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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 56, Jan. 22, 1887. 


of Kntercommumcatton 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIW CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 56, Jan. 22, 1887. 




7 S. II. JULY 3, '86.] 




NOTES: The Belgso, 1 John Banyan a Gipsy Byronlc 
Literature, 3 'Kale Britannia 'Editions of 'Vicar of 
Wakeaeld,' 4 St. Moritz Wasted Ingenuity, 5 Revival of 
Sedan Chairs Hair turned White Trades and Streets, 6. 

QUERIES : Antiquity of a Boat and Road Extra Verses in 
St. Matthew Brereton ' Faber Fortnnae," 7 Prayers for 
Royal Family Oliver = Moon Matthew Buckinger Dedi- 
cations " Standard " Tavern Revels Blanketeer Sir R. 
Fry Wordsworth's Bible Corinth's Pedagogue Forbes of 
Culloden Pseudonyms, 8 Egmont Blade Auction Mart 
Defender of the Faith "Deaf as the adder "Bellman 
O'Keefe Authors Wanted, 9. 

REPLIES : Britannia, 10 Suzerain Ham, 11 Parish 
Registers Slare, 12 Grace after Meat Joshua Barnes. 13 
Transmission of Folk-Tales St. Helen, 14" Farmer's 
Creed "Game of Thirty Scotch Peers Rob Roy in New- 
gate, 15 British Institution Quotation Wanted Chapel, 
Somerset House " Square meal "Book-plates " Tipped 
the wink" Stevens History of Electric Lighting Birth of 
King of Spain Last Earl of Anglesea, 10 Horace Smith 
Fylfot Russian Field-Marshal-Bradford Family- Sou they' s 
' Battle of Blenheim ' " Montjoye St. Denys " Easter 
Bibliography ' Faithful Register of the late Rebellion ' 

Veritable Noble Masters and their Servants " Old 
Style," 17 Costanus Shakspeare's Doctor Latin Line 
Wanted Glyn Children's Crusade, 18 Blue Roses 
Authors Wanted, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Firth's Newcastle's ' Life of Cavendish ' 

Lee's 'King Edward the Sixth ' Smith's 'Ethics of 
Aristotle ' Fishwick's ' Calendar of Lancashire and Che- 
shire Depositions ' ' Annual Register.' 

Notices to Correspondents, ic. 


(See 7"> S. i. 441, 461.) 

BROTHER FABIAN'S contention that the Belgw 
of Gaul and Britain were not Celts, but Dutchmen 
or Danes, must not be allowed to pass without 
protest. When Prof. Rhys states that there is not 
'' any reason to suppose that the Belgae were Teu- 
tonic " (' Celtic Britain,' p. 276), he is in accord 
with all those who are entitled to speak with 
authority on the matter. It may, therefore, be 
well to enumerate a few of the arguments by 
which scholars have been led to this opinion 
arguments which BROTHER FABIAN will have to 
meet if his thesis is to be established. 

The first argument is one that by itself was re- 
garded as " decisive " by so great a scholar as Dr. 
Guest. From Pomponius Mela we learn, " C.'lt- 
arum clarissimi sunt Aedui ; Belgarum, Treviri." 
The people about Treves were, therefore, the lead- 
ing and typical Belgic tribe. Now Jerome, who 
had resided at Treves and who must often have 
passed through Galatia, tells us in his celebrated 
preface to the Epistle to the Galatians, that the 
people of Treves spoke the same language as the 
Galatians of Ancyra. We know that the Gala- 
tians were the descendants of the Gauls under 
Brennus, who, after pillaging Borne and Delphi, 
finally settled in Asia Minor. In ' Words and 

Places ' I have shown the Celtic character of local 
names in Galatia, and will only add that there 
seems to be no reason to question the identification 
of the Tectosages of Ancyra and the Tectosages of 
Gaul. Unless, therefore, we reject the evidence of 
such a skilled philologist as Jerome, we must 
admit that the Treviri, the leading Belgic tribe, 
spoke a Celtic speech. Moreover, the very name 
of these Treviri is from the Cymric trev, which 
enters so largely into the local names of Wales, 
Cornwall, and Brittany. 

The Aedui, Mela tells us, were the typical 
Celtic race of Gaul. Now the Aeduan and Belgic 
names curiously agree. Divitiacus, the Aeduan, 
bore the same name as Divitiacus, King of the 
Suessiones, the Belgic tribe who under him ob- 
tained supremacy over a large part of Southern 
Britain. Venta Belgarum, now Winchester, the 
chief city of the Belgso of Britain, admittedly de- 
rives its name from the Cymric word gwent, a 
term descriptive of the open downs of Hampshire. 
The capital of the Suessiones of Gaul was Novio- 
dunum, a Celtic name meaning the " new fort," 
and Noviodunum was also the name of a city of 
the Aedui, who are undoubtedly Celtic. 

From the Bibroci, or " beavers," we obtain the 
name of Bibracte, the Aeduan capital, which com- 
pares with Bibrax, a city of the Ilemi, a Belgic 
tribe. The name of Nemetocenna, now Arras, the 
chief town of the Atrebates, a Belgic people, is 
derived from nemet, a " sacred grove," and cenn, 
"caput." The Atrebates, some of whom passed 
over into Britain with the Belgic invaders and 
settled in the upper valley of the Thames, bear a 
Celtic name, meaning, as Gliick has shown, the 
"farmers," the "land-owners," from the Cymric 
word athref, " mansio, posseesio." 

Calleva Atrebatum, now Silchester, the capital of 
the British Atrebates, is " the town in the wood," 
the .si7 of Silchester being probably a remnant of 
the Latin silva, used to translate the Belgic name. 
From Cymric sources Zeuss and Gliick have suc- 
cessfully explained many other Belgic names. The 
Suessiones of Gaul and Britain are the "bene locati" 
or " bene statuti "; and the name of their king, 
Galba, the "great" or the "fat," is found also 
among the Cisalpine Gauls. The Aduatici are 
" the bold " or the " courageous." The Kerni are 
" the foremost " or " the leaders." The name of 
the Caletes is from the Cymric calet, "durus, 
firmus," and it may be noted that if this name had 
been Teutonic the initial c would have become h, 
since the Celtic calet corresponds to the German 

Since the Celtic cath, " battle," answers to the 
German hadu, the same remark applies to the 
name of Catuvolcus (a prince of the Belgic Ebu- 
rones), which signifies " alacer ad pugnandum." In 
like manner the Celtic Caturix answers to the 
German Haduricb, while the two elements of the 


[7* S. II. JOLT 3, '86. 

Belgic name Catuvolcus appear in two Celtic tribe 
names, the Caturiges, or " battle kings," and the 
Volcse. The name of Ambiorix, another prince o 
the Eburones, means " rex opulentus," and the 
first part of this word appears also in the name o 
the Ambiani, a Belgic tribe who have left a 
memorial of themselves in the name of Amiens 
The Belgic Mediolanum may be compared with 
the Mediolanum (Milan) of the Cisalpine Gauls 
and the Belgic tribe-name Eburones with the ad- 
mittedly Celtic names Eburovices, Ebnrodunum, 
Eburomagus, and Eburobriga. The name of the 
Belgic Lugdunum (Leyden) is identical with that 
of the Celtic Lugdunum (Lyons), while the Belgic 
tribe of the Morini are the " maritimi," the name 
being derived from the same Celtic word mor, 
" sea," which with the preposition ar, " ad," gives 
us the name of the Celtic Armorica, " terra ad 
mare sita." 

It would be easy to go through the other Belgic 
names that have come down to us, and show that, 
while they can be readily explained from Cymric 
sources, they are inexplicable if regarded as of 
Teutonic origin. In the face of all this body of 
evidence BROTHER FABIAN maintains that the 
Belgse were Danes or Dutchmen ! His sole argu- 
ment seems to be that Csesar tells us that the 
Galli and the Belgse differed in language, insti- 
tutes, and laws. The same may be said of the 
Irish and the Welsh, and yet we do not doubt 
that the Welsh as well as the Irish are Celts. 
I agree with Prof. RoDiston as to the early date 
of the Germanization of Eastern Britain, but I 
look for these early Teutonic settlers on the 
eastern coasts of our island, and not in the Belgic 
region between Winchester and Bath. 


Is BROTHER FABIAN justified in assuming 
that the Belgse of Caesar were of German origin ? 
I would respectfully submit that historians 
are not agreed upon this question. Caesar, in- 
deed, asserts that they came from the country 
then inhabited by the Germani, but this does not 
sufficiently prove that all the tribes comprehended 
under the general name of the Belgse were of Teu- 
tonic origin. On the contrary, Csesar ranks them 
with the Gauls, and evidently regards them as 
allied in speech, in manners and customs, to the 
Gallic race. He implies (' B. G.,' i. 1) that there 
were differences of language, laws, and customs 
between the three leading nations in Gaul ; but 
if we compare his account with that of Strabo 
(iv. 176) the differences were not considerable, 
being chiefly modifications of dialect. It may be 
admitted that the Menapii, the Treviri, and those 
specially described as calling themselves " Ger- 
mans " in Csesar ('B. G.,' ii. 4) were Teutonic ; but 
I believe that most French and Belgian his- 
torians contend that the prevailing element in the 

Belgic division of Gaul was Celtic. The term 
Belgae is clearly not the name of a race, but of a 
warlike confederation of certain tribes in Gaul for 
mutual resistance to German invasion. Of the 
tribes forming this Belgic confederation the most 
prominent were Celtic ; they had Gallic manners, 
habits, and a common religion. They spoke the 
Gallic language (' B. G.,' i. 47). Moreau ('La 
France,' p. 156) concludes that these were Celtic 
tribes who were the last to come across the Rhine, 
either driven by the Germans or in search of a 
milder climate and more fertile soil. 

There is evidence of a people of German race 
inhabiting the valley of the Lys, who united with 
the Menapii and subsequent Saxon invaders to be 
ancestors of the more modern Flemings, over- 
whelming by their numbers the Morinian or Celtic 
element ; but it would seem that the Belgians of 
France proper were chiefly Celtic in origin. 

But I freely admit the entire question is diffi- 
cult. The following are the principal writers 
who have debated the subject with more or less 
of learning and good temper : Schayes, ' Les 
Pays-Bas avant et pendant la Domination des 
Remains,' 8vo., 1877; Wastelain, ' Description de 
la Gaule Belgique selou les Trois Ages de 
1'Histoire,' 8vo., 1788 ; Thierry, ' Histoire Gaul- 
oise,' 12tno., 1858 ; Moke, 'La Belgique Ancienne,' 
8vo., 1855 ; Vanderkindere, 'Recberches sur 1'Eth- 
nologie des Beiges,' 8vo., 1872 ; Roget de Bello- 
uet, ' Ethnoglnie Gauloise,' 8vo., 1872 ; and 
Poullet, 'Histoire Politique Interne de la Bel- 
gique,' 8vo., 1879. 

The conclusion of the last-mentioned writer 

" Quant a la masse de la population, fixee dans la Bel- 
gique a 1'epoque de la conquete romaine, on debut encore, 
avec arguments eerieux de part et d'autre, la question de 
savoir si elle etait ou germaine, ou celtique, ou formee 
d'un melange de Celtes et de Oermains Si les popula- 
tions du premier siecle avant notre ere etaient celtiques, 
en tout ou en partie, el les n'ont guere laisse d'autres 
.races durables dans 1'etat social des &ges futurs que cer- 
aines superstitions populaire a et un nombre ussez con- 
siderable de noms de lieux. Si ces populations etaient 
termaniques, ce n'est cependant pas elles qui ont main- 
enu dans le pays cet element germain dont 1'influence 
termanente eut une action si decisive sur le developpe- 
uent des institutions belgiques." P. 8. 

Phe conclusion of Moke (' Belgique Ancienne,' 
p. 107) is different : 

" La Belgique ancienne offrait avant 1'arrivee des 
lomains trois groupes de population differents; des 
ielges de race gallique, etablis & 1'ouest de la Meuse et 
le 1'Escaut ; des Beiges de race germanique qui avaient 
lossessiou des pays situes ;\ 1'eat de ces deux fleuves ; des 
iermains pas encore regardes conitne Beiges et qui occu- 
aieut les cantons lea plus sauvages et les plus arides." 

I have omitted to indicate another authority, 
Vtoreau de Jonnes, 'La France avant ses Premiers 
Habitants,' 12mo., Paris, 1856. 

May I add that the name Bel gas is considered 
y Zeusa (' Gram. Celtica,' p. 140) to be Celtic, 

7 S. II. JOLT 3, '86.J 


and that its meaning is "warriors"? Another 
reason for regarding them as a Celtic people is the 
terminations of their local names. Zeuss considers 
them Celts, and that, even if they claimed kinship 
with the Germani, it was from the desire to be 
separately regarded from the beaten and subdued 
Gauls. For a like reason Tacitus (' Germania,' 
28) thinks the Treviri and Nervii called them- 
selves Germani. Rhys ('Celtic Britain,' p. 276) 
asserts that there is " no reason to suppose that the 
Belgae were Teutons." After reading Guest 
(* Origines Celtics ') and Beale Poste (' Belgae of 
Britain,' Journal Archceolog. Assoc., xi. 205) I 
feel satisfied that the Belgie were of the same race 
as the Galli, but that there were German fugitives 
amongst them, and that some few of the tribes 
comprehended within the fifteen or sixteen na- 
tions of the Belgic confederation may have been 
Germanic originally. But in spite of this, before 
the arrival of Cresar, the Celtic element prepon- 
derated and they had practically become one peo- 
ple, Celtic in sentiment, manners, and speech. 



In his own account of himself and his family, 
John Banyan speaks of bis " father's house being 
of that rank that is meanest and most despised of 
all the families in the land." It has always 
been popularly understood that this admission, 
coupled with the fact of his employment at first 
being that of a tinker, pointed to gipsy birth and 
origin. In another notable passage of his auto- 
biography, " the v Bedfordshire tinker " tells us that 
at one time he wondered " whether his family were 
of the Israelites," another of " the meanest and most 
despised" races in England. This was when he 
was troubled about his soul's salvation, and he 
thought he could take some comfort if he were one 
of God's chosen people, though they were now down- 
trodden and in exile. " At last," he says, -' I asked 
my father of it, who told me, ' No, we were not.' " 
This answer threw him back on the tinkers, as the 
mixed gipsy race were usually called. 

This led Sir Walter Scott to say that " Bunyan 
was most probably a gipsy reclaimed"; and led 
Mr. Offor, a laborious editor of Bnnyan's works, 
to say " His father must have been a gipsy." With 
still more elaborate statement and cogent argument, 
Mr. James Simpson, a Scotchman long resident 
in New York, author of a ' History of the Gipsies/ 
affirms that the Bunyan family were gipsies, who, 
on settling in Bedfordshire, took the name of the 
family on whose soil they chiefly lived, as had been 
the common usage since feudal times. 

That this humble origin, so far from being a 
disgrace or discredit to the illustrious John 
Banyan, gives greater lustre to his genius and 
worth we have always been accustomed to think. 

Tet, in spite of all this, the latest and best 
biographer of Bunyan, the Rev. John Brown, of 
Bedford, has the weakness to claim for him a 
remote connexion with a Norman family that came 
over with the Conqueror ! Mr. Brown collects all 
the names of Bonyons and Bnnians who figure in 
ancient archives to prove that " the Bunyan family 
flourished before gipsies were heard of in England." 
Mr. Simpson shrewdly remarks that we might as 
well affirm that a Lancashire or Cheshire gipsy, 
assuming and bearing the name of Stanley, must 
belong necessarily to the house of the Earls of 
Derby, because he is the head of the Stanleys. 

Mr. Brown's book is so meritorious in the main, 
that this weak point, of ignoring the disputed 
question of Bunyan's gipsy origin, is the more to be 
regretted. Mr. Simpson, in a review of Mr. Brown's 
book, has noticed the omission ; and among other 
interesting facts as to there being no discredit in 
gipsy blood, reminds us that Dr. Robert Gordon, 
formerly minster of the High Church of Edinburgh, 
a divine and preacher well known and much 
honoured, was of gipsy origin ; and that Mrs. 
Thomas Carlyle had pride in telling that her 
grandmother was a Bail lie, one of a gipsy tribe 
who had adopted the name of an ancient Scottish 
family. This explains her reference to Tennyson 
as " having something of the gipsy in his appear- 
ance, which to me is perfectly charming." 

That the popular idea of Bunyan's origin pre- 
vailed throughout his own lifetime we know from 
the famous anecdote about Charles II. and Dr. 
Owen. The king asked the doctor " how a learned 
man, such as he was, could sit and hear an illiterate 
tinker prate." "May it please your Majesty," 
was Dr. Owen's reply, " could I possess the tinker's 
ability for preaching, I would gladly relinquish all 
my learning." I do not affirm the gipsy origin of 
"the immortal dreamer," but only say that the 
question has not been settled by showing that 
there were Bunyans in England ever since the 
Conquest ; nor is it fair to ignore the discussion, ^in 
the face of Bunyan's own statements in his autobio- 
graphy, as has been done not only by Mr. Brown, 
but also by Mr. Froude in his memoir. 



(Continued from p. 426.) 
Class III. Poetry relating to Byron. 
Five fugitive pieces addressed to Lord Byron at 
various intervals. Rev. F. Hodgson. Circa 1810. 

Cui Bono. From the ' Rejected Addresses.' Horace 
and T. Smith. Circa 1812. 

Anti Byron : a Satire. Circa 1814. 
Julian and Maddalo. Percy B. Shelley. 1818. 
Childe Harold's Monitor. Rev. F. Hodgson. 1818. 
Lines written among the Euganean Hills. Percy B. 
Shelley. 1818. 

Adonais. Stanza xxx. Percy B. Shelley. Pisa, 1821. 
Uriel : Poetical Address to Lord Byron. 1822. 


[7 th S. II. JULY 3, '86. 

Lines addressed to Byron. M. C. de Lamartine. Circa 

Fugitive Pieces. By Countess of Blessington. Genoa, 

Po'em on the Death of Byron. From the Gedichte. 
Wilhelm Miiller. 1824. 

Lament for Lord Byron. ' Nodes Ambrosianae, xv. 
June, 1824. 

Childe Harold's Last Pilgrimage. Rev. W. L. Bowles. 

A Poet's Thoughts at the Interment of Lord Byron. 
William Howitt. 1824. 

Monody on the Death of Lord Byron. T. Maude. 

Ode to the Memory of Lord Byron. Translated from 
a Greek Journal, in the Literary Gazelle. Printed in 
Medwin's ' Conversations.' 1824. 

On the Death of Byron. An elegiac stanza in Greek. 
John Williams. 1824. 

Bologna. From ' Italy.' Samuel Rogers. Circa 1825. 

The Course of Time, Book IV. Robert Pollok. Circa 

Lord Byron : a Poem. E. Bagnell. 1831. 

Euphorion. Second Part of ' Faust.' Goethe. Circa 

Lord Byron. A poetical defence in regard to the 
Stowe scandal. 16 pp. Anon. 1869. 

Lines on the ' National Byron Memorial.' Spenser, 
stanzas xv. Anon. November, 1876. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

(To le continued.) 

'RULE BRITANNIA.' A subscriber to the 
Strathearn Herald has favoured me with a copy 
of that paper of June 5 with the query, " Who 
wrote ' Rule Britannia ' ? " As this is a matter of 
public interest, pray permit me to answer through 
your columns. Dr. Arne wrote the music, and 
James Thomson, the well-known poet of ' The 
Seasons,' wrote the words. The music was first 
printed at the end of the masque of ' The Judg- 
ment of Paris,' which appeared before 'Alfred,' 
Arne having composed the music to both. 

The object of the writer in the Strathearn 
Herald seems to be to claim a share of the credit 
for having written the words of ' Rule Britannia ' 
for David Mallet ; but he is not well informed as 
to the date of Thomson's death, after which 
Mallet put in a pretentious claim, against all 
evidence. Dr. Johnson was the contemporary of 
both Thomson and Mallet, and wrote the lives of 
the two in his ' Lives of the Poets,' 1779-80, from 
which I extract the following : 

" James Thomson, the son of a minister well esteemed 
for his piety and diligence, was born September 7, 1700, 
at Ednam, in the shire of Roxburgh, of which his father 
was pastor." 

Thomson received a pension of 100Z. a year from 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, and was soon after 
employed in conjunction with Mallet to write the 
masque of ' Alfred,' which was acted before the 
Prince at Cliefden House, Maidenhead, August 1, 
1740. A fever put an end to Thomson's life, 

August 27, 1748, and he was buried in the church 
of Richmond, Surrey, without an inscription ; but 
a monument has been erected to his memory in 
Westminster Abbey. 

Dr. Johnson quotes a letter which he had ob- 
tained from Boswell to prove the amiability of 
Thomson's character. He gives a very different 
account of David Mallet : 

" He was by origin one of the Macgregors, a clan that 
became about sixty years ago, under the conduct of 
Robin Roy, so formidable and so infamous for violence 
and robbery, that the name was annulled by a legal 
abolition; and when they were all to denominate them- 
selves anew, the father, I suppose, of this author called 

himself Malloch His first production was ' William 

and Margaret '; of which, though it contains nothing 
very striking or difficult, he has been envied the reputa- 
tion ; and plagiarism has been boldly charged, but never 

Dr. Johnson adds in a note : 

" Mallet's ' William and Margaret ' was printed in 
Aaron Hill's Plain Dealer, No. 36, July 24, 1724. In its 
original state it was very different from what it ia in the 
last edition of his works." 

'William and Margaret' was Mallet's first 
forgery, and it imposed upon Bishop Percy, who 
printed one of the forged copies in his 'Reliquesof 
Ancient Poetry,' vol. iii. p. 310, 1765. It is re- 
markable how long a time the theft should have 
remained undetected, for it was printed correctly 
in Ambrose Phillips's ' Collection of Old Ballads,' 
1725, vol. iii. p. 218, and in 'The Hive : a Collec- 
tion of Songs,' vol. i., 1726, third edition, p. 159. 
Neither of the above gives the true old tune, which 
is now only to be found in my edition of the'Rox- 
burghe Ballads,' vol. iii. p. 669, or in the British 
Museum Library by giving the reference, 1876, 
f. i. p. 107, Lond., fol., n.d. That edition is only 
one of Queen Anne's reign, but the ballad is 
quoted by Old Merrythought in Fletcher's 'Knight 
of the Burning Pestle'; therefore, there are still 
earlier copies. Our Scotch friends may view very 
lightly the forging of an old English ballad ; but when 
it leads up to robbing a famous Scotsman of his 
deserved merit, no one will wonder that, as said 
by Dr. Johnson of Mallet, " What other proofs he 
gave of disrespect to his native country I know not ; 
but it was remarked of him, that he was the only 
Scot whom Scotchmen did not commend." 

" Not long after this," says Chalmers, " Mallet 
was employed by Lord Bolingbroke in an office 
[to attack Pope] which he executed with all the 
malignity that his employer could wish." That is the 
man. Chalmers's ' Biographical Dictionary, 'p. 195. 


Since the publication in 1885 of the tentative 
" Bibliography of the ' Vicar of Wakefield,' " pre- 
fixed to Mr. Elliot Stock's facsimile reprint of the 
editio princeps, my attention has been called to the 
following additional issues. I record them in the 

7* 8. IL JULY 3, '86.] 


hope that they may be of interest to some readers 
of ' N. & Q., and perhaps elicit further contribu- 
tions to the literature of the subject : 

1. The Vicar of Wakefield : a Tale. Supposed to be 
written by Himself. " Sperate miseri, cavete faelices." 
" Let the wretched hope and the happy be cautious." 
In 2 vols. London : Printed in the Year M.DCC.LXVI. 

2. The Vicar of Wakefield : a Tale. Supposed to be 
written by Himself. " Sperate miseri, cavete faelices." 
In 2 vols. Dublin : Printed for W. and W. Smith, &c. 
1766. 12mo. 

These (1 and 2) are unauthorized reprints of the 
first edition, published for the proprietors by 
Francis Newbery, March 27, 1766. This is ap- 
parent from the fact that they follow that edition 
in its solitary use, in chap, xi., of Mr. Burchell's 
famous "fudge," which in the second and all 
subsequent issues is repeated several times. 

3. The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. By Oliver Gold- 
smith, M.D. " Sperate miseri ; cavete felices." (" Hope, 
ye miserable; beware, ye happy.") 2 vols. in 1. New 
York : Printed and sold by James Dram, No. 114, Water 
Street. 1807. 12mo., pp. 206, with four full-page wood- 
cuts by Alexander Anderson. 

4. The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. By Oliver Gold- 
smith, M.D. "Sperate miseri. cavete felices." Phila- 
delphia : Printed and published by William Duane, 
No. 98, Market Street, 1809. 12mo., pp. 240, with a 
copperplate frontispiece by Fairman and four woodcuts 
by Alexander Anderson. 

5. The Vicar of Wakefield. A TaU. " Sperate 
miseri ; cavete felices." Published by Johnson and 
Warner, and for sale at their bookstores in Phila- 
delphia, Richmond, Va., and Lexington, Een. Brown 
and Merritt, Printers. 1810. 24mo., pp. 136, copper- 
plate frontispiece by C. Fairman and four woodcuts by 
Alexander Anderson. 

I derive Nos. 3, 4, and 5 from an interesting ' Brief 
Catalogue of Books illustrated with Engravings by 
Dr. Alexander Anderson, with a Biographical 
Sketch of the Artist,' New York, 1885. Anderson, 
born at New York in 1775, died at Jersey City in 
1870, was a follower of Thomas Bewick, and the 
first engraver on wood in America. 

6. The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. By Dr. Gold- 
smith. "Sperate miseri, cavete felices.'' London: 
Printed and Published by Lewis, St. John's Square, 
and sold by all Booksellers, 1818. 276 pp., with memoirs 
of Oliver Goldsmith, and steel frontispiece drawn by 
Craig, engraved by Lacey "The Vicar discovers his 
daughter Olivia." 

From information supplied by a correspondent. 

7. The Vicar of Wakefield. 1824. 24mo., with 
frontispiece and vignette. 

From a bookseller's catalogue. 

8. Le Vicaire de Wakefield. Traduction nouvelle et 
complete par B.-H. Gausseron. Paris : A. Quantin, 
Imprimeur-Editeur, 7, Rue Saint-Benoit [1885]. Title, 
pp. x (comprising prefatory memoir by the Translator 
and bastard title), 297, and coloured illustrations by 
V. A. Poirson. 

In his memoir M. Gausseron speaks of a forth- 
coming ttude of the ' Vicar ' by M. Emile Chasles, 
which is to be characterized by " vues nouvelles et 

9. The Vicar of Wakefield. By Oliver Goldsmith. 
With Prefatory Memoir by George Saintsbury, and 114 
coloured illustrations. London : John G. Nimmo. 1885. 

An English edition to accompany the illustrations 
of No. 8. 

10. The Vicar of Wakefield. By Oliver Goldsmith. 
London : George Routledge & Sons, &c. 1886. Pp. x, 

One of Routledge's " Pocket Library." 

11. The Vicar of Wakefield. By Oliver Goldsmith. 
London: Ward, Lock & Co., fee. [1886.] Title, 
Introduction (by G. T. Bettany, M.A.), 2 pp., text, 
pp. 7 to 134. 

One of Ward & Lock's "Popular Library of 
Literary Treasures." AUSTIN DOBSON. 

ST. MORITZ. A very curious statement is 
ascribed to Paracelsus in most of the books about 
that very popular spot St. Moritz, and it is repeated 
in the latest guide-book to that place, although I 
pointed out its inaccuracy some twelve years ago. 
Paracelsus is made to say that " the spring runs 
most acid in the month of August," whereas what 
he really said was that "the narrower the channel, 
the more acid was the water." It is true that in 
the Geneva edition of his collected works in 1658 
the words are, " cujus scaturigo mense Augusto 
acetosissima profluit," but in the second revised 
edition of his book, ( De Morbis Tartareis,' Basle, 
1570, the passage runs, "ea aqua, quo angustiore 
alveo clauditur, eo magis acetosa est." Some odd 
mistake seems to have been made between the 
words " angustiore " and " Augusto." 


Curzon Street. 

WASTED INGENUITT. Addison, in the fifty- 
eighth Spectator, speaks of "that famous picture of 
King Charles the First, which has the whole Book 
of Psalms written in the lines of the face and the 
hair of the head," and he goes on to say that 
when "he was last at Oxford he perused one 
of the whiskers, and was reading the other," 
&o. As Addison is not only one of our most 
delightful but one of our slyest humourists, it 
is not always easy to tell when he is stating a 
positive fact or when he is poking a quiet bit of 
fun at us. In this respect he somewhat resembles 
Charles Lamb. Was there ever such a portrait as 
the above mentioned, and does it still exist? 
There is no particular reason why one should 
doubt it when one reads on good authority of the 
various useless ingenuities over which people have 
wasted their time. For instance, Robert Ander- 
son, the author of the ' Cumberland Ballads,' him- 
self tells us in the short autobiography prefixed 
to the Wigton edition of his works, how he 
" wrote the Lord's Prayer, Creed, Ten Command- 
ments, a short Psalm, and his name, on a piece 
of paper the size of a sixpence, which he presented 
to his friend, Mr. Palmer, of Drury Lane Theatre." 



ir. JULY 3, 

I do not in the least doubt Anderson's word ; but 
I confess I am at a loss to understand how 
such a thing could be done with the point of 
the finest needle that was ever manufactured. 
It is also difficult to understand how any 
reasonable mortal who was not shut up in the 
Bastille could employ his time in accomplishing 
such a sorry piece of ingenuity, which, when 
accomplished, could be of no sort of use or orna- 
ment to any man, woman, or child ! It reminds 
one of dearly beloved Monsieur Jourdain's taking 
infinite pains to learn exactly how he put his 
tongue, teeth, and lips when he pronounced the 
different letters of the alphabet, a scene which is, 
I imagine, the best satire on useless knowledge 
that was ever written. 

The Oxford picture mentioned by Addison and 
Anderson's lilliputian liturgy naturally bring to 
one's remembrance the old saying of the ' Iliad ' in 
a nutshell. Pickering's diamond edition of Homer 
(1831) contains both the ' Iliad ' and the ' Odyssey,' 
and this would, I should say, certainly go into a 
large cocoa-nut shell. The book is beautifully, and, 
so far as I am able to judge, very correctly printed, 
but it is almost useless for all practical purposes. 
It is only useful for occasional reference, as one 
would require a magnifying-glass to read it for 
fifteen minutes consecutively. 

Haydn, in his ' Dictionary of Dates ' (ed. 1866), 
gravely tells how among the thousands of volumes 
burnt at Constantinople, A.D. 477, were the works 
of Homer written in golden letters on the gut of a 
dragon 120 ft. long. Was this the Dragon of 
Wantley, or the dragon that Sir Otto in Hood's 
poem vanquished ? It is true that Haydn quali- 
fies this remarkable statement by the words, " are 
said to have been." There is " much virtue " in 
on dit, as well as in Touchstone's " if." 


Ropley, Hants. 

The notes on the subject of sedan chairs were on 
their disuse (6 th S. xii. 308, 332, 498 ; 7 th S. i. 37). 
When I was at Bath, in the past month of May, 
I was told, on good authority, that there was an 
idea of reviving the use of sedan chairs in that 
city. By level entrances, specially arranged for 
that purpose, the Bath chairs can be drawn inside 
the Assembly Rooms and Pump Rooms, and the 
occupants of the Bath chairs can thus get out of 
them under cover. But they may have had to 
get into them during a pelting storm or fall of 
snow, as it is, in most cases, impracticable to get 
the Bath chairs up the flights of steps and into 
the entrance halls of the private houses. But this 
can be done with sedan chairs ; and the lady, in 
full dress for her ball at the Assembly Rooms or 
elsewhere, can in her own hall step into the sedan 
chair, and not emerge therefrom until she has been 

carried under cover to her destination. (See the 
note by A. J. M., 6 th S. xii. 498.) There is a 
possibility, therefore, of the revival in Bath of 
the sedan chairs described in the thirty-fifth chapter 
of ' Pickwick'; though the readers of that book will 
remember (in its twenty-fourth chapter) the in- 
cident connected with the sedan chair at Ipswich. 


that modern scientific students deny the possibility 
of the human hair suddenly becoming white 
through intense sorrow or a sudden shock. That 
this was formerly believed is certain, and many 
not otherwise ill-informed persons still cling to 
the opinion. In a letter from D. Evans to Thomas 
Hearne, the Oxford antiquary, dated November 10, 

1709, the following passage occurs : "D. Jones 

shew'd me his head, & his coal black hair was 
turned milk white of a night, he said, for ye 
greatness of his troubles " (' Letters to Thomas 
Hearne,' ed. Ouvry, p. 31). ANON. 

TRADES AND STREETS. Prof. Maine writes, in 
his ' Village Communities,' second edition, 1872, 
p. 126: 

" There are several English parishes in which certain 
pieces of land in the common field have from time 
immemorial been known by the name of a particular 
trade ; and there is often a popular belief that nobody, not 
following the trade, can legally be the owner of the lot 
associated with it. And it is possible that we here have 
a key to the plentiful ness and persistence of certain 
names of trades as surnames among us." 

The following particulars supply an illustration 
not only of the custom, but also of its survival 
down to quite recent times. In the little East 
Yorkshire town of Hedon there is a street now 
called Souttergate, and a pretty numerous family 
bearing the name of Soutter. The street and its 
name are ancient, for the " via sutorum " is men- 
tioned 1389-90, although Poulson clumsily trans- 
lates it " Cobler-street " (' Holderness,' ii. 116, 

I cannot, unfortunately, connect the family of 
Soutters, in the past or the present, with Soutter- 
gate, but doubtless evidence of the connexion 
could be found. John Soutter there has been, but 
I do not known that he was, like Tarn O'Shanter's 
friend, " Souter Johnny." Nevertheless, original 
evidences which I have seen show that " a messuage 
or tenement and burgage-house in Soutergate " was 
occupied from 1670 to 1717 by James Hunter, 
"cord winder or shooemaker." After a time there 
was formed in part of the same premises a separate 
shop, which in 1 707 was held by Jeremiah Berry, 
cordwainer, and by him was transferred in 1717 
to William Ward, cordwainer. In 1762 the whole 
property passed to John Beedall, of Hornsea, 
cordwainer, was occupied in 1786 by Benjamin 
Bedell, cordwainer, and in 1792 became the posses- 
sion of John Hansley, of Hedon, cord vrainer. Here 

7* S. II. JULY 3, '86.] 


we have a shoemaker's shop in Shoemaker's Street 
owned or occupied by six shoemakers from 1670 
to 1792. The property was held of the Mayor 
and Burgesses of Hedon. 

Cordwain, for Cordovan, occurs, e. g., in Edmund 
Spenser's 'State of Ireland' (ed. Dubl, 1763, 
p. 108), " his riding Shoes of costly Cordwain." 

W. C. B. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

COUNTY OF LINCOLN. I am not aware whether 
the attention of your readers has been called to 
these relics of the past, and therefore will briefly 
call attention to them, in the hope some one learned 
in such matters may give a probable solution of the 
mystery which attaches to them. The roadway 
was discovered about two years ago, and the boat 
about two months since. 

The road was made of oaken planks fastened 
side by side, running across the road transversely. 
Below the planks were small trees and branches 
running in the contrary direction, and the whole 
fastened to the ground by stakes, which seem to 
have been morticed, rather than bored, into the 
wood. Above the road are the following strata : 
three feet of dark grey alluvial clay, with remains 
of vegetation in it ; then two feet of brown alluvial 
clay, und then one foot of peat, in which are found 
the remains of a forest with trees of vast size, of 
oak, yew, &c., which must have been some cen- 
turies in growing ; and all record of this upper 
forest is entirely lost. Above this is the present 

The boat was found only a few feet below the 
present surface, but was covered with clay and 
alluvium which came from somewhere. It is 
formed out of one piece of oak, is forty feet long 
and four feet four inches across, and altogether of 
a most curious and primitive build. To attribute 
a date to either road or boat is hazardous, and we 
can only venture upon it by analogy. I will, 
therefore, remind your readers of two other boats 
or canoes found in a somewhat similar position, 
and bearing a striking resemblance to the Brigg 

In 1726 a canoe, thirty -six feet long and four 
and a half feet wide, and all of one piece of oak, 
was found near Edinburgh under thirteen or four- 
teen feet strata of loam, clay, shells, moss, sand, 
and gravel. 

At Callao, in Peru, in the seventeenth century, 
some miners in running an adit into a hill dis- 
covered " a ship which had on top of it the great 

mass of the hill." Geologists are satisfied that 
these two boats must have been in situ before the 
formation of the strata heaped upon them ; and if 
so, that carries us back to preglacial and ante- 
diluvian times, and before the destruction of the 
world by fire and flood, after which followed the 
drift which covers so much of the surface of the 
present habitable globe. That man existed in a 
highly civilized state before that great catastrophe 
which changed the surface of the earth, recent 
discoveries have sufficiently demonstrated ; and if 
the works of man, such as implements both for 
war and domestic use, pottery, carvings, coins 
(engraved by a process unknown to either ancient 
or modern numismatists), and boats have been 
found in other parts of the world below the drift 
which followed the great cataclysm (thereby prov- 
ing they existed before it), is it impossible that 
the boat and road recently discovered in Lincoln- 
shire may be coeval with them ? I assert nothing. 
I invite inquiry, and await a reasonable solution 
of the mystery. C. T. J. MOORE, F.S.A. 

Framptou Hall, near Boston. 

In the Anglo-Saxon version of St. Matthew, the 
words of which the following is a modern para- 
phrase occur between vv. 28 and 29 of chap. xx. : 

" Ye desire to speed in a small thing, and to be de- 
creased in a great thing. Verily, when ye are bidden 
to a feast, it not down in the highest seat, lest a more 
honourable man come after thee, and the master of the 
house bid thee arise and make room for the other, and 
thou be put to shame. If thou sittest at a feast in the 
lowest seat, and another guest come after thee, and he 
that bade thee say unto thee, Friend, sit higher ; then 
shall more honour be given unto thee, than unto him 
that is made to sit lower." 

In what Latin version of St. Matthew are such 
words to be found in this place ? 


BRERETON. Can any reader aid the under- 
signed in tracing the ancestry of Thomas Brereton, 
Gent., who lived in Dublin in 1724? He leased 
there to Edmond Maguire, Gent, a dwelling in 
Abbey Street, formerly occupied by Thomas 
Grace, Esq. Capt. Thomas Brereton, his son, 
commanded the armed ship Betty, of Liverpool, 
and came to America as early as 1754. He used 
a seal, still in possession of the family, bearing the 
following described arms of Brereton : Argent, 
two bars sable ; crest, out of a ducal coronet a 
bear's head muzzled. Do any of the family 
pedigrees make mention of the above described 
Thomas Brereton of Dublin ? 


Yonkers, New York, U.S. 

' FABER FORTUNE.' In what edition of Bacon's 
works can I find the ' Faber Fortunae,' which 
Pepys read with such pleasure 1 " My dear Faber 
Fortunae of my Lord Bacon." It can hardly be 



[7"> S. II. JULT 8, '86. 

the essay,' Of Fortune,' though Bacon does there 
quote the saying " Faber quisque Fortunes suae." 
It evidently took Pepys some time to read it 
through. It was in Latin. Pepys set his brother 
John to translate it, and was not satisfied with the 
result. T. G. 

of your readers furnish a complete list of the 
members of the royal family mentioned by name 
in various editions of the Prayer Book ? I find the 
following have been named in the present reign : 

1. Adelaide, the Queen Dowager ; the Prince 
Albert ; the Prince of Wales ; and all the Eoyal 

2. The Prince Albert ; Albert, Prince of Wales, 
&c. (1853). 

3. The Prince Consort ; Albert, Prince of Wales, 
&c. (1861). 

4. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, &c. 

5. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales ; the 
Princess of Wales, &c. 

Was there any reason for twice altering the 
description of the Prince of Wales 1 


OLIVER=MOON (found inBulwer's 'Rookwood' 
and 'Paul Clifford'). Quaere? 

Boulogne-sur- Mer. 

MATTHEW BUCKINGER. Can any one give me 
any information respecting him ? I have a head 
of King George I., about 5 in. by 6 in., the wig, 
dress, &c., containing very fine writing, said to be 
done by Buckinger, who had neither hands nor 
feet; but I cannot make out any name or date 
attached to it. J. H. DANVERS. 



" The custom of dedicating books is ancient ; and they 
have been usually dedicated either to great persons, for 
protection or reward; or to acquaintances, out of friend- 
ship and affection ; or to children, out of mutual love, 
and for their instruction." First book of Mason's 

Travels,' republished in 'A Collection of Voyages and 
Travels,' 1745. 

How soon after the introduction of printing was 
the " custom " adopted ? WM. FREELOVE. 

Bury St. Edmunds. 

" STANDARD " TAVERN. Whereabouts was this 
tavern in Leicester Fields? It was kept at the 
close of last century by Sir Benjamin Tibbs, origin- 
ally a shoeblack at the Golden Cross, Charing 
Cross. He became a sheriff of the City of London 

m u 1793 - C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

REVELS. Thomas Odell ia called by Oldys 
deputy inspector and licenser of plays." In 

' Biog. Dram.' he is called " deputy master of the 
revels." The latter is a phrase that has dropped 
out of use with court revels, but I suppose it 
means the same office, really. C. A. WARD. 

BLANKETEER. What does this word mean in 
the following references? Who were the Blanketeers 
of 1817 ? 

" Brandreth's insurrection in 1817, the projected ex- 
pedition of the Blanketeers a little later, and the Bristol 
riots, were all parts of a widely concerted scheme." 
Southey, in ' Life and Corresp.,' 1833, vi. 203. 

" This epistle awaited her at Beamish's inn on return- 
ing from her blanketeering adventure." ' The Husband 
Hunter, 1 1830, iii. 230. 

" The King having formerly declared that he would 
not treat with any of those five notorious members, one 
of whom they therefore nam d that his Majestie blan- 
cetering atthim, might refuse thereupon." ' Trelawney 
Papers,' 1644, Camd. Soc., 8. 



SIR RICHARD FRY. So far back as 2 nd S. vii. 129 
MR. E. HORTON made some inquiries concerning 
Sir Richard Fry. Would any one favour me with 
MR. HORTON'S address, either then or now ? as I 
am making similar researches to his, and wish to 
communicate with him or his successors. 

E. A. FRY. 

Yarty, King's Norton, near Birmingham. 

WQRDSWORTH'S BIBLE. Will you kindly allow 
me to ask any of your readers who have complete 
editions of Wordsworth's Bible to dispose of to 
communicate with me, stating the price they want 
for the books ? Post-cards permitted. 

28, Adelaide Crescent, Brighton. 

CORINTH'S PEDAGOGUE. In stanza xiv. of his 
' Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte ' Lord Byron bids 
the fallen emperor go to his island, gaze on sea 
and land, both now free, and write on the sand, 
That Corinth's pedagogue hath now 
Transferr'd his by-word to thy brow. 

Who is the Corinthian pedagogue, and what the 
"by- word" meant? J. 

[Corinth's pedagogue is Dionysius the younger, who 
during his second banishment from Syracuse is said to 
have kept a school at Corinth. Byron means that in- 
stead of the name of Dionysius that of Napoleon must 
henceforward be the stock " by-word " among moralists 
for a fallen tyrant. ] 

FORBES OF CULLODEN. Duncan Forbes, Lord 
President, had seven sisters. Jean married Sir H. 
Innes ; Margaret, George Munro of Newmore ; 
Grizelda, Ross of Kindence. Will any reader of 
' N. & Q.' kindly give me the names of the others ? 

F. N. R. 

South Italy. 

OLD PLAYGOER." Who is" CensorDramaticus," the 

7 tb S. II. JCLT 8, '86.] 



author of ' A Complete History of the Drama from 
the Earliest Periods to the Present Time,' 8vo. 
London, T. Wilkins, 1793 ; and who is "An Old 
Playgoer," the author of ' Desultory Thoughts on 
the National Drama Past and Present,' second edi 
tion, 8vo., London, Onwhyn, 1, Catherine Street 
Strand, 1850, dedicated by permission to Mac 
ready? H. T. 

TITLE OF EGMONT. On the list of vice-presidents, 
of the Tenth Annual Dairy Show, London, October, 
1885, is found the name of the Earl of Egmont, 
Cowdray Park, Sussex. Is the bearer of the title 
a real descendant of the Dutch family now extinct 
in Holland ? How did he obtain the title ? 



[It is not probable that the title of Egmont, concern- 
which DR. LAURILLARD inquires, has any connexion 
with that borne by the famous Count of Egmont. The 
family name of the English house is Perceval. As our 
correspondent lives abroad, we insert the query.] 

BLADE. I thank the many correspondents 
who have sent me information as to the local 
use of bird and fowl. I should now like infor- 
mation from all parts as to the use of blade = 
leaf. The history of this is curious. In German 
blatt is the general word for leaf, laub is the foliage 
of trees and bushes collectively ; in 0. Norse bla% 
was the leaf of any herbaceous plant, lauf that of 
a tree ; in 0. E. leaf is the general word for both 
leaf and foliage, bleed occurring only once in 
poetry, said of " the broad blades " of the baleful 
plant which sprang from the blood of Abel. In 
M.E. there is no trace of blade=le&f, while the 
sense of oar-blade (already in O.E.), sword-blade, 
knife-blade is common. It looks as if our modern 
"blade" of grass and "corn" were a later re- 
transfer of the oar-blade or sword-blade back 
to vegetation; although in regard to corn one 
cannot avoid suspecting an influence of the 
M.L. bladum, Fr. blet, bled, lie, corn, wheat ; 
especially since blade is in various passages used 
to translate these words. But in some dialects, 
e. g., that of Southern Scotland, blade is now ordi- 
narily applied to all broad flat leaves, especially the 
outer leaves of cabbages, lettuce, turnips, &c., the 
leaves of rhubarb, tobacco, docks, and the like ; 
e. g., to put strawberries in a cabbage blade. It is 
of importance to know whether this is old enough 
to be directly connected with the brad bleed of 
O.E., or with the O.N. bla%, Dan. blad, or if it is 
merely modern, like the " blade " of grass. Will friends 
kindly send me a post-card, saying in what senses 
blade is used of plants in their various districts 1 
Information from the north of England is particu- 
larly desired. It is a disappointing feature of 
many of the local glossaries of the Dialect Society 
that they give hardly any help on these local 
usages of words, so important for the history of 

the language. One turns to them in vain to find 
how blade is locally used. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

AUCTION MART. Cunningham says it was 
opened 1810. Tegg, in ' Dictionary of Chrono- 
logy,' says that it was founded in 1813. Who is 
right? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH. When the Pope in 
1541 bestowed this title upon James V. of Scot- 
land did he deprive Henry VIII. of it ; and, if so, 
from which monarch does Queen Victoria inherit 
that now unmeaning designation? Also, what 
proofs are there, beyond the statements given by 
Sanders, and by Burnet, vol. i. p. 41, that Henry 
committed the horrible crime of marrying Anne 
Boleyn while knowing that she was his own 
daughter ? See Tindal's ' Rapin,' i. p. 799. 


"As DEAF AS THE ADDER." This has become 
a proverb. I presume it took its rise from 
Psalm Iviii. 4 ; but it is at least open to question 
whether the Psalmist meant to brand the whole 
race as insensible to the voice or pipe of the snake- 
charmer, or only to take an exceptional adder a 
failure as the type of those who " go astray as 
soon as they are born, speaking lies," and reject- 
ing good counsel. Hood has the saying, 

As deaf as the adder, that deafest of snakes ; 
and De Quincey says (if my memory does not 
play me false) that Bentley was as deaf to the 
melody of Milton's verse as an adder to the music 
of Mozart. Is it a fact that the adder is insensible 
;o music more than other snakes ? C. M. I. 
Athenaeum Club. 

old newspaper cutting that I have it is said they 
were instituted first in London 1556, crying, 
*' Take care of your fire and candle, be charitable 
o the poor, and pray for the dead." In Tegg's 
Diet, of Chronology,' s.v. "Bellman," 1530 is 
;iven as the date with the same words. What 
are they both quoting from ? C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

n a letter dated Chichester, January 22, 1826, 
writes : " O'Keefe resides in a very small house 
n the suburbs of the city, which he and his 
daughter have occupied for eleven years ; they are 
much respected and esteemed." I wish to find 
ut this, nearly the last retreat of the dramatist. 

W. H. 

Who is the author of the following fragment, seem- 
ngly a version of the JEschylean "many-twinkling 
mile of ocean " 1 

And ye who o'er the interminable ocean 
Wreath your crisped smiles. NOMAD. 


[7' h S. II. JULY 3, '86. 

(7 th S. i. 361, 422.) 

Whenever CANON TAYLOR writes on "names 
'and places " his views are certain to deserve atten- 
tion, but I cannot think that in this case they are 
destined to command acceptance. The Cassiterides, 
of which Herodotus tells us he knows nothing, are 
almost certainly neither the British nor the Scilly 
islands, but, as Mr. Elton has shown (' Origins of 
English History,' p. 18J, "the islands situated in the 
neighbourhood of Vigo Bay," off the Spanish coast. 
St. Michael's Mount, again, cannot have been the 
point from which British tin was exported to the 
Continent, for two reasons : one, that even at 
the close of the bronze period in our island 
" the Mount " seems to have been situated some 
considerable distance inland (see Pearson's ' His- 
torical Maps,' p. xiii, particularly note 10) ; and 
the other, that no merchant would risk a voyage 
from the Cornish coast when safer and easier routes 

Rhine, was inhabited by the same people (the 
Belgians) ; but it is in direct contradiction to that 
of Csar, who makes the Seine the western 
boundary of the Belgians, and says that their 
language was different from that of the Celts; 
while Strabo says these languages were nearly the 
ame. Now if Strabo, as seems likely, mistook 
he north-western Gauls for Belgians, contrary to 
he fact, it is no wonder that he should fancy the 
Belgian language differed but slightly from the 
Celtic, erroneously taking the north-western lan- 
guage to be Belgian when it was not. We must 
'herefore conclude it was Gaelic, for Caesar is more 
trustworthy than Strabo, and it is likely that the 
anguage of all Gallia Lugdunensis, including what 
was afterwards called Bretagne, was originally 
Gaelic, which as to its vocabulary is utterly dif- 
ferent from Welsh, though a comparatively few 
words have found their way from one to the other. 
If Gaelic were the language of all Gallia Lug- 
dunensis, its remains would probably be found in 
the modern French. With very imperfect know- 

were open. If, however, CANON TAYLOR prefers a 
Cornish locality as the likeliest to have given its 
name to the whole island, it is strange that he 
should have overlooked the claims of Oarn&rea (or 
G&\rn-Bre, or whatever may be the correct spell- 
ing), where the find of a hoard of British coins a 
phenomenon unique in that part of the country 
might seem to lend some small countenance to his 

As to the name Albinu being " doubtless de 
rived from the white cliffs of Dover," Prof. Rhys 
in the work CANON TAYLOR refers to, expressly 
says, " Its meaning is utterly unknown, in spite o 
guesses both new and old : possibly the word i 
not Celtic." 

I am not quite sure that I understand CANON 
TAYLOR'S proposition : " When the island had 
once been discovered, the ports of Cornwall were 
more frequented than those of Kent." On the 
other hand, when he represents me as contending 
that "the name of the whole island would be 
derived from the name of that part which lies 
nearest to the Continent, 1 ' be has evidently failed 
to understand my proposition, which is that bret- = 
straits, and British = situated on the straits. 
Britannia, therefore, assuming that the tan = terri- 
tory, means, according to my notions, " the terri- 
tory on the straits" a territory of which Caithness 
and Cornwall are as much parts as Kent or Sussex. 

BROTHER FABIAN seems to agree with Nie- 
buhr that the original language of Brittany may 
have been the same as the British or Welsh, 
and he also agrees with Pliny that there were 
Britanni in North-East Gaul, or Belgium. This 
would agree with the statement of Strabo that the 

ledge of that language or of Irish, and very little 
I have found the following coinci- 

exann nation, 


Epouser, to marry... 
Cut, the rump or breech ... 

Eau, water 

Parler, to speak 

Alter, to go 

Allodial, the most ancient 

tenure of land ... 
Garqon, a boy 
Moulton (now mouton'), a 

sheep or wether 

Chaque, every 


Poiadh, marriage. 
Cut, the back. 
A bh (pronounced OM), water. 
Bearla, language. 
Aill, go tuou, or come. 

A Hod, ancient. 
Oarsun, a little boy. 

Molt, a wether. 
Cach, every. 

I believe this question has never been investigated. 

A. Z. 

It will be useful to call attention to the facts 
which have been published by myself. In a paper 
which was read by me in 1871 before the Society 
of Antiquaries, entitled ' The Name Britannia and 
its Relationship to Prehistoric Populations,' it was 
shown that the name Britannia was formed on the 
same principles as other ancient geographical names. 
One conclusion was, however, erroneous, that this 
class of name was identical with river names in- 
stead of being founded on the same principles. 

In 1883 the same subject was discussed by me 
before the Royal Historical Society in a paper 
called ' The Iberian and Belgian Influence and 
Epochs in Britain.' Much will there be found on 
Britannia and Hibernia in relation and com- 
parison with ancient geographical names. Those 
who wish ic will find there the collection of facts. 
Both forms enter largely into island names, al- 
though they are not confined to them. B is not 
a part of the root of Britannia, nor is nia. The 
root form is rd (=rt, tr, It), and for Hibernia br 

whole of Northern Gaul, from the Loire to the ( =pr, pi, phi). The various island names of the 

7* S. II. JCLY 3, T36.] 




Pharus (Adriatic). 

two forms are found in paira (p. 7). Couveuieu 
examples are : 







SUZERAIN (7 th S. i. 101, 146, 170, 232, 270, 349, 
389, 452). I plead "not guilty" to the charge ol 
misrepresenting PROF. SKEAT. Here are his words 
" Suzerain, a feudal lord (F., L.). Not in John- 
son, hardly an E. word. F. suzerain, ' sovereign, 
yet subaltern, superior, but not supreme,' Cot. A 
coined word ; made from F. sits, Lat. susum or 
sursum, above, in the same way as sovereign is 
made from Lat. suptr ; it corresponds with a Low 
Lat. type suseranus*, for surseranus*." My point 
is that the word has nothing to do with the F. SMS 
or the Lat. susum, and I fail to see any misrepre- 
sentation in the use of the word " derived " instead 
of " coined " or " made " from. If PROF. SKKAT'S 
contention is that the word is " coined " or " made 
from," but not " derived," from the F. sus, Lat. 
tusum, he indirectly adopts my proposition that 
tuzerain cannot be extracted from susum by any 
known philological rules. I am not aware, how- 
ever, of any recognized technical limitation of the 
word " derived " which precludes my using it in 
the sense I did. 

The real difference between us is simple. PROF. 
SKEAT affirms that the word is coined or made 
from susum, in the same way as sovereign is made 
from the Lat. super. This is demonstrably in- 
correct. Super, by the addition of an adjectival 
termination, becomes superanus, exactly = F. sou- 
rerain. But the same process in the other case 
only gives an impossible Lat. susumanus, with 
a corresponding barely possible F. susain, the 
latter represented by the soziin or souzoein to which 
MR. TKW again calls attention, the reference having 
been already once given by DR. CHANCE. bviously, 
therefore, whether suzerain is made from susum or 
not, it is not made " in the same way " as sovereign 
from super. There is no evolving the er except on 
DR. CHANCE'S hypothesis that the case is what a 
naturalist would call a case of " simulation." 

As to premerain, both PROF. SKEAT and DR. 
CHANCE have confused the adj. premierain with 
the adjectival subst. primayrain, which has quite 
a different origin. There are sundry mediaeval 
officials, apparently both clerical and lay, whose 
title in Low Latin appears as prior-major. This 
compound, like the simple Lat. major, would have 
two corresponding F. representatives, one derived 
from the accusative prior(em)-major(em), or prieur- 
majeur, and the other from the nominative pri(or)- 
major, or prirmayre. The last, with an adjectival 

termination, would be reconverted into Low Lat. as 
primayranus, the very word in Ducange ; and 
this derivation not only gives the word its exact 
meaning, but accounts for its extraordinary form, 
in both which respects the derivation from pre- 
mierain signally fails. I may be as ignorant of 
phonetic laws as PROF. SKEAT supposes, but if 
either of us has fallen into a trap, I do not think 

As to the main question, PROF. SKEAT cannot 
point to any occurrence of his suseranus any more 
than I can to my subsupranus, so that in this 
respect neither can claim any advantage. Should 
one or the other turn up, either the pros or the 
cons would be materially strengthened. Mean- 
while it is gratifying to learn, as I do on excellent 
authority, that Mr. Freeman has seen reason to 
abjure the word suzerain, and that it is destined 
to disappear from future editions of ' The Norman 

HAM (7 th S. i. 427). MR. TURNER inquires for 
the derivation of the word ham, used in North 
Devon and West Somerset for " patches of pasture 
by the rivers." I believe that the fundamental 
meaning of the word is simply a patch or separate 
portion of something, as seen in the Old Dutch 
hamme, ham, a hunch or piece of something eat- 
able ; in Flanders, a pasture, meadow (Kilian); 
modern Dutch boterham, a piece of bread and butter. 
In East Friesland ham is the tract of fen belonging 
to a village ; Old Dutch, hamme van wilghen, an 
osier bed.... In Dorset, ham, an enclosed mead 

Whether this is a distinct word from the Norfolk 
ham, a home, Gothic haims, a village, is not so 
clear. We see an analogous train of thought in 
German fleck, a rag, piece of stuff, a patch, a tract 
of country, portion of land, spot ; flecken, a village, 
open town. In Switzerland ham, heim, is the piece 
of enclosed ground in which the dwelling stands, 
the house and dwelling-place itself. 


Your correspondent rightly points to the differ- 
ence of the meaning of ham, by a river, and that 
of " a home " to which it is so very commonly re- 
ferred. Often it is, as he says, used for patches of 
pasture by the rivers, but not because they are 
patches of pasture. It is because they are penin- 
sular, either caused by the windings of a river or 
by being the piece of land which is peninsular at 
the confluence of two rivers. He supplies a fresh 
example of the latter. He says, "In West Somer- 
set, at a spot where two small rivers join, a bridge 
is called Couple Ham Bridge." Without denying 
that hum may sometimes have more than one 
other meaning, I believe that in topographical 
names this (of a river peninsula) is by very much 
the most frequent. I have several times already 
urged it, with examples thi Isuch peninsular spots 



[7* S. II. JULY 3, '86. 

now known by ham have been formerly holm. 
Evesham is a case that is well known and undeni- 
able. Durham = Dunelnium is another, and others 
may be cited. Holm seems to have meant either 
an island or a peninsula, the latter distinguishing 
word not having contributed to old names. 



The term ham, in the sense to which MR. 
TURNER refers, is not only in use in North Devon 
and West Somerset. There are pieces of meadow 
adjoining the Thames in the parish of Iffley, near 
Oxford, which are so called, as they have been for 
centuries. In a terrier of the estate of Lincoln 
College, in that parish, of Nov. 13, 1661, by 
Kichard Ffeshir, the miller, there occurs : 

" One little ham, about halfe a yeard of ground, be it 
more or lease, beeing in Tidnum; Two hams in Mr. 
James his greate kidney, being about half-an-acre, be 
it more or lease; Another ham in the Towne meade 
over against those two hams, being about half an acre 
more or lesse ; one ham," &c. 


MR. TURNER'S acute topographical observation 
affords a valuable confirmation of the conclusions 
of philologists. Prof. Leo, in his ' Kectitudines,' 
following Grimm's well-known etymological dis- 
tinction, points out that in the A.-S. charters 
good MSS. distinguish between ham, the equiva- 
lent of the German heim, home, which denotes the 
dwelling-place of the united family, and ham, 
without the accent, used to designate a spot, fre- 
quently a riverside meadow, which is " hemmed 
in " by forest, fence, or stream. The former, which 
is usually preceded by the name of a family or an 
individual, as in the case of .^Eslingabam or Cry- 
mesham,is common to England and Germany; the 
other, rarely linked with a personal name, is almost 
exclusively confined to England and Friesland. 
In addition to the authorities cited by Leo, I would 
refer MR. TURNER to Koolman's ' Ostfriesisches 
Worterbuch,' vol. ii. p. 21, where there is a good 
article on the Frisian usage. 

Mr. Monkhouse, in his scarce little book ' Ety- 
mologies of Bedfordshire,' pp. 8-13, has success- 
fully applied the distinction between hdm and ham 
to the explanation of the names of places along 
the banks of the Ouse, such as Felmersham, Paven- 
ham, and Bromham, which are girdled either by 
the sinuous S-shaped windings of the river or by 
tributary brooks. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

P.S. I observe that PROF. SKEAT (7 th S. i. 
444) denies the existence of this distinction. I 
would ask him how he explains names in -ham 
applied to riverside meadows which have never 
been sites of habitation ; how he would deal with 
Belgian names in -hem which appear in charters of 
the eighth and ninth centuries ; and how he ac- 
counts for the A.-S. names in -horn, and the re- 
duplication of the TO, if the preceding vowel is 

really long. A few instances are celtenhom (' C. 

D.,' 184), 'werahom (' 0. D.,' 224), hunighamme 

andlang stredmes ('C. D.,' 664), and flodhammas 
('C. D.,'224). 

Various fields near the Thames here are called 
hams. I have one between the river and a branch 
called the Little Ham. The terminations ham, 
cot, and ton are used around here for parishes, but 
wick and throp (sic) for smaller groups of old 
houses. A fence of any kind is called a mound. 

Buscot Rectory, Lechlade. 

PARISH REGISTERS (7 th S. i. 447). Two cases 
of missing registers, " one burnt in a fire," the 
other " lost," induce me to say that every arch- 
deacon has, or should have, copies of all parish 
registers. At every visitation it is the duty of the 
incumbent of a parish to present to the registrar 
a copy of all entries made .in the parish registers 
during the year. It is equally the duty of church- 
wardens to see that this copy is presented. Speaking 
for the Archdeaconries of Canterbury and Maidstone, 
I can say that these copies (generally dating from 
about 1560) are well kept and easily accessible. I 
have found them invaluable in the case of doubtful 
readings or the more serious case of lost leaves. 
In the St. Dunstan's (Cant.) registers alone I have 
supplied about a thousand entries from these 
copies. I should add that for about twenty years 
(1640-1660) no copies were presented, at all events 
in this diocese. These copies are often useful in 
another way. They were usually signed by the 
incumbent, and from them one can generally 
obtain the name of the parson in any given year. 
H. D. E. should write to his archdeacon ; then, 
when permission is obtained, copy the missing 
portions and present his copy to the parish. 



SLARE (7 th S. i. 489). The statement that this 
word cannot be found in a dictionary is a little 
odd. A good deal depends upon knowing where to 
look, and what to look for. I found it in the first 
book I opened, and found some light upon it in 
each of the next six books which I consulted. 
Peacock's 'Dictionary of Manley Words' (E. D. S.) 
gives : " Slare, to make a noise by rubbing the 
boot-soles on an uncarpeted floor. Crockery-ware, 
when washed in dirty water, or dried badly so as 
to leave marks thereupon, is said to be stared." It 
is even in Halliwell's ' Dictionary/ the best-known 
and most accessible of all dialect dictionaries. My 
larger 'Etymological Dictionary' gives such an 
account of slur as to throw much light on the 
word. (In the smaller one, I find, to my surprise, 
slur has been omitted, purely by accident.) The 
' Icelandic Dictionary ' gives slora, to trail, con- 
traction of doZra. from slu$, a trail, slot. Bietz's 

S. II. JULY 3, '86.) 



* Provincial Swed. Diet.' gives slora, to be negli- 
gent. Aasen's ' Norweg. Diet.' gives slorc, to sully, 
aloe, short for slode, to trail, and so on. Still closer 
in form is the Icel. slceSur, a gown that trails on 
the ground, which would give slceur by the loss of 
(crossed) d. I have already said that " the key 
to slur is that a th or d has been dropped ; it 
stands for slather or sloder; cf. prov. E. slither, 
to slide ; slodder, slush." Similarly slare is for 
sladder or slather. Halliwell gives, ' Slather, to 
slip or slide (Cheshire) ; sladdery, wet and dirty." 
Also " Slair, to walk slovenly; slairy, mud; slare, 
to smear; slary, bedaubed." Also " iSliddi-.r, to 
slide," with its contracted form "Slir, to slide." 

The 'Manley and Corringham Glossary' (E.D.S.) 
has slare with various shades of meaning : " Slare, 
v., to make a noise by rubbing the boot-soles on 
an uncarpeted floor," exactly fits the case of the 
Epworth ghost. ST. SWITHIN. 

The verb to slare=to smear occurs in Wright's 
'Provincial Dictionary.' There is also the sub- 
stantive. ED. MARSHALL. 

GRACE AFTER DINNER (7 th S. i. 466). With 
regard to the old customs of " asking a blessing " 
and "returning thanks" before and after meals, 
I cannot help thinking that the custom of an old 
Norfolk worthy ought to be immortalized in 
'N. & Q.' He naturally felt that the break 
between dinner proper and dessert was a mistake ; 
and so always waited until the decanters were put 
before him. Then, with a benign hand laid upon 
each of them, he said : " For these, and for all his 
mercies, the Lord's name be praised." CLK. 

What does MR. WYNNE E. BAXTER mean by 
"David's connexion with Eeersheba"! Is it a 
mistake for Bathsheba ; or does it allude to some 
pursuit of the Philistines to the place mentioned? 


[Other contributors call attention to the same substi- 
tution of name.] 

JOSHUA BARNES (7 th S. L 141, 226, 292, 371, 394, 
476). That Joshua Barnes attributed the author- 
ship of Homer to Solomon is not in dispute. The 
real question is whether his advocacy of the theory 
was honest or dishonest. MR. NOROATE thinks 
that he merely pretended to adopt it in order to 
obtain funds from his wife to publish his Homer. 
I think that he advocated it because he believed 
in its truth. Regarded as a question of ethics, it 
is remarkable that MR. NOROATE should accuse 
me of an endeavour to make Barnes appear " a 
disgrace to his university " because I wish to vin- 
dicate his good faith, and equally remarkable that 
MR. NOROATE should claim a superior generosity 
for himself because he does his best to prove 
that Barnes was a mean swindler of his own wife. 

To me Barnes seems neither fool nor knave, bu 
simply a scholar of large learning and no incon- 
siderable original talents, whose brain had been 
gently touched by the hand of a not unkindly 
lunacy. This view is borne out by all that I have 
ever seen of his works, and, without claiming any 
special acquaintance with them, I have looked at 
and read what I found readable in all that were 
to be found in " my time " in Emmanuel College 
library, while his Homer has been the edition to 
which I have constantly been in the habit of refer- 
ring for near upon forty years. 

As to the evidence bearing on the point at issue, 
MR. NOROATE is mistaken in asserting that in 
the passage I quoted in a former letter Barnes 
" rigidly abstains from all expression of opinion 
about the personal history of Homer." He dis- 
tinctly asserts, on the contrary, that all the per- 
sonal history of Homer related by other authors 
is "inconsistent, irreconcilable, and self-contra- 
dictory." Nor is it more accurate to say that 
he reveals nothing as to his own views ; for he 
asserts as distinctly that they were of such a 
character that he thought it best to suppress 
them, lest they should be made use of to damage 
his work. 

The difficulty of believing that a son of the 
sweet psalmist of Israel could possibly be the 
sweet psalmist of _Hellas is perhaps insuperable 
by modern scholarship ; but in estimating this 
difficulty it was to be remembered that Barnes, 
like Chapman and many another Homeric scholar, 
devoutly believed in the divine inspiration not 
only of the epics but of the minor poems attributed 
to Homer. The pious prayer with which Chapman 
concludes his translation of the ' Batrachomyo- 
machia ' and the hymns is in itself enough to show 
in Coleridge's words "his complete forgetful- 
ness of the distinction between Christianity and 
idolatry under the general feeling of some reli- 
gion," and Barnes's preface abundantly proves 
that he shared Chapman's feelings in this respect. 

If "plenty of remarks" are to be found in 
Barnes's notes opposed to my theory, MR. NOR- 
OATE has pitched upon an unlucky instance to 
quote. In the ' Hymn to Apollo ' is an apostrophe 
to the maidens of Delos, in which the pseudo- 
Homer adjures them, if they are asked who is the 
mightiest master of song, to answer, 

The sightless man 
Of stony Chios. Chapman, 1. 267. 

Barnes, annotating hereupon, observes : " Hence, 
I conceive, the handle was first seized hold on for 
the belief that Homer was blind, but that he 
was of Chios is gathered [collirjitur, not, as it 
would have been if Barnes had intended to indi- 
cate acquiescence, colligi potest] both from this 
passage and elsewhere." From this note MR. 
NOROATE thinks that we get a " distinct revela- 
tion " of Barnes's " opinion on the vexed question 



[7"> S. II. JULY 3, '86. 

of Homer's birthplace." I fail to see how the 
words can be so twisted as to lend themselves to 
any such interpretation. The former clause of the 
sentence implies that Barnes did not himself 
believe in Homer's blindness, and the latter clause 
is wholly mismatched unless it conveys a like 
intimation of incredulity. Reading the note in 
connexion with Barnes's declaration that he intends 
shortly to publish to the world "the true name, 
age, country," &c., of Homer, it is clear that he 
meant to call attention to the absence of any real 
proof either of Homer's blindness or of his birth in 
Chios, although he admits that the evidence in the 
latter case is somewhat stronger than in the 
former. So far, then, from supporting MR. NCR- 
GATE'S contention, the passage supplies a further 
corroboration of Barnes's good faith. 

MR. NORGATE says that the story of Barnes 
shamming belief in Solomon's authorship of 
Homer which I thought might possibly have 
been the invention of Farmer was in print when 
Farmer was a mere child. Will MR. NORGATE 
kindly give the reference, as I have not been for- 
tunate enough to trace it so far back ? 


364). There is a version of the Rhampsinitus 
story current among the Sinhalese. See the 
Orientalist, vol. i. pp. 56, 120; vol. ii. pp. 48-9 
(the Orientalist is the journal referred to by MR. 
W. A. CLOUSTON, 7 th S. i. 125). I have perhaps 
been too hasty in assuming that the Sinhalese 
could not have got the story from Herodotus; but 
may they not have got it from " the adventurous 
merchants of Egypt and Arabia," to whom, ac- 
cording to Sir J. Emerson Tennent, Ptolemy was 
mainly indebted for his information respecting 
Ceylon (Tennent's ' Ceylon,' fourth edition, vol. i. 
D. 661) 1 COL. PRIDEAUX says that the story un- 
doubtedly originated in Egypt. In any case the 
existence of the story among the Sinhalese is in- 
teresting as bearing on the question mooted by 
him whether the story has survived indepen- 
dently of Herodotus. Can COL. PRIDEAUX in- 
form us whether it has been met with in India ? 

, ,. J. P. LEWIS. 


ST. HELEN (7 th S. i. 488). I presume that it 
was the sanctity of this lady, her fame as the dis- 
coverer of the true Cross, and the tradition that 
she was a native of this island that caused so many 
churches to be dedicated in her name. She was 
the heroine of more than one mediaeval romance, 
and fancy has altogether embroidered the history 
of her life. She is said to have been the daughter 
of old King Cole or Coel, of Colchester, a monarch 
whose merriment still infects our nurseries with 
hilarity; and the tale goes at least one of them 
does that, having been taken to wife by the 

Roman Emperor Constantius, she gave birth at 
York to Constantine, afterwards called the Great. 
There was a day when that city had three churches 
which were her namesakes ; now it has only one, 
and that, alas! was scheduled last year by a certain 
committee whom the Archbishop called into 
counsel, as being of the number of superfluous 
sacred buildings which it might be well to dis- 
use or to remove. It is something to be thankful 
for that St. Helen still occupies her " coign of 
vantage." As for poor St. Crux named perhaps 
in memory of the Empress's " Invention," as Dai- 
ling Church, Norfolk, is said to have been its 
condition is deplorable. A sadder ruin I have 
never seen. I think I am right in saying that 
appeal has been made for money to build it up 
short of the clearstory in some form that may 
commend itself for parochial uses. But the clear- 
story was the glory of St. Crux, and one can 
hardly expect anybody outside the parish to be 
moved to liberality by a scheme which proposes 
to put such beauty as that away for ever. 


Keeping in mind the connexion between the 
Empress Helena and York, it is not surprising 
that St. Helen should be frequently met with in 
the north of England. May 3, when her finding 
of the true Cross is commemorated, has been com- 
monly called St. Helen's Day, down to a time long 
after the Reformation. See 'Newminster Cartu- 
lary,' 153n, 258 ; Best's * Farming Book,' 101, 118, 
119 (both Surtees Soc.) ; ' Plompton Corresp.,' 
Camd. Soc., 71; Boothroyd's 'Pontefract,' 427; 
Yorksh. Arch. Journ., vii. 51, 53. The church of 
Stillingfleet, on the river Ouse, south of York, is 
dedicated to St. Helen; is it unlikely that the 
name represents St. Helen's-fleet ? W. C. B. 

I believe the authority referred to by MR. 
ROUND is ' Vestiges of the Supremacy of Mercia 
in the South of England,' a paper which in 1879 I 
contributed to the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
ArchEeological Society. 

The proper home of dedications of St. Helen is 
the ancient kingdom of Northumbria, with the 
northern half of Lincolnshire and Nottingham- 
shire, perhaps a Southumbria. Throughout this 
district they are most plentiful, no doubt from a 
precedent cause. My inference was that this dedi- 
cation was adopted by Offa, and that where it 
occurs south of this district it has been planted by 
him in most places where by his agressious he had 
realized a new frontier. 

In doing this I accidentally omitted the ex- 
treme western example on his southern line of 
these dedications, that on Lundy Island. This was 
unfortunate, because in the earlier pages I had 
made a similar induction with respect to /Ethel- 
bald and his vagrant dedications of his kins- 
woman St. Werburgh ; a part of which induction 

7'" 8. II. JULY 3, '86.] 


was that JMelbald had already planted a Mercian 
colony on that part of the north coast of Devon 
and Cornwall of which the island of Lundy is an 


[Many contributors- are thanked for replies to th 
above effect. 

TORT (7 th S. I 448). According to Solly's ' Title 
of Honour, 1 the first and only Simpson who wa 
created a baronet received that honour in 1866. 

G. F. R. B. 

THE GAME or THIRTY (7 th S. i. 349, 411). 
Is it not probable that the game alluded to is 
the game of bone-ace, or one-and-thirty ? Thirty 
would be a good number with which to " stand/ 
but the bishops were not content with that, but 
so to speak, drew another card, which proved not 
to be the ace, and so were " out." 


SCOTCH PEERS (7 th S. i. 447). Burnet records 
that in 1711 "Duke Hamilton" was by patent 
created a duke in England. It appears, however, 
from the context, that the new dukedom was in 
the peerage of Great Britain. The title was that 
of Brandon. A debate took place in that same 
year on the question whether the new duke could 
sit and vote as a peer of Great Britain ; and by a 
majority of five it was decided that he could not, 
since by the Act of Union the peers of Scotland 
could only vote in Parliament through their six- 
teen representative peers. Previously to this the 
Duke of Queensberry had been created Duke of 
Dover in the peerage of Great Britain, and had 
been suffered to vote by the latter title, but 
was restricted from giving a vote in the election of 
Scotch representative peers. 


The opposition of the House of Lords was caused 
by the elevation of the Duke of Hamilton to 
the English peerage by the title of Duke of 
Brandon. On Dec. 20, 1711, the Lords finally 
resolved (Contents 57, Not-Contents 52) that 
"Scottish peers, created peers of Great Britain 
since the Union, have not a right to sit in that 
House "(Hansard's 'Parliamentary History,' vol. vi. 
p. 1047). See also Sir Walter Scott's 'Tales of a 
Grandfather : Scotland,' vol. iv. p. 174, ed. 1836. 
The resolution, as is well known, has been re- 
scinded subsequently. 


Perhaps your correspondent refers to the case of 
the Duke of Hamilton, who on being gazetted to 
the English dukedom of Brandon, Dec. 12, 1711, was 
refused a seat in the English House of Lords, which 
prohibition was in force for seventy years. This is 

the only instance of refusal with which I am ac- 
quainted. H. S. 

I shall be glad if the following facts prove nse- 
ful to your correspondent who inquires regarding 
Scots noblemen who, having been granted British 
peerages in Queen Anne's time, were refused seats 
in the House of Lords. 

It appears that at different periods much com- 
plication has arisen with regard to the effects of 
British peerages thus conferred, and that such 
cases have been seen from very different points of 
view in connexion with the election of the sixteen 
representative peers of Scotland. Thus, the Duke 
of Queensberry having been created Duke of 
Dover in 1708 by a patent of British peerage, his 
vote at the election of representative peers was 
objected to on that account. The objection was 
sustained by the House of Lords, January, 1709. 
In a few years after, however, the Duke of Hamil- 
ton having received a patent creating him Duke 
of Brandon, claimed his seat as such in the House 
of Lords ; but after some debate, and after a 
motion for a reference to the opinion of the judges 
had been negatived, their lordships, on Dec. 20, 
1711, came to the resolution "That no patent of 
honour granted to any peer of Great Britain, who 
was a peer of Scotland at the time of the Union, 
can entitle such peer to sit and vote in Parliament, 
or to sit upon the trial of peers." 

This resolution, it appears, remained in force 
till June 6, 1782, when the claim of the Duke of 
Hamilton to sit in Parliament as Duke of Brandon 
being again agitated, and a question having been 
put to the judges, they delivered a unanimous 
opinion that " the peers of Scotland are not dis- 
abled from receiving, subsequently to the Union, 
a patent of peerage of Great Britain, with all the 
privileges usually incident thereto." His grace's 
:laim to a writ of summons was sustained by the 
House, and, it is added, "no doubt has ever since 
oeen stirred on that branch of the question." 

The substance of the above is taken from a little 
look I picked up at a bookstall a few days ago, 
entitled, 'Notes relating to the Procedure in the 
Elections of the Representatives in the British 
Parliament of the Peers of Scotland,' Edin., 1818. 

Lennox Street, Edinburgh. 

ROB ROY IN NEWGATE (7 th S. i. 469). That 

le was ever a prisoner there, or anywhere else, for 

lis share in the rising of 1715 is at variance with 

listory. In November, 1716, he captured Gra- 

mme of Killeam in his feud against Montrose. In 

716 he escaped from the Duke of Athole at Logie- 

ait (Ant. Scot Trans., iii.). In 1719 he fought 

at Glenshiel, where the MacGregors fell upon the 

ear of the 15th Regiment. In the same year he 

wrote his mock challenge to Montrose (see Scott's 

novel, Appendix i). In 1720 he wrote to 



[7' h 8. II. JULY 3, '86. 

Marshal Wade a letter that was but little to his 
credit (see ibid, No. iv.). la 1733 he fought 
Stewart of Appin. In 1734 he died in peace at 
Balquhidder (Gal. Mercury, Jan. 9, 1735). 


Rob Roy was never imprisoned in Newgate. 
The only time he was ever south of Carlisle was 
on the notable occasion of his visit to London, 
where he went at the invitation of the Duke of 
Argyll, and met him and the Duke of Montrose 
for the purpose of a reconciliation between the 
two. Equally incorrect is the statement that Rob 
Roy was transported to Barbadoes. 


Swallowiield, Beading. 

BRITISH INSTITUTION (7 th S. i. 489). 'An 
Account,' &c., 1824, was compiled by the Rev. 
James Dallaway, author of several books asso- 
ciated with art and archaeology, and one of the 
editors of ' Anecdotes of Painting in England,' 
by H. Walpole. F. G. S. 

468). Dr. Holden's 'Foliorum Silvula,' part ii. 
p. 91, gives these lines as " translated from 
Schiller." Will MR. FITZGERALD oblige me 
privately with a copy of the work to which he 
refers? P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

Bays Hill, Cheltenham. 

CHAPEL, SOMERSET HOUSE (7 th S. i. 309). 
Mr. Coleman, of 9, Tottenham Terrace, Totten- 
ham, has ' Registers of all the Marriages, Bap- 
tisms, and Burials that took place at the Private 
Chapel at Somerset House, from 1714 to its close 
in 1776,' at 2s. 6d. B. F. SCARLETT. 

Lennox Lodge, Eastbourne. 

" SQUARE MEAL " (7 th S. i. 449). A reference to 
Webster-Mahn shows that this, like many another 
so-called Americanism, is good old English. 
" Square, Leaving nothing ; hearty ; vigorous." 

By Heaven, square eaters, 
More meat, I say. Beaumont and Fletcher. 



BOOK-PLATES (7 th S. i. 448). In reference to the 
second query of W. M. M., I have some old docu- 
ments dated 1761-4-5 in which the Rev. Dey 
Syer, of Kedington, co. Suffolk, is named ; and I 
believe a descendant of his, and bearing his name, 
is now rector of the parish. W. M. M. might 
perhaps obtain the information he seeks from him. 


No. 1 is apparently the coat and crest of Smyth, 
of Essex, Greenwich, and Plumpton, Kent. No 2 
Bound, Mayor of Bristol, 1708, or Osmerdale'of 
Cumberland and York. E. FRY WADE. 

Axbridge Somerset. 

"TIPPED THE WINK " (7 tt S. i. 366). This ex- 
pression occurs in Colley Gibber's * Flora ; or, Hob 
in the Well,' II. ii. : 

" Ser. 'Knew you, Sir ! why I bought one of your 
ballads for her, and she lipt the wink upon me, with as 
much as to say, desire him not to go till he hears from 
me.' " 


The reference to Swift is a short piece of five 
stanzas, ' The Dog and Thief,' written in 1726. 


STEVENS (7 th S. i. 448). If MR. WARD had 
consulted the Times for May 4, 1875, before send- 
ing his query, he would have found the following 
announcement on the first sheet : " On the 
1st May, at 9, Eton-villas, Haverstock-hill, 
Alfred George Stevens, Esq., aged 67 years." 

G. F. R. B. 

There is a good deal about electric light and 
electricity in general in Ure's ' Dictionary of Arts,' 
&c., 1878. H. G. GRIFFINHOOFE. 

Consult 'Electric Illumination,' by J. Dredge, 
2 vols., large 4to., 35s. each, published at the office 
of Engineering. M. D. 

BIRTH OF THE KING OF SPAIN (7 th S. i. 428, 
478). The question of the posthumous issue of 
a sovereign was raised in the reign of William IV., 
and the constitutional law of England was declared 
on the point in the Regency Act of 1831 of that 
reign. The fact that no precedent could be found 
since the Norman Conquest for provision having 
been made for government in an interval between 
the king's death and his heir's birth shows that 
this case was of rare occurrence in England. Ac- 
cordingly difficulties presented themselves as to 
the succession to the crown. It was clear that an 
unborn child could not be seized of the crown, for 
it is a maxim that the king never dies, and imme- 
diately on the death of the reigning monarch the 
crown must devolve on the heir presumptive. It 
was, therefore, determined that if William IV. 
should die during the minority of the Princess 
Victoria, she should be proclaimed queen, subject 
to the rights of any issue that might be born of 
the king's consort, that is to say, she was to 
succeed to the crown on the understanding that 
if any child was born afterwards she should 
forego the dignity in its favour. Happily the 
contingency contemplated did not occur, and her 
Majesty succeeded without reservation. 


14, Gillespie Crescent, Edinburgh. 

455). I now perceive another ancient reference in 
' N. & Q.' (2* d S. xi. 74), where it is said that Anne 

7* S. II. JULY 3, '86.] 



Salkeld was the sixth earl's third wife. A corre- 
spondent also refers me to a pedigree of Jackson 
(the family of Anne Salkeld's mother) in More- 
house's ' History of Kirk Burton, co. York,' p. 172. 
Here the date given to Anne's marriage with the 
earl is 1742. This, according to the dates I have 
given, would make her the fourth wife. More 
entanglement ! I must repeat my hope that some 
one with authority will clear the matter up. 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

HORACE SMITH (7 th S. i. 360). Why Horace? 
He himself wrote Horatio. See facsimile auto- 
graph in Mr. S. C. Hall's 'Book of Memories: 
I have a short note, dated Brighton, Dec. 14, 1840, 
also signed Horatio Smith. CLIO. 

FYLFOT (7 th S. i. 368, 455). I think that there 
is a third German equivalent for fylfot, viz., drii- 
denfusz, the spirit's foot. I doubt whether it is 
generally known that the fylfot is at the present 
time in universal use in China as a Buddhist sym- 
bol H. J. MOULE. 

Since asking my query, which 0. has kindly 
answered, I have also found kriickenkreuz in a book 
of German heraldry for the crux gammata. 

A. B. 

(7 tb S. i. 449). Taking a special interest in Peter 
De Lascy, otherwise Peter Lacy, who was of my 
maternal kin, I may inform your correspondent 
B. T. that in the memoirs of the Prince de Ligne 
(' Journal des Campagnes de Lascy ') will be found 
the information he desires. He might also consult 
the ' Histoire de Mon Temps ' of Frederic II. 

12, St. Mary's Road, Dublin. 

BRADFORD FAMILY (7 th S. i. 89, 175). If 
SIGMA would extend his offer to furnish notes 
of thirty marriages connected with the Bradford 
family to another inquirer, he would find one who 
would be extremely grateful for the same in 

W. C. 

10, Piccadilly, Bradford. 

406, 474). I mentioned Blindheim, not Blend- 
heim, as the name of the Bavarian village. 


" MONTJOYE ST. DEN YS" (7 th S. i. 427). Ducange 
('Gloss.') derives the word Montjoie from "Mons 
Gaudii = Montagne-de-la-joie." But Montjoye = 
Montjoie = Montjou comes rather from Mons Jovis 
= mount of Jupiter= mount of God. Heaps of 
stones were thrown in old times on the way to 
indicate the road to be followed. Afterwards 
crests were placed on these stone-heaps, and, by 
extension, the banner borne before the troops to 

guide the army was called Montjoie. So " Mont- 
joie St. Denis " will say that they had " to follow 
the banner of St. Denis " (the oriflamme). Mont- 
joie was undoubtedly a vice index, an enseigne- 
chemin for the army. The battle cry of the Dukes 
of Bourbon was " Montjoie Notre Dame"; of the 
Dukes of Burgundy, " Montjoie St. Andrew"; of 
the Kings of England, "Montjoie St. George"; 
of the Dukes of Anjou, " Montjoie Anjou," &c. 
I believe that, except the royal house of Bour- 
bon, no other family has this motto. (Vide Borel 
d'Hauterive, 1872 ; Ducange, ' Glossarium,' &c.). 


EASTER BIBLIOGRAPHY (7 th S. i. 325). One 
addition which may be made to the list given by 
W. C. B. is the following : 

J. Newland Smith, Rev., M.A. 'Some Observations 
respecting Eastertide : Suggesting and Advocating a 
Change in the Mode of determining the Paschal Limits.' 
Lond., Longmans, 1872. 

I have marked the title of my copy as part i., 
because there appeared a notice of ' Eastertide,' 
part ii., in ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. xi. 313, in 1873. 


BELLION ' (7 th S. i. 408). MR. PARTINGTON is in 
error as to Mr. Crossley's belief that the above 
tract is by Defoe. I transcribed the following 
note from his copy of it : "An interesting account, 
though not, I think, Defoe's. J. C." 


69, Ladbroke Grove, W. 

VERITABLE (7 th S. i. 428). The French word 
veritable can only be adequately translated into 
English by the word " genuine." For example, 
one could say of Sevres china, &c., in French, this 
is veritable Sevres, t. e., "genuine." Anglicized, 
veritable has not the right meaning at all. 

C. R. T. 

Union Club. 

i. 386). In 1884 an article appeared in the Times 
(February 23 and 25) on " The Speakership." In 
the second instalment I find these words : 

"About this time [1708] there seema to have been a 
custom of the Members' servants electing a Speaker 
among themselves. In Swift's 'Journal,' November 25, 
1710, is this entry : ' Pompey. Colonel Hill's black, 
designs to stand Speaker for the footmen. I have en- 
gaged to use my interest for him, and have spoken to 
Patrick to get him him some votes.' " 


.. 407). I have often heard this question raised ; 
)ut to answer it in any particular case we must 
enow in what century the proverb arose. Gre- 
gory's reform was meant to bring the calendar. 
>ack to its state in the fourth century, just after 
he council of Niceea. A proverb originating just 



[7"< S. II. JULY 3, '86. 

then should he true now and permanently ; but if 
later born, as in St. Swithin's time, about three- 
fourths the number of centuries between A.D. 330 
and its origin will be the number of days we now 
antedate it. E. L. G. 

At the above reference T. 0. asks as to Oosfcamus, 
used as a Christian name. It is rather late to reply, 
but looking over the Keighley parish registers not 
long ago I came on these entries, which seem to 
answer his query: 

" Feb. 23, 1588. Constantino Maude=l8abella Hart- 
"Dec. 23, 1617. The wife of Gostaine Maude buried." 

I understand the Costamus to be contraction of 
Co(n)3tan(tin)us, which was an occasional Christian 
name with the Maudes of Halifax, Bingley, Keigh- 
ley, and other places in the West Biding of York. 

W. C. K. 

SHAKSPEARE'S DOCTOR (7 th S. i. 428). This 
story of Shakespeare's pall-bearer, which has been 
floating about in the newspapers for some twenty 
years, has been fin ally disposed of by Mr. Moncure 
Conwayin Harper's Magazine for January, 1886. 
He proves, from personal inspection, that no such 
tomb ever existed in Fredericksburg graveyard, 
and that no such inscription was ever engraved on 
any tombstone in Virginia. He gives a facsimile 
of the stone from which the legend was said to be 
derived, and which contains no reference to Shake- 
speare or pall-bearer, and supposes that these words 
must have been added to the original inscription 
by some " note " which has got into the printed 
text. ESTE. 

LATIN LINE WANTED (7 th S. i. 487). I have 
much pleasure in accepting the "benediction" of so 
good a scholar as MR. BKOGDEN for the hexameter 
and pentameter line on behalf of the undersigned, 
who must plead in excuse for its authorship that 
it was made in undergraduate days, and solely in 
consequence of its having been pronounced an im- 
possibility. The line is 

Quando nigrescit nox rem latro patrat atrox, 
where six out of the thirteen syllables (two, three, 
eight, nine, ten, twelve) are either long or short 
as it suits. It has two other features it is not a 
mere nonsense verse, and it rhymes within itself. 
As another curiosity of literature, I may add that, 
on being challenged to make another line both 
alcaic and sapphic, I did so by omitting the last 
word and substituting "sacra" for "nox" and 

Trin. Coll. Cam. 
86, Gloster Place, Portman Square. 

GLYN (7 th S. i. 448). An account of this house 

and its inhabitants will be found in Faulkner's 

Chelsea' (1839), vol. i. p, 72. Faulkner says that 

at Hoadley's death it " was purchased by Sir 
iichard Glynn, who sold it to the Earl of Ash- 
Durnham." This was doubtless the Sir Richard 
lyn who was Lord Mayor in 1759, and who lost 
lis election for the City in 1768, Barlow Trecoth- 
wick being elected in his place. Sir Richard Glyn 
died on January 1, 1773, some fifteen or sixteen 
years after Hoadley. Sir Richard's second wife 
was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert Carr, Bart., 
and their eldest son was Sir Richard Carr Glyn, 
who served as Mayor in 1799. G. F. R. B. 

CHILDREN'S CRUSADE (7 th S. i. 487). Though 
it is not a long, and therefore is not an " exhaus- 
tive " notice, MR. E. A. D' ARGENT would see a 
summary of the history, the origin, progress and end 
of the children's crusade in Mat. Paris, ' H. M.,' 
ad. A.D. 1213, pp. 242-3, ed. 1640. There are 
also the historian's views as to its character. 


It is mentioned by Fuller in his ' Holy Warre.' 
An account of it will be found in Dr. Charles 
Mackay's ' Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular De- 
lusions,' vol. ii., article " The Crusades." 


Hallam gives some particulars of this in a note, 
' Europe during the Middle Ages,' vol. ii. p. 359, 
and cites as his authorities ' Annali di Muratore,' 
A.D. 1211 ; Velly, ' Hist, de France,' t. iv. p. 206. 


For a full account of the crusade of children, 
with references to various authorities, see Michaud's 
' History of the Crusades' (Bonn's ed., vol. iii. 
App. 28). The date of the crusade was about 1212. 


This crusade was preached in France and Ger- 
many in the spring of 1212. See Woodward and 
Cates's 'Encyclopaedia of Chronology' (1872), 
p. 392, where a brief account of the disasters 
attending the enterprise are given. 

G. F. R. B. 

Becker's ' Epidemics of the Middle Ages,' third 
edition, 1859, Triibner & Co., has a supplementary 
chapter on these "Child Pilgrimages," and also a 
copious list of authorities. The earlier editions 
are without this information. 



'The Children's Crusade: an Episode of the 
Thirteenth Century,' by G. Z. Gray, relates to this 
subject. I have not read the book, but have heard 
it highly spoken of. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

G. P. R. James, in his ' History of Chivalry,' 
pp. 286, 287, gives some account, though I cannot 
say an "exhaustive" one of this crusade, but perhaps 
a more elaborate one may be gathered from the 
authorities which he gives in the foot-notes. The 

7* 8. II. JULY S, '86.] 



book is not expensive, and the publishers are Col- 
burn & Bentley, New Burlington Street. The 
date of my edition is 1830. 


BLUB KOSES (7 th S. i. 328, 357). MR. MASKELL 
will find an essay by Alphonse Karr, ' Les Roses 
Noires et les Roses Bleues'; also a novel, ' Blue 
Roses,' by an English author known only as 
" Vera." Alphonse Karr says that blue roses are 
" les roses quo 1'on reve, mais que Ton ne cueille 
jamais." M. DRISLER. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (7 th S. i. 470). 
' England as seen by an American Banker ' was pub- 
lished at the beginning of this year. The author is Mr. 
C. 8. Patten, of the State National Bank, said by the 
Boston Traveller to be " one of the leading men of finance 
in Boston." J. H. NODAL. 


The Life of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle. To 
which is added, The True Relation of my Birth, Breed- 
ing, and Life. By Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle. 
Edited by C. H. Firth, M.A. (Nimmo.) 
THE lives of the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle, written 
by the hand of the duchess, deserve a place in that hand- 
some and admirable series of biographies which Mr. 
Nimmo is bringing witbin reach of the book-lover. They 
constitute not only the best known, but the only fairly 
known works of the most prolific of female writers. The 
ponderous folios which her grace poured forth in pro- 
fusion securing, in so doing, an amount of adulation 
from the writers and dignitaries of her day such as no 
woman had received since the days of Queen Elizabeth- 
are now known only to the antiquary and the student, 
who, however, cherish them with delight for many 
reasons it is needless here to explain. Her poems, some 
of them wanting neither in fancy nor in taste, her ora- 
tions, her philosophical opinions and disquisitions, her 
plays, scarcely to be distinguished from her disquisitions 
with all these things Time declines to burden himself. 
The price they sometimes fetch in the auction-room is 
more often due to the portraits which grace them than 
to the works themselves. The memoirs, however, live, 
and will live. Edition after edition of them has appeared, 
though this is the first time they have appeared in a 
becoming form. It is needless to go through the biblio- 
graphy of the works of which Mr. Firth supplies a list. 
It is worth while, however, to say that the life of the 
duchess forms, as is said, " The Eleventh and Last Book 
of Nature's Pictures, Drawn by Fancy's Pencil to the 
Life, iVc., 1656 " (the duchess's title-pages are, to alter 
slightly an illustration of Macaulay, long enough for 
prefaces), but in the first edition only. For some 
reason, at which we are unable to make a conjecture, 
and in which we should have been glad of the opinion 
of Mr. Firth, who does not allude to the fact, it dis- 
appears entirely from, the second edition, copies of which 
are before us. These biographies should be read by all. 
The life of the duke needs, of course, to be supplemented, 
but is something more than an outcome of conjugal idol- 
atry, which, however, among other things, it is. That of 
the duchess gives a delightful picture of domestic life in 
England in the family of which it was said that all the 
sons were brave and all the daughters virtuous. The re- 
production of handsomely executed portraits of the duke 

and duchess, and of designs from the famous ' Book of 
Horsemanship ' of the former, adds greatly to the at- 
tractions of the volume, and the miscellaneous matter of 
interest supplied by Mr. Firth in the shape of appendices 
adds no lees to its value. It is, in short, a work of solid 
value as well as a covetable volume. 

King Edward the Sixth, Supreme Head: an Historical 
Sketch. By Frederick George Lee, D.D. (Burns & 

DR. LEE is a learned antiquary and an accomplished 
theologian. The sketch he has now given us is 
valuable because it shows by what violent means 
even changes the most necessary were brought about. 
We 1 have little fault to find with his facts, but the 
style is not praiseworthy. Cobbett's 'History of the 
Reformation ' contains important facts of a kind which 
were at the time it was written new to most persons. 
We never heard of any cultivated person, however, who 
did not shrink from Cobbett's extreme violence of state- 
ment. We imagine that Dr. Lee's volume will leave 
much the same impression on the minds of this genera- 
tion as Cobbett's tirade did on the imaginations of our 
grandfathers. If history is to continue to be studied, it 
can now only be as a science, and the scientific mind is 
in direct antagonism to personalities Against those who 
have long gone to their account. Dr. Lee not only hates 
the Reformation and all that came of it, but he holds 
extreme views on some questions of modern politics and 
social life. Of course he is not to be blamed for this ; but 
it is unfortunate that he has introduced any of these 
matters into his introduction, as it will have a direct 
tendency to prejudice some of his readers against a book 
which is valuable in more than one respect. There is 
the clearest evidence on almost every page of the volume 
that its author has worked laboriously among unpub- 
lished records. Occasionally the references given are 
not what student calls for. On p. 87, for instance, the 
author seems to think he has gratified all needful curio- 
sity when he tells us that a certain passage comes from 
the " State Papers." Surely time and space mi^ht have 
been afforded sufficient to furnish us with the volume 
and page of the Calendar in which it is referred to. 

The volume contains a most useful catalogue of por- 
traits of Edward VI. and of many others of both sexes 
who were prominent during his short and unhappy 
reign. There is also a most useful pedigree of the house 
of Tudor and its connexions, beginning with Richard, 
Duke of York, who was killed at the battle of Wakefield 
in 1460. 

The Ethic* of Aristotle. By Rev. I. Gregory Smith. 


THIS instalment of the series entitled " Chief Ancient 
Philosophies " is a very creditable performance. It is a 
little book (of not a hundred pages) on a vast subject ; 
and the wonder of it is, that the subject is so well set 
forth and explained as to be a great help to the student 
of the Stagy rite, and by its close association with modern 
ethical systems to be useful to all students of ethics. We 
know the author of this manual chiefly as one of the 
Hampton lecturers ; but he was in his time a notable 
Oxford scholar, having gained both the Hertford and 
the Ireland ; and it is evident from this manual that 
though he has freely used Sir Alexander Grant's larger 
work on the same subject, he has had a long and intimate 
acquaintance with the original Greek treatises. It is only 
this almost lifelong experience of his master's works, 
joined to a remarkable power of concise and methodical 
expression, which could have enabled the learned pre- 
bendary to compile this book. After the introductory 
matter are seven chapters: i. "Psychology of the Ethics "; 



[? S. II. JULY 3, '86. 

ii. " Freewill "; iii. " Conscience and Consciousness "; iv. 
" Motive and Virtuous Conduct "; v. " Immortality "; vi. 
" Deity ": vii. " Conclusion "; and ten appendixes (or 
" appendices," as they are here called). We note only 
one certain error, and that is in a matter (free will) on 
which the author appears to be correcting rather than 
expounding Aristotle : it is on pp. 20 and 21, a small 
matter of nine lines, yet not on that account unimport- 
ant. It is not true even that " a physical combination 
of opposing forces would never result in the utter de- 
struction of the weaker of the two," i. e., of the efficiency 
of the weaker to determine the particular effect to be 
produced. The mere fall of a stone is an instance to the 
contrary. The stone falls to the earth despite the 
attractions of the sun or moon, and does not, as the 
author, if consistent, ought to believe, hover between 
the two attracting bodies. There is no reason why mere 
physics should not account for the inefficiency of the 
weaker of two motives. But there is no physical cause 
which can do what the author says can be done, viz., 
make the weaker side the stronger, without the induc- 
tion of a fresh motive. In Appendix D he sets this forth 
in an extract from his own work, ' The Characteristics 
of Christian Morality,' where the doctrine of free will is 
asserted in a more than questionable shape. 

A Calendar of Lancashire and Cheshire Depositions by 
Commission from 1558 to 1702. Edited by Caroline 
Fishwick. (Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society.) 
THIS is a most important book of reference for the topo- 
grapher and genealogist. We wish most ardently that 
the whole series of these interesting documents could be 
calendared with the care and accuracy with which they 
have been done by Miss Fishwick for Lancashire and 
Cheshire. Not only what is called the general reading 
public, but even antiquaries of repute are, in many cases, 
ignorant of the vast stores of knowledge which our 
Record Office contains. The fault certainly does not 
lie with the officials, who are ever ready to do all they 
can to assist students. It is in great part due to the 
exceeding complexity of our old legal system. Until the 
details of this is in some degree mastered it is impossible 
for any student, however zealous, to know in what 
direction to seek for information. It is impossible by 
quotation to give an idea of the facts which are here 
dealt with. No county or town historical of Lancashire 
or Cheshire can for the future neglect the sources of 
information here revealed without laying himself open 
to the charge of great carelessness. The index contains 
some curious surnames, such as Bickster, Foche, Masle- 
bar, Remchinge, and Sturzaker, which require elucida- 

The Annual Register for the Year 1885. New Series. 


THE new volume of the Annual Register maintains the 
standard of fulness and accuracy which has raised the 
previous volumes of the new series to a high position in 
public favour. The historical portion, written lucidly 
and concisely, occupies over four hundred pages ; while 
the second portion, including the " Chronicle," the obit- 
uary notices, the summaries of art and literature, and 
the index, add more than two hundred further pages. 
A large part of the earlier division is occupied with a 
description of the electioneering combat, the fiercely 
contested results of which were to prove abortive. This 
is written with much spirit and accuracy, the errors we 
have noted not extending beyond a few trivial altera- 
tions of letters in the press. The Annual Register is, of 
course, indispensable to the politician and the journalist ; 
to the historical student it commends itself both by its 
summary of events and by its excellent obituary. 

ON June 23 the President of the Society of Anti- 
quaries and Mrs. Evans were " At Home " to a large 
and brilliant gathering in the Society's apartments in 
Burlington House. The President and his wife, and the 
Society in its corporate capacity, besides several well- 
known Fellows, contributed largely to the exhibitions, 
which gave a special interest to the reception. Among 
the individual contributors of objects of antiquarian 
interest and value we may specially mention the Earl of 
Crawford and Balcarres, General Pitt-Rivers, and Mr. 
Quaritch. We could not but regret that the Ravenna- 
tine papyrus exhibited by the Earl of Crawford should 
have been laid flat upon a table, instead of being placed 
against a wall, so that the visitors might have had a 
chance of studying it, as they were enabled to study Mr. 
Quaritch's Mexican calendar. Amid so large and varied 
a throng, we need scarcely say that ' N. & Q.' was well 
represented BROTHER FABIAN gradually approaching 
the Thames almost in the same keel or coracle with 

THE second and third parts of the ' Index to the Obit- 
uary Notices in the Gentleman's Magazine ' will be pro- 
duced without delay by Mr. H. Farrar, by whom the first 
part was compiled. The new volumes will, if necessary, 
bring the information down" to 1872. 

THE next volume of Mr. Elliot Stock's " Book-Lover's 
Library " that will be issued will be Mr. Gomme's 
' Literature of Local Institutions.' It will contain a 
complete bibliography of the literature of the subject, 
and an epitomized account of the various forms of local 
government which have prevailed in this country. 

otire* to 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

HARRY GRENSTED (" Hoveller "). This word wag 
originally a Cinque Port term for a pilot. It has since 
become applied to sturdy vagrants who infest the sea 
coast in bad weather for purposes of wreck and plunder. 

W. J. ("Cock and bull story"). See 1" S iv 312- 
v. 414, 447; vi. 146; ix. 209; 2 1 " 1 S. iv. 79; viii. 215; 
3 rd S. iii. 169 ; 6"' S. x. 260. 

BECKENHAM. Sunday, June 20, witnessed the fiftieth 
celebration, and was the forty-ninth anniversary of Her 
Majesty's accession. 

JONATHAN BOUOHIER ("With a wet finger") .See 
6th g. xi. 223, 331. 

MR. ALEX. LEEPER points out that in the Index to the 
First Series, p. 133, col. 2, 1. 1, "p. 277" should be 

P. *( 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries '" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at th j Office, 22 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print: and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7* S. II. JULY 10, '86.] 




NOTES : Numbering Houses, 21 Shakspeariana, 22 Ani- 
mated Horsehairs, 24 Bishop Barlow Addison, 25 Last 
Duel in Ireland Four Seasons William of Newburgh 
"Whitsuntide Oblivious Carious Custom Antiquity of 
Football, 26. 

QUERIES : ' Digest Shakespearian^ 'William Aylmer 
Magna Charta Translations of ' Christian Year 'Charade 
Le Dreigh Family, 27 "Peys Aunt" Odd Inn-sign 
'School of Shakspeare' Thos. Wentworth * Corinna of 
England 'Swans and Hoses Shelmo Richards, Galliard, 
and Downman Col. A. Champion To say Michaelmas 
The Great Plague Jenkins, 28 Count Dietrich's Collection 
Portraits of Dickens Sundon Odd Engraving Portrait 
of Rousseau" Bucket Shop Tricks "Title of Song Ques- 
tion of Succession Mayonnaise Sir T. Ridley Daniel 
Day, 29 Authors Wanted, 30. 

REPLIES : Brigadier Mackintosh, 30 NotabiHa Quzedam 
Rule of Division of Words, 31 Bacon Sir J. Trelawny 
Dutch Britons, 32" To make a hand of "Musical Query, 
33 Habington MSS. Missing London Monuments County 
Badges, 34 First Protestant Colony in Ireland Death of 
Cibber Memoirs of Grimaldi Son t hey 's ' Battle of Blen- 
heim' 'Wednesbury Cocking* Bergamot Pears Sir T. 
More's Daughter, Elizabeth Dance, 35 Coffee Biggin 
Harrington: Ducarel, &c. Australia and the Ancients 
Goodricke ' The Patrician ' Walter Pasleu Rouse 
London and Paris, 36 Franklin Heraldic Arms of Scottish 
Trade Incorporations Oriental Sources of Chaucer Batho 
-De Percheval " Hatchment down!" 37 "Under" in 
Place-names -r- Apostate Nuns, 38 York Minster 'The 
Laidly Worm ' Pettianger, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Steven^s ' Old Barnet ' Hiulitt'a Old 
Cookery Books.' 

Notice* to Correspondents, &c. 


It would appear that the first idea of number- 
ing bouses in London arose from the arrangement 
of staircases in the various Inns of Court. The 
houses in those sets and blocks of buildings were 
all uniform, and being let out in chambers open- 
ing upon the staircases, which had no general door, 
but stood open to the pavement, it became 
necessary to distinguish the staircases, and num- 
bering was, of course, much simpler than naming. 
Cunningham, in his magnificently elaborated 
' Handbook of London,' has on this subject made 
a slight oversight. In his " London Occurrences," 
p. xlix, he states that in June, 1764, numbering 
commenced in New Burlington Street, and that 
the second place numbered was Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. He must have forgotten Prescot Street, 
Goodman's Fields. Where he has cited Hatton'a 
' New View,' at p. 65 of that work occurs the fol- 
lowing notice : " Instead of signs, the houses 
here are distinguished by numbers, as the stair- 
cases in the Inns of Court and Chancery." This 
passage in -Hatton is also quoted by J. T. 
Smith, in hfti ' Streets of London ' (i. 413), but he 
places Prescot Street in the Strand, and in this 
connexion he quotes an old newspaper showing 
the shifts advertisers were put to, a century or BO 

bince, to indicate their localities without the aid 
of numbers : 

" Dr. James Tilborgh, a German doctor, states that 
he liveth at present over against the new Exchange in 
Bedford Street, at the sign of the ' Peacock,' where you 
shall see at night two candles burning within one of the 
chambers before the balcony; and a lanthorn with a 
candle in it upon the balcony: where he may be spoke 
withal alone, from 8 in the morning till 10 at night. 

The famous pills are advertised in 1699 thus : 
" Dr. Anderson's pills, sold by I. Inglis, now liv- 
ing at the ' Golden Unicorn ' over against the 
May-pole in the Strand." This is interesting, for 
the pills are still sold or, at least, were till quite 
recently under the same denomination in the 
Strand, only facing the side of the church, instead 
of being "over against the May-pole." 

Smith gives the following reference as from the 
Spectator of April 29, 1718. No doubt he had 
seen the advertisement, but the date must be in- 
accurate, for the Spectator terminated* on De- 
cember 20, 1714 : 

" In George Street, in York Buildings in the Strand, 
the third house on the right hand, number 3 being over 
the door, may be had money lent, upon plate and jewels 
at reasonable rates. Attendance from 8 o'clock in the 
morning till 2 in the afternoon." 

Up to the period named by Cunningham, 1764, 
probably very few streets had been numbered 
throughout, although from the foregoing instances 
it is quite clear that many places had been par- 
tially numbered fifty yeara earlier. Blavignac, in 
his ' Histoire des Enseignes,' Geneva, 1878, p. 70, 
says that the first attempt at numbering houses 
took place in Paris in 1512 on the houses (sixty- 
eight in number, 'Hist. Signboards,' p. 30) that 
were built upon the Petit Pont or Pont de Notre- 
Dame. For years, nay even for centuries, there 
was no echo of repetition. M. Blavignac goes on 
to say that Geneva was perhaps the first city to 
seriously adopt the improvement in 1782. The 
whole town was divided into four quarters, and 
each quarter was separately numbered. Stras- 
bourg followed in 1785, and Rouen 1788. 

An order for the same thing in Paris dates 
1768, or four years later than ours in England, from 
which it appears to have been copied. It met 
with systematic opposition. M. Blavignac quotes 
Mercier's ' Tableau de Paris,' 1782, as saying that 
they began to number the houses in the streets, but 
suspended that useful operation, he does not know 
why. It seems that the more important houses 
with porles cocheres objected to being inscribed 
with a number. Could a noble porte cochere be de- 
graded to follow on after and as it were beneath a 
number on the shop of a common roturier ? The 
catchpenny triple jingle of Republican egalite had 
not yet been posted up at every street corner. The 
true numbering, however, did not take place till 
February, 1805, when the decree became obliga- 
tory, and the municipal bodies defrayed the ex- 



[7'" S. II. JULY 10, '86. 

pense. They then did what we have never had 
system enough to do. In the streets that ran east 
and west they painted the numbers in red, in those 
running north and south in black.* 

The first innovation was to remove the swinging 
signs and set them flat against the wall of each 
house. This was commenced in Paris in 1761, and 
here in 1762 the Daily News of November, 1762, 
announces that " The signs in Duke's Court, St. 
Martin's Lane, were all taken down and affixed 
to the fronts of the houses." This was in West- 
minster. The Corporation of London soon fol- 
lowed suit, and one pariah after another, beginning 
with St. Botolph in 1767, commenced a clearance 
of hanging signboards, together with the support- 
ing signposts. The signs went to the wall iustead 
of overhanging the footway, and the numbers 
crept into street after street, as shown by the 
above remarks. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 


allusions caught my attention whilst reading Sir 
Edward Hoby's curious work entitled : 

A | Cvrry-Gombe | for | a Coxe-combe. I Or | Pvr- 
gatories | Knell. | In answer of a lewd Libell lately 
foricated | by labal Rachil against Sir Edw. Hobies | 
Oovnter-Snarle : | Entituled | Purgatories triumph ouer 
Hell. | Digested in forme of a Dialogue by Nick-groome | 
of the Hobie-stable Reginobvrgi. | [Qupt] London, | 
Printed by William Stansby for Nathaniel Butter, and 
are to | be sold at his shop neere S. Austins gate at the 
signe | of the Pied Bull. 1615. 4to. 
The chief interest of the selection consists in the 
expressions having been put into the mouth of a 
character representing a person of low degree, sup- 
posed to be conversing, somewhat flippantly, with 
his superiors in social station. The dialogue is 
therefore colloquial, and may be taken as being 
representative of the style of familiar talk towards 
the close of the Shakspearian period. In the 
examples that follow, the first is Shakspearian, the 
references being to the First Folio ; the second is 
the illustration : 

" Souced gurnet."' 1 Hen. IV.,' IV. i. 
" If his coate be not swinged well and thriftily, let me 
be held fora sowced Gurnet." Op. cit,, p. 5. 

* It is an astonishing thing to me that long ago it has 
not been arranged in London, (or, so far as 1 am aware, 
in any capital or large town in Europe), to place all the 
lamp-posts throughout town at distances from each 
other that shall represent an aliquot part of a mile, so 
that a disputed cab fare could be regulated in an instant 
by merely counting the lampposts between the two 
points, in place of measuring with a wheel the whole of 
the disputed distance as now. All moderate-sized maps of 
London could have the posts marked upon them, so that 
they could be reckoned up in an instant. Whenever I 
have suggested this, it has always been treated as hope- 
less of adoption, so I now place it on record as a thing 
of such obvious utility that nobody can be got to see it. 

" Sack and sugar."' 1 Hen. IV,' II. iv. 
" If I were his phyaition I would prescribe him a cup 
of wine and sugar." Op. cit., p. 11. " Vndoubtedly hee 
hath a reference to the wine and sugar mentioned in hia 
Preface, which liquor he saith the Knight loues well."- 
Op. cit., p. 13. 

" Mooncalf."' Tempest,' IT. ii. 

" The soyle of Africa which (as Cosmographers say) 
yields euery Moone a new supply of strange Monsters 
and deformed creatures." Op cit., p. 26. 
" Let the welkin roar." ' 2 Hen. IV.,' II. iv. 
" Had he continued a little longer at School by this 
time he would have made the Welkin roare." Op. cit., 
p. 36 

" Still harping on my daughter."' Hamlet,' II. ii. 
" Pidler......who still harj>es vpon one string and 

dwell" vpon one tune." Op. fit., p. 35. 

What sweeting all amort ? " ' Tarn, of the Sh..' IV. i. 
She is in the pout, all a mort." Op. cit., p. 45. 
How now, a Rat 1 " ' Hamlet,' III. iv. 
Methinks I smell a rat." Op. cit., p. 69. 
A my word wee '1 not carry coales." ' Romeo and 
Juliet,' I. i. 

"You shall find hee will carry no coales if once you 
touch his copieholde." Op. cit., p. 72. 
" Chop logick." ' Romeo and Juliet,' III. v. 
" Hee is content to chop Logicke with you by the 
Clocke." Op. cit., p. 120. 

The dragon wing of night ore-spreds the earth 
And stickler-like the Armies seperates. 

' Troilus and Cressida,' V. ix. 

" My Masters, I feare we had need send for a Stickler 
to part the fray," Op. cit., p. 168. 

"Thou, Rascall Beadle, hold thy bloody hand." 
' Lear,' IV. vi. 

" The Bodies of Bridewell should have tawed your 
hide to the quicke." Op. cit., p. 192. 

" A was a Botcher's Prentize." 'All 's Well,' IV. iii. 
" Hee shall not be bound Prentize to such a Botcher 
who cannot teach him to thred hia needle aright." 
Op. cit., p. 195. 

"And let them dye that age and sullens haue." 
' Rich. II.,' II. i. 

" It were pitty hee should die of the sullens." 
Op. cit., p. 266. 

These are only a few of many interesting sentences 
contained in this book, to which I once before 
drew attention in ' N. & Q.' with reference to 
" mumm-budget." ALFRED WALLIS. 

'CYMBELINE': (a) III. v. 7-9 ; (6) I. vii. 103-6 ; 
(c) I. v. Having alluded to one passage in ' Twelfth 
Night,' given one from 'Love's Labour's Lost,' 
and two from this play, where the meanings are 
made known by the stage action, and where this 
sometimes necessitates a change in the punctua- 
tion, I would now notice three other passages of 
the like character. 

(a) Luc. So, sir : I desire of you 

A conduct over land to Milford Haven. |_ ] 
Madam, all joy befall your grace, and you. 

Here Malone would read his grace, and all must 
think that some farewell to the King, who had 
invited him to stay as a private individual and 
had entertained him as such, is wanted. Acting 
on this view, my friend Dr. Ingleby has the follow- 
ing note : " And you. These words appear to in- 

7 th S. II. JDIT 10, '86.] 


dicate Cymbeline. Possibly the word sir [as 
suggested by Swynfen Jervis] has fallen out at 
the end of the line. The Globe edition, with some 
plausibility, assigns the words and you to the 
Queen." But the fatal objection to the first sug- 
gestion is that Lucius, taking formal leave and 
bearing back a declaration of defiance, is made, 
with complete disregard to etiquette and precedent, 
to take leave first of the Queen one not of royal 
blood and then of the King, in words and in a 
sequence as though he were an all but unregarded 
William merely married to a Mary, the rightful 
queen. He thus omits, also, to take leave of the 
son of this queen, whom he is made to consider 
a principal personage, and who had been ap- 
pointed as his immediate attender and entertainer 
(II. iii. 60). And since the simple and you is an 
absurdly unpolite way of addressing a king an 
enemy king, to whom he is ambassador it is sug- 
gested that the metrically needless sir may possi- 
bly have dropped out. Lastly, it is absurd that 
Lucius, even in mere courtesy, should wish all joy, 
that is victory, to one whom be is about to assail 
as a rebel. As to the Globe variation, one asks 
in vain, Where is the adieu to the King ! He is 
made a puppet not worth taking into account ; 
the Queen alone receives his wishes, while the text 
is needlessly altered to make her answer him. 

The Rev. Mr. Dyce most oddly says that here 
So, sir : can hardly be disjoined, as they are by the 
colon, from the words which follow. The disjunc- 
tion brings out the haughtiness of state with which 
the Roman, again an ambassador, after suggesting 
a favourable answer, receives the same decision 
" So, sir, your words are spoken : I now desire of 
you safe conduct to Milford Haven." With the 
same haughtiness he, either after So, sir : or after 
Haven not improbably, indeed, after both 
makes his farewell but silent obeisance to the 
King, who from that moment is a rebel to 
Augustus, and the King in return gives an equally 
formal and silent acknowledgment of it and of his 
assent to the request. If we do not accept these 
silent actions we make both the King and the 
Roman utter barbarians, and the former one who 
does not even deign to notice Lucius's request for 
an escort. Then the Ambassador, turning to the 
Queen, who is no recognized arbitress of peace or 
war or indeed, politically speaking, no political 
personage at all and making another knee-bend, 

addresses her with " Madam grace," and lastly 

to Oloten, who had been specially appointed as his 
care-taker, but of whom he had taken a correct) 
measurement, he simply, and in the same breath, 
adds, if the text be right, and you. I say if the 
text be right, for independently I was led to wish 
thit yours, the suggestion of Steevens, were the 
text reading, as this would more mark his veiled 
contempt for the private, but insolent and interfer- 
ing, son of a widow. Neither Dr. Ingleby's sug- 

gestion nor the Globe's alteration would be out of 

place were they necessary, but my contention is 

that in the acted play they are unnecessary. 

(6) lino. Send your trunk to me : it shall safe be kept, 

And truly yielded to you.f ]You 're very welcome. 

Here I introduce a because, as I take it, the 
natural course of events is this. Imogen having 

said "Send to you," lachimo, like a true 

courtier, and as a private gentleman answering a 
princess, heir to the throne, acknowledges her 
gracious assent to his request by a low bend of the 
knee or head, perhaps even kisses her hand, for 
most dutiful observance is now his cue. And it 
is to this that she replies " You 're very welcome," 
that is, as the hearer likes, either generally wel- 
come to the Court, or to this granted assent, or to 

(c) which else an easy battery might lay flat, for 

taking a b-Tgar without less quality. 

We are obliged to suppose that either Shake- 
speare or the transcriber mistakenly wrote less 
instead of more, or else seek a means by which 
the sentence will give a meaning to this less. This 
latter, if possible, would be more in accordance 
with true criticism than suggesting an emendation. 
A snap of the fingers was and is used to express a 
contemptuous estimate of anything or of any one. 
Twice, at least, it was so used in plays of the 
period ; and though I acknowledge that in these 
so far as my memory goes there are the words 
"than this," or words to that effect, which are 
wanting in this instance, yet I think that here 
the sentence was equivalent to " of less quality 
[snaps his fingers] [than this]." I have heard, and 
I think have said, words indifferently to this effect, 
" I do not value it that [snap]," or " I do not value 
it " and then the snap completed the sentence. 


'OTMBBLINB,' V. iii. 45. 

And now our cowards, 

* * * * 

Having found the back-door open 
Of the unguarded hearts, heavens, how they wound ! 
Some slain before ; some dying ; gome their friends 
O'er-borne i' the former wave : ten, chased by one, 
Are now each one the slaughter-man of twenty. 

The Globe editors, Collier and Dyce, print and 
punctuate thus, all agreeing to indicate a wrong 
pause by a note of admiration misplaced between 
a verb active and its accusative case. Correct 
thus : 

Having found the back door open 
Of the unguarded hearts, heavens ! how they wound 
Some slain before, some dyin^. some their friends 
O'er-borne i' the former wave! ten chased by one, &c. 

Is it possible thu the editors cited above under- 
stood some to indicate the pursuers, as if Shake- 
speare had written 

Some the slain before ; some the dying; tome their 
friends, kc.t 

I almost fear so. Dr. Ingleby owed his readers a 



[7< h S. II. JULY 10, '86. 

note to justify his retention of the surprising dis 
tribution of commas and semicolons in the original 

Heavens ! bow they wound ! 
Some slain before, some dying ; some their friends 
O'erborne i' the former wave, ten chased by one, 
Are now each one the slaughterman of twenty. 

III. L 48. 

Caesar's ambition 

Did put the yoke upon ; s ; which to shake off 

Becomes a w'arlike people, whom we reckon 

Ourselves to be, we do. Say, then to Caesar, &c. 

So the first folio. Malone made the change, " We 

do say then," &c. ; Collier and Dyce make Cloten 

interpose with " We do "; and the Globe editors 

have the variation, under supposed pressure of the 


Citizens and Lords. We do. 
Finally, Dr. Ingleby prints : 

Whom we reckon 
Ourselves to be. We do ! say then to Caesar. 

But it is agreeable for once to get back to the dear 
corrupt old folio, and find that the editors might 
have spared themselves their trouble in tinkering. 
The phrase, "Whom we reckon ourselves to be, 
we do/ is but a form of emphatic pleonasm, 
which continues familiar enough colloquially. 
This I believe to be the true explanation, I do ; 
the critics mistake if they think otherwise, they 
do ; though I am well aware that they reckon 
themselves sometimes infallible, they do. 


i. 423). MR. W. WATKISS LLOYD was no doubt 
writing without St. Jerome's 'Prologue' before 
him when he stated that it was prefixed to that 
part of the Old Testament which was not trans- 
lated directly from the Hebrew, as St. Jerome 
himself draws attention to the fact that it was a 
general preface by stating, " Hie prologus Scriptu- 
rarum quasi galeatum principinm omnibus libris 
quos de Hebrseo vertimus in Latinum convenire 
potest: ut scire valeamus, quidquid extra hos est, 
inter apocrypha esse ponendum." Forcellini gives 
it as his opinion of the derivation of the term 
that, " Galeatus prologus dicitur per metaphoram, 
in quo ea dicuntur, quae faciunt ad tuendam auc- 
toritatem libri cui pra-ponitur. Ita prologum 
suum inscripsit D. Hieronymus, quern S. Scripturae 
prsefixit." He states, however, that there are other 
explanations. Some of the books, of course, could 
not be translated from the Hebrew, as not existing 
in that language. ED. MARSHALL. 

Facciplati, s. v. " Galeatus," says : " A prologue 
is metaphorically said to be ' galeated ' when what 
it contains makes for the defence of the work to 
which it is prefixed. St. Jerome thus entitled the 
prologue he prefixed to the Holy Scriptures. 

Others explain the word differently. See Vosa, 
1. 3, ' Instit. Orator.,' cap. 2. sect. 11, towards the 
end." I have not the work referred to, and nothing 
in Quintilian throws any light on the phrase. 


ANIMATED HORSEHAIRS. Some little time ago 
I was made acquainted with one of the most re- 
markable bits of folk-lore in existence, reported 
to me by one of my sisters from the talk of her 
gillies in Ross-shire. She found them in possession 
of a positive belief that a hair taken from a horse's 
tail and made fast at one end in a place where there 
is slowly running water would in the course of a 
short time become a thing with life of its own 
a worm, an eel, or water-snake, or whatever you 
might please to call it. Our late Editor thought 
the tale so extravagant that he would not insert it. 
Nevertheless, as each salmon-fishing and deer- 
stalking season has come round the question has, 
at my request, been again and again gone into ; 
and though no successful experiment has been 
effected, the belief of the men that it ought to 
come right is positive, and continues to the present 

I am led to recur to the subject because I happen 
just now to have seen a tiny book of fifteen pages, 
by Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps (date January, 1866), 
containing a painstaking account of the English 
counterpart of the same tradition. As only twenty- 
five copies of the book were printed, and fifteen of 
these were destroyed, it is probable that few people 
have had the advantage of seeing it, and it may be 
worth while to record the evidence it affords of 
the same popular fancy obtaining also in England. 

The little work in question consists of a collec- 
tion of pieces of testimony 

1. A passage from Shakespeare's ' Antony and 
Cleopatra,' I. ii.: 

Much is breeding, 

Which, like the courser's hair, hath yet but life, 
And not a serpent's poison. 

2. One from Harrison, who, in his ' Description 
of England,' about 1580, says " a horsehaire laid 
in a pale of like [?] water will in a short time stirre 
and become a living creature." 

3. One from Churchward's 'Discourse of Re- 
bellion,' 1570, to similar effect. 

4. The writer says, on the evidence of a private 
friend, that he had ascertained the idea was current 
in Warwickshire " half a century ago." That would 
take it back to the beginning of the century. 

5. A quotation from a letter of Dr. M. Lister, 
dated April, 1672, printed in Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society that year, p. 4064. Dr. 
Lister includes a summary of what had been written 
by Aldrovandus, ' De Animalibus, Insectis,' fol. 
1602, pp. 720-1, about an insect he calls " seta 
aquatica" and "vermis setarius," which he de- 
scribes as exactly like a horsehair, and also calls 

7* 8. II. JOLT 10, '88.J 



it " amphisbrena aquatica," because it has no head 
and swims both ways. Lister speaks of finding 
some of these worms in the insides of beetles. 

6. " The common hair worm," says Brown, " is 
found in fresh water in wet clayey soil. In size 
and appearance it exactly resembles the hair of a 
horse's tail, and when touched twists into knot- 
like contortions. It is this worm which is the 
true animated horsehair of the rural districts." 

7. It quotes Mr. L. Jewitt's testimony as to the 
belief prevailing or having prevailed in Derbyshire. 

But though the people might mistake one of 
these worms for a horsehair, it would not account 
for their thinking that a horsehair they were watch- 
ing turned into one if it still remained inanimate. 
There follow three more quotations. 

8. An allusion to the superstition, pointing a 
moral from it, in Swinnock's 'Christian Man's 
Calling,' 1668. 

9. A passage from the 'Literary Remains' of 
Coleridge, vol. il pp. 144-5, who describes seeing 
the experiment take effect and thinks that water- 
lice settle on the hair and make it move. 

10. From a letter of Robert Southey to Dr. 
Southey to very similar effect. 

The writer gives no comment of his own. 

Is it not more consonant with the alleged ap- 
pearance that the above named "hair-worm" 
settles itself inside the tube of the horse-hair, as 
the cuckoo is said to suit itself with a ready-made 
nest. In the aquarium at Naples is a creature 
locally called a " moreno " (not a very distinctive 
appellation, but I am ignorant of the generic 
name), a beautiful snake-like thing, with soft-tinted 
yellow scales in patterns just like the tiled domes 
one sees about Naples (perhaps imitated from them), 
which takes kindly to the terra-cotta tubes provided 
for it in its tank. May not these " hair-worms " 
similarly wriggle themselves into the horsehair ? 
They would thus give it all the appearance of 
being alive. 

That so high an authority as Mr. Halliwell- 
Phillipps has not thought the subject beneath his 
notice supplies value to my little contribution to 
our store of popular beliefs. K. H. BUSK. 

(See 6 th S. xi. 288.) I must ask leave to return to 
this bishop, not now to his consecration, but to the 
date of his death. It is much to be regretted that 
Sir Thomas Hardy's ' Le Neve ' gives a wrong date, 
Dec. 10, 1569, which is followed by the usually 
accurate Bishop Stubbs in the ' Registrum,' and 
after him by Mr. Lea in ' Spiritual Jurisdiction.' 
Sir Thomas notes, however, "others say that he 
died Aug. 13, 1568," which is without doubt correct. 
This earlier date is given by Strype (' Life of 
Parker,' i. 537, Oxf. ed.), on the authority of "Dr. 
Overton of that church," namely, William Overton, 
Treasurer of Chichest er, and son-in-law of the bishop, 

who reports his death to Secretary Cecil, in a letter 
which is quoted in Bailey's ' Validity of Anglican 
Orders.' Strype also, which is another confirmation, 
mentions the subsequent vacancy of the see for 
nearly two years. Whether Bishop Barlow's own 
epitaph exists I do not know, but the correct date 
is given on his widow's, in Easton Church, in 
Hampshire (Cassan's 'Bishops of Winchester,' ii. 56, 
and 'N. & Q.,' 6 th S. viiL 34). The 'Biographia 
Britannica' also is right, and (doubtless quoting 
this) Chalmers's ' Dictionary.' Mr. Hole's ' Brief 
Dictionary ' is unluckily wrong. The origin of 
the incorrect date I do not know probably some 
confusion with another William Barlow. It is 
given in Moreri's ' Dictionary ' (1759), which refers 
to Bayle ; but I can find no such article in Bayte 
(1734). Godwin, ' De Praesulibus,' gives no date 
at all, and in Wharton's ' Anglia Sacra ' there is 
nothing bearing on the subject. 

I venture to hope that this may be noted for any 
future edition of the modern works I have quoted, 
all whereof, as a general rule, are extremely trust- 
worthy. 0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

in the twenty-sixth Spectator (one of the seven 
papers which Lord Macaulay says a " person who 
wishes to form a just notion of the extent and 
variety of Addison's powers will do well to read 
at one sitting "), writes as follows : 

" Upon my going into the church [that is, Westminster 
Abbey] 1 entertained myself with the digging of a grave; 
and saw in every shovel-full of it that was thrown up 
the fragment of a bone or skull intermixt with a kind of 
fresh mouldering earth that some time or other had a 
place in the composition of an humane [sic] body." 

It is devoutly to be hoped that this kind of 
thing does not happen now ; and yet, as the Abbey 
is considerably more crowded with the illustrious 
dead than in Addison's day, I am afraid that the 
indecency described above is still more likely to 
happen now than then. It is bad enough to think 

Imperial Caesar, dead and turned to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away ; 

but, inasmuch as a great poet or a great historian 
reflects more glory on his country than a great 
general, it is still worse to think of the bones of 
Spenser, or Macaulay, or Addison himself, shovelled 
about by a "first" or "second" gravedigger, who 
would care little whether the bones were those of 
a great poet or a great capitalist, and who might 
say with Dido, though in a very different sense, 

Troa Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur. 
If Addison in this Spectator paper describes, as 
we may suppose, what he really saw on March 29, 
1711, what guarantee have we that the bones 
which were shovelled about in this unceremonious 
manner were not actually those of Chaucer, or 
Spenser, or Ben Jonson ? Is it not the case that 


NOTES AND QUERIES, p s. n. 3va 10, 

those who are buried in the Abbey, or at any rate 
in Poets' Corner, are not laid in vaults, but in 
dug graves ? I think I have heard so ; and Addison's 
words appear to confirm it. I am sure that any one 
who loves and reverences our great writers would 
agree with me that it would have been far better 
that the bodies of Johnson, and Macaulay, and 
Dickens, should have been cremated out of hand 
than that they should have been laid in honoured 
graves in our national Temple of Fame, to be 
dishonoured in after years in the painful manner 
that Addison describes. 

One would not wish that the bones and "humane" 
mould of the most insignificant person that ever 
lived should be " rattled over the stones " either 
outside or inside Westminster Abbey; but how 
doubly and trebly revolting does it become when 
the bones are those of an immortal poet or an 
illustrious statesman ! JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

London News of March 8, 1851, has the following : 

" Affair of Honour. A hostile meeting took place at 
Meryille, near Sligo, on the 27th ult., between the Mayor 
of Sligo, E. H. Verdon, Esq., and Charles A. Sedley, Esq., 
solicitor, cousin to Colonel Sedley, 2nd West India 
Regiment, in which the former was attended by a 
professional gentlemen, and the latter by his brother. 
After an exchange of shots, the parties were, with much 
difficulty, taken off the ground. The duel originated in 
an article inserted in the Champion newspaper, of which 
the Mayor is proprietor." 


THE FOUR SKASONS. Seeking quit* a different 
matter, I have just now found the following (in 
Giles Jacob's 'New Law Dictionary," ed. 1772, 
s. v. " Autumn ") : 

" Lindewnod tells us when the several seasons of the 
ye*r brgin, in thest- lin^s: 

Dat Clemrng hiemnn ; dat Petrus ver C-ithedratus ; 
JEstuat Urbanus; autumnal Bartliolomaeug." 
Say, in English : 

Clement, Winter; Peter's Chair, Spring; 
Urban, Summer; Bartholomew, Autumn bring. 
The dates thus indicated appear to be Novem- 
ber 23, February 22, May 25, and August 24. 
Lindwood, or Lyndewode (William, Bishop of St 

e was a man of 

David's), died in 1446. 

many nnmes ; at least he has become known also 
as William Lit'Ie, Gulieluma Parvus, and Guil- 
laume Petit. His common designation of New- 
burgh is taken from the Yorkshire monastery of 
that name, of which he was a canon. This fact 
seems not to be sufficiently known. In Macray's 
Manual of British Historians,' 1845, p. 19 in 
Dr Littledale's 'Song of Songs,' 1869, p. xxxvi 
(and I think hy Dibdin), he is styled " of Nw- 
bury "; and in Canon Perry'* ' Hist, of the English 
Church, 1509- 1717' (1878), p. 3, he appears as " Wil- 


Ham of Newberry." At the same time, perhaps it 
should be said that " of Newburgh " was variously 
Latinized " Neuburgensis," " de Novoburgo," 
" Neubrigensis," " Novoburgensis," and " Novi- 
burigensis." W. C. B. 

Pictorial World for June 19, 1886, p. 570, a new 
theory is started about Whitsuntide. We are 
told that " it synchronized with Wittentide, or the 
season of the year in which the wits, or wise men 
of the Witenagemote [error for Witenagemot], 
were chosen." 

I think this is the coolest and most deliberate 
invention I remember to have met with. All is 
thought to be "fair" when it comes to etymology, 
and boldness of invention is still held to be a 
merit. It is a strange principle. The inventoi 
knows perfectly well that he made up li-'ittentide 
out of his own head, and found it nowhere. I 
shall always protest against such dishonesty. 


OBLIVIOUS. In the last published volume by 
the late Mr. F. J. Fargus I find this word em- 
ployed in a most inaccurate way. On pp. 4 and 
170 of ' Carristpn's Gift and Three Others ' (1886) 
are the following passages, " He seemed even 
oblivious to sound"; "In fact he seemed almost 
oblivious to her presence." Here is the double 
error of oblivious for insensible, unconscious, or un- 
observant, with the wrong preposition. We say 
" oblivious of" a past event or impression. This 
abusive employment of the word is the more remark- 
able as Mr. Fergus's style is that of an educated 
man, and his creations, however crude, have the 
power of cre*t've genius. C. M. I. 

Athenaeum Club. 

A CURIOUS CUSTOM. On June 16 there were 
great rejoittaga at Aughtou, a village near Orms- 
kirk, Lancashire, on the celebration of what is 
known as " Aughton Pudding Feast," which occurs 
once every twenty-one years. It appears that 
about a century ago a flourishing firm of wand 
weavers lived in the place, and constructed for the 
purposes of trade an immense oblong boiler. When 
erected, it was inaugurated bycookiug in it a Urge 
plum pudding of about a ton weight. This pudding 
was 20 it. long and 6 ft. thick, while a dozen 
young men could scarcely raise it from the ground. 
The ceremony has been repeated four times at 
regular intervals. Oa the present occasion the 
pudding, which weighed 1,000 pounds, was pro- 
vided by public subscription, and, after being 
carried in procession round the village, was dis- 
tributed among the villagers and visitors. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

treating on the hiatory and antiquity of our 

7 th S. II. JULY 10, '80.] 


modern game of football there is a popular im- 
pression that the first distinct mention of the 
game being played in England was in the reign of 
Edward III. In one of the numbers of your 
journal last year the question was directly asked 
" When was football first played in England ? " 
and in the several answers to the query the afore- 
mentioned impression prevailed. 1 have italicized 
the word distinct, because there is a ball game re- 
ferred to by Fitzstephen in his 'History of London,' 
but us to it being football is not sufficiently obvious. 
The following extract, which is preserved in the 
City records at the Guildhall, Liber Memoran- 
dorum, fol. 66 b, Liber Horn, fols. 229b-231, and 
Letter Book E, fol. 16, will doubtless prove inter- 
esting : 

" Et pur ceo qe graunt noise eat en la cite par ascunes 
rageries de grosses pelotes de pee ferir en prees du poeple 
dotmt plusours inaux par cas purrount auenir qe Dieu 
defend : Comandons et defendons par le Roi sur peine 
denpriBonment tieu ieu vser deinz la cite desore 
enauant. 1 ' Writ for Preserving the Peace according to 
the Articles of the Statute of Winchester, dated Peter- 
borough, April 13, 7 Edward II. (1314). 

The translation of which would read as follows : 

" And because of the great noise in the city by some 
players of large foot balls thrown in the meadows of the 
people, from which many evils might arise which Qod 
forbid : We command and forbid on behalf of the king, 
under pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the 
Oity for the future. 

This I believe to be the first authentic mention 
of football being played in England. 

ARTHUR W. Hoao. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

' DIGEST SHAKESPEARIAN.*.' This is the title 
of one of the current issues of the New York 
Shakespeare Society, being a dry catalogue of 
books on Shakespeare, and not a digest proper. 
Will some person initiated in the peculiar Latinity 
employed by that Society instruct me how to 
parse it ? Does " digest" do duty for "digesta " 
(. g., those of Justinian), that neuter plural being 
turned into a substantive (plural) of the first de- 
clension, " digestae"; or is " Sbakespearianae " the 
result of a similar process, and intended for the 
genitive singular of a supposed substantive of that 
declension ] Between these two alternatives I am 
unable to choose, and would gladly believe that 
the second word is a misprint, if only it had not 
been repeatedly printed so in the American serial 
where this precious "digest" (the most inaccurate 
catalogue I ever saw) was first printed, till the 
editor gave it notice to quit. C. M. I. 


AND BISHOP OF NORWICH. Can any of your 
readers put me in the way of deciding in the 
following matter ? In Cough's translation of Cam- 
den's ' Britannia,' vol. ii. p. 276 ; it is stated : 
" At Osgodby, in Lincolnshire, was born of an 
antient family, remaining there in Fuller's time, 
William Aylmer, Chancellor of England and 
Bishop of Norwich, 1325 to 1336." A reference 
to Blomefield's ' Norwich ' shows that the Bishop 
of Norwich in those years was " William de Ayre- 
minne, Heyremin, Ermine, or Armine," who was 
also Chancellor of England, and stated to have 
come of a Lincolnshire family, and " the raiser of 
the family of Armines of Osgodby, who are de- 
scended collaterally from him." Which is right 
in the name ? JAPHET. 

MAGNA CHARTA. It is stated in D'Israeli's 
' Curiosities of Literature ' that Sir Robert Cotton 
one day at his tailor's discovered the original 
Magna Charta. At the British Museum there is 
no record of this, although the photographic repro- 
duction of the " articles " has a label to the effect 
that they were given to Sir Robert Cotton by 
Humphry Wyems in 1629. Was this man the 
tailor referred to ; was the Charta found the ori- 
ginal one ; and is the story a fact ? G. C. H. 

I should be glad to be referred to translations of 
the poems in Keble's ' Christian Year.' I have 
recently met with an Italian translation of a selec- 
tion, a second edition of which has just been 
published by Rivingtons. The translator is Ottavio 
Tasca, the title of the work being ' Dodici Inni 
Sacri tolti dull' Anno Cristiano.' 


51, Highbury Hill, N. 



I sit on the rocks whilst I 'm raising the wind. 

The storm once abated I 'm gentle and kind ; 

I have kings at my feet who wait hut my nod 

To kneel in the dust on the ground that I 've trod. 

Tho' the world often sees me I 'm known but to few : 

The Qentile detests me ; I 'm pork to the Jew. 

I never have spent but one night in the dark, 

And I was with Noah alone in the ark. 

My weight is three pounds ; my length is a mile ; 

And when I 'in discovered I '11 say, with a smile, 

That my first and my last are the beat of our isle. 

I shall be glad to know the answer. 


of your readers oblige me with information of the 
names Le Dreigh or Ledenton ? The former in its 
ancient style I believe stood as above, but more 
recently dropped the affix. The latter is, or was, 
a Hampshire name. Any information will be 
appreciated by D. VALE. 


[7 th S. II. JULY 10, '86. 

" PEYS AUNT."" St. Elmo's light is called by 
the old fishermen of Footdee ' Peys Aunt,' and they 
look upon it as forecasting foul weather " ( Folk- 
lore Journal, 1885, p. 306. Can any of your 
correspondents oblige me by explaining "Peys 

AN OLD INN-SIGN. Can anybody give further 
information as to the sign of " The Bonnie Cravat," 
at Woodchurch, Kent, near Romney Marsh, said 
to have been a Jacobite rendezvous? Was any 
particular style of cravat known as a sign among 
them ? I believe it is referred to in the late Mr. 
Streatfeild's work on Kent; and I was asked by 
him in November last if I had ever heard of it. 
The Society of Antiquaries in Edinburgh could 
give no information. F.S.A.Scot. 

Capell's introduction to his edition of Shakespeare, 
published about a hundred years ago, he promised 
to print another book, then in MS., called ' The 
School of Shakespeare,' consisting of extracts from 
the books which Shakespeare had read, and in- 
dicating the sources of his information. Can any 
of your readers tell me if this book was ever printed; 
and, if not, what became of it ? C. J. B. 

What family did Thomas Wentworth, Earl of 
Strafford (1593-1641), leave; and what became of 
them ? Are any of his descendants living at the 
present time ? I shall be much obliged by any 
information on the subject. ARTH. GYLES. 

Waterloo Crescent, Nottingham. 

author of this and several other novels, published 
about three-quarters of a century ago 1 


In ' Old England,' edited by Charles Knight, is 
an illustration 'of an urn or cup found in the 
ruins of Glastonbury Abbey, in Somerset, encir- 
cling which are represented various saints which 
appear to be resting on swans and roses, clearly 
indicating a religious sign. May not the roses 
have borne a connexion with the Glastonbury 
thorn? T. W. CAREY. 

SHELMO. Can any of your readers tell me what 
is the meaning of shelmo, or give any instances of 
its occurrence ? The passage in which I met with 
the word was in a correspondence between Scot- 
land and Denmark, in which it was stated that 
shelmo was not in use in Scotland. Is the prac 
tice known in Denmark, as seems to be implied t 

D. A. 

I seek the parentage and ancestry of John 
Eichards, of London and Edmonton, who had 

brothers James, George (? a Bilbao merchant), 
and Charles, who married and had issue, and a 
sister Ann. John Eichards married Dorothy, 
daughter of Joshua Galliard, of Edmonton, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Bradshaw, of Bramp- 
ton, Yorkshire, high sheriff co. Derby 1717, and 
had Dorothy, who died May 17, 1748, aged 
twelve, and buried at Edmonton, and John 
Eichards (posthumous), of North House, Cather- 
ington, co. Hants, who married Maria, daughter 

of Downman, and had issue. The first John 

Eichards died , 1737, and his widow mar- 
ried secondly S. Clark, of Edmonton, and had 
issue. The second John Eichards died July 27, 
1819, aged eighty-two, and his widow died 
Nov. 11, 1826, aged eighty. Monumental inscrip- 
tion at Hambledon, Hants, to second John 
Eichards and his widow. I shall be glad of any 
dates of birth, marriage, and death, and places of 
baptism, marriage, and burial of any of the above. 

Beaconsfield Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 

tion as to the life and descendants of the above, 
who was commander-in-chief in India in 1774, will 
be of service to D. K. 


To SAY MICHAELMAS. What is the origin of 
this expression ? I have failed to find it in any 
books of reference, and have met with it only in 
the following passage : 
Tteh. Art wearie of thy choice? 
Lin. Technis, I am, 

For I 'me perswaded she 'd wearie any man. 
So seeming smooth she is and euer was, 
As if she hardly could say Michaelmat, 

R. Braithwaite, ' Nature's Embagsie,' 

1621, p. 230, reprint, 1877. 

Why should " Michaelmas " be a shibboleth ? Was 
there once a different pronunciation of the word, I 
mean with a soft ch? This might be inferred 
from the surname Mitchell. 


THE GREAT PLAGUE. In a letter concerning 
the Great Plague, bearing date July 16, 1665, 1 

find a reference to "goods sent by a of infected 

persons." I cannot be sure whether the words 
are " nurse-keeper " or " merse-keeper," but more 
probably the former, though I am unable to find 
any similar expression in the dictionaries I have 
consulted. Will some one kindly say what the 
word is likely to be, and whether it represents a 
recognized office of the period 1 H. N. 

JENKINS. I have found this surname most 
common in England, especially in a Hertfordshire 
village, where the people have intermarried as far 
back as they have any traditions, and the other 
prevailing name ia Sharpe. Why is it said to be 
Welsh ? Is it used in Wales as an English trans- 

7"> S. II. JULY 10, ( 8.] 


lation of Shenkin from the coincidence of sound \ 
Or are there Celtic elements even in Hertfordshire, 
the very birthplace, as it is claimed, of polite 

Buscot Rectory, Lechlade. 


"Of a more dignified grade are perhaps those who 
have lent themselves to the collection of the theses on 
which aspirants after university honours held their dis- 
putations or impugnments Of these theses and similar 

tracts a German, Count Dietrich, collected some hundred 
and forty thousand, which are now in this country." 
Burton's ' Bookhunter,' original edition, p. 60. 

In what library is this enormous collection to be 
found ? P. J. ANDERSON. 

2, East Craibstone Street, Aberdeen. 

of your readers give me some particulars of the 
caricature portrait of Charles Dickens thus re- 
ferred to by him in a letter (dated July 8, 1861) 
to the Hon. Mrs. Watson ? 

" I hope you may have seen a large-headed photograph 
with little legs, representing the undersigned, pen in 
hivnd, tapping hi* forehead to knock an idea out. It has 
just sprung up so abundantly in all the shops, that I am 
ashamed to go about town looking in at tho picture-win- 
dows, which is my delight. It seems to me extra- 
ordinarily ludicrous, and much more like than the grave 
portrait done in earnest. It made me laugh when I first 
came upon it, until I shook again, hi open sunlighted 

I shall also be glad to obtain information concern- 
ing any other scarce portrait of the novelist, as I 
am preparing a work entirely relating to Dickens 
portraits. FRED. G. KITTON. 

SUNDON. I think William Clayton was granted 
a pension of 1,OOOZ. a year by Geo. I., and created 
Lord Sundon and Ardale by Geo. II. He had a 
sister only, who married a Fyson ; they had two 
sons. Lord Sundon died intestate (?) at Sundon, 
near Luton, Beds. Can any one kindly give date 
of his death and place of burial, and say to what 
extent above is correct ? JOB. 

ODD ENGRAVING. I have a small engraving, 
8 in. by 6 in., a man and woman engaged in 
earnest conversation. Her left hand is resting on 
his right shoulder, and he is evidently listening 
with the utmost attention. On the back of the 
frame is pasted a slip with " Giorgione pinxit. 
Dom Cunego sculpsit 1773. Ex Tabula Romse in 
QJdibus Burghesianis asservata." I should like to 
know the subject. Framed as a companion to it 
is a portrait of a massive, rugged, and venerable 
face, with a long grizzled beard, but there is nothing 
to indicate its origin. G. H. THOMPSON. 


is in Mr. John Morley's ' Life of Jean Jacques,' at 

the commencement of the chapter headed " Eng- 
land," the following : " There is in an English 
collection a portrait of Jean Jacques, which was 
painted during his residence in this country by a 
provincial artist." Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
inform me who the artist was, and in what collec- 
tion it is ? EDWARD R. VYVYAN. 

"BUCKET SHOP TRICKS." Why are certain 
" scroobious and wily " stockbroking transactions 
so called ? An advertising firm of brokers assures 
me that it indulges itself in 

" No ' Bucket Shop ' Tricks. We wish to most em- 
phatically state that we do not conduct our business upon 
' bucket shop ' lines ; which means that we do not permib 
ourselves to descend to the trick of ' running ' stock 
against our clients. This system, unfortunately, largely 
prevails, and, being reduced to plain English, means that 
it is to the interest of brokers practising it that their clients 
should lose. It is, perhaps, not generally known that 
certain brokers make their profits by selling stock, at 
very wide prices, direct to the client who is buying, it 
therefore becomes the interest of such brokers that their 
clients shall lose." 


TITLE OF SONG WANTED. Can you tell me the 
name of the song beginning " I '11 watch for thee 
in my lonely bower," and who is the publisher ? 

latter part of a novel ' Anne Hereford,' by Mrs. 
Henry Wood the following occurred to me as n 
singular inadvertence on the part of this gifted 
authoress. George, next brother of Sir Thomas 
Chandos, dies at midnight, and the next morn- 
ing's post brings news from India of Sir Thomas's 
death, therefore at least a fortnight before. Harry, 
the eldest surviving brother, succeeds to the title ; 
but ought not George to have been considered as 
having intervened, and his widow been styled Lady 
Chandos ? Has such a circumstance ever happened ; 
or, what would be more remarkable, this ? Sup- 
pose Sir Thomas in India and George in England 
had died at the same actual moment ; yet by the 
clock Sir Thomas would have survived some five 
hours the reverse if it had been America instead 
of India and would George be considered as 
laving succeeded in that case 1 A. S. ELLIS. 

MAYONNAISE. What is the origin of this word 
as used in cookery ? GARRICK. 

SIR THOMAS RIDLEY. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.'tell me the date of the birth of Sir 
Thomas Ridley, author of a 'View of Civil and 
Ecclesiastical Law ' ? He died 1629. 

S. R., F.R.S. 

DANIEL DAY. It is stated in Granger's 'Won- 
derful Museum ' that Day " next invented a 
machine to go by the aid of mechanical powers 
without horses, which after two years' successful 



[T* s. IL JULY 10, 

trial, broke down in attempting the third expedi- 
tion" (vol. vi. p. 3050). I am aware of the various 
notices of the founder of Fairlop Fair in the pages 
of ' N. & Q.,' and I merely wish to know where 
a full explanation of this machine of his may be 


G. F. R. B. 

Where do the following lines occur (quoted in a speech 
by a gentleman at Leeds a few days ago) ? 
All go this road in one promiscuous crowd, 
The grave, the gay, the humble, and the proud, 
The rich, the poor, the ignorant and wise, 
'Tis neutral ground, where all distinction flies. 
The following quotation is from Wordsworth. Query, 
where in his works ? 

A man of Hope and forward-looking mind. 

G. T. C. 



(7 th S. i. 328.) 
The brigadier was Laird of Borlum, near Inver- 

ness, and a kinsman of Mackintosh, the chief of 
that clan. He had seen much foreign service, and 
was accounted a brave and bold officer. By his 
persuasion the chief commanded his men to 
attend him to the Pretender's standard. The 
brigadier formed them into a regiment of five 
hundred men, and joined the Earl of Mar at 
Perth. This regiment, with other five, were 
formed into a battalion, consisting of thirteen 
companies of fifty men each, of which the briga- 
dier took the command. His brother John was 
major under him. He led them in the bold and 
dangerous march to the Lothians, and, after being 
unsuccessful in taking Edinburgh, into England. 
He surrendered unconditionally at Preston. He 
was, with the other prisoners, taken to London and 
confined in Newgate. By an Act passed on 
March 6, 1716, a commission was constituted for 
trying the prisoners in Newgate and the Fleet, at 
the Court of Common Pleas, at Westminster. 
Next day the court met, and bills of indictment 
for high treason were prepared against Thomas 
Forster, Brigadier Mackintosh, and nine others, 
and copies being given them, the court adjourned, 
allowing them a week to prepare defences. On 
the 14th the court met again', when they found 
that Mr. Forster had made his escape out of New- 
gate on the 10th, at night, and a proclamation 
was published offering a thousand pounds to any 
who should apprehend him. He escaped to Calais. 
The brigadier did not escape with him, and at 
the sitting of the court, being arraigned, he and 
the others pleaded " Not guilty," moved for time, 
and were allowed three weeks to prepare for their 
trial. On May 4, about eleven at night, Mack- 
intosh, with fifteen more of the prisoners, broke 
out of Newgate by force, knocking down the 

keepers and opening the doors, and some of these, 
mistaking the way to the streets, were retaken. A 
proclamation was issued offering a thousand pounds 
reward for apprehending the brigadier and five 
hundred pounds for each of the rest; but they could 
not be found. During the remainder of the session 
" A Bill to attaint Mr. Forster and Brigadier 
Mackintosh of High Treason " was passed. 

Although the brigadier escaped at this time he 
was retaken some years thereafter, and confined in 
Edinburgh Castle, where he spent a long imprison- 

The following are contemporary obituary notices 
in regard to him : 

" January 6, 1743. Brigadier William Mackintosh of 
Borlum lay this morning at the point ef death in the 
Castle, where he has been confined these fifteen years." 

" January 10. On Friday died in the Castle William 
Mackintosh of Borlum, Esq., aged about eighty-five. Hia 
extraordinary natural endowments, improved by a polite 
education, rendered him in all respects a complete gentle- 
man, friendly, agreeable, and courteous. He wrote several 
pieces during his confinement, of which that published 
anno 1729, for ' Enclosing, Fallowing, and Planting Scot- 
land,' &c., secured to him the lasting character of a lover 
of his country. He was a Capt. in K. James VII.'s army 
before the Revolution, at which period he went abroad, 
and followed the fate of his master for several years." 

Some may regret he was not spared a little 
longer to hear from his weary place of confinement 
the shouts attending the triumphant entry of 
his beloved prince into the Scottish metropolis. 
The fact of the brigadier being the author of the 
volume above referred to, and noticed by your 
correspondent MR. PICKFORD, was not known to 
Dr. Robert Chambers. He refers to it in his 
4 Domestic Annals of Scotland,' voL iii. p. 420, as 
an " anonymous volume published in 1729." la 
that volume the brigadier gives the credit to 
Elizabeth Mordaunt, daughter of the famous Earl 
of Peterborough who married the eldest son of 
the Duke of Gordon and came to reside in Scot- 
land in 1706 of having introduced the practice of 
fallowing, the sowing of French grasses, and the 
proper way of making hay. A. G. REID. 


The brigadier is briefly, and in some points 
inaccurately, noticed in Anderson's ' Scottish 
Nation,' where he is spoken of as uncle of the 
chief of Mackintosh, instead of cousin and prin- 
cipal cadet. The best account that I have seen is 
to be found in the interesting ' Historical Me- 
moirs of the House and Clan of Mackintosh,' by 
Mr. A. Mackintosh Shaw (London, 1880), where 
the pros and cons of the varied aspects under which 
the brigadier has been presented to us are very 
fairly stated. 

The general conclusion as to the character of 
Brigadier Mackintosh which a comparison of these 
statements leaves upon my mind is that he was a 
gallant soldier, a good commander, and a man of 

. II. JULY 10, '86.] 



culture. It was during his imprisonment in the 
castle of Edinburgh that he wrote the agricultural 
work which your querist rightly supposed to be 
his. The advice which he gives to landlords and 
tenants must have been disinterested, and some of 
its characteristic features have approved themselves 
to later generations. During the more active por- 
tion of his life the brigadier, though necessarily 
the prominent member of his family, was not of 
Borlum, but younger of Borlum, his father not 
having died till 1716. This distinction, of course, 
has generally escaped English writers. 

The Borlum branch of the clan was founded, as 
Mr. A. M. Shaw tells us, by William of Benchar 
and Raits, second son of Lachlan Mor, sixteenth 
chief of Mackintosh, who died in 1606. William 
Mackintosh of Benchar, as nearest male agnate, 
was tutor to his nephew Lachlan, seventeenth 
chief, the son of his elder brother Angus, who 
died vita patris, at Padua, in 1593. In this 
capacity he signed the great Bond of Manrent in 
favour of the captain of the clan Chattan in 1609, as 
William Mackintosh of Benchar, " principal Cap- 
tain of the haill kin of Clan Chattan, as having 
the full place thereof for the present during the 
minority of Lachlan Mackintosh of Dunnachton, his 
brother's son." The tutor of Mackintosh, who 
obtained from his father a right to the lands of 
Benchar and Raits in Badenoch, acquired a right 
to the lands of Borlum, in the parish of Dores. 
He died in 1630. Two sons of his grandson, 
William Mackintosh of Borlum, were John, a 
major, and Duncan, a captain, in Mackintosh's 
regiment in 1715, while the eldest, William, wus 
the Brigadier Mackintosh of the '15. 

The mother of Sir Roderick Murchison, Barbara 
Mackenzie of Fairburn, was a great-granddaughter 
of the brigadier's eldest daughter, Winwood, by 
his English wife, Mary Reade, of the Reades 
of Ipsden. 

The brigadier was a graduate of King's College, 
Aberdeen, where he and his brother Lachlan were 
entered in 1672, along with Angus, eon of Mack- 
intosh of Killachie, and great-great-grandfather 
of Sir James Mackintosh the historian. In 1677 
young Borlum heads the list of the students who 
received the "Laurea Magisterialis," or Master's 
degree in the Faculty of Arts. I see no reason 
to doubt the accuracy of the description given of 
the brigadier by the Rev. Lachlan Shaw, that he 
was " a gentleman of polite education and good 
knowledge." C. H. E. CARMICHAEL. 

New University Club, S.W. 


(7 th S. i. 405). May I make one remark upon 
No. 11 in the list of quotations from Petronius, 
and ask what connexion there is between " omnia 
quadrata currant" and "to run on all fours"? The 
latter is a common form of comparison with law- 

yers, to imply that two things exactly agree, whereas 
" quadratus," apart from any special use in Petro- 
nius, to whom I cannot at the moment refer, sig- 
nifies, like rrrpaywvos in Greek, something perfect 
and complete in itself, without comparison with 
another subject. So Sallust (' Bell. Jugurth.,' 105) 
has " quadrato agmine incedere," to march in 
battle array ; and there is a similar use in Tibullus, 
with the verb decurrere : 

Turn sibi non desit faciem componere pugnae : 

Sou sit opus quadratum acies consistat in agmen ; 

Rectus ut aequatia decurrant frontibua ordo ; 

Sou libeat duplicem. IV. i. 100 aqq. 

I think I am correct in stating that the origin of 
the legal phrase has not been traced earlier than 
by DR. C. M. INGLEBY in ' N. & Q.,' 1" S. v. 441, 
where he quotes the following passage from ' Coke 
upon Littleton,' lib. i. c. i. sect. i. p. 3 : " But no 
simile holds on everything, according to the an- 
cient saying, 'Nullum simile quatuor pedibus 
currit.' " There is also a marginal reference to 1 
Hen. VII. 16. 

In vol. vi. p. 137 of the same series ERICA, re- 
ferring to ' Tristram Shandy,' vol. i. c. 12, con- 
jectures that the saying would be found among 
the " scholia" to the ' Iliad' or ' Odyssey.' 


RULE OF DIVISION OF WORDS (7 th S. i. 464). 
Permit me to offer a few remarks on MR. NORRIS'S 
article on this subject. He seems to think that a 
serious debasement of our language is going on from 
a looseness in the modern method of dividing words 
into syllables at the ends of lines and in school- 
books, and sums up with the aphorism that " it 
should be generally and clearly understood that 
the English rule for word-sundering is by meaning 
alone ; that the twin consonants, where they ex- 
press a short foregoing vowel, should never be 
separated; and that divisions should always be 
made at the juncture of formative syllables, suffixes 
or affixes." So serious is this innovation, that he 
pleads for the formation of a society, " to protect 
our Anglo-Saxon tongue from classic encroach- 
ments." He almost shudders at the contemplation 
of the fact that little children are taught to spell 
Jes-sy, pus-Bey, hap-py, lit-tle, sau-cer, les-sons, sor- 
ry, &c., whereas they ought to be taught to be happ- 
ee or sorr-ee, that Jess-ee ought to play with puss-ee, 
and they should take their tea from a sauc-er instead 
of a sau-cer. Where the " classic encroachment" 
is in these cases it is rather difficult to discover. 
I venture to suggest that, as the object of the 
division of syllables is phonetic, and not etymo- 
logical, the purpose is better served by the present 
system, whether for convenience or for educational 

I fear the mode proposed would be teaching the 
young idea to shoot in the wrong direction. No 
ordinary English child would be happ-ee to play 
with puss-ie, or sorr-ee for Jess-ee. Most children 



[7 th 8. II. JUIT 10, '86. 

know that sauc as a syllable by itself would spell 
sank, and not saus, as it would require to do ac- 
cording to the new mode of spelling saucer. Our 
t?s and g's and ch'a are hard or soft according to 
the vowel which follows, not that which precedes, 
and ought therefore phonetically to be united in 
the same syllable that is, if the division into 
syllables is of any advantage, which many persons 
in modern times are disposed to doubt. 

The division of words at the end of a line is a 
mere matter of convenience, involving no principle. 
Nobody thinks of spelling the syllables ; we look 
at the word as a whole. This has come to be 
understood in all the European languages. 

Turning over the leaves of a few books at my 
elbow, I find divisions of words as follows: 

In German : bestdn-diger, begei-sterten, gebil- 
deten, em-pfindungen, met-allner. 

In French : gouver-nement, seu-lement, brochu- 
res, pu-blicite, me-lent, di-sent. 

In Italian : amma-liare, illu-strissimo, dome- 
sticando, gu-sto, fattuc-chiere, mali-zia. 

In Spanish : ha-liaria, aque-llo, pu-siese, his- 
toria, ma-yor, es-tado. 

Modern usages have outgrown the pedantry of 
former years. What is found convenient and 
right in other languages cannot be very wrong in 
English. The eTrea TrrepoevTa claim the liberty 
of spelling and dividing themselves]simply as con- 
venience may dictate, and as usage alone can de- 
termine. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, WaYertree. 

1 (7 th S. i. 466). -If MR. ALDIS WRIGHT will 
please to refer to ' N. & Q.,' 5 th S. vi. 207, 278, 
336, 395, 519 ; vii. 498, he will, I am sure, allow 
that there is more to be said in reference to the 
reading "evertit" in St. Luke xv. 8 than the 
author from whom he inserts a quotation appears 
to be aware. It is shown at vol. vi. p. 278 to be 
the reading in Codex Amiatinus, a MS. which 
Tischendorf dates A. D. 541, and in still earlier MSS., 
while it is also adopted by St. Gregory the Great. 
In the Wycliffe Purvey version, circa 1380, it is 
" turneth vpsodoun the hows." 


SIR JONATHAN TRELAWNT (7 th S. i. 387, 458). 
An interesting notice of this prelate may be found 
in ' Alumni Westmonasterienses,' 1852, pp. 165-6. 
On the authority of this book he was admitted 
into college at Westminster in 1663; elected to 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1668; Bishop of Bristol 
1685; Bishop of Exeter, April 13, 1689; Bishop of 
Winchester, 1707; and died 1721. He gave to 
Christ Church the statue of Cardinal Wolsey over 
the gateway leading to the hall. The following 
works are quoted at the end of the memoir as 
sources of information : Ath. Ox./ iv. 895 - 
'Fasti,' ii. 331, 348, 398-; 'Hist, and Antiq.,' 

iii. 451, 453; Appx., 285, 291; 'Atterbury's 
Corresp.j'i. 5-8,136, 308, 400; 'Burnet's Own 
Times,' ii. 487; Godwin de Praesul, ' Angl.,' 245, 
421, 567; Granger's 'Biog. Hist.,' vi. 95-6; 
Kapin's ' Hist, of England,' iii. 529,436; Doyly's 
' Life of Sancrof t,' i. 265 ; Betham'a ' Baronetage,' 
i. 329-30; 'Hist Keg.,' viii. 30; ix. 15. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

. DUTCH BRITONS (7 th S. i. 341, 363, 410,455,495). 
It was an old fancy of mine that the German 
breit is a possible origin for the root Brit in 
Britain. I took it this way. The broads of Norfolk 
and Suffolk sheltered the Iceni, our most typical tribe 
or nation of ancient Britons. These Eastern county 
broads are peculiar, unique the spreading lakes or 
meres caused by sluggish rivers flowing through 
a level country ; and no doubt the pool of the 
Thames was once a broad of similar character, but 
the German breit was not applied by local races. 

These eastern folk of Britain also approach more 
closely to the German Vaterland than any other 
parts of our shore, but I cannot endorse the 
heresy that the Celtic Briton ever spoke a Ger- 
manic tongue. We know that the relics of Cymru 
and Gaedheil in England are Celtic, and it is cer- 
tain that BROTHER FABIAN takes a false view of 
Caesar's statements. We are told that the interior 
Britons were autochthones, i. e., non-Belgic, and 
Caesar describes the latter as fringing the south 
coast only, e. g., Venta Belgari, near Winchester; 
but the Belgae had not reached Venta in Norfolk 
or Venta in Monmouthshire. It is also to be in- 
ferred that the Belgic invasion, as denned by Caesar, 
was quite recent : indeed, it must be so, for the 
Belgae, if Germanic, had then only recently crossed 
into Gaul. 

I therefore cannot admit that " the Roman in- 
vasion must be regarded merely as inci- 
dents in the far more important invasion and 
occupation of Britain by those races [the Ger- 
mans !}" Thus writes BROTHER FABIAN, and it 
is a fallacy. 

Caesar tells us that the Belgae had not displaced 
the central autochthones, and we know that the 
Romans did overspread the land : there is not a 
parish without some branch of the Roman iters or 
the remains of a villa or other relic of Eoman 
occupation. And it remains for us to claim proof 
that the Belgae were Germanic ; they may have 
been so in part, but there were Slavonians also, 
and the Gauls could not have been exterminated. 
Further, if the Belgae were Germanic, what proof 
is there that they did not adopt the Gallic speech? 


If I rightly apprehend BROTHER FABIAN, bia 
so-called " Dutch Britons " are Teutons. There is, 
iowever, no little reason to believe that a Celtic 
race at one time inhabited the district to which 

7 th S. II. JCIT 10, '86.] 



BROTHER FABIAN alludes, and on which it has 
left its mark in well-known place-names. 

Whether these Netherlands Celts, who may seem 
to have a better title than the Teutons to the 
epithet " Dutch Britons," passed over into Britain, 
or were simply cousins who remained on the Con- 
tinent while others of their number crossed the 
" silver streak," it is not necessary here to con- 
sider. The arguments for their existence, whatever 
view we may take of their later history, are to be 
read in the Bulletins of the Anthropological Society 
of Paris for 1 872, in a report by M. Gustave Lag- 
neau on the ' Rechercbes sur 1'Ethnologie de la 
Belgique ' of M. Van der Kindere. The Belgian 
writer brings out the philological argument from 
the names of Courtray (Cortoriacum), Tournay 
(Turnacum), Nymeguen (Noviomagus), and Ley- 
den (Lugdunum), as well as of many other places 
in the district thus broadly indicated. This 
argument of course involves the existence of 
a Celtic population spread over a considerable 
portion of the modern kingdoms of Belgium 
and the Netherlands. The existence of such a 
population is similarly involved in Canon Tay- 
lor's ' Words and Places ' (third edition, 1873), 
where the names singled out from M. Van der 
Kindere's lists by M. Lagneau are also noted. It 
is most probable, I think, that the English and 
Belgian authors were unacquainted with each 
other's works. Dr. Morris, in hia ' Etymology of 
Local Names,' explains the termination ay in 
Tournay and Cambray as a contraction of Teut. 
aha, water. But he does not take into account 
the ac so prevalent in Aquitaine, e.g., Pauillac. 
In the Celtiberian districts of the South- West the 
Teutonic etymology adopted by Dr. Morris cannot 
satisfactorily be worked. Taken in conjunction 
with the other names adduced by M. Van der 
Kindere, I think we have a fair basis for Dutch 
and Belgian Celts as a counterpoise to the " Dutch 
Britons " and Teutonic Belgae of BROTHER FABIAN. 
Whether these Belgic Celts or Celtic Belgse were 
or were not the ancestors of Caesar's Belgse is 
another question. NOMAD. 

Will BROTHER FABIAN, instead of beating about 
the bush, come to the point, and tell us plainly 
how he interprets inland German names in Bret-, 
such as Bretleben in Prussian Saxony, or Brettach 
in Wiirtemberg ? Does he think they have any- 
thing to do with Britomartis, the Bruttii, the 
ancient Britons, the Straits of Dover, the Straits 
of Messina, or any other " sinuous " supposition ; 
or will he admit, as common sense and sound 
philology suggest, that they are merely equivalents 
of such English names as Broadlands and Broad- 
water ? FENTON. 

" To MAKE A HAND OP " (7 th S. i. 449, 517). 
MR. TERRY'S quotation from the first edition of 
Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's Progress' should have had the 

reference to p. 122 instead of p. 93, according to 
the facsimile edition published by Mr. Stock in 
1875, or to p. 82 according to Offer's reprint of 
the first edition for the Hanserd Knollys Society 
in 1847. In this latter edition Mr. Offor states in 
a note on p. 82, " made an end," second and sub- 
sequent editions. In the third, p. 115, the text is, 
"I know not how to shew mercy," the word " how" 
being added; and "He had doubtless made an 
end of me, but that one came by, and bid him 
forbear." I have not a copy of the second edition 
to refer to, but Mr. Offor is doubtless right in stat- 
ing that the alteration was made in that edition. 
As Bunyan revised the first eight editions, he evi- 
dently treated the phrase " made a hand of " as an 
erratum, so we had better follow his example, and 
make an end of it also. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

" To make a hand of " is used in Stubbes's ' Ana- 
tomy of Abuses ' in the same sense as that given 
by Halliwell for " make a hand on." I am, un- 
fortunately, unable to give the exact reference to 
the context, but it can be found on referring to 
the excellent index given in the edition (part ii.) 
published by the New Shakspere Society, to 
which I have not now access. A. C. LEE. 

4, Queen Square, Bath. 

MUSICAL QUERY (7 th S. i. 487). Here is at 
least a clue to what ARQUES is in search of. 
When Haydn was to be made Doctor of Music at 
Oxford he 
" addressed to the examiners an example of his musical 

learning, which turned out to be so composed that 

whether read backwards or forwards, beginning at the 
top, the bottom, or the middle of the page in short, in 
every possible way it always presented an air and a 
correct accompaniment." Crowest, ' The Great Tone 
Poets,' p. 122. 

It is to be regretted that the composition is not 
given. ST. SWITHIN. 

The piece of music was doubtless the canon 
composed by Haydn in 1791 as his exercise on 
receiving the honorary degree of Mus.Doc. from 
the University of Oxford. The canon is in three 
parts, and is of the kind known as a " canon 
cancrizans." It can be sung with equally good 
effect by reading in the ordinary fashion or by 
reading from the page inverted. I shall be happy 
to give a copy of the music to ARQUES if he wish 
it. W. H. CUMMINGS. 

About twenty years ago I found in a church 
chest an old book of hymns and anthems, in which 
is a piece of music such as ARQUES inquires after. 
It is intended for four voices bass and treble vis- 
a-vis to counter- tenor and tenor used thus : two 
lines of music ; upper, bass ; lower, treble ; 
counter-tenor sings treble line upside down, be- 
ginning, of course, at the end where the treble 
finishes; and so the tenor sings the bass part in 
like manner. It is a very ingenious curiosity, and 


deserves preservation. It must have cost the 
composer much time and thought. When I found 
it it was a part of a book containing music of 
psalm tunes, and is on p. 78. This fragment was 
in another book, perfect, pp. 144, entitled A 
Book of Psalmody, containing Chanting Tunes for 
the Venite, &c., and the Reading Psalms, with 
eighteen Anthems.' By James Green. The Ninth 
Edition. London, printed by A. Pearson, over 
against Wright's Coffee House, Aldersgate Street, 
&c., and by Booksellers of Hull, Lincoln, and 
Gainsborough. MDCCXXXVIII." The fragment is 
of the same size, type, paper, &c., as the book 
described above ; and therefore, I conclude, from 
the same publisher. I enclose a copy. I sent a 
description of this music to one of the musical 
journals at the time. It was published. 

Springthorpe Rectory, Gainsborough. 
[The music in question cannot be reproduced in our 
columns. We hold it at the disposition of ARQUES. 
LUNN, the REV. J. MASKJELL, and other contributors 
write to the same effect, and most of them enclose 

HABINGTON MSS. (7 th S. i. 467). Are not the 
Worcestershire collections in the library of the 
Society of Antiquaries ? ESTE. 

274, 374, 411, 512). On the very day when MR. 
GRANT'S reply appeared in ' N. & Q.' (p. 411) I 
met with an accident which for the time disabled 
me from writing. I was so completely at MR. 
GRANT'S mercy that he might have taken me captive, 
and sacrificed me to appease the manes of the mar- 
tyred Jacobites. I could not then answer him; 
but I have now recovered my writing powers. The 
Duke of Cumberland is no hero of mine, but dur- 
ing his life and for long after he was the idol of non- 
Jacobite England. As to his being a coward, as 
Scott suggests, the notion is ridiculous. He in- 
herited the personal courage of his family. The 
Jacobites fought well ; but they knew that they 
marched to battle with a rope round their necks, 
and most of them took their beating with the 
endurance which only brave men can show. 
Pitied by gentle hearts Kilmarnock died, 
The brave, Balmerino, were on thy side. 

It was reserved for modern days to decry the 
Duke of Cumberland as a butcher because he shot 
some rebels. It is curious to contrast this with 
the enthusiasm he excited after Culloden. In 
Dodsley's ' Collection of Poems ' (fourth ed., 1755, 
vol. iii.), there is a piece entitled : 

The Trophy ; being six Cantatas in the honour of 
His Royal Highness William Duke of Cumberland ; ex- 
pressing the just sense of a grateful Nation, in the 
several Characters of the Volunteer, the Poet, the 

Painter, the Musician, the Shepherd, the Religious 

Set to Musick by Dr. Greene, 1746. 

There is a due proportion of airs and recitative, 
the concluding air being as follows : 

Britons, join the godlike train, 

Learn that all but Truth is vain, 

And to her lyre attune your joy ; 

No gifts so pure as those she brings, 

No note so sweet as that she sings, 

To praise the heav'nly favoured Boy. 
This is very poor poetry, but it helps to show 
what the popular feeling was. 

General Strode, at his own expense, had an 
equestrian statue of the Duke erected in the middle 
of Cavendish Square (not Hanover Square, p. 512), 
and inscribed on the pedestal that it was " erected 
by Lieut-General William Strode, in gratitude 
for his private friendship, in honour of his public 
virtue ; Nov. the 4tb, A.D. 1770." J. DIXON. 

COUNTY BADGES (7 th S. i. 470, 518). Your 
correspondent MRS. B. F. SCARLETT asks whether 
every English county has a badge, and she in- 
stances the white horse of Kent and the red and 
white roses of Lancaster and York as the badges 
of those counties respectively. But were any of 
these really the badge of the county as such ? 
The white horse of Kent was surely nothing 
more than the cognizance of the Saxon invaders 
Hengist and Horsa, and is still borne in the 
armorial insignia of the kingdom of Hanover. Has 
the county of Kent any real claim to it, either as 
a badge or as an armorial bearing ? The red rose 
was nothing more than the badge of the Plan- 
tagenets of the House of Lancaster, and the white 
rose the badge of the Plantagenets of the house 
of York, and not the particular property of either 
county in general? 

Surely badges would come under the same 
category as arms ; and although Boutell (ed. 1864, 
p. 370) says that " shields of arms are considered 
to belong to the different counties of the United 
Kingdom, and they are habitually used in docu- 
ments and publications having a direct reference 
to the several counties," I should be glad to 
know of any instances of counties having had 
arms granted to them as counties. The other day, 
when desirous of recording certain armorial bear- 
ings upon the front of our handsome new county 
museum at Dorchester, we should have been only 
too glad could we have discovered that the county 
of Dorset was entitled to any armorial bearings as 

I would rather agree with the reverend author 
when he says, in continuation, that " it is difficult, 
however, to understand how a county can be sup- 
posed either to have a corporate existence or be 
able to bear arms " arms which appear to have 
been adopted (and here I think we have arrived 
at the root of the matter) from the heraldi c in 
signia of the early counts or earls. 

J. S. UDAL. 
Symondsbury, Bridport. 

7< h 8. II. JtriT 10, '86.] 



LAND (7 th S. i. 448). Sir Thomas Ridgeway, o 
Torrington, Devonshire, who was employed in Ire 
land in a military capacity temp. Elizabeth 
planted the first Protestant colony in that king 
(loin. He was created Earl of Londonderry in 
1622, not 1616. The title became extinct at the 
death of Robert, fourth earl, great-grandson o 
the above, but was revived in the person o 
Thomas Pitt, who married one of the daughter 
and coheirs of the last earl. 


Swallowfield, Beading. 

i. 307, 413, 513). Col. Chester does not say tha 
Theophilus Gibber's wife was daughter to Dr 
Arne he distinctly says sister. Nor, indeed 
strictly speaking, does MB. RENDLE say so ; hi 
says, "Col. Chester notes the burial of Susanna 
Gibber, Arne's daughter," clearly meaning simply 
to shorten the words of his original, which are 
"younger dau. of Thomas Arne, &c., upholsterer.' 
C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Treneglog, Konwyn, Truro. 

At the last of these references MR. J. W. M. 
GIBBS corrects MR. RENDLE for an error of which 
he is guiltless. The mistake is the corrector's 
own, in representing MR. RENDLE as saying what 
he did not say. Both MR. RENDLE and my 
lamented friend CoL Chester are correct. 


MEMOIRS OF GRIMALDI (6 th S. xii. 427, 600; 
7 th S. i. 36, 312, 378, 473). There was only one 
edition of this work in two volumes, which con- 
sisted of three thousand copies. This was origin- 
ally issued in pink cloth looking like silk. The 
work did not, apparently, reach the sale ex- 
pected, for a largo remainder was sold to Mr. 
Tegg, then a great purchaser of remainders. He 
bound the book in a dark cloth, and with another 
back altogether, which contained some little 
medallions with grotesque subjects within them. 
The border to ' The Last Song ' never appeared 
in any of the pink copies, I feel sure, but was 
introduced by Mr. Tegg. It is certainly not by 
George Cruikshank, and has much more the ap- 
pearance of being by Alfred Crowquill, who de- 
lighted in exaggeration of faca and feature. But 
this is only an opinion, and I regret that I have 
no fact to give in respect of the authorship of this 
border. When the 1846 edition, in one volume, 
appeared the border was discarded. I have no 
doubt my father saw that it had no true relation 
to Cruikshank's work, and that he got rid of it 
accordingly. When Mr. Truman's 'Cruikshank 
Dictionary ' shall appear many of the difficulties 
which at present puzzle a Cruikshank collector 
will disappear. GJCORGE BENTLKT. 

8, New Burlington Street. 

406, 474; ii. 17). SIR CHARLES FRASER tells us, 
at the second reference, that the "real name of 
Hougonmont is Gomont, attributing the error to 
the Duke of Wellington, who misunderstood a 
Belgian peasant. Now Victor Hugo, in ' Les 
Mise"rables,' writes of this famous place : " C'etait 
un chateau, ce n'est plus qu'une ferme. Hougo- 
mont pour 1'antiquaire, c'est Hugomons. Ce 
manoir fut bati par Hugo, Sire de Somerel." 


'WEDNESBURY COCKING' (7 th S. i. 389, 458, 
515). If MR. HARTSHORNE will furnish me with 
his address I shall be happy to lend him my copy 
of the above ballad. It was written, tradition 
tells, by " Purson " Morton, of Willenhall, in the 
good old cock-fighting days. S. A. TAYLOR. 

5, Park Place, St. James's, g.W. 

BERGAMOT PEARS (7 th S. i. 489). Dr. Charnook, 
in his ' Verba Nominalia' (1866), says that 
"according to some the pear was named from 
Bergamo, in Italy, whence it is said to have 'been 
first brought ; others assert that the pear was 
first brought from Turkey, and they derive the 
word from the Turkish beg, bey, lord; armowd, 
pear ; ' prince of pears.' " Prof. Skeat, in his 
' Etymological Dictionary,' only gives the first 
derivation. But see Menage (ed. 1750), where 
Cardinal Perron is quoted ; and Littre, who gives 
the following explanation, "Portug. bergamota ; 
du turc bergarmuth, poire du seigneur." 

G. F. R. B. 

It seems to be commonly admitted that the 
origin is doubtful. Some say it is from the city 
Bergamo (ancient Bergomum) ; others that it 
ame from Turkey, and was so called from berg- 
armuth, pear of the lord. There is also a kind of 
small orange so named, and the essence of bergamot 
s obtained from it. This, however, leads me to 
hink the Turkish derivation is the more doubtful 
of the two. Littre\ however, gives for an etymo 
ogy the Portug. " bergamota ; du turc bergarmiith, 
>oire du seigneur." Webster, on the other hand, 
(ives nothing but Bergamo, a town in Italy. N<>el 
[notes precisely the passage from Du Perron that 

R. MARSHALL has given. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

DANCE (7 th S. i. 488). Giles and Cecily Heron 
ived at Shacklewell, a hamlet of Hackney, ad- 
oining Newington. Lysons says that their only 
on Thomas died in his infancy, a mistake re- 
>eated by Robinson (' History of Hackney '), 
ol. i. p. 115, who later on (p. 302) contradicts it by 
be Hf rn pedigree, which he gives from *' Mundy's 
Collection of Arms and Descents of the Gentry in 
Middlesex, Harl. MS. 1551. f. 84," showing that 
Thomas Hern of Shacklewell ob. (sic MS., probably 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7<"s.n.j0io,'86. 

for s.p. t i. e., sine proli) " was the first husband 
of Cicelley, dau. of Bartholomew Lekell. I do not 
find the name of Dance in Robinson's ' Hackney,' 
Stoke Newington,' or ' Tottenham.' Had Elizabeth 
lived near her sister Cecily he would certainly 
have mentioned it. By the way, Thomas More, 
the great-grandson of the chancellor, spells the 
name Dancy (More's ' Life of More '). Has MBS. 
SCARLETT tried the North Mimes neighbourhood ? 
Some of the Mores lived there. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

COFFEE BIGGIN (7 th S. L 407, 475). A question 
has arisen whether biggin is fairly deducible from 
beguin, where the latter equals cap, a nun's coif. 
Let me point out that we have in Dover a main 
thoroughfare called Biggin Street, from a com- 
munity of the nuns called Beguines, who were 
settled at a very early period within the walls of 
Dover. Their origin is commonly ascribed to 
St. Begga, of Andern, in Namur, Holland. The 
foundress, reputed or real, died 698 A.D., and is 
celebrated on December 17. The name Begga 
greatly resembles the form of our St. Bees. 

A. H. 

GRANT (7 th S. i. 489). 2. Philip John Ducarel 
was a great-nephew of the antiquary Dr. Andrew 
Coltee Ducarel. Died, aged seventy-seven, De- 
cember 16, 1855. H. W. 

New Univ. Club. 

James Gregor Grant, author of ' Madonna Pia 
and other Poems,' died in London, December 25, 
1875. Mr. Grant resided, during the latter years 
of his life, in Sunderland. He was at one time 
a lecturer for the Northern Union of Mechanics' 
Institutes. The last literary work he undertook 
was that of writing a series of stories, based on 
local legends and identified with local names, for 
the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. Most of these 
stories were published in that paper shortly before 
his death ; but some of them, I understand, have 
never been published at all. W. E. ADAMS. 


492). Mr. Major, a well-known geographer, has 
gone very thoroughly into this question, and I 
gather that he has shown very exhaustively that the 
island of Australia is not found in any mediaeval 
maps or charts. As to "a vast tract of country " 
south of the Moluccas, would nob that point very 
clearly to New Guinea ? A. H. 

GOODRICKE (7 th S. i. 468). According to Burke's 
' Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies,' 1844, p. 602, 
this baronetcy became extinct upon the death of 
Sir Thomas, the eighth baronet, without issue. See 
also the Gent. Mag. for October, 1833, p. 369, 

where, in the obituary notice of the seventh 
baronet, it is stated that the title " has devolved 
on his cousin, now Sir Thomas Goodricke." No 
date of the eighth baronet's death is, however, 
yiven in Burke, but it is quite possible that it 
occurred in 1833 also. G. F. K. B. 

THE PATRICIAN ' (7 th S. i. 409, 474). I would 
point out that the reply given at the last reference 
is hardly a satisfactory answer to ALPHA'S query. 
The Patrician, which was first edited by John 
Burke and subsequently by John Bernard Burke 
(now Sir J. B. Burke), was not " a sixpenny weekly 
newspaper," but a monthly magazine. The first 
number appeared in May, 1846, consequently 
its twenty- third number could hardly have been 
dated " Saturday, March 14, 1846." 

G. F. E. B. 

WALTER PASLEU (7 th S. i. 368, 495). 
W. A. B.'s surmise is probably correct. The 
Abbot of Whalley most likely belonged to the 
Paslews of Riddlesden, near Bingley, of whom 
there are several notices in the Yorkshire visita- 
tions. Indeed, a Paslew of this t place, whose 
Christian name Walter is filled in from a later 
authority, occurs as first husband of Ellen, daugh- 
ter of John Lacy of Cromwellbotham, by Anne, 
daughter of Sir Richard Tempest. She afterwards 
married Thomas Lee. Her brother Richard re- 
presented the Lacys in 1585, and it is not im- 
probable that her first husband got into trouble 
in connexion with the rising in the north of 1569. 


ROUSE FAMILY (7 th S. i. 468). Rous Lench, 
near Hadbury, was the seat of the Rouses, a 
family as ancient, says Camden, as Edward II., 
and who were the chief support of Cromwell's 
cause in this county, by which they were almost 
ruined. In Burke's 'Extinct Baronetage' it is 
said that this family was established in England 
by one of the companions in arms of the Con- 
queror, and the name is to be found on the roll 
of Battle Abbey. In 1641 a baronetcy was con- 
ferred on Thomas Rouse, which became extinct in 

Swallowfield, Beading. 

Nash's ' Worcestershire ' does not mention any 
family of this name at Hartley, but on p. 85, 
vol. ii., 1782 edition, the pedigree of Rous of 
Rous Lench is given. Perhaps this would help 
your correspondent. H. S. 

LONDON AND PARIS (7 th S. i. 488). " Giovanni 
Botero, writing about 1590, classes it [London] 
with Naples, Lisbon, Prague, and Ghent, as 
possessing about 160,000 inhabitants, more or less, 
while Paris was said to possess over 400,000 in- 
habitants " (' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' ninth ed., 
s, v. " London "). Other estimates make the popu- 

7* 8. II. JULY 10, '86,] 


lation of Paris, in 1553, 260,000, and of London 
in 1600, 180,000 ; bat the fallaciousness of such 
statistics is notorious. 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

FRANKLIN (7 th S. i. 489). The story is told 
(with no authority given) in Routledge's ' Book 01 
Humour, Wit, and Wisdom.' Old Mr. Franklin 
seems to have had a Barlow-like tendency to im- 
prove the occasion, for his son states, in the 'Auto- 
biography,' that he "always took care to start some 
ingenious or useful topic for discourse, which might 
tend to improve the minds of his children. By 

this means little or no notice was ever taken oi 

what related to the victuals on the table." 



HERALDIC: ARMS OP BAGNALL (7 th S. i. 468). 
Edmondson, in his 'Complete Body of Heraldry,' 
1780, gives Erm.,two bars or, over all a lion rampant 
az., as the arms of Bagnall of Staffordshire, which, 
with the exception of the fret, is pretty much the 
same as those inquired about by your correspond- 
ent. J. S. UDAL. 

Symondsbury, Bridport. 

(7 th S. i. 487). In Kennedy's 'Annals of Aber- 
deen,' vol. ii. p. 246, foot-note, the arms of the 
Corporation of Bakers in that town are described, 
and at p. 248, foot-note, those of the Corporation 
of Tailors. Both are said to have been registered 
in the Lyon Office May 15, 1682. It is further 
stated at p. 251, foot-note, that the arms of the 
remaining five trade corporations of Aberdeen were 
also registered in the Lyon Office. G. B. S. 

Th.e trade incorporations of Edinburgh and 
Glasgow have never received a formal grant of 
arms. Aberdeen and Stornoway are the only 
Scottish burghs whose trade incorporations have 
received a grant from the Lyon. The patents 
of the Aberdeen trades are dated 1681-1696, and 
that of Stornoway is dated August 29, 1772. Both 
have been described by Mr. P. J. Anderson in a 
pamphlet entitled 'Coats Armorial of Scottish 
Trade Incorporations,' 1886. Mr. Anderson has 
also described the coats of the Edinburgh trade in- 
corporations as found on the shields in the Mag- 
dalen Chapel, and those of Glasgow from the silver 
shields on the Deacon Convener's chair. If MR. 
BARENESS wishes to procure a copy of the pam- 
phlet he shduld communicate with Edmonds & 
Spark, Aberdeen. J. P. E. 

TALES (6 th S. xii. 421, 509; 7 th S. i. 124, 182, 
257, 483). MR. CLOUSTON wishes to know of 
other variants of the story of the travellers and 
the gold. I have given a Tamil version in the 

Orientalist, vol. ii. p. 50, from the 'Katamancari.' 
This is almost identical with the second Italian 
version, and therefore also closely resembles the 
' Pardoner's Tale.' Instead of the hermit or 
" olde chorle," there is a Sivite devotee, while the 
three robbers or young men are represented by 
two devotees and their servant. 

As regards the sources of some of the versions 
of this story, I make the following conjectures (loc. 
cit.) : 

" I think it very probable that the similar story given 
by Mr. Siddi Lebbe is one adapted from the ' Kalila and 
Dimna,' an Arabic translation of a Sanskrit work contain- 
ing the fables of the ' Pancatantra ' and the ' Hitopa- 
desa,' made about 770 A.D. So also the Katamancari 
story and the Kashmiri story given in the Orientalist for 
November, p. 260, may have come from the ' Pancatantra ' 
or ' Hitopadesa,' or some other Sanskrit work. Now Prof. 
Benfey and Mr. Rhys Davids trace these Sanskrit works 
to a Buddhist source." [This is the Yedabbha Jataka.] 

Mr. Francis's letter pointing out the Buddhist 
origin of the 'Pardoner's Tale' will be found in the 
Academy of December 22, 1883, and appended to 
my article in the Orientalist, vol. ii., 1885, p. 50. 


BATHO, SURNAME (7 th S. i. 439, 495)." Mihill, 
of course, means Michael," but not so that it may 
not mean anything else. Early in the last century 
James Mihill was the deputy-registrar of deeds 
at Beverley, and I have a letter dated thence in 
1737, signed " Ja: Mihill jun r ." Bartho is, or 
was until a few years ago, a surname in Hull. 

W. C. B. 

DE PERCHEVAL (7 th S. i. 328, 437). This sur- 
name was assigned, doubtless, in the first place 
as an attribute in the individual so entitled 
and subsequently merged into a surname. The 
Breton house of Percheval, subsequently Norman, 
From which the Lovels derived their surname, de- 
scended from a long line of Breton princes. In 
the tenth century Gonel de Percheval was sur- 
named Lupus, or Lovel, the Wolf. The attribute 
of de or le Percheval doubtless denoted a skilful 
and brave horseman or hunter. T. W. C. 

"HATCHMENT DOWN!" (7 to S. i. 327, 454). 
MR. WARREN says there were only two degraded 
Knights of the Garter, viz., James, Duke of Mon- 
mouth, 1685, and James, Duke of Ormond, 1716, 
Doth for high treason. MR. BUCKLEY also quotes 
-he same two knights from ' Memorials of the 
Order of the Garter ' as degraded, and mentions 
one other, viz., Lord Cobham. In the British 
Museum, however, there is the Garter plate de- 
aced of " Sir William Parre, Marquis of North- 
ampton, brother to Queen Catherine Parre, 
inight of the Garter, erected at Windsor in 
1552," and, according to the label underneath, 
'probably defaced on his attainder in 1553." 
On reading the note at the latter reference, re- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. n. JCLT 10, i 

membering this plate, I went to the Museum 
again to verify it. Surely there must bo others ! 

0. R. T. 
Union Club, Trafalgar Square. 

"UNDKR" IN PLACE-NAMES (7 th S. i. 429). 
The following passage from Lewis's 'Topographical 
Dictionary of England,' sub "Newcastle-under- 
Lyme," may prove acceptable to your correspond- 
ent : 

" The origin of its descriptive affix of ' under Lyme,' 
distinguishing it from Newcastle in Northumberland, 
hat given rise to some debate ; but then; seems little 
doubt of its being derived from its proximity to tho an- 
ciont and very extensive forest of Lyme (so called from 
being on the ' limes ' or borders of Cheshire), men tinned 
by Lucius the monk, and again by Cumdcn, as shutting 
in and separating Cheshire from the rest of England, 
and which extended from 'Lyme,' or 'Lyme Handley,' 
in Cheshire, the seat of the Leigh family (contiguous to 
Miiuoleitielii forest), by the high grounds of Cloud Hill, 
Mole Con, Linley (probably Lymeley) Wood, Chesterton, 
Newcastlo-under-Lymo, Madulcy, and Whitmore (both 
formerly called ' under Lyme '), Norton, in the county 
of Salop (described in the Cartulary of St. Peter's Abbey, 
Shrewsbury, as ' Juxta Nonius quod Lima dicitur '), and 
Betton-under-Lyme in the same county, to Audlem, or 
Old Lyme, in Cheshire." 


Baines, ' Hist, of Lancashire,' by Harlantl, 1868, 
i. 423, says of Ashton, " The terminative addition 
.inbtut lineam is found in the ancient deeds of the 
Lord of the Manor, and hence it is called Ashton- 
under-Lyne, from being below the line or boundary 
of Cheshire. This distinguishes it from the not 
very distant Ashton-upon- Mersey." Of Newcastle- 
under-Lyne Lewis, in his 'Topographical Dic- 
tionary,' says that " the descriptive affix ' under 
Lyne ' or ' Lyme ' denotes its proximity to a forest 
of that name, and serves to distinguish it from 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne." There are an Ashton-under- 
Hill and a Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire, 
of which latter Lewis says, "The name of this 
place, formerly ' Wotton-under-Ridge,' is descrip- 
tive of its situation beneath a range of well-wooded 
hills." There is also a parish near Salisbury called 
Stratford-sub-Castle, or Stratford-under-the-Oastle. 


^P.S. In addition to the names already sent, a 
friend has supplied me with the following : Barton- 
under-Needwood, Grendon-under-Wood, Stoke- 
under-Hemdon, Sutton-under-Brails, Westbury- 
under-Mendip, Weston under-Lyziard, Weston- 
under-Wood, Wotton-under-Wood. 

Ashton-under-Lyne is said to refer to the hills 
which divide Lancashire and Yorkshire, under the 
"line" of which the town of Ashton is situated. 
Newcastle-under-Lyuie derives the latter part of 
its name from its proximity to the ancient forest 
of Lyme. Your correspondent will notice that 
both towns are not followed by Lyne, as in his 

query. I can add a few more instances of " under " 
being used in a similar manner : Ashton-under- 
Hill, Ashton-sub-Edge, Weston-sub-Edge (Glou- 
cester), Kirkby-under-Dale (Yorks), Weston-under- 
Lizard (Staffs), Hope-under-Dinmore (Hereford). 

H. S. 

Newcastle-under-Lyne (or Lyme) and Ashton- 
under-Lyne are so called from lying on the skirts 
of the great Lyme Wood, which lay between 
Staffordshire and Cheshire and Lancashire. The 
village of Madeley, lying about six miles from 
Newcastle, was also, I think, called Madeley- 
under-Lyme, though the name is now obsolete. 
In the same way we have Barton-under-Need- 
wood and Wotton-under- Weaver, on the skirts of 
the Weaver Hills, both in Staffordshire. W. 

Stoke-under-Ham is another instance, a village 
in Somerset, near Yeovil, situated at foot of the 
hill whence the celebrated Ham Hill stone is 
quarried, the use of which so characterizes the 
mansions, farmhouses, and cottages in that and the 
adjacent county of Dorset or Stoke-sub-Hamden, 
as it is officially called. In this case the situation 
explains the " under," does it not ? S. V. H. 

I should imagine it would refer to a hamlet or 
small village in the district of some larger village, 
similar to the postal address of one London street 
under a larger, and of a village under a town. I 
do not know whether it is common, but can men- 
tion Ascot-under-Wychwood and Shipton-under- 
Wychwood in the Parliamentary Banbury division 
of Oxon. H. G. B. 

We must compare with place-names compounded 
of over, on, upon, at, near, ly, &c., all denoting 
propinquity or a position relative to. Let us take 
Stratford-sub-Castle, Wilts, in connexion with 
Barton -under -Need wood, Milton-nnder- Wych- 
wood, Shipton-under-Wychwood, Weston-under- 
Penyard. " Under " is therefore equivalent to 
below, beneath. As to the names quoted, New- 
castle in Staffordshire is really Newcastle-under- 
Lyme : read limes, Latin " border," so to say, 
" the boundary line." A. HALL. 

APOSTATE NDNS (7 th S. i. 48, 91, 172). Refer- 
ence was made in the above pages to the punish- 
ment of immuring in the case of an apostate nun. 
The following instance of a similar punishment of 
a monk occurs in Lord Malmesbury's 'Memoirs': 

'1846, November 27th. Left Florence at ten and 
arrived at Arezzo at seven. 

" November 28tlu We were shown in the church at 
Arezzo the skeleton of a man who hail been immured. 
It WHS still eovt-reti with skin, like parchment, and the 
features were quite preserved. The wretched creature 
ha<l l>een walled up evidently alive, and seems to have 
struggled either to e*cai>e from his prison or died from 
suffocation." Vol. i. p. 181, 1884. 


7* 8. II. JoLt 10, '86.] 



YORK MINSTER (7 th S. i. 447, 513). lean well 
imagine that any statement made by a York news- 
paper " offers a fine field for critical investigation " 
to those who care to investigate it. But I for 
one do wholly refuse to believe, until better 
evidence appears, that the stone fiddler of York 
Minster is a portrait of Archbishop Blackburne, or 
was made by his order or in his time. The cathe- 
dral records of the period if there are any 
ought to show who made it, and when. Mean- 
whilfi the figure seems to me to be mucb beyond 
thepowersof theeighteenth century in such matters. 
It is an admirable grotesque sprightly, vigorous, 
full of character ; and, but for the violin, it might 
have been wrought by one of the men who carved 
those well-known subjects in Beverley Minster. 
Moreover, speaking from a somewhat dim recol- 
lection of the portraits at Bishopsthorpe, I should 
say that this figure has no likeness at all to Arch- 
bishop Blackburne. 

The fiddler, whatever and whoever he may be, 
ought to have been left where he was, on the apex 
of the south transept facade. But we all know 
that the people of York are busy, and have long 
been busy, in displacing and destroying all that 
once made their city I mean its buildings 
venerable. A. J. M. 

'THE LAIDLT WORM '(7 th S. i. 420,438,467, 
495, 518). It seems worth while to add that laidly 
is the Icel. kiZiligr, loathsome, horrible ; whilst 
gradely is the Icel. grefailiyr, allied to gre&r, 
ready, straight, &c. Oradely is duly inserted in 
my index to Vigfusson's ' Icel. Dictionary,' and it 
is disheartening to find that this index is not con- 
sulted. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

PETTIANGER (7 th S. i. 227). Try Jal (' Gloss. 
Nautique'). R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Hotel des Etrangers, Nice. 

Old Barnet. By Horace William Pettit Stevens. (Barnet 


MR. STEVENS has produced an interesting pamphlet, full 
of gossip. It does not claim to have the dignity of 
history, but regarded as a contribution to our know- 
ledge of the social life of the past it is not without per- 
manent value. A few meagre sentences are all that 
are devoted to the mediaeval history of the town ; but 
when Mr. Stevens gets down to modern days he is far 
more copious. We trust that some one will give us 
the more ancient history of the town, for as a manor 
belonging to the great house of St. Albans there must 
be much information extant concerning it that would be 
of great interest. Mr. Stevens, however, delights to tell 
us of the glories of the old coaching days, the badness oi 
the roads, the signs of the inns, and of how General 
Monk stayed for a time at Barnet when he marched 
upon London for the purpose of restoring Charles II, 
He quotes a letter from the Times of November 15, 1826, 
which gives a strange picture of travelling as it was in the 

last century. The letter is from the trustees of the 
Brentford turnpike. They say that they " have heard 

their grandfathers say, that in the early part of their 

lives no person residing six or seven miles from London 
thought of returning borne from thence on the same day 

on which he went thither on business [and that] there 

were within the last ten years individuals living at Ayles- 
bury who remembered when the coach from that place 
left it on Monday morning, and after resting that night 
at Chalfont, reached London the second evening, and 
remaining the day in Town for the passengers to transact 
buxinesa, it returned on the next two days." 

The suffering endured by outs-iUe passengers in the 
old coaching days cannot easily be exaggerated. There 
vere. however, some compensations. The elder Mr. 
W. Her is not the only person who has seen the poetic 
side of the old stage-coach life. Jack Lewton. who 
died in 1826, must have been a man after Mr. Weller's 
own heart. He was, it is true, a chaise driver, not a 
coachman, but he bad the true spirit of the road, and 
had he lived long enough to see them, would, we doubt not, 
have hated railways with a fervour worthy of Dickens's 
hero. When he died he expressed a wish to be buried 
in St. Michael's Churchyard, at Lichfield, as near to the 
turnpike road as possible, that he might enjoy the plea- 
sure, as he hoped, of hearing his brother whips pass and 
repass. He was carried to the grave by six chaise drivers 
and the pall was borne by six ostlers from the different 
inns. Altogether the funeral must, have presented an 
interesting bit of natural symbolism, which one would 
not have hoped to have found when George IV. 
was king. Mr. Stevens gives a useful list of the half- 
penny tokens issued at Barnet during the seventeenth 
century, and some extracts from the churchwardens' 
account books, beginning with the year 1720. Barnet 
seems to have been a place where many wandering 
strangers died. We do not know the reason of this. It 
was on a great highway to London, but this will only 
account for it in part. The number of homeless 
wanderers in England was in those days much greater 
than those who give such unstinted praise to the past 
have ever realized. We do not remember ever to have 
examined an old parish register which does not contain 
entries as to the burials of these poor outcasts. 

Old Cookery Books and Ancient Cuitine. By W. Carew 

Hazlitt. (Stock.) 

THIS volume forms part of the " Book-Lover's Library," 
which is under the general editorship of Mr. Henry 
Wheatley. As it possesses no table of contents and has 
but a meagre index it will not be amiss to describe the 
manner in which Mr. Hazlitt has attempted to grapple 
with his task. After a short introductory chapter, the 
author pleasantly discourses concerning the " Early 
Englishman and his Food" and "Royal Feasts and 
Savage Pomp." He then deals with ' Cookery Books," 
a subject which he divides into four parts. In the first 
part, beginning with Alexander Neckam's ' De Uteri- 
silibus,' which was probably written at the close of the 
twelfth century, he brings us down to the middle of the 
eighteenth century, concluding with a reproduction of 
the very lengthy and somewhat uninteresting preface to 
E. Smith's ' Compleat Housewife, or Accomplished Gen- 
tlewoman's Companion.' The second part comprises a 
selection of extracts from the receipts given in this 
book. They are taken from the seventh edition, which 
was published in 1736, some few years after the author's 
death. That this was one of the most popular cookery 
books of the day there can be but little doubt, for in 
1753 it had reached the fifteenth edition. Mr. Hazlitt, 
however, seems to be only acquainted with the edition 
from which he quotes, and the eleventh edition, to 



[7* s. ii. JULT 10, 

which lie refers in another place. In the third part we 
are introduced to Mrs. Glasse, tide, and Soyer ; and in 
the fourth are treated to another list of miscellaneous 
works relating to cookery. The concluding chapters 
deal with the "Diet of the Yeomen and the Poor," 
"Meats and Drinks," "The Kitchen," "Meals," and 
the "Etiquette of the Table." On the whole we must 
pronounce it to be a disappointing book ; it is neither a 
bibliography of cookery books nor a history of cookery. 
But though comparatively useless as a book of reference, 
it will doubtless be read with interest by the general 
reader, who, provided the style be interesting and the 
matter entertaining, is thoroughly indifferent as to 
whether the subject is exhaustively treated or not. To 
him, therefore, we commend this little volume, with the 
assurance that he will not find its pages dull should his 
taste lie in the direction of the kitchen and the progress 
of the culinary art. 

IN the Fortnightly Mr. Burnand and Mr. Arthur 
a Beckett and who so likely as they ? begin what pro- 
mises to prove an interesting account of ' History in 
Punch.' A second article has the curious title of 
' Novelists and their Patrons,' the last word signifying 
readers. As was to be expected, most of the contributions 
are political. To the Nineteenth Century Mr. Leopold 
Katsoher supplies ' Taine : a Literary Portrait,' in which 
Taine the writer is elevated above Taine the anatomist 
or the philosopher. Dr. G. Vance Smith writes on ' Re- 
vision of the Bible,' and Mr. E. C. Salmon, under the 
head ' What the Working Classes .Read,' deals largely 
with daily and weekly journals, with the religious maga- 
zines and the penny novelettes. Mr. Saintsbury sends 
to Macmillan a brilliant paper on ' Christopher North.' 
Under the head of ' A Christening in Karpathos ' Mr. J. 
Theodore Bent gives a further contribution to our know- 
ledge of the Grecian archipelago. Mr. Burroughs writes 
on 'The Literary Value of Science.' In the Cornhill is 
a good description of ' China Town in San Francisco.' 
With it are given the continuation of Mr. Haggard's 
striking story ' Jean,' and ' Work for Idle Hands,' by the 
author of ' John Halifax, Gentleman.' Mr. Phil. Robin- 
eon writes in the Gentleman's on ' Snakes in Poetry,' and 
Mr. Alfred Bailey on ' Novelists' Law.' To Longman's 
Mr. Richard A. Proctor sends one of his characteristic 
papers on ' Luck : its Laws and Limits,' Mr. Prothero 
writes on ' Oliver Wendell Holmes,' and Mr. Lang con- 
tinues his ' At the Sign of the Ship.' The English Illus- 
trated has some pleasant memories of ' Charles Kingeley 
and Eversley,' and an excellently illustrated paper on 
' Modern Falconry.' The illustrations maintain the high 
standard previously reached. Red Dragon has ' Read- 
ings in Rhys's " Celtic Britain," ' and ' Mrs. Thrale.' 

CASSELL'S Encyclopaedic Dictionary is carried in 
Part XXX. from "Endemical" to "Estrangement," 
The comprehensiveness of the scheme may be tested by 
a reference to the word " English " and its combinations, 
and the manner of execution is shown in words such as 
" Enthusiasm," " Equation," " Escutcheon," and in num- 
berless words in scientific use commencing in " En " or 
"Epe." The first volume of Greater London, by Mr. 
Walford, concludes in Part XII., which carries the reader 
from Waltham and the River Lea to the East and West 
India Docks, to Millwall, Limehouse, and Barking. 
The northern circuit of London is thus completed. 
Part XVIII. of Our Own Country finishes with Cam- 
bridge, of which some good views are given, and depicts 
Gloucester and Tewkesbury. The principal view is of 

haa a comic representation of the tribulationi of 

English travellers with the donkey boys. The 
concluding scenes of ' Measure for Measure ' and 
the opening scenes of ' The Comedy of Errors ' are 
included in Part VI. of the Illustrated Shakespeare. 
The opening design to the latter play is dramatic. 
Part X. of the History of India has views in the Hima- 
layas and pictures of combats ; and Part XI. of Gleanings 
from Popular Authors a selection from Hood, Southey, 
Lover, and other writers. Under the title of ' Mistress 
June ' Messrs. Cassell have published a specially attrac- 
tive and well-illustrated summer number of Cassell's 
Family Magazine. 

MR. FREDERICK ARNOID is about to publish, through 
Mr. Elliot Stock an illustrated ' History of Streatham.' 
The volume will also give an account of the parish of 
Estreham and the manors of Tooting Bee, Leigham, and 

$otire* to 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, bat 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

J. J. FAHIE, Teheran. ' Reflections upon Polygamy ' 
&c., by " Phileleutherus Dubliniensis," is by Patrick 
Delancy, D.D., an Irish divine of humble origin, who 
became Dean of Down, wrote many works, principally 
theological, and died in Bath in 1768. The best dic- 
tionaries of anonymous and pseudonymous literature, so 
far as English works are concerned, are the ' Dictionary 
of Anonymous, &c., Literature' of Halkett and Laing 
(Edinburgh, Paterson), 3 vols. (a fourth to come), and 
Cushing's ' Initials and Pseudonyms ' (Sampson Low & 

BARLTMAS. For an explanation of this word see 
" Burley man " in Halliwell's ' Dictionary ' and ' N. & Q.,' 
5U- S. vi. 307, 439. 

P. 16, col. 1, 1. 26. MR. GANTILION desires to sub- 
stitute, at this reference, the word version for " work." 

S. J. H. (" Nearness of the Sun to the Earth "). 
Scientific questions, except when bearing on literary or 
historical subjects, are outside our province. 

G. F. CROWDY ("God save the Queen"). See 1" S. 
ii. 71; 2 nd S. ii. 60, 96, 137, 334, 396; iii. 79, 137, 177, 
412, 428; iv. 167; vi. 18, 475 ; vii. 63, 180, 227; x. 301 ; 
3 rd S. iv. 417 ; 5<" S. v. 342, 437; x. 126. 

E. COBHAM BREWER ('The Brownie of St. Paul's'). 
The question Who is the author of this poem? was asked 
7 lh S. i. 188, and remains unanswered. 

BREMENIENSIS. Both communications received. One 
shall appear. 

V. W. (" Handicap ").-See 1" S. xi, 384, 434, 491. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

. II. JULY 17, '86.] 





NOTES : Execution of Lords Eilmarnock and Balmerino, 41 
Effects of English Accent Jervaulx Abbey, 42 Letter to 

Monmouth, 43 Public-house Plou-=Llan The Rose a 

Tavern Sign, 44 Leslie and Sacheverell Mottoes in Books, 
45 Johnsoniana Lot Bell Inscription Curious Epitaph- 
Inn Sign Snoreham Best on Record, 46. 

QUERIES : ' New English Dictionary ' Tessard Basto 
Ghost of Miltiades Founder of the Primrose League, 47 
John Smith St. James's Bazaar 'Four Spells 'Cathe- 
rine Hill Copper Coins " Fate cannot harm me "Short- 
hand Waldegrave Monastic Names, 48 ' Umph'm ' 
Dr. Baldwin "Conscience cried cock and pan" Kemp's 
'Nine Dales Wonder ' Sloane Egg-cups Herberts of 
Cogan Stewart of Hazelside Hampstead Old Church- 
Book-plate of Giasme Massage Twink Authors Wanted, 

REPLIES : Streanaeshalch, 50 Was Bunyan a Gipsy ? 52 
New English Dictionary ' Parisius, 53 Regatta Oliver 
Cromwell, 54 "Bird" and "Fowl" Arms of Archdeacon 
and Wyvill "A nine days' wonder" 8. R. Clarke, 55 
Adrian Vandyke The 'Topic 'Dr. R. Taylor Book-plates 
Grace before Meat, 56 Gnnter Poor Robin Latin Ver- 
sion of Poem ' Giornale degli Eruditi' Washington 
Mary Osborne-Seal Skins, 57 Green Dale Oak' Napoleon 
Buonaparte ' Breakspear Heraldic Williams College- 
Portraits with Hand on Skull "Birch" and "Birk" 
Shakspeare's Doctor, 53 Dr. John Monro Authors 
Wanted, 69. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Vol. VII. Yeatman's Domesday Book for Derby ' 
Farrar's 'Index to Gentleman's Magazine' Estcourt and 
Payne's ' English Catholic Nonjurors.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


The following is a fragment (all I have) of an 
account by an eye-witness of the execution of 
Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino. The execu- 
tion took place August 18, 1746, and the 
account of it is written on the available spaces 
about a letter dated three days after, viz., 
August 21, 1746, and addressed to Mr. Tyler, 
in Somerset House, Strand. This Mr. (Joseph) 
Tyler was at his death, December 25, 1769, Clerk 
of the Papers at the Wood Street Compter, and it 
is quite possible that his connexion with the Sheriff's 
Office may have commenced early enough to account 
for his presence at the execution, and so it appears 
very probable that he himself wrote the account of 
which I now send you a portion. 

This fragment consists of three parts, A, B, C, 
written on half a sheet of foolscap paper folded 
to form a letter of four pages. P. 1 contains the 
letter itself, leaving about a third of the page, 
which was devoted to ; p. 2 was origin- 
ally left blank ; p. 3 contained the direction 
of the letter, and these two pages are now quite 
filled by B ; p. 4, originally left blank, has been 
utilized for A, which does not quite fill the page, 
and presents the appearance of a completed para- 
graph. B, on the contrary, quite fills the pages 

devoted to it, and the left-hand lower corner being 
torn off, I have supplied the beginnings of two 
lines conjecturally. The last word is complete, 
but I am doubtful how it should be read. This 
and other doubtful passages are denoted by [ ]. 
I have preserved the spelling ; punctuation there 
is none. 


"with a Guard & attend* by their Ministers one of 
the Church of England in his Canonicals & the other a 
Decenter who is reputed a Baptist but a great orator in 
a plain Habit & their sev" friends & Col. Williamson 
Deputy Governor and Major White who is Major of the 
Tower these [qy. or we] all walked in procession from 
the Tower to a house near the Scaffold which was ah' 
600 yards having '2 Herses and 2 mourn 6 Coaches follow- 
ing all the way so that [qy. to that spot] a wide lane of the 
foot Guards being made all the way and lined with Horse 
Grenadiers to keep of the Croud which ware so numerous 
that the like have not been seen in the memory of man 
for besides the many large Scaffolds built on purpose the 
Tops of the Houses all round within Sight & some of them 
were mostly untiled and the Sashes taken out of the 
Windows & Stages made in the rooms one above an- 
nothr in some Houses afarr of & the Tower and those 
Houses near that the back part looked to the Scaffold 
they pulled off the lath and plaistering to let the Rooms 
for people to see & beside all this it being a fair day the 
Tower Hill which is of a large Compass was so full of 
people that as I stood on the Scaffold which was ab l 9 ft 
from the ground it appeard a place covered close with 
Heads some Gentlemen make B observation of the vast 
numbers said there could not be less than 200,000 persons 
in sight of the Scaffold. 


"we went unmolested by the Scaffold hung with Black 
Cloath through a passage hung with the [same] to the 
Rooms allotted one for each Lord & his friends and a 
Sheriff were they pray d & conversed I was in the 
Room with Earl Kilmarnock & his friends & M r Poster 
the decenting minister & M r Sherif Blachford but the 
Scene was so dismal it forced Tears from the beholders 
it sunk my sprits that I moved out & went on the 
Scaffold to wonder at the strange sight of spectators 
Kilmarnock being an Earl was to be executed first 
but whether he expected a reprieve which his friends 
had labour'd for without success or that he was faint 
Hearted we cant tell but he delayed the Time from \ past 
10 to near 12 & sent to speak with [andl desired of Lord 
Belmerino to Dye first he answer'd no Kilmarnock it is 
your place but die with Courage Kilmarnock their 
Coffins was sett on each side the Block on the scaffold on 
the Earls was aged 42 years & on the Lords 58 the block 
was a piece of Elm ab l 2 ft long 1 f 3 ln thick and 
ab' 1 ft 8 ln high Shaped out for the chin on one 
side and the breast on the other so as he lay with 
his face downward the neck or throat rested on 
the surface of the block which was left in the shap- 
ing and the whole block cover'd with black Cloath 
The 2 Axes were large with common Wood handles such 
as are Commonly uss !d by Carpenters in squar 8 or hew- 
ing Timber only made bright circular on the Edge which 
was rong for the block being streight on the surface 
could not fit a circular ax & as the Execution' was bred a 
Butcher had alwaies been ussed to astraigh t Instrum' made 
it stil worse he aimed well at the first and his Neck being 
long for he was [qy.] up the h d was near Sever d at one 
Stroke but L d BerMar" [Balmerino's] neck being shorter 
& somewhat thick was chopcd 3 times which made the 
people very uneasie but we believe he was not sensi[ble] 



(7 th 8. II. JOLT 17, '86. 

after the first Stroke. Kilmarnock seemed very low 
spirited and weak I was very near him going up the 
steps to the Scaffold & he seem'd not ahle to get up till 
the Sheriff helped him he I mediately [qy.] when to pray & 
I observed he laid himself down & rose again several times 
before he nave the signall to the Executioner wbo every 
time was lifting up the Ax ready which made it very 
Terrible to the beholders but no sooner was the signal 
but the h d WHS sever" 1 as I sd before all but a little piece 
of flesh [Here a diagram is put, crossing two lines of 
the MS., showing the form of the block.] the Under- 
takers men being at hand took the Body & put it in the 
Coffin & the head was wraped up & put in likewise the 
Coffin [being] fasten 3 up Imediately & Taken away to 
the Hearse & the Cloath and Ax & what was bloody 
taken away & the Scaff. was strowed with sev u Sacks of 
Sawdust & things put in order an Officer was sent to lett 
the other Sheriff know which wen L d Belmerino [heard] 
he s d I am ready and took a bottle of Wine of the 
Table & gave to the 2 officers that kept the Door saying 
here my Ladds take this to keep your Spirits up and went 
Imediately drecsed in his blew Coat [qy.] to the Scaffold 
with such uncom" courage & resoiutiou that we were all 
amzed he was Short in his prayer said but little on the 
Scaffold he deliver" 1 a paper to the Sheriff which he gave 
to the Duke of Newcastle which was of no great conse- 
quence he foregave the Deputy Govern 1 " VV who had 
much offend him & Kissing his friends strip" 1 of his Coat 
& wastcoat layd them on the Coffin put on his Scotch 
plad Night-cap which made the people smile he then 
spoke to the undertaker & then to the Execution' saying 
do your Duty I forgive you and looking on the Ax & 
feeling the Edge s d I shall give you but little Trouble so 
laid him self down & patiently & manfully submitted to 
the Stroke to the wonder of all who saw it his Body & 
head was put in the Coffin & carry* away w lh the Herse 
but I must not forget [to iuen]tion that ahho there was 
so great a multitude of people & many of them in their 
[posts at] day light and every place so Extremely crouded 
yet I have not hear* of any mischief [qy. or mishap]. 


** We are not acquainted w th the Destiny of the Ear 
romaTty some say he is only Reprieved till his Lady it 
brought [to] bed but what I know of it is that his name 
was in the Dead Warrant with the other 2 but the King 
struck it out with a dashing or drawing the pen througf 
it w ch when brought to L d Chancel' to affix the Seal to if 
be wanted to know what that stroke cross the name sig 
*idfy d was answ" by one from Secretary of States Office 
that His Majesty had done it with his own hand & he 
was not to be Executed by virtue of that Writ or War 
so it was sealed and sent to the Sheriffs Office." 


Cfifton Lodge, Blomfield Road, Maida Hill. 

(Continued from 7 th S. i. 483.) 

No. IV. 

I tav now only to add that the effect o 
accent on trisyllabic words, accented on the firs 
syllable, is occasionally to cut out the iniddl 
syllable. This is extremely common in place 
names, as in the familiar examples of Glo'ster fo 
Glou-ces-ter, Lei'ster for Lei-ces-ter, Lem'ster fo 
Leo-min-ster, Dai'ntry for Daventry, &c. Similar! 
fourteen-night has been reduced to fort'night, an 
fore-castle to fo'c'sle. A large number of such case 
would never, perhaps, be suspected. Thus nurtur 

I.E. norture, was originally nor-i-ture, as in Old 
rench ; truly (or truely) is cut down from the 
I.E. trew-e-ly, which was trisyllabic. Butler is 

or M.E. bot-el-er, i. e. a bottler. Sutler is from 
)u. zoet-el-aar. In fact, the modern form of the 
nguage abounds with crushed forms, which can 
nly be detected by a knowledge of the M.E. forms 
r of the etymology. Thus damsel, in which m 
nd s have come together, stands for dam-o-sel; 
st-ler is for host-el-er, &c. Old French likewise 
bounds with such forms, as is well known. 
There are interesting cases in which a peculiar 
inn is due to a difference of accent such as we 
bould hardly have expected. A curious example 
j seen in achievement, which in the language of 
eralds must certainly have been accented on the 
,rst syllable. The result was the loss of the 

middle syllable, giving ach'ment, or, as it is usually 

misspelt, hatchment. 
There was once a word of four syllables, viz., 

vithdrawing-room, in which, by the strong stress 
u the second syllable, the initial syllable has 

been absolutely lost. If we pronounce with- 

drawing-room aloud and forcibly, the weakness of 
he first syllable is very remarkable. This is how 

we came by the modern drawing-room. 

I believe I have now said enough to show all 
,he principal results of the force of the English 

accent. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

attention of capitalists has been drawn to an 
investment offered by the proposed sale of the 
property in North Yorkshire on which Jervaulx 
Abbey is situated, which was to be submitted to 
competition at the auction mart on July 6. The 
estate is a remarkably fine and extensive one, of 
10,002 acres, having a rental, as it is stated, of 
10,66lZ. per annum, and lies chiefly in the valley 
of the Yore.* Though in former volumes of 
' N. & Q.' there have appeared from my pen 
several accounts of Wensleydale and its beautiful 
scenery and antiquities, in which Jervaulx Abbey 
has not been forgotten, yet some additional in- 
formation in connexion with it may at this time 
prove acceptable and interesting. 

The abbey was founded in 1156, increasing in 
importance and wealth until it fell at the dis- 
solution of the monasteries in 1536, and in the 
following year Adam Sedbar, the last of its abbots, 
was executed at Tyburn for his participation in 
the Pilgrimage of Grace. It would appear that 
the buildings were not entirely destroyed before 
1539, for Richard Belasyse, to whom the work of 
demolition had been entrusted, informed the 
Vicar-General, Thomas Cromwell, that he bad 
taken down the lead covering, amounting to 365 
fodders, but could not remove it until the follow- 

* 4't S. x. 131 j xii. 257 ; 6'" S. ii. 121, 210 ; x. 184. 

7"> S. II. JULY 17, '86.] 



ing summer, on account of the badness of the roads. 
He further purposed to let the house stand during 
the winter, because the shortness of the days 
would make the cost of pulling it down double. 

The once beautiful and famous abbey was almost 
razed to the ground, merely a few mounds and 
walls indicating its site, whilst underwood and briars 
grew in rank luxuriance. This continued from the 
time of the Dissolution until 1805, when the E*rl 
of Ailesbury, to whom it belonged, gave orders 
for the whole of the ruins to be cleared out, which 
was afterwards most efficiently done, and the whole 
ground plan of the abbey exposed. The adver- 
tisement in the Daily News of May 24 observes, 
" the venerable ruins of the abbey form one of 
the most interesting relics of antiquity in the 
kingdom, the ground plan being most complete, 
inasmuch as the site of the abbey church, with its 
aisles, choir, and transepts, the chapter house, 
abbot's house, refectory, cloisters, and other offices, 
can all be easily and distinctly identified." The 
length of the abbey church was 270 feet, and it 
contained seven altars. One of the most interest- 
ing features in the ruin is the collection of sepul- 
chral slabs, and in front of the high altar is an 
effigy of Lord Fitzhugh in link mail, though much 

Whitaker, in his ' Richmondshire,' gives a list 
of the twenty-three abbots of the bouse, from 
Johannes de Kingston to Adam Sedbar, though 
four are wanting from the list, and in Middleham 
Church, but a short distance from Jervaulx, may 
yet be seen in an upright position against the 
wall of the belfry the slab which once covered the 
remains of Robert Thornton, its twenty-second 
abbot. In Ayggarth Church, further up the dale, 
is a fine screen, brought from the abbey, upon 
which are the initials A. S., those of the last abbot, 
Adam Sedbar ; and in use for the reading desk 
is a stall, on which is carved " a hazel bush fructed, 
growing out of a tun" a rebus on the name of 
William Healington, or Hazleton, the twenty- first 

On the Dissolution Henry VIII. granted the 
abbey to Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox, the 
father of Henry, Lord Darnley, the second husband 
of Mary, Queen of Scots, and it would be interest- 
ing to know through how many and through what 
families it has passed before coming into that of 
the Marquis of Ailesbury. Most probably the 
greater portion of the estate consists of lands once 
belonging to the abbey, which is situated on the 
banks of the river Yore amidst some lovely sylvan 
scenery. But whoever may become the proprietor, 
it is to be hoped that the ruins may be as well cared 
for as they have been by the present noble owner, 
who has, in addition, always afforded every op- 
portunity for their inspection to the public. The 
following beautiful lines aptly describe the present 
condition of Jervaulx and its surroundings : 

What are they now ] The eternal hills survive ; 
The vnles hlopm on with flowers and fruits, the river 
In undimm'd beauty sparkles on for ever, 
God's handiwork ; while all that men contrive 
Sinks to decay; and yet Death's angel smile 
Still lingers o'er this cold and silent aisle.* 

Melbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

LETTER TO MONMOUTH. In the collections of 
papers and memoranda of Sir Joseph B <nka which 
I recently acquired I find, in the handwriting of 
Sir Joseph, a copy of the following letter : 

" Lord Powis has the following Letter of the Dutchess 
of Portsmouth framed in his Library, and sign'd by a 
Lord Pembrooke for a genuin Coppy : 

" ' A Copy of a letter from the Dutchess of Ports- 
mouth, to the Duke of Monmouth, wrote in y* year 

" ' MY LORD DUKE I did send Mr. Rumball the gen- 
tleman of my Horse to y r Grace, to let you know I should 
be glad to speak to your Grace. But that if you were 
unwilling to come to my Lodgings as thinking it might 
do you hurt, because at this time I am you say so hated 
by the people that then I would meet you privately 
any where else. But since you are not afraid to come to 
me I will speak to you very freely and assure you that 
whatever you may think I was not the person that did 
persuade y" King either to take away your Commission 
or to send you beyond Sea. I will not denie that I did 
not know of it, fur then you would not think of me as 
indeed I am, a woman very sincere since the King loves 
me so well as to tell me everything he intends to doe, 
and when he did tell me his resolution to take away your 
Commission and banish you I must Confess in my 
Judgement I did not disapprove of it, for I h*ve thought 
a great while you did the Kings bussiness much hurt by 
your Countenancing such ill Men as my Lord Sha'tcs- 
bury, my Lord Bedford, my Lord Russell, and Mr. 
Mountague but however I would not trust wholly to 
my poor Judgement I did therefore desire the King to 
ask the opinion of his Ministers, Viz : ray Lord Essex, 
my Lord Hallifax, and my Lord Sunderland, all of them 
my good friends and y' best Subjects y' King ever had. 
But the King told me it was their advice to him and 
they that first put it into his head, and that they did not 
doubt but I would approve of it. It was a very great 
satisfaction to me to see so many wise men of my opinion 
and who ever since have made it appear to me how much 
this may be (if y r Grace doe please) for your good for 
it may make the Duke of York and I much kinder to 
you when we shall see you doe not sett y r self against 
ne and him. nor encourage your Friends in the next 
Sessions of Parliament either to meddle with me or y* 
Succession as they did very foolishly in the last for my 
Dart my Lord Duke if when you return you will live 
;owards me as I doe desire I do promise you I will be 
very kind to you and had not you all this time lived 
very coldly and unfriendly to me I would have made you 

These lines have been thus beautifully rendered into 
Jatin Sapphics by a friend : 

Quo vetus splendor ? Superest perennis 
Mons : parit fl >res segetemque ut ante 
Vallis : aeternus vitreusque semper 

Labitur amnis. 

Haec Dei fecit manus. At virorum 
Facta marcescunt, tamen hie moratur 
Forma : subrident tacitae vel ipsa in 

Morte ruinse. 



[7 th 8. II. JULY 17, '86. 

the greatest man in England next y e Duke of York for 
I am sure I have some credit with the King, as you may 
Bee by what I have done for my Lord Sunderland whoir 
the King never had a good opinion of till I recommend'c 
him. You see I have made my Lord Hallifax an Earle 
upon his application to me when he had been ten years 
about it and could not get it done, and the King was 
pleas'd to make my Lord Essex a Commissioner of the 
Treasury though he had design'd it for Lord Arlington 
they have all engag'd themselves to be very industrious 
in my bussiness, and to find out a Considerable Estate for 
the Duke of Richmond the King hath always promis'c 
me and I hope he will keep his word and be as true to 
me as I have been to him ever since I gave my Self to 
him that no body shall come into Court or prefermenl 
without they be those that are my friends and those 
that will not I will not I am resolved to shut the door 
against them. You may think my Lord Duke that I am 
afraid of the Parliament that is coming. But you are 
much deceiv'd if they dare to name me you will quickly 
find what will become of them. I thank God I have a 
good Conscience and fear nothing the King of England 
loves me the King of France has promised to support 
me. I am a kin to most of the Sovereign Princes as you 
may see by my being Oblig'd to goe into Mourning for 
them, so that I must have ill luck if they cannot defend 
me against 4 or 500 dirty Country fellows who are my 
Enemies only because they are not acquainted with me 
and if the worst comes to the worst, I am secure of a 
retreat in France. I am, 

" ' My Lord Duke, &c.' " 


PUBLIC-HOUSE. Why, it might well be asked, 
is a tavern called a public-house ? There is some- 
thing remarkably peculiar about the application 
of this popularly accepted term, because, viewed 
in its literalness say with the eye of a language- 
imbibing foreigner the phrase is comprehensive 
enough, in all conscience, to include every place 
wherein a retail business is pursued. Seeing that 
a sort of undefined affinity has heretofore existed 
between tavern and theatre (betraying itself in 
cunningly exhibited day-bills and window-lithos), 
it would, mayhap, be entirely in keeping with the 
eternal fitness of things if it could be shown that 
the term on the tapis had a distinctly theatrical 
origin. This I apprehend to be a matter of little 
or no difficulty. Students of the drama will 
readily remember that in the days of Shakspeare 
two essentially different kinds of theatres obtained, 
respectively denominated " the public " and " the 
private." The many disparities between the two 
which evoked this distinction have been treated 
at length by Mr. J. Payne Collier in his ' Annals 
of the Stage '; but it will suffice now briefly to say 
that the private theatre was a detached building 
especially erected for, and entirely devoted to, 
dramatic performances, which were produced for 
the delectation of a high-class audience, whereas 
the public theatre was generally set up in an inn 
yard, and had for its patrons the lower strata of 

Now, as contemporary plays and pamphlets go 
to show that the term "playhouse" was more 

widely employed than " theatre," it is highly pro- 
bable that in colloquial conversation " public play- 
house " and " private playhouse " narrowed down 
into " public house " and " private house." Indeed, 
we have some very good evidence presented us in 
favour of this hypothesis in the induction to Mar- 
ion's tragedy 'The Malcontent' (1604). The 
Tireman is represented as making effort to remove 
certain individuals on the stage, who are supposed 
to constitute part and parcel of the audience ; 
upon which Sly, acting as spokesman on their 
behalf, remonstrates with, " Why we may sit upon 
the stage at the private house." Assuming, there- 
fore, that the term " public house " was in daily 
use in reference to the theatre, what more rational 
than to infer that the inn associated with it en- 
joyed the same designation ? Old customs die 
hard. Once so applied and accepted by the 
masses, and we can quite well see how the phrase 
clung in cant fashion to the inn or tavern long 
after the public theatre had ceased to be a recog- 
nized institution. In passing, it may be noted 
that the publican of the New Testament has no 
tangible connexion whatsoever with this subject. 
Possibly there may be those who will reckon all 
this mere midsummer madness ; but it is for 
them, in disallowing my conjecture, to point to a 
time when the phrase " public house " could other- 
wise have possessed a distinctive and literal appro- 
priateness. W. J. LAWRENCE. 
Newcastle, co. Down. 

PLOU-=LLAN-. Passing lately through a 
market, I saw a stack of boxes of imported fruit, 
upon each of which was branded one of the 
Armorican place-names with the prefix of "Plou-," 
and was thereby reminded of the remarkable 
parallel frequency of this prefix to names in Brit- 
tany and that of "Llan-" in Wales, seeming to in- 
dicate some close analogy of cause. A little 
consideration led me to think that the two words, 
although so unlike, are nevertheless positively 
identical, but first reduced to writing by two sepa- 
rated branches of one race. The initial " PI " fairly 
represents an approach to the force of "LI" as still 
current in Wales, whilst one of the most prominent 
differences of the Breton orthography from that of 
Wales seems to be the frequent softening and 
sometimes the total melting-out of the consonants 
'n the Breton. Thus it has " Barzas Breiz"for 
' British Bards," and although I have now at hand 
no Breton Dictionary or other books, I believe the 
n often passes into u. Of this perhaps Constantia 
= Coutances may be a sufficient example. The 
vowel o = a may be left to take care of itself. 



"Ce nom frequent donne aux hotelleries, d'auberge 
le la. , Rose, n'est pas une idee printainiere et poetique, 
ille vient evidemment d'une locution ancienne ; sub rosa, 

7> S. II. JULY 17, '86.] 


gous la rose, signifiant qu'on pent causer en suretd et 
sans crainte. La rose etait, chez lea anciens, le sym- 
bole du silence et de la discretion. L'amour avait donne 
une rose a Harpocrate pour le remercier. Parfois on 
donnait une rose a chaque convive entrant dans la salle 
du festin ; au plafond ou dessus de la table 6tait sculp- 
t6e une rose ; de 1'expression parler sous la rote; cela soit 
dit sous la rose. Je hais le convive, dit Plutarque, qui 
a de la memoire. 11 6tait d'usage de verser a terre le 
vin qui restait dans les coupes ; rien ne devait rester du 
festin de la veille. Dans tous les pays on trouve des 
auberges de la Rose; en Allemagne, et en Angleterre, 
1'enseigne de ces hotelleries a garde la forme antique : 
JTnter den Rosen, Under the Rose." Alphonse Karr, ' La 
Promenade des Anglais,' p. 268. 

But as regards England, is it not more correct to 
refer the frequency of the sign of the Rose to the 
fact that this flower, besides being an emblem of 
the Virgin Mary, is also the favourite national 
emblem ? The subject is discussed, of course, in 
Larwood and Hotten's 'History of Signboards,' 
and although the phrase " Under the Rose " may 
be found occasionally in England in connexion 
with inn -keeping, most of the examples given in 
that work would make it appear that the sign of 
the Rose was heraldic and political. Nor was it 
confined to houses of " entertainment for man and 
beast"; other trades affected the same sign. 

This is borne out by the fact that the sign of the 
Rose by itself is comparatively rare, while that of the 
Rose united to the Crown is common. On refer- 
ring casually to several directories I find that there 
are now in London ten taverns which bear the 
sign of the Rose, and more than thirty-six the 
Rose and Crown. In the North and East Ridings of 
Yorkshire there are only two Roses, but twenty-one 
Rose and Crowns. Devonshire rejoices in twelve 
Rose and Crowns, and Hertfordshire in thirty ; 
but neither of these counties boasts of a Rose. In 
Norfolk these two tavern signs are equal in num- 
ber ; there are sixteen of each. At Southampton 
I find a Rose, Shamrock, and Thistle evidently 
national emblems and only two taverns bearing 
the single title of the Rose in the county of 
Hants. This proportion reigns throughout Eng- 
land, clearly showing the national origin of the 
sign as connected with the royal emblem. 

There is no question that the rose in classical 
literature is the symbol of silence. Hence the ex- 
pression sub rota. Ausonius, ' Edyllia,' xiv., and 
others dignify the rose as sacred to Venus, and 
the note of Valpy on Ausonius is, " Notum et per- 
vulgatum, ex veribus repertis in marmore, Harpo- 
cratem a Cupidine rosa donatum fuisse ; inde 
rosam mensis suspensam ut sub ea dicta convivae 
scirent tacenda." But would not this apply to 
private entertainments rather than to houses of 
refreshment like inns ? 

While on this topic may I be permitted to ask 
why the wild rose is called the dog-rose, and the 
scentless violet the dog-violet ? It seems strange 
that the name of the most intelligent of animals 

should be associated with anything which is base 
and inferior. I am aware of the reason given in 
Pliny, ' Hist. Nat.,' viii. 63, that it was so called 
because its root cured the bite of a mad dog ; but 
this does not satisfy me, nor does it account for 
the dog-violet, nor for such phrases as dog-Latin 
and the verba canina of Ovid, ' Ibis,' i. 234. 


P.S. I have heard some rustics call the wild 
rose the canker rose. 

came across what I presume to be an error in Mr. 
F. Madan's ' Bibliography of Dr. Henry Sacbe- 
verell,' of which your lamented correspondent 
and my kind friend Mr. Edward Solly presented 
me with a copy. The mistake, as I suppose it to 
be, occurs on p. 11, and in entry 7 A, which runs 
thus : " The new association of those called 
Moderate-Churchma[e]n with the Modern-Whigs 

and Fanaticks By a Free-Churchman. [By 

Henry Sacheverell]." The authorship of this never 
seems to have been denied the Rev. Charles 
Leslie, who took such a prominent part in the 
political and religious controversies of the latter 
part of the seventeenth and commencement of the 
eighteenth centuries, and who is perhaps best 
known now by his work on a ' Short and Easy 
Method with Deists.' Watt, Bibliotheca Britan- 
nica,' vol. ii. p. 600J ; Chalmers, ' The General 
Biographical Dictionary,' vol. xx. p. 199, and other 
authorities consulted enumerate the publication in 
question amongst Leslie's works. As its full title- 
page will show, it was "occasioned" by John 
Dennis's extremely popular and vigorously written 
pamphlet, * The Danger of Priestcraft to Religion 
and Government," which was calculated to do con- 
siderable damage to the High Church party. 
Leslie's pamphlet, dull as it was, ran through three 
editions in the same year (i. e., 1702), and a second 
part was issued in 1703, but did not meet with 
much success. It will be seen, therefore, that 
Sacheverell's ' The Political Union ' was followed 
by Dennis's pamphlet just named, which was in 
its turn answered by Leslie. W. ROBERTS. 

MOTTOES IN BOOKS. The inquiry about Ben 
Jonson's motto at p. 248 opens up a subject of 
some interest. In the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries nearly every one who took an interest in 
literature assumed a distinctive motto, which was 
either written on the title-pages of his books or 
impressed upon the binding. Those of the great 
collectors Grolier " Portio mea Domine sit in 
terra viventium " and Maioli " Inimicimei mea 
non me mihi" are perhaps the best known. 
Grolier is said to bare had at least three other de- 
vices : " Aeque difficulter," " Tanquam ventus," 
and " Quieque suos patimur manes." The humbler 
man of letters, who could not afford expensive 



[7"> S. II. JULT 17, '8. 

bindings, wrote his motto on the titles of his 
favourite books. I have a copy (formerly in the 
Sunderland Library) of the Paris 1527 edition of 
the 'Colloquia' of Erasmus, with Ben Jonson's 
signature and motto, "Tanquam explorator," 
on the title. Another interesting volume in 
my possession is a copy of the 1538 Basle 
edition of the works of Pontanus, with the 
autograph of " W. Crashawe, 1594 " on the title. 
At the top of the page is the motto, "Servare 
Deo regnare est, W. 0." This was probably 
adopted from the beautiful words in the Col- 
lect for Peace in the Book of Common Prayer, 
" Whose service is perfect freedom," which are 
thus given in the Latin Prayer Book of Queen 
Elizabeth, published by Wolfiaa in 1560: "Cui 
servare regnare est" (' N. & Q ,' 1" S. xi. 395). 
William Crashaw was a writer of some note in his 
day, but is perhaps better remembered as the 
father of the author of 'The Steps to the Temple.' 

These mottoes indicate to some small extent the 
character of those who selected them, and a collec- 
tion of them would be interesting. I dare say I 
could add to the list if I bad access to my books, 
which are mostly in England. In the mean time, 
I trust other contributors of ' N. & Q.' may be in- 
duced to do so. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 


JOHNSONIANA. To my previously gathered 
waifs and strays about Johnson may I add the 
following, from the Courier (London), of June 27, 

"Anecdote of Dr. Johnson, not to be found in any of 
his biographers. When Johnson lodged at Kettle-ball in 
the University of Oxford, at a Mr. Thompson's, a cabinet- 
maker, the maid, by an unfortunate mistake, brought him 
one day a chemise of Mrs. Thompson's to put on instead 
of his own shirt. Contemplating on nothing but Ram- 
blers, Idlers, and Colossal Dictionaries, he shoved his 
arms, head, and shoulders, into the lady's linen, before he 
discovered his error. ' Who has cut off the sleeves of 
my shirt? Who lias cut off the sleeves of my shirt ? ' ex- 
claimed the enraged and hampered moralist, with sten- 
torian vociferation, dancing, and tugging, and foaming 
for freedom. This roar brought up poor trembling Mrs. 
Thompson, who, with the most consummate delicacy, shut- 
ting her two chaste eyes, slipped her hand into the room, 
and delivered her giant guest from his enchanted castle." 

The subjoined I find in the Courier of July 19, 

"Dr. Johnson. When Herbert Croft had presented 
the life of Young, for Johnson's 'Lives of the Poets,' a 
Gentleman asking the Doctor who it was that had fur- 
nished it, 'Sir,' replied Johnson, ' a young man of the 
Temple promised to give me the Life of Young, and I 
thought he would do it tolerably well; but the dog has 
deceived me for he has done it excellently ! " 


years since, in these pages, the word lot was treated 
as a so-called vulgarism, meaning " a large num- 
ber" (4 th S. i. 54, 163, 185). In South Lincoln- 

shire, at the present day, I find the word in 
constant use among cottagers as an equivalent 
for " very much." Thus, when I ask if Mrs. 
Jones is better, the reply is, " Yes, sir, she 's a lot 
better," or "a great lot better"; or perhaps it may 
be, " Oh, sir, she 's a lot worse." 


[The word lot in this sense is common in northern 

BELL INSCRIPTION. A belt cast by Gillett & 
Co., Croydon, is now on view at the Liverpool 
International Exhibition. It is evidently intended 
as one of a peal, and bears this inscription : 

To call the folk to church in time 
We chime ; 

When mirth and pleasure are in wing 
We ring ; 

When from the body parts the soul 

We toll. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

A CURIOUS EPITAPH. The following epitaph 
is on a flat gravestone near the south door of 
Chiswick Church, close to Hogarth's grave. It is 
very quaint. I am not aware if it has ever been 
published : 

Here lyes y e Clay 
Which th' other day 
Inclos'd Sam. Sauill* Soull 
But now is free and unconfin'd 
She fled and left her Clogg behind 
Intomb'd within this Hole. 

May y 21, 1728 
In the 30t> Year of his Age. 

F. G. 

the following from Mr. Coleman's catalogue, 
No. clxxv, just issued : 

"464. Deed between Geo. Ley, Citizen and Skynner 
of London, and Jarvis Symons, Citizen and Skynuer of 
London, relates to a large house in St. Stephens, 
Walbrook, in the City of London, and known by the 
signe of the Three Organ Pipes, formerly the Three 
Foxes, with Big. of George Ley, dated 1574." 

It strikes me as being worth noting that organ 
building in 1574 was sufficiently popular as a 
trade to suggest the name of an inn sign. I 
assume that the house in question was an inn, but 
even if I am wrong, the significance of the fact is 
not lessened. B. B. P. 

SNOREHAM. I think it worth noting that this 
parish in Essex is a rectory. It contains but a 
single farmhouse. It has no church belonging to 
it or had none last century, and once a year service 
is performed under a tree. See Nichols's ' Lit. 
Anec.,' iii. 179. C. A. WARD. 

Ilaverstock Hill. 

THE BEST ON RECORD. Does not the subjoined 
deserve a corner in ' N. & Q.,' as being, in sporting 
phrase, " the best on record," although in its results 

7'bS. II. JULY 17, '86.] 



equal, truly, to the worst ? " 28th April. James 
Gay, at Bordeaux, aged 101. He had been married 
sixteen times, but never had a child " (Gent. Mag. 
for 1772). J. J. S. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

present engaged with the preparation of the por- 
tion of the ' Dictionary ' from " Br " to the end of 
"B,"I shall be greatly obliged if any of your 
readers will furnish me with information on the 
points referred to below. Quotations should be 
acompanied by exact references. 

Bracket. Wanted, early instances of its use as 
a term in algebra ; also as denoting a part of a 

Brahminee (a Brahmin woman). Quotations 
wanted for this and other spellings of the word. 

Brahminicide, Brahmanicide. Quotations 
wanted for the two senses (1, agent ; 2, act). 

Braid (v.). Am I right in thinking that the 
verb is now obsolete in England in the sense " to 
plait," except poetically and with reference to hair 
(in which use it seems now to be interpreted as 
meaning " to arrange in braids ") 1 In American 
quotations I find the phrase " to braid a rug." 
What is the precise meaning of this expression, and 
is it known in England ? Quotations are wanted 
for braid in the sense " to ornament or trim with 
braid." Dr. Johnson speaks of " braided shoes "; 
does this mean "trimmed with braid" or "em- 
broidered " ? 

Braid (subst.). Is it possible that braid in the 
sense of a material prepared for point-lace work is 
a corruption of btide (cf. dentelle a brides) 1 Am I 
right in supposing that " Honiton braids" are not 
made at Honiton, but are so called because used in 
the making of Honiton lace ? I should be glad of 
quotations (before 1850) for braid in the modern 
sense of a trimming for articles of dress. 

Braider. Quotation wanted for this word as 
denoting a part of a sewing-machine. 

Braiding. Exact reference desired for the quo- 
tation from Thackeray given in recent dictionaries, 
"A gentleman enveloped in mustachios, fur col- 
lars, and braiding." Any other example (with re- 
ference) of this sense of braiding will be acceptable. 

Braidism. Quotations wanted (not from dic- 

Brail (a thong to confine a hawk's wing). My 
quotations for the subst. are all from writings of 
this century. Examples can surely be found of 
much earlier date. Of the corresponding verb my 
oldest instance is dated 1643; earlier quotations 
wanted. What is the meaning of brail as an im- 

plement used by fishermen ? la it identical with 
the French braille, " a shovel for turning herrings 
in the process of salting " ? 

Brake (instrument of torture). Is any clear de- 
scription of this engine to be found in any old 

Bram. What is the meaning of this word ? It 
appears to denote some part of the mechanism of a 
pumping-engine. I have one quotation (1860); 
earlier instances wanted. 

As it is important that the desired information 
should be in my hands as soon as possible, I should 
be glad if correspondents would send their replies 
to me. Any communications so sent will be handed 
to the Editor of *N. & Q.' immediately upon re- 

11, Bleisho Road, Lavender Hill, S.W. 

TESSARD. The present house at Bromston was 
built 1778. It was occupied till 1804 by my uncle 
Henry, son of Stephen and Mary Tessard, of Min- 
ster, Thanet. He died without issue, and left the 
house, as it stood, to my father. There are por- 
traits of Henry Tessard and his wife Susanna (I 
think she was a Pett, of Cleve, Thanet) and one of 
a young lady, painted by a very good artist, in oils, 
life-size. The headdress, which reaches nearly to 
the top of the picture, consists of some pale blue 
material wrapped round the wavy hair, which is 
powdered and reaches to the eyebrows in front and 
in loose curls behind as far down as the shoulders. The 
hair is put in rather sketch ily. The face is sensible 
and intelligent. The dress, white muslin trimmed 
with a frill of the same, but very high behind, open 
in front as far as the girdle, which is a pale blue 
ribbon ; long sleeves, the arms being straight ; no 
hands are visible. The background is a dark grey 
curtain, grey sky, and very dark distant landscape. 
I should like to know the date of this portrait, and, 
if possible, the name of the artist. Henry Tessard 
was born 1722. G. E. HANNAM. 

Bromston, near Ramsgate. 

[Replies to be sent direct.] 

BASTO. The word pam (see 7 th S. i. 228, 317) 
occurs in the Epilogue to the ' School for Scandal,' 
a passage which has not, I think, been cited. 
There does not seem to be much to be got from 
further discussion of pam ; but in this passage 
there occurs a more curious word, batto, which 
Webster states to mean the ace of clubs. What 
is the derivation of basto ? D. ANDERSON. 

GHOST OP MILTIADES. Where can I find the 
lines beginning : 

The ghost of Miltiades came by night, 
And stood by the bed of the Benthamite 1 

Is it known who wrote them ? E. T. 

LEAGUE? Apart from politics, it seems to me 
that a correct reply to this query is worthy of 



[7 th S. II. JOLT 17, 

preservation in these pages ; and some one ought 
to be able to supply both name and date, and thus 
put it on record once for all. At a meeting of the 
Primrose League I heard a lady "ruling coun- 
cillor" give an excellent address, in which she 
stated that the Primrose League was founded by 
Lord Randolph Churchill. Since then I have 
read an account of another meeting, at which 
another lady " ruling councillor " stated that the 
Primrose League was founded by Lady Randolph 
Churchill. I imagine that both these statements 
were incorrect, and that the Primrose League 
with its distinctive name and badge was founded 
shortly after Lord Beaconsfield's death (query, 
when 1) by Sir Henry Drummond Wolff, who then 
received the assistance of Sir Algernon Borthwick; 
and that it was not until the Primrose League was 
well established that Lord Salisbury and the other 
leaders of the Conservative party were invited to 
join it. CUTHBERT BKDE. 

JOHN SMITH, Author of ' The Doctrine of the 
Church of England on the Sabbath,' 8vo., 1694. 
Who was this John Smith, who puts his name to 
the dedication to the king in the above work 1 
His residence is not given. Watt seems to con- 
nect the author with a John Smith, Rector of St. 
Mary's, Colchester ; but it would seem that the 
author under notice was connected with Yorkshire 
and Lancashire, for the book was printed for Edw. 
Mory at the Three Bibles in St. Paul's Church- 
yard, as well as for Francis Bentley in Halifax, 
and for Ephraim Johnson in Manchester. It is 
probable that it is one of the first books published 
in Manchester by Johnson, who was afterwards 
characterized by Dunton as a knave. Was the 
author the same John Smith who wrote 'The Mys- 
tery of Rhetorick Unveil'd,' 1657, published by 
Shelmerdine of Manchester (' N. & Q.,' 7 th S. i. 
242, 397) ? JOHN E. BAILEY. 

Stretford, Manchester. 

ST. JAMES'S BAZAAR. Built by Crockford, 
1832. Was it on the site of what are now club 
chambers, in King Street, St. James's ? 

C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

'THE FOUR SPELLS.' I am very anxious to 
hear where I can find an old legend in verse called, 
I think, ' The Four Spells.' The story concerns a 
page who saves his liege lord from the four spells 
or curses of an old witch, and is rewarded by 
marrying the daughter, whilst the witch flies 
home to her serpents, on which she vents her rage 
by " scrunching " their heads. Landseer's brother 
Charles illustrated it in four small water-colour 
drawings, now in the possession of his sister Mrs. 
Mackenzie. I half think that the legend is to be 
found in an old author named Scrope, butLownde 
or Allibone furnishes no clue. W. J. F. 

built there 1230. Whereabouts is Catherine Hill? 

C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

COPPER COINS, 1864 AND 1871. -Can any 
correspondent of 'N. & Q.' inform me if there is 
any basis for the prevalent opinion as to the 
superior value of copper coins for these years, and 
whether such superior value is the reason of 
their scarcity? The copper coins of 1871 are 
rare in Ireland. Has the coinage for those years 
been called in so far as was practicable ? 

W. D. C. 


DAY." In the last number of ' Prseterita ' that has 
reached me Mr. Ruskin says (vol. ii. p. 99), " As 
with Sydney Smith's salad: 'Fate cannot harm 
me ; I have dined to-day,' " Was Sydney Smith 
really the author of this saying? My own im- 
pression is that it is a good deal older. The late 
C. S. Calverley, among more recent writers, uses 
the phrase (I quote from memory) : 

Then home returning, I may soothly say, 
Fate cannot harm me ; I have dined to-day. 

E. S. N. 

SHORTHAND. Should any one living in or visit- 
ing the neighbourhood of Southport happen to be 
acquainted with Dr. Bright's system of shorthand, 
published in 1587, or with any other system pub- 
lished within the hundred years following that 
date, I should be glad to put before him a Rider's 
' British Merlin ' for 1688, for the elucidation of 
several pages of shorthand (in the handwriting of 
Rev. John Cooper), the meaning of which has 
been lost to the writer's descendants for many 
years. T. COOPER, M.A. 

Banks Vicarage, Southport. 

WALDEQRAVE. Some fifty or more years ago 
I read a romance called ' Waldegrave'; and there 
was a character in it of the name of Waldegrave, 
and there was a description in it of a night fete on 
one of the Italian lakes. Can you give me the 
name of the romance ? I would much like to see 
a copy. J. C. HOOKER. 

[Waldegrave is the name of more than one character 
in Campbell's ' Gertrude of Wyoming.'] 

MONASTIC NAMES. At what date did it be- 
come usual for monks and nuns, on profession, to 
assume " religious " names instead of the ordinary 
names which they had hitherto borne ? I have 
never found the slightest trace of such a practice 
in England previous to the Reformation, and I 
suspect that it did not arise before the close of 
the seventeenth century, if not later, in any part 
of Europe. Can the exact date be fixed ? 


7<" 8. II. JULY 17, '86.] 



' UMPH'M.' Can any one give me the correct 
words of a Scotch song bearing the singular title 
'Umph'm'? It begins, "When I was a laddie 
lang syne at the schuil," and it is, to the best ol 
my recollection, a clever and amusing song. II 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' who has the words would 
be so very kind as to send me a copy direct to the 
subjoined address, I shall be most happy to do 
any little kindness for him in return which it may 
be in my power to do. Who is the author of the 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

DR. BALDWIN. Can any of your readers help 
me to the parentage of Dr. Baldwin, once of the 
Royal Navy, who married about 1818 a Mary 
Ann Leggatt and afterwards a Miss Paine ? He 
had a daughter who married George Galloway. A 
sister who married a Grant (Archibald ?) was said 
to have been related in some way to the Burdett 
family, and died at Ishapore, in Bengal, about 

High Bentham, Lancaster. 

any of your readers give any authority for this 
expression to describe the shock of an awakened 
conscience ? It was much in the mouth of a very 
witty uncle of mine, who would have been one 
hundred and thirteen years old if he had lived to 
this date. I interpret it as referring to the cock 
and pan of a flint and steel gun, and implying the 
startle of the discharge. D. E. 

ginning of this account of his " Morrice from 
London to Norwich" are these words: "The 
first daies iourney, being the first Munday in 
cleane Lent." What does he mean by "cleane 
Lent" ? Would he tell us that he started on the 
first Monday after the ember days (Wednesday, 
Friday, and Saturday) which follow the first Sun- 
day in Lent ? BR. NICHOLSON. 

SLOANE. There is at the College of Physicians 
a portrait of Sir Hans Sloane ; Cunningham says 
by Kichardson, Redgrave says by Thomas Murray. 
Dr. Munk, in his ' Roll of the College,' says, with 
his usual particularity, that there is u a portrait." 
We do not doubt Dr. Munk's fact, but who was 
the artist ? Murray, I suppose, as Redgrave co- 
incides with Bromley. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

EGG-CUPS. When were they first made in 
porcelain, and where ? H. G. GRIFFINHOOFE. 
34, St. Petersburg Place, S.W. 

HERBERTS OF COGAN. Where am I likely to 
find a pedigree of the family of the Herberts of 
Cogan, Glamorganshire ? Memorials of several of 
them still exist within the ruined walls of the 
ancient church at Cogan. H. N. 

any one give me any genealogical particulars of 
this family, which occupied the ancient holding 
of Hazelside in the seventeenth century, and also 
say whether the poetess Joanna Baillie was a 
descendant 1 J. M. BULLOCH. 

13, Osborne Place, Aberdeen. 

HAMPSTEAD OLD CHURCH. Can any one give 
me the names of any books besides Park and 
Chatelain containing views of this edifice 1 


Grove House, Christ Church, Hampstead. 

BOOK-PLATE OF GRAEME. Some time ago I pur- 
chased an English translation, with the Latin text, 
of Horace, 1750, in two volumes, in each of which 
there was a book-plate of a deceased Scottish peer. 
I fancied I detected another plate underneath, and 
having the upper one removed, I was interested to 
discover one bearing the name of " James Graeme 
of Buchlyvie. 1715." The engraver's name is also 
given, " A Burdon Scu." On referring to Nisbet's 
Heraldry' (ed. 1804, vol. i. p. 80), I find, " Gra- 
ham of Bachlavy [sic], descended of Inchbrakie, Or, 
a stag current between roses gules, on a chief sable 
as many escalops of the first." This description 
appears to correspond to the arms on the plate, 
only the latter has in addition, in scroll-work over 
the top, the motto, " Cubo at Excubo." I shall 
be glad to know something of this " James Gramme 
of Buchlyvie "; and also if it was usual to date 
book-plates, especially in Scotland, at so early a 
period. I may mention that Buchlyvie is the 
name of a village in the parish of Kippen, Stirling- 
shire. A. S. 

MASSAGE. What is the derivation of this word ? 
Is it connected in any way with the Arabic word 
mass, to press softly ? CELIA. 

TWINK. In this neighbourhood a chaffinch is 
called a twink. I believe that the same word is 
used also in Somersetshire. What is the origin of 
the word ? Is it used elsewhere ? 




1 Anonymous Poems by P. C.,' published by Bentley in 
1850. Will any of your readers kindly inform me who 
P.C. was? C. H. BARBER. 

Here laid beneath this turf must sleep 
Those whom affection long shall weep. 
Here rests the sire who ne'er shall strain 
His orphans to his breast again, 
Tha son who at his father's door 
A father's voice shall hear no more, 
The bridegroom, &c. J. C. M. 

And all our praises are but as a fount, 
Which ever still flows on and leaves 
The part remaining greatest. 




17, ?. 


(7 th S. i. 150, 214, 255, 375, 413, 490.) 
The identity of Streanaeshalch with Whitby 
in a certain or modified sense, that is has never 
been a matter of doubt or uncertainty with any 
one acquainted with the annals of Whitby. The 
commencement of the first document in that part 
of the Whitby Chartulary which is contained in 
what is called " The Abbot's Book " runs thus : 
" Notum sit omnibus Deo et S. Hildse Abbatissse 
servientibus in loco qui olim Streoneshalc voca- 
batur, deinde Prestebi appellabatur, nunc vero 
Witebi vocatur." The said document may be as 
early as 1150 or 1160, and can scarcely be later 
than 1170. What was in former days called 
Streoneshalc, in Domesday times Prestebi,* and 
in 1170 Whitby, is entirely to be distinguished 
from what is called Wbitby in 1886, which, more- 
over, is a very indefinite term in the understand- 
ing of nine out of ten of the inhabitants of the 
said town, and ninety-nine out of the hundred of 
modern visitors. t Streoneshalch or Prestebi was 
simply the site of the A.-S. monastery, and is, on 
the side of what is now Whitby, adequately de- 
fined. The middenstead from which a leaden 
bulla, of Archdeacon Boniface and a runed ivory 
comb, to mention nothing else, have been ob- 
tained is a sufficient testimony to that point. It 
came no further than the line of cliff above the old 
town, continuing along past the churchyard and 
along the sea-cliff. The name Streoneshalch de- 
fines nothing outside this line. 

As to the derivation, or meaning either, of 
Streoneshalch, I wrote, some twelve or fourteen 
years ago : "Bede's interpretation Streanseshalc, 

* Whitby and Priestby were not only not identical, 
they were absolutely distinct in 1078. Thus in Domesday, 
" Terra Hugonis Comitis," the first entry is, " In Witebi 
and the berewic of Sneton there are," &c. " To this 

manor belongs soke in these Ghinipe, Prestebi 

Sourebi, Brecca, Baldebi, Plorun, Staxebi, and Neueham." 
There were fifteen carucates in Whitby and Sneton, 
besides three in Ghinipe (or Hawsker), two in Prestebi, 

t What I mean is that Whitby proper in old times, 
and still to a degree that \a not thought of, was but 
one among a number of almost co-ordinate townships 
(some of them even called manors), the boundaries of 
two or three of which trenched very sharply upon 
those of Whitby. Tims in the document referred to in 
the text, besides the vale of Whiiby, are mentioned 
Overby, Netherby (now Stainsacre), Thingwala, Lar 
pool, Helredale, Gnipe or Hawsker. Sourby, Rise 
warp or Ruswarp, Stakesby, Baldby, Brecca, Plore 
(which gives the name to Flowergate), besides Newham 
and Dunsley. But Stakesby reaches to Skate Line (now 
Brunswick Street), taking in Chubb Hill and much of 
Bagdale, and Ruswnrp includes a very large part of what 
is by the uninitiated reckoned as Whitby, and so on the 
other side of the river aleo. 

quod interpretatur Sinus Fari ought to be satis- 
factory ; but it is not." Later, or about seven 
years ago, in the introductory chapter to the 
'Chartulary of Whitby,' which I edited for the 
Surtees Society, and vol. i. of which was published 
in 1879, I paid I had " no doubt that the first ele- 
ment in the name " was " the name of a person," 
and that name Streone or Streon ; and so far dif- 
ferent writers in ' N. & Q.' are in accord with me. 
And I then went on to say that, as regards the 
suffix, there " could be little doubt that -healch, 
-halch, or -hale is the true form," and that the 
forms -halh, -healh, or -heale were " worn forms 
from which the c had dropped out by usage "; and 
here some of the writers just referred to, as taking 
healh to be the true form, and implying " a build- 
ing of some sort, probably of stone " though why 
probably of stone I cannot conceive join issue 
with me, however unintentionally. 

The real difficulty is Bede's interpretation. 
That, as MR. STKVENSQN says, " the occurrence 
of the interpretation ' Sinus fari ' in the More MS. 
disposes of the suggestion of interpolation " I 
admit at once ; a conversation I had with Mr. 
Sweet last autumn left me in no doubt as to 
that point. Even as far as sinus I can attain, but 
as to fari I am utterly in doubt (except that there 
is a mistake somewhere) ; only I am a profound 
disbeliever in Pharos. Were the question simply 
as to the meaning and derivation of Streoneshalch, 
I think it could be easily answered. In my 
' Handbook of Ancient Whitby and its Abbey,' 
published in August, 1882, I gave what I con- 
sidered to be the origin and derivation of the 
name, relying much on the written assent and 
explanation of a great modern A.-S. authority. 
He no more than I thought good to drop the c 
or ch, but quoted Chaucer's halite for an A.-S. 
form healca, a corner, glen, &c., and regarded 
healh as merely the same as healca,. I did not 
then know the form Streuneshalgh quoted by MR. 
STEVENSON, but I had without any hesitation 
collated that termination -halgh, sufficiently com- 
mon in the old forms of Yorkshire names, with 
the healch , halch, hale of StreancBS- or Streones- 
halch, and regarded it as identical. Now there is 
a place named Duncildehalc, in a Liverton grant, 
in charter ccxlvii. of the Whitby Chartulary, 
which same name in charter ccxxix. is written 
Dunscinghalef, the final / having been tampered 
with after it was written ; and this form set me 
on suspecting a like phonetic connexion between 
halef and hale or halch, as I was abundantly 
familiar with in O.E. gruch, Prayer Book version 
grudge, Cleveland grvff, to murmur, grumble ; 
slaughter and slaffter, daughter and daffter, &c. In 
short, I look upon healch, halch, hale, halgh, as 
simply equivalent to modern hauch, haugh, another 
form of which is heuch, heugh. For my own part, 
I have no doubt that healch or hale was origin- 

7 tt S. IL JULY 17, '86,] 



ally a noun of the same type as the noun repre- 
sented by modern dike, with its two senses, one 
quasi-feminine, one quasi-masculine, a ditch* hol- 
lowed out, and a bank heaped up ; I mean that 
the said noun probably took in the senses of a 
steep, precipitous bank above, and an alluvial 
sloping bank below. If any one wishes to obtain 
a graphic conception of what a heugh means 
let him read Scott's description (' Antiquary,' 
chap, vii.) of the escape of Sir Arthur Wardour 
and his daughter, aided by Lovel and the men- 
dicant, from their desperate peril ; and then let 
him look at the glossary for Heugh and Heugh- 
head. The latter is not wide of my point here. It 
is " the head of the glen between two cliffs." No 
one who has seen Whitby, especially from the 
sea, can fail to recognize the idea suggested by the 
term hatch or halgh as connected with that of 
sinus. And to this let me add one consideration 
further. I have, within thirty-eight years, known 
the compulsory removal of the footpath leading 
through the churchyard and round the east head- 
land at the mouth of Whitby Harbour, on two 
different occasions, further inland. Put this into 
different words, and it means that, within the last 
thirty-eight years, six to eight feet at the brow of 
that headland have wasted away under the influ- 
ences of wind and weather; nay, men still living can 
testify to a greater waste on each of the two head- 
lands through which the Esk finds its way to the 
sea than even this implies. Carry back the process 
of waste over thirteen centuries to a period, that 
is, at which we assume the name Streoneshalch to 
have been given and what is the conception pre- 
sented to our minds ? That of a sinus certainly, 
but of a sinus that in its turn reproduces the 
idea of Chaucer's halke, found also in ' Pr. Pm.,' 
and explained there by angulus, latibulus. So much 
for the possibility of the meaning sinus ; though I 
do not myself adopt this view. On the contrary 
I incline to that of haugh or heugh in the sense 
in which it is used all along the northern coast 
the sense, that is, of the heugh in the ' Antiquary,' 
and in more than one other of the same series of 

So far had I written many weeks ago. But I 
refrained from sending the paper for publication 
for divers reasons, though I have diligently read 
every communication on the subject which has 
since appeared. My view, however, is not altered 
by anything I have read. Streon's Hengh I still 

* It is worthy of passing note that I have bad a con- 
siderable number of instances before me lately, from the 
minutes of Quarter Sessions in the North Riding of the 
date of 16b5-40, in which ditch in the sense of bank is 
used. The lull phrase describing the offence which 
gave rise to the minute is "cast up a ditch," which 
was done across an old track or way along which a right 
of way obtained, and which was therefore termed the 
king's high-street or highway, BO as to stop the said 

hold to involve by far the most probable and the 
most reasonable idea. The Straw-flare and the 
Ness theories seem to me to be alike nonsensical 
and untenable, and on divers grounds, grammatical 
and other. Thus it would be perfectly safe to say 
there never has been a ness at the place indicated 
within the present geological, to say nothing of his- 
torical period. A sea-chart of Whitby shows this 
conclusively. In a prior geological period, before 
the land west of the harbour mouth sank (or that 
on the east rose) from 80 to 100 feet, the soundings 
seem to point to the existence of a ness in the for- 
mer case. As to the present state of the question, 
the following from such a chart seems to dispose 
effectually of any such supposition : " Whitby 
Rock. A hard black rock with large stones laying 
[sic] promiscuously about down to low-water mark." 
" Vessels coming from the south," under stress of 
weather, "might make the harbour by coming 
through the Sled way, a passage across the rock, 
there being four feet more water there than at the 
bar." In other words, what once may have been a 
ness in a previous geological period is no longer 
such by reason of a fairly deep-water " passage 
across the rock " that is, cutting off the possible 
ness altogether. 

But further, supposing this deep-water passage 
did not exist. It is a mile from the abbey to the 
end of the submerged rock which some hundreds 
of thousands of years ago may have supported the 
rocks forming a ness. The estimate a very liberal 
one, and hardly allowed by Young himself (' Hist, 
of Whitby,' p. 775) of ten yards' waste in a cen- 
tury would only allow " that the cliffs might pro- 
ject 100 to 150 yards further in Hilda's time than 
at present ; but that is the utmost extent that can 
reasonably be allowed." From my own observa- 
tion I more than fully concur in this statement. 
But the facts so stated are fatal to the idea of a 
ness on the northern and eastern side of the site of 
the abbey. A hundred and fifty yards would not 
measure half the distance between the existing 
corner or point and the wall-face of rock which the 
Sledway proves to have existed between the solid 
coast and the pointed end of the Whitby rock. 

On the whole then, allowing for the very 
definite application of the name Streones- 
halch, and taking these other matters into 
consideration, I hold that Streones, even when 
written Streonaes, as it might be if written by a 
Northumbrian, is simply a genitive case, and that 
hakh, healc, hale, is the equivalent of our modern 
haugh with its alternative htugh; and it is a matter 
of the most absolute certainty that at Whitby we 
have both the haugh in its usual sense and the 
heugh in its commonly accepted sense as applied in 
various places northwards from Whitby along the 
coast as far as Arbroath if not further. 


Danby in Cleveland. 

JNOTES AND QtJERlES. [7*8.11 JULY 17/8 

SIR J. A. PICTON brands my etymology of this 
name as " a mere random guess," because I am 
unable to prove that " such a man as Sir eon ever 
existed." This contention strikes me as absurd 
and impracticable. Domesday records a Derby- 
shire village named Wilelmestorp. According to 
SIR J. A. PICTON we are precluded from deriving 
this name from Wil-helm William, because it is 
evident that we cannot prove that a William 
owned the village when it received its name. 
Hundreds of similar instances might be adduced. 
There are a few instances, such as Bede's Tunna- 
caestir, Bendlaes-ham, Vilfarces-dun, &c., where 
the existence of the man who gave his name to 
the village can be established. For all practical 
purposes it is surely sufficient to prove that the 
personal name suggested was a real name, and is 
not a figment of the etymologist. 

Whether my " guess " be " random " or not, it is 
certain that SIR J. A. PICTON'S etymology has much 
of the "random" quality about it. It is hardly 
correct to state that " there is a common A.-S. sub- 
stantive streon, signifying power, strength, cognate 
with the adjective strong." Streon is not a common 
substantive, and it is doubtful whether or not it 
ever meant power or strength. Its actual mean- 
ing is riches, treasure. &c. , which is confirmed by 
the collective ge-strion (Old Saxon gi-striuni, Old 
High German ki-striuni). I quoted, in the Aca- 
demy of July 11, 1885, p. 29, the one passage 
where streon apparently means strength. This is 
from Alfred's ' Boethius,' 32, 2. I presume this 
passage is the basis of SIR J. A. PICTON'S defini- 
tion of streon. But it seems to me that here 
strfon is a <x7ra Aeyo/^evov, and its meaning 
is not altogether clear. In any case it can only 
mean bodily strength, a meaning hardly in con- 
sonance with SIR J. A. PICTON'S etymology. 

Two further objections to SIR JAMES'S etymo- 
logy suggest themselves to me. The first is that it 
is certainly a very unusual occurrence to find an 
A.-S. place-name embodying an abstract noun. The 
second is that, assuming streon meant strength 
and halch place, we should not expect to find them 
compounded with the genitive. According to the 
A.-S. laws of composition, the name should be 
Stre'on-halch, not Strfonces-halch. 

My etymology, like that of SIR JAMES, pre- 
supposes " that the name was not conferred by 
the abbess, but existed when she bought the site." 
I thought that this was sufficiently obvious. 


ii. 3.) DR. JAMES MACAULAY raises this ques- 
tion afresh. While making courteous reference to 
my recent ' Life of Bunyan,' he thinks it not fair 
for Mr. Froude and myself to ignore this discus- 
sion as we have done, and that it is to be regretted. 

Marking the sentence with a note of exclamation, 
he also says that I have " the weakness to claim 
for Bunyan a remote connexion with a Norman 
family that came over with the Conqueror ! " To 
all which 'I can only answer for myself that I 
ignored the question because it seemed to me that 
the positive evidence I was able to adduce had 
settled it for ever, and that if it is a weakness to 
suggest a Norman origin for the Bunyan family, it 
was a weakness in which I found myself somewhat 
unwillingly'landed by the researches I had made. 
Mr. James Simson, of New York, who is 
possessed by a harmless craze on the point, asserts 
that the Bunyan family were gipsies who, on 
settling in Bedfordshire, took the name of the 
family on whose soil they chiefly lived. He has 
issued pamphlets innumerable on the question, 
but he has never yet adduced a single shred of 
historic evidence to support his statement. It is 
mere matter of inference, because (1) Bunyan 
speaks of his father's house as being of that rank 
that is meanest and most despised of all the 
families of the land ; (2) he once asked his father 
whether his family were of the Israelites ; and (3) 
because he was a tinker. 

With regard to the first point, unless some more 
positive evidence is forthcoming, it is sufficient to 
explain the words " that rank that is meanest and 
most despised of all the families of the land " as 
simply describing the poor and labouring class ; as 
putting in another form what he says elsewhere, 
" I was brought up at my father's house in a very 
mean condition, among a company of poor country- 

As to the second point, it must be remembered 
that at a time of deep spiritual anguish Bunyan, 
thinking that if he only belonged to the chosen 
race of Israel there might be hope for him, like a 
drowning man catching at a straw, he asked his 
'ather, "Were we Israelites?" Brushing away 
;his nonsense, the swart old tinker bluntly and 
latly replied, " No, we were not." Even if they 
had been, it would still be necessary for Mr. Sim- 
son to show that the Israelites were gipsies, and 
that Bunyan was aware of the fact. 

But, thirdly, Bunyan was a tinker ; therefore, say 
some, he must have been a gipsy. Does it neces- 
sarily follow? Are all tinkers gipsies? There 
were three generations of this family who followed 
the craft, and only three Bunyan's father, himself, 
and his eldest son John. His grandfather describes 
himself in his will as a " Pettie Chapman," and a 
previous ancestor in 1542 cultivated a few acres of 
and and kept a small roadside inn, and is de- 
scribed as "Bunyon, Victualler." The three who 
did follow the craft describe themselves in their 
wills, which are still in existence, as " braseyers." 
["here was a difference between persons so described 
and travelling tinkers. Mr. Rye, in his ' History 
of Norfolk,' tells us that in the books of the Nor- 

7"> S. II. JOLY 17, '86.] 


wich freemen the " brasyers" included pewterers 
plomers, and belyaters or bellfounders. 

Now, what is the positive evidence on the other 
side ? I must refer those who care for a full statement 
of the facts to my 'Life of Banyan,' and content my- 
self now with the merest outline of the case. At 
the outset there is in all we know of this family no 
trace whatever of the wandering gipsy life to be 
found. The dreamer's father's family, the Bunyans, 
and his mother's family, the Bentleys,are mentioned 
from one generation to another in the Elstow 
registers from 1603 to 1680, just like the rest 
of their village neighbours, without any reference 
to their being gipsies. Yet it was usual to make 
such reference. In the parish register of St. 
Paul's in Bedford we have such entries as these, 
" 1567 March xxx th daie Robartt Ane Egyptic ; 
Aprill John Ane Egiptn." There are similar refer- 
ences in other Bedfordshire parish registers to 
gipsies baptized or buried. Then, further, the 
gipsies were wanderers and the Bunyans cannot 
be so described. The cottage in the fields where 
Bunyan was born was owned by his father and 
grandfather. From the Court Roll of the manor 
of Elstow we find that in 1542 Wm. Bonyon 
had just died and left this same cottage with 
nine acres of land to his son Thomas Bonyon, 
and that that part of the parish was then de- 
scribed as "Bonyon's End," aa though they had 
been there a long time. The probability is that 
they had, for there is a document in the Record 
Office bearing date as early as 1327 relating to 
a messuage and one acre of land on this very spot. 
It was a covenant between Simon, son of Robert 
atte Felde, of Elnestowe, and William Boynon, 
with Matilda his wife, in which the said Simon 
"gave to the aforesaid William Boynon and Matilda 
one hundred shillings of silver." Even if there had 
been gipsies in England as early as 1327 it is surely 
unusual for them to remain in the same parish, 
generation after generation, for 300 years. There 
were Bunyans within a mile of Elstow even earlier 
still. In 1199 Wm. Buniun had a friendly suit 
with the Abbess of Elstow in reference to land 
which he held at Wilsamstede, the next village. 
If we adopt Mr. Simson's theory, which com- 
mends itself to DR. MACAULAY, and suppose that 
at some time gipsies came into the property of 
the Bunyans at " Bonyon's End " and took their 
name, where is the evidence of the fact ? 

The Norman origin of the Bunyan family is 
too wide a question to enter upon here. In sup- 
port of its probability is the fact that the earliest 
form of the name, Buignon, is found in an old 
Soissons MS., and that in 1286 John Boynun, of 
Pullokeshille, a village about nine miles from 
Elstow, paid scutage fee, making service for half 
a knight on the death of his feudal chief 
Almaric St. Amand, of Cainhoe Castle, near by. 

I fear I have already trespassed too far. and 

can only say it is not necessary even to say 
that I have no personal feeling on the point at 
issue. I am quite in agreement with DR. 
MACAULAY when he says that being a gipsy, " so 
far from being a disgrace or discredit to the 
illustrious John Bunyan, gives greater lustre to 
his genius and worth." This, however, is senti- 
ment, not history, and history demands facts for 
its conclusions. If I am asked, Was Bunyan of 
gipsy origin ? I can only answer that my very 
decided conviction is that he was not. 

The Manse, Bedford. 

NEW ENGLISH DICTIONARY (7 th S. i. 303, 336, 
370, 430, 471). DR. MDRRAY is difficult to help. 
I wrote to him some months ago, pointing out that 
the medical words in the 'Dictionary' were imper- 
fect in specimens, dates, and quotations, and offering, 
if he supplied me with a list of these words and their 
dates I would largely supplement and add to them. 
He replied that the only help he needed was to 
supply instances from the lists of "Quotations 
Wanted " which he issued. These have now appa- 
rently ceased ; and as one was not permitted to 
afford help in advance, it seemed to me the next 
best thing to do was to correct omissions in arrear. 
I trust that the Editor of ' N. & Q.' may now see 
his way (since DR. MURRAY owns my words may 
be of value) to publish my lists as supplied for 
'N. &Q.' 

To show I am not angry, as DR. MURRAY sug- 
gests, I shall be glad to afford any assistance, espe- 
cially for medical quotation, to any contributor to 
the ' New English Dictionary ' who will send me 
slips and the words for which he needs earlier 
dates and better quotations. 



PARISIUS (7 th S. i. 307, 418). I feel obliged 
to MR. BUCKLEY and MR. WARREN for their 
notice of this query. The former and I are at one 
as to the fact of the peculiar use mentioned by me 
of the place-name " Parisius." MR. WARREN I 
feel confident will be with us on that point after 
perusing my further remarks. 

Before the replies appeared I had looked up 
among my books the following additional examples 
[I will only premise that by MS. is here meant 
the manuscript cited in my previous communica- 
tion ; that PR. designates a black-letter Martyro- 
logium printed at Venice " apud heredes Lucean- 
tonij Junta, Florentini"; that the manuscript 
cannot be of later date than 1250, and is probably 
at least fifty or sixty years older ; and that the 
date of the printed book is 1542) : 

MS. 28 May. " Parisiorum ciuitate transitus sci' 
;ermaniepi' &c'fe88oris." In the printed work (PR.) this 
ms become "Parisius ciuitate," &c. 

PR. 25 August. "Parisiu$ sc'ti ludovici confessoria 
regis francie." 



[?" S. II. Jt7LY 17, '8 

MS. and PR. 9 October. "Apud parisius natale sanc- 
torum m'r'm dyonisii ep'i," &c. 

MS. and PR. 1 November." Ciuitate parisius de- 
positio beati marcelli confeesoris." 

In the above commemorations, in the edition of 
Baronius's ' Martyrologium,' printed at Cologne in 
1640, the word used on 1 November is "Parisiis," 
and on the other days "Lutetise Parisiorum." 
Ph. Ferrarius, ' Lexicon Geographicum ' (Paris, 
1670), quotes from Venantius Fortunatus (who 
died about 609), the following verse : 
Dilige regnantem celsa Parisius arce. 

Since noting these, however, I have become the 
pleased possessor of the new edition of Ducange's 
' Latin Glossary ' now being issued by Mr. David 
Nutt, 270, Strand (and which I am glad to take 
an opportunity of recommending to other notists 
and querists), and in it I find what explicitly 
confirms MR. BUCKLEY'S suggestion, and appears 
to conclude this part of the question, viz., " Pari- 
sius, sine flexu [without inflection] interdum 

pro ipr-a Parisiorum urbe aliquando pro tractu 

et territorio Parisiensi "; with the following, among 
other examples : 

" Fenestras duas ex atta partie vie Parisius." 
" Receptus est [S. Ludovicus] apud Parisius proces- 
sional iter." 

" Si contingat longe a Parisius regem decedere, corpus 
defunct! PJ risius affertur ." 

There still remains the question how it was that 
" Parisius" came to be used in this peculiar way. 
It did for a moment occur to me to wonder whether 
the name might originally have been an accusative 
plural for Parisios; but I have neither evidence nor 
argument to warrant any opinion to that effect. I 
have since found the following examples of the 
accusative of place-names used without a preposi- 
tion, and meaning, contrarily to classical usage, 
" at" the places mentioned. In the ' Martyrology 
of the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, Dub- 
lin,' published by the Irish Archaeological Society 
in 1844, it is asserted of St. Luke : " Sepultus est 
autem nunc Constantinopoh'm," meaning at Con- 
stantinople ; and similarly Neapolim, Arelatea, 
Lingonas, Trecas, Viennam, Lugdunwm, Larnosa- 
cwm, Lemonigas, Augustidum, and Antiochicm, 
are used in the same work, without any governing 
word, and in every instance with the meaning of 
at the place named. But these examples prove 
nothing as to " Parisius." They merely exhibit a 
peculiar use of the accusative case, and at present 
I have no knowledge that this was at all wide- 
spread ; whereas " Parisius " appears to represent 
all the cases of the noun, and (as the above quota- 
tions from Venantius Fortunatus, Ducange, and 
the first-mentioned two martyrologies suffice to 
show) is found in literary use from at least the 
sixth or seventh to at least the sixteenth century. 

This is the mediaeval form of the name of Paris 

[t was used without inflection. See the instances 
n Ducange, s. v. " Parisius " is of common occur- 
rence in the English chronicles written in Latin. 

REGATTA* (7 th S. i. 266, 375, 473). Prof. 
Skeat's 'Dictionary' is an admirable work, pains- 
taking in its search after correctness far beyond 
the wont, and one for which all students acknow- 
edge a debt of gratitude ; but to treat it as a final 
and exhaustive criterion, as writers in 'N. & Q.' 
occasionally seem to do, is absurd. It is not alto- 
gether impossible that poor little I (who it goes 
without sayingt am but as the mouse to the lion 
;o the learned Professor) should, through my 
Italian proclivities, be able to cite a passage or two 
which had escaped his more important studies, for 
no one man has time to exhaust every possible re- 
search. But I should not be likely to gratuitously 
put myself at variance with him as his admirer at 
the last reference seems to lay to my charge. That 
the accusation is a botte da orbo the following will 

He says, p. 473, " The derivations of this word 
given by Miss BUSK are not in accordance with 
Prof. Skeat's derivations. He connects the word 
with O.Ital. rigattare, to wrangle, sell by retail as 
hucksters do, to contend, to cope or fight." And 
yet, p. 375, I had said (epitomizing the matter, 
for if I had time I could fill pages with quota- 
tions), "It is variously derived from, &c and 

from fare a rigata = a gara, to contest, to emulate, 
which has given the common word for a broker, 
an old-clothes man, rigattiere." 

That I have added other opinions besides does 
not make me at variance with the Professor. If 
any one is sufficiently interested in the word to 
read what Italian etymologists and lexicographers 
have written about it, they will find that, as I have 
said, the weight of their opinion is not in favour of 
the more obvious derivation, which I will now say 
I feel nevertheless personally no doubt is the right 
one. R. H. BUSK. 

OLIVER CROMWELL (7 th S. i. 469). The twelve 
banner rolls of Oliver Cromwell carried at his 
funeral were : 

1. Cromwell (Arg. , a lion rampant sable) and 

2. Cromwell and Steward : Or, a fess cheeky 
arg. and az., charged with an inescutcheon of pre- 
tence ; arg., a lion rampant gules, debruised with 
a bendlet raguled vert (or or), Stuart, ah. Steward. 

3. Cromwell and Warren : Or, a chevron en- 
grailed between three eagles' heads erased sa. 

4. Cromwell and Murvyn : Arg., on a chevron 
sa. a mullet of the field. 

* On the present spelling see note f p. 450. 

f Pace C. M. I. p. 447. I made the translated phrase 
because I felt the want of it many years before it got into 
printed use, and am too old to give it up now. 

. II. JULY 17, '86.] 



5. Cromwell and Cromwell : Quarterly, per fes 
dancette az. and or, four lions passant counter 

6. Cromwell and : Party per pale, az. an 

sa., three fleurs de lis or. 

7. Cromwell and Kemis : Vert, on a chevron 
arg., three pheons* heads sa. 

8. Cromwell and Button : Ermine, a fess gules 

9. Cromwell and Chevrons: Gules, three chevron 

10. Cromwell and Williams : Arg., a dragon' 
head erased at the neck, vert, holding in it 
mouth a sinister hand couped at the wrist, gules. 

11. Cromwell and : Arg., a buck gules. 

12. Cromwell and : Sa., a chevron between 

three spears' heads erect arg., their points imbruec 
with blood ppr. 

I think I took the above note from Prestwich's 
'Respublica.' B. F. SCARLETT. 


This seems very near, though not exactly, the 
bearing that Sir J. Prestwich, in 'Respublica, 
p. 185, calls 

" The great Family Banner of his late serene Highness 
vii. Quarterly of six coats; first, Sable; a lion rampam 
Argent, for CROMWELL; second, Sable; a chevron be- 
tween three spear-heads Argent, tbeir points imbrued or 

stained with blood proper, for ; third, Sable; a 

chevron between tbree fleurs-de-lis Argent, for , 

fourth, Gules; three chevrons Argent, for Cheuerons ; 

fifth, Argent; a lion rampant sable, for ; and 

sixth, Argent; on a chevron Sable, a mullet of the first, 
for Moruin." 

This curious book preserves, at p. 149, " the 
Secret ! " that the Protector's corpse has never 
been disturbed, having been hastily interred by 
night, "in a small paddock near Holborn ; in 
that very spot over which the obelisk is placed in 
Red Lion Square " (now five feet west of the new 
dovecote), the state coffin, buried at Westminster 
and afterward hung at Tyburn having contained 
only "an effigies"; so that we are not, as Carlyle 
used to boast, a nation " that has hung the dead 
body of its Cromwell." Of course, however, we 
name bis burial-place after the first grog-shop 
founded near it. E. L. G. 

The following quarterings, with tinctures, are 
given in Noble's 'Protectorate House of Crom- 

1. Sa., a lion ramp. arg. (Williams, alias Crom- 

2. Sa., three spear-heads arg., imbrued gu. 
(Cynurig Sais). 

3. Sa., a chev. between three fleurs de lis arg. 

4. Gu., three chevs. arg. (Jeaselin or Jestin ap 
Morganny, alias Gwrgant). 

5. Arg., a lion ramp. sa. (Gwaith voed Vawr). 
In the margin of the patent of peerage to Ed- 
mund Dunch creating him Baron Burnell, set out 

in the above work, these arms are given with the 
additional quartering, (No. 6) Arg., on a chev. sa. 
a mullet of the first (Mursine). E. FRY WADE. 
Azbridge, Somerset. 

"BIRD" AND "FOWL" (7 th S. i. 427, 494).-In 
Lancashire, I should say, at the present timo, bird 
or fowl was applied to young or old, large or 
small. "A brace of birds" certainly means of 
partridges. Perhaps fowl is mostly used for 
poultry, as in pea-fowl, guinea-fowl, &c. It does 
net mean young, for one may be helped to a bit 
of tough old fowl here as elsewhere. I never 
heard of a hen and her birds except in the ex- 
ample given by your querist. And perhaps some 
of your readers may be amused to learn from the 
Bishops' Bible, A.D. 1573, Ecclesiasticus xi. 3, 
that " the Bee is but a small beast among the 
foules, yet is her fruit exceeding sweete." 

P. P. 

Poultry hereabouts collectively are called fowls, 
single poultry are birds, and this includes chickens 
and ducklings. Single specimens of swans and 
geese are also called birds. 


208, 296). The examples of interlaced chevronels 
borne by north-country families are supposed to 
be derived from the FitzHughs, of whose early 
origin and history little is known. Mr. Ellis and 
some others think that similarity of arms denotes 
consanguinity; but this is an exploded notion and 
not admitted by the Heralds. It is barely pos- 
sible that identical charges, differing only in tinc- 
ture from the original, may denote close blood 
relationship, especially if borne by two or more 
families in the same or adjacent counties, but 
should not be relied upon as proof even when these 
families bore similar Christian names. 


"A NINE DAYS' WONDER" (7 th S. i. 520). 
According to Mr. Julian Sharman's edition of 
The Proverbs of John Heywood,' 1874, p. 91, this 
proverbial expression is as old as the time of 
Jhaucer. Mr. Sbarman quotes : 

Eke wonder last but nine deies newe in town. 

' Troilns and Creseide.' 
Will any one verify the quotation ? 


He was also the author of ' The New Yorkshire 
Gazetteer, or Topographical Dictionary ' (London, 
828, 8vo.), and ' The New Lancashire Gazetteer, 
r Topographical Dictionary,' &c. (London, 1830, 
5vo.). The ' Vestigia Anglicana ' seems to have 
ieen republished in 1830 under the title of 
Conversations on the History of England: illus- 
rative of Events, Institutions, Manners, and 



[7* S. II. JTJLT 17, '8 

Literature, from the Earliest Ages fto the Acces- 
sion of the House of Tudor.' G. F. R. B. 

He was the author of 'The New Lancashire 
Gazetteer, or Topographical Dictionary ' (published 
by Henry Teesd ale, London, 1830). He also wrote 
a similar work relating to the county of York 
(Teesdale, London, 1828). In 1830 T. and G. 
Underwood, London, published for him ' Conversa- 
tions on the History of England,' 2 vols. 8vo. 


He also published a ' New Yorkshire Gazetteer,' 
8m, London, 1828. W. C. B. 

ADRIAN VANDYKE (7 th S. i. 488). I may be 
able to throw some light on the query of MR. F. E. 
SAWYER about Adrian Vandyke, who had four 
wives, and think that presumably he may have some 
connexion with the " great painter of that name 
who came to England about 1632." It may interest 
MR. SAWYER and some of the readers of ' N. & Q.' 
to know that his first wife was of the family of the 
Millers, or Myllers, long settled at Horsenail, 
Crouch, in the parish of Wrotham, and also at 
Oxen Hoath, parish of West Peckham, both in the 
county of Kent, and not more than two or three 
miles apart, and that it is recorded in the register 
of Wrotham that Adrian Vandicke and Winifreth 
Miller were married December 27, 1595, no 
doubt the " Winifred Vandyke .who was buried at 
Lewes, in Sussex, December 17, 1619." In Berry's 
' Kentish Genealogies ' it is stated that William 
James, of Ightham Court, Esq. (not far from 
Wrotham), and who was aged eighteen in 1619, 
married Jane, daughter of Nicholas Miller, 
Esq., of Crouch, which Jane was, according to 
Wrotham parish register, baptized August 25, 
1605, and in all probability was sister of 
Winifreth Vandicke. This William James, 
Esq., of Ightham Court, had seven uncles, 
one of them, Arnold James, married Mary, 
daughter of John Vanhulst, of London, and 
another, John James, of Grove Manor, Woodnes- 
brough (sixth son of his father, also Wm. 
James, of Ightham Court), married Susannah, 
daughter and coheir of Peter Vandewall, of Ant- 
werp, who had six children, the eldest of them 
aged fourteen in 1619. It does not seem a great 
stretch of imagination to think that Vandyke, the 
painter, may have been brought to this country by 
cousins, connexions of the Vandicke and Miller 
families. M. D. N. 

THE 'Topic' (7 th S. i. 508). The Topic was 
first issued in weekly numbers and monthly parts, 
but after a few months the numbers appeared every 
fortnight instead of every week. The first part is 
dated May 1, 1846, and contains articles on ' The 
Indian War/ 'The New Tariff,' 'The Oregon 
Question,' and 'Poland.' Part xiv., which is 
dated June 1, 1847, is the last which I have 

seen, and is probably the last which was issued. 
It contains articles on the following subjects, ' The 
London Picture Exhibitions,' and 'Socialism as 
illustrated by Fourier's System.' G. F. E. B. 

The first number of the Topic was published on 
April 4, 1846, and the last on June 1, 1847. 

. Kirton in Lindsey. 

1555 (7 th S. i. 448). Mr. William Todd Jones, of 
Homra, co. Down, Rowland Taylor's descendant 
in the sixth degree, was employed collecting and 
arranging materials for a biography of his ancestor, 
and possessed a "family book" in the bishop's 
writing giving an account of his parentage, &c. ; but 
unfortunately he died before he had completed it, 
and the fate of his papers has not been ascertained. 
They were at one time at Montalto, under the care 
of Lord Moira, and then sent to Donnington ; but 
it is believed that they. never reached there, and 
were burnt in the fire which destroyed the London 
Custom House. 

Many traditions, however, came from Mr. 
Jones to his sister Mrs. Wray, who communicated 
them to Bishop Heber ; and the latter states in 
his ' Life of Jeremy Taylor ' that he " was the 
lineal descendant of Dr. Rowland Taylor." 


Swallowfield, Beading. 

BOOKPLATES (7 th S. i. 448; ii. 16). I have the 
two plates described by W. M. M. No. 1 has the 
name Smith at the foot in my copy, and the arms 
are those of a family of that name. He has 
omitted to notice that the design includes a large 
scroll S, on which the arms, crest, and motto are 

In No. 2 the birds are not martlets, having very 
visible feet, but sea pies. The crest also is not " a 
griffin's head on a block," but a cockatrice's head, 
couped, on the usual wreath. "Dey Syer"is no 
doubt the name of the owner, as these are the 
arms of Syer, of Isham, co. Northants (the field 
should be gules). Dey, D'Eye, or Day is a family 
name, and " C. C. C." is, of course, either Corpus 
Christi College, or Christ's College, Cambridge. 

C. R. M. 

357, 416). Among Church people I have only, and 
that lately, been shocked by this omission in two 
or three houses, and those decidedly " fast" ones. 
I must say I have always found grace reverently 
said by Roman Catholics, accompanied by crossing 
also. Dissenters I do not remember to have dined 
with, but I am sure it would not be omitted by 
them. I have always heard it called " saying 
grace." Having once heard a discussion amongst 
clergy whether a bishop or his chaplain ought to 
be asked to say it, and having sometimes had both 

7 th S. II. JOLT 17, '86.] 



at my table, I asked my vicar, and then appeata 
to the bishop for pardon if I had done the wronj 
thing. He assured me I had done right, an 
another Church dignitary has also informed me 
was always right if I asked my parish priest. 
course, if no clergyman is present I say it myself 
but I think some of your readers may like t 
know what was a bishop's own opinion as to the 
correct thing. P. P. 

GUNTER (7 th S. i. 488). There can be no doub 
tbat William Borough's experiments were made a 
Limehouse. The preface to his ' Discours of the 
Variation of the Cumpas, or Magneticall Needle 
is dated "at Limehouse the 26. of September anno 
1581," and in the seventh chapter will be founc 
an " Example of twoo obseruations made at Lime 
house the 29. of Julie 1581. in the forenoone." 

G. F. K. B. 

POOR ROBIN (7 th S. i. 509). There can be little 
doubt that the "poor Robin" to which Roger 
North alludes was the series of almanacs which 
appeared in 1664 (probably) for the first time. 
These almanacs were compiled by " Poor Robin, 
Knight of the Burnt-Island a well-wilier to the 
Mathematicks," and the early numbers were " cal- 
culated for the Meridian of Saffron- Walden. " 
The verses they contain are certainly " very mean 
ones." G. F. R. B. 

" Poor Robin " was a nom de plume of Robert 
Herrick, who brought out a series of almanacs 
under the name of 'Poor Robin's Almanack.' 


See Lowndes, t. v. " Robin." 


TWISTING," &c. (7 th S. i. 326, 493). The English 
version of " Quand un cordier" is older than 
the time of Person or Parr. It was first printed 
in Wallis's ' Grammatica Linguae Anglicance,' of 
which the first edition was published at Oxford 
in 1653. Dr. Wallis also gave two other English 
versions of Alain Chartier's quaint lines, as well as 
a Latin one. See 1" S. vi. 230, 279. 



(7 th S. i. 487). MR. H. S. ASHBKE is fortunate if 
he wants only one number of this publication. I 
was unfortunate enough to pay my subscription in 
advance, and have received no issue since April 1, 
1885 (ominous date !), and not even the courtesy 
of an answer to three letters asking for back num- 
bers in discharge of amount paid. ESTE. 

WASHINGTON (7 th S. i. 388, 494). G. F. R. B., 
quoting Allibone, says Joseph Washington was a 

collateral ancestor of George Washington. Is not 
this an inaccurate expression ? Todd's ' Johnson,' 
defines an ancestor to be " one from whom a per- 
son descends either by the father or the mother." 
Tomlin's 'Law Dictionary' says: "Collateral 
relations agree with the lineal in this, tbat they 
descend from the same ancestor ; but differ in 
this, that they do not descend from each other." 
Joseph Washington may therefore have been a col- 
lateral relation of George Washington but not a 
collateral ancestor. A. MILL. 

48, Millman Street, W.C. 

469, 518). E. B. not being able to see 'History 
of Gloucestershire,' would be grateful to MR. ED- 
WARD MARSHALL for the list he kindly offered to 
copy for her. EMILY BARCLAY. 

Wickham Market. 

SEAL SKINS (7 th S. i. 507). Amongst the very 
numerous manuscripts carefully preserved by 
Sir Joseph Banks are some letters to him too 
long to quote in extensofrom one Thomas Chap- 
man, together with a memorial intended for the 
Earl of Liverpool praying a reward for having in 
the year 1796 discovered the means of making the 
fur of the South Sea seal available for clothing. 
From this correspondence (1816-17) Chapman 
appears to have previously received a royal bounty 
of 100Z. for his discovery, which, he says, " has 
Benifitted the Country to the Amount of Mil- 
lions." The essence of the invention consisted in 
a method of " Extracting by the Root the whole 
of the Inconceivable Quantity of course [sic] Hair 
that grows Intermingled amongst the Fur on the 
skin of the South Sea seal." The skins up to that 
;ime appear to have been of so little value as to 
3e hardly worth importing, the few arriving being 
sold from fourpence to two shillings each. The 
tanners took off the fur and coarse hair together 
ill then inseparable and sold it for manure. The 
memorial discloses that 

the Seal Fur for the Manufacture of Hats is now of 
Squal Value with the Fur of the Beaver, and is of more 
rvalue than Beaver Wool for the purpose of Spinning, 
and then Wove into most Beautyfull tihawls and Cloth, 

which is sold at all the Principal Shops For a Muff 

ir Tippit of the best Seal Fur, which at most doth not 
:onsume more than two good Skins, fire to six pounds 
s asked, and it is also in general Use by Haberdashers 
nd Milliners for Hats and Bonnets made up from tho 
Ikin itself with the Fur left on it. For this purpose the 
[kins are Shaved as thin as Possible and Dyed of Various 
Colours, but the greater Quantity is worn of the Natural 

Chapman bitterly complains that he was op- 

iosed by men of large capital, who made a practice 

f forestalling and buying up the whole of the 

early importation of seal skins, and they added 

o their offence by afterwards employing the very 

workmen instructed by the inventor. The result 

was the Fleet Prison and ruin. Neither the 



[7 th S. II. JOLT 17, '86. 

memorial referred to nor a second one sent to Sir 
Joseph in November, 1817, for transmission was 
forwarded, for the originals lie before me, together 
with pitifully worded letters begging for old 
clothing or relief in any form. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

YEOMANRY (7 th S. i. 347, 509). The medal in 
question was given to the Nottinghamshire Yeo- 
manry Cavalry at the time of the enrolment of 
volunteers to protect the country against the 
possible invasion of the army of Boulogne. Many 
other regiments had medals distributed of the 
same character. A specimen in silver can be seen 
in the British Museum. Vide Gibson on ' Medals,' 
p. 65. The particular medal in gold now referred 
to must be almost unique, as those distributed to 
officers and men were in silver or bronze. 

W. A. P. 

' NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE' (7 th S. i. 448). The 
author was William Cobbett. See 5 th S. xii. 45. 
See also 4 th S. xi. 464. . W. D. MACRAY. 

Ducklington, Oxon. 

BREAKS? EAR (7 th S. i. 329, 393, 492). As the 
eldest son of the late W. H. Brakspear of Henley, 
I think IcantellJ. H.G. something about my grand- 
father's bookplate. It is quite true that he always 
used a monogram. He was what was then called 
"an elegant penman," and designed it himself; 
but I do not think that the use of a monogram on 
a bookplate argues the non-possession of a coat of 
arms. This much I can say, that as a very young 
man I asked my father why he did not use his 
crest, and to let me know what it was, as I had 
never seen it, and he said, "No, I have never used 
it, and your grandfather would never do so because 
he thought it was out of place for a man of business 
to do so." It must be remembered that in those 
days it was not the custom for everybody to put a 
crest of some kind on his livery buttons, &c. 

My grandfather, Mr. Robert Brakspear, was not 
born at Henley. I do not think he came there 
until he was in business. I wish J. H. G. would 
let me know his name and address, as he seems 
to know a great deal about my father's early his- 
tory, and must be an old friend. H. H. B. 

10, Chapel Place, Ramsgate. 

HERALDIC (7 th S. i. 509). The coat of arms is 
that of the Darells : Azure, a lion rampant or, 
armed, langued, and crowned gules. Crest, Out 
of a ducal coronet or a Saracen's head couped 
at the shoulders proper, bearded sable, wreathed 
about the temples argent and azure ; on the head 
a chapeau of the last fretty of the third, tasselled 
gold, turned up ermine. I fancy the quartering 
must be intended for Chicheley, Argent, a chevron 
between three cinquefoils gules. Burke's * Com- 

moners.' i. 133, states that " John Darell, second 
son of William Darell of Sesay, co. York, married 
secondly Florence, heiress of William Chicheley, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and soobtained the manor 
of Scotney." This quartered coat might be borne 
by any of their descendants. E. FARRER. 

Luton Hoo. 

xii. 348). It has been asserted that Robert Wil- 
liams of Roxbury, the ancestor here of the founder 
of this college, was from Caernarvonshire, and 
that he had the right to bear the following coat 
of arms, viz., Gules, a chevron ermine between 
three men's heads affronte" couped. These show 
an armorial connexion with the Williamses of 
Cocbwillien, Penryn, and Veynol in that county. 
Can any of your noted Welsh antiquaries give 
the pedigree of this Robert Williams 1 


Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. 

i. 407, 512). The best reply I can make to I. E. C. 
is to point out that poets are subject to die of love 
frequently and yet to attain to a good old age. 
The stubborn facts remain that by the Milanese 
edition of Vasari the death of Andrea del Sarto is 
fixed at 1531, and in the * Life ' of Sannazaro pre- 
fixed to the edition of his ' Arcadia ' printed at 
Venice in 1578, that of Sannazaro is given as 
1533. It is difficult to believe that he foresaw 
the time of his own death at least two years before 
it occurred, or that, if Andrea left the portrait 
unfinished, Sannazaro did not have it completed 
at once by one of Andrea's scholars, and trusted to 
what might be done after his own death. 


" BIRCH "AND "BiRK" (7 th S. i. 427, 497). 
Throughout Sherwood Forest and East Derbyshire 
" birk " is the popular name for the birch tree, 
which grows in profusion, one of the sights of 
Sherwood Forest being the silver birches. Part 
of the forest is called "Birkland," and close by 
here is a farm called " The Birks." A common 
family name in the district is that of Birks. 



SHAKSPEARE'S DOCTOR (7 th S. i. 428 ; ii. 18). 
This mythical individual ought hereafter to be 
known as Shakespeare's u Jack-in-the-box." I 
had supposed him for ever carefully fastened down 
by my discovery of the stone and the epitaph, as 
described in Harper's Magazine, January, 1886. 
Now he pops up for a German career. The frag- 
ments of Dr. Heldon's gravestone the oldest Eng- 
lish gravestone in this country (1618) are in my 
possession. There was nothing about Shakespeare 
in the epitaph. It states that he was born in 
Bedfordshire, England ; and it would much interest 

7th g. II. JULY 17, '86.] 



Virginians if any trace of the family could be dis- 
covered, or the time and circumstances of Edmund 
Heldon's voyage. MONCURE D. CONWAY. 

Brooklyn, N.Y. 

DR. JOHN MONRO (7 th S. i. 369, 413, 474, 514). 
Since writing my letter published 7 th S. i. 514 
I have found an original correspondence between 
my grandfather, Dr. Thomas Monro, and the 
prime minister, Mr. Spencer Perceval, the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and Lord Eldon (the Lord 
Chancellor) regarding George III. 'a illness in 1811 
and 1812. This confirms what I have said about 
my grandfather having been the physician who 
attended George III., rather than my great-grand- 
father Dr. John Monro. But in the same packet 
I have found a copy of a letter written January 31, 
1789, by Dr. Warren to my great-grandfather, Dr. 
John Monro, asking his opinion regarding the 
symptoms of incurability in insanity. I have also 
Dr. John Monro's answer, but written in the hand- 
writing of my great-grandmother. This, I imagine, 
was because her husband was too unwell himself 
to write it. My grandfather has written on this 
correspondence, May 24, 1824, the following : 
" When the King George III. became insane and 
the physicians were examined before the House, 
Dr. Warren wrote the enclosed to my father. The 
answer is in my mother's hand." 



A man of hope and forward-looking mind. 

Wordsworth's ' Excursion,' bk. vii. 1. 278. 

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie 

Stephen. Vol. VII. JBroicn Burthogge. (Smith, 

Elder & Co.) 

WITH punctuality and rapidity that can scarcely in 
the case of a work of this importance be overpraised, 
and that prove how well Mr. Leslie Stephen has hie 
team in hand, the seventh volume of the ' Dictionary ol 
National Biography ' sees the light. It contains a more 
than average number of names of the highest import- 
ance, among them being, of course, Sir Thomas Browne 
Bunyan, Burke, Burns, Burnet, Bucer, Buchanan, Bruce, 
Browning, with many others of hardly less importance 
Most of the biographies are competently done, and some 
of them are admirable in condensation. Sir Thomas 
Browne and his contemporary William Browne, of the 
'Britannia's Pastorals/ are done by Mr. A. H. Bullen, 
one of the most valuable and fortunately one of the 
most constant contributors. The Rev. William Hunl 
supplies the long biography of Edmund Burke ; while 
Burns, in whose case judicious handling is expedient 
is one of three or four important memoirs suppliec 
by the editor, the most noteworthy of these being 
the excellent life of Buckle. The life of Bunyan is 
written by the Rev. Canon Venables, a too infrequent 
contributor to ' N. & Q.,' who supplied the ' Memoir o 
Bunyan ' to the ' Clarendon Press Series." Canon Ven 
ablea, it is interesting to state, is against the gipsy origin 

of Bunyan, concerning which a diicussion is being carried 
on in our pages. Burbage falls to Mr. S. L. Lee, who 
contrives in the life to supply an interesting arid a very 
useful account of the stage in Shakspexretin times. Mr. 
Lee's valuable contributions include Sir Francis Bryan and 
many other worthies. George Buchanan is dealt with by 
Dr. yEneas Mackay, who is also responsible for Robert 
Bruce. Dr. Westland Marston supplies, in part from per- 
sonal recollections, a life of Buckstone, and one of Oliver 
Madox Brown. Mr. Osmund Airy, the accomplished editor 
of ' The Lauderdale Papers,' writes on Burnet, and Mr. 
Robert Harrison deals with the Brunels. Dr. Norman 
Moore supplies some good medical biographies. Moses 
Browne, the piscatorial poet, is in the hands of Mr. 
W. P. Courtney. Bruce, the African traveller, has been 
trusted to Dr. Oarnett, and Sir Jarvis Knight Bruce and 
some other le^al and literary dignitaries, including James 
Silk Buckingham, to Mr. Russell Barker. Mr. W. E. A. 
Axon, Mr. Thomas Bayne, Mr. H. Bradley, Mr. Thomp- 
son Cooper, Mr. Austin Dobson, Dr. Jessopp, Mr. R. E. 
Graves, Mr. Louis Fagan, Mr. Arthur Lccker, Mr. Monk- 
bouse, and Mr. J. H. Round are among the contributors. 
It is noteworthy that the editor has in this volume taken 
upon himself, perhaps for the purpose of setting an 
example, some lives involving the utmost drudgery and 
the least reward. 

The Domeiday Boole for the County of Derly. Reprinte 

from 'The Feudal History of the County of Derby. 

By John Pym Yeatman. (Bern rose & Sons.) 
MB. YEATMAN is well known as a student of our early 
history, and as one who holds views which are 
not to use too strong language unpopular with the 
majority of his fellow labourers in the same field. He 
is a strong supporter of the theory which sees in many of 
our most important customs which have had the force 
of law for ages not the relics of village community life 
which once flourished among our Teutonic kinsfolk, but 
remains of an earlier race the Celts which adverse 
circumstances have driven from the fairest portions of 
the patrimony which was once their own. We cannot in 
the space at our disposal argue this matter with him. 
It would require a volume of no small dimensions to do 
it effectively. Thus much, however, must be admitted by 
all who have entered on the question without prejudice, 
that, allowing for the not unnatural exaggeration of a 
certain school of historians who have laid the founda- 
tions of a scientific history of our people, as relates to 
more than half of England the Teutonic theory is 
undoubtedly true. 

We must confess that there are some passages in Mr. 
Yeatman's introductory essay which we do not under- 
stand. Does he really think that the book known by 
the misnomer of the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle* is not a 
contemporary document so far as the latter portions are 
concerned ; and has he come to the conclusion that all 
the charters we have of a time preceding the Norman 
Conquest are spurious? We are reluctantly compelled 
to believe that he has adopted this view, for he tells us 
that "before the Norman Conquest writing was not 
employed in the transfer of land.' That forged charters 
exist no one doubts; but that a large mass of genuine 
evidence from pre-Norman times has come down to us 
cannot be doubted by any one who has seen and read the 

Mr. Yeatman's rendering of the Derbyshire part of the 
Domesday Survey seems accurate, and he has done a 
service by pointing out that it is no argument against 
the existence of a place in remote times that its name 
cannot be found in the Survey. He says truly that 
those places were not mentioned from which the king did 
not derive revenue. We could give instances of hamlets 



[7 th S. II. JULY 17, '86. 

which are undoubtedly Scandinavian settlements, and 
therefore older than the Norman Conquest, the names of 
which are not to be found in the Conqueror's great 

Index to the Biographical and Obituary Notices in the 
Gentleman's Magazine from 1731 to 1780. Edited by. 
H. Farrar, P.R.Hist. Soc. (Index Society.) 
AMONG the works most requisite to those occupied in his- 
torical, biographical, or genealogical investigations, the 
most important is a well-executed index to the biogra- 
phical and obituary notices in the Gentleman's Magazine. 
A possible basis of this is supplied in the indexes which 
already exist. These books are, however, of exceeding 
rarity, and are, when found, of little use in their present 
condition to the student. How much labour has been 
imposed upon the editor under whose care the first 
portion of a new index now sees the light is known 
to those only who have tried to use the old indexes. 
In these the surname alone is given, without any 
attempt at classification or distinction, and bank- 
ruptcies, biographies, promotions in the military and 
naval services, and a score different things are all in- 
cluded. To one, accordingly, who knows about what 
date a biography is to be sought, a reference to the 
volume is an almost more hopeful task than a search 
through the index, which, in the case of a familiar name, 
includes hundreds of items. The best proof how futile 
are these so-called indexes is, perhaps, afforded in the 
fact that in the compilation of a full index, by which, 
when it is completed, hours of wearisome labour will be 
saved to the reader, Mr. Farrar has entirely rejected the 
work of his predecessors, and has executed the whole 
afresh. The first product of Ms valuable labours is 
now before us, and includes the names between Aaron 
(of Kidderminster) and Oirardot. No fewer than 
10,000 names are included in this first instalment. Mr. 
Farrar is to be thanked for the boon he confers on 
scholarship. It is to be hoped that appreciation will be 
so general that not only will the present compilation be 
completed, but that the whole of the work, the greater 
part of which is ready for immediate publication, will 
be given without delay. The arrangement is convenient 
and a matter of high importance the text is large and 
legible. A work worthier of welcome or more grateful 
to a large class of scholars is not easily to be anticipated. 
A few names which have escaped from the first list will 
appear in the shape of addenda. The second and thir'd 
volumes of the index, including all names between 1781 
and 1870, is in active progress. 

The English Catholic Nonjurors of 1715. Being a Sum- 
mary of the Register of their Estates, with Genea- 
logical and other Notes. Edited by the late Rev. 
Edgar E. Estcourt and John Orlebar Payne. (Burns 
& Gates.) 

THIS volume will be of much interest to many who are 
not members of the Roman Catholic communion. It 
furnishes us with a nearly complete list of the English 
Roman Catholics who were owners of landed property at 
the time of the accession of George I. In the year 1745 
a book was issued with a not very dissimilar title, com- 
piled by a James Cousin, who had been secretary to the 
Commissioners for Forfeited Estates. It is a very in- 
accurate compilation, but had its uses for the historical 
inquirer before the present work was issued. The 
editors have performed their task in a most careful 
manner. The notes they have given are mostly short, 
but they abound with minute details which will be of 
great value to the genealogical inquirer. A book of this 
kind cannot, of course, be read by any one except for 
some special purpose, but its usefulness can hardly be 
exaggerated. The pedigrees of Roman Catholic families, 

except those of the highest rank, are far less easy to 
trace than those of their Protestant neighbours. Secret 
marriages were not uncommon, and, at least in the later 
time, but few of their baptisms were performed in the 
churches or by ministers of the Anglican communion, so 
that we do not find their names entered in the parish 
registers. The registers kept by the Catholic clergy are 
most of them of modern date. Many are yet in private 
hands. Others have been deposited in Somerset House. 
It is to be wished that all these precious documents were 
made safe for ever by being printed. 

THE Bookbuyer, a summary of American and foreign 
literature, published by Scribner's Sons, New York, con- 
tains many interesting papers on bibliographical subjects 
including English correspondence on literary matters. 

THE next number of the Portfolio will contain an 
historical essay, by Mr. S. L. Lee, on Lord Salisbury's 
house at Hatfield, illustrated by Mr. Herbert Railton. 

IN October next the eight hundredth anniversary of 
the completion of the Domesday survey of England will 
be commemorated by the Royal Historical Society. A 
portion of the proceedings will consist of the reading of 
papers on Domesday Book and cognate subjects, offers 
of which are invited by the hon. sec., Mr. P. E. Dove 
F.R.A.S., 23, Old Buildings^ Lincoln's Inn. 

$atite4 to 

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classics edited by Maittaire, of which the volume you 
possess appears to be one, was published by Tonson, 
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believe, not uncommon. 

ARQUES (" Musical Query," see 7"' S. i. 487; n. 33). 
The music in question is to be found in ' The Book of 
Musical Anecdote ' of Mr. Frederick J. Crowest (Bentley 
& Son), vol. i. p. 27. 

JONATHAN BOUCHIER (' Cola Monti '). This well- 
known work of fiction is by Dinah Maria Mulock (Mrs. 

J. E. ANSELL (" The damsel's delight," &c.). This 
query was asked 7" 1 S. i. 430. No answer has been 

WM. UNDERBILL. Bacchante is pronounced as a tri- 

S. Q.Corvicer, otherwise corvisor, a shoemaker, 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
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7<" S. II. JULY 24, '86.] 





NOTES : The Cinque Ports, 61-Solly's ' Titles of Honour,' 
63 Extinct Corporations, 64 Scotch in Norway Esquire 
Banns Odd Blunder Piazza, 65 -Kentish Superstition- 
Comet" L'avenir appartient a tout le monde " " Grimm's 
Law," 66. 

QUERIES : Blight or Elite Mayflower " Prince of the 
Captivity "Author of ' The Devonshire Lane 'Ascot Pine 
Woods Cities that are Counties Portrait of Queen of Scots 
Bathing Machines Eighteenth Century Rector, 67 Ele- 
phant Examination in Court Searl Whenever Moore's 
' Legendary Ballads 'Stewart Subsidy Rolls A Forgotten 
University Leeds Furniture Satellites of Mars Lord 
Chesterfield, 68 Snuff-box Inscription Somerset Barber- 
Surgeons Lusus Naturae Cock-pit Authors Wanted, 69. 

REPLIES : Blanketeer, 69 -Punishment by Whipping, 70 
Picture of Rousseau Charade William Aylmer, 71 Sir 
John Cust -Folk Superstition Three Hours, 72 Antiquity 
of Football Jordan v. Death Blue Rose Bison Rhymes 
on Timbuctoo Chester Mint, 73 Blieve Pontefract, 74 
Lyte Family, 75 Hope, 76 "Not a patch upon" Verba 
Desiderata Faithorne Change of Name at Confirmation, 
77 Adrian the Stony Sea Rob Roy in Newgate Defender 
of the Faith Biology ' Faber Fortunw ' Egmont ' Anne 
Hathaway 'Question of Succession, 78 Precedence Mat- 
thew Buckinger, 79. 

NOTES ON' BOOKS :-Swinburne's 'Miscellanies' 'Hanley 
and the House of Lechmere ' Meldola and White's ' Report 
of the East Anglian Earthquake.' 

Notices to Correspondents, 4c. 


The interesting exhibits of regalia and charters 
belonging to our Cinque Ports now on view at 
Folkestone have brought out some points respect- 
ing this decaying institution which I summarize 
as follows. 

Their earliest document is a charter of Edward I., 
their latest is of Charles II., who nearly suppressed 

There is a contest for precedence between Hast- 
ings and Sandwich, arising thus : Five ports were 
enfranchished temp. Edward the Confessor, the 
order being: 

1. Sandwich, named in Domesday, ith 

2. Dover, named in Domesday, with six mem- 

3. Hythe, not named in Domesday, with none. 

4. Romuey, named in Domesday, with three 

5. Hastings, not named in Domesday, with six 

This ancient enfranchisement is recorded only, 
not vouched, and it gives Sandwich precedence, 
it being arranged topographically from east to 

The Warden, who is also Constable of Dover 
Castle, was constituted by the Conqueror. 

To the above five ports were added two ancient 
towns, now decayed, viz.: 

6. Winchelsea, which before Henry III. had no 

7. Bye, which before Henry III. had one mem- 

These twenty-two members run thus, in a dif- 
ferent order of precedence, it being arranged topo- 
graphically from west to east. 

1. Hastings includes Pevensey and Seaford, both 
incorporated towns ; with part of Bex bill; part of 
St. Leonards, in Winchelsea ; Beakesbourne, near 
Canterbury; Grange, near Rochester. 

2. Winchelsea had no members. 

3. Rye includes Tenterden, an incorporated town. 

4. Romney includes Lydd, an incorporated 
town ; Dengemarsh ; Orlestone. 

6. Hythe has no members. 

6. Dover includes Folkestone, Faversham, both 
incorporated towns ; St. John, in Margate ; St. 
Peter's, Isle of Thanet ; Birchington ; Ring would. 

7. Sandwich includes Fordwich and Deal, both 
incorporated towns ; Ramsgate ; Sarr ; Walmer j 
Brightlingsea, in Essex. 

It will be found that the jurisdiction thus covers 
the Saxon shore of Britain from Birchington, in 
Kent, to Seaford, in Sussex. And this shows us 
very clearly that the institution, recorded as from 
Edward the Confessor, really dates from Roman 
times, when the Honourable the Count of the Saxon 
Shore was an important and high-placed official. 
As a matter of fact, Carausius, emperor in Britain 
286-294 A.D., held this office, and his command 
of the fleet afforded the opportunity for his usurpa- 
tion. His jurisdiction, however, included the 
Eastern counties, viz., Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex, 
with part of Hants. 

It is curious in this connexion to notice the 
jurisdiction exercised by Sandwich over Brightling- 
sea, in Essex, conjointly with the fact that the 
Cinque Ports brotherhood, taken collectively, had 
jurisdiction over Yarmouth, in Norfolk, by the ap- 
pointment of two bailiffs there ; and this un- 
doubted right led to very serious complications on 
occasions of important national operations. 

This survival of Roman institutions may also 
be shown by a side light, as I think, in the 
armorial bearings of the Cinque Ports, which con- 
sist mainly of three nondescript charges, viz., three 
conjunct ships' hulls having leonine prows. My 
point is that the three charges represent three 
Roman ports, which became five in Saxon times. 

Our best guide for Roman topography in Britain 
is the Antonine list, which records three ports only, 
viz., Portus Dubris, P. Lemanis, and P. Rutu- 
pensis. Dubris is our Dover ; Lemanis is Lympne, 
superseded in turn by Romney, new and old, by 
Hythe, by Rye, and by Winchelsea, and this 
owing to the rapid enlargement of Romney Marsh, 
which is still growing at Dungeness Point ; Rutu- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. t7* B. 11. JOH svse. 

pensis is Eichborough, superseded by Sandwich, 
which still has a haven. These three primitive 
ports I consider to be represented on the modern 
shield. Ptolemy mentions Rutupia, but is silent 
as to Lymne and Dover. He quotes, however, 
Portus Magnus, admittedly our Portchester or 
Portsmouth Harbour, and a new haven not fully 
identified ; it stood somewhere between Ports- 
mouth and Thane t. He very probably meant Old 
Romney, as then new in succession to Lympne. 

A much fuller list is in the ' Notitia,' the follow- 
ing being sea-coast stations garrisoned under the 
Roman count aforesaid, viz., Othona, now St. Peter 
on the Walls, Essex ; Dubris and Lemanis, as 
above ; Branodunum, now Brancaster, in Norfolk ; 
Goriononus, now Yarmouth ; Regulbium, now Re- 
culvers ; Rutupis, as above ; Anderida, now Peven- 
sey; Portus Adurni, supposed Bramber, in Sussex. 
It will be seen that Othona is represented among 
the Cinque Ports by Brightlingsea, that Regul- 
bium is represented by Birchington, that Anderida 
is represented by Hastings, that Portus Adurni is 
represented by Seaford the remarkable point being 
that P. Adurni is the only one of the set called a 
port in the 'Notitia.' 

It appears that the supreme jurisdiction of the 
Cinque Ports vested in the Court of Shepway, 
now obsolete and undefined. Shepway is a lathe 
of Kent, and there is a Court at Street, near 
Lymne. There is also a Shepway Cross. Now, 
as all record of the site of this court is lost, I 
suggest that it was in primitive times an open air 
court, and held at Shepway Cross, on the hill over 
West Hythe. 

There still are (1) a Court of Brotherhood, (2) a 
Court of Guestling, (3) a Court of Lodemanage. 

1. The term " brotherhood " is limited to the 
five or seven principals, as represented by their 
bailiffs or other officers, excluding the members or 

2. Guestling is the name of a hundred and a 
parish in Sussex, but the Court of Guestling means 
a general assembly of the Cinque Ports, in which 
the members or limbs have representatives when 
summoned a sort of Commons House. The root- 
word "guest" means a stranger, an alien, so the 
members were to a certain extent intrusive, anc 
so distinguished as not present of their own right 
but by courtesy only. 

3. Lodeman, or leading man, is a tugman o 
steerer ; he has to lead or conduct strange vessels 
and this court exercises jurisdiction over pilots. 

It may appear desirable to refer shortly to the 
physical changesof thecoast-line that have somateri 
ally affected the ports. A port means primarily th 
mouth of any river open to navigation ; but riven 
choke themselves with their own excrement, am 
here certain phenomena operate on a grand seal 
we see everywhere wasted cliffs and denudet 
shores, or accreted shingle-banks and sand-hills. 

The British Channel, with its narrow funnel 
pening at the Straits of Dover, is largely scoured 
>y the Atlantic rollers or tidal waves, and when a 
tiff south-wester sets in the shingle of our beaches 
gets shifted like so much imponderable dust, and 
iravels along the coast from west to east till it 
inds some handy point where it can settle, and 
here it accumulates. Its origin, no doubt, is in 
he primitive formation of Land's End, and the 
3hesil Bank at Portland, in Dorsetshire, furnishes 
a mine of wealth for the protection of our beaches, 
["he operation has proceeded for so many cen- 
turies that attrition has ground the pebbles to 
some uniformity ; but their structure is very 
diversified. In fact, all geological specimens may 
)e found heaped together on our shores granite, 
asper, quartz, slate, trap, basalt, agate, sandstone, 
jreensand, with a long &c. Taking, then, Bram- 
aer as most westerly, we find that it was a tidal 
aarbour; but the river Adur, from which comes 
Portus Adurni, travels eastward, being shut in by 
shingle-banks. There is a field near Bramber 
called Anchor Bottom, where ships once floated. 
As the shingle accumulated the channel opened to 
Shoreham, to New Shoreham, to Southwick, to 
Kingston, to Portslade. There is still good har- 
bour accommodation in the land-locked river, but 
the fickle sea now encroaches at Lancing, and may 
yet again reach Bramber. 

Hastings has a little river, once a tidal creek ; 
and still, far up the town, may we identify the 
site of the old quays ; but shingle is now heaped 
up some twenty feet above high tide : 

The seamen of Hastings may bewail their sad state, 

But the forces of nature have brought on this fate. 

Seaford is at the mouth of the Ouse, now utilized 
by the L. B. & S. C. R. at Newhaven. " Ford " 
is not a river passage here, it is the Norse fiord 
= Welsh porth, Scottish firth or frith. 

Pevensey still has its old haven, but useless for 
shipping. Shingle and sand blown sand have 
converted its broad quays into grazing land. 

Winchelsea and Rye bring us to the marsh. 
They stand at the latest mouth of the dwindled 
Rother. Indeed, the whole marsh is an expanded 
river-mouth or delta. Portus Lemanis, now Lymne, 
is inland. No doubt the Rother, like the Adur, 
has been driven hither and thither, and by the 
same agency. In Roman times the river must 
have twisted from Robertsbridge past Appledore 
to Lymne ; then, reverting west to its outlet at 
Romney, with rising sandbanks and shifting 
shingle, from Fairlight to Shorncliffe ; for Hythe 
and Lymne, called ports, have no river of their 
own, but were dependent on pools, shallows, 
or lagoons of the Rother. Lemanis, the Roman 
word, I consider a mutation of Welsh rhem, rhym 
(l = r), meaning a place where the water runs off, 
a shallow, a marsh. It is allied to the Latin limus, 
Greek Aijuvi?, a pool or marsh. So Portus Lemanis 

7> 8. II. JULY 24, '86.] 



means Marsh Gate, so to speak ; and the native 
root rhym gives Romney Marsh, by reduplication. 
So, again, we have Lydd rhwd, sediment, mud, 
undeveloped marsh land. 

The process runs thus : Shingle deposits natur- 
ally on the shoals of the Rother ; blown sand fills' 
up the interstices ; rough herbage springs up, full 
of silica, and attracts the sheep ; their manure 
deepens the slight soil sufficiently to support grass 
for grazing ; the work of drainage goes on, and 
turnips give place to corn. The land is good, but 
times are hard. Dungeness is a remarkable 
fihingle-bank, and grows seaward, with deep 
soundings all round ; so it holds millions of tons 
of this shingle. Should the sea withdraw, it 
would expose a mountainous cairn not thrown up 
by man. 

Portus Dubria means the mouth of the Dour, a 
short stream that may once have run out to mid- 
channel. The bathing esplanade is reared on a 
ehiagle-bank which has diverted the river mouth 
far to the west. The ancient harbour is now 
covered with busy streets. 

The low shingly coast of Deal brings us to the 
sand-dunes that have christened Sandwich, where 
the Stour has for centuries deposited its detritus. 
Right in face of Richborough stands a solid bank 
of shingle called Stonar, which takes the coach 
road to Ramsgate. Rutupensis seems to be the 
Welsh rhyddu-pencais, which I take to mean " re- 
ceiving place for portage dues," an impost I 
sought to connect with Taximagulus, and Tascio- 
vannus whom I take to be identical with Cassi- 
vellaunus (see 4 th S. ii. 34). 

Sandwich, in its turn the successor of Rich- 
borough, is being rapidly left inland, the whole 
estuary of the Stour, which once isolated Thanet, 
being now good farming and grazing land. Then 
we come to those chalk cliffs, the bulwark of 
England, that still bid defiance to the waves. 


Paternoster Row. 


The following annotations on the above-named 
work have been communicated to Mr. Solly, and 
are here briefly enumerated. 

P. 1. Abney-Hastings. See Hastings, Bart., of 

P. 8. Aughrim, B. (De Ginkell). See Athlone, E. 

P. 8. Aylmer, Bart., of Balrath. No pedigree 
forthcoming of the 1662 baronetcy. 

P. 10. Ball baronetcy is extinct. 

P. 12. Barry baronetcy of 1775. No informa- 

P. 20. Bollingham of Helsington was created 
baronet May 30, 1620. 

P. 24. Was there not a Bray, Bart., of Glouces- 
tershire ? 

P. 25. There was a, second Brograve baronetcy, 
of Worsted, in Norfolk, created in 1791. Extinct? 

P. 28. The Buckley patronymic is Peck. 

P. 30. Caberston, B. See Traquair, E. 

P. 31. Was there a second Calverley baronetcy 
of Littleburne, Durham ? 

P. 34. Carlyle (Maxwell), S. B., 1581, merged 
in Nithsdale. 

P. 40. There must have been another Clare 
viscounty. See Collins, viii. 16. 

P. 43. Coffin took the name of Greenly in 1811. 

P. 44. The account of the two Colquhon baron- 
etcies (of Colquhon and of Tillyquhon) is ques- 

P. 48. Cowan, Bart., from 1837 to 1843, omitted. 
He was Lord Mayor. 

P. 48. Craufurd of Kilbirncy seems undis- 
tinguishable from Crawfurd of Kilburnie. Both 
are in " chaos." 

P. 56. The baronetcy of Denham, or Denholme, 
of Westshiels, is omitted. See Steuart of Coltness. 

P. 58. Dirleton. See Halyburton. 

P. 60. There seems to have been a Dowdall 
baronetcy of Athlumney. 

P. 62. Dungannon, now Hill-Trevor. 

P. 68. Errington was dropped and Stanley re- 
sumed in 1875. 

P. 68. Eskdale (Maxwell), S. B., 1581, merged 
in Nithsdale. 

P. 69. There seems to have been a Ewins 
baronetcy. See Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxvii. p. 595. 

P. 70. Eythin, B. (King), omitted. 

P. 73. Fitzgerald. The barony that became 
extinct in 1860 was Fitzgerald and Vesci. 

P. 75. The baronetcy of Fleetwood of Rossal is 

P. 75. Fleming, Bart., of Glasgow. Properly 
of Ferme. 

P. 82. Goodericke. The eighth baronet is stated 
to have been alive in 1837. 

P. 83. The baronetcy of Gordon of Invergordon 
is omitted ; likewise the baronetcy of Gordon of 

P. 83. The patronymic of Gordon, Bart., of 
Northcourt, was Grant. 

P. 84. Grant of Grant (or Cullen House). The 
1625 baronetcy was conferred on Colquhon ; 
Grant succeeded in 1718, under the second 
patent of 1704. 

P. 88. Hall of " Douglass," read Dunglass. 

P. 88. The Halyburton barony was not extinct 
in 1506, but merged in the earldom of Gowrie, 
and was forfeited in 1600. 

P. 89. Hamon baronetcy extinct in 1727. 

P. 89. Hannay of Mochrum, not Mochrun. 

P. 91. Insert " Hase, afterwards Lombe," q.v. 

P. 93. Head, Bart., patronymic Mendez. 

P. 95. Hesketh. Insert reference to Fleetwood. 

P. 95. Hill, B., extinct in 1862. See Dun- 
gannon, V. 


[7 lh 8. II. JULY 24, '86. 

P. 97. Home, Bart., of Well Manor, was no 
extinct in 1832. 

P. 99. Hunt, Bart. Eefer to Vere, Bart. 
P. 99. Hunter, Bart. See Blair of Blairquhan 
P. 100. Hylton baronetcy (of Hayton) omitted 
P. 101. I'Anson, Bart. See Bankes. 
P. 101. Ingoldsby baronetcy omitted. 
P. 101. Inverness entries misplaced. 
P. 102. Jackson, Bart., refers to Duckett. 
P. 102. James, Bart., of Langley. Patronymic 

P. 102. Jardine, Bart., of Applegirth (no 

P. 106. Ker. The barony and earldom of 1722 
(extinct in 1804) were " of Wakefield." 

P. 108. Kingston baronetcy omitted. Se 
Burke's ' History of the Commoners,' vol. iii 
p. 286. 

P. 108. Barony of Kinloss has been allowed to 
the Duke of Buckingham. 

P. 108. Kintail (Mackenzie), S. B., 1609 
merged in Seaforth, extinct. 

P. 109. Kynaston took name of Powell in 1797 
P. 114. Lichfield. Original name, Adams. 
P. 117. Lochinvar, B. See Kenmure, V. 
P. 120. Lumsden, Bart. Patronymic, Niven. 
P. 121. McCullocb, Bart., of Myreton, omitted 

P. 122. Second McNaghten baronetcy (1839- 
1841) omitted. 

P. 127. Meredith of Stansley, Devon (not Den- 

P. 129. Mitford, B. Patronymic, Grant. 
P. 131. Monmouth, D. Name, Crofts, after- 
wards Scott. 

P. 135. Mount Crawford, V., changed into 
Garnock, V., q. v. 

P. 137. Meyers is misplaced. Query Myers. 
P. 138. Napier of Merchiston (last line), full 
stop after Napier ; for " Ettrich " read Ettrick. 
P. 145. Orier, B. (Touchet). See Audley, B. 
P. 145. The Ormelie earldom became extinct in 

P. 148. The Paterson baronetcy was forfeited. 
See Douglas's 'Peerage,' ii. 217. 

P. 149. Was there not a Peisley baronetcy in 

P. 152. Phipps was the original name of the 
Waller baronetcy of Braywick. 
P. 155. Preston, V. See Ludlow, E., omitted. 
P. 155. The revival of the Pretyman baronetcy 

P. 166. Sandes=Sondes, q.v. 
P. 169. Was there not a Sewell baronetcy ? 
P. 170. Shaw, Bart., of Greenock (1687-1752), 

P. 173. There was an English Sol way barony 
(1833-7). See Queensberry, M. 
JP. 176. Stapleford, V. (Sherard), expired in 

P. 177. The Coltness baronetcy (Steuart) took 
the additional name of Denbam, and afterwards 
(1773) merged in the Goodtrees baronetcy, which 
was created 1695, and should be separately shown. 

P. 177. Where is any pedigree of Stirling, Bart., 
of Ardoch 1 

P. 186. Tomline, Bart. See note to p. 155. 

P. 194. Waller, Bart. See note to p. 152. 

P. 198. Whitefoord, Bart., of Blairquhan (not 

P. 199. Williams, Bart., of Clovelly. The 
patronymic of the first baronet was Hammett. 
He added the name of Hamlyn, and was created 
a baronet in 1795. 

P. 205. Yetter (Hay), S. B., 1487, merged in 
Tweedale. SIGMA. 

cutting from the Bristol Times and Mirror seems 
worthy of preservation in the pages of ' N. & Q.' 
It would be interesting to ascertain the fate of the 
official insignia and plate of the various other 
" unreformed corporations " which a recent Act of 
Parliament has swept out of existence: 


By the invitation of Lord Pitzhardinge, the Corporations 
)f Berkeley and Wotton-under-Edge were entertained at 
uncheon at Berkeley Castle on the occasion of the pro- 
lentation of the maces of the corporations to his lordship. 
Lord Fitzhardinge entertained his guests in the old hall, 
;he Hon. E. V. Gifford occupying the vice-chair. Mr. 
Slake, in appropriate terms, handed the Wotton-under- 
Bdge mace to his lordship, and presented him with an 
"1 laminated address, bearing the signatures of the Mayor 
ind aldermen, as follows : 

The borough of Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 
To the Right Hon. Lord Fitzhardinge, lord of the 
manor, &c. 

We, the undersigned, being the late Mayor and alder- 
men of the borough of Wotton-under-Edge, in the county 
>f Gloucestershire, who as a Corporation were dissolved 
iy the operation of the Municipal Corporations Act, 
883, on the 25th March last, beg to express to your 
ordship the deep sense of regret we feel at the severance 
f the tie which has existed between your lordship's 
oble house and the borough of Wotton-under-Edge for 
pwards of six hundred years, and at the same time we 
ake this opportunity of handing to your lordship the 
ilvr mace which was presented by your lordship's noble 
ncestor Augustus, Earl of Berkeley, for the use of the 
Corporation in 1747, to intent that it may be for ever 
reserved as an heirloom by yourself and successors, 
ords of the manor of Wotton-under-Edge borough, and 
s a memorial of the interest and patronage your noble 
ouse formerly took and exercised in the late Corpora 
on of Wotton-under-Edge. Signed at Wotton-under- 
Idge this 10th day of May, 1886, FRED. J. BLAKE, 
layor.' " 

[ere follow the names of the aldermen, &c. 
" Mr. D. Legge then presented the following addresft : 
To the Right Honourable Francis William Fitzhardinge, 

Lord Fitzhardinge, Lord of the Manor of Berkeley 

Borough, in the county of Gloucester. 
The Corporation of the presumptive borough of Berke- 
y, in the county of Gloucester, now dissolved by the 

7 h S. II. JULY 24, '86.] 



Municipal Corporations Act, 1883, respectfully request 
your lordship to receive back the mace presented to them 
by your ancestor, the Right Honourable George, Earl of 
Berkeley, in the year of our Lord 1661 ; to hold the 
same to yourself, your heirs and successors, Lords of the 
Manor of Berkeley Borough, as an heirloom. As witness 
our hands the 25th day of March, 1886, THOKAS PEAKCE 
BAILEY, Mayor.' " 
Here follow the aldermen, &c. 

" Lord Fitzhardinge having suitably replied, asked for 
the stirrup cup (made in 1C66) and also the original 
Berkeley mace (made in 1300). His lordship having 
had the cup filled with wine, drank the healths of the 
last Mayors." 


Shirenewton Hall, near Chepstow, Mon, 

THE SCOTCH IN NORWAY. Tn the Athenceum's 
review of Mr. Thomas Michell's ' History of the 
Scottish Expedition to Norway in 1612,' the writer 
assumes, perhaps a little too readily, that the dry 
historical facts have been given. Acquaintance 
with the subject will not allow that Mr. Michell's 
theories as to the battle of Kringelen are correct. 
The new documents which he has found among 
Danish, Swedish, English, and Scottish state re- 
cords are of great interest and value ; but they 
give no countenance whatsoever to his attempt to 
strip Col. George Sinclair, Stirkoke, of the tradi- 
tional and heroic leadership of the ill-fated Scots. 
It has always been found historically dangerous to 
attack fixed popular traditions, and it would re- 
quire no great amount of controversial acumen to 
use the materials now discovered for exactly the 
opposite to the author's purpose. Opportunity 
has already been taken of protesting in appropriate 
newspaper reviewing columns against Mr. Michell's 
conclusions, while giving him every credit for sin- 
cerity and industry in his research for a year or 
more since he began his Scoto-Norwegian studies. 
But it is due to students of history to get the 
warning put in your columns that the last word 
has not been said on the Scottish expedition. It 
may be no disadvantage that near relationship by 
blood to the real and only leader on the fatal day, 
Col. Sinclair, induces defence of the Norwegian 
version of the tragic story. While admitting the 
undoubted ability of the reviewer's appreciation 
of the new book, it is an imperative personal 
duty, founded on long acquaintance with the his- 
torical field touched, to state that if the facts given 
may be unimpeachable, the inferences and theories 
drawn from them are totally erroneous. 


7 th S. i. 426, quoting tho words "the Hon. 
Horatio Walpole, Esq.," adds "[st'c]," intimat- 
ing, I Buppose, that the title "esquire" is in- 
compatible with " honourable," or superfluous. I 
know of a monument in a church to "Rev. E. 
Stanley, Esq.," with " Esq." defaced, as I think, 
improperly. " Esquire " is a title, as " Knight " 

or "Baronet," and therefore borne by any one 
entitled to it in addition to any other title he may 
possess. We write, " the Rev. Lord A.," or "the 
Hon. and Rev. B. 0.," or "the Rev. Sir D. E.," 
why not "Rev." or "Hon. H. Walpole, Esq.," 
supposing him to be possessed of an estate and 
mansion entitling him to the title of " esquire." 
I had occasion to procure my baptismal register 
lately; in it my father was designated "Squire," 
in the column of rank or profession, and this not by 
an ignorant person, but by Dr. Grey, afterwards 
Bishop of Hereford, and brother to the late Earl 
Grey. He, at least, considered it as a title. The 
late Bishop Wilber force invented the word "Squar- 
son" to describe the combination of " squire " and 

BANNS. The following are from the registers 
of St. Mary Woolnoth, London (lately printed) : 

"1700, April 2. Married. Edward Lewis of St. Ben- 
nett's Paul's Wharfe, Batchellor, and Mary Reed of this 
Parish, Spinster, by banns published three times in this 
Parish Church, viz., Good Friday, Easter Sunday, and 

" 1702, April 23. Married. Thomas Morey of St. Mary, 
Whitechappell, \viddower, and Elizabeth Bishopp of this 
Parish, Widdow, after banns published on Sunday, 
March 29, on Good Friday, the third inst., and on Easter 


ODD BLUNDER. I find the following in the 
poetical volume of Seeley's series of school-books : 
80 light to the croupe the fair lady he swung, 
So light to the saddle behind her he sprung. 

Young Lochinvar's charger must have been of a 
very unusual frame to have room for a saddle and 
rider behind bis croupe ; perhaps something like 
Mr. Dinmont's ideal Dumple, who could carry six 
men " if his back was lang enough." 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

PIAZZA. (See 7 th S. 5. 463.) It will be found, 
I think, that most untravelled Britons fancy the 
word piazza is equivalent to arcade, or colonnade. 
In the case cited by MR. DASENT it is evidently 
so used "under the Piazza " would mean under- 
ground in the proper use of the word ; but it is 
"under the arcade" that it obviously intended. 
Americans constantly use it so. I remember one 
American friend in particular, who, remarking on 
the absence of arcades at a Roman villa where we 
were one summer's day, added, " In our parts we 
always have a piazxa round the bouse for shade." 
I have an account of London dating from the 
beginning of the last century, which claims to be 
" A more particular Description thereof than has 
hitherto been known to be published of any City 
in the World," in which Covent Garden is spoken 
of as follows : " A pleasant Square, on the N.W. 
and N.E. sides whereof are very stately Buildings 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* a. n. JULY 24, 

partly elevated on large Pillars, which make very 
fine Piazzas." R. H. BUSK. 

KENTISH SUPERSTITIONS. I send you the fol- 
lowing, as it is very curious ; and as my brother-in- 
law is the vicar of the parish, and his son, a B.A. 
of Cantab, who was ringing, overheard the con- 
versation, I can vouch for its truth. 

Sexton. " Leave the tenor ' up ' [for ringing, not 
chiming] ; I may want it during the week." 

Ringer. " Aye, that you will ; for the tenor 
' hummed ' so much to-night in the ringing that it 
will be sure to be wanted before next Sunday." 
(The tenor is the tolling bell.) 

That night there was a death at the Union, so 
the tenor was tolled on Monday; it was tolled on 
Tuesday for another death ; on Wednesday for 
another ; and on Friday again for a funeral. 


familiar with the lines ('Paradise Lost,' ii. 706- 
711) in which Milton describes Satan, when pre- 
paring to engage in conflict with Death (a combat 
which was averted by the interposition of Sin, the 
mother of the latter) as resembling a comet which 

From his horrid hair 
Shakes pestilence and war ; 

but perhaps it may not have occurred to many to 
inquire whether the poet had in his mind's eye 
any particular comet when he dictated this passage. 
Gibbon, however, makes a suggestion which seems 
exceedingly probable. At the end of chap, xliii. 
of the ' Decline and Fall,' speaking of the comet 
which appeared in the fifth year of the reign of 
Justinian, and which the historian erroneously 
supposed to be identical with that of 1680 and 
several others, he refers in a note to the passage 
in Milton, and says that the famous lines quoted 
above "may allude to the recent [i. e., recent 
when 'Paradise Lost' was published] comet of 
1664." That comet was discovered in November 
and was most conspicuous early in December, its 
tail being at one time nearly 40* in length. War 
with Holland was declared at the time of its ap- 
pearance, and soon afterwards occurred the first 
outbreak of that terrible plague which carried off 
so many thousands in London in the following 
summer. It scarcely seems possible not to suppose 
that there was some connexion in Milton's mind 
between these events and the appearance of the 
comet in question, unless it can be shown that the 
lines were written prior to that appearance. Now 
'Paradise Lost' was completed at Chalfont St. 
Giles in the autumn of 1665 ; but though Milton 
returned to London early in 1666, the poem was 
not published until the following year (a bad time 
commercially on account of the great losses which 
booksellers?^ well as others, had sustained by 
the Great ffir^ ft Mr. Masson thinks that the first 
two books were ,. ritten before the Restoration, and 

that four more were completed by the end of the 
year 1662. But surely it is quite possible that 
alterations and additions to the earlier books may 
have been made before the work was published in 
1667; and one of the latter may have been the 
famous allegory of Sin and Death, which, as Mr. 
Masson truly remarks, has appeared to some " in 
questionable taste." At any rate, the outbreak of 
both a war and a pestilence at the time of the 
appearance of a conspicuous comet was very re- 
markable ; and the reference to this in the 
passage referred to can scarcely have been 
accidental, or merely have arisen from a vague 
notion that evils of all kinds were produced 
by these celestial visitants. It is worthy of note 
that from the winter of 1618 (when Milton was 
about ten years old) no remarkable comet ap- 
peared until the one in question, long before 
which time the poet had become blind. Gibbon's 
query, " Had Charles II. betrayed any symptoms 
of curiosity or fear ? " does not seem to be of any 
importance or to have any bearing upon the ques- 
tion. Equally irrelevant is his remark about Italy, 
for the comet, too, was certainly visible ia England 
and other countries as well. Gibbon, indeed, is no 
authority on comets ; but his conjecture that Mil- 
ton refers in this famous passage to the comet of 
1664 does seem to me to be very probable. As to 
the expression in the preceding lines 
Like a comet burned 

That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge 

In th' arctic sky 

it only shows that the poet's knowledge of the 
constellations was not very precise. Mr. Masson's 
note on the place is scarcely more accurate, de- 
scribing Ophiuchus as "a large constellation in the 
northern heavens, stretching forty degrees." The 
fact is, it is partly in both hemispheres, but the 
larger part is in the southern hemisphere, and no 
part can be said to be " in th' arctic sky." 

W. T. LYNN. 

This saying, which was made use of by Walewski 
to Lord Malmesbury in reference to the advice 
which was to be tendered by England to the Swiss 
Government respecting the French refugees, seems 
worth separate notice: "He repeatedly said the 
demands upon future refugees would not be 
pressed, and never had been intended, and made 
use of the expression, ' L'avenir appartient a tout 
le monde ' " (Lord Malmesbury, ' Memoirs of an 
ex-Minister,' vol. i. p. 323, 1884, in a " Letter to 
Lord Cowley," dated " Foreign Office, March 26, 
1852"). ED. MARSHALL. 

" GRIMM'S LAW." Prof. Miiller, in his ' Lec- 
tures on the Science of Language ' (vol. ii. p. 216), 
expresses the belief that he was the first to call the 
law of sound-shifting " Grimm's law." Perhaps it 

7"- S. II. JPLT 24, '86.] 



may interest some of your readers to learn that the 
professor is mistaken. I possess a work by the 
Rev. W. B. Winning, published in 1838, in which 
" Grimm's law " is the term constantly employed. 
At that time, according to Martin's ' Contemporary 
Biography,' Prof. Miiller was scarcely fifteen years 
old. W. H. DAVID. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

BLIGHT OR ELITE. It would be a step towards 
ascertaining the origin of this mysterious word (as 
mysterious in its advent into English literature as 
the thing itself in its falling upon vegetation) if 
we could ascertain the original spelling. With 
the exception of a doubtful occurrence in Cotgrave 
" Brulure, Blight, Brancorne (an hearbe)" the 
word appears late in the seventeenth century, and 
the first users of it, 1660-1738, including Holyday 
(translation of Juvenal), Garth, Oldys, and notably 
Dryden (with whom it was a favourite word), spelt 
it blite. I shall be very glad of quotations showing 
the original spelling prior to 1740 ; in particular, 
how is it spelt in Addison's Spectator, No. 457, 
where the blighting influence of Lady Blast is 
spoken of ? And where does the following passage 
occur, which Dr. Johnson vaguely cites from 
Woodward : " It then blasts vegetables, blights 
corn and fruit, and is sometimes injurious even to 
men " ? Is not Woodward's spelling blites ? As 
to the origin, an assistant compares blizzard, and 
suggest that the word is an onomatopoeia of the 
bash, blash sort, formed under the influence of blow, 
blait, and bite, which is, I think, the best guess 
yet offered. Answer direct. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

MAYFLOWER. Can any of your readers inform 
me if the Mayflower, one of the vessels which 
conveyed those who are called the " Pilgrim 
Fathers " to New England in 1629, is the same 
Muj flower about the use of which against the 
enemy, " to the overthrow of his voyage and great 
losse," Samuel Vassall petitioned Parliament 
January 23, 1657 ? He with his brother William 
Vassall were two of the original proprietors and 
filmed in the charter of March 4, 1828. Vide 
Neal'a 'Hist. New England,' vol. i. p. 124. 

S. V. H. 

" PRINCE OF THE CAPTIVITY." At what period 
in early Church history was the Patriarch of the 
East designated the "'Prince of the Captivity" ? 


(See 7 th S. i. 387, 412.) Mr. Marriott wrote 

several other poems beside the above, and equally 
quaint and humorous. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
say if ever they appeared in print ; and, if so, 
where ? Worth's version of ' The Devonshire Lane ' 
must not be relied on ; in one line the words are 
reversed, and the meaning is missed altogether. 


ASCOT PINE WOODS. Was it Sir Wm. Jenner 
who first found the value of the pine woods at 
Ascot for chest complaints ; or who f ALFRED. 

CITIES THAT ARE COUNTIES. (See 6 th S. vi. 88, 
253, 437; vii. 317.) I am very anxious to have a 
complete list of these, which from the above refer- 
ences seem to be : Berwick-upon-Tweed, Bristol, 
Canterbury, Carmarthen, Carrickfergus, Chester, 
Cork, Coventry, Drogheda, Dublin, Edinburgh, 
Exeter, Galway, Gloucester, Haverfordwest, Hex- 
ham, Hull, Kilkenny, Lichfield, Limerick, Lincoln, 
London, Londonderry, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Nor- 
wich, Nottingham, Poole, Southampton, Water- 
ford, Worcester, York. If this list is not full and 
correct, perhaps some of your readers could supple- 
ment or correct it. J. B. FLEMING. 

During a recent visit to Glasgow I saw in a 
friend's house a portrait of Mary Stuart, to which 
I think there must attach a not uninteresting his- 
tory. Perhaps some of your readers will be able 
to tell something regarding it. Of the artistic 
value of the painting I am not competent to speak, 
but it certainly strikes an average observer as a 
piece of good work, and, if not a copy of some 
other painting, would suggest a faithful representa- 
tion of the original. The portrait is a bust, 12 in. 
by 8 in., and is set in framework whose style of 
carving is not of recent date. An inscription (in 
Latin) speaks of it as having formerly been the 
property of Horace Walpole. Before coming into 
possession of the present owner, it belonged to a 
Mr. Paillau, who had a considerable reputation in 
Glasgow as a miniature portrait painter, about 
the beginning of this century. I am particularly 
struck by the fact of Walpole's ownership of the 
portrait, and I should be greatly obliged if any of 
the readers of * N. & Q.' could tell me anything of 
its earlier history. W. BAYNE. 

6, Crayford Road, N. 

BATHING MACHINES. Does any one know 
when these desirable structures came into vogue? 
I find in the Academy Catalogue for 1775, " 354. 
A view of the bathing machines, &c., near Mar- 
gate," &c. " Stained drawings by Mr. Eyre." 

F. G. S. 

lowing description of an eighteenth century North- 
of-England rector, which I find in a letter written 
by a collateral ancestor in the year 1764 to his 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. n. JUH 21, 

brother in Virginia, may perhaps amuse some of 
your readers. The only matter for regret is that 
the description is so short ; one wishes that the 
writer, who was the curate of the parish, had given 
a few more details of their "jovial" life : 
" He [the rector] has always behaved to me with the 
reatest civility, and I think I may confidently say I am 
much in his good graces. He ia a jolly, fat parson, eats 
and drinks of the best, and truly we lead jovial lives. 
If it would not offend your ears in your grave and sober 
climate, I might tell you that even in the Rectory- 
House, and in the Rector's presence, oft we merrily trip 
the nimble dance : 

Fraught with all joys the blissful moments fly, 
While music melts the ear, and beauty charms the eye." 

Who is the author of these two lines ? 

Ropley, Hants. 

THE ELEPHANT. The wood-carving of the 
misereres of the choir stalls of Exeter Cathedral is 
supposed to have been executed between the years 
1224 and 1244. Visitors to the cathedral are in- 
formed that the one containing a representation of 
the elephant is admitted to be the earliest existing 
example of that quadruped in England. Can that 
statement be confirmed ? 


71, Brecknock Road. 

EXAMINATION IN COURT. Will some corre- 
spondent do me the favour to tell me whether a 
lawyer, examining or cross-examining a witness 
in a court of justice, has the right to examine 
the witness on any matters relating to his private 
affairs which do not in any way relate to the 
matter before the court 1 H. W. COOKES. 

Astley Rectory, Stourport. 

[Answers to be sent direct.] 

SEARL. What is the origin and meaning of 
the surname Searl ? JAMES D. BUTLER. 

WHENEVER. If an Englishman and a Scotch- 
man were requested to " Give this message to Mr. 
Smith whenever he comes home," and each were 
to act according to his own understanding of the 
directions, the Scotchman would deliver the mes- 
sage os soon as Mr. Smith returned, while the 
Englishman would give it every time that he pre- 
sented himself. Will your correspondents in those 
countries tell us what the American and the Aus- 
tralian would do ? HERMENTRUDE. 

volume, arranged with symphonies by H. R. 
Bishop, and published by J. Power, 34, Strand, 
no date, Moore has prefixed a short notice in re- 
ference to the airs, which concludes thus : " To 
another fair Amateur I am indebted for the Draw- 
ings which illustrate the Legends; and, it is but 
right to add, they are the young artist's first 
attempts at original design." These are signed 

with the initials C. A. F., and are engraved by 
R. L. Wright. Is it known who the artist was 1 
There are twelve designs. W. E. BUCKLEY. 

STEWART OF HISLESIDE. During the earlier 
part of the seventeenth century we find a family 
of Stewart occupying the ancient estate of Hisle- 
side, in the parish of Douglas, Lanarkshire. Can 
any one give me any information about this family, 
and tell me whether Joanna Baillie was a descen- 

SUBSIDY ROLLS. Where can be seen the sub- 
sidy rolls of the county of Suffolk 1 I should be 
especially thankful to any reader for a glance at a 
copy of those relating to Ely thing Hundred. 


A FORGOTTEN UNIVERSITY. I find in a current 
edition of the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica' a re- 
ference to the six Scottish university foundations. 
MR. ANDERSON (6 th S. "xi. 250) mentions five 
foundations ; but what is the sixth ? Is it the 
University of Dumfries, regarding which sundry 
particulars are given in the Journal of the Sta- 
tistical Society of London for November, 1838, 
but of which I can find no other mention 1 



LEEDS FURNITURE. I should be extremely 
obliged if any of the many readers of ' N. & Q.' 
could supply me with any information they possess 
about Leeds furniture. E. B. S. M. 

SATELLITES OF MARS. Has it ever been 
pointed out that Dean Swift anticipated modern 
discovery as to the satellites of Mars ? The fol- 
lowing passage occurs in the third part of ' Gul- 
liver's Travels,' chapter iii. He is discoursing of 
the manners of the inhabitants of Laputa: 

" They have likewise discovered two lesser stars or 
satellites, which revolve about Mars ; whereof the inner- 
most is distant from the centre of the primary planet 
exactly three of his diameters, and the outermost five ; 
the former revolves in the space of ten hours, and the 
latter in twenty-one and a half." Tauchnitz edition, 
p. 203. 

I have no book of astronomy at hand sufficiently 
modern to enable me to ascertain whether the Dean 
was accurate as to the time of revolution of these 
satellites. K. P. D. E. 

date of Tuesday, March 31, 1724, John Byrom, of 
Manchester, being that day at a dinner party in 
London with some of his friends, was urged by 
one Mr. Vernon to " answer Lord Chesterfield's 
verses for him." On the following day Byrom 
left at Richard's coffee house " a letter for Vernon 
with some verses for my Lord Chesterfield, twenty- 
four." This was Philip Dormer, who succeeded 
as third earl in 1713, and who died in 1726, being 

7 th S. II. JOLT 24, '86.] 



father of the well-known author of the ' Letters.' 
Are the verses known ? JOHN E. BAILEY. 

Stratford, Manchester. 

SNUFF-BOX INSCRIPTION. Amongst the numer- 
ous snuff-boxes in the South Kensington Museum 
is a French one of the eighteenth century. The 
inscription on the cover is in imitation of the 
direction of a letter, and reads: "A Madame | 
Madame La Justice | aux yeux eclaireV What 
is the object or meaning of this direction ? 


[Is it to distinguish the individual Madame Justice 
from the typical representation of Justice with her eyes 
bandaged ?] 

SOMERSET. Where are the Somerset county 
records kept ? Have they been indexed and 
calendared ; or are they still in utter confusion ? 

J. H. G. 

BARBER-SURGEONS. Can any of your corre- 
spondents tell me what were the exact causes that 
led to a separation of the ancient guild of Barber- 
Surgeons into the distinct branches of surgeons 
and barbers as separate occupations, with the 
date ? Could it have been that some time or 
other a caucus arose which discovered that the 
one occupation was far too honest for the other ; 
consequently it became impossible for an honest 
hunter to ride alongside both the fox and the 
hounds ; or may there be something in the legend 
told at Geneva about one Chesterfield who, having 
set up in business there, refused to work on Sun- 
days, on which his partner or assistant struck, 
and set up in business on his own account, un- 
qualified, of course, in one branch ? 


FLINTS, AGATES, &c, Several of these curiosities, 
forming part of the Beresford-Hope collection, 
were for some years exhibited at the South Ken- 
sington Museum, and were sold last month at 
Christie's. I shall be much obliged to any of your 
correspondents who can furnish me with particulars 
of similar freaks of nature preserved in public or 
private collections. As is well known, there is a 
most remarkable specimen (a head of Chaucer) in 
the Natural History Museum and a likeness of 
Pitt (on a flint, I think) in the British Museum. 


any reader of 'N. & Q. 1 inform me of the site of 
the above pit, which, according to the author of 
' The Dawn of the Nineteenth Century,' was the 
state cock-pit at the date of the restoration of 
King Charles II.? Cock-pit Yard, leading out of 
James Street, Bedford Row, seems to indicate that 
a pit existed in that locality; but whether it was 
the one described as " behind Gray's Inn " or the 

old Red Lion Pit (if they were not identical) I 
cannot ascertain. S. A. TAYLOR. 

5, Park Lane, St. James'a, S.W. 

A faultless monster that [or whom] the world ne'er saw. 

The schoolboy spot 

We ne'er forget, though there we are forgot. 
Whirl the long mop and ply the airy flail. 

Quoted by Scott in ' The Heart of Midlothian," 

chap. xxv. 
Bleak mountains and desolate rocks 

Are the wretched result of our pains ; 

The swains greater brutes than their flocks, 

The nymphs as polite as their swains. 

Quoted in a letter written in 1818. 



(7 th S. ii. 8.) 

DR. MURRAY asks, "Who were the blanketeert of 
1817 1" It was a term applied to the radical re- 
formers of Lancashire, who, on March 10, 1817, at 
a meeting at St. Peter's Fields, Manchester, decided 
to march to London with a petition for parliamentary 
reform, each man having a rug or blanket strapped 
on his shoulder, so that he might bivouac on the 
road if no better accommodation was available. 
Several hundreds set forth on the march to Lon- 
don, and some time after their departure the 
remainder of the meeting was dispersed by the 
dragoons, who, having arrested those on the plat- 
form, then followed on the track of the blanketeers, 
whom they overtook on Lancashire Hill, at Stock- 
port. Some hundreds were arrested, several 
wounded, and a cottager who had no connexion 
with the blanketeers was shot dead by a dragoon. 
A few persisted in the onward march ; about 180 
reached Macclesfield, about fifty went as far as 
Leek, and about twenty persisted until they reached 
Ashbourne. The deviser of the scheme is said to 
have been Mr. Joseph Mitchell, a draper of Liver- 
pool, who asserted that the plan was agreed upon 
at a gathering held at Major Cartwright's, and in 
the presence of Mr. William Cobbett. Full par- 
ticulars of the blanketeer episode in the history of 
parliamentary reform is given in Bamford's ' Life 
of a Radical' and in Prentice's 'Historical Sketches 
of Manchester.' WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Higher Broughton, Manchester. 

Of the three quotations of this word given by 
DR. MURRAY, the third, whatever it may mean, 
has certainly no connexion with the first and 
second, which are not difficult to account for. 

The inquiry opens up a somewhat painful chap- 
ter in our social history; but it is worth pursuing, 
as illustrative of habits and feelings happily long 
passed away. A short nVumd of the circumstances 



[7' h S. II. JULY 24, '86. 

which originated the phrase will furnish the ex- 
planation required. My information is principally 
derived from the Annual Register for 1817 and 
from ' Passages in the Life of a Radical,' by Samuel 
Bamford, 1844. 

After the close of the great war in 1815, owing 
to the magnitude of the consequent changes, 
distress was felt over all Europe, and in no 
country more so than in England. This was 
aggravated by the injudicious conduct of Parlia- 
ment in increasing the severity of the prohibitive 
corn laws, which raised the prices of the necessaries 
of life without increasing wages. Frequent dis- 
turbances took place in the manufacturing dis- 
tricts from 1815 to 1817, and were accompanied 
by similar demonstrations in the metropolis, such 
as the great Spa Fields meeting on December 2, 
1817, which led to several arrests for high treason. 
As usual under such circumstances, political 
nostrums were rife. Reform of the House of 
Commons, annual Parliaments, and universal 
suffrage were some of the specifics propounded, 
which were met by the Government by arrests, 
trials, and imprisonment. The starving population 
of which Manchester was the centre, goaded to 
desperation, made spasmodic attempts to enforce 
their claims for relief and political reform. Clubs 
were established for organization, and preparations 
made for a march on London. 

Summonses were issued for a great meeting on 
Monday, March 10, 1817, in St. Peter's Fields 
Manchester two years afterwards the scene of the 
so-called Peterloo massacre where the club mem 
bers were to attend furnished with blankets or rugs 
by way of knapsack. From four to five thousauc 
assembled, and the account proceeds: 

" Many of the individuals had blankets, rugs, or large 
coata rolled up und tied on their backs ; some carriec 
bundles under their firms, some had petitions rolled up 
and some bad stout walking-sticks. The magistrate 
came upon the field and read the Riot Act, and tb 
meeting was dispersed by the military, and twerity-nin 
persons arrested. Several thousands, however, escapee 
and proceeded in a body to Htoekport, where they too! 
pos^ess-ion of the bridge over the Mersey, from which 
detachment of yeomanry sent in pursuit BOOH dislodge 
them. Several received sabre wounds, and one man wa 
shot dead. The small remnant, about 180 in number 
arrived at Macclesfield about nine at night, where the 
were to a considerable extent hospitably entertainer 
The following morning about a score arrived at Leek 
and it is recorded that six readied Ashbourne in th 
afternoon ; and thus ended the llanktt expedition." 

Bamford asked one of the party, " What woul 
you really have done supposing you had got t 
London 1 " " Done ! " he replied, in surprise at th 
question; " why, iv wee 'd nobbo gett'n to Lunnu 
wee shud ha' tan th' nation, an' sattl't o' th 

The blanlceteering expedition long lingered as 
tradition in the district, and is still remembere 
by the old people. The term embodies the idea 

ny wild hazardous attempt at meddling with 
ublic or other affairs. 

The quotation from Southey's ' Life ' shows that 
e was imperfectly informed of the circumstances, 
.he idea of any connexion between the blanketeer- 
ng in Lancashire in 1817 and the riots at Bristol 
n 1830 is simply ridiculous. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

See Cobbfitt's 'Rural Rides,' vol. i. p. 222, ed. 
.885 : 

" For having bragged of battles, won by money and by 
money only, the nation deserves that which it will re- 
seive ; and, as to the landlords, they, above all men 
iving, deserve punishment. They put the power into 
he hands of Pitt and his crew to torment the people, 
o keep the people down, to raise soldiers and to build 
>arracks for this purpose. These base landlords laughed 
when affairs like that of Manchester took place. They 
aughed at the llanketeers" 

A note states : 

" This term arose from the common story that large 
numbers of people from the North, during the distress 
of 1816 and 1817, were said to be on the tramp towards 
London, each carrying his blanket, the only thing that 
be could call his own." 


On March 10, 1817, a number of operatives met 
in St. Petei's Field, near Manchester. Urged by 
the feeling of despair, they determined to proceed 
to London in order to set forth and explain their 
distress to the Regent in person, for which purpose 
each individual provided himself with a blanket 
and a small stock of provisions. Hence they 
were called blanketeers, and the assembly "the 
blanket meeting. " They proceeded to march toward s 
London, but were dispersed by the magistracy. 
Eventually the ringleaders had an interview with 
the Cabinet ministers, and a better understanding 
between the working classes and the Government 

21, Endwell Road, Brockley, S.E. 
[Very many further contributions have been received.] 

The following, which are not singular instances, 
extracted from the municipal records of Liverpool, 
throws some light on the inquiry of MB. TEMPLK 
as to the frequency of this mode of punishment in 
the olden time : 

"1565. Octr. 22nd wag apprehended one Thomas 
Johnson for picking of purses, who was summarily dealt 
with as follows. He was imprisoned several days arid 
nights; then nailed by the ear to a post at the flesh 
shambles ; then turned out naked from the middle up- 
wards, when many of the boys of the town with withy 
rods whipped him out of the town. He was also locked 
to a clog, with an iron chain and horse-block, till Friday 
morning next after; and then, before the Mayor and 
Bailiffs, abjured the town and made restitution of 6s. 8d. 
to Henry Myln's wife." 

' 1708, July 12. Presented (by the Grand Jury of the 
Borough Court) James Bleviri and Ann his wife for en- 
tertaining lewd women in their house. Jane Justice and 


the said Ann Blevin for encouragers and rnainta ners of 
bawdry. Margaret Justice, daughter of the said Jane 
Justice, for incontinency. The parties being brought 
before the Court and not finding sureties for their good 
behaviour, the Court sentenced them as follows : ' That, 
Margt Justice be whipt the next day att 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon att a cart's arse, and Ann Blevin and Jane 
Justice be carryed in the cart att the same time from 
the Exchange to Jane Justice's house in Dale Street.' " 

"1712, Jany. 12th. It being made to appear to the 
Grand Inquest upon examination of Rob' Cowdock of 
Walton and Jane Meteye of Woodside that they have 
been guilty of an infamous offence of lewdness together 
to the great dishonour of Almighty God, the ill example 
of others, and in contempt of the laws against immorality 
and prophaneness : they doe present them for such 
offence. The Court thereupon order'd them to be carted 
on Wednesday next between the hours of twelve and 
two from Lukenars to and round the Exchange and that 
Cowdock be afterwards whipp'd to Dale Street end." 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

Surely Gloucester's " Let them be whipped,'' &c. 
(' 2 King Henry VI.,' II. i.) is a dramatic licence 
the scene with Simpcox being a piece of comedy 
thrown in, wife included never intended to be 
taken word for word as historically accurate. If 
it is, how about the stool business ? Is that a posi- 
tive fact? Sir Thomas Moore's version of the story 
is that " instead of an Alms," the Duke " ordered 
him [Simpcox] to be set in the stocks." 


ii. 29). David Martin, the engraver, exhibited at 
the Society of Artists' exhibition in 17G6 a " Mezzo- 
tint of Rousseau, after Ramsay." Allan R unsay 
never exhibited, but his portrait of Jean Jacques 
Rousseau was at the British Institution in 1861. 
It was then the property of Lady Williams Ram- 
say, died in 1784. ALGERNON GRAVES. 

6, Pall Mall. 

ii. 27). With regard to this charade I would refer 
MR. HUMBLB to p. 10 of your second vol., where 
he will find the correct version, and to p. 77 for a 
suggested solution. I have had in my possession 
for more than forty years the cutting mentioned 
by Qn^ESTOR, and on the back of this cutting is 
the beginning of a letter from O'Connell to the 
people of Ireland, dated from Merrion Square, 
February 13, 1844, thus fixing approximately the 
time of its publication. I have been told that 
this charade was composed as a joke, and that no 
possible solution could be found for it. McK. 

This was printed in ' N. & Q.' three dozen years 
ago (1" S. ii. 10), in a verbally different form, said 
to be taken from the Times, where the authorship 
is given to Fox, Gregory, Sheridan, Psalmanazar, 
Lord Byron, or (!) the Wandering Jew an extra- 
ordinary assemblage of names, which is probably 
some hoax. In the same volume of ' N. & Q./ 

p. 77, is a poetical answer, "the Church"; the 
correspondent giving this also attributes the riddle 
to the " Bishop of Salisbury." At that date, 
1850, Dr. Denison was bishop ; he sat 1837-54. 
I have myself a MS. copy of the riddle, probably 
about a quarter of a century old, which differs 
again verbally from both of the ' N. & Q.' versions. 
Another answer, given in ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. i. 83, 
is measure. C. F. S. WARREN, M. A. 

Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. 

I think the charade attributed to "the late 
Bishop of Salisbury" is considerably older than 
that origin would make it. It is thirty years of 
age at least, perhaps forty, and used to be re- 
ferred to the late Bishop Wilberforce. Your 
correspondent has apparently met with a muti- 
lated copy, the original being longer, and not 
quite the same. My memory refuses me the 
missing lines, but I can venture on two correc- 
tions, viz. : 

And that was with Noah, &c. 

And when I 'm discovered, you 'II say with a smile, &c. 

The answer is even longer than the charade, and I 
cannot pretend to recollect it ; but I can give the 
opening and closing lines, which will supply the 
(so-called) solution. I never felt satisfied that 
the two were appropriate : 
Firm on the Rock of Christ, though lowly sprung, 

The Church invokes the Spirit's fiery tongue 

And now you smile, 

For Christ Church stands the best in all our isle. 


WILLIAM AYLMER (7 th S. ii. 27). The passage 
which JAPHET quotes from Gough's translation of 
Camden is an instance of a mere blunder. No 
such name as Aylrner occurs among the bishops of 
Norwich. By far the best account of Bishop 
Ayermin is to be found in Foss's 'Lives of the 
Judges.' There is an excellent life of the bishop 
in the new biographical dictionary, though I see 
my friend Mr. Lee has fallen into the old trap, and 
sent Ayermin to Rome when the Popes were enjoy- 
ing their "Babylonish captivity'' at Avignon. 
JAPHET may be glad to find something about 
Richard Ayermin, the bishop's brother, in that 
delightful little volume of M. Jusserand, 'La Vie 
Nomade,' p. 59. Also I will tell him a secret 
known to very few, to wit, that Bishop Ayermin 
was buried in Norwich Cathedral " ad capud 
Herbert! episcopi." But neither JAPHET nor any 
one else deserves to be told anything about Eng- 
lish biography who does not buy the new ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography.' 


Readers of the Close Rolls of Edward II. and 
III. are well acquainted with the name of William 
de Ayremine, who was put in commission with 
others as keepers of the Great Seal in 1312, was 
himself Chancellor from at least July, 1321, to 



[7 th S. II. JULY 24, '86. 

August, 1323, was appointed Bishop of Norwich 
in 1325, and died (according to Le Neve) 
March 27, 1336. He was a partisan of the 
queen in the miserable civil war of 1326, a,nd 
was present at the coronation of Edward III. 
But he must not be confounded with William de 
Aylmere, who was also a somewhat prominent cha- 
racter of his day, and a partisan of the king, being 
tried in 1327 for an attempt to seize Berkeley 
Castle and deliver his royal master. He appears 
to have been a layman. HERMENTRUDE. 

In Beatson's 'Political Index,' i. 153, Eobert 
Baldock is given as thirty-ninth Bishop of Nor- 
wich. He was Archdeacon of Middlesex and Lord 
Chancellor ; but there is a memorandum, " Dis- 
placed. The Pope put in W m Ayerman, Lord 
Treasurer," in 1825, and he is reckoned as the 
fortieth bishop. Ayerman is manifestly a varied 
spelling of Ayreminne, Armine, Alymer, &c ; so 
that Alymer or Ayerman displaced Baldock by the 
Pope's appointment. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

The passage quoted by JAPHET from Cough's 
' Carnden ' is one of Gough's own additions (Cam- 
den himself has not a word on the subject), in 
which he has copied wrongly from Godwin (' De 
Prresulibus '), whom he gives in a foot-note as his 
authority. Blomefield is quite right as to the 
name of the Bishop of Norwich in 1325-36, viz., 
William de Ayreminne, and so it stands plainly 
enough in Godwin; but Gough has unaccountably 
changed it to Aylmer. F. NORGATE. 

See ' Dictionary of National Biography,' vol. ii., 
s.n. ''Ayreminne or Ayermin, William de." 

G. F. R. B. 

COMMONS (7 th S. i. 228, 274). Sir John Cust was 
born August 29, and baptized September 25 at St. 
Martin-in-the-Fields. He succeeded his father Sir 
Richard Cust as third baronet July 25, 1734. His 
mother was Anne, daughter of Sir William Brown- 
low, Bart., who succeeded her brother John, Vis- 
count Tyrconnel, in his estates at Belton on his 
death s.p. in 1754; she survived her son, and died 
December 29, 1780, at the age of eighty-six. Sir 
John Cust received his education at Eton and at 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he 
was entered in 1735, and became M.A. in 1739. 
He adopted the law as a profession, and held from 
1738 till 1743 chambers in the Middle Temple (of 
which he had been admitted as early as Feb. 12, 
1734/5), and was called to the bar in 1742. He 
was afterwards made a bencher in 1761, and his 
arms are in a window of the Middle Temple Hall. 
On April 18, 1743, he was first elected M.P. for 
Grantham, which place he represented in all sub- 
sequent Parliaments till his death. He was Clerk 
of the Household to Frederick, Prince of Wales, 

1747, and Steward of the Household to the 
Princess of Wales (1751), and was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the South Lincolnshire Militia 
on its embodiment in 1759. He was elected 
Speaker of the House of Commons in 1761 and 
1768, and was sworn of the Privy Council in 
July, 1762. Being attacked with an illness which 
proved fatal, Sir John Ctist resigned his office of 
Speaker Jan. 20, 1770, and died four days later. 
Although the date of his death is erroneously given 
in the Annual Register and Gentleman's Magazine 
as January 22, and an unauthorized report of Lord 
North's speech when proposing his successor in the 
chair seems to confirm this assertion, yet it is cer- 
tain from letters preserved at Belton that the entry 
in the Belton register book is correct, which 
states that he died on January 24, and was buried 
there February 8. Sir John married at Cressy 
Chapel, Dec. 8, 1743, Etheldred, one of the two 
daughters and co-heiresses of Thomas Payne, Esq., 
of Hough-on-the-Hill, co". Lincoln, who brought 
him a fortune estimated at 50,000. By this lady, 
who survived him, he had two daughters and a 
son, Sir Brownlow Cust, fourth bart., who, in pur- 
suance of a promise made to him by Lord North 
at the time of his father's death, was created, after 
some delay, May 20, 1776, Baron Brownlow of 
Belton, in recognition of his father's services. A full- 
length portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds of Sir John 
Cust in his Speaker's robes is at Belton, and there 
is a portrait of him at Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. E. C. 0. 

FOLK SUPERSTITION (7 th S. i. 186, 274). The 
wisdom of Osbourne's ' Advice to a Son ' (quoted 
by LADY RUSSELL) is confirmed and explained by 
the following passage from Dr. Paris's ' Pharmaco- 
logia,' cited by John Stuart Mill, which refers to 
the weapon salve or the sympathetic powder of Sir 
Kenelm Digby : 

" Whenever any wound had been inflicted, this powder 
was applied to the weapon that bad inflicted it, which 
\va8, moreover, covered with ointment, and dressed two 
or three times a day. The wound itself, in the mean time, 
was directed to be brought together, and carefully bound 
up with clean linen rags, but above all, to be let alone for 
seven days, at the end of which period the bandages were 
removed, wheu the wound was generally found perfectly 
united. The triumph of the cure was decreed to the 
mysterious agency of the sympathetic powder which had 
been so assiduously applied to the weapon, whereas it is 
hardly necessary to observe tbat the promptness of the 
cure depended on the total exclusion of air from the 
wound, and upon the sanative operations of nature not 
having received any disturbance from the officious inter- 
ference of art. The result, beyond all doubt, furnished 
the first hint which led surgeons to the improved prac- 
tice of healing wounds by what is technically called the 
first intention," 


H.B.M. Consulate, Lisbon. 

THE THREE HOURS (7 th S. i. 426). Addi- 
tional information is given about this service in 

7'" S. II. JULY 24, '86.] 



a late number of the Guardian. The writer states 
that he has a book of sixty-four pages ' Sermo 
Trihorarius de Praecipius Doininicae Passioni 
Mysteriis, habitus ipso die Parasceues, a F. 
Nicolao Orano, Ord. Min.' It was printed in 1624. 
The preface " Benevolo Concionatori," so far from 
claiming that the idea originated with the author, 
seems to imply that others adopted the same 
method. This book is long before the time of 
Alphonso Messia. M.A.Oxon. 

" Noise " is not noise, but " disturbance " or 
" bother." It means the riot, and not the mere 
noise that the riot makes. D. 

JORDAN v. DEATH (6 th S. x. 189, 299). At 
6 th S. x. 189, inquiry was made for an early in- 
stance of the use of the river Jordan as symbolical 
of death, which is of common occurrence in modern 
hymnology. The patristic use was to make it re- 
presentative of baptism, as is stated ibid. p. 299. 
There was not the mistake of supposing that 
Bunyan in his well-known imagery of the Valley 
of Death so applied it. But the question was 
asked with reference to the 'Pilgrim's Progress.' 
The following is an instance of the occurrence of 
this figurative use of the Jordan before the date 
of the 'Pilgrim's Progress.' Bishop Hall, in his 
' Contemplations,' first published in 1612, so em- 
ploys it. He observes : 

" If the mercy of God have brought us within sight of 
heaven, let us be content to pauae awhile, and on the 
banks of Jordan fit ourselves for our entrance." 
Book viii. p. 246, Lond., 1824. 

Again : 

" The passages into our promised land are trouble- 
some and perilous; and even at last, offer themselves to 
us the main hindrances of our salvation ; which, after all 
our hopes, threaten to defeat us : for what will it avail 
us to have passed a wilderness, if the waves of Jordan 
should swallow us up? But the same hand that hath 
made the way hard hath made it sure : He that made the 
wilderness comfortable will make Jordan dry; He will 
master all difficulties for us; and those things which we 
moat feared, will He make moat sovereign and beneficial 
to us." P. 249. 


THE BLUE ROSE (7 th S. i. 328, 357; ii. 19). See 
1* S. xi. 280, 346, 474; xii. 109, 176. If the 
REV. J. MASK ELL takes an interest in green roses, 
he will find references to them in !* S. xii. 143, 
234, 371, 481. W. F. P. 

BISON (7 th S. L 467). DR. MURRAY mentions 
five dictionaries which have not the word bison. 
Am I right in supposing that he has not looked in 
Minsheu, No. 1128, where there is: "Bison, a 
wild oxe, great eied, broad-faced, that will never 
be tamed. G. bizdn, I. bisonte, busent, elgh. T. 
vrisent, L. bison,, Gr. /&ruy," &c. ? As the appro- 
bation of this work with the seal of the University 

of Oxford is dated November 22, 1610, it is an 
earlier use than DR. MURRAY mentions of the 
A.V., marg., 1611. In another dictionary, by E. 
Coles, Lond., 1685, there is " Bison, F. bugle, buff 
wild ox." In N. & Q. ,' 2 nd S. ix. 1-5, SIR G. C. 
LEWIS examines the early notices of " the Bonasus, 
the Bison, and the Bubalus," tracing the connexion 
of the word bison with wisest in the ' Niebelungen 
Lied,' which term he states to be " manifestly a 
corruption of bison." ED. MARSHALL. 

"Bison (Greek word), a wild ox, commonly 
called a buf, or bugle. Buff, buffle, or buffalo, a 
wild beast like an or. Bugle, a sort of wild ox." 
These are found in John Kersey's 'General English 
Dictionary,' &c., London, 1715. These may be of 
some little use. 0. GOLDING. 


"The wild cows and oxen, of which several 
people of distinction have got young calves from 
these wild cows, &c. This American species of 
oxen is Linnteus's Bos Bison." Taken from Prof. 
Kahn's ' Travels in North America ' (Annual Re- 
gister, 1771, p. 100). H. G. GRIFFINHOOFE. 

RHYMES ON TIMBUCTOO (7 th S. i. 120, 171. 235, 
337, 372, 414, 492). Your correspondent CUTH- 
BERT BKDR may not object to being reminded 
that cedarn does occur in other of the Laureate's 
poems besides ' Tirnbuctoo.' The word is in 
stanza xi. of ' Recollections of " The 'Arabian 

Right to the carven cedarn doors, 
Plung'inward over spangled floors ; 

and again in ' Geraint and Enid,' not far from the 

beginning : 

Then she bethought her of a faded silk, 
A faded mantle and a faded veil, 
And moving toward a cedarn cabinet, 
Wherein she kept them folded reverently 
With sprigs of summer laid between the folds, 
She took them, and array'd herself therein. 

Sheeny appears in ' Madeleine ': 

Hues of the silken sheeny woof 
Momently shot into each other; 

in ' Love and Death ': 

Love wept and spread his sheeny vans for flight ; 
and in 'Recollections of "The Arabian Nights/" 
stanza i.: 

And many a sheeny summer-mom, 

Adown the Tigris I was borne. 

This word, as well as cedarn, is used by Milton : 

Or didt'of late Earth's sons besiege the wall 

Of sheeny Heav'n, and thou some goddess fled 
Amongst us here below to hide thy nectar'd head. 
' On the Death of a Fair Infant,' 11. 47-9. 


CHESTER MINT (7 th S. i. 469, 518). In addition 
to the authorities mentioned by your correspondent, 
information as to this mint can be found in Ruding's 


. II. JITLY 24, '86. 

'Annals of the Coinage.' William I. undoubtedly 
struck coins at Chester, as may be seen in the de- 
tailed description of the Beaworth find in Archceo- 
logia, vol. xxvi., and in Ruding's useful work. I 
presume PENMORFA is aware of the difficulty in 
correctly dividing the coins of Chester and Lei- 
cester struck by the Saxon and Norman monarchs. 

H. S. 

"SLIEVE," A VESSEL (7 th S. i. 508). Slieve 
Donard is the name of a barony, co. Down, Ulster. 
Sleive means mountain, from Tr. slinb, sliabh 
(Gael, sliabh). K. S. CHARNOCK. 

This is the Gaelic sleibh, pi. sliabh, mountain, 
phonetically spelt. It occurs chiefly in Irish hill- 
names, and is equivalent to the ben (beinn) of the 
Scottish Highlands. C. S. JERRAM. 

Surely not ! The names cited by MR. SAWYER 
are those of mountains in Ireland. 

18, West Square, S.E. 

The three vessels referred to in MR. SAWYER'S 
query are named after mountains in Ireland. 
Slieve is an Irish Gaelic word signifying mountain 

71, Brecknock Road. 

iSZieveroe = red mountain, Slieve Donard = the 
mountain of St. Domhaughart (Donart), Slieve 
Bloom the mountain of Bladh. See Joyce's 
' Irish Names of Places.' C. E. 

I take it that the word slieve is only the Irish 
word sliabh, a mountain, and that the vessels men- 
tioned have been named after Slieveroe, red moun- 
tain ; Slievebloom, Bladh's mountain ; Slieve 
Donard, Donard's mountain, or the mountain 
of St. Dominicus. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

McAlpine's 'Gaelic Diet.,' (seventh ed,), 
1877, has : "Sliabh, n.m., the face of a hill, 
a heath ; an extensive tract of dry moorland, a 
hill." The word is given both in its Erse and 
Manx forms in Taylor's ' Words and Places ' (1873) 
which it might be well to consult before hasting to 
' N. & Q.' It is quite misleading to speak o 
slieve as the name of a vessel. Wave, Foam, 
Osprey, are also names given to vessels, but the 
vessel itself is neither water, nor bird, nor yet 
mountain. NOMAD. 

Slieve is an Irish word meaning hill or moun 
tain; thus we have the "mountain roe," "mountain 
bloom," both apposite terms, and Donard Hill, co 
Wicklow, 1,753 ft. high. A. H. 

[SiR HERBERT MAXWELL writes to the same effect 
and adds that " in Scotland, as Dr. Reeves has explainec 
in his great work, Adamnan'a ' Life of St. Columba 
it means a moorland." Many other contributors ar 
thanked for replies.] 


268, 377). The answers to the inquiry as to th 

rigin of this name are all somewhat wide of the 
mark. The fact is that the town takes its name 
rom the bridge over which the lordship is entered 
rom the south. This is of peculiar construction, 
nd has an abutment and arch on one side only, 
ince the time of Henry IV. certainly (one "autho- 
ity" says Edward II., as the result of a misquo- 
ation) this bridge has been called Bubwith Bridge 
as a neighbouring house is still called Bubwith 
louse) from the name of its then owner ; and as, 
nstead of -crossing the stream at right angles, it 
Conceals and covers it for several yards of its 
,ourse, it is literally a broken bridge, and one 
may easily cross it without discovering that it is 
a bridge at all. Over this Bubwith Bridge, how- 
iver, every traveller from the south enters the lord- 
hip, crossing the united waters of two streams 
which take their rise respectively north and south 
of the town, pass round its opposite sides, and 
oin at the extreme east of the manor. These 
itreams continue for about a quarter of a mile by 
he side of the road, which they at length cross 
diagonally, the brook emerging from this one- 
lided Bubwith Bridge exactly as if it had sprung 
'rom the ground out of the ruins of a broken 

As, to use the words of PROF. SKEAT, " even in 
etymology a guess should be reasonable," it seems 
surprising that so many of the correspondents of 
N. & Q.' should incline to the adoption of the 
guess (they confess it to be no more) that Ilbert 
de Lacy, the first Norman possessor of the town, 
?ave it its present name from the resemblance its 
situation bore to that of his birthplace, Pontfrete. 
For (1) Ilbert de Lacy was not born at Pontfrete, 
but at Lassy, near Caen, a place between Aulnay 
and Vire, in the present department of La Cal- 
vados ; (2) Pontefract had not received that name 
at the time of the compilation of Domesday in 
1086, within two years of Ilbert's death and when 
he had owned the manor for many years ; and (3) 
there is in Normandy no place, whether like or 
unlike to Pontefract, of the name of Pontfrete. It 
is astonishing that, with three such fatal obstacles 
in the way, Camden's very bad mintage should 
still occasionally pass current as good coin. 

But, further, Pontefract could not have received 
the name from the circumstance of a neighbouring 
bridge breaking when St. William passed over in 
1153, inasmuch as it was already so called when, in 
1140, Thurstan, Archbishop William's predecessor 
(with an interval of thirteen years), died there (see 
John of Hexham), and in 1135, when an intruding 
lord was killed there immediately after the death of 
Henry I. (see Kichard of Hexham). That, more- 
over, the town was not called Kirkby in Saxon 
times is clear from the fact that while in Domes- 
day Book the name Kirkby is continued to a 
manor some six miles away (which was shortly 
afterwards, and is now, called South Kirkby), 

7> S. II. JULY 24, '86-3 


the Saxon name of Pontefract was Taddenescly 
or Tateshale, each derived from the name of Tad 
(Ethelburga), the Saxon Christian princess wh 
came here, with Paulinus in her train, to be the 
queen of Edwin, King of Northumbria, and to 
whom the place now called Pontefract was given 
as part of her dowry. She has also left her nam 
at Tetter's Lees, in her manor of Lyminge, in Kent 
where she founded a monastery after her return as 
a widow from Yorkshire (see ' The Chartulari 
of the Monastery of Lyminge,' by Rev. R. C 

Queen Ethelburga died as Abbess of Lymioge 
but her daughter and heiress Eanfled returnee 
northwards to marry a later King of Northumbria 
and thus Pontefract continued in the possession o 
Tadu's descendants and retained her name during 
the four centuries of the pre- Norman period. The 
'Saxon Chronicle' mentions Taddenescly f as 
having been the scene of the coronation of King 
Edred in 947 (though parenthetically I may re- 
mark that the annotator of the edition published 
by the Record Commission in 1863 made the 
singular suggestion that Taddenesclyf was Shelf, 
near Halifax, while the translator of Roger de 
Howden, in Bohn's series, thought it must be 
Topclifle ! each being a mere " guess," and 
neither being a "reasonable" one, but evidently 
made in ignorance that the name still adheres to 
Tanshelf, one of the constituent townships of Pon 

This royal manor was called Tateshale in the 
great Norman survey, and till the time of the 
foundation of the Cluniac monastery, about two 
years afterwards, when (as was a frequent occur- 
rence on such occasions) a new name was given to 
the manor, that new name being Kirkby, while 
the original Kirkby received the prefix of South. 
But while in the latter case the addition was 
adopted and acclimatized, Kirkby, as a new name, 
was rejected as a barbarism by the French monks, 
and Pontefract was substituted as early as 1135 
(the date of the murder of William Maltravers), if 
not in 1124 when his second charter was given 
by Hugh de Laval to the monks of Pontefract. 
This latter charter is, however, suspected and dis- 
credited, since the testing clause contains the 
names of exactly the same witnesses (and none 
others) whose names are attached to the founda-* 
tion charter, given twenty-five years earlier. (See 
my 'Pontefract, its Name, its Lords, and its 
Castle.') R. H. H. 


Unless two bridges succumbed to the welcome 
which Yorkshiremen gave to Archbishop William, 
Polydore Vergil tells the story of Pontefract which 
other writers tell of York. It was on the 9th of 
May that he reached the city, 
"a vast and rejoicing crowd accompanying him. As the 
party was crossing the Ouse, the bridge, which was then 

made of wood, gave way and a number of persons were 
precipitated into the river. William is said to have 
wrought a miracle in their behalf. We are told that he 
made hia prayers with tears to God for the sufferers, 
and making over them the sign of the cross, they were 
all saved. When a bridge of stone was erected at that 
place a chapel on it, dedicated to St. William, reminded 
the wayfarers of the legend." 'Fasti Eboracenaes,' 
pp. 225-6. 

When Ouse Bridge was rebuilt, after being 
destroyed by a flood in the winter of 1564, 
the restoration of St. William's Chapel was not 
neglected, and there are those yet living who can 
call to mind the fair old bridge and its burden, 
swept away early in the present century by the 
blasting of the breath of " improvement." A good 
antiquary, who would fain have persuaded the 
Yorkists to leave these monuments untouched, and 
to throw a broader road across the river elsewhere, 
thus urged his point : 

" By this way of procedure Ouse Bridge and chapel 
may be preserved to the antiquary and the man of con- 
stant habits, and become a bridle-way for old Remem- 
brance and sure-footed Gratitude. As for the new 
bridge, should it be erected in the situation I have 
marked out, the road may be made wide enough for 
Speculation and Folly, Dissipation and Want to ride over 
abreast ! " 


This name is clearly much older than Arch- 
bishop William's alleged miracle. Ordericus Vitalis 
tells us that King William, in 1069, was detained 
for three weeks by the " broken bridge " (" prse- 
peditur ad Fracti-pontis aquam impatientem vadi, 
nee navigio usitatam "). See Freeman, .' Norman 
Conquest,' iv. 285. W. H. STEVENSON. 

This place, as is well known to students, figures 
largely in English history. A few years ago I 
inquired in a neighbouring town in Yorkshire for 
photographs of Pomfret, which I supposed would 
be the local pronunciation. " Pomfret ! Pomfret ! 
Do you mean Pontefract?" At the next place, 
having learnt my lesson, I called it Pontefract. 
"Never heard of such a place ! In the South, is 
it not?" Lastly, a few months since, I heard a 
gentleman a fairly well-read man remark, "I 
was at a place called Pontefract the other day." 

Is English history going out of fashion ? And 
will the celebrated New Zealander say that he 
was " at a place called London " ? 


THE LYTE FAMILY (7 th S. i. 487). With refer- 
ence to the origin of this ancient family, which 
appears to have been connected with the Abbey of 
jesset or Lersay, in the Cotentin, it may not be 
3ut of place here to remark on the connexion it 
bore to the Carey family. The latter was asso- 
ciated with the Abbey of Blanchelande. Accord- 
ng to a MS. in the British Museum a Johannes de 
3ary, or de Caree, as the name has been variously 
written both ways, was living on his estate called 



" Whitelands,"* bearing on shield, Gules, a chev- 
ron arg. between three swans, so early as the thir- 
teenth century, whose arms have by some authors 
been ascribed to the Lyte family. May not the 
latter have derived their arms by marriage with 
an heir of the Careys ? The latter family were 
pretty numerously established in Dorstshire in the 
thirteenth century, and all bore swans and roses on 
shield sometimes one, sometimes the other. The 
swan was considered a sacred bird, and may have 
been adopted on this account ; certain it is the 
three roses on a bend sable, or scarf, the present 
arms of the Careys, denote a monastic origin. 
The rose in ancient heraldry was an emblem of 
the Holy Mother. T. W. CAREY. 

HOPE (7 th S. i. 509). There is no "usual mean- 
ing " of the syllable hope, hop, op, or up in local 
names. According to circumstances it may refer 
to (1) a bay, (2) a valley, (3) a hill, (4) a measure 
of land, (5) hops, (6) hospitals, (7) hopefulness, or 
(8) it may be a personal name, or (9) a mere 
blunder. Some of these sources can be easily 
distinguished and set aside. Thus in class 5 we 
may place Hophurst in Sussex arid Hopfenberge 
in Germany, which denote the cultivation of 
hops ; in class 6 comes Hopital in Savoy ; in 
class 7 numerous townships in America, called 
Hopewell, as well as the C;ipe of Good Hope, a 
translation of Cabo de Bona Esperanza ; in 
class 8 Hopetown and Hopkinton in America ; 
and in class 9 Hopfenbach in Swabia, a corrup- 
tion of Offinbach, the ancient name. None of 
these presents any difficulty ; they are only men- 
tioned to show how such names may sometimes 

We come now to the older and more 
difficult names, which divide themselves into 
four classes, bay?, valleys, hills, and holdings. 
In two German charters of the ninth century 
we find Hrodateshopa and Ekkimunteshopa, 
where the suffix hopa, being preceded by a per- 
sonal name, is clearly the O.H.G. hoba or hopa, 
which denotes the usual peasant holding of 
thirty acres. From this word, related to haben, 
hundreds of German place-names are derived, 
but it is doubtful how far they extend to England. 

The Scotch hopes can also be readily distin- 
guished. The Lowland Scotch word hope, denot- 
ing a " haven," is derived from the O.N. hdp, 
" a small landlocked bay " shaped like a " hoop." 
This explains several names in Orkney, such as 
Longhope, Kirkhope, or St. Margaret's Hope ; 
and probably Stanford-le-Hope in Essex, and 
Hope, near Romney, in Kent. Cleasby and Vig- 
foson ('Diet.,' p. 281) add Vestr-hop, from the 
L*dnamabok of Iceland, and Elleshoop in Hoi- 
sted ; but they are clearly wrong in explaining 
in the same way such inland names as Stanhope 

* Dorsetshire. 

in Durham and Easthope in Salop. For these 
some other explanation must be sought. Prof. 
Skeat ('Diet.,' p. 270) refers such names to a 
provincial English word hope, meaning (1) a 
hollow, (2) a mound. Hope, a hollow, or more 
correctly " a sloping hollow between two hills," 
being a North of England word, may be the 
Norse h4p t "recessus," with an extended mean- 
ing, and will explain the West Eiding names 
Swinehope and Bramhope (bramble hollow). But 
names in hope are comparatively rare in the dis- 
tinctively Scandinavian districts of England. In 
the Domesday for Lincoln there is only one, in 
Yorkshire three, and in Notts two ; while in 
Derbyshire there are four, and they increase in 
frequency in the purely Mercian counties, Salop, 
Hereford, and Gloucester. Edmunds, p. 194, re- 
fers these numerous names on the Welsh march 
to a British (i. ., Celtic) word hiopp, " a sloping 
place between hills"; but, as usual, he gives no 
authority, and I do not recognize the word, or 
detect it in Welsh or Cornish nomenclature. If 
Welsh, it may only be a Mercian loan word. The 
sources of Mercian speech were largely Frisian, but 
not Norse. The Frisian hdp (Dutch hoop), means a 
" mound " or " pile," and is related to our " heap," 
and not, like the Norse h6p, to our "hoop." Thus 
we may compare the name of Stanhope in Durham 
with the Frisian stenhdp, a " heap of stones," or 
irdhop, "a mound of earth." It would be interest- 
ing to know whether MB. COITMORE'S "hopes" 
are hills or hollows. 

I have gone into the matter at some length not 
on account of its intrinsic importance, but because 
it is a good instance of the extreme caution which 
is needful in dealing with local names. 


Morris, in his ' Etymology of Local Names, 
gives this word, under the forms hope, op, ope, de- 
riving it from the Scandinavian, and assigning the 
meaning of "the side of a hill, a sheltered spot on 
the side of a hill." The places quoted as exhibit- 
ing the root under some of its several forms are all 
in England, but the word is common in the local 
nomenclature of the south of Scotland. Some 
doubt may be thrown on the Scandinavian ety- 
mology by the occurrence of the word as a place- 
name on the borders of Wales, in Herefordshire, 
and Shropshire. It is also found in Derbyshire 
and in Yorkshire. In Scotland it has given rise 
to a title of peerage in the case of the Hopetoun 
family. The root also enters into the composition 
of the Scottish surname of Pringle, the earlier 
and fuller form of which is the clearly territorial 
form of Hop-pringle. NOMAD. 

With one or two exceptions in Devon and 
Kent hope as a place-name is confined to the 
North of England, the south and east of Scotland, 
and the Orkneys, being, in fact, the districts settled 

. II. JULY 24, '86.] 



by the Danes or Norsemen. It is found sometimes 
alone, and at others in combination, as in Wolfs 
hope, Kirkhope, Easthope, &c. The circumstances 
point to O.N. hdp, applied to a small bay or har- 
bour at the embouchure of a stream, Jis the origin 
Holmboe (' Det Norske Sprogs ') traces it to Sansk 
gup, to protect. 

Inland it is applied to a narrow valley between 
ridges, frequently at the meeting of two rivers. In 
this sense Haldoraon explains it, " Recessus, ve" 
derivatio fluuiinis ; lacuna, vallicula." The A.-S 
htp, whence the modern hoop, signified originally 
a circle ; whether it has any connexion with the 
Norse hdp may be a matter for speculation. 

So far as I am aware, the word does not exist in 
the Cymric or Welsh. The place-names of hope in 
Wales occur in the English-speaking districts. 


Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

Concerning the termination hope in place-names, 
I may refer the inquirer to the Antiquary, 
vol. ii. p. 38. I believe the word to be Cymric, 
and also that ib was adopted by Anglo-Saxons in 
those parts of the country where the Cymric race 
blended in some degree with the Anglo-Saxon. 

In the Cheviot district and the hill-country oi 
Northumberland and Durham, where the word is 
of such frequent occurrence, it means a slope be- 
tween hills, or the upland part of a mountain valley, 
or a small valley open only at one end. I am not 
sufficiently acquainted with Herefordshire to know 
whether such a description applies to the localities 
where the word forms a component part in place- 
names in that county, and should be glad of infor- 
mation on that point. The Welsh border is, like 
the Cheviot and its neighbouring hill country, a 
region where an early mixture of races may be ex- 
pected to have transferred such a word from 
Cymric to Anglo-Saxon tongues. 

There is also a Norse word hop, a haven or small 
land-locked bay (e. g., St. Margaret's Hope in the 
Orkneys), but it is inapplicable in an inland hill- 
country. J. V. GREGORY. 

See " Hoop " in my ' Etymological Dictionary. 
The radical sense is " a bend," which is sometimes 
concave and sometimes convex. Hence it means 
sometimes " a bay," and sometimes " a mound." 
The word is native English. 


"Nor A PATCH UPON" (7 th S. i. 508). In 
reply to D. L.'s query as to the meaning of the ex- 
pression "not a patch upon," I would refer him to 
Latham's edition of Johnson's 'Dictionary,' where 
the word patchery, now obsolete, is defined as 
" botchery ; bungling work ; forgery." This last 
synonym gives a possible clue to the origin of the 
saying. It may, therefore, I think, imply that a 
given article has not so much relation to the ob- 

ject with which it is desired to compare or to 
identify it as even a forgery bears to that which 
it is designed to similate. BREMENIENSIS. 


VERB A DESIDERATA (7 th S. i. 266, 449). I ob- 
serve in the Revue des Traditions Populaires, lately 
sent me, that the word which has been adopted ia 
French as an equivalent to " queries " is enquttes. 

E. H. BUSK. 

FAITHORNE (7 th S. i. 209, 297, 372). It may 
interest your correspondents to have a full copy of 
the publication of the banns as the entry exists in 
the marriage register of St. Dunstan in the West, 
Fleet Street. This, by the kindness of the rector 
of that parish, will appear among the others in 
the second and enlarged edition of my ' Me- 
morials of Temple Bar, with some Account of 
Fleet Street': 

" Wm. Faythorn, Judith Grant. According to a late 
Act of the Parl'ment touching marriages, &c., publica- 
c'on was made of an iutenc'on of marriage between 
William Faythorne of the p'iah of Dunstims in the West, 
Loud. Stacon r and Judith Graunt, daughter of Henry 
Graunt, of Michaell in Cornehill, aged 24 yearee, in 
Newgate Markett, upon three Sv'all Markett dayes in 
three Sverall Weekes, viz', the 26"> of Aprill 1654, the 
first of May, and on the 8 lh of May, 1654, in wi> time 
there was no excepc'on made against the suyj intended 
marriage. J. BENSON." 

John Benson was chosen " [Registering Clarke 
of this parish for Eegistering all Marriages, 
Birthes, and Burialles from and after Michaelmas 
Next, according to an Act of Parliam* lately 
made," at the vestry meeting held on Septem- 
ber 13, 1653. He held the appointment thirteen 
years, and was buried in the church November 13, 
1666, where his wife Frances (who had pre- 
deceased him) was interred March 3, 1664/5. 
Benson was clerk during the time that "silver- 
tongued Bates " held the living (see ' Memorials,' 
1869, pp. 77, 80). After the persecution of the two 
thousand ministers in 1662, Dr. Bates was chosen 
the first minister of the New Nonconformist con- 
gregation meeting in Mare Street, Hackney the 
parish, by the way, in which this note is now being 

According to the register of St. Dunstan, Henry, 
son of William and Judith ffaythorne, was born and 
baptized September 27, 1655. T. C. NOBLE. 

Greenwood Road, Dalston, E. 

xi. 175, 202 ; 4 th S. v. 543 ; vi. 17). At a on- 
irmation on June 11, 1886, at St. John's Church, 
Due Brook, near Liverpool, the Bishop of Liverpool 
confirmed V. S. E. (a female candidate) by bat 
mptismal names, V. S., with the additional Ohri- 
,ian name B. (her mother's maiden surname}, 
naming her in the invocation thus, "Defend, 
Lord, this thy servant, V. S. B.,"&c.; and signing 
he following certificate, the effect of which was 



[7"> S. II. JULY 24, '86. 

afterwards noted in the candidate's baptismal re- 
gister : 

" We, John Charles, by Divine permission Lord Bishop 
of Liverpool, do hereby certify that V. S. E., daughter 
of C. E. and J. M. E. his wife, was this day presented to 
Us at the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Tue Brook, 
in the parish of West Derby, in the County of Lancaster, 
within Our diocese of Liverpool, to be admitted to the 
holy rite of confirmation with the request that the name 
of B. might be added as part of her Christian name, and 
We, consenting to such addition, did then and there con- 
firm her by the name of V. S. B." 
It is due to the bishop to mention that, while con- 
senting to exercise his discretionary power as 
above, he expressed an objection to the practice 
of changing a name once solemnly given in bap- 
tism. W. D. T. 


ADRIA=THE STONY SEA (7 th S. i. 289, 435). 
MR. MATHEW probably knows much more than I 
on the wide subject of words akin to adria. As to 
the word itself, in the sense of " rock" or " stone," 
I presume the references in the late editions of 
Ducange to Adelung (under adria), and to Diefen- 
bach (under adriacus, &e.) have not escaped him. 
From Prof. Francis W. NewmanVIguvine [Etrusco- 
Umbrian] Inscriptions ' (London, Trubner, 1864), 
I quote the following remarks, though I am not 
competent either to assert or to question their 
relevance to the query : "Dr for tr is mere 
euphony ; as, abro, for atro, apro" (p. 31, 
note 11). And on the word attero : " We do not 
know the Umbrian for mountain ; if it be not 
alp it may be atter. A nominative ater would 
probably make atro, not atero" (p. 46, note 11/3). 
To revert to adula, there appears in the new 
edition of Ducange, as an addition made by the 
editor, M. Favre, " Adu,la=>mons avium," quoted 
from Diefenbach. 

Probably Obermuller's ' Deutsch - Keltisches Worterbuch, zur erk- 
laerung der Fluss-Berg-Orts-Gau-Volker und Per- 
sonen-Namen Europas, West-Asiens und Nord- 
Afrikas (Berlin, 1872, 2 vols., 8vo.), would be found 
useful in this inquiry. 


Adriatic, prop. Atriatic, so called from Atria 
(Adria, Hadria), a town between the Po and the 
Athesis (Adige), whence " Atrianus fluvius " (Tar- 
tarus). E. S. CHAENOCK. 

ROB ROY IN NEWGATE (7 th S. i. 469 ; ii. 15). 
Your correspondent MR. JAMES GRANT leaves 
Rob Roy unaccounted for between the years 1720 
and 1733. It is, therefore, not impossible that he 
may have been in Newgate in 1727; but, if so, 
it is strange that Sir Walter Scott should not have 
known it. Is no register kept at Newgate of all 
the prisoners who have been confined there 1 
According to the Weekly Journal, cited by Major 
Griffiths, Lord Qgilvie, Stewart of Appin, and 

Macdonald of Glencoe, were transported at the 
same time as Rob Roy. 0. L. S. 

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH (7 th S. ii. 9). " This 
itle was assumed by Richard II. in the year 1384, 
when Wycliffe died, Parliament having petitioned 
him to put down the Lollards, and a royal commission 
having been ordered. Henry IV. (1411) had once 
been styled the Champion and Chief Defender of 
the Orthodox Faith, and Henry III. the Defender 
of the Faith." Authority for the above either 
Massingberd's ' Reformation ' or Churton's ' Early 
Church." Unfortunately, I forget which. 


BIOLOGY (7 th S. i. 407). A very interesting and 
learned paper on this term was written by the late 
Rev. Fredk. Field, M. A., LL.D., in 1876. It was 
printed (for private circulation) probably by the 
Clarendon Press at Oxford, where also, probably, 
DR. MURRAY may find access to it. It occupies 
four quarto pages. 

" The obvious result [of Dr. Field's research] is to 
show that the term Biology, recently imported into the 
scientific vocabulary, is a BLUNDER. The inventor of it 
(Gottfried Reinhold Treviramus, born 1776, died 1837), 

being in want of a Greek word expressive of life, 

had recourse to his dictionary. which offered him a choice 
between two, ySioc and w?j," &c. 


Sparham Rectory, Reepharo, Norfolk. 

'FABER FORTUNE' (7 th S.'ii. 7). Bacon's observa- 
tions on "Faber quisque fortuna sua " are to be 
found in his "De Augmentis Scientiarum," 
lib. viii. c. ii. (' Works,' vol. vii. p. 405, ed. 1803). 


TITLE OF EGMONT (7 th S. ii. 9). The Percevals 
appear to claim descent from the same stock as 
the Counts of Egmont in Flanders. See Lodge's 
' Peerage ' (1789), vol. ii. pp. 214-15, 218 ; and 
J. Anderson's ' Genealogical History of the House 
of Yvery, in its Different Branches of Yvery, Luvel, 
Perceval, and Gournay.' G. F. R. B. 

'ANNE HATHAWAY' (7 th S. i. 269, 433). A 
poem with the punning refrain " She hath a way" 
was written by the ever-living author of 'Tom 
Bowling,' and will be found in the completer 
editions of Dibdin's songs. 

T. R. A. G. MONTGOMERY, Lieut. 


A QUESTION OF SUCCESSION (7 th S. ii. 29). No 
commoner can be assumed to have succeeded to 
any title unless he really lived long enough to 
claim the succession. The case quoted by MR. 
A. S. ELLIS resembles a " lapsed legacy," which is 
common. In such a case, however, the son of 
George would have succeeded, if there were such 
a son j and his surviving widow might obtain 

7> S. II. JPLY 24, '86.] 


permission, by royal favour, to bear the dowager 
title, just as if her husband had really survived to 
enjoy it. A. H. 

PRECEDENCE (7 th S. i. 149, 253). What is MR. 
WALFORD'S authority for ranking doctors below 
general officers, colonels, and naval captains 1 
Milles, in his ' Nobilitas ' (1610), says " Doctor- 
ship is a title of Dignity more noble than they 
that are gentlemen by Stock "; Segar, ' On Honor,' 
p. 226, says doctors are to be called "Dominus"; 
and the learned Dugdale, our greatest authority 
on precedence, says: " Doctors of the Universities, 
being possessed of a dignity and a degree, clearly 
rank in the general and social scale in England on 
a par with Knights, and above Serjeants at Law, 
Queen's Counsel, Deans, Chancellors, Masters in 
Chancery, Admirals, Generals, Companions of the 
Bath, and all Barristers and Esquires." 


MATTHEW BUCKINGER (7 th S. ii. 8). Again I 
advise that the indexes to ' N. & Q.' should be 
consulted before inquiries are addressed to the 
Editor. Had MR. DANVERS adopted that course, 
valuable space in your publication could have 
been devoted to other matters. For references to 
works containing Matthew Buckinger's portrait 
and memoir see ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. i. 282. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

About him and his portrait see 4 th S. i. 75, 183; 
6 th S. i. 136, 282 ; ii. 98, 218. W. C. B. 

ifitSrrll, in roust. 

Mitcellanies. By Algernon Charles Swinburne. (Chatto 

& Windus.) 

THIS is a most unequal book. We say this without the 
smallest intention of disparaging it. A volume made up 
for the most part of articles that have been written for 

Eeriodicals and the ' Enyclopaedia Britannica ' cannot 
ave the unity that it would have if the whole had been 
written at one time or, at least, for one purpose. We do 
not think any English writer, living or dead, suffers so 
much from this as Mr. Swinburne does. He is, as is 
admitted on all hands, a great master of style, and such 
mastership can only be displayed to full advantage 
where there is complete unity. Most writers have so 
very little power of writing prose that is musical, thai 
it makes no sort of difference whether the copy they 
produce is meant for one thing or another. The see- 
saw or the jog-trot would be the same to-day as yester 
day, though in one case Joan of Arc might be the theme 
and in the other some treatise on nudibranchiate Mol 

It is impossible, in the space we have at our command 
to draw attention to one-tenth of the noteworthy things 
this volume contains. To us it seems that the articles 
on Landor and Charles Reade are the best. Landoi 
will never be read in our time at least as he deserves 
To skim his pages as young ladies skim novels is heartlesi 
work. Neither in prose nor verse, in English nor Latin 

oes his meaning lie so absolutely on the surface that it 
may be picked up by lazy people who feel it a great 
train to give even half attention to any book which 
[oes not treat on the pleasures to be derived by breaking 
he decalogue. Landor is never, in his English writings, 
bscure, but his sentences, like Shakspeare's, are so 
lacked with meanings that they require some exertion 
o master them. There is, probably, less padding in his 
>ooks than in those of any man of letters who has written 
n this century. It is, therefore, with great pleasure 
and hope that we have read Mr. Swinburne's temperate 
eulogium, which will, we trust, send not a few of his 
readers to study the great Miltonic Englishman. The 
)aper on Charles Reade is much longer than that de- 
voted to Landor. It is quite as good, but not nearly so 
convincing. We are ready to admit that where Mr. 
Swinburne praises he does so with discretion, but 
assuredly those features in Reade's writings which do 
not admit of praise are far too lightly dealt with. 
Reade showed himself at times a wonderful plot-maker ; 
but the plot of a novel, though very much, is not every- 
thing. It was intellectually impossible for Reade to 
write in one key sufficiently long to produce the effect 
which his plots deserved and which we doubt not his 
mind craved after. We admit that here and there, 
though very seldom, we come on passages of great 
beauty, a beauty due to their structure, not to mere 
ornament ; but every one must have felt that in the 
ordinary course of his narratives, where there waa 
nothing of absorbing interest to excite the writer, there 
are whole pages of as humdrum prose as is to be 
found in a police report. The power of word-selection 
and the feeling of beauty seems to have vanished, only to 
be called forth again when the author's imagination 
comes under the influence of the needful amount of in- 
tellectual excitement. 

We should have liked to have taken Mr. Swinburne to 
task for his papers there are two on Queen Mary of 
Scotland ; to do so adequately would occupy far too much 
space. We would ask, however, whether it ought not to 
be a point of honour with men of letters not to write 
biographies of men and women whom they have idealized, 
for good or for evil, in works of imagination. 

Hanky and the House ofLechmere. (Pickering.) 
To those of our readers who may, during the coming 
summer, turn their steps towards the breezy Malvern 
hills of health-giving fame, we would specially recom- 
mend the very interesting account, drawn up by our late 
valued contributor Mr. Shirley, of Ettington, of the 
Lechmere family and their charming olden seat of 
Severn End. The book in which the story of the place 
and its owners is told forms a fitting memorial alike of 
the writer and of his lifelong devotion to genealogical 
and antiquarian studies. Its principal illustrations are 
memorials of the late Sir Edmund Hungerford Lech- 
mere, and add to the value and interest of the little 
volume, while the name of Pickering is a guarantee of 
the excellence of the antique typography employed. The 
diary of Sir Nicholas Lechmere, Baron of the Exchequer, 
who attended Oliver Cromwell's funeral, received the 
royal pardon from Charles II., and was present at the 
reversal of the attainder of Alice, Lady Lisle, is printed 
at considerable length, and throws a picturesque light 
upon the general history of the Stuart period. 

At one time, during August, 1651, 150 Scottish horse 
are recorded as having been quartered on Sir Nicholas 
at his house at Hanley, the leader of whom treated his 
people "civilly, but threatned extirpation" to Sir 
Nicholas and his posterity because he was joined to the 
army of the Parliament. . However, it pleased God, as 
Sir Nicholas says, shortly to give a " totall overthrow to 



8. II. JULY 24, '86. 

this Scottish army," and Sir Nicholas himself lived to 
welcome Charles II. home again, amid the " continued 
throngs and shouts of people flocking from all parts of 
our nation." In the Restoration year Sir Nicholas built 
his " study, at the south-west end of the garden at 
Hanley." It may be presumed that with the Restora- 
tion he anticipated quiet times, suited to the occupation 
of a study. Sir Nicholas served several very different 
masters in the course of his public life ; whether he 
cared most for King or Parliament, for Protector Oliver 
r for the Merrry Monarch it may not be easy to say. 
But his diary contains many a Benedicat Deus, as he 
semi* forth his children into the world, and his last 
words to his son and successor are " Bee pitifull and 
compassionate to y e poore." (Such were the deeds and 
the thoughts of some of the olden lords of Hanley at 
their pleasant old home of Severn End. 

Report of the East Anglian Earthquake of April 22n.cZ, 
1884. By Raphael Meldola, P.C.S., &c., and William 
White, F.E.S., &c. (Maciuillan & Co.) 
THIS interesting record of the most remarkable earth- 
quake which England has known during some centuries 
and that Essex has experienced during historic times 
has been compiled by Prof. Meldola for the Essex Field 
Club, before a meeting of which body it was read in 
abstract. It is a work of close research, and has occupied 
its authors the greater portion of their leisure since the 
Occurrence of the earthquake. Its principal value and 
interest are naturally scientific, though there is much in 
the pictures of devastation afforded that is intended for 
the general public. To the reader of ' N. & Q.' it appeals 
as a typical local investigation of matters concerning 
which the antiquary of coming times will be glad of full in- 
formation. No preparation having been made for investi- 
gation of wholly unexpected phenomena, the reports are, 
in the majority of cases, unscientific, and even confused. 
Enough information is, however, obtained to be of 
genuine service to the seismologue, and the consensus of 
testimony is of much importance. Information concern- 
ing English earthquakes supplied by Prof. Meldola and 
Mr. White is a little startling to those who have con- 
gratulated themselves on living in a country wherein 
this form of danger was unknown. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the early records concerning what in England 
were prehistoric times are untrustworthy, and that the 
accounts of cities swallowed up may be accepted as due 
to the growth of stories transmitted by tradition. It 
is probable that few people in England know how much 
damage was wrought by the late earthquake. The 
authors of this book have supplied ail obtainable par- 
ticulars, and their work is a model of painstaking, intel- 
ligent, and well-directed effort. 

Northern Notes and Queries. Edited by Rev. A. W. 

Cornelius Hallen, M.A. Vol. I. No. 1. (Edinburgh, 

Douglas & Foulis.) 

WE hail with pleasure the addition of yet another to the 
already numerous family of which Mr. Thorns became 
the literary parent in founding ' N. & Q.' Mr. Hallen, 
whose contributions to our own pages will have made 
bis name familiar to our readers, has seen, we believe, a 
real want, and stepped in to fill a gap in the ranks of 
special Notes and Queries. For he devotes himself to 
Scotland and the North of England, where he ought to 
find plenty of matter for his columns and a ready sup- 
port for his enterprise. We wish success and long life 
alike to Northern Notes and Queries and to its editor. 

Le Livre for July 10 contains an account of ' Les 
Publishing Societies en Angleterre,' compiled from Mr. 
Wheatley's ' How to Form a Library.' It does not claim 
to be complete, and the writer, who is a Frenchman, is 

naturally a little puzzled with the " titro bizarre " of the 
Pipe Roll Society, concerning which he would be glad of 
some information. An unknown edition of ' La Pucelle ' 
of Voltaire is described by its possessor ; an essay prov- 
ing, in opposition to M. d'Haussonville, that Alexandra 
Dumas was continuously desirous to be a member of the 
Academy follows, and an account is then given of the 
public libraries of New York. The illustrations repro- 
duce the designs by Luc. Cranach of the binding of a 
Catullus which belonged to Melanchthon. 

THE Revue des Traditions Populaires (Paris, Maison- 
neuve et Leclerc), of which we have received the second 
number issued, is a new foundation of great promise for 
folk-lore students. It is the organ of the Soeiete des 
Traditions Populaires, the French Folk-Lore Society, 
and has the support of a distinguished list of men of 
letters, such as Vicomte de la Villemarque,; of Breton 
legend fame ; De Quatrefages, of the Institute ; Maspe"ro, 
the Egyptologist, who has but lately resigned the post 
he filled in Egypt with such credit alike to himself and 
to his country; Paul Sebillot, who has devoted much 
special attention to the folk-lore of the sea and of rivers ; 
D Arbois de Jubainville, of the Institute, one of the 
foremost French Celtic scholars of the day ; these, and 
others, quos perscribere lonfium, are men who are sure 
to make of the Revue des Traditions Populaires one of 
our most valued contemporaries. 

WE regret to hear of the death in his fifty-first year of 
Mr. W. P. Bennett, the second-hand bookseller of Birm- 
ingham, whose removal to Great Russell Street, London, 
we mentioned a few weeks ago. One of Mr. Bennett's 
curious catalogues saw the light only last week. 

THE August number of Watford's Antiquarian will 
contain, among other articles, a paper by the editor on 
' Bishop Butler's Painted Glass at Vane House, Hamp- 
stead, and at Oriel College, Oxford,' and also an illus- 
trated article on the old priory church of St. Bartho- 
lomew the Great, West Smithneld, now in process of 

MR. TALBOT B. REED has in the press an exhaustive 
history of the ' Old English Letter Foundries, with 
Notes Bibliographical and Historical on the Rise and 
Progress of English Typography.' It is to be issued by 
Mr. Elliot Stock. 

at(re ta 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

Os all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

T. B. (" Arithmetical Puzzle "). Unsuited to our 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7 th S. II. JULY 31, '86.] 





NOTES : ' Howleglas,' 81 Thomu Borocold, 82 Peculiar 
Words in ' The Wits,' 83 Shakspeariana, 84 Byronic Lite- 
ratureScotch Kirk Session Eecords 'The Perils of the 
Nation 'The Mitre a Headdress, 86. 

QUERIES : Apsham ' Memoirs of Capt. P. Drake' Free- 
dom of the City Gideon Harvey " Crying your game" 
Baron Dunboyne Jews in London Eardisley Oak John- 
son and the King's Evil, 87 Dr. Watts " He can neither 
read nor swim" R. Martin 'New English Dictionary* 
Stewards of Manors Author of Poem E. Lemon and Jas. 
Crosby Author Wanted British Flag Ozone, 88 Duke- 
dom of Cornwall Hammer Ponds, 89. 

REPLIES : Was Bnnyan a Gipsy? 89 Effects of English 
Accent, 90 Had Legendary Animals an Existence? 
Suzerain, 92 Hair turned White Founder of Primrose 
League, 93 Antiquity of a Boat and Road Pope and Colley 
Cibber Simile in Dickens Death and Burial of Colley 
Cibber, 94 'Im-hm' Wasted Ingenuity Children's Cru- 
sade, 95 Flekkit Chrisomer Great Plague Wm. Barlow, 
96 Bellman Mayonnaise Australia and the Ancients- 
Birth of the King of Spain, 97 County Badges Forbes of 
Culloden Square Meal Book-plate of Graeme Old Inn 
Sign Scotch Peers, 8 Designs by Bentley ' School of 
Shakspeare 'Authors Wanted, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS i-Halllwell-PhilUpps's Outlines of the 
Life of Shakespeare ' ' One Hundred Examples of Barto- 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



In the late Mr. Frederic Ouvry's reprint of 
' Howleglas ' there is a merry tale of " Howe that 
Howleglas would flee fro' the towne house of Mew- 
brough." As this reprint is now of considerable 
scarcity, the story may be given here for the sake 
of making clear what follows (p. 12) : 

" After that came Howleglas to Maybrougb, wher he 
dyd many marueyleous tbynges, y' bis name was there 
wel knowen. Than bad the principal of the towne, y* 
he should do some thing y' was neuer sene before : Than 
sayd he that he would go to the highest of the counsail 
house, & flye fro' it, and anon that was knowen through 
all the towne that Howleglas woul flye from the tope of 
the councel house, in souche that all the towne was ther 
assembled & gathered in the market place to see hym. 
Upo' the top of the house stod Howleglas with his hands 
wauering as though he would haue flyen and than the 
people loked whan he should baue flyed : wherat he 
laughed, and sayde to the people : I thought there had 
bene no more fooles but myself: but I se wel y here is a 
hole town ful. For had ye altogether said y ye wold 
haue flie': yet I wold not haue beleued you. And now 
ye beleue one fore y 1 sayth that he will flye, which thing 
w vnpossible for 1 haue no winges, & no ma' can flie 
'ithout wynges. And than went he his waye fro' the 
top of the co'nsail house & left the folke there stand- 

g. ^And than departed the folke fro' thence, som 
blami g him fe g m laughing, sayiV he is a ehrevved 
fole for he telleth vs the truth." 

In Knolles's 'Historic f the Tnrkes,' 1621 

(p. 37), there is a similar story told ; but unlike 
Scoggin's Frenchman (' Old English Jest- Books,' 
ed. Hazlitt, vol. ii. p. 127), the poor Turk fell 
upon the hard stones instead of into the watery 
moat. The date, I should say, is given as 1164: 

" Among other quient deuices of many, for the solem- 
nizing of so great a triumph, there was an actiue. Turke, 
who had openly giuen it out, That against an appointed 
time bee would from the top of an high tower in the 
tilt-yard, flie by the space of a furlong: the report 
whereof had filled the citie with a wonderful! expectation 
of so strange a noueltie. The time prefixed being come, 
and the people without number assembled, the Turke 
according to his promise, vpon the top of the high tower 
shewed himselfe, girt in a long and large white garment, 
gathered into many pleites and foldings, made of purpose 
for the gathering of the winde : wherewith the foolish 
man had vainly perswaded himselfe to haue houered in 
the aire, as doe birds vpon their wings, or to haue guided 
himselfe as are ships with their sailes. Standing thua 
houering a great while, as ready to take his flight; the 
beholders still laughing, and crying out, Flie Turke, 
flie, how long shall we expect thy flight 1 The Emperour 
in the meanetime disswading him from so desperate an 
attempt: and the Sultan betwixt feare and hope hanging 
in doubtful! suspence what might happen to his country- 
man. The Turke, after he had a great while houered 
with his armes abroad, (the better to haue gathered the 
winde, as birds doe with their wings) and long deluded 
the expectation of the beholders ; at length finding the 
winde fit, as he thought, for his purpose, committed him- 
selfe with his vaine hope vnto the aire : But in stead of 
mounting aloft, this foolish Icarus came tumbling downe 
headlong with such violence, that he brake his necke, 
his armes, and legs, with almost all the bones of hia 
body. This foolish flight of the Turke gaue such occasion 
of sport and laughter vnto the vulgar people, alwaiea 
ready to scoffe and iest at such ridiculous matters, that 
the Turkes attending vpon the Sultan could not walke 
in the streets vnderided ; the artificers in their shops 
shaking their armes, with their tooles in their hands, an 
did the Turke, and still crying out, Flie Turke, flie: whereof 
the Emperour hearing, although he could not chuee but 
thereat smile himselfe, as not ignorant of the scoffes & 
taunts of the vulgar people ; yet in fauour of the Sultan, 
who was not a little grieued therewith, he commanded 
such their insolencie to be restrained." 

Speaking of Knolles's 'Historic,' I have only 
lately become acquainted with it. I had hitherto 
thought that the encomiums passed upon it by 
such critics as Dr. Johnson, Southey, and Hallam 
were perhaps exaggerated. But I can now ap- 
preciate to the full what they have written, espe- 
cially Hallam, regarding it. It is in every sense 
excellent, and certainly does not merit the neglect 
into which it appears to have fallen. The title- 
page, by Laurence Johnson, an engraver not men- 
tioned by Walpole, is a fine spirited piece of work. 
The same may also be said of the some thirty por- 
traits scattered throughout the volume. 

My copy of the ' Historic ' belonged at one time 
to the Queensberry family, as I find their arms 
embossed in gold on the front and back boards. 
The execution of the design, as well as the motto 
" Ford Ward," appears to belong to the seven- 
teenth century. The last Duke of Queensberry 


for the book must have belonged to one of that 
dignity, as I gather from the strawberry leaves 
round the coronet above the shield died un- 
married on December 23, 1810, the dukedom 
thereafter passing to the Buccleuch family and the 
subordinate title to the Douglasses. 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' inform me if the 
library of this last Duke of Queensberry was dis- 
posed of by public auction ; if so, by whom and 
in. what town ; also, if a sale catalogue is in 
existence, and where it could be seen ? A. S. 

I shall be obliged for any particulars of this old 
divine, or for the dates of numerous missing edi- 
tions of his popular book of prayers. He was a 
native of Manchester, born in 1561 of respectable 
parentage. Some of his connexions were vintners 
in that town and in Salford. Bradford the martyr 
mentions one of the families. The curious name 
seems to have been derived from a place in Leigh 
parish, Lancashire, near Byrom Hall ; and it is 
introduced (my nephew Harold Bailey informs me) 
in Harrison Ainsworth's novel of the ' Tower of 
London,' where the chirurgeon is called Sorocold. 
Thomas was probably educated at the grammar 
school of his native town, and he became a battler 
or student of Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1578. 
By that time he had made himself well known in 
Manchester ; and on Dec. 7, 1579, the executors 
of the bounty of Robert Nowell, brother of the 
Dean of St. Paul's and the patron of towardly 
scholars, gave 10s. to Thomas Sorocold, "scholar 
of Manchester, com'endid by certen gent' of Lanca- 
shire, and of Mr. Carter." Oliver Carter was 
fellow and sub-warden of the foundation of Man- 
chester College. In part iii. of his manual he 
has a good " Schollers Prayer." " Tho. Sorow- 
cowld, Lane., pleb. fil.," was matriculated at his 
college July 18, 1580. He was B.A. Feb. 6, 1582, 
and M.A. July 8, 1585. Then followed his ordi- 
nation, and the exercise of his profession in Lanca- 
shire. In July, 1587, he was preaching at Lathom 
House in that county, the seat of the magnificent 
Earl of Derby. On Sept. 25, 1588, Mr. T. Soro- 
cold, preacher, owed 6s. to the estate of Elizabeth 
Goldsmith, of Salford, daughter of Thomas Soro- 
cold ; and Ralph Sorocold, vintner, was a debtor 
for III. His well-known little manual of prayers 
derived much of its popularity from its containing 
" three most excellent Prayers made by the late 
famous Queen Elizabeth," as well as her portrait. 
On Oct. 29, 1590, this queen presented Tbo. Soro- 
cold, A.M., to the rectory of St. Mildred, Poultry 
London (Newc. 'Rep./ i. 502) ; but the date o: 
his successor there is not given. The three roya. 
prayers described by the author as " ' Prsestan- 
tiores,'far more eminent and excellent than all the 

rest," were the prayer of thanksgiving for the over- 
brow of the Spanish navy, for the success of her 
navy, and another for her navy, 1597. Wood 
says (' Athen. Oxon.,' i. 635) that in the latter end 
of Queen Elizabeth, and in the time of King 
James I., the book took with the vulgar sort, and 
was as much admired as ' The Practice of Piety ' 
was afterwards. These facts may give a clue to 
the earliest date of the book. I possess twelve 
:opies of it, which have taken very many years to 
get together. The earliest of them, without a title- 
page, once Dr. Bliss's, has been marked by that 
careful bibliographer as belonging to 1617. This 
edition is dedicated to Prince Charles, and shows 
us that Sorocold was acquainted with the royal 
family. It is dated "from the Rectory of St. 
Mildred in the Poultry, Lond., 1617." He tells 
the prince that "it is now a year almost since I 
presumed to present unto your Highness my poor 
Mite of Devotion, which your sister, that most 
virtuous Princess Palatine of the Rhine, chal- 
lenged for her own, long before the translation 
of her into that Climate." This Princess Elizabeth, 
who was born Aug. 16, 1596, married Frederick, 
Elector Palatine of the Rhine, Feb. 14, 1612/3. 
To this edition Sorocold added six small prayers. 
He says that it is now offered " again " to Prince 
Charles's royal hands. Of the tenth edition we 
may give a copy of the title-page, as follows : 

Supplications of Saints. A Booke of Praiers and 
Prayses. In foure Parts. 1. Daniels Devotion. 2. 
Pauls Assembly. 3. Dauids Suite. 4. Moses Son?. 
1'raiers for 1. Thrice euery day. 2. Companies. 3. 
Euery one alone. 4. Praises & Graces. Wherein are 
three most excellent Praiers made by the late famous 
Queene Elizabeth. The Tenth Edition. By Tho. Soro- 
cold. Reuel. 8. 4. The smoke of Incense which came 
with the Prayers of the Saints, ascended vp before God. 
London, Printed hy I. B. for Nicholas Bourne, and are 
to be sold at his Shop, at the South entry of the Royall 
Exchange. 1622. 8vo., pp. xv. 418+iv. The portrait 
of Queen Elizabeth in this copy is at p. 277. 

After this edition the manual appears to have 
been issued regularly every year, but copies are 
not recorded. The eighteenth edition is dated 
1631, the twenty-first 1634, and the twenty- 
fourth 1638. I have copies of all of these. A 
copy of the 1634 edition, said to be corrected 
and enlarged, once the Duke of Sussex's, is now 
at the Chetham College, Manchester, the only 
copy of the work possessed by that old library. 
The twenty-sixth edition is in the Bodleian ; I 
also possess that edition, with the twenty-seventh, 
1642. Anthony a Wood says that the book was 
printed several times in 8vo. and 12mo., and 
that the thirty-eighth edition (?) was printed at 
London in 1671 in 12mo. The British Museum 
has the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh editions, 
dated 1687, 1690. Hearne had a copy of the 
thirty-eighth edition, London, 1693, 12mo. ; and 
he relates that he remembered a very pious lady 
who used to give away great numbers yearly to 

7"> S. II. JOLT 31, '86.] 



the poor. I have the thirty-ninth and fortieth 
editions, dated 1703 and 1711. The forty-first 
edition, 1715, is in the British Museum, which 
altogether, Mr. G. Bullen has kindly informed me, 
possesses six editions. 

The only copy in the Free Library, Manchester, 
Sorocold's native town, is the forty-third, dated 
1729 (392, c. 96). The Bodleian Library, which 
possesses only two editions, has one of the latest, 
viz., that of 1754, the forty-fifth. The title 
damned it in the eyes of Scotchmen, and it never 
seems to have been permitted to cross the border. 
A distinguished bibliographer in Edinburgh 
writes, *' Nobody here knows anything of Soro- 
cold. His ' Supplications ' is not in the Advocates' 
Library, nor the Signet, nor the Free College 
Library." An abridgment of the work was pub- 
lished by Dean Hook, in his admirable " Devo- 
tional Library," begun in 1846, being reprints 
from well-known Church of England divines for 
parochial distribution. An interesting advertise- 
ment relating to this series of books will be found 
in the first volume of 'N. & Q.,' No. 14, Feb. 2, 
1850 (1" S. i. 224), where ' Sorocold's Prayers for a 
Week ' is set down, price 2d. This abridgment of 
Sorocold's work is well-nigh as scarce as some of 
the early editions, for though I have long sought it 
I still lack it. I may quote in conclusion one of 
Sorocold's prayers, viz., that for sobriety, illustrat- 
ing the good old meaning of the word temperance : 

" Lord God, which hast commanded us to be sober, 
direct my paths in the right way of Sobriety, spiritual 
and corporal : Suffer me not this day, nor any other, to 
abuse thy good creatures or turn thy grace into wanton- 
ness ; let me be not overcome with surfeiting and drunken- 
ness, but avoid all superfluity, using all temperance and 
moderation both in meats & drinks. Grant me a stayed 
mind, a grave & sober disposition, & an humble & lowly 
conceit of my self. Bless me that I may be wise, but to 
sobriety, that I may live soberly, righteously, & reli- 
giously in this present world, for Jesu'S Christ's sake, 


Stretford, Manchester. 


I have lately amused myself at odd times in 
going carefully through F. Kirkman's ' The Wits ; 
or, Sport upon Sport : being a curious Collection 
of several Drolls and Farces' (1670?), which 
Lowndes admirably describes as "a wretchedly 
printed work, always found in a sorry condition." 
The copy which I have looked over is in the valu- 
able Halliwell collection at the Penzance Library, 
and is minus title-page, several farces and drolls 
either being wholly absent or otherwise imperfect, 
whilst the volume is, I take it, the firat part, 
written by Kirkman himself, the second being the 
work of Hubert Cox. No good sketch of Kirk- 
man's life has yet been, written, and I presume we 

must wait for a year or two until Mr. Leslie Ste- 
phen's ' Dictionary ' reaches the letter K. Granger 
writes thus of him in ' A Biographical History of 
England ' : 

' Francis Kirkman, citizen of London, was a book- 
seller and author. He twice entered into partnership 
with Richard Head, and was assisted by him in writing 
and publishing plays, farces, and drolls. He is said to 
have dealt as largely in drollery of various kinds as Curl 
[c] did in obscenity and scandal. He has given us 
memoirs of his own life, and probably led the way for 
John Dunton." Vol. v. pp. 259-60. 
Speaking of ' The Wits,' Granger remarks that the 
" book consists of twenty drolls, chiefly selected 
from the comic scenes of Shakespeare's plays, in- 
tended for fairs." As a matter of fact, there are, 
or should be, twenty- seven drolls. He is referred 
to in Collier's ' Annals of the Stage,' vol. ii. pp. 81, 
354 ; and also Retrospective Review, second series, 
ii. p. 14. 

Concerning these " peculiar words and phrases. 
In collecting them my idea was rather to give 
fresh instances of the usage of unusual expressions 
than to hit upon any hitherto unique. Kirkman's 
book is so very badly printed, and the number 
of mistakes so alarmingly numerous, that I have at 
times been much exercised what to include and 
what to omit ; while, again, several obviously slang 
words are used under circumstances which would 
prevent their being quoted in print. 

Baiilisco* a bully and braggart. " In wars the 
Basilisco is preferred" (Droll 11, p. 71). See 
< King John,' I. i. 

Bene-whid.+ " To cut Bene-whids, that is the 
second Law " (Droll 4, p. 31). What is the mean- 
ing of this word, to which I have found no refer- 
ence ? Possibly it is, or was, a cant word of some 
sort employed by beggars, by whom it is used as 
above. Halliwell, in his ' Arch. Diet.,' has " Bene- 
= enjoyed," A.-S.,and cites a quotation from 
Gower. But Kirkman used it in a sense quite 

Bo to a goose." He can't say bogh to a goose " 
('Wiltshire Tom,' p. 30). A well-known and ex- 
pressive phrase. Vide ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. vi. 94, 164, 
221, 372, 513. 

Booze, immoderate drinking." Except you do 
provide me HumJ enough, and Lour to bouze with," 
&c. (Droll 4, p. 28). Booze is, of course, a well- 
known word ; but what are Hum and Lour, as used 
by the begging fraternity 1 

Bread and butter rogues." Fly my fury, ye 
bread and butter rogues " (Droll 15, p. 91). What 
are the special qualifications of this class, who are 
also designated in the next line or two as " por- 
redg-gutted slaves " and " Veal-broth boobies " 1 
By my lady, an oath. u Berlady my masters 

[ * Query, a sort of cannon 7] 

[t Query, benemth, the woodbine ?] 

L| Strong ale.] 


we'l not trust the stocks with him," &c. (' Th 
Cheater Cheated,' p. 77). An oath common in 
two or three forms of contractions and frequentlj 
met with in fifteenth and sixteenth century dramati 

Camballs* gambols. " Let me safe aboard from 
these wild cambaUs," &c. (Droll 14, p. 86). 

Copy-hold. " Y' are like a coppyhold with nin 
lives in 't " (Droll 3, p. 25). See Johnson's ' Die 
tionary ' and Brewer's ' Phrase and Fable.' 

Cove, an individual. "A Cove, Fumfumbi 
(Droll 4, p. 32). What is the meaning of Fum 
fumbi ? Another word, presumably, from the voca 
bulary of beggars. 

Curral and bells. "She ...... dandles him, anc 

hangs a Curral and bells about his neck, am 
makes him believe his teeth will come again ' 
(Droll 10, p. 63). What are curral and bells ?t 

Fool's Paradise, vain hopes, &c. ''All the 
parish woridred why she shud be led into a 
vooles Paradice by him" (' Wiltshire Tom,' p. 31) 
Halliwell, in his ' Arch. Diet./ gives references to 
a number of early authorities who used thi 

Galimaufrey, a confused medley. " Thou shalt 
look like a Gallimafry all the dayes of thy 
life " (Droll 21, p. 122). See ' Winter's Tale,' IV. 
iv. ; ' Merry Wives of Windsor,' II. i. ; and ' Phrase 
and Fable.' 

Gibberish. " Your nimble tongues forget your 
Mother Gib-rish," &c. (Droll 14, p. 83). 

Grutches, grudges. "And yet he grulches me 
every bit I eat " (Droll 17, p. 99). Halliwell quotes 
this word from Baker's 'Poems,' p. 78, ed. 1697; 
so that the foregoing reference to Kirkman shows 
the word to have been used a quarter of a century 

Jaclc-a-napes, a vulgar prig. "Yes, Jack-an- 
Apes" (Droll 26, p. 168). See 'Phrase and 
Fable.' . 

Kentish oyster. 

Scattergood ....... Thy eyes are close[d] too Brother 


Bubble. As fast as a Kentish Oyster (Droll 13, p. 82). 
What is the meaning of this expression ? 

Mad as a March hare. " If she run as mad as 
a March Hare, she gets not a bit" (Droll 21 
p. 121). See <N. & Q./ 1" S. iv. 208 ; %* 8. 
viii. 514. 

Mares-trot, an ambling unmethodical dance. _ 
" This dancing is like my Mother's Mares trot " 
(Droll 20, p. 120). 

Maundon, mind, or take care of." You must 
hereafter maundon your own pads he saies " 
(Droll 4, p. 31). 

Metapos-copy." But a rule, Captain, in Meta- 

[* Query, possibly cannibals ]] 
b b* ^T 617 * C ral and beUS 8UC 

iS 8tU1 BU PP lied * 

pos-copy, which I do work by, a certain star i' th' 
forehead, which you see not " (Droll 25, p. 160). 
What is metapos-copy, and is this the correct form 
of spelling it ?* 

Paip. " What, a Munstrel ! This is aumost as 
good as a Paip " (' Wiltshire Tom,' p. 28). 

Peach, a tell-tale. " You had best go Peach, do 
Peach " (Droll 10, p. 64). See ' Phrase and Fable.' 

Penny-pot poets. "Your penny pot Poets are 
such pelting theeves" (Droll 12, p. 76). 

Querpo, without coat or cloak." If there is a 
taylor amongst 'em, he shall first take measure of 
my highness, for I must no longer walk in 
Querpo " (Droll 6, p. 40). A word apparently not 
uncommonly used by the old dramatists. See 
Massinger's ' Fatal Dowry,' II. ii. ; Beaumont and 
Fletcher's ' Love's Cure,' II. i.; and Halliwell re 
fers to Nabbe's ' The Bride,' sig. F, IV., and to 
Collins' ' Miscellanies ' (1762), p. 132. It is some- 
times spelt quirpo, and is said to be derived from 
the Spanish en cuerpo, i. e., without a cloak. 

Surcingle, " a long upper girth which often went 
over the panel or saddle." " I 'le have a sursingle, 
and make you like a hawk" (Droll 14, p. 86). 
"The paytrellys, sursenglys, and crowpers " ('Morte 
d' Arthur,' i. 211). Quoted on the authority of 
Halliwell, ' Arch. Diet.' 

Tobacco. Droll 24, p. 160, contains a very 
curious reference to the practice of adulterating 

Wassail bowl. " She should make an excellent 
wassel boule" (Droll 12, p. 69). W. ROBERTS. 

Heamoor, near Penzance. 

' KINO JOHN,' III. iv. 61. 
K. Phi. Bind up those tresses. O what love I note 
In the fair multitude of those her hairs ! 
Where but by chance a silver drop hath fallen, 
Even to that drop ten thousand wiry friends 
Dp glue themselves in sociable grief, 
Like true, inseparable, faithful loves, 
Sticking together in calamity. 
'onst. To England, if you will. 
K. Phi. Bind up your hairs. 

'onst. Yes that I will ; and wherefore will I do it ? 
1 tore them from their bonds, &c. 

What reasonable and consistent meaning can we 
attach to the ejaculation of Constance, " To Eng- 

and if you will"? Mr. Aldis Wright, in his 
recent annotated edition of the play, which it is 

10 be supposed and feared represents the text 
which will be put forth in his new Cambridge 
edition, considers that she replies "here to Philip's 

nvitation in 1. 20," full forty-eight lines back 
I prithee, lady, go away with me. 

?his reference is considered by him to be so 
natural that it may possibly be accounted for in 

ither of two ways : " Possibly Constance after 

[* J/etop(copy=physiognomy, from Gr. <r/coirw.] 

7> 8. II. JULY 31, '86.] 



the first outburst of her distraction relapses into 
apathy, and gives herself up to Philip's guidance." 
Her two long and vehement speeches which follow 
should surely preclude any thought of apathy till 
she rushes again, disordering her hair, from the 

Equally unlucky is the alternative suggestion : 
"Possibly lines 21-67 may have been added to 
the original draft of the play." But a finished 
scene of Shakespeare is not to be torn limb from 
latchet with impunity. The lines supposed to have 
been afterthoughts include reference to the action 

I am not mad : this hair I tear in mine, 
which is indispensable to explain both Philip's 
injunction, " Bind up your hairs," and her reply 
to it. 

In any case Constance was not BO distracted 
that she could construe the French king's words 
as an invitation to " go away with " him " to Eng- 
land." As Shakespeare did not write nonsense, 
the text must be corrupt, whether we are able to 
restore it or not. The case does not appear to me 
to be desperate. 

In the response of Constance, " Yes, that I will," 
I recognize an echo to the words " if you will," 
now wrongly assigned to herself, and which con- 
sequently and naturally are to be given to King 
Philip. The problem, then, is narrowed to divin- 
ing the phrase which reader or typographer was 
guilty of transforming into " To England." Several 
plausible readings occur to me, but I give to this 
the palm of highest probability: 

Like true inseparable, faithful loves, 
Sticking together in calamity. [To Contlance. 

To end an if you will, bind up your hairs. 
Contt . Yes, that I will ; and wherefore will I do itT 



And " mollis aer " 
We term it " mulier." 

I do not remember to have seen it pointed out 
anywhere that this etymology of mulier is found in 
"A World of Wonders : or an Introduction to a 
Treatise touching the Conformitie of ancient and 
moderne wonders : or a Preparatiue Treatise to the 
Apologie for Herodotus. The Argument whereof is 
taken from the Apologie for Herodotus written in 
Latine by Henrie Stephen, and continued here by 
the Author himselfe. Translated out of the best 
corrected French copie [by R. C.]. London, 1607." 
After mentioning various etymologies which had 
been invented by the priests and monks as, for 
instance, that " Gregory is compounded of Orex, 
that is an assembly, & of Goire, that is preacher; 
Katherine, of Katha, that is all, and of ruina 
overthrow "the author adds (p. 292) : " If any 
shall reply and say, that it is not to be wondered 
that the ancient Latinists neuer me'tioned these 
Etymologies, considering the names were not then 

in vse; I answer, that they had as good dexteritie 
in giuing Etymologies of ancient latin words ; 
witnesse the notation of Mulier, quasi mollis air." 
The derivation of mulier from mollis is due to 
Varro, as appears from the following passage of 
Lactantius (De opificio Dei c. xii): "Item mulier, 
ut Varro interpretatur, a mollitie est dicta, im- 
mutata et detracta littera, velut mollier." I have 
been unable to discover at present who is respon- 
sible for the aer. W. ALDIS WRIGHT. 

COMPLEXION: 'As You LIKE IT,' III. ii. 204 
(7 th S. i. 144). I am quite unable to accept DR. 
NICHOLSON'S explanation of the word complexion 
as used above. The very fact that Rosalind says, 
" Good my complexion ! dost thou think though 
I am caparisoned like a man, I have a doublet and 
hose in my disposition?" shows that her complex ion 
and disposition are not identical but different. 
When Rosalind says, " Good my complexion," she 
evidently refers to Celia's remark (11. 191-2, Globe 
edition, in the same scene) : " And a chain, that 
you once wore, about his neck. Change you 
colour ? " These words are in reply to Rosalind's 
question, " Is it a man ? " There can be no doubt 
that she blushes, and would fain not do so. 


lyle, in his ' Hero- Worship ' (" The Hero as a 
Poet," sect. iii. p. 172), says, " Marlborough, you 
recollect, said he knew no English history but 
what he had learned from Shakespeare." 

Green's 'History of the English People,' chap. vii. 
book vi. vol. ii. p. 478, says," When Chatham was 
asked where he had read his English history, he 
answered, In the plays of Shakespeare." 

Carlyle and Green do not give any reference 
whence they took what is essentially the same in 
subject historical acquirement gained by reading 
Shakespere's plays only with the difference Car- 
lyle assigns it to one person, Green to another. 

I should like to know where the saying is re- 
ported, either of Marlborough or Chatham. Has 
it been handed down by tradition first to one then 
to the other ? Has it had the fate of the saying 
which belonged to the first Lord Shaftesbury, and 
was given by Froude to Rogers. According to 
Burnett's history of his own times, Lord Shaftes- 
bury having delivered himself of the utterance that 
there was only one true religion with which he was 
acquainted, and being eagerly asked by a young 
lady what that religion was, he answered, u That 
which no wise man tells to another." 

It may be said that if Chatham attributed his 
knowledge of history to Shakespere, the authority 
of the minister was of much greater value thajtt 
that of the general, of the political rather than, af 
the military genius. W, J, BIRCH, 


[7* 8. II. JULY 31, ' 


(Continued from p. 3.) 
Class IV. Fiction relating to Byron. 

Ossian's Address to the Sun. Lines supposed to have 
been written by Byron on a leaf of the second volume 
of Macpherson's ' Ossian.' These volumes are preserved 
in the library at Harvard University. The MS. notes 
and the ' Address ' are now known to be forgeries. 

Glenarvon, a Novel. By Lady Caroline Lamb. Henry 
Colburn. 1816. 

The Vampyre. Letter?, spurious. By Dr. Polidori. 
Sherwood, Neely & Jones. 1819. 

Gordon, a Tale. 8vo. pp. 80. Allman, 1821. 

Cato to Lord Byron, on the Immortality of his Writ- 
ings. 8vo. pp. 128. 1824. 

Venetia, a Novel. By B. Disraeli. Henry Colburn. 

Medora Leigh. By Dr. Charles Mackay. 1 vol. post 
8vo. R. Bentley. 1869. 

True Story of Lady Byron's Life. By Harriet Beecher 
Stowe. Macmillarfs Magazine, September, 1869. 

The Suppressed Letters of Lord Byron. Collected by 
H. Schultess-Young. R. Bentley. 1869. Publication 

A Spiritual Interview with Lord Byron : his Lordship's 
Opinion about his New Monument. 12mo. pp. 18. 1875. 

New Don Juan, and the Last Canto of the Original 
' Don Juan.' Prom the papers of the Contessa Guiccioli. 
12mo. pp. 61. Circa 1876. 

A Letter from Byron to Teresa. Pall Mall Gazette, 
May 29, 1884. 


33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

( To be continued.} 

Recently going over some of my transcribings I 
came across many matters which I should like to 
add to the curious extracts which have appeared 
in ' N. & Q.' The following needs no comment on 
my part, but I feel sure it will interest many, and 
deserves to be put on record in ' N. & Q.' I, as 
usual, follow as closely as possible the original 
orthography : 

A ct against prophaners mad by ye provinciall Synod of 

Glasgow and Air mad at Air October 3, 1695. 
The provinciall synod of Glasgow and Air taking to 
their most serious consideration q 1 notwithstanding ye 
mighty commands and dreadfull threatnings con- 
tained in the Scripture of certain laws of this nation 

& ye.. ....Acts of the General Assembly of this Church 

8g st all impiety and prophaners yet the open out break- 
ings of wickedness are not restrained, but God is daily 
provoked the proffessione of Christianity discredited and 
the pernicious deedly infections of evill example dis- 
eminated & spread abroad by the abounding scandels of 
prophane and Idle swearing, cursing, Sabbath breaking 
prophane withdrawing from and contempt of Gospell 

ordinances weakning of piety exercises theirof, for- 

nicatipune, ardulterie, drunknes, excessive tippling, blas- 
phemie and other gross abominable sins, whereas the 
Generall Assembly of this Church by their act the seven- 
teiu of Aprill 1694 doth recomend to all Ministers and 
Kirk Sessiounes to apply to their geverall Magistraits 
of their bounds for putting these Acts of parla- 
ment ag 8t prophannes in executioue viz. act parl: 
June 28 intituled Act ag !t prophannes strictly injoyning 

that all Magistrats shall putt the laws & acts ag" pro- 
phannes to exact & punctual executioue at all times & 
ag 8t all peraones whither Officers, Shoulders or others wt 
out exceptione upon applicatione from any Minister 
Kirk Sess: or any person in their name gieving informa- 
tione and offering sufficient probatione ag 8 ' the offender 
theirof. That the provincial Synod may not be wanting 
to their duty in contributing their utmost indevours for 
bearing down and punishing of wickednes they doe, in 
the first place in the aw and dread of the great God who 
will not hold them guiltless who break any of his com- 
mands, besech warn and all people under their in- 
spection & charge to break off their sins by repentance 
and seriously in the fear of the Lord to apply themselves 
to a sober and conscientious Christian and circumspect 
walk inall maner of conversation as becomes the pro- 
fessers of the Glorious Gospell of the blessed God, and as 
the would not increase the heavy displeasure and just 

indignatione of the holy one and draw doun his 

judements upon themselves and the land and nixt 

that they doe exert and require all ministers within this 
province freely and faithfully to preach ag" all formen- 
tioned enormeous sines as the crying sins of the time 
that people may be brought to convictione of their sine 
and the danger. 


(To be continued.) 

is a work of general reference on literary subjects, 
it may be well to place on record in its pages the 
correction of a mistake on a question of which I 
believe I am the only person living who has any 
personal knowledge. In a notice of my late 
brother, R. B. Seeley, which appeared in the 
Athenceuni last month, he is stated to have been 
the author of a volume bearing the above title. 
This is not the fact. It was written by a lady 
who was widely known in certain circles as an 
authoress under the name of "Charlotte Eliza- 
beth." My brother wrote a subsequent volume, 
called 'Remedies for the Perils of the Nation,' 
which has probably given rise to the mistake. I 
some time since saw in a shop a copy of another of 
his works, ' The Greatest of the Plantagenets,' 
with the name of Clifford on the back. On asking 
the bookseller why he had put that name on it, he 
said he had seen it stated somewhere that it was 
written by the well-known professor. These, in 
addition to many similar instances, show the 
danger of trusting to common report as to the 
authorship of anonymous publications. 


" La mitre etait primitivement une coiffure commune 
aux hommes et aux femmes. Au IV siecle, les hornmes 
1'abandonnerent ; 1'Eglise la conserva pour ses pontifes. 
Les vierges continu&rent a la porter; touto fois, elle dif- 
ferait des mitres episcopates. Ces dernieres n'avaient 
uere que huit a dix centimetres de haut." Le Chanoine 
lerf, 'Hist. Notre Dame de Reims/ vol ii. p. 588. 


. II. JOLT 31, '86.] 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

list of ships of the English fleet sent out to fight 
the Armada in 1588 I notice several " coasters 
with the Lord Admiral as of Apsbam." There 
are Bartholomew, of Apsham, 130 tons, 70 
sailors, Capt. Nicholas Wright ; Rose, of Aps- 
ham, 110 tons, 50 sailors, Capt. Thomas Sandy, 
or Sanny; Gift, of Apsham, 25 tons, 20 sailors. 
Also, in the list of volunteers with the Lord Ad- 
miral we find the Unicorn, of Apsham, 100 
tons, 50 sailors, Capt. Walter Edney. As these 
ships are in each case in the company of others 
sent by southern or western ports, such as Dart- 
mouth, Weymouth, Lyme, Bridgwater, Bristol, &c., 
it would seems probable that they also belonged to 
the south-west of England. Moreover, it is evi- 
dent that a place which could furnish four ships of 
considerable tonnage must have been a place of 
some importance in those days. However, I am 
unable to identify Apsham, as I do not find such 
a place recorded in any gazetteer or topograph- 
ical work to which I have access. May it 
have been a misspelling for Topsham, which, 
although a place of little note in the present 
day, was, as the port of Exeter, a port of some 
importance in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies ? The solution of this point will be of much 
interest locally in more than one sense, and I beg 
to invite through your columns information thereon. 


correspondent give me information about the follow- 
ing book and its author, ' The Memoirs of Capt. 
Peter Drake, containing several material Anec- 
dotes regarding King William and Queen Anne's 
Wars with Lewis XIV. of France '(Dublin, 1755)? 
Lowndes says, " It was rigidly suppressed by the 
captain's family " ; and Prof. Pryme mentions it 
as "an exceedingly rare" book, which he lent to 
Macaulay. Is anything known of this Capt. Drake 
and are the 'Memoirs' supposed to be a true 
account of bis life, or a fiction, like the ' Memoirs 
of a Cavalier ' ? E. T. 


repeatedly been told that freemen only could carr^ 
on a business in the City of London ; but this free 
dom could be secured to others who were no 
natives of the City by being apprenticed there, o 
purchased by them, and I know one gentleman wh< 
did pay for this privilege. I should like to know 
how far back this may extend, and if any registe 

was kept showing parentage of the apprentice, or 
whether he got some certificate making him a 

reeman on completion of his indentures. If there 
were registers kept can these be seen now, and 
were they adopted when this restriction as to busi- 
ness may have been formed? I suppose a certificate 

f baptism would in the olden days have been 

ufficient for those born freemen. 


GIDEON HARVEY, M.D. There were two per- 
ons of this name, both of whom flourished in the 
eventeenth century. They have been often con- 
'used the one with the other, but Dr. Munk, in 
lis ' Roll of the Royal College of Physicians,' dis- 
;riminates between the two. As a further con- 
ribution to the question, I may note that in 
December, 1661, letters of denization were granted 
to a Dr. Gideon Harvey, born at the Hague, son 
f John and Elizabeth Harvey (see ' Calendar of 
State Papers,' under the above date). I have 
referred to the original entry, but nothing is said 
is to the date of birth. Another Gideon Harvey, 
who was for many years physician to the Tower, 
was one of the original founders of the Society for 
the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. His name 
occurs in the early records of the society. 

R. B. P. 

" CRYING YOUR GAME." At public schools in 
the olden time punishment for certain breaches of 
decorum was obviated if the offender had sufficient 
time for " crying his game." The various formula; 
were in Latin or English, and required to be 
rapidly uttered. What is the origin of the term 
" Crying your game" ? A list of the formulae, if 
not trenching upon the domain of cryptadia, might 
be desirable. PRESBYTER. 

BARON DUNBOYNE. Has this nobleman, who 
was Roman Catholic Bishop of Cork, left any 
memoirs ; and, if so, in whose possession are they ? 

W. T. 

JEWS IN LONDON. Where shall I find an account 
of the Roman brick found in Mark Lane, sculptured 
with " Samson driving the foxes into a field of 
corn " ? This brick was the key of an arched vault 
discovered full of burnt corn. Mr. Richard Waller 
deduced from this that the Jews were settled in 
London at the time of the Roman occupation. 

C. A. WAED. 

Haverstock Hill. 

noted for anything besides its age ? as it is visited 
from all parts of the country. D. C. C. 

Johnson wag, as a child, touched for the king's 
evil by Queen Anne, what became of the gold token 
which, according to the ritual of the office for heal- 
ing, would be hung round his neck during the ser- 



. II. JULY 31, '86. 

vice 1 With the doctor's views, it is probable that 
he would preserve it carefully during his lifetime, 
and it would be interesting to know what became 
of such a relic after his death. 


DR. WATTS. The doctor was very small of 
stature, and one day he overheard a gentleman 
saying, "What! is that the great Dr. Watts?" 
He turned round good-humouredly, and quoted 
one of his own lyric poems : 

Were I so tall to reach the pole, 
Or mete the ocean with my span, 
I must be measured by my soul ; 
The mind 's the standard of the man. 

Can this be connected with any locality ? Watts 
began to preach in the private parlour of a citizen 
in Mark Lane, and afterwards had a meeting-house 
in the same street. Did it happen in Mark Lane ? 

C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 


saying is well known as a Greek proverb, and is 
quoted in Fraser (xxvi. 477). Where is it found 
in the original; and at how early a date ? If proved 
ancient, it would overset the assertion of Prof. Paley 
(Fraser, March, 1880), that the use of writing for 
books in Greece was hardly known at all before 

Madison, Wisconsin, U.S. 

R. MARTIN. Can any one tell me the name of 
any engraving, illustrated book, or magazine sold 
by R. Martin, who was some sixty years ago a 
book and print seller in Great Queen Street, Lin- 
coln's Inn ? ALFRED CAPES. 

Grove House, Christ Church, Hampstead. 

correspondent throw light on the word " Brait, a 
rough diamond," given in Bailey (1721 and sub- 
sequent editions) ? Is the word still in use ; and 
can it be traced further back than 1721 ? Quota- 
tions (of any date) containing this word will be 

Brake-hopper. This word appears in recent 
dictionaries, where it is variously stated to be " a 
book-name" and "a local name" for a certain 
genus of birds. What is the authority for it ? 

Brake. Quotations wanted for this word in the 
sense of a carriage-frame used for breaking-in 
horses (any date) ; also examples, earlier than 
1850, of brake meaning an apparatus for retard- 
ing the motion of a wheel; and quotations of 
any date for brake-bar, brake-beam, brake-block, 
and brake- shoe. 

Brane bred-stitch. A. correspondent sends me 
a reference to the preface to Taylor's 'Praise of 
the Needle,' twelfth ed., 1640, in which brane 
occurs. The quotation was sent as an illustra- 
tion of braid, but apparently the words mean 

" bran-bread stitch " a fanciful designation, but 
not more so than the names of other " stitches " 
used in embroidery. Can any correspondent 
throw light on this name ? 

I shall be glad to receive quotations (with full 
references) relating to any of the words in the 
portion of the work which has been placed under 
my charge (Br. to end of B.) 


11, Bleishoi Road, Lavender Hill, S.W. 

STEWARDS OF MANORS. Can any reader inform 
me of the position and occupation of stewards of 
manors temp. Queen Elizabeth 1 Were they gener- 
ally, as now, attorneys ? REGINALDUS. 

Author of ' Eutheinia, or the Power of Harmony ; 
a Poem in blank verse, sacred to the Memory of 
a deceased Pair ' ? According to Percy, ' Reliques 
of Anc. Eng. Poetry,' i. (1767), 328, it was 
" written by an ingenious Physician near Bath, 
who chose to conceal his name." There is no 
notice of it in Halkett and Laing's ' Dictionary.' 
Percy mentions an edition of 1756, and Watts of 
1762. Another work, with the second portion of 
this title, " the power of Harmony," is known to 
have been written by John Gilbert Cooper. 


Salterton, Devon. 

F.S.A. The undersigned wishes to correspond 
with relatives or intimate friends who are familiar 
with the incidents in the life of either of these 
gentlemen. Mr. Lemon edited the 'Calendar of 
State Papers, Domestic Series, 1581-90.' At one 
time he was a member of the Council of the 
Society of Antiquaries. He died January 3, 1867. 
Mr. Crosby, in 1859, resided at 1, Adelphi Ter- 
race, London. He died July 22, 1867, aged 
sixty-two. JOHN WARD DEAN. 

18, Somerset Street, Boston, Mass., U.S. 

Historical Description of the Glorious Conquest of 
the City of Buda, the Capital City of the King- 
dom of Hungary, by the Victorious Arms of the 
Thrice Illustrious and Invincible Emperor Leo- 
pold I. Under the Conduct of His Most Serene 
Highness the Duke of Lorraine and the Elector of 
Bavaria. London ; printed for Robert Clavell at 
the Peacock in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1686.' 
According to the preface the original was written 
in French. 4to. 68 pp. L. L. K. 


THE BRITISH FLAG. When was the third lion 
added to the British flag ? Historians differ. 


OZONE, A PLACE IN ENGLAND. In that curious 
book ' Livre de la Femme Forte,' par un Religieux 

7 th S. II. JULY 31, '86.] 



de Fontevrault, Paris, 1510, there is a strange 
legend of a Franciscan friar who, "estans en Engle- 
terre vindrent en ung roanoir situe et assis en une 
grande forest entre Londes et Ozone," where there 
was a Benedictine priory, applied for a night's 
shelter. Refused by the prior, he was forced to 
take refuge in a stable, into which he was secretly 
admitted by a compassionate novice of the priory. 
In the night the novice had a vision, in which the 
Redeemer appeared to him in the Franciscan habit 
and ordered him to put the unmerciful prior to 
death by strangulation. In the morning the prior 
was found dead in his bed. Where was the place 
called Ozone? J. MASKELL. 

DOKEDOM OF CORNWALL. Is this title here- 
ditary or not ? So far as I have noted it has been 
very irregular both in succession and creation. For 
instance, Richard of Bordeaux appear?, on the 
death of his father, to have been created Prince of 
Wales, but not Duke of Cornwall. On the other 
hand, Henry of Windsor was, I gather, created 
Duke of Cornwall, but not Prince of Wales. These 
are sufficient ; although instances of vagarity are 
noticeable with each Prince of Wales, many of 
whom seem to have ignored, or rather not enjoyed, 
the title, although probably they did the re- 
venues. Among the patents of the present holder 
Dod only specifically notices those of the prince- 
dom of Wales, and the earldoms of Chester and 
Dublin. If not created, whence does H.R.H. 
inherit ? It is a popular idea that these two titles 
are conjoined. I know of no legal right. Has 
custom created one ? J. J. S. 

HAMMER PONDS. Near Thursley in Surrey 
(and I believe in other parts of the county) there 
are some ponds which are known by the name of 
Hammer Ponds. Manning and Bray state that 
the origin of the expression was that an iron-mill 
formerly existed in the neighbourhood ; and as it 
is well known that there were extensive iron- 
works in Sussex and the southern part of Surrey, 
this derivation has been generally accepted. 
Kemble, however, in his "monumental work," 
'The Saxons in England' (Birch's ed. of 1876, 
vol. i. p. 350), remarks that one of the names used 
in Germany in speaking of the Saxon deity Thor 
is Hauiar, a word perhaps originally derived from 
his supposed weapon, and now almost synonymous 
with devil ; and he suggests some connexion 
between this and the expression Hammer Ponds. 
The name of the village Thursley itself is doubt- 
less connected with that of the deity (whence, as 
is well known, is derived that of our fifth day of 
the week), and near it there is a hill called 
Thunder Hill, a name which is probably of 
similar origin. Kemble does not omit to mention 
the existence of those three singular natural 
mounds in the same neighbourhood which are 

commonly called the Devil's Jumps, and the re- 
markable valley or depression popularly known as 
the Devil's Punchbowl. But what I wish to ascer- 
tain, if possible, is whether it is known when the 
expression Hammer Ponds was first applied to the 
ponds in question, and whether they were so called 
before the construction of the iron-works which 
Manning and Bray believed to be the origin of the 
name. W. T. LYNN. 



(7 th S. ii. 3, 52.) 

That John Bunyan should, in a time of great 
mental agony, ask his father if they we're Israel- 
ites, is not surprising. The question had, we may 
be sure, nothing whatever to do with the gipsies. 
In 1649 certain of the Levellers made them- 
selves very troublesome to the army authorities, 
and caused fear, which we cannot consider entirely 
groundless, among many quiet people in London 
and the neighbourhood. They had dug on St. 
George's Hill, where they had no claim to exercise 
rights of property. On appearing before Lord 
Fairfax, the general of the Parliamentary armies, 
Everard, one of their leaders, said : 

" He was of the race of the Jews ; that all the liberties 
of the people were lost by the coining in of William the 
Conqueror, and that ever since, the people of God had 
lived under tyranny and oppression worse than that of their 
forefathers under the Egyptians ; but now the time of the 
deliverance was at hand, and God would bring his people 
out of this slavery, and restore them to their freedom, 
in enjoying the fruits and benefits of the earth." White- 
lock's Memorials,' ed. 1732, p. 397. ' 

Everard and his companions published several 
pamphlets where this notion is stated more fully. 
It is highly probable, therefore, that John Bunyan 
had either read some of these, or that he had been 
in company with members of the sect who had 
expounded their opinions to him. It would be 
interesting to know when the fancy that we English 
are of the seed of Abraham was first taught. I 
cannot trace it earlier than 1649, but I believe 
there is evidence that some of the fanatics of the 
previous century had said something of the sort. 
Did any of the Anabaptists of the Low Countries 
bold a similar opinion ? EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

This extraordinary question seems to rest on no 
other ground than Bunyan's statement in ' Grace 
Abounding ' that his father's house was " of that 
Rank that is meanest and most despised of all the 
Families of the Land." Surely this meant rfo more 
ban that his family was very poor and low. 

As to the tinkering, although many gipsies were 
and are tinkers, it does not follow that all tinkers 
must be gipsies ; and Bunyan in a deed of gift, 
dated 1685, calls himself " Brazier." 



Bub if dependence can be placed on the two 
existing portraits of Bunyan, one by Sadler, which 
has been often engraved, and another copied from 
a sketch by White, prefixed to Canon Venables s 
excellent edition, all question of gipsy origin must 
be at once dismissed. The Oriental cast of features 
in the gipsies is as strongly marked as in the Jews, 
while a more typical English face than that of 
Bunyan, with his blunt features and open burly 
expression, cannot be imagined. His first bio- 
grapher, Charles Doe, who knew him personally, 
speaks of his ruddy face and reddish hair. No 
gipsy ever had such a face as that. J. DIXON. 

When our " dreamer's" father, in reply to his 
son's specific question, confessed his origin in 
' that rank that is meanest and most despised of 
all families of the land," I should infer that he 
meant to indicate a servile origin. We must not 
judge of this language by the light of our nine- 
teenth century, and conclude that it meant merely 
" the poor labouring class " now among us, because 
the speaker is represented as owner of a house and 
land, with property to bequeath by will. 

John Bunyan was born in 1628, and his father 
may well have recollected the Tudor dynasty with 
family reminiscences of the Plantagenets, when 
serfs were attached to the soil in every manor of 
England ; so by this light " the most despised " 
meant slaves; and this applies to the family origin 
in times past only. Nor can it be admitted that 
this Englishman, so plainly answering his son 
could have had in reserve any theory as to a Nor 
man origin. 

It seems a weak point with our author to con 
nect Buignon of Soissons (no date) with Boynun 
of Pullokeshille in 1286. What is the evidence ' 
The latter name varies to Bonham, and may be 
compared with such forms as Boynton and Boy 
ton see Boyton-end, in Norfolk. I am mucl 
interested in the topographical fact of a Bonyon's 
end at Elstow; and it is only in this form of Bon = 
Bun that we can properly deal with the name, th 
other quotations being too remote of date 
Starting, then, with Bonyon's-end, we may remar 
that every town and village have " ends "; thus w 
meet with Well-end, Ponder's-end, Southenc 
West-end, and Bone-end such " ends," I take il 
having been created out of common or waste lane 
external to the original commune. Taking, then 
" Bon " and " Bun " as convertible, I have to sug 
gest that a d has dropped out of Bonyon, th 
supposed prefix "Bond" being the same as i 
" bondsman." 

Admitting the servile origin as implied by th 
father's statement, this seems a workable hypo 
thesis. But we are told that the Bunyans shoul 
be gipsies. Now, as a matter of fact, we kno 
very little indeed of the gipsies at the remote date 
placed before us (1286, &c.). The first historica 

atter I know of is the Act of 1530. But I con- 
der that gipsies were always with us, though un- 
ifferentiated from other dregs of the population, 
or instance, I do not know why the fellowship of 
obin Hood may not have been a gipsy encamp- 
nent ; but the name gipsy was not then invented. 
Vgain, the Shaksperian encampment of ' As You 
jike It ' in the Forest of Arden looks very like it. 
f not from the gipsies, whence was the idea picked 
p ? It is of a community camping out ; now we 
all it an excursion ; lately it would have been a 
jicnic ; before that it was gipsying : 
Oh ! the days when we went gipsying, a long time ago. 
A return to nature is always welcome to our 
mman instincts ; so it is that used-up swells may 
ake to colonization and like it, but I say nothing 

their pecuniary success. 

I will now deal with dates so far as I can, sub- 
ect to correction. The Act of 1530 was passed to 
>rohibit vagrancy. If, -then, the first of these 
3nyans whom MR. BROWN has placed on record 
settled at Elstow in 1542, he has twelve years to 
' shake down " as a victualler, and serfdom was 
then an authentic British institution, in evidence 
of which we have an Act of manumission, 
temp. Elizabeth, dated 1574, and the final Act of 

It seems to me that these Bunyans, dealing ex- 
lusively with the four generations now authen- 
ticated, may have been serfs by legal status, and yet, 
ethnically, true gipsies by origin. I will not now 
digress as to the similitude of Bonian with Boem 
or Bohemian, a name for gipsy, but hope that I 
have written sufficient to induce the popular pastor 
of Bedford to reconsider his theory of a Norman 
origin. A HALL. 

363, 443, 482 ; ii. 42). It is now some years since 
I first noticed the peculiar " effect of the English 
accent on the length of a vowel " pointed out by 
DR. MURRAY (as quoted by PROF. SKEAT) in his 
law No. 1. Several of the examples given by PROF. 
SKEAT in his list are to be found in my note-book, 
but I had not collected so many. I had also not 
noticed that the vowel shortened by the accent was 
long in the oldest form of the word also ;* nor that 
the vowel was immediately followed by two or 
more consonants ;* nor that the words were dis- 
syllables.* On the other hand, I had noticed 
(which seems to have been overlooked by DR. 
MURRAY and PROF. SKEAT, and which may be a 
point of some importance) that the words are 
mostly compound words. Of the twenty-four 
enumerated by PROF. SKEAT the first sixteen 
are compound words. Indeed, in my note- book 
the heading under which I have been collect- 

* It will be shown further on that not one of these 
three rules is universally adhered to. 

7> S. II. JULY 31, 



ing my examples is " accented vowels shortened 
in compound words." 

It is not, however, quite true that the rowel in 
the oldest form of the word is always long. PROF. 
SKEAT himself allows in 4, s.v. " Groundsel,"* that 
the A.-S. u (the original vowel) " was really at the 
first short." And I can give him another example. 
The vowel in the A.-S. verb brecan is, I believe, 
short ; it was afterwards lengthened, and is still 
long in our to break ; and this has become short 
again in break-fast, though it remains long in 
break- water, f 

Neither is it quite true that the vowel is always 
immediately followed by two or more consonants. 
The o in holiday (one of PROF. SKEAT'S own examples) 
is immediately followed by only one consonant, and 
the same may be said of Holyrood (not given by 
PROF. SKEAT), in which the y is certainly not a con- 
sonant. And this is again the case with two-pence, 
three-pence, Audi we may also say five-pence, all given 
in Piuir. SKEAT'S list. It is true that these words are 
vulgarly pronounced tuppence, thrippence or thrup- 
pencefi&adfippencej&a PROF. SKEAT says ; but surely 
the second p was added after the shortened pro- 
nunciation had been adopted, for the purpose of 
marking the pronunciation, and is not found in 
the original words. And the same may be said of 
two-penny, three-penny, &c. (see next paragraph). 
According to the law laid down, the long vowel 
should in every cage be immediately followed in 
the original word by two or more consonants, and 
this is the case with a good many of PROF. SKEAT'S 
words, but in others it is not so, at least according 
to PROF. SKEAT'S way of putting the matter. He 
says " house-band " (in which the ou is not imme- 
diately followed by two consonants) " becomes 
husband"; but it does not appear that house-band 
ever did exist. Housewife does still exist, and is 
by no means always pronounced hussif, and here 
again an e separates the two consonants^ Neither 

* PROF. SKEAT speaks as if gruntel were the only known 
pronunciation of this word. This is certainly not the 
case among the educated classes. Indeed, though I have 
lived much in the country and have known the weed ever 
since I was quite a child, I have never heard any one, 
educated or uneducated, pronounce it gruntel. I had a 
gardener once whose name (appropriately enough) was 
Qroundtell, and he always pronounced the ground long. 

t Not because break- water 19 a trisyllable, for I have 
shown further on (in the text) that the vowel is some- 
times shortened in the case of trisyllables, but probably 
because the a in water has a strong broad sound, and 
so receives a kind of secondary accent. In two-penny, 
three-penny, and Jive-penny, on the other hand (see further 
on in the text), the penny is slurred over and pronounced 
like the pany in company, and so the vowel of the two, 
three, &ndjive is shortened. 

II myself pronounce threppence, and I do not think 
that I am peculiar. 

The question in these two words (husband and 
housewife) is this : Did the u in the A.-S. hus become 
shortened before an e was added at the end of the word? 
In the case of husband PROI . SKJSAT distinctly saya it did ; 

can I agree that in halyard and steelyard the ly 
forms a genuine double consonant likely to cause the 
shortening of an accented vowel. The ;/ is but little 
more of a consonant than the i in the M.E. galliard. 
Besides this, in the original form, hale-yard, the 
first a is immediately followed by one consonant 
only. In knowledge, again, there is no reason to 
suppose that at the time the word was formed the 
w was pronounced, and if so, the wl can scarcely be 
looked upon as two consonants ; whilst in roomage 
(the original form of rummage) the vowel is imme- 
diately followed by only one consonant ; and in 
heather PROF. SKEAT himself declares the th to be 
only "a single simple sound." These very 
numerous exceptions tend to show that the accent 
alone, even without the help of the consonants 
immediately following, is capable of shortening the 
vowel that is, when the length of the original 
word is in any way increased. 

Nor is it quite true, again, that the words are 
always dissyllables. Two-penny, three- penny, five- 
penny, are not dissyllables, and yet when they 
precede a substantive (such as stamp) they are 
commonly pronounced tuppSnny, threpp8nny, and 
fippinny. Another example is goose-berry. But 
PROF. SKEAT himself allows that the so-called law 
does not always hold good in this respect, and he 
gives three examples of trisyllables, making with 
my four examples seven exceptions in all, and 
doubtless many more might be found! See note f. 

The exceptions which I have given in the three 
different classes into which I have divided them 
are so numerous that it is surely not quite correct 
to give the name of law to a principle which is but 
so very partially applicable. Indeed, it seems to me 
that more than one principle is at work, and that, 
as I said above, accent alone, without the help of 
more than one consonant immediately following it, 
is frequently quite able to effect the shortening of 
a vowel provided that the word is lengthened 
for this is certainly the most important point. 
Koch, on the other hand, in his valuable English 
grammar, is of opinion (i. 205, 292) that in such 
words as width, from wide (A.-S. wid), breadth, 
from broad (A.-S. brdd), the shortening of the long 
vowel is due entirely to the numerous consonants 
(" mehrfache Consonanz ") by which it is followed, 
and not at all to the accent. He therefore recog- 
nized the fact of the shortening, but he explains 
it differently from DR. MURRAY and PROF. SKEAT. 


Sydenham Hill. 

but this is not quite certain, for in M.E. I find husbonde 
and husebonde (see Skeat's 'Diet.,' s.v. " Husband "), and 
the first e could scarcely have been added in husebonde 
after the u had become shortened. And if the e was 
added before the shortening took place, then the vowel 
at the time of the shortening was not immediately fol- 
lowed by two consonants. In the case of housewife it It 
clear that the e was added before the shortening took 


[7 th S. II. JULY 31, '8 

ENCE? (7 th S. i. 447, 516.) Correspondents have 
omitted to refer to a discussion of this question by 
Sir Charles Bell, the eminent anatomist. In his 
" Bridgewater Treatise" on 'The Hand: its 
Mechanism and Vital Endowments as evincing 
Design,' Lond., 1834, there is a section on 
" Imaginary Animals," pp. 304-8. It begins : 

* ; Archdeacon Paley Las said, ' no doubt we can 
imagine a greater variety of animals than do actually 
exist.' But what is the fact 1 If we look to the fabled 
animals of antiquity, not one of them could have existed ; 
and it may serve to show the imperfection of man's 
ingenuity compared with nature, and at the same time 
demonstrate the perfection of the system of the animal 
body, if for a moment we survey these imaginary 
animals and inquire whether they could have led, or 
breathed, or moved, or flown." 

The subject was also treated in 'N. & Q.,'5 th S. 
vii. 327, in reference to the " molarem hominis 
dentem," which St. Augustine supposes to have 
been found, and which he himself had seen (' De 
Civitate,' xv. 9). A reply at p. 456 mentions the 
line of Vergil from the ' Georgics,' i. 497 : 
Graudiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris. 

In a later volume, xii. 356, there is an import- 
ant, though short, note of MR. JOHN E. B. 
MAYOR, which states that he " has collected the 
authorities on this matter in a note on ' Juvenal,' 
xv. 70 (pp. 374-6, second ed.), to which he adds 
a reference to the ' Eecognitions of Clement,' i. 29. 
The Delphin ' Juvenal ' has also some interesting 
references at the same place. ED. MARSHALL. 

The gigantic bird which formerly existed in 
the isle of Madagascar is the JSpiornis. The 
egg discovered in an alluvial deposit in 1850 by 
M. d'Abbadie, thirteen and fourteen inches long, 
has six times the capacity of that of the ostrich. 
The story, therefore, to which Marco Polo refers 
is not without foundation. He says : 

" The people of the island [Madagascar] report that 
at a certain season of the year an extraordinary kind of 
bird, which they call rukh, makes its appearance from 
the southern regions. In form it is said to resemble 
the eagle, but is incomparably greater in size, being so 
large and strong as to seize an elephant, from whence it 
lets it fall to the ground . Persons who have seen this 
bird assert that when the wings are spread they measure 
ten paces in extent," &c. 

The editor of Marco Polo observes : 

" All who have read the stories of the ' Thousand-and- 
One-Nights ' must be acquainted with the size and 
powers of this extraordinary bird, there called the roc, 
but its celebrity is not confined to that work. ' Rukh ' 
says the ' Arabic and Persian Dictionary,' ' is the name of 
a monstrous bird which is said to have powers sufficient 
to carry off a live rhinoceros.' " 

But Prof. Owen (according to Lyell) does not believe 
that the ^Epiornis exceeded, if, indeed it equalled, 
the Dinornis of New Zealand. Almost the entire 
skeleton of these feathered giants has been dis- 
covered, and some must, it is estimated, have stood 

from eleven to twelve feet high. Still huger must 
have been the birds of Connecticut, where foot- 
prints in the red sandstone indicate a stride of 
about six feet. 

Hugh Miller, in ' The Testimony of the Rocks/ 
says : 

" Is it not truly wonderful that in this late age of the 
world, in which the invention of the poets seems to con- 
tent itself with humbler and lower flights than of old, 
we should thus find the facts of geology fully rivalling, in 
the strange and the outre, the wildest fancies of the 
romancers who flourished in the Middle Ages ] I have 
already referred to flying dragons real existences of 
the Oolitic period that were quite as extraordinary of 
type, if not altogether so huge of bulk, as those with 
which the seven Champions of Christendom used to do 
battle ; and here (in Connecticut) we are introduced to 
birds of the Liassic ages that were scarce less gigantic 
than the roc of Sindbad the Sailor." 

Swallowfield, Heading. 


SUZERAIN (7 th S. i. 101, 146, 170, 232, 270, 349, 
389, 452 ; 7 th S. ii. 11). I did not intend, Mr. 
Editor, to meddle further in this controversy, which 
I fear many of your readers may feel to have been 
protracted " usque ad nauseam "; but when I find 
it asserted that suzerain is a "sovereign, yet a 
subaltern, superior, but not supreme (Cot.)," I 
cannot refrain from entering my protest against 
a doctrine which, in my humble judgment, is, to 
say the least of it, far from supported by all the 
best writers on history with whom I have been 
conversant for nearly the last half century. 

Among these, if I am not mistaken, Dean Mil- 
man may be reckoned as one not the least trust- 
worthy, or whose opinion is to be thought light 
of. Now, in his ' History of Latin Christianity ' 
this word occurs over and over again, and always 
in the sense of " supreme lord." Not to multiply 
quotations,! will only adduce four. In vol. v. p. 430 
he writes : "All his subjects are absolved from 
their oath of allegiance ; every one was at liberty 
to assault his person and (only reserving the right 
of his suzerain, the King of France) to seize and 
take possession of his lands." This Pope In- 
nocent III. says of Raymond of Toulouse. 

Again, vol. vi. p. 80 : " Honorius throughout 
speaks of the young King Henry (III.) as the 
vassal of the Church of Rome ; of himself as the 
suzerain of England." So, in vol. vii. p. 48, and 
referring to our country, he says : " He [Ed- 
ward I.] had subdued Wales ; he had established 
his suzerainty over Scotland ; he had awarded 
the throne of Scotland to John Baliol, whom he 
almost goaded to rebellion, in order to find a 
pretext for the subjugation of the whole king- 
dom." In the same volume, at p. 76, we read : 
"The rich manufacturing cities, indignant at 
former attempts of their liege lord, the Count of 
Flanders, to infringe their privileges, opened their 
gates to Philip as their suzerain." 

. II. JULY 31, '86.] 



But leaving Milman, let us turn to Hallam, in 
whom, I take it, BROTHER FABIAN has great con- 
fidence. From him I will give but one quotation, 
taken from his ' Europe during the Middle Ages.' 
In vol. i. p. 94, 12mo., 1872; are the following 
words: " During the tenth and eleventh centuries 
it appears that allodial lands in France had chiefly 
become feudal ; that is, they had been surrendered 
by their proprietors, and received back again upon 
the feudal conditions ; or more frequently, per- 
haps, the owner had been compelled to acknow- 
ledge himself the man or vassal of a suzerain, and 
thus to confess an original grant which had never 
existed." And, to show that Hallam does not ex- 
clude the " supreme " lord from this prerogative, 
he says in a footnote (4) : " A precedent for 
surrendering allodial property to the King and 
receiving it back as a benefice appears even in 
Marculfus, 1. i. form. 13." 

Surely, then, if by such a process a mesne lord 
became the suzerain of the man surrendering to 
him, the same a fortiori must be allowed to the 
" supreme " lord in a precisely parallel case. Will 
BROTHER FABIAN dissent from this ? To my mind 
the matter is in a nutshell, and I understand it 
thus: Under all feudal tenures, the person, whether 
king or subject, who had vassals under him, was 
the suzerain of those vassals; but as the supreme 
lord could ^ hold under none, he was the suzerain 
KO.T t^oyjjv. 

On the etymology of the word I will add nothing 
to what I have said already. Let the "grarnma- 
tici " fight it out; and may the best man win ! And 
so I bid the subject heartily farewell. It is proper 
for me to say that the italics in every case are 
my own. EDMUND Taw, M.A. 

P.S. On p. 54, vol. i., Hallam absolutely 
identifies the king with suzerain. He says: 
"And, until that time should arrive, Edward pro- 
mises to lay aside the title and arms of France (an 
engagement which he strictly kept), and John to 
act in no respect as king or suzerain over the 
ceded provinces." 

Your correspondent ANON, is wrong in saying 
that " modern scientific students deny the possi- 
bility of the human hair suddenly becoming white 
through intense sorrow or a sudden shock." I 
beg to quote the following to the contrary from 
Landois and Stirling's 'Physiology,' one of the 
most recent and relionable works of this descrip- 
tion : 

" When the hair becomes grey, as in old age, this ia 
due to a defective formation of pigment in the cortical 
part. The silvery appearance of white hair is increased 
when small air cavities are developed, especially in the 
medulla, and to a less extent in the cortex, where they 
reflect the light. Landoia records a case of the hair 
becoming $uddenly grey, in a man whose hair became 
grey during a single night, in the course of an attack of 

delirium tremens. Numerous air-spaces were found 
throughout the entire marrow of the (blond) hairs, while 
the hair-pigment still remained." Vol. ii. p. 599. 

Sir Erasmus Wilson, too, in his half-crown work 
* Healthy Skin,' gives the following instances : 
A girl, in his own knowledge, whose hair " be- 
came as white as a pocket-handkerchief" on the 
shock of receiving news of her lover's death ; 
a lady who became grey in a few days on finding 
her sister dead in bed by her side ; Sir Thos. 
More, on the night before his execution ; two 
cases recorded by Borellus ; three by Daniel 
Turner ; one by Dr. Cassan ; and a few mis- 
cellaneous cases, of which the most remarkable 
is the following, " A gentleman on his marriage, 
when about forty years old, had a dark head 
of hair, but on his return from his wedding-trip 
had become so completely snow-white, even to his 
eyebrows, that his friends almost doubted his 
identity " ! Sir Erasmus gives also (on p. 109, et 
seq.) the case of a boy with chequered hair brown 
and white in alternate bands on every hair in 
which case he made the same observation of the 
air-spaces in the hair as Landois did in the case 
quoted above. He also (p. 297) mentions in a note 
the case of John Libeny, a would-be assassin of the 
Emperor of Austria, whose hair turned snow-white 
in the forty-eight hours preceding his execution. 
In the same work (p. 262) is given the case of a 
peasant, recorded by the Italian, Dr. Sarti, whose 
skin gradually darkened after a sudden shock of 
fear until it became quite black. 

It would be interesting if the readers of ' N. & Q.' 
would give references to all authentic cases whose 
description they may have met with. 



LEAGUE? (7 th S. ii. 47.) CUTHBERT BEDE a will 
find a full account of the origin and purposes of 
the Primrose League in the Nineteenth Century, 
July, 1886, p. 33. JOHN CHURCHILL SIKES. 

21, Endwell Road, Brockley, S.B. 

Some months before the Primrose League came 
into existence Sir Henry Drummond Wolff origi- 
nated the idea of forming a Primrose Club, but the 
project was subsequently abandoned. It was, 
however, revived during the autumn recess of 
1883, and, after consultation between Sir Henry 
and Lord Randolph Churchill, assumed a practical 
form, and resulted in the establishment of the 
Primrose League. The actual foundation of the 
League may be taken to date from November of 
that year, when a meeting of half a dozen gentle- 
men, to whom the scheme had been communicated, 
took place in a room at the Carlton. Rules were 
prepared, which have since undergone considerable 
modification, and in the following month adver- 
tisements appeared and offices were taken. Lord 


Salisbury and Lord Iddesleigh were not invited to 
join the organization until a year later, when its 
success had become assured. T. 

There is no mystery about the occurrence of these 
remains. Our coasts furnish hundreds of similar 
phenomena, all proving that our island has under- 
gone movements of depression and re-elevation. 
Conceive the coast of Lincolnshire to have subsided, 
in this case only seven or eight feet, and detritus 
would form on the submerged part, which might 
be pebbly, or sandy, or muddy, according to 
circumstances. Let the land rise again, and as soon 
as the surface was high enough, trees would grow 
on it and peat would be formed. The coasts of 
Yorkshire, Cheshire, the Firths of Clyde and of the 
Forth, all tell the same story unmistakably. There 
is no reason to attribute to it an enormous antiquity, 
still less to suppose that Britain was inhabited then 
by a " highly civilized " race. The pottery was of 
the rudest manufacture, with the help of fire and 
stone knives they could hollow out a boat ; but of 
course none whatever has been found as old as the 
true glacial drift. J. CARRICK MOORE. 

In 1460, it is said, a ship with its anchors was 
found in a mine in the Alps. It is mentioned in 
Sabin's ' Commentaries on Ovid's Metamorphoses,' 
quoted in John Ray on the Deluge, 'Three 
Discourses,' third edition, 1713, p. 248. Other 
references to it have been noted in 3 rd S. viii. 475, 
where more particulars were desired, but not ob- 
tained. W. C. B. 

POPE AND COLLET GIBBER (7 th S. i. 428, 477} 
There is no doubt that in the original folio 
edition of the 'Epistle from Mr. Pope to Dr. 
Arbuthnot,' 1. 60 (not 59) runs 

The Play'rs and I are, luckily, no friends; 
and I do not think it was altered in any subse 
quent edition. But Gibber was not a model o 
accuracy, and it is possible that he may have con 
fused the folio edition with one of the copies whicl 
were probably distributed by Pope in manuscrip 
Borne years before the publication of the poem, 
is stated in the " Advertisement" 

" This Paper is a sort of Bill of Complaint, begun 
many years since, and drawn up by snatches, as th 
several Occasions offer'd. I had no thoughts of publish 
ing it, till it pleas'd some Persons of Rank and Portun 

to attack in a very extraordinary manner, not onl 

my Writings (of which being publick the Publick judge 
but my Person, Morals, and Family, whereof to thoa 
who know me not, a truer Information may be requisite 
Being divided between the Necessity to say something o 
Myself, and my own Laziness to undertake so awkwar 
a Task, I thought it the shortest way to put the las 

Land to this Epistle Many will know their ow 

Pictures in it, there being not a Circumstance but wha 
is true ; but I have, for the most part, spar'd their Name 
and they may escape being laugh'd at, if they please." 

It is not unlikely that in the first draft of the 
oem the name of Gibber may have occupied the 
pace which was afterwards filled up by " the 
5 lay'rs," and that in the heat of penning his attack 
pon Pope this may have been in the mind of the 

At the same time, I am not sure that there was 

ot more than one issue of the original edition, 

nd it is just possible that Gibber's name may have 

ccurred in 1. 60 in some very early copies. The 

itle-page of my copy has the imprint : " Printed 

>y J. Wright for Lawton Gilliver at Homer's 

Head in Fleetstreet, 1734." The Rowfant copy, 

iccording to Mr. Locker-Lampson's catalogue 

p. 166), simply bears " Printed for Lawton Gil- 

iver at Homer's Head in Fleetstreet, 1734." Which 

f these two title-pages is the earlier I cannot say ; 

\nd I merely adduce them in proof of my asser- 

,ion that there was probably more than one issue 

of this edition. I may take this opportunity of 

correcting one of the few errata in the Rowfant 

catalogue. The catalogue states there are thirty 

>ages in the ' Epistle.' There are, in reality, only 

,wenty ; and the error has arisen from the last 

jage being misnumbered 30 for 20. 


(7 th S. i. 229, 258). A friend has just called my 
attention to the fact that at the latter reference it 
is stated that I am probably the author of the 
words, " Horatio looked as handsomely miserable 
as a Hamlet sliding upon a bit of orange peel." The 
sentence is not mine ; it occurs in " Horatio 
Sparkins," one of Charles Dickens's ' Sketches by 
Boz,' new edition, complete, London, Chapman & 
Hall, 1866, p. 383, 11. 10 and 11. These words 
have in later editions for what reason I know 
no t been changed to "Horatio looked handsomely 
miserable." I adopted the former version in my 
little book, ' Readings from the Works of Charles 
Dickens,' as being more suitable for iny purpose. 
I need not call the attention of your readers to the 
fact that authors very frequently in subsequent 
editions make many changes in their writings, 
sometimes variations for which the reason is not 
very apparent. JOHN A. JENNINGS. 

Donaghpatrick Rectory, Navan, co. Meatb. 

S. i. 307, 413, 513 ; ii. 35). Perhaps the matter 
hardly needs further explanation ; but I submit, in 
reply to MR. J. I. DREDGE, that MR. RENDLE was 
certainly wrong in stating, in so many words, or 
so few, that *' Col. Chester notes the burial of 
Susanna Gibber, Arne's daughter." By " Arne," 
without any prefatory matter, we must take Dr. 
Arne the composer to be meant, and not his 
father the upholsterer ; just as by " Shakspeare," 
without other description, we must understand 

7 th 8. II, JuLT31,'86.] 



that the dramatist is meant, and not Shakspeare' 
father the woolstapler. I am glad to find, as 
expected I should find, that Col. Chester does no 
say that Mrs. Gibber was Dr. Arne's daughter 
This, however, has been said with the name "Dr 
Arne" (Peter Cunningham's note in his edition o 
Goldsmith, iii. 36, is one instance), just as it ha 
been said, I repeat, though doubtless inadvertently 
by MR. RBNDLB at 7 th S. i. 413, with the briefe 
form of "Arne." I may add that my chief objec 
in writing before was to correct the prevailinj 
error with regard to Mrs. Gibber an error whicl 
it will, at least, be admitted MR. BUNDLE'S state 
ment, as he worded it, was calculated rather t 
foster as truth. J. W. M. GIBBS. 

I observe that my correction is corrected. Th 
American motto is especially useful in ' N. & Q.' 
" Be always sure you 're right, then go ahead." '. 
should have answered to the same effect as mj 
two, may I say friends ? but although not far awa 
from my ' N. & Q.,' I am from my notes. 

64, Hill Park Crescent, Plymouth. 

S. ii. 49). May I request any of your readers 
who may not have seen my inquiry for this Bong 
but who may yet happen to do so, not to send me 
a copy of it ? I have received quite a small shower 
of copies from one and another (and the cry is 
" Still they come "), which speaks highly for the 
courtesy of the readers of ' N. & Q.' towards one 
another. But as each copy I receive involves a 
separate note of thanks, I am running a fair 
chance of being " killed with kindness." 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

WASTED INGENUITY (7 th S. ii. 6). What ftp- 
pears useless knowledge to one man another con- 
verts into an obvious utility. Moliere's Jour- 
dain becomes excellent sport to some persons for 
trying to tell how tongue, teeth, and lips are placed 
in effecting pronunciation, and yet all the dis- 
coveries of phonography and visible speech, if Mr. 
Bell's method ever prove triumphant, will be the 
outcome of that particular endeavour rightly car- 
ried out. All games, chess and whist included, 
are an absurdly useless knowledge to a truly busy 
man who can employ time well. But for those who 
cannot which is all the world, nearly, and espe- 
cially his wife there is such a thing as pastime ; 
and when that is the need that is uppermost these 
things have a great utility in them. What can 
be more ridiculous than to examine into a spider's 
ears 1 But can an entomologist grant so much ? 
Are we, you and I, to set up the standard of 
reason for others ? No ; for others, certainly not ! 
Supposing that a higher reason should agree with 
our yerdict in some respects as against others, 

would not our censoriousness become more foolish 
and faulty than their pursuit of some imbecility 
that was harmless ? There must be much latitude 
allowed to mortals, lest a wisdom so rigid that it 
cannot yield a needle prick or two may stiffen into 
a straight waistcoat of lunacy. 0. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

The portrait of Charles I. mentioned by Addi- 
son is still carefully preserved in the library of 
St. John's College, Oxford, though, unfortunately, 
it is now so faded that the writing is scarcely 
legible. It is said to contain not only the Psalms, 
but also the Creed and the Lord's Prayer. MR. 
BoucniER will find some mention of this, and of 
similar instances of ingenuity, in the article on 
" Minute Writing " in D'Israeli's ' Curiosities of 
Literature,' p. 99 (eleventh edition, London, 
1839). Perhaps a short time devoted to the 
practice of minute writing would not be entirely 
wasted by MR. BOUCHIER, e.g., it might make 
him sufficiently careful to minutiae not to omit in 
his quotation from Haydn the comma between 
"dragon" and "120 ft. long," which makes a 
considerable difference. D. R. 

The picture of King Charles I. which Addison 
speaks of is one of the treasures in the library of 
St. John's College, Oxford. Tradition says that 
King Charles II. was so anxious to possess it that 
when all his offers of purchase were refused he 
told the college that they might ask him for any- 
thing as a reward if they would but give him the 
picture. The fellows complied ; they gave the 
priceless relic to the king, and for reward asked 
that it might be given back to them. 

J. H. G. 

" There is a drawing of the head of Charles I. in the 
library of St. John's College at Oxford wholly composed 
of minute written characters, which at a small distance 
resemble the lines of an engraving. The lines of the 
iiead, and the ruff, are said to contain the book of 
Psalms, the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer." "Minute 
Writing," ' Curiosities of Literature,' D'israeli. 

31, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

The ' Iliad ' in a nutshell has been discussed in 
3 rd S. ix. 257, 333, 415. It is mentioned, e.g. t in 
Gosson's ' School of Abuse,' 1579, ed. Arber, p. 16. 

W. C. B. 

CHILDREN'S CRUSADE (7 th S. i. 487; ii. 18). 
Authorities: ' Godefridi Annales,' A.D. 1212 
Freher, " Ger. Her. Scriptt.," ed. Struve, i. 381; 
also see p. 517); 'Sicardi Episc. Cremon. Chron.,' 
.D. 1212; Jac. a Voragine, 'Chron. Gennense,' 
.D. 1222 (Muratori, " Ital. Rer. Scriptt.," 
vii. 623; ix. 45); 'Alberici Triuin Fontium 
hron.,' A.D. 1212 (ed. 1698, p. 459); Vincent de 
Beauvais, 'Speculum Historiale,' A.D. 1212, 
xxxi. c. v. pars. ii. (French version in the " Miroir 
listorial"). I take these references from my 



[7 th 8. II. JULY 81, '8. 

notes, not having the books now at hand ; but I 
think they will be found correct. There is a story 
on the subject in the Monthly Packet, vol. ix. 
N.S., Jan.-April, 1870. E. T. 

The best account of the Children's Crusade is that 
by Dr. J. Hecker, which will be found at the end 
of the second edition of the English translation of 
his 'Epidemics of the Middle Ages' (London, 
Triibner, 1859). WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Higher Broughton, Manchester. 

FLEKKIT (7 th S. i. 507). This word certainly 
means spotted. It is not obsolete. I have 
heard it used, and employed it myself hundreds 
of times. This very morning before I had read 
' N. & Q.' I was examining some heifers prepara- 
tory to handing one or more of them over to the 
butcher, and I remarked to my foreman, who 
was with me, " That/ecfcecZ one has the most flesh 
upon it." The word is more commonly used in 
relation to oxen than to anything else, but it is not 
confined to them. A woman describing a damask 
table-cloth with a cloud-like ornament upon it 
said, "There was no pattern, but it was flecked all 
over." Another, describing the state of a person 
during severe illness, said, " The fever brought out 
red flecks all over his body." Chaucer, in ' The 
Chanones Yemannes Tale,' has : 

The horse eke that his yeman rode upon, 

So swatte, that unnethes might he gone. 

About the peytrel stood the fome ful hie, 

He was of fome &s flecked as a pie. 
In the will of William Kanard, of Appleby, Lin- 
colnshire, 1542, there is the following bequest, 
" To Wylliam Baynton sone of John Baynton one 
ftekyd qwee." EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottosford Manor, Brigg. 

CHRISOMER (7 th S. i. 507). Your correspon- 
dent will find a very interesting communication on 
this term in the Western Antiquary, fourth series, 
pp. 141-2, from the late Rev. J. C. D. Yule, M. A., 
vicar of Bradford, Brandis Corner, North Devon. 
He relates a conversation he once had with Dick 
Stanlake, a parish sexton of the true Devonian 
type, who pointed out to him a portion of the 
churchyard under his charge, which he designated 
Cbrisomers' Hill, where, said he, " the unbaptized 
children be always buried, and strangers, that us 
don't know if they be baptized or no." Mr. Yule 
was struck with the name, and inquired how the 
burials were conducted : 

" That depend'th 'pon circumstances, Sir. If 'tis a 
Btranger, the Parson read'th the service, the same as he 
would else. But, old or young, if he know'th he hath'n 
a-been baptized, he doth'n dare, you know, Sir, to open 
his book for 'en. If 'tis a cruel small cheeld, the ol< 
nurse bring'th the little coffin under her arm, a-coveret 
by her cloak, so that nobody would'n take her for a 
funeral at all ; but when the cheeld is come to some size 
he 's carried by four children like any other corpse, am 
then most times the Parson comes, aiid though he dothen 

pen his book, he saith a few words to they that be there, 
bout neglecting baptism and that." 

Then follows a most interesting conversation, 

hich, as it reveals the wide-spread belief in 

hings uncanny amongst a certain class of people 

n Devonshire, I venture to quote as a striking 

llustration of West Country folk-lore : 

" ' Well now, Jack,' I asked, ' what did you call this 
ilace ? ' ' Chrisomers' Hill, Sir.' 'What does that mean ] ' 
I can't rightly say, but I've heard tell that 'twas some- 
bing the old Romans used to do to the children before 
hey were baptized, to help 'em towards heaven-like.' 
And did it help them ? ' 'I can't tell that, Sir. I dare 
say 'twas better than nort, but 'twasn't like baptism, or 
else they wouldn't have been buried up here, I s'pose.' 
Now, Jack, is there any idea of what becomes of the 
souls of those poor little unbaptized creatures '< ' ' Well, 
Sir, 'tis said they becom'th Heath-hounds, and hunt the 
Devil 'pon Dartemoor, because he keep'th 'em out of 
Paradise.' ' Why on Dartmoor, Jack 1 Is not he to be 
bund nearer than Dartmoor ? ' ' Oh, yes Sir, he 's to be 
bund everywhere, except inside the churchyard gates. 
Se doth'n dare to show his nose there.' 'But why 
Dartmoor ; can you tell me V ' Well, Sir, Dartemoor was 
always accounted the Devil's head-quarters, in these 
larts; and I s'pose it takes a brave lot of they little 
jreatures to hunt he, and so they meet'th there all 
;ogether, to do it. I 've heard tell of they that have a-see'd 
hundreds of they little Heath- hounds in full cry after 'en 
'pon Dartemoor, Sir. You'd see the Devil's temples, and 
bis images, and his signs 'pon the rocks all over the moor 
if you was to go there. I s'pose 'tis wonderful how he 
used to be worshipped out there, in old times I have a- 
heard that Belstone parish is called after one of his 
names. You 'd be surprised, Sir, at the stories that I 've 
heard old folks tell about 'en, and his doings, and how 
they used to worship 'en out upon Dartemoor, but I 've 
just forgot 'em all. I 've told 'e most of what I can mind 
about it. 'Twas never nort but a parcel of lies, and 
p'raps the sooner 'tis forgot the better." " 

Mr. Yule winds up his interesting communication 
with the inquiry if a " Chrisomers' Hill " exists in 
any other churchyard of these western parts. 

Editor Western Antiquary. 

THE GREAT PLAGUE (7 th S. ii. 28). The word 
is " nurse-keeper." In the " Orders conceived 
and published by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
of the City of London concerning the Infection of 
the Plague," 1665, there is : 


" If any nurse-keeper shall remove her self out of any 
infected house before twenty-eight days after the de- 
cease of any person dying of the infection, the house to 
which the said nurse-keeper doth so remove her self 
shall be shut up until the said twenty-eight days be ex- 
pired." Defoe's 'Journal of the Plague Year,' Mor- 
ley's " Universal Library," Lond., 1884, p. 58. 


(7 th S. ii. 25). Dallaway, in his * History of the 
Western Division of the County of Sussex '(1815), 
vol. i. p. 76, states that the bishop "died at 
Chichester, Aug. 13, 1568, and is buried in the 

. II. JULY 31, '86.] 



cathedral without memorial" It may be addei 
that the same month and year are given in th 
notice of the bishop in the ' Dictionary of Nat 
Biog.,' but without the day. G. F. R. B. 

Referring to the query of the REV. C. F. S 
WARREN as to Bishop Barlow, it is interesting fr 
note that this remarkable prelate had five daughters 
married to bishops : 1. Anne, married to Herber 
Westphaling, Bishop of Hereford ; 2. Elizabeth 
wife of Wm. Day, Bishop of Winchester ; 3. Mar 
garet, wife of Wm. Overton, Bishop of Lichfielc 
and Coventry; 4. Frances, wife of Tobie Matthew 
Archbishop of York ; 5. Anthonia, wife of William 
of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. 


14, Alexandra Street, Cambridge. 

following is from the ' Diary of Henry Machyn 
Citizen and Merchant Taylor of London ': 

"[The xiij day of January, 1556-7, in Alderman 
Draper's ward, called] chorJwenerstrett ward, a belle- 
man [went about] with a belle at evere lane end anc 
at the ward [end, to] gyff warnyng of ffyre anc 
candyll lyght, [and to help the] powre, and pray for 
the ded." Camden Society's publications. 

This may be compared with the notice of the Crier 
of the Dead in Longfellow's ' Golden Legend, 
where he is introduced ringing a bell and calling 
out at intervals in the streets of Strasburg 

Wake ! Wake ! 

All ye that sleep ! 

Pray for the Dead ! 

Pray for the Dead ! 

A woodcut representing a bellman, furnished with 
a pikestaff, lantern, and bell, and accompanied by 
a dog, appears in the first edition of Dekker's 
'Belman of London,' printed in 1608, and has 
been reproduced in Mr. Payne Collier's 'Book 
of Roxburghe Ballads ' issued in 1847. 


MAYONNAISE (7 th S. it. 29).' Le Grand Dic- 
tionnaire de la Cuisine' (8vo. 1866, H. Plon), tells 
us, p. 346, that ignorant cooks call the Sauce 
Bayonnaise thus. Mayonnaise has no meaning. 
Littre" suggests Sauce Mahonaise. French cooks 
frequently spell the word magnonaise. 


GARRICK should be referred to Kettner's ' Book 
of the Table,' 1877, pp. 294-300, for a curious and 
exhaustive inquiry into the origin of the word 
mayonnaise. It would be difficult to compress the 
six pages into a suitable compass for * N. & Q.' It 
may be added, for the benefit of other inquirers, 
that the above-quoted work was understood to be 
edited by the late E. S. Dallas, the author of 'The 
Gay Science,' who died in 1879. The ' Book of the 
Table ' resembles Brillat Savarin's famous ' Physio- 
logie du Gout,' and is interspersed with bom-mots 
and good stories, making up an amusing melange. 

Kettner kept, and still keeps, it is believed, a 
French restaurant in Crown Street, Soho, which 
acquired high culinary notoriety and was much 
resorted to a few years ago ; and it was his 
recipes which constituted the basis of what is 
really Dallas's work. J. C. W. 

When I lived in France I remember that .con- 
fectioners called a sort of cullender or strainer for 
making "fool" a "may." In mayonnaise the 
" dressing " of oil and vinegar is let into the salad 
from a " may " drop by drop, like calves'-foot jelly 
from a jelly-bag or water in a " shop sprinkler." 

The following extract from Littre" may perhaps 
interest GARRICK: 

" Quelques auteura conseillent de preferer mafion- 
naise, attendu quo le nom de cette sauce vient, disent- 
ils, de celui de Mahon, ville que Richelieu prit. Lego- 
avant, ' Le Guisiuier de la Ville et de la Campagne ' ecrit 

G. F. R. B. 

Webster- Mahn's ' Dictionary ' suggests that the 
derivation of mayonnaise is " Fr., perhaps from 
Provencal mahonner, to mix a salad." 



Mayonnaise should really be spelt mayennaise, 
as it was invented by the Due de Mayenne. 


492 ; ii. 36). Mr. Hyde Clarke has more than 
once pointed out (' The Legend of the Atlantis 
of Plato,' R. His. Soc., 1886, &c.) that Australia 
must have been known in the most remote anti- 
quity of the early history of civilization at a 
time when the intercourse with America was still 
maintained. It is certainly remarkable, as we 
earn from classic authors, that the school of Per- 
gamos taught that the earth was divided into 
: our worlds or regions. These were the Great 
World or Northern Continent (Asia, Europe, and 
Africa) ; the Austral or Southern World (Aus- 
tralia) ; the Northern World, opposite this con- 
inent (North America) ; and the Southern World, 
to balance the Austral World (South America). 
All these were stated to be inhabited, and this 
loctrine held its ground though it was condemned 
>y the Christian Church. This is supposed to 
lave been one clue to the scheme of Columbus for 
he rediscovery of the lost regions. NAVIS. 

28, 478 ; ii. 16). My friend Mr. Sidney 
Churchill, of this place, tells me, on the authority 
f ' Rauzat es Safa/ that on the death of Hormuz, 
Cing of Persia, one of his wives declared her- 
elf pregnant, and affirmed that, from certain 
igns, the child was a boy. Thereupon the 
obles proclaimed the unborn infant king, and 

NOTES AND QUERIES. I?'" s. n. JULY 31, '8i. 

even pretended to crown him by suspending the 
royal diadem over the mother's womb. See also 
Eawlinson's ' Seventh Monarchy,' chap, vii., where 
he quotes Agathias, iv. p. 135 ; Mirkhond, 
pp. 305-6 ; Tabari, ii. p. 91 ; Malcolm's ' History 
of Persia,' i. p. 106 ; and Gibbon's ' Decline and 
Fall,' chap, xviii. vol. ii. p. 367. J. J. FAHIE. 
Teheran, Persia. 

COUNTY BADGES AND AKMS (7 th S. i. 470, 
518; ii. 34). 

" Under a small tablet, bearing; the arras of the cor- 
poration, is this inscription : ' These are the ancient 
arms, and seale, apperteyning and belonging to the maier 
and burgesses of the towne and borough of Eeading, in 
the county of Berks ; and at this my present visaitation 
was Edward Butler, mayor; the Right Hon. Robert 
earl of Leicester, Knight of the most noble order of the 
garter, master of the horse to the queen's majesty, and 
one of her highness's privy-council, high steward of the 
town and borough. Robert Bowyer, Thomas Aldworth, 
Thomas Turner, John Ockham, Robert Fylbie, and 
Richard Watlington, head burgesses and late mayors of 
the said towne and borough. John Ockham aforesaid, 
steward of the courts of the said borough ; which arms, 
I, Clarencieux, king of arms, have ratified and confirmed 
unto the said mayor and burgesses of the towne and 
borough of Reading in the county of Berks. In witness 
whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name the sixt 
of October 1566, Will. Harvey, alias Glarencieux, king 
of arms.' " Coates, ' Hist, of Reading,' p. 453. 

The arms are given on the next page, p. 454: 
" Azure, a king's head crowned, between an II and 
E in fess, and four other human heads in saltire." 
This bearing was changed to a queen's head 
crowned, between four female heads, the R and E 
still remaining in compliment to Queen Elizabeth. 
The arms were entered at the visitation in 1623 by 
Chester for Will. Camden, and again in 1664-5 by 
Windsor for Sir Edward Bysshe, the last visitation 
of Berks. R. J. FYNMORE.. 

Sandgate, Kent. 

FORBES OF CULLODEN (7 th S. ii. 8). The Lord 
President Forbes had seven sisters : Jean, married 
Sir Harry Innes of that ilk j Anna, married P. 

Forbes of Phyline ; Mary, married Urquhart 

of Burdsyard ; Margaret, married George Munro 
of Newmore ; Isobel, married Fraser of Achna- 
gairn ; Naomy; Grizell, married Ross of Kindeace. 

A. J. C. W. 


SQUARE MEAL (7 th S. i. 449; ii. 16). The 
reference to Beaumont and Fletcher, not given in 
Webster-Mahn's ' Dictionary,' I have found to be 
'The Tragedy of Bonduca,' II. Hi. 


BOOK-PLATE OP GR^ME (7 th S. ii. 49). The 
descent of the Graemes of Bucklivie from the 
family of Inchbrakie, a distinguished line of still 
flourishing cadets of the house of Montrose, is to 
be found in the las.t edition of Burke's ' Landed 

Gentry ' and in Anderson's ( Scottish Nation.' The 
founder of Bucklivie was John, second son of 
George Graeme of Inchbrakie, who was retoured 
heir in 1555 to his father Patrick, who had charters 
of Inchbrakie in 1513. Patrick was himself the 
second son of William, first Earl of Montrose, and 
the elder son of his third wife, Christian Wawane, 
Lady Halyburton of Dirleton. 

New University Club, S.W. 

AN OLD INN SIGN (7 th S. ii. 28). 
"The Bonny Cravat at Woodchurch, Tenterden, to 
judge from the adjective, seems rather to have been sug- 
gested by the old song of ' Jenny, come tie my bonny 
cravat,' than by the introduction of the cravat as an 
article of dress. The fashion is said to have been brought 
over from Germany in the seventeenth century by some 
of the young French nobility, who had served the 
Emperor in the wars against the Turks, and had copied 
this garment from the Croats, whence the name." 
' History of Signboards, second edition, 1866, p. 406. 

E. F. B. 

Permit me to try an answer to ' An old Inn Sign,' 
by asking another query implying the answer. la 
not the "Bonnie Cravat" a euphemism for the 
Devil's, or Devol's, Neckenger, which I note thus 
in my ' Old South wark,' p. 302, s. v. " Neckinger"? 
Gerard says there is " the ' Devil's Neckerchief on 
the way to Redritfe." Neckinger is nothing more 
than neckerchief, but implies, I think, its prox- 
imity to a place of execution, " the ' Devil's 
Neckerchief 'on the way to Redriffe," which sign 
would further imply that it was euphemistic or 
slang for the gallows, the rope, or the hempen collar. 
I fancy the " Bonnie Cravat " means the same. I 
could say something more, but I am away from 
notes and index. WILLIAM RENDLE. 

64, Hill Park Crescent, Plymouth. 

We have heard of the " Bully Ruffian," a cor- 
ruption of "Bellerophon,"a ship ; and I have often 
heard that the original sign of " The Bonnie 
Cravat " at Woodchurch, Kent, was " La Bonne 
Corvette." Woodchurch was noted for its smug- 
gling proclivities, and the Bo-called "Bonnie 
Cravat " was the smugglers' hostelry. 


Ashford, Kent. 

SCOTCH PEERS (7 th S. i. 447 ; ii. 15). It is well 
known that the House of Lords was very jealous 
of admitting their Scottish brethren to their 
privileges, as well as of the representative prin- 
ciple by which they were selected. When Queen 
Anne, by the exercise of her prerogative, elevated 
a Scottish peer to the peerage of Great Britain, 
they tried all they could to exclude such from 
sitting in the House, and they succeeded for a 
time. In 1711 the Duke of Hamilton was 
created Duke of Brandon of the peerage of 
Great Britain, but the Lords, by a majority of 
five, denied his right to sit and vote in Parlia- 

II. JULY 31, '86.] 



ment or to sit upon the trial of peers. For a 
time this decision prevented Scotch peers 
from being admitted as peers of Great Britain ; 
bat at length, in 1782, this question was referred 
to the judges for decision, who were unanimous 
in the opinion that the Act of Union had never 
created any disability of the bind alleged. The 
previous decision of the Lords was reversed, and 
since that time no barrier has been put in the 
way of Scotch peers being admitted to British 
peerages. DAVID ANDERSON. 


BY MR. T. GRAY (7 th S. i. 488). I have only 
seen a copy of the edition of 1753, and of the edi- 
tion of 1766. In the first, the frontispiece follows 
the title-page, while in the second it is opposite 
the title-page. In the first the " explanation of 
the prints " is given at the end of the volume, 
while in the second it comes after the title-page. 
Signatures are found on the pages of the second, 
but not in the first. The second also contains 
" Odes by Mr. Gray," which are not in the first, 
and the one is " Printed for J. Dodsley, in Pall 
Mall, 1765," while the other is " Printed for R. 
Dodsley, in Pall Mall, MDCCLIII." 

G. F. R. B. 

My copy of this book is folio size. Title, ' De- 
signs | by | Mr. R. Bentley | for six | Poems | by 
| Mr. T. Gray. | ["Vignettte here engraved by 
Miiller.] London] Printed for J. Dodsley, in 
Pall Mall. 1765.' " Explanation of the Prints " 
occupies four pages, not paged. Then the six 
poems, printed on one side of the paper only, paged 
1 to 35. The epitaph on p. 36 (not paged). Then 
" Odes by Mr. Gray," pp. 39 to 55, printed on both 
aides of the paper. The engravers are Miiller and 
Grignion. W. H. PATTERSON. 

' SCHOOL OF SHAKSPEARE ' (7 th S. ii. 28). This 
work was published in 1783, in 3 vols., 4to., under 
the title of 'Notes and Various Readings of Shak- 
speare ; together with the School of Shakspeare, 
&c.' See Chalmers's ' Biographical Dictionary,' 
. v. " Capell." 




Curva trahit mites, pars pungit acuta rebelles. 

An inquiry was made, as I see by the index to Series 
Six, for this line, and was not answered. But the line 
is a well-known motto for the episcopal staff. The staff 
of St. Saturninus is said to be preserved at Toulouse and 
to bear the inscription : 

Curva trahit, quos virga regit, pars ultima pungit. 
Hugo a Sancto Victore, in ' Speculum Eccl.,' c. vi., de- 
scribes the staff thus : " Baculns Pastoralis rectitudine 
sui rectum regimen significat. Quod autem una pars 
curva est, et altera acuta, monstrat praeesse subjectis et 

debellare superbos." He also enumerates several forms 
of the motto, as 

Curva trahit mites, pars pungit acuta rebelles. 
Curva trahit ; quos curva regit, pars ultima pungit. 
Attrahe per curvum, medio rege, purge per imum. 
Broughton, in his ' Dictionary of all Religions,' Lond., 
1756, s.v. " Croisier," has : " The croisier is pointed at 
one end, and crooked at the other ; as is expressed in 
the verse : 

Curva trahit mites, pars pungit acuta rebelles. 
The crooked end obedient spirits draws, 
The pointed those repels, who spurn at Christian laws." 
In an extract from the 'Gemma Animas,' ' N. & Q.,1"S. 
ii. 313, there is this description of the pastoral staff, inter 
alia : " Virgam bajulant, ut per potestatem inquietos 
corrigant : quae virga vel baculus est recurvut, ut 
aberrantes a grege docendo ad poenitentiam initial; in 
extremo est aculns, ut relelles excommunicando retrudat; 
haereticos, velut lupos, ab ovili Christi potestative ex- 
terreat ' (lib. i. cap. 218. 219, apud Hitterpium)." (Cor. 
Hittorp., ' De Divinis Officiis,' Cologne, 1568). 

(7 b S. ii. 69.) 

A faultless monster that (or whom) the world ne'er saw. 
John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, ' Essay on 
Poetry ': 

There 't no such thing in nature, and you '11 draw 
A faultless monster which the world ne'er saw. 
Compare Pope, ' Essay on Criticism,' 255. written in 
1709 : 

Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, 
Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be. 
A similar correspondence of thought occurs in the 
allusion to Homer : 

Read Homer once, and you can read no more, 
For all books else appear so mean, so poor; 
Verse will seem prose ; but still persist to read, 
And Homer will be all the books you need. 


Be Homer's works your study and delight, 
Read them by day, and meditate by night. 
Thence form thy judgment, thence your notions bring, 
And trace the muses upward to their spring. 
Still with itself compared, his text peruse. Pope. 


[EsiB, MR. F. RULE, and many other correspondents 
are thanked for answers.] 

The schoolboy spot 

We ne'er forget, though there we are forgot. 

Byron's ' Don Juan,' canto i., stanza 130. ESTE. 

[Many correspondents oblige with the same reference.] 

Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare. By J. O. Halliwell- 

Phillippg, F.S.A.. &c. Sixth Edition. (Longmans.) 
A TEAR ago we noticed the appearance of the fifth edition 
of the ' Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare ' of that 
hardest of workers and most indomitable of enthusiasts, 
Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps. The sixth edition, which now 
appears, has one advantage over its predecessors which 
is immediately apparent. In place of a bulky and not 
too manageable volume of between six and seven hun- 
dred pages, it is in two volumes of some four hundred 
pages each. For a meagre index of two pages, moreover, 
is substituted a biographical index of fourteen pages. 
Ne ither few nor unimportant are the literary additions 



which during the course of a year's hard work the author 
has made to his magnum opus. They afford, indeed, proof 
that the old zeal burns brightly as ever, and that the 
labour of love is not likely to relax. These alterations 
occur principally in the second volume, and result in the 
addition to the work of a hundred and fifty closely printed 
pages of interesting and valuable matter. To the student 
of Shakspeare, with whom the work is probably a text- 
book, the additions are easily pointed out. The account 
of New Place is rewritten and enlarged and supplied with 
new illustrations. An account, entirely new, of John 
Shakspeare, the corvizor, or shoemaker, a resident in 
Stratford 1584 to 1594, is supplied from the Stratford 
registers. Documents relating to the Snitterfield estates 
follow, and are succeeded by a very interesting account 
of the Hatbaway families and a no less valuable paper on 
the estate of Arbres. All these are new, as is the paper 
on the ancestral families, which traces Shakspeare's 
family on the mother's side up to 1501, when a Thomas 
Arden, the father of Shakspeare's maternal grandfather, 
was living at Wilmecote. Eicardus Shakespere is men- 
tioned in connexion with Snitterfield in 1535. All par- 
ticulars obtainable concerning John Shakspeare are 
collected for the first time and given at pp. 214 to 248. 
Towards the close of the second volume are some new 
notes of the highest value and importance. To the first 
volume the most important addition is the notice of the 
Essex insurrection, occupying pp. 174 to 182. 

Numerous small additions are also made. It is pleasant 
to watch this persistent attempt to add to the trust- 
worthiness of the most scholarly and trustworthy account 
of Shakspeare we possess, and pleasanter in the interest 
of scholarship to welcome the additions to our stock of 
knowledge which Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps continues to 

One Hundred Examples of Engravings by Francesco 

Bartolozzi. Part II. (Sotheran & Co.) 
THE second portion of this magnificent reproduction by 
the Autotype Company of rare examples in the British 
Museum of Bartolozzi's engravings falls off in no respect 
from the high level obtained in the earlier instalment. 
Subjects after Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, Benwell, Bunbury, Robinson, Lady Diana Beau- 
clerc, Westall, and Wheatley among English artists; and 
Cipriani, Correggio, Angelica Kauffman, Franceschino, 
and Bartolozzi among foreigners, executed by Bartolozzi, 
are included in the twenty-five reproductions now sup- 
plied. The execution of these is unsurpassable, and it 
will tax the powers of the amateur to tell the facsimile 
from the original. In ' Summer ' and in ' Autumn ' for 
instance, from the illustrations of the seasons by Wheatley, 
the tenderness of Bartolozzi's execution is preserved with 
marvellous fidelity. Another masterpiece is plate xxxiii., 
' John, Lord Burghley,' from the painting by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds in the collection of Lord Jersey. Another tran- 
script from Sir Joshua, with all the character of the ori- 
ginal engraving, is ' The Countess of Harrington and her 
Children,' from the picture in the possession of the Earl 
of Harrington. In reproducing, indeed, the allegorical 
designs of Cipriani and Angelica Kauffman and the 
chubby cupids of Franceschino and Lady Diana Beau- 
clerc, equal success has been obtained. 

THE Edinburgh Review for July draws attention to 
more than one aspect of Shelley which has lain hidden 
in the recesses of his prose works, and shows him as 
opposed to violence in politics, trusting, and recommend- 
ing others especially the Irish to trust to the truth of 
their cause if they were convinced of it. The reviewer 
does full justice to the generosity and sincerity, as well 
as to the genius of that " cor cordium " which was so 
early lost to us in the B&? of Spezzia, From the blue 

waters of the Mediterranean we may pass to the summer 
isles of Eden, and take a cruise in the Western Pacific, to 
learn from the reviewer what Baron von Hlibner and 
Mr. Hugh Romilly have to tell us of western " re- 
cruiters " and Papuan and Fijian islanders. At home 
the pros and cons of ' A Teaching University for Lon- 
don ' are discussed with careful reference to the older 
universities and to the present academic condition of 
London ; while the political situation is dealt with under 
the head of the ' Crisis.' Besides these voices, poetical, 
scientific, political, there sounds yet another voice from 
out the valley of the tombs of the kings ' The Voice 
of Memnon,' sounding to us through the stillness of the 
southern night, and telling us of the past and the pre- 
sent of the land of the Pharaohs. 

THE Quarterly Review for July contains much ad rem 
for present-day politics in three articles on ' Bribery, 
Ancient and Modern,' ' Party and Principle,' and Mr. 
Gladstone and Ireland.' Those who read the interesting 
American novel ' Democracy,' cited by the reviewer, will 
have pleasant memories recalled to them. We think that 
such persons would do well to add to their reading Mrs. 
Hodgson Burnett's able political sketch entitled ' Through 
One Administration.' ' China and the West ' is really 
another chapter of the subject treated in a separate 
article under the title of ' New Markets for British 
Industry.' The almost immemorial tradition of seclu- 
sion is breaking down in the Celestial Empire, and there 
seems no little hope of quite a terrestrial state of 
commercial relations between ourselves and China. To 
understand the East, however, is a very necessary thing 
before the West can hope to be permanently its friend, 
and to this a knowledge of the Sacred Books of the East 
should powerfully contribute. The article on that sub- 
ject is, therefore, a fitting complement to the more 
purely geographical and commercial articles. In the 
consideration of Mr. J. Theodore Bent's 'Cycladea' 
and Miss Garnett's ' Greek Folk-Songs ' we are carried 
to the simple folk, and introduced to the often quaint 
folk-lore of the dwellers among the isles of the ./Egean, 
welcoming the swallow from beyond sea, and holding 
old-time flower festivals at Christmastide. 

Jiatire* to Carre*p0nOenW. 

We mutt call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

WILLIAM HENRY LEE (" Col. Chester's Collections"). 
They are in possession of Mr. Quaritch, the book- 
seller. See 6'h s. xii. 436. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 67, col. 1, 1. 9 from bottom, for 
"1828 " read 1628. P. 72, col. 1, 1. 17, for " 1825" read 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher" at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print j and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

. II. AUG. 7, '86.] 





NOTES : Barnard's Inn, 101' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' 102 Folk-Tales of Lapps, 104 Eranks, 105 Back 
= Ago Star Arcturus Longfellow's ' Excelsior,' 106. 

QUERIES : Emblems of Passion French Testament, 106 
Northampton Visitor Sir W. Pepperell Bongs " Morbus 
Gallicus "Cedar Sir T. Salkeld Grand Alnager of Ire- 
land Hawthorn Blossom Huguenots Spong " Larks 
live on leeks " Herv6 John Dyer, 107 Dlghton Minia- 
tures Vitruvius Sir James "Ware Von Barby Books on 
the Plague Napoleon Prints' Morgen Roth ' ' How they 
brought the Good News' Parish Register Lost, 108 
Heraldic Buckfast Abbey Essay Wanted Authors 
Wanted, 109. 

REPLIES : Extra Verses In St. Matthew, 109 Animated 
Horsehairs, 110 Streanaeshaich, 111 Britannia Ham, 112 
Arms of Bradford Wentworth, Earl of Straff ordMagna 
Charta Bevels Oliver=Moon Massage Sir J. Cust 
Snndon, 113 Rose as a Tavern Sign First Protestant 
Colony in Ireland, 114" As deaf as the adder " Basto 
Portrait of Dickens ' The Patrician.' 115 Curious Custom 
Numbering Houses Antiquity of Football Picture of 
Rousseau Count Dietrich's Collection Llydaw New 
English Dictionary,' 116 Mugwump Twink Snoreham 
Memoirs of Grimaldi Copper Coins, 117 Four Seasons 
Dedications Sir T. Ridley Title of Song Portraits with 
one Hand on Skull " Fate cannot harm me "Inn Sign, 
118 Moore's ' Legendary Ballads,' 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Jeaffreson's ' Middlesex County Re- 
cords '' Gentleman's Magazine library.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


My father and grandfather, who were both 
antients of this honourable society, took great 
interest in this historic inn, and my father, 
Charles Pugh, was the author of the brief record 
which follows. If my memory serves me right, 
the date of the MS. would be 1862 or 1853. 


The obscurity in which the origin of the Inns of 
Court is involved renders it extremely difficult to 
bring to light any records illustrative of the 
foundation and progress of our own society. It 
appears certain, however, that Barnard's Inn was 
not always designated by its present name, for in 
an inquisition which was held so long ago as the 
reign of Henry VI. it is notified that the ancient 
name was " Mackworth's Inn." 

Desirous of tracing the history of the society to 
its earliest foundation, I commenced my researches 
with this " Mackworth," and seeing that the society 
quarter the arms now borne by the Mackworth 
family, I obtained from Sir Digby Mackworth, the 
present representative of this ancient and respect- 
able house, the baronet's own version of the manner 
in which his family connexion with Barnard's Inn 

It was long before I ventured to doubt the 
authenticity of information coming from a source 
so pure ; but subsequent researches have led me 
;o believe Sir Digby's account of the connexion of 
lis family with the Society of Barnard's Inn to be 
apocryphal. A very elaborate 'History of the 
Bounty of Rutland,' begun, but never finished, by 
Blore, a barrister of the Middle Temple a copy of 
which is to be found in the library of Lincoln's 
tun, though, singularly enough, not in that of his 
own inn gives the pedigree and history, apparently 
from authentic sources, of two families, both bear- 
ing the name of Mackworth, one the Mackworths 
of Shropshire, now represented by the present Sir 
Digby, the other the Mackwortha of Derby, with 
whom, as I am impressed with the belief, the 
Society of Barnard's Inn claims affinity. Blore 
braces the Mackworths of Shropshire through Sir 
Humphrey Mackworth, an eminent lawyer, repre- 
senting the county of Salop, who was knighted at 
Whitehall 1682, and intermarried with the 
daughter and heir of Sir Herbert Evans, of Gla- 
morganshire, by which marriage be became pos- 
sessed of the Glen-Uske estate, the residence of 
the present baronet. The other family bearing 
this name were the Mackworths of Mackworth, in 
the county of Derby, a family of much greater 
antiquity and consequence than the Shropshire 
branch. This family appears to have sprung from 
a Norman ancestor bearing the name of de 
Basynges, who was allied to Geraldus de Norman- 
ville, an adventurer accompanying Richard de 
Hume, Lord of Stanford, from Normandy, some 
time before the year 1170. The estate and manor 
of Normanville, in Rutlandshire, called afterwards 
Norman-Torn, Normanton, and now Normington, 
was granted to this family. Alice de Basynges 
intermarried with Thomas Mackworth, who was 
representative in Parliament for the county of 
Derby in the ninth year of the reign of Henry VI. 
By this means the valuable possessions of the De 
Basynges and Normanvilles came into the family 
of the Mackworths of Mackworth, and the family 
appears to have taken the station in society the 
large estates entitled its members to occupy, for 
we find them governors of castles, members of 
Parliament, high sheriffs, and holding important 
offices both under the Commonwealth and after 
the Restoration. 

The elder brother of this Thomas Mackworth 
was John, an ecclesiastic, who was prebendary of 
Lincoln in 1404, presented by Henry IV. He was 
Dean of Lincoln in 1422, and died in 1451. And 
it is the dean to whom we look up with pious 
veneration for our establishment in Barnard's Inn. 
By an inquisition, the precise date of which I have 
been unable to discover, holden in the Guildhall of 
the City of London before John Norman Mayor, 
the king's escheator, but which is recited in a 
record of 32 Henry VI., 



C7"> S. II. ATJQ. 7, '86. i] 

"the Jury found that it was not hurtful for the 
King to license Thomas Atkins, Citizen of London, 
and one of the Executors of John Mackworth, Dean of 
Lincoln, to give one Messuage in Holborn, in London, 
with the Appurtenances called ' Mackworth's Inne,' but 
now commonly known by the name of ' Barnard's Inne,' 
to the Dean and Chapter of Lincolne, to find one suffi- 
cient Chaplain to celebrate Divine Service in the Chapter 
of St. George in the Cathedral Church of Lincolne, where 
the Body of the said John is buried. To have and to 
hold the said Messuage to the said Dean and Chapter 
and to their successors for ever in part of satisfaction of 
twenty pounds lands and rents which Edward III. 
licensed the said Dean and Chapter to purchase, to their 
own use, either of their own fee, or tenor, or of any 
other so the Lands were not holden of the King in 

By this means the Society of Barnard's Inn became 
connected with the Mackworth family, and it 
still continues to hold allegiance to the Dean and 
Chapter of Lincoln as its patrons. 

The Mackworths, by these fortunate family 
alliances being elevated to a position of im- 
portance, might still have enjoyed their honours, 
but for those destructive enemies to ancient in- 
heritances, debts and mortgages, which, like 
black ants, steal their way into the proudest 
families, and erase from long lines of illustrious 
ancestry the noblest names, leaving nothing beyond 
a decayed cross-legged knight or an obliterated 
inscription to acquaint the present generation with 
their grandeur. The family estates of the Mack- 
worths appear to have become more and more in- 
volved, and ultimately to have passed entirely 
away, and to have been purchased by Sir Gilbert 
Heathcote, who was one of the projectors of the 
Bank of England, and representative and Lord 
Mayor of the City of London, and created a 
baronet by Queen Anne ; and they still continue 
in the possession of this family. 

With the loss of its possessions the sun of the family 
of Mackworth soon began to set, and it is painful to 
trace the gradual downfall of a race so illustrious 
and so highly connected. The next notice we meet 
with is of "Robert Mackworth, of the Borough of 
Huntingdon, Apothecary "; then of " Sir Thomas 
Mackworth, Alderman and Apothecary of Hunt- 
ingdon, who died 1769 "; of " Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Mackworth, married to James 
Robinson, of Ely, Grocer "; " Sally, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Mackworth, married to Leonard Faw- 
cett, of Whitechapel, Ironmonger "; and " Sukey, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Mackworth," who married 
a tradesman of Ely whose name does not appear. 
The last male branch of the line was Sir Henry 
Mackworth, who became so reduced as to be grate- 
ful for the asylum afforded by the Charterhouse, 
was one of the poor brothers of this house, and 
there died in 1803. 

The present Archdeacon of Lincoln, Dr. Bonney, 
whilst at school at the Charterhouse, tells me he 
well remembers the long grey hairs and mild pensive 

look of the decayed baronet, as he walked about 
the purlieus of the Charterhouse, a monument of 
fallen greatness. He was fond of chatting with the 
boys, and whispering a word of caution into their 
careless heads, as he sat on the benches, against 
indulgence, extravagance, and running in debt 
precepts which ought to have made a salutary im- 
pression, seeing how lamentably they were en- 
forced by the example of the mentor himself. 
With this Sir Henry the baronetcy in the family 
of the Mackworths of Mackworth became extinct, 
while the family from Shropshire are culminating 
in their present representative. If Blore is correct 
in the distinction he makes between the two 
families, it is manifest that our connexion is with the 
decayed family and not with the present baronet's. 
On a comparison of the arms borne by the two 
families some minute distinction prevails, and the 
crests are different that of the Mackworths of 
Mackworth being a wing, which the society now 
bears ; that of the Mackworths of Shropshire a cock. 
(To be continued.) 



(See 6'h S. xi. 105, 443 ; xii. 321 ; 7 th S. i. 25, 82, 342, 376.) 

Vol. VII. 

P. 3 b, David Brown, 1763-1812. It is to be 
regretted that the writer of the article was not 
aware of the 'Memorial Sketches ' of David Brown, 
with twelve of his sermons, published at London 
in an 8vo. vol. of 500 pp., under the editorship of 
the Eev. Charles Simeon, in 1816. 

P. 3 b, for "a " grammar-school read the gram- 

P. 4 a, for " Thomas " Sargent read J. Sargent. 

P. 13 b. Brown's Bible and some of his other 
works were much esteemed by the Evangelical 
party in England ; a long letter from him is in the 
' Life of Lady Huntingdon,' ii. 428. 

P. 22 a, Lancelot Brown. See Mason's 'Eng- 
lish Garden,' i. 538 ; Poulson's ' Holderness,' 
ii. 242 ; Gent. Mag., 1830, i. 89 ; Bohn's 
' Lowndes,' s. v. " Repton." 

P. 22 a, for J. C. " London" read J. C. London. 

P. 31, Thomas Brown. Some of his pieces are 
printed with Roscommon's 'Poems,' 1707, pp. 107-9. 
Le Clero's ' Dissertations on Genesis ' were " put 
into English by the well-known T. Brown, for the 
edification of the Deists in England" (1696), 
Leslie, ' Short Method,' 1815, p. 26. 

P. 40 a, Gylesland = Gilsland. 

P. 47 a, for " Fairleigh " read Fairlegh. 

P. 49 a, Isaac Hawkins Browne, jun. See W. 
Wilberforce's ' Life.' 

P. 53 a, Moses Browne. See the ' Life of Tho. 
Scott - and the various memoirs of John Newton. 

P. 54 a. An ' Examination ' of Browne's sermon 

7 b S. II. AUG. 7, '86.] 



on drinking, by a Country Curate of Ireland, ap- 
peared in 1714. 

P. 55. Sir Richard Browne was very active 
against the Quakers, and some curious notices of 
him occur in Sewel's 'Hist, of the Quakers,' 
p. 350, and in Besse's ' Sufferings,' 1738, ii. 268, 

P. 59 b. Dr. Henry Hammond mentions the 
two men who were hanged, ' View of the New 
Directory,' third ed., 1646, p. 46, and refers to 
Cambden, and Stow, p. 1174. 

P. 64 b. ' The Royal Charter ' has already been 
correctly assigned to Thomas Bayly, iii. 450 b. 

P. 75 a. Browne's ' Britannia's Pastorals,' edited 
by the Rev. H. Thompson, were reprinted, 12mo., 
Clarke, ] 845, and W. Tweedie, 337, Strand, n. d. 
See also Collier, ' Bibliog. CataL,' i. 90-92. 

P. 110 b. In Joseph Palmer's ' Disc, of Latter- 
Day Glory,' 1709, mention is made of a " book 
wrote concerning Mr. Bruce " and others in Scot- 
land, who "had extraordinary gifts of prophecy," 
p. 21. 

P. 114 b, 116 a, Bruce. See ' Whitby Chartu- 
lary,' Surt. Soc. 

P. 114 b, 116 a, "Guisburn," better Gisburn. 

P. 116 a, 128 b, " Hemingford," better Heming- 

P. 153 b. Jarvis Bryan was one of the Kidder- 
minster Committee of the Worcestershire Associa- 
tion of Ministers who signed the paper at the end 
of Baxter's 'Reform'd Pastor,' 1656. 

P. 154 b, for " Mews " read Mew. 

P. 155 a, for Ellis "Waller "read Walker. 

P. 183-^1, Claudius Buchanan. See Archdeacon 
F. Wrangbam's ' Sermon on Translation of the 
Scriptures into Oriental Languages,' preached be- 
fore the Univ. of Camb., 4to., Camb., 1807; some 
previously unpublished letters in Rev. J. T. Not- 
tidge's 'Corresp./ ed. by Rev. Charles Bridges, 
1849 ; see also ' Life of John Newton,' ' Life of 
Dean Milner.' 

P. 186. The printer of the ed. of Buchanan's 
' Poemata,' Amstel., Joan. Jansson, 1641, p. 561, 
says he has used in addition to the Edinb. ed., 
which is the best, " optimum manuscriptum a 
Doctiss. viro Gul. Geddeo nactua, quod eius frater 
loan. Geddeus dictante ipse Buchanano olim 
exaraverat." Buchanan and the Reformation, Dr. 
H. Hammond, ' Resisting Lawfull Magistrate,' 
1644, pp. 13, 19, 25, 26. 

P. 193 a, for " Irenes " read Icones. 

P. 200 b, " Colwell," better Colwall. 

P. 224, Eustace Budgell. Sheffield, Duke of 
Buckinghamshire, in his 'Election of a Poet 
Laureat in 1719,' says : 

Pert Budgell came next, and demanding the bays, 
Said, those works must be good which had Addison's 

praise ; 

But Apollo reply'd, Child Eustace, 'tis known, 
Most authors will praise whatsoever 'a their own. 

P. 224-5. Budgell also contributed to the 

P. 226 b, for "Shareshull" read SharesUll 

P. 228 a, Francis Bugg. See Smith's ' Catal. of 
Friends' Books,' i. 332-46. 

P. 232 b, after " Notes and Queries " insert 


P. 255 b. Bullock also took part in most of 
Farquhar's plays ; he is praised in the Guardian, 
No. 82. 

P. 256 a. The fourth ed. of Bullock's * Cata- 
logue' appeared in 1805, the seventeenth in 1816. 
He bought the armour from Green's Lichfield 
Museum in or before 1801 (Brayley's ' Illustrator,' 
384) ; the museum is described in C. C. Clarke's 
' Hundred Wonders of the World,' 1824 ; see also 
' N. & Q.,' 5 h S. Hi. 249, 284, 297,302,396, 451. 

P. 271-2, Bunny. See an important article on 
the Bunny family in Yorksh. Arch. Journ., 
iii. 8-25, and v. 273, &c. 

P. 283, Bunyan. W. Johnston, who in 1755 
issued the twenty-first ed. of the second part of 
the ' Pilgrim's Progress,' and therein denounced 
the third part as " an Impostor," also published 
in 1762, " ' Heart's Ease in Heart Trouble/ by J. 
Bunyan, Minister of the Gospel," which is clearly 
not his, as the preface is signed " J. B., March, 

P. 283. The Rev. C. Oyerton published ' Cot- 
tage Lectures on the " Pilgrim's Progress," ' two 
parts, 1847-9. 

P. 291 b. ' Reflections on Mr. Burchet's Me- 
moirs,' by Col. L. Lillingston ; ' Mr. Burchett's 
Justification of his Naval Memoirs,' in answer to 
Col. Lillingston. Both 8vo., Lond., 1704. 

P. 294, George Burder. See particulars in ' Life 
of Lady Huntingdon,' ii. 297. 

P. 296, Samuel Burder. The third ed. of his 
'Oriental Customs: applied to the Illustration of 
the Sacred Scriptures' appeared in 1841; he died 
while the second was in the press. He is described 
as D.D., lecturer of Christ Church, Newgate 
Street, and St. Leonard, Foster Lane. 

P. 304 a. John Osborne's ' Indictment against 
Tythes,' 1659, contains " Certain Reasons taken 
out of Doctor Burgess his Case, concerning the 
buying of Bishops Lands, which are as full and 
directly against Tythes, as to what he applied 
them," pp. 30-32. 

P. 307 a, line 11 from bottom, for "He was 
one " ought we not to read She was one ? 

P. 308. Anthony Burgess wrote a preface to 
Richard Vines's posthumous ' Treatise on the 
Sacrament,' dated " Sutton Coldfield, 20 Sep., 

P. 308. There is an amusing notice of Burgess's 
meeting-house in G. Farqubar's 'Works/ 1760, 
i. 30. 

P. 311 b. On Burgess's book about Morton see 
Stovel's ed. of Canne's 'Necessity,' 1849, p. Ixix, 



[7 th 8. II. AUG. 7, '86. 

sq. Dr. Wm. Ames also wrote ' A Fresh Suit 
against Human Ceremonies in God's Worship, or 
a Triplication unto D. Burgesse his Eejoinder for 
D. Morton,' 4to., 1633. 
P. 332 b, for " Kaine " read Raines. 
P. 400, 405. There is an ed. of Burnet's ' Tra- 
vels,' " Some Letters. Containing, An Account 
of what seemed most remarkable in Switzerland, 
Italy, &c. Written by G. Burnet, D.D., to 
T. H. R. B.," Rotterdam, Abraham Acher, 1686. 
Another, Amsterdam, Peter Savouret, 1687; re- 
printed 1750, and Edinb., 1752. M. Varillas 
wrote ' Reflexions ' on them in Latin, which were 
translated into English, 1688. Burnet's 'Defence 
of his Reflections on Varillas's [not Varelles, as 
405 b] Hist, of Heresies, with further Reflections,' 
2 vols., 12mo., Amsterd., 1687. ' Life of Bishop 
Burnet,' 1715. 

P. 400, 405. Reading Burnet's 'Hist, of his 
own Time ' was the chief cause of the great change 
in the opinions of Thomas Scott, the commentator, 
and led to his ' Force of Truth.' See his ' Life,' 
ch. iii. On a " bold and shocking affirmation " of 
Burnet's, see Blackwall, ' Sacred Classics,' third 
ed., 1737, i. 264. Dryden mentions his recom- 
mending Persius and Juvenal to his clergy. 
'Juvenal,' 1697, p. Iv. He was a correspondent 
of Limborch (Locke's 'Letters,' 1708) and of Leib- 
nitz (' Essais,' 1760). 
P. 404 a. Polemist ? 

P. 418, Charles Burney, D.D. T. W. C. Ed- 
wards, whose name is familiar as the editor of the 
' Eton Latin Grammar ' and author of a ' Latin 
and Greek Delectus,' was the mathematical master 
of Burney's school at Greenwich until 1812, and 
dedicated to his son, Charles Parr Burney, his ed. 
of the ' Hecuba,' 1822, q. v. On Charles Parr 
Burney, see Gent. Mag., 1816, ii. 55, and Ixxix. 
527, 852. 

P. 444 b, Edward Burrough. See Smith's 'Oatal. 
of Friends' Books,' i. 351-367. 

P. 446. The ' Apologeticall Narration' was 
printed in 1643. Thomas Edwards's reply was 
entitled ' Antapologia,' 1644. The 'Remonstrance' 
of the seven who refused to bring in to the Assem- 
bly their model of Church Government was printed 
in 1645, and the 'Answer' of the Assembly to 
that remonstrance was printed by order of Parlia- 
ment the same year. See also Dr. H. Hammond, 
'Resisting Lawfull Magistrate,' 1644, p. 24. 

P. 451. " Mr. Robert Burscough, of Totness, in 
Devon," was the "learned and pious friend " who 
supplied John Ray with some of the concluding 
remarks in his book on 'Creation' (seventh ed., 
1717, p. 368). There was also a William Burs- 
cough, D.D., Fellow of Wadham College, Oxon., 
and Chaplain to the Prince, who preached a Re- 
storation sermon before the Commons at St. Mar- 
garet's, May 29, 1716, printed the same year. 

W. C. B. 


(Continued from 6 th S. xii. 510.) 

In a great many Lapp tales the chief role is 
played by supernatural females ; their names are 
Gieddegaes-galggo or Gieddegas-akko, Haccis-aedne 
or Haccecan-nieidda, and Njavis-aedne or Njavican- 
nieidda. The first of these is always represented 
as a benevolent being. She is a very old, wise 
woman, who knows everything that has happened 
on the earth and can give advice to all. She plays 
exactly the same rule in the Lapp tales as Leski- 
akka (the Widow Woman) does in the Karelian. 
Like her, she also had been married, but after her 
husband's death she lived alone. She dwelt on 
the border between the cultivated and uncultivated 
land. Therefore she is called Giedde-gses-galggo 
(Meadow-end's-widow). When the hero in the 
tale is in trouble or doubt he always goes to 
Gieddegaes-galggo for advice. Perhaps she is the 
same as Mader-akka.t Haccis-redne is just the 
opposite, being a malevolent, wicked, and crafty 
troll- woman, who knows all sorts of tricks, and tries 
to steal honest women's positions. She answers to 
the Finnish Syojatar (Sea Giant). Njavis-sedne was 
good natured and beautiful, but stupid, and allowed 
himself to be easily deceived by Haccis-aadne. 

There were once two orphans, a boy and a girl. 
They built a house right out in an uninhabited 
place and lived there as well as they could. So it 
happened that the king's son came there. When 
he saw the girl he fell in love with her, and did not 
wish to leave her. At last there came a messenger 
from the king, and he was obliged to return to his 
father's palace. But when a year had passed the 
girl bore a child. When the king's son knew of 
it he sent a messenger bidding both brother and 
sister to come to him to the king's. But in order 

' Maga Lapponica, lappisk Troldkvindo. See ' Lexicon 
Ijapponicum,' Friis. 

f Jessen is the only author who mentions Mader-akka, 
and he says that the sign or token of this being is only 
to be found on the magic drums of the most skilled sor- 
cerers. On the drums where it is found it is made up of 
a triangle and a hexagon ; sometimes it appears as a pros- 
trate man. Both words in this name are pure Lapp. 
Mader is derived from made or mada, which means 
root, origin, foundation ; and the whole word signifies 
Earth Father, suggesting, as Prof. Friis points out, that 
;he Lapps worshipped the Earth as a god, and regarded 
t as the father of all living. See Friis, ' Lappisk 
Vlythologi,' p: 85, and Castren, ' Finsk Mytologi,' p. 89. 

J The incident of the exchanged bride is to be found 

n numerous stories, e.g., the Finnish story entitled ' The 

Vlaid who rose out of the Sea,' which is exceedingly like 

his, a little dog called " Pilkka " taking the place of the 

>aby. Another Finnish tale ' The Wonderful Birch,' 

which is a wild form of 'Cinderella,' tells how the 

witch's daughter, after being changed into a bridge, comes 

7"> S, II. AUG. 7, '86.] 



to get there they were obliged to cross the sea, so 
the lad prepared the boat and they set out. When 
they had gone a short way, Haccis-aedne came 
running down to the beach and shouted after them 
and begged them to allow her to come with them as 
a servant. The girl did not wish to do so. " Why 
should we not take her as a servant ? " asked the 
lad, and at last she obtained leave to go with them 
in the boat. The girl sat in the stern, the brother 
sat in the stem, and Haccis-aedne in the middle. 
So she could very well hear what the brother and 
Bister said to each other, whilst they could not 
hear each other. When they had rowed for a long 
time and a. long way they at last drew near to the 
king's palace. " Now you may put on your best 
clothes," said the lad to his sister, " for we are not 
far from the king's." "What does my brother 
say ? " asked the sister. " What does he say ? " 
replied Haccis-aedne. " He says you must put on 
your best clothes and jump into the water, and 
then you will become a golden duck." The sister 
ceased rowing and began to dress. When they 
had rowed a short time longer, the brother said 
again, " Make haste, sister, and get dressed in your 
best clothes, for we are now very near to the king's." 
" What does my brother say ? " asked the sister. 
" Your brother," replied Haccis-aedne, " says that 
you must put on your best clothes and jump into 
the water, and you will become a golden duck, and 
then the king's son will love you much more than 
ever." The sister did so. The brother wished to 
save her, but before he could find her she became 
a golden duck and swam away. Haccis-oedne 
took the child at once and put it to her breast. 
When they reached the beach, where the king's 
house was, people came to meet them and took 
Haccis-aedne and the child up to the king's house 
to the king's son. The brother dared not say any- 
thing, but next day he took the child and went 
down to the beach and began to sing : - 

Dear sister, 

Come to the beach ! 

The child is weeping, 

The cow ia mooing, 

Come to the beach !* 

to life again, and transforms the true queen into a reindeer. 
In the end she is recovered by her baby. Then there are 
Magyar tales which tell of a beautiful girl left in a tree 
until the prince goes home to get his love fit clothes to 
appear at court, and finds upon his return a dusky 
gipsy, who pretends the sun has darkened her complexion 
but all will be right in time. In one tale, ' The Widower 
and his Daughter,' the true bride becomes a golden duck, 
as in the Lapp story. Another Magyar story, ' The Two 
Orphans,' tells how a witch rubs her daughter with oint- 
ment and, lo ! she becomes exactly like the true queen, 
who is hurried off and thrown down a well, where she 
lives inside a whale, and is finally released through her 
brother's song, who, in the form of a deer, tells his sad 
story at the well mouth. 

* The Finnish story of ' The Wonderful Birch ' (vide 
tupra) has a similar song to call the reindeer-mother to 
her child : 

The gold duck at once came swimming toward the 
beach, and when the boy held the child out to it it 
became his sister, and she took the child and 
suckled it. And when she had suckled it she gave 
it back to her brother ; but when he tried to seize 
her she became a duck again and swam away over 
the sea. Then the boy returned with the child, 
and considered how to get back his sister. He 
could think of no better way than to go to Gied- 
degaes-gallgo to ask her advice. She advised him 
to make himself a lady's dress so that two men 
could wear it and yet appear to be one. Then they 
must go to the shore and shout 

Dear sister, 

Come to the beach ! 

The child is weeping, 

The cow is mooing, 

Come to the beach .' 

The lad did as Gieddegses-gallgo advised him. 
When the sister gave the child back to him, the 
other man, whom she could not see, seized her 
round the waist and held her fast. But she nearly 
got loose again. She changed in his hands at once 
into a snake, then to a gnat, then to a pair of 
tongs, then to a large frog ; but he would not let 
her go, but held her fast in his hands. So she 
became a woman again. They then wished to take 
her to the king's ; but she did not want to go 
there, however much they tried to talk her 
over, until Haccis-sedne was burnt up and every 
trace of her washed with sulphur,* fire, and 
water. Then the king's son made a large deep 
hole, and filled it with tar, and set fire to it. 
Then he invited Haccis-sedne to go for a walk 
with him and look at the fire. So they went. 
As they walked round the king's son contrived 
to get behind Haccis-sedne and pushed her into 
the tar pit, and she was burned. Then the king's 
son went back again and took his first beloved 
to wife, and the wedding was celebrated. Then I 
journeyed away and do not know anything that 
has happened since. W. HENRY JONES. 

Skirbeck Quarter, Boston, Lincolnshire. 
(To be continued.) 

THE BRANKS. A specimen of this instrument of 
punishment is preserved in the vestry of the parish 
church of St. Andrew's, Fifeshire, together with a 
cutty or cuttie stool, and the two are exhibited as 
curiosities at the present time. In the same 
church may be seen the monument of Archbishop 
Sharpe, assassinated at Magus Muir, near that 
city, in 1679. Though aware of the existence of 

Reindeer ! reindeer ! feeding in the swamp; 
Come, and take care of your child. 
Come, and see the child you have borne : 
For the witch's daughter has neither food nor drink, 
And cannot quiet its cries ! 

* See ' Magyar Folk-lore,' Folk-lore Journal, 1883, 
p. 361. 



[7< h S. II. AUG. 7, '86. 

branks in many collections in England, I did not 
know until the other day that the brank was 
formerly a punishment in vogue in Scotland. 
Halliwell, in his ' Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words,' gives the meaning of the word : 

"Branks. (1) An instrument formerly used for punish- 
ing scolds. It is of iron, and surrounds the head, while 
the mouth is gagged by a triangular piece of the same 
material. There is one still preserved in Newcastle. 
(2) A kind of halter or bridle, used by country people on 
the borders." 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

BACK=AGO, IN TIME PAST. This use of back 
has of late years become so general that it would 
be interesting to know at what date the word was 
first so used. The ' New English Dictionary ' cites 
Southey, 1796, but the following quotation is of 
somewhat earlier date : " This precaution, still 
more salutary than offensive, has for some years 
back been omitted " (' Memoirs of the Bastille,' 
1783, p. 46, ed. 1884). I hope this note will elicit 
still earlier evidence for the use of the word. 


(7 th S. i. 301), " When I find that Arcturus, in 
the constellation Bootes, is known in Arabic as 
Aramech ( = stabber), and further that Bootes is 
sometimes identified with Areas, son of Callisto, 
and in one account hunts and kills his mother, I 
strongly incline to think that the real murderer 
of St. Ursula is none other than Arcturus himself." 
If BROTHER FABIAN will refer to Lane's ' Arabic- 
English Lexicon,' pt. iii. p. 1153, he will see that 
the Arabic name of Arcturus is ar-Rami/i, and 
that this does not mean a stabber, but a spearsman, 
the spear or rumh being the star 77 in the left leg 
of Bootes. There is nothing whatever in the Arabic 
name of Arcturus on which the shadow of such a 
theory as that which BROTHER FABIAN has suggested 
can be based. The subject of star-nomenclature 
amongst Orientals has not yet received adequate 
treatment. Materials for its comprehensive study 
are in course of collection in M6lusine and in 
Punjab Notes and Queries, but we must wait a 
little longer before it will be safe to co-ordinate 
the star-myths of the East with the legends of the 
Western hagiologist. Mr. Lang, in his interesting 
and suggestive paper on the subject, has done little 
more than touch its fringe. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 


LONGFELLOW'S 'EXCELSIOR.' (See 3 rd S. xii. 
passim; 4 th S. i. 254.) As the Latinity of this 
poem has often been questioned in 'N. & Q.,' it 
may be well to insert its history, which is thus 
given in the lately published ' Life ' of Longfellow, 
vol. i. p. 384 : 

" One day Mr. Longfellow's eye fell upon a scrap of 
newspaper, a part of the heading of one of the New 

York journals bearing the seal of the State of New 
York, a shield, with a rising sun, and the motto in 
heraldic Latin, ' Excelsior.' At once there sprang up in 
his imagination the picture of the youth scaling the 
Alpine pass, bearing in his hand surely not the broad 
trailing banner with which the 'illustrators' have fur- 
nished him, but rather some slender pennant affixed to 
his alpenstock, sufficient to bear his chosen motto. This 
the poet made a symbol of the aspiration and sacrifice of 
a nobly ideal soul, whose words and aim are ' an un- 
known tongue ' to the multitude ; and who, refusing to 
listen to the cautions of experience or prudence, or 
to the pleadings of home affections, of woman's love, 
or of formal religion, presses on to a higher goal. That 
goal he does not perfectly attain in this life, but in 
dying still presses on to a higher beyond. The Latinity of 
the motto was questioned by some of the poet's friends 
at the time, and afterwards by critics, who thought it 
should be either excelsius or ad excelsiora. He at first 
thought excelsior justified by good Latin usage, but find- 
ing this was not really the case, he explained it more 
satisfactorily as part of the phrase, ' Scopus meus excel- 
sior est' my goal is higher. In truth he was not 
responsible for the borrowed Latin ; and evidently the 
word excelsior was the word the poem needed." 

21. Endwell Road, Brockley, S.E. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

spondent fix the date when the emblems of 
Christ's passion (a heart between hands and feet 
pierced with nails) ceased to be represented in 
churches and other ecclesiastical buildings 1 An 
instance is known to me where they are carved on 
the tomb said to have been erected to the memory 
of a man who died in 1595, though I have always 
considered that it belonged to a period long 
anterior to that date. Am I right in supposing 
that these emblems (one of the earliest of Chris- 
tianity) would hardly have been set up in Eng- 
land subsequently to the Keformation ? W. 

FRENCH TESTAMENT. A short time ago I 
picked up at a bookstall an old French Testament, 
unfortunately wanting the title-page, of which I 
should be glad if any one could give me the date 
and editor's or printer's, name. It is a thick 
16mo., the Testament occupying 888 pages, with 
some woodcuts of considerable spirit, and at the 
end 18 pp. more unnumbered, containing a table 
of the Gospels and Epistles to be read on Sundays 
and ftes, with indication of the various uses of 
Rome, Paris, and Meaux. Though for the use of 
Roman Catholics, it is not from the Vulgate, 
Rev. xxii. 14 running thus : " Bie'heureux sont 
ceux qui font ses commandements, a fin que leur 
puissance soit en 1'arbre de vie, et qu'ils entrent 
par les portes en la cite." The chapters are in- 

7'" S. II. AUG. 7, '86.] 



dicated, but not the verses. There are a few 
marginal references. The spelling is antiquated, 
but I am not expert enough to assign it to a 
particular period. It is not in black letter. 

B. W. S. 

A NORTHAMPTON VISITOR. In his entertain- 
ing book ' De Spiritualibus Pecci,' 8vo., 1702, 
containing notices of ministers in the High Peak 
of Derbyshire, Bagshaw alludes to the Rev. John 
Rowlandson, Vicar of Bakewell from 1615, and 
Prebendary of Sandiacre in the cathedral of Lich- 
field from 1617-8 up to the civil troubles, as one 
whose countenance carried and called for rever- 
ence : 

" Insomuch that one who was not called Wiliest, what- 
ever other name he bore, when this grave Divine was on 
the Road with his own Father, is said to ride before 'em 
to raise the poor of a considerable Town (Northampton) 
with this Cry. that my Lord Bishop was at hand." 
Pp. 6, 7. 

Walker (' Sufferings,' ii. 41) was not aware of the 
date of Kowlandson's death and the date of his 
successor's appointment in the vicarage of Bakewell 
in 1668 (Cox, iv. 493). The Commonwealth 
Church Survey of 1650 under Bakewell terms 
him a grave and reverend divine. Is there any 
other account of the Northampton episode ? 

Stretford, Manchester. 

don in 1755-6 presented to Sir William Pepperell 
a large and valuable service of plate on the occa- 
sion of his success in the capture of Louisbourg 
from the French. Is this plate in existence; or 
can any one give any information respecting it ? 

J. P. B. 

BONGS. There is a small property covered with 
cottages in a village five miles from Liverpool 
which is called Little Bongs. The next field is 
Big Bongs, but the names have dropped into dis- 
use, and are only to be found in the title-deeds. 
Can any one help me to discover the meaning and 
derivation of Bongs ? There is a place called 
Thingwall within a quarter of a mile, which sug- 
gests a Danish settlement. E. P. B. 

"MORBUS GALLICUS." Why was scrofula 
anciently called the morbus Gallicut ? J. M. 

CEDAR. In his account of the Barber-Sur- 
geons' Hall, Hatton says, p. 697, that the theatre 
was "fitted with four degrees of cedar seats." 
What wood does that mean, Abies Cedrus, or 
what ? The wood of that tree is said to have been 
taken from buildings perfectly sound after a lapse 
of two thousand years. But is it likely that Inigo 
Jones could have obtained any such wood as that 1 
There are two fine specimens of colonial cedar now 
in the Exhibition ; but they appear to me to have 
nothing to do with the grand cedar known to the 

old world for its imperishableness and that fine 
perfume that keeps insects from attacking it. 

C. A. WARD. 
Haverstock Hill. 

some of your readers kindly give me the descent 
of Sir Thomas Salkeld, from Aldigitba, wife of 
Maldred Fitz-Crinan, and his connexion with the 
Nevilles of Kaby, showing the Scotch and Saxon 
extraction of both houses, with dates as far as 
possible ? ILEX. 

origin of this office; and are there any duties 
attached to it now ? Was it held by any one 
previous to the first Lord de Blaquiere ? 


HAWTHORN BLOSSOM. There exists a supersti- 
tion in some parts of England that it is unlucky 
to take either hawthorn or blackthorn blossom 
into a house. Which is it ? 


HUGUENOTS. Can any reader of *N. & Q.' 
inform me where I can find information about the 
advent of Huguenot and Flemish refugees to the 
Stroud Valley, Gloucestershire ? E. D. 

SPONG. There is a piece of moated ground by 
the river Stour at Flatford known by the name 
of the Spong. What is the meaning of the word ? 
The moat, though close to the river side, remains 
entire ; the ground is now overgrown with trees 
and low underwood. I cannot see any remains of 
building. H. A. W. 

" LARKS LIVE ON LEEKS." What does this 
expression mean ? I find it in Theodore Hook's 
'Parson's Daughter," vol. i. cb. xi.: "He was 
not one of those sighing swains who, the proverb 
says why, nobody has ever exactly ascertained 
' live on love, as larks on leeks.' " DEFNIEL. 


HERTS'. What is the Peter nerve" Society ? I 
read that in 1836 Jean Marie Delattre, an en- 
graver, was a pensioner on it. Where was its 
locale ? Does it now exist ? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

JOHN DYER. Some years ago Dr. Grosart, I 
believe, issued a prospectus for a new edition of 
Dyer's poems ; it was to contain extracts from 
Dyer's papers which would enable the editor to 
give for the first time " an adequate memoir " of 
the poet. Has such an edition ever appeared ; and, 
if so, when ? Can any of your readers refer me to 
some trustworthy sources of information bearing 
on Dyer's life? Willmott's edition I know. A 
memoir of the poet appeared in the Universal 
Magazine, April, 1793. Is it to be relied on ? 



[7 th S. II. AUG. 7, '8 

Some of- Dyer's letters are given in Hughes's col- 
lection (1773). Where could I find others 1 Any 
information on these points would be welcome. 

Trinity Coll., Cambridge. 

DIGHTON. Denis Dighton was a battle painter, 
son of Robert Dighton, and born in London 1792. 
His father died in Spring Gardens 1814. Was 
Denis born there ? C. A. WARD. 

MINIATURES. Two miniatures which I have 
lately come across were apparently painted in 1829 
by an artist named Chalons at a cost of twenty 
guineas each. Who was this artist ? Is anything 
known of him ? Are his works of any interest or 
value? J. H. G. 

[No fewer than four painters of the name of Chalon, 
not Chalons, were exhibiting at the period you mention, 

A. E. Chalon, R.A., J. J. Chalon, R.A., H. B. Chalon, 
and Miss M. A. Chalon, afterwards Mrs. H. Moseley. 
We know of no English painter named Chalons.] 

VITRUVIUS. I have before me a print from a 
metal plate which, from its size (small folio) and 
general appearance, I Suppose to have been in- 
tended for a frontispiece to the works of Vitruvius. 
It repesents Callimachus in the act of sketching the 
basket, &c., which suggested to him the so-called 
Corinthian capital. An obelisk or pyramid oc- 
cupies the background, on the upper part of which 
is the date 1517. I omit minor details of the 
print, below the margin of which, in type characters, 
is the inscription : " Het Corinthische Capiteel 
door Callimachus gevonden. Vitruv. Lib IV. 
Kap. I." 

What I wish to know is whether the print I 
have described is known to form an illustration to 
any edition of Vitruvius. If the date upon it 
indicate the period of its publication, I should 
imagine it to be the work of Pierre Koeck, or 
engraved for him. Pierre Koeck, a distinguished 
painter, a very full account of whom appears in 
the ' Biographic Universelle,' vol. xxii. (1818), is 
there stated to have translated into Flemish the 
works of Vitruvius, and is referred to as an engraver 
on wood. He flourished from 1490 to 1550, and 
studied in Italy. I should state that the print I 
have described is thoroughly Italian in character 
and execution. As regards Koeck's translation of 
Vitruvius, I have not been able to find any account 
of it, but it would be interesting to know the date 
at which it appeared. At the last meeting of the 
Architectural Association, in a paper read by Mr. 

B. L. Cox, a great deal of information was given 
concerning Vitruvius and his writings, and it was 
stated that the first translation of the latter was 
published in Italy in 1521, in France in 1547, in 
Germany in 1548, in Spain in 1602, in England 
in 1692, but no allusion was made to the Flemish 
translation. F'Jit that not have been the first 
published] -j- DERF. 

SIR JAMES WARE. I should be obliged to 
any one who would tell me anything about this 
writer, and more especially as to the historical value 
of his book ' De Hibernia Disquisitiones ' (second 
ed., Lond., 1658, small 8vo.). E. W. B. 

[Information concerning him is to be found in the 
' Biographical Dictionary ' of Chalmers ; in the ' Nou- 
velle Biographic Universelle ' of Dr. Hoefer ; and in 
Watt, ' Bibl. Brit.'] 

VON BARBY FAMILY. In a copy of your paper 
which I saw yesterday for the first time, I find you 
answer questions about families. In an old family 
tree it appears that one of my husband's ancestors 
went over to England, and there got the Order of 
the Garter ; and the other day I was told that a 
family of our name, and with the same arms, re- 
sided in Northumberland. I should like to learn 
if such a family is known in those parts. 


Zerbst, Anbalt, Germany. 

BOOKS ON THE PLAGUE. I shall feel much 
obliged for the titles and description of works 
relating to the plague. Extracts from parish 
registers will also be of great service to me. 


9, Torbay Road, Willesden Lane, Eilburn. 

NAPOLEON PRINTS, &c. I should be glad to 
know what has become of the extensive collection 
of Napoleon prints, &c., formed by the late J. 
Saintsbury, who wrote a valuable and exhaustive 
work entitled 'The Napoleon Museum,' Lond., 
1845. W. ROBERTS. 

'MORGEN ROTH.' Who is the author of the 
words of this well-known German song ] A Teu- 
tonic friend assures me Wilhelm Hauff is the man. 
I feel sure my friend is wrong. One of your cor- 
respondents will doubtless put him or me right. 



GHENT TO Aix.' It appears from answers in 
'N. &Q.,'5 h S. i. 71, 174, 298, 418, _ that this 
poem is not based on any historical incident. If 
this be so it is, I suppose, useless to ask what was 
the good news and why did they bring it. But 
can Mr. Browning's narrative be explained by any 
imaginary circumstances ? It is evident that Aix 
was reduced to the greatest straits. There was but 
one measure of wine left in the city. The natural 
idea is that Aix was besieged. But if so, how 
could a horseman gallop into the town without let 
or hindrance ? Is there any explanation ? 

G. G. G. 

PARISH REGISTER LOST. Knowlton is a small 
village near Sandwich. In 1813 a return was 
made of the parish registers in this diocese, and I 
find on consulting these returns that at Knowlton 
volume No. 1 extended from February 29, 1711, 

7* S. II. AUG. 7, '86., 



to October 31, 1748. In 1831 a parliamentary 
return was made, and No. 1 of the Knowlton re- 
gisters was included in that. Since 1831 this 
volume has disappeared. What has become of it ? 
But this is not all. There was at some time an 
earlier No. 1 than that about which I am inquir- 
ing, for the transcripts of this earlier volume ex- 
tend back to about the year 1564. The most 
curious thing, however, about the missing volume 
(1711-48) is that every transcript relating to this 
period has disappeared, and the boxes which should 
have contained the transcripts are filled up with 
blank paper ! J. M. COWPEB. 


I have sought in vain for some time past for the 
original armorial bearings of this ancient Irish sept, 
and should be grateful to any contributor to 
' N. & Q.' who could put me on the way to their 
discovery. Sir Bernard Burke kindly informs me 
that no such arms have ever been registered to his 
knowledge; but that is nodisprover of their exist- 
ence. I may add that the clan dates from the 
remotest times, is referred to on almost every page 
of the Four Masters, and its head was lord and 
chief of the ancient barony of Tullaghan, in county 
Cavan. J. B. S. 


readers of old charters, &c., for any references to 
the name of the above abbey between the years 
960 and 1146 ? A. E. P. K. BOWLING. 

ESSAY WANTED. Where can I obtain Lord 
Carlingford's essay on ' The Effects of the Norman 
Conquest,' written for the Lord Chancellor's prize 
in 1846 1 C. I. T. 


'Napoleon J in the other World. | ANarrative | written 
by Himself : | and found near bis tomb | in the | Island 
of St. Helena, | by Xonga-Tee-Poh-Tchi, | Mandarin of 
the Third Class.' | London : | Henry Colburn, New Bur- 
lington Street. | 1827. I picked up this rather extra- 
ordinary work some little time ago. Is it of any value 1 

I have seen how the pure intellectual fire 

In luxury loses its heavenly ray, 
And how in the languishing soul of desire 
The feast of the soul is melted away. 

[This reads like Tom Moore.l 

That eagle's fate and mine are one, 

Who on the shaft that made him die 
Espied a feather of his own, 
Wherewith he wont to soar on high. 

W. P. 

[The idea is, of course, to be found in ^Eschylus's 
' Fragments.' See Plumptre's translation, ii. 231. Its 
use by Byron in ' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers ' 
is, also of course, well known.] 


(7 th S. ii. 7.) 

The best-known MS. in which these extra 
verses are found at xx. 28 is the famous 
uncial' D, the Codex Bezae, where they occur 
both in Greek and Latin. This MS., it is well 
known, is remarkable for its additions, as at 
St. Matt: vi. 33. The addition is also found in 
various Latin MSS. which are collated by Tre- 
gelles (see note ad loc.). It is also in the Syriac 
(Crt. and Hcl.). The Greek text from D is given 
by Tischendorf in his larger edition (Lips., 1869), 
but I am not aware of any common edition in 
which the Latin is printed simply from this MS., 
and I will therefore beg leave to transcribe it 
from Mill's note ('Nov. Test.,'fol., Amst., 1746): 

" Vos autem quseritis de minimo crescere, et de magno 
minui. Introeuntes autem et rogati ccenare, ne dis- 
cubueritis in eminentibus locis, ne forte dignior te super- 
veniat, et accedens ccunie invitator dicat tibi; adhuc 
deorsum accede, et confundaris. Si autem discubueris 
in minimum locum, et superveniat minor te, dicet tibi 
invitator ccetiae : Collige adhuc superius ; et crit tibi 
hoc utile." 

In reference to the Anglo-Saxon versions, Mill 
observes : " Versio Sax. in exemplaribus MSS. 
quibusdam haec ipsa habet." 

If it is desired to trace further the occurrence in 
Anglo-Saxon MSS., reference may be made to the 
dissertation in the "Prolegomena" to * Quarti 
Saeculi Poetarnm Christianorum Opera,' ed. Migne, 
Par., 1846, where at sec. 120, p. 50, it is referred 
to. The subject is also treated in the notes at 
p. 266, inasmuch as Juvencus adopts the addition 
('Evang. Hist.,' lib. iif. vv. 612-620'). 

St. Leo was also acquainted with the addition, 
for whereas one of the readings of the Latin MSS. 
in Tregelles has "vos autem queeritis de pusillo 
crescere," he, after citing v. 26, goes on : " Et 
tamen haec illis tune insinuabantur qui de pusillo 
volebant crescere "('Ep. ad Pulcheriam Augustam 
de Ambitu Anatolii,' ep. cv. al. xxix., in Hurter, 
' Opusc. SS. PP.,' ser. i. torn. xxvi. p. 79, Oen., 

The addition is also examined by Mill in the 
"Prolegomena" of his edition of the Greek Testa- 
ment, 256, 768, 1275. ED. MARSHALL. 

It cannot be necessary to point out to PROF. 
SKEAT that the Greek equivalent of these addi- 
tional sentences between vv. 28 and 29 of Matt. xx. 
is in the Codex Cantabrigiensis, and is given by 
Alford in loco. It is well known that that codex 
is "closely and singularly allied to the ancient 
Latin versions, so much so that some critics 
have supposed it to have been altered from the 
Latin," and most of these versions contain the 
passage in question. In the ' Evangeliarium 
Quadruplex Latin* Versionis Antiquse seu Veteris 



[7 th S. II. Atio. 7, '86. 

Italicse,' edited by Joseph Bianchini of Verona, and 
published at Rome in 1748, there is the following 
note on the Codex Corbejensis in loco : 

" MS. Codex Monaaterii Sancti Andreae secus Avenio- 
nem idem retinet additamentum, sed nitidiori stylo in 
liiinc modum : ' Vos autem quasritis de pusillo creacere, 
et de magnis majorea ease. Intrantes autem ad coenam 
nolite recumbere in locis emirientibus, ne forte clarior 
te superveniat, et accedena qui ad cosnam vocavit te, 
dicat tibi : Adhuc deorsum accede, et confundaris. Si 
autem in loco inferior! recubueris, et aupervenerit 
humilior te, dicet tibi qui te ad coenam invitavit : Accede 
adhuc sursum. Et hoc erit tibi utilius.' Insignius non 
eat in toto Mattbaei voluruitie additamentum, propter 
Virorum doctorum quaeationea fatnosiaaimas quibua ven- 
tilatum eat. Legebant illud Juvencus Presbyter ac S. 
Hilarius in suia Exemplaribus Evangelicia : at Leo 
Magnus nihil ampliua additum habuisae videtur in suo 
Evangelico volumine praeter ea quae retinet MS. noater 
San-Gerraanenaia. Coasule Adnotationea noatraa acriptas 
in Versionem Italicam Sancti Mattbaei, ubi de hoc 
asaumeuto abunde disputavimus. 1 ' 

The reading of the Codex Veronensis as regards the 
above passage differs from that quoted in the follow- 
ing particulars. In the first sentence it reads " de 
minore "instead of " de magnis"; in the second it 
inserts " et rogati " after " intrantes autem"; and 
near the end it reads " vocavit " instead of 
"invitavit" (i. e., ad ccenam). The passage, it is 
obvious, reads like an adaptation from memory of 
Luke xiv. 7-10. W. T. LYNN. 


The words inserted between vv. 28 and 29 of 
the twentieth chapter of St. Matthew are found in 
the Graeco-Latin Codex D preserved in the Cam- 
bridge University Library, known also as the 
Codex Bezae, from the fact of its having been pre- 
sented to the University in 1581 by Theodore 
Beza. The manuscript is 'marked by many addi- 
tions to the received text. Perhaps the most re- 
markable is that which occurs after St. Luke, 
vi. 6 : 

" On the same day, seeing one working on the Sabbath, 
He said to him, man, if indeed thou knoweat what 
thou doest thou art bleaaed ; but if thou knoweat not, 
thou art accursed, and a transgressor of the law." 

South Shields Vicarage. 

These verses are found in the Latin of Codex D 
(with the corresponding Greek in the parallel 
column) and in a large proportion of MSS. of the 
Vulgate. A full list of these will be found in Dr. 
Scrivener's 'Plain Introduction to the Criticism oi 
the New Test.,' c. ix. sec. 6, p. 576, ed. 1883. 

Q. v. 

ANIMATED HORSEHAIRS (7 th S. ii. 24). In my 
native county (Roxburgh) and other places as well 
it is a common belief, among the juveniles at least 
that if a horsehair is put into water it will by-and- 
by turn into a "ram par eel," that is, a lamprey 
As boys, sixty years since, we made various ex 

jeriments on horsehairs by laying them in small 
Dools of water, and watching them from day to 
Jay. Need I say that we never got any of them to 
ive, but we got them in such a condition that, aa 
we phrased it, we could " take the skin off them "; 
the fact being that the hair left in still water ac- 
quired to itself a thin film all round, and after a 
week or two of this condition it was quite easy to 
draw the hair out of this apparent skin. Our ex- 
planation of failure to get a hair living was that it 
bad not been allowed to remain long enough in the 
water, for, we reasoned as boys, it had got a skin, 
and surely a head would grow and life come too 

In connexion with this matter I may mention 
that I have several times seen in very shallow 
roadside pools living creatures apparently of the 
tribe five or six inches long and as slender as a 
horsehair. On taking them up in the hand they 
wriggled and twisted about in all sorts of ways, 
and examination showed them to possess a very 
minute head. I am not naturalist enough to 
know whether these were young eels or what class 
they belong to, but it is possible their hair appear- 
ance may have given rise to the belief of horsehairs 
turning into eels. 0. 

Unlike the third Editor of <N. & Q.,' the 
original Editor was not indisposed to accept 
a communication respecting the modern belief 
in a remarkable instance that horsehairs could 
be changed into eels. In noticing a previous 
reference upon this subject from a lady cor- 
respondent, S. M. S., so valued a contributor as 
MR. B. PEACOCK gave a long extract (2 nd S. vi. 
486-7) from the 'Life and Correspondence of 
Robert Southey,' edited by his son-in-law, 1850 
(vol. iv. p. 35), evincing the belief of Southey and 
Wordsworth in the transformation, and minutely 
describing the process of change. MR. PEACOCK 
had repeated the experiment which they had seen 
tried with a different result, so that " he could 
not help thinking that the poets were the victims 
of a practical joke." 

One more instance of the adoption of this 
fancy besides those mentioned by Mr. Halliwell- 
Phillipps may be given from an accredited writer. 
Fuller observes : 

" Besides, what is observed of horsehairs, that lying 
nine days in water they turn to snakes ; ao some cere- 
monies though dead at first, in continuance of time 
quicken, get stings and may do much mischief," &c. 
' The Holy State,' bk. II. ch. vi. sec. 4, p. 71, Cambridge, 


I was familiar with this bit of folk-lore from 
sixty to seventy years ago, when residing in my 
native south-east of Cornwall ; and I remember 
that the water which fell as rain on a church, or 
on the leads of the tower thereof, was held to 
be peculiarly efficacious in bringing about the 

7"> 8. II. AUG. 7, '86.] 


animation of the hair. This subject fans previously 
occupied ' N. & Q.,' see 2 nd S. vi. 322, 486. I 
have this day met with three persons from the 
Midlands acquainted with the subject. 


It is really surprising how widely spread over 
Europe the belief is that horsehairs falling into 
the water will become living creatures in due 
course of time. I have met with the superstition 
in Germany, and a friend of mine told me that 
Russian peasants had shown him swimming in a 
bottle a lively horsehair which they had taken out 
of lake Ladoga. I have known educated persons 
in Germany who kept horsehairs in bottles filled 
with water and shook them from time to time to 
see whether life had not come to them yet, and 
whose hope and faith and want of all scientific 
training was such that they felt sure the horsehair 
was just beginning to swim with spontaneous 
motion, and were irritated by my scepticism. A 
German emigrant in North America assured me 
solemnly that he had tried the experiment with 
perfect success. The superstition is based on the 
existence of a filiform worm Gordius aquaticus, 
which is found in stagnant pools and is not unlike 
a wriggling horsehair. ARTHUR RUSSELL. 


Miss BUSK'S conjecture that "hair worms" 
may take up their abode within the " tube of the 
horsehair " is ingenious. But if the hair of a horse 
is not solid it forms a curious exception to the rule. 
Surely the appearance of the hair moved by the 
flowing water sufficiently accounts for the belief. 


It was a common belief amongst my school- 
fellows in Newcastle-on-Tyne that a horsehair 
placed in water would become an eel. See Hen- 
derson's 'Folk-lore of the Northern Counties,' p. 28. 

Skirbeck Quarter, Boston. 

STREANAESHALCH (7 th S. i. 150, 214, 255, 
375, 413, 490; ii. 50). MR. ATKINSON'S note 
has advanced the discussion by a distinct 
stage. " The real difficulty," as he says, lies in 
Bede's interpretation, sinus /art. He urges with 
an authority which few will dispute that the halch 
in Streanaeshalch is the equivalent of Chaucer's 
halke, a ravine or gully, and of the Northumbrian 
heugh. This, therefore, may be the word which 
Bede translated by sinus. But as to fari he can 
only affirm his belief "that there is a mistake 
somewhere." The mistake must have arisen out 
of some word which Bede or his informant con- 
founded with Pharos. I would suggest that a 
solution of the difficulty is supplied by the O.N. 
fjara, which means strand, beach, or foreshore, and 
is an exact equivalent of the "strand" from 

which the ancient Liberty and Wapentake of 
Whitby Strand derives its name. Wapentakes 
and hundreds are named, as a rule, from the 
spot at which the hundredmen, by immemorial 
usage, assembled in their moot. In the case of 
the Wapentake of Whitby Strand the meeting- 
place seems to have been the "strand" or fjara, 
to which access was obtained by the halch or 
gully which gave the name to Streanaeshalch. 
This halch-fjara, as Whitby Strand would be 
called before the new name came into use, sup- 
plies a form which may have been translated 
sinus fari by Bede's informant, probably a monk 
of Whitby, while Bede may have supposed it to 
be a translation of Streanaeshalch. 

As for Streanaes, the first part of this name, 
the explanations hitherto given are all open to 
objection. To the obvious supposition that it is 
a proper name the difficulty attaches that no 
such proper name occurs among the thousands of 
Teutonic names which are known to us. The 
nearest approach to it that I can discover is the 
O.H.G. Strinzo, which occurs only once, in a Fulda 
charter dated in 838 A.D. If a proper name, it 
would be in the genitive, and the genitive would 
end in an or possibly in es, but hardly in aes. 
Moreover, if halch denotes a waterless ravine, and 
not a house, a proper name as a prefix would be 
inappropriate and improbable. The spelling nces, 
however, is exactly that which a " ness " would 
take. I cannot agree with MR. ATKINSON as to 
the non-existence of a ness. The Ordnance map 
shows plainly that the reef known as Whitby 
Rock extends into the sea for a mile to the north 
of the cliff on which the Abbey stands. It is quite 
as much of a ness as Ketelness, Bay-Ness, Sand- 
end-Ness, Scalby-Ness.or any other ness along the 
neighbouring coast. The objections to explaining 
Streanaes as " Straw-ness " are obvious. But if, 
as we should always do in such cases, we search 
for the guidance of analogous names, we find in 
the ' Landmimabok ' of Iceland two capes called 
Straumnes, both of which are proved by the modern 
map to have been so called from the " stream " or 
tide-race flowing past them. The Anglian form of 
the Icelandic Straumnes would be Strdamnses, 
which is almost identical with the Streanaes of 
Streanaeshalch. The loss of the m has, however, 
to be accounted for. In the middle of a word m 
has a tendency to fall out before n, as in the case 
of septenus and novenus for septemnus and novem- 
nus, while the Domesday Domniton became Don- 
yngton as early as 1285. The loss of the m would 
be aided by the accent in the case of the trisyllable 
Streamnaeshalch. The Streurnnaes would be so 
called either from the tidal race setting past the 
point, or from the fact that the Esk, which here 
enters the sea, is the only considerable " stream " 
which debouches along the whole Yorkshire coast 
between the Humber and the Tees. 



[7 th S. II. ATTG. 7, '86. 

This explanation, I venture to think, suits all 
the local conditions ; it satisfies the analogy of the 
Icelandic names ; it avoids the hypothesis of a 
personal name absolutely unknown ; and only re- 
quires the supposition of the loss of a letter which 
would very readily fall out. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

MR. ATKINSON states that he looks upon healch, 
halch, hale, halgh, as simply equivalent to modern 
hauch, haugh, another form of which is heuch, 
heugh. I do not agree that heugh is an alternative 
form of haugh. In Northumberland and the Scottish 
border there are numerous place-names of both these 
terminations, and the difference between them is 
very wide. Haugh, which may be A.-S. haga, an en- 
closed meadow, is applied to low-lying flat land on 
the side of a stream. Heugh, on the contrary, is a 
hill-side, or a rugged steep, or a fissure in a hill- 
side, and seems to suggest a possible derivation 
from A.-S. heafian, to elevate. In Northumber- 
land the gh in both words is pronounced as /, 
haugh being pronounced like half, and heugh as 
hewf. But possibly this pronunciation is a modern 
softening of guttural gh. In proceeding south- 
wards from Northumberland these words as com- 
ponents of place-names both disappear in the 
county of Durham before we reach the Tees. In 
that county the most southern haugh I know of 
is Chartershaugh, on the Wear ; and the most 
southern heugh is, I believe, the lighthouse cliff 
at Hartlepool. MR. ATKINSON is correct in de- 
fining heugh to be "a precipitous bank above"; 
but I think he is mistaken about haugh being "an 
alluvial sloping bank below." There is no slope in 
a haugh; it is absolutely flat. 

I say nothing as to whether the last part of 
Streanaeshalch is or is not heugh or haugh. I only 
wish to point out that these words must not be 
assumed to be identical. J. V. GREGORY. 


BRITANNIA (7 th S. i. 361, 422 ; ii. 10). The 
identification of the Cassiterides Islands has often 
proved ^a difficulty. Heylyn, in his 'Cosmo- 
graphie,' 1682, makes the following remarks re- 
specting them in his sixth article upon the " lesser 
islands " of Britain : 

" From this abundance of Tin, the Grecians, when 
they came to know them, called them Cassiterides; (Cas- 
siteros in that language signifying Tin) accordingly 
Herodotus affirmed that he knew not those islands called 
Cassiterides, from whence Tin was brought. The rich- 
ness of this commodity, the pleasures of the place, and the 
Western situation of them makes many of the Grecians 
call them Hesperides, mistaking them for the Fortunate 
islands. By Solinus they are called Silures ; as before is 
said ; Sigdeles in the corrupt copies of Antonius ; insulse 
Sillinae, by Severus Sulpitius : from whence we have the 
name of the isles of Scilly." 

The fact of Herodotus ('Thalia,' 115) being ig- 
norant of the position of these islands should not 
militate against the identity of the Cassiterides 

with the Scilly Isles. Strabo (lib. iii.) says that 
the Cassiterides consisted of ten islands, and Hey- 
lyn gives the names of ten more esteemed than the 

With reference to the name of Albion, it is very 
probable that many readers of ' N. & Q.' have 
not seen the account of its origin as given by 
Caxton in his 'Chronicles' of 1480. The full 
details would occupy too much of your space. I 
will, therefore, copy a few lines only. It would 
appear that a certain King Diocletian had many 
married daughters, the eldest of whom was called 
Albyne. Upon some provocation by their hus- 
bands they agreed among themselves that they 
would murder them, which was accordingly done. 
The king, enraged at their wickedness, directed 
that they should all be 

" brent ; but the barons and lordes of Sirrie counceilled 
not so for to do suche sternesse to his owne daughters 
but only should voide the land of hem for evermore BO 

that they neir sholde come agene And Dioclitian that 

was hir fadre anone commanded hem to gone into shipp 
and delivered to hem vitailles for half a yere. And whan 
this was done all the sustren went into the shipp and 
sailed forth in the see and bitoke all hir frendes to 
Appolyn that was hir god. And so long they sailed in 
the see till at the last they come and arrived in an yle 
that was all wyldernesse. And wen dame Albyne was 
come to that londe,and all hir sustrees, this Albyne went 
forth out of the shipp and said to hir othir sustrees, For 
as moche quothe she as I am the oldest suster of all this 
companie and fyrste this land have taken and for as moche 
as my name is Albyne I will that this londe be called 
Albion after myne owne name, and anone all hir sustren 
graunted to hir wyth a good vvyll." 


The Observatory, Crowborough". 

HAM (7 th S.i. 427; ii. 11). May I take the 
liberty of disputing the appropriateness of this 
question so far as West Somerset is concerned? 
As a native of West Somerset, and always familiar 
with it, I do not remember any village or hamlet 
terminating so except one very small and modern 
hamlet in Old Cleeve. On referring to Savage's 
' History of Carhampton Hundred,' a work which 
treats of every detail on the whole of West Somer- 
set, which borders on North Devon, I find only 
one referred to Langham, a manor in Luxborough. 
This must be an obscure, if not obsolete, name, as 
it must be within a few miles of my native place, 
and I do not know it excepting as recorded by 
Savage. W. SYMONS. 


This term is in frequent use in Worcestershire 
and, I believe, in the neighbouring counties (besides 
North Devon and West Somerset). It seems to 
be applied to large pieces of pasture, particularly 
those used as common land, i. e., Kempsey Ham, 
and Powick or Powyke Ham, in Worcestershire. 
I beg, however, respectfully to differ from some of 
your correspondents in thinking that the term ham, 
is usually applied to a river peninsula. W. H. 

7"- S. II. AUG. 7, '86.] 



(7 to S, i. 508). Camden says : 

" Bradford belonged to John of Gaunt, who granted 
to John Northrop of Manningham, an adjoining village, 
and his heirs, three messuages, and six bovates of land 
to come to Bradford on the blowing of a horn on St. 
Martin's Day in winter, and wait on him and his heirs 
in their way from Blackburnshire, with a lance and 
hunting dog for thirty days, to have for yeomans-board, 
one penny for himself, and a halfpenny for his dog, &c., 
for going with the receiver or bailiff to conduct him safe 
to the Castle of Pontfract. A descendant of Northrop 
afterwards granted land in Horton to Rushworth of 
Horton, to hold the hound while Nortlirop's man blew 
the horn. These are called Hornman or Horblow lands, 
and the custom is still kept up : a man coming into the 
market place with a horn, halbert and dog, is met by the 
owner of the lands in Horton. After proclamation made, 
the former calls out aloud, ' Heirs of Rushwortb, come 
hold me my hound whilst I blow three blasts of my horn 
to pay the rent due to our sovereign lord the king.' He 
then delivers the string to the man from Horton and 
winds his horn thrice. The original horn is still pre- 
served, though stripped of its silver ornaments." 

Camden does not allude to any church at Bradford. 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

(7 th S. ii. 28). The descendants of this ill-fated 
nobleman are practically countless, through his 
daughter, the Lady Anne Wentworth, who married 
Edward Watson, second Baron Eockingham. The 
chief lines of descent are as follow : 

1. Rockinghatn, became extinct in the male 
line 1782. 

2. Catherine Watson, m. Edward Southwell, 
Esq., aquo Edward Southwell Russell, twenty- 
fourth Baron de Clifford. 

3. Margaret Watson, m. Sir John, first Baron 
Monson, aquo William John, seventh Baron 

4. Geo. Watson Millea, present Earl of Sondes. 

5. Anne Watson Wentworth, m. William, third 
Earl FitzWilliam, aquo William Thomas Spencer 
Wentworth FitzWilliam, fourth earl, living 1886. 

These distinguished families represent several 
branches or foundations of the Wentworth line, 
but there are numerous other direct descendants, 
through females, not in any specific line of in- 
heritance. A. HALL. 

He left five children : William, second earl, 
who died issueless in 1695 ; Anne, married Ed- 
ward, Earl of Rockingham (whose heir is the pre- 
sent Earl Fitzwilliam) ; Arabella, wife of the Hon. 
John McCarthy, about whom I can give no in- 
formation ; Thomas and Mary, both of whom died 
unmarried. HERMENTRUDE. 

By his first wife, Lady Margaret Clifford, he 
had no issue ; by his second wife, Lady Arabella 
Holies, he had three children, viz., William, his 
successor ; Anne, who married Edward Watson, 
second Baron Rockingham ; and Arabella, who 

married Justin McCarthy, third son of Donogh, first 
Earl of Clancarty, and created Viscount Mount- 
cashell by James II. By his third wife, Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Sir Godfrey Rodes, Knt., he had 
one son and 6ne daughter, both of whom died un- 
married. See Burke's 'Extinct Peerage/ 1883, 
pp. 576-7. G. F. R. B. 

MAQNA CHARTA (7 th S. ii. 27). If the context 
of the passage in the ' Curiosities of Literature ' is 
referred to, it will be seen that D'Israelt cites as 
his authority Colomie*s. Paul Colomie'3, better 
known as Colomesius, was librarian at Lambeth, 
and died in 1692. He is the author of various 
works. ED. MARSHALL. 

REVELS (7 th S. ii. 8). From a document I have, 
signed by Thomas Odell, dated January, 1747, it 
would appear he was " Deputy Examiner of all 
Interludes, Tragedies, Comedies, Operas, Farces, 
and other Entertainments of the Stage under what 
Denomination soever." For this he had an allow- 
ance of two hundred pounds a year. 



OLIVER = MOON (7 th S. ii. 8). Hotten's ' Slang 
Dictionary* gives: "Oliver, the moon; ' Oliver 
don't widdle,' i. e., the moon does not shine. 
Nearly obsolete. Bulwer's 'Paul Clifford.'" Why 
should the moon have been dubbed Oliver ? 


MASSAGE (7 th S. ii. 49). A very interesting 
paper on " massage " was lately read before the 
" Sette of Odd Volumes " by Dr. William Murrell 
("Leech" to the "Sette"). After stating his 
belief that the " treatment " was known to the 
Chinese 3000 B.C., Dr. Murrell remarked that 
authorities differed as to the origin of the word, 
some deriving it from the Greek masaein, to rub, 
others from the Arabic mews, to press softly. 


COMMONS (7 th S. i. 228, 274 ; ii. 72). Sir John 
Gust was born in 1718. This date (accidentally 
omitted) should be added to the account given 
of him at the last reference. E. C. C. 

SUNDON (7 th S. ii. 29). Lord Sundon, Baron 
Sundon of Ardagh (not Ardale), co. Langford, lies 
buried with his wife in a vault in the south transept 
of Sundon Church, co. Beds. He died s.p. 
April 29, 1752, intestate. I am not aware that he 
had a sister, but he had a brother John, who died 
s. p. in 1691. For an account of this family see 
Bedfordshire Notes and Queries, pp. 220-27. 



Lady Sundon was a well-known historical 
character; her husband William Clayton, Baron 


[7 th S. II. AUG. 7, '86. 

Sundon, ob. 1752. He had married a Miss 
Charlotte Dyves, who became closely associated 
with the very notorious Sally, Duchess of Marl- 
borough, whereby this Lady Sundon became 
Mistress of the Robes to Queen Caroline. This 
couple had no family, but Lord Sundon left several 
sisters and nieces, of whom Elizabeth Clayton 
married Walter Fyson and left issue. A. H. 

JOB may have his great namesake's patience, but 
he does not appear to possess the gift of accuracy. 
A reference to Burke's 'Dormant and Extinct 
Peerages ' (1883), would have shown him that no 
such title as " Sundon and Ardale " was ever 
created. William Clayton, Deputy Auditor of the 
Exchequer, and sometime M.P. for Westminster 
and for St. Mawes, was in 1735 created Lord 
Sundon of Ardagh, in the peerage of Ireland. He 
died*. p., April %9, 1752, while representing the 
Cornish borough of St. Mawes. The place of his 
death is not mentioned by Sir Bernard Burke. 
Mrs. Fyson was not Lord Sundon's only sister, but 
his aunt, the second of three sisters, daughters of 
his grandfather, Ralph Clayton, Esq. All the 
sisters were married, and two, of whom Mrs. Fyson 
was one, had issue. Lord Sundon himself is not 
stated to have had any brothers or sisters. 


According to the Gent. Mag., vol. xxii. p. 240, 
"Wm. Clayton, Ld. Sundon of Ireland, member 
for St. Maws ; formerly member for Westminster 
and other places, aged near 80," died on April 
29, 1752. Clayton, who was Deputy Auditor 
of the Exchequer in 1716, married Charlotte 
Dyves, sister of Lewis Dyves, an officer of the 
2nd Horse Guards. His wife became Mistress of 
the Kobes to Caroline, the queen of George II., 
and through her influence he was, on June 2, 1735, 
created Baron Sundon of Ardagh, co. Longford. 
He left no issue, and his wife predeceased him on 
Jan. 1, 1742. See Burke's 'Extinct Peerage' 
(1883), p. 122. G. F. K. B. 

ROSE (7'" S. ii. 44). I do not think that any 
satisfactory reason has been given why the wild 
rose is called the dog-rose or the scentless violet 
the dog-violet. In Messrs. Britten and Holland's 
Dictionary of English Plant Names ' there are up- 
wards of fifty plants the name of which begin with 
dog. Under " Dog-eller," Viburnum opulus, the 
authors say, " Dog is applied here, as in many other 
cases, as meaning spurious, not the right thing." 
Whatever may have been the origin of this use of 
the word dog, it is certainly now understood to mean 
by the peasantry something which is not what it 
pretends to be, or something which is not useful to 
uian^in distinction from something which is useful. 
XJompare v d&g- Latin, dog-logic, dog-looked, dog's 
sleep. ITors^eems to be used in a similar^manner. 

There are more than forty plant-names beginning 
with horse in the work above quoted. We have 
also such compounds as horse-head, anything very 
big or awkward ; horse-mussel, the large fresh-water 
mussel ; and horse-trick, a rough practical joke. 
Horse, standing alone, has been used as a term of 
reproach. See examples in Mr. T. L. O. Davies's 
' Supplementary English Glossary,' sub voc. 

The wild rose is called the canker-rose on account 
of the brightly coloured hair-like galls which grow 
thereon, wiich are caused by the Cynips rosce. 
Shakespeare says : 

The canker-blooms have full as deep a dye 

As the perfumed tincture of the roses, 

Hang on such thorns, and play as wantonly 

When summer's breath their masked buds discloses : 

But for their virtue only is their show, 

They live unwoo'd, and unrespected fade : 

Die to themselves. Sweet roses do not so; 

Of their sweet deaths are sweetest odours made. 

Sonnet liv. 

In the " National Edition," edited by Charles 
Knight, canker-blooms are wrongly explained to 
be " the flowers of the canker or dog-rose." 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Can there be any doubt that the word dog applied 
to the scentless violet and the wild rose is a mark 
of inferiority 1 Although the dog is the " most 
intelligent of animals," there are other phases of 
his character, which at all times, from Homer to 
now, have occasioned his name to be used as a 
depreciatory word. Dog-Latin is bad Latin, and 
has its counterpart in French ; for our neighbours 
say, chien Latin, chien Franpais, chienne de 
musique. J. CARRICK MOORE. 

i. 448; ii. 35). Sir Thomas Kidgway, Treasurer- 
at-War in Ireland, had been sent over to London, 
as one of the chief commissioners for the planta- 
tion of Ulster, to submit the various documents to 
the authorities there, and take their instructions 
as to the scheme of colonizing anew the six Irish 
counties which had escheated to the Crown. Of 
the forfeited lands there were allotted to Sir 
Thomas, who was the first to take out his patent, 
the manor of Portclare and Ballykirgir, in the pre- 
cinct of Cloger, consisting of 2,000 acres, and the 
great proportion of Largie, also of 2,000 acres, in 
the precinct of Donganon, all in the county of 
Tyrone. Both these demesnes were to be held of 
the castle of Dublin in common socage, and to both 
was attached the dignity of holding a barony court. 
The distribution of the Ulster plantations was 
ordered to be made in the three proportions of 
1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 acres. It will thus be 
seen that the treasurer received two grants of the 
largest size allowed. To fulfil the conditions of 
the grant, Sir Thomas brought over twelve car- 
penters from England to one estate, and planted 

7'h S. II. AUG. 7, '? 



on the other twenty British families, while on both 
he erected a castle and relative houses. In 1622 
Sir Thomas Ridgway sold his estate in Clogher to 
Sir James Erskine, a Scotchman, or, to speak more 
accurately, he bartered it in exchange for an earl- 
dom that Erskine had the disposal of. These lands 
passed, ultimately, through two female descendants 
to the Moutrays and Richardsons, who, so far as I 
know, possess them at the present day. 


"AS DEAF AS THE ADDER" (7 th S. U. 9). Com- 

men tutors on Psalm Iriii. 4, Eccl. x. 11, and 
Jer. viii. 17, point out that the deaf adder is pro- 
bably the asp, which the Arabians describe as 
specially deadly and as defying all the powers of 
the charmer. Dr. Eadie writes as follows in his 
' Bible Cyclopaedia,' p. 36 : 

" The wicked are compared to the deaf adder 
(or asp) that stoppeth her ear, and will not be 
charmed. Whether the reptile is really deaf, or 
whether it obstructs its hearing, aa it may easily do 
by laying one ear upon the ground and covering the 
other with dust or with his tail, is not important. It ia 
enough that for some cause the effort to attract and turn 

it is vain The Arabians tell us that there are three 

classes of serpents, and in the first class they place those 
whose poison is so fatal as to cause death in three hours, 
and who are not subject to the power of the charmer; 
such, they say, are the basilisk and all kinds of asps." 

DR. INGLEBY will find De Quincey's allusion to 
Bentley in vol. xi. of the ' Collected Works,' 
p. 191. "Bentley," says the critic, "resigned 
himself luxuriously, without the whisper of a 
scruple, to his own sense of what was or was not 
poetic, which sense happened to be that of the 
adder for music. The deaf adder heareth not 
though the musician charm ever so wisely." 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

The adder mentioned in Psalm Iviii. 4 is natur- 
ally deaf. See Smith's < Diet of the Bible,' vol. i. 
p. 21, ed. 1863. Hammond, in his annotations on 
the passage, p. 294, ed. 1615, has the following: 

" The deaf viper or adder is said to be so called 
because, being deaf of one eare, he useth to stop the other 
with dust, or with his taile, to avoid the force of charms 
or incantations wherewith he is wont to be caught." 

It is worthy of note that in Authorized Version 
and Revised (by some reviled) Version, 1884, the 
translation is " they are like the deaf adder that 
stoppeth her eare." As, however, "charity 
thinketh no evil," let us hope the adder cannot 
help her deafness. M.A.Oxon. 

There is a Kentish proverb that supports the 
theory of the adder's deafness : 

If I could hear as well as see 

No man nor beast should pass by me. 

On the other hand, a tradition is current to the 
effect that the adder is not naturally deaf, bn*i 

shuts out musical charms by placing one ear on the 
ground and inserting the end of its tail into the 
other a somewhat difficult operation, the ear 
being internal. As a matter of fact, I believe 
adders possess the faculty of hearing in common 
with other snakes. In ' Troilus and Cressida,' 
II. ii., Shakespeare makes use of the same image, 
having doubtless borrowed it from the Psalms. 

H. S. 

BASTO (7 th S. ii. 47). In Spanish cards clubs 
are really represented by " clubs," for which basto 
is the Spanish word. In certain games, e.g., 
Ombre, the ace of clubs plays an important part, 
and is emphatically called " basto." In the same 
way the ace of spades spada, a sword is called 
"spadille." A. E. 

MR. ANDERSON asks for the derivation of 
this word. It is the Spanish for any card of 
the suit of clubs, as " el quatro de bastos," " el 
rey de bastos," &c., the ace being called "el basto." 
The word means a club, and is represented on 
Spanish cards by a solid weapon of that sort fit 
for a giant. In Italian it is called bastone, which 
is the equivalent of the French baton. The Spanish 
form boston is used for a walking-stick with a knob 
to it. Basto is used only for the card club, and 
for no other club or staff except for a certain kind 
of halberd. HENRY H. GIBBS. 

St. Dunstan'a. 

The ace of clubs, at ombre, is called basto. 
Clubs are called bastos in Spanish, and bastoni in 
Italian (see ' The Game of Ombre,' second edition, 
by Mr. H. H. Gibbs, 1878). 


In Italian bastone (s.m.) in the singular means 
a staff or cudgel, and in the plural the club cards 
in a pack. But the word basto is translated by 
Baretti as pack-saddle or pannel. In Spain the 
club suit is called bastos ; in France, trefle ; and 
in England the Spanish name has been applied to 
the French card. W. J. LAWRBNCE. 

Newcastle, co. Down. 

PORTRAIT OF DICKENS (7 th S. ii. 29). I do not 
remember having seen the photograph of Dickens, 
but cartes de visite of this kind were common when 
I was a little boy, a quarter of a century back. There 
was a very striking one of the late Bishop of Ox- 
ford, Dr. Wilberforce. These photographs certainly 
verged upon the grotesque, but one got a good like- 
ness of the face at the expense of the legs, and 
they were, I suppose, the photographic ancestors of 
the more recent " vignette " likenesses, although, 
of course, they were not taken from life originally. 


'THE PATRICIAN' (7 th S. i. 409, 474 ; ii. 36). 
While thanking your two correspondents for their 



(.7' h 8. II. Auo. 7, '8S. 

replies, I may inform G. F. R. B. that it is quite 
possible and, moreover, the fact that No. 23 of 
the Patrician to which my query referred was 
published on " Saturday, March 14, 1846." The 
number bearing this date is on my table as I write. 
Quite recently I again turned over the pages of 
No. 23, and among the advertisements I found the 
following : " The Patrician. A Weekly News- 
paper. Price 6d. Edited by John Burke, Esq., 
author of," &c.; and further on, "The Patrician, 
printed on fine paper, with the best type, is 
published every Saturday, at the office, 30, Tavi- 
stock Street, Covent Garden." Was the Patrician, 
like other papers, published monthly as well as 
weekly ? Were there two papers of the same name 1 
Or what is there to account for the difference 
between the date of my number and the dates 
given by G. F. R. B. ? I shall be glad of further 
particulars. ALPHA. 

A CURIOUS CUSTOM (7 th S. ii. 26). May I 
correct a mistake into which your correspondent 
MB. E. H. COLEMAN has inadvertently fallen as 
to the locality of the "Aughton Pudding Feast"? 
The curious custom is Hot observed, and did not 
take place, at Aughton near Ormskirk, as stated 
in the note referred to ; but at Aughton near 
Lancaster, about three miles from the Halton 
station on the Midland Railway, to the north of 
Lancaster, and about forty miles or so from the 
Aughton near Ormskirk. No doubt the similarity 
of names has led to the mistake. 



NUMBERING HOUSES (7 th S. ii. 21). The 
number of a house at which I lately stayed in 
Birmingham appeared on the street-lamp post 
opposite the gate. The number was in white on 
blue, and was fixed at right angles to the line of 
the pavement, and was, I feel sure, the work of 
the local authority. It was a real help both to me, 
who previously knew nothing of the house but the 
number, and to the cabman who drove me. It 
struck me as a thing which might well be copied 
in all large towns, especially in streets where the 
numbers are a long series. W. C. B. 

In glancing through the Ballard collection ol 
letters in the Bodleian Library I have noted an 
instance which may be worth recording. Dr. 
Bernard Gardiner, writing to Dr. Charlett on 
Jan. 26, 1719/20, gives his address as "London, 
Glouster-Street, Num. 13." C. E. DOBLE. 

12, Park Crescent, Oxford. 

Prescot Street was a great seat of the rich Jews 
who may have introduced numbering from abroad 
One scheme of numbering applied by the French 
in the beginning of this century, in small cities 
was to divide the town into squares on the map. In 
each square so marked out the numbers ran through 

out, and not according to the street. Thus, a house 
would be A 4, No. 21 ; B 3, No. 37, and so forth. 


3). There can be no doubt about the meaning of 
the Old French word noise as explained by your 
correspondent D., but I do not quite see how the 
' noise " arising from games played in the meadows, 
which surely were outside the city (Fitzstephen 
limself tells us that in his day " vadit in subur- 
j:mam planitiem omnis ju vent us urbis ad lusum 
pilae "), was to be prevented by an edict prohibiting 
the same sports inside the city (deinz la cite). It 
seems to me that the " prees du poeple," which MR. 
HOGG translates " the meadows of the people," 
means rather the throng of people in, the streets, 
where football would be decidedly objectionable, 
and likely to give rise to " plusours maux " even 
in the fourteenth century, when the traffic was 
not quite so great as it now is in Cheapside and 
the other great thoroughfares of the City. This 
same word prees ( = u crowd," modern " press ") was 
already established as an English word in Chaucer's 
time. See 'Wife of B.,' Prol., 522, 548 ; 'Man 
of Lawes T.,' 295 ; ' Troil. and Cres.,' ii. 1718, &c. 
The edict in question was doubtless found necessary 
in consequence of the practice of playing at football 
in the streets, which had probably grown up, to 
the great annoyance or noise of the passengers, 
since Fitzstephen's time. F. NORGATE. 

ii. 29, 71). The misplacing of a comma has some- 
what confused my reply on p. 71. It reads, "It 
was then the property of Lady Williams Ramsay, 
died in 1784." It should be, " of Lady Williams. 
Ramsay died in 1784." A. GRAVES. 

6, Pall Mall. 

SITY THESES (7 th S. ii. 29). There is a large collec- 
tion of such dissertations in the Bodleian, of which 
there is the following account in the ' Annals of 
the Bodleian Library,' by Rev. W. D. Macray 
(Rivingtons, 1868), p. 240: 

" A very large collection of Academic Dissertations 
published in Germany, amounting to about 43,400, was 
bought at Altona for 332/. 16*. in 1827. Of these a folio 
catalogue was published in 1834. In 1828, 160 volumes 
of the same character were added, and other large addi- 
tions were made in 1836 and 1837, but particularly in 
1846, when no fewer than 7,000 were purchased." 


LLYDAW (7 th S. i. 506). MR. HALL mistakes 
the derivation. The word for breadth, extent, 
expansion, is llyd, not lly. BOILEAU. 

' NEW ENGLISH DICTIONARY ' (7 th S. i. 303, 336, 
370, 430, 471 ; ii. 53). No reference has been made, 
I think, during this discussion to a large number 
of persons who are interested in it, namely, pos- 

. II. AUG. 7, '86.] 



sessors of the parts of the 'Dictionary' already 
issued. As several years must necessarily elapse 
before the completion of the work, it would be of 
service to such persons if any one meeting with a 
word not in the ' Dictionary ' would send it to 
'N. & Q.' to supplement MR. SYKES'S list. I 
have sent a few words of the kind to DR. MURRAY, 
and am quite willing to send them to ' N. & Q.' 
in order that they may be generally useful until 
an appendix can appear. JOHN RANDALL. 

I cannot but take exception to the phrase used 
by MR. SYKES as to DR. MURRAY'S desiderata 
lists. He says : " These have now apparently 
ceased." Whether intentionally or not, his words 
convey the idea that Dr. Murray had determined 
to issue no more lists. The fact is that though 
the last list (No. V.) was dated in April, 1885, the 
work of the editor and his assistants has been so 
heavy that they have not yet, I imagine, got 
through more than three-quarters of it, and are 
still glad to receive special quotations for the 
whole of the words on the last page, at any rate. 
When they get within measurable distance of the 
end they will doubtless issue a sixth, and so on 
till the work is ended. A READER. 

> MUGWUMP (7 th S. i. 29, 172). I extract the 
following from the Liverpool Echo of July 19 : 

" The Hon. Milton Reed, ex-representative in Congress 
of the State of Massachusetts, who is un a visit to this 
country, had a letter of introduction to a well-known 
' seceding ' Lancashire Liberal. In the course of a con- 
versation that turned chiefly on American politics the 
Englishman inquired of the Yankee the meaning of the 
word ' mugwump ' as applied to American politicians. 
Mr. Reed said the term was borrowed from the Indians. 
If an Indian left his own tribe to marry into another and 
sought to return he was called a' mugwump.' The same 
applied to political parties. If a Republican went over 
to the Democrats, then returned to his former party, he 
was described as a ' mugwump.' ' Then,' said the 
Englishman, ' I suppose I 'ra a political mugwump ? ' 
Not yet,' replied Mr. Reed. 'You will be when you 
have returned to your allegiance.' " 


" twink." The name, I believe, has been given to 
the bird on account of its sharp, musical, chirpy 
note, uttered with frequency, when hopping about. 
This seems more nearly represented by " twink " 
than by any other combination of letters. 


In our neighbourhood a chaffinch is known a,s a 
"spink." In answer to MR. BIRKBECK TERRY, 
is it not probable that the local words come merely 
from the little short note of the bird ? 

K. B. E. 


In Derbyshire the chaffinch is commonly called 
a "spink." This is also the name here, but not so 
generally used. Both "twink" and "spink" may 
probably be derived from the sharp metallic note of 
the bird. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


SNOREHAM (7 th S. ii. 46). According to 
Wright's ' History of Essex ' (1836), vol. ii. p. 676, 
"the church was undoubtedly erected by some of its 
patrons of the noble family of Grey of Wilton ; it was 
dedicated to St. Peter. Some remains of it may be traced 
near the hall yard. The inhabitants resort to the church 
of Lachingdon as being the nearest, and are there bap- 
tized and buried, and contribute to all parochial duties. 
However, this is yet a rectory presentative, and a ser- 
mon is, or used to be, preached annually under a tree." 

Lewis, in his 'Topographical Dictionary' (1848), 
states that " not a vestige remains of the church," 
and that the parish contained 211 inhabitants. 
Kelly, in 1882, says that the two parishes of Latch- 
ingdon and Snoreham have now been united both 
for civil and ecclesiastical purposes, and that the 
annual sermon under the tree has long been dis- 
continued. G. F. R. B. 

TWINK (7 th S. ii. 49). A chaffinch is called a 
" twink " from the sharp cry of " twink, twink," 
which it utters when alarmed. This bird has, 
indeed, "a large commodity of names," all ex- 
pressive of its brisk and lively habits, or of other 
characteristics. In addition to the above it has 
been variously called the pink, the spink, the shilfa, 
the skelly or shelly, the shell-apple, the chaffy, 
the boldie, the beechfincb, and the " which-do-you." 
It is also called the bachelor finch, because the 
males separate as the winter approaches, and go in 
distinct flocks. JOHN CHURCHILL SIKES. 

21, Endwell Road, Brockley, S.E. 

In answer to MR. BIRKBECK TERRY'S query, 
the chaffinch is known here by country people as 

MEMOIRS OP GRIMALDI (6 th S. xii. 427, 500; 
7 th S. i. 36, 312, 378, 473; ii. 35). My edition 
of Grimaldi, in two volumes, black cloth, with 
three medallions on the backs, has no border 
round ' The Last Song,' and was published by 
Richard Bentley, 1838. Being bound in dark 
cloth, this, according to MR. BENTLEY, would be 
one of those copies sold by Mr. Tegg, and yet it 
has not the border round the last illustration 
which is said to have been introduced by him. 

63, Fellows Road, N.W. 


COPPER COINS, 1864 AND 1871 (7 th S. ii. 48). 
There is no basis for the curious belief that the 
copper currency struck for these years is of greater 
value than similar coins of other years. Pennies 
and halfpence of both dates are scarce, simply 
because the weight of bronze coined was very 
greatly less than in any other years since the new 
coinage. When this became known, collectors and 
dealers seized upon them, and now they are prac- 



[7> 8. ii. Auo.7,'8 

tically withdrawn from circulation, 1864 par- 
ticularly so, though the coinage of 1871 was less 
than the other date. THOS. RATCLIFEE. 


With regard to the bronze coins of 1864, see 
' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. i. 36, 282. In 1871 only twelve 
tons of pence and six tons of halfpence were coined. 
See ' Fourth Annual Report of the Deputy Master 
of the Mint, 1873,' p. 54. This is probably the 
smallest quantity since the introduction of the 
bronze coinage, which will explain the fact of 
their rarity in Ireland or elsewhere. 

G. F. R. B. 

The scarcity of bronze coins bearing these dates 
is not due to any superior value nor to a sub- 
sequent recall, but to the fact that a comparatively 
small number were struck in the two years re- 
ferred to. See 6 th S. i. 282. I may also mention 
that farthings were not coined in 1871. H. S. 

THE FOUR SEASONS (7 th S. ii. 26). Those who 
value the mnemonic -lines concerning the seasons 
of the year may like to have the exact reference 
to Lindewood, which Giles Jacob has not given. 
They occur in the ' Provinciale,' and are found in 
a note upon the constitution of Archbishop Win- 
chelsey, " Quoniam Propter " (' Prov.,' 1. iii., cap. 
" De Decirnis," fol. 141 rect., Lond., 1525). 


DEDICATIONS (7 th S. ii. 8). According to 
Pulleyn's 'Etymological Compendium' (1828), 
" Dedications to books were first introduced in 
the time of Mecsenas, A.D. 17; practised for the 
purpose of obtaining money in 1600." 



SIR THOMAS RIDLEY (7 th S. ii. 29). As Sir 
Thomas Ridley was born at Ely, was at Eton, and 
Fellow of Kings, and was buried in St. Bennet's 
Church, London, there seem many sources of in- 
formation for the time of his birth. And further, 
as he is mentioned by Wood, 'Fasti Oxon.,' ad 
A.D. 1598, the edition of Dr. Bliss is also a work 
to be consulted. ED. MARSHALL. 

There is not much information about the birth 
of Sir Thomas Ridley. He was born at Ely; is men- 
tioned in the Eton ' Registerum Regale' as elected 
to King's College, Cambridge, 1565 ; head master 
of Eton 1579-82. He died Jan. 22, 1629, and 
was buried at St. Bennet, Paul's Wharf. Probably 
the date of his birth may be found in the registers 
of either Ely, Eton College, King's College, or St. 
Bennet, Paul's Wharf. C. P. 


TITLE OF SONG WANTED (7 th S. ii. 29). The 
title of song wanted by MR. SOMERVILLE is " I '11 
watch for thee in my lonely bower." The copy 

I possess is published by Messrs. J. Williams, 
of Berners Street, W., but several editions are 
issued by other publishers. 


(7 th S. i. 407, 512 ; ii. 58). In the frontispiece of 
a book entitled ' Ancient Funeral Monuments of 
Great Britain,' published in 1631, is an engraving 
of the author, John Weever, in which he is repre- 
sented with one hand touching a skull. I believe 
that John Weever died prior to the publication of 
the book, or very shortly afterwards. Perhaps 
some reader of ' N. & Q.' could determine this 
by giving the year of Weever's death, 


DAY" (7 th S. ii. 48). The line attributed to 
C. S. Calverley, and certainly written by Sydney 
Smith, is a humorous paraphrase of the beautiful 
passage in Horace : 

Ille potens sui 
Lsetusque deget, cui licet in diem 

Dixisse, Vixi : eras vel atra 
Nube polum Pater occupato, 

Vel dole pure; non tamen irritum 
Quodcunque retro est efficiet. 


After thirty years' omnivorous reading, as far back 
as Herodotus, and of late years mummy papyri, I 
cannot remember having met with the original of 
the saying. I am inclined to think it the canon's 
own. It is just in his mock heroic style, the 
sudden transition from the heights to the depths. 
I write from memory myself, but I am pretty 
certain that E. S. N., when he gets the book, will 
find Calverley's last line in inverted commas. 
We know, of course, that it is always considered 
to be Smith's, and is the last line of his ' Recipe 
for a Winter Salad.' Let me, through ' N. & Q.,' 
shake hands with E. S. N. He is a man of per- 
ception, for he knows the ' Ode to Beer.' I Bay so 
confidently, for I know it by heart myself. 

J. C. 

(7 th S. ii. 46). M. de Caumont, in his 'Essay on 
Ancient Organs," says : 

" Organs have been placed in our churches since the 
twelfth century, and the use of organs began sooner in 
England than in France. I could cite many authorities 
to bear me out, but I shall be content with quoting some 
verses of Wolfstan, monk of Westminster, in honour of 
Elfcege, Bishop of that church, about the middle of the 
tenth century." 

These verses inform us that there was a large organ 
at this time in the Abbey of Westminster. M. de 
Caumont goes on to say: 

" This grand instrument did not begin to rise to per- 
fection till the fifteenth century ; it was then that it 
became common in our temples." 

Archbishop Dunstan, in the reign of Edgar, pre- 

. ii. A 7, m] 



sented the church of Malmeabury with an organ 
(' Malmesbury,' p. 366, Gale). 

S wallow field, Beading. 

MOOKE'S ' LEGENDARY BALLADS ' (7 th S. ii. 68). 
Possibly 0. A. F. was one- of the Misses Feild- 
inc to whom Moore inscribed the volume. 

G. F. K. B. 


Middlesex County Records. Vol. I. Indictments, Coro- 
ners' Inquests-pott- mortem, and Recognizances from 
3 Edward VI. to the End of the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth.. Edited by John Cordy Jeaffreson. With 
an Index by A. T. Watson. (Published by the Middle- 
sex County Record Society at the Clerkenwell Sessions 

WE hail the appearance of the present volume as a sign 
that a most important class of documents is at length 
attracting the attention which it deserves. The re- 
cords of most of our counties, which are nominally in 
the custody of the cuttos rotulorum, but really, we 
believe, almost always in the keeping of the clerk of the 
peace, have, we fear, in former times suffered from 
nearly every ill to which manuscript matter can be liable. 
We wish we could believe that the present days are, in 
this respect, an improvement on the past. We fear, 
however, that such is not the case, but that in many 
instances important information is perishing. No such 
charge can be brought against the present authorities of 
Middlesex. They have employed Mr. Watson to arrange, 
classify, and catalogue their vast collection a gentle- 
man who is truly described by Mr. Jeaffreson as " one of 
the very few masters of his particular craft in the whole 
country to whom so great and important a piece of work 
could have been safely entrusted. ' 

In dealing with an immense mass of matter such as 
Mr. Jeaffreson had before him, it was practically im- 
possible to print everything. Those who know the end- 
less verbosity of documents of this kind will not desire 
to have them reproduced in full. It is the purpose of 
the present volume, its editor tells us, " to exhibit the 
purport and principal particulars of all the noteworthy 
documents contained on these files from their com- 
mencement in Edward's time to the close of Elizabeth's 
reign." This he has done in a most successful manner. 
There is, it is true, nothing to tell of in the way of 
comment, but the condensation of the documents has 
been done with a skill that is quite admirable. What 
strikes us most, however, is the index. We have met 
before with old documents edited with as scrupulous a 
care as Mr. Jeaffregon has shown, but never did we meet 
with an index which comes so near to perfection as this 
one compiled by Mr. A. T. Watson. It was but simple 
justice to place his name on the title-page. To those 
interested in the sad history of religious persecution, the 
long catalogue which the index gives of recusants will 
be very valuable. Many of the persons mentioned are 
evidently members of middle -class families, but the great 
races are represented. We meet with several members 
of the house of Arundel, who were then living at Clerken- 
well. Lady Alice Berkeley, a person we cannot identify, 
was living in Holborn. She was probably the wife of 
some member of the house of Spetchley. Members of 
the well known families of Mallory, Stanley, Towneley, 
Tyrwhitt, and Titchborne also occur. 
The articles classed under the head of " Apparel " are 

some of them very curious. On July 26, in the 31st of 
Elizabeth, a true bill was found against Richard Clarke, 
yeoman, who had assaulted Henry Oxon and robbed him 
of a russet-coloured woollen cloak and "vnum vesti- 
mentum vocat' mandilion " worth four shillings. Mr. 
Watson is in doubt, we gather, as to what a mandilion 
was. We believe it to have been a jacket without 

Mr. Jeaffreson prints in the preface at full length the 
documents relating to the fatal duel in which Ben 
Jonson was engaged. If we are not mistaken, we owe 
their discovery to him. We shall never know whether 
the sentence was literally carried out, and that the poet 
was branded in the hand with what the London populace 
called a Tyburn T. It has been suggested that in case a 
culprit could pay a fee to the officials the iron used was 
a cold one. The absurd legal custom of the "benefit of 
clenry " is constantly referred to in these pages, and Mr. 
Jeaffreson has consequently been induced to give a dis- 
quisition on the subject, which, as a contribution to his- 
tory, is not without independent value. 

The Gentleman's Magazine Library. Edited by George 
Laurence Gomme, F.S.A. Archaeology. Part II. 

THK second portion of the archaeological section of the 
reprints from the Qtntltmaris Magazine is of even higher 
interest than the first. It opens with ' Stones and Stone 
Circles,' on which Mr. T. G. Bonney, M.A., Mr. J. T. 
Blight, Mr. R. R. Brash, and many other modern autho- 
rities say much that is of highest interest and value. 
' Miscellaneous Antiquities of the British Period ' follow. 
Under this head occurs the description of shields, urns, 
torques, &c. Early and late Anglo-Saxon remains are 
then treated, and the volume ends with a selection of 
papers on Scandinavian antiquities. It is needless to say 
that many of the subjects such, for instance, as " Vitrified 
Forts" have been discussed at length in ' N. & Q.' Not 
easy is it in the case of a compilation such as this to show 
the nature and value of this reprint. Admirable and 
half-forgotten, and in a sense inoccessible contributions 
of C. Roach Smith, the Rev. T. D. Fosbroke, Mark Antony 
Lower, T. Crofton Croker, Hodder Westropp, J. J. A. 
Boase, and other eminent antiquaries, are here practic- 
ally brought to light. Students of antiquity and scholars 
generally are indebted to Mr. Gomme for the manner in 
which the task of selection is executed, and the spirit and 
rapidity with which the whole is carried out. 

THE slackening of the political strain has caused 
literature to reassert itself in the magazines. Of the 
contents of the Fortnightly not more than four are 
political. Most prominent among the remaining con- 
tributions is 'A Preaching from a Spanish Ballad,' a 
powerful and characteristic poem by Mr. George Mere- 
dith. Mr. E. Delille writes on ' Oliver Wendell Holmes.' 
and Mr. Schiitz Wilson on ' Switzerland.' Mr. Bent 
supplies one of his papers on ' Greek Peasant Life,' and 
Mr. E. Ross a description of ' Deer-Stalking in the Past,' 
the title of which we should be happy to believe is no 
misnomer. ' Lucy Hutchinson ' is the subject of a good 
paper in the Gentleman's, in which the Rev. H. R. 
Haweis also gives a very cheerful account of his ex- 
periences in Boston as a lecturer. Mr. Alex. H. Japp 
writes thoughtfully on He Quincey, and Mr. John Cole- 
man, under the title of ' The English Lemaitre,' describes 
Charles Dillon. ' The Annals of Billiards ' and ' At the 
Oybin ' are two excellent contributions to the Cornhiil. 
' Bamborough Castle ' is described by the Rev. J. H. 
Overton in Longman's Magazine, and Mr. Andrew Lang 
continues his pleasant gossip ' At the Sign of the Ship.' 
' In Leicester Fields,' a delightful antiquarian paper by 
Mr. Austin Dobson contributed to the English Illustrated 



[7* S. II. Atro. 7, '86. 

is full of pleasant information concerning Hogarth, Sir 
Joshua, and other celebrities associated with Leicester 
Square It is fully and excellently illustrated Many 
admirably picturesque illustrations of < Old Chester are 
also supplied.-In the Nineteenth Century is a paper by 
the Rev. Dr. Augustus Jessopp on ' Letters and Letter- 
writinz,' in which letter-writing is traced from fourteen 
centuries before Christ to the days of Charles Lamb. 
The question 'Are Animals Happy?' is answered by 
Mr. Carlill in the affirmative. Dr. Burney Yep writes 
on 'English and Foreign Spas.' To Macmillan Mr. 
Tilley sends a very competent paper on ' La Fontaine s 
Fables ' Mr. Dykes writes on ' The Land of Burns, and 
there is a long poem by Mr. F. T. Palgrave-' Chronicles 
of Scottish Counties ' commences in All the Year Kouna 
with Galloway, Part I. 

No. III. of the English Historical Review has an admir- 
able paper by Mr. Osmund Airy on ' Lauderdale,' in 
which, by the light of the ' Lauderdale Papers,' recently 
edited by Mr. Airy for the Camden Society, the later 
career of this indomitable and unscrupulous minister is 
traced. A more faithful picture of an historical cha- 
racter is scarcely to be hoped. More speculative, but 
not less valuable, is the essay of Mr. Evelyn Abbott on 
'The Earliest Inhabitants of Greece.' In the "Notes 
and Documents " are included ' The Squire Papers,' by 
Messrs. S. R. Gardiner and Walter Rye, and the ' Corre- 
spondence of Admiral Herbert during the Revolution,' 
by Mr. E. Maunde Thompson. This valuable review 
cannot fail to become widely known. 

THE Encyclopedic Dictionary of Messrs. Cassell, 
Part XXXI., extends from " Eatranger " to the derivatives 
of " Eye." An illustration of the encyclopaedic character 
of the work better than is furnished by " Eye " is not to 
be desired. The pronunciation, the various forms, the 
derivation, and the cognate forms, are given. After 
these the various uses, with quotations from Shakspeare, 
Dryden, Newton, &c. The technical uses follow, the 
whole being accompanied by a well-executed illustration. 
Quitting the Pool, Greater London, Part XIII., deals al- 
most wholly with Woolwich, Plumstead, and Erith, giving 
concerning the Government works very extensive infor- 
mation. Our Own Country, Part XIX., is principally 
occupied with Exmoor, of the wild scenery of which 
numerous illustrations are supplied. It commences, 
however, with a full-page illustration of Birmingham, 
and ends with a striking view of the Cove of Cork. 
Cassell's Illustrated Shakespeare, Part VII., gives the last 
acts of ' The Comedy of 'Errors,' with a full-page illus- 
tration and many smaller engravings, and the opening 
acts of 'Much Ado about Nothing.' Ebers's Egypt, 
Descriptive, Historical and Picturesque, Part XVI., sup- 
plies, in the earlier portion, some excellent reproductions 
of antiquities, and gives in the following portion elaborate 
views of the Mosque of El-Azhar. A view of the en- 
trance to the Khan El Khalil is very vigorous. Part III. 
of the Life and Times of Queen Victoria is occupied 
with 1844-5, and shows, among other matters of 
interest, the visit of the Queen to France and the return 
visit of Louis Philippe. The incidents of the Pindaree 
War and other heroic efforts are depicted by pen and 
pencil in the History of India, Part XI., and the first 
volume of Gleanings from Popular Authors is com- 
pleted. One more volume of this will follow. 

PART XXXIII. of Mr. Hamilton's collection of 
Parodies contains parodies of Mr. Swinburne and Lord 
Byron. Those of the former poet are -not very numerous. 

WE have received Recent Egyptian Discoveries concern" 
ing Joseph, Moses, and the Kodu*, by David Burnett 

MESSRS. REEVES & TURNER have published Words of 
Wisdom from the New Testament Epistles. 

THE Rev. J. W. Appleford has written A Brief 
Account of the Parish and Church of St. Andrew, Buck- 
thorpe, which is published by Mr. W. Masland, Saffron 
Walden. Much interesting information concerning this 
ancient pile has been collected. 

THE Presidential Address of the Rev. W. 8. Lach- 
Szyrma to the Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society has been reprinted from the Society's Trant- 

otfre* to Camtfpmrtent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

C. C. ("Origin of the Name of John Bull"). This 
question has been thrice asked in ' N. & Q.' LORD BRAT- 
BROOKE, 1" S. i. 372, "fancies" it was "adopted from 
Swift's ' History of John Bull,' first printed in 1712." An 
editorial comment, 3 rd S. i. 300, says John Bull appears 
to have been first introduced to public notice by Dr. 
Arbuthnot, in his excellent jeu d'esprit, ' The History of 
John Bull, a MS. found in the Cabinet of the famous 
Sir H. Polesworth in the Year 1712.' Apparently the 
two works mentioned are the same. 


Formosam resonare, doces, &c. 

Virg., ' Georg.,' L 6. 
Quanto rectius hie. qui nil molitur inepte. 

Hor., ' Epist. ad Pisones,' 140. 
Your other queries will appear. 

C. C Peg Woffington, born 1718, died 1760. Most 
known particulars concerning her may be obtained from 
Genest's ' Account of the Stage,' vol. iv. pp. 500-9. 

THOMAS BIRD ("Macaronic Verses ")." Ego nun- 
quam audivi such terrible news" may be found, among 
other places, in Stephen Collet's ' Relics of Literature ' 
and in ' The Modern Garland,' by Isaac J. Reeve, vol. i. 
p. 42. 

THE REV. H. S. SHARP, Wareham Rectory, Boston, 
will be glad to hear of books containing the best account 
of the various inventions of steam-engines with direct 
rotatory action without crank. 

J. COOPER MORLEY. A communication sent to you at 
address supplied 7 lh S. i. 348 has been returned through 
Dead- Letter Office. Please send present address. 

W. WIMBLE (" Natives of Kent "). See 5"> S. iv. 400. 


W. R. (" Cornish Parishes "). A place shall be found 
for it. 

NOTICE. ''. ". 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception, 

. II. Auo. 14, '86.] 





NOTES :' Present State of Great Britain,' 121 'Monthly 
Review,' 123 Peculiar Words in Heywood, 124 Golden 
Rose Curions Coincidences, 125 Foreigner Tike All- 
feed-Llanfechan Cockpit, 126. 

QUERIES : Dr. W. Henry, 126 Dantzic Judges Pomfret 
Cakes Military Song Callis Cobbett's Gridiron Author 
of Child's Poem Baronetcy of Houston Rev. J. Mence, 
127 Scott and Tennyson Evelyn MSS. Authorship of 
Distich Crietor Jack Brass at Bylangh " The Books of 
Adjourn*]," 128 St. Augustine's Edwards's Auticatelephor 
Ambrose Fisher The Crane Blemo, 129. 

REPLIES : Execution of Lords Eilmarnock and Balmerino, 
129 Prayers for the Royal Family, 131 'Rule Britannia,' 
132 Grace before Meat, 133-' Memoirs of Grimaldi 'Egg- 
CupsJohn Smith Herberts of Cogan Whenever Satel- 
lites of Man, 184 Waldegrave Bathing Machines Cathe- 
rine Hill St. Helen Charles Leslie, 136 Searl Piazza- 
Do Percheval " Peys Aunt "Epitaph Burcell Snuff- 
Box Inscription The Elephant, 136 Bergamot Pears 
"Hatchment down ! "Stewards of Manors Title of Eg- 
mont Finden's Illustrations to Byron" He can neither 
read nor swim," 137 County Badges The Cinque Ports 
Plou- = Llan ' ' Bird " and " Fowl " ' To make a hand of," 
138 The Eddystone St. James's Bazaar Authors Wanted, 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Parish'! ' Domesday Look in relation 
to Sussex.' 

Notices to Correspondents, Ac. 



(Concluded from 7"> S. L 464.) 
The sixth edition of ' The Present State of Great 
Britain and Ireland ' was published in 1728, and 
contains the portrait (presumably) of the new king, 
George II. ; bat it bears a suspicious resemblance 
to that of his predecessor prefixed to former edi- 
tions, and the inscription remains unchanged. 
Some alterations occur in the printers' names, 
which are now given as "A. Bettesworth, G. 
Strahan, J. Bound, W. Innys, J. Brotherton, E. 
Symon, and J. Clark." The place of printing is 
omitted in this as in the preceding and all sub- 
sequent editions of the work. This sixth edition 
contains no dedication, and excepting that the 
lists of officers, &c., are somewhat amplified, no 
considerable alterations are noticeable. 

The lists of his Majesty's household under the 
Lord Steward (Lionel, Duke of Dorset) and the 
Lord Chamberlain (the Duke of Grafton) are very 
voluminous, and, as the salaries attached to each 
office are given, of considerable interest 

The king's principal cook (whose name is given 
as " Charles Brexton, Esq.") had 1501., and his 
assistant 1202. These places were quite distinct 

from those of the clerks of the kitchen. Under the 
cooks were four " turnbroaches " at 301. each. A 
note adds that the kitchen establishment was 
divided into three separate grades : " the Yeomen 
who are chiefly employed in Soupes, Ragous, &c., 
the Grooms in boiled Meats, and the children for 
meat roasted." The storekeeper of the wine had 
501., and the holder of an office somewhat akin 
" the Keeper of the Ice and Snow " a like sum. 
Two hundred pounds was paid for " feeding and 
breeding pheasants at Hampton Court "; a " pur- 
veyor of oysters," one Mrs. Lucas, had a salary of 
201. ; and from the same list we learn that King 
George II. 'a shoemaker was " Mr. Verdun, in 
Catherine Street, in the Strand." The king's 
goldsmith, jeweller, poet laureate, historiographer, 
and history painter (the last Sir James Thorn- 
hill) are given in the above order, followed by the 
name of Charles Gervase, " principal painter," 
with a salary of 2001. per annum. Although the 
works of this artist are not much appreciated at 
the present day, he occupied a very prominent 
position amongst the portrait painters of the reign 
of George II. He was highly eulogized by Pope, 
but unhesitatingly condemned by Walpole. 

The list concludes with the names of the royal 
rat-killer, mole-taker, tuner of organs (who only 
received 21. more than the rat-catcher), optick- 
glass maker, yeoman arras-worker, card-maker, 
operator for the teeth, and the "Comedians." 

The accounts of Scotland and Ireland are re- 
printed from former editions. In the account of 
his Majesty's genealogy, facing p. 40, is a fanciful 
genealogical chart of the descent of the kings of 
England from Odin, which, I believe, had not been 
hitherto included in this section of the book. 

The seventh edition bears the date of 1731, and 
contains the portrait as in the sixth ; preface and 
contents, 2 unnumbered pages ; 303 pages in part i. 
of text, and 177 of lists ; index to the lists, 3 un- 
numbered pages; 183 pages of ' The Present State 
of Scotland,' being part ii., with an unnumbered 
page of contents ; 82 pages of ' The Present State 
of Ireland,' being part iii. ' His Majesty's Domi- 
nions in Germany,' &c. (printed in 1728), occupy 
51 pages, and one unnumbered page of contents 
at the end of the work. This edition, being sub- 
stantially the same as the preceding one, calls for 
no especial remark. 

The eighth edition did not appear till 1738, 
when a considerably enlarged and very bulky 
volume (without, however, a corresponding in- 
crease in the price, six shillings) was issued. 

The portrait of the king is now inscribed 
George II. The description of England in part i. 
extends to 308 pages, and the English lists have 
increased from 177 pages in the last edition to 
251. In the list of the officers in the Lord Cham- 
berlain's department the name of the poet 
laureate (Colley Gibber, 1001. per annum) ia no* 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7*s,ii.Au<U4,m 

any longer mixed up with the names of the court 
goldsmiths and jewellers, as in the earlier lists in 
Mice's work, though the keeper of his Majesty s 
library (Dr. Bentley) immediately precedes the 
name of the gardener of Somerset House and the 
rat-killer an office now, singularly enough, filled 
by a woman, Mrs. Elizabeth Stubbs, who received 
48Z. 3s. 4d per annum, a higher salary than that 
received by his Majesty's musicians, and on a par 
with that of the gentlemen ushers, quarterly waiters. 
The description of Scotland occupies 253 pages, 
and is allowed by the author himself to be " en- 
larged, corrected, and amended from^above one 
thousand errors in the former editions." 

Ireland (111 pages) is also more fully described 
than heretofore, and the strength of the military 
government of the country under the then Lord 
Lieutenant, William Cavendish, Duke of Devon- 
shire, is set forth at great length. In former edi- 
tions, " 12,000 men, horse, foot, and dragons," are 
said to be sufficient for the Irish military establish- 
ment, coupled with the "very effectual course 
which has been taken to put the remains of that 
nation from being ever in a capacity to make an- 
other revolt." This effectual course was the pass- 
ing of an Act to divide the estates of the Roman 
Catholics amongst all their children, except any 
became Protestants, in which case they were to 
inherit the whole. 

In 1738 the military establishment under Lord 
Shannon, who was the Irish commander-in-chief, 
with three major-generals and eight brigadiers- 
general under him, consisted of four regiments of 
horse, six of dragoons, and twenty of foot. The 
names of twenty-seven barrack masters and four- 
teen governors of garrisons, &c., are also given. 

At the end of the account of the king's domi- 
nions, &c., in Germany is inserted in my own 
copy of this edition a list of " books printed for 
and sold by Joseph Hazard at the Bible against 
Stationers-Hall, near Ludgate, London." These 
are for the most part devotional works and school- 
books, but an exception to these would seem to 
be one entitled " ' The Taste of the Town ; or, a 
Guide to all Publick Diversions,' viz., of Musick, 

Operas, and Plays of Dancing, Religious and 

Dramatical of Audiences at our Theatrical Re- 
presentations, their due behaviour, and of Cat- 
calls and other indecent practices, concluding with 
remarks on our pretenders to Criticism." The 
work treated of various other subjects, and could 
hardly be considered a dear two-shillingsworth, 
either at the time of publication or at the present 

The ninth edition of 'The Present State of 
Great Britain and Ireland ' appeared in 1742, 
"corrected and enlarged." It has the same por- 
trait ; 308 pages in part i., followed by 200 pages 
of lists ; separate title to ' The Present State of 
Scotland,' dated 1738, this portion comprising 253 


Ireland and Germany are treated as in the 
edition. The actual number of pages 

previous _ 

being less, it is difficult to discover where the en- 
largement lies. This would appear to be a scarce 
edition, no copy being preserved in the British 
Museum. A very clean and perfect example is, 
however, in the library of the Incorporated Law 
Society, in Chancery Lane, from which copy I 
have taken these notes. 

The tenth edition, issued in 1745, has a some- 
what altered title-page, and I therefore transcribe 
it in its entirety: 

" The Present State of Great Britain and Ireland, 
being a Complete Treatise of their several Inhabitants ; 

Their Religion, Policy, Manufactures, Customs, Govern- 
ment and Commerce. Of the Britons Original : Their 
Sciences and Arts; Nobility and People, and strength 
by Sea and Land. With a large Description of London ; 
and a curious abstract of each Kings Reign from Ecbert 
to the end of George I. Also His Majesty's German 
Dominions and Genealogy of His Family. The whole 
consisting of four parts. To which are added Lists of 
all the Offices in England, Scotland and Ireland ; with 
their whole Establishment, Civil, Military and Eccle- 
siastical Done in a new Method, correct and regular. 
The Tenth Edition. Begun by Mr. Miege ; and now 
greatly Improved, Revised and completed to the Present 
Time by Mr. Bolton. London. Printed for J. Brotherton, 
G. Strahan, R.Ware, J. Clarke, C. Hitch, and J. Hodges. 
MDCCXLV. Price 6s." Portrait of George II.; preface, 
contents, and pages 1-521 ; title, lists, pages 1-183. 

The eleventh edition, which appeared in 1748, 
was the last issued by Miege's continuator, S. 
Bolton. This publication, for so many years the 
rival of Chamberlayne's ' Magnse Britannise Noti- 
tia,' expired, therefore, seven years earlier than 
the work it was intended to supplant (the last year 
of publication of Chamberlayne being 1755). 

The title-page of the eleventh edition of ' The 
Present State of Great Britain and Ireland ' has a 
misprinted date, "MDCCUVIII" for 1748. The 
compiler states in his preface that he was concerned 
in the revision and production of the ninth edition, 
though his name first appears on the title-page of 
the tenth ; and he concludes his remarks with the 
conviction that "no one can expect infallibility in 
a Protestant country." 

The portrait of King George II. is prefixed to 
the work as in former issues ; the pagination of 
the descriptions of England, Scotland, Ireland, and 
Germany is continuous, numbering 520 pages, with 
no separate titles to the parts ; and the lists which 
follow occupy 191 pages. 

I have thus reached the end of the few biblio- 
graphical notes I have compiled on seventeen 
editions of a little-known work the first series of 
volumes issued by Guy Mige between 1691 and 
1707, and the second series (embracing Scotland 
and subsequently Ireland) from that date to the 
year 1748 ; and I may here say that the pages of 
Lowndes will be searched in vain for any ex- 
haustive account of this author's writings. Want 
of space has prevented my taking more than pass- 

7* 8. II. AUG. 14, '86.] 



ing notice of the more ephemeral publications of a 
similar nature, which in most cases survived no 
longer than a single year ; but with some of these 
and with the foreign translations of both Chamber- 
layne and Mi&ge I shall hope to deal on a future 
occasion. The difficulties which beset the path of 
one who, like myself, has endeavoured to present 
an accurate and complete summary of a series of 
works issued at irregular intervals, and extending 
over so long a period, will be admitted when I 
remark that only nine of these seventeen editions 
are to be found in the library of the British 
Museum, and that for my notes on the remaining 
eight no private collection has afforded me a sight 
of more than one of the missing volumes. 

Tower Hill, Ascot, Berki. 


The following letter from Bodl. MS. Add. C. 89, 
foil. 247-48, seems interesting and entertaining 
enough to deserve a place in ' N. & Q.' The first 
and last sentences appear to refer to some debt or 
other delinquency by which the writer had placed 
himself within the danger of the editors of the 
Monthly Review (the letter was written in about 
1790) : 

Messieurs, Unfortunately I did not know that you 
kept an office of Insurance or three or four months ago 
I should certainly have sent you a handsome proemium 
to have done my neck : but as you have promised 
security to said neck (& I 'd take the ghost's word for a 
thousand) I shall save my money & jog on as merrily as 
if there were no such things as lanterns or posts. 

As you seem capable of enduring the prattle of 
narrative age, take the following story of old times 
which will satisfie your curiosity with respect to the 
commensement of the M. R. from it's first embryonic 

In the years 1747, 8, 9 I belonged to a poetical club 
( Pray let me tell my story my own way) who met at 
the Robin Hood, Butcher Row, every Wednesday at five & 
seldom parted 'till fire the next morning. Each member 
brought a piece of poetry which was corrected & if ap- 
proved of thrown into the treasury from whence the 
wants of Mr. Gave were always supplied & the rest oi 
the pieces disposed of according to the unanimous 
suffrage of the club. The time before supper was spent 
in criticisms on our own, or the productions of others. 1 
was told Mr. Mallet left the club (a little before I came 
into it) on account of some severities which, however 
just, made the gall'd horse wince & run away. The 
correct Pope, who would shew no mercy to an empty 
line we did not spare for sufTrin^ such an one to pass 
muster in his Odyssey as " He clung adherent & sus- 
pended hung." A pretty picture of Ulysses, who clung 
clinging & hung hanging on the rock. Could the little 
gentleman have stept out of purgatory & heard our 
animadversions on this & two or three more of his lines 
he had certainly made some addenda to his Dunciad 
After supper half a score bouts rimez were fill'd up In 
each member, laugh'd at & burned. Then Wit appear'c 
in her most enchanting garb & Humor frolick'd with 
her apish gambols. We declin'd no trial of wit. Some 

imes we sang extempore songs, every 1" & 3 d line 
rhyming, to the tune of Children in the wood, Black joke 
Ice., every member giving his line in rotation, [so] that we 
>roceeded with as much celerity as our brother ballad 
lingers without. He that first hammer'd for a line 
'orfeited a halfpenny. Sometimes we plaid at What is 
t like ? & even I love my love with an A &c. Let me 
mend this nasty pen & you shall have a list of the names 
i: characters of all the Members. 

Dr. E. Young, author of the Universal Passion. Not 
>eing a constant attendant, we shall say no more of him. 
Those who never absented themselves were as follow. 

Dr. R. Brookes, of Oxf. chapel, parson, physician & 
bookmaker. A man of excellent natural abilities, im- 
mense erudition & the strongest thinker I ever met with. 
His great, yet un-common fault was the utmost diffidence 
of his own powers. His elegant ode on Solitude, as fine 
a poem as any in the English language, had so scanty a 
sale, that he could never be prevailed on afterwards, as 
far as I know, to publish anything of his own. It 
came out at an untoward time, in the winter of 45, when 
the rebels were at Derby. The good people of London 
then busied themselves more about the son of the son of 
a brass warming pan, than literary productions. He 
deserved a better fate. A bookseller's slave ought not to 
claim precedence of Mungo. 

Sal Volatile. Who the d 1's he? What is your 
name, says a clergyman to a boy in St. Clement's aisle ? 
Rugged Js tough. Who gave you that name ? The boys 
in the black alley, d n their s Is. The above agnomen 
was imposed by the said Dr. Brooks on (presbyterian 
& physician & poet) 

Thos. Morryat of natural talents not below mediocrity, 
of an education somewhat extra-ordinary. Latin wai 
his vernacular language & he could read any Greek 
author, even Lycophron, before nine years old. A helluo 
librorum, had a tenacious memory & a taste that revolted 
the slightest blemishes & could feast luxuriously on the 
beauties of an author. His knowledge of books was of 
great service to the club, as he often set them right 
when wrong or in a state of dubiety. After supper he 
kept the table in a roar with flashes of merriment, tho' 
he was never known to laugh. So sure as there is any 
truth in the Metempsychosis, the soul of Rabelais 
perch'd on his pineal gland. 

Moses Brown, pen-maker, afterwards parson, tho' a 
Presbyterian also a man of fine poetical talents, tho' of 
no education. When Cave gave 50 for the best poem 
on Life, Death, Judgment, Heaven & Hell which poems 
formed a Magazine extraordinary for July 1735, No. vii. 
Mr. B.'s poem the prize was adjudged to & received by 
him. abnuente Pope, but the majority of the judges (I 
think all but P.) decided justly in his favor. There 
were six lines, for which a gentleman who had just lost 
an only son sent him six guineas. They are, if my 
memory serves me, 

Thee would I mention with paternal tears, 

Sweet boy fate summon 'd in thy youthful years; 

Permit at least this short suspense to grieve, 

For one soft tear to flow, one sigh to heave. 

While thy dear memory wakes my hopeless smart 

And thy fresh image wrings my aching heart. 
He also got the 40 prize for the best poem on the 

J. Duick, pen-maker, very little inferior to M. B., 
tho' a stranger to hie haec hoc. No. yiii. to whom the 
second prize was given was his. At his house in Clerk* 
enwell I could find no other book than a bible & dr, 
Watt's hymns. Squalid poverty appeared there in its 
most offensive form of filth & dirt among his numerous 
progeny, He was also a Presbyterian. Now will you 



[7 S. II. ATJO. 14, '86. 

retract your nascent heterodoxy & own that poeta 
nascitur ? 

Mr. [Martin] Madan, then a lawyer j after, a parson. 
His character ye are no stranger to. 

Mr. Maddox, an attorney ; a man of solid parts, greai 
learning, sound & fine sense, remarkably modest & timid 
yet by no means deficient in wit or poetry. An excellenl 
writer, but never would give his name to any of his 

A Foreigner whose name I have forgot, of consider- 
able abilities natural & acquired, had an extensive 
knowledge of books, men & things. Faggots. Mr. New- 
berry, bookseller, St. Paul's churchyard. Mr. Faden 
Salisbury court. Two or three honorary members, men 
nullius ponderis, spectators, amateurs, not actors. 

About Xmas 1748 Dr. B. delighted with some criti- 
cisms made by several of the club, dropt a hint that, to 
give a fair account of the merits and demerits of every 
Poem that came out, might be an acceptable service to 
the public. That, says Mr. Maddox, would be thrusting 
our fingers into a wasp's nest. It would be necessary, 
says Mr. Duick, to maintain inviolable secrecy with 
respect to the persons concern'd. Cui bono, said Mr. 
Madan. After agitating the affair for some time, what 
says Sal Volatile (says the Dr.) who had kept profound 
silence? He applauds the good sense of the club in 
secreting their persons from the knowledge of mankind. 

This idea of the Dr. was pursued and extended to 

all publications. After being the subject of conversa- 
tion for several club nights a plan was at length per- 
fected & agreed upon to give an impartial account 
of every work published in a I2d. monthly pamphlet, 
to which the Dr. who was so happy in the titular line, 
gave the name of The Monthly Review. 

At this time an unlucky fracas broke out between Mr. 
Brown & Mr. Newberry. Moses was to recieve three 
guineas p r month for his share; which not being satis- 
fied with, Mr. N. & he had some words, & words 
followed words as the Jewish King observed, who for a 
king was undoubtedly a wise man the beginning of 
strife is as the letting out waters : for several club 
nights the breach increased & during this altercation, 
before our first number was finished, out pops a publica- 
tion, precisely on our plan & (which was rather too 
much) our very title prefixed. You have seen the man 
who drew Priam's curtains in the dead of night such 
was the phyz of every member of our club. I should 
have remark'd that what retarded our work was that 
every writer's strictures should be submitted to the 
revision of the whole club, for their corrections. The 
first thing proposed was to discover the traitor: sus- 
picion fell on Mr. Raikes of Gloucester, with what 
justice I know not. Discord now took full possession of 
the club room, & driving away all the little genii & 
pretty angels that hover'd over our heads, scatter'd 
nothing but jealousies, heart-burnings, bickerings & 
animosities. They were too sore to bear laughing at 

soon left them, & went on my travels, nor have I 
ever since seen the face of one of them. Consequently 
1 never knew who the writers were, engaged in the 
compilation of the M. R., but this I know, that thev 
were equal to the task, & have raised its reputation on 
the most durable basis, to the highest fame of any 

literary production on the face of the globe Thanks to 

ye for freeing me from fear, for Qui metuens vivit liber 
mihi non ent unquam. The sentiments of Flaccus are 
always just, tho' his conduct like that of other good 
Christians was sometimes at cuffs with them, witness 
his parmula non bene relicta; this he might laugh at 
under the smiles of Augustus, but had one of Cesar's 

y scamperer he wouid 

I am, gentlemen, with the sincerest esteem & admira- 
tion your most faithful and obliged humble servant, 

Endorsed : Messieurs Monthly Reviewers. 

While on the subject of the Monthly Review, 
let me add that the next volume to the one from 
which the above is taken (namely, Bodl. MS. 
Add. C. 90) contains a large number of letters 
from Samuel Badcock to Dr. Ralph Griffiths, the 
editor of the Review, which have not been pub- 
lished, and which have been unknown to all the 
writers of Badcock's life, even to the last, who has 
written in the 'Diet, of National Biography.' 
They supply full information with respect to two 
important episodes in his life his removal from 
Barnstaple, and his conformity to the Established 
Church as well as supplement what is known of 
his controversy with Joseph Priestley and hia 
review of Madan'a ' Thelyphthora.' FAMA,. 




Countant= accountant, in Hey wood's ' Rape of 

For he usurps my state and first deposd 
My father in my swathed infancy, 
For which he shall be countaut. 

' Works,' vol. v. p. 167. 

(The quotations are all taken from Pearson's edi- 
tion, 1874.) 

Neutrize = be neutral, Hey wood's ' Eape of 
Lucrece ': 

"I can fret with Horatius Codes, be mad like my 

selfe, or neutrize with Collatine." 'Works.' vol. v. 
p. 192. 

The meaning of this word is not clear ; but from 
Collating's long speech which shortly follows, it 
would seem that what Brutus meant was " to be 
neutral," " take part with neither side." 

Sulky, in Heywood's 'Challenge for Beauty,' 
III. i. : 

" Never was thrifty trader more willing to put of a 
\ilke [i. ., sulky] commodity."' Works," vol. v. p. 39. 

Sulky appears to mean in this passage " not easily 
got rid of," " that hangs on hand." I have not 
met with any other instance of the word in this 
peculiar sense. 

Strage= slaughter, in Heywood's 'Earth and 

What broiles? what slraget what slaughter to destroy 
Did this loath'd carkasse breed 'twixt Greece and Troy 1 
1 Works,' vol. vi. p. 143. 

Inciferous. What does this word mean ? It 
occurs in Dekker's 'Match me in London,' Act L, 
n the following passage : 

" She 's amorous, delicious, inciferous, tender, neate.' ' 
'Works,' vol. iv.p. 148. 

[ cannot make out from what this word is Bup- 
josed to be derived, nor can I find any word like 
it for which it could be a misprint. 

7<" S. IL Aco. 14, '86.] 



Ehubarbative, used of a doctor by Dekker in 
his ' Match me in London,' Act III. : 

" A man were better to lye vnder the hands of a Hang- 
man, than one of your rhubarbatiue faces." ' Works, 
vol. iv. p. 169. 

Lists. In the same play (Act II.) is the follow- 
ing : 

" They haue giuen it me soundly, I feele it vnder the 
liitt of both eares." P. 167. 

Cotgrave has under " Mol," " Le mol de I'oreille. 
The lug, or lid of th' eare " (i. e., the lobe of the 
ear). I can only find the word list given in this 
sense in Halli well's ' Diet, of Archaic and Provin- 
cial Words,' the passage from Cotgrave being 
quoted, but no other authority. I thought it 
worth noting that it occurs twice in Dekker's 
' Match me in London,' once as above, and again 
on p. 166. I have never met with the word list 
in this sense elsewhere. F. A. MARSHALL. 
8, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 


The service for the Papal benediction of the 
Golden Rose is so very difficult to obtain that it 
seems fitting to place it on record in ' N. & Q.' 
It is taken from that very curious book, ' Sacrarum 
Gcretnoniarum sive Rituum Ecclesiasticorum S. 
Rom. EcclesKt-,' by Christopher Marcel, Arch- 
bishop-elect of Corfu, which was printed at Venice 
in 1573, "ad signum Pavonis," by ^Egidius Re- 

De Benediclione Rotce, qua tit Dominica Lcelare 
Hierutalem, & tju* traditione. 

Consueveruut Roman! Pontinces in Dominica quarta 
Quadragesimae, in qua cantatur in Eccleeia Leclare 
Jerutalem, rosam auream benedicere, et illam post Alis- 
sarum solemnia alicut inagno principi, si praesens eat in 
curia, dono dare. Sin minus esget in curia princepg 
tanto munere dignus, mittitur extra ad aliquem Regem 
vel Principem, ut placuerit sanctissimo Domino nostro 
cum consilio sacri collegii. Nam consuevit summus 
Pontifez ante vel post missam convocare Gardinales ad 
circulum in camera sua, vel ubi sibi placet et cum eis 
deliberare, cui danda vel mittenda sit rosa. Pro ejus 
igitur benedictione juxta lee turn paramenti, ubi sane- 
tissimus Dominus noster accipit eua paramenta, paratur 
paruum al tare, et super illud duo candelabra, et Pontifez 
indutus amictu, alba, cingulo, stola, pluviali et mitra, 
accedit ad ipsum altare, et deposita mitra, dicit. 

V. Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini. 

R. Qui fecit coalum et terrain. 

V. Dominus vobiscum. 

R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 


7>eus cujus verbo et potentia facta sunt omnia, et 
cujus nutu univerea diriguntur : qui es laetitia etgaudium 
omnium iidelium : majestatem tuam Euppliciter ezora- 
mus, ut bane rosam odore visuque ; irratis.-imarn, quam 
bodierna die in signum spiritualis laetitiae in manibus 
gestamus bene+dicere et sancti-f ficare tua pietate dig- 
naris, ut plebs tibi dicata ez jugo Babilonicae captiritatis 
educta, per unigeniti filii tui gratiam : qui eat gloria et 
ezultatio plebis Israel illius Hierusalem, quae sursum est 
mater nostia, siuceris cordibus gaudium repraesentes, et 

quia ad honorem nominis tui Ecclesia tua hoc signo hodie 
ezultat et gaudet : tu ei Domine verum et perfectum 
gaudium largiaris, et devotionem ejus accipiens peccata 
dimittas, fide repleas, indulgentia foveas, mieericordia 
protegas, adversa destruas, prospera cuncta concedas : 
quatenus per fructum boni operis in odorem unguento- 
rum illius floris transeat, qui de radice Jesse productus, 
flos campi et lilium convallium mistice predicatur : cum 
quo in superna gloria cum sanctis omnibus sine fine 
letetur. Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate spiritus 
sancti Deus, per omnia secula seculorum, Amen. 

Finita oratione inungit cum balsamo rosttm auream, 
qua; est in ipao ramusculo, et super imponit museum 
tritum, quae per Sacristam ei ministrantur, et imponit 
incensum in turibulo more consueto, et demum aspergit 
rosam aqua benedicta. et adolet incenso. Interim 
clericua camera; Apostolicae sustinet rosam, quam deinde 
dat ad manus Diaconi Cardinalis a deztriz, et ille ad 
manus Pontificis, qui manu sinistra rosam gestans, et 
deztra benedicens progreditur ad capellam, et Diaconi 
Cardinales bine inde elevant fimbrias pluvialis : cum 
pervenerit ad faldistorium, dat rosam Diacono praedieto, 
qui earn clerico camera: tradit, et ille earn super altare 
ponit. Finita Missa Pontifez facta oratione ante altare, 
recipit rosam, ut supra, et earn defert ad cameram suam. 
Et si ille, cui earn dare velit, est praesens, vocatur ad ejus 
pedes, et genuflexo dat ei rosam, dicens : 

ylccipe rosam de manibus nostris, qui licet immeriti 
locum Dei in terris tenemus, per quam designatur gau- 
dium utriusque Hierusalem, triumphantis scilicet et 
militantis Ecclesiae, per quam omnibus Ghristi ndelibus 
manifestatur flos ipse speciosissimus, qui est gaudium et 
corona sanctorum omnium suscipe hanc tu dilectissiine 
fill, qui secundum seculum nobilis, potens, ac multa 
virtute praeditus es, ut amplius omni virtute in Christo 
Domino nobiliteris tanquam rosa plantata super rivos 
aquarum multaram, quam gratiam ez sua uberanti de- 
mentia tibi concedere, dignatur, qui est trinus et unus 
in saecula saeculorum, Amen. In nomine Patris et Filii 
et Spiritus Sancti, Amen. 

Hoc aliquando in capella factum fuit finita Missa, 
antequam Papa descenderet de sede sua : sed convenien- 
tius est, ut Papa revertatur ad camaram cum rosa et ita 
apud maiorea factitatum reperio. 

Ille cui rosa data est, postquam manum et pedem 
Pontificis osculatus est, eique pro tempore gratias egit, 
cum Papa in camera vestes sacras deposuerit, ipse rosam 
manu gestans associatur usque ad domum sue habita- 
tionis a collegio Cardinalium, medius inter duos anti- 
quiores Diacones post omnes alios Cardinales, circa 
Hum sunt pedites cursores Ilornarue curiac cum suis 
>aculis, qui solent ilia die strenas ab eo, qui rosam 
habuit, accipere. Lib. i. cap. v. p. 155. 

Reform Club, S.W. 

x. and xi.) some very curious coincidences were 
recorded. I do not know if you will think the 
Following, which recently occurred in my own ex- 
perience, worth adding to the list. Although 
quite unimportant, it is at least curious. A few 
weeks ago I received by post two books in the 
same parcel, one, Moliere's ' Le Malade Imagi- 
naire,' the other, ' The Fortunes of Nigel.' In 
turning over the leaves of the former, an edition 
with English notes, I found " une prise de petit- 
ait claritiu et cdulcoru " (Act I. sc. i.) explained as 
" a dose of whey clarified and sweetened." After 



[7 th S. II. AUG. 14, '86. 

a few minutes I put down Moliere's play and too! 
up Scott's romance, when, to my great amusemem 
my eye again caught the words " clarified whey 
(chap. xvL). The probabilities were not in favou 
of finding such an out-of-the-way article asclarifie 
whey mentioned at all in a work of fiction by 
great standard author, but the chances must, 
should imagine, have been well-nigh infinite agains 
one's accidentally, in the space of about ten minutes 
lighting upon this unusual article of diet in tw 
books received in the same parcel, and written b; 
two great authors, the one a dramatist, the othe 
a novelist, who wrote the one in the seventeentl 
the other in the nineteenth century. 


FOREIGNER. In the Academy, July 10, 1886 
p. 27, it is stated that 

" foreigner has now a precise meaning. We understaru 
by it a person who is not a subject of Queen Victoria 
To our forefathers it had a wider signification. To them 
any person or thing which came from a long distance 
was foreign. We find this use of the word still living in 
many of our dialects." 

If this definition of the modern use of the word be 
correct, West Indian negroes and Maoris are 
nearer to us than our Transatlantic cousins. Yel 
the fact that the English people of the United 
States live under an independent form of govern- 
ment can scarcely be said to destroy the ties of kin- 
ship. An average New Yorker or Marylander is, 
both by descent and education, bound much more 
closely to the nation from which he sprang than 
the Hindoo or even the Erse-speaking Celt can 
possibly be. The thrill of grief and indignation 
with which the news of President Garfield's assas- 
sination was received in England, and the sympathy 
which his long agony called forth, could have been 
awakened by no alien. " Blood is thicker than 
water," and the frequently-heard remark, "He is 
not a foreigner, he is an American," shows that this 
is generally acknowledged. How, then, should the 
word foreigner be defined ? B. L. K. C. 

TIKE. This common Yorkshire word has the 
following derivation and explanation in Dr 
Brewer's ' Dictionary of Phrase and Fable ': 
. " Tike A Yorkshire tike, a clownish rustic. (Celtic 
fto&a ploughman.) A small bullock or heifer is called 
a tike, so also is a dog, probably because they are the 
common companions of the ' tiac.' " 

The above is misleading. For derivation Dr 
Brewer seems to have been indebted to Ogilvie's 
Imperial Dictionary.' The proper meaning of 
tike is dog, cf. Icel. tik, Sw. tile, a bitch. When 
the word is applied to a man it is used in a dis- 
paraging sense. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

ALL.FjsBD.--In Aubrey's 'Natural History and 
Antiquities of Surrey' (1719), i. 13, is the follow- 

J T Dg ^ L^A Dltches about South Lambeth, our 
Ladys Thistle grows frequently. But all along 

from hence to Kingston, towards the Thames Side, 
is the greatest Abundance of All-Feed that ever I 
saw." The ordinary botanical and provincial glos- 
saries do not mention this word. 

Salterton, Devon. 

LLANFECHAIN COCKPIT. "The earth of the 
churchyard having been blessed dissolved all en- 
chantment, so that a cockpit in the churchyard 
ensured the combat being a fair one" ("Notes on 
Books,"* 7 th S. i. 479). We are told that the 
Llanfechain cockpit is " still traceable on the north 
side of the churchyard." According to the numer- 
ous authorities given by Brand (' Popular Anti- 
quities') under " Churchyards," the north side of 
the country churchyards,- especially in Wales, was 
considered " unhallowed ground, fit only to be the 
dormitory of the stillborn infants and suicides." 
And further on Brand calls attention to the Kadnor- 

shire custom of " dancing in the churchyard 

The young men play at fives and tennis against 

the wall of the church This amusement takes 

place on the north side of the churchyard, where it 
is the custom not to bury." All this and much 
more therein mentioned tends to show that the 
locality of this particular cockpit was selected not 
because the earth is blessed, but rather the con- 
34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 


:eel much obliged to any of your numerous readers 

.n Ireland, the Americas, or elsewhere, who can 

jive me any information about the parentage of 

Dr. William Henry, of Kildare Street, Dublin, 

and Dean of Killaloe. The said William Henry 

raduated M.A. at Dublin University in 1748, 

B.D. and D.D. in 1750 ; madeDean of Killaloe in 

.761, Nov. 9. A Visitation Book of 1766 (Cashel 

ieg., i.) describes him, though presented, " as not 

yet instituted." That looks as if he never lived 

it Killaloe, though he was dean of that place from 

761 to 1768, when he died (presumably) at his 

esidence in Kildare Street, Dublin, and was buried 

n Feb. 14, 1768, at St. Anne's Church, Dawson 

itreet, Dublin (chancel vault). In Dr. Cotton's 

Fasti Ecclesiae HibernicaB,' "an Ecclesiastical 

Record of the Protestant Church in Ireland," 

mention is made of Dean William Henry, but it 

oes not give his pedigree. He was an eminent 

' Old Stone Crosses of the Vale of Clwyd and the 
Neighbouring Parishes.' 

7 S. II. AUG. 14, '86.] 



preacher ; many of his printed sermons are in the 
British Museum. He also wrote on science in the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 
The coat of arms used by Dean Henry was, Per 
gules, indented, argent and gules, on a chief azure 
a lion passant argent. Crest, out of a ducal coronet 
or, a demy talbot rampant argent, holding a ducal 
coronet or. This family of Henry was an ancient 
Norman one, and their ancestor, Myles Henry, 
Knt., came over with William the Conqueror, and 
some of his descendants accompanied Strongbow 
(Richard of Clare, Earl of Pembroke and Striguil, 
a ruined baron who bore this nickname) 1169, 
and Henry II. to Ireland, 1172. I can find no 
mention made of Dean W. Henry by the Rev. 
Canon Philip Dwyer, of Ennis, co. Clare, in his 
' History of the Diocese of Killaloe, from the Time 
of the Reformation to the Close of the Eighteenth 
Century,' 1 vol., 1878, London. Dr. W. Henry 
died 1768. In the Heralds' Office, Dublin, there 
are no means of ascertaining what arms were used 
by Rev. William Henry, Dean of Killaloe, none 
being recorded to him. How did the lineal 
descendants of Myles Henry, Knt., manage to pre- 
serve his blazon from having quartered on it the 
arms of any family of equal repute to themselves 
into which they may have married either before or 
after his arrival in England (temp. Battle of Hastings, 
1066) until this purely Norman coat of arms was 
used by Dr. W. Henry in 1768 ? What family in 
Ireland, England, Wales, Scotland, France, or 
elsewhere, used, or may still make use of, arms 
similar to those of Dean Henry ? For, according 
to what Mr. M. A. Lower says in his ' Dictionary 
of the Family Names of the United Kingdom,' 
London, 1840, there may still be some family 
existing who claim to use this plain Norman 
blazon : 

" Henry, a personal name of Norman importation, 
which has given birth in a modified form to many 
surnames, including Heririson, Benson, Penry (ap- 
Henry), Harry, Parry (ap-Harry). Harris, Harrison, 
Hall (from Hal), Hallet, Halkett, Halse, Hawes, Haw- 
kins, Hawkinson, Allking, Husking, and perhaps Alcock. 
Thus as Henry has given name to the most numerous 
group of English Monarchs, so it has furnished surnames 
for a very great number of their subjects." 

A. H. H. 

DANTZICK JUDGES. What were these? Re- 
ferred to in a paper found on a man who had 
committed suicide, Oct. 29, 1774 (see Gentleman's 
Magazine), thus : " On searching his pockets a 
paper was found, the purport of which was, that 
five or six Dantzick judges had robbed him of his 
substance by a false decree." J. J. 8. 

POMFRET CAKES. A reference to Pontefract, 
or Pomfret, 7 th S. i. 377, induces me to ask, before 
this once popular lozenge or sweet is forgotten, 
whose seal or crest and initials are stamped oc 
each cake. The design is like that on an olc 

sheriffs seal, viz., a pair of round-topped towers 
connected by a wall with a door in it, over which 
s perched a horned owl, just as the crest is on a 
sheriffs seal. Below the door are the initials TF, 
united. You can buy these liquorice cakes in 
Yorkshire yet; but the old stamp has been re- 
placed by another, and, I think, with different 
Test and initials. They were threepence the 
ounce. P. P. 

MILITARY SONG. Who was the author of an 
alphabetical song beginning 

A is the Army, where many are killed and others cashitred 
in a moment, 

which was popular before the Crimean War ; and 
can any reader supply the complete set of lines ? 

H. M. 
Pall Mall. 

CALLIS. What is the meaning of callis in callig- 
sand, i. ., white scouring sand ? See ' Manley and 
Corringham Glossary' (E. D. S.). I have heard 
that in Buckinghamshire it is called gally-sand. 

K. P. D. E. 
[Is it not Calais sand?] 

COBBETT'S GRIDIRON. Cobbett offered to be 
fried upon a gridiron if ever the Government's 
paper in England was paid in gold. Can any one 
give me a reference to the passage ? E. T. 

one tell me the exact name and author of the 
child's poem describing the battle of the cats and 
rats 1 It begins thus : 

Beside a river broad and deep 

For many years the cats did keep 

A castle, which they fortified. 

This castle all around was walled, 

And was by all Cats' Castle called. 

Could it be ' Cats' Castle attacked by Rats/ 
written by either Stennett or Mary Howitt, and 
published by Dean & Munday, in 16mo., about 
the year 1830 ? ALFRED R. CONKLING. 

83, Jermyn Street, S.W. 

shall be glad of any information as to the later 
baronets of this house, who assumed the title 
after the death, in 1751, of Sir John Houstoun, 
the third or fourth baronet, who sold Houstoun, 
and who is the last recorded by Burke in his ' Ex- 
tinct Baronetage.' I find the death recorded in 
1780 of "the Hon. Lady Susan, relict of Sir 
Thomas Houstoun." In 1785 Sir Patrick Hous- 
toun, Bart., of Houstoun, died, and was buried in 
the abbey church of Bath ; and in 1795 Sir George 
Houstoun, Bart., died in Georgia. If any reader 
of 'N. & Q.' can throw light on this subject I 
shall be very grateful. SIGMA. 

REV. Jos. MENCE. This gentleman was for 
many years Vicar of St. Pancras and Allhallows, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [?> s. n. A. H, m 

London Wall. He was eminent for his skill in 
music, and as one of the minor canons of St. 
Paul's he exhibited vocal powers said to have been 
unrivalled by any English singer. He died at 
Worcester, Sept. 19, 1796 (Gent. Ma0.,lxvi. 1116). 
Is anything more than this to be learned concern- 
ing him ? 0. A. WARD. 
llaverstock Hill. 

Tennyson's recently published poem, ' The Flight,' 
there is an allusion to the ' Bride of Lammermoor.' 
This is, so far as I am aware, the only allusion to 
Scott in all Tennyson's poems, although I remember 
that Mr. Gladstone, in a letter that was published 
during the Scott centenary in 1871, stated that 
Tennyson is a great admirer of Sir Walter. Do 
any of your readers remember any other allusion to 
Scott in Tennyson's poems? May I take this 
opportunity of asking by what eminent people the 
" Waverley Novels " have not been appreciated ? 
The only ones I can think of are Charles Lamb, 
T.L. Peacock, Carlyle, and (so I understand) Wilber- 
force. To these I am afraid I must by inference 
add Mrs. E. B. Browning, who omits Scott's name 
from her beautiful ' Vision of Poets.' This does 
not, however, necessarily prove that she did not ad- 
mire the " Waverley Novels." Charles Lamb cared 
little for contemporary literature unless it was by 
one of his personal friends, such as Wordsworth or 
Bryan Waller Procter. As for Wilberforce, al- 
though he was one of the best men that ever lived, 
and accomplished ablessedand an enduring work, he 
was, I believe, a member of the so-called " Clapham 
sect," and he may, therefore, have thought it a 
point of conscience to object to books that gave 
people so much pleasure. With regard to Peacock, 
he is both a clever and an entertaining writer, but 
it is amusing, when one thinks of his own rather 
amorphous novels, to hear that he saw little merit 
in the novels of one who is perhaps the greatest 
writer of prose fiction that ever lived. I believe 
Wordsworth did not care much for Scott's poetry, al- 
though in his beautiful ' Yarrow Revisited ' he hails 
his brother poet as " great minstrel of the Border 
but I do not know how much or how little he cared 
for Sir Walter's novels. Carlyle, when writing his 
unhappy essay on Scott, seems to have had a good 
and an evil angel on either hand, as his article is 
an amusing see-saw between praise and blame. 
Speaking for myself, as a sincere lover of Carlyle, 
I would fain see this essay blotted out of Carlyle's 
works, as it is quite unworthy of the genius of the 
great writer who has written so well on Burns. 
Can any of your readers mention any famous names 
in connexion with this subject in addition to the 

Ropier, Hants. 

EVELYN MSS. In my edition of Evelyn 
(Wheatley, 1879) it is stated (vol. i. p. cxv) that 

his MS. 'Officinm Sanctse et Individual Trini- 
tatis' was sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on 
Friday, March 7, 1873, for 36L 10*. Can any 
one tell me in what library or in whose possessiou 
this MS. now is ? W. H. 

Cum Sapiente Pius nostras juravit in aras, 
Impius heu ! Sapiens, desipiemque Pius. 

[ have a note that these lines were written by Dr. 
Scott, late head of Balliol. Of whom, and in re- 
ference to what, were they written ? H. A. W. 

CRUETOR JACK. In a Gloucestershire will 
dated in 1752 the testator makes a bequest of his 
" Cruetor Jack." What is the article in question ? 

E. F. W. 

[Can it possibly be " Cruet or Jack"!] 

like to call the attention of heralds to the position of 
the quartered coats in one of the shields of this brass, 
and to ask if other examples of like position are 
known ; and should such be the case I think it 
will go far towards proving that Sir John Curson, 
to whose memory the brass was placed, did not 
marry Joan Bacon (as stated in Blomefield's 'His- 
tory of Norfolk,' vol. viii. p. 190 ; the ' Visitation 
of Norfolk,' vol. ii. p. 19 ; and Cotman's ' Brasses,' 
p. 32), but Joan, daughter of Sir William Drury, 
of Eougham. There were originally four shields, 
one at each corner of the stone. No. 1, above the 
head of the knight, has been lost some while. 
No. 2 may be thus described : Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Two lions passant, crowned (Felton) ; 2 and 3, A 
bend chequy (Curson) ; impaling Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
On a chevron three boars' heads couped (Swynford); 
2 and 3, On a chief two pierced mullets (Drury ?). 
No. 3, Swynford. No. 4, Swynford impaling 
Drury? That Curson should quarter Felton 
would be right, for "Sir John Curson, of Beck 
Hall, married Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir 
Thomas Felton, K.G." (Carthew's ' History of the 
Hundred of Launditch,' vol. i. p. 158) ; and Drury 
might quarter Swynford, for " Sir William Drury, 
ancestor of the Drurys of Eougham, married 
Katherine, daughter of Sir Ottes Swynford" 
(Burke's ' Extinct Baronetcies,' p. 170). But why 
are the quarterings seemingly reversed ? 


Luton Hoo. 

meaning of this term, used in the ' Heart of Mid- 
lothian,' in the account of the trial of Effie Deans, 
the probable date of which may be 1736 ? " One 
of the judges, better acquainted, perhaps, with the 
Books of Adjournal than with the Book of Samuel, 
was disposed to make some instant inquiry after 
this widow of Tekoah, who, as he construed the 
matter, had been tampering with the evidence " 

7 th S. II. Auo. 14, '86.] 



(chap. xxii.). I was reminded of this scene by 
seeing recently in the Edinburgh Exhibition, 
amongst the loan collection of pictures, a very 
large and fine painting, ' The Trial of Effie 
Deans.' The colouring; in it] was remarkably 
fresh, though it must have been painted more 
than thirty-eight years, for I can remember seeing 
engravings of it at so far distant a period. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

[See the ' New English Dictionary.'] 

ST. AUGUSTINE'S PAPET. There was an acci- 
dental fire in the Cotton Library years ago, and 
some vellum books were partly consumed. One 
of them related to this church, but was found 
illegible by J. P. Malcolm (' Londin. Rediv. ,' ii. 
76). He could not separate the leaves ; they were 
contracted to half their original size. The writing 
had shrunk, too, to an inconceivable minuteness, 
but remained perfectly legible. Is this now to be 
seen in the British Museum, and have experts been 
unable to separate the leaves ? C. A. WARD. 

Haveratock Hill. 

papers and periodical press of 1829-30 there is 
frequent reference to a " Prospectus of a new and 
curious work entitled ' Developement of the Prin- 
ciple and Structure of the Auticatelephor ; an 
Engine for the Instantaneous Conveyance of Intel- 
ligence to any Distance : by the Inventor, T. W. C. 
Edwards, M.A., Lecturer on Experimental Philo- 
sophy and Chemistry.' " The prospectus is quoted 
in (amongst others) the Literary Gazette, June, 
1829; the Kaleidoscope, June 30, 1829; and 
Mechanics 1 Magazine, May 29, 1830. In the 
last (p. 182) it is stated that the book was still 
unpublished owing to want of subscribers ; and in 
the catalogues of the British Museum I found (in 
1884) no trace of it, although they contain no 
fewer than twenty entries of other works by Mr. 
Edwards on Greek and Latin literature. 

Was the above work ever published ; and if not, 
what was the principle of the auticatelephor ? Any 
information on these questions will be gratefully 

I may add that, according to the prospectus, the 
secret of the invention was explained to (amongst 
others) the Vice-President of the Royal Society, 
the Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astro- 
nomy in the University of London, and the Pre- 
sident of the Mechanics' Institution. 


Teheran, Persia. 

AMBROSE FISHER. Can any of your readers 
help me to the parentage of Ambrose Fisher 
(" the Blind Scholar"), the author of the charming 
dialogue on ' The Defence of the Liturgy ' ? Grant, 
the editor of his book, says that " he was sent to 

Trinity College, Cambridge, by the ' faction '; but 
while there was convinced of the errors of his friends, 
and became the great champion of the Prayer Book." 
He was for some time at Westminster with Dr. 
Grant, the head master. His preaching at the 
Abbey attracted large congregations. He after- 
wards became Rector of Holy Trinity Church, Col- 
chester. He was buried in the cloisters of the 
Abbey, nearly opposite the entrance to the Chapter 
House, where his stone remains in a perfect state. 


THE CRANE. Was the crane a visitor of this 
country as late as 1827 ? In that year John Clare 
published his 'Shepard's Calendar,' where the 
following lines occur (p. 31) : 

While, far above, the solitary crane 
Swings lonely to unfrozen dykes again, 
Cranking a jarring melancholy cry 
Through the wild journey of the cheerless sky. 

The word " crane " is sometimes used to signify 
heron, but the allusion to " unfrozen dykes " pre- 
cludes this interpretation in the present instance. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

BLEMO. In Kingsley's 'Yeast' (1851) ch. ii. 
(ed. 1881, p. 34) I find, " She coiled herself up 
among lace pillows and eider blemos." Can any 
one inform me if the last word is, or has been, in 
actual use for a coverlet. J. A. H. MURRAY. 





(7 th S. ii. 41.) 

As the interesting, notes supplied by MR. J. 
POWER HICKS differ much from existing records, 
by those who were near Kilmarnock, from the 
7th to the day of execution, it would hardly be 
wise to allow these notes to pass unchallenged. 
Mr. Foster, Mr. Home, and Mr. Jamieson have 
given us much that, at least, throws grave sus- 
picion on portions of the notes referred to, while 
the ' Account of the Behaviour of William, late 
Earl of Kilmarnock,' &c., published by authority 
of the sheriffs in the year of the executions, is 
additional evidence that the "fragments" must 
not be taken as wholly correct. The writer of the 
latter indicates that Kilmarnock delayed the hour 
of execution by one and three-quarter hours, and 
that he "sent to speak [and] desired of Lord 
Balmerino to die first." Now, in the ' Account ' 
above referred to, it is stated, "About 11 o'clock 
my Lord received a message from my Lord Bal- 
merino desiring an interview," &c., at which Bal- 
merino asks Kilmarnock if there was any truth in 
the report that an order had been issued " before 
the Battle of Culloden, for giving no quarter to 



|.7* h 8. II. An. 14, '86. 

the Duke's army." After which the Lords saluted 
each other, &c. At half-past eleven Kilmarnock, 
with the company, knelt down to prayers, Mr. 
Foster officiating ; after which Kilmarnock took a 
bit of bread and a glass of wine, and about twelve 
proceeded to the scaffold. It is recorded by Mr. 
Home, who attended Kilmarnock on the scaffold, 
that the latter's " behaviour was so humble and 
resigned, that not only his friends, but every 
spectator was deeply moved." Mr. Jamieson, who 
attended Kilmarnock till his last moment, states 
that the earl's hair having been dressed in a bag, 
it took some time to undo. The tucking of his 
shirt under the waistcoat was the occasion of small 
delay ; but these preliminaries finished, Kilmar- 
nock gave the executioner notice of what the signal 
should be ; and what shows more sufficiently, if 
needed, that Kilmarnock was in full presence of 
mind, Mr. Home's servant, who held the cloth to re- 
ceive the head, heard Kilmarnock, while his head 
was on the block, tell the executioner that in two 
minutes he would give the signal, the two minutes 
being spent in fervent devotion. The delay pic- 
tured by the writer of the " fragment " B is, there- 
fore, perfectly well accounted for, without any 
grounds for the deductions evidently made by the 


The following account of the execution of these 
noblemen is from the St. James's Evening Post of 
August 16-19, 1746 : 

" Yesterday Morning about Six o'Clock a large De- 
tachment of Life-Guards, and Horse-Grenadiers, and 
fifteen Men out of each Company of the three Re- 
giments of Foot-Guards, marched thro' the City for 
Tower-Hill, to attend the Execution of the Earl of 
Kilmarnock and Lord Balmerino ; and the same Morn- 
ing the Sheriffs of this City (with their Officers, and the 
Executioner) went from the Mitre Tavern in Fenchurch- 
street, to the House hired by them on Tower-Hill, for 
the said Lords. At Ten o'Clock the Block was fixed on 
the Stage, and covered with black Cloth, and ten Sacks 
of Saw-Dust was brought up to strew on the Stage ; soon 
after their Coffins were brought, covered with black 
Cloth, with gilt Nails, &c. On that for the Earl of 
Kilmarnock was a Plate with this Inscription, viz. 
Gulielmus Comes de Kilmarnock, decollal 18 Augusti 
1746. jEtat. siias 42. with an Earl's Coronet over it, 
and six Coronets over the six Handles ; and on that for 
Lord Balmerino, was a Plate with this Inscription, viz. 
Arthurus Dominus de Balmerino, decollat 18 Augusti, 
1746. jEtat. tuce 58. with a Baron's Coronet over it 
and six others over the six Handles. At Half an Hour 
after Ten the Sheriffs went to the Tower, and after 
knocking some Time at the Gate, they were admitted 
and the Prisoners, on their giving a Receipt, were 
delivered to them, and Mr. Sheriff BlacMford walked with 
the Earl of Kilmarnock, and Mr. Sheriff Cockayne walkec 
with Lord Balmerino, to the House provided for them. 

" They spent about an Hour, and at half an Hour 
after Eleven o'Clock, the Earl of Kilmarnock, with 
the Sheriffs, Mr. Foster the Divine, and the Chap 
lain of the Tower, who attended him, and some other 
Gentlemen came upon the Scaffold : His Lordship made a 
short Speech to the People, in which he acknowledg'd th 

Wickedness of the Crimes he had committed against his 
Majesty, and his Country, in being concerned in the late 
unnatural Rebellion. His Lordship was dressed in Black, 
and having spent a little Time in Devotion, he took the 
Jag from his Hair, and by the Help of his Gentlemen 
>ulled off his Coat and Neckcloth, and put on a Cap made 
if a Damask Napkin, after which he spoke to the 
Executioner, and gave him some Money, (who was dressed 
n White) and saluted his Friends ; his Hair seeming 
;o be in the Way he put it under his Cap, and his 
Shirt and Neck of his Waistcoat were tucked in, after 
which he knelt down at the Block on a black Cushion, 
and laid down his Head, and raised it again five several 
Times ; then the Cap being drawn over his Eyes (a great 
Piece of Scarlet Cloth being held under the Block to 
catch the Head in) he laid down his Head, and in about 
ive Minutes gave the Signal, and the Executioner at one 
Blow sever'd his Head from his Body, excepting a small 
Bkin, which was immediately cut off, and wrapped in 
the Scarlet Cloth, arid the Body was put into the Coffin. 
He behaved on the Scaffold with great Decency, but 
was weak in Body, having been indisposed for some 
Days past: He was very Penitent, and appeared in 
every Respect Melancholy of his unhappy Circumstances, 
notwithstanding he bore his Death with the Conduct and 
Resolution of a Man. 

1 As soon as the Scaffold was cleared from the Blood 
of the executed Lord, the Sheriffs went for Lord Bal- 
merino, who soon came upon the Stage, dressed in his 
Regimentals, a blue Coat turned up with Red, with Brass 
Buttons, and a Tye Wig, with the Air of a Man going to 
a Wedding, talking and laughing, shewing no Fear of 
Death ; he read the Inscription on his Coffin, and 
afterwards read a Paper to the Sheriffs, which he deliver'd 
them, clearing himself from being of the Council that 
proposed the Massacring of all the English Prisoners ; 
then enquired after his Hearse, and asked for the Warder 
cf the Tower, to whom he gave his Wig and some Money, 
he then pulled off his Coat, and laid it on his Coffin, 
put on a Cap made of Scotch Plaid, saying, he died a 
Scotchman ; then took up the Axe and felt of it, and 
called for the Executioner, gave him Money, and talked 
to him some Time, during which, he gave him Directions 
how to perform the Execution, shook Hands and for- 
gave him, then pulled off his Waistcoat, tuck'd down his 
Shirt, and knelt down on the wrong hide of the Block, 
of which he being informed, got up again, and went 
to the other Side, and laying down his Head gave the 
Executioner the Signal before he was prepared to receive 
it : He received three Blows, the first partly on bis 
Shoulders, the second went about two thirds thro' his 
Neck, (on which the Lord fell down) and being immedi- 
ately raised, a third Blow took off his Head, a Scarlet 
Cloth receiving it, as it did the other, and the Body 
being put into the Coffin, they were both carried to the 
Tower : He did not appear so calm and sedate as the 
Earl of Kilmarnock, but behaved upon the Scaffold with 
the same Heat and Resolution he had acted all his Life- 

" The Number of People Spectators at this Execu- 
tion is incredible, and very little Mischief done, except 
some having their Heads broke by the Populace throwing 
Stones ; and the Arm of a Tree near the Postern broke 
down that several had got upon, by which Means a Man's 
Arm was broke, a Boy was very much hurt, and some 
others bruised. 

" When the above Lords came out of the Tower, the 
Governor, as is usual, said, God bless King George; to 
which the Earl of Kilmarnock replied, by making a Bow ; 

and Lord Balmerino answered, dfod bless K g J * 

" ' The Lord Balmerino, Ancestor of him beheaded 
Yesterday, was Secretary of State to King James I. and 

7 th S. II. Au. 14, '86.] 



was tired at St. Andrews in Scotland, March 10, 1609, 
7 Jac. I. for High Treason; the Case being thus ; He was 
a professed Protestant, but, upon what Motives is not 
known, often pressed the King to write a Letter of Com- 
pliment to the Pope, which his Majesty refused to 
do; whereupon Balmerino wrote the Letter, and bringing 
the King several Dispatches to sign at a Time when his 
Majesty was in Haste to go a Hunting, thrust i t in among 
the rest ; and the King through Hurry signed it ; the 
Letter thus signed was sent away, and no more was heard 
of it, till some Years after Cardinal Bellermine mention- 
ing it to the King's Disadvantage, his Majesty was obliged 
to take Notice of it, and to question the Secretary, and 
bring him to his Trial : But after some Time Imprison- 
ment, the King pardoned him, and restored his Blood 
and Estate. 

" ' John Lord Balmerino, Son of the above Lord, was 
one of the most Covenanting Lords against King 
Charles I. He was tried Dec. 3, 1634, 10 Car. I. for a 
Libel against the King ; which, according to the Laws of 
Scotland at that Time, was Death; and found Guilty. 
But upon his solemn Protestation of Loyalty for the future, 
the King was pleased to pardon him, which Pardon he 
received on his Knees, before the Council at Edinburgh.' " 


il 8). 

" The Prayer for the King first appears in a Book of 
Prayers printed by the King's printer in 1547. In the 
Primer of Edward VI., 1553, it appears as the fourth 
Collect, (or the King, at Morning Prayer ; a shorter one 
of the same purport at Evening Prayer. In 1559 it 
assumed its present form, and, with the Prayer for the 
Clergy and People, was placed before the Prayer of St. 
Chrysostom at the end of the Litany." 'The Prayer 
Book Interleaved,' by the Rev. W. M. Campion, B.D., 
and the Rev. W. J. Beaumont, M.A., p. 65. 

" The Prayer for the Royal family dates from 1604. 

It was then entitled, ' A Prayer for the Queen and 

Prince and other the King and Queen's children.' 

The Prayer assumed its present form in 1633." Jb., 
p. 67. 

Thus much for the prayers themselves, and as 
to the members of the royal family mentioned in 
them from time to time, I am able to furnish the 
following list from Prayer Books in my library. 
The letter Q. or K. marks the prayer for the sove- 
reign, and R.F. that for the royal family : 

1587. Q. Black letter : " our most gratious 
souvereigne ladie queene Elizabeth." 

R.F. None. 

1626. K. Black letter: "our most gracious 
Soueraigne Lord King Charles." 

R.F. "our most gracious Queene Mary, 
Fredericke the Prince Elector Palatine, the Lady 
Elizabeth his wife, with their children." In the 
Litany the last sentence is, "and their Eoyal 
issue," such issue at that time being Frederick 
Henry, Charles, Ludowick, Rupert, Maurice, 
Edward, Elizabeth, and Louisa Holandina. 

1641. K. "our most gracious soveraign lord 
king Charles." 

R.F. " our gracious queen Mary, prince 
Charles, and the rest of the royall Progenie," such 

progeny being at that time Henry, Elizabeth, 
Mary, and James. 

1670. K. "clementissimum Regem Carolum." 
R.F. "Gratiosfe Reginee nostrse Catherine, 

Jacobo Duci Eboracensi et universse stirpi Regise 
favere digneris," stirps of course meaning more 
particularly the king's nieces Mary and Anne, and 
not his numerous children who were " not born." 

1671. K. " our most gracious Soveraign Lord 
King Charles." 

R.F. "our gracious Queen Catherine, James 
Duke of York, and all the Royal Family." 

1682. K. As 1671. 
R.F. As 1671. 

1686. K. "For their Majesties our most 
gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady King William 
and Queen Mary." James II. abdicated Dec. 23, 
1688, and William and Mary were crowned 
April 9, 1689 ; yet in this Prayer Book" Printed 
at the Theater in Oxford, and are to be sold by 
Thomas Guy at the Oxford Arms on the west- 
side of the Royal Exchange in Cornhil. London 
Anno 1686" William and Mary are prayed for 
as " Sovereign Lord and Lady," two years before 
their time, at morning and evening prayer, in the 
Litany, and in the Communion Service. James II. 
and Mary his queen are quite overlooked in all 
these services ; but at the end of this singular 
volume is a form of prayer with thanksgiving for 
February 6, being the day on which this neglected 
king began his " happy reign." In this service 
ample compensation is made. " Our Sovereign 
Lord King James," "his Royal Consort," "our 
gracious Queen Mary," " Catherine the Queen 
Dowager," " the Princesses Mary and Anne, and 
the whole Royal Family," are here earnestly 
prayed for. 

R.F. " Catherine the Queen Dowager, Her 
Royal Highness the Princess Anne of Denmark, 
and all the Royal Family." 

1706. Q. "our most gracious sovereign Lady 
Queen Anne." 

R.F." Catherine the Queen Dowager, the 
Princess Sophia, and all the Royal Family." 
Catherine died Dec. 31, 1705. The death of all 
the children of Queen Anne had made it probable 
that the succession to the crown would go, accord- 
ing to the Succession Bill, to Sophia, grand- 
daughter of James, and, according to the further 
limitation, to the heirs of her body, being Pro- 
testants. The Prince Consort, George of Den- 
mark, appears never to have been individually 

1713. Q. "our most gracious sovereign Lady 
Queen Anne." 

R.F." The princess Sophia and all the Royal 

1716. K. "our most gracious Sovereign Lord 
King George." 

R.F. " His Royal Highness George Prince of 



[7 th S. II. Auo. 14, '86. 

Wales, the Princess and their issue, and all th 
royal family "; the issue at this time bein 
Frederick Lewis, Anne, Amelia, and Elizabeth. 

1719. K As 1716. 

E.F. As 1716. 

1732. K. "our most, gracious Sovereign Lore 
King George." 

R.F. " our gracious Queen Caroline, thei 
Royal Highnesses Frederick Prince of Wales 
the Duke, the Princesses, and all the Roya 
family." The duke is " Culloden " Cumberland 
and the princesses as in 1716, adding Mary anc 

1733. K. (Latin) As 1732. 
R.F. As 1732. 

1739. K. (French) As 1732. 
R.F. As 1732. 
1796. K. " our most gracious Sovereign Lord 
King George." 

R.F. "our gracious Queen Charlotte, their 
Royal Highnesses George Prince of Wales, and all 
the Royal Family." 

In 1678 lohn Daye printed ' A Booke of Chris- 
tian Prayers,' &c., and among them " A Prayer for 
the Queen's majesty." In 1544 appeared 'An 
Exhortation unto prayer thoughte mete by the 
Kinges maiestie and his clergy to be read to the 
people in euery church afore processyons.' "Our 
most dear and sovereign lord the King's majesty " 
is specially prayed for ; and in the " Letanie " in 
the same volume " Henry the VIII. thy servant," 
"our noble queen Catherine," and "our noble 
prince Edward" are prayed for in such terms. 
The 'Orarium' of 1560 contains a prayer for 
" reginam nostram Elizabethan)," and probably 
other examples may be furnished from sources 
which I have not at hand. 


" Catharine Reine Douairiere et la Princesse 
Sophie et tout le reste de la Maison Royale." 
Prayer Book in French, pub. 1706 by Pierre de 
Varenne and David Mortier, Strand, London. 

"The Princess Sophia, and all the Royal 
Family." 1708. 

" Queen Charlotte, their Royal Highnesses 
George Prince of Wales, the Princess Dowager 
of Wales, and all the Royal Family." 1764. 

" Queen Charlotte, his Royal Highness George 

Prince of Wales, and all the Royal Family." 1781. 

"Queen Charlotte, their Royal Highnesses 

George Prince of Wales, the Princess of Wales, 

and all the Royal Family." 1801. 

" Bless and Preserve all the Royal Family." 

"Queen Adelaide and all the Royal Family." 

"Adelaide the Queen Dowager and all the 
Royal Family." No date. Knight's Pictorial 
Edition of the Book of Common Prayer. 

R. J. F. 

' RULE BRITANNIA.' (7 th S. ii. 4). This subject 
was discussed at some length, nearly thirty years 
ago, in ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. iv. 152, et teq. In a note 
appended to the query which started the discussion, 
the then Editor said : 

" ' Alfred ' was written by Mallet and Thomson, and 
played in 1740, but Mallet wrote the ' celebrated ode,' 
which Southey describes as ' the political hymn of this 
country,' &c. ' Alfred ' was altered by Mallet in 1751, 
and three stanzas of the ode were omitted and three 
others supplied by Lord Bolingbroke ; but the original 
ode is that which has taken root, and now known 
(sic) as one of our national anthems. Consult Dins- 
dale's new edition of David Mallet's ' Ballads and Songs,' 
pp. 292-294, 1857." 

On the other hand, MR. CHAPPELL now says 
that Mallet, after Thomson's death, " put. in a pre- 
tentious claim, against all evidence." What all 
this evidence may be, MR. CHAPPELL does not 
tells us ; but he proceeds to paint Mallet's character 
in the darkest possible colours, charging him even 
(by implication) with the sins of Rob Roy and the 
Macgregors, his ancestors, following Dr. Johnson, 
never a friendly critic of the Scots or of anything 
Scottish, and quoting the same author in support 
of the amiability of Thomson's character as compared 
with that of Mallet. He further calls Mallet a 
forger and a thief, on account of ' William and 
Margaret,' his ballad, founded on the remains of 
an older ballad, by which " forgery " he accuses 
aim of having " imposed upon Bishop Percy."* 

Well, Johnson's hatred of the Scotch has never 
seen held to enhance the value of his criticism of 
hings Scottish; so we may fairly make some 
allowance for his virulence in this case, and put 
:iob Roy and his followers out of the question, as 
well as the amiability of Thomson, and the ballad 
of ' William and Margaret '; merely remarking, by 
he way, that " Percy says of the old ballad that 
these lines have acquired an importance by giving 
>irth to one of the most beautiful ballads in our own 
>r any other language ' ' Margaret's Ghost,' by 
Mallet" (quoted by Mr. W. Chappell, 'Ballad 
literature,' p. 382). What becomes now of the 
mposition on Bishop Percy ? The version printed 
>y Percy is not the ballad of Mallet. 

What, then, was the form of Mallet's " pretentious 
laim, against all evidence " 1 Why, this. In his 
Itered edition of ' Alfred ' (1751), he says in his 
irefixed advertisement, " According to the present 
rrangement of the fable, I was obliged to reject a 
reat deal of what I had written in the other ; 
ieither could I retain of my friend's part more 
ban three or four speeches and a part of one song." 
his does not seem to me a " pretentious claim " 
n any sense, but rather an apologetic announce- 
ment. Again, he still calls ' Rule Britannia ' an 

* As to the " true old tune," I leave the consideration 
f that to a time when other " true old tunes " may be 
dequately considered. It seems best to leave out the 
musical part of the question here. 

7">s.ii.Auo.i4,'S6.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"ode" (not a song) in the book, therefore it 
cannot be a part of that which he had " retained, 
of his friend's part." That he should have made 
this alteration thus publicly, unquestioned and 
uncriticized at the time by any of the friends or 
patrons of Thomson, then recently dead, shows it 
to be extremely improbable that his claim to the 
authorship of the ode was "pretentious" or unreal. 
That he allowed Bolingbroke, his patron, to excise 
three verses of the ode and substitute three of his 
own writing seems nothing more than natural, 
especially if we take Dr. Johnson's and MR. 
CHAPPELL'S view of his character. But the mere 
fact of the patronage of Bolingbroke in those days 
was amply sufficient to account for Mallet's com- 
plaisance in such a matter. 

It appears, therefore, that, during the lifetime 
of Thomson, Mallet's name appeared with his as 
that of joint author of 'Alfred'; and that, soon 
after Thomson's death, a new edition was brought 
out, very much altered by Mallet, but still con- 
taining the ode, claimed by him (by implication), 
with the " amendments " already mentioned. The 
authorship of the ode has been ascribed to Mallet 
by good authorities, and his claim while he lived 
was undisputed. If it is incompatible with any new 
evidence, I would venture to ask, What is that new 
evidence ? Let us see it and weigh it fairly before 
we take away from Mallet the credit of having 
written ' Rule Britannia '; for that seems to be his, 
on all the evidence which we at present possess, 
dispassionately considered. 


GRACE BEFORE MEAT (7 th S. i. 228, 357, 416 ; 
ii. 56). I have been surprised at the slight and 
tentative nature of the replies to this inquiry. 
Our Editor, duly accurate and duly cautious, 
opines that grace before meat may still be found 
among Dissenters in the North; other folk give 
some few other details ; HERMENTRUDE only and 
J. T. F. speak strongly and with certain sound. 
The lady fortunata nimium has hardly sat at 
table a dozen times where grace has not been 
said ; the gentleman gives like testimony so far 
as the past is concerned, but admits that the 
custom is dying out, and thinks it "a strange 
subject to raise a discussion about." True ; but 
it is not a discussion, it is only a query. And 
this is a very proper time for such a query ; the 
twentieth century is fast approaching, and our 
Agnostic or Positivist descendants will certainly 
look into ' N. & Q.' to find the date at which that 
lingering superstition called grace that outward 
expression of common gratitude to a common 
Father did actually come to an end. 

The question, indeed, goes down to issues far 
too dangerous to be approached in these columns. 
But it is not improper to note that the custom of 
" asking a blessing " or " saying grace " has been 

steadily declining in England during the last 
thirty years ; and that this fact is directly due to 
the change of religion or, rather, the change from 
religion which has been going on here during that 
period, and which is now nearly complete, at least 
so far as the upper classes are concerned. 

In a matter of this sort no one can fairly quote 
any other experience than his own. And my ex- 
perience of English ways has not been very brief 
or very narrow. I have known something of 
nearly every class, except those two classes which 
are the most " difficult," namely, the dukes and 
duchesses and the small tradesfolk. Leaving out 
these, then, and leaving out also the clergy, with 
whom the saying of grace is still a function of 
their office, I give my testimony as follows, begin- 
ning at the bottom or, rather, as I should perhaps 
now say, at the top. The English labourer, as a 
rule, does not say grace ; there is nothing in his 
household that corresponds at all to the ways of 
Burns's cotter. The English artisan may say 
grace if he be a member of the C.E.W.M.S., or 
if he be an earnest " evangelical " or an earnest 
dissenter ; but, ten to one, he and his are honey- 
combed with unbelief or indifference, and care 
neither for church nor chapel. The English farmer, 
I think, generally does say grace. Even if he be 
one of the new-fangled superior kind, he says it ; 
for he is not yet aware that it has ceased to be a 
" note " of respectability among his betters. And 
if he be of the old-fashioned type, he says it on 
principle; besides, he often has a relative who is 
what is called in the North a " lawcal preacher," 
and it would ill become him to disregard such kin- 
ship. Also, grace is in his eyes a bulwark of 
Protestantism, a strong tower against the Koman 
Catholics. Those misguided persons are caviare 
to him, for he has no imagination. I well remem- 
ber the glee with which a Northern farmer an 
excellent man, and worthy of all respect related 
to me what he had been told by his brother, 
who was a " lawcal preacher," and in his travels 
had actually got as far as Rome. "He seed," 
said my excited friend, " be seed wrawt oop, i' 
fair print, o' t* walls o' Rawm, 'Doon wi' t' 
Pawp ! '" I looked in vain for that soul-stirring 
inscription when I was there soon afterwards. 
The English professional man of the humbler sort 
still, for the most part, says grace at least, that 
is my experience of him ; he says it in a crude 
and perfunctory fashion, but he is not insincere. 
His traditions are mainly the same as those of the 
farming class ; and his convictions (so far as he 
has any, and he has them strong if at all), and his 
narrow culture and his old-world sense of respect- 
ability combine to keep him to the point. 

After these four classes I will not say above 
them begins that delightful hierarchy, in wide- 
expanding circles ever new, of which we all desire 
to be members. And it is they who are extcr- 



[7 th S. II. Auo. 14, '86. 

minating grace. The higher professions (omitting 
the clergy), the merchants, the squires and peers, 
the world of art and letters, and, above all, the 
world of science, these ranks have creeds or no- 
creeds as various as themselves ; but they agree 
in one thing they don't say grace, unless at 
public dinners. That is what I, for my part, have 
observed. If any one else can bring a better 
word of them, by all means let him do it. But 
let not some guileless clergyman be the man 
for, alas ! they only say grace when he is there. 

Looking round on such of my acquaintance as 
have place in this firmament of culture, I can re- 
cognize that grace is still said by a few squires, a 
banker or two, a certain number of officers and 
lawyers, a larger considerably larger number of 
widows and maiden ladies ; item, by two or three 
distinguished writers (not very young), by two or 
three Q.C.s (ditto), and by at least one judge. 
Some of these last, with the acuteness of their 
profession, have reduced the case to a minimum, 
and a very good minimum too ; they use the old 
college grace, "Benedictus benedicat," and after 
dinner, " Benedicto benedicatur." I am not a 
Franciscan, so I cannot improve upon that. 

A. J. M. 

[The editorial reference at i. 228 to which A. J. M. 
alludes was to grace before and after any meal. It had 
special reference to tea.] 

'MEMOIRS OF GRIIIALDI' (6 th S. xii. 427, 500- 
7 th S. i. 36, 312, 378,473 ; ii. 35, H7).-The late 
Mr. T. Tegg did purchase the remainder of this 
work from Mr. Bentley, but Mr. Tegg did not 
put any border round 'The Last Song.' This I 
explained to Mr. Bentley the other day. I am in 
a position to state this fact, having been with my 
father in his business at the time. While the 
work was in course of sale I met Mr. Dickens, 
who remarked to me, " What about that border 
round The Last Song ' ? " I replied, " I can only 
give you one answer : my father sells only that 
which is delivered to him. To add or alter a steel 
plate of a remainder would not pay, nor would it 

be n J us y WILLIAM TEGG. 

16, Doughty Street, Mecklenburgh Square. 

EGG-CUPS (7 S. ii. 49).-Mn. H. G. GRIFFIN- 
HOOFE has put a question to which I think he will 
not receive any satisfactory answer. If by " por- 
celain " he means specimens of the potter's art 
generally, he must refer to very early date. In 
Major di Cesnola's < Salaminia ' (first edition, 
p. 181) is figured an egg-cup, quite of the usual 
modern shape, with remains of egg in it, of Phoe- 
nician manufacture, dug up at Cyprus recently. 
Ihis is of glass, but no doubt, as the shape was 
usual the egg-cup was, even at that early period 
manufactured in ware of various kinds. 

Bedford Park, W. CHAS J. CLARK. 

JOHN SMITH (7 th S. ii. 48). The author of ' The 
Doctrine of the Church of England concerning the 
Lord's Day ' was the Kev. John Smith, curate of 
Scammenden, who was buried May 19, 1699, aged 
ighty-two. He was at one time lecturer in Bolton, 
and in 1684 published ' The Patriarchal Sabbath.' 
The scanty details known respecting him were 
jiven by me in Book Lore, vol. ii. p. 41. Some 
documents as to his connexion with Bolton are 
^iven in Scholer's ' Bolton Bibliography.' It was 
another John Smith who wrote the ' Mystery of 
Rhetorick.' WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Higher Broughton, Manchester. 

In the Catalogue of the Bodleian Library ' The 
Doctrine of the Church of England on the Sabbath' 
is described as being by John Smith, Hector of St. 
Mary's, Colchester. The author of ' The Mystery 
of Ehetorick Unveil'd ' was " John Smith, Gent., 
of Mountague Close, Southwark." C. P. 


HERBERTS OF COGAN (7 th S. ii. 49). H. N. 
will find a pedigree of this branch of the Her- 
berts, who were located at Cogan, in a volu- 
minous genealogical work recently published, en- 
titled 'Limbus Patrum Morganise et Glamor- 
ganise,' by G. T. Clark. According to a review of 
this work in the Antiquary, it should be consulted 
with caution, as it appears to be far from im- 
maculate. From a personal examination of the 
book I must say that, while admiring the laborious 
undertaking of the compiler, it could certainly be 
desired that the work were less comprehensive in 
extent and more accurate in detail. GRYPHON. 

WHENEVER (7 th S. ii. 68). I am not (nor are 
other people here) a little surprised to learn that 
HERMENTRTJDE thinks Englishmen understand this 
word in the context given by her to mean " every 
time." We Englishmen of these parts (East Kent) 
should deliver the message as it is said the Scotch- 
man would do, taking the word to mean "at 
whatsoever time." HARRY GREENSTED. 

Surely HERMENTRUDE must be wrong in the 
acceptation an Englishman would have of this 
word! No one could possibly understand it as 
such. Whenever means "at whatever time," in 
other words, "When Mr. Smith returns home," &c. 

SATELLITES OF MARS (7 th S. ii. 68). A mere 
guess can never with propriety be called an antici- 
pation. Since of the planets then known, Saturn, 
Jupiter, the Earth, had all one or more satellites, 
there was a possibility, or if you will a probability, 
that Mars had one. What is worth noticing is 
that Dean Swift, though little of a mathematician, 
was acquainted with Kepler's laws. Assuming 
the distances to be three and five diameters from 
the primary, he has computed the periodic times 

II. A0o. 14, '86.] 



to be in the ratio of ten to twenty-one and a hall 
with considerable accuracy. 


WALDEGRAVE (7 th S. ii. 48). This is the title 
of a novel, in three volumes, which was published 
by Henry Colburn, of New Burlington Street, 
London, in 1829. The hero's name is Waldegrave, 
and a description of an evening spent on the lake 
of Como is contained in the first volume. MR. 
HOOKER will be able to see a copy of it in the 
British Museum. G. F. R. B. 

BATHING MACHINES (7 tb S. ii. 67). It is stated 
by Hasted that bathing machines were used at 
Margate for the first time in England about 1790. 
Their projector, Benjamin Beale, a Quaker, an 
inhabitant of Margate, ruined himself in establish- 
ing his invention. This scarcely agrees with the 
Academy Catalogue for 1775. But I find in 
Murray's ' Handbook for Dorsetshire ' that Wey- 
mouth had the first bathing machine introduced 
there in 1763, when Ealph Allen of Bath (the 
Allworthy of ' Tom Jones ') established one. 
George III., who went to Weymouth in 1789, 
certainly bathed from a machine. 

An account of their use at Scarborough is to be 
found in ' Humphry Clinker '; vide Mr. Matt 
Bramble's letter from that place, dated July 4. 
'Humphry Clinker' was published 1771, when 
Smollett was residing at Leghorn, so that he had 
probably seen the machines which he describes, 
with doors and wheels, in use at Scarborough pre- 
vious to that date. J. STANDISH HALT. 

In 'A Guide to all the Watering and Sea-Bath- 
ing Places,' published by Richard Phillips in 
1803, it is stated that 

" the celebrated Ralph Allen, Esq., of Bath, first re- 
commended Weymouth as a bathing-place, about the 
year 1763. The first machine seen on the beach was 
constructed for his use, and he had the merit of being 
the precursor to the royal patronage which Weymouth 
afterwards experienced." 

J. R. 


" The road from hence [Guilford] is very remarkable, 
for it runs along upon the ridge of a high chalky hill, 
called St. Catherine's, no wider than the road itself, 
from whence there is a surprising prospect, viz., to the 
N. and N.W. over Bagshot Heath, and the other way 
into Sussex, and almost to the South Downs ; in short, 
the prospect to the W. is, as it were, unbounded. On 
this hill stands the gallows, in such a position that the 
townspeople may see the executions from their shop doors 
in the high street. In this neighbourhood, on the left 
side of the road leading to Oodalming, are also the out- 
side walls of that formerly called St. Catherine's Chapel, 
that was built with a sort of tile which when broken 
has the appearance of iron, and the cement of them is 
so hard that it is in a manner impracticable." ' Eng- 
land's Gazetteer,' Lon., 1751, *. v. " Guilford." 


If MR. WARD will take the train to Guildford 
and walk a short distance out of the town on the 
Portsmouth road he will soon discover this hill 
on the left, and I can promise him the view from 
the top will pay for the ascent and the journey. 
The chapel stands, but, unlike the sister chapel, 
St. Martha's (which is two or three miles to the 
east of Guildford), it is a ruin. W. T. LYNN. 


St. Catherine's Hill is a sandstone cliff, rising 
above the Wey, a mile south of Guildford, and 
nigh unto the wood below "the long backs of the 
bushless downs" where once Sir Lancelot was 
tended by Elaine. It is a thirteenth century 
chapel that stands there, ruined long ago by the 
Protestants ; but children play there still, and 
outside the chapel, in October, Cattern's Fair is held, 
and cattern cakes are sold and eaten, and gipsies 
bring thither their brown women and their wiles. 
St. Martha's, in sight of which I write this, is twin 
with St. Catherine's. The two chapels were built 
(saith the story) by two giant sisters, who had but 
one hammer between them, and tossed it from the 
one hill to the other as either needed it in build- 
ing. A. J. M. 

Buttercup Farm. 

[Very many correspondents are thanked for replies to 
the same effect.] 

ST. HELEN (7 th S. i. 488 ; ii. 14). Is it not 
almost too late to circulate a statement to the 
effect that Helena was the daughter of King Cole ? 
Little enough is known of her parentage, but it 
has lately been put forth that she was of Treves : 
"Nobilem virginem quse ex nobilibus quidem 
parentibus progenita de stirpe quorundam nobilium 
civitatis Trevirensis originem duxit " (' Incerti auc- 
toris de Constantino M. eiusque matre Helena 
libellus,' nunc primutn ed E. Heydenreich, Lips., 
Teubn., 1879, p. 2). In the preface, p. vi, the 
editor promises a dissertation " de harum fabu- 
larum fontibus, et de genere quo incertus hie auctor 
in eis narrandia usus est." Has this appeared ] 


A coin, which is the only known existing coeval 
representation of this lady, may be seen in the 
Medal Room of the British Museum. A copy of 
the coin will be found in a work entitled ' Roman 
Medallions/ by H. Gruller. I may add that I 
have had a facsimile taken of the coin in question, 
and that I am reproducing the likeness on a life- 
sized statue of St. Helen that I am at present 
commissioned to make for the high altar screen at 
St. Alban's Abbey. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

45). I am much obliged to MR. ROBERTS for 
pointing out an error in my ' Bibliography of Dr. 
Henry Sacheverell.' The ' New Association of 



[7* 8. II. AUG. 14, '86. 

Moderate Churchmen' was no doubt by Charles 
Leslie, and the error arose from an unpardonable 
mistake in using the British Museum Catalogue. 
It is there entered under " Sacheverell " as a cross 
reference, which I mistook for a main heading. I 
may add that the bibliography first appeared in 
the Bibliographer for 1883 and 1884, and that a 
hundred copies were reprinted, not for sale, of 
which about twenty are not disposed of, and can be 
obtained from me by any one who can show that 
he has a genuine interest in the subject. 

St. Mary's Entry, Oxford. 

SEARL (7 th S. ii. 68). The name Searl seems to 
have been introduced into England by the Scan- 
dinavians. An Icelandic hero called Sb'rli is men- 
tioned in the ' Islendinga-Drapa ' (' Corpus Poet. 
Bor.,' vol. ii. p 419) ; one Serlo, presumably a 
Norman, was present at the Council of Kouen in 
1095 ; a Serlo, who was also probably a Norman, 
as he dispossessed the Saxon owner, appears in 
Domesday as holding land in Dorset ; in the Dur- 
ham ' Liber Vitse,' p. 8, the name Serlo, presbyter, 
is written in a thirteenth century hand ; and the 
names Serlo and Serle are also found in the Hun- 
dred Rolls. Used as a surname, the earliest in- 
stance I have found is Robertus Serle, who held two 
bovates at Heslerton, in Yorkshire, in the reign of 
Edward I. (Kirby's ' Inquest.,' p. 266). 

As for the meaning of the name, Mr. Ferguson 
regards it as a diminutive of the Teutonic name 
Saro or Sario, the Sarus of Jornandes, which is 
referred by Forstemann to the Gothic sarwa, 
A.-S. searo, O.H.G. saro, "armatura." But since 
the O.N. siirli, also from the same source, means 
" a gross rough fellow," a " swashbuckler," as we 
should say, it may be a question whether this 
secondary meaning is not the immediate source of 
the English name Serle, which is found chiefly in 
districts settled by Scandinavians, such as Nor- 
mandy and Northumbria. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

Serle, Searl, Searle, Serrell, and Searles are all 
forms of the surname taken from the baptismal 
name Serle, or Serel. "John fil. Serlo, Serle 
Gotokirk " (1273, the Hundred Rolls). " Richard 
Serelson, Hugh Serlson" (1313, the Writs of 
Parliament). a Serell de Westwick, Thomas 
Serleson" (1379, the Poll Tax, West Riding of 
York, 1379, York. Arch, and Top. Assoc.). 


Vicarage, Ulverston. 

PIAZZA (7 th S. i. 463 ; ii. 65). Miss BUSK will 
find " under the Piazza " used in the Spectator, 
No. 14, for Friday, March 16, 1711 (N.S.) : 

" I have been for twenty years Under-Sexton of this 
Parish of St. Paul's, Cpvent-Garden, and have not missed 
tolling in to Prayers six times in all those years ; which 
office I have performed to my great Satisfaction, till the 
Fortnight last past, during which Time I find my Con- 

gregation take the Warning of my Bell, Morning and 
Evening, to go to a Puppet-show set forth by one Powell 
under the Piazzas." 

And again, in the same paper : " The Opera in 
the Haymarket, and that under the little Piazza 
in Covent-garden being at present the leading 
Diversions of the Town," &c. 


DE PERCHEVAL (7 th S. i. 328, 437; ii. 37). 
=Vale of La Perche. R. S. CHARNOCK. 


Has Percival anything to do with horse ; and 
is not Gonel de Perceval Gouel de Perceval ? 

H. C. 

"PETS AUNT" (7 th S. ii. 28). I remember 
perfectly that the name given to St. Elmo's light 
by the seafaring people in south-east Cornwall in 
the first quarter of this century was Composant, 
or one of its variants, Compesant and Complesant, 
the accent being on the first syllable in all cases. 
The name probably still exists there, as in Couch's 
' History of Polperro/ 1871, the following state- 
ment occurs in the list of Obsolete and Obso- 
lescent Words : " Composanls. The meteors 
Castor and Pollux seen by sailors on the masts 
and yards, prophetic of storm. Spanish, Cuerpo 
santo " (p. 175). I venture to suggest that at Foot- 
dee Com-pe-sant has been shorn of its first syllable, 
and that the remaining pe-sant has been slightly 
metamorphosed into Peys-Aunt. 



EPITAPH : " OUR LIFE is BUT," &c. (7 th S. i. 
383, 513). This used to be found in Llangollen 
churchyard, to the right of the principal entrance 
from the front of the Hand Hotel. BOILEAU. 

BURCELL : BURSELL (7 th S. i. 467). Jamieson's 
' Dictionary ' has : " Birsall. A dye-stuff, per- 
haps for Brasell or Fernando buckwood, Rates, 
A. 1611. ' Madder, aim, walde, birsall, nutgallis, 
and coprouss [copperas].' Aberd. Reg. A. 1545, 
v. 19." Does this in any way help to explain 
the word as found in the records to which your 
correspondent refers ? 


SNUFF-BOX INSCRIPTION (7 th S. ii. 69). The 
box at South Kensington bearing " a Madame La 
Justice aux yeux eclaire"s " is my property. It is 
not a snuff-box, it is intended to hold bank-notes ; 
and the words are a dry sneer at the courts of the 
last century in France. 

WILLIAM FRASER of Ledeclune, Bt. 

THE ELEPHANT (7 th S. ii. 68). If by England 
MR. COLEMAN means Britain, I may remind him 
that the elephant figures on "Sueno's Pillar" 

7s. ii. A. 14, 


at Forres, which pillar is believed to be of the 
tenth century. H. J. MOULE. 

BERGAMOT PEARS (7 th S. i. 489; ii. 35). Tor 
riano'a 'Italian Dictionary,' 1678, haa : " Ber 
gamdtte, a kind of excellent Pears, come out o 
Turky." This explanation corroborates the de 
riration quoted by your correspondent. 


" HATCHMENT DOWN ! " (7 th S. i. 327, 454; ii 
37). By careful research I have found the ful 
list of those Knights of the Garter who have 
suffered degradation to be as follows : 

1. Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, 1397 (?). 

2. Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, 1406-7 (1) 

3. Jaspar Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, 1461. 

4. Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, 1468 (?). 

5. Gaillard Duras, Seigneur de Duras, 1476. 

6. Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset, 1483. 

7. Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1485. 

8. Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell. 1485. 

9. Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, 1503/4. 

10. Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, 1521. 

11. Henry Courtney, Marquis of Exeter, 1539-40. 

12. Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, 1547. 

13. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1547. 

14. William Paget, Lord Paget, 1552. 

15. William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, 1553. 

16. Andrew Dudley, 1553. 

17. Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, 1569. 

18. Charles Nevill, Earl of Westmoreland, 1570 (?). 

19. Henry Broke, Baron Cobham, 1604. 

20. James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, 1685. 

21. James Butler, Duke of Ormonde, 1716. 


STEWARDS OF MANORS (7 th S. ii. 88). 
Stewards of manors were in no way connected in 
their office with the duties of attorneys. The 
authorities to be consulted near the time of Queen 
Elizabeth are Coke's ' Institutes,' " Of Copyholds," 
fol. 143, of which the first edition was in 1628 ; 
Selden's Fleta,' lib. ii. cc. 71, 72 ; John Kitchin, 
' Jurisdictions on the Lawful Authority of Courts 
Leet,' &c., pp. 83-7, Lond., fourth ed., 1663, where 
various statutes and precedents are noticed. The 
steward represents the lord of the manor, for in 
his absence he sits in court as judge, to punish 
offences, to determine controversies, redress in- 
juries, admit copyholders, and enrol conveyances 
of estates. He is a judge of record in the court 
leet. His usual Latin name is " Seneschallus," but 
Blount's 'Law Dictionary 'has the title of "Locum- 
tenens " from a court roll of Mardyn, in Hereford- 
shire, of the date of 17 Ed. IV. 


TITLE OF EGMONT (7 th S. ii. 9, 78). This is an 
Irish earldom, bestowed 1733 on Sir John Perce- 
val, Bart., who had previously been raised to the 
Irish peerage as Baron Perceval, of Burton, 1715, 
and Viscount Perceval, of Kanturk, 1722. His 
lordship married the eldest daughter of Sir Philip 
Parker a Morley, Bart., a direct descendant of Sir 

William Parker, standard-bearer to Eichard III., 
and by this alliance the baronies of Morley and 
Lovel, forfeited after Boswortb, became vested in 
the Perceval family. 

The third Earl of Egmont was created a peer of 
Great Britain 1762 by the title of Lord Lovel and 
Holland. It is not probable, as the editorial com- 
ment remarks, that the title of Egmont has any 
connexion with the famous Count Egmont. It is, 
I conjecture, a fancy title, as I am not aware of 
any town or district in Ireland called " Egmont " 
from which the earldom could be taken. 


WORKS OF LORD BYRON,' 1833 (7 th S. i. 269, 311). 
MR. BLACKLEDGE'S copy of the above work is 
certainly not complete. The work originally ap- 
peared in sixteen parts, eight parts going to form 
a volume. My copy, which has just come to me 
by bequest, has, I am sorry to find on examining 
it, been incorrectly bound up ; the plate of Misso- 
longhi, for instance, being placed in the middle 
of the second volume of the plates, instead 
of coming at the end, as it naturally would 
do, being the place of Lord Byron's death. The 
volume of letterpress follows suit. One or two of 
the other plates are also out of order, and do not 
correspond with the letterpress. My copy is in 
four volumes, two being occupied with the letter- 
press and two with the plates. Each plate was 
no doubt intended to be inserted with the letter- 
press relating to it, but in mine the two have been 
divorced. The first volume contains, including 
a frontispiece and vignette, sixty-two plates ; and 
the second, including a frontispiece and vignette, 
sixty-three plates. The total number of the plates, 
therefore, is 125, all of which (vignettes included) 
have corresponding letterpress by W. Brockedon. 
The title-page of the first volume bears the date of 
1833 ; that of the second, 1834. I have every 
reason to believe my copy to be perfect. 


ii. 88). This proverb may be seen in Plato, ' De 
Legibus,' lib. iii. p. 191, D. Lugd., 1590, which, 
so far as I know, is the earliest authority for its 
use. After speaking of those who are the subjects 
of moral folly, he proceeds : TOVS 8c rovvavriov 
i^ovTa? TOVTMV, to? ao<ovs re Trpo&prjTtov, dv Kal 
TO Xeyofievov, /ATJTC /zryT vetv eiricrTtoV- 
TCU, Kal Tas dpxas 8oTfov ws e/j,(f>po(ri. So, as Plato 
was born B.C. 428, the proverb was in use before 
he year to which MR. BUTLER refers, 400 B.C. 
Dhe explanation of it as given by an ancient col- 
ector of proverbs is that it applies eVi TU>V Trdvrrj 
jLfj.aO(av } irapa yap 'A$wvaioi? evdvs e/c TraiSwv 
'pdfj,fj,aTa KO.L /coAv/xpaV eSiSdV/ceTO (Gaisf., 
Par. Gr.,' p. 79, Oxon., 1836). 

As regards the proverb itself, one notice may be 



[7"" S. II. AUG. 14, '86. 

allowed, that it appears in another form in an 
iambic as irputrov KoA.iyx/3ai/, Stvrepov 8e ypa/t- 
HaTa, in M. A. Seneca's ' Oontroversise,' lib. iv. 
c. 27, p. 187, ad calc., L. A. Senec., ' Opp.,' Paris, 
1629. This looks as if it might be found as a line 
in some early fragment of one of the comic poets. 
Some correspondent perhaps will look in Meineke's 
collection, of which I have not a copy. 


COUNTY BADGES (7 th S. i. 470, 518; ii. 34, 98). 
My query on this subject seems to have led to 
some confusion between badges and arms and 
crests, from which they are perfectly distinct (see 
Boutell and Aveling, p. iii, ed. 1873). The badges 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland the rose, 
thistle, and shamrock would hardly be mistaken 
for anything but badges of these countries ; and if 
countries can have them, why not counties ? 

It is hardly necessary to add that " the rampant 
bear chained to the ragged staff" is not to be found 
in the arms of the Earl of Warwick, any more than 
the dun bull or the crescent in those of Neville or 
Percy. Badges being so often the symbol of a 
feudal alliance or dependence, I thought it pro- 
bable that some counties, if not all, had adopted a 
badge belonging to their greatest chiefs. 


Lennox Lodge, Eastbourne. 

THE CINQUE PORTS (7 th S. ii. 61). I cannot 
agree with MR. HALL that the Welsh porth has 
any near relationship to the Norwegian fiord. In 
modern Welsh are two words, porth = the Latin 
portus, and porta. The Welsh appears to have no 
word for such indentations as fiords, the Welsh 
name of the Scandinavian Milford being Aber- 
daucleddau, signifying the " mouth of the two 
Cleddys," the rivers flowing into the inlet. As is 
well known, the Gaelic equivalent io fiord is loch, 
a word which has almost passed out of Welsh. 

In North Wales are two localities called Foryd, 
i. e., Seaford, estuaries fordable at low water. The 
Sussex Seaford probably owes its name to the same 
circumstance. W. TURNER. 

PLOU- = LLAN- (7 th S. ii. 44). MR. KERSLAKK 
suggests that this Breton word, meaning "a parish," 
may be explained as a very feeble and ineffectual 
attempt to pronounce the well-known Welsh Llan. 
The two words really have nothing whatever to do 
with one another. The former is a well-known 
word appearing in various forms in the three 
branches of the Brythonic group of the Celtic 
family of languages, namely, in Breton, Welsh, 
and Cornish, as may be seen from Legonidec, 
Owen Pugh, and Williams. The word appears in 
Breton in the forms plou, ploue, ploe, pleu. In 
Welsh the modern form is plwyf, the word mean- 
ing " parish, community, the body of the people." 
In Cornish the word is spelt plui, plu, plew, mean- 

ing "parish." Mr. Whitley Stokes cites and ex- 
plains this word in his ' Cornish Glossary ' (see 
Transactions of the Philological Society, 1868). 
We see there that the Cornish plui, a parish, is 
not a genuine Celtic word, but is merely borrowed 
from the Latin plebem. In illustration of this 
derivation Mr. Stokes adduces the Italian pieve, 
parish, parochial church, vicarage a word without 
doubt representing the Latin plebem. See Diez, 
p. 390, at which place there is also cited the cog- 
nate pleif, parish, in the Coire dialect. 

With these words we may perhaps connect the 
Northern ploy, a merry meeting (see Halliwell, arid 
also the Academy, No. 742, Mr. Grosart's letter). 



MR. KERSLAKB'S theory identifying the Breton 
word plou with the Welsh word llan appears at 
first sight far-fetched in the extreme indeed, al- 
most a case of etymology run mad. I cannot 
think that the letter p can ever have been twisted 
into the same sound as the Welsh II. There is 
more probability of the n in llan being softened 
down to u. But there is no doubt that MR. 
KERSLAKE deserves credit for his ingenuity, and 
it seems almost a pity that it was not called for. 
The fact is that there is in the Welsh language a 
word plw (now obsolete) having the same meaning, 
or one of the same meanings, as llan, viz., " an 
open space." It is well known that the Welsh 
and Breton are cognate languages as well as the 
Cornish. M. H. K. 

"BIRD" AND "FowL" (7 tt S. i. 427, 494; ii. 
55). In a quarto of twenty pages, printed in 1670 
and entitled ' A Modern Account of Scotland,' the 
following occurs : 

" Fowl are as scarce here as birds of paradise, the 
charity of the inhabitants denying harbour to such 
celestial animals, though gulls and cormorants abound, 
there being a greater sympathy between them. There 
is one sort of ravenous fowl amongst them that has one 
web foot, one foot suited for land and another for water; 
but whether or no this fowl, being particular to this 
country, be not a lively picture of the inhabitants, I shall 
leave to wiser conjectures." 



"To MAKE A HAND OP " (7 th S. i. 449, 517; 
ii. 33). MR. BUCKLEY'S correction of my refer- 
ence is not needed. The reference is to p. 93 of 
my edition of Mr. Stock's facsimile reprint (or as 
styled on the title-page " reproduction ") of ' The 
Pilgrim's Progress,' first edition. There is no date 
attached to the book, but I believe I received it 
some six or seven years ago, though I may be mis- 
taken. The book is bound in vellum. I do not 
believe that " made a hand of " is an erratum ; 
my opinion is that it is a provincialism, which, as 
such, was subsequently altered. 


7* S s 1L Atro. 14, '88.) 



THE EDDYSTONE (7 th S. i. 389, 436). I am 
obliged to MR. W. H. K. WRIGHT for his reference 
(7 tt S. i. 436) to the paper by Capt. Edye in the 
Western Antiquary, but I had already seen that 
article when I wrote my query which you kindly in- 
serted (7* S. L 389), and I am afraid his letter has 
been the means of deterring others from giving fur- 
ther references. May I repeat that I want other in- 
stances of the occurrence of the tiame Eddystone or 
its more ancient forms than have been collected to- 
gether in the article in the Western Antiquary ? 
I am especially desirous of tracing back the general 
use of the modern spelling Eddystone (with two d's) 
to its earliest occurrence. I have found it in a 
series of engravings of the date 1739, and have 
been told that this spelling occurs in a chart of 
about 1680 (by Grenville Collins, I believe), but 
I have not hitherto been able to verify the state- 
ment. W. S. B. H. 


ST. JAMES'S BAZAAR (7 th S. ii. 48). The 
building erected by Crockford for this purpose 
is the large one on the south side of King Street, 
at the corner of St. James's Street. Some years 
since it was adapted at a large expense for, and 
occupied as, chambers, but in 1882 or 1883 it 
was taken by, and readapted for, the Junior Army 
and Navy Club. The facade in King Street 
was not altered except by the addition of a curb 
roof ; the St. James's Street front was altered, and 
a bay window inserted to the two lower stories. 
These works were designed, under the directions of 
the committee, by WTATT PAPWORTH. 

33, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 


That eagle's fate and mine are one, &c. 
The quatrain is from Waller's poem ' To a Lady Sing- 
ing a Song of his Composing.' Tom Moore has the same 
simile in his satirical poem ' Corruption : an Epistle.' 
His lines are these : 

Like a young eagle, who has lent his plume 
To fledge the shaft by which he meets his doom, 
See their* own feathers pluck'd, to wing the dart 
Which rank corruption destines for their heart ! 

LI. 95-8. 

[Other contributors are thanked for replies to the same 


Dometday Book in relation to the County of Sustex. 

Edited for the Sussex Archaeological Society by W. D. 

Parish, Vicar of Selmeston and Chancellor of Chiches- 

ter Cathedral. (Lewes, Wolff.) 

SOMK day, perhaps, we may have an edition of Domesday 
Book in a convenient form for reference, with full in- 

* 7. ., the " duped people." 

dexea of all the tenants named in the record, identifica- 
tions of the places named with their modern representa- 
tives, and a satisfactory glossary of terms employed not 
one of which conditions has yet been fulfilled in relation 
to that unique and priceless monument of English his- 
tory. Bit by bit, indeed, the work is being done, with 
more or less skill and knowledge, but not on any regular 
system, or with any attempt at uniformity. A county 
here and there has been admirably well done, others not 
so well, others not at all, with the nett result that the 
most important statistical document in existence relating 
to the early history of our country is only very partially 
available to the historical student, and not available at 
all unless he is prepared to go to considerable trouble 
and expense. A suggestion has been made that the eight 
hundredth anniversary of the completion of Domesday 
Book is an appropriate time for setting about the work 
necessary to produce a complete edition ; but we do not 
know whether the suggestion has met with such en- 
couragement as to justify a hope that such an edition 
will appear at any reasonably early date. In the mean- 
while the edition of the County Domesday by the Sussex 
Archaeological Society is a valuable addition to Domesday 
literature. It does not profess to throw any new light 
on the ancient darkness which envelopes so many points 
of the record, but it exhibits the portion with which it 
deals in a clear and intelligible form, and the indexes 
bear witness to the expenditure of much trouble and 
research by many co-operating minds. The work con- 
sists of the photo-zincographic facsimile produced by 
H.M.'s Ordnance Department, followed by an extension 
of the original text and a translation by Mr. W. Basevi 
Sanders, Deputy Keeper of the Records, and is accom- 
panied by two indexes, one of all the tenants in the 
county, and the other of all the places named, with notes 
and identifications. This is the most valuable part of 
the volume, and affords an example of the way in which 
the work should be carried out throughout the country. 
The " Explanation of some Words and Phrases occurring 
in the Record," which concludes the volume, does not 
profess to be anything like a complete glossary to 
Domesday, and the editor has been somewhat hampered 
by the determination of himself and his fellow workers 
to exclude " controversial matter." It would be unfair to 
treat what is intended to help the general reader over bia 
first difficulties in the perusal of Domesday as if it were 
meant for the guidance of the advanced historical student ; 
but the " explanations " heie given are in many instances 
considerably in arrear of the present state of knowledge 
with regard to the Domesday vocabulary, and are some- 
times misleading as well as inadequate. This portion of 
the work, however, is comparatively unimportant. The 
record itself in relation to Sussex is thoroughly well 
edited, and the printing and getting-up of the volume 
are eminently creditable to the Lewes press. The Rev. 
Chancellor Parish and the Sussex Archaeological Society 
have both earned once again the gratitude of all lovers 
and students of antiquity and history. 

Book Lore. Vol. III. (Stock.) 

A THIRD volume of Book Lore, now before us, contains 
some articles of much interest to bibliophiles. It opens 
with a sketch by< Mr. John Lawler, which is both read- 
able and instructive, of ' Early English Book Auctions.' 
The first library sold by auction is shown to have been 
that of Dr. Seaman, which was " dispersed " in the 
possessor's house in Warwick Court, Paternoster Row, 
by Wm. Cooper, a bookseller, dwelling at the sign of the 
Pelican, in Little Britain. The date of this sale was 
1676. Three months later, 1676/7, the library of Dr. 
Thomas Kidner was sold. Mr. J. R. Dore supplies some 
good notes on ' Welsh Bibles.' Mr. W. E. A. Axon's 



[7 th S. II. ADO. 14, '80. 

address on ' Books and Reading,' delivered at the Public 
Library at Oldham, is reprinted in the volume. Mr. 
Axon also supplies an obituary notice of Edward Ed- 
wards. Obituary notices of Henry Stevens of Vermont, 
by Mr. Credland, and of Henry Bradshaw, by Mr. C. \V. 
Button, are also given. The miscellaneous matter is 
less satisfactory. Some verses which are inserted are all 
that is desirable as regards love of books, but are of 
exceptional crudity as compositions. 

The Antiquary. Vol. XIII. (Stock). 
MANY papers of highest interest appear in the thirteenth 
volume of the Antiquary. One of the best is the ' Quaint 
Conceits in Pottery ' of Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, which is 
continued throughout many consecutive monthly num- 
bers, and is profusely illustrated. Mr. Richard Davey's 
series of papers on ' Beatrice Cenci ' is likely to startle 
the majority of readers. Instead of the virginal heroine 
of sixteen, who resented even to patricide the injury to 
her innocence and her honour, she was, it is shown, a 
woman over twenty and the mother of an illegitimate 
child. The murder is as vulgar and as atrocious as any- 
thing in the 'Newgate Calendar.' Mr. J. H. Round 
concludes No. 1 of his ' Municipal Offices,' which deals 
with Colchester. Mr. W. A. Clouston's 'Stories of 
Noodledom ' are in that clever narrator's best manner. 
Mr. H. B. Wheatley commences a careful study of 
precious stones, which he calls ' A Chapter in the His- 
tory of Personal Adornment.' Mr. Bird writes at some 
length on ' Crown Lands,' and the Rev. J. C. Atkinson 
contributes 'Notes on Common Field-Names.' Mr. 
G. L. Gomme furnishes ' Glimpses of Old London,' and 
Mr. W. H. K. Wright, 'Historic Streets of Plymouth. 
A volume containing these articles and others of equal 
interest and value appeals naturally to all antiquaries, 
and to most readers of scholarship and taste. 

On Some of the Booh for Children of the Last Century- 

By Charles Welsh. (Privately printed.) 
THIS agreeable little treatise contains the catalogue of 
a collection of children's books of the last century 
recently exhibited before the Sette of Odd Volumes by 
Mr. Welsh, who is the chapman of the Sette, and of a 
brief address to the "bretheren" upon the subject of 
Newberry, on which Mr. Welsh is entitled to gpeak. 
The compilation, which is No. 11 of the opuscula of the 
Sette, is well printed and is worthy of the companion- 
ship in which it finds itsalf. 

Gander's Handbook for Canterbury and Canterbury 
Cathedral. By J. M. Cowper. (Canterbury, Ginder). 
UNDERTAKING to prepare for the press a handbook long 
out of print, Mr. J. M. Cowper finds, as many have 
found before him, he had practically to write a new 
book. The task of supplying concise information upon 
the ancient city and its noble cathedral could not 
have fallen into better hands, and the information, 
though necessarily condensed, is for the general reader 
adequate and in all cases trustworthy. 

English Coins and Tokens. By Llewellyn Jewitt, F.S.A. 

(Sonnenschein & Co.) 

THOUGH intended only for the juvenile collector, this 
little work is eminently trustworthy and valuable. It has 
a special chapter on ' Greek and Roman Coins,' by Mr. 
Barclay V. Head, M.R.A.S., of the British Museum. 

M. L. DEKOMB supplies in Le Livre for August 10 an 
interesting account of an original edition of three 
' Contea ' of La Fontaine, with readings different from 
the received text, curiously illustrative of La Fontaine's 
alterations. ' Lea Outils de l'crivain ' is the subject of 
a very agreeable paper by M. Spire Blonde], ' Le Com- 

merce d'Autrefois et I'lmprimerie d'une Duchesse,' by 
M. P. Van der Haeghen, is also eminently readable. In 
the department of modern bibliography are reviews of 
translations from Mr. R. C. Christie and Miss Mathilde 
Blind. A delightful reproduction of ' La Lecture & 
Cythere,' by M. Albert Lynch, appears in this number. 

MR. GEORGE REDWAT has issued a translation from 
the Greek of the study on Pope Joan of Emmanuel 
Rhoi'dis, It is interesting enough, and is accompanied 
by curious illustrations and a preface by Mr. C. H. Col- 


MR. CHARLES J. STONE, of Hare Court, Temple, author 
of ' Cradle Lands of Arts and Creeds,' ' Christianity 
before Christ,' and other works, died on Saturday morn- 
ing last at his chambers in the Temple. The deceased 
gentleman, who was a student of the past life of London, 
was an occasional but infrequent contributor to our 
columns. Among his minor works was a clever brochure 
in the style of 'The Battle of Dorking.' Mr. Stone 
served in India as an ensign, 1858 to 1862; was lieu- 
tenant of the 3rd Middlesex Militia, 1870-3, and was 
called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1864. He was 
born March 2, 1837. 

THE next volume of Mr. Elliot Stock's " Book Lover's 
Library " will be ' Modern Methods of Illustrating 
Books.' It is written by Mr. H. Trueman Wood, the 
Secretary of the Society of Arts, and will be issued very 

MESSRS. BOURNE, of Liverpool and Paternoster Row, 
have issued a ' Handy Assurance Directory,' containing 
statistics of the British assurance offices, and other 
information, extending over the last five years. 

$ot(rr* ta CarretfpanBenttf. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WK cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

R. T. SIMPSON (" Custom at Knightlow Hill, Warwick- 
shire : Wroth Silver"). See 1" S. i. 448 ; 6'b s. ii. 386. 

C. H. MIDFORTH ("The Colosseum "). Consult the 
great work on Rome of Ampere. 

WAITER E. PINE (" Gold Coin "). If the coin is a 
jenuine noble of Edward III. it is of considerable value. 
Show it to the British Museum. 

T. B. C.-W. (" Sizes of Books "). Consult Savage's 
' Dictionary of the Art of Printing,' under " Paper." 

ERRATUM. P. 120, col. 2, 1. 31 from bottom, for 
" ' Georg.,' i. 6 " read ' Eclogues,' i. 5. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher" at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception, 

7'i> S. II. AUG. 21, '86.] 





NOTES Barnard's Inn, 141 Byronic Literature, 143 
Houghton Hall, 144 Medical Folk-lore Church Books 
>"orse Discovery of America, 146 St. James's, Piccadilly 
Soane's Museum Bede's Use of "Armorica," 146 Mac- 
aulay and Molifire Galeatus, 147. 

QUERIES : Rev. T. Wynell Ebolsan Registers of Births- 
Sir J. Leman, 147 Col. C. Godfrey F. Henly King's 
Bench Metal ou Id'eston-Ket-land-Fish, or Fitch, Peas 
Grang Lewis Theobald Sir R. de Felbrigg Ogle, 148 
F. Bradford Minor Bird - Bromsgrove Chantries MSS. of 
Gent White Fielding George Donne Authors Wanted, 

EEPLIES : English Translation of the ' Decameron' Hair 
turned White, 150 Solly's 'Titles of Honour,' 151 "As 
deaf as the adder" Death and Burial of Cibber Alice, 

patch upon 

wonder" Monastic Names ' Dictionary of Biography 
Morbus Gallicus Book-plate of Graeme, 154 Patron Saint 
of Templars ' School of Shakespeare' Flekkit Apaham, 
155 Authorship of Distich Morgenroth Herv6 Von 
Barby Freedom of the City, 156 Extra Verses in St. Mat- 
thewPeculiar Words in Kirkman Metaposcopy Heron 
Family, 157 Kentish Superstitions Hawthorn Blossoms, 
158 Bison Kemp's ' Nine Dales Wonder ' Authors 
Wanted, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: Stryienski'g Christie's ' Etienne Dolet ' 
Smith's ' Morlejr.' 

Notices to Correspondents, Ac. 




Further connexion between the Society and the 
Mackworth family was put an end to by the be- 
quest of Barnard's Inn to the Cathedral of Lin- 
coln, and henceforth to the Dean and Chapter of 
Lincoln the allegiance of the Society became pay- 
able. And the only further notice I have to make 
of the Dean is of his burial, which was at Lincoln 
Cathedral, "under a goodlie monument," which 
has this inscription : 

Johannes Mackworth 

Doctor Decretornm 

nuper Cancellariua 

Illustriesimi Principia Filii 

Regis Heni-ici quart! 

Ac Decanus 

Ecclesias Cathedralia 

beatas Mariae 


The purport of the gift to the Dean and Chapter 
and the foundation of a chapel at Lincoln for the 
celebration of divine service was doubtless to pro- 
vide mass for the soul of the Dean. Seeing the 
time that has elapsed since the gift, it is hoped 
the soul of the pious founder has long been re- 
leased from purgatory, as the Dean and Chapter 
. have discontinued the prayers, and apply the 
revenue to other objects. 

It would be very satisfactory to see the will 
of the Dean, which probably contained some 
further information than the inquisition conveys 
as to the state and condition of the Society at that 
time, if, indeed, society at all there was ; but the 
will cannot be found, it is proved neither in 
London nor in the Consistory Court of Lincoln. 
All that has descended to us is the naked historical 
fact that a dean of Lincoln did by his will devise 
"one Messuage in Holborn called Mackworth's 
Inne " to the cathedral church of Lincoln. Now 
this word " Inne " has various significations corre- 
sponding, as I presume, with the ancient "hostel," 
which meant either the residence of a person of 
note or a place of entertainment for travellers. 
Chaucer uses " hostell," " hostellrie," and "hos- 
iery," in the same sense. The origin of the word 
is Fr. "hostellerie"; and the first use of it as 
applied to a learned body is by Hollingsworth, 
who, in his description of England, says : 

There are also certeine ' hostels ' or ' halls ' 
which may right well be called by the name of 
Colleges if it were not that there is more of libertie 
in them than is to be seen in the other." Clifford's 
Inn was the residence of the Lords Clifford, 
Scrope's Inn of the family of the Scropes, and 
Mackworth's Inn may have been, and in all pro- 
bability was, the town residence of the Mack- 
worths a presumption justified by the limited 
description of the property in the Dean's wilJ 
(" one messuage "), a description apparently morf 
applicable to a single residence than to a society, 
with the necessary accommodation for its students, 
officers, and attendants. And this presumption 
is further justified by the circumstance of the 
name of the inn having been changed so soon after 
the Dean's bequest and when it might first have 
been converted into a legal association. Now 
Dean Mackworth died in 1451, and the inquisi 
tion which notifies the change of name was held 
32 Henry VI. (1454); in these three years, there- 
fore, the inn assumed the name of Barnard's Inn 
instead of Mackworth's. 

The first notification of the building being 
used as the place of resort of a learned body in 
our books is in Edward VI.'s reign, 1549, a 
century afterwards ; and at this time the Society 
appears to have been in full operation, having 
its principal, gubernator, antients, and students. 
The records in the chapter-house of Lincoln, how- 
ever, to which, through the kindness of the 
archdeacon, Dr. Bonney, I was permitted to have 
access, carry back the evidence of the existence of 
the Society as a learned community to a much 
earlier date, and they notify that shortly after 
the death of the Dean, " Henry Mackworth, his 
brother and heir, did make some disturbance, 
claiming the inn by title of inheritance, but being 
satisfied that the title was in the Dean and 
Chapter, he presently released all his interest 



[7"> S. II. Auo. 21, '{ 

thereunto, as by his release enrolled in Chancery 
appears." And shortly afterwards the Dean and 
Chapter did receive the yearly rent of 61. 13s. 4cZ. 
from one Thomas Chambre, then principal of the 
inn, out of which he was allowed 48s. 6d. for 
the repairs of the said inn for two years ; but no 
lease was granted. It likewise appears that the 
Dean and Chapter in 37 Hen. VI. did receive ol 
one Richard Ellis, then principal and farmer of 
the said inn, the yearly rent of 51. 6s. Sd., out of 
which there was allowed 31. 11s. 4d. for that 
year's repairs of the said inn, but no lease. It 
also appears that from the 37 Hen. VI. until 
about the 13 Hen. VII. (a period of forty years) 
the Dean and Chapter received this yearly rent 
of 51. 6s. 8d. of the principals respectively, that is 
to say of Eichard Ellis, John Hay, Thomas Sti- 
dolph, George Mounteford, and Richard Massey, 
which was accounted for to the Cathedral Trust 
under the head of " The Chauntry of John 
Mackwortb," and the repairs are allowed to the 
Dean and Chapter all that time, but no lease. 

From 13 Hen. VII. to 3 Hen. VIII. (which 
is about fourteen years) the books in the Chapter 
House are wanting, but in 1511 (3 Hen. VIII.) 
we find that Robert Fairfax, principal of the inn, 
paid to the Dean and Chapter the rent of 40s. 
per annum under the title of " foreign receipts," 
which sum of 40s. continued to be paid by the 
said Robert Fairfax, and by William D' Allison 
and John Hatar, succeeding principals of the inn. 

Under the date of September 7, anno 3 
Edw. VI., there is the counterpart of a lease 
in existence by John Taylor, D.D., the Dean of 
Lincoln, and the Chapter thereof, to John Hatar 
Generosus, then principal of the inn, for sixty 
years, at the rent of 40s. per annum. 

The hiatus between the inquisition held on the 
death of Dean Mackworth and Edward VI., the 
first entry in the books of the Society, is thus most 
satisfactorily supplied, and places it beyond all doubt 
that from the time of the devise by the Dean (some 
time before 1451, when he died) Barnard's Inn has 
been a society for the study of the law, having its 
principal, gubernator, or head, though it is not 
equally clear whether the inn was originally the 
town house of the Mackworths, or a place of 
entertainment for travellers, or built in the first 
instance for the reception of a learned society. 

How long before this the Society was estab- 
lished must ever remain in uncertainty. Neither 
Dugdale, Hollingsworth, Fortescue, Herbert, 
Stowe, nor any of the subsequent writers upon 
the origin and constitution of the Inns of Court, 
attempts to carry back the records of Barnard's Inn 
beyond the inquisition held on the death of Dean 

Barnard's Inn is always spoken of as being the 
second Inn of Chancery, and in enumeration of 
the inns ia placed before Staples's Inn. If this 

enumeration is to be considered as evidence of 
antiquity, Barnard's Inn may be of more ancient 
foundation than Staples's Inn. And Staples's Inn, 
it appears from an ancient mutilated manuscript 
in the reign of Henry V., 1413 to 1422, was then 
in existence as a place for the study of the law. 

So early as Hen. IV. the Inns of Chancery were 
the resort of young men of quality, " prentices of 
the law," and Barnard's Inn, perhaps, could then 
boast of its justices as uproarious as Shallow and 
wise as Silence. For Shallow, Shakespeare tells 
us, was of Clement's Inn, " where they will talk 
of mad Shallow yet," and so were " little John 
Doit of Staffordshire ; and black George Bare, 
and Francis Rickbone, and Will Squele you had 
not four such Swinge-Bucklers in all the Inns of 
Court they know where the bona-robas were ; 
and had the best of them all at command." 

Though Barnard's Inn may not boast of such 
valorous spirits as Justice Shallow and his com- 
panions at Clement's Inn, the taste for " bona- 
robas " does not seem to have declined, for by an 
entry in the books in the year 1615 we find that 

" John Wilkinson, a Companion of the House, was re- 
ported to have been with a lewd woman in bed about 
midnight, whereupon his chamber door was broken open 
and he and the said queane and concubine found together 
in bed, to the great dishonor of God and scandal of 
society, if the same should not be made an example 
according to the Rules of the House, whereupon he waa 
fined 20s. and expelled the Society." 

Mr. Wilkinson appears to have resented the in- 
trusion upon his privacy which his gallantry 
would not permit him to overlook. For there ia 
an order of pention, ordering that the principal be 
borne harmless in the suit brought against him for 
breaking into a Companion's chambers. 

Shakespeare, who wrote one hundred and fifty 
years afterwards, must probably be considered as 
giving a representation of the manners of the Inns 
of Court in general in his own day, and not as an 
authority for the prevailing customs in the Courts 
in the reign of Henry IV., or for Clement's Inn 
being then in existence. 

A manuscript in the British Museum, to which 
Mr. Holmes, the librarian, politely gave me accesss, 
throws an important light upon the subject. This 
manuscript is among the Harleian Manuscripts, 
No. 1104, where is to be found a short account of 
several of the Inns of Court, and speaking of Bar- 
nard's Inn it says : 

" This House was in the thirty-first year of the reign 
of Henry VI. a messuage belonging to Dr. John Mack- 
worth, Dean of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln, and ia 
that time in the holding of one Lionel Bernard, and for 
that the said Bernard lastly next before the conversion 
thereof into an Inn of Chancery therein dwelt, it hath 
ever since retained the name of Bernard's Inn." 

The family of the Mackworths, it therefore appears, 
did not reside in their own hotel, but let it to this 
Lionel Bernard. Now whether Lionel was a gen- Auc.21,'86.] 



tleman occupying the house as his place of resi- 
dence, or a Boniface using it as an inn for strangers, 
is not apparent. The notice of Lionel's occupying 
it " lastly next " before its conversion into an Inn 
of Chancery would certainly lead to the conclusion 
that during the life of the Dean, and probably 
during the holding of Bernard himself, the house 
had not assumed its character of a regular Inn of 
Court, though it might even then have been a 
place for the reception of students of the law 
under some form or other ; and coupled with the 
fact of none of the early writers assuming to give 
to the Society an earlier beginning, it may reason- 
ably be concluded that Barnard's Inn first began 
to be used as an Inn of Chancery about the year 
1454, when the inquisition was held. No grant, 
charter, deed of incorporation, or other instru- 
ment founding the Society can be discovered ; and 
by what means it assumed its powers and ac- 
quired its constitution, probably never will be 
brought to light. 

Carter's 'Analysis of Honor' mentions Lionel 
Bernard as an occupier of the inn so early as 
13 Hen. VI., which would be in the year 1435. 
It must also remain in doubt whether the hall 
was built when the place first came to be used as 
an Inn of Court, or whether it was part of the 
residence of the Mackworth family. 

(To be continued.) 


(Continued from p. 86.) 
Class V. Miscellaneous. 

Lord Byron's Juvenile Poems. New Monthly Maga- 
zine, February, 1819. 

Remarks on the Talents of Byron and the Tendencies 
of ' Don Juan.' 8vo. 50 pp. 1819. 

Character and Poetry of Lord Byron. By J. H. Wiffen. 
New Monthly Magazine, May, 1819. 

Lord Byron. New Monthly Magazine, November, 1819. 

Lord Byron's Poetry. Christian Observer, November, 

Journal of a Tour in the Levant. 2 vols. By W. 
Turner. 1820. 

The Sketch-Book. By Washington Irving. 1820. 

Expostulatory Epistle to Lord Byron. By Joseph 
Cottle. Monthly Review, vol. xciv., 1821. 

Memoir of Living Poets Lord Byron. Imperial 
Magazine, 1822. 

Personal Character of Lord Byron. London Maga- 
zine, October. 1824. 

Notes on Capt. Medwin's ' Conversations with Byron.' 
8vo. 15pp. 1824. 

Newstead Abbey. With cut. Mirror, January 24, 

Lord Byron's Infidelity. By Dr. Evans. Monthly 
Repository, January, 1825. 

Lord Byron. Universal Review, November, 1824- 
January, 1825. 

Lord Byron's Character and Writings. North Ameri- 
can Review, October, 1825. 

The House in which Byron died. With cut. Mirror, 
May 14, 1825, 

An Impartial Portrait of Byron. By Sir Egerton 
Brydges. 1825. 

Byron in Greece. 12mo. 48 pp. Printed privately. 1825. 

Lord Byron en Italie et en Grece. By the Marquis 
de Salvo. 1825. 

Funeral Oration on Lord Byron. Composed and de- 
livered by M. Spiridion Tricoupi at Missolonghi, April, 
1821. Published 1825. 

Character and Writings of Lord Byron. Reprinted 
from North American Review. 1826. 

Lord Byron and his Contemporaries. Blackwood's 
Magazine, March, 1828. 

"Sydney's " Letter to the King, on the Reported Ex- 
clusion of Byron's Monument from Westminster Abbey. 

Byroniana. A series of papers published in the 
Literary Gazette. Circa 1828. 

Homes and Haunta of British Poets. By William 
Howitt. Circa 1830. 

Dr. Kennedy and Lord Byron. Fraser's Magazine, 
August, 1830. 

Lord Byron's Theology. Monthly Repository, January, 

Life of Lord Byron. Mirror, No. 85. 

Hucknal-Torkard Church. Mirror, No. 99. 

Madden's Travels. 2 vote. Circa 1830. 

Lord Byron. Monthly Review, February, 1830. 

Life of Lord Byron. By the Rev. C. W. Le Bas, M.A, 
British Critic, April, 1831. Reprinted in book form. 

Lord Byron. Monthly Review, February, 1831. 

Lord Byron's Juvenile Poems. Fraser's Magazine, 
September, 1832. 

Byron's Unpublished Poems on Mr. Eogers. Fraser't 
Magazine, January, 1833. 

Finden's Illustrations to ' The Life and Works of Lord 
Byron. Sixteen parts ; eight parts per vol. 125 plates. 
Letterpress by Brockedon. 1833. 

Prose Writings of Sir Walter Scott. 1834. 

The Angler in Wales ; or, Days and Nights of Sports- 
men. By Thos. Medwin. 2 volg. Bentley. 1834. 

Narrative of a Visit to Greece. By John Hamilton 
Browne. Fraser's Magazine, September, 1834. 

A Pilgrimage to Byron. Mirror, February 25, 1837. 

Lives of Eminent Englishmen Byron. By W. Cun- 
ningham. 1837. 

Conversations at Weimar upon Lord Byron. Fraser't 
Magazine, November, 1840. 

Burns and Byron. Tail's Magazine. 1844. 

Thoughts on the Poets. By H. T. Tuckerman. 12mo. 

Destruction of the Byron Memoirs. Letter from John 
Murray to Sir R. Wilmot Horton. Quarterly Review, 
No. 185, June, 1852. 

Destruction of the Byron Memoirs. Letter appended 
;o Quarterly Review, July, 1853. 

Newstead Abbey, its Present Owner; with Reminis- 
cences of Lord Byron. 8vo. Circa 1855. 

Vita di Giorgio Lord Byron. By Giuseppe Nicolini. 
tfuova Edizione. Milano, 1855. 

On Sir A. Alison's Views of Lord Byron. Fraser's 
Magazine, August, 1856. 

Lectures on the British Poets Byron. Henry Reed. 

The Home and Grave of Byron. With illustrations 
by P. Skelton. Once a Week, vol. i. p. 539, 1860. 
Allibone's Dictionary, vol. iii., a. v. " E. J. Trelawny." 
Lord Byron and his Times. By Hon. Roden Noel. 
St. Paul's Magazine, vol. xiii. 

The Tendency of Byron's Poetry. Broadway, vol. iv. 
p. 54. 

Lord Byron. By G. Gilfillan. Tail's Magazine 
ol. xiv, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7'" s. n. A. 21, 

Byron painted by his Compeers. 1869. 
Lord and Lady Byron. Argosy, October, 1869. 
Byron's Daughter. Argosy, November, 1869. 
Lord Byron. Temple Bar, circa November, 1869. 
Character of Lady Byron. Temple Bar, October, 1869. 
Lord Byron's Married Life. Temple Bar, June, 1869. 
The Byron Mystery. Quarterly Review, No. 254, 1869. 
Vindication of Lord Byron. By Alfred Austin. 
Chapman & Hall. 1869. 

The Stowe-Byron Controversy. A complete resume 
by the Editor of Once a Week. 12mo. 128 pp. 1869. 
Life of Lady Byron. Vindication of Byron. ] 
True Story of Lord and Lady Byron. Hotten. 1869. 

Light at Last. The Byron Mystery. 1 vol. 8vo. 1869. 
An Incident in the Life of Lord Byron. Argosy, 
April, 1869. 

Recollections of Lord Byron. Blackwood s Magazine, 
July, 1869. 

Byron at Work. Chamber's Journal, October 9, 1869. 

Last Record of Lord Byron. Chambers's Journal, 
March 27,1869. 

Mrs. Stowe's Vindication. Quarterly Review, January, 

Lord Byron and his Calumniators. Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, Jaimary, 1870. 

Lord Byron. 3 cols. Athenceum, June, 1870. 

Glimpses of Fashionable Life in the Time of Byron. 
Tinsley's Magazine, October, 1870. 

Byron's Letter on the Separation, dated August 9, 
1817. Academy, October 9, 1870. 

Contemporary Account of the Separation of Lord and 
Lady Byron : also of the Destruction of Lord Byron's 
Memoirs By Lord Brounliton. Privately printed. 1870. 

Lord Broughton's Recollections. Edinburgh Review, 
April, 1871. 

Lord Byron. Blackwood'n Magazine, July, 1872. 

Goetlie on Byron. (Transited in Karl Klze's ' Life 
of Byron,' published by John Murray.) 1872. 

Lord Byron. Asiatic Journal, N.S., vol. i. No. 2. 

Estimates of Modern English Poets. By J. Devey. 

Proposed Byron Memorial. Prater's Magazine, Feb- 
ruary, 1876. 

Byron and the Countess Guiccioli. Belgravia Maga- 
zine, vol. vii. 

Was Byron or Scott the greater Poet ? British Con- 
troversialist, ed. S. Neil. 

Last Years of Lord Byron. 2 cols. Academy, 
January 24, 1877. 

Lady Caroline Lamb. By S. R. T. Mayer. Temple 
Bar, June, 1878. 

Lord Melbourne. Quarterly Review, January, 1878. 

An Anecdote of Lord Byron. Sunday Magazine, 
November, 1879. 

Lord Byron and Mrs. Leigh. Athenaeum, July, 1879. 

The Byron Monument. Fraser's Magazine, May, 1879. 

Fiction Fair and Foul. Nineteenth Century, Septem- 
ber, 1880. 

Byron and Tennyson. Quarterly Review, No. 262. 

Byron in Greece. Temple Bar, May, 1881. 

Byron. By Matthew Arnold. Mac-mi Han's Magazine, 
March, 1881. 

The Poetry of Byron. By Matthew Arnold. West- 
minster Review, October, 1881. 

Byron and his Biographers. Fortnightly Review, 
vol. xxxiv. 

Byron, Goethe, and Mr. Arnold. Contemporary Re- 
view, August, 1881. 

E. J. Trelawny. Temple Bar, November, 1881. 

Letter to Editor of Temple Bar on a Recent Article 
<> n E . J. Trelawny, anent Byron's Lameness, November, 

Byron's Letters. Athenaeum, August, 1883. 

Letter on Jeaffreeon's ' Real Lord Byron.' By J. A. 
Froude. Nineteenth Century, August, 1883. 

Lady Caroline Lamb. By G. B. Smith. Gentleman's 
Magazine, October, 1883. 

Lord Byron and his Critics. Qentleman't Magazine, 
December, 1883. 

History of the National Byron Memorial. By Richard 
Edgcumbe. 1883. 

Psychological Study of Byron. By Karl Bleibtreu. 
Weekly Scotsman, June 21, 1884. 

Mrs. Leigh. Athenceum, September 9, 1885. 

The Byron Quarto and its Variants. December 5, 
1885, January, 1886. 

Praeterita, chap. viii. By John Ruskin. 1886. 

Shakspeare's England. By Wm. Winter. (References 
to Byron). D. Douglas, Edinburgh. 1886. 

The Revival of Romance : Scott, Byron, Shelley. By 
W. J. Courthope. National Review, vol. v. 

Reviews will be cited in Class VI. 


Green Hill Houee, Sherborne, Dorset. 
( To be continued.) 

[MR. EDGCUMBE will be glad to receive information 
concerning translations of Byron's poems.] 

one of the finest in the county, not far from Sand- 
riogham and Hunatanton, is especially interesting 
from its connexion with the Walpoles. Recently 
it has been brought prominently before the public 
on account of being offered for sale by auction. On 
Friday, July 23, 300 OOOJ. was offered for the man- 
sion and estate of 10,564 acres. This not being con- 
considered enough, no sale was effected. Houghton 
Hall was built by the great statesman Sir Robert 
Walpole, and is a magnificent structure of Ancaster 
stone, said to have cost 100,0002., and to hare 
occupied in building thirteen years, from 1722 to 
1735. The surrounding country is very flat and 
uninteresting, brightened a little by the magnificent 
timber which graces the park and neighbourhood, 
and by beautiful fields of waving corn. The manor 
of Houghton had been the property of the Walpole 
family from the reign of Henry I., and of it in 1743 
Sir Robert Walpole, removed from the turmoil of 
political life, writes to General Churchill : 

" My flatterers are all mutes. The oaks, the beeches, 
the chestnuts, seem to contend which shall best please 
the Lord of the Manor. They cannot deceive ; they 
will not lie. I in sincerity admire them, and have as 
many beauties about me as fill up all my hours of dang- 
ling, and no disgrace attending me from sixty-seven 
years of age. Within doors we come a little, nearer to 
real life, and admire upon the almost speaking canvas 
all the airs and graces the proudest ladies can boast." 

Within the shadow of the mansion is the little 
parish church of Houghton, where rest the re- 
mains of Sir Robert Walpole and his son Horace, 
"where lies the mother upon whom I doated, and 
who doated upon me/' The mansion and estate 
came unexpectedly to Horace Walpole, on the 
death of his nephew, the Earl of Orford, in 1791. 

7* S. II. Atra. 21, '86.] 



He had written of it in 1775 to his friend the Rev. 
William Cole : 

" There is an old walk in the park at Honghton, called 
Sir Jeffery's Walk, where tbe old gentleman [i. e., Sir 
Jeffery Harwell] used to teach my father hu book. 
These very old trees encouraged my father to plant at 

The following paragraph from the World assigns 
to Houghton the possession of two ghosts, and will 
prove of interest to collectors of such stories : 

" GHOSTS. Houghton is haunted by two ghosts, who 
must have transferred themselves from tbe old bouse. 
Two brothers fought a duel here three hundred years 
ago, and one was killed, and his spirit haunts the billiard 
room. There is also the famous brown lady, who enjoys 
the credit of baring scared George IV. out of the house. 
This is Lady Dorothy Walpole, wife of Charles, Lord 
Townshend, who died mysteriously after an unhappy life ; 
and she haunted the state bedroom. George IV., when 
Prince Regent, slept in this apartment, and after his 
first night at Houghton he came down furiously angry 
and much excited, declaring with many oaths that he 
would not pass another night in the accursed house ; and 
presently he added, ' I hare seen that which I hope to 
God I may never see again.' Months after he stated 
that on awaking in the night he had found standing by 
the bedside a little lady dressed all in brown, with dis- 
hevelled hair, and a face of ashy paleness." 

Who, it may be asked, were the two brothers 
alluded to who engaged in the fratricidal duel 
three hundred years ago? The Lady Dorothy 
Walpole, as she is here erroneously called, the 
wife of Charles, Lord Townshend, was presumably 
Dorothy, daughter of Robert Walpole, Esq., and 
consequently the sister of Sir Robert, married 
as second wife, in 1713, to Charles, second Viscount 
Townshend, by whom she had seven children. 
Did she, as stated, "die mysteriously"? Did 
George IV. when Prince Regent ever visit Hough- 
ton ; and is it elsewhere on record that he either 
saw, or thought that he saw, the apparition of 
Lady Townshend, and used the strong language 
mentioned? The account of the appearance of 
the "little brown lady" finds a strong resem- 
blance to ' The Tapestried Chamber,' by Sir 
Walter Scott, written for the Keepsake in 1828. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


1. Butter and Sugar for New-born Infants. 
In this part of Yorkshire new-born infants receive 
as their first food a teaspoonful of butter and 
sugar. This custom no doubt dates from the 
time when honey was used instead of sugar, and 
is a literal carrying out of the prophecy " butter 
and honey shall he eat," with an expectation that 
it will produce the remainder of the promise 
" that he may know to refuse the evil and do the 

2. Child's Caul. An old woman the other day 
asked my opinion. Her son had been born with 
a caul, and she was told by the woman who was 

with her that she must carefully keep the caul; 
that so long as her son lived it would keep white 
and dry, but that when he died it would become 
black and wet, however far he might be from home 
when he died ; that if she lost it he would never 
settle, but die a violent death. The trouble was 
that she had lost the caul, that her son had enlisted 
for a soldier, and she wished to ask me if this 
was in consequence of losing the caul, and if be 
would die a violent death. Of course one knows 
the superstition that a person with a caul cannot 
be drowned, but the above is new to me. 

3. Cure for Herpes. In a recent number of 
the Britith Medical Journal it was stated that in 
parts of Wales it was believed that the saliva of 
a person who had eaten eagle's flesh smeared on 
the eruption in herpes zoster (shingles) would cure 
this painful eruption ; and that certain persons 
made quite a small living out of the superstition, 
having eaten eagle's flesh and curing herpes for 
a consideration. W. STKES, M.R.C.S. 


CHURCH BOOKS. The following list, written on 
a blank leaf of the earliest parish register book at 
St. Giles's, Durham, seems worth preserving. In 
the accounts at St. Oswald's, Durham, we find 
payments to the ringers on the day of the Gowrie 

" Catalogus libroru' qui pertinent ad Ecclesiam Sancti 

Inprimis op'a Juelli Episcopi Sari. 

2. Paraphrasis Erasmi in 4 Euangelia & acta apostolo- 

3. Tomus primus & secundus Homeliaru'. 

4. Canones Ecclesiastic!. 

5. Liber continens gratiaru' actione' pro inaugurationo 
regiae Maicstatia. 

6. Liber continens gra'ru' ac'on* pro liberatione regis 
& nobiliu' a puluere sulphureo. 

7. Lib. continens Gratiaru'ac'one' pro liberatione regis 
Jacobi a conspiratione Gouriana. 

8. Duo libri continentes formam Jeiunii vt deus a 
nobis auertat peste' et alia iudicia. 

9. Duo libri continentes dep'cationes vt libercmur a 
manu Hostiu' ferociu'. 

10. Liber Continens gra'ru' ac'one' pro liberatione 
noatra a peste. 

11. Iniunctionea Regime Elizabeths. 

12. Biblia. 

13. Duo libri p'cu' comuniu'. 

J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

regard to the importance of the discovery of Ame- 
rica, an editor of Columbus's letters writes : " The 
entire history of civilization presents us with 
no event, with the exception, perhaps, of the 
art of printing, so momentous as the discovery 
of the western world"; and the late King 
Alfonso of Spain is reported to have said, in a 
conversation with Clarence Winthrop Bowen, that 
he thought nine years was a long time to spend in 



[7 th S. II, ADO. 21, '86. 

arranging for the celebration, but perhaps not too 
long considering its importance. " It is an event," 
he continued, " in which all the world would be 
interested, and in which the leading nations might 
unite. I would do all in my power to make it a 
brilliant festival ; but considering the pre-eminent 
part that Spain took in the discovery of America, 
I claim that she should certainly be allowed to 
have the celebration within her own borders." 
His conclusion was " that to Spain alone, there- 
fore, belongs the credit of the discovery." 

As to the value of the discovery the world has 
been unanimous ; as to the strength of Columbus's 
self-imposed claim to the credit of it, to Spain's 
credit as a country, the Koman Catholic historians, 
who have trained history, like a pliant vine, over 
any structure they chose to raise, " restricting the 
writing of history, so far as regarded the New 
World, to men in priestly orders," and " making 
it necessary for all who would write a history of the 
New World to extol Columbus and the Church " 
in the North of Europe, according to Buckle, begin- 
ning to poison the sources of history as soon as 
their religion was fairly introduced among the 
inhabitants the Pope, Alexander VI., who gave 
the continent of America to Spain, solely on the 
statement of Columbus, all these, and the vast 
crowd of admirers and hero- worshippers who have 
placed implicit credence in statements prepared 
under the rigid censorship of the Inquisition, 
have been equally unanimous, pressing Colum- 
bus's claim as exclusive. 

Opposed to this, there is in print, and has been 
for centuries, a sweeping refutation of sacerdotal 
history, beginning with the writings of Ortelius, 
to whom, as Baron von Humboldt asserts, the 
merit of first recognizing the discovery of America 
by the Northmen indisputably belongs, and fol- 
lowed by those of Adam von Bremen, Snorre 
Sturleson, Torfaeus, among ancient writers, and 
of Mallet, Ben. Franklin, Rafn, Sinding, Malte- 
Brun, Pinkerton, Wheaton, Beamish, Laing, Bald- 
win, T. Carlyle, W. C. Bryant, De Costa, Gravier, 
Goodrich, among modern. The list of authors 
whose works go to confirm the Norse discovery of 
America comprises upwards of one hundred. 

Besides this refutation of printed authority is the 
the refutation of facts. There are the fact that the 
Church of Rome sent bishops to Iceland, Greenland, 
and Vinland det goda, Pope Paschal II. having 
appointed Erik Upsi Bishop of Vinland in 1112, 
where this bishop went personally in the year 
1121 thus proving that the said Church was fully 
aware of the settlement of Iceland (Irish priests 
had visited this island in 795) and the discovery 
and colonization of Greenland and America ; the 
fact that Christopher Columbus went to Iceland 
in 1477, and there had access to the archives and 
the manuscripts containing the full accounts of the 
Norsemen's voyages to America ; and the fact that 

Columbus went to Iceland with the full knowledge 
that he could obtain the information there requisite 
for the carrying out of his scheme of a discovery, 
than which no scheme offered to him greater 
chances of emolument and fame, and did obtain it. 
In a letter that Columbus himself wrote, and 
which is quoted in voL i. p. 69 of Washington 
Irving's ' Columbus,' he mentions his visit to Ice- 
land, and gives the date 1477. 


ST. JAMES'S, PICCADILLY. The mean, attenu- 
ated spire which surmounts the tower of St. 
James's, Piccadilly, has often formed the subject 
of unfavourable comment, and surprise has been 
expressed that Sir Christopher Wren, who devoted 
so much careful thought to the interior of this 
church, should have neglected the chief feature of 
the exterior. The following passage from New- 
court's ' Repertorium ' (i. 659) shows that a more 
worthy spire formed part of the architect's original 
plan, and that a failure of construction caused the 
substitution of the present inadequate erection : 
" There was a lofty spire erecting on the steeple 
of this church, but was taken down again by reason 
the steeple did not prove strong enough to uphold 
it ; but, since, there is another sort of spire erected 
upon it." Newcourt's work was published in 
1708. The church was consecrated by Bishop 
Compton July 13, 1684, six months before the 
accession of James II., in honour of whom, by a 
species of flunkeyism which the numerous St. 
Georges and St. Annes of the period show to 
have been far from uncommon, the church re- 
ceived its dedication. EDMUND VENABLES. 

generally known that on Nov. 22 next a sealed 
room at No. 13, Lincoln's Inn Fields will have to 
be opened, in accordance with the instructions of 
the late Sir John Soane. The curious coincidence 
connected with the affair is that Nov. 22 is the 
anniversary of the death of Lady Soane, of Mrs. 
George Soane, and that of the granddaughter, 
Mrs. Rose Maria Soane-Roby. The last-named 
lady and her husband, Greatrex Roby, were inti- 
mate friends of mine more than a quarter of a 
century ago. The above facts may be thought 
worthy of a niche in the pages of N. & Q.' 


Coventry Club. 

BEDE'S USE OF " ARMORICA." In the late Mr. 
Thomas Wright's ' History of Ireland ' (vol. i. p. 34) 
there occurs an amusing misprint or lapsus plumce. 
We are there told that the earliest inhabitants of 
Britain came over, " as is reported, from America." 
Of course the word " America " is simply a mis- 
take for Armorica, the words being translated 
from Bede, who, speaking of the Brittones, says, 
" Qui de tractu Armoricano, ut fertur, Britanniam 

. II. AUG. 21, '86.] 



advecti, nustrales sibi partes illius vindicaront." 
But the question is, Does Bede mean to indicate 
any exact locality by the expression " tractu Ar- 
ruoricano " ? It has been before pointed out that 
he does not necessarily mean the region afterwards 
called Armorica, in later times Bretagne. The 
word is derived from the Celtic mor, the sea ; and 
Cffisar evidently uses " Armoric Civitates " simply 
in the sense " maritime states." Pliny speaka of 
Aquitaine as having been formerly called Armorica. 
But what I wish to suggest is the probability that 
Bede is alluding in this passage to the old legend 
of Brutus the Trojan, who is said to have landed 
in Gaul at the mouth of the Ligeris or Loire 
(stated to have been then a part of Aquitaine), and 
passed over thence into the part of Britain now 
called Devonshire, landing near the month of the 
Dart. W. T. LYNN. 


' History of England,' edition of 1849, chap, vii., 
not far from the beginning, there is a curious 
mistake, for which I think the historian was 
not responsible. Speaking of the Prince of 
Orange, he says : " Dramatic performances tired 
him ; and he was glad to turn away from the stage, 
and to talk about public affairs, while Orestes was 
raving, or while Tartuffe was pressing Elvira's 
hand." Moliere, to judge from the number of 
allusions, direct and indirect, to his plays in Mac- 
aulay's writings, appears to have been one of 
the great historian's favourite authors ; it is, 
therefore, in the highest degree improbable that 
be would have made a mistake in the name of the 
heroine of Moliere's most famous drama. The 
error probably arose in the following manner. 
Macau lay 'a manuscript was, I think I have heard, 
none of the most legible. The compositor had 
probably never read ' Tartnffe,' and consequently 
never heard of Elmire, the heroine of the play, 
but he had probably often heard the operatic name 
of Elvira. The two names, although very dis- 
similar in sound, are not very dissimilar when 
written, and the compositor, I conclude, read 
"Elvira's hand" instead of "Elmire's hand," 
which there can be no moral doubt Macaulay 
wrote. Macaulay was accordingly made to appear 
guilty of an error which so careful a writer, and 
one endowed with so marvellous a memory, would 
have been the last person to make. I do not know 
if the mistake has been corrected in subsequent 
editions of the ' History.' 


. (See 7 th S. ii. 24.) Dr. Adam 
Littleton, in the preface to his ' Latin Dictionary,' 
1677, writes : " Non est quidem quur mini ad de- 
fensionem Galeato Prologo opus ease existimem, 
Augusta Majestatis patrocinio clypeatus." It 
was dedicated to Charles II. W. C. B. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

The dates are wanted of this clergyman's occu- 
pancy of this benefice. He is found as rector on 
the title-page of a book from his pen called ' The 
Covenant's Plea for Infants,' 4to., Oxford, 1642. 
He is also said to have been minister of Aekar- 
wall, Dorsetshire, but no dates are given. Under 
the Commonwealth rule he is found as Virar of 
Leek, co. Stafford, up to 1662 (Sleigh's 'Hist.,' 
4to., p. 82). He also wrote, in 1657, ' Suspension 
Discussed,' 12mo., said to be by Thomas Winnel, 
M.A., minister of the Gospel at Leek, in the 
county of Stafford. This was directed against the 
Rev. Samuel Langley, Rector of Swettenham, 
Cheshire, who answered the book in ' Suspension 
Reviewed,' 8vo., 1658. JOHN E. BAILEY. 

Stretford, Manchester. 

EBOLSAN, TO BLASPHEME. In the Lindisfarne 
version of St. Luke's Gospel we find the Latin 
blaxphemat glossed ebolsa% (xii. 10), and blasphe- 
mia glossed ebolsongas. Is it possible that this 
curious and rare verb is a -sian verb (like cleanse), 
co-radicate with the A.-S. <i-belgan, to swell with 
anger, to be indignant, vouched for by M.E. 
a-bel$en, see the ' New Dictionary ' ? Note that 
in the Vespasian Psalter, Ps. Ixxvii. 49, there 
occur the two forms ebylg$e, indignationis, and 
ebyfou, indignationem, in which latter the guttural 
has disappeared, as in the Lindiafarne instances. 
See also Sweet's ' Oldest English Texts,' p. 567, 
col. i. A. L. MAYHEW. 


REGISTERS OF BIRTHS. When were parish re- 
gisters of births first kept by the clergy in Eng- 
land ? It appears from the following passage in 
Bishop Flechier's 'Life of Cardinal Xjmenes, 
Archbishop of Toledo,' that about 1497-8 the 
latter issued an instruction to the clergy of his 
diocese to this effect : " Qu'il y eust dans toutea 
les Paroisses de I'archevech^ un Regiatre oil 
fussent Merits lea noms de tous les Enfans qu'on 
baptisoit, de leura Perks, de leurs Parrains et des 
Temoins qui avoient assist6 au Bapt6me, avec 
l'anne"e, le mois et le jour de cette ce"r<$monie." 
This, Fle"chier adds, was the first time that such 
an order had been given. RALPH N. JAMES. 

Dr. Coleman's 'Genealogy of the Lyman 
Family ' says Sir John Leman, Lord Mayor about 
1650, was son of John Lyman, of High Ongar, 
Essex;) but Burke's 'Extinct Baronetage' says 



S. II. Aas. 1,'86. 

he was son of John Leman, of Gillingham, Nor- 
folk, and Beccles, Suffolk. Which, if either, of 
these statements is correct ? WM. H. UPTON. 
Walla Walla, Washington, U.S. 

JEWEL OFFICE. Can any one give particulars of 
the antecedents of Col. Charles Godfrey, Master 
of the Jewel Office, who died 1714, having mar- 
ried Arabella Churchill, the cast-off mistress of 
James II. ? He was M.P. for Wycombe in 1691, 
and Clerk of the Board of Green Cloth in 1704. 
He has a tombstone at Bath, on which he is stated 
to have died February 23, 1714, cetat. sixty-six, 
and is described as " perantiqua: farnilue in agno 
Oxon." He left two daughters and coheiresses, 
Charlotte, married to Hugh Boscawen, Viscount 
Falmouth, and Elizabeth, married to Edmund 
Dunch, Master of the Household to Queen Anne. 
To what family did Col. Charles Godfrey belong ? 
Who were his parents ? Of what was he colonel ? 


FRANCIS HENLT. Among other curiosities 
kept at St. John's Hospital in Canterbury is a 
long sword, about which little seems to be known. 
In the hospital accounts, under date 1613, is the 
following entry: "Item payd for scoring of 
ffrannces henly sword, iijcZ." Who was Francis 
Henly? J. M. COWPER. 


ZING'S BENCH. In Noble's ' College of Arms,' 
p. 255, it is said that in Commonwealth times it 
was called Upper Bench. But in a clever little 
book, 'Lambeth and the Vatican' (i. 44), it is 
said to have been called the Court of Public 
Bench. Which is correct; or have both terms 
been used ? 0. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

METAL on ID'ESTON. By the kindness of one 
of your correspondents I am informed that in a 
set of charts entitled ' The French Neptune,' pub- 
lished in 1692, the reef now known as the Eddy- 
stone is described as Metal ou Id'eston. Can your 
readers help me to an explanation of the first 
word in this connexion ? W. S. B. H. 

KET-LAND. Hereabout boggy land after drain- 
ing and in cultivation is called "ket-land." 
What is Icet a corruption or abbreviation of ? and 
is the term used elsewhere of similar land ? The 
soil m these cases is dark almost black and is 
largely mixed with vegetable decay, and is very 

11 Worksop. THOS - EATCL 

FISH, OR FITCH, P E AS.-It would appear that 
a trade was carried on r,^n early period with the 
colonies in this article/3 .pposed by one writer at 
least to have been the vetch, sometimes written 
fltch, and Jish peas. It has also been suggested 

that what was meant Toy fitch peas was the roe of 
the cod or other fish which was imported into 
England for bait. The fitch pea, or vetch, is still 
extensively cultivated in England, but not so ex- 
tensively as formerly. Perhaps some reader of 
' N. & Q.' can throw light on the subject. 

0. J. KUTQER. 
Fern Bank, Croydon. 

GRANGE. What is the origin of this name in 
the cases of Grange-over-Sands and Grange-in- 
Borrowdale ? Q. V. 

LEWIS THEOBALD. Can any reader give me 
the exact dates of the birth, arrival in London, 
and death of the early ' Dunciad ' hero ? also any 
particulars regarding a paper called the Censor, 
with which he was associated ? W. J. L. 

SIR ROGER DE FELBRIGO. Many people are 
ashamed to own acquaintance with " minor verse." 
I freely confess to deriving a large amount of 
pleasure from the humbler followers of our " bards 
sublime." In * Verses of Country and Town,' by 
Rowe Lingston, there is a pretty poem on 
Sir Roger de Felbrigg. 

He prattled at his mother's knee, 

A bright-haired youngling, brave and free ; 

But on, I lov'd him more than she 

" Dieu de sa alme eit eit merci ! " 

He woo'J and won and wedded me, 

And who so happy then as we, 

At bonny Felbrigg by the sea ? 

" Dieu de ea alme eit eit merci ! " 

But he took the cross ; and away rode he, 

In his armour bright, across the lea ; 

And him I never more shall see. 

" Dieu de sa alme eit eit merci ! " 

For Him who died upon the tree, 

He died in Pruce beyond the sea, 

And they buried him far off from me. 

" Dieu de sa alme eit eit merci ! " 

In a note it is stated that part of an epitaph on brass 
in Felbrigg Church, Norfolk, runs : "Ceste ymage 
est fait en reme'bran'ce de mos. roger de felbrig qi 
mu'st en prus la est son corps enterre dieu de sa 
alme eit eit pite amen amen Elizabet q' feust la 
fe'me mons. roger de felbrig gist icy dieu de sa 
alme eit mercy amen." May I ask if any of your 
correspondents can give the history of Sir Roger 
de Felbrigg ? WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 


OGLE. I wish to discover the original meaning 
of the name of Ogle. For many centuries that 
family has lived in Northumberland, and to one 
was granted the permission " to hold the town and 
manor of Ogle as he had formerly done." At 
Bothall there is a church, in the chancel of which 
is an alabaster tomb erected to one of that family, 
and containing, in black letter, a genealogy. There 
were seven lords and thirty knights, and there were 
Ogles of Eglingham, Causey Park, Rothbury, Ogle 

7"> 8. II. Auo. 21, '86.] 



Castle, as well as BothalJ. Later on the barony 
was transferred by marriage into the Cavendish, 
and afterwards to the Portland families. If you 
can throw any light on the meaning or origin of 
the name you will much oblige. 

Byron Street, Derby. 

FRANCIS BRADFORD. I should be very much 
obliged for any information regarding the family 
of Francis Bradford, 06. 1694, who married Ann, 
daughter of Leverett Jenison, Mayor of Newark, 
Notts (Mayor in 1654). Their daughter Elizabeth 
married Sir Samuel Gordon, Bart. Sir James 
William Gordon, the issue of this marriage, died 
in 1381, when his property passed into the family 
of the Earl of Winchelsea. I have extracts from 
wills, &c., of Bradfords at Newark-on-Trent and 
Rotbam, near Newark. J. G. BRADFORD. 

157, JDalston Lane, E. 

mino, and sometimes called the minah bird, a native 
of India, is claimed to be a fine imitator of the 
human voice by many writers. There are two 
species or varieties of the bird that, it is claimed, 
can talk. Will some one give a minute descrip- 
tion of the greater and lesser varieties of this 
curious bird, and a more complete description 
of its peculiarities as to food, habits in general, 
than is given in vol. xvii. of the ' Encyclopaedia 
Metropolitana,' and if it can imitate the human 
voice in the way of actual articulation of words 
as a parrot can and does ? M. 0. WAGGONER. 

Toledo, Ohio, U.S. 

lands, at the beginning of the reign of Edward VI., 
were confiscated by Parliament, there appear to 
have been two chantries at Bromsgrove Church, 
one filled at the time by Thomas Jamys, and the 
other by William Foonys. Jamys's chantry was 
founded 18 Edward IV. by Eleanor, widow of Sir 
Humphrey Stafford, of Grafton, Knt. When this 
chantry was suppressed, it appears from documents 
in the Public Record Office that the then Stafford 
chantry priest was pensioned for life at the rate of 
five pounds a year. William Foonys's chantry, 
on the contrary Foonys being a schoolmaster as 
well as a priest was not suppressed or pensioned, 
but Foonys continued, as before, to receive his 
fully wage of seven pounds a year. I am anxious to 
ascertain when and by whom Foonys's chantry 
was founded. Perhaps some of your correspon- 
dents better read on such points than I can 
kindly do me the favour to tell me. 


Astley Rectory, near Stourport. 

MSS. OF THOMAS GENT. Having been lately 
re-reading ' The Life of Mr. Thomas Gent, Printer, 
of York,' I am desirous of obtaining some informa- 

tion concerning the original MS. of this very in- 
teresting autobiography. Lowndes, s.v., states 
that Rev. Joseph Hunter "suppressed much of 
Gent's manuscript." Is there any chance of this 
MS. being still preserved ? It was certainly in 
existence in 1832, when the ' Life ' was published. 
Also, may I inquire if anything is known of 
'league's Rambles,' a work by Gent mentioned 
in his ' Life,' bub of which I can find no notice 
anywhere else ? WILLIAM BLADES. 

Abchurcli Lane, E.C. 

WHITE. In an old pedigree which has been 
mislaid William White, or Whyte, of Newport, 
Rhode Island, U.S., born about 1650, appears as 
a descendant of a Bishop White. Can any of 
your correspondents inform me whether he waa 
the son of Thomas White, Bishop of Peterborough, 
or a son or grandson of Francis White, Bishop of 
Ely? John White, Bishop of Lincoln, translated 
to Winchester, was, I believe, a celibate. William 
White had two daughters, one of whom married 

Byles, of Newport, Gent. ; the other William 

Ball, of Philadelphia, Esq. R. B. D. 

[Replies may be sent to these initials, The Warden's 
House, Red Hill, Surrey.] 

In the cast of ' Phebe ; or, the Beggar's Wedding,' 
by Charles Coffey, produced at Drury Lane, July 4, 
1729, the name of Fielding is opposite Justice 
Quorum. See Genest's 'Account of the Stage/ 
iii. 236. So far as I can see, this is a solitary men- 
tion of the name as an actor. Fielding was then 
leading a thoroughly bohemian life. Is it possible 
he might have acted in London for one occasion I 


GEORGE DONNE. (See 6 th S. xii. 387.) Is any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' able to give any informatio 
regarding George, the second son of the Dean of 
St. Paul's, and the place of his residence on his 
return from the West Indies ? C. COITMORE. 

The Lodge, Yarpole, Leominster. 

In the Great Western Railway's illustrated programme 

Go look through Merrie England, 
Of all the shires you there may eee, 
Oh 1 the fairest is green Somerset, 
The Flower of all the West Countrie ! 
Tt is said to be taken from an old ballad. Can any ono 
direct me where to find it? CHARLOTTE G. BOOBB. 

"I recollect Warrington sharing our sentiment, and 
trowling out those noble lines of the old poet : 
His golden locks time hath to silver turned ; 
time too swift, O swiftness never ceasing ! 
His youth 'gainst time and age hath ever spurned, 
But spurned in vain : youth waneth by encreasing." 
' The Newcomes,' p. 650, People's Ed. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. r_7 s. n. AUG. 21, * 



(7 th S.i. 3, 130, 262,333.) 
A. J. M., in his natural anxiety to do justice to 
the merits of the valuable work of which he is the 
possessor, has not done justice to poor me. It is just 
because I do take delight in a terse and original style 
of writing, in preference to hackneyed conventional 
newspaper diction, that I took the trouble of calling 
attention to the edition in question. It is true I 
was mainly concerned with vindicating the ' Deca- 
meron/ but I was careful to give the translation 
credit for the merits of its quaint and racy phraseo- 
logy. A. J. M. writes as if I had not done so. 

Cardinal Newman pointed out long ago that 
language was fast falling into grooves, and certain 
qualificatives have come by common consent to be 
appropriated to certain words, so as to bid fair to 
become altogether joined to them ; hence it cannot 
but be exceedingly refreshing to turn from the 
round of phrases in ringing the changes on which 
so much of the writing of the present hour con- 
sists, to pages of less familiar style, with an imprtvu 
in every sentence. The specimens I quoted show 
that our anonymous translator abounds in these ; 
and his complete work, as A. J. M. possesses it, in 
spite of its ponderousness and verbosity, is, as I 
said, a valuable contribution to a library. At the 
same time, while perfectly willing to allow that 
it is " magnifique," most certainly " ce n'est pas 
Boccaccio. Ce n'est rien moins que Boccaccio." 

Boccaccio took into his head to handle the most 
risque subjects, but he handled them in such a 
way that no one who has any regard for litera- 
ture, however he may think it right and proper 
to condemn some of his tales, can really wish that 
he had not written the 'Decameron.' He says the 
most impossible things with such original sim- 
plicity, and presents you with the most inconceiv- 
able scenes with so aerial a touch, that what would 
have been coarse in any other handling comes 
from him like the unconscious utterance of an 
innocent child, with such sportive humour that it 
dances before us, hardly more calling up a blush 
than the glittering dalliance of butterflies in the sun- 
light. With consummate poetical skill he first fes- 
toons a trelliswork of leaves and flowers, and only 
just lets us see his characters through the chequered 
shade thrown by an Italian sun they seem to be 
in Paradise before the fall, unconscious of ill. He 
only lets us peep at them, he does not parade them 
before us or poke them at us with the unfortunate 
iteration of later writers. Even those tales which 
suppose delight in practical jokes are told so mirth- 
fully that their heartlessness is draped from sight 
for the time. And the exquisite ideal irony, the 
irresistible .humour of the assumed simplicity 

which delicately covers the most equivocal compli- 
cations the artistic treatment, in fact invests the 
" Commedia Umana," as it has been called, with a 
brilliant life, which will last as long as there are 
men and women to read it, and makes it with all 
its regretable freedom less objectionable and less 
mischievous than the vulgar, spiteful twaddle, the 
inane, profitless gossip tolerated week by week in 
he rank fungus-growth of modern so-called society 

A marvel of writing is the ' Decameron,' and 
there is scarcely another book existing except the 
Gospels which, without any rhetorical effort, with- 
out any descriptive word-painting, can call up a 
distinct and lasting picture in the mind as it does, 
or impress a narration on it in so few words. 

The anonymous "translator" has really con- 
structed a "paraphrase." To put it shortly, Boccaccio 
uses the smallest number of words to convey his 
ideas that can possibly serve ; the translator 
presses the greatest possible number into the ser- 
vice. His curious epithets and clever involution 
give his work a type of its own ; but it no more 
puts the reader in possession of an idea of Boc- 
caccio than Dodderidge's ' Expositor ' would of the 
New Testament. 

It would not be I, however, who would quarrel 
with a reprint of it if we were offered a genuine re- 
print in its entirety and in the dear old spelling 
and type which belong to it. But the edition 
before us is not this at all. It neither gives us the 
mind of Boccaccio nor yet that of this translator. 
It is a sort of " Guelfo non son, ne Ghibbelin' 
m'appello." When one buys a book I think 
one has a right to expect that its title should 
give some clue to its contents. In this instance we 
are told we are buying the ' Decameron,' and we find 
ourselves instead in possession of an emasculated 
version of a paraphrase. 

With regard to the story of Serichtha ; it would 
not be at all a bad one if less prolix. The story of 
the princess who rejects the lover who woos too im- 
periously, and disguises herself as a menial to escape 
his importunity, yet, when he pursues her to urge 
his suit respectfully, and humbly withdraws at her 
positive bidding, disguises herself again to follow 
after him, and endures hardship and suffering to 
prove she is worthy of him, is one that turns up 
once and again in the tales of old. 

E. H. BUSK. 


ii. 6, 93). I know of two cases in which dark 
hair became white, and reverted again to its 
original colour, but in neither case from sorrow. 
The first instance occurred in the father of the 
butler of the late Sir James Walker, of Sand Hut- 
ton, in Yorkshire. The hair of this man, who lived 
in the village of Sand Hutton and was old, from 
being grey became dark as in early life. The second 

7"" 8. II. Auo. 21, '86.] 



case was that of a servant of my own. The man, whose 
hair was nearly black, was discharged by me, and 
a few years afterwards re-engaged. His hair was 
then quite grey. The same man was again dis- 
charged and subsequently re-engaged. His hair 
on this occasion had nearly recovered its original 
hue. My belief is that fear had something to do 
with this last case. The fellow was an arrant 
coward, and especially troublesome on the subject 
of ghosts. G. F. D. 

I lately met with the following instance of hair 
turned grey by fright. I am, however, unable to 
say whether it is an authentic case : 

" In one of the rudest parts of the county of Clare, in 
Ireland, a boy, in order to destroy some eaglets which 
were in a hole one hundred feet from the summit of a 
rock, and which rose four hundred feet perpendicular 
from the sea, caused himself to be suspended by a rope, 
with a scimitar in his hand for hia defence, should he 
meet with an attack from the old ones ; which precaution 
was found necessary ; for no sooner had his companions 
lowered him to the nest, than one of the old eagles made 
at him with great fury, at which he struck, but, un- 
fortunately missing his aim, nearly cut through the rope 
that supported him. His comrades cautiously and safely 
drew him up ; when it was found that his hair, which 
before was a dark auburn, was changed to grey." 

21, Endwell Road, Brockley, 8.E. 

An authentic case of hair turned white by a 
violent mental shock is brought to my recollection 
by the first words of a little poem which Robert 
Brough wrote on the last days of Orsini : 
The young grey head has fallen. 

Beyond a question, the chief conspirator in the 
attempt on the life of Louis Napoleon, sometime 
Emperor of the French, underwent that strange and 
terrible transformation from youth to seeming age 
in a very brief lapse of time. When he was sen- 
tenced his hair was black, and it was white when 
he ascended the steps of the guillotine. 


At p. 335 of Pulleyn's 'Etymological Com- 
pendium' (1828) the Medical Adviser is quoted 
to the following effect : 

" Some hypothetical, among whom is a modern 
periodical, confidently assert that the cause of grey hair 
is a contraction of the skin about the roots of it, and 
from this cause suppose that polar animals become 
white; the cold operating as a contracting power. If 
this argument were true, we should be all grey if we 
happened to be exposed to a hard frost ! There are 
fewer grey people in Russia than in Italy or Arabia; 
for the Russians, having more generally light-coloured 
hair, do not so often or so soon feel the effects of the 
grizzly fiend as those whose hair is black or dark. 
Cold, therefore, is nonsense ; it assuredly cannot be con- 
traction at the roots of the hair. Has not the hair of 
individuals labouring under certain passions become 
grey in one night? Were these suffering from cold? 
Rather were they not burning with internal feeling? 
Sudden fright has caused the hair to turn grey ; but this, 
as welljas any other remote cause, can be freed from the 
idea of operating by cold or contraction. Our opinion 

is that the vis vitcc is lessened in the extreme ramifica- 
tions of those almost imperceptible vessels destined to 
supply the hair with colouring fluid. The vessels which 
secrete this fluid cease to act, or else the absorbent 
vessels take it away faster than it is furnished. This 
reason will bear argument; for grief, debility, fright, 
fever, and age, all have the effect of lessening the power 
of the extreme vessels. It may be said, in argument 
against this opinion, that if the body be again invigor- 
ated, the vessels ought, according to our reasoning, to 
secrete again the colouring fluid ; but to this we say, 
that the vessels which secrete this fluid are so very 
minute, that upon their ceasing their functions, they 
become obliterated, and nothing can ever restore them." 


I can supply one authentic instance of sudden 
change of colour in hair. An intimate friend, 
Rev. E. O'M., who had dark hair, found on rising 
one morning it had suddenly changed to grey, and 
in the course of two or three days the alteration 
was complete and permanent. He was then a 
young man, and engaged in arduous parochial 
duty as a curate in the sad famine year, 1848, and 
died a few years since. The change was, he 
believed, the result of anxiety, not sorrow, and 
formed a frequent source of mutual conversation. 

I have a quantity of long locks of chequered 
hair in my possession, alternate brown and white 
at minute intervals, regularly arranged. I obtained 
it from a hairdresser, who purchased it with a 
large parcel of various coloured hairs for wig- 
making ; and so the history of the locks remains 
unknown. Should any one desire to investigate 
the subject, which is inexplicable by me, I will for- 
ward him a specimen on application. 


20, Harcourt Street, Dublin. 

In Prince Bandini's personal narrative of the 
destruction of Casamicciola (Ischia), which was 
reproduced in several Italian newspapers at the 
time, mention was made of a man known to him 
whose hair turned white in a few hours on the 
occasion of that terrible catastrophe. 

R. H. BUSK. 

SOLLY'S * TITLES OF HONOUR' (7 th S. ii. 63). 
I feel quite certain that the late Mr. Solly would 
have been very glad to receive as, indeed, he in- 
vited corrections of errors that would inevitably 
occur in a work like his ' Titles of Honour.' But 
as a humble individual without any pretensions 
to the art of unravelling genealogical mysteries, I 
must beg leave to protest against some of SIGMA'S 
vague and indefinite annotations which he makes 
on Mr. Solly's work. A very small amount of 
trouble would have obviated these objections. 
For instance, " Hunt, Bart. Refer to Vere, Bart." 
Refer where, and to which Vere? And again: 
"I'Anson, Bart. See Bankes " a name which 
does not occur in Mr. Solly's work, so that the 
reference, to say the least of it, is anomalous. 00 



[7 th 8. II. Ana. 21, '86. 

"p. 102," which "Jackson, Bart., refers to 
Duckett " ? Which Lichfield possessed the " ori- 
nal name " of Adams ? And so on. SIGMA may 
retort that by referring to any good Peerage I 
should find out what I wished to know. But 
this trouble and vexation would have been rendered 
unnecessary by the smallest iota of labour in the 
first instance. One of SIGMA'S annotations runs 
thus : "P. 127. Meredith of Stansley, Devon (not 
Denbigh)." So far as I can see, Mr. Solly did not 
say that it was of Denbigh, which he should have 
done. Take another entry : "P. 129. Mitford, B. 
Patronymic, Grant. Mr. Solly has no primary 
entry of the name of Mitford, and had he one, it 
would not have come on p. 129. SIGMA, more- 
over, says, in connexion with Mr. Solly's entry of 
Napier of Merchiston (p. 138), " for ' Ettrich ' read 
Ettrick " a correction which seems to me to be 
superfluous, inasmuch as ' it is the latter form, as 
here printed, that MR. Solly correctly gives. 

To prevent confusion, I think what SIGMA should 
have done, as he is undoubtedly qualified to do, 
in cases where a title was missed by Mr. Solly, 
was to supply it with a reference to the best 
authorities ; and not to say " See So-and-so " when 
" So-and-so " does not occur in Mr. Solly's work, 
of which he is, of course, at the time solely speak- 
ing. W. ROBERTS. 

It seems worth while, in order to guard against 
the possible perpetuation of error in the valuable 
pages of ' N. & Q.,' to point out what SIGMA may 
not yet have noticed, viz., that he appears to 
mention two titles quite unknown to the Scottish 
or any other peerage, "Yetter" and "Tweedale." 
The former title is properly, of course, Hay of 
Yester, and the latter Tweeddale. I presume that 
when SIGMA speaks of an English barony of 
Solway (1833-7) he means a barony of the 
United Kingdom. I do not know on what 
ground SIGMA extinguishes the Seaforth title in 
the peerage of Scotland. The United Kingdom 
barony is no doubt extinct. I made a good many 
notes on the Scottish portion of Mr. Solly's book, 
which I intended to have sent to him had he 
lived. Unless they should some day find a corner 
in ' N. & Q., J they will probably not now see the 
light. 0. H. E. CARMICHAEL. 

New University Club, S.W. 

"As DEAF AS THE ADDER" (7 th S. ii. 9, 115). 

-The translators of the A. V. used the word adder 
in a general sense to denote any poisonous serpent, 
and in Psalm Iviii. 4 asp is offered as the alter- 
native reading. Some serpents are less sensitive 
to sound than others, but I am not aware that there 
is any species that is absolutely deaf. However 
*' none are so deaf as those that won't hear," and' 
as Mr. J. G. Wood says, 

" Tkere has been from time immemorial a belief in the 
.Mat that some individual serpents are very obstinate and 

self-willed, refusing to hear the shrill sound of the flute 
or the magic song of the charmer, and pressing one ear 

into tbe dust while they stop the other with the tail 

Snakes have no external ears, and therefore the notion of 
the serpent stopping its ears is zoologically a simple 
absurdity." ' Bible Animals,' pp. 549-50. 

Mr. Wood gives extracts from a sermon by Louis 
of Grenada and from a commentary by Richard 
Rolle, of Hampole, to show how widely the idea 
had spread. 

At Lewes, Sussex, the belief is, " Look under 
the deaf adder's belly, and you '11 find marked in 
mottled colours these words : 

If I could bear &t well as see, 
No man of life should master me. 

See'N. &Q.,'1S. vii. 152. 


i. 307, 413, 513 ; ii. 35, 94). Once more home 
to my notes and index, I should like, if your 
readers are not tired of the subject, to give them 
an interesting point or two more, re Gibber and 
Arne. In " a print of the greatest rarity," sold 
at Sotheby's, 1879, are some very graphic pic- 
tures of gaol cruelties taken from the Marshalsea 
and Fleet prisons. "In the third compartment 
above on the right is represented the ghost of 
Arne, the upholsterer, father of Dr. Arne, ap- 
pearing to Capt. J - M a, a prisoner, 

and telling him how he had been imprisoned 
there and done to death "; " also the strong room 
in the Fleet in which Mr. Arne dyed, the manner 
of wearing the collar, small cap, shears, proper 
to be bound with the report of the House of 

As to my own shortcomings, I submit that Col. 
Chester's book was before me when I wrote, and 
the first words of his note, p. 407, as to Mrs. 
Susanna Maria Gibber, are too plain for mistake. 
They are, "younger dau. of Thomas Arne, of St. 
Paul's, Covent Garden, Midx., upholsterer, by 
his second wife, Anne Wheeler, and sister to 
Dr. Thomas Augustine Arne, the celebrated 
musical composer." Obviously had I meant Dr. 
Arne I should have said so ; but, writing for the 
not unlearned I assume they know something. 
The additional notes will not, however, be with- 
out their use. No one at all interested in the 
Cibbers and Arnes can, I suppose, possibly forget 
hereafter the real relation of the parties, and my 
note from the rare print will tell them something 

ALICB, LADY LISLE (7 th S. ii. 79). The refer- 
ence, as above, is, I suppose, meant to indicate 
Alice, Duchess of Dudley, she being daughter-in- 
law to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. Her 
husband, known as Sir Robert Dudley, was repu- 
diated by the Earl, and Lady Alice, his widow, 
who was a well-born lady, lived in comparative 

.Auo. 21, '86.] 



seclusion until Charles I. created her a duchess 
for life only in 1644. This lady would at no time 
have had any valid claim to the barony or vis- 
county of Lisle, titles which, however, had been 
borne by members of the Dudley family. 

A. H. 

BETTY : BELLARMINE (7 tt S. L 247, 334). In 
Cartwright's comedy 'The Ordinary' there is an 
allusion which may prove interesting, since it 
shows that the bellarmine was distinguished by 
its "beard," and that it was known by another 
name also. Kimewell says to Catchmey, III. T. : 
Thou thing, 

Thy belly looks like to some strutting hill, 
O'er-shadow'd with thy rough beard like a wood, 

And Christopher adds : 

Or like a larger jug, that some men call 
A Bellarmine ; but we a Conscience ; 
Whereon the lewder hand of Pagan workman 
Over the proud ambitious head, hath carv'd 
An idol large, with beard episcopal, 
Making the vessel look like tyrant Eglon. 


(7 th S. ii. 25, 96). To carry out the oft-repeated 
rule that ' N. & Q.' should be absolutely correct in 
its statements, may I be allowed to point out an 
error of MR. W. LOVELL'S at the last reference ? 
Anthonia, daughter of Win. Barlow, was the wife 
not of William of Wykeham, Bishop of Win- 
chester (who had been dead upwards of one hun- 
dred years when she was born), but of his 
namesake and successor in the see, William Wick- 
ham. J. S. ATTWOOD. 


ENGRAVED PORTRAITS (7 th S. i. 367, 437). In 
Acker man's ' History of Oxford ' there is an en- 
graved portrait of Thomas Rotherham, the founder, 
from a picture in the Bodleian Gallery, also 
another in the hall of Lincoln College. There is 
a monument to the Archbishop in the Lady 
Chapel at York, which was restored by Lincoln 
College in 1832. W. LOVELL. 

14, Alexandra Street, Cambridge. 

"To SAY MICHAELMAS" (7 tt S. ii. 28). In 
corroboration of MR. BIRKBECK TERRY'S idea that 
the word Michaelmas was once pronounced with a 
soft ch, I wish to point out that the (former 
borough) town of St. Michael, near Truro, was 
commonly called Mitchell, or St. Mitchell, vide 
Cooke's " Top. Library," ' Cornwall,' p. 165. May 
there also be a connexion with the common phrase 
" He can't say bo to a goose," remembering the 
close connexion of the goose with that season ? 

W. S. B. H. 

It may interest MR. BIRKBECK TERRY to learn 
that the name of the ex-parliamentary borough of 
St. Michael, in Cornwall, is commonly pronounced, 

and indeed written, Mitchell, or, less frequently, 
Michell. WM. PENGELLY. 


COFFEE BIGGIN (7 th S. i. 407, 475 ; ii. 36). 

"Below Newton, Eastward lyes Biggin, so called of 
later time Biggin signifying an habitation, in resem- 
blance whereof we have the Saxon word biytqan for 
habitation." P. 13. 

" There is now no other memorial left of this place, 
than a Fermhouse, called by the name of Biggin Hall : 
antiently written Bugging ; which in our old English sig- 
nifieth the same with domus, and is in the North parts 
of this Realm still retained in that sense, divers mannour 
houses being there so called." Dugdale's ' Antiquities 
of Warwickshire,' vol. i. p. 204. 
It was in this sense of an habitation that Bay- 
ton or Boynton Hall, near Finchingfield, Essex, 
was at one time called Biggin. 


34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

" NOT A PATCH UPON " (7 th S. i. 508 ; ii. 77). 
WhatI presume is an equivalent form of this phrase, 
" Don't put a patch upon it ! " is used in the West 
of England as signifying " Don't make an excuse 
for it ! " that is, " Don't add something to make 
the fault look less of a fault ! " or else to mean, 
"Don't make the matter worse !" by similarly add- 
ing something to the original narration. 

W. S. B. H. 

MOTTOES IN BOOKS, &c. (7 th S. ii. 45). There 
is an interesting article on ' Mottoes and their 
Morals ' in Sharp's Magazine, vol. xxv., new series, 
p. 207. There is also a ' Dictionnaire des Devices 
des Hommes de Lettres, Imprimeurs,' &c., in Le 
Bibliophile Beige, vols. for 1875, 1876, and 1878, 
which is supplemented and enlarged in the very 
useful current ' Catalogues de Livres Anciens et 
Modernes,' of J. Olivier, 11, Rue de Paroissiens, 
Brussels. J. MASKELL. 

Emanuel Hospital, Westminster. 

BATHO, SURNAME (7 th S. i. 439, 495 ; ii. 37). 
One Batho kept the " Robin Hood " tavern, near 
the factory, Shrewsbury, some forty-five years ago ; 
and "Peter Bathoe, sonne of Peter Bathoe, of 
the Towne of Shrewsbury, in the Countye of Salop, 
yeoman, bound apprentice to William Harris, 
i>lou', by Indenture and bonde for seaven yeares, 
;o comence from the xx to daye of December, in the 
xii 111 yeare of Kinge Charles his raigne over Eng- 
:and, 1645" (Records of Glovers' Company of 
Shrewsbury, MS., p. 39). This entry is cancelled 
by strokes of the pen drawn through it, as though 
something occurred to prevent the apprenticeship 
>eing fulfilled. The surname Batho occurs fre- 
quently in the registers of Whitchurch. Bather, 
Iso, is quite common in Shropshire. De Bathon' 
s a common name in the old records : 7 Ed- 
ward III., "Bex coniirnuivit Matheo de Bath' in 



[7* 8. II. Aro. 21, '86. 

feodo manerium de Rothsay ac advoca'onem 
eccl'ise ejusdem ei concess' per Hugonem de Lacy 
militem per servic' debit'." 25 Edward III., 
" Rex confirmavit Joh'ni filio et haeridi Mat'hei 
de Bathe in faedo manerium de Eathsey," &c. 


"A NINE DAYS' WONDER" (7 th S. i. 520; ii. 
55). The passage in Chaucer referred to is in 
stanza 80, book iv., of ' Troylus and Cryseyde': 
For when men ban wel cryed, than wol they rowne, 
Ek wonder last but nine nyglit nevere in towne. 

The " sacrum novendiale " was a special festival to 
celebrate any prodigy. The word nundinal, be- 
longing to a fair or market, expresses the same 
idea. The number of familiar phrases in ' Troylus 
and Cryseyde 'is great, e. g., "spick and span," 
" in one ear out of the other," " nettle in dokke 
out," "at six and seven," " fish out of water," "let 
sleeping dogs lie," " root and crop." 

Oak Cottage, Streatham Place, S.W. 

In the one-volume edition of Chaucer published 
by Routledge & Sons in 1886, the passage MR. 
TERRY inquires after is thus 

Eke wonder last but nine deies newe in town. 
It occurs in ' Troilus and Creseide,' book iv. 1. 588. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

The line in Chaucer's ' Troylus and Cryseyde,' 
is in stanza 80 of part iv., not, however, exactly 
as quoted by MR. SHARMAN, but as follows : 

Ek wonder last but nine nyghte nevere in towne. 

F. N. 

There is an earlier connexion between a prodigy 
and nine days in the " Novendiale Sacrificium" of 
the Romans, of which Livy describes the origin 
(i. 31) :- 

"Nunciatum regi patribusque est in monte Albano 
lapidibus pluisse. Komanis quoque ab eodem prodigio 
novendiale sacrum publice susceptum,seuvocecselesti ex 
Albano monte iniasa, nam id quoque traditur, sou harus- 
picum monitu. Mansit certe solemne, ut quandocunque 
idem prodigium nuntiaretur, ferias per novem dies 

Shakspere references to "nine days' wonder" 
and " ten days' wonder" are in ' N. & Q. ' 2 nd S 
xi - 4 79. ED. MARSHALL. 

MONASTIC NAMES (7 th S. ii. 48). The chang- 
ing of the name on specially dedicating oneself or 
being dedicated to God's service seems as old as 
the time of Abraham. Our Lord gave new names 
to several of the apostles ; and it was a most com- 
mon thing for the Popes to take new names on 
succeeding to St. Peter's chair. I need only men- 
tion the celebrated Hildebrand, who became 
Gregory VII., and Nicholas Breakspear, who 
became Adrian IV. The holy St. Neot is said to 
have been Athelstan, the eldest son of Ethelwulf, 

and brother of Alfred (and, by-the-by, Alfred chose 
that name Athelstan for his godson the mighty 
Guthrum). After fighting the first naval battle on 
record since the time of Carausius, Prince Athel- 
stan left the world, and going to Glastonbury 
assumed the monastic habit as Neotus, a simple 

St. Saviour's. 

To a lease from the abbot and convent of Winch- 
combe to Sir John Aleyn, of the manor of Sher- 
borne,Glouc. (14 Dec., 25 fl.VIII.),the abbot, prior, 
and nineteen of the twenty-two monks subscribe in 
their Christian and assumed names, e. g., Richard 
(Mounslow) Ancelmus, abbot ; Joh'es Augustinus, 
prior ; the monks, Hieronymus, Gregorius 
Michael, Raphael Gabriel, Beda, Cuthbertus, &c. 


Nether Swell Vicarage, Stow-on-Wold. 

Whatever may have been the special custom (if 
any) in mediaeval England, the change of name on 
assuming the monastic habit and profession is, as 
a general custom, at least six centuries older than 
HERMENTRUDK supposes. It seems a pity that 
Ducange is not more frequently consulted before 
questions of this kind are sent up, to ' N. & Q.' 
The reference given in the ' Glossarium ' (1840- 
1850), s. 1). " Nomen," is of the eleventh century, 
viz., ' Chron. Malliacense,' ad ann. 1080. How 
much further back a catena of authorities for the 
monastic change of name might be carried it is 
not my purpose here to inquire. It is enough for 
me to have pointed out that an adequate refutation 
of HERMENTRUDE'S theory was lying ready to 
hand in the pages of Ducange. NOMAD. 

' DICTIONARY OF BIOGRAPHY ' (7 th S. ii. 59). 
Why is the late Vice-Chancellor Knight-Bruce 
spoken of as Sir Jarvis ? All other biographical 
notices say his Christian name was James. Is it a 
slip of the pen, or has the ' Dictionary ' reason for 
the alteration ? 



MORBUS GALLICUS (7 th S. ii. 107). The answer 
is very simple ; scrofula was never so called. 
J. M. has confounded this with a totally different 
disease, as he might have discovered by consulting 
any medical dictionary. Further allusion to the 
subject is utterly unfit for the pages of ' N. & Q.' 


[Other communications to the same effect are acknow- 

BOCHLYVIE (7 th S. ii. 49, 98). James Graham of 
Buchly vie was a Commissioners of Supply for the 
phire of Stirling in 1696. Mungo Grseme of 
Gorthy, David Graeme of Orchill, James Graham of 
Buchlyvie, and John Graham of Dugalston, were 

7'" S. II. AUG. 21, "86.] 



Commissioners specially constituted by a Higl 
and Mighty Prince, William, Duke of Montrose 
Marquis and Earl of Graham, &c., for managin 
his affairs and business within Scotland, and a 
having power to enter and receive vassals am 
tenants conform to commission granted to them o 
any two of them by the said duke, dated the 10th 
and registrate in the Books of Council and Session 
the 31st of October, 1749. 

A. G. KEID, F.S. A.Scot. 

PATRON SAINT OF TEMPLARS (7 th S. i. 288, 373 
519). MR. E. A. M. LEWIS is mistaken in be 
lieving that St. John the Evangelist "presided ovei 
the Knights of St. John the Hospitallers." Mr 
Hallam (' Europe during the Middle Ages ') says 
" The St. John of Jerusalem was neither the 
Evangelist, nor yet the Baptist, but a certain 
Cypriot, surnamed the Charitable, who had been 
Patriarch of Alexandria" (vol. L p. 42, n. 1, 1872) 
Gibbon writes : " William of Tyre (1. xviii. c. 3 

4, 5) relates the ignoble origin and early insolence 
of the Hospitallers, who soon deserted their 
humble patron, St. John the Eleemosynary, for 
the more august character of St. John the Bap- 

As to who was the patron saint of the Templars 
or whether they had one, I can find no account 
anywhere. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 


5. ii. 28, 99). Capell's ' School of Shakespeare ; 
or, Authentic Extracts from divers English Books, 
that were in Print in that Author's Time ; evi- 
dently shewing whence his several Fables were 
taken, and some parcel of his Dialogue,' &c., 
forms the third volume of his ' Notes and Read- 
ings to Shakespeare,' edited by John Collins, 
London (1779-80), 4to. G. F. R. B. 

FLEKKiT(7 u > S. L 507; ii. 96). For the present 
use of flecked see an article in the Edinburgh 
Eeview for July, p. 76, quoting from Baron von 
Hiibner's 'Through the British Empire ': "At the 
foot of this Colossus extends a dark green fringe 
flecked with white the gardens, plantations, 
spires, and houses of Cape Town. Further east- 
ward a light green expanse flecked with yellow 
the meadows and the sandhills." 


It is of considerable interest to note that flekkit 
is only a variant of the common word freckled as 
now in modern use; it is a sample of the r = l 
mutation. We find Jamieson quotes/eciiJ, flecked, 
fleckerit, as "spotted"; but the same valuable 
authority uses freckled in a different sense, common 
in purely Teutonic languages. To get at it ety- 
mologically I should consider that the r form is 
oldest and of best authority, for which see Greek 
and the Sanskrit prif ni. A. HALL. 

ii. 87). Apsham or Apsom is undoubtedly an 
alternative name for Topsham, the port of Exeter. 
The authorities are numerous and conclusive. 
Amongst the more familiar are Davidson's ' Biblio- 
theca Devoniensis,' 69 ; Sir J. Maclean's ' Life of 
Sir Peter Carew,' 151 ; Sprigg's 'England's Re- 
covery,' 163, 173 ; Lysons's ' Devon,' ii. 521. 
Westcote, in his 'View of Devonshire in 1630,' is 
very explicit on the point, for (at p. 190) he 
writes: "Passing over the river [Exe] we find 
Toppisham, now called Apsham." It would be 
easy to extend this list of authorities if further 
evidence were needed. R. DTMOND, F.S. A. 


No doubt MR. WRIOHT is quite correct in hig 
surmise that where he quotes " Apsham " concern- 
ing the Spanish Armada Topsham is meant. But 
a somewhat similar error appears in the printed 
copy (1778) of William of Worcester, written in 
1478. This may be the fault of Nasmith, who 
has very carelessly edited that itinerary. At p. 90 
" portum Hatnons de Upson " evidently means 
Topsham. But on p. 104 it is twice more cor- 
rectly printed " Topsam." THOMAS KERSLAKB. 

There are tracts in the library of the British 
Museum which describe certain operations against 
Exeter by Sir Thomas Fairfax and the Parlia- 
mentarian forces in 1643 and 1645, in which men- 
tion is made of "the Earl of Warwick arriving 
ut a place called Apsom," and of " a bridge 
made over at Apsom." The Plymouth Library 
must be singularly deficient in local topographical 
works, or MR. WRIGHT'S search has been super- 
ficial, for Lysons's ' Mag. Brit.' (vol. vi. pt. ii. p. 521) 
states that "the Earl of Warwick, the parlia- 
mentary admiral, battered down a- fort at Apsom 
[Topsham), near Exeter," a foot-note being ap- 
pended to indicate that the place whose name is 
printed in italics " was generally called so at that 
:ime." Again, see Davidson's ' Bibliotheca De- 
voniensis,' pp. 69 and 79. Lastly, see Polwhele's 
' History of Devonshire ' (fol. 1793, vol. ii. p. 206) 
where it is recorded, a. v. " Topsham," that 

' Leland calls this place 'Apsham a praty tounlet on 

the shore, a 4 miles upper in the haven. Heere is the 

;reat trade and rode for shippes that usith this haven 

and especially for the shippes and merchant mannes 

goodes of Excester. Men of Excester contende to make 

he haven to cum up to Excester self. At this tvme 

hippes cum not farther up but to Apsham' " 


This is no misspelling, but the original name of 
he place now called Topsham. Thus, William 
lybbes, Rector of Clyst St. George, an adjoining 
illage, in his will, dated May 6, 1571, leaves 10*. 
owards " the reparation of Apsham Cawsey." I 
uppose that, aa an Exeter man would say or 



[7"S.II.At70.21, '86. 

would have said some years back of a fellow- 
townsman, " He do dwell to Exeter " (pronounced 
" t'Exeter ") so parson William would have said 
of his friends and neighbours at the port, " They 
do dwell t'Apsham," and thence might come the 
corruption Topsham, which your true Devonian 
used to pronounce " Tapsham " sixty^ years since, 
if he does not do so now. Compare Is raviroXiv, 
which has become Stamboul, just as t'Apsham has 
become Topaham. HENRY H. GIBBS. 

St. Dunstan's. 

Apsham is undoubtedly an old form, or a cor- 
rupt form, of the name of Topsham. In Claren- 
don's ' History of the Rebellion,' book vii. 193 
(according to the numeration of sections in the 
last editions), where the printed text has the words 
" Made towards the river that leads to the walls 
of Exeter," the reading in the original MS. is, 
" Made towards Apsanij the river," &c. In an 
edition of the ' History ' from a fresh collation of 
the MS., which is now in preparation, this reading 
will appear. W. D. MACRAT. 

Duckling ton. 

If MR. WRIGHT will turn to p. 521 of Lysons's 
'Devonshire,' he will find it stated that in 1643 
" the parliamentary admiral battered down a 
fort at Apsom (Topsham) near Exeter"; and at 
the bottom of the page the following note on 
Apsom: "It was generally so called about that 
time." WM. PENGELLY. 


128). This epigram may be found in the following 
form in the second edition of the ' Sabrinse Corolla,' 
1850,' accompanied by a rendering into English by 
the same author, Dr. Scott, now Dean of Roches- 
ter : 

"Bellum Papale. 


Cum Sapiente Pius nostras iuravit in ara8, 
Inipius lieu Sapiens insipiensque Pius. S. 

The Papal Aggression. 
With Pius Wiseman tries 

To lay us under ban : 
Pius man unwise ! 
impious Wise-man ! S.," p. 7. 

They could not, however, have been written when 
Dr. Scott was in the school at Shrewsbury, but 
many years afterwards. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The authorship of the couplet is correctly as- 
signed to the Dean of Rochester. It was com- 
posed on the occasion of the " Papal aggression " 
under the auspices of Pope Pius IX. and Cardinal 
Wiseman. A correspondent of ' N. & Q. ,' E. H. M., 
informs me that the epigram appears in Dodd's 
' Epigrams ' (Bohn). The last line is," Impius heu 
Sapiens ! desipiensque Pius." ED. MARSHALL. 

The subject is surely Cardinal Wiseman. For 
" desipiem " read, of course, desipiens. Can any 
one tell me, by the way, who was the author of a 
pamphlet (circa 1850) in which there occurs the 
following burlesque of a Herodotean oracle ? 
A wise man, a man that is wise. 
Ask me no questions, and I '11 tell you no lies. 


[Many other correspondents are thanked for replies to 
the game effect.] 

MORGENROTH (7 th S. ii. 108). According to 
Gustav Schwab's edition of Wilhelm Hauflfs 
'Lammtliche Werke' (Stuttg., 1853), Hauff was, 
indeed, the author of this German song, bearing 
the title ' Reiter's Morgengesang ' (v. vol. i, p. 52). 
But the original source of it, as is stated there, 
was a Swabian popular song. In the well-known 
collection of German students' songs called ' Com- 
mersbook' its date is placed in 1824. An earlier 
edition of the same book (published in 1830) con- 
tains this song, bearing the title ' Krieger's Mor- 
genlied,' with another fifth stanza. Hauff is not 
given there as the author, but the text is stated 
to be taken from ' Kriegs und Volkslieder,' pub- 
lished at Stuttgart, 1824 (and probably collected 
and edited by W. Hauff). H. KREBS. 


(7 th S. ii. 107). Possibly the founder of 
the society was the same Peter Herve' who wrote 
' How to enjoy Paris : being a Guide to the Visiter 
of the French Metropolis,' &c. (London, 1816, 8vo., 
2 vols.). A second edition of this book was brought 
out in 1818, when the two volumes were published 
separately, the first under the title of ' How to 
enjoy Paris ; being a Complete Guide to the 
Visiter of the French Metropolis,' &c., the second 
under the title of 'A Chronological Account of 
the History of France ...... to which is added a 

Biographical Dictionary of Eminent French Cha- 
racters,' &c. Redgrave, in his ' Dictionary of 
Artists,' s. n. " Delattre," refers to the fact that 
this artist was " in 1836 a pensioner on Peter 
Hervd's Society," but gives no further explanation. 

G. F. R. B. 

Peter Herve^s Society must be the National 
Benevolent Society, of which the headquarters 
are in Southampton Row, Bloomsbury. 


VON BARBT FAMILY (7 th S. ii. 108). The name 
of Barby does not appear either in the index to 
Nicolas's ' History of the Orders of British 
Knighthood ' or in the list of the Knights of the 
Garter given in Haydn's ' Book of Dignities ' 
(1851). I am also unable to find it in the "Court 
Directory " of Kelly's ' Northumberland ' (1879). 

G. F. R. B. 

87). In 1856 I was presented with the freedom of 

7* 8. II. Auo. 21, '86.] 



the City. What I had done to merit the distinction 
I never knew, and I suppose never shall know, 
any more than I have ever been able to ascer- 
tain what earthly advantage it confers. It is true 
I paid nothing for it, but that, so far as I am 
capable of judging, is its full value. 

St. John's Wood. 

In Norton's ' History of the Constitutions and 
Franchises of the City of London,' he says : 

" We find from the very earliest records of enrollments 
of citizens (now to be Been in the Town Clerk's office, 
' Lib. Ordinationum,' temp. Ed. I. fol. 143, et ' Stat. 
Civit. Lond.,' 13 Ed. I.) that apprentices to tradesmen 
were enrolled upon baying served their time. Being 
thus admitted as members, they naturally came to be 
considered as representing true citizens, and at length 
the established mode of making free citizens began to be 
grounded on the absolute requisition of passing, actually 
or nominally, through a trade. But long before the 
reign of George I. the companies admitted to the free- 
dom of their Associations whomever they thought fit, 
without regard to his being either a tradesman or a 
householder; and upon such admission, any such freeman 
was also admitted to the civic freedom, as entitled to it 
by purchase, or redemption, as it was termed. Those 
who obtained this freedom had ' copies ' of admission, 
to which one finds constant allusions in the Plays of the 
seventeenth century." 

Swallowfield Park, Beading. 

(7" 1 S. it 7, 109). I am very much obliged to 
your correspondents for their kindness. I had 
special reasons for asking the question. 

I will now point out that the Lindisfarne MS., 
which is the Latin copy containing Northumbrian 
glosses, does not contain the additional passage. 
And I am now quite satisfied that the particular 
Latin version from which all the Anglo-Saxon 
copies are derived must have been utterly distinct 
from the Latin version in the Lindisfarne MS. I 
may put this more clearly by saying that the 
Northumbrian glosses are totally distinct from the 
Anglo-Saxon versions, and are in no way con- 

Another point is that all the Anglo-Saxon ver- 
sions are from one and the same Latin source. A 
reader who consults Kemble's edition of St. Mat- 
thew might wonder how it is that he omits all the 
various readings of this interpolated passage in 
the Royal MS. in the British Museum. The 
answer is that these readings were omitted acci- 
dentally. That MS. contains the passage at length, 
and resembles in this respect all the rest of the 
Bet. I shall put this right in my new edition. 

83). Bene whids. These are two separate words. 
"To cut bene whids" is "to speak good words"; 
see Awdelay's 'Fraternity of Vagabonds/ ed. 

Furnivall. Maundon is certainly not " to mind." 
It is an error for "maund on," i.e., beg on. 
" Maund on your own pads," beg on your own 
beats ; see the same. Grutch for grudge is far 
older than Kirkman ; it is spelt grucche in the 
'Ancren Riwle.' CELER. 

As fast as a Kentish oyster. This expression 
seems easy of explanation. Bubble's eyes are said 
to be closed as firmly as a Kentish oyster. Kentish 
oysters are, and have been, proverbially good, and 
the fact of an oyster being fast closed is a sign of 
its goodness. JOHN CHURCHILL SIKES. 

21, End well Road, Brockley, 8.E. 

Basilisk (It. basilisco'), given by Toone as " a 
species of long cannon." 

Of palisadoes, frontiers, parapets, 
Of Basilisks, of cannon, culverin. 

1 K. Hen. IV.' 

Benewhids. Bene is ancient cant for "good." 
Benar was the comparative. Whids, old gipsy 
cant for" words." 

Lour. Money in gipsy cant. 

Think you I '11 learn to spell this gibberish ? 

0. P., ' Englishmen for my Money.' 

Maundon. From maund or mand, a basket 

Maunders. Beggars. 

" My noble springlove, the great commander of the 
maunders." 0. P., ' The Jovial Crew.' 

Penny-pot poets. Penny-a-liners (?). 
Paip. The Pope (Scotch). 

Expos'd in querpo to tkeir rage, 

Without my arms and equipage. 

1 Hudibras.' 

Swallowfield Park, Beading. 

METAPOSCOPY (7 th S. ii. 84). The "correct 
form" is mttoposcopy, from /UTWTTOV. 


HERON FAMILY (7 th S. i. 149, 239). I thank 
the contributors who have replied to my query. 
The genealogical tables compiled by Sir Richard 
Heron, and referred to by MR. SYKES, give no in- 
formation about the Herons of Cressy Hall. 

MR. FRASER'S reply identifies Anne Heron's 
husband as Sir Peter Fraser, Bart., of Durris. 
This is another instance of a Scottish family of 
rank regarding the pedigree of which no accurate 
information is recorded in ordinary works of refer- 
ence. I have recently in these columns noticed 
he want of any pedigree of Fleming, Bart., of 
Ferme; Hamilton, Bart., of Binny; Gordon, Bart., 
of Invergordon ; and Gordon, Bart., of Lesmoir. 
Besides these, I may mention Houstoun, Bart., of 
Eoustoun; Shaw, Bart., of Greenock; White- 
foord, Bart., of Blaquhan; and Stirling, Bart., of 



[7* S. II. A0o. 21, '86. 

Ardoch, as similar instances of unrecorded pedi- 
grees. These defects seem to point to the neces- 
sity that exists for a revision of Scottish genea- 
logical history taking the form, perhaps, of a 
new edition of Douglas's ' Peerage and Baronage.' 
Some such work is much needed, and the inquiries 
set on foot under the auspices of Lord Koseberry 
will prove of great assistance to the editor, whoever 
he may be. 

Burke's ' Extinct Baronetage ' simply states that 
the Durris baronetcy was conferred on Sir Alex- 
ander Fraser in 1673, and that " the title endured 
only a brief period." Solly follows Burke. It 
now appears that the title lasted for fifty-seven 

years, and became extinct by the death of Sir 
Peter Fraser in 1729. Durris is spelt " Dotes " 
in the Mordaunt pedigree, and " Dores " in some 
other published pedigrees ; it is, therefore, very 
difficult to piece together even the scanty mate- 
rials that are traceable. 

No solution is attempted of the other portion of 
my query, viz., the relationship as uncle and 
nephew of Henry Heron of Cressy and Francis 
Fane of Fulbeck, so distinctly asserted in Henry 
Heron's will. I subjoin a brief sketch of the 
descents of the two families so far as known, and 
shall be glad if any light can bo thrown on the 
matter : 

Fane of Fulbeck. 
Francis, first Earl of Westmorland. 

Mildmay, second earl, whose line failed on 
the death, in 1762, of the seventh earl. 

Sir Francis Fane, K.B., of Fulbeck, mar. 
Elizabeth West. 

Sir Francis Fane, K.B., mar. Hannah Bush worth. 
Henry Fane, mar. Anne, sister and coheir of John Scrope of Wormsley. 

Francis Fane of Fulbeck, M.P., supposed to be tbe person 
indicated by Henry Heron as " his nephew," mar. Jane, 
dau. of Sir Richard Oust, and died May 28, 1757. His 
widow reiuar. in 1761 James Evelyn. 

Thomas Fane of Fulbeck, who sue- Henry Fane, 

ceeded as eighth Earl of Westmor- ancestor of 

land, and is ancestor of the present the Fanes of 

earl. Wormsley. 

Henry Heron, born 
and died 1674. 

Heron of Cressy Hall. 
William Heron " came from Ford Castle." 

Sir John Heron, P.O. temp. Henry VII. and " Treasurer to the King's Chamber." 

(One or two generations wanting.) 

Edward Heron, Baron of the Exchequer (1607). 

Sir Edward Heron, K.B., mar. Anne, dau. of Sir Henry Brook (or Cobham) of Hekinton. 

Sir Henry Heron, K.B., mar. Dorothy, dau. of Sir James Long, second baronet, of Draycot, 
and died 1695, aged seventy-six. 

Henry Heron, mar. Abigail Heveningham, and 
died 1730, aged fifty-five, " The Testator." 

Anne Heron, born 1677, mar. Sir Peter 
Fraser, Bart., and died s.p. 1769. 

KENTISH SUPERSTITIONS (7 th S. ii. 66). The 
tenor bell which was rung for five minutes before 
the services at Foxhill, in North Lincolnshire, 
was always said by the people to ring louder before 
a death, and the same is said in many other places 
in this county. I heard, the other day, some of the 
people in this parish saying that " there would 
not be much lightning, but a great deal of cholera 
this year, for it would be a very heavy plum year." 

Skirbeck Quarter, Boston, Lines. 

HAWTHORN BLOSSOM (7 th S. ii. 107). I have 
frequently heard that it is unlucky to bring haw- 

thorn blossom (i. e., may) into a dwelling. I always 
warn my servants not to bring in any, and never 
do so myself. It portends, I have heard, a death 
in the house. I. M. D. 

In Somerset, in my younger days, the super- 
stition existed strongly that to take blackthorn 
into the house was most unlucky. I believe the 
idea was that some one in the house would die 
during the year. CHARLOTTE G. BOGER. 

St. Saviour's, South wark. 

This flower appears to have given rise to various 
superstitions. Among others, the reputed " Smell 
of the Plague," quoted in the volume of ' Popular 

. II. AUG. 21, '86.] 



Superstitions,' in "The Gentleman's Magazine 
Library," is probably akin to the tradition men- 
tioned by your correspondent, inasmuch as it 
might be considered fatal to introduce into a 
dwelling-house a blossom exhaling such an ill- 
omened scent. H. 8. 

BISON (7 th S. i. 467 ; ii. 73). I thank corre- 
spondents for notes on this word. Except for those 
unfamiliar with its philology it is hardly necessary to 
say that the guess of Sir G. C. Lewis, mentioned by 
MR. MARSHALL, that wisent in the ' Niebelungen 
Lied ' is "manifestly a corruption of bison," was as 
bad as the common run of guesses in sciences with 
which the guesser is unacquainted ; icisunt, wisant, 
being the old Teutonic name, of which bison was a 
Greek and Latin adaptation. What the writer 
ought to have said was " manifestly there is some 
connexion between wisent in the ' Niebelungen 
Lied ' and the Latin word bison ; but what the 
relation between them is, must be left to philologists 
to say." Those who wish to see the scientific 
treatment of the subject should read the brilliant 
article "Wisunt" in Schade's ' Altdeutsches 
Worterbuch.' J. A. H. MURRAY. 

KEMP'S ' NINE DAIES WONDER ' (7 th S. ii. 49). 
" Clean Lent," see ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. i. 315,467, 
at which reference there is a notice of the ex- 
planation of the use of the term as a date, with 
several instances of its occurrence in ' The 
Chronology of History,' by Sir N. H. Nicolas, 
p. 117. The date of " Clean Lent," Pura Quadra- 
gesima, means that it is " to be reckoned from 
Quadragesima Sunday" (ibid., p. 118, note). 



I have seen how the pure intellectual fire, &c. 

PLATO'S version of Tom Moore'a lines improves the 

original neither in the wording, rhythm, nor sense. 

These are Moore'a lines : 

I felt how the pure, intellectual fire 
In luxury loses its heavenly ray ; 
How soon, in the lavishing cup of desire, 
The pearl of the soul may be melted away. 
The above are in a short poem headed ' Stanzas,' the 
first line of which is " A beam of tranquillity smil'd in 
the west." FKEDK. RULE. 

[Many correspondents supply the reference to Moore.] 


Richard Copley Chrittie. Etienne Dolet, le Martyrs de 
la Renaissance, ta Vie et sa Mort. Ouvrage traduii 
de 1' Anglais, sous la Direction de 1' Auteur, par Casimir 
Stryienski, Professeur Agr6ge de I'Universite. (Paris 

THAT a book involving researches so arduous and minute 
and results so remunerative as the ' Eticnnc Dolet ' of Mr. 

Richard Copley Christie would sooner or later be trans- 
ited into French was scarcely to be doubted. Four 
years, accordingly, after the appearance of the original 
work a version which claims to be regarded as a revised 
and enlarged edition sees the light. Mr. Christie is 
known in his ' Etienne Dolet' to have enriched literature 
with a faithful picture of a singularly interesting being, 
of whom nothing better than a silhouette was previously 
obtainable. This accomplishment remains in its line 
unparalleled. That Mr. Christie's researches, productive 
as these had already been, were still continued was 
known in the world of letters, and even better in that of 
bibliography, since the pursuit by Dolet's biographer of 
works issued from his press had rendered difficult the 
task of obtaining the slightest specimen of one of the 
most interesting of the great printers of Lyons. The 
result of these investigations is evident in the volume 
before us, which, besides being corrected and enlarged, 
in numberless places contains new matter of highest 
interest and value. An instance of this is afforded in 
the opening sentences of chap, xv., " The Printer." In 
the original Mr. Christie says of the marriage of his 
hero, " His wife's name even has not come down to us. 
I am, however, disposed to think, for reasons hereafter 
indicated, that she not improbably came from Troyes, 
and may have been related to Nicole Paris, the printer 
there." In a deed (une acte notarie) preserved in the 
archives at Lyons, prolonging an association existing in 
1542 between Dolet and a certain Hclayn Dulin, Mr. 
Christie has found the name of Dolet's wife, Louise 
Oiraud. This, accordingly, in the translation is supplied. 
The name is unfortunately too common to lead to any 
identification of family, and Mr. Christie's theories as to 
her origin remain where they were. The manner in 
which, unpopular as he was with the master-printers of 
Lyons, Dolet obtained money to establish his printing 
business is explained a few pages further on by the paper 
in question, which, with the exception of a few unde- 
cipherable words, is, as a foot-note, printed for the first 
time. A tribute to the cervices of Dolet as a grammarian, 
from the pen of Henri Estienne, the famous author of the 
' Trait6 de la Conformite des Mervelles Anciennes avec 
les Modernes,' is a small but interesting addition. It 
occurs p. 343 of the translation. A long note, pp. 474-5, 
in answer to criticisms on the English ' Etienne Dolet/ 
by M. Douen, in the Bulletin de la Societe d'Histoire du 
Protestantisme, adds a valuable chapter to the discussion 
on the religious opinions of Dolet. Mr. Christie retains 
his conviction that it was the esprit rationalists by 
which Dolet was inspired, and that Protestantism was 
chiefly valuable to him as a protest in favour of com- 
parative freedom of thought. 

These are a few of the more important additions which 
are soon apparent. It is, however, in the valuable 
"Appendix Bibliographique " that the results of the 
author's later labours are apparent. Three works printed 
by Dolet Marot's translation of the Psalms, 1544, 16mo. ; 
' Alphabeticum Latinum,' 1540, 8vo. ; and ' Maturinii 
Corderi de Corrupti Serm. Emendatione,' 8vo., 1541 
are now mentioned for the first time, while numerous 
others, previously unseen by Mr. Christie, have under- 
gone personal collation. Of lists of works from the 
press of Dolet existing in France, the longest, that of 
M. Boulmier, includes only fifty-three. Mr. Christie's 
list extends to eighty-three works, of which all but six- 
teen have now undergone his investigation. Sixteen de- 
scribed in the original at second-hand have now been 
collated. It is pleasant in the case of a work which 
must necessarily be a standard in France, as since its 
appearance it has been in England, to say that it is in 
typographical respects one of the handsomest works 
issued from the Parisian press. To the possessor of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. n. A. 21, '86. 

English volume and what student of French literature 
has it not ? it is an advantage that in spite of alteration 
the pages of the two works almost correspond. The 
translation of M. Stryienski is vigorous and exact. 

Morley, Ancient and Modern. By William Smith. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

WE are pleased with Mr. Smith's book, though m some 
respects he seems to have taken pains that we should 
not be. A severe critic might say that ' Morley, Ancient 
and Modern,' was not, in the true sense of the word, a 
book, but only the undigested materials out of which 
one might be made. There would be some truth in this. 
Mr. Smith has accumulated many interesting facts in 
his note-books, and has printed these memoranda, it 
would seem, without taking all the care that was needed 
to fit them for the press. When, however, new know- 
ledge is given to us we are not concerned to cavil at the 
manner in which it is presented. Morley, though a 
village of unknown antiquity, has sprung into import- 
ance in recent days. It is a borough of new creation, 
and like a human being who, has recently been decorated 
with a title, Morley is proud of its well-merited honour. 
Though Mr. Smith fulfils the promise of his title-page, 
and gives his readers some information about ancient 
Morley, it may well be seen that his heart is not in the 
Plantagenet or Tudor times, but with the men and 
women of Morley who lived at the end of the last and 
the beginning of the present century, when the little 
village was growing into a place of importance. This is 
as it should be. The sources of information aa to our 
feudal history will remain open ; but if we do not gather 
from the lips of old men what were the state of life, the 
hopes and the feelings of our grandfathers, when rail- 
ways were not and the steam engine but in its early 
youth, we shall lose much that is important for a due 
understanding of the present. The village carrier of the 
days that are on the eve of sinking into forgetfulness 
was, from one point of view, a more important person 
than Ilbert de Lacy, the first Norman owner of Morley. 
We can learn what is left us to know of Ilbert elsewhere, 
but of John Bradley, who " lived in the Hollow," of his 
neighbours and associates, we should have known nothing 
had not Mr. Smith collected fragments of their history. 
The kindly tone in which the author speaks of most of 
the persons he has occasion to notice is creditable alike 
to his heart and understanding. Those who know the 
Yorkshire towns best are well aware that beneath a hard 
and rough exterior the typical Yorkshireman is generous 
and kindly. We wish, however, Mr. Smith had been 
as able to see the good side of the characters of those 
of a more remote time as he is of the men and women 
whose lives may have overlapped his own. It is out of 
all perspective to speak of the companions of William, 
the great Norman duke, as " the bloodthirsty hordes 
who came over with the Conqueror." Many of the 
engravings with which this volume is illustrated are 
meritorious. Some few, however, are of a very inferior 
character. We wonder that Mr. Smith gave these a 
place in his pages. One has amused us. It is an en- 
graving of a tinder-box, flint, and steel, the implements 
by aid of which fire was procured when lucifer matches 
were unknown. The circular metal tinder-box which 
he has represented was itself a modern innovation. The 
old tinder-box was an oblong utensil of wood, divided 
into two compartments. In one were kept the flint, 
steel, and matches, in the other was the tinder, carefully 
compressed by a wooden lid to hinder it from being 
blown away. 

Mr. Smith commonly writes good English, but now 
and then we come on one of those horrible forms of 
speech which set the reader's teeth ou edge. We trust 

Mr. Smith did not invent the word " paralable," which 
occurs on p. 181. Reliable, dependable, and the rest of 
the suspicious gang which end in able, are none of them 
so hopelessly deformed aa this. 

Br the decease of Mr. T. W. Moody, for many years 
instructor in decorative art at the South Kensington 
Museum, the career of an accomplished public servant 
has been closed. Mr. Moody, who was the younger son 
of a well-known Kentish clergyman, was educated at 
Eton and at Cambridge^ leaving the university, however, 
without proceeding to a degree. Mr. Moody's ' Lectures 
and Lessons on Art ' were published in 1873, and possess 
an interest for the general reader, independent of their 
professional value, from the extensive and accurate ac- 
quaintance of the author with his subject, which has 
chiefly to do with the art of the Renaissance. Although 
not a professional architect, Mr. Moody sent in a design 
for the Oratory at Brompton which was much admired, 
and, it is understood, was only rejected on account of its 
expensive and elaborate character. Mr. Moody for some 
time before his death had resigned his post at South 
Kensington from failing health. After much suffering, 
involving the gradual decay alike of bodily and mental 
faculties, he quietly passed away on August 10, aged 

otire< to CarrufponHent*. 

W, mutt call special attention to the following notice* : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

MRS. LEWIS, of Devonshire House, Prince's Park, 
Liverpool, is anxious to know where she can find a 
complete scheme of the Peabody trust and the method 
of its administration. Full information is desired. 

"NICOLAS FERRAR" (7 th S. i. 427). Capt. J. E. 
Acland - Troyte, Wraysbury, Staines, is especially 
anxious for information as to where copies of the patch- 
work books made by N. Ferrar at Little Gidding about 
1640 can be seen. 

J. W. ATKINSON ("Collar of 88."). See 'N. & Q.,' 
1" S. ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., and x. paitim ; 3 rd 8. 
viii., ix., and x. passim; 4' h S. ii. 485; ix. 627; x. 93, 
280 ; 6'h s. ii. 225 ; iii. 86, 231. 

M.A.Oxon (" Marrowbones and cleavers "). The allu- 
sion is to the rough music on these implements cus- 
tomary at butchers' weddings. 

CLIO (" Horace or Horatio Smith "). Horace is a 
familiar abbreviation of Horatio, and the change is 
analogous to that of Thomas Moore into Tom Moore. 

G. S. S, The name of David's mother is unknown. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22, 
look's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception, 

7 th S. II. ATJO. 28, '86.] 





NOTES: Judge Jefferys. 161 Shakspeariana, 163 Folk- 
Tales of the Lapps, 164 Sneering, 166 Incorrect Classifica- 
tion of Books The St. Aubyns in Parliament Epitaph 
Ascension Day Superstition Folk-Rhymes on Snow, 166. 

QUERIES :" Blue Devils" Blue- John Brag Belly and 
Members Pearce ' Scots Presbyterian Eloquence dis- 
played' Livery of Seisin, 167 Reed Farrens : Rypecks 
Rest of the Holy Family 'Church Porch Which is the 
Premier Parish Church ? 168 T. Cobham Barnaby Rich 
A gincourt Author of Poem Peter Causton " Wooden 
shoes," 169. 

REPLIES : Streanaeshalch, 170 Dukedom of Cornwall, 173 
Mayonnaise Painter's Bee, 174 Antiquity of Football- 
Minor Bird Ozone Dr. Watts, 175 Prince of the Cap- 
tivityGrand Alnager of Ireland, 176 Buckfast Abbey 
Notabilia Quaedam ex Petronio Arbitro Mugwump, 177 
Cinque Ports, 178 William Aylmer, 179. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Fnrness's 'Variorum Shakespeare,' 
Vol. VI. ' Othello 'Austin Dobson's ' Steele 'Peacock's 
' Tales and Rhymes in the Lindsey Folk- Speech ' Fishwick's 
' Lancashire Will*.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


The seizure of George Jefferys, Baron Wem, 
commonly called Judge Jefferys, is full of interest. 
Doubly so, indeed, because he indirectly brought 
it upon himself by the violence he had once shown 
to a scrivener of Wapping (a, iii. 63), who was 
before him to apply for relief against "a bum- 
mery bond," as it was styled. The opposite coun- 
sel said he was a strange fellow, in fact " a trim- 
mer," which meant that he sometimes went to 
church and sometimes to a conventicle. The 
Chancellor fired up at the word " trimmer." "A 
trimmer," said the judge. " I have heard much of 
that monster, but never saw one. Come forth, 
Mr. Trimmer ! Turn you round, and let us see 
your shape"; and he talked at him so long that the 
poor man was ready to drop into the floor. When 
he left the Court his friends inquired how he came 
off. " Came off," said he. " I am escaped from 
the terrors of that man's face, which I would 
scarcely undergo again to save my life ; and I 
shall certainly have the frightful impression of it 
as long as I live." 

His unscrupulous conduct led King James to 
receive him with open arms, and he was shortly 
made Lord Chancellor (b, vi. 112). But James II. 
was soon to abdicate, and on the arrival of the 
Prince of Orange Jefferys bethought himself of 

retreating beyond sea (a, iii. 63). He got in dis- 
guise safely to Wapping, and put himself on 
board a collier nominally bound for Newcastle, 
but really designed for Hamburgh. A hue and 
cry was set up by means of the mate (c), but the 
justice applied to delayed issuing the warrant, 
so they went to the Lords of the Council, and 
with the warrant so obtained they searched the 
ship, but he, net thinking himself safe on board, 
had shifted to another vessel, and so escaped the 
search ; after that he lay hid at a little peddling 
alehouse called " The Red Cow," in Anchor and 
Hope Alley, near King Edward's Stairs. 

Here the authorities all diverge. One says he 
was lolling out of the window, in all the confidence 
of misplaced security; another that he was looking 
out of a window and seen by a former clerk ; but 
the most authentic story relates that the scrivener 
who had been bullied as a trimmer sought a 
client in the cellar of " The Red Cow " (a, iii. 63), 
where Jefferys, disguised in a seaman's garb, was 
drinking a pot of ale. His eye caught the never- 
to-be-forgotten face, and the Chancellor, observing 
the glance and hoping to escape observation, 
feigned to cough, and turned to the wall, pot in 
hand. The scrivener went out and gave notice as 
to who was inside, and the mob rushed in so as to 
put him in no little hazard of his life. Our Chan- 
cellor had been Recorder of London, had lived in 
Aldermanbury (6, vi. 113), was well known in 
the City, and was now saved by the Lord Mayor 
(Thomas Pilkington), who appears to have been a 
friend of his. But such was the shock to his ner- 
vous system from this scene that poor Pilkington 
fell down in a swoon, and died not many hours 
after (a, iii. 63). The people cried " Vengeance ! 
Justice ! Justice ! " but were persuaded to disperse 
quietly, and Jefferys was sent under guard to the 
Lords of the Council, who committed him to the 
Tower, where he died very shortly after, on 
April 18, 1689. Hume (/, viii. 290, ed. 1822) 
relates that he died of the injuries received from 
the mob ; but, like much that he records for fact, 
this has no foundation. Hume does not even 
mention his committal to the Tower. Jefferys 
had long been subject to terrible fits of the gout, 
brought on by excessive drinking, and it is pro- 
bable that the sudden reversal of his so sudden 
prosperity led him to endeavour to drown care in 
heavy potations, and thus hastened his untimely 
end at the early age of forty-one. He was buried 
privately in the Tower on the Sunday night follow- 

The man was a strange being altogether. He 
entered the Middle Temple 1663, i. e., when he 
was only fifteen. He was so good a judge of 
music that at the great rivalry of the organ builders 
Father Smith and Renatus Harris, when their 
organs were set up one at the east and the other 
at the west end of the Temple Church, it was he 



[?"> S. II. Auo. 28, '86. 

who decided the matter in favour of Smith (d, 
ii. 363). The comment on this has been that " he 
was a far better judge of music than men." 

Four years and six months after his death, 
tradition asserts he was brought from the Tower 
to the family vault in St. Mary, Aldermanbury, in 
a tumultuary way. We have already seen that he 
was a resident in Aldermanbury; but though the 
apprentices might have been riotous upon tho occa- 
sion, no doubt regular permission had been duly 
procured by the friends of the family. Malcolm 
adds (e, ii. 137) : " The sextoness informs me that 
she saw the coffin of this unpopular judge [1803] 
a few years past, in perfect preservation, covered 
with crimson velvet, and with gilt furniture." 

This tradition of the parish has received curious 
confirmation, for in 1810 (b, vi. 113) a workman 
employed to repair the church of St. Mary dis- 
covered his remains in a vault, with the name of 
the Chancellor Jefferys on a plate upon the lid of 
the coffin. Still, as the sextoness had personally 
seen it before 1803, the discovery of 1810 can 
only be called the rediscovery in a manner that 
made it more public. 

Mr. Henry Roscoe (c, 135) makes a strange 
remark in his life of the man ; that " to affix to 
his polluted name an additional stigma, &c., is an 
office grateful to humanity." Let us leave Mr. 
Koscoe to extract for himself all the honey that 
can be distilled from a sentiment so poisonous, 
and rather let us introduce into the black shadows 
of this Rembrantesque character some of the high 
lights that may relieve it somewhat and draw it 
back, if possible, within the pale of humanity. 

^ Amongst other things it is said of him that 
his decisions from the bench were often very 
just. He could see the points of a case in- 
tellectually with perfect clearness BO long as 
his passions were unexcited and the coarse 
violence of his will unstirred. His prejudices as 
to matters of Church and State appear to have 
been uncontrollable. His partisanship of the 
Crown, coupled as it was with his own personal 
interest, appears, when once aroused, to have ob- 
tained the imperial domination of his entire soul. 
It is quite possible that in those days of sternly 
fixed principles (whether of angry republicanism 
on the one hand or devout constitutional loyalty 
on the other, it matters not a whit which), a coarse- 
minded man of gross habit and tastes like Jefferya, 
having once thrown his fortunes and success in 
life into either scale, would determine all questions 
brought before him by their immediate tendency 
to further the side of his adoption. He would settle 
it much as a sportsman settles the questions of 
hunting and shooting and fishing. You can have 
no sport without killing ; the game, so far as such 
a man can see, belongs to the landlord, and death 
is an inseparable part of the sport. You must 
not talk to him about cruelty ; what is death 

to the animal is sport to him. When a dis- 
senter, a papist recusant, or a " trimmer " was put 
up before Judge Jefferys' eyes, justice, law, and 
equity disappeared from his mind old Reynard 
must be run to death. It is not every man can 
be so oblivious as this to all the nobler dictates of 
our nature ; but a master-passion, once he is en- 
slaved by it, constantly blinda a man whose 
faculties may otherwise be of an order naturally 
high. You see it in Richelieu and Napoleon; 
in lawyers and in sportsmen ; and it is even 
discernible in authors who ride too long upon 
a theory. Adam Smith, for instance, the philo- 
sopher of commerce if such a thing as commerce 
can have a philosophy at all can study money 
as the equivalent symbol of wealth until, in his 
' Wealth of Nations,' he starts a set of principles, 
darkly seen, that land him finally in oblivion of 
the commonwealth of nations and the sober happi- 
ness of man.* 

With Jefferys we must not forget that some 
impulses were good and strong, and that once they 
were uppermost in his mind he stood to them with 
a courage that better men often fall from. At 
considerable personal risk he strove to put down 
the iniquitous practices of Bristol, in which even 
the mayor and aldermen took part that of send- 
ing petty culprits abroad as slaves for profit (e, 
ii. 137) ; and when the king wished him to change 
his faith to Romanism (/, viii. 253) much as he 
was interlinked with the fortunes of the Crown by 
interest, and great as was the hatred he had ex- 
cited by the brutal terrorism with which he had 
supported it, which left him actually with no 
defence but the king's friendship still could he 
not be induced to budge one inch to satisfy his 
Majesty in this particular. After such crimes 
committed a resolution such as this seems absurd ; 
but it is not so it forms part and parcel of that 
skin - enfolded bundle of inconsistent elements 
called man, regarded as logician or moralist. 

Jefferys is a man of strong nature, whose un- 
reasonableness is his strength, and whose strength 

* The prayer, or rather thanksgiving, of Hearne the 
antiquary is a curious parallel instance of the strength 
of the ruling passion in a literary man. Absorption in 
one line of thought seems to destroy the mental perspec- 
tive which gives to all external objects their relative size 
and due importance in the individual mind. This thanks- 
giving ran as follows : " O most gracious and merciful 
Lord God, wonderful in Thy providence : I return all 
possible thanks to Thee, for the care Thou hast always 
taken of me. I continually meet with most signal in- 
stances of this Thy providence, and in one act yesterday, 
when I unexpectedly met with three old MSS., for which 
in a particular manner I return my thanks." This grati- 
tude to Providence for a few morsels of frowsy old scrip, 
which if not heaven to him, was at least Paradise, may 
furnish the most comical of commentaries upon tho text 
that where your " treasure is there will your heart be 
also." It is quite as quaint as the Suffolk countryman's 
prayer for " a piece oi streaky bacon." 

7"> 8. II. Auo. 28, '8C.J 



is his weakness. Had he had more morality and 
a courage less arrogant, he might have died, 
like the majority of men, undistinguished. The 
moral of our apologue is simply this, that distinc- 
tion acquired amongst our fellow creatures is mostly 
undesirable, as indicating the absence of a well- 
balanced character. Notoriety and fame put a 
man out of himself, whilst the secret of noble 
living is to be, as far as possible, self-centred. 
Nor is it strange to find that a human being so 
placed as to exert his powers of will in a manner 
harmonic with nature, soon discovers, like a man 
swimming with the tide, that he is backed by the 
forces of the universe. C. A. WARD. 

a. Cunningham's 'Lives of Illustrious Englishmen,' 
ed. 1837. 
/.. Granger's ' Biog. Hist. Eng.,'6 vols.. 1824. 

c. BoRcoe s ' Lives of Eminent British Lawyers.' 

d. Noble's ' Granger,' 3 vols. 

. . Malcolm's ' London Kediv..' 4 vols. 
/. Hume's ' Hist. England,' 1822. 

'CYMBELINE,' I. v. 18-23 

lachimo. Ay, and the approbation 

Of those that weep this lamentable divorce 
Under her colours, are wonderfully to extend him, 
Be it hut to fortify her judgment, 
Which else an easy battery might lay flat 
For taking a beggar without less quality. 

I cannot reconcile myself to accepting the last line as 
consistent with the tenor of the speech, and carry- 
ing the only meaning which the speaker can pos- 
sibly intend to convey. Rather than consent to 
admit " without less quality "as equivalent, by any 
aid or licence, to " without more quality," I would 
rest in the frequently adopted substitution of more 
for less. But a simpler change, which satisfies me 
better, is to cancel three letters and read 

For taking a beggar with less quality 
with less quality, that is, " than Posthumus, out 
of courtly tenderness for his bride, is, absurdly 
enough, credited with. " In this case the lapse of 
typographer or copyist is easily explained ; " taking 
a beggar" is a phrase which too naturally sug- 
gests the privative without rather than the acquisa- 
tive with not to be a dangerous trap. 

I find by the Cambridge collation that Grant 
White hit the mark here before me ; but by sug- 
gesting still an alternative reading he failed to do 
justice to his own sagacity, and thus provides 
Borne excuse for the editors who leave his discovery 
buried among the notes. 

The text of ' Cymbeline ' being at present to the 
fore thanks to Dr. Ingleby's handsome edition 
I look up other memoranda, from which I select 
examples. The following text may be vindicated 
as it stands by whoever is content to refer the par- 
ticiple allured to either " emptiness" or " desire "; 
to myself it appears to be manifestly corrupt : 

Sluttery, to such neat excellence oppos'd, 
Should make desire vomit emptiness, 
Not so allur'd to feed. I. vi. 44. 

The simplest and sufficient emendation I consider 
to be to read : 

Not so allure 't to feed. 
It is inviting to suggest 

Should make Desire vomit, and Emptiness 
Not so allure to feed. 

This change would rely upon an intended climax 
from " Desire " as usual appetite, to " Emptiness " 
as ravenous starvation ; but Dr. Ingleby's note 
" vomit emptiness," &c. = " retch and bring up 
nothing : a very licentious form of speech," I think 
justifies him in keeping that form in the text as 
not exceeding the limit of forcible expression 
which Shakespeare allows himself. Hanmer had 
the good emendation allure 't for " allured," but 
inserted unnecessarily, " vomit e'en emptiness "; 
desire is competent to tell in recitation as a tri- 

No madam ; for so long 
As he could make me with his eye or ear 
Distinguish him from others, he did keep 
The deck. I. iv. 8. 

To " make me distinguish him from others by his 
ear " is ludicrous nonsense. Coleridge proposed the 
eye, Collier (followed by the ' Globe ') this eye, and 
Dr. Ingleby mine eye, which I would admit to the 
text, and regret that he does not. It is quite im- 
possible to decide in this instance what was Shak- 
speare's original word ; it is as a matter of taste that 
mine is preferred to "this eye or ear," which 
suggests rather whimsically the idea of a one-eyed, 
one-eared witness, not quite certain which organ 
to trust. In such a case if the substituted word is 
not that which Shakespeare wrote, neither was 
that of the typographer, over which it has the ad- 
vantage of at least conserving the poet's obvious 
meaning. It behoves critics to do justice boldly 
to themselves no less than frankly to others. Lay- 
men do say, it must be whispered among us, that 
we are often too much frightened by the exagge- 
rated importance which has only been assigned to 
a corrupt text as a convenient pretext " how not 
to " adopt rivals' emendations. 


' CYMBELINE,' V. iii. 45 (7 th S. ii. 23). Fault 
has, I thick, been rightly found by MR. WATKISS 
LLOYD with the more modern editors' punctuation 
of this passage. That of the folio, too, is worse, 
though being sparing of its !s it has a , after 
ivound. But a reference to the Var. Ed. of 1821 
would have shown him that wound! can be re- 
tained, and that same sense be given to the pas- 
sage which he gives by taking away the !. It 
gives the two lines thus 

Heavens, how they wound ! 

Some, slain before ; some, dying; some, their friends. 

That is, the commas after the somes show that there 



[7"- S. II. AUG. 28, '8 

are ellipses thus to be supplied : " Some [wound 
the] slain before ; some [wound the] dying ; some 
[wound] their friends." While, therefore, this 
newer non-punctuation of wound may be received 
by readers of writings of this nineteenth century, I 
would say that the many intelligent editors of 
Shakespeare are nofc open to the charge of having 
misplaced a ! between a verb and its accusative, 
though the more modern ones have been content 
to adopt an over-skimpy punctuation, which has 
misled their readers. For my own part, I prefer 
the 1821 punctuation; first, because it only substi- 
tutes a ! for the , which stood for the pause after 
the exclamation ; secondly, because it gives the due 
emphasis to this clause of a markedly emphatic 
speech. As to the expression of the sense on the 
stage, this is yet another instance that Shakespeare 
wrote with the intent that his lines should be 
spoken, and not read. The Elizabethans were 
more given to gesture than their more decorous- 
seeming descendants. Posthumus bad a sword, 
and in all probability a drawn sword ; in his excited 
state gesture would be most natural to him, and 
the gesture of stabbing after each some, or even 
only after the first, would sufficiently and aptly 
explain his meaning. 

III. i. 52. Quite allowing that the we do may 
be taken as a pleonasm, I would say that it is a 
horribly sounding one, and an unpleasant vul- 
garism. One can, I think, be safely challenged to 
find such a phrasing in any classic of that day, or 
even in any cultivated writer. Can MR. WATKISS 
LLOYD read over his imitations of this would-be 
pleonasm without first, laughter, and then the 
feeling that it is unaccustomed and strange 
English 1 Dr. S. Johnson's change of the , to a . 
has, I take it, this effect, it makes "we do." 
equivalent to " we do [shake off the yoke] " (1. 50). 
This, it is clear, gives excellent sense ; but I must 
say that perhaps from being more accustomed to 
it I prefer Malone's " We do say." 


' CYMBELINE,' I. v. 22, 23 (7 th S. ii. 23). 

" Which else an easy battery might lay flat, for taking 
a beggar without less quality." 

For "less" read this. The question is as to the 
personal qualities or real merit of Posthumus, 
whereby, if he prove not really of this quality (of 
merit), then Imogen were to blame for accepting 
such a beggar, i. e., suitor. A. HALL. 

' ROMEO AND JULIET,' IV. iii. About forty 
years ago a horrible tale was told to me by a 
lady, now dead. It was a long narrative as she 
told it ; but reducing it to the narrowest com- 
pass it was thus. Some wild youths put a 
skeleton into the bed of a fair young lady whom 
they wished to alarm. The fright turned her 
brain, and when her maid entered the room in 

the morning she found the poor girl quite mad. 
She had pulled the skeleton in pieces and was 
playing with the bones after the manner of a 
very young child. My friend believed the story, 
and if I remember aright gave the name, place, 
and date for the incident. That such a shock 
to the mind might produce the effect I was told 
of does not seem to be utterly improbable, but 
one wants distinct evidence for it, especially as 
Shakespere seems to have known a similar 
story. In 'Borneo and Juliet,' IV. iii. Juliet 
says : 

! if I wake, should I not be distraught, 
Environed with all these hideous fears? 
And madly play with my forefathers' joints 'I 
And pluck the mangled 'Tybalt from his shroud ] 

In the first quarto the same idea occurs in different 
words : 

What if I should be stifled in the tomb ? 
Awake an hour before the appointed time : 
Ah, then I fear I shall be lunatic : 
And, playing with my dead forefathers' bones, 
Dash out my frantic brains. 

I quote Knight's 'Shakespere,' National Ed.," Tra- 
gedies," voL i. pp. 72, 73. K. P. D. E. 

'MERCHANT OF VENICE," II. ix. 28-30. 
Which pries not to the interior, but, like the martlet, 
Builds in the weather, on the outward wall, 
Even in the/oj-ce and road of casualty. 

" In the force and road " does not appear to me 
to be quite satisfactory. There is no instance I 
can find of the expression " in the force " being 
used as it is here. I propose to read " in the 
face." It does not appear that this emendation has 
been suggested by any commentator on Shake- 
speare. I should be glad to hear what some of 
your valued Shakespearean correspondents, such 
bhink of it. F. A. MARSHALL. 


(Continued from p. 105.) 


Haccis-aedne and Njavis-aedne were neighbours. 
They each had a child, Haccis-sedne a daughter 
and Njavis-sedne a son. One day Haccis-aedne 
said to Njavis-sedne, " Come and let us go out and 
gather strawberries." The one who first gets a 
bucketful shall have the boy and the one who 
loses shall have the girl. Haccis-sedne was very 
anxious to get the boy, because she knew that he 
would become a hunter, and so could provide for 
her in her old age. Njavis-sedne of course had no 
desire for this to happen; but in spite of that at 
last Haccis-sedne got her way. Each took a bucket 
and went to gather strawberries. But Haccis- 
sedne began to gather them where Njavis-sedne 
could not see her. She took some moss and 

7* S. I f. AUG. 28, '86.] 



heather and put it into the bottom of the bucket and 
laid the berries which she gathered on that. 
Njavis-aednewas as busy plucking as she could be, 
but it was all of no use. Just then Haccis-aedne 
cried, " Look here now, my bucket is full ; the boy 
is mine and the girl is yours ! " And so it was. 
Haccis-aedne took the boy and Njavis-aedne the 
girl, and they went to their homes. When the boy 
grew up he became a very skilful hunter. He went 
out hunting the wild beasts, and shot many 
animals, and Haccis-aedne lived well and had no 
desire unfulfilled. But Njavis-osdne and the girl 
had nothing of which to make soup except old 
shoe-soles and pieces of skin. She regretted every 
day that she had been so thoughtless as to 
allow herself to be persuaded to lay a wager 
with Haccis-aedne. One day Njavis-aedne and 
the girl made a fire as usual to cook their 
old pieces of skin and the shoe-soles. The 
same day the boy was out hunting the wild 
reindeer. Later on in the day he shot a reindeer 
and flayed it. He put the flesh into a pit all ex- 
cept a couple of fat pieces, which he took with him 
in his wallet. On the way down from the hill he 
saw smoke rising from a hillock. He wondered 
what it was, and went nearer to see. When he 
came nearer he looked down the hole* whence 
the smoke was arising, and saw that there was a 
pot hanging over the fire in an earth hut, and in 
the pot were only old pieces of skin. A young 
girl was standing and watching the pot, looking 
into it now and then, and then going away. Just 
as she turned away the boy let a couple of pieces 
of fat meat fall into the pot. " Mother, mother, 
come and see," said the girl, "our pot grows fat." 
"Ah! you speak according to your knowledge," said 
the old woman. "Old pieces of shoe scarcely make 
fat ! No ; thy mother has it much fatter than we." 
The boy could distinctly hear what they said, and 
wondered what it could mean. He began to think 
that something was wrong, and that it was not his 
mother who had brought him up. And the more 
he heard the more certain he became that it was 
his own mother who lived here. Then he thought 
to himself that he would walk home and cut short 
the days of his old stepmother, as he saw that she 
must be an old witch. When he had done this he 
went to his own mother. Then he killed Haccis- 
sedne's daughter, and from that time they both 
lived in plenty. W. HENRY JONES. 

Skirbeck Quarter, Boston, Lincolnshire. 
(To le continued.) 


I copy the following from the Burghley Papers, 
Lansdown MS. 121, p. 146, temp. Elizabeth : 

* This ia a favourite way in the Lapp stories of 
learning what is going on in a hut, as will be seen in the 
Utter tales. 

A descripcon what sneesing it. 

Sneesing is a vapour ascending in to the head and so 
to the brayne, and when there is more and overmoche 
aboundaunce ascended to that place more then nature 
can disgest, then it is expuhed by the spirite's vitall and 
so falleth downe throwe the nose and the mouthe. 

Howe to stay e from snesing. 

1. When you feale that it wyll come rubb your eyes 
and it helpith. 

The head is scoured by snesing even as an house is 
cleansed from smoke by wynd. Yf that any man talk 
with another about any matter and snese twise or iiij 
tymes lett hym by and by arise yf he sett or if he stand 
lett hym move hymselfe and go straightway without any 
stays about his busyness for he shall prosper. 

2. Yf he snese more than iiij tymes lett hym staye for 
it is doubtfull howe he shall specie. 

3. Yf a man snese one or iij tymes lett hym proceade 
no further in any matter but lett all alone for hit wyll 
com to nought. 

4. If two men do sneze bothe at one Instant it is a 
good syne, and then lett them go about their purpose 
if that it be either by water or land, and they shall 

5. To sneze twise is a good syne, but to sneze once or 
iij times is an yll syne. If one come sodenly into an 
house and snese one tyme it is a good tokyn. 

* 6. One enese in the night season made by any of the 
housold betokenyth good luck to the house, but yf he 
make two sneses it signifietbe domage. 

7. Trewe it is that he who snesith takith pte of the 
signincacion in this condition that he pte some pte with 

8. If that any man sneze twyse iij nightes together it 
is a tokyn that one of the house shall dye or els some 
greatt goodnes or badnes shall happon in the house. 

9. Yf a man go to dwell in an house and snese one 
tyme lett hym dwell there, but if he snese twyse lett 
hym not tarry neither dwell therin. 

10. Yf a man lye awake in his bedd and snese one 
tyme it is a syne of some greatt sickness or hyndraunce. 

11. Yf a man sleapo in his bedde and snese one 
tyme it betokenyth greatt troble, the deathe of some 
persone, or extreme hyndrance in the losse of substaunce. 

12. Yf a man lye in his bed and make a snese one 
tyme it is a good syne bothe of healthe and lucre, but if 
he sleape it is moche better. 

13. Yf a man snese twvse three nyghtes together it is 
a good syne for hym whatsoever he go a boutt. 

14. Yf a man travell by the waye and come into an 
Inne and snese twyse let hym departe out of the house 
and go to a nother or els he shall not prosper. 

15. Yf any man go forthe to seke worke and laye 
handes of it and then snese one tyme, lett hym departe, 
leaving his worke behind hym, and eeke worke elswhere, 
and so shall do well, but if he snese twyso lett hym take 
his worke and go no further. 

16. Yf any man after he haue made a bargayne with 
another for any thing and then snese one tyme it sig- 
nifieth that his bargayne shall stand firme, butt if he 
snese 3 tymea the bargayne wyll nott contynue. 

17. Yf a man ryse betyme on a monday mornyng out 
of his bed and snese one tyme it is a tokyn that he shall 
posper and gayne all that wyeke or haue some other 
joye and comoditie. 

18. But if he snese twise it is cleane contrary. 

19. Yf a man lose an horse or anything els and in, 
stopping out of his dore to seke it do snese one tyme it is 
a tokyn he shall haue it agayne, but if he snese twise he 
shall never haue it agayne. 

20. Yf a man ryse betyme on a Sonday and snese ii 



17 th 8. II. Ana. 28, '86. 

tymes it is a good tokyn, but if he sneze one tyme it is 
an yll tokyn. 

20. Yf a man att the very begynning of dynner or 
supper be mynded to eate and snese twyse it is a good 
tokyn, but if he snese one tyme it is an ill syne. 

21. If a man lye sicke in his bed and mystrust hym- 
selfe and snese one tyme it is a tokyn of deathe, 

but if he snese twyse he shall eecape. 

22. A woman being very sicke if she snese one tyme it 
is a syne of helth, but if she snese twyse she shall dye. 

For other notes on sneezing see 1 st S. v. 364, 
500, 572, 599 ; viii. 366, 624; ix. 63, 250; x. 421; 
5 th S. ii. 4, 193, 353, 396, 429 ; viii. 108, 221, 
284, 376. J. MASKELL. 

subject of a book is not always correctly indicated 
by its title, to the discomfiture of the compilers 
of classed catalogues or the arrangers of classified 
libraries. Incompetent catalogue-makers have 
before now been led astray by verbal resemblances 
between words and names, as when a work on 
" asteriads " (starfish) has been placed side by side 
with one on " asteroids" in the astronomical sec- 
tion, and one on the "biliary calculus" has stood 
with treatises on the " differential " and " integral 
calculus " in that of mathematics. 

But the want of correspondence between the 
matter of a book and its title lays another trap for 
the unwary cataloguer who satisfies himself with a 
glance at the title-page of his volume without glan- 
cing at its contents. We have all heard of Tooke's 
'Diversions of Purley' being reckoned among works 
on " popular games and pastimes "; let me tell of a 
like amusing mistake coming under my own obser- 
vation. A little while since I was going over a 
magnificent country mansion, where the well-stored 
shelves of a newly-erected library had been ar- 
ranged by a London expert. Casting my eye 
carelessly over the department devoted to agri- 
culture and domestic economy, by the side of 
' The Book of the Farm,' ' Rotation of Crops,' 
and the like, I noticed a newly bound little 
volume labelled ' Ploughing and Sowing.' " Could 
it," I asked myself, " be an old friend of mine; an 
admirable little book written by a Yorkshire par- 
son's daughter, narrating her experience with the 
farm-lads of her father's parish the breaking 
up the fallow ground of their hearts, and the sowing 
good and wholesome truth 1 ?" It seemed impossible. 
But I took down the book and found it was so, 
and I left it standing in the incongruous company 
of those " whose talk is of bullocks." 
^ Though not made by cataloguists, let me men- 
tion a somewhat similar mistake caused by a mis- 
leading title. The brother of an old friend of mine, 
between thirty and forty years since, was going out 
to Australia as a sheep-farmer. Ruskin's ' Notes 
on the Construction of Sheepf olds' was just adver- 
tised, " price one shilling." So my friend said to 
his brother," You may as well build your sheepfolds 

on a right principle as a wrong. Here is a shilling. 
Buy the pamphlet,and Ruskin will be sure to put you 
on the right tack." The ' Notes ' were accordingly 
bought, and the dismay of the young emigrant 
may be imagined on finding how little aid they 
were likely to give him in his future occupation. 
I do not know whether the ' Notes ' have ever 
found their way into catalogues of farming works. 
It would not be surprising if some day they should 
appear there. EDMUND VENABLES. 

gelles states, in his ' Cornish Worthies,' vol. ii. 
p. 283, that " from the days of Richard III. the 
St. Aubyns have frequently filled the post of High 
Sheriff of Cornwall, and have also served their 
country as Members of Parliament," &c.; but so 
far as their first connexion with Parliament is 
concerned it must be, I think, of a more recent 
date. In fact, it would be difficult to say for cer- 
tain whether the St. Aubyn family was represented 
at all in the House from 1482 to 1523, as no re- 
turns of the eleven Parliaments called together 
during that period exist. The first St. Aubyn 
whom I find mentioned in the ' Return of Mem- 
bers of Parliament,' 1213-1702, is Willielmus 
Santabyn,who sat for Helston borough in the Par- 
liament of Mary which was summoned to meet 
at Oxford, and, by fresh writs, at Westminster, 
April 2, 1554. The surname of this same person 
is spelt in three or four different ways in as many 
entries in the returns. One would think that this 
old Cornish family possessed a large number of 
valuable records of historic importance, well worth 
publishing. W. ROBERTS. 

EPITAPH. In St. Michael's Church, Cam- 
bridge, is the following modest but almost un- 
known inscription on a little brass tablet : 






"The whole of Lord Penrhyn's slate quarrymen 
took a holiday on Ascension Day, because of the uni- 
versally prevalent superstition that a fatal accident 
will inevitably cut off those who work during that 
day. This strange superstition is common among the 
thousands of quarrymen engaged in North Wales." 

L. L. K. 


FOLK-RHYMES ON SNOW. In the April num- 
ber of Melusine the learned editor, M. H. Gaidoz, 
has collected a large number of riddles, proverbs, 
&c., regarding snow, from the Latin, German, Ser- 
vian, and other languages. As M. Gaidoz is a 
reader of 'N. & Q.,' I venture to invite his atten- 
tion to the following references : 1 st S. xi. 225, 274, 
313, 421, at the third of which he will find a ver 

7 th S. II. Au. 28, '86.] 



carious Greek version of the riddle " White bird 
featherless," from Kircher's ' (Edipns JEgyp- 
tiacus,' vol. ii. p. 34. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

" BLUE DEVILS." I want instances of this 
phrase before 1820, and especially before 1800. 
In 1787 Burns writes, "In my bitter hours of 
blue-devilism." The " blue- devils" of hypochon- 
dria seem of earlier date than those of delirium tre- 
mens. A correspondent tells me that early in this 
century there was a piece called ' Blue Devils ' on 
the stage, in which the actor Terry was supposed 
to be especially great in the soliloquy, " I tried 
love : that made me uneasy and jealous ; play : 
that made me passionate ; wine : that made me 
drunk, and gave me the headache." My corre- 
spondent asks whether this may have had any- 
thing to do with the drunkard's " blue devils," the 
first example of which I have is from Cobbett, 
1822. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

BLUE- JOHN. I want examples of this before 
1840. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

[See Oilpin'a ' Observations on the Lakes of Cumber- 
land,' 1808, vol. ii. p. 213, and 'N. & Q.,' 6* S.xii. 406, 

BRAG. Where can I find any account of the 
card game of brag ? What is its relation to 
poker 1 In Cross's ' Life of George Eliot,' vol. i. 
p. 356, occurs (under date 1885), " One night we 
attempted ' Brag ' or ' Pocher.' " Did the modern 
newspaper slang " to bluff " originate with brag 
or poker; or was there ever a game called bluff, 
as stated by Bartlett, Webster, &c.? In 1866 an 
American said " It is a very magnificent game of 
bluff that we are playing "; and in 1882 the Satur- 
day Review said, "Nor is a government always to 
be reproached because when it bluffs it fails. 
Sometimes a great country is entitled to take the 
benefit of its ancient policy of courage, and to see 
what effect it can produce by the mere terror of 
its name." In more recent times the Saturday 
and evening gazettes have made quite a pet phrase 
of "bluff." J. A. H. MURRAY. 

[An account of the game of brag is easily accessible 
in the ' Handbook to Games,' forming a volume of Bohn's 
" Reference Library."] 

BELLY AND MEMBERS. In the earliest Eoman 
tecessio popvli, B.C. 491, the people were called 
back to the city from the Mons Sacer by such a 
story as was sure to be told by Abraham Lincoln 
"on the mellowing of occasion." A popular 
patrician, Menenius, told the seceding plebeians 

that the members of the body once resolved to do 
nothing for the belly the hands would not carry 
food to the lips, the mouth would not receive it, 
the teeth would not chew it. Thus all sank in 
ruin together, like capital and labour in inter- 
necine war. This epilogue I find in Livy (ii. 32). 
Did it originate with Menenius ? Is it found in 
other classics more ancient than Livy ? Has it 
any analogon in non-classical folk-lore ? How old 
is the ^Esopic fable " Belly and Feet," Teubner, 
No. 197? Plutarch, writing more than a century 
after Livy, introduces the fable in his life of 
Coriolanus ( 6). But do his words, s a"\ijp.a 
fjLvdov Sia/iv?7/ivveuo/zvov,* imply his belief that 
the fable was older than Menenius ? or how 
should the phrase be translated? Plutarch and 
Livy couch the fable in words so unlike one 
another, that one would say they had learned it 
from different sources. Will some reader tell me 
in ' N. & Q.' what authorities they followed ? 

Madison, Wie., U.8. 

PEARCE. Dr. Zachary Pearce, born 1690, was 
son of a distiller in Holborn. Was his father a 
successor to Marmaduke Laudale ? He married a 
Miss Adams, with whom he enjoyed fifty-two years 
of married life, daughter of another distiller in the 
neighbourhood. Is it known where Adams's dis- 
tillery was ? 0. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

I have a copy of the well-known book called 
'Scots Presbyterian Eloquence displayed.' Ac- 
cording to Lord Macaulay, every country gentle- 
man had a copy of this book in the latter days of 
the seventeenth century. It is preceded by an 
address to the reader, signed "Jacob Curate." 
Can you inform me how the initials should be 
filled up in the following extract ? " To the 
R.H.P. & P. of the K. the most G. & very G.P. of 
the present P. of the C. in Scotland E.G." Who 
was the author ? B. F. W. 

LIVERY OF SEISIN. As is well known, accord- 
ing to the practice of feudal times, upon which our 
law of real property is founded, the usual mode of 
transferring the title to land was a deed of feoff- 
ment, or grant, accompanied by " livery of seisin," 
i.e., delivery of legal possession. The latter was 
usually a symbolical ceremony, consisting of the 
actual handing over by the grantor to the grantee 
of some part of the property to be conveyed, such 
as the key or hasp of a door, or a clod of soil. 
Amongst a collection of ancient feoffments in my 
possession is one dated 25 Edward III., being a 

* The versions of Stewart, Long, and North, " wound 
up by the following fable," and " knit up his oration 
in the end with a notable tale," are far from satisfac 



[7"> S. II. AD. 28, 

conveyance of land in Warwickshire. The collec- 
tion seems to have been preserved with unusual 
care, and twisted round the label, to which the 
seal was attached at the foot of the deed in ques- 
tion, are two or three blades of grass, still green, 
though quite dry and faded. My conjecture is 
that these blades of grass are the remains of the 
ceremony of livery as performed five hundred years 
ago, the grass having been twisted round the label 
and handed over with the deed. Can any one 
inform me of other instances of deeds existing 
with this curious appendage, or whether there is 
any other evidence of the custom of so closely 
combining the delivery of the deed and the seisin 1 


REED. This learned attorney, editor of the 
European Magazine, author of the * History of the 
English Stage,' Principal of Staple Inn, and vast 
book collector, was the son of a baker, and born in 
London, 1742. Where ? 0. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

FARRENS : RYPECKS. There are two words fre- 
quently used in this village, and I am unable to 
fix the exact meaning of one and the derivation 
and spelling of either. Farrens is explained to me 
as a right to run or depasture cattle on Cowey, 
the name of a piece of meadow land on the Surrey 
side of Walton Bridge. In the list of occupiers 
claiming to vote for the county of Surrey, and now 
affixed to the door of our parish church at Shepper- 
ton, is a farmer whose qualification is stated to 
be farrens. It may occur to some of your readers 
that as Shepperton and Halliford are in Middle- 
sex, it is peculiar that they should require notice 
of claims for Surrey votes. The explanation is that 
the river has changed its course. This is said to 
have taken place not only at Cowey Mead, but 
also near Dockett's Point, above Shepperton Lock, 
and at each place a portion of the parish is in the 
county of Surrey and gives a qualification for a 
vote. This record of the river's change of its 
course may interest BROTHER FABIAN (7 th S. i. 

The other word is rypeclcg. I take the spelling 
from the Field of July 24, 1886, but I have seen 
it written wrypex and, more often, ripex. It is 
the name for a long pole shod with an iron point, 
lhames fishermen drive two of these into the bed 
of the river and attach their punts to them I 
conclude from the spelling in the Field that a 
single pole is sometimes called a rypeck, but the 
custom among fishermen in this part of the world 
is to speak of " a rypecks." J. J. FREEMAN. 


'BEST OF THE HOLT FAMILY.' I have an old 
picture, 'Rest of the Holy Family,' attributed to 
Kubens. The Virgin is nursing the infant Saviour; 
she 13 looking over her shoulder, talking to a shep- 

herd, who, holding bagpipes, is standing behind 
her. Elizabeth, on the right of the Virgin, is shad- 
ing her eyes with one hand, and with the other 
holding the hands of the young St. John, in the 
attitude of prayer ; Joseph, clad in skins, kneels 
at their feet with hands clasped ; he and Elizabeth 
appear to be looking for or at something out of the 
picture. A dog's head is in the corner. Can any 
of the readers of ' N. & Q.' tell me if a similar 
picture is known ; and, if so, where it is 1 


CHURCH PORCH. Can any of ' N. & Q.'s de- 
votees throw some light upon the following clause 
regarding the use of the church porch, which I 
find inserted in a document bearing date Oct. 20, 
1632, and made between Edward Morgan, of 
Peutrebach, co. Monmouth, Esq., and John Mor- 
gan and Margaret Morgan, son and daughter of 
George Morgan, Esq., deceased : 

" And if the said rent shall be behinde 20 daies or if 
the said Edward Morgan or his assignes shall at any 
time dureing his life tender and deliuer to the said John 
Morgan and Margaret or either of them being in posses- 
sion of the premises or the Church porch of the Church of 
Lanvihangele [Llantarnam] vpon sufficient notice that 
then it shall be lawful to re-enter." 

It may be interesting to add that the said Edward 
Morgan was the son of William Morgan, of Llan- 
tarnam Abbey, co. Monmouth, and was created a 
baronet in 1642. GRYPHON. 

ENGLAND ? In this inquiry may I ask if there is 
any parish church which has better claims to be 
considered the premier parish church than St. 
Margaret's, Canterbury? The only rival I can 
think of is Bow Church in London ; but though 
used for episcopal confirmations, and having cer- 
tain rights in connexion with London as the 
secular capital, surely Canterbury, as the metro- 
political city, and the seat of the primate of all 
England, ought to contain the premier parish 
church. Now, of the parish churches of Canter- 
bury, St. Margaret's appears always during the 
Middle Ages, and in more recent times, to have 
claimed a certain pre-eminence. In this St. 
Martin's, though the oldest parish church in Kent, 
and, we may add, in England (though Perranza- 
buloe and Gwithian in Cornwall may be older, 
but they are in ruins), never was its rival, for St. 
Margaret's was inside the city and St. Martin's (a 
very small church) was outside the walls. The 
claims of St. Margaret's rest on the following 
points: 1. The cathedral of Canterbury belonged 
during the Middle Ages to the monks of Christ 
Church. The seculars and regulars were divided; 
to the seculars belonged the city, to the regulars 
the precincts. The regulars had as their chief 
church the metropolitical cathedral; but the 
secular clergy had their rights also, and it seems 

7"> S. II. AUG. 28, '86.] 



that St. Margaret's was their chief church. 2. The 
visitations of the archdeacons for the parochial 
clergy were held in St. Margaret's, and also the 
ecclesiastical courts for lay cases of the citizens 
3. The church of St. Margaret was, it seems, col- 
legiate, a college of poor priests being attached to 
it. 4. The rector of St. Margaret's took a lead 
among the city rectors. I am therefore inclined 
to the view that St. Margaret's Church, Canter- 
bury, is the premier parish church in England, 
and the rector of St. Margaret's and the church- 
wardens should take the first place among the 
rectors and churchwardens of England. If not, 
which church has a prior claim ? 


THOMAS COBHAM was a well-known tragedian 
at the Coburg Theatre, which was erected iu 1817. 
He played Richard III. at Covent Garden, April, 
1816, and was a failure. It is said he was a victim 
of Kean's "wolves." He died Jan. 3, 1842. 
When did he first appear in London, and is any- 
thing ascertainable concerning his birth or life ? 


BARKABT RICH. Were 'The Adventures of 
Brusanus, Prince of Hungaria,' by Barnaby Rich 
(1592), ever reprinted ? I know the extract given 
by Collier in his 'Bibliographical Account of Early 
English Literature.' L. L. K. 


AGINCOURT. Is there any confirmation to be 
found in trustworthy authorities of the reason or 
excuse given in the enclosed cutting for the French 
defeat at Agincourt ? It is taken from the reprint 
of the contemporary narrative of an inhabitant of 
Verneuil, published a year or two ago by the 
Soci^te" d'Histoire Normande. The incident ap- 
pears to be probably a distortion of the subsequent 
fact quoted in the note from Rymer. I have not 
seen it mentioned before in any English or French 
account of the battle, but I have only seen popular 
accounts : 

" Et puis le roy Henry print son chemin, lui et son ost 
qui estoient .x m . Angloig. pour aler de Harfleur a Calais 
par la raer. Etalerent a lencontre de lui messire Charles 
dAlbret, connestable de France, le due dAlen9on, le ma- 
reschal Bouciquault, de Longny, le conte d'Eu, et de Ven- 
dosme, et la greigneur partie de tous lea chevaliers et 
escuiers de France. Et le roy de France estoita Rouen, 
et les Uuc[s I de Bourgongne et de Berry. Et le roy 
Henry passa la riviere de Somme BUS belles claies, lui et 
ses gens, et non obstant ceulx de France qui estoient au 
devant de lui, et eatoient estimez a estre bien de cent a 
.vjV" mil ; et leur donnerent journee a Gincourt pros de 
Hesdin, au jour saint Crespin. Et la vindrent les dues 
de Breban, de Bar, et le conte de Nevers, freres au due 
de Bourgongne. Et tant procura le roy Henry par treves 
avecques les seigneurs de France quil ny auroit que lea 
noblest qui combatissent, et lui fut accorde. Adouc le 
roy Henry retourna a ses gens, et leur dist lappoincte- 
ment en disant quil les anoblissoit tous. Adonc se com- 
batirent tous les Anglois contre les nobles de France, et 
ne se combatit point le menu peuple de France. Ainai 

les Francois par ce moi'en perdirent la journe'e.* Et la 
furent tuez et mors les dues de Breban, de Bar et dAlen- 
fon, le conte dAlbret, connestable de France, et plusieurs 
autres chevaliers et eecuiers jueques au nombre de .xij. m 
et plus, et plusieurs prisonniers qui furent menez en 
Angleterre. Et y furent prins et menez les dues dOr- 
leans et de Bourbon, les contes dEu, de Vendosme et de 
Richemont, et plusieurs autres, jusques au nombre de 
.vj. prisonniers ou environ ; et sen ala le roy d Angle- 
terre par Calais et puis en Angleterre, ou se tint jusques 
au .v'. jourdaoust mil .iiij c .xvij. quil descendita Touque, 
ou il mist le siege." 

W. L. D. G. 

AUTHOR OF POEM WANTED. I have seen, used 
as a motto for the heading of a chapter of a 
novel, a stanza of the poem containing the lines, 
" Say 'tis the dying is past," &c., the authorship 
of which is required by W. S. The motto was 
attributed to Adelaide Procter; but on looking 
carefully through her collected poema ('Legends' 
and Lyrics ') I find nothing resembling it. There 
may be other poems by Miss Procter besides the 
' Legends and Lyrics.' F. F. W. 

[See 7'" S. i. 389.] 

POEMS. Being lately in the neighbourhood of 
Tunbridge, I met with a curious quarto contain- 
ing three Latin poems by P. Causton. The owner 
of the volume, although confessing himself "no 
scholar," was unwilling to part with it, for old 
association's sake. The title is " Carmina Tria 
Petri Causton, Merc., Lond. 1. De conflagratione 
Londini. 2. In Laudem Holandise. 3. Tunbrigialia, 
Editio Tertia. Imprimatur Septemb. 17, 1689. 
R. M." I have since found the volume in the 
British Museum Library; but I can find no ac- 
count of the author neither in Watt nor in any 
biographical dictionary within my reach. Is any- 
thing known of him ? The poems are, to say 
the least, curious, especially that on Tunbridge 
Wells. When more at leisure I hope to recur to 
them if they are not well known. J. MASKELL. 

YOUTH.' In the last-named book, at pp. 66-65 
(sic for 69), is "A New Litany" in rudely 
vigorous triplets. The twentieth runs : 
From Arbitrary Power defend us, 
And let no wooden Shoes attend us, 
Still Liberty of Conscience send us. 

Queries: 1. What is the meaning and origin of 
he phrase " wooden shoes " ? 2. What is the 
date of 'The Protestant Tutor for Youth,' and 
who its compiler ? Q. V. 

[Does not the phrase " wooden shoes" stand for the 
French, who were supposed to wear the sabots, and be 
representatives of Democracy I] 

* Voir 'Recit du Siege d'Harfleur,' note 47. Voir 
aussi, dans Rymer, IV., 2" 1C partie. p. 201, 1'autorieation 
donnee, le 2 juin 1417, par Henri V. aux seuls combat- 
tants d'Azincourt, de porter,*eans justifier de leur droit, 
arma et tunicas armorum. 



[7 th S. II. Aco. 28, '8 


(7 th S. i. 150, 214, 255, 375,413, 490; ii. 50, 111.) 
It is somewhat amazing to read MR. ATKINSON'S 
remarks that " -halh, -healh, or -hale " (hale is the 
dat. or instrumental singular) are worn forms of 
healch, halch, or hale, " from which the c had 
dropped out by usage." The truth is that healh is 
the regular West Saxon and halch the equally 
regular Northumbrian form of an older halha- ; 
and that the c of halch is an insertion, probably 
due to Latin influences. This ch, no doubt, repre- 
sents to our ears the pronunciation of the voiceless 
guttural spirant more nearly than does our h. 
MR. ATKINSON, " backed by a great modern A.-S. 
authority," " does not think good to drop the c 
of halch," In the case of Finchale, which I have 
previously cited, we have an undisputed instance of 
the c of halch being dropped. It is well known 
that in inflection the final h disappears before a 
vowel. Thus the gen. of W.-S. wealh, m., is 
weales, dat. and inst. weale ; sealh, f. (salix, 
eAtKrj), gen., dat. and inst. seale ; seolh, m., gen. 
seoles, dat. and inst. seole, &c. This disappear- 
ance is as old as Bede, for the pure Northumbrian 
Moore MS. gives the dat. halce to the nom. halch 
in book v. chap. xxiv. Anglo-Saxon place-names 
were frequently used with a preposition govern- 
ing an oblique case. This usage should alone pre- 
pare us for a modern hale from healh or halch, as 
e. g. the " in Streanaes-halae " of the Moore MS., 
the "in Stre"ones-heale " of Chron. A., 4c. In 
addition to this we have the fact that this final h 
dropped off from even the nominative in A.-S. 
times. Thus in late W.-S. MSS. we meet with 
the nominatives seal for sealh, weal from wealh, 
seal for seolh, &c. We have the unimpeachable 
evidence of ^Elfric himself for this disappearance. 
So that phonologically there is no ground what- 
ever for the retention of the c of halch. 

MR. ATKINSON'S identification of Bede's halch 
with an A.-S. *heal-eca is impossible. The Moore 
MS. is a very ancient MS., and few Anglo-Saxon 
scholars would dream of such a MS. confusing 
halch and *heal-eca. There is, moreover, over- 
whelming evidence to prove the impossibility of 
this identification. In book v. chap. xxiv. we have 
the dative case of halch written perfectly regularly 
as (Streanses-) halce ( = W.-S. heale). Now a 
slight study of A-S. grammar will show that it is 
quite impossible for *healeca to have formed a 
dative heale ( = Northumb. halce), for this *healeca 
must have been a weak noun. Hence its dative 
singular would be W.-S. *healecan, Northumb. 
*halecce = older *halecan. Moreover, assuming that 
MR. ATKINSON is right in. identifying healh and 
*healeca, there is no evidence whatever that the 
latter word ever meant a glen. This *healeca 

VI.E. halke, is a diminutive of A.-S. heall, a corner. 
DR. TAYLOR actually cites Chaucer to prove that 
halke meant " a ravine or gully." It means 
nothing of the sort in Chaucer, for with him its 
meaning is precisely that given by the ' Prompto- 
rium,' namely, " angulus, latibulum." 

In addition to giving halke a false meaning, MR. 
ATKINSON .has also to twist and distort the mean- 
ing of haugh. We know that the doublets dike, 
ditch mean either the trench or the mound, like 
the Greek avS-rjpov, but this does not justify the 
sweeping conclusions that MR. ATKINSON draws 
from this fact. With such principles we may 
make halch or haugh mean almost anything under 
the sun. 

From his remarks MR. ATKINSON does not seem 
to be aware that the Northumbrian genitives of 
a- stems in -as, -ces, -aes are archaic forms, and 
are better representatives of the Aryan genitive 
than the later es. All through this discussion I 
have been struck by the slight regard paid to 
Bede's phonology, and by the tendency to look 
upon his orthography as a blundering representa- 
tion of late West Saxon. Even DR. TAYLOR says 
that the gen. of a personal name might end " pos- 
sibly in es, but hardly in aes." What is the differ- 
ence between these two forms 1 As there is 
nothing so conclusive as Bede's evidence, I con- 
tent myself with citing the Vilfarces-dtin of 
book iii. chap. xiv. (which Bede tells us received 
its name from a man named Vilfarus) to prove 
that there is no justification for DR. TAYLOR'S 
attempted distinction. It is to be hoped that 
Mr. Sweet's latest book will do much to dispel 
many of the unscientific illusions about Bede, and 
to remedy the neglected study of old Northumbrian 
in England.* 

There appears to be absolutely no evidence that 
healh meant a cliff beyond what seems to be an 
error in Sweet's ' Oldest English Texts,' charters, 
3, 8. We there read: "et sic emenso spatio 
stratae in quoddam petrosum cliuum et ex eo 
Baldwines healh appellatur." In the Museum 
' Facsimiles/ ii. 3, this is transcribed : " et ex eo 

Baldwines healh appro ,"*> the second p 

has a curled stroke through its tail, the usual sign 
for pro. 

DR. TAYLOR'S attempt to explain sinus fari can 
hardly be considered a success. For he has to im- 
port an old Norse word fjara in the seventh cen- 
tury, or, if he means to suggest an Anglian form of 
this word, he has to assume that Bede was so 
totally ignorant of its existence as to identify it 
with the Latin pharus ! It would surely have 

* I am irresistibly reminded of Koch's weighty 
words: " Will man daher eine Schriftsprache bistorisch 
begriinden, so muss man mit den Dialecten beginnen. 
Diese mvissen in ihrem historischen Verlaufe und ihren 
unterscheidenden Eigenthiimlicbkeiten dargestellt wer- 
den, u. B. w." 

7 th S. II. AUG. 28, '86.] 



astonished Bede to meet with a place-name com- 
pounded of Northumbrian halch and Latin phar us. 

As to DR. TAYLOR'S " stream-ness " theory, I 
think he will hardly deny that the Worcestershire 
Stre"oneshealh (' C. D.' vi. 214) and the Yorkshire 
Strensall (" Strenshale," Domesday, 3036) are 
from the same two stems as Bede's " Streanaes- 
halch." There could be no " stream-ness " in either 

DR. TAYLOR says that my etymology involves 
" the hypothesis of a personal name absolutely 
unknown." In the Academy of July 11, 1885, I 
proved that Streon was in use as a name-stem 
amongst the Anglo-Saxons. Throughout the whole 
Aryan name-system it is quite sufficient to know 
that a certain stem was used in compounding 
personal names to enable us to proceed to form 
regular pet-forms from it. All these pet-forms 
are not chronicled, but there are quite enough of 
them recorded to show that they were formed 
according to a well-defined system. Very many 
of the Anglo-Saxon pet-forms may be recovered 
from the place-names in which they are embedded. 
If we take a place-name and recognize therein a 
regularly-formed pet-name from a well-authenti- 
cated name-stem, I maintain that we are perfectly 
justified in considering the existence of such a pet- 
form to be sufficiently established. Now one well- 
known system of forming a pet-name was to take 
the first stem of the compound name and use it 
alone ; this is well exemplified by our " Will " for 
"Will-iam." Since we have clear evidence that 
Streon was used as a name-stem, we are entitled to 
assume that this regular use of the first stem as a 
pet-name existed. Of course it would be more 
satisfactory if we could adduce documentary proof 
of the use of the pet-form Streon, for that would 
convince the sceptics who have not thoroughly 
studied the name-system. But many hundreds of 
pet-names will turn up of which we have no 
documentary proof, for it must be remembered 
that valuable as are the Anglo-Saxon lists of 
names, they are not exhaustive, and the pet- 
names are very inadequately recorded. For 
example, "Wil" (like our " Will") would be a 
perfectly regular pet-form of an A.-S. name begin- 
ning with this stem. This pet-name is preserved 
in many local names, and yet I believe there is 
no documentary evidence of its existence. It 
would be highly ridiculous to deny on these 
grounds the existence, or possibility of the exist- 
ence, of this pet-name. I put these pet-names, 
lacking documentary evidence, upon the same 
footing as the unrecorded forms of words built up 
from careful study and comparison by philologists. 
These forms are usually marked with an asterisk. 
DR. TAYLOR must be aware how invaluable these 
reconstructed forms are, and that, in most cases, 
there can be little doubt that such forms once 
existed, although there is no record of them. Thus 

there is no documentary evidence of the existence 
of a Gothic *aihws, a horse, = older *ihwa-z, but no 
competent philologist doubts the reasoning that has 
constructed this form from the Old Saxon ehu 
(A.-S. eoh, O.N. j6r), or that this *aihws in its 
turn is a link between the above German forms 
and the Aryan aWwa-s (Skt. afwa-s, iWo-s, 

The meaning of healh is unfortunately far from 
clear. But the opinion of Kemble and Leo that 
this word meant a hall or large building seems to 
be most probable. Leo regarded healh as another 
form of ealh (Northumb. alch), and in his * Angel- 
siichsiches Glossar,' 127, 7, he suggested that 
heall, ealh, and healh probably meant first a build- 
ing or place of strength, then a building of stone, 
and so a palace, castle, or temple. It is certain 
that this is the history of ealh (Gothic alhs), for 
the derivative verb ealg-ian means to defend, pro- 
tect, and in the paraphrase ascribed to Csedmon, 
ed. Thorpe, 259, 11, Babylon is styled " alh-stede 
eorla Jne'r aeftelingas under wealla hle"o welan 
brytnedon," i.e., a place of strength for men where 
the noblemen dispensed treasure under the defence 
of the walls. It is quite possible, as ealh and heall 
(hall) both meant a hall or strong habitation, that 
ealh might receive an unoriginal initial h and so 
produce healh. The omission of initial h in early 
MSS. is not unknown, but there are very few in- 
stances of the addition of an initial h. The con- 
fusion of the two words would be increased by the 
fact that, in addition to their having the same 
meaning, many of their cases were practically 
identical in form. Another word heall, m., a 
corner (whence M.E. halke) also had the same 
forms in the dative and instrumental cases ; a cir- 
cumstance that has led even Mr. Sweet to translate 
" on Saem heale " by " in a hall " instead of " in a 
corner " (Gregory's ' Pastoral .Care,' p. 245). Prof. 
Toller points out that in one charter (' 0. D.,' iii. 
152) haga, a hedge or enclosure, is clearly syno- 
nymous with healh. This may be explained by the 
fact that the house of a great man was surrounded 
by a mound or enclosure, as we may learn from 
the fragment that records how Cynewulf of Wessex 
met his death in 755. Assuming that hcnlh did 
mean a fortified house, it would be a reasonable 
extension of meaning to make it embrace the en- 
circling mound as well as the house. Then in 
cases where the house was deserted and allowed to 
decay healh might well adhere to the enclosure it- 
self, which would still bear the name of the original 
owner of the vanished house. Though the evi- 
dence in support of this definition is, I must con- 
fess, somewhat weak, it is still an explanation that 
well fits in with the numerous passages in the 
charters wherein these healhas are mentioned. It 
seems to me if one may base an opinion upon 
such a frail foundation as the language of the 
charters that most of the healhas that occur in 



[7" S. II. AUG. 28, '86. 

boundaries were the sites of old halls, represented 
by little more than a crumbling entrenchment. We 
must not overlook the fact that healh is in many 
cases linked with a personal name. Although, 
with such instances as Gudbrandsdal, Annandale, 
&c., in my mind, I am not prepared to go so far as 
DR. TAYLOR in saying that " a proper name as a 
prefix [to the name of a ravine or valley] would be 
inappropriate and improbable," I yet think that 
great houses or their sites would be more likely 
than valleys to be known by their owners' names. 

I claim that my etymology of Streanaeshalch 
" holds the field " despite the philological vagaries 
that have been introduced into the discussion. 


I would not have ventured to add another word 
to the voluminous correspondence on this disputed 
question but for the note from the pen of the 
learned author of ' Names and Places," which 
seems to run counter to his own written conclu- 
sions and to the facts of the case. 

DR. TAYLOR rejects all the previous interpreta- 
tions of the word, and contends for its Norse 
origin. He says the Str^amcses would be so 
called either from the tidal race setting past the 
point, or from the fact that the Esk here debouch- 
ing is the only considerable stream along the coast. 
To this it may be replied that there is no authority 
whatever for substituting streamnes for ttreances. 

He says, further, that "few will dispute that the 
halch in Streanaeshalch is the equivalent of Chau- 
cer's halke, a ravine or gully, and of the North- 
umbrian heugh." Here it is assumed that streanaes 
is a Norse word, the notes identical with ness in 
Ketel-ness, Bay-ness, &c., meaning a projection, a 
promontory. Now the name of Streaneshalch was 
applied to the locality long before the Norsemen 
had set foot in the country. Hilda built her 
monastery in A.D. 655, "in loco quod dicitur 
Streaneshalch," and it was not until nearly a 
hundred and fifty years later that the Danes 
settled at the mouth of the Esk and changed the 
name to Whitby. 

DR. TAYLOR himself ('Names and Places,' 
pp. 170, 182-500) claims for ness a purely Norse 

We may take it for granted, then, that Streanes- 
halch is an Anglo-Saxon form, slightly differing 
in the four places in Bede's history where it occurs. 
It is also found in the chronicles of Florence of 
Worcester, William of Malmesbury, and Henry 
of Huntingdon. As a common noun streon means 
strength, being derived from the same radical; 
and should it be a proper name, which is not 
improbable, it would follow the same inflection, 
streanes being the genitive case of the first declen- 
sion. This is a simple and straightforward ex- 
planation, which it would be difficult to refute. 

What, then, is the meaning of halch, the suffix ? 
DR. TAYLOR says " it is the equivalent of Chaucer's 
halke, a ravine or gully." Will DR. TAYLOR be 
surprised to learn that there is no such word in 
Chaucer with that meaning ? So far as I can dis- 
cover, the word occurs only twice. First, in ' The 
Franklin's Tale ': 

As yonge clerkea 

Seken in every halke and every herne 

Particular sciences for to lerne. 

Again, in the ' Second Nonne's Tale': 

And woneth in halkes alway to and fro. 
The meaning in both cases is that of a nook or 
corner in a dwelling-house. 

We need not go far to seek the meaning of 
halch. It is the heuch of Northumbrian and Low- 
land Scotch, meaning a crag, a precipice : 

The kyng than gert him doggedly 

Be drawen out and dyspytiously 

Oure a heuch gert cast him downe 

Doggis til ete his caryowne. Wyntown, vii. 4. 

The cherries hang abune my hcid 
Sae inch up in the hewch, 

' Cherrie and Sloe.' 

So far the meaning seems plain and clear and 
easy to be traced ; but we are told that all this 
is to be set aside, and a non-natural meaning to 
be invented, on the strength of a gloss in a MS. 
of Bede's ' History,' " Streaneshalch, quod inter- 
pretatur Sinus Fari." Now to this I entirely 
demur. I have a very strong suspicion of the 
alleged MS. of Bishop More. The vague 
way in which it is stated to be "nearly, 
if not quite, contemporary with the author" 
has not a definite and satisfactory ring about 
it. I have had too much experience of the un- 
trustworthiness of so-called ancient MSS. to take 
for granted statements of this kind without some 
proof. King Alfred, who translated Bede's his- 
tory near the end of the ninth century, ignores 
this gloss. It is the only instance of what may be 
called marginal notes that I can find in all Bede's 
writing. King Alfred's translation was written for 
his countrymen, who needed no interpretation of 
their own language into Latin. The gloss must 
have been introduced for the benefit of readers who 
understood Latin, but not Anglo-Saxon. The 
probability is that it has been originally a marginal 
note which has crept into the text. 

But it may be said the note must have had a 
meaning when it was added to the text, and the 
meaning of Sinus Fari or Phari could only be 
the creek or harbour of the lighthouse. I do 
not think this is at all difficult to account for. No 
doubt there has always been, since Whitby was 
a port, some beacon and night light for the direc- 
tion of mariners. A foreign monk, ignorant of 
English, would naturally associate the port and 
lighthouse with the name, and so interpret it. A 
similar instance occurs in the French interpreta- 

7* S. IL AUG. 28, '86.] 



tion of the English " docks," which in France mean 
not the water space, as with us, but the warehouse 
and dep6ts attached, which may exist where ther 
is no water at all. 

Streaneahalch and Sinus Fari cannot by an 1 
process be reconciled to each other ; and if one i 
to be sacrificed, I support the good old Saxon 
name. J. A. PICTON. 

[We are reluctant to arrest a discussion of philologica 
importance; but the interest of this question seem 

DUKEDOM OF CORNWALL (7 th S. ii. 89). Some 
readers of ' N. & Q.' may be interested in knowing 
the history of the three ancient titles, Prince o 
Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester, the 
hereditary titles of his Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales. Of the three the oldest in date is 
that of the Earl of Chester, the earldom of which 
was annexed to the Crown of England for ever 
by letters patent dated 31 Henry III., 1247. 
By reference to earlier date we find that Maud, 
a daughter of William the Conqueror, married an 
Earl of Chester, and died without issue Novem- 
ber 26, 1119. Edward I. was also created Earl of 
Chester by his father, Henry III., 1254, which was 
a peculiar instance of a title being transferred 
from a younger son to an elder during the life- 
time of the former. The Principality of Wales, by 
a statute passed at Ruthlan, was united to Eng- 
land in the twelfth year of Edward I., 1284; 
while the earldom of Chester still remained a dis- 
tinct title, and was not conjoined to that of Prince 
of Wales before the twenty-first year of Richard II. , 
1398. The eldest son of Henry III., Edward III., 
was created Earl of Chester, but not Prince of 
Wales, as there is proof to the contrary ; and since 
his time this title has been made hereditary in the 
eldest sons of the reigning sovereigns, being heirs 
apparent to the crown of England. Upon the de- 
cease of Edward the Black Prince the title Earl of 
Chester devolved upon Richard II., May 13, 1322, 
from his grandfather, Edward III., while he did 
not inherit the title Prince of Wales by patent 
until March 9, 1337. In this year the Duchy of 
Cornwall became vested in the Crown, and the title 
of duke devolved in hereditary succession from the 
sovereign to his issue. Edward IL, the fourth son 
of Edward I., by the death of his elder brothers 
eventually became heir to his father, and was 
created Prince of Wales 1301 and Earl of Chester 
by patent dated 1304, ninety-four years before the 
passing of the statute whereby the earldom of 
Chester was united to the Principality of Wales, 
21 Rich. IL, 1398, which made the title here- 
ditary, during the lifetime of his father. But in 
the fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, and eigh- 
teenth years of that monarch's reign, and until his 
accession, Edward III. was always regularly sum- 
moned to Parliament as Earl of Chester, never as 

Prince of Wales. The date of the first writ is 
August 5, 1320. The title which ranks next as to 
its historical antiquity is that of Prince of Wales. 
Since the union of the earldom of Chester with the 
Principality of Wales by 21 Rich. II., 1398, the 
eldest son of and heir apparent to the reigning sove- 
reign is, and always has been, Prince of Wales, Earl 
of Chester, and Duke of Cornwall ; and the heir ap- 
parent derives his titles by special creation, investi- 
ture, and donation of the lands belonging to the 
principalities, and does not necessarily derive any 
hereditary title ; and in the event of the heir appa- 
rent predeceasing the reigning sovereign before 
1398, it would, in the event of his not having left 
an heir, have been necessary that the next heir 
should have received a special grant of letters 
patent to enable him to assume the title Prince of 
Wales, as in the case of the fourth son of Ed- 
ward II. surviving all his elder brothers and 
becoming Prince of Wales 1301. And the same 
reasoning applies also to the title Earl of Chester, 
first date of creation 1304 Edward II. being also 
regularly summoned to Parliament until his ac- 
cession as Prince of Wales. As we have seen, by 
writ dated August 5, 1320, Edward III. was sum- 
moned to Parliament under the title of Earl of 
Chester. It is equally clear as a matter of his- 
tory that the title and dignity of Duke of Corn- 
wall was conferred upon him at a much earlier 
date, viz., before he had reached his seventh year, 
in the Parliament held at Westminster 11 
Edw. III., and by charter bearing date March 9, 
1336, by the ceremony of investiture with the 
sword only, to hold to him and his heirs kings of 
England and to their first-born sons. As he died 
without issue, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, succeeded 
as Henry IV., King of England, whose son Henry 
also was created Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester, 
and Duke of Cornwall (9 Hen. IV. Rot. 61) ; and 
the same titles were granted by royal charter and 
authority to Edward IV., son of Henry VI. The 
reation by letters patent, not by Act of Parliament 
or by hereditary succession, does not take place 
without a failure in the heirs of the grantee of the 
etters patent of the title ; and in that case the 
imitation of the title " duke " is not to him " to 
lave and to hold to the said Duke, and to the first 
>egotten son of him, and of his heirs, Kings of 
England, and Dukes of the same place (i. e., 
Cornwall) that hereditarily succeed in the King- 
loin of England," but "to him and his heirs 
ings of England." An instance of such a grant 
iccurred in the case of Richard IL, eldest son of 
} rince Edward, who died in the lifetime of King 
Sdward III., by means whereof the said Richard 
ecame linear heir male to the crown and king- 
om. H. G. 

118, Bedford Road, Clapham. 

In the year 1337 Prince Edward (the Black 
'rince) was created Duke of Cornwall by patent, 



. II. A0o. 28, '86. 

with remainder to his heirs, being the elder son of 
a king of England and in immediate succession to 
the crown. He became Prince of Wales and the 
title of " duke " thus became merged ; but, as a 
result, the succeeding princes are born Dukes of 
Cornwall and obtain the princedom. A. H. 

Edward, Prince of Wales, the Black Prince, was 
created Duke of Cornwall 1337, the first instance 
of the creation of a dukedom in England. This 
title merged in that of Prince of Wales, and has 
ever since been vested in the heir apparent, who 
becomes Duke of Cornwall on his birth. 


Cussans's ' Handbook of Heraldry ' gives the fol- 
lowing account of the titles of the Prince of 
Wales, p. 222. The title of Prince of Wales dates 
from 1343, and since then it has served to distin- 
guish the eldest son of the reigning sovereign. 
" He does not, however, inherit the dignity by 
birth as he does that of Duke of Cornwall but 
it is conferred on him by patent, as is also the 
title of Earl of Chester." B. F. SCARLETT. 

In Coke's reports, third Jacobi, part viii., headed 
" The Case of the Prince," divers things were ob- 
served : 

" 1. That the eldest Son of every king after the said 
creation was Duke of Cornwall, and so allowed ; as Henry 
of Monmouth, first begotten BOD of Hen. IV., and Henry 
of Windsor, first begotten Son of Hen. V., and Edward 
of Westminster, the first begotten Son of Hen. VI., and 
Edward of Westminster, the first begotten Son of 
Edw. IV., and Arthur of Winchester, the first begotten 
son of Hen. VII., and Edward of Hampton, the first 
begotten son of Hen. VIII. And all these have enjoyed 
the stile, honour, and possessions of the said Dutchy 
of Cornwall, so that the possession hath been always 
without interruption with the first begotten Sons of the 
kings at all times after the said creation in 2 Edw. III., 
which is about three hundred years : So that after the 
Creation/there was never any first begotten Son of any 
king but he was Duke of Cornwall. 

" 2. That Richard de Burdeaux, who was Son of the 
black prince, was not duke of Cornwall by force of the 
said Creation ; for although that after the death of his 
Father he was heir apparent to the Crown, yet because 
he was not the first begotten Son of any king of Eng- 
land (for his Father died in the lifetime of King Ed. III.] 
the said Richard was not within the limitation of i 
Edw. III., and therefore in an. 50 Edw. III. he was 
created duke of Cornwall by a special Charter : Nor 
Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of King Edw. IV., was 
not duchess of Cornwall, for she was the first begotten 
daughter of the king and the limitation ia to the firsi 
begotten son. Neither was King Hen. VIII. in the life 
of his Father after the death of prince Arthur hi 
brother by force of the said creation duke of Cornwall 
for although he was the sole Son and Heir apparent o; 
Hen. VII., yet forasmuch as he was not the first be 
gotten Son, he was not within the said limitation ; for 
aiHnce Arthur was his first begotten Son." 

impr^bove is copied verbatim from Coke's 'Ke 

? ne mfterefpre, I consider, an accurate reply to 
sion. This ISA THQS H 

planation, which it wcm,. 

I do not know whether I can assist J. J. S. 

ffectively, but I well recollect hearing H.R.B. 

he Prince of Wales, on the occasion of his (I think 

first) official visit to the duchy, circa 1865, say, in 

eply to a toast quaffed in his honour, " It is my 

nride to reflect that, while I was created Prince of 

Wales, I was born Duke of Cornwall." This 

would seem to show that the title is hereditary, 

,nd beyond the reach of patents. 

Green Hill House, Sherborne. 

MAYONNAISE (7 th S. ii. 29, 96). The origin of 
,his name was told to me some years ago in Italy 
)y a gourmet. Originally it was made with cream 
nstead of oil One day the Due de Mayenne, 
lad a large dinner party ; the cream turned sour, 
and the chef was in despair for the moment. Pre- 
sently he bethought him that the best thing to do 
would be to whip some oil, and use it instead of 
;he cream. The sauce was highly appreciated, 
aecause it had a new and very delicate flavour. 
The cfoe/was sent for and complimented on his 
new sauce, and questioned as to its ingredients ; 
in reply he said that his cream had turned sour, 
and therefore that he had been compelled to use 
whipped oil instead. Hence this new sauce was 
named " mayennaise," after the duke at whose 
table it first appeared. EDMUND WATERTON. 

When I was in Algiers, a few years ago, I ob- 
served that the natives of Majorca (of whom there 
were many in Algiers) were called " Mayonnais." 
I never saw the word in print, and cannot, there- 
fore, say how it was spelt, but probably it would 
be " Majonnais," the j being pronounced by the 
French as i or y. May not this give the clue to 
the origin of the term as applied to the sauce ? 


I was told by a French friend at Dax, in the 
Landes, that the proper way of pronouncing the 
word mayonnaise was bayonnaise, Bayonne being 
the birthplace of that now world-famed salad. I 
think " bayonnaise " is the correct word, as no- 
where is oil better than at Bayonne, and nowhere 
is a better salad to be had than at the hotels there. 
I speak from long experience. 


[With this communication is sent a menu beginning 
with " bayonnaise " of salmon.] 

THE PAINTER'S BEE OR FLY (6 th S. xii. 346; 
7 th S. i. 437). I have no knowledge whatever of 
natural history from study and very little from 
observation; but the little of the latter I have had 
the opportunity for shows that nature is full of 
simulations. I suppose we may be told that it is 
exactly those creatures which best simulate their 
surroundings that have escaped the ravages of 
their natural enemies and survived. Certainly 
there are numbers of instances of such simulations 

7".s.ii.Au a . 2 8,'86.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


besides the ophrys apifera mentioned at the last 

In the aquarium at Naples the custode by the 
waving of a wand makes what seem small tracts ol 
gravel rise from the bed of the tanks, and as they 
swim away you see they are flat fish (in his simu- 
lated English he calls them " fat flish ") like plaice, 
marked all over with an exquisitely simulated 
mosaic of variegated gravel, quite undistinguish- 
able from that amid which they take their rest. 

Most startling it is when lying in the noontide 
shade of the woods of southern Europe to see bits 
of bright green or dull grey or russet, which you 
had looked upon as leaves, suddenly seem to 
take to themselves wings and fly away. There 
is an insect whose long thin body is a perfect 
ditto of the dry twig on which he perches, and 
while he perches he flaps his small diaphanous 
wings with such rapidity as to make them in- 
visible to the dull senses of the human observer; 
more startling still it is, therefore, when this 
seeming twig finally dashes away into space. 
Butterflies and moths, too, are often pictures of 
the flowers on which they alight. Your corre- 
spondent " doit en avoir vus bien d'autres " in the 
country from which he dates. 

Even " our own " common earthworm is scarcely 
to be distinguished from the red rootlet ramifica- 
tions in which it revels, or from the pink peduncles 
of a fallen leaf. The most provoking pest of our cork 
ferneries odious for his ruthless depredations in 
spite of his sacred Italian title of " piccolo porco 
di Sant* Antonio " is perfectly like the ordinary 
excrescences of the bark in which he has his 
dwelling ; and he is so cunning in remaining 
rigidly still in presence of danger, when he does 
not, hedgehog-wise, roll himself into a ball and 
simulate a pebble, that in one way or the other 
nine times out of ten he escapes destruction. 

The most remarkable instance of plant-simula- 
tion I know of is the peritteria elata the fanci- 
fully-named " Holy Ghost flower " whose thick 
white petals shape themselves artistically into a 
perfect semblance of a dove ; though (as it grows 
in this country) of such tiny proportions that it 
cannot protect its animated double by simulation. 
Does it, perhaps, in its own country attain the 
actual proportions of the dove 1 R. H. BUSK. 

ANTIQUITY OF FOOTBALL (7 th S. ii. 26, 73, 116). 
In the recently published volume of the ' Middle- 
sex County Records ' the following reference occurs 
to football : 

"20 March, 18 Elizabeth. True bill that, on tbe 
said day at Ruyslippe, co. Midd., Arthur Reynoldes, 
husbandman [with five others], all of Ruyslippe afore- 
said, Thomas Darcye of Woxbridge yoman [with 
seven others, including one " taylor," one " harnis- 
maker," one yoman and four husbandmen], all seven 
of Woxbridge aforesaid, with unknown malefactors 
the number of a hundred, assembled themselves un- 

lawfully and played a certain unlawful game, called 
footeball, by reason of which unlawful game there arose 
amongst them a great affray, likely to result in homicides 
and serious accidents." 
Also the following : 

"5 March, 25 Elizabeth. Coroner's Inquisition-post- 
mortem, taken at Sowthemyms, co. Midd., on view of the 
body of Roger Ludforde, yoman, there lying dead ; with 
Verdict of jurors, that Nicholas Martyn and Richard 
Turvey, both late of Southmyms yomen were, on the 
3rd instant, between three and four P.M., playing with 
other persons at foote-ball in the field called Evanes 
Field at Southmyms, when the said Roger Ludforde and 
a certain Simon Maltus of the said parish yoman came 
to the ground, and that Roger Ludforde cried out ' Cast 
hym over the hedge,' indicating that he meant Nicholas 
Martyn, who retorted ' Come thowe and do yt '; That 
thereupon Roger Ludforde ran towards the ball with the 
intention of kicking it, whereupon seeing his purpose 
Nicholas Marten ' cum cubito dextri brachii sui ' and 
Richard Turvey ' cum cubito sinistri brachii sui ' struck 
Roger Ludford on the fore part of his body under the 
breast, giving h