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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 103, January 21, 1888. 


of Intercommunication 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 103, January 21, 188S 





7'K 8. IV. JULY 2, '87. ] 



NOTES : Records of Celtic Occupation, 1' Fame's Memo- 
riall,' 3 Ale-Tasters, 4 Cure for Whooping Cough Chal- 
cedony Bibliography of School Magazines, 6 A Century 
Old Price of Tobacco St. Erkenwald " Woman " or 
" Female " Bouter, 6. 

QUERIES : ' Ranting, Roaring Willie ' Horton Source of 
Quotation Wanted Bolognian Enigma Feast of St. George 
Jubilee of George III. Marson of Holborn Creature = 
Drink, 7 West Lee, King of the Gipsies Society of 
Friendly Brothers ' La Russie Juive ' Scotland and Liberal- 
ism Mackenzie's Manuscript Pre-Existence Matemans 
Siege of Bolton Westminster Abbey Tenor Bell, 8-Clai- 
borne, of Westmoreland Galileo Extirp Stocks and the 
Pillory Irish Privy Council Records Reprint of the First 

[ Folio Orestes Brownson John Frost Cargo 'Country 
Box,' 9 King's End Car Authors Wanted, 10. 

REPLIES : Religious Orders, 10 Bunhill Fields, 11" De- 
fence, not Defiance," 12 'Plea for the Midsummer Fairies' 
Goldwyer, 13 Jacob the Apostle Earthquakes Sir T. 
Erpingham, 14 Brougham Precedence in Church Hugue- 
not Families Owner of Coat of Arms Orpen Yam Anti- 
gugler Jordeloo Bluestockingism Pycroft's 'Oxford Me- 
moirs,' 15 " Another guess " Wordsworth Nocturnal 
Noises Sitwell, 16 Baroness Bellasis To Rally "Norn 
de plume "Arabella Churchill Arms of Sir Francis Drake, 
17 First Principles of Philology A Pair of Kidderminster 
Swanns Motto of Waterton Family Scarlett : Anglin, 18 
Eddystone Hampshire Plant-Names, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Lumby's 'Ranulphi Higden Poly- 
chronicon,' Vol. IX. Burrows's 'Family of Brocas of 
Beaurepaire' Benham's ' Dictionary of Religion 'Brand's 
' London Life seen with German Eyes.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 




I am sorry to see that MR. ADDY (7 th S. iii. 421) 
is infected with the craze for discovering traces of 
Celtic occupation in English local names. MR. 
ADDY comes to the astounding conclusion that 
there existed, side by side with the English and 
Danish Tillages, settlements inhabited exclusively 
by Celts, who kept themselves entirely distinct from 
the Teutonic invaders. This is as difficult to be- 
lieve as Mr. Coote's conception that the Anglo- 
Saxons were simply a foreign standing army living 
entirely separate from the, of course, purely Celtic 
population, who would have been, apparently, still 
drawn up in line resting on their weapons had not 
the Normans annihilated them at Hastings. Some 
of MR. ADDY*S evidence is derived from field-names. 
Of late years a great deal of nonsense has been 
written about what we can learn from the study of 
field-names. This study is not without its value ; 
but I must protest against the notion that we are 
to revise our early history by the light it yields. 
Before we can derive any lessons from these names 
they will have to be studied in accordance with, 
and not in direct contravention to, the laws of 
philology. This latter method is in great favour 
with the ordinary local etymologist, who has 
usually an intense passion for picturesque, far- 

fetched, and impossible etymologies. His vagaries 
are bad enough when restricted to "Anglo-Saxon " 
etymologies, but when he embarks on the quest 
for " Celtic " traces, he seems to divest himself of 
the last rag of common sense. Forthwith every- 
thing assumes a Celtic tinge, and traces of 
Celtic occupation are found in every field. It is 
a question whether these frantic endeavours to 
prove that we English are not ourselves, but some- 
body else, as Mr. Freeman puts it, arise from 
a natural love of paradox, or from an indiscrimi- 
nate attachment to the principle nullius addictus 
jurare in verba magistri. The consideration that 
not one in a hundred of these "Celtic" claims is 
ever substantiated does not seem to discourage 
their manufacture. The fact that the people who 
dabble in these so-called "Celtic" etymologies 
almost invariably choose Teutonic words to work 
upon, disposes one to believe that there are no 
Celtic elements in English local names. If there 
be, it is singular that they should so successfully 
elude the grasp of the army of " Celtic " etymo- 
logists who so persistently dig for them. 

MR. ADDY'S offences are not so grave as those 
of the average " Celtic " advocate. He wisely 
lets Welsh alone. But it is, nevertheless, a phono- 
logical offence to derive the surname Bright from 
the A.-S. Bryt, a Briton. This A.-S. Bryt is a 
very exceptional designation for a Welshman. He 
is mostly a Wealh ; sometimes, to distinguish him 
from the Wealas of Cornwall and Strathclyde, he 
is a Bryt- Wealh. In one or two cases only is he 
a Bryt. No argument can be founded upon the 
Middle-English Brut, a Briton, for the use of this 
form arose from the erroneous derivation of Bryt 
from the Trojan Brutus, one of Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth's inventions. The phonological evidence is 
even stronger than this. Any one studying Middle- 
English must be struck with the permanence of the 
Teutonic guttural spirant and its distinct notation. 
Though it seems to have evaporated from the 
modern pronunciation, it was a distinct sound, 
not produced without an effort, in M.E. I believe 
there is no instance on record of this guttural 
spirant being forced into a word. It is in all 
cases original. No phonologist will, therefore, be- 
lieve that it was inserted in Bryt in the cases 
cited by MR. ADDY, and every phonologist would 
bold that Bright is identical with the adjective 
bright. And phonology, as usual, is right. The 
instance of Brighton from Brighthelmston at once 
explains the origin of the surname Bright and its 
use in local names.* Bright is here a shortening 
of the personal name Bright- helm = A.-S. Beorht- 
helm. There are many A.-S. names beginning 
with the stem Beorht = bright. It is well estab- 

11 Similarly, Bright-well, Oxfordshire, ia Beorhlan-wiell 
(see 'Cart. Sax.,' ii. 72, 37; 595, 32), that is, the well of 
a man named * Beorht- a, or a woman named *Beorht-e 
(the same name as Bertha). 


So that 

lUhed that Teutonic and Aryan pet-names were 
formed, amongst other means by using .the ^ first 
stem of the compound or full name. Hence we 
expect to find an A.-S. Beorht the origin of the 
name Bright. This name does occur in its North- 
umbrian form Bercht, Beret ZerechtKof* 
than fourteen times in the 'Liber Vita Dunel- 
mensis.' It is Latinized as Berctus in Bede, U. 
E ' iv 26. There are many Middle-English ex- 
amples of compound names wherein 
in its correct M.E. form as Brytf, &c. 
local names in Bright contain no evidence what- 
ever of Celtic occupation. 

MR. ADDT next finds traces of Welsh settle- 
ments in the local names Wales and Waleswood. 
There are many similar names, such as Walesby, 
Waluton, Walsham, Walsall (*Weales-heall), on 
the English maps* There is a Wales-burna 
mentioned in 872 (' Cartularium Saxonicum/ n. 
152, 19). There is also a Vals-gard and Vals-btyl 
in Denmark; here it is plain that Val ( = O.N. 
+Valr (pi. Valir), A.-S. Wealh) cannot refer to 
the Welsh.t MR. ADDY is no doubt correct in 
deriving Wai from the A.S. wealh, gen. iveales; 
but the deduction that he draws is wrong. This 
A -S. wialh means a foreigner generally (specialized 
in England as a " Welshman "), and also a slave. 
Indeed, the corresponding fern, ivielen is applied 
almost exclusively to slaves or handmaids. So 
far we see that it is far from certain that Wealh 
in these names means Welshman, for it is just as 
likely to mean " slave." But it does not mean 
either. MR. ADDT cites in support of his view 
the Hitchin field-name " Welshman's Croft." But 
we do not know the age of this name nor its 
original form, and it is extremely risky to found 
etymologies upon modern forms without consulting 
the old spellings.}: Here is an apposite instance 
of this danger. The Lincolnshire Walesby is 
situted in Walsh-croft wapentake. This look 
" Welsh " enough ! But a reference to Domes- 
day shows that the wapentake was then known as 
Walucros ; so we see that the Walsh has arisen 
from the dropping of the e of the gen., the 
coalescence of the of the gen. and the c of the 
croi, and the subsequent palatalization of the sc, 
Hence the genesis of the Walsh is clear enough. 

In any other science than etymology it is needless 
to insist upon the danger of arguing from particu 
lara. The danger is just as great in etymology 
though not so generally recognized. The followinj 
instances reveal this danger. If we find th 

* In ir<(//,am and Waltall the a has been labialize 
by the subsequent 1. In the other cases the e has pre 
vented this labialization. 

f 1 here aUo a Valt-fjord in Norway. 

J In this artic.e, where I give tlie modern orthograph. 
of lo( al name*, it is to be understood that that ortho 
gmphy is ct-ntiriued by Douieiday or some other earl 

ationality of the settlers of one village recorded, 
why should we not find other nationalities simi- 
arly recorded ? Let us see whither MR. ADDT s 
method of evolving history from local names will 
ead us. We will test our local names by some 
)ther national names besides Wealh. We are not 
urprised to find the Saxons (A.-S. toe) recorded 
n Sax-by, Sax-ton, Sax-ham* but it rather 
astonishes us to find them in the purely Anglian 
districts. And we may expect to find the name of 
he Danes (A.-S. Dene) recorded, as we do m such 
names as Den-by, Dens-ton, Denaby, &c., for we 
are well aware that the Danes did settle m Jing- 
and. But what is the meaning of the gen. sing, 
n Dens-ton ? In the light of our accepted history 
we hardly expect to find the Suevi, the Huns, the 
Franks, or the Vandals established upon English 
soil. Yet we find distinct traces of their names in 
our local nomenclature. The name of the Suevi 
occurs in Swaves-ey, Swafield, the two Swa/-hams, 
and in the Domesday tiueves-bi and Suave-torp, 
and in Swcefes healh or heall, in ' Cart. Saxon./ li. 
490 15. These names come clearly enough from 
the A.-S. *Swa'f, pi. Sww'fas, or the correspond- 
ing O.N. *$i;d/y.t The name of the Huns is pre- 
served in Hun-shelf, Hun-cote, Huns-bury, Huns- 
coat, Hun-worth, &c., and in Hunes-cnoll ('Cart. 
Saxon.,' ii. 603, 33) and Hunnes-wiell (id., i. 559, 
20). The name of the Franks is recorded in 
Frank-ley and in the two FranK-tons.t The 
Vandals (A.-S. *Wendel, gen. *Wendles, pi. 
Wendlas) are commemorated in Uuendles-clif 
('Cart. Saxon.,' i. 341,11,34), Wcendles- cumb^ 
;' Cod. Dip!./ vi. 120, 15), Wendle-bury, and in 
Windsor (Wendles-ore, Windles-ora; 'Cod. Dipl.,' 
iv. 165, 9 ; 178, 19). || And we must conclude 
from Pyhtes-lea (Pytchley) of 'Cod. Dipl./ iii. 
439, 14, that even the Picts had a settlement in 
A.-S. times in Northamptonshire ! 

The results that we have arrived at are truly 
alarming. Very few historians will be found ready 
to accept conclusions that involve a Suevic, a 
Hunnish, a Frankish, and a Vandal participation 
in the English Conquest. All these names must 
stand or fall together. If we admit that the local 
names in Wales are proof of distinct Celtic settle- 
ments in English districts, then, also, must we be 
prepared to believe that the Sueves, Huns, Franks, 

Their name also occurs in the Danish. Sax-irup 

f This is preserved in the Danish Svave-sted. Here 
we hnve a Suevic village in Denmark 1 

1 Of. also the Danish Franke-rup (=Frank-thorpe). 

The ce of Wcendles has arisen from the common 
confusion in late A. -IS. MSS. of e and ce. Hence Wcendles 
= Wendles. 

f |j These instances are from charters of dubious authen- 
ticity, but the form of the name agrees with the twelfth. 
and thirteenth century Windlesora, &c. The etymology 
" winding-shore " is a wild guess. It is, however, adopted 
by Dr. Taylor in that seges errorum, ' Words and Places.' 

7" S. IV. Jrar 2, '87.] 


and Vandals had similar villages inhabited solely 
by men of their own tribe.* It is evident, there- 
fore, that we must reject MR. ADDY'S line of argu- 
ment unless we are prepared to rewrite our early 
history. I hold that these names no more prove 
the existence of such national or tribal settle- 
ments than the name of the present King of Italy 
proves that he is a Hun. 

What, then, is the explanation of these names ? 
My answer is that it is to be found in the Anglo- 
Saxon system of personal names, which is, in 
truth, the key to the etymology of a large pro- 
portion of our local names. Every one of the 
above names is derived from a personal name em- 
bodying a national name. The Teutonic tribes 
adopted tribal and national names such as A ngle, 
Goth, Frank, Saxon, Sueve, Vandal, Dane, Hun, 
&c. as name-stems ; that is, they were freely com- 
pounded with other stems to form personal names. 
Adopting the same principle, the Anglo-Saxons 
similarly used Piht, a Pict. The name-stem Wealh 
was, no doubt, used by them long before they made 
acquaintance with the Welsh. Jordanes, c. xiv., 
records a fourth century Vala-rauansrf an ancestor 
of Theodoric the Great. The * Walks of this name 
cannot, it is evident, refer to either the Welsh or 
the Italians, but relates to some other non-Teutonic 
race, whose acquaintance the Teutons had made at 
a much earlier date.J These names compounded 
with national names were, of course, subject to 
the same laws as the other Teutonic names. Hence 
the first stem could be used as a pet or diminutive 
form. It is this practice that accounts for the 
appearance of these national names in our English 
local names. In other words, local names in 
Weales-, Swce'fes-, Hunes-, Denes-, Wendles-, &c., 
are simply derived from men named Wealh, Swce'f, 
Hun, Dene, Wendel, &c. ; or, to put it more accu- 
rately, from men whose full names began with these 

I have maintained upon several occasions that it 
is only necessary for us to know that a certain 
stem was used in compounding personal names to 
enable us to assume, with reasonable certainty, 
that that stem was used alone as a pet form. I 
have been assailed for this by those who were not 
acquainted with the principles of the Teutonic 
name-system; but every day confirms me more and 
more in my opinion. It is not always possible to 

* This is, practically, the view adopted by Dr. Taylor 
in ' Words and Places.' 

f This represents a Gothic * Wala-hralns, A.-S. 
* Wealh-hrcefn, O.H.G. Walah-hralan. The High Ger- 
man or Prankish form of this name is familiar to us in 
the Norman Waleran or the French Gualeran. The 
name Halcho-baudes in Ammianua Marcellinus, xxvii. 
2, 6, is, according to Dietrich, from the stem Walho-z. 

J The impossibility of interpreting these personal 
names as having any ethnic origin is shown by the A.-S. 
names Wealh-hun and Piht-hun, where we have two 
natural names in each compound. 

find an actual instance, apart from the evidence of 
local names, of the use of these pet forms. The 
evidence being ample that the Anglo-Saxons used 
all the above stems in compounding full names, 
we are, I hold, entitled to assume that they also 
used these stems alone as pet forms. For instance, 
we know that Wealh was used in full names; there- 
fore we can at once assume a pet-name Wealh. The 
accuracy of our principles is at once established by 
the occurrence of this very name in the following 
instances : A.D. 696-713, Walh presbyter, 'Cart. 
Saxon.,' i. 131, 27; A.D. 696-716, Walh presbyter, 
id., i. 131, 27; A.D. 757, Vales, gen., id., i. 262, 14; 
A.D. 777-9, Wales, gen., id., i. 313, 13; 325, 10; 
A.D. 800-900, Walch, ' Liber Vitaa Dunelm.,' 20, 
col. 3 ; A.D. 805-31, Wealh, 'Cart. Saxon./ i.445, 
26. I have instances of the use of the pet forms 
Hun and Dene, and the existence of Swce'f is 
proved by the Swce'fes-healh otheall of 'Cart. Sax.,' 
ii. 490, 15; but so far I have not met with instances 
of the names Franc, Wendel, and Seax. But as 
these names are regular formations from authenti- 
cated name-stems, and as they are preserved and 
recorded in local names, there is not the slightest 
reason to doubt their having existed. 

To show the fallacy of MR. ADDY'S arguments it 
is only necessary to consider that most of the Nor- 
mantons are older than the Norman conquest, and 
hence cannot record Norman settlements. They 
are derived from the name Nor$-mann. Simi- 
larly the Nottinghamshire Saxon-dale does not 
record a Saxon settlement, but is derived from the 
personal name Seax-a, masc., or *Seax-e, fern., gen. 
masc. and fern. Seax-an. 

The notion that Gestfield, and Sibbfield, record 
a Celtic occupation is surely one of the most absurd 
arguments that has been produced even by the 
" Celtic" etymologists. It is astonishing enough 
to hear of separate Welsh and English villages in 
A.-S. times ; but the idea of separate settlements 
in the fields of one village, distinguished as the 
" friends' field " = English, and the " foes' field " = 
Welsh, is one that very few people will be able to 
swallow. W. H. STEVENSON. 

Ford's dull and pompous lament for Charles 
Blount, Baron Monntjoy, who was created Earl of 
Devonshire in 1603 by James I., has suffered a 
general, and perhaps merited neglect. I wish to call 
attention, however, to a few points connected with 
it, which may not be without interest either to 
the biographical or bibliographical student. The 
subject of the poem, it will be remembered, was for 
some years before his death a lover of Lady Rich, 
better known as Sir Philip Sidney's " Stella." This 
lady lived from the first very unhappily with her 
husband, and about Nov. 15, 1605, she obtained 
a divorce from him. On December 26 following 



[7*8. IV. JULY 2/87. 

she was married to the Earl of Devonshire at Wan- 
stead, in Essex, by William Laud, at that time his 

This event caused considerable scandal at Court, 
where before both parties had enjoyed great favour. 
The legality of the marriage was disputed, and in 
turn defended by the earl in a learned protest 
addressed to the king. James remained obdurate, 
and when the earl died, April 3, 1606, the heralds, 
it is said, refused to quarter his wife's arms on his 
tomb. Public opinion, however, was divided. 
Lamentations for the deceased appeared as usual, 
and among them was what seems to be Ford's first 
poetical effort A MS. of ' Fame's Memoriall ' is 
preserved in the Bodleian Library (Malone, 238). 
It is a beautifully written small quarto. When 
purchased, Malone says in a note, it had gilt edges, 
and is in all probability the actual copy presented 
to the widowed countess. A comparison of this 
MS. with the first edition, printed by Christopher 
Purset, 1606, and, I believe, all subsequent editions, 
reveals three stanzas more in the MS., 151 against 
148, and different, apparently contradictory, 
dedications. I will notice the latter first. After 
a few lines common to both, the Epistle Dedicatory 
(which, by the way, is quaintly addressed to the 
" Rightlie right Honorable Ladie, the ladie Pene- 
lope Countesse of Deuonshire ") in the MS. runs : 

"Yet ere I committed it to the presse (for fame 
vndiuulged is an hidden mineral!) being vnknowne vnto 
you, I might haue beene imputed as much impudent as 
fond if I had not first presented it to yo r milder view : 
Earnest to vnderstand whether your "acceptation and 
liking may priuiledge the passe vnder your honorable 
conduct : w ch if it may, I shall deeme my willing paines, 
(though hitherto confined to the Inns of Court a Studie 
different) highlie guerdoned; and myne vnfeathered 
Muse nchlie graced w"> y Plumes of eoe worthie a 
protectresae. The honourer & Louer of your Noble 
perfections, John Ford." 

The parallel passage in the first edition runs : 
"Let not therefore (worthie Countesse) my rasher pre- 
sumption seem presumptuous folly, in the eyes of your dis- 
creeter mdegment, in that without your priuitie (being a 
meere straunger altogether vnknowne to you) I haue thus 
ftduentured to shelter my lines vnder the well-guided 
conduct of your Honorable name : grounding my boWnes 
upon this assurance that true ge'tility is euer acco'panyd 
(especially in your sex, more specially in your selfV! 
with her inseparable adiunct singular Humanity prTnci 

nT,' IhaVe 8aid ' a P? ear con tra- 
ictory But it seems most unlikely that Ford 

should have abstained from presenting his lament 
e Countess of Devonshire after having it 
d by a professional transcriber for the pur- 
pose. The explanation is probably that Lady 
Devonshire disliked to appear to sanction tv 
publication of a poem whic? trea^d very fran^ 
various matters concerning herself and her 

late husband, and this view is supported by the 
fact that the three verses omitted from the printed 
edition are more directly addressed to her and 
more personal than any others in the work. The 
second especially describes very forcibly the con- 
trast between Lady Devonshire's position at Court 
before and after her second marriage. The differ- 
ences between MS. and printed text gain in 
interest if we may conclude that they were desired 
by her. The following are the omitted stanzas. 
They occur after the verse beginning "0 sad 
disgrace " (v. 94), which, with the previous one, 
is slightly altered from the original MS. : 

Lyue thou yntoucht foreuer aboue fame ! 
More happie yt thou canst not be more haplesse ! 
The wordes of malice are an vsual game, 
Whose mouth is lawlesse, whose invention saplesse, 
Their breast of hony tomes to poison paplesse 
Still be thine eares to sufferance tun'd readie 
In mynde resolu'd in resolution stedie. 
What hee, amongst the proudest of contempt 
Whiles as thy sunshine lasted, did not bend 
Vnto thy presence? flattery redempt 
W th seruice on their seruice did attend ? 
All stryving to admire, protest, comend, 
Wch now by imputation black as hell 
They seeme to derrogate from dooing well. 
Thy virtue caus'd thy honor to support thee 
In noble contract of vndoubted merit, 
His knowledge to his credence did report thee 
A creature of a more then female sperit, 
Concord of musick did thy soule inherit, 
Courtiers but counterfeit thy Rarity 
For thy perfections brookt no parity. 
The next verse begins as in the printed editions, 
"Even as a quire." RACHAEL POOLS. 

ALE-TASTERS. I think the following is worthy 
of preservation in ' N. & Q.': 

lC r ui xvoBsenaaie;, may with propriety be described as 
the last of the ale tasters ' His proper calling was that 
ofaspmdlemaker,hencehis nickname ' Spindle Dick'- 
and the curious will find allusions to him in the History 
of Rossendale.' He was a fellow of infinite humour and 
performed his duties to his lord and the halmot jury as 
if to the manner born, as the following extract from one 
of h,s annual reports will testify :_< The appointment 


licensed public-houses and sixty-five beer-houses The 
1 oo not detect any signs of adulteration.' When dis- 

7 th 8. IV. JULY 2, '87.] 


charging his high functions, Dick carried in his coat 
pocket a pewter gill measure, of peculiar old-world shape, 
with a turned ebony wood handle in the form of a cross 
that projected straight from the middle of the side. This 
symbol of his office was secured by a leathern thong about 
half a yard in length, one end being round' the handle, 
the other through a button-hole in his coat. As might 
be expected, he was occasionally summoned before the 
Bench on the charge of being drunk and incapable ; to 
this he alluded in his report : ' I have eren been dragged 
before a subordinate[court and fined five shillings and costs 
whilst fulfilling the duties of my office.' In a wide and 
populous district the duties when conscientiously per- 
formed were more than mortal stomach could bear un- 
harmed ; in the words of the good ale-conner, ' deteriora- 
tion of tissue ' was certain to ensue. The last of the ale- 
tasters died, a mart to duty, on October 10, 1876." 


ing appeared in the Edinburgh Evening News of 
Saturday, May 14, 1887. Mary hill, the scene of 
the incident described, is a large and important 
suburb of Glasgow ; indeed, it is practically an 
integral portion of the "second city." Perhaps 
readers will say whether anything of a similar 
character has recently come under their notice : 

" On Thursday a travelling candyman and rag-gatherer, 
with a cart drawn by an ass, drew up in front of a row 
of houses know as Pirrat's Row, a little off the high- 
way at Maryhill, Glasgow. Two children living in this 
rirter are suffering from whooping cough. After a 
rt conversation with the proprietor of the ass, the 
mothers of the two children took up a position one on 
each side of the animal. One woman then took one of 
the children and passed it below the ass's belly to the 
other woman, the child's face being towards the ground. 
The woman on the ottfer side caught hold of the child, 
and, giving it a gentle somersault, handed it back to the 
other woman over the ass, the child's face being turned 
towards the sky. The process having been repeated three 
times, the child was taken away to the house, and then the 
second child was similarly treated. While this was going 
on two other children were brought to undergo the magical 
cure. In order that the operation may have its due 
effect the ass must not be forgotten, and at the close of 
the ceremony each mother must carry her child to the 
head of the animal, and allow it to eat something, such as 
bread or biscuits, out of the child's lap. This proceeding 
having been performed in turn by the four mothers,|the 
prescribed course was concluded. When it began there 
were not many people present, but before it was finished 
quite a crowd of spectators had gathered. From inquiries 
made yesterday morning, and again last night, it seems 
the mothers are thoroughly satisfied that their children 
are the better of the enchantment." 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

CHALCEDONY, CARBUNCLE. It is well known 
that the precious stone called chalcedony in Rev. 
xxi. 19 is not the stone which now goes by that 
name, and is popularly called " white carnelian." 
The " chalcedonius " of Pliny was an inferior kind 
of smaragdus or emerald, found in the copper- 
mines near Chalcedon. Mr. King thinks ( Precious 
Stones and Gems,' p. 158) that the transference 

of the name was partly brought about by the fact 
that Pliny speaks also of a Chalcedonian jasper 
(' Nat. Hist.,' xxxvii. 37). But it is not likely that 
the third stone in the foundation of the New Jeru- 
salem was the " chalcedonius " described by Pliny 
(' Nat. Hist./ xxxvii. 18). The fourth stone was the 
oyxapaySos, translated " emerald " in our versions. 
The third is called xaAKT/Swvin most of the MSS., 
but there are other readings, externally indeed of 
no great authority, which make it very probable 
that the original reading was Kap^Swv, the Greek 
word for Carthage, from which a species of the car- 
bunculus or carbuncle was called " carchedonius," 
" propter opulentiam Carthaginis magnse " (Pliny, 
' Hist. Nat.,' xxxvii. 25). The carbuncle was called 
avdpag by the Greek writers (that name occurs in 
the Septuagint, Ex. xxviii. 18, where the stone 
composes one of the twelve on the breastplate of 
the high priest), from its supposed resemblance to 
a live coal, and the Latin name is derived in a 
similar manner from " carbo " (Pliny, in loc. cit., 
" a similitudine ignium appellati "). 

Attention was called to the probability of 
Kapxrfuv being the true reading in Rev. xxi. 19 
by a " London Physician " in a very interesting 
little work published by him a few years ago 
under the title * The Precious Stones of the Bible.' 
It is evident that this was also the opinion of Mr. 
King, who seems to have fallen into the error of 
supposing that the translators of the Authorized 
Version took the same view. " Epiphanius," he says 
(' Precious Stones and Gems,' p. 157), " and the 
Vulgate render ^aAK^Swv, the third stone in the 
foundations of the New Jerusalem, by smaragdus, 
but the Authorized Version translates it ' car- 
buncle.' " The Authorized Version, the Douay, and 
the Revised Version all call it " chalcedony," 
and the Vulgate has "chalcedonius," the fourth 
stone being the "smaragdus," from the Greek 
oyxapaySos, correctly translated in the English 
versions " emerald." W. T. LYNN. 

MAGAZINES. Such a bibliography is still a de- 
sideratum. The following is the result of some 
gleanings in this field, which the readers of 
' N. & Q.' may be able to increase. 

The Student; or, the Oxford and Cambridge 
Monthly Magazine. 2 vols. 8vo., Oxford, 1750- 
1751. This is the first college magazine I have 
come across. Lowndes gives " Tho. Warton, Smart, 
Bonnel Thorton, Geo. Colman, and Dr. Sam. 
Johnson" as the contributors. An annotated 
copy exists in the Dyce Collection. 

The Microcosm : a Periodical Work by Gregory 
Griffin, of the College of Eton. Windsor, 1786. 
This magazine, to which the four principal writers 
were John Smith, Robert Smith, George Canning, 
and John Hookham Frere, ran through at least 
four editions, the fourth appearing in 1809. 



IT* s. iv. JULY a, 

The Trifler.k Westminster School magazine 

l7M.-ThU was a Westminster 
School magazine conducted by Southey, and for 
M article in it on " Flogging " he was expelled. 
It consisted of five numbers. 

Tfc (7oM0e Magazine. Horce Otiosas.- Ihese 
two magazines (in MS.) were Eton productions 
about 1819, the writers being Lord Carlisle, H. IS. 
Coleridge, W. Sidney Walker, Moultrie, C. H. 
Townshend, and Trower. 

AIM Matina. 1820.-This, another Eton maga- 
zine, was mainly the work of W. M. Praed, and 
consisted of six monthly numbers. Among the 
other contributors were Trower (afterwards Bishop 
of Gibraltar) and F. Curzon. 

The Etonian. London, 1820-21. 2 vols. It 
appeared in October, and was carried on with 
great spirit by Praed, H. N. Coleridge, Moultrie. 
It ran through four editions, and Charles Knight 
was the publisher. 

The Brazen Head. Cambridge, 1826. It ran 
for three numbers notwithstanding Praed's bril- 
liant papers in it. 

The Snob. Cambridge, 1829. Edited by Thac- 
keray, who wrote, among other things, a parody on 
Tennyson's prize poem ' Timbuctoo,' which was 
the talk of the day. It lived for nine numbers. 

The Gownsman. Cambridge, 1830. This was 
another of Thackeray's undertakings. Seventeen 
numbers appeared. 

The Eagle. Cambridge, 1867. The late Prof. 
Palmer was one of the editors. 

Afomtw. Another college venture, of which 
Palmer and Mr. Walter Pollock were the editors. 

I hope that this very incomplete list may be 
greatly enlarged by the readers of * N. & Q.' 



following inscription is scratched in the plaster 
near the large window in the " Governor's Room " 
in the Moorish Castle, Gibraltar : 

W. Ro^Royal Artillery } Drumm e. 
Confined April 4, 1787, for being insolent to the Drum 
Major, 68 lh Regt., which the Governor tipt a cob for 
being a good soldier. 

May it come through him like dogs hunting sheep 


0. Brown. W. Ross. 

W. Newland, 32nd R e gt. W m Trunnell, Corpl. 25"> Regt. 

Chaplain H.M. Forces. 
Hale Crescent, Farnham. 

THE PRICE OF TOBACCO IN 1649. (See 7 th S. 
iii. 106.) Tobacco appears to have been cheap 
and largely used at this period in Scotland. In a 
MS. account of household expenses kept by 
the Rev. William Hamilton, minister of the parish 

of Eastwood, near Glasgow, the following items 
occur of disbursements for tobacco during two 
months. The prices are in Scots currency, the 
pound Scots being equal to twenty pence ster- 
Maii, 1651. 

It. to Andro Carndufffor 4 pund of Tobacco 100 
It. To Robert Hamilton Chapman for Tobacco 18 
It. 9 June to my wife to give for sax trenchers 

& tobacco 1 13 4 

It 10 June. The s d day for tobacco & stuffes 14 4 

28 June, It. for tobacco 13 9 

A. G. REID, F.S.A.Scot. 

ERKENWALD. St. Erkenwald, third Bishop of 
London, who died about A.D. 685, founded two 
monasteries, one at Chertsey, and the other at 
Barkiog, in Essex. These foundations were both 
of them commemorated on a tablet in St. Paul's, 
London : 

" Is prius quam episcopus factus esset duo preclara 
construxit monasteria sumptibua suis, de bonis quo jure 
hereditario sibi obvenerunt, unum sibi in linibus aus- 
tralium Saxonum, loco qui Certesey vocatur, alterum 
Edelburge sorori sue, femini laudatissiine, ad Bereking 
in ditione Orientalium Saxonum," &c. 

Erkenwald, moreover, enlarged the church of St. 
Paul, as we learn from the same inscription, "Idem 
Erkenwaldus celeberrimum hoc S. Pauli templum 
novis edificiis auxit," &c. Whence you may 
observe that "celeberrimum hoc S. Pauli tem- 
plum" could never be the language of Erkenwald's 
time, neither would he have been buried in the 
church ; so that we may be assured the inscrip- 
tion was not written till the translation of his 
bones, anno 1140 ; and, indeed, as Weever ob- 
serves, the whole of it is compiled from Bede (iv. 
c. 6) and the annals of this church. 

This inscription was destroyed in the Fire of 
London, 1666, and has never been replaced. See 
Rev. S. Pegge's 'Sylloge of Authentic Inscrip- 
tions.' W. LOVELL. 


"WOMAN" OR " FEMALE." When will "the 
better half of creation " be properly called ? Tho 
Public Baths of Oldham are now being rebuilt, 
and the two principal entrances bear the words 
above them " Females," " Males." The kindliness 
shown to dumb creatures in these later days may 
be carried beyond the lines of sense if the Corpora- 
tion of Oldham really propose, as they set forth in 
stone, that hot, cold, and Turkish baths will in 
the future be provided for cows and bulls, and the 
females and males generally of all created things. 
Old-fashioned " men " and " women " are evidently 
out of date. J. ROSE. 


BOUTER. In the ' Life of Crabbe,' by his son 
(vol. i. pp. 142-6), there is an admirable picture 

7*8. IV. JOLT 2, '8?0 


of the interior of a Suffolk's yeoman's household 
at the end of the last century, which those who 
have not read should read at once, and those who 
have read will be glad to read again. I quote the 
following passage for the sake of the word at the 
head of this note, which is no longer used, and has 
been commonly misunderstood : 

" If the sacred apartments had not been opened, the 
family dined on this wise; the heads seated in the 
kitchen at our old table ; the farm-men standing in the 
adjoining scullery, door open the female servants at a 
side table, called a bouter; with the principals, at the 
table, perchance some travelling rat-catcher, or tinker, 
or farrier, or an occasional gardener in his shirt-sleeves, 
his face streaming with perspiration." 

That bouter is nothing more than boulter will be 
apparent from the accompanying extract from a 
letter written by Francis Capper Brooke, of Ufford, 
to Edward Fitzgerald, of Woodbridge, only four 
days before the death of the latter : 

" An old inhabitant of Parham says that a ' Bouter 
Table' is a Table fitted with a sieve through which 
flour is sifted, and haying drawers underneath to receive 
that flour. It was an ordinary piece of furniture in old 
houses. An old carpenter in Ufford adds that the ground 
wheat was put into it, without having any bran detached 
from the rough mass." 


Trinity College, Cambridge. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

' BANTING, ROARING WILLIE/ In an interest- 
ing note from K., Arbroath, in N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. 
v. 186, a version of the above was given which 
had been obtained from a lady well versed in 
the ballad literature of the district in which 
she was born, and who had had it recalled to 
her memory by seeing one of Halliwell's * Nursery 
Rhymes.' I have lately received a version iden- 
tically the same, which is said to have been 
current about Bellingham in Northumberland, 
and to have been taken down viva voce ; and I 
am very anxious to know if the version given by 
K. also came from Northumberland, or whether it 
was known in any other district. W. E. L. 

Jos. SIDNEY HORTON. I wish to ask who this 
person was. I find his name written on the back 
of the frames of two water-colour portraits, and do 
not know whether he was the artist or the subject. 
The portraits are of men in Eastern dress, and 
have titles written under each in faded ink : 
" Admiral Pacha," " Reis Effeindi." The robes are 
very voluminous, and are trimmed with fur; the 
one is red and the other blue ; the turbans are 
quite different in fashion. The face in each case 

represents an elderly man with long white beard 
and mustachios. The faces, hands, &c., are well 
drawn, and may represent the same person per- 
haps some English gentleman in character. As to 
period, I think the portraits belong to the end of 
the last century. W. H. PATTERSON. 

correspondent tell me where to find the following 
quotation ? 

Se sub serenis vultibua 
Austera virtus occulit 
Timeus videri ne suum 
Dum prodat amittat decus. 


[Is the author Jean Charlier de Gereon? The lines 
read like him."] 

BOLOGNIAN ENIGMA. Can any reader of 
*N. & Q.' inform me whether any solution of 
the well-known Bolognian enigma, " ^Elia Laelia 
Crispis," &c., has ever been generally accepted ; 
and, if so, what such solution is; or whether the 
enigma still remains unsolved ? W. G. 

one tell me where I can find description, and espe- 
cially pictures, of entertainment given by Edw. III. 
in 1358 to the King of France, &c.? 

Newton School, Rock Ferry. 

jubilee kept at the expiration of forty-nine years 
of his reign? Surely the meaning of fifty years 
of jubilee is the completion of fifty years. 


MARSON OF HOLBORN. I suppose a bookseller 
there. His name occurs in that most valuable edi- 
tion of the Taller by Nichols, 1786. At vol. v. p. 428, 
in an account of John Partridge, the almanac-maker, 
the editor says he has compiled the memoir from 
old almanacs annotated with many curious notes 
in MS., and that Mr. Marsom lent them for the 
purpose of drawing up the account " in three score 
volumes or more." Are they still together in any 
collection and known to the curious ? 

0. A. WARD. 

CREATURE = DRINK. How long has the word 
been used in the above sense ? We still talk about 
" creature comforts," and whiskey is the Irishman's 
"cratur." The following passages show that the 
word is not of recent adoption : 

" Having very exactly viewed the situation of the 
island, and the way of living of the Enaseed nation, we 
went to take a cup of the creature at a tavern." 
Rabelaia's ' Works,' ed. Bohn, vol. ii. p. 230. 

" Oh fie upon 't ! Who would have believ'd that we 
should have liv'd to see Obadiah overcome with the 
creature." Sir Robert Howard, 'The Committee,' 
Act IV., first acted 1663. 




[7* S. IV. JULY 2, '87. 

WEST. Who was the " old West, who I believe 
is now at Chelsea," mentioned in the Tatter, No. 87 1 

(jr. A. A. 

kindly inform me whether there is truth in the 
rumour that one Lee, a gipsy king, lies buried in 
the churchyard of Harrow-on-the-Hill ? This was 
told to my father more than fifty years ago, and 
perhaps refers to many years previous to that time. 
No stone or rail exists to his memory, and I do not 
believe the register records his burial. 


St. John's College, Cambridge. 

* Preston's Illustrations of Masonry,' seventeenth 
edition, London, 1861, p. 387, contains the follow- 
ing : 

" An Act of Parliament passed in this session [1839, 
apparently] for preventing the administration and taking 
of unlawful oaths in Ireland provided 

" ' That this exemption shall not extend to any such 

Society or Lodge under the denomination of a Lodge 

of Freemasons, or Society of Friendly Brothers of the 
said Order,' &c." 

A Society of Friendly Brothers met in Liverpool 
some thirty years ago, probably later ; but it has 
been extinct for a considerable time. A box 
supposed to contain its property is still in exist- 

" Friendly Brothers" are unknown to English 
Freemasonry of the present day. I should be glad 
to have some information concerning them. 

E. S. N. 

'LA RUSSIE JUIVE.' In the most curious and 
important book lately published in Paris, 'La 
Russie Juive ' (by the late Calixt de Wqlski), I find 
mentioned, p. 3, a" Compte-rendu des Eve'nements 
Politico-Historiques survenusdanslesDix Derni&res 
Annies ' (from 1864 to 1874, 1 believe). No other 
description. This work I have never been able to 
discover in Paris. Could any of your readers 
afford a satisfying indication of it ? C. DE R. 


ence Beige of Oct. 30, 1885, had a notice of a book 
which had just appeared in London, in which a 
good many people attempted to answer the arduous 
question " Why am I a Liberal ? One answer it 
observed was given from Edinburgh, " I am a 
Liberal because I am a Scotchman"; to which 
L Independence added the remark, "Ce qui est la 
oontre-partie du dicton : Vous devez Stre Ecossais 
puisque vous etes liberal," 

Can any of your readers explain the meaning or 

existence -of this dicton? To what age is it due ? The 

L Liberal, in its technical and political sense 

TOT? l5 a J e *" 8 n u in , France not much earlier than 

30, and during the last fifty years Scotland has 
been popularly known abroad rather through Sir 

Walter Scott. Can it have come from the two 
hundred years before the Reformation, when Scot- 
ish scholars at foreign universities took what 
would now be called the Liberal side in the struggle 
with absolutism? But has any of your corre- 
spondents heard the contre dicton before ? 


LAND. I should feel obliged if any of your readers 
could inform me the date of compilation of Sir 
George Mackenzie's manuscript baronage of Scot- 
and ; and where or in what library it may be 
seen. P. GRAY. 

9, Bell Street, Dundee. 

PRE-EXISTENCE. I shall be obliged to any of 
your readers who will be kind enough to send me 
my references in Western literatures to the idea 
i pre-existence or reincarnation, either in prose or 
poetry, passages in the works of prominent authors 
Containing this thought, incidents confirming it, or 
poetical expressions of it (like Wordsworth's * Inti- 
mations of Immortality '). E. D. WALKER. 

Harper & Brothers' Editorial Rooms, 
Franklin Square, New York. 

MATEMANS, " so the Lollards were called, from 
their frugal lives and the poverty of their appear- 
ance." If this is correct, what is the derivation of 
the word. E. COBHAM BREWER. 

best account be found of the siege of Bolton-le- 
Moors and the defence of Lathom House at the 
period of the Great Rebellion ? Does the name 
Horridge occur in connexion with either of these 
events? J. B. 

a puzzle connected with this which I should like to 
put before the readers of * N. & Q.,' in the hope of 
some one suggesting a solution. 

To state the problem I must first travel east- 
ward, to the church of St. Michael, Cornhill. In 
or about 1430 William Rus, citizen and goldsmith, 
gave this church a new tenor bell, i which was 
named "Rus," after him. (It may be that the 
gift was prompted by the fact that he was descended 
from a family of bell-founders.) By his last will, 
seven or eight years later, he founded and endowed 
a chantry at St. Michael's, to pray for the souls of 
himself, his wife Isabella, and (inter alia) John 
Whitewell, "his master," i.e., the goldsmith to 
whom he had been apprenticed, and, I think, whose 
daughter he had married. 

The bell lasted till 1587, when, being cracked, it 
was recast by Lawrence Wright, a bell-founder, 
whose commercial morality was not of the highest 
order. The work was a failure ; and in the follow- 
ing year the bell had to be again recast, this time 
by Robert Mot, of Whitechapel. The result was 

7< h S. IV. JULY 2, '87.] 



not much more satisfactory, the bell only last- 
ing eleven years. In 1599 Mot had to do the 
work over again. These are dry historical facts, 
mentioned by Stow, and recorded in the parish 
books, which are still extant. The present ring 
(of twelve) dates from 1729, and throws no light on 
the matter. 

Now for the second part of the problem. The 
tenor bell at the abbey bears this inscription 
(<N. &Q.,'4 h S. vi. 43): 


As to the latest date thereupon, it is unnecessary 
to do more than note the fact that Lester was 
Phelps's foreman, and succeeded him in the business 
in the very year, 1738. But the other two dates 
strangely coincide with the St. Michael's dates, and 
they raise the following questions. Were there 
two bells given, one to the abbey and one to St. 
Michael's Church ? Or, has the St. Michael's bell 
got transferred to the abbey ? And if the latter, 
when and how ? J. C. L. S. 

Fontenoy Road, Balham. 

your readers kindly mention the title of a history of 
Westmoreland, or other book containing the 
early records of the family of Claiborne, who 
formerly belonged to that county ? EVELYN. 

GALILEO. A paragraph has been going the 
" rounds of the press " to the effect that " a monu- 
ment has been erected in Rome, on the Via Pincio, 
fronting the old Medici Palace, now occupied by the 
French Embassy, where. he was kept a prisoner in 
1637, during his prosecution by the Inquisition." 
Is this date correct ? According to the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica,' Galileo read his recantation 
June 22, 1633, and on July 6 was permitted to 
depart for Siena to the Archbishop's residence. In 
December he returned to Florence, where he spent 
the remainder of his life, and died Jan., 1642. 

A. L. L. 

EXTIRP=TO RAIL. This verb is used in this 
peculiar sense in Samuel Rowley's 'When You 
see Me You know Mee ; or, the Famous Chronicle 
Historie of King Henry the Eight ' (F 3, back) : 

Has set this foole a worke, 
Thus to extirpe against his holinesse. 
And (H 2, back): 

She did extirpe against his Holinesse. 

The meaning seems to be "to speak censoriously" 
or " abusively," " to rail." As it occurs twice, and 
in the same phrase, it is evidently not a misprint. 
I cannot find any such signification given to the 
word in any dictionary. Can any of your readers 
furnish any instance of a similar use of this verb ? 

8, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

of any villages in England or Wales still retaining 
the obsolete instruments of punishment the stocks 
(with or without the whipping-post) or the pillory, 
will be gratefully received by ALLAN FEA. 

Bank of England, E.G. 

grateful to any one who can and will give me 
any information as to the present custody of the 
records of the Irish Privy Council about the year 
1610. I have made inquiry here at the Public 
Record Office and at the Privy Council Office, 
and in Dublin at the Dublin Record Office and 
at the State Paper Office, Dublin Castle ; but no 
one seems to know anything about them. 


23, Old Buildings, Lincoln's Inn. 

SPEARE OF 1807. I should be much obliged if 
any of your readers could tell me where I can see 
a copy of Upcott's list of 368 errors in this reprint. 
I believe it was never published ; but copies have 
been made in MS. at various times, and I am told 
are found sometimes at the end of this reprint. 

E. B. H. 

ORESTES BROWNSON. Has any life been pub- 
lished of the late Orestes Brownson, the American 
Roman Catholic writer ? EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

native of Newport. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
kindly give me the exact date of his birth ? Fo? 
many years after his return to England he resided 
at Stapleton, near Bristol, and died on July 29, 
1877. I shall be glad to know where he was 
buried, and if his age is given on his tombstone. 

G. F. R. B. 

CARGO. In Ben Jonson's * Poetaster,' V. iii., 
we have, " A couple of condemn'd caitive calum- 
nious cargo's." Gifford explains, "Bullies or 
bravoes." He notes that the word is sometimes 
used by our old poets as an interjection. Of this 
use I have two examples : 
But cargo ! my fiddlestick cannot play without rosin. 
' Miseries of Enforced Marriage,' IV. 

Twenty pound a year 
For three good lives? Cargo! haiTrincalo! 

' Albumazar.' 

Gifford says the word has been referred to Italian 
coraggio. He himself inclines rather to see in it 
the military word of command, cargo (?) = charge ! 
Can any one either supply further examples, or 
suggest any other account of the word ? May I 
ask for direct replies ? C. B. MOUNT. 

14, Norham Eoad, Oxford. 

What is known of this "ingenious writer"? I 



IV. JULY 2, '87. 

lately came across a poem, with the above title and 
signature, in a book styled * Poems on Various 
Subjects/ by Thomas Tomkins, " London, printed 
for the Editor and J. Wallis at Yorick's Head, 
Ludgate Street, 1780." Tomkins would appear, 
from an advertisement at the end of the volume, to 
have been a writing-master in Foster Lane, Cheap- 
side ; and the book is said to be printed by the 
Etheringtons. The poem itself is a description of 
a rural retreat about a mile from " Cheney Row, 
Chelsea," lately bought by a rich cit named 
"Thrifty." In it occurs a couplet illustrating 
what I have written about Piccadilly in my 'Old 
and New London' (vol. iv. p. 287) as being at 
that time the headquarters of sculptors and statu- 
aries, like the New Road in our own day : 

And now from Hyde Park Corner come 

The Gods of Athens and of Rome. 

Hyde Park Marions, N.W. 

KINO'S END CAR. What is a "King's end 
car"?-used, apparently, in Ireland. 

G. A. A. 

First worship God, he that forgets to pray 
Bidi not himself good morrow, nor good day ; 
Let thy first labour be to purge thy sin, 
And serve Him first whence all things did begin. 
Long do they live, nor die too soon, 
Who live till life's great work is done. S. M. P. 
The unfinished window in Aladdin's tower 
Unfinished must remain. JUNIUS. 


(7 th S. iii. 449.) 

1. The Austin Canons became organized in 
their mediaeval form after the Council of Lateran 
in 1139, when Innocent II. gave them a rule 
which St. Augustine drew up for nuns. They 
had. further rules which they attributed to St. 
Augustine, whom they regarded as their founder 
and they may have been in some sort of organic 
continuity with some order established by him 
I he Austin Friars, or Eremites, were at first 
hermits, but became a mendicant order in the 
twelfth century. They also observed the eo-called 
t. Augustine, and probably claimed him 
as their founder. 

fm 2 TK f '? ol t tiMis were an offshoot 

the Austin Canons, and were called White 

ns, from their white cassock, that of the 

Austin Canons being black. "White Bernardines" 

Wh : r ei M 6r i! me 8u u b - rder of th Cistercian or 
White Monks, or the Order of Mount Olivet 

it was white. 

3. Is not " Black Monks of the Angels " a mis- 
take for " of the English " (Angkrum) ? 

4. Canons Regular are Austin Canons living 
under a quasi-monastic rule ; Canons Secular are 
canons of non-monastic cathedral and collegiate 
churches. "Black Monks "are Benedictines, and 
" Black Canons," Augustinians. Is " Fratres de 
Sacra " a mistake for u de Sacco," referring to the 
order of friars "de pcenitentia," who went about 
in sacks ? 

5. Marmoutier, Mont St. Michel, the two great 
abbeys at Caen, Bee, and St. Bertin, were Bene- 
dictine ; Fontenay and Savigny, Cistercian ; Tiro- 
neaux, Cistercian ; Hautpays I cannot find. 

6. The Order of the Holy Trinity was instituted 
in 1197 as a branch of the Augustinian order. 

J T F 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

1. The Auaustinian order, i. e. t the order of 
Augustinian Hermits, claims to have been founded 
by St. Augustine of Hippos ; the Canons Regular 
of St. Augustine, who are sometimes, though in- 
accurately, styled Augustinians, claim to have been 
founded in the Apostolic College, and to have been 
reformed by St. Augustine, who reduced their rule 
to writing, and is therefore called their legislator. 
The rule of St. Augustine was made binding on 
all regular canons in the eleventh century. 

2. " White Canons " are such canons regular as 
wear a white tunic, e. g., those of the Lateran con- 
gregation. "Premonstratensians" are white canons ; 
they were founded early in the twelfth century by 
St. Norbert, afterwards Archbishop of Magdeburg. 
"White Bernardines" are probably Cistercians, 
who are sometimes called "Bernardines," after 
their founder St. Bernard, and wear a white habit. 

4. " Canons Regular " are the canons of a col- 
legiate or cathedral church who are bound by the 
rule of St. Augustine. "Secular Canons" are 
canons who do not belong to a religious order. 
"Black Monks" are Benedictines. "Black Canons " 
are canons who wear a black tunic instead of a white 
one ; the " Black Canons of Martiall " were pro- 
bably members of a congregation of canons regular 
thus distinguished. Were not "Victorines" the 
canons of the celebrated congregation of St. Victor 
in Paris ? 

5. Marmoutier, Mont St. Michel, Caen, and Bee 
belonged to the order of St. Benedict. 

6. The order of the Holy Trinity was not an 
oflshoot of any other. 

I am writing from memory, being out of reach 
of any reference library, but I think HERMENTRUDK 
will nnd the above, so far as it goes, authentic. 

Liskeard, Cornwall. E. W. BECK. 

St. Augustine of Hippo founded several monas- 
teries in Africa, which were destroyed by the 
Vandals ; but though governed by strict rules, the 

7" S. IV. JOLT 2, '.] 



order was very different from the one called, 
after him, Augustine, or Augustinian. The 
Augustines were governed by rules, said to be 
those of St. Augustine, but in reality the work of 
several Popes, notably Pope Alexander IV. They 
were called " Black Canons," and according to 
Fuller were established in England in 1105. For 
particulars of the order and the pretended rules of 
St. Augustine see Hook's 'Church Dictionary' 
(art. "Augustines "), seventh edition, pp. 71 and 72. 


1. " The foundation of the order was confi- 
dently referred to St. Augustine of Nippo " 
(' Catholic Dictionary,' Addis and Arnold, p. 56). 
But the article seems to assert without reason. 

2. "Premonstratensians" were commonly called 
in England " White Canons," from their white 
habit. They were founded by St. Norbert in 1119 
at Premontre", in the forest of Coucy, near Laon. 

4. " Black Canons " are Augustinian Canons. 
" Black Friars " (not Monks) are Dominicans. 
" Canons Regular " are Augustinian Canons. 

6. "Trinitarians" were founded at Rome in 
1198 by St. John of Matha and St. Felix of 
Valois. The rule was that of St. Austin. 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

HERMENTRUDE'S first question, and the second 
so far as relates to the White Canons and White 
Bernardines, can be answered in the affirmative. 
Most of the information required may be found in 
Dr. Littledale's elaborate article on " Monachism" 
in the ninth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica ' and in Haydn's * Dictionary of Dates,' s. v. 
each order. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M. A. 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

(7 to S. iii. 268, 413). To any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
interested in Bunhill Fields, and who may have 
been puzzled by my stating that I found Dr. 
Rippon's copies of inscriptions at the British 
Museum, while at the same time MR. ROBERTS 
BROWN writes that they are preserved in the 
library of Heralds' College, I would say that we 
are both right. The British Museum volumes con- 
tain the inscriptions apparently the original notes 
made on the ground from A to P, with the ex- 
ception of H. Those from Q to Z, not being at 
Great Russell Street, may be with the Heralds, or 
there may be a complete transcript at the College ; 
but as to this, on inquiring there, I failed to obtain 
information because I was unwilling to pay five 
shillings for it. At the British Museum, besides 
the inscriptions pasted into the large volumes, the 
names arranged alphabetically but not extending 
beyond letter P, there is a small book containing 
inscriptions, apparently copies of original notes, 

also in alphabetical order, and extended beyond 
P, but not, I think, complete ; in it, however, 
was an epitaph for which I searched, the name 
commencing with T. 

ID regard to the Cromwells, I wish to convey 
my thanks to MR. CROMWELL RUSSELL for the 
information he imparts in reply to my inquiry. 
I have visited the tombs (two altar- tombs, stand- 
ing about three yards apart), on one of which the 
inscriptions are yet partly, but very faintly, visible. 
On the smaller tomb, that which was found seven 
feet underground and restored to its position by 
the City Corporation, the inscription is entirely 
gone. It is here MR. CROMWELL RUSSELL says 
that the old lady who died at Ponder's End in 
1813 and her daughter Susan, the last of the 
Cromwells, were buried, and this is evident from 
the absence of their names on the other tomb, 
which only had Dr. Rippon's notice, although, as 
Susan Cromwell was buried in 1834, it is difficult 
to believe that her tomb was out of sight before 
1836, when Dr. Rippon died. " Henry Crom- 
well " has been inscribed on the tomb reinstated 
by the Corporation ; " Richard Cromwell his 
vault" appears on the other, recently cut. The 
" Henry Cromwell" was, I should think, Richard's 
brother ; he died unmarried in 1769, set. seventy- 
one. MR. CROMWELL RUSSELL appears to think 
the vault was that of Major Henry Cromwell, 
father of the above brothers ; but in that case the 
wife of the major (he himself died and was buried at 
Lisbon) would most probably have been buried in 
it, whereas she was consigned to her son Richard's 
tomb, as the inscription on it states. There was 
another brother, Thomas (husband of the old lady 
of Ponder's End, and who died sixty-five years 
before her), buried in Bunhill Fields in 1748 ; his 
tomb is no longer to be found, but Dr. Rippon 
has preserved the inscription ; he was buried with 
his first wife and her parents, whose name was 

I may be allowed to add that a nice little guide- 
book or * History of the Bunhill Fields Burying 
Ground,' published this year, is to be obtained 
from the very civil keeper of the ground ; it con- 
tains a plan and some good sketches of the princi- 
pal tombs. In the account there is an interesting 
Siotation from the diary of a lady who had seen 
r. Rippon at work, " laid down upon his side 
between two graves, and writing out the epitaphs 
word for word. He had an inkhorn in his button- 
hole, and a pen and book," &c. A veritable " Old 
Mortality," as the writer of the account calls him, 
"dwelling much among these tombs, and doing a 
work for which his memory ought to be kept for ever 
fresh and green." Finally the worthy Dr. Rippon 
was himself laid to rest among the graves on the 
record of which he had bestowed so much patient 
labour. He died in 1836, in his eighty-sixth year. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. t7*s.iv.JuLY2,'87. 

The following list of the members of the Crom- 
well family buried at Bunhill Fields is compiled 
from Noble's ' House of Cromwell,' third edition, 
1787, vol. i. The book, though the author may 
be incapable of estimating rightly the character of 
Oliver Cromwell, yet contains, at any rate, many 
curious notices and anecdotes of the Protector and 
his alliances and descendants. The members of 
the family interred in the above-named burial- 
place are descended from Henry Cromwell, the 
fourth son of the Protector. 

1. Henry Cromwell, commemorated on the 
tombstone, died at Lisbon September 11, 1711, 
and was buried at Lisbon ; major in the army. 

2. Hannah Hewling, his wife, died March 26, 
1732, aged seventy years. 

3. Mary, daughter of William Sherwill and 
wife of William Cromwell, died March 4, 1752, 
aged sixty-two years. 

4. William Cromwell, husband of the above, 
died July 9, 1772, aged seventy-nine years. 

5. Mary Cromwell, eldest daughter of Major 
Henry Cromwell, died unmarried July 9, 1731, 
aged forty years. Styled on the tombstone, " Mrs. 
Cromwell, spinster." 

6. Richard Cromwell, fifth son of Major Henry 
Cromwell, died December 3, 1759. 

7. Ann Cromwell, second daughter of Richard 
Cromwell, died September, 1777. It is said there 
was no room for a memorial of her upon the tomb 
in Bunhill Fields, as all the spaces were filled up 
on it. 

8. Eleanor Cromwell, third daughter of Richard 
Cromwell, died February 24, 1727, aged two 

9. Thomas Cromwell, seventh son of Major 
Henry Cromwell, a grocer, died October 2, 1748, 
aged fifty-one years. 

10. Oliver Cromwell, son of Thomas Cromwell, 
died May 6, 1741, aged five years. 

11. Henry Cromwell, son of Thomas Cromwell, 
died unmarried circa 1771. 

1 2. Thomas Cromwell, son of Thomas Cromwell, 
died an infant. 

13. Elizabeth Cromwell, daughter of Thomas 
Cromwell, died an infant. 

14. Henry Cromwell, sixth son of Major Henry 
Cromwell, died unmarried January 4, 1769, aged 
seventy-one years. 

The tombstone at Bunhill Fields, said to have 
been raised over the vault made by Richard 
Cromwell, commemorates also " Mrs. Eleanor Gat- 
ton, Widdow" (sic}, his mother-in-law, who died 
September 27, 1727, and Mrs. Eleanor Gracedieu, 
spinster, daughter of Sir Bartholomew Gracedieu 
Knt., died February 26, 1737, in the fifty-third 
year of her age. No doubt owing to the lapse of 
time, these inscriptions have become illegible, but 
several records of the burials are taken from the 
body of the work, some of which, though not all 

are corroborated by the testimony of the tombstone. 
No doubt the author of the * House of Cromwell ' 
had often seen it. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Mrs. Bridget Bendish, granddaughter of Oliver 
Cromwell, died at Southtown 1750. 

Mrs. Cromwell, lineally descended from Oliver 
Cromwell, died at Yarmouth at an advanced age. 

A nephew of the Protector was wounded, and 
died, in an action with the Royalists. The fact is, 
I think, recorded by Carlyle. 


(7 th S. iii. 206, 356, 430). Fully admitting Capt. 
Hans Busk to have been the avant courier and 
first advocate of the volunteer movement, it may 
not be inappropriate to the subject if I notice 
other names connected with the formation of this 
patriotic home army, which excludes even a 
thought of conscription. 

In Harper's (New York) edition of the Poet 
Laureate's ' Poems,' published in 1873, at p. 250, 
there is a rousing appeal to the manhood of the 
nation, of four stanzas, called ' The War.' This 
poem was sent to me on May 5, 1859, for anonym- 
ous insertion in any country paper, as it might be 
thought political, and unbecoming the pen of the 
royal bard ; and it appeared in the Times of 
May 9, 1859, signed T. It was, of course, a warn- 
ing against the " French colonels " and their chief, 
as " only the devil knows what he means." 

On May 29, 1859, General Peel, then Minister 
of War, issued his order which sanctioned the 
formation of volunteer corps in Great Britain; 
and on July 5, 1859, Lord Lyndhurst, who was 
then eighty-seven years old, threatened England 
with the danger of invasion, unless her fleet was 
strengthened and a powerful reserve force main- 
tained. Sir T. Martin says, in his admirable bio- 
graphy of this great lawyer and statesman, "His 
eloquence went right to the heart of the nation, 
and the response came in the movement for form- 
ing a volunteer force, to which England may now 
look with some confidence in the hour of need. 

The " Isaiah of the nineteenth century," as I 
have heard the poet justly called, is not afraid of 
speaking out ; no less stirring words than are 
found in his address to our riflemen are contained 
in 'The Fleet.' ALFRED GATTT, D.D. 

It is hardly fair to say that any one man was 
the originator of the present volunteer force, when 
so many were engaged in the- work. It is indis- 
putable that a very large share of the glory and 
honour is due to the late Hans Busk of the Vic- 
torias and to Dr. Bucknill ; but there were other 
heads at work previously and contemporaneously 
with them, notably Col. Kinlock, the brother in 
arms of Sir De Lacy Evans and Lord Ranelagh, 
and it is doubtful whether Hans Busk would have 

7* S. IV. Joir 2, '87.] 



been able to overpower the scruples of the Govern- 
ment but for the weighty influence of the late Duke 
of Wellington, who himself, only after considerable 
difficulty, obtained permission to form the Eoyal 
Victoria Kifles (a shooting club) into a four-com- 
pany battalion, although it had existed as an armed 
association ever since the general disbandment in 
1814. It seems that the earlier acceptance of the 
services of the Exeter corps was probably an acci- 
dent, very many other corps having in 1859 ob- 
tained precedence owing to similar circumstances. 
Even the pattern of uniform chosen affected this 
result. It is, however, hardly worth while to re- 
vive the controversy as to the precedence of Devon 
and Middlesex : we of the latter county are very 
well content to stand second. 

E. T. EVANS, Captain K.V. 

A very early series of articles on the volunteer 
system, if not the first, will be found in the Civil 
Engineer and Architect* s Journal, dating from 1837 
and the following years. The volunteer system is 
advocated as essential for the national defence 
against invasion, and the application of the en- 
gineering and other resources of the country. 
This subject will be found to be comprehensively 
dealt with from a military point of view. 

L. M. 

A friend of mine, since deceased, Capt. Evatt 
Acklom, late 16th Foot, often told me that his 
father, whose initials I forget, Capt. Acklom, 
was the prime mover in the volunteer movement 
of 1859. I do not notice his name mentioned in 
the communications of your various contributors. 

iii. 388). In a very excellent weekly periodical 
which, however, had but a brief career the 
Illustrated Family Journal (London, J. Clayton, 
1845), the two numbers, 20 and 21, for July 19 
and 26, are partly devoted to ' Illustrations of the 
Genius of the late Thomas Hood. 7 A foot-note 
says, "From the Illuminated Magazine for July." 
I have the two volumes of Douglas Jerrold's Illu- 
minated Magazine for 1845 ; but I cannot find in 
them any article on Thomas Hood. In the second 
paper in the Illustrated Family Journal there is 
a critique on " Hood's principal poetic production, 
in point of design and elaboration "his ' Plea of 
[not " for "] the Midsummer Fairies.' Consider- 
able extracts are given from the poem, together 
with three graceful and fanciful illustrations by J. 

' The Plea of the Midsummer Fairies, Hero and 
Leander, Lycus the Centaur, and other Poems/ 
was published by the firm of Longman, Kees, 
Orme, Brown & Green in 1827. It was dedicated 
to Charles Lamb, and contained, besides the three 
pieces mentioned in the title, * The Two Peacocks 

of Bedfont ; and thirty-three " minor poems," most 
of which had appeared before. In the ' Memorials 
of Thomas Hood ' it is stated that " many copies 
remained unsold on the publishers' shelf," and 
that Hood "afterwards bought up the remainder 
of the edition, as he said himself, to save it from 
the butter shops." See * The Works of Thomas 
Hood,' vol. v. p. 212 and vol. x. p. 40. 

G. F. K. B. 

c The Plea of the Midsummer Fairies' was first 
published in 1827, with a dedication to Charles 
Lamb. It was not immediately successful, and in 
the { Memorials of Thomas Hood/ by his son and 
daughter, it is stated that Hood used to speak of 
having "bought up the remainder of the edition 
to save it from the butter shops." I believe the 
poem is included in several cheap editions of 
Hood's serious works. C. C. B. 

This delightful poem 

Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing- 
was, I believe, first published in 1827. It was 
dedicated in most graceful words to Charles Lamb, 
who repaid Hood by a passing sweet " Tale of the 
Fairies," ' The Defeat of Time/ Lamb calls this a 
meagre and harsh prose abstract of the first half of 
* The Plea/ but it is in Elia's finest style, and there 
is little harshness in the words of Mercury even 
after the music of Apollo's lute. 

My edition of Hood's * Poems' is the twelfth 
(Moxon, 1860), "a collection of Mr. Hood's serious 
poems, made in fulfilment of his own desire." 

Oak Cottage, Streatham Place, S.W. 


249). Possibly the following notes may be of 
interest to MR. ARTHUR BAYLEY: 

' 1673, Aug. 6. Henry Goldwyer instituted Vicar of 
Christchurch, Hants. M.A. 1685, of Wadham College, 
Oxford. Buried Feb. 2, 1688, at Christchurch. See a 
letter to him from Lord Clarendon (' Warner,' ii., app., 
No. 28)." Walcott's 'Memorials of Christchurch, 
Twynham,' 1868, p. 81. 

" 1699. William Goldwyer, Esq., admitted Free Burgess 
of the Borough of Lymington, Hants." St. Barbe'a 
' Records of the Borough of New Lymington ' (privately 
printed, circ. 1858). 

"1726. William Goldwyer, Esq., of Christchurch, 
admitted to same." Ibid. 

"1726. Henry Goldwyer, of Exeter College, Oxford, 
M.A. July 5." Woodward and Wilks's 'Hampshire/ 
ii. 134, note 3. 

I do not find the name in the list of priors of 
Christchurch given by the Kev. M. E. C. Walcott. 
The last prior was John Draper, who, upon the 
surrender of the priory, Nov. 28, 1539, was allowed 
to retain Somerford Grange for life. It was the 
property of the priory at least as early as 1291; it 
must, therefore, have been subsequent to Draper's 
death that it came into the possession of the Gold- 
wyer family. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7s.iv.JuL*2,'87. 

I have not access to the index to, or a complete 
copy of, Woodward and Wilks, nor to Warner's 
* Hampshire Collections,' both of which might pro- 
bably yield additional information. 



The only references to this family I am ac- 
quainted with are the following: I. Hutchins's 
' History of Dorset,' vol. iii. p. 80 (second edition), 
in a pedigree of Hussey : 

George Goldwyre, of Somerford Grange, Hants. 


Francis Pry, of Somer-=^=Henri- 
ford Grange, son of etta. 
John Fry, of Alver- 
diston, Wilts, who 
died Mar. 18, 1726. 

a daughter=pWilliam 
I Bower, 


Philadelphia Fry=William Bower, Clerk, Rector of 
died March, Edmundesham and Sutton Wal- 
1791. rond, Dorset, died Jan. 7, 1782. 

2. Burke's 'History of the Commoners,' vol. i. 
p. 673 : Elizabeth Goldwyre married Thomas 
Calverley, of the Broad, Sussex, on June 1, 1829. 
She was the widow of Charles Blagrave, Esq., of 
Berkeley Square, and sole heiress of James Hill, 
of Prospect Hill, Berks. There are several his- 
tories of Hampshire that MR. BAYLEY might con- 

I shall esteem it a favour if MR. ARTHUR 
BAYLEY will let me have any particulars of dates 
of deaths, marriages, baptisms he may come across 
in relation to the Fry family, as I am engaged on 
a pedigree of that family. E. A. FRY. 

Varty, King's Norton, near Birmingham. 

JACOB TBE APOSTLE (7 th S. iii. 248, 375, 503). 
It is worthy of notice that the apostle generally 
known by the English form James, akin to the 
Italian Giacomo, is commemorated under the form 
Jacob in one of the old parish churches of Bristol 
which is always known as St. Philip and Jacob's. 


iii. 409, 484). In ' I/Art de Verifier les Dates des 
Fails Historiques ' (vol. i.) will be found a useful 
trustworthy, calculated chronology of eclipses, both 
B.C. and A.D. , down to the year 2000, of the moon a 
well as of the sun, and giving, besides the day an 
hour of commencement, the course of the shadow 
on the earth. This work, in many volumes, 
monument of the critical industry of the Bene 
dictines, may be found on the shelves in the Read 
ing Room of the British Museum. This list i 
very useful to the historian for testing and correcl 
ing dates in the chronicles. The eclipse of th 
sun found to have occurred August 31, 1030 fixe 
the exact date of the battle of Stiklestad, in Nor 
way, wherein Sr. Olaf fell. 

Bede records an eclipse of the sun fourteen days 

efore the kalends of March, 538, from early morn- 

ng till 9 A.M. This is only one day out; it should be 

f teen instead of fourteen, i. e., February 15, and 

he eclipse began at 8.30. Under 540 he correctly 

ecords the eclipse of June 20, adding, " the stars 

iiowed themselves full nigh half an hour after 

ine in the forenoon " (trans, in ' Mon. Hist. Brit.'). 

'he writer of the ' Annales Northanhumbrenses,' 

ppended to Bede (' Mon. Hist. Brit.,' p. 288), 

/as particular in recording eclipses. In 756 (it 

bould be 751) fifth (should be fifteenth) year of 

ing Eadbert, there were two eclipses within the 

month of January, of the sun on the 9th and the 

moon on the 24tb. No total eclipse of the sun 

ad been witnessed in London since March 20, 

139/40, until the last century. 

A list of recorded comets and historical notices 
f some eclipses may be found in Cbambers's * De- 
criptive Astronomy ' and other books. A list of 
he November or St. Leonards meteors recorded is 
riven in an article in the Edinburgh Review, 
Fanuary, 1867. A. S. ELLIS. 


A very complete catalogue of the earthquakes 
with the places of their occurrence) of which 
ecords could be found, from the earliest times 
,o the year 1842, was published by Mallet in the 
Reports of the British Association for the years 
L852, 1853, and 1854. In the third edition of 
Mr. Chambers's ' Handbook of Descriptive Astro- 
nomy ' is given a catalogue of comets observed up 
o the year 1874. A very interesting little work, 
vhich will probably answer your correspondent's 
3urpose concerning eclipses, was published by the 
Rev. S. J. Johnson in 1874 .under the title 

Eclipses, Past and Future ' (James Parker & Co.). 

W. T. LYNN. 


Since the date of my former communication I 
have received the June part of the Monthly Notices 
of the Royal Astronomical Society, from which I 
send the following extract : 

'The accompanying MS. volume (placed in the 
Library) gives eclipses in this country lor a period of 
about 2,000 years, from A.D. 538 to A.D. 2500, being re- 
corded ones of both luminaries from the date of the 
first in 538 to 1200 ; all solar eclipses visible here from 
A.D. 1200 to A.D. 2200, omitting a very few in which 
scarcely a tenth of the sun's diameter is obscured, includ- 
ing lunar ones for a certain period and large solar 
eclipses from A.D. 2200 to A.D. 2500." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SIR THOMAS ERPINQHAM (7 th S. iii. 309, 398). 
Sir Thomas Erpingham was a witness in the 
Scrope and Grosvenor controversy in 1 386. His 
deposition is on the roll (vol. i. p. 59). His 
age at that time is not given, but from the editor's 
note in vol. ii. p. 194 there is good evidence for 

. IV. JOLT 2, '87.] 



supposing him to have been born about 1355. His 
will, dated at Norwich, was proved at Lambeth in 
1427. (Genealogist, vi. 24.) J. H. WYLIE. 

BROUGHAM (7 th S. iii. 407, 462). We have an 
evidence of the popular pronunciation of Lord 
Brougham's name in the last lines of a skit upon 
his elevation to the Lord-Chancellorship and its 
accompanying peerage. His lordship is compared 
to a crossing-sweeper, who 
When he has done all his dirty work, 
He takes up his broom and valks [Brougham and Vauxj. 


PRECEDENCE IN CHURCH (7 th S. ii. 361, 495; 
iii. 74, 157, 394, 500). It is certainly most amus- 
ing to read the searching paper of questions pur- 
porting to have been set and sent to the house- 
holders of St. Mary's, Beverley, which is printed 
at the last reference. In this sense it is worthy of pre- 
servation in the book of the chronicles of ' N. & Q.,' 
but in an historical point of view it is utterly value- 
less. Unfortunately it is a thorough hoax; and no 
one who knows the Archbishop of York could ever 
have supposed that it was either drawn up by him 
or with his sanction. His Grace at once repudiated 
the authorship, and must have done so with a 
smile at human credulity. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I was recently informed on good authority that 
the circular alluded to by MR. WALFORD, and a 
copy of which has been furnished by J. F. F. , 
was issued by the parties opposed to the views 
of the Archbishop of York ; and I think this fact 
should be mentioned. In fact the circular was 
very much in the nature of a practical joke against 
the archbishop. HENRY DRAKE. 

HUGUENOT FAMILIES (7 th S. iii. 89, 176, 257, 
297, 334, 417). I have a small pamphlet with the 
following title-page : " An | Account | of the | 
Establishment | For Believing | Poor Proselytes | 
with an | Abstract | of the | Proceedings of the 
Commisioners | For that Purpose | from the 25 th 
of December, 1720, to | the 25 th of December, 
1721 | The fifth Edition | London | Printed by T. 
Wood in Little Britain 1722." It includes a list 
of the Commissioners, and also a list "of all the 
persons who have been relieved from 30 April 
1717 to 25 Dec 1721." The recipients were prin- 
cipally Huguenots, with a few Irish, amongst these 
" Viscountess Gormanston." If of any value to 
your inquirers under the above head, I shall be 
happy to place it at their disposal. 


Bedford Park, Chigwick. 

iii. 328, 4 17), Your correspondents have rightly 

assigned this coat to Richard Foxe, Bishop of 
Winchester, and the same may be seen borne by 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, founded by him 
in 1516. This is figured in a small engraving in 
the Oxford University Calendar of 1857. Lewis's 
* Topographical Dictionary,' published in 1848, 
gives, s. v. " Oxford," the arms of this college 
figured rather differently, viz., " Tierce in pale, in 
centre arms of the see of Winchester ensigned by 
a mitre, having on the dexter side the coat of 
Foxe, and on the sinister that of Hugh Oldham, 
Bishop of Exeter," a considerable benefactor to 
the college. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ORPEN (7 th S. iii. 389). Can this be the same 
as Orpin, a herb, according to Bailey, ed. 1736? 


YAM (7 th S. iii. 189). Inversion of May ? 


ANTIGUGLER (7 th S. iii. 328, 431). I hope the 
Editor will afford me space to say that I have a 
silver funnel which seems to answer much to that 
described by MR. BUCKLEY as in use in his time 
at Brasenose. Mine has a strainer, movable at 
pleasure, and the end of the funnel is curved so 
as to touch the side of the decanter. I have often 
used it for decanting port, and found it to emit 
no sound and to cause no froth. The best way to 
pour out stout is to put the mouth of the bottle to 
the side of the glass, when no froth, or a very 
little, is produced. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

JORDELOO (7 th S. iii. 26, 78, 117). I fear that 
I have misled MR. WARREN in alluding to a note 
in ' Waverley.' The expression occurs in the text 
of that work, chap, xxvii. : 

"He was playing at quoits the other day in the court ; 
a gentleman, a decent-looking person enough, came past, 
and as a quoit hit his shin, he lifted his cane : But my 
young bravo whips out his pistol, like Beau Clincher in 
the ' Trip to the Jubilee,' and had not a scream of Gfardez 
I'eau, from an upper window, set all parties ascampering 
for fear of the inevitable consequences, the poor gentle- 
man would have lost his life by the hands of that little 



BLUESTOCKINGISM (7 th S. iii. 286, 417). For a 
full account of the Blue Stocking Club and its 
doings MR. MARSHALL may be referred to * Old 
and New London,' vol. iv., under the description 
of Mrs. Montagu's house in Portman Square. 


PYCROFT'S ' OXFORD MEMOIRS' (7 th S. iii. 69, 192, 
274). The author of ' Wychcotte of St. John's,' 
said to be the Rev. Erskine Neale, Rector of Wood- 
bridge (vol. xi. 91), said to be Rev. Erskine Neale, 
Vicar of Exning (4 th S. viii. 542), and the inser- 
tion of the note brings to my mind a recollection 



(,7 th 8. IV. JULY 2, '87. 

j in 4 th S. ix. 148, of which I SITWELL : STOTEVILLB (7 th S. iii. 27, 154, 314, 
werekindly aered. May I ask again, Who 397, 505).-It would be wasting time to discuss 
"Robinson the cracksman, and in the royal the question, if it can be called a question, whether 
\t T,'; H Philin ? " the base of modern German has any connexion 

cortege ""at the accession of Louis Philippe ? 

S. O. 

"ANOTHER GUESS" (7* S. iii. 451).-Gold- 
smith uses this expression either in the Vicar 
or the 'Essays,' but I have not the reference. 
Another classical authority is Mr. Trollope, who 
writes : " Now Adela Gauntlet is no more than 
my donna prima. My donna primissima will be 
another guess sort of lady altogether" (< The Ber- 
trams,' chap. iv.). 



This expression is duly given in Dr. Murray's 
New English Dictionary,' and is explained as 
a corrupt form of " another gates." 


See * N. & Q.,' 6 tt S. xii. 298, second column. 

R. H. BUSK. 

449). Surely this means the wanderer's walking- 
stick, a valuable support and " solace"; but he 
must also sit down now and then, or he will not 
get over his ground. C. B. M. 

" Vagrant reed," or cane, means a walking-stick, 
which is of little use to those who are tired. 


with that of ancient Gothic." When MR. PYM 
YEATMAN has acquired the rudiments of the 
science in which he undertakes to instruct one of 
its greatest masters, he will discover that PROF. 
SKEAT is, as usual, altogether in the right. This 
" rash young man," as he very properly describes 
himself, has, in his hurry, misquoted my note and 
has failed to understand PROF. SKEAT'S masterly 
little article. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

MR. YEATMAN appears to have forgotten that at 
the first reference I asked him to produce evidence 
of a statement, conspicuously made by him in ' The 
Feudal History of the County of Derby,' that 
Sitwell and Stoteville are forms of the same name. 
This he declined to do, on the ground that he would 
thereby "spoil one of the best chapters" in a 
forthcoming book. Subsequently, however, and 
especially at the last reference, he has freely and 
fully expressed his opinion as to the derivation o f 
the word Stoteville, which is not at all the point 
in question, and he thanks DR. CHARNOCK and 
CANON TAYLOR for answering his "query as to 
the derivation of this name." The query was not 
MR. YEATMAN'S, but mine ; and that query might 
have been answered with less trouble and in less 
space than it has taken to discuss matters which 
are irrelevant to the point at issue; 

A county history should be a book in which one 
would expect to meet with some degree of accuracy; 
and if, for example, the author of such a book were 
to make the statement that Shakespeare andBreake- 

NOCTURNAL NOISES (7 th S. ii. 367; iii. 132). 
The following noises are heard at night in the 
region of C. S. Antonio, Buenos Aires : 

Tero real (Himantopus brasiliensis). These I speare are variants of the same name, he would 
fly in packs at night, and utter a cry somewhat naturally be called upon to produce evidence in 
like that of a pack of small hounds. There is a support of such an opinion, 
similar bird in Europe, whose cry is supposed to 
have given rise to the traditions of infernal packs 
hunting their ghostly quarry in the still small 

MR. YEATMAN is in the position of a party in 
an action to whom a written interrogatory has 
been exhibited, which he is bound to answer on 

hours. pain of having his case struck out. If he fails to 

Viuda loca (Aramus scolopaceus), of the ibis answer, the judgment of your readers must be that 
tribe. Its melancholy wail ascends all night from the statement was a guess, unsupported by any 
the dismal swamps. evidence, documentary or philological. I hope, 

Prairie owl (Pholeoptyna cunicularia). Has a therefore, that he will, for his own satisfaction, if 
special cry at night, bearing a striking resemblance not for the satisfaction of those who desire to know 
to the faintly heard hail of some shepherd. the truth of things, briefly indicate the grounds on 

'Bi*e&ch&(Lagostomu8trichodactylu8). A prairie which the statement is made. S. 0. ADDY. 
dog, indigenous ; has a bark. Vide, for further Sheffield. 

^^^^^[s&^s^^ m ^ 

AdSSVSH Lotion the tree f. ?"')_ "* " ***"j. Mu ^. '. H - d - 

the c_ ,Uv" e MffiS "" T H g ' = To SoSn GeTZfy? dfcSSf ilT^ 


baying of the native domestic dog, an animal res P ectlvelv - 

always thin, always bellicose, of no earthly use, 
and whose name is legion. H. GIBSON. 



MR. YEATMAN says " Stutgart was so called 
centuries before the Dukes of Wurtemberg," &c. 
Now the capital of Wurtemberg is always spelt 

7> 8. IV. JULY 2, '87.] 



Stuttgart. Merian spells it thus in a famous 
quotation : " Im Fall dass man die Weintrauben 
ringsweiss umb Stuckgart nicht ablase, die Statt 
im Wein ersaufen wiirde." 


SHIRE, 1674 (6 th S. xi. 188 ; 7 th S. iii. 418, 477). 
COTHBERT BEDE will find a portrait of Susan 
Armine, Lady Bellasis, at Hampton Court, where 
it is mistakenly called Lady Byron. The almost 
entire absence of beauty confirms this assumption, 
which is the opinion of both Virtue and Walpole. 
She obtained a promise of marriage from James II. 
when Duke of York, after the death of Anne Hyde ; 
she is said to have been his mistress. He procured 
for her the title of Baroness Bellasis of Osgodby 
for life, she having been the heiress of the Armines 
of that place. He also persuaded her to become 
a Roman Catholic. She was the second wife of 
Sir Henry Bellasis, son of John, Lord Bellasis, and 
nephew of the Earl of Fauconberg, Cromwell's son- 
in-law. She died in 1713, having in middle life 
married one Fortrey, a " gentleman of fortune." 

Hintlesham Rectory, Ipswich. 

If your correspondents had taken the trouble to 
consult ' The Complete Peerage/ now being edited 
by G. E. C., and published in the Genealogist, they 
would have found the date of death and place of 
burial of the above lady. 


To RALLY (7 th S. iii. 126). It may not be too 
late to give a quotation of this word older than 
Mr. Goschen's address, but used in the same 

" Lord John Russell proposed a series of resolutions 
by which it was hoped the breaches which had arisen 
between Upper and Lower Canada would be healed. 
These propositions were fiercely attacked, but Mr. Glad- 
stone, amongst others, rallied to the support of the 
Government." ' Life of the Right Hon. W. E. Glad- 
stone, by G. Barnett Smith (1879), vol. i. p. 85. 


"NoM DE PLUME" (7 th S. iii. 348). As after 
a lapse of several weeks no reply has been sent to 
MR. BOUCHIER'S interesting inquiry, I will make 
a reference to a statement which appeared in the 
Athenceum of April 19, 1884, p. 505, on the sub- 
ject, in which it is positively stated that the ex- 
pression is an entirely English invention. As this 
is only signed by an anonymous " French Journal- 
ist," it does not seem absolutely satisfactory. On 
the other hand, during a lapse of nearly three years 
it appears to have remained un contradicted. Never- 
theless it seems to me to be too good to be true that 
an English person should have hit on so serviceable 
an expression in a foreign language, and one that 
has certainly been found serviceable by the French. 
I have not had the opportunity since the query 

appeared of consulting any French etymologist 
about it ; but I have asked several diligent readers 
(both French and English) of French newspapers, 
who all support my impression that for the last 
twenty years, at least, it has been constantly adopted 
in journalistic language, if not by the most serious 

The writer of the anonymous communication to 
the Athenceum tries to poke fun at English people 
who dabble in French, and though he gives one in- 
stance which is funny enough, he will hardly find 
support in calling "wagonette" an unjustifiable 
application of a French termination. His other 
instances, "leatherette" and "leaderette," are 
unknown to me. No doubt there are many in- 
stances of misuse of French words and phrases by 
English writers, though hardly so many, nor such 
absurd ones, as are to be found in the attempted 
adoption of English words by French people 
(<N. & Q.,' 7" S. i. 451; ii. 430); but I cannot 
think nom de plume can be set down as one of 
these ; on the contrary, it must be reckoned one 
of those happy hits which only a foreigner some- 
times has the luck to light upon (' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. 
vi. 297), and the writer quite misappreciates it in 
treating it as a misnomer for nom de guerre, as 
there is a pronounced nuance of difference between 
the two designations. R. H. BUSK. 

ARABELLA CHURCHILL (7 th S. iii. 508). Is it 
not written in the book of the chronicles of 
'N. & Q.' (5 th S. iv. 488 ; v. 14) that the name 
of Arabella Churchill's youngest child was also 
Arabella, and that she died at Pontoise, Nov. 7, 
1704, aged thirty ? C. F. S. WARREN, M. A. 

The Cottage, Fulbourn, Cambridge, 

(7 th S. iii. 495). Is it likely that ^ Sir Francis 
Drake was entitled to bear arms prior to 1581 ? 
In Prince's ' Worthies of Devon ' it is stated that 
" his father was a minister," and in a note at the 
end of the article it is stated that " in a recent 
Baronetage the father of Sir Francis Drake is said, 
but without any authority being cited for it, to 
have been a sailor, by name Edmond Drake." In 
Prince's ' Life' of Sir Bernard Drake is the follow- 
ing account of the bestowal of arms on Sir Francis : 

" About this time it was, that there fell out a contrast 
between Sir Bernard, and the immortal Sir Francis 
Drake ; chiefly occasioned by Sir Francis, his assuming 
Sir Bernard's coat of arms, not being able to make out 
his descent from hia family, a matter in those days, when 
the court of honor was in more honor, not so easily 
digested. The feud hereupon encreased to that degree, 
that Sir Bernard, being a person of a high spirit, gave Sir 
Francis a box on the ear ; and that within the verge of 
the court. For which offence he incurr'd her Majesty's 
displeasure ; and most probably, it prov'd the occasion 
of the Queen's bestowing upon Sir Francis Drake, a new 
coat of everlasting honor, to himself and posterity for 
ever ; which hath relation to that glorious action of his, 
the circumnavigating the world : which is thus em- 



[7* S. IV. JULY 2, '87. 

blazon'd by Guillim. Diamond a less wavy between the 
two pole-stars Artick and Antartick pearl; as before. 
And what is more his crest is, A ship on a globe under 
ruff, held by a cable rope, with a hand out of the clouds ; 
in the rigging whereof, is hung up by the heels, a Wivern 
gul. Sir Bernard's arms ; but in no great honour, we 
may think, to that knight, though so design'd to Sir 
Francis. Unto all which, Sir Bernard boldly reply'd, 
' That though her Majesty could give him a nobler, yet 
he could not give an antienter coat than his.' " 

Prince then states how Sir Bernard met his 
death by taking the gaol fever at Exeter, and adds: 

" Sir Bernard it seems, had strength enough to recover 
borne to his house at Ash, but not enough to overcome 
the disease; for he died thereof soon after, and was 
buried in his church of Musbury, an. 1585, in an isle of 
which, are several monuments, but, I think, no epitaphs ; 
his effigy is there in statue." 

This in an error which I have seen repeated in 
other accounts of Sir Bernard, the fact being that 
he died and was buried at Crediton (about seven 
miles from Exeter), but his monument is at Mus- 
bury, as stated by Prince. HENRY DRAKE. 

ii. 445; iii. 161, 277, 315, 411). Personally, I 
must thank CANON TAYLOR for his courteous and 
temperate reply, though I think his whole case 

1. Why resort to Germanisms like ursprache 
and urvolkf (a) Ur=" original" is an inseparable 
particle, prefixed and taken directly from the Lat. 
orior ; BO Anglice "primitive speech," we might 
say " uptongue " but that it would increase Dr. 
Murray's labours. (6) As to urvolk, it is our 
"aborigines," and such people never can be 
identified till you define the country intended. 
The first process is an ethnological inquiry for the 
tnan, " Adam," who first spoke ; the second process 
is to analyze his speech, when found. 

2. The term Aryan is delusive, because it pre- 
supposes the qualities predicated of an unknown 
result. The Canon suggests two localities for in- 
quiry : (a) the aborigines of the Baltic ; this is ex- 
clusively ethnological, and we know that if so-called 
Aryan they must have been Sclavonic, represent- 
ing a western extension of the Sarmatii. (6) The 
Baikals of Siberia, on the contrary, were Ural- 
Altaics, i. e., the Scythians of Herodotus, the 
Turanians of Dr. Hyde Clarke, all migratory 
nomads. So, when we have thus found our 
aboriginal Aryan, and duly scratched him, we shall 
meet with an agglutinative or monosyllabic form 
of ppeech, not now recognized as Indo-European. 
What, then, becomes of our Aryan ursprache, which 
presupposes an incorporating, a synthetic or inflec- 
tional form of speech ? 

3. As to roots. I prefer a geological rather 
than a biological illustration, holding that lan- 
guages underlie and overlie each other, cropping 
up here, disappearing there, in regular lines of 

ficatiou-nothing permanent or continuous, 

3ut always metamorphic. In this way Gaulish 
became Romance; but the Canon's illustration is 
most unhappy. That hereditary pennist refers 
French rouler to an imaginary " roul." This is 
the very pity of it, for the transition is clear and 
needs no intermediate root, thus : Lat. rota, late 
rotulare; Provenfal rotlar, rolar ; French roler, 
rouler. See Scheler. Why confuse matters with 
a needless hypothesis when the disappearance of 
the t explains it all ? Then, as to the equation 
given, viz, "ro, ra, re, rhy, ari = ar!" one cannot 
help thinking of the Misses Scales, who are always 
practising " next door." This imaginary Aryan, 
root ar is only the common Indie verb ar r$ rindmi, 
which has given us the Latin orior; while the 
allied form ar ri arami gives us the Latin rota. 

4. Before parting with this subject, which I 
fear may prove tedious to many and too diffuse 
for the editorial limits of space, I would call 
attention to the spread of language by lateral ex- 
tension. We know it has gone on in Alsace-Lor- 
raine, where French supplanted German; and it is 
easily paralleled elsewhere as, for instance, by the 
decay of Welsh in that province, and of Irish and 
Gaelic in the sister isle and Scottish Highlands ; so 
that the ethnic is always in conflict with the philo- 
logic aspect of the question in our search for the 
great Aryan ursprache. A. HALL. 

iii. 405). Eliza Swann's charm to stop the bleed- 
ing from a wound is given in Mr. W. Henderson's' 
1 Folk-lore of the Northern Counties ' (p. 169, ed. 
1879), but in somewhat different words : 

To Stop Bleeding. 

Our Saviour Christ was born in Bethlehem, 
And was baptized in the river of Jordan ; 
The waters were mild of mood, 
The Child was meek, gentle, and good, 
He struck it with a rod and still it stood, 
And so shall thy blood stand, 

In the name, &c. 
Say these words thrice, and the Lord's Prayer once. 

The charm is said to be used in the neighbour- 
hood of Dartmoor. Cf. also Mr. W. G. Black's 
< Folk-Medicine/ p. 76. 

MOTTO OF WATERTON FAMILY (7 th S. iii. 452). 
A change of a single letter will make good 
sense of it, " Better kinde frend than fremd kinde." 
Fremd is " stranger n in Anglo-Saxon as in modern 

Is not this "Better kind frende than fremd 
kind "=fremit kin = unkind kindred ? 


SCARLETT : ANGLIN (7 th S. ii. 428, 515 ; iii. 
461). The extracts from Sir John Maclean's 4 His- 
tory of Trigg Minor,' given by MR. GOODRIDGE 
are not the earliest notices of the Scarlett family 
in England. They were settled earlier in Kent, 

7" S. IV. JOLI 2, '870 



Yorkshire, London, and Sussex ; so early a3 1135 
in Yorkshire. The branch which settled in Jamaica 
came from Sussex, where they owned a good deal 
of land, and the present representatives descend 
from Henry Lawrence, the president, through 
John (not Sir John), one of his younger sons, who 
emigrated to that island after the Restoration. 


"And so became possessed, in 31 Hen. VII.," 
&c. As Henry VII. only reigned twenty-four 
years, i. e., 1485-1509, 1 wish to ask MR. GOOD- 
RIDGE where the 31 Hen. VII. comes in? 


(7 th S. iii. 428). W. S. B. H. may without much 
trouble see a contemporary account of the storm 
of 1703, if he will refer to a collection of Defoe's 
works, for Defoe published in the folio wing year 'The 
Storm ; or, a Collection of the most Remarkable 
Casualties which happened in the Tempest (Novem- 
ber 26, 1703) ' (London, 1704), which was reprinted 
in a second edition, s.a., also, in 1769, London. 


In Randolph's ' Archipelago,' 1 687, there is an 
account of a storm in 1683 in which two ships 
from New England found themselves. One went 
ashore in Mount's Bay ; the other, although in 
great distress, reached Plymouth Sound in safety 
(pp. 98-108). W. C. B. 

Does W. S. B. H. know that there was a lead- 
ing article in the Times of May 17, 1882, on the 
above ? I cut it out at the time and pasted it in 
my book of newspaper extracts, and cannot, un- 
fortunately, send or offer to copy it. 


HAMPSHIRE PLANT- NAMES (7 th S. iii. 387,479). 
Reference to the excellent ' Dictionary of English 
Plant-Names/ by Messrs. Britten and Holland 
(English Dialect Society), shows that foxgloves are 
called "poppies" in Cornwall, South Buckingham- 
shire, and the Isle of Wight. In Somersetshire 
they are called " pops." 


Foxgloves are called " poppies " in Surrey, and 
here poppies are called " red- weed." 



Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monachi Cestrensis. 

Edited by Rev. Joseph Rawson Luruby, D.D. Vol. IX. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

As an historical document HSgden's ' Polychronicon,' 
though important, cannot claim to stand in the first rank 
among our histories; but there are two reasons, neither 
of them in the narrowest sense of the word historical, 
which make it of exceeding value. In the firat place, 

he gives us in the beginning of his work an epitome of 
the geography of the world, as men then understood it, 
which, though almost entirely a compilation from other 
books which have come down to us, gives an interesting 
picture of what men in the fourteenth century thought 
our world was like. In the second, Higden has bad the 
good fortune to be translated into English by two different 
persons. John Trevisa, the Cornishman, who became 
chaplain to Thomas, Lord Berkeley, who died in 1416, 
and another unknown author. Both these English 
writers have made some additions to the text that waa 
before them, but the value of their labours mainly now 
consists in the good prose style which they wrote. It 
was believed that eight volumes would be sufficient to 
contain the whole of the three texts of the 'Poly- 
chronicon,' but John Malverne's Latin continuation baa 
been discovered. This hitherto unknown document, 
with the glossary and indices, compose the volume 
before us. Malverne's chronicle does not add any facts 
of first-class importance to the knowledge which we 
already possess, but it is full of minute touches which 
those who endeavour to write history accurately will 
know how to value. Some of his statements muse have 
been made, we think, on insufficient information. Wat 
Tyler is called John, not Walter, and Ball, the fanatical 
preacher, figures as Balne. This latter may possibly ba 
the correct form. Surnames were in a fluent condition 
in those days. Men who had the luxury of possessing 
one were careless as to spelling so long as the sound was 
nearly right ; but the Christian name was a sacred thing, 
in which no error was likely to occur. In the war with 
Scotland, in 1384, we are told that the Duke of Lancaster 
saved the Abbey of Melrpae and the city of Edinburgh 
from destruction. If this be true, it casts a favourable 
light on the character of one of whom modern historians 
have been but too ready to think evil. There are many 
horrible details as to the cruelties practised upon a Car- 
melite friar, who had brought charges, which we do not 
doubt were without foundation, against the duke. The 
varied tortures the wretch underwent are too horrible to 
think of. If the duke was really privy to what was 
being done, his worst enemies could not give him too bad 
a character. We believe, however, that he was not 
aware of these horrors until it was too late to inter- 
vene. We are told that the duke was displeased when 
he heard of what had taken place, but not until the 
unhappy Carmelite " ab hac instabili luce migravit et in 
pace quievit." Nearly one-half of this volume is occu- 
pied by the glossary to the whole of the nine volumes 
and the indices. These latter we have not tested, but 
we have carefully examined the glossary. It seems to 
be as nearly perfect as such a work can be. Readers 
who have the advantage of possessing the book on their 
own shelves will do well to consult it whenever the 
modern dictionaries are at fault as to a mediaeval Eng- 
lish word. Unless we are much mistaken, there are 
not a few words to be met with here which have not 
hitherto found their way into any dictionary whatsoever. 
We wonder how many of our readers are aware that 
there were base and spurious coins called " rosaries/' 
The Latin of Higden's text is " rosarios," which Du 
Presne explains as "monetae adulterinae." We wish 
some one would be more explicit, and tell us exactly 
what these deceitful coins were like. Had they a rose 
or a string of prayer beads on them 1 

The Family of Brocas of Beaurepaire and Roche Court. 

With some Account of the English Rule in Aquitaine. 

By Montague Burrows, Capt. R.N., M.A., F.S.A. 

(Longmans & Co.) 

THIS is one of the most interesting family histories ever 
published, and it was indeed fortunate that the chest 




containing these deeds came into the hands of one so 
fitted to bring them before the public in the manner 
they deserve. The beginning of the preface is more like 
the opening of a novel than the introduction to a 
work of antiquarian value. We are told that a chest of 
English oak, made some time in the fifteenth century, 
vraa discovered, containing "some six hundred deeds and 
papers, commencing with the De Roches' property in 1271, 
taking up that of the De Brocas in 1320, proceeding continu- 
ously through the ages till the Gardiners succeeded to the 
Brocas estates, and ending abruptly enough in 1782." 
It is impossible to estimate too highly the value of a find 
of this kind, nor can we, in such a limited space, do 
justice to the way in which the work of arranging and 
putting in order these deeds has been done. 

Prof. Burrows has been unwearied in his endeavours 
to trace out the whole history of each member of the 
family of De Brocas, and Boswell himself never took 
more pains to record every fact in the life of his hero 
than have been taken to verify and make out the smallest 
details about the most obscure member of this great 
house. Castles, tombs, monumental brasses, churches, 
houses, plans, and seals are all engraved, so that we 
may, in so far as it be possible, see what manner of men 
the De Brocases were. There are no fewer than twenty- 
four seals engraved, some of them most curious specimens 
of early art. One, the seal of Elys de Ruede, 1334, is a 
wonderfully beautiful thing, and looks as if it might have 
been impressed on the wax but yesterday. It is almost 
needless to state that every authority that is quoted has 
the reference given, so that all may verify the facts 
for themselves. There is, however, one statement that 
we should much like to be able to gain more informa- 
tion about. Prof. Burrows is speaking of Sir Pexil 
Brocas (p. 222), who died in 1630, and he says of him : 
" He exhibited his love of a jest as much as his vanity in 
retaining a professional jester, said to be the last case of 
the sort in any English private family." What is the 
authority for this? We do not doubt the statement, but 
we should like to be able to prove it. The portrait of 
this jester is still preserved, and some one of a later genera- 
tion has inscribed it with the words, " Hodge, Jester to Sir 
Pexil Brocas, of Beaurepaire." We wish very much 
that it had been engraved for this book. Prof. Burrows 
says : "It is the face of a rough, humorous fellow, some- 
thing like an old-fashioned innkeeper." To turn from 
the merely family history to the part of the book that 
gives an account of the English rule in Aquitaine. Here 
we get a stirring picture of the events that make the 
reign of Edward III. one of the most glorious on record 
It was a great and terrible loss for this country that the 
: Prince did not live to carry on the work so grandly 
begun. Prof. Burrows says that his death and that of 
lenry V. caused the most bitter feelings of disappoint- 
ment and distress that England has ever felt. With the 
exception of that of Cromwell, whose death brought 
absolute chaos, no other deaths have ever had such evil 
ts on the country, so far as we can judge. Those 
persons who delight in working out the answers to 
questions such as, What would have been the effect on 
the kingdom had Edward VI. lived ?-may, perhaps be 
able to tell us which of the two caused the greatest un- 
happiness to the country. We are not able to give an 
opin.on on such a complex ma.tter. We can only add 
that we are sure that all of us who have any feeling of 

l ddight in thi8 aCCOUnt of th 


a special purpose. There is, of course, no finality; and 
a book such as this is capable of almost indefinite ex- 
tension. The standpoint from which the various articles 
are written is, as was to be supposed, that of the Church 
of England. Very judicious steering is, of course, neces- 
sary. Reference, however, to such lives as Pusey, 
Stanley, Colenso, Wesley, and to such even more dan- 
gerous headings as " Eternal Punishment," shows that 
the whole is written with tact and right feeling. Some 
questions sent to 'N. & Q.' might be avoided by a refer- 
ence to these pages. 

London Life seen with German Eyes. By Wiihelm F 

Brand. (Field & Tuer.) 

IT is always edifying to read what foreigners say of us. 
Mr. Brand writes goodnaturedly, and displays some 
acuteness of vision. For English readers, however, his 
book is too charged with statistics. When, however 
a propos to dinner parties, we read that the special 
English soups are ox-tail, mulligatawny, and cayenne, 
and that the heavy sherry which accompanies them is 
" chiefly manufactured in Liverpool," we marvel if some 
of the information is not, to say the least, out of date. 

MR. BURKE, Somerset Herald, is compiling for Dr. 
Howard's Miscellanea Gfenealogica et Heraldica an ela- 
borate pedigree of the Darwin family. Many valuable 
documents have been lent by members of the family 
which will enable the compiler to make this important 
genealogy most complete. It will be illustrated with 
woodcuts of signatures, including those of Sir Francis 
Darwin, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin Josiah 
Wedgwood, and many others. A few copies will be 
struck off on quarto paper for private circulation. 

at(re* ta 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 
WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

must oh C s r v *?'?!? f - communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note querv 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with ttfe 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

.'The World Displayed' is a collection 
and travels selected from writers of all 
was published in 20 vols., Lond., 1759 et 
li ?re on Ce i y Dr ' Samuel John son. A third 
in 1774' 1D ' a PP eared iu !767, and a fourth 

As L to N Sco ? t ' EL ( "- rigin ^ the Name of . Waverley "). 


... NOTICE. 

Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane EC ' 

7' b S. IV. JULY 9, '87.] 





NOTES : Jubilee or Jubile, 21 Dialectic Words New 
"Abbotsford Edition," 22 Letter of Burns Pitt's Last 
Words, 23 Mark Twain " Two blades of grass " ' Barnaby 
Rudge ' Warda Fori Bell at Malvern Origin of Barnard's 
Inn, 24 Death of Art Mac Murrough Caxton's ' Game of 
Chesse' "I'm a Dutchman "Admiral Byng, 25 "The 
cockles of the heart "Blind-house Loftie's ' History of 
London ' Mediseval Use of Word " Missal," 26. 

QUERIES : Busby Brindley, Foley, and Jackson Picture 
of Conference- Symbolic Use of Candles Wilson Fry, 27 
July Knighting Eldest Sons Name of Author Wanted 
King George of Greece Rebuilding St. Paul's Majesty 
" Forty Royalist Officers" Henry Fox "Mazarine Bible" 
Statute Fairs Comic Solar Myths Sir John Vanbrugh, 
28 -Boot-tops Relative Value of Prices Sir Michael Foster 
Authors Wanted, 29. 

REPLIES : ' Greater Gods of Olympus,' 29 Mnrdrieres, 30 
Herbert, Earl of Pembroke Assassination of Spencer 
Perceval, 31 Who was Robin Hood ? " Twopenny damn," 
32 Animated Horsehairs Proclamations at Inquests- 
Cromwell, 33 Epitaph Descendant of Grotius Three 
Hundred Pounds a Year, 34 Lundy a Lane Inn Signs 
R. S. Turner Standards of the British Regiments Richard 
Martin' Ecce Homo,' 35-Italian Book' The Owl Critic ' 
Original Portrait of Shakspeare Correction of Servants, 
36 Women in Red Cloaks Longfellow Sir Hugh Myddel- 
ton, 37 Lieut.-General Middleton " A sleeveless errand * 
Tea-Caddy, 38 Curious Epitaph, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Thorold Rogers's ' First Nine Years 
of the Bank of England ' Hazlitt's ' Gleanings in Garden 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


Whilst at this auspicious period of rejoicing the 
word jubilee is in every one's mouth, it may not 
be without interest to call attention to a few 
points connected with it, as to its orthography, 
derivation, signification, and application. 

First, as to the orthography. In the current 
English literature it appears always, or almost 
always, as Jubilee. This is taken, but incorrectly, 
from the Authorized Version of Leviticus xxv. 9, 
&c., "Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the 
jubile to sound." The single e of the termination 
is preserved throughout, and is also continued in 
the Revised Version ; but in almost all the im- 
prints except those of the Queen's printer, it will 
be found as Jubilee. It is so given in the text of 
Dr. Adam Clarke's * Commentary' (edit. 1836) 
and in Thos. Scott's Bible (edit. 1850). 

The English versions from Coverdale onwards 
present no fewer than six variations. Coverdale's 
first edition (1535) has iubilye; Matthew's (1537), 
jubelye; Cranmer (1549), iubely (1566), iubelye ; 
Taverner (1549), indiscriminately iubelie, Jubely, 
iubelye ; Bishops' Bible, in thetwo beautiful black- 
letter folio editions of 1572 and 1585, jubilee ; 
Barker's ("Breeches," 1610), jubile; Authorized 
(1611), jubile. These all follow the Vulgate jubi 
leus, modified into French jubile t and altered ad 

libitum by our early translators. The word was 
not entirely strange in English, being employed 
by Chaucer in the ' Sotnpnoure's Tale,' v. 7444 : 

They may now, God be thanked of his lone, 

Maken hir jubilee and walke alone. 

The word does not occur in Shakespeare. 

The derivation of the word is far from clear, and 
has given rise to considerable difference of opinion 
amongst Biblical scholars. The Hebrew roots 
being triconsonantal, when written without the 
vowel-points the meaning is frequently doubtful. 
Thus ^31, y-b-l, or j-b-l, may be either jobel, inter- 
preted by Gesenius, Ewald, and De Wette as the 
trumpet, or the sound of the trump, or jafraZ, " un- 
davit, impetu fluxit," according to Kranold. Accord- 
ing to another ancient interpretation, the radical 
signifies to emit, liberate, and abstractly, freedom, 
liberty. This is the view taken by Josephus and 
adopted by the LXX., who translate Lev. xxv. 11, 
' A<eo"eoos cnrjuao-ia avrrj TO CTOS TO TrevT^KOoroi/ 
ei/iavTos carat vfj.iv, " A sign of restitution shall 
that fiftieth year be unto you." 

The Rabbins maintain that the word points out 
rams' horns, which are supposed to have been em- 
ployed on the occasion. Bochart doubts whether 
rams' horns were ever employed as trumpets, and 
thinks that the horns spoken of may have been 
the horns of oxen, or brazen trumpets in the shape 
of horns. 

However this may be, there can be no doubt of 
the references to the Jewish feast at the end of 
seven times seven years, and the social arrange- 
ments and restitutions arising therefrom. 

There are two leading lines of interpretation, 
which start from different ideas, but are not in- 
capable of reconciliation. The one is that of 
restitution, adopted by the LXX. and endorsed 
by Josephus. The other is that of a festival and 
rejoicing, the term applying rather to the accessories 
than to the work performed. The Eastern inter- 
preters appear to have laid most stress on the 
former, but the Latin Church has consistently 
adhered to the latter. 

The Jubileus of the Vulgate claimed affinity with 
jubilo, jubilatio, jubilans, existing terms of joy in 
the Latin language. 

A Bull of Pope Boniface VIII. in A.D. 1300 
established the plenary indulgence of the Jubilee 
year, first at intervals of a hundred, and sub- 
sequently of fifty years, and hence the joyful 
associations usually connected with the idea of a 

This view of the jubilee runs through all the 
versions of the Latin races, and has quite super- 
seded in the popular view the restitutive idea of 
the LXX. 

In the other European languages gome adopt 
the Hebrew word untranslated, as in Danish, " Thi 
det er et Jubelaar, det skal vcere eder en Hellig- 
hed.' ; " For it is the jubilee, it shall be holy unto 


von - Othem translate it into the vernacular, 
^Swedifh of the me passage," Forty tojarel 

skall waraheligt inland eder. . 

Luthw combines both ideas in his version. In 
Lev XXV. 10, he translates jobel by ^lassjahr' 
the year of redemption, but elsewhere he adopts 
halliahr the year of the trumpet or rejoicing. 

Our English version renders a portion of this 
pas^ge differently from any other translation. 
Inthe early English Bibles, Coverdale, Matthew, 
Cranmer, and Taverner, verse 9 makes no refer- 
ene to Jubilee. It stands thus, "And thou 
shalt make a trompe blow on the tenth daye of the 


IV. Juif 9, '87. 

Bible of 1572 it reads "And 
thou shalt cause to blowe the trumpet of the > Jubilee 
n the tenth day of the seventh month." There is 
a marginal note to Jubike, "It was so called 
because the joyful tidings of libertie was pubhkely 
proclaimed by the sound of a trumpet. 

Our modern pronunciation is entirely out of 
accord with the ancient. It will be seen above that 
in our early English versions the initial letter is i, 
representing the Hebrew yod. This marks a transi- 
tion taking place in the pronunciation of j, which, 
being merely an initial i or y, was intermingled m 
the old dictionaries with the vowel i. It is not 
easy to determine the precise period when the 
semivowel j, with the sound of initial y, hardened 
into the palatal j. In Italian a change in the 
spelling took place. Lat. Justus, jubilaus, became 
giusto, giubeko. In English we contented our- 
selves with altering the pronunciation, which, 
however, gave rise to some inconviences. Halle- 
lujah is a poser to many rustic musical amateurs. 
I suppose, however, that we shall never get back 
to the Hebrew yobel or the old English iubely. 

The connexion of Hebrew jobel with similar 
words in the Aryan tongues is a curious subject ol 
inquiry. Gesenius compares it with Lat. ejulare 
Swed. iolcn, jal, jobl, &c. 

Liddell and Scott carry the comparison to Greek 
oXoXvyry, oXoXvo>, Lat. ululare, and again to 
Hebrew halal, to praise hence Halklu-jah. Th 
connexion of Semitic and Aryan roots may appear 
problematical, but interjectional cries of joy o 
grief are common to all races. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 


I have employed some of my time during th 
last fortnight in going through the six volumes o 
the 'Georgical Essays' of A. Hunter, M.D. 
which were published at York in the years 180C 
and 1804. I have come across therein the follow 
ing dialectic words. They have been transcribe 
for Dr. Murray, but as being probably, in mos 
instances, dialectic only, I doubt their being of us 
for the new ' Dictionary.' It will be well tha 

hey should find a place in ' N. & Q.' in any case, 
as they will then be ready at hand for workers on 
he dialect dictionary which we all hope some day 
o see. 

Brimming "I* the North of England, when the 
arth turns up with a mellow and crumbly appearance, 
nd smoaks, the farmers say the earth is Inmrmng 

^ W JJ,I1. stone, called, in Hertfordshire, 

nother-stone, a concretion of many small blue pebbles 

V Cow%ate.- I scarcely ever knew a co^ate given up 
or want of ability to obtain a cow " (vol. n. p. 126). 
Foal (coal-pit term) ."When they [boys] reach the 
ge of ten or twelve years, a more laborious station is 
Hotted to them. They then become what are termed 
ads or foals; supplying the inferior place at a.machine 
ailed a tram " (vol. ii. p. 158). 

Fashions." He applied to Squire Fairfax, and told 
rim that if he would let him have a little bit of ground 
>y the road side ' he would show him the fashions on 
' " (vol. ii. p. 309). 

Crombe." As soon as a sufficient quantity [of weeds] 
are collected on the dam, they are drawn out by crombes, 
orks, &c." (vol. ii. p. 351). 
Flag. 11 The dibbler, who walks backwards, and turn- 

ng the dibbles partly round makes two holes on 

each flag, at the distance of three inches the length way 
-f thej%" (vol. ii.p. 355). 

Shim." In the isle of Thanet they are particularly 
attentive to clean their bean and pea stubbles before 

;hey plough For this purpose they have invented an 

instrument called a shim " (vol. iii. p. 131). 

Fell-Monger's Poalce. " This manure has, for ten 
years past, been used upon the stiff grounds in the 
counties of Surrey and Kent " (vol. iii. p. 138). 

Rowen. " The grass of the preceding hay crop, or 
pasturage, kept from July or August, without suffering 
any animal to enter it, is in Suffolk called old Rowen " 
(vol. iii. p. 151). 

Tivlina." A mode of curing clover-hay (vol. in. 
p. 194). 

Dai or Dei. "In Aberdeenshire denotes the person 
who has the superintendance of a dairy, whether that 
person be male or female " (vol. iii. p. 262). 

Ooze. " Near the coast [of Norfolk] great quantities 
of sea-weed, or ooze, are collected and used as manure " 
(vol. iii. p. 559). 

Briser." In the month of Septsmber, a slight plough- 
ing and preparation is given to the field, destined for 
beans and parsnips the ensuing year. In this country 
[Jersey] this work is called briser " (vol. iv. p. 321). 
- , ery _ They [oxen] should be as little liable as 
ble to disease, or any hereditary distemper ; as 
ng lyery or black-fleshed, or having yellow fat and 
the like" (vol. iv. p. 351). 

Graves. " A farmer in Surrey used graves from the 
Tallow-Chandlers, with very great success on a sandy 
soil" (vol. vi. p. 229). 

Stubbing. "[The Spanish chesnut] possesses a pecu- 
liar faculty of branching, provincially called stubbing, 
from the roots after being cut down " (vol. vi. p. 457). 
Bottesford Manor, Brigg, 

SCOTT'S NOVELS. I have heard that a new "Abbots- 
ford Edition " of Sir Walter Scott's novels is about 
to appear. If this be true I trust that some com- 

7" S. IV. JILT 9, '87.] 



potent person will revise the text, correct obvious 
misprints, and give short notes pointing out where 
the writer was obviously in error. No writer in 
our tongue, except Shakespere, is so well deserv- 
ing of the care of a sensible editor as is Sir Walter 
Scott, and no one of first or even second-rate rank 
has had so little done to purify the text and correct 
errors. The old " Abbotsford Edition " is probably 
the best form in which the novels have been pre- 
sented, but it contains many errors of the press. 

These remarks are made by way of preface to 
the following correction. Of course the text must 
never be tampered with ; but a short note should 
be given in any future issue, pointing out the 
mistake into which the writer has fallen. Father 
Philip, in the fifth chapter of the 'Monastery' 
(p. 59, Abbotsf. ed.), speaks of "The monks Bene- 
dictine, reformed on the rule of Saint Bernard of 
Clairvaux, thence called Cistercian." The Cister- 
cians took their name from Citeaux, in Burgundy, 
Latin Cistercium. Though not their founder, as 
has been sometimes inaccurately affirmed, St. 
Bernard of Clairvaux was the great ornament of 
the order, after whom the Cistercians have some- 
times been called Bernardines. 

Another error occurs to me at this moment. It 
is almost certainly a misprint only. In a note to 
the twenty -ninth chapter of ' Ivanhoe ' (p. 566) 
we are told that the arms assumed by Godfrey 
after the capture of Jerusalem were " a cross 
counter patent cantoned with four little crosses 
or, upon a field azure, displaying metal upon 
metal." " Azure " is clearly a misprint for argent. 
The proper blazonry of this coat is Argent, a 
cross potent between four plain crosslets or. 
See Geo. Seton's * Law and Practise of Heraldry 
in Scotland/ p. 97. The crosses are believed 
to symbolize the five wounds of our blessed 
Lord, and the tinctures to bear allusion to 
Psalm Ixvii. verse 14. "Si dormiatis inter medios 
cleros, pennse columbae deargentatse, et posteriora 
dorsi ejus in pallore auri." Dr. Rock was of 
opinion that the arms of Jerusalem were intended 
as " a representation of the piece of board with 
the writing on it, set by Pilate's order above the 
head of our Saviour on the cross." 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

letter of Robert Burns is in a volume in my pos- 
session. As I cannot find it in the correspondence, 
there is a possibility it may be unpublished: 

Sir, It would be a reason sufficiently just, if I were 
to tell you that I hare not sent you my poetic Epistle to 
Fintry, because I actually could not find time to tran- 
scribe it, but a better reason is, I am out of conceit with 
it myself, and transcribing a thing of my own I do not 
like, is a drudgery I know not how to bear, I dare say 
if you have not met with Capt" Matthew Henderson 
about Edin r you must have heard of him. He was an 
intimate acquaintance of mine ; and of all mankind I 

ever knew, he was one of the first, for a nice sense of 
honor, a generous contempt of the adventitious distinc- 
tions of men, and sterling though sometimes outre wit. 
The enclosed elegy has pleased me beyond any of my 
late poetic efforts! Perhaps tis the memory of joys that 
"are past," and a friend who is no more, that biases 
my criticism. It is likewise, ever since I read your 
Aiken on the poetical use of Natural History, a favorite 
study of mine, the characters of the Vegetable and the 
manners of the Animal Kingdoms. I regret much that 
I cannot have an opportunity of waiting on you to have 
your strictures on this poem How I have succeeded on 
the whole if there is any incongruity in the imagery 
or whether I have not omitted some apt rural paintings 
altogether. I will not pretend to say whether it is 
owing to my prejudice in favor of a gentleman to whom 
I am much indebted, or to your critical abilities, but in 
the way of my trade, as a poet, I will subscribe more 
implicitly to your strictures, than to any individual on 
earth. I have written Capt n Grose, and inclosed him a 
billet to you. If he comes to your neighbourhood, you 
will probably see him. I shall have leisure soon, to write 
off for you, several of my poems. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your oblidged humble serv*, 

Ellisland, 30* July, 1790. 

Professor Stewart, Catrine. 

26, Above Bar, Southampton. 

PITT'S LAST WORDS. The story I am going to 
relate is already known ; but I would repeat it, as 
told by Mr. Disraeli, when Premier, in my hear- 
ing. I happened to sit opposite to him at dinner, 
in a private house, and to promote conversation 
I said, " I suppose, Mr. Disraeli, there is no such 
place as Bellamy's in the House of Commons 
now?" "No," he said, "the members dine at 
the Club ; but what do you know about Bel- 
lamy's ? " I replied that " When I was a boy I 
used to pay half-a-crown to the doorkeeper of the 
Strangers' Gallery in the old House, where I 
heard the best speakers of half a century ago, and 
that they fed at Bellamy's." 

The Premier continued, " Did you ever hear of 
Nicholls ? He was a very respectable man an old 
servant of the House, who attended to the mem- 
bers when they dined ; and as I had few friends 
when I entered Parliament, I was glad of an occa- 
sional chat with him. So I said to him one day, 
' You must have known in your long service some 
great ministers and remarkable members.' To 
which he answered, ' God bless you, sir, don't you 
known what Mr. Pitt's last words were ? " I 
think I could eat one of Nicholls's weal pies."' 
" Now here was the difference betwixt truth 
and history. Stanhope says the last words were, 
' O, my poor country ! ' But there are only two 
things of which a dying man can think, his body 
or his soul not his country; and I told Lord 
Stanhope so. Austerlitz killed Pitt, and as he 
lay a- dying at Wimbledon, his attendants urged 
the necessity of his eating something, when he 
said, ' I think I could eat one of Nicholls's veal 


pies A post-chaise was at once dispatched to 
London, and Nicholls came back in it with some 
veal pies in a napkin ; but the minister was gone 
when they arrived." 

The life and force of Lord Beaconfield's conversa- 
tion are of course wanting in my narration ; but 
the story is his, and he laid comic stress on the 
cockney word weal. ALFRED GATTT, D.D. 

MARK TWAIN.-M. Max O'Rell's recent asser- 
tion at Exeter Hall that the absence of soapm the 
bedrooms of the continental hotels was to be attri- 
buted to the custom of foreigners of carrying their 
toilet requisites in their portmanteaux, and not to 
their uncleanliness, may induce the author of 'Inno- 
cents Abroad' to review his facetious remarks on 
that subiect with as strong a revulsion of feeling 
as he has shown in his description of that simple 
but all-important ceremony of threading a needle. 
In 'The Prince and the Pauper' (Chatto & 
Windus, 1881), at p. 133, Miles Hendon soli- 
loquizes, while endeavouring to use a needle and 
thread " Now shall I have the demon's own time 
to thread it." "And," observes Mark Twain, 
" so he had. He did as men have always done, 
and probably always will do to the end of time- 
held the needle still and tried to thrust the thread 
through the eye, which is the oppposite of a 
woman's way." 

Three years later, in ' The Adventures of Huckle- 
berry Finn' (Chatto & Windus), p. 95, Mrs. 
Judith Loftus thus apostrophizes that precocious 
youth : ' Bless you, child, when you set out to 
thread a needle, don't hold the thread still and 
fetch the needle up to it : hold the needle still 
and poke the thread at' it that 's the way a woman 
moat always does : but a man always does t' other 

This contradiction has puzzled me as much as 
the description of Mrs. Weller, in the ' Pickwick 
Papers/ as the immortal Sam's " mother-in-law.' 

74, King Edward Road, Hackney. 

"Two BLADES OP GRASS." A Mr. Moreton 
Frewen writes to the Pall Mall Gazette anc 
ascribes to Mr. Horace Greeley the sentiment as 
to "he who made two blades of grass to grow in 
the place of one." This gentleman has evidently 
never read ' Gulliver's Travels.' D. 

'BARNABY RUDGE.' In reading this book o 
Dickens I came across two points of which I ques 
tion the accuracy. 

1. Dickens places Mr. Chester in chambers in 
Paper Buildings, Temple, in 1775. I doub 
whether that row of buildings was in existence a 
so early a date. 

2. He gives Mr. Haredale a sword as the ordi 
nary wear of a gentleman in 1780. I fancy tha 
words were discontinued before that time. H. 



Thomson, in his Chronicles of London Bridge, 
p 117, speaks of the "Ward of Fori, or Tore 
street." This statement has much exercised me, 
as it gave rise to the suspicion that before the 
ettlement of the City into twenty-four wards (now 
wenty-six) there had been other, and now for- 
gotten, ones; whereas I have ground for suspect- 
ng the earliest division to have been into twelve 
wards only. I am now able to determine this 
doubtful point with regard to a ward of Fore 
Street, and it may be desirable to place it on 
ecord in the universal index pages of ' N. & Q. 

In the 'Liber Albus' (Riley), " Munimenta 
Jildhalda Londiniensis," pt. ii. vol. i. p. 379, a 
ist is given appointing the days on which the 
different wards are to appear and plead before the 
ustices. As, from this list, by " Warda Fori" the 
Ward of Cheap is so evidently meant, we arrive 
at the interesting fact that the citizens designated 
the ward in which their chief and richest merchants 
dwelt as the Warda Fori, or Ward of the Forum : 
Die Lunae Fardone, infra et extra. 
Die Martis Cripplegate, infra et extra. 

Die Mercurii Ripa Reginae. 


Die Jovis Cordwanerstrete. 
Die Veneris Warda Fori. 

Castrum Baynardi. 
Die Sabbati Langburne. 

3, Heathfield Road, Acton, W. 

are being cast for Malvern Priory Church, and 
during the necessary alterations one of the old 
bells is now on the floor of the church. It bears 
in Lombardic letters : 


W. C. B. 

(See 7 th S. ii. and iii. passim.) In the list of the 
principals of this society occurs, in the time of 
Henry VIII., William D' Allison. It may interest 
some of your correspondents to know that this 
person's name is met with in the ' Visitation of the 
County of Lincoln in 1562-4,' edited by Walter 

7> S. IV. JULY 9, '87.] 


C. Metcalfe, 1881, p. 36. William was so com- 
mon a name in this family that it is not easy to 
tell which of the Williams is the principal. I 
give an extract from the pedigree, which must 
include him : 

William Dallison=j= , dau. of Langton, of Durham. 

William Dallison, of Scotney,=p , dau. to Wastneys, of 
co. Line., ol. 38 Hen. VIII. I Eeaden, in com. Notts. 

Sir William Dallison^Elizabetb, dau. of Robert 
[the judge. | Dighton, of Sturton. 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

rity that envelopes some historical facts is as tan- 
talizing as the light that floods others is charming. 
This is peculiarly so in Irish history, an instance 
of which former I stumbled across recently in 
searching for data of the career of the above- 
named warrior-king of Leinster. Most writers 
are delightfully at one concerning the stirring inci- 
dents of his life, but join issue irritatingly as to 
the manner and cause of his death the very 
point I am particularly anxious to be clear upon. 
Haverty says : 

" He is supposed to have been poisoned along with his 
cbief Brehon, O'Doran, by a drink administered to him 
by a woman at New Ross the week after Christmas." 

And the " Four Masters," ad ann. 1417, write : 
"Art Cavanagb, King of Leinster, the son of Art, son 
of Murtogb, son of Maurice, Lord of Leinster, died; some 
state that it was by drinking a poisonous draught which 
a woman gave bim at Roes Mac Briuin, and also to 
O'Doran, tbe Brehon of Leinster, that both died; 
Donogh, his son, succeeded him in the government." 

Haverty simply echoes the statement of the " Four 
Masters," while others make no reference at all to 
the supposition of death by poisoning. The autho- 
rity of the " Four Masters " is undoubtedly great, 
but I should like to have additional light, if pos- 
sible, thrown on the matter, of which, perhaps, 
some fellow contributor to ' N. & Q.' might be the 
possessor. J. B. S. 


Fitzgerald, in his recently published ' Bookfancier,' 
repeats the well-known anecdote of David Wilson 
(" Snuffy Davy ") buying a copy of the first edition 
of this rare work in Holland for about twopence, 
selling it for twenty pounds, and books to the 
value of twenty more, to Osborne, who sold it to 
Dr. Askew for sixty guineas, and its final sale by 
auction after Askew's death, when it was bought 
for the Eoyal Library for one hundred and seventy 
pounds. Such is the story as told by Jonathan 
Oldbuck in chap. iii. of 'The Antiquary/ and 

confirmed by Sir Walter Scott himself in a note, 
saying, " This bibliomaniacal anecdote is literally 
true." Mr. Fitzgerald tells us that the price 
realized at Askew's sale was three hundred and 
seventy pounds ; but the discrepancy is immate- 
rial, for the plain fact is that the whole story, Sir 
Walter's positive assertion notwithstanding, is a 
pure fiction. Askew died in 1774, and his library 
was sold in February, 1775, when the copy so 
confidently asserted to have been bought for the 
king had been already nearly two years in the 
Eoyal Library, having been bought (for 32Z. Os. 6d.) 
at the sale of James's West's library, in March, 
1773, nor am I aware of any authority, save that 
of the anecdote above mentioned, for supposing 
that Dr. Askew ever possessed a copy of the book 
in question. The notion of Osborne paying what 
must have been, in his estimation, so exorbitant a 
price for anything printed by Caxton, is sufficiently 
disposed of by the fact that he never put a higher 
value than one guinea on any of those which he 
bought in the Harleian Library, which contained 
more than fifty, and among them at least one, if 
not two copies of this very first edition of the 
1 Game of Chesse.' 

The highest price of which there is any positively 
authentic record as paid for a Caxton during the 
last century was 47?. 15s. 6d. for a first edition of 
'The Canterbury Tales ' (also in West's sale, 1773), 
nor was this amount ever exceeded till 1807, when 
a copy of ' The Knight of the Tower ' was sold at 
Brand's sale for 101J. 6s. to Earl Spencer. 

F. N. 

" I 'M A DUTCHMAN." Not very long ago three 
of the leading parishioners in a rural parish waited, 
as a deputation, upon their rector to ask for his 
support, pecuniary and otherwise, to their pro- 
jected treat to the poor on the Jubilee day, when 
the rector replied to the deputation in these words : 
"If I give a farthing to the Jubilee, I 'm a Dutch- 
man ! n I have looked through the five volumes 
of the General Index of ' N. & Q.,' and as I do 
not find " I 'm a Dutchman " recorded among the 
" Proverbs and Phrases," I here make a note of it. 
Is its origin known ? CUTHBERT BEDE. 

ADMIRAL BTNG. (See 7 th S. iii. 346.) The 
name of this unfortunate, rather than " unhappy " 
admiral was John, not George, as your corre- 
spondent styles him, and he was not either a 
knight or a baronet, but the fourth son of George 
Byng, who was created in 1721, for his services, 
Viscount Torrington and Baron Byng, of Southill, 
himself a gallant naval officer. The Hon. John 
Byng was shot March 14, 1757, on board the 
Monarque, in order, as Voltaire sarcastically 
observes, in ' Candide ; ou, rOptisme,' "pour 
encourager les autres." This was, according to 
Smollett's 'History of England' (c. xxvi.), "a 
third-rate ship of war anchored in the harbour of 



[7* S. IV. JULY 9, '87. 

Portsmouth." Prefixed to vol. xii. of the edition 
of 1834, in my library, is a frontispiece representing 
the " Execution of Admiral Byng," in which he i 
depicted as blindfolded, kneeling on a cushion on 
the deck of the Monarque, and dropping a white 
handkerchief as a signal, whilst in front of him 
five marines are firing a volley at his breast. Thi 
is engraved, probably on a very reduced scale, from 
some larger contemporaneous print of the subject 
The mortal remains of Admiral Byng rest in the 
vault of the Eying family in Southill Church, nea 
Biggleswade, and near it is erected a mural monu 
ment to his memory, narrating how his life wai 
unjustly sacrificed to gratify merely a populai 
clamour. The inscription recorded upon it may 
be seen in full in Boswell's * Life of Johnson/ where 
it is printed, and, it may be added, has been 
perpetuated. JOHN PICKPORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Palmer, in his * Folk-Etymology,' s. v. " Cockle/ 
says : 

"Cocklet, in the curious phrase 'the cockles of the 
heart,' has never been explained. It occurs in Eachard's 
'Observations,' 1671, 'This contrivance of his did in- 
wardly rejoice the cockles of his heart' (Wright)." 

The phrase is never heard except as used jocosely. 
If one offers an old friend a glass of good wine one 
may say, "There! that will warm the cockles of 
your heart "; but the words could never be used 
seriously, either in conversation or in writing. 
Hotten's ' Slang Dictionary' (1864) calls it "a 
vulgar phrase," and so no doubt it would be if 
seriously used. 

In an anatomical work on the heart I have met 
with a passage which seems to give some hint as 
to the origin of the expression. Lower, one of 
the most eminent anatomists of the seventeenth 
century, in his ' Tractatus de Corde/ 1669, p. 25, 
speaking of the muscular fibres of the ventricles 
says :- 

"Fibrae quidem rectis hisce exterioribus in dextro 
ventriculo proxime subjectae oblique dextrorsum ascen- 
dentes in basin cordis terminantur, et spirali suo ambitu 
helicem sive cocKUam satis apte referunt." 
The ventricles of the heart might, therefore, be 
called cochlea cordig, and this would easily be turned 
into "cockles of the heart." What we want is 
some quotation from a grave writer that will 
bridge over the gap between the cochlea cordis of 
the anatomist and the phrase "cockles of the heart " 
used jocosely, as, for instance, by Hood : 
To cure Mamma another dose brought home 
Of Cockles ; not the cockles of her heart. 


recently when passing through Steeple Ashton, a 
village in Wiltshire about four mile from Trow* 
bridge, I noticed in the centre of the village, stand- 

ing by itself, but close to the village cross, a very 
small,* circular, solidly-constructed stone building 
terminating in a dome. I inquired what it was, 
and was told it was used as a lock-up for offenders 
until they could be brought before a magistrate, 
and that there was a bedstead in it. My informant 
added that it was called the blind-house because 
there were no windows in it.f Now, I know very 
well that blind is used in this sense, and many 
examples will be found in part iii. of the ' New 
English Dictionary/ though blind-house is not 
among them ; but I should be glad to learn 
whether there are many villages in England in 
which there is such a structure ; and, if so, whether 
it is also called a blind-house. I want to know, in 
fact, whether the expression has become a technical 
term=lock-up, or whether it has by chance come 
to be so used in this particular village only. I was 
reminded by it of the city prison in New York, 
which is, no doubt from the same reason with 
others, very expressively called the Tombs, though 
I do not know that that term has been extended 
to any other prison in the United States. 

Sydenham Hill. 

LONDON.' On p. 133 of this interesting little 
book, which appears as the first of the series now 
being edited by Prof. Freeman, I read the follow- 
ing : " There is no county in England [Middlesex 
is here alluded to] which can be compared with it 
in wealth, population, and importance," &c. The 
population of Lancashire in 1881 was 3,454,441, 
whereas that of Middlesex was only 2,920,485. 
I might add we have a near rival, too, in the 
largest county, which has 2,886,564. 


The learned canon of York, the late Mr. Simmons, 
in his admirable notes to the 'Lay Folks' Mass- 
book' (E.E.T.S., 1879), p. 155, has expressed 
an opinion which I have heard elsewhere, that the 
yord " Missal is comparatively modern, and in all 
ikelihood was never in ordinary use as long as the 
Mass-book itself was a service book of the Church 
of England." 

I have lately been looking over (not for this 

mrpose) the < Testamenta Eboracensia ' of the Sur- 

ees Society, and I find in them no fewer than five 

nstances of the word Missal being used for the 

Vlass-book before the Reformation. Inpt. ii. p. 21 

Nicholas Blakburn in 1431/2 bequeaths "my 

beste vestment, my best Missall, and my best 

chaleys." In pt. iv. p. 100, Sir Martin of the Sea 

' but " ix to eigbt in 

I 8 ' * h ^ ve been told since, a grati 

" not iuffici "*' 7 


7" S. IV. Joir 9, '87.] 



in 1494 leaves " to the chirch of Litle Cotes a 
Missale, the which I lent to theme." At p. 161, 
Robert Herste in 1498/9 wills, "To the same 
church my Messe book, otherwise named a 
Messall." At p. 201, Dame Joan Chamberleyn 
in 1501/2 bequeaths "on Messall, on chales w* 
patene." At p. 247, William Dyneley in 1506 
leaves to "ye chapell in Holbek my Messall, my 
portus in prynte." 

Mr. W. H. St. John Hope (to whom I am also 
indebted for the first of^ these references) points 
out to me another instance of the word Missall in 
English in his and Mr. Cox's book, * Chronicles of 
All Saints', Derby ' (London, 1881, p. 229), where 
an inventory of 1466 begins with "In primis ij. 
Missals or mas boks." 

Mr. Simmons, in the same invaluable work, 
seems also to hint that the word corporal instead 
of "corporas" is a modern importation from 
abroad (p. 185, note). There may be found, how- 
ever, in the Booke of Common Prayer for Scot- 
land (Edinburgh, 1637) the direction to "cover 
with a fair linen cloth or corporal " the conse- 
crated elements after communion. But I must 
own that I have been unable to find, up to this 
time, the word Breviary as a substitute for Portus. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

BUSBY. The military head-dress of Hussars 
so called is, according to Dr. Charnock's ' Verba 
Nominalia/"said to have derived its name from Dr. 
Richard Busby, master of Westminster School, 
who wore a hat of a somewhat similar description." 
Will any reader of ' N. & Q.' tell me by whom 
this has been " said," and also whether it is a fact 
that Dr. Busby wore such a hat ? Is there any 
connexion between the Hussars' busby and the 
large bushy wig so called worn in the end of last 
century ? J. A. H. MURRAY. 

The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

to a pedigree of the Brindley family, of Willenhall 
and Kinver, co. Stafford, in the Harl. MS. 2119, 
compiled by Randle Holme, and dated 1637, 
William Brindley had (with others) three daugh- 
ters Alice, m. to Richard Foley, of Stourbridge ; 
Margaret, m. to Richard Foley, jun. (son of the 
said Richard by a former wife); and Joan, m. first 
to Edward Foley, of Bristol, and secondly to 
Thomas Jackson, of Bristol. It appears from the 
parish registers of Wolverhampton that Edward 
Foley, "of Bristol," and Joan Brindley were 
married October 30, 1621, Richard Foley, sen., 

had a brother named Edward, who had a son 
Richard, mentioned in Richard Foley's will, dated 
1657, as "son of my brother Edward," but thia 
Richard was baptized at Dudley, May 24, 1618, 
three years prior to the marriage of Edward Foley 
with Joan Brindley. Was Joan a second wife of 
this Edward ; and did he have any issue by her ? 
Who was Thomas Jackson, of Bristol ? Perhaps 
some Bristol correspondent can help me. 

Grove Park, Chiswick. 

give me any information about a picture painted 
by a Mr. J. Smetham in 1863 ? It represents a 
conference between thirteen New Zealanders in 
native dress and four English people. I should 
like to know who are the people represented, for 
whom was the picture painted, for what price, and 
any other particulars I can gather. From " Hist, 
of Lincoln " being painted in small letters on the 
back of a book in the picture, it is possible that 
the town of Lincoln may have some connexion 
with it. INQUIRER. 

passage occurs in the late Miss Louisa Stuart 
Costello's ' Summer amongst the Bocages and the 
Vines.' She is speaking of St. Sebastian on the 
Loire : 

" This was a spot formerly held in great reverence, 
and the scene of much monkish mummery on occasion 
of presenting a gigantic candle to the patron saint, which 
was placed in a boat instead of a mast, and was borne with 
infinite ceremony to the church of St. Sebastian." 
Vol. i. p. 341. 

I am much interested in the symbolic and ritual 
use of candles, and shall therefore be obliged to 
any one who will refer me to a detailed account of 
this curious rite. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

J. KENNILWORTH WILSON. In what town and 

county did this family live sixty or seventy years 

ago ; and where do the descendants now reside ? 

Replies will be acknowledged and postage returned. 

(Miss) S. BULLOUQH. 

37, London Road. Blackburn. 

FRY. Any information respecting the following 
persons is requested, such as who their parents 
were, and if they left any descendants who could 
be communicated with now : 

1. Dr. Thomas Fry, President of St. John's 
College, Oxford ; died at Clifton, November 22, 

2. Caroline Wilson, nee Fry; authoress of ' The 
Listener'; died 1846. 

3. John Fry, brother of the preceding, rector 
ofDesford, 1801. 

4. W. T. Fry, an engraver of portraits (Jeremy 
Taylor, &c.), 1817. E. A. FRY. 

Yarty, King's Norton. 


[7* S. IV. JULY 9, '37. 

JULY. Will readers of 'N. & Q.' kindly send me 
direct any passages, chiefly, though not necessarily, 
poetical, referring to July and its flowers pas- 
sages in which the month is specially mentioned by 
name which I want for a lady who is making an 
album for which she requires descriptions of the 
various months of the year ? I have Spenser's, in 
the cantos of ' Mutability,' but this is not floral ; 
a couplet in ' The L ty of the Last Minstrel/ a few 
lines from the end ; and a passage in Bacon's 
essay * Of Gardens.' In case I should receive 
many replies, will my correspondents kindly be 
satisfied with a general acknowledgment in 
" Notices to Correspondents " ? 


Eopley, Alreaford, Hants. 

any of your readers tell me when and why the 
practice of knighting the eldest son of a baronet 
on his coming of age was discontinued ? 


author of a short poem which I saw some years 
since in, I believe, an old Penny Magazine or 
Saturday Magazine, entitled, I think, 'The 
Squire's Pew'? I cannot recollect more than 
the first two or three lines, which are somewhat as 
follows : 

A slanting ray of evening light 
Shone through the lattice pane ; 
It made the faded curtains bright. 
Although this is a rather slight clue, yet I trust 
that it may be sufficient to obtain me the desired 
information. HENRY PRATT. 

KING GEORGE OF GREECE. Will some reader 
of N. & Q.' inform me how this monarch ought 
to be described? In the Times of Friday, June 24, 
in one place he is described as the King of Greece 
in another as King of the Hellenes. In other 
publications he is called King of the Greeks. What 
authority is there for the adoption of this foreign 
word ' Hellenes " ? I may be very stupid, but I 
see little difference between calling King George 
King of the "Hellenes "and King Leopold King 
of the "Beiges." HENRI LE LOSSIGEL. 

of Sir Christopher Wren's designs for the new 
cathedral was approved by Charles II. in 1675. 

n any one give me any particulars as to when 
these designs were inspected, and who was present 
on the occasion ? Am I correct in surmising that 
)niy one model in wood was made by Wren the 


MAJESTY. -What makes a "majesty"? The 
Times is lavish in its use of the title, granting it 
to potentates of all complexions, the Queen of g t he 

Sandwich Islands and the late lamented Cetywayo 
among the number. Have they any right to it ? 

Garrick Club. 

in Ireland were made to these in 1666. I shall be 
glad if any reader of ' N. & Q.' can give me any 
information concerning them. I am especially 
interested in the identity of Major Ion Grove, one 
of their number. E. T. EVANS. 

states that Henry Fox married a certain Miss 
Dives on Feb. 26, 1732/3 (4 th S. iv. 312). In the 
Gentleman's Magazine for February, 1733, p. 100, 
is the following announcement : 

"Henry Fox, Esq., Brother of Stephen Fox, Esq., 
Representative for Shaftsbury, to Miss Dives, late Maid 
of Honour to the Q." 

Can any reader of f N. & Q.' give me any further 
authority for this marriage, or tell me where it was 
solemnized ? Who were the parents of this Miss 
Dives, and what was her Christian name ? When 
did she die 1 In May, 1744, Fox married Lady 
Georgiana Caroline Lennox. G. F. R. B. 

"MAZARINE BIBLE." This phrase is used to 
describe the editio princeps of ' Biblia Latina Vul- 
gata ' in ' Bibliotheca Britannica ' (eighth edition, 
vol. xviii. p. 529), and in other books. What 
is the origin of this application of the name 
Mazarine ? How many copies of that first Latin 
Bible are extant ? JAMES D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

STATUTE FAIRS. In Lincolnshire, and, I be- 
lieve, several other counties, there are held at 
various times, near to May Day and Martinmas, 
what are known as statute fairs by those who 
speak in a refined manner, and "stattuses" by 
the users of dialect. They are for the purpose of 
hiring servants ; and it is currently believed that 
they were established by an Act of Parliament. 
I have searched for this statute without success. 
Has any one else been more fortunate ? If so, he 
would do a good work by publishing the reference 
in your columns. ANON. 

COMIC SOLAR MYTHS. The following well- 
known historic personages have, I know, been 
proved (on the rules of the solar mythologists) to 
be myths of the sun, e.g., Napoleon I. (in two 
ways), Mr. W. E. Gladstone, Mr. J. Chamberlain, 
and Prof. Max Miiller (by M. Gaidoz, in the 
Parisian Mtlusine). Can any one add to the 
list ? I know Columbus and Drake easily can be 
reduced to solar myths. W. S. L. S. 

SIR JOHN VANBRUGH. Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, in 
his interesting sketch, which has been appearing in 
the Theatre, entitled ' The Drury Lane Managers, 

7* S. IV. JOLT 9/87.] 


from Killigrew to Augustus Harris/ has the 
following sentence : " One of them was Sir John 
Vanbrugge his real name, and not Vanbrugb,' 
&c. And again : " Vanbrugge, as his name betokens 
was of a Ghentish family." I wonder whence 
Mr. Fitzgerald derived his information as to the 
"correct" spelling of the eminent architect anc 
dramatist's name. I am unable to discover the 
source. Is the place of x Vanbrugh's birth stil 
uncertain, i. e., Chester or London ? His mother 
was a daughter of Sir Dudley Oarleton, afterwards 
Earl of Dorchester. Are there any descendants oi 
Giles Vanbrugh's father still living either in Eng- 
land or the United States ? If American corre- 
spondents would kindly note this query they 
would greatly oblige. What is the exact site of the 
house which he built for himself, and where he died 
(in Scotland Yard) on March 26, 1726 ? Lastly, 
Where was he buried ; is there any memorial to 
him ; is there any portrait of him extant ; and, if so, 
in whose possession is it ? The designer of Castle 
Howard and Blenheim, and the author of 'The 
Relapse,' deserves to have more known about him. 
Mr. Percy Fitzgerald's article is in the Theatre for 

BOOT-TOPS. What does this word mean in 
the following passage, extracted from S. Fisher's 
1 Rusticks Alarm to the Rabbies ' (1660), p. 583, 
in his collected works, 1679 ? He is speaking of 
the prejudices which commonly existed against 
Quakers, one of which is 

" the mean outside of most of these inwardly glorious 
Sons and Daughters of the King, Psalm 45, 13, whose 
clothing, ad extra, is not (as their own within, and the 
World's without, and its Ministers often is) of Wrought 
Gold, nor yet is it so much of Plush Jippoes and Hose 
behang'd before, and at Knees with Rings and Kibbons, 
and Aprons of Points, and costly (if not Golden) Buttons, 
and such like Garments gay and gorgeous Attire ; neither 
is it so much of that fine Linuen their (Bishop-like) Boot- 
tops and Double Cuffa are cut out of, as of that, which is 
the Righteousness of the Saints." 

The ' New English Dictionary ' explains " Boot- 
top: 1. The upper part of a boot; esp. of top- 
boots." Quotations are given of the dates 1768, 
1825, 1827. But boot-tops in this sense could 
never have been made of linen. Can this mean a 
linen frill just below the knee, covering the hose 
as far down as to meet the open top of the boot ? 
Such a frill is represented in the woodcut from 
Ogilby's 'Coronation of Charles II.,' &c., reproduced 
in 'Old England,' ii. 208 ; but in this illustration 
the gentlemen are wearing low shoes. 

Those who annotate Dr. Murray's magnum opus 
may like to jot down the late instance of the 
obsolete behanged in this quotation. 


spondent refer me to a table of the relative (ap- 
proximate) value of prices in England in ancient 

and modern times ? I am quite aware of the diffi- 
culty of constructing such a table, and do not feel 
competent to do so for myself. Mr. Arber mul- 
tiplies prices in the early part of the sixteenth 
century by fifteen to obtain their equivalents in 
present terms, and Mr. Masson multiplies prices 
in the reign of Charles II. by three and one half. 
I want similar authorities for the intervening and 
subsequent periods. J. T. Y. 

BENCH. Who was the painter of Foster's portrait, 
an engraving of which by Basire forms the frontis- 
piece to Dodson's 'Life of Foster' (1811); and 
who is the present possessor of this portrait ? An 
engraving by J. Neagle, " from an original picture 
by Wills in the possession of Michael Dodson," is 
given in the Dublin edition of ' An Examination 
of the Scheme of Church-Power,' but this differs 
considerably from the engraving in Dodson. Where 
is the original by Wills to be found ? 

G. F. R. B. 

Oh ! Father let me be 

An object of thy care, 
For daily unto thee 

I lift my heart in prayer. 
Preserve my soul, for I ana thine, 
And guide me with thy truth divine. 


Of what avail the casket without the jewel and the 
setting without the gem 1 M. WOOD. 

Paddy McManus new come from Drumshambo, 
Mick Quinn, and Mike Quigley too, 

Arcades ambo. 




(7 th S. iii. 403, 489.) 
I must first thank MR. GLADSTONE for the kind 

tone in which he has met the strictures that I ven- 
nred to make on his memoir. We all regard him 

as one of the greater gods of Olympus : still, as 
uch, he will not be surprised that we, fond 

mortals, sometimes murmur against their decrees. 
The point in which I had the misfortune to 

differ from him (independently of the construction 
o be put on kuanockaites and Jcuanopis, which I 

am glad to see he concedes) is that he awards 
sertain attributes to certain deities which he denies 
o Poseidon. He says that they act instantaneously, 
hat they act by pure volition without intermediate 

iction, and that they have knowledge of events by 

an act of the mind (Nineteenth Century, March, 
). 464). I conceived him to mean that their action 
ras like what is conveyed in those majestic words 
f Genesis, " God said, Let there be light : and 
here was light." This is what I denied to the 

Olympic gods : their acts are not instantaneous; 



S. IV. JULY 9, '87. 

they all use intermediate action; they know nothing eager ; still, to make them do their best Here does 
by mere act of the mind, but only by the senses of not spare the lash, and as soon as she has got the 
seeing, hearing, or testimony of credible witnesses, permission she wanted she returns to the plains of 
The pages of ' N. & Q.' are not fitted for lengthened Troy, again using the whip ; and when they have 
statements. I must only give one or two, though reached the Simois they leave the chariot and go 
the * Iliad ' would furnish scores. I quoted Here, on their way like a pair of doves. Fast, no doubt, 
but MR GLADSTONE will not allow that she is in but far from instantaneous. 

any way a deity of the finer quality. I had thought I said Poseidon was not particular } in having 
that the daughter of Kronos, the sister and wife " physical wants, love of hecatombs, and m- 
of Zeus, one of irreproachable private character, stanced Apollo. MR. GLADSTONE says, Physical 
addressed by Athene herself in respectful terms as wants are ascribed to the gods generally, and to 
" revered goddess " (presba thea), was entitled to Poseidon individually." The distinction is nice, 
that distinction. And MR. GLADSTONE has con- but not, I think, just. It was the creed of the 
firmed me in my error, if error it be ; for he time that the priest knew the mind of his deity, 
begins his memoir by stating that there are in Achilles says to the assembled Greeks, Let us ask 
Olympus five deities of greater dignity and import- some priest why the god is so angry (' II.,' i. 62). 
ance, and Here is second in the list. I must, Chryses must be taken to have known Apollo's 
therefore, go to the first. Zeus by the artifice of mind better than any of us. And Chryses, wish- 
his wife is thrown into a profound sleep (' Iliad,' ing to curry favour with the god, puts him in mind 
xiv. 352), and when he awakes he knows nothing of the many fat goats and bulls he had sacrificed to 
of what has passed until he gets up, looks about him. This seems to me to ascribe physical wants 
him, and sees the Trojans repulsed, and sees Hector to Apollo individually. 

lying injured on the field. And when the Father MR, GLADSTONE says that I " wholly mistook 
of gods and men saw? him, he pitied him, &c. his point, which is not that the Phoenicians [my 
(' Iliad,' xv. 6). Homer, so far from telling us that bad penmanship has misled the printer; I meant 
Zeus knew by an intuitive act of the mind how he Phoeacians] failed in reparation ; but rather that 
had been imposed on, in this short paragraph thrice Apollo appears to have been appeased by redress 
uses the words " he saw." Again, when Here has and thanksgiving, without any mention of the effect 

cruelly treated Artemis by banging her about the I of sacrifice on his mind." I thought I clearly 
ears, the injured goddess goes to complain to her understood MR. GLADSTONE, and showed that in 
father Zeus, who, seeing her arrive without her the case of Poseidon the injury was redressed and 
bow and arrows, with disordered dress, and all in sacrifice offered. And MB,. GLADSTONE has quoted 
tears, asks tenderly, " Dear daughter, which of the no passage to show that it rather appears that 
gods has treated you so ? " Zeus knew nothing of Apollo would have been satisfied by redress with- 
the scuffle till he was told (' Iliad,' xxi. 505). | out sacrifice. Achilles believed otherwise. After 

Neither is the motion of the gods instantaneous. 
I quoted Apollo, but MR. GLADSTONE replies, 

a murrain among men and beasts had prevailed for 
_, nine long days, he says, Let us inquire whether 

Time is not mentioned ; motion is mentioned, but | Apollo is angry with us for neglect of hecatombs 

(*Il.,'i. 65) or for a breach of a vow. Achilles 
speaks as if neglect of hecatombs were a crime as 
heinous as perjury. 

MR. GLADSTONE will not take amiss my humble 
. . , , attempts to rehabilitate poor Poseidon. At least I 
such an interpretation, for have saved him from the charge of bad taste in 
s " to walk," " to step." selecting for his wife, among the beauties of sea 
Besides, to suppose that the god was transferred and air, a goddess with a blue-black face, 
instantaneously from place to place would destroy 
the noble picture of the god, angered to the heart, 
striding down from the tops of Olympus, while the 
arrows, the instruments of his vengeance, rattle 
portentously on his shoulders. 

corrects the error 
using the horses of 
and as that memory 
of A.D. 1805 it often 

it is the motion of the person which causes the 
clang, not the movement from place to place." This 
I fail to understand. If by " motion is not men 
tioned " MR. GLADSTONE means to hint that the 
motion may have been instantaneous, I reply, 
the verb used forbids 
bainein always means 


MURDRIERES (7 th S. Hi. 326, 215, 252, 374, 432, 
' ~\ I cannot feel that Miss BUSK'S account of 
me is quite accurate, and therefore beg leave to 
say a few " last words." 

It is not the case that I " wince at a few knocks 
.*, ~T " ~.v~u - in return." I have been attacked over and over 

a.Tw!L *l feSi 8 , al A ? e < h 7 8e8 f a 8 aiD > and rather like ifc > if fe y 8U <* means we can 

? *^ V ? * 8 de f Dd AtheD , ( Iliad '' 8 et nearer to the truth - I ha always accepted 
m$J hast< ? ?? rea ? h ? eu .*> to 8 et ^e to every correction that could be proved. 

mi. t .^ I vv fc/O^U /J.\SYVl4 JL-LCI1OC LliC IdlJ^C JUULUUCl 

58 are swift of foot and | of corrections in the second editions of my larger 

7" 8. IV. Juir 9, '87.] 



' Dictionary ' and of my ' Concise Dictionary,' and 
the latter will be corrected further yet. 

What I complain of is that any one should set 
himself up as correcting me when there is nothing 
to show that I am wrong ; I cannot help feeling 
that it was merely my reputation that brought it 
upon me, and that it was not at all provoked by 
my combativeness. My belief was simply that "my 
edition of the 'Romans of Partenay' was not con- 
sulted at all " (7 th S. iii. 433) ; and, as everything 
turned upon what is there said, I am of opinion 
that such is not " fair treatment." I repeat that 
" the references which I give " ought to have been 
looked up. There is a scholarly and a slipshod 
way of doing everything. Now if it can be said 
that my references were looked up, and the book 
I mention was consulted, I have nothing at all to 
complain of, and I at once apologize. All this has 
nothing to do with personal feeling, except in- 
directly and subordinately. 

As to "guesses," they differ greatly. It is 
quite one thing for a person to make them without 
any investigation and in defiance of all known 
phonetic and philological laws ; and quite another 
thing to offer a suggestion for what it is worth 
after all available means of obtaining information 
have been exhausted. It is a curious fact that 
the worse a guess is the more obstinately it is 
maintained, the object being to hide ignorance by 
raising a cloud of dust. I admit having made 
" guesses "; but then I shall nob attempt to main- 
tain them unless I can adduce fresh evidence. 

The whole matter lies in a nutshell. If a man 
is entirely ignorant of botany or chemistry, he 
leaves those subjects alone. But if a man is en- 
tirely ignorant of the first principles of philology 
(which has lately made enormous advances), he 
does not leave the subject alone, but considers his 
"opinions" as good as the most assured results 
of the most competent scholars. The knowledge 
of a language is often supposed to carry with it 
the knowledge of the laws of formation of the 
language. But this is not in the least the case. 
Many a man who writes German is profoundly 
ignorant of its etymology; and the same is true 
of English. Owing to a wide difference in the 
methods of teaching, a German knows this, and 
abstains, as a rule, from showing his ignorance ; 
whereas the Englishman commonly does not know 
this, and is amusingly unaware of the portentous 
nature of his errors. 

My object has always been the same, viz., to 
protest against the usual state of things. In course 
of time the lesson will be learnt that there is really 
no glory to be got by making elementary blunders, 
or by suggesting ridiculous emendations even of 
Shakespeare. I cannot at all acquiesce in the 
notion that people who talk nonsense must never 
be reproved for it. " The more they cry out," says 
Sydney Smith in his review on Methodism, " the 

greater plainly is the skill used against them. We 
are convinced that a little laughter will do them 
more barm than all the arguments in the world." 
Which is just as it should be. 

I believe even my heartiest opponents will give 
me credit for attacking opinions rather than per- 
sons ; and I am sure we all only desire to get at 
the truth. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


HERBERT, EARL OF PEMBROKE (7 th S. iii. 450). 
The quartering referred to by A. M. C. is most 
probably the coat of St. Quintin, viz., Or, three 
chevronels gules, a chief vaire. This coat, with its 
contingent quarterings, was brought into the Pem- 
broke shield by the marriage of William Herbert, 
created Earl of Pembroke in 26 Hen. VIII., with 
Anne, sister and coheir of Sir Willim Parr, Mar- 
quis of Northampton. It forms the eleventh 
quarter in the shield displayed in Vandyke's large 
picture at Wilton, of Philip, Earl of Pembroke 
and Montgomery and his family. B. W. G. 


(6 th S. xii. 367 ; 7 th S. iii. 445). I have heard 
William Jerdan, the veteran litterateur, when re- 
sident at Bushey Heath, Hertfordshire, circa 1865, 
describe this murder, of which he was an eye- 
witness, and which took place in the lobby of the 
House of Commons on May 11, 1812. Jerdan, 
then about thirty years of age, was connected with 
the press, and was the first to seize Bellingham. 
It may seem almost an incredible thing at the 
present day, but within a week after the assassina- 
tion of Spencer Perceval, the body of his murderer 
was lying on the dissecting- table, with such rapidity 
had conviction and execution succeeded on the 
heels of crime. Not, however, quite so quickly 
as that of John Chiesley of Dairy, which took place 
only three days after the assassination of the Lord 
President Lockhart, March 31, 1689. It is worthy 
of note that Chiesley and Bellingham were both 
taken, to use a Scottish phrase, "red-handed," and 
each had taken upon himself the office of avenger 
of his own imaginary wrongs. 

In the * Autobiography of William Jerdan,' 
vol. i. pp. 133-141, is an accurate account of the 
murder, and at the end of the same volume there 
is a plan of the lobby of the House of Commons 
where it was committed. In Fisher's ' National 
Portrait Gallery,' 1830, vol. i., is also a memoir of 
the Right Hon. Spencer Perceval, by the same 

William Jerdan had at one time been a favoured 
guest at the houses of many of the nobility, and 
been honoured with the friendship of some of the 
most celebrated literary men in England. He has 
left on record many of his reminiscences in his 
* Autobiography,' in four volumes, and in his 



[7 th S. IV. JULY 9, '87. 

* Men I have Known.' On the title-page of the 
latter he has inscribed an appropriate motto from 
Horace : 

Tamen me 

Cum magnia vixisae invita fatebitur usque 


See also the ' Autobiography of William Jor- 
dan,' London, 1852. This popular individual was 
once a reporter in the House of Commons. On 
the fatal day he entered concurrently with the 
minister. Holding the door open to let his supe- 
rior puss, he heard the shot and nearly felt it too. 
His personal narrative, as an eye-witness, will be 
found at ch. xviii., vol. i. p. 133 ; and at the end 
of the book, which bears the imprint of my former 
firm, will be found a plan of the lobby, May 11, 
1812. A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

" Dream of his Death," Bourchier Wrey Savile, 

* Apparitions,' ch. xii. pp. 156-162, Lon., 1874 ; 
' N. & Q.,' 1" S. iv. 4 ; 5 th S. xi. 226, 256. 


WHO WAS ROBIN HOOD ? (7 th S. ii. 421 ; iii. 
201, 222, 252, 281, 323, 412, 525.) The attempts 
of your correspondents to identify Kobin Hood 
with any historical outlaw, or to assign any 
historical date to his exploits, are, I fear, fore- 
doomed to failure. The story is a solar myth, and 
Robin Hood is one of the heroes of Cloudland, 
whose adventures cannot be separated from those 
of William of Cloudeslee or of William Tell. Some 
years ago I made in the Academy a suggestion, 
which has met with wide acceptance, that he must 
be identified with the Hotherus of Saxo Grammati- 
cus, and Jacob Grimm has also identified him with 
Hodekin, a wood-sprite of the German mythology. 
Mr. Bradley has also shown good reasons for be- 
lieving that the Hood legend was current in Eng- 
land before the Norman Conquest. The treasure 
of "the proude Sheryfe of Notyngham" is 
the guarded gold of the Nibelungs, which is 
stolen by solar heroes, and Maid Marian is the 
Dawn Maiden, Brynhild, who reappears as Colum- 
bine in the southern version of the legend, where 
Pantaloon corresponds to Friar Tuck, Harlequin 
being, of course, the solar hero. The Robin Hood 
legend is thus a faint Western echo of the great 
Aryan sun-myth, which we find in India, Greece, 
Germany, Scandinavia, and England, with which 
not improbably, some elements of the Odin myth 
have become commingled. The story was localized 
and historical elements were imported into it as 
in the case of Theodoric, Arthur, Charlemagne,' or 
Atti a, to whom the adventures of the solar heroes 
of Cloudland in like manner were assigned. 


"TWOPENNY DAMN" (7 tb S. iii. 232,326, 462).- 
The view advocated by SIR J. A. PICTON is not 

new. It will be found discussed at some length 
in the very useful 'Glossary of Anglo-Indian 
Words,' edited by Col. Yule, who is himself evi- 
dently in favour of it, and quotes not only the pas- 
sage cited from ' Piers Plowman ' by MR. LEE, but 
also another from Chaucer (' C. T.,' 3754, 'The 
Miller's Tale ') in which the word kerse occurs.* 

But even if damn in " to care a damn " is really 
a corruption of the name of a very harmless Indian 
coin, ddm which is very doubtfult there is nothing 
to show that this corruption took place during 
Wellington's stay in India ; and if it had taken 
place before, then, as he was no scholar like Col. 
Yule, he was likely to be ignorant of the origin of 
the phrase, and to use the word damn in the sense 
which is naturally attached to it by every English- 
man. And, again, if he had been aware of the origin 
of the phrase and had been careful to avoid the 
imputation of swearing (which is not likely, as 
swearing was very common in those days and 
thought but little of, especially in the army), he 
would surely have taken the precaution of writing 
the word ddm. And least of all would he have 
written " twopenny damn," for, whatever may have 
been the original value of the ddm, J it had, so far 
back as the time of Akbar (1542-1605), ceased to 
be worth more than the fortieth part of a rupee, 
and was consequently, in Wellington's time at any 
rate, of far less value than twopence; so that 
" twopenny damn " would have conveyed precisely 
the opposite meaning to that which he intended to 
convey. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

In addition to Dr. Brewer's quotation from 
Langland, the following may throw some light on 
this subject : 

Of paramours ne sette he nat a kers. 

Chaucer, ' The Millere's Tale.' 
Men witen welle whiche hath the werse, 
And BO to me nis worth a kerse. 

Gower (quoted by Halliwell). 

In 4 The Testament of Love ' cr2ss is twice used in 
the same sense. There seems, therefore, no doubt 
of the meaning, though Dr. Brewer says kerse 
means a wild cherry. C. C. B. 

The word kerse does not, as Dr. Brewer asserts, 
mean a " wild cherry " at all. It was the " cress " 
or "water-cress," the Nasturtium officinalis of 
R. Brown. In Cockayne's 'Saxon Leechdoms ' the 

* He interprets Tcers(e), however, not " wild cherry," 
with Dr. Brewer, but "cress," with Tyrwhitt and Prof. 
Skeat (*.*;. "Cress"). 

t As " to care a curse " waa already in use, it was 
surely very simple to substitute " damn " for " curse." 

J SIE J. A. PICTON says that a ddm was originally the 
sixteenth part of a gold mohur, but I do not find this in 
Col. Yule, and the statement, therefore, requires con- 

The duke no doubt meant by " twopenny damn " the 
moat trifling, the very emallest curae. 




word is spelt karce (' Herb./ app., xxi). In Alfric's 
vocabulary of the tenth century we have kerse ; in 
Langland, Chaucer, and Gower kers ; and in a fif- 
teenth century vocabulary kyrs. Dr. Brewer was 
evidently confusing kerse with cyrs, the Anglo- 
Saxon name of the cherry tree. Amongst ok 
writers the expressions " not worth a cress, or a 
leek, or a haw, or a bean," were very common. 

Upper Norwood. 

When Dr. Brewer quotes from 'Piers Plow 

Wisdom and witt nowe is not worthe a kerse, 
and explains kerse as meaning a " wild cherry," he 
is apparently giving the rein to his imagination. 
Cerse is the A.-S. form of cress, cf. also O.L.Germ. 
kerse. The word in A.-S. is written also caerse. 

A "twopenny damn" seems to have been a 
favourite expression of the Duke of Wellington. It 
occurs in Sir Francis Doyle's ' Reminiscences ' in 
connexion with the battle of Talavera. I quote 
from a review, so am unable to give the page. 


Tehran, Persia. 

ANIMATED HORSEHAIRS (7 th S. ii. 24, 110, 230, 
293; iii. 249, 370). I have just come upon a still 
more ancient record of this idea in the last lines of 
the fourth book of Ovid's * Metamorphoses ': 

A versa eat, et castos segide vultua 
Nata Jovis texit. Neve hoc impune fuisset ; 
Gorgoneum crinem turpea mutavit in hydros. 
jMunc quoque ut attonitos formidine terreat hostea, 
Pectore in adverse, quoa fecit, sustinet angues. 

Which is thus translated by Sandys : 

Jove's daughter, with the JEgis on her breast, 
Hid her chaste blushes ; and due vengeance takes, 
In turning of the Gorgon's haire to snakes. 
Who now, to make her enemies affray'd, 
Beares in her shield the serpents which she made. 


A similar superstition prevails amongst Spanish 
Americans in the republic of Colombia, but accord- 
ing to them it is the human hair that turns into 
a snake, the root forming the head. I have often 
been warned by Colombians against throwing 
combings from a brush into my bath for this 
reason. Many persons told me that they had seen 
the hairs turn into snakes shortly after being left 
in the water. Here is a quotation from the ' Big- 
low Papers ' (London, 1886), p. 320, anent horse- 
hairs : 

" But one day as I was going forth for a walk, with 
my head full of an ' Elegy on the Death of Flirtilla,' and 
vainly groping after a rhyme for lily that should not be 
silly or chilly, I saw my eldest boy Homer busy over the 
rain-water hogshead, in that childsh experiment at par- 
thenogenesis, the changing a horse-hair into a water- 
snake. An immersion of six weeks showed no change in 
the obstinate filament, Here was a stroke of unintended 

sarcasm. Had I not been doing in my study precisely 
what my boy was doing out of doors 1 " &c. 

M. E. A. P. 

It may be worth while to notice that Cobbett 
mentions the horsehair superstition as a " notori- 
ously true fact." He says, " What causes horse- 
hair to become living things?" (' Rural Rides,' 
vol. i. p. 356, ed. 1885). By the way, the Rev. 
Pitt Cobbett has done his work as editor of this 
handsome reprint of his grandfather's book on the 
whole very well ; but there is an inexcusable slip 
in his note on p. 201 of vol. i., when he says 
that, in 1830, " the most serious riots occurred at 
Bristol, called the Gordon riots." 



Forms of words slightly varying from those 
quoted by H. C. W. formerly were, and probably 
are still, used at the opening and closing of in- 
quests by the coroners in the county of Durham 
and North Yorkshire. In the opening proclama- 
tion, after " as ye shall be called," are the words, 
" Every man at the first call under the pain and 
peril that shall fall thereon." In the closing pro- 
clamation the jurors are not enjoined " to depart 
home at this time and give their attendance on a 
fresh summons," but to " depart and take their 
ease." I forget it being over twenty years since 
I left the district whether there was any form in 
cases of adjournment beyond binding the jury over 
in their personal recognizances " to our sovereign 
lady the Queen "to put in an appearance again 
on the day and at the hour previously agreed 
upon. One coroner whom I knew invariably gave 
instructions for fifteen or sixteen jurymen to be 
warned. If twelve of these were in attendance at 
the hour fixed they were duly sworn, and the 
absentees were fined " in the mitigated penalty of 
ten shillings," unless they could show good and 
sufficient cause for their absence. Before this was 
done, however, the officer in attendance had to 
stand at the door and call upon the said absentees 
three separate times by name to " come forth and 
save your peril." I can confirm what H. C. W. 
says as to the West Riding of Yorkshire. I 
have never heard the proclamations used in any 
coroner's court there. ALEXANDER PATERSON. 

CROMWELL (7 th S. iii. 107, 137, 232, 276, 416). 
MR. RUTTON is correct in thinking that there is no 
mention made in any pedigree of the marriage of 
any son of Oliver and Elizabeth Cromwell, except 
he marriage of Henry Cromwell. It appears to 
>e clear that only two of Sir Oliver's sons married, 
and Henry Cromwell married twice, whilst the two 
elder sons died unmarried. John Cromwell, Noble 
nforms us, married in 1631 ; but for some cause 
or other the marriage was kept secret until, as 



[7* 8. IV. JtLt 9, '87. 

Noble (in his Memoirs of the Protectorate House History of the Commoners/ vol. i. p. 428, which, 
of Cromwell') asserts, it was finally dissolved by in addition to the descent, contains some curious 
Act of Parliament. The petition contained the information concerning the different members ; ot 
names of John Cromwell, Abigail Cromwell, his the family. In Burke's History of the Landed 
wife, John Smith, and others; and it is stated by Gentry,' 1871, vol. i. p. 303, may be found another, 
the author of the ' Memoirs ' that the House of | substantially the same. 
Commons ordered that the " cause between John 
Smith and others, and the cause between Col. 
John Cromwell and Abigail, his wife, and the 
Petition of the said John Smith, then reported, 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

EPITAPH (7 th S. iii. 426). This epitaph from 
, , the brass in Henfield Church was contributed (less 
and the whole of the business should ^ be referred I bally correc tly) to N. & Q.,' 6 th S. xii. 12. 
to the hearing and determination of the House of Ne ithe{veirion gives the quaint concluding lines : 
Commons from the Common Law Court." Whether, ^J* dyed a vertuous matron, 

according to the course of procedure, the House That with full jj mp like virgin wise 

did determine the suit Noble does not say. How- ^y aa st m prepared for this surprize, 

ever, the facts are almost sufficient to explain the And 's now departed hence to dwell 

absence of any reference to this marriage being Unto a place where ioies excell. 

found on a family pedigree. Another of the Pro- The effigy on the brass represents a stately dame 
tector's relatives, Mrs. Thomas Cromwell, nee | w ith neck ruff and slashed sleeves, and what looks 

like a feather fan in her left hand ; her right hand 

Mary Skinner, a lineal descendant of Thomas 
Skinner, of Beckerton, Hereford, and daughter of 
Nicholas Skinner, merchant, died at Ponder's 
End, Enfield, October, 1813, and was aged 105 

18, Liverpool Street, King's Cross. 

It may be of interest to your correspondent (MR. 
GARDNER) to know I have an old manuscript grant 
of property in St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, Lon- 
don, formerly held by the Cromwell family, and 
by their descendants, Henry and Hannah Crom- 
well, then of Spinny, co. Cambridge, who after 
wards intermarried into the Hewling family. This 
document bears the date 1686, and has the signa- 
tures of Henry and Hannah Cromwell, with their 
seals ; and it is also witnessed at the back by the 
signature of a Richard Cromwell. 


rests on the curly head of her " deer Meneleb. " 

In Shipley Church, in the same county, I copied 
another of about the same date off a fine alabaster 
monument to Sir Thomas Caryll (1616), which for 
lofty bombast is, perhaps, unsurpassed : 

Ask not who lies entombed, that crime 

Argues you lived not in his time ; 

His virtues answer, and to Fate 

Outliving him, express their hate 

For stealing 'way the life of one 

Who (but for Fashion) needs no stone 

To seek his praise. His worst did dye, 

But best part outlives memorye. 
Then view, read, trace, his tombe, praise, deedes, 
Which teares, joy, love, strain, causeth, breeds. 

Its peculiarity occurs in the last two lines, the three 
nouns of each of which have to be mentally paired 
off in reading with the verbs that qualify them, 
thus: "view his tombe, reade his praise, trace his 

K. H. BUSK. 

John Fitz John, son of John Fitz Geoffery, deedes '" &c< 
Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, died seized of the A DESCENDANT OP GROTIUS (7 th S. iii. 426). 

S r * U^ n ( Northam P fconshir e), which he Some further particulars of Isaac de Groot will be 
held of William Gnmband by the service of one found in 'Letters of the late Ignatius Sancho, an 
knight's fee in the year 1276, and was succeeded 
by his brother Richard Fitz John. At the final 
partition of his estates, Moulton Manor 


valued at 43*. 6s. lid., and assigned to Robert de 
Clifford, Baron Clifford, and Idoned, widow of 
Roger de Leybourn, and wife of John de Cromb- 
well or Cromwell, the two coheirs of Isabel de 
Vipond, his second sister. In the 9th Edward II. 
(1316) this John de Cromwell was found to be 

African ' (third edition, London, 1784), pp. 174-5 
and 215. 0. E. DOBLE. 


QUEEN ELIZABETH (7 th S. iii. 429). This estimate 
compares very favourably with Goldsmith's memor- 

^ Passing rich with forty pounds a year. 

lord of the manor of Moulton. This^Cromweil I Giy en 300Z. (emp. Elizabeth, we may assume 4,000/. 
died about 1335, and the manor devolved upon tem P" Victoria 5 8 iven 40Z. temp. Anne, we may 
Edward de Spencer, whose father (Hugh) had assume 200i - now - 

been beheaded at Hereford in 1326. (Vide * His- An . allied 8ub J e ct concerns Edw. Alleyn and 

tory of Northamptonshire,' by W. Whellon 1849 Dulwich College. Few can be aware how very small 

pp. 208-9.) W. M. GARDNER ' was his pecuniary donation. For instance, take the 

T , " Mermaid " edition of ' Kit Marlowe' ; there we 

s a pedigree of Cromwell, of Cheshunt find a short appendix devoted to this subiect, 

Park, representative of the Protector, in Burke's where it is recorded, "In 1605 the manor of Dul- 

7' b S. IV. JniT 9, '87.] 



wich was purchased by Alleyn at a total cost of 
10,0002." As a matter of fact the whole estate 
buildings included, was valued at 800Z. only. True, 
we may reckon a money gift temp. Queen Elizabeth 
of 8002. to be worth 10,0002. now; but this property 
is now worth some half-million, the difference 
being all unearned increment. A. HALL. 

p.S. I may refer to my paper published in the 
Academy, June 4, p. 397. 

For the relative value of money in England at 
different periods, see 'N. & Q.,' 1 st S. ii. ix. xi. xii. ; 
2 nd S. i. iv. ix. x. xii. ; 3 rd S. i. ii. v.; 4 th S. xii. ; 
6 th S. iv.; 6 th S. ii. iv. x. xi. 


An old friend of < N. & Q.,' Mr. J. 0. Halliwell- 
Phillipps, says in his prefatory note to his invalu- 
able * Outlines of Shakespeare,' sixth edition : 

"In balancing the Shakespearean and the present 
currencies the former may be roughly estimated from a 
twelfth to a twentieth of the value in money and from a 
twentieth to a thirtieth in landed or house property. 
Even these scales may be deceptively in favour of the 
older values, there having been, in Shakespeare's days, a 
relative and often a fictitious importance attached to the 
precious metals, arising from their comparative scarcity 
and the limited appliances for dispensing with their use." 


LUNDY'S LANE (7 S. ii. 428, 477; iiL 351). 
It is curious to compare different accounts of 
events in history. MR. WAGGONER, of America, 
recently quoted the United States forces in this 
battle at 2,600 and the British at 4,500 ; but 
William James, the historian, a very exact and 
painstaking author, states in his * Military Occur- 
rences,' published in 1818, that the British entered 
into action with 1,770 men only, and were rein- 
forced at night with 1,230 more, who in the dark 
blundered into a disadvantageous position. The 
American army, according to the same author, 
numbered more than 4,000 men. 

H. Y. POWELL, F.R.Hist.Soc. 

17, Bayswater Terrace, W. 

INN SIGNS (7 th S. iii. 448). I wish to point 
out an error of CDTHBERT BEDE'S. I have inquired 
of the oldest inhabitants in the neighbourhood, 
but none of them has ever known an inn the sign 
of "The Pickle" opposite Magdalene College. 
There is " The Pickerel Inn," which has always 
been known by that name. F. L. 


Opposite to Magdalene College, Cambridge, is an 
inn with the sign of "The Pickerel," which I 
believe is one that is not uncommon. I have 
known the street nearly forty years, and can answer 
for it that I never heard of " The Pickle " inn in 
it or in any other. I think your correspondent 
must have been misinformed. 


Magdalene College, Cambridge, 

R. S. TURNER (7 th S. iii. 508). Mr. Turner 
gave me one of his reprints not mentioned by 
MR. ASHBEE. It has no title-page, but begins, 
" Senat, stance du mardi 4 juin 1861." It consists 
of a reprint of a report in French of the case of M. 
Libri, and comprises 132 octavo pages. He had it 
printed in answer to the pamphlet of Prof. De 
Morgan, but, on account of the latter's death, never 
issued it. RALPH THOMAS. 

under General Burgoyne in the American Cam- 
paign of 1777 (7 th S. iii. 475). 

"The old tattered colours of the 33rd regiment of 
foot, under which they were engaged iu several actions 
during the revolutionary war with North America, are 
hung up in the chancel of this church (St. Mary Mag- 
dalen). On the arrival of that regiment in this town, 
after the peace of 1783, they had new colours presented 
to them, which were consecrated here, and the old ones 
deposited in the vestry. The actions in which the 33rd 
regiment was engaged under these colours in America 
were those of Brooklyn, in Long Island, Aug. 27, 1776 ; 
Brandywine, Sept. 11, 1777; German-Town, Oct. 4,1777; 
Freefield, on the retreat from Philadelphia, June 28, 
1777; Camden, under Lord Cornwallis, Aug. 16, 1780; 
Guilford, March 15, 1781 ; and in the defence of York- 
Town, 1781." 'The History of Taunton,' by James 
Savage, 1822. 

These old colours seem, shortly after the above 
was written, to have been presented by the 
church authorities to my grandfather, the late 
Col. Kemeys - Tynte, of Halswell, Bridgwater, 
whose grandfather, Col. (afterwards Lieut.-General) 
Johnson, commanded the 33rd Regiment at the 
battle of Dettingen. The colours, or what remains 
of them, are still in the possession of the present 
owner of Halswell. 


In reference to the above I beg to state that 
several of the regiments therein quoted were re- 
presented by their flank companies (the Grenadier 
and Light Infantry) only. These would not have 
taken colours on active service, as colours always 
remain with the headquarters of the regiment. I 
can answer for the 29th Foot not having lost any 
colours at Saratoga or elsewhere. 

H. EVERARD, Capt., late 29th Foot. 

RICHARD MARTIN (7 th S. iii. 328, 417, 522). 
[ venture to say that there is even a more amus- 
ing anecdote than Jerden's regarding the Prince of 
Connemara, told by Father Tom Burke, and to be 
bund in the first chapter of his ' Life,' published 
st year by Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 


' ECCE HOMO ' (7 th S. iii. 497). SIGMA requires 
nformation concerning D. I. Eaton and 'Ecce 
Somo.' I possess a copy printed by I). I. Eaton, 
Ave Maria Lane, 1813, pp. 344; but Eaton was 
tried and convicted 1812 for selling Paine's work?. 



It is therefore unlikely that he would be tried two other mottoes are given, and the words trans- 
fer printing Ecce Homo' the following year, and late* from the French" are omitted The trans- 
stiuTrther remarkable that punishment did not lation has been attributed to George Houston 
follow conviction. Forgiveness in those days re- <* * K - & 
sembled the mercy vultures give to lambs cover- ITALIAN BoOK WANTED (7 th S. iii. 518).-The 
ing and devouring. * w TT > work in question is found in the Library of the 
Houston, the author of ' Lcce Homo, was a | ^^-^^ AT:;^., ,!- T^;,vnai.i^PV a nn 0a /A\" 
writer on the Statesman, and to escape persecution 
emigrated to America, and was the author of 

British Museum under 


Israel Vindicated,' a work of great historical < THE OWL CRITIC ' (7 th S. iii. 189, 315). 

research, in thirty-two letters, under the assumed Kindly allow me to point out that this poem ap- 

name of Nathan Joseph, published by Collins, peared in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, July, 

New York. The style and mode of thought are 1879, p. 177. Before this publication became 

evidently from the same author, and 'Israel Vindi- Anglicized," ' The Owl Critic ' found its way into 

cated ' contains whole pages of acknowledged ex- 
tracts from ' Ecce Homo,' published by Eaton. My 

various English periodicals, and was again repro- 
duced, with the same illustrations as before, in 

American copy of ' Israel Vindicated ' bears date Harper's Christmas number, 1881, which number 
XT v^.i, icon WTT.T.TAM HARRIS. | wa s " made up " of articles selected from previous 

issues. W. EGBERTS. 

11, Frederick Street, Gray's Inn Road. 

New York, 1820. 

For particulars about Daniel Isaac Eaton and 
his trials for libel and blasphemy, see Annual 

But no 
Ecce Homo. 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

Register, xxxviii. 26; xlv. 454; liv. 272. 
mention is made of a book entitled ' Vnn 

SHAKSPEARE (7 th S. iii. 425). F. J. F. will find 
very full details about the Felton (not Fulton) por- 
trait in the fine thick quarto volume, * The Portraits 
of Shakespeare,' by J. Parker Norris, of Phila- 

Daniel Isaac Eaton, a noted bookseller, of High I delphia, published three or four years ago, with a 
Holborn and Ave Maria Lane, was tried on Feb. 24, large number of engravings of the pseudo-portraits; 
1793, but acquitted, for a libel called 'Hogs- Wash; and also in Boaden's ' Inquiry ' (1824) and Wivell's 
or, Politics for the People.' On June 5 following more elaborate c Inquiry ' (1827). The last, how- 
he was again prosecuted at the Old Bailey for pub- ever, should be consulted in the complete edition 
lishing Paine's * Rights of Man.' He stood two or (pp. 254) and the ' Supplement ' (1824), pp. 52. The 
three times in the pillory for different offences, and ' l T.;f T>/M.twn;ta > k T?i*nr n ii /~\ QKA\ -,\A oie /_ 
to avoid a heavier punishment emigrated to America, 
whence he returned when he fancied that no 
prosecution was to be dreaded. Falling again into 
his old practices, he was tried on March 6, 1812, 
for again publishing some of the writings of Thomas 
Paine. This was his sixth prosecution, and upon 
being brought up for judgment in May he was 
sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment and 
to stand in the pillory. He died at Deptford, 
September, 1814, in poverty and contempt. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

This book first appeared in 1799, its title being, 
" Ecce Homo! or, a Critical Enquiry into the His- 
tory of Jesus Christ : being a Rational Analysis of 
the Gospels, translated from the French (Lon- 
don, printed for the booksellers, 1799, 12mo.)." The , 

translator in the " advertisement " states that he tlons ? nder the dates g iven b y me - The third 
has been unable to discover the name of " the exam P le is und er date of April 24, 1663. Being 
original author of this anonymous work," but if 8 ? attorned to read this edition, which is by far 
u he might venture to hazard a conjecture he would r best > lfc never occurr ed to me to state from 
ascribe it to M. Boulanger, the learned author of whlch I made the extracts. 
' L'Antiquite* De>oileV" The second edition ap- F - & HILTON PRICE. 

pearecHn 1813, "^printed, published, and sold by | A long and somewhat amusing treatise on this 

'ortraits' by Friswell (1864) would also en- 
lighten him. ESTE. 

CORRECTION OF SERVANTS (7 th S. iii. 229, 350, 
462). Englishmen in India, however indefensible 
the custom, have good authority for chastising 
their native servants : 

A wife, a son, a servant, a pupil, and a younger 
whole brother, may be corrected, when they commit 
faults, with a rope, or the email shoot of a cane ; but 
on the back part only of their bodies, and not on a noble 
part by any means."' Institutes of Menu,' viii. 299-300, 
in Mill's 'India,' vol. i. p. 311. 


If VENDALE will refer to the Rev. Mynors 
Bright's edition of Pepys's 'Diary' (Bickers, 
London, 1875), he will there find the three quota- 

7i 8. IV. JOLT 9, '87.] 



" The phrase which Solomon useth Prov. xxix. 19 (a 
servant will not be corrected with words) sheweth 
that there is a correction by words j and, though it bee 
negatively propounded, yet doth it not imply that cor- 
rection by words is not to be used to a servant, but 
rather if thereby he bee not moved, that blowes must be 
added thereto, which is a correction by deeds." 

Again, in paragraph 15 : 

"Contrary to their just and due power doe they, who 
in their rage stab their servants, or otherwise make 
them away : Yea they also, who so unmercifully and 
unmeasurably beat them with a rod, cudgell, or any 
other thing, as death follow thereupon ; for many there 
bee, who having once begunne to strike, know not 
when to cease, but lay on as if they were striking 
stocks and blocks and not their owne flesh. God fore- 
saw that masters were prone to such cruelty, and there- 
fore set a stint number of stripes, which none that beat 
another might exceed," &c. 


iii. 452). An account of Lord Cawdor's stratagem 
will be found in Household Words of March 12, 
1859. It is there mentioned that the French 
squadron first of all made a descent on Ilfra- 
combe, and then sailed round St. David's Head 
and landed the troops on the shores of Cardigan 
Bay, where, through the action of Lord Cawdor, 
they were induced to yield themselves prisoners of 
war. The writer gives as his authority Kelly's 
'History of the Wars/ I send this as your cor- 
respondent seems to doubt somewhat the veracity 
of the story anent Lord Cawdor. As to the women 
of Devon and Cornwall imitating his proceedings 
in any way I have no information. It is well 
known that Welsh peasant women have a weakness 
for scarlet cloaks and petticoats, which fact gave 
the noble lord his opportunity. E. T. EVANS. 

Keferring to the REV. W. S. LACH-SZYRMA'S 
query under this heading, I may say that only two 
or three weeks since I made the following extract 
from a little work entitled 'Reminiscences of 
Methodism in Exeter ' (1875), intending to send it 
to you as a query for further information on this 
interesting topic : 

" At this time (1779) the nation was engaged in a war 
with France and Spain. In August their two fleets had 
effected a junction and entered the British Channel with 
sixty-six sail of the line and fourteen frigates, and had 

S traded for two or three days just outside Plymouth 
arbour ; which, with England's usual unreadiness at the 
commencement of a war, was utterly unprepared for 

resistance or defence There is a tradition that in the 

absence of any military force a muster of women in red 
cloaks was made on the hill, which was mistaken by the 
enemy for a brigade of soldiers, and prevented their 


187, High Street, Exeter. 

' LONGFELLOW (7 th S. iii. 474). The Daily News 
critic who called the poet Longfellow " a poet- 
aster " is to be pitied. He is surely a descendant 
of that other critic who advised Lord Byron to try 

some other profession than verse-writing. But 
why should this surprise MR. HAMILTON 1 I have 
spoken to intelligent people who deny that Sir 
Walter Scott was anything better than a mere 
rhymester, while others will tell you that Tennyson 
is hazy, and Robert Browning well, if they would 
tell the truth above their comprehension. It 
would not be a bad plan to make these buzzing 
critics write something better to replace every- 
thing they decry, and we should soon have less 
cry and more wool. ROBERT F. GARDINER. 

I do not rank Longfellow as a great poet, but 
he is a very good American poet. His smaller 
pieces are no better than Thomas Gray, who has 
inflicted no lengthy piece on mankind, while all 
Longfellow's long poems are tedious in the ex- 
treme. He is, therefore, a rhymester ; and that, I 
take it, is the primitive meaning of poetaster. 

Given TTOI^TIKOS, Latin poeticus, we mean a 
working poet ; not a maker with the divine afflatus 
upon him, but one who spins out his verses as a 
professional pursuit. Then we have the English 
formative poetiser, where the terminal, from issare, 
implies activity ; if we mean undue activity, we 
vary it to poetaster. 

When Dr. Murray comes to P, the survivors 
will know how poetaster first arose. A. H. 

A clever parody (which I have seen only in a 
phonographic magazine, in a very amusing lecture 
on marriage) begins : 

Tell me not in idle jingle 

Marriage is an empty dream ; 
For the girl is dead that 's single, 

And things are not what they seem. 
!',' '.. . Life is real, life is earnest, 
Single blessedness a fib ; 
" Man thou art, to man returnest," 

Has been spoken of the rib. 
It occurs to me as just possible that the Daily 
News leader-writer, quoting the line to which 
MR. HAMILTON refers, has supposed it to be the 
peculiar property of the parody, and not a part of 
the original ' Psalm of Life.' G. N. 

MR. WALFORD may like to know that the 

verses on the fountain at Shanklin are printed in 

the " Albion " edition of Longfellow, published by 

F. Warne & Co. An interesting note is prefixed. 


The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

SIR HUGH MYDDELTON (7 to S. iii. 389,478). 
I am glad to be able to solve MR. MASKELL'S doubt. 
In a paper on the united parishes of St. Matthew, 
Friday Street, and St. Peter, Cheap, the Rector 
remarks (1869): 

" S. Matthew's parish seems to have been for nearly 
a century the home of the Middleton family, for the 
registers abound with notices concerning members of this 
house closing at length with this entry in the burial 
register, ' 1631. X 1 * 10, S r Hugh Middleton, Knight.' " 



[7ft S, IV. JULY 9, '87, 

The disappearance of any tablet or monument to 
his memory is accounted for by the Great Fire 
thirty-five years later ; but it is remarkable that 
there is no mention of such in that valuable col- 
lection of Le Neve's ' Monumenta Anglicana/ 
from which I take the following : 

" In the Chancel of Edmonton Church in Middlesex. 
Here lieth interred the body of the R* Wor" Dame 
Elizabeth Middleton late Wife of 8' Hugh Middieton 
Bar* who departed this life the 19" of July A D'ni 1643 
aged 63 yeares being the Mother of 15 Children." 

The only epitaph of the family of which record has 
been preserved at St. Matthew's is one to Anne 
Middleton, who died Jan. 11, 1596, in her fifty- 
fourth year. The inscription is from a plate on the 
south wall of the chancel (Stow): 

"Aa Man liveth, BO he dieth; As Tree falleth.soit 
lieth : Anne Middleton, thy Life, well past, Doth argue 
restful Bliss at last." 


George Hallen, a prosperous pan-maker at Stour- 
bridge, Worcestershire (b. 1725), married, about 
1760, Ann Myddelton, who died 1806, aged 
seventy-six. Their granddaughter Ann was born 
1795, and remembered her grandmother well. She 
told me that she was the daughter of Hugh Myd- 
delton, whom she supposed to be the knight. It 
is just possible that she may have been a grand- 
daughter of Hugh Myddelton of Shiffaal, as there 
was much intercourse between that place and 
Stourbridge. She was always reputed of good 
family. I should be very glad to learn where and 
when the marriage took place. While on the sub- 
ject I give a marriage from the registers of St. Mary 
Woolchurch Haw, London : " 1659, July 28. Hugh 
Middleton and Alice Haines, both of the Parish 
of Margaretts, Westminster." 


Hugh Middleton (so his name is spelled in the 
accounts I quote from) lived at the Golden Inn 
in Cheapside, and carried on the business of a 




^"SL2SV rii John ' aDd he was eldest son of 
Robert Middleton of Cauldhame (formerly designed 
of Middleton and of Kilhill), faj Kincardineshire 

MIM rai8 J to ? e peerage in 166 as Earl of 

[iddleton, &c., and as such R. W. C. will doubt- 
know him well. He died through falling 
down stairs at Tangiers in 1673, and his historian? 
say he was then only fifty-four, born circa 1619 Thi 
assertion I doubt, and should be grateful for info" 
.nation His father, when killed sitting in hL 
chair " by Montrose's soldiers in 1645, was called 



John, who had no issue, was dated 

April 18, 1599. His father's sister Margaret was 
married previous to that date ; and he himself had 
cultivated literature before he " trailed a pike " in 
Hepburn's regiment ; but neither of his age nor of 
his writings can I glean any definite knowledge. 
Surely he was more than fifty-four at his death! 


" A SLEEVELESS ERRAND " (l t S. i. 439 J V. 

473 ; xii. 58, 481, 520 ; 7 th S. iii. 6, 74, 391). 
The expression " sleeveless errand " occurs in ' The 
Proverbs of John Heywood," 1546 : 

And one morning timely he tooke in hand 
To make to my house a sleeveless errand, 
Hanking upon me, his minde herein to breake, 
Which I would not see till he began to speake, 
Praying me to heare him ; and I sayd, I would. 

P. 29, reprint, 1874. 

What earlier instances are there of the use of 
" sleeveless " with " errand "1 


TEA-CADDY (7 th S. iii. 308, 435). Sometimes a 
box without any compartments, and not metal- 
lined, is called variously " tea-box," " tea-caddy," 
never "tea-chest" to my knowing. I have heard 
some call a tin box or chest used to hold 
tea, a " tea-caddy," not having any divisions in- 
side. On the other hand, a large chest, such as 
described by EsTE(7 th S. iii. 435) is called a " tea- 
chest," the metal-lined boxes within it being called 
" caddies." Some of these large " tea-chests," one 
a very old one I know of, also contain an extra 
compartment, which serves as a small medicine 
chest. But "tea-caddy" is sadly misused, as other 

Thornhill Lees, Dewsbury. 

I noticed in one of your late numbers an in- 
quiry as to the origin of the name " tea-caddy." 
I import tea from Shanghai, and the account is 
made out in "cattys," a Chinese weight, equivalent, 
if I remember rightly, to two and a quarter pounds. 
There is a similarity in the names " caddy " and 
" catty," which suggests the origin of the former 
and its derivation from the latter. 

May I be excused, when writing on tea, if I draw 
the attention of those of your readers who are 
connoisseurs in tea to the remarkable fact that 
the greater merit of sun-dried tea compared with 
high-dried tea (that is tea dried by artificial heat) 
appears to be unknown to more than a few of the 
consumers in England, and to most of the tea 
merchants. Sun-dried tea is superior to high- 
dried as an Havannah cigar is to its English-made 
imitation. The high-drying process was invented 
many years ago, so I was informed by my friends 
at Shanghai (when the tea had to remain in the 
hold of a sailing ship for several months) to protect 
it from mildew. If any of your readers are tempted 
to order sun-dried tea from Shanghai or Foochow 
or Ichang, &c., they will find a small packet of 

7"> S. IV. Joti 9, 'St.] 


lime in each case. This is to absorb any moisture 
that may get in during the voyage, which, how- 
ever, now lasts for only a few weeks. The 
Russian "overland" tea is sun-dried, hence its 
high character. 

ALFRED P. KTDER, Admiral of the Fleet. 

CURIOUS EPITAPH (7 tt S. iii. 474). The first of 
these is of the class whereof "Forgive, blest 
shade," is a type those which occur in many 
places and different forms. This is found, for 
instance, at Herne and at Dorking. Archbishop 
Trench's ' Household Poetry ' gives it as follows : 
Here lies a piece of Christ ; a star in dust ; 
A vein of gold ; a china dish that must 
Be used in heaven, when God shall feast the just ; 
and adds the name Robert Wilde, but with no 
date. I have also seen, but cannot now say where, 
these lines attached : 

Approved by all and loved so well, 
Though young, like fruit that 's ripe he fell. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
The Cottage, Fulbourn, Cambridge. 

death, thou suggenar so bold. 
Muggenar, as used above, is an authenticated 
form of " sojourner "; but is here apparently used 
in error for sumner, summunder, an apparitor. 

A. H. 

The first Nine Years of the Bank of England. An 

Inquiry into a Weekly Record of the Price of Bank 

Stock from August 17, 1694, to September 17, 1703. 

By James E. Thorold Rogers. (Oxford, Clarendon 


MR. ROOERS'S well-known ' History of Agriculture and 
Prices' was, where it did not consist of matter reduced 
to a tabular form, a work that could be enjoyed by 
several widely separated classes of readers. The book 
now before us, though equally painstaking and thorough, 
and dealing with a time with which we should assume 
that Mr. Rogers has far greater sympathy, can only be 
attractive to the political economist, or to those and 
they are, we are sorry to say, as yet but few who 
endeavour to study history as though it were an exact 
Ecience. We do not mean by this to slight a book which 
shows both industry and insight. The subject chosen is 
important ; but as the human mind is at present con- 
stituted, the enthusiasm needed to master its contents 
will be developed but by few. 

We wish, as an introduction to a history of the beginings 
of English banking, Mr. Rogers had given us a sketch of 
the career of the great Bank of Amsterdam. The Venice 
and Genoa banks had little direct effect on England. The 
great Dutch concern was the envy or object of hatred ol 
every Englishman who had heard of it. Differing much 
in its nature from our Bank of England, the Amsterdam 
bank was certainly its parent. It is fruitless to speculate 
what would have happened had any one circumstance 
in history been other than it was. Causation is a net 
work, not a chain, and the most stupendous and the 
most minute events of to-day are affected by what 
occurred ages ago. One cannot help at times trying to 
guess what would have been the state of things now hac 
the banking system never been developed, An euthu< 

iaatic statistician says that it has been the most fruitful 
discovery man has made except the printing press. 
Without affirming or denying this, it may be useful to 
reflect on the change that the banking system has pro- 
duced. To take one point alone : had there been no 
)anks, would it have been possible to organize capital in 
such a manner that it could have been employed in the 
formation of railways? 

Mr. Rogers has discovered and reprinted a weekly 
register of the price of bank stock for the first nine 
years of the existence of the Bank of England. This 
table is very interesting. It does not, it is true, form an 
exact index of political calm and storm, as a similar 
table relating to the price of consols in recent days 
would do ; but for that purpose it is not without interest. 
The hatred of the country party to the trading classes 
after the fall of the Stuart despotism is well brought 
out. The literature of Queen Anne's day is full of 
allusions to it. We believe that both Lord Macaulay 
and Mr. Rogers have treated these matters too gravely. 
That the hatred existed, we know. We doubt, however, 
that it was founded on the reasons commonly assigned. 
The country squires and the clergy rarely visited London, 
and were, perhaps, more ignorant of the life of the 
trading classes on whom they were dependent than 
their representatives at the present day are of the 
politics of Japan. They knew that the London " shop- 
keepers" were, many of them, making vast fortunes; 
and as they had no idea of the first principles of econo- 
mics, they not unnaturally believed that every farthing 
that found its way into the trader's pocket was so much 
deducted from the wealth of his customers. " Specu- 
lative political economy," as Mr. Rogers reminds UB, 
" has been a most dangerous guide." The absence of all 
thought on such matters is perhaps more dangerous 
even than rash speculation. Even at the present day 
theory and practice are not harmonized successfully on 
any one of the great questions which economics claims 
as its own domain. 

Gleanings in Old Garden Literature. By W. Carew 

Hazlitt. (Stock.) 

To that attractive set of works "The Book-Lover's 
Library," which, under Mr. Wheatley's hands, is justify- 
ing its title, has been added Mr. Hazlitt's ' Gleanings in 
Old Garden Literature.' Not the least valuable part of 
this is the bibliography of garden literature, herbals, 
&c., in which curious information is given. Some of the 
statistics as to the prices paid for vegetables are a little 
startling. It is strange to hear of 3., equal to 9s. in 
these days, being paid in 1619 for two cauliflowers. 

THE Fortnightly opens with a poem, by Mr. Matthew 
Arnold, entitled ' Kaiser Dead.' It is a tribute such as 
many writers have left to the virtues and failings of a 
dog. Prof. Seeley takes a sanguine view of the expan- 
sion of English empire in Victorian as contrasted with 
Georgian times. Herr Karl Blind gives a striking 
account of ' General Langievicz and the last Polish 
Rising.' ' Letters from Central Africa ' are by Emin 
Pasha. ' Good and Bad Temper in English Families ' 
furnishes some curious statistics on a subject of extreme 
difficulty. Mr. Gladstone continues, in the Nineteenth 
Century, his studies of ' The Greater Gods of Olympos,' 
dealing with Athene, while his son, Mr. Herbert J. Glad- 
stone, records the impressions of ' A First Visit to India.' 
' Art Sales and Christie's,' by Mr. George Redford, deals 
principally with the prices realized by pictures. Miss (?) 
Harriette Brooke Davies has some ingenious and practical 
suggestions on ' A Kitchen College,' or a school of cookery. 
The records of combat in the South still constitute 
the most stirring portion of the Century. In the admir- 
able picture illustrations of the ' Struggle for Atalanta ' 



[7"- S. IV. JULY 9, '87. 

the chief difficulty for the English reader is to tell 
which are the Unionists and which the Confederates. 

Animal Locomotion in the Maybridge Photographs ' is 
a curious and noteworthy paper. Letterpress and illus- 
trations are alike excellent.' Chatter about Shelley,' 
which appears in Macmillan, is one of Mr. Traill's 
admirable ' Conversations,' and is equally just and 
amusing. Prof. Clark Murray has an overwhelmingly 
erudite treatise on ' The Revived Study of Berkeley.' 
Mr. A. Tilley writes on 'The Humour of Moliere.' 
Interesting papers are on ' Montrose,' ' Theocritus in 
Sicily,' and * Benacus.' In the Gentleman's, Mr. J. A. 
Farrer employs the machinery of Voltaire in a paper on 
( Candide at the Jubilee.' A finer salt of satire would 
better justify its use, since the paper is argumentative 
rather than brilliant. Mr. Phil Robinson supplies 
further notes on the poets, Mr. E. Walford describes 
'The Abbey of Dunfermline,' and Mr. Fox-Bourne 
deals with ' No. 45 ' of the North Briton. The first part 
of an animated description of ' Playgoing in China/ 
from the pen of the Hon. Lewis Wingfield, appears in 
Murray's, in which also Cardinal Manning writes on 
' Why are our People unwilling to Emigrate? ' Poetry 
and fiction occupy a large share of the magazine. The 
Cornkill has an interesting account of ' A Visit to the 
Tomb of Jove ' and a short history of ' Flags and Ban- 
ners.' In Longman's Mr. W. H. Pollock has a valuable 
study of ' Mephistopheles at the Lyceum.' Mr. Andrew 
Lang is vivacious in his ' At the Sign of the Ship.' In 
the English Illustrated Mr. Richard Jefferies begins 

Walks in the Wheatfields,' written in his characteristic 
style. With its quaint illustrations of old ships, ' The 
Private Journal of a French Mariner ' has both value 
and interest. ' Old Hook and Crook ' has some pleasant 
gossip by Mr. Basil Field. 'Chatter,' the opening 
illustration, is excellent. ' The Chronicles of Scottish 
Counties' are finished in All the Year Round, and those 
of Welsh counties begin. A paper, in two parts, on 
Goethe and Carlyle repays attention. 

MESSRS. CASSELL'S publications lead off with The En- 
cyclopaedic Dictionary, Part XL1I. of which carries the 
alphabet from " Incuse " to " Interlink." The words 
included are almost all of Latin origin ; " Intellect," 
"Inoculate," and "Inspiration" are the subjects of 
important definitions and illustration. Egypt, Descrip- 
tive, Historical, and Picturesque, has a fine full-page 
illustration, ' On the Coast of the Red Sea,' and some 
good pictures of scenes and characters of street life, 
dancers in street and temple. &c. All 's Well that Ends 
Well' is finished in Part XV1I1. of CaueU's Illustrated 
Shakespeare, and 'Twelfth Night' begun. The large 

illustrations include three striking pictures of Parolles. 

Greater London, by Mr. E. Walford, finishes at Tooting in 
Part XX IV., and the title-page to Vol. II. and the index 
to this interesting work are supplied. A third volume 
of Our Own Country also finishes with Part XXX., the 
progress to Sheffield being depicted. A good view of 
Sheffield Church is among the illustrations. Gleanings 
from Popular Authors approaches completion, twenty- 
three out of twenty-four parts being supplied. Among 
those from whom extracts are given are Lord Lytton 
Mr. J. A. Sterry, Mr. Coventry Patmore. and Mr Short- 
house. The History of India, Part XXII., deals with 
the visit of the Prince of Wales to India, and has pictures 
of tiger hunting and other subjects. In Part XIV. of 
The Life and Times of Queen Victoria the period of the 
death of the Prince Consort is reached, and that also of 
the outbreak of Civil War in America. 

PAKT XLIV. of Mr. Hamilton's Pandits gives imita- 
tions of 'The Viear of Bray,' 'Old King Cole,' and 
many popular old songs. 

THE claim of Northern Notes and Queries to be the 
northernmost of the issue of ' N. & Q.' is now forfeited 
by the appearance of No. 1 of Scottish Notes and Queries, 
which is published in "Aberdeen awa," and edited 
ay Mr. John Bulloch. This latest born of a numerous 
progeny seems robust and full of vitality. 

THE Monthly Chronicle of North-Country Lore and 
Legend, issued at Newcastle-on-Tyne by Mr. Walter 
Scott, contains much matter of interest to northern 

AMONG the forthcoming sales at Messrs. Sotheby & 
Wilkinson's are those of the library of the late Joseph 
Mayne, of Liverpool, on the 19th insfc., and a portion of 
the library of Mr. G. W. Smalley, on the llth and 12th. 

MR. W. ROBERTS is contributing a series of papers on 
The Dawn of English Bookselling ' to the Publishers' 

THE Red Dragon having ceased to exist, the ' Notes 
and Queries' section, which constituted an interesting 
feature, is being continued in the Cardiff Weekly Mail. 

$atfcerf to Carregpanirent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Corresponden ts who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

JONATHAN BOUCHIER (" Poems on Chesa "). At the 
close of " Ludus Scacchiae, Chesse Play, a Game both 
Pleasant, Wittie, and Politicke, &c., Translated out of 
the Italian into the English Tongue," London, 1597, 
4to., is ' A pretty and pleasant Foeme of a whole Game 
played at Chesse, written by G. B[lochimo].' This 
answers your requirem ents. A bibliography of books on 
chess is, we fancy, obtainable. 

R. U. P. (" Fays ce que voudras "). The motto is 
supposed to have originated with Rabelais, who put it 
over the doors of his pleasant abbey of Theleme. 

JOHN M. DEAN (" All things come to him who knows 
how to wait "). This proverb, wLich is a translation of 
the French "Tout vient & point pour celui qui sait 
attendre," is not yet definitely fixed in the English 
language. The above is the better rendering of the 

COL. HARDY ("Parody by 0'Connell").-This will be 
found ' N. & Q.,' 6h S. viii. 260. The two other colonela 
were Col., afterwards Sir W. Verner, M.P. for Armagh 
county, and Col. Gore, M.P. for Sligo county. See "' 
S. vii. 155. 

W. G. STONE (" Copying Letters "). Please send. 
VERMIS. -Vere means " truly." 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 2! 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print- and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

?t> 8. IV. JULY 16, '87.] 





NOTES: Links with the '45, 41 Walsh Family, 42 Jubilee, 
44 'Memoirs of John Macky ' Photius, Montagu, and 
Gibbon 'Sir Gyles Goose-cappe,' 45 " Whiskam Dandy" 
Van Dyck Banbury Ale Cider v. Wine Ancient Mar- 
riage Certificate, 46. 

QUERIES : Designs for Rebuilding Grimsthorpe Castle- 
Beatification Papillon Curiosity in Names -Owfield or 
Oldfleld Cromwell's General Lambert Greville Words 
connected with Architecture, 47 " As sharp as bottled 
porridge " Dulcarnon Lumley Franklin's Magic Picture 
Lady Bountiful A Prophecy Prout ' The Pagota,' 48 
"As pleased as Punch "Robert Bale Altarage Reli- 
gions and Sauces Walking-stick Strype Authorship of 
Songs Wanted Bishop Sparrow's ' Rationale,' 49. 

REPLIES :-Lord Mayor's Day, 49 Urn Burial-Baliol- 
Bnrning Question, 50 Acromerostich Majesty King 
George of Greece Name of Author Wanted Pre-Existence 
Dr. Routh Arms of Scott, 51 Curfew Hubbub MS. 
Journal of F. White, 52 Dollar The Sobriquet " Alb6 " 
Lieut. -General Middleton " Music hath charms," 53 
Christ Hospital Gunn Grecian Stairs, 54 Master and 
Servant Fleet Lane, 55 Crow v. Magpie Suffix -ny 
Literary Club-Maslin Pans Quarles's Virgin Widow,' 57 
London Bridge Earthquakes St. Wilfrid's Needle, 58 
Lieut. W. Digby, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Raine's Historians of the Church of 
York' 'Remains of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin' Boase's 
' Oxford ' Saintsbury's ' Manchester.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


(Continued from 7 th S. iii. 511.) 

The late Mr. G. Hetherington, of Brampton, who 
died in 1881, aged eighty-three, told me that he 
had often heard his grandmother, Elizabeth Smith, 
who died in 1813, aged eighty-nine, describe the 
crowd and commotion occasioned by the coming of 
the deputy-mayor and corporation of Carlisle to 
Brampton to deliver up the keys of the city to the 
prince, which ceremony they went through on their 
knees. Among that crowd she said she well remem- 
bered having seen one Margaret Ewing, a girl of 
sixteen, who had come with the army from Scot- 
land. That girls did accompany the army we know, 
from what happened at the crossing of the river 
Esk, then much swolUn from recent floods, on their 
way back to Scotland; 

" None were lost, except a few girls, who, for love of 
the white cockade, had followed the army throughout 
the whole of its singular march, with an heroic devotion 
which deserved a better Tate." Chambers'a ' History of 
the Rebellion in 1745,' first edition, vol. i. p. 238. 
From such a fate, at all events from the risk of 
it, Margaret Ewing saved herself when, on the 
departure of the HigUanders from Brampton, she 
voluntarily chose to He the girl they left behind 
them. Penrith parish register contains the follow- 
ing entry : 

"1748, Dec. 28. John Richardson and Margaret Ewing, 
both of Brampton, married." 

John Richardson was of the ancient yeoman family 
of the Kichardsons of Easby, a township of Bramp- 
ton, and on the death of his father in 1759 he suc- 
ceeded to the small estate at Easby, about forty- 
five acres, which is known from the ' Book of the 
Barony of Gilsland ' to have been in the possession 
of his ancestors in 1603, and may have been so for 
centuries earlier. He died in 1799, aged seventy- 
three. His wife, Margaret, was a remarkable 
woman, believed by her Brampton contemporaries 
to have been of a noble house. But " if so," says a 
local record, " she kept her secret well, as she was 
in no way communicative to those about her, not 
even to her husband, who always stood in great awe 
of her." She died in 1813, aged eighty-four, 
leaving the estate to her grandson Richard Richard- 
son, to whom it is said she left it on the condition 
that he inscribed on her tombstone the following 
epitaph : 

Here rest my old bones ; my vexation now ends ; 

I have lived far too long for myself and my friends. 

As for churchyards, and grounds which the parsons call 


'Tis a rank piece of priestcraft, and founded in folly ; 
In short I despise them ; and as for my soul, 
It may rise the last day with my bones from this hole ; 
But about the next world I ne'er troubled iny pate ; 
If no better than this, I beseech thee, Fate, 
When millions of bodies rise up in a riot, 
0, pray, let the bones of old Margaret lie quiet ! 
The record goes on to say that " the then vicar of 
the parish, his attention having been called to 
this epitaph, sent a copy of it to the chancellor of 
the diocese, who at once hastened to Brampton 
and actually stood over the mason, one George 
Rowell, until he had picked out the objection- 
able lines with a chisel and mallet." That the 
vicar knew nothing about the epitaph until his 
attention was called to it may to some appear 
strange. But the churchyard is a mile and a 
half distant from the church, vicarage, and town; 
and in later times a tombstone has occasionally 
been placed there without the knowledge of the 
vicar. The chancellor, however, I think, must 
have ordered the stone to be altogether broken 
up, for the stone which now surmounts Margaret 
Richardson's grave does not look as if it has ever 
borne any other inscription than her present epi- 
taph, which consists of ten lines, orthodox enough 
to have been composed by the chancellor himself, 
beginning thus : 

Throughout the world's immeasurable space 
Go, sinful man, and learn thy God to trace 1 

Mr. A. Ormiston, Carlisle diocesan surveyor, writ- 
ing to me about the original epitaph, says : 

" An old friend of mine, Elizabeth Story (nee Burgess), 
who died in 1855, aged eighty-three, informed me that 
she had seen the tombstone, and that it was a common 
practice amongst young folk to gather together in 
Brampton churchyard for the purpose of reading the 



[7 th 8. IV. JULY 16, '87. 

strange epitaph on old Margaret. Her testimony was 
DO out by another old person whom I knew, Elizabeth 
Armstrong, who died in 1858, aged seventy-four, and was 
buried at Lanercost." 

Mrs. Story's version of the epitaph, copied from 
her dictation by Mr. Ormiston, is identical with 
that given above, with the single exception of the 
word "lie" instead of "rest" in the first line. 
Mrs. Barton, of Carlisle, whose late husband was 
a grandson of John and Margaret Richardson, 
has a version which, besides differing as to several 
words from that of Mrs. Story, omits altogether 
the two middle lines. The same two lines are 
omitted by Mr. J. C. Jeaffreson, who, in his 'Book 
about Doctors ' (p. 203), assigns the authorship of 
this epitaph to Dr. Messenger Monsey, physician 
to Chelsea Hospital, who died in 1788, aged ninety- 
five. Mr. Jeaffreson gives the last four lines thus: 
What the next world may be I ne'er troubled my pate; 
And, be what it may, I beseech thee, Fate, 
When bodies of millions rise up in a riot, 
To let the old carcase of Monsey lie quiet ! 
The first four lines as given by Mr. Jeaffreson 
agree exactly with the version which I have quoted 
from the local record. VV. 

(To l>e continued.) 


(8ee7 h S.iii.l68.) 

It is generally accredited in the South of Ire- 
land that the illustrious family of Walsh, of the 
Walsh Mountains in its different ramifications 
of Bally-Hale ; of Fanningstown, in the county of 
Kilkenny ; of Carrigmaine, in Wicklow ; of Old- 
court, in Meath ; of Cranagh, Roscommon (these 
the sons of Geffrey), there transplanted by Crom- 
well, subsequently of France and Brittany, Comtes 
and Dues de Serent, by creation 1753, and by brevet 
of La Mothe-Houdancourt, grandees of Spain ; o: 
Teneriffe, in the Canary Islands, now Cologan 
" titulados de Castilla," under the denomination 
of "Marqueses de Arenal"; Counts von Wallis 
Carrighmaine,in Austria derive from one common 
stock, three brothers, Welsh knights, companions 
of Strongbow, two of whom, Philip and David 
rendered themselves for ever famous through theii 
rare intrepidity at the siege of Limerick, then de- 
fended against Raymond le Gros by Donalc 
O'BrieD, Prince of Thomond (1172). The passag< 
of the Shannon is figured, I should imagine, not 
withstanding an opinion alleged to the contrary in 
'N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. xi. 495, by the armorial bearing 
and crest since borne by many branches of th 
Walsh family, called by Madame de Cre'quy, ii 
her more or less authentic ' Memoirs,' edited fr 
M. de Courchamps, "tres seigneuriale," which 
together with the characteristic motto, " Transfixu 
sed non mortuus," are thus marshalled : On 
silver sh : eld, a chevron gules between three pheon 
sable ; the crest, a swan pierced through the neck 

11 proper, and supporters of the French ducal and 
omtal families of that name, two swans, wings 
levated, and another motto, epitomizing the entire 
jistory of the race, "Pro Deo, honore, et patria." 
'he same arms, an annulet on the chevron, and 
he neck of the swan in the crest, presumably a 
mark of cadency, with the somewhat plaintive de- 
vice, possibly conceived during the dark days of 
persecution, " Dum spiro, spero," minus the sup- 
>orters, not generally used, or allowed to the 
intitled aristocracy or simply armigerous families 
of the United Kingdom, were borne by the only 
surviving branch still possessed of landed property 
n southern Ireland, that is to say, by the late 
John Walsh, of Fanningstown, a magistrate of 
Kilkenny, well known and beloved by us all. This 
venerable gentleman, of undoubted honour and 
veracity, without that overdose of family pride 
almost excusable in Irishmen of ancient lineage, 
irmly believed in his race, was not ignorant of its 
illation, and as a matter of course claimed kins- 
manship with his foreign cousins, who, though 
exiled from the home of their fathers, yet found 
honour, distinction, wealth, and fame in other 
more favoured regions. 

Had they elected to remain in Ireland, they 
would, under the grinding tyranny of the penal 
laws, then in full vigour, have met with constant 
obloquy and insult from the parvenu and triumph- 
ant Cromwellian squires, their neighbours, who 
had recently possessed themselves of so large a 
portion of the confiscated land of Erin. 

See the late Lord Macaulay, when, in his own 
inimitable style, he expatiates so vividly on the 
position attained by a Count Wall, minister of the 
Catholic king, dictating his conditions in the 
palace of the Escurial to the ambassador of Wai- 
pole, minister of George II., the English king; 
and how mournful indeed would have been his 
existence had so gifted a statesman continued in 
Ireland, immured in the sullen seclusion even 
of his beautiful domain of Coolnamuck, on the 
banks of our own silvery, wide-expanded Suir ! 
See also my late father, Sir Thomas Wyse, in 
his 'Catholic Association,' vol. i. c. ii. pp. 51, 52. 

The exiled noblesse of Ireland, banished at the 
close of the seventeenth century for their inviolable 
fidelity to the Stuarts, whom they considered as 
their lawful monarchs, as likewise for their un- 
purchasable attachment to the national faith, 
have enriched the armorid of almost every 
European country, whilst tleir martial prowess 
in the field and skill in the (ouncil-chamber have 
contributed to ' c make the hiitory " of many coun- 
tries throughout the globe. 

How many glorious names on the roll of fame, 
but the nomenclature would be too tedious to re- 
capitulate here, O'Neills, MatMahons, O'Donnells, 
Lacys, D'Altons, O'Rorkes O'Reillys, Dillons, 
Walshes, and countless others of pure Milesian, 

r S. IV. JOLT 16, '57.] 



Anglo-Norman, or Strongbownian blood, who have 
left indelible traces in the annals of their respec- 
tive (adopted) countries. 

The relationship of the Fanningstown Walshes 
has been duly set forth in several editions of the 
* Landed Gentry,' art. " Walsh of Fanningstown," 
to which I beg permission to refer L. W. 

The French families, Comtes Walsh, Comtes de 
Serent (an estate situate in Anjou), are represented 
to this day in France, where they remain not un- 
mindful of their primitive Irish or Celtic origin, 
called by the natives " Brettanaigh," pronounced 
" Brannagh," or the Welshman, being themselves 
of unknown Cymric source* "und, clarum ac 
venerabile nomen." 

I shall merely limit myself to mention one in- 
dividual of this Franco-Irish family, Le Vicomte 
Joseph Walsh, himself an alumnus of the Jesuits' 
College, Stonyhurst, in after life the enthusiastic 
author of the ' Lettres Vende"ennes,' ' Tableau des 
Fetes Chre"tiennes/ the elegant and forcible Legi- 
timist writer we all know. 

This gentilhomme dchevd, in every sense of the 
word founder, moreover, of the pungent Eoyalist 
review La Mode was fifth in descent from the first 
emigrant of the name in France, James Walsh 
(son of John), of Ballynacully, where his eldest 
son, Phillippe, by Margaret Walsh of Carrig- 
maine, was married at St. Malo (Brittany) in 1695 
to Anne Whyte, daughter of James Whyte and of 
Thomassine Cranesborough, of Waterford City, a 
rich heiress, but belonging to the family of Whyte 
of Kingsmeadow or Monaree, near that city, now 
of Loughbrickland, county Down, and originally 
from Waterford and Limerick, not without illus- 
tration or eminence in Anglo-Irish history. 

The eldest son, issue of this marriage, Antoine 
Vincent, born at St. Malo, 1703, was created by 
the Pretender Lord Walsh, 1745, title unrecog- 
nized in this country. His '* noblesse d'extrac- 
tion" confirmed 1754; and after the "lettres 
patentes " creatives of the Comte de S 6" rent it was 
expressly declared, following a previous decree of 
the Council of State, August 15, same year, 
"qu'il avait justifie" dans les formes les plus 
authentiques, qu'il 4tait issu, au dix-huitieme 
degre de Phillippe Walsh, surnomme" ' le Breton,' 
e"tabli en Irlande." His nephew and elder brother 
to Vicomte Walsh tbove mentioned, Comte Th&>- 
bald Walsh, killed at St. Domingo, 1792, had the 
honour, 1787, as others of his name, to "monter 
dans les carosses du Roi," envied distinction, re- 
served only to members of the " haute noblesse," 
and to obtain whifch a "noblesse d'extraction," 
without any kno\m " annoblissment," was im- 
peratively demanded. At that time Messire Ber- 
nard Cberin, Chevdier, was one of the kings or 
judges of arms dele;ated in this matter in France, 

* Yet I have seen 
time of Alfred the 

memoir tracing them up to the 
Giat a rather problematic origin, 

and the honour, learning, and incorruptible inte- 
grity he ever displayed in his responsible functions 
have become not only a matter of history, but also 
the source of infinite satisfaction and security to 
those families, either French by birth or naturaliza- 
tion, who had their proofs of gentility submitted 
to his conscientious supervision, and it was under 
his unexceptionable direction that Messieurs Walsh 
made out the necessary proofs required of them. 

The Walsh pedigree is to be found most volu- 
minously traced in the following work, thus en- 
titled, ' Histoire Ge"ne"alogique et He>aldique des 
Pairs de France, des Grands Dignitaires de la 
Couronne, des Principles Families Nobles du 
Eoyaume, et des Maisons Princieres de PEurope/ 
par M. Le Chevalier Jean Baptiste Pierre de 
Courcelles, ancien magistrat, Paris, 1822. In this 
work, which has met with a deserved success, 
every generation from Sir Phillip Walsh, the 
Strongbownian knight, is duly accounted for. 

Also, more briefly told by M. Borel d'Haute- 
rive, in his Annuaire de la Noblesse (Paris), now 
in the forty-fourth year of its existence, 1864, 
1865, sub voce " Wyse," 1869. He even mentions 
a newly discovered Walsh, a Crusader, whose 
arms, the same as those of the family we are now 
treating of, figure, somewhat hastily, perhaps, in 
the " Salle des Croisades " at Versailles. 

Yet if there is not sufficient evidence to connect 
the Irish Walshes with this Crusader of the same 
cognomen, there is nothing either to disprove that 
he may not really have been some adventurous 
and pious scion of the race. I subjoin the docu- 
ment of the year 1191 in the original Latin, base 
of this assertion or belief. The reader will hence 
have an opportunity to form a correct opinion 
thereupon : 

" RIOARDTJS, Dei gratia, Rex A nglias, Dux Normanni 
et Aquitanice, Comes Andegavensis, universis praesentes 
litteris inspectures, SALUTEM. Sciatis, quod cum quos- 
darn fideles nostros, pro negotiatorum nostrorum oppor- 
tunitate, ad transmarinas partes remittendoa duxerimua 
nihil autem de proprio, in hoc casu secundum perigrina- 
tionis solum, alienare possimus, dilecto nostro Jacobo de 
Jhotes [sic] curam potestatemque commissimus, dictis 
fidelibus nostris, quorumdam quantitatem mutationem 
procurandi videlicet, quingentarum marcarum ad munus, 
Gaufrido de Haid, sexcentarum marcarum, ad munus, 
Willelmo de Gorram, eeptingentarum marcarum, ad 
munus, Phillippo Walenai, et mille marcarum, ad 
munus, Mercadaro, promittena autem interpositione 
sacramenti, et fides, noa quoslibet convenciones, super 
hoc earn dicto Jacobo, vel praefatis fidelibus, nostroa 
mitar ratar, confirmatasque integre habituras, et fide- 
liter servaturos. Teste me ipso apud Accon, tertia 
die August! (1191)." 

Nor is this conjecture altogether improbable. 
The Tuites of Mannylea, and subsequently 
Baronets (1622) of Sonna, Westmeath, bear for 
motto or war-cry "Allelulia," bestowed upon them, 
it is said, by the same Richard Coeur de Lion, im- 
mediately after the siege of St. Jean d'Acre, 
which, A.D. 1192, fell into Christian hands. 



[7 th S. IV. JULY 16, '87. 

In those days the Anglo-Norman, Welsh, or 
Strongbownian gentry of the Pale were generally 
too much engrossed with their constant struggles 
against the Celtic clans, whom they were pleased 
to style the " Irish enemy," to think of carrying 
their arms into the extreme East, even for an object 
of such paramount importance as the recovery of 
the Holy Land from the iron grasp of the Saracen. 
Few, very few, Anglo-Irish or purely Celtic families 
could have applied to any one of their members in 
former days the proud boast of many a French, 
German, English, or Italian knight : 
Dal sepolcro del Signore 
lo ritorno vincitor. 

In this genealogy amongst other names L. W. 
will find that of an illustrious lady, Madame Valen- 
tine de Walsh-Serent, daughter of Antoine Joseph 
PhQlippe, Comte de Walsh-Serent, and through 
the noted French and Irish houses Rigaud de Vau- 
dreuil, (mother) Harper, and Whyte, fourth in 
descent from the first emigrant of the name at 
Nantes, afterwards at St. Malo, but since 1839 
widow of Prince Charles Marie- Bretagne, Due de 
la Tr^mouille, Vicomte and Due de Thouars, 
Prince de Tarente and Talmont, &c., head of one 
of the grandest houses of feudal France, often allied 
with royalty, surmounting the historical escutcheon, 
Or, a chevron gules, between three eagles dis- 
played sable, quartering Thouars, France, Brittany, 
Amboise, &c., with the royal Sicilian crown, and 
immediately after the princes of Lorraine and 
Savoye, holding an acknowledged precedence at the 
Court of Versailles before all others, even those 
princes of Rohan who, considering themselves as 
such " de droit, de sang, et de possession d'etat," 
derived from that British Regulus, Conan Meriadek, 
a descendant of Caractacus or Caradawg, who 38C 
settled in Armorica, the betrothed of the virgin 
martyr St. Ursula, daughter of Dionocus, King oi 
Cornwall, but in reality husband of Darerca, sister 
of St. Patrick (our national apostle), who, being the 
son of Calphurnius, a Roman of high degree, was 
naturally supposed to be of noble and patrician 

(To le continued.) 

THE JUBILEE, JUNE 21, ISSY. " Jubilee, liter- 
ally a shout of joy ; the year of release among the 
Jews every fiftieth year ; any season of great public jo] 
and festivity." So says Chambers's * Etymologica 
Dictionary'; and the reminder is almost necessary 
so much is the word jubilee associated with a cele- 
bration of fifty years. It is customary to say that only 
three jubilees have been held before in England 
As a matter of fact this is, I believe, the only on< 
of stately ceremony that was ever actually held 
though there might have been four. 

The first was that of Ethelbert of Kent, the firs 
Christian king in England. He reigned for fifty 
six years, and, being Bretwalda, was in some sor 

King of England ; yet he did but hold immediate 
sway over a seventh part of England alone, while 
our Queen's authority is acknowledged over a 
seventh part of the whole world. 

Henry IIL's reign was nominally of the same 
length as Ethelbert's; but as he came to the throne 
when only nine years old the kingdom then being 
m the hands of a foreign prince he was for several 
years a minor. Nor was he ever, I believe, crowned 
at Westminster, but first at Gloucester, and when 
only thirteen, again at Canterbury; but at the time 
of his jubilee, the year 1266, he was at war with 
bis own people, and a stately ceremonial, even 
could it have been held, would have been a solemn 

Edward IIL's jubilee was recognized by a 
general pardon from which, strange to say, for 
some personal spite of John of Gaunt, William of 
Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, was excluded. 
But the glory of the king's reign had departed, his 
illustrious son the Black Prince had died the year 
before, and the king was sunk in sensuality and 
vice. He only outlived it six months. 

War abroad and domestic trouble at home 
marked the Jubilee year of the good old king 
George III. The war with France was at its 
height, and the disastrous expedition to Walcheren 
took place in the year 1809, for George III., unlike 
our Queen, elected to keep his festival at the open- 
ing instead of the close of the fiftieth year. That 
year was scarcely ended when insanity, which had 
shown itself more than once, became confirmed, and 
darkness, both mental and physical, settled down 
upon the good old man. 

But such a Jubilee as we have been privileged 
to take part in has never before been witnessed. 
In a Roman triumph conquered kings and queens 
followed the chariot of a victorious emperor or 
general ; but here five independent sovereigns 
from Europe and the distant isles of the great 
Pacific Ocean, with the heirs or representatives of 
the greatest monarchies upon earth, were present 
to do honour to the virtues, public and private, of 
our Queen and Empress, while dependent princes 
swelled the triumphant procession. Her magnifi- 
cent body-guard of princes of her blood or allied 
by marriage was in itself a unique feature. And 
amidst all this pomp sat tie Queen, simple and 
quiet, like as indeed she is the mother of her 
people, receiving their enthusiastic homage grate- 
fully and joyfully ; and one could not but remem- 
ber, to add to the peaceful triumph, that a universal 
peace reigns throughout her wide dominions. Surely 
the words of King Lemuel are true of her if ever 
they were of any woman : 

" Strength and honour are her clothing, and she shall 
rejoice in time to come. 

" She openeth her mouth with wisdom, and in her 
tongue is the law of kindness. 

" Her children rise up and <all her blessed, her hus- 
band also, and he praiseth her. 

7U"S. IV. JOLT 16, '87.] 



" Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou ex- 
cellest them all. 

" Favour is deceitful and beauty is vain, but a woman 
that feareth the Lord, she shall be praised. 

" Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her own 
works praise her in the gates." 

St. Saviour's. 

MACKY, ESQ.,' &c. The authorship of this book, 
published in 1733, is commonly ascribed to Daniel 
Defoe, for no other reason, apparently, than that 
nothing is known about its nominal author. I was 
told by my father more than forty years ago that 
the author was one of the Mackays* of Borley or 
Strathy, I am not certain which. In Lowndes the 
authorship is marked doubtful. The manuscript 
of the " Characters " in the volume is in the British 
Museum (Harl. 4635), and bears the following 
title : * Some short Political Characters of the 
Chief of the Lords and Commons of England. Of 
the then present Ministry and the most noted 
officers both by Sea and Land. Of the Foreign 
Ministers, and of the Nobility and Gentry of Scot- 
land before the Union. 1 There is a supplement, 
which is not in the printed volume, entitled 
' Some additional Characters of the Chief of the 
last Ministry,' and dated "16 th Aug 1 , 1715." The 
additional "characters" are Lord Bolingbroke, 
Lord Strafford, the Bishop of London, Lord Lex- 
ington, Lord Bingley, Lord Harcourt, Sir William 
Windham, Sir Thomas Hanmer, and Mr. Bromley. 
On the upper part of the title-page of this manu- 
script there is written, "I bought this in Mr. 
Rawlinson's sale, Oxford," and lower down, on the 
margin, and in the same handwriting," The Author 
of these Characters is that special Kascal and 
Scoundrel one Makay." 

The signature is that of Edward Harley, second 
Earl of Oxford, and it is improbable that he would 
be mistaken as to the name of the author. His 
written statement therefore confirms what I had 
been told, and goes a good way to prove that John 
Macky was not a pseudonym, but the real name of 
the author. The fact that Mr. Macky had dis- 
covered a plot (see ' Secret Services,' pp. xvi-xviii) 
in which the first Earl of Oxford and Lord Boling- 
broke were said to be implicated sufficiently ex- 
plains the expression " Rascal and Scoundrel." I 
should say that the manuscript does not contain 
the ' Memoirs of the Secret Services.' 

The printed volume in the British Museum con- 
tains a number of marginal notes, which are said 
to have been written by Dean Swift, and are un- 
mistakably plain aiid rather curious. 

* Several Mackayslfrom the Reay country went to 
Holland at the end of the seventeenth century, entered 
into the service of the States, and remained in the 
country. Descendan s of these settlers, bearing the 
same name, are still t be found in the Netherlands. 

In the list of " Popish Families in Scotland " in 
the manuscript, the last two lines read thus, " A 
branch of the Macdonnels in the high Lands and 
the Clann of the Mackeans in the west Islands." 
In the published volume Mackeans is erroneously 
printed Mackleans. The Mackeans (or Mac lans) 
were a branch of the Macdonalds, and it was one 
of this family who was so treacherously and bar- 
barously murdered, with a number of his followers, 
in February, 1692, in what is known as the mas- 
sacre of Glencoe. JOHN MACKAY. 

in the fifty-fifth chapter of the ' Decline and Fall,' 
where the first conversion of the Russians to Chris- 
tianity after the victories of Zimisces is mentioned, 
Gibbon remarks that it did not " become the en- 
lightened patriarch [Photius of Constantinople] to 
accuse the Sclavonian idolaters TT}S 'EAA^vt/djs 
KCU dOeov So^Tjs. They were neither Greeks nor 
atheists." Surely Photius, a Greek of the Greeks, 
and one of the principal agents of the schism be- 
tween the Greek and Latin churches, could not 
thus have linked " Greek and atheistic " together. 
Montacutius (i.e., Bishop Montagu) translates 
the clause in question, " pro paganica impietate 
ilia," and we need hardly doubt that the word 
'EAA^vt/djs is a corrupt reading for #1/1*075. 

In the previous part of the note, Gibbon, who 
cannot resist a sneer at a bishop, says, " It was 
unworthy of the learning of the editor to mistake 
the Russian nation, TO Pws, for a war-cry of the 
Bulgarians." But it does not appear to me that 
Montagu did make any such mistake. He says, 
indeed, that the word was used by the Bulgarians 
as a means of striking terror (probably as the name 
of the most formidable enemies with whom they 
were at that time acquainted), but adds that Rhos 
was "Gens Scythica, ad Austrum habitans, effera et 
agrestis," and suggests that the name is applied to 
them from the river Rha (the modern Volga). 
This conjecture is put forward doubtfully ("fort"), 
and must, of course, be rejected ; but it is quite 
evident that the writer understood TO Pws (which 
be rightly takes as two words, though in his copies 
of Photius it was given as one) to signify the name 
of a nation. W. T. LYNN. 


' SIR GYLES GOOSE-CAPPE.' In his 'Dictionary 
of Plays' Halliwell-Phillipps, after noting the 
editions of 1606 and 1636, says, " There is also an 
early undated edition." Some years ago, having 
purchased both the 1606 and this undated edition, 
I ascertained by collation that this undated had 
been printed from that of 1606, but took no 
further interest in the matter. Lately my friend 
P. A. Daniel, having picked up a copy without 
title-page, compared it with my undated one and 
with the two copies in the British Museum, and 
found that the undated was in all its errors, its 



peculiarities of type, lines, &c., identical with that 
of 1636 He also observed that one of the Museum 
copies, either 643 c. 17 or 161 a. 36, crown I for- 
get which, had had 1636 added to it, and appa- 
rently by types applied by the hand some little time 
after it had been printed off. I verified all this for 
myself, with this exception, that in my undated copy 
and in that which had been undated " Hippolyta' 
and " Penelope" were separated by a larger space 
than any other of the names of the dramatis per- 
sona, and in the 1636 copy they were more closed, 
though the peculiar bracket binding them together 
for the purpose of giving one line of explanation 
was clearly the same in both sets of copies. Hence, 
and from the after-printed 1636, it is evident that 
the undated copies were first printed off, the inser- 
tion of the date having been forgotten, and that 
the 1636 dated copies were a second issue from 
the same setting-up thus far emended. 


" WHISKAM DANDY." On the side of a steep 
hill overlooking the town of Halifax there is a 
place having this singular and whimsical appella- 
tion, which at first sight appears to defy all ety- 
mological research, but on analysis yields the 
startling result of being pure Welsh. In that 
language wise is a stream, cwm is a valley, dan 
(or tan) is fire, and dhu (pronounced dee) is black. 
It is a well-known feature in the Welsh language 
that the names of places are descriptive of the 
locality, and also that in Welsh grammar the 
adjective generally follows the substantive. Now 
let us see the meaning of this name Wisc-civm- 
dan-dhu. It ia literally "the stream in the valley 
of black fire" There was in my recollection a 
stream at the spot in question, which looks down 
the Hebble Brook valley, and coal is worked 
within a few hundred yards of the spot. It will 
be admitted that black fire is a very expressive 
description of coal. Altogether it is a genuine 
Welsh description, suitable to the locality. But how 
came it to have such a name ? That is a puzzle. 
About fifty years ago there was an ancient house 
there, apparently of the sixteenth century, and the 
stream ran near it. But the house has been pulled 
down, and the stream blocked by rubbish and earth 
from a new road. I am aware that the authorities 
in lately putting up the names of streets and places 
have spelt the above " Wiscombe." But I have 
taken my spelling from the diary (nearly a century 
old) of a learned lady who was familiar with the 
spot and had property close by. I rather think 
combe is Saxon, but I cannot suggest that there is 
anything Saxon in the rest of the word. On the 
other hand, one does not expect to meet Celtic 
names in the West Biding of Yorkshire. 

M. H. E. 

VAN DYCK. Mr. Carpenter's extract from 
the ordei : book of the Exchequer with reference 

to Vandyck's "reward for service," which has been 
copied in other works, contains a few errors which 
a personal inspection of the book referred to enables 
me to correct. The order-book is one for 1620- 
1621. The entry is : 

"Jovis xxij February, 1620. Anthony Vandike in 
reward for service. By Order dated xvij Febry, 1620, 
to Anthony Vandike the some of one hundred poundea 
(C u ) by way of reward for special 1 s'vice by him p'formed 
for his Ma tie without accompt, imprest, or other charge 
to be sett uppon him for the same or for anie part thereof 
7 1'rea gen ale dat vi Novembris, 1608. H. Mandeville 
ffulke Grevill." 

It will be seen that the cause of Mr. Carpenter's 
error in the date arises from the third numeral 
being joined by a thin up-stroke with the fourth. 
That this is so the fact that the 22nd, and not the 
26th, was "Jovis" in the year 1620-21 proves. 
The second error is owing to the omission of the 
last stroke of the Eoman numeral for 1 7. The other 
differences are slight, but exist. V. A. N. $ 

BANBURY ALE. In the discussion on " A Ban- 
bury Story " (7 th S. iii. 128, 158, 252, 403), men- 
tion is made of Puritanism, cheese, cakes, for which 
Banbury was famous. Was Banbury also famous 
for ale? When I was quite a boy, we sang a 
round of four parts about " Banbury ale" thus : 

Banbury ale ! 

Where, boys, where ? 

Down in yonder vale, 

that I were there ! 

Sometimes we substituted "Burton ale," which 
was not so good in effect. THOS. KATCLIFFB. 

I have just now come across the following 
droll passage in * Ebrietatis Encomium ' (London, 
1723) : 

" Cardinal du P.erron tells us ' That the Manichoeana 
paid that the Catholicks were People much given to 
Wine, but that They [the Manichseans] never drank any.' 

"Against this Charge St. Augustin no otherwise de- 
fends them than by Ricriminatioo. He answers ' That it 
was true, but that They (the Manichoaans) drank the 
Juice of Apples, which was more delicious than all the 
Wines and Liquors in the World.' And so does Ter- 
tullian; 'which Liquor pressed from Apples,' he says, 
' was most strong and vinous.' His Words are, Succum 
ex pomis vinosissimum. 

" Here we may observe also, That the Use of Cyder 
was very primitive and antient; but, as strong and 
delicious as it was, the Catholicks stuck close to the 
Juice of the Grape, as what was intirely orthodox and 
no wise conversant with the Heraticks of those Days." 


" This 1're made at Cristchurche in the shire of South' 
the laste day of Decemb'r the yere of oure lorde king 
herry vjt xxxiij yere berith wittenesse that John Simon 
ffuller otherwise called John Grfce in the towne of Wy- 
combe in the ahire of Buckinghrr sumtime the s'vaunt of 
John Righe of the said towne of Cristchurch maried 

7'" 8. IV. JOLT 16, '87.] 


Margery the doughter of Galfrid Smyth of the parisch of 
ffreshwatir in the He of Wyght the s'vaunt of Thomas 
ffychett the yere of oure lord king herry forsaide xiij 
yere which Margery is lyvyng at Mylleford in the shire 
of South' forsaide within the hunderith of Cristchurch 
to the which wytnesse we sette oure sealis John Ship- 
man maire of the said towne of Cristchurch Thomas 
ffychet henry herdy constabiles, Willia' Brownyng Bayly 
of the same Towne, John Ryghe, Richard hamond, 
Richard Baker, Roger Bright and Robert Mason." 
Register of John Chedworth, Bishop of Lincoln, fol. 20. 

A. G. 

4, Minster Yard, Lincoln. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

ING GRIMSTHORPE CASTLE. I recently purchased 
from a second-hand bookseller four large engrav- 
ings, three of which gave the elevation of the 
exterior frontages of Grimsthorpe Castle, Lincoln- 
shire, as designed by Sir John Vanbrugh, and the 
fourth was his plan for " the principal floor." 
These four engraving were unknown to the 
Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, and are not in- 
cluded in the collection of prints and views of the 
castle preserved at Grimsthorpe. The imposing 
north front was the only portion of Vanbrugh's 
design that was carried out, and it includes the 
largest entrance-hall in the kingdom. If his de- 
signs for the three other sides of the castle had 
been carried out, they would have involved the 
destruction of the King John tower and of the 
most ancient portions of the stately structure. 
The four plates are taken from the " third vol." of 
some work. Can any correspondent tell me the 
title of the work ? CDTHBERT BEDE. 

ences desired to any book or other writing ex- 
plaining the teaching of the Church of Rome as to 
the effect of beatification and canonization on those 
on whom it is bestowed. Faber I have already. 

PAPILLON. Having reason to believe that some 
of my name still live in Yorkshire, I shall feel 
much obliged to any such to inform me as to their 
former relations in France ; and especially, if 
known, as to the emigration to America of Peter 
Papillon, " the Huguenot," who was settled at 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1670. 

A. F. W. PAPILLON, Major. 


A CURIOSITY IN NAMES. The Eastern Daily 
Press, Norwich,Wechesday, June 29, records that 
a prosecutor at the Quarter Sessions rejoices in the 

name of Irden Mignace Riechaelieu ! What is 
the nationality of the person ? WM. VINCENT. 
Belle Vue Rise, Norwich. 

field was M.P. for Gatton from 1624 till his 
decease circa 1644, and William Owfield or Old- 
field presumably his son represented the same 
borough in 1645-48, and from 1660 till his 
death in 1664. The former was knighted at 
Whitehall on May 13, 1641, as Sir Samuel 
Oldfield " of Lincolnshire." Is anything known of 
these members? It may be assumed that they 
were connected with the Old fields of Spalding, in 
Lincolnshire, Barts., but the usual pedigrees of 
that family do not include them. W. D. PINK. 

your readers inform me whether any new facts 
have come to light during the past half-dozen 
years concerning John Lambert, one of Cromwell's 
generals ? Is it known who his ancestors were 1 
Are there descendants living ? Is there any printed 
work or matter known of his authorship 1 What 
was the maiden name of his wife ? I have seen 
by one mention that she was called "La Belle 
Akata." J. A. M. 

GREVILLE. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' give 
a complete list of the armorial bearings on the 
tomb of Sir Fulke Greville (d. 1559) in Alcester 
Church, Warwickshire ? They comprise the arms 
of his father, Sir Edward Greville of Milcote, with 
three quarterings (Greville, Arderne, and another) ; 
the arms of his wife's grandfather, Robert, second 
Baron Willoughby de Broke, with eighteen quar- 
terings (D'Ufford, Bee, Latimer of Danby, Welby, 
Cheney, Stafford, Champernowne, &c.) ; and the 
arms of his wife's great-grandfather, Richard, Lord 
Beauchamp de Powyk, with two quarterings (Beau- 
champ of Powyk and Uffleet). 

Is anything known of the ancestry of William 
Greville (or Grevel) of London, who died 1401, 
and lies buried in Chipping-Campden Church, 
Gloucestershire? His brass bears the arms of 
Greville, differenced with a mullet. 




There are many technical words belonging to the 
trades connected with architecture that are not to 
be found in etymological dictionaries. It is interest- 
ing to architects to learn their derivation, and use- 
ful to them to know how they should be spelt. As 
you or some of your learned correspondents may 
be able to throw some light on this subject, I ven- 
ture to ask if the word barge in barge-board =" the 
eaves board of a gable," is from the Welsh bargod, 
the eaves ; what the word purlin, "the timber 
that carries rafters between trusses," and what 
toggle or tossle, " the piece of timber let into a wall 



against which a shore abuts," are derived from ; 
what cleading="& polling board," originally means 
and is derived from ; and when was squanchion 
applied to the bevelled side of a chimney opening ? 



looked through the five volumes of the General 
Index of <N. & Q.,' and I believe that the above 
saying is not recorded among the "Proverbs and 
Phrases " that have been published in these pages. 
It denotes mental briskness as of a clever boy in 
school "That lad is as sharp as bottled porridge. 
But whence the meaning ? CUTHBERT BEDE. 

DULCARNON. Pythagoras, the reputed discoverer 
of the propositions (a) that the triangle inscribed 
in a semicircle is right angled; (6) that the square 
on the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is 
equal to the sum of the squares on the sides (vide 
Smith's ' Classical Diet.,' abridged, 8vo.). 

" Dulcarnon. 'A certain proposition found out by 
Pythagoras ; upon which he offered an ox in sacrifice to 
the Gods, in token of thankfulness, and called it Dul- 
camon. Whence the Word is taken by Chaucer, and 
other old English writers, for any hard knotty question 
or point.' Kesey's ' Phillips,' ed. 1706 " (vide appendix 
to ' Glossary," vol. i., Chaucer, 6 vols., " Aldine Poets," 
Bell & Sons). 

1. I would ask, Does " Dulcarnon " refer to one 
or both of the propositions instanced ? 

2. What other old English writers make use of 

3. What does Kesey's 'Phillips' mainly treat 
of ? Its title is strange to me. 

4. Can any one give quotations of its use 
in Elizabethan or modern English literature, 
" Augustan " (Anne) or Victorian ? 

Chaucer has it in 'Troy, and Crys.,' bk. Hi. 
stanza cxxvi. : 

But, whether that ye dwel, or for hyra go, 
I am, til God me bettere mynde sende, 
At dulcarnon, right at my wittes eude. 

Thornhill Lees, Dewsbury. 

LUMLET. Can any reader of ' K & Q. ; tell me 
of what family and in which regiment was Capt. 
Hugh Lumley, who married between 1736 and 
1757 Mary, eldest daughter of Sir Christopher 
Musgrave, Bart., of Edenhall, co. Cumberland? 
This lady married, secondly, in St. Ann's, Dublin, 
by licence granted June 29, 1759, Col. John 
Pigott, of Prospect and Brockley, Queen's County. 


the proceedings of the Royal Academy of Paris, 
1759, is correct, the picture was the precursor of 
what is now known as photography, as it was pro- 
duced by means of a square pane of glass covered 
in part \vith leaves of metal, with a print over 
them, which, when electrified and properly touched, 


produces a shock, and is, in reality, no other than 
the famous Leyden experiment varied m the 
apparatus. What was the subject and size of the 
picture ; and is it preserved in any of the museums 

^ivui* , n-nn-onw Tf.T.T.IR 

in France? UEORGE ELLIS. 

St. John's Wood. 

LADY BOUNTIFUL. Seeking a few years ago 
(< N & Q ,' 6 th S . iv. 228) for information regarding 
a child's book of the eighteenth century entitled 
{ Peter Pippin,' I was kindly referred by two of 
your correspondents to an evidently emasculated 
version of later years. The reverend nonagenarian 
for whom I sought the information has since taken 
his passport for Eothen, and if there he comes across 
the rejuvenated person of Master Oliver Goldsmith, 
my friend can ask the great master of playful 
pathos if the work in question was by him delivered 
to the order of Mr, Francis Newberry, printer, of 
Paternoster Kow. Mean time it may interest many 
of your readers to be informed whether our illus- 
trious acquaintance, my Lady Bountiful, was first 
introduced to us through the pages of this book. 
It seems as if no one less than Goldsmith should 
be accredited as her sponsor. ALNWICK. 

A PROPHECY. What is the historical meaning 
of the following serio-comic prophecy, which I 
extract from the North Briton, No. 41, March, 
1763 ? 

When Andrew shall unite with James 

And Tweed adulterate with Thames, 

When Cod shall make the salmon rue, 

Blue turn to yellow, green to blue; 

When John leaves Margaret in the lurch, 

And Presbyterians head the Church, 

When cold Jamaica sends for peat 

From Florida to roast her meat ; 

When Reformation turns a shrew 

And acts as Riot us'd to do ; 

When England 's lost and Britain wins, 

When Union's firm, and strife begins ; 

When Stuarts' claims are all o'erthrown, 

And Stuart reigns without a crown, 

Then triumph Scotland ! Thou hast won ! 

England, look to 't ; the charm 's begun. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

PROUT. I have two beautiful water-colour 
pictures signed " S. G. Prout." Can any of your 
readers tell me who this Prout was ? Was he any 
relation of the great Samuel Prout, or of J. Skinner 
Prout ? Are any other works by him known ? 



* THE PAGOTA.' Who is the translator of a story 
from the French which appeared in * Hogg's In- 
structor,' vol. i. 1853, under the title of * The 
Pagota ' ; and has it ever been published in book 
form? And from which Franch author was the 
story taken ; and what is its name in the original ? 

7<>> 8. IV. JULY 16, '87.] 



"As PLEASED AS PUNCH." One of the com- 
monest sayings met with is this, and it is used 
as a mode of conveying an idea of the pleasure 
which some one has shown when something good 
has unexpectedly been given or told. " He looked 
as pleased as Punch about it " is frequently heard. 
How far back can the expression be traced ? 



Arnold ('Customs of London,' Fras. Douce, 1811) 
mentions this recorder as of the reign of Henry IV., 
referring at the same time to a work by him, 
supposed to be lost. I find his name in no printed 
nor manuscript list of recorders. Can any one 
help me to a reference ? JOHN J. STOCKEN. 

3, Heathfield Road, Acton, W. 

ALTARAGE. In Eipon account rolls of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries I find frequent 
mention "de panno altaragio," or, "de pannis 
altarag'," and I should be glad to see a satisfactory 
explanation of the term. J. T F 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

any of your readers tell me who first accused 
the English of being a people with a hundred 
religions and only one sauce ? I have an impres- 
sion it was Voltaire; but I have heard the saying 
attributed to Talleyrand. CHARLES SWEET. 

WALKING-STICK. A stick has recently come 
into my possession having carved or scratched on 
it a representation of a manor house with outbuild- 
ings in a kind of park-garden with well defined 
roads and paths. Underneath this house is the 
following quaint inscription : 

John Alcock is my name 

england is my nation 

Marham is my dwelling 

place and Christ is my 

salvation, when i 

be dead and in my 

grave and all my 

bones be rotten, 

here 's this to see 

uppon this stick 

that i am not 



Can any of your readers inform me as to John 
Alcock of Marham ? He would appear to have 
been a man of substance in the year 1644, when 
the battle of Marston Moor was fought. I have 
looked into the books of reference relating to Nor- 
folk, but cannot find John Alcock; but have found 
Bishop Alkok in the time of Henry VII. 

23, Great George Street, Westminster. 

STRYPE. J. P. Malcolm, in his ' Lives of Topo- 
graphers and Antiquaries,' says that John Strype's 

1 Diary ' is interesting. I cannot see it has ever 
been printed. Is it in MS. still ; and, if so, 
where? C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

obliged by information respecting the authorship 
of the song beginning 

When the kine had giv'n a pail full, 
found in the [' Collection of 180 Loyal Songs,' 
1685; also regarding two songs in D'Urfey's ' Pilla 
to purge Melancholy/ 1719, one in vol. i. p. 109, 

Celemene pray tell me, 
the other in vol. iii. p. 203, beginning 
Oh mother, Roger with his kiss. 

New York, U.S. 

editions of this book is appended the form for the 
consecration of a church or chapel drawn up by 
Bishop Andrewes. In which edition of Sparrow's 
work does this form first appear ? 


Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 


(7 th S. iii. 497.) 

The date of the installation of the Lord Mayor 
was changed from " the morrow of the Feast of St. 
Simon and St. Jude" (Oct. 29) to Nov. 9 by 
statutory enactment in the Act of Parliament 
entitled " An Act for the abbreviation of Michael-' 
mas Term," 24 Geo. II. cap. 48 (1751), sect. 11, 
which came into operation after the Feast of St. 
Michael, 1752. The provisions of the preceding 
statute effecting the well-known alteration in the 
style, 23 Geo. II. cap. 23 (1751), which by sect. 1 
was ordered to operate from Jan. 1, 1752, rendered 
a change in the date of holding the term which 
bad theretofore commenced three weeks earlier in 
the autumn than the date proposed to be adopted 
imperative for many reasons. Nov. 3 was the 
opening day decided upon. It was advisable that 
the Lord Mayor should be sworn in before the 
judges in session during term time on ordinary 
occasions, though provision existed for another 
mode of imposing the obligation on the occurrence 
of extraordinary say accidental emergencies. 
The first four days of term were appropriated to 
various technical matters of imminence ; a Sunday 
must be allowed for as coming within the first seven 
working days ; therefore it was thought more con- 
venient to fix the annually recurring civic ceremony 
on the sixth day from the commencement of term. 
A similar change was made by sect. 12 in the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. iv. JUH w, w. 

day for nominating sheriffs generally throughout 
the kingdom in the Court of Exchequer. This 
wS changed from "the morrow of All Souls" 
vNov. 3), which under the old system would have 
been well on in Michaelmas term, to " the morrow 
of St. Martin" (Nov. 12) which by the new 
calendar would be about midway through the 
same term, or, as it is phrased, "in full term." 
The date of the first day of Michaelmas term was 
thrown back one day by statute 1 Will. IV., 
cap. 60 (1830), operative since 1831. The date of 
the ordinary annual recognition of the Lord Mayor 
remained unaltered. Until the recent judicature 
arrangements, practically abolishing terms, the 
ceremony was performed on the day week of the 
commencement of Michaelmas Term, i.e. (2 + 7 = ) 
Nov. 9, and that at present continues to be the 
date statutorily ordained. NEMO. 


Lord Mayor's Day was only nominally changed. 
By the change of style of the calendar in 1752 
the day which was Oct. 29 became Nov. 9. In 
like manner, George III., who was born on May 24, 
1738, kept his birthday, from the time when he 
became Prince of Wales, on June 4. 

W. T. LYNN. 


Was noUhe date of Lord Mayor's Day changed 
with the introduction of the New Style from 
Oct. 29 to Nov. 9 ? The New Style came in five 
years after the date mentioned by MR. ELLIS. 

Until May 9, 1214, the office of chief magistrate 
of London was held for life. King John then 
granted permission for the mayor to be chosen 
annually. From that time until the adoption by 
England, in 1752, of the Gregorian or New Style, 
the Lord Mayors of London came into office on 

71, Brecknock Road. 

421). MR. S. 0. ADDY, in his notice of the 
torn of the burial of weapons with departed 
warriors, has not mentioned the addition to the 
Hebrew in the Septuagint version of the Book of 
Joshua, at xxiv.^ 30: '? W-qKav ^ atrov ct's 
TO vra, ts o eflai/'av dvroi/ acrf, ras/xavaiW 
iwxs c'o viovs '- 


ev raAyaAois (Oxon., 1848). So, in like manner, 
there is at Ezekiel xxxii. 27,-" And they shall 
not he with the mighty that are fallen of the un- 
circumcised, which are gone down to hell, with 
their weapons of war: and they have laid their 
swords under rtieir heads " (W^av r^ /zavcuW 
avTw^vjro ras Ke^aA^s cJvrwv); on which there 
i the following foot-note in my edition of Cornelius 
a Lapide (Paris, 1866):-" Alludit Propheta ad 
usum fere umversalem apud veteres, qui bellatores 

viros cum armis et quibnsque pretiosis sepelire 
solebant. ' Moris eniin fuerat,' inquit Servius in 

id/ x. *ut cum his rebus sepelirentur, quos 
delexirant vivi ' " (' Comment.,' t. xii. p. 731). 

The mound of Patroclus exactly represents the 
circular barrow, with its enclosure of stones, and 
earth upon them : 

eiAta T 7rpo/3aAovro 
rjv eirl yaiav e^evav. 
'11.,'xxiii. 255,256. 
The #e//,ei'Aia, as explained in Bothe's edition, 
Lips., 1832, are " fundamenta, lapides baud 
dubie." So, again, when the explanation of pt/z^a 
Se (rvjiJ? c^eav over the bones of Hector (xxiv. 799) 
is "tumulum, sive terrain aggestam in formam, 
ssepeque altitudinem collis," there is the early 
English low. ED. MARSHALL. 

BALIOL (7 th S. iii. 496). Alexander Baliol died 
in 1278. His death is reported on the Fines Roll 
(6Edw. I.) on Nov. 13, and on the Close Eoll 
(7 Edw. I.) on the 29th, in that year. The regnal 
year ended Nov. 20. He does not appear to have 
left issue, since his brother John was returned his 
heir. His widow, Alianora "de Genoure, the 
king's cousin," daughter of Pierre de Geneville, 
married secondly Robert de Stuteville ; and the 
news of her death is entered on the Fines Roll. 
Sept. 8, 1310. 

John Baliol was Seigneur de Bailleul and H61i- 
court, which are probably the estates meant. He 
died in 1314, but I do not know where he was 

Chauncy, in his 'Historical Antiquities of 
Herts/ devotes, in vol. ii., under " Hitchin," 
several sections to the Baliol family, and, accord- 
ing to him, Alexander de Balioll died anno 7 
Edw. I., 1279. M.A.Oxon. 

BURNING QUESTION (7 th S. iii. 495). Instances 
of the use in 1856 and 1863 are given in ' N. & Q.,' 
5 th S. viii. 387; iv. 407, in both which this modern 
phrase occurs as a translation from the German. 
Are there earlier known instances than that in 
1856 ? Not a single one was given in reply. 

There is a parallel use of the term burning 
which may well come into connexion with this. 
Longfellow, in his Village Blacksmith,' has the 
expression "burning deed and thought" in a 
good sense. For the poem closes with these lines : 
Thanks, thanks to thee, my worthy friend. 

tor the lesson thou hast taught ! 
Thus at the flaming forge of life 
Our fortunes must be wrought ; 
Thus on its sounding anvil shaped 
Each burning deed and thought. 


DR. MURRAY omits Italian from his list of uses 
of this word ; but both qmatione scottante and 
questione ardente (chiefly the former) have come 

7'" 8. IV. JULY 16, '87.] 



into modern journalistic use, just as in the lan- 
guages named by him. It appears certainly, how- 
ever, nob to have originated in Italy, for a great 
Italian authority supports me in the assertion that 
it would not be found nei classici, though scottare, 
in a different turn of phrase, is a good classic equi- 
valent of burning in its metaphorical use. An 
important discussion of the expression questions 
ardente may be found in an article by Enrico 
Nencioni (one of the most esteemed Tuscan 
writers of the day) in Fanfulla della Domenica 
for Aug. 19, 1883. 

I think my late humble attempt (7 th S. Hi. 208, 
255) to dissipate the mythical account of Savona- 
rola's execution, considering the strong feeling on 
the subject, is an undeniable instance of a " burn- 
ing question." But it is difficult (as was lately 
shown in N. & Q.') " to make a lie die "; and 
this one of Savonarola having been burnt alive 
was brought forward again, and quite gratuitously, 
in the account of the sale of Lord Crawford's 
library in the Times as lately as June 30 (p. 3, 
col. 6). R. H. BUSK. 

ACROMEROSTICH (7 th S. iii. 167). These lines 
may be by Fr. James Dardeius. He turned the 
four books of the * Imitation of Christ/ by Thomas 
a Kempis, into hexameters. Each chapter con- 
tains five stanzas of five lines each, and there is a 
cruciform Jesus in the centre of each pentastich ; 
but there is no instance of the name Jesus in the 
initial or terminal letters throughout the book. 
It was printed by Christian Ouwerx, at Liege, in 

MAJESTY (7 th S. iv. 28). It is impossible to 
draw any line. Kalakaua was treated in London 
as a king, and was made to dance with the Princess 
of Wales, and to go in to dinner before the Crown 
Prince of Germany. Cetywayo, on the other 
hand, was not treated as a king by the English 
Court. D. 

KINO GEORGE OF GREECE (7 th S. iv. 28). The 
inquiry of your correspondent M. HENRI DE 
LOSSIQEL has been repeatedly answered before 
this. When the present king was elected to the 
throne of Greece he was acclaimed by the nation 
as king^, not of Greece, but of the Greeks 
Bao~iAvs TOJV l EAX^v(oi/. This title was justi- 
fied by the undivided allegiance which Greeks in 
all parts of the world own, in their heart of hearts, 
to the sovereign of the free portion of their father- 
land. The Great Powers admitted this title ; but 
out of consideration for the susceptibilities of the 
so-called Sublime Porte, they adopted for official 
purposes the style of King of the Hellenes, as dis- 
tinguished from the Greeks still under Turkish 
rule. In Greek no difference is made, as Fpatjcot 
is considered an objectionable foreign appellation. 
In like manner the Germans, so called by the 

English, are styled Allemands by the French, and 
speak of themselves as Deutsche. As regards 
Hellenes being a " foreign " word, your corre- 
spondent may be pleasantly surprised when, by 
turning to any good dictionary, he discovers that 
the English tongue is richer than he fancied by 
such words as Hellas, Hellene, Hellenic, Hellenism, 
Hellenist, Hellenistic, Hellenize, &c. 


NAME OF AUTHOR WANTED (7 th S. iv. 28). 
* The Squire's Pew ' was written by my aunt, Jane 
Taylor, at Marazion, in Cornwall, and is included 
in the volume entitled * Essays in Rhyme,' which 
was published in 1816. The book was very 
popular, and rapidly ran through several editions. 
How many I cannot say ; but I have in my pos- 
session a copy of the fifth edition, which bears the 
date of 1825. MR. PRATT has misquoted the 
opening lines, which run : 

A slanting ray of evening light 

Shoots through the yellow pane ; 
It makes the faded crimson bright, 
And gilds the fringe again. 

'The Squire's Pew' has been esteemed by good 
judges Mr. Browning, I think, among the num- 
ber as one of the moat perfect poems of its class 
in the language ; and it may, I think, claim to 
rank as an English classic. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

PRE-EXISTENCE (7 th S. iv. 8). For the benefit 
of present readers, it may be useful to state that 
this interesting subject was very fully discussed in 
the earlier volumes of * N. & Q.,' viz., 2 nd S. ii., 
iii., iv., y., vii., xi.; 3 rd S. xi. 


DR. ROUTH (7 th S. iii. 452). With respect to 
the story told in the Globe of March 23, 1887, I 
venture to assert that there was not the slightest 
tincture of sarcasm in the mind of the kind old 
President of Magdalen College, Oxford, Dr.Routb, 
and he was about the last person to make such 
an observation ; but some fifty years ago I heard 
the same anecdote told of Dr. Shuttleworth, then 
Warden of New College, afterwards Bishop of 
Chichester. Whether it was true of him I know 
not ; but I am anxious to vindicate the memory 
of one whom I knew well and greatly respected. 


There is one inaccuracy which gives the story 
an appearance of improbability. The fee paid to 
university preachers, in Dr. Routh's time and for 
some years after, was not five pounds, but four 
guineas. The fee was raised to five guineas about 
fifteen years ago, when a good many sermons were 
abolished, and only the two on Sundays in full 
term retained. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

ARMS OF SCOTT (7 th S. iii. 67, 159). In reply 
to TABLE-TALK, who has asked for the addresses 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* a iv. JULY ie, 

of families bearing the armorials assigned to that 
of Scott, I beg to state that a few years ago there 
was a family of Scott of Ravenscourt Park, Middle- 
sex, which branched off at the end of the eighteenth 
century from the Rotherfield Scotts. The Scotts 
(Bart.) of Lyttchet Minster are members of another 
branch, their shield being changed from sable to 
pean. Another family of Scott is that of Hadham 
and Bishop's Stortford, co. Herts, which is a branch 
of the Essex family, thrown off about the year 
1600. Many years ago the (then) representative 
of that family kindly permitted me to inspect his 
armorials. The shield bore the date of 1604, and 
the emblazonment was as follows : Arms : Per 
pale indented gules and or, a saltier counterchanged. 
Crest : From a crown vallery, ppr. a dexter cubit 
arm erect, vested gules, cuffed or, holding in the 
hand bend sinisterwise a roll of paper of the first. 
Motto : " In bona fide et veritate." 


CURFEW (7 th S. iii. 427). Refer to Chambers's 
1 Book of Days,' vol. ii. p. 333, as showing it is 
erroneous to assume that the origin of the curfew 
was by William the Conqueror or royal edict, 
either in England or Scotland, and that it was 
apparently a municipal, not a state institution. 
So writes a good friend near Abernethy, with 
whom I have oft listened there to the curfew when 
strolling on the beautiful banks of the Earn and 
the Tay. HANDFORD. 

HUBBUB (7 th S. iii. 472). MR. BAXTER'S idea 
of the derivation of this word may be right or may 
be wrong ; bat until he has brought forward more 
evidence than that of a single quotation bearing 
date 1634, I think we may be satisfied with 
assuming that Messrs. Skeat, Wedgwood, &c., 
have given the right derivation of the word. A 
coincidence in form, and even meaning, with respect 
to words does not necessarily imply that the words 
are identical 

What we want to know is when hubbub first 
appears in English. I have met with it in Spen- 
ser's ' Faerie Queene,' 1690 : 

Now, when amid the thickest woodes they were, 
hey heard a noyge of many bagpipes shrill, 

And shrieking ffububs ; them approaching nere, 

Which all the forest did with horrour fill. 
_> Bk. iii. canto x. 43. 

Perhaps some of your numerous readers can give 
an earlier quotation than the above. 


Spelman ' s ' 


the cWft u of their enimie8 are heald 

i cheafest men amonge them ; Drums and Trumpetts 

they haue none, but when they will gather SSSSSi 
tojnther they haue a kind of Howling* or Hawbatobm 

as both part may 

C. C. B. 


TACHEV AND 'LA VlE HuMAINE ' (7 th S. iii. 513). 

I hope I may be allowed to submit what I have 
to say on the question of ' La Tige D^tachSe ' under 
its own appropriate heading, and save that"pauvre 
feuille," which " points the lesson " of our lives so 
poetically from being buried under that of "Jour- 
nal of F. White," where none of the readers of 
C N. & Q.' in the ages to come could ever think 
of looking for it. 

This pathetic, home-speaking little poem has 
long been familiar in Rossetti's translation (though 
bald both in title and diction) as ' The Leaf': 

Torn from your parent bough, 

Poor leaf, all withered now, 
Where go you ? &c. ; 

and Rossetti gave it as a translation from Leo- 
pardi. But I happened to see lately that Contessa 
Martenengo had pointed out that its original 
author was Arnault. I had not before seen the 
French version, but now we are presented with it I 
think everybody will be struck by its great supe- 
riority over the English rendering. The following 
is Leopardi's version. It is curious Rossetti does 
not seem to have noticed that he distinctly heads 
it " Imitazione," disclaiming the authorship : 

Lungi dal proprio ramo, 

Povera foglia frale 

Dove vai tu ? Dal faggio 

La dov' io nacqui, mi divise il vento. 

Esso, tornando, a volo 

Dal bosco alia campagna, 

Dalla valle mi porta alia montagna 

Seco perpetuamente ; 

Vo pellegrino, e tutto 1'altro ignore. 

Vo dove ogni altra cosa 

Dove naturalmente 

Va la foglia di rosa 

E la foglia d'alloro. 

The following terser and more concettoso version, 
current in Italy, of the other little poem MRS. 
LAMONT quotes, I give from memory: 

II passato non e, ma so lo pinge 

La cara rimembranza 
II future non e, ma se lo finge 

L'indomita speranza. 
II presente e ; ma in un punto 

Cade al nullo in seno. 
Dunque la vita & appunto 
Una memoria, una speranza, un punto ! 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. ' 

The lines " De la tige de"tache"e " are found in a 
collection of fables by A. V. Arnault, Paris, 1826. 
They have been translated as follows by Macaulay : 

Thou poor leaf, so sear and frail, 

Sport of every wanton gale, 

Whence and whither dost thou fly 

Through this bleak autumnal sky] 
On a noble oak I grew, 

Green and broad and fair to view ; 

But the monarch of the shade 

By the tempest low was laid. 

7* 8. IV. JOLT 16, '87.] 



From that time I wandered o'er 
Wood and valley, hill and moor ; 
Wheresoe'er the wind is blowing, ' 
Nothing caring, nothing knowing. 
Thither go I whither goes 
Glory's laurel, Beauty's rose. 

W. L. 

[A very large number of correspondents supply the 
reference to Arnault. ] 

DOLLAR (7 th S. ii. 509 ; iii. 118, 233). MR. 
ERNST asks for a quotation of this word between 
1623 and 1745. The following is from Phillips's 
'New World of Words ' (sixth edition, 1706). 
have not access to the earlier editions, but it will 
probably be in them also : 

" Dollar, a foreign coin : The Zealand, or common 
Dollar is worth 3 Shillings Sterling, the Specie-Dollar 
5s. The Dollar of Riga, 4s. Sd. Of Lunenburgh and 
Brisgaw, 4s. 2d. Of Hamburgh, 3s. 2d." 

See also ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. xi. 467; xii. 14. 


THE SOBRIQUET " ALEE" " (7 th S. iii. 425). Are 
we not all at sea here ? The extended form "Alba- 
neser"is clear; see'Childe Harold,' "The Arnauts 
or Albanese," note b to canto ii. ; " The Albanese, 
particularly the women, are frequently termed 
Caliriotes," note c, in continuation. From Alba- 
nese, thus established, we get Albaneser, like 
Posener, Berliner, Londoner, because Byron doted 
on this people, and became their blood-brother by 
adoption. A. H. 

MIDDLETON] (7 th S.iiL496; iv. 38). John, first Earl 
of Middleton, sometime High Commissioner to the 
Parliament of Scotland and an Extraordinary Lord 
of Session, was undoubtedly not the same person 
as Sir Thomas Middleton of Chirk Castle, nor did 
he derive his name from the same source. The re- 
searches of R. W. C. do not seem to have extended 
to Burke's * Dormant and Extinct Peerages,' to 
Lord Hailes's ' Senators of the College of Justice,' 
or to Anderson's ' Scottish Nation,' from any one 
of which works he might have learned the identity 
of the general with the earl. Fuller and more 
accurate genealogical information concerning the 
early history of the Middletons of Kimhill, after- 
wards of Caldhame, may be found in the valuable 
' History of Laurencekirk' (Edinburgh and London, 
1880), by Rev. W. R. Fraser, minister of Maryton, 
a correspondent of ' N. & Q.' 

The Christian name of the first Earl of Middle- 
ton, as I have already mentioned, was John. He 
was the son and successor, says Mr. Fraser (op. 
cit., p. 55), of Robert Middleton of Caldhame, by 
Catherine Strachan, of the house of Thornton. 
Lord Hailes, * Senators of the College of Justice ' 
(repr. Edinburgh, 1849), calls his father John and 
his mother Helen. The ' Scottish Nation ' in the 
main closely follows Lord Hailes. 

There can be no doubt that he took to the 
profession of arms at a very early age. If the earl 
was born, as related by Mr. Fraser (op. cit., p. 55), 
" about the year 1619," and if he had " trailed a 
pike" in Hepburn's Regiment in France, as stated 
by the ' Scottish Nation,' s.v. " Middleton, Earl 
of," his appearance as a captain under Montrose, 
circa 1639, stated by Mr. Fraser, would, I think, 
indicate his having joined the colours probably 
as early as sixteen years of age. Considering the 
times, this seems not at all unlikely. The earl 
must also have married young, as Mr. Fraser 
(op, cit.) gives " about " the same date as that of 
his captaincy, 1639, for his marriage with Grizel 
Durham of Pitkerrow. 

While on the subject of the history of the first 
Earl of Middleton, I may perhaps remark that 
his change from the Parliamentary to the Royalist 
side during the Civil War bears a perfectly natural 
aspect. General Middleton, already a tried soldier, 
was appointed Lieutenant-General of the Cavalry of 
the Scottish Estates when the " Engagement " was 
formed, in 1648, for the rescue of the king. From 
this time to the end of his life Middleton was on 
the king's side, and was rewarded with the Scottish 
titles of Earl of Middleton, Lord Clermont and 
Fettercairn, by letters patent dated Oct. 1, 1660, 
confirming the original creation in 1656. These 
titles were forfeited in 1695 by the general's son 
Charles, second earl, who followed James VII. 
into exile, and eventually obtained, we are told, 
the entire management of his court at St. Germains. 
Sir Bernard Burke does not follow the issue 
male of the second earl, but it is mentioned in 
the * Scottish Nation ' that his sons, John, Lord 
Clermont, and Hon. Charles Middleton, having 
been captured by Admiral Byng in an attempted 
descent upon Scotland in 1708, were imprisoned 
in England, but were subsequently released, and 
thereafter returned to France. 

Who may be the present male representative 
of the Earls of Middleton does not appear in 
the ordinary accounts. But apart from the 
Kilnhill family, ancestors of the earl, and the line 
of the earls themselves, there are not fewer than six 
families of the name recorded in Burke's ' General 
Armory' (1878). It is, of course, quite possible 
that Biscoe's * Earls of Middleton ' may contain 
details as to the later generations of the first earl's 
family not to be found in the books which I have 
cited. The point only arises here incidentally, and 
[ simply send these notes from books of reference, 
quantum valeant. C. H. E. CARMICHAKL. 
New University Club, S.W. 


BREAST" (7 th S. iii. 369, 466). G. F. R. B. is 
correct in adhering to the version of these words 
or which there is textual authority. In pro- 
posing to substitute " beast " for " breast" I think 

NOTES AND QUERIES. v* B. iv. JULY i6,w. 

MR. LKK is putting an unnecessary limitation upon 
the scope of this very suggestive line. The influ- 
ence of music upon the lower animals is proverbial, 
but its influence upon human passion is equally so. 
The "savage breast" is an inclusive phrase; man 
as well as beast comes rightly within its scope. 
MR. LEE refers to Act V. sc. i. of 'The Merchant 
of Venice ' as bearing out his suggestion. Perhaps 
it does ; but there are several lines which just as 
pointedly prove that the " breast " is the sphere of 
music's charms. Says Lorenzo : 

The man that hath no music in himself, 
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils ; 
The motions of his spirit are dull as night, 
And his affections dark as Erebus; 
Let no such man be trusted. 


When I was a small boy at school I remember 
one melancholy occasion on which I was trying 
to raise my spirits, oppressed by some grievous 
imposition, by amusing myself with a "mouth 
melodeon," I think it was called, a species of 
juvenile musical (?) instrument, when suddenly, to 
my utter astonishment and dismay, the wretched 
thing gave utterance to an excruciating screech. 
The outraged dominy with a glance detected 
the culprit, and without delay pounced upon the 
unlucky " mouth melodeon," which was promptly 
confiscated. I forget whether I had a box on the 
ears or not, but I know this, that I resented silently 
and secretly the master's misquotation, which I 
considered a little too personal, for he said as he 
snatched the offending article from my lips, "Music 
hath charms to soothe the savage beast." 


Hale Crescent, Farnham. 

CHRIST OR CHRIST'S HOSPITAL (7 th S. iii. 617). 
Peter Cunningham, an old Blue and schoolfellow, 
calls it by the latter name, by which also I knew 
it during the seven years I spent within its walls. 
As an authority I send a copy of a broadsheet now 
before me : 

The Present State and List of Children on the Koyal 
Foundation of His Late Majesty King Charles II. in 
Christ a Hospital ; presented in all humility and duty to 
his most Sacred Majesty King William IV. by the Pres 

Km I rea T r ' and Governor8 of **>* ^id Hospital, the 
irst day of January, MDCCCXXXII. London : Printed by 

Ann Rmngton, Printer to Christ's Hospital, MDCCCXXXII. 

As further proof of the correct designation I may 
so add that I possess a watch and prize medal in 

71, Brecknock Road 

2 "* H ME C LEMAN ' 

In the churchwardens' account books, St. Mary 

)lnoth, London, are pinned several printed 

receipt forms for rates collected for " the poore 

harbored" ia "Christes Hospital." They* are 

signed " James peele clerke of chrysts hospitall, 
one being dated October 26, 1583. The printed 
part of these forms is a very good imitation of the 
writing of the period. 


GUNN (7 th S. iii. 248, 524). I have not myself 
known Gunn as a Cornish surname, though I once 
lived for some time in Cornwall. It is certainly 
the name of a clan in Caithness and Sutherland, 
mentioned in a Eoll of Broken Clans (Act. Parl. 
Scot.), 1594. There is not likely to be any relation- 
ship between Cornish and Scottish Gunns. As a 
Scottish name an account will be found, s.v., in 
Anderson's ' Scottish Nation.' Armorially speak- 
ing, I find no trace of Cornish Gunns in Burke's 
'General Armory '(1878), where I find, besides the 
Caithness and Sutherland clan above mentioned, 
two Irish families, spelling the name Gun ; one 
Scottish family, Gun-Monro (or Munro) of Poyntz- 
field, Cromarfcy, of the Scottish Gunns by arms, 
though using the Irish spelling; one Scoto-Irish 
family, Gun-Cuninghame, Irish by its arms and 
spelling ; one English family, Gun of Norfolk, 
with the Irish spelling, but with arms differing 
alike from the Irish Guns and the Scottish Gunns. 

New University Club, S.W. 

GRECIAN STAIRS (7 th S. iii. 475). Is there 
any instance of the pi. of greese=gradus being 
formed in en? Matzner, * Altenglische Sprach- 
proben,' iii. 308, gives the pi. as greeses, greces, as 
well as grees, the pi. of the false singular gree. The 
en pi. is certainly not usual with any but weak 
A.-S. nouns, though in South Notts and North 
Leicestershire the pi. housen is commonly used. 
There are a few cases where it has been similarly 
extended by false analogy to strong nouns, but its 
application to a word of French origin strikes me 
as unprecedented. Wyclif forms the plural in -es. 

If, as I suspect, there is no instance of the pi. 
greesen, the origin of " Grecian Stairs " must be 
sought elsewhere. I suggest that "Grecian" is 
here derived from gressyng, which is clearly enough 
grees -f suffix ing. My evidence for this form is 
derived from the Nottingham records. In the 
chamberlain's accounts for 1571-2 a payment is 
entered to John Patten of 5s. chief-rent " for the 
Halle Gressynges" ('Records of the Borough of 
Nottingham,' iv. 146, 8). The payment occurs in the 
subsequent accounts of Queen Elizabeth's reign, 
and the spelling is either gresynges or gressynges. 
Ihe meaning of the entry is explained by the 
account for 1589-90, "Item payde to Maister Os- 
baston for the Towne Hall steares, vs." (No. 1630, 
p. 53). The money was paid to the queen's bailiff, 
and was originally a chief-rent paid to the chaplain 
of the Amyas Chantry for a piece of land upon 
which an extension of the Town Hall was built in 
1479-80. It was a mistake to regard this as a payment 

7 S. IV. JOLT 16, '87.] 



of the Town Hall stairs. In the earlier accounts the 
payment is described as " the chefe of the Hall' " 
('Records,' iii. 320, 15, A.D. 1503-4), and as the 
"cheffe rent of the Towne Hawle"(id., iii. 391, 
25, A.D. 1540-1). I am hence unable to trace the 
word further back than 1568-9, when it first 
occurs in the chamberlain's accounts (No. 1611, 
p. 16). But we have here sufficient evidence to 
prove that gressynges was understood in Notting- 
ham to mean stairs. This is further proved by an 
entry in 1574-5 of a payment for " mendyng the 
gressynges at Malynhyll' goinge downe to the 
Marche, ijs." (' Kecords,' iv. 159, 6). These gress- 
ynges are either what are now known as " Long 
Stairs " or " Short Stairs." We have evidence of 
the local use of grese = flight of steps in 1510-11, 
" Item for iij. steppes to a grese ther, iijd." (id., iii. 
335, 21); and again in 1549-50, "The housse and 
pvnfold at the steyres and greysses in the Narow 
Mersshe " (id., iv. 97, 20). W. H. STEVENSON. 

There is or was a "Long Greece" in Scar- 
borough near the old Town Hall (Baker's ' Hist. 
Scarb.,' p. 394). I do not know whether this is a 
place where steps would be required, but if it be 
so there cannot be much doubt that this is a third 
example of the confusion between " gressen " and 
11 Grecian." EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Mr. Streatfeild (' Lincolnshire and the Danes,' 
p. 281, note) partly inclines to the belief that this 
name is derived from the O.N. grdsteinn, hard 
stone. It has often struck me as curious that in 
none of the many notes I have seen upon this 
subject has there been any reference to the little 
Merionethshire village of Tan-y-grisiau, which lies 
close under the mountains behind Ffestiniog, and 
from which the ascent of Moelwyn is most fre- 
quently made. The name is said to mean " the 
foot of the stairs " (cf. Stairfoot, near Barnsley), an 
interpretation which suggests the query, Is there 
any connexion between this Welsh place-name 
and our old English greece, a step, greezm, stairs ? 

0. C. B. 

An example of this duplication of synonym by 
translation is found in the parish from which I 
write, in the case of a small copse called Boys' 
Wood, which is nothing else than "Bois-wood." 


Ducklington, Oxon. 

MASTER AND SERVANT (7 th S. iii. 45, 89, 157, 
397). The return to versions of 'Master and 
Servant ' reminds me that I failed to send you 
a variant which my mother used to repeat to 
me more than forty years ago. My impres- 
sion is that she learned it from an eccentric 
negress named " Purchase," said to have been a 
native African princess, brought to this country in 
the days of slave trading. The story that served 
as a framework was practically identical with the 

one which you have published : " Arise, arise, Sir 
Mofoly, arise ! Awake, Solicitus and Amolibus ! 
for the spark of Avengibus fell on Musketus, 
and she ran up montagus into basefamily, and 
without the help of double-dungeon, down will 
come Sandemungen." 

Madison Square, N.Y. 

FLEET LANE (7 th S. iii. 428). Did not Fleet 
Lane run at right angles, or something near, to 
the Fleet River, about midway between old " Hoi- 
borne Bridge " and " Fleete Bridge " ? (Vide, an- 
cient map of London in Queen Elizabeth's time, 
accompanying ' Old and New London.') 

In ' Old and New London,' vol. ii., in writing 
of the old bridges over the Fleet, Mr. Thornbury 
says : 

"The bridge at the end of Fleet Lane, called the 
Middle Bridge, was of stone, and was, like Bridewell, 
ascended by fourteen steps ; the arch being high enough 
to admit of ships with merchandise to pass under it." 
-Oh. xl. p. 422. 

According to the map and Mr. Thornbury, 
Fleet Lane did not run parallel with the Fleet 
Ditch, or how could the bridge be at the end of 
it ? Fleet Lane ran, and still runs, into the Old 
Bailey, which to the north, as now, cuts Newgate 
Street from Holborn (Viaduct). Also, did not the 
old Fleet Prison on one side face into Fleet Lane ? 

Thornhill Lees, Dewsbury. 

This thoroughfare is to the north of the site of 
the old Fleet Prison, and extends from Farringdon 
Street (formerly known as Fleet Market) to the 
Old Bailey. The construction of the railway from 
Ludgate Hill to Snow Hill about 1866 effected 
great changes in this quarter, and many houses 
in Fleet Lane were swept away. Fifty years ago 
it was an obscure thoroughfare, with houses on 
both sides tenanted by small shopkeepers, and 
showed but little animation, except upon occasions 
when there happened to be an execution at New- 
gate. As the result of an application to Parlia- 
ment, Fleet Market was built over the old Fleet 
Ditch, and was opened about 1737. The position 
of Farringdon Street, in the very heart of London, 
and its unusual breadth, suggest the idea of a row 
of trees on each side, after the manner of a boule- 
vard. Were this suggestion adopted the effect 
from Holborn Viaduct would be very striking. 

Fleet Lane was not parallel to Fleet Ditch, but 
at right angles to it, on the east side, running 
down the steep descent from the Old Bailey, 
nearly opposite the Sessions House, by the side 
of the Fleet Prison. The lane still exists, by the 
same name, but the construction of the London, 
Chatham, and Dover Railway has greatly altered 
its character. E. V ENABLES. 



(.7> S. IV. JULY 16, '87. 

CROW v. MAGPIE (7 th S. iii. 188, 298, 414, 
524). There are numerous formulas contained in 
early English medical manuscripts for this purpose, 
which many, no doubt, preferred to the use of boil- 
ing pitch or of hot irons, before that happy time 
when Ambrose Pare had revealed to him the 
superior virtues of a ligature of thread. 

I have copied the following blood charms from 
a medical manuscript in my library of the time 
of Edward IV., which contains several of these 
venerable remedies for various affections. The first 
is written in Latin, with contractions. I give a 
literal transcription. The second is in English. 

" Charme for to Staunche Blood. Longinus Miles 
latus + domini n'ri + Ih'u x'ri, lancea p'forauit & con- 
tinuo exuit sanguis et aqua in redempto'nem n'rarn-f- 
Adiuro te sanguis p'+ip'm xr'm p'+latus eiua p'-j-san- 
guine eius. Sta+8ta-fsta+. xr c Johannes descenderunt 
in flumen iordanis. Aqua obstipuit & stetit. Sic faciat 
sanguis iatiua corporis. In -fx'ri nomine & sa' loh'is 
Baptiste. Amen & dicat ter p'r n'r." 

" Charme in Englysh. Ihu that was in Bethlem borne 
and baptizid was in floin iordun, and stynte the water 
up on the stoon. Stynte the blood of this man, & by 
yisuante forth the vertue of thin holy name+Ihu & of 
swete aeynt lohn. And sey this charme v tymes. With 
v p'r n'r in the worschyp of the v Woundes." 
In copying this charm I have substituted the 
letters th for their abbreviated contraction in the 
manuscript. With this necessary alteration it is 
a verbatim copy. W. FRAZER, M.R.I.A. 

(7 tt S. iii. 475). I have little doubt that most 
names ending in the suffix -ny or -ney will turn 
out to be compounds of an A.-S. weak noun and 
the A.-S. ieg, an island. In other words, the n is 
the n of the gen. of a weak noun, or, perhaps occa- 
sionally, of a weak adjective. For instance, Osney 
is plainly *0'san-ieg, the island of a man named 
OX gen. Vsan, or of a woman named *0'se, gen. 
*0'san. I imagine that the name Sidney is a local 
name, and represents an A.-S. *Sidan-ieg. the 
island of *Sida, masc., or *Side, fern. There is a 
Sidenore in Domesday (246, col. 2), representing 
an A.-S. *Sidan-ora. Scotney is *Scotan-ieg, from 
the personal name *Scota, masc., or *Scote, fern. 
The instances cited by MR. ADDT I am unable to 
trace. By Rodney I suppose he means Stoke 
Kodney, Somerset, formerly known as Stoke Gif- 
ford (Eyton, Somerset Domesday,' i. 132). Here 
Rodney is a family name. Has Wastney arisen 
from some confusion with the French Gdtinois 
called r<Mfe*i by Wace ? 


MR. ADDT asks if the meaning of the suffix 
ney in such names as Rodney, Wastney, and 
Oakney is known. It would be unwise to deny 
that there is such a suffix, but its existence has 
not yet been established. To prove its existence 
it would be necessary to take some place-name, 
Kodney, for example, and demonstrate on incon- 

testable evidence that the first part of the word 
is Rod-, and in this manner force the conclusion 
that the suffix is -ney. I have with this intention 
examined many words, but without success. Brad- 
ney, for instance, looks full of promise. We know 
that Brad- in the sense of " broad " is a common 
prefix, e.g., Bradfield, Bradford, Bradley, Brad- 
shaw ; and it is certain that if Brad- in Bradney 
could be shown to mean " broad," we should then 
have a clear case for the suffix -ney. But, in the 
absence of all positive evidence one way or another, 
how can we say that Bradney does not represent 
Bradinga-ig, the isle of the Bradingas, for the 
' A.-S. Chronicle ' provides us with an analogy in 
Aethelinga-ig, which is now Athelney ; and as for 
the Bradingas, they have left their name else- 
where, namely, in Brading ? So also in the case of 
Rodney and Oakney, as long as the field is occupied 
by conjectures only, it is surely the better plan to 
regard the n as the survival of a patronymic termi- 
nation in the genitive plural. Rodney will then be 
interpreted Rodinga-ig, and Oakney as Wocinga-ig. 
These tribal names are found elsewhere, and for 
the loss of initial w compare Wudiham, now Odi- 
ham. Wastney, too, may conceal a tribal name ; 
or it may be derived from Westan-ig, i. e., West 
Island, cf. Westan-wudu ; or, again, its first form 
may have been W4sten-ig, i. e., Desert Island, cf. 
Westen-setl, desert dwelling. The n may conceiv- 
ably in some instances be the survival of a gen. 
plur. in -ena; thus Witney may = Witena-ig. In 
some other instances it may represent a gen. sing, 
in -an from weak nouns. More advanced students 
than I am may be able to suggest other methods 
of explaining away the n ; at all events they will 
require very strong evidence to convince them of 
the existence of the suffix -ney; and I am sure 
they will be of the opinion that in words whose 
derivation is matter of guess-work, it is preferable 
to make conjectures with the help of the suffixes 
that we already have rather than fly to others that 
we know not of. With regard to Redineys, which 
MR. ADDT says is a field-nane, its original form 
may have been Ridding-heys, i.e., "the enclosures 
in the clearing." But this is merely a guess. 


I think the words quoted are wrongly divided ; 
read Rooden-ey, Wasten-ey, Oaken-ey, Redin-eys. 
The suffix ey is fully illustrated in Canon Taylor's 
excellent book, cf. Chelsey, Osney, Chertsey/Put- 
ney. A. HALL. 

The suffix is probably y or ey, not ny or ney. It 
comes sometimes (perhaps through the O.E. ce) 
from O.Welsh iiy or Hi, or A.-S. ea, ig, water, 
from aqua; at other times it is derived from ea 
or ig, in A.-S. ea-land, ig-land, island ; lit. water 
land. By-the-by, some places whose names end 
in y, ey, or ea are peninsulas. The Gotha-Teutonic, 

7*s. iv. j ra r 16, -ST.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Keltic, and French languages contain thirty words 
for "water" corrupted from aqua. I can give 
them if required. K. S. CHARNOCK. 

At the above cited reference MR. ADDY is 
making an error in syllabication by suggesting that 
ney is a suffix in such place-names as Kodney, 
Wastney, and Oakney. The suffix is not -ney, 
but -ey, Icelandic, " island." The n preceding the 
-ey is the terminal letter of the prefix, or in some 
names all that remains of a medial syllable. 


Palace Chambers, St. Stephen's, N.W. 

LITERARY CLUB (7 th S. iii. 476). MR. NELSON 
will find a full account of this club in Timbs's 
' Club Life,' i. 204, and at p. 216 he will see that 
the club changed its name very improperly to the 
"Johnson Club" when the "Thatched House 
Tavern " was pulled down and the society migrated 
to the " Clarendon Hotel," which celebrated its 
centenary September, 1864. Mr. Walford points 
out in ' Old London,' iii. 178, some inaccuracies in 
Timbs. For instance, the club first went to " Gril- 
lion's Hotel," and as Grillion went to the " Claren- 
don" it went with him. But that is not very 
material ; and now the " Clarendon " itself has 
disappeared, and perhaps the club too, for there is 
no such club known to the * London Directory.' 
Hallam and Macaulay both belonged to it, and 
Dean Milman was the secretary. Timbs brings 
together the two cleverly sketched pictures from 
the hand of Macaulay of the room they met in, and 
of Johnson's predominancy there even over the 
voluminously worded Burke, who notoriously was 
a bad listener. MR. NELSON will be amused if he 
compares the bullying fashion of Johnson's con- 
versation, with its " Why, sir ? " " What then, sir ? " 
" You do not see your way through this question, 
sir," and the like amenities, with Judge Jeffreys's 
language to Counsellor Ward in the case of Prit- 
chard v. Papillon, Nov. 6, 1684, "You have made 
a long speech here, and nothing at all to the pur- 
pose," " I perceive you do not understand the 
question," " I see you do not understand what you 
are about," and much more in the same vein, till 
a hiss was heard in court, followed by a savage 
roar from the scarlet pustuled face, " I would fain 
know that fellow that would dare to hum or hiss 
while I sit here," and so on. In manners there 
was nothing to choose between the men except 
ribaldry, which Johnson never fell into ; but they 
both, if vexed, bellowed like Polyphemus. In the 
appendix to Croker's ' Bos well ' (i. 533, ed. 1844) 
there is a very complete list of the club from its 
formation down to 1829, furnished by C. Hatchett, 
the treasurer. Scott, Macintosh, Hallet, Chantrey, 
Buckland, and Butler were of it. When it outgrew 
the first dozen members Johnson lost interest in 
it. The socially eminent rather swamped the 
literary men in it. When the pre-requisite of mem- 

bership is that a man must have creamed to the 
top by prosperity and success, such eligibility will 
soon put an end to the clubableness of any gather- 
ing. C. A. WARD. 
Haverntock Hill. 

A good many later particulars, and names of 
members of the club, are given in BoswelFs ' Life 
of Johnson ' (Bell's ed., vol. ii.), in an appendix. 


MASLIN PANS : YETLIN POTS (6 th S. vi. 47, 
158; x. 289; xii. 471; 7 th S. iii. 385, 485). I 
will be brief. Mechlin pans were well known in 
Flanders. The guild of Mechlin pan-makers was 
ancient and important. Mechlin pans were im- 
ported into England ; but after 1610 were made 
in England, first at Wandsworth, then at Col- 
brookdale, and other towns in the Black Country, 
by the family of Hallen, whose ancestor, Cornelius 
Hallen, of Wandsworth, was born in Mechlin. The 
making of brass pans in England prior to 1610 was 
exceptional. Bell-founders may have made bell- 
metal pots, but they were not pan-makers. John 
Erode, of Isleworth, in 1585, was the first English- 
man who made brass pans as a trade. His were 
beaten out, not cast. He called them brass pans, 
not Maslin pans. His works were ruined when 
the Wandsworth foundry was started. Maslin as 
a Saxon word is tolerably common as applied to 
mixed corn. The word, be it Dutch or Saxon, 
was exceedingly rare as applied to metal goods 
other than pans. I know of only one instance, 
"Two great Candlesticks of Mastlin" (Wolver- 
hampton will, 1541). I have searched for the 
word in all likely places for years. The usual name 
for brass ware was laten or latton (Dutch), or less 
frequently culkn, i. e., from Cologne. It is incon- 
ceivable to me that an obsolete Saxon word should 
have been revived in favour of a Flemish pan and 
of nothing else, the more that the said pan was 
already well-known as a " Mechlin pan," of which 
I have already shown that Maslin was an English 

As to Etlyn, my authority is Cosmo Innes ; but 
I do not know where Etlyn is or was. Etlingen, 
in Suabia, is too far up the Ehine for a Zealand 
trading ship to have gone up, and Andrew Haly- 
burton's words (1499) are, " In a schip of the Feir 
(Campvere) that passed to Etlyn." Can any of 
your readers throw light on this ? 


Alloa, N.B. 

VIRGIN WIDOW ' (7 th S. iii. 246, 484). My objc ?t 
in recording any curious words or phrases that I 
meet with is not with a view to the augmentation 
of the ' New English Dictionary,' of which some of 
us may not live to see the completion, but for the 
benefit of persons who, like myself, read old 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. JULY ie. '87. 

English literature and wish to understand what 
they read. I confess I do not quite understand 
the drift of DR. NICHOLSON'S contribution ; but 
the references as to snout-fair given by him and 
your other correspondents are very useful. 

Qualcoms. This word, I think, cannot possibly 
mean what DR. NICHOLSON suggests. The follow- 
ing is the passage : 

" Be it known to all men by these presents, that I, 
Jeffery Quibble, am the trusty and right well be- 
loved servant and Kinsman to the renouned, famous, 
skilful I, learned, able, admirable, incomparable Master 
of PhUgigge, Cornelius Quack, a man of rare Qual- 
coms, and singular imperfection?-, who by his studies 

abroad, and travells at home, through France hath 

marvelously unbefitted himself with all manner of Oyles 

bountifully unstor'd with all sorts of Preservatives 

Kichly unfurnisht with all kind of Prescripts, De- 
ceits, and all other rare impediments belonging to a man 
of his Defunction, who to the great demolishment of 
this Town, and benefice of this Incorruption, hath re- 
dressed himself to you, and here sets up his Banck, 
offering health to the imperfermity of your bodies ; 
Soundnesse to the impudencie of your limbs, and present 
cure to your outward Malanders, and inward exturb- 
ances. And for your further satisfaction of his deficiencie 
in this kind," &c. 

DR. NICHOLSON says of quakoms, " From the 
farcical nonsense of the whole speech, and from 
the very next phrase, ' singular imperfections,' 
this cannot = qualities. Not improbably it is 
Quarles's variant of qualms, and used in the 
sense the worst in a physician's character of 
indecision of judgment." I know that DR. NICHOL- 
SON has a pretty turn of sly humour; but I scarcely 
think that he can be serious in expecting one to 
accept this interpretation. Perhaps he would like 
to read " studies at home and travells abroad" 
for " studies abroad and travells at home," and 
for "unbefitted himself," "befitted" or "fitted him- 
self." If so, I will admit his consistency at the 
expense of his common sense. I should like to 
hear his comments on Dogberry's speeches. If I 
could find any instance of the use of " qualifica- 
tion" in its modern sense I would suggest that 
quakoms was a blunder for "qualifications"; but 
in all the passages that I can find in the literature 
of the seventeenth century, " qualification " is used 
more m the sense of " modification." 

Curtain-lectures. I hope DR. NICHOLSON will 
find his references as to the earlier occurrence of 
this expression, for it is one the history of which 
is most interesting ; but to have this history exact 
accurate references are absolutely necessary 

Panel.-T> R . NICHOLSON says this " is not the 
stomach of a hawk, but the lowest gut." I a 
Harting s reprint, ' A Perfect Booke for Kepinge 
of Sparhawkes or Goshawkes ' (Quaritch, 1886) 
the word is given in the glossary as "the stomach 
fa hawk ; it occurs in two passages, "Meates 
w cn endew sonest and maketh the hardest panell" 
(p. 7) ; and amongst the "Tokens of Worms" such 
symptoms are noticed as "Strayning sodaynly on 

the fyste, writhinge her trayne, muche gapinge 
upward, or champpinge w* her beake, offerings her 
bealce ofte to the panell" (p. 26). The latter pas- 
sage seems to show that DR. NICHOLSON'S defini- 
tion is right, if, as I suppose, by "lowest gut" he 
means the rectum. 

Dr. Grosart's edition of Quarles's works I have 
not seen. All that gentleman's editions of old 
English authors are very valuable to students, but 
the price he puts upon them is so prohibitive that 
I am sorry to say my purse is not long enough to 
enable me to indulge in their possession. 


8, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

NORDEN'S LONDON BRIDGE (7 th S. i. 444). I 
have long had a doubt as to the picture of London 
Bridge in the Pepysian Library at Cambridge 
being what it professes to be. The Norden of 
1597 itself, beyond doubt, rather discredits it. 
True, the Norden eastern aspect and the Pepysian 
western make comparison difficult. It certainly 
looks to me as if done much later, perhaps made 
up a little by the artist ; it appears altogether 
too pictorially finished. The practice was at least 
probably in use. Thomson, 'London Bridge,' p. 366, 
says, as to the view represented as of the bridge in 
1599," I am half inclined to believe, however, that 
this prospect is made up from Hollar's view pub- 
lished in 1657." There is in the Print Kooui, 
British Museum, a rare, if not unique, view signed 
" Rombout Vanden Hoey." This, as well as the 
circumstances of the fire which burnt down the 
north end of the bridge in 1632-3, would, I think, 
require a little study before deciding. I should 
like to know the opinion of any reader of *N. & Q.,' 
especially of DR. FURNIVALL, upon this matter. 

The librarian of the Pepysian Collection at 
Magdalen sends me, in answer to my question as 
to the drawing of the bridge here referred to, " It 
is entered in the index to vol. i./ Views of London 
and Westminster,' as ' London Bridge on fire, an 
old drawing.' These views were 'put together* 
A.D. 1700. The index was no doubt compiled by 
S. P. himself, or under his superintendence. 
A. G. P." This still further confuses the identifi- 
cation and date. WILLIAM RENDLE. 

EARTHQUAKES, &c. (7 th S. iii. 409, 484; iv. 14). 
May I be allowed a line to thank those who 
have kindly assisted me with the names of books 
on earthquakes, &c., two of whom were good 
enough to write direct to myself t 

St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

^ST. WILFRED'S NEEDLE (7 th S. iii. 449). My 
friend and your learned contributor W. C. B. has 
lately referred me to the Topographer and Genea- 
logist, vol. ii., 1853, for an account (c. 1600) of a 
cleft in a rock in Cleveland called St. Winifred's 

7" 8. IV. JULY 16, '87.] 



Needle, which some editors have called St. Wil- 
fred's, and thereupon connected it with the crypt 
at Ripon (p. 410). This is doubtless the one at 
Rosebery Topping referred to by ST. SWITHIN, 
and I suspect that " Winifred " is a mistake, and 
that all the openings referred to have been named 
after the famous " Seyntwilfrydenedyll " at Ripon, 
well known eo nomine in mediaeval times. 

J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

The cleft in the rock on Rosebery Topping is 
called "St. Winifryd's Needle" in the descrip- 
tion of Cleveland of the time of James I. printed 
in the Topographer and Genealogist, vol. ii. (1853), 
p. 410, where see the note. W. C. B. 

LIEUT. W. DIOBT (7 th S. iii. 368). Entered 
the service as ensign in the 53rd Foot on Feb- 
ruary 10, 1770, and became lieutenant on April 1, 
1773. He remained in the list of lieutenants until 
he was second senior, but in 1787 his name dis- 
appears, and I cannot ascertain what became of 
him, as I have not an Army List of the year 1786. 
He probably belonged to the right flank or Grena- 
dier Company of the 53rd ; but there was never 
such a corps as the 53rd Regiment of Grenadiers. 
Another William Digby was appointed ensign in 
the 17th or Leicester Regiment on April 8, 1786. 

Chaplain H. M. Forces. 

Hale Crescent, Farnham. 


The Historians of the Church of York and its Arch- 
lishops. Vol. II. Edited by James Raine, M.A., 
D.C.L. Rolls Series. (Longmans & Co.) 
THE city of York was in former days exceptionally 
fortunate in its church historians. It has been equally 
favoured at the present in having a scholar of the 
quality of Dr. Raine to edit them. There are one or 
two painful exceptions, but as a whole the long series 
of " Chronicles and Memorials " published under the 
direction of the Master of the Rolls have been excep- 
tionally well edited. We are not ignorant of the great 
collections which have issued by authority from the 
presses of Germany, Belgium, and France in recent 
days. We are sure, however, that we are well within 
the limits of truth when we say that no continental 
collection shows greater or more reverend care on the 
part of the editors than does the series of books one 
volume of which is before us. Dr. Raine's knowledge of 
the history of the North of England is so great and so 
accurate that we cannot help being sorry, in his par- 
ticular case, for the existence of the most wholesome 
rule which prohibits the editors in this series from 
adding notes of their own to the text. This is to be 
regretted, because in the present volume, for the sake 01 
economizing space, the editor has not continued in his 
preface the lucid commentary on the history of the 
Church of York which he began in the first volume 
We are glad, however, to be assured that we are not to 
be deprived for ever of his account of the period which 
these chronicles cover. These times, he says, " deserv 

a separate treatment of their own, which I hope to be 
able to give them before long." The volume opens with 
Hadmer's life of St. Oswald the Archbishop. The life 
tself has been printed at least twice before, but the 
second part, containing the miracles which were be- 
ieved to have been wrought through the intercession of 
,he saint, now sees the light for the first time. In 
'ormer days it was the custom of editors very frequently 
to omit, when editing mediaeval biographies, the wonders 
with which almost all the literature of that kind abounds. 
Protestant editors are not alone to blame in this matter. 
The great Jesuit collection of saints' lives the Bol- 
andist ' Acta Sanctorum ' is sometimes to be repre- 
hended on this account. It was not unnatural that 
editors of former days should not care to print stories to 
which they did not give even provisional credit. They 
could not be expected to comprehend what we see now, 
that even the wildest legend has a value, as showing the 
state of mind when the beliefs to which it gives an 
embodiment were part of the ordinary mind furniture. 
In Eadmer's collection there is little that is curious. 
In those attributed to St. William, which form a little 
tract near the end of the volume, there are several 
which must have taxed the credulity of the least scep- 
tical at the time when they are said to have happened. 
A woman from Murton, near York, was believed to have 
swallowed a frog, and to have suffered much sickness 
therefrom, but was cured after visiting the saint's tomb ; 
and a citizen of York who took some lime away from 
the same holy place, as he was crossing the bridge over 
the Ouse found it turned into bread. Perhaps the most 
valuable portion of these miscellanies is the chronicle 
which goes by the name of Thomas Stubbs. That he 
was the author of only one portion of it Dr. Raine has 
proved beyond doubt. Whoever were the authors of 
the beginning and the end, it is convenient to look upon 
the whole as a complete series of annals, a work which 
must ever be of value to those interested in the history 
of the northern province. 

The documents given concerning the murdered Arch- 
bishop Scrope have a melancholy interest. Though 
honoured as a saint throughout the North of England, 
he was never canonized; and therefore we have no 
biography "of him. Much exists which would throw 
light on his career and sad end. We trust that a time 
may come when they will be woven into a biography. 
In the preface Dr. Raine has occasion to mention a 
certain suffragan bishop whose titular see was " Bisa- 
cienc." Can any of our readers identify this place ? 

Remains of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, 1886. (Dublin, 

Forster & Co.) 

THERE is probably not a race on earth which has shown 
itself more deeply attached to the relics of its past history 
than the Irish. Unfortunate political complications, 
lasting not /or decades, but for centuries, have, however, 
wasted the land so thoroughly, that few remains of its 
architectural glories have escaped the storms. So little, 
indeed, now exists that there have not been wanting 
antiquaries who on other matters were worthy of re- 
spectful attention who have maintained that the medi- 
aeval styles of architecture never flourished in Ireland 
except as exotics. How untrue this is every one now 
knows who has studied what remains to us either by 
personal inspection or from careful drawings. St. Mary's 
Abbey, the great Cistercian house which once had estates 
in half the counties of Ireland, has been so entirely 
blotted out that hardly a vestige remains. We do not 
think that we are confessing to any abnormal amount 
of ignorance when we own that until we read the pages 
before us we were under the impression that every frag- 
ment had been swept away. The chapter-house, we are 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7*s.iv.JuiYiv7. 

glad to find, yet exists, and, though degraded to secular 
uses, is, we gather, in structurally good order. We trust 
that it may soon be found possible to restore it once more 
to public use, and to relieve it from the surrounding 
modern buildings which at present clog it on every side. 
The book before us is not a history of the abbey, but a 
series of short papers, most of which, we gather, have 
been printed elsewhere. Such a miscellany cannot in 
any way supply the place of a history, but it has its own 
uses. Any future historian will be glad to possess the 
information which it enshrines. Many plates of ancient 
floor-tiles are given. One of them gives a rude repre- 
sentation of the west front of a church, with a central 
and two western towers. It was found on the site of 
the abbey, and may be a representation of the church 
before its desecration. Twenty-two other tiles are 
figured, all of which have been turned up during 
recent excavations within the abbey precincts. Many 
of them are of types which are not uncommon in Eng- 
land, but some seem new in treatment. No. L, four 
lions' heads crowned within a circle, is quite new to the 
present writer. Nos. v., vii., xiii., and xiv.^all extremely 
beautiful patterns, are of unfamiliar types. No. xxii. is 
very curious. It is quite plain, consisting only of the 
letter V four times repeated. What the symbolism of 
this may be it is, perhaps, vain to speculate. These 
tiles suggest an interesting inquiry. Are they of native 
manufacture, or have they been imported from England ? 
Our impression is that some of them (and if some, pro- 
bably all) are Irish ; but before any definite conclusion 
can be arrived at it will be necessary to examine and com- 
pare other examples discovered in Ireland, and to learn, 
if it be possible, if any manufactory of ornamental 
paving tiles existed in Ireland. It was the opinion of 
the late Mr. Walbran, the learned Yorkshire antiquary, 
that tiles of this sort were commonly made on or near 
the spot where they were to be used. It is therefore 
possible that the monks of St. Mary's may have imported 
English makers to design and bake their flooring tiles. 

Historic Towns. Edited by E. A. Freeman and W. Hunt. 

Oxford. By Charles W. Boase. (Longmans & Co.) 
Manchester. By George Saintsbury. (Same publishers.) 
THESE two books are strangely dissimilar, both in matter 
and style. Oxford, as Mr. Green has told us, was among 
the first of English municipalities, and "had already 
seen five centuries of borough life before a student ap- 
peared within its streets." The materials for the history 
of Oxford are consequently large ; and Mr. Boase's great 
difficulty has been to compress his account within the 
prescribed limits. Some querulous persons may, perhaps, 
complain that some particular incident, in which they 
are specially interested, has been inadequately treated. 
But in series of this kind no reasonable being can expect 
to find more than a general historical sketch of a town 
possessing such a lengthy record as Oxford boasts of. 
We can congratulate Mr. Boase on the happy manner in 
which he has accomplished a task far from easy, for 
though the mass of information which he gives us is 
necessarily condensed, it would be difiicult to find a dull 
page in his book. 

Although originally written for the series of " Historic 
Towns," Mr. baintsbury's book is published indepen- 
dently, in consequence of differences of opinion having 
arisen between Mr. Freeman and the author. Unlike 
Oxford, Manchester has no early history. It is true 
that it is mentioned in the Domesday Book, and that 
Thomas Gresley, in May, 1301, granted a charter to the 
town, under which it was governed for some five hun- 
dred years. But though we learn incidentally, from an 
Act passed in the thirty-third year of the reign of 
Henry VIII., that Manchester " is, and hath of long time 

been a town well inhabited, and the King's subjects in- 
habitants of the same town well set awork in making 
cloths as well of linen as of woollen," Mr. Saintsbury is 
unable to tell us when it first became a manufacturing 
town. Practically, the history of Manchester commences 
with the beginning of the Civil War. In order, there- 
fore to fill up the regulation number of pages, Mr. 
Saintsbury descants somewhat at length on such subjects 
as the rise of the modern cotton trade, the anti-corn law 
league, and the principles of the Manchester school of 
politics. We venture to think that he has committed a 
grave error in judgment in going out of his way to attack 
the principles and leaders of the Manchester school in 
the vehement manner he does. Such polemical disqui- 
sitions as Mr. Saintsbury indulges in are as much out of 
place in a book of this character as they would be in the 
pages of ' N. & Q.' 

Both books are illustrated with a couple of plans. 
Each is furnished with an index, but even here the dis- 
similarity of these books is curiously illustrated, for 
while Mr. Boase's copious index occupies nearly twelve 
pages, Mr. Saintsbury's apology for one does not fill four, 

Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica comes out with 
a double part for June and July, containing, among 
other features of interest, a very good specimen of six- 
teenth century heraldic writing and illumination, in the 
shape of a grant of arms by Hawley, Clarencieux, to 
Thomas Ffletewood, of London, gentleman, Auditor of 
our Lord the King's County Palatine of Chester and 
Flint. In the same number the Dalison notes are 
illustrated by a couple of facsimiles of letters of Roger 
Dalyson, 1601 and 1602, while an elaborate pedigree of 
Thorold of Marston is communicated by Mr. H. Farn- 
ham Burke, Somerset, and there is a valuable note on 
the arms of Bartlett of Marldon, in Devonshire, and of 
other Bartletts and Bartelotts. We remark that the 
College of Arms is several times referred to in the 
current number under the unfamiliar designation of the 
" College of Heralds," which, so far as our memory serves 
us, is not the style used in official documents when 
drawn up in English. In Latin the style used may 
possibly be " Collegium Fecialium," though the King of 
Arms is described as "Rex Armorum," and not as 
" Fecialis," in the very grant printed in the June and 
July Misc. Gen. et Her. 

flotitt* ta C0rre*p0n0*nW. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to nead the second communication " Duplicate." 

SCRUTATOR (" Oh, for the touch of a vanished hand ") 
Tennyson, "Break, break, break." 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of * Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to The Publisher "-at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Curaitor Street, Chancery Lane, E C 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print: and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

T* S. IV. JOLT 23, '87.1 





NOTES : Sir John Shorter, 61 Walsh Family, 64 Nepos- 

Gable, 65 Deaths of English Kings Shakspeare and Pallas 

Athene Michael Richards Disused Burial-grounds, 66 

4 The House that Jack Built 'A Silly Superstition, 67. 

QUERIES : Calaber Anti-Gallican Society Chamouni 
Royal Stuarts Folk-lore ' Cara Mia 'Customs of French 
Ladies John Lamb, 67 Cunningham Hugh Potter Mr. 
Stodart on Scottish Family History Sebastian Cabot- 
Spinning-wheel Alley Arms of the City of London Manual 
for composing Themes Genealogical Society, 68' Memoirs 
of the Little Man ' ' Ingoldsby Legends 'Rebuilding of 
St. Paul's Sir Charles Flower Napoleon Literature 
Samuel Astley Dunham Le Fevre Numismatic, 69. 

REPLIES : Scotch Periodicals, 69-First Principles of Philo- 
logy, 70 Siege of Bolton Cape Charlotte Dubordieu 
Family Name of Rnskin, 71 Holy Thursday Blazer 
Lease of 999 Years " Gale's Rent" Keys to Novels- 
Female Heresiarchs Convicts shipped to the Colonies, 72 
' Golden Legend' Crownation Maypole Custom 
Female Poets, 73 Sykeside Paris Garden and Christ 
Church Military, 74 Bastinado Sir Abraham Yarner, 75 
Dulcarnon Authorship of Songs Doctors of the Church 
Montaigne Densyll Charles Mordaunt, 76 "A missis 
as good as a mile " Avalon Ale-Tasters Bromflat Poems 
attributed to Byron " Daughter" and " Dafter" Butler's 
' Hudibras,' 77 Regimental Histories A Wallet Morue 
Royal Salutes, 78 Relic of Mary Stuart, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Vol. XL Macray's 'Chronicron Abbatho Rameseiensis ' 
Hart and Lyons's ' Cartularium Monasterii de Rameseia ' 
Nicholson's ' Beacons of East Yorkshire ' Neilson's 'Annan- 
dale under the Braces.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


(See also Sir John Shorter, Lord Mayor,' 2 na S. xi. 
152, 217, 455; xii. 14; 'Paris Garden and Christ 
Church, Blackfriars,' 7 th S. iii. 442, 443, 444, more 
particularly 444.) 

One of the chief uses of 'N. & Q.' is to be found 
in the opportunities from time to time afforded 
by the incidental comments appearing in its pages 
of correcting errors and elucidating obscure details 
in our social history not directly relative to the 
heading of the subject immediately under con- 

I am quite confident of giving no offence to so 
indefatigable an antiquary as MR. RENDLE if I 
avail myself of this valuable feature of your serial 
to make two trivial corrections in that accom- 
plished chronicler's allusion to London's noted 
Presbyterian Lord Mayor, Sir John Shorter, of 
Bankside, Southwark, and his contemporary, the 
much better known John, who left the English 
religious world priceless legacies in * The Pilgrim's 
Progress ' and * Grace Abounding.' 

Were my comments restricted to MR. KENDLE'S 
incidental remarks (substantially accurate as they 
are), I might lay myself open to a charge of hyper- 
criticism ; but I take the opportunity of very 
respectfully correcting that gentleman's insignifi- 
cant lapses to perform a service to my brother 

investigators I have long meditated rendering, 
namely, to point out two, what I will not call in- 
accuracies, but rather misleading inadvertencies, 
in a couple of works of ordinary every-day refer- 
ence one purely typographical, in Strype's ' Con- 
tinuation of Stow's Survey,' the other attribut- 
able probably to casual carelessness of composition 
in a book written currents calamo, but of world- 
wide repute Evelyn's ' Diary.' 

Should MR. RENDLE in even the smallest degree 
resent my presumption in setting right the two 
trivial errors occurring in his paper neither of 
which, I repeat, is at all of the essence of his sub- 
jectI seek to deprecate his censure on two 
grounds, one the imperative necessity he will, I 
am sure, admit, of the most strict strict even to 
minuteness accuracy in all historical details ap- 
pearing in your columns ; the other because the 
corrections bearing about the same proportion to 
the incidental matter I propose to introduce that 
Falstaff's bread did to his sack in the very memo- 
rable tavern score will enable me to impart to 
your readers a few particulars about the connexion 
of certain civic magnates with the movements which 
led to the great Revolution of 1688, in details which 
have either escaped the notice of ordinary annalists 
altogether or, when adduced, have not infrequently 
been misunderstood, or at least misrepresented. 

It will perhaps be convenient to deal in the first 
place with the typographical error occurring in the 
edition of Stow most frequently consulted by my 
fellow students, viz., the folio of 1720. As this 
essentially misleading mistake occurs in the second 
volume, in the chapter devoted to a history and 
description of the temporal government of the 
City, and in an account of the mayors and sheriffs, 
rulers long after the death of the designer of the 
1 Survey,' of course the old tailor-antiquary is not 
responsible for it : neither, as it will be seen, do 
I charge his continuator and editor, the erudite 
Rev. John Strype, with any but the most insig- 
nificant amount of negligence. The mistake was 
obviously the result originally of a simple typo- 
graphical accident. It consists in this. A list is 
given of all the mayors of London, professing to 
ascribe to each one the company of which he was 
a member as qualifying him for the office, and 
adding the names of the sheriffs serving during 
each mayoralty. Under the date 1688, which must 
be read 1687-8, against the name of Sir John 
Shorter an asterisk referring to a marginal note is 
placed. This asterisk should, for reasons which I 
will presently adduce, indicate Snorter's successor, 
3ir John Eyles.* A reference to Mr. Benjamin 
Brogden Orridge's work on 'Distinguished Citi- 
zens,' pp. 239, 240 nay, a simple turning the leaf 
on which the marginal note appears back and a 

* Strype's < Stow's Survey,' edition of 1720, p. 150 
second column) book v. chap, vi, 



[7* S. IV. JULY 23, '87. 

glance at the second line of the first column of the 
preceding page will amply justify me in the eyes 
of students of our civic history for making this, 
as I submit, very vital correction of a misprint 
which entails a direct inversion of the facts upon 
which I shall have to comment in a subsequent 
part of this paper. 

Perhaps, after all, we have not very far to seek 
to find a plausible reason for the reverend editor's 
misapprehension. On subsequent pages of the 
same volume, in dealing with the respective 
histories of the various City companies, lists are 
furnished of the occupants of the mayoral chair 
from time to time elected or appointed as members 
of one of the first twelve guilds. Our investigation 
need not travel beyond this dozen of great incor- 
porations, because, down to 1742, as I shall have 
occasion to point out further on, it was erro- 
neously assumed to be matter of legal obligation 
that the alderman chosen for the civic presidency 
must have " hailed from " one of these leading com- 
panies. Strype has continued these lists down to 
the date of publication of his two volumes (1720), 
but in the catalogue of mayors furnished under the 
title of " The Goldsmiths' Company " the name of 
Sir John Shorter, 1687-8, is not to be seen. This, 
then, may have appeared to the editor to have 
justified the statement in the marginal note that 
Shorter was never free of the City; and, indeed, 
the blank after his name as mayor on p. 150, in 
in the space usually appropriated to indicating the 
guild of the chief officer, seems also to show 
that Strype was not aware that Sir John was 
affiliated to the Goldsmiths' Company. But it 
must be remarked that, in the face of the statement 
on the second line of the preceding page, 149 
where again, be it conceded, a similar blank for 
the guild appears after the name, this hypothesis 
does not excuse the carelessness of such a gross 
misstatement as that Sir John never served sheriff. 
Besides, on p. 150, after the name of Sir John 
Eyles, there is, ex necessitate rei, a corresponding 
blank, and as sheriff this interloper's name does 
not occur at all anywhere in the volume, inasmuch 
as it is certain that he never served the office. 

Of course, such a record as Herbert's ' History 
of the Twelve Great Companies/ where Shorter's 
name is found under the head of " Goldsmiths," in 
its proper place, and under the right mayoral 
date (see that useful work, vol. ii. p. 200), was not 
available to the reverend editor ; but he should 
have been aware that in the very volume of the 
purvey' upon which he was engaged the name of 
Sir John Eyles did not appear in the mayora 
list of any of the companies (as, indeed, it could 
pot, he not being a freeman), nor, as I have said 
in the catalogue of the names of those who hac 
served sheriffs. This examination, which Strype 
might have made, I now propose as the test of 
the accuracy of my statement that the marginal 

note should properly apply to Eyles, and not to 

To urge the principle de minimis is, I submit, 
no answer to this essay at correction, inasmuch 
as I shall shortly proceed to demonstrate, directly, 
,nd by implication not too remote, that the error 
las been adopted without examination by some 
'ew, but eminent, subsequent writers on the 
annals of the great City. The most recent, as 
well as the most conspicuous instance is afforded 
.n the sumptuous folio tome published last year 
jy the Corporation (editio de luxe), ' The History 
of the Guildhall,'* where, on p. 202, Eyles's 
obvious disqualifications are (clearly on the sole 
authority of Strype's ' Stow ') again attributed to 
Shorter by the able and accomplished compiler, 
Mr. John E. Price, F.S.A., F.R.S.L. Quis cus- 
todiet ipsos custodes ? an inquiry anent the pre- 
servers of our civic chronicles I shall have to 
repeat, with a Transatlantic contemporary, f when 
in the course of these papers I again have occasion 

refer to this elegant, but not wholly accurate 

But to return to MR. KENDLE. Slip the first : 
Sir John Shorter was Lord Mayor nominally 
custos in fact, for he was one of the custodes ap- 
pointed directly by letters patent from the Crown 
during the humiliating time of the suspension of the 
City's liberties under the notorious and iniquitous 
judgment in the Quo Warranto case for the year 
1687-8, and not, as MR. KENDLE, writing no doubt 
from memory, asserts, in 1686 (p. 444). Sir John's 
patent bears date September 23, 1687, empowering 
him to hold his appointment as the king's officer, 
under the title of Lord Mayor, subject to His 
Majesty's pleasure, for one year from the morrow 
of the feast of St. Simon and St. Jude (October 29) 
then ensuing (see the London Gazette of that date). 
His Majesty's nominee did not, however, complete 
his year of office, for a tragic reason which has 
been twice already recorded in your columns (2 md 
S. xi. 152; 6 th S. xi. 465), and which I propose 
hereafter to describe in somewhat more detail than 
when I contributed the last note I have just cited. 
The second error MR. KENDLE makes is so very 
trivial that I am almost ashamed to notice it, and 

1 do so, repeating my apologies to him, only for 
the severely constraining reason I have above in- 
dicated. Sir John Shorter died four, and not three, 
days after John Bunyan, whose death occurred on 
Friday, August 31, 1688 (see, sub tit. "Bunyan," 
' National Biography,' vol. vii. p. 281), whereas the 
Lord Mayor died from the effects of an accident 
on the following Tuesday, September 4 (see former 
references to < N. & Q.'). 

I am strongly of MR. KENDLE'S opinion that it 
is an error to say that Bunyan was ever Sir John 

* London, 1886. Prepared and published under tie 
direction of the Library Committee by the Corporation, 
t New York tfation, early numbers in July, 1S87. 

7"> 8. IV. JULY 23, '87.] 



Snorter's chaplain. It is certain he never was so 
in his office as Lord Mayor, whatever he may have 
been in the alderman's household in his private 
capacity; but I do not think even that likely. The 
Lord Mayor was a Presbyterian, while the cele- 
brated Bedford pastor was a strict Baptist, and 
between the two sects it is well known there 
was in those days, at all events no love lost. 
True, Sir John was, as I shall proceed to show, 
somewhat of an opportunist an occasional con- 
formist certainly if not, as was contemporaneously 
reported of him,* of generally latitudinarian prin- 
ciples. The report that Bunyan served as Lord 
Mayor's chaplain, however, is repeated, though 
with guarded qualification, in a sense consistent 
with the dissenting minister's holding the appoint- 
ment in a private gentleman's family, by the Rev. 
Canon Venables in the life of the Elstow divine 
which appears in vol. vii. of the ' National Bio- 
graphy,' and to which I have already referred. 
Probably the tradition that he fulfilled the formal 
office of chaplain to the Lord Mayor in the chief 
magistrate's dignified official capacity arose from 
the peculiar circumstances attendant on Sir John's 
mayoralty, to which I am about immediately to 
advert. But, however that may be, we have evi- 
dence of the rumour having been contemporaneous 
with the deaths of the two Johns. See a letter, 
dated early in September, 1688, in the 'Ellis 
Correspondence,' edited by the Honourable 
George Agar Ellis, afterwards, I believe, Lord 
Dover, vol. ii. p. 161. This .work must not be 
confounded with Sir Henry Ellis's ' Original 
Letters.' The terms of Sir John Shorter's 
nomination by the Crown were exceptional, 
and seem to indicate the maturity of a long- 
conceived design on the part of the monarch 
which within a few months was demonstrated 
by the promulgation of the Declaration of In- 
dulgenceto subjugate the Church of England to 
that of Rome by a plausible profession of general 
toleration. Shorter had been in bad odour at the 
Court indeed, he was one of the distrusted alder- 
men displaced by the royal command under the exe- 
cution ensuing upon the Quo Warranto judgment 
and it is not, I think, unfairly severe upon the memory 
of his monarch to infer that Sir John supplied 
an instance among many of an attempt to win 
over a member of " the country party " by the 
cajoleries of the successor of the sovereign who had 
BO degraded him. After fehe revengeful bloodshed 
of 1685, and the distrust evinced by the Parliament 
of that year leading to its sudden prorogation in 
1686, James notoriously changed his tactics, and 
took to flattering and coaxing the noncomformists 
he had so cruelly persecuted. That they were not 
all to be deluded, that probably, as I shall show, 
Shorter himself, though complaisant to a certain 

* See 'Autobiography of Justice Sir John Bramston ' 
(Camden Society), p. 31,5. 

extent, was far from contemplating enacting the 
rdle of a creature of the court, is not to the pur- 
pose. The attempt to seduce was made. Take, 
by way of example, the very case of Bunyan, the 
quondam captive in Bedford gaol. "When 
James II. was endeavouring to remodel the cor- 
porations," the Rev. Canon Venables informs us, 
"Bunyan was pointed out as a likely instrument for 
carrying out the royal purpose in the Corporation of 
Bedford. It seems that some place under Government 
was offered as the price of his consent ; but he declined 
all such overtures, and refused to see the bringer of them, 
though by no means unwilling to give his aid in procur- 
ing the repeal of the penal laws and tests under which 
he and his flock had so long smarted. This was in 
November, 1687, barely twelve months before James's 
abdication." 'Die. Nat. Biog.,' tit. "Bunyan," vol. vii. 
pp. 281 el seq. 

Before 1687, however nay, very shortly after 
the butchery of Cornish James had cast an eye 
upon the Presbyterian citizen, the cashiered alder- 
man, Shorter, and commenced his blandishments 
by restoring to him by the same arbitrary autho- 
rity that had deprived him of it his alderman's 
gown. During the last two years of his life Sir 
John was highly favoured and exceptionally 
honoured by the king, as we shall see. Nomi- 
nated by that sovereign's will to the supreme chair 
in the City, two singular clauses were inserted in 
the letters patent appointing him. One of these 
provisoes I am about immediately to notice ; the 
other must pass under review later on. The clause 
to which I am now referring was a power giving, 
inter alia, exceptional latitude to the form of divine 
service to be used during the forthcoming mayor- 
alty in Guildhall Chapel, and permitting my Lord 
Mayor " to have whom he pleases to preach before 
him" (Luttrell's 'Brief Relation,' vol. i. p. 414). 
To this indulgent proviso, I think, may, perhaps, be 
attributable the rumour that has ascribed to Bun- 
yan the post of Lord Mayor's chaplain. But these 
concessions appear to have been regarded by the 
Whig citizens on the well-known principle ex- 
pressed by Virgil," Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes." 
The enabling clause was distrusted by Protestants 
of all denominations, under the familiar figure of 
" the thin end of the wedge "; for conscientious 
men argued, " If a Presbyterian may act as my 
Lord Mayor's chaplain this year, why may not a 
Popish priest be appointed his spiritual director 
next ? If the service of the conventicle be 
legally sanctioned for use in the civic place of 
official worship during 1687-8, what is to prevent 
the offering mass there obtaining equally effective 
recognition in 1688-9 ?" For, observe, the king was 
at that time omnipotent in the ancient city in 
this respect his will was law, and, pending the 
advent of a deliverer, the citizens could not foresee 
the speedy restoration of their legally defined 
franchises. NEMO. 


(To be continued.) 



IV. JULY 23, '87. 


(Concluded from p. 44.) 
In Birmingham Tower, thanks to the courtesy 
of the present Ulster King-at-Arms, I have seen 
a document, 1733, countersigned Hawkins, one 
of his predecessors, beginning thus, " Genealogia 
Nicolai Walsh hodie Te"neriffe incolse, qui per 
longam seriem prseclarorum virorum a David Walsh 
legitime est oriundus." This Nicholas, deriving 
from the above-mentioned progenitor, reckoned 
amongst his ancestors Sir Patrick Walsh, Knight, 
twice Mayor of Waterford (1525, 1532),and founder 
of the Holy Ghost Hospital in that city (1545), is 
now represented in blood by Don Tommaso Cologan 
(or his descendants), of the Island of Teneriffe, who, 
according to Sir Bernard Burke, in his ' Heraldic 
Illustrations,' where he does not hesitate to 
speak of the great house of Walsh of the county 
of Waterford, bears his arms in the following 
fashion: Quarterly, 1, Azure, a lion rampant bet ween 
three pheons argent, which is Cologan, formerly 
MacCologan ; 2, Azure, two greyhounds erect and 
respectant, supporting between them a sword erect 
proper on the centre chief point, a castle of the 
second (Fallon); 3, Argent, a chevron gules between 
three pheons sable, which is Walsh;* 4, Gules, a 
bunch of grapes argent, surmounted by a bend or, 
for Gaunt, a Spanish family, apparently. Motto, 
"In Deo spes mea." Sir Patrick Walsh was 
nearly related to Sir Nicholas Walsh, Master of 
the Rolls, and the illustrious Archbishop of Cashell 
Thomas Walsh (1626-1654), son of Eobert Walsh 
and of Anastasia Strong, an eminent Waterford 
house, whose life has been written by a contem- 
porary, F. S. Leger, of the Company of Jesus, and 
by F. Meehan, of Dublin, was probably a near 
kinsman. See * Irish Hierarchy of the Seven- 
teenth Century.' That there were other de- 
scendants of David Walsh, but of a younger 
branch, I should infer from the different tinc- 
ture of the armorial shield, in this instance gold 
instead of argent, as I have seen it in the maternal 
proofs of a descendant in the fourth degree of Mr. 
Walsh of Pill-town, namely, Anne MacCarthy, wife 
of Edward D'Alton of Grennanstown, in the county 
of Tipperary, a Count of the Holy Koman Empire, 
chamberlain, and general in the service of the 
Emperor df Germany, killed 1793 at the siege of 
Dunkirk. Col. Walsh of Pilltown 1775, the 
last of this branch I surmise, I have heard was 
a most accomplished gentleman of fascinating 
address, much appreciated at the Court of Ver- 
sailles and in the then Parisian society. His 
aunt Thomassine Walsh became the wife of CoL 
Masterson of Castletown and Monaseedy, co. Wex- 

* By the marriage of hia grandfather, John Cologan, 
with Margareth, daughter of Bernard Walsh of Teneriffe 
representative of the great house of Walsh of the county 
Waterford (Sir Bernard Burke, ' Heraldic Illustrations ') 

ford, of ancient Cheshire lineage, first located 
at Nantwich since the reign of Edward III. 
(Ormerod), but afterwards established in Ireland 
by Sir Thomas Masterson of Ferns, knight, a 
valiant soldier, who exercised the office of seneschal 
for Queen Elizabeth in Wexford. This family, 
bearing the wheatsheafs so frequently found in 
Cestrian coats of arms and now extinct, is repre- 
sented in the female line by the writer of this and 
some other families Mr. Power O'Shee of Garden- 
morris, co. Waterford ; Count William O'Shee of 
Paris; also by the Vicomte de Coux, of the chateau 
of S. Jean-Ligoure, in the department of the 
Haute Vienne, France. The estate of this junior 
branch of the Walshes has long since dwindled 
away. It has been acquired by a successful 
attorney of the name of Kennedy, the direct 
ancestor of the present Sir John Kennedy, Bart., 
who bears the arms slightly modified of the Ken- 
nedys of Clondalkin, co. Dublin, an offshoot of the 
O'Brien or Dalcassian stock, but chief remem- 
brancers of Ireland tempore Charles II. 

In 1837 was printed at Brussels a work, ' Essai 
Historique sur 1'Irlande, contenant 1'Origine de 
toutes les Families Nobles de ce Pays, par le Comte 
O'Kelly d'Aghrim, Ancien Employe" au Conseil 
Supreme de Noblesse, au Eoyaume des Pays Baa, 
where (p. 119) mention is made of the Walsh 
family. The noble author, head, I am given to 
understand, under the " predicate " of Aghrim, of 
the eldest branch of the once princely house of 
Imaney, styled in the old Celtic days Hereditary 
Marshalls of Connaught, subordinate to its pro- 
vincial kings, the O'Connors, was a genealogist 
and herald of no mean repute. He quotes the 
historiograph and antiquary Camden, who in 
writing of the Walshes of Ireland within the 
Pale continues, " quorum ut nobilitas antiqua, ita 
hoc tractu numerosa. 

Several families of Walsh, or Walshe, in the 
county Dublin, seated at Shanganagh, near Bray, 
for instance, bear a oat of arms somewhat dis- 
similar, to wit, Azure, a lion rampant argent, de- 
bruised by a fess paly argent and gules, and 
nevertheless they belong essentially to the same 
race, the remote ancestor being Gilbert, son of Sir 
David Walsh, to whom was granted the estate of 
Carrigmaine, in Wicklow. These double coats of 
arms are sometimes to be met with in Irish 
heraldry. I could quote at least three coats of 
O'Connell and two of Power, as of a few others. 
Here the military family of Counts Wallis (1716), 
likewise styled Barons von Karrighmaine, which 
had acquired great renown in Austria, in their 
rather complicated and augmented escutcheon, 
equally bear the swan pierced through the neck, 
and the Shanganagh or Carrigmaine emblazon- 
ment, the white lion on a field azure, and while 
consulting Simon, * Armorial de 1'Empire Frangais/ 
vol. ii. pi. xxxvi. p. 32, L. W. may perceive that 

7 h S. IV. JULY 23, '87.] 



Monsieur Walsh de Serent, " Comte de 1'Empire 
Francois,' bore for arms quarterly the insignia of 
counts, presidents of electoral colleges,* in this in- 
stance Morbihan, Walsh proper, FitzGerald, and 
Walsh Shanganagh. The Shanganagh coat has 
been exemplified by the authority of the College of 
Arms, Dublin, to that able and most acute lawyer 
the Eight Hon. John Walsh, who died 1869, 
Master of the Rolls in Ireland, a canton or, for 
difference. However, the present Archbishop of 
Dublin, Walsh, bears in addition, empaled with the 
usual archiepiscopal blazon at all times inherent to 
his see, as his own private or paternal arms, those 
of Walsh of Shanganagh, but with what authen- 
ticity I am unable to state. 

Other notices on the Walsh family may be found 
in the pages of Lachenaye des Bois, in those of the 

* Nobiliaire ' of Brittany, by M. de Courson, and 
possibly in those of M. de Bettencourt, who wrote 
on the leading families of the Canary Islands ; 
but not having the books of that eminent Spanish 
heraldic writer at my disposition it is impossible 
for me to say whether such be really the case or 
not. In the Kilkenny Archaeological Journal are 
given many details on the Walshes, particularly the 
Castle Howell or Ballyhale branch (M. D'Alton, 

* King James Army List,' &c.). I regret, indeed, 
that in the otherwise invaluable "recueil," or 
golden treasure-house of priceless genealogical lore, 
the result of a long life laboriously devoted to 
arduous research, I mean the * Dictionnaire des 
Families de 1'Ancien Poitou,' edited by M. 
Beauchet-Filleau, piously walking on the traces 
of his venerable ancestor M. Filleau of Poitiers, no 
mention whatever is made of the Walshes, as of the 
Keatings, now Orfeuille, another Irish family fixed 
in Poitou, who, however, possessed the important 
" seigneurie " of Chassenon, near Bressuire, within 
the limits of that most historical province. Never- 
theless, the scarlet and black uniform of the 
" Regiment de Walsh," one of the Irish Brigade 
in the service of France, was far from an un- 
familiar sight in the city of Poitiers and the dif- 
ferent Poitevin towns where this brilliant regiment 
often before the Revolution held garrison. Justly 
popular with all classes, its officers, composed of 
the pure elite of our exiled gentry, nobly upheld 
the honour of the old fatherland, equally by 
their dash in the hunting field in the country of 
Jacques du Fouilloux, the celebrated veneur and 
cynegetic writer of the sixteenth century, and their 
chivalrous bearing in the salons and chateaux of 
that truly hospitable region. As elsewhere, history 
has not been oblivious of its exploits on the battle- 
field. See M. Belin de la Liborliere, 'Poitiers 
avant 1789'; O'Callaghan, 'The Irish Brigade in 
the service of France.' 

* Which were, in the dexter quarter of each shield, 
Azure, three lozenges conjoined in fesa or. 

I have now, to the best of my ability, but how 
deficiently I am but too well aware, endeavoured 
to reply to the query of L. W. (7 th S. iii. 168). 
Connected as I am by the most intimate ties 
of family and of long-established tradition with 
that warm, genial, kind-hearted, witty, poetic, 
and brave south-eastern tract of Ireland, it has, 
in the midst of these dry bones of the past, 
been almost a labour of love with me to have 
penned the above. I am persuaded that both in 
the southern provinces of Waterford and of Ossory, 
the original home of the family, object of this 
note or reply, many a forgotten legend, many a 
fast-fading ballad or dim memory may yet be 
disentombed by the industrious searcher, and 
when the " Awen " or inspiriting muse of historic 
research shall have touched with her magic wand 
the soul of so laborious an unraveller of the past, 
facts numerous hitherto unknown hidden away 
and all but buried under the accumulated dust 
of ages shall then be quickened into life and 
finally unveiled to the world. 

A Cuvier of history to the mouldering, almost 
fossilized remnants of the past, in order to recon- 
struct logically, scientifically, and inductively an 
entire epoch, is perhaps wanting. The Brannaghs 
are enshrined in our legends; they form part and 
parcel of our very selves, lovers, quand meme, of a 
glorious past, of which no one need be ashamed. 
We have given them their Gaelic name, as the 
Comerfords and the Powers, the descendants of 
the grand huntsman of Prince John in Ireland, 
and the latter, claiming to be Pohers or Lepoers, 
ungrammatically De la Poers, of the Dukes and 
Kings of Brittany, were called, the first O'Comer- 
thune and the second Pearaigh. The Italo-Norman 
race FitzGerald were MacGarrait, &c. 

If I have extended myself too discursively 
perhaps I have one excuse, this one, namely, 
" sua detur antiquitati venia." 



NEPOS- OR NEPUS- GABLE. In the title-deeds 
of an old property in St. Enoch Square, Glasgow, 
now occupied as an hotel called " His Lordship's 
Larder," reference is made to " the garret room, 
10 feet square, in the middle or nepos of the 
storey." This word is not in the ' Imperial Dic- 
tionary.' In Jamieson I find " Nepus-Gable," but 
with no definition or derivation, only this quota- 
tion : " There being then no ronnes on the house, 
especially where the nepus-gables were towards the 
streets, the rain came gushing in a spout." ' The 
Provost ' (John Gait), p. 201. 

I fancy I know now what is meant by the nepos. 
It seems to be the sort of front gable, if that is 
not a contradiction in terms ; but I cannot con- 
jecture why it is called nepos, or nepus } or nipos, 
as I see it is sometimes spelt, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* a iv. JULY 23, w. 

In Jamieson gavel, which is still commonly used 
by masons and builders in Scotland for gable, is 
defined "the end wall of a house, properly the 
triangular or higher part of it"; and in Parker's 
'Concise Glossary of Architecture,' s.v. "Gable," 
"This term was formerly applied to the entire 
end wall of a building, the top of which conforms 
to the slope of the roof which abuts against it, but 
is now applied only to the upper part of such a 
wall above the level of the eaves." I think it is 
exactly the reverse. Whatever may formerly have 
been the meaning, the word in Scotland, at any 
rate now applies to the whole wall. We con- 
stantly speak of a mutual gable, or a gable being 
mean and common to conterminous proprietors. 

Ruskin uses the word gable as applicable to the 
whole roof in Gothic architecture. See ' Stones 
of Venice,' vol. ii. chap. vi. section Ixxxii. p. 210, 
ed. 1874: 

" Although there may be many advisable or necessary 
forms for the lower roof or ceiling, there is in cold 
countries exposed to rain and snow only one advisable 
form for the roof-mask, and that is the gable, for this 
alone will throw off both rain and enow from all parts of 
its surface as speedily as possible. Snow can lodge on 
the top of a dome, not on the ridge of a gable "; 

and at the end of the same section, " Gothic archi- 
tecture is that which uses the pointed arch for the 
roof proper and the gable for the roof-mask." 

When Dr. Murray gets to the length of G we 
shall no doubt get a correct definition of the word 
gable, but that may be some time yet. 


lyrical, but not very musical, bit of history " in a 
nutshell," culled from a Canadian newspaper, may 
be worth a corner in ' N. & Q.': 
William the First got a bruise from his horse, 
A random shot arrow made Rufus a corse ; 
Henry the Clever, on fish too well fed, 
Stephen of Blois died quietly in bed ; 
Henry the Second of grief broke his heart ; 
Coaur de Lion got killed by a dart; 
John, by the fever and nobody sighed, 
Harry of Winchester naturally died ; 
Edward the First died marching to fight, 
Edward the Second was murdered at night ; 
The warrior Edward passed calmly away, 
Richard, deposed, was starved out of the way ; 
Henry the Fourth died of fits to excess, 
Henry the Fifth in the noon of success; 
Henry the Sixth died of grief in the Tower, 
'Twas lust brought Edward the Fourth hia last hour ; 
Edward the Fifth, in the Tower, too, was killed 
By Richard the Third slain at Bosworth Field ; 
Henry the Seventh owes death to the gout, 
Disorders untold put his namesake to rout: 
Edward the Sixth died a natural death, 
Mary, in quietness, exhaled her last breath ; 
Queen Bess closed in anguish an ill-spent reign, 
Scotch James the First passed away without pain 
The First King Charles died under the knife, 
Charles, his son, passed off without strife ; 
His second son, James, died exiled from his throne 
William the Third broke his right collar bone ; 

Queen Anne very suddenly went to her doom, 
Apoplectical fits sent King George to the tomb ; 
King George the Second turned out in a rage, 
His long-reigned successor slipped off in old age ; 
The Fourth King George, and William, his brother, 
With an osseous heart left this life for another ; 
Victoria reigns so good and so wise, 
And she '11 be greatly missed whenever she dies. 


AND PALLAS ATHENE. Dr. G. G. Zerffi, in part ii. 
of his book, ' Studies on the Science of General 
History' (London, Hirschfeld Brothers, 1887), now 
publishing, writes at p. 90: " Durga, like Pallas, 
takes her name from vibrating a lance. Durga is 
the Indian representative of heroic valour united 
with wisdom." In reply to my inquiry as to the 
occult meaning of the passage, Dr. Zerffi has en- 
lightened my ignorance by writing as follows : 

" Please take up a Greek dictionary, and you will see 
that -jraXXo, 7ra\Ae<r0ai, 7ra\\iv, from which Pallas 
the proper name is derived, means to brandish, to sway, 
to quiver, to shake. That is quite clear. The Sanskrit 
word Durga has the same meaning, to shake, to vibrate. 
Pallas Athene means literally, the Shaking Goddess of 
Athens, and as she was represented scarcely ever without 
a spear, whether anybody called her the Shaking God- 
dess has nothing to do with the fact that her name was 
derived from * shaking,' and as she was represented with 
a spear, anybody might have called her allegorically 
' The Shake-speare Goddess.' " 

This sentence seems to me suggestive, and may 

interest some of your readers as bearing upon 

Thomas Fuller's appropriation of the name "Hasta- 

vibrans "* to the author of the Shake-speare plays. 


IA, Blomfield Place, W. 

MICHAEL RICHARDS. In a copy of the ' Em- 
man velis Alvari e Societate Jesu Prosodia,' Ant- 
werp, 1680, on the cover is written : 
If I do chance to loose this book, 
Here is my name if you do look ; 
But if y are accustom'd to lye, 
And still my book from me denye, 
Y are mistaken, my sweet freind; 
It was not bought to such an end 
Yt such a silly fool as thee 
The owner of this book should bee. 


Michael Eichards must have been on July 12 
1687, a pupil in some Jesuits' college. Did he 
not afterwards become known as a member of the 
Society? KALPH N. JAMES. 

423 ; ix. 117.) On Surrey Chapel, Blackfriars, 
being taken by a firm of agricultural implement 
makers for their show-room, the remains of the 
Rev. Rowland Hill (interred beneath the pulpit, 
in accordance with his wish) were removed to 

* The word is written by Fuller and always quoted as 
Haste- vibrans." 

7s.iv.j<jLi23,w.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Christ Church, Westminter Bridge Eoad, on the 
morning of April 14, 1881. DANIEL HIPWBLL. 
34, Myddelton Square, W.C. 

PARALLEL. I copy the following from Chodzko's 
* Popular Poetry of Persia,' p. 484 : 

"I went upon the mountain top to tend my flock. 
Seeing there a girl, I said, ' Lass, give me a kiss.' She 
said, ' Lad, give me some money.' I said, ' The money 
is in the purse, the purse in the wallet, the wallet on 
the camel, and the camel in Kerman.' She said, ' You 
wish for a kiss, but the kiss lies behind my teeth, my 
teeth are locked up, the key is with my mother, and my 
mother, like your camel, is in Kerman." 


Tehran, Persia. 

A SILLY SUPERSTITION. The annexed is from 
the Daily Telegraph of July 7. Can such things 
be in this age of School Boards and in this year of 

"A farm labourer named Thos. Ryder, residing at 
Cornwood, a village in Devonshire, was sharpening his 
scythe on Tuesday, when he cut his wrist, and severed 
two of the arteries. His friends, instead of securing 
medical assistance, sent for a man and his wife who 
have a local reputation as ' charmers,' and these people 
endeavoured to stop the flow of blood by the ceremony 
of ' charming.' Ryder, seeing how fruitless these efforts 
were, begged to be taken to the hospital at Plymouth, 
some eight miles off, and was removed in a trap for that 
purpose ; but he lost so much blood on the road that it 
was deemed advisable to convey him to the workhouse 
at Plympton, about midway between Cornwood and 
Plymouth, and here the poor fellow died shortly after 
his admission." 

N. S. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

CALABER. Is this fur, so famous in England in 
earlier centuries, still so called in the trade ? It is 
described by authors as that of the Siberian 
squirrel. Is anything known as to the source of 
the name, which suggests Calabria. 


The Scriptorium, Oxford. 

your readers give me any information about this 
society, its members, its objects, or its place of 
meeting, &c. ? I can discover nothing about it, 
except that it existed about the middle of last 
century, and possessed an elaborate coat of arms. 
A china tea-service, of which a specimen is now 
before me, has this coat of arms painted upon it : 
Arms, on a field gules St. George ppr. slaying a 
tortoise azure charged with three fleurs de lys or. 
Crest, between six flags of St. George ppr. the 
figure of Britannia holding in the dexter hand an 

olive branch ppr. Supporters, on the dexter side 
a lion rampant gardant with man's face (?) or. On 
the sinister side a double-headed eagle, with wings 
displayed argent. Motto, " For our country." 

A. H. H. M. 

CHAMOUNI. I shall be much obliged to any of 
your readers who can indicate to me poems or 
prose descriptions of Mont Blanc and the Valley 
of Chamounix by eminent authors other than the 
following, which I already possess : 

1. Lines by Byron in ' Childe Harold ' and ' Manfred. 1 

2. Lamartine's poem on Mont Blanc. 

3. Coleridge's ' Hymn before Sunrise in the Valley of 

4. The same poem translated into German by Pfizer. 

5. Shelley's poem on Mont Blanc. 

6. Ruskin's poem on Mont Blanc. 

7. Wordsworth's ' Processions suggested on a Sabbath 
Morning in the Vale of Chamouny.' 

8. Italian verse translation of Shelley's poem on 

9. Observations on Ctyamonix by Ruskin in ' Prse- 
terita ' and in Byron's ' Life.' 

I shall be glad to know of poems on Mont 
Blanc and Chamounix in any language. S. 

Travellers' Club. 

THE ROYAL STUARTS. Can any of your readers 
inform me whether the royal Stuarts were de- 
scended from Charlemagne, and how ? 


FOLK-LORE. Will readers of 'N. & Q.' who 
have become acquainted with scraps of folk-lore 
and legends relating to Lincolnshire be good 
enough to send me some account of the stories 
they have heard ? MABEL PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg, Lincolnshire. 

* CARA MIA/ a poem, appeared some years ago 
in the Argosy. I shall be much obliged to any 
one informing me who was the author of it. 


" (Communicated by a Gentleman in Paris to his Friend 
in Dublin.) I never see any of the French ladies dressed 
in riding-habits, which they call here, with reason, 
habillee en Amazone. Some time ago, the French ladies, 
as I am informed, made some attempts to introduce this 
English fashion, but the experiment did not succeed ; 
and yet there is no European dress which displays the 
shape of a fine woman to more advantage. The French 
ladies seldom go on horseback, and when they do, they 
generally ride like the men ; but though this method ia 
certainly more safe, convenient, and natural, it does not 
appear so agreeable to the modesty of the fair sex, as to 
sit on a side saddle." The Hibernia Magazine. Novem- 
ber, 1810. 

How attired were these French ladies who, within 
the memory of people still living, rode like the 
men ; and did they thus appear upon the streets 
of Paris? C. DE Bosco. 

JOHN LAMB. In the year 1810 Charles Lamb 
mentions that his brother John had just produced 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. JULY 23, w. 

a book "about * Humanity,'" published by one Wil- 
son. Is anything further known about this work ? 
If a copy is known to exist, I should be grateful 
to the possessor for permission to inspect it. 


Edward (or Edmund) Francis Cunningham is said 
to have been born of good family about 1742, at 
Kelso. In 1745 his father fled from Scotland to 
Italy. Cunningham became an artist, and adopted 
the surname of " Calze," doubtless from Kelso, his 
native place. He had some success as a portrait- 

rter at Berlin and elsewhere, and died in Lon- 
in 1795. Can any one help me to discover 
who his parents were, and to what family they 
belonged ? LIONEL CUST, F.S.A. 

British Museum. 

MENT. He was elected for Berwick-upon-Tweed 
in the Short Parliament of April, 1640, and for 
Plympton, November 20, 1640 (vice Slanning, 
who preferred Penryn). After the Restoration he 
sat for Cockermouth in 1661 till his decease in 
1662. How long was he a member of the Long 
Parliament ; and what side did he take in the Civil 
War ? He is invariably described as a Koyalist, 
and said as such to have sat in the " Mongrel Par- 
liament " at Oxford. But the list of that assem- 
bly does not contain his name. If ever he joined 
the king he must have returned to Westminster, 
inasmuch as he was certainly there in 1648, and 
is included by Prynne among the "secluded" 
members of that year. On the other hand, the 
valuable list of 'Parliamentary Champions' printed 
by Francis Leach in July, 1646, does not include 
him among the members then sitting at West- 
minster. The inference would seem to be that he 
was changeable in his political tendencies. I shall 
be glad of proof of his Koyalism or of any informa- 
tion respecting him or his family 

Leigh. W ' D ' * 

--Writing to me in March, 1884, the late Mr. 
K. K. btodart, Lyon Clerk Depute, refers to "a 
list I have been long preparing of all works on 
local and family history, biography, &c., relating 
to Scotland." Is there any probability of this 
work being published ? P. J. ANDERSON. 


SEBASTIAN CABOT. Was this great discoverer 
born in Venice or Bristol ? When getting materials 
together for the < Lives of the Celebrities of Glou- 
cestershire I certainly, so far as I could ascertain, 
imagmed himto have been born at the latter city 
but Mr W. Hunt, in his recently published work 

Bristol, seems to throw some doubt on the 
matter. Cabot, it also appears, said on one occa- 

sion that Venice was his birthplace, but afterwards 
fixed on Bristol. It would, I think, if possible, be 
interesting to discover which city is the proud pos- 
sessor. There are not in this case (as with Homer) 
seven competitors in the field. Were registrations 
of births, &c., kept so early as 1472 at Venice 1 

Ludovick Muggleton was buried in the church- 
yard there, I see by Brayley's ' London,' iii. 339. 
What churchyard would that be? In Boyle's 
* View,' 1799, this alley is not named. Both alley 
and churchyard have, I presume, disappeared now. 

C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

been pretty conclusively proved that the adoption 
of the dagger in the first quarter of the arms of 
this corporation is not attributable to the boldly 
successful action of Sir William Walworth was, 
in fact, adopted by the Common Council some few 
months previously. But I am ignorant whether 
the following description of the earlier and, per- 
haps, original arms is familiar to many. The in- 
sinuation that to Stow we are indebted for the 
popular version of the story may be taken cum 
grano, since it was written by a contemporary and, 
probably, not too friendly hand. The extract is 
from Harl. MS. 1349, Plut. iv. H. It would be 
interesting to know if " our Ladye Church " has 
preserved this, perhaps, only specimen of the 
original design : 

" The ancient arms of London, as they stand in our 
Ladye Church at Antwerp, in which church-window 
stand the effigies of King Edward III. and all his chil- 
dren, with most of the arms of the corporate towns of 
England at that time, and this standeth first, and hath 
an old Roman L in the first quarter. Which John Stowe 
took, in an old scale which he had seen, for a sword, 
affirming thereby that it was the sword of St. Paul, 
Patron of the said City." 

Is anything known of this window; or is the whole 
an invention of a libellous contemporary ? 

3, Heathfield Road. Acton, W. 

I remember to have seen and used as a boy 
a small 12mo elementary school-book of this 
kind. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' help me to 
its title and to the name of its author ? There 
seems to be no such work in existence now 1 ? 
Can no " enterprising" publisher bring one out? 
I think that it would be found to "supply a want." 

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

GREAT BRITAIN. Some thirty odd years ago this 
society was established, and I have just come across 
the prospectuses well as the report for the year 1854. 

7* S. IV. JULY 23, '87,] 



The address was 18, Charles Street, St. James's. I 
dare say I should have heard of it if it still existed 
The prospectus was admirable, and the society 
deserved support. I should be glad to hear abou 
it, and the valuable collections it made. 

Y. S. M. 

AND THE LITTLE MAID.' Is it known who illus- 
trated (in the style of Rowlandson) this child's 
book, published by Tabart & Co., of New Bond 
Street, in 1808? Where can a list of Tabart's 
publications be found ? J. E. BURNETT. 

'INGOLDSBY LEGENDS.' In * Barney Maguire's 
Account of the Coronation ' ('Ingoldsby Legends'] 
there is the following expression : 

The Prince of Potboys, and great haythen Jews. 
I should be very glad to receive some explanation 
of the allusion. W. G. 

any one tell me where Sir Christopher Wren's plans 
and models for St. Paul's Cathedral were shown to 
Charles II. ? Was it at Whitehall ; and, if so, 
who was present on these occasions ? Any other 
particulars would be gratefully received by 

Dartmouth Park Road, Highgate. 

SIR CHARLES FLOWER. Who was he ? Refer- 
ences to biographical notices will oblige. He 
flourished about the commencement of the cen- 
tury. E. T. EVANS. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

^NAPOLEON LITERATURE. I have lately met 
with a curious book, concerning which I should 
be glad to receive some information, particularly 
as to authorship. Its title is " Napoleon in the 
other World. A Narrative written by Himself : 
and found near his Tomb in the Island of St. 
Helena. By Xongo-tee-foh-tchi, Mandarin of the 
Third Class. London, Henry Colburn, 1827." I 
refrain from commenting on the work, as I have 
no doubt many of your readers are well acquainted 
with it ; but in the interests of bibliography I am 
anxious to obtain the name of the writer. 


be glad of any biographical particulars of this 
gentleman, who was the author of a learned and ex- 
cellent ' History of Spain and Portugal,' and other 
works published in Lardner's "Cabinet Cyclo- 
paedia." His death, on July 17, 1858, is recorded 
in the Athenceum, where it is stated that "there 
was always a mystery about this unfortunate 
gentleman." " Dr. Southey spoke [where ?] of 
his knowledge as marvellous." Dr. C. K. Adams, 
in his * Manual of Historical Literature,' 1882, says 

that " the author enjoyed the advantage of a long 
and intimate acquaintance with Spain." Where 
can I find information about Dr. Dunham's 
parentage, birthplace and date, and his career? 
There is nothing in the Times beyond an an- 
nouncement that he died suddenly of paralysis. 
Even the place of death is omitted. 


LE FEVRE. I would feel much obliged if any 
correspondent could inform me of the original or 
correct way of spelling the names variously written 
Le Feuvre, Lefevre, Le Fevre, Lefebvre, Lefebure, 
&c. I find in the parish books it is spelt several 
ways. We now spell it Le Fevre. Is there any 
crest attached to the name of Le Fevre ? There is 
to Lefevre, I know. FABER. 

NUMISMATIC. " Ecclesia perversa faciem habet 
diaboli." The above legend I am positive I have 
read on some medal. What was the piece ; and 
when and where stamped ? JAMES D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 


(7 th S. iii. 516.) 

Eeplying to J. M. G., I am sorry that I cannot 
refer him to any published account of such 
periodicals as have been conducted by the students 
of the Scotch universities. I happen to have 
by me, however, a few notes on the sub- 
ject, which may serve his purpose and may 
have some general interest. Except so far as 
they relate to my own Alma Mater, these notes 
do not approach completeness, and I shall be grate- 
ful for additions to or corrections of my list from 
any correspondent who has been more intimately 
connected with St. Andrews, Glasgow, or Edin- 

University of St. Andrews (1411). 

1825-26. The St. Andrews University Magazine. 
Bight numbers, December 3 to March 18. 

1863-64. The St. Andrews University Magazine. 
Twelve numbers, February to January. 

186 (?). The St. Andrews University Magazine. 

186 (?). The Comet. ? numbers. 

1879. Kate Kennedy's Annual. 1 in former years also. 

1886. The University News Sheet. Fourteen numbers, 
January 8 to April 7. 

University of Glasgow (1450). 
1826. The Academic. 
1828. The Alma Mater. 
1830. The Athenaeum. 

1830. The College (or University) Album. Thia also 
appeared in the following years : 1832, 1834, 1836, 1838, 
840, 1843, 1845, 1847, 1851, 1854, 1859, 1869, 1874. 
in other years. 

1834. The University Souvenir. 
1837. Proceedings of the Peel Club. 
1840. Peel Club Papers. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. JULY 23, >87. 

1863. The College Miscellany. ? numbers. Nos. 6 
and 7 are dated April 10 and 17. 

1878. The Glasgow University Magazine. Four num- 
bers, January to April. 

1882-83. The Glasgow University Magazine. Three 
numbers, November to January. 

1884. The Glasgow University Review. Four numbers, 
March to December. 

Universities of Aberdeen (1494 and 1593). 

1831. The Aberdeen Lancet. Three numbers, April, 
June, November. 

1834-35. The Aberdeen Medical Magazine. Five 
numbers, December to April. 

1836. The Aberdeen University Magazine. Sixteen 
numbers, January 13 to August 24. With title-page. 

1838. The Aberdeen Universities Magazine. One num- 
ber, November. 

1846-47. The King's College Miscellany. Eight num- 
bers, December 12 to March 20. 

1849-50. The Aberdeen Universities Magazine. Five 
numbers, December to April. With title-page. 

1854. The A berdeen University Magazine. Four num- 
bers, April to July. 

1854-55. The Aberdeen Magazine (largely academic). 
Four numbers, October to January. 

1857-58. The Student. Ten numbers, November 14 to 
March 20. With title-page. 

1872. The Medical Students' Shaver. One number, 

1872-73. The Aberdeen Medical Student. Twenty 
numbers, November 6 to August 1. With a "Rectorial 
Edition " of December 4. 

1873-74. The Aberdeen University Gazette. Nine 
numbers, November 28 to March 20. With a " Rectorial 
Edition " of 1875. 

1877. The Academic. Seven numbers, January 12 to 
February 23. 

1877-78. The Academic, new series. Eight numbers 
December 7 to February 8. With title-page. 

1883-84. Alma Mater. Thirteen numbers and extra 
New Year number, November 28 to March 5. With 

1884-85. Alma Mater, vol. ii. Fifteen numbers 
November 12 to April 3. 

1885-86. Alma Mater, vol. iii. Sixteen numbers, 
November 11 to April 2. With title-page for vola. ii. 
and iii. 

1886-87. A Ima Mater, vol. iv.* Fourteen numbers, 
November 17 to March 2. 

University of Edinburgh (1582). 
B& The Edinburgh University Journal and Critical 
Review. Twelve numbers, January 1 to I 

1824. Lapsus Lingua; or, the College Taller. Thirty- 
eight bi-weekly numbers, January 7 to April 2. 

531. The Edinburgh University Magazine. Four 
numbers, January to April. 

832. Nimmo; or, Alma's Tawse. 1 numbers. 


Ante Nemo. Two numbers, November 30 and 
Uecember o. 

w U e ty John the Giant Killer. ? numbers. 
1834. The University Journal. ? numbers No. 1 in 

1834-35. The University Medical and Quizzical Jour- 
nal, .' numbers. 

' th 

* It will be seen that Alma 3/ater.has already at- 
deml re ma % age - than an * other Scotch aca- 
aTf h ? g : n ? re ' 6Very rea80n to ex P ect tfa at 
a fifth volume will beg.n when next winter session opens. 

See the University Maga for February 19, 1835. 

1835. The University Maga. Twelve numbers. 
January 8 to March 26. 

1835. "Two rivals of Maga, not lasting to end of 
winter session.":}: 

1835. The Edinburgh University Souvenir. An " an- 

1837-38. The University Maga, vol. ii. ? numbers. 
No. 4 on January 12. 

1838. The University Snowdrop. 

1839. The Edinburgh University Magazine. 1 num- 
bers ; at least three. 

1840. The Edinburgh Academic Annual. 
1841-70. ? 

1871. The Edinburgh University Magazine. Four 
numbers, January to April. 

1881-82. The Edinburgh University Quarterly. Three 
numbers, January and May, 1881, and December, 1882. 

1887. College Echoes : a Students' Journal. Three 
numbers, not dated. 


2, East Craibstone Street, Aberdeen. 

An article appeared on Aberdeen University 
magazines in Alma Mattr, Aberdeen University 
Magazine, No. 14, vol. ii., Wednesday, February 
25, 1885, and another in the same periodical, 
No. 13, vol. iii., Wednesday, February 23, 1887. 
More will appear by-and-by in Scottish Notes and 
Queries in 'A Bibliography of Aberdeen Periodical 
Literature,' by me. J. MALCOLM BDLLOCH. 


445; iii. 161, 277,315,411; iv. 18). I ought to have 
foreseen that it would be wasting words to reply 
to a writer who maintains the paradox that the 
fundamental principle of modern philology is only 
"a scientific craze," "one of the most gigantic 
popular delusions that human ingenuity ever 
expended itself fruitlessly upon." 

MR. HALL'S qualifications for the task of com- 
bating, single-handed, a conclusion which has 
been accepted, as PROF. SKEAT says, by every 
advanced philologist, can easily be tested. He 
imagines that the Baikal, to which I referred as 
the extreme eastern limit of the region in which 
the Aryan race may possibly have originated, is 
not, as geographers have hitherto supposed, an 
inland sea, but a tribe of "migratory nomads." 
The blunder is as amusing as that of the Tyrolese 
tourist who thought that the Dolomites were a sect 
of Syrian heretics. Not content with having turned 
the great lake of Central Asia into " the Scythians 
of Herodotus," MR. HALL informs us that their 
language was "an agglutinative or monosyllabic 
form of speech." MR. HALL has misplaced the 
Scythians of Herodotus by a trifle of about two 
thousand miles, and is also ignorant of the fact 
that the language of these Scythians has been 
shown by Jacob Grimm to belong to the Indo- 
European family. 

It would require too much space to examine in 
detail MR. HALL'S numerous delusions. I will 

See ' Memoir of Edward Forbes, F.R.S.,' p. 191, note. 




therefore refrain from dissecting his lucid state- 
ment that the aborigines of the Baltic is an ethno- 
logical locality, or the still more remarkable dis- 
covery that a primitive German prefix is " taken 
directly " from a Latin verb. 

I would recommend MR. HALL, before he writes 
again, to study a few of the standard works on the 
subject, such as Pictet's 'Origines Indo-Euro- 
pe"ennes/ Penka's ' Herkunft der Arier ' and his 
* Origines Ariacae,' Spiegel's * Arische Periode,' 
Fick's 'Ehemalige Spracheinheit der Indo-Ger- 
manen Europas,' as well as the immortal works of 
Bopp and Jacob Grimm. When he has mastered 
these books it will be possible profitably to discuss 
the subject with him, though I suspect that he will 
then find that there is nothing to discuss. 


SIEGE OF BOLTON (7 th S. iv. 8). Your corre- 
spondent should consult Dr. Ormerod's 'Memo- 
rials of the Civil War in Lancashire,' issued by 
the Chetham Society. Horridge is still the local 
pronunciation of Horwich, near Bolton. 


CAPE CHARLOTTE (7 th S. iii. 309, 480). I must 
confess that when I read MR. MARSHALL'S reply 
to my query at the first of these references, it 
seemed to me to substitute one difficulty for 
another ; for if the queen's birthday was kept 
as a movable feast with a range over several 
months, how could Capt. Cook, who, in 1775, 
was returning from a long cruise in the 
South Pacific, know that it would be observed 
that year in England on January 18, when he dis- 
covered Cape Charlotte in New Georgia ? But on 
consulting different volumes of the Annual Re- 
gister I find that it had been usual for several 
years to keep the queen's birthday on that day. 
Under that date for 1763 we read that it " was 
celebrated at court as her majesty's birthday, in 
order to give people in trade the better opportu- 
nity of benefiting by the great expense usual on 
these occasions." In 1765 it is stated that 
January 18 " was observed as usual as her 
majesty's birthday, for the encouragement of 
trade." Similar notes of its observance on that 
day occur in 1771 and 1772, the latter of which 
Cook would doubtless remember, as he did not 
set sail from England on his second voyage until 
June 13 in that year. 

The king's birthday was, I believe, always kept 
during the reign of George III. on the right day, 
June 4. But it may interest some of your readers 
to remind them that the actual day of his birth, 
as announced when it took place in 1738, was 
stated to be May 24, which is the birthday of our 
present gracious sovereign, and has been the real 
royal birthday during the last fifty years. The 
change of style in England in 1752, advanc- 
ing the count of time by eleven days, caused 

May 24 to become June 4 the year after George 
was made Prince of Wales on his father's death. 

The lapsus plumce or misprint (whichever it was) 
in my query, in giving 1774 instead of 1744 as the 
year of the birth of Queen Charlotte, was marked 
by me as a corrigendum in the next number of 
1 N. & Q.' (p. 340). 

It is to be hoped that Dr. Egli is a reader of 
'N. & Q.,' and will see the reason why Capt. Cook 
associated January 18 with Queen Charlotte, 
although her real birthday was, as he rightly re- 
marks in his ' Etymologisch-geographisches Lexi- 
kon,' May 19. W. T. LYNN. 


DUBORDIEU FAMILY (6 th S. iii. 336 ; 7 th S. iii. 
329, 458). In Smiles's ' Huguenots in England 
and Ireland 'references to this family will be found 
at pp. 310-12, also notes to pp. 312, 317-18, and 
365.* The two following references to descendants 
of Pastor Du Bourdieu are interesting : 

" A great-grandson of Du Bourdieu, Capt. Saumarez 
Dubourdieu, was an officer in the British Army at the 
capture of Martinique from the French in 1762, and 
received the sword of the French commandant, who said 
on presenting it, ' My misfortune is the lighter, as I am 
conquered by a Dubourdieu, a beloved relative. My name 
is Dubourdieu ! ' " Note, p. 312. 
From this it may be inferred that a branch of the 
family flourished in France after the Revocation. 
The second story is as follows : 

" The Rev. Saumarez Dubourdieu, grandson of the 
celebrated French pastor of the Savoy Church in London, 
was minister of the French church at Lisburn for forty- 
five years, and was so beloved in the neighbourhood that 
at the insurrection of 1798 he was the only person in 
Fjisburn whom the insurgents agreed to spare. The 
French congregation having become greatly decreased, 
by deaths as well as intermarriages with Irish families, 
the chapel was at length closed it is now used as the 
court-house of Lisburnf and the pastor Dubourdieu 
having joined the Established Church, he was presented 
with the living of Lambeg. His son, rector of Annahelt, 
county Down, was the author of 'A Statistical Survey of 
the County Antrim,' published in 1812." J Note, p. 365. 

NAME OF KUSKIN (6 th S. xii. 145, 191, 438). 
That the two syllables in this name should be 
divided thus, Rusk-in rather than Ru-skin, is 
pretty certain, for various reasons, otherwise Ruskin 

* The above pagination is that of the first edition, 
published by Murray, London, 1867. 

f This was written in, or before, 1867. For the benefit 
of future readers of ' N. & Q.' I would like to know if 
any correspondent can answer the following queries : 
(1) Is this building still in existence 1 If not, when was 
it removed, and what occupies its site at present 1 (2) If 
in existence, is it still used as the court-house ? If not, 
when did it cease to be so, and for what purpose is it now 
used ? 

J The name of the celebrated Savoy pastor should bo 
Jean Armand du Bourdieu, not Dubordieu as JAPHET 
writes it. The second u is also retained in the names of 
the various members of the I'amily mentioned by Smilea. 



[7> S. IV. JULY 23, '87. 

might have meant "red-skin" or "rough-skin." 
The place-name Ruskington, in Lincolnshire, so 
called from the Kuscingas or Hryscingas according 
to Kemble (' Saxons in England/ i. 471-2), settles 
the matter. The personal name Euschil or Eoschil 
(Rosketyl) occurs in Domesday Book. The surname 
of Ruskin is very seldom met with. One William 
Ruskyn or Roskyn, of Melton Mowbray, married 
Eleanor, sister and coheir of John Beler, Esq., of 
Kirkby, who died, s.p., 1475, and a share of the 
estates of that family fell to her son, Jasper Ruskyn, 
Esq. He died April 10, 1485, and a copy of the 
inscription on his tomb in Melton Mowbray 
Church 1583 may be found in Harl. MS. 2017, 
p. 84, and Nichols's ' Leicestershire ' (ii. p. 262**). 
Jasper left four daughters, one of whom, Margaret, 
married Richard Lacy, of Halifax, and had issue. 
Jasper, however, might have had younger brothers 
who left descendants. These Ruskyns bore, Sable, 
a chevron between three spear-heads argent. One 
William Ruskyn had a rent-charge of 18s. per 
annum on some lands in Howdenshire, part of the 
endowment of the chantry of Laxton in that dis- 
trict 1535 (< Valor. Eccl.,' v. 138). 


James Hannay's suggestion that Ruskin is a cor- 
ruption of the family name Erskine (found Ariskine 
and Areskin) is the most probable. Erskine is the 
appellation of a parish, co. Renfrew, which is said 
to have had its name from the castle on the margin 
of the Clyde. Rev. R. W. Stewart (' Statistical 
Account of Scotland ') seems to think the castle 
may have been named from the surname, from 
"Eris-skyne, on the knife," which he supports by 
an anecdote. As a place-name Erskine, ancient 
Irekyn, might translate " upon the fair or white 
water." R. s. CHARNOCK. 

TON (7"> S. iii. 189, 274, 357, 456). For an account 
of this curious old Derbyshire custom, locally known 
as tap-dressing, your readers may be glad to be re- 
ferred to an article in Once a Week, vol. iii. p. 188. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

BLAZER (7 th S. iii. 408, 436). PROF. SKEAT may 
like to be reminded that the " Johnian blazer " is 
not the first of the family. It has a collateral 
ancestor in "Blazes," the familiar appellative for 
footmen arrayed in breeches of scarlet or crimson 
plush, when such breeches were. So Sam Weller 
addressed Mr. Tuckle at the " swarry." I have 
no evidence, but I have a strong impression that 
the title was earlier than Dickens, not invented 
by him. I should think that other examples of it 
maybe found in the light literature of half a century 
back, but if- has missed a place in the ' New Dic- 
tionai 7-' C. B. MOUNT. 

LEASE OF 999 YEARS (7 th S. iii. 450). Pro- 
bably the information could be obtained at the 
office of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for Eng- 
land, or from their solicitors. E. T. EVANS. 

That leases for this period may have been granted 
for trust purposes is very likely; but that such 
leases ever " fell in " to the Church of England or 
to any one else, as affirmed by your correspondent 
to be alleged by the American press, is not so 
evident, when we consider that neither leases nor 
the Church of England existed 999 years ago. 

J. S. UDAL. 

Symondsbusy, Bridport. 

"GALE'S RENT" (7 th S.iii. 429). This question 
has already been asked in ' N. & Q.' See 6 th S. 
ii. 489 ; iii. 174. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

KEYS TO NOVELS (7 th S. iii. 451). N. S. will 
find many hints scattered throughout Lockhart's 
' Life of Scott ' as to whose portraits were utilized 
for the principal characters of the famous " Waver- 
ley Novels." ROBERT F. GARDINER. 

FEMALE HERESIARCHS (7 th S. iii. 308, 412, 
521). It would be interesting to know who really 
founded Shakerism, if, as MR. MARSHALL tells us, 
Ann Lee did not. The communities all now seem 
to regard her not only as general Mother, but the 
object of a " hyperdulia " more meriting to be 
called " latria" than any the Deipara receives from 
other churches. " Saviour Christ" and " Mother 
Ann Christ" are coupled as co-equal. Whether 
the Trinity has been made a Quaternity " (as the 
Jew Salvador seriously advises Christians to do), 
I cannot find evidence. This query was only sent 
since Mrs. Girling's death was understood to have 
broken up her sect, and the Southcottians were 
believed extinct ; and as Lady Huntingdon's 
churches never claimed any doctrinal peculiarity 
(nor, indeed, could Methodism as a whole be more 
called a sect than any Roman monastic order), it 
does not yet appear that any female (if not Ann 
Lee) ever founded a growing sect. E. L. G. 

If ESTE possesses the pamphlet on Joanna 
Southcott which he mentions, would he kindly 
allow me to borrow it for a short time ? It shall 
be carefully read and returned at once. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

The Cottage, Fulbourn, Cambridge. 

162, 476; iii. 58, 114, 193). The reference of 
R. H. H. to Cornet Blackburn I cannot find in 
Carlyle's 'Cromwell.' Will he kindly make it 
more definite ? Elizabeth Canning also, however 
" notorious " in the view of J. J. S., is to me a 
great unknown. What was her crime ? I have 
searched in vain for any notice concerning her in 
our histories of the town of Wethersfield. MAJOR 
NASH deserves, and has, my thanks for his refer- 

7 S. IV. JULY 23, '87.] 



ence to the emigrant lists drawn up by J. 0. 

Hotten. That work, however, I find to show 

only political rebels, who are often reckoned 

martyrs, without the mention of a single man 

as guilty of a moral offence. There must be 

records of another character. Where are they ? 


Madison, Wis., U.S. 

' THE GOLDEN LEGEND ' (7 th S. iii. 476). The 
Pope who excommunicated the forgers of false 
miracles and the inventors of visions and pro- 
hibited their use by preachers was Leo X., in 
the eleventh session of the Lateran Council of 
1516 (Hard., 'Cone.,' t. ix. col. 1806, sq.). Mel- 
chior Canus, A.D. 1523-1560, made bishop of the 
Canary Islands in 1552, and one of those who 
were summoned to the Council of Trent by Paul 
III., writes of the ' Legenda Aurea ' to this effect : 

" In illo enim libro miraculorum monstra saepius 
quam vera miracula legas : hanc homo scripsit ferrei 
oris, plumbei cordis, animi certe parum seven et pru- 
dentis." Loci Theol.,' 1. xi. c. vi. p. 540, Col. Agr., 

For references to these authorities, with further 
treatment of the subject, see Jer. Taylor, 'Liberty 
of Prophecying/ sec. xi. 6, vol. v. pp. 507, 8, 

I am not aware of the passage in Dr. Milner's 
writings to which ANON, refers ; but in his * His- 
torical and Critical Inquiry into the Existence and 
Character of St. George,' London, 1792, pp. 23, 24, 
there is this in the text, referring to the " famous 
author of the ' Golden Legend/ who died in 

" It is true this legend being once set on was soon 
adopted by other writers of equal judgment, and of the 
same turn of mind as Voragine." 

While in the note there is a reference to Baronius, 
who writes : 

"In nullis enim, quae recensuimus, S. Georgii actis 
antiquis quicquam ejusmodi legitur, sed a Jacobo de 
Voragine, abaque aiiqua majorum auctoritate ea ad 
historiam referuntur. " Baronius, 'Mart. Rom.,' ad 
April. 23, p. 156, Par., 1607. 


Is this the passage to which ANON, refers? 
It occurs in letter xxiv. of the ' End of Religious 

" I agree with him and you in rejecting the ' Legenda 
Aurea ' of Jacobus de Voragine, the ' Speculum ' of 
Vicentius Belluacensis, the 'Saints' Lives' of the 
Patrician Metaphrastes, and scores of similar legends." 
In a foot-note : 

" Pope Gelasius in the fifth century condemned 
several apocryphal Gospels, as also several false legends 
of Saints, and among the latter the common ones of St. 


CROWNATION (7 th S. iii. 516). It is not clear 
whether Macaulay was referring to the spelling 

crownation, or only to the solecism of writing I 
for me. It cannot be correct to say that crownation 
is " formed according to the analogy of starvation" 
for starvation is a late-formed hybrid word; if not 
actually the coinage of Dundas himself, yet at any 
rate new to English ears in his day ; while Queen 
Mary's crownation is much older, and merely a 
slightly modified Latin word. There seems no 
reason why crownation should not have existed 
alongside of coronation or coronacion in very early 
days. The ' Peterborough Chronicle ' has coronan 
in A.D. 1111; the ' Ormulum ' has the contracted 
form crune ; Henry III., in his English proclama- 
tion, has "of ure cruninge" in 1258; the 'Promp- 
torium Parvulorum' has corowne and crowne, 
corownere and crownere, coronacyon and corown- 
ynge. So we have coronet and crownet; and Min- 
sheu later calls the Lord Chief Justice both coroner 
and crowner. In fact, the double forms long existed 
side by side. In somewhat like manner Chaucer 
has salvation and the 'Ancren Riwle' sauuation; 
and a form savation is mentioned by Prof. Earle. 
Halliwell, in his ' Dictionary,' quotes crownation , 
and it probably died away with crowner, crownet, 
as less refined than the more correct-looking Latin 
spelling. It still exists in provincial dialects, as in 
Sussex, and Mr. Peacock quotes an instance from 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Church accounts, A.D. 1638, in 
his ' Glossary of Words used in Manley and Cor- 
ringham' (Dialect Society). 0. W. TANCOCK. 

MAYPOLE CUSTOM (7 th S. iii. 345, 462). The 
use of holly in dressing the maypole recalls to my 
mind another use of the evergreen which may be 
worth noting. Up to the year 1854 the admission 
to the freelege of this borough was, among other 
things, by " going through the well," a pond about 
a hundred feet long by fifteen or sixteen wide, and 
three to five deep. On the day, April 25, a pole, 
surmounted with a large holly bush, was planted 
in front of the dwelling of each candidate. They 
were literally such, for on arriving at the well, 
about four miles off, they stripped and dressed in 
white, with caps ornamented with silk ribbons, 
for the muddy plunge. Forty- six years ago I 
underwent the ordeal. The reforming spirit of the 
age put an end to it at the time named above ; but 
it was the source of much innocent mirth. 



FEMALE POETS (7 th S. iii. 362, 502). Your 
correspondent A. H. asks for particulars concern- 
ing Dame Joanne Kauley. I can furnish him with 
a few notes concerning a lady of this name, living 
at the time in question, and very likely identical 
with the poetess. A charter of John de Mowbray, 
dated at Melton Mowbray, the Wednesday (Mes- 
kerdy) after St. Lawrence, 39 Edw. III. (Aug. 13, 
1365), makes a grant to Joan Cauleye for bringing 


NOTES AND QUERIES. iraB.iv.jrat as, -ST. 

him news of the birth of his eldest SOD, and styles 
her damsel of his dearest companion (Patent Eoll, 
2 Ric. II., pt. ii.). The name of Joan Kauley ap- 
pears among those of the damsels of Queen 
Philippa pensioned on her death in 1369 (Patent 
Roll, 43 Edw. III., pt. ii.). Sixty-six shillings and 
eightpence are paid to Joan Kauley, late damsel of 
Queen Philippa, in 1384, being the discharge of 
an annual grant of that sum (Issue Roll, Michs. , 

8 Ric. II.). Ten marks per annum were granted 
on November 28, 9 Ric. II. (1385), to Joan de 
Caulee, late damsel of Queen Philippa (Close Roll, 

9 Ric. II.). I have not found any further notices 
of Joan Cauley. 

Is Adelicia de Preston the same person as Alice 
Preston, another of the damsels pensioned on Queen 
Philippa's death ? She was in receipt of her pen- 
sion in 1396 (Issue Roll, Easter, 20 Ric. II.). 


I am glad my list of female poets has been 
noticed by some of your correspondents, and com- 
mented upon. I wish there had been more with 
their corrections to enlighten me, or chastise, as 
'tis fit. As I am very much interested in this 
matter, you will perhaps allow me to ask your 
readers to help me in gathering together a list, full, 
as far as possible. They may do so by sending 
direct to me any names they are acquainted with 
which I have not mentioned. For a second list I 
could only have added thirty or so more examples, 
and then should have been left mourning the in- 
completeness of my knowledge. The incentive of 
my writing to you was not exactly to burden the 
pages of ' N. & Q.' with a load of matter, to some, 
perhaps, insignificant and not of much purpose, but 
in giving what I knew to learn more, not doubting 
that I should succeed. I thank two of your corre- 
spondents for drawing my attention to the wonder- 
ful catalogue of the Rev. F. J. Stainforth's library; 
I must confess my ignorance of such before the 
last reference. Can I ever hope to behold it ? 
" We shall see what we shall see." 

Thornhill Lees, Dewsbury. 


SYKESIDE (7"> S. iii. 348, 460), Brockett says, is 
"a streamlet of water, the smallest kind of natural 
runner. Saxon sic, tick, lacuna ; Isl. ,ijk e . In title 
deeds relating to property in the North tie word often 
occurs m the dog-Latin of our old records, so archseo- 
logically musical to an antiquary. It is used especially 
i descnptiye of a boundary on something less than a 
stream or beck. 

Sykeside would thus appear to mean the land by 
the side of the Syke. G. H THOMPSON 


FRIARS (7* S iii 241, 343, 442).-} forg've 
SEVENTY-TWO his joke at my seventy-six, but here 

my answer all the same. His suggestion that 

Broadwall and Wideflete are relative terms, or 
were complementary to each other, is borne out 
by the fact that the irregular curve of the western 
limit of the boundary, i. e., of the ancient Wide- 
flete, runs exactly parallel with Broadwall to the 
Thames at Old Barge House Alley. In an inquiry 
as to new sewers, 1809, the parishioners urged 
against that the old drain round the parish, i. e., 
Wideflete, had a much stronger current into the 
Thames than the proposed sewer could have. The 
use of the word wide is again in 1118 shown in 
the ' Annals,' " The maner of Wideford, in Hert- 
fordshire is given to the monks of Bermondsey." 

MR. RENDLE seeks to disestablish Richard de 
Paris. Good ; but as to the " Garden," does it 
not mean a garth, or enclosure, quasi " yard," not 
a cultivable area ? Cf. the green-yard, a sort of 
lay-stall up Aldersgate way. 

As to Bunyan's connexion with Bankside and 
Zoar Chapel; let MR. RENDLE reconsider this point. 
Sir John Snorter's copyhold, if at Body's Bridge, 
is not near the scene of the preacher's labours as 
above described ; indeed, the distance is consider- 
able, as London distances go ; it is a good penny 
'bus fare. A. H. 

LANCERS (7 th S. iii. 387, 483). The following 
historiettes of the five lancer regiments at the 
present time forming part of our cavalry may pos- 
sibly afford to NEMO the information he requires. 

The 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers. This corps, 
though enjoying a precedence immediately after 
the 4th (Queen's Own) Hussars, raised in 1685, 
and before the 6th Inniskilling Dragoons, raised 
in 1689, is of very recent origin, as it has been 
organized within the last thirty years. This cir- 
cumstance is accounted for as follows. The 5th 
Regiment of Royal Irish Dragoons, of which corps 
the one under consideration may be said to be the 
heir, though not the descendant, was formed in 
1688, and distinguished itself at Blenheim, Rami- 
lies, Oudenard, and Malplaquet. In 1798, how- 
ever, some matters occured in connexion with the 
Irish rebellion of that year which caused the dis- 
bandment of the corps. For sixty years 1798- 
1858 the number of the corps remained unfilled, 
but in the last-named year a new regiment was 
formed to occupy the vacant place in the Army 
List. It was named at first the 5th (Royal 
Irish) Regiment of Light Dragoons (Lancers), and 
in 1861^ received its present designation. This 
fine regiment bears on its guidons the victories 
achieved by its predecessor, as well as that honour 
which it gained for itself by participation in the 
Soudan War of 1885. 

t The 9th (Queen's Royal) Lancers has the dis- 
tinction of being the very first regiment of cavalry 
which was raised after the succession of the house 

7* S. IV. JULY 23, '87.] 



of Hanover. It was organized during the first 
Pretender's rebellion in 1715 in the southern 
counties. It was first known as Wynne's Dra- 
goons, after its colonel, and it successively bore 
the names of its commanding officers CroftV 
Molesworth's, Cope's, Brown's, De Grangue's, and 
Bead's Dragoons until 1751, when it received its 
numerical title, 9th Dragoons, which it bore until 
1783, when its name was changed to the 9fch Light 
Dragoons. In September, 1816, when quartered 
at Hounslow, it was armed with lances instead of 
carabines, and the designation the 9th Lancers 
was bestowed on it. In 1830 it received its pre 
sent name in honour of Queen Adelaide. 

The 12th (Prince of Wales's Royal) Lancers was 
raised in 1715 in Berks, Bucks, and Hants, by 
Col. Phineas Bowles, whose name it first bore. 
Afterwards it was known as Rose's, Whitshed's, 
Bligh's, Mordaunt's, Cholmondeley's, Sackville's, 
and Whitefoord's Dragoons, until it received its 
numerical title, the 12th Dragoons, in 1751. In 
1768 the name was changed to the 12th or Prince 
of Wales's Regiment of Light Dragoons. After 
the Napoleonic wars, when quartered at Pas de 
Calais, it became the 12th, or Prince of Wales's 
Lancers, on receiving the Prince Regent's approval 
of it being armed with lances ; and in March, 1817, 
the word " Royal " was added to its title. 

The 16th (Queen's) Lancer?. All regiments of 
cavalry from the 1st Royal Dragoons to the 14th, 
inclusive, were originally heavy ; but in 1759, the 
value of light cavalry being manifested, Col. 
George Augustus Eliot t (afterwards Lord Heath- 
field) was entrusted with the organization of rais- 
ing the first light cavalry regiment, which was 
named the 15th Light Dragoons, or Eliott's Light 
Horse. In the same year another regiment, Bur- 
goyne's Light Horse, or the 16th Light Dragoons, 
was also formed of recruits obtained for the most 
part in London and Northampton. In 1815, while 
being reviewed by H.R.H. the Duke of York at 
Romford, he informed the colonel that it was the 
intention to change the regiment into lancers. 
This was done, and the corps assumed the title of 
the 16th (Queen's) Lancers. It is the only lancer 
regiment which wears a scarlet uniform. 

The 17th (Duke of Cambridge's Own) Lancers. 
Towards the end of 1759 steps were taken to form 
five additional light cavalry corps, which were 
raised and numbered the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 
and 21st Light Dragoons. The first of these was 
raised in Scotland by Lord Aberdour, and was 
known as the Edinburgh Light Horse ; but as its 
organization was incomplete it was disbanded in 
1763. The second, which was originally numbered 
the 18th, was raised by Col. John Hales in Hert- 
fordshire, and became the 17th on the disbandment 
of Aberdour's regiment. On its return from India 
in 1823 the corps was quartered at Chatham, when 
it was armed with lances, and, dropping its old 

appellation of the 17th Light Dragoons, it assumed 
the title of the 17th Lancers. 


Chaplain H.M. Forces. 
Hale Crescent, Farnham. 

The following regiments of cavalry of the Line 
were originally light dragoons, 3rd, 4th, 7th, 8th, 
10th, llth, 13th, 14th, 15th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 
21st Hussars ; also 5th, 9tb, 12th, and 17th Lan- 
cers. Of these the last named was converted into 
a lancer regiment in 1822. The 8th Hussars were 
originally dragoons, and were converted into light 
dragoons in 1775, becoming hussars apparently 
about the year 1822, upon their return from India 
after twenty-seven years' foreign service. The 
* General Orders ' would probably give most of 
the information that is required, as could pro- 
bably Mr. Percy Groves (care of editor of the 
Graphic) were he written to on the subject. 


BASTINADO (7 th S.iii. 497). Bastinado, or bas- 
tinade (Fr. bastonnade), means properly nothing 
more than beating with a stick or cudgel (baton). 
It is not used by our English writers of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries exclusively of the 
Turkish form of punishment. C. C. B. 

Bastinado, besides the specific meaning of a 
Turkish or Chinese punishment, is given as " the 
act of beating with a cudgel," in Johnson, as also 
in Bailey. The former has examples from Sidney 
and from Butler's ' Hudibras.' 


I recommend your correspondent to consult the 
' New English Dictionary.' 


SIR ABRAHAM YARNER (7 th S. iii. 329). I am 
able to give the following information, which I 
may perhaps be able to supplement at some future 
time. Sir Abraham Yarner, M.D., was buried at 
St. Michan's, Dublin, July 29, 1677. His widow, 
Katherine, was buried there January 20, 1691. 
Their daughter Jane was married to "John 
Temple, Esq.," of Dublin, by licence dated 
August 3, 1663. Abraham (probably son of Sir 
Abraham) had by Mary, his wife (1), Jane, bapt. 
at St. Michan's, January 27, 1677; (2) a nameless 
son, bapt. March 27, 1682 ; (3) Susanna, buried 
December 31, 1685 ; (4) Katherine, bapt. January 
26, 1685. Then Francis Yarner, Esq. (another 
son ?), by Sarah, his wife, had (1) Arthur, buried 
March 20, 1678 ; (2) Abraham, buried Novem- 
ber 26, 1682 ; (3) Anne, buried January 1, 1682 ; 
(4) Elizabeth, bapt. October 20, 1683 ; (5) Sarah, 
t>apt. November 7, 1684, and buried March 5, 
1686 ; (6) Mary, buried January 28, 1686 ; (7) 
Susanna, bapt. January 12, 1687. Very probably 
the wills of Sir Abraham and others are on record 
n Dublin. Y. S. M. 



(7* S. IV. JULY 23, '87. 

DULCARNON (7 th S. iv. 48). This is a long story, 
and a great deal has been said about it. I merely 
summarize the results. 

1. Dulcamon is Chaucer's spelling of the Eastern 
word, meaning " two-horned," which was a common 
medieval epithet of Alexander the Great ; for he 
claimed descent from Ammon. 

2. It was applied, in joke, to Euclid, i. 47; 
because the two upper squares stick up like two 

3. Chaucer goes on to call it " the fleming of 
wrecches," i. ., flight of the miserable. This is 
his translation of Lat. fuga miserorum, a jocular 
name for Euclid, i. 5. That is, he mixes up 
the two propositions ; both being puzzling. 

4 I do not think any one but Chaucer (or some 
one quoting or referring to Chaucer) ever employs 
the word. Kesey means " kersey." 


I am always glad to reply to inquiries from 
America about songs or ballads, for the United 
States have shown the utmost liberality and intelli- 
gence in their appreciation of such knowledge. I 
therefore at once establish the authorship of two 
out of the three songs in question, to the best of 
my ability. 

When the kine had given a pailfull 
was written by Tom D'Urfey, printed among his 
' Choice Songs,' p. 16, in 1684, entitled * Tom and 
Doll ; or, the Modest Maid's Delight,' and re- 
printed with music not only in the ' 180 Loyal 
Songs ' of 1685 and 1694, p. 252, but also in the 
second volume of 'Pills to Purge Melancholy,' 
1719 edition, p. 27. Enlarged into a broadside 
ballad, it is preserved in the Pepysian Collection, 
vol. iii. fol. 183, there entitled * The Enjoyment ; 
or, No, no, changed to Ay, ay.' 
Celamina pray tell me : 
When those pretty eyes I see, 

is a " Dialogue Sung by a Boy and Girl, at the 
Playhouse," written in 1695 by Tom D'Urfey, and 
introduced in Thomas Southerne's tragedy ' Oro- 
noko,' founded on Aphra Behn's novel of the same 
name. The music was composed by Henry Pur- 
cell shortly before his death, and is preserved in 
his ' Orpheus Britannicus,' vol. i. p. 216, first edi- 
tion. The song is also in ' Deliciae Musicae,' 1696, 
bk. iv. p. 7. 

mother, Roger with his kisses 

Almost stops my breath. 

Still unaccredited to a known author, but I believe 
it to have been Jonah Deacon's own. It attained 
an immense popularity, and its own new tune was 
cited for many subsequent ballads. It was some- 
times called 'Modesty Amazed; or, the Dorsetshire 
DamozeP; at other times ' The Young Maiden's 
Request.' 4s a broadside ballad, into which it was 
transferred and enlarged, it was licensed by Robert 

Pocock, in 1685-87, after having appeared in 
Henry Playford's ' Theatre of Musick,' bk. iii. p. 25, 
1686, and printed by Jonah Deacon with a warn- 
ing that counterfeits were issued. The ballad title 
was ' The Wooing of Robin and Joan ; or, the 
West-Country Lovers.' As a copy is in the Rox- 
burghe Collection at the British Museum, vol. ii. 
p. 338, it will be reproduced ere long in the seventh 
(final) volume of 'Roxburghe Ballads' of our 
Ballad Society, issued by Messrs. Austin, of Hert- 
fort. Another copy is in the Pepysian Collection, 
iv. 23. Moreover, I possess the rare "Answer " to 
it, beginning 

I pray now leave your early longing. 
This also shall be reprinted. I hope this may 
satisfy MR. FRANK E. BLISS. 

The Priory, Molash by Ashford, Kent. 

DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH (7 th S. iii. 429, 523). 
I was well aware that the four ancient Latin 
doctors had only been augmented by two in 
mediaeval times ; but imbibed a notion, I cannot 
tell whence, that in the present or last century 
some further additions, and even a female, St. 
Teresa (or Theresia, as the Bollandists spell her 
name), had been made to the list of writers held 
to have "not only taught in the Church but 
taught the Church herself." E. L. G. 

MONTAIGNE (7 th S. iii. 228, 428). There is a 
copious subject-index to the edition of Mon- 
taigne's 'Essays' published by Gamier Fr&res, 
2 vols., fourth edition, Paris, n.d. ; but I cannot 
say that it is the index to which MR. WARD 
refers. I have, moreover, searched it carefully, 
but can find no reference to the subject 1>. F. 
asks about. H. DELEVINGNE. 


VIII. (7 th S. iii. 516). John Densyll, or Denzell, 
was son and heir of Reinfrey Denysell, of Deny- 
sell, Cornwall, the descendant of an ancient family 
in that county. I am not sure as to the particular 
inn with which he was associated, but he received 
the coif in Michaelmas Term, 1531. His death 
occurred on Jan. 3, 1535/6, and his burial in the 
Church of St. Giles, near Holborn, "where his 
Monument, with his Epitaph, and the Pourtrai- 
tures of himself, his wife, and six sons, all in 
Brass, were to be seen." The sons all died before 
reaching man's estate, but he left two daughters, 
Anne and Alice, the elder the wife of Sir 
William Holies of Haughton (by whom she was 
grandmother of the first Earl of Clare), the 
younger married to William Reskymer, Esq. 

W. D. PINK. 

(7 th S. iii. 407, 486). It may be worth noting 
that there are biographical sketches of this gallant 

7> S. IV. JULY 23, '87.] 



commander in Lodge's * Portraits ' and in the 
1 Cabinet Cyclopaedia,' edited by Dr. Lardner. In 
the former work there is prefixed to the memoir 
an engraving of him after the portrait by Michael 
Dael. Pope thus alludes to him in his ' Imita- 
tions of Horace ; : 

And he whose lightning pierced th' Iberian lines, 
Now forms my quincunx, and now ranks my vines, 
Or tames the genius of the stubborn plain, 
Almost as quickly as he conquered Spain. 

'Satire,'!, v.l 29-132. 

Turvey, a parish in Bedfordshire, was the ancient 
home of the Mordaunts, and he was buried with 
his ancestors in a vault in the church there, now 
concreted and closed up. He died in 1735. One 
of his titles was Baron Mordaunt of Turvey. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


476). The Earl of Crawford's explanation of this 
well-known proverbial expression is highly in- 
genious, but will not " hold water," to use your 
correspondent's words. The full form of the 
proverb is "An inch in a miss is as good as an 
ell," and is given in Camden's * Remains,' 1614. 
Fuller's ' Gnomologia,' 1732, has, "An inch in 
missing is as bad as an ell.' Kelly, in his ' Pro- 
verbs of all Nations,' says that the original read- 
ing of the proverb is " An inch of a miss is as 
good as a mile." I have not, however, met with 
this form of the proverb. The abbreviated ex- 
pression, "A miss," &c., seems to be more or less 
modern. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

AVALON (7 th S. iii. 169, 218, 358, 480). In 
our Church Calendar, Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln, 
still retains his place on November 17. He is 
known as Hugh of Avalon. Avalon is in Bur- 
gundy, and in it was situated the Great Char- 
treuse, from which he was invited by Henry II. to 
found the Carthusian order in England at Wilham, 
in Somerset. CHARLOTTE G. BOGER. 

St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

LAST OF THE ALE-TASTERS (7 th S. iv. 4). The 
account of Richard Taylor, the ale-taster of Rossen- 
dale, is quoted, apparently without acknowledg- 
ment, from an article contributed by Mr. Thomas 
Newbigging to the Manchester Quarterly of April, 
1886. It is also included in his recently issued 
volume of ' Speeches and Addresses ' (Manchester, 
John Heywood, 1887). 


BROMFLAT : LOWTHER (7 th S. iii. 429). The 
pedigree on which ADA'S first question is based is 
not very correct in its nomenclature. It ought to 
run, Was Margaret, dau. and heir of Henry Brom- 
flete, the dau. of Joan, dau. of Thomas de Holand, 
Earl of Kent ? There never was an Earl Hol- 
land in England. Margaret certainly was not 

the daughter of Joan, Duchess Dowager of York, 
since that lady was returned in her inquisition 
as having died issueless, and her nephews or 
grandnephews became her heirs. I can say nothing 
about the Lowther pedigree, but I find no trace of 
any Lowther marriage with either Lucy of Cocker- 
mouth or Fitzhugh of Ravenswath. 


253, 298, 389, 457; iii. 33, 73, 158). The result 
of the discussion to which my note at the first 
reference gave rise has not been quite what I 
most desired. I was anxious to trace the poems 
in question to their origin, if possible, and to dis- 
cover who their authors were. Since my note ap- 
peared I have met with nearly half a dozen 
different editions of the volume of poems published 
by Walker to which I specially alluded in ' N. & Q.' 
The result of my trouble will not, I think, be found 
uninteresting, but it would occupy too much space 
here. I may be pardoned, therefore, for pointing 
out that a short article on the subject will probably 
appear in an early issue of Walford's Antiquarian, 
and this fact is here mentioned chiefly as a clue to 
those who may feel an interest in the subject in 
years yet to come. W. ROBERTS. 

11, Frederick Street, Gray's Inn Road. 

iii. 189, 253, 433). Is it so certain as MR. DYMOND 
says that the example he gives is " very conclu- 
sive " as to this pronunciation ? In Hants and 
Wilts, and some of the other southern counties, I 
know well that daughter is invariably pronounced 
by the "persons of inferior position" to whom 
Miss RITA Fox refers as dddter, with a consider- 
able quiver on the a by grandfathers and grand- 
mothers and other elderly folk ; whilst after is as 
invariably sounded d'ter. Pronouncing thus would 
make the rhyme of the schoolmaster's poem as 
written quite correct when spoken. The same 
evident pronunciation occurs again in 

Jack and Jill went up a hill 
To fetch a pail of water (=water), 

Jack fell down and broke his crown 
And Jill came tumbling after (=a'ter). 

It will be found, too, plentifully sprinkled over 
Barnes's ' Poems in the Dorset Dialect,' e. </., 
Zoo if you 've wherewi', and would vind 

A wife worth looken a'ter, 
Goo an' get a farmer in the mind 
To gi'e his woldest da'ter. 


BUTLER'S ' HUDIBRAS ' (7 th S. iii. 446). I have 
an edition of above (16mo.), 1720 "A.dorn'd with 
Cuts," "Corrected and Amended with Annota- 
tions never before printed "the first part having 
the names of eighteen publishers attached, the 
second seven, and the third part only one, that 
of " Thomas Home at the south entrance of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* a. iv. JULY 23, w. 

Royal Exchange," whose name, I may say, appears 
amongst the first eighteen, together with J. Tonson 
and others. In the "Author's Life " attached to 
the first part it is stated : 

" In the year 1663 there came out a spurious book, called 
'The Second Part of Hudibras,' which is reflected upon 
by our author, under the character of Whackura, towards 
the latter end of his second part : afterwards came out 
the Dutch and Scotch ' Hudibras,' ' Butler's Ghost,' the 
' Occasional Hypocrite,' and some others of the same 
nature, which compared with this (Virgil travesty ex- 
cepted) deserve only to be condemn'd adficum et piperum, 
or if you please, to more base and servile offices." 

This may possibly give your correspondent COL. 
PRIDEAUX a new idea as to the view then taken 
of the " spurious" edition he alludes to. 

Lonsdale Road, Barnes. 

I have before me Harriot's 16mo. edition (as 
COL. PRIDEAUX remarks of the other editions to 
which he refers, " the collation is really in eights "). 
The title-page is as follows: "Hudibras | The First 
Part | Written in the time of the late Wars | 
London | Printed by I. G. for Richard Harriot, 
under | St. Dunstans Church in Fleet-street, 1663." 
A goodly portion of the title-page is occupied by 
a coarsely executed woodcut ornament representing 
a wreath. On the back of the title-page is the 
licence, " Imprimatur | Jo. Berkenhead | Nov. 11, 
1662." P. 26, 1. 7; ibid., 1. 16; and "Nare 
olfact " on p. 28 are correctly printed. 


South Shields. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORIES (7 th S. iii. 248, 396). 
I extract the following from the Sheffield Daily 
Telegraph of Hay 26 : 

" The gallant 65th are having their history written by 
the most competent pen which could undertake the 
work. Col. Byam has had the regimental records in hand 
for some time, and they are now with the publishers He 
has issued a circular, in which he states: 'For many 
years the absence of the records of the 65th (York and 
Lancaster) Regiment, published in a complete book form 
has been felt by the officers and men, past and present! 
It is now proposed to issue them in such a manner pro- 
vided that the sale of a certain number can be gua- 


A WALLET (7* S. iii. 346, 461). As an instance 
of another form of the wallet and that a very 
old one may I mention the little triangular 
piece of stuff, something like a bag, that is sus- 
pended from behind the left shoulder of a junior 
barrister's gown as now worn at the present day? 
Being made of the same material as the gown it is 
not very noticeable, and though I have worn it 
myself for nearly a dozen years, I have never until 

: day thoroughly examined it. It is somewhat 
triangular in shape, about eight or nine inches in 
length, and divided by a slit at the bottom into 
two compartments, one of which is open, and the 

other enclosed and capable of holding small articles, 
such as money. This latter, indeed, is the object 
for which it is said it was intended. Hembers of 
the Bar were always supposed to do their work for 
nothing. Nevertheless the little hanging wallet 
afforded a convenient means whereby the client 
might slip in an honorarium without ruffling the 
susceptibilities or offending the dignity of the 
learned counsellor. This innocent delusion is still 
kept up ; and to this day we are the only pro- 
fession that cannot bring an action at law for its 

As an instance of the antiquity of the barrister's 
wallet, I may say that in shape it more nearly than 
any of those mentioned by your correspondents HR. 
PATTERSON and DR. NICHOLSON approaches that 
of the ivattles of a cock or turkey; from which, 
through a corruption of the H.E. watel, a wattle or 
bag, according to Prof. Skeat, the word is de- 
rived. Compare Shakespeare (' Tempest,' III. iii.), 
where Gonzalo says : 

Whose throats had hanging at them 
Wallets of flesh. 

See also Skeat's 'Etymological Dictionary,' 1882. 

J. S. UDAL. 
Inner Temple. 

HORUE: CABILLAUD (7 th S. iii. 48, 214, 377, 
454). Your correspondent gives unnecessary pro- 
minence to my statement when he says Hiss BUSK 
takes merluzzo to mean cod, as if I had given it as 
an idea of my own. Whether he is right as to 
cod not being found in the seas surrounding 
Italy I leave him to learn from others ; but his 
conclusion that, therefore, Italians ought never to 
speak of fresh cod is " too too " absurd! Whether 
they ought or not, however, they most certainly 
do sometimes mention cod, and that by the name 
of merluzzo. A little practical acquaintance with 
the usages of a people is as requisite to obtaining 
knowledge of a language as book-learning. 

If he is not satisfied with my testimony to the 
fact (which might be good enough for a common 
household matter), he can find it not only in any 
common dictionary, but also in some detail in 
Tommaseo, who by no means limits it as the name 
of the fish caught in the Hediterranean, but 
actually happens incidentally to quote a passage in 
which it is used for that found off Norway, Ice- 
land, and Newfoundland. He may also see cod- 
liver oil advertised as " olio di fegato di merluzzo " 
any day. 

With regard to "stock-fish "I know it is a terrible 
matter to write anything that can be represented 
as a "guess," nevertheless I fancy no one who 
has seen cod strained on sticks to dry can have 
any doubt as to how dried cod acquired that 
appellation. ft. H. BUSK. 

ROYAL SALUTES (7 th S. iii. 496). From my 
earliest years I have heard this story told, not of 

7" S. IV. JOLT 23, W.] 



Queen Elizabeth, but of Oliver Cromwell. But I 
suppose it really is true of neither, and is probably 
a solar myth. 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 


(7 th S. iii. 309). In A.D. 1587 Mary, Queen of 
Scots, gave to the Earl of Northumberland an 
enamelled reliquary, containing a thorn from the 
crown of our Lord, which had long been in the 
possession of the royal family of Scotland. It 
passed into the hands of the earl's daughter, 
Elizabeth Woodruffe, who presented it to the Kev. 
F. John Clark, Provincial of the English Jesuits. 
He gave it to the English Noviciate of the Society, 
at Watten. There it remained till 1763. On the 
suppression of the Society it was taken to Ghent, 
and passed into the hands of the bishop of that city. 
His successor gave it to a confraternity established 
in the cathedral at Ghent, where it now is. 




Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Leslie 

Stephen. Vol. XI. (Smith, Elder & Co.) 
THE eleventh volume of the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' carries the alphabet from Clater to Condell. 
Pew names of the highest importance are found in it, 
but there are many valuable biographies. It is gratifying, 
moreover, to note that the proportion is now just, that 
no lives of disproportionate length are admitted, and that 
the whole work remains sound, accurate, and conscien- 
tious. John Cleveland, the Cavalier poet, is the subject 
of an appreciative notice by the Rev. J. VVoodfall Ebs- 
worth. The estimate of the work of this much disparaged 
writer has great interest. The large family of Clifford, 
or De Cliftbrd, is treated by various contributors, from 
Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, for whom Mr. Russell 
Barker is responsible, and George Clifford, Earl of Cumber- 
land, who as an admiral comes naturally into the province 
of Prof. J. K. Laughton,to William Kingdon Clifford, the 
mathematician, whose biography is in the hands of Mr. 
Leslie Stephen. Much of the information supplied in 
the last-named biography is derived from personal know- 
ledge, and the estimate of character is very valuable. 
Mr. Stephen states " Clifford was a most attractive 
companion. His careless phrases had always the 
Btamp of genius." Mr. Louis Fagan is responsible 
for the life of George Clint, and Mr. R, E. Graves for 
that of Alfred. The first life of primary importance that 
is reached is that of Clive, which is written by Sir A. J. 
Arbuthnot, K.C.S.I. In the disputed points of Olive's 
career the biographer takes a view favourable in the 
main, holding, however, that for the fraud upon Omi- 
chand it is impossible to offer any defence. Mr. Leslie 
Stephen supplies the life of Arthur Hugh Clough. This, 
is, it is needless to say, thoroughly sympathetic and 
appreciative. Mr. Edward Smith writes on Cobbett, 
and Mr. John Morley supplies, as is natural, the life of 
Richard Cobden. Prof. Laughton is at his best in deal- 
ing with Thomas Cochrane, Earl of Dundonald, whose 
marvellous career is described with much spirit. 
Catharine Cockburn falls to Mr. Leslie Stephen, and 
Lord Cockburn to Mr. Hamilton. A long and instructive 
life of Sir Edward Coke is due to Mr. G. P. Macdonell. 

Colenso is treated with much tenderness by the Rev 
Sir G. W. Cox. Dr. Garnett is responsible for the 
lives of Hartley and Henry Nelson Coleridge, and Mr. 
Leslie Stephen for the life of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 
the bibliographical portion of which is specially full*. 
Mr. Stephen holds that admirers of Coleridge's philo- 
sophical writings must limit themselves to claiming 
for him "the honour of having done much to 
stimulate thought, and abandon any claim to the con- 
struction of a definite system." Colet is the most 
important contribution of Mr. S. L. Lee, his article 
having been revised by Mr. Lupton, the latest bio- 
grapher. The Rev. W. Hunt's life of Jeremy Collier 
has a useful bibliography of books connected with his 
great controversy. The Rev. G. P. Warner, the his- 
torian of Dulwich, deals with Payne Collier, and fear- 
lessly exposes the fatal propensity to which Collier gave 
way. Anthony Collins is in part defended by Mr. 
Stephen, who also writes on William Collins, the poet. 
Combe is also in the hands of Mr. Stephen. So much 
solid work is there in a volume such as the present, the 
announcement of the forthcoming rise in the price of 
the book need cause no astonishment. It is pleasant to 
learn that the original extent of fifty volumes is not 
likely to be exceeded. 

Chronicon Ablatice Rameseiensis. Cura W. Dunn Macray . 

Rolls Series. (Longmans & Co.) 

Cartularium Mona&terii de Rameseia. Edited by Wil- 
liam Henry Hart and Rev. Ponsonby H. Lyons 
Vol. II. Rolls Series. (Same publishers.) 
THE monastic chronicles in which our land was once so 
rich are being slowly placed beyond the danger of fire 
and the hundred other accidents to which manuscripts 
are liable. Many, no doubt, perished on the pillage of 
the religious houses at the Reformation, others have 
been lost during the three centuries of neglect that 
succeeded the change in religion. We may hope, how- 
ever, that within a short time all that remain to us will 
be made secure. The Ramsey chronicle is of second- 
rate importance ; we cannot compare it with those of 
St. Albans, Peterborough, or York ; but it is an important 
historical document nevertheless, which it would have 
been shameful to have passed over. Mr. Macray has 
discharged his duty as editor in a very conscientious 
manner. Not only have we the complete text of the 
chronicle, but he has added in the appendix catalogues 
of the abbots and a list of the books in the library. 
These old book catalogues have been till recently 
strangely neglected. Among antiquaries of a past 
generation the late Mr. Hunter was the only one who 
seemed to appreciate their full value. They are im- 
portant as indicating the scholarship of the time. 
Among these Ramsey books was the ' Timaeus ' of Plato. 
The number of Bibles was large. Two of them were in 
Hebrew. There was also a Hebrew Psalter. Altogether 
there were sixteen or seventeen books in the Hebrew 
tongue. Ramsey was an important abbey, and we may 
reasonably conclude that its library was an exceptionally 
fine one; yet it could not have been richer or more 
important than those of many other religious houses 
which we could name. It is sad to call to mind that in 
most instances these priceless volumes were treated as 
mere spoil by those who followed the monks in their 
rich inheritance. 

The charter book of Ramsey, of which the first volume 
only is before us, is at least as valuable as the chronicle. 
Few books of the kind throw more light on local history 
and genealogy than the one before us. Until, however, 
we have it in its entirety it is not easy to speak of it as 
it deserves. The manuscript from which it is printed is 
preserved in the Record Office. The editors have die- 



[7 th S. IV. JULY 23, '87. 

covered six other manuscript chartularies of this great 
house. We trust they will make their book as complete 
as possible, and give to us every document contained in 
these other volumes which are not to be found in the 
codex on which they are now engaged. Ramsey was a 
Benedictine house of comparatively late foundation. 
Ely and Peterborough could claim a far greater anti- 
quity. But there was, perhaps, not a single one of the 
Anglo-Saxon monastic houses which did more to further 
Christian civilization than the great fen monastery 
which we owe to the piety of Earl Ailwine. 

Beacons of East Yorkshire. By John Nicholson. (Hull, 

Brown & Sons.) 

MB. NICHOLSON has written what may not unfitly be 
called a directory to the beacons of East Yorkshire. 
Some of the documents he has printed are of historical 
value. He might have added to their number had he 
worked among the treasures of the Public Record Office. 
This would have been a real service, whereas the reprint 
of Macaulay's spirited ' Armada ' song was in no way 
required. Why, we would ask, in quoting a note from 
Sir Walter Scott's ' Lay of the Last Minstrel ' regarding 
bale-tires, are we told that "the original edition con- 
tains a note " on this subject ? leading the reader to 
imagine that it had been suppressed in subsequent issues, 
The editions of * The Lay ' are beyond counting. We 
have examined those of 1841 (Cadeil) and of 1855 and 
1868 (Black), and find the note as he has given it, with 
the exception that the author tells us that it is an 
extract from " Stevenson's History, vol. ii. p. 701," 
meaning, we conjecture, Andrew Stevenson's ' History of 
the Church and State of Scotland from the Accession of 
King Charles I. to the Restoration of King Charles II.' 

The history of our shore defences is obscure until we 
reach the reign of Elizabeth and the time of the Spanish 
Armada. Then a bright light flashes upon the subject. 
There cannot, however, be any doubt that from a 
very early period beacons were in use to warn the 
inhabitants of the approach of sea rovers. Whether 
they took the form of posts with iron crates affixed 
to them, such as Mr. Nicholson has represented, 
or whether they were but piles ofj sticks, raised 
for the occasion on the rising grounds near to the 
sea, we do not at present know. That in many in- 
stances they were permanent structures is highly pro- 
bable. The unpublished accounts of St. James's Church, 
Louth, Lincolnshire, contain the following entry under 
the year 1543: "Paid for the charges of the fyer 
beckyng at Saltflethayyn and the watche viij d ." It 
would be of some service if we had a map of the coasts 
of England with the beacons marked thereon. They 
were far more numerous than is generally supposed. 

Annandale under the Bruces. By George Neilson, Writer 

Glasgow. (Annan, W. Cuthbertson & Son.) 
UNDEB this title Mr. Neilson has printed a lecture he 
delivered in Glasgow during the present year, under the 
auspices of the Glasgow Annandale Association. Dealing 
principally with charters, feudal rights and privileges, the 
growth of village communities, the system of land tenure 
and other similar matters, but also with the churches' 
and to some extent with the features of the country* 
Mr. Neilaon has extracted his material from monastic 
chronicles, and has brought to light matter that is new 
and interesting to others beside the local antiquary. 

A GOOD deal of attention is paid to English literature 
in the current number of Le Livre. The opening paper 
is entitled La Bibliomanie en Angleterre, par an Old 
Book Hunter.' It consists of an analysis of and com- 
ments upon ' The Pleasures of a Bookworm.' of Mr J 
Rogers Rees, 'Lea Granda Editeura de 1'Allemague' 

par M. L. de Hessem, is continued, and is accompanied 
by a full-page portrait of Paul Lindau. A second en- 
graving illustrates the exposition in connexion with the 
fourth century of printing at Rouen. The * Biblio- 
graphic Moderne' opens with an analysis of Hugo's 
' Choses Vues.' A long essay on D. G. Rossetti is also 
included in the number. 

HUGO HELBING'S u Kunstantiquariat " in Munich, 
Residenzstrasse, 12/1, has just Issued Catalogue II., for 
1887, containing many interesting historical engravings 
of places in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, 
Denmark, and Sweden. We have here views represent- 
ing the coronation festival of the Emperor Leopold II. 
at Frankfort, and the passage of the troops of Gustavus 
Adolphus, the "Lion of the North," through the same 
city in 1631. We have also views of Schloss Ambras in 
the Tyrol, and of Schloss Tirol itself; of the pilgrimage 
church of Maria Taferl on blue Danube ; of Benedictine 
Ettal, near Ober-Ammergau ; and of Fulda, with its 
memories of St. Boniface ; while Stockholm, the northern 
Venice, is placed before us in an engraving of 1624. 

WE regret to hear of the death, at Malvern Wells, in 
his seventy-seventh year, of Mr. Daniel Parsons, M.A. 
of Oriel College, Oxon. Mr. Parsons, who was a fre- 
quent and an old contributor to 'N. & Q.,' was an 
accurate scholar and a singularly keen controversialist. 
In 1881 he read before the Archaeological Association 
a paper on Little Malvern Church. 

IN a series of collections of books and autographs to be 
sold by Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge on Tuesday 
next and following days are included the original MSS. 
of many works of D. G. Rossetti, together with some 
bibliographical rarities. 

atfre* to Camlpantrent*. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

R. M. Burke's ' General Armory ' contains all that 
you appear to want so far as it can be supplied. In some 
cases such as you mention, however, there may not have 
been an official grant or confirmation. You may there- 
fore, not be able to find ajl you seek in the ' Armory,' 
though we have found it answer your requirements very 

MR. JONATHAN BOUOHIER desires to express his thanks 
E. H. COLEMAN for passages referring to July (ante 
p. 2b), and to say he requires no further illustrations. 

G :. R ,'J YVYAN ("Apocryphal Gospels, &c.").-See 3 rd 
o. xii, loU. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of < Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print- and 
to thia rule we can make no exception. 






NOTES : Tercentenary of Mary, Queen of Scots, 81 Car- 
nival, 82 Notes to Skeat's ' Dictionary 'John de Cobham, 
84-Arbor Day in Canada Slipshod English Cromwell's 
Pastimes Poet v. Poet, 85 Wax Tapers as Offensive Wea- 
pons S.W.8. " Double entendre," 86 Bellingham, 87. 

QUERIES :-Brooke of Astley-Oldys, 87-Capt. Cartwright 
Pepper Alley Lyly's 'Euphues' Seventeenth Century 
Tokens W. Rider Quotations Singular Crest Buckden 
Fictitious Imprints, 88 Cliffe Heraldry Knife and 
Fork-Kirby Hall Frith Wickham Earthen Mound 
Capt. Glass Attorney and Solicitor St. Elene Justice 
Maule Portrait by Butler Old London Newspapers, 89. 

REPLIES : Records of Celtic Occupation, 90 Strange Manx 
Custom Motto of Waterton Family Wm. Yeo, 92 Pan- 
cake Bell Prout Dane's Skin Shakspeare Mackenzie's 
Baronage of Scotland, 93 Cold Harbour Froude and Ire- 
land Baroness Bellasis Hatters Margaret, Lady Bour- 
chier Cornish Tokens, 94 Bow Street Runners National 
Subscription Wordsworth Lady Bountiful Customs of 
French Ladies Bond Family Epitaph at Arlington, 95 
E. Easton Overlain and Overlaid Refectory Endorsation 
Marriage Custom Arquebus, 96 King's End Car Fonts 
Wordsworth on Burns Parody and Burlesque, 97 Sym- 
bolic Use of Candles Brougham Knighting Eldest Sons 
Calvert, Lord Baltimore Bishops in Partibus, 98 Ancient 
Custom at St. Bartholomew the Great, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Armitage's Sketches of Church and 
State 'Hewlett's Wendover's ' Flowers of History 'Swain- 
son's ' Provincial Names and Folk-lore of British Birds ' 
Hallen's 'Transcript of Register of Baptisms of Muthill.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


At the opening, on July 19, of the exhibition 
of Mary Stuart relics at the Peterborough Natural 
History Museum (the ancient chapel of St. Thomas 
a Becket, in the Minster Precincts) I read a paper 
on the removal of the body of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, from Fotheringhay Castle to Peterborough 
Cathedral, and the state ceremonial of the inter- 
ment, by order of Queen Elizabeth, on Tuesday, 
August 1, 1587. I described the body as being 
taken from Fotheringhay Castle, at ten o'clock on 
Sunday night, July 30, and placed on a funeral car, 
drawn by four caparisoned horses ; and said that 
the torchlight procession made its way by the vil- 
lages of Elton, Chesterton, Alwalton, Orton Water- 
ville, Orton Longueville, and Woodstone, crossing 
the bridge over the Nene at Peterborough, and 
reaching the cathedral between one and two o'clock 
in the early morning of Monday, July 31. 

I believe this description to be correct. If the 
funeral procession on leaving Fotheringhay had 
taken the road to Nassington, Yarwell, and Wans- 
ford, the distance would have been several miles 
greater than by the Elton route. By that way the 
procession would leave the castle and cross the 
Nene by Queen Elizabeth's Bridge, and keep 
straight on for three-quarters of a mile in the 

direction of Tansor and Cottarstock ; then turn 
sharply to the left and make for Warmington, 
skirting that village, and keeping on for Elton. 
The bridge over the Nene at Elton, near to the 
road called the King's Highway, was not built 
till early in the present century, and the ford that 
was previously used was not at all adapted for 
a heavily-laden funeral car. In my volume on 
' Fotheringhay and Mary, Queen of Scots ' (Simp- 
kin, Marshall & Co., 1886), I said that the distance 
from Fotheringay Castle to Peterborough Cathedral 
by the route above mentioned "was about ten 
miles, or rather more." Since then the distance 
has been measured and proved to be greater than 
I supposed, being twelve and a quarter miles. As 
the funeral procession was more than three hours 
on the road, it is probable that a walking pace 
was observed through the entire distance ; and, 
although we are told that the procession was 
" attended by several horsemen," we may presume 
that the Scottish attendants of the murdered 
queen would not be provided with carriages or 
horses, but would have to walk the whole distance 
with the torch-bearers. 

From the mention of the funeral car, with its 
four horses and attendant horsemen, it is plain 
that the body of Mary, Queen of Scots, was con- 
veyed by land, and not by water. Yet when I was 
at Fotheringhay in 1851, and was inquiring into 
the local traditions, I found that the prevalent 
idea was that the coffin was conveyed on a barge 
by water. I communicated this, with the " Perio " 
tradition, to Miss Agnes Strickland, and she 
quoted the latter tradition in her * Mary Stuart/ 
but subsequently told me that she had discovered 
a deed of a prior date to 1586, in which the place 
" Perio " was mentioned. Since then Mr. Pooley, 
of Oundle, has shown me a deed of the year 1299, 
in which mention is made of " Pyriho." But tradi- 
tions die hard ; and when, on the morning after 
the opening of the exhibition of relics at Peter- 
borough, I visited Fotheringhay, I was told, as I 
had been often told before, that " Perry Lane " (as 
it is pronounced) was first called "Perio " because 
that word had been prophetically used by Mary, 
Queen of Scots, when she obtained her first sight 
of the castle, and that, moreover, no sooner had 
James I. come to the throne than he gave the 
order for the destruction of Fotheringhay Castle. 
More than this. I was talking with an intelligent 
native of the place on that same day, July 20, con- 
cerning the funeral of Mary Stuart, and I. said, 
" Do you think that they took the body by way 
of Elton or Nassington ? " He replied, " Neither 
way. The body was taken by water. They had 
a large barge brought to the side of the river, 
close to the castle, and they put the coffin in the 
barge and brought it all the way to Peterborough." 
Another old inhabitant, to whom I also spoke on 
the subject, made me precisely a similar answer. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [?* s. iv. JULY so, w. 

So, after an interval of thirty-six years, I was told 
the same story that I had been told in 1851. 

Another tradition concerning the funeral of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, has now received its finish- 
ing stroke ; and that is, the exact position of her 
first grave in Peterborough Cathedral. The vergers 
for the last 150 years, and probably for a still 
longer period, have always pointed out the slab 
in the south aisle of the choir, on to which a person 
stepped on leaving the choir, as being the stone 
that covered the vault in which for five-and-twenty 
years the coffin of Mary, Queen of Scots, had been 
laid. But the Dean of Peterborough (Dr. Perowne) 
very recently ordered the grave to be opened, 
which was done under the direction of Mr. J. T. 
Irvine, the clerk of the works, who found that a 
solid stone wall ran the length of the choir, and 
that no vault could have been possible under that 
particular slab. Another excavation was then made 
under the adjoining slabs of the aisle without dis- 
covering any vault. The dean then directed an 
excavation to be made within the choir, at a spot 
about two yards north of the supposed vault, and 
here the real vault was discovered, in the position 
assigned to it by Brown Willis in his plan of the 
cathedral. Not the least interesting event in this 
most interesting day was the description, by Mr. 
Irvine, of this discovery of the real vault ; and the 
address to the visitors by the dean, as we all stood 
near him by the side of the newly-opened vault of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, the tercentenary of whose 
execution and funeral is now being celebrated at 
Peterborough by such a collection of loans of 
relics, from Her Majesty and others, as has never 
before this been gathered together. The collection 
will be closed on August 9, having been opened by 
the Marchioness Dowager of Huntly on July 19. 


I am glad to see that Prof. Skeat now (Trans. 
Phil. Soc., 1885-1886, p. 288) considers that 
carnivalia (a plural form of carnival) is formed 
from carnilevaria by the dropping of the le and 
the change of r into I, because I have long held* 
a similar opinion, viz., that carnevaleis a shortened 
form of carnelevale (Due.) and that this latter is a 
corruption of an old Ital. (or possibly Low Latin) 
subst. carnekvare^ in the way indicated by Prof. 

* I sent a very long note on this word to ' N. & Q.' 
quite three years ago, in which this view was advocated, 
but it was never inserted, no doubt on account of its 
length. The change of r into I is supported by the form 
carnatciale = carnelaiciale = carnelasciare (Diez) = 
carnem-iaxare, given by Ducange, and apparently used 
only as a substantive, after the manner of Italian infini- 

t This carnelevare no longer exists, but there can be 
little doubl but that it once did exist, as we still find in 
the Sicilian dialect carni-livari (Traina, Diez), and in 

Skeat. But I differ from him altogether with 
regard to the meaning of carni(or carne-)levarium, 
for he thinks it "means precisely the same as 
carnelevamen " (and BO far I agree with him), but 
interprets this " a solace of the flesh," whereas I 
believe with Littre' that carnelevamen (and conse- 
quently carnelevarium) means " a taking away of 
flesh."J Even in classical Latin levare of which 
the original meaning seems to have been "to make 
light," "to lift up" (Riddle) does not always 
= "to solace, please, comfort," as Prof. Skeat 
would have us believe ; even in such writers as 
Virgil and Ovid it sometimes = "auferre, adimere" 
(Face. ), much more in later writers. Levator, too, is 
used by Petronius (Riddle) = thief, so that we can- 
not be surprised to find that among the ten mean- 
ings given to the Low Latin levare by Ducange 
there is not one which accords with Prof. Skeat's 
three verbs given above, and only one in which 
anything akin to them can be found. No ; the 
Low Latin levare agrees very much more nearly 
with the Ital. levare, which always means " to lift 
up," "to raise," or "to take away," and most 
commonly " to take away." In the Italian dialects 
also it has the same meaning, and therefore the 
Sicilian carni-livari and the Milanese car-leve must 
mean " the taking away of flesh," and as they = 
carnelevare =carnem levare (as I have shown in 
note f), and carnelevarium is only another and 
more Latinized form of this, it seems to me in- 
dubitable that carnelevarium must also mean " the 
taking away of flesh." Prof. Skeat declares levarium 
to be = levamen, and to mean "mitigation, consola- 
tion," but there is not the very slightest tittle of 
evidence in support of this. Besides this, when 
Prof. Skeat assigns to levamen and levarium the 
meaning of " solace," he is obliged to give caro the 
unusual meaning of " flesh = body," a meaning 

the Milanese dialect car-leve (Sanf Albino, Diez), both 
meaning carnival; and in the Sicilian and Milanese 
dialects livari and leve represent the Ital. inf. levare. 
Charpentier (in Due.) tells us that carnelevale was a 
Milanese word, and car-leve~carnelevare still remains iu 
Milanese. Carnelevare (or carnem- levare) would be a 
word formed on the same plan as carnem-iaxare, men- 
tioned in note *. 

J Prof. Skeat says (second edition) that he " can find 
no warrant for any such extraordinary interpretation of 
levamen" He evidently has not consulted Diefenbach's 
' Glossarium,' for there I find as one of the meanings 
given to levamen "uffhebung," of which the Mod. H.O. 
equivalent Aufhebung=lifting up, and also removal, 
suppression. As levare in Low Latin had come chiefly 
to mean " to lift up and take away " it was to be ex- 
pected that levamen also would sometimes participate in 
this change of meaning. 

This is No. 10, where it is explained debito 
liberare "=" to free or release " (a classical usage). But 
even here there is the notion of taking away, removing. 
Indeed, the verb levare seems to obtain its meaning of 
"alleviate, relieve, ease " chiefly from the notion of lift- 
ing up, and so taking away (a burden or a load). See 


7" S. IV. JOLT 30, '87.] 



which it cannot have in any of the other words in 
Low Latin, Italian, or Spanish denoting carnival 
and compounded with caro or its equivalents. 
These words are : (1) carni(s)privium, privi- 
carnium, carnem-laxare, the Ital. carnasciale (see 
note *), and the Span, carries tohndas. And we 
may also add, I think, the late and modern 
Greek aVo/cpecos (or aVo'/fpeas or diroKpia). And 
(2) camps') capium, carnisprenium (or carni- 
priniuiri), and carnivora.\\ In all these words 
caro and its equivalents are indubitably used in 
the meaning of " flesh = meat," and so it was also, 
I contend, in carnelevarium and carnelevale. In 
carnelevamen it may possibly have both meanings, 
but this is the only case. As Prof. Skeat has now 
abandoned the derivation of carnival from this 
wordlf I need not contest the meaning of the 
came, though I myself believe it to have been 
generally understood to mean " meat." 

In conclusion, Prof. Skeat seems to be unaware 
that the days of fasting in some cases began (or 
even now begin) earlier than Ash Wednesday, 
and so he accuses Littro and others of misunder- 
standing carnelevarium, and taking it to be a day 
of fasting when it was really a day of feasting.** In 
the 'Diet, of Christian Antiquities,' s.v. "Carnis- 
privium," we are told, on the authority of Macer, 
that the word was especially applied to Quinqua- 
gesima Sunday, not because this was itself a fast 
day,tt but because it was " the last day on which 

|| It will be noticed that I have here divided the terms 
which have been used to denote the Carnival season into 
two classes, of which the first (to which I myself would 
add carnelevamen, carnelevarium, carnelevale, and 
carnival) includes those which signify the taking away 
or abandonment of meat ; whilst the second contains 
such as signify the taking or even the devouring of 
meat. Of this second class the words car ni(s) capium and 
carnivora seem to have been more especially, or perhaps 
exclusively, devoted to Shrove Tuesday, the last day 
before the fast, and this seems to have been the case 
with carnasciale in the first class also. Carnisprenium 
seems to be=carnisprivium, and to denote, like it, the 
three days immediately preceding Ash Wednesday. 

^f Scheler and Littre, however, defend it. Carnele- 
vamen might no doubt form carnelevame in Ital., just as 
examen has made esame, but I know of no instance in 
which a medial m has become /, and therefore I must 
reject this derivation. 

** I cannot see that Charpentier limits carnelevarium 
to the one day, Quinquagesima Sunday, as Prof. Skeat 
seems to think. He no doubt included under it the fol- 
lowing Monday and Tuesday, for he gives carniprivium 
as its equivalent, which commonly included those two 
days. And the equivalent plural form carnilevaria also 
points to this. 

ft In the Roman Catholic Church no Sunday is ever a 
fast day. Formerly, however, abstinence from flesh meat 
was enjoined on the Sundays in Lent, but " the faithful 
now receive an annual dispensation from the abstin- 
ence " ('Cath. Diet.,' quoted above, s.v. "Abstinence"). 
The reason that Sunday is not a fast day is obviously 
because it was on that day that Christ rose from the 
dead. Quinquagesima Sunday, therefore, though nomin- 
ally included among the three fast-days called carnele- 

it was permitted to eat flesh, the Lent fast anciently 
cemmencing on the following day " (i. e. t on the 
Monday preceding Ash Wednesday). And Du- 
cange tells us precisely the same thing on different 
authority, though he evidently also includes in it 
the following Monday and Tuesday, whilst Char- 
pentier is blamed by Prof. Skeat for defining 
carnelevarium , which he says = carnipriviurrij in 
very much the same way. And so again in the 
* Dice. Enciclop. de la leng. Esp.,' Madrid, 1 872, 1 
find carnes tolendas defined "los ties dias que pre- 
ceden al miercoles de ceniza," so that here again 
Quinquagesima Sunday is included. In the Greek 
church the abstention from meat began, and still, I 
believe, begins, much further back, viz., from Sexa- 
gesima Sunday. See the 'Diet, of Chr. Ant.,' s.v. 
" Apocreos." And even at the present time in the 
Koman Catholic Church, which has never en- 
couraged the riotous living and the revelry of the 
Carnival, I have been informed by Roman Catholics 
that the priests recommend their hearers to prepare 
themselves for Lent by abstinence from pleasures 
as early as Septuagesima Sunday; and this is more 
or less borne out by what I find (s. v. " Carnival ") 
in Addis and Arnold's ' Catholic Diet.' (third edit., 
London, 1885), where we are told that "the church 
from Septuagesima onwards assumes the garb of 
penance and prepares her children, by the saddened 
tone of her office, for the Lenten season." 

We see, therefore, that the Carnival, while it 
meant feasting and revelry to the great majority 
probably, meant fasting or abstinence and reclusipn 
to many members (and those the more influential 
ones) of the Roman Catholic Church ; and we can 
consequently understand how it was that two sets 
of words, opposite in signification, were invented 
(see note ||) to mark the two opposite ways in 
which the Carnival season was passed. The victory 
would seem to have remained with the partisans 
of the abstinence from flesh, for the majority of 
of the terms and according to my view the great 
majority, including the word carnival itselfJt d- 

varium (just as the Sundays in Lent are nominally in- 
cluded in Lent) could not be kept as a fast day. 

JJ The terms included in the first class in note || 
were probably invented by the partisans of abstinence, 
whilst those of class 2 must certainly have originated with, 
and have been chiefly confined to, the partisans of feast- 
ing and riot. It is far from unlikely, however, that 
among these latter there were some at least who, whilst 
enjoying the present, contrasted it regretfully with the 
gloom so close at band, and these would think the words 
of the first class aptly chosen. And that this was so is 
shown by the fact that the latest corruption, and the 
one that has (in its different forms) superseded the rest 
and has met with general approval and acceptance the 
Italian carnevale means to every Italian "flesh, fare- 
well ! " (Diez. says, " Abschied des Fleisches "), for vale 
is not only Latin but Italian. Prof. Skeat says that our 
spelling with i is a mistake, that it should be e or o ; but 
surely if carnival is=, as he maintains, carnis levarium, 
the i is strictly correct, and carnilevarium and carmle* 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7s.iv.JuLY3o,'87. 

note this ; and this is as it should be, so it appears 
to me, though I am very far from being the advo- 
cate of fasting or of the strict observance of Lent 
for surely no religious observance should be usherec 
in by those who believe in it, and intend to keep it 
bv scenes of degrading dissipation ! 



Gradually, as more Anglo-Saxon texts are pub- 
lished, new words are added to our dictionaries and 
quotations are found for those until now known 
only from vocabularies or glosses. In a few cases 
where Prof. Skeat, in his 'Etym. Diet.,' says "the 
Anglo-Saxon " word is not found, we are able to 
indicate it, thus rendering his etymologies more cer- 
tain or proving the trustworthiness of his sources. 
It is worth mentioning on the maxim of honour 
to whom honour is due how frequently the 
publication of a hitherto unpublished text proves 
the carefulness and trustworthiness of Somner's 
work, which, experience shows it more and more, 
has been undeservedly doubted. 

In the following I give a few notes which I 
hope Prof. Skeat will allow a place among the 
fresh evidence which he says is constantly being 
adduced, and perhaps also, here and there among 
the additions or corrections which are needed, but 
have as yet escaped his notice. I aim at supple- 
menting the information given by Prof. Skeat. 
Three parts of the great Dictionary of the Philo- 
logical Society having now been published, I 
shall, for completeness sake, insert in their proper 
places the words where this large work gives 
matter of importance for the etymology, but this 
by reference only, to avoid unnecessary extension. 
This work I indicate with the letters D(ict.). 

A. Add. explanation of a in " go a-begging," &c., cf. 
D.M., 2, col. 3. 

Abase. Regular mod. repres. of O.Tr. would be abease, 
v. and g. On influence of base, cf. D.M., i.v., 8, a. 

Abash. The parall. " Du verbazen " should be ac- 
cepted with caution. Cf. Franck, ' Etymol. Woorden- 
boek d. Nederl. Taal.,' i.v. " Bazelen." 

Abate (2). Leg, term=to intrude forcibly. Cf. D.M., 

Abdomen. Known since 1541. Cf. D.M., i.v. 

Abduct. D.M., i.v. 

Abet. Known as verb since 1380. Cf. D.M., i.v. 

Abroad. D.M., i.v., compares as to idiom a-long and 
at large. 

Abt>tnt. "Ens ia short for sens." Ens if> rather a 
(pbilologically speaking) modern formation direct from 
esse, under influence of tbe other pres. part, in ens. I 
do not know in Latin any other instances of initial * 
before vowels being dropped. Greek wv ( = ldjv = i 
is of course no parall. for ens. 

vamen would be more accurate (cf. carniprivium, carni- 
capium, and ^arniprinium) than the ordinary spelling 
carnelevarium and carnelevamen. 

Abstract. First in use as p. prt. and adj. since 1387 ; as 
subst, since 1528 ; as verb since 1542. Cf. D.M., i.v. 

Absurd. Tbis is a troublesome word. Dr. Murray 
(D.M., i.v.) adopts, seemingly without any doubt, the 
derivation "ab, off. here intensive, and surdus, deaf, 
inaudible, insufferable to the ear." Prof. Skeat admits 
that ab may possibly have an intensive force be- 
fore s%rd%s=harsh-sounding ; but prefers to take it as 
derived from ab, away, and surdus, " indistinct, harsh- 
sounding ; also deaf." It seems scarcely possible to doubt 
that surdus is a derivative from tbe root swar, to sound, 
whence Sanscrit svara, a tone, a sound, accent, vowel. 
If so, the first meaning would more likely be that of 
sounding, whence, through noisy, we come to disagreeably 
sounding on the one band, and to indistinctly sounding, 
difficult to be distinguished, on the other. This latter 
meaning allows of deriving surdus=&&Tk, dim (surdus 
color=dim colour), sordes=dirt, &c., from the same 
root, without imposing the necessity of adopting a root 
svar=to be dirty (cf. Skeat, in v." Swart"), or a separate 
stem svarda (cf. Vanicek, p. 348). Is this combination 
correct then we must, with Van., hold deaf to be a 
comparatively late and metaphorical meaning, developed 
out of the notion dim, indistinct, and though in Latin 
dictionaries justly put first, as being the most common 
for etymological purposes it should stand last. As to the 
force it has in our word here, I would suggest that it 
stands=sounding, with the prefix a&=mis, as in abuse. 
It is then a perfect parallel to absonus, which is used in 
combination with it and has the same meaning of sound- 
ing disagreably. If we want to accept Prof. Skeat's notion 
that it has the force of harsh sounding, we shall have to 
admit that ab has here intensive force. Prof. Skeat's 
explanation away is to me unintelligible aioay=mdis- 
tinct ? awa#=harsh-sounding ? Ab in Latin with inten- 
sive force is not unknown ; abamita, abavia, absocer, 
abhiemare are instances. 

Newton School, Rock Ferry. 

(To be continued.) 

few facts and dates are omitted from the biography 
of this great Kentish warrior and statesman in 
;he lately published volume of the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography. 7 The writer seems not to have 
met with an admirable and trustworthy paper 
published ten years ago in vol. xi. of Archceologia 
Cantiana by Mr. J. G. Waller on ' The Lords of 
Cobham and their Monuments.' Here many diffi- 
culties, such as the confusion made by Dugdale 
between John the second and John the third Lord 
Cobham, are satisfactorily cleared up, and the dates 
of the deaths of the two lords are given from their 
well-known beautiful and interesting brasses in 
Oobham Church. It may be useful to give here 
from Mr. Waller's paper) some of the dates 
omitted. Henry de Cobham, the first Lord Cob- 
tiam, died August 25, 1339, and was succeeded by 
sis eldest son John, the second lord, who died 
February 25, 1354/5. His eldest son (by his first 
wife Joan, the daughter of Sir John Beauchamp 
of Stoke-under- Hainden) John succeeded him as 
>hird Lord Cobham, and was first summoned to 
Parliament September 20, 1355. In 1359 he went 
with Edward III. to France, and was made a ban- 

7"- S. IV, JULY 30, '87,] 



neret in 1370. la 1380/1 (not 1370/1) he had a 
licence to crenellate and fortify his castle of Cowl- 
ing; and here it may be observed that it was 
scarcely necessary to give Hasted as an authority 
for the enamelled copper inscription with the arms 
of John de Cobham over the eastern entrance of 
the castle, as it may be seen there any day, in 
nearly as perfect a condition as when first put up, 
more than five hundred years ago. (An account 
of Cowling Castle and a plate of this inscription 
may also be found in vol. xi. of Archceologia Can- 
tiana, p. 134.) 

John, Lord Cobham, died January 10, 1407/8. 
His wife, Margaret Courtenay, whose brass is at 
Cobham, had died in 1395, and their only daughter 
Joan, who was married in 1362 to Sir John de la 
Pole, had died in her parents' lifetime, about 1388, 
leaving an only daughter Joan, who succeeded her 
grandfather, and whose five husbands were (1) Sir 
Robert Hemenhale, who died in 1391, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey ; (2) Sir Reginald 
Braybroke (not Gerard, as stated in the bio- 
graphy), who died in 1405, and who was the 
father of Joan, the only child who survived his 
wife : (3) Sir Nicholas Hawberk, who died at 
Cowling Castle October 9, 1407, and whose fine 
brass, together with that of Sir Reginald Bray- 
broke, are side by side in Cobham Church ; (4) 
Sir John Oldcastle, executed as a Lollard in 1417; 
(5) Sir John Harpeden, who survived his wife for 
twenty-four years, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey in 1458. Joan, Lady Cobham, according 
to her brass in Cobham Church, died herself 
January 13, 1433/4. E. C. C. 

ARBOR DAT IN CANADA. ' N. & Q.' has traced 
the history of many old-fashioned institutions, and 
times and days set apart for something special ; 
but here is something quite new, which perhaps 
in time may be an old institution also. The Edu- 
cation Department of Ontario has appointed a day, 
to be called Arbor Day. The following extract 
from the official regulations will clearly explain 
the objects of Arbor Day : 

" The first Friday in May should be set apart by the 
trustees of every rural school and incorporated village 
for the purpose of planting shade trees, making flower- 
beds, and otherwise improving and beautifying the school 

"Now that Arbor Day in spring is one of the school 
institutions of the province, it is desirable that the 
school grounds, and the outside strip in front of the 
school house and on the street, or road side, should be 
judiciously planted. Care should be taken to select the 
most suitable trees and shrubs for that purpose, consider- 
ing the nature of the soil and the size of the school lot, 
&c. Flowers, too, should be provided for the beds in 
front of the buildings, and, if practicable, at the sides of 
the walks leading to the school entrances." 

These regulations are accompanied by very full 
instructions as to the kinds of trees and shrubs most 
suitable for transplanting, and the best times and 

ways of doing it. The trees are given by farmers 
and other friends of the children and teachers 
sometimes the children make an expedition to the 
nearest wood and bring back for the school grounds 
saplings of elm, maple, and other forest trees. 
Might not a custom of this kind be introduced 
with advantage among the rural schools of Great 
Britain and Ireland ? W. H. PATTERSON. 


SLIPSHOD ENGLISH. I am sorry to see that the 
use of slipshod English is on the increase, and that 
it finds its way even into ' N. & Q.' What can be 
said in defence of the following paragraph in a 
communication anent the * Old Records of Ulster 
Office/ 7 th S. iii. 414 ? " Information upon Irish 

visitations will be found ten to twenty years 

ago in ' N. & Q.' " What J. McC. B. means to 
say, no doubt, is that such information will be 
found by referring to 'N. & Q.'of a date between 
ten and twenty years since. I do hope that the 
Editor of < N. & Q.' will try and help us all to 
improve our English style. For myself, I will 
promise to be a docile scholar. 


7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

ley's 'Round about Piccadilly' there is an amusing 
account (p. 225) of Cromwell, as follows : 

" After dining at the Lodge he on his return put the 
Secretary inside and took a fancy to drive the coach home 
himself. Henry Oldenburg, agent to England from Lower 
Saxony, had presented Cromwell six German horses, 
which on this occasion the Protector tried to drive ; but, 
using the whip too freely, he irritated the spirited horses, 
and they ran away. He was soon dashed to the ground, 
and, to add to his danger, a pistol went off in his pocket 
as he fell." 

In the forty-third Annual Report of the Deputy- 
Keeper of Public Records, Appendix, p. 50, there 
occurs the following extract from a diary of the 
Swedish minister, which presents Cromwell and 
his court in what to many will be a new light : 

" August 11. Went with Fleetword to Hampton Court, 
picking up Whitelock in Chelsea ; eat oysters at Hamp- 
ton and dined with Cromwell, Fleetwood, Whitelock, 
Lawrence, President of the Council, Claypole, Master of 
the Horse; went to the gallery to see old pictures; 
heard music ; went into the park ; killed a stag ; then 
to bowling green and played bowls; then kissed the 
hand of Cromwell's wife and his daughter's face ; then 
drank a glass of Spanish wine and returned to London. 
Both in going and returning an axle broke." 

I send you the extract, as it may interest some 
of your readers. SCOTT SURTEES. 

POET VERSUS POET. It is sometimes too readily 
assumed that where two poets have expressed the 
same thought, in terms which bear a general 
resemblance, one must infallibly have borrowed 
from the other, either of design or unconsciously ; 
and yet it may have happened that the later writer 
has in perfect good faith set forth that which to 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [7as.iv. JULY 30/87. 

him was an original idea, the likeness to something 
already expressed being merely accidental. 

But if the wits of poets have occasionally jumped 
together in accord, they have also (as the following 
extracts will show) justled at other times in opposi- 
tion. Here then, at any rate, no suspicion of 
unfair agreement can exist, as the writers, so far 
from shedding their ink in the same cause, have 
tilted with their pens to maintain conflicting 

Solitude : 

0, for a lodge in some vast wilderness, 
Some boundless contiguity of shade, 
Where rumour of oppression and deceit, 
Of unsuccessful or successful war 
Might never reach me more. 

Cowper, ' Task,' ii. 1. 

To view alone 

The fairest scenes of land and deep, 
With none to listen and reply 
To thoughts with which my heart beat high 
Were irksome for, whate'er my mood, 
In sooth I love not soiitude. 

Byron, * Bride of Abydos,' i. 3. 
Ignorance : 

From ignorance our comfort flows, 
The only wretched are the wise. 

Prior, To the Hon. C. Montague.' 
The truest characters of ignorance 
Are vanity, and pride, and arrogance ; 
As blind men use to bear their noses higher 
Than those that have their eyes and sight entire. 

The sea : 

I 'm on the sea ! I 'm on the eea ! 
I am where I would ever be ; 
With the blue above and the blue below, 
And silence wberesoe'er I go. 

Bryan W. Procter, ' The Sea.' 
Ocean ! thou dreadful and tumultuous home 
Of dangers, at eternal war with man. 
Wide opening, and loud roaring still for more ! 
Too faithful mirror 1 how dost thou reflect 
The melancholy face of human life ! 

Young, ' Night Thoughts.' 
Country life : 

Mine be a cot beside the hill; 
A bee-hive's hum shall soothe my ear ; 
A willowy brook that turns a mill, 
With many a fall, shall linger near. 

Samuel Rogers, ' A Wish.' 
Your love in a cottage is hungry, 
Your vine is a nest for flies 
Your milkmaid shocks the graces, 
And simplicity talks of pies ! 
You lie down to your shady slumber, 
And wake with a bug in your ear ; 
And your damsel that walks in the morning 
IB shod like a mountainer. 

Silence in woe : 

In all the silent manliness of grief. 

Goldsmith, ' Deserted Village.' 

Give Borrow words : the grief that does not speak 

Whispers the o'cr-fraught heart, and bids it break. 

Shakespeare, ' Macbeth.' 

Love in absence : 

Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 

Bayly, ' Isle of Beauty.' 

And out of mind as soon as out of sight. 

Lord Brooke, Sonnet Ivi. 

57, Holly dale Road, S.B. 

In an article on * Oliver Cromwell and the 
Cathedrals,' by CUTHBERT BEDE, Oct. 12, 1872 
(4 tn S. x. 297), the writer incidentally mentioned 
a scene at St. Cuthbert's shrine, in Durham 
Cathedral, when the ministrant monks, being 
attacked at the altar by the retainers of Neville of 
Eaby, were compelled to defend themselves with 
large wax tapers, with which they laid about them 
so effectually that they compelled their assailants 
to beat a retreat. History repeats itself. Here is 
a scene that occurred on June 9, 1887 : 

" A strange scene was witnessed yesterday morning in 
the parish church of Clignancourt, one of the suburbs of 
Paris. Several little girls were kneeling near the altar, 
preparing to make their first communion, which was 
being administered by the parish priest. As the cele- 
brant came up to one of the children he suddenly stopped, 
and, regarding her attentively for a few seconds, passed 
on without giving her the sacrament. The girl's mother 
and aunt, two powerful fish wives' of Clignancourt, seeing 
what had taken place, instantly left their seats, and 
going up to the cure belaboured him most unmercifully 
with their umbrellas. The priest, taken aback by the 
violence and suddenness of the assault, fled for safety to 
the sacristy, followed by the beadle of the church, who 
tried to keep back the excited women. But his inter- 
position was vain, for, pushing him aside, the women ' 
dashed into the vestry and renewed their chastisement 
of the priest. They were joined by other women, 
who, having nothing about them which could be con- 
verted into weapons, actually seized the long wax 
candles on the altar and struck the priest with them. In 
the mean time there was a stampede among the congre- 
gation. The children were screaming with fear, and a 
cry of ' Fire ! ' was raised, which caused a general rush 
to the door. Some of the children were hurt in trying 
to get out." 

This is a curious coincidence. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

S.W.S. In Mr. Louis Fagan's account of the 
Reform Club, I observe that the monogram S.W.S., 
at one corner of the grand tessellated pavement of 
the hall, is assigned, at a wild guess, to William 
Spottiswoode ! It comprises the initials of the 
father of Alfred Singer, Esq., whose monogram in 
another corner is correctly explained. This mono- 
gram of Samuel Weller Singer is familiar to the 
possessors of his numerous valuable reprints and 
editions. W. WATKISS LLOYD. 

"DOUBLE ENTENDRE." A scholarly corre- 
spondent, SIR JAMES A. PICTON, recently used in 
your columns the ill-constructed phrase double 
entendre. On my pointing out what I took to be 

7" 8. IV. JOLT 30, '87.] 



a very pardonable slip, he said (I am violating no 
confidence): "Double entendre, whether right or 
wrong, has been naturalized in English, and will be 
found in many of the best dictionaries. Had I 
been writing in French I should have used double 
entente." Here, then, is the paradoxical proposi- 
tion : Can a phrase known to be incorrect be 
correctly used simply because it is given in the 
dictionaries ? ANDREW W. TUER. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

BELLINGHAM. It is a great pity that Mr. Leslie 
Stephen's grand effort at giving us an account of 
our famous men should not even mention a man 
celebrated by his infamy, i. e., Bellingham, the 
murderer of Spencer Perceval. At the same time, 
when one takes up the first volume, one reads 
about " Abbadie," who was a Frenchman. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

be much obliged if any of the readers of ' N. & Q. ; 
can supply me with the Christian names, dates of 
birth, marriage, and death of the children of 
Richard, second son of Sir Peter Brooke of Mere, 
by his marriage with Margaret, dau. and heiress 
of Robert Charnock of Charnock ; and also of the 
children of Thomas Brooke of Astley, co. Lancaster 
(eldest son of the above-mentioned Richard Brooke 
and Margaret Charnock), and Margaret Wharton, 
his wife. 

The pedigree of this family in Burke's ' Peerage 
and Baronetage/ under "Brooke of Norton," differs 
in several important particulars from that contained 
in the * Landed Gentry' (edition 1850) under 
" Charnock of Charnock." The following is from 
the ' Peerage and Baronetage ': 

" Sir Peter Brooke of Astley Hall and Mere, M.P. for 
Cheshire, 1567 [sic], who died in 1685, leaving two sons 

1. Thomas of Mere, ancestor of the Brookes of Mere ; 

2. Richard of Astley Hall, m. Margaret, dau. and heir 
of Robert Charnock of Charnock, Lancashire, and had 
with other issue 1. Peter of Astley Hall, now repre- 
sented by the Townley Parkers of Cuerden Hall; 2. 
Thomas of Gray's Inn and Wilmslow, ancestor of Edward 
Brooke, Esq." 

In this pedigree there are two clear mistakes. 
If Sir Peter Brooke represented Cheshire in Par- 
liament in 1567 and died in 1685, he must have 
lived to a patriarchal age. This is merely a mis- 
print, but it has appeared in several successive 
editions of the Peerage and Baronetage.' Secondly, 
Sir Peter Brooke is wrongly described as " of Astley 
Hall," for in Baines's 'History of Lancashire,' vol. ii., 
we find that " in the reigns of John and Henry III. 

Adam de Chernoc, the first lord bearing the terri- 
torial name, appears to have been joint lord of 
Astley with Sir Henry Lee, Knt., and was the 
progenitor of a long line of feudal lords of Char- 
nock, Astley, and many neighbouring lands." 
Astley Hall came into the Brooke family by the 
marriage of Sir Peter's son Richard with the 
Charnock heiress. 

The pedigree in the 'Landed Gentry* is thus 
stated : 

"Margaret Charnock, m. Richard Brooke, second son 
of Sir Peter Brooke of Mere, co. Chester, Knt., by whom 
she had five sons, four of whom, died t.p. The other, 
Thomas Brooke, Esq.. of Astley, m. 1716, Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Wharton, of London, and by her 
had two sons, Richard Wharton Brooke, Esq., of Astley 
and Charnock, who died s.p., and Peter Brooke, pos- 
sessed of Astley and Charnock, 1749, who m. Susanna, 
dau. of James Crookhall, and by her had Susanna." 

This last-mentioned Susanna was her father's 
heiress, and married, first, Thomas Townley 
Parker, Esq., and, secondly, Sir Henry Philip 
Hoghton, Bart. 

It will be observed that the ' Peerage and 
Baronetage ' makes Peter Brooke (the ancestor of 
the Townley-Parkers) eldest son of Richard Brooke 
and Margaret Charnock, while the ' Landed 
Gentry ' states that the only son of this marriage 
who left issue was Thomas Brooke, all the other 
four sons having died s.p. 

Who was Thomas Brooke of Gray's Inn and 
Wilmslow ? If identical with the Thomas Brooke 
of Astley who married Margaret Wharton, this 
Thomas must have had another son besides 
Richard Wharton and Peter, otherwise he could 
not have been ancestor of Mr. Edward Brooke, for 
Richard Wharton died s.p. t and Peter apparently 
left an only daughter Susanna. In the last edition 
of the ' Landed Gentry ' Mr. Edward Brooke is, 
under " Brooke of Wexham," stated to be de- 
scended from " Sir Peter Brooke of Astley Hall 
and Mere," but the pedigree commences with Ben- 
jamin Brooke of Eaton Mersey, who died 1809. 
My interest in this matter arises from the fact 
that I am descended from Thomas Brooke and 
Margaret Wharton through their daughter Eliza- 
beth, who on June 15, 1749, m. Henry Pennee of 
Knutsford, Cheshire, who was himself related to 
the Brookes of Mere. 


12, Onslow Gardens, S.W. 

OLDYS. Are any of the manuscripts of this 
" thirsty fly " of literature still unpublished ? His 
copy of Langbaine, now, I believe, in the British 
Museum, was elaborately annotated, and must be 
of priceless value. Have the notes ever been 
transcribed and printed, or any part of them ? 
From Oldys to Coxeter is a natural transition. 
The latter obtained possession of Oldys's first and 
partially annotated edition of Langbaine, and in 
all probability transferred many of the notes to his 

NOTES AND QUERIES. V* s. iv. JULY so, '87. 

own interleaved copy of Gildon's * Lives/ Is this 
Gildon still in existence and accessible ? Can any 
of your readers refer me to any MS. sources of in- 
formation touching the late dramatic poets of the 
seventeenth century, from 1670, say, to 1690? 
Contributions thankfully received. W. A. 

Trin. Coll., Camb. 

CAPT. CARTWRIGHT. Is anything known re- 
specting Capt. Cartwright, Comptroller of the 
Navy in 1641, beyond what is mentioned in the 
fifteenth chapter of Campbell's ' British Admirals' ? 
Where did he die? Who were his parents; to 
what family did he belong ; and did he leave any 
descendants? Is it known what his Christian 
name was ? H. L. G. 

Devon and Exeter Institution. 

PEPPER ALLEY. Johnson says, in 'Boswell,' 
" People live as long in Pepper Alley as on Salis- 
bury Plain." Can anybody suggest which of the 
three Pepper Alleys was likely to have been in the 
Doctor's mind ? One was near Piccadilly, one in 
Goswell Street, and another in Southwark. Per- 
haps Southwark is the most likely, as he might 
have landed at Pepper Stairs, which adjoined, in 
going from time to time by boat to Thrale's 
brewery. C. A. WARD. 

any of your readers explain the italicized words 
and allusions in the following ? 

1. "But whether Euphues lympe with Vulcan, as 
borne lame, or go on stilts with Amphionax, for lack 
of legs, I trust I may say, that his feet sholde have ben. 
old* Helena " (p. 217, 1. 26). 

2. Making a sta(c)ke of what they should use for a 
stomacher" (p. 288,1. 18;. 

3. " A leane Gofer" (p. 324, 1. 1). 

4. ' For as the Phrygian Harmonic being raoued to 

edition M37 r^! grMt n0) " " <" 386 > 1 35 - ia 8 "* 
6. " The eyes of Caithritiuis (Catkerismes) (p. 439, 

N.B. The references are to Arber's reprint. 


work on seventeenth century trade tokens, p. 110 
I observe the following description of a token 
issued from Bishop Stortford : obv., EDWARD 
HIS . HALFPENY. An illustration is also given 
(plate xm. No. 8). On examining the latter, one 
can see that the animal represented is not a stag 
IS? a reindeer - 4 n entf y in Pepys's 'Diary' 
(Mynors Bright edition) confirms this opinion : 

' Oct. 7, 1667. Before night come to Bishop Stafford 

when Lowther and his friend did meet us again and 

earned us to the Raynedeer, where Mrs. Ay'nsworth 

) lived heretofore at Cambridge, and whom I knew 

better than they think, do live." 

In the i*xt and in a note further particulars 
about this woman appear. p. ^. 

W. EIDER, M.A., is author of 'The Twins,' a 
tragi-comedy, acted at the private house, Salisbury 
Court, 4to., 1655. The ' Biographica Dramatica ' 
says the play was acted in 1613. Was Mr. Eider 
an M.A. of the University of Cambridge? 


QUOTATIONS. Where does Wycherley describe 
a coxcomb as "ugly all over, with the affectation 
of the fine gentleman " ? 

" Munera ista Fortunae putatis ? Insidise sunt." 
These words are said to be Seneca's. 

Where does Locke say that "upon asking a 
blind man what he thought scarlet was, he an- 
swered that he believed it was like the sound of 
a trumpet"? 

"The best critic that ever wrote, speaking of 
some passages in Homer which appear extravagant 
or frivolous, says, indeed, that they are dreams, 
but the dreams of Jupiter." Who was the critic ? 

E. S. 

A SINGULAR CREST. In the Heralds' Visita- 
tion of Northamptonshire, in 1682, the arms and 
crest of William Eandolph of Tocester (Towcester) 
are described. The latter is said to be "an ante- 
lope's head (heraldic) or, holding in his mouth a 
pillar argent, the base resting on the wreath." 
Can any one conjecture the origin of such a sin- 
gular device ? This crest is borne by the Ameri- 
can branch of the family, but the pillar has lost 
the form of a pillar, and looks more like a bone, 
or a horn, or the leafless branch of a tree ; but 
there can be no doubt it is the pillar degenerated, 
as these Eandolphs are of the same stock as 
William Eandolph of Towcester. I have the im- 
pression of a very good seal, which probably be- 
longed to Sir John Eandolph of Williamsburgh, 
Virginia (died 1736), in which the thing in the 
antelope's mouth resembles a thigh-bone. The 
other branches of the family bear simply the ante- 
lope's head, formerly heraldic, later natural. 


Ryde, I.W. 

BUCKDEN, HUNTS. In December, 1837, Spencer 
Thornton, Vicar of Wendover, Bucks, for twelve 
years subsequently, was ordained priest by the 
Bishop of Lincoln at the above place. Was this 
Bishop Maltby; and was this the date of the last 
ordination there? The bishop preached in the 
evening in his private chapel. Is this still stand- 
ing? It was not shown me when I visited the 
palace many years ago. M.A.Oxon. 

FICTITIOUS IMPRINTS. Would it not be a good 
thing for the Incorporated Society of Authors to 
expose the frauds of those publishers who put 
fictitious imprints on the books which they issue 
to their customers ? I have such a book, published 

by Messrs. A , which professes to be also 

printed by Messrs. A , but which I happen to 

7"S. IV. JOLT 30, '87.] 


know was printed by Messrs. B. & C. Hereafter, 
when this book becomes the subject of an historical 
inquiry, it will be made to appear, though with- 
out any ground, that Messrs. A were printers 

in London in the reign of Queen Victoria, and the 

real history of the inception of the book will then 

be difficult to ascertain. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N,W. 

CLIFFE. In the publications of the Taunton 
division of the Archaeological Society, I am told, is 
an account of the old Abbey of Cleeve, or St. Mary 
Redcliffe, and that among the benefactors were 
the "Cliffes." Who were they, and where did 
they flourish? Were they owners of Cliffe-Pypard ? 

Y. S. M. 

HERALDRY. In Helmens's edition of Sieb- 
macher (1705) are given the arms of a certain 
number of families, natives of Hamburg. By 
whom were these granted ? L. E. S. 

KNIFE AND FORK. The custom of leaving knife 
and fork crossed on one's plate after eating, when 
did it fall into disuse ? Was it at the time of the 
French Revolution, and a result of French in- 
fidelity ? Who wrote the following lines concern- 
ing the custom ? 

When he 'a finished his refection, 

Knife and fork he never lays 
Cross- wise, to my recollection, 

As I do for Jesus' praise. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

KIRBY HALL. I have a copper medal : The 
obverse, " Kirby Hall "; underneath, a building 
with the sun radiating upon it, and an arbour on 
the hill to the left ; arms below, with date "28 Apr. 
1774." Reverse, male and female busts to right, 
inscribed " Pet. Muilman A. 68. Mary Chiswell 
A. 61. Living in Lawful Wedlock 40 Years." Ex., 
" T. Pingo F." I shall be glad of any particulars 
respecting the issue of this medal, also in what 
county Kirby Hall is situated. JOHN TAYLOR. 


FRITH, PAINTER. I have some good drawings 
in black and gold, signed " Frith, 1843." I want 
to know their value and some particulars of the 
artist. All I know is that he is not the celebrated 
man of to-day, as I had imagined, but the execu- 
tion is admirable. F.S.A.Scot. 

WICKHAM. I am anxious to obtain some par- 
ticulars of the family of Wickham, formerly resi- 
dent in Antigua, of whom was Col. John Wick- 
ham, of Old North Sound in that island, whose 
daughter and coheir Ann married Thomas Freeman 
(vide 'Antigua and the Antiguans '); also of Judge 
Watkins, temp. Queen Anne, who is said to 
have married a Miss Griffin, niece or cousin of 
Lord Griffin of Braybrooke, and whose grand- 

daughter, Esther Kerr, married Mr. Joseph Wick- 
ham. I shall feel much obliged if some corre- 
spondent of ' N. & Q.' can tell me to what 
branch of the family these Wickhams belonged, 
and when they settled in Antigua, where they 
seem to have had an estate called " Wickhams." 
Ashburton, Devon. 

EARTHEN MOUND. Act 13 & 14 Viet. c. 86, re- 
fers to some local improvements then going on in 
Edinburgh by building on " the Earthen Mound." 
What is this tumulus or barrow ? A. H. 

OAPT. GLASS. I should be obliged for any in- 
formation about the above, who was murdered by 
his mutinous crew off the coast of Waterford 
about the end of the last century. Also as to a 
book written by him on the Canary Islands. 

T. J. H. 

ATTORNEY AND SOLICITOR. What is the legal 
difference between these two names? I ask because 
I find in the Law List for 1852 the heading 
" London Attorneys," which in late years has been 
altered to " London Solicitors." As the Law List 
is published by authority, there is probably some 
reason for this change in the title of the " lower 
branch of the legal profession." 


Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

ST. ELENE. Who was St. Elene the virgin? 
Her day is mentioned in an English document of 
the ninth of Elizabeth. Is it an error of the 
writer for St. Helen the empress, the mother of 
Constantino; or was there another St. Helen 
honoured in this country ? ANON. 

JUSTICE MAULE. Will some reader of 'N. & Q.' 
tell me where I can find the celebrated sentence 
of Baron Maule upon the pauper bigamist ? 

W. H. 

any further confirmation of the fact that the author 
of ' Hudibras ' painted a portrait of Oliver Crom- 
well than that " Dr. Nash says that he heard of 
a portrait of Oliver Cromwell by him"? (See 
'Aldine Poets," 'Butler/ p. vi.) 


natured reader kindly inform me where I can con- 
sult some newspapers such as they are of the 
latter end of 1688 ? I have searched the London 
Gazette for that year vainly for what I require. The 
Mercurius Publicus was, I fancy, the serial that 
then most nearly resembled what we now under- 
stand by a newspaper. Unfortunately the British 
Museum is deficient in the journalistic issues of 
;his year. I have also searched, but not been able 
;o find any copies, in the Guildhall Library. Does 
the Bodleian possess a file ? NEMO. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. L7<" s. iv. JULY so, 


over and settled there. These settlers found in this 
"new world" an ancient or aboriginal population. 
Is it not a fact that there are " Indian " settle- 

ments existing side by side with European settle- 
ments, and that the new races have not, or only in 
a very slight degree, mixed with the old ? If this 
fact be admitted, as it must be, there is nothing 
" astounding " in the conclusion that the same thing, 
or a similar thing, happened in these islands in the 
? our history. So far is this hypothesis from 
: astounding," that any proposition which 


(7 th S. iv. 1.) 

MR. STEVENSON has disturbed the repose which 
usually marks these pages by making me the sub- 
ject of a severe attack upon a body of men whom I or a sim . 
ne calls " an army of ' Celtic ' etymologists." His d aw n of 

indictment is framed in no uncertain language, and, being _ ,,- -. - , 

if more feeling is imported into the matter than declared the contrary would be prima facie absurd, 
befits the gravity of scientific discussion, the energy If, then, history is always repeating itself if a 
of the writer has at least the merit of bringing into continuity of human conduct or action runs through 
prominent view a highly interesting and important the ages we may now see in the North American 
question. colonies an approximate parallel to the invasion 

MR. STEVENSON'S attack is founded upon a few and settlement of these islands by tribes of men 
obiter dicta of mine contained in an article about | who came from the mainland of Europe. T " *"* 
an urn burial (7 th S. iii. 421). I said that " a few 
field-names or place-names in the district [of Shef- 
field] seem to show that side by side with Danish 

Is it 

likely, from what we know of history, that the 
conquered race mixed freely with their conquerors, 
or that the new settlers freely and at once inter- 

and Anglo-Saxon settlements there existed a Celtic I married with the old? Both these conclusions are 
or aboriginal population." As I was writing about in the very highest degree improbable ; nay, it is 
an urn burial I could not go into evidence relating certain that such a thing could not have happened. 

to another subject. I did not think that my opinion 
would pass unchallenged. It was a fit subject for 
criticism and for further inquiry. MR. STEVEN- 
SON'S proper course was to have called upon me to 
produce evidence. Instead of doing so he has, with- 
out any foundation whatever, included me amongst 
" the Celtic etymologists," and he has denounced 
ine and them in one general condemnation. Now 
will it surprise MR. STEVENSON if I tell him that 
neither in the article referred to nor elsewhere have 
I, to the best of my knowledge and belief, ever de- 
rived a single place-name from the " Celtic"? He 

A year or two ago I asked in these pages a ques- 
tion on what I called "colour in surnames." It had 
slowly dawned upon me that such surnames as 
Black, White, Brown, Reed (red), and perhaps one 
or two others, were not arbitrary words, that they 
did not express differences in dress, and that they 
expressed something more than mere complexion. 
What I was thinking about was that these words 
expressed differences of race, and that, I am cer- 
tain, is their true explanation. I did not say 
so, for I wished to know what others thought. 
Many and very interesting replies were given to 

says, "The notion that Gestfield and Sibbfield re- my query, but no one, I think, touched upon the 
cord a Celtic occupation is surely one of the most question of nationality as expressed in these sur- 
absurd arguments that has ever been produced even names. I even thought that by taking such a book 
by the ' Celtic ' etymologists." Where have I ever as a London directory it might be possible from 
said that these names record a Celtic occupation ; these surnames to make an approximate estimate 
and where have I derived them from the "Celtic"? of the proportions of the various races which have 
I call upon MR. STEVENSON to show that I have entered into the composition of the English people, 
ever made such statements, or that my words can I did not pursue the inquiry, partly from want of 
be made to bear euch a meaning. leisure and partly because I saw that one race 

I am told that I have come " to the astounding would, on the principle of the survival of the fittest, 
conclusion that there existed, side by side with the tend to supplant, or rather diminish, another, and 
English and Danish villages, settlements inhabited that, on this account alone, the difficulty of the in- 
exclusively by Celts, who kept themselves entirely quiry would be great. I mention this merely to 
distinct from the Teutonic invaders." As will be show how I was being slowly led to form the 
seen from the words which I actually used, I did opinion which MR. STEVENSON has denounced as 
not go quite so far as that. I said that the evidence fallacious and erroneous, and which, according to 
which I had examined seemed to point to such a him, must be rejected " unless we are prepared to 
conclusion. Let us inquire whether, a priori, there rewrite our early history." I should say that we 
would be anything " astounding " in that conclu- shall have to rewrite a great deal of it. We have 
t is fair to argue from that which is now had far too much of what Herbert Spencer calls 
happening in the world to that which has happened " the great man theory" of history, and that 
m the past. Take the case of the English colonies science has been treated as the bare record of 
in North America. Spaniards, Englishmen, French, bloodshed and conquest. 
Germans, and others have within recent times gone | MR. STEVENSON has given it as his opinion that 

7<" 8. IV. JULY 30, '87.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the words Welsh, Wales, &c., in the place-names 
of which both he and I have given instances, and 
of which hundreds of other instances might be sup- 
plied, do not refer to Welsh or " British " settle- 
ments, but are to be treated as personal names. I 
have cited " Welshman's croft" in Hitchin; but 
MR. STEVENSON objects to that, on the ground that 
he does not know " the age of this name nor its 
original form." Neither do I. It was, however, 
one of the open fields of Hitchin, and as that was 
so we may be sure that it is many centuries old. It 
is remarkable, however, that this field adjoins the 
hamlet Walsworth, to which I think MR. STEVEN- 
SON will not object on the ground of age. At 
Ecclesall, in Sheffield, is a field called Wolsh 
Stubbings. This I only know from a survey made 
in 1807. Here, again, MR. STEVENSON may object 
on the score of age. The word, however, has 
not a modern look about it. Judging from the 
analogy which is afforded by Welshman's Croft in 
Hitchin, and other similar names, it seems to me 
almost impossible to resist the conclusion that this 
is a place which in early times was cleared from 
wood, and probably settled by Welshmen, although, 
of course, the word may have the meaning "slaves" 
or " strangers." I cannot see any ground of objec- 
tion to this explanation, and it is surely far more 
reasonable to suppose that this place was cleared 
by a little band of Welshmen, who gave their name 
to it, than that it was called after a pet-name 

And now as to the word Bright. I find "a 
close called Bright " in Ecclesfield in 1637 ; 
Brytlande Well, in Sheffield, in 1566 ; Bright 
holm lee, in Bradfield, in 1337; Brittains Piece, 
1637, near the old earthworks at Bradfield, and 
others.* When I see a meadow by the river side 
called Bright holm lee I am apt to think that 
holm has here its usual and well-known meaning, 
and I see no difficulty in the addition of lee. I 
am apt to think of early settlements by the 
river side, or on treeless heights, in the days when 
axes were few, and when the clearing of wood was 
a matter of almost insuperable difficulty. To me, 
at least, the explanation which I have given seems 
far more reasonable than MR. STEVENSON'S deriva- 
tion from a personal name Bright-helm. As re- 
gards Brytland, MR. STEVENSON states that 
"A.-S. Bryt is a very exceptional designation for a 
Welshman," and a few lines above he complains 
that I, with others, am attached " to the principle 
nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri." As I 
could not consult MR. STEVENSON I will swear by 
DR. MURRAY. He says (7 th S. iii. 309), " There is 
a word brute in the sense of foreigner (literally 
Brit, Bret, or Welshman) of frequent occurrence 
in the sixteenth century." To me Britland is 

* I would cite other examples from a glossary which 
I have edited for the E. D. S., but my MS. is now at 


Welshland or Britishland, as plainly as words can 
speak. Welsh and Walsh are common as surnames. 
Why should not Brit have survived in surnames 
also ? To derive Bright, however, from Bryt is, 
according to MR. STEVENSON, "a phonological 
offence," on the ground that the guttural spirant 
could not in Middle English be forced into a 
word. Here I am bound to admit that MR. 
STEVENSON appears to be right, and I will suspend 
my judgment until I am better informed. I am 
by no means sure of the universal application of 
the rule which he lays down in all the English 
dialects. Still I will not at present insist on the 
identity of the surname Bright with A.-S. Bryt. I 
must, however, say that, whilst I can find no 
Middle English example of the surname Bright, I 
have seen several times Le Brit and Le Bret. 

" If we admit," says MR. STEVENSON, " that 
the local names in Wales are proof of distinct 
Celtic settlements in English districts, then, also, 
must we be prepared to believe that the Sueves, 
Huns, Franks, and Vandals had similar villages 
inhabited solely by men of their own tribe"; and 
in a foot-note he says that " this is, practically, the 
view adopted by Dr. Taylor in * Words and 
Places.' " I did not know that Canon Taylor had 
come to such a conclusion. I frequently consult 
1 Words and Places/ but I have not read it con- 
tinuously. If Canon Taylor holds these views, all 
that I can say is that I have arrived at a similar 
conclusion by a method of my own, founded upon 
evidence which I have myself collected. In Eccles- 
field, the largest parish in England, I find in 1637 
a field called Frankish field. MR. STEVENSON may 
try to explain this away if he can, and he may say 
that it does not record a settlement of Franks. 
William de Lovetot had lands in this parish shortly 
after the Conquest, and I find him before the year 
1181 addressing a charter to people of this parish 
or district in the following words: " 
lunetot [sic] omnibus hominibus suis Francis et 
Anglicis, tarn presentibus quam futuris," &c. 
(Eastwood's 'Ecclesfield,' p. 58). The charter 
deals with land near Ecclesfield. In the year 1637 
I find a number of fields in Ecclesfield called Ingle 
doles, and about the year 1200 Ecclesfield itself is 
mentioned in several charters as Anglefeld. Were 
these Ingle doles called after a person ? Credat 
Judceus Apella. Mr. Seebohm has proved, beyond 
all question, the universal prevalence of open field 
husbandry in England. Can we suppose th&t fields 
held in community and not in severalty were called 
after particular persons ? I think not. 

MR. STEVENSON'S arguments have confirmed, 
and not weakened the opinion which I have ad- 
vanced. It is satisfactory to me that so excellent 
a scholar should have done so little to shake that 
opinion. S. 0. ADDY. 


In the able enumeration by MR. STEVENSON of 



[7 lh S. IV. JULY 30, '87. 

English tribal influences he names the Huns. This 
may be liable to misapprehension, as he means 
thereby the leading division, the Hunsing of the 
Frisians, and does not mention the Frisians. 
He has the courage to include the Vandals, but not 
the Warings (Angli et Varini). Carring I stated 
to the Royal Historical Society to be apparently 
the Carini, and thereby another name for the Angli. 
With regard to these Huns, their language re- 
mains in Friesland, and we have their laws. These 
are recorded in that copious manual, * The Gram- 
mar of Old Friesic,' by Mr. Adley H. Cummins, 
A.M., just published by Messrs. Triibner. 


A STRANGE MANX CUSTOM (7 th S. iii. 516). 
By the courtesy of the Attorney General, Sir 
James Gell, I am able to give the following extract 
from a letter of his to Lieut.-Governor Loch on the 
Manx Constitution, dated April 4, 1881, in which 
the custom is described : 

" Before leaving the subject of the Tynwald Court, I 
think it well to mention that from ancient time it had 
been the custom for the Council and Keys to attend the 
Court of General Gaol Delivery. The Governor, Deem- 
sters, Clerk of the Rolls, and Water Bailiff undoubtedly 
exercised their judicial functions, the mouthpiece of the 
court being a Deemster. The Attorney General con- 
ducted the prosecutions. The presence of the Bishops 
and other members of the Council was perhaps con- 
sidered as giving a certain solemnity to the proceedings, 
but otherwise I have never seen that they took any part 
therein. It had been the ancient established usage that 
the Ecclesiastical members of the Council should not be 
present on a verdict of guilty being returned, and there- 
fore, when a jury were agreed as to their verdict, they 
were by a Deemster asked in the Manx language, ' Vod 
y fer-carree soie ? ' (' May the chancel-man ait?'). If the 
foreman answered ' Charod ' ('He cannot') the Eccle- 
siastics retired, and a verdict of guilty was given ; but if 
the answer was ' Fod ' (' He may ') the Ecclesiastics re- 
mained, and a verdict of not guilty was returned." 
By the canons of the Church, bishops were forbidden 
to be present at trials which might involve mutila- 
tion or death (see Kemble's ' Saxons in England,' 
ii. 393-4). This Manx custom is referred to as 
follows : 

Blundell'a ' History,' 1648-56 (Manx Soc. Pub., xvii. 

Sacheyerell, 1702, p. 94 (Manx Soc. Pub., i. 74). 
^Commisaioners' Report, 1792, p. 78 (Manx Soc. Pub., 

Feltham's < Tour,' 1798, p. 41 (Manx Soc. Pub., vi. 37). 
Wood's ' History,' 1811, p. 291. 
Johnson's ' Jurisprudence,' 1811, p. 62 
Lord Teignmouth's ' Scotland,' 1836, ii' 23d 
Train's ' History,' 1845, ii. 215. 

Train also refers to " Camden, 1455," but I have 
not a copy to verify it. I should say that the date 
15 is not correct. The Attorney General believes 
1825 to be the year in which the custom ceased; 
his only doubt is whether it came to an end earlier. 

St. Thomas's, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

I find the following particulars in 'The Great 
Stanley; or, James, VII th Earl of Derby, and his 
noble Countess Charlotte de la Tremouille, in their 
Land of Man: a Narrative of the Seventeenth 

"The Fer-Oharree means the Priest, literally 'the 
Man of the Chancel.' A singular use of this term may 
be noticed in connexion with capital trials in the Isle of 
Man. Till the year 1845 the Bishop and Archdeacon 
were members of the Court of General Gaol Delivery, 
and up to that date it was retained as an ancient usage, 
that the Bishop or some Priest appointed by him should 
sit with the Governor in the trial of capital causes, until 
sentence of death (if any) was to be pronounced. When 
the Jury returned into Court, having agreed in their 
verdict, it was customary for the Deemster to ask, 
instead of Guilty or Not Guilty, 'Vod Fer-charree 
soie?' which literally means, 'May the man of the 
Chancel sit.' In case of sentence of death the Ecclesiastic 


71, Brecknock Road. 

MOTTO OF WATERTON FAMILY (7 th S. iii. 452; 
iv. 18)." Better kinde frend than frend kinde." 
This is one version. Another, used by my father 
and grandfather, made "frend" read "fremd." 
Some years ago my late most valued friend Charles 
Winn, of Nostell Priory, found the earlier form of 
the motto on a stone among some ruins of the 
Priory, and we at once adopted it. It reads 
"Better kinde frembd than frembd kyen." The 
usual explanation which I have heard given of it 
is, " Better a stranger who becomes a friend than 
kindred estranged." EDMUND WATERTON. 

Deeping Waterton Hall. 

Cumbrians, and probably the natives of some 
other of our northern counties, will read the above 
motto without any difficulty. The word fremd is 
not unknown to at least the older generation of 
them, and means not simply "strange," but 
" coldly strange"; and the rendering of " Better 
kinde fremd than fremd kinde " is " Better kind 
stranger than cold kindred." To change the first 
" fremd " into " frend " spoils the whole point of 
the motto. B. J. 

NEWTON ABBOT, DEVON (7 th S. iii. 348). From a 
paper read by Mr. Edward Windeatt, of Totnes, 
before the members of the Devonshire Association 
at Newton Abbott, in July, 1884, I glean the 
following particulars, of which MR. SAWYER will 
perhaps be glad : 

Mr. Yeo was a native of Totnes, and a member 
of a family of good standing there, to the memory 
of some of whom there were formerly tablets in 
Totnes Church. William Yeo was educated at 
Exeter School, and was contemporary both there 
and at Oxford with Dr. Manton. After studying 
for some time at Exeter College, Oxford, he re- 
moved to Emanuel College, Cambridge ; and on 

7> S. IY. JULY 30, '87.] 



eaving the university became chaplain in Col 
Gould's regiment. Next he settled for a time a 
Brighthelmstone, in Sussex, whence " he removet 
by order of the Committee of Parliament to New 
ton, where he appears to hare gained the respec 
of all. It is said he found the town very ignoran 
and profane," but that through his labours " the 
people became very intelligent, serious, anc 
pious." " On Sundays, to prevent the profanation 
of the Sabbath, he would walk round the town 
accompanied by the constable, after public wor- 
ship." By refusing the Engagement while he was 
holding this living, he lost an augmentation ol 
SOI a year. His name appears in 1656 as one oi 
the members of the Exeter Assembly. In 1662 
he was silenced, but, continuing firm to his prin- 
ciples, he preached as opportunity offered, and was 
never imprisoned, though he often had to leave 
his family, and once was obliged (in 1683) to 
hide, during a time of snow, in the fields to avoid 
apprehension. " During the troublous times, he 
met those who sympathized with him by night in 
Bradley Woods, and there conducted services." 
In 1689 his house, called Rydon, in Wolborough, 
was certified as a place of religious worship, and 
subsequently a chapel was built in Wolborough 
Street, Newton, where he ministered. He died 
at Newton in October, 1699, aged eighty-two 
years, respected by all classes, after a ministry of 
fifty- three years. " It is worthy of note that Mr. 
Yeo, while holding the living of Wolborough, 
enjoyed the patronage of Lady Lucy Reynell, of 
Ford," the foundress of the " Widows' Houses ;; at 

If MR. SAWYER should have access to the 
Transactions of the Devonshire Association for 
1884 he will find some additional matter to that 
which I have condensed above; but I believe I 
have omitted nothing of moment. 

W. S. B. H. 

^ PANCAKE BELL (7 th S. iii. 448). A friend has 
kindly sent me the following, which I forward for 
the benefit of the readers of ' N. & Q.': 

" The Pancake Bell was originally the Shrive Bell, 
rung on Shrove or Shrive Tuesday, as a warning to all 
to come to church where the parish priest sat in an open 
chair or stall to hear confession, and award them such 
penance as he thought good for them or to give them 
also unction. At St. Paul's, Bedford, Beds., the fifth 
bell is rung at 11 o'clock A.M., at Cranfield the third bell, 
at Toddington the sixth, at Turvey the first and second 
are chimed together at noon, making a most unmelodious 
noise, which is supposed to indicate the approaching 
commencement of the gloomy season of Lent."' Church 
Bella of Beds.' 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Taylor, the Water Poet ('Workes,' 1630, i. 
114 ~ 5 ), gives an account, too long to quote, of the 
Shrove Tuesday festivities of his day, in which 
occurs the following : 

" In the morning all the whole kingdome is in quiet, 
but by that time the clocke strikes eleven, which (by 
the helpe of a knavish sexton) is commonly before 
nine, then there is a bell rung cald The Pancake Bell, 
the sound whereof makes thousands of people distracted, 
and forgetfull either of manner or humanitie." 

This bell had, however, originally a more sacred 
function, that, namely, of calling the people to con- 
fession before Lent, whence its proper name of " the 
Shrove bell." It is still rung at Ep worth and the 
neighbouring villages. C. C. B. 

S. G. PROUT (7 th S. iv, 48). Samuel Gillespie 
Prout, son of Samuel Prout, the old water-colour 
painter, and, as I understand, still living in Devon- 
shire. J. PERCY. 

[MR. JOHN L. ROGET adds, " And first cousin of the 
late J. Skinner Prout, of the Water-Colour Institute."] 

DANE'S SKIN = FRECKLES (V th S. iii. 451). It is 
alleged that such cutical discolorations are a sur- 
vival among cave-dwelling races, with other scor- 
butic affections arising from impure air and ancient 
"overcrowding"; so with the "Scotch fiddle," 
which met with such ridicule from Churchill, Dr. 
Johnson, &c. Viewed thus, it points to a strongly- 
marked racial distinction, dating from pre-historic 
times, and traceable all over the Continent. As 
to our own island, Chaucer has the word frecknes, 
varied tofrekenys, undoubtedly Celtic, as found in 
the Gaelic breac, "parti-coloured, speckled," as 
with a trout; breacan, "tartan plaid"; Welsh 
brith, braith, "speckled"; Brithwr, "a Pict," 
used freely for the eponym of Britain. So here 
Brith=J)3iue ; but we cannot trace any ethnic 
connexion, for Britons are called Celtic, Danes are 
Scandinavian. A. HALL. 

SHAKSPEARE (7 th S. iii. 369, 436). A few 
years ago I saw the Folio Shakespeare belonging 
;o Charles I. in the Koyal Library at Windsor 
Castle. Doubtless it is there now, and not in the 
King's Library at the British Museum. ESTE. 

SCOTLAND (7 th S. iv. 8). The work to which MR. 
JRAY alludes is no doubt the following, described 
n the appendix to Mr. Seton's ' Law and Practice 
>f Heraldry in Scotland ' (Edinburgh, 1863), app., 
No. v., 20, p. 503 : 

" Collection of the most remarkable Accounts that 
elate to the Families of Scotland, &c., by Sir George 
Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, His Majestie's Advocat.,' 481 
>p., 8vo., in the handwriting of Robert Mylne (34,6,8)." 

This MS. is in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; 
,nd in the same collection there is also a MS. 
ntitled " Notices of the Families of Scotland in 

Alphabetical Order," drawn from their own charters 
nd other authentic " writs," of which Mr. Seton 
ays that it is " stated in a note to be a copy by 
ir George Mackenzie from Lord Carse's collec- 
ion; with additions by Mackenzie." I do not 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. JULY so, w. 

know whether either MS. is dated, but the period 
may probably be assumed as subsequent to Sir 
George Mackenzie's appointment as Lord Advo- 
cate in 1677. There would appear to be a tran- 
script of the " Collection " in the Lyon Office. 

New University Club, S.W. 

COLD HARBOUR (7 th S. iii. 476). In the Wilt- 
shire Archceological Magazine, vol. xiii. p. 335, 
Canon Jackson says : 

" In England there are no less than 150 Cold Harbours. 
The meaning of the name has been much disputed. Har- 
bour is probably only a corruption of the Saxon Herr- 
lurg, a station. If cold may be supposed to mean ' cool,' 
then the whole ' cool retreat ' may perhaps have been 
merely a favourite name in former days for villas and 
country houses, something like the 'Mount Pleasant' 
and ' Belle View ' of our own day." 

Mere Down, Mere, Wilts. 

See Arch&ologia, Jan. 11, 1849, and Gent. Mag., 
December, 1844, and May, July, and November, 
1849. E. S. CHARNOCK. 

MR. J. A. FROUDE AND IRELAND (7 th S. iii. 
247, 480). In thanking MR. BIRKBECK TERRY 
for the courtesy of his reply to my query, allow 
me to avail myself of the opportunity of giving 
the result of further investigation made by myself 
an insignificant addition, perhaps, but tending 
to the completeness of the elucidation. In the 
* Life of Hoche,' or Hoch (the famous Republican 
general, I am unable to give a closer reference), 
what is there styled a well-known phrase is quoted 
thus : "Mais il ne considere 1'Irlande que comme 
le chemin de Londres." NEMO. 


SHIRE (6 th S. xi. 188 ; 7 th S. iii. 418, 477 ; iv. 17). 
Your correspondent MR. ALFRED SCOTT GATTY 
says that if I and others interested on this point 
" had taken the trouble " to consult the Genealogist 
we should have found the date of death and place 
of burial of the above. If he had taken the trouble 
to copy it for us he would have conferred a favour. 
He does not tell us in what number of the Genea- 
logist the reference can be found, nor have I access 
to the work. May I, then, repeat my request 
that some correspondent will kindly trouble him- 
self to give me (and others) the date of death and 
place of burial of Lady Bellasis. 


B HATTERS (7 th S. iii. 497). If MR. BDLLEN b< 
in search of minute descriptions of medieval hats 
the following may have some interest for him : 

King Edward II. left at Caerphilly Castle, au 
his departure, Nov. 2, 1326, all the property 
which he could carry no further in his flight 
Among these articles were "one hat of white 

>eaver, lined with black velvet, powdered with 
golden leaves ; a black hat lined with red velvet, 
>owdered with butterflies and divers beasts, 
jovered with white lilies [sic] ; two hats of white 
leaver ; one hat of green and white velvet, furred 
with black budge " (Wardrobe Accounts, 20Edw. 
II., 26/9, compared with its duplicate, 26/10). 

" Two hats of beaver, furred with black budge, 
and broidered with gold thread," were bought for 
the same monarch in 1326, at the price of 13s. 4eZ. 
each (ibid., 20 Edw. II., 26/3). 

Two hats of grey beaver, 3s. each, were supplied 
to Edward III. in 1329 (ibid., 3 Edw. III., 34/3). 


MR. BULLEN will find a slight reference to 
batters, with an illustration of their supposed 
arms, in my notice of ' The Ancient Companies of 
the City of Exeter' (Western Antiquary, vol. iv. 
p. 187). P. F. KOWSELL. 

187, High Street, Exeter. 

Keferences to magazine and newspaper articles 
appeared in the Oracle (now silent), Feb. 28, 1885; 
April 4, 1885 ; and Nov. 15, 1884. ESTE. 

At the above reference HERMENTRUDE asks for the 
family name of Margaret, widow of John, Lord 
Dudley, first wife of Bartholomew, third Lord 
Bourchier. No reply has, as yet, been made to 
this query ; and I wish to ask if it is a fact that 
Lord Bourchier married the widow of a John, 
Lord Dudley. H. S. G. 

CORNISH TOKENS (7 th S. iii. 496). A reference 
to the Western Antiquary for January last (p. 190) 
shows that the name should be Bonython a name 
which has been more than once alluded to in the 
earlier numbers of the Western Antiquary, as well 
as in ' N. & Q.' itself. The initials B. I. M., 
which Miss COLE asks about, are intended, no 
doubt, for the initials of the issuer of the token 
and that of his wife only Miss COLE has not 
given them in the correct order, the initial of 
the surname almost invariably being placed on the 
token over that of the initials of the Christian 
names of the husband and wife. They would, 
therefore, to the initiated read as I. and M. B. 
I may add that the token mentioned in the 
Western Antiquary is not mentioned in Boyne's 
' Seventeenth Century Tokens/ and that the pub- 
licity now given to it will no doubt be the means 
of its being included in the new edition of that 
work, which has for some time been looked for, 
and which is now in preparation under the editor- 
ship of Mr. Williamson of Guildford, assisted by 
a large staff of local collectors. J.gS. UPAL. 

Symondsbury, Bridport. 

If Miss COLE will refer to the first volume of 
the Western Antiquary she will find a great deal 

7" S. IV. J0Lt 30, 'W.J 



of information about the-Bonython family. In an 
extract from the registers of Mevagissey the baptism 
of a daughter of James Bony thon is mentioned under 
date 1644. Probably the letters mentioned are so 
placed on the token as to read I. B. M., and 
would then be simply the initials of James Bony- 
thon, Mevagissey. W. S. B. H. 

Bow STREET RUNNERS (7 th S. iii. 368, 465). 
Interesting notices and anecdotes of these are given 
in the late Prof. Pryme's ' Autobiographic Recol- 
lections/ 1870, pp. 271-3. W. C. B. 

NATIONAL SUBSCRIPTION (7 th S. iii. 497). It 
may interest L. T. C. to learn that the intimate 
friend of the unhappy James, Duke of Monmouth, 
Thomas Thynne, Esq., of Longleat Hall, an early 
member of the present noble family of the Mar- 
quis of Bath, was known " from his great wealth " 
as "Tom of ten thousand" (Sir Walter Scott's 
' Dry den,' vol. ix. p. 292, note xxx.). In reality 
he only possessed nine thousand pounds per annum. 
His tragical fate in Pall Mall on the evening of 
February 12, 1681/2, at the hands of Count Conigs- 
mark and his myrmidons, is well known, as is also 
the tablet commemorating the event representing 
the scene in relief in Westminter Abbey. In the 
preceding autumn he had magnificently entertained 
the duke during his triumphal progress through 
the western counties. See the lines in ' Absolom 
and Achitophel,' Dryden's great poem, published 
in November of that year, where, in accordance 
with the scheme of the satire, Mr. Thynne is 
alluded to under the name of Issachar : 
But hospitable treats did most commend 
Wise Issachar, his wealthy western friend. 

' Dry den ' (Scott), vol. ix. p. 239, lines 22 et 
seg. from top. 


WORDSWORTH : " VAGRANT REED " (7 th S. iii. 
449 ; iv. 16). May not this have a metaphorical 
meaning, and refer to the poet's verses, which we 
may suppose he composed as he travelled along, 
and which were his " solace" ? The reed is a very 
common metaphor for poetry, even when there is 
is no question of a literal pipe, e. g., " mine oaten 
reeds," in the first stanza of f The Faery Queene,' 
and " the oaten flute," in ' Lycidas,' 1. 33. I think 
the first line of the twelfth sonnet of the Duddon 
series favours this interpretation, 

On, loitering Muse the swift Stream chides us on. 

I throw the above out only as a suggestion. It 
is, at any rate, a much more poetical interpretation 
than the " walking-stick " one. If the latter is 
correct, it seems a very dull and uninteresting 
allusion on the poet's part. 


The meaning is quite plain. The poet is under- 
stood to be composing his sonnets as he wanders 

along the river bank (musam meditatur avend). 
He arrives in the most sultry time of the day at 
a resting-place, and invites himself to repose for a 
while, because without it he will be without 
strength to "solace" himself further with his 
"vagrant reed" (i. e., his wandering song), "reed" 
being used in its secondary sense of musical pipe, 
or rather in its tertiary sense of pastoral poem. 

J. T. B. 

"Pipe," " reed," &c., stand for song in pastoral 
poetry, and " vagrant reed " should be accepted iu 
a similar sense. The "solace" of Wordsworth's 
ramble lay in the accompanying music of his 
verse, which bodily fatigue would dull or silence 
altogether. W. H. 

LADY BOUNTIFUL (7 th S. iv. 48). The ' New 
English Dictionary,' which ALNWICK does not 
appear to have consulted, says (s. v. " Bountiful }> ) 
" Lady Bountiful, a character in Farquhar's * Beaux' 
Stratagem ' (1707), since used for the great (or 
beneficient) lady in a neighbourhood." E. D. 

[Very many contributors are thanked for the reference 
to Farquhar], 

S. iv. 67). It is still the custom for French 
peasant women in parts of Dauphine" to ride astride. 


BOND FAMILY (7 th S. iii. 477). In " A note of 
alliens strangers using and exercisinge the art of 
Cutlarie in London, Westminster, Stroud, Sowth- 
warcke, and East Smythfeiid, this xj th of Marche, 
1621," I find the following entry: " Anthoney 
Bone, alias Gilbertson, no denizeine, a servaunt." 
Bone and Lebon seem to have been common names 
among the French refugees, and, taking other ex- 
amples of the changes names underwent into ac- 
count, may easily have passed into Bond. 

In the return of strangers resident within the 
3ity of London, " bearing date the vj tlj of Septem- 
>er, 1618," appears the name of "Charles Lebon, 
jreacher ; born in Sandwich"; and " Jehan Delbone, 
ilk-weaver, born in Flaunders ; and Julet his wife, 
)orn in Leige," both being inhabitants of the 
' Bishopsgate Warde " (see the ' List of Foreigners 
Resident in England, 1618-1688,' published by 
the Camden Society). Dr. Smiles makes no men- 
tion of any family bearing this name in his work 
on ' The Huguenots.' ROBERT F. GARDINER. 

iii. 474). The solution of this venerable puzzle 
has doubtless often been given before ; but as 
H. A. W. does not know it, I copy it from the 
*N. & Q.' column of the Kendal Mercury, 
March 27, 1885 : 

"Two widows that were sisters-in-law had each a son 
who married each other's mother, and by them had each 
a daughter. Suppose one widow's name Mary, and her 
son's John, and the other widow's name Sarah, and her 



IV. JULY 30, 

ion's James : this answers the fourth line. Then sup- 
pose John married Sarah and had a daughter by her, 
and James married Mary and had a daughter by her : 
these marriages answer the first, second, third, fifth, and 
sixth lines of the epitaph." 

EDWARD EASTON (7 th S. iii. 518). Timperley, 
under the date of February 7, 1795, says : 

" Died, Edward Easton, many years an eminent and 
respectable bookseller in the city of Salisbury, and an 
alderman of that corporation. In 1780 he was elected 
to the office of chief magistrate of the city, which he 
filled with great credit, and presented a very loyal ad- 
dress to His Majesty on the subject of the memorable 
riots of London in that year. Having attained the age 
of seventy-five years, and retired only three months from 
the fatigues of business to Bradford, Wilts, he died 

His brother, James Easton, was an alderman 
of Salisbury, and published a work on < Human 
Longevity.' The catalogue of the Hoare Library, 
in the Local Topography case in the British 
Museum, would probably give Easton as the pub- 
lisher of some of the Wiltshire books possessed by 
Sir R. C. Hoare, Bart. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

2, Kirchen Road, Baling Dean. 

An eminent bookseller, and for many years an 
alderman of the city of Salisbury. He served the 
office of chief magistrate in 1780, when he pre- 
sented an address to King George III. on the sub- 
ject of the memorable riots of London in that year. 
fle died suddenly at Bradford, Wilts, on Feb- 
ruary 7, 1795, aged seventy-five years, within three 
months after his retirement from business. His 
brother James, who was also an alderman of Salis- 
bury, died there on December 21, 1799, aged 
seventy-seven. Just before his death he published 
' Human Longevity, recording the Name, Age, and 
Place of Residence and Year of the Decease of 
1,712 Persons who attained a Century and up- 
wards, from A.D. 66 to 1 799, comprising a Period 
of upwards of 1733 Years, with Anecdotes of the 
most Remarkable.' 

71, Brecknock Road. 

OVERLAIN AND OVERLAID (7 th S. iii. 512). 
Overlain is not a participle of the transitive verb 
overlay, which takes only the form overlaid. Over- 
lie is an entirely different word. G. N. 


REFECTORY (7 th S. iii. 386, 521). I find that 
Germans have allowed themselves the luxury of 
at least fourteen varieties in their rendering of this 
word: Refectorium, Refender, Refat, Referend, 
Revent, Reventer, Rebenter, Rebbinter, Rebedir, 
Rebenthal, Remterei, Remtorei, Remter, Robenter, 
&c. We may well have two or three, therefore. 

I do not perceive the point of J. T. F.'s re- 
mark. The question was why Catholics generally 
throw back the accent and omit the c, while other 

English people do not ; and it seems a natural 
guess that it arose from their mixing with persons 
in whose language the word has no c, and the 
dulled / throws back the accent. J. T. F. only 
speaks of what might happen after the accent had 
been thrown back, as he expresses it. 

R. H. BUSK. 

ENDORSATION (7 th S. iii. 517). Indorsation is 
given in Cassell's * Encyclopaedic Dictionary ' and 
in the library edition of Stormonth's ' Dictionary ' 
(Edinburgh and London, 1884) as equivalent to 
indorsement. One or two other dictionaries in 
which I have looked do not give the word at all, 
though it is of frequent use in our courts and 
law-books. It is, perhaps, not superfluous to point 
out the distinction which your correspondent seems 
to have missed along with the editors of the dic- 
tionaries named indorsation means the act of en- 
dorsing, endorsement the result of that act. 

Q. V. 

MR. YORK will find the word indorsation in 
Ogilvie's 'Imperial Dictionary' (1850) and in the 
* Library Dictionary ' (1870). It is a good rule to 
look for words beginning in em or en under im 
and in, when they cannot be found, and vice versa. 

Indorsation is given in Annandale's edition of 
Ogilvie's ' Imperial Dictionary ' (1883). Mahn's 
edition of Webster's * Dictionary ' (1880), also has 
the word ; it is marked obsolete. 


Webster-Mahn's * Dictionary' has " Indorsation. 
The same as indorsement (obs.)." No example 


STRANGE MARRIAGE CUSTOM (7 th S. iii. 51.6). 
See Dyer's ' Domestic Folk-lore ' (Cassell & Co.), 
p. 42 : 

" The old Roman practice of lifting the bride over the 
threshold of her husband's home had its counterpart in 
Scotland within the present century, it being customary 
to lift the young wife over the doorstep, lest any witch- 
craft or evil eye should be cast upon and influence her. 
Indeed, we are informed that the same practice pre- 
vailed in the North of England some years ago." 


2, Kirchen Road, Baling Dean. 

See Brand's ' Antiquities ' (Bonn's ed.), vol. ii. 
p. 169, and Sir J. Lubbock's 'Origin of Civiliza- 
tion/ chap. iii. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


ARQUEBUS (7 th S. iii. 514). MR. TERRY, cor- 
roborating Prof. Skeat, makes this word a variant 
of haalcbus. The latter word became English as 
hackbut, and is distinct from arquebus. The stock 
of the early firearm had a trigger arrangement 
resembling a crossbow, hence the Italian name 
applied to it of area bouza, said to be a corrup- 

7th a IV. JULY 30, '87.] 



tion of area bocca, a bow with a mouth. The 
weapon in its primitive form was not well fitted 
for taking aim with, as the eye could not be 
brought near enough to the barrel. This defect 
was remedied by a German invention, giving the 
butt a hooked form, whence the name hackbut, or 
haakbus. Such is the explanation given in a very 
learned paper, dated February, 1827, by Dr. S. K. 
Meyrick, a great authority on ancient arms, pub- 
lished in Archceologia, vol. xxii. An inventory of 
armour quoted in the paper makes it perfectly 
clear that the hackbut and the arquebus are 
different weapons. G. N. 


KING'S END CAR (7 th S. iv. 10). There is no 
such thing in Ireland. It is evidently an error in 
the manuscript, or else King's End is what is meant. 
King's End being a fishing village near Dublin, to 
and from which cars ply, it occupies pretty much 
the same relation to Dublin as Newhaven does to 
Edinburgh. C. K. LESLIE, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Cranley Gardens. 
[Other correspondents write to the same effect.] 

FONTS (7 th S. iii. 428, 464). MR. STEVENSON 
will find some interesting notes on fonts in recent 
volumes of the Reliquary. The first article of the 
series will be found at pp. 209-216 of vol. xxiv. 

WORDSWORTH ON BURNS (7 th S. iii. 427). In 
Wordsworth's ' Letter to a Friend of Robert 
Burns ' (London, 1816) there is no sentence pre- 
cisely as MR. BOUCHIER gives it. The following 
is the nearest approach to it, so far as I have ob- 
served : " Who but some impenerable dunce, or 
narrow-minded puritan in works of art, ever read 
without delight the picture which he [Burns] has 
drawn of the convivial exaltation of the rustic 
adventurer, Tarn o' Shanter." Wordsworth after- 
wards adds: "I pity htm who cannot perceive 
that in all this, though there was no moral pur- 
pose, there is a moral effect." J. T. B. 

PARODY AND BURLESQUE (7 th S. iii. 509). 
I always look in my 'N. & Q.' with particular 
interest for any contributions over the name of 
SIR J. A. PICTON, and hasten to disclaim any 
intention of administering a rebuke, however 
courteously, to him anent the question whether 
parody or imitation is the predominant feature in 
the 'Rejected Addresses.' 

The difference in opinion between us is small, 
but not unimportant; for I maintain that the bulk 
of the poems in the 'Rejected Addresses' are 
imitations, not parodies, whilst readily admitting 
that the passages quoted by SIR J. A. PICTON are 
indeed admirable as parodies of detached portions of 
Scott's poems. I may add that the commencement 
of ' The Rebuilding ' is an equally clever parody of 
Southey's ' Curse of Kehama ': 

Midnight, and yet no eye 
Through all the Imperial City closed in sleep ! 

Behold her streets a blaze 
With light that seems to kindle the red sky, 
Her myriads swarming through the crowded ways ! 
Master and slave, old age and infancy, 
All, all abroad to gaze ; 
House-top and balcony 
Clustered with women, who throw back their veils, 

With unimpeded and insatiate sight 
To view the funeral pomp which passes by, 

As if the mournful rite 
Were but to them a scene of joyance and delight. 

[Spoken by a Glendoveer.~\ 
I am a blessed Glendoveer ; 
'Tis mine to speak, and yours to hear. 

Midnight, yet riot a nose 
From Tower Hill to Piccadilly snored ! 

Midnight, yet not a nose 
From Indra drew the essence of repose ! 

See with what crimson fury, 

By Indra fann'd, the god of fire ascends the walls of 
Drury ! 

But such passages as these are the exceptions ; 
the rule is proved by noting that the brothers 
Smith attempted no actually complete parody 
of any special poem, in the names of either Byron, 
Wordsworth, Tom Moore, Crabbe, or Lewis. Yet 
so admirable are the imitations of style, thought, 
and diction, that no one can for a moment doubt 
the likeness. 

After the commendation bestowed on the ' Ke- 
jected Addresses' by Lord Jeffrey, Lord Byron, 
and Sir Walter Scott, it would be impertinent for 
me to sound their praises ; but I may express my 
opinion that there is far more literary merit in the 
humorous reproductions of a grave author's lan- 
guage and mode of thought (as in 'Rejected 
Addresses ') than in that mere vulgarization of some 
popular poem which constitutes the essence of the 
majority of modern parodies. 

Let me mention two examples, the first from 
the 'Bon Gaultier Ballads,' 'The Biter Bit,' 
which is but a tricky parody of Tennyson's ' May 
Queen,' requiring little skill in its composition ; the 
second ' The Queen in France ' (glorious in its 
quaint humour and domestic simplicity), which is 
perhaps the finest burlesque ballad ever written. 
This is an imitation, but not a parody, of the 
" auld Scots ballad," * Sir Patrick Spence ' I- 
It fell upon the August month, 

When landsmen bide at name, 
That our gude Queen went out to sail 

Upon the saut-sea faem. 
And she has ta'en the silk and gowd, 

The like was never seen; 
And she has ta'en the Prince Albert, 
And the bauld Lord Aberdeen. 

Ye 'se bide at hame, Lord Wellington ; 

Ye daurna gang wi' me : 
For ye hae been ance in the land o' France, 

And that 's eneuch for ye. 

Surely this must have been written by Aytoun ! 



But, unfortunately, there is nothing in the ' Bon 
Gaultier Ballads ' to indicate which of them were by 
Aytoun and which by Sir Theodore Martin. 
This is a point which could be settled now ; for 
although Prof. Aytoun went over to the majority 
twenty years ago, Sir Theodore is alive, and, I 
hope, well. He would confer a boon on many 
readers by giving some details about the inception 
and composition of this famous book of ballads. 

SYMBOLIC USE OF CANDLES (7 th S. iv. 27). 
The following notes may be of interest to MR. 

1243, Nov. 30. Order to provide, against the 
Christmas jousts, four square candles of 100 lb., of 
wax, and fifteen measures of the King, to burn day 
and night at St. Edward's shrine (Rot. Glaus., 
28 Hen. III). 

1246, Sept. 5. Order to provide ten candles 
for the blessed Edward, nine of 100 lb.. and one of 
of 200 (ib., 30 Hen. III.). 

1253. Order to Philip Lovel (Treasurer) to send 
12 obolt of musk, and 20 measures of wax, to St. 
Edmund, for an offering at his shrine on the day 
of the translation, on account of the illness of the 
King and of Edmund his son (ib., 37 Hen. III.). 

1358. John de Pusy (varlet of the Queen's 
chandlery) sent to London, to the Friars' Minors, 
with one round candle containing 50 lb. of wax, 
of the Queen's alms (Household Book of Queen 
Isabel, wife of Edward II., Cott. MS. Galba, E. 

BROUGHAM (7 th S. iii. 407, 462 ; iv. 15). Your 
correspondent PRECENTOR VENABLES must excuse 
me but he has spoilt a very good thing. When 
Earl Grey was forming his Reform Ministry, he 
bad great difficulty in filling up the chancellorship. 
He tried various combinations, but the impracticable 
Henry Brougham always stood in the way ; and at 
last, though there were many objections, after a 
long delay the Premier raised Brougham to the 
woolsack. There had been much joking as to his 
claiming the title of an extinct peerage. Without 
this explanation, half the wit of the skit is not 
visible. I well remember its coming out. It was 
in the shape of a conundrum, and ran as follows : 
Vy is Lord Grey like a sveeping man 

Whot close to the crossing stalks] 
Because ven he 's made the best sveep as he can, 

e takes up his broom and valks [Brougham and Vaux] 

M. H. R. 

iv. 28).-My old friend, the late Sir Richard Brown' 

*rt., claimed and received this honour in the life' 

time of his father, Sir James, the seventh baronet 

. know of only one other example of the practice 

during the present reign. Sir William O'Mally 

v a baronet, was knighted in his father's lifetime 

in 1835, The following is an extract from the pre- 
face to my 'Shilling Knightage,' written bv the 
late Sir Richard Brown : 

"The eldest sons of baronets are knights; by the 
patents erecting the baronetage, they are privileged to 
demand of the reigning sovereign inauguration as- knights 
on attaining the age of twenty-one ; but the privilege in 
rarely claimed, and, in fact, is nearly obsolete." 


Hyde Park Mansionp, N.W 

" Until 1827 they could claim, for themselves and the 
heirs male of their bodies, the honour of knighthood." 
' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' s. v. " Baronet." 

Why "until 1827"? 


CALVERT, LORD BALTIMORE (7 th S. iii. 7, 133, 
436). The question is not, What arms was Cecilius 
Calvert entitled to bear as Baron of Baltimore ? 
but, What heraldic cognizance was he entitled to 
select for the province (and palatinate) of Mary- 
land ? This is a very different matter, and falls 
under other rules than those relating to descent. 

The great seal of Maryland was adopted in 1649, 
and is minutely described in a letter of Baltimore's 
(Aug. 12), in which he says, "our paternal coat of 
arms " is " quartered with another coafc of arms 
belonging to our family." 

The Maryland Historical Society did not adopt 
Lord Baltimore's individual armorial bearings, but 
the heraldic symbol of the province and state. 



494). With reference to this query, though not in 
reply to it, it seems to me worth while to note the 
recent authoritative discontinuance of the expres- 
sion " in partibus infidelium." The annual Catholic 
Directory (London, Burns & Oates), from at least 
1884 to 1887, has used the words, " Titular Sees, 
formerly called Sees in partibus infidelium" 
(p. 41); and again, in speaking of the years 1869- 
1870, "Archbishops or Bishops of Sees in partibus 
infidelium (that is, of ' Titular Sees/ as they would 
now [1884-87] be designated") (p. 55). Since 
noticing this I have sought for and found the fol- 
lowing explanation of it: 

"Titular Bishops.-The political condition of the 
eastern and southern shores of the Mediterranean has 
for some time been such as to allow of the existence of 
flourishing Christian communities in many places where 
formerly Mussulman bigotry would have rendered it im- 
possible. These countries are no longer paries infidelium, 
in the full sense of the words. His Holiness Leo XIII. 
has, therefore, by a recent decision, substituted the 
phrase 'Titular Bishop' for 'Bishop in partibus in- 
fidelium.''''A Catholic Dictionary,' by Addia and 
Arnold, London, Kegan Paul & Co., 1884. 

Previous to this change a bishop in partibus in- 
fidehum might, I believe, be also correctly called a 
titular bishop, The point of the present statement 

. IV. JOLT SO, 'ST.] 



is that the former of these two designations ap- 
pears to be now abolished. JOHN W. BONE. 

There is nothing like applying to the fountain 
head for authentic information. As a list of the 
sees in partibus infiddium "is required for various 
historical purposes," I should recommend K. P.D.E. 
to write to the Under-Secretary of the Propaganda 
at Home ; and if he could obtain a personal intro- 
duction to that dignitary all the better. 


GREAT (7 th S. iii. 387, 500). Is MR. COLLING- 
RIDGE justified in thus peremptorily disestablish- 
ing this ancient widow ? That gentleman admits 

"the tradition is some four hundred years 

prior to the Keforraation." How prove the nega- 
tive ? We are told that the "idea" has been 
carried out "for many years," varied to "some 
time since." We may fairly ask for authoritative 
dates for this institution before ignoring the tradi- 
tion. A. HALL. 



Sketches of Church and Stale in the First Eight Cen- 
turies. By the Rev. William Armitage. (Rivingtons.) 
WE have no clear notion why this book has been written. 
It is a compilation from well-known books, every one of 
which is on the shelves of every student of ecclesiastical 
history. If it is meant as a handbook for young students 
it is well-nigh useless, as the place has already been 
filled by many volumes, good and bad, of a like kind. 
Mr. Armitage is not posted up to date. New knowledge 
on the historical subjects he treats of has been pouring 
in during the last two decades. Of this he has taken 
little notice. Speaking of the inhabitants of this island 
ere it fell under the dominion of imperial Rome, he tells 
us that " their life and social habits were of the lowest 
type, not much in advance of the animals they hunted, 
whose flesh and milk were their principal food." This 
might have passed muster if said a hundred years ago, 
but it is strange to find it in a modern book. We now 
know that our British predecessors were pretty nearly 
on the same level of civilization as the Northern Gauls. 
The account of their religion given by Mr. Armitage is 
equally out of date. It never can be impressed too 
strongly on the minds of those who have been influenced 
by our older writers that we know next to nothing of 
the British religion, and that the tales of Druids, 
Druidesses, and arch-Druids are mostly either fancies or 
transferences from that which was true of our Gaulish 

Mr. Armitage writes from the standpoint of the 
Church of England. With theology we have nothing to 
do ; but it may not be amiss to point out that as the 
Thirty-nine Articles which are several times quoted 
were compiled during a period of religious revolution, 
the first draft under Edward VI., the present form 
under Elizabeth, it is not to be expected that they 
should throw light on early Church history. Neither 
the reformers nor the men who defended the old modes 
of belief and practice had time or opportunity during 
the stress of that tremendous hurricane to study the 
history of the early Church with dispassionate candour. 
Speaking of Aidan, who died in 651, the author tells us 
that " he was considered worthy of a place among 

canonized Saints, on the ground both of miracles and 
prophecy." This is misleading. By canonization a 
Papal act is understood. The earlier saints of this 
country were not canonized, but inserted in the 
calendar, most probably by order of the bishops, when 
they had become objects of popular devotion. 

We do not think that Mr. Armitage has ever read the 
Koran. If he had done so we should not have been told 
that " the contents of this book are, in a great measure, 
extracts from the Old and New Testaments." That 
Mohammed was influenced by what he had heard of the 
holy writings of the Jews and the Christians is certain, 
but there is very little in the Koran which is in any 
way a direct quotation. 

The Flowers of History. By Roger de Wendover. 

Edited by Henry G. Hewlett. Vol. I. Rolls Series. 

(Longmans &< Co.) 

THIS is the first really critical edition that has appeared 
of the ' Flores Historiarum,' though it is not the first 
time that it has been printed. The Rev. H. 0. Coxe, 
the late Bodleian librarian, edited it for the English 
Historical Society five-and-forty years ago, but he had 
only access to one manuscript that in the Douce col 
lection at Oxford. Another is preserved among the 
Cotton manuscripts in the British Museum ; but this 
codex was sadly injured in the fire which destroyed so 
many of the Cotton manuscripts. When Mr. Coxe was 
engaged on his labours on the ' Flores ' this manuscript 
was so mutilated that consultation was impossible. It 
has now been to some extent restored, and Mr. Hewlett 
has used it in the present edition. Wendover may be 
considered an original authority from the death of King 
Stephen until 1235. As a monk of St. Albans he had 
means of knowing what was going on in the great world 
beyond, such as were not vouchsafed to those who lived 
further away from the centre of political and eccle- 
siastical life. He was a faithful annalist ; certainly not 
more given to believe without evidence than most of 
those who went before him. Under the year 1170, in 
his account of St. Godric, he gives eight lines of very 
curious English verse. The text differs in form, though 
not in sense, in the two copies. A Latin version is fur- 
nished, so that there is little room for controversy as to 
the meaning of this very early vernacular poem. 

Provincial Names and Folk-lore of British Birds. By 

the Rev. Charles Swainson. (Triibner.) 
IT will easily be imagined that such a compilation as this 
requires a vast amount of research, perseverance, and 
industry. German writers are very strong in this patient 
investigation and collation of facts ; but certainly no one 
of them has surpassed, perhaps even equalled, Mr. Swain- 
son in this special subject. His book may be said to be 
a perfect mine of information on everything, except scien- 
tific description, connected with British birds. Some of 
the articles are veritable, and valuable, essays, contain- 
ing, besides all that was known before, a great deal which 
has never yet appeared in print. That on the cuckoo, for 
instance, which extends to some twelve or fifteen pages, 
is most pleasant and instructive reading, and seems to 
comprise everything that could possibly be collected 
together from all available sources. For Mr. Swainson 
is polyglot and omnivorous. French and German works 
have been ransacked for facts bearing on his subject, and 
the legends and stories of other countries with regard to 
birds find a place side by side with those of our own 
islands. It is perhaps in this connexion that the only 
apparent defects of the book are to be found. It is 
often a difficult matter for any Englishman to discover 
with accuracy the proper name in French or German of 
certain birds, fishes, and flowers. Dictionaries are not 
only useless, but misleading. It may be taken for granted 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s.iv. JULY 30/87. 

that two-thirds of the zoological terms contained in them 
are absolutely wrong. If a native is appealed to he 
probably gives some provincial term, which is merely 
local, and current only in his own immediate district. 
The scientific writers are often, as regards popular 
names, equally incorrect, especially in France ; and no 
well-educated countryman would, for instance, recognize 
for an instant many of those given by Cuvier, Temminck, 
or even Buffon. Under these circumstances it could 
scarcely be expected that Mr. Swainson should be im- 
maculate in this respect, but he has, apparently, been 
careful to insert as few mistakes as possible. When in 
doubt he omits the foreign name of a bird altogether, 
and so avoids the difficulty. Thus, in France the three 
birds the missel- thrush, fieldfare, and redwing, are all 
known under the generic name of " grive," and furnish 
that delectable dish which sometimes strikes the autumn 
tourist as being so delicious. The same thing occurs in 
Germany, where the same birds are known as " Kram- 
metsvb'gel," and also looked upon as a great delicacy. 
That this little explanation should be wanting in Mr. 
Swainson's book is neither surprising nor in any way 
to be deprecated. He merely undertook to give the 
English provincial names and folk-lore of birds, and this 
task he has executed with the most complete success, 
and with rare ability and industry. 

Transcript of the Register of Baptisms of Muthill, Perth- 
thire, 1697-1847. By the Rev. A. W. Cornelius 
Hallen, M.A. (Printed for Subscribers.) 
THIS interesting record of Episcopalian ministrations 
commences at a period of considerable religious and 
political dissension in Scotland. It contains the names 
of persons of all ranks in society, from the peer to the 
peasant. It tells of difficulties in the performance of 
purely religious rites such as the present generation 
may find it hard to believe, unless well read in the his- 
tory of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Those 
who are familiar with the lives of Bishop Low and of 
John Skinner of Longaide will find in the facts recorded 
in the Muthill registers nothing at all strange to them; 
but to the ordinary Southron some of the pages may 
almost read like a romance. Mr. Hallen is doing a good 
work for Scotland as well as for England, and we can 
only hope that his work will be adequately appreciated 
in both countries. We do not understand why Mr. 
Hallen almost always prints " Groeme " for Grceme in the 
entries of the Garvock and Balgowan families. If fol- 
lowing the MS. he should have appended sic to such a 
detestable misspelling. The strange Christian name 
" Mart," p. 29, is surely due simply to the absence of a 
mark of contraction for Margaret. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register 

(Boston, Mass., printed for the Society.) 
Genealogical Gleanings in England. XVI. By Henry 
F. Waters A.M. Reprinted from the above Register 
for April, 1887. 

OUR friends of the New England Historic Genealogical 
Society are practical men in their pursuit of genea- 
logical knowledge, and their business qualities are bearing 
good fruit in the researches carried on in this country 
by Mr. H. F. Waters, the latest instalment of which 
is now before us, in separate form. The success wirti 
which Mr. Waters is dealing with the Harvard an ?RogeS 
descents and relationship, to both of which the late Col 
Chester had given years of investigation, should be very 
encouraging to those Americans who pursue genealogical 
knowledge with a view to the discovery of truth. Among 
recent subjects taken up in the New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register, the descent of President Lin- 
coln may be singled out as one upon which light may 
possibly be thrown by some entriea in the " 

St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, to which we have lately 
drawn attention, and where Katharine, daughter of 
William Lincoln, occurs as baptized April 17, 1574. The 
first immigrant of the name in America landed in 1637, 
aged eighteen. The posthumous address to the Society 
by its late president, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, LL.D., 
forms a fit conclusion to a series of able addresses de- 
livered from the chair by the same distinguished office- 
bearer, whose last written words bear reference to the 
life in the " Light of Eternity." 

THE Societe des Traditions Populaires (Mueee d'Eth- 
nographie, Trocadero, Paris), during the course of 1887, 
its second year of existence, hopes to do much more 
than it has yet done in the way of publishing varied and 
interesting collections of folk-lore. It is assured of the 
help of new and able contributors, as well as of the con- 
tinued support of tried friends. Looking at the table of 
contents of the first year's issues, we see that they em- 
brace notes from Asia Minor, Italy, Russia, Poland, and 
Servia, as well as from Corsica, Algeria, and all parts of 
the mainland of France. We cannot but hope that the 
promoters of this useful work will be adequately sup- 
ported by students of folk-lore abroad and at home. 

MR. W. A. CLOUSTON, of 233, Cambridge Street, Glas- 
gow, announces for publication by subscription, uniform 
with his ' Book of Sindib^d,' ' A Group of Eastern 
Romances and Stories.' The edition will be limited to 
300 copies. 

MR. A. W. TTJER writes : " Readers of ' N. & Q.' will 
regret to hear of the death, on the 22nd inst., in his 
fifty-eighth year, of an old and valued contributor to 
its pages, Mr. Edmund Waterton, of Deeping Waterton 
Hall, Lincolnshire. It was hoped that a winter spent 
abroad would have restored Mr. Waterton's strength ; 
but on his return home it was seen that he was failing. 
Physically a fine man, and the beau-ideal of an English 
country gentleman, Mr. Waterton was also a learned 
antiquary and a staunch friend. Above all, he was a 
good man." Mr. Waterton was in communication with 
' N. & Q.' up to the period of his death. Two contribu- 
tions appear in the present number. 


We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
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7"> S, IV. AUG. 6, '87.] 





NOTES: Sir John Shorter, 101 Shakspearlana, 103 The 
Skeat of Crieff Local Name for the Missel-Thrush, 105 
Epitaph Paraphernalia-Gray's Inn Mr. English, 106 
St. 8within = St. Satan, 107. 

QUERIES : The People's Palace Tewkesbury Musket-balls 
Derivation of Names of Rocks, 107-H. Flood Five- 
Guinea Piece Dr. Pory Thacher Hunter Family Walker 
Family C. Macklin-"Pingues lampades " " He may go 
pypen in an ivy leaf," 108 Song Wanted Sonnet on Cowper 
Baptismal Registers Cantlin Stone Book-plate Author 
of Articles " Agreeing to differ " Celtic, Gaelic, Welsh 
Phonetic Spelling Life of St. Brandan Metaphysics- 
Marriage of Lady Anne Cecil Portraits of Founders of 
Colleges' Kottabos 'Leonardo da Vinci, 109 Barrens 
' The Opera Glass 'Foreign Jubilees Irish Robber Mar- 
ginal Notes to Bible Numismatic Neville of Kildare, 110. 

REPLIES : Bibliography of School Magazines, 110 Comber 
Family, 111 Sitwell : Stoteville, 112 Sir John Vanbrugh 
Galileo-Family Prayers, 118 "Appointed to be read in 
Churches " ' Country Box,' 114 Mazarine Bible Stocks 
and Pillory Jubilee of George III., 115 Trade Signs- 
Henchman Sage on Graves Blue Peter Gow Family 
"Nullum tempus occurrit," &c., 116 St. John Ring in 
Marriage Copying Letters, 117 Hobby: Hobby-Horse 
Huguenot Families, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Cowper's ' Accounts of Churchwardens 
of St. Dunstan's, Canterbury.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



(Continued from p. 63.) 

It would seem, however, that Sir John Shortens 
Protestantism was unimpeachable, notwithstanding 
that contemporary observers (see Bramston's 'Auto- 
biography, 7 p. 315, and the 'Ellis Correspondence,' 
vol. ii. p. 161), perhaps prejudiced, impute to him 
considerable elasticity of conscience. Be this as it 
may, we know now that he was a faithful guar- 
dian of the civic liberties such of them as re- 
mainedentrusted to his charge. Contemporary 
testimony (from independent sources not to be 
gainsaid) demonstrates that throughout the event- 
ful period of his nomination and service as lord 
mayor he invariably acted in every step he took 
by the advice and with the sanction of the leaders 
of the reforming and Puritan party, and even as 
I shall show in one important proceeding, of the 
heads of the church from which the sects constituting 
that party had seceded. That this course of con- 
duct was dictated by motives of sound policy we 
cannot doubt ; we have every reason to infer that 
the civic sovereign regarded as inevitable an early 
change for the better in the political atmosphere, 
and, when this brighter day should dawn, he felt 
that it would behove him, and those for the main- 
tenance of whose civil rights he regarded himself 

as a trustee, to be able to assert and prove that 
throughout the past troublous and dangerous times 
they had firmly observed the strictest legality in 
every action taken by them ; nay, moreover, had 
complied, " though to their own hindrance," as the 
Psalmist has it, with every ordinance enacted ac- 
cording to the ancient constitution of the realm. 

Take an instance. The result of Hales's case,* 
although favourable to the Crown, had sufficiently 
alarmed the wily Lord Chancellor Jeffreys. Sir 
Edward Hales's commission was couched in the 
ordinary form of a military officer's warrant 
nothing in the terms of that document absolved 
the individual to whom it was issued from the 
duty the qualifying duty of complying with the 
statutorily enacted conditions of office civil and 
military. A majority of pliant judges (there was 
but one dissentient) had agreed that the king's 
inherent prerogative might, by implication, 
introduce a dispensation with compliance not 
patent on the face of the parchment; but 
Jeffreys well knew no one could know better 
that even the pliability of judges, mere crea- 
tures of the court as they were then, could not 
always be relied upon to uphold the legality of a 
dispensing power thus inferentially asserted. At 
all events, forewarned, forearmed. Enlightened 
by the arguments of counsel learned in the law in 
the civil action brought collusively against Hales 
by his own coachman, the court advisers appre- 
ciated the flaw in their case those reasonings had 
revealed. The shrewd mind of the Chancellor was 
naturally distrustful of the soundness of the law 
enunciated in the decision which had pronounced 
that there was vested in the sovereign an inherent 
prerogative enabling the occupant of the throne for 
the time being to excuse a subject from the con- 
sequences enacted by Parliament of non-compliance 
with the provisions of an express statute which had 
received the royal assent of his Majesty's immediate 
predecessor to assume to forgive the penalty of 
the infraction, moreover, even when the remittance 
involved the confiscation of the vested right of a 
fellow-subject of the offender ! Such usurpation 
of arbitrary power was sure to be questioned again 
at some time or other as the occasion arose. To 
obviate this contention Jeffreys astutely devised 
a plan whereby in future commissions under the 
royal sign-manualf a recital and a proviso should 

* As a lawyer I do not think Sir Edward Hales's case, 
then (1687) recently decided, adrem further than I have 
indicated in the text. Inquirers desirous of pursuing 
this very interesting subject will find the proceedings in 
the action amply reported in Howell's 'State Trials,' 
xi. 1166, where the judgment, pronounced June, 1686', 
is given at length. 

t I treat the letters patent to the civic authorities 
during the interregnum of the City's sovereign rights as 
on the same footing with commissions in the army and 
navy. In fact, the lords mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, 
recorders, and common Serjeants were during this un- 



[Tth g. iv. AUG. 6, '87. 

be inserted, the former affirming the king's pre- 
rogative, the latter giving effect to its individual 
exercise. This "stop-gap" the Stuart lawyers 
designated a non obstante clause, a proviso 
dispensing with the patentee's compliance with the 
enactment in the Test Act (25 Oar. II. cap. 2) 
which rendered it obligatory upon every officer, 
civil and military, fulfilling an appointment "of 
trust or emolument" under the Crown, to receive 
the Holy Communion according to the rites of 
the Church of England within a specified time 
three months before entering upon the duties 
of his post, a measure notoriously in its incep- 
tion directed against the Duke of York, the 
brother of the then reigning monarch, and the 
enactment of which had, in tact, the effect it was 
intended to have, of causing the prince against 
whom it was aimed at once to surrender all the 
employments of trust and emolument he held under 
the Crown. That coerced prince was now the 
sovereign of the realm. 

I have already mentioned that Sir John's letters 
patent contained two exceptional clauses conceding 
indulgence to the incoming Lord Mayor's well- 
known sectarian tenets. With one the two- 
branched proviso, one limb of which conferred 
latitude in respect of the religious services during 
the mayoralty in the Guildhall Chapel, and the 
other endowed his lordship the mayor with a com- 
plementary liberty in the choice of a chaplain I 
have dealt already. I have now to examine the 
other enabling clause, the consideration of which 
I then deferred. This, in the then condition of 
the political world, was constitutionally speaking 
the more significant innovation of the two. 
Under the judgment of Quo Warranto the mayor 
had become the sovereign's patentee, and no statute 
stood in the way of the patron to limit him in any 
powers of indulgence he chose to exercise ; but the 
non obstante clause involved a distinct assertion of 
the sovereign's power to dispense at his pleasure 
with the observance by a subject of the statute 
law of the land. A constitutional officer might 
with a clear conscience avail himself to the full 
of the concessions given by the double-barrelled 
clause, for the judgment of Quo Warranto, which 
must be considered law until over-ruled, impliedly 
warranted such an extension of the royal grace ; and 
if the patentee waived these privileges, he must be 
taken to do so from considerations of political pru- 
dence, not from regard to legal obligation. As a 
fact, however, as we shall see hereafter, Sir John 
only very partially availed himself of this part of 
his privilege if, indeed, he can be said to have 

happy time the king's officers pure and simple, the lord 
mayor in particular being as essentially the sovereign's 
eiutoi of the City as were any of the custodes, civil, 
military, and ecclesiastical, appointed centuries before 

r HeDr iu 

done so at all; but to act under the powers of the 
non obstante clause as Sir John and all his party 
and a national party much more comprehensive 
than his merely sectarian following felt would 
be to acquiesce in pretensions all patriots were 
unanimous in denying and denouncing. Thus, 
then, if Jeffreys was wary, the Presbyterian mayor 
was well advised. If the Crown had shrewd 
lawyers behind it, the " country party " had at its 
command " gentlemen of the long robe " as learned 
and astute. Shorter's course in relation to Jeffreys's 
last device must be regarded as a counter-move. 
In the game of the great Revolution it was a very 
emphatic and ominous cry of " Check ! " Ex 
abundanti cauteld, the newly nominated lord 
mayor deliberately declined to avail himself of the 
interpolated concessions, and, in the first place, 
after conference with and under the sanction 
nay, with the ample approval of the chief leaders 
of the Puritan party nay, more, after consulta- 
tion with the Commission of Bishops of the Estab- 
lished Church then administering the affairs of the 
see of London* Alderman Sir John Shorter 
publicly took the sacrament according to the usage 
of the Church of England in the interval between 
the date of bis patent and his taking the oath of 
office. Moreover, the contemporary diarist Lut- 
trell informs us that during his mayoralty Sir John 
cautiously avoided formally acting on either of the 
privileges conceded by the other the dual in- 
dulging clause in the patent, one part of which 
empowered him to have what form of religious 
service he thought proper observed in the Guild- 
hall Chapel during his mayoralty, and the other 
licensed him to appoint a minister of whatsoever 
denomination he pleased as his chaplain, or, as the 
patent expressed it, "to preach before him." He 
evaded taking advantage of the first branch of the 
concession by closing Guildhall Chapel altogether, 
and no divine service of any kind was performed 
in that sacred edifice during his mayoraltyt and 

* During the suspension of its bishop, Dr. Compton, 
under a sentence of the Court of Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sion (which had arbitrarily assumed the powers of the 
abolished Court of High. Commission), for refusing to 
suspend Dr. John Sharp, Rector of St. Giles-in-the- 
Fields and Dean of Norwich (afterwards Archbishop 
of York), for preaching against Popery. Dr. Compton 
had, however, recommended the eloquent divine to dis- 
continue his sermons for the present. 

f Sir John Bramston's contemporaneous narrative 
('Autobiography,' Camden Society, p. 315) rather con- 
flicts with this statement; but I am inclined, from 
the result of the examination of a great mass of in- 
ferential and concurring independent contemporary 
testimony, to conclude that Luttrell (who is my direct 
authority for this detail, which he repeats on different 
dates at intervals many months apart; is right, and that 
the learned judge of the Court of King's Bench is wrong, 
as that pleasantly gossiping lawyer is inaccurate, or, to 
say the least, careless, in another entry of civic historic- 
ally domestic lore. 

. IV. AUG. 6, '&7.J 



the brief tenure of office of his successor, that 
mayor " of a month's mind," the Anabaptist Sir 
John Eyles. The chapel remained closed for one 
year all but three weeks, but Lord Mayor Shorter, 
we are told, " fitted up a conventicle " in Grocers' 
Hall, where he had his official residence,* and 
although he avoided acquiescing in the king's 
ulterior designs declining to avail himself of 
the second part of the twofold licence by not 
appointing any particular divine as his ordinary 
chaplain or officially "to preach before him," 
he invited to Grocers' Hall from time to time 
eminent dissenting ministers of various denomina- 
tions, among whom we find recorded the name of 
the eloquent Mead,f the widely esteemed minister 
of " Stepney Meeting," the tradition of whose 
talent survived the plain brick edifice his oratory 
made famous, and still lingers in the pretentious 
Gothic structure that has superseded that quaint 
old " tabernacle." It seems, then, but reasonable 
to infer that the popular Baptist preacher John 
Banyan was similarly distinguished, perhaps more 
than once, and from this circumstance, as I have 
said, may have sprung the notion that he acted 
nominally as the lord mayor's chaplain. Then we 
are to/ld and it is an interesting illustration of 
the reputed flexibility of Shorter's religious tenets 
that between the last days of October, 1687, and 
those of August, 1688, the Lord Mayor, though 
" he went sometimes to the meetings of dissenters, 

went frequently to church This disobliged the 

king to a very high degree, insomuch that he said 
the dissenters were an ill-natured sort of people 
that could not be gained." 

This, then, was the public conduct, as Lord 
Mayor nominate, of citizen Sir John Shorter, 
whose claims to citizenship Strype's ' Stow,' as it 
stands, denies altogether, denying also that be 
ever qualified for the civic chair by serving sheriff, 
oblivious of the statement of the undoubted fact 
on p. 149 that he fulfilled that office in the mayor- 
alties of Sir Robert Vyner and Sir Joseph Sheldon, 
1674-5. I venture to assert that no writer on our 

* Bramston and Luttrell agree as to this. See also the 
' Ellis Correspondence,' vol. ii. p. 161, confirmatory. I 
do not for every assertion I make burden my text 
with references to authorities. Luttrell's ' Brief Rela- 
tion ' (rol. i., passim), Neale's ' History of the Puritans' 
(vol. v., passim), Burnet's 'Own Times,' the London 
Gazette and the other meagre metropolitan newspaper 
pres* of the period, &c., extending over the years 1686-87, 
1687-88, all works of ready accessibility, must be assumed 
to be generally vouched by me as supporting my state- 
ments and justifying my conclusions. They can be easily 
referred to for my verification or refutation. 

f Luttrell, under date November 6, 1687. 

j Neale's ' History of the Puritans,' vol. v. p. 42. 
Bramston's ' Autobiography,' p. 315, contemporaneously 
confirms Sir John's reputed indifference as to the forms 
of religious worship he patronized while serving as the 
civic sovereign, bee also Ralph's ' History of England,' 
vol. i. p. 966. 

constitutional history has rendered adequate justice 
to the attitude taken up by this distinguished m an 
towards the Crown (whose nominee he was) on the 
one hand, and towards the citizens (of whose 
franchises he nobly regarded himself the champion) 
on the other. To sum up; while accepting office 
under the royal powers defined by a judgment 
which remained law until the principles affirmed 
by the glorious Revolution pronounced it invalid, 
he was careful not only never to go beyond the 
terms of that decision, but to exercise but very 
sparingly, if at all, the privileges his royal patron, 
by virtue of it, assumed the right to confer. I 
submit that this patriotic citizen's conduct should 
be coupled with, and considered as complementary 
to, the course pursued by those nonconformists 
who stood shoulder to shoulder with the seven 
bishops in their martyr-like trouble during the 
first of the last three months of Shorter's life, even 
going so far as to depute ten of the most eminent 
of their divines to visit the imprisoned prelates in 
the Tower and convey to them assurances of the 
sympathy and support of the dissenting congrega- 
tions throughout the length and breadth of the 
beloved land that trusted deputation represented ; 
neither the first, nor has it proved the last, in- 
stance of the suspension of domestic discord in 
presence of alien menace of national union against 
the attack of a common foe. NEMO. 


(To be continued.) 


' HENRY VIII.' Fresh from observation of the 
orderly as well as enthusiastic crowd which greeted 
Queen Victoria's Jubilee, it is not unnatural that 
a Shakespearean student should revert to the pre- 
sentation of the excited mob at the christening of 
Elizabeth, her great predecessor. 

The stage direction of the fourth scene of the 
fifth act of * Henry VIII.' is " noise and tumult 
within," and the dialogue proceeds between the 
porter and his man, representatives of the " force" 
employed to keep Palace Yard clear. The man 
protests that he has been doing his best : 
I am not Samson, nor Sir Guy, nor Colbrand, to 
Mow 'em down before me : but if I spared any 
That had a head to hit, either young or old, 
He or she, cuckold or cuckold-maker, 
Let me ne'er hope to see a chine again, 
And that I would not for a sow, Ood bless her! 

So regulate and so read, substituting "sow "for 
" cow " of all the editions. Collier proposed " for a 
crown." Those still live who have sat at a table 
where a huge pork chine has steamed "warm, 
reeking, rich." Chines of beef are known ('2 
Henry VI.,' IV.), but enthusiasm does not attach 
to cow beef. The porter's man was, doubtless, 
more familiar with pork, and his affectionate re- 
miniscence is humorous as reverting to the sty. 



[7 th S. IV, AUG. 6, '87. 

la a subsequent speech of the man there is dis- 
tinct appearance of a displaced line, and one word 
is very questionable : 

Man. The spoons will be the bigger, sir. 

There is a fellow somewhat near the door ; he should 
Be a brazier by his face, for, o' my conscience, 
Twenty of the dog-daya now reign in 's nose. 
That fire-drake did I hit three times on the head 
For kindling such combustion in the state, and 
Three times was his nose discharged against me. There 


A haberdasher's wife of small wares near him, 
That railed upon me till her pinked porringer 

Fell off her head; 

I missed the meteor once and hit that woman, 
Who cried out " Clubs," when I might see from far 
Some forty truncheoneers draw to her succour, &c. 

For " wares " the copies have " wit," and " haber- 
dasher of small wit " does occur in Ben Jonson, 
but probably in consequence, as here also, of the 
familiarity of the phrase "small wit" misleading 
the compositor. 

The line " For kindling such combustion in the 
state" has good meaning as inserted above, but not 
so as universally printed, preceding " I missed that 
meteor once," &c. The red nose of the fire-drake is 
a " meteor" a political portent ever and as such 
spoken of as provoking combustion in the state. 
There is a manifest explanation of the transposi- 
tion in the word " head," which it follows in its 
right place, recurring lower down. The text of 
'Henry VIII.' as current is remarkable for neglect 
of sound emendations already indicated, and for 
not a few other false readings, which such neglect 
makes it little encouraging to point out. 


' HAMLET/ V. ii. 42. 

And stand a comma 'tweene their amities. 
The now non-use and the real oddness of this con- 
ceit or simile have led to other readings being pro- 
posed, and amongst such I perpetrated one in my 
greener sallet days. Further readings, however, in 
Elizabethan literature showed me that references to 
commas and periods were conceits of that day, or 
at least for a short time in that day. Students 
must have come across instances where " period " 
has been used with at least a quibbling or sub- 
reference to the printed stop so called, and as to 
the comma I had collected several instances. Some 
of these have, unfortunately, been mislaid or lost. 
Three, however, I can give, merely premising that 
the present Hamletian passage is undoubtedly the 
best of all that I have come across, because, admit- 
ting its oddness, it must be allowed to be a most 
accurate simile, and one that gives excellent sense. 
In it Peace, as personified, stands between the two 
parties, holding each by the hand, or rather con- 
joining their hands, in like manner as a comma 
physically disjoins its two clausesby its body 
separates them while for all intents and purposes 
of sense it conjoins them. 

The first instance is from Shakespeare himself. 
In ' Timon,' I. i., speaking as the adulatory poet, 

he says : 

My free drift 

Halts not particularly, but moves itself 
In a wide sea of wax : no levell'd malice 
Infects one comma in the course I hold ; 
But flies an eagle flight. 

Here "comma" either stands for even the smallest 
part of what he writes, or, and perhaps more probably, 
the most insignificant of the commonalty; not even 
does he level his malice at a Tucca or a Hannam. 
Clearly it is not so happy a passage as the ' Ham- 
let ' one. 

The second is from ' A Packet of Mad Letters,' 
by N. Breton, the first edition of which is undated 
but which is entered in the Stationers' Eegisters 
"xviii Maii," 1602, and republished "Newly In- 
larged" in 1603. Letter 37 is one of "Chal- 

" That God the Judge of right, may determine of our 
wrongs, and the point of the sword put a period to our 
In the "Answer," No. 38, we have : 

" Where God and good Conscience will quickly deter- 
mine the quarrell : but I feare the point of the sword 
will make a Comma to your cunning, which if it doe, 
you shall find what will follow." 

I am not called upon to defend or even explain 
his use of "comma' here, though its excitant 
" the period of our discourses " is good. But I 
note that the date is about contemporary with 
the ' Hamlet ' passage, and that Breton, as he 
did in the instance of "Croydon sanguine," was 
one of those ever ready to take up the phrases 
and ideas of the day, and as readily drop them, 
when they got out of date, for those of the next 
issue ; and this I say without referring to his 
principles, which were more stable. 

My third is from the ' Parthenophil and Parthe- 
nophe ' of Barnabe Barnes, a series of love sonnets 
and of other love poems, published in 1593, and 
written, therefore, when he was about twenty-four. 
From his youth, and these being his first published 
attempts at verse, he was the more likely to adopt 
the conceits of his day, especially as he evidently 
went in this series of poems to the very limits 
of his imagination and remembrances when treat- 
ing of the old, old subject. At p. 76 [6], and 
speaking in Elegie II. of his "Mistresse," he 
has : 

And thine eyes dartes at every colon hittes 
My soule with double prickes which myne harte splittes. 

Whose faintyng breath with sighing commaes broken 

Drawes on the sentence of my death by pawses : 

Ever prolonging ont myne endlesse clauses 

With iffs Parenthesis, yet finde no token 
When with my greefe, I should stand even or odd : 

My life still making preparations 

Through thy loves dartes to beare the periodde, 

Yet stumbleth on interrogations. 

There is a little more, unnecessary to quote, but 

IV. AUG. 6, '87.] 



as some little elucidation I may say that in the 
first line dartes is the plural nominative to its verb 
hittes, placed in the singular either through the 
interposition of colon, or else as affording a rhyme 
to spliltes ; the double prickes I take to be the 
" quotation marks." A " prick " was in those days 
a synonyme for a comma. BR. NICHOLSON. 

CYMBELINE,' V. v. 447, 448 (7 th S. ii. 85). 

And " mollis aer," 
We term it " mulier." 

With reference to the above passage DR. W. ALDIS 
WRIGHT quotes from 'A World of Wonders,' 1607, 
a similar derivation of mulier, but says that he has 
been unable to discover who is responsible for aer. 
Who is responsible I cannot say, but he may not 
object to being informed that the same derivation 
occurs in Caxton's * Game ' and Playe of the 
Chesse,' 1474: 

" For the women ben likened vnto softe waxe or softe 
ayer, and therfor she is callid mulier, whyche Is as 
mocke to saye in latyn as mollys aer" P. 123, reprint, 


II.,' II. i. 84 (7 th S. iii. 402). An 
instance of a dying man punning upon his own 
name is furnished in the case of John Huss, the 
Bohemian reformer. Huss was burned at the 
stake on July 6, 1415, the anniversary of his 
birth. Shortly before being overcome by the 
heat of the flames, he said, " It is thus that you 
silence the goose (huss = a, goose), but a hundred 
years hence there will arise a sivan whose sing- 
ing you shall not be able to silence" (Wylie, 
4 Hist, of Prot.,' vol. i. p. 164). On Nov. 10, 1483, 
was born Martin Luther, who is generally re- 
garded, and rightly so, as having fulfilled this 
remarkable prophecy to the letter. 


"WAY" IN SHAKSPEARE (7 th S. iii. 511). 
" My way of life " (' Macbeth,' V. iii. 22) means 
my mode, grade, or manner of living, i.e., my walk 
in life is fallen, &c. I remember a market gar- 
dener, speaking of a good customer of his in the 
suburbs as having " fell in business." 

Her smiles and tears were like a better way. 

Lear,' IV. iii. 20. 

The quartos have way, but the whole scene is 
wanting in the first folio. Knight reads " day, 
the Globe marks "corrupt"; the expression, how- 
ever, is sound and Biblical, see 1 Cor. xii. 31. So 
" better way " = pleasant path; "sunshine and rain 
[perplex the traveller] her smiles and tears were 
[preferable]." _ A. HALL. 

THE SKEAT OF CRIEFF. The Skeat was the 
site of the open-air court of the Stewartry 
Strathearn. It was situated about half a mile to 
the south-east of the town of Crieff. It was a 

raised circle, enclosed by low earthen walls. It 
remained entire until about thirty years ago, when 
it was obliterated by orders of the proprietor. 
Human remains and a sepulchral urn were got 
when clearing it out. 

The Earl of Strathearn, Patrick Graham, with a 
view of carrying out his design of deposing his 
brother-in-law, Sir John Drummond of Concraig, 
from the office of Steward of Strathearn, proceeded 
at the head of a large retinue from Methven, his 
residence, with the intention of dissipating Sir 
John's court, assembled at the Skeat of Crieff on 
Aug. 10, 1413. Sir John, in the words of Vis- 
count Strathallan, in his ' Genealogy of the House 
of Drummond,' having got intelligence of the de- 
sign, " advanced with the friends he had present 
with him to meet the earl, whom at the first en- 
counter he killed, without any more blood shed, 
for none of the earl's company offered to revenge 
the slaughter, but suffered the actors to escape." 

The "kind Gallows of Crieff" referred to by Sir 
Walter Scott stood in the neighbourhood of the 
Skeat, at the western extremity of the town. 

In the curious poem ' Polwart and Mont- 
gomery's Flyting,' where the popular beliefs in 
witchcraft and fairy-lore are graphically portrayed, 
there is a reference to this ancient judgment-seat. 
After describing a witch meeting, where an imp 
was baptized with hellish rites, the poet proceeds : 

Be ane after midnight, their office was ended : 
At that tyd was na tyme for trumpers to tarie : 
Syne backward, on horse backe, brauely they bended ; 
That cammosed cocatrice they quite with them carie. 
To Kait of Criefe, in an creill, soone they gard send it ; 
Where seuin yeir it sat, bath singed and sairie. 
The kin of it, be the cry, incontinent kend it ; 
Syne fetcht food for to feid it, foorth fra the Pharie 
like elfe of them all brought an almous house oster. 

A. G. REID. 

P.S. Since writing the above, I have seen 
the notes by James Cranstoun, LL.D., to the 
' Flyting ' in the recently published edition of 
Montgomery's poems by the Scottish Text Society. 
He takes " Kate" for a female; by the context the 
word evidently means a place. By the way, he 
refers to the burning of Kate McNiven of Monzie 
as a witch at Crieff in 1715. This Kate appears, 
like the other, to be an apocryphal personage. 
There is no notice of her or her trial, so far as I am 
aware, in any contemporary record civil, criminal, 
or ecclesiastical. Nicneven was the common name 
given in Scotland to the mother- witch, or gyre 
carlin . She is so referred to in the ' Flyting.' On 
this foundation the story of Kato MacNiven of 
Monzie appears to have been raised. 

THRUSH. A correspondent lately sent me, from 
the neighbourhood of Banbury, a list of local bird- 
names in common use in that part of Oxon, one of 



[7* 8. IV. AUG 6, '87, 

which is not to be found in Mr. Swainson's 
1 Provincial Bird-Names,' lately published by the 
Dialect Society ; nor can I find any trace of it 
elsewhere. The missel-thrush is there called the 
Norman gizer (the second word is spelt by my 
correspondent as pronounced). This bird is known 
also in Salop as the Norman thrush, presumably 
from its being a larger or finer bird than the 
common species, and in the same sense in which 
French is so often used ; e. g., French heckle, for 
the spotted woodpeckers ; French nut, for walnut. 
But what is gizer ? I have searched in vain through 
Mr. Wright's 'Vocabularies,' from which much 
interesting information may be derived as to Old 
English names of birds, without finding anything 
to throw light on it ; nor did Holland's * Faune 
Populaire de la France' contribute anything, 
except that the ordinary French name for the bird 
is grim de gui. Gui is French for mistletoe, and 
the old form of the word is guix, as was pointed 
out to me by Prof. Earle (see Littre, s. v.). Is it 
possible that this is the origin of the North Oxon 
word gizer ; and, if so, how are we to account for the 
survival of a French form in a single English rural 
district ? Perhaps some correspondent will be able 
to produce a parallel form which may confirm or 
correct my etymology. If gizer is really connected 
with guix, the coincidence of the word with the 
epithet Norman is at least striking and suggestive. 

I leave untouched for the present the common 
local name gor-(or ^auj-)thrush, as it can hardly 
have any etymological relation to gizer. 


Lincoln College, Oxford. 

EPITAPH. (See 7 th S. iii. 426.) The following 
lines may interest MR. DE V. PAYEN-PATNE, as 
containing the mention of another pagan deity. 
They may be seen in Babraham Church, near 
Cambridge : 

Here lies Horatio Palavazene, 

Who robbed the Pope to lend the Queen. 

He was a thief. A thief' Thou lies t; 

For whie ? He robbed but Antichrist. 

Him Death with beaome swept from Babram 

Into the bosom of old Abram : 

Then came Hercules with his club, 

And struck him down to Beelzebub. 

Sir Horatio Palavicini was Genoese, and was 
naturalized in 1586. He commanded an English 
man-of-war in the battle with the Spanish Armada. 
He died in 1600. VILTONIUS. 

PARAPHERNALIA. The meaning of this word 
as it should be used in the English language is 
clearly explained by Blackstone : 

' The wife may acquire a property in some of her 
husband's goods; which shall remain to her after his 
death, and not go to his executors. These are called her 
paraphernalia; which is a term borrowed from the 
civil law, and is derived from the Greek language, signi- 
fying sometMng over and above her dower. Our law 

uses it to signify the apparel and ornaments of the wife, 
suitable to her rank and degree ; and therefore even the 
jewels of a peeress usually worn by her have been held 
to be her paraphernalia." ' Commentaries,' bk. ii. 
ch. 29, sixteenth ed., 1825, vol. ii. p. 435. 

This word is now used by inaccurate writers to 
mean pretty nearly anything. I have notes of its 
being used to signify things belonging to oaths 
and swearing, to the devil, to a lady's dress, to the 
vestments used by the priests of the Catholic 
Church, and to the official dress of magistrates. 
This last curious misappropriation of the word I 
have come upon I give below. The writer is 
describing a horse-race which he witnessed at 
Catania on the feast of St. Agatha, the patroness : 

" The business of these first magistrates of the city, 
decked out in all their paraphernalia, and attended by 
drummers, fifers, and musqueteers, was to declare the 
winner amongst half a dozen jades, the best of which wag 
not worth ten pounds. " John James Blunt, ' Vestiges 
of Ancient Manners and Customs discoverable in Modern 
Italy and Sicily,' 1823, p. 60. 

I do not think that this perversion of meaning 
became common until the end of the last century. 
It would be interesting to find out when it arose, 
and who is to be reprobated for the introduction 
of an error which is disfiguring to the language 
and serves no purpose of immediate convenience. 

K. P. D. E. 

first entertainment of this kind of which there is 
any record took place at Gray's Inn in the year 
1525. Hall, in his ' Chronicle,' thus refers to it : 

" A Plaie at Gray's Inn. This Christmas was a goodly 
disguising played at Gray's Inn, which was compiled by 
John Roo, Serjeant at Law, twenty years past. This 
play was so set forth with rich and costly apparel, and 
with strange devices of masks and morrishes, that it was 
highly praised by all men, except by the Cardinal 
[Wolsey], who imagined that the play was devised of 
him. In a great fury he sent for Master Roo, and took 
from bim his Coif, and sent him to the Fleet ; and after- 
wards he sent for the young gentlemen that played in 
the play and highly rebuked and threatened them and 
sent one of them called Moyle of Kent to the Fleet, but 
by means of friends Master Roo and he were delivered 
at last. This play sore displeased the Cardinal, and yet 
it was never meant for him, wherefore many wise men 
grudged to see him take it so to heart. And even the 
Cardinal said that the King was highly displeased with 
it, and spake nothing of himself. 

" In 1613 ' The Maske of Flowers ' was presented by the 
gentlemen of Graies Inn at the Court of Whitehall, in 
the Banquettinar House, upon Twelfe night, being the 
last of the solemnities and magnificences which were 
performed at the marriage of the E*rl of Somerset and 
the Lady Frances, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk/' 

See full particulars in Douthwaite's Notes on 
Gray's Inn.' WALTER LOVELL. 

Gray's Inn. 

MR. ENGLISH. In the possession of Viscount 
Melville is a valuable copy of * The Acts, &c., of 
James I. and his Successors,' 1597. The royal 
arms of Scotland, with " I. K.," are stamped upon 

7" S. IT. Aoo. 6, '87.] 



the binding. The portraits of the sovereigns of 
the house of Stuart are coloured, and embellished 
with silk and velvet, and at the end of the statutes 
of each sovereign blank leaves are introduced, 
upon which a great number of historical memo- 
randa are written in a contemporaneous hand. 
The volume belonged, apparently, at one time to 
Lord Drummond (the eldest son of the Duke of 
Perth, Scottish Chancellor of James II. of England), 
who was with the king at St. Grermains in 1699. 
He has made on the fly-leaf the following note : 
" I got this Book from Mr. English, 22 August, 
1699 Drummond." Who was Mr. English ? 


ST. SWITHIN=ST. SATAN. Possibly the fol- 
lowing passage (Hislop's 'Two Bibylons,' p. 459, 
note) anent the rainy saint may be worthy of a 
corner in ' N. & Q.,' provided, of course, that it 
has not previously appeared, for I have no access 
to -early indices : 

" The patron saint of the forty days' rain was [no 
Christian saint [but] just Tammuz or Odin, who was 
worshipped among our ancestors as the incarnation of 
Noah, in whose time it rained forty days and forty 
nights without intermission. Tammuz and St. Swithin, 
then, must have been one and the same. But as in 
Egypt and Rome and Greece, and almost everywhere 
else, long before the Christian era, Tammuz had come 
to be recognized as an incarnation of the devil, we need 
not be surprised to find that St. Swithin is no other than 
St. Satan. One of the current forms of the grand adver- 
sary's name among the Pagans was just Sytan orSythan. 
This name, as applied to the Evil Being, is found as far 
to the East as the kingdom of Siam. It has evidently 
been known to the Druids, and that in connexion with 
the flood : for they say that it was the son of Seithin 
that, under the influence of drink, let in the sea over 
the country so as to overwhelm a large and populous 
district (Davies, Druids,' p. 198). Now the Anglo- 
Saxons, when they received that name, in the very same 
way as they made Odin into Wodan, would naturally 
change Sythan into Swythan : and thus in St. Swithin's 
day, and the superstition therewith connected, we have 
at once a striking proof of the wide extent of devil wor- 
ship in the heathen world, and of the thorough acquaint- 
ance of our pagan ancestors with the great Scriptural 
fact of the forty days' incessant rain at the deluge." 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

TRUST. It is pretty generally known that Mr. 
Walter Besant's dream in 'All Sorts and Condi- 
tions of Men/ now so splendidly realized in East 
London, was practically carried out by the ex- 
pansion of the scheme of a philosophical institu- 
tion founded by Mr. J. T. Barber-Beaumont in a 

building erected for the purpose on his property 
in a space called, from the name of the freeholder, 
Beaumont Square. The institution was established 
at a time when Lord Brougham having enunciated 
his famous apothegm that " the schoolmaster was 
abroad" a great rage was manifested for en- 
dowing all parts of the country with what were then 
known as "mechanics' institutes." Mr. Barber-Beau- 
mont designed his educational foundation to be 
permanently conducted on strictly temperance 
principles, a fact not immaterial to my query to 
be propounded presently. The scheme, however, was 
but very imperfectly carried out, and the establish- 
ment but insufficiently endowed, so that it had to 
eke out a scanty existence for about nine lustres by 
the profits of the building when let for concerts, balls, 
and amateur theatrical entertainments. Experto 
crede. Now this structure, consisting of a hall and lec- 
ture rooms in Beaumont Square still, I believe, in 
situ on the south side of the Mile End Koad, was 
opened a few years prior to Mr. Barber- Beaumont's 
death in 1841, the inauguration ceremony taking 
the form of "A Great Total Abstinence Demon- 
stration." The date was somewhere towards the 
endof the "thirties," for the famous Father Matthew- 
had but just commenced his campaign against 
" the craythur " in Ireland, and nothing so much 
as " teetotalism," as it was then called, I well re- 
member, was popularly talked about. The chair 
was taken by the erudite and illustrious Philip 
Henry, fourth Earl Stanhope, who made a 
very eloquent speech panegyrical of the philan- 
thropic and public-spirited founder, a somewhat 
eccentric though bountiful reformer of very ad- 
vanced views, whose previous career had been, to 
say the least, not wholly uneventful nor even un- 
romantic. Can any reader kindly refer me to a news- 
paper account of this " function," as the fashion- 
able phrase goes now? for it was something more 
than a mere sectional meeting. I have applied to 
the agents for the institution (who arranged its 
development into the present establishment, about 
a quarter of a mile east of the original founda- 
tion and on the north of the main thoroughfare, as 
that stood on the south), but they, after having 
promised to search their books, wrote to say that 
they regretted they could give me no information. 
I have written to the trustees, with the same un- 
satisfactory result. Can any of your readers cour- 
teously oblige me with the date of the ceremony ? 
The details I will then ascertain for myself. Mr. 
Palmer's invaluable ' Index to the Times ' does not 
reach so far back as 1830-40. NEMO. 


they ? A sort of explosive grenade ? 

C. A. WARD. 

I am desirous of ascertaining whether any o 



[7 th S. IV. AUG. 6, '87. 

the names of reefs or insulated rocks anywhere on 
the coasts of the British Isles (of a similar cha- 
racter, for instance, to the Tuskar Eock, the Caskets, 
the Eddystone Reef, or the Fastnets) are known to 
be derived from Anglo-Saxon, or other personal 
names. May I ask any of your learned corre- 
spondents who may happen to be aware of any 
such instances to be good enough to name them ? 

W. S. B. H. 

HENRY FLOOD. !. It is stated in Flood's 
' Memoirs ' that his illegitimacy " was the opinion 
of a jury." Where can a report of these proceed- 
ings be found, and when did they take place ? 

2. Where can I find a full report of " J. Flood v. 
Provost and Fellows of Trin. Coll., Dublin " ? The 
judgment of the Court of Exchequer is briefly 
mentioned in Gent. Mag., vol. Ixiii. pt. i. p. 447. 

3. Was Flood admitted as a student of either the 
Inner or Middle Temple ? G. F. E. B. 

R.A. Now there is so much discussion going on 
us to the merits or demerits of the new gold coinage 
of the Jubilee year, I shall be glad of some in- 
formation respecting the beautiful five-pound or 
five-guinea piece designed by W. Wyon, E.A., in 
1839. A portrait of the Queen as Una with the 
lion is on the reverse. Can any one inform me 
how many impressions were struck off, and what is 
considered the present value of this fine work of 
art? M. D. P. 

pamphlet entitled * Articles to be Inquired of 
within the Archdeaconry of Middlesex in the 
Visitation of the Eight Worshipful Dr. Eobert 
Pory' (London, 1662) occurs the following : 

"Have you a parchment Register Book wherein to 
keep upon record the several Christenings, Weddings 
and Burials which happen weekly, quarterly or yearly 
in your Parish ? Have you also a Register book wherein 
to write the names of all Preachers which came and 
preached in your Church from other places ? And have 
you one sure Coffer with three locks and keyes, for keep- 
ing of the books aforesaid ? And doth one of your keys 
remain always in the hand of the Minister? " 

I should be glad to know whether there is any 
record of the result of Dr. Pory's visitation, and 
where it can be seen. E. T. EVANS 

63, Fellows Road, Hampstead, N.W. 

TEACHER OR THATCHER. Where can be found 
a record of the marriage of Peter Thacher and 

Anne i n 1614, probably in the county of 

Somerset? Mr. Thacher was vicar of Milton 
Clevedon, Somerset, 1616-1622, and rector of St 
Edmund, Salisbury, 1622-1640. Also a record of 
the birth of Thomas Thacher (believed to be Mavl 
1620), son of the Eev. Peter and Anne Thacher, 
probably m the county of Somerset ? Information 
on either of the above queries will be gratefully 
received, and may be communicated to Eev. F.W. 

Weaver, Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath, Somer- 
set, or to PETER THACHER. 
85, Milk Street, Boston, U.S. 

HUNTER FAMILY. Descendants wanted of 
Joseph Hunter, the antiquary. Please reply direct. 

Care of Baring Brothers & Co., 8, Bishopsgate 
Street, London, E.C. 

WALKER FAMILY. There died in Dublin in 
1727 Sir Hovenden Walker, K.C.B., and in 1731 
Sir Chamberlain Walker, M.D., who is styled in 
the Dublin papers "the famous man-midwife." He 
was married to Catherine Newton. Their son, 
Chamberlain Walker, M.D., married, 1745, Miss 
Kitty Bingham, "a young lady of great birth and 
beauty with a good fortune.'' Their only son, 
Maynard Chamberlain Walker, Commissioner of 
Bankrupts, was married in 1777 to Margaret Anne 
Singleton. The eldest son by this marriage, 
Chamberlain Eichard Walker, was a barrister-at- 
law and a gold medal man of T.C.D. He died 
in 1825. The second son, Singleton Walker, 
solicitor, married, 1811, Anne, daughter of D. 
Thorpe, of Monelesia, co. Carlow, Esq., and had 
issue (with others) Eliza Walker, who married, 
1831, James Carmichael, Esq., Clerk of the Crown 
for the county of Tipperary. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' give me information respecting the 
origin of this family 1 Tradition says that two 
sisters-in-law (Newtons) of Sir Chamberlain 
Walker were maids of honour to Queen Anne. 
The family plate bears the crest of a phoenix, with 
motto " Mors Janua Vitse." HOVENDEN. 


"January, 1755. Charles Macklin, of Covent Garden, 
Vintner and Coffeeman." Martin's Gen. Mag., vol. v. 

Does this entry refer to the actor's father ? 

J. J. S. 

"PINGTTES LAMPADES." In Lewis and Short's 
' Dictionary,' under " Lampas.' ; is given," Pingues 
lampades " (Lucr., iv. 403). White and Eiddell, 
under " Lampas," give, " Pinguesque ardere 
videntur Lampades " (Lucr., iv. 403). W. Smith, 
Andrews, and Facciolati (Bailey) do not mention 
this passage. The passage is not to be found at or 
near the line quoted in any one of the following 
editions of Lucretius, nor is it mentioned in the 
"Varise Lectiones " or notes of any one of them, 
Delphin, Munro's, Lachmann's, Creech's, or For- 
biger's. Can any one inform me where the words 
" pingues lampades " do occur, and in what edi- 
tion? J. G. S. 



Theseus, in Chaucer's 'Knight's Tale,' uses this 
phrase in exactly, or almost exactly, the same sense 
in which we speak of " wearing the willow." It 

7"> S. IV. ABO. 6, '87.] 



seems to me very quaint and pretty. Does it 
occur in any other old author ? 


SONG WANTED. The new coinage has reminded 
me of a fragment of a song which an old gentleman 
long dead has told me was sung when the sovereign 
was first issued to take the place of the guinea. 
The following is all that I can remember : 

But now we Ve Saint George with hardly a rag on 
Galloping over a fiery dragon. 

Can any of your readers tell me where the com- 
plete ditty may be seen ? ANON. 

SONNET ON COWPER. Who is the author of a 
sonnet on Cowper beginning : 

for a seraph's voice, an angel's tongue! 
That I might laud in high ennobling praise 
Our English bard of unpolluted lays, 
Thee, gentle Cowper, &c. 

A. W. K. 

BAPTISMAL KEGISTERS. A notice occurs in a 
Hertfordshire parish register to the effect that 
after August, 1634, it was required by Act of 
Parliament that the names of both parents should 
be entered in all baptisms. Can any of your 
readers inform me of the Act to which reference is 
here made; or was the contemplated change due 
to an injunction emanating from Laud's love of 
orderly observance ? FREDK. CHAS. CASS. 

Monken Hadley Rectory. 

CANTLIN STONE. In the county of Salop there 
is at least one stone so called. What is the mean- 
ing of the word ? Is it equivalent to " rocking 
stone " ? Nothing in my dictionaries. 


of your correspondents aid me in finding out to 
whom the following book-plate, the description of 
which I give below, appertains ? Field azure, Two 
lions, dexter and sinister, each resting dexter hind 
leg on ducal coronet, forepaws extended, support- 
ing a laurel-leaf crown, surmounted by helmet 
royal of six bars, and again surmounted by Prince 
of Wales's feathers. C. 

' People I have Met ' in the Illustrated London 
News about the beginning of 1882 1 


University College, W.C. 

"AGREEING TO DIFFER."!. F. F. at 4 th S. vii. 
512, and MR. SHERLOCK at 5 th S. iv. 28, quote the 
same passage from Sir Philip Sidney's ' Countess 
of Pembroke's Arcadia,' "Between these two 
personages, who never agreed in any humour but 
in disagreeing," &c. , and ask whether there is an 
earlier use of the phrase "agreeing to differ." 
Allow me to repeat this query. 


Is there such a thing as any grammar or primer 
of these languages in phonetic spelling ? 


LIFE OF ST. BRANDAN. In the notes to 
Hearne's edition of Peter Langtoft's * Chronicle ' 
four lines of verse are quoted (vol. ii. p. 670) 
about birds singing matins and prime. Two 
versions are given, both taken from manuscript 
lives of St. Brandan. Ha* tMs life ever been 
printed? ANON. 

METAPHYSICS. The following definition of 
metaphysics I have seen attributed to Voltaire, 
" Quand celui qui parle n'entend rien et celui qui 
ecoute n'entend plus c'est me'taphysique"; but in 
a recent volume of travels the definition is ascribed 
to a Scotch shepherd, " He who listens understands 
not what he that speaks means, and he who speaks 
does not quite understand what himself says" 
(Campion, 'On Foot in Spain,' second edition, 
1879). The saying is worthy of Voltaire, and is 
probably his ; but, if so, I should be glad if it can 
be placed. JAMES HOOPER. 

Oak Cottage, Sfcreatham, S.W. 

correspondent of ' N. & Q.' kindly supply me with 
the date of the marriage between Algernon, tenth 
Earl of Northumberland, and Lady Ann Cecil, 
daughter of William, third Earl of Salisbury (circa 
1625 ?) ? F. H. ARNOLD, LL.B. 

OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE. Are there any en- 
gravings of the portraits of the above founders 
taken from the original pictures in the possession 
of the various colleges, besides those of Henry VIII., 
Queen Elizabeth, Bishop Smith of Lincoln, and 
Cardinal Wolsey ? C. 0. 

* KOTTABOS.' Has any correspondent a dupli- 
cate of No. 8, published by McGee, 18, Nassau 
Street, Dublin, in 1871 or 1872, that he would be 
inclined to exchange for a duplicate of No. 2 ? 

Bays Hill, Cheltenham. 

more the original of Leonardo's most famous fresco 
fades on the wall of the Milan refectory the more 
precious become copies, if ancient and taken by 
good artists. The copy of that ' Lord's Supper ' 
in the London Koyal Academy of Arts is said in 
Baedeker to have been used by Raphael Morghen 
in elaborating his engraving of world-wide fame, 
and to have been executed by a pupil of the 
original painter, and so by one of his contem- 
poraries. Who was that pupil ? When was his 
copy produced ? How long has the copy been in the 
possession of the Academy, which was not founded 
till 1768 ; and what is known of the previous his- 



[7 S. IV. Auo. 6, '87, 

tory of the copy, which must yearly grow in 
nterest? JAMBS D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

BARRENS. In the Welsh tithe war at present 
raging in the valley of Meiford, Montgomery 8hire, 
three barrens were seized for tithe. What are they? 


THE OPERA GLASS. For peeping into the 
Microcosm of the Fine Arts, and more especially 
of the Drama.' No. 5 of this is before me. It is 
dated Monday, Oct. 30, 1826, has a motto from 
Juvenal, " Quicquid agunt homines," &c., is pub- 
11 shed in 4to., and is paged 33-40. Each page has 
three columns, and the whole is in mourning for 
the death of Talma, of whom a portrait (as Nero 
i n ' Brittanicus ') and a biography are supplied. It 
is printed by Birtles & Co., at 24, Leather Lane, 
and published for the proprietor every Monday 
morning by T. Dolby, 35, Tavistock Street, Covent 
Garden. How many numbers were published 
Who was the editor; and where can the remainder 
be seen ? URBAN. 

an account given of the jubilees of foreign kings 
o r emperors ? Also, what are the best authorities 
on the observance of the jubilee of Henry III. of 
England ? W. S. L. S. 

A NOTED IRISH ROBBER. Can any of your 
readers inform me where I can obtain particulars 
of the life and exploits of MacGeddy, a noted 
robber, who flourished in Fingal (now the northern 
part of co. Dublin), and was executed at Trim in 
the reign of Richard II. ? Ui CEINNEIDE 


indebted for these valuable references and addi- 
tions; and at what date was the first Bible pub- 
lished with marginal notes ? Y. S. M. 

NUMISMATIC. I possess a coin (silver) which 
has been a brooch ; the obverse has been worked 
out and a monogram thereon cut. Reverse, in- 
side of outer rim, "Bank of England"; five crowns 
or castles at top ; date 1804 at bottom. Inside this 
seated figure, which holds in right hand olive 
branch, trident in left, with shield at side ; bee- 
hive on far right of figure, cornucopia on left at 
thefeet^; on rim, outside all this, "Five Shilling 
Dollar It is in very good preservation. What 
event does it commemorate, if any ? 

AbingtonPigotts. WM ' GR ^M F. PXGOTT. 

F ?i? NTY KlLDA * E --Was Richard 
, Esq., of Furness, co. Kildare, whose will 
is dated 1682 , legitimately descended in the male 
line from the fifth Baron Abergavenny ? The de 
scent as usually given is as follows: Edward 

Neville, fifth Baron Abergavenny (died 1589), 
father of Edward Neville, sixth Baron Aber- 
gavenny (ancestor of the Marquess of Aber- 
gavenny), and of the Hon. Francis Neville, of 
Kyner, co. Sussex, father of Edward Neville, 
Esq., father of Richard Neville, Esq., of Furness, 
co. Kildare, whose will is dated 1682. From this 
Richard Neville are descended in the female line 
some of the most respectable families in the south 
of Ireland. C. C. 


(7 th S. iv. 5.) 

The Student; or, the Oxford Monthly Miscellany. It 
was not until the sixth number that Cambridge was 
added to the title, and later on in its career " The inspec- 
tor : containing a Concise and Impartial Collection of 
News " was added as a supplement. 

College Rhymes. Contributed by members of the Uni- 
versities of Oxford and Cambridge. Oxford, W. Mausell, 
and afterwards >y T. Shrimpton & Son, 1861. This ran 
to a good nanny volumes; a complete set is now very 
difficult to obtain. 

Kottabos (Trinity College, Dublin). William McGee, 
18, Nassau Street, 1869. A very classical collection, 
which was continued for several years. 

The True Blue. Edited by Phil Cosmo. Cambridge, 
Jones & Piggott. Illustrated. 

The Shotover Papers; or, Echoes from Oxford. J. 
Vincent, Oxford. No. 1 dated February 23, 1874. 

The Oxford Spectator. No. 1 dated November 26, 
1867. J. Vincent, Oxford. 

The Individual. No. 1 dated October 25, 1836. 
W. H. Smith, Cambridge. I have fifteen numbers of 
this, printed on various coloured papers, the last dated 
March 14, 1837. 

The Fellow. W. H. Smith, Cambridge, 1836. 

The Tripos. No. 1 dated December 19 (? year). 

The Light Green. W. Metcalfe & Sons, Cambridge, 
1872. 1 Nos. 1 and 2 only printed 

The Cantab. 1873. 

Light Greens. W. Metcalfe & Son, Cambridge, 1875. 

The Blue (magazine of Christ's Hospital, London). 
Commenced about 1870. 

The Cambridge Meteor. 1882. 

I have collected or examined most of the above 
(as well as those mentioned by your correspondent 
MR. BULLOCH) in my almost endless search for 
parodies. The list might be increased, but your 
space and your readers' patience have limits. 


The following is a list of Westminster magazines: 

The Trlfler. By Timothy Touchstone, of St. Peter's 
?<f g6 i! Westminster. The first number is dated May 31, 
1788, the last March 21, 1789. 

The FlageUant.-This was started by Southey. It had 

reached only nine numbers when a sarcastic attack 

upon corporal punishment, as then inflicted, it seems, 

somewhat unsparingly at Westminster, roused the wrath 

L>r. Vincent, the head master, who immediately com- 

lenced a prosecution for libel against the publisher." 

Southey, having acknowledged the authorship of the 

attack, was expelled " early in the spring of the year 

7* S. IV. Auo. 6, '87.] 



1792" ('Southey's Life and Correspondence/ 1849, 
vol. i. pp. 161-2). 

The World at Westminster : a Periodical Publication. 
By Thomas Brown the Younger. The first number is 
dated November 28, 1815, the last May 20, 1816. 

The Trifier : a Periodical Paper. The first number is 
dated March 1, 1817, the last September 8, 1817. 

College and T.B. Life at Westminster. The first 
number is dated July 19, 1845, the last June 27, 1846. 

Nugce We*tmonasttriense*. The first number is dated 
June 26, 1847, the last December 4, 1847. 

I should perhaps add that the school paper 
entitled The Elizabethan, which was started in 
July, 1874, is still in progress. G. F. K. B. 

The Light Blue (Cambridge). I cannot give 
exact dates, but it came out while I was an under- 
graduate, i.e., 1864-67, ran to four volumes, and 
stopped in the middle of the fifth. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

The Cottage, Fulbourn, Cambridge. 

Will you allow me to refer MR. BULLOCH to an 
article of mine on ' Cambridge University Period- 
icals ' in ' N. & Q.,' 6 th S. XL 61 ? This was the first 
time such a list was printed, and I believe there 
are few magazines which are omitted. MR. BUL- 
LOCH will find that all but the Brazen Head are 
in my list. I never heard of this magazine. Can 
MR. BULLOCH give me further particulars ? 

G. J. GRAY. 


This might be readily compiled from the British 
Museum Library Catalogue. I may mention two 
I know: 

Past and Present. The magazine of the Brighton 
Grammar School. Published since 1872. 

The Hurstjohnian. Magazine of St. John's College, 
Hurstpierpoint, Sussex. 

There are one or two published at Hastings. 

[ALPHA obliges with a list similar to that of G. F. R. B.] 

COMBER FAMILY (7 th S. iii. 515). W. B. in- 
quires about three Thomas Combers, one of whom 
was rector of Oswaldkirk. Oswaldkirk was, until 
within the last ten years, a family living of the 
Combers, and its latest rector, Henry George 
Wandesford Comber, was, if I mistake not, a son 
of the Thomas Comber, rector of Oswaldkirk, who 
is mentioned above. Mr. H. G. W. Comber died 
in 1883, aged eighty-four or eighty-five. He, and 
his father before him, were of old acquaintance 
with my mother's family; I knew him personally, 
and his son, Charles Thomas Comber, chaplain R.N., 
and afterwards vicar of Welcombe, in Devon, was 
an old acquaintance and a schoolfellow of mine. 

These Combers descend from Dr. Thomas 
Comber, Dean of Durham in the time of 
William III., an able and kindly divine, whose 
name ought to find a place, and perhaps has found 

a place, in one or other of Messrs. Abbey and 
Overton's books on that period. Dean Comber's 
theology has probably had its day and ceased to 
be ; but, if I remember rightly, he was also the 
author of a little book on cruelty to animals, called 
* Pity's Gift/ which deserves reprinting and has 
often been reprinted. His fame (unless it has been 
revived by Mr. Leslie Stephen) seems to have 
suffered a gradual and painless extinction, for he 
does not appear in the last edition of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica,' nor in Charles Knight's 
'Cyclopaedia of Biography'; but he does appear 
in a far less distinguished work, the ' Universal 
Biographical and Historical Dictionary ' of John 
Watkins, A.M., LL.D., published in 1800. Nor is 
this the only case in which John Watkins, a modest 
one- volume man, is superior to his bulky successors. 
Dr. Watkins states that Thomas Comber was born 
in 1645 at Westerhara, in Kent, and was educated 
at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. 

As to Thomas Comber of Marton, and Thomas 
Comber, vicar of Creech St. Michael, see below. 

The Comber MSS. mentioned by W. B. were 
lately advertised for sale by Mr. Wm. Downing, 
of Birmingham. His account of them, a good 
deal shortened, may possibly deserve record in 
'N. & Q.,' and I send it accordingly, with an 
expression of my own surprise that the family 
should have parted with such volumes. The 
MSS. are these : 

1. 1744-1750. MS. Journal kept by Thos. Comber, Esq., 
of Marton, in the Parish of Sinnington, J.P. for the North 
Riding of Yorkshire (grandfather of the Rev. T. Comber, 
referred to in subsequent papers), containing hundreds of 
curious entries in reference to events of the district in 
which he lived, long entries relating to the Jacobite Re- 
bellion, 1745, &c. 4to. (wants a few leaves at beginning), 
unique and very curious. An historical manuscript of 
unusual interest and importance, as illustrative of the 
Jacobite Rebellion of 1745, and more especially of that 
event as it was viewed in the north of England; among 
other interesting notes respecting the rising is a list of 
the Yorkshire captains, commissioners for the king's 

2. A Collection of the Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. 
Thomas Comber, Rector of Oswaldkirk, and an Acting 
Magistrate in the North Riding of Yorkshire, consisting 
of a number of highly curious pamphlets and manuscript 
works, bound in one thick volume, 1823, &c. 

3. Memoirs of the Life and Death of Mrs. Alice Thorn- 
ton, daughter of the Right Hon. Sir Christopher Wandes- 
ford (temp. Charles 1.), collected from Mrs. Thornton's 
MSS. by her great-great-grandson, the Rev. Thomaa 
Comber, Vicar of Creech St. Michael, Somersetshire ; 
Manuscript, about 1810. Contains curious and interest- 
ing matter illustrative of the times of the Stuarts, the 
Civil War troubles, &c. 

4. Scrapiana, or Detached Pieces of Fugitive Poetry, 
collected by Britannicus (the Rev. T. Comber). Many of 
the pieces written by Mr. Comber himself, several ad- 
dressed to Mrs. H. L. Piozzi, the friend of Dr. Johnson. 
MS. volume, about 1810-20. 

5. The Olio, a Collection of Detached Pieces from 
various Authors, in prose and verse ; being a common- 
place-book, containing many curious notes on inventions 



17* 8. IV. AUG. 6, '87. 

(a number of notices of Gurney's steam carriage), curious 
customs, incidents of the time, occasional poetry, epi- 
grams. &c. Small 8vo., crimson morocco, unique, about 

A. J. M. 

The Rev. Thomas Comber, who was rector of 
Oswaldkirk and vicar of Creech St. Michael's, was 
the eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Comber, rector 
of Buckworth and Morbourne, and grandson of 
Thomas Comber of East Newton, who was the 
eldest surviving son of the celebrated Thomas 
Comber, D.D., Dean of Durham, by Alice his 
wife, daughter of Alice Thornton, the gentle lady 
whose ' Life ' was edited by Charles Jackson, Esq., 
of Doncaster, for the Surtees Society. 

The other Comber is described in Mr. Down- 
ing's ' Catalogue ' as a justice of the peace for the 
North Riding, and doubtless belonged to the same 

The whole series of MSS. must be most in- 
teresting, and Mr. Jackson's remarks in the pre- 
face to Alice Thornton's ' Life' seem to me to apply 
with equal force to them. He says, " Works like 
the present, from their intrinsic merit, have a 
right to be considered publici as well as privati 
juris. Do to them as Archbishop Matthew wrote 
on the title of one of his favourite tomes, as a hint 
to its future possessor, Lege, Eelege, Perhge." 

The MS. memoirs of the life and death of Alice 
Thornton, which is one of the series, may be the 
"tiny book" referred to by Mr. Jackson in the 

The MS., however, which appears to be of the 
deepest interest is described thus in Mr. Down- 
ing's 'Catalogue': "A Yorkshire Magistrate's 
Journal, 1744-1750. MS. Journal kept by Thos. 
Comber, Esq., of Marton, in the Parish of Sinning- 
ton, J.P. tor the North Riding of Yorkshire 
(grandfather of the Rev. T. Comber, referred to in 
subsequent papers), containing hundreds of curious 
entries in reference to events of the district in 
which he lived, long entries relating to the Jacobite 
Rebellion, 1745, &c. 4to. It is to be hoped that 
the fortunate possessor of this gem will be influenced 
by Mr. Charles Jackson's remarks, and at once 
take steps to get it published. 

I have a memorial of Dean Comber in the shape 
of a book on the fly-leaves of which he has written 
in a beautiful and small and clear hand " Tho 
Comber," and "sum ex lib. Tho: Comber Ston- 
gravens : in Com Ebor. Apr. 16. 1664 pr 2" 
Jr rout. 

Dr. Marshall's 'Genealogist's Guide' should be 
consulted for references to pedigrees of Comber. 
Of Thomas Comber of Marton I know nothing 
j mu be glad to Iearn something. The 
second Ihos. Comber mentioned by W B was 
great-grandson of the Dean of Durham of' that 
name, being son and heir of Thos. Comber, LL D 

rector of Morborne and Buckworth, in Hunts. 
He was born on his paternal estate of East New- 
ton, near Helmsley, March 6, 1765 ; graduated 
A.B. at Jesus Coll., Camb. ; was ordained in 1788 
to the chapel of Dundry, near Bristol ; became 
vicar of Creech St. Michael, near Taunton, Som., 
in 1793 ; and rector of Oswaldkirk, in the North 
Riding of Yorkshire, in 1813, where he died in 
March, 1839. He published several volumes and 
pamphlets, of which I shall be happy to furnish 
W. B. with a list, if the latter will send his ad- 
dress to H. T. GRIFFITH. 
Smallburgh Rectory, Norwich. 

A branch of the family of Comber intermarried 
with the Millers of Hants, and in Froyle Church, 
Hampshire, appear several achievements on the 
north side of the chancel, in particular, Quar- 
terly, 1 and 4, A fess wavy az. between three wolfs' 
heads erased gules (Miller) ; 2 and 3, Or, a fess 
indented or, dancette gules, between three estoiles 
sable (Comber). I have other particulars in my 
possession relating to the family of Comber. 


18, Liverpool Street, King's Cross. 

[Other contributors are thanked for replies to the 
same effect.] 

SITWELL : STOTEVILLE (7 th S. iii. 27, 154, 314, 
397, 505 ; iv. 16). I must remind CANON- 
TAYLOR that the question of my " utter ignorance " 
" of the first rudiments of a science " in which I 
have, with " the rashness of youth," ventured to 
intervene, does not assist him in the point upon 
which he undertook to enlighten your readers. 
Putting aside my personality, how does the learned 
canon account for the absurd suggestion that the 
name Stuttgart "is derived from the German 
Stute, a mare, being the place where the Dukes of 
Wlirtemberg had their breeding stud " ? 

Let me ask the learned canon, Who is ignorant 
(he or I) of the plain fact that Stuttgart was so 
called centuries before the Dukes of Wtirtemberg 
had any connexion with the place ? Who is 
ignorant (he or I) of the plain fact that it was a 
" strong fort," and not a mare's nest, centuries 
before the Dukes of Wtirtemberg held it ? And, 
lastly, who is ignorant (he or I) that inasmuch as 
this place was once a Gaelic stronghold, we must 
look to the word stout, and not to the German 
Stute, for a solution of the difficulty ? 

If the learned canon and his school would humbly 
read Dr. Mackay's ' Gaelic Etymology of the Eng- 
lish Language ' they would save themselves from 
many similar falls. They eliminate common sense 
from their system, to say nothing of historical 
facts. Let them forget their petty systems, their 
laws, and begin at the rudiments which the canon 
hurls at me. 

I decline to answer MR. S. 0. ADDY. He is 
not a great canon in my eyes. I told MR. ADDY 

7*8. lV.Auo.6,'8 ? ] 



that my statement as to Stuteville was not a guess, 
but was supported by evidence ; and if he chooses to 
disbelieve me, I can only say I am sorry for it. MR. 
ADDT is very fond of correcting others, and he has 
again fallen into error. The query as to Stuttgart 
was mine, and not his, and it had no immediate 
connexion with his. 

By the way, CANON TAYLOR asserts that I pre- 
sume to instruct Prof. Skeat, " one of the greatest 
masters." I never did anything of the sort ; as 
it happens, I humbly followed him, without having 
previously consulted his book, though I did, I 
admit, attempt to correct a much greater master 
in CANON TAYLOR, and hence the " punishment " 
I have received. PYM YBATMAN. 

SIR JOHN VANBRUGH (7 th S. iv. 28). The 
Chester registers have been searched and the bap- 
tisms of all the rest of the family seven sons and 
six daughters found therein, but not that of John. 
The register of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, which 
breaks off at the Fire of London until the rebuild- 
ing, is also blank. The biographical account pre- 
fixed to the edition of his plays published in 1759 
states that he was born in the parish of St. Stephen, 
Walbrook, in 1666. He was buried in the church 
of St. Stephen, Walbrook, the register of which 
runs, " 1726, March 21, was buried Sir John Van- 
burough in ye North Isle." There is a very good 
biography of Sir John Vanbrugh in the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica/ eighth edition, vol. xxi. p. 515. 

0. P. 

In Walpole's ' Anecdotes of Painting ' is a por- 
trait of Sir John Vanbrugh, evidently an engrav- 
ing taken from a picture, but no particulars are given 
of the original painting. D'Israeli mentions inci- 
dentally in one of his letters that Sir John was 
born in a house at Greenwich, and in the next 
Lady Vanbrugh, his widow, lived until her death 
in 1776, set. ninety. It is, therefore, possible that 
he may have been buried at Greenwich ; perhaps 
L'Estrange's ' History of Greenwich ' says whether 
this is so. B. F. SCARLETT. 

A portrait of this architect will be found in 
Wornum's edition of Walpole's ' Anecdotes of 
Painting in England/ vol. ii. p. 638, 8vo. 1849. 

GALILEO (7 th S. iv. 9). The story of the torture 
and ill treatment of Galileo by the Inquisition 
is one which people will, I suppose, always 
go on repeating, however authoritatively it is 
stamped out ; or the succinct and dispassionate 
narrative of the whole affair in Whewell's ' History 
of the Inductive Sciences' (second edition, 1847, 
vol. i. p. 418-19, and notes Q and R) ought to have 
informed every one who pretends to have read 
anything of the true incidence of the events of that 
case. And any one can gather from it that the 
bothers that befell him were the work far more of 

the jealousy of literary and scientific compeers 
than of judicial severity or bigotry. 

The paragraph which A. L. L. says is going the 
round of the papers is, like most newspaper para- 
graphs, an ignorant medley. The Villa Medici was 
never in any sense a prison, but was, and is, one of 
the most sumptuous palaces of Rome. In the bio- 
graphy of Galileo, I believe by Biot, in the * Bio- 
graphie Universelle,' is a letter of Galileo's, dated 
1633, in which he speaks of enjoying its delightful 
gardens. It was, indeed, the very opposite of a 
prison, for, being the residence of a Tuscan ambas- 
sador, it was exactly the spot where, of all others, 
a Tuscan was freest. 

With regard to his second detention (the same 
year), the same article says, t( II est certain, par les 
lettres de 1'Ambassadeur, qu'il ne fut pas jete" dans 
les cachots du S. Office, quoique le jugement le 
dise." " S'il ne receva pas d'abord," proceeds the 
biographer, " son entiere liberte", il eut pour prison le 
palais magnifique de 1'archeveque de Sienne, Pic- 
colomini, son ami, entoure* de superbes jardins," 
and where he could write to and receive whom he 
pleased, and was always attended by his own 
faithful and favourite servant. In December of 
the same year he had liberty to reside in the en- 
virons of Florence, and soon after to inhabit any 
part of his own Florence at will. Here he passed 
the remainder of his days, " entoure" d'e"leves at- 
tentifs et respectueux, visite" par tout ce que 
Florence renfermait de plus distingue"," and died 
in 1642 at the ripe age of seventy-eight. 

R. H. BUSK. 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

FAMILY PRAYERS (7 th S. iii. 517). Your corre- 
spondent J. S. asks a question which has often exer- 
cised my mind, and one not easy to answer, as men's 
tastes in religious matters are extremely variable. 
From what I know of the works of J. D. Cham- 
bers I should say that probably his 'Order of 
Household Devotion,' from the ancient English 
offices, would be about the best. But I cannot 
speak with knowledge, for the book has long been 
out of print, and I have never succeeded in pro- 
curing a copy. I have used ' Prime and Compline ' 
and * The Primer,' both published by Masters ; the 
first of these is the simplest. Another very good 
little book is ' Liturgia Domestic*,' published by 
J. H. Parker. This, I fancy, is out of print. If 
any fault is to be found with it, it is that the 
prayers are, perhaps, too long. There is also 'The 
Office of Compline ' (Church Printing Company), 
a useful office, but not well arranged, as the Creed 
is placed to be said kneeling, and the Collect for 
the Day is placed after the Collect for Light. There 
is great need for a really good collection of family 
prayers, drawn up on liturgical lines, in which all 
may take their share of prayer, praise, and thanks- 
giving. And, to my mind, any such book should 



[7 S. IV. AUG. 6, '87. 

contain the memorials of the black-letter saints in our 
Prayer Book Calendar. If this were done I think 
there would not be so much ignorance as to the 
history of our Church. Their omission from the 
public services of our Church has done much to 
obscure the chain of evidence which connects us 
with the past. F. A. B. 

It is not easy to recommend a book of family 
prayers unless one knows the circumstances. It 
should be known, however, that Convocation a few 
years ago authorized two books, one of private, the 
other of family prayers. There are books by Canon 
Carter (Masters) and Mr. Bodley (Skeffington), 
both much used by Church people. But for lay 
folk (who do not go to daily prayer in church) 
nothing can be better in the long run than the 
Book of Common Prayer. A few additional col- 
lects for special occasions could easily be supplied, 
and (if the daily lessons were not used) a reading 
could be added from some such book as the ' Daily 
Bound. 7 If the prayers are good, it is an advan- 
tage to know them by heart, and they do not tire. 

W. C. B. 

The Lower House of Convocation has issued 
through Mr. J. Whittaker, of 13, Warwick Lane, 
' The Book of Private Prayer,' and there was also 
published a few years since by Messrs. Cassell & 
Co. 'Convocation Family Prayers.' J. S. will, 
therefore, see that Coleridge's wish has been carried 
out, although I do not think we are any nearer 
having a generally acceptable domestic liturgy than 
we were before these two volumes were published. 
J. S. may not be aware of the existence of the 
following : ' Unsectarian Family Prayers,' by the 
Rev. H. R. Haweis ; ' Prayers (Family), First and 
becond Series,' by George Dawson. For private 
devotions, if Thomas a Kempis has been cast aside 
there are 'Horse Sacrse,' Dumbleton's 'Private 
Prayers,' Wilson's ' Sacra Privata,' and scores of 

ot J| e E?: t A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

2, Kirchen Road, Baling Dean. 

I would recommend 'Prayers Ancient and 
Modern, adapted for Family Use,' published by 
beeley, Jackson & Halliday. It contains prayers 
for six weeks, gathered from most varied sources 
so that one escapes the sameness that must attend 
the continued use of one man's thoughts and lan- 
guage. If a liturgical form is required, nothing 
can be better than the 'Family Prayers' issued 

by authority o the Upper House of Convoca- 

Jt is publuhed by Casse11 ' 

J. S. might find helpful "Prayers of Eminent 
Persons. Selected, arranged, and generally adapted 
to the Purposes^ Family Worship and Private 
Devotion, by the Rev. Henry Clissold, M A " 

London, C. & J. Rivington, 1826. The prayers 
are arranged under heads, "Family Morning," 
"Family Evening," "Private Prayer"; also 
"Prayers for Public and General Occasions, 
Adoration, Confession," &c. This is a unique col- 
lection, containing the prayers of kings, bishops, 
poets, &c. May I mention another book? 'Family 
Prayers,' by the Rev. Gordon Calthrop, M.A. 
(Suttaby, 1885). EDWARD DAKIN. 

Kingstanley, Glos. 

It ia probably no exaggeration to say that books 
of family prayer may be counted by the hundred. 
Convocation has lately put forth a manual which 
supplies Coleridge's desideratum. There are some 
very interesting remarks in an article, by the late 
Dean Alford, in the Contemporary Review, Feb- 
ruary, 1869, on ' Manuals of Family Prayer.' 



' The Family Prayer Book or, Morning and 
Evening Prayers for Every Day in the Year, with 
Prayers and Thanksgivings for Special Occasions/ 
by the Rev. Edward Garbett, M.A., and the Rev. 
Samuel Martin, published by Messrs. Cassell, ap- 
pears to answer the description of book required 

71, Brecknock Road. 

CHURCHES " FIRST USED ? (7 th S. iii. 248.) -MR. 
WALTON BROWN will find this subject fully dis- 
cussed in 6 th S. iv. 24, 72, 130, 171. The late MR. 
FRANCIS FRY said at p. 131 : "These words [Autho- 
rized Version] are probably a name given to this 
version for convenience in common parlance, to 
indicate that it was authorized by the king to be 
used in the churches, although it is not known 
exactly in what way this authorization was ex- 
pressed, if the version was authorized." 


(7 th S. iv. 9). Robert Lloyd was the son of the 
Rev. Dr. Lloyd, second master of Westminster 
School. Robert was educated under his father, 
afterwards repairing to Oxford, where in due time 
he graduated. Returning to Westminster, he 
acted for some time as a master, but the duties 
were irksome to him, and he gave up his post to 
devote bis time to writing. The first work to gain 
him fame, if not money, was 'The Actor,' addressed 
to Bonnel Thornton, who was at that time one of 
his best friends, but who afterwards became his 
bitterest enemy. Mr. Lloyd was frequently in 
precarious straits, and finally he was confined in 
the Fleet for debt. Whilst in prison he supported 
himself with his pen. In conjunction with his 
friend Mr. Charles Denis he undertook a transla- 
tion of the ' Contes Moraux ' of Marmontel, and 
he also composed a ballad opera, ' The Capricious 

7* 8. IV. AUG. 6, '87.] 



Lovers,' which was afterwards acted at Drury 
Lane. He died in prison of an illness brought on 
by the shock he received by the news of the death 
of his boon companion Churchill, and he was at- 
tended in his last illness by Churchill's sister, to 
whom he was engaged. His poems were collected 
and published. The " Poetical Works of Kobert 
Lloyd, M.A., to which is prefixed an Account of 
the Life and Writings of the Author, by W. Ken 
rick, LL.D. 2 vols. [with vignette portraits]. 
London, printed for T. Evans in the Strand, 
1774." 'The Cit's Country Box, 1757,' is to be 
found in the first volume, p. 41. 

Ilusholme, Manchester. 

Eobert Lloyd was the son of Dr. Pearson Lloyd 
second master of Westminster School. He was 
born in 1733 ; was educated at Westminster 
School, of which he afterwards became an usher ; 
and died in the Fleet December 15, 1764. For 
an account of his life see ' Alumni Westmon. 
(1852), pp. 357-8 ; Anderson's ' Poets of Great 
Britain,' vol. x. pp. 613-7; Chalmers's ' English 
Poets,' vol. xv. pp. 71-4 ; * Poetical Works of 
Kobert Lloyd, A.M.' (1774), vol. i. pp. v-xxxix. 
The ' Cit's Country Box ' was written in 1757, and 
will be found in the first volume of the last-named 
book, pp. 41-6. G. F. K. B. 

In the Dyce Library here is an edition of the 
poetical works of Churchill's friend Eobert Lloyd, 
to which is prefixed " An Account of the Life and 
Writings of the Author, by W. Kenrick," 1774. 
* The Cit's Country Box, 1757,' is in vol. i. 


South Kensington Museum. 

MAZARINE BIBLE (7 th S. iv. 28). The subject 
of the Mazarine Bible has been often discussed, 
but an American brother should always be replied 
to. It would appear that 100 years ago the date 
of the Guttenburg Bible was not known ; several 
early Bibles competed for the priority notably 
those of Pfister of Bamberg and Mentelin of Stras- 
burg when the librarian of the Mazarine Library 
at Paris discovered in a copy of the Latin Bible 
there that the illuminator had added his name 
" Cremer," and date " 1456." From this it became 
obvious that the book had been printed a year or 
two earlier, and its date became fixed 1454-5. 
None but the Mentz press existed then ; hence it 
became conclusively proved that the Latin Bible 
without date or printer's name must be the first 
known printed book, and could only have been 
printed by Guttenburg and his partners Fust & 

There are about nine copies of the Mazarine 
Bible known on vellum, and about twenty on 
paper the paper copies as a rule being earlier 
than the former. 

I appealed to the redoubtable bibliopole Bernard 

Quaritch (who has just given 2,650Z. for a copy he 
sold to an eminent nobleman thirty years ago for 
5951.) to tell this story ; but he wrote me, in his 
characteristic way, "The subject has been so 
much written about that I should be laughed at 
and considered an idle person if I told the story 
again." Nevertheless, he told it to me, and I 
have told it imperfectly again. It is as well, perhaps, 
as it will be seen that it is altogether a misnomer and 
very misleading to call this book the " Mazarine," 
only from the above circumstance of it being found 
in the Mazarine Library. 


So called because the copy in the Mazarine 
Library has a MS. subscription by the illuminator 
which fixes the date of the book. It had better 
be called the Guttenberg Bible. It is not a very 
rare book ; several copies have come into the 
market the last few years two last year. Quaritch 
gives some very interesting particulars about it in 
describing the Perkins copy in one of his 1873 
catalogues. He says there are two varieties of 
this Bible ; one issued by Guttenberg himself, 
probably in 1455, the second by " Fust in or after 
1456, when he had legally robbed the inventor of his 
whole stock of types and copies." I should estimate 
that there are at least thirty copies of it perhaps 
more. E. E. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

[Very many replies to the same effect are acknow- 
ledged with thanks.] 

Consult N. & Q.,' 1 st S. iv. 315, 395, 458 ; 2 nd 
S. iii. 346, 396 ; vi. 245, 278, 300, 339, 403 ; vii. 
39; viii.59; xii. 109, 157; 4 th S. i. 536,570,617; 
iv. 116, 168, 187 ; v. 200 ; x. 6 ; 5 th S. iii. 266, 354, 
454 ; iv. 36, for any information which may bo 
required on this matter. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

[Some instances of stocks still existing are sent, and 
are at the service of MR. PEA.] 

JUBILEE OF GEORGE III. (7 th S. iv. 7). The 
jubilee of George III. was held on the completion of 
forty-nine years of his reign, because the Israelitish 
"jubilee " year, whence the idea of all jubilees has 
been taken, occurred at the completion of every 
forty- nine (seven times seven) years. So also the 
' day of Pentecost " (i. e., fiftieth day) is, according 
;o our reckoning, forty-nine days, or seven weeks, 
from the sixteenth day of Nisan, the day on which 
;he first-fruits of the barley-harvest were gathered 
see Deut. xvi. 9). 

There were, however, some medals struck in 
October, 1810, when the king completed fifty 
years of his reign. I possess a very handsome one. 
3n the obverse is the bust of the king to right, with 
the inscription over it, "Long live the king"; 
underneath, "George III." On the reverse, a 



IV. AUG. 6, '87. 

double-headed eagle displayed, perched on a triple- 
peaked mountain-top, on which are growing the 
rose, shamrock, and thistle, the eagle bearing a 
globe with the royal arms and motto, surmounted 
by the British lion standing on the crown, and the 
inscription, " He compleats the 50th year of his 
reign, to the joy of all his subjects, this 25th day 
of Oct', 1810." W. E. TATB. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

Without inquiring too closely into MR. VYVYAN'S 
phrase, " Surely the meaning of jubilee is the com- 
pletion of fifty years," I would say that possibly the 
word is now frequently understood to mean the com- 
pletion of fifty years. But a reference to the first 
recorded institution of a jubilee tells a different tale. 
Levit. xxv. 8 says, " And thou shalt number seven 
sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven 

years (ver. 10) And ye shall hallow the fiftieth 

year it shall be a jubile unto you." 


According to Mr. Preston's ' Jubilee of George 
III./ " The Jubilee of Henry III. took place at the 
beginning of the fiftieth year, on the 1 9th of October, 
1265, and was signalized by the release of prisoners 
and the recall of exiles." P. xi. G. F. K. B. 

[GRANT, E. V. RDSCOTT and F. E. SAWYEK also oblige 
with replies.] 

467). Mr. Editor must excuse me for doubting 
if the publican knew that he was punning when 
he wrote " Furnace," instead of " Furness " Arms. 
The whole district is called Furness, and the 
abbey, which is the gem of it, had, like other 
abbeys, its own arms, viz., Sable, on a pale argent, 
a crosier of the first. If the publican ventured 
upon arms, some visitor, or the ducal agent, pro- 
bably helped him to the right ones. Such mis- 
takes are often made by strangers to the why and 
wherefore of a neighbourhood. The author of a 
popular work on signs is surprised, for instance- 
well-known book as 'Dr. Syntax' was to find it 
as the name of a public-house in a rather back 
street in Preston, where you would not expect the 
book to be popular. Poor man ! he little knew it 
did not mean the book, but meant Mr. Kiddel's 
of Felton, racehorse Doctor Syntax, who won the 
Gold Cup at Preston races for seven successive 
years, and was, or perhaps still is, duly repre- 
sented on the sign, jockey and all. P. p. 

HENCHMAN (7 S. ii. 246, 298, 336, 469 iii 
31, 150, 211, 310, 482).-Sir Walter Scott, in 
The Monastery,' the probable date of which may 
be 1559, has sketched with his usual skill the 
character and mode of life of such a one in the 
character of Christie of the Clinthill, the retainer 
of the Baron of Avenel. He styles him indif- 
ferently "henchman" or "jack-man," from "the 
jack, or doublet quilted with iron which they 

wore as defensive armour." The Sub-Prior ob- 
serves to him, " Remember how the Lord James 
drowned such as you by scores in the black pool 
at Jeddart " (cap. ix.). Is this a matter of history ? 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

SAGE ON GRAVES (7 th S. iii. 229, 353, 417). 
Is it known who was the author of the so-called 
monkish line 

Cur moriatur homo cui salvia crescit in horto ? 
C. Smart, in his fable of 'The Herald and the 
Husbandman,' alludes to the power of sage to 
prolong life: 

The sage, which in his garden seen, 
No man need never die I ween. 

Miss BUSK (ante, p. 353) suggests that the herb 
may have been planted on graves in irony. Is it 
not more probable that it was planted in the belief 
of man's immortality ? 


BLUE PETER (7 th S. iii. 477). A reference to 
Dr. Cobham Brewer's well-known ' Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable ' would often save your corre- 
spondents from troubling you needlessly. In this 
instance it says : 

" Peter is a corruption of the French parlir (leave or 
notice of departure), the flag being hoisted to give notice 
to the town that any person having a money-claim may 
make it before the ship starts, and that all about to sail 
are to come on board." 


Kead "Blue repeater." See also Falconer's 
' Marine Dictionary ' under " Kepeat." 


In Webster's 'American Dictionary of the 
English Language' it is said to be a corruption of 
blue repeater, one of the British signal flags, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Gow FAMILY (7 th S. iii. 288, 397, 459). Only 

a few days ago I found a tombstone in St. Peter 

Martin's churchyard, Bedford, with this inscription: 

John Horn Gow 

died 7'h Nov r 1844 

aged 47. 

The Gows lived for many years in Bedford, but I 
believe there is none of the name there now. 
The above may interest J. K. M. M.A.Oxon. 


EGOLESS " (7 th S. iii. 497). This is a composite 
sentence, which must be broken up into its con- 
stituent parts. The first member, " nullum tempus 
occurrit regi," is a recognized maxim of English law, 
and is examined and defined by Herbert Broom 
in his 'Legal Maxims,' pp. 65, sqq., Lond., 1870. 
It is referred to Coke's 'Inst.,' ii. 273, where it is 

7th g. iv. AUG. 6, '87.] 



shown to be " ex consuetudine hactenus obtinente 
in regno Anglise," on the authority of the Register 
of 21 Edw. III. It arose upon a question of lapse 
in the case of the presentation to a benefice de- 
volving upon the king, the right to which would 
not be lost by any length of time intervening 
before it was acted upon. I am not aware of 
there being any authority at all for the second 
member of the sentence, " vel ecclesise." 


The maxim " nullum tempus occurrit regi " is 
familiar enough to the lawyer, and is obviously a 
consequence of another legal maxim, "Rex non 
potest peccare." As the king was incapable of doing 
wrong, it followed that no negligence or laches 
could be attributed to the Crown, and therefore it 
was formerly held that no delay upon the part of 
the king could bar the king's .right. See Broom's 
'Selection of Legal Maxims' (1884), pp. 61-64. 

G. F. R. B. 

ST. JOHN (7 th S. iii. 247, 352, 507).-r-The 
significance of the serpent issuing from the 
communion cup held in the hand of St. John is 
well explained by Wolfgang Menzel. In the excel- 
lent work of this genial German on 'Christian 
Symbolism' (s.v. "Schlange preference is made to 
a legend quoted by Bernard of Clairvaux, relating 
that as St. John was drinking a cup of poisoned 
wine he suffered no evil, since the noxious in- 
gredient fled away in the form of a serpent. Such 
a story would be naturally suggested by the pro- 
mise that the apostles should take up serpents, 
and that if they drank any deadly thing it should 
not hurt them (Mark xvi. 18). Menzel thinks 
the legend best befits John, because he only of the 
Evangelists speaks of the serpent lifted up by 
Moses in the wilderness as a type of Christ, as 
well as because he warned against the subtleties of 
Gnostic serpents, and because he most of all the 
disciples possessed the innocence of the dove with- 
out its silliness, and the wisdom of the serpent 
without its subtlety, so that he best obeyed his 
master's bidding: 

That thou mayst injure no one, dove-like be, 
And serpent-like, that none may injure thee. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

THE RING IN MARRIAGE (7 th S. iii. 207, 275, 397, 
486). Is there no misreading with regard to the 
statute 1 Jac. I., c. 25, sec. 50, that no person is 
"to marry without asking in church " 1 Before the 
Council of Trent no priest was needed at all to 
convey validity to marriage. Burn, in his * Fleet 
Registers,' shows that before 1754 marriage lay 
within the province of common law. At St. 
James's, Duke's Place, and Trinity Church, in the 
Minories, marriages were contracted without banns, 
and in other extra-parochial places, and at last at 
the Fleet, Clink, and other prisons. These clandes- 

tine marriages were not finally brought under 
authority till 26 Geo. II., as shown by Blackstone, 
and this seems hardly reconcilable with the above 
Act of James I. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill. 

Although it seems a pity to cumber the too 
scanty pages of ' N. & Q.' with a semi-legal point, 
I cannot forbear completing MR. E. H. MARSHALL'S 
quotation from sec. 3 of 2 & 3 Edw. VI. c. 21. 
MR. MARSHALL'S quotation ends, " without any 
ceremony being appointed," and should continue, 
" by the order prescribed and set forth in the book 
entitled the Book of Common Prayer and Adminis- 
tration of the Sacraments." This clearly refers to 
any ecclesiastical service that might afterwards be 
adopted in substitution for, or as a modification of, 
the then authorized marriage service. The Act 
clearly does not contemplate a civil service. 

A licence to marry is purely an ecclesiastical 
document, and is no infringement of this Act. The 
title and preamble of the Act show it is only 
meant for spiritual persons, therefore the word 
" person " in sec. 3 must, by the ejusdem generis 
rule of construction, bear this limited meaning. 

A. H. D. 

COPYING LETTERS (7 th S. iii. 369, 499). The 
subjoined prospectus of James Watt's letter- 
copying press may, I hope, interest MR. BOWES 
and other readers of ' N. & Q.': 

" Proposals for receiving Subscriptions for an Appa- 
ratus, by which Letters, or other Writings, may be copied 
at once, and for the Licence of using the said Apparatus, 
an exclusive Privilege, by bis Majesty's Letters Patent, 
having been granted to the Inventor, for the Sole Use of 
his Invention. 

' I. By means of this Invention, the Practice of which 
is exceedingly easy, any Person may take an exact Copy 
of a Letter or other Sheet of Paper, written with common 
Ink, in about a Minute or two. 

' II. From the Nature of the Method employed, the 
Copy thus taken must be a perfect Resemblance of the 
original Writing ; it is therefore not liable to the Faults 
of those copies that are transcribed, in which Words are 
often, from Negligence, omitted, added, or altered ; and 
bence it is much more valuable, not only as it is perfectly 
like the Original, but also as it carries with it a Testi- 
mony of its Authenticity. 

1 III. The Apparatus will take up but little Room, and 
may be fixed upon a Desk or Table in a Compting-house, 
or upon a separate Mahogany Stand, so as to make a 
small handsome Piece of Furniture in a Gentleman's 
Study. Proper Instructions and Drawings will be given 
to Subscribers, so that any Cabinet-maker or Carpenter 
may fix it in any of these Manners which may be re- 

" IV. The Necessity of keeping Copies of Letters, of 
mercantile and all other Business, is sufficiently known; 
and the Conveuiency and Satisfaction of preserving 
Copies of Letters, written on other Subjects, will be 
readily admitted. The Utility, therefore, of a Method 
by which Writings may be copied exactly, and almost 
instantaneously, must strike every Person. To the Mer- 
chant, Tradesman, and Lawyer, this Invention will supply 
the Place of a Clerk, in copying not only Letters, but 
also Invoices, Bills of Parcels, and various other Writ- 



IV. AUG. 6, '87. 

ings : the Gentleman will hereby have an Opportunity 
of preserving his more important Letters with little 
Trouble ; Gentlemen, who compose for the Press, may, 
by this Means, obtain a Duplicate of their Works before 
they send them to the Printer ; Ambassadors, or other 
Persons employed in public Affairs, may thus retain 
Duplicates of their most confidential Writings, without 
Bisk of Discovery by employing Transcribers. In short, 
every Person, to whom Time, Labour, and Expence, are 
valuable, and who have Occasion to write upon Subjects 
in any degree interesting, will find both Benefit and 
Pleasure from being possessed of this Invention. 

" V. Some Persons have suggested that improper Uses 
may be made of this Art ; but, before the Delivery of 
any Apparatus, Care will be taken to publish (in the 
London News-papers) the Means of preventing such 
Practices, and of discovering them when attempted. And 
thus Persons interested in Paper Credit, will have an 
Opportunity of informing themselves of the Means of 
detecting a Species of Fraud, which might otherwise 
have been imposed on them. At present, we acquaint 
the Public, first, that, as only one Copy can be taken, a 
Person, who makes Use of this Invention, will render it 
impossible for others to copy his Writings ; and, secondly, 
that, in order to secure others, who do not choose to 
make Use of this Art, a good Ink will be sold at a reason- 
able Rate, the Writings made with which will not be 
capable of being copied in this Manner. 

"VI. Subscriptions are taken, for the Patentee, by 
Mr. James Woodmason, Stationer, in Leadenhall-Street, 
London ; to whom Gentlemen, who choose to subscribe, 
are requested to signify their Intention, personally or by 
Letter, mentioning their Address. 

" VII. Bach Subscriber is to pay six Guineas at the 
time of delivery, for which he will receive an Apparatus, 
Directions, and Licence to use the Invention. Care shall 
be taken that each Subscriber shall be furnished in 
Order, according to the date of his Subscription. 

" The Machine will be also applicable to other Pur- 
poses, as the copying of Music, taking Impressions from 
Copper-plates, and copying Drawings; and will be so 
well executed, that no single Machine could be made 
for the Price required, the Expectation of Profit arising 
solely from the Number of Machines to be manufac- 

" Mr. Woodmason will take care to acquaint the Sub- 
scribers when the Apparatus is ready to be delivered to 
their Order. 

" The Apparatus will be sufficiently large to copy a 
Sheet of the largest Post Paper. Those Gentlemen who 
require to have them of larger Sizes, as for Drawings or 
_ Purposes, will be charged higher in Proportion to 

The " Proposals " are printed on two facing pages 
of a folio sheet, measuring 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 3 in. 
Immediately below the last line of the first page 
which ends with the word "Invoices" in para- 
graph IV., is pasted a slip of paper, on which is 
written, in a clerkly hand : _ 

"Time Labour and Money are saved, Dispatch and 
Accuracy are attained, and Secrecy is preserv'd by this 

tter ' 

Non plumali canna 
Sed Arte quadam Nova." 

Opposite (on p. 2) is a strip of copying paper, on 

Whl ?,. the , r 8 ' i8 c P ied Wtoce comes 'the 
quotation " Non plumali canna," &c.? 


HOBBY: HOBBY-HORSE: HOBLER (7 th S. iii. 182, 
356, 506). The Chronicle of Lanercost (Maitland 
Club edition, p. 344) describes the Scottish army 
defeated at Durham in 1346 as composed of 
" 2,000 men at arms of the earls, barons, knights, 
and esquires ; 20,000 of the community of the 
vills who are amongst them called hobelers ; and 
10,000 and beyond of foot and bowmen." May be 
the italicized words point to the origin of hobby, 
&c. Meanwhile the examples adduced show 
hobler, a light-armed peasant horseman, very much 
earlier than hob, a horse a circumstance not con- 
sistent with DR. CHANCE'S theory. Were I pro- 
ceeding on DR. CHANCE'S lines I would rather 
trace the descent of hob, a horse, from Hob, a name 
still used to denote a rustic clown, and in use 
nearly six hundred years ago, as may be inferred 
from my citations, as a generic term for a half-serf 
villager, such as, perhaps, Edward I. had in hi eye 
when he sneered at Bruce as King Hob. Hob's 
name might not unnaturally have been trans- 
ferred to Hob's horse, and hobler, the name given 
(as I would gather from my italicized citation 
above) to Hob as a horseman, might have been an 
intermediate agent in the process. G. N. 


The term " English Hobbes " in the Statutes of 
Kilkenny has no reference at all to horses. It was 
a term of abuse applied by English settlers in 
Ireland who had intermarried with the Irish to 
the more recent arrivals from England, who 
prided themselves upon their superiority to the 
" Irish dogs." The passage in Ware only proves 
that the word hobby was used for a horse in 
Ireland in the seventeenth century. 


Roquefort under "Hobeler," "Hobilers," "Hobin "; 
Manage under "Hober,""Hobereau,"" Hobin"; Le 
Duchat under" Hobin ";Godefroy under "Hobelier," 
"Hobeleor," "Hobin," "Hobler"; Ihre under 
"Hoppa"; Cowel under "Hobby"; Jamieson 
under " Hobeleris "; and Hunter (Cassell) under 
" Hobby." ft. S. CHARNOCK. 

I have heard this word used in Cornwall to de- 
scribe men in a small boat with oars " tugging" in 
a coasting vessel in one of the " Porths." ESTE. 

HUGUENOT FAMILIES (7 th S. iii. 89, 176, 257, 
297, 334, 417; iv. 16). The inscriptions below 
appear on a large tombstone in St. Margaret's 
churchyard, Canterbury, and allude to the last of 
the Le Grand family who resided in this city : 

John Le Grand, Eldest and last surviving Son and 
Child of George Le Grand, Surgeon, many years of this 
city (who with his wife Ann was buried in the Cathedral 
Cloisters). Born 6'h September, 1769. Died 12th July, 

Also Sacred to the Memory of Caroline Le Grand 
Relict of John Le Grand, who died 30 th December, 1853. 
aged 85 years. 

7* S. IV. Auo. 6, 'ST.] 



Other inscriptions will be found in the church- 
yards of Saint Peter's, Holy Cross, and I found 
one on a slab in Barham Church, near here. If 
your correspondent MR. RUTTON requires further 
information respecting the Le Grand inscriptions, let 
him communicate with me; I have copies of them 
all. JOHN R. HALL. 

12, Bargate Street, Canterbury. 


Accounts of the Churchwardens of St. Dunstan's, Canter- 
bury, A.D. 1484-1580. By J. M. Cowper. (Mitchell* 

MR. COWPER has rendered a service to students of local 
history by reprinting these curious accounts. Those 
who take an intelligent interest in the ritual and local 
customs of the Church before the changes of the six- 
teenth century had destroyed that which had been the 
Blow growth of unnumbered centuries will also be 
grateful. Old churchwardens' accounts are far from 
common. The few that have been printed are mostly to 
be found only in the transactions of learned societies, 
which are difficult of access. We know, indeed, no 
better work on which a student who has the time for it 
could be engaged than in making a hand-list of such of 
these documents as have, in whole or in part, been pre- 
served by the printing-press from risk of destruction. 
There are very few known to exist which go back 
further than the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
The finest series we have ever seen, which is as yet 
almost entirely unprinted, begins in 1501. These of St. 
Dunstan's, Canterbury, are of earlier date, but are in 
parts fragmentary. They, however, contain so much 
that is of interest, that we can bear the losses we have 
sustained, if not with a light heart, at least with thank- 
fulness that so much has come down to us. The church- 
house is a building which is constantly mentioned, not 
here only, but in many other documents of the same 
kind. No one until quite recently seems to have been 
aware that the church-house was a building which, if 
not always, was at least commonly attached to the 
parish church. Its uses were varied ; indeed, it would 
seem to have been the public room of the parish, which 
could, with the consent of the churchwardens, be used 
for any purpose that the needs of the parish rendered 
necessary. One function it discharged, and that pretty 
frequently, was that of a hall in which the church 
ales could be held. The church ale was a great institu- 
tion among our mediaeval ancestors. When money was 
required, the ale-feast seemed as natural a means ol 
raising it as a bazaar does now. Whether it was ol 
Christian origin, or whether, as certain learned anti 
quaries have suggested, it came down from heathen 
times, is a question we can never hope to have answered 
xcept by a more or less probable guess. We know an 
instance in which the church-house was let out to pedlers 
at fair times; and Mr. Cowper tells us that in Wiltshir 
" dancing, bowling, and BO on," took place therein. Th 
"ij dosyn .-pones and ij dosyn trencheris," mentioned in 
or about the year 1521, were no doubt bought to be kep 
in the church-house of St. Dunstan for feasting days,_ 

Mr. Cowper is puzzled by finding mention of the brother 
hood which bore the strange name of " The Schaft.' 
We do not profess to be wiser in this matter than he 
We would suggest, however, until further light be thrown 
on the subject, that it is not to modern High German 
we should look, but to the earlier forms of our own 
tongue. Shaft in English means a pole. We still talk o 

he shafts of a cart or waggon, and our forefathers and 
heir foes knew well the meaning of a cloth-yard shaft, 
n the churchwardens' accounts of St. Mary, Stamford, 
or the year 1428, we find, " Pro emendacione de le 
chafte, x d ." This, we have little doubt, was the parish 
maypole ; and until evidence be brought forward to the 
contrary, we shall continue to think that the brother- 
hood of the shaft at Canterbury were, in modern English, 
rethren of the maypole. In trying to understand the 
manners of our forefathers before Puritanism had made 
us self-conscious, we should ever bear in mind that 
amusement and religion went hand in hand, that there 
was no hard line separating the devotions of the people 
"rom their popular sports. It would seem to them no 
more incongruous to have a maypole guild than a " may 
;uild" or a "plough guild," both of which we know 
jxisted at Kirton-in-Lindsey in pre-Reformation times. 
That the " schafte " was a tangible object is made quite 
clear by an entry of the year 1511, which runs thus: 
" We haue receuyed of Wyllyam Carpenter of his gyfte 
a gyrdyll for to bere the shafte contynuyng for euer 
from warden to wardyn." What this girdle was it is 
vain to speculate. Perhaps it was an iron hoop, forming 
a socket into which the maypole was fixed when in use ; 
or it may have been a hoop in the church-house, or the 
church itself, in which the pole was suspended when not 
n use. 

Some of the entries suggest observances which are 
new to us. In an inventory of the year 1500 we find 
that there were four little bells for the Corpus Christi 
loth ; and in the account for 1545 there is a charge for 
making the " schrewyng sett." We can make nothing 
of this, unless it be meant for " shriving seat," that is, 
a confessional. A " shyvyng stoole " is mentioned a 
short time before. 

MR. SWINBURNE'S rebuke of what he calls "Whit- 
mania " arrests attention in the Fortnightly. It is ex- 
cusable that those who regard the extremely forcible 
character of the language should see a recantation 
where none is intended. Mrs. Lynn Linton has an 
excellent paper on ' The Roman Matron and the 
Roman Lady.' 'Marie Antoinette's Milliner's Bill,' 
a contribution by Mr. Sala, supplies some interest- 
ing particulars about the writer as a bibliophile. 
A selection by living men of letters of their favourite 
passages in prose and verse is likely to attract atten- 
tion. In a good number of the Nineteenth Century 
Dr. Jessopp, continuing ' The Trials of a Country Par- 
son,' writes with customary brilliancy, Prince Kropotkin 
defends his anarchist views, and Sir Salar Jung contri- 
butes ' Europe Revisited.' Mr. Gladstone sends an 
answer to the arraignment of Prof. Lecky. Without 
saying that any single article is of special excellence, 
the whole is singularly readable, attractive, and diversi- 
fied. Mr. George Saintsbury writes in Macmillan of 
4 Francis Jeffrey,' the famous critic. While admitting that 
it is difficult for the reader to "keep the author's point 
of vif w," he holds that the secret is in the Gallicanism 
of Jeffrey's mind and character. A pleasantly anti- 
quarian paper is entitled ' At Little Gidding.' ' Inven- 
tion and Imagination ' is not conclusive, and one illus- 
tration from Marlowe quoted by the author as "imagery 
which invention could never have devised " is pure 
conceit. 'A New Overland Route to India ' deals with 
the line of railway shortly to be opened through the 
Balkan peninsula and so to Salonica. ' The Story of the 
Ardent ' and ' The Profession of Letters ' are portions of 
an excellent number. Mr. Percy Fitzgerald sends to the 
Gentleman's a paper on ' The Adelphi and the Brothers 
Adam.' ' Lucifers and the Poets ' deals with the animals, 
principally marine, which are phosphorescent. The 
account of ' A Japanese Execution ' is very grim.' The 



[7 th S. IV. AUG. 6, '87. 

Isle of Terror,' in the Cornhill, defends Ouessant, con- 
ceraing which a rhymed proverb is quoted from Chateau- 

Celui qui voit Belle-Isle 
Voit son He; 

Celui qui voit Groix 
Voit sa joie ; 

Celui qui voit Ouessant 

Voit son sang. 

'From Skiddaw Top on Jubilee Bonfire Night' gives a 
very stirring and inspiriting description of the hghting 
of the Cumberland beacons. ' In Vermland is an 
account of a journey up the Gotha estuary, by the famous 
Trollbattan falls and the great inland freshwater sea 
Lake Venern, to a Swedish house, the name and cha- 
racter of which are not denoted. ' The Dolomites of the 
Peignitz'is fairly readable.-The Hon. Lewis Wingfield 
contributes to Murray's ' Play-going in Japan, furnish- 
ing a striking and an amusing account of the primitive 
theatrical arrangements of that wonderful country. 
Writing on 'The Church of the British Empire, the 
Bishop of Carlisle advocates the postponement of laying 
the foundation stone of the Church House until next 
year, when the Pan-Anglican Synod is to assemble. 
Thomas Webster,' by Lady Eastlake ; ' Highland Gossip, 
byC Milner-Gaskell, M.P.; and 'With Mr. Forster in 
Ireland ' by Capt. Ross of Bladensburg. are among the 
contents To Longman's Dr. B. W. Richardson sends a 
characteristic paper entitled ' Toxicopolis,' in which hia 
well-known views find entertaining exposition. Mr. Lang 
in ' At the Sign of the Ship ' deals largely with ballades 
and rondeaux. A holiday number of the Century has a 
remarkable amount of excellent letterpress and good 
engravings. Apart from the historical essays, which are 
still of highest interest, ' Our Kivigtok ' is the most 
important paper in the magazine. It is a record of 
Arctic travel. A " Kivigtok," some reader of ' N. & Q.' 
may be interested to know, is a man who, having fled 
mankind, has acquired a close acquaintance with 
Nature's mysteries. ' Is it a Piece of a Comet 1 ' is also 
valuable.' Welsh Counties, Montgomery and Radnor,' 
are treated of in All the Year Round.' Then and Now,' 
in Temple Bar, furnishes a vivacious contrast between 
the Jubilee just over and that of George III., particulars 
of which are obtained from the Observer of October 29, 
1809. The article is written with much spirit, and con- 
tains many delightful stories and much shrewd comment. 
In the English Illustrated, Part II. of ' Walks in the 
Wheatfields,' which is in the best descriptive style of Mr. 
Richard JefFeries, is admirably illustrated by drawings 
from Mr. Dewey Bates. ' Captain Sir Bilberry Diddle ' 
has some characteristic drawings by Hugh Thomson. 
' My Lattice towards the North' and ' A Visit to a Dutch 
Country House ' are also noteworthy as regards both 
letterpress and illustrations. Watford's Antiquarian 
has an agreeable variety of contents. 

PART XLIII. of Cassell's Encyclopaedic Dictionary 
concludes with "Joint." Under that word, under 
"Jesuit," "Jansenism," "Iron," "Iodide," "Inter- 
national," &c., full and valuable information is supplied. 
The Egypt, Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, 
of the same firm deals with the district from Thebes to 
the First Cataract, and gives a full-page illustration of 
the First Cataract, and many plates of Assouan, its in 
habitants and surroundings. An extra sheet is given 
with Part XIX. of the Illustrated Shakespeare, which 
thus comprises all but the entire play of ' Twelfth Night/ 
and has no fewer than five full-page designs, with many 
other engravings. A scene between Malvolio and Olivia 
is the subject of a very spirited design. Some good views 
of Nottingham, ita castle and its market-place, are given 

in Part XXXI. of Our Own Country, and the reader ia 
then carried to Wells and the Mendips. Of Wells Cathe- 
dral and market-place, of Cheddar, and other places some 
excellent illustrations are given. The opening picture 
has nothing to do with the text in the number, and 
represents Fountains Abbey, near Studley. The visit 
of the Prince of Wales to India, the assumption by the 
Queen of the title of Empress, and the government of 
Lord Lytton, of whom a portrait is given, are treated of 
in Cassell's History of India, Part XXIII., which sup- 
plies views of Benares illuminated, the Pal Palace, 
Gwalior, infanticide on the banks of the Jumna, &c. 
Part XV. of the Life and Times of Queen Victoria de- 
scribes the marriage of the Prince of Wales, and then 
proceeds to the American War. It is lavishly illustrated. 
Gleanings from, Popular Authors is completed with 
title-page and index in Part XXIV. 

PART XLV. of Mr. Hamilton's collection of Parodies 
includes ' Chevy Chace,' ' Lord Bateman,' ' Lilliburlero,' 
and other old ballads, with songs of C. Mackay, Barry 
Cornwall, and Sheridan, of which very numerous 
travesties have been given. 


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EDWARD R. VY VYAN (" Origin of Levant, to run away "). 
Spanish levantar=io raise. Levantar el campo, to 
break up camp ; levantar la casa, to break up house. 

PASMORE wishes to know when the early and later rains 
in Palestine, spoken of in Scripture, now begin and end ; 
which are the nearest villages to the ruins of Baby- 
lon, and which is the best way to reach them from 

DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE (" Charles Lamb "). The lines 
you suppose to be unpublished appear in ' N. & Q.,' 1 st 
S. iii. 322. They are over Lamb's grave in Edmonton 
churchyard, and are variously assigned to Wordsworth, 
Talfourd, and Cary, the translatoi- of Dante. See 1 st S. 
iii. 379, 459 ; iv. 161. 

DE COVERLEY. No early edition of the Spectator has, 
we believe, a portrait of Sir Roger de Coverley. As the 
worthy knight was a purely fictitious character, nothing 
but a portrait defantaisie could be supplied. 

EVERARD FRY ("Links with the Past"). The quota- 
tion you supply from Katharine Fry's journal appeared 
2 nd S. vii. 365. 

CORRIGENDA. P. 66, col. 2, 1. 6 from bottom, for "ce" 
read ce ; 1.5 from bottom, for " iiy or iii " read uy or iii. 
P. 96, col. 2, 1. 4 from top, for " dulled/" read doubled/. 


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7*s.iv.AtjG.iV87.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES : Tercentenary of Mary, Queen of Scots, 121' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography,' 123 Links with the '45, 126 
Old Scotch Burgh Records Porchas Madame de Pom- 
padour-Roman Altar, 126 Snob Three Chilly Saints, 127. 

QUERIES : Married Women's Surnames Poem by Moore- 
Leo and Draco 'Dame Wiggins of Lee ' Reference in 
Keble's ' Reports ' Regimental History, 127 Warren 
Manningham Egg-Water Maurice -Forewent Numera- 
tion of Rupees Prickings of Conscience Sain Sir B. 
Fouke Major J. Waugh, 128 P. de Angulo Playtes : Cog- 
ship : Farecof t : Farecost Hume Works of Charles I. 
" Nothing 's new, and nothing 's true, and nothing matters " 
" The Lid of Hell " Bassus " A Whitsuntide fellow" 
" Rare" Ben Jonson Authors Wanted, 129. 8 

REPLIES t Dulcarnon, 130 Loch Leven, 131 R. Martin 
" The higher the monkey climbs the more he shows his 
tail," 132 Seal of East Grinstead Suffix -ny or -ney in 
Place-names " Limina apostolorum," 133 ' Ingoldsby 
Legends ' Records of Celtic Occupation Convicts shipped 
to the Colonies Sir C. Flower, 134 Mompox Precedence 
in Church Darkling Extracts from 'The History of the 
Knights Hospitallers 'Arms of Sir F. Drake Ponte Family 
Woodpecker, 135 Haberdon : Antiscarp Ho, Vocabulum 
Silentii Numismatic. 136 "Make no bones of" Pitt's 
Last Words Robert Bale " No Fringe "Prices given for 
Caxtons Spenserian Stanza, 137 Antigugler Goldwyer 
Family Muriel Yorkshire Pedigrees, 138 The Beer- 
drawers of London, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Pike's ' Year-Books of Edward III.' 
Hedderwick's ' Old German Puppet Play of " Doctor Faust '" 
' History of St. Cuthbert.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



(See 7'h S. iv. 81.) 

I add some notes on this subject in continuation 
of my previous paper. Standing by the side of 
the open grave of Mary, Queen of Scots, the Dean 
read from the cathedral register the following ex- 
tract, in which it will be noted that the funeral 
procession evidently came to Peterborough from 
Fotheringhay by land, and not by water ; and that 
the hearse was erected " above the first step " of 
the choir. The long list of names of those who 
walked in the procession is omitted from the fol- 
lowing extract, but it may be found in Gunton's 

"168& Register book of Peterborough Cathedral, from 
which the following is an extract : ' The Manner of the 
Solemnity of the Scottish [Queen's] funerall being the 
firste of August 1587 when She was I buried] in the 
Cathedrall Churche of Peterburghe. Uppon Tuesdaye 
beinge the 1 of Auguste were the ffuneralls appointed to 
be celebrated for the Scottishe Queene in the Cathedrall 
Churche of Peterburgh and accordingly there were sente 
thither from the Courte the Queen's household officers 
to make preparation for the Dyett ; Mr. Dorrell (and) 
Mr. Coxe ffor the ffunerall offices. Mr. ffortescue master 
of the great wardrobe. The Heralds came down three 
or fower dayes before and appointed together wthe the 
Bishoppe and the Deane the place for the bodye to be 
interred wche was devised over againste the lyeing of 

Q Kathorine on the right side of the Quyre neere to the 
Tombe of John Laste abbott and firste Bishopp of that 
Churche. there was a riche herse erected aboue the first 
step of the Quyre neere to the place of the buriall and 
the whole Quyre and Church were hanged withe blacke. 
Uppo Sundaye at night the 30 of July the bodye was 
brought by Horse, in a chariot. Torche light from the 
Castell of ffotheringbaye (where it had lyen since the 
time of execution being the 8 of February before) by 
Garter Kinge at Armes and other Heraldes withe some 
number of made of purpose covered withe blacke vel- 
vett and adorned withe hir ensignes twene one and two 
of the Clocke in the night : where attended for yt before 
the Church Bishoppe of Peterburghe and the Deane of 
the Cathedral Church the master of the wardrobe, Claren- 
tius Kinge at Armes and diverse as well of her unities 
servants as other persons. There came withe the bodie 
sixe of the Scottishe trayne and Melxine the Mr. of her 
household and phisition, and others. The bodie withe 
the closures wayed 900 waight wche being carried and 
attended orderlye by the saide persons was committed to 
the grounde in the vault appointed; and immediately 
the vaute was covered sayinge a small hole left open for 
the staves to be broken into. There was at that tyme 
not any offices of the Churche service done, the Bishopp 
beinge ready to have executed therein, but it was by 
all that were present. Scottishe as others thought 
good and agreed that it shoulde be done at the daye and 
time of solemnity. Uppo mundaye in the after noone 
came to Peterburghe all the Lords and Ladies other 
assistaunts appointed; and at the Bishopps pallace was 
prepared a great supper for them where all at one table 
supped in the great chamber being hanged withe blacke 
where was a State sette on the right syde thereof of 
purple velvet. Uppo Tuesdaye morninge the chief 
mournoures LI: Ladyes, and other Assistaunts beinge 
ready about ten of the clock they marched from the hall 
of the Byshopps pallace as followethe. The Countya 

of Bedforde Chief Mourner The Solemnitye beinge 

ssettled the Prebends and the quyre wche received 

them at the Churche Doore songe an anthome. The 
Scottishe all savinge Mr. Melvin departed and woulde 
not tarrie the Sermon or Ceremonyes. The B. of Lincoln 
preached out of the 39 psal. Lord let me knowe myne 
ende and the number of my dayes, that I may be certi- 
fied howe long I have to live. Behould thou haste made 
my dayes as it were a spanne longe, and mine age is even 
as nothinge in respecte of thee, and verily eyerie man 
livinge is altogether vanity, for man walketh in a vaine 
shadowe and disquieteth himselfe in vaine, hee heapeth 
upp riches and cannot tell who shall gather them. In 
the prayer when hee gave thanks for suche as were trans- 
lated out of this vale of miserie, hee used thes words : Let 
us give God thankes for the bappie dissolution of the 
highe, and mighty Princesse Marie, late Queene of Scot- 
land, and Dowager of ffraunce. Of whose lyfe and 
deathe at this tyme I have not muche to saye bycause I 
was not acquainted withe the one, neither was I present 
at the other I will not enter into judgment further but 
because it hathe bene signified unto me that shee trusted 
to be saved by the bloude of Christe we must hope well 
of her salvation, ffor as father Luther was wonte to saye, 
many and one that liveth a papiste dieth a protestate. 
In the discourse of his texte hee onely dealt withe 
generall Doctrine of the vanity of all fleshe. The Sermon 
ended the offeringe of the cheife mourner and hatche- 
menta were received by the Bishopp of Peterburghe and 
the offerings of the reste by the Dean wch ended, the 
mourners departed. The ceremonye of Buryall was done 
by ye Deone, the officers breakinge their staves and 
castinge them into the Vaute uppo the coffin. And so 
they departed to the Bishop's house where was a great 



[7 th S. IV. AUG. 13, '87. 

feaste appointed accordingly. The concourse of people 
was of many thousands and after dynner the nobles de- 
parted away every one towards his owne home...... t mis. 

The Mr. of the wardrobe paid to the Church for the 
breaking of the ground in the Quyre and making the 
grave X Li. And for the blacks of the Quyre and 
Church XX. Li. Kich Fletcher Decano." 

The Dean also read the original letter of King 
James I. authorizing the removal of the body of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, to Westminster : 

" James R. Trusty and wel-beloved, wee greet you 
well, for that wee remember it appertaynes to ye duty 
wee owe to our dearest mother that like honour should 
be done to hir body and like monument be extant to hir 
as to others, hirs and our progenitors have bene used to 
be done, and ourselves have already performed to our 
deare sister ye late Queen Elizabeth. Wee have com- 
manded a Memoriall of hir to be made in our church of 
Westminster, ye place where ye Kings and Queens of this 
realme are usually interred. And for that wee thmke it 
inconvenient that ye monument and hir body should be 
in severall places, we have ordered that hir said body 
remayning now interred in that our Cathedrall Church 
of Peterborough shalbe removed to Westminster to hir 
said monument; and have committed ye care and cbardg 
of ye said translation of hir body from Peterborough to 
Westminster to ye reverend father in God our right 
trusty and wel beloved servant ye Bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield, bearer hereof, to whom wee require you 
(or to such as ye shall assigne) to deliver ye corps of our 
said deceased mother, ye same being taken up in a 
decent and respectfull manner as is fitting. And for that 
there is a pall now upon ye hearse over hir grave which 
wilbe requisite to be used to cover hir said body in ye 
* amoving thereof, which may perhapps be deemed as a 
ffe i that should belong to ye church. We have appointed 
ye L Jd reverend father to pay you a reasonable redemp- 
tion for ye same, which being done by him wee require 
you that he may have ye pall to be used for ye purpose 
aforesaid. Given under our signet at our Honor of 
Hampton Court ye eight and twentieth day of Septem- 
ber in ye tenth yeare of our reigne of England, France, 
and Ireland, and of Scotland ye six of fortieth. To 
our trusty and wel-beloved ye Dean and Chapter of our 
Cathedrall Church of Peterborough, and in theire ab 
sence to ye right reverend father in God ye Bishop o: 
Peterborough and to such of ye Prebends or other officers 
of that church as shalbe found being there." 

The tercentenary of the Queen of Scots was also 
commemorated, on Monday, August 1, by a happily 
conceived novelty. The Rev. D. W. Barrett, Vicai 
of Nassington which manor was held with thai 
of Fotheringhay for many hundreds of years being 
in want of funds for the restoration of his ancien 
church, organized a bazaar, which was held unde 
several tents in the precincts of Fotheringhay 
Castle. There were water excursions on the Nene 
and numerous attractions for visitors, in addition 
to those to be found in the historical association 
of the spot and the traces of the castle ruins 
But the principal feature in the bazaar was th 
production of a series of tableaux vivants as a con 
tribution to the tercentenary observance in con 
nexion with the hapless queen. The scenes wer 
eight in number, the characters being sustained bj 
Mr. Edwin Drew's company of professional artist 
from London, assisted by local amateurs ; and th 

ostumes, supplied by Messrs. Harrison, Bow Street, 
London, were very faithfully represented. Mrs. 
loyd, wife of the Vicar of Fotheringbay, arranged 
he tableaux. 

The scenes were as follows : I. Garden of Con- 
ent, 1567; five characters. II. Court of France, 
Marriage of the Dauphin, June 20, 1558; ten cha- 
acters. III. Holy rood Palace; Mary at Supper; 
Countess of Argyll and Rizzio ; Murder of Kizzio, 
March 9, 1566; seven characters. IV. Abdication 
if Queen Mary at Lochleven Castle, July 24, 1567; 
_even characters. V. Mary going to her Trial at 
Fotheringhay Castle, Oct. 14, 1586; six characters. 
VI. The Last New Year's Eve, Dec. 31, 1586; one 
character. VII. Mary pledging her Attendants 
>n the Eve of her Execution, Feb. 7, 1587; seven 
jharacters. VIII. On the Scaffold, Fotheringhay 
Banquet Hall, Feb. 8, 1587; nine characters, with 
numerous attendants and others. A supplementary 
iving representation of old Scarlett, the sexton, was 
also shown, to connect the eight scenes with the 
anniversary of the tercentenary of the funeral in 
Peterborough Cathedral. 

It will thus be seen that four out of the eight 
scenes related to Fotheringhay Castle, and were 
enacted in dumb show within a few yards of the 
actual spot where the real tragedy was played. 
Such a circumstance, I imagine, has no precedent. 
When I wandered over the site of the once for- 
midable fortress, and pondered over the chequered 
scenes that the spot recalled, I found the forget-me- 
nots in full blossom among the rushes in the moats; 
and on the southern side of the Mound, where was 
the fetterlock Keep and Mary's prison, a grand 
group of the milk thistle (Carduus marianus), which, 
from its being found growing around and about 
all the prisons and palaces and castles, from Dum- 
barton to Fotheringhay, where the Queen of Scots 
tarried, has been accepted as Mary Stuart's own 
floral emblem. In a letter addressed to me by 
Miss Agnes Strickland she expressed the opinion 
that Mary sowed the seed of the thistle in the 
gardens of her English prisons ; and that although 
she may not have been able to do this during the 
six winter months of her imprisonment at Fother- 
inghay, yet that the milk thistle was subsequently 
introduced there by the romantic gallantry of her 
many admirers, who wished the very ground to 
bring forth souvenirs of her whose presence had 
thrown a charm over the spot. The "glossy 
purples " of the cotton thistle were also in great pro- 
fusion, not only on the Mound, but also in every 
part of the castle precincts. Three fine specimens 
of the Fotheringhay thistles were dug up by the 
Marchioness Dowager of Huntly, and, being care- 
fully tended, were seen growing in pots, as a 
decoration to the room in which is now being 
exhibited the most interesting collection of relics of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, that has ever been gathered 

7"" S. IV. Aoo. 13, '87.] 



The catalogue, which is the production of the 
indefatigable honorary secretary, Mr. Charles Dack 
who, with his coadjutor, Mr. J. W. Bodger, has 
worked so strenuously to make the exhibition a 
success will possess value as an historical docu- 
ment. It is carefully and intelligently written, 
and will have an interest even for those who may 
be unable to visit the unique exhibition at Peter- 
borough. Perhaps the Editor of ' N. & Q.' will permit 
me to say that the catalogue is sold at two shillings 
for the benefit of the Peterborough Museum. A 
briefer sixpenny catalogue is also sold in the room. 

It was at first intended to close the Museum of 
Belies on August 9 ; but so much interest has 
been shown in it, and so many pleaded that it 
might be kept open to a later date, that the 
committee, at their special meeting on July 26, 
decided to keep the exhibition open until the 
middle of September, provided that the consent of 
the owners of loans could be obtained. This has 
been done ; and the exhibition will close on 
September 21. Several important additions 
have been made to the exhibition by Lords 
Spencer, Londesborough, and others since its 
opening. The various loans are insured for 
23,000?., and are guarded day and night by police- 
men. In connexion with the exhibition the Mar- 
chioness Dowager of Huntly has set on foot a 
memorial to Mary, Queen of Scots, to be erected 
in Peterborough Cathedral. The nature of the 
memorial will depend upon the amount subscribed. 
Every Mary (Marie, Maria, &c.) is asked to con- 
tribute something to this memorial, from one 
shilling (or less) to ten shillings ; and donations 
can be sent to, or collecting cards obtained from, 
Mrs. Perowne, the Deanery, Peterborough, and 
Mrs. Gates, the Vineyard, Peterborough. Mrs. 
Perowne is also receiving donations from all Kates, 
Kitties, and Katherines for a memorial window to 
Queen Katherine of Arragon, who was the other 
hapless queen buried in Peterborough Cathedral 
by old Scarlett, the nonagenarian sexton. 




(See 6'h s. xi. 105, 443 ; xii. 321 ; 7< h S. i. 25, 82, 342, 

376; ii. 102, 324, 355; iii. 101, 382.) 

Vol. XT. 

In the " List of Writers," " The Eight Rev. Sir 
G. W. Cox, Bart.," omit " Eight." 

P. 3 a. Bp. Claughton was an examiner in the 
University of Durham, 1843-50. 

P. 3 b, line 15. For "Collection" read Collec- 

P. 3 b. In 1688 Thomas White, Bp. of Peter- 
borough, lodged at GlavelFs house in St. Paul's 
Churchyard. Bp. S. Patrick's ' Autobiog.,' 1839, 
p. 132. 

P. 10, Sir W, Clay. Register, 1869, i. 295, 520. 

P. 11 a, line 2. For "WheatleyV read 

P. 13 b. For " Hulmean " read Hulmeian. 

P. 15 b. John Clayton. 'Lady Huntingdon's 
Life,' ii. 296, &c. 

P. 18. Sir Eobert Clayton contributed two 
plates to the folio Bible published by Eichard 
Blome, 1687. On his Protestant speech on being 
appointed Lord Mayor see the dedication of De- 
laune's ' Present State of London,' 1681; 'D. N. 
B./ vii. 50 a. 

P. 23. Bp. Cleaver republished Alex. Nowell's 
'Lesser Catechism,' in Latin, with notes, Oxon, 
1795, and a second edition later ; he dedicated it 
to the schoolmasters in his diocese. Wrangham's 
'Zouch,' ii. 12, n.; 'Living Authors,' 1816. 

P. 41. Sir John Clerk. See much in Stukeley's 
' Diaries/ Surt. Soc. 

P. 46 a. Bartholomew Clerke. There can hardly 
have been an edition of his ' Castilio ' before 1571, 
for he says that he wrote it in that year. Perhaps 
the earlier English version by T. Hoby has been 
confused with Clerke's Latin one, which was re- 
printed at Frankfort, 1606; the Cambridge edition 
of 1713 was revised by Samuel Drake. Clerke 
dedicated his version to Queen Elizabeth and to 
Lord Buckhurst, 12 Cal. Oct. 1571; there are 
commendatory letters from Lord Buckhurst, John 
Caius, and Edw. Vere, Earl of Oxford, and verses 
by T. Bing and Henry Dethick. 

P. 46. Francis Clerke. There is a criticism of 
his book on 'Ecclesiastical Law 'in Henry Conset's 
'Practice of Spiritual Courts,' 1685, ded. and 

P. 50 b, line 32. For " Leodensis " read Leo- 

P. 69. Martin Clifford. His * Treatise of Human 
Eeason ' was reprinted in 1736. He and Warren 
were answered by Sir George Blundell, 1683. 
1 N. & Q./ 3 rd S. iii. 510. 

P. 78. Lord Clifford of Chudleigh was intimate 
at college with Bp. Bull. See more in ' Life,' by 
Nelson, second edition, 1714, p. 14. 

P. 89. Henry Cline. See Wilson, 'Merchant 
Taylors' School,' 1188; 'Autobiog. of Miss Cornelia 

P. 96 a. Is "Lyne" correct? 

P. 105. Mrs. Clive. Gray's ' Works,' by Mason, 
1827, p. 46. 

P. 124. Francis Close. Add 'An Apology for 
the Evangelical Party,' 1846, 8vo., pp. 33, in reply 
to the Eev. W. Gresley's ' Eeal Danger of the 
Church.' Mr. G. thereupon issued ' A Second 
Statement.' See also Saturday Review, Dec. 23, 
1882, pp. 820-1. 

P. 145. Cobbett's ' Legacies ' were ' Examined 
and Proved Null and Void' by a Norfolk Clergy- 
man, Norwich, n.d. See Prof. Pryme's 'Autobiog.,' 
1870, p. 203 ; Mathias, ' Purs, of Lit.,' eleventh 
edition, 1801, p. 340, 



P. 145 b. Ingram Cobbin. Miller, ' Singers and 

P. 148. Edward Cobden. His Latin poem on 
the ' Game at Draughts ' is translated in ' Poems.' 
by Rev. John Coates, of Shipton, 1770, pp. 95-101. 
He left 400J. to the Superannuate Fund at Win- 
chester (Gilbert, 'Liber Schol.,' 1829, p. 110); 
more in Stukeley's ' Diaries,' Surt. Soc. 

P. 154. Richard Cobden. Prof. Pryme's 'Auto- 
biog.,' p. 245. 

P. 162. Sir John Cochrane. There is a letter 
concerning him, addressed to the Senate of Ham- 
burgh, Aug. 10, 1649, in 'Liters Cromwellii con- 
scriptEe a Joanne Miltono,' 1676, pp. 2, 3. 

P. 181. Sir A. J. E. Cockburn. See Prof. 
Pryme's 'Autobiog.,' p. 374. 

P. 180 b, line 24 from bottom. For "Hatherly" 
read Hatherley (cf. 354 a). 

P. 182 b, 1. 12 from bottom. Kilpatrick ? 

P. 190. John Cockburn. See Eay's * Creation,' 
seventh edition, 1717, pp. 96, 246. 

P. 192. Wm. Cockburn signed the document 
printed before Garth's * Dispensary.' 

P. 204. Codrington College has been affiliated 
to the University of Durham since 1875 (' Durham 
Univ. Gal./ 1887, p. 184). An account of its 
foundation is in the appendix to the Bishop of 
Clogher's 'Sermon before the S.P.G.,' Feb. 18, 
1714, and details in the early reports of that 

Pp. 212-3. St. Kevin. See Wakeman's ' Irish 
Antiq.,' 1848, pp. 70-2. 

P. 214. Coetlogon. Berridge's 'Works,' 1864, 
p. 366 ; ' Living Authors,' 1788. 

Pp. 227-8. Cokayne pedigree in Top. et Gen., 

P. 240. Sir Edward Coke. An epigram by 
Owen, third collection, ii. 13. 

P. 250. Coke of Holkham. An account of his 
farming, and Lord Erskine's verses on it, in Prof. 
Pryme's ' Autobiog. ,' pp. 298-300; 'Living 
Authors,' 1816. 

P. 252. Sir John Colbatch is mentioned in Pom- 
fret's ' Keason.' See also Waring, ' Bibl. Therap.,' 
1879, ii. 747. 

P. 269. Sir H. Cole. Olphar Hamst, 'Fict. 
Names,' p. 197. 

P. 276 a. For " Landsdowne " read Lansdowne. 

P. 277 a. Wm. Cole, of Bristol. See Ray's 
' Three Discourses,' third edition, 1713, pp. 152, 

P. 315. There is an account of Coleridge's philo- 
sophy in J. D. MorelPs 'Hist. Mod. Phil.,' 1846, 
ii. 276-85 ; cf. the remarks in Tennemann, by 
J. R. Morell, and in Sidgwick, ' Hist. Ethics.' 

P. 316 b. Coleridge's marginalia on Southey's 
* Wesley ' were printed in the third edition. 

P. 320. Elisha Coles. 'N. & Q.,' 6 th S. vii. 
147. He* was probably the author of ' Nomencla- 
tura Trilinguis,' which reached a fifth edition. Of 

his 'Engl. Diet. 'there were other editions in 1677, 
1708, 1724, and 1726 ; and of his ' Lat. Diet.' 
(1671 ?), 1703 and 1722. 

Pp. 328-9. For " Selby " read Silly. 

P. 333. Stephen College. See Oldham's ' Poems,' 
ed. Bell, p. 137. 

P. 334 b, line 8 from bottom. ' 1783 "must be 
an error. A painting by him of Covent Garden 
market at 5 A.M. is noticed in Chambers's 'Mal- 
vern,' 1817, p. 185. 

P. 341 a. Giles Collier signed the paper at the 
end of Baxter's ' Reformed Pastor.' For " Warwick- 
shire " read Worcestershire. 

P. 344 a. Isaac Watts praises Collier for his 
attack on the stage, preface to ' Horse Lyricse.' 
Farquhar professes to have taken the hint, pre- 
face to ' Twin -Rivals.' 

P. 344 b. For " Nicholson " read Nicolson. 

P. 351 a. For "0. W. Singer" read S. W. 

Pp. 370-1. John Collins. See Mathias, ' Purs, 
of Lit.,' eleventh edition, 1801, pp. 84-7. 

P. 386. W. B. Collyer. ' Living Authors,' 1816; 
Miller, * Singers and Songs.' 

P. 390 a. Bollandist's ? 

Pp. 390-3. Colman. Mathias, ' Purs, of Lit.,' 
p. 47; Gray's ' Works,' by Mason, 1827, p. 231; 
'Living Authors,' 1788. 

Pp. 393-6. Colman, junior. Byron, =* English 
Bards and Sc. Rev.'; ' Living Authors,' 1816. 

P. 399 a. Why not Berghem ? 

P. 408. C. C. Colton. See Leisure Hour, 1855 ; 
Olphar Hamst, ' Fict. Names,' p. 198 ; ' Living 
Authors,' 1816. 

P. 427 a. On Combe's ' Horace ' see Mathias, 
' Purs, of Lit.,' eleventh edition, 1801, pp. 144, 

P. 429. Combe. See Morell/ Hist. Mod. Philos.,' 
1846, vol. i. 

P. 430 b. T. Combe, printer. He was in partner- 
ship with his father as printer and publisher (mostly 
of church books) at Leicester. 1833-8. The reprints 
of old Anglican divinity issued by Stevenson of Cam- 
bridge, and similar books published at Oxford, 
1838, were printed by T. Combe & Co., Leicester. 
In 1839 T. Combe appears at Oxford ; printer to 
the University 1840. 

P. 431 a. Irnham. See 'Letters of Junius' 
(1807, p. 333). 

P. 435 b. Thomas Randolph dedicated his 'Jealous 
Lovers ' to Comber, Master of Trinity. 

P. 437. Dean Comber. See 'Life of Mrs. Thorn- 
ton,' Surt. Soc. 

Pp. 443-7. Bp. H. Compton. The sermon at 
his consecration in Lambeth Chapel was preached 
by Wm. Jane, and printed 1675. Samuel Speed 
addressed a " Panegyrick" to him, 'Prison Pietie,' 
1677. He was a vigorous bishop : he increased 
the number of Easter communicants in his diocese 
(Burn, ' Hist. Par. Reg.,' second edition, 1862, 

7* S. IV. AUG. 13, '87.] 



p. 186); he refused to institute the Eev. John Pom- 
fret on account of his amorous poetry (Life, prefixed 
to his ' Poems '); he ordained Samuel Wesley priest 
in 1689; he appointed Dean Stillingfleet to preach 
at his ordination in 1684/5, and the sermon was 
printed, with a long preface addressed to himself ; 
in 1689 he consecrated Stillingfleet Bp. of Wor- 
cester ('Life of Stillingfleet,' 1710, p. 77); he was 
a man of wide sympathies, and assisted the Greek 
Church in London (Burn/Prot. Ref.,' 1846, pp. 231, 
232) ; and see Sir Geo. Wheler's letter to him in 
Wrangham's 'Zouch,' ii. 181; B. Oley's commenda- 
tion in preface to G. Herbert; his portrait is in the 
Universal Mag. ; Top. et Gen., iii. 442 ; ' D.N. 
B.,' xi. 190, 191. 

P. 449 b. See a tribute to Oompton in Philips's 
| ' Cyder/ bk. ii. (1763, p. 108). 

P. 450 a. Spencer Compton's speech, ' Trial of 
Sacheverell,' 1710, p. 144. 

P. 451 a. Broome's address to Sir Sp. Compton, 
in his ' Epistle to Fenton, 7 1726. 

P. 452 a. Compton. See Prof. Pryme's 'Auto- 
biog.,' p. 293. 

P. 452 a. For " Smeedly " read Smedley ? 

Pp. 464-5. Comyns. See ' Letters of Junius ' 
(1807, p. 85). 

P. 466. Conant befriended Bp. Bull when at 
college. See Nelson's * Life of Bull,' second edi- 
tion, 1714, p. 13. 

P. 466 a. For " Woollebius " read Wollebius. 

P. 466 b. Cromwell proposed to erect a college, 
not a university, at Durham. W. C. B. 

(Continued from p. 42.) 

For "Stamving Bank" (7 th S. iii. 510) read Stan- 
wix Bank. It was at Stanwix, close to Carlisle, 
that one of the few pieces of wanton mischief 
known to have been done by the Highlanders 
occurred. They gutted the vicarage there, and 
destroyed the parish books and registers. 

It had been expected that they would do far 
worse things. Most alarming rumours of what 
they were in the habit of doing preceded their 
advance into Cumberland. The late Mr. T. Rout- 
ledge, currier, of Brampton, who died in October 
last, aged seventy-five, told me that he remembered 
having heard his grandmother say that she and 
other children were sent off to Nether Denton to 
be out of their way. She did not, however, tell 
him, and perhaps herself never knew, of what fate 
they were supposed to have been in danger. " Mr. 
Halkstone, of Rathillet, who had been in this ex- 
pedition, told Mr. Young," a writer to the signet, 
" that the belief was general among the people of 
England that the Highlanders ate children." On 
his asking his landlady, at a farmhouse near Car- 
lisle, where he stayed several days, whether she 
had any children, and where they were," she told 

him the truth was that all the children were sent 
out of the way for fear the Highlanders should 
devour them " (Johnstone's * Memoirs of the Re- 
bellion in 1745,' pp. 101-2). Cameron of Lochiel, 
at one place where he stayed a night, was told by 
his landlady that "everybody said the Highlanders 
ate children, and made them their common food." 
On his assuring her that they did nothing of the 
kind she " opened a press, calling out with a loud 
voice : ' Come out, children, the gentleman will 
not eat you '"(i&.). 

Even what they did eat some of them were 
willing to pay for. Sergeant Clark, of Brampton, 
now in his eighty-third year, says that when 
a boy he heard one Mary Gardner, who was 
eleven years old in 1745, relate that one day, 
when Lord George Murray and his staff were 
dining at her father's farmhouse at Westlinton, some 
Highlanders looked in, but seeing who were there 
backed out. When Lord George and his party 
had finished their dinner, they asked what they 
had to pay. Being told there was nothing to pay, 
" Well," said his lordship, " I believe we have 
saved you more than we have got." Host and 
guest, no doubt, parted very good friends. 

The prince himself, as shown by the items of his 
expenditure whilst at Brampton, quoted from his 
household book in Jefferson's ' History of Carlisle ' 
(p. 73), regularly paid for all that he and his life- 
guards consumed, which, indeed, according to all 
accounts, was his invariable custom. 

No doubt a good deal of unauthorized foraging 
was practised by the rougher sort of his followers, 
who are alleged to have gone about " hunting and 
destroying the sheep of Lord Carlisle's tenants, 
and bearing off the country people's geese and 
other poultry " (Ray's * History of the Rebellion 
of 1745,' p. 95), which statement is confirmed by 
the traditions of several farmhouses in the neigh- 
bourhood of Brampton. 

Brampton tradition, however, is comparatively 
silent about plunder of any other kind. Mr. George 
Howard, on my asking him whether the High- 
landers committed any depredation at Naworth 
Castle, said there was at that time very little 
there to plunder, and the only thing known to 
have been taken from the castle was the lace from 
off the hangings of a bed which had been the 
portion of the first Lady Carlisle. But the High- 
landers left behind at the castle some of their own 
property, which one would think was more valuable 
to them at such a time than any amount of lace, 
viz., a halbert, pike, and javelin, on one of which 
weapons is the date 1745. 

They seem to have had a way of leaving such 
things behind, for at the " Half Moon " in Bramp- 
ton, then owned and occupied by the great-great- 
grandfather of the present landlord, Mr. Thomas 
Thompson, where, according to tradition in Mr. 
Thompson's family, eight troopers were quartered, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* a. iv. AM. is, w. 

one of them, on the departure of the army, left 
behind a sword, which has ever since remained 
there. It is what is called a " dress sword," one 
worn by officers at balls or on state occa- 
sions. The " Half Moon," by the way, is the only 
house in Brampton now inhabited by a descendant 
of the family which occupied it in 1745. W. 

it has been the custom for a member of the Estab- 
lished Church of Scotland on leaving ene parish to 
provide himself with a certificate from his minister, 
both as an introduction to an employer of labour 
and as an evidence of his being free from Kirk 
penalties. How very necessary was this " testifi- 
cal," as it is very often written, is proved from the 
fact that these testimonials were ofttimes forged. 
The following is from my transcriptions : 

" Town Court of Kilmaures, Holden within the dwell- 
ing house of Hugh Boyd, baylzie of Kilmaures, upon 
the 19th of NOT', jajvi and Nyntie six year [1696]. 
The qlk day Jean Campbell, a vagrant pearson come 
laitly out of the paroch of Paslay, being pursued by Mr. 
Thomson, Minister of the Gospel in Kilmaures, for cary- 
ing and producing of ane forged testimonial as being 
subscribed by Mr. Tho. Blackwell, Min r at Pasley, and 
Mr. Ja. Wallace, Sesa. Clerk y p , and two elders, 'being 
called and compeared, acknowledged the testimonial was 

false and forged and subscribed by John Pinkertoun, 

taylor in Heughhead of Paslay, and that she did give him 
fyfteen shillings scots for the forginge and counterfitt- 
ing of the subscriptiones of the fors d Minister, Clerk, and 
Elders. Qr upon the Baylies of Kilmaures (considering 
the greatness of her crime), with the toun counsel, and 
that she deserves to be most severlie punished, doe y r for 
ordain the s d Jean Campbell to be put into the joges 
during the Magistrates pleasure, and afterwards to be 
put out of the toun with Touck of drume, and that non 
of the Inhabitants of this toun recept her heirafter under 
the penaltie of fourtie pounds scots, q r upon Robert 
Smith, domeeter, hath given dome." 




His biquide in bis manure . he made biuore is deb 
Willam be rede, al Engelond . is sone he biqueb 
be ^ongore, al is porchas . ac as lawe was & wone 
Normandie is eritage . he }ef is eldoste sone 
Rob<?rd be Courtehese . & Henry be ^ongoste bo 
He biqueb is tresour . vor he nadde sones nammo. 
Quoted from account of William the Conqueror 
in Robert of Gloucester's ' Chronicle ' (' Specimens 
of Early English/ pt. ii. p. 18, 11. 503-508 ; in 
Hearne's edition of the ' Chronicle,' p. 381). A note 
in the Specimens ' (by Rev. Richard Morris and 
Prof. Skeat) says, " L. 505. Porchas. probably 
personal property. Cf. 1. 508." This I think 
erroneous, as the following authorities will show. 

By English law I believe an estate in fee must 
be taken either by descent or by purchase. The 
latter term includes every method of coming to an 
estate bat that of inheritance, being contradistin- 
guished from acquisition by right of bleod (Black- 

stone's 'Com.,' bk. ii. chap. xv.). Purchase is, 
therefore, equivalent to conquest in the Scotch law 
of succession, in which until 1874 there was a dis- 
tinction in some cases in the succession to a person 
dying unmarried survived by an elder and a 
younger brother. In heritage or lands taken by 
descent the younger brother was heir, but to con- 
quest lands the elder succeeded, the maxim being 
heritage descends, but conquest ascends. There 
seems to be some difference in the law of England 
also between the effects of acquisition by descent 
and by purchase. This may have been more 
tangible formerly than now, but of English law I 
cannot speak. Our great feudal writer Sir Thomas 
Craig remarks the identity of purchase with our 
conquest. In his 'Jus Feudale' (date about 1600), 
referring to it, bk. i. 10, sec. 13, he says, " Nos con- 
qucestum [dicimus] Angli purchesse"; and, again, 
what is more cogent, bk. ii. 15, 10," Nos conqucestum 
dicimus, Angli et Normanni Pourches. " And he 
is borne out by Du Cange's 'Glossary,' which 
gives both words, wee Purchacia. Moreover, since 
these notes were thrown into shape I have ob- 
served that Hearne's glossary to the ' Chronicle ' 
also gives conquest as equivalent to porchas. 

These varied authorities I think prove that in 
the prefixed quotation the word is employed in its 
legal sense, and refers to England, which was all 
King William's "porchas" as opposed to Nor- 
mandy his " eritage." They show, too, how appro- 
priate was the use of the word to describe the land 
of which William called himself Conqucestor. 

G. N. 


MADAME DE POMPADOUR. In ' The School of 
Life,' that curious chronicle of the scandal current 
in France in the time of Louis XV., the anonymous 
author, describing Madame de Pompadour, whose 
portrait by Boucher was sold recently at Messrs. 
Christie's for above 10,OOOZ., says : 

' Stately Seats on the Hills and in the levels will not 
satisfy Padilla. These, many a Princess or a Duchess 
has. She is a Fairy, and must have her moving Palace: 
3he diverts the courses of the Gold and Silver Mines ; afc 
her command men start out of the Earth, and others are 
juried alive in its Bowels ; the very elements are sub- 
'ect to her. Who is this Padilla f An Empress ! a 
[jueen ! What is she ? Say rather, what is she not ? " 

ROMAN ALTAR. It may, perhaps, interest your 
readers to be informed that a Roman altar, on 
which Mars is described as winged, was found 
lere, a little to the west of the castrum, in Cock- 
burn Street. The inscription seems to be MART 


| VSLM. The altar is 2 ft. 6 in. high by 12 in. at 
he widest part. On one side are a patera and a 
prcefericulum ; the other side is defaced. 

South Shields. 


7" 8. IV. Ana. 13, -67.] 



SNOB. In turning over the leaves of the Keep- 
take for the year 1831, a day or two ago, I met with 
the following example of the word snob. It is used 
here as a surname, but it is evident that the word 
was intended to convey its modern meaning, made 
familiar to all by Thackeray, not the older signifi- 
cation of a shoemaker : 

Sir Samuel Snob that was his name, 

Three times to Mrs. Brown, 
Had ventured just to hint his flame, 
And twice received a frown. P. 307. 


THREE OHILLT SAINTS. In Hanover the festivals 
of SS. Pancratius,Liberatus,and Servatius (May 12, 
13, and 14) are expected to be celebrated in cold 
weather. ST. SWITHIN. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

historically investigated the rise and establishment 
in England of the custom of a married woman 
changing her surname for that of her husband? 
Has the custom ever been formally sanctioned by 
law, or is it merely a matter of popular usage, 
which the law tacitly recognizes? What is the 
first recorded instance of a married woman being 
called by her husband's surname, and when was it 
fully established ? During the sixteenth and even 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century usage 
appears to have been doubtful, since we find 
Kutherine Parr so signing herself after she had 
been twice married, and al way sj hear of Lady Jane 
Grey (not Dudley), Arabella Stuart (not Seymour), 
&c. In Scotland, as is well known, the use and 
wont, which is as in England, is not formally recog- 
nized as legal ; and a Mrs. Scott, whose maiden 
name was Oliver, is described in wills and all other 
official documents as " Margaret Oliver or Scott," 
not (as the Saturday Review once sapiently guessed) 
" because no Scotch woman is ever sure whether 
she is married or not " (!), but because the law has 
never enacted that in marrying she changes her 
surname, and lawyers, therefore, doubt whether her 
designation by her husband's surname is strictly 
legal, and might not invalidate a legal document, 
or afford ground for disputing her identity. And, 
as a matter of fact, it is quite usual in villages and 
country districts for a married woman of the 
humbler classes to be known by her own surname 
all her life. This is also regularly given on tomb- 
stones, where one reads, " Sacred to the memory 
of Katharine Rigg, the beloved wife of William 
Douglas," or the like, to. the obvious benefit of the 
genealogist, who, if the lady were merely described 

as " Katherine, the beloved wife," &c. , would have 
to inquire elsewhere who William Douglas's wife 
was. In the United States it appears to be cus- 
tomary for a woman to add her husband's surname 
to her own, as in Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. I 
do not know what is the custom in other Christian 
countries, but I think Spanish women sometimes 
retain their own surname ; at least both surnames 
coupled by y (and) are often taken by the children. 
A Spaniard of my acquaintance, whose father's 
surname was Llarena and his mother's Monteverde, 
signed himself in full Fernando Llarena y Monte- 
verde. If any correspondents of ' N. & Q.' can 
contribute information on this subject I think it 
would be generally interesting. E. D. 

POEM BY MOORE. I should feel grateful to 
any contributor to * N. & Q.' who could inform me 
where or in what edition of Moore's poems I could 
find the poem commencing : 

By the Feale's wave benighted, 

Not a star in the skies, 

To thy door by love lighted 

When I first saw those eyes. 

The poem embalms the romantic incident of the 
meeting of Thomas, sixth Earl of Desmond, with 
Kathleen MacCormack, of Abbeyfeale. I have lost 
my transcription of the poem, and am in urgent 
need of a copy. J. B. S. 


LEO AND DRACO. In the thirteenth century 
inventory of the "Ornamenta" of Old Sarum 
Cathedral, banners called respectively Leo and 
Draco are specified. In the Sarum Consuetudi- 
narium of that epoch the use of those banners is 
ordained in certain rubrics, e. g., those for Rogation 
processions. And, from a woodcut in the first 
printed Sarum Processionale, printed in 1508, the 
use of them would seem to have continued at least 
to that date. Can any one tell me, privately or 
through 'N. & Q.,' whether or not banners so 
named were in use at other sees ? 



c DAME WIGGINS OF LEE.' Who wrotejjand 
who illustrated this amusing and exceedingly 
scarce child's book, republished a year or two ago 
in facsimile by Mr. Ruskin ? 


The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

one explain the reference "Brant." occurring so 
frequently in Keble's * Reports'? For example, 
on pp. 34, 43, 160, 161 of vol. i. J. H. 

Middle Temple Library. 

REGIMENTAL HISTORY. I should be deeply 
obliged if some one who is learned in British regi- 
mental history would enlighten me on a few points 
in the history of the 20th East Devonshire Regi- 



iv. A, is, w. 

ment, now known as the first and second bat- 
talions Lancashire Fusiliers : 

1. When was the second battalion raised? Was 
it in 1858 ? 

2. When were the colours now in the north 
transept of Exeter Cathedral presented to the 
regiment, and when were they replaced by new 

3. New colours were presented to the first bat- 
talion in 1802, 1815, and 1838. In what other 
years were new colours presented to either bat- 
talions ? 

4. Where are old colours of the 20th to be seen 
(specify battalion and date) besides in Exeter 
Cathedral ? J. N. 


WARREN. In the list of those who were at- 
tainted of high treason by James II. in his Parlia- 
ment held in Dublin in 1689 are the names of 
Richard Warren, gent., and Thomas Warren, gent., 
both of co. Down. Will any of your readers kindly 
furnish information concerning these, and oblige ? 

Norwood, S.B. 

MANNINGHAM. Who was the Rev. Dr. Manning- 
ham or Maningham ? He occupied, I believe, a 
position of some influence in the reign of Queen 
Ann. T. B. HARBORD. 

Athenaeum Club. 

EGO-WATER. What first gave rise to the im- 
pression that washing one's hands in water in 
which eggs have been boiled would produce warts? 
I know persons who are firmly persuaded that it 
would be so, and, though not at all superstitious, 
they would not use such water for washing their 
hands even if there was none other to be got. 

F. C. 

Geraldines of our sister isle in Tudor days I find 
mention of Maurice, son of John, fourteenth Earl 
of Desmond. This Maurice, called variously 
"Maurice a Totan" and "Maurish a Tothane," 
was turbulent, as becometh an Irishman ; but how 
s the appellation of "firebrand" established? 
Foley gives "firebrand," aithine, and O'Reilly 
confirms it thus : " Ait, a kiln, &c.; aitin, fire ; 
aithinne, a firebrand, charcoal," &c. Where is the 
authority for totan, tothane, to be found ? I may 
note that this ''firebrand" burned himself out in 
1565, at the very respectable age of eighty. 

A. H. 

FOREWENT. Has this past tense of the verb 
forego ever been in use in the language ? We 
have a foregone conclusion. I used forewent the 
other day amongst two or three purists on purpose 
to endeavour to elicit some reason why "I fore- 
went should not exist ; their only reply was that 

it did not. I wish ' N. & Q.' would endeavour to 
classicize this most useful tense. We have under- 
went; why not, forewent ? Will Prof. Skeat oblige 

P.S. Since writing the above query I find 
Cowper uses the word: 

And wilfully forewent 
That converse which we now in vain regret. 

What I wish to elucidate is, Would the expression 
be considered at the present time incorrect ? 

numerated in periods of two instead of periods 
of three, as pounds are ; and how are the sums 
read in words? e. g., How are 5,78,33,554, or 
55,70,30,718, to be read ? I copy from the Times. 

source of the saying " My conscience pricks me," 
or "His conscience pricks him"? I was under 
the impression that it was Biblical, but I have 
searched the sacred volume (by the aid of a con- 
cordance) in vain for the occurrence of the phrase, 
or anything resembling it in import. NEMO. 


SAIN. In the collection with the title c Sonnets 
of this Century,' by W. Sharp, in the series " The 
Canterbury Poets," No. xlvi., p. 146, there is a 
typical sonnet by Cardinal Newman. In this 
there occurs a verb which I am not aware of as 
existing elsewhere : 

To sway or judge, and still to sain or wound. 
Should this be added to dictionaries ? 


SIR BARTHOLOMEW FOUKE. On the south wall 
of the chancel of Flamstead Church, Herts, is a 
small alabaster monument containing an effigy of 
a knight in armour kneeling at a desk. The 
following are the inscriptions : 

Here lyes he dead deprived of Breath by death 
Whose fame shall outlive death. B. F. 
Here lyeth the body of Sir Bartholomew Fouke, Knt.. 
who served Kinge Edward, Queene Marye, and was Master 
of the Household to Queene Elizabeth" for many yeares, 
and to King James that now is ; in memorye of whose 
virtuous life (worthy eternal remembrance) Edward 
Fouke, gent, his brother, hath erected this monument. 
Obiit 19 Julii, 1604. ^Etat. suse 69. 

I should be glad of any references bearing on Sir 
B. Fouke's career. Why was he buried at Flam- 
stead ? F. 

MAJOR JOHN WAUGH. "Mr. John Waugh, 
of the Parish of Trone, in Scotland, and Miss 
Elizabeth Le Pelley, of St. Peter Port," were 
married in the island of Guernsey on Jan. 26, 
1762. Can any of your Scottish correspondents 
supply me with information respecting the parent- 
age, family, and armorial bearings of Major 

7* S. IV. ADO. 13, '87.1 



Waugh ? I do not know the date of his death. 
Mrs. Waugh was born in 1739 and died 1819. 

Y. S. M. 

granted to Philip de Angulo for his homage and 
service land in Bream, on the Shannon ; the 
names of the different portions of the land are 
enumerated, but I cannot identify them. Is any- 
thing further known of the family of De Angulo, 
or how long they held these lands ? The convey- 
ance is not dated, and is No. 41, Patent Bolls, 
32 Elizabeth, 1589. B. F. SCARLETT. 


On October 16, 1443 (per Kymer's ' Fcedera '), Sir 
John Fastolf, the well-known soldier, a man of 
culture too, received, for the purpose of expediting 
the work of building and furnishing a hospice, 
permission to keep four ships (Naves), two called 
" Playtes," one called " a Cogship," and one called 
" a Farecoft." Can these be defined ? 

Since writing this query I have satisfied myself 
that Fareco/t is a misprint for Farecost. In Skene's 
'De Verborum Significatione' it appears as 

" Fercosla ane Italian worde: Ane kinde of achippe or 

little Boate quhilk is inferiour in birth and quantitie 

to an schip, because the imposte and taxation laid upon 
ilke schip is ten schillings, and upon the Fercost twelve 
pennies, and of everie Crear, busch, barge and ballinger 
five schilling, and ilk great boat six pennies." 

Skene is not strong on etymology. Is not his 
" Italian worde " good English, represented by our 
modern "coaster"? G. N. 


HUME. Johnson said, "Hume would never 
have written his history had not Voltaire written 
it before him. He is an echo of Voltaire " (Bos- 
well, ten-volume ed., iii. 43, 1835). What does 
the doctor mean by this ? He always maintained 
that the turn of the phraseology was French, 
though I cannot quite see that it is. Gibbon, I 
should have said, shows more Gallicism, and con- 
siderably less mastery of the English tongue. But 
the doctor seems to imply that Hume plagiarized 
his historical model from the pungent, acute, 
superficial Frenchman. C. A. WARD. 

Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

WORKS OF CHARLES I. In overhauling some 
of my old books I came across one entitled " Ke 
liquise Sacrae Carolines. Or the Works of that 
Great Monarch and Glorious Martyr King Charles 
I. Collected together and digested in order, ac- 
cording to their several subjects, CIVIL and SACRED. 
Hague, printed by Samuel Browne, 1650." I wish 
to inquire whether this might be the first edition 
of the work ; and, such being the case, if it be ol 
any particular value. Facing the title-page there 
is a portrait of the king, and also facing that of 

the EIK12N BA2IAIKH the usual print repre- 
senting the monarch looking up to a crown of glory. 
The work, so far as I can judge, seems complete, 
and is of small 12 mo size. 


NOTHING MATTERS." I have seen or heard this 
saying ascribed to Lady Morgan, but have just 
come across it in Emerson (' Representative Men/ 
"Montaigne"): "'Ah,' said my languid gentle- 
man at Oxford, ' there's nothing new or true and 
no matter.' " Is it known who is responsible for 
this free and easy cynical dictum ? 


Oak Cottage, Streatham Place, S.W. 

"THE LID OF HELL." In looking over some 
of my old newspaper cuttings I come upon the 
following article : * The Lid of Hell,' beginning 
" Java is once more making good its right to eon- 
test with Japan the grim title of the ' Lid of Hell,'" 
&c. (Pall Mall Gazette, August, 1883). The "Lid 
of Hell " is evidently a quotation from some author. 
Where is this title first found; and to what place 
did it first apply ? HERBERT HARDY. 

Thornblll Leea, Dewsbury. 

BASSUS. Information about the Bassus and the 
passage alluded to in Kenelm Henry Digby's 
1 Ouranogaia,' canto xv. ,vol. ii. p. 101, is still 
desired. It is stated thafin Maittaire's 'Corpus 
Poetarum Latinorum' there are fragments of 
Bassus. Is the passage referred to by Kenelm 
Henry Digby to be found there ? PROCUL. 

unlucky man used to be so called, " which, like 
many other things of that nationality, allows of no 
explanation" (Daily Chronicle, May 30, 1887). 
Will some of your Irish readers give an explana- 
tion, and thus stand up for the honour of his 
nation? M.A.Oxon. 

"RARE" BEN JONSON. Can anyone tell me 
whether the epithet " rare " was ever applied to 
Ben Jonson in his lifetime ; and, if so, by whom 
it was so applied . and on what occasion ? 

E. H. W. 


' The Tommiad : a Biographical Fancy, written about 
the year 1842.' London, 1882, 8vo. ABHBA. 

Where do the following lines occur ] They are part of a 
poem descriptive of Cabul : 

as autumn 

Leaves on Belimaroo. 


That gilds the hills of Siah Lung. 


Tout passe, tout casae, tout lasso. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. CT* s. iv. A . 13, 




! S. i. 254 ; v. 180, 252 ; 5 th S. xii. 407, 454 ; 

6" S. v. 384 ; 7 th S. iv. 48, 76.) 
In Frey tag's 'Arabic Dictionary ' (1837), p. 500, 
there may be found an Arabic word which is ren- 
dered in Latin bicornis, and (the initial letter 
being the ninth in the Arabic alphabet) is trans- 
literated Zulqarnain in Hughes's * Diet, of Islam.' 
The literal meaning of the word is " the lord or 
possessor of two horns." Zu (or dhu) means pro- 
perly " lord, master, possessor," and is used as 
a prefix to a good many words with the sense of 
"endowed with, containing"; compare Steingass, 
'Arab. Diet./ p. 390 ; Socin's 'Gram.,' p. 128; 
D'Herbelot (see Zou and Dhou) ; Devic's Supple- 
ment to Littre' (see, Zilhage, Zufagar) ; 
Hughes's 'Diet.' (see Zdlfiqar, Zu'nnun, Zu'r- 

The word Zulqarnain appears in the Koran, in 
the chapter entitled "The Cave," Sale transliterat- 
ing it Dhu'lkarnein. Most commentators suppose 
that this word is here used as a title of Alexander 
the Great ; some authorities, however, believe that 
the prince intended in this passage of the Koran 
was another great conqueror, a mythical personage, 
a contemporary of Abraham (see Sale's note). 

The word Zulqarnain also occurs in Arabic 
historical writings as the denomination of an 
era, generally known as the Macedonian Era, 
or the. Era of the Seleucides. In Larousse 
(8.v. "Ere") it is supposed that the title "the 
possessor of two horns " may refer to Seleucus 
Nicator, and we are reminded that coins struck 
in his reign represent him with two horns on his 
head; still Larousse admits the possibility that 
the title in this instance may refer to Alexander 
the Great. 

The word Zulqarnain is found in Marco Polo, 
cap. xxix., " On the Province of Badashan " (see 
Yule's ed., i. 149). Marco Polo says: "All those 
of the royal blood are descended from King Alex- 
ander and the daughter of King Darius. And all 
these kings call themselves in the Saracen tongue 
Zulcarniain, that is to say, Alexander, and this out 
of regard for Alexander the Great." 

In a learned note by MR. S. W. SINGER (<N.& Q .,' 
1* S. v. 252) a citation is given from Dr. Adam 
Littleton, from which one may infer that the Arabic 
word Zulqarnain was also a name given to the 
famous proposition in Euclid (bk. i. prop. 47) 
Hence, according to Littleton, is derived the term 
dulcarnon, "i. e., bicorne, a figura sic dicta" a 
name frequently found in mediaeval Latin writers 
for the above proposition in Euclid. 

ed. Wright, Rolls series, No. 34, p. 295, an explana- 

tion being added which tells as that it is the name 
of the theorem of Pythagoras in the first book of 
Euclid, and that it was so called from the Greek 
dulia, service, + Lat. carnis, " tauri scilicet quern 
mmolavit (Pythagoras) Jovi ob inventionem dictse 
speculationis " ! The story referred to is found in 
Diogenes Laertius ('Pythag.,' 8, 11), where men- 
tion is made of a hecatomb having been offered in 
this moment of excitement. 

From Neckam we come to the famous passage 
n the ' Troylus and Cryseyde,' 882, 884 (Chaucer, 
ed. Morris, iv. 263), where Cressida says, " I am 

at dulcarnon, right at my wittes ende," and 

Pandarus replies, " Dulcarnon called is ' flemynge 
of wriches.' " This, I believe, is the first appear- 
ance of dulcarnon in any work written in English. 
Cressida uses the phrase "I am at dulcarnon" in 
the popular sense of being in perplexity, without 
any thought of Euclid ; Pandarus uses dulcarnon 
technically, as we may see from his explanation 
flemynge of wriches," which latter shall be briefly 
explained below. This passage in the ' Troylus ' 
is referred to by Mistress Roper in her interview 
with her father in prison (see Wordsworth, 'Eccles. 
Biog.,' ii. 188, "Sir Thomas More"): "Father, I 
can no further go ; I am come, as Chaucer said of 
Crossed, at Dulcarnon to my wittes end." 

In ' N. & Q.,' 1<* S. v. 180, a curious use of the 
word is given. The Editor cites a passage from 
Stanihurst's 'Description of Ireland,' p. 28 : "These 
sealie soules were (as all dulcarnanes for the most 
part are) more to be terrified from infidelitie 
through the paines of hell, than allured to Chris- 
tianitie by the joies of heaven." 

And now what does Pandarus mean by saying 
that " Dulcarnon called is flemynge of wriches " ? 
As was pointed out in an able article in the 
Athenaeum, September 23, 1871, we have here a 
confusion of the names of two propositions in 
Euclid (bk. i.). "The flemynge of wriches" is 
Chaucer's translation of a mysterious Low Latin 
name for prop. 5, which appears in the forms Ele- 
fuga, Ellefuga, Eleofuga. This term does not appear 
in Ducange, but I have succeeded in finding two 
passages where it occurs. One is cited in Anthony 
a Wood's 'Hist, and Antiq.Univ. Oxford, Annals,' 
i. 290 (ed. Gutch, 1792). It is a passage from 
Roger Bacon, in which prop. 5 (our Pons asino- 
rum) is called Elefuga. and explained by Bacon to 
mean " fuga miseriorum " (sic}. The second pas- 
sage is from the'Philobiblion' of Richard de Bury 
(ed. Cocheris, 1856), cap. xiii. p. 257: "Quot 
Euclidis discipulos rejecit Eleofuga, quasi scopulus 
eminens et abruptus." I suppose the word was 
translated "flight of the wretched" from the notion 
that it was of Greek origin. Compare 
" astray, distraught," in Liddell and Scott. 



Although PROF. SKEAT is not aware of it, Dul- 

7" 8. ir. Aoo. 13, '87.] 



carnon does occur in other writers besides Chaucer 
The following, from 'A New Dictionary in Five 
Alphabets ' (Cambridge, 1693), may, indeed, refe 
to him, though he is not mentioned : "Dulcarnon 
i. bicorne, cornutum, d figurd sic diet., a hart 
proposition in Euclid, 1. i. pr. 47, so called in 
Arabick, and used by old English writers for anj 
hard question or point. Dilemma, problema, n." 
but Halliwell quotes from Stanihurst's ' Descrip- 
tion of Ireland,' p. 28 : " These sealie soules were 
(as all dulcarnanes for the more part are) more 
to be terrified from infidelitie through the paine 
of hell, than allured to Christianize by the joies 
of heaven." The quotation from the dictionary 
seems to indicate that the word was used in a 
general sense for dilemma ; that from Stanihursl 
lends some colour to Dr. Brewer's explanation : 

"According to the Koran, c. xviii., 'Dulcarnein 
(Alexander) built the famous iron walls of Jajuge anc 
Majuge, within which Gog and Magog are confined til 
the end of the world.' [These walls, by the way, were 
built " of all sorts of metals."] Hence, to send one to 
Dulcarnein is to send one to the prison of Gog and 
Magog, to daze them with puzzles." 

0. C. B. 

The question as to "Kesey's Phillips" is 
answered by turning on to ' N. & Q.,' p. 53, 
where mention is made of the 'New World oi 
Words,' by Edward Phillips, sixth ed., 1706. 
Phillips was of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, and pub- 
lished also Theatrum Poetarum ' in 1675, which 
was afterwards edited by Sir Egerton Brydges. 
See Thompson Cooper's 'Biographical Dictionary.' 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

The following passage from Sir Thomas More 
may interest MR. HARDY: "In good fayth, 
father quod I, I can no ferther goe, but am (as I 
trowe Cresede saith in Chaucer) comen to Dul- 
carno euen at my wittes ende " (Sir T. More's 
' Works,' 1557, p. 1441. K. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

LOCH LEVEN (7 th S. ii. 446 ; iii. 30, 113, 177, 
295, 458). I have no wish to prolong this discus- 
sion unduly, seeing it has drifted away from the 
real question at issue, viz., the meaning of the name 
Leven; but I may perhaps be allowed to say a few 
words in reply to SIR HERBERT MAXWELL'S last 

I am taken to task by him for having " devised 
the theory" that the Celts in giving names to 
streams made use of certain features peculiar to the 
water itself. Now I did not " devise the theory " ; 
I simply stated a fact that has become apparent to 
me in the course of my reading. I may have 
stated my ideas a little too strongly, although I do 
not think so. At 7 th S. iii. 113 I said that " some 
characteristic in the stream itself is generally taken 
as a name seldom has one been borrowed from 

the natural surroundings." This, however, does 
not exclude exceptions to the rule, which, I main- 
tain, will be found to have generally prevailed. 
But, be this as it may, I would like to ask SIR 
HERBERT MAXWELL if he can point to any rule, 
more especially in so liquid a science as geo- 
graphical etymology, to which you cannot find 
exceptions. If a theory is generally true it may, 
to all intents and purposes, be accepted as a good 
test rule to go by ; and I am of opinion that in 
this matter the rule which I have indicated will 
on examination be found to hold generally true. 
Of course, where there are contending etymologies, 
it may apply to one and not to another ; in such 
a case the difficulties to be overcome are often too 
numerous to be met by the adoption of any one 
particular theory. To produce a selected list of 
examples, on one side or the other, is easy enough, 
but the subject would require much fuller illus- 
tration than can very well be given to it in 
these columns. So far as the great rivers of 
Europe are concerned, which owe their names to 
the Celts, ample justice has been done to them by 
Canon Taylor in his ' Words and Places,' a book 
which may be safely taken as an authority on the 
subject, and I think I may make bold enough to 
claim the learned author as being an authoritative 
witness to the accuracy of my deductions. 

With regard to compound names, i. e., names 
compounded from two or more Celtic words, as Pol- 
kill from poll cille, stream of the church, is it not 
possible that the first part of the name is older 
than the second ? What more natural than that a 
particular stream, or pull, should, in the course of 
time, come to be called poll cille or poll beith, to 
distinguish it from other polls in the same locality, 
and within the territorial limits of the same tribe ? 
SIR HERBERT MAXWELL quotes such uncom- 
pounded forms as sruth, sruthair, and uisce, but 
these words prove nothing, at least so far as he is 
concerned ; indeed, they prove, if anything, just 
what I have been endeavouring to establish. 

In concluding, he says, "The Celts were ruled 
3y no arbitrary or pedantic laws in naming natural 
eatures." Well, whether they were or were not 
ruled by " pedantic laws " we cannot tell ; but if 
etymology makes one thing plainer than another 
"t is the fact that in naming natural features they 
bllowed natural instincts, and called things by 
heir elemental names, and this simply because 
hey knew of no better method of nomenclature. 
The Celts were not alone in this respect; I 
:ould quote examples from various sources, all 
f which show the same principle at work. I 
will, however, only quote a few well-known 
Hebrew names, because they are best known and 
heir etymology is less disputed : Jordan,* the 

* Of. the Ayr, a name found in Scotland, England, 
reland, and France; from the Celtic root Ar or 



down-flower, so called from its rapid down-sweep- 
ing current, from TV, to descend or flow down ; 
Kishon* tortuous, from BMp, ensnared; hence the 
surname Kish; Kidron, very black or fall of 
blackness, from Tip, dark, gloomy ; Euphrates, 
fertilizing or fruitful, from ma, fruitful ; and so 
on through all the principal river names of ancient 

As a further evidence of the correctness of my 
deductions, I may be allowed to point to the fact 
that we find tribe after tribe, and race after race, 
giving their names to streams, and all in the same 
elemental fashion. Hence we get such a combina- 
tion as Wansbeckwater,i.e., wan=avon^ (Welsh), 
beck (Teutonic), and water (English) ; giving us a 
name which simply means " water- water- water." 
Such combinations are not rare, and serve to give 
us some little insight into the simple and, at the 
same time, natural laws followed by these ancient 
tribes in giving names to natural features. 

Although we may have Celtic blood in our veins, 
our modes of thought are essentially different from 
those of the warrior Celts who figure in Ossian's 
heroic verses. The complexity of our modern 
civilization, our love of the "Fatherland," our 
latent hero-worship, and our religious instincts 
have, one and all, led us to adopt methods of 
nomenclature the ancient Celts could never have 
even dreamed of. EGBERT F. GARDINER. 

RICHARD MARTIN (7 th S. iii. 328, 417, 522 ; iv. 
35). There is the following anecdote, which, as 
such are referred to, may perhaps be thought worth 
admission in *N. & Q.': 

" REPORTING IN ITALICS. Mr. Martin or Dick Mar- 
tin, as he was called in the House though a very 
humane man, especially to the brute creation, had a 
great deal of eccentricity about him. Having on one 
occasion said something so very ludicrous as to convulse 
the House with laughter, a reporter for one of the 
morning papers underlined the passage, and the com- 
positors of course printed it in italics. The circumstance 
afforded infinite amusement to the whole town on the 
day on which it appeared, and the hon. gentleman was 
chaffed beyond measure not only for the ludicrousness of 
the speech itself, but for its being reported in italics. 
In the evening, without waiting till the business before 
the House was disposed of, Mr. Martin said that he had 
to call the attention of Mr. Speaker and the House to one 
of the grossest insults ever offered to a member of Parlia- 
ment. ' Sir,' said the hon. gentleman, addressing the 
Speaker, 'sir, you and hon. members must be aware 
that I had the honour of addressing this House last night. 
(Ironical cries of ' Hear, hear.') Well, sir, my speech is 
most villainously reported in the Morning of this 

Adh'ar, in the Gaelic signifying clear or rapid : the 
Rule in Roxburgh, from rhull, to move briskly We 
have also a Teutonic parallel in the Snailbatch' swift 

* Cf. the Jed (anciently written Oed and Geddie), 
also m Roxburgh, from the Celtic gaid, withes or twigs 
so called from its many windings. 

t Avon, uncompounded, gives us the names Anne, 
Inn, Aven, Aff, and Wan. 

morning. (Suppressed titters of laughter were heard in 
all parts of the House.) But, Mr. Speaker, it is not of 
the inaccurate reporthing that I so much complain as of 
the circumstance of the reporther having made me 
spake in italics. (Roars of laughter, which continued 
for some time.) I appeal to you, sir, and those hon. 
members who heard me, whether I spoke in italics. 
(Renewed bursts of laughter from all parts of the House.) 
You know, Mr. Speaker, and so does every gintlemin in 
this House, that I never spake in italics, at all at all. 
(Shouts of laughter.) But, sir, allow me to say that 
this, bad as it is, is not the worst of the matter. Will 
you belave it, sir will any hon. mimber in this House 
belave it that when I went to the reporther to ask for 
an explanation, he told me, with the most perfect cool- 
ness, that if I felt myself aggrieved I knew my remedy, 
at the same time handing me his card, sir ? The short 
and the long of it is, sir, that this reporther wants to 
fight a duel with me.' Peals of laughter, such as were 
never before or have been since heard within the walls 
of Parliament, followed the conclusion of Mr. Martin's 
speech. When these had in some measure subsided, he 
moved that the reporter be called to the bar of the 
House for having committed a breach of the privileges 
of the House; but there being no one to second the 
motion, it of course fell to the ground." From the ' Great 


HE SHOWS HIS TAIL " (7 th S. iii. 356, 523). This 
proverb, in the form, " The higher the Ape goes, 
the more he ahewes his taile," appears in George 
Herbert's * Outlandish Proverbs,' 1640. It occurs 
also in Ray's collection, Eay quotes the Italian 
proverb, "Tu fai come la simia, chi piu va in 
alto piu mostra il culo." 


This proverb, in a rather coarser form, was 
applied to Elizabeth Bourchier, the wife of Oliver 
Cromwell, to whom he was married at St. Giles's, 
Cripplegate, Aug. 22, 1620. Thomas Carlyle 
styles her father, Sir Thomas Bourchier, " a civic 
gentleman "; and he had besides landed property 
at Felsted, in Essex. Prefixed to vol. ii., third 
edition, 1787, of Noble's ' Memoirs of the House 
of Cromwell ' is a small medallion portrait of this 
lady, representing her as a plain, homely woman, 
wearing a hood, whilst to the right of her face is a 
monkey. Perhaps the proverb may be of Spanish 
origin, for it is one quite worthy of Sancho Panza. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Compare the following from Montaigne, livre ii. 
chap. xvii. (" De la Presumption"): 

" Me souvenant de ce mot du feu chancellier Ollivier 
' que les Francois semblent des guenons, qui vont grim- 
pant contremont un arbre, de branche en branche, et 
ne ceesent d'aller, jueques & ce qu'elles soyent arrivees 
a la plus haute branche, et y montrent le cul quaiid elles 
y sont.' " 



Whether or not this be a Spanish proverb, there 
is an English equivalent, in which the squirrel is 

7"> S. IV. AUG. 13, f 87,] 



the animal. A similar saying, but too vulgar for 
the pages of * N. & Q. ,' is used concerning vain 
and conceited folks, fond of " showing off." 


SEAL OF EAST GRINSTEAD (7 tb S. iii. 388, 437). 
When and why did East Grinstead cease to be 
" within the liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster,' 
as Lewis, in his * Topographical Diet./ expresses 
it ? M.A.Oxon. 

(7 tb S. iii. 475; iv. 56). Instead of assuming the 
existence of this suffix I ought, perhaps, to have 
asked for evidence proving or disproving its exist- 
ence. Indeed, I did not intend to go further than 
this. It appeared to me that the A.-S. ieg, an 
island, with which, of course, I was acquainted, 
was not applicable to many local names ending in 
y or ey, because local names are found with these 
terminations where there is no island. Either, 
therefore, one has to give to ieg some secondary 
meaning, such as oasis, or to look out for some 
other explanation. It was rather strange that I 
should have forgotten to mention the word Sidney, 
which is my own name. I bad been so accustomed 
to the generally accepted derivation from St. Denis 
that it never occurred to me. MR. STEVENSON 
has, however, mentioned it, and MR. BATTERSBT 
has mentioned Bradney. These two words alone 
appear to me to go very far to " force the conclu- 
sion "that a suffix -nt/or-neydoes exist in many local 
names. If we divide these two words as Sid-ney 
and Brad-ney, then sid=A.-S. sid, broad, and 
brad = A..-S. brad, broad; so that, probably, Sid- 
ney and Bradney have exactly the same meaning. 
Take the surname Sitwell. It occurs in Eckington 
and Dronfield, and I have no doubt that it is a 
field-name. A variant of this word occurs in both 
these parishes in the surname Siddal, pronounced 
Siddel. Now here Sitwell or Siddal= broad well, 
just as Bradwell in Derby shire = broad well. I do 
not, however, say that " well " here means a spring 
of water. In this way one might get such words 
as Wit-ney= White-ney, resembling the well- 
known White- acre. But here ME. STEVENSON 
may say that the guttural spirant would be un- 
naturally forced in against rule. If it be objected 
that Sidney and Sitwell are not shown to have 
existed as field-names, I would answer that there 
are thousands of interesting field-names which 
have not found their way into literature or which 
are only known to the world in surnames. Sid-cop 
is a common field-name near Barnsley. 

At Bradfield I find, in 1637, fields called " the 
new breakes" and "new ground." "The Brecks" 
is a farm in Stavely. New-lands is a common field- 
name. Stratmann gives M.E. breche as new ground, 
ager novalis. Maigne D'Arnis gives, as a secondary 
meaning of novale, " ager qui de novo in cultum 

redigitur." It occurred to me that the word new, 
A.-S. niwe, Danish ny, might once have been used 
as a substantive in the sense of breaks or brlche, 
and I referred in my query to ny', which is given 
by Cleasby and Vigfusson as "the new" of the 
moon. I need hardly say that if such a 'suffix as 
-ny could be proved to exist it would unlock many 
obscure local names. It appears to me that there 
is, at least, a very strong presumption in favour of 
its existence. 

Redineys occurs at Fulwood, near Sheffield, in 
1637. It then contained seventy-three acres, and 
was u reserved for the red deare." There is a field 
called Eediker at Dore, near Sheffield. 

S. 0. ADDT. 

" LIMINA APOSTOLORUM " (7 th S. iii. 517). This, 
of course, is the usual form of expressing a visit 
to Rome. So in reference to A.D. 688 Beda has : 

"Anno autem regni Aldfridi tertio Csedualla rex 

Occidentaliura Saxonum venit Romam ut ad 

limina beatorum apostolorum fonte baptismatis ablue- 
retur." ' Hist. Eccl.,' v. 7. 

And before that Prudentius had written : 

Ipsa et senatus lumina, 
Quondam Luperci aut Flaraines, 
Apostolorum et martyrum 
Exosculantur limina. 

' Peristepb.,' ii. 517-20. 

And so, too, Claudian : 

Per cineres Pauli, per cani limina Petri, 
Ne laceres versus, dux lacobe, meos. 

1 Carm.,' Ixxvii. p. 696, Lips., 1759. 

In A.D. 1031 Cnut wrote a letter to describe hia 
visit to Rome, in which he said that, after long since 
vowing this journey and being prevented, he had 
at last been able, for which he was thankful, " to 
visit the sanctuary of the Apostles SS. Peter and 
Paul, and all others which he could find either 
within or without the city of Rome " (ep. in Flo- 
rence of Worcester's * Chron.,' Bohn, 1854, p. 137). 
And what was more, he wrote : 

"I spoke with the Emperor himself, and the lord 
pope, and the princes who were there, in regard to 
the wants of my people, English as well as Danes; 
that there should be granted to them more equal 
justice and greater security in their journeys to Rome, 
and that they should not be hindered by so many 
barriers on the road nor harassed by unjust tolls." Ibid. 

It is an illustration of the way in which mis- 
takes have arisen from corruptions in the text 
or errors in the translation of the New Testa- 
ment that Optatus connects the two great apostles 
in their relics with Rome from the reading 
of Romans xii. 13, in the Latin, "Memoriis 
sanctorum communicantes." "Ecce prsesentes 
sunt ibi," he observes after quoting the verse, 
" duorum memorise apostolorum. Dicite si ad has 
ingredi potuit ; aut obtulit illic, ubi sanctorum 
memorias esse constat"('De Schism. Donatist./ ii. 
4). Some MSS. with D have rats /AVCICUS. To 
make a pilgrimage to the shrines of the two great 



apostles at Rojne was an act of devotion and com- 
munion. ED. MARSHALL. 

The Limina Apostolorum are the basilicas of St. 
Peter in Rome and of St. Paul on the Ostian Way. 
Mackenzie Walcott is mistaken in saying that " the 
Limina were the steps at the entrance of the Con- 
fession" (' Sacred Archaeology,' 352). Gaetano 
Moroni, a careful and trustworthy authority, has 
written an exhaustive article on the Limina 
Apostolorum. See his ' Dizionario di Erudizione 
Storico-Ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri 
Giorni,' vol. xxxviii. pp. 221-33) (Venice, dalla 
tipografia Emiliana, 1845). 


'INGOLDSBY LEGENDS' (7 th S. iv. 69). "The 
Prince of Potboys" is an allusion to Prince Potbus, 
Ambassador Extraordinary from the King of 
Prussia to Her Majesty's coronation. 

WILLIAM FRASER of Ledeclune, Bt. 

I think it probable that the "great Haythen 
Jews " is not intended to point at any particular 
individuals, but to embrace several distinguished 
Jews, such as Baron Rothschild, Sir Isaac Gold- 
amid, Sir Moses Montefiore, &c. M. H. R. 

[G. B. and others oblige with similar information.] 

NAMES (7 th S. iv. 1, 90). The German analogies 
throw some light on the question whether ethnic 
or tribal appellations enter into the composition of 
English village names. On the old Wendish 
frontier, village names referring to the Wends are 
numerous, and, as Forsteraann observes, " deuten 
mit sicherheit auf wendische ansiedlungen," in 
some cases, he adds, " unmittelbar," as in the case 
of Winedeheim, now Franken-windheim, in other 
cases through the medium of a personal name ulti- 
mately ethnic, as Winedesheim, now Windsheim, 
or Windeshem, now Winsen. Similar names of 
ethnic origin, from documents not later than the 
eleventh century, are Sahsenheim, Langobardon- 
heim, Franchonhusen, Suaboheim, Thuringoheim, 
and Burgundhart. Not uncommon are the names, 
such as Schottenkirchen and Schottenklb'ster, 
which testify to early religious foundations of 
Irish monks. Near Danzig are two places called 
Altschottland and Neuschottland, which probably 
indicate commercial settlements. Very numerous 
are the names compounded with the word walah, a 
foreigner. Old charters contain scores of such 
names as Walahusa, Walahusuo, Waladorf, Walah- 
heim, Walahesheim, Walishoven, Walahesdorf, and 
the like, which, like the Wend names, are either 
directly or indirectly ethnic. On the German lin- 
guistic frontiers there are numerous village names 
of more recent origin which plainly refer to the 
nationality of the inhabitants. Such are the con- 
tiguous villages of Deutsch-Brod and Bohmisch- 
Brod, Deutsch-Steinach and Wiilsch-Steinach 

Deutsch Neureuth and Walsch-Neureuth, to 
which may be added Deutsch-Neukirch, Deutsch- 
Wagram, Windisch-Kappel, Windisch-Gratz, and 
Windisch-Eschenbach. Dr. Guest has enumerated 
similar names as indications of the old line of the 
Welsh and English march, such as Englishcombe 
and Englishbatch, and more especially the adjacent 
villages of English Frankton and Welsh Frankton, 
near Ellesmere. 

In some parts of the Grisons alternate villages 
are German and Roman sch, the inhabitants differ- 
ing in blood, language, and religion, and never 
intermarrying. In the East Riding of Yorkshire 
the Angles and Danes seem in like manner to have 
dwelt apart, many parishes containing two town- 
ships, one bearing an English and the other a 
Danish name. Thus my own parish of Settrington 
includes the township of Scagglethorpe ; the neigh- 
bouring parish of Langton comprises the township 
of Kenny thorpe ; and Westow, the next parish, con- 
tains the townships of Mennythorpe, Eddlethorpe, 
and Firby. 

The Isle of Axholme seems to have formed, 
from its inaccessibility, a refuge for the old Celtic 
inhabitants, who maintained themselves among its 
marshes long after the English conquest, and the 
topographical nomenclature seems to me to testify 
plainly to the fact. In the old kingdom of Elinet, 
with which MR. ADDY is conversant, the same seems 
to have been the case. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

162, 476 ; iii. 58, 114, 193 ; iv. 72). The case of 
Elizabeth Canning is related by Canl field in his 
' Memoirs of Remarkable Persons,' and is too well 
known to be repeated in these "congested columns." 
She was convicted on what seems very insufficient 
evidence of perjury, May, 1754, and transported. 
Great sympathy was shown towards her, and large 
subscriptions were raised for her comfort and sup- 
port. She married an opulent Quaker in America, 
and "lived happily ever afterwards." Her portrait 
was engraved by Boitard, Worlidge, and others. 

[A full report of the case, contributed by MR. J. J. 
STOCKEN, is too long for our columns. We have forwarded 
it to PROP. BUTLER.] 

SIR CHARLES FLOWER (7 th S. iv. 69). Sir 
Charles was the elder son of Mr. Stephen Flower, 
a cheesemonger in the Minories. He was born 
Feb. 18, 1763, and made a large fortune " by ex- 
tensive contracts with Government for provisions 
during the war." He served the office of sheriff in 
1799, was elected alderman for the ward of Cornhill 
in 1801, and was Lord Mayor of London in 1808. 
He was created a baronet on Dec. 1, 1809. He 
married Anne, the eldest daughter of Joseph 
Squire, of Plymouth, by whom he had two sons 
and six daughters. Sir Charles died in Russell 
Square on Sept. 15, 1835, aged seventy-two, and 

7b 8. IV. AUG. 13, '87.] 



was buried in Aldgate Church. James, his onl 
surviving son, died on May 17, 1850, when th 
baronetcy became extinct. G. F. K. B. 

He was Lord Mayor in 1808-9, and was create 
a baronet. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

Sir Charles Flower, alderman of the ward o 
Cornhill, and Lord Mayor of the City of Londo 
1808-9, was created a baronet by patent datec 
Dec. 8, 1809. I shall be pleased to give MR 
EVANS any information he may require concerning 
him if he will communicate with me. 

C. H. ATHILL, Bluemantle. 
Heralds' College, E.G. 

MOMPOX (7 th S. ii. 228, 254). I am obliged fo 
your answer to my query as to the whereabouts o 
this place. In 1853 the New Granada Company 
sent out a party, under the conduct of Mr 
Israel Pellew a relation, I believe, of the Earl o 
Exmouth to work some mines ; but he, much to 
the regret of the company, died. I have a lettei 
of condolence from the secretary of the company 
Mr. Breffit, to Mrs. Pellew. I hope some of youi 
American readers will see this, and send me a copy 
of the inscription put on a tablet to his memory in 
a church or chapel in Mompox. How else can ] 
obtain it ? To whom would your readers advise 
me to refer ? Is the New Granada Company stil" 
existing ? M. A.Oxon. 

PRECEDENCE IN CHURCH (7 th S. ii. 361, 495; iii 
74, 157, 394, 500 ; iv. 15). In Bishop Meade's 
* Old Churches and Families of Virginia ' (1857) 
frequent reference is made to the precedence 
always allowed to the first families in the colonial 
churches of Virginia. The allotment of seats 
according to rank seems to have been one of the 
first things thought of when a new church was 
built. This fact goes far to prove that such was 
the custom in the mother Church too, the Church 
in Virginia being directly under the control of 
the Bishop of London, and any custom in the 
Church at home would be probably imported into 
the Church abroad. FREDERICK T. HIBGAME. 
Virginia, U.S. 

DARKLING (7 th S. iii. 148, 191, 374, 526). 
Byron also uses the word in the ' Corsair/ iii. 3 : 
In eilence, darkling, each appear'd to wait 
His fellow's mournful guess at Conrad's fate; 

and in * Mazeppa,' sect. 2 : 

And in the depths of forests darkling 
The watch-fires in the distance sparkling. 

It requires a concordance to settle the moot point 
whether the word was a favourite one of Byron ; 
if it, were, then, as he has said of a certain neo- 

Now here 's a word quite after my own heart, 
darkling may frequently occur in his luminous and 
voluminous works. FREDK. BULB. 

TILL, 1834 (7 th S. iii. 471). I venture to submit 
that there is something wrong about MR. LOVELL'S 
ascription of the date of Sir William Weston's death. 
Either " Ascension Day " or " 7th " must, according 
to my calculation, be erroneous. I may be out in my 
reckoning, but I make May 7, 1540, a Friday. 
Holy Thursday was May 7 in 1551, but, before 
that year, the feast of the Ascension had not 
occurred on that day of the month since 1472. 



ARMS OF SIR FRANCIS DRAKB (7 th S. iii. 495 ; 
iv. 17). In a pamphlet which Mr. Hervey, Rector 
of Colmer, was kind enough to send me, he states 
that Sir Francis Drake " had adopted for his coat 
of arms that of Sir Bernard Drake, a member of 
another branch. This was the cause of a family 
quarrel, which was appeased by a grant from the 
Queen of another," &c. Mr. Hervey does not state 
what this former coat was ; but I apprehend that 
Sir Bernard's coat might be found amongst the 
visitations at the British Museum, or the many 
references to Drake in Marshall's ' Genealogist's 
Guide.' J. G. BRADFORD. 

It would be most interesting to know what arms 
Drake used before 1581. As after that date he 
quartered the wyvern coat with the new grant, 
the presumption is that he previously used the 
wyvern alone. That MR. DRAKE is wrong in sup- 
posing that he had none and used none is proved 
by a passage in the very interesting letter of Don 
Francisco de Carate to the Viceroy of New Spain, 
dated April 16, 1579, " Sirvese con mucha plata, 
os bordos y coronas dorados y en ella sus arraas " 
('Costa-Rica, Nicaragua y Panama en el SigloXVI./ 
por D. Manuel M. de Peralta, p. 583). That 
Carate saw the arms on the plate may, I think, be 
considered certain. J. K. L. 

PONTE OR PONT FAMILY (7 th S. iii. 148, 239, 
>04). J. McO. B. will find a number of persons 
)earing the names of Pont, Du Pont, Du Ponde, 
and Du Pondt in the Camden Society's ' List of 
Foreigners resident in England 1618-1688.' To 
ave space I merely give the pages where they are 
o be found, viz., pp. 8, 16, 44, 50, and 82. 


WOODPECKER =HICKWALL (7 th S. iii. 497). 
Francis Holy-Oke's edition of 'Riders Dictionarie* 
1640) has "Hickwall or hickway " in the list of 
irds. Under "Picus" the word is spelt heigh- 
,ould. According to the Rev. C. Swainson's ' Folk- 
ore of British Birds ' (p. 99), hickwall is used in 

Gloucestershire not for the green woodpecker, but 
or the lesser spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopus 

minor). He derives hickwall from A.-S. hicgan, 
o try, and refers to the same source the following 



17*8. IV. AUG. 13, '87. 

names for the green woodpecker : eccle (Oxford- 
shire), icwell (Northants), eaqual or ecall (Salop), 
yuchl (Wilts), yockel (Salop), stock eikk (Worces- 
tershire), Jack ickk (Northants). 


Halliwell gives hickol as a West of England 
name of the woodpecker. Another form of the 
word is hickway, under which the same authority 
has the following : " ' A hicway, or woodpecker, 
virco; Withals, ed. 1608, p. 21. Hickwall, Florio, 
p. 203. Hiyhawe, Cotgrave, in v. Bequebo, 
Epeiche, Epiche. 'Hygh-whele, picus,' MS. 
Arundel 249, f. 90." In the ' Linguse Romanes 
Dictionarium Luculentum Novum' (Cambridge, 
1693) I find, "A Hickwal, or Hickway, a bird. 
Virco, m. picus Martius, picumnus"; and s. v. 
" Picus," " A bird which makes holes in trees ; of 
which there be several sorts : a Wood-pecker, a 
Speckt, a Hickway or Heighhould, a French-Pye, 
a Wittwall." C. 0. B. 

I am glad to find that an old friend of my 
boyhood the 'Architecture of Birds' still has 
readers. Eickwall seems not to be confined to 
one locality. Coles's 'Dictionary' (1713) has, 
"Hickwall, a wood-pecker or wryneck"; and Mr. 
Atkinson, in his ' British Birds' Eggs and Nests,' 
gives hickwall for the lesser spotted woodpecker, 
and whitwall for the great spotted woodpecker. 


Halliwell, in his 'Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words,' refers to p. 203, " Florio," for 
the use of this word. Having found hickwall or 
hickwel in the following dictionaries Phillips 
(1720), Bailey (1759), Ash (1775), Johnson (1814), 
Knowles (1835), Webster (1863), Wright (1880), 
Davies (1881) I cannot think that the use of it 
can be exclusively confined to the Forest of Dean. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

If (as I presume) the above is a misprint for 
heclcmall, I can inform your correspondent Picus 
that the name is a familiar one in the rural dis- 
tricts of South Devon. W. S. B. H. 

HABERDON : ANTISCARP (7 th S. iii. 515). I am 
afraid MR. BEDELL has been coining a word here, 
for I never heard of this term in military engineer- 
ing. Doubtless it is meant as an equivalent for 
" counterscarp," i. e., the side of the ditch furthest 
from the work. If, however, as may be the case, 
MR. BEDELL can give examples of the use of " anti- 
scarp," I should be very glad to hear of them. It 
is certainly not now in general use. 

63, Fellows Eoad, N.W. 

Haberdon is singularly like Aberdon, the old 
form of Aberdeen, N.B.; but I incline to suggest 

variant of Haver, which is common in the Eastern 
Counties, cf. Haversack, " a bag for oats." 

A. H. 

Ho, VOCABULUM SILENTII (7 th S. iii. 496). 
Ho, ho, ho, were the words with which the devil 
and vice of the old moralities made their ap- 
pearance on the stage, and seem to have been 
used to command silence or an interjectional call 
to attract attention. Numerous instances are given 
in Nares's 'Gloss.,' s.-u., and in Dodsley's "Old 
Plays." The word ho is also used as a verb mean- 
ing "stop," " halt." The following quotations are 
given by Halliwell, who says ho was formerly an 
exclamation commanding the cessation of any 
action, as at tournaments : " Let us ho " (' Towne- 
ley Mysteries,' p. 31); "But alas, alas, we have 
passed all bounds of modestie and measure : there 
is no hoe with us " (Dent's ' Pathway,' p. 43) ; 
" Howbeit they would not crie hoa here, but 
sent in post some of their covent to Rome " (Stani- 
hurst's ' Description of Ireland,' p. 26). See gener- 
ally Halliwell and Nares's 'Gloss.,' t.v. "Ho" 
and " Hoo." A. COLLINGWOOD LEE. 

Waltham Abbey, Essex. 

"Ho (quod est cessate)" is evidently " hold !" 
or " halt ! " It appears in John Ball's letter 
(1382): "Know your friend from your foe, Haveth 
ynough and saith hoe " (Stow's ' Chron.,' 294). 



Can it interest G. N. or anybody else to know 
that ho is very common in Holland as an exclama- 
tion not " silentii," but " cessationis " 1 A driver 
shouts ho to a horse to stop it, &c. 

Newton School, Kock Ferry. 

NUMISMATIC (7 th S. iv. 69). In reply to MR. 
BUTLER'S inquiry, the legend he quotes (not quite 
correctly) occurs on a satirical medal, struck in 
silver, I should imagine about the year 1530 or 
1540, in the Protestant interest. The obverse 
bears a double head, which at first sight displays 
the features of a horned gentleman of somewhat 
forbidding aspect, but when inverted presents the 
face of a pope with the triple crown. Legend, 


The reverse is on the same lines. In its normal 
position the head is that of a jester, when inverted 
that of a cardinal ; the legend, STULTI . ALI- 
QVANDO . SAPIENTES. I have one of these coins, 
which seem to be somewhat rare, before me as I 
write. The diameter is thirty-five millimetres. 

The Catholics retorted with a similar medal, in 
which the head of Calvin replaces that of the pope 
in that just described. The legends are as follows: 


Some interesting information on the subject may 

7" S. IV. Auo. 13, '87.] 



be found in a work published in Paris in 1837, 
entitled ' Monnaies Inconnues des Eveques, des 
Innocents, des Fous,' &c. J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

This medal, for which MR. BUTLER inquires, is 
in my possession. The legend surrounds the head 
of a pope with the triple crown. When turned 
upside down, instead of a pope a devil's head ap- 
pears. The reverse of the medal bears the legend 
STULTI . ALIQUANDO . SAPiENTES. The design is a 
monk's head with cowl. When turned upside 
down the head becomes a fool with a cap and 
bells. There is no date, but it was evidently 
struck in the days of the Borgias, as it resembles 
in general workmanship other medals of that date 
that are in my collection. 


San Guglielmo, Tortona, Italy, 

" MAKE NO BONES OF " (7 th S. iii. 408, 523). 
For once in a way I venture to ask leave of 
' N. & Q.' to guess. And it is that I may hazard 
a conjecture that correspondents who think that 
" bones" in this phrase has anything to do with 
osseous substance may be in error. In Gascoigne's 
line the phrase " Yet never made nor bones nor 
bragges thereof " seems plainly in either word to 
refer to something spoken. So, possibly, to " make 
no bones " may mean to make no " petition," no 
" begging " off, the old sense of bone, boone, or 
boon. It is not in this sense unlike the passage 
where it is said : 

Placebo came and eke his frendea sone, 
And aider-first he bade hem all a bone, 
That non of hem non argumentes make 
Again the purpos that he hath ytake. 

' Merchant's Tale,' Tyrwh., v. 9491, sqq. 

Thus to " make no bones " would simply mean to 
make no reason for refusal, no excuse, no begging 
off ; or, if " bone " be taken as " favour," to make 
no favour of it, but do it at once. So in the old 
fairy tale : 

O, fish of the sea, come hither to me, 
For there 'a my wife, the plague of my life, 
Has sent me to beg a bone of thee. 


PITT'S LAST WORDS (7 th S. iv. 23). Lovers of 
historical accuracy will, I think, be inclined to 
prefer the deliberate statement of Lord Stanhope 
to the 4inner-table pleasantry of Mr. Disraeli. A 
man at the point of death might ask for a little 
beef-tea or a glass of wine ; but only a man with 
a healthy appetite could long for a veal pie. 


iv. 49). Bale does not appear to have been a re 
corder. According to the 'Diet, of Nat. Biog.,' 
vol. iii. p, 42, he " was elected a notary of the City 
of London, and subsequently a judge in the civil 

courts." MR. STOCKEN'S query is somewhat mis- 
leading, as Douce (not " Arnold ") in the " adver- 
tisement " to * The Customs of London, otherwise 
called Arnold's Chronicle' (1811, p. xi) refers to 
Robert Bale as " Recorder of London in the Reign 
of Edward IV." (not Henry IV.). G. F. R. B. 

" No FRINGE " (7 th S. iii. 265). For the more 
complete instruction of the antiquary or New 
Zealander of the future, should it not be recorded 
that the prohibition quoted was aimed at the habit 
of inappropriate imitation, not at the "fringe" 
itself? otherwise the information would give a 
wrong impression of the taste of the age. The 
arrangement of hair with which the Italian painters 
of the quattrocento so daintily decked their angels 
has been found not at all unsuited to many fair 
young English girls ; and it is not the style, but 
the vulgarization of it, that is objected to. 

The other style, of massing the hair over the top 
of the forehead, so becoming to many young faces 
(those in whom it looks "untidy" should not 
adopt it), I have heard called a " tousle." I think 
" frizzled " denotes small tight curls. 

R. H. BUSK. 

PRICES GIVEN FOR CAXTONS (7 th S. iii. 447). 
It seems worthy of remark that, according to Mr. 
Fitzgerald's 'Book Fancier' and the quotations 
therein from Mr. G. Sanders's MSS., a second 
edition ' Game of Chesse ' was sold in 1698 by 
Dr. Bernard for Is. 6d. (Duke of Devonshire, 
172Z. 5s.). W. H. 

I have a copy of Caxton's ' Cordyal.' On the 
fly-leaf, in the handwriting of my great-grand- 
father, John Loveday, of Caversham, " 1728. Pre- 
tium 6 f /8 d ." It has one leaf of the text wanting, 
supplied in MS., otherwise almost perfect and in 
fairly good condition. JOHN E. T. LOVEDAY. 

THE SPENSERIAN STANZA (7 th S. iii. 409, 525). 
I send the following additions to my former lists 
at the above references. With regard to Camp- 
bell's ' Chaucer and Windsor,' although it consists 
of two stanzas only, the second contains such an 
admirable criticism in a nutshell on ' The Canter- 
bury Tales ' that the fragment is worth including 
on this account alone. It also contains the de- 
scription of Chaucer which has since been made 
famous by Lord Tennyson in his * Dream of Fair 
Women,' " Our morning-star of song." I do not 
know if this happy phrase is originally due to 
Campbell or Tennyson. 'The Dream of Fair 
Women ' was first published, I see, in 1832 (the 
year of Scott's death) ; Campbell died in 1844. 
When was his ' Chaucer and Windsor ' first pub- 
lished? Byron, undoubtedly indirectly alluding 
to Mary Chaworth, has "the morning- star of 
memory " in ' The Giaour,' published in 1813. 

Does any one know of a poem in Spenser's 
stanza earlier than Edmund Smith's ' Thales ' ? It 


NOTES AND QUERIES. IT* a iv. AUO. 13, w. 

is strange that a hundred years or more from the 
appearance of 'The Faery Queene' should have 
passed away before any one attempted to write in 
a metre which during the eighteenth century and 
the early part of the nineteenth was so great a 
favourite with many excellent poets. Was there 
not a single Spenserian poem during the seven- 
teenth century ? 

Edmund Neale Smith, obiit 1710 : ' Thales : a 
Monody, sacred to the memory of Dr. Pococke. 
In imitation of Spenser.' First published in 1751, 
forty years after Smith's death. See note in Peter 
Cunningham's edition of Johnson's ' Lives of the 
Poets,' sub nomine " Edmund Smith." 

Bedingfield : ' The Education of Achilles. 

' Psyche ; or, the Great Metamorphosis ' (query 
author), in Dodsley's 'Collection of Poems by 
Several Hands,' ed. 1775, vol. iii. 

William Lisle Bowles : ' Childe Harold's Last 
Pilgrimage,' six stanzas. 

Keats : * The Cap and Bells.' 

Southey : ' A Tale of Paraguay.' 

Campbell : ' Chaucer and Windsor.' 

W. C. Bryant : ' The Ages.' 


Ropley, Alresford. 

'The Concubine' (title afterwards altered to 
'Sir Martyne'), a poem in two cantos, by 
William Julius Mickle, may be added to MR. 
BOUCHIER'S list of poems in the Spenserian stanza. 

J. T. B. 

'The Pilgrimage of Harmonia,' by the late Miss 
Frances Rolleston, 1874, 247 pp., is in the Spen 
serian stanza. A. A. 

ANTIGUGLER (7 th S. iii. 328, 431; iv. 15). I 
happen to possess an antigugler similar to the one 
described by MR. TEW. In my father's time, 
when port wine was more often drunk than now, it 
was always used whenever a bottle of port was 
decanted. A piece of fine muslin was fixed in the 
upper rim, and so, with the strainer as well, the 
wine came out very clear. It was always known 
by the name of the " wine-strainer," the word anti- 
gugler I never heard. My specimen is an old one 
and the hall-mark, from cleaning and long usage, is 
so nearly obliterated that it is impossible to make 
out its age. H. E. WILKINSON. 

Anerley, S.E. 


249; iv. 13). I do not know either the period 01 
the particular connexion which MR. BAYLEY has in 
view, but venture to send the accompanying inter 
marriage between the Bay ley and Gold wye: 
families, in case it should be of interest to him 
though haply he may be already acquainted wit] 
it. George Gpldwyre, surgeon, of Marlborough 
in Wiltshire, married Elizabeth Bay ley, whose family 
appears to have been long connected with tba 

Jace. He had by her four sons, William, George, 
lenry, and John, who were all minors in 1736. 

Her brothers John, who died in 1736, and Samuel, 
.ho died in 1752, were brewers. John Bayly, of 
Marlborough, grocer, who died in 1668, was pro- 
ably an ancestor. FREDK. CHAS. CASS, M.A. 
Monken Hadley Rectory. 

John Goldwire was in 1662 ejected from the 
icarage of Arundel, Sussex, for nonconformity, 
ind buried at Romsey in 1690. See Calamy, 
Nonconformist Memorial,' vol. iii. 


MURIEL (7 th S. ii. 508; iii. 57, 238, 357, 464). 
My list was not offered as being exhaustive. 

!t is compiled from scarcely any authorities ex- 
cept the Fines and Close Rolls, and is of value as 
showing what names were borne by Jews in Eng- 

and before 1290. I have never met with Nicholas 
as the name of a Jew ; but I will not presume to 
say it never was so. To prove a negative is a con- 
fessedly difficult matter. HERMENTRUDE. 

The following couplet maybe of interest to your 
correspondent who is seeking the origin of the 
above name : 

E jo vus pri, dame Muriel 

Le donez a votre pessel. 

It is taken from an old poem by Walter de 
Biblesworth (early thirteenth century), and may- 
be found in vol. i. of Wright's 'National Anti- 
quities,' p. 156. P. E. NEWBERRY. 
Upper Norwood. 

YORKSHIRE PEDIGREES (7 th S. iii. 515). The 
quarterings in these arms (about which a corre- 
spondent has recently been inquiring) are as fol- 
lows : 6, Az, a bend between three birds arg. 
(Wentworth of Elmsall) ; 6, Gules, a cinquefoil 
between eight cross crosslets or, over all a bend 
engrailed or (Umfrevill, borne by Tugilby of 
Ripley). The Talbot shield exhibits, 5, Or, three 
in escutcheons vaire ; 10, Argent, a lion rampant 
gules. The remainder, if he requires them, your 
correspondent can have if he will be good enough 
to place himself in communication direct with me. 

18, Liverpool Street, King's Cross. 

No. 2 quartering of the second pedigree of 
Ayscough of York is: Arg., a saltire gu., on a 
chief of the second three cicquefoils or, a crescent 
for difference, for Talboys of Kyme, co. Lincoln- 
shire. The cinquefoils are sometimes written as 
" creslops." The following quarterings should 
come into the shield through Talboys: Barroden 
or Burden, Gu., on a bend arg., three cinquefoils 
sa. ; Fitzwith, Gu., two bends or ; Umfreville, Gu., 
crusilly, a cinquefoil or (also written, Gu., a cinque- 
foil within an orb of crosses patonce) ; JCynae, Gu,, 

7<k 8. IV. Ada. 13, '87.] 



a chevron between ten cross crosslets or ; Cokefield, 
Clavernell, and Bullingbroke (query Bolingbroke ?), 
sometimes written Sa., a chevron between three 
columns or, instead of three castles. If J. W. C. 
will quote the blazons of the arms he cannot 
identify, I may be able to help him further. I do 
not remember that any quarterings were given 
with the first pedigree of Ayscough of York. 


THE CITY OF LONDON (7 th S. ii. 508). Surely 
this is a confused reference to the ancient cor- 
porate and memorial office of ale-conner or ale- 



Year- Booh of the Reign of King Edward the Third: 
Years X11I. and XIV. Edited and translated by 
Luke Owen Pike. Rolls Series. (Longmans & Co.) 
THIS series of the year-books goes on more slowly than 
we could wish, but each succeeding volume makes it 
more evident that no labour is spared by the editor. 
Faults have been found, reasonably and unjustly, with 
some of the other issues of this great series of " Chronicles 
and Memorials," but we have met with no one who has 
grudged the time and money spent over these year-books, 
or has found any faults with the manner in which the 
editorial work has been carried on. There are, we feel 
assured, not many of our readers who have ever en- 
deavoured to translate a long passage of English-French 
into the current language of to-day. Those who have 
done BO must have come to the conclusion that French 

After the scole of Stratford atte bowe 
is a very different and a much harder thing to tackle 
than the " Frenche of Paris." And here we would 
remark, by way of digression, that notwithstanding any- 
thing that commentators may have said to the contrary, 
it is about as clear as anything can be that when 
Chaucer told us that his Prioress spoke London French, 
and was ignorant of the idiom of Paris, he did not 
intend to represent her as an ignorant person. French 
was, in those days, not only the language of the Court, 
but was spoken by most of the upper and the middle 
class. It was no more bad French than that of the pro- 
vincial cities of France ; but it was a dialect differing in 
many respects from that of Paris, which unfortunately, 
as some scholars think was destined to set the fashion 
both as to grammar and vocabulary. 

It would not be easy to exaggerate the value of the 
year-books, but it requires one learned in mediaeval law 
to understand them, and their full value can never be 
properly estimated until we have the complete series 
before us. We trust that when those portions which as 
yet remain in manuscript are all printed, the work will 
be rendered complete by a new edition of the old black- 
letter volumes which ontain some of the most important. 
Unless we have been very unfortunate in our reading, it 
is evident that these old printed copies are often so 
blundered as to obscure the sense, and we have no cer- 
tainty that they are printed from the best texts. 

Mr. Pike has given, in the introduction, a short 
treatise on mediaeval surnames, which is of more value 
than many a speculative dissertation which we have 
read on the same subject. Even at the present day we 
find many persons ignorant as to the real growth of sur- 

names. Too many of them think that it was a rapid process, 
instead of realizing the fact that some few great houses 
had family names eight hundred years ago, while many 
of those in humble rank did not attain to them until the 
days of the Tudors. We suppose all our people have 
now true surnames of some kind or other; but it is 
certain that the number of patronymics is increasing 
by the settlement of foreigners, and from nicknames 
becoming hereditary. On the other hand, a few of our 
old names, both gentle and peasant, that were restricted 
to one race and locality, have, it is to be feared, died out 
within very recent times. 

The Old German Puppet Play of ' Doctor Faust ' turned 
into English. With an Introduction and Notes by 
T. C. H. Hedderwick, M.A. (Kegan Paul, Trench 
& Co.) 

IN his translation of the old puppet play of ' Doctor 
Faust ' and in his introduction and notes Mr. Hedderwick 
supplies a work of scholarly value and of signal interest. 
Concerning this. curious outcome of the legend of Faustua 
comparatively little is known in England. In Germany, 
on the contrary, a complete literature bearing upon the 
subject may be found. The story of the manner in 
which the puppet play was obtained from the exhibitors 
by whom the manuscript was carefully guarded is singu- 
larly fascinating. Not too honest was the process. For 
this, however, Mr. Hedderwick is in no sense responsible. 
He records, indeed, his condemnation. What Mr. Hedder- 
wick has done is this. He has taken the only trust- 
worthy version of the puppet play which Germany pos- 
sesses, has translated it and enriched it with an introduc- 
tion in which the history of the Faust legend in England 
and in Germany is traced and much ingenious specula* 
tion is advanced as to the indebtedness of the legend to 
English sources, and has added an appendix, literary, 
bibliographical, &c., in which a mass of information new 
to English scholarship is rendered accessible. Without 
assigning the puppet play the position claimed for it in 
Germany, we may say that it has great value and interest, 
and the presence in it of Casper, a servant to Faust, who 
parodies his master's proceedings and escapes the penalty, 
supplies a comic interest thoroughly Teutonic in order. 
In subject and treatment alike Mr. Hedderwick 's work 
invites a kind of analysis which can only be attempted 
in a magazine article. As a contribution to a species 
of folk-lore and as a development of one of the most 
subtle and potent of legends it is equally valuable. No 
one who is interested in these and kindred subjects will 
care to be without it. 

The History of St. Cuthlert ; or, an Account of the Life, 
Decease, and Miracles of St. Cuthbert. By Charles, 
Archbishop of Glasgow. Third Edition. (Burns & 

THE third edition of a book of this kind can need no 
praise from us. It is written from the Roman Catholic 
point of view, and will, on that account, be distasteful 
to some persons who seem to feel it a personal affront if 
their neighbours give credit to any of those wonderful 
stories with which all mediaeval biographies are studded. 
To enter into so very wide and deep a question would 
earry us far away from the objects for which ' N. & Q.' 
exists ; but we are bound to say that any one who writes 
the life of a mediaeval saint, and omits of set purpose all 
the statements which seem incredible to us of the nine- 
teenth century, is misrepresenting history. The bio- 
graphy of any noteworthy man or woman of past ages 
is valuable not only as a life, that is, a picture of the 
sorrows of a fellow mortal during his sojourn 

joys and 
here but 

ere, but also as giving us a picture of the times in 
which he lived. We can illustrate what we mean by 
speaking of one to whom the honours of sanctity have 



S. IV. AUG, 13, '87. 

not been awarded by the Roman Church. We read not 
long ago an account of Joan of Arc in which the whole 
of the mystical side of her nature was treated aa non- 
existent. Now it ia open to any one who posseasea the 
knowledge needful for the purpose to come to any 
conclusion that aeema juat to him with regard to the 
Maid of Orleana; but to ignore that which aeemed to 
friends and foes her chief characteristic in the days in 
which she lived is to totally misrepresent the power she 
exercised over her own generation. Had the archbishop 
treated St. Cuthbert in a similar manner his book would 
have been of little value. Aa it is, whether we agree 
with his opinions or not, it is a most useful biography. 
It can never, of course, take the place of the old, simple 
narratives from which it is compiled ; but for those who 
do not read Latin with ease, or who have little time to 
spare for historical research, it is a valuable compilation. 
The archbishop holds the opinion that the body dis- 
covered in 1827 was not that of St. Cuthbert, but a 
skeleton which had been used to supply its place when 
the shrine was pillaged at the Reformation. Antiquaries 
have generally held the opinion that the relics then dis- 
covered were those that received religious honours in 
the Middle Ages. We cannot argue the question. 
Whether the saint's or not, the diacovery was an im- 
portant one, for which we can never be too grateful to 
Dr. Eaine and his fellow workers. 

THE English Historical Review contains three impor- 
tant papers' JStiua and Boniface,' by Dr. Freeman ; 
'Byzantine Palaces,' by Mr. J. Theodore Bent; and 
' Queen Caroline of Naples,' by Mr. Oscar Browning ; 
and many smaller contributions. Dr. Freeman's view 
of the rivalry between the two men, for which Pro- 
copius is the principal, if not the only authority, is 
characteristically bold and ingenious. He puts aside as 
untrustworthy the account of Procopius, and from the 
works of St. Augustine and the Annalists and later 
writers, especially the Germans, he excogitates a view 
which is different and will at least attract general atten- 
tion. Mr. Bent analyzes M. Paspate's remarkable work, 
' Td RvZavTivd 'Aj/dicropa.' Mr. Oscar Browning sup- 
plies some very striking documents bearing upon the 
subject with which he deals. The entire number has 
great value. 

THE Quarterly Review for July takes advantage of the 
last two instalments of Lecky'a * History of England ' to 
take us back to a period when there was a " cleavage 
between the two sections in the Whig party, which 
daily became greater and greater." It has often been 
said that history repeats itself. Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge comes before us in the same number, writing an 
' Ode to Digestion ' which itself contradicts the spirit in 
which it is written, and standing out as one who "sought 
to reconcile the mind of Man with outer Nature," but 
failed to explain what he meant by this. In the dis- 
cussion on Italian art, to which Sir Austen Layard's new 
edition of Kugler's ' Handbook ' gives rise, the reviewer 
sides, on the whole, with Signor Morelli, whose alter ego 
in fact, Sir Austen may be said to have become in his 
new presentment of Kugler. The subject is one cover- 
ing a wide field, and raising an infinite number of side 
issues ; it is also one on which party feeling, or at any 
rate partisanship, runs very high. In ' Great Men and 
Evolution ' we read of Mr. W. S. Lilly claiming Michael 
Angelo as against the Renaissance, and prophesying its 
downfall. The Renaissance is far too many-sided a 
question to enter upon here, but we greatly doubt the 
accuracy of Mr. Lilly's appreciation of Michael Angelo's 
attitude towards that movement. 

THE Edinburgh Review for July opens in a poetic 
Bummer retreat, the Ettrick Forest of Scott and of Hogg, 

which was, in the bygone days of internecine Border war- 
fare, a very officina of reivers and moss-troopera. We have 
looked down upon Buccleuch and Thirlestane, and have 
felt the weird spell of Ettrick scenery. From Ettrick 
to Venice and Rome is a far cry; but who that knows 
Italy would not be attracted to follow in the wake of 
Giordano Bruno, and hear him plead hia cause as a philo- 
sophical doubter, though not a theological heretic, before 
the authorities of the Serene Republic of St. Mark and 
of the Holy Office ? The ' Letters of Madame de Main- 
tenon ' take us back to the days of the Quietist and 
Jansenist controversies, and show us the court of the 
Grand Monarque "with a dagger at their hearts," and 
the outward merriment of the exiled King of England 
playing games with the Duchess of Burgundy, and 
Louis XIV. and Mary of Modena looking on, " almost all 
keeping down their own feelings "a dramatic picture 
of a remarkable scene. In the article on Dr. Wharton's 
' International Law of the United States ' the writer 
takes Martin Koszta to have been simply a domiciled 
alien. Wheaton states that he had a U.S. consul's tezkereh, 
as one who had made the preliminary declaration necessary 
to citizenship in the United States, and who was, there- 
fore, an inchoate citizen. Family history is well repre- 
sented by Prof. Burrows's ' Brocas Book 'the story of 
the family whose name still lingers hard by royal Wind- 
sor and no less royal Eton. 

OUR correspondent Mr. E. A. Ebblewhite, of 74, King 
Edward Road, Hackney, wishes subscriptions to a com- 
plete transcript of the parish registers of Great Hamp- 
den. These are of much interest, including the burial 
of John Hampden, and various entries concerning Crom- 
well, Pym, Lenthall, &c. 

MR. J. S. ATTWOOD, of Exeter, is about to issue by 
subscription a complete index nominum et locorum to 
the late Dr. Oliver's * Monasticon Diocesis Exoniensis ' 
and supplements (1846-54). Subscribers' names may be 
sent to Mr. J. S. Attwood, 8, Park Place, Longbrook 
Street, Exeter. 

#4) tire* to 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications muat be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, querv 
or reply be written on a aeparate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

THE Rev. W. Henry Jones, formerly of'skirbeck 
Quarter, Boston, will be glad if correapondenta will for 
the future send their communications to him at Mumby 
Vicarage, Al ford, Lincoln. 

- *" ^., I KU K>. IV. J.J.U. 

ERRATDM.-P. 77, col. 1, 1. 40, for Wilham " read 


Editorial Communications ahould be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertisements and 
Business Letters to ' The Publisher "-at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane E C 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return* com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print: and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7"" S. IV, AUG. 20, '87J 





NOTES : Fate of Asiatic Architects, 141 Lord Mayor Shorter 
and Bunyan, 142 Queen Victoria's Jubilee Earl of Gal- 
loway, 145 " Munerari " or " Numerari "National An- 
them George, First Marquis Townshend, 147. 

QUERIES : Barrington's 'Irish Nation,' 147 Alex. Allan- 
English selling their Children Blackbirds and their Young 
Mrs. Glasse Vestments of Blue ' The Water Doctor' 
" The Bells of Ouseley" Lines from Dante Book-plate 
Translatee Assignats Tombland Fair, Norwich Manck- 
sey Level, 148 Gabbard Swaddy Mark Napoleonic 
Medals Eleanor Ela Family Straff orde and Wandesforde 
Bishop of Hereford Preservation of Medals Story in 
' Blackwood ' Fluelen Milman's 'Samor' Sir J. Tre- 
lawney Paviel : Tile Tree, &c. Col. E. Tynte, 149. 

REPLIES : Livery of Seisin, 150 De la Pole Anti-Gallican 
Society, 151 Inn Signs - Earthen Mound Lord Mayor's 
Day Charlotte Bronte Hill ' Barnaby Rudge' Lily of 
Scripture, 152-Miss Farren and Mrs. Siddons Magna 
Charta Barlow Who was Robin Hood ? 153 Comic Solar 
Myths Religious Orders Female Heresiarchs, 154 Sebas- 
tian Cabot Spinning- Wheel Alley Legh of Lyme A 
Wallet, 165 Hatters Walking-Stick Inscription Lady 
Fenwick's Tombstone Warda Fori, 156 Quotations 
General Lambert Slipshod English Stodart on Scottish 
Family History, 157 Calaber Galileo " I'm a Dutch- 
man " Tewkesbury Musket-Balls, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Bullen's Marston ' Lupton's 'Life 
of Colet ' Vernon Lee's ' Juvenilia ' Grove's ' Dictionary 
of Music 'Ashley's ' Edward III. and his Wars ' ' Annual 
Register for 1886.' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


It is well known that Oriental potentates in 
former times were wont to bestow gifts of enormous 
value on poets and artists whose works they 
admired. We often read of a raja, sultdn, or 
khalif rewarding a poet for a few laudatory verses 
by causing his mouth to be filled with pearls and 
precious stones ; and instances are recorded of 
learned men being kept prisoners by Asiatic princes 
in order that they should not adorn the court of 
any rival monarch. Many Eastern stories turn on 
the quest of some extraordinary object which should 
render its royal possessor immeasurably superior to 
all the kings of the earth past and present. To 
the passion for the display of wealth and power 
are to be ascribed the numerous magnificent 
palaces, temples, mosques, and mausoleums erected 
by princes of India and Persia ; but while the 
gifted architects were generally remunerated with 
riches " beyond the dreams of avarice," it would 
appear they sometimes fell victims to the jealousy 
of their royal patrons. Such was the fate of 
Sernnar, who constructed for Nu'mdn, an Arab 
prince, the palace of Khavarnak, if we may credit 
the following anecdote from the ' Heft Menzer/ or 
'Seven Faces/ of the Persian Abdallah Hatifi 
(06. A.H. 927, A.D. 1520): 

" When Semnar had finished thia costly edifice, so 
much beyond the expectation of his employer, his merits 

showered on him gifts far beyond his fondest expecta- 
tions : camel-loads of pure gold, pearls and precious 
stones, ambergris and musk ; and all in such abun- 
dant quantities as would ensure him ease and comfort 
during the rest of his life. Nu'ma'n was well aware 
that he who desires to possess magnificent works of art 
must open wide the portals of liberality: a cook who is 
sparing of condiments and fuel cannot expect that the 
feast will please the guests. When the architect received 
this unlooked-for bounty he apologized and said: ' king, 
had I anticipated such noble generosity, I should have 
bestowed greater pains on my work, and made it vastly 
more worthy of your majesty's greatness and muni- 
ficence.' ' What ! ' exclaimed Nu'man in astonishment, 
' do you conceive it possible, with a larger supply of 
materials and a promise of higher remuneration, you 
could erect aught more splendid than this palace ? ' 
'Yes, sire,' replied Semnar; 'if your majesty wished 
for something absolutely incomparable, I could erect 
such a palace that Khavarnak should appear insignificant 
in comparison. In this palace I have made use of but 
three colours ; in that a hundred different tints should 
unite their beauty ; that which is here common stone 
should be in the other the finest ruby; this palace has 
but one dome, but the other, like the ethereal world, 
should glory in seven.' On hearing this the king was 
inflamed with wrath and his countenance caused a 
conflagration in the stores of royal beneficence. Truly a 
king is afire, from the blaze of which he only is secure who 

looks at it from afar Nu'maVs pride suggested that 

should Semnar be allowed to live some rival in power and 
wealth might by his means be enabled to erect a palace 
more splendid than Khavarnak, and he therefore com- 
manded his attendants to put him to death. Thus did 
they dig up this cypress from the garden of life : hia eyes 
were covered and he was thrown from the summit of the 
palace. Behold the waywardness of destiny, which made 
the proud monument of his skill and labour the uncon- 
scious instrument of his destruction ! " 

Still more horrible was the fate of the con- 
structors of Trimal Naig's choultry at Madura, 
whom the Indian tyrant ordered to be thrown into 
a dungeon, the entrance of which was then built 
up, and they were thus buried alive, to prevent 
them from possibly erecting an edifice elsewhere 
which should eclipse that monument of his grandeur ; 
and Trimal caused the two unfortunate architects 
to be sculptured on the walls incarcerated in a cell, 
which one should suppose calculated to repress the 
noble zeal of all future artists ! 

The skilful armourer who forged the sword Dham 
which came into the possession of the celebrated 
Bedouin poet-hero Antar by a lucky accident fared 
no better at the hands of his employer, an Arab 
chief. That famous blade was made from a 
thunderbolt that had slain one of the chief's camels, 
and when the smith delivered it, with natural pride, 
to his patron, he observed : " This sword is sharp, 
chief of the tribe of Ghay lib sharp indeed : 
but where is the smiter for this sword ? " Quoth 
the chieftain : " As for the smiter I am he," and 
instantly struck off the smith's head, so that there 
should never be another sword Dham i! 

I think these stories have parallels in European 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. A. 20, w. 

having read, many years omw, w. *"/T~ ""L" 
constructed for a German prince a wonderful clocfc, 
and had his eyes put out by order of his royal 
employer, lest he should carry his art elsewhere and 
excel this complicated piece of mechanism ; the 
artist some time after requested *~ ^ tt }l 

nild nOu 111 J-U/ / aUUOlA l/UD BTWWW 

to his mercantile business, of whatever nature the 
latter may have been. His son (the father of Lady 
Walpole and grandfather of letter-writing Horace) 
(2 nd S. xii. 14) was a timber merchant, owning 
ships trading to Sweden and Norway; so timber 
-j i^-ji- did our hero 


brain and hands. 

233, Cambridge Street, Glasgow. 

amined more minutely hereafter). I incline to 
think that John Shorter, of Bybrooke, Kenning- 
ton, Kent, and Bankside, Southwark, and Norfolk 
Street, Strand, whose daughter Katherine married 
Sir Kobert Walpole, succeeded to his father's busi- 
ness, though probably, from reasons connected 
with structural alterations at London Bridge, to be 
to by-and-by, he found it necessary to 



(Continued from p. 103.) 

Pursuing my object of demonstrating the inac- referred 

curacy of Evelyn's contemporaneous record, now contract and limit its operations to one branch, 
we have ascertained what, the inquiry may be fitly that is to say, that while Sir John traded generally 
entered upon, Who was this Sir John Shorter? In to the north of Europe, his son confined his 
the first place, genealogists know him as the mater- traffic to the timber trade with Sweden, Denmark, 
nal great-grandfather of that epistolarily gossipping an d Norway. Sir John, then, I opine to have been 
peer, that Earl of Orford whom we recognize more a Baltic merchant, and though here I am aware 
readily under his familiar appellation of Horace that I am wading in troubled waters that during 
Walpole (2 nd S. xi. 152 ; xii. 14, 521). Sir John the greater part of the alderman's career as a trader 
Shorter was the son of a John Shorter, whose his s hips were in the habit of mooring off his resi- 
father's Christian name was also John, of a family dence and place of business in Southwark.* The 
long settled at Staines, in Middlesex, that quiet drawbridge at the south end of London Bridge 
but quaint and pretty riparian town, the name of geems to have been practicable down to the begin- 
which recalls to the mind of the lover of the his- n i n g O f the last quarter of the seventeenth century 

of another (< Chronicles of London Bridge,' by an Antiquary 
[K. Thomson], pp. 331-2). A new drawbridge was, 
at ail events, constructed and completed so late as 
May 12, 1672, and repaired in 1722 (ibid., pp. 355- 
356). The flap probably only became stationary on 
the completion of the structural alteration widen- 
ing the thoroughfare over the summit of the bridge 

enough (p. 444) tells us that Sir John Shorter f rom twelve to twenty feet during the mayoralty of 
was a merchant in Bankside, Southwark. But Sir James Smith in 1684-5. Ships of the ordinary 
what kind of a merchant? I am inclined to think tonnage employed in the timber, tallow, and hemp 

tory of Cockaigne the patronymic 
public-spirited Lord Mayor, who is said to have 
begun life as a bricklayer's labourer, and who 
either bore the same name as the town in which, 
or if he came, as some authorities say, from 
neighbouring Uxbridge in the vicinity of which 
he was born.* MR. EENDLE accurately 

that he was engaged in what was then known as 
the Baltic trade. He was, we have seen, an emi 
nent member of the Goldsmiths' Company; but 
this fact is immaterial to the inquiry, for even in 
the time of Charles II. the trading company to 
which a citizen was affiliated had for some time 
ceased to represent his actual avocation. In 
the * List of Merchants ' of 1677 (the earliest 
London directory, I believe, ever published) Sir 
John Shorter's address is given in Bankside as a 
"merchant" it does not specify what kind of 
merchant but with the exception of one class, in 
which Sir John's name does not appear, this little 
work in no instance condescends to those detailed 
particulars. That class is the " List of Goldsmiths 
that Keep Running Cashes." Therefore, whatever 
Sir John might have been in 1688 (and I cannot 

* Sir William Staines, Lord Mayor 1800-1 (Hone's 
Year Book,' p. 3887, under date November 9th). 

trades could down to that time, in all probability, 
easily pass and discharge their cargoes above 
bridge, and I submit, as singularly corroborative 

* After the manner of the traditional good old English 
merchant, Sir John carried on his business on premises 
adjacent to his residence. We mark an early instance 
of the change of habit which Las become common in 
our own time when we observe his son, the Kentish. 
Squire of Bybrooke, the timber merchant of Southwark, 
having his town place of residence on the north bank 
of the Thames, almost opposite his business premises, in 
the then fashionable locality of Norfolk Street, Strand, 
then newly built on the grounds of the razed Arundel 
House, where the wood dealer was the neighbour of the 
notorious Sir William Penn, and for a brief period of the 
more notorious, and in this instance, as a potentate, illus- 
trious Peter the Great of Russia. Surely Shorter fils's 
evolution must to the readers of Pope irresistibly suggest 
the migration from east to west of Sir Balaam, poetic- 
ally and graphically delineated in Epistle III., to Allen, 
Lord Bathurst ('Moral Essays,' 11. 339 to 402 inclusive). 

? S. IV. Aua. 20, 87.] 



of my theory, that that particular description of 
trade is still peculiar to the south bank of the 
Thames. When London Bridge became impass- 
able to ships of large burden and tall top-hamper 
the trade dropped (and the vessels had to lay to 
and discharge) lower down the river, until at length 
well on in the present century the timber traffic 
found a home and the craffc a mooring- place between 
Eotherhithe and Deptford, where the Commercial 
Docks were constructed for this particular descrip- 
tion of commerce, which site is still the great 
mtrep6t of the northern trade in deals and battens.* 
I at one time thought that Sir John Shortens busi- 
ness was connected with metal, and remember some- 
where but I cannot at this moment recall the 
authority to have seen him described as a refiner. 
I fancy, however, this authority must have misled 
me by attaching too much importance to a peculiar 
feature of the pageant produced on the gorgeous 
installation of the Lord Mayor in 1687, which I 
am now convinced was not intended to refer in 
any way to the individual handicraft of the hero 
of the day, while, on the other hand, I feel confi- 
dent that another detail of the same " function " 
bears such distinct relation. 

This speculation as to Shorter's avocation will 
lead me quite naturally to Evelyn's curious 
and ambiguous passage. The lord mayor ap- 
pointed by patent dated September 23, 1687, 
was, as I have said, a somewhat eminent livery- 
man indeed he was on the court of the Gold- 
smiths' Company. We have seen that he had 
been prominent as an opponent of Whitehall in 
the cause of civic liberty, and was degraded for his 
advocacy. His gown as alderman of Cripplegate 
Ward had not been restored to him a month when 
he was nominated as Lord Mayor, t His mother 
guild, accordingly, as a tribute to his popularity, 
provided, and was at the sole expense of, the ex- 
ceptionally elaborate "show" prepared for his 
induction in the civic chair on Saturday, Octo- 
ber 29, 1687. This display is partially described 
from contemporary official sources in a compila- 
tion so readily accessible as Hone's 'Every-Day 
Book,' vol. i. pp. 670 et seq., sub tit. " St. Dun- 
stan," date May 19 (St. Dunstan's dep.; Sir N. 
Harris Nicolas's ' Chronology of History,' p. 144). 

The usual laudatory verses composed by the 
civic laureate the tedious Matthew Taubman was 
the poet inspired on this occasion are divided 
into three cantos, or acts, descriptive of the accom- 
panying tableaux, and specified to be recited by 
certain of the enactors. The first section is in the 
usual inflated vein of the period, the preposterous 
action being sustained by representatives of the 

* Forty-five years ago, to my personal knowledge, the 
Commercial Docks afforded accommodation to another 
class of traffic also, connected with northern regions, the 
Greenland whaling industry. 

f See ' Ellis Correspondence,' vol. i, pp. 334 tl scq. 

virtues Truth, Justice, Temperance, Fortitude, 
Mercy, &c. the whole mythological masque com- 
posed so as, more or less, impliedly or directly, to 
convey nauseous compliments to the monarch,* of 
whose arbitrary tyranny the hero of the parade 
imposed upon the citizens, their right of choice 
ignored was an impersonation. 

The second act or tableau is that extracted 
by Hone (see last reference), and I at one time 
inferred that it had especial reference to the 
avocation of the incoming Lord Mayor. It pre- 
sented, inter alia, a group reproducing the old 
smithy tradition of St. Dunstan tweaking the nose 
of the Prince of the Powers of the Air with his 
red-hot pincers, the accompanying lines illustrating 
my proposition as to the sycophancy with which 
the poetasters of the period sought to justify Dry- 
den's expressed opinion that " every poet is the 
monarch's friend." Satan is made to typify rebel- 
lion and discord. The saint represents the principle 
of order restored and enforced by the royal autho- 
rity. I am convinced now that this portion of the 
display was simply conceived in this form in 
honour of the entertainers, St. Dunstan being, as 
is well known, the patron saint of the Goldsmiths' 

But the third tableau most interests the in- 
quirer into the story of the career of Sir John 
Shorter. Here a " practicable " model of a ship 
was introduced and wheeled along in the pro- 
cession,f and the descriptive verses in terms 
refer to my lord mayor as a " Merchant Adven- 
turer," the " stage directions " adding the explana- 
tory gloss, " to Norway and Denmark laden," &c., 
"as representing his lordship's traffic and adventure 
into those countries," a side-light which, I submit, 
lends considerable plausibility to my theory of 
Sir John Shorter's actual trading business. 

The installation of the civic sovereign was thus 
made on this occasion a pageant more than ordi- 
narily brilliant. James and his consort Mary of 
Modena, his daughter Anne and her husband, the 
contemptible "Et-il possible ?" of traditional scorn, 
with a splendid surrounding of the royal family 
and nobility, witnessed, as was then the custom, 

* It is a curious illustration of adulation of royalty 
that in all the " copies of verses" composed by the civic 
laureate or laureates between the years 1683 and 1687 
the " coercion " the great municipality was then endur- 
ing through the suspension of her ancient liberties is 
treated as matter for jubilation at all events, of con- 
gratulationto the despoiled and fettered City, of grati- 
tude to the two successive royal despots, and felicitations 
generally all round. 

f This popular feature of a Lord Mayor's show haa 
been frequently repeated, even down to quite modem 
times. 1 myself have often seen it. The vessel on 
wheels is now usually borrowed from the Mast and Block 
Makers' Union of Wapping, and is the model frigate 
annually employed to convey members of that body 
(since 1720) down to Hainault Forest, on the first Friday 
in July, to that East-end carnival Fairlop Fair. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. u* s. iv. AUO 20, 

the aquatic part of the function which was also 
more than usually grand from the leads of 
Whitehall, as yet unsurmounted by the vane that 
a year after was to strike dismay into the Popish* 
monarch's heart by indicating "a Protestant 
wind." To lend greater magnificence and m a 
sense which I am about immediately to dwell 
upon significance to the subsequent entertain- 
ment, his majesty condescended to honour the 
banquet with his royal presence, his illustrious 
consort, who had also graciously accepted the 
Lord Mayor's invitation to attend, being at the 
last moment prevented by a sudden attack of in- 
disposition (see the London Gazette, Thursday, 
October 27, to Monday, October 31, 1687, under 
Jate Sunday, October 30), and the feast on this 
occasion, as was customary when the sovereign 
deigned to accept the proffered hospitality of my 
lord mayor, was given with great splendour at the 
Guildhall, instead of, as on less auspicious cele- 
brations, at the hall of the City company usually 
the Grocers'f hired for the civic sovereign's 
official abode during the year of his mayoralty. 
This graciousness on the part of James, however, 
was not apparently wholly dictated by his desire 
for a reconciliation with " the nursing mother of 
freedom " his normally disaftected metropolis 

* I do not, I assure my readers, employ the adjectives 
" Popish " or " Papist " in any invidious or offensive, or 
even sectarian, sense I have too much respect for the 
ancient Church, in which I number many valued friends, 
to do so. But, as it was said of a certain old cavalier, 
that he was " more loyal than the king himself," so the 
majority of educated English Catholics who still acknow- 
ledge spiritual allegiance to the see of St. Peter will, I 
am sure, concur in my view of history, that James II. of 
England and VII. of Scotland was conspicuous in his 
regal career for being more Popish than the Pope him- 

f " This hall, being situate in the centre of the City, 
was designed, as adapted for the seat of the chief magis- 
trate, at the expense of 4.800J, in new building and 
accommodations," &c. "Sir John Cutler added the 
body of the hall, kitchen, &c., and Sir John Cutler's 
building on this confidence that as it is every way the 
most commodious place for that publick use, and would 
yearly save the Lord Mayor BO great and unavoidable 
charge elsewhere, so it should be considered accordingly, 
and in some proportion augment the revenue of the 
Company," &c. I am unfortunately unable to verify 
the above quotation, inasmuch as I have omitted to note 
from what work I extracted it. I have a strong con- 
viction, however, that it may be found somewhere 
entombed in that vast repertory of civic lore, Baron 
Heath's ' History of the Grocers' Company.' At all 
events, the passages in that learned work at pp. 27-35 
bear me out in my statement in the text. Grocers' Hall 
was used for the official residence of the Lord Mayor, as 
we shall see, by Sir John Shorter, and, after his death, 
by his two successors during their very brief tenures of 
office. It had been so used by the six immediate pre- 
decessors of our subject, Sir John Moor being the first 
so to occupy it in 1681-2. The rent payable by the City 
to the Company for the accommodation during the 
mayoral year was 200J. (Baron Heath, p. 31). 

to be attained by a conciliatory demeanour towards 
the eminent nonconformists she numbered among 
her children. The monarch had another, and 

Probably in his estimation a weightier, motive, as 
think we shall very soon gather from an un- 
ambiguous record in Mr. Evelyn's otherwise am- 
bigous, if not inaccurate, note. NEMO. 


( To le continued.) 

Your correspondent NEMO has unwittingly done 
injustice to the renowned author of ' The Pilgrim's 
Progress.' He says : " The Lord Mayor [Shorter] 
was a Presbyterian, while the celebrated Bedford 
pastor was a strict Baptist, and between the two 
sects it is well known there was in those days, at 
all events no love lost." 

NEMO cannot be conversant with the works of 
the immortal dreamer, or he would never have 
penned such a sentence. Bunyan was not "a 
strict Baptist," and there is not a word to be found 
in his voluminous writings to indicate anything 
but the warmest feelings of sympathy towards all 
who accepted the evangelical doctrines which he 
maintained, whatever their opinions on baptism 
might be. Of this there is abundant evidence. 

The church in Bedford with which Bunyan was 
connected during five-and-thirfcy years was founded 
by John Gilford, who had been a major in the 
royal army, and in the church book, under date of 
1656, we read, " The principle upon which they 
[the brethren and sisters] thus entered into fellow- 
ship one with another, and upon which they did 
afterwards receive those that were added to their 
body and fellowship, was faith in Christ and holi- 
ness of life, without respect to this or that circum- 
stance or opinion in outward and circumstantial 
things." The principle so laid down has been 
maintained in John Bunyan's church during the 
two hundred and thirty years which have since 

In his ' Confession of Faith, 'written about 1672, 
he says : "Baptism (in water) makes thee no mem- 
ber of the Church, neither particular nor universal ; 
neither doth it make thee a visible saint : Ifc 
therefore gives thee neither right to nor being of 
membership at all." 

Again, in ' The Heavenly Footman,' published 
posthumously, he thus advises : "Also do not have 
too much company with some Anabaptists, though 
I go under that name myself." 

Three of his children were baptized in infancy 
in the Church of England : two at Elstow in 1650 
and 1654, probably before he had joined the 
church in Bedford; the last at St. Cuthbert's, 
Bedford, in 1672, long after his identification with 
the Puritan congregation. 

The above is a mere scintilla of the numerous 
passages in his writings showing the little import- 
ance he attached to baptism by adult immersion, 
and the earnestness with which he maintained 

T S. IV. Aco. 20, '87.] 



what he held to be the essential principles of the 
gospel which he preached. 

Banyan's belief and religious character have had 
much to do with the influence of his writings, which 
are of world-wide reputation, and it is surely un- 
fair to attach to his memory narrow sectarian views 
which he abhorred, and shut our eyes to the all- 
embracing charity and sympathy which he mani- 
fested towards his fellow Christians of all sects. 


Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

Some fragments of experience concerning this 
event may be (I do not affirm that they are) worthy 
of permanent record. As thus : 

1. In the parish church of a certain country 
town, a spacious and noble fourteenth century 
church, holding nearly a thousand people, and 
filled to overflowing, the jubilee sermon, on June 21, 
1887, was preached by the same clergyman who 
preached there on June 20, 1837, the day of the 
Queen's accession. It was not easy to believe 
that the tall and vigorous vicar, standing there firm 
and upright in his Jacobean pulpit, and making 
his clear, strong voice heard throughout the build- 
ing, had stood there fifty years before as a preacher 
already experienced, and was now eighty-four years 
of age. His sermon, too, was excellent, and was 
extempore. He dwelt on the solemn vows of the 
Coronation Service, and the way in which they 
had been fulfilled ; he dwelt on the English 
reverence for the Bible, on the sanctity of English 
homes old-fashioned topics, now passing swiftly 
into limbo. Nevertheless, he was listened to 
with deep and reverent attention by his crowded 
audience ; by the Odd Fellows and Foresters in 
their splendid scarves ; by the Volunteers in their 
gay uniform; by the miscellaneous multitude of 
rich and poor, who thronged the aisles as well as the 
seats, and looked in with the sunshine through the 
open doorways. 

2. In another little town, a town of the pit- 
country, the two dissenting chapels of the place 
shut themselves up on Jubilee Day, and came in 
a body to the parish church, where the minister 
of one of them read the first lesson, and he of the 
other the second. But this is a dangerous subject ; 
and one may be permitted to believe that such a 
departure from the ways of religious bitterness has 
not often occurred. 

3. In our own parish, before the hills around us 
were aflame with bonfires, we had not only open-air 
feasting for the poor, but races for all who chose to 
run, women as well as men ; one at least of the 
farmers' wives ran second in the married women's 
race ; and all the three races for maidens were won 
by a certain Betsy, a lithe and comely servant, 
modest as the morn. 

Those who came, as I did, through central 
England on the evening of Jubilee Day, and saw 
from county to county how every town and village 
was en fete, with flags and banners and music and 
dancing on the green, and saw the hill-fires flaring, 
and saw, too, the vast and orderly crowds of 
illuminated London, these can testify how wide- 
spread the rejoicing was, and how spontaneous and 
sincere. A. J. M. 


Of recent years certain alterations have been made 
in the pedigrees of Stewart, Earl of Galloway, and 
Stewart, Baronet of Grandtully, published in Burke's 
'Peerage and Baronetage/ that involve two proposi- 
tions for which there is no adequate authority. These 
propositions are (a) that Sir John Stewart of Jed- 
worth was the fourth son, and Sir James Stewart 
of Pierstown the fifth son, of Sir John Stewart of 
Bonkyl ; and (6) that the male descent of the Earl 
of Galloway from the Stewarts of Derneley is un- 

As regards proposition (a), it may be noticed that 
up to some year between 1855 and 1863 there was 
only one enumeration in Burke's ' Peerage ' of the 
sons of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, namely, in the 
Grandtully pedigree ; and that this enumeration 
agreed with Wood's * Douglas ' (vol. i. p. 65) in 
putting James of Pierstown as the fourth and John 
of Jed worth as the fifth son of Sir John of Bonkyl, 
and is found in the Grandtully pedigree up to the 
issue of 1877, but was subsequently omitted, and 
is not given in the issues for 1884 and 1886. In 
some year between 1855 and 1863, for the first 
time, an enumeration of the sons of Sir John of 
Bonkyl was given in the pedigree of the Earl of 
Galloway, which contradicts the Grandtully enume- 
ration by placing John of Jed worth before James 
of Pierstown. This order is also observed in the 
foot-note to the royal lineage of the kings of Scot- 
land that appears in recent issues of the ' Peerage ' 
(e. g., p. cxii of 1884 and p. cxvi of 1886). 

This enumeration, which I cannot but consider 
unauthorized and probably erroneous, after appear- 
ing for at least fourteen years (1863-1877) in con- 
junction with the authoritative enumeration under 
Grandtully, has now supplanted the Grandtully 
enumeration and taken its place. This point is 
important, inasmuch as under the enumeration 
formerly given the family of Grandtully would 
take precedence of any descendant of John of 
Jed worth as head of the house of Stewart. 

Proposition (6) is more serious. Up to 1877 
(and perhaps later) Sir Bernard Burke described 
the connexion between Lord Galloway's ancestor 
and the Derneley Stewarts thus: that Marian, the 
heiress of the Dalswinton branch, married "Sir 
John Stewart, son of Sir William Stewart of Jed- 
worth (said to be of the house of Darnley)." This 
modestly and fairly represented the outcome of the 



L7' h S. IV. Aua. 20, '87. 

controversy so ably summed up on pp. 614-617 
of vol. i. of Wood's 'Douglas,' a controversy 
which precludes absolute certainty as to Lord Gal- 
loway's male descent from Sir John Stewart of 

At some date subsequent to 1877 the text of the 
Galloway pedigree has been altered, and now con- 
tains the assertion, as an unquestioned fact in his- 
tory, that Sir John of Jedworth " was father of Sir 
William Stewart of Jedworth, who was put to 
death by Henry Percy in 1402, who was father of 
Sir John Stewart, who married Marian Stewart as 
below." This statement, for which no authority is 
given, contains two direct contradictions of the 
assertions made in the case put forth in 1801 on 
behalf of the (then) Earl of Galloway (see Wood's 
' Douglas,' vol. i. p. 616): (1) " Of course he [i. e., 
Sir Wm. Stewart of Jedworth, then claimed as 
Lord Galloway's ancestor] was not the same person 
with Sir William Stewart of Teviddale or de 
Foresta, taken at the battle of Homildon, 14 Sept., 
1402, and executed by order of Henry Percy." 
(2) That Sir William Stewart of Jedworth was 
" second son of Alexander Stewart of Darnley " 
(idem, p. 615). Remembering that these were the 

arguments which, rightly or wrongly, were used on 
behalf of the Earl of Galloway in 1801, we may 
view with surprise the attempt to build up a pedi- 
gree in 1884 on behalf of that earl's descendant in 
which the arguments are not only silently departed 
from, but directly contradicted. I venture to 
think that we have here a knot well worthy of the 
Lord Lyon's intervention. And it will be noticed 
that whereas in 1801 the contention lay between 
the earl and Andrew Stuart of Torrence (as repre- 
senting Castlemilk), the effect of the double altera- 
tion now attempted will be to give the earl preced- 
ence in the family tree not only over Castlemilk, 
but over Grandtully also, of whom Mr. Wood 
says, in the foot-note to Douglas's ' Peerage,' vol. i. 
p. 443, that Grandtully " is probably now entitled 
to be considered the chief of that name." 

There are two conflicting pedigrees of the 
Stewarts (or Stuarts) of Castlemilk, on the differ- 
ence between which the result of Lord Galloway's 
claim appears in some measure to rest. One is at 
p. 513 of Douglas's 'Baronage' (1798), and the 
other at p. 491 of Robertson's continuation (1818) 
of Crawford's ' Renfrewshire. ' The following table 
shows the divergence : 

Alexander, the High Stewart, d. 1283. 

James, fifth High Stewart, whose grandson founded the royal 

house, which failed in the male line by the death of King 

James V. in December, 1542.* 

Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, 
slain 1298. 

Alexander, whose 
line failed in 1377. 

Alan (second son) of 
Dreghorn, slain 1333. 

Sir Alex. Stewart of Derneley. 

Sir Alex. Stewart of Derneley, 

mar. Janet Keith, heiress of 


James of Pierstown (fourth John of Jedworth (fifth 
son), ancestor of Grandtully. son), slain in 1333. 

Sir Wm. Stewart of Jedworth, after- 
wards styled of Castlemilk. 


Sir John Stewart, mar., 1396, the heiress 

of Dalswinton, ancestor of the Earl of 

Galloway and Lord Blantyre. 

Sir John Stewart of Derneley and Aubigne, mar. 
the heiress of Lennox. His male line failed by 
the death, at Rome, in 1807, of Cardinal York. 

David Stewart of Castlemilk and Fynnart, 

d. before 1464 ; ancestor, according to the 

pedigree in Crawford's ' Renfrewshire,' of 

the Stewarts (Stuarts) of Castlemilk, &c. 

Sir Wm. Stewart of Castle- 
milk, killed at the fdege of 

Orleans, Feb. 12, 1428/9. 


Sir Wm. Stewart of Castle- 
milk, mentioned in 1398 
and 1400. 

Sir John Stewart of Castlemilk, 
sue. his father before 1409, 

slain at Verneuil in 1424. 

Sir David Stewart of Castlemilk, obtained 

Fynnart in 1455; ancestor, according to 

the pedigree in Douglas's ' Baronage,' of the 

Stuarts of Castlemilk, &c. 

It may be convenient to end this note with a 
list of the principal families that have sprung from 
Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, giving the year in 
which those of them that are extinct failed in the 
male line : 

Earl of Angus. 1377. 

Stewart of Daiswinton, before 1396. 

Elizabeth, mar. Sir 
Robert Lyle (see 
Douglas's ' Peer- 
age/ ii. 163). 

[James V., 1542.] 

Earl of Atholl (first creation), 1595. 
Earl of Atholl (second creation), 1625. 
Stewart of Rosythe, circa 1660. 
Duke of Lennox, 1672. 
Stuart of Fettercairn, 1777. 
Stuart of Castlemilk, 1797. 
Cardinal York, 1807. 

from to*, 

' repre86nted by the Karl of Caetle Stewart d ^ ^ G *> of Ardvoirlicb, descend 

7*8. iv. ATO. 20, wo 



Stuart of Torrence, circa 1820. 
Stewart of Craigieball, 1825. 
Stuart of AJlanton, 1836. 
Stuart of Allanbank, 1849. 
Stuart of Coltness, 1851. 
Earl of Traquair (legitimated), 
Stewart of Grandtully") 


Earl of Galloway 1 
Lord Blantyre ? 

>not extinct. 



Of the verse of the Te Deum which begins 
" Sterna fac" it is said that all MSS. read 
" gloria munerari " and printed books " in gloria 
numerari"; or at least that the munerari becomes 
extinct soon after the invention of printing. 

I thought it might be worth while to see how 
far these propositions were supported by the books 
which lay immediately about me, and which I 
could consult without trouble. And these are my 
results as to munerari. 

Munerari is to be found in the breviaries of 
Mentz (late fifteenth century) ; Rome, 1500 ; 
Passau, 1508 ; Kome, 1522 ; Como, 1523 and 
and 1592; Etchstadt, 1525; Piacenza, 1530; Quig- 
non's first text, Kome, 1535, Venice, 1535, and 
Antwerp, 1536 ; Ambrosian, 1539 ; Humiliato- 
rum, 1548 (also ed. 1751) ; Kome, 1575, 1598, 
and a black-letter late sixteenth century ed. ; 
Vatican Basilica, 1674 and 1884; Cluniac, 1686; 
Bourges, 1734; Rouen, 1736; Vienne, 1783. The 
Mozarabic books of 1770, 1785, and 1875 all read 
" in gloria munerari." 

This much disposes of the idea that munerari 
became extinct with printing; we find it in a 
book printed by the authorities of the Mozarabic 
Chapel in Toledo a little more than ten years ago, 
and in a choice book of St. Peter's at Rome, in 
1884. The return to it at Vienne in 1783 
seems to be a restoration, as the breviary of 1699 
reads numerari. It may be noted that in 1673 
the Bishop of Freising and Regensburg put forth 
a separate manual for each diocese ; in one 
('Rituale Frisingense,' Monach., 1673, p. 692) 
there is "in gloria numerari" in the other 
('Rituale Ratisbonense,' Salisbury, 1673, p. 452) 
"gloria munerari." 

I do not venture to express an opinion which 
of the readings it is that possesses the greater 
weight of authority ; but it may seem to some a 
nobler aspiration to be numbered, than to be re- 
warded, with God's saints. 


the Jubilee is still fresh in our minds, and " extra 
verses" of 'God Save the Queen' are yet re- 
membered, let me set down a very curious addition 
to the National Anthem which is accepted in 
Germany as being an integral part of our rendering 
of that soul-stirring hymn. I spent Jubilee Day in 

Hanover, and was asked to repeat the words of our 
National Anthem. That did I to the best of my 
ability ; but I was suspected of having left some- 
thing unsaid a verse about roast-beef and the 
cellar-key. Of that I could truthfully declare I 
had been brought up in ignorance. Then I was 
set face to face with authority in the form of No. 4 
of * Volkslieder mit Begleilung des Pianoforte oder 
der Guitarre,' published at some unrecorded date 
probably about thirty years ago at the Hof- 
musikalienhandlung of Adolph Nageln, in Han- 
over. I found appended to the four verses of 
' Heil unserm Konig Heil ' an English substitute, 
which began with 

God save great George our King. 
Three verses of this were virtually after the 
accepted from of our National Anthem, though, 
by the way, the penultimate line of the third ran 
" On him our hopes we fix," instead of " On Thee "; 
but the fourth was ribald : 

God save great George our King, 

Long live our noble King, 
God save the King. 

Send us roast beef a store, 

If it 's gone send us more, 

And the key of the cellar door, 
That we may drink. 


LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND. On the fly-leaf of the 
copy of the third edition of * Baratariana ' (1777) 
in the British Museum is the following character- 
istic manuscript note by Lord Macaulay : 

" His social talents were sometimes set forth, though 
very absurdly, as a defence of the errors of his adminis- 
tration. The L d Lieu 1 says more good things in one 
night than are perhaps uttered in this House during a 
whole Session. So said Provost Andrews. What a de- 
fence ! ! ! " 

G. F. R. B. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

NATION.' In 1833 Sir Jonah Barrington published 
in Paris his 'Rise and Fall of the Irish Nation.' 
The illustrations to the book consisted of a frontis- 
piece, "Celebration of Irish Independence by the 
Volunteers of 1782," a vignette title (portrait of 
Sir Jonah), and four prints, each containing seven 
portraits. For some reason the frontispiece was 
cancelled and the vignette title substituted as a 
frontispiece. Two copies of the book as originally 
issued are known of in Dublin. Can any of your 
many correspondents add to the number? In 
1809 Sir Jonah published in parts his 'Historic 
Anecdotes ' of the Union. In the first part ap- 



17<> S. IV. AUG. 20, '87. 

peared an engraved title, containing a similar view 
of the volunteers on College Green. In 1835 the 
work was reissued in two volumes, but the en- 
graved title, like the frontispiece of the ' Kise and 
F all,' was in this issue cancelled. Why was this ? 

J. R. JOLT. 

ALEXANDER ALLAN. In the Queen of May 19, 
1883, there is a brief notice of the death at Brook- 
lyn of Alexander Allan, " a dramatist of celebrity," 
born 1810 in London, a relative of John Gait, the 
novelist, and the friend of Halleck, Charles 
Dickens, and J. Wallack, &c. What are the titles 
of Mr. Allan's dramas ? K. INGLIS. 

O'Conor, in his 'History of the Irish People,' p. 64, 
says : " The English people had been in the habit 
of selling their children to the Irish as slaves." 
This refers to the reign of our Henry II. No 
authority is given for this statement. Can it 
possibly be true ? E. COBHAM BREWER. 

THBM FROM CAPTIVITY ? It is commonly believed 
in some parts of the country that blackbirds do 
this, and the idea is used by Hood in ' The Plea 
of the Midsummer Fairies ': 

Close intricacies to screen 
Birds' crafty dwellings as may hide them best, 
But most the timid blackbird's she, that seen, 
Will bear black poisonous berries to her nest 
Lest man should cage the darlings of her breast. 

Oak Cottage, Streatham Place, Brixton Hill, S.W. 

MRS. GLASSE. A lady who has been reading 
Mrs. Glasse's 'Cookery-Book' (ed. 1758) asks me 

I can tell her the modern names of the following 
fish, " proper to eat in the Midsummer Quarter." 
Being quite unable to do so, I pass on her inquiry 
to N. & Q.,' in the hope that some more learned 
,rm be able to enli ghten her. Shafflins, 
Glout (?), Tenes, Tollis, Homlyn, Kinson. 


Bopley, Alresford; 

has made himself acquainted with the ritual cus- 
toms of Bug hsh people before the Reformation 
knows that blue was a common colour for church 
vestments. The Eoman use rejects blue as an 
ecclesiastical colour. Dr. Rock says, in his 'Church 
f our Fathers,' vol. ii. p. 259," Rome herself never 
uses sky-blue." It is not probable that so learned 
a liturgical antiquary should have fallen into error 
1 nave, however, been informed that although blue 
was nob used generally in the Latin rite, it was 
was employed in the Pope's private chapel, and it 

rZ, ?E I ?? eSted that thi8 ^ h * been the 
reason that blue was one of the liturgical colours 
in this country. Can any of your readers g" 
information on the subject ? ANON 

'THE WATER DOCTOR.' Fine old engraving 
by B. A. Dunker from the painting by Gerard Dow, 
"du cabinet de M. le Due de Choiseul." Can 
any one tell me if it is rare, and its present value ? 


Leigliton Buzzard. 

"THE BELLS OP OUSELET." The sign of a 
well-known inn at Old Windsor. Will any con- 
tributor kindly state the origin or meaning of 
this sign ? J. K 

LINES FROM DANTE. Lord Granville is reported 
to have said, in a speech at Dover on the Jubilee: 
" One of the morning papers had quoted some 
magnificent lines of Dante, describing how the 
crowd had met and passed each other in double 
columns at the jubilee ordered by Boniface VIII." 
What are these lines ; and to what have they re- 
ference 1 ? JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

BOOK-PLATE. To whom belongs the following 
ex libris ? The arms of the City of London, crest, 
supporters, and motto, and beneath, in two lines, 
" Fyn . Segellak . wel . | Brand . en . vast . Houd." 

W. M. M. 

TRANSLATES. In an article on 'The French 
Version of the Golden Legend' (7 th S. iii. 469) 
MR. PEACOCK gives a quotation in which there is 
this curious sentence : "Aussi des sainctz nouueaulx 
translatee de Latin en fra'cois." Does the English 
word translated thus come from the old French of 
1554? W. M. M. 

ASSIGNATS. Where shall I find descriptions of 
each variety of this paper money ? 


says, in his ' Things not generally Known,' vol. v. 
p. 45, upon the subject of Maundy Thursday : 

" Tombland Fair, at Norwich, held on this day, took 
its origin from people assembling with maunds, or baskets, 
of provisions, which the monks bought for distribution 
on Easter Day." 

I shall be glad if any ' N. & Q.' readers will refer 
me to a work confirming this and giving fuller 
details. GEO. C. PRATT. 

St. Giles Hill, Norwich. 

Mancksey Level is frequently mentioned in the 
Parliamentary Survey of Sussex in 1649. What 
were its boundaries ? Where was " Moorebrooke," 
in the parish of Hailsham, in the same county ? 
No name of the kind appears on the map at pre- 
sent ; by the Survey it contained sixty acres at 
least, all under farms of various names. Waller's 
Haven 'and Lampham are also unmarked; these 
two latter may be in the pariah of Bexhill. 


7*8. iv. AUG. 20, '87.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


GABBARD. What are the origin and composi- 
tion of this word ? It means some sort of barge 
or market- boat. I find it in the ' Diary of a Visit 
to London in 1775,' by Dr. Thomas Campbell, 
printed in ' Johnsoniana,' a supplement to Mr. 
Napier's excellent edition of Boswell's ' Life of 
Johnson.' Dr. Campbell came from Ireland, and 
probably the word gabbard is still in use there. 
Visiting Stratford -on -A von, the doctor says : 
"Little gabbards with coals and groceries, &c., 
come up here from Bristol." J. DIXON. 

SWADDY. What is the origin of this name 
for a soldier ? When I was a boy all kinds of 
soldiers were swaddles ; now I believe the name is 
generally given to militiamen. 



MARK. What was the value of a mediaeval 
mark on the Continent ? Gibbon (chap. lix. p. 89) 
says, "Four hundred thousand marks of silver 
were about eight hundred thousand pounds ster- 
ling in A.D. 1204." Was the mark a weight ? If 
so, how much was it ? If it was a coin, what was 
its weight? What were the variations in its 
value ? What is the best authority on mediaeval 
coinage? J. D. BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

NAPOLEONIC MEDALS. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me of the different series of 
medals struck in the reign of the first Napoleon. 


St. David's, Southsea. 

< ELEANOR. What is known of Eleanor, the 
sister of Arthur who was murdered by his uncle, 
King John ? Where was she born ? Did she 
marry ; and, if so, whom ? All dates connected 
with her would be of great service. I find she 
died at Bristol, in the castle of which city she 
was confined by her uncle, Henry III. 


ELA FAMILY. Can any one give information of 
the surname Ela, its origin, location, &c., in Eng- 
land or elsewhere in the Old World ? It has been 
a family name in Massachusetts, U.S., since 1656, 
which indicates that it must have come from 
England. When did it originate ; and does it 
now exist in England ? D. H. ELA. 

Boston, Mass., U.S. 

volume of the Gentleman's Magazine are some 
letters of Strafforde to Wandesforde to be found ? 


BISHOP OF HEREFORD. Will one of your 
readers kindly tell me the surname of John, 
Bishop of Hereford, who died shortly before 
May 12, 1275? Q. V. 

PRESERVATION OF MEDALS. Which is the best 
way of keeping rare medals or coins? Should 
they be wrapped up in a soft material tissue paper 
or cotton wool or left exposed to the air ? Are 
there boxes made on purpose to hold them ? 

B. E. 

Can any of your readers tell me in what number 
of Blackwood a story came out, " With what 
measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you 
again " ? Also, was a poem called ' Departure,' 
beginning " When I go away from my own dear 
home," in Blackwood; and when? 


FLUELEN. Passing along the St. Gothard rail- 
way, I first came to Goschen and next to Fluelen. 
That a Scriptural name should be given to a place 
is easily accounted for from the knowledge of the 
Bible ; but how did Fluelen, the name of a person 
or a place in Wales, come to Switzerland ? 


MILMAN'S 'SAMOR.' In the late Dean Mil- 
man's * Samor, Lord of the Bright City/ the horse 
of King Vortigern Favorin (p. 310) and the sword 
of Hengist, " the widower of women " (p. 315), 
are mentioned. Do we owe these names to the 
imagination of the poet, or are they taken from 
some old chronicle, romance, or lay ? 

K. P. D. E. 

Sir Jonathan Trelawny, Bishop of Winchester, 
been published ? ALPHA. 

I shall be glad to have the following terms ex- 
plained : 

Paviel" Put this water upon another like paviel 
of fresh wormwood, and so distil a third time." P. 15. 

Tile Tree." Mistletoe of tile tree"?. 32. 

Pithemus. "One ounce of pithemus." P. 61. 

Cherpibint. " Dip cherpibint in it, and lay it on the 
wound." P. 69. 

The pages refer to a work entitled f Choice and 
Experimented Eeceipts in Physick and Chirur- 
gery,' collected by the honourable and truly 
learned Sir Kenelm Digby, Knt., second edition, 
London, 1675, from which the quotations are 
taken. None of the words occur in any glossary 
I have. C. C. B. 

AND SOUTH CAROLINA, 1709. This gentleman, who 
was the eldest son of the Eev. Edward Tynte, Vicar 
of Yatton, Somerset, was constituted Governor of 
Carolina, July 19, 1709, and died in the following 
year. I should be glad to know where he was 
buried, and if there is any monument to his 
memory. Perhaps some of your American readers 
can enlighten me. The following lines, by his 



t7 s. iv. AUG. 20, 

friend Dr. King, of which I have a MS. copy, an arbitrary symbol, and used more commonly 

1 than others in delivering possession to copyholders 
because the steward naturally held a staff of office. 
However, that the distinction was inapplicable as 
regards livery of seisin is shown by Thorough- 
good's case (9 'Rep.,' 136 b, 137 b), where it was 
decided that livery could be made by a mere 
symbol having nothing to do with the land. 

The impossibility of drawing a real distinction 
between actual and symbolical investiture may be 
seen from the vast and varied array of instances 
collected in Du Cange (' Gloss., ' s.v. "Investitura"). 
From him we learn that symbols of special affinity 
with the thing transferred were originally used and 
recognized; as, for land, a turf or clod; a bough 
of a tree for what was above the surface. Some- 
times were added festuca (as equivalent to fustis, 
of which more below), a rod or verge, which all 
indicated dominium. Later, the knife or sword 
indicated the jus evertendi, disjiciendi, metendi, 
&c. The ring, the banner, &c., had all originally 
nee to special properties or dignities ; but 
after a time the meaning of the ancient forms was 

apeak as to his abilities ; 

Ad Amicum. 

TynU was the man who first from British shore, 
Palladian arts to Carolina bore : 
His tuneful Harp attending Muses strung, 
And Pho3bus f skill inspired the lays he sung. 
Strong Towers and Palaces their rise began, 
And listening stones to sacred Fabrics ran ; 
Just laws were taught and curious arts of peace, 
And Trade's brisk current flow'd with wealth's Increase. 
On such foundations learned Athens rose, 
So Dido's thong did Carthage firet enclose ; 
So Rome was taught old Empires to subdue, 
As Tynte creates and governs now the New. 

Balnageith, Torquay. 


(7* S. ii. 167, 258, 332, 374). 

The suggestion that the grass, rushes, or straw I reference to special properties or dignities ; 

twisted about the seals of old deeds might be after a time the meaning of the ancient forms 

a relic of the legal form of livery of seisin was neglected, and anything was used which came 

somewhat unceremoniously dismissed at the last handy for the occasion. After some instances of 

reference by DR. JESSOPP, who describes it as a the careful preservation of the symbols as evidence 

mere fad, in vogue from about Hen. VI. to Hen. of the investiture, a passage follows which is of 

VII. I should be much interested to hear of any special interest as bearing on the present question, 

further reasons he may have for his view. At Sometimes, says Du Cange, the symbol of convey- 

preaent, if I may say so with due respect for his ance was woven or sewn into the instrument, or 

authority, I think he has overestimated the strength bound up with it. He had himself seen in the 

of negative evidence. In the first place, the deed chartulary of St. Denis several charters "in quarum 

mentioned by your correspondent KAPPA is dated 
seventy years before Hen. VI. Again, the lack of 
instances after Hen. VII. may be accounted for by 
the Statute of Uses (27 Hen. VIII.), which led to 
conveyances by feoffment with livery being gene- 
rally superseded by mere indentures of lease and 
release. Besides, at this date writing was not so 
rare an accomplishment, and the signatures of 
witnesses to a memorandum on the back of the 

imis limbis intextee erant festucse vel certe pusilla 
ligni fragmenta." The following quotations from 
extant documents are clear evidence of the practice : 
"In testimonium hujus donationis nummus iste 
huic cartse appensus est quum per ipsum donatio 
facta est " (charta of Robert, Bishop of Langres) ; 

"cum baculo prsesenti paginse insuto con- 

cedimus " (charta of Louis VII. in favour of the 
church of the Virgin at Saintes, an. 1140) ; 

ISUU&WU WJ. UUV? T AI^li-A tUU K-HMAI U^O j VVfV* * * V^ ) 

deed stating that possession was given in their " reliquimus cum quodam fusili [melted wax 1] 
presence would be more satisfactory evidence than ' u " ; " " u "-*^ ; " v *"-"~ 4 -"" / '" 1 - 0| - mi"'- r>; /.*;/. 

huic chartae inherente " (at St. Hilary's, Poictiers, 

straw on the seal. This plan was the rule temp. \an. 1104); "per quoddam lignum quod huio 
Lord Coke. pergameno conjunctum est" (at St. Jean d'Angely) ; 

Some light is thrown on this subject, and also " Hanc donationem fecit per corrigiam in hoc 
on that of tenure by the rod and the straw, by the pergamento pendentem " (at St. Eparchus, Angou- 
history of investiture, which may be said to go back ISme, an. 1000); "reliquit in manu domini 
at least to the Book of Rutb. There we are told Ausculphi abbatis cum junco, qui in ora cartulse 
(iv. 7) that it was the custom in Israel in former insuitur " (at St. Jean d'Angely). A grant or 
times for a man to pluck off his shoe and give it to surrender to the church of Notre Dame at Paris, 
his neighbour, in order to provide testimony of quoted by a later editor (s. v. "Festuca"), is 
redeeming and changing. Spelmau (' Gloss.') especially remarkable. It is expressed to be made 
distinguishes between proper and improper in- " per hoc lignum," on the four faces of which it is 
vestiture ; the former being delivery of possession actually written, or rather engraved. The rod is 
by means of the thing itself, of which he mentions I half a foot long and about an inch thick. 

livery of seisin as an instance ; the latter being by 
means of a symbol, as a sword, banner, ring, &c. 
Watkins (' Copyholds ') seems to hold to this 

Having shown that the practice of fastening the 
symbol of conveyance to the written instrument 
did exist, I add below some instances of the use of 

distinction, and suggests that a staff or verge was | particular symbols, which, though not described as 

7'> S. IV. AUG. 20, '87J 



BO fastened, may be compared to the cases of straw 
&c., mentioned by previous correspondents. The 
rush, juncuSf mentioned above, may be put in both 
categories. In the following quotations the word 
festuca, fistuca, fistucuz occurs. Above it is treated 
as equivalent to baculum or virga ; but its mean- 
ing in Oolumella and Pliny was rather stalk, 
though it seems also to have been applied to the 
rod used, according to Plutarch, in the ceremony 
of manumitting slaves. If as a symbol of con- 
veyance it was anything more than a stalk, how 
could it have been knotted (nodata), as appears 
below ? It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the 
supposed derivation of "stipulation" from the use 
of a straw in a similar way, instances of the word 
stipula being actually applied to the symbol of 
investiture seem very rare. 

The following are from Du Cange (s.v. "Festuca"): 
" per hanc chart uhun sive per festucam" (monastery 
of Gemblours, an. 950) ; a charter, an. 1258, " qua 
Abbas Arreviarensis* ex bulla apostolicamercatores 
Romanes de bonis mobilibus Campsorumf ubi- 
cunque possent in distractu comitatus Campanise 
inveniri, regis nomine, per traditorem cujusdam 
apostolicse paleae, secundum quod in tradendis 
possessionibus de consuetudine in istis partibus 

observatur investit." Under "Culmus" are 

given three instances from the conveyances of the 
Abbey of Fulda: " habeatis potestatem culmo 

subnixam " [i. e., roboratam] ; " hoc sit actum 

culmo subnixum"; " habeatis potestatem stipula- 
tione subnixam." In Muratori (' Antiq. Ital. Med. 
&v.,' torn. ii. diss. 22) are grants by the Counts of 
Verona and Tuscany in 911 and 952 ; and Du 
Cange (under " Festuca nodata ") quotes another 
from Mabillon's ' Benedictine Annals ' dated 997. 
In all these pen, ink, and parchment are coupled 
with the clod, the bough, the fistucum nodatum 
(in Muratori notatum), and the knife as instruments 
or symbols of conveyance, and each is declared to 
be made according to the Salic law or the law of 
the Franks. Haltaus (' Gloss. Germ. Med. uEv. 1 ), 
under " Halm," cites a grant in German in 1296 
by a Landgrave of Alsatia, " mit eim Halmen als 
das gewb'hnlichen," besides others in 1328, 1406, 
and 1509. Stipula occurs in 1074, and calamus 
in 1185 and 1342. 

The conclusion I draw from the above and the 
evidence of other correspondents is, that the 
" strawing " of seals probably had something to do, 
directly or indirectly, with livery of seisin ; but it 
must be very doubtful how far its significance was 
recognized in England in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries by those who practised it. 
Common conveyances must perforce have been 
prepared very often by not very learned persons, and 

* This must be a misprint for Arremarensis, which 
would refer to the abbey of Rameq. in Champagne, or 

t Who were the Campsi 1 

it would probably be the business of a mere 
chirographer to melt the wax and insert the straw. 
Certainly in the case of Lord Stanley's deed in 
2 Ric. III., referred to by MR. UNDERBILL, the 
plaited rushes were not required to pass the seisin. 
The deed is a release, and not a feoffment, nor 
does it deal with land, being expressly limited to 
actiones et demandas personales. 

I see the accuracy of speaking of the seisin of 
the copyholder is doubted. Littleton himself uses 
the expression. Seisin then meant real possession, 
though now technically confined to legal possession 
of freeholds. According to Williams (' Seisin of 
the Freehold,' p. 126) the copyholder has a quasi- 
seisin of his own, a seisin at the will of the lord; 

the lord has a feudal seisin. 


DE LA POLE (7 th S. iii. 289, 414). Since I sent 
this query, and since the answer to it appeared, 
which HERMENTRUDE kindly sent, I have seen two 
notices which to a certain extent enable me to 
answer it myself, but I still want some more infor- 

The statement of Sir Thomas de la Pole being 
the third son of Michael, second Earl of Suffolk, 
then rested on the authorities of Burke's ' Extinct 
Peerage' and of Blomefield's ' Norfolk/ but I have 
lately seen Mr. Chetwyn Stapylton's * Chronicles 
of the Yorkshire Family of Stapelton, 7 1884, in 
which is repeated the same thing, and he also 
quotes Nichol's 'Collectanea Topographica et 
Genealogica,' vol. v. pp. 156-7, where it is also 
said that Thomas, the third son of Michael, the 
second earl, married " Ann, the daughter of 
Nicholas Cheyney, and had Katherine, only 
daughter and heir, who married first to Sir Miles 
Stapleton of Bedale, Knt., and afterwards to Sir 
Richard Harcourt." 

No son is mentioned, nor is the other marriage 
of Ann Cheyney, as given by HERMENTRUDE, and 
it is rather curious that, for a lady of her rank, the 
date of death of Katherine de la Pole is left so 
uncertain. It is said that her will was proved in 
1488, Jan. 23, when her daughters and coheirs 
(Elizabeth, married to Sir Wm. Calthorpe, and 
Joan, married to Sir Christopher Harcourt) were 
respectively fifty and forty-eight ; but the Thet- 
ford jurors say she died on July 31, 1490. Which 
date is correct, and where is her will printed ? 

Was Nicholas Cheyney of the family of Cheyney 
of Shurland, co. Kent ? B. F. SCARLETT. 

ft appears that " the Laudable Association of 
Antigallicans " had their headquarters at " Le- 
beck's Head," in the Strand, in April, 1757. The 
society was so called " from the Endeavours of its 
Members to promote the British Manufacturies, 



[7* S. IV. AUG. 20, '87. 

to extend the Commerce of England, and discourage 
the introducing of French Modes and oppose 
the importation of French Commodities." See 
' The Anti-Gallican Privateer ; being a Genuine 
Narrative from her leaving Deptford Septem 
her 17, 1756, to the Present Time ; (1757). 

G. F. R. B. 

11 [April 23, 1771]. Being St. George's Day, was held 
the anniversary feast of the laudable society of Autigalli 
cans. They went in procession to Stepney Church, where 
the Rev. Mr. Evans, chaplain to the Rt. Hon. the Lore 
Mayor, preached an excellent sermon, suitable to the 
occasion ; after which the stewards went in a body, and 
waited on the Lord Mayor in the Tower, and paid their 
compliments on behalf of the whole society, and after- 
wards returned to the Mile- End Assembly-room, where 
there was an elegant entertainment provided. After 
dinner they elected the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor Grand 
President for the year ensuing, which office his Lordship 
accepted with the utmost politeness and respect." 
Annual Register, vol. xiv. p. 98. 

The Library, Claremont, Hastings. 

INN SIGNS (7 th S. iii. 448 ; iv. 35). Yes ; it 
was an error. My Cambridge B.A. correspondent 
wrote such a vile hand that I misconstrued 
" Pickerel " for " Pickle." The correction of the 
error by your two correspondents has, however, 
given another example of the strange name of an 
inn sign, omitted from Hotten's book, wherein no 
mention is made of " The Pickerel." 


EARTHEN MOUND (7 th S. iv. 89). The Earthen 
Mound, at one time known as " Georgie's Mud 
Brig," was of artificial construction. For an account 
of its formation see James Grant's ' Old and New 
Edinburgh ' (1882), vol. ii. pp. 82-3. 

G. F. B. B. 

It is neither " tumulus nor barrow," and of quite 
modern date, being formed mainly of the most 
prosaic materials, got in digging the foundations 
tor the houses in the new town of Edinburgh. 


LORD MAYOR'S DAT (7 th S. iii. 497; iv. 49). 
In my reply to MR. ELLIS, by a careless reading of 
my authority (Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas's 
Chronology of History,' at pp. 384, 385, second 
edition), I erroneously wrote "three weeks" (1 13) 
where I should have said "about ten days." After 
1641 Michaelmas term commenced ordinarily on 
October 23 ; but in every seventh year, from a 
technical peculiarity of the calendar with which 
1 need not trouble the reader, the first of that term 
washday late, NEM , 


M fA ) '~^, argaret ' dau 8 hter and sole heir of 
Matthew Wilson, of Esbton Hall, Gargrave, York- 
shire, married, first, Rev. Henry Richardson Currer 

(Hector of Thornton, where Charlotte Bronte was 
born), and, secondly, her cousin Matthew Wilson. 
A daughter of the first marriage was Miss Richard- 
son Currer, of Eshton Hall, who collected a cele- 
brated library there. This lady, with her literary 
fame and masculine appellation, a relative of Carus 
Wilson, and resident about half-way on the road 
between Charlotte Bronte's home at Haworth and 
the school at Cowan Bridge, seems a likely person 
to have been in the young authoress's mind when 
choosing a name under which to evade the question 
of sex. Perhaps also she had something to do with 
the idea of 'Shirley.' The sons of the second 
marriage were Matthew Wilson, of Eshton Hall, 
created a baronet 1874, and the Rev. Henry Currer 
Wilson (b. 1803). The latter was evidently the 
person mentioned in my query, and succeeded to 
the vicarage of Tunstall on his father's presentation. 
It is odd that I should have dropped upon this 
answer to my own query just in the same way that 
I dropped on the passage that suggested the query 
itself in looking for details of places with which 
my own family was connected. 


iii. 495). Richard Hill, of the Hawkstone family, 
was in France in 1685 and 1686 ; but whether he 
was still there after the abdication of James II. 
I cannot say. See the eighth letter of Daniel 
Sandford, reprinted in 'Salopian Shreds and 
Patches ' (Eddowes's Shrewsbury Journal), March 
30, 1887. W. B. 

'BARNABY RUDGE' (7 th S. iv. 24). Dickens is 
quite right with reference to Paper Buildings. 
They were first built in the reign of James I., 
Durned down in the Great Fire, rebuilt, and again 
3urnt down by the well-known mistake of Mr. 
Maule, and finally rebuilt in 1848. See ' Old and 
STew London,' chap. xvi. 


University College, W.C. 

THE LILY OF SCRIPTURE (7 th S. iii. 25, 134, 
234, 393, 522). Canon Farrar, in his 'Life of 
Christ,' at p. 200 has the following foot-note : 

" Compare the name KaiserJcrone for the imperial 
martagon. The lilies to which Christ alluded (Matt. 
vi. 28) are either flowers generally, or, perhaps, the 
scarlet anemone, or the Huleh lily-a beautiful flower 
-rhich is found wild in this neighbourhood." 


Those who are interested in this question should 
consult Leo Grindon's recent work on ' Scripture 
Botany,' wherein everything connected with Bibli- 
cal plants is exhaustively considered not only from 
the botanist's point of view, but from the poet's 
and the scholar's. 

I may be allowed, perhaps, to say precisely the 
ame to querists as to Shakespearian plants and 

7"> S. IT. Au. 20, '870 



owers, referring them in this instance to the same 
author's ' Shakespeare Flora.' K. E. 


Miss FARREN AND MRS. SIDDONS (7 th S. iii. 
309, 355, 465). It was Mrs. Charles Kemble, not 
Mrs. Siddons, who said, " The Kemble jawbone 
why it is as notorious as Samson's ! " See Fanny 
Kemble's autobiography. H. MACROBERT. 

MAGNA CHARTA (7 th S. ii. 194; iii. 492). 
Honour to whom honour is due ! It should be 
remembered that the malcontent barons met at 
Bury St. Edmunds strictly according to precedent, 
viz., to demand from the truculent King John his 
due observance of the great charter of Henry I., 
which itself incorporated the just laws of King 
Edward. The great conqueror had pledged him- 
self to rule by this standard, and his younger son, 
losing influence in Normandy, purchased English 
support by grant of the aforesaid charter. Con- 
sequently the much belauded Magna Charta being 
only a recapitulation of the foregoing institutes of 
Britain, the whole series of forty-nine articles 
appended are of minor importance ; the nation 
knew them by heart ; it was the royal con- 
sent, won by force of arms, that signalized the 
triumph, and its historical significance rests 
upon this combination of a Norman aristo- 
cracy with the Commons. The parallel works 
thus. Henry I. courted English support against 
Norman influences; the barons temp. John, bereft 
of their foreign estates, combined with the English 
to muzzle the Crown. After this date it became 
difficult to distinguish racial differences, though 
the social grades of rank continued unaltered. On 
this head it is of interest to note that the aristo- 
cracy of Ireland joined hands, for the charter bears 
the seal of Alan of Galway. It is headed (trans- 
lated) :- 

"John, by the grace of God King of England, Duke 
of Ireland, Normandy, and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, 
to the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Earls, Barona, Lay 
Jueticiars, Viscounts [i. e., sheriffs], Provosts, Ministers, 
and all Bailiffs, his faithful [TJ subjects, greeting." 

And it ends : 

" Given under our own hand, in the field called Runing- 
med, between Windsor and Staines, 15 day of June, 17th 
year of our reign," 

with final clauses for publication. 

It appears that the valid quid pro quo for this 
concession rested upon the typical subsidy of one- 
fifteenth of all " portable " property, granted con- 
stitutionally to the reigning monarch. So it was 
merely a matter of bargain, after all, the true 
liberty of a subject not being understood in a 
country where serfdom was maintained by statute. 
Therefore concessions had to be purchased, like 
any other goodwill, and unconscientious monarchs 
took pay several times over for one grant. Thus it 
happened that the Magna Charta was not final ; 

it needed confirmation by statute Henry III. in 
1225, and again by Edward I. in 1297, and it is 
the latter we now refer to as the textus receptus. 


At the end of his paper MR. MONCKTON 
asks whether any originals of the charter or 
of the articles, other than those in the British 
Museum, are known to exist. In the two 
volumes of the Public Kecords that were pub- 
lished in 1819 (the latter volume containing fac- 
similes of some of the most important of our national 
records) the facsimile there given of the articles is 
taken from the original preserved in the British 
Museum, and is numbered II. in that volume. The 
facsimile of the charter is taken from the original 
preserved in the archives of Lincoln Cathedral, and 
numbered III. To the former the great seal of 
King John, as MR. MONCKTON says, is appendant, 
but it is far from being a perfect one. A perfect 
impression of that seal is given at No. XLVI. in 
the same volume. To the latter document no seal 
of the king appears to have been attached, at all 
events at the time when the facsimile was taken. 
To neither of the documents as there shown do the 
barons appear to have affixed their seals. 

It is somewhat curious that later on in the same 
volume, Nos. XLVIII. and XLIX., appear what 
seem to me to be duplicate facsimiles of these two 
great national records, for what purpose I know 
not. J. S. UDAL. 

Symondsbury, Bridport. 

BARLOW (7 th S. iii. 248, 482). MR. WARD will 
find the anecdote of Sir William Owen Barlow 
and the waiter in * The Law : what I have Seen, 
what I have Heard, and what I have Known/ 
by Cyrus Jay (1868), p. 61. G. F. K. B. 

WHO WAS KOBIN HOOD? (7 th S. ii. 421; iii. 201, 
222, 252, 281, 323, 412, 525; iv. 32). I am as 
thankful to COL. PRIDEAUX for opening up this 
interesting question aa I am disappointed at CANON 
TAYLOR'S advocacy of the mythological character 
of this famous outlaw. To judge from some recent 
communications of his, the canon is evidently 
wearing at present his mythological spectacles, 
through which he unfortunately sees things in a 
corresponding mythological light. But I fancy the 
Robin Hood story will stand this latest test, as it 
das successfully others of a similar nature. Mr. 
Wright applied it years ago and failed ; CANON 
TAYLOR does so now with, I believe, a like result. 
And well it is so ; for were such methods of deal- 
ng with undoubted facts undoubted, if history 
s at all to be relied upon to be allowed to rele- 
gate them to the regions of myths, history would 
quickly degenerate into one vast fable. Men and 
deeds of recent date would in due course share 
the fate dealt out by myth-loving writers to those 
of the more misty, perhaps, but none the less real 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. Ana. 20, 

mediaeval times. I have heard of an ingenious 
American publishing a work to prove Bonaparte's 
non-existence ! CANON TAYLOR'S versatile pen 
could be turned to more profitable account than 
imitating such dreamers. 

Mr. Hunter's observations (' Robin Hood,' 1852) 
on the point are worth quoting : 

" These misapprehensions (anachronisms) are but 
venial offences against historic verity, compared with 
those of writers who, acting in the wild humour of the 
present age, which is apt to put everything that has 
passed into doubt, and turn the men of former days into 
myths, would represent this outlaw living in the woods 
aa a mere creature of the imagination of men living in 
the depth of antiquity, so far back that we know neither 
when nor where, Hudkin, because his name was Hood, 
and Robin Goodfellow, because his name was Robert, or 
as Mr. Wright (' Essays,' 1850) chooses to represent the 
matter in more general terms, 'one amongst the per- 
sonages of the early mythology of the Teutonic people.' 
Trusting to the plain sense of my countrymen, I dismiss 
these theorists to that limbo of vanity, there to live with 
all those who would make all remote history fable." 

And so do I, and continue to believe in the historic 
Sherwood forester. 

The remarkable sepulchral inscription given by 
Mr. Thorns, in his 'Early English Prose Romances' 
(vol. ii. p. 77), must prove rather unmythdble (to 
coin a word) to our " theorists." I give it with 
that learned authority's accompanying remarks : 

Here undernead dis laitl stean 

laiz robert earl of huntingtun 

near arcir ver az hie sa geud 

and pipl kauld im robin heud 

sick utlawz az hi an iz men 

vil england nivr si agen. 

Obiit24 (r!4) Kal Dekembris, 1247. 
"Ritson, says Mr. Thorns, " though he did not pre- 
tend to say that the language of this epitaph was that 
of Henry III.'s time, nor, indeed, to determine of what 
age it was, perceived nothing in it from whence one 
should be led to pronounce it spurious, i. e., that it was 
never inscribed on the gravestone of Robin. That there 
actually was some inscription upon it in Mr. Thoresby's 
time, though then scarce legible, is evident from his own 
words : ' Near unto Kirklees the noted Robin Hood lies 
buried under a gravestone that yet remains near the 
rark, but the inscription is scarce legible.' " 

Furthermore, the famous ballad ' The Vision of 
Pierce Ploughman/ of any time between 1355 and 
1365, already quoted in ' N. & Q.,' points conclu- 
sively to the historic personality of Robin Hood, 
as it does to that of Randulf, Earl of Chester. 

But further references are useless. I 'write 
rather to record in 'N. & Q.' my repudiation of 
the fanciful assumption of the Saxon hero's mytho- 
logical character by CANON TAYLOR (et hoc qenus 
omne) than to attempt what Messrs. Hunter and 
Thorns have done satisfactorily - amass proofs 
Hcient to convince any impartial student of the 
impossibility of such an assumption. If I am dos- 
matic CANON TAYLOR is none the less BO, with 
this difference, that his dogmatism rests on a 
pedestal of sand. T r> Q 

Manchester. J ' R S> 

COMIC SOLAR MYTHS (7 th S. iv. 28). 
John Gilpin was a citizen of credit and renown, 
A trainband captain eke was he of famous London town. 

If so, he meets W. S. L. S.'s requirements of an 
" historic personage " who has been made into a 
comic solar myth. This was in a magazine article 
(the Contemporary or the Fortnightly, I think) 
three or four years ago. G. N. 

In an article in the now defunct Fraser (I forget 
the date) appeared an amusing attempt to prove 
the solar character of John Gilpin. The humour 
was not diminished by the circumstance that some 
evening papers took the writer seriously, and 
gravely condemned his theory. I. ABRAHAMS. 

London Institution. 

RELIGIOUS ORDERS (7 th S. iii. 449; iv. 10). 
Amiot's great works on the religious orders, with 
all their shortcomings, will prove, I think, a safer 
guide than the writers at second hand who have 
been hitherto recommended in reply to this query; 
e. g., with regard to the Augustinians he defines 
the way in which St. Augustin's name came to be 
adopted. At the other hand some of the inquiries 
refer to local English appellations, which, of course, 
he does not touch ; but for these such a work. as 
Haydn's could give no trustworthy help either. 

R. H. BUSK. 

(7 th S. iii. 308, 412, 521; iv. 72). The following 
curious story concerning Joanna Soutbcott, who 
died December 27, 1814, is narrated in Gunning's 
'Reminiscences of Cambridge' (second edition, 
vol. i. p. 63 et seq.). The Rev. Thomas Philip 
Foley, who was a fellow of Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, a cousin of Lord Foley, and popularly 
known as " Handsome Foley," became a devoted 
follower and also her secretary, owing to the 
following circumstance, which is thus narrated : 

" He was dining with a gay party in London when the 
conversation turned upon this woman's pretensions. All 
agreed she was the greatest of impostors, and it waa 
voted an excellent joke to call upon her and make them- 
selves merry at her expense. They accordingly break- 
fasted together next morning, when it was decided that 
Foley should be spokesman, that tLey should pretend to 
have faith in her revelations, and intimate that their 
visit was for the express purpose of consulting her. She 
received them very courteously, listened with attention 
to all that was said, and then, assuming a serious and 
dignified manner, replied in the following words : ' I ain 
quite aware that the object of your visit is to hold me 
up to mockery and derision ; but I shall be able to con- 
vince the most sceptical amongst you that I am entitled 
to assume the character I profess. When you determined 
last evening upon this visit there were ten of you present, 
but there are now only nine.' < This,' said Foley, in his 
letter to Mathew,* ' was quite correct, and I turned upon 
my companions a look of astonishment.' She then con- 

'This was William Mathew, Senior Fellow and Bursar 
of Jesus College. Cambridge, and one of Gunning's col- 
leagues in the office of Esquire Bedell. 

. IV. AUG. 20, '87.] 



tinued : ' You know not the cause of hia absence, but 
can inform you. He became very ill soon after h 
reached home, and will not leave the bed on which h 
now lies but as a corpse an event not far distant.' " 

The writer goes on to say that this event th 
death of the friend actually took place, and tha 
after his funeral Mr. Foley sought another inter 
view with Joanna Southcottand became a conver 
There are also two documents appended one he 
own declaration, and another an attestation of he 
pretensions, and amongst the signatories occurs th 
name of the Kev. Thos. P. Foley. It is date< 
January 22, 1803. In 'Wonderful Characters 
published by John Camden Hotten, n.d., is 
memoir of Joanna Southcott, with a whole-pag 
portrait, containing many particulars concerning 
her career. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

In 'Memoirs of Religious Impostors, &c., from th 
Seventh to the Nineteenth Century,' by M. Aikin 
LL.D., there is a long and interesting account o 
Joanna Southcott, 1792-1814. There are also re- 
productions of letters of hers which appeared in 
the Times, Morning Herald, &c. This impostor's 
last moments are also given, together with an 
account of the post-mortem, in which it is said 
"the minute particulars of which we are bound 
to suppress." It is also stated that at so late a 
period as the year 1821 a considerable number oJ 
her followers were looking for her return. 


To E. L. G. James Wardley, a tailor, and Anne 
his wife, at Bolton and Manchester, about 1747 
began and continued the society of the Shakers, 
or Shaking Quakers, until 1770, when Anne Lee, 
of Manchester, fully opened the " testimony." In 
1758 she joined the society under Wardley, was 
the wife of Abraham Standley, a blacksmith, and 
embarked from Liverpool to New York in 1774, 
leaving in England James and Anne Wardley, 
who were removed into an almshouse and died 
there. ED. MARSHALL. 

SEBASTIAN CABOT (7 th S. iv. 68). The conclud- 
ing sentence of MR. VYVTAN'S note is calculated 
to leave the impression that Cabot was born in 
1472. Is this the correct date of his birth? 
Lempriere's ' Universal Biography ; (1608) gives 
the date 1467. ' The British Plutarch/ to which 
I would call attention, contains the life of Cabot, 
with an engraving of that sailor. It is here stated 
that Sebastian Cabot was the son of a Venetian 
pilot, Sir John Cabot ; that Sebastian was born 
in Bristol about the year 1477. Attention is here 
called to a mistake of Strype's, wherein he says 
Cabot was an Italian. The writer of the life of 
Cabot says the error was caused by the name as it 
appeared in the MS., viz., Sebastiano Cabato. It 
is aomewbat strange, if Venice was bis place of 

birth, that, after the treatment he received from 
the Spanish, he did not go there, but to Bristol. 
It would certainly be most satisfactory if the 
birthplace of this truly great man was clearly 
settled. So far as my reading is concerned, I 
should consider there is little doubt but that he 
was born in Bristol. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. 

If MR. VYVYAN has not consulted the ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography ' he had better do 
so, as he will there find a good account of the pros 
and cons by C. H. Coote. I would send him a 
copy of that part of the article if he wished it. 

University College, W.C. 

iv. 68). - 

"In 1568 Sir Thos. Row, Merchant Taylor and Lord 
Mayor of London, caused a part of this ground (Moor- 
fields), on the north side of Spinning Wheel Alley, to be 
enclosed with a brick wall as a burving-place, and called 
it the New Churchyard, near Bethlehem The burial- 
ground has for many years been shut up, though not 
built upon." ' London and Middlesex,' by the Rev. J. 
Nightingale, ed. 1815, vol. iii. p. 185. 

On p. 339 is a quotation from a sketch of re- 
ligious denominations, by Kev. J. Evans, thir- 
teenth edition, pp. 295-6 : 

" I have met with the following inscription taken from 
;he churchyard in Spinning-Wheel Alley, Old Bethlem : 
Mr. Ludovick Muggleton, died Monday, March 14th, 
L697, in the eighty-eighth year of his age. 
Whilst Mausoleums and large inscriptions give 
Might, splendour, and past death make potente live, 
It is enough to briefly write thy name, 
Succeeding times by that will read thy fame, 
Thy deeds, thy act?, around the globe resound, 
No foreign soil where Muggleton 'a not found.' 
Phis is a singular instance of the extravagance of the 
'ollowers of this now almost forgotten prophet. I have 
een down to the ground, and no stone tells where the 
rophet lies." 

It would be interesting to know if this church 
ras consecrated, and in honour of what saint. 
Dan this be ascertained ? M. A.Oxon. 

LEGH OF LYME (7 th S. iii. 288, 459). Mr. Legh 
married Miss Turner, of Shrigley, Cheshire, heiress. 
Ihe was infamously stolen from a boarding-school 
y Edward Gibbon Wakefield and his brother, on 
iretence of going to her dying father. They had 
ot, I think, as far as Lancaster, on the way to 
Jretna, before the pursuit and recovery were 
uccessful. No blame attached to the lady or the 
chool-mistress, and I think Wakefield went to 
aol for five years. The lady left no surviving 
amily. Many will remember the sensation it 
made. P. P. 

A WALLET (7 th S. iii. 346, 461 ; iv. 78). MR. 

DAL'S conjecture that " the little triangular piece 

stuff, something like a bag," worn on a junior 



[7 th 8. IV. Aua. 20, '87. 

barrister's gown, is another form of wallet, is very 
ingenious ; but I wonder that he has not noticed 
its strong resemblance, on a smaller scale, to some 
of the hoods worn in the universities. Both hoods 
and full hanging sleeves are known to have been 
used formerly as pockets, and it is not impossible 
that the appendage to a barrister's gown may have 
been so utilized ; but I have no doubt that it was 
originally nothing else than a hood, which, when 
that covering for the head fell into disuse, was 
retained as a distinction, but in time dwindled 
down to its present size, French barristers wear 
over the left shoulder a piece of stuff trimmed with 
one or more rows of fur, according to their uni- 
versity degree. This is called in French chausse, 
and is defined in dictionaries as " chaperon ; piece 
d'e'toffe que les membres des university's portent sur 
l'e"paule gauche." " Hood "is given as the English 

equivalent. E. McC . 


HATTERS (7 th S. iii. 497; iv. 94). MR. BULLEN 
will find information upon this subject in Once 
a Week, xrv. 321, 424 ; Atlantic Monthly, xxii. 
428 ; Chambers's Journal, xxxii. 204, xxxvi. 34, 
Ivi. 350, xlv. 721, xlix. 580 ; BlacJcwood's Mag., 
Ivii. 51 ; Penny Magazine, x. 41 ; and in the 
'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' both the eighth and 
ninth editions. W. G. B. PAGE. 

77, Spring Street, Hull. 

Lines very similar to those on MR. PARKINSON'S 
walking-stick were well known to me as a lad at 
school in Somersetshire, and were occasionally to 
be found inscribed on the fly-leaf of a book. The 
name of the dwelling-place was, of course, changed 
according to the locality, and the inscription usually 

Take up this book and think of me 

When I am quite forgotten. 

I was pleased to find that the lines were of such 
antiquity as MR. PARKINSON'S stick undoubtedly 
shows them to be. P. F. KOWSELL. 

187, High Street, Exeter. 

LADY FENWICK'S TOMBSTONE (7 th S. iii. 493). 
Will you allow me to refer your correspondent to 
an article by me upon this subject which appear 
in ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. vii. 33, under date Jan. 14, 
1871, entitled ' The Disinterment of Lady Fen- 
wick,' though much additional information of an 
interesting kind is supplemented by him. In a 
volume of newspaper cuttings, &c., of mine, there 
is the following mention of the circumstance in a 
letter from me to the Evening Standard, probably 
very early in January, 1871: 

"In the Evening Standard of Dec. 24th last (1870) 
there appeared an interesting paragraph on the disinter- 
ment of the remains of Lady Fenwick (who had been 
buried at Saybrook, in Connecticut, 222 years ago) and 
the reinterment of the body with due rites in the neigh- 

bouring cemetery. It seems incorrect to style her Lady 
Fenwick, as she was the wife of an untitled gentleman, 
George Fenwick. Esq., who in 1639 was mainly instru- 
mental in making a settlement in Connecticut, which he 
called from the names of the principal proprietors, Lords 
Say and Sele, and Brooke Saybrook. This settlement 
became ultimately united with Connecticut. On George 
Fenwick's return to England he was nominated one of 
the judges at the trial of King Charles I., but declined 
taking part in that proceeding. He was of the ancient 
and honourable family of the Fenwicks of Northumber- 
land, the baronetcy in which afterwards became extinct 
by the execution of Sir John Fenwick for high treason 
Jan. 28, 1696-7. Many of your readers [i. e., of the Even- 
ing Standard} will recollect the graphic description 
which Macaulay, in his ' History of England ' has left 
on record of Sir John Fenwick's trial ; and though of his 
deep implication in the many plots of that disturbed 
period there can be but little doubt, yet his conviction 
was unjust. Sir John was buried in the Church of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, the night after his 
execution, and there is an inscription to his memory 
on a monument in the north aisle of the choir of 
York Cathedral, surmounted by the Fenwick crest 
a phoenix and the motto "Perit ut Vivat.' 
Also on a slab in the centre of the same monument 
is an inscription commemorative of his widow, Lady 
Mary who is buried beneath a daughter of Charles, 
Earl of Carlisle. At Corsham House, in Wiltshire, is a 
fine portrait of this lady, a Sir Godfrey Kneller. She is 
dressed in mourning, and holds in her right hand a 
miniature of her husband, her right elbow resting on a 
pedestal surmounted by an urn, on which is inscribed 
' Sir John Fenwick, Bart., beheaded the 28* h January, 

This was written by me when curate of Bolton 
Percy, near Tadcaster, Yorkshire, and inserted in 
the Evening Standard. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

WARDA FORI (7 th S. iv. 24). It may well be 
doubted if Cheapside, as Warda Fori, does really 
mean " Ward of the Forum." The main objection 
is that, taking Koman London as a whole, the site 
is not central enough and the thoroughfare is too 
open. No doubt Fori equates " Cheap " as a place 
of barter, but the real Roman Forum would become 
a closed building, like a town-hall. It is supposed 
that the line formed by Cheapside represents the 
northern limit of the first city; so that the Chepe 
would thus be outside the wall, but the true Forum 
must have been within the city. 

In connexion with the Anglo- Jewish exhibition 
held this year at Albert Hall, I have seen a careful 
restoration of this suburb. The sketch-plan shows 
the Jewish quarter of St. Lawrence Jewry, south 
of the present Guildhall, clustered about the site of 
Honey Lane Market, of course to the north of 
Cheapside. There must have been several of 
these local markets in the City, when each trade 
was localized, as with bakers, vintners, coal- 
merchants, shoemakers, &c. 

Take, then, Cripplegate, Bassishaw, Coleman 
Street, Aldersgate, the four wards allotted for 
Tuesday, and all north of Cheapside. They 

7 tt 8. IV. AtJO. 20, W.] 



furnish no evidence of abundant population, no 
do we look there for early Roman remains ; s( 
we may well suppose " Chepe " to have been an 
open market, like the New Cut of to-day, not an 
enclosed forum or structural edifice. A. HALL. 

QUOTATIONS C7 th S. iv. 88). 
Munera ista Fortunae putatis ? Insidiae sunt. 

L. Ann. Seneca, ' Epist.' viii. 

The passage and context are thus translated by 
Lodge : 

" Flie all those things which eyther please the common 
sort, or casualtie attributeth : runne not after casual 
benefits, but rather suspiciously and fearefully appre 
hend, and entertaine all uncertaine pleasures. Both wildc 
beast and fish are bewitched with the baite is laide for 
them. Think you that these are the gifts of Fortune 
Trust me they are her traps ; What one so ever of u 
would live a sweet life, let him flie as much as he may 
these limed benefits, wherein we most miserably be 

Compare Martial, iv. 56, " Munera quod senibus,' 

"A studious blind man, who had mightily beat his 
head about visible objects, and made use of the ex 
plication of his books and friends, to understand those 
names of light and colours which often came in his way 
bragged one day that he now understood what scarlet 
signified. Upon which his friend demanding what 
scarlet was, the blind man answered, ' It was like the 
sound of a trumpet.' " Locke's ' Human Understanding, 
bk. iii. chap. iv. sec. 11. 

" Coxcomb ugly all over, with the affectation of the 
fine gentleman." This is quoted by Steele as " Mr. 
Wycherley's character of a coxcomb "in the Tatler, 
No. 38. This reference may be of use. 


St. Austin's, Warrington. 

"Munera ista Fortunae putatis? Insidiae sunt." 
Seneca, 'Epist.' viii. sect. 3. 'Opp.,' torn. iii. p. 14, 
Lips., Tauchn., 1832. 


J. A. M. will find an account of General Lambert's 
ancestors in Hartley's 'Natural Curiosities of 
Malham ' (London, 1786), appendix No. 3. In that 
work it is stated that he married, on Sept. 10, 
1639, Frances, the daughter of Sir William Lister, 
of Thornton, then in her seventeenth year. In Lam- 
bert's pedigree in Whitaker's ' History of Craven ' 
his wife's name is said to be " Mary or Frances." 
The late Josias Atkinson, of Settle, a descendant 
of General Lambert's half-sister Cassandra, had 
printed an addendum to the Lambert pedigree, 
containing the Morley of Wennington and Wilson 
of Carlisle branches. THOMAS BRAYSHAW. 


John Lambert was born 1619 at Callow Hall, 
in the parish of Kirkby Malham, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire. His family line was of 
ancient lineage, and had long been settled in the 

county. There are some political documents by 
him relating to the events of his time printed. His 
wife was Frances, daughter of Sir William Lister. 

C. P. 
Westminster, S.W. 

SLIPSHOD ENGLISH (7 th S. iv. 85). I am very 
glad to see that MR. WALFORD has written upon 
this subject; and I beg to send one or two small 
contributions. We are very frequently told, in 
print or otherwise, that such a man was " ex- 
ecuted," whereas the fact is not that the man was 
executed, but that in his case the sentence of the 
law was carried into execution. Again, how often 
we meet with the phrase that such a man was 
" hanged, drawn, and quartered " ! This, I need 
scarcely say, is not correct. And, to give only one 
more instance, Why speak, as we commonly find 
done nowadays, especially in newspaper literature, 
of the " high sheriff" of a county ? Please let the 
attention of your readers be drawn to such- like 
cases of " slipshod English." ABHBA. 

Your correspondent P. P. ought really to be pulled 
up sharply by you for his bad English. If, as Aris- 
totle says, " the virtue of style is to be clear," what 
can be more deplorably wide of the mark than his 
sentence, "he little knew it did not mean the 
book, but meant Mr. Riddel's, of Felton, racehorse, 
Dr. Syntax " ? Of course, he intended to write 
"Dr. Syntax, the racehorse of Mr. Riddel, of 
Felton." Pray, dear Mr. Editor, do your best to 
keep the columns of ' N. & Q.' clear of such sins 
against " clearness of style." 

Hyde Park Mansions, S.W. 

I am quite of MR. WALFORD'S opinion respect- 

ng the unscholarly English of the present day, 

Dut whether it is worse than that of preceding 

inies is, at any rate, very doubtful. I am now 

reading a large historical work, published within 

;he last twenty-five years, and I am amazed at 

he carelessness of the author, both in his selection 

nd in his allocation of words. MR. WALFORD 

jays, " I do hope that the Editor of ' N. & Q.' will 

ry and help us all to improve our English style. 

?or myself, I will promise to be a docile scholar." 

Query, Is not " try and help us," for " try to help 

us," itself doubtful English ? Common I grant it 

s, but that is not the question. The Editor is to 

' try us all to improve our style," and also to " help 

." The former task would be somewhat hard. 

7 th S. iv. 68). I am happy to be able to answer 

R. ANDERSON'S query. When I prepared for 
ress the second edition of the 'Genealogist's 
Juide ' (1885), Mr. Stodart placed in my hands 
is MS. collection of references to works on family 
istory and pedigrees, with the generous permis- 



IV. AUG. 20, '87. 

sion to make any use I liked of it. I added from 
it to my book all the references to family histories 
and pedigrees which had escaped my notice in the 
first edition, after verifying them as far as lay in 
my power. So far, therefore, as Mr. Stodart's 
collection is of use to the genealogist it is readily 
available. GEORGE W. MARSHALL. 

CALABER (7 th S. iv. 67). See Prof. Skeat's 
notes on * Piers Plowman ' (Early Eng. Text Soc.), 
p. 171. ANON. 

GALILEO (7 th S. iv. 9, 113). It seems to me that 
it would have been a sufficient reply to the query of 
A. L. L. to say that the date in the statement which 
went the round of the papers was erroneous, and 
those given in the account of Galileo in the ninth 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' per- 
fectly correct. But Miss BUSK goes on to deny 
that the treatment of the astronomer by the eccle- 
siastical authorities of the Romish Church amounted 
to persecution at all, referring to it by the euphe- 
mistic term " bothers," and insinuating that it was 
brought about in great measure by the jealousy of 
literary and scientific compeers. Of this there is, 
I believe, no evidence whatever; and although no 
one believes now that Galileo was actually put to 
the torture by order of the Inquisition, he was un- 
doubtedly imprisoned for a short time, and com- 
pelled, under threats, to abjure the doctrine of the 
earth's motion. Moreover, restrictions were sub- 
sequently placed upon his personal liberty, and 
though Miss BUSK enlarges upon their mild nature, 
I scarcely think she would herself relish an order 
not to go beyond a palace and its grounds, even 
though it were Windsor Castle. Much more 
appropriate is the remark of the author of his life 
in the ' Biographie Universelle/ "C'e"tait trop faire 
souffrir un pauvre vicillard, qui n'avait eu d'autre 
tort que d'avoir de'voile' des ve"rit4s inconnues" 
As Miss BUSK refers to Dr. Whewell, it may not 
be amiss to quote a passage from his famous his- 
tory on this question: " But though," he says 
" we may acquit the popes and card inals in Galileo's 
time of stupidity and perversoness in rejecting mani- 
fest scientific truths, I do not see how we can acquit 
them of dissimulation and duplicity." Whewell's 
view, in fact, appears to have been that the abjura- 
tion was a solemn farce, equally discreditable to 
the enjoiners and the enjoined, to pander to the 
popular view of the interpretation of Scripture on 
the earths supposed immobility. However that 
may be, there is no doubt that Galileo was an un- 
willing party to the farce, although he had not 
sufficient of the spirit of a martyr to run the risk 
of refusing to make the abjuration. The often- 
repeated story of his exclaiming under breath 

E pur si muove," was probably a graphical re- 
presentation in later times of the sentiment he 
must have felt at the absurdity. Speaking of his 
own persecution of the early believers in Christ 

St. Paul is made to say in the Authorized Version, 
" I compelled them to blaspheme." The Revised 
more accurately represents the original as "I strove 
to make them blaspheme." Would that the attempt 
of the Inquisitors to make Galileo abjure and 
curse a doctrine in which he believed had been 
equally unsuccessful ! but it was not so, and the 
account forms one of the saddest chapters in the 
hi<-orv of science. W. T. LYNN. 


Galileo reappears in ' N. & Q.' Reference 
should be made to the article by PROF. J. E. B. 
MAYOR upon the most recent treatment of the 
subject, in 'N. & Q.,' 5 th S. xii. 124. 


"I'M A DUTCHMAN " (7 th S. iv. 25). The saying 
" I 'm a Dutchman," in connexion with refusals to 
grant requests such as that instanced by CUTH- 
BERT BEDE, is not so commonly used as I have 
known it. The phrase has been familiar to me 
all my life, in the following forms : " If I do, I 'm 
a Dutchman ! " " You may call me a Dutchman if 
I do ! " " When you catch me at that you can call 
me a Dutchman ! " " He 's a regular Dutchman at 
it ! " (disparagingly). Then in the country places 
of my earliest remembrances, if any one expressed 
himself or herself in finer = more refined language 
than that usually employed, the person was at once 
told " You 're talking Dutch ! " "You talk like a 
regular Dutchman ! " or " Ar conna tell what yo 
me-an ; yo ; re tawkin' Dutch-like ! " 


In his * Dictionary of Phrase and Fable ' Dr. 
Brewer gives the following account of the origin 
of this saying : 

"/ 'm a Dutchman if 1 do" A. strong refusal. During 
the rivalry between England and Holland, the word 
Dutch was synonymous with all that was false and hate- 
ful, and when a man said ' I would rather be a Dutch- 
man than do what you ask me ' he used the strongest 
term of refusal that words could express." 


This expression is, I think, very easily explained. 
I take it to be simply a euphemistic rendering 
of "I'm damned." The expression is common 
enough, and instead of actually employing the 
oath to emphasize an objection to do any particular 
thing, the word "Dutchman" is used. As in 
many other cases of a similar nature, the meaning 
is identical. I trust this explanation will not 
make CUTHBERT BKDE'S fellow labourer in the 
ministry uncomfortable; but " facts is facts" not- 
withstanding. W. ROBERTS. 

11, Frederick Street, Gray's Inn Road, W.C. 

[The reference to Dr Brewer is supplied by many 

Instead of musket-balls, ME. WARD should probably 

7" s. IV. Auo. 20, 



read mustard-balls, for which Tewkesbury was for- 
merly celebrated. Perhaps MR. WARD will tell 
us where he finds mention of Tewkesbury musket- 
balls. T. FixzRoY FENWICK. 


" Of what avail the casket without the jewel and the 
Betting without the gem." 

I remember when a boy at school (nearly forty years 
ago) " cribbing" some verses out of an old annual, which 
then belonged to my father, and which began thus : 
What recks it where the casket lies 
When the gem it shrined is gone. 

They are the only lines remaining in my memory, but I 
think they must be what MK. WOOD is seeking. My im- 
pression is they were by Alaric A. Watts. 



The Works of John Marston. Edited by A. H, Bullen, 

B.A. 3 vols. (Nimmo.) 

ONE more is added to the list of great dramatists whose 
works Mr. Bullen has brought within reach of the 
scholarly student. When we see on the shelves the 
lengthening series, comprising already the works of Mar- 
lowe, Middleton, and Marston, and shortly, it is to be 
hoped, to include those of Beaumont and Fletcher, by far 
the most desirable of the series, we cannot do other than 
congratulate Mr. Bullen upon his industry and his per- 
severance no less than his taste and his erudition. In 
many respects Mr. Bullen is an ideal editor. Inheriting 
the traditions as well as the labours of Dyce, he brings 
to his task a poetic insight such as that admirable and 
most scholarly editor did not possess. So far as regards 
the archaeological aspects Dyce was all that could be 
desired. He had, however, no special interpretative gift 
of criticism such as clothes with blossom the bare 
branches of scholarship. He did not display with Mr. 
Bullen the feeling for the imaginative and poetical 
beauties of the Elizabethan poets, their perception of 
subtlest analogies, their insight into natural and super- 
natural mysteries, 

The deep affright 
That pulseth in the heart of night 
and, indeed, under happy conditions, in that of noon 
the splendid gifts, in fact, which made them what they 
are. In his work Mr. Bullen joins to a scholarship 
kindred to that of Dyce an interpretative and illus- 
trative faculty recalling Leigh Hunt, next to Lamb the 
best critic of the early drama yet arisen. 

In his latest work Mr. Bullen has been confronted 
with grave difficulties. The works of Marston have 
undergone no previous editing. Nothing is accessible 
but the early quartoes and the collection of six plays, 
8vo., 1633, which is now before us, and offers, perhaps, 
the most corrupt text of dramas that is accessible. In 
the edition of Marston by Mr. Halliwell(-Phillipps), 
which has hitherto done duty, one or other of these 
texts the quarto and the octavo is printed in its in- 
tegrity, if so misapplied a term may be used. Mr. 
Bullen has now supplied a new text, which, if it is not 
always perfect, is at least an enormous advance upon 
anything previously accessible. This he has enriched 
with scholarly notes and with illustrations drawn from 
his own unparalleled knowledge of early English poetry, 
The result is before us in these warmly welcomed volumes 

Into the merits of Marston, the most turgid, but not 
;he least inspired of the Elizabethan dramatists, this is 
no place to enter. Mr. Bullen ! s emendations and sug- 
gestions will hereafter receive due attention; and to 
venture on these in the " Notes on Books " would be 
;o trench on the privileges of future contributors to 

N. & Q.' One or two uses of words may, however, 
with advantage be chronicled. In ' The Malcontent,' 
[I. ii., the word Huguenot is used : " Lee 's be once 
drunk together, and so unite a most virtuously strength- 
ened friendship: shall 's, Huguenot? Shall 's?" This 
anticipates by very many years the first use chronicled 

n Skeat's ' Dictionary.' Jn ' The Insatiate Countess,' 
III. i., occurs the phrase, spoken by a Captain of the 
Watch : " If you meet a shevoiliero, that 's in the gross 
phrase a knight that swaggers in the street, and being 
taken has no money in his purse to pay for his fees, it 
shall be a part of your duty to entreat me to let him 
go." To this the First Watchman answers : " O mar- 
vellous ! Is there such shevoiliers ? " This use and the 
spelling of chevalier, then an uncommon word, seem 
very noticeable. The edition is a delightful possession. 
Some room for correction in a second edition is afforded. 
By those, however, who know in what state are the 
early editions, the work achieved by Mr. Bullen will be 
seen to merit heartiest thanks. The volumes, mean- 
while, in all typographical respects are admirable. 
Marston will repay closer study than he has yet re- 
ceived. With all his faults of taste and execution upon 
him (and these are many), and with all his obligations 
to Shakspeare (which are colossal), he is plenarily in- 
spired. There is much, certainly, to forgive, but there 
is also much at which to marvel. 

A Life of John Colet, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's and 
Founder of St. Paul's School. With an Appendix of 
some of his English Writings. By J. H. Lupton, M.A. 
(Bell & Sons.) 

IT is natural that the close and intelligent analysis of 
the lives and writings of those who took part in the two 
great movements ot renascence and reformation which 
the second half of this century has witnessed should lead 
to the establishment of the reputation of the great Dean 
of St. Paul's. It is scarcely conceivable that, as Mr. 
Lupton states, no mention of him occurs in the histories 
of Hume and Lingard. That he is now seen in his true 
dimensions is due to his latest, and incomparably his 
best, biographer, whose labours, begun a score years 
ago, now see their completion. Born assumably about 
1467, Colet anticipated by nearly a generation Luther 
and Rabelais, the leaders of the great movements of 
which he was a pioneer. His written works furnish, as 
is known, no index to his influence upon those around 
him, and indirectly upon subsequent times. Previous, 
indeed, to the appearance of Mr. Lupton's biography, 
the full extent of this has scarcely been felt. In Mr. 
Frederic Seebohm's ' Oxford Reformers,' Colet. Erasmus, 
and More, the influence of Colet was shown. The 
information therein supplied Mr. Lupton now comple- 
ments. He has studied closely Colet's writings, many 
of which, including the singularly interesting " ryght 
fruitfull monicion," he prints in an appendix. The 
result is a scholarly and profoundly valuable biography, 
which, so far as regards modern requirements, leaves 
nothing to be desired. Of the times in which Colet 
lived, and of the condition of scholarship in Oxford in 
his day, Mr. Lupton supplies a satisfactory picture. His 
judgments are sound and sober, and full references to 
the documents from which he largely quotes are sup- 
plied. In its way, accordingly, his work is a model. It 
cannot fail to inspire further interest in Colet and his 
associates, and it deserves to be classed with the beet 



[7 th S. IV. AUG. 20, '87. 

work on the precursors and contemporaries of the Re- 
formers which recent days have supplied It is enriched 
with a good portrait of Colet, reproduced from Holland s 
' Heroologia ' (1620), and with a full index. 

Juvenilia. Being a Second Series of Essays on Sundry 
^athetical Questions. By Vernon Lee. 2 vols. 
(Fisher Unwin.) 

THIS curious and characteristic collection of studies on 
art, literature, and morals is christened ' Juvenilia for 
reasons which the author explains at some length in her 
opening chapter. Not easy, or perhaps fair, is it to con- 
dense what, in her opinion, requires full exposition. She 
holds, however, that in the case of youth her own case 
certainly aesthetic questions are the "only questions 
which eeem thoroughly engrossing. Later we care 
for them still, and perhaps fully as much, but we care 
for other questions also." Hence these thoughts and 
reflections and gossipings upon Botticelli and Irving, 
Sadoleto and Sarah Bernhardt, Cimarosa and Lady 
Archibald Campbell, are called by the name which 
singers such as George Wither and Leigh Hunt assigned 
to their poetic firstlings. We quarrel neither with the 
title nor with the clever, brilliant, and rather aggressive 
views which the author puts forth. They are some- 
times difficult of acceptance, but their influence when 
accepted will be beneficial. We resent an occasional 
display of pedantry, as when, in the case of a work by a 
dramatist such as M. Sardou, she insists on calling 
Feodora what he has called Fedora ; we rather growl at 
her demands upon our erudition, and the necessity we are 
under of consulting a biographical dictionary or owning 
ourselves inferior in information to our teacher ; and we 
feel the allusions so prodigally spread as to prove puzzling. 
None the less we own the work to be far above the 
average, and we commend it to the class of readers for 
which it is avowedly intended, enthusiasts in their third 

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by Sir 
George Grove, D.C.L., LL.D. Part XXII. (Mac- 
millan & Co.) 

WITH this part, which carries the work from " Watson" 
to ' Zwischenspiel," the task of Sir George Grove and 
his associates is practically accomplished. A full, 
adequate, and trustworthy dictionary of musicians is 
now accessible to the English reader. With a laudable 
desire to make the work in all respects worthy of the 
support it has received, an appendix and a full index are 
to be issued. These, it is pleasant to hear, are in prepa- 
ration, and will shortly see the light. With these will 
be given the title-page, &c., of thejiourth and concluding 

Edward HI. and hi* Wars, 1327-60. Arranged and 

Edited by W. J. Ashley, M.A. (Nutt.) 
FROM the chronicles of Froissart, Enighton, &c., the 
State Papers, and other contemporary records, Mr. 
Ashley has selected passages illustrating the wars of 
Edward. The volume, the value of which is far in 
excess of its bulk, is one of a series edited by Mr. F. 
York Powell, which is likely to be of high value, and to 
give in successive volumes a good view of English history 
at any fixed date. 

The Annual Register for the Year 1886. New Series. 


IT is difficult to over-estimate the use to the politician 
and the historian of these successive volumes of the 
Annual Register in the shape they now assume. The 
more actual interest is, of course, for the politician, who 
in the volume just issued finds a complete record of the 
development of political parties as they are now arranged. 

Foreign and colonial affairs are once more ably sum- 
marized, the eight chapters they occupy constituting a 
mine of information. The obituary is, of course, an all- 
important portion, and the chronicle of events and the 
retrospect of literature, science, and art have their old 
and often proved quality of completeness. A full index 
renders generally available information the value of 
which is universally recognized. The Annual Register 
is, indeed, almost a cyclopaedia of information. 

To Cassell's "National Library" has been added a 
reprint of Mr. Thomas Woolner's delightful first-fruits 
of poetry, My Beautiful Lady, wonderfully elaborated 
and perfected from its first appearance in the Germ. 

MESSRS. GRIFFITH, FAJREAN & Co. have published a 
serviceable Pocket Encyclopaedia of Useful Kno^vledge, 
by Henry Grey. 

THE Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., has reprinted 
from the Western Antiquary a paper entitled Two 
Hundred and Twenty-two Antiquities and Places worth 
seeing in or near Penzance. This catalogue of curiosities 
is a novelty, and constitutes a useful guide-book. It is 
published by W. H. Luke, Plymouth. 

THE first number of the Bookbinder (W. Clowes & 
Sons) has a coloured plate and other illustrations, with 
much matter of bibliopegistic interest. It is to be hoped 
that this new and happily conceived venture will be 

VOL. XV. of the Antiquary (Stock) contains the con- 
tinuation of Mr. Fairman Ordish's account of the London 
theatres, papers by Mr. J. H. Round on 'The Early 
Custody of Domesday Book,' an account of storied houses 
by Mr. Allan Fea, and many other interesting contri- 
butions. It is profusely illustrated, and is in all respects 
up to the level of preceding volumes. 

MESSRS. H. S. ASHBEE and Alexander Graham will 
shortly publish, through Dulau & Co., an account of 
their journey through Tunis. It will be furnished with 
a glossary and a bibliography, and will be fully illus- 

$atire* to 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

H. FISHWICK (" Centenarians "). Intimation that we 
are indisposed to reopen this question has frequently 
been made in 4 N. & Q.' 

MEDLOCK wishes to know in which of Carlyle's works 
can be found the assertion that the population of Eng- 
land consists mostly of fools. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 22. 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print: and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7* 8. IV. AUQ. 27, '87.] 





NOTES: ChilHngworth's Monument, 161 Notes to Skeat's 
' Dictionary,' 162' Mother Goose's Melodies,' 163 Lengthy 
Parliamentary Career -Books published on London Bridge 
Gospel in Wales, 164 Parallel Ideas Botticelli "It 
will never make old bones" Fleur de Lis Colting at 
Appleby Epitaph- Superstition about Pins, 165 Nursery 
Rhyme Relics of Burns Titular Archbishop of York- 
Solon and Croesus Keats, 166 Great Wall of China, 167. 

QUERIES: By -boat Gibson Col. Copley October Club- 
Chaucer Restored, 167 Meres Forsook " Kindly Scot" 
Easter Island Archbishop Stafford Creeper : Maier Nod 
Fullarton ' Luafio Estacado ' Abergele, 168 Charitable 
Bequests Manx Language Welsh Bards Irish House of 
Commons Mayors of Lincoln Lord Frowyke Squalling 

t Sappho" St. Coleman's Necklace "Authors Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES : Records of Celtic Occupation, 170 Blind-house, 
171 Altarage Lyly's Enphues,' 172 Watchet Plates- 
Scotland and Liberalism Sparrow's ' Rationale,' 173 Epi- 
taph Siege of Bolton MS. Journal of F. White Burning 
Question " Music hath charms," &c., 174 Massage and 
Shampooing Hampshire Plant-names, 175 -"Credo quia 
impossibile est" Bluestockingism Bishops in Partibus 
Infldelium Attorney and Solicitor Judge Maule Lease of 
999 Years, 176 Bunhill Fields" Defence, not Defiance" 
Christ Hospital Cadency Percival " As dull as a fro " 
Sir J. Dyer Numeration of Rupees Knife and Fork, 177 
Paris Garden " Nullum tempus occurrit," <fcc. Admiral 
Byng Cargo King's End Car, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Hill's ' Boswell's Johnson ' Dobson's 
'Bassandyne Bible' Tuer and Fagan's 'First Year of a 
Silken Reign.' , 

Notices to Correspondents, ftc. 



I took an opportunity a short time ago of in- 
specting the mural monument of this divine, as it 
is now to be seen on the wall of the south walk 
in the cloister of Chichester Cathedral. It is of 
stone, 5 ft. long and 4 ft. wide ; there is a border 
round three sides with a base at the foot, and 
a marble slab has been inserted, filling up the 
space inside in a manner consistent with what has 
been said about the defacement of the monument 
and with the " damna sepulchri" in the last line 
of the present inscription. There is an interval 
between this line and that before it, as shown in 
the accompanying copy, which I made myself with 
all the accuracy I could command : 

IVirtuti sacrum. 
Spe certissima Reaurrectionis. 
Hie Reducem expectat animam 


Oxonii natus et educatus. 

Collegii Stae Trinitatis. 

Socius. Decus et Gloria : 

Omni Literarum genere celeberrimus. 

Ecclesiae Anglicanae adversus Romanam 

Propugnator inyictissiraus : 

Ecclesiae Salisburiensis Cancellariua Disnissimus. 

Sepultus Januar: mense A<> D^t 164}. 

Sub hoc marmore requiescit. 

Nee Sentit Damna Sepulchri. 
The circumstances attending the burial of 
Chillingworth were of so extraordinary a character 
that, though they are known to many, I may be 
pardoned for repeating them here. At the time 
of the funeral Dr. Francis Cheynell, then rector of 
Petworth, appeared at the grave with ' The Religion 
of Protestants' in his hand, and addressed the 
friends of the deceased and others there present on 
the dangerous tendency of what he called the 
rationalism of the deceased. In the course of his 
address he flung the book into the grave, exclaim- 
ing as follows : 

' Get thee gone then, thou cursed booke, which hast 
seduced so many precious soules ; get thee gone, tbou 
corrupt rotten booke, earth to earth, and dust to dust; 
get thee gone into the place of rottennease, that thou 
maist rot with thy Author and see corruption." 

After which denunciation he proceeded to say 
further : 

" So much for the burial of his errors. Touching the 
burial of his corpse, I need say no more than this : it will 
be most proper for men of his persuasion to commit the 
body of their deceased friend brother master to the dust; 
and it will be most proper for me to hearken to that 
counsel of my Saviour, Let the dead bury their dead, but 
go thou and preach the kingdom of God." 

"And so," he informs us in mVNovissimaChilling- 
worthi,' " I went from the grave to the Pulpit and 
preached on that Text to the Congregation." 

It is certainly not improbable that those who 
brought the body to be buried, Lieut. Golledge 
or the friends of Chillingwortb, whoever they 
might be, may, notwithstanding CheynelPs pro- 
hibition, have caused, after his departure, such 
parts of the offices of the Church as could be hur- 
riedly performed to be said over his coffin ; but, so 
far as we can learn from Cheynell's exordium at the 
grave, where, declining to bury his body, he buried, 
as Des Maizeaux says, his book, the funeral was, at 
all events, an instance, common enough in those 
times, of the denial of what Jeremy Taylor calls 
(and he had experience of the kind) open and 
solemn sacraments and of the services of the 
Church of England to persons opposed to the views 
of the Puritans. 

Cheynell himself said at the grave : 
" Brethren, it was the earnest desire of that eminent 
scholar, whose body lyes here before you, that his corps 
might be interred according to the Rites and customs 
approved in the English Liturgy But his {second re- 
quest (in case that were denied him) was that he might 

be buried in this city His first request is denied for 

many reasons, of which you cannot be ignorant," &c. 

Cheynell's conduct at Chillingwprth's funeral 
having been reflected upon as uncharitable, he pub- 
lished in defence in 1644 his ' Chilling worthi 
Novissima : or the Sickncsse, Heresy, Death, and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. V* s. iv. AUG. 27, '87. 

Buriall of William Chilling worth (in his own 
phrase) Clerk of Oxford, and in the conceit of his 
fellow-sonldiers the Queen's Arch-Engineer and 
Grand Intelligencer,' &c.* From this work, called 
by Locke " one of the most villainous books that, I 
think, ever was printed," I have taken the informa- 
tion given above, to which I may add the following 
passages given by Des Maizeaux in his ' Life of 

"His body was decently laid in a convenient coffin 
covered with a mourning Herse-cloth, more seemly (as I 
conceive) then the usuall covering, patched up put of the 
mouldy reliques of some motheaten copes : His friends 

were entertained with wine and cakes All that offered 

themselves to carry his corps had every one of them 

(according to the custome of the countrey) a branch of 
Rosemary, a mourning Ribband, and a paire of Gloves." 

" Mr. Chillingworth was buried by day, and therefore 
we bad no torches or candles at his grave." 

" If any man enquire whether he hath a tombe-stone... 
...let him know that we plundered an old Friar of his 
Tombestone, and there is roome enough for an Epitaph 
if they please to send one from Oxford." 

The late Mr. King ('Handbook to the Cathe- 
drals,' pt. ii., 1876) observes as follows : 

"The original inscription, written by a friend of 
Cbillingworth's soon after the Restoration, contained 
a special allusion to Cheynell, in which he was styled 
Theologaster. His son got into the cloister at night and 
defaced it with a pickaxe." 

I can find no authority for this statement. None 
is given by King ; and, although I have applied 
to the authorities of the cathedral (and my in- 
quiries have received much attention from the dean 
and the librarian), I can learn nothing beyond what 
is stated above. At the same time the present 
state of the inscription, with the line on " damna 
sepulchri," seems to bear out the assertion of the 
< Handbook.' 

It is probably known to many of your readers 
that Dr. Johnson wrote a short life of Cheynell, 
though not in his happiest vein. Lisle Bowles, the 
poet, also preached a sermon in the Cathedral of 
{Salisbury (where he was canon, Chillingworth 
having been Chancellor of Sarum), in a sequel to 
which he gave " some account of the last days o\ 
William Chillingworth"; but this production also 
is more curious than valuable. S. ARNOTT. 

Gunners bury. 



(Continued from p. 84.) 

Accedf. ' Not in early use." Known before 1450. Cf 
D.M., i.v. 

Accoutre. Add, 1. 16, and for Du. &osfer=*=sacristan. 
Accredit. Known since 1620. Cf. D.M., i.v. 
Acrobat. Gr. dpd/3aroe, not dcpoj3dn?f. The first 

* London, 1644, Samuel Gellibrand, at the Brasen 
Serpent in Paul's Church-yard. There is an abusive 
dedication to Drs. Bayley, Prideaux, Fell, &c., who had 
given their imprimatur to The Religion of Protestants 

me is given in Passow; the latter nowhere, so far as I 
an see. 

Across. Caxton (1485), "Hys hondea in crosse." Cf, 
D.M., i.v. 

Adjoin. Known since 1325. Cf. D.M., i.v. 

Adjure. Used by Wyclif, 1382. Cf. D.M., i.v. 

Admiral. Besides Prof. Skeat'snote in Suppl. the D.M. 
ihould be consulted. 

Adulation. Used by Chaucer, ' Bal. Good Counsail.' 
D.M., i.v. 

Adulter. In support of derivation ad-\-alter compare 
Skt. anja-ga, he who goes to another, adulterous (Vani- 
9ek, p. 28). 

Aery. D.M. gives other explanation. 

Esthetic. Carlyle was not the first ; W. Taylor, 1798. 
Cf. D.M., i.v. 

Affable. Known since 1540 ; and affability is used by 
Caxton, 1483. Cf. D.M., i.vv. I may add here an 
observation which applies to a very great many words 
where Prof. Skeat could not from the materials at hand 
supply instances older than Milton or Shakespeare. 
The quotations given by M. show how very seldom these 
writers used really new words. The notion that they 
consciously coined new terms when they liked, disappears 
more and more as we continue using the great 'Dic- 
tionary.' Cf. affect, addle, affeer, agile, attack, &c. 

AJt, After. These two words, aft, adv., and after, adv., 
prepos., and adject., are duly kept separate in D.M. 
Prof. Skeat's ace. is confused. Aft is not an abbrevia- 
tion of, much less a development from after, which is a 
comparative, but of ceftan, which is a superlative. After 
is, therefore, not the "true original." Skeat points at 
Dutch achter. M. does not mention Dutch at all. Yet 
Middle Dutch* has forms of importance which elucidate 
the connexion between after and achter. After (Verdam, 
i. 2796), achten, achte, acht, adverb (ibid., i. 146), achter 
(ibid., 166), efter (ii. 5826), echt (ii. 5096), echte (ii. 5126), 
echter (ii. 5126). This change of / into ch is common in 

* Middle Dutch, or rather Middle Nederlandsch, and 
not Old Dutch, as we find often quoted in Prof. Skeat's 
' Diet.' It is strange that so careful and accurate a 
scholar should be guilty of this error. His chief autho- 
rities for Dutch are Oudemans, Kiliaen, Hexham. 
Kiliaen's book is, as he says, an old Dutch dictionary, 
but it is not a dictionary of Old Dutch. Oudemans is 
neither ; it is quite new. Both give Middle Dutch voca- 
bularies. Hexham's Dutch is Early Modern. As I said 
elsewhere (art. ' Dutch and Deutsch,' Liverp. Colleqe 
Mag., 1886), "Ubi plura nitent," &c.; yet it is worth 
while to point out the slip. Prof. Skeat has no doubt 
long since discovered it himself, and added to his autho- 
rities ' Middel Nederlandsch Woordenboek,' by Verdam 
('S Gravenhage, Martinus NyhoflF), published as far as 
vol. ii. pt. x., " Gelove "; ' Etymologisch Woordenboek 
der NederlandscheTaal,' by Job. Franck ('S Gravenhage 
Martinus Nyhoff), published parts i.-iv., " Kreuk "; and 
' Glossarium van Verouderde Rechtstermen, Kunstwoor- 
den,' &c., by Karel Stallaert (Leiden, Brill), published 
parts i.-iii., " By," the first of which supersedes, as it 
appears, the unfortunate failure of Oudemans. All 
these works give Middle Dutch, Oudemans's title not- 
withstanding. Of Old Dutch there are no remains 
known, except, perhaps, the fragments of what is known 
as the Carolingian Psalms." Since this was written I 
received the new book, Principles of English Etymo- 
logy,' with which Prof. Skeat has established for himself 
anew claim on the gratitude of all students of philology 
This delightful book deserves the attention of all English- 
men who care for their language. I now only point out 
that while on, e.g., pp. 482, 483, 486, the old error is 
perpetuated, we find the correct term on p. 490. 

7<> S. IV. Aua. 27, '87.3 



Dutch, 'e.g./prachl for graft, from graven, to dig; 
gtkocht for geJcoft, from'koopen, to buy. Compare the 
change'in opposite direction in Eng. laughter, &c. 

Age. A sense of this word not noticed by Murray nor 
Skeat is that of old, adj. (or subst.=old marO. Marlowe's 
' Faustua,' sc. xiii. 1. 76 (ed. Ward, Clar. Press, p. 41), 

says: "Torment that base and crooked age" i.e., 

the old man; and in 'Cantic. de Creatione ' (publ. 
' Anglia,' vol. i. p. 303 sqq.), 1. 262 : 

\}Q wente michel ful glad 
and bad vs come, bo]>e }ouge and age, 
for to honuren godia ymage. 

Agglomerate. Known since 1684. D.M., i.v. 

Aggress. Known since 1574. D.M., i.v. 

Ajar. Add 2=at variance with, out of harmony ; 
used as if derived fromyar, quarrel. Cf. D.M., i.v. 

AlaeJc. DM. derives this from ah+lacJc, failure, want, 
" as suggested by Prof. Skeat." This differs from account 
in 'Diet.,' first edition. The Supplement contains nothing 
on this word. I have no opportunity of seeing second 

Alike. Onlic and anlic are in A.-S. so very much less 
frequent than gelic, with its derivatives, that it seems 
f luhtly incorrect to omit all mention of a prefix ge. The 
v:sent a- represents, no doubt, both. (Cf. afford, 
aware, &c.) 

Aliment. Known since 1477. D.M., i.v. 

Allege. From Norm.-French alegier, Latinized into 
En. law Lat. adlegiare. Cf. D.M., i.v. 

A llegory. Used by Wyclif. DM., i.v. 

Alley. Against the derivation of aller from adnare Prof. 
Skeat mentions as chief difficulties, (1) transition from n 
to I, (2) rarity of O.F. aner, to come. As to No. 1 he gives 
instances orphelin, Palermo, Koussillon, Bologne; he 
might have added that a similar sporadic change obtains 
in Portuguese laranja, cf. Spanish naranja, Eng. orange 
(cf. Skeat, i.v.) ; and in opposite direction in English 
Ufnode for Hflode ('Specimens.' i., i.v.), posterne for 
posterle (Morris, ' Outlines,' p. 71). For No. 2, many 
French dialects have clear traces of n forms. In " Para- 
bole de 1'Enfant Prodigue, en 88 Patois Divers, par L. 
Favre (Paris, H. Champion, 15, Quai Malaquais," no 
date), I find, verses 15 and 20, " s'enanet "=il s'en alia 
(dial. Nahrte Ouvergna, p. 4); 18, " m'enanartfi "=je 
m'en irai (dial. Nahrte Ouvergna, p. 5). So dial. 
Charente, Confolens (p. 42): 13, "s'an angue "=il s'en 
alia ; same dial., " annet " (p. 59) ; 18, " faut qu'i m'an 
ange"=que je m'en aille. Valette (p. 44): 13, "sen 
enga'i"; 15, " s'en onguai"; 18, "qu'enge." Rochelle 
(p. 46): 13, "s'en andgit"; 23, "d'anger" (infinit.). 
Dordogne, nontron (p. 55): 13, "s'en ane"; 18, "y 
aine" (subj.). Sarlat (p. 57): 13, "s'en onguet"; 18, 
" qu'angui." Limousin (p. 61): 13, " s'en onet "; (p. 62) 
13, " s'en an6." Puy de Dome (p. 64) : 13, " s'en n6 "; 
15, "se ne "; 18, "qu'ian mein agne." Montauban 
(p. 69): 15, "anguec"; 18, "men can ana." Reole 
(Gironde) (p. 71): 15, " s'en angut"; 18, " anguerey." 
Parnier (p. 75): 15. "s'en anec"; 18, "m'en anire." 
Haute Garonne (p. 78): 13 and 15, "s'en auguec "; 18, 
"que angoy." Foix (p. 80): 13 and 15, "s'en aneg"; 18, 
"en anire." Montpellier (p. 99): 18, "faou que m'en 
ane." Puy, Haute Loire (p. 101) : 18, " vouole anar 
troubar"; 20, " s'en anet." Nismes (p. 106): 38, "m'en 
anara'i trouva"; 20, "ana." De, Drome (p. 121) : 13, 
" s'en one." Gap, Hautes Alpes (p. 123) : 18, "onarei." 
The dialects I enumerate are not all which have these 
forms ; I chose those which showed difference of spelling. 

Newton School, Rock Ferry. 

( To be continued f ) 

for February 26, Mr. Andrew Lang drew 
attention to the fact that some one had advertised 
the previous week for a copy of * Songs of the 
Nursery ; or, Mother Goose's Melodies,' published 
in 1719. Prof. F. J. Child, in a letter dated 
Feb. 25, 1886, drew my attention to this collection 
of nursery songs, and informed me that it was 
printed in Boston so early as 1719. Whether this 
is the edition sought I cannot say. Prof. Child 
added that an imperfect copy was said to have been 
discovered in an antiquarian library not very long 
ago, and that he had meant to reprint it, but it 
mysteriously disappeared. Mr. Andrew Lang went 
on to ask if any one could tell him anything about 
Mother Goose. My own impression is that Mother 
Goose is not native to the soil, and that it is simply 
an English rendering of Perrault's ' Ma Mere 
1'Oye.' Admitting this, in default of evidence to 
the contrary, there is clear proof of the rapid hold 
which Perrault's tales must have taken of the 
English mind, when we find an American children's 
book borrowing a title from him within little more 
than twenty years of the publication of his ' Contes.' 
In a subsequent communication, the Countess 
Martinengo - Cesaresco (Athenceum, March 12, 
1887) points out the connexion between the 
* Contes de ma Commere 1'Oye ' and other stories 
with animal eponymi, such as ' Contes de Peau 
d'Asnon ' and ' Contes de la Cicogne,' and adds 
that it is strange all trace of the latter (except its 
name) should be lost. In Melusine for April, 
1887 (col. 369), there is an interesting extract 
from Noel du Fail's * Propos Rustiques,' which 
describes how Robin Chevet, an old Breton farmer, 
used to entertain his family after supper with old- 
world tales : 

" Et ainsi occupes a diverses besognes, le bonhomme 
Robin, apres avoir impose silence, commencoit un beau 
conte du temps que les bestes parloient : comme le renard 
desroboit le poisson aux poissoniers ; comme il fit battre 
le loup aux lavandieres, lorsqu'il apprenoit a pescher, 
comme le chien et le chat alloient bien loin; de la 
corneille quien chantant perdit son fromage, de Melu- 
sine, du loup garou, de cuir d'Annette ; des fees, et que 
souventes fois parloit a elles, familierement mesme, la 
vespree, paesant par le chemin creux, et qu'il les voyoit 
danser au branle prds la fontaine du Cormier au eon 
d'une belle vdze (cornemuse), couverte de cuir rouge, ce 
luy estoit avis, car il avoit la vue courte." 

The contributor of Melusine to whom we are 
indebted for this extract adds that in some editions 
of * Propos Rustiques ' three tales are added to the 
repertory of Robin Chevet, one of which is ' le 
conte de la cicogne.' Looking to the general 
character of worthy Robin's stories, I think it 
very possible that ' Contes de Loups ' and ' Contes 
de la Cicogne' were only popular appellations for 
the fables of a still earlier raconteur, the ubiquitous 
^Esop. Let us hope that the zealous efforts of the 
French folk-lorists may succeed in finally settling 
the question, W. F. PRTDEAUX, 



O* s. iv. AUG. 27, 

FAMILY. -Sir Francis Knollys, Knt., the fifth son 
of the well-known Sir Francis Knollys, K.U., 
Qaeen Elizabeth's Treasurer of the Chamber was 
first returned to Parliament for Oxford in 1575. 
His age at election does not appear; but inas- 
much as his elder brother William (second son 
of Sir Francis, K.G., and afterwards Larl of Ban- 
bury) was born about 1547, it is scrcely likely that 
his birth took place later than 1554 or 1555, so that 
he would be nearly, or quite of full age when first 
he obtained a seat in the House of Commons. He 
continued to represent Oxford City till 1589, and 
afterwards in the Parliaments of 1597-8, 1604-11, 
and 1625 served for Berkshire, and for Reading in 
both Parliaments of 1640 until his decease some 
time before May, 1648. Thus, from the date of 
his first election to that of his death above seventy 
years intervened, probably the longest Parlia- 
mentary career on record. He received knight- 
hood in Holland from the Earl of Leicester so far 
back as 1586. The precise date of his decease is 
not given, but he was living in July, 1646, and 
was dead on May 8, 1648, when a new writ was 
ordered for Reading, to fill up the vacancy created 
by his death ; so that, assuming him to have died 
shortly after the first-mentioned date, he would be 
more than ninety years old at the end of his 
career. He out-lived both his sons, the second and 
last surviving, styled " Sir Francis Knollys, Jun r ., 
Kn*.," his colleague in the Long Parliament in the 
representation of Reading, dying about the year 
1645, a new writ "vice Sir Francis Knowles, 
Jun r ., Kn*., deceased, being ordered Sept. 26, 1645. 
I am desirous of ascertaining the precise date of 
death of both these knights. It is to be regretted 
that an exhaustive pedigree of this interesting 
family seems as yet not to have been compiled. 
Much ambiguity and uncertainty exist respecting 
alike its origin and later generations. Some of 
the mistakes connected with its alleged earlier 
descent were corrected in two interesting papers 
from the pen of Mr. Thos. Wharton Jones, in 
vols. vii. and viii. of the Herald and Genealogist, 
but full particulars of the descendants of the very 
numerous issue of Queen Elizabeth's Treasurer of 
the Chamber are yet wanting. W. D. PINK. 


6 th S. x. 163, 237, 317; xi. 293.) To the interest- 
ing lists published at the above references I can 
add the following : 

The Traveller's Pocket- Companion ; or, a Compleat 
Description of the Roads, in Tables of their Computed 
and Measured Distances, by an Actual Survey and Men- 
suration by the Wheel, from London to all the consider- 
able Cities and Towns in England and Wales ; together 
with the Mail-Roads, and their several Stages, and the 
Cross-Roads from one City or eminent Town to another. 
With Directions what Turnings are to be avoided in going 
or returning on Journeys, and Instructions for riding 
Post. To which is annexed, A New Survey-Map, which 

shews the Market-Days, and remarkable Things ; the 
whole laid down in a Manner that Strangers may travel 
without any other Guide. Also an Account of the Ex- 
pences of sending a Letter or Pacquet by Express from 
bhe General Post-Office, without Loss of Time, to any 
Part of Great Britain. By a Person who has belonged to 
the Publick Offices upwards of Twenty Years. London: 
Printed for the Author, and sold by J. Hodges, at the 
Looking-Glass over-against St. Magnus's Church, London- 
bridge. 1741. Price bound One Shilling Sixpence. 
This is a small pocket duodecimo, and my copy is 
in the original strong calf binding, but the map is 
missing. There is also bound up in 'the appendix 
the title-page of the second edition, dated 1742. 

In the library of my friend Sir William Mar- 
riott, of the Down House, Dorsetshire, is 'The 
Life of Prince Eugene,' also published by James 
Hodges, at the Looking-Glass, in 1741, in 12mo. 

Ina copy of the fortieth edition of Cocker's 
Arithmetick,' now before me, printed for H. Tracy, 
at the Three Bibles on London Bridge, 1723, is 
the following advertisement : 

"Lately published the two following Books, 1. The 
Youth's Guide to the Latin Tongue ; or, an Explication 
of Propria qua maribus qua genus, and as in presenti, 
wherein the Rules are made plain and easie to the 
Capacity of Young Learners by a new Verbal Transla- 
tion, the Examples declin'd, and the Sense illustrated 
with useful Notes and Observations from the best Gram- 
marians. By the Reverend Mr. Dyche, Master of the 
Free School at Stradford. pr. 5s. 

" 2. The Sector and Plain Scale compar'd, containing, 
1st, the Description of all the Lines upon the Sector and 
plain Scales. 2. The true Use of the Sector made plain 
and Easie in several Geometrical Problems, and in all 
the Cases of Right lin'd Trigonometry. 3. All the pre- 
ceding Geometrical Problems and Cases of Right lin'd 
Trigonometry, compared by the plain Scale, and proved 
by Mr. Gunter's Scale. 4. All the preceding Cases of 
Right lin'd Trigonometry, performed Arithmetically 
without the help of any sort of Tables. To which is 
annexed so much, of Decimal Arithmetick, and the Ex- 
traction of the Square Root, as is necessary for the work- 
ing Arithmetical Trigonometry. The Second Edition. 
By Roger Rea. Price Is. 6d. 

" Both printed for H. Tracy at the Three Bibles on 

At the end of this little volume is an advertise- 
ment of a balsam " lately brought from Chili, a 
Province of America," to be had of H, Tracy, as 
above. W. R. TATE. 

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 

THE GOSPEL IN WALES. The following notes 
may interest some of your readers. They were 
given me by the Rev. G. Dowell, for many years 
Rector of Gladestry, Breconshire. He was a con- 
temporary of Cardinal Newman, Rev. Thomas 
Short, and Rev. J. W. Copeland, was scholar of 
Trinity College, Oxford, and an antiquary and 

" When you ascend the riverside from Hay, if you turn 
to the Black Mountains, you will note a gap in the upper 
outline of the hills, through which a path leads to Llan- 
thony Abbey. This the Welsh call a Bwlch. The special 
name of this one is Bwlch Efyngle, i.e. the pass of 

7* 8. IV. Aua, 27, '87.] 



the Efangel (evangelii), the Gospel pass. Here the 
knowledge of Christian truth first crossed, conveyed by 
St. Paul himself, not impossibly, and I think not impro- 
bably. In the gully beneath the Bwlch is the church 
and parish of Llanigan, Lian meaning (sanctus) saint, 
and Eigan the name of a daughter of Caractacus or 
Caradoc, who was in Rome at the same time with the 
above-named apostle, and returned to Britain a Christian. 
Llan-igan is in truth St. Eigon, the only church in 
Wales that bears her name. She may have settled there 
when she (a Druid believer originally) came back from 
Italy maintaining a better faith. St. Paul's visit to this 
country has been held by Cave, Usher, Stillingfleet, Bur- 
gess, &c. (all learned English), by Welshmen well-nigh 
universally. This being conceded, he is sure to have 
visited his friend Eigan in her retreat out of the way of 
Druid persecution." 


PARALLEL IDEAS. The well-known line 
Spires whose silent finger points to heaven 

(Wordsworth, ' Excursion,' bk. vi.) 

is, I believe, usually supposed to be a reproduction 
of what appears in Coleridge's Friend (No. 14): 
" An instinctive taste teaches men to build their 
churches in flat countries with spire steeples, which, as 
they cannot ba referred to any other object, point as 
with silent finger to the sky and stars." 

Christopher Smart has a similar expression in his 
'Hop Garden': 

Here tow'ring spires 

First catch the eye, and turn the thoughts to heav'n. 

SANDRO BOTTICELLI. There is what appears 
to be a very curious mistake in the second volume 
of the English translation of Woltmann's ' History 
of Painting.' The passage is at p. 295 : 

" In his easel pictures Botticelli is a master of the 
first rank. Their deep spirituality and the poetic, 
visionary sentiment that pervades them are peculiar to 
the painter, whose life was full of intellectual stir, 
who was the friend of Dante, whose culture was on 
the highest level of his time, and who finally became 
the ardent follower of Savonarola." 

Dante, the poet, died in 1321; Botticelli was born 
in 1447. There was, however, a Dante of Perugia 
contemporary with Botticelli, who tried to fly and 
broke his leg. Perhaps Woltmann alluded to 


respondence on * Make no bones ' (7 th S. iii. 356, 
523) brings to mind the saying which heads this 
note. It is used in relation to children small at 
birth, weak and ailing afterwards. Mothers, talking 
of such a child, will say, " It will never make old 
bones " that is, never attain manhood or women's 

Work sop. 

FLEUR DE Lis. Some readers of 'N. & Q.' 
may be glad to know that the * Dictionnaire Ge'ne'a- 
logique, He>aldique, Chronologique, et Historique/ 
of M. D. L. C. D. B., Paris, 8vo., 1757, contains, 
at the end of the third volume, a tract of 185 pages, 

entitled * Recherches sur les Fleurs de Lys et sur 
les Villes, les Maisons et les Families qui portent 
des Fleurs de Lys dans leurs Armes.' Of course 
the catalogue is not perfect, but I have been sur- 
prised to find how many English names occur in 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

COLTING AT APPLEBY. The following is from 
the Westmoreland Gazette, June 18, 1887 : 

" This old-fashioned custom, now almost obsolete, waa 
revived at Appleby, on Saturday afternoon, in the person 
of a well-known proprietor of an entire horse, who made 
his debut in that capacity this season. Declining to pay 
the customary ' smart,' Lingfeeder's master was subjected 
to the usual penalty, and having been duly haltered, he 
was kept in durance for a couple of hours at one of the 
most ancient hostelries in the town, where for the time 
he figured as the ' observed of all observers,' and formed a 
fund of amusement for the many country folks attending 
the market." 

Q. V. 

EPITAPH. The following lines are inscribed on 
the tombstone of Blind Jack of Knaresborough in 
the churchyard of Spofforth : 
Here lies John Metcalfe : one whose infant sight, 
Felt the dark pressure of an endless night : 
Yet such the fervour of his dauntless mind, 
His limbs full Strong, his spirit unconfined, 
That long ere life 's bolder years began 
His sightless efforts mark'd the aspiring man ; 
Nor mark'd in vain : High deeds his manhood dar'd, 
And commerce, travel, both his ardour shar'd; 
'Twas his a guide's unerring aid to lend : 
O'er trackless wastes, to bid new roads extend ; 
And when Rebellion rear'd her gaint size, 
'Twas his to burn with patriot enterprise, 
For parting wife and babes one pang to feel, 
Then welcome danger for his country 'a weal. 

He died in 1810, aged 92. 


extract from a communication made by Mr. R. A. 
Whitelock, of the Greyhound Road, Fulham, to the 
People newspaper, seems to me worthy of being 
preserved in ' N. & Q.': 

" There is a wonderful sameness about the diet on 
board a smack, but the quantity consumed is prodigious. 
It certainly is sometimes a little varied by ' kauping,' or 
exchanging on board of passing ships, and occasional 
parcels by the carrier. This reminds me of a parcel I 
had by her. It was a large apple closed tart, wrapped in 
a clean white napkin fastened with pins. Immediately 
it was handed on board from the boat I could see there 
was something amiss. One man held it, and the captain 
cautiously took out each pin, and with arm extended to 
the uttermost, carefully dropped them over the Counter 
into the sea to drown, the whole ceremony being gone 
through separately with each pin. With the approval of 
the other smacksmen, the captain then slowly, seriously, 
and. solemnly assured me that pins were spiteful witches, 
and ought never be brought on board a vessel. In other 
words, he told me they would bring more ills upon us 
than the opening of Pandora's box itself. To these pins 
we owed a leak necessitating pumpwork every half 
hour; to these we owed a more than usually large 
number of holes in and tearing of our net ; and, finally, to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. AUG. 27, 

these ping and nothing else we owed the loss of all our 
gear in a heavy sea, compelling us to immediately return 

Hyde Park Mansion*, N.W. 

NURSERY RHYMI. The following rhyme, which 
has not to my knowledge ever been published, I 
learned from my old nurae alas! dead and gone 
five-and-thirty years ago and I send it in the hope 
that it may prove interesting to some readers of 

' N. & Q.': 

What 'a in the cupboard f 

Says Mr. Hubbard. 

A knuckle of veal, 

Says Mr. Beal. 

Is that all? 

Says Mr. Ball. 

And enough too, 

Says Mr. Glue ; 

And away they all flew. 

13, Maude Grove, S.W. 

RELICS OF ROBERT BURNS. The following is 
a list of some of the relics in the Burns Monument 
Museum, Edinburgh : 

1. The sword-stick carried by Burns when an excise- 
man, with the poet's initials engraved. 

2. A silver snuff-box with the following inscription: 

Frae the oak that bare the riggin' 
O' Alloway's auld haunted biggin'. 
Frae the thorn aboon the well 
Where Mungo's mither banged hersel". 
This box was a gift from Burns to his early friend 
George Richmond, whose room and bed he shared on his 
first visit to Edinburgh in 1786. 

3. Drinking quaigh used by Burns in " auld Nanse 
Tinnock's," Mauchline. 

4. Souter Johnnie's snuff-horn. The lid made from 
the rafters of Alloway Kirk. 

5. Lock of Chloris's hair. " The lassie with the lint 
white locks." 

6. An accurate cast of the skull of Burns, presented 
by Alexander Stewart, of the Phrenological Museum. 

7. Two stools on which Burns sat correcting his proofs 
in Creech's printing office. 

8. Wine-glass that belonged to Burns. 

9. Jug that belonged to Burns's Eliza. 

10. Cup and saucer that belonged to " the lass o' 

11. Curious jug that belonged to Mrs. Bruce of 
Clackmannan, who knighted Burns in 1787 with King 
Robert's sword. 

12. Quaigh made from the wood of " Whitford Arms 
Inn," a favourite howff of Burns. 

13. Portion of the original rafters of Burns's cottage. 

14. The favourite knife and fork of Burns. 

15. Kelics brought from Nanse Tinnock's house. 


xii. 469.) The compilers of the catalogue of the 
Grenville Library have made a curious mistake 
about the supposed " Titular Archbishop of York " 
The interesting work entitled ' Historia Aliquot 
nostri Seeculi Martyrum/ Bruges, 1583, is aaony- 

mous, but its author is known to be Maurice 
Chauncy, an English Carthusian monk, who died 
at Bruges in 1581. It contains the epitaph of 
Sir Thomas More ; the captivity and martyrdom 
of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ; the cap- 
tivity and martyrdom of Sir Thomas More ; the 
martyrdom of Eeynold Brigitt, a pious divine, and 
of others ; and the passion of eighteen Carthusians 
of London. The first edition of the book was 
printed at Mentz in 1550. To the second edition 
is prefixed an "Epistola," which is subscribed, 
" Theotonius a Braganca, indignus Arcbiepiscopus 
Eborensis." The compilers of the 'Bibliotheca 
Grenvilliana ' doubtless assumed that " Eborensis " 
was the same as " Eboracensis," and thus they con- 
verted into a "Titular Archbishop of York" a 
prelate who in reality was Archbishop of Evora, 
the capital of the province of Alemtejo, in Portugal. 
The see is called in Latin Ebora and Eburia, and 
it was held by Theotonius de Braganza from 
June 28, 1578, to July 29, 1602. (See Gams's 
' Series Episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicse/ p. 99.) 

SOLON AND CROESUS In reading ' Popular Tales 
and Fictions ' I have been struck with the resemblance 
of the stories of "a king saved by a maxim" to the 
story of Solon and^ Crcesus (Hdt., ii. 32. 86). Solon 
says, cTKOTreeiv 8e \pr) Travros xP r IP aTO<s rf v 
TeXevrrjv Krj aTTo^creTat, and the king in the 
Arabian tale gets the maxim " Let him who begins 
a thing consider its end." 

With the tales mentioned vol. ii. p. 196 ff., 
where a wife is betrayed to her husband by birds, 
may be compared an entertaining story from the 
' Boke of the Knight de la Tour Landrv,' p. 22 
(E.E.T.S.), which is as follows: 

" Ther was a woman that had a pie in a cage, that 
spake and wolde telle talys that she saw do. And so 
it happed that her husbonde made kepe a grete ele 
in a litelle ponde in his gardin, to that intent to yeue 
it some of his frendes that wolde come to see hym; 
but the wyff, whanne her husbonde was oute, saide 
to her maide, ' late us ete the gret ele, and y wille saie 
to my husbond, that the otour hath eten hym '; and so 
it was done. And whan the good man was come, the 
pie began to tell hym how her maistresse had eten the 
ele. And he yode to the po.ide and fonde not tha 
ele. And he asked his wiff wher the ele was become. 
And she wende to haue excused her, but he saide her, 
'excuse you not, for I wote welle ye haue eten yt, for 
the pye bathe told me.' And so ther was gret noyse 
betwene the man and hys wiff, for etinge of the ele. 
But whanne the good man was gone, the maistresse 
and the maide come to the pie, and plucked off alle 
the fedres on the pyes hede, saieng, thou hast dis- 
couered us of the ele'; and thus was the pore pye 
plucked. But euer after, whanne the pie sawe a balld 
or a pilled man, or a woman with an highe forehede, the 
pie saide to hem, 'ye spake of the ele.' " 


KEATS. In the recent biographical sketch of the 
poet by Sidney Colvin, published in MorleyVEng- 
Ush Men of Letters/' referring to his medical studies, 

7* s. iv. A* 27, -87.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


it is stated, " On July 26, 1815, he passed with 
credit his examination as licentiate at Apothecaries' 
Hall." The correct date of this event as entered 
in the records of the Society is July 25, 1816. The 
Society of Apothecaries of London was not em- 
powered by its Act (55 Geo. III. c. 194) to examine 
and license candidates to practise medicine till 
August 1, 1815. H. W. STATHAM. 

In the Times of August 15, under the above head- 
ing, will be found a paragraph in which it is stated, 
upon the authority of the Abbe' Larrieu, who has 
written a pamphlet on the subject, that the wall 
" does not, and never did exist/' but only " square 
towers of earth faced with brick at considerable dis- 
tances from each other, but these were never joined 
together by any wall, as was originally intended." 
The writer of the paragraph adds: "The alleged 
Great Wall is a favourite excursion for Europeans 
visiting Pekin, and such a question as whether it 
exists at all or not should be an easy one to settle 
definitely." I have not read the pamphlet of the 
Abbe" Larrieu, nor, after having seen this extract 
in the Times, am I likely to do so. The Great 
Wall certainly did exist" in 1881, when I visited 
China. I climbed upon it, and although I neither 
measured it nor travelled along or upon it which 
could easily be done it extended, from the point 
where I stood upon it, in a straight line, unbroken 
except in places where it has been allowed to fall 
into decay, as far as the eye could reach in either 
direction. While crossing the Gulf of Liao-Long 
I plainly saw, from the deck of the steamer, where 
the Great Wall started from the sea. Further, in 
the same part of China, but unconnected with the 
Great Wall, I observed the square towers in ques- 
tion. Doubtless other contributors to 'N. & Q.' 
will be able to add to mine their refutation of the 
Abbe" Larrieu's strange assertion. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

BY-BOAT. This word occurs in various statutes 
and proclamations relating to the Newfoundland 
fisheries. Thus, in the 'Collection of Statutes 
relating to Admiralty, Navy, Shipping, &c. 
(1810), under date 1698-9 : 

"And be it further enacted that every Master of 

a By-boat or By-boats shall carry with him at least Two 
fresh men in Six and that the Master of each such By- 
boat, and each such fishing Ship, shall make Oath 

that each Ship and By-boats Company have such fresh 

Men. And be it further enacted Persons whatsoever, 

that shall go over with their Servants to Newfoundland, 
to keep Boats on a fishing Voyage, commonly called 

By-boat keepers, shall not pretend to or meddle with any 
House, Stage, Cook-room, Train-fat, or other Con- 
veniency, that did belong to fishing Ships since the Year 
One thousand six hundred eighty-five." 

In a Royal Proclamation of June 26, 1708, in 
the London Gazette, we find : 

' It is enacted, That no By-boat-keepers should meddle 
with any House, Stage, Cook-Room, Train Fat, or other 

Conveniency Every Inhabitant should be obliged to 

imploy Two such Fresh Men, as the By- Boat- Keepers are 
obliged for every By-Boat kept by them." 

In * Campaigns of 1793-4' (1796), vol. i. p. 1, we 
have " others were obliged to follow the transports 
in packets and bye boats." What are by- boats ? 
Are they still so called 1 J. A. H. MURRAY. 

GIBSON. In the later editions of Burke, under 
" Gibson, Carmichael, Bart.," it is stated that Sir 
Edward Gibson, of Keir Hill, was second baronet; 
that he married Barbara, daughter of Hon. Alex. 
Maitland, son of Charles, third Earl of Lauderdale; 
that he died, s.p.m., 1727; and that he was suc- 
ceeded by his uncle, Sir John, Governor of Ports- 
mouth, who died unmarried. Can any one gm 
me information about this Sir Edward and hi, 
wife, whose name does not appear on the (privately 
printed) Maitland tree. Sir John Gibson, Knt., 
died, set. eighty, October 24, 1717 (ten years before 
this supposed nephew), leaving a daughter Susan, 
who died, unmarried, in London, March 10, 1758, 
in her eighty-first year. Who was Sir John's 
wife ? F. N. K. 

greatly obliged if any of your contributors would 
inform me as to the position, opinions, and general 
history of the above officer, who, I believe, held an 
important command in the Parliamentary army. 
What were his movements during the year 1645 ? 
Was he in command during any engagement in 
Yorkshire in that year ; and, if so, was he vic- 
torious, and did he receive any reward pecuniary, 
or in the shape of thanks from Parliament ? 


OCTOBER CLUB. Can you put me in the way 
of finding anything about the members of the 
October Club in the early part of the last century? 
I want to trace the authorship of a pamphlet on 
the ' Succession of the Duke of Anjou to the Crown 
of Spain,' printed in 1711, in the form of a letter 
to a member of this celebrated club, and written 
by, I believe, an ancestor of mine. 

[Consult 'N. & Q.,' 3' d S. ix. 121.] 

CHAUCER KESTORED. This is an old matter; 
but then ' N. & Q.' is antiquarian, so I claim 
liberty to hark back to a rather sore subject. In 
1872 I was permitted to register a claim on behalf 
of mankind for the retention among Chaucer'a 
printed works of certain poems ascribed to him, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [7* s. iv. AU* 27, w. 

the authenticity of which is disputed. My humble 
papers were followed by a sort of running com- 
ment of an aggressive character; and at 4 th 8. ix. 
157 occurs the following: " The Flower and 
the Leaf tells us itself that it was written by a 
lady in line 462 where the writer makes a lady 
call her, the writer, ' my doughter.' " Surely it 
is incumbent on a critic to distinguish between 
author (i.e., writer) and writer (t.e., interlocutor, 
or heroine). Here it is quite possible for a male 
writer of fiction (Chaucer) to describe a female as 
t^ing early and venturing into the fields ! More- 
over the author places his female interlocutor in 
ambush to watch the proceedings of certain high- 
born dames, all very decorously conducted; where, 
perhaps, a "person of the male gender" would 
have been ejected as an intruder. The subject- 
matter was subsequently transferred to the pages 
of the Athenceum (see July 20, 1872, p. 82), but 
this point did not arise; so I ask, without contro- 
versial designs, Have we knowledge of any poem 
of six hundred lines, good or bad, written in fif- 
teenth century English, by any known person of 
the female sex ? A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, B.C. 

MERES. I sometimes see Meres's ' Palladia 
Tamia,' 1598, quoted, and his ' Wit's Common- 
wealth.' Are they not one and the same the two 
titles of one book ? W. J. BIRCH. 

[The fir 8 t part of ' Wit's Commonwealth ' waa written 
by John Bodenham.] 

FORSOOK. Can any one give a quotation where 
forsook is used as a participle ? Chambers's ' Dic- 
tionary ' (Colby's) is the only one that inserts it as 
Buch, but marks it as obsolete. X. Y. 

[The immortal mind that hath/owo/fe 
Her mansion in this fleshly nook. 

' II Penseroso.'] 

" KINDLY SCOT." What is the exact meaning 
of this expression ? It has a pleasant sound. How 
long has it been in use ? W. H. P. 

EASTER ISLAND. Outside the British Museum is 
a rude statue, resting on a stone pedestal, inscribed 
m Roman characters, " Statue of HOA-HAKA-NANA 
IA, Easter Island. Presented," &c. I should like 
to have some particulars concerning this name. It 
may not be a personal name after all. As a sort of 
epitaph, it translates very well in one of the Poly- 
nesian languages. R. g. CHARNOCK. 

to discover the precise relationship between John 

attord (Bishop of Bath and subsequently Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury) and Edmund Stafford, 
Bishop of Exeter. Much research has so far not 
cleared the matter satisfactorily to my mind, for 
pedigrees differ. Will some one kindly say what 
is authoritative? And, further, I should be glad 

to know for a certainty whether Catherine Staf- 
ford (who became the wife of Sir John Arderne) 
was the sister or niece of Edmund Stafford, since 
here again pedigrees are at variance. And, if you 
will bear further with me, I should like to ask 
how, and in what degree, William Langton, Canon 
of Exeter, was "cousin" to Edmund Stafford, as 
Lysons relates. H. NORRIS. 


CREEPER : MAXER. In an inventory of house- 
hold stuff taken in 1609 the following items 
appear, viz.: "An iron creeper," apparently con- 
nected with a fireplace; and "a maxer," mentioned 
in connexion with stools. Will any of your corre- 
spondents be kind enough to explain the meaning 
of these terms ? MRS. HINE. 


[" Creepers, small low irons between the andirons in a 
grate " (Halliwell).] 

The Huguenot Cemetery at Wandsworth is called 
Nod Cemetery. The house in which I am writing 
this is in Mount Nod, Streatham. There may be 
some connexion between the two. The third 
Mount Noddy, or Noddie, is the name of a house 
standing in a field, with a good-sized garden in 
front, in East Grinstead. Can any one explain 
the word nod, or noddy ? M.A.Oxon. 

FULLARTON FAMILY. Can you give me any 
information as to the family or particulars of life, 
whom he married, &c., of the Rev. James (John ?) 
Fullarton, minister of St. Ninian's, Stirlingshire ? 
His son, John Fullarton, minister of Dairy, Ayr- 
shire, was born about 1690 ; so I presume the 
minister of St. Ninian's must have been born about 
1650-70. The surname might be spelt Foulerton 
(or possibly Fullerton). The descendants of the 
above use the crest, &c., of Fullarton of Fullarton, 
Ayrshire, and of Kilmielael, in Arran; so perhaps 
he was of these families. Any information will 
oblige. F. JAMES. 

161, Buckingham Palace Road, S.W. 

'THE LUANO ESTACADO. Can any one tell 
me where I can obtain the copy of some verses 
called ' The Luaiio Estacado,' which appeared in 
some well-known magazine about ten years since ? 
I have searched Poole's * Index ; in vain. The 


verse ran : 

If you would prove your love, she cried, 
ild have me for a 

And you would have me for a bride, 
Ride over yonder plain and bring 
Your flask filled from the mustang spring, 
Ride fast as western eagle's wing 
O'er the Luafto Estacado ! 

R. G. HILL. 
Salisbury Club. 

ABERGELE. I have been told that " once upon 
a time " somebody published an account of Aber- 




gele and its neighbourhood. What was the name 
of the book? I want to see if Bethos-Yn-Khos and 
Llanfairbalhairn are mentioned. 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

CHARITABLE BEQUESTS. According to Haydn, 
boards for their recovery were constituted in 1764 
and in 1880. Would any readers of 4 N. & Q.' 
direct me to obtain information respecting the 
same ? Were they authorized by Parliament ? 
Did they publish, any report of their proceedings ? 
Any information respecting the said boards will 
greatly oblige. J. DEAN. 

Hillside, Freend's Road, Croydon. 

THE MANX LANGUAGE. Can any one give me 
a bibliography of the Manx language ? It cannot 
be extensive, for at Ramsay I recently was unable 
to obtain any book in Manx, and at Douglas was 
only offered one Manx Bible. The S.P.C.K., 
however, publishes a Manx Prayer Book, although 
public service is no longer continued in Manx in 
the parish churches. At Douglas I am informed 
there is a Wesleyan Manx service. Still, it would 
appear that the old language is not so dead as is 
commonly supposed. A large percentage of the 
older country folk, especially of the " mountain- 
side," profess to be able to speak it, and many 
regret that the children are not taught Manx in 
the school. It is a grand sonorous Celtic tongue, 
of considerable interest from a philological stand- 
point. Probably it will follow the Cornish in the 
list of extinct Celtic tongues. An interesting essay 
on Manx by Mr. H. Jenner was published by the 
Philological Society not long ago. 


4, Canterbury Street, Liverpool. 

WELSH BARDS. At the Welsh Eisteddfod in 
Liverpool, September, 1884, a prize was awarded 
to Owen Jones, of Gwyddonfa Pwllheli, for a Welsh 
translation of Shakspeare's * King Lear.' There 
were nine other competitors for this prize " Ap 
Gwilym," "Celyddon," "Grydain,""Llawfrodedd," 
"Farfog," "Edgar," "Brutus," &c. Can any of 
your readers give me the English names of these 
Cambrian bards ? K. INGLIS. 

possession is the Speaker's mace ? John Foster, 
the last Speaker, is said to have retained it, so that 
possibly it may be in the possession of Viscount 
Massereene and Ferrard, or some member of that 
family. 2. Where is the Speaker's chair ? Accord- 
ing to the Dublin Penny Journal of February 13, 
1836, where a woodcut of it is given, it " stands 
at present in the board-room of the Dublin Society 
House." G. F. R. B. 

ment roll, containing the names of the mayors and 

bailiffs of Lincoln, beginning with the 34 Ed- 
ward III., is mentioned by the late Dr. Rock in 
his * Church of our Fathers/ vol. ii. p. 430. Is this 
document now in existence ; and, if so, where is it 
to be seen 1 ANON. 

LORD FROWYKE (sic in Hendon Court Rolls). 
Is anything known of him ? He died in 19 Hen. 
VIII. He is also entered as Sir Thomas Frowyke. 


Hampstead, N.W. 

SQUAILING. What is the meaning of this word ? 
" Squailing a goose before his door, and tossing 
dogs and cats on Shrove Tuesday " (Mr. Hunt's 
'Bristol'). The allusion is to the republican 
mayor of the city in 1651. 


SAPPHO. Will any one who possesses Sappho's 
works in Greek kindly copy and send me direct 
the original of her beautiful little poem ' On the 
Rose,' of which I have Fawkes's version (twelve 
lines in English) ? JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

" ST. COLEMAN'S NECKLACE." In a broad-sheet 
relating to Judge Jeffreys when he was confined in 
the Tower, and dated 1689, there occurs the 
expression "By St. Coleman's necklace." I imagine 
that it means the hangman's halter. " Coleman- 
hedge " is a common prostitute. I suppose there 
is no connexion between this and St. Catherine 
Coleman, near to which Venner and some of his 
fifth monarchy men were hanged. There is the 
"Newgate fringe" and "Tyburn collar," and I 
think I have seen the "Newgate bracelets" for 
handcuffs. Is more definite information procur- 
able? 0. A. WARD. 

A grateful sense of favours past, 
A lively hope of more to come. 

She was not very beautiful, 

If it be beauty's test 
To match a classic model 
When perfectly at rest ; 
And she did not look bewitchingly, &c. 


Peace to his ashes ! he has served mankind. 

R. C. A. P. 

Our critics should be our comrades; 'tis 

ardour needs. One certainty 

Shines through all contradictions, that the world 
Wants mending, then whene'er the work begins, 
If there be faults and human hands we know 
Do nothing perfectly ye who perceive them 
Turn not aside, but make the greater haste 
To join and straighten them. C. E. 

Wrought in a sad sincerity ; 

Himself from God he could not free. 

He builded better than he knew ; 

The conscious stone to beauty grew. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [7as.iv.Aw.2V87. 




(7 th S. iv. 1, 90, 134.) 

If, as MR. ADDY says, I have " imported more 
feeling into this matter than befits the gravity of 
a scientific discussion," I can only plead that that 
feeling is the result of the irritation caused by a 
long acquaintance with the evil deeds of the local 
etymologists. When one is being constantly met 
with elementary blunders that might be avoided 
by simply looking at an Anglo-Saxon grammar, 
there is, I think, ample justification for losing one's 
temper. I have no doubt that an overwhelming 
majority of the writers who are constantly making 
these glaring mistakes would deem a man mad if 
he were to speculate in Latin or Greek etymologies 
without first mastering his declensions. It is only 
by constant protests that they will appreciate the 
fact that a man must be equally mad to formulate 
Anglo-Saxon etymologies without knowing the 
grammar of that tongue. In these pages I am 
constantly finding myself under the necessity of 
stating the most elementary principles of Anglo- 
Saxon grammar. Is not this calculated to infuse 
a little heat into one's protests? MR. ADDT'S 
letter is a case in point. I now see that I ought 
to have laid greater stress on what seemed to me 
a very obvious objection to Dr. Taylor's etymo- 
logies of local names in Swaf, Wendel, Htin, &c. 
MR. ADDY claims a share in whatever credit is to 
be derived from these reckless etymologies, 
call them reckless because they are at once put 
out of court by the facts that they assume a gen. 
pi. in Sj and that no such form existed in Anglo- 
Saxon. Now this is a fact that could have been 
acertained by merely looking at an Anglo-Saxon 
table of declensions. The English gen. pi. in s 
does not occur before the twelfth century, and we 
can see from the pages of I^amon and Orm that 
its use was not even then general. It is, perhaps, 
hardly necessary to insist upon the fact that the 
local names in question are much older than this 
period. As PROF. SKBAT has well said (7 th S. iv. 
31), " there is really no glory to be got by making 
elementary blunders " like this. 

MR. ADDY states that my note has simply con- 
firmed him in his views. I hardly expected to 
convince him that he was wrong, for I suppose 
there is no instance on record of a local etymologisl 
being so convinced. I will, however, attempt to 
answer MR. ADDY'S arguments, even though the 
result be to deepen his conviction into religious 
belief; for this discussion raises points of grea 
historical importance, and I am well aware that in 
these controversies silence is generally interpretec 
as a confession of defeat. 
Some of MR. ADDY'S arguments are rathe 

disingenuous. As I expressly stated that MR, 
ADDY " wisely let Welsh alone," it does not in the 
east surprise me to learn that he has never been 
guilty of deriving English local names from 
modern Welsh. Nor did I anywhere accuse him 
f deriving Gestfield and Sibbfield from this source. 
He also challenges me to prove that he stated 
that these names recorded a Celtic occupation. I 
have read through his note again, and I must say 
chat the only meaning I can give to his words, 
especially when taken with the context, is that 
he treated Gestfield as meaning " the field of the 
enemy," and that he held " the enemy " to be the 
Celts whom "the friends " = English found there 

MR. ADDY still clings to the idea that the 
surname Bright means "Welshman." I have 
said that it is phonologically impossible for this 
name to represent the A.-S. Bryt, and I have also 
stated that this A.-S. Bryt is a most unusual 
designation for a Welshman. MR. ADDY does 
not attempt to controvert either of these assertions. 
I find conclusive proof in Ordericus Vitalis that 
the usual A.-S. name for the Welsh was Wealas* 
It is, apart from this, a pretty strong argument that 
the country of the Welsh is known to us by the 
designation Wales = Wealas, and that Welsh = 
A.-S. Wielisc is simply an adjective formed from the 
noun Wealh. MR. ADDY'S main difficulty is that 
he cannot find a Middle-English instance of the 
name Bright. Now scores of Anglo-Saxon, Old 
Norse, and Norman personal names still exist as 
surnames. I should be prepared to justify my 
derivation of this surname on these grounds alone. 
But the occurrence of the personal name Brihct in 
the thirteenth century Worcester Eegister, ed. 
Hales, fo. 115 b, line 32, removes this derivation 
out of the region of inference to that of established 
facts, t MR. ADDY assumes that Le Bret and Le 
Brit mean Welshman and represent the A.-S. 
Bryt. I maintain that they represent the Old 
French Brete, a Breton. In the English Chancery 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Brito seems 
to be always a Breton, the Welshman being, I 
believe, invariably a Walensis. Le Bret and Le 
Waleis, Brito and Walensis, occur side by side in 
so many other records as to lead one to conclude that 
the difference in meaning was well understood. 
When his nationality is given in English in our 
early records, the Welshman is, I believe, always a 

MR. ADDY'S parallel between the settlement of 

* Ed. Le Prevost, vol. iv. p. 96 : Angli de Anglo 
insula, ubi Saxonise metropolis est, in Britanniam 
venerunt, et, devictis seu deletie quosmodo Oualos dicunt, 

occupatam bello insulam anatali solo Angliam vocita- 

verunt." Ordric's birthplace and character make this 
evidence most valuable. 

f There is a twelfth century Beret, a kinsman or ser- 
vant of the great Ranulph de Glanville, in the Durham 
'LiberVitse,'p.l7, col.i. 

f. AW. 27, 'sf. 


the English in England and that of the Europeans 
in America is not a very happy one. The difference 
in civilization, race, complexion, habits, &c., cer- 
tainly marked off the red man from the invaders 
more strongly than the Britons were distinguished 
from the English. But with certain reservations 
the parallel is useful. A comparison of the English 
local names with those of the United States proves 
that the Briton receded before the Angle as 
completely as the Red Indian has done before the 
European. The English in America, like their 
forefathers in England, have conferred local names 
of their own upon almost every natural feature and 
settlement, retaining only the native names for a 
few great rivers, mountains, or stretches of country. 
We know that the red man has, owing to the 
differences above indicated, kept himself distinct 
from the white man for more than three centuries, 
but I cannot imagine an isolated Welsh village on 
English soil retaining its Celtic character unim- 
paired for over four centuries. For this is what 
MR. ADDY'S etymology of Wales-by and Bright 
Holm Lee presupposes, since in both names we 
have a word of Danish origin.* Therefore these 
names cannot be older than the Danish settlement 
of the ninth century. The Welsh population of 
such a village, if it ever existed, must have become 
absorbed into the surrounding English population 
at least as rapidly as the Frank and Goth merged 
into the Gaul and Iberian. 

MR. ADDY challenges me to disprove that the 
seventeenth century field-name Prankish field does 
not record a settlement of the Franks. He finds 
further evidence of such a settlement in the 
common compellation in twelfth century charters 
"omnibus hominibus suis Francis et Anglis." 
MR. ADDY must surely have lost his sense of his- 
torical perspective when he can regard this compel- 
lation, instances of which are almost as common as 
blackberries, as evidence of the existence of a sepa- 
rate Frankish population at this date . William the 
Conqueror's charter to London is similarly addressed 
to " ealle f?a burhwaru binnan Londone Frencisce 
and Englisce." So, according to MR. ADDY'S views, 
there must have been a colony of undiluted Franks 
in London. I thought everybody knew that the 
Franci meant the Normans, who were generally 
called French by the English. If Frankish field 
be not derived from some Mr. Frankish, it must 
refer to the Normans, and not to the Franks. 
There is a Frenchgate in Doncaster and some other 
towns, and there was formerfy a Frankish-gate or 
French-gate (the first is the oldest form) in Notting- 
ham. It is called Fraunkisshgate in 1365. There 

* That is assuming that the holm of Bright Holm Lee 
is original. I may here state that I did not derive this 
name from Beorkt-helm, as MK. ADDY asserts. The con- 
junction of holm and lee presents more difficulties to me 
than it docs to MR. ADDY. I should like further evidence 
of their coming together. 

can be no doubt as to the meaning of this 
Nottingham street name, for it was a street in the 
new borough that arose after the Conquest, known 
as the French Borough, and this street, which is 
now known as " Castlegate," led from the English 
Borough to the Norman Castle. I have said that 
there is a possibility that Frankish field derived 
its name from a Mr. Frankish. Brittain's piece 
has probably a similar origin. MR. ADDY thinks 
that the names of common fields could not be 
derived from personal names. He is quite wrong 
in this. In Nottingham there was a town meadow 
known as Ingollsteneres in 1416 (' Borough Re- 
cord,' ii. 114). It occurs in 1435 as Yngold Stener. 
This can only be the 0. Norse personal name 
Ingjaldr. I have dealt with the word stener in 
7 th S. i. 196. This meadow, then known as 
Inggerstener, was leased by the burgesses in 1450 
to raise money to pay the town soldiers dispatched 
with the king to suppress Cade's rebellion. The 
burgesses subsequently borrowed money upon this 
meadow from the Gild of St. George in St. Peter's 
Church. From this circumstance this meadow 
acquired its present name of St. George's Close. It 
was also known in the early part of the sixteenth 
century as Easingwold Stener, a name no doubt 
derived from that of the Town Clerk, William 
Easingwold. This history suggests that field- 
names are not permanent, and proves that they 
were sometimes derived from personal names. 
There is ample proof of both these propositions to 
be found in the Nottingham records. In the case 
of Nottingham I have been able to trace the 
field-names from the thirteenth century downwards, 
and the result is that I find very few of the thirteenth 
or fourteenth century names existing in the seven- 
teenth century. In the interval almost every field 
had been renamed, in several cases after persons 
that we are able to identify. I do not suppose 
that Nottingham was different from other places. 
Hence it seems to me that any historical inferences 
drawn from seventeenth century field-names must 
be as unsound as MR. ADDY'S scheme for dis- 
covering the original racial constituents of the 
English population from the pages of the ' London 

With regard to DR. HYDE CLARKE'S note. He 
has clearly misunderstood the drift of my note. I 
was not endeavouring to trace English tribal influ- 
ences, for the conclusions that I reached rather cut 
against any such view. I have never been able to 
accept Kemble's rash conclusions about yds and 
tribes. It seems to me that in this instance 
Kemble's warm imagination has dissipated his 
critical powers. W. H. STEVENSON. 

BLIND-HOUSE = PARISH LOCK-UP (7 th S. iv. 26). 
The structures referred to by DR. CHANCE are 
not uncommon. There are two in my own 
neighbourhood. One is in the village of Waver- 



A - ^ ' 87 - 

tree, three miles from Liverpool, standing in the 
centre of a small triangular green at the inter- 
section of three roads. It is octangular, about 
15 ft. in diameter, built of hewn stone, having * 
conical slated roof, which, however, is modern. 
From the style of the masonry I should judge it to be 
about a hundred years old, but I am not aware of any 
records commemorating its erection. Each plane 
of the octagon has sunk panels, but there are no 
windows, the only opening being the entrance- 
door. Within the memory of persons living it was 
used as a temporary lock-up for culprits, pending 
their removal to the nearest gaol. It is now used 
as a tool-house. The name by which it ordinarily 
went was the Bridewell. 

The other instance is at Everton, an ancient 
village now absorbed into the city of Liverpool. 
This structure is much more ancient than the 
former. It stands, like that at Wavertree, in the 
centre of a small green. It is circular in plan, with 
a conical stone roof, coeval with the walling, which 
is rubble-work, built with small, flat, thin stones well 
set in mortar. The walling and roof are entirely 
plain, without any opening except a small door. 
Some years ago it was barbarously coated with 
stucco and a stucco cornice run round the eaves. 
This is, however, peeling off, and the original work 
shows itself perfect. It was formerly used for the 
purpose of a lock-up, but is now unoccupied, and is 
spared simply for its antiquity. The name it usually 
went by was the Eoundhouse. 

I believe that formerly a pair of stocks graced 
the exterior of each of these buildings. 


Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

[Many communications acknowledged with thanks.] 

ALTARAGE (7 th S. iy. 49). On altaragium Du- 
cange says " Obventio altaris," and under the 
analogous word "Altagium," "Quidquid obvenit 
Altari, seu Ecclesise, tarn ex agris, vineis, pratis, 
consibus, &c., quam et quotidianis oblationibus.' 
Speaking, therefore, off the book, I should say thai 
the expressions " de panno altaragio " or " de 
pannis altarg" refer to some charges on property 
or voluntary donations set apart for providing furni- 
ture for the altar, very much akin to the " Holj 
Breads," an instance of which we have in this 
parish, but which for centuries has been lost to 
the Church ; and, although absorbed into the 
estate of the great landed proprietor, is as dis 
tinctly marked off as it possibly could be. 

In corroboration of my view I may quote a 
bequest from the will of a certain Bishop of Mar 
ailles, dated ann. 1344, "Lego ccclesice Massi 

lieuse duos Pannos cartarinos, cum quibu 

socpe jussit parare altare B. Marise" (Ducange 
sub " Pannus Cartarinus"). 

Your correspondent must understand how diffi 
cult it is to give any satisfactory " explanation " o 

solated passages, and that any attempt to do so 
an become little short of a " leap in the dark." A 
eference to the context might make the whole 
hing light. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

Murray's ' New English Dictionary/ p. 255, ex- 

)lains this word : (1) The revenue arising from 

>blations at the altar. Quotations from Paston 

Letters/ Stephens's ' Procurations/ and Batemans 

Agistm. Tithe '; (2) A fund or provision for the 

maintenance of an altar and a priest to say masses 

hereat. Quotations from Kow's ' Hist. Kirk ' and 

Orig. Paroch. Scot.' DE V. PATEN-PAYNE. 

University College, W.C. 

Bailey's 'Dictionary' (1737) gives, "Altarage 
v Law Term), the Free Offerings made at the Altar 
>y the People ; also the Profits that arise to the 
Priest by serving at the Altar." The meaning 
given in 'Moderne World of Words/ by E. P., 
1696, is, "Altarage (Law Word), the Free Offerings 
made upon the Altar by the People ; as also, all 
;he Profits that arise to the Priest, upon account of 
;he Altar, viz., small Tithes of Wool, Lamb, Colt, 
Calf, &c." J- ST. N. 

v. 88). 

1. P. 217. Olde Helena. Confessing that I 
cannot follow the senses of Lyly's wordy wordings 
from " Appelles " to the end of the paragraph, I 
yet take his drift to be contained in this: that he 
did not furnish the lower limbs of his portrait, 
not because " he wants matter to make them, but 
L wants] might to mantein them"; that is, his 
strictures would have been so severe that he 
feared that he could not stand up against the 
counter strictures that would be hurled at him 
and do him ill. He dared not, as Greene in 1591, 
write of conny-catching and other vices. In other 
words, such strictures would be as bad an omen of 
ill to him as i? the single meteor of which Pliny, 
speaking of the appearance of the double Castor 
and Pollux (St. Elmo's fires), in his * Nat. 
Hist.,' tells us (I quote North's translation, 1. 2, 
c. xxxvii.) : 

" But if they appeare two and two together, they 
bring comfort with them, and foretell a prosperous course 
in the voiage, as by whos comming, they say, that dread- 
full, cursed and threatening \_diram, ac minaceiri} meteor 
called Helena is chased and driven away." 

2. P. 288. Women, he says, hate those that 
most desire them, just as they act who put away 
from them into the fields a stake or as the later 
edition here more incorrectly spells it a" stacke" 
which they should apply to their bosoms as a busk 
for their corset, making it, I might add, both a 
support and a corslet. 

3. P. 324. The changing of so-called friendships 
will make thee a foolish calf, fat and fit for the 
butcher, and a lean cof[fjer, or in our phrasing a 
lean purse. 

7* S. IV. Ana. 27, '67.) 



4. P. 337. The Oaleni, or Calenes, were a rura 
people of Campania, who made wine, and, I believe 
good wine, and who, for both reasons, were likely to 
have been boisterous in their mirth and songs. 

5. P. 409, not 439. Both the folk-lore and the 
word Catherismes had puzzled me in Greene's 
'Anatomie of Fortune,' 1584, and still after some 
search puzzles me ; but, thanks to PHILAUTUS, 1 
now find that Greene copied three of the clauses of 
his sentence from Lyly and gave the sense of the 
fourth clause. As Prof. Arber writes me, Lyly has 
a great deal of fabulous natural history in his book^ 
and here I think he may have manufactured it. 
Bat why Catherismes ? Can Ka^apioyxos, a cleans- 
ing, have been applied to the Jewish scape-goat, 
cf. KaOapfjia; and can there be any Talmudic 

tion as to the disease-giving eyes of such ? 


2. Stacke. Lyly wrote stake for his first edition. 
Halliwell, s.v. " Stake," quotes, " The stake in the 
syde," from a Lincoln MS.; "The brest with the 
stak,"from Archaologia, xxx. 413; and says, " The 
tightness of the chest, producing difficulty of 
breathing, is called staking at the stomach." In Sir 
Kenelm Digby's 'Choice and Experimentel Re- 
ceipts in Physick and Chirurgery" (London, 1675) 
I find a preparation of herbs for external applica- 
tion with this heading, " To strengthen the stomach 
use the following stomacher." Did Lyly use the 
word in this sense? If so, "making a stake of 
what they should use for a stomacher " would be 
equal to " making more of a soare then a plaister, 
which, on p. 248 (Arber), Euphues accuses Phi- 
lautus of doing. Lyly's inveterate habit of repeat- 
ing himself gives some colour to this explanation. 

3. Cofer= coffer. See 'Euphues to Philautus,' 
p. 112 (Arber). C. C. B. 

WATCHET PLATES (7 th S. iii. 247, 296, 434). 
Perhaps MR. TURNER may be glad to have pointed 
out some instances of the use of watchet by a 
neighbour in Devonshire : 

(Just in the middle of the Altar) 
Upon an end, the Fairie- Psalter, 
Grac't with the Trout-fliea curious winga, 
Which serve for watched Ribbanings. 

Herrick's Hesperides,' 1648, p. 103, 
" The [Fairie'sJ Temple." 

The Silken Snake. 

FOP sport my Julia threw a Lace 

Of silke and silver at my face : 

Watchet the ailk was; and did make 

A shew, as if 't 'ad been a snake : 

The suddenness did me affright ; 

But though it ecar'd, it did not bite. 

Herrick, p. 133. 

I killed one of those " watchet'' or "steely" 
coloured snakes at Woodhall Spa the other day, 
hastily, without thought, as it rushed past me, for 
which I was sorry immediately after, as they are 
perfectly harmless. R. R. 

SCOTLAND AND LIBERALISM (7 th S. ir. 8). -The 
phrase " Vous devez etre Ecossais puisque vous Stes 
liberal," has, I suspect, no political significance, 
but is to be referred to the period when " le bon 
David " was a favourite in the cultured circles of 
Paris. Of course David Hume, as well as Adam 
Smith, was, politically speaking, a specimen of as 
distinctive a Scottish type as the Scottish Liberal, 
the common-sense Tory, who followed William Pitt 
and Hal Dundas. The answer to the question 
which produced the dieter is, of course, a non 
sequitur, which forgets Sir Walter Scott, Drummond 
of Hawthornden, cumplurimis aZiis, as well as the 
fact that the terms Scotchman and Tory were once 
synonymous to the English mind. If Scotland has 
produced an uncompromising Radicalism in days 
when real national features are fading while 
nationality is much spoken of, it is also as indis- 
solubly associated with another type of high-souled 
Toryism which well illustrated the other continental 
dieter, " Fier comme un ^cossais." J. F. 

49). It is asked to what edition of Bp. Sparrow's 
' Rationale upon the Book of Common Prayer ; 
Bp. Andrewes's Consecration Service is first ap- 
pended. And it may be answered, To no one of 
the editions on authority, if to any one of them at 
all, as Bp. Sparrow died in 1685, and the ' Rationale/ 
London, 1704, has not the addition. It belongs to 
quite a different publication of the bishop's, namely, 
his * Collection of Articles, Injunctions, Canons, 
&c.,' first published in 1661, Lond., R. Norton. It 
occupies from p. 375 to p. 486, in fourth ed., Lond., 
1684. As the consecration of the chapel and burial 
ground in the parish of Weston, near Southampton, 
by Bp. Andrewes took place in 1620, there is no 
reason why it should not have been inserted in the first 
edition of the ' Collection.' The petition for conse- 
cration, pp. 374 seq., has some interesting notices 
of the dangers then attending the crossing of "the 
great river of Itchin," which made it desirable to 
build the new church. If the inserter of the query 
is interested in ancient consecration services gener- 
ally, he will like to see, if he is not acquainted with 
it, * The Form and Order of the Consecration and 
Dedication of the Parish Church of Abbey Dore 
upon Palm Sunday, 1634, by Theophilus Field, 
Bishop of St. Davids,' edited by the Rev. John 
Fuller Russell, Lond., Pickering, 1874. It is also a 
good specimen of the neat printing of the Chiswick 
Press, with an ornamented border to each page. 


This form is not to be found in the editions of 
1661, 1676, 1684, 1704, and 1722. 

G. F, R. B. 

I do not find Bishop Andrewes's " form for the 
consecration of a church or chapel" in my copy 
of Bishop Sparrow's 'Rationale,' second edition, 
but I find it at the end of his edition (Latin) of 



the ' Articles, Canons, Orders, Ordinances, and 
Constitutions Ecclesiastical, &c., of the Church of 
England' (1684). EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

EPITAPH (7 th S. iiL 426; iv. 34, 106). Miss 
BUSK'S addition to this epitaph is not complete. 
A second brass, a little lower down from the one 
I quoted, contains these lines : 

Here allso lyeth the body of 
Elizabeth Raynsford wife 
of George Raynsford Gent: 
who departed this life the 
Tenth day of June in the 
yeare 1672. And in the .58"' 
yeare of her age. Shee lived 
and dyed a virtuous matron. 
That with full lamp like virgin wise 
Was still prepared for this surprise. 
And now departed hence to dwell 
Unto a place where joyes excell. 

The last four lines, unlike the rest, are not in 
capitals, and form one verse. 

University College, W.C. 

SIEGE OF BOLTON: HORRIDQE (7 th S. iv. 8, 71). 
Various contemporary accounts of the siege of 
Bolton are to be found in the volumes of ' Civil 
War Tracts,' edited by Dr. Ormerod for the Chet- 
ham Society. For the siege of Lathom House 
J. B. should consult the same and the following 
volumes : 

History of the House of Stanley, including the Siege 
of Lathom House, with Notices of the Relative and Con- 
secutive Incidents. By Peter Draper. 8vo. 1864. 

History of the House of Stanley from the Conquest to 
the Present Time. By Seacombe. Edited by Jesse Lee. 
12mo. Manchester, W. Willis. 1840. This contains an 
account of the taking of Bolton and "A True and 
Genuine Account of the Famous and Ever Memorable 
Siege of Lathom House." 

A Journal of the Siege of Lathom House, in Lanca- 
shire, defended by Charlotte de la Tremouille, Countess 
of Derby, against Sir Thomas Fairfax, Knt., and other 
Parliamentary Officers, 1644. London, 1823. Supposed 
to be written by Capt. Edward Chisenhall, of Chisen 
hall, one of the defenders. 

I have looked through the last two, and find no 
mention of any one of the name of Horridge. 


I have a volume entitled 'A Description of the 
Memorable Sieges and Battles in the North o 
England that happened during the Civil War in 
1642, 1643, &c., chiefly contained in the Memoir 
of General Fairfax and James, Earl of Derby, t< 
which is added the Life of Oliver Cromwell 
Likewise an impartial History of the Rebellion 
in the years 1715 and 1745,' Bolton, printed fo 
the Editor, 1786. It contains (inter alia} an accoun 
of the siege of Lathom House and another of th 
siege of Bolton. The latter comprises three de 
scnptions, one (and that a very poor one) appa 
rently from the aforesaid "memoirs," a seconc 

uoted from Rushworth's * Collections,' and a third 
urporting to be by a Cavalier in Prince Rupert's 
rmy. In none of these does the name Horridge 
ppear. J. B. will find further information in the 
rorks of the Chetham Society. Being out of 
each of any library, I am sorry that I cannot refer 
rim to the particular volumes ; but I would suggest 
n application to the courteous librarian of the 
Bolton Free Library. JOHN P. HAWORTH. 

MS. JOURNAL OF F. WHITE (7 th S. iii. 513; 
v. 52).' La Feuille,' written in 1815 by A. V. 
Arnault (1766-1838), will be found on p. 344 
if Masson's 'La Lyre Franaise' (Macmillan's 
' Golden Treasury Series," 1867). Here is the 
original, I think, of the other poem by the Abate 
Jacopo Vittorelli : 

II passato non e, 

Gel pinge 

La viva rimembranza ; 

11 futuro non e, 

Gel finge 

La credula speranza ; 

II presente sol e, 

Ma in un baleno 

Fugge del nulla in seno : 

Dunque la vita e appunto 

Una memoria, una speranza, un punto. 

Larnaca, Cyprus. 

BURNING QUESTION (7 th S. iii. 495; iv. 50). Is it 
possible that the origin of this phrase dates back to 
the days when the burning of heretics was not un- 
common when, in fact, religious difference was a 
question anent which burning might result, in the 
same way that people now speak of such or such 
thing being " a hanging matter " ? The quotation 
from Longfellow given by MR. MARSHALL recalls 
Gray's lines : 

Bright-eyed Fancy, hovering o'er, 

Scatters from her pictured urn, 

Thoughts that breathe and words that burn. 

W. B. 

With this we might also compare the very com- 
mon phrase " burning shame," of which several 
variants are to be heard, e. g., "crying shame," &c. 
The first-named would, however, appear to be the 
original form of the phrase. 


"Music HATH CHARMS," &c. (7 th S. iii. 369, 
466; iv. 53). It seems clear from the replies of 
your correspondents that there is "no textual 
authority for the substitution of beast for " breast" 
in the above line, and that therefore the morning 
journal which spake so authoritatively on the sub- 
ject was wrong. It is curious, however, how wide- 
spread the belief in the unorthodox reading seems 
to be. MR. PATTERSON'S dominie with his mistake 
is only another instance in point. I remember 
hearing how, when, once upon a time, the line waa 

7"> S. IV. Atr. 27, '870 



quoted as MR. LEE would have it at a civic ban- 
quet, a well-known poet and critic who was present 
was heard to interpolate 

'Tis therefore welcome at a Lord Mayor's/eaa. 
But whether this was in resentment of the mis- 
quotation or for other reasons I cannot say. 

J. H. 

MASSAGE AND SHAMPOOING (7 th S. ii. 49, 113). 
This is one of those cases in which a second 
word is introduced because the older one has 
become corrupted in meaning. Shampooing and 
massage (the first in England, the second in France] 
originally meant precisely the same thing, viz., the 
rubbing, pulling, and kneading to which one is 
subjected in a Turkish bath, and to which in 
Latin the name of tractatio (to judge from the 
names tractator and tractatrix given to the atten- 
dants) was applied. But during the last twenty 
or thirty years the word shampooing in England 
has become degraded, and though probably it is 
still used in its original sense in the Turkish baths, 
it is now much more commonly applied to the 
lathering of the head with a mixture into the com- 
position of which the yolk of eggs largely enters, 
and to the subsequent brushing of the scalp and 
hair with a machine-brush ; and I believe that 
the word shampoo is also often used of such lather- 
ing alone, when no machine-brush is applied.* 
When, therefore, quite recently, medical shampoo- 
ing was introduced, it was found necessary or 
advisable to use some other term, and the word 
massage was borrowed from the French. In doing 
this, however, the meaning of massage was, no 
doubt unconsciously, extended, for this word is 
still used in France in precisely the same meaning 
in which we originally used shampoo in England, 
so that if a Frenchman wishes to speak of the 
medical application of the process he is forced to 
say massage medical. So far, therefore, we have 
obtained a distinct advantage over the French ; 
but they have recouped themselves to a certain 
extent by forming the verb schampouer^ from our 
shampoo, and by using it exclusively of the head 
and hair in the degraded sense which I have noted 

* Thus the second definition given by Prof. Skeat is 
" to wash the head thoroughly with soap and water," 
and Webster expresses himself at greater length to the 
same effect. The original meaning of to shampoo, there- 
fore, has in this case entirely disappeared. 

f And from this verb they have no doubt also formed 
the words schampouage, schampoueur, and schampoueuse. 
1 have never seen any of these derivatives from shampoo 
in print 1 have only heard them ; and I cannot say, 
therefore, whether I have spelled them correctly. Since 
writing this note, I have seen one of these French 
derivatives or adaptations in two hairdressers' shops in 
Belgium. In both cases the word began with ch (pro- 
nounced like sh in English), and not sch; and in one 
case I believe (for I took no note) that the form used 
was champooing. 

Masseur and masseuse have also been introduced 
into England. Masseur, if it hold its own, will 
probably in time assume the Eng. form of master, 
just as massage is already by many pronounced 
like passage in English ; but I do not see how 
masseuse is to assume an English form. It is 
not wanted, however, for rubber has no femi- 
nine, and female can be added to this and masser t 
if it is necessary to make the distinction of sex. 

With regard to the derivation of masser, both 
Scheler and Littre", rightly, I think, reject the 
Gr. fiao-crctv (to knead), and prefer the Arab, 
mass. But this does not seem to mean more than 
to touch, feel, or stroke (tetigit, palpavit Golius); 
and, moreover, it is not the word used in Arabic for 
shampooing. Badger, in his * Eng.-Arab. Lexicon/ 
renders to shampoo by three Arabic roots, but mass 
is not one of them. I prefer, therefore, myself to 
derive masser simply from masse = mass. 1 * When 
we talk of massing troops (and masser in French 
is used in this sense also) we mean to press or 
crowd the troops together ; and similarly, when a 
person is shampooed or masse'd, his flesh is pressed 
and squeezed, or, as we might say, massed into a 
smaller compass. If this is so, then to mass would 
be the exact equivalent of the Fr. masser = to 
shampoo, and should be adopted in medical Eng- 
lish. Curio