 
between a leap and a bound ? J. DIXON. 

CASTLES. Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' give 
me a list of the forty-eight castles built in Eng- 
land by William the Conqueror ? Direct answers 
will greatly oblige. C. H. SANDERS. 

H.M.S. Sultan, Channel Squadron. 

anxious to know the date of his birth and 
when he was admitted to the Privy Council. On 
this latter point there seems to be a considerable 
difference of opinion amongst the authorities. 
Where is his " portrait when at the age of 74, in 
1590," which, according to 'Excursions through 
Suffolk,', used to hang in the dining-room of old 
Brome Hall? G. F. R. B. 



[7' b S. I. JAN. 23, '86. 

ORIGIN OF SATING. What is the rationale of 
the clause, "If the worst come to the worst," 
meaning, If the worst thing possible should 
happen ? LESLIE WAGGENER, Prof, of Eng. 

University of Texas. 

This prayer is well known, and runs as follows : 

O Domine Deus, speravi in Te. 

O care mi Jesu nunc libera me. 

In dura catena, in misera poena, 

Desidero Te. 

Languendo, gemendo, et genuflectendo 

Adoro, imploro, ut liberes me. 

Which may be translated : 

O Lord ! my God 1 I have trusted in Thee. 

Jeau! Beloved! deliver Thou me. 
A prisoner friendless, 

In misery endless, 

1 weary for Thee. 

In sighing, in crying, before Thy throne lying 
Adoring, imploring Deliver Thou me ! 

My query is, Where is the Latin prayer first 
found ; and what ground is there for believing 
that it was written by Queen Mary ? 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

Has this distinguished Irishman left any cor- 
respondence; and, if so, in whose possession is t it? 
The several lives of O'Oonnell are mere compila- 
tions from Hansard and newspapers. Your con- 
tributor Mr. Ross O'Connell may be able to give 
information concerning his relative. W. T. 

ALMANAC. Who and what was the Murphy 
who published an almanac in 1838, and made a 
decided hit in foretelling the very cold day on 
January 20, 1838 1 Did he continue his almanac? 
I remember that his successful prophecy was cele- 
brated in a song of the day, " Murphy has a 
weather eye," a parody, I suppose, on " Lesbia has 
a beaming eye." T. W. K. 

PENTAMETERS. It is Ovid, I think, who de- 
scribes Cupid as stealing one foot from the 
hexameter line, and pentameter verses as thus 
originating. But where in Ovid can I find this 
arch story of a witty invention ? 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

' VALOR ECCLESIASTICUS.' In what county his- 
tories or other works are portions of the above 
printed with explanations and " extended " ? 

T T ff 

Bp. Hatfield'a Hall, Durham. 

Suspense, dire torturer of the human breast; 
Compared with thee reality were rest. 



(6 th S. xii. 492 ; 7 th S. i. 35.) 
The incident alluded to by your correspondent 
is thus described by Brand (' Popular Antiquities/ 
Bohn's ed., iii. 380) in his list of " Vulgar Errors": 
"When a man designs to marry a woman who is in 
debt, if he take her from the hands of the priest, clothed 
only in her shift, it is supposed he will not be liable to 
her engagements." 

This belief appears to have been generally pre- 
valent during the past 'century, and examples are 
occasionally met with in old newspapers, e.g. 

" At Ashton Church, in Lancashire, a short time ago, 
a woman was persuaded- that if she went to church 
naked, her intended husband would not be burthened 
with her debts, and she actually went as a bride like 
mother Eve, but, to the honour of the clergyman, he 
refused the damsel the honours of wedlock." Chester 
Courant, June 24, 1800. 

The following early example shows a slight modifi- 
cation of the general practice : 

" An extraordinary method was adopted by a brewer'a 
servant, in February, 1723, to prevent his liability for the 
payment of the debts of a Mrs. Brittain, whom he in- 
tended to marry. The lady made her appearance at the 
door of St. Clement Danes habited in her shift ; hence 
her enamorato conveyed the modest fair to a neighbour- 
ing apothecary's, where she was completely equipped 
with clothing purchased by him ; and in these Mrs. 
Brittain changed her name at the church." J. P. 
Malcolm, ' Anecdotes, &c., of London, Eighteenth Cen- 
tury,' p. 233. 

The next example is remarkable, as it illus- 
trates a reversal of the ordinary vulgar error, the 
bride presenting herself in a nude condition to 
prevent her liability for the debts of her new hus- 
band : 

[1766] "June. A few days ago a handsome and well- 
dressed young woman came to a church in Whitehaven 
to be married to a man who was attending there with 
the clergyman. When she had advanced a little into 
the church, a nymph, her bride-maid, began to undress 
her, and by degrees stript her to her shift; thus was she 
led blooming and unadorned to the altar, where the 
marriage ceremony was performed. It seems this droll 
wedding was occasioned by an embarrassment in the 
affairs of the intended husband, upon which account the 
girl was advised to do this, that he might be entitled to 
no other marriage portion than her smock." 'Annual 
Register ' for 1766, p. 106. 

The subject has been noticed in the First Series of 
' N. & Q.,' under the titles of "Smock- Marriages " 
and "Mariages en Chemise" (vi. 485,561, vii. 
17, 84), and is remarked upon in Jeaffreson's 
' Brides and Bridals/ ii. 93-4. 

Salterton, Devon. 

The reference to 2 md S. iv. 489 in Chambers'a 
' Book of Days/ i. 259, is not correct, inasmuch 
as it concerns the marriage of a deaf man. The 

r* S. I. JAN. 23, '86.] 



vague reference lower in the page to ' N. & Q.' is, 
I presume, to 1 st S. vi. 485, 561; vii. 17, 84. 


" IFS AND ANDS" (7 th S. i. 5). The use of this 
is much older than MR. TERRY appears to be aware 
of. It occurs in the famous account of the 'Be- 
heading of Lord Hastings ; by Sir T. More. See 
his ' Works/ 1577, pp. 53-55. 

" The said the protectour : ye shal al se in what wise 
that sorceres and that other witch of her counsel shoria 
wife w' their affynite, haue by their sorcery & witch- 
craft wasted my body. And ther w l he plucked vp hys 
doublet sleue to his elbow vpon his left arme, where he 
shewed a werish withered arme and small, as it was 
neuer other. And thereupon euery manes mind sore 
misgaue the, well perceiuing that this matter was but a 
quarel. For wel thei wist, that y e quene was to wise to 
go aboute any such folye. And also if she would, yet 
wold she of all folke leste make Shoris wife of counsaile, 
who of al women she most hated, as that cocubine who 
the king her husbad had most loued. And also no ma 
was there preset, but wel knew that his harme was euer 
such since his birth. Natheles the lorde Chamberlen 
(which fro y e death of king Edward kept Shoris wife, on 
whoe he sowhat doted in the kinge's life, sauing as it is 
eayd he that while forbare her of reuerence towarde hys 
king, or els of a certaine kinde of fidelite to hys frende) 
aunswered & sayd : certainly my lorde if they haue so 
heinously done, thei be worthy heinouse punishement. 
What quod the protectour thou seruest me 1 wene w l 
iffes & with andes, I tel the thei haue BO done, & that I 
will make good on thy body traituor. And therw* aa in 
a great anger, he clapped his fist vpon y e borde a great 
rappe. At which token giuen, one cried treason without 
the cabre. Therwith a dore clapped, and in come there 
rushing men in barneys as many as y e chambre might 

This account is supposed to have been written 
about 1513, and describes incidents which took 
place in 1432. It is one of the best-known and 
most graphic descriptions in the English language, 
and has been copied times innumerable. See 
Hall, 1550, 'Kyng Edwarde The fyft,' f 14; 
Grafton, 1569, p. 779 ; Holinshed, 1577, vol. ii. 
pp. 1372-3 ; Fox, various editions, in loco. When 
Richard III. used it it was evidently a familiar 
saying, perhaps old even then. There is also the 
old doggerel 

If ifs and anda 

Were pots and pans 

Where would be the work for Tinkers' hands? 

R. R. 
Boston, Lincolnshire. 

MUST (7^8. i. 47). See "Must" in my 
' Etym. Dictionary.' The true answer to this 
question would fill many pages of ' N. & Q.' It 
should be sought in the historical use of the M.E. 
mot and moste in old authors. Such an expression 
as " Can he have forgotten it " is unknown in 
our oldest writers. The gradual rise of this 
idiom depends on the historical form of such 
sentences, and requires profound acquaintance 
with old authors and immense research. Of course, 

the M.E. moste can be found as a past tense, for 
the simple reason that it never was anything else in 
the earliest period. It is a great pity that musted 
never came into use. The word ought has like- 
wise lost its old present form owe ; and the in- 
vention of a new past tense oughted would have 
been a great boon. Such forms are not more 
anomalous than the familiar wonted (for won-ed-ed). 
The infinitive of can, viz., connen, is extremely 
common in M.E., and is used both by Chaucer and 
Langland. It is worth remembering, too, that 
English has nothing whatever to do with modern 
High German, except that the languages happen to 
be cognate. English often preserves old forms 
that are lost in German. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

"SEPELIVIT NUPTAM," &c. (6 th S. xii. 448, 504; 
7 th S. i. 37). Mr. E. J. Walker has done so much 
for the history of Halifax in publishing, week after 
week, for many years, his contributions in the 
local newspaper, that I am sorry they have not 
been reprinted under a competent editor. Un- 
fortunately his knowledge of Latin was so scanty 
that his extracts from the parish registers are full 
of the grossest blunders. I do not remember 
having seen in his collections the quotation some 
correspondent has brought forward, but I happen 
to know that it is so inaccurately quoted that 
there is no ground for the inference drawn from 
it. Though difficult to read, it is, " uielmus 
Scolefeild sepelivit nupta et Virgine 3 Octob. 1572." 
On referring to the burial entries just above, the 
reader would find, under Oct. 3, that there were 
buried on that day a "Sibella uxor," and a 
" Sibella filia." This accounts for the statement, 
which is in itself, like many others, but idle 
scribble. A remarkable instance of " Parturiunt 
montes," &c. After this I have nothing to do 
with the translation. T. C. 

GOLDEN BOTTLE (6 th S. xii. 365). Is there not 
the sign of a peddler's pack over the entrance of 
Hoare'a bank in Fleet Street, London 1 Old Mr. 
Hoare, the founder of the bank, was said to have 
been originally a peddler, and to have adopted the 

In Ireland the sign of a golden bottle (spherical) 
was used by druggists who bought and sold drugs 
without compounding or preparing. A leathern 
bottle is said to have been adopted by a London 
bank as the type of a secure, safe bank it will 
not break. E. H. 

Beau Street, Waterford. 

CONQUER (7 th S. i. 27). I am glad to see 
CUTHBBRT BEDE'S question as to the correct pro- 
nunciation of this word. My experience is the 
same as his ; and I have often seen a well-earned 
rap on the knuckles administered by my old domi- 
nie to boys who pronounced, or mispronounced, 
the word as conker. In those days " the punish- 


[7* S. I. JAN. 23, '86. 

ment fitted the crime" very promptly, and pain 
inflicted on the teacher's sensitive ear was very 
rapidly followed by pain distributed over tender 
parts of the scholar. But I fear that the pronun- 
ciation which was thirty years ago a misdemeanour 
has now become the most ordinary and prevailing. 
Stormonth gives it boldly, kong'-ker, as the only 
possible pronunciation. Why, then, if this be 
right, is not conquest to be pronounced kong'-kest ? 
We shall be told, I doubt not, that the change is 
due to natural causes, which infallibly bring about 
the softening of language, here as elsewhere. This, 
however, is poor consolation. We can only note 
the change with sorrow, and try to think of some- 
thing else. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

HOUSK (6 th S. xii. 495; 7 th S. i. 37). This seeming 
puzzle was doubtless intended as an inscription, 
similar to those found on early sepulchral brasses, 
the parties mentioned therein having probably died 
within the castle walls and been buried near the 
stone on which it is cut ; and it should, I think, 
read thus : " Al[l] that [pray] for Roger | Cham- 
byrleyn I & for hys wyf God I gef 'hem al[l] go[o]de 
| lyf." W. I. JR. V. 

BELL OF THE HOP (7 th S. i. 7, 54). Please let 
me point out that the expression "Belle on the 
Hoop " is certainly " bell on the hoop (or garland) "; 
see Larwood's ' History of Signs.' It has nothing 
whatever to do with "bell (or fruit) of the hop." 
Such confusion may be avoided by noticing that 
old English spelling is phonetic, so that the oo in 
hoop or hope must be long, and totally unlike the o 
in hoppe (old spelling of hop). A knowledge of old 
English vowels would save hundreds of mistakes ; 
but I suppose there is no subject so generally 
neglected. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

FREEMASONRY (6 th S. xii. 494). The book re- 
ferred to by your correspondent is complete in 
itself, and was the first Book of Constitutions 
issued after the " Union " of December, 1814. 
An edition in octavo, with a similar title, was 
issued in 1827. The first part alluded to was 
never issued, if printed. Query: as the compiler 
probably had a quantity of material collected, 
what became of it 1 T. F. 


DUNCAN I. AND DUNCAN II. (6 th S. v. 408 ; 
vi. 17, 218, 376; vii. 377). MR. CARMICHAEL 
seems to forget that those who ask queries about 
the ancient royal and noble houses are not always 
able to consult the " trustworthy and scholarly 
histories of Scotland," and must depend upon the 
courtesy of those who, like himself, are familiar 
with historical and genealogical facts. What the 
reader of ' N. & Q.' wants to know is if it be 
authoritatively settled the names of Malcolm II. 's 
wife or wives, and the names of his children and 

their husbands or wives, and a positive statement 
about the legitimacy of Duncan II. It would be a 
great satisfaction to know that the best authorities 
agree that Beatrix, daughter of Malcolm II., married 
Crinan or Cronan, Abbot of Dunkeld, not Grimus 
nor Albanach, Lord of the Isles, and that Beatrix 
had by Crinan, Duncan and Maldred. The 
average reader cares nothing for opinions or pro- 
babilities basedupongrounds he cannot understand; 
all he wants is the result of the latest evidence 
upon disputed genealogical points. J. 


LYM : STORTH : SNAITHING (6 th S. xii. 267, 
377). It may interest MR. ADDY to know that at 
Snaith, in Yorkshire, there was formerly a chantry 
dedicated to Seta. Scytha (S. Osyth), evidently a 
play upon the connexion cf the words snaith and 
scythe, to which the above reference has regard. 

K. H. H. 



(6 ta S. xii. 466). ' Modern Accomplishments, on 
the March of Intellect.' By Catherine Sinclair. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ARMS OF OXFORD HALLS (6 th S. xii. 445, 520). 
Is MR. PICKFORD correct in saying that eccle- 
siastics should not use mottoes ? Some very old 
English families have never used these, e.g., 
Plowden of Plowden, co. Salop, and Stanley of 
Hooton, co. Chester. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrew's, N.B. 

VELVET AND FUSTIAN (6 th S. xii. 406, 523). 
No doubt BETULA is correct as to his governess at 
school wearing generally a cotton print bedgown 
over an outer petticoat of black or brown fustian ; 
but I doubt if anybody else wore so extraordinary 
a dress about the year 1840. P. P. 

(6 th S. xii. 367, 499). Will the absurd Bermudean 
theory never become a thing of the past ? How 
thoughtful minds can accept such a glaring mis- 
apprehension of the controverted passage has always 
been a puzzle to me. A less obscure meaning 
rarely occurs in Shakespeare. Ariel reports to 
Prospero that the king's ship lies securely in the 
rocky nook of his island, whence he once called 
him up at midnight and despatched him to 

Fetch dew 
From the still-vexed Bermoothes. 

Can anything establish more clearly a difference 
of locality between the two isles 1 Moore's ad- 
hesion to the once common but erroneous opinion 
is quite in harmony with a poet's topographical 
inaccuracy. With regard to the site of Prospero's 
island, the drift of the story of essentially Italian 
mould leads us to look for it in the Mediterranean 

7" 3. 1. JAS. 2S, '86.] 



in preference to any other waters. Hunter's sug 
gestion as to Lampedusa being the island in the 
poet's mind must commend itself to every carefu 
student of Shakspeare. Lying midway between 
Sicily and the African coast, its shores indentec 
by a number of troglodytic caves and grottoes 
Lampedusa is the most likely scene of "The 
Tempest," apart from its enchanted reputation. 

Touching the date of this play, I am inclined 
from its apparent immaturity, to ascribe it to its 
author's earlier years. Though printed for the 
first time in 1623, it was probably written about 
1596, and was thus one of Shakespeare's first 
dramatic compositions. Campbell's theory as to 
' The Tempest ' being " the last work of the mighty 
workman," and Monte"gut's appellation of " testa- 
ment dramatique " are more poetic than exact. 

J. B. S. 

SCOTCH NAMES OF FISHES (7 th S. i. 8, 55). 
Please let me make a correction in my last com- 
munication (7 th S. i. 55). My suggestion that 
pellat is for pollack, a whiting, is possible ; but 
the suggestion that it is for pellock, a porpoise, is, 
of course, far better. The new edition of Jamieson 
has "sture, a sturgeon." As to pellock, the word 
was known to me, but I had forgotten it. It 
occurs in Duncan's ' Appendix Etymologise,' 1595, 
reprinted in my ' Reprinted Glossaries,' Eng. Dial. 
Soc., 1874. At p. 68 is the entry: " Ddphin, 
a pellock." In the index (made by myself), at 
p. 81, is : " Pellock, a dolphin (rather a porpoise)." 

WHARTON (6 th S. xii. 447; 7 th S. i. 15). Per- 
haps the following extracts from the Caius College 
admission book may interest your correspondent: 

"Jan. 17, 1595-6. George Wharton ; son of Philip, 
Baron Wharton. Born at Brougham Castle. Educated 
at Wharton. Age 12. Admitted fellow-commoner. 

" April 28, 1602. Thomas Wharton ; son of Philip, 
Baron Wharton. Born at Wharton. Educated at Well, 
Yorkshire, under Mr. Anderson. Age 14. Admitted 
fellow-commoner.' ' 

In modern spelling "Wharton" is, I presume, 
Whorlton; and " Well," Wells. J. VENN. 

Caius College^ambridge. 

"OUR FRIEND THE ENEMY" (6 th S. xii. 167, 

" Paris, April 1st [1814]. ' C'est un fait accompli,' my 
dear mother. We are here at last; have entered in 
triumph, and are in possession. The entrance of the 
conquerors into their capital was turned by the Parisians 

into a .great fete Deafening were their acclamations; 

the vivas for ' TEmpereur Alexandre ' were shouted far 
more vociferously and frequently than for ' le Roi de 

Prusse.' As a specimen of Parisian wit I heard passed 

along a viva for ' nos amis, nos ennernis.' "Sir George 
Jackson, in ' The Bath Archives,' edited by Lady Jack- 
son, 1873, vol. ii. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

Two QUAINT EPITAPHS (6 th S. xii. 490). I 
copied the former of the two epitaphs some years 
ago from a stone in the chancel of Herne Church, 
Kent, with an alteration and addition to that given 
by your correspondent, viz., instead of " Shall 
feast the just," it was " Shall feed the just "; and 
to this was added 

Approved by all, & lov'd so well, 

Though young, like fruit that ' ripe, he fell. 

The last two lines might be added to suit the 
person here interred only; they have not the ring 
of the other lines. H. E. WILKINSON. 

Anerley, S.E. 

HIGHLAND KILT (7 th S. i. 8, 51). Apropos of 
SIR HERBERT MAXWELL'S letter re the Highland 
kilt and plaid, in which he refers to a suggestion 
of his made some time ago, namely, that the scrap 
of plaid worn by those in the army who wear the 
belted plaid be abolished, I would like to make a 
few remarks. 

The belted plaid as worn by the regulars is not 
ample enough. It comes nearer to the pocket- 
handkerchief than the plaid. Again, it is far 
from useless if justice is done to it and sufficient 
cloth allowed (vide Logan's 'Gael' for proper 
allowance). Any of the volunteers using this 
plaid, as do the London Scottish, know the value 
of the same in rain or stormy weather, for it not 
only serves to protect the rifle, but acts like a 

And now for an attack on the men in the army 
who wear the long plaid. I may safely say that 
not an officer not one in fifty knows the old 
rule for putting on the plaid. Decidedly the 
pipers of the Scots Guards do not adhere to the 
old rules if, indeed, they know them, which is 
scarcely possible. Though it may appear strange 
that a civilian should suggest such a thing, I 
fancy I know more than one Highlander in London 
who would in two minutes instruct the men in the 
wearing of the plaid, and drill them by the ancient 
Highland rule into wearing this part of their equip- 
ment. Logan does not give instructions as to this 
most beautiful portion of the dress the completing 
portion, which ought to hang in beautiful folds, 
and not be put on in a wild bundle. 


P.S. I beg the officers' pardons if I have 
naligned them. There may be exceptions to what 
'. state ; but I state what 1 see. 

WHEN WAS BURNS BORN ? (6 th S. xii. 387,473; 

7 th S. i. 15). My attention has just been called 
o the recent correspondence in your columns on 
his subject. In the " big ha' Bible " which be- 
onged to the poet's father, and which was first 
hown to me at Cheltenham by Col. Burns, the 

irst entry on the "birth- leaf" is: " Had a son 

Robert 25 th January 1759." Such an entry 

' >y the male parent is the highest testimony to the 



[7* S. I. JAN. 23, '86. 

authenticity of the universally accepted date of 
the poet's birth, even had not the latter endorsed 
the same by his reference thereto in " There was 
a lad was born in Kyle." 

COLIN RAE BROWN, President. 
London Burns Club. 

If any doubt remains on this, let me call atten- 
tion to the centenary celebration of the birth of 
Robert Burns, which was held at the Crystal 
Palace on January 25, 1859, when a prize poem 
in honour of Burns was recited by the late Mr. 


GARTER BRASSES (7 th S. i. 29). 

" Five brasses only remain of knights belonging to 
the order of the Garter: Sir Peter Courtenay, 1409, 
much defaced, Exeter Cathedral ; Sir .Simon de Fel- 
brigge, 1416, Felbrigg, Norfolk ; and Sir Thomas Camoys, 
1424, Trotton, Sussex : who wear the garter simply, 
Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, 1483, Little Easton, 
Essex, who has also the mantle ; and Sir Thomas Bullen, 
1538, Hever, who is attired in the full insignia of the 
order. The effigy of Thomas de Woodstock, 1397, for- 
merly at Westminster Abbey, resembled the last, but 
was not in armour. It is engraved in Sandford's ' Genea- 
logical History of England,' p. 230." Haines's ' Manual 
of Monumental Brasses,' p. cxvii. 


Digs Rectory. 

Haines gives the following : 

1. Sir Peter Courtenay, 1409 (almost defaced), 
Exeter Cathedral, Devon. Engraved in Hewett's 
4 Exeter Oath.,' and Trans, of Exeter Soc., vol. iii. 

2. Sir Simon Felbrigge, 1416, Felbrigg, Nor- 
folk. Engraved in Boutell's Series ; Gough, ii. 
pi. xlvii. ; Cotman, i. pi. xv. 

3. Sir Thomas Camoys, 1424, Trotton, Sussex. 
Engraved in Boutell's ' Mon. Br. ; ; Dallaway, i. 

4. Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, 1483, Little 
Easton, Essex. Engraved in Waller, pt. xiv. 

5. Sir Thomas Bullen, "earl of Wiltscher & 
Ormunde," 1538, Hever, Kent. Engraved in 
Waller, pt. xii. ; Thorpe's Cast. Roff., 1 pi. xix. 
p. 115. 

The first three have the garter simply, 4 has 
the garter and mantle, and 5 the full insignia. 

3, Plowden Buildings, Temple. 

Four garter-bearing effigies on brass plates (not 
statues) in England are (1) that of Sir Simon de 
Felbrigge, 1413, at Felbrigg, Norfolk; (2) Thomas 
Baron Oamoys, 1424, at Trotton, Sussex ; (3) Mar- 
garet, Lady Harcourt, 1471, at Stanton-Harcourt, 
Oxfordshire; and (4) Sir Thomas Bullen, 1538, at 
Hever, Kent. The lady, whose husband was the 
196th K.G., wears his Garter round her left arm 
ensigned with the motto of the order. F. G. S. 

GENERAL ARMSTRONG (7 th S. i. 28). The group 
by Kneller representing John, Duke of Marl 

trough, and General John Armstrong, which the late 
Duke of Marlborough lent to the National Portrait 
Exhibition of 1867, No. 87, consists of full-length, 
ife-size figures, on a canvas measuring 95 in. by 
'9 in. MR. M. H. WHITE knows, of course, the 
nezzotint portrait of this commander which was 
executed by McArdell in 1753 (J. C. Smith's 
McArdell,"' No. 3). F. G. S. 

WASHINGTONS ANCESTORS (6 th S. vii. 368). 
Who is "Albert Welles (1879), President of the 
American College of Arms," and where is this 
college situated 1 ? If its authority for pedigrees is 
no better than Phillipe and others of that ilk, its 
work in that line will soon cease. London is 
"amous for bogus pedigrees and pedigree-makers. 
The plan of the latter appears to be this : Genea- 
iogical publications are searched for the names of 
families desiring information, and suitable pedi- 
grees are constructed for them out of the visita- 
tions and county histories, and are duplicated by 
photography or the " blue print " process. Copies 
of these are sent to the interested parties, and 
there is just enough truth in them to excite ambi- 
tion or an interest in further research, which, of 
course, is undertaken for a consideration. The 
late Col. Chester possessed one of these " blue 
pedigrees," and the way in which the Seymours and 
Danbys, Fitz-Hughs and others are tacked on to 
royal and baronial houses (of whom even the best of 
our genealogists know but little) would be amusing 
were it less costly and aggravating to the victims. 

F. C. WRAY. 


AUTHOR OF POEM WANTED (6 th S. xii. 408). 
A reference to Poole's ' Index of Periodical Litera- 
ture/ reveals the fact that * The Greenwood Shrift ' 
appeared in Blackwood's Magazine, vol. xlii. p. 208, 
and that its author was C. Bowles. 


ESQUIRE (6 th S. xii. 495; 7 th S. i. 34). Thank- 
ing your correspondents and among them MR. 
J. STANDISH HALY for setting my mind at rest, 
and this I do most heartily, I would say also to 
that gentleman that though I have, I believe, care- 
fully read ray Shakespeare, I am obliged to con- 
fess that he has read it more intelligently, since 
he has concluded, as I had thought no one could 
have concluded, viz., that Robert Shallow owed 
his title of esquire to his being a justice of the 
peace. I confess, also, that I am still unable to 
connect this conclusion with the premises, but this 
may be due to my want of genealogical knowledge. 


Surely MR. E. H. MARSHALL cannot have re- 
ferred to the case which he cites from 1 Taunt., 510, 
on this question. If Talbot v. Eagle be the leading 
case on the point, then the authorities on the 
subject are meagre indeed, for all that was there 

7' h S. I. JAN. 23, '86.] 



decided was that "A commission of captain of 
volunteers, signed by the lord-lieutenant of a 
county, does not confer the degree of esquire" 
even though such commission style the gentleman 
an esquire, and the Gazette announcing the appoint- 
ment follow suit. This is an important modifica- 
tion of the assumed rule ; but the judicial or 
legislative statement of the rule itself has not yet 
(so fur as I have seen) been vouched. Q. V. 

The late J. F. Maclennan, author of * Primitive 
Marriage,' told me many years ago, that Masters 
of Arts of Aberdeen University are esquires by 
charter of one of the Scottish kings. T. 

426; 7 tb S. i. 11). Can any reader inform me if 
the Lords Scales owned property in the Furness 
district ; and whether any of their descendants or 
immediate kinsmen are known to have taken up 
their residence in the north about 1600 "or 1650? 
I am most anxious to connect several branches of 
this interesting family; but the links are rather 
unapproachable. I atn convinced, however, that 
the aforesaid information, if forthcoming, will go 
a long way towards the removal of the difficulties. 

1 should also be very pleased to learn the origin 
the word " Scales " in personal nomenclature. It 
is a place-name, and I may point out two words to 
which it forms the suffix, viz., Winscales and Sea- 
scale, two Cambrian villages. JOHN WALKER. 


DOCKET : DOQUET : DOCQUET (6 th S. xii. 515). 
The first of these spellings seems to be the 
correct form. The word is spelt docket, as also 
docked, in Minsheu's 'Ductor in Linguas,' 1617. 
He says : " Docket is a breife in writing ^ anno 

2 & 3 Phil, et Mariae, c. 6. f West : writeth 
it (dogget) by whom it seemeth to be some small 
piece of paper, or parchment conteining the effect 
of a large writinge." His derivation of the word, 
suo more, is from L. documentum. Wedgwood 
and Skeat suggest W. tocyn, a small piece, ticket, 
&c. Richardson quotes Clarendon's ' Civil War,' 
where the word is spelt docquet ; also ' State 
Trials,' 1640, where it is docket. On the analogy 
of pocketed, the p. participle ought to be spelfc 
docketed. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

All three forms of the word will be found 
in the * Encyclopaedic Dictionary,' where docketed 
is given as the past participle or adjective. The 
first spelling is given both in Blount's * Law Dic- 
tionary and Glossary' (1717) and in Cowel's ' Law 
Dictionary '(1727). G. F. R. B. 

"SPEECH is SILVER" (6 th S. xii. 515). The 
first appearance of this saying in Carlyle's writings 
was in 1837, in 'Sartor Resartus,' ch. iii. : 

" Speech too is great, but not the greatest. As the 
wiss Inscription says : Sprechen ist eilbern, Schweigen 

ist polden (Speech is silvern, Silence is golden) ; or as I 
might rather express it : Speech is of Time, Silence is of 



This is met with as a quotation in Carlyle's 
essay on Boswell's * Life of Johnson' in the 'Mis- 
cellaneous Essays,' vol. iii. p. 66. It is given thus : 
" Speech is silvern, Silence is golden ; Speech is 
human, Silence is divine." GEORGE RAVEN. 


This is found in the following form in Herder's 
' Zerstreute Blatter,' Vierte Sammlung, whence 
most likely Carlyle borrowed it : 

Lerne schweigen Freund. Dem Silber gleichet die 

Aber zu rechter Zeit schweigen ist lauteres Gold. 

In his preface the author thus describes the con- 
tents of this part of his work : 

" Zuerst finden Sie abermals eine Bluraenlese aus 
morgenlaridischen Dichtern. Der Titel wird Ihnen 
keine Ziererei scheinen, wenn Ich bemerke, dass ein 
grosser Theil dieser Lehrspruclie aus Sadi's Blumen- 
garten oder Rosenthal und ahnlichen Sammlungen 
genommen ist." 

W. B. 

This proverb corresponds to the German " Reden 
ist Silber, Schweigen aber Gold." It is said to be 
of Persian origin. W. E. F. 

[It is well understood in Germany that the above 
saying is of Oriental, and not German origin. It is, we 
believe, popularly ascribed to Hafiz.] 

STILT = CRUTCH (6 tb S. xii. 490). Crutches are 
commonly called stilts in this part of Kent, and 
have been for many years. In 1668 the overseers 
of Holy Cross, Canterbury, paid threepence '* For 
a paire of Stilts for the Tanner." 



Prof. Skeat, in his * Etymological Dictionary,' 
remarks that " the original sense of stilt is a high 
post or upright pole ; hence a stilt, a crutch, or 
a prop, according to the use to which it is put." 
Forby's * Vocabulary of East Anglia ' gives, " Stilts, 
s. pi. crutches. A lame man is said to walk with 
stilts, which, in the general sense of this word, 
must be dreadfully dangerous, if it be at all 
practicable. But that sense is not the original 
one." Jamieson's ' Scottish Dictionary/ has stilt, 
to go on crutches, and stilts = crutches. 


CORONATION STONE (6 th S. xii. 449 ; 7 th S. i. 
9). There has always been a great and needless 
expenditure of time and research on this Stone of 
Tara, especially as to whether it was carried to 
Argyllshire and Perthshire, thence to Westmin- 
ster. This is owing to European inquirers not 
knowing, or forgetting, that every ancient tribe 
used to carry away their Palla-diums with them to 



. I. JAN. 23, '86. 

their new home, which, of course, was a mere fiction 
of their priests and leaders. No people would part 
with their Pallas, Lingam, sacred fire, &c., but a new 
one was set up in the centre of the new home, and 
the tribe were told that it was the original, or a 
part thereof. As when the Parsis, Pur-sis, or fire- 
worshippers, left their Persian home, they set up 
their sacred fire near Surat, and said it was lighted 
from the highland home of their fathers, so Arkites 
travelled about with their holy fire, their " Testi- 
mony " or Eduth, which they averred they got 
from the home of their first god their II, Ilius, 
Al, Allah, or OM, as Syrians usually call him. 
Meka lost its Al for, it is said, four hundred years, 
and the present " Black stone " is believed to be a 
fragment of it always as holy, and often more 
revered than the original. India yields hundreds 
of such instances, as mentioned in ' Rivers of Life,' 
where every detail will be found regarding the 
Lia Fial, Fe-al, F'Al, Falan, and St. Fillan's 
Palla-dium, and other Fa-las, and, if I may be 
excused a truthful pun, some other fallacies con- 
cerning these. There is no reasonable doubt that 
the Westminster stone is a fragment of the Lingam 
of u the Mut hill of Skone," but not necessarily of 
that which Dalrydian Skots brought over from 
Ireland to either lona or Dunstaffinage, though 
the leaders would tell their tribe that such came 
from Tara, nay, said some, from Egypt and 

All such stones are symbols of the " God of 
Fate," the Father-Creator and support of his 
creatures. He is the " Om mani padmi hun," or 
the Om, the gem, or germ of the Padmi the 
lotus, or receptive principle, the Hebrew Ruch, or 
Spirit, of Gen. i. 2, which lies on the waters, and 
represents the nymphean or watery principle on 
which the Om broods. J. G. K. FORLONG. 

I am particularly anxious to know why Earl 
Russell objected to excavation under the Hill of 
Tara. F.S.A.Scot. 

TOUCH (6 th S. xii. 407, 519). Although, no 
doubt, all those who now bear the name of La 
Touche are descended from Huguenot refugees, it 
was not unknown in England long before the Re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes. Roger, son of 
Sir Roger Touche (so, and not De Touche) gave, 
" on the day I tooke my journey towards the Holy 
Land with king Richard," lands in Over Shitling- 
ton, co. York, with Maud, his daughter, in frank 
marriage to Roger de Birkin, &c. The original 
deed was, of course, in Latin, but Mr. Tillotson, 
the compiler of Harl. MS. 803, translated his notes 
from Dodsworth's 'Collections' (Yorks. Archceol. 
Journal, vol. viii. p. 26). A. S. ELLIS. 

The family of De la Touche is of very ancient 
descent, and came originally from the neighbour- 
hood of Blois. At the revocation of the Edict of 

Nantes, the La Touches they dropped the nobiliary 
title fled to Holland, and thence, about 1740, 
emigrated to Ireland. I knew very well Mr. C. 
Digues de la Touche, who became a Catholic at 
the time of the Tractarian movement, resumed the 
' de," although remaining an English subject, and 
died at St. Symphorien, near Tours, about a year 

JANE CLERMONT (6 th S. xii. 468, 503 ; 7 th S. 

37). While thanking MR. WALFORD for his 
courteous reply, I am persuaded that he is mis- 
taken in supposing that the mother of Allegra 
died in London. According to the Aihenceum, 
published at the time, Jane Clermont died at 
Florence, " after some years of complete retire- 
ment," on March 19, 1879, aged about eighty-one. 
As regards the name, we have it on the authority 
of Col. Chester that at the baptism of Allegra 
the mother's names were given as "Clara Mary 
Jane." A statement to that effect was made in 
the Athenceum at the period of Claire's death. 
Since I began this inquiry I have spoken to 
Edward Trelawny's daughter on this subject, and, 
although we are still in want of data, we are both 
persuaded that Jane Clermont did not die in Eng- 
land. A strange old lady died, about two years 
ago, at Geneva, the details of whose life were wrapt 
in mystery. This old lady left behind her a large 
bundle of Byron letters. Many people supposed 
her to have been Jane Clermont, but I feel toler- 
ably certain that she was not the mother of Allegra. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

"FiLiys POPULI" (7 th S. i. 6). Mr. Chester 
Waters, in his 'Parish Registers' (p. 38, ed. 1883), 
has this entry: "Petersham, Surrey. '1633. 
Nicolas the sonne of Rebecca Cock, filius populi, 
bapt. 28 Jan.'" On p. 37 he has : " Croydon. 
'1567. Alice, filia vulgi, bapt. Aug. 14'"; and 
" < 1582. William, filius terra, christened May 4.' " 
These designations are for illegitimate children. 

Mention has recently been made in *N. & Q.' 
of this expression as applied to an illegitimate 
child. A few weeks ago I saw it in the register 
of the parish church of Wednesbury in the follow- 
ing form : "A. B., filius C. D. [the mother's name] 
et populi." W. D. L. 

138, 311 ; 7 th S. i. 11). If R. P. will look into 
the introduction to the ' Catalogue of Glass in 
the South Kensington Museum,' he will find 
that a party of Murano glass-workers had been 
brought over to England before 1550, and that 
from this period until about 1670 attempts were 
made in this or that place to manufacture glass in 
imitation of Venetian. Many of the pieces made 
at this time are no doubt still in existence, but it 

7 th S. I. JAN. 23, '86.] 



is difficult or impossible to distinguish between 
those made in England and those produced in the 
Low Countries or elsewhere. This pseudo- Venetian 
manufacture was in England apparently extin- 
guished by the invention, or perhaps rather the 
bringing to a very high pitch of excellence, of the 
so-called "flint glass" (the French cristal). This 
took place about 1670. N. 


xii. 386, 452). F. A. M. is doubtless chrono- 
logically correct as to the shilling in Ireland having 
been worth thirteen pence previous to 1825-6, but 
colloquially it continued to be called a " thirteen " 
to a considerably later period so late as 1835 to 
my knowledge. I have in mind the Leinster 
counties particularly. 

As to " throwing the thirteens about," the 
practice of chairing the successful candidate at 
parliamentary elections was very much more usual 
in Ireland in the first quarter of the century than 
it has been since, and on such occasions it was not 
unusual for the member-elect to throw handfuls of 
silver to the crowd over whose heads he was being 
triumphantly carried aloft. I well remember, 
when I was a boy, hearing the country folk tell of 
the chairing of Sir Henry Parnell, and of his lavish 
scattering of the coins right and left from the 
great bag he carried with him in the chair. The 
event was then still fresh in the minds of the 
narrators, and was probably the last occasion of 
their seeing the thirteens flung about in that 
fashion. The Sir Henry Parnell of the story 
(created Lord Congleton in 1840) represented the 
Queen's County in the House of Commons, and 
the election in which his liberality with the 
thirteens left so vivid an impression on the bene- 
ficiaries would probably have taken place between 
the years 1820 and 1824. W. SHANLY. 


THE ACT OF UNION (6 th S. xii. 468; 7 th S. i. 
17). I beg to draw attention to the following 
note by the late Mr. Joseph Eobertson, to be 
found at p. 93 of the ' History of the Town and 
Palace of Linlithgow,' by George Waldie (and sold 
at the palace): 

" There is no stipulation in the Treaty of Union as to 
the maintenance of any fortresses. How the popular 
belief to the contrary arose I cannot say, but it is 
universal although quite groundless." 

Perhaps MR. TAYLOR and A. W. B. will look 
up the Act and let us know from actual personal 
inspection what we are to believe on this subject. 


THE IRISH PARLIAMENT (7 th S. i. 8). With the 
exception of the period of the Commonwealth, 
neither Scotland nor Ireland sent representatives 
to the English Parliament before the union of the 
respective kingdoms with England. The second 

Parliament of Anne was, by proclamation dated 
April 29, 1707, declared to be the first Parliament 
of Great Britain, and the seventh Parliament of 
George III. was, by a similar proclamation, dated 
Nov. 5, 1800, declared to be the first Parliament 
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. G. F. E. B. 

With reference to the query in your issue of the 
2nd inst., Did members of the Irish House of 
Commons ever sit in the English House of Com- 
mons ? the answer is that they did not. The fol- 
lowing extract from, a speech by Mr. Thomas 
Sheridan, quoted from the ' Irish Debates ' of last 
century, vol. xiii., in Mr. J. Swift Macneill's 
' Irish Parliament,' shows the extent of the pri- 
vilege accorded Irish members by the English 
House of Commons : 

" By a courtesy of the House of Commons in England 
members of the Irish Parliament are admitted to hear 
the debates. A friend of mine, then a member, wishing 
to avail himself of the privilege, desired admittance. 
The doorkeeper desired to know what place he repre- 
sented. 'What place? Why, I am an Irish member.' 
' 0, dear, sir, we are obliged to be extremely cautious, 
for a few days ago Barrington, the pickpocket, passed in 
as an Irish member.' ' Why, then, upon my soul I forget 
the borough I represent, but if you get me Watson's 
almanac I will find it for you.' " 



COMMONPLACE BOOK (7 th S. i. 26). The poem 
entitled ' Off ane Contented Mind' is undoubtedly 
Sir Edward Dyer's well-known lyric, the usual 
heading of which is identical with the first line, 
" My mind to me a kingdom is." See Ward's 
1 English Poets,' i. 377. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh. N.B. 

(6 th S. xii. 466). After a long and fruitless search 
for the notes referred to by M. K. M., I made the 
fortunate discovery that by "Cunningham's reprint 
of Gifford's * Jonson ' " he meant the cheap three- 
volume edition, whereas I was searching in the 
nine-volume edition, the one usually consulted and 
employed by scholars. How easy it would have 
been for M. K. M. to add "n. d.," or to prefix the 
word "smaller" to "reprint," and so to save a 
waste of valuable time. To save others a like 
waste I beg to add the equivalents : 

1875, 9 vola. N.D., 3 vols. 

' The Devil is an Ass,' II. i., ) y j i} 2 30 

vol. v. p. 47. > 

I ought to explain that the search in the nine- 
volume edition was complicated by there being 
two sets of notes to each play, viz., foot-notes and 
supplementary notes. 

I have a vast collection of like " omitted refer- 
ences >; and omitted poems mostly made by 



[7* S. I, JAN. 23, '86. 

Cunningham, some by myself; but I greatly doubt 
if the Editor of N. & Q.' would thank me for 
throwing so large a mass of MS. into his hands. 

0. M. I. 
Athenaeum Club. 

ST. ALKELDA (6 th S. xii. 269, 293, 338, 396, 
473). See also < N. & Q., J 4 th S. iv. 297, 349, 
420 ; v. 52 ; xi. 28 ; 5 th S. vi. 449 ; vii. 17. ' 

L. L. K. 


CROMWELL (7 th S. i. 9). Thurloe married twice. 
His first wife was " a lady of the family of Peyton, 
who lived with him but three or four years, and 
had two sons by him, who died before her." His 
second wife was Anne, the third daughter of Sir 
John Lytcott, of East Moulsey, and niece of Sir 
Thomas Overbury. She was born August 31, 
1620. There were six children of the second 
marriage, viz. (1) John, admitted to Lincoln's 
Inn, 1665 ; (2) Oliver ; (3) Thomas, born 1650-1, 
" Governor of James Island in the river Gambia "; 
(4) Nicholas ; (5) Mary, who married Thomas 
Ligoe, of Burcott, co. Bucks ; and (6) Anne, who 
married Francis Brace, of Bedford. Thurloe died 
at his chambers in Lincoln's Inn February 21, 
1667/8. He was buried under the chapel of the 
Inn, where the body of his grandson Francis Brace 
also lies. See Birch's ' Life of Thurloe/ prefixed 
to the ' Collection of State Papers ' (1742). 

G. F. R. B. 

CHURCH IN DANGER (6 th S. xii. 409, 525). 
It may be worth while to note that, on Dec. 6, 
1705, the House of Lords, by 61 Noes to 
30 Yeas, answered in the negative the ques- 
tion "whether the Church of England was in 
danger or not." On the 7th the Commons 
agreed to the resolution, after a debate, by 212 
to 160. An address was accordingly presented to 
the Queen on the 19th, and a royal proclamation 
issued on the following day. Several lords, fear 
ing for the Protestant succession to the throne 
entered protests against the resolution. 



BRIAN WALTON (6 th S. xii. 517). There is a 
fairly long account of him and of his labours upon 
the Polyglot Bible in Chalmers's ' Biographica 1 
Dictionary.' References are there given to * Bio 
graphia Britannica,' Wood's ' Athene,' Lloyd's 
' Memoirs,' and Walker's ' Sufferings of th~ 


CAMPLESHON FAMILY (6 th S. xii. 428, 505). 
Thomas Campleshon, tailor, of York, was one o 
the City chamberlains in 1612. In 1624 either h< 
or another of like name sold a house in " Plox 
waingate, otherwise called Blossom Gate [and now 

Blossom Street], without Micklegate Bar." Cam- 
leshon Lane was a means of communication 
etween Bishopthorpe Road and Knavesmire 
ntil five years ago, and "if it's not gone, it is 
here still." I gather these particulars from Mr. 

Davies's * Walks through the City of York/ p. 107. 


HORNER (7 th S. i. 27). I have before me " ' A 
kief Account of the Colosseum in the Regent's 
'ark, London,' &c., printed for the proprietors and 
old at the Exhibition and by all booksellers, 
829," by J. B. (John Britton ?), with a plan of 
he panorama of London, which says : lt Mr. 
Jorner, the projector of this work, finished the 
ketches for its execution in 1824. From 1824 to 
he present time the buildings, picture, and gar- 
dens have been in progress." And in ' A Cata- 
ogue of the Several Departments of the Colos- 
eum,' &c., 1840, the same statement is repeated, 
n the * Grand Panorama of London painted by 
Mr. E. T. Parris ' is a footnote : " This extra- 
ordinary and, in its peculiar style, unequalled 
effort of human ingenuity and perseverance was 
>rojected and commenced by Mr. Homer, and 
completed by Mr. E. T. Parris and assistants, 
under the latter gentleman's direction." The 
Illustrated London News, May 3, 1845, ' Reopen- 
ng of the Colosseum, Regent's Park/ says, " We 
lave only space to mention that the grand pano- 
rama of the metropolis, which covers the interior 
walls of the great polygonal building, has been 
almost entirely repainted by Mr. Parris, who in 
1829 completed the picture projected by Mr. 
Homer." In ' A Description of the Royal Colos- 
seum, reopened in M.D.CCCXLV.,' &c., is an account 
of " The Moving Cyclorama of Lisbon, designed 
and produced under the direction of Mr. W. Brad- 
well, and painted by Messrs. Danson and Son." 

Amedee Villa, Crouch End. 

In ' Old and New London,' vol. v. p. 272, Mr. 
Walford states that Mr. Homer's panorama 
" retained its popularity so long that in 1845 it was re- 
painted by Mr. Parris, when a second exhibition the 
earne, of course, mutatis mutandis ' London by Night,' 

was exhibited in front of the other In 1848 the 

panorama of Paris, painted by Danson, of the same si*e 
as the night view of London, was exhibited there." 
This Danson was probably the same artist who, 
with Teibin, painted " the grand pictorial model 
of London in the olden time previous to the Great 
Fire in 1666," which was exhibited at the Royal 
Surrey Zoological Gardens. G. F. R. B. 

355). MR. PEACOCK speaks of lepe as "an old 
word for basket." I have heard the word seed-lepe 
used by labourers in Oxfordshire for the basket in 
which the sower carries his seed. 


, I. JAN. 23, '86.] 



SON OF A SEA COOTE (6 th S. xii. 493). This 
may possibly not be a clerical error, as Admiral 
Smyth, in his ' Sailor's Word Book ' (1867), s. n. 
" coot," remarks that " the name is sometimes used 
for the guillemot (Una troile), and often applied 
to a stupid person." G. F. R. B. 

[MR. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN supplies the same 

FILIUS DEI (6 th S. xii. 308, 335, 416, 502). 
I beg to send you another instance of a name of 
this class, this time very quaint and of the type 
before referred to. Upon a Cheshire signature to 
a deed at Dulwich College, John Godsendhimus, 
Mr. Warner, 'Cat.,' p. xlix, remarks, "Perhaps 
what is euphemistically called a love-child." 



349, 399). 

The gardener said, &c. 

A correspondent of the Literary World of January 8 
quotes the following, from the ' Memorials of Caroline 
Fox' (1882), p. 182: "Went to Budock Churchyard. 
Capt. Croke has such a pretty, simple epitaph on his 
little boy : ' And he asked, " Who gathered this flower ] " 
And the gardener answered, " The Master ! " And 
fellow servant held his peace.' " 

Another correspondent gives the following epitaph on 
two infants in the churchyard of Cottingham, Cam 
bridgeshire : 

"Who pluck'd these flowers]" the careful gardener cried; 
" These lovely flowers, which graced the border side ? " 
" His lordship," said the labourer, at the door 
The gardener silent bowed, and said no more. 


(6th s. xii. 517.) 
Rocking on a lazy billow, &c. 

In the edition of Lord Iddesleigh'a address on ' Desul 
tory Reading,' published by Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 
there is a note stating that the above quotation is from 
Prof. Stuart Blackie. N. H. HUNTER. 

The lines beginning 

She who comes to me and pleadeth, 
were written by Longfellow in a private album. So far 
as I am aware, the only reference to them in print is in 
the Century Illustrated Magazine, vol. xxv. p. 160. 

(7 th S. i.30.) 

To catch the eel of science by the tail. 
This being only assigned to a " poet," and being also 
inaccurately quoted, I presume that the lines from th 
' Dunciad ' may be cited : 

How index-learning turns no student pale, 
Yet holds the eel of science by the tail. i. 275-6 
There is a Latin and Greek proverb, "Cauda tenes 
anguillam," which Erasmus explains : 

" 'ATT' ovpac. rr}v lyxiXui/ !xC, id est, Cauda tene 
anguillam. In eos apte dicetur, quibus res est cum 
hominibus lubrica fide, perfi disque, aut qui rem fugitivam 
atque incertam aliquam habent, quam tueri diu non pos 
sint."' Adagia,' typ. Wechel, fol., 1629, p. 324. 

Pierius Valentinus (1. 19, p. 273c of his 'Hiero 
glyphica') notices the emblematic character of th 
action. But it is so familiar that Pope may well hav 
found it come into his mind spontaneously in referenc 
to the idea which he intended to express. 


(7 th S. i. 60.) 
" Bloody with spurring, fiery-red with haste." 

' Richard II.,' II. ill. 
W. H. 


nitials and Pseudonyms ; a Dictionary of Literary 
Disguises. By W. Gushing, B.A. ( Sampson Lo w & Co.) 
N a handsome volume of six hundred pages, containing, 
n double columns, on a rough estimate, eighteen thousand 
eferences, Mr. Gushing supplies what he calls a * Die- 
ionary of Literary Disguises,' and what might, with 
qual appropriateness, be called a catalogue of literary 
evelations. A work of this class, intended to supply a 
ist of all the initials and pseudonyms borne by English 
and American writers since the year 17uO, can never be 
complete. That this is the case a mere glance at the 
olumns of * N. & Q.' will suffice to prove, since therein 
may be found as many pseudonyms and initials, the 
secrecy of which is not likely to be violated, as would in 
themselves constitute an important supplement. In 
newspapers, again, a signature once adopted is often 
employed by several writers in succession, and, strictly 
speaking, belongs to none. Mr. Gushing is an American, 
,nd was for some years in the Harvard University 
Library. American newspaper-writers occupy, accord- 
ngly, a considerable share, while English journalism is 
ess amply represented. This was, of course, to be ex- 
pected, and the mention of the fact is not intended as 
censure. It would be easy, however, to supply instan- 
baneously a large number of pseudonyms employed on 
the London press which have an interest fully equal to most 
of those which are mentioned. In the case of a work of 
this kind criticism is scarcely challenged. Mr. Cushing's 
book appeals to two classes: to the scholar first, whose 
duty it is in editorial work to trace every line of a de- 
ceased writer, and to that portion of the general public 
which is curious to be behind the scenes of literary life. 
Here is a large constituency to which to appeal, and there 
is little doubt that the new volume will have a good cir- 
culation. Attention is called, with justifiable pride, to 
the article on Junius by Mr. Albert R. Frey, whose col- 
lections have come into Mr. Cushing's possession. In 
many cases the information supplied extends far beyond 
the mere name of an author. The volume is divided into 
two portions. The earlier gives the initial or pseudonym 
first, and then supplies the name of the bearer, as : 
"Owen Meredith, the Right Hon. Edward Robert Bulwer 
Lytton, Earl Lytton "; the later the name of a writer, 
followed by all his known aliases, as : " Buchanan, Robert, 
Caliban, Thomas Maitland." To some names a long 
list is appended. Sir Walter Scott is one of these. 
Surely, however, the author of 'Waverley ' should appear 
in both parts of the volume. The same name is, of course, 
borne by many people. How difficult it is to keep up 
to the day is shown in the fact that the name " Friend 
of the People," which four individuals have assumed, is 
now to be seen on the portrait of a lady prominently 
known in connexion with the law courts. Mr. Gushing 
has accomplished assiduously and well an arduous task. 
He will be able to make large additions in a second 
edition. The work, however, will be warmly welcomed, 
and must form a portion of every library of reference. 

The Dawn of the Nineteenth Century in England, By 

John Ashton. 2 vols. (Fisher Unwin.) 
MR. ASHTON'S sketches of social life rapidly multiply, 
In the latest of these he gives from various sources the 
principal among which are newspapers and caricatures 
a series of pictures of English life in the first decade 



[7*8. 1. JAN. 23, '8. 

of the present century. Leaving to the historian the 
task of showing the graver side of politics, Mr. Ashton 
contents himself with describing changing fashions of 
dress and manners, the events by which the people were 
temporarily stirred, the "sensations" of the day, and the 
picturesque aspects of street and road. For a task so 
unambitious Mr. Ashton has shown previously his quali- 
fication. His letterpress may be 'easily skimmed in a 
few hours, and the chief entertainment of the reader is 
derived from the abundant illustrations with which it is 
accompanied. To collectors these plates are doubtless 
familiar. There is a world, however, which likes to 
blend with its amusement a certain measure, far from 
oppressive, of information. To this world these volumes 
appeal. In the early years of the century the English 
people was occupied with the scare of a French invasion. 
Mr. Ashton supplies, accordingly, pictorial designs, with 
accompanying letterpress, of the volunteers with which 
the country swarmed. He shows also the funeral car of 
Nelson drawn by sailors, the watchmen going on duty, 
Vauxhall Gardens, the condemned sermon at Newgate, 
and reproduces a number of caricatures, social and poli- 
tical. His volumes are gossipping and entertaining. 
That they contain much information new to students of 
'N. & Q.' cannot be said. In an unpretentious way, 
however, they supply pictures of the life of our grand- 
fathers, and they may be read without fear of weariness. 

The Golden Gates and Silver Steps. By Shirley Hibberd. 


LIKE many other books expressly designed for children, 
' 'The Golden Gates' of Mr. Shirley Hibberd will find its 
warmest admirers among readers of riper growth. 
In the wild and fantastic stories and sketches which are 
supplied much curious information is given, and there is 
a vein of gentle satire which is not unworthy of Ander- 
sen. This book constitutes, so far as we know, a new 
departure of Mr. Hibberd. The line he adopts in his 
less occupied moments is worth continuing. 

The English Historical Review. No. I. (Longmans & 


UNDER the editorship of Dr. Creighton this new candi- 
date for the favour of the literary world makes a pro- 
mising start. Its object, briefly stated in an opening 
address, is to supply historical articles written in a philo- 
sophical spirit, including the last results of modern 
discovery, avoiding "personal controversy," and appeal- 
ing directly to the professional student of history, but 
making also some appeal to the general reader. Dr. 
Freeman's essay on ' The Tyrants of Britain, Gaul, and 
Spain,' which gives an animated account of some of the 
difficulties of the Western Empire during a period of 
barbarian aggression, is perhaps typical of the best kind 
of work the Review is likely to obtain. The Provost of 
Oriel sends also a valuable contribution on ' Homer and 
the Early History of Greece,' Lord Acton has a thought- 
ful and suggestive paper on 'German Schools of 
History,' and Prof. Seeley writes on 'The House of 
Bourbon.' Notes and documents, some of much interest, 
and a large number of reviews of books are included 
in the number. 

Le Lime for January 3 0, 1886, will have to be included 
in all Dickens collections pretending to completeness. 
Its opening article consists of ' Charles Dickens a Paris : 
d'apres sa Correspondence et des Documents Inedits.' 
There are, as might have been expected, some mis- 
takes in the notes, as when the name Sampson 
Brass, applied to one of his children by Dickens, is 
said to be that of a giant in a fairy tale ; but 
the article has abundant interest. It deals only with 
the life in the Rue de Courcelles, 1846-7, and has two 
full-page portraits of the novelist, A further instal- 

ment will deal with Paris revisited by Dickens. A por* 
trait of Alexandre Dumas is also affixed to a notice of 
' La Tour de Nesle.' M.;0ctave Uzanne's ' Causerie de 
Nouvel An ' gives an interesting account of the establish- 
ment of Le Lime. 

THE February number of Watford's Antiquarian will 
contain the first of a series of papers on Our Early 
Antiquaries.' It deals with Elias Ashmole. Mr. H. R. 
Forrest will give an account of how his Shakspearian 
collection arose, and Mr. Greenstreet will contribute a 
further instalment of 4 The Ordinary from Mr. Thomas 
Jenyns's " Booke of Armes." ' 

MR. ROUND has at press a critical essay on ' The Early 
Life of Anne Boleyn,' dealing with the points in the 
controversy between Mr. Friedmann, Mr. Gairdner, and 
Mr. Brewer. Mr. Elliot Stock will be the publisher. 

FRANCIS CAPPER BROOKE, of Ufford Place, Suffolk, 
under the initials F. C. B. one of the earliest contri- 
butors to ' N. & Q.,' died suddenly on Wednesday, the 13th 
inst. Born in 1810, he was educated at Harrow and 
Christ Christ, Oxford, where he graduated in classical 
honours in 1831. He subsequently held a commission in 
the Grenadier Guards, serving also the office of high 
sheriff of his native county in 1869. A glance at an old 
Oxford Calendar shows amongst his undergraduate con- 
temporaries who were at that date students on the 
foundation of the house the honoured names of W. K. 
Hamilton, Sutherland, W. E. Gladstone, the Hon. C. J. 
Canning, H. G. Liddell, Montagu Villiers, and Robert 
Scott; whilst amongst independent members are Ramsay 
and Bruce, afterwards Lords Dalhousie and Elgin. For 
a number of years Mr. Brooke devoted much time and 
money to the collection of a noble library at Ufford, 
numbering more than twenty thousand volumes. In 
this he took great delight, knowing intimately its trea- 
sures. In fact, it was said he could find any book in it 
in the dark. One of its chief features was the collection 
of pamphlets and leaflets. The library is strictly en- 
tailed as an heirloom, and will not, therefore, meet with 
the usual fate of fine collections in the auction-room. 

$otire* to Carretfpan&ent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

B. B. ("Bannerman Family "). By referring to the 
notice to correspondents at the head of our queries, you 
will see it is impossible for us to insert your communi- 

M. H. WHITE ("General Armstrong "). Your first 
query on this subject has been inserted, ante, p. 48, and 
a second has been sent with no mark of being a duplicate. 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print*; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7"> S. I. Jin. 30, '86.] 





NOTES : History of the Thames, 81' Dictionary of National 
Biography,' 82 Shakspeariana, 84 Brief = Spell Hog- 
manay, 85 Suez Canal Lubbock Straw Bear of the 
Plough- Witchers Chester Bells, 86. 

QUERIES : " Magna est veritas," 86 Campbell of New 
Grange Cantankerous Lewis Way Leonellus Ducatus 
Person Henri IV. and Beliegarde, 87 Kibbe Family- Sir 
W. Raleigh Lines under a Crucifix Thomas a Kempis 
' Lyra Urbanica 'Indexed Editions Sitting Bull - Them 
Literary Queries Italian MS., 88 " A gorsequerdere " 
Philosopher's Stone Kalendar Portrait on Panel "Im- 
mortall Cracke "Bradford Family Earldom of Plymouth 
Lord Whitworth's 'Russia in 1710 'Robinson Cruso 
Sidley Baronetcy, 89 Poems, 90. 

REPLIES :" Hang sorrow," 90 Caligraphy Sbepster 
Ordinance for Stage Plays Feet of Fines Seventh Daughter 
Superstition Curran's Historical Fleas W. Wopllett 
Apostate Nuns, 91 Tombstone of Gundrada Messiah and 
Moses St. Thomas a Becket, 92 Simulation in Art, 93 
'Snap Apple Night 'Rhyming Charters N. Cotton, 94 
How to find a Drowned Corpse Brown Old St. Pancras 
' Hours of Idleness ' T. Pringle Effigy of Robert of Nor- 
mandy, 95 Bed staff-" Pull Devil pull Baker "A Cornish 
Carol, 96 Anglo- Irish Ballads Pigeons and Sick People 
Pyewipe Inn Toot Hill Trapp A Sheaf of Misprints, 97 
Vegetable Butter ' Valor Ecclesiasticus ' Eton Montem, 
9S-Seal of Inquisitor, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Cox's ' First Century of Christianity ' 
Dall's ' What we really know about Shakespeare 'Stone's 
'Christianity before Christ' De Morgan's 'Newton, his 
Friend, and his Niece ' ' A Woman possessed by the Devil.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



In the foregoing " contributions"! observe that 
I have shot a martyr with arrows in the valley of the 
East Anglian Waveney, stalked down a mammoth 
on stilts in the valley of the Ehine, and lassoed a 
magnificent antiquarian hobby-horse in the valley 
of the Somme. But if the benevolent reader 
thinks that in so doing I have in any wise gone 
astray from my subject, the history of the Thames, 
he labours under a mistake. At the time when 
the flint which John Conyers found opposite Black 
Mary's was chipped into its present shape the 
Waveney, the Rhine, the Somme, and fifty other 
rivers, great and small, on both sides of the 
Channel, were all of them tributaries of the 
Thames. It may perhaps be objected that if the 
Thames and the Rhine were ever united, the 
Thames ought rather to be considered as a tribu- 
tary of the Rhine than the Rhine of the Thames. 
I notice this objection merely to set it aside. In 
spite of all temptations to belong to other nations, 
I am a son of the English mother-country, and 
object on principle to allowing the German father- 
land any superiority, even in the matter of rivers. 
Dray ton was of the same way of thinking : 

The Scbeld, the goodly Meuse, the rich and viny Rhine, 
Shall come to meet the Thames in Neptune's \vafry 

And all the Belgian streams and neighbouring floods of 

Of him shall stand in awe, his tributaries all. 

' Pol.,' xv. 

And here I note that both Spenser and Drayton 
have something so say about a time when the 
British Isles still formed part of the European 

For Albion the son of Neptune we 8, 

Who for the proof of his great puissance 

Out of his Albion did on dry-foot pass 
Into old Gaul that now is cleped France 

To fight with Hercules.' F. Q.,' iv. ii. 16. 

The later poet enters into further details, which 
place the domestic character of Albion in an 
amiable light. The Isle of Thanet, it seems, was 
his eldest daughter, and her present geographical 
position is due to the fact that she was there 
By mighty Albion plac'd till his return again 
From Gaul, where after he by Hercules was slain. 
For earth-born Albion, then great Neptune's eldest son, 
Ambitious of the fame by stern Alcides won, 
Would over, needs, to Gaul, with him to hazard fight. 

When her papa was just starting on this ill- 
omened enterprise, Thanet, like a loving and duti- 
ful daughter, " raught " at him to embrace him, a 
circumstance, fortunately, 

Which was perceiv'd by chance, 

The loving isle would else have followed him to France. 
To make the channel wide that then he forced was 
Whereas, some say, before he us'd on foot to pass. 

Drayton, 'Pol.,' xviii. 

I do not know whence the poets derived that part 
of the myth which refers to Albion's crossing the 
Channel dry-shod ; but obviously it cannot belong 
to the original story, because if Albion had not 
been geographically an island it would never have 
figured allegorically as a son of Neptune. The 
immediate source from which Spenser drew the 
rest of the legend was probably William Harrison's 
introduction to Holinshed's * Chronicle,' where it 
is thus given (ed. 1577, p. 5), on the authority of 
" Nicholaus Perottus, Rigmanus Philesius, Aris- 
totle, and Humfrey Llhuyd, with diuers other." 
Albion the Giant, it seems, was the fourth son of 
Neptune, sixth son of Osiris, and brother of Her- 
cules, by a lady called Amphitrita, and was put 
by his father in possession of the Isle of Britain, 
where he speedily subdued the Samotheans, 
the first inhabitants. 

" As Albion held Britayn in subiection, so his brother 
Bergion kepte Irelandeand the Orkeneys under his rule 
and dominion, and hearing that their cousin Hercules 
Libicus, hauing finished his Conquestes in Spayri, ment 
to passe through Galliainto Italye, against their brother 
Lestrigo, that oppressed Italy, under subiection of 
him and other of his brethren : the sons also of Neptune, 
as well Albion as Bergion, assembling their powers 
togither, passed ouer into Gallia, to stoppe the passage 
of Hercules." 

Hercules, "whome Moyses calleth Laabin," had 



L7* S. I. JAN. 30, '86. 

sworn revenge against the children of Neptune for 
having killed his father Osiris, and after having 
slain Tryphon and Busyris in Egypt, Anteua in 
Mauritania, and " the Gerions in Spayne " led his 
army towards Italy, "and by the waye passeth 
through a part of Gallia, where Albion and Ber- 
gion hauing united their powers togither, were 
ready to receyue him with bataile, and so nere to 
the mouth of the riuer called Rhosne, in latin 
Rhodanus, they met and fought." At first victory 
" beganne outrighte to turne unto Albion and to 
his brother Bergion," and Hercules, seeing that he 
was being worsted, 

" specially for that his men had wasted their weapons, 
caused those that stood stil and were not otherwyse 
occupied, to stoupe down and to gather up stones wherof 
in that place there was plentie, whyche by his com- 
maundemente they bestowed so freely upon theyre 
enimies that in the ende hee obteyned the victorie," 

slaying Albion and Bergion with most of their men. 
This, then, is the legend in its latest form, 
rustling in Elizabethan farthingale and ruff, radiant 
in roses of paint and lilies of powder. Who would 
have dreamed that two thousand years before, the 
same tradition, even then of immemorial anti- 
quity, had swept across the stage of Attic tragedy 
at the bidding of ^Eschylus ? Yet so it is. The 
costume is changed. The myth wears chiton and 
peplum instead of hoop and buckram, but it is 
the same myth. "The ' Prometheus Unbound' 
of ^Eachylus," says Shelley, in the preface to his 
own poem under the same title, 

" supposed the reconciliation of Jupiter with his victim 
as the price of the disclosure of the danger threatened 
to his empire by the consummation of his marriage 
with Thetis. Thetis, according to this view of the sub- 
ject, was given in marriage to Peleus, and Prometheus, 
by the permission of Jupiter, delr 

by Hercules."* 

delivered from his captivity 

Unhappily, although the outline of the plot is 
preserved, the drama itself only survives in a few 
fragments, embedded, like fossils, in the works of 
later authors. Among these extracts the longest 
and most important is given by Strabo in de- 
scribing what is now the plain of La Crau, 
between Marseilles and the mouths of the Rhone. 
Here, says the geographer, about a hundred fur- 
longs from the sea and about the same distance in 
diameter, is a waste called the Stony, from the 
number of loose stones there ; and after stating 
sundry theories which had been broached to 
account for their origin, he proceeds : 

" But JEschylus, evidently puzzled to account for the 
phenomenon, either invented or adopted a myth to ex- 
plain it. For, according to him, when Prometheus was 
telling Hercules the line of travel he would have to take 
to get from Caucasus to the Hesperides, he said : 

* " I," he adds, in justification of his own departure 
rom the precedent laid down by ^Eschylus, " was averse 
rom a catastrophe so feeble as that of reconciling the 
hampion with the Oppressor of mankind." 

Thence to the Ligyans' dauntless host thou 'It come, 
When, puissant as thou art, full well I wot 
Thou 'It 'plain thee of the fight, for 'tis ordained 
Thy shafts shall there be spent, and not a stone 
Shall earth afford, for all the soil is loam. 
But Zeus shall see thee weaponless, and send 
In pity a cloud that shall make dark the earth 
With hail-storm of round stones, hurling the which 
With ease thou 'It bring to naught the Ligyan host."* 

Here, then, is evidently the same tradition, asso- 
ciated not with the names of Albion and Bergios, 
but with a certain Ligyan ( = Ligurian) host, in a 
play of ^Eschylus which, together with the others 
making up the Promethean trilogy, was acted at 
Athens some time between B.C. 472 and B.C. 458. 
It is quite possible, moreover, and indeed probable, 
that it' the context of this tantalizing fragment were 
still in existence, the names of the giants would be 
found mentioned in it. At all events, Pomponius 
Mela, early in the first century A.D., in describing 
the same " Stony Waste," speaks of it as the spot 
" where Hercules fought Albion and Bergios, the 
sons of Neptune, "t The connexion between the 
giant children of Poseidon and the " Ligyan host " 
is still further proved by the name Ligys being 
substituted for that of Bergios in the version of 
the story preserved by Isaac Tzetzes, or whoever 
else the scholiast on Lycophron may have been. 
(To le continued.) 



(See 6'h S. xi. 105, 443; xii. 3'Jl.) 

Vol. V. 

P. 20, Johrf Bigland. This article is lamentably 
imperfect, chiefly because the writer of it was 
unaware of Bigland's ' Memoirs written by Him- 
self,' an 8vo. vol. of 255 pp. , published at Don- 
caster, 1830. He died at Finningley ; Poulson 
does not say that he died at Aldbrough, but that 
he was born there, which is equally wrong. 

P. 22 a, for " for Grace " read of Grace. 

P. 34, John Billingsley, senior. Fox's ' Mystery 
of the great Whore' was a reply to many writers 
besides B. ; Smith, 'Bibl. Anti-Quak.,' 1872, 
pp. 74-5; 'Life of John Hierom,' 1691, p. 52. 
Hey wood says he died in 1683, aged fifty-six, and 
was buried at Mansfield May 29, ' Nonconf. Keg. ,' 
by Heywood and Dickinson, 1881, p. 68 ; Heywood's 
Diaries,' 1881, ii. 147. 

P. 35, John Billingsley, junior. " He does not 
appear to have published anything." Yet at the 
end of Harris's ' Funeral Sermon ' (named as one 
of the works consulted) is a list of ten things 
published by him, beginning with ' The Believer's 

* Strabo, iv. 1; Dionysiug Halic., i. 41. Cf. also 
Diod. Sic., iv. 19. 

f De Situ Orbis,' ii. 5. Apollodorus, ii. 5, 10, calls 
Bergios, Dercynua. 

7'h s. i. J AN . 30, '86.] 



Daily Exercise,' 1690, which is here, 35 a, given to 
his father. Moreover this list is not complete. 
He became a pupil of Richard Frankland, Sept. 1, 
1679, and was " ordained" at Mansfield, Sept. 28, 
1681, by his father and others. He married 
Dorcas Jordan, of Mansfield, Aug. 22, 1682, who 
died Dec. 29, 1717, Dr. Harris preaching her 
funeral sermon. He was one of those who 
signed ' An Authentick Account of Things 
agreed upon by the Dissenting Ministers,' 8vo. 
Lond., 1719. ' Nouconf. Keg. ,' by Hey wood and 
Dickinson, 1881, p. 45 ; Heywood's ' Diaries,' 
1881, ii. 10, 201 ; * Hist, of Chesterfield,' 1839, 
p. 115n.; Miall, 'Congreg. in Yorksh.,' 1868, 
p. 291 ; Thoresby, 4 Corresp.,' i. 152. A pedigree 
of the issue of John Billingsley, jun., is given in 
Dr. Howard's ' Misc. Gen. et Her.,' 1868, i. 299, 
and see ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. xi. 513-4. 

P. 36 b, for " Belshanger " read Betteshanger. 

P. 37 a, for " Lantmartine " read Leintwardine ; 
for " Baynes " read Reyner. 

P. 37 b, for " nonjurist " read nonjuror (?). 

P. 43 b, for " sacramentaries " read sacramen- 
tarians (?). 

P. 46, Francis Bindon. Accounts of him in 
Nichols, 'Lit. Anecd.,' viii., 1814, p. 2n.; Nichols, 
* Illust. Lit. Hist.,' v., 1828, p. 384-6, with a poem 
up'>n him by D^ane Swift, E"q , printed by Faulkner 
of Dublin in 1744. His p >nrait of Abp. Boulter has 
been engraved by Brooks, Gent. Mag., 1786, p. 420, 
1787, p. 593, and it was the subject of a poem 
addressed to the painter by Delamayne, Gent. 
Mag., 1742, p. 664 ; ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. viii. 105, 

P. 46 b, for " Chicheliana" read Chicheleana. 

P. 71 b, 1. 18, for " 1634 " read 1635. 

Pp. 71, 72, Mr. Bird's { Autobiog.' should have 
been more precisely mentioned. 

P. 72 a, 1. 29, for "Bell" read Bird. 

P. 89 b. One of the latest writers on the Acts, 
the Rev. W. Denton, 1874, i. 2, places Biscoe first 
in a list of eight English commentators from whose 
writings the student of Holy Scripture will learn 
far more than he will gather from the pages of all 
the writers of the critical school of Germany. 

P. 96 a, On the popularity of some of Bishop's 
verses see ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. xi. 247 ; 'Elegant 
Extracts,' bk. iv. 196. 

P. 98 b, ' Remarks upon a small Treatise, en- 
titled, "The Beauty of Holiness in the Common 
Prayer," written and published by Dr. Bisse, 1732.' 

P. 100 b, Bisset of Birmingham. Many details 
in < N. & Q.,' V* S. Hi. v. vi. 

P. 126 b, for " Tunstill" read Tunstall 

P. 157 a, A description of Bbgrave's 'Mathe- 
matical Jewel ' is one of the treatises comprised in 
Blundevile's ' Exercises,' third edition, 1606. John 
Palmer's ' Description ' of the same, 4to., 1658, 
mentioned under Joseph Blagrave (158 a), should 
have been noticed here. 

P. 169, Charles Blake. He was born Oct. 31. 
The dates of his degrees do not tally with those 
printed in ' Catal. Grad.,' 1772. He did not hold 
the living of St. Mary's, Hull. Gent's * Ripon,' 
ii. 3; Gent's ' Hull/ 63-5 ; Wilson's Merch. 
Taylors' Sch.'; his MSS., &c., Robinson's 'Snaith,' 
1861, pp. 99, 100. 

P. 169 b, for " Hessy " read Eessey. 

P. 18 1 a, for " Wollett " read Woollett. 

P. 198 b. Mrs. Bland was born at Caen, Nor- 
mandy ; her husband's name was George ; Maun- 
der's ' Biog. Treas.,' third edition, 1841, p. 844. 

P. 236-7, Robert Bloomfield. Much has been 
collected about him and his writings in ' N. & Q.,' 
4 th S. vi.; see also Brayley's 'Vipws Illu< of 
Bloomfield, with Memoir,' 1806 ; People's Mag., 
1867, i. pp. 9, 272. In an advertisement to the 
eighth edition of the ' Farmer's Boy,' 1805, dated 
March 2, 1805, the author corrects some of the 
dates in Mr. Lofft's preface. His first appearances 
in print were in Say's ' Gazetteer,' and in Almon's 
Gen. Advert., May- Nov., 1786, and not at an 
earlier date in the Lond. Mag., as stated 236 b. 

P. 243 a. John Owen has a characteristic epi- 
gram, " In obitum Caroli Blunt Comitis Deuoniae, 
1606." First collection, lib. iii. n. 206. 

P. 244, Charles Blount. Notice should, in 
fairness, be taken of what Christians thought of 
his * Apollonius' and of his suicide; see Leslie's 
'Short Method,' edition 1815, p. 52. 

P. 256 a. The pref. to ' Les Termes de la Ley,' 
1667, is signed " T. B., Inner Temple, April 23, 
1667"; for "Chancy" read Chauncy. 

Pp. 273-4, J. H. Blunt. Both his degrees of 
M.A. and D.D. were honorary ; he was elected 
F.S.A. 1866. A detailed account of his life was 
given by a friend in the Church Times, April 18, 
1884, p. 303. 

P. 276 a, for " Kynnesley " read Kynnersley. 

P. 286, Bobart, jun. In a copy of Lonicerus, 
'De Hist. Nat.,' fol. 1551 (in my possession), 
" Liber Jacobi Bobart. Ex dono Doctissimi Viri 
D. Doctoris Hudson, Proto-bibliothecarij Oxoni- 
ensis, Clariasimi." Much about the Bobarts in 
' N. & Q.'; see the general indexes. 

P. 291 a, J. E. Bode. Memoir in Miller, 
'Singers and Songs,' second edition, 1869, p. 513. 

P. 350 a, for " T. Gregory Smith," read I. 
Gregory Smith. 

P. 354 a. A Series of Subjects from the Works 
of R. P. Bonington, drawn on stone by J. D. 
Harding, port., and twenty plates, fol., 1829. His 
port, by Mrs. Carpenter was exhibited at S. Ken- 
sington, 18f?8, No. 344 in the 'Catal. Nat. Port. 
Exhib. III.,' where is a brief biography, slightly 

P. 357 a, for " Lechmore " read Lechmere ; 
Bledon may more naturally represent Bredon, 
which joins Ripple. 

P. 357 b, Bonner's pref. to Bp, Gardiner's book 



[7 th S. I. JAN. 30, '86. 

was reprinted in 1832 in a * Mem. of John Brad- 
ford,' by Wm. Stevens. 

P. 359 b. Bale's * Declaration of Edmonde Bon- 
ner's Articles' was published at London, 1561 ; 
he had previously written under the name of 
Johan Harryson 'Yet a Course at the Romyshe Fox,' 
Zurik, 1543, another attack on Bonner. Hannah 
More wrote a poem, 'Bishop Bonner's Ghost.' 

P. 389 b, for " Oxendon " read Oxenden. 

P. 392 b, for "North Howram" read North 

P. 392, Boothroyd. See Miall, ' Congreg. in 
Yorksb.,' 1868, pp. 193-4. 

P. 402 a, for " Berwick " [in list of authorities] 
read Kipon. 

P. 427, Bosville. Gunthwaite is in the parish 
of Penistone, Yorkshire. Bosville also had a seat 
(now belonging to the family of Lord Macdonald) 
at Thorpe, in the parish of Rudstone, in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire, where Boswell visited him in 
May, 1778, and whence he wrote to Dr. Johnson ; 
see the ' Life,' under that year. 

P. 442. Edward Boteler belonged to the Botelers 
of Sudeley, Gloucestershire, and was Rector of Win- 
tringham from 1650 to his death in 1669. Much 
has been collected about him in the notes to the 
three editions of John Shawe's * Memoirs,' Broadley, 
1824, pp. 100-5, Surtees Soc., vol. Ixv., pp. 437-9 ; 
Boyle, 1882, pp. 276-80. See also Calamy, ' Ac- 
count/ 85 ; Rennet's 'Register'; Hadley's 'Hull,' 
887 ; Andrew's ' Winterton,' 107 ; Westoby, ' Life 
of T. Adam,' 169; Wilford's ' Memorials,' 1741, 
pp. 183, 237. 

The notice of Bp. Bilson (pp. 43, 44) is very 
inadequate and most disappointing. Surely the 
editor would act more wisely if he gave to English 
churchmen the task of writing about English 
churchmen. When he has Canons Overton, 
Creighton, Venables, Stephens, and others on his 
staff, he should have no need to turn to outsiders, 
who, even if unprejudiced, cannot realize and 
present the bearing on his own times of the life 
of such a man as Bilson. Neither is there in this 
instance any special acquaintance with his writings 
which can be set off against a poor grasp of his life. 
His book on Church Government is contemptuously 
dismissed with the brief notice " superfluously 
learned and unattractive." Yet Canon Perry, in 
his 'History of the English Church,' 1878 (a small 
book for students) can afford to give up nearly 
a page to this very book, concluding that " the 
learning and ability with which Bilson" wrote 
' constitute this work one of the most effective of 
English theological controversy, and certainly the 
most complete and useful which this particular strife 
produced." Nothing is said about his presence 
at the Hampton Court Conference. John Owen, 
fellow of New College, had Bilson for his preceptor, 
and has left one of his epigrams in grateful memory 
of him who taught him to write them. 

The writers show great unevenness in their 
knowledge and use of books of reference, which 
might have been prevented by a process of exhaus- 
tion, just as Dr. Murray and his staff have pre- 
cautiously drawn dry every English dictionary. 

The ' Dictionary of National Biography ' owes 
much perhaps more than it acknowledges to 
' N. & Q.'; but a short acquaintance with the 
seventy-two volumes of our valuable periodical, 
made by means of the indexes, will show that it 
might profitably owe very much more. 

W. C. B. 

' 1 HENRY IV.,' II. iv. (6 th S. xii. 203): 

This pitch, as ancient writers do report, doth defile. 
" The quotation is from the apocryphal book 
of Ecclesiasticus, xii. 1 ., 'He that toucheth pitch 
shall be defiled therewith ' " (Harris's ' Malone's 
Shakspere'). This appropriation from Scripture 
seemed common enough in those days, as many 
writers had used it, therefore making good what 
Falstaff, or Shakespere, said. Shakespere may 
have known it from them as much as from the 
Bible. The saying had become proverbial before 
Shakespere (see Boswell's ' Malont's Shakspere,' 
where the pointing out the passage in Ecclesiasticus 
is assigned to Harris). The use by others is as 
follows : " Alluding to an ancient ballad begin- 
ning, 'Who toucheth pitch must be defiled'" 
(Steevens); or perhaps to Lyly's ' Euphues.' 
"He that toucheth pitch shall be defiled" (Holt 
White). Dr. Farmer has pointed out another 
passage exhibiting the same observation, but 
omitted to specify the work to which it belongs : 
" It is harde for a man to touch pitch and not to 
be defiled with it " (Steevens). 

In the next speech given to Falstaff there is an 
appeal to the New Testament: "If, then, the 
tree may be known by the fruit, as the fruit by 
the tree*" &c. Steevens says : " I am afraid here 
is a profane allusion to the thirty-third verse of 
the twelfth chapter of St. Matthew." 

In the same dialogue the vein of irreverence 
may be thought to be continued. The Prince 
plays the part of the king his father, Falstaff the 
son : 

P. Hen. The complaints I hear of thee are grievous. 

Fal. 'Sblood, my lord, they are false : nay, I 'il tickle 
thee for a young prince, i' faith. 

P. Hen. Swearest thou, ungracious boy? Henceforth 
ne'er look on me. Thou art violently carried away 
from grace : there ia a devil haunts thee, in the likeness 
of a fat old man, &c. 

Under James I. an Act was passed commanding 
all these oaths to be expunged from plays, 
sblood," " i' faith," the name of God, and " 'slid " 
and " 'slight." " Grace " is often in Shakespere's 
plays directed against the doctrine of the Puritans. 
In a few lines the Prince proceeds to the moralities, 

7' h S. I. JAN. 30, '86.] 



and speaks of Falstaff as u that reverend vice," 
" that grey iniquity," " that father ruffian," " that 
vanity in years." Malone says : " The Vice, 
Iniquity, and Vanity were personages exhibited 
in the old moralities." Prince Hal says : " Fal- 
staff that old white-bearded Satan." Falstaff 
answers : " If pack and sugar be a fault, God help 
the wicked." Falstaff goes on about the damned 
and Pharaoh's lean kine. Same expressions follow. 
It would, therefore, be useless to continue what 
Shakespere terms " damnable iterations." 


'CYMBELINE,' V. i. 16 (6 th S. xii. 342 ; 7 th S. i. 
22). It was by an unaccountable slip of the pen 
unaccountable unless upon a liberal estimate of 
human fallibility that I wrote Pisanio twice in- 
stead of" Posthumus " in my note on * Cymbeline,' 
V. i. 16. I am surprised that DR. INGLEBY, 
familiar as he must be with the lapses of Shake- 
spearean critics, did not divine this explanation of 
so monstrous a mistake. As regards the text 
under discussion I have nothing to add, and am 
willing that the two arguments should go to the 
jury as they stand. W. WATKISS LLOYD. 

'ALL'S WELL/ V. iii. 216 (6 th S. xi. 82, 183, 244, 
361; xii. 105, 201). Notwithstanding all that has 
been written by recent critics on this crux, by Sir 
P. Perring in * Hard Knots in Shakspeare,' p. 123 
(whose modesty, though mingled with too much 
self-complacency, other critics would do well to 
emulate), by Mr. W. E. BUCKLEY and other bolters 
of camming taken as the participle of come, I beg 
to reiterate, in the strongest manner, that no in- 
terpretation or conjectural emendation will meet 
the case which does not either take camming as an 
adjective or as a misprint. It is wise, amid the 
multitude of cruces under consideration, to econo- 
mize our critical resources ; and on the matter of 
" insuite camming " (where the latter word is, if 
possible, a greater crux than the former) a great 
saving of time, pains, and brains would be effected 
by frankly admitting that nothing deserving of the 
name of sense can be made of this passage (or, for 
matter of that, of "camming in dumbness" in 
'Troilus and Cressida') if camming is taken as a 
participle. I have really nothing to retract or to 
add to my reply at pp. 104-106 of the last volume; 
and no one who knows me would impute to me, as 
MR. BUCKLEY does, the adoption of Parthian 
tactics. C. M. INGLEBY. 

Athenaeum Club. 

BRIEF = SPELL, CHARM. Three times within 
the last four months, in three different languages, 
have I quite accidentally met with this word 
(either so spelled or in an equivalent form) in this 
meaning. This shows that the word was at one 
time widely spread; and as I believe it is little 
known, I call attention to it. The first place I 

met with it in was Grimm's ' Gramm.,' ii. 961, in 
the compound word Zete-brief, which he explains, 
"einer der briefe auszettelt, wahrsager" (and see 
also Miiller and Zarncke, s.v.}. The second place 
was in Boccaccio (ninth day, fifth story). Here it 
is called brieve, and consisted of certain unmean- 
ing words and pretended magical characters,* 
written for a joke upon a piece of paper. The 
last place was Jamieson's 'Diet.' (with the 
variants breif and breef), where I came across it 
while looking for another word. He shows that 
it was also used in O.-Fr. (Roquefort, bref, brief, 
&n'esf) and in Low Lat. brtvia (Ducange). I cannot 
discover, however, that the word was ever used in 
this meaning in Mid. Eng. Are we to conclude 
that all charms and spells were brief or short? 
Modern ones certainly are not always so, for I have 
a photograph of a charmj found on a German 
soldier, killed, in spite of it, in the late Franco- 
German war, and it covers three closely written 
pages. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

HOGMANAY. In the Saturday Review of 
January 9, p. 37, a writer on * Positivists and 
Politics ' has this sentence : " That which is 
called New Year's Day in England, and, accord- 
ing to some unknown etymology, Hogmanay in 
Scotland, appears in Fetter Lane as the Festival of 
Humanity." This may be all very well as regards 
England and Fetter Lane, but it is inaccurate in 
so far as it concerns Scotland. Hogmanay is some- 
times used as a descriptive name of the last day of 
the year a day still known in many rural dis- 
tricts by the vernacular term of " cake-day," as 
children on that day keep up the traditional prac- 
tice of going from house to house and singing for 
their cakes. It is true that the etymology of 
Hogmanay is unsettled, and the suggestion that it 
may be a corruption of the French " au gui menez " 

* "Scrisse in su quella carta certe sue fraeche con 
alquante cateratte." This last word, cateratte, is interest- 
ing. It is interpreted by Italian lexicographers "carat- 
teri magici " (magical characters), and would seem to be 
a kind of irregular and imperfect transposition of 
"caratteri" unless, indeed, it has something to do with 
the " cataractse S. Petri," two railings which surrounded 
the tomb of St. Peter (see Ducange). nnd to which possibly 
charms may have been brought with the idea of giving 
them greater efficacy. Can anybody throw light upon 
this matter? 

f Erie's (or bries, as it is written by Godefroy) is the 
plural (cf. brevia in text, and cateratte in note *) of 
brief. See Godefroy. 

t A textual copy of this charm will be found in 
' N. & Q..' 4 th S. ix. 10, 11. It is throughout cnlled a 
Brief, although I cannot find the meaning of charm 
given to this word in either Grimm or Sanders. It may 
have been called Brief, however, simply because it was 
in the form of a letter or document. But see Gnmm's 
explanation of the word Zete-brief, given above; for 
there the word briefe must probably be taken to mean 
" charms," or something similar, 



S. I. JAN. 30, '86. 

= " lead to the misletoe," has hardly more than 
tentative value. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

SUEZ CANAL. It may interest your readers to 
note that Sir Walter Scott in 1832 foresaw the 
profitable and political character of this under- 
taking, for, in writing in that year, he makes one 
of his characters observe : 

" ' No person ever made a confidant of me who repented 
it. Think what the Pacha might have made of it, had 
lie taken my advice, and cut through the Isthmus of 
Suez.' Turk and Christian, men of all tongues and 
countries, used to consult old Touchwood, from the 
building of a mosque down to the settling of an agio." 
'St. Ronan'sWell,' p. 311, centenary edition. 


Park Place, St. James's, S.W. 

LUBBOCK. This patronymic has often been 
queried, and I have understood that Sir John is 
himself a querist. I offer the following suggestion, 
being equally unaware of its value or originality. 
Suppose an inhabitant of North Germany left his 
native town of Lubeck, he would be called a 
Lubecker, like the names Posener, Pilsener, Darm- 
stetter, &c. On reaching our Eastern Counties the 
third syllable would be shed, and the surviving 
"Lubeck" might well become Lubbock by 
assimilation. A. H. 

Twenty-six years ago I made a note in these 
pages on the Huntingdonshire plough-witchers on 
Plough Monday the first Monday after the 
Epiphany (2 nd S. ix. 381) and the reference to 
this note of mine is given by Mr. T. F. Thiselton 
Dyer in his 'British Popular Customs ' (1876, 
p. 40). But neither in that work nor in Cham- 
bers's ' Book of Days ' and other similar volumes, 
such as Hone and the ' Popular Year-Book,' in 
Sharpe's London Magazine (1846) do I see any 
reference to one of the plough-witchers appearing 
as a straw bear. Nor did I ever see such a repre- 
sentation during the sixteen years that I lived in 
Huntingdonshire. One of the plough-witchers often 
wore a cow's skin ; and Washington Irving, in his 
account of the Plough Monday observances at 
Newstead Abbey, says that the clown or fool of 
the party " was in a rough garb of frieze with his 
head muffled in a bear- skin probably a traditional 
representative of the ancient satyr." It seems 
worth while, then, to quote the following para- 
graph, under the heading u Ramsey," Huntingdon- 
shire, from the Peterborough Advertiser, January 
16, 1886 : 

" Plough Monday. The day was observed here by the 
customary exhibition of blackened faces, and not over 
modest petitions for 'just one,' emphasized with in- 
genious clattering instruments of torture, and promoted 
with much clamorous importunity. The ' straw bear ' 
also favoured us with a visit, capering to a dulcet accom- 
paniment on the concertina, and showing his affinity to 

the shaggy creature impersonated by an ursine grunt of 
satisfaction for a small contribution." 

Perhaps some Ramsey correspondent can give 
a few more particulars concerning the straw bear 
and his costume. Plough Monday as an excuse 
for begging appears to have been well observed 
this year in Huntingdonshire and neighbouring 
counties. Seven companies of plough-witchers 
waited upon me in my South Lincolnshire home ; 
and some of the performers B^ssy, the Doctor, 
the Valiant Soldier, &c. went through the recital 
of their little play. But I did not see a straw bear. 


the pleasure of being invited to a close inspection 
of the bells of Chester Cathedral. On the fifth of 
these bells is the following inscription : 
" Sweetly toling men do call 

To taste on meats that feed the soole. 
Refusum A.D. 1604. Denuo refusum A.D. 1827. Ope- 
rante J. Rudhall." 

In the above couplet it will be acknowledged, to 
use the words of the ' Misanthrope,' that 

La rime n'est pas riche et le style en est vieux. 
The misspelt word " toling " is not specially note- 
worthy. Is there, however, any authority for 
spelling the last word in the couplet after the 
fashion quoted 1 In contemporary impressions, 
editions of the great dramatists, Breeches Bibles, 
and other works, I find soul printed soule. I can- 
not discover the form soole in any local glossary. 
On the sixth bell there is the following inscrip- 
tion (with a very pronounced w in the second 
word), " Ad lawdem Domini sumus nos con- 
servati. Decanus et capitulum Cestriae me effece- 
runt. Anno Domini, 1606." Taking into view 
the thanksgiving form of the first part of this in- 
scription, together with the date, I have little 
hesitation in suggesting that this particular bell 
may have been founded by the loyal cathedral 
authorities in 1606 to commemorate the preserva- 
tion of the kingdom from the Gunpowder Plot of 
the previous year. A smaller bell than either of 
those referred to is the " Sanctus " bell, which 
bears the date " 1626," and which is made to ex- 
claim, with praiseworthy enthusiasm but with 
decidedly objectionable Latinity, "Gloria in ex- 
cels-us Deo." JAMES GRAHAM. 

White Friars, Chester. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

1 st S. viii. 77; 4 th S. iii. 261, 404.) At the first 
of the above references the origin of this saying 
was rightly carried back to the First or, accord. 

S. I. JAN. 30, '88.] 



ing to some, the Third Book of Esdras, iv. 41, 
where it appears as jueyaA?; f) dA^tfeia KCU 
vTrepicrxvei, "magna est veritas et prsevalet." 
The question, however, still remains unanswered 
as to the first appearance of the saying in the 
future tense. The late Edward Greswell, Fellow 
of Corpus Christi, Oxford, one of the most learned 
men of this century, and one not likely to make a 
misquotation, in the preliminary address of the 
1 Ongines Kalendariae Italicse,' Oxford, 1854, says: 
" Often in the course of my own inquiries have I 
been reminded of those well-known words MeyaA?; 
t] aA??#eia /cat KarLo-xvarei" ("Advertisement to 
the Reader," p. vi). Now whence did he derive 
this form of the saying, where both the verb and 
the tense are changed from the reading of the 
verse in Esdras ? When, too, was prcevalebit in- 
troduced ? Or, if these may be considered as only 
popular and unauthorized variations of the original, 
what is the earliest instance of their use, either in 
the Greek or Latin ? W. E. BUCKLEY. 

AND SKKLDON, co. AYR. I shall be glad if any 
ot your readers can give me any information re- 
specting the family of the Eight Hon. Charles 
Campbell, of New Grange, co. Meath, M.P. for 
Newtownards, co. Down. He died at his house in 
Capel Street, Dublin, in Oct., 1725. He is said to 
have been the son of a Mr. Campbell, of Skeldon, 
in Ayrshire, who sold his estate in Scotland and 
settled at Donaghadee, co. Down, in 1679. I 
find that a Charles Campbell, of Donaghadee and 
Dublin, was M.P. for Newtownards in 1661, and 
he and his brother Hugh Campbell attended the 
funeral of their cousin, the first Earl of Mount 
Alexander, in 1663. 

Their relationship to the Mount Alexander 
family was through their grandmother, Marion 
Shaw, sister of Elizabeth, Viscountess Mont- 
gomery. Campbell, who married Marion Shaw, 
is described as of " Dovecoathall, near Saltcoats, of 
the Loudoun Family." Upon referring to such 
printed pedigrees of the Loudoun family as are by 
me, I find no mention of a Dovecoathall branch ; 
but I see that Charles Campbell, Junior de 
Skeldoun, is ranked fourth in a deed of entail 
which Hugh, first Lord Loudoun, executed in 

The Charles Campbell, M.P. for Newtownards in 
1661, was probably the father of the abovenamed 
Charles, of New Grange, but I shall be exceedingly 
obliged to any one who can throw any light on the 

Fixby, near Huddersfield, Yorks. 

CANTANKEROUS. This word is now in very 
common colloquial use, but its origin remains, J 
believe, uncertain. Prof. Skeat does not mention 
it in his ' Etymological Dictionary.' It is founc 
in the form cantankerous, and in the 'Encyclopeedi 

dictionary ' it is suggested that it is possibly de- 

ived from the Old English word contek = strife, 

quarrel. Ogilvie, on the other hand, suggests 

ome connexion with the French word tancer, 

aking the con or can simply as a prefix. The 

itymology of the word is discussed editorially in 

N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. viii. 188. Reference is made to 

he forms tankerous and tankersome (meaning fret- 

ul, cross) given by Halliwell, and also to the 

imilar word tanglesome. It is then suggested 

.hat tankerous is a nautical term, and originally 

French. " Tangage is in French the pitching of a 

hip; tanguer, to pitch, and tangueux, applied to 

he ship itself, one that pitches too much." I 

hould like to ask whether any further light can 

now be thrown upon the origin of the word, and 

particularly whether it can be shown that it is 

really in any special sense nautical. It is not 

iven (with or without the prefix) in Smyth's 

Sailor's Word-Book,' a dictionary which is, I 

Delieve, tolerably complete in nautical words. 

W. T. LYNN. 

LEWIS WAY. In Mr. G. 0. Trevelyan's ' Life ' 
of his uncle, Lord Macaulay, reference is made to 
an early burlesque poem communicated by Macau- 
lay to Prof. Maiden on the subject of Anthony 
Babington. The first stanza runs: 

Each, says the proverb, has his taste. 'Tis true. 

Marsh loves a controversy ; Coates a play; 
Bennet a felon ; Lewis Way a Jew ; 

The Jew the silver spoons of Lewis Way. 

Who was Lewis Way, and to what incident does 
Macaulay refer? T. CANN-HUGHES, B.A. 


LEONELLUS DUCATUS. I have a volume of old 
Protestant theology, which bears on the fly-leaf the 
autograph u Leonellus Ducatus, 1687." I should 
be glad to know who he was. V.H.I.L.I.C.l.V. 

ANECDOTE OF PORSON. In the ' Greville Me- 
moirs ' there is a story of Porson being referred to 
as to " whether a certain English word had ever 
been used by any good authority. It is stated 
that he at once replied, "I only know of one in- 
stance, and that is in Fisher's funeral sermon on 
the death of Margaret of Richmond, the mother 
of Henry VII., and you will find it about the 
third or fourth page on the riyht hand side." 
Charles Greville adds, " And there accordingly 
they did find it." What is the. word ? I should 
be glad to know, presuming it is a decent one. 


was painted for Prince Eugene de Beauharnais by 
F. F. Richard, and it has been engraved by J. M. 
Gaillard. It represents the king at supper with 
Gabrielle d'Estre"es, and throwing sweetmeats to 
Bellegarde, whom he suspects to be under the 



[7 th S. I. JAN. 30, '86. 

bed, with these words, " II faut que tout le monde 
vive." I shall be much obliged to any corre- 
spondent who will kindly tell me where I can find 
the original authority for the anecdote illustrated 
in this picture. I do not want a reference to 
any modern story-book. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

Wanted to find the ancestry of Edward Kibbe 

and his wife Deborah , who were living in 

Exeter, Devonshire, England, previous to 1(511, 
and whose son Edward Kibbe came to Boston, 
Massachusetts, with his wife Mary Partridge, in 
1640. Also wanted the ancestry of the said Mary 
Partridge. Where can the families now be found, 
and their ancestry and arms ascertained ? 


1834, De Lancey Place, Philadelphia, U.S. 

SIR WALTER KALEIGH. Is there a better life 
of him than that by Edward Edwards ? Is there 
any published bibliography both of Raleigh's own 
works and of works relating to him ? CELT. 

LINES UNDER A CRUCIFIX. Would you oblige 
by referring me to the number of * N. & Q.' in 
which some lines, said to have been written under 
a crucifix, are quoted, and reference given to original 
authority ? I only remember the last line, 
Te teneam moriens deficiente manu. 

A. Z. 

[The only reference to lines under a crucifix we can 
trace appears 2 nd S. x. 307. The verses are not those 
you seek. The line you quote is from ' Tibullua,' I. i.] 

THOMAS A KEMPIS. Could any of your corre- 
spondents inform me which are the best editions 
of the * Imitation ' of Thomas a Kempis, illustrated 
by woodcuts only, in either the Latin or in the 
English translation? Either old or modern edi- 
tions; mediaeval illustrations preferred. Please 
name publishers. A. M. T. 

I may be allowed to repeat a question which I 
asked some time ago in * N. & Q.,' but to which 
I have never had any answer. Who was the 
" Hon. Mrs. L****** " to whom Charles Morris 
dedicated his ' Lyra Urbanica ' in 1840 ? I should 
be much obliged for the information, if it is to be 

readers refer me to fully indexed editions of Scott's 
' Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border ' and Percy's 
' Eeliques ' ? Bohn's library edition (1875) of the 
latter work announces in its "Advertisement," 
with a sort of nourish, that "a comprehensive 
index has also been prepared." If it has been pre- 
pared, it has been left out in my copy, at any rate. 
All that I can find there is a meagre index to the 
titles of the ballads. There is no index at all in 

the 1873 edition of the * Border Minstrelsy,' which 
is said to be the best published. Surely it is high 
time that both these books, of constant reference 
to many a student of manners and history, should 
be properly indexed, with an entry for every name, 
whether in the ballads or the notes. Q. V. 

SITTING BULL. Can you or any of your 
readers tell me where to find a history of the 
Indian war against the chief Sitting Bull, waged 
by the United States of America about ten years 
ago? I should be very grateful for the information. 

[The only accessible information you are likely to find 
is in the American Catholic Quarterly Review, ii. 665, 
and the Canadian Monthly, xviii. 66.] 

THEM. What is the meaning of them in the 
second clause of the second commandment ? The 
Greek of the Septuagint is not in accordance with 
the popular acceptation of it. K. C. A. P. 

LITERARY QUERIES. 1. Who is the author of 
the following passage V 

" admirandara potius quam ennarrandam laudem vir- 
tutemque Crucia. pretiosum et admirabile lignum 
Angelico et humano prseconio dignum. crux Sacra 
et venerabilis, cui ut debitus honor exhiberetur, a 

cunctis prseconia ex vivia et testimonium et de- 


In the margin the reference is given " Aureal ien sis," 
which I take to be a native of Aurelia, i.e., Orleans. 
Who is he ? Where is the passage to be found ? 

2. Who was Tuchman ? I find the name men- 
tioned in a book published in 1640 as a com- 
mentator on Scripture, but no biographical dic- 
tionary that I know of gives any account of him. 

3. Who was Baron Nevill, or Newill, who had 
property in the county Wexford about 1600 ? 
Neither Crossley nor Archdall makes mention of 

4. Perhaps some of your Irish readers may be 
able to tell me where the following places are : 
Achadbronagh, Ballaycroin, Bally maguir, Castle- 
more (not that in Mayo), Duninny, Kilholkin, 
Killeenfaughna, Tauchonarchie. I want not only 
the county, but the parish, if possible. I may add 
that these names are not given in the very copious 
index to the Ordnance Survey maps. D. M. 

ITALIAN MS. Can any one give me any infor- 
mation about a book in my possession ? It is a 
MS., bound in 4to., with the title : 

'Comentario [ della Spedizione in Iscozia eseguita 
da | Carlo Odoardo Stuart | Principe di Galles | Scritto 

| Dal Padre ^Giulio Cesare Cordara | della Compagnia 
di Gesu | finche existette + | tradotto in Volgar Toscano 

| DalP Exgesuita [1] N. N.' 

There is a dedicatory letter addressed, "A Sua 
Eccellenza | II Sig r Don Francesco Caetani j 
Duca," and dated " 12 9bre 1804." Below is a 
signature, apparently in the translator's own hand- 

7'b S. I. JAN. 30, '86.] 



writing, " VinceDzo Fugo." The rest of the book 
is written out in a clerkly hand. I should be 
glad of any information about the original book, 
its author, its translator, or his version. Was it, 
for instance, ever published ? S. G. H. 

[The original work is by the Pere Cordara, a learned 
Italian priest, son of the Count Antonio de Calaman- 
drana, b. Alexandria Dec. 17, 1704, d. May 6, 1785. 
He entered the Society of Jesuits at the age of fourteen ; 
was twenty years professor at Viterbo, whence he went 
to Ferrno, Aricona, and lastly Rome. He was best known 
by his satires ; was historiographer of the society; and 
wrote many works in Latin, among which is the original 
of the MS. concerning which you inquire. This was 
published in Rome in 1752. He also wrote a poem in 
Latin in praise of the Princess Clementina Sobieski, the 
wife of James the Pretender.] 

" AGORSEQUERDERE." "A traveller in Wales, 
near Ferryside, seeing a sign over the door with 
this one word, ' Agorsequerdere,' asked the woman 
what she sold, when she said that she did not sell 
anything, but that agues was cured here." The 
foregoing is a cutting from a newspaper, presum- 
ably the Court Journal. Is there such a sign ; 
and what is the exact place where the above pho- 
netically-spelt sign is to be seen, if any such there 
be ? ALPHA. 

PHILOSOPHER'S STONE. Dr. Campbell, in his 
English rendering of Cohausen's 4 Hermippus Redi- 
vivus,' p. vi, says he has been favoured by a German 
adept with a history of the philosopher's stone, 
and that if the public show a desire for it they 
may hear more of it in time to come. Dr. John 
Campbell was an immensely voluminous writer, 
and died in London (where?) 1775. But I think 
he published nothing on the subject. Are the 
MSS. remaining at his death still traceable ? 

C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

KALENDAR. Whence come the verses at the 
bottom of early printed kalendars of the breviary 
and missal? EVERARD GREEN, F.S.A. 

Reform Club. 

PORTRAIT ON PANEL. A portrait on panel, 
about twenty-four inches square, representing a 
youth in the costume of the sixteenth century 
holding a small dog in his arms, has the following 
coat of arms in a corner: Quarterly 1 and 4, Argent, 
a griffin's head erased sable ; 2, Sable, three cres- 
cents argent ; 3, Argent, on a bend sable three 
spear- heads of the field. I give the colours so far 
as I am able to conjecture them. Can any of your 
readers identify the picture ? 


Vicar's Court. Lincoln. 

"IMMORTALL CRACKE." In the December 
number of the Antiquary is quoted a verse from a 
ballad on the destruction of books by the London 
prentices at the Cockpit Playhouse in Drury Lane, 

1617, taken from vol. i. p. 94, of the Percy 
Society's collection, in which, after mentioning 
various writers whose works were destroyed, it is 
stated : 

And what still more amazes, 
Immortall Cracke was burnt all blacke, 

Which every bodie praises. 

Mr. Collier, it seems, confessed that " Regarding 
this person or play, whichever it might be, I can 
give no information." Now, in ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. 
xii. 424, we are told that in the Sheffield dialect 
shak is often used in the same sense as to crack or 
break in this sense Shakespeare is equivalent to 
Breakspeare. May not, therefore, this enigmatical 
name Cracke have been some nickname or slang 
term for Shakespeare among his contemporaries ? 
Does any other trace of it exist ? D. S. 

BRADFORD FAMILY. I should be very much 
obliged for any genealogical information regarding 
Bradford, originally of Yorkshire, bearing Arg., on 
a fess sa. three stags' heads erased or, and the de- 
scendants of John Button, town clerk of Queens- 
ferry, N.B. , c. 1680, who were, I think, found at 
Inverkeithing, in Fifeshire, early in the eighteenth 
century. J. G. BRADFORD. 

157, Dalston Lane, E. 

me when this peerage became extinct ? I find the 
arms given in an old book of 1811, and the state- 
ment is there made that they were borne by " Other 
Archer Windsor, Earl of Plymouth and Baron 
Windsor." Can you say, also, fur what reason the 
Baron Windsor of 1682 received the Earldom of 
Plymouth ? W. S. B. H. 

was the editor of ' An Account of Russia as it was 
in the Year 1710,' by Charles, Lord Whitworth, 
which was printed at Strawberry Hill, 1758, just 
thirty-three years after the death of Lord Whit- 
worth. W. F. MARSH JACKSON. 

ROBINSON CRUSO. There has lately died at 
King's Lynn the descendant of an old Lynn family 
of the name of Robinson Cruso. The name has 
been borne by father and son from time immemo- 
rial. Is it not likely that Defoe had been at Lynn 
(he was frequently in trouble with the Govern- 
ment, and Lynn was then the port which people 
wishing to escape passed through on their way to 
the Low Countries) and took the name of a re- 
sident for his hero ? G. A. 

SIDLEY BARONETCY. This dignity was con- 
ferred in 1621 upon Sir Isaac Sidley, of Great Chart, 
Kent, Knt. When and with whom did it become 
extinct 1 Burke and Courthope both say that the 
last two persons who held the honour were Sir 
George and Sir Charles, the seventh and eighth baro- 
nets, the two sons of Sir George Sidley, sixth baro- 



* S. I. JAN. 30, '86. 

net, but give no dates of decease. In the Gent. Mag. 
we have recorded the death, on April 24, 1737, of a 
" Sir John Sidley, Bart.," who must, I think, have 
been a third brother, with whom the title actually 
expired. The sixth baronet, according to a note 
I have but whence taken unfortunately am not 
sure died in 1727, leaving three sons. This, if 
true, would confirm the foregoing suggestion as to a 
ninth baronet ; but in that case the brothers must 
have followed one another in the succession at very 
brief intervals. W. D. PINK. 

POEMS. Will any contributor kindly tell me 
where to find the poems from which 1 give the 
following extracts ] I have forgotten who wrote 
the poems ; but they are worth searching for. 

1. High peace to the soul of the dead ! 
From the dreams of this earth she has fled, 
The stars in their glory to tread, 

And shine in the blaze of the throne. 

2. A green and silent spot amid the hills, 

* * # * 

'tis a quiet spirit-healing nook ! 

. Here at this tomb these tears I shed. 

* * * * 

Hope of my heart now quenched in night, 
But dearer dead than aught that lives ! 

4. The 'Death of Sappho': 

She in act to fall, her garland torn. 

5. Though lightly sounds the song I sing, 
Though like the lark's its soaring music be, 
Thou'lt find e'en yet some mournful note that tells 
How near such April joy to sorrow dwells. 

6. 'Twas an hour of fearful issue, 
Where the bold three hundred stood 
For their love of sacred freedom 

By that old Thessalian flood. 

* # i* * 

And all from mountain, cliff, and wave, 
Was freedom's, valour's, glory's grave. 

0. B. 

[Surely the last is a misquotation from ' The Giaour ' 
of Byron : 

Whose land from plain to mountain cave 
Was Freedom's home or Glory's grave.] 


(7 th S. i. 8.) 

After a long silence, caused by other occupations, 
and not by any means through indifference to our 
favourite * N. & Q.,' I am happy to furnish the 
materials required by its esteemed correspondent, 
my own faithful friend, MR. C. A. WARD. I pro- 
mise to be more frequent in communications on 
our old songs and ballads for the future. In his 
inquiry MR. WARD mixes two distinct catches or 
songs ; of these the earlier (1652) is " Hang sor- 
row, let 'a cast away care," to which the music was 
composed by William Lawes, and " published by 
John Hilton : printed for John Benson and John 

Playford, and to be sould in St. Dunstan'd Church- 
yard, and in the Inner Temple neare the Church 
doore, 1652." It reappeared in ' Windsor Drollery/ 
1672, with a few verbal alterations, here noted. 

Of the other song, containing the line "The 
parish is bound to find us," I know no earlier 
printed copy than one in the excessively rare 1671 
edition of ' The New Academy of Complement?,' 
here given. 

1. From J. Hilton's 'Catch that Catch Can,' 
1652 (music by William Lawes): 

Hang Sorrow and cast away Care, 

and let us drink up our Sack ; 
They say 'tis good to cherish the blood,* 

and for to strengthen the back. 
'Tis wine that makes the thoughts aspire, 

and fills the body with heat ; 
Besides 'tis good, if well understood, 

to fit a man for the feat : 
Then call and drink up all, 

The Drawer is ready to fill, 
A Pox of care,f what need we to spare 1 

my father has made his will. 

2. Song 276 : 

Hang fear, cast away care, 

The parish is bound to find us, 
Thou and I and all must die, 

And leave this world behinde us. 
The Bells shall ring, the Clerk shall sing, 

And the good old wife shall winde us, 
And John shall lay our bones in clay 
Where the Devil ne'er shall find us. 

The New Academy of Complements,' 1671. 
One version is in Playford's ' Musical . Com- 
panion,' 1673. There is also a Roxburghe ballad 
beginning similarly, but quite distinct from these 
two songs. It is entitled, "Joy and Sorrow mixt 
together. To the tune of, Such a Rogue should 
be hang'd." Which is the same tune as ' Old Sir 
Simon the King.' Here is the first of the fourteen 
stanzas for comparison. The ballad is preserved 
in the Roxburghe Collection (vol. i. fol. 170), and 
has been reprinted in the Ballad Society's pub- 
lication, vol. i. p. 509 : 

Hang sorrow, let 's cast away care, 
for now I do mean to be merry, 
Wee '1 drink some good Ale and strong Beere, 

With sugar, and clarret, and sherry. 
Now I 'le have a wife of mine own, 

I shall have no need to borrow; 
I would have it for to be known 

that I shall be married to-morrow. 
(Burden:) Here 's a health to my Bride that shall be, 
Come pledge it you boon merry blades : 
The day I much long for to see, 
We will be as merry as the Maides, &c. 

This ballad was written and signed by Richard 
Climsell, and was printed for John Wright the 
younger, dwelling in the Old Bayley. 


Molash Vicarage, by Ashford, Kent. 

* " Quicken the blood, and also to strengthen the 
back " (' Windsor Drollery,' 1672). 

t " A fig for care.. .hath made " (Ibid., p. 140). 

S. I. JAN. 30, '86.] 



The song is older than your correspondent has 
been led to suppose. The following is from the 
Spectator, under date November 26, 1711 : 

" We have a tradition from our forefathers that after 
the first of these (poor) laws was made, they were in- 
sulted with that famous song, 

Hang sorrow and cast away care, 
The parish is bound to find us, &c.; 
and if we will be so good-natured as to support them 
without work, they can do no less in return than sing us 
' The Merry Beggars.' " 

R. W. 

OALIGRAPHY (6 th S. xii. 408). If MR. E. R. 
VYVYAN will refer to Liddell and Scott's ' Lexicon ' 
he will find that the Greek form is Ka\Xiypa(f)La, 
and that there is this observation in reference to 
the prefix KoAAt- : " It is the first part of the word 
in many compounds in which the notion of beautiful 
is added to the chief and simple notion ; KaAo- is 
later and less common." The question of the 
spelling was noticed by LORD LYTTELTON in 
' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. ii. 473, where he stated that " he 
wished to point out, once for all, the wrong spel- 
ling caligraphy" which he compared with the 
calisthenics of the then ladies' schools. He further 
remarked that the prefix was derived from the 
substantive /caAAos, not from the adjective KaAos. 


[We find the question completely disposed of by the 
late LORD LYTTKLTON at the reference supplied t>y our 
correspondent, tfnder these circumstances we are com- 
pelled reluctantly to omit some valuable contributions 
to the subject from the REV. W. E. BUCKLEY, C. B. M., 

SHEPSTER (7 th S. i. 68). Both the guesses are 
wrong. The real sense is " a female cutter-out of 
garments," and it is the feminine of shaper. No 
doubt the apprentice wanted to learn cutting out. 
and so was apprenticed to the wife instead of to 
the husband, merely to secure himself, else he 
would have been put to sewing. The right expla- 
nation has been given at least four times, and it is 
really rather a tax to have to explain things all 
over again. See my * Notes to P. Plowman,' 
p. 109; Marsh's * Student's Manual,' ed. Smith, 
p. 217; Nares's 'Glossary,' new ed. ; and, in par- 
ticular, ' N. & Q.,' 1 s * S. i. 356. 


PLAYS (7 th S. i. 67). Rushworth ( Historical 
Collections/ part iii. vol. ii. p. 1, edit. 1692) gives 
the date of issue of these ordinances as Sept. 2, 
1642 ; it is therefore impossible that they could 
have been printed before that date. I cannot dis- 
cover " The Declaration for the appeasing and 
quieting unlawful Tumults/' &c., in Rushworth, 
unless it is " An Order of Parliament to suppress 
Riots," &c., issued Aug. 8, 1642. But this can 
scarcely be the one in question, since it is only 

twelve lines in length, and could not (even with 
the help of the stage-play ordinances) have swollen 
into an eight-page pamphlet. 


FEET OF FINES (6 th S. xii. 449; 7 th S. i. 13). 
I am surprised that none of your contributors has 
cited the late Mr. A. J. Horwood's explanation of 
this terra, from his preface to ' The Year Books 
21 & 22 Edward I.' (R. S.), p. x :- 

" In a former volume it was suggested that the clerks 
who framed the inrolments in Latin, from proceedings 
conducted in law- French, were obliged to forge Latin 

words At p.221 line 4, le pee of a fine is vouched. In 

our law books the document is usually referred to as the 
foot of the fine. Now in the law-French reports and 
tracts it is written la pee or la pes, most usually the latter, 
which has the same sound as paix (Lat. pax or concordia). 
In the tract called ' Modus levandi fines,' usually called 
the statute 18 Edw. I. stat. 4, the direction is that 
when the fine was proclaimed in the Common Pleas, the 
justice shall say Criez la pees (i.e. proclaim the peace, or 
concord) ; and the countor (serjeant) is to read the con- 
cord, saying, La pees est ycele, &c., setting out the terms 
of the agreement between the parties. What is called 
the foot of the fine is the final concord or peace thus 
proclaimed in court, beginning, ffcec edfinalis concordia, 
of which a form may be seen at the end of the second 
volume of Blackstone's Commentaries." 

This seems to dispose of the question. 

Q. V. 

6). I have cited some examples of belief in the 
powers of seventh daughters to cure diseases in 
' Folk Medicine ; (Folk Lore Society, 1 883), p. 137 : 

" A herbalist in Plymouth, who was tried in June, 
1876, for obtaining a sovereign on false pretences from a 
pauper, represented herself to be the seventh daughter 
of a seventh daughter of a seventh daughter. Never- 
theless she had to refund the sovereign." 
See also ' Superstitions Anciennes et Modernes/ 


It was Sydney Smith, not Curran, who said that 
had the fleas been only unanimous they could have 
pulled him out of bed altogether. 


WILLIAM WOOLLETT (7 th S. i. 68), engraver, 
was born in a "house in King Street, on the 
eastern side of the passage leading to Mr. Duke's 
alms-houses," Maidstone, on August 15, 1735, and 
baptized on the 3lst of that month. His father's 
name was Philip, a flax dresser, also of Maidstone. 

Louis FAGAN. 

APOSTATE NUNS (7 th S. i. 48). In the notes to 
the second canto of * Marmion ' there is this state- 

" It is not likely that in later times this punishment 
was often resorted to ; but among the ruins of the abbey of 
Goldingham, were some years ago discovered tho re- 



[7> S. I. JAN. 30, '* 

mains of a female skeleton, which, from the shape of 
the niche and position of the figure, seemed to be that of 
an immured nun." 

This instance might receive investigation. The 
date of the first foundation of Goldingham is 
A.D. 673. ED. MARSHALL. 

S. xii. 8, 76). Horsfield states, in his 'History of 
Sussex,' that 

" around the rim, and along the middle of this tomb, is 
the following inscription, in Saxon characters : 
Stirps Gundrada ducum decus evi nobile germen 
Intulit ecclesiae Anglorum balsama morum 


Martha fuit miseris, fuit ex pietate Maria 
Pars obiit Marthe superest pars magna Marie, 
O pie Pancrati testis pietatis et equi 
Te facit heredem, tu clemens suspice matrem, 
Sexta Kalendarum Junii lux obvia carnis 
Infregit alabastrum." 

There are some, I know, who doubt that Gun- 
drada was the daughter of William the Conqueror, 
but upon what authority I am unable to under- 
stand. To my mind there is the strongest evidence 
that she was so. For no one, I presume, will deny 
that the wife of the Conqueror was Matilda, 
daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, and that 
by her he had a numerous family Florence of 
Worcester says four sons and five daughters. Now 
as to this Gundrada, it is a fact past all denying 
that she was married to William de Warrehne, 
who came over with the Conqueror, and, in con- 
junction with his wife, founded the Cluniac monas- 
tery at Southover, in the parish of Lewes, Sussex. 
The charter of this foundation is given at length 
in Dugdale's * Monasticon,' and in it we find the 
following entry: 

" Donavi pro salute meae animae et animag Gundradse 
uxoris mese et pro anima mei Domini Willielmi Regis, 
qui me in Angliam adduxit, et per cujus licentiara 
monachos venire feci, et pro salute dominie meae Matildis 
Reginae, matris uxoris meae." 

" I have given for the health of my soul, and for the soul 
of Gundrada my wife, and for the soul of my lord King 
William, who brought me into England, and under whose 
permission I have caused monks to come over, and for 
the health (of the soul) of my lady Queen Matilda, the 
mother of my wife," &c. 

Now, unless this charter be a forgery, which 
few, I think, will admit, one of two things follows, 
viz., that Gundrada was either the Conqueror's 
daughter by his wife Matilda or the daughter of 
Matilda by a former husband, an alternative for 
which there is not a scrap of evidence. And as 
William survived his wife for at least four years, 
any similar alternative is out of the question. 
Malmesbury gives the names of three of their 
daughters, but says the names of the others had 
escaped his memory. In a note to Rapin's account 
it is said : 

" The fifth was Gundred, Countess of Surrey, married 
to William Warren, made Earl of Surrey by King 

William. She died in childbed at Castleacre, in Nor- 
folk, 1085." 

Now, if William was not her father, I should 
like to know who was. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

MESSIAH AND MOSES (6 th S. xii. 516). 
and J"!t?p are radicals which have no connexion 
with one another. It is unnecessary to look for 
kindred radicals in Hebrew to explain or alter the 
meaning of the word n^lO, which is common both 
to Hebrew and Arabic. There is no more dignity 
attached to the word anointed in Hebrew than 
there is to the word seated in English. The dignity 
is in the concomitants. A man may be seated 
on a throne or on a dunghill. Neither is there 
any reason for thinking that the Hebrews attached 
the idea of saviour to Moses. He was the law- 
giver. It was God who " saved them out of Egypt 
by the hands of Moses and Aaron." Moses was 
unable to bring them into the promised land. 
MCJVCTTJS is not the equivalent of the passive par- 
ticiple of nfc^JO, which would be Mao-ot^s or 
Mao-^s according to our incorrect pronunciation 
of Greek. Josephus was right in his derivation 
of the name from two Egyptian words, and Mwvo-^s 
is an exact equivalent of the Egyptian compound 
word. There is, therefore, no ground for the in- 
ference that the Hebrews changed the passive into 
the active participle to make Moses a deliverer, 
especially when it was Joshua, " the saviour," who 
brought them into the land of promise. 

J. H. C. 

ST. THOMAS A BECKET (6 th S. xii. 407). 
Pontifex, of course, means a builder of bridges. 
" Hinc," says Ducange, " Hospitilarii Pontifices 
nuncupantur interdum Fratres Pontis, quod ex 
instituto suo pontes construerent " ("The Hos- 
pitallers were sometimes called Brothers of the 
Bridge, because they were accustomed to build 
bridges"). According to him, also, archbishops 
were so named : " Nuncupati non raro prsecipuarum 
Sedium Archiepiscopi. Ita Arlatensis Summus 
Pontifex dicitur in Charta an. circ. 1000." And 
of our own great prelate Lanfranc he says : " Lan- 
francus Archiepiscopus Cantuar. Primus et Ponti- 
fex Summus vocatur a Milone Crispini ejus sub- 
pari in ipsius vita num. 19 " (" Lanfranc, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, is called first and highest 
Pontifex by Milo in the life of his suffragan 
Crispinus "). 

Chambers ('Cyclopaedia') says: 

"Authors differ about the origin of the word pontrfex. 
Some derive it from posae facere, that is, from the autho- 
rity the pontifeK had to offer sacrifice ; others, as Varro, 
from pons, because they built the Sublician bridge, that 
they might go over and offer sacrifice on the other side 
the Tiber." 
So far, then, it seems " adhuc sub judice lis est." 

It is pretty certain, however, that among the 
Romans the Pontifex Maximus had, with his other 

7 th S. I. JAN. 30, '86.] 



duties, the care and superintendence of the bridges. 
And as he was chief priest as well as chief ruler 
" in all causes and over all persons, ecclesiastical 
and civil, in his dominions supreme," it is more 
than probable, as in other instances, that this title 
was thus given to the chief ministers of the 
Christian Church. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

With regard to the letter in the Globe quoted 
by MR. BONE, I find that the Koman Church 
rarely applies the term pontifex to any save the 
Pontifex Maximus himself, that is to say, the 
Pope. In the headings of saints' days in the 
Breviary an ordinary bishop is described as 
"Episcopus"; e.g., "Die xxvi. Novemb. Sancti 
Petri Episcopi et Marty ris." A pope is described 
as " Papa." Some bishops are, however, called 
" Pontifices "; e.g., " SS. Cletus et Marcellinus" 
(April 26). 

Thus it will be seen that pontifex is a more or 
less elastic title that although the Pope has 
robbed the bishops of most of their powers, he has 
not as yet robbed them of their name altogether. 
Curiously enough, the collect for St. Thomas 
Cantuar.'s day actually contains the word pontifex, 
whence the inscription mentioned is probably 
borrowed. It runs thus : 

" Deus pro cuius Ecclesia gloriosus Pontifex Thomas 
gladiis impiorum occubuit, prsesta, qusesumus, ut omnes, 
qui eius implorant auxilium, petitionia suae salutarem 
consequantur effectum, per Dominum nostrum, lesum 
Christum. Amen." 

R. J. W. 

It is to be presumed that the writer in the 
Globe was not aware that pontifex = episcopus. 
See Ducange. So, while the Manual contained 
such offices as a presbyter could administer, the 
Pontifical contained those which a bishop only 
could perform. ED. MARSHALL. 

I do not know whether MR. BONE seriously 
takes it, on the word of the Globe's correspondent, 
that there is anything peculiar in the use of the 
word pontifex of an Archbishop of Canterbury. My 
faith is not so great ; and I have a shrewd guess 
that the correspondent thought no bishop was ever 
called pontifex except the Bishop of Rome, com- 
monly known as the Pope. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

I do not know if there may be a vein of gentle 
irony in MR. BONE'S interrogatory, but I do not 
think there is any difficulty about the inscription 
pontiffx quoted by Mr. Brookes in his letter to 
the Globe. My Latin dictionary (Lewis and 
Short's) gives, under "Pontifex," "The Jewish 
high priest : Pontifex, id est, sacerdos maximus, 
Vulg. Lev. 21, 10 : Caiapham pontificem, id. 
Johan. 18, 24. Hence in the Christian period a 
bishop, Sid. Carm., 16, 6." 


I think pontifex is used to express metropolitan 
primacy, because in former days the Archbishop 
of Canterbury was one of the most important pre- 
lates in Europe. I believe that pontiff is syno- 
nymous with bishop, the Pope being Pontifex 
Maximus. Moreover, the book containing the 
ceremonial of a bishop is called the Pontifical, and 
his mitre, crozier, pectoral cross, &c., pontificalia. 


S. xii. 441, 524; 7 th S. i. 36). I beg to thank my 
friend MR. PICKFORD and other contributors for 
the additional instances of simulation they have 
afforded. Another friend, by private letter, re- 
minds me of one at Palazzo Grimaldi at Cagne 
(near Antibes). In the sala there the fall of 
Phaeton is depicted with great actuality on the 
ceiling by Carleoni. 

In response to the inquiry at the last reference 
I send a line for line translation I made some 
years ago of The'ophile Gautier's version of the 
legend, which has, I think, only appeared in a 

In the good town of Toledo a Madonna they revere, 
And before it a pale-gleaming lamp is burning all the 


It is covered with a glittering profusion of brocade 
And the treasures of fond art with tawdry gilding over- 
laid ! 

And about this same Madonna a tradition they receive, 
Which an infant in its nurse's arms I 'm sure would 

scarce believe, 

And which yet no poet dedicate at sacred beauty's shrine 
But must wish to cherish integrate, as very truth divine. 
What time the Virgin came to visit Holy Ildefonse, 
To reward him for his treatise he had called his 

"Great Response," 
Descending from her gold-capp'd tower of ivory all 


And bringing him a chasuble, a weft of sunbeams bright, 
She pleased to entertain a woman's fantasy that day 
By visiting that fair Madonna-image on her way. 
For miracle of art it was, each Spaniard loved to see, 
A seraph's dream you might have thought he 'd 

carved on bended knee ! 
And as she stood that statue fair arrested all her 


It seem'd as if her gaze surprized to search each de- 
tail sought ; 

Her eye escaped no token of the chaste and tender care 
With which the patient sculptor had transformed the 

marble rare ; 

The grandly falling drapery of cloth of gold and lace, 
The slender, mobile, peerless form, swathed in its 

Gothic grace ; 

The look of virgin purity from out of velvet eyes ; 
The infant Jesus nestling there, his mother's conscious 


A portraiture so accurate a very double seemed, 
Her arms encircled the fair form, her eyes with plea- 
sure beamed ; 

And turning to retrace her way to Paradise above 
She printed on that image true a kiss of beaming love ! 
Such stories gain no credence under reason's rigid sway 
Ah! no radiance can be seen athwart the lights diffused 
to-day ! 


[7 th S. I. JAN. 30, '86. 

But in other times, when poetry and faith were paramount, 
What toils would not such thoughts help the weary 

artist to surmount 

To arrest the gaze of Heaven on the work of human brain ! 
Sure, such hope as that must make the loneliest studio 

smile again. 
How would not the pious chisel linger perfecting with 

A creation might be honoured with caresses from above ! 

Should the Virgin have a mind again some day of our 


To reward an Apologia with a chasuble sublime, 
Dare you hope, O modern sculptors of our altars pseudo- 

One of your Madonnas ere would woo her kiss upon its 
cheek ! 

R. H. BUSK. 

When, on February 27, 1644, John Evelyn, on 
his way to St. Germains, called in at Cardinal 
Richelieu's villa at Ruell, he saw there all 
rarities of pleasure, whereof one was 

"the Citroniere, where is a noble conserve of all tho?e 
rarities ; and at the end of it is the Arch of Constantine, 
painted on a wall in oyle, as large as the real one at 
Rome, so well don that even a man skill'd in painting 
may mistake it for stone and sculpture. The skie and 
hills which seem to be betweene the arches are so 
natural! that swallows and other birds, thinking to fly 
through, have dashed themselves against the wall." 

A. J. M. 

xii. 516). The last time this picture was exhibited 
was in 1857, at the Art-Treasures Exhibition, 
Manchester ; it then belonged to W. F. Fryer, 
Esq. The picture was first exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1833 ; it was engraved by James 
Scott in 1845. It has never been sold at Christie's, 
and is probably still in the possession of Mr. Fryer. 

RHYMING CHARTERS (6 th S. xii. 84, 194, 253, 
314, 410, 475). I cordially share SIR JAMES 
PICTON'S regret that the valuable space in 
* N. & Q.' should be occupied by much of the 
"childish trash" which a sorely-tried editor 
always finds difficult to deal with in conducting a 
periodical of this nature. The rhyming charters 
are open to all that may be urged against them 
upon the score of childishness, and I am not one of 
the gobemouches against whose revellings in an 
ideal atmosphere SIR JAMES PICTON so forcibly 
inveighs. But I can give him an old and respect- 
able authority for one example, viz., Richard 
Crompton, from whose book, * L'Authoritie et 
Jurisdiction des Covrts de la Maiestie de la 
Roygne' (London, C.Yetsweirt, 1594, 4to.,ffol. 146 
verso, and 147 recto), I extract the following : 

* A translator ought not to add a word without de- 
claring it. I have here added " pseudo," for, though 
the little poem was written at the most aggressive 
moment of the Gothic revival, no attack on Greek art 
was intended. 

'Nota Edward le Confessor graunt a un Raffe Peper- 
king loffice de garder de son Forest de hundred de Chel- 
mer & Daunceing in com' Essex in taile come appiert 
per Record in Lescheker escrie modo sequente, viz. ; 

Jche Edward King 

Haue yeuen of my Forest the keeping 

Of the hundred of Chelmer and Dauncing 

To Randolph Peperking and to his kynlyng, 

With Han and Hynde, Doe and Bucke. 

Hare and Foxe, Catt and Brocke, 

Wyldfowle with his flocke, 

Partridge, Fezant Hen, arid Fezant Cocke, 

With greene and wihle stub and sto'cke 

To keepen, and two yeomen by all their might, 

Both by day and eke by night, 

And Hounds for to hould, 

Good, swift and bould, 

Foure Greyhounds, and sixe Raches, 

For Hare and Foxe, and wyld Cattes : 

And therefore yche made him my booke, 

Witness the Bishop of Wolstone 

And booke ylerned many one. 

And Sweyne of Essex our brother, 

And tekyn him many other, 

And our Steward Howelyn 

That besought me for him. 

Gel graunt iaye icy insert, per que poyes voyer le plaine 
meaning del graunt de Roy in eel temps, & auxi queux 
sont beastes de Forest & de Warreyn, & eel graunt fuit 
signe ouesque crosses de Or, car avant venua des Nor- 
mans in Englit', les charterz fuer' signez oue crosses 
d'Ore & auterz sigries, et apres lour venus fuit vae de 
sealer oue sere & totu' auis escrie ; quant al dit graunt 
ieo trouve in libra WillnC Camden de de^cripc' de 
Britaine fo. 340. Vide 1. H. 7. Charter le Roy monstre 
cum crucibus signatum, in case Stafford law." 

Upon this I only remark that there seems to 
have been no doubt inCrompton's mind respecting 
the authenticity of the deed, seeing that he quotes 
it for a distinct purpose by way of illustration. 
Camden deliberately says that the deed " stands 
thus in the Rolls of the Exchequer : but, by often 
transcribing, some words are made smoother than 
they were in the Original" ('Britannia/ 1695, 
col. 344). Whence, then, did Caiuden procure the 
original of the deed, which he puts forth with the 
due solemnity of a responsible historian, and in 
which a distinguished legist recognizes an autho- 
rity. I suppose it is not suggested that Camden 
was guilty of putting forth a ' bare-faced and im- 
pudent forgery ! " The imposition, if it be one, 
has had three centuries or more of existence. 


NATHANIEL COTTON, M.D. (6 th S. xii. 410, 458, 
492). I think SIR J. A. PICTON is in error in ascrib- 
ing the date 1764 to the second edition of Cotton's 
4 Visions in Verse.' I have a copy of the sixth 
edition which is dated 1760. In this edition 
' Marriage,' which SIR J. A. PICTON mentions as a 
separate publication, is the seventh vision, being 
the longest of a series of nine, preceded by an in- 
troductory poem. The title-paj/e of this edition is 
as follows : " Visions | in | Verse I for the | 
Entertainment and Instruction | of | Younger 
Minds. | Virginibus puerisque Canto. Hor. | The 

7" S. I. JAN. 30, '86.] 



Sixth Edition, Eevis'd and Enlarg'd | London : | 
Printed for E. & J. Dodsley, in Pallmall. \ 
MDCCLX." My copy is very strongly bound in gilt 
vellum, and has three pages of advertisements of 
" Books published for R. & J. Dodsley." 

W. E. TATE. 
Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

6), About the year 1827 a boy named Dean was 
drowned whilst bathing in the Thames, as it flows 
by the playing fields of Eton College. The body 
was dived for, but could not be found. Mr. Evans, 
the well-known drawing-master, arrived on the 
spot, and having ascertained whereabouts the boy 
disappeared, he threw a cricket-bat on the place, 
which floated with the stream until it stopped in 
an eddy, where it began to turn round. The eddy 
was caused by a hole in the bed of the river, and, 
lying at the bottom of the hole, the body was 

Harry Baker's mother need not have used a loaf 
of bread charged with quicksilver to recover her 
son's corpse, which no doubt had been caught in 
an eddy and sucked to the bottom. 


BROWN OR BROWNE (6 th S. xii. 469, 503). 
Since writing my reply I have found a biographical 
notice of Frances Brown, with one of her poems 
(' The Hope of the Eesurrection '), in the St. James's 
Magazine, first series, vol. xvii. p. Ill, under the 
title of * Blind Authors.' In this article her name 
is spelt with the final e, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

The following extract from a pamphlet dated 
1874, and entitled 'A Plea for St. Pancras Church- 
yard/ &c., may be of interest to E. L. G. : 

" It has been asserted that the preference was owing 
to the fact that Roman Catholics were burnt there in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign. It has also been explained by 
saying that mass is said daily in a church dedicated 
to the same saint in the south of Prance, for the repose 
of the souls of the faithful buried at St. Pancras in 
London. Both of these statements appear, however, to 
be without foundation, and Mr. Markland, in a note to 
Croker's edition of BoswelPs 'Life of Johnson' (1860, 
p. 840) says, ' I learn from unquestionable authority that 
it rests upon no foundation, and that mere prejudice 
exists among Roman Catholics in favour of this church, 
as is the case with respect to other places of burial in 
various parts of the kingdom." 

Jean Frangois de la Marche, Bishop of St. Pol 
de Leon, who was buried in this churchyard, died 
in Queen Street, Bloomsburv, in 1806. 

G. F. E. B. 

Information might be obtained from two volumes 
compiled by Mr. T. Cansick ' Epitaphs from 
Monuments, &c., of St. Pancras' (1869), and 
'.Epitaphs from Existing Monuments in Ceme- 

teries and Churches of St. Pancras' (1872). In the 
little history of ' London,' by " Sholto and Eeuben 
Percy," it is remarked : " The churchyard of St. 
Pancras is remarkable for the great number of 
Eoman Catholics interred in it, and the church 
was the last in England where mass was performed 
after the Eestoration." 


' HOURS OF IDLENESS' (6 th S. xii. 386, 520). 
At the latter reference A. A. describes the title of 
his copy, and gives the reading therein of the first 
verse in the book. My copy has a similar title, 
with the addition of mottoes from Homer, Horace, 
and Dryden, and the last line of the verse in 
question in mine runs thus : 

Have choak'd up the rose, which late bloom'd [sic] in 
the way. 

Perhaps some one can say to which of the four 
editions mine belongs. 


THOMAS PRINGLE (7 th S. i. 28) was born on 
January 5, 1789, at Blaiklaw, in the parish of 
Lenton, Eoxburghshire, and dying of consumption 
on December 5, 1834, in the forty-sixth year of his 
age, was buried in Bunhill Fields. For details of 
his life, see Josiah Conder's * Biographical Sketch 
of the late Thomas Pringle'(1835); Irving's 'Book of 
Scotsmen ' (1881), p. 416, where, by a curious mis- 
print, Pringle is supposed to have been born in 
1879, and to have died in 1834; Gent. Mag., 1835, 
n.s., vol. iii. pp. 326-7 ; the memoir by Mr. L. 
Eitchie in the ' Poetical Works of Thomas Pringle' 
(1838), and by Mr. Noble in 'Afar in the Desert: 
and other South African Poems ' (1881). 

G. F. E. B. 

Thomas Pringle was born at Blaiklaw, Eoxburgh- 
shire, January 5, 1789, and died in London, Decem- 
ber 5, 1834. He is buried in Bunhili Fields. The 
edition of his ' Narrative of a Eesidence in South 
Africa ' published in 1835 contains a sketch of his 
life by Josiah Conder, and another biography by 
Leitch Eitchie is prefixed to his ' Poetical Works,' 
1839. There are some interesting references in 
Cyrus Eedding's ' Eeminiscences.' 


208). Eobert died 1134, and 

"was interr'd in the choir of St. Peter's Church at Glou- 
cester, before the High Altar, where not long after, was 
erected to him a Tomb (in form of a Chest of Wainscot). 

This tomb (to the great credit of the Substance of 

which it was made) stood firm until the rebellious 

Soldiers tore it to pieces," &c. Sandford's ' Genealogical 
History/ 1707. 

Sir Eobert Atkyns (' The Ancient and Present 
State of Gloucestershire,' London, 1712) writes : 

"His Monument of Wood stood firm until the great 
Rebellion in the Keign of King Charles the First, when 



[7 th 8. 1. JAN. 30, '86. 

the rude Soldiers tore it in pieces. But Sir Humphry 
Tracy, of Stanway, bought them, and laid them up till 
the Restoration of King Charles the Second, and then 
caused the Monument to be repaired and beautifyed at 
his own charges. The Effigies is carved with Cross 
Legs" &c. 

Whilst Rudder ( C A New History of Gloustershire/ 
1779), after mentioning an early " grave stone " 
with " a cross " on it, says of the Irish-oak tomb, 
" This monument was made long since he was 
buried"; and refers to "a noble representation" 
of it " which is published in Sandford's ' Genea- 
logical History.' " 

My impression is that Rudder is correct. The 
tomb has been so broken, restored, and neglected 
that from appearances one would not give it the 
age which Sandford claimed for it ; but he inclined 
to set it down to the design, if not the handiwork, 
of those artificers who were employed to create the 
tomb of John of Elthatn in Westminster Abbey. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

BED-STAFF (6 th S. xii. 496; 7 th S. i. 30). Two 
correspondents reassert the Johnson-Nares ex- 
planation, but they, like these latter, give no proof 
such as DR. MURRAY asked for, but only assertion 
and reassertion. Having seen some half dozen 
Elizabethan bedsteads at different times, I failed to 
notice while owning that I did not specially look 
for them the necessary and now unusual holes, 
and must as previously intimated still dis- 
believe in such bed-staffs and bed-staff holes 
till proof be brought forward. I now incline to 
"the staff for beating up the bed," my friend 
Mr. W. G. Stone having quoted from John 
Russell's ' Boke of Nurture' (E.E.T.S.), p. 179: 
The Pethurbed ye bete without hurt, so no feddurs ye 

a MS. written in the latter half of the fifteenth 
century; but the bedstaves of Alley n's will and 
of Jonson's ' Staple of News ' were, for aught I 
can see to the contrary, the bed-rungs, or bed- 
laths, that supported, and, though now generally 
of iron, still support the mattrass. 


"PULL DEVIL, PULL BAKER" (2 nd S. iii 228 
258, 316; 7 th S. i. 16). The episode of the devil 
and the baker forms the subject of a magic lantern 
slide which has been in the possession of my family 
since near about the beginning of the present cen- 
tury. The first scene shows the baker and a con- 
stable (?) having a dispute about the light weight 
of loaf sold by the former; the constable catches 
the baker by the shoulder and holds aloft the 
scales, which prove the baker's ill-doing. Scene 
two : When this dispute has raged some time the 
devil comes by, seizes a loaf from the baker's 
round basket standing on the ground, and runs 
off with it, but the baker catches him by the tail 
und now comes the " pull devil, pull baker." As 

the slide is moved to and fro, the two gain ground 
alternately; but this does not last long. Scene 
three : The devil, whose patience is worn out, 
claps the baker into his own basket, gets the 
basket on his back by means of the straps pro- 
vided for the shoulders, and, still holding in his 
hands the loaf, the cause of all the trouble, walks 
quickly off to his own place with the unfortunate 
baker. Scene four: " His own place"; a reptile's 
head, hideous with black, red, and green, huge 
eye (for it is in profile), huge fangs, flames and 
smoke issuing from the open jaws. 


A CORNISH CAROL (6 th S. xii. 484). The song 
given as a carol in the Christmas number is nearly 
identical with one I used to hear sung in Wilts, 
some years ago, at harvest time. The burden was 
quite different, and ran as follows : 

When want is all the go, 

And it ever more shall be so, 

I 'Jl sing you (two), 0. 

I am inclined to think, however, that (though cer- 
tainly sung so) it was a corruption of a line similar 
to the Cornish line about God, as there was no 
" one." It then went on, 

What is your two, O ? 

Let, let your lily white boys 

Be clothed all in green, 0. 

The other numbers were, 
Three are rivo ; 

which we supposed to predicate the equality 

(rivality) of the Trinity. 

Four are the Gospel leaders. 

Five are the benders of the bow, 

Six of them brought waters, 

Seven are the seven bright stars in the sky, 

Eight are the gabel rangers,* 

Nine are the nine bright sbiners,f 

Ten are the ten commandements, 

Eleven are tbe eleven of innocents,:}: 

Twelve are the twelve apostles 

I have compared this with a copy also written 
down from the mouth of a singer by a friend, and 
find it nearly the same. She has " Three arrive 0," 
" Six of them brought Walters "; and each time she 
has " I '11 sing your two, 0," " your three, 0,'' &c. 

I gave at pp. 254-5 ' Folk-lore of Rome ' a Roman 
equivalent, and neither did my contributor, most 
certainly, consider it a Christmas song. Though 
quite similar in construction, the attributions of the 
numbers are all different, except four and nine, 
which agree with the Wilts version. 

I am glad to take this opportunity of acknow- 
ledging a suggestion made to me by Mr. W. Bliss, 
and which I ought to have thought of for myself, 
in regard to No. 2, which I had written down as 

* A corruption of " the Angel Gabriel " (?). 
f Clearly meaning the nine orders of angels. 
I St. Ursula's 11,000 virgins (?), 

7' h 8. 1. JAN. 30, '86.] 



I thought I had heard it, t; Due sono le chiavi del 
cielo, c' e I' oro " (there is gold), which undoubtedly 
is meant for a mixture of Latin and Italian, and 
should be written ccelorum. My old lady probably, 
by assonance, said c'eloro, "cielo." 

E. H. BUSK. 

ANGLO-IRISH BALLADS (6 th S. xii. 223). In 
order to render my former note on this subject a 
little more complete, I should like to add that 
the earliest version of * The Grey Cock ' is appa- 
rently to be found in Herd's * Collection of Ancient 
and Modern Scots Songs,' 1776, where the stanzas 
"Flee, flee up, my bonny grey cock, 

And craw when it is day ; 
Your neck shall be like the bonny beaten gold, 

And your wings of the silver grey." 

The cock proved false, and untrue he was, 

For he crew an hour ower soon ; 
The lassie thought it day, when she sent her love away, 

And it was but a blink of the moon. 

This may be compared with another version in 
N.&Q./1"S.TL 370. 

I may also mention that a fragment of the Irish 
song of * Shuile Agra ' (Graves, ' Irish Songs and 
Ballads/ p. 257) was current in Scotland, and is 
printed in Mr. C. K. Sharpe's * Ballad Book' 
under the title of 'Dickie Macphalion ' (see Mr. 
E. Goldsmid's reprint of part i. p. 37). 



PIGEONS AND SICK PEOPLE (7 th S. i. 49). In 
the ' Autobiography of Mrs. Alice Thornton (pub- 
lished by the Surtees Society), that lady, telling 
of the last illness of her father, the Lord Deputy, 
Sir Christopher Wandesforde, says: "That night, 
pigeons cut was laid to the soles of his feet. When 
my father saw it he smiled and said, * Are you 
come to the last remedy ? But I shall prevent your 
skill.' " The editor of the ' Autobiography ' adds, 
in a note : 

" In the olden time, when the treatment of the sick 
was not so rational as in later years, remedies of this 
character were not unusual. The idea seems to have 
been that a living, or recently killed creature applied to 
the patient communicated some of its vitality to him. 
A moribund person has been wrapped in the skin of a 
sheep fresh from the animal." 


There are many references to the medical use of 
pigeons in * Les Pigeons de Valiere et de Colom- 
bier,' 1824. I have a note of the authors' names 
as " Bataud et Corbie"." 



When I was in Bermuda in 1863 I several 
times heard of this custom being practised by the 
negro poor as a last remedy in cases of yellow 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W 

PYEWIPE INN (6 th S. xii. 487; 7 th S. i. 37). 
The pyewipe is, in the vernacular of the Eastern 
counties, the lapwing. Compare the Scotch terms 
peesweep and peeweep. The second syllable would 
seem to be cognate with the Swedish vipa. 


TOOT HILL (6 th S. xii. 491 ; 7 th S. i. 56).-If my 
worthy and learned friend SIR JAMES PICTON 
from whose suggestive papers at archaeological con- 
gresses I have learned so much had only read a 
little further what I wrote about Tothill Fields in 
' Old and New London ' (vol. iv. p. 14), he would 
have seen that he has scarcely done me justice in 
classing me among " those whose only idea of 
etymological inquiry is that of idle guess-work." 
I wrote there : 

" Toot, in one of its varied forms, is not an uncommon 
prefix to the names of other places in different parts of 
England, as Totness, Toth&m, Tutbury, Tooting, Totten- 
ham, &c. ; and it may be added that all these are places 
of considerable elevation compared with the surrounding 

I came by my own independent observation of 
place-names to the conclusion that the word must 
have originally meant a rising ground, the same 
which SIR JAMES calls a specula ; and the remarks 
which he makes in the columns of ' N. & Q.' show 
that I was right in my etymology. He tells me 
that the old English or Saxon word totian, which 
is at the bottom of toot, means to lift up or elevate ; 
and I thank him for his reference to the * Promp- 
torium Parvulorum,' which confirms his deriva- 
tion. But surely my inference from toot or tut 
that some such Anglo-Saxon word underlies it, 
shows not that I love " idle guess-work," but that 
when SIR JAMES PICTON has lectured in my hear- 
ing I have been an attentive listener and a teach- 
able pupil. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

This word has been well dealt with before ; see 
5 th S. vii. 461 ; viii. 56, 138, 298, 358, 478 ; ix. 
277 ; x. 37 ; xi. 455. 0. W. TANCOCK. 

TRAPP (7 th S. i. 47). The epigrams on Trapp's 
' Virgil' are noticed in an editorial communication, 
in answer to a query by MR. S. JACKSON, in 
1 N. & Q.,' 4 th S. vii. 236. Another epigram is 
given by ANON, at p. 326, from ' The Festoon,' 
p. 39, 1767. This seems to me like a various 
reading of the epigram on Archbishop Sharp. 
ANON, also tries to raise the estimate of the trans- 
lation. ED. MARSHALL. 

[Many answers to the same effect are acknowledged 
with thanks.] 

A SHEAF OF MISPRINTS (7 th S. i. 5). If your 
correspondent C. M. I. had been good enough to 
refer to the names of the poems in which the mis- 
takes he pointed out occur in the 1850 edition, he 
would have saved a great deal of trouble to those 


[7'b S, I, JAN. 30, '86. 

who, like myself, have other editions. My copy of 
Emerson's 'Works' is that published by George Bell 
& Sons (London, 1882), and the poems are in 
vol. i., to the pages of which my references apply. 

C. M. I. gives eighteen corrections, and it may 
be useful to compare Bell's edition, and to give 
references to the poems. 

1. 'Each and All,' lines 5 to 8, p. 399. Correct. 

2. ' Guy,' lines 39, 40, p. 413. Correct. More 
correct, indeed, than your correspondent, for 
" honoured " is spelt in accordance with pure Eng- 
lish orthography, and not in that odious (perhaps 
I should say odios) Yankee fashion " honored." 

3. 'Woodnotes,' i. 1. 79, p. 421. First correc- 
tion given effect to, but not second. 

Where feeds the moose, and walks the surly bear. 
No doubt " stalks " is better, though the bear is 
more frequently the stalkee than the stalker. 

4. ' Woodnotes,' ii. 11. 282, 283, p. 429. Correct. 

5. * Woodnotes,' ii. 11. 315, 316, p. 430. Correct. 

6. 'Monaduoc,' 11. 10, 11, p. 432. Correct. 

7. ' Monaduoc,' 11. 227-9, p. 437. Same as in 
Koutledge's edition, 

The gamut old of Pan. 
Quite as good as 

The gamut of Old Pan, 

and not showing such contemptuous familiarity 
with the Old Gentleman. 

8. ' Ode inscribed to W. H. Channing,' 11. 3, 4 
p. 441. Correct. 

9. ' Estienne de la Boece,' 11. 16, 17, p. 445. 

10. ' To Ellen,' 11. 11, 12, p. 451. Correct. 

11. 'To Ellen,' 1. 24, p. 452. Correct. 

12. Saadi,' 11 149, 150, p. 475. 

All the brass of plume and song. Koutledge. 
Obviously idiotic. C. M. I. suggests 

All the birds of plume and song. 
Bell has it 

All the brags of plume and song. 

" Birds " would appear at the first blush to be the 
correct reading, but it is tautological, for the tw 
preceding lines are 

Wish not to fill the isles with eyes 

To fetch thee birds of paradise ; 

and we have in Milton (' Comus,' 1. 745) 

Beauty ia Nature's brag, and must be shown 
Jn Courts, at feasts and high solemnities, 
Where most may wonder. 

Used in the same sense, "brags" would seem 
correct, and the use of the long s referred to b; 
C. M. I. would explain the misprint. " Brags " i 
quite Emersonian. 

13. ' From the Persian of Hafiz,' 1. 21, p. 477 
Correct, but given slightly differently in Bell : 

Bring me, Boy, the veiled beauty. 

14. ' From the Persian of Hafiz,' last two lines 
p. 480. Corrected, and with different and bette 
reading : 

Thee may Sovereign Destiny 
Lead to victory day by day. 

15. 'Ghaselle,' 1. 21, p. 481. Correct. 

16. 'Ghaselle/ll. 27, 28, p. 481, given, "Shy 
bou not hell," &c. Probably more correct, " Shun 
hou," as C. M. I. has it. 

17. ' Threnody,' 1. 277, p. 493. Correct. 

18. The misprint of " deferential " for differen- 
ial " in one of eight essays'' I thought it would 
e impossible to hunt up, but I find it (corrected) 
n Bell's edition, ' Essay on Nature,' vol. i. p. 228, 
irst line. J. B. FLEMING. 

VEGETABLE BUTTER (6 th S. xii. 493). This 
ree is probably Elceis guincensis, the maba or 
)il palm of Western Africa. The fleshy part ia 
iruised not the kernel, as commonly said and 
he bruised paste is subjected to boiling water in 
wooden mortars, when an orange yellow oil 
eparates, of the consistency of butter. When 
'resh it has a violet odour. It is employed in 
Europe in perfumery and medicine. The tree is 
ndigenous to Africa, but can be cultivated else- 
where, as in Jamaica. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

' The Shea tree or butter tree of Africa, whose seeds 
produce the Galam butter mentioned by Muntjo Park, is 

i species of this genus [Bassia, nat ord. Sapotaceci] 

Tiie seeds are boiled in water to extract the butter from 
them. This fatty substance is of a white colour and 
agreeable taste, and keeps well, hence it is an important 
article of commerce in Sierra Leone." M. T. M. in 
' Treasury of Botany,' i. 128. 

A figure of the tree will be found in Prof. Oliver's 
"Botany of the Speke and Grant Expedition," 
Transactions Linn. Soc., vol. xxix. t. 73. The 
plant is now placed in the genus Bretyrospermum. 
The fatty matter is said to be introduced into 
Europe for the use of soap and of candle manufac- 
turers. M. T. M. 

' VALOR ECCLESIASTICUS' (7 th S. i. 70). The por- 
tion of the"taxatio ecclesiastica,"Papa NicholailV., 
relating to the diocese of Exeter, was printed by 
Dr. Oliver in his'Monasticon Diocesis Exoniensis,' 
Supplement, pp. 456-71. The ecclesiastical survey 
of the diocese of Exeter, " as returned to the crown 
by John Veysey 3 Nov., 1536," the then occupant 
of the see, was included by the same admirable 
antiquary, Dr. Oliver, in his ' Ecclesiastical Anti- 
quities of Devon,' pp. 151-92. 


15, Queen Anne's Gate. 

ETON MONTEM (6 th S. xii. 494 ; 7 th S. i. 55). 
A.S a " serjeant," i.e., fifth form boy, at the last 
two montems, I can bear witness that they took 
place in 1841 and 1844. At the former an 
historical incident occurred, viz., a more or less 
compulsory subscription by the boys to compen- 
sate "Botham," at Salthill, for damage done to 
his gooseberry-bushes ; at the latter, the boys did 

7"> S. I. J*N. 30, 'i 



not leave the playing and shooting fields, so there 
was no " Ad Montem." 

WILLIAM FRASER of Ledeclune, Bt. 

SEAL OF GRAND INQUISITOR (6 th S. xii. 387, 
438, 472; 7 th S. i. 17). If I understand IX P. 
rightly, our Catholic prelates, on being appointed 
by the Holy See, receive heraldic as well as spiritual 
powers from the Pope. I did not know this in- 
teresting fact ; but it may explain the very "messy" 
heraldry to which we are often ecclesiastically 
treated. If D. P. describes Bishop Vaughan's 
arms correctly, I fear these are badly marshalled. 
If my name be "Vaughan" I do not see how I 
can carry "Herbert" first or indeed any other 
coat first although other bearings may follow 
those of Vaughan. Judging from foreign epis- 
copal coats, I imagine that foreign prelates choose 
their own arms; but I have no information on this 
point. But MR. WOODWARD will see that, if 
D. P.'s theory of heraldic jurisdiction holds water, 
there is no reason why bishops should not choose 
or change arms of sees, &c., ad libitum. But I 
am of opinion that the power of granting coats 
armorial to persons, or corporations, or sees, or to 
anybody or thing in Great Britain and Ireland is 
vested in and confined to Garter, Lyon, and 
Ulster respectively. GEORGE ANGUS, M.A. 

St. Andrew's, N.B. 

The First Century of Christianity. By Homersham Cox, 

M.A. (Longmans & Co.) 

To produce a new work dealing with the early history of 
Christianity is, it must be admitted, a somewhat bold 
undertaking. Folios, quartos, octavos innumerable 
crowd our bookshelves, and seem scarcely to leave room 
fora new volume upon this well-worn subject. Histories 
ancient, histories modern; histories orthodox, histories 
neological ; histories high, low, and broad, seem to 
occupy every possible standpoint. And yet Mr. 
Homersham Cox makes out a very good case for his new 
venture. The standard treatises, he says, are addressed 
to the learned ; they are rarely " understanded of the 
people"; they are too ponderous for men who are not 
professed scholars. Here is an attempt to present in a 
popular and concise form the pith and marrow of many 
learned books, and further, to give it a special feature 
of its own, " religious and doctrinal topics are scrupu- 
lously excluded." 

We frankly confess to a feeling of no little curiosity 
as to the fulfilment of this last condition. Is it possible 
to compile a history of the first century of Christianity 
from which religious topics can be excluded 1 We should 
have thought, reasoning a priori, that the task was an 
utter impossibility; and we cannot say that, after a 
perusal of the book, our prior conclusion has been 
greatly modified. We can only suppose that Mr. 
Homersham Cox must attach some technical sense to 
the words religious and doctrinal other than that in 
which they are commonly used. The chapters on 
baptism, the holy Eucharist, the observance of Sunday, 
and other sections of the book, though they deal mainly 

with the historical aspect of the matters discussed, can- 
not avoid touching their religious and doctrinal sides. 

Beyond doubt, however, the book has a certain well- 
defined position of its own. It avoids, so far as may be, 
technical language ; it makes no display of learning, 
though its author has evidently read far and wide; it is 
drawn mainly from original sources, from the fathers 
and early writers rather than from their modern com- 
mentators ; and whilst it quotes freely from the more 
familiar books known to every student, it does not 
forget to use even the latest discovery, the Aiax) T&V 
dudeKa. ATrooroXwj/. It opposes warmly, and with 
trenchant criticism, the opinions of some modern Ger- 
man critics (founded mainly upon theories of their own 
rather than upon any solid historical basis), notably as 
to the authenticity of St. John's gospel ; and endeavours 
to exhibit the orthodox view of the early history of the 
Church. We do not doubt that the book will be of use 
to a large circle of readers, especially to those who have 
neither access to public libraries nor leisure to consult 
original authorities. 

What tve really know about Shakespeare. By Mrs 

Caroline Healey Dall. (Boston, U.S.) 
IK healthy contrast to the vagaries of some other literary 
ladies in the United States, Mrs. Dall undertakes to 
reply to the victims of the " Bacon-Shakspeare craze " 
not by showing how utterly absurd is the attribution of 
the Shakspearian dramas to Bacon, but by laying 
before her readers a statement of all we know about the 
man to whom, by a persistent consensus of testimony 
from his own day to the present century, they have been 
attributed. Mrs. Dall is already favourably known in 
American literature ; she writes well and pleasantly, 
and she brings to her task a considerable amount of 
book-learning. But her acquisitions fall short of the 
requirements of the problem, and by her want either of 
knowledge or of care she accepts and promulgates 
documentary evidence about Shakspeare which is purely 
fabulous. For instance, on page 118 she informs us that 
' in 1609 he was assessed at Southwark in the Liberty 
of the Clmk." This precious fact Mrs. Dall obtains 
from a document preserved in the library of Dulwich 
College. She ought to have known that it is a modern 
forgery, condemned by the authorities of the British 
Museum and the Record Office. The fact of this con- 
demnation stands recorded in more books than we care 
to enumerate. A facsimile of it will be found in Dr. 
Ingleby's ' Complete View,' p. 276, and it is one of the 
registered forgeries in Mr. Q. F. Warners ' Catalogue of 
the Dulwich Manuscripts.' Again, on p. 148 she relies 
for a most interesting bit of dramatic history on a still 
more notorious forgery, condemned by the same autho- 
rities, of which facsimiles have been published by both 
Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps and Dr. Ingleby. That of the 
latter appears at p. 256 of the ' Complete View.' This 
is the famous H. S. letter, or Lord Southampton's letter 
to Sir Thomas Egerton, asking protection for Shak- 
speare and Burbidge (sic), which is perhaps the best 
executed of that long series of impostures which the 
late Mr. John Payne Collier had the misfortune to 
" discover" and publish. It is, of course, to be expected 
that here and there some writer on the history of the 
drama should be duped by one or other of these fabrica- 
tions ; but nevertheless the writer of a systematic book 
like this before us is wholly without excuse. A similar 
want of care is found in Mrs. Dall's dealings with printed 
literature and genuine MSS. For instance, she quotes a 
long passage from ' The Return from Pernassus,' a racy 
and amusing play, full of gross personalities, which was 
performed at Cambridge in 1602 and printed in 1606. 
This work she cites as a ' Criticism on English Poets 



. I. JAN. 30, '86. 

Again, her citations from the ' Diary ' of Thomas Greene at 
pp. 64 and 65 contain inaccuracies which are, indeed, 
more excusable, but from which she would have been 
saved had she verified her extracts by consulting Dr. 
Ingleby's edition of the ' Diary ' issued last spring, and of 
which "a copy is in one of the New York libraries. Such 
lapses lay Mrs. Dall's work open to the most unpleasant 
rejoinders from the Baconian party, who will not be 
slow to point out how much of her Sbakspearian struc- 
ture, like the famous ice palace of Queen Catherine, 
will dissolve before the radiance of criticism. But the 
truth is that, after all necessary deductions, there remains 
a solid foundation of fact which is an all-sufficient 
answer to the vagaries of the Bacon - Shakspeare 

Christianity lefore Christ; or, Prototypes of our 
Faith and Culture. By Charles J. Stone, F.R.S.L. 
F.R.Hist.S. (Triibner & Co.) 

THE aim of Mr. Stone is to show that in India much of 
what is best in the applied Christianity of the West was 
anticipated, and to prove that in general civilization the 
countries now in British possession were far in advance 
of European nations. To this task he brings extensive 
erudition combined with sincere convictions. Nothing 
in his volume is intended to disturb the faith of Western 
peoples in the revelations made to them. Mr. Stone, 
however, claims for the Buddhists a revelation earlier and 
not less important than our own, and in many respects 
analogous with it. In the execution of his task he 
gives a full analysis of the Mahabharata epic, and de- 
pcribes many important discoveries of the ancient 
Hindus. Mr. Stone writes clearly arid well, and sup- 
plies abundance of interesting information. The claims 
of his work are not accordingly confined to Indian 
specialists, but extend to general readers, who cannot 
fail to find much that is interesting and valuable. 

Nemton, his Friend, and his Niece. By the late 
Augustus De Morgan. Edited by his Wife and by his 
pupil Arthur Cowper Ranyard. (Stock.) 
DE MORGAN'S defence of Newton from the charge of 
connivance at dishonouring relations between his niece 
Catherine Barton and his friend Charles Montague, Earl 
of Halifax, will be studied with interest by many old con- 
tributors to ' N. & Q.,' in the columns of which De Morgan 
ventilated his theories as to the secret marriage which 
he held to have taken place between the two. The 
argument was taken up in an article intended for the 
' Companion to the Almanack,' which was rejected by 
Charles Knight, and has since been enlarged into its 
present dimensions. The pleading of De Morgan is 
highly characteristic and ingenious, and will force 
admiration even where it fails to win assent. Ad- 
mirers of De Morgan will be glad to possess this volume. 

A True and Most Dreadfull Discourse of a Woman 
possessed with the Deuill. Edited by Ernest E. Baker. 
(Weston-super-Mare, Robbins.) 

MR. BAKER holds, and we hold with him, that one who 
brings to light an almost extinct and unknown tract 
renders a service to others. He has accordingly reprinted 
in facsimile a curious black-letter tract of 1584. de- 
scribing how at Ditcbeat, in Somersetshire, the devil, in 
the likeness of a headless bear, and in presence of many 
credible witnesses who append their names to the report, 
appeared to a married woman named Margaret Cooper. 
The manner in which Mephistopheles acquitted himself 
in his amorphous shape and the tribulation of all con- 
cerned must be read in this curious work, the interest of 
which extends beyond the locality connected with the 
incidents described. 

The Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Vol. V. Part I. (Casaell 


WHILE one reprint of this well-known dictionary, in 
course of publication in parts, is still at the beginning 
of the alphabet, an earlier edition, issued in volumes, has 
got more than half way through. The first part of the 
fifth volume begins with Milne and ends with parbuckle. 
It abounds with desirable information. Not easy, too, is 
it to tell of how much advantage are the cuts which 
accompany words such as morion, naissant (heraldic), 
nimbus, pagoda, &c., of which it is difficult by words to 
convey an adequate idea. For proof of the miscel- 
laneous information conveyed the reader may turn to 
Pall Mall, to monachism, and a hundred different 

THE first number of a reprint of Cassell's Illustrated 
Shakespeare,' edited by Charles and Mary Cowden Clarke, 
and copiously illustrated by H. C. Selous, has just been 
issued. With it is a facsimile of the will of Sbakspeare, 
which cannot be other than a recommendation to the 
edition. The opening play is ' The Tempest.' 

PART XXVII. of Mr. Hamilton's 'Parodies' deals 
with Campbell and Burns. 

A FACSIMILE reprint of the first edition of the ' Roscius 
Anglicanus ' of Downes, the prompter of Sir William 
Davenant's company, one of the rarest and most impor- 
tant contributions to our knowledge of the early history 
of the stage, is promised by Messrs. J. W. Jarvis & Son 
in a limited edition. 

IN the last catalogue of Mr. W. P. Bennett, of Bir- 
mingham, among many curious works is a manuscript on 
vellum of the Vulgate which is assigned to the thirteenth 

flotfcerf to CorredpmiiJent*. 

We must call special attention to the folloioing notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

A. C. B. ("Beautiful Snow "). This poem may be 
found in ' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. iv. 12. It was published in the 
form of a small pamphlet by John Stabb, 5, Red Lion 
Square, W.C., and by W. Willis, 2, Great Dover Street. 

C. C. (" Question of Relationship "). No. 

H. 0. (" True Date of the Birth of Christ "). We are 
disinclined to reopen the question. 

ERRATA. P. 33, col. 2, 1. 15 from bottom, for " Glou- 
cestershire workhouse " read Worcestershire almshouse. 
P. 63, col. 2, 1. 10 from bottom, for "Lincoln" read 
London. P. 68, col. 2, 11. 10 and 11 from bottom, for 
" Johanna " read Johannce ; 1. 9 from bottom, for " to " 
read 6. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7'" S. I. FEB. 6, '86.] 





NOTES : History of the Thames, 101 The Village Green, 
102 Cornet Blackburn Portrait of Byron, 104 Bliss- 
Extracts from Crosstone Registers, 106 Perio Lambeth 
Degrees, 1885 Footway from Haymarket, 106. 

QUERIES : Montaigne Dartmoor Bibliography A Curious 

Race Westminster School Porter of Calais Proverbs on 

Ducks, 107 St. Evremond Robertson Stratton Whiskey 
Lent Fines Roi de Paques Head Family A zagra, 108 
Campbell of Craignish " Plain Dealing" Clock Makers- 
Brass Seal Upright Grave-stones Subject of Picture 
A. Sharp Epigram by Macaulay Queen's Day Beresford 
Chapel Early Pronunciation of English, 109 Napoleon's 
Dream Bewick Cuts Lombard Street, 110. 

REPLIES : Churchwardens, 110 Portsmouth, 111 Knoxis 
Prefix "En" Latin Poem Crest- Wreaths Suicide of 
Animals, 112 Prayer of Queen of Scots Landlord Mrs. 
Parsons Smoking in Church Arms of Halifax, 113 
Pentameters Descendants of Mead and Wilkes, 114 
Folifate Rev. E. Neale Shepster Knox's Clock Colle- 
gium Grassinseum Kelly's Saloon, 115 Fleming Carew 
Raleigh Castles Stangnum Esquire, 116 Must Al- 
manac Origin of Saying, 117 Volume of Sermons- German 
Proverbs Cantankerous Casaubon's Haunted Parish 
Beldam' Gulliver's Travels 'Cornish Carol, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Burke's 'Peerage and Baronetage' 
Walford's 'County Families 'Doyle's 'Official Baronage 
from 1066 to 1885.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



Now we have seen that Holinshed, or rather his 
fellow- worker Harrison, assumes without question 
that Albion and Bergios stand in the story as the 
representatives of the British Islands. That this 
identification is no mere dream of an Elizabethan 
chronicler is satisfactorily proved by no less an 
authority than Prof. Khys. These names, says the 

" one may without much hesitation restore to the forma 
Albion and Iberion, representing undoubtedly Britain 
and Ireland, the position of which in the sea is most 
appropriately symbolized by the story making them sons 
of Neptune or the sea-god. The geographical difficulty 
of bringing Albion and Liguria together is completely 
disposed of by the fact that Britain and Ireland were 
once thought by Greek and Latin writers to have 
been separated from Gaul and Spain by only a very 
narrow channel, not to mention that it is hardly known 
how far Liguria may have reached to the west and 
north, or even the Loire in Latin Liger may not have 
got that name as a Ligurian river."f 

! ' Celtic Britain,' p. 201. 
f In furthur corroboration of the identity of Bergios 
and Iberion, or rather Iberjon, which Prof. Rhys 
believes to be the correct form, I may here remark tha 
the simple substitution of an n for a u in the Greek 
name for the southern part of St, George's Channe 

For myself I cannot help thinking that the 
connexion between Albion and Ligys may be of 
a much closer character. In the delightful chron- 
cles which make the history of Britain a sequel to 
he tale of Troy divine, Brutus, king of the whole 
sland, has three sons, who are the eponymous 
tings of the three great divisions Locrinus, king 
>f Loegria, or England ; Camber, king of Cambria, 
or Wales ; and Albanact, king of Albania, or 
Scotland. Translated into less figurative lan- 
_uage, this means that at the earliest time of 
which the author of the myth possessed any record 
or tradition, Britain had been divided into three 
more or less clearly defined territories, occupied 
)y three dominant races, all derived from a com- 
mon Caucasian stock,* but all differing more or 
ess widely in language, and all exercising more 
or less independent sovereignty.f It is remark- 
able, too, that while many early authorities claim 
a sort of vague feudal overlordship on behalf of 
Cambria, all the versions of the eponymous myth 
epresent Locrinus as the eldest son of Brute, 
which, I take it, can only mean that Loegria at 
the time was the most powerful of the three states 
if states they may be called. There can be no 
doubt, I imagine, that this tripartite division of 
the island actually did exist at a period long 
before the Roman conquest, and I am not 
aware of any antecedent improbability in the con- 
jecture that before the time of -<Eschylus the 
" Loegrians " I use the term to avoid complica- 
tion may have been the most warlike and best 
known of the nations of Britain, or in the further 
conjecture that they may have entered into an 
alliance with certain tribes of Northern Britain 
and Ireland against the " Cambrians," the former 
lords of the " Loegrian " soil. I venture, there- 
fore not without misgiving, but I hope with some 
show of reason to suggest that if Albion and 

would give us a Bergipnian instead of, as it is 
usually rendered, a Vergivian Ocean. It is just worth 
note, too, that the Georgians, the same race as the 
ancient Iberians of the East, are still called Virk by 
Armenian writers. See Smith's ' Diet.,' s.v. " Iberia." 

* The original cradle of the three races is said to have 
been " Gafis in Asia," which I assume means the Cau- 
casian land 

Where cloud-capped Kaf protrudes his granite toes. 

f How, where, and when arose the horrible confusion 
in the jargon of modern diplomacy between sovereignty 
and suzerainty a sovereign and a suzerain] In his 
' Juventus Mundi ' (1869) Mr. Gladstone writes of " the 
empire, or, to use a modern phrase, the suzerainty, of 
Agamemnon" (p. 46). At a later date he made use of 
the same term to define the relation of the Queen of 
Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India towards 
the victorious Boers of Africa. Surely it required no 
profound scholarship to recognize in the sover- of 
sovereign the Latin fuper, and the Latin subtus in the 
sue- of suzerain I Why did not Mr. Freeman prevent 
the perpetration of such a solecism as the description of 
her Majesty in an official document as the "under-lady " 
of certain semi-barbaric African Dutchmen? 



[?< h S. I, FEB. 6, '80, 

Bergios are accepted as referring to Britain an 
Ireland, it is not improbable that the "Loegrians 
whatever their right name may be may be th 
real historic equivalents of the mythic " Ligyan 
host " of the Greek tragedian. 

But, even assuming the possible identity of the 
two, how came Hercules to be fighting with an 
representatives of the British Islands near th 
mouth of the Rhone? I rather think that the 
answer is to be found in the vagueness of the earl 
traditions relating to the European Far West. ] 
Strabo or Mela found in the poets a reference to a 
ght of Hercules with giants in a stony plain, anc 
in the accounts of travellers a mention of a stony 
waste where Hercules was said to have fought with 
giants, it was inevitable that the two stories woulc 
be confounded, and that any names of giants who 
fought at a place unnamed by the poets would be 
taken as the names of any unnamed giants who 
fought at a placed named by the travellers. This 
is what I conceive really took place. A marvellous 
number of localities presenting unusual natural 
phenomena were associated with the name oi 
Hercules, just as in after days Robin Hood or 
King Arthur was made godfather to any group 
of rocks or cavern or cleft that looked like the 
handiwork of a giant. One such locality Strabo 
found at the plain of La Crau, and having found the 
local habitation, he transferred a name from another 
story about Hercules to the same place.* 

It is worth note, however, that a " promontory 
of Heracles " is mentioned by Ptolemy in Britain, 
which supplies quite as fitting a scene for the en- 
counter as La Crau itself, and manifestly a much 
more probable place for the hero to meet Albion 
and Bergios with a Ligurian or Loegrian host. 
This promontory is clearly identifiable as Hartland 
Point, in North Devon, and though no extant local 
tradition recalls the name of Heracles, the name 
itself recalls the tradition of our own indigenous 
Hercules, the Scilding Beowulf. Hartland, I 
fancy, still preserves the name of Heorot, which 
Beowulf gave to the home he built for himself, " of 
hall-houses greatest," where for twelve long years 
he was harassed by the Grendel till the day came 
when the monster's right arm was wrenched off by 
the hero in single conflict. Here on the wild coast 
of North Devon and the wilder shores of Lundy 
Island not, I venture to say, with some approach 
to confidence, on the seaboard of Northern Jut- 
land, where the perverse ingenuity of commentators 
has posited them are to be found the scenes of 
the earliest English epic, still to be identified by a 
long series of correspondences and coincidences to 
which I can here only make a passing allusion. 
Here, then, I find, or seem to find, the real battle- 
field of Heracles, and recognize, or seem to recog- 
nize, in his features not merely a mythic Beowulf 

* Cf, Humboldt, ' Kosmos,' vol. i., note 61, p. xxii. 

doing battle with the Grendel and the Grendel's 
dam, but a veritable Viking Beowulf fighting for 
the dear life by flood and fell with the warriors of 
Loegria, and finally making good his footing on 
their soil, a prehistoric pioneer of the English 
people on a part of our coast as yet far beyond the 
English border, if any English border there were 
at the time. 

I have commented somewhat at large on this 
fragment of ^Eschylus, because it has been re- 
garded as containing the earliest known reference 
to the British Islands preserved in any literature. 
The Cassiterides, or Tin Islands, of which Hero- 
dotus tells us that he knows nothing, have been 
shown to be neither the British Islands themselves, 
nor even the Scillies, but certain islands, " towards 
NamancosandBayona's hold," off Vigoon the Span- 
ish coast. The mention, moreover, of the Brettanic 
Islands in Aristotle's ' Treatise of the World ' is 
open to the objection that the treatise, valuable as 
it is, was palpably not written by Aristotle, and 
may be of considerably later date. Some of the 
authorities who supplied part of their information 
to later writers probably belong to days earlier 
than those of ^Eschylus, but there is no distinct 
evidence of the fact, and Pytheas of Marseilles or 
Himilco of Carthage is as likely to have written 
after as before the date of ' Prometheus Unbound.' 
Shadowy, no doubt, and unsatisfactory is this allu- 
sion to Britain. One fabulous hero in a play tells 
another fabulous hero that at a certain unspecified 
place he will meet an army of Ligyans, which he 
is destined to destroy by a miracle wrought in his 
favour by a fabulous divinity. This is all. With- 
out the light of later writers it would have been 
m possible for anybody even to surmise that any 
reference to our islands lurked between the lines. 
But when Mela speaks of Albion and Bergios as 
the leaders of the army, there can be no reason- 
able doubt that Britain and Ireland are really 
alluded to, and when he describes them as sons of 
Neptune, he proves my special point, that the 
earliest recognized reference to Britain implicitly 
defines it as an island, although it is proved by 
geological induction to have been inhabited when 
t was still part of the mainland. Shadowy as is 
he allusion, it enables us to assert distinctly that 
sonsiderably more than three-and-twenty centuries 
go the tide had even then ebbed and flowed for 
mmemorial ages over the floor of the Channel and 
he North Sea, once, in yet earlier immemorial 
ges, the hunting-grounds of innumerable genera- 
ions of men. BROTHER FABIAN. 
(To le continued.) 

The perusal of a list of field-names, including 
tie quantities of the fields and the names of their 
wners, has caused me to consider whether some- 

I* S. I. FEB. 6, '86.] 



thing might not be said on the subject of village 
greens. I have before me a survey of the town- 
ship of Cold- Aston, in Derbyshire, made in 1815, 
shortly after the enclosure of the commons there, 
and I have been struck in turning over its pages 
by the curious manner in which separate bits of 
the old village green were at the time of enclosure 
parcelled out amongst the various landowners 
within the township. On going through these 
items I found that the green had been divided 
into nine small portions, and apportioned amongst 
six landowners in quantities varying from an acre 
and a half to twenty-six perches. When the frag- 
ments are added together the exact size of the 
green appears to have been 3a. 2r. 39p. It lay 
in the very centre of the village, and round it 
were grouped the houses of some of the principal 
inhabitants, including the inn past which the 
London coaches ran. I have seen no plan of it, 
but its shape must have been irregular. 

The green of the adjacent village of Norton had 
no better fate. Of this place Ebenezer Rhodes, in 
his ' Peak Scenery,' 1822, pt. iv. p. 6, says : 

" This secluded place is more neat and trim than for- 
merly : it has lost part of its rural appearance by the 
enclosure of the many little verdant spots with which it 
was once adorned. The village green, the scene of many a 
mirthful sport, has disappeared, and every spot is now se- 
curely hemmed in with fences. I question not the policy of 
such proceedings they may be wise and useful, perhaps 
necessary, but they have devastated many a lovely scene, 
and impaired the beauty of many a rural picture." 

The green was contiguous to the churchyard, and 
a small triangular bit of it is left, near to which 
stands a plain obelisk to the memory of Sir 
Francis Chantrey, sculptor. The above lines 
were written by Rhodes shortly after the en- 
closure of commons, and they are interesting as 
showing that the loss of the village green was even 
then a thing to be lamented. 

Every one is familiar with the "Plestor" of 
White's 4 Natural History and Antiquities of 
Selborne.' If I may quote so well-known a book, 
White says in his second letter : 

" In the centre of the village, and near the church, is 
a square piece of ground surrounded by houses, and vul- 
garly called the Plestor. In the midst of this spot stood 
in old times a vast oak, with a short squat body and huge 
horizontal arms, extending almost to the extremity of 
the area. This venerable tree, surrounded with stone 
steps, and seats above them, was the delight of old and 
young, and a place of much resort in summer evenings ; 
where the former sat in grave debate, while the latter 
frolicked and danced before them." 

In the tenth letter, relating to " The Antiquities of 
Selborne," White tells us that in the year 1271 Sir 
Adam Grurdon and Constantia, his wife, 
" granted to the prior and convent of Selborne all his 
right and claim to a certain place, placea, called La 
Pleystow, in the village aforesaid ' in liberam puram, et 
perpetuam elemosinam' This Pleystow, locus ludorum, 
or play-place, is a level area near the church of about 
forty-four yards by thirty-six," 

Thus the size of the Plestor was 1,584 square 
yards, or nearly one-third of an acre. It may 
have been the village green, but I am not sure of 
it. The Plestor was, indeed, a playing-place, but 
the play was of a sterner kind than the gambols 
of children or the games of May Day. It was the 
wrestling-place of old times, the Dutch worstel- 
perk. The ' Catholicon Anglicum' (1483) has 
" wrastyllynge place, palestra, palisma," and in 
A.-S. glossaries of the eleventh century, printed 
amongst the Wright- Wlilcker vocabularies, may be 
seen " palestrarum, gestrynga," " amphitheatri 
[sic] plegstowe," and " gymnasia, on plegstowum." 
Probably these play-stows were surrounded by 
wooden palings, for Baret, in the *Alvearie/ 
1580, speaks of " a wrestling-place, or the seate of 
wrestling or barriars." A wood engraving of two 
men engaged in single combat occurs several 
times in Holinshed's ' Chronicles/ ed. 1577, where 
the combatants are divided from the spectators by 
compact wooden palings, and in the same book 
there is an engraving, several times repeated, of 
two wrestlers, but they are not surrounded by 
barriers. And there is another engraving, occur- 
ring in vol. ii. p. 869, and elsewhere, which 
appears to represent the sacking of a village. Here 
the houses are disposed in an irregular line leading 
up to the church, and they are not divided from 
the adjacent open field by any kind of fence. This 
field may be, and I think is, the village green. 

To go further back, there is a great resem- 
blance between the English green or play-stow 
and the palastra, &c. , of the Romans. When Virgil is 
describing the abodes of the blessed, he can think 
of no happier scene than that of fields dressed in 
purple light, in the midst of which is a place of 
games a village green : 

Devenere locos laetos, et amoena vireta 
Fortunatorum nemorum, sedesque beatas. 
Largior hie campos aether et lumine vestit 
Purpureo, solemque suum, sua sidera norunt. 
Pars in gramineis exercent membra palsestris, 
Contendunt ludo, et fulva luctantur arena : 
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas, et carmina dicunt. 
<^En.,'vi. 643. 

Not in all cases, probably, was the green in the 
middle of the village. Prefixed to Mr. Seebohm's 
'English Village Community* is a map of the 
township of Hitchin, about 1816. Here the 
common field system is in prominent view. Most 
of the houses are disposed on each side of a long 
street. No village green is marked ; but at a 
little distance away from the long street is a piece 
of common ground called "The Butts Close." 
There is a similar piece of ground near the village 
of Ashover, in Derbyshire, known as "The Butts." 
Each of these places must have been used for 
archery, for butt does not here mean a strip in an 
open field abutting on other strips. In each case 
these places may have represented the village 



[7 th S. I. FEB. 6, '86. 

It would be interesting to see a few instances 
collected, from parish maps and other sources, of 
the size, position, and names of English village 
greens, and these lines have been written in the 
hope of obtaining some information on the sub- 
ject. It is, of course, no more possible to re- 
store the lost village green than it is possible to 
bring back the two or three centuries of history, 
written on stone, brass, and marble, which during 
the last quarter of a century have been care- 
fully swept out of our churches. Yet some fading 
traces or memories of these "play-stows," these 
English palcestrce, may remain. 

It may be remarked that there is a strong 
resemblance between the words palcestra (TraAcuV- 
rpa) and Plestor. 

There is a Plaistow in Essex, about five miles 
from London, and another place of that name, in 
North Derbyshire, is mentioned in a poll book of 
that county, dated 1734. I do not, of course, 
derive play-stow from the Latin, but I see no 
reason why the word should not have been used 
as an interpretative corruption of palcestra. Doubt- 
less the Romans introduced their games amongst 
us ; and Lord Selborne, in a very interesting 
chapter on the antiquities of Selborne, appended 
to Buckland's edition of White, has shown, from 
recent discoveries of coins and implements of war, 
how well known that place must have been to the 
Komans. S. 0. ADDY. 

7 th S. i. 19.) As the writer of the 
memoir of Cornet Blackburn which Canon Hul- 
bert has incorporated in his * Annals of Almond- 
bury,' I feel it incumbent upon me to say that I 
took the statement to which you except from no 
partisan authority; but that, on the contrary, I 
sorrowfully deduced it from the evidence of the 
men themselves. My accusation is levelled not, as 
you seem to think, against the "Puritan leaders," 
for I specially excepted " the Lord General Fairfax 
and some few others, who were quite overborne," 
but it was directed against the leaders of "the 
military party on the Republican side." I say, 
and am prepared to maintain by evidence, that at 
the time I mention, " the autumn of 1648," those 
"military leaders" were gradually coming to the 
determination that their warfare should be one of 
extermination ; and that by November or Decem- 
ber they had resolved ' l to avail themselves of one 
excuse or another to put to death every Royalist 
officer whom they took prisoner, and to send to 
slavery" abroad " every common man for whom 
they could not find corresponding employment at 

No one can read ever so cursorily the Tanner 
MSS. in the Bodleian, or (a better example) the 
Baynes MSS. in the British Museum, or any other 
similar contemporary documents without meeting 

with illustrations of this state of mind, and with- 
out perceiving that the determination I have men- 
tioned was the real instigation of Pride's Purge on 
December 6, 1648, by which a Puritan majority of 
the House, inclined and willing to treat with the 
king, was sequestrated, in order that an Inde- 
pendent and Republican minority, resolved to put 
a fatal close to all possibility of negotiation, might 
effect their purpose. "Fairfax and the Puritan 
leaders" were by such means "overborne"; the 
king's trial and execution, and the execution of 
Duke Hamilton and other leaders who had been 
admitted to composition by the unpurged Parlia- 
ment followed. All took place under some form 
of trial, it is true; but how fair was that trial will be 
ascertained after inquiry into the number and pro- 
portion of the accused who escaped. As for the 
" Common Prisoners," as Cromwell calls them in 
his letter from Dalhousie, October 8, 1648, they 
were "given away," two thousand at a time, or 
" sold " at half-a-crown a dozen ! 

The system of extermination of which I wrote 
seems to have commenced in the first war, with a 
Parliamentary ordinance to hang any Irish rebel 
taken in arms in England. Commenced, however, 
against the Irish during the first war, the scope of 
the measure and its spirit were extended during 
the second, that of 1648, till at length the ruling 
authorities brought themselves to instruct the 
judges that such a one was "worthy of death"; 
while the judges had brought themselves to take 
the hint, and, with a packed jury ready to follow 
the lead, to mercilessly ignore each plea, and reso- 
lutely overwhelm the victim that was once within 
their toils. 

I should be very glad if you could open your 
columns for a discussion of this question, which is 
one of considerable interest, although the ordinary 
histories absolutely ignore the facts, for ' N. & Q.' 
seems to be a very suitable medium for ventilating 
the subject. I have given the heads of my argu- 
ments, and shall be willing to substantiate and 
adduce authority for every statement I have made. 

R. H. H. 


Jernyngham's 'Reminiscences of an Attache/ 
which is concluded in the January number of 
Blackwood's Magazine, we find a curious example 
of how history is written. In allusion to the 
Contessa Guiccioli the writer says : 

" I asked her which was the best portrait existing of 
Byron, and she gave me a photograph of him, from a 
portrait by Phillips, the same which 1 caused io be repro- 
duced as a frontispiece for my translation of her ' Recol- 
lections ';* but when she gave it, she looked at it a 
moment in reverent Bilence, then burst out in commenda- 
tion of Byron's neck, his brow, his face, his nails, but 
especially his mouth," &c. 

* The italics are mine. 

. I. FEB. 6, '86.] 



Now all this is mighty fine ; but, unfortunately, 
the portrait actually reproduced as a frontispiece 
to the English version of the Guiccioli book is 
taken not from Phillips, but from a portrait of 
Byron by West a picture, by the way, of which 
the translator jauntily speaks in the following 
terms (see note, p. 38) : 

" Among the bd portraits of Lord Byron spread over 
the world, there is one that surpasses all others in ugli- 
ness, which is often put up for sale, and which a mer- 
cantile spirit wishes to pass off for a good likeness; it 
was done by an American, Mr. West an excellent man, 
but a very bad painter. This portrait, which America 
requested to have taken, and which Lord Byron con- 
sented to sit for, was begun at Montenero, near Leghorn ; 
but Lord Byron being obliged to leave Montenero sud- 
denly, could only give Mr. West two or three sittings. 
It was then finished from memory, and. far from being 
at all like Lord Byron, it a frightful caricature, which 
his family or friends ought to destroy"* 

Thus, we have this "frightful caricature," which, 
in the opinion of the translator, ought to be de- 
stroyed, perpetuated as a frontispiece to the very 
book in which it is so strongly condemned ! This 
is humoursome enough to be acknowledged as a 
joke, and I note it accordingly. Whatever may 
have been the facts, I need scarcely remind the 
reader that the Guiccioli had anything but a high 
opinion of Phillips's portrait of Byron. Writing 
to Lamartine, she says : " In Phillips's picture the 
expression is one of haughtiness and affected 
dignity, never once visible to those who ever saw 

We are further told in her book (p. 38) that 
the Guiccioli considered " the portrait by Westall 
superior to the others, although it does not come 
up to the original." Some years ago Lord Malmes- 
bury told me that the Guiccioli had expressed to 
him her opinion that Bartolini's bust gives the best 
idea of Byron. I dare not dispute that judgment, 
but cannot help smiling at the notion that, in the 
eyes of his lady-love, Byron had all the appear- 
ance of a "superannuated Jesuit." 


33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

STREETS, ASTRONOMER. According to my wish, 
the particulars which I found (' N. & Q./ 6 th S. xi. 
235) respecting Bliss in MS. in a copy of Streete's 
' Caroline Tables ' have been incorporated into the 
account of the fourth Astronomer Royal in the 
new 'Dictionary of National Biography,' vol. v. 
But a very curious mistake has been made in doing 
so. I remarked that Bliss must have married 
at an early age, because the MS. in question states 
that his son John Bliss matriculated at Oxford in 
1740, being then sixteen years of age, so that he 
must have been born in 1724 (his father was born 
in 1700). In the < Dictionary ' we are told that 

* The italics are mine. 

the son was born in 1740; and the reader is then 
left to conclude that he was of extraordinary pre- 
cocity, for the date of his taking his B.A. degree 
is given correctly as March 11, 1745/6. In 
stating that I found the above particulars in a 
fly-leaf of " the copy of Thomas Streete's ' Astro- 
nomia Carolina 7 which is in the library of the 
British Museum," I should have said (as copies of 
both editions of that work are in our national 

library), "the copy of the second edition of ," 

which was published in 1710, after the author's 
death, under the editorship of Halley, who gives 
in an appendix the results of a number of ob- 
servations of the moon made by himself at 
Islington in the years 1682-3-4. The death of 
Streete is alluded to in the preface ; but I 
believe all the efforts which have been made to 
ascertain the date of that event have proved un- 
successful. If any reader of ' N. & Q.,' can con- 
tradict this and assign it I shall be glad. 

W. T. LYNN. 

CROSSTONE. The following extracts from the 
registers of the church of St. Paul, Crosstone, 
formerly known as the Chapelry of Crosstone, may 
be of interest. The earliest date in the existing 
registers is 1678, but they must, I fancy, go further 
back, but the earlier books are nonexistent : 
" Excommunications. 

Susan Greenwood, Martha Greenwood and Grace 
Collings, all of Stansfield. Dated York, May 20>, 1756 ; 
published at Crostone, June 6"', 1756. 

John Walton and Mary Cunliffe, both of Stansfield, 
were declared Excommunicated July 5 th , 1761. Dated 
at York 28th of May, 1761." 

From a later register book I quote the following : 

" Memorandum made the 25 th day of April in the Year 
of our Lord One Thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
eight Witnesseth that I, M. TJttley, the present Clerk of 
the Chapel of Crosstone, did in my own person go to 
Scaitcliflfe to M r John Crossley, Son of Anthony Cross- 
ley, Donor of a Violincello (or as it is commonly called a 
Bass Viol), which Violincello afores d was reported to have 
been given to John Stephenson Clerk my predecessor for 
his own Property and Use. But hearing to the contrary, I 
applied to the above M r John Crossley aforesaid to know 
the intention of the gift, who said : ' It was always 
understood in their family to be given to the Use of the 
singers of Crosstone Chapel, and to be played by the 
above John Stephenson or others who might come after 
him at the Chapel of Crosstone afores d so long as it 
should remain fit to be played on.' And Elias Green- 
wood, a Singer at that time. Says that the above Anthony 
Cronsley gave it in these Words. ' I think (says the above 
Anthony Crossley) yu ar- (i. e. to ye Body of Singers 
being in a Summer House at Seaitcliffe afores d ) in Want 
of a Baas. I must make you a present of one.' Which 
word- were the most he ever heard him say as to the 
gift of it. That the above is a fair statement of the 
Matter and the truth of what we know and believe as to 
ye gift of the s d Bass to the s d Singers of Crosstone Chapel 
for ever, As Witness our Hands. 

Wrote by M. UTTLEY, Crosstone. 




[7 th S. I. FEB. 6, '86. 

The names of the witnesses are illegible. The 
memorandum is written on the fly-leaf of the 
parish register, but is four years later in date than 
the first entry in the volume, which is August 16, 
1794. T. G. P. 

Miss Agnes Strickland was writing her life of 
Mary Stuart in 'The Queens of Scotland' I com- 
municated to her the local legend concerning 
Perio Lane (pronounced " Perry ") at Fothering- 
hay, and she mentioned it on p. 420 of her con- 
cluding volume. Subsequently she told me that 
she had discovered a deed of a prior date to the 
time of Mary, Queen of Scots, in which the name 
" Perio " occurs. I have mentioned this in my 
recently published little book ' Fotheringhay and 
Mary, Queen of Scots,' which was very kindly re- 
viewed in this journal on January 16 (p. 60). 
Since the publication of my book Mr. R. B. 
Pooley, solicitor, Oundle, has been good enough to 
show me a certified copy (dated 1777) of an 
original record then remaining in the Tower of 
London, of a perambulation of Olive Forest, in 
the twenty-seventh year of King Edward I., 1299, 
giving a description of certain boundaries. From 
this I extract the following : 

" Efc sic de Walmisforde pr ripam de Nene includendo 
villam de Jarwell & villam de Nassynton & villam de 
Foderyngeye usque ad campum de Pyriho at sic ad le 

Hoesende excludendo at sic ad Totenhobroke 

usque ad Bradelye includendo chaceam de Pyriho," &c. 

The chase of Pyriho is here clearly noted. Be- 
sides Totenho there are also Wadenho, Aynho, 
Farthingho, &c., in Northamptonshire. " Perio " 
is the modern rendering of the ancient " Pyriho," 
and so appears on the Ordnance map. For various 
learned articles on the meaning of " ho " or " hoe" 
in place-names, see * N. & Q.,' 4 th S. x. 102, 171, 
255, 298, 461, 507. CUTHBERT BEDE. 


B.D. Alexander J. Harrison, Vicar of Water- 
foot, Manchester. 

B.D. John Miller, B.A. London University, 
Head Master of Weymouth College and of Mel- 
combe Regis School. 

D.D. J. 0. Edghill, KC.L., Th.As., Chaplain- 
General of the Forces. 

LL.D. J. 0. Cox, Enville Rectory, near Stour- 
bridge. On the petition of Dean and Chapter of 
Lichfield, supported by the recommendation of the 
Bishop of Lichfield, the Duke of Devonshire, 
Lord Scarsdale, Canon Greenwell, and others, in 
recognition of his antiquarian knowledge. 

LL.B. Mr. G. M. Norris, Principal of the 
Birkbeck Institution. On the recommendation of 
the Bishops of London, Ripon, and Brisbane, the 
Earls of Northbrook and Lytton, Lord Edtnond 
Fitzmaurice, Mr. Mundella, and the Secretary of 
the Society of Arts, in recognition of the valuable 

work Mr. Norris has performed for the last twenty 
years in promoting the education of the young men 
and women of the metropolis in connexion with 
that institution. M.A.Oxon. 

From a Bill in Chancery, filed Feb. 5, 1685, by 
Charles Marshall and Edmund Marshall, sons and 
executors of Simon Marshall, late of the parish 
of St. Giles in the Fields, vintner, deceased, 
against Ambrose Meeres, which has recently passed 
through my hands, I have extracted the following 
particulars relating to a well-known London locality, 
which may interest your readers. From the minute 
way in which the measurements and abuttals are set 
out, it would not be difficult to lay down upon a 
map the exact position of the premises described. 

The Bill alleges that one John Browne, being 
possessed of certain lands and houses in or near 
"Pickadilly," in the parish of St. Martin in the 
Fields, and also in a place called Leicester Fields, 
near thereunto, did, on Dec. 1, 1671, mortgage to 
Simon Marshall for 2,900Z., a messuage called the 
Windmill in " Pickadilly," and also the yard to 
the same belonging, containing from east to west on 
the north side thereof 160 feet, and abutting on the 
ground of Sir William Poultney ; and from east 
to west on the south side 110 feet, abutting on a 
messuage in the occupation of one Robert Greene ; 
and from north to south on the east side 188 feet, 
abutting on a footway leading out of the " Hay- 
markett in Pickadilly to Soe Hoe "; and also con- 
taining from north to south on the west side 117 
feet, abutting on a piece of ground called the Pingle, 
and then or late in the occupation of Mr. James 
Axtell; all which premises had been purchased 
by John Browne from James Baker and Grace his 

By another deed of the same date Browne 
mortgaged to Marshall, as a further security, 
a piece of leasehold ground, on part whereof 
formerly stood the "Crown and Feathers," then 
late in the occupation of John Marshall and 
Edward Hinckley, together with a slip of ground 
late belonging to the messuage called the Homes, 
theretofore in the possession of Edward Hickman, 
containing in length from south to north on the 
west 151 feet, and in breadth from east to west on 
the north 100 feet, in depth from north to south 
along the coach houses of Mr. Thomas Panton 
75 feet, and in breadth from east to west on the 
south part thereof 61 feet, abutting southward on 
the highway leading from St. Giles in the Fields 
to Knightsbridge, westward on the highway, lane, 
or street leading from the Haymarkett in the said 
parish of St. Martin to Soe Hoe, northward on a 
messuage in the occupation of Abbott Newell, and 
eastward and southward in part on the said 
coach houses and other new erected messuages of 
the said Thomas Panton, and to front the Hay 

. I. FEB. 6, '80.] 



Markett, and are in the said parish of St. Martin. 
This leasehold ground was held by Browne from 
Thomas Panton. 

Query, Where was the " footway leading out of 
the Haymarket to Soho," mentioned in the first 
deed ? The piece of leasehold ground assigned in 
the second deed plainly lay at the south- west angle 
of Coventry Street and Windmill Street. 

Browne, the mortgagor, as it is stated, committed 
some act of felony, and was executed, and some 
complications arose after his death relating to the 
property, to remedy which the suit (extending no 
further than the Bill) was instituted. 

W. H. HART, F.S.A. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

MONTAIGNE QUERIES.!. Speaking of drunken- 
ness, ' Essais,' bk. ii. chap. ii. , he says, " Aussi la 
plus grossiere nation de celles qui sont aujour 
d'huy, c'est celle la seule qui le tient en credit." 
What nation does he intend ? Is it the German, 
of whom he later on says, " Leur fin c'est 1'avaller, 
plus quo le gouster"? 2. In * Essais,' bk. iii. 
chap. viii. , we read, " C'est son malheur, non pas 
son default." The first edition of the ' Essais' 
was published in 1580. Is an earlier instance of 
this familiar saying known in French or in any 
other language ? H. DELEVINGNE. 


[In the marginal notes to the Rouen edition of 1627 
appear opposite these phrases the words "Allemands 
grand yurongnes."] 

DARTMOOR BIBLIOGRAPHY. Having in course of 
preparation a list of works and articles relating to 
Dartmoor, as a small contribution to the proposed 
bibliography of Devonshire, I am anxious to pro- 
cure all the information obtainable on the subject. 
Perhaps some of your readers can assist me in the 
following matter. I have before me a copy of a 
pamphlet with the title, &c., as follows : "Dart- 
moor : a Poem : which obtained the Prize of Fifty 
Guineas proposed by the Eoyal Society of Litera- 
ture. By Felicia D. Hemans. Printed by order 
of the Society. London, 1821." It is then stated 

" On the Report of a Committee, given in June 21st, 
1821, it was Resolved, That the following Poem, by Mrs. 
Hemans, was entitled to the Prize of Fifty Guineas 
offered by the Provisional Council of The Royal Society 
of Literature, for the best English Poem on the subject 
of Dartmoor. Council Room, June 21st, 1821." 

Another poem sent for the same competition by 
Joseph Cottle was published with other works by 
the same author in 1823. Of this also I have a 
copy ; but as, doubtless, there were many com- 

petitors and many good things were amongst the 
rejected MSS., I shall be glad to know if a list 
of such works is to be obtained, and if the archives 
of the Koyal Society of Literature for 1821 are 
still preserved, and where. If allowable, I shall 

3e glad to be put in communication with any of 
your correspondents who may be interested in 

his matter or in Devonshire bibliography gener- 
ally. W. H. K. WRIGHT, F.R.H.S. 
Public Library, Plymouth. 

There is extant a small print called 'A Perspective 
View of New Market, with a Description of the 
Horses & Carriages that Run (?) there the 29 th Aug*, 
1750.' Is there any printed account of this race ; 
its promoters; its results ? From the print itself 
one may gather that Newmarket then consisted of 
a church and about forty houses. The carriage 
was a queer machine somewhat complicated by 
ropes a long bar, with two wheels in front and 
two behind. It was drawn by four horses in 
couples white and black, white and black each 
ridden by a jockey, and only harnessed to the 
machine by loose straps. Between the hind 
wheels sat another jockey, who guided the carriage 
by moving a handle like that of the modern bicycle. 
This handle seems to have enabled him to follow 
the course, by moving the fore wheels with pulleys 
and ropes, and keep them at the heels of the 
horses. I should imagine the print, with a de- 
scription in the letterpress, appeared in one of the 
magazines of that period possibly the Universal, 
Westminster, &c., of which some readers of 
*N. & Q.' perhaps possess a set, and can thence 
tell us all particulars. ADIN WILLIAMS. 

Lechlade, Glos. 

WESTMINSTER SCHOOL. The head master has 
kindly given me access to all the admission books 
in his possession. There is, however, reason to 
believe that some of the books and other manu- 
script lists of the school are in the hands of private 
owners. I shall, therefore, be greatly obliged by 
any information as to their whereabouts, in order 
that permission for copying them may be obtained. 

G. F. R. B. 

PORTER OF CALAIS. What was this office? 
Was it distinct from Governor or Deputy of 
Calais? Another office was Marshal of Calais. 
Is there any list of the English Governors or 
Deputies of Calais'? Is there a book named 
4 Chronicles of Calais ' ? W. L. R. 

[The ' Chronicle of Calais in the Reigns of Henry VII. 
and VIII. to the Year 1540 ' was edited by John Gough 
Nichols for the Camden Society, 1846.] 

GHOSE. What is this affix to Indian names ? 

W. L. R. 

PROVERBS ON DUCKS. May I ask for English 
sayings about ducks ? Here are a couple : " An' 



. I. FEB. 6, '86. ' 

chance th' ducks " this when a man makes up his 
mind to a risky venture. He will say, "I '11 do it, 
an' chance th 5 ducks." The other, which I hear 
now and again, is, " Oh ! you know all about th' 
ducks, but have never seen th' basket ! " What is 
the origin of either or both ? 


ST. EVREMOND. Charles de St. Denis St. 
Evreinond died in London, Aug. 9, 1703, and lies 
buried in Westminster Abbey. Does Col. Chester 
or any other authority give any information as to 
where he died ? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

find authentic reference to the saying of one of the 
Kings James of Scotland, "A 7 the sons are carles' 
sons but Struan Robertson is a gentleman " 1 It 
is not referred to in the very interesting account of 
this family in ' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. ii. 127, 211, 239, 
393, nor can I find it in Anderson's ' Scottish 
Nation,' Brown's 'History of the Highlands,' 
Stewart's * Highlanders,' or Keltie's ' History of 
the Highlands.' J. B. FLEMING. 

STRATTON. Early in the seventeenth century 
John Stratton, gentleman, was living in Shotley, 
Suffolk. His wife, Ann Dearhaugh (?), who was 
born about 1590, was the daughter of " Mistress 
Mary Dearhaugh," of Barringham, Suffolk, whose 
death occurred about 1641, and John Thurston, of 
Hockston, Suffolk, was executor of her last will and 
testament. In the adjoining county of Essex 
lived Joseph Stratton, mariner, brother of the 
aforenamed John. John of Shotley had at least 
four children, viz., John, son and heir, born 1606 ; 
William, called "of Ardlye, Essex"; Elizabeth, 
born 1614 ; and Dorothy. About 1628 the son John 
emigrated to New England, and simultaneously his 
uncle Joseph and brother William prepared to 
emigrate to Virginia. The latter-named, however, 
did not go, and is soon called " deceased." The 
uncle, Joseph, went to Virginia, and settled at 
James City, where he was residing in 1640. John 
settled in Maine, and in 1631 procured a patent of 
2,000 acres there, at Cape Porpoise, but this he 
never occupied. His " squatter" title was con- 
fined to a small island at the mouth of the Saco 
river, which still bears his name. He removed 
in a few years to Salem, Massachusetts, where, 
with his widowed mother and two sisters, he was 
residing in 1640. Will some one give me informa- 
tion as to the genealogy of this family in England ? 


Marine Hospital, Chelsea, Massachusetts, U.S. 

WHISKEY OR WHISKY ? As I cannot see that 
the query as to this word in 6 tb S. vi. 346 has ever 
received an answer, I would again ask, Which is 
the correct form, if there be any? Jamieson, 

' Scottish Diet./ edited by Longmuir and Donald- 
son, gives the word under the almost unknown 
form " Whiskie," with " Whisky " in the second 
rank, and offers no derivation. Skeat, ' Etym. 
Diet.,' gives the word under " Whiskey," with 
" Whisky " in the second rank, and does not 
admit Jamieson's whiskie at all. Skeat derives 
from Gaelic " Uisge-btatlia, water of life, whisky," 
citing Johnson both for the etymology and spell- 
ing. He also refers to the corrupt form " usque- 
baugh." Most of the trade advertisements seem 
to use the form ivhiskey, and that is, I think, on 
the whole, the form more generally current. 


LENT FINES. In the Chamberlain's Rolls of 
Ripon Minster we find year by year entries such 
as the following, under "Fines quadragesimales": 
" Et de xiij/i. iij*. ijd. de finibus xl a bus prtebendse 
de Munketon hoc anno (1410-11) videlicet albis 
vaccarum ovium vitulorum rusticorum caprielorum 
curtiladii," &c. I have extended the abbreviations 
from a comparison of several rolls, but I have put 
no stops in because I do not understand it. Can 
any one explain ? J. T. F. 

Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

LE Roi DE PAQUES. I find the following in 
a book of French anecdotes published anony- 
mously : 

" L'empereur Charles V. passant par un village 
d'Aragon, ou, selon la coutume du pays, il y avait 
un roi de Paques ; ce roi se presenta devant lui, et lui 
dit : C'est moi, seigneur, qui suis le roi. A quoi 
Charles V. repondit : En verite, mon ami, vous avez 
pris un malheureux emploi." 

What is the custom, " le roi de Paques," alluded 
to? J. M. 

HEAD FAMILY. Can any one tell me what has 
become of some manuscript papers concerning the 
above family which were sold at John Camden 
Hotten's sale, and are thus mentioned in his cata- 
logue : 

"7252. Head Family. Manuscript papers relative to 
this family. V.D. Comprising old MS. account of 
Head of Charles Town, in the province of South 
Carolina, from Deedes of H., Hythe in Kent. Portrait 
of Moses Mendez ; account of Rich. Head, author of the 
'English Rogue.' Coats of arms of Head family; 
twenty-four rare engraved scenes, published with Kirk- 
man's * English Rogue,' assisted by Rich. Head." 
I shall also be much obliged if any one connected 
with the Kentish family of Head will communicate 
with me. H. STANLEY HEAD. 

41, Wimpole Street, W. 

AZAGRA. The direct lineal ancestress through 
females of Queen Victoria was Theresa Alvarez de 
Azagra, the wife of John Nunez de Lara, who 
lived in the fourteenth century. She is thus 
described on p. 137 of the ' Genealogise viginti 
illustrium in Hispania Familiarum' of J. W. 

7 tb S. I. FEB. 6, '86.] 



Im-hof : " Theresa Alvarez de Azagra quinta 
domina suprema de Alvarrazin et domus de 
Azagra, Alvari Perez de Azagra fil." Can you 
refer me to any genealogical work to trace the 
pedigree of Theresa Alvarez de Azagra up higher ? 

48, Millman Street, W.C. 

de Gotha ' for the present year a " Ronald Camp- 
bell, Baron Craignish," figures as an aide-du-camp 
to the Duke of Saxe Cobourg and Gotha. Is this 
gentleman, as the title of Craignish might lead one 
to imagine, the head of the ancient Argyleshire 
family of the Campbells of Craignish ? 


1 PLAIN DEALING.' Are any of your readers 
acquainted with an anonymous work with this 
title, published in 1668-9 ? In a letter from 
Mr. Joseph Church to Dr John Worthington, 
dated March, 1668/9, is this passage, " Here is a 
Dialogue called Plain Dealing, a book by some ad- 
mired, by others contemned. The Author is said to 
be Dr. Patrick. Others think it not his, but made 
by a Club of Episcopal Divines." The title does 
not appear in any of the lists of Patrick's works 
which I have seen, and Halkett and Laing's 
' Dictionary ' only gives two books with the title 
printed in the seventeenth century, one by Andrew 
Marvell in 1675, the other by John Gordon in 
1689. JOHN CREB. 

CLOCK MAKERS. I subjoin a list of four names 
taken from the faces of old clocks known to me, 
and I should be glad to know the periods during 
which those persons flourished, by way of ascer- 
taining, approximately, the ages of the several 
clocks: (1) "Smorthwait, in Colchester." (2) 
"Nath 1 Style, London." (3) "Ja s Fear, Ber- 
wick." (4) " W m Taylor, King S*, W' Haven." 



BRASS SEAL. Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
kindly explain the following inscription, which is 
in Saxon characters on an old brass seal bearing 
the device of the holy lamb, with cross and banner ? 
s . EVSTACHII . DC . APSOL . I. The seal is an, 
undoubted antique (found at Stratford-on-Avon), 
and is about the size of a shilling. A. A. 

UPRIGHT GRAVE- STONES. When did it become 
the fashion to put upright flags of stone for 
memorials over graves ? I have only one memo- 
randum on the subject. It is from the Liverpool 
records ; and, if I have read them correctly, 
nothing of the kind was usual in that city in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. 


SUBJECT OF PICTURE. There is a picture be- 
longing to me in the present exhibition of deceased 

masters at Burlington House concerning which I 
am most anxious to obtain some information. 
It is called ' An Embarkation,' and is reputed to 
be by Tassi, the master of Claude. Close to the 
shore there is a British man-of-war, carrying the 
flag of an admiral of the fleet, and there is a 
Dutch ship in the offing. The fine rocky landscape 
beyond indicates by the buildings some particular 
port ; and, as an important person stands on the 
shore, as if about to embark, and the ship is firing 
a salute, I think it must represent some historical 
incident. I wish particularly to ascertain the 
locality and the incident, and should feel much 
obliged if any of your readers could throw any 
light upon these point. The picture is in the second 
room, No. 64. It is the largest in the exhibition. 

40, Fitzroy Square, W. 

ABRAHAM SHARP, astronomer, mathematician, 
&c., of Little Horton, near Bradford, died about 
1750, believed to have been unmarried. Wanted 
names and addresses of his brothers and sisters, 
and information as to their marriages, issue, &c. 


EPIGRAM BY MACAULAT. Can any of your 
readers tell me where I can find an epigram or 
enigma, said to be by Macaulay, on the word 
manslaughter? M. G. D. 

[This question was asked 6tt> S. i. 248. Some specula- 
tion as to authorship was then elicited, but no definite 

QUEEN'S DAY. In speaking of this day, 
Nov. 17, and the accession of Queen Elizabeth, 
Dr. Brewer, in his ' Diet, of Phrase and Fable/ 
tells us that it is still continued as a holiday at 
Westminster and Merchant Taylors' Schools. It 
has been discontinued at the former school for 
some time, I believe. Can any one inform me of 
the exact date ? Is the holiday still allowed at the 
latter ; and, if not, when was it done away with ? 


BERESFORD CHAPEL, 1818. Very near to 
Walworth Koad railway station is a plain building 
with the above inscription and date. Can any of 
your readers give any account of its founders ? 
What sect of religionists were they ? Also, what 
is the present use of it ? S. B. BERESFORD. 

33, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

reference to pronunciation in the time of Chaucer, 
will a reader kindly inform me to what extent it 
is considered right to conform to such rules as 
those laid down by Mr. Ellis in his ' Early English 
Pronunciation ' ? To some extent it seems necessary 
in order to preserve the metre as, for instance, with 
the word vi-ci-ous (three syllables) and in all cases 
of the e final; but surely it would be thought 
affected, or at least pedantic, to pronounce date 



[7* S. I. FEB. 6, '80, 

" dart," late '' lart," which would seem to be correct 
accordiDg to Mr. Ellis ! I should be very glad of 
a hint on this point. E. W. THOMSON. 

19, HilldropRoad. 

NAPOLEON I.'s DREAM. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' inform me where I read an account of 
Napoleon's reviewing all the troops which he had 
ever commanded ? I read the story about twenty 
years ago, and the troops coming up from their 
graves to meet on the Champs Elyse"es impressed 
my then juvenile mind. Jt was, so far as I 
remember, a short story. 


[A well-known picture on this subject, entitled ' La 
Grande Revue; ou, la Nuit du Cinq Mai,' was painted 
by Raffet, a well-known French painter. The title of 
the poem on the subject is ' Napoleon's Midnight 
Review.' Full particulars concerning various versions 
of it may be found 5'h S. ix., x., xi., passim. At 5"> S. 
xi. 239 a version is supplied by MR. THOMS.] 

BEWICK CUTS. The writer would feel very 
much obliged to any one who would lend her, or 
inform her where she could obtain, or even see, 
a copy of " ' The Vicar of Wakefield/ A Tale by 
0. Goldsmith. Two vols. in one. Embellished 
with woodcuts by T. Bewick. Hereford, printed 
and sold by D. Walker, at the Printing Office, 
High Town ; sold also by E. Sael, No. 192, Strand, 
London. And may be had of all other booksellers. 
1798." 12mo. pp. 224, with seven cuts by Thos. 
Bewick. JULIA BOTD. 

Moor House, Leamside, co. Durham. 

LOMBARD STREET. If any one possessing any 
old deeds or records relating to the houses in 
Lombard Street before the Great Fire, or since 
that event previous to the year 1770, could let me 
peruse them, I should be greatly obliged. 


Temple Bar. 


(7* S. i. 29.) 

The canons of 1803 prescribe a joint election of 
the churchwardens by the minister and parishioners, 
where it may be, and if they cannot agree upon 
such a choice, either party shall choose one sepa- 

The ' Report of the Ecclesiastical Courts Com- 
mission for England and Wales' contains this 
statement : 

" In practice, though perhaps not strictly in accordance 
with tbe original intention, the minister generally nomi- 
nates one and the parishioners the other. The parishioners 
may have the right by immemorial custom of electing 
both, In some few instances the Lord of a Manor has 
claimed by prescription to elect one." General Re- 
port,' Jan 25, 1831, authenticated edition. Lond., Long- 
mans, 1832, p. 118. 

So Blackstone has : " They are sometimes ap- 
pointed by the minister, sometimes by the parish, 
sometimes by both together, as custom directs" 
(i.11,7).^ ^ 

The origin of the provision in the canon may be 
thus stated : 

" Before the making this canon (can. 89 of 1603) the 
parishioners in some places chose both the church- 
wardens, and where that was used the canon doth not 
abrogate the custom, and in such case, if the arch- 
deacon should refuse to swear them a mandamus lies, 
for every parish had formerly a right to choose their 
churchwardens ; but because they varied in the manner 
of choosing, therefore a custom might be alleged and 
issue might be taken at law, to try whether a select 
vestry or the whole parish ought to choose. In Car- 
penter's case (Raym. 439) the mandamus was directed 
to the commissary to swear two churchwardens, who 
were chosen by the parishioners by virtue of a custom, 
which the rector denied, and insisted upon his right by 
virtue of a canon to choose one. The commissary made 
a special return, which is set forth in the Report ; but a 
mandamus was granted, for the ecclesiastical court 
cannot try the custom." Nelson's * Rights of the 
Clergy,' Lond., 1709, pp. 159, 160. 

With respect to the prevalence of the custom 
referred to in other parishes than in Baling, a 
recent authority cites the earlier statement of an 
author of the same name : 

" By virtue of this custom, most, if not all of the old 
parishes of London, that is, of the parishes established 
before time of legal memory, do there choose both their 
churchwardens." C. Q. Prideaux. ' Duties of Church- 
wardens/ p. 23, thirteenth edition, Lond., 1875. 

In N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. xii. 471, INA states that the 
corporation of Wells has always appointed both 
churchwardens. JOHN S. BURN makes the same 
statement in reference to Heuley-ou-Thames in 
3 rd S. i. 19. 

I may say that I have not referred to Philli- 
more's * Ecclesiastical Law ; on this subject. A 
reply of any extent might be written, but the above 
will perhaps be deemed a sufficient account of the 
matter. ED. MARSHALL. 

There are many parishes in which both church- 
wardens are chosen by the vestry. I was fourteen 
years churchwarden of All Saints, Lewes, in which 
the custom obtained. In this parish of St. Mary, 
Stoke Newington, the same custom is found. In 
fact most, if not in all, of the old parishes of 
London that is, of the parishes established before 
time of legal memory do there choose both their 
churchwardens (Pulling's ' Laws of London/ 262 ; 
2 Rolls Ab. 287, &c.). The right of electing 
churchwardens exhibits a not uncommon conflict 
between the canon and common law. By the 
common law the right belongs to the parishioners, 
who are at the charge of repairing the church 
(Bac. Ab.). By the canon law (canons of 
1603, c. 89) the churchwardens are to be 
chosen by the joint consent of the minister and 
parishioners, it it may be ; but if they cannot 

7' h S. I. FEB. 6, '86.] 



agree, the minister shall choose one and the 
parishioners the other (' Com. Dig.' tit. " Esglise "). 
These canons were confirmed by the king in coun- 
cil, but not by Parliament, and therefore, though 
they are declaratory of the ancient usage and law 
of the Church (Middleton v. Crofts, 2 Atks. 650), 
they do not bind the laity by their own force and 
authority (Lloyd v. Williams, 1 Lee, 434). They 
cannot, therefore, prevail where there is a special 
custom to the contrary (Sir J. Nicholl in Wilson 
v. McMath, 3 Phil. 81), but the onus probandi is 
on him who sets up such special custom in the 
parishioners (Lee, C.J., in Hubbard v. Penrice, 
2 Stra. 1246), and nothing is accounted a custom 
or prescription so as to supersede the common law 
of the land except such custom or prescription as 
is beyond the memory of man, and nothing is 
accounted to be so which can by any sufficient 
evidence be proved to have been otherwise since 
the first year of King Richard I., A.D. 1189 (Hub- 
bard v. Penrice, i&.). In practice, it is true that 
the minister generally nominates one and the 
parishioners the other, but it is to be doubted if 
this was intended by the canon (Ecc. Law Rep. 
44), and so, under the Church Building Acts, one 
churchwarden is chosen by the incumbent and one 
either by the inhabitant householders resident in 
the district (58 Geo. III. c. 45, s. 73 ; 8 & 9 
Viet. c. 70, s. 6) or by the select vestry 
(59 Geo. III. c. 134, s. 30), by persons exercising 
the powers of vestry (1 & 2 Will. IV. c. 38, 
s. 16), or by inhabitants holding a similar quali- 
fication as the electors of churchwardens of the 
principal parish (6 & 7 Viet. c. 37, s. 17; 19 & 
20 Viet. c. 104, s. 14). WYNNE E. BAXTER. 
170, Church Street, Stoke Newington, N. 

According to Prideaux's ' Practical Guide to the 
Duties of Churchwardens ' (1880), p. 23, " Most, 
if not all of the old parishes of London that is, 
of the parishes established before time of legal 
memory do there choose both their church- 
wardens." See also Blunt and Phillimore's * Book 
of Church Law ' (1885), p. 259, where the principal 
special customs which take the place of the or- 
dinary law are enumerated. G. F. R. B. 

The four churchwardens of the mother church 
of St. Hilda, South Shields, are appointed annually 
at Easter by the self-elected ancient vestry. Of 
this vestry the vicar for the time being is the 
chairman ex officio. R. B. 

[MR. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN refers to 2 nd S. xii. 
471 as to the churchwardens of the city of Wells, 3 rd S. 
i. 19 as to those of Henley, and 6"' S. iii. 37 as to those 
of the old parishes of London. W. S. B. H. says that in 
Liskeard, since 1598, according to report, the Mayor, on 
behalf of himself and the Corporation, nominates one 
churchwarden and the vicar another. EST. H. quotes 
from Stephen's ' Commentaries,' vol. ii. pp. 699, 700, 
passages showing that the custom mentioned by MR. 
DELEVINNE ia not unusual. MR. F. A. BLAYDES adds 

that a reference to the canons eighty-nine and ninety of 
1603 will show "that the churchwardens are to be 
elected by the joint consent of the minister and parish- 
ioners in vestry assembled, and if they cannot agree 
upon a choice, then the minister shall choose one and 
the parishioners another." Both, he states, will be 
parish churchwardens, however elected. MR. E. H. 
MARSHALL advances the same canons, and gives the 
limitation imposed by the books of common law (Philli- 
more's ' Ecclesiastical Law,' ii., 1843). The question of 
special custom has given rise to litigation, early cases of 
which he cites.] 

PORTSMOUTH (6 th S. xii. 494). It would be a very 
great boon if local historians were to append to 
their works a bibliographical list of those already 
written relating to the locality they write about. 
I am not aware of any bibliography of Portsmouth 
that has anything like a claim to completeness; but 
having some time since taken considerable interest 
in the matter, I think I may say I possess a larger 
list than any to be found elsewhere. I give the 
names of a few works which bear most strictly on 
the general history of the place, but should be 
happy to help your correspondent F. C. B. further 
if he should desire it : 

A Declaration of all the Passages at the Taking of 
Portsmouth, shewing the Reasons why it was surrendered 
up to the Committee of both Houses of Parliament. 
Together with a True Copy of the Articles agreed upon 
between the Committee and Colonel Goring. Pp. 8, 
am. 4to. London, printed for John Sweeting at the 
Angell in Popes-head alley. September 15, 1642. 

The Borough (Portsmouth), being a Faithful tho' 
Humourous Description of one of the strongest Garrisons 
and Seaport Towns in Great Britain, with an Account of 
the Temper and Commerce of the Inhabitants : left by 
a Native of the Place who was lost in the Victory Man 
of War, and now published for the Benefit of the Gentle- 
men of the Navy, and the Entertainment of the rest of 
mankind. By Robert Wilkins. 8vo. London, 1748. 

The Portsmouth Guide; or, a Description of the An- 
cient and Present State of the Place, &c. To which ia 
added some Account of the Isle of Wight, &c. Folding 

?late, reduced from Ryall's view (8.E.). 12mo. Pp. viii, 
b'. Portsmouth, printed and sold by R. Carr, corner of 
the Grand Parade, 1775. Price one shilling. 

The History of Portsmouth, containing its Origin. 
Progressive Improvements, and Present State of its 
Public Buildings, &c., with an account of the towns of 
Portsea and Gosport and Isle of Wight. 12mo. Pp. 157 
(query folding plates). Portsmouth, printed at the 
Hampshire Telegraph Office by Mottley & Co. 1802 (.'). 

The Ancient and Modern History of Portesmouth 
(sic), Portsea, Gosport, and their environs. 12mo. 
Pp. x, 122. Gosport, printed and sold by J. Watts. N.d. 

A Candid and Accurate Narrative of the Operations 
used in endeavouring to raise H.M.S. Royal George in 
the Year 1783, with an Account of the Causes and 
Reasons which prevented the Success, and also Copies 
of the Affidavits, Vouchers. Letters, Documents, and 
other Correspondence relative to that Unfortunate 
Transaction. 12mo. Third edition. Pp. xvi, iv, iv, 
5-112. With folding plate of plans lor raising the 
ship. By William Tracey. Portsea, printed for the 
author by J. Williams. 1812. 

The History of Portsmouth, containing a Full and 
Enlarged Account of its Ancient and Present State, &c. 
To which is added an Appendix containing many of the 



[7* S. I. FEB. 6, '86. 

Charters granted to the Town, &c. By Lake Allen. 
Sm. 870. Pp. iv, 252 ; app. xliv. London, 1817. 

Chronicles of Portsmouth. By Hnry Slight, P.R.C.S., 
Librarian to the Philosophical Society, Vice-President 
Mechanics' Institute ; and Julian Slight, P.R.C.S. and 
Secretary to the Philosophical Society. 8vo. Pp. xvi, 
248. London, Lupton Relfe, 13, Cornhill, 1828. This is 
the best of the Portsmouth histories, and has passed 
through various editions. I prefer this edition, which 
is to be found on large and small paper. 

A Narrative of the Loss of the Royal George at 
Spithead, August, 1782. Also Col. Pasley's Opera- 
tions in removing the Wreck by Explosions of Gun- 
powder in 1839-40-41. Folding plate of sinking of 
Royal George, and four other plates. 32mo. Pp. 112. 
Fourth edition. Portsea, S. Horsey, jun., 151, Queen 
Street. 1841. Bound in the wood of the wreck. 

Narrative of the Loss of the Mary Rose at Spithead, 
July 20, 1545, from Original MSS., &c., in the British 
Museum. 32mo. Pp. vi, iii-vi, 7-96. Portsea, by S. 
Horsey, sen. 1844. Bound in the wood of the wreck. 

The Story of the "Doraus Dei" of Portsmouth. 
Illustrated with photographs and woodcnts. Sm. 8vo. 
1873. Written by Archdeacon Wright, formerly chap- 
lain to the Forces. 

Extracts from Records in the Possession of the 
Municipal Corporation of the Borough of Portsmouth, 
and from other Documents relating thereto. By 
Richard J. Murrtll and Robert East. Sm. 4to. Pp. viii, 
ii, 567. Portsmouth, printed by Henry Lewis at 114, 
High Street. 1884. This was generously printed at 
the expense of the Corporation, and distributed amongst 
themselves and friends. 


4, Palmerston Road, Southsea. 

If your correspondent F. C. B. will communicate 
with nie direct, I will send him the particulars he 
requires. JAMES HORSEY. 

Quarr, Ryde, I.W. 

KNOXIS : WIMES : WRAT (7 th S. i. 49). If by 
the Wroth pedigree in Robinson's ' History of 
Enfield' H. H. cannot identify the John of 1596 
with the Wroths of Durants, which they held as 
far back as 1360, he may find him mentioned in 
Clutterbuck's ' History of Hertfordshire/ where 
the name frequently occurs in other pedigrees, and 
nearly always as " of Durants." 


34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

The "ritter Knoxis" was most probably Sir 
Thomas Knollys, a younger son of Sir Francis, 
who married Odelia, daughter and heiress of John 
de Marada, Margrave of Bergen op Zoon, who is 
stated to have been "a scion of the house of 
Nassau, and uncle to the Prince of Orange." See 
note to Rugeley pedigree in Misc. Gen. et Her., 
vol. iii. p. 201. CLK. 

THE PREFIX " EN " (6 th S. xii. 29, 155, 357). 
I think Chaucer's use of enfecte may be well illus- 
trated from Wiclif's use of the Latin words inficio 
and infectus, in the sense "stains," "infects," 
" damages," *' incapacitates." Thus in the Wyelif 
Society's ' De Civili Dominio,' on p. 2, " Patet ex 
hoc quod mortale peccatum cum inficit naturam, 

multo evidencius inficit omnem modum vel acci- 
dens eiusdem "; p. 4, " inficeret "; p. 5, " Interior 
homo infectus peccato inficit totum residuum 
nature corporee et singulos actus suos "; and on 
p. 275, speaking of the Jews excommunicating 
Christ, he says, " Talis excommunicacio non 
descendit in Christum sed excommunicantes in- 
Jicit redundando." 0. W. TANCOCK. 

LATIN POEM (7 th S. i. 9). The literary history 
of the two sets, not one set, of hexameters to 
which T. W. R. refers is well ascertained. It is 
described in John Ward's preface to the various 
modern editions of Henry VIII.'s Latin gram- 
mar. The one before me is Lond., Longman & Co., 
1830. At p. 1 of this preface there is : 

" ' Carmen de Moribus,' and the Rules for the genders 
of nouns (scil. ' Propria quae maribus') were also com- 
posed by Lily, and bear his name in all editions to this 
day. These latter, after the death of Lily, were repub- 
lished with large annotations by Thomas Robertson, who 
was afterwards Dean of Durham He added the verse, 

Hue amis addenda est, hue mystica vannus lacchi." 

Then follows a notice of certain additions by 
other writers. In reference to the second line in 
the query of T. W. R., which is from the verses upon 
the verbs there is : " The rules concerning the 
perfect tenses and suffixes of verbs are Lily's, and 
have his name prefixed to them in all editions. 
These were published also by Robertson, with large 
annotations " (p. 3). Then follow notices of altera- 
tions, as in the instance of the previous verses. 


514). It may interest MR. S ALTER to know that 
I have, on a pair of old Oriental china plates, im- 
paled with Brooke. (Or, a cross per gale engrailed 
gu. and sa.), this coat, Gu., ten billets, 4, 3, 2, and 
1, a bordure engrailed arg. Crest, a cock's (?) head 
gules, combed and wattled or, charged with three 
billets arg. This blazon, which appears to be the 
arms of Salter (6 th S. xii. 514) I had been unable 
to identify, although I consulted Papworth and 
other authorities. The wreath supporting the crest 
is tinctured arg. and gu. R. H. TEASDEL. 

Southtown, Great Yarmouth. 

SUICIDE OF ANIMALS (6 th S. xi. 227, 354 ; xii. 
295, 454 ; 7 th S. i. 59). Without at all wishing 
to impugn the fact of there being authentic in- 
stances of suicide by some of the higher animals, 
I think that the Australian gentleman whose com- 
munication to the Launceston Examiner is quoted 
by MR. ED. MARSHALL at the last reference was 
mistaken as to the snake killing itself with its own 
venom. The venom of serpents is quite innocuous 
to themselves or to others of their own order. 
Holland, the late intelligent and observant keeper 
of the reptiles in the Zoological Society's Gardens, 
had told me that he has frequently known puff- 
adders, cobras, &c., to strike each other when en- 

7" 8. 1. FEB. 6, '86.] 



raged, and no harm had resulted. Moreover, the fat 
of the common adder is well known to be the best 
remedy for its bite, and the cottagers in the heathy 
parts of West Surrey, where these animals abound, 
keep bottles of it, to apply to the wound in such 
cases. When a ynake strikes a victim with its 
fangs it does not cover the spot with "viscid 
slime." Nothing is visible externally but the two 
very small punctures made by the fangs. 

W. K. TATE. 
Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

i, 70). This prayer has been noticed from time to 
time in * N. & Q.,' with the translation of it, 
since the first communication, in the third volume 
of the First Series. But the only two notes which 
contain an exact reply to the query of MR. H. H. 
GIBBS are the statements of Mr. T. WARNER in 
5 lb S. xi. 191 ("A very curious account of the 
Queen's execution was published in France soon 
after the event. Immediately before the execution 
she repeated the prayer") and of MR. 0. F. S. 
WARREN, on the same page. It is stated by 
Daniel, ' Thesaurus Hymnologicus,' iv. 348, that 
this is said to have been written by the Queen in 
her Prayer Book a few hours before her execution. 


Miss Agnes Strickland, in quoting this prayer (the 
final "Te" after "Desidero"is omitted, probably by 
accident), says that it "is well known to have been 
extemporized by her during her last devotions on 
the morning of her death " (' Queens of Scotland,' 
vii. 479). As I was unable to find any passage in 
other historians to confirm this statement, I wrote 
in my recently-published book, ' Fotheringhay and 
Mary, Queen of Scots' (Simpkin, Marshall & 
Co.), "her devotions included the following prayer " 
(p. 117). I have also given the paraphrase of the 
prayer that was set to music by Dr. Harington, of 

This has been discussed thrice before in ' N. & Q.'; 
see 1 st S. Hi., 3 rd S. Hi., 5 th S. xi. passim. There 
seems to be no higher authority than Seward's 
'Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons/ 1795. Daniel 
('Thesaur. Hymnol./ iv. 348) states that the 
Queen wrote the poem in her " gebetbuch," but 
gives no reference. This would, no doubt, have 
been the so-called Fotheringay Missal, really a 
Book of Hours, which is now at St. Petersburg, 
and contains much of the Queen's writing. It is 
described in ' N. & Q.,' 2 Qd S. ix. 482; 3 rd S. vii. 
70 ; but the prayer is not mentioned. I almost 
fear that it was written by some last-century 
forger, induced by the mention of the " divers 
Latin prayers " in the contemporary narrative of 
her execution. This is printed in Ellis's " Letters," 
2 Qd S. Hi. 112. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

[Other correspondents are thanked for replies.] 

LANDLORD (6 th S. xii. 428). This word pro- 
bably became applied to inn-keepers and tavern- 
keepers by virtue of their letting their rooms and 
apartments for hire. Landlord, in common phraseo- 
logy, now means a person from whom houses, 
lands, or lodgings are rented. The word is a relic 
of feudal times, when the possessor of land was 
actually dominus terrce. Addison uses the word 
as meaning the master of an inn, but I am unable 
to give the exact reference. 



MRS. PARSONS (7 th S. i. 68). Eliza Parsons was 
the only duaghter of Mr. Phelp, a wine merchant 
at Plymouth. At an early age she married Mr. 
Parsons, a turpentine merchant, who carried on 
business first at Stoneham, near Plymouth, and 
afterwards at the Old Bow China House. Mr. 
Parsons died in necessitous circumstances, and after 
his death his widow endeavoured to support 
her children by writing. Her first book was 
' The History of Miss Meredith : a Novel ' 
(1790), in the preface to which (dated from 
15, East Place, Lambeth) she explains her reasons 
for writing it. According to Baker's ' Biog. Dram.' 
(1812), vol. i. pp. 561-3, she wrote " above sixty 
volumes of novels," as well as a farce entitled 
' The Intrigues of a Morning.' She died at Ley ton- 
stone on Feb. 5, 1811. The best list of her 
works will be found in Baker, those in Watt, 
Allibone, and the Gent. Mag., 1811, vol. Ixxxi. pt. i. 
p. 175, being very meagre. G. F. K. B. 

SMOKING IN CHURCH (6 th S. xii. 385, 415, 470; 
7 th S. i. 32). The following passage, from the 
regulations issued by the Vice-Chancellor of Cam- 
bridge previous to the visit of James I. in 1616, 
seems to show that smoking in church was at that 
time not unknown in England: 

"That noe Graduate, Scholler, or Student of this 
Universitie presume to resort to any Inn, Taverne, Ale- 
howse, or Tobacco-Shop at any time dureing the aboade 
of his Majestie here ; nor do presume to take tobacco in 
St. Marie's Church, or in Trinity Colledge Hall, uppon 
payne of finall expellinge the Universitie." Nichol's 
' Progresses of King James the First,' 1828, vol. iii. p. 44. 

The royal author of the * Counterblast to Tobacco ' 
does not actually refer to the u taking of tobacco " 
in church, although he complains that " not onely 
meate time, but no other time nor action is ex- 
empted from the publike vse of this unciuille 
tricke " (Arbor's reprint, p. 111). E. S. D. 

THE ARMS OF HALIFAX (6 th S. xii. 426, 536 ; 
7 th S. i. 18). The arms of Halifax, as I have seen 
them drawn, suspiciously resemble those invented 
for the famous Guy, Earl of Warwick, in the 
"Rows Eol," namely, Chequy, or and azure, a 
human head affront^, filleted argent. This is the 
head of no saint, but of Colbrand, the fabulous 
Danish giant, whom Earl Guy slew, according to 



. I. FEB. 6, '86. 

the legend, after his return from the Holy Land. 
This excellently illuminated roll is itself of some 
respectable antiquity, and " was laburd & finishid 
by Master John Rows of Warrewyk" between 
1477 and 1485. It is in the possession of the 
Duke of Manchester, and was published by W. 
Pickering in 1845, the plates being beautifully 
illuminated by hand to match the original. The 
chequy field in this case was suggested by the arms 
of the De Newburghs, Earls of Warwick, the first 
of whom married Gundreda de Warenne, and in 
the case of the Halifax arms by the similar coat of 
the De Warennes. A. S. ELLIS. 

PENTAMETERS (7 th S. i. 70). The passage occurs 
in Ovid's ' Amores,' bk. I. 11. 1-4: 

Arma gravi numero violentaque bella parabam 

Edere, materia conveniente modis. 
Par erat inferior versus ; risisse Cupido 
Dicitur, atque unum surripuisse pedem. 

At the end (11. 27 and 30) he describes this kind 
of verse : 

Sex mihi surgat opus numeria : in quinque residat. 
Musa per undenos emodulanda pedes. 

These last two lines may have suggested to Cole- 
ridge his description of the Ovidean elegiac : 
In the hexameter rises the fountain's silvery column ; 
In the pentameter aye falling in melody back. 


Ovid addresses Cupid thus ( 4 Epis. ex Ponto,' 
lib. iii. ep. iii. 11. 29, 30) : 

In mihi dictasti juvenilia carmina primus : 
Apposui senis, te duce, quinque pedes. 


WILKES (7 th S. i. 67). Dr. Richard Mead, the 
eminent physician, 1673-1754, was twice married, 
and had eight children. Of these four died in 
infancy, and four grew up, namely: his son and 
heir Richard, and three daughters, Sarah, who 
married Sir Edward Wilmot, Bart. , M.D. ; Bath- 
sheba, who married Charles Bertie, Esq., of tiffing 
ton, co. Lincoln ; and Elizabeth, who married 
Frank Nicholls, Esq., M.D. 

John Wilkes, " the patriot," 1727-1797, mar- 
ried in October, 1749, the only daughter and 
heiress of Mr. William Mead, of London Bridge 
drysalter, who died in 1722 ; she was then living 
at Aylesbury with her mother, and was thirty-two 
years of age, whilst Wilkes was ten years younger. 
By this marriage he had only one child, a daughter 
named Mary ; and shortly after her birth (Aug. 5 
1750) a coldness sprang up between Mr. and Mrs 
Wilkes, which finally led to a separation ; after 
which, for many years, they did not meet. Mrs 
Wilkes brought her husband a very considerable 
fortune, the greater part of which he enjoyed, anc 
the whole of which came to his daughter Mary after 

he death of the mother, who died April 4, 1784. 
?rom a brief note in the Gentleman's Magazine 
'or that year, i. 317, we learn that husband and 
yife "had a conciliatory interview a short time 
before her death." John Wilkes, though he could 
not live with his wife, could not live comfortably 
without her ; he spent much time with a Mrs. 
Arnold, by whom he had a second daughter, who 
was born in 1778, named Harriet Wilkes, and 
married William Rough, Esq., barrister, in 1802. 

John Wilkes died in December, 1797, leaving 
ais daughter Mary his sole heiress, but giving a 
handsome legacy to Mrs. Arnold, and a couple of 
thousand pounds to her daughter Harriet Wilkes. 
After his death Mary Wilkes continued to reside 
in his house, No. 30, Grosvenor Square, and was 
very kind to her "half sister" Harriet. Mary 
Wilkes was never married, and died very suddenly 
on March 12, 1802, leaving many legacies to 
friends, and the bulk of her property to her cousin 
Charles Wilkes, of New York, the son of her uncle 
Israel Wilkes. A copy of her will, and much 
interesting information, may be seen in ' The 
Correspondence of the late John Wilkes/ which 
contains his life by J. Almon, published by 
Phillips in 1805. It is unnecessary to say anything 
about Mr. Wilkes's illegitimate son " John Smith," 
as the present inquiry only relates to the Mead 
family. It is plain that Mary Wilkes could not 
claim descent from Dr. Mead ; but, according to 
Almon, the drysalter and the doctor had a common 
ancestor, and Miss Wilkes once visited Mrs. 
Nicholls, the doctor's third daughter, who for 
many years resided at Epsom, and, according to 
Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' vi. 642, was living 
there in 1798. Miss Wilkes believed that her 
mother and Mrs. Nicholls were very near relations. 


Sutton, Surrey 

John Wilkes did not marry the daughter of Dr. 
Richard Mead, but the daughter of Mr. William 
Mead, drysalter, of London Bridge, and of Ayles- 
bury, by his wife Miss Sherbroke, of Bucks. 
John Wilkes's only daughter, Mary, died unmarried 
in 1802, aged fifty-one. A copy of her will, made 
in 1800, is to be found at the end of Almon's 
' Memoirs of John Wilkes.' Dr. Richard Mead, 
the eleventh son of the Rev. Matthew Mead, a 
Presbyterian divine, was descended from a junior 
branch of William Mead's family. By his first 
wife he left one son and three daughters. One of 
his daughters married Sir Edward Wilmot, Bart., 
and was mother of the second baronet, and another 
daughter married Dr. Frank Nicholls. 



Miss Wilkes died unmarried "at her house, 
the corner of South Audley Street, Grosvenor 
Square," on March 12, 1802, aged fifty-one. See 

7* 8. 1. FEB. 6, '86.J 



Chalmers's ' Biog. Diet./ vol. xxxii. p. 69 ; 
Gent. Mag., 1802, pt. i. pp. 285, 372. The contents 
of her will, which was dated July 18, 1800, will 
also be found in the last-named volume, p. 466. 

G. F. R. B. 


(7 th S. i. 44). The Fairfaxes of Walton and 
Denton seem sometimes to have quartered the 
arms of Follouet or Follovet, Argent, a fess between 
two lions passant guardant sable. See Tonge's 
4 Visitation/ Surtees Society, p. iv ; Glover's 
* Visitation/ ed. Foster, pp. 39, 96 ; Herald and 
Genealogist, vol. vi. pp. 628, 629. In Flower's 
'Visitation/ Harleian Society, p. 118, it is stated : 
" This S r Nicholas (Fairfax) sayeth that he should 
bere Follovet who bereth arg. a fece between 
3 lions rampant sable ; and yt should come in next 
unto Etton." How this quartering came in I have 
not yet found. The above arms as first described 
are at present in a window in Guiseley Church 
quartered in the Eawdon shield. See Yorks. 
Arch. Journal, vol. vi. p. 87. 


ALTERN * (7 th S. i. 32). There may, perhaps, be 
more than one book called c The Subaltern '; but 
the well-known work so entitled was unquestionably 
from the pen of the Rev. G. K. Gleig, late Chaplain 
General of the Forces. If ' The Country Curate ' 
was by the author of ' The Subaltern/ the propriety 
of adding that to the list of the Rev. Erskine 
Neale's writings seems also more than doubtful. Is 
it possible that some one has assigned both 
books to Neale, by identifying the title ' The 
Country Curate ' with " A Country Curate," who 
wrote ' The Living and the Dead ' ? 


A "SHEPSTER" IN 1552 (7 th S. i. 68, 91). 
Halliwell is clearly wrong in explaining this word 
as "a sheep-shearer." Huloet, in his ' Abcedarium/ 
1552 (the very year in which your correspondent's 
document is dated) gives " shepster or seamster, 
sarcinatrix, sutratrix." Halliwell's error is the 
more remarkable as he himself gives Palsgrave as 
his authority. Palsgrave's words are " schepstarre, 
lingiere." Cotgrave, ed. 1632, explains lingiere as 
" a seamster ; a woman that makes or sells linnen, 
or linnen ware." See also Stratmann's * Diet./ s.v. 
"Schepstre." S. 0. ADDY. 


In this part of the country shepster means 
starling. In Egerton Leigh's * Glossary of Words 
used in the Dialect of Cheshire ' (1877), the word 
is spelt shepstir or shipstir, and stands as follows : 
" Shepstir, or Shipstir, . A Starling. W. This 
bird hunts amongst the sheep's wool for the insects 
that live in it ; and is therefore called by its 
Cheshire name, because he stirs up the sheep with 

his bill." The W. indicates that the word remains 
as in Roger Wilbraham's 'Glossary/ which was 
contributed to the Society of Antiquaries in 1817. 

St. Austin's, Warrington. 

JOHN KNOX'S CLOCK (7 th S. i. 46). "John 
Winterspoon," the owner of the clock, must be 
meant for the Rev. James Witherspoon, minister 
of the parish of Tester, Haddingtonshire, one of 
the chaplains in Scotland to George II. His sou 
John went, as stated, to America, and became 
President of Princeton College, New Jersey. As 
the president's sister was my maternal great-grand- 
mother, I know something of their history, yet 
never heard of the clock or its pedigree, which is 
decidedly interesting. Whether it belonged to 
Knox or not, a clock made in Paisley in 1560, 
still a good time-keeper, is a great curiosity. It 
is to be hoped the present owner will, as MR. 
REID suggests, favour us with further details of its 
history. There is certainly an old family tradition 
of descent from a daughter of Knox, but whether 
through the Rev. James or his wife is uncertain. 
After considerable research on the point, my opinion 
is that it was through the wife, if at all. Their 
American descendants are fully convinced of it, 
but we on this side are perhaps stricter in exacting 
legal evidence. JOSEPH BAIN, F.S.A.Scot. 

COLLEGIUM GRASSIN^DM (7 th S. i. 67). If 
MR. A. F. HERFORD had looked back in the 
indexes of * N. & Q ' for a few years he would have 
found (6 th S. v. 236) an answer to his question, 
what and where and when was this institution. I 
may supplement the information there given, and 
answer the second part of MR. HERFORD'S query, 
by stating that the College des Grassins was a 
college of the University of Paris, situate in the 
Rue des Amandiers, de la Montagne-Sainte-Gene"- 
vieve, and that it was founded by the will of Pierre 
Grassin in 1569. Books from the college library, 
generally bound in brown morocco, seme defleurs- 
de-lys, and with the name of the college and the 
arms and motto of the founder on the sides, are 
not uncommon. The arms are, Gules, three garden 
lilies argent, two in chief and one in base ; and the 
motto, " Lilium interspinas." JOHN CREE. 

[This reply is corroborated by MR. THOMAS KERSLAKB, 
who repeats much of the information. Some conjectural 
replies, apparently inaccurate, are kept back.] 

KELLY'S SALOON (7 th S. i. 49). This was at the 
angle of Pall Mall and Market Lane, the latter 
thoroughfare occupying the position now filled by 
the Opera Arcade (or avenue of melancholy-mad 
bootmakers, accordingly to Mr. Sala), and culmi- 
nating in St. James's Market, the remains of 
which still exist. Kelly's house was on the 
eastern side of Market Lane, and abutting upon 
the Opera House, to which it was intended to 



[7* S. I. FEB. 6, '86. 

answer the purpose of an "early door." See 
' Reminiscences of Michael Kelly,' 1826, ii. 181; 
and Annual Biography, 1827, p. 50. 

16, Parliament Street, S.W. 

FLEMING FAMILY (6 th S. xii. 207, 317). Since 
the appearance of mj reply to MR. BROWN'S 
queries on the subject of the Dinwiddie MSS. I 
have received from that gentleman a more extended 
extract from the MSS., which confirms my previous 
impression as to its accuracy. 

I mentioned that no pedigree of Fleming of 
Ferme was procurable ; and I should like to state 
that I have now received the following information 
from a most trustworthy source. It shows that the 
Ferme baronetcy is the same as that imperfectly 
and erroneously entered in Burke's 'Extinct 
Baronetage' as " Fleming, Bart., of Glasgow" 
(see p. 621), under which title it is also entered in 
Solly's ' Titles of Honour.' 

The Dinwiddie MS. aspires to connect the 
Ferme family with the old Earls of Wigton by 
stating that the first baronet was grandson of 
Malcolm (? John), first Earl of Wigton. It is not 
unlikely that there was some connexion, but there 
is no authority for any connexion so close and 
direct as the MS. pretends. The pedigree, as 
communicated to me, is as follows : 

Archibald Fleming, merchant, of Glasgow, mar. Eliza- 
beth Lennox. 

William, burgess of Glasgow, and Clerk of the Commis- 
sariot there, d. Sept., 1636. 

Archibald, of Ferme, &c., advocate and commissary of 
Glasgow, and Rector of the Glasgow University, mar., 
1637, Agnes, dau. and heir of David Gibson, notary 
and burgess of Glasgow ; created a baronet in 1661 
(this being the third Nova Scotia baronetcy created 
after the Restoration) ; d. January, 1662. 

Sir William, second baronet, also commissary at Glasgow, 
mar. Margaret, dau. of Archibald Stewart of Scots- 
toun, and d. Feb. 6, 1707 (his dau. was second wife of 
William Somerville of Kennox). 

Sir Archibald, third baronet, mar. (contract dated Aug. 3, 
1692) Elizabeth, eldest dau. of Sir George Hamilton, 
Bart., of Binny, &c., and d. April 14, 1714, leaving, 
with a son, who went to France (and is stated in the 
Dinwiddie MS. to have settled in America and left 
descendants there), and ten daughters (one of whom 
mar. Alexander Dinwiddie, and was mother of the 
writer of the MS.), a son 

Sir William, fourth baronet, lieutenant in Handasyde's 
Horse, mar. a dau. of Lennox of Woodhead, and d. at 
Elgin, Oct. 25, 1745, leaving a son 

Sir Collingwood, fifth baronet, d.s.p. in Virginia, April 17, 
1763, and was succeeded by his brother 

Sir James, sixth baronet, who d. Oct. 1, 1763, since 
which date the title seems to have been considered as 

The Dinwiddie MS.'adds that the family estate 
was lost in the time of the third baronet, who 
became surety for the debts of his father-in-law, 
Sir George Hamilton, Bart., " one of the proudest 
and most extravagant men that ever existed." 

I may add that the MS. mentions that Alexander 
Dinwiddie, who mar. Elizabeth Fleming, was born 
March 15, 1694 (O.S.), and that his son Alexander, 
the writer of it, was born April 17, 1738. 

I doubted the existence of any " Hamiltons of 
Barntoun," but wish to correct myself. I find the 
full title of the family referred to was " Hamilton, 
Bart., of Binny, Barnton, and Tulliallan," created in 
1692. Their pedigree is, however, like that of the 
Flemings of Ferme, apparently unpublished. 


CAREW EALEIGH (6 th S. xii. 448, 527; 7 th S. i. 
57). May not the difficulty pointed out by MR. 
PINK on p. 57 be explained by the fact of Kelling- 
ton being a different place from Callington ? At 
any rate, in Cooke's ' Topographical Description of 
Cornwall ' Kellington is mentioned as a place 
where a fair is held, as well as Callington, and the 
dates given for the fair days in each differ also. I 
have two editions of Cooke's book, and in both 
Callington is thus distinguished from Kfllington. 

W. S. B. H. 

CASTLES (7 th S. i. 69). For a list of these see 
Freeman's * History of the Norman Conquest,' 
vol. v., note N, pp. 806-808 ; and Sir Henry 
Ellis's * Introduction to Domesday,' vol. i. pp. 211- 
224. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

STANGNUM (7 th S. i. 68). This, no doubt, is the 
genitive of s<agmwm=stangnum, a purely classical 
word, and a derivative of sto, to stand. Its 
meaning in English is a pool or pond, from which 
we get also our word stagnant. We meet with 
it constantly in the best Latin authors. Thus : 

Undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu. Hor., ' Carm.,' ii. 15. 
Addidit et fontes, immensaque ftagna, lacusque. 

Ovid, 'Metam.,' i. 38. 

Non inexplorata stagni vada. Liv. xxvi. 48. 
Cocyti stagna alta vides. Virg., ' Jn.,' vi. 323. 
As connected with molendini, it means, of course, 
a mill pond. In addition to this meaning, Du- 
cange gives that of a kind of metal, or, in fact, tin. 
He says: " Stagnum, pro Stannum, Kavo-iTcpov, 
Gall. Estain. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

Stangnum molendini = mill-pond. "Stank, a 
pool, a tank, once a common word" (Skeat), is still 
the usual word in Lowland Scots. A stank hen = 
a moor-hen. HERBERT MAXWELL. 

ESQUIRE (6 th S. xii. 495 ; 7 th S. i. 34, 74). The 
following is the reading of the passage according 
to Theobald : "Robert Shallow, Esq., in the county 

. I. FEB. 6, '86.] 



of Gloucester, Justice of the Peace, and Coram." 
What could Shallow owe his title of esquire to, 
except to his office of magistrate 1 According to 
all authorities, " nothing can be more absurd than 
the commonly received notion that a certain pro- 
perty constitutes a man an enquire." 


[Ms. ALFRED JONAS obliges with the passages from 
Camden bearing upon esquires. The subject in its 
general bearing has, however, been so fully discussed, 
especially in 5 th S. vii., viii., and ix., we dare not reopen 


MUST (7 th S. i. 47, 71). Must is a past tense, 
or historic tense, which has in lapse of time become 
a present or primary tense as well as a past, and 
rather than a past. But the older usage can easily 
be traced. The meaning also has changed (as have 
the meanings of other auxiliary verbs, can, shall), 
and while formerly " I must" was equivalent to " I 
might," now it means "I am compelled." At 
first we find a verb pres. indie, mot (second person 
most), with a past tense moste, without infinitive 
form. This present has died out, except as a poetical 
archaism mote. But must remains in a slightly 
varied sense, and is used, as grammarians say, for 
past time as of old, and for present time also in 
place of mote, for the connexion between these two 
words, as that between wot and wist, and between 
dare and durst, became not very apparent. A pas- 
sage from the 'A.S. Chronicle E,' A.D. 1123, shows 
how must was of past time, like would and should 
in dependent clauses : " J?a bed se cyng heom 

]aet hi scoldon cesen hem aercebiscop ac 

iedon ealle samodlice to J?one kyng and ieorn- 
den J?aet hi mosten cesen of clerchades man." 

The king bad that they should choose; and 

they desired that they must (might) choose." 
In modern English we may write as paral- 
lel sentences: "He tells them that they may, 
can, shall, must choose a bishop," or "He told 
them that they might, could, should, must choose 
a bishop." We cannot explain grammatically the 
sequence of tenses in these clauses without saying 
that in the former sentence may, can, shall, must 
are all present or primary tenses, must being = are 
bound to choose, and in the latter might, could, 
should, must are all past or historic tenses, must 
being=were bound. It is not easy to show must 
as a past tense in a principal clause, because when 
" he must do" had come to have a present meaning 
also, "he mote do," "he is obliged to do," debetfacere, 
a new form of periphrastic past tense was got by 
changing the idiom into " he must have done " for 
" he was obliged to do," debuitfacere. In like manner 
the past ought has driven out its present owe, and 
" he ought to do " for past time has become " he 
ought to have done," while we use " he ought to do " 
for the present " he owes to do." To avoid ambi- 
guity we say, " I was bound" instead of " I must " 

go there yesterday. The suggested phrase " I have 
must" is "out of the question," just as "I have 
could " or " I have should " are out of the ques- 
tion, because must, could, should are historically 
indicative past tenses, and are not participles, the 
verbs mot, can, shall, to which they belong, being 
defective, and so unable to supply the participles 
which are the materials for this periphrastic form. 


The information I sought, so far from needing 
several pages of this journal, could literally be 
contained in a nutshell. What I want to know 
is, whether any writer, say, from Shakespeare 
down to the present time employs must in 
the sense of the German verb musste, i.e., as 
a past tense. I have followed PROF. SKEAT'S 
advice, and consulted his ' Dictionary,' art. 
"Must"; but though it bears upon my query, 
it does not answer it. I found the following 
passage : " This verb must is extremely defective ; 
nothing remains of it but the past tense, which 
does duty both for past and present." I am 
thankful for this information; but if must "does 
duty" for a "past tense," where are the instances 
to be found ? My difficulty will become apparent 
by supposing a foreigner to take up PROF. SKEAT'S 
observations and act upon them by saying, " The 
French ministers must resign several times in 
1860," or "I must stop at home yesterday; I was 
ill," &c. Why may not the verb be employed in 
such cases, if able to "do duty for the past " ? I 
know that grammatical rules must not be sought 
for in dictionaries ; still the observations there are 
based upon grammar. 


ALMANAC (7 th S. i. 70). Francis Murphy died 
in London, December, 1847. The following is 
from the Illustrated London News of December 11 : 

"Mr. Murphy, whose lucky predictions, some few 
years since, nearly cost Messrs. Whittaker, the publishers 
of his almanack, the destruction of their premises, owing 
to the rush of customers anxious to secure copies of hie 
lucubrations, died suddenly on Wednesday last, at his 
lodgings. He had just completed arrangements for the 
issue of an edition of his almanack for 1848, and was 
with his publisher, Mr. Effingham Wilson, in perfect 
health, only a few hours prior to his death." 


For the results of Murphy's predictions during 
the year 1838, and other particulars respecting 
his almanac, see Chambers's 'Book of Days.' 
The almanac was certainly issued for the following 
year; but as there were no less than 196 days 
during 1838 when his forecasts were decidedly 
wrong, the sale was very limited. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ORIGIN OF SATING (7 th S. i. 70). Interpret 
thus: "If the worst [which can be imagined] 



L7' h 8. 1. FEB. 6, '86. 

come to [i.e., coincide with] the worst [which shall 
actually happen]." C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

VOLUME OF SERMONS (7 th S. i. 69). In my 
copy the title is as follows ; " ' Englands Remem- 
brancer : Being a Collection of Farewel-Sermons 
Preached by divers Non-Conformists in the Coun- 
try.' Revel, iii. 3. ' Remember how thou hast re- 
ceived, and heard, and hold fast.' London, 

Printed in the year 1663." Title, preface, and 
errata, four leaves, not paged, but making a half- 
sheet A. Text pp. I to 5 10, signatures B to KK 7, last 
blank. This is succeeded by * Ultimum Vale : 
or the Last Farewel of a Minister of the Gospel to 
a beloved People,' by Matthew Newcomen, M.A., 
&c., London, printed in the year 1663, pp. 78, 
sm. 8vo. 

The companion volume is entitled " ' The Fare- 
well Sermons of the late London Ministers, 
Preached August 17 th 1662.' By M' Calamy, 
D r Manton, Mr Caryl, M r Case, M r Jenkins, 
M r Baxter, D r Jacomb, D r Bates, M Watson, 
M r Lyes, M r Mede, M r Ash, Fun. Ser. Heb. x. 23. 
Let us hold fast the Profession of our Faith with- 
out wavering, for he is faithfull that promised. 
Printed in the year 1662." Sm. 8vo. There is 
an engraved frontispiece, containing the portraits of 
the twelve preachers, with their names in the centre. 
After the title there is a " Notice to the Reader," 
one leaf ; then the sermons, eighteen, with signa- 
tures A to A A 8, partly and irregularly paged, viz., 
I to M, paged 1 to 64 ; N to p, 189 to 236 ; the rest 
not paged, as if several printers had been engaged 
at once on different sheets. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

'A Compleat Collection of Farewell Sermons 
preached by London and Countrie Ministers 
(ejected), Aug. 17th, 1662,' Lond., 1663, sra. 8vo. 
With a frontispiece containing fourteen portraits. 
Another edition, Lond., 1663, sm. 4to., with a 
frontispiece containing portraits. Reprinted with 
an historical and biographical preface, Lond., 1816 
(Lowndes, p. 2243). ED. MARSHALL. 

UPTON (6 th S. xi. 128, 277, 512 ; xii. 52, 155 
358, 397). I am surprised that no reference has 
been made to the very exhaustive articles in th 
First Series of N. & Q.' on the office of iurcopoliei 
in the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.* From 
those articles MR. W. H. UPTON will probably 
learn all that is to be discovered about the Gran! 
Prior of England, Sir Nicholas Upton, and if 
(as is frequently recommended) he had searched 
the indexes before submitting his query, a good 
deal of valuable space might have been saved. It 
would seem that MR. C. H. E. CARMICHAEL is 
right in his conjecture that Burke, in his * Landed 

* See 1" S, vii. 407; viii, 189; ix, 80 ; x. 378 ; xi. 21, 

178, 200, 

Gentry,' erroneously refers to Nicholas Upton 
under the name of John. W. F. P. 

CANTANKEROUS (7 th S. i. 87). Surely a mere 
mrlesque of cankerous, in the sense of cankered. 
' In the North of England a cankered fellow is a 
:ross, ill-conditioned person " (Ray). 

Therein a cancred crabbed carle doth dwell. 

' P. Q.,' in Todd. 


t6). In reply to MR. J. E. BAILEY, I beg to say 
,hat in my copy of Dr. Dee's work (printed in 
1659), in the eleventh leaf (verso, top line), are the 
etters " B. V. of T." H. OLIVER. 

] 44, Broad Lane, Sheffield. 

BELDAM (6 th S. xii. 405, 434, 473). I have waited 
for some other correspondent to suggest what to 
me seems obvious, viz., that beldam is neither 
more nor less than Anglican for vieille dame. 
Becate says to the witches, " Beldams as you are." 
Banquo's address, " Ye should be women : and 
yet your beards," &c., precludes the idea of beauty. 
I can see no analogy between beldam and beau- 
pere, beau-fils, &c. I believe that the latter was 
originally a prefix of conventional courtesy, like 
" Fair sir." When Edward III. arrested Mor- 
timer at Nottingham Castle, his own mother, 
Queen Isabella, said, "Beau fils, epargnez le 
gentil Mortimer." 

WILLIAM FRASER of Ledeclune, Bt. 

xi. 367,431; xii. 198, 350, 398, 473). The well- 
known large-paper copy of ' Gulliver's Travels ' in 
the Forster Collection at South Kensington, has, I 
believe, the inscription beneath the oval portrait, 
and belongs, therefore, to the first of the three 
issues of the first edition. Are any large-paper 
copies known of the other two issues ? I have 
never heard of any. 

I am almost certain I have a copy of the second 
volume of the third issue, but as it is amongst my 
books at home, I cannot speak positively. I can 
only say that, to the best of my recollection, the 
pages are numbered consecutively, and that there 
is no indication on the title-page of its being a 
" second edition." The plates are numbered as in 
the first and second issues. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

RANGERS " (6 th S. xii. 484 ; 7 th S. i. 96). These 
are, no doubt, the gabriel-raches or -ratchets, or 
gabble-retchets of Yorkshire and Staffordshire a 
name for a yelping cry, heard at night, resembling 
the yelping of dogs, and taken as an omen of ap- 
proaching death. See gabriel-ratchet in Atkinson's 
'Cleveland Glossary.' Bishop Kennett states in 
his glossarial collections that " in Staffordshire the 
ooaliers going to their pits early in the morning 

7 th S. I. FEB. 6, '86.] 



hear the noise of a pack of hounds in the air, to 
which they give the name of Gabriel's hounds" 
(' Promptorium/ Appendix, p. Ixv, note 6). 



A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage 
and Baronetage, together with. Memoirs of the Privy 
Councillors and Knights. By Sir Bernard Burke, 
C.B., LL.D., Ulster King of Arms. Forty-eighth 
Edition. (Harrison & Son.) 

SIK BEKNAED BTJRKE'S ' Peerage and Baronetage ' main- 
tains its well-won reputation. On more than one occa- 
sion its contents have been the subject of an analysis in 
' N. & Q.' more elaborate than can be maintained in the 
case of a work which is an annual. Thanks to the expe- 
rience he has gained and the assistance which is rendered 
him, Sir Bernard can put forward the hope, scarcely 
distinguishable from a claim, that his present volume is 
"in all respects complete." There are few products of 
human labour of which the same can be said ; and it is 
probable that, allowing, as we are compelled, the author 
to have a right to choose his own standpoint, the vaunt 
may be sustained. It might, perhaps, be urged that 
alliances of which a noble family is not proud are not 
always chronicled in these pages, or in those of any other 
peerage. Take, for instance, the marriage of John Beard, 
the vocalist, to Lady Henrietta Herbert, daughter of the 
first Earl of Waldegrave and widow of Lord Edward 
Herbert, second son of William, second Marquess of 
Powis, of which nothing is said. These are, however, 
minor matters, and the volume contains all the facts 
concerning the titled classes which the public is anxious 
to possess. The past year has witnessed many creations 
and some important changes. What Sir Bernard calls 
" the grand old Earldom of Mar " has been restored, and 
the succession of the historic Earldom of Lauderdale has 
been settled. Baronies of the United Kingdom have 
been bestowed on Lord Powerscourt and Lord Henley. 
"The Earl of Breadalbane has received a Marquisate, 
Lord Fife an Earldom of the United Kingdom, and Lord 
Wolseley a Viscounty." In addition, twelve peerages 
have been created: Iddesleigh, Halsbury, Rothschild, 
Revelstok. Monkswell, Hobhouse, Lingen, Ashbourne, 
St. Oswald, Wantage, Esher, and Deramore. Of all 
these a full account is given, and the genealogical infor- 
mation is the amplest to be expected. All that needs be 
said, indeed, is said in asserting that the work is true to 
its traditions, and remains indispensable to those inter- 
ested in social precedence and engaged in genealogical 
and historical study. 

The County Families of the United Kingdom ; or, Royal 
Manual oj the Titled and Untitled Aristocracy of 
England,' Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. By Edward 
Walford, M.A. Twenty-sixth Annual Publication. 
(Chatto & Windus.) 

MR. WALFORD'S ' County Families of the United King, 
dora ' is now in bulk a rival to the most comprehensive 
peerages. This it may well be, seeing that its twelve 
hundred and odd pages contain, in addition to an index 
to the seats of the principal landed gentry and other 
matters convenient for purposes of reference, many 
thousands of biographies. The volume has, it is need- 
less to say, been corrected up to date so as to include the 
results of the last general election. ' County Families ' 
is, of course, a comprehensive title, seeing that it includes 
all peers and baronets, and most of those who hold any 
prized social distinctions, and gives in addition the heads 

of all families holding landed estates. Practically it is a 
guide to the squirearchy of England. In a race so ener- 
getic and so pushing as our own a very short period suf- 
fices to elevate a family into the possession of acres if 
not exactly into that mysterious position, the County 
Families. A review is not the place for a story. An ex- 
ception may be made, however, in favour of one, for the 
truth of which we are in a position to vouch. Staying 
with a well-known astronomer, the Laureate through a 
powerful telescope looked at the milky way, and saw the 
mass resolve itself into worlds and systems. Upon quit- 
ting his post he simply observed, " I don't think much 
of our County Families." Heresy such as this was, per- 
haps, pardonable under the circumstances. The County 
Families, however, think much of themselves, and enjoy 
a fair measure of social consideration. To all who have 
a claim to be within the charmed circle Mr. Walford's 
book is a trustworthy guide. Its advantages, how- 
ever, extend beyond these limits. It is useful to all who 
are concerned with questions of precedence, and espe- 
cially useful to mothers who desire to distinguish be- 
tween " eligibles " and " detrimentals." Finally, it has a 
solid value to all concerned in genealogical pursuits. 
Like all Mr. Walford's work, it is conscientiously and 
laboriously done. It may, in short, be held to furnish a 
complete clue to everybody who, in conventional lan- 
guage, is anybody at all. That tlie majority of scholars 
and workers in the higher profession come in none of 
the categories described is, at least, not the fault of the 
compilers of guides. 

The Official Baronage of England, showing the Succes- 
sions, Dignities, and Offices of every Peer from 
1066 to 1885. With 1,600 Illustrations. By James E. 
Doyle. Vols. I., II., III. Dukes -Viscounts. (Long- 
mans & Co.) 

MR. DOYLE has devoted to the prosecution of an ambi- 
tious and a useful scheme very many years of arduous 
industry. His task is as yet far from completed, but an 
important instalment of his labours has now seen the 
light. More than a century and a half has elapsed since 
Arthur Collins, the famous antiquary and genealogist, 
began an English Baronage upon an extended scale. No 
more than one volume of this was published. An ana- 
logous scheme has now been carried half way to comple- 
tion, and the moiety now supplied will be welcome to all 
students of history and genealogy. The original inten- 
tion of Mr. Doyle was to deal only with the period be- 
tween the Norman Conquest and the Revolution of 1688. 
The folly of dealing with the most difilcult part of his 
subject and overcoming the most formidable obstacles 
and sparing the lighter labour which would assign his 
work actual interest and commend it to a new class of 
subscribers, appears to have struck him during his pro- 
gress, and the portion of the work now issued covers the 
entire space of English history between the Conquest 
and the year just ended. So far the work deals with the 
highest grades of the peerage dukes, marquises, earls, 
viscounts reserving for a continuation those to whom 
modern practice has confined the term baron. 

Resentment has been begotten among some of Mr. 
Doyle's rivals by his use of the word " ofiicial." This 
use is not, however, intended to imply that a special 
sanction of authority denied to other works ia accorded 
this. A special and distinctive aim of his book is to 
give in detail the offices held by each peer, with, where 
obtainable, the dates at which an office was conferred or 
withdrawn, and it is in this respect that the Baronage ' 
claims to be official. This is at once the most valuable 
part of the work and that in which shortcoming is most 
naturally to be expected. On this much labour has 
been remuneratively employed, The task of noting 



[7' h S. I. FEB. 6, '86. 

deficiencies and suggesting additions is likely to occupy 
many minds and to supply matter to future volumes 
of ' N. & Q.' It is sufficient at present to acknow- 
ledge the service Mr. Doyle has rendered, and to 
hope for the continuation of his volumes. A reference 
to a name such aa that of the first Duke of Newcastle, 
in which there is no dispute of pedigree or succession, 
will show the method adopted. First comes the name 
William Cavendish, son of Sir Charles Cavendish, Knt., 
followed by all the titles subsequently acquired. In 
separate lines follow the date of birthplace, of education, 
and dates of the conferring of different honours, with, 
on the right-hand margin, the authorities for statements. 
The left-hand margin, meanwhile, supplies an engraving 
of a portrait by Van Dyck and contemporary comment 
upon the duke, viz., the description of his personal ap- 
pearance from the admirable biography of him by his 
duchess, and the words of Clarendon, " He was a very 
fine gentleman," " a person well bred." Thirty-eight 
different facts, such as his two marriages, his military 
and civil appointments, and the like are given, with 
their dates, ascertained or approximate. In the case of 
his son Henry Cavendish, who succeeded, the full titles 
are again supplied. The year following his death without 
male issue the title of Newcastle was bestowed upon his 
son-in-law, John Holies, Earl of Clare. From this brief 
description the plan of the work may be understood. 
No attempt has been made to treat anew the question of 
succession. Full investigation into such questions has, 
however, been made. Great gain attends the reproduction, 
from the valuable series on the margin of the ' Chronicle ' 
of Matthew of Paris or from the oldest blazon that can be 
found, of the ancient armorial bearings. The advantage 
is not slight, moreover, of obtaining from early represen- 
tations portraits of personages of eminence, which, though 
often inexact as likenesses, at least portray the general 
appearance of the man. For so much of the work as has 
appeared we are thankful. Space is, of course, wholly 
wanting in this portion of ' N. & Q.' to attempt the 
exposure of shortcoming or error, such as in the genea- 
logical portion may be indicated. We elect instead to 
welcome a work which cannot fail to be of highest service, 
and to furnish every inducement towards its completion. 
IN the Fortnightly Review Lady Dilke continues in 
' France under Colbert ' the studies of French life she 
began with ' France under Richelieu.' To Colbert she 
assigns the distinction of having " foreseen not only that 
the interests of the modern state were inseparably bound 
up with those of industry, but also that the interests of 
industry could not without prejudice be divorced from 
art." Mr. Theodore Child gives a vivacious account of 
life in the United States, and the Rev. Wm. Barry writes 
on ' The Church and the World.' In the Nineteenth 
Century Prof. Huxley fires his final shot in his battle 
with Mr. Gladstone on ' Genesis.' Side by side with his 
communication appears a second, different in purport, 
from Prof. Henry Drummond. ' William Cobbett' is the 
subject of a paper by Mr. C. Milner Gaskell, M.P., and 
' Food Accessories ' of an important contribution by Dr. 
Burney Yeo. In Macmillan the clever skit ' The Great 
Gladstone Myth,' the authorship of which may easily be 
guessed, causes much amusement; Mr. Rider Haggard 
makes in characteristic form a first appearance; and there 
is an amusing mock epic, ' The Arolliad : an Epic of the 
Alps.' Mr. J. Theodore Bent contributes to the Gentle- 
man's ' Idyls of Karpathos,' one of his valuable studies 
of Hellenism as it exists to-day. Mr. H. 8. Salt writes 
intelligently concerning ' Classical Learning.' A bright 
number of the Cornhill has nothing in it appealing 
directly to our readers. In the English Illustrated Mr. 
Traill's admirable * A Month in Sicily ' is continued. 
Miss Zimmern supplies a good account of Ulm, These 

subjects, admirably suited to the draughtsman, are, of 
course, abundantly illustrated, as is, indeed, the whole 
magazine. Longman's has a valuable paper by Mr. P. G, 
3amerton on ' The Care of Pictures and Prints,' and one 
by the Rev. M. G. Watkins on ' The Keeper's Gibbet, 1 
which we should like to have circulated broadcast in 
agricultural districts. ' Chronicles of English Counties ' 
n All the Year Round deal with Kent and Sussex. 
STotes and queries still constitute a prominent feature in 
the Red Dragon. 

THE monthly publications of Messrs. Cassell include 
;he Encyclopaedic Dictionary, Part XXV., beginning a 
new volume, extending from "Destruction" to " Dirted," 
with specially characteristic articles on " Development," 
'Die," "Diluvial." &c., Greater London, by Edward 
Walford, Part VII., which conducts the reader, by 
Canons, Whitchurch, Bushey, Aldenham, and Radlett, to 
Henley, Barnet, Hadley, and Friern Barnet, and has 
abundant views of objects of interest, Egypt, Part X., 
with a series of striking views of the citadel arid the interior 
of Cairo, Our Own Country, Part XIII., dealing with 
Durham, Derbyshire, down the Wye, Derwent, the Menai 
Straits, illustrated by views of Durham Cathedral, Car- 
narvon Castle, Chatsworth, &c., Gleanings from Popular 
Authors, Part VI., and CasseWs History of India, PartV. 

ctfccj* to CorreslponUenW. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

W. A. P. ("Vox populi, vox Dei"). The origin of 
this phrase is uncertain. It was used by Walter Rey- 
nolds as the text of the sermon at the coronation of 
Edward III., and is spoken of as a proverb by William of 
Malmesbury, " Recogitans illud proverbium, Vox populi, 
vox Dei ? ' (' De Gestis Pont.,' 1. i. f. 114, ed. Savile). The 
phrase is quoted in the ' Aphorismi Politic! ex Ph. Comi- 
neo,' Lugd. Bat., 1639. It is used by Eadmar and by Alain, 
the last being the earliest use recorded. Sir W. Hamilton, 
in his edition of Reid, traces it dubiously to the ' Works 
and Days' of Hesiod, "In man speaks God." See also 
G. Cornewall Lewis, 'On the Influence of Authority in 
Matters of Opinion '; and see f N. & Q.,' 1 st S. passim. 

REGINALD BARMCOTT. ' The New Timon, a Romance 
of London,' 1846, is by the late Lord Lytton, and is easily 
obtainable in many forms. 

A. F. is anxious to know where can be found some lines, 
incorrectly quoted by her, in which "cassowary" rhymes 
to " missionary," and " hymn-book too " to " Timbuctoo." 
She also asks who is the author. 

F. A. C. ("Registers of Kirkburton "). Next week. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print j and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

I. FEB. 13, '86.] 





NOTES : History of the Thames, 121 'New State of Eng- 
land,' 123 Oriental Sources of Chaucer, 124 Steele and the 
West Indies Entries in Eegister Gallic English "Of that 
ilk," 126 Breton's Book of Worthies, 127. 

QUERIES : Joseph Gay Birthplace of Dee Elias Ashmole 
" The Twenty-fourth Grain " Cantarela Algernon Sid- 
ney, 127 Sir T. Scott Pearls -Pronunciation of Heron 
S. Wydown St. Tiracius Nero and Heliogabalus Twiggery 
Meldrumsheugh Forbes of Sheals Author Wanted 
Inns at Oldham, 128 Marischal College, Aberdeen-W. 
Marshall Surname of Pauli Green Grief to the Grahams 
Merry weather -Latin Grammar Sir W. Curtoys Last 
Duel in ED gland Authors Wanted, 129. 

REPLIES : The ' Decameron ' in English, 130 Revised Ver- 
sion of the Old Testament, 131 Weathercocks Bristol 
Pottery Dunstanborough Castle, 132 Terms used by Tan- 
ners Katherine, Lady Savage Scottish Religious Houses 
Ostreger Manors in England, 133 Absentee Gentry 
Kalendar Cronebane Halfpenny, 134 Hogmanay John 
Stock-" From Bloom till Bloom," 135 Anecdote of Person 
Descendants of Dr. H. King Sibley " Son of a sea coote" 
Heraldic, 136 Woldiche Lubbock Porter of Calais- 
Lewis Way Deaths in 1885 Conquer Robinson Cruso, 
137 Sir W. Raleigh Epigram by Macaulay Esquire 
Authors Wanted, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Lauderdale Papers,' Vol. III. 
Our Parish'' Storia Universal di Cesare Cantu.', 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



But I have not yet done with ^Eachylus. An- 
other fragment of * Prometheus Unbound ' contains 
a reference which may possibly also be claimed for 
our island : 

Unto a people next, of mortal men 
Most honest and most kindly, shalt thou come, 
Hight Lifeless, where no tiller cleaves the glebe 
With plough nor spade, but all the fields, self-sown, 
Proffer their food ungrudgingly to men.* 

The name of the people which I have translated 
" Lifeless " (" Abioi ") occurs also in Homer,f 
where it has sorely exercised the righteous souls 
of Homeric commentators, ancient and modern. 
Some opine that it is really a proper name, others 
regard it as merely an epithet. One believes that 
it means poor, another is persuaded it means 
rich, a third feels confident it means feeble, a 
fourth is quite certain it means strong, a fifth has 
no hesitation in saying it means long-lived, a sixth 
assures us that it means destitute of any organized 
social system, while a seventh congratulates himself 
on the discovery that it means the reverse of violent. 
No word of a meaning so obvious was ever so 

ambiguous. Not a single one of all the mighty 
army of scholiasts and editors and annotators 
would hesitate for a moment about translating 
the word " lifeless" if only it had occurred in 
another connexion. But " lifeless " as applied to 
a living people was on the face of it sheer non- 
sense, and how could the divine Homer talk non- 
sense ? So, Homer being infallible and the plain 
meaning out of the question, the poor word has 
been so hunted and harried and badgered and 
worried, turned upside down and inside out, that 
at last its best friends have failed to recognize it. 
Yet that it is rightly translated " lifeless," and, 
further, that " lifeless " is a half- religious, half- 
sentimental, wholly Greek euphemism for "dead," 
becomes abundantly clear the moment we are able 
to locate this "lifeless" people in their own proper 
country. Evidently neither ^Eschylus nor Homer 
regarded them in the light of mere ghosts. Homer 
classed them with Thracians, the breeders of 
horses, and Mysians, the fighters hand to hand 
with the drinkers of koumiss and nomads with 
waggons for houses in the steppes of Scythia. 
^Escbylus seems to have thought of them as a folk 
dwelling yet further beyond the haunts of articu- 
lately speaking men, far away to the West, yet 
near of kin to the pious barbarians whose home 
was at the back of the north wind, nigh that " an- 
cient kingdom " where the 

Gryphon through the wilderness 

With winged course o'er hill or moory dale 

Pursues the Arimaspian. 

But ghosts I take them to have been originally. 
The faith which placed the home of the dead in 
the land of the setting sun had long before the 
days of Homer peopled the Far West with a Life- 
less folk. The sinner, the slave, and the plebeian 
went, of course, to the underworld, and were 
gradually extinguished out of sight of the sun ; 
but the "just" those, at least, of them who were 
of noble birth, who had not committed perjury, 
or who had married a relative of the gods went 
away to fields Elysian in "the immortal ends 
of all the earth," 

Where Rhadamanthus rules, and where men live 
A never-troubled life, \vhere snow nor showers 
Nor irksome winter spends his fruitless powers, 
But from the ocean Zephyr still resumes 
A constant breath that all the fields perfumes.* 

Homer, it is true, sends only a single soul that 
of Menelaus to Elysium, and that only on the 
score of his having married Helen, the daughter 
of Zeus ; but other writers and other races were 
less puritanically exclusive, and the belief that 
all the souls of the dead went away to a 
land of the West is probably older and more 
widely spread than that which consigned the 
immense majority to the underworld. And in the 
earlier stages of the Aryan progress westward, 

* JEsch., 'Frag.,' 184. 

Chapman's Homer, ' Od.,' iv. 760. 



S. I. FEB. 13, '86. 

while there yet remained a broad stretch of terra 
incognita to the West and North, the advancing 
immigrants could hold the creed without encoun- 
tering any practical refutation of its accuracy. 
It was not until the advanced guard of the Aryan 
army or rather, perhaps, the pioneers of Aryan 
commerce began to bring back tidings that the 
land supposed to be peopled by the dead of their 
own race was in reality occupied by alien bar- 
barians of flesh and blood that any difficulty arose. 
It was capable, however, of several solutions. One, 
perhaps the simplest, was to accept the inference that 
the actual denizens of the land were those who had 
all along been supposed to dwell there the dead, 
or, as Homer and ^Eschylus prefer to call them, 
the Lifeless. This, as I read it, is the true his- 
tory of the Abioi, and I venture to think that if 
anything worth calling a science of mythology had 
existed in the days of the Seven Wise Masters 
whose interpretations I have recorded, not one of 
the seven interpretations would have existed to 

Another solution of the difficulty entailed by ad- 
vancing geographical knowledge was almost equally 
obvious, and this was from time to time to shift 
the happy hunting-grounds of the dead further and 
further to the West and North- West. This ex- 
pedient seems also to have been freely adopted, 
but the process could not be indefinitely repeated, 
and by the time that the new-comers had reached 
the westernmost shores and islands of Europe the 
difficulty returned in a form to which the earlier 
solutions were inapplicable. It was no longer 
possible to believe that the Silent Folk still dwelt 
visibly in valleys from which the invaders had 
ousted all their former occupants, or along the 
frequented coasts of a now familiar ocean. 

Nothing remained, therefore, but to transfer 
the spirits of the dead to mansions underground, 
or in the depths of the sea, or upper regions of the 
air ; or else to make them invisible as well as 
dumb, so that their presence might not obtrude 
itself on the every-day life of the actual denizens in 
the land. None of these alternatives presented 
any obstacle to the pathetic faith of our forefathers 
indeed, all of these beliefs had long taken root 
among some or other of the populations of Europe. 
Lucan, who, in his ' Pharsalia,' contrasts the 
teaching of the Gaulish Druids with the accepted 
creed of pre-Christian Rome, seems to think that 
the Druids have the best of the argument. " You," 
he exclaims, " teach us that our departed shades 
seek not the silent mansions of Erebus and the 
pale realms of subterranean Dis, but that the same 
soul animates their limbs in another world, and 
that death is intermediate to a prolonged life."* 
What Lucan may have meant by "another 
world " (orbe olio) has been much debated. Some 

* Lucan, 'Phars./i. 447. 

think he refers to the moon, others to the island 
of Britain.* There is much to be said, as we shall 
see presently, in favour of both suggestions. 
Meanwhile, if we could only cross-examine the 
Cordovan poet on the subject, I think it quite as 
probable as not that we should get the answer 
Mrs. Hemans vouchsafes to the inquisitive little 
boy who asks the same question : 

I hear thee speak of a Better Land. 

Mother, ah, where is that happy strand 1 

Is it where the feathery palm-trees rise ? &c. 
To which the ideal mother replies, with maternal 
intrepidity, that the Better Lind is nowhere on 
earth, but 

Beyond the world and beyond the sky, 
an answer quite sufficiently definite for its imme- 
diate purpose. 

However this may be, the local names and 
traditions of many places on the west and north- 
west coasts of Europe prove incontestably that 
once on a time they were regarded as the homes 
of departed spirits, and it seems likely that the 
seas were thought to be quite as eligible residences 
as the shores. At all events, in the case of the 
sea known to the Cimbri as Morimarusa, the Dead 
Sea of the North, the name suggests that Zeus 
Kronides, who once made a home for the souls of 
heroes beside the deep-eddying ocean, had been 
evicted from the land and taken refuge with his 
ghostly lieges beneath the whirlpools. Coming to 
Northern Britain, Macpherson can tell us of a 
boat which bears the souls of Oasianic heroes to 
Flaith-Innis, the green island home of the de- 
parted, which lies calm among the storms of the 
Western Ocean. Passing thence into Brittany, 
the dog of the Cure de Brasparts still guides 
over to our own island the rickety old car the 
wheels of which may at times be heard creaking 
in the air with the weight of departed Breton 

Southward again, in Gallicia, is the river Lethe, 
or Oblivion, which, as Livy tells us, the Roman 
soldiers were afraid to pass till Decimus Brutus 
snatched the eagle from the standard-bearer and 
led the way in person. Yet further south, again, 
are the Canaries, in which later ages have appa- 
rently decided to recognize the real Fortunate Isles 
of the blessed dead, the Hesperides which were the 
Earthly Paradise of the classic world, t 

{To be continued.) 

* For alter orbis as applied to Britain, . Solinus, 
c. xxv.; Claudian, ' De Cons. Stil.,' iii. 149; Floras, 
1. 3, &c. 

f Cf. Baring-Gould, ' Curious Myths of the Middle 
Ages,' " The Terrestrial Paradise " and " The Fortunate 
Islands," with the marvellous collection of references to 
this subject in Tylor, 'Primitive Culture.' vol. ii. c. 13. 
For Morimarusa and the Cronian Sea, Pliny, ' N. H.,' 
iv. 27, 30. River Lethe, Smith, ' Diet. Geog.,' *. v. " Gal- 
Uecia." Cf. De Villemarque, ' Barz Breiz,' i. 193, &c. 

7'h S. I. FEB. 13, '86.] 



au de la France dans sa perfection, contenant 
les particularitez de 1'Histoire, & le rang 


In the first edition of Edward Chamber-lay ne's 
' Angliae Notitia,' London, 1669, the author 
observes, in his Address to the Reader, that the 
work " will shortly be translated into the French 
Tongue ; whereby may be extinguisht in some 
measure the Thirst which Forreigners generally 
have to know the Present State of this Considerable 
Monarchy." I would, however, point out that 
the scheme of Chamberlayne's book was neither 
original nor indeed new to French readers ; the 
idea of the English work having been in all 
probability suggested by the publication of "L'Estat 

que tiennent les Princes, Dues, & Pairs, & Officiers 
de la Couronne. Ensemble 1'Estat des Maisons 
Royales, Gages, Privileges, Prerogatives, & Exemp- 
tions des Officiers comme en Caux de leurs Majestez. 
Le tout reveu, corrige, augment^ & mis dans 
un Meilleur Ordre que les autres Editions qui 
ont este" imprimis jusques a present. Enrichy 
de nouvelles Figures, & de tous les Blazons des 
Officiers de la Couronne. A Paris, chez Jean 
Baptiste Loyson, rue Saint Jacques a la croix 
Royale proche la Poste. MDCLXI. avec Privilege 
du Roy." Though this appears from the word- 
ing of the title not to have been the first year 
of publication, I have not met with an earlier 
edition. The preface mentions a rival work, called 
the ' Vray Estat,' of which I have not seen a copy. 
There is, then, every reason to believe that the 
English Chamberlayne (first published in 1669) 
was founded upon the lines of one or other of these 
French works, though the English compiler some- 
what ungenerously ascribesevery bad habit orcustom 
unworthy of imitation to "our neighbours the 
French," the fact that the idea of a comprehen- 
sive view of the state of England was itself borrowed 
being carefully suppressed in tfce preface to the 
various editions of the English series. Indeed, 
from the pages of Chamberlayne we are given to 
understand that no good thing can come out of 
France, and constantly reminded that England 
is the model community from which all other 
nations derive their most valued institution?. 

In 1669 a free translation of the second edition 
of Chamberlayne was published at Amsterdam 
under the title of '"L'Estat Present deL'Angleterre, 
Avec plusieurs reflexions sur son ancient Estat '; 
Traduit de 1'Anglois D'Ediiard Chamberlayne de 
la Societe Royale. A. Amsterdam Chez Jean Blaeu 
MDCLXIX." The success of the English publication 
led to three editions of Chamberlayne's work 
appearing in the same year (1669), a fact which 
has been already commented on in the columns of 

4 N. & Q.' Lowndes, in ascribing the first edition 
to 1667, probably fell into this error from seeing a 
copy of the third edition bearing the date 1669. 

Though but little variation occurs in the text of 
the second and third editions, a few slight altera- 
tions may be noted, in order to show clearly that 
the French translation was taken from the second, 
and not from the third issue of the English 
version. At p. 261 of both English editions 
considerable discrepancies occur in the description 
of the Kings at Arms, the names of the Masters of 
Requests are inserted in different order, and at 
p. 412 of the second edition, the last of the barons' 
names is given as " Thomas Butler, Lord Butler 
of More park," and in the third edition, also at 
p. 412, as "Henry Howard, Lord Howard of 
Castle-Rising." The French translation follows 
the second edition. I only note these variations 
here to illustrate their bearing on the Amsterdam 
translation, though in treating at full length of the 
bibliography of the whole series of Chamberlayne 
it will be necessary to refer to them again. At 
present I am only concerned with the kindred 
publications and rivals which the * Present State 
of England ' called into existence, and I shall be 
deeply grateful to any reader of ' N. & Q. ; who 
may favour me with any corrections and additions 
to my catalogue of these books, more especially 
with reference to Guy Miege's * New State,' of 
which the series preserved in the British Museum 
is far from complete. 

In 1682 a small 12mo. volume was published, 
called " ' Scotiae Indiculum ; or, the Present State 
of Scotland.' Together with divers Reflections 
upon the Antient State thereof. By A. M. 
Philopatris. In Magnis Voluisse sat est. London, 
Printed for Jonathan Wilkins at the Star in 
Cheapside next Mercer's Chappel. 1682." In 1683 
an independent and supplementary volume to Cham- 
berlayne's work appeared under the title of " The 
third part of the 'Present State of England,' wherein 
is set forth the Riches, Strength, Magnificence, 
Natural Production, Manufactures Wonders and 
Rarities, Progress of Learning, Arts and Ingenuities, 
etc., with a more perfect and Methodical Catalogue 
of the Nobility, with their Seats, than any hitherto 
extant. London, Printed for William Whitwood 
next the George Inn in Little Britain. 1683." I 
have not been able to discover any reissue of this 
additional volume. 

After sixteen editions had been issued by Edward 
Chamberlayne, there appeared, in 1691, a new 
competitor for public favour, entitled " ' The New 
State of England under their Majesties K. William 
andQ. Mary.' In Three Parts. Containing: I. A 
Geographical Description of England in General, 
and of Every County in Particular ; with usefull 
and Curious Remarks. II. An Account of the 
Inhabitants, their Original, Genius, Customs, 
Laws, Religion, and Government ; of their Present 



I. FEB. 13, '86. 

Majesties, their Court, Power, Kevenues, etc 
III. A Description of the several Courts of Judica 
ture ; viz., the High Court of Parliament, Privy 
Council, and all other Courts ; with a Catalogue 
of the Present Officers in Church and State, 
By G. M. London : Printed by H. C. for John 
Wyat, at the Golden Lion in St. Paul's Church- 
yard, 1691." This, the first edition of Guy Miege's 
* New State of England/ contains a frontispiece, 
representing Britannia seated, attended by King 
William and Queen Mary, inscribed "I. Sturt 
Sculp in ye Old Change." The work is dedicated 
" to the most Honourable Thomas Marquess of 
Caermarthen Earl of Danby, Viscount Latimer, 
Baron Osborn of Kiveton, Lord President of his 
Majesties most Honourable Privy Council and 
knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter." 

The Earl of Danby had previously accepted the 
dedication of the ninth edition of Chamberlayne's 
'Anglise Notitia,' published in 1676. The first 
edition of the ' New State of England ' contains 
357 pages in the first, 269 in the second, and 240 
in the third part ; with a separate title to each 
part dated 1691. The preface announces that 
" Tis the late Eevolution that has given birth to 
this new Piece of Work ; a new Face of Things 
required a New State of England," and the author 
acknowledges his indebtedness to " that Ingenious 
Piece De Eepublica Anglorum, written in Latin by 
Sir Thomas Smith." 

A more detailed account of England and the 
principal towns is given in the ' New State ' than 
in the former editions of Chamberlayne, but the 
arrangement of subjects is inferior to that of the 
older publication, and the catalogue of officers, 
&c., less full and more incorrect. However, the 
new venture would appear to have met with 
considerable success, as a second edition, " with 
great Improvements and Alterations," was brought 
out in 1693. In the Address to the Eeader the 
compiler states that "near two thousand " of the 
first impression were sold in a year's time. In 
the same year as the ' New State ' first appeared 
an opportunity was afforded to readers of this class 
of work of comparing the state of France and the 
constitution of the French Court with that of this 
country, by the appearance of " ' Galliae Notitia ; 
or, the Present State of France.' Containing a 
General Description of that Kingdom. Translated 
from the last edition of the French. Enriched 
with Additional Observations and Remarks of the 
New Compiler, and digested into a Method Con- 
formable to that of the Present State of England. 
By E W., M. A. London : Printed, and are to be 
Sold by John Taylor, at the Ship in St. Paul's 
Church-yard, 1691." 

My copy of this curious little book appears to 
have had a frontispiece, now unfortunately wanting. 
The author's name is given in an " Epistle Dedica- 
tory" as E. Wolley, who it would seem had 

obtained some appointment in France through the 
instrumentality of his patron, Eichard, Lord 

There appears to have been a reissue of the second 
edition of Miege's ' New State,' some copies being 
reprinted in 1694, but, wilh the exception of the 
altered date on the title-page, no corrections seem 
to have been made. In both issues, 1693 and 
1694, there is on the last page, after the table of 
contents, an " Advertisement " relating to certain 
errors in the printing, and in both a gap occurs 
from p. 366 to 385 in part iii. The dedication of 
the second edition is to " Sir John Trenchard, Kt., 
Principal Secretary of State." It contains 280 
pages in the first and 499 pages in the second and 
third parts, but the several parts have not separate 
title-pages, as in the first edition. The third 
edition bears date 1699, and the fourth 1701 (and 
in some copies 1702). The fifth edition was issued 
in 1703, and contained 600 pages. The dedication 
was accepted by the Eight Hon. Charles, Earl of 
Carlisle. The sixth edition (the last bearing the 
title 'New State,' &c.) was not brought out till 1707, 
when it appeared " with great Alterations, Addi- 
tions and Improvements." It was dedicated to 
" E* Hon ble William Cowper Esq., Lord Keeper of 
the Great Seal of England, etc." With this issue 
terminated the first series of Guy Miege's work. 
Tower Hill, Ascot, Berks. 

(7*o be continued.) 



(Continued from 6'h S. xii. 509.) 
I now present a version current orally among 
;he people of Kashmir, slightly condensed from 
Vtr. Knowles's useful 'Dictionary of Kashmiri 
Proverbs,' a work which should be in the posses- 
sion of all students of comparative folk-lore : 

Four men left Kashmir together to seek their 
'or tunes. On the way it came to pass that Allah, 
according to his power and wisdom, caused a large 
golden tree to spring up suddenly, and to bring 
'orth rich clusters of golden fruit. Seeing this, 
.he travellers were astonished, and at once resolved 
x> proceed no further, but to take the tree home 
with them and be glad for ever. In order to fell 
he tree and cut it up into pieces of convenient 
ize, it was arranged that two of the party should 
go to the nearest village and procure saws and 
axes, while the other two should remain to guard 
he precious treasure ; and they went accordingly. 
?he other two who were left to watch the tree 
>egan meanwhile to take counsel together how 
ihey might kill their partners, and they resolved 
o mix poison with their bread, which when they 
,te thereof they would die, and a double share of 

7*8. 1. FEB. 13, '86.] 



the treasure would then fall to themselves. And 
ao they put poison in part of the bread. But the 
other two who were going for the tools also plotted 
together that they might get rid of their partners 
left behind by the tree, and they determined to 
slay them with a stroke of the axe, and thus have 
a double share of the treasure. And when they 
returned from the village they immediately slew 
both with a single blow of the axe. Then they 
began to cut off the branches of the golden tree 
and made them into bundles for carrying away, 
after which they sat down to eat. And they ate 
of the poisoned bread, and slept the sleep of death. 
Some time afterwards a party of travellers passing 
that way found the four bodies stretched still and 
cold beneath the golden tree.* 

A third Arabian version, referred to in the 
postscript to my last paper, will remind some 
readers of that interesting class of European folk- 
tales in which Jesus and St. Peter figure so pro- 
minently. Muslims, it is perhaps needless to say, 
while they deny the divine nature of Christ, yet 
regard him with great reverence as the " Word of 
God," as they term Abraham the "Friend of 
God," and Muhammad the "Beloved of God." 
Our story is found, with some curious additions, 
in * An Account of the Virgin Mary and Jesus as 
given by Arabic Writers,' contributed to the 
Orientalist for February, 1884 (an excellent 
periodical, published at Kandy, more especially 
devoted to the folk-lore of Ceylon), by Muhammad 
Casim Siddhi Lebbe: 

Jesus, accompanied by a Jew, proposed that 
they should put their loaves together and make 
common property of the food they carried. It 
was found when this was being done that Jesus 
had but one loaf, while the Jew had two loaves. In 
the absence of Jesus (to perform his devotions) the 
Jew ate one of the loaves, and persistently denied 
the fact, asserting there were originally but two 
loaves. After Jesus had performed a number of 
miracles, each time conjuring the Jew to declare 
who ate the loaf and the Jew persisting in his 
falsehood, the narrative thus proceeds: 

They came to a lonely place, where Jesus made 
three heaps of earth, and by his word turned 
them into three blocks of solid gold. He then 
said to the Jew, " Of these three blocks, one 
is for me, one for you, and the other for 
the man who ate the loaf." The Jew instantly 
exclaimed, "It was I that ate the loaf, therefore 
I claim the two block?." Jesus gently reproved 
him for persistently adhering to a falsehood, and 
making over to him all three blocks, left him and 
went away. The Jew then endeavoured to take 

* ' A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and Sayings.' 
Explained and illustrated from the rich and interesting 
folk-lore of the Valley. By J. Hinton Knowles. Bom- 
bay, 1885. Pp. 45, 46. 

up the blocks of gold, but found them too heavy 
to be moved. While he was thus wasting his 
strength Jesus returned, and said to him, " Have 
nothing to do with these heaps of gold ; they will 
cause the death of three men. Leave them and 
follow me." The man obeyed, and leaving the 
gold where it lay, went away with Jesus. 

Three travellers happened to pass thnt way, and 
were delighted to discover the gold. They agreed 
that each should take one of the blocks. Finding 
it, however, impossible to remove them, they 
arranged that one of them should go to the city 
for carts, and food for them to eat, whilst the two 
others should watch the treasure. So one of the 
travellers set out for the city, leaving his two com- 
rades to guard the gold. During his absence the 
thoughts of those two were engaged in projecting 
some means whereby they should become posses- 
sors of the whole treasure, and finally they resolved 
to kill their companion on his return from the 
city. The like diabolical design had seized the 
mind of the latter in reference to his two com- 
rades. He bought food and mixed poison with it, 
and then returned to offer it to them. No sooner 
had he arrived than, without a word of warning, 
his comrades fell upon him and belaboured him 
to death. This foul deed done, they began to 
eat the food which was in its turn to de- 
stroy them, and as they were partaking of the 
poisoned repast they fell down and expired in 
great agony. 

Soon after this Jesus and the Jew were return- 
ing from their journey along that road, and seeing 
the three men lying dead beside the gold, Jesus 
exclaimed, " Such will ever be the end of the 
covetous who love gold ! " He then raised the 
three men to life, and elicited from them a con- 
fession of their guilt. They repented, and thence- 
forward became disciples of Jesus. Nothing, 
however, could make the Jew overcome his 
avarice. He persisted in his desire to become 
the possessor of the gold ; but whilst he was 
struggling to carry away the blocks, the earth 
opened and swallowed him up and the gold along 
with him.* 

It will be observed that the first of the three 
Arabian versions corresponds exactly with Chau- 
cer's, while the second agrees with the Buddhist 
original (cited in my first paper, 'N. & Q.,' 6 th S. 
xii. 422) in there being but two thieves, but 
otherwise it is much corrupted. In the Kashmiri 
version the number of men is doubled, and the 
devices adopted for each other's slaughter are 
reversed, those left behind to guard the treasure 
employing poison, and those sent to the village 
killing their comrades with an axe. The third 
Arabian version, from which the first (in the 
Breslau printed text of the * Nights ') seems to 

* The Orientalist, rol. i. p. 47. 



[7* S. I. FEE, 13, 8. 

have been derived, is also identical with Chaucer's 
story in the principal details. 

233, Cambridge Street, Glasgow. 

(.To be continued.) 

teresting article which appeared recently in the 
West Indian Quarterly (vol. i. part iii., Demerara, 
1885), Mr. Darnell Davis annotates very freshly 
some of ' The Spectator's Essays relating to the 
West Indies.' Unfortunately, Mr. Davis is unable 
to identify Steele's first wife, who was a native of 
Barbadoes, and who left him an estate in that 
island; and he makes an urgent appeal to the 
"scholarly sons of that colony" to search its 
records for traces of Steele as an absentee pro- 
prietor, and of his wife's family. 

Many of your readers must have lately refreshed 
their acquaintance with Steele by the aid of Mr. 
Austin Dobson's charming * Selections/ and will 
remember the ' History of Brunetta and Phillis,' 
therein reprinted from No. 80 of the Spectator. 
Mr. Dobson, in his notes, quotes what at first sight 
seems to be a happy suggestion of Mr. H. B. 
Wheatley, that Steele may have borrowed the 
idea of making Brunetta dress her servant in the 
remnant of her rival's brocade, " from the course 
taken by Lewis XIV. when Charles II., in order 
to abolish French fashions, invented the so-called 
' Persian habit.'" But Mr. Davies points out what 
was almost certainly the source of Steele's story, 
brocade and all. He finds it among the Sloane 
MSS. 2302, in the British Museum, in a letter 
written by 

" Captain Walduck, a resident for fourteen years in 
Barbadoes, and addressed to * Mr. James Petiver, Apothe- 
cary to the Chartreux,' and Fellow of the Royal Society 
in Alderggate Street, London. Here is Captain Wai- 
duck's own account of the incident : 

" ' I must add one piece of folly more that I knew and 
advised in. There are two gentlewomen in this Island 
of the best rank that have ever endeavoured to outvie 
one ye other, as well in housekeeping as in housewifery, 
and above all in making a figure in this little world. One 
of these ladies bought her a charming matito and petti- 
coat of bragade silk ; the richest that ever came to this 
Island. This she appeared at a ball in, where the other 
lady was, with such a porte and air that increased envy 
in ye other lady. The emulator went all over the Town 
and to every shop to furnish herself with as good a silk, 
but the country could not afford such another or come 
anything near it, but this lady learning where the other 
lady bought her silk, went there where there was a rem- 
nant left of pome yards, which she bought with the same 
trimming that the other lady had, and with this she 
privately made a petticoat for her negro woman that 
waited on her, and contrived an entertainment for the 
other la<ly to appear at in all her glory, where she like- 
wise cttrne, waited upon by her negro woman with this 
petticoat, on which when ye other lady saw she fell into 
a fit, went home and unrobed herself, arid has appeared 
in Norwich stuffs ever since.' " 

Steele probably made Petiver's acquaintance at 

the Charterhouse, and in after years, when a Bar- 
badoes proprietor, may have helped Petiver with 
his natural history collections, which are now, 
through Sir Hans Sloane, in the British Museum. 
It is not difficult, therefore, to understand how 
Steele may have heard the story of the rival Bar- 
badians which he has worked up so charmingly. 

In another of Steele's Spectator papers, * On 
giving False Characters to Servants' (No. 493, 
also reprinted by Mr. Dobson) he illustrates the 
danger of such practices by relating how a certain 
unpopular West Indian acting-governor was bribed 
to retire by his colonists granting him a flattering 
testimonial, and how this testimonial enabled him 
to obtain a "pucka" appointment to the same 
colony. Mr. Davis thinks Steele had in his mind 
Sir Eichard Dutton, twice Governor of Barbadoes 
(c. 1683), whose fortunes tally pretty well with the 
circumstances narrated in the Spectator. 

In his essay * On the Little Arts of making In- 
terest with Men in Power,' Steele says the Bar- 
badians, " a shrewd people, manage all their ap- 
peals to Great Britain by a skilful distribution of 
citron water among the whisperers about men in 
power." In a note on this long-vanished liqueur 
Mr. Davis quotes Oldmixon (without reference) as 
saying that Addison after his marriage drowned 
his sorrows in citron water or, as he calls it, " eau 
de Barbade "and " it was thought the frequent 
use of it destroyed his life." The story of the 
un happiness of Addison's marriage and his 
consequent intemperance is as familiar as it is 
doubtful ; but I do not remember to have seen 
Oldmixon quoted in support of it ; nor do I re- 
member any "historical character" except the 
lamented George IV. being accused of taking his 
liqueurs " in a moog." J. D. C. 

Albert Hall Mansions, S.W. 

ENTRIES IN EEGISTER. In the burial register 
of St. Dunstan's, Canterbury, the following entries 
occur side by side : " Thomas Bankes, kild his 
wife bur January the 20 th 1657." "Dorothy 
Menuill for burneing hir child bur the 20 th 
January, 1657." The burial of the victims is not 
entered. J. M. COWPER. 


GALLIC ENGLISH. On previous occasions you 
have permitted me to record some curious mis- 
prints. The following, from the catalogue of 
M. A. Durel, of Paris, seems worthy to keep them 
company : 

"The Ktepsake por 1840. edited by The Ladu E. 
Stuart Woshoy, London, 1841. gr. in-8, v. rouge 12 
figures sur acier." 


24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea. 

" OF THAT ILK." In p. 74 your correspondent 
r rom Philadelphia uses this phrase, but wrongly. 
The true meaning is, as given by Jamieson, " de- 

7< h 8. 1. FEB. 13, '86.] 



noting that he who is thus designed has a title 
the same with his surname." Douglas of Douglas 
is Douglas of that ilk. 


In the bright and interesting collectanea which Mr. 
Andrew Lang contributes to the February number 
of Longman's Magazine, under the title of 'At the 
Sign of the Ship/ he confesses to some misgivings 
as to whether he has justly named the new series 
of biographies which he is editing a series of 
English worthies. He admits that not all those to 
whom he has given a place were " worthy " or 
" worthies" in a strictly moral sense. To justify 
his choice of title he appeals to Nicholas Breton, 
a too-long neglected poet and pamphleteer, and 
credits Breton with having used the word " worthy " 
in a neutral sense, which embraces men of both 
good and bad moral character. Nicholas Breton 
(Mr. Lang tells us, on the authority of Messrs. 
Robson and Kerslake's catalogue), published in 
1643 'England's selected Characters, describing 
the good and bad worthies of the Age, &c.' But, 
as a matter of fact, Breton did nothing of the sort. 
By 1643 he had lain in his grave for some seventeen 
years, and in 1616 he had issued the same book 
under a very different title. He christened it 
' The Good and the Badde, a Description of the 
Worthies and Unworthies of the Age.' Only the 
bookseller, therefore, who was responsible for the 
1643 reprint, and not Breton himself, used the 
word " worthy " in a neutral sense. Probably 
Fuller's * Worthies ' gives the title of Mr. Lang's 
series all the justification of which it stands in 
need. S. L, L. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

JOSEPH GAY. I have a copy of a work entitled 
" ' The Petticoat : an Heroi-Comical Poem.' In 
Two Books. By Mr. Gay. The Second Edition 
Corrected." The dedication to this work, " To the 
Ladies," bears the signature "Joseph Gay." In 
the course of making a collection of the works of 
John Gay, of Barnstaple, author of ' The Beggar's 
Opera/ 'Fables/ &c., I stumbled on this work, 
and at first sight took it for granted that it was 
an undescribed work by John Gay, especially as 
the title-page was an almost exact counterpart of 
other plays of the same writer. But as I could 
nowhere find a trace of the work in the list of 
Gay's writings in the British Museum Catalogue, 
in Lowndes, or elsewhere, I thought that further 
search was necessary. But on further reference to 
Lowndes, I discovered the name of " Joseph Gay " 
as the assumed name of Capt. John Durant 

Breval, who wrote 'The Confederates' (1717), 
< Progress of a Rake ' (1733), ' The Lure of Venus ' 
[1733). But, singularly enough, there is no men- 
tion of ' The Petticoat/ my copy of which is dated 
1716. Can any of your readers tell me who this 
)apt. Breval (" Joseph Gay ") was, and under what 
circumstances the " heroi-comical poem" 'The 
Petticoat' was produced ? 

W. H. K. WRIGHT, F.K.H.S. 
Public Library, Plymouth. 

certain where this noted astrologer was born. In 
Dugdale's ' England and Wales ' the place of birth 
of Dr. John Dee is stated to be the town of Upton- 
upon-Severn, in Worcestershire, whilst at p. 164 
of the ' History of Radnorshire/ by the late Rev. 
Jonathan Williams, M.A., Dr. Dee is stated to 
have been born in the parish of Bugaildu, near 
Knighton, in Radnorshire. Wood, in the 'Athense 
Oxonienses/^merely says Dr. Dee's father was 
Rowland Dee, who was descended from the Dees 
of Nanty Groes, in Radnorshire. Dr. Dee died at 
Mortlake in 1608. HUBERT SMITH. 

is the meaning of " christened " in the following 
entries, copied from the 'Diary of Elias Ash- 
mole ' 1 

" 1645, Sept. 14tb._I christened M r Fox his son at 
Oxford 4 P.M." P. 12. 

" 1661, July 12th. [ christened M r Buttler the Gold- 
smith's son, William." P. 38. 

"1662, Deer 5th. I christened Captain Wharton's 
daughter." P. 39. 

Did Ashmole practise lay baptism, or merely at- 
tend the ceremony as a sponsor ? J. MASKELL. 

land in Derbyshire levied in the thirty-sixth year 
of King Henry III. the following clause occurs: 

" Et prseterea iidem Ricardus, Sara. &c., concesserunt 
pro se et heredibua ipsarum Sarae, Leticiae, &c., quod 
omnes manentes in prsedictis tenementisde cetero molent 
bladum et brasium suum ad molendinum ipsius personae 
et successorum suorum ecclesise de Esseburne, ad vice- 
simum quartum granum in perpetuum." 

What is the meaning of this "twenty-fourth 
grain"? W. H. HART, F.S.A. 

CANTARELA is mentioned in history as the 
poison of which Pope Alexander VI. died, having 
drunk of the bottle which he had intended for 
certain cardinals he had invited to sup with him. 
Bembo Guicciardini, Jovius Tomasi, and other con- 
temporaries attest the fact, which Voltaire, in his 
' General History of Europe/ chooses to call in 
question. Is it known what the poison called 
cantarda was ? C. A. WARD. 

Haveratock Hill. 

ALGERNON SIDNEY. In a recent review in your 
pages of a book by Miss Gertrude Irelande Black- 



I. FBB. 13, 'I 

burne, you mention as authorities on the life of 
the above statesman a work from the pen of Mr. 
Meadley and the more modern 'Sidney Papers. 
I am interested, however, to know whether the 
volume about him to which MR. HEPWORTH 
DIXON refers at 1 st S. v. 318 ever saw the light. 
I have searched the notice of MR. DIXON in 
' Men of the Time,' but no mention is there made 
of any such book. Information relative thereto 
would oblige. T. CANN-HUGHES, B.A. 

The Groves, Chester. 

SIR THOMAS SCOTT. In the ' Memorials of the 
Scott Family,' p. 195, it is stated that this 
Elizabethan worthy published a book on horses or 
horse breeding. Can any one give me the authority 
for this, or refer me to the book ? 


PEARLS. Can any of your readers inform, me 
how long, approximately, it takes for a pearl to be 
grown in the oyster to attain the size of a pea, and 
how foreign substances are introduced into the 
animal on which to form pearls ? 


Southwick Harbour, Sussex. 

[The artificial production of pearls, by introducing 
small foreign substances into the shell of a species of 
mussel, has, it is alleged, long been known to the Chinese. 
Sir Joseph Banks is said to have had in his possession 
specimens of the shell of a chama in which there were 
several pieces of iron wire incrusted with a matter of a 
perfectly pearly nature. This process of incrustation is 
supposed to take several years. In 1761 Linnaeus in- 
formed the King of Sweden that he had discovered a 
method by which mussels might be made to produce 
pearls, and this he offered to disclose for the benefit of 
the kingdom. His offer was, however, not accepted, and 
he subsequently disposed of the secret for the sum of 
five hundred ducats (about 240Z.). Bechmarm relates 
that Linnaeus showed him pearls that had been thus 
produced, remarking, "Hos uniones confeci artificio 
meo ; sunt tantum quinque annorum et tamen tarn 
magni." According to this, it would require about five 
years to complete a pearl of fair size. Bechmann dis- 
cusses Linnaeus's method at some length, and comes to 
the conclusion that it consisted in making a perforation 
in the shell, but without, apparently, the introduction 
of any foreign substance.] 

Chambaud's French dictionary (as edited by Car- 
rieres and published in 1805) I was surprised to 
read, under the English word "Heron," "com- 
monly pronounced hern." I have never heard it 
so pronounced, and believe that to most persons 
brought up in the neighbourhood of London hern 
would now be almost as unintelligible as handsaw 
(the old corruption for hernshaw as the name of 
the bird). Halliwell gives hern as a provincial 
form of heron, without indicating in what parts of 
the country that form is used. Perhaps this query 
may elicit the information from those readers of 
* N. & Q.' who have heard the pronunciation in 
question. W. T. LYNN. 

SAMUEL WYDOWN, said to have been in the 
British navy with one or two brothers (one of 
whom fought under Nelson); said to have run 
away witb a Miss Smith, cousin and ward of the 
then Lord Carrington, and to have become a Bap- 
tist minister, whereupon he left the service ; was 
caught with numerous English residents in Hol- 
land by Napoleon's famous decree ; and finally in 
1805 (?) came to the United States. His numerous 
descendants will be very grateful for any authentic 
information about him and his wife. 


University of Virginia, Va., U.S. 

ST. TIRACIUS. In Ecton's 'Thesaurus,' p. 169, 
under the " Deanery of Sottersden," appears this 
entry: "01.06.08. St. Tiracius Cbap. De- 
struct. 00:02:08." I cannot find this nauie in Sir 
H. Nicolas's 'Alphabetical Calendar of Saints,' or 
any name like it, and therefore I ask, Who was he ? 
What is known about the destroyed chapel, of 
which the rating in the King's Books and the Yearly 
Tenths are given above ? BOILEAU. 

details as to the tame sparrow and starling kept 
respectively by these emperors will be gratefully 
received by A. B. POWELL. 

Southwick Harbour, Southsea. 

TWIGGERY. A friend of mine hunting with 
harriers in Cheshire asked a labouring boy if he 
had seen the hare. The boy answered, " Oo was 
making for th' twiggery," a willow or osier bed. 
Is the word used or known elsewhere ? 


MELDRUMSHEUGH. Where is Meldrumsheugb, 
the seat of Patrick Eichardson, burgess of Edin- 
burgh, father-in-law of Adam Bothwell, Bishop of 
Orkney ? V.H.I.L.I.C.I.V. 

FORBES OF SHEALS. On the external north wall 
of the sacristy of the Church of St. John the Baptist, 
Maddermarket, Norwich, there is a small tablet 
with the following inscription : 

Here Lieth y e Body of 


of Sheals in y e County of 

Aberdeene Scotland 

wlio departed this Life y e 

14th O f Qct: 1718 Aged 49 

To which branch of the Forbes family did George 
Forbes belong ? WM. VINCENT. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Can any reader of 
* N. & Q.' tell me who is the author of ' Ogbury 
Barrows,' 'An Old Master,' &c., published lately 
n the Cornhill, and state whether he has written 
anything beside these papers ? A. I. 

INNS AT OLDHAM. Can any of your readers 
tell me the names of the principal inns and hostel- 

7* S. I. FEB. 13, '86.] 


ries of Oldham, Lancashire, in 1794, with any of 
their occupants and streets where they were 
situated ? T. H. D. 

College was founded by George, fifth Earl Maris- 
chal, in 1593. In the accounts of the Aberdeen 
Town Council for that year occurs the entry: 
" To Mr. Thomas Cargill [Master of the Grammar 
School] to caus print certaine verse in Latin in 
commendatioune of my Lord Marischeall for ereck- 
ing the new College in Aberdeen, at the Counsallis 
command. 31." The opening lines of Mr. Car- 
gill's ode- 
Quod meritis Marischalle tuis Regalibus illis, 
JEternum addictaa obstrinxti foedere Musas, 
O quantus te expectat honos ! 

are quoted on p. 15 of Prof. William Ogston's 
' Oratio Funebris in Obitum Georgii Marischalli 
Comitis,' Aberdeen, 1623. Is anything further 
known of this poem ? It was probably printed in 
Edinburgh, as no printing press existed in Aber- 
deen for twenty- nine years after the college was 
founded. In 1715, when -the Pretender was at 
Fetteresso, near Aberdeen (the seat of George, 
tenth and last Earl Mariscbal, great-great-grand- 
son of the fifth earl), the principal and professors of 
MarischaJ College waited upon him there, and pre- 
sented an address of welcome. They were in conse- 
quence deposed by a Koyal Commission of Visita- 
tion, 1716-17. Similar addresses were presented by 
the magistrates and by the non-juring clergy of 
Aberdeen, and these are given in most histories of 
the rebellion ; but I have failed to find the address 
from Marischal College. Is it known to exist ? In 
all probability it was printed in a separate form in 
1715, as the other two addresses undoubtedly 
were. See Mr. J. P. Edmond's 'Aberdeen 
Printers/ p. 164. P. J. ANDERSON. 

2, East Craibstone Street, Aberdeen. 

any reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me whereabouts this 
watchmaker lived in London ? He was a maker of 
celebrated repeaters in the latter half of the last 
century. EDWARD R. VTVYAN. 

SURNAME OF PAULI. Can any of your readers 
give me information regarding the origin, derivation, 
and localization of the above surname ? By what 
means could I obtain information concerning the 
pedigree of that branch which was settled in 
Silesia? Who was Simon Paulli, M.D., who 
lived in the early part of the seventeenth century, 
and wrote several works on medicine and botany ? 
Was he of Danish or German birth? Direct 
answers will greatly oblige. W. K. PAULI. 

Luton, Beds. 

of your readers refer me to any account of the 
superstition that for any member of the family of 

Graham to wear green is unlucky ? I can find 
no reference to this common belief in the indexes 
to the five series of N. & Q.' 


MERRTWEATHER. Is anything known of this 
" Gentleman of Cambridge," who translated 
Browne's ' Keligio Medici ' into Latin ? 

C. A. WARD. 

LATIN GRAMMAR. I am in possession of a 
manuscript Latin grammar, temp. Elizabeth, 
written by one Thomas Robertsone, apparently 
for a school. Any particulars respecting him 
would confer a great favour. J. 0. H.-P. 

SIR WILLIAM CURTOTS. Can any one supply 
me with further information about the career 
of Sir William Curtoys ? He was ambassador 
from the king of Spain to the court of Lucca, and 
died some time during the last century. Though 
an Englishman by brith the son of the rector of a 
small Wiltshire living he changed his religion 
and his nationality, becoming a Eoman Catholic 
and a Spaniard. He left, as I believe, two sons, 
Pedro and Joachim, about whose descendants I 
should be glad to hear. J. H. G. 

Newspaper for May, 1853, it is stated that on the 
27th ult. a duel took place between Sir Robert 
Peel and Mr. Bernal Osborne, M.P. for Middle- 
sex. " The ball from Mr. Osborne's weapon," 
adds the writer, " passed through his antagonist's 
coat-sleeve, and the affair happily terminated with- 
out bloodshed." Was this the last "affair of 
honour " in London ? If not, what was the last, 
and when did it take place ? I always thought 
that the affair between Lord Cardigan and Capt. 
Harvey Tuckett gave to duelling its coup de grace. 


Time hath no measure in eternity. 

G. R. 

"As long as woman and sorrow exist in this world 
Christianity will never die out." JAMBS B. GUYER. 

Weep not, if thou lov'st me well ; 
I 'm happier than the weeper. 


His place, in all the pomp that fills 
The circuit of the summer hills, 
Is that his grave is green. 
The mark of rank in Nature 

Is capacity for pain, 
And the anguish of the singer 
Makes the sweetness of the strain. 


'Twas a beauteous day in summer, bright flowers be- 
gemmed the valleys ; 

Beside a bubbling fountain in the forest wild I lay. 
The small birds sweetly carolled in the verdant woodland 


While high above the tree-tops shone the glorious god of 
day. J. T? S. 



[7 th S. I. FFB. 13, '86. 

(7 th S. i. 3.) 

MR. ADDY, in his very interesting paper on this 
subject, asks for a reference, in ' The Anatomy of 
Melancholy/ to the popularity of Boccaccio's 
novels in English families during Burton's time. 
Now, old Burton is a friend to whom I often apply 
when lonely or tired ; and I have been glad to 
have an excuse for ransacking his treasury during 
the continuance of the frost and snow. The result 
I offer to MR. ADDY, premising that I am not one 
of the happy possessors of the first edition (1621), 
and that the following is extracted from the second 
edition (folio, 1624): 

" The ordinary recreations which we haue in Winter, 
and in most solitary times busy our mindea with, are 
Gardes, Tables, & Dice, Shouel-board, Ckesse-play, the 
Philosophers game, small trunkes, balliardes, musicke, 
maskes, singing, dancing, vlegames, catches, purposes, 
questions, merry tales of errant Knights, Kings, Queenes, 
Louers, Lords, Ladies, Giants, Dwarfes, Theeues, Fayries, 
&c., such as the old women told Psyche in Apuleius, 
Bocace Nouells and the rest." Part ii. sec. ii. memb. iv. 
p. 230. 

The italics are used as above in the original, the 
extract being (as it is desirable that all extracts 
printed in *N. & Q.' should be) presented as 
accurately as the exigencies of modern typography 
will allow. It is clear from this passage that the 
' Decameron ' was well known in Burton's day ; 
indeed, he frequently refers familiarly to the 
stories, in the style of one who expects his readers 
to be equally well informed with himself. Thus 
(p. 420, ed. cit.) he quotes the tale of Cymon and 
Iphigenia, prefacing it with the information that 
" Bocace hath a pleasant tale to this purpose, 
which he borrowed from the Greekes, and which 
Beroaldus hath turned into Latine, Bebelius into 
verse, of Cymon and Iphigenia "; and (p. 395) he 
illustrates Chaucer's well-known lines 

That whereas was wont to walke an Elfe, 
There now walkes the Limiter himselfe, 
In every bush and vrider every tree 
There needs no other Incubus but he 
by adding, " and the good Abbesse in Bocace may, 
in some sort witnesse, that mistooke and put on 
the Friers Breeches instead of her vaile or hat." 
Thus much concerning Burton. 

I am reminded by MR. ADDY'S query of the 
existence of a curious little book which, although not 
particularly scarce, does not appear to be much 
known. The title is, "Human Prudence: | or, 
the Art | By which a | Man may Raise Himself | 
and his | Fortune | to | Grandeur. | Corrected and 
very much Enlarged. \ The Eleventh Edition. | 
[Quot.] | London, | Printed for Eichard Sare, at 
Gray's Inn- \ Gate in Holborn. M.DCCXVII." 
Duodecimo. The dedication, "To the Virtuous 

and most Ingenious Edw. Hungerford, Esq.," is 
signed by " W. de Britaine," an author whom 
Lowndes only recognizes by the registration of a 
quarto pamphlet on ' The Dutch Usurpation,' 1672, 
reprinted in the third volume of the Harleian Mis- 
cellany. The title I have now quoted is not in the 
' Bibliographer's Manual,' yet the book must have 
had some share of popularity, or it would not have 
arrived at the dignity of an eleventh edition. I 
have no record of its first appearance, but the 
notes in my interleaved Lowndes record the second 
edition in 1682, the sixth in 1693, the ninth in 
1702, and the tenth in 1710. Mr. Hazlitt ('Col. 
and Notes,' ii. 161) registers the seventh edition 
in 1697. The dedication, evidently addressed to 
a very young man, concludes with these words : 
" I will not detain you any longer at present, than 
to intreat you to look into this Mirror, as made 
up of other Men's Crystals, and my own Errors ; 
wherein you may see what you are, as well as 
what you ought to be." The work mainly consists 
of aphorisms, culled from various authors, inter- 
spersed with little jokes, anecdotes, and verses, 
introduced by way of illustration and in order to 
lighten the tedium of an otherwise heavy discourse. 
Amongst the stories are several of the novels of 
Boccaccio, rather cleverly paraphrased and con- 
densed, the first being 'The Paternoster of St. 
Julian '; and I am much disposed to think that 
Mr. W. de Britaine must have had access to a 
translation differing in some degree from any which 
we know. Here is an example of the colloquial 
style employed : 

"His [Rinaldo] Servant with his Valise (which was 
all the Hope he had left him) was not as yet come up ; 
His Horse, it seems, having cast a Shoe by the Way, but 
he was got near enough, however, to see the Encounter, 
and to show himself Rogue enough to leave his Master 
in the lurch, and save his own Bacon by scowring away 
cross the Fields to the best Inn in the Town, where his 
Master was to have quarter'd that Night, and there was 
he Fuddling and making good Chear, while poor Rinaldo 
was groping out his Way up to the Ears in Mud." 

Another story commences thus : 

" There was a couple of young Sparks, for Age, Birth 
and Breeding much alike, and their Names Spinelloccio 
Tavena, and Zeppa di Mino ; These Blades living within 
a door one of another, were almost perpetually together, 
and a Brace of very handsome young Women they had 
to their Wives," &c. 

Only in one instance is the source of any of the 
stories hinted at; this is on p. 210: 

" Boccace hath given us a Novel of a covetous rich 
Chufi' newly in Office, that had a very fine Woman to 
his Wife, & wanted a fine Horse," &c. 

If Sir Koger L'Estrange ever translated the 
'Decameron,' these, one would think, are speci- 
mens of his free-and-easy method. 

I have the following references to Mr. De Bri- 
taine, but neither of them is at present available 
for my use : ' N. & Q.,' I 8 ' S. x. 67 ; Gent. Mag., 
1793, pp. 124, 711. ALFRED WALLIS. 

7<" S. I. FEB. 13, '86.] 



Probably the 1684 edition of Boccaccio is cor- 
rectly described as the " fifth," for I can give par- 
ticulars of two editions which appear to be totally 
unknown to MR. ADDY and other bibliographers. 
The first is a small 8vo., printed in 1634 by Thomas 
Coates. A copy is described in Ellis & White's 
No. 45 Catalogue. And another edition, of 1657, 
was described in one of Ridler's catalogues about 
a year ago as follows : " Boccace (J.), Decameron, 

containing an Hundred Pleasant Novelles 

2 vols. in 1. thick 12mo., curious woodcuts, 1657." 

K. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Perhaps the following quotation from the 'Ana- 
tomy of Melancholy ' may be that alluded to by 
MR. ADDY in his note on the above subject. Bur- 
ton gives a long list of " the ordinary recreations 
which we have in winter, and in most solitary 
times busie our selves with," and concludes thus: 
" Merry tales of errant knights, queens, lovers, 
lords, ladies, giants, dwarfes, theeves, cheaters, 
witches, fayries, goblins, friers, &c., such as the old 
woman told Psyche in Apuleius, Bocace novels 
and the rest" (' Exercise Rectified,' vol. i. pt. ii. 
sect. ii. p. 413, ed. 1804). 

There is, however, an earlier reference to those 
stories. Roger Ascbam, in his ' Schoolmaster/ 
begun about 1563 and first published 1570-1, says, 
when speaking of Lady Jane Grey: "I found her 
in her Chamber, reading Phsedo Platonis in Greek, 
and that with as much Delight, as some Gentle- 
men would read a merry Tale in Boccace." Later 
on he laments the increasing taste for Italian 
literature, which he considers more corrupting 
than the romances formerly studied for amuse- 
ment " And yet ten Morte Arthurs do not 
the tenth Part so much Harm, as one of these 
Books made in Italy, and translated in England" 
declaring that his countrymen "have in more 
Reverence the Triumphs of Petrarch, than the 
Genesis of Moses, they make more Account of 
Tully's Offices, than S" Paul's Epistles; of a tale 
in Bocace, than the Story of the Bible " (first book). 

Warton, in an exhaustive chapter on the Eliza- 
bethan translators, also quotes the above extracts 
from Ascham and Burton (' History of English 
Poetry, from the Eleventh to the Seventeenth 
Century,' sec. lx., pp. 924 and 931, reprint, Lon- 
don, Ward, Lock & Tyler). 

In the same section of this work, p. 927, MR. 
ADDY will find the identical passage which he has 
transcribed from Wright's introduction to the edi- 
tion of the * Decameron ' published by Chatto & 
Windus, showing that it must have been taken 
from Warton, who is therefore responsible for the 
ambiguity pointed out : 

" Before the year 1570, William Paynter, clerk of the 
Office of Arms within the Tower of London, and who 
seems to have been master of the school of Sevenoaks in 
Kent, printed a very considerable part of Boccace's 

novels. His first collection is entitled, The Palace of 
Pleasure, the first volume, containing sixty novels out of 
Boccaccio, London, 1566.' It is dedicated to lord War- 
wick.* A second volume soon appeared, ' The Pallace 
of Pleasure, the second volume containing thirty-four 
novels, London, 1567.'t This ia dedicated to sir Geo. 
Howard ; and dated from his house near the Tower, as 
is the former volume." 

Authorities consulted, 

1. Burton's ' Anatomy of Melancholy,' 1804. 

2. 'The Schoolmaster,' by Koger Ascham. corrected 
and revised, with explanatory notes by the llev. James 
Upton, A.M. " London : printed for Benj. Tooke, at 
the Middle-Temple Gate in Fleet-street. MDCCXI." 

3. ' The History of English Poetry, from the Eleventh 
to the Seventeenth Century,' by Thomas Warton, B.D. 
A full reprint, text and notes, of editions London 1778 
and 1781. London, Ward, Lock & Tyler, Warwick 
House, Paternoster Row, E.G. 


(6 th S. xii. 517). Some months since an unmis- 
takably learned correspondent, though but an occa- 
sional one, of ' N. & Q.,' was in my study, when, 
on one of the minute details of the R.V. coming 
up, he suggested that we should refer to my Cor- 
nelius. I might almost venture to say that of 
course we found it all there. So, adopting the 
same course on the present occasion, I turn to 
Jerem. xxxiii. 16, and from the note on the pas- 
sage make the following extract : 

" Bum. Hebraice, hoc est nomen quod vocabit earn, 
scilicet Jerusalem, id est Ecclesiam : Dominus justitia 
nostra, id est Christus justificator noster, ipse noster est 
Dominus. ipse noster est Deus : Hebraice enim est 
Jehova. Nomen ergo Christi, illi impositum cap. xxiii. 6, 
communicatur hie Ecclesiae, imo Christus ipse euum 
nomen 8U33 sponsae de more communicat ....... P.Gordonus, 

' Controv.,' i. cap. x. vult hunc locum, uti et alios, a 
Judaeis esse depravatum, ne Christum esse Deum fateri 
cogantur. Nam tarn noster (seil. Vulg. Int.) quam 
Septuaginta et Chaldaei vertunt vocalunt eum, scilicet 
Christum, non earn scilicet Jerusalem. Verum Fran- 
ciscus Lucas in Notis ostendit contrarium, scilicet non 
Hebrgeurn, sed Latinum textum hie esse corruptum ; et 
S. Hieronymus [cor. urn] non eum sed earn vertisse : quia 
undecim exemplaria Latina MSS. habent earn, non eum. 
Veneta quoque editio Chaldaea habet H? la id est eam f 
non n^> le, id est eum. Videtur ergo lectio cap. xxiii. 6, 
hue translata, ut pro earn irrepserit eum ; eo quod ilia 
lectio scribis esset notior ; eo quod ilia tempore Adventus 
quotidie legatur in ecclesia." Corn, a Lapide, ' Com- 
ment. in Jerem.' 


TYNE, in requesting information as to the cor- 
rectness of the personal pronoun iu Jer. xxxiii. 16, 
refers to Blayney, who *' pointed out that in the 
original not the feminine affix, but the masculine 
...... is used." The original reads thus : 


" * A second edition was printed for H. Binneman, 
Lond., 1575, 4to." 

" f A second edition was printed by Thomas ^Marsh, 
in octavo. Both volumes appeared in 1575, 4to. 



I. FEB. 13, '86. 

From this it may be seen that to describe the 
relation of the pronoun to the verb as that of an 
affix is irregular. The word H/ is in the dative 
case, third person singular, feminine gender. This 
personal pronoun, retaining its full form, is, for 
purposes of grammatical construction, connected 
with the preceding verb N^p? and with the ante- 
precedent relative pronoun "1^8 by the conjunc- 
tive Hebrew signs called makkephs. It is super- 
fluous to add that in Hebrew an affix does not 
retain its full form, but is shortened when blended 
with a verb. The personal pronoun in question is 
of the feminine gender in the original, as agreeing 
with the proper name Jerusalem, in accordance 
with the rule of Hebrew grammar that names of 
countries, provinces, and cities are classed among 
feminine nouns. Certain interpreters, neverthe- 
less, either arbitrarily making the pronoun agree 
in sense with the antecedent proper name Judah 
or with the succeeding Jehovah, ungrammatically 
render it in the masculine gender. Luther (only, 
however, following the Vulgate) is an instance : 
" Und man wird ihn nennen : Der Herr, der unsere 
gerechtigkeit ist." JAMES GRAHAM. 

1, White Friara, Chester. 

WEATHERCOCKS (6 ft S. xii. 515; 7 th S. i. 56). 
In addition to the note upon this may be men- 
tioned the origin of the weathercock, which Pol. 
Vergil thus describes. It refers, of course, to the 
temple of the Druids at Athens : 

"Andronicus Cyrrhestes : is Athenis teste Vitruvio, 
[lib. 1. c. vi.] locavit turrim, et in singulis lateribus 
imagines ipsorum ventorum exsculptas, contra cujusque 
flatus, eupraque metam marmoream posuit ac in ea 
Tritonem aereum dextera manu virgam porrigentem, 
quern ita fabricates est, ut vento circumageretur, staret- 
que semper contra venti flatum, virga interim ad ejus 
venti imaginem versa." 

He further states: 

" Per hunc modum Andronicus Cyrrhestes ostendit, 
unde certi ventorum flatus spirarent, quern nunc ubique 
gentium servant, positis in summitate locorum pinnis 
aerieis, per quaa ventorum flatus indicentur." ' De Jn- 
ventoribus Rerum,' lib. i. cap. xvii., " De Invent. As- 
trol.," p. 56, Amst., 1671. 

In reference to the cock Keble's lines on the 
view of Oxford from Bagley at 8 A.M. may be 

Lo ! on the top of each aerial spire 

What seems a star by day, so high and bright, 

It quivers from afar in gulden light; 

But 'tis a form of earth, though touched with fire 

Celestial, raised in other days to tell 

How, when they tired of prayer, Apostles fell. 

' Lyra Apostolica,' cxlviii , Derby, 1836. 

BRISTOL POTTERY (7 th S. i. 69). So early as 
Edward I.'s reign pottery was made at Bristol ; but 
it was not until the eighteenth century that it pro- 
duced the dated "Dutch" tiles which are now 
treasured in museums. At that time Richard 

Frank was a well-known potter, and somewhat 
later came the Ring family and their successors 
Pountney and Allies. Price, Hope, Patience, 
Alsop, and Powell produced brown salt-glazed 
stoneware. Bristol Porcelain Works were estab- 
lished by Richard Champion, who was born in 
1743. The whole of this information and more is 
to be found in 'English Pottery and Porcelain/ 
published at the Bazaar office. It makes mention 
of a book your correspondent might do well to con- 
sult, 'Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in Bristol,' by 
Hugh Owen, F.S.A. ST. SWITHIN. 

According to A. H. Church's handbook on 
English earthenware, there were two men who 
seemed to work about the same time (i.e., about 
the end of the seventeenth century), these were 
Richard Frank and Joseph Flower. The earlier 
of these was Frank ; his works (Delft) were founded, 
in all probability, during the last quarter of the 
seventeenth century ; some things were turned out 
at least as early as 1706. Flower does not appear 
to have anything of earlier date than 1741. Here 
is even an earlier date. The marriage of "Thomas 
Frank, gallipot maker." is recorded in 1697. But 
the earliest dated piece is 1706. G. S. B. 

MR. HUGHES will find much information on 
this subject (probably all he needs) in Llewellynn 
Jewitt's ' Ceramic Art of Great Britain,' new edi- 
tion (? second edition), chap. xi. p. 208, Virtue & 
Co., Ivy Lane,n.d. (preface to second edition dated 
1883). W. SYKES, M.R.C.S. 


See Mr. Hugh Owen's exhaustive history of this 
special subject. THOMAS KERSLAKE. 

" The first record of Bristol pottery appears to 

have been in the reign of Edward I At the 

close of the seventeenth century delf was made." 
See Wm. Chaffers's ' Marks and Monograms on 
Pottery and Porcelain,' and 'Two Centuries of 
Ceramic Art in Bristol,' by Hugh Owen, F.S.A. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

[CELER ET AUDAX has been obliging enough to copy 
from Chaffers's ' Marks and Monograms ' the information 
therein conveyed. This we shall be glad to forward to 
MR. HUGHES if he has riot access to it.] 

history of this place is fully treated in Hartshorne's 
' Feudal and Military Antiquities of Northumber- 
land,' 1858. It is picturesquely situated on 
pillared basaltic columns, which on the north and 
east rise to about a hundred feet above the sea 
shore. In the eastern part there are many fissures 
filled with metamorphosed shale and sandstone ; 
and it is in these that crystals of quartz, some 
white and transparent and others of a violet hue, 
have occasionally been found. Such minerals are 
not common in Northumberland, and they are 

7<h 8. 1. FEE, 13, '86,] 



popularly called Dunstanborough diamonds and 
amethysts. The castle and estate were sold in 
1869 by Lord Tankerville to the Eyre Trustees, of 
Leeds, and they, on the representation of the Ber- 
wickshire Naturalists' Club, expended a consider- 
able sum in 1885 in repairing Queen Margaret's 
tower, which was rapidly going to destruction. 


The context of the passage, referred to by your 
correspondent E. R. W., in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for February, 1756, offers a solution which is 
doubtless right. This castle is built on a basaltic 
crag, but its walls are made of a rough sandstone 
(from the mouutain limestone series), which is full 
of large quartz crystals. These crystals being re- 
leased from the crumbling walls, and found among 
the grass, have given rise to a report of a North- 
umbrian Golconda. A. H. D. 

Ii> Camden's ' Britannia ' it is said that " near 
Dunstanburgh is found a kind of spar called 
Dunstanburgh diamonds, said to rival that of 
St. Vincent's Rock, near Bristol." The Dunstan- 
borough diamonds no doubt were crystallized 
quartz, the same as the " Bristol diamonds," 
" Irish diamonds," and " Cornish diamonds." 



If MR. EARWAKER will refer to the article 
"Leather" in Chamber's ' Encyclopaedia,' 1874, 
there is a diagram which shows the exact limits of 
the "butt" and "pieces" in a hide; and, presum- 
ing that " ossles " may be a misreading for 
14 offals," the description of this term also. They 
are still trade terms. There are two pairs of 
" shank pieces " to each hide, and the " pieces," 
when cut off, are called " offals." The terms 
" hides, backs, and butts " and " pieces of offal " 
occur in the Act concerning tanners of 1 James I., 
p. 41, reprint Lond., 1697. ED. MARSHALL. 

KATHERINE, LADY SAVAGE (6 th S. xii. 449). 
In the Visitation of Cheshire, 1580, Sir John Savage 
of Clifton, grandson of Sir John Savage, made 
knight banneret at the battle of Agincourt, is said 
to have married Katherine, sister to Thomas Stan- 
ley, the first Earl of Derby. One of their sons 
was Sir Humphrey Savage. Sir John died 1495, 
and is buried in Macclesfield Church with his wife 
Katherine. He wears a Yorkist collar of suns and 
roses ; and a print of the tomb is in Helsby's 
' Cheshire.' Katherine wears a mitre head-dress. 

In the same visitation, in the pedigree of Stan- 
ley of Weever, Katherine Savage is mentioned 
with more particulars of her family, her father 
being Sir Thomas Stanley, first Lord Stanley, 
Comptroller of the Household to Henry VI. , and 
her mother Joan, daughter and heir of Sir Robert 

Gowsell and his wife Ellen, daughter of Richard, 
Earl of Arundel, and widow of T. Mowbray, Duke 
of Norfolk. 

Sir Humphrey Stanley of Pipe, who died in 
1505, was the son of John Stanley of Elford, who 
was first cousin of Sir Thomas Stanley. 

Sir Thomas Stanley was the father of the first 
Earl of Derby, not the Earl himself, as put in the 
" Savage " pedigree. B. F. SCARLETT. 

This lady was the daughter of Thomas, Lord 
Stanley, and sister of Thomas, first Earl of Derby. 
The monument referred to is in St. Michael's 
Church, Macclesfield, Cheshire, and is fully de- 
scribed in Earwaker's ' East Cheshire,' vol. ii. 
pp. 493-4. 

In 1 662 Randle Holmes found a Latin inscrip- 
tion on the tomb as follows: " Hie jacent corpora 
Johannis Savage militis et dnse Katherinse uxoris 
ejus filiae Thomae Stanley dni ac sororis Thomee 
primi comitis Darbiae." The inscription has long 
since disappeared. 

There was a Sir Humphrey Stanley of Pipe, co. 
Stafford, who died March, 1504/5. He was a 
grandson of Thomas, third son of Sir John Stanley 
of Lathom, which Sir John was great-grandfather 
of the first earl. Consequently, Dame Katherine 
Savage and this Humphrey would be second cousins. 


Westbank, Macclesfield. 

Katharine, Lady Savage, was the second daugh- 
ter of Thomas, first Baron Stanley, and sister of 
Thomas, first Earl of Derby. See Collins's ' Peer- 
age of England' (1812), p. 56. G. F. R. B. 

The mitred abbey of Paisley was a possession of 
the Clugniac monks of the order of St. Benedict. 
It was burnt by order of the Lords of the Council 
in 1561. J. WOODWARD. 


The abbey of Paisley was founded A.D, 1163, 
colonized by Prior Humbald and thirteen Clugniac 
monks from St. Milburga's, Much Wenlock. The 
Clugniac was an order of Reformed Benedictines. 
Paisley, made an abbey in 1220, was burned in 
1561 by order of the Lords in Council. 


OSTREGER (6 th S. xii. 306, 452). 

" They be called Ostringers," says Markham, " which 
are the keepers of Goshawkea or Tercelles, and those 
which keepe Sp*rrow-hawkes or Muskets are called 
Spervitera, and those which keepe any other kinde of 
hawke being long-winged are termed Falconers."' Gen- 
tleman's Academic, or Booke of S. Albans/ fol. 8. 



MANORS IN ENGLAND (7 th S. i. 68). The 
' Nomina Villarum,' in the Public Record Office, 
or the transcript of these MSS. from 1316 to 1559, 



[7 th S. I. FEB. 13, '* 

in the British Museum, Harl. MS. 6281. C. M. 
will recollect that since the statute "Quia em- 
plores" there can be no fresh manors by sub- 
division. ED. MARSHALL. 

ABSENTEE GENTRY (6 th S. xii. 491). Absentee- 
ism was not confined to Christmastide in Scotland, 
as the following Act of the Scottish Parliament 
shows : In the seventh Parliament of James VI., 
" halden and begun at Edinburgh the xxiiij dale 
of October the zeir of God 1581 zeires," the follow- 
ing Act was passed : 

" 116. Against the abuse of sum landid Qentil-men, and 
utheris forbearing to keepe house at their awin dwelling- 

" Porsameikle, as of lait there is croppen* in amangis 
Bum Noble men. Prelate, Baronnes, and gentil-men, in 
certaine pairts of this Realme, being of gude livinges, 
great abuse contrair the honour of the Kealme, and 
different from the honest frugalitie of their Forebeares,f 
passing to Burrows, Townes, ClauchannesJ and Aile- 
houses with tbeir househaldes, and sum abiding in their 
awin places, usis to buird themselves and uthers to 
their awin|| servands, as in hostillaries. quhairon skaith- 
ful and scbameful inconvenients dailie falls out, to the 
offence of God, defrauding of the pure of their almes, 
eclander of the cuntrie, and hurt of the authours. For 
remeid quhairof, Our Soveraine Lord, with advise of his 
three Estaites of this present Parliament, hes statute and 
ordained : That every Prelate, Lord, Baronne, & landed 
gentil-man, sal make bis ordinar dwelling and residence 
at his awin house with his familie, in all time cumming, 
after the publication of the Acts of this present Parlia- 
ment, for setting fordward of policie and decoration of 
their saidis dwelling places, supporting of the pure with 
almes, and interteining of friendschip with their Nicht- 
boures be al gude and honest meanes : And that they 
forbeare the said unhonest forme of buirding of them- 
pelues. and their families and househaldes in Burrowes, 
Clauchannes and Aile-houses, or in their awin houses, 
under the paines following, That is to say: Ilk Lord and 
Prelate vnder the paine of 500. markes, ilk great Baronne 
vnder the paine of 300. markes, and ilk landed Gentil- 
man under the paine of 200. markes. and gif they failzie, 
being called and ordourlie convict of transgressing this 
present Act, the saidis paines to be vp-lifted to our 
Soveraine Lords vse." 


KALENDAR (7 th S. i. 89). I can say where two 
sets of the verses often seen at the end of the 
calendar of each month in early missals and 
breviaries may be found. Those which give good 
advice as to keeping in health may be seen in the 
' Flos Medicines Scholae Salerni,' one set in pars i. 
cap. ii. art. iv., the other set in pars v. cap. i. 
(see Salvatore de Renzi, * Collectio Salernitana,' 
Napoli, 1852, t. i. pp. 446, 486). There are many 
variations between the text given by De Renzi and 
that given in most of the liturgical books ; but 
there can be no doubt, I think, that both have a 
common origin, though in some lines the two texts 
vary so much that they can be hardly recognized 

* Crept. 

f Forefathers. 
II Own. 


as the same. On the whole, the text given by 
the liturgical books seems preferable to that of De 
Renzi, though this latter is, he tells us, the fruit 
of much collation. 

A couple of years or so ago I was shown by a 
young physician an almanac with maxims for each 
day and month of the year as to the best means 
of keeping in health ; and he was somewhat 
disappointed to find that his idea, which he 
thought was quite novel, had been anticipated by 
something like four hundred years. 


47, Green Street, Park Lane. 

CRONEBANE HALFPENNY (6 th S. xii. 469; 7 th S. 
i. 17). One of the most interesting things about 
these artistic and well-executed little tokens is 
their variety. An Irish coin collector, now dead, 
informed me that for five years they formed the 
principal copper currency of Ireland; and I re- 
member very well that up to the period of the 
issue of the present bronze coins many "Cron- 
banes" were still in circulation, though they were 
generally regarded as " bad ha'pence." They were 
very much worn, which is not to be wondered at, 
considering they had been in circulation since 
1789 and the three or four succeeding years. 
About a dozen " Cronbanes " are now before me. 
The general type is: Obv., a mitred bishop's head 
looking to left (of coin), CRONBANE HALFPENNY; 
rev., a shield of arms, shovels, picks, and a hunting 
horn; crest, a windlass; ASSOCIATED IRISH MINERS 
ARMS, 1789. The head has fine flowing hair and 
beard, and a dignified and venerable appearance. 
I presume it is intended for St. Patrick. Three 
of these tokens, which are precisely alike, have the 
following different inscriptions on the edge: 
"Payable at London Birmingham or Bristol"; 
"Payable in Lancaster London or Bristol"; 
" Payable by I Simmons Staplehurst." Another 
variety has the addition of a decorated pastoral 
staff in front of the face. On four of these I find 
the following inscriptions on edge: " Payable at 
Oronbane Lodge or in Dublin"; "Payable at 
Anglesea London or Bristol"; "Payable at Lon- 
don or Dublin"; "Payable at Clougher or at 

Another typehas: Obv., the same; rev., figure of 
Hibernia, seated; HIBERNIA. On one of these the 
edge inscription reads : " Payable in London, 
Bristol and Lancaster." 

I find that one with the same head on obv. has: 
MAY IRELAND FLOURISH ; rev., a ship in full sail. 


Another has : Rev., a shield of arms and crest 
(not the Irish miners') and inscription, PAYABLE 


The last I shall have to mention has, instead of 
St. Patrick, Obv., a hooded Druid's head, face to 

7 th S. I. FEB. 13, '86.] 



right (of coin), surrounded by an oak wreath (like 
the well-known Anglesea tokens; ; rev., the asso- 
ciated Irish miners' arms, with usual inscription, 
and date 1793; on edge, "Payable in London 
Liverpool or Bristol. 

A larger collection of these tokens would pro- 
bably contain a still greater variety of inscriptions. 
Cronebane, in Wicklow, is well known for its 
copper-mines, and I presume these " Cronbanes " 
were made, or were supposed to be made, of copper 
from these mines. It is worthy of note how fre- 
quently the word "Bristol" occurs on these tokens; 
this suggests that they may have been struck there. 
If it could be shown that Bristol merchants re- 
ceived the production of the Cronebane mines it 
would give a colour to this supposition. 



HOGMANAY (7 th S. i. 85). Menage says, " En 
basse Normandie, les pauvres, le dernier jour de 
Tan, en demandant Paumone disent Hoguinanno." 
Brand says that he "found in the handwriting of 
the learned Mr. Robert Harrison, of Durham, the 
following, ' Scots Christmass Carroll by the 
Guisearts"': '''Homme est ne" corrupted to 
" Hogmenay," and " Trois Kois la " to " Troleray " 
or " Trololey " a suggestion, I suppose, of even 

less value than that of 


au gui rnenez. 

JOHN STOCK (7 th S. i. 67). In Park's ' History 
of Harnpstead' (p. 281) MR. WARD will find a 
long account of the will of " John Stock, citizen 
and draper, many years painter at his Majestey's 
dock-yards." In addition to legacies of 3,0001. to 
Christ's Hospital, 1,00<U to Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, 1,OOOZ. to the minister and parishioners 
of St. John's, Hampstead, and many smaller 
legacies, be left upwards of 6G,OOOZ. to the Wor- 
shipful Company of Painter-Stainers, to be paid in 
pensions of 101, per annum to aged blind persons 
and to poor lame painters, &c. The funds from 
this and other bequests are distributed with the 
most careful consideration, and under the control 
of the Charity Commissioners, to about two hun- 
dred old and needy persons. At the annual 
dinner, at the Feast of St. Luke, one of the prin- 
cipal toasts is still "The pious memory of John 
Stock" (drank in solemn silence); and his por- 
trait hangs in the court-room. The Worshipful 
Company of Painter-Stainers, according to Horace 
Wai pole, received their first charter in the sixth 
of King Edward IV., but they existed as a fra- 
ternity in the time of King Edward III. They 
were called Paynter-Stayners because a picture on 
canvas was formerly called a stained cloth, as one 
on panel was called a table, probably from the 
French tableau. In the pictures of King Henry 
VIII. we find them always so distinguished, as, 

" Item, a table with the picture of the Lady 
Elizabeth her Grace"; " Item, a stained cloth with 
the picture of Charles the Emperor." The minute 
books which the company still possess commence 
from the year 1623. One of their duties, fre- 
quently exercised, was to search for work, to judge 
if it were well or ill done, and, on many occasions, 
to condemn it. On March 10, 1673, there is a 
minute, " That the Painter of Joseph and Pottifer's 
Wife and the Fowre Elements be fined 3Z. 6s. 8d. 
for such bad work." The present Painters' Hall 
stands on the site of the old one, which was de- 
stroyed in the Fire of London, and was bequeathed 
to the company by Sir John Browne, Serjeant 
Paynter to King Henry VIII., by patent dated 
1511, and who was elected an alderman of London 
in 1522. Sampson Camden, who is said to have 
painted a portrait of Queen Elizabeth, gave the 
company, in 1622, a silver cup and cover, in 
repousse' work, which stands two feet high. It is 
used annually on St. Luke's Day. Another silver 
cup and cover, with bowl (dated 1623), was be- 
queathed to the company by his son William 
Camden, Clarencieux King at Arms, in memory 
of his father. A portrait of Camden, in the dress 
of Clarencieux King at Arms, was presented to 
the hall by Mr. Morgan, master of the company, 
in 1676. Sir James Thornhill, who was master 
in 1728, presented a cup and cover in plain silver. 
Sir Joshua Reynolds was also a member of the 
company, and at the present day the livery has 
the honour to number amongst its members 
Sir Frederic Leighton, the president of the Royal 
Academy, who was presented with the freedom of 
the company in 1884. I am principally indebted 
for these notes to a short history of the company 
by Mr. John Gregory Grace, master in 1880, and 
to an article in the Port/olio for 1884, by Mr. 
Alfred Beaver. AMBROSE HEAL. 

Amedee Villa, Crouch End, N. 

" FROM BLOOM TILL BLOOM " (6 th S. xii. 143). 
This appears to refer to floral rents, which 
were far from uncommon in respect of copy- 
hold lands, and particularly what are known as 
" customary freeholds." The lord of the manor 
received " a red rose " or " a gillyflower on the 
Feast of Saint John the Baptist, yearly." This 
feast, according to the old calendar, would fall on 
our July 5, and this would explain the date. I have 
a cutting from recent auctioneers' particulars of 
sale of the manor of Oathall (in WivelsthVi parish, 
Sussex) which quotes a rental of the manor in 1818, 
and amongst the rents are, " For Lanus in Plomp- 
ton called Roseland. A red Rose. Heriot., Best 
Beast." This shows that floral rents are not yet 
extinct. Grimm ('Teutonic Mythology,' trans. 
Stallybrass, i. 58) refers to lands in Hessian town- 
ships paying a bunch of May-flowers (lilies of the 
valley) every year for rent, and he considers this 



[7* 8. 1. FEB. 13, '86. ] 

kind of rents to be relics of the ancient floral sacri- 

ANECDOTE OF PORSON (7 th S. i. 87). Perhaps 
the word asked for is trifelous trifling. It 
occurs on recto A iii. of the sermon referred to, 
which was printed by Wynkyn de Worde : 

" Tryfelous thynges that were lytell to be regarded she 
wolde let paese by, but the other that were of weyght & 
substaunce wherin she myghte prouffyte she wolde not 
let for ony payne or laboure to take vppon hande." 

My quotation is taken from John Fisher's * Works ' 

OF CHICHESTER (7 th S. i. 68). It is stated in the 
biographical notice of Bishop Henry King prefixed 
by the Rev. John Hannah (now Archdeacon of 
Lewes and Vicar of Brighton) to his edition of the 
poems of Bp. H. King, Oxford and London, 1843, 
that the bishop left two sons, the elder of whom, 
John, died in 1671 without issue, and the 
younger, Henry, had two daughters, Mary and 
Eliz ibeth. The latter married Mr. Isaac Houblon, 
but had no descendants ; the former married Mr. 
Edmund Wyndham, " a marriage which I have 
not traced elsewhere," says the learned editor. 
If this marriage can be followed out the de- 
scendants, if any, may be discovered. 


SIBLEY (6 th S. xii. 389,453).! am sorry to 
say I knew all that your correspondents have 
kindly contributed on my query, but I want 
to know more. Sible Hedingham did not give 
me an original form. Sibley also is known to 
me not only as a common surname of the lower 
middle class in Herts, &c., but as a surname of 
the higher middle class, as it is that of sheriff's 
of Herts, &c. My friend MR. CARMICHAEL has 
not been able as yet to find it as a local name, 
but that does not prove its non-existence in such 
form. If found it may be a very small hamlet 
or a farm on the Ordnance map. If found it may 
assist in the examination of an interesting genea- 
logical subject. From about the thirteenth 
century it can be traced as a name in Herts, 
Essex, and the neighbouring shires, and conse- 
quently in London. Its headquarters seem to 
be in the east, and it does not extend very far 
north. It is, however, found much more freely 
now in some western counties, as Cornwall, Devon, 
Somerset. This large body I believe to be an 
offshoot, but the determination of a local name 
would assist in the solution. Why it is chiefly 
wanted is for the great American clan, of which 
a history is now in preparation. That was founded 
by a Sibley and his two sons, who are said to 
have come from St. Albans, and settled in New 
England in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. From them many hundreds of Sibleys 

are descended, but they have now chiefly mi- 
grated to the western states, where there is a 
town of Sibley, in Minnesota. They include 
many men of eminence and estimation, one of 
whom is the founder of Sibley College. There 
is every reason to believe they are descended, 
according to their tradition, from John Sibley, 
one of the early mayors of St. Albans after its 
incorporation ; and it is possible the borough 
records may afford collateral evidence. The 
Mayor of St. Albans has kindly promised me to 
further these researches. 

The hundred millions of English-speaking people 
on the two shores of the Atlantic are made up of 
units such as the Sibleys, and what we can do to 
foster the evidence of such connexion is desirable 
in our national interests. Any further communi- 
cations will be thankfully received by me and 
transmitted to our friends on the other side. For 
the evidence of my own alliance with the Sibleys 
I am indebted to the kindness of that great 
friend of the cause of English and American 
genealogy, the late Col. J. Lemuel Chester, F.S.A. 


32, St. George's Square, S.W. 

" SON OF A SEA COOTE " (6 th S. xii. 493; 7 th S. i. 
79). Fishing long ago off the coast of Cornwall 
with some old sailors, relatives, one of them, 
angry with his catch, a dog-fish, all others having 
been driven away by this useless predatory fish, 
smashed it on the side of the boat, exclaiming, 

" d son of a sea-cook." " Why cook ? " said 

I. His explanation went to show that the 
clumsy one, weakling, deformed, or good for no- 
thing else, was mostly appointed cook on board ; 
the one they could spare easiest. W. RENDLE. 

HERALDIC (6 th S. xii. 516 ; 7 th S. i. 53). Since 
my former communication I have referred to 
Edmondson's 'Peerage,' and under "Exeter" 
(vol. ii. p. 105) the armorial bearings mentioned by 
T. W. W. S. will be found as the first five among 
the quarterings of that family; the sixth is Nevill, 
which was brought in by the marriage of Thomas, 
eldest son of Lord Burghley, with Dorothy, 
daughter and coheir of John Nevill, Lord Latimer, 
and could not, therefore, have been borne by 
Robert, Earl of Salisbury. In the same ' Peer- 
age ' these Cecil quarterings will be found among 
those of Lord Saye and Seal (Nos. 20 et sequent}, 
but between the arms of Carleon and Eckington 
those of Dicons, Raynes, and Bokard are inserted. 
It appears from Dr. Hutton's MS. collections for 
Oxfordshire (Rawlinson MSS., Bodleian Library, 
1163) that in the manor house of Steane, Northauts, 
was a shield with the arms of Cecil quartering 
Winston, Carleon (which coat he describes as 
Sa, three tents (?) a., in fess point a bezant), Eck- 
ington, and Walcot. At Stoneleigh Abbey, in a 
window of the inner hall, are several shields of 

7"> S. I. FEB. 13, '86.] 



arms brought from Brereton Hall, Cheshire, anc 
dated 1577. Among them is one of Cecil with 
six bearings: 1 and 6, Cecil; 2, Gu., three mullet 
of six points a. (Hansard); 3, the field indistinct 
a lion rampant a., double-queued, armed, anc 
langued gu. (?) ; 4, Eckingion ; 5, Walcot 
Although this glass was put up exactly as it was 
received from Brereton Hall, an examination of i 
leads me to think that the bearings Nos. 2 and I 
are of later date, and have been inserted at some 
time in place probably of those of Winston anc 
Cairleon. I cannot find, at any rate, that they 
have any place among the quarterings of Cecil. 

G. L. G. 

WOLDICHE (7 th S. i. 29). Can this possibly be 
Wolvey, a place about four miles from Hinckley 
and five from Nuneaton ? 


Oldish End, or Olditches End, is a hamlet oi 
Temple Balsall, in Warwickshire. This is probably 
the place inquired for. WM. UNDERBILL. 

LUBBOCK (7 th S. i. 86). Your correspondent's 
suggestion has been anticipated by Lower in his 
'Essay on English Surnames.' Canon Bardsley 
in ' English Surnames,' pp. 163-4, ed. 1875, also 
says : " Lubbock, once written * de Lubyck' and 
'de Lubek/ from Lubeck in Saxony." 


PORTER OF CALAIS (7 th S. i. 107). My ancestor 
Sir Nicholas Wentworth, knighted by Benry VIII. 
at Boulogne in 1544, was ''Chiet Porter of Calais." 
His eldest son, Peter Wentworth, M.P., of Burn- 
ham Abbey, has also sometimes been called in 
pedigrees "Porter of Calais," but this is very 
" doubtful." I also should be glad to be told where 
to find a list of the porters of Calais. D. 

LEWIS WAY (7 th S. i. 87). Early in this cen- 
tury Lewis Way was the owner of Stanstead, about 
eight miles from Chichester, on the border of the 
county. He had a craze for converted Jews, and 
had his house full of them. They were fed on the 
fat of the land. One day a rumour came that 
Lewis Way was a bankrupt. The next morning 
every Jew was gone, and they had taken all the 
silver they could lay their hands on, the books 
from the library, even the prayer books in the 
chapel everything convertible and easy of car- 
riage. So much for a converted Jew. 



A full account of this remarkable philanthropist 
can be read in the one-volume edition of ' Travels 
and Adventures of Dr. Wolff,' p. 80. Way devoted 
himself to the conversion of the Jewish nation, 
after receiving an enormous legacy from a stranger, 
with the condition that he should employ it for 
the glory of God, Wolff says, " He took sixteen 

Jews into his house, and baptized several of them ; 
but soon after their baptism they stole his silver 
spoons." One, named Josephson, was transported 
for forging Way's signature. 


DEATHS IN 1885 (7 th S. i. 63). MR. ROBERTS 
justly complains that dates of birth and death are 
frequently omitted in obituary notices. But he 
lays himself open to censure in one notable instance 
by omitting the date of birth of Mr. Thorns, given 
in the obituary in * N. & Q.' I do not know from 
what source MR. ROBERTS took his notices of 
Richard Ansdell, R.A., and Brinley Richards. 
The exact date of death of each is given in the 
Athenaeum, though MR. ROBERTS only mentions 
the month. The following information will help to 
complete the list : 

Ansdell, Richard, d. April 20 (Ath. t April 25, p. 542). 
Ewing, Mrg. J. H., b. Aug. 3, 1841 ('Juliana Horatia 

Ewing and her Books,' by Horatia K. P. Gatty). 
Jackson, J., Bishop of London, b. Feb. 22, 1811 (Vincent's 

' Diet, of Biog.,' 1877). 
Milnes, R. M. (Lord Houghton), b. June 19, 1809 

('Debrett,' 1883). 
Munro, H. A. J., b. Oct. 14, 1819 (Vincent's ' Diet, of 

Biog.,' 1877). 

Primrose, Col. E. H.,b. Sept. 8, 1848 ('Debrett,' 1883). 
Richards, Brinley, d. May 1 (Ath., May 9, p. 609). 
Thorns, W. J., b. Nov. 16, 1803 ('fl. & Q.,' 6th g. X H. 


Walford, C., d. Sept. 28 (Daily News, Sept. 29). 
White, R. G., d. April 8 (' Whitaker's Almanack,' 1886, 

Wordsworth, G., Bishop of Lincoln, b. Oct. 30, 1807 

(' Debrett,' 1883). MR. ROBERTS says " b. 1806." 

CONQUER (7 th S. i. 27, 71). The Kidderminster 
Shuttle, Jan. 16, is responsible for an anecdote to 
the effect that a nervous curate, who on the pre- 
vious Sunday had to give out the line of the hymn, 
"Conquering kings their titles take," astonished 
the congregation by reading the line " Kinkering 
koogs their titles take." It is very evident, how- 
ever, how he would pronounce the word conquer. 

ROBINSON CRUSO (7 th S. i. 89). There is no 
need of going to Norfolk to bring the name of 

ruso into close contact with Defoe. When he 
was at Charles Morton's school at Stoke Newing- 
;on he had amongst his schoolfellows a Cruso. I 
enow I have read this, but I cannot at this moment 
ay my hand upon the authority. It may be in 
Lee's ' Life of Defoe,' but it was not there I read 
t; no stress was laid upon it. It was in some 
>ook such as Granger's 'Biographical History, 
eeming with accidental gossip. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

That Defoe was familiar with the name of Cruso 
rom the days (1675-80) when " he was placed in 
in academy at Newington Green, under the direc- 
ion of the Rev. Charles Morton," there is little 



[7> S . I, FEB. 13, '86. 

doubt, for Timothy Cruso, afterwards an eminent 
divine, was educated there also Chadwick (' The 
Life and Times of Daniel De Foe ') thinks " at the 
same time." The question arises, Was Timothy of 
the King's Lynn family ; and was there a Robinson 
Cruso before 1719, when the book was published ? 
because " time immemorial " in pedigrees may 
mean as far back as the Flood witness that of the 
Wynns of Wynnstay, which Noah is said to have 
brought out of the ark. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH (7 th S. i. 88). I have 
the pleasure to inform your correspondent CELT 
that the bibliography of Raleigh's works and the 
works relating to him has been carefully compiled 
by Dr. T. N. Brushfield, of Budleigh Salterton, 
Devon, and the first portion appeared in the 
Western Antiquary for last month. The biblio- 
graphy consists of two hundred and fifty entries, 
with copious descriptive and explanatory notes, the 
whole preceded by an interesting article relating 
chiefly to Raleigh's ' History of the World.' Dr. 
Brushfield has taken pains to verify the titles and 
collations of every copy of the ' History ' to which 
he could get access, and his work bears tokens of 
the most painstaking labours. I enclose a reprint 
of the eight pages already published, and shall be 
happy to supply your correspondent with a copy 
if he will send me his address. The number of 
the Western Antiquary for January has been 
already sent you. W. H. K. WRIGHT. 


CELT will find full information as to Sir Walter 
Raleigh in the following : 

Cayley, A. Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. London, 1805, 

Oldys, W. Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. 1735. 

Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. London. 1677. 

Thomson, Mrs. Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. London 

Theobald, Lewis. Memoirs of Sir Walter Raleigh 
London, 1719. 

Tytler, P. F. Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. " Edinburgh 
Cabinet Library," 1839, Nelson; Edinburgh, new ed.j 

Whitehead, C. Life and Times of Sir Walter Raleigh 
London, 1854. 

Creighton, Louise. Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. Lon 
don, 1877. 

See also 

Gardiner, S. R. History of England, 1603-16. Lond 

Kingsley, C. Miscellanies, vol. i. 
Wood, A. Athenae Oxonienses. 

There is a bibliography of near three pages, both 
as to Raleigh's own works and those in connexion 
with him, in Lowndes's ' Bibliographer's Manual. 

C. P. 

7, Cowley Street, Westminster, S.W. 

There is a 'Life of Sir Walter Raleigh,' bj 
Patrick Fraser Tytler, in No. 11 of the " Edin 

Durgh Cabinet Library," circa 1840. There is also 
a good account of his trial in ' Criminal Trials,' 
Lond., C. Knight, 1832, vol. i. pp. 389-411. 


Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. By A. Cayley. Second 
edition published 1806. 

Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. By P. P. Tytler (Lord 
Woodhouselee). " Edinburgh Cabinet Library," second 
edition published 1833. 

Sir Walter Raleigh's Works, with Lives. By Oldyg and 
Birch. Oxford, 1829. 

Raleigh's Treatise of the Sea- Ports, with Remarks by 
Sir H. Shears. 1700. 


There is a good beginning of a bibliography in 
Bohn's ' Lowndes,' in five columns of email type. 
These may be added : 

Life, by Wm. Oldys, with Trial, portrait by Vertue, 
folio, 1737. 

Memoir, by Samuel G. Drake, portrait, 4to., Boston, 

Life, by James A. St. John. 8vo., 1869. 

W. C. B. 

EPIGRAM BY MACAULAY (7 th S. i. 109). Under 
the heading " Logogriphs" in Frederick D'Arros 
Planche's ' Guess Me : a Curious Collection of 
Enigmas,' &c., "illustrated by George Cruik- 
shank and others," London, Dean & Son, Ludgate 
Hill (n.d., but probably circa 1870), will be found 
the piece on "Manslaughter," and another <; logo- 
griph " by the same author on the word " Cod." 

[The REV. H. DELEVINGNE supplies the enigma in full, 
and justly calls it "doggerel, which can scarcely be by 
Macfiulay." As it is too long for our pages we will send it 
to M. G. D. if be will send a stamped envelope with big 
address, which we do not possess. We take this oppor- 
tunity of saying that correspondents who elect to give 
initials in place of names and addresses are unaware how 
frequently they miss answers that would be sent direct, 
but are unsuited to ' N. & Q.'J 

ESQUIRE (6 th S. xii. 495; 7 th S. i. 34, 74).- 1 am 
satisfied with the quarto and folio readings with- 
out Theobald's, and explain my doubts thus. To 
a cursory reader Shallow and Slender are shallow 
vapourers. But to one who did not know that the 
justiceship of the peace carried with it tx officio the 
title of esquire, Shakespeare's words were no proof 
that Shallow's title was thence derived, for, first, 
we know not his descent, and, secondly, Shake- 
speare's legal dicta, though unusually correct, are 
never quoted as " authorities " by our judges. 


30, 79). 

To catch the eel of science by the tail. 

In my edition of the ' Dunciad ' (the second) the lines 
quoted by MR. ED. MARSHALL are 11. 233-4 of book i., 
not 11. 275-6. It should be noted that Smollett, in ' Pere- 
grine Pickle,' chap, xlii, makes his hero rate the pedantic 
friend of Pallet as " a mere index-hunter, who held the 
eel of science by the tail." JAMES HOOPER, 

7"i S. I. FIB. 13, '86.] 




The Lauderdale Papers. Edited by Osmund Airy. 
Vol. III., 1673-1679. (Printed for the Camden Society.) 
THE important task undertaken by Mr. Airy of publish- 
ing a selection from the Lauderdale Papers is accom- 
plished, and a signally valuable contribution to our 
knowledge of a troublous period of Scotch history is 
furnished. In no respect do the letters now given to 
the world yield in interest to those previously published. 
The principal correspondents in the present volume are 
the Duke of Lauderdale and Charles II. There are many 
letters, however, from the Dukes of York and Monmouth, 
and from the Earl of Kincardine while he remained 
loyal to Lauderdale. Seldom had a monarch a more 
serviceable tool than Lauderdale shows himself, and 
seldom was a monarch more consistently staunch than 
Charles. When the opposition to Lauderdale was at its 
height Charles, upon hearing that Sir Henry Saville 
had voted against him and urged others to do the same, 
had an access of passion such as has been judged strange 
to his nature. According to the description of this given 
by Sir Andrew Forrester to the Duke (p. 140), Charles, 
upon the first sight of Saville, " fell into such a passion 
that his face & lipps became as pale (almost) as death, 
his cheeks & armes trembled, and then he sayd to 
Saville, You Villayne, how dare you have the impudence 
to come into my presence when you are guilty of such 
basenes as you have shewne this day 1 L doe now & 
from hence forth discharge you from ray service, 
com'anding you never to come any more into my pre- 
sence nor to any place where I shall happen to be/' 
Similar testimony is borne by the Earl of Murray also in 
a letter to Lauderdale. An animated account of the 
fight at Lasmahago is supplied pp. 162-4, Graham of 
Claverhouse, one of Lauderdale's correspondents, owning 
that they fell upon a conventicle "little to our advan- 
tage." Of the massacre at Bothwell Bridge for it was 
not a fight a good description is also furnished. It is 
difficult, indeed, to say how much interesting and im- 
portant matter is not to be found in Mr. Airy's admir- 
able contribution to history. 

Our Parish : a Medley. By One who has never lived 
out of It. (Lewes, Sussex Advertiter Office; Hails- 
ham, E. H. Baker.) 

THIS modest little work consists of a series of short 
but thoroughly readable articles descriptive of village 
life in Hailsham, Sussex, during the present century, 
the author being Mr. Thomas Geering, of that parish. 
It will be read with interest by many, especially 
Sussex antiquaries, as the personal reminiscences of 
the author are pleasantly blended with scraps of Sussex 
history, dialect, folk-lore, and customs. The parish of 
Hailsham is close to Hurstmonceux, Pevensey, and 
Eastbourne, and was formerly the chief place of the 

of Eastbourne in its humbler days, when its children went 
to Hailsham to be confirmed. The curfew is still rung 
in Hailsham, as we learn, and many old customs are 
scarcely extinct there. 

The best chapters are those on " Ghosts," " Our Inns 
and Public-houses," "The Pillion and the Harvest 
Supper," and " Our Poet, John Hollamby." This worthy, 
who is designated as "The Unlettered Muse," was, as 
we learn, for thirty years grinder and leading man in 
Hailsham's oldest mill. He issued a small volume of 
poems in 1827, which seems generally to have escaped 
notice, for we do not find his name in the list of 

Sussex poets, although from the quotations given by 
Mr. Geering his work is evidently worthy of perusal. 

Mr. Geering has been a careful student of Charles 
Lamb, whose style he has almost unconsciously adopted, 
and the kindly interest he takes in all that goes on 
around him will make his book acceptable to many 
readers who avoid more strictly antiquarian works. 

S(oria Universale di Cesare Cantu. Tenth Edition. 

(Turin, Unione Tipografico-Editrice.) 
STUDENTS of history will hail with satisfaction this new 
edition of one of the most valuable and comprehensive 
works of the age, " interamente riveduta dall' autore e 
portata sino agli ultimi eventi," fifty years after the 
commencement of the first edition. To write a review 
of the ' Storia Universale ' would be a work of super- 
erogation at this time of day ; but a special tribute is 
due to Commendatore Cantu from Englishmen for having 
been among the first to set the example of discarding that 
prolixity of style, that accumulation of qualificatives, 
that meandering all round the subject in hand which 
makes so much that is written in elegant Italian diction 
tedious and forbidding. It would be difficult in Cantu's 
writings ever to find a word that could be spared. All 
is concise and to the point. If he is ever the least 
obscure it is the obscurity of a telegram. The author's 
research, acumen, honesty of purpose, and other qualities 
necessary to the trustworthy historian are too well known 
to require more than passing mention ; but they have 
specially qualified him for preparing the difficult volume 
which appeals to the largest number of readers, viz., the 
eleventh and last, treating of the period 1789-1885, so 
large a portion of which has passed under his eye, and 
in the " making " of which, so far as his own country is 
concerned, he has himself been a prominent factor. 
This volume, it is announced, will be brought out in 
monthly parts simultaneously with the first, and will be 
issued independently of the rest. 

THE Edinburgh Review for January gives us archaeo- 
logy in its articles on the ' Coptic Churches of Egypt ' 
and on ' Phoenician Antiquities '; home and foreign 
political questions in its considerations of England, 
Afghanistan, and Russia, and of the French in Mada- 
gascar, as well as in its concluding article on ' Popular 
Government '; and literary criticism proper in its article 
on Victor Hugo. This is, of course, not an exhaustive 
division of the contents of the number, but is sufficient for 
a broad outline. We are inclined to think that Victor 
Hugo had more of the quality of patience, from a literary 
point of view, than he is credited with in the Edinburgh. 
But his patience, like his judgment, lacked balance and 
a due sense of proportion. Still, it was not without 
effect, and did, we believe, constitute an element in his 
success which should not be overlooked. The comparison 
of the articles on home politics which appear in the 
several numbers of the Edinburgh and Quarterly would 
be full of interest, though rather beyond our scope. We 
can only commend them to the careful study of both 

THE Quarterly Review for January, in its purely lite- 
rary division, takes up the gauntlet on behalf of Spanish 
literature in its article on Mr. Ormsby's translation of 
' Don Quixote.' It BO happens that the Knight of La 
Mancha is attracting notice contemporaneously in 
France, where we have seen a translation announced as 
the first French version, though we ourselves received 
our first impressions of the knight from a French version, 
described as a new edition in 1849, which we read in our 
early days in the sunny land of France, and which still 
cheers us in nebulous England. The claims made on 
behalf of Spanish literature as a "key to the history of 
Europe " strike us as somewhat exaggerated. Italy, we 



I. FEB. 13, '80. 

hold, must always afford us the master key to the com- 
plications alike of mediaeval and of modern story, though 
there are times when Spain supplies us with valuable 
special information. It is a far cry from Madrid to 
Tiryns, but the account of Schliemann's latest ex- 
plorations will be read with interest. In 'Church and 
State' we have a subject eminently of to-day, while in 
' The Patriarchal Theory ' we are carried back to far 
distant ages, when the father of the family was himself, 
it may be said, Church and State in one. Annexation 
renders Burma a land to be studied by the reading public 
with an interest to which its past history should give 
added zest. 

THE first number of Illustration, conducted by Mr. 
F. G. Heath, has been issued by Messrs. Sampson Low, 
Marston & Co. It contains matter of varied interest 
abundantly illustrated. 

AT the meeting of the Royal Society of Literature on 
the 27th ult.,when Dr. Ingleby,V.P., read an extremely 
interesting paper entitled ' Notes on the History of the 
Shakespearian Canon,' there was an animated discussion, 
in which Dr. Brinsley Nicholson, Mr. Watkiss Lloyd, 
Mr. J. Stuart Glennie, Mr. E. Gilbert Highton, and 
others took part. The Foreign Secretary announced the 
recent loss of two distinguished honorary fellows, Dr. 
Birch and Mr. Fergusson. 

THE February number of the Law Magazine and 
Review will contain, besides part ii. of ' The Land Laws 
of India,' by W. H. Rattigan, LL.D., a memoir of Lord 
Cairns, from the pen of Mr. J. Lowry Whittle, M.A., and 
an article on the ' Origin of European Land Commu- 
nities,' by Mr. Julian S. Corbett, LL.M. 

MRS. FRANCES ANN COLLINS, an occasional contributor 
to our columns, is about to publish the first volume of 
her ' Transcripts of the Parish Registers of Kirkburton, 
co. York.' Jt will cover the time 1541 to 1654, and will 
contain little short of nine thousand entries referring to 
Yorkshire families. Application should be made to 
Messrs. W. Pollard & Co., North Street, Exeter. 

Jiatiretf to 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

C. T. J. MOORE (" Sack applied to Wine "). This ques- 
tion has been fully discussed. See 2 nd S. xii. 287. 452 
468 ; 3 rd S. v. 328, 488 ; vi. 20, 55 ; 4'i> S. i. 481. Two 
correspondents speak of having heard the word used and 
ta?ted the liquor. What was the precise signification of 
sack seems in doubt. According to Gervase Markham's 
'English Housewife,' "Y<>ur best sack is of Xeres in 
Spain; your smaller of Gallicia and Portugal. Your 
strong tacts are of the Isles of the Canaries and Malligo 
[Malaga]." The red wine in use was claret. Your other 
communications will appear. 

PETER J. MULLIN ("John Armstrong, Poet and 
Divine"). All obtainable information concerning him 
may be found in Gentleman's Magazine, ii. 
pp. 731-2 ; Monthly Magazine, vol. iv. pp. 153-4; Edin- 

lurgh Magazine, new series, vol. x. pp. 254, 255 ; and 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' vol. ii. p. 96. 
Happy the man in busy schemes unskilled, 
Who, living simply, like our sires of old, &c. 
This is obviously a rendering of the ode of Horace, 

Beatus ille qui procul negotiis. 

If any of our correspondents can indicate in what work 
this version appears we will insert the reply. 

ALFRED C. JONAS ("Dunmow Flitch "). The flitch waa 
claimed, as you say, " for the last time " on June 20, 1751. 
until the claim was revived in 1855. It has since been 
more than once made. See ' N. & Q.,' 4t h S. iv. 199 262 
v. 19, 102, 392; 6"' S. vi. 135, and elsewhere. A book- 
on the subject by W. Andrews was published in 1879 by 
Tegg & Co. 

THO. H. SKINNER (" Seascapes by Turner ; '). Many of 
Turner's mezzotints of the ' Liber Studiorum ' are land- 
scapes, about 12 in. by 9 in., and bear at foot the signature 
you mention. Your indications are too vague to enable 
any authority to say more. 


We were the first that ever burst 
Into that silent sea. 
Coleridge, 'Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner.' 

EBORACUM ("St. Christopher "). The story is that 
St. Christopher, who is said to have been twelve feet in 
height, was in the habit of carrying daily across a torrent 
the pilgrims who sought to pass. One day he carried a 
child whose weight almost bore him down. The child 
in question proved to be Christ, who bade him stick into 
the earth the staff he bore, which next day changed into 
a date tree laden with leaf and fruit. The story has 
been greatly used by poets and painters, one of the last 
so to use it being Mr. Swinburne. 

C. W. PENNY ("Only three crowns "). In 'Short 
Sayings of Great Men,' by S. A. Bent, A.M., Lond., 1882, 
this answer to the query what it would cost to enclose 
St. James's Park in the Palace Yard is said to have been 
made by Sir Robert Walpole to Queen Caroline. Con- 
cerning the truth of this we know nothing ; and Mr. 
Leslie Stephen is probably right in presuming, as you 
say, in his ' Life of Henry Fawcett,' second edition, 
p. 311, that it is mythical. 

C. E. (" Panjandrum "). The nonsense tale by Foote 
is said to have been given as a puzzle to test the memory 
of Macklin, who said in a lecture he had brought his 
memory to such perfection that he could learn anything 
by rote on once hearing it. 

E. TROTT ( The Fingall Peerage "). The surname 
of the first earl was Plunkett. Burke's ' Peerage ' gives 
a pedigree of the family. 

S. A. B. (" Somerville Family "). See 2 nd S. ix. 365 
3 rd S. iv. 129; ix. 158, 247; 4th 3. xi. 157, 201, 257, 3251 
364. 427, 493 ; xii. 15, 76, 134, 210, 295. 

WHITEHALL ("James"). The correct possessive of 
this word is James's. Custom, however, has sanctioned 
the elision of the final s. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 66, col. 2, 11. 17 and 25 from bottom, 
dele the e in " traines " and " traine." P. 86, before the 
couplet on. Chester bells MR. GRAHAM requests readers 
to insert the letter I. P. 115, col. 1, 1. 4, for "p. 466 " 
read p. 467. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher" at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Curaitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7 S. I. FEB. 20, '86.] 





NOTES : History of the Thames, 141 Women Actors 
Shakspeariana, 143 Carols and Poems, 144 " Dismaill 
Dayis" The New Street, 145 Hollar's Etching Aphis- 
Suzerain, 146. 

QUERIES : Berdash Bergander ' Macaronic Poetry ' 
Etymology of Local Names, 147 Litterford Inscription on 
Bell T. Purchase Palseologus. 148 Griffaun P. Gray 
O. Holland Irish Church Shrimpton Heron Family 
Rondeaus Precedence, 149 Andrew's Day "To taste of 
potato" "Cow and Snuffers" Folk-lore of Caterpillar- 
Cover The Blue Stone Tower Records Streanaeshalch 
Pope, 150. 

REPLIES : 'The Tempest,' 150 Must, 151 Azagra Beres- 
ford Chapel Sir T. Cornwallis Chained Bibles Scotch 
Names of Fishes Ply mouth Brethren Old Chancery Plead- 
ingsArmy Lists Munchausen, 152 Caffling Leaps and 
Bounds Sibley Song of 'The Broom,' 153 Beckford's 
Vathek ' Birlegia-Toot Hill, 154-Suicide of Animals 
W. Woollett Browne, 155 Rev. E. Neale Josselyn 
Epigram by Macaulay W. Longsword, 156 O'Donovan's 
'Merv' A. Colquhoun Ghost Story Gundrada de War- 
renne, 157 Campbell of Craignish Roi de Piques Sitting 
Bull Memoirs of O'Connell Cruso, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lodge's ' History of Modern Europe ' 
Barley's 'Moon Lore' Basset's 'Legends and Super- 
stitions of the Sea ' Fitzpatrick's ' Life of the Very Rev. 
Thomas N. Burke, O.P.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



A modern instance from the New World is 
given in the ' Life of Christopher Columbus.' In 

"the paradise of happy spirits was variously placed, 
almost every tribe assigning some favourite spot in their 
native province. Many, however, concurred in describ- 
ing this region as being near a lake in the western part 
of the island in the beautiful province of Xaragua." 
In this case the souls hid themselves in the moun- 
tains during the day, but came down at night into 
the happy valleys to eat the delicious mamey fruit, 
of which the living were considerate enough to eat 
sparingly so that the dead should not want.* Mr. 
Tylor also records the still later case of certain 
Australians " who think that the spirit of the dead 
hovers a while on earth, and goes at last towards 
the setting sun, or westward over the sea to the 
island of souls, the home of his fathers." 

I might largely increase this list of locali- 
ties inhabited at once by the bodies of the 
living and the souls of the dead ; but these 
instances may suffice to illustrate the pro- 
cess by which it became possible for Homer and 

Washington Irving, ' Columbus/ chap. x. 

^Eschylus to speak of the "Lifeless" as a living 
people. I have yet to localize one further tradi- 
tion of a like kind : 

Fronting afar towards Gallia's furthest steep 

Lies a lone haunt amid the encircling deep, 

The shore, 'tis said, where erst Ulyxes woke 

With spells and streaming blood the Silent Folk. 

There oft the rustic hears the fleeting soul 

With faint shrill scream wheel by, and moans of dole ; 

Oft sees a pilgrim troop of phantoms pale, 

And dead men's ghosts that glimmer through the dale. 

This is Claudian's account of the particular spot 
selected by the Fury Megeera for her ascent to 
this upper world on her way from Hell to Euse in 
Gascony to call on the negligent Rufinus, who 
still hesitated to attempt the ruin of the 1 toman 
world. The topographical details of the journey 
are obscure, and matters are not much mended by 
the account of the remarkable acoustic phenomenon 
which accompanied the lady's emergence to the 
light of day : 

In noonday darkness from that dread abode, 
With shrieks that rent the sky, the Fury strode. 
Her baleful cry Britannia heard aghast, 
Senonian Qaul shrank cowering as it passed ; 
Scared from the shore, the shuddering billows turn, 
And palsied Rhine lets fall his trembling urn. * 

Claudian had high authority for the thin stri- 
dulous chirring which he assigns to his ghosts. 
Homer, or possibly a pseudo- Homer, at the begin- 
ning of the last book of the ' Odyssey,' speaks thus 
of the souls of the wooers of Penelope, whose 
bodies had just been done to death by Ulysses and 
Telemachus and were still left littering about the 
dining-room and lobbies. Hermes summons the 
ghosts with his wand, and thereupon 

They all about him fly, 
And as the Rod directeth them the way 

They follow all, but screaming fearfully. 
As in some venerable hollow Cave 

Where Bats that are at roost upon a stone 
And from the ledge one chance a fall to have, 

The rest scream out and hold fast one by one ; 
So screaming all the Souls together fly, 

And first pass by Oceanus his Streams, 
Then by Sol's gate, and Rock of Leucady, 

And then they passed through the Town of Dreams 
And in a trice to th' Mead of Asphodel, &c. 

This is Hobbes of Malmesbury's version. Chap- 
man, with fine perversity, makes the ghosts and 
the bats " murmur " and "grumble." Pope, keep- 
ing closer to his original, speaks of their " thin, 
hollow screams." I have extended the quotation 
beyond the mention of the " Eock of Leucady," 
because Joshua Barnes, in his edition of Homer, 
identifies " Leucady " with Albion, as he had pre- 
viously identified, perhaps with rather more 
reason, the "Isle of the Blest" spoken of by 
Euripides at the end of his ' Helena ' with Britain. 
Joshua Barnes ought to be remembered with 
eternal reverence by all those who believe that 

* Claudian, ' In Rufinum,' i. 123, et seq. 



g. I. FEB. 20, '86. 

Lord Bacon wrote Shakspere, as the original 
"pious founder" of their peculiar school of 
thought and criticism. He held that Solomon 
wrote Homer. 

Naturally one would look for Claudian's island 
somewhere off the western coast of Gaul, where the 
traditions that cluster round Mela's Sena, the Isle 
de Seins or Sein or des Saints just at the en- 
trance of the Bay of Douarnenez, might seem to 
identify the locality; but, on the whole, to my 
mind the mention of the Rhine seems fatal to the 
hypothesis. The howling of Claudian's Megsera 
was no doubt a creditable effort in an age unac- 
quainted with the telephone, but from the Pointe 
du Eaz at the extreme end of Brittany to any point 
where Father Rhine could be supposed to superin- 
tend his urn is, I think, a trifle too far a cry for 
the poet to have contemplated ; and it happens 
that an island opposite the eastern end of the 
French shore answers the conditions quite as well 
as the Isle de Seins, if not better. 

Claudian wrote his account a few years before 
A.D. 400. About a hundred and sixty years later 
Procopius wrote his story of the invasions of 
the Goths, in the fourth book of which he 
gives his well-known description of the island 
of Brittia. This is Procopius's account as abridged 
by the Scholiast on Lycophron already once re- 
ferred to*: 

"The Isles of the Blest are described by Hesiod, 
Homer, Euripides, Plutarch, Dion, Procopius, Philo- 
stratus, and others, as situate in the deep-eddying Ocean, 
because Brettania is an island lying between Western 
Brettania on the West and Thule on the East. Thither, 
it is said, are the souls of the dead ferried over. For on 
the coast of the Ocean which surrounds the island of Bret- 
tania dwell certain fisher-folks, subjects of the Franks, 
but not paying them any tribute, by reason, as they say, 
of their carrying over the souls of the dead. For they go 
their ways home towards evening and fall asleep, and 
presently thereafter they become aware of certain persons 
knocking at the door and hear a voice calling them forth 
to their work. Thereupon they get up and go down to 
the shore as compelled by some necessity they know not 
what, and there they find boats ready, not their own, and 
apparently empty. But when they go aboard the boats and 
get out their oars they feel that the vessels are as heavy 
as if they were full of passengers, though they see 
nobody. Then with a single stroke they arrive at the island 
Brettania, although otherwise, when they employ their 
own ships, the voyage takes them at least one whole night 

* Procopius's account is given at full length in the 
c Mon. Hist. Brit.,' and in Smith's ' Diet, of Geog.,' s.v. 
" Britannia." A summary of it is given in Gibbon, 
chap, xxxviii. ; Sir W. Scott, ' Count Robert of Paris,' 
chap. v. (quoted in Baring Gould's ' Curious Myths of 
the Middle Ages,' " The Fortunate Isles ") ; Tylor, ' Prim. 
Cult.,' loc. cit.-, De Belloguet, ' Eth. Gaul., Le Genie 
Gaulois,' p. 179 ; and elsewhere. Mr. Baring Gould re- 
gards Procopius's Brettania as Brittany, and Brittia as 
Britain. I have not seen Wackernagel, * Das Todtenreich 
in Britann.,' Haupt. ' Ann. Litt. Germ.,' vi. p. 191 etsqq., 
or F. G. Welker, ' Die Homerischen Phaaken und die 
Inseln der Seligen, Kleine Schr. zur Griech. Litt.,' 
Bonn, 1845, vol. ii. pp. 1-79. 

and a day. But when they reach the island, again they 
see nobody, but they hear the voice of those who receive 
the passengers out of the boats, ranking them according 
to the family of the father and mother of each, and 
styling each one, moreover, severally by his name, with 
the addition of his dignity or profession. At last, when 
all the boats are empty, the fishermen return home, 
again at a single stroke of the oars, Hence many have 
inferred that the Isles of the Blest are there, and that 
the souls of the dead pass over thither."* 

Tzetzes, it will be observed, calls the island 
Brettania, while Procopius, from whom he takes 
the story, calls it Brittia. But although in one 
part of his narrative Procopius professes to be 
careful in distinguishing Brittia from Brettania, 
in another he obviously confounds their identity, 
and Tzetzes, puzzled by the contradiction, cuts the 
knot by making an eastern and western Brettania 
instead of one Brettania and one Brittia. With 
both authors, however, the island of souls lies 
between the ordinary Britain of commerce and 
Thule, by which name the southern part of the 
Scandinavian peninsula is clearly intended. It is 
very much nearer to Britain than Thule, and, in- 
deed, the confusion of it with the former shows 
that it was very closely connected with Britain. 
Now there is but one isle which in any way 
answers the conditions of the problem, and that 
is the Isle of Thanet, which as late as the time of 
Bede was separated from the rest of Kent by a 
river ("fluvius Vantsumu ") three furlongs in 
breadth, f and in earlier days by a still broader 
sea channel. Thanet, therefore, I venture, with 
some confidence, to identify with the spirit-land 
of Procopius, and I note that one of the few topo- 
graphical details he gives with regard to it may 
be a fiction founded on fact. In old days, 
says the historian, men built a long wall cutting 
off a great portion of the island, and while to the 
east of the wall the land was fertile and the in- 
habitants like other people, to the west the soil 
only bred vipers and snakes, and the air was so 
deadly that man or beast crossing the wall 
sickened and died in less than half an hour. 
This has been generally regarded as a wildly dis- 
torted account of one of the walls built from sea to sea 
by the Romans in North Britain. But as a matter 
of fact, about a mile west of St. Nicholas at Wade, 
inthenorth-westcornerofThanet,still exists a raised 
bank and road known as Chambers Wall, which 
forms a distinct boundary between the comparatively 
hilly ground near St. Nicholas and the unhealthy 
marshland now stretching across Northmouth 
Sluice the shabby remnant of the former frith as 
far as Reculver. This, I take it, is far more likely 
to be the wall referred to, for Procopius, it must 

* Tzetzes, 'Schol. in Lycoph.,' 1204, vol. iii., ed. 
M tiller. 

f Bede, ' Hist. Ecc.,' i. 25. The similarity of name 
to Wensum, that of the river which runs through Nor- 
wich and falls into the Yare a little below, is remarkable. 
What is the true etymology it both cases ? 

7th g. I. FEB. 20, '86.] 



be remembered, writes professedly from accounts 
of persons well acquainted with the spot, and a 
legend of the kind could hardly have arisen unless 
it had some slight relation to actual topography. 
(To I e continued.) 


(See 6 th S. xi. 285, 435; xii. 221, 304.) 
I send the opinion of Malone that Antiphon 
acted the woman's part of Andromache, and not 
that of Astyanax, in the play of Ennius. This is 
reversing the judgment held by Watson and 
Heberden, that Antiphon played Astyanax and 
Arbuscula Andromache. It must be left to the 
learned in Latin to decide the right reading of 
the text in Cicero, which I shall be glad to 
know. In his * Historical Account of the English 
Stage ' (vol. iii., prolegomena, p. 122) Malone says : 
" The practice of men's performing the parts of women 
in the scene is of the highest antiquity. On the Grecian 
stage no woman certainly ever acted. That on the 
Roman stage, also, female parts were represented by 
men in tragedy is ascertained by one of Cicero's 
letters to Atticus, in which he speaks of Antipho, who 
performed the part of Andromache (' Epistol. ad Atti- 
cum,' lib. iv.c. xv.). Horace, indeed, mentions a female 
performer called Arbuscula; but as we find from bis own 
authority that men personated women on the Roman 
stage, she probably was only an emboliaria, who per- 
formed in the interludes and dances exhibited between 
the acts and at the end of the play. Servius calls her 
mima, but that may mean nothing more than one who 
acted in the mimes or danced in the pantomime dances, 
and this seems the more probable from the manner in 
which she is mentioned by Cicero, from whom, as I have 
before observed, we learn that the part of Andromache 
was performed by a male actor on that very day when 
Arbuscula exhibited with the highest applause." 

The following is the note of Orellius, which may 
give his opinion and throw light upon the subject 
in the letter of Cicero : 

" Quas est laus ironica. Andromacham Ennii quum 
ageret sane major erat, quam parvulus ejus filius Asty- 
anax, cujus utique partes secundarise erant in fabula 

On the same question of women actors in Eng- 
lish masques of the time of Elizabeth and James, 
against their having spoken in them, I subjoin an 
extract from a modern Collins's " English Clas- 
sics," ' Bacon's Essays,' by Henry Lewis, M.A., 
Essay xxxvii., " Of Masques and Triumphs." 
Speaking of singing in them, Bacon says : " The 
voices of the dialogue would be strong and manly 
(a bass and a tenor ; no treble)." Mr. Lewis 
attaches a note to " no treble ": 

" He, no doubt, means that none but men should be 
allowed to take the dialogue parts in a masque. Women 
were never permitted to perform, but the parts nominally 
assigned to them were talen by boys; he therefore thinks 
it better to exclude female parts altogether." 

How can this be reconciled with what Bacon him 
self says further on ; " Double masques, one of 

men, another of ladies, addeth state and variety"? 
Shakespere gives the .musical sense to "treble" in 
a dialogue between Hortensio and Bianca in ' The 
Taming of the Shrew,' III. i., where she says to 
him playing the fiddle, " fie, the treble jars." 

Ladies appear to have taken part in the dialogue 
assigned to them in the masques of Ben Jonson. 
Some say this essay of Bacon alludes to the 
masques of his friend Ben Jonson. He may, 
however, have had wholly in mind his own 
attempts at that species of drama which Malone 
calls the " spurious offspring of the Muses." Bacon 
does not seem in this essay at the end of his life 
to have been in favour of them. He speaks rather 
contemptuously of them in the beginning : "These 
things are but toys to come amongst such serious 
observations ; but princes will have such things," 
&c. ; and he concludes with the words, "But 
enough of these toys." W. J. BIRCH. 


I. i.). Halle relates that Dunois, natural son of 
Louis, Duke of Orleans, preferred, like the Bas- 
tard in ' King John,' a splendid illegitimacy to a 
respectable name and an inheritance attached 
thereto. When Dunois was a year old his mother 
and nominaljfather, " the lorde of Cauny," died, 
shortly after Orleans's murder in 1407. The 
infant's paternity was debated before the Parlia- 
ment of Paris by his mother's relatives and 
" Cauny's " next of kin, but the question re- 
mained undecided till Dunois was eight years old, 
"atwhiche tyme," says Halle, "it was demaunded of 
hym openly whose sonne he was : his frewdes of hia 
mothers side aduertised him to require a day, to be 
aduised of so great an answer, whiche he asked, & to 
hym it was grau/ited. In y e meane season his said 
frendes persuaded him to claime his inheritaunce, as 
sonne to the Lorde of Cawny, which was an honorable 
liuyng, and an auncierct patrimony, affirming that if he 
said contrary, he not only slauwdered his mother, 
shamed himself, & stained his bloud, but also should 

haue no liuyng nor any thing to take to at the daie 

assigned, when the question was repeted to hym 

again, he boldly answered, ' my harte geueth me, & my 
noble corage telleth me, that I am the sonne of the noble 
Duke of Orleaunce, more glad to be his Bastarde, with a 
meane liuyng, then the lawfull sonne of that coward 
cuckolde Cauny, with his foure thousand crounes [a 
year].' "Halle's ' Chronicle,' ed. 1809, pp. 144, 145. 

What authority had Halle for this story? 
I have not found it in Monstrelet and his con- 
tinuators (" Chroniques Nationales Franchises," ed. 
Buchon). It is not noticed in Courtenay's ' Com- 
mentaries ' nor in the ' Variorum Shakspere,' 1821. 
A similar story is recorded by Stow, under the 
year 1213 : 

"Morgan Prouost of Beuerley, brother to K. John 
was elected byshop of Durham, but he comming to 
Rome to be consecrated, returned againe without it, for 
that he was a bastard, and K. Henry father to K. John 



. I. FEB. 20, 

had begotten him of the wife of one Radulph Bloeth, 
yet would the Pope haue dispensed with him, if he 
would haue called himselfe the son of the knight, and 
not of the king. But he vsing the aduise of one William 
of Lane his Clarke, aunswered, that for no worldly pro- 
mation, he would deny the kings blood." Stow's ' An- 
nales,' 1605, p. 256. 

Stow's authority appears to be " LibFer] Bermond- 
[sey] W. G. STONE. 

Walditch, Bridport. 

xii. 424). The allusive arms of Shakspeare may 
be seen on his monument in the chancel of the 
church at Stratford-upon-Avon, Or, on a bend 
sable a spear of the first, the head arg., as granted 
to his father John Shakspeare in 1596. 

A variation of the name occurred, apparently, 
when John Shakeshaft, woolcomber, and Anne 
his wife claimed successfully the flitch of bacon 
at Dunmow in 1751. This single event in his 
life seems to have rescued his name and memory 
from oblivion. A picture of the carrying away 
of the flitch was painted at the time by David 
Osborne, in which the chief actors are represented 
as chaired, and there is another of more recent 
date by Stothard depicting the procession. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


In which I binde 

One paine of punishment, the world to weete 
We stand vp Peerlesse. Polio. 

What is the exact meaning of these words ? The 
commentators I have searched in half a dozen 
are unanimously silent : all but Pope, who is good 
enough to tell us that to weete means " to know." 
Does Antony, then, bind the world to know, on 
pain of being flogged like schoolboys if they do 
not know ? Near akin to nonsense, I should have 
thought; but it is hard to see how else Pope's 
gloss can be taken. Two Shakspeare students 
whom I have consulted suggest that to weet 
means to bear witness, which will better serve if 
the word will carry the meaning. C. B. M. 

COMPLEXION, * As You LIKE IT/ III. ii. 181. 
Eos. Good my complection. 

Dyce has not the word in his * Glossary,' and 
Nares was somewhat in a fog regarding it, neither 
of them apparently knowing its old meaning. 
"Ther be foure humours," says Bartholome as 
translated by Trevisa, "Bloud, Fleame, Cholar 

[bile], and Melancholy These observing 

evennesse, with due proportion, make perfect and 
keep in due state of health, all bodyes having 
bloud." So according to the predominance of 
each a man is of sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, 
or melancholic temperament, or, as they called it, 
"complection." Trevisa says, "A very fleuma- 
ticke man is n and then he describes him (as he 

does also the others), and then goes on, " Men of 
this complection." The same use of the word 
occurs in many works of the period, as in Reg. 
Scot's 'Witchcraft,' bk. xv. c. xxxix. p. 461, "from 
a cowardly nature and complexion." It may be 
found also, as I believe, in ail the dictionaries of 
that time. Hence Rosalind's words may be para- 
phrased, " Nay, have regard, I beseech you, to my 
feminine temperament or disposition ; I am no 
man, though I attire me as one." 


admirable edition of Gray's ' Selected Poems ' for 
the Clarendon Press, Mr. Gosse thus annotates 
" from ye blow " in 1. 15 of the * Ode on Eton Col- 
lege ' : "A grammatical error, and now a vulgarism 
which should be carefully guarded against ; ye is 
the nominative, and the objective must be you. 
Gray is here imitating Shakespeare, who uses the 
two forms without any distinction " (p. 95). While 
urging a valuable stricture as regards modern 
prose, this criticism is too sweeping in its charge 
against Shakspeare. It is not the case that he fails 
to distinguish between the two forms of the pro- 
noun ; on the contrary, it is possible to give a com- 
prehensive and almost exhaustive rule for his em- 
ployment of ye as an object. When no special 
emphasis is to rest on the form denoting the 
person addressed, then ye is often used with good 
dramatic (or rather, perhaps, histrionic) effect for 
you, as in ' Henry VIII.,' III. i. 102, " holy men 
I thought ye" In addition to this, Dr. Abbott's 
statement (' Shakesperean Grammar,' p. 159) 
regarding the use of ye in both cases by Eliza- 
bethan authors is quite clear and definite. They 
prefer this form "in questions, entreaties, and 
rhetorical appeals." Dr. Morris's suggestion (Ac- 
cidence,' p. 118, n. 2) that in most cases the you 
may simply be contracted to y\ in accordance with 
the rapid speaking of the time, is noteworthy and 
valuable. Shakspeare's irregularity consists less 
in his treatment of ye itself than in his allowing 
you to divide with it the honours of the nomina- 
tive case. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

ME." Mr. W. J. Linton, in his charming little 
book ' Rare Poems of the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Centuries,' objects to the usual rendering 
of the well-known line in "Phillada flouts me," 

Dick had her to the Vine, 
and would prefer to read 

Will had her to the wine, 

i. e., Will had her with him all the dinner through 
to the wine, when the men were left to themselves. 
This emendation hardly seems to suit the rustic 
character of the little poem, and the idea of the 
ladies being left to themsehes while their attendant 

7"' S.I. FEB. 20, '86.] 



squires were sipping their burgundy and claret is 
a little modern and farfetched. When Dick (or 
Will) had Phillada to the Vine, he took her to 
that place of entertainment for some refreshment 
and a dance to follow: 

Dick had her to the Vine- 
He might entreat her : 

With Daniel she did dance, 

On me she look'd askance. 

This is paralleled by a verse in an old song, ori- 
ginally published in ' Round about our Coal-Fire,' 
which is reprinted in Mr. A. H. Bullen's ' Carols 
and Poems': 

Then to the Hop we '11 go, 

Where we '11 jig and caper ; 
Maidens all a-row ; 
Will shall pay the scraper. 

Mr. Linton also alters the line 

Whig and whey whilst thou burst 

Whig and whey whilst thou lust, 

forgetful of the old Shakespearian meaning (' Mac- 
beth/ III. i.) of whilst = until, which suits the 
sentiment of the song far better. 

The reference to Mr. Bullen's exquisite little 
collection reminds me that the tune of " Henry's 
going to Bullen " (p. 199) may be identical with 
that of the " Winning of Bullen," regarding which 
I inquired some months ago (6 th S. xi. 387). Two 
variants of the wassailing songs at pp. 183, 185, 
have lately been published in ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. v. 
64; xi. 188. W. F. P. 

"DiSMAiLL DAYIS." On the flyleaf of 'A 
table of all the Kinges of Scotland,' bound up with 
a number of Scotch Acts of Parliament, is written 
the following list of dies nefasti: 
Thir ar the dayis callit the dismaill dayis 
In Jannuar ar aucht dayis the first eecund fourt fyfft tent 

fyfftein sevinteine and nynteine dayis 
In Fabruar ar thrie dayis the sewint tent and auchtteine 


In Marche ar thrie dayis the fywftein saxteine and nyn- 
teine day 

In Apryll ar twa dayis the saxteine and tuuentie day 
In maij ar thrie dayis the secund sewint and saxtein day 
In Junij ar twa dayis the fourt and sewint day 
In Julij twa dayis the secund and fyfft day 
In agust ar twa dayis the secund and nynteine day 
In September ar twa dayis the saxt and sewint day 
In October ar ane the the sewint day 
In november ar twa dayis the thrid and nynteine day 
In december ar thrie dayis the saxt sewint and fyffteine 


Thir ar the dayis to be keippit fra all wark manages 

The remainder is unfortunately cut off. The 
tractate is followed in the same volume by ' De 
Verborum Significatione, &c.,' collected and ex- 
poned by M. John Skene, Edinburgh, 1597, on 
the last flyleaf of which is the note : 

" This buik was bocht be Andro balvart in abernethie 
and Andro" balvard in culfargy vet august 1599. p a'. 

In another hand, not so good, but of not much 
later date, is written : 

in my defenc god me defend and 

bring my saul louue good (1 at) eand 

when I am sik arid lyk to die the 

soon of god have mynd of me. 

per me wiliam moir. 

A repetition of part of this verse is scribbled below 
with the signature " ihon moir." Is the supersti- 
tion about " dismaill dayis " still in existence, anr 1 
is it known south of the Tweed ? S. E. 

THE NEW STREET. It has been observed 
that modern railways follow more or less the 
course of the Roman roads. The new thorough- 
fares made for the convenience of the inhabitants 
of the capital are often on the lines of obliterated 
highways or lanes, lost paths or rights of way, 
whereas most of the short streets, having been 
built on private estates, were determined by their 
shape and boundaries. The main ancient roads 
remain, but the old diagonal paths, " the short 
cuts," have been twisted and diverted and ulti- 
mately lost, nothing remaining of them but the 
continued stream of wayfarers turning the corners 
of many streets in their devious zigzag progress. 

The new street recently opened from Piccadilly 
to Bloomsbury is a good example of restoring an 
ancient route, although it is not exactly on the line 
of the old " highway leading from St. Giles-in-the- 
Fields to Knightsbridge" mentioned in MR. 
HART'S interesting note quoting a deed of 1671 
(7 th S. i. 106). The exact course of this highway 
is worth investigation as very obscure. It is 
shown in Aggas's map of London, 1560, and called 
" The Waye to Redinge "; being, as I suggested 
before in ' N. & Q.,' probably the route taken by 
the mayor and aldermen when they went to meet 
the king at Knightsbridge, as the usage was so 
early as 1256.* There seems no reason to doubt 
that Dudley Street, formerly Monmouth Street, 
and Little Grafton Street were coincident with 
this " highway " so far, but whether it continued 
in the line of Lisle Street is not so clear; anyhow 
it trended round, and, joining Hedge Lane (Whit- 
comb Street), fell into the top of the Haymarket. 
At this point stood the windmill mentioned by MR. 
HART, which may be seen in the Dutch plan of 
1666 if I recollect rightly. Windmill Street must 
have been formed down the centre of this plot. 

I learn from a letter in the Standard of the 9th 
inst. that it has been proposed to call this new 
thoroughfare Piccadilly East. Most would agree 
with the writer that this would be absurd. He 
suggests Soho Avenue although planted with 
trees, " avenue " is hardly suitable or St. Anne's. 
I would suggest Soho Street. 

* Aggas's map would lead one to imagine this way only 
ed into Hog Lane, and did not continue under the south 
wall of the hospital enclosure. The whole is shown very 
much distorted. 



I. FEB. 20, '86. 

Very little seems to be known about the district 
called Soho, formerly Soe Hoe ; and topographical 
writers have given it up. In the Middle Ages 
that part at least where Soho Square is was called 
La Doune, from being, I suppose, a gravelly and 
sandy wilderness overgrown with gorse and heath, 
like the delightful Surrey Commons ! The master 
of St. Giles's Hospital had acquired several plots of 
land here, so it was being enclosed bit by bit even 
in the thirteenth century. La Doune was a manor 
in the time of Edward I. belonging to William of 
the Exchequer and Joan, his wife, and they 
claimed free warren in these lands ('PJacita de 
Quo. War. / p. 478). Leicester Fields, now Lei- 
cester Square, were at the same date called Soka 
Leycester, it seems. 

The proposed new thoroughfare now ready to be 
commenced from Tottenham Court Road to Char- 
ing Cross will also coincide more with the ancient 
way between these points than the present route 
taken by the Camden Town omnibuses and traffic 
generally. St. Martin's Lane remains the same as 
it always did. At the north end, at the corner of 
the modern street called Castle Street, stood a 
lonely, well-known inn, called the "Cock and Pye," 
the ancient lane taking a sudden bend to the west at 
this point, and another name, viz., Hog Lane (now 
West Street and Crown Street), in more remote 
times still known as Elde Street, pursued its wind- 
ing course to what is now the bottom of Tottenham 
Court Road. The curving line of Crown Street is 
evidence alone of its antiquity, and near the north 
end were, until a few months ago, one or two of 
the oldest houses in this part of the metropolis. 



HOLLAR'S ETCHING. Having had occasion to 
examine one of the diaries of Richard Symonds, I 
met with what follows, under date February 20, 
1659 : 

" I saw Mr. Hollar etching, and he laid on the water, 
which cost him 4s. the pound of the refiners ; it was not 
half a quater of an hour eating. It bubbled presently, 
and he stirred it with a feather. He layes on the wax 
with a cloat and smootheth it with a feather. He makes 
a verge to keep in the water after it is cutt with yellow 
wax and tallow melted together, and laid it on with a 
pencil. He alway so stirred the Aqua, when it was on 
the copper, with a feather immediately, the white, which 
was laid on the wax, that swam aloft of itself. 

" He used to buy his water of the Refiners at John 
Wollaston's house, near Goldsmith's Hall, and pay 4s. 
the pound. Thoris Aqua Fortis cost 8s. The Print 
sellers at the west end of St. Paul's has brass and copper 
ready polished and so done in Holland, and uses to cutt 
off any piece. I'2d. so big as my [1 Tenp, perhaps some 
print by Hollar], One Harris, a quaker, a coppersmith, 
and a printer, uses to sell copper and print off cutts, he 
lives in a court just without Aldersgate." 


APHIS. In Dr. Murray's 'New English Dic- 
tionary,' this word is stated to be "mod[ern] 

L[atin] (Linnaeus) ; of unknown etymology." But 
I find the word (as the name of another insect) 
mentioned twice (once in the text, p. 535, and a 
second time in the index of Greek names) in ' De 
Animalibus Insectis Libri Septem,' Autore Ulysse 
Aldrovando (Bonn, 1638), a book published nearly 
seventy years before the date of the Danish 
savant's birth. The passage in question reads as 
follows : " Recentiores Graeci Kopiga nominant : 
reperio denique in veteri Lexico 'A^is pro Cimice." 
I can only find Kopts, " pro cimice," in the diction- 
aries to which I have access. L. L. K. 

[Aphis is certainly a modern word, having been used 
neither by the Greeks nor the Romans, but it is interesting 
to know, on the authority of the above passage, that it is 
older than Aldrovandus. The latter's book, ' De In- 
sectibus,' was published in 16U3, but our correspondent 
is right is supposing that the, in English, nameless insect 
was in Attic Greek called icopig, and not copt^a.] 

SUZERAIN AND SOVEREIGN. (See 7 th S. i. 101). 
It is unwise to enter the lists of etymological 
controversy and subtilty without recurring to the 
circumstances of the nation in which the particular 
uses of words grow up. Hence I would quote the 
following, as showing that BROTHER FABIAN'S 
words, " the horrible confusion in the jargon of 
modern diplomacy between sovereignty and suze- 
rainty" and the rest of his note, are not merely 
unnecessarily severe, but incorrect. Not adopting 
his political opinions, but acknowledging Mr. 
Gladstone's mastery of English, whether he mean 
to be plain or ambiguous, I would say that he 
uses the words in accordance with their use for at 
least over 250 years. In Cotgrave we find : 

"Suzerain: m. Soveraign (yet subaltern) superiour 
(but not supreme) high in jurisdiction (though inferiour 
to the highest)." 

" Suzerains : m. High and mighty Lords having under 
them many vassals, were tearmed so in old time ; and at 
this day the King's principall Judges have sometimes 
this title bestowed on them." 

So in Baretti's ' Engl.-ItaL Dictionary,' I860: 

" Suzerain, a. m. Signdre d'un feudo da cui altri 
feudi dipendono, m." 

Her Majesty is a "High and mighty Lord," 
having the Boer State as a vassal state under her ; 
but she, though " soveraign and superiour," is yet 
"subaltern and inferiour to the most Highest." 
This inferiority is, at least, a view supported by the 
Scriptures and accepted by Englishmen, whether 
they pray according to the Book of Common 
Prayer or follow a studied extempore speech. 


One reason, perhaps, why Mr. Freeman did not 
prevent Mr. Gladstone committing the solecism of 
calling her Majesty the suzerain of the Boers 
may be found in the fact that Mr. Freeman him- 
self did not know the meaning of the word. In 
' The Norman Conquest,' for instance (vol. i. 

7 th S. I, FEB. 20, '86.] 



p. 145, first edition, 1867), he writes : " The King 
of the English was thus suzerain lord or external 
superior of all the princes of the Isle of Britain," 
meaning, as the context shows plainly, that the 
princes of the isle of Britain were all suzerains of 
the king of the English. In all probability Mr. 
Gladstone in 1869 adopted Mr. Freeman's blunder 
of 1867. HITTIM. 

Despite of BROTHER FABIAN'S too strong lan- 
guage "horrible confusion," "jargon, "and "sole- 
cism" it is he who errs violently. The first syllable 
of suzerain is not subtus, but the French sur, after 
the Latin sursum, probably ; sursum in composi- 
tion becomes sus in numerous words sustollo, 
sustento, and others, all with the sense of " up- 
ward " or "above." Does the BROTHER ever 
wear a surtout ; if so, would he call it an " under- 
all"? W. F. HOBSON. 

Temple Ewell, Dover. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

BERDASH. Can any one tell me what was this 
article of personal finery, worn in the time of 
Queen Anne and George I. ? In the Guardian, 
1713, No. 10, the essayist says, " I have prepared 
a treatise against Cravat and Berdash." Also it 
now appears that the same meaning must be 
assigned to a quotation from Mrs. Centlivre, under 
" Bardash " (in part ii. of the Dictionary), which, 
misled by a reader and by the association with 
favourites, I have wrongly put under the sense 
" catamite." The full context, as we have since 
discovered in dealing with berdash,ia: 
Yet tell me, Sire, don 't you as nice appear [z. e,, as the 

With your false calves, bardash, and fav'rites here ? 

The stage direction is, "Pointing to her forehead," 
so that favourites are, of course, the well-known 
curls on the temples. (Owners of part ii. will 
please correct.) I think it is, however, probable 
that the word is the same, the berdash being 
evidently some foppery for a man to be ashamed 
of. One of my helpers suggests a possible deriva- 
tion from haberdash; but among our plentiful quo- 
tations for the latter word there is not one in any 
way approaching such a sense as berdash must 
here have, nor any example of 'berdash, 'berdasher, 
or 'berdashery in any sense. 

The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

BERGANDER. Is Bergander, a name given in 
ornithological books and dictionaries to the sheld- 
drake, still in actual use anywhere, or is it, like 
some of these names, merely one found in an old 

author, and traditionally kept up by the collectors 
of synonyms ? And if in use, how is it pro- 
nounced 1 Existing dictionaries guess ber'gander 
and bergan'der, at random. The original authority 
for the name is Turner, 1544, who, being himself 
a Northumbrian, says," Nostrates hodie bergandrum 
notninant"; where the margin has "a bergander" 
(Prof. Newton). Pennant seems to have taken 
it simply from Turner, and modern writers from 
Pennant. - I cannot find that anybody since Turner 
gives evidence of the name being anywhere in 
use. Perhaps some reader of ' N. & Q.' on the 
north-east coast can tell if it is still in use, and, if 
so, how pronounced. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

'MACARONIC POETRY.' A volume with this 
title, by James Appleton Morgan, was published in 
the United States in 1872. It was reviewed at some 
length in the Athenwum of July 20, 1872, p. 77; 
and a poem which appears in that work as of the 
author's own composition was shown by the re- 
viewer to have been taken, almost bodily, from 
the published writings of the late Mr. Mortimer 
Collins. On this volume I have two queries to 
propound. 1. Is this book mentioned in the late 
M. Delepierre's work ' Macaroneana Andra/ &c., 
noticed in ' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. i. 480? 2. Is this 
"James Appleton Morgan" the gentleman, hight 
" Appleton Morgan," who is the President of the 
New York Shakespeare Society ? C. M. I. 

Athenaeum Club. 

cover the etymology of the following local names, 
or, rather, the relation that the component parts 
bear to each other: Sulby, Sulgrave, Sulham, 
Sullington, Copthorn, Cowthorn, Crowthorn, Hack- 

It is well known that Saxon local names are 
commonly of a twofold composition ; each part is 
usually a noun, but the first is always used as an 
adjective. This is an idiom common to Saxon 
and English; as, for instance, ploughshare, and 
thornback, a fish with spines or thorns upon its 

Many of the names of English towns are derived 
from the early designation of areas of land that 
had been cultivated and enclosed by some species 
of fencing as a protection against the aggression of 
man or beast. These names commonly end in ton, 
fold, garth, and gard. Oxfold is an instance of 
this, and "Le rund" Haye is another example, 
Haye being the Saxon hage, a hedge or enclosure. 
" Le rund," of course, is the Norman way of de- 
scribing its rotundity. 

So far as sul is concerned, it might mean either 
" plough " or " ploughed." The latter sense is 
shown by sul-inde and ploh. The first denotes 
a small piece of ploughed land, and ploh, besides 
meaning a plough, signifies also ploughland (vide 



[7' h S. I. FEB. 20, ! 86. 

Bosworth's * Saxon Dictionary '). Upon the same 
principle thorn might have as a secondary mean- 
ing the signification of that which is thorned, in 
the sense of something that is surrounded by a 
fence of thorns. Torngierde bears this meaning 
in Danish, and Dorn-burg in Germany is exactly 
equivent to Thornbury in England. Dorn-holz- 
hausen, i. e., thorn- wood-houses, is another example. 
Sul, therefore, might mean that which is ploughed, 
and thorn might denote a fence of thorns, such as 
is in use among all primitive nations for the pro- 
tection of their villages. Such is notably the case 
in Central and Southern Africa. Sul, however, 
might be taken in its simple meaning, and then 
the question would arise as to what relation it 
would bear to the second component. Could it 
denote plough service, or the making of a plough 
annually for the king, or the immediate lord above ? 
It is well known that this species of feudal ser- 
vice was familiar to the Saxons (vide Wright's 

I subjoin, for the convenience of those who do 
not possess a Saxon dictionary, the component 
parts of the above-mentioned names, taken from 
jBosworth's 'Saxon Dictionary': 

Sul, a plough, or ploughshare. 

By, a dwelling, habitation. 

Grcef, a grave, or grove. 

Ham, a home, house, or village. 

Ing, sons of. 

Tun, a plot of ground fenced round by a hedge. 

Cop, head, cap, or top. 

Thorn, a thorn. 

Cu, a cow. 

Craw, a crow, chough, or jackdaw. 

Haga, or Hege, (1) a hedge, haw; (2) what is 
hedged in, a garden, field. 



LITTERFORD. I should be glad to know if any 
one has ever met with this name in any old records 
of the fourteenth century. In Swallowfield Church 
there is a good brass to Margeria, wife of Thomas 
Litterford, who died in 1400; and this brass is 
mentioned by Ashmole. 


Swallowfield, Reading. 

Mrs. Caddy, in her lately published book on 
'Jeanne d'Arc,' published by Messrs. Hurst & 
Blackett, gives the following as the inscription 
round the bell at the chapel of our Lady at Ber- 
mont, near Domremi, the birth-place of " La 
Pucelle": " avemreiadeaarmangt." The letters 
are given in Gothic characters. Can any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' help to decipher them ? 


2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

[Ave Maria dea or. pr, nob. 1] 

THOMAS PURCHASE, who was associated with 
Mr. George Way, of Dorchester, in the patent of 
Pejepscot, when he came over (about 1628), left the 
said patent with one Francis Ashley. He was ser- 
vant to King Charles I. about the beginning of his 
reign ;* in August, 1631, married Mary Grove 
(Gove ]), the paramour, and by some writers said 
to have been the cousin also, of Sir Christopher 
Gardiner (her mother is said to have lived eight 
miles from Boirdly, in Salop). The Rev. Robert 
Jordan, A.B. Baliol (matriculated 1632), who 
was son of Edward Jordan, of Worcester, was 
"kinsman" to Purchase ; just how, or in what 
degree, we very much desire to learn here. Pur- 
chase in his will makes Oliver Purchase, "Cozen," 
of Hammersmith (England, as I read it, though 
another copying reads it ' ; & Co."), an overseer of 
his will. He is stated by his widow Elizabeth, 
who was his second wife, to have been 101 years 
old at the time of his death. 


34, Exchange Street, Portland, Maine. 

PAL^OLOQUS. I should be obliged if any of 
your readers could tell me who were the children 
of Theodore Palseologus, third son of the Emperor 
Manuel and brother of the Emperors John II. and 
Constantine. Du Fresno (or Ducange), in ' His- 
toria Byzantina,' says Theodore Palseologus mar- 
ried Cleopen, who was styled Empress by the 
writers of that clay, and had issue Helen, who 
married John, King of Cyprus. I presume there 
were other children, for I have in my possession a 
pedigree which gives as one of Theodore's children 
Emmanuel, who married Isabella Polio, who with 
their descendants were recognized by Frederic III., 
Emperor of the West, thus: 

Theodore Palaeologue, Prince de Corinte, de Thebes, et 

Emmanuel Paleologue, avec Isabella Polio. Reconnu 
par Frederic III.. Empereur d'Occident (' Dipl.,' 
lib. i. p. 72). 

Michel Paleologue, emigre en Piemont. Reconnu auasi 
par Frederic, Empereur d'Occident (' Dipl.,' lib. 
ii. p. 740). 

John Theodore Paleologue. Recognized by the Senate 
of Rome 1525. 

John George Paleologue ; Pierre Demetrius Paleologue. 
Reconnus par le Senat de Rome en 1565 par ' Le Bulle 
de Paul III.,' lib. ii. p. 10. 

John Paleologue. Habite la ville de Measine, dont en 
parle 1'Evecque Orsini. 

George Paleolojiue ; Marie Paleologue, avec Philippe 
Stafragi; Catherine Stafragi Paleologue, avec le 
Cointe Michel Wzzini; Antoine Wzzini Paleologue, 
avec Dame Catherine Pace. Ces personnages ont 
ete reconnus par le Senat de Rome comme descen- 
dents de 1'Imperiale famile des Paleologues et les 
declara patriciens Romains avec leurs descendants 
comme par Diplome de 1735 enregistre dans la 
chancellerie de 1'ordre de Malte, aujourd'hui 

* I have understood that only gentlemen were ap- 
pointed in the service of the king. Are the records of 
the royal household expenditures of that date preserved 

. I. FEB. 20, '86.] 



administree par le gouvernement de S.M. Brit- 
tnnique, ou on lit ces mots ires honorifiques. " Qua 
in re nori tarn predictorum illustrissimorum do- 
miuorum Wzzini Paleologo dignitatum augere quani 
urbeni nostram insigni oruamento decorari arbi- 

Thence follows in undisputed succession : 

Frar^ois Wzzini Paleologue. 

Joseph Wzzini Paleologue. 

Jerome Grungo, avec Dame Catherine Wzzini Paleologue. 

John Grungo Paleologue, avec De. Aloise Bertezeen. 

Francois Grungo Paleologue (magistrate in Malta), avec 
De. Gaetane Borg. 

Pascal Grungo Paleologue, (thirty-three years judge in 
Malta), avec De. Francesca Locano. 

Abel Grungo Paleologue, avec De. Madelaine Musso. 

Should be glad to know where I can find the 
works from which the extracts are taken, viz., 
'Dipl.,'lib. i. p. 72; 'Dipl.,' lib. ii. p. 740; 'LeBulle 
de Paul III.,' lib. ii. p. 10. J. A. DOUGHERTY. 

GRIPFAUN. I cut the following out of the 
Standard for Jan. 4 : 

" Wm. Sheehan, who at Cork awaits execution for the 
Castletownroche murders, in his confession states that 
he killed his brother Thomas in the haggart with a 
griffaun, his sister in the stable, and bis mother in the 
dwelling-house, cutting both their throats with a razor. 
He made no reference to the presence of Brown, who 
was acquitted of the murder, nor of Duane, the accomplice. 
The latter's evidence was that the three were killed with 
a griffaun." 

What is a griffaun ? BOILEAU. 

PHILIP GRAY. The following epitaph, "On 
Mr. P. Gray," is in ' Wit's Recreations, 1 ed. 1654, 
sig. 2 : 

Reader stay, 

And if I had no more to say, 
But here doth lye till the last day 
All that is left of Philip Gray, 
It might thy patience richly pay ; 
For, if such men as he could dye, 
What surety of life have thou and I ? 

Is anything known of this person ? The father 
of Thomas Gray, the poet, was named Philip, and 
this may have been an ancestor. W. F. P. 

OLIVER HOLLAND. Will some correspondent 
have the kindness to inform me to which branch 
of the family of Holland he belonged ? His son is 
stated to have been " one of the gentlemen sewers 
to Henry VIII."; and his daughter Margaret 
became the wife of William Carr, of Ipswich. I 
should be glad to know, also, what the duties 
attached to the office of " gentleman sewer " were, 
and whether the above-mentioned Oliver Holland 
was of Plantagenet descent. S. G. 

THE IRISH CHURCH. I shall be glad to know 
where I can procure information as to the constitu- 
tional history of the Irish Church from the earliest 
times to the present day. Lanigan, Ware, and 
Archdall do not give the information sought. Can 
any of your readers also inform me of any works on 

Irish ecclesiastical architecture since A,D. 1200? 
There are many books on early Irish architecture, 
but I know none on later architecture except 
Wakeman's little manual and what can be gleaned 
from the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 
or the Kilkenny Archaeological Transactions. 

3, Hare Court, Temple, B.C. 

reader furnish me, through these columns, with 
information of (1) Francis Shimpton (about 1740), 
of Welwyn, Herts ; (2) Wm. Griffenhoofe, surgeon, 
who was living about the year 1750 at Linton, 
Camb. ; (3) Joseph Whiting, of London, or of his 
wife Susannah, they were married in 1718, 
at St. Botolph, Aldgate Without ; (4) James 
Mason, of Braughing, or of his wife Anne, they 
were married in 1721 1 SAM. WATSON. 


HERON FAMILY. I desire information on two 
points connected with the name of Heron. In 
Betham's ' Baronetage/ vol. iv. p. 32, there is a 
short account of the family of Heron, of Cressy 
Hall, in Lincoln. He says that Henry Heron, 
the last of his line, for certain reasons 
"devised Cressy and all his estates, in the event of 
there being no issue of Dame Anne Fraizer, his sister, or 
of Francis Fane of Fulbeck, his nephew (which did 
happen; whereby Thomas, grandfather of the present 
Earl of Westmoreland, succeeded to that earldom) to 

Patrick Heron, Esq., &c whose grandson succeeded 

on the death of Lady Fraizer in 1769." 

I wish for details as to Dame Anne Fraizer, whom 
she married, &c. ; also for explanation how Francis 
Fane, of Fulbeck, was nephew of Henry Heron, of 

Further, Bethani says that the daughters and 
coheirs of John Heron, of Brokenfield (who died 
in 1682), married as follows : 1. Elizabeth (aged 
seven in 1666) married George Dawnay, eldest 
son of John, first Viscount Downe, and d.s.p. 2. 
Catherine (aged six in 1666) married first Sir 
John Hotham, Bart., who d.s.p.; and secondly, 
John Moyser, of Beverley. The will of Robert 
Heron, of Newark (dated Sept. 27, 1707, and 
given at p. 35 of Betham), confirms the fact of these 
marriages ; but they are not noticed in any 
Hotham or Dawnay pedigree I have seen. Are 
they noticed in any pedigree of those families ? 


RONDEAUS OF BRISTOL. I was once in St. 
Stephen's Church, Bristol, and saw on the south 
wall, if I remember rightly, a tablet to the memory 
of one or more members of the Rondeau family. 
Will any Bristol reader of ' N. & Q.' kindly copy 
the inscription for me ? J. M. COWPER. 

Holy Cross, Canterbury, 

PRECEDENCE. Can any one tell me whether 
a doctor of civil law ranks after all military officers 



S. I. FEB. 20, '86. 

or only after those of a certain rank ; also whether 
the precedence accorded to officers in the regular 
army applies to volunteer officers as well ? 

M. A. 

Day may fall before the first Sunday in Advent. 
When, then, does the ecclesiastical year begin ? 

R. W. 



('Croker Papers,' vol. i. p. 300) says, "I must 
own that I thought it tasted a little of the potato 
that he should sign a paper which he disapproved 
of." Can any of your readers inform me as to the 
precise meaning of this phrase, which is new to me, 
and which I cannot find in any dictionary to which 
I have access? W. F. R. 

Worle Vicarage. 

"Cow AND SNUFFERS." There is a country 
inn, not far distant from the Cathedral of Llandaff, 
which is called the " Cow and Snuffers." Its sign- 
board has painted upon it this extraordinary 
combination, the pair of snuffers being, however, 
much too large in proportion to the size of the cow. 
Do any of your readers know of a similar sign ; 
and can any one enlighten me as to its origin ? 


appears in ' Wily Beguiled/ 1606, vol. ix. p. 299, 
Hazlitt's ed. of 'Dodsley's 0. E. Plays,' 1874: 

Will Cricket. Landlord, a pox on you, this good morn ! 

Plod-all. How now, fool ? What, dost curse me ? 

Will Cricket. How now, fool ? How now, caterpillar 1 
It 'a a sign of death, when such vermin creep hedges so 
early in the morning. 

Does this belief still prevail in any part of the 
kingdom ? F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

1 Flora Sheffieldiensis,' by Jonathan Salt, the 
locality " Roadside between Cover and Bakewell " 
is mentioned. Where is Cover ? Is it the same 
as Calver, on the Derwent, above Chatsworth ? 


THE BLUE STONE. In the constable's accounts 
for the year 1732 preserved in the old township chest 
of Pennington (part of the town of Leigh, in Lan- 
cashire) occurs the following entry : "March y e 
2 nd Spent at laying of j e Bleustone 0. 0. 6." 
What is meant by this ? I note that an inn with 
the sign of "The Blue Stone " is mentioned in the 
list recently given of Lincolnshire inn-signs. 



TOWER RECORDS. Has any one seen a copy of 
Cotton's abridgment of the Tower records edited 
by Prynne (date 1657) lately ; and, if so, where ? 
What price does it usually fetch ? I see Lowndes 

describes it as of 1657 or 1689. What does this 
mean ? Are the two editions the same ? Any in- 
formation as to this book will be thankfully re- 
ceived by BIBLIOMANIAC. 

STREANAESHALCH. In what language could 
this very English-looking name have ever meant 
" sinus phari," as we read in Bede (' Eccl. Hist.,' 
iii. 25) 1 Was not this interpretation an interpola- 
tion in the text by some early transcriber, who may 
have also contributed the other attempts at ety- 
mology that occur ? Has no one ever suggested 
Strensall, near York, from the similarity of the 
name, as the spot chosen by Hild for her monas- 
tery ? Or Streanaeshalch may have been the original 
name of the site of Whitby Abbey. The name 
Whitby, it may be suspected, arose from this. 
"Anglo-Saxon" stone buildings were built in 
imitation of wooden framing, and the rough wall- 
ing in what may still be called the panels was 
covered with white plaster (as at Worth Church 
until a few years since). A. S. ELLIS. 

ALEX. POPE. Can any one tell me whether a 
poem by Pope entitled ' A Riddle ' has ever been 
published? It is in the poet's autograph, and 

Behold this Lilliputian throng, 
Nor male nor female, old nor young, 

Without the help of leg or wing 
They mount ; and as they mount they sing. 
Its lines are twenty-six in number. K. 


[The riddle ia unmentioned in Dr. Abbott's ' Concord- 
ance to Pope.'] 



(6 th S. xii. 367, 499 ; 7 th S. i. 72.) 
J. B. S. almost puts himself out of court when he 
refers 'The Tempest 7 to 1596, and talks of "its 
apparent immaturity." The only " apparent im- 
maturity " is in this writer's judgment ; for of all the 
plays this one exhibits the most decisive marks of 
maturity, being a purely intellectual creation, and 
therefore of unique and matchless power. Quite 
apart from Jourdan's pamphlet and " the still- 
vex'd Bermootbes," all the contemporary external 
evidences make for a very late authorship of ' The 
Tempest.' They ought to be very few if it be a late 
work; and very few they are. 1. Under May 20, 1613, 
Lord Treasurer Stanhope, in his accounts, records 
a payment for, inter alia, 'The Tempest,' 'The 
Winter's Tale,' &c. 2. In the Induction to 'Bar- 
tholomew Fair,' 1614, Ben Jonson writes, " Hee 
[i.e., Ben himself] is loth to make Nature afraid in 
his Playes, like those that beget Tales, Tempests," 
&c. That is all, unless we accept, as Mr. Halliwell- 

7* S. I. FEB. 20, '86.] 



Phillipps does, the Revels Accounts for 1604-5 and 
1611-12 (see his 'Outlines,' fourth ed., p. 190). 
In those accounts we have, under 1611, as "By 
the King's Players": " Hallomas Nyght [Nov. 1] 
was presented at Whithall before ye Kings Ma lie a 
play called the Tempest. The 5 Nouember A play 
called ye Winter Nights Tayle." Then for the 
evidence of style putting aside the Rev. Jos. 
Hunter's fanciful view, which I cannot discuss here 
there is a consensus of criticism, German and 
English, on the ultra-maturity of the style of ' The 
Tempest.' As I do not wish to occupy several 
columns of ' N. & Q.,' I will content myself with 
two criticisms, one German and one English : 

1. Ulrici writes : " The general structure, the 
composition, language, and characterization de- 
cidedly betoken the writer's perfect mastery of 
his subject-matter and his art." 

2. Heraud writes : " He [i. e., Shakespeare, in at- 
tempting ' The Tempest '] became ambitious of 
ascending higher than ever before he had attempted 
in the scale of imaginative production. It was a 
daring flight indeed which led Shakespeare to the 
very fountain-head of individuality, and to shape 
character out of nothing but the caprices of the 
[i. e., his own] irresponsible will, associated with 
imperial power." 

Lastly, as to the versification though I attach 
a very subordinate value to numerical tests of 
metre all the metrical tests speak as with one 
voice for the late authorship of 'The Tempest.' 
Mr. Stokes writes : " Fleay, Hertzberg, and Ingram 
have shown that the play (especially if its shortness 
be taken into account) must be placed very late in 
Shakespeare's literary career, by the application of 
the rhyme-test, the double-ending, the weak, and 
light-ending, and the speech-ending tests." I only 
accept this as confirming a conclusion supported by 
other evidences too strong for any single critic's sub- 
jective impressions, whether they belong to Joseph 
Hunter or to J. B. S. 0. M. INGLEBY. 

Athenaeum Club. 

J. B. S. should distinguish. Doubtless the story 
of Prospero is and was originally a Mediterranean 
story ; but though Lampedusa may have been the 
island in the original, it is noteworthy that Shake- 
speare, carefully, I would say, leaves it unnamed. 
But while his island was to the critic indefinitely 
"somewhere" in the Mediterranean, Malone showed 
to all reasonable minds that the Bermudean ship- 
wreck, a true tale, then exciting very many minds in 
England and most minds in London, was palpably 
worked in by Shakespeare, and was, in all pro- 
bability, witH the desert likeness of the two isles, 
the motif si Sk play. These things have also since 
been confirmed by a paper read before the New 
Shakspere Society. As to Ariel's mention of " the 
still vexed Bermoothes," it seems to me an almost 
needless attempt still to direct the minds of his 

audiences to Somer's disaster, just as he had 
directed their attention to the intent of his 
Macbeth by an apparently chance, but at once 
well understood phrase in the Porter's speech. 

The subject and general tone of the drama, the 
thoughts and the way they were expressed, the 
structure of the verse, the weak-ending test and 
others, the conspicuous absence of rhyme except in 
the Masque, which was thus purposely differentiated, 
as noted by Mr. FJeay and Shakespeare's new 
departure as to the observance of the unities, all 
confirm its late date. Nor do I find such " ap- 
parent immaturity " as does J. B. S. in so beautiful 
a play, one that by choice I read again and again. 
While, too, some of Hunter's arguments are strong, 
they cannot stand against one set, much less against 
both sets of arguments, the internal and the Ber- 
mudean. But J. B. S. may still accept some signs 
of an early date, and believe, as I do, in some of 
Hunter's arguments, if he will accept the view I 
hope shortly to set forth. Independently, I may say, 
of Hunter, for I had paid little attention to the 
question, and forgotten his theory, I was unex- 
pectedly led to the belief I may say to a conviction 
founded on the doctrine of chances that 'The 
Tempest ' was the late rifacciamento of one of his 
earlier plays, and therefore of 'Love's Labour 
Won.' Not, however, having examined the subject 
sufficiently, I cannot definitely pronounce on its 
being his last play, though as yet I think that 
none has a better claim ; while with regard to the 
supposed personalities which the perverted in- 
genuities of more than one person have variously 
found in it, I believe them to be best left in and 
for oblivion. BR. NICHOLSON. . 

MUST (7 th S. i. 47, 71, 117).-It is a thankless 
task to have to answer a query in which it is 
implied that my opinion is valueless. But it is 
not a question of opinion, but of history. I shall 
repeat, even though I have been so flatly con- 
tradicted, that the history of the grammatical 
usage of this word is long, complex, and difficult. 
This position I can prove, but only by taking 
up much space, and by bringing forward so 
many quotations that I should have to spend 
many hours, only to earn no thanks at all. I am 
asked where the instances are to be found. I reply, 
in my ' Dictionary,' which contains more informa- 
tion than is quoted. I there say that " the pt. t. 
moste [in the Middle English period, means] I 
could, I might, I ought." I quote Chaucer : "the 
pt. t. moste, muste occurs in i. 712 [or 714] ; He 
muste preche, he will [or would] have to preche ; 
where many MSS. have the spelling moste." See 
the context. Again I say: "pt. t. <m6ste; see 
Grein, ii. 265." Now Grein gives forty examples 
of the past tense ; though very few of these throw 
much light on the purely modern usage. Such 
sentences as those quoted : " The French ministers 



7h S. 1. FEB. 20, '86. 

resign SOVOr.ll finikin 1 S()0," OF "I HI i/.S/ stop 

at. home yesterday,'' could have been used ^as 
far as WHS/ is concerned) at any period of Kn^lish 
from the eighth to tho end of the t hirteenth century. 
The reasons why they eau no louder be used are 
numerous, and 1 decline the task of giving them. 
Tiie evidence ran be ^altered by those who care 
to take the trouble. WALTER W. 8KI4 

u.\ i,: 111 S. i. 108). The late Mr. K. M. 
Uoylo liad compiled pedigrees through women of 
the English sovereigns. These he kindly allowed 
me. now nearly twenty years ago, to copy. They 
state, but ;ivt no authority, that the parents of 
Theresa Alv..n i:i were Alvaro l\'.. Lord 

of . \lvarraend. and liuv., illegitimate daughter of 
TheobaKl 1., King of Navarre. Here 1 imagine 
we are for ever stopped ; it seems hardly possible 
that the name of Inez's mother should be found. 
But the matter is a curious one ; the race of mothers 
might, and quite probably would, find its way to 
the lowest of the Spanish peasantry. These pedi- 
grees 1 have seen called umb ilical. Why? Surely 
the correct name should be uterint. 

C. F. S. WARRKN, M.A. 
Treneglos, Kenwjn, Truro. 

BERKSFORD CHAPEL (7 th S. i. 109). This 
chapel was built for a congregation of Calvinstic 
dissenters, using the Church liturgy, under the 
ministry of Dr. Edward Andrews. Although 
possessed of an academic title (? American), An- 
drews was a popular preacher rat her than a man of 
any learning. In this character he appears, not to 
any great advantage, in Ruskin's * Autobiography,' 
recently published. My own parents had some 
acquaintance with Andrews about 1826. His last 
days were spent in comparative poverty, with his 
reputation " blown upon," and forsaken by that por- 
tion of the fickle religious public of which he was 
once the idol J. MASKELL. 

SIR THOMAS CORNWALLIS (7 th S. i. 69). This 

gentleman was knighted in lf>48 : was admitted 
to the Privy Council of Queen Mary, Treasurer of 
Tabus, and Comptroller of her Majesty's Household 
between that .late and l.V>0. The family portraits 
and relics at Hrome Hall, in Sutl'olk," were dis- 
persed by >ale in the latter part of the year 
and early in IS-Jo. C. Cioi.i 


CHAINKD Uim.K.s (7 th S. i. li>\ For tho use of 
the poor there was a few years ago and in all 
probability there is still a Bible chained to a pew 
in the church at Basclmrch. Shropshire. 

. II. r.u.; 

I OK FlSHKS ^7<* S. i. S. 

. pcllofk, or i 
" rather a porpoise " than a dolphin may be seen 

by reference to Campbell's ' Gertrude of Wyom- 
The poet, figuring a West High- 
andev in America, illustrates his reminiscence 
with this bright and patriotic apostrophe ; 

iJreon Alhin ! what though ho no more survey 

Thy ships at nm-hor on the quiet shore. 

Thy ixllochf rolling from tho mountain bay, 

Thy lone sopulrhnil ciuni upon the moor. 

Anil distant i*les that hear the loud Corbrechtan roar ! 

The name, it may be added, is rather Uaelic than 
ttish, and in Campbell's case it is a survival 
from his early tutorship in Mull and Argyle. 

llelenslmrgh, N.B. 

Tiir. PMMorni KKKTHHKN (0 th S. xii. 1SS. 
J;u;i One of the best accounts of this sect will 
be found in 'Church Systems of England in the 
Nineteenth Century/ by the Rev. J. Guinness 
Rogers, B.A., at p. 483. 



FAKMIAM, KNT. (6 th S. xii. 128). As this query 
has remained long unanswered, I venture to suggest 
that the suit was not in Chancery, but in the 
Ecclesiastical Court, which had exclusive juris- 
diction in granting probates, &c., until the Probate 
Court was constituted. Your correspondent should, 
therefore, search in the Will Registry at Somerset 
House for the grant of probate, and see what papers 
were tiled when this was obtained, and he would 
probably tind a clue to the suit, and could ex- 
amine the proceedings in the same, which are pro- 
bably preserved there also. 



ARMY LISTS (7 th S. i. 47). The following v in 
addition to the official Army List and Har; 
in the British Museum. To facilitate reference I 
append press-marks. &c.: 

m Irol.uul. Dublin.. 17 
Army in Ireland. Dublin. 1< 
List of \ olunteera and Yeomanry. London. 

T.r 'JlMi m.:. and m.b. List of OlVuvrs of District 

i. Dublin. 17s7, 17^-lSOO. 
K. i!-. rue of Tradesmen Volunteers. 

ist of Forces of the Sovereigns of i 
London, 1761. 

E. T. 
Fellows Koad. N.W. 

1 v ~ th S. i. -20). It appears that 
some doubt still hangs over the authorship of this 
celebrated work, once the delight of im 
\cars. 1 have obtained the following particulars 
of the author from a friend in Germany, which, so 
far as they go, are interesting, and tend to confirm 
Sir Ghttte LjtU'a statement (h>c. fit.}. Rudolph 
Eric Kaspo was born in Hanover I7o7: T. 

7'" 8. 1. FEB. 20, '86.] 



of Philology in the University of Marburg 1767; 
Keeper of Antiquities, Coins, and Medals at Cassel 
at a later date, where, having betrayed his trust, 
he was obliged to leave Germany, and fled to Eog 
land in 1780. Here he was employed for some time 
in the Cornish mines, and thence went to Ireland, 
where, at Mucross, he died 1794. In Germany 
he is the reputed author of ' Baron Munchausen's 

I will take this opportunity to thank those 
gentlemen who have so kindly and satisfactorily 
replied to my heraldic query, 6 th S. xii. 516. 

T. W. W. S. 


CAFFLINQ (7 th S. i. 67). This is a very common 
word in the industrial centres of South Wales, and 
is used to designate the milder form of cheating 
I have heard Englishmen call "hokey-pokey" 
(hocus pocus). A Welsh lad, at a game of marbles 
or pitch-and-toss, will express his dissatisfaction 
with his opponent's tactics by saying, " Yr 'wyt yn 
cajflo " (" You are playing an underhanded game "), 
or "Cafflwr 'wyt ti" ("Thou'rt a trickster"), or 
"Paid 'a chafflo" ("Don't cheat"). I remember 
at school here in Wales the terms caffle, caffling, 
caffler being of frequent occurrence, and was 
always under the impression that the word had 
been "lifted" from the Welsh by our English friends, 
who had failed to find anything of their own that 
was so appropriate. Caffio is good dictionary 
Welsh, and means to over-reach, to cheat. 



Used in Yorkshire with haffling, in the sense of 
advancing and retreating, either actually or meta- 
phorically; e.g., to a child vibrating in the door- 
way of a room, " Now then, So-and-so, either come 
in or go out ; don't stand haffling and caffling 
there." W. SYKES, M.R.C.S. 


To caffle is to cavil, or wrangle. A. H. 

( Mi:. E. H. COLEMAN sends an illustration of the use 
of c<i[ltiH(/ as to cavil from Wright's ' Diet, of Obsolete 
and 1'rov. Eng.' "Of common use in the Midlands" 
(Tiio.H. RAIOLUFB). "A variant of cavilling" (Wii. 
PKNQKM.Y). Of a prevaricator it was said, " She baffled 
and caffled" (J. S. S.). Caffle=prevaricate, Halliwell's 
'Dictionary' (b\ C. B. TKKRY). Caffie means to evade 
(THYON). Cw$in0r==cavilling (ALFREI> WALLIS). "Com- 
mon in Yorkshire " (BoiLEAu). Noted and explained by 
Halliwell. Correspondents should not fill " congested 
columns " with trivial queries ( JULIAN MARSHALL).] 

LEAFS AND BOUNDS (7 th S. i. 69). Possibly 
other readers of 'N. & Q.' who are, like myself, 
rather "general" than " literary," will deprecate 
the practice, now becoming common, of vivisecting 
familiar phrases such as the above, for it is just 
possible that the vitality of some very useful 
phrases may be thus impaired. Our friend the 
schoolboy would tell us that a leap is a motion 

requiring human, or at least animate, motive 
power, while he would apply " bounding " to in- 
animate motions, e. g., of footballs. And many 
will think Mr. Green's metaphor very appropriate 
to the saltatory progress of the public debt, which 
the national policy of Pitt initiated, but which 
events kept in motion. A. T. M. 

A leap is a running jump, a bound a standing 
one ; but as used by Mr. Green the phrase is, of 
course, a tautology. It ia one of the useless, ill- 
applied expressions, little more than slang, which 
are now common. One which has often struck me 
is, " to pose as," for adopting any course of action ; 
whereas a pose is not an attitude of action, but of 
rest. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

Unless a distinction can be made between these 
words both Shakspere and Dryden must be guilty 
of tautology. In * Venus and Adonis ' Shakspere, 
speaking of the horse, says : 

Imperiously he leaps, he neighs, he bounds ; 
and Dryden, in the 'Spanish Friar,' III. iii,vol. vi. 
p. 431, ed. Scott, 1808, writes : 

When on a sudden Torrismond appeared, 
Gave me his hand, and led me lightly o'er, 
Leaping and bounding on the billows' heads, 
Till safely we had reached the farther shore. 
As we can hardly convict such masters of English 
of the offence of tautology, we must allow Mr. 
Green the liberty of applying to the increase of 
debt under Pitt the phrase used by Mr. Gladstone 
of the increase of revenue. Leap implies some- 
thing passed over, a gate, a fence, a brook so leap- 
frog, leaping-pole ; whereas bound implies motion 
upwards a ball bounds. Both words indicating 
a movement distinct from walking or running, they 
may sometimes be used, though incorrectly, as 
equivalent, or nearly so, in meaning. 


SIBLEY (6 th S. xii. 389, 453 ; 7 th S. i. 136). 
Since writing the reply at the last reference, the 
John Sibley link has been fairly connected 
through the kind intervention of the Bishop of 
St. Albans. Under his auspices the Kev. Henry 
Fowler, of St. Albans, with the co-operation of the 
Rev. Canon Davies and the Rev. Dr. Griffith, 
has carefully examined the registers of the Abbey 
and other churches. Our American kinsmen love 
antiquities and relics, and they will be gratified to 
learn that Dr. Griffith has in his possession the 
psalter of John Sibley, the mayor. It is very 
gratifying to record this liberal example of volun- 
tary labour in the cause of mutual sympathy. 
E. Sibley, the Benedictine of St. Albans and B.D. 
of Oxford, was incumbent of Great Baddow, in 
Essex, and not of Little Baddow. 


THE SONG OP < THE BROOM ' (6 th S. xii. 326). 
I have discovered a Sussex musical toast, sung at 



[7 th S. I. FEB. 20, '86. 

harvest suppers, which may be connected with that 
for which inquiry is made. It is sung in part to 
the tune of " Lillibulero," and runs thus : 

There was an old woman drawn up in a basket 

Three or four times as high as the moon, 
And where she was going I never did ask it, 

But in her hand she carried a broom. 
A broom ! a broom ! a broom ! a broom, 

That grows on yonder hill, 
And blows with a yellow blossom, 

Just like a lemon peel, 
Just like a lemon peel, my boya, 
To mix with our English beer. 
And you shall drink it all up 
While we do say, Goliere ! 
Goliere ! Goliere ! Goliere ! Goliere ! 

While we do say Goliere ! 

And you shall drink it all up 

While we do say Goliere ! 

I should be glad to know what Goliere means, 
or from what word it is corrupted. 


BECKFORD'S 'VATHEK' (7 th S. i. 69). Having 
copies of the Paris and Lausanne editions of 1787, 
each uncut and in the original paper covers, I note 
the following differences. The title of the former 
is, " ' Vathek, Conte Arabe.' A Paris, chez Poin- 
Qot, Libraire, rue de la Harpe, pres Saint-Come, 
No. 135. 1787." On the title there is a small cut 
of a basket of fruit and flowers resting on a cloud. 
The text occupies pp. 3-166; the notes, pp. 167- 
190, signatures A-M in eights. The last leaf of 
M has two pages of "Advertisement," "Livres 
nouveaux qui se trouvent chez le meme Libraire," 
with the prices. The paper cover is white serne"e 
with roses, separated by four dots. It measures 
8iin. by5in. The Lausanne edition, though an 
8vo., is smaller, being 7f in. by 44 in. The title, 
within a panel, is simply " * Vathek/ A Lausanne, 
chez Isaac Hignou & Comp e M.DCCC.LXXXVII. On 
the title there is a small cut of ruins of a temple or 
palace. The following leaf (paged iii, iv) contains 
the " Avis." The text is pp. 1-203. P. 204 has 
"Explication de quelques mots. Goule, espece de 
Vampire. Voyez Histoire d'Amine dans les mille 
& une nuits. Ginn, Ge"nie. Peris & Perisses, 
espece de Fe"es males & femelles. Giaour, In- 
fidele." This edition has no notes. The paper 
cover is very dark purple, almost black. The 

signatures are A to N 6. The " Avis " is : 

" L'ouvrage que nous presentons an public a ete com- 
pos6 en Francois, par M. Beckford. L'indiscretion d'un 
homme de Lettres a qui le manuscrit avoit ete confie. il 
y a trois ans, en a fait connoitre la traduction angloiae 
avant la publication de 1'original. Le Traducteur a 
memo pris eur lui d'avancer, dana sa Preface, que 
Vathek etoit traduit de 1' Arabe. L'Auteur s'inscrit en 
faux contre cette assertion, & s'engage a ne point en 
imposer au public sur d'autres ouvrages de ce genre qu'il 
se propose de faire connoitre; il les puisera dans la 
collection precieuse de manuscrits orientaux laisses par 
feu M. Worthley Montague, & dont les originaux se 

trouvent & Londres chez M. Palmer, Regisseur du Due 
de Bedford." 

This "Avis" is printed in italics; below it is 
another cut of ruins, different from that on the 
title. The English translation follows the Lau- 
sanne where it differs from the Paris edition. The 
reprint of the French text in 1815 varies in some 
instances from the Paris of 1787. 


The Lausanne edition is the shorter octavo of 
the two, and consists of 204 numbered pages ; on 
the last page are four notes. The Paris edition 
has only 190 such pages, 33 of which are taken up 
with notes. In the preface to the former edition 
is the following paragraph: u L'ouvrage que nous 
presentons au public a e"te" compose" en Francois, 
par M. Beckford. L'indiscretion d'un homme de 
Lettres a qui le manuscrit avoit e'te' confie, il y a 
trois ans, en a fait connoitre la traduction angloiae 
avant la publication de 1'original." The English 
version is supposed to have been written by the 
Rev. S. Henley, Rector of Rendlesham; but Beck- 
ford declared that he never knew " the party who 
was the first translator of ' Vathek ' into English." 
See Cyrus Redding's ' Memoirs of William Beck- 
ford' (1859), vol. i. pp. 242-9, and the 'Diet, of 
National Biography,' vol. iv. p. 83. 

G. F. R. B. 

BIRLEGIA: BYRLAW: BURLAW (6 th S. xii. 510). 
Under Bilage Burlawa, Ducange gives : 

"Will. Thorn, in 'Chron.,' an. 1303, 'Ad sextum 
articulum petitur, quid intelligitur per hanc dictionem 
Bilage. Dicunt quod quidam usus vel consuetude, qui 
Billage in partibus Kantiae vulgariter appellatur, sic se 
habere consuevit : quod cum contentio vel controversia 
aliqua euborta fuerit inter aliquas de finibus, seu 
limitibus, descent Senescalli seu Baillivi partium, vel 
aliae personae fide dignae, ad hoc per partes specialiter 
deputatae in loco, de quo est contentio, convenire, 
remque oculis subjicere, informatione que per vi>as fide 
dignas habita, absque strepitu judicial!, et figura judicii, 
mox totam deicinere qusestionem." 

Which shortly means that in certain parts of Kent 
there is a custom called billage, by which, when a 
dispute arises with regard to boundaries, certain 
officers, called seneschals or baileys, or some other 
trustworthy persons, after personal inspection and 

nformation obtained from those on whose word 
they could depend, settle the question without 
recourse to a court of law. This seems to be 

omething like the local self-government of which 
we are now hearing so much. Ducange says no- 

hing about the number of persons chosen for the 
purpose. Of burlaiva he gives the meaning and 
derivation : " Lex rusticorum, seu de re rustica a 
Burip, rusticus, et Lap. lex." From this word, I 
take it, comes our term " by-law." 


TOOT HILL (6 th S. xii. 491; 7 th S. i. 56, 97). 
At Carnarvon, on the south side of the town, out- 

7'h g. i. p EB . 20, '86.) 



side the walls, is a hill, the top of which is a per- 
fectly rounded mass of rock. On this the pilots 
keep a look-out day and night for vessels desiring 
to enter the Menai Straits, as the whole course 
of them from Carnarvon Bar to Pen Mon and 
Puffin Island is visible from it ; it is called " Twt 
Hill." Tradition states that beacon fires were 
kindled on it in old times when a hostile fleet 
was seen approaching, and these could be seen, 
and the signal taken up all through the Snowdon 
range if necessary. F. R. DAVIES. 

SUICIDE OF ANIMALS (6 th S. xi. 227, 354; xii. 
295, 454; 7 th S. i. 59, 112). In respect to MR. 
W. R. TATE'S statement, I would ask permission to 
observe that it cannot be accepted as consistent with 
modern science that " the fat of the common adder 
is well known to be the best remedy for its bite." 
Mr. South, who was surgeon to St. Bartholomew's 
(' Household Surgery,' seventeenth thousand, Lond., 
1859, p. 117), states: 

" A young man pushed through the crowd (on the 
steamboat) civilly pulled off his hat, hoped 1 would 
excuse him, and begged that I would go down into the 
cabin, and see a friend who was very ill, having been 
bitten a few hours before by an adder, which one of hia 
companions had picked up in a field near Gravesend. 
They had killed the ugly animal, and rubbed some of its 
fat upon the wound, but without much benefit ; and 
when they had reached the town, their friend was so ill 
that they took him to a doctor's and got some stuff for 
him, which was equally useful as the fat As he con- 
tinued getting worse they became frightened, and hence 
the request that I would see him." 

He was obviously, from the further description, in 
a very bad plight ; but this is not the place to 
describe it, nor the course of treatment, which con- 
sisted in the outward application of oil and the 
inward administration of brandy. 

Mr. South subsequently terms it "a vulgar 
notion that the adder carries its own antidote in 
the fat contained in the belly" (p. 119). 

The story is not without its element of humour. 
The man was one of a company of pickpockets, 
and the accident spoilt their sport. He was well 
in two or three days. Mr. South allows that the 
grease, rubbed on the part, may perhaps not be a 
bad application if no other remedy can at once be 

WILLIAM WOOLLETT (7 th S. i. 68, 91). With 
respect to my note at the last reference, it has been 
suggested to me, and most properly, that I should 
supply you with the authorities for my statements. 
" Woolett [sic] was born in Maidstone in the year 
1735. The house in which he was born is still 
standing in King Street, being the house on the 
eastern side of the passage leading to Mrs. Duke's 
alms-houses" (see 'A Brief Historical and Descrip- 
tive Account of Maidstone and its Environs,' by 
S. C. L. (i.e., Lampreys), Maidstone, 1834, sm. 
8vo., p. 39). A copy of this book is in the British 

Museum Library, catalogued under letter L (press 
mark 10,358, cc. 10). 

Respecting his father's profession, see MS. notes 
preserved in the Department of MSS. (Add. 8836, 
vol. i. folio 58). They are written by William 
Alexander, of Maidstone (b. 1767, d. 1816), and 
for some time Keeper of the Department of Prints 
and Drawings, British Museum. 

As to the date of baptism, I obtained it from 
the original certificate, exhibited last May at the 
Fine- Arts Society. I may add that in my pub- 
lished catalogue of this eminent engraver's works 
the above references have been given in full. 

Louis FAGAN. 

The grave of William Woollett is in Old St. 
Pancras Churchyard, Middlesex, and the inscrip- 
tion is printed in Cansick's ' Epitaphs,' wherein he 
is described as having been " born at Maidstone, 
in Kent, upon the 15th of August, 1735." The 
reply given by MR, Louis FAGAN (p. 91, ante) does 
not agree with the description of Woollett's birth- 
place given by Mr. J. M. Russell in his ' History 
of Maidstone ' (1881), where he is placed among 
the Maidstone worthies, and where he is said to 
have been born in East Lane. Mr. Russell gives 
a short biography of this worthy. T. N. 

BROWNE (7 th S. i. 68). Once more I may re- 
mark that a query is answered by anticipation in 
Dr. Greenhill's edition of the ' Religio Medici.' 
He observes : 

" Again, he calls it a tragical abomination ' for us to 
be knaved out of our graves, to have our skulls made 

drinking bowls to delight and sport our enemies' 

(' Urn Burial,' ch. iii. p. 30). Would he have been much 
better satisfied if he could have foreseen that his skull, 
after being ' knaved out of his grave,' would be kept 
under a glass case in the Museum at the Norwich 
Hospital." Preface, p. xxiii. 

The appendix No. 11, pp. xxviii, xxix, contains 
a note on the discovery of the remains of Sir 
Thomas Browne in 1840, extracted from a paper 
by Robert Fitch (incorrectly printed in some of 
the reviews at the time as Firth) in the Proceedings 
of the Archaeological Institute, 1847. My friend 
told me last year that he was going to inspect the 
skull ; and he would, I am sure, reply with his 
usual courtesy to any question which MR. C. A. 
WARD might address to him in respect of it. 


The skull of Sir Thomas Browne is deposited in 
:he museum attached to the Norfolk and Norwich 
Hospital. It was " knaved out of its grave " by 
the late sexton of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, 
George Potter and sold by him to the late Dr. 
Richard Lubbock, who gave it to the hospital. It 
s said some workmen, who were employed in 
forming a vault in the chancel of the church, 
accidentally broke with a blow of the pickaxe the 
id of a coffin, which proved to be that of Sir 
Thomas Browne, Truly may the good knight 



[7' h S. I. FEB. 20, '86. 

say, " Who knows the fate of his bones, or how 
often he is to be buried 1 Who hath the oracle of 
his ashes, or whither they are to be scattered ? " 
Since I began to write this note, mirabile dictu, 
some veritable hair from the head of our great 
physician has been deposited in my hands. 


This is now in the museum attached to the 
Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, Norwich, in the 
board-room of which institution is also preserved a 
contemporary portrait of Sir Thomas Browne, 
belonging to the parish of St. Peter Mancroft, 
Norwich, where he lived and was buried. 


[MR. W. SYKES, M.B.C.S., supplies similar information.] 

(6 th S. xii. 465; 7 th S. i. 31, 115). 'The Sub- 
altern ' and ' The Country Curate ' were written 
by the Rev. George Robert Gleig. Most of the 
stories in the latter were founded on incidents 
that occurred during his residence as a clergy- 
man in a remote part of Kent. ' The Subaltern's 
Logbook ' was by another hand. 

Gleig's first step in promotion deserves record. 
The Duke of Wellington, staying in a country 
house, retired with the rest of the company. Not 
feeling inclined to sleep, he returned to the draw- 
ing-room for a book. There happened to be lying 
on the table 'The Subaltern.' The Duke was 
much impressed by the accuracy of details shown 
by the writer, and the shrewd and soldierlike 
spirit of the book. He wrote to the publishers, 
not doubting that the writer was an officer in the 
army, and offered preferment on learning his name. 
The Duke was told in reply that the author oi 
' The Subaltern ' was a clergyman who had served 
in an infantry regiment in Spain ; and, on inquiry, 
Gleig told the commander-in-chief that the dream 
of his life was to be made chaplain of Chelsea 
Hospital. This was done, and shortly afterwards 
he was made Chaplain-General of the Forces. 

His sermons to the pensioners were clear, prac 
tical, and impressive. He frequently apostrophizec 
them as "Soldiers!" 

WILLIAM FRASER of Ledeclune, Bt. 

MR. FORMAN is undoubtedly right, and I am 
much obliged to him for pointing out the con 
fusion. ' The Country Curate ' and { The Sub 
altern ' belong to Mr. Gleig, and not to Mr. Neale 
My account was drawn chiefly from notes mad 
long ago, and I cannot now say whence derived 
But I ought not to have overlooked the correc 
entry in Olphar Harast's ' Handbook/ p. 144. 
shall be glad to learn whether the unacknowledge 
books on the list are rightly ascribed. I take thi 
opportunity of adding that " the Rev." Erskin 
Neale had a brother, Johnson Neale, who was o 

oard the Talbot at Navarino ; his account of the 
ction was furnished by Mr. G. H. Fielding to 
he Hull Advertiser, Dec. 7, 1827. I think he 
may be identified with W. Johnson Neale, author 
The Naval Surgeon ' and other things (Olphar 


Hamst, 'Handbook,' p. 129). 

W. C. B. 


167, 453 ; iii. 96 ; vii. 207 ; 7 th S. i. 13). 
'New Hall Josselyn," in High Roothing, co. Essex, 
was probably built by John Josselyn, who died 
^uly 14, 1525. He is the first Josselyn whom I find 
escribed in the family pedigrees as of " High Rod- 
ng," and was father of Sir Thomas Josselyn, K.B., 
he brother of Lady Wentworth. The present Earl 
f Roden is his direct lineal descendant. As a re- 
mote collateral kinsman of D. (I trace my descent 
romGeoffry.agrand uncle of the John above referred 
o), I should be pleased to hear from him should he 
care to write to me on our ancient family history. 


EPIGRAM BY MACAULAY (7 th S. i. 109, 138). 
Permit me to inform your querist M. C. D. that 
he epigram on " manslaughter," which he attributes 
x> Lord Macaulay, was written by the late Rev. 
Or. Maitland, who was for many years librarian at 
[jambeth Palace. It appeared in an early number 
of ' N. & Q.' I also have a still better one on the 
word " monastery," printed by Dr. Maitland's own 
land, but which I believe was never published. 
S. McCAUL, B.C.L. 

WILLIAM LONGSWORD (6 th S. xii. 246, 396, 
478 ; 7 th S. i. 16). I should like to echo the 
request of T. A. A. for information about Fair 
Rosamond, and also about the two sons traditionally 
said to have been hers. My chief interest, however, 
is not in William, but in Goeffrey, who was most 
certainly not her son. But is the statement that 
Geoffrey and William were full brothers indeed 
" demonstrably wrong "? And can anyone help 
me to find out who was the real mother of both, or 
either ? These questions are suggested to me by 
the following passage in Mr. Dimock's preface 
to the seventh volume of Giraldus Cambrensis 
(p. xxxvii) : 

"Is there any evidence that these romancers are so 
far right, when they make Geoffrey and Longespee full 
brothers? I have a notion that there is proof of this, 
though I cannot lay my hands upon it. Now Longespee 
laid claim to the inheritance of a Sir Roger de Akeny ; a 
name so near to Map's Ykenai [the name given to 
Geoffrey's mother by Walter Map, ' De Nugis Curialium,' 
Camden Soc., p. 228 the only known contemporary 
statement of her namel. that we can hardly help sup- 
posing them identical. It seems probable that Geoffrey a 
mother was a knight's daughter or sister, and not such a 
low outcast as Map very improbably represents. Any 
notice of the family of Akeny is perhaps to be sought in 
Norman rather than in English history." 

This last sentence, I imagine, points to Acquigny 

7th s. I. FEB. 20, '88.] 



as the home of the family. I should be much 
obliged to any one who could tell me how to follow 
out the clue which seems to be presented here, 
or could supply the proof which Mr. Dimock had 
mislaid. K. N. 

O'DoNovAN's * MERV' (6 th S. xii. 516 ; 7 th S. i. 
35). I think I may safely endorse the state- 
ments of MR. BOTTLER. I knew poor O'Donovan 
well. I met him here both before his going to 
Merv and after his return. I also saw him 
occasionally in London in the early part of 1883. 
I attended his lecture before the Society of Arts, 
and on that occasion, seeing me amongst the 
audience, he sent to me a friend whom I had 
not met since we parted at college in 1865. 
In the course of a delightful conversation my 
friend told me that he put most of O'Donovan's 
jmges together, working from the letters to the 
Daily News and the author's notes, which latter, 
by the way, were neither very numerous nor very 
legible. At least this is the impression upon my 
mind, for I saw them here. My friend added 
that he had frequently the greatest difficulty in 
getting O'Donovan to help him. 

'The Merv Oasis,' 1 believe, was a failure 
commercially, and for this the author was entirely 
to blame. Instead of running home, as we all 
advised him here, and bringing out his book while 
his exploits were the talk of the town, he frittered 
away several months between this place and 

It may be well to record in ' N. & Q.' the 
fact that O'Donovan was as brilliant a speaker as 
he was a writer. For his lecture at the Society of 
Arts he had merely written down the heads of his 
discourse, yet his language was as choice and his 
periods as smooth as if he had previously elabo- 
rated both. I distinctly recollect that he had hardly 
got himself to Merv the subject proper of his 
discourse before he was obliged, owing to the 
little time still left him, hurriedly to conclude. 
Peace be to the ashes of my gifted but erratic 
friend. J. J. FAHIE, 

Teheran, Persia. 

GISTER (7 th S. i. 69). By the courtesy of the Rev. 
J. E. Campbell-Colquhoun of Killermont (grand- 
son of the above), I am enabled to answer 
G. F. E. B.'s second and third queries. (2.) He 
did not " assume the name of Colquhoun in lieu of 
Campbell." In 1804, when his father who had 
married Miss Agnes Colquhoun, heiress of Killer- 
mont died, he took the additional name of Col- 
quhoun, but he never dropped the name of Camp- 
bell. In Oniond's ' Lord Advocates of Scotland,' 
ii. 13, he is correctly named Archibald Campbell- 
Colquhoun. His son, always styled Mr. John 
Campbell-Colquhoun, was only baptized "John." 
In his will there was a special provision that the 

holder of the estates was to carry the double sur- 
name. (3.) He was buried in the family vault of 
the Colquhouns of Killermont, in the parish church- 
yard of New Kilpatrick, five and a half miles north- 
west of Glasgow. I may yet be able to answer the 
first query. J. B. FLEMING. 

GHOST STORY (6 th S. xi. 329). The ghost story 
to which I imagine your correspondent refers is 
'The Ghost of the Nut Walk,' in'a book by the 
Eev. F. G. Lee, D.D., entitled ' Glimpses in the 
Twilight.' CELER ET AUDAX. 

GUNDRADA DE WARRENNE (6 th S. xi. 307). 

At the above reference I ventured to call in ques- 
tion the conclusions of Mr. Chester Waters on the 
subject of the parentage of this lady, and I am 
now happy to state that Sir George Duckett has 
finally settled the question (so far, at least, as Mr. 
Chester Waters's pamphlet is concerned) by some 
important documents he has procured from France. 
It will be recollected that the pamphlet in question 
was published by Mr. Waters in 1884 (Pollard, 
Exeter), and occupies twenty-two pages. Of these 
nine pages were devoted to title, contents, dedica- 
tion, and an attack on the Master of the Eolls for 
not appointing "persons best qualified to edit" 
the Eolls Series, and three and a half pages to the 
history of the controversy, leaving nine and a half 
pages for the author's arguments and conclusions 
(pp. 10-20). The arguments in question are based 
on a letter of St. Anselm to Henry I. ; but Mr. 
Waters acknowledges (p. 12) that if the documents 
in question (i.e., the Book of Benefactors, the grant 
of the manor of Walton, and especially the second 
charter of confirmation) are genuine, they prac- 
tically settle the question in favour of Gundrada's 
royal descent, and he proceeds to impugn the 
authenticity of the whole three, calling them 
"mere fabrications." Now, as it happens, Sir 
George Duckett has unearthed the foundation 
charter of the Cluniac Priory of Lewes in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, where William 
de Warrenne is not denominated earl (the date of 
this charter being presumably 1082). More im- 
portant still, he has discovered an attested copy of 
the second charter of an earlier date than the 
Cottonian MS., but agreeing with it word for word 
and letter for letter, and preserved amongst docu- 
ments which (considering Mr. Waters's suggestion, 
p. 15, that one of the objects of the forgery of the 
second charter was to be" freed from the control of 
the mother house) make it impossible that the 
deed or its copy could be any other than genuine. 
I am sure that when Sir George Duckett has 
published his evidence, Mr. Chester Waters will 
gladly own that since the whole of his theory is 
founded on the (supposed) forgery of the second 
charter, and this is disproved, he is bound, in the 
interests of historical truth, to withdraw and dis- 
avow his pamphlet ' Gundrada de Warrenne '; and 



[7 th S. I. FEB. 20, '86. 

I hope that with its disappearance attempts will 
cease to bolster up ingenious theories by impugn- 
ing the veracity of ancient deeds and the honesty 
of their authors simply because the latter do not 
lend themselves to the ingenuity of the theorist. 
I trust that Sir George Duckett will not delay 
producing his evidence for one single moment 
longer than he is obliged. 


CAMPBELL OF CRAIGNISH (7 th S. i. 109). Baron 
Craignish is very far removed from being the head 
of this old family, although he is descended from 
it in more than one line of descent. His great- 
grandfather, Farquhar Campbell, married, as his 
second wife, Margaret, daughter of Dugald Camp- 
bell of Craignish, by his wife Helinor Smollett ; 
and this Farquhar was himself the son of Ronald 
Campbell of Laggan Lochan, by his second wife, 
Marion McNeil, of the Colonsay family, which 
Ronald was seised heir (' Retours, Inq. Gen.,' 
No. 4407) in 1658 to his father Farquhar Camp- 
bell of Laggan Lochan, who was the third, but 
second surviving, son of Ronald Campbell of 
Craignish. The present Craignish is descended 
from the second, but eldest surviving, son of the 
last-named Ronald, and he objected very strongly, 
though without effect, to the name being selected 
as his title by so distant a cadet as the baron. 

G. B. S. 

My great-grandfather, Sir James Campbell oi 
Inverneill, M.P. for Stirling (b. 1739), was, I 
understand, at a family meeting of Campbells, 
declared the head of the clan Chearlach, and the 
lineal representative of the Craignish family; and 
I have an old document, or a copy, of about the 
same period, with the signatures to that effect 
He was succeeded by his son, General Sir James 
Campbell, Bart., of Inverneill; but on his death 
the baronetcy became extinct. The arms of the 
Inverneill family are the Craignish galley and the 
boar's head, with the motto, " Fit via vi." Wh( 
"Ronald Campbell, Baron Craignish" can be, I 
have no idea. SCOTUS. 

The Ronald Campbell, Baron Craignish, men- 
tioned in the ' Almanach de Qotha' as A.D.C. to 
the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is of the 
family of Lagganlochan Campbells. He is only a 
cadet of a collateral of the house of Craignish (the 
Lagganlochans being collaterals, of which family he 
is a cadet). INQUISITOR can have further and 
fuller particulars regarding this silly selection of a 
title on application to 

JAMES CAMPBELL of Craignish. 

Blackerton, Dulverton, N. Devon. 

Roi DE PAQUES (7 th S. i. 108). In the south 
of Europe the great festivals commemorating the 
events of the life of Christ (as also the descent of 

he Holy Ghost) all bear commonly the Pascal 
esignation as well as Easter, the Epiphany no 
ess than the others. The " Rey de Pascua " of 
he Aragonese village, therefore, was the man who 
uvd found the bean in the cake, or drawn the lot, 
&c., which made him "king "for the nonce, ac- 
cording to the rules of the traditional game com- 
mon throughout Christendom on the Epiphany, 
>r " Pascua de Epifania, " R. H. BUSK. 

SITTING BULL (7 th S. i. 88). In vol. vii. of the 
Boy's Own Paper appears, in a paper by the 
Vlarquis of Lome on the Indians of Canada, 
sitting Bull's own account of his victory over 
General Custer (U.S. commander), and there is 
also a narrative of the chief's subsequent career, y 


A short account of this expedition will be found 
n the first volume of Appleton's * Annual Cyclo- 
paedia and Register of Important Events of the 
Year 1876 ' (1882), pp. 42-3. See also ' Annual 
Register,' 1876, pp. 320-1. G. F. R. B. 

W. T. asks whether any letters of Daniel 
O'Connell are in existence. The Liberator's 
second son, Morgan O'Connell, who died just a 
year ago in Dublin, gave a large quantity of his 
father's papers to the editor of a small sixpenny 
magazine published in Dublin by M. H. Gill & 
Son, the Irish Monthly, of which I send you the 
current number, containing the twenty-first in- 
stalment of " The O'Connell Papers," in the shape 
of unpublished letters by Spring Rice (the first 
Lord Monteagle), Smith O'Brien, and Thomas 
Davis. The publication of these "O'Connell 
Papers" began in the Irish Monthly for May, 
1882, with a diary kept by O'Connell from 1798 
to 1802, and giving some of his earliest letters. 
As O'Connell long survived his wife, he probably 
destroyed the letters which she had treasured up, 
whereas there are piles of Mrs. O'Connell's letters 
carefully preserved. Naturally, also, this collec- 
tion chiefly consists of the letters addressed to 
O'Connell. Among those published in the volumes 
of the magazine for 1882, 1883, and 1884 (there 
are none in that for 1885), the most noticeable are 
several letters from Jeremy Bentham, William 
Cobbett, and Henry Brougham. The series will 
be continued henceforth without interruptions. 

M. R. 

ROBINSON CRDSO (7 th S. i. 89, 137). Cruzo as 
a surname occurs in Holy Cross, Canterbury, as 
early as 1659. Defo occurs in 1693, while Friday 
is found in the registers of the neighbouring parish 
of St. Dunstan in the eighteenth century. I 
cannot give the earliest mention of this last name, 

_ -..C J-l~ C5 t T\.-. ,nw*'r< **/-! Of 13 T*D 1 Q 1 l" f Vl O 

as my copy of the St. Dunstan's registers is in the 

printer's hands. 

J. M. CovvTER, 

7'h S. I. FEB. 20, '86.] 




The Student's Modern Europe. A History of Modern 

Europe. By Richard Lodge. (Murray.) 
THE importance of teaching European history in our 
schools is so ohvious that it need hardly be insisted on in 
these pages. It is, however, only in these latter days 
that our schoolmasters have begun to recognize the fact 
that a knowledge of modern history is a desirable acqui- 
sition. We are disposed to think that such a knowledge 
is more likely to be of practical use than the hazy ideas 
of the Greek and Roman history which most boys acquire 
during their school career and forget directly afterwards. 
It has necessarily a greater living interest, containing as 
it does the explanation of what is actually going on all 
around us, and consequently it is not so easily forgotten 
as the history of bygone ages. 

To write a history of modern Europe within the limit 
of a single volume is no light or easy cask. Mr. Lodge, 
however, has accomplished his work in a very creditable 
manner, and his book supplies a want which has long been 
felt. The period which it embraces is from the fall of 
Constantinople in 1453 to the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. 
Except where it is directly connected with that of the 
European states, the history of England has very pro- 
perly been omitted from this volume of the " Student's 
Manuals." Though of necessity but an epitome of Euro- 
pean history, the author has successfully avoided the bald- 
ness of a mere chronological summary. His work has been 
carefully compiled, and is written in an interesting style. 
There is a capital index, as well as a very full chrono- 
logical table of the principal historical events of the 
period. We regret the absence of maps and illustrations, 
both of which are of special importance in a book in- 
tended for schools. These, however, are omissions which 
may be easily remedied. A few coloured maps, showing 
distinctly the boundaries of the various European king- 
doms at different periods of the history would materially 
increase the usefulness of the book. With the assistance 
of these the learner would be better able to grasp the 
actual situation of affairs. Should Mr. Lodge be at a 
loss for illustrations, a visit to the Medal Room of the 
British Museum will supply him with plenty of subjects 
for illustrating the second edition. 

Moon Lore. By the Rev. Timothy Harley, F.R.A.S. 

(Sonnenschein & Co.) 

FROM the earliest days of primitive man the moon has 
been a constant object of popular superstition. Even 
now, in the closing years of the nineteenth century, the 
notion that the weather changes with the moon's quar- 
ters still holds its ground in the minds of many educated 
people, who in these days of meteorological charts and 
warnings should know better. The custom of turning 
all the silver in our pockets at the first sight of the new 
moon is equally familiar to all of us, though we may 
perhaps be a little sceptical as to the practical effect pro- 
duced by the operation. From our childhood we have 
been acquainted with the man in the moon, who " came 
down too soon, and asked his way to Norwich "; but if 
asked why that old Sabbath-breaker wanted to know his 
way to such a dull and respectable cathedral city we 
should most of us be at loss for an answer. 

In spite of the warning which John Lilly gives in his 
prologue to ' Endymion,' " There liveth none under the 
sunne that knows what to make of the man in the 
moone," Mr. Harley became so fascinated with this 
world-wide myth that he was determined to investigate 
it " in its legendary and ludicrous aspects." The result 
of these investigations is 'Moon Lore,' in which he treats 
of moon spots, moon worship, and moon superstitions, 

concluding with an essay on moon inhabitation. Mr. 
Harley has consulted many authorities, and brought to- 
gether much interesting information on the subject 
which hitherto has been scattered about in many book?. 
The treatise on lunar inhabitation seems a little out of 
place in a volume like the present ; and we are hardly 
prepared to believe with Mr. Harley that "we are jus- 
tified by science, reason, and analogy in considering that 
the moon is inhabited." We must also take exception 
to the most annoying plan of putting all the references 
in an appendix, instead of placing them at the bottom of 
the page in the ordinary way. It is true that the list of 
465 references looks very imposing, but this is no con- 
solation to the reader who has to hunt about at the end 
of the book for the name of the authority which ia 
being quoted. 

Legends and Superstitions of the Sea and of Sailors in 
all Lands and at all Times. By Fletcher S. Basset, 
Lieut. U.S. Navy. (Chicago and New York, Belford, 
Clarke & Co.) 

IN compiling such a book as this Mr. Basset undertakes a 
task of considerable magnitude. As Buckle observed, 
" The credulity of sailors ia notorious, and every litera- 
ture contains evidence of the multiplicity of their super- 
stitions, and of the tenacity with which they cling to 
them." The subject is far too wide to be capable of 
exhaustive treatment within the limits of a single 
volume. If we were to find fault with Mr. Basset, we 
should be inclined to blame him for being too concise. 
In his attempt to get an enormous mass of information 
within the five hundred pages of his book he has evi- 
dently been compelled to cut his stories short. Some of 
the legends have considerably suffered from this treat- 
ment, which makes the book less interesting to the 
general reader than it might have otherwise been. This 
enforced brevity is also sometimes misleading. Mr. 
Basset, for instance, states that " Linnaeus, in his first 
editions of his work, avows his belief in the kraken." 
This is true, no doubt, to a certain extent ; for did not 
Linnaeus catalogue it in the first edition of his ' Systema 
Natura,' as Sepia microcosmos ? But as he omitted it from 
the next edition, we may fairly conclude that the great 
naturalist had some good cause for discrediting his 
earlier conclusions on the subject. Again, Mr. Basset ia 
partially correct in saying that "Denys de Montfort 
gives a picture of a kraken." De Montfort undoubtedly 
professed to believe in the existence of that animal, and 
in his ' Histoire Naturelle Generale et Particuliere des 
Mollusques' he does give a picture of the "poulpe 
colossal," which, by the way, was considered to be dis- 
tinct from the kraken. But Mr. Basset forgets to 
caution his readers against De Montfort's statements. 
The picture Avas probably nothing more than a deliberate 
hoax, as he is reported to have said to M. Defranc that 
"if my entangled ship is accepted, I will make my 
'colossal poulpe' overthrow a whole fleet," a threat 
which he actually carried into execution in his remark- 
able story about the six French men-of-war captured by 
Rodney in the West Indies in 1782. 

Amongst the accounts of the sea-serpents we are sur- 
prised at not finding any notice of Major Senior's inter- 
view with one in the Gulf of Aden in January, 1879, or 
of Commander Pearson's report to the Admiralty of the 
monster which was seen off Cape Vito by the officers of 
the royal yacht Osborne in June, 1877. Mr. Basset has, 
however, by patient labour and much research, brought 
together an immense quantity of folk-lore relating to the 
sea and much there is (and is not) therein. For this 
he is entitled to the thanks of all who are interested in 
sea-lore. We should add that the book is supplied with 
a number of illustrations, the first of which, viz., "The 



[7* 8. 1. FEB. 20, '86. 

Hand of Satan on the Sea of Darkness," is of a most 
blood-curdling description. Since we received Mr. 
Basset's volume we have learnt that it has also been 
published in London by Messrs. Sampson Low & Co. 

The Life of the Very Rev. Thomas N. Burte, O.P. By 
William J. Fitzpatrick, F.S.A. 2 vols. (Kegan Paul, 
Trench & Co.) 

To our correspondent Mr. W. J. Fitzpatrick, the bio- 
grapher of Charles Lever, readers are indebted for a 
bright and able account of the life of Father Burke, the 
eminent Dominican. A close and attentive perusal of 
the work enables us to speak in warm praise of its 
method of narration, the picturesqueness of the style, and 
the insight it furnishes into the character of a man who, 
besides being a brilliant and an impassioned orator, was 
also an Irish humourist of the first water. To do justice 
to the book, however, a critic should be on the same side 
as Father Burke in religion and in politics. Matter sug- 
gesting controversy is, of course, constantly met, and the 
views concerning the relations between Ireland and Eng- 
land are such as have not yet, at least, found acceptance 
in this country. Our eulogy has, accordingly, to be 
given with the reservation that the book is suited to 
those only who sympathize to some extent, at least 
with Hibernian aspirations, political and theological. 
To such the picture of Irish life and character is both 
entertaining and edifying. Much, indeed, is to be 
learned concerning the serious aspects of Irish thought 
and feeling. It is needless to say, however, that the 
book is not uniformly or even continuously serious, and 
that it is enlivened by the brightest flashes of Hibernian 
wit. With Father Burke himself the reader must make 
acquaintance in Mr. Fitzpatrick's pages. The man is 
too many-sided to be described in a lew lines. Recogni- 
tion of his merits has not been confined to English- 
speaking countries, and France and Italy knew him 
almost as well as England and America. One great 
feature of a biographer the best, perhaps, of all Mr. 
Fitzpatrick possesses. So wrapt up is he in his subject, 
his own individuality is never allowed to assert itself, and 
the entire work, like a good story, gains by the apparent 
unconsciousness of the narrator. 

Miss MARY LOUISA BOYLE having produced catalogues 
raisonne of the portraits at Hinchingbrook and Longleat, 
has done the like with regard to the collection of similar 
works at Earl Cowper's famous seat, and styled it a 
Biographical Catalogue of the Portraits at Panshanger ' 
(Stock). Although not marked by depth of -research 
or much new matter, and somewhat in need of con- 
densation, it cannot be denied that Miss Boyle's chatty 
and lively compilation is exactly the companion one 
would wish for when in the society of a number of 
persons of renown as represented by their portraits. 
Panshanger contains many excellent works of art, but 
the artistic element of the collection does not enter 
deeply into Miss Boyle's scheme. She furnishes no index 
of artists' names, nor, indeed, is the book indexed at all ; 
a list of portraits at the end is quite insufficient. This 
defect is to be lamented, because such works as Rem- 
brandt's portrait of Turenne, which was at the Academy 
in 1881, a version of Van Dyck's Algernon Percy, and a 
head of Van Dyck by himslf, and other portraits by him, 
to say nothing of Northcotes, Jonsons, Jacksons, Rey- 
noldses, and Opies, deserved at least mention in an index. 
Let us hop an occasion will soon occur for republication 
of this very acceptable work, and admit correction of a 
certain number of errors, such as that which represents 
Sir J. Reynolds as the son of the Master of the Grammar 
School at Plymouth. 

THE March number of Watford's Antiquarian will 
contain a further instalment of Mr, J. Greenstreet's 

ranscript of the Ordinary from ' Mr. Thomas Jenyns's 
Booke of Armes,' the conclusion of the editor's bio- 
graphical sketch of Elias Ashmole, and a paper by the 
Rev. J. C. Atkinson on the ' Varying Area of the Caru- 

A FACSIMILE of William Chafin's * Anecdotes of Gran- 
bourn Chase ' is being printed for private circulation by 
General Pitt Rivers. The work is being carried out by 
Mr. Elliot Stock, who will reserve for sale a few copies. 

atfrnf ta Carmfpanttent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications roust be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

ALPHA (" The Distressed Lovers "). This is the 
second title of The Double Falsehood,' founded by 
Lewis Theobald upon a MS. play in his possession, and 
acted at Drury Lane Dec. 13, 1727, with Booth in the 
part of Julio, his last. Theobald, who said he had three 
MS. copies of the original, one of which was in the hand- 
writing of Downee, the prompter, author of ' Roscius 
Anglicanus,' endeavoured, without success, to convince 
the world that it was by Shakspeare. Dr. Farmer's 
supposition that the MS. is by Shirley has met with 
favour. Malone believed it to be by Massinger. The 
plot is taken from the story of Cardenio in ' Don 

PERCY HOBSON (" Angelique and Medor"). The story 
of Angelica and Medoro is told in Ariosto's ' Orlando 
Furioso.' Medoro, page to Agramante, of humble birth 
but great beauty, is wounded in combat and nursed by 
Angelica, whom he marries. See Brewer's ' Handbook.' 

WILLARD FISKE(" Bannerman Family"). The notice 
to a correspondent, ante, p. 80, to which you refer was 
written in consequence of a contributor sending a string 
of queries of private interest without giving leave to 
publish his name and address. As the matter consisted 
wholly of queries, it could throw no light upon any person 
or subject. 

J. A. LANYAN (" Trisection of the Angle "). You had 
better make public your discovery through some mathe- 
matical periodical, such as the Messenger of Mathematics. 

SARAH A. DANBY (" Danby-Harcourt "). Until you 
comply with our instructions at the head of our queries 
we cannot insert your communication. 

A. L., Barbadoes (" Steele's First Wife "). See ante, 
p. 126. 

T. J. EWINQ (" Scarronides ; or, Virgile Travestie, 
1672 "). This work is by Charles Cotton, who is respon- 
sible for the second part of ' The Complete Angler.' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print j and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7'" S. I, FEB. 27, '86.] 





NOTES: History of the Thames, 161 Notes on the 'Eeligio 
Medici,' 163 Woodhull Library, 164 -Briar, 165 Descend- 
ants of Knox Pope's Autographs,' 166 Valentine's Day- 
Parallel Passages, 167. 

QUERIES : Bere Cannon atBilliards Phylactery Imprest 
Childe Childers 'Disasters at fea, ' 167 Genealogical Ques- 
tions s. Jerome New Brunswick Farthing Ward- Refer- 
ences Wanted Bruinsech-Sterry Crest Wanted-Hales- 
Owen Norman Genealogy, 168 Book on Masonry Gillray 
Kiagswood Abbey Mrs. Quarrington Douglas Mac- 
Dowall Mulberry Trees ' Olliers' Miscellany 'London 
Diocese, 169 Early Catholic Magazines De la Pole San- 
hedrim Tves Crickman Landor and Kossuth Kev. P. 
Bronte. 170. 

REPLIES : Suzerain, 170 Timbuctoo-Clockmakers Arms 
Wanted German Proverbs Sconce, 171 Apostate Nuns 
Portrait of Byron Mugwump, 172 Upright Gravestones- 
Highland Kilt, 173-Village Green, 174 Wyclif Society's 
* De Civili Dominio 'Curious Race Bradford, 175 Bewick 
Cuts Literarj' Queries Origin of Saying Carew Raleigh- 
Sheaf of Misprints Old St. Pancras Poems Docket, 176 
Queen's Day A. Sharp Waits and Mummers Nelson and 
Caracciolo Bp. Berkeley, 177 Ashmole and Lay Baptism 
Descendants of W ilkes Ghose Tunisia Smollett 
Suicide of Animals -Napoleon I.'s Dream, 178 Pearls- 
Porter of Calais Authors Wanted, 179. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Bagwell's ' Ireland under the Tudors ' 
Grant Allen's ' Miscellaneous and Posthumous Works of 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



How Procopius came by his Brittia as distinct 
from Brettania is not quite clear, but that the 
single island was sometimes prodigiously multi- 
plied by geographers of a later date and that 
Thanet was regarded by them as one of a large 
archipelago is perfectly evident. The tractate 
' De Imagine Mundi,' printed among the works 
of St. Anselm, is usually, so says Bellarmine, at- 
tributed to Honorius Inclusus an alias, I take 
it, of a certain Honorius the Solitary, a Bur- 
gundian ecclesiastic of the twelfth century. Who- 
ever the author may have been, here he is, drip- 
ping from Lethe : 

" Over against Hispania towards the West are these 
islands in the Ocean : Britania, Anglia, Hibernia, 
Athanatis, the soil of which carried into any part of the 
world is fatal to serpents. Also the islands in which the 
solstice takes place, the twenty-three Orchades, Scotia, 
Tile, where the trees never shed their leaves, and in 
which, for six months of summer to wit it is con- 
tinual day, in the six winter months continual night. 
Bayond this to the north is the icy sea and perpetual 

* Opusc. Beati Anselmi : ' De Im. Mundi,' fol. 1. 
5 verso. My edition has no name, date, nor place, but 
the tractate, I believe, is printed in the ' Acta Sancto- 
rum ' and elsewhere. 

As a matter of fact, in the time of Procopius, 
and for many years later, the marked difference 
in race and language between the peoples of Kent 
and Cornwall might very easily lead travellers 
unacquainted with the intermediate coast into the 
belief that Britain was two separate islands. 
Whether this was the origin of Procopius's dis- 
tinction, or whether, as is not impossible, Thanet 
may once have been known as Brittia ; or, lastly, 
whether a tertium quid may not be more likely 
than either, I do not pretend to decide. 

At any rate, Procopius is not the only author 
who mentions an Island of Souls near Britain. In 
Plutarch's dialogue ' On the Cessation of Oracles ' 
a quarry largely exploited by the poets, but still 
unexhausted a certain Demetrius " the Gram- 
marian " is introduced as being then on his way 
home to Tarsus from Britain, around which, he 
reports, " are many deserts of islands scattered, 
some of which are named after .superior spirits 
(daimones) and heroes." It does not appear what 
islands are here referred to, but the Scillies per- 
haps have a better claim than any other group. 
There is one island, however, apparently quite 
apart from these, as it is the subject of a special 
mention, in which Kronos is said to be imprisoned 
asleep by Briareus, " who cunningly made sleep 
answer the purpose of fetters," many superior spirits 
also having been relegated thither to accompany and 
wait upon him. This story, in another of Plutarch's 
dialogues, ' On the Face of the Moon,' is put into 
the mouth of Sylla, but in Sylla's version it is 
Zeus, and not Briareus, who makes sleep answer 
the purpose of fetters for binding Kronos, while a 
number of new details are added to the tradition. 
The briefer account, however, distinctly states one 
fact not at all clearly deducible from the longer 
that the prison of Saturn is situated in one of 
the islands round the British coast, a fact which 
seems to have been very generally overlooked. 
This island, according to the expanded version of 
the story, was one of the holy places of a cult the 
votaries of which held certain very noteworthy 
theories with regard to death. Man, they taught, 
is a temporary combination of body, intellect, and 
soul. When the body dies the soul and intellect 
still remain united for a time and dwell in the 
region between the earth and the moon, the 
wicked suffering some portion of the punishment 
due to their sins, and the virtuous undergoing a 
more or less painful purification from the taint of 
the flesh. In this second life, however, the case 
of the wicked is not hopeless nor that of the 
virtuous finally assured. The former may still 
repent and the latter prove backsliders under 
novel temptations. What happens in these ex- 
ceptional instances is not very clear, but, as a 
general rule, after a protracted interval, the in- 
tellect is gently severed from the soul, and the 
latter goes finally up to the moon for bliss or bale, 



[7 lh S. I. FEB. 27, '86. 

the Elysian fields being situate on the far 
side of the moon, and those of Persephone 
on the side towards the earth. De Bello- 
guet* suggests that we have here a fragment of 
the teaching of the ancient Gallic bards, f and the 
Pythagorean cast of the doctrine seems conclusive 
on the point. Socrates, in the ' Phoedrus,' talks a 
good deal of Pythagorean nonsense to the same 
effect, and that the bards of Gaul had adopted 
several of the most distinctive tenets of Pytha- 
goras is clearly stated by Diodorus about the 
beginning of the Christian era, and by Ammianus 
Marcellinus about the middle of the fourth cen- 
tury.* The latter, indeed, mentions that they 
were " bound together in collegiate brotherhoods 
according to the ordinance of Pythagoras," and it 
is just such a brotherhood that Plutarch connects 
with this particular island off the British coast. 
At what date and from whom the Welsh adopted 
the triadic form which distinguishes so much of 
their early literature, together with much of the 
highly speculative philosophy contained in certain 
of the triads, is a matter on which I am not com- 
petent to express any opinion ; but that both owe 
their origin to the teaching of the Pythagoreans, old 
or new, is, I fancy, unquestionable. The " Roll 
of Tradition and Chronology" and the "Voice 
Conventional of the Bards of Britain "||* are appa- 
rently eighteenth century redactions of certain 
earlier bardic institutes, but their Pythagorean 
stamp is unmistakable. From end to end, al- 
though the influence of Christianity may have led 
to the omission or modification of certain tenets, 
all that is given in the way of dogmatic teaching 
is as distinctively non-Christian as it is distinctively 
Pythagorean. Any question, moreover, as to the 
general genuineness or authenticity of the tradi- 
tions recorded, or any suspicion suggested by the 
lateness of the document, is effectually disposed of 
by the consideration that at the time the document 
was compiled there was no living scholar not to 
say Welsh scholar who could have evolved from 
any traditions other than Welsh any summary of 
Pythagorean teaching so closely in accordance 
with all the little we even now really know of it 
from other sources. 

Now in this Roll and elsewhere in Welsh tradi- 
tion the principal personage whose deeds are re- 

* Ethn. Gaul': " Le Genie Gaulois," p. 181. 

f A modern English bard still holds fast to the doc- 
trine that the earthward face of the moon is the scene 
of the tortures of the damned. See the lines to the moon 
by Mr. M. F. Tupper quoted in Tyler's ' Prim. Cult.,' 
vol. ii. p. 64. 

I Diod. Sic., 'B. H.,' v.28; Wess., p. 352; Amm. 
Mar., xv. c. 10. Cf. also the anecdote related in Mela.. 
ii. 3 ; Val. Max., ii. 6, 10. 

These colleges or monasteries are mentioned also in 
Justin, Ixx. ; Agellius, i. 9 ; and towards the end of 
book ii. of St. Jerome against Kufinus. 

|| lolo MSB., p. 424 et sqq. 

corded is a certain Tydain "Tydain Tad Awen," 
Tydain the Father of Poetic Inspiration. Who is 
he ? Modern Celtic scholarship has destroyed 
many of our early idols, and of late years dire has 
been the persecution which has visited the Bards 
and Ovates and Druids. Sentences of exile and 
extermination, severe as those of Claudius, have 
gone forth against all those elderly sacerdotal 
gentlemen with long beards but heterodox ton- 
sures of whom our childhood wont to hear, who 
painted themselves blue with woad previous to 
amputating with golden sickles the sacred mistle- 
toe from the still more sacred oak-trees which in 
the pre-scientific period still overshadowed Stone- 
heoge and Avebury. " There is no evidence," 
says Prof. Rhys and he, of all men, ought to know 
" that druidism was ever the religion of any Bry- 
thonic people."* But who is Tydain Tad Awen ? 
As a general proposition I quite agree with Prof. 
Rhys's deliverance on the subject of " druidism." 
I do not, however, entertain the least doubt in my 
own mind that druidism, wherever it appears in 
history, is more or less closely connected with 
Pythagorism, or that it was from Pythagorism that 
Tydain Tad Awen crept into Welsh tradition, 
either directly through the teaching of Pythagorean 
colleges among the progenitors of the Welsh, or 
indirectly through their contact with a people who 
had derived their religion from a Pythagorean 
source. Who, then, is he ? I turn to Mr. Wil- 
liams's 'Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Welsh- 
men,' and I find that Tydain was a contemporary 
of Prydain, the son of Aedd Mawr. 

" He is said to have exercised hia meditation and 
reason on the beet mode of framing stringent institutes 
for general sciences and the divinely communicated 
principle of poetic genius ; and he presented his regula- 
tions to the consideration of other erudite persons ot the 
Cimbric nation, who testified their unqualified adoption 
of them." 

I find, further, that he is ranked with Hu Gadarn 
and Dy vnwal Moelmud as one of "the three prime 
artificers, because he reduced to order and system 
the means of recording and preserving memorials 
and vocal song, and out of that system were in- 
vented the regular privileges and systems of bards 
and bardism. ; ' After debiting sundry other triads, 
Mr. Williams calmly proceeds : "Tydain by some 
antiquaries is identified with Titan, or Apollo." 
And this somewhat startling identification of our 
" eminent Welshman " I venture to believe will 
not be overthrown or even shaken by any sacri- 
legious hand of modern iconoclasm. It is as 
impossible to deny the Pythagorean character of 
the documents in which Tydain appears in Welsh 
tradition as to deny that Apollo was connected 
in a close and peculiar manner with the Pytha- 
gorean system. On the other hand, it seems to 
me that the identification throws a much-needed 

' Celtic Britain,' p. 69. 

7 th S. I. ^ZB. 27, '86.] 



light on the " orgies " reported by sundry ancient 
authors as bein^ held in more than one of the 
islands off the British and Gallic coasts,* as well 
as on that mystic and intangible person the 
Hyperborean Apollo, whom not a few of the an- 
cients seem significantly to have confounded with 
Pythagoras himself. BROTHER FABIAN. 

(To le continued.) 




(See 6"' S. v. 102, 182, 243 ; xi. 421, 517; xii. 95.) 

P. 10, J. 27, " Asquint." Is the meaning here 
the same as in p. 23, 1. 12, viz., " to see in a re- 
flexion or shadow "? 

P. 12, 12, ''Fall upon " = have recourse to. Of. 
'Rseud. Epid.,' i. 11 (p. 88, ed. Bohn), "some, un- 
willing to fall directly upon magic." 

P. 14, 1, "Proper Poles." Not referring to the 
magnetic pole, but to the poles of the inferior 
spheres, which severally differ from those of the 
'' great wheel " or " primum mobile." 

P. 36, 3, " Denying Providence no Atheism." 
In 'Pseud. Epid./ i. 10, he says that such a denial 
is "a secondary and deductive Atheism." Of. 
p. 50, 4. 

P. 38, 19, " The World created in all 4 sea- 
sons." So in ' Pseud. Epid.,' vi. 2. 

P. 42, 8, " A work too hard for the teeth of 
time." Cf. 'Pseud. Epid./ i. 10, ad fin., " This is 
a stone too big for Satan's mouth." 

P. 56, 6, "Banning on "= combining or uniting: 
as bsads on a thread ? 

P. 56, 27, "Beyond the first moveable," i.e., 
outside the material creation. See note on p. 116, 4 
(6 th S. xi. 422). 

P. 56, antep., "Extract from" = set aside. The 
notions, or qualities, to be retained are to be 
abstracted from those which are to be rejected, in 
this instance "corpulency." It need not be 
doubted that the text is correct. Cf. " separate 
from/' p. 143, 29. 

P. 59, 21, "Deny that the Soul," &c., i.e., " I 
cannot assert that the soul is in all acceptions in- 
organical," as understood by the Latin translator. 
Cf. 'Pseud. Epid./ i. 10, [The devil] "was 
wholly confounded in the conversion of dust into 
lice ; an act philosophy can scarce deny to be 
above the power of nature, nor (upon a requisite 
predisposition) beyond the efficacy of the Sun" 
(yet he could not do it) ; i.e., philosophy can 
hardly affirm that such a conversion is beyond the 

* Cf. Pliny, <N. H.,' xxii. 1(2); Strabo, Pale, 
277; Dionys., ' Perieg.,' v. 283 e\ sqy. ; Lilian., ' V. H ,' 
ii. 2, 26; D"u,g. Laerfc., viii. 13 ; Festua Avienus, 'Desc. 
Orb.,' c. 745 et tqq. ; Iambi. 8, 91, 141. 

powers of nature under certain circumstances, yet 
the devil could not accomplish it. 

P. 61, 13, " Ghosts." The belief that these are 
the souls of the departed the author condemns, 
'Pseud. Epid./i. 10. 

P. 67, 27, "^Ejon's bath." The reference is 
omitted (Ovrid, ' Metam./ vii. 162-293). In 
'Pseud. Epid./ i. 6, the author rationalizes this 
into a hair-dye. 

P. 70, 13. To be understood as by Wilkin. 

P. 75, 3. A vindication of "Euripides as a 
religious teacher" has been offered by Canon West- 
cott, Contemporary Review, April, 1884. 

P. 84, 13, " There might have been one Limbo 
left for these." This remark is strange, because it 
is for " these " that Limbo was left, as mentioned 
by the author in ' Hydriotaphia/ cap. iv. Dante 
only makes one limbo, " D'infanti e di feminine 
edi viri" ('Inf./ iv. 30). 

P. 89, 9, "The last man." Cf. 'Pseud. Epid./ 
i. 5 (p. 38, ed. Bohn), " Ultimus bonorum will not 
excuse every man." See p. 150, 13. 

P. 92, 8, " Constellated. "-Cf. 'Pseud. Epid./ 
i. 5 (p. 38, ed. Bohn), " Great constitutions, and 
such as are constellated unto knowledge, do no- 
thing till they out-do all." 

P. 98, 17, " Party "= person. Cf. 'Pseud. 
Epid./ i. 8 (2), "[Ctesias] is seldom mentioned 
without a derogatory parenthesis." 

P. 99, 18, " No reproach to the scandal of a 
story," i.e., comparable to. Cf. supra, p. 69, 20, 
" There is no torture to the rack of a disease." 
There is no woe to his correction, 
Nor, to his service, no such joy on earth. 

1 Two Gent, of V./ II. iv. 

P. 101, 11, " Trajection of a sensible species." 
See note on p. 78, 22 (6 tb S. xi. 421). 

P. 104, 9, "Duality of souls." See note on p. 21, 
29 (6 th S. xi. 421). 

P. 109, 9, " A whole Sphere above me." Allud- 
ing to the old geocentric system, in which the 
spheres were numbered outwards and upwards 
from the earth. But if the sun be the centre, 
then the spheres must be numbered from him, and 
the earth is " above the sun," infra, p. 123, 16. 
Cf. 'Pseudi Epid./ i. 3, sub fin., "Their condition 
and fortunes may place them many spheres above 
the multitude." 

P. 120, 18, " That snow is black," viz., Anaxa- 
goras. 'Pseud. Epid./ i. 11 (p. 91, ed. Bohn). 

P. 120, 19, '"That the earth moves." See for 
the author's view of this question ' Pseud. Epid.,' 
i. 5. 

P. 123, 17, "Above the Sun." See note on 
p. 10.9, 9. 

Letter to a Friend. 

P. 128, 1, "Secret Intimation of the death of a 
friend." What earlier mentions are there of such ? 

P. 129, 27, " Portugal, " &c. Are there other 
mentions of the " malevolence '' of these peaces ? 



[7 th 8. 1. FEB. 27, '86. 

P. 132, 20, " The fixed Stars have made a 
revolution." The revolution of the eighth sphere 
was computed by some to take 7,000 years, which 
is probably the period here intended. So in Du 
Bartas, 1st Week, 4th Day (p. 34, Sylvester, ed. 

P. 134, 24, " At first eye." Cf. ' Pseud. Epid.,' 
i. 5, init., "Credulity, or a believing at first ear 
what is delivered." 

P. 140, 14, "Feminine exposition. "Of. 'Pseud. 
Epid.,' vii. 7, ad fin., "Beyond the method of 
Kachels or feminine Physick." 

P. 142, 12, " Miserable " = miserly. So p. 149, 
16, and p. 164, antep. 

P. 143, 29, "Separate from " = set aside, reject. 
See note on p. 56, antep. 

P, ] 49, 3, " That terrestrial Sun." In alchemy 
gold was the metal corresponding to the sun. 

P. 149, 21, " Use upon use," not repetition, but 
superimposition, folly upon folly. Cf. "super- 
heresies," p. 16, 32. 

P. 150, 13, "Worst of the good." See note on 
p. 89, 9. 

Christian Morals. 

P. 162, 20, "Make the Lapithytes sleep," &c., 
i.e., Be an inward Hercules. See pp. 167, 27; 
174, 15. 

P. 1 64, antep., " Miserable men " = misers. See 
p. 142, 12. 

P. 169, 22, "The Stars but the light of the 
Crystalline Heaven." The Crystalline Heaven was 
the ninth sphere, which was above or outside that 
of the fixed stars. The " fancy " here alluded to 
was that the Crystalline Sphere is everywhere 
luminous, but concealed from us by the opacity 
of the inferior spheres within it (" the bodies of 
the Orbs"), in which, however, there are per- 
forations, through which we see the light in the 
form of stars. 

P. J.70, antep., "Epicycle." As in the index, 
not as in the note p. 306. 

P. 172, 3, " The business of hell "=" Diabolism," 
p. 168, 25, i.e., calumny. 

P. 174, 14, " Peri ceci." Not merely "at a dis- 
tance in the same line," but in the opposite longi- 
tude, though in the same latitude. 

P. 174, 15, "Hercules furens." Surely not "a 
noisy, blustering fellow." Hercules is always a 
real hero. The sense is, do not, while conquering 
all external enemies, as did Hercules, be a poltroon 
against thy inward foes. 

P. 174, penult., " Armature."" Accipite arma- 
turam Dei" (Eph. vi. 13, Vulgate). 

P. 175, 1.9, " Contingences." Future events not 
admitting of calculation or prognostication, opposed 
to eclipses and the like. See ' Pseud. Epid.,' vi. 8 
(on the inundation of the Nile); and cf. infra, 
p. 214, 9, and p. 309, 20. 

P. 175, ult., " Unexerted "=not yet called into 
being. Of. " exertion," p. 179, 5. 

P. 176, 5, " Novellizing"=loving to see or ex- 
perience new things, not exactly " innovating." 

P. 179, 5, " Exertion "^calling into being. See 
p. 175, ult. 

P. 179, 19, "At first hand," i.e., when first felt. 
Cf. " at first eye," p. 134, 24, and note. 

P. 180, 23, "Parentheses," i.e., interpositions 
by way of suggestion, like " intercurrences," p. 179, 

P. 190, 7, "Make out "explain, or get to 
understand ; as we say, " I can't make it out." Cf. 
' Pseud. Epid.,' i. 5 (6), "a strange induration, not 
easily made out from the qualities of air." To 
make out the world is the object of science. 

P. 195, 10, "Make prescription," i.e., found 
upon long continued past enjoyment a claim to 
enjoyment in future. Cf. p. 218, antep. So 
'Pseud. Epid./ i. 6, ad fin., " [At school] being 
seasoned with minor sentences, by a neglect of 
higher enquiries, they prescribe upon our riper 

P. 196, 6, " Quadrate." As in the index, not as 
in the " note in II." 

P. 207, 7, " Moralize "^determine their moral 

P. 208, 25, " Conversation "^companionship. 

P. 209, 7, " Shadow of corruption," i.e., within 
the range of poison. Cf. Pseud. Epid.,' iii. 7, " If 
the shadows of some trees be noxious." 

P. 210, 23, " Steal "Coring unperceived. Cf. 
p. 61, 17. 

P. 211, 17, " Periscian state," i.e., have our own 
shadows on every side of us successively. 

P. 211, 20, " Upon the tops of pyramids." Op- 
posed to Aristotle's " pyramidally happy," i.e., 
irremovably. ' Pseud. Epid.,' vii. 13. 

P. 218, antep., "Make prescription." See 
note on p. 195, 10. E. D. W. 

THE WOODHULL LIBRARY. The recent sale of the 
Woodhull Library may make a few notes about Then- 
ford and its owner, gathered from a visit to the spot, 
of interest to the readers of ' N. & Q.' It is dis- 
tant about four miles from Banbury, and lies in 
what the Times described as a " coin perdu" of 
Northamptonshire, and is better known to the de- 
votees of the Bicester Hunt than to the public 
generally. The estate of Thenford came to the 
Woodhull family by the marriage of Fulk Wood- 
hull, who died 24 Hen. VIL, with Anne, daughter 
and heir of William Newenham, of that place. 
The present house, which stands not far from the 
road leading to the village, in a small but well- 
timbered park, was luilt by Michael Woodhull 
the bibliophile in 1765, and took the place of an 
Elizabethan one, which stood westward of, and 
close to the church, one wing of which the 
people in the place can recollect as standing, 
and the site is still enclosed by an old garden 
wall. It is a square building of stone, with 

7 th S. I. FEB. 27, '86.] 



offices in the basement and two low wings 
on either side, the library which contained the 
collection occupying one side of the house. I 
am not aware how soon he began to buy books, 
but it is probable that at this early age (he was 
then twenty-five) he projected the formation of a 
library, and designed the room for that purpose. 
Tradition speaks of him as very handsome, tall, 
and of a military appearance, and it is said that 
when on a visit to Paris in quest of books during 
the Napoleonic war he was arrested and put into 
prison, where from the damp and confinement he 
contracted a spinal disease, from which he suffered 
ever after, in consequence of which his head 
was bowed forward, and he could only raise it by 
putting his hand under his chin. Towards the end 
of his life he became childish, and died at the age 
of seventy-six. His remains, together with those 
of his wife and of her sister, Mary Ingram, are 
buried under a fine yew tree on the south side of 
the chancel. An altar tomb marks the spot, and 
on the south side of it is this inscription, " Michael 
Woodhull Esq. Born August 15, 1740. Died 
November 10, 1816, in his 77 th Year." There is a 
white marble tablet to his wife on the south wall 
of the chancel thus inscribed, " Catherine 4 th 
daughter of the Rev. John Ingram of Wolford 
C Warwick married Michael Woodhull Nov. 30, 
1761. Died May 28, 1808, aged 64. Buried in 
the Church yard." 

Thenford Church is at the northern extremity of 
the village, and is remarkable for the lowness of its 
situation. It adjoins the shrubbery of Thenford 
House, and is approached from the village by a 
wide walk across a meadow, which appears to 
have been part of an old park, and abounds in 
fine trees. It is small and mainly of the four- 
teenth century, with a western tower of later 
date, and consists of nave, with north and south 
aisles, and a chancel separated from the former 
by a screen. It contains the following me- 
morials to members of the Woodhull family: 
A blue marble ledger stone, now set up against 
the north wall of the tower, partly hidden 
by two parish chests in front of it, removed from 
its place on the floor of the chancel to make room, 
in accordance with modern ideas, for some paltry 
encaustic tiles. It is to the memory of Michael 
Woodhull, Esq., died January 11, 1738, aged 
sixty-nine. His arms, three crescents, are incised 
on it, and his crest, out of a ducal coronet two 
wings endorsed. On the floor of the nave are two 
ledger stones, one to John Woodhull, the father 
of the book collector, died February 24, 1754, 
set. seventy-six, with his arms thereon impaling 
a fess between three leopards' faces, being those of 
his second wife, Rebekkah! daughter of Charles 
Watkins, of Aynho, " born Dec. 16, 1702 ; died 
Dec. 12, 1794. Aged 92 years, by whom he had 
issue Michael, born Aug. 15, 1740." Next to it 

another stone, with the arms of Woodbull impal- 
ing three bars wavy, being those of Susanna, first 
wife of John Woodhull, daughter of John San- 
ford, of Minehead, co. Somerset, who died April 13, 
1733, in the fifty-second year of her age. A good 
monument of the time of James I., mentioned in 
Beesley's ' History of Banbury,' is against the 
south wall of the south aisle towards the east 
end. It is without any inscription. 

In the hall of Broughton Castle is a shield of 
arms in old glass, with the arms of Woodhull 
quarterly of six. 1. Woodhull ; 2. Hockley; 3. 
Chetwode ; 4. Okeley ; 5. Lions ; 6. Newenbam. 
Supporters, two bulls rampant argent, horned and 
maned or. Crest, on a wreath or and gules, out 
of a crescent azure, a demi-bull rampant argent, 
horned and maned or. 

The local pronunciation of Woodhull as " Odell," 
with the accent on the penultimate, recalls the 
ancient spelling and probable pronunciation of 
the name, and proves that, both with surnames 
and place-names, the way in which they are pro- 
nounced on the spot may generally be more safely 
relied on than modern orthography. The barony 
of Wahull or Woodhull was derived from the 
manor and castle of Odell, co. Beds. G. L. G. 

BRIAR. Mr. Wedgwood ('Contested Etymo- 
logies') attacks Prof. Skeat's derivation of the 
A.-S. brer* (M.E. brere) = briar, from Gael, preas, 
a bush, and connects it with Fr. bruyere, which 
now == heath (plant and place). He shows that 
briere (which is very like briar) was an old form 
of bruyere,^ and especially used in Normandy, 
and he is of opinion that this form may have 
passed over "into A.-S. in early times." The 
difference of meaning between briar and bruyere 
he looks upon as of no importance, as both might 
be "regarded as the waste shrubby growth of un- 
cultivated lands." 

Now, with regard to this last point, he has the 
support of La Curne, who says (s.v. bruiere), 
" C'e"tait, autrefois comme aujourd'hui,^ le non* 
general que 1'on donnoit a plusieurs petits arbres 
qui croissent dans des terres incultes." And 
Godefroy also gives briere = broussailles, a word 

* In the second edition of his 'Diet.' Prof. Skeat 
shows that the A.-S. word, in the form Ireer, is as old as 
the eighth century, and he no longer seems so sure of its 
connexion with the Gael, and Irish preas. Also, by not 
mentioning Mr. Wedgwood's suggestion, he evidently re- 
jects it. 

f Wedgwood quotes Cotgrave only in support of 
this, but briere=lruy(!re is to be found also in La Curne 
and Roquefort. 

La Curne was born in 1697 and died in 1781, and in 
bis time bruyere may possibly still have been used of 
more than one shrub. Such, however, does not seem to 
be the case now. From my own experience I know 
that it is used=our heath only, and such seems to be 
the opinion of Littre, who says, " Genre nombreux de la 
famille des ericacees." 



[7 th S, I. FEB. 27, '86. 

which might certainly include briars and brambles, 
but would scarcely, I should say, include heather. 

It is clear, therefore, I think, that at the 
present time the two words have coalesced, what- 
ever they did in days gone by; and that the 
French bruyere might become briar in Eng. is 
shown by ecuyer (O.Fr. escuier, esquier), which 
has produced squire. I do not, however, believe 
with Mr. Wedgwood that the Norman briere passed 
into A.-S. ; indeed, it cannot have done so if the 
A.-S. form is as old as the eighth century. The 
i in this case is part of the word, and not inserted 
as it often is in French, and would scarcely have 
been dropped during its passage. No ; my belief is, 
either that the M.E. brere (which probably comes 
from the A.-S. brer or breer) was modified through 
the influence of the very similar bruyere or briere, 
or that, subsequently to the Norman invasion, the 
Fr. word was bodily introduced into English, to 
the exclusion of brere. I do not go into the deri- 
vation of the Fr. word bruyere, as Mr. Wedgwood 
has done ; but I will point out that though, as he 
says, the Welsh equivalent of heath is now grug, 
there is also a Welsh word brwg (pronounced 
broog) = & wood, a brake, a forest. F. CHANCE. 

P.S. Since writing the above note it has 
forcibly been brought home to me that, if I had 
only adhered myself to the rule which I have 
more than once laid down in ' N. & Q.' for others 
viz., that no one should attempt to write a 
lengthened article for ' N. & Q.' without first con- 
sulting the indices from the very beginning I 
might have shortened this note one half; for it 
has been pointed out to me that in 4 th S. xii. 455; 
5 th S. i. 335, the fact had already been brought 
before the notice of the readers of ' N. & Q.' that 
the so-called briar-root pipes are made of French 
heath, and that consequently the word briar is 
only a corruption of the French bruyere. 

In the Kirk Session Records of Dundonald, Ayr- 
shire, there is the following process recorded, 
January 26, 1640, et seq. The Session of the ad- 
jacent parish of Irvine having " recommended " to 
that of Dundonald the censure of three men for 
excessive drinking, " and abuseing of ane gentl- 
woman, Maistress Welch, by railing speiches & 
brangling at the doore of her house till the bolt 
yrof bowit, upon Mononday last in Irvein," the 
accused, after citation, compeared and denied the 
charge. Thereafter, February 9, the minister 

" produced the depositioun of the witnesses, being sworn 
in the pairteis audience on Mononday last in Irvein, as 
follows : Mr William fullartoun deponit that at elevin 
hours at nicht, being reproved for drinking, one of the 
compariie strack violentlie at the doore. bowed the bolt 
of the lock, and provocked the admonisher for his hang- 
ing to come to the doore. John Somervell deponit that 
one of the companie brangled thryse at the door, bowed 
the bolt & said come out for your hanging, I cair not 

whither it be Lord or Laird I shall be about wt him, & 
swore by god, and revylled puritanes. John Menzies, 
that one of the companie said, come out for thy hanging. 
If they wer Lord or Laird he should lay him in the 
myre. A rotten carling had sent out her maid to abuse 
him, and swore by god oftymes, & bowed the bolt of 
the doore." 

In the baptismal register of the neighbouring 
parish of Fenwick there is this entry : " febr. 7, 
1664, Martha dau. to James Mouat son to Mrs 
Welsh." The "Mistress Welsh" of both these 
extracts is, I have no doubt, the same person, and I 
have as little difficulty in concluding that the lady 
was none other than a daughter of Welsh, minister 
of Ayr, and afterwards the "my minister" of 
Louis XIII. Welsh married Elizabeth, youngest 
daughter of John Knox by Margaret Stewart, 
daughter of Lord Ochiltrie, and had by her four 
sons and two daughters (Scott's * Fasti/ iii. p. 86). 
He died at London 1622, and his wife at Ayr 
January, 1625. At the latter date only one 
daughter, Luyse, survived (Laing's 'Knox's 
Works,' vi. p. Ixxiii), and it is, I believe, this 
lady who is referred to in the extracts I have given. 
If that be so, then it will appear that Welsh's 
daughter Luyse had married a Mouat in all 
probability son of Mouat of Busbie, in the neigh- 
bouring parish of Kilmaurs to whom she had a 
son, James, who had a daughter, Martha, baptized 
February 7, 1664. 

For English readers I should perhaps add that 
then as now, in common speech as in law, a woman 
in Scotland retains her maiden name after marriage, 
and that "mistress" was simply the courtesy 
title of a gentlewoman. WILL.- FINDLAT. 

Saline Manse, Fife. 

POPE'S AUTOGRAPHS. The copy of the first 
edition, in quarto, of Pope's translations of 
Homer's * Iliad ' and ' Odyssey,' which he pre- 
sented to his friend Nathaniel Pigot, will shortly 
be offered for sale by Messrs. Christie, Manson & 
Woods. On a fly-leaf Pope has written the fol- 
lowing verses : 
The Muse this one Verse to learn'd Pigot addresses, 

In whose Heart, like his writings, was never found flaw, 
Whom Pope prov'd his friend, in his two chief distresses, 

Once in danger of death, once in danger of Law. 

Sep' 23 1726. 

Mr. Nathaniel Pigott, the grandson of Pope's 
friend, who died in 1737 at the age of seventy-six, 
has written on the same fly-leaf a short notice rela- 
tive to his grandfather, and has pasted on it and 
another leaf the three different versions, in Pope's 
handwriting, of the inscription which he composed 
to be placed on the elder Nathaniel's tomb in 
Twickenham Church. The verses and inscriptions 
were printed in the October number, 1784, of the 
Gentleman's Magazine. "Once in danger of 
death" is an allusion to an accident when Pigott's 
carriage, in which Pope was riding, was upset, and 
two of his fingers were seriously injured. The 

I. FEB. 27, '88.] 



manuscript by Pope of his pastorals was sold 
recently by Messrs. Christie for two hundred 
guineas. R. N. JAMES. 

VALENTINE'S DAT. In Esther ix. 19 we read 
as follows : 

" Therefore the Jews of the villages that dwelt in the 
unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month 
Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and 
of sending portions one to another." 

In the third chapter, the seventh verse, we are 
told that Nisan was the first month of the year 
and Adar was the last. Nisan, then, corresponds 
to our March, and therefore Adar to February. 
It is thus a curious coincidence that on the four- 
teenth day of February, our Valentine's Day, there 
should have been a festive celebration on the part 
of the ancient Jews. EDITH BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B, 


A dim religious light (' II Penseroso/ 160) 

orefJLvortjr e'xet O-KOTO?. 


This is not given in Browne's Clarendon Press 
edition. H. DELEVINGNE. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

BERE, BEER, BEERE. Is anything known as 
to the origin and meaning of this word in, or as, 
the name of villages and hamlets in Dorsetshire 
and its neighbourhood 1 One naturally thinks of 
Old Norse beer, leer, b$r (the same word as the by 
of Grimsby,&c.,with nominative r); in Scandinavia 
"town," "village"; in Iceland, where there are 
no towns, " farm-stead," " farm-town." But how 
could a Norse name become current in Wessex, 
where Norsemen never settled 1 What other ex- 
planation of these names is given 1 Examples are 
Beer near Ax minster, Beere near Chard, Bere 
Regis, Beer Alston, Beer Ferris, and probably 
others. Answer direct (in first place, at least). 

The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

CANNON AT BILLIARDS. What is the etymology 
of this word 1 The earliest mention of it in English 
that I can find is in "Hoyle's 'Games.' Improved, 
Revised, and Corrected by Charles Jones, Esq. 
London, 1779." This book contains, as I believe, 
the first English description of " the Carambole 
game" at billiards. From the laws (pp. 259-60) 

the following may be quoted, 
game, Law ii. : 

Red or carambole 

' A Red Ball is to be placed on a Spot made for that 
Purpose, in the Centre between the stringing Nails or 
Spots, at one End of the Table." 

Law ix. : 

"If the Striker hits the Red and his Adversary's Ball 
with his own Ball he played with, he wins two Points; 
which Stroke is called a Carambole, or for Shortness, a 

Cannon, then, is clearly a corruption of " carrom." 
This is repeated, without further explanation, in 
editions of Hoyle's ' Games ' up to 1800. In ' A 
Practical Treatise on the Game of Billiards,' by E. 
White, Esq., London, 1807, I find (pp. 52-53) 

" The carambole game is played with three balls ; one 
being red which is neutral, and termed the carambole" 

Also that 

" the view of the striker is to hit with his own ball 

the other two successively ; which stroke is also called a 

carambole or carom The Carombole game has been only 

recently introduced from France." 

White also quotes the following (p. 11) from " the 
French rules and orders for playing the game, 
lately published," but he does not give his 
authority : 

" Carambole. C'est le nom qu'on donne a [*?c] une 
bille de couleur rouge, employ e'e avec deux billes 

From the above it would seem as though the name 
were due to the colour of the ball. 


PHYLACTERY. The ' Imperial Dictionary,' Wor- 
cester, Brewer, and Brande and Cox all give this 
word as = a charm, an amulet. Worcester alone 
gives an authority "Andrews" (? Lancelot An- 
drewes). I shall be greatly obliged if any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' can assist me with an exact reference 
for the use of phylactery in the sense noted above. 


IMPREST. What does auditor of the imprest 
mean ? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

CHILDE CHILDERS. In the preface (to the first 
and second cantos) of ' Childe Harold/ dated 
February, 1812, Lord Byron says : 

"It is superfluous to mention that the appellation 
' Childe,' as Childe Waters,' ' Childe Childers,' &c., is 
used as more consonant with the old structure of versifi- 

The ballads in which " Childe Waters " is immor- 
talized are well known; but can any of your corre- 
spondents tell me where Byron discovered "Childe 
Childers"? E. S. E. 0. 

[The above question was asked 2 nd S. vii. 496, but no 
answer was, apparently, received.] 

'DISASTERS AT SEA.' In looking through an 
old MS. memorandum book a few days ago I came 
across the following entry: "' Disasters at Sea'; 
printed at Edinburgh 1812. From this book Lord 



[7* S. I. FEB. 27, '86. 

Byron borrowed largely in his account of the ship- 
wreck in 'Don Juan.'" Is there any truth in this 
statement ? Perhaps one of your many readers 
may possess a copy of the volume referred to. 


kindly furnish me with the following informa- 

1. Who is the heir male of the Hays, earls of 
Erroll, and from which earl does he descend 1 

2. Is the male issue of George Neville, Baron 
Latimer, known to be extinct ? According to 
Coke's ' Keports,' pt. vii., such issue existed in the 
time of James I., and claimed the earldom of 
Westmoreland as heir male. Collins says it was 
Lord Abergavenny who made this claim, but he 
appears to be in error. 

3. Since the death, in 1841, of Major Walter 
Kerr, of Littledean, who has been the heir male of 
the first Earl of Koxburghe ? 

4. Who is the heir male of the ancient earls of 
Sutherland ? At the time of the Sutherland peer- 
age case, at the close of the last century, the heir 
male proved his descent, but from which earl I do 
not know. 

5. Has any effort ever been made to restore the 
marquisate of Dorset to the Grays ? 

I have devoted my leisure for some years to 
genealogical pursuits, but cannot find the desired 
information in any books to which I have access. 

18, Somerset St., Boston, Mass., U.S. 

[Information may be sent direct.] 

STEVEN JEROME. Who was he; and what is 
known of him? I met with a book by him lately, 
of which the following is the title : 

" Seaven Helpes to Heaven : Shewing 1. How to 
avoide the Curse. 2. How to beare the Crosse. 3. How- 
to build the Conscience. 4. How with Moges to see 
Canaan. 5. Simeon's dying Song, directing to live 
holily and dye happily. 6. Comforts for Christians 
against distresses in Life, and feare in Death. 7. Feruent 
Prayers to beare sicknesse patiently, and dye preparedly. 
The third Edition : corrected and enlarged by Steuen 
Jerome, late Preacher at St. Brides. Seene and allowed. 
Job xiv. 11, All the days of my appointed time will I 
waite till my change come. Nascentes morimur, finisq. 
ab origine pendet. London, Printed by I. W. and A. M. 
for Roger Jackson ; and are to bee sold at his shop, 
neare to the Conduit in Fleet Street. 1620." 

Part 3, " How to build the conscience, and the 
form of an honest life," twenty-five chapters, pro- 
fesses to be a translation from St. Bernard's ' De 
Inferior! Domo." H. A. W. 

[A Stephen Jerome was domestic chaplain to the Earl 
of Cork, and wrote * Ireland's Jvbilee,or Joyes lo Paean ; 
for Prince Charles his welcome Home/ Dublin, 4to., 
1624, and' Origen's Repentance after he had sacrificed 
to the Idols of the Heathen,' Lond., 1619, 4to. The 
latter is in verse.] 

reader of * N. & Q.' tell me how I can learn the 
particulars of the land grants in New Brunswick 
to discharged soldiers about seventy years ago? Is 
there not a list of such grants accessible in London 
giving the localities, &c., of each ? J. W. E. 

FARTHING WARD, LONDON. I shall be glad of 
information as to which of our City wards this 
name was applied, and at what period, and why. 

E. W. C. 

KEFERBNCES WANTED. A reference to the fol- 
lowing passages will much oblige, and may be sent 
direct : 

" Non enim aranearum textus ideo melior quia ex se 
fila futilia gignunt, neque noster vilior quia ex aliorum 
fontibus floribusque libamus." Justus Lipsius. 

" Memini equidem nonnullos dubitasse utrum rnagis 
mirandum sit quanto plures quisque et graviores pro re- 
publica labores subit et praefert, quantoque melius de 
hominibus meretur, tanto eum acriora hominum odia in 
se excitare. tantoque acerbiores sibi conflare inimicitias, 
&c. An quamvis haec ita sint tamen aliquos semper 
existere quos officii ratio, &c., ad fortiter agendum ac de 
republica bene merendum excitat, &c." Dionysius Lam- 

Moreri gives a list of Lambin's works, and the 
above seems like an extract from one of his 
'0 ration es.' . W. E. BUCKLEY. 

Middleton Cheney, Banbury. 

BRUINSECH THE SLENDER. Can any one tell 
me where I can obtain the best account of Bruin- 
sech the Slender, princess of Donegal, mentioned 
in the old Irish martyrologies ? 


THOMAS STERRY. I shall be greatly obliged if 
any of your correspondents can give me any infor- 
mation relative to Thomas Sterry, the author of ' A 
Rot amongst the Bishops,' London, 1641, and * The 
Saints' Abundance Opened,' 1641. 


CREST WANTED. What family has for a crest 
a unicorn's head, with the motto "Pro patria 
periclito"? J. L. 

HALES-OWEN. Can any of your readers explain 
the derivation of the word Hales-Owen? Nash 
(' Worcestershire,' i. 508) states that it was origin- 
ally called Hales or Ealas, and suggests (p. 510) 
that Oweyn was added to distinguish it from 
Hayles in Gloucestershire, adding that the first 
abbot was probably nimed Owen. I cannot find 
that any abbot was so named, but at the time 
of the Conquest the manor was held by a thane 
(of the Earl of Mercia) called Ulwin (p. 509). 
Could the Owen be derived from this lord: and 
what is the meaning of the word Halas ? 


any other of your readers who is a student of 

7'* S. I. FEB. 27, '86.] 



early Norman genealogy, inform me of the pre- 
cise relationship between William the Conqueror 
and Adelaide, or Adeliza, the wife of Engueraud, 
Count of Ponthieu ? Mr. Freeman, in his 'History 
of the Norman Conquest 7 (ii. 587), says that most 
writers take William to be the only child of 
Robert and Herleva, Harlotta, or Arlotta, but that 
Mr. Stapleton brings strong arguments to show 
that she was his whole sister, while others main- 
tain that she was only his half-sister, a daughter 
of Herleva by her husband Herluin. 

Park Place, St. James's. 

BOOK ON MASONRY. What is the literary 
worth and real attitude of a book entitled * Thuileur 
de 1'Ecossisme du Kit Ancien, dit Accepte,' Paris, 
Delaunay, Libraire Palais-Eoyal, 1821 1 I should 
like to know the motives and circumstances of its 
publication, and whether they include a genuine 
design of making Masonic revelations or not. 

E. A. M. LEWIS. 

[This book, the correct title of which is ' Thuileur des 
Trente-trois Degrea de I'Ecossisme du Kit Ancien dit 
Accepte,' Paris, Delaunay, 1813, 8vo., is by Frangois- 
Henri-Stanislas de 1'Aulnaye, or Delaunay, born in 
Madrid 1739, died in hospital at Chaillot, in France, 
1830, a voluminous writer. He edited a good edition of 
Rabelais. Of the book in question we know nothing ; 
but we may say that it is useless to look in any work for 
the secrets of Freemasonry. De 1'Aulnaye wasted his 
fortune in pursuit, among other things, of Hermetic 
philosophy. 1 

GILLRAY. Can one of your numerous corre- 
spondents tell me who the lady is supposed to be 
in the caricature by Gillray upon the Kev. Wm. 
Peter's * Angel and Child ' ? EBORACUM. 

KINGSWOOD ABBEY. It appears from the 
1 Monasticon,' vol. v. p. 425, that in the year 
"1651 a register of Kings wood Abbey was in the 
possession of John Smith, Esq., of Nibley, in the 
county of Gloucester." Where is this manuscript 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

kindly tell me when she died, and where ? 

6, Pall Mall. 

DOUGLAS. Can any reader tell me when and 
by whom the ballad ' Douglas ' was written, and to 
whom it refers ? The words " Douglas, Douglas, 
tender and true," come as a refrain in each verse. 
I have met with the ballad in MS. two or three 
times, and have seen it quoted also in one of 
J. Grant's books, I believe. The tune is by Lady 
John Scott. C. F. W. 

Lee, Kent. 


desirous of obtaining some evidence of the mar- 
riage which took place about the years 1633-41, 
between a daughter of Sir John MacDowall of 
Garthland and William Shaw, who is supposed to 
have been one of the Schaws of Ganoway. Wil- 
liam Shaw was captain of a company in the 
regiment raised by the second Viscount Mont- 
gomery during the Irish wars of 1641, and he is 
said to have been a son of John Schaw of Gano- 
way, the brother of Elizabeth, Viscountess Mont- 

One of the daughters of Sir John MacDowall, 
viz., Grizel], married Capt. the Hon. George Mont- 
gomery, and in a letter written from Ireland 
December 17, 1641, by a Scottish officer named 
Hew Montgomery, to the sixth Earl of Eglinton, 
William Shaw is spoken of as being brother-in- 
law to the above-named Capt. George Montgomery. 

Fixby, near Huddersfield, Yorkshire. 

MULBERRY TREES. King James I., when he 
came to the throne in 1603, recommended his sub- 
jects to plant mulberry trees. In old-fashioned 
gardens occasionally may be seen a mulberry tree 
of ancient date and picturesque appearance. The 
mulberry is of slow growth. One of the largest I 
have seen is in the garden of St. James's Priory 
House, near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. At four 
feet from the ground it measures nine feet nine 
inches in circumference. Do any of the readers of 
' N. & Q.' know of any mulberry tree of larger size ? 


brothers Oilier one of them the author of the beau- 
tiful tales of ' Inesilla' and ' Altham ' were, about 
1820, acquainted with a group of men of genius 
Carlyle, Hunt, Lamb, Hazlitt, Barry Cornwall, 
Shelley, and others some of whom were probably 
among the " several hands " referred to in the 
title " * Olliers' Literary Miscellany,' in Prose 
and Verse, by Several Hands. To be Continued 
Occasionally. No. I. London : C. & J. Oilier, 
Vere Street, Bond Street, 1820." 8vo., title and 
advertisement, two leaves ; text, pp. 1-200. The 
history of this "experiment" in periodical litera- 
ture, as it is termed in the "Advertisement," is, 
therefore, of literary interest, and there are doubt- 
less many admirers of this school of writers who 
would be glad to hear what is known of the rare 
piece the subject of this note. TORQUAY. 

LONDON DIOCESE. Have the dedications of 
old Paddington Chapel and of the chapel of the 
Lazar Hospital at Knightsbridge been found ? 
Surely these must occur in some of the registers of 
the Bishops of London. Newcourt's 'Eepertorium' 
does not give either. Mentioning this laborious 
work reminds me that the compiler was not aware 
of the locality of the corpus of the prebend of 



[7 th S. I. FEB. 27, '86. 

Ruggernere, further than that it was in St. Pancras 
parish. Ruggmoor was, I find, the name of a field 
of fifcy-six acres in what was at a later date Mary- 
bone Park (now Regent's Park), and the Zo- 
ological Gardens may be roughly said to occupy 
part of the same ground. The boundary between 
St. Pancras and Marylebone went through the 
middle of it. A. S. ELLIS. 

four years ago I contributed to ' N. & Q. 'some memo- 
randa about early Roman Catholic magazines, which 
are almost unknown to the public, and of which it 
is doubtful whether the British Musem contains 
copies. I observe in the Oscotian for December 
last a statement to the effect that an Oscotian was 
brought out at St. Mary's College, Oscot, sixty 
years ago. What is known of it ; and where can a 
copy of it be seen except in the library at Oscot ? 
It will be remembered that in the days of the 
Tractamn movement at Oxford Dr. (afterwards 
Cardinal) Wiseman was the head of O.^cot. 


2, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

Where is the best account of this family to be 
found, with particulars of collaterals? Was there 
not a notice of some of the De la Poles in a num- 
ber of the Antiquary about two years ago 1 


THE SANHEDRIM. There is a large engraving 
by Damame de Martrais extant of the Grand 
Sanhedrim of the Israelites of the empire of France 
and kingdom of Italy. The members are in their 
judicial robes. The presiding high priest is seated 
at the upper end of a great hall before a radiated 
curtain, on which the word T1K is emblazoned. In 
the masonry overhead is a semicircular tablet 
showing a laureated bust of the Emperor Napo- 
leon. The picture invites the following questions : 
Where is, or was, the hall situated ? Is the San- 
hedrim still a recognized institution on the Con- 
tinent ? When was it first established there ? If 
no longer in existence, what was the cause of its 
being abolished ? The numerous persons depicted 
as spectators of the proceedings are all in the cos- 
tume of the Napoleonic period. 

St. John's Wood. 

IVES, an undertaker in London in the time of 
William III., made a fortune by embalming bodies. 
Can any particulars be obtained about this man ? 
What was his process? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

CRICKMAN. Can any reader of your widely 
circulated paper inform me whether there is any 
connexion between the names Crickman and Kirk- 
man ? The Crickman arms, Argent, a fesse quar- 

terly azure and gules between three mascles sable, 
have been borne by at least one family of Kirkman 
for four generations, to my knowledge, perhaps 
more. D. KIRKMAN. 


LANDOR AND KOSSUTH. About a year ago the 
London correspondent of one of our local journals 
informed his readers that an unknown ode by 
W. Savage Landor to Louis Kossuth had been 
discovered in the British Museum, and that it was 
going to be printed in one of the magazines. Has 
this ode been published ; and, if so, where ? 1 
suspect that it is the same as that entitled * On 
Kossuth's Journey to America,' and commencing, 

Rave over other lands and ether seas, 
anenfc which a query appeared n * N. & Q.,' 5 th S. 
xi. 1 89, but elicited no reply. L. L. K. 


REV. PATRICK BRONTE. The lives of Char- 
lotte Bronte state that her father, the Rev. Patrick 
Bronte, held for a time a curacy in Essex. Can 
any of your readers inform me in what part of 
Essex Mr. Bronte was curate ? 


Saffron Walden, Essex. 

(7 th S. i. 101, 146.) 

I have not Littre* at hand ; but if MR. HOBSON 
wants high authority in his favour, he may find it 
in Menage's ' Etymological Dictionary' (1694) : 

" Suzerain) sursum, susum, suzeranus, suzerain. Voyez 
And on turning to " Souverain " we find, 

" Souverain, de supra : de cette manure supra, sopra 
(d'ou 1'Italien sopra), sovra, sovranus (d'ou 1'Italien 
sovrano) souverain" 

On the other hand, Cotgrave gives more than 
DR. NICHOLSON thinks fit to quote : 

"Suzerain, m. Sovereign (yet subaltern) superiour 
(but not supreme) high in jurisdiction (though inferiour 
to the highest)." 

" Suzerainete, f. Sovereign (but subaltern) jurisdiction, 
superiour (but not supreme) power ; high, or chief, 
authority, subject, or inferiour, to the Majesty of Kings/' 

" Suzerains, m. High and mighty Lords, having under 
them many vassals, were termed so in old time, and at 
this day the King's principal Judges have sometimes 
this title bestowed on them." 

If MR. HOBSON will compare these authorities 
he will find that I do not " err violently " in com- 
plaining of the "horrible confusion" existing in 
the "jargon" of modern diplomacy. The con- 
fusion, in fact, is equally confounded whether we 
derive suzerain from tubtus or susum, which latter, 
by the way, can claim classic authority. For, 
either the word means " under-lord," in which 

7"' S.I. FEB. 27, '86.] 



case Mr. Gladstone's and, I may add, Mr. Free- 
man's use of it as meaning " over-lord " is a 
solecism ; or else it means " over-lord," in which 
case their use of it is jargon, because it substitutes 
an equivocal and unintelligible word for the un- 
mistakable and universally understood sovereign. 
Suzerain, in short, is a " vile ambiguous " word, 
which no English writer or statesman has any 
business to use. 

With regard to surtout MR. HOBSON makes a 
somewhat unlucky shot; for, of course, the sur= 
sover in sovereign, and cannot possibly have any 
connexion either with subtus or susum. His men- 
tion, however, of this super- or supra-totum sug- 
gests a derivation of another supra-totum which 
I should be glad to have either confirmed or dis- 
proved. Our English word epergne, which I spell 
without an accent because we have no accents in 
English, no doubt comes to us from the French, 
but is entirely lost in that language, its place 
having been supplied by the word surtout. The 
form of epergne implies a Low Latin spern- of an 
equivalent meaning; but I cannot find in Du Cange 
or elsewhere any satisfactory traces of such a word. 
Taking the modern surtout, or supra-totum, into 
account, may not the missing spern- be simply the 
Low Latin supernum ? BROTHER FABIAN. 

Your third correspondent at the second reference 
will perhaps pardon me if I point out one or two 
inaccuracies in his communication. The first syl- 
lable of suzerain is not from the French sur ( = L. 
super}, but from sus = Latin sursum, susum. This 
sus appears in susdit, en sus, dessus. The SMS of 
Latin sustollo, sustento, has a different origin, 
being from subs, an extended form of sub ; cf. ab, 
abs. The sur in surtout is derived from Latin 
super. This is shown by the following quotation, 
given in Brachet's 'Etymological Dictionary': 
" Illus quidem vestes, quae vulgo supertoti vocan- 
tur " (* Statuta Ordinis S. Benedict!,' A.D. 1226, 
cap. 16. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

RHYMES ON TIMBUOTOO (7 th S. i. 120). A. F. 
will find the lines referred to given by PROF. A. 
BE MORGAN in ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. iv. 188. He 
seems to have known who wrote them. It is a 
pity he did not say. The version I have always 
heard differs slightly from that there given, being 
as follows : 

If I were a cassowary 

On the plains of Timbuctoo, 
I would eat a missionary, 
Blood and bones and hymn-book too ; 

and I always understood it was an impromptu of 
Theodore Hook's in response to a challenge that 
he could not make a rhyme to Timbuctoo. A. F. 
will find the same rhyme with different verses in 
' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. x. 330 and 4 th S. vi. 308. Here 
is another rhyme, however : 

When Jim and I stalked cassowaries 

On the plains of Timbuctoo, 
We met three wily adversaries, 

I booked one and Jim booked two. 


I have understood that Bishop Samuel Wilber- 
? orce composed this quatrain, being challenged to 
find a rhyme to the word Timbuctoo. It is as 
bllows : 

If I were a Cassowary 

On the plains of Timbuctoo, 
I would eat a missionary, 
Coat and bands, and hymn-book too. 

A. J. M. 

[MB. F. C. BIRKBHCK TERRY writes to the same effect 
as A. J. M., and supplies a slightly different version.] 

OLOCKMAKERS (7 th S. i. 109). Nathaniel Stiles 
was admitted a member of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany of London in 1725. The name of Taylor 
occurs not infrequently. There was a William 
Taylor a member in 1682 ; but it is not likely 
that he lived at " W Haven." The others about 
whom MR. A. F. HERFORD inquires are not found 
in the Company's list, printed at Exeter (1883) by 
W. Pollard for 0. S. Morgan, F.R.S., &c. Refer- 
ence to this easily-procured list would save some 
unnecessary encroachment on the valuable space 

" 1725. Stiles, Nathaniel." From Morgan's list 
of members of Clockmakers' Company. 

H. A. ST. J. M. 

ARMS WANTED (6 th S. xii. 467). DEE may find 
what he seeks by looking over the arms of the 
following families, who, according to Dielitz (' Wahl- 
sprueche Feldgeschrei,' &c.), have the motto "Pro 
rege et patria": Aberdour (Earl of Morton), Ainslie, 
Bell, Bremer, Burrish, Cameron, Carr, Cresseuor, 
Estrix, Franklyn, Grosset, Hammond, Leicester, 
Leslie, Lyon, McCubin, Le Sens, Preston, Smith, 
and Stuart. Pasley has the motto "Pro rege et 
patria pugnans." FERNOW. 

Albany, N.Y. 

277, 512; xii. 52,155, 358, 397; 7 th S.i. 118). It 
may throw some light on the disputed origin of this 
word to note that in 1444 the Prior of Kilmainham, 
Hugh Middleton, is officially called "Turcupellarius 
de Rodys " (Graves, * Proceedings of King's Council 
in Ireland,' pp. 310, 311). In Rymer (xi. 45) he 
is called l< Turcupler de Rodes." In 1401 and 
1408 Peter Holt is called " Tricoplarius Rodi" 
(Rym., viii. 235) and " Turcoplarius de Rodes" 
(Rym., viii. 525). The former of these title is 
probably a mere printer's error. J. H. WYLIE. 

SCONCE (6 th S. xii. 448, 523). As the Cam- 
bridge use of this term has not yet been explained 
by any contributor from that university, may I 
point out that it appears to differ materially from 



[7* S. I. FEB. 27, 

the Oxford use ? In No. 33 of the Idler we read : 
" Met Mr. H. and went with him to Peterhouse. 
Cook made us wait thirty-six minutes beyond the 

time Mem. Pease-pudding not boiled enough. 

Cook reprimanded and sconced in my presence." 

The punishment of the cook, whatever it may 
have been, was evidently not parallel to that in 
vogue at Oxford in the case of undergraduate 
offenders against "hall" etiquette. I have wit- 
nessed the enforcement of the penalty for introduc- 
ing Latin or Greek "shop" in more than one 
college and with a proviso, not noticed at either 
of the above references, that the offender was 
allowed the first pull at the big tankard. That 
the custom was at one time pretty general through- 
out the university we may gather from an allusion 
to it in the Oratio Creweiana for 1865, where the 
orator, lamenting the frivolity of the day, says : 

" Illis ne inter diurna quidem convivia ullus dis- 
putando aut auscultando locus. Irumo adeo triste et 
crudele doctarum linguarum exilium. ut pro flagitio per- 
quam gravi et graviter puniendo habeatur latine loqui 
aut vetustioris cujusque scriptoria mentionem facere." 

A. T. M. 

APOSTATE NUNS (7 th S. i. 48, 91). As accuracy, 
even in the minutest particulars, is desirable in 
' N. & Q.,' allow me to say that in the note quoted 
from ' Marmion ' the name of the abbey is Cold- 
ingham, not " Goldingham," situated in Berwick- 
shire, where its ruins may yet be seen. The scene 
of * The Bride of Lammermoor ' is supposed to be 
laid in its vicinity, and the abbey to be the burial- 
place of the Eavenswoods. There is an engraving 
of Cold ingham Abbey by E. Finden after a sketch 
by J. Skene in the ' Landscape Illustrations of the 
*' Waverley Novels " ' (1832), and at Abbotsford 
is a noble painting in oils by Thomson of Dudding- 
ston, representing Fast Castle, near St. Abb's Head, 
the original of Wolf's Crag. In the fine ballad 
' The Eve of St. John,' by Sir Walter Scott, the 
place is mentioned 

And that lady bright she called the knight 
Sir Richard of Coldinghame. 

Nevrbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

A PORTRAIT OF BYRON (7 th S. i. 104). In his 
remarks on Mr. Hubert Jernynghani's ' Reminis- 
cences of an Attache,' MR. EICHARD EDGCUMBB 
gives what he calls " a curious example of how 
history is written " by affirming that the photo- 
graph given in ' My Eecollections of Lord Byron,' 
by the Countess Guiccioli, is not taken from 
Phillips's portrait, as is stated, but is one from 
a portrait by West. " Thus," he goes on to say, 
" we have this ' frightful caricature/ which in the 
opinion of the translator (Mr. H. Jernyngham) 
ought to be destroyed, perpetuated as a frontis- 
piece in the very book in which it is so strongly 

I have before me a proof copy of West's portrait, 
engraved by F. Engleheart, as given in the Lite- 
rary Souvenir for 1827, also an engraving from 
Phillips's portrait, painted in 1814; and from a 
comparison of these it may safely be said that the 
photograph given in the ' Eecollections ' could not 
have been taken from West's portrait, which is 
nearly a full face, but must have been taken from 
Phillips's portrait, giving, as it does, the precise 
position, as a photograph would assuredly do, if it 
did nothing else in the way of a likeness. 


16, Alma Road, Clifton. 

MUGWUMP (7 th S. i. 29). For a full explanation 
of the origin and meaning of mugwump see the 
Saturday Review, No. 1517. 

Mugwump, in the language of the Connecticut 
Indians, meant a captain, a leader, a superior 
person. In Eliot's Indian Bible "centurion" is 
rendered mugwump. The word lingered along 
the shore of Long Island Sound, meaning at first 
a man of consequence, and secondarily a man who 
thought himself of consequence. When Mr. Blaine 
was nominated for the presidency by the Eepub- 
licans in 1884, many members of that party de- 
nounced the nomination as unfit to be made, and 
declared that they would vote for the Democratic 
nominee, Mr. Cleveland. These men, who dared 
to have an opinion of their own, were termed mug- 
wumps, in derision. As often happens, they ac- 
cepted the nickname, and it was the mugwump 
vote which elected Mr. Cleveland. 


121, East Eighteenth Street, New York. 

In 'The Colonial History of the State of New 
York ' it may be seen that the Indians of Esopus 
presented to General Peter Stuyvesant, then 
Governor of New Amsterdam (1659-1660) a list 
of grievances. They had been robbed, and they 
mention the loss of a " pair of breeches," and tar 
an English settler, one Hurlbert, with having 
stolen them. This curious document is signed by 
an Esopus chieftain, whose Indian name translated 
by the Dutch scribe is Da Na, and his title is 
mugwump. The totem-sign of Da Na is the sun. 
Da Na seems to have been a very turbulent 
savage, for his name appears several times, and 
always when the Dutch and Indians find a cause 
for quarrel. In 1663 it looks as if Da Na had 
become something like a trader, for he complains 
of other traders who offer goods at two pfennings 
(two cents). Da Na seems to wish to control the 
business. Mugwump means high-minded. It was 
used in this sense during the late political cam- 
paign. J. H. B. 

New York. 

The Daily News and the Pall Mall, though 
contradicting one another as to the meaning of this 
word, seem to me to be both right. I believe a 

7" S. I. FEB. 27, '86.) 



mugwump to be " a superior person," who thinks 
that he is wiser than his neighbours, and who is 
led by that thought either to hold aloof from 
politics, as being the occupation of inferior minds, 
or else to neglect the demands of party for what 
he considered the claims of patriotism. The origin 
of the name so applied is said to be the following : 

Father (I forget the name), when translating 

the New Testament into one of the Indian dialects 
of North America, found himself puzzled in the 
endeavour to find a good rendering for " not to 
think of himself more highly than he ought to 
think," and consulting an Indian, one of his flock, 
received for answer, "That's easy enough ! 
That 's mugwump." 

So the answer to MR. FOWKES'S question is that 
it is an Indian word to which our friends in the 
United States have given a political signification. 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

i. 109). MR. HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS'S inquiry as 
to the above may be satisfactorily answered from 
Bigland's i Gloucestershire Genealogical Collec- 
tions.' The earliest record on a headstone was 
at Ashelworth, date 1598. Others are given 
as follows : Newent, 1603 : Lydney, 1615 ; St. 
Briavel's, 1623, 1636, 1641, 1642, &c. ; Minchin- 
hampton, 1637; Badminton, 1657. Bigland's re- 
cords, therefore, show that the upright, as distinct 
from tombstones and flat stones in the church- 
yard, came into fashion at the end of Elizabeth's 
reign, and have been continuously in use ever 
since, though varying much as to size and pattern. 


whether his inquiry as to upright gravestones is 
general, or whether it only has reference to Great 
Britain. . believe that upright gravestones, 
centuries old, are to be found in Turkish grave- 
yards ; but even the oldest of these must be of far 
later date than the older gravestones in the Jews' 
Cemetery at Prague. This cemetery, the most 
interesting and pathetic in Europe, so far as I 
know, except the Catacombs at Kome, is filled with 
upright headstones; thick solid slabs, each em- 
bossed with bold Hebrew characters sound stones 
and legible epitaphs of a thousand years old and 
more. The oldest of them, that of Sarah, the wife 
of Kabbi Cohen, is understood to be of the time of 

I have explored a good many churchyards in 
England and Wales, but I do not think I ever 
saw an upright gravestone in any of them so old 
as Elizabeth's reign. The oldest headstone that I 
can recollect with a legible date on it is in the pretty 
churchyard of Hope Bowdler, in Salop. I think its 
date is about 1650. A. J. M. 

Upright tombstones have been used from very 
early times, and are probably a regular development 
from the old Koman inscribed pillars or altars 
dedicated to the dead. There used to be, at the 
old church at Folkstone, several small incised ex- 
amples, probably of the fourteenth century. They 
were during a restoration, if I am not mistaken, 
fixed to an outside wall, where they probably may 
still be seen. The most interesting and varied 
collection that I know is in the small crypt at the 
great church at Chester. Some of these are long 
before the Conquest, and, if not already engraved 
and described, are well worthy the attention of 
competent antiquaries. They are mostly small in 
size. J- 0. J. 

I think it was in the reign of Queen Elizabeth 
that these were first set up. We have one in our 
churchyard here dated 1587. Strange to say, 
however, no other instance occurs till long after, 
the next surviving upright stone being dated 
1661, which is then followed by others dated 
1680, 1688, 1690, &c. Village churchyards that 
have not been much disturbed can afford, no 
doubt, in many instances positive evidence of the 
commencement and gradual growth of the custom. 


Ducklington, Witney. 

One of these remains in the churchyard of Over, 
in Cambridgeshire, dated, I think, 1585, but cer- 
tainly at the end of that century. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

HIGHLAND KILT (7 th S. i. 8, 51, 73). The 
question of the antiquity of the kilt has been so 
often discussed that little, if anything, can be added 
on the subject : but to put the date of its use as 
no further back than the year 1700 would be 
almost as absurd as to say that because the style 
of coat known as a shooting-jacket did not come 
into use until about the year 1850, that therefore 
the latter date should be taken as the year in 
which coats began to be worn in England ! 

No one who has studied the subject maintains 
that the kilt in its present form is a precisely 
similar article of dress to that worn by the High- 
landers two or three hundred years ago, for the 
old garment (the belted plaid) was fuller and hand- 
somer in every way, and was kilt and plaid in one. 

The scrap of tartan worn over the shoulder by 
the soldiers in the kilted regiments is a farce. 
Scottish readers of ' N. & Q.' will see the force of 
this when I mention that, speaking of this apology 
for a plaid on one occasion to an old man, he said, 
with a sniff of contempt, "Och, it is no more 
than just big enough for a hippin ! " 

The subject is very fully discussed and illus- 
trated in The Book of the Club of True High- 
landers/ by Mr. Mclntyre North, published about 
four years ago ; and in Logan's * Gael,' which was 
recently reprinted, and can easily be seen. 



. I. FEB. 27, '86'. 

At the battle of Reminant, fought in 1578, the 
Old Scots Brigade which served iu Holland greatly 
distinguished itself, and in the "historical ac- 
count " of its services, published in London in 
1795, we are told that "the most bloody part of 
the action was sustained by the Scotch, who fought 
without armour and in their shirts." This pro- 
bably refers to the old Highland fashion of letting 
slip the belted plaid before going into action. 

I have just been reading a volume the title of 
which is * An Old Scots Brigade ; being the His- 
tory of Mackay's Regiment, now incorporated with 
the Royal Scots/ by John Mackay (Blackwood & 
Sons, Edinburgh, 1885). The frontispiece repro- 
duces an old engraving, published in Germany in 
1630, but now in the British Museum, and repre- 
sents four Scotsmen (though they are called " Irr- 
Jander "), three of whom are dressed in the kilt. 
These figures represent some of the Scottish 
soldiers of Gustavus Adolphus, and, as the author 
of the volume says, show the uniform of at least 
some of the companies of the regiment a narrative 
of whose services he has written. 

From these two books, then, we find that the 
kilt was in use as a regimental dress in the year 
1630, and probably as far back as 1578. So the 
story of its introduction in the year 1700 may be 
regarded as idle gossip or a fiction. 


In an article on the Highland kilt by SIR HER- 
BERT MAXWELL the following passage occurs : 
" The plaid, both of men and officers, is dressy and 
picturesque, but useless." To this statement I 
must take exception, as I not only consider the 
plaid dressy and picturesque, but extremely useful 
as a means of protection against both wet and cold. 
At the Scottish volunteer review of 1881 the High- 
land regiments did not suffer so much from the in- 
clemency of the weather as their Lowland comrades, 
and for the following reason: We " kilted men " 
drew our plaids over both shoulders, and in that 
way warded off the rain and at the same time kept 
in the heat. Major-General McDonald, in his 
report on the review, comments most warmly on 
the 'utility of the plaid, saying that prior to the 
review he had doubted the utility of the plaid, 
but from what he had seen on that day had 
changed his views regarding that same. 

For my own part, I consider the plaid of much 
more practical utility than the feather bonnet, 
although I should much regret were either done 

41, Albany Street, Edinburgh. 

THE VILLAGE GREEN (7 th S. i. 102). Let us 
hope that MR. ADDY'S paper may be the means of 
gathering a store of information on this interesting 
subject while yet a few villages possess their 
greens. Perhaps no part of England has so many 
unenclosed greens and commons as Worcestershire. 

A glance at a good map will show how often the 
word " green " occurs. Very picturesque they are, 
with their duck-ponds, tribes of wandering geese, 
chickens, and turkeys, their pasturing cattle and 
camping gipsies ; while all round are old red-brick 
farmhouses, with unexpected gables and stacks of 
most irregular chimneys ; thatched cottages distinct 
with black timbers and much whitewash ; and 
many rows and clumps of elms (" the weed 
of Worcestershire") and poplars. They seem, 
however, to be neglected ; there are only two days 
in the year when they are the scenes of anything 
like the old-world life, viz., the gala-day of the 
village club and some odd day when the fox-hounds 
meet. That which I know best, at Newland, near 
Malvern, is a poor specimen, and is a common 
rather than a green ; but it may serve for something. 
On the south, towards the sun, is the church 
(about which see 6 tb S. viii. 366, and a woodcut in 
the recent * Memoir of the Rev. James Skinner'); 
on the north the parish stocks were fittingly placed ; 
and although new stocks were erected so lately as 
1805, at a cost to the parish of 31 14s., they have 
left but their name behind them in Stocks Lane, 
which leads out from that corner. On the east is 
the vicar's cottage, which doubtless served as a 
lodging for the priest who used to come down from 
Malvern Priory for duty at St. Leonard's Chapel. 
On the west, close to the blacksmith's shop, and 
only removed from the Worcester high road by the 
space of its own little green, is the old coaching 
inn. The coaches have gone, and so has the 
wonderful parrot that used to tell of their coming : 
but on a post by the roadside, in the good old- 
fashioned way, there yet swings its sign, " The 
Swan." No common swan is it, but a fabulous 
and heraldic swan white indeed, but rarer than 
the black. It is a badge and one of the supporters 
of Earl Beauchamp, whose seat is in the next 
parish, and who owns most of Newland. Across 
the road, and upon the common, there is a pool 
surrounded by poplars, whose tops on still, dark 
nights are always moaning source of terror to 
children who have been duly taught the legend that 
thereto belongs. 

Unfortunately the parish accounts only take us 
back one century. They contain some noticeable 
efforts at spelling, they supply a few modest facts 
for the topography of a very small and unpretending 
parish, and the outlines of one or two romances in 
humble life ; but there is only one scrap which 
shows us the parish play-place : " 1807. Oct. 27, 
P d Sargan Hall for drums and fifise on the Feld 
days, 0. 18. 0." There are no barracks near, and 
the parish only owned one militiaman (for whom 
they found a substitute at a cost of four guineas). 
Must not the field days, when Sergeant Hall's 
soothing drums and fifes charmed eighteen shillings 
out of the parishioners of Newland, have been for 
the display of volunteers upon the village green ? 

. I. FEB. 27, '86.] 



However this may be, I may add, in conclusion, 
that we have old women still living here who 
danced round the maypole in their youth. 

W. C. B. 
Malvern Link. 

At Belper, Derbyshire, there is an open space of 
ground now known and from time immemorial as 
the Butts. It adjoins the burial-ground of the 
ancient chapel of St. John, and though never 
surrounded by houses, yet was undoubtedly the 
ancient village green when Belper was merely 
a straggling village. The Butts is situated mid- 
way on the slope of an extensive hill, with a 
south aspect, and even now would form an admir- 
able ground for archery practice but for the 
houses along the north side, which were built early 
in this century. From the bearing's of the land the 
Butts here must have extended over four to five 
acres, stretching from the brook in the valley in 
front to Chapel Hollow and High Street ^ in the 
rear, its boundaries on the north-east being the 
grounds surrounding the chapel of St. John. From 
its position and the features of its surroundings 
this spot served the purpose of, and was, indeed, 
" the village green." Some of the oldest houses 
in the town are in its immediate vicinity. The 
village stocks formerly stood beneath the shadow 
of some old yews, just within the present boundary 
of the churchyard, and at the back of the old 
academy, the ground then being part of the green, 
and was the play-ground of the whole village. 
Here the bull- baitings and cock-shy ings of the 
past took place till (as the town arose about the 
newer market-place) the bull- ring was shifted to 
the market-place. I am afraid that pretty 
nearly all the old history of the Butts at Belper is 
lost past recovery. THOMAS RATCLIFFE. 


[We have not space for many descriptions of village 

(7 th S. i. 65). I am very grateful to the REV. 0. 
TANCOCK for his correction of an error in my 
edition, and for his solution of a difficulty which 
cost me a good deal of trouble. The reading in 
my text, I can state from personal examination of 
the MS. at Vienna, is correct, though no doubt 
sine and sine are undistinguishable in the MS. 
Had the latter alternative occurred to my mind, 
I might probably have hit upon MR. TANCOCK'S 
reading. But as it did not, I had no choice but 
to take "tetragous sive vitupero" as indicating a 
Greek word with a Latin translation ; and thus I 
fell into the further mistake of not examining the 
Aristotelian use of rcrpaywi/o? with sufficient care ; 
for how could TTpaywi/os possibly mean vitupero? 
I was, indeed, put off the scent by the fact that 
the Latin edition of Aristotle in which I usually 
first seek Wycliffe's quotations (* Opera cum Aver- 

rois Commentariis/ Venet., 1550), and which, in 
many instances, contains the " old version," hap- 
pens, in the case of the ' Ethics/ to give that of Feli- 
cianus. Consequently, in the passage in question 
I read " quadratus absque vituperatione " (vol. ii. 
fol. 7, col. 1). Now, however, I find MR. TAN- 
COCK'S conjecture exactly verified in the ' Antiqua 
Translatio/ printed with St. Thomas Aquinas's 
commentary in the latter's ' Opera/ vol. v. p. 36, 
col. IB, ed. Paris, 1660 : " Eb fortunas feret optime 
et omnino ubique prudenter qui et vere bonus et 
tetragonus sine vituperio." 

I trust I may look forward to more corrections 
from MR. TANCOCK'S hands. All that I receive 
will be duly acknowledged in a supplementary 
table of errata which I propose to print in my 
second volume. R. L. POOLE. 

When I wrote this note I had no means of re- 
ferring to any old Latin Aristotle. I soon after- 
wards found in the Oxford Historical Society's 
'Collectanea/ i. 66, a notice of a Latin " Text us 
ethicorum " in the ' Catalogue of Oriel College 
Library, A.D. 1375,' which " may be the copy of 
the 'Ethics' now in the College Library, MS. 
xxv. 1." The Provost of Oriel, with great kind- 
ness, looked at the MS. for me, and wrote to me 
saying, " On looking in our MS. xxv. for the 
passage in question I find the words 'tet'gonus 
s'n uitup'io/ exactly as you expected." This is, 
of course, conclusive evidence. 



i. io7). MR. WILLIAMS will find an account of 
this race in the Gent. Mag. for 1750, at p. 379, 
where it is stated that 

" on Wednesday 29, at seven in the morning was decided 
at Newmarket, a remarkable wager for 1000 guineas, laid 
by Theobald TaafEaq ; against the E of March and lord 
Eglinton, who were to provide a four-wheel [carriage 
with a man in it, to be drawn by four horses 19 miles an 
hour; which was performed in 53 min. and 27 seconds." 
Particulars of the carriage and other details are 
also given at the same reference. G. F. R. B. 

[MR. BIRKBECK TERRY says an account appears in 
Chambers's ' Book of Days,' under the head " Earl of 
March's Carriage